Citation
Three-character classic, Sa-zz-kyung

Material Information

Title:
Three-character classic, Sa-zz-kyung
Series Title:
Chinese school-books romanized
Alternate title:
San zi jing
Alternate title:
三字經
Alternate title:
Three character classic
Alternate title:
三字经
Creator:
Jenkins, B. ( Translator )
Bridgman, E. C. (Elijah Coleman), 1801-1861 ( Translator )
Wang, Yinglin, 1223-1296 ( Author, Primary )
(宋) 王應麟 ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
[Shanghai]
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Chinese
Physical Description:
16 p.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Wang, Yinglin, 1223-1296. San zi jing
三字經
Temporal Coverage:
1860 - 1861
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China -- Zhejiang -- Ningbo
亞洲 -- 中國 -- 浙江 -- 寧波
亚洲 -- 中国 -- 浙江 -- 宁波
Coordinates:
29.869 x 121.554

Notes

Abstract:
"Romanized according to the reading sound at Shanghai by B. Jenkins ... Dr Bridgman's free translation is appended." ( , )
Abstract:
"The literal translation is intended to furnish the meaning of the character in each particular place, while Dr. Bridgman's free Translation is appended for the use of such persons unacquainted with Chinese as wish, to obtain the spirit of the original. The names of persons and places in the free translation are according to the Mandarin, and in the literal translation according to the Shanghai dialect.
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Bridgman, E. C. (Elijah Coleman), 1801-1861 : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/18004493
General Note:
Elijah Coleman Bridgman is reputed to have been the first American missionary to China
Language:
Text in Chinese, Romanised Chinese & English.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the Commons by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
325123 ( ALEPH )
416728193

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Full Text
Chinese School-Books Romanized. No. 1

THE THREE-CHARACTER CLASSIC*
三S a n -字z z -經K y u n g・

Romanized according to the Reading Sound at Shanghai, by E. Jenkins; and the upper and lower series of the even, rising, departing
and abrupt Tones dearly indicated.

[The literal translation is intended to furnish the meaning of the char-
acter in each particular place, while Dr. Bridgman's free Translation is
appended for the use of such persons unacquainted with Chinese as wish,
to obtain the spirit of the original. The names of persons and places in
the free translation are according to the Mandarin, and in the literal
translation according to the Shanghai dialect.]

Men, nt their birth, are by nature radically good;

人Zim之tsz初性sing"本'pirn 善皿;

Man :s original nature root good

In this, all approximate, but in practice widely diverge.

性Sing:相si«ng 近^yung,習dsih 相si^pg 速如农

Nature mutually approaches practice mutually diverges

If not educated, the natural character is changed;

苟Keu"不peh 教kyaai:性sing"乃'n6 遷ts?e":

If not. taugh t nature is changed

A course of education is madejMluable by close application. ,

教Kyait之tsz道血貴kw&以'yf 專輕严

IhcMlon 自 &rine> valuable with Ration

1


2

o Of old, Mang's mother selected a residence^
昔Sih 孟 Mung< 母'mH, 擇 dsuh 鄰 ling 處t曲;
Formerly Mung?s mother selected a-neighborhoocl

And when her son did not learn, cut out the half-wove web.

子'Tsz 不peh 學 斷C® 機 杼 sil.
Son not learn cut loom shuttle
Tan of Yenshan, having adopted good regulations,
WDeu^ 燕Yie必 山S"% 有'艸 義ny" 方 foilg,
Deu. (of) Swallow -hill had right plans
Educated five sons, who all became renowned・
教 KyaW 五7 子'tsz? 名 ming 俱 kyii 揚加ng.
Educated five sons fame of all spread
To bring up and not educate, is a father's fault;
養,Fang 不peh 教 kyait 艾Vlf 之 tsz' 過ki"
Bring-up not teach father >s fault

10 To educate without rigor, shows a tcaclier's indolence・

教KyE 不peh 嚴Ryie役 師sz 之tsz 惰
Teach not restrain teacher 9 laziness
Th a t boys should not learn, is an improper t king;
子'Tsz Son 不peh 學祖h 非伍 所加 宜nyf
not learn not which proper
For if they do not learn in youth, what will they do when old?
幼 Yeif Youth 不peh not learn 老bu old 何加 what 爲泌? be?

Gems im・wrought, can form nothing useful;

玉Ny6h 不peh 琢 tsoh cut 不peh 成dsung 器tyS;
Gem not not complete vessel
So mail, untaught, can never know his proper duties.
人Zun Man 不peh not 學泌h learn 不peh not 知tsz know 義nyE righ t
15 Let the sons of men, while yet in early life,
爲肌 Be 人zmi merfs 子,tsz sons 方 fong in 少 sni! early 時zz, time
With teachers and friends practise what is'^^orous and proper.
親 Ts'ing 師 sz Associated-with teachers 友‘艸 iriends 脅 dsih practising 禮H propriety 儀"1・ right


3

Iliang iu his ninth year, could warm [his parents*] bed;
香Hyang 九Kyeu >ling 能rnrng jHavuii 席 dsih;
[MasterJ B ragrance nine ? years could warm (and cool) mat
Duty to parents, ought carefully to be maintained.
孝Hyg於 親 ts'ing 所'sif 當 tong 執tseh.
Jbilial-duty to parents which ought-to-be maintained
Yung in his fourth year, could give i ip his pear;
融 Mug,四 sz, :歲 s6i; 能mmg 讓涵 ;黎心
[Master] Splendor four years could yield pear
20 Duty to elders, ought early to be understoo d・
弟DP 於如 長'ts心g; 宜nyf 先 sie% 知 tsz.
r raternal-du ty to elders ough t first to-know
First, practise filial and fraternal duties; next, see and hear;
首,Sen 孝 hyaii/ 弟吧 次ts乞 見kyie加 聞 vun,
First filial fraternal nex t see hear
Under staud I certain classifications, and acquire certain rules・
知Tsz 某'men 數S讷 識suh 某'meu 文 vim.
Know certain numbers understand certain literature
Units advance to tens, tens ascend to hundreds ;
—Ih 而曲 十 zeh: 十zeh 而rh 百 puh,
One and ten ten and hundred
Hundreds to thousands, and thousands to myriads.
tgTiih 而Th : 千ts'ie笃 千tMie" 而rh 萬vaM
Hundred and thousand thousand and 10,000
25 There i ire three powers, heaven, earth, and man.
三汕 才ds6 者'ts6? 天 tAe” 地dP 人 zim:-
Three powers (,) heaven earth man
There are three lights, the sun: moon, and stars・
—一■ 二 光kwong 者'ts& 日zeh 月 星 sing.
Three lights (,) sun moon stars
There are three bonds, bet ween prince and minister. .justice;
三Sa” 綱 Rong 者'ts& 君 kyiin gdsun 義 nyf;
Three bonds (,) prince minister justice
Between father and son ,affection*; between man and wife, agreement.
子'tsz: 親 tMing, 夫flf 婦vH; 順 zrnil
Father son affection husband wife agreement.


4

、Ve speak of spring and summer, of autumn and winter;
曰Y6h春ts「

AVe-say 亠一

sun

spring

夏亦曰0h秋tUieu

" autumn

summer, and

冬 tifng,

winter

30 These are

此'Ts吃

These

four seasons, which incessantly revolve.
å››sz
four

時Z%

seasons

運不peh

revolve

not

窮 gyHng.

cease

We speak
æ›°F6h
AVe-say

of south and
南n®
south

north, also

北pg

north

east;

曰0h西Si

and wes t

of west and

東tl吨

east

These are

æ­¤'Tsl

These

four points,
四sz<方fon
foui* points

which tend



to wards the centre ・

應yungc乎加

connect

to

中 tsilng.

t be-middle

speak

曰禺6h

We-say

wood, metal,

水,s6i 火 hi!

of water, fire,

water

fire

and earth;

木 m6h 金 kyin

wood

metal

土 PM ;

earth

These five

æ­¤'Ts"z

These

elemen ts.

are

the sources

of

五W 行炉mg,

five

elements

all classification.

本'pun

root

乎‘加

of

數曲

classification-

35 Humanity, justice, propriety, wisdom,

曰Koh 仁zun 義

We-say humanity justice

and truth〉

禮上

propriety

智 tsz:信sing?

wisdom ' truth

These five cardinal virtues are not

此'Ts吃五节常dsang

These five constan ts

to be confused.

不peh

not

容沁毘

permit

紊vim仃

to-confuse

Rice, millet,

ç®±'Dau

Rice

pulse, wheat,
缈命g
millet

rye, and barley.

菽 s6h,麥nuh

pulse wheat

黍sil

pyc

稷 tsih;

barley

Are six kinds of grain on which men subsist.

此'Ts'z These 六也h six 穀 k6h, grain 人zun men 所‘Slf which 食 zuh. eat
The horse ? cow, sheep, fowl, dog, and swine,
馬'M6 牛 nyeu 羊沁g, 雞kyi 犬Sy法 豕SZ,
Horse COW sheep fowl dog pig
40 Are thic six domestic animals which mon treed.
此'Ts吃 These 六16h six 畜 hy6h: animals 人zrni men 所'曲 which 飼ZZ: breed


o

We speak of joy and anger,

曰 Koh 喜hyf 怒nil;

of sorr^v

AVe-say

joy

anger

and of fear,

曰沁哀6

and

sorrow

懼gy 口

fear

Of love,

愛皿惡if欲”6扎

hatred, and desire,

Love

hatred desire

these are the seven

七 ts
seven

passions.

情 dsing

passions

具gy址

t here-are-all

The gourd, earth, skin, wood, stone,

匏Bnu

Gourd

and metal,

土‘坯革kuh, 木m6h石zuh

earth

skin

wood

stone

金ky讥

metal

Silk, and

çµ²Sz

Silk

bamboo, form materials for the eight kinds of musical instruments.
與w
with

竹 ts6h:

bamboo

乃八 pah 音 yin.

are eigh t sounds

45 Great-grandsire?s

高Knu

Grcat-grandsire*s-sire great-grandsire grandsire sire

sire, great-granclsire, grandsire, sire, ancl myself,

曾tsung 祖'tsif,艾、仓而rh身sim?

and

self

My own son, together with my grandson,

昜Sun 而rh 子Ssz,

Myself and son

子弋sz 而rh

and

son

å­« sim.

grandson

Great-grandson, and great-granclson?s

自加

From

子'tsz 孫 sun,

soil grandson

son,

至 tsz'

to

元沖

great-grandson^s

曾 tsung,

son

Are nine

乃'N6

Are

degrees of kindred, comprising the human relations.

九'kyeu 族ds6h,人zun 之tsz

nine kindred-degrees man 3 re

倫 lun.

relations-in-order

Mutual affection of*father and son, concord of man and wife,

艾 ViV 子'tsz 恩 im,夫 f& 婦 vil'

Father son affection husband wife

從 ds&ng,

concord

50 The older brother's kindness, and the younger one's respect,
兄Hyilng則tsuh友勿eg 弟W 則tsuh
Elder-brother then kind younger then

恭 kiing

respectful

Order between seniors and

juniors, friendship among

associa tcs,

長JTsang 幼yen'序dsii;歹$eu 與'yii

Seniors juniors order friendship with

朋 pimg;

associates

On the prince?s part regard, and on the minister,s fidelity,
君Kyhn 則tsuh 敬kyung; gdsun 則tsuh
Prince then regard minister then

å¿  tsung

lidelity


6

These ten moral duties

此'Ts吃十zeh

These ten

are universally ^obligatory
義nyP 人zun
moral-duties men

among men,

所

which

同(King.

conncct

All teachers of youth, should give lucid explanations,

凡V豺訓hyiin蒙mfing,須sii講俄皿連-究kyeii;

Whoever teaches youth should give-the-sense

55 Adduce illustrations and proofs, and clearly mark the periods.

詳Dsiang 訓hyiin"詁k魚 明ming 句kyi!讀deu".

Show t each proofs distinguish sent ence stops

Every scholar must mak< ? a suitable beginning・ 有勺eu have 初 ts'fl; beginning;
爲肌 Being 學gdh scholar 者 (,) 必pih must
The Easy Lessons being finished, then : take up the Four Books.
小 Siaii 學 終 tsfing: 至 tsz:四 sz, 書sd.
Little Lessons finished to Four Books
The Dialogues are contained in twenty sections,
論 Lim' 語'Nyii 者tsg 二] 十zeh 篇P'i叽
The-Dialogues (,) two tens sec tions

the

In which his

ç¾£ Gyiin

School

disciples have recorded

弟 df 子'tsz,

disciples

sayings are comprised

60 Mangtsze's

孟Mim才 子Ssz 者

Mung-tsz's (,)

(J

sage?s (Confucius) words.
記ky"善'z弘
recorded good

*

seven sections;
七teih 篇pq®
seven sections

言yie”.

words

It'tsz;

ended

virtue, benevolence, and justice・

仁zim

benevolence

He discourses on reason,

Kyang 道dau” 德t讪說s6h

reaeon virtue speaks-of

講"

Discourses-of

義町"

justice

the Constant Medium was Tsze-sze :
作Tsoh 中 Tsung 庸 TTmg
Made Medium Unchangablc

The compiler of

子'Tsz

'Tsz

思Sz

Sz's

ç­†pih

{pencil

Mediumï¼› means not distorted; 'constant/
中 Tsfmg,
Medium

不peh偏pie笃

not

distorted

immu tabilit y.

庸©fmg 不peh

constan t not

易“uh,

to-cbange

The compiler

作 Tsoh

Made

of the Superior Lessons

大D於學Wh

Great Study

was

Tsang-tsze :

乃 ?ne 曾Tsung

was Tsung

子'tsz

Tsz


G5 From

personal and

7

domestic, be proceeds to national, government.

自 Zzc 修 sieu 齊 dsi 至 tsz< 平 bing

regulating to

From

reforming

tranquillizing

æ²»(W

governing

When Filial Duty, and

孝Hyau(經Kyimg 通四Sz<書S仓
Filial - - ' .. r 一

tlie Four Books are

made

familiar,

classic

know

Four

Books

熟z6h

ripe

Then the

如加六L6h經Ky

As (or then) six

six classics may be

forthwith

classics

ung

commenced ・

始sz 可kaii

begin

can

讀dOh

to-read

The Odes, Records,

詩Sz書SG

Odes Book (of Records) ' Changes

Changes, Ritual,

易 Hili 禮'Li 春 TsSm 秋 Ts'i

Spring and

Autumn annals.

Ritual

Spring

ieu

Autumn

Are called the six classics, and should be thoroughly studied.
號HE
Called

å…­LOh

six

經Kyung 當tong 講7kyang 求gyeu

classics ought-to-be

rehearsed

investigated

70 Fuh-hi?s
有'Feu
There are

system of

連 lie%

Fuh-hi?s-diagrams

changes together with that

|L|san

of Yenti,

有艸歸kw6藏dsong

Yien-ti^-changes

and

And that of

有'Feu

And

the Chau dynasty, form

周Tseu

Tseu*s

易"uh

changes

three treatises complete.

三 set%

three

易 ©uh 詳 dsi^ng

changes complete.

The royal and ministerial

有'

There-are

å…¸'tie%

the-canons

canons, the

謨mfi

plans

instructions

有'“eu

and

and injunctions,

訓hyhn,誥品山

instructions injunctions

The solemn
有'Feu
And

vows and commands, are
誓 zz,命 ming,
vows commands

profound portions of the Record.

- ■ 奥 an;

mysteries

書 Sd ^tsz

Record ?s

Our princely lord of Chau first framed

Ngu 周Tseu 公kfmg

Tseu

duke

Chau Ritual,
作 tsoh
framed

the

周 Tseu

Tseu

禮口

Ritual,

75 And established six
著Ts卻
Set-up

å…­10h

six

offices for maintaining rule in

官 kw® 存 dsim

offices preserving

the empire/
治 dsz,
rule



The elder

大D於

Great

and younger

小 sinu

small

Tai commented on the Ritual.

註 tslT

e

禮对記Kyf

commented (on) the-Ritual


8

Transmitted the sage's words, and the Ritual and Music became complete.
è¿° Dseh
Transmitted

聖 sung

sage's

言〃ie” 禮□樂Wh備

words Ritual Music prepared

Music

The national

æ›°Y6h

We-say

airs, the two

國K6h

nat ional

of praises,

books of eulogies, and the songs

風fiing 曰〃3h 雅'Y尤頌dsfmg;

cus toms and excellen t

and

praises

Are four sections of the Odes, which ought to be rehearsed.
號压LU"四SZ”,詩SZ

Mark four Odes

tong 諷'King 詠了匕碍

repea ted

ç”°

ought-to-be

rehearsed

80 The Odes having ceased, the Spring and Autumn annals were compiled,

詩 Sz 旣 kyf tvong 春 TsSm

・" 、 Spring

Odes

already

ceased

秋 Ts^ieu

Aut umn

作 tsoh

compiled

awarding

praise and blame,

marked out

Which, by

寓 Nyif 褒 pen 貶'pi® 別 pih

Preserving

praise

blame

dividing

the good and

å–„

good

bad.

惡oh

bad

On these annals there are three comments, that of

三Sa他傳ds®'

Three

commen ts

者'ts6

(,)

有艸

t liere-are

Kungyang,

公K&ng 羊 Wng

Kung Yang

Yang

That of the

有'Feu

And

Tso family,
å·¦ Tsfi
Tsu

and that

氏zz'

family

of

Kuh Liang.
有:艸
and

穀K6h 梁Lidng

Koh …

Liang

the philosophers.

being understood, read the works of

經Kyung 旣kyf 明ming 方fong ®doli 予匕z

The classics

Classics

already understood then

read

philosophers

most impottant parts, and commit them to memory.

記kyf 其亦 事zz:

remember their affairs

85 Select the

撮 Ts'6h 其 gyi 要 yaii'

Select

their

importan t

Of these

are the five

五'U 子*'tsz

Five

wise-ones

wise men,

者'ts6

(,)

to wit, Siun, and Yang,

有勿eu荀Sin呼

arc Sing

The worthy Wanchung, with the
文Vun 中Tsung 子'tsz
Vun Tsung the-wise

venerable Lau. and Chwang.

及gyih 老'Lail

with

莊 Tsong

Lau (and) Tsong

When the classics and wise men are understood, commence the general history:
經Kyung 子先sz 通t^ng 讀(16h 諸tsfi 奥sz,
Classics wise-men understood real general history -


9

Investigate the

考

Examine

succession of ages, and

世sz'系

agcs, succession

the rise and

知tsz

know

fall of dynasties.

終 tshng

end

始'sz

beginning

Shin-nung, together with

自 Zz,羲Hyf 農Nfmg

Hyi …

90 Fuh-hi

From

Were the

and

Nung

Hxvang-ti/

至 tsz(

-to

黃 TFdng

Wong



three monarchs

antiquity.

號负it 三

Named

three

of remote

皇力ong 居kyii上

monarchs lived high

世sz"

ages

Tang and Yu

唐 Dong

Dong (Yau)

Shun) were styled the two rulers;

有勿eu虞Nyii

Nyii (Shun)

(Yau and

and

號加u'二rh'

called two

rulers

Each meekly
相Si血g
Mutually

the

throne : theirs

resigned

揖ih遜sub

yielded humbly

was a prosperous age.
稱ts缶ng盛zung,
prosperous

called

世sz"

age

Hia, and Tang of the

Shang dynasty,

商Song有》eu湯「Pong

Song

had

T^ong

95 With Wu Wang son of Wan of
周 Tseu 文 Vun
Tseu V un

Vun

æ­¦'VM

Vu

the Chau, are called the
稱 ts'img
entitled

三s沪

three

three kings.

王力ong

kings

family continued

handed-down-to

The Hia

夏傳ds6

empire

in the government of the

子'tsz 家ky« 天t'ie?7 下”於

"son (his) family (had) tlie-empirc

(liis) family

Four hundred years; then

四 Sz,百* puh

Four hundred

its altars were overthrown.

載ts6< 遷ts'ie?2 夏厚'

years

removed

Ya?s

社Z呂

altars

Tang, having destroyed

湯 Dong

Tong

the Hia, named

伐vnh夏

destroyed Ya

Shang,

the dynasty

國k6h號加it

nation^ title

商Song

Song.

Which, after

å…±^Loh

Six

years, was

six hundred

百puh載ts&

hundred

years

ruined by the tyrant Chau.
至 tsz'紂 Dseu"
to

Dseu

亡 vong

lost

destroyed the

tyrant Chau,

100 Wu-Wang of the Chau dynasty,

周Tsen 武'Vii王力ong 始'sz誅tsu糸寸Dsen;

tX V6 king begtm

destroyed Dseu


10

His family ruled an unequaled period of eight hundred years:

八Pah百puh載ts®

Eight 一一一

hundred

years

最ts6!長dsang久/k严u

very long duration

eastward, the

周Tseu 轍ts'eh 東tbng

Tseu

When the

court moved

moved

east

royal nutliority tottered.

王?Qong
kingly

綱kong 墜ds6i”

aut liority fell

upraised, and demagogues

The lance and spear were

逞Ts'ung' 干戈12 尙诚ng,

Pervaded (in use)

spear

lance

in-esteem

stalked abroad・

游©eu說鈕

stalking captivating

and Autumn annals (period) to that of the contending states,

From the Spring

始 Sz 春Ts"im 获TsWeii

Beginning ~ '

Spring

Autumn

終tsfmg戰Ts6加

ending

Contending

國K6h

States

were five

powerful princes,

105 There

五'U霸p6,强gy命g

Five â–  â– 

mighty

brave

mighty warriors.

and seven

七 ts'ih 雄“foig

seven

fierce

出 ts'eh

appeared

Tsin? all began to unite;

蠢 Fung 秦Dsing 氏zz” 始'sz

â–  began

When victory declared on the side of

Victo rious

Dsing

family

兼 kyie”

all

å¹·'ping

t o-unite

But after two reigns, Tsu and Han again strove

二

two

傳DsG

After

世 sz:楚'Ts"if
一 Ts^u

generations

for supremacy;

漢HV 爭 tsung

Ho/i strove-together

Kautsu was

高Kau

Kau. ・

victo rious,
祖'Tsfi
7Tsu

the line of

Han,

and established

興hyung 漢H6以業nyih 建kyie〃

丿、

victorious

Hon

empire

established

Which continued to Hikuping when Wangmang usurped the throne.

至Tsz:孝Hyau"平bing 王 Wong 莽'Mong 篡ts'6以

Up-to Hyau4 - bing Wong Mong usurped

110 Kwangwu then arose, and founded the eastern Han dynasty,
光Kwong武Vd興hyung 爲阮東Tfmg漢H6";
Kwong - ;Vu arose made Eastei'n. H6〃

Which, after four hundred years, ended with the emperor Ilien.

'百puh 年nyie"

hundred years

終tsfmg於孙i獻Hyie〃

ended

with Hyie?i

Wei, Shuh, and Wu, then strove for

魏肌‘

-ITF ,

蜀 Ds6h

Dsoh

the imperial crown;

爭tsimg漢H6加鼎'tii培

stro5re-for 116“ censers


11

These 4 Three States*
號HE三〃
Title Three

were succeeded

國k6h

States

by the two
è¿„ ty'ih
succeeded

Tsin.

å…©'liXng

two

晉 Tsing'

Tsing

Suug and Tsi came next, followed

Sung*

by Liang and

梁 Lidhg

Liang

Chin;

陳 Dsim

Dsun

承 dsung

followed

115 These

爲肌南

Became

four southern dynasties held tlieir court

nen

sout liern

at Kinling

[Nanking.]

朝ds航 都tH金Kyin陵Ling

Kyin Ling

dynasties

court

who separated eastward and westward.

北P6h 元Ny6〃魏肌,

--a Nyo/t (of) We

In the north

were the

Yuen of Wei,

North

分fun

separated

東ti伍g 西si

eastward westward

Together with Yuwan of Chau, and Kau

宇'Yii 文 Vim 周 Tsen

Yii Vun (of) Tseu

of Tsi:

與‘Yii



Kau

These con tinned t 订1 Sai joined the land
迨至tsz《

Up to

加i

Dsoi

in one.

一 ih

one

土 w

earth's

宇如

canopy

In the second generation,

不Peh 再ts®

Not again

however, the

傳 ds® 先 seh 統 Pfmg

succeeded

new line

failed,

lost

t lie-succession

ç·– dsi?

120 And Kautsu founder

of Tang, raised up forces

唐 Dong 高Kan 祖 TsH 起'tyS 義 ny〃

- ~ *Tsu - '

in

defense of

Dong

Kau

raised

righ tcous

right,

師亦

soldiers

the disorders of Sui, and

除D曲隔Ds6i亂Z

Dsoi's disorders

Suppressed

Suppressed

founded a new

創 ts'ong4

laid

dynasty.

[gkoh

dynasty’s

基 ky〕‘

foundation ,

After twenty reigns, during three
二 Rh:十 zeh 傳 ds6
Two

tens

se〃

reigns

hundred years,
三sa%
three

百puh

hundred

載t於

years

dynasty.

乃P6

was

the

changed

國k6h

dynasty

and

of Tang,

-SZ
(J

Liang destroyed the race

梁 Lidhg 滅 mih 之 ti

Liang

destroyed

改'k6

changed

The latter Liang, Tang, Tsin, with Han,
梁Liang 店Dong 晉Tsii席
Liang Dong Tsing

and Chau,

及gyih漢H6加周Tseu

with H6 加 Tseu


12

125 Called the

稱Tshmg五百

Called

five dynasties, followed in

five

代cl§

dynasties

regular succession.
害kyd
all

有勿eu 由“eu

had foundation

The illustrious

Illustrious

Sung next

宋 Sfmg,

Sung

arose, and occupied Chau?s

興hyung

arose

受zeu

received

vacant tkrone ;

周Tseu禪z®

Tseu succession

But after

十Zeh

Ten

the north

eighteen reigns,

八pah傳dsG

eight reigns

and

south fell

南n® 北pOh

south

into disorder.

north

æ··

confused

Seventeen

±zeh

histories of these various

七 tMih 史 sz"

seven histo ries

periods are ext ant,

全dsie他在ds纟

" in

all

å…¹tsz

cxis tence

Treating of

載Ts®

Treating

rule and misrule, ancl of

治dsz《

rule

亂s

misrule

the rise and

幷Itsz' 興hyimg

knowing

fall of dynasties.

rise

è¡°s6

fall

130 Let liim

讀D6h

Reads

who reads
史sz'
history

history, examine

者'ts6

he who

these faithful

考'k%u

examines

records,
實zeh
faithful

錄16h

records

Till he understands ancient and modern

通 Dfmg

Understand

古'kif

ancient

今 kyin

modern

things as if before his eyes;
若z«h 親tshg
as if his-own

ç›® nioli

eyes

Let his mouth

口 Keu

Mouth

rehearse

而Th

while

them, while his
誦 dsung4
rehearsing

heart ponders
心 sing
heart

upon them;

而rh

should

維vf

ponder

Be this his morning study,
朝Tsau 於斯
In-the-morning

and this his

SZ

let-it-be-thus

evening task.
夕 dsih
in-the-e venin g

於匹

æ–¯sz

let-it-be-thus.

F ormerly
昔Sih
Formerly

Chungni had the young Hiangtoh for his teacher;

仲Dsung'尼Nyf 師sz 項'JKmg

Confucius t eacher Hong

橐『oh

T'oh

135 Even

古心 一—

In-ancient-t^ies sages philosophers

the sages of antiquity studied with diligence.

聖sung"賢?尙zdngc 勤gyimg

' even diligently

學泌h

studied

:X:



Chasu, a minister of state, read the Confucian dialogues,

趙'D sau.中 tsung 令ling《讀d6h 巒'LM

Dsaai minister-of-state read 7 Lu

論Lim,

dialogues


13

And he too, though high in ollicc,

彼P6旣kyf仕zz,

He already in-office

studied assiduously.
學胆h且先旳6
studied nevertheless

勤 gyimg

assiduously

One copied lessons on reeds, another on slips of bamboo;

披M蒲肮編pie他

Split rushes plaited

削 si«h 竹 ts6h

scraped bamboo

ç°¡kyieä»–

slips

These though destitute of books

ç„¡ vH >su

These witho lit books

eagerly sought knowledge・

豆 知 tsz

yet to-know

勉 mie71

urgent

140 [To vanquish sleep] one suspended his head by the hair [from
another pierced liis thigh with an awl;

錐 ts6% 刺 ts'z'

with-an-awl pierced

頭 Deu 懸“6" ^liang

Head suspended to-a-beam

a beam,] and

è‚¡Ml

t high

These, though destitute of instruction,
彼玫

They

不peh 教kyau'

not instructed

were laborious in study.
自 zz,勤 gyung
selves diligen t

苦'k呛

laborious

One read

如z仓

As

by light of glow-worms, another by reflection of snow;
囊 liong ^ung
bagged glow-worms

如Z仓映yung'

like reflec tiOmof

雪sih

snow

These, though tlieir families were poor,

家 KyK 雖 s6i 貧 bing

though

They

poor

dicl not omit to study.
學岁彷不peh
to-study not

輟 ts,eh

cease

One carrying

如z仓

As

faggots, and another with
寅 veu,薪 sing
carrying firewood

his book tied to a cow?s
如Z仓掛kw&
as hanging-on

horn,

ah

145 Thus both these persous, while engaged in labor? studied with intensity.
身Sun They 雖s6i although 勞bu laborious 猶艸 yet 苦'k$ untiring 卓 tsoh unchangablc
Su Lautsiuen, when he was twenty-seven years of age, 七 ts'ih seven
蘇 Su 老'Lau Lau 泉 Dsie% Dsien 二 rh< two 十zeh tens
Commenced assiduous study, and applied his mind to books. 籍 dsih records
始Sz Commenced 發 fab 憤'vun to-work-assiduously 讀d6h read 書s仓 books
This man when olcl, grieved that he commenced so late; 遲dsz late
彼P6 He 旣kyP when 老加十 old 猶“eu then 悔hw觀 grieved


14

You, who

are young, ought early to think of these things.

爾%h 小'sia/u 生 sung 宜nyf 早'tsaii 思sz
You young pupils ought early to think
150 Behold Liang Hau, at the advanced age of eighty-two,
若Zdh 梁 Li%ng 瀕血' 八pah 十zeh 二
Like Liang Hau eighty two
In the imperial hall among many scholars,, gains the first rank;
對T6” 大dd? 廷 ding 魁kw隹 多恤 士 ZZ《
Reply great hall supreme of-many scholars
And, having accomplished this, he was by all regarded as a prodigy.

異"”

wonderful

彼 F6 旣 kyf 成 dsimg

He already accomplished

衆?tsimg 稱tiling

all called

You, youthful readers, should at once

make the fixed resolve.

爾込h You /J、siau you thful 生 sung scholars 宜nyi ought to-establish 志 tsz" purpose
Yung? when only eight years old, could recite the Odes;
瑩}八pah 歲 s6i” 能 nimg 咏y印lg 詩sz
Yung eight years could improvise Poetry
155 And Pe, nt the age of seven, understood the game of chess:
泌Pf 七 ts'ih 歲 s6i" 能nung 賦f卸 慕gyf
Plc seven years could descant upon chess
These displayed ability, and were by men deemed extraordinary;
彼F6 穎岁ung“ 悟ng在 人zun 稱 ts"iuig 奇gyf
These brigh t discerning; men called extraordinary.
And you. my youthful scholars, ought to imitate them.
爾 幼 yen" 學姬h 當 tong 效艸' 之tsz
You youthful scholars ough t t o-imitate them.

Tsai Wankf
蔡TsW

Ts'6ï¼›

could play upon stringed

文Vun姬Kyi

Vun - Kvi

instruments;

能 nimg

could

辨'biz 琴gyuug

discriminate the guitar

Ei6 Tauwan, likewise, could sing and

謝Zi$ 道D&f HYE

Zi6‘

chant:

能nimg rgyung 吟liyim

and sing

could

improvise

two〉though girls, were

160 These

彼T6女nyh・子七

These (were) girls

「sz

intelligcnt and well-informed ;

且tsH6聰ts旬增敏

notwithstanding intelligent

观mg、

clever

=1

Dau'・ YniV


You, then, my lads, should surely rouse to diligence.

爾"h 男n® 子先sz當tong自

'on lads ought you]

Liu-Ngan of Tang, when

唐Dong 劉Lieu 晏Yie加,方fong 七tMih

only seven years old,

yourselves

è­¦ kyungc

to arouse

Dong-dynasty - Lieu -

Showing himself a noble

舉 Kyii

Styled

神zim

amazing

Yicn

when

seven

æ­²s6!

years

kid, was employed to correct writing:

童 diing 作 ts6h

lad made

正 tsimg,

correct

字Z加

characters

He though

was tlius highly promoted;

very young,

彼玫 He 雖s6i though 幼 yeu, young 身sun himself 已yi already 仕ZZ, in-office
165 You, young learners, should strive to )follow liis example;
爾込h 幼 yen, 學“和 勉'mie?/ 而山 致tsz《
You young learners strive and come-up-to
And he who does so, will I acquire similar honors.
有Feu 爲力6 者'ts6 亦“uh 若泌 是zz<
And doing the person also like this
Dogs watch by night; the cock announces the morning.
犬Ty法 守,sen 夜於 鷄kyi 司SZ 晨zim
Dogs watch at-nigli t the-cock rules the-morning
If any refuse to learn, how can they be esteemed men?
苟 Keu' 不peh 學〃彷 if not learn how be men ? *
The silkworm spins silk; the bee gathers honey;
蠶z® 吐卅 絲 sz 蜂 fdng 釀 zdhg, 蜜mih
The-silkworm spits silk t he-bee makes honey
170 If men neglect to learn, they are inferior to the brutes.
人Zun 不peh 學泌h 不peh 如z仓 物veh
Men not learn not even-as brutes.
He who learns in youth, and acts when of mature age,
幼 Yeu' 而th 學岁dh [ 壯 tsong, 而th 行
Young when learns, mature and-when acts
Extends his influence to the prince, benefits the people,
J^Zang4 致 tsz< 君 kyhn 下減 澤 dsuh 民 ming
Above extends-to the-prince below benefits t he-people


16

Makes his name renowned. renders illustrious his parents,

揚 Wng 名ming -聲sung 顯匕yie馄艾母bnfi

Spreads (his) fame ennobles father mother

Reflects glory on his ancestors, and enriches his posterity.

光Kwong於gii 前dsie他襁/i?於yd 後加u

Glory to ancestors riches to posterity.

175 Some for their offspring, leave coffers filled with gold;

人Zun 遺加子先sz 金kyin希蠶少img

Men leave to-offspring gold filled coffers

While I, to teach children, leave but one little book.

齊 Ngfi 教 kymV to teach 子'tsz children 惟vf only —ih one 經 kyimg book
Diligence has merit; play yields no profit;
勤Gyung有纫eu 功 kfing 厳hyf 無vH 益yuh
Diligence has merit play no profit
Be ever on your guard! Rouse all your energies!
戒 之tsz 哉ts6 宜nyf 勉 mie” 力 lih
Guard yourself :(you) ought to-rouse (your) powers,