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Antananarivo annual and Madagascar magazine

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Title:
Antananarivo annual and Madagascar magazine a record of information on the topography and natural productions of Madagascar, and the customs, traditions, language, and religious beliefs of its people
Creator:
Sibree, James, 1836-1929 ( Editor )
Baron, Richard, 1847-1907, 1847-1907 ( Editor )
Cousins, George, 1842-1926 ( Editor )
London Missionary Society -- Madagascar Mission
Place of Publication:
Antananarivo
Publisher:
Press of the London Missionary Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Missions -- Periodicals -- Madagascar ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Madagascar ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
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Africa -- Madagascar
Afrique -- Madagascar
Afrika -- Madagascar
Coordinates:
-20 x 47

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Creation/Production Credits:
Nos. 1-3 edited by J. Sibree; no. 4 by G. Cousins; 5-7 by R. Baron; 8-24 by J. Sibree & R. Baron.
System Details:
Nos. 1-24 (1875-1900)
Biographical:
Did not appear in 1879, 1880.
Acquisition:
Hardyman Madagascar Collection

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SOAS, University of London
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License. This license allows others to download this work and share them with others as long as they mention the author and link back to the author, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
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03782948 ( oclc )
0378-2948 ( issn )
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THE

ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL

and

MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE.

A RECORD OF INFORMATION ON THE TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PRODUCTIONS
OF MADAGASCAR, AND THE CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, LANGUAGE.
AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF ITS PEOPLE.

edited by the

REV. J. SIBREE, F.R.GS.,

and

REV. R. BARON, F.L.S.,

Missionaries of the L.M.S.

No. X.—CHRISTMAS, 1886.

(Part II. of Volume III.)

ANTANANARIVO :
PRINTED AT THE L. M. S. PRESS.

1886.

All rights reserved.


antananarivo :

printed at the press of the london missionary society
by malagasy printers.


111.

CONTENTS.

i.—THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR AND THE MASCARENE
ISLANDS. By Alfred Russel Wallace, Esq., LL.D.
(Reprinted by the kind permission of the Author and Pub-
lishers from '' The Geographical Distribution of A nimals. "J * 129

2.—THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.' By Rev. W.
Montgomery, L.M.S..................................... 148

3.—MALAGASY ROOTS : their Classification and Mutual
Relations. By Rev. W. E. Cousins, L.M.S. 157

4. —ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. By (the late) Rev.

E. Baker, L.M.S. ................................. 167

5.—ON THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

By W. Clayton Picicersgill, Esq., H.B.M.'s Vice-Consul 177

6.—THE IDEAS OF THE MALAGASY WITH REGARD TO
DESTINY. By Mr. H. E. Clark, F.F.M.A.............. 185

7.—MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY, and its Connection with
Christian Life in Madagascar. By Rev. J. Sibree,
L.M.S......................................... 187

8.—SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH MUSIC IN MADAGAS-
CAR. By Rev. A. M. Hewlett, M.A., S.P.G.............. 199

9.—THE CHANNELS AND LAGOONS OF THE EAST COAST
OF MADAGASCAR. By M. Alfred Grandidier and
Rev. J. Sibree..............205

10.-BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. By Rev.

W. E. Cousins ................................. 209

* It will be observed that the numbering of the pages does not commence afresh, but is
continued from the previous number, so that Nos. ix.—xii. may form a Third Volume, paged
consecutively.


iv.

page

it.—THE PERSONAL ARTICLE 'I' IN MALAGASY. By Rev.

R. Baron, L.M.S.................. 216

12.—'SIK1DY' AND 'VINTANA' : Half-hours with Malagasy
Diviners. (No. I.) By Rev. L. Dahle, N.M.S........... 218

13.—NOTES ON THE BETS I LEO DIALECT (as spoken in the
Arindrano District). By Rev. T. Rowlands, L.M.S..... 235

14.—SOME BETSIMISARAKA SUPERSTITIONS. By Rev. G. H.
Smith, M.A., S.P.G. 239

15.—A NEW MALAGASY GRAMMAR. By Rev. W. E. Cousins. 244

16.—BIAZAVOLA: A Malagasy Bard. By W. Clayton Pick-
ersgill, Esq. 247

17.—VARIETIES : The Pirates in Madagascar—Geological
Jottings —The Proto-Martyr of Madagascar — The
Etymology of 'Antananarivo' and 'Andriamanitra' 250

18.—LITERARY NOTES .... 252

19.—BRIEF SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MADA-
GASCAR DURING 1886 257

20.—NATURAL HISTORY NOTES 259

21.—RAINFALL OF ANTANANARIVO FOR THE YEAR 1886 260

ILLUSTRATION.

Diagrams of the 'Fanorona' Game.

%* The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for every opinion
expressed by those who contribute to the pages of the Annual, but only
for the general character of the articles as a whole.


THE

ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL

THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR AND THE
MASCARENE ISLANDS.

[The following paper, which forms Chapter xi. vol. I., of the valuable
work entitled The Geographical Distribution of Animals, by the eminent
naturalist, Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace, is here reproduced by the kind
permission of the Author and his publishers, Messrs. Macmillan. A few
extracts from other portions of that work, bearing- on the fauna of Madagascar
and the neighbouring islands, have also been added, in some cases in a
foot-note, but in others in an Appendix ; and the Editors of the Annual
have much pleasure in here acknowledging Mr. Wallace's ready compliance
with their request to be allowed to reprint this interesting paper. The only
alterations made are by the addition of a note in one or two places shewing,
from Island Life, chap, xix., Mr. Wallace's later views on certain points.—
Eds.]

THIS insular sub-region* is one of the most remarkable
zoological districts on the globe, bearing a similar rela-
tion to Africa as the Antilles to Tropical America, or New
Zealand to Australia, but possessing a much richer fauna than
either of these, and in some respects a more remarkable one
even than New Zealand. It comprises, besides Madagascar,
the islands of Mauritius, Bourbon and Rodriguez, the Seychelles
and Comoro Islands. Madagascar itself is an island of the
first class, being [nearly] a thousand miles long, and about 250

* It must be remembered that the whole surface of the globe is divided by Mr. Wallace
into six zoological 'regions,' in each of which broad and clearly marked distinctions are shown
to exist in the animal life as compared with that of the other great divisions. Each of these
regions is again divided into 'sub-regions,' Madagascar and the neighbouring islands forming
the 'Malagasy Sub-region' of the 'Ethiopian Region,' a zoological division whieh includes
Africa south of the Tropic of Cancer, together with its islands, excepting the Cape De Verde
group.—EDS.

No. 10.—Christmas, 1886.

AND

MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE.


130 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

miles in average width. It lies parallel to the coast of Africa,
near the southern Tropic, and is separated by 230 miles of sea
from the nearest part of the continent, although a bank of
soundings projecting from its western coast reduces this distance
to about 160 miles. Madagascar is a mountainous island, and
the greater part of the interior consists of open elevated
plateaus; but between these and the coast there intervene
broad belts of luxuriant tropical forests. It is this forest-
district that has yielded most of those remarkable types of
animal life which we shall have to enumerate ; and it is prob-
able that many more remain to be discovered. As all the main
features of this sub-region are developed in Madagascar, we
shall first endeavour to give a complete outline of the fauna of
that country; and afterwards shew how far the surrounding
islands partake of its peculiarities.

MAMMALIA.—The fauna of Madagascar is tolerably rich in
genera and species of Mammalia, although these belong to a
very limited number of families and orders. It is especially
characterized by its abundance of Lemuridse and Insectivora;
it also possesses a few peculiar Carnivora of small size ; but
most of the other groups in which Africa is especially rich—apes
and monkeys, lions, leopards and hysenas, zebras, giraffes,
antelopes, elephants and rhinoceroses, and even porcupines
and squirrels, are wholly wanting. No less than 40 distinct
families of land mammals are represented on the continent of
Africa, only 11 of which occur in Madagascar, which also
possesses 3 families peculiar to itself. The following is a list
of all the genera of Mammalia as yet known to inhabit the
island : —

PRIMATES.
Lemuridas.
IndrisincB. Swedes.

*Indris........................................6

Lemurince.

*Lemur ......................................15

*Hapalemur ................................2

*Microcebus ................................4

"Chirogaleus ................................5

*Lepilemur..................................2

Chiromyidce.

*Chiromys ..............1

BATS (Chiroptera).
Pterofiidoe.

Pteropus ................ 2

Rhinolofthidce.
Rhinolophus ............... I

Vesftertilionidce.

Vespertilio ............ 1

Taphozous ............... 1

Noctilionidce.
Nyctinomus................ 1

INSECTIVORA.

Centetidce. Species.

*Centetes ....................................2

*Hemicentetes ............................2

*Ericulus ............... .... 2

"Oryzorictes ..............................1

"Echinops ..............................3

Soricidce.
Sorex..................... 1

CARNIVORA.
Cryfttofiroctidce.
"Cryptoprocta .............. 1


and the mascarene islands.131



Viverridce.

RODENTIA,
Muridce.

*Fossa......

'Galidia
*Galidictis .

3

2

2

#

#

Nesomys ____

'Hypogeomys .,
'Brachytarsomys

Eupleres



I

UNGULATA.

Suidce.

Potamochcerus

We have here a total of 12 families, 27 genera, and 65 species
of Mammals; 3 of the families and 20 of the genera (indicated
by asterisks) being peculiar. All the species are peculiar,
except perhaps one or two of the wandering bats. Remains of
a Hippopotamus have been found in a sub-fossil condition, show-
ing that this animal probably inhabited the island at a not very
remote epoch.

The assemblage of animals above noted is remarkable, and
seems to indicate a very ancient connection with the southern
portion of Africa, before the apes, ungulates and felines had
entered it. The lemurs, which are here so largely developed,
are represented by a single group in Africa, with two peculiar
forms on the west coast. They also re-appear under peculiar
and isolated forms in Southern India and Malaya, and are
evidently but the remains of a once wide-spread group, since
in Eocene times they inhabited North America and Europe,
and very probably the whole northern hemisphere.* The
Insectivora are another group of high antiquity, widely scat-
tered over the globe under a number of peculiar forms ; but in
no equally limited area represented by so many peculiar types
as in Madagascar. South and West Africa are also rich in this
order.

The Carnivora of Madagascar are mostly peculiar forms of
Viverridae, or civets, a family now almost confined to the
Ethiopian and Oriental regions, but which was abundant in
Europe during the Miocene period.

The Potamochcerus is a peculiar species only, which may be
perhaps explained by the unusual swimming powers of swine,
and the semi-aquatic habits of this genus, leading to an immi-
gration at a later period than in the- case of the other Mam-
malia. The same remark will apply to the small Hippopotamus,
which was coeval with the great struthious bird sEpyornis.

* "Eocene Period. Primates. The only undoubted Eocene examples of this order are
the Ccenofithecus lemuroides from the Jura, which has points of resemblance to the S. Amer.
marmosets and howlers, and also to the Lemurida: ; and a cranium recently discovered in the
department of Lot (S. W. France) undoubtedly belonging to the Lemurida;, and which most
resembles that of the West African 'Potto' (Perodicticus). This discovery has led to another,
for it is now believed that remains formerly referred to the Anoplotheridas (Ada-pis and An-
helotherium from the Upper Eocene of Paris) were also Lemurs" (pp. 124, 125).


132 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

Rodents are only represented by three peculiar forms of
Muridae, but it is probable that others remain to be discovered.

Birds.—Madagascar is exceedingly rich in birds, and espe-
cially in remarkable forms of Passeres. No less'than 88 genera
and i ii species of land-birds have been discovered, and every
year some additions are being made to the list.* The African
families of Passeres are almost all represented, only two being
absent—Paridse and Fringillidae, both very poorly represented
in Africa itself. Among the Picariae, however, the case is very
different, no less than 7 families being absent, viz. —Picidae, or
woodpeckers ; Indicatoridse, or honey-guides ; Megalaemidae,
or barbets; Musophagidae, or plantain-eaters ; Coliidee, or
colies; Bucerotidae, or hornbills; and Irrisoridae, or mockers.
Three of these are peculiar to Africa, and all are well repre-
sented there, so that their absence from Madagascar is a very
remarkable fact. The number of peculiar genera in Madagas-
car constitutes one of the main features of its ornithology, and
many of these are so isolated that it is very difficult to classify
them, and they remain to this day a puzzle to ornithologists.
In order to exhibit clearly the striking characteristics of the
bird-fauna of this island, we shall first give a list of all the
peculiar genera; another, of the genera of which the species
only are peculiar ; and, lastly, a list of the species which Mada-
gascar possesses in common with the African continent.

Genera of Birds peculiar to Madagascar, or found elsewhere

only in the mascarene islands.

Sylviidce. Species.

1. Bernieria... 2

2. Ellisia............1

3. Mystacornis.. 1

4. Eroessa 1

5. Gervasia 1
Tymaliidce.

6. Oxylabes .... 2
Cine lidos (?).

7. Mesites .... 1
Sittidm.

8. HyperphesH. 1
Pycnonotidce (?).

9. Tylas ............1

Oriolidce.

10. Artamia .... 3

11. Cyanolanius. 1
Muscicafidos.

12. Newtonia .. 1

13. Pseudobias . . 1

Lamidce. Species.

14. Calicalicus(P) 1

IS- Vanga ... 4
Nectar in iidce.

16. Neodrepanis. 1
HirundinidcB.

17. Phedina .... 1
Ploceidce.

18. Nelicurvius.. 1
Sturnidce.

19. Euryceros (?). 1

20. Hartlaubia .. 1

21. Falculia 1
Paictidce.

22. Philepitta 1
Cuculidce.

23. Coua ...... 9

24. Cochlothraustes 1
Lefitosomidoe.

25. Leptosomus.. 1

Coraciada. Species.

26. Atelornis .. 2

27. Brachyptera-

cias .... 1

28. Geobiastes.. 1
Psittacidce.

29. Coracopsis.. 2
Columbidce.

30. Alectrenas^f 1
Tetraonidce.

31 Margaroper-

dixH .... 1
Falconidce.

32. Nisoides ... 1

33. Eutriorchis.. 1

Total species of )
peculiar genera J '

JEfyorn ithidos.

34. .^Epyornis .. 1

* The land-birds now known to inhabit Madagascar number at least 210 species, belonging
to 148 genera.— Eds,


and the mascarene islands.

Ethiopian or Oriental Genera which are represented in
Madagascar by peculiar species.

Turdidas. Species.

1. Bessonornis. . i
Sylviidos.

2. Acrocephalus i

3. Copsychus(Or.)^]i

4. Pratincola 1
Pycnonotidce

5. Hypsipetes(Or.

6. Andropadus.. 1
Campephagidce.

7. Campephaga. 1
Dicritridce.

8. Dicrurus .... 1
Muscicapidce.

9. Tchitrea 1
Laniidce.

10. Laniarius.... 1
Nectariniidoe.

11. Nectarinia .. 1
Ploceidtz.

12. Foudia...... 2

13. Hypargos ... 1

14. Spermestes .. 1
Alaudidcs.

15. Mirafra...... 1

Motacillidce.

16. Motacilla____ 1

Cuculida.

17. Ceuthmochares 1

18. Centropus

19. Cuculus
Coraciadce.

20. Eurystomus.
A IcedinidcB.

21. Corythornis.

22. Inspidina..
Upupidce.

23. Upupa (?)..
Caprimulgidce.

24. Caprimulgus
Cypselidce.

25. Cypselus

26. Chsetura ..
Psittacida.

27. Poliopsitta
Columbidce.

28. Treron ....

29. Columba ..

30. Turtur ....
Pteroclidce.

31. Pterocles..
1'etraonidce.

32. Francolinus
Phasianidtz.

33. Numida ..
Turnicida.

34. Turnix ....

Sfe

Falconidce. Species.

35. Polyboroides. 1

36. Circus ............1

37- Astur ..........3

38. Accipiter 1

39. Buteo .. 1

40. Haliaetus 1

41. Pernis ............1

42. Baza ..............1

43. Cerchneis.... 1
Strigidce.

44. Athene............1

45. Scops ............1

RallidcB.

46. Rallus............3

47. Porzana .... 1
Scolojiacidcz.

48. Gallinago. T
PlataleidcB.

49. Ibis .....

Podicifiidce.

50. Podiceps .

Total peculiar spe- )
cies of Eth. or [ 56
Or. genera )

Species of Birds common to Madagascar and Africa or Asia.
1. Cisticola cursitans. 5. Collocalia fuciphaga. 9. Falco concolor.

2. Corvus scapulatus.

3. Crithagra canicollis.

4. Meropssuperciliosus,

6. CEna capensis.

7. Aplopeliatympanistria.

8. Falco minor.

10. Milvus segyptius.

11. Milvus migrans.

12. Strix flammea.

These three tables show us an amount of speciality hardly
to be found in the birds of any other part of the globe. Out of
111 land-birds in Madagascar, only 12 are identical with species
inhabiting the adjacent continents, and most of these belong to
powerful-winged, or wide-ranging, forms, which probably now
often pass from one country to the other. The peculiar species
—49 land-birds and 7 waders, or aquatics—are mostly well-
marked forms of African genera. There are, however, several
genera (marked thuslf) which have Oriental or Palaearctic
affinities, but not African, viz. — Copsychus, Hypsipetes, Hypherpes,
Alectrenas and Margaroperdix. These indicate a closer approx-
imation to the Malay countries than now exists.

The table of 33 peculiar genera is of great interest. Most
of these are well-marked forms, belonging- to families which


134

THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

are fully developed in Africa; though it is singular that not
one of the exclusively African families is represented in any
way in Madagascar. Others, however, are of remote, or
altogether doubtful, affinities. Sittidce is Oriental and Palsearc-
tic, but not Ethiopian. Oxylabes and Mystacornis are of doubt-
ful affinities. Artamia and Cyanolanius still more so, and it is
quite undecided what family they belong to. ' Calicalicus is
almost equally obscure. Neodrepanis, one of the most recent
discoveries, seems to connect the Nectariniidse with the Pacific
Drepanidise. Euryceros is a complete puzzle, having been placed
with the hornbills, the starlings, or as a distinct family. Falculia
is an exceedingly aberrant form of starling, long thought to be
allied to Irrisor. Philepilta, forming a distinct family (Paic-
tidae), is most remarkable and isolated, perhaps with remote
South American affinities. Leptosoma is another extraordinary
form, connecting the cuckoos with the rollers. Atelornis,
Brachypteracias, and Geobiastes are terrestrial rollers, with the
form and colouring of Pitta. So many perfectly isolated and
remarkable groups are certainly nowhere else to be found ; and
they fitly associate with the wonderful aye-aye (Ch'iromys), the
insectivorous Centetidse, and carnivorous Cryptoprocta, among
the Mammalia. Ihey speak to us plainly of enormous anti-
quity, of long-continued isolation, and not less plainly of a lost
continent or continental island, in which so many, and various,
and peculiarly organized creatures, could have been gradually
developed in a connected fauna, of which we have here but the
fragmentary remains.

Plate vi.—Illustrating the characteristic features
of the Zoology of Madagascar.—The lemurs, which form
the most prominent feature in the zoology of Madagascar, being
comparatively well-known from the numerous specimens in our
Zoological Gardens, and good figures of the Insectivorous
genera not being available, we have represented the nocturnal
and extraordinary aye-aye (Chiromys madagascariensis) to
illustrate its peculiar, and probably very ancient, mammalian
fauna; while the river-hogs in the distance (Potamuchxrus
Edwardsii), allied to African species, indicate a later immi-
gration from the mainland than in the case of most of the other
Mammalia. The peculiar birds being far less generally known,
we have figured three of them. The largest is the Euryceros
prevusti, here classed with the starlings, although its remark-
able bill and other peculiarities render it probable that it should
form a distinct family. Its colours are velvety black and rich
brown, with the bill of a pearly grey. The bird beneath ( Vanga
cufvirostris) is one of the peculiar Madagascar shrikes, whose


AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS.

135

plumage, variegated with green-black and pure white, is very
conspicuous; while that in the right-hand corner is the Lepto-
soma discolor, a bird which appears to be intermediate between
such very distinct families as the cuckoos and the rollers, and
is therefore considered to form a family by itself. It is coppery
green above and nearly white beneath, with a black bill and
red feet. The fan-shaped plant on the left is the Traveller's-
tree (Urania speciosa), one of the peculiar forms of vegetation
in this marvellous island.

Reptiles.—These present some very curious features, com-
paratively few of the African groups being represented, while
there are a considerable number of Eastern, and even of
American, forms. Beginning with the snakes, we find, in the
enormous family of Colubridse, none of the African types ; but
instead of them three genera—Herpetodryas, Phylodryas, and
Heterodon—only found elsewhere in South and North America.
The Psammophidae, which are both African and Indian, are
represented by a peculiar genus, Mimophis. The Dendrophidae
are represented by Ahcetulla, a genus which is both African
and American. The Dryophidae, which inhabit all the tropics,
but are most developed in the Oriental region, are represented
by a peculiar genus, Langaha. The tropical Pythonidae are
represented by another peculiar genus, Sanzinia. The Lycodon-
tidae and Viperidae, so well developed in Africa, are entirely
absent.

The lizards are no less remarkable. The Zonuridae, abun-
dantly developed in Africa, are represented by one peculiar
genus, Cicigna ; the wide-spread Scincidee by another peculiar
genus, Pygomeles. The African Sepsidae are represented by
three genera, two of which are African, and one, A mphiglossus,
peculiar. The Acontiadae are represented by a species of the
African genus Acoutias. Of Scincidae there is the wide-spread
Euprepes. The Sepidae are represented by the African genera
Seps and Scelotes. The Geckotidae are not represented by any
purely African genera, but by Phyllodactylus, which is American
and Australian ; by Hemidadylus, which is spread over all the
tropics ; by two peculiar genera; and by Uroplatis, Geckolepis
and Phelsuma, confined to Madagascar, Bourbon and the
Andaman Islands. The Agamidae, which are mostly Oriental,
and are represented in Africa by the single genus Agama, have
here three peculiar genera, Fracheloptychus, Chalarodon and
Hoplnrus. Lastly, the American Iguanidae are said to be
represented by a species of the South American genus Oplitrus.
The classification of Reptiles is in such an unsettled state that
some of these determinations of affinities are probably erro-


136 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

neous; but it not likely that any corrections which may be
required will materially affect the general bearing of the
evidence, as indicating a remarkable amount of Oriental and
American relationship.

The other groups are of less interest. Tortoises are represen-
ted by two African or wide-spread genera of Testudinidae,
Testudo and Chersina, and by one peculiar genus, Pyxis; and
there are also two African genera of Chelydidae.

The Amphibia are not very well known. They appear to be
confined to species of the wide-spread Ethiopian and Oriental
genera—Hylarana, Polypedates, and Rappia (Polypedatidae);
and Pyxicephalus (Ranidae).

Fresh-water Fishes.—These appear to be at present
almost unknown. When carefully collected they will no doubt
furnish some important facts.

The Mascakene Islands.—The various islands which
surround Madagascar—Bourbon, Mauritius, Rodriguez, the
Seychelles, and the Comoro Islands—all partake in a consider-
able degree of its peculiar fauna, while having some special
features of their own.

Indigenous Mammalia (except bats) are probably absent
from all these islands (except the Comoros), although Lemur
and Centetes are given as natives of Bourbon and Mauritius.
They have, however, perhaps been introduced from Madagascar.
Lemur mayottensis, a peculiar species, is found in the Comoro
Islands, where a Madagascar species of Viverra also occurs.

Bourbon and Mauritius may be taken together, as they much
resemble each other. They each possess species of a peculiar
genus of Campephagidae, or caterpillar shrikes, Oxynotus ;
while the remarkable Fregilupus, belonging to the starling
family, inhabits Bourbon, if it is not now extinct. They also
have peculiar species of Pratincola, Hypsipetes, Phedina, Tchitrea,
Zosterops, Foudia, Collocalia and Coracopsis; while Mauritius
has a very peculiar form of dove of.the sub-genus Trocaza ; an
Alectrenas, extinct within the last thirty years ; and a species
of the Oriental genus of parroquets, Palceornis. The small and
remote island of Rodriguez has another Palceornis, as well as
a peculiar Foudia, and a Drymczca of apparently Indian affinity.

Coming to the Seychelle Islands, far to the north, we find
the only mammal an Indian species of bat (Pteropus Fdwardsii) .
Of the twelve land-birds all but one are peculiar species, but
all belong to genera found also in Madagascar, except one—a
peculiar species of Palceornis. This is an Oriental genus, but
found also in the Mascarene Islands and on the African conti-
nent. A species of black parrot (Coracopsis Barklayi), and a.


AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS.

137

weaver-bird of peculiar type (Foudia seychellarum) show, how-
ever, a decided connection with Madagascar. There are also
two peculiar pigeons a short-winged Turtur and an Alec-
trcenas.

Most of the birds of the Comoro Islands are Madagascar
species, only two being African. Five are peculiar, belonging
to the genera Nectar inia, Zoster ops, Dicrurus, Foudia and Alec-
trxnas.

Reptiles are scarce. There appear to be no snakes in
Mauritius and Bourbon, though some African species are said
to be found in the Seychelle Islands. Lizards are fairly repre-
sented. Mauritius has Cryptoblepharus, an Australian genus of
Gymnopthalmidae ; Hemidactylus (a wide spread genus) and Pe-
ropus (Oriental and Australian) —both belonging to the Gecko-
tidae. Bourbon has Heteropus, a Moluccan and Australian
genus of Scincidse; Phelsuma (Geckotidae) and Chameleo, both
found also in Madagascar ; as well as Pyxis, one of the tortoises.
The Seychelles have Theconyx, a peculiar genus of Gecko-
tidae, and Chameleo. Gigantic land-tortoises, which formerly
inhabited most of the Mascarene Islands, now only survive
in Aldabra, a small island north-east of the Comoros. These
will be noticed again further on. Amphibia seem only to be
recorded from the Seychelles, where two genera of tree-frogs
of the family Polypedatidae are found ; one (Megalixalus), pecu-
liar, the other (Rappia) found also in Madagascar and Africa.

The few insect groups peculiar to these islands will be noted
when we deal with the entomology of Madagascar.

Extinct Fauna of the Mascarene Islands and Mada-
gascar.—Before quitting the vertebrate groups, we must notice
the remarkable birds which have become extinct in these
islands little more than a century ago. The most celebrated is
the Dodo of Mauritius (Didus ineptits), but an allied genus,
Pezophaps, inhabited Rodriguez ; and of both of these almost
perfect skeletons have been recovered. Other species probably
existed at Bourbon. Remains of two genera of flightless rails
have also been found, Aphanapteryx [in Mauritius], and Ery-
thromachus [in Rodriguez]; and even a heron (Ardea mega*
cephala), which was short-winged and seldom flew; while in
Madagascar there lived a gigantic struthious bird, the ^Epyor~
nis. The bearing of these extinct forms on the past history of
the region will be adverted to in the latter part of this chapter.*

* "A large parrot, said by Prof. Milne-Edwards to be allied to Ara and Microglossias, alsd
inhabited Mauritius J and another, allied to Eclectus, the island of Rodriguez. None of these
have been found in Madagascar; but the gigantic s-Jlpyornis, forming a peculiar family
distinct both from the ostriches of Africa and the pinornis of New Zealand, inhabited that
island ; and there is reason to believe that this may have lived les9 than 200 years ago" (p. 164),


138

THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

Dr. Gunther has recently distinguished five species of fossil
tortoises from Mauritius and Rodriguez, all of them quite
different from the living species of Aldabra.

insects.—The butterflies of Madagascar are not so remark-
able as some other orders of insects. There seems to be only
one peculiar genus, Heteropsis (Satyridae). The other genera
are African, Leptoneura being confined to Madagascar and
South Africa. There are some fine Papilios of uncommon forms.-
The most interesting lepidopterous insect, however, is the fine
diurnal moth Urania, as all the other species of the genus
inhabit Tropical America and the West Indian Islands.*

The Coleoptera have been better collected, and exhibit some
very remarkable affinities. There is but one peculiar genus of
Cicindelidse (Pogonos(oma), which is allied to the South Ame-
rican genus Ctenosoma. Another genus, Peridexia, is common to
Madagascar and South America. None of the important South
African genera are represented, except Eurymorpha ; while
Meglaomma is common to Madagascar and the Oriental region.

Of the Carabidae we have somewhat similar phenomena on a
wider scale. Such large and important African genera as
Polyhirma and Anthia are absent: but there are four genera in
common with South Africa, and two with West Africa ; while
three others are as much Oriental as African. One genus, Dis-
trigus, is wholly Oriental, and another, Homalosoma, Australian.
Colpodes, well developed in Bourbon and Mauritius, is Oriental
and South American. Of the peculiar genera, Sphcerostylis has
South American affinities; Microchila, Oriental; the others
being related to widely distributed genera.

The Lucanidae are few in number, and all have African
affinities. Madagascar is very rich in Cetoniidse and possesses
20 peculiar genera. Bothrorhina, and three other genera
belonging to the Ichnostoma group, have wholly African re-
lations. Doryscelis and Chromoptila are no less clearly allied
to Oriental genera. A series of eight peculiar genera belong
to the Schizorhinidae, a family the bulk of which are Australian,
while there are only a few African forms. The remaining
genera appear to have African affinities, but few of the pecu-
liarly African genera are represented. Glyciphana is character-
sitic of the Oriental region.

* W. India Islands possess very few mammalia, all of small size and allied to those of

America, except one genus, and that belongs to an order, Insectivora, entirely absent from
S. America, and to a family, Centetida;, all the other species of which inhabit Madagascar
only. And as if to add force to this singular correspondence, we have one Madagascar species
of a beautiful day-flying moth (Urania), all the other species of which inhabit Tropical Ame-
ritia. These insects are goreeously arrayed in green and gold, and are quite unlike any other
Lepidoptera upon the globe (p, 51),


AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS.

The Buprestidse of Madagascar consist mainly of one large
and peculiar genus, Polybothris, allied to the almost cosmopolite
Psiloptera. Most of the other genera are Ethiopian and
Oriental; but Polycesta is mainly South American, and the
remarkable and isolated genus Sponsor is confined to Mauritius,
with a species in Celebes and New Guinea.

The Longicorns are numerous and interesting, there being
no less than 24 peculiar genera. Two of the genera of Prionidas
are very isolated, while a third, Closterus, belongs to a group
which is Malayan and American.

Of the Cerambycidae, Philematium ranges to Africa and the
West Indies ; Leptocera is only found eastward in Ceylon and
the New Hebrides; while Euporus is African. Of the peculiar
genera, two are of African type ; three belong to the Leptura
group, which are mostly Palaearctic and Oriental, with a few in
South Africa; while Philocalocera is allied to a South American
genus.

Among the Lamiidae there are several wide-ranging, and
seven African, genera ; but Coptops is Oriental, and the Oriental
Praonetha occurs in the Comoro Islands. Among the peculiar
genera, several have African affinities, but Tropidema belongs
to a group which is Oriental and Australian ; Oopsis is found
also in the Pacific Islands ; Mythergates, Sulemus, and Coedomcea
are allied to Malayan and American genera.

Genkral Remarks on the Insect-fauna of Madagas-
car.—Taking the insects as a whole, we find the remarkable
result that their affinities are largely Oriental, Australian and
South American; while the African element is represented
chiefly by special South African or West African forms, rather
than by such as are widely spread over the Ethiopian region.*
In some families as Cetoniidse and Lamiidae- the African
element appears to preponderate ; in others, as Cicindelidae —
the South American affinity seems strongest; in Carabidag,
perhaps the Oriental ; while in Buprestidae and Cerambycidae
the African and foreign elements seen nearly balanced. We
must not impute too much importance to these foreign alliances
among insects, because we find examples of them in every
country on the globe. The reason they are so much more
pronounced in Madagascar may be, that during long periods of
time this island has served as a refuge for groups that have
been dying out on the great continents ; and that, owing to the
numerous deficiencies of a somewhat similar kind in the series
of vertebrates in Australia and South America, the same groups

* There are also some special resemblances between the planta of Madagascar and South
Africa, according to Dri Kirk,


140 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

have often been able to maintain themselves in all these
countries as well as in Madagascar. It must be remembered
too, that the peculiarities in the Madagascar and Mascarene
insect-fauna are but exaggerations of a like phenomenon on
the mainland. Africa also has numerous affinities with South
America, with the Malay countries, and with Australia; but
they do not bear anything like so large a proportion to the
whole fauna, and do not therefore attract so much attention.
The special conditions of existence, and the long-continued
isolation of Madagascar, will account for much of this difference ;
and it will evidently not be necessary to introduce, as some
writers are disposed to do, a special land connection or near
approach between Madagascar and all these countries, inde-
pendently of Africa ; except perhaps in the case of the Malay
Islands, as will be discussed further on.

Land-shells. —Madagascar and the adjacent islands are all
rich in land-shells. The genera of Helicidae are Vitrina, Helix,
Acliatina, Columna (peculiar to Madagascar and West Africa),
Bulimiuus, Cionella (chiefly Oriental and South American, but
not African), Pupa, Streptaxis, and Cuccinea. Among the
Operculata we have Truncatella (widely scattered, but not Afri-
can) ; Cyclotus (South American, Oriental and South African);
Cyclophorus (mostly Oriental, with a few South African); Lep-
topoma (Oriental); Megalomastoma (Malayan and South Ameri-
can); Lithidion (peculiar to Madagascar, Socotra and South-
west Arabia); Otopoma (with the same range, but extending
to West India and New Ireland); Cyclostoma (widely spread,
but not African); and Omphalotropis (wholly Oriental and
Australian). We thus find the same general features reprodu-
ced in the land-shells as in the insects, and the same remarks
will to a great extent apply to both. The classification of the
former is, however, by no means satisfactory, and we have no
extensive and accurate general catalogue of shells, like those of
Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, which have furnished us with such
valuable materials for the comparison of the several faunas.

On the probable Past History of the Ethiopian Re-
gion.—Perhaps none of the great zoological regions of the earth
present us with problems of greater difficulty or higher interest
than the Ethiopian. We find in it the evidence of several
distinct and successive faunas, now intermingled ; and it is very
difficult, with our present imperfect knowledge, to form an
adequate conception of how and when the several changes
occurred. There are, however, a few points which seem sufficient-
ly clear, and these afford us a secure foundation in our endea-
vour to comprehend the rest.


AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. 141

Let us then consider what are the main facts we have to
account for: i. In Continental Africa, more especially in the
south and west, we find, along with much that is peculiar, a
number of genera shewing a decided Oriental, and others an
equally strong South American, affinity; this latter more parti-
cularly shewing itself among reptiles and insects. 2. All over
Africa, but more especially in the east, we have abundance of
large ungulates and felines antelopes, giraffes, buffaloes, ele-
phants and rhinoceroses, with lions, leopards, and hyaenas, all
of types now or recently found in India and Western Asia. 3.
But we have also to note the absence of a number of groups
which abound in the above-named countries, such as deer,
bears, moles, and true pigs; while camels and goats —charac-
teristic of the desert regions just to the north of the Ethiopian —
are equally wanting. 4. There is a wonderful unity of type and
want of speciality in the vast area of our first sub-region, extend-
ing from Senegal across to the east coast, and southward to
the Zambezi; while West Africa and South Africa each abound
with peculiar types. 5. We have the extraordinary fauna of
Madagascar to account for, with its evident main derivation
from Africa, yet wanting all the larger and higher African
forms ; its resemblances to Malaya and to South America ; and
its wonderful assemblage of altogether peculiar types.

Here we find a secure starting-point, for we are sure that
Madagascar must have been separated from Africa before the
assemblage of large animals enumerated above had entered it.
Now it is a suggestive fact, that all these belong to types which
abounded in Europe and India about the Miocene period. It
is also known, from the prevalance of Tertiary deposits over
the Sahara and much of Arabia, Persia, and Northern India,
that during early Tertiary times a continuous sea from the Bay
of Bengal to the British Isles completely cut off all land com-
munication between Central and South Africa on the one side,
and the great continent of the Eastern hemisphere on the other.
When Africa was thus isolated, its fauna probably had a
character somewhat analogous to that of South America at the
same period. Most of the higher types of mammalian life were
absent, while lemurs, Edentates and Insectivora took their
place. At this period Madagascar was no doubt united with
Africa, and helped to form a great southern continent,* which

* Mr. Wallace in his later work, Island Life, combats (we think quite conclusively) this
hypothesis of a great southern continent, called 'Lemuria' by many writers, and shews that
any land connection between Madagascar and India must have boon by an archipelago of large
-islands. See pp. 394-399 and 417-423, and his maps of the Indian Ocean, at pp. 387 and 396.
—Eds,


142

THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

must at one time have extended eastward as far as Southern
India and Ceylon ; and over the whole of this the lemurine type
no doubt prevailed.

During some portion of this period South Temperate Africa
must have had a much greater extension, perhaps indicated by
the numerous shoals and rocks to the south and east of the
Cape of Good Hope, and by the Crozets and Kerguelen Islands
further to the south-east. This would have afforded means for
that intercommunion with Western Australia which is so
clearly marked in the flora, and to some extent also, in the
insects, of the two countries ; and some such extension is abso-
lutely required for the development of that wonderfully rich
and peculiar temperate flora and fauna, which, now crowded into
a narrow territory, is one of the greatest marvels of the organic
world.

During this early period, when the great southern continents
— South America, Africa and Australia—were equally free from
the incursions of the destructive felines of the north, the Stru-
thious or ostrich type of birds was probably developed into its
existing forms. It is not at all necessary that these three
continents were at any date united, in order to account for the
distribution of these great terrestrial birds, as this may have
arisen by at least two other easily conceivable modes. The
ancestral Struthious type may, like the Marsupial, have once
spread over the larger portion of the globe ; but as higher
forms, especially of Carnivora, became developed, it would be
exterminated everywhere but in those regions where it was free
from their attacks. In each of these it would develope into
special forms adapted to surrounding conditions ; and the large
size, great strength, and excessive speed of the ostrich, may
have been a comparatively late development caused by its
exposure to the attacks of enemies, which rendered such modi-
fication necessary. This seems the most probable explanation
of the distribution of Struthious birds, and it is rendered almost
certain by the discovery of remains of this order in Europe in
Eocene deposits, and by the occurrence of an ostrich among
the fossils of the Siwalik hills ; but it is just possible, also, that
the ancestral type may have been a bird capable of flight, and
that it spread from one of the three southern continents to the
others at the period of their near approach, and more or less
completely lost the power of flight, owing to the long continued
absence of enemies.

During the period we have been considering, the ancestors
of existing apes and monkeys flourished along the whole
southern shores of the old Palsearctic continent; and it seems


AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. 143

likely that they first entered Africa by means of a land con-
nection indicated by the extensive and lofty plateaus of the
Sahara, situated to the south-east of Tunis and reaching to a
little north-west of Lake Tchad ; and at the same time the
elephant and rhinoceros type may have entered. This will
account for the curious similarity between the higher fauna of
West Africa and the Indo-Malay sub-region ; for, owing to the
present distribution of land and sea, and the narrowing of the
tropical zone since Miocene times, these are now the only low-
land, equatorial, forest-clad countries which were in connection
with the southern shores of the old Palaearctic continent at the
time of its greatest luxuriance and development. This western
connection did not probably last long, the junction that led to
the greatest incursion of new forms, and the complete change
in the character of the African fauna, having apparently been
effected by way of Syria and the shores of the Red Sea at a
somewhat later date. By this route the old south Palsearctic
fauna, indicated by the fossils of Pikermi and the Siwalik hills,
poured into Africa; and finding there a new and favourable
country, almost wholly unoccupied by large Mammalia, increa-
sed to an enormous extent, developed into new forms, and
finally overran the whole continent.

Before this occurred, however, a great change had taken
place in the geography of Africa. It had gradually diminished
on the south and east; Madagascar had been left isolated;
while a number of small islands, banks, and coral reefs in the
Indian Ocean alone remained to indicate the position of a once
extensive equatorial land. The Mascarene Islands appear to
represent the portion which separated earliest, before any
Carnivora had reached the conntry; and it was in consequence
of this total exemption from danger that several groups of birds
altogether incapable of flight became developed here, culmina-
ting in the large and unwieldy Dodo, and the more active
Aphanapteryx. To the same causes may be attributed the
development in these islands of gigantic land-tortoises, far
surpassing any others now living in the globe. They appear
to have formerly inhabited Mauritius, Bourbon and Rodriguez,
and perhaps other Indian Ocean groups, but having been
recklessly destroyed, now only survive in the small uninhabit-
ed Aldabra islands north-east of the Comoros. The largest
living specimen (5-I- feet long) is now in our Zoological Gardens.*
The only other place where equally large tortoises (of an allied
species) are found, is the Galapagos Islands, where they were

* See Annual No. I., p. 122 ; Reprint of Annual, p. 128.


144 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

equally free from enemies until civilized man came upon the
scene ; who, partly by using them for food, partly by the intro-
duction of pigs, which destroy the eggs, has greatly diminished
their numbers and size, and will probably soon wholly extermi-
nate them. It is a curious fact, ascertained by Dr. Giinther,
that the tortoises of the Galapagos are more nearly related to
the extinct tortoises of Mauritius than is the living tortoise of
Aldabra. This would imply that several distinct groups or
sub-genera of Testudo have had a wide range over the globe,,
and that some of each have survived in very distant localities.
This is rendered quite conceivable by the known antiquity of
the genus Testudo, which dates back to at least the Eocene
formation (in North America) with very little change of form.
These sluggish reptiles, so long-lived and so tenacious of life,
may have remained unchanged, while every higher animal type
around them has become extinct and been replaced by very
different forms ; as in the case of the living Emys tectum, which
is the sole survivor of the strange Siwalik fauna of the Mio-
cene epoch. The ascertained history of the genus and the
group thus affords a satisfactory explanation of the close
affinity of the gigantic tortoises of Mauritius and the Gala-
pagos.

The great island of Madagascar seems to have remained
longer united with Africa, till some of the smaller and more
active Carnivora had reached it; and we consequently find
there no wholly terrestrial form of bird but the gigantic and
powerful ^Epyornis, well able to defend itself against such
enemies. As already intimated, we refer the South American
element in Madagascar not to any special connection of the
two countries independently of Africa, but to the preservation
there of a number of forms, some derived from America through
Africa, others of once almost cosmopolitan range, but which,
owing to the severer competition, have become extinct on the
African continent, while they have continued to exist under
modified forms in the two other countries.

The depths of all the great oceans are now known to be so
profound that we cannot conceive the elevation of their beds
above the surface without some corresponding depression
elsewhere. And if, as if probable, these opposite motions of
the earth's crust usually take place in parallel bands, and are
rto some extent dependent on each other, an elevation of the
' sea-bed could hardly fail to lead to the submergence of large
j;tracts of existing continents; and this is the more likely to
occur on account of the great disproportion that we have seen
exists between the mean height of the land and the mean depth


AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. 145

of the ocean. Keeping this principle in view, we may, with
some probability, suggest the successive stages by which the
Ethiopian region assumed its present form, and acquired the
striking peculiarities that characterize its several sub-regions.

During the early period, when the rich and varied temperate
flora of the Cape, and its hardly less peculiar forms of insects
and of low-type Mammalia, were in process of development in
an extensive south temperate land, we may be pretty sure that
the whole of the east, and much of the north, of Africa was deep
sea. At a later period, when this continent sank towards the
south and east, the elevation may have occurred which connec-
ted Madagascar with Ceylon ; and only at a still later epoch,
when the Indi an cean had again been formed, did central,
eastern and northern Africa gradually rise above the ocean,
and effect a conjunction with the great northern continent by
way of Abyssinia and Arabia. And if this last change took
place with tolerable rapidity, or if the elevatory force acted
from the north, towards the south, there would be a new and
unoccupied territory to be taken possession of by immigrants
from the north, together with a few from the south and west.
The more highly organized types from the great northern conti-
nent, however, would inevitably prevail; and we should thus
have explained the curious uniformity in the fauna of so large
an area, together with the absence from it of those peculiar
Ethiopian types which so abundantly characterize the other
sub-regions.

* * * *

Our knowledge of the geology and palaeontology of Africa
being so scanty, it would be imprudent to attempt any more
detailed explanation of the peculiarities of its existing fauna.
The sketch now given is, it is believed, founded on a sufficient
basis of facts to render it not only a possible but a probable
account of what took place ; and it is something gained to be
able to show that a large portion of the peculiarities and anom-
alies of so remarkable a fauna as that of the Ethiopian region
can be accounted for by a series of changes of physical geogra-
phy during the Tertiary epoch, which can be hardly be consi-
dered extreme, or in any way unlikely to have occurred.

Alfred R. Wallace.

Note.—The contractions used in the table given overleaf stand for the six zoological
'regions' as proposed by Mr. Wallace, viz. : Pat&arctic: all Europe, Africa north of the
Sahara, and all Asia except India and the Indo-Chinese Peninsula; Oriental: India, the
Indo-Chinese Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines ; Australian : Australia,
New Guinea, Celebes, the Moluccas, and New Zealand ; Ethiopian : Africa south of the
Sahara, and its islands ; Ncarctic: North America and Greenland ; and Neotropical: Central
and South America.—Eds.


146 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR

APPENDIX.

Families of Animals inhabiting the Malagasy Sub-region.
For Mammalia and birds see ante (pp.130—133).

REPTILIA.

Ophidia.

1. Typhlopid® ...... All but Nearctic.

7. Colubridae ...... Almost Cosmop.

9. Psammophidae ... Orient, and S. Palaearc.

11. Dendrophidas ... Or., Aust., Neotrop.

12. Dryiophidae ...... Or., Neotrop.

17. Pythonidae......... All Trop.

23. Hydrophidae ...... Or., Aust., Panama.

25. Viperid® ......... Or. Palasarctic.

Lacertilia,

34. Zonuridae .........All Amer., N. Ind., S.

Europe.

41. Gymnophthalmi-

dae ............Palsearc., Aust,

42. Scincidae .........Aim. Cosmop.

47. Sepidae ............ South Palaearctic.

48. Acontiad® ...... Cej'lon and Moluc.

49. Geckotid^......... Aim. Cosmop.

51. Agamidae ......... Or., Aust,, S. Palsearc.

52. Chameleonid® ... Or., S. Palsearc,
Crocodilia.

55. Crocodilidae ...... Or., Neotrop.

Chelonia.

57. Testudin®........ All count, ex. Aust.

58. ChelydidE.........Aust., S. Amer.

AMPHIBIA,

Anoura.

17. Polypedatidae ... Cosmop.

18. Ramdae............Aim. Cosmop.

FISHES (FRESH WATER).
Acantkop terygii.

35. Labvrinthise ..... Aust., Neotrop.

38. Mugillidae......... Or., Moluc.

52. Chromidae......... Or., Neotrop.

Physostomi.

59. Siluridae............ All Trop.

73. Cvprinodontidse . Palaearc., Or., Amer.
75. Cyprinidee......... Als. fr. Aust. & S. Am.

INSECTS (LEPIDOPTERA).
Diurni (Butterflies).

1. Danaidae .........All W. coun. & Canad.

2. Satyridse .........Cosmop.

6. Acraeidse .....«... All Trop.

8. Nymphalidae...... Cosmop.

9. Lybytheidae ...... Als. fr. Aust. only.

10. Nemeobiidae..........and Nearct.

13. Lycaenidae......... Cosmop.

14. Pierid;e ............ ,,

15. Papilionidae ...... „

16. Hesperiid® ...... ,,

Sfhingidea.

17. Zygaenid® ........ „

19. Agaristidae ......Aust., Or,

20. Uraniidae ......... All Trop.

22. EgeriidaE .........Cosmop. ex. Aust.

23, Sphingidae........Cosmop.

(pp. 294—299.)

Sub-Order (of Primates)—Lemuroidea.

Family 6—Lemurida (11 genera, 53 species).

Found in all sub-regions of Palsearctic region; and in all but E. Africa
of Ethiopian region. The Lemuridae, comprehending all the animals usually
termed Lemurs, and many of their allies also, are divided by Prof. Mivart—
who has carefully studied the group—into four sub-families and eleven genera,
as follows : —

Sub-family Indrisinas, consisting of the genus Indris (5 sp.), is confined
to Madagascar.

Sub-family Lemurinae, contains five genera, viz. -.—Lemur (15 sp.); Ha-
palemur (2 sp.); Microcebus (4 sp.); Chirogaleus (5 sp.); and Lepilemur
(2 sp.) ; all confined to Madagascar.

Sub-family Nycticebinae, contains four genera, viz. : — Nycticebus (3 sp.)—
small, short-tailed, nocturnal animals, called slow-lemurs—range from
E. Bengal to S. China, and to Borneo and Java ; Loris (1 sp.)—a very small
tailless, nocturnal lemur, which inhabits Madras, Malabar and Ceylon ;
Perodicticus (1 sp.)—the Potto—a small lemur with almost rudimentary
forefinger, found at Sierra Leone (pi. v., vol. i. p. 264); Arctocebus (1 sp.)—
the Angwantibo- another extraordinary form, in which the forefinger is quite
absent, and the first toe armed with a long claw—inhabits Old Calabar.

Sub family Galaginai, contains only the genus Galago (14 sp.), which is
confined to the African continent, ranging from Senegal and Fernando Po to
Zanzibar and Natal.


AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS.

Family 8—Chiromyidce (i genus, i species).

The Ayeaye (Ckiromys), the sole representative of this family, is confined
to the island of Madagascar. It was for a long time very imperfectly
known, and was supposed to belong to the Rodentia ; but it has now been
ascertained to be an exceedingly specialized form of lemuroid type, and
must be considered to be one of the most extraordinary of the mammalia now
inhabiting the globe. (Vol. ii. pp. 176, 177.)

The Lemuroid group offers us one of the most singular phenomena in
geographical distribution. It consists of three families, the species of which
are grouped into six sub-families and 13 genera. One of these families, and
two of the sub-families, comprising 7 genera, and no less than 30 out of the
total of 50 species, are confined to the one island of Madagascar ; of the
remainder, 3 genera, comprising 15 species, are spread over Tropical Africa ;
while three other genera, with 5 species, inhabit certain restricted portions of
India and the Malay Islands.

* * * In Madagascar, where less complex conditions prevailed in a
considerable land area, the lowly organized Lemuroids have diverged into
many specialized forms of their own peculiar type ; while on the continents
they have, to a great extent, become exterminated, or have maintained their
existence in a few cases in islands, or in mountain ranges. In Africa the
nocturnal and arboreal Galagos are adapted to a special mode of life, in
which they probably have few competitors. (Vol. ii. pp. 197, 180.)

Order Insectivora.

Family 18.—Centetidoe (6 genera, 10 species).

The Centetidas are small animals, many of them having a spiny covering,
whence the species of Centetes have been called 'Madagascar hedgehogs.'
The genera Centetes (2 sp.), Hemicentetes (1 sp.), Ericulus (1 sp.), Echinops
(3 sp,), and the recently described Oryzorictes (1 sp.), are all exclusively
inhabitants of Madagascar, and are almost or quite tailless. The remaining
genus, Solenodon, is a more slender and active animal, with a long rat-like
tail, shrew-like head, and coarse fur ; and the two known species are among
the very few indigenous mammals of the West India Islands, one being found
at Cuba (pi. xvii. vol. ii. p. 67), the other in Hayti. Although presenting
many points of difference in detail, the essential characters of this curious
animal are, according to Profs. Peters and Mivart, identical with the rest of the
Centetidse. We have thus a most remarkable and well-established case of
discontinuous distribution, two portions of the same family being now separated
from each other by an extensive continent, as well as by a deep ocean. (Vol.
ii. p. 188.)

Order Carnivora.

Family 24. — Cryfitofiroctidce (1 genera, 1 species).

The Cryfitofirocta ferox, a small and graceful cat-like animal, peculiar
to Madagascar, was formerly classed among the Viverridse, but is now consi-
dered by Prof. Flower to constitute a distinct family between the Cats and
the Civets. (Vol. ii. p. 194.)

Order Rodentia.

Family 55.—Murida.

Nesomys, Hyfiogeomys, Brachytarsomys, Madagascar. Of Rodentia,
Muridae alone found in Madagascar (out of 14 families).


148 THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL.

THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.'

NOBODY can reside very long in Madagascar, or in these
central parts of it, at any rate, without occasionally
observing little companies of the natives bending eagerly over
some mathematical looking diagram rudely scratched on road-
side stone, or on the top of a rock, or, more roughly still, on the
sun-baked clay of the wayside, if you look a little at the figure
of the diagram, and consider the multiplicity of squares, diago-
nals and adjacent parallelograms involved in it, you may think
the people are discussing some Malagasy rider to one or other
of the propositions in the Second Book of Euclid, Take the
trouble to ask, however, and you will find that they are simply
playing at their national game, the Fanoruna.

Games of skill or chance, generally speaking, do not attract
much interest among the Malagasy. They have originated
very few, and do not seem to care much for such as they have
had opportunities of learning from Europeans. A few of the
upper classes play occasionally at cards, dominoes, and loto.
1 have never seen dice anywhere among them, and very likely
there are not fifty natives in all the island who know anything
at all of chess or draughts. But they all understand the fano-
rona ; that is played everywhere, in-doors and out of doors, in
the town and in the country, and by all classes, high and low,
young and old. Almost everywhere in the houses of the people,
except the very poorest, you may find the fanorona board,
though very often it is only the back of the akalana (chopping
block) or of the sahafa (wooden winnowing platter). But play-
ing out of doors seems most attractive to the younger Malagasy,
and they can extemporise a board, or a substitute for a board,
anywhere. On the wooden sheds in the market-places, on the
tiled paving around the school-houses and college buildings, on
the stones around the open elevations where the Judges sit, on
the paved way outside the Palace, on the roadsides where the
palanquin bearers congregate, at the stone-gate entrances into
the villages, on the flat rocks of the hillsides, on which the little
slave children sun themselves while tending their masters'
sheep or cattle—everywhere you may find the signs and tokens
of the fanorona players.

The most respectable students in the L. M. S. College will
frequently employ the few minutes' interval between some of
their morning classes in a hasty game. I have seen two or
three of our most grave and potent city pastors stop with one


149 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

accord to watch and criticize the wavering fortunes of a chance
game that was being fought out on the wayside. Some of
the older andrlandahy (chiefs) and senior officers of the palace
are reputed to be the best players in the country. The vener-
able old princess who died two years ago at Amb6hij6ky, and
\ who in her girlhood, about fourscore years ago, was one of 'the
twelve wives' of King Andrianarnpoinimerina, had been in her
time a famous player at the fanorona. There are still alive in
' Antananarivo several old people who remember very well the
coronation of Rad&ma I., in the year 1810, and the great
gathering on that occasion in the plain of Imahamasina. All
the various tribes and orders of the people were that day ranged
around the King after the pattern of the various sides and
diagonals and intersections of the fanorona ! In one of Rada-
ma's campaigns in the southern parts of the island, a B6tsil&o
king, whom he was besieging, had perched himself on the
summit of his stone-barricaded gateway, and in unblessed
ignorance of the dangerous powers of the muskets which
Radama had acquired from the English, he was giving only
one eye to the approaching enemy, and employing the other
in a friendly game of fanorona with one of his officers. The
poor fellow never finished his game, for an unlucky bullet put
it all out his head in a moment, in its swift 'check to the king.'

Of much older date than these incidents are some tradition-
ary stories the Malagasy preserve about one Andriant6mpoko-
indrindra, who should have succeeded to one of the petty
kingdoms in Imerina, and who lived at Ambohimalaza (a few
miles east of the present Capital) perhaps some two hundred
years ago. He seems to have been great-grandson of the
famous King Andriamasinavalona, who reigned long and
ably over the whole of Imerina, and on whose death the king-
dom of the Hova was split up into several small divisions by
his numerous sons. The father of Andriantompoko was king
over a large part of eastern Imerina, and as this was his eldest
son, he was heir-apparent to his father's kingdom. When the
father began to grow old, the young chief occupied his mind by
devising plans for the better conduct of his kingdom after he
should attain his father's place. Public gatherings, with sing-
ing and dancing round the king, seem to have been very
important parts of state business in those times, and one day,
while watching some of his children, who were playing at his
feet with tsaramaso (beans), and arranging them in straight
lines and cross lines, according to their different colours, the
thought struck him that he ought to have such an arrangement
of the different orders of his subjects when they should be


150 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

gathered to dance around him, on the occasion of his first
appearance among them as king. After consulting with his
wife, and then with his wise men, he elaborated his plan, which
was that of a large square divided into sixteen smaller squares,
with the two intersecting diagonals. On the outer sides
of the large square he proposed to arrange the 'Olo-mainty'
(Black people*); the diagonal lines were to be occupied by the
Hova; the other inner lines were to be occupied by alternate
rows of Hova and andriana (chiefs or noblesj. By and by he
discovered that the Olo-mainty might be aggrieved if they were
arranged exclusively on the outside lines and 'out in the
cold so he devised four small additional diagonal lines, on
which some of that tribe might be ranged, nearer to the King
and the centre of the gathering. This, according to the native
tradition, was the origin of the fanorona ; and the lines above
described correspond exactly with the appearance of the lines
of half the fanorona diagram as it is now used. As he had yet
no opportunity of marshalling his subjects, he spent a good deal
of time in working over these plans for them ; and after a while
he conceived the notion of arranging them also for sham fight,
and the various methods for attack and defence were elaborated
by him with his tsaramaso instead of soldiers. Finding out after
a while that the attacked side, properly defended, would be
always victorious, he doubled the number of squares on his
mimic field, and succeeded in immensely improving the 'scien-
tific' character of the game, and very greatly increasing the
possibilities of careful moves both foi: attack and for defence.

Thus runs the native tradition as to the origin of the fanorona,
and I am rather disposed to believe that the account is substan-
tially true. At first, I thought it mythical, and was inclined to
suppose that the game must have been introduced into Mada=
gascar by the Arabs. It will be seen at a glance that the 32
squares of the fanorona are precisely similar to those on the
half of an ordinary folding draught-board or chess-board. The
moving and capturing power of the pieces is not unlike that of
the draughtsmen; every piece is of identical power and value,
just as in draughts ; and the number of pieces employed on each
side in the earlier and simpler form of the fanorona was just
twelve, the same as employed on each side in draughts. Now,
if I do not mistake, the game of draughts was introduced into
England or Scotland from Egypt, two or three centuries ago.
It seemed therefore possible enough that the Malagasy fanorona
was originally a variety of the draughts game; that both games

* Still a recognized division of the inhabitants of Imarina. They are descendants of dark and
non-Hova tribes captured in former wars, but are now free people.—Eds,


151 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

were invented by the Egyptians or Arabs; and that, just as
English sailors or travellers carried the one game to Britain,
the Arab sailors and traders may have brought the other game
to Madagascar. Now, however, after considering the apparent-
ly unvarying character of the native tradition as to its local
origin, and the undoubted facts that the fanorona lines have
been repeatedly used in arranging the various clans and orders
of the people around the sovereign on the great festival days at
Imahamasina—these and some other circumstances dispose me
to believe that the game is of Malagasy origin, and probably
arose in some such way as stated in the traditionary account
which I have roughly given above.

Before proceeding to describe particularly the method of
playing the fanorona, there is another little story about Andrian-
tompokoindrindra which is too good to be left untold. The King
his father, who reigned, I believe, at Ambohidrabiby, happened
to be at war with some of his neighbours, who made a raid on
his territory and were marching up against him in his capital.
Messengers were sent out hastily to his sons, who had been
placed in charge of various towns round about, that they must
come at once with their soldiers to meet the approaching
enemy. As soon as the younger sons heard, they arose at once
and went to the father's help. But when the messenger came
to Ambohimalaza, Andriantompoko was engrossed with a
difficult position in his favourite game, the fanorona ; and the
answer he returned to his father's message was: "Yes, but I
will finish this game of three against five first." The messenger
returned with the answer he had got, and after a long delay
Andriantompoko arrived with his forces. But he was too late,
for the enemy had been routed already. And the tough old
King his father, along with the elders of the people, resolved
that day that neither Andriantompoko nor any of his descen-
dants should ever be allowed to reign, seeing that he had flung
away the kingdom for his "three against five." Curiously
enough, the descendants of this man, the Zanatompo, still reside
at Ambohimalaza, and their family is still known by the name
of Andriantompokoindrindra. And the circumstances of their
ancestor's disgrace are said to be preserved in the current
proverb: "Three against five, and toss away the kingdom"

Telo no ho dimy mahavery fanjakana"). How "history repeats
itself" !

The fanorona board is a rectangular parallelogram, divided
into 31 equal squares. Gather these, in your eye, into eight
larger squares, containing four each; draw the diagonal lines
in each of the eight, and the fanorona figure is complete. Forty-


152 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

four movable pieces are required for the game— twenty-two on
each side. With the Malagasy these are usually little pebbles
and potsherds, or beans and berries. We, however, will call
them the Black and the White pieces. The two players sit op-
posite each other, having the long sides of t\ie fanorona adjacent
to them. The pieces are then arranged on the corners or
angle-points, not on the squares, as in chess or draughts.
There are five of these long lines on the board, each containing,
of course, nine angle-points, and the pieces are thus arranged :—

Black : First Line I.... 9

Second ,, 1....9

White: Fourth „ 1....9

Fifth „ 1 ...9

The third, or central line, is occupied by the eight remaining
pieces, placed alternately thus :—

Black 1,3,6,8
White 2,4,7,9

One point remains unoccupied, the central angle-point of the
board, the fifth of the third line. This represents the royal
seat in the public gatherings, but in the fanorona game it is
called the foibeny ('navel').

The object aimed at by each of the players is, as in draughts,
to remove the whole of the adversary's pieces from the board.
But much caution is required, for we shall see that a few pieces
well posted may easily annihilate more than four times their
number in weaker situations ; and, as in real warfare, even the
very numbers of a force may sometimes prove their ruin. A
few examples here will show the various ways in which the
game may be opened, and the manner in which the pieces are
moved and the adverse pieces captured. Let us suppose that the
pieces are all placed, as just described above (see diagram 1).
For convenience of description let the five lines on which the
pieces are posted be called respectively A, B, C, D, E, instead
of first line, second line, third line, etc. Any one of these
letters then, with a numeral appended, will be an easy refer-
ence to the piece that is to be removed, or to a hostile piece
that has to be captured and removed from the board. Then
remember: —

First, that a piece may be moved in any direction—forward,
backward, sideways, or diagonally, to the first station in that
direction, if such station be vacant.

Second. If there be now no other vacant station between
the attacking piece just moved and the enemy's piece along1
that line, these, whatever their number, are captured at once,
as far as they stand in unbroken order on the line attacked.


153 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

If, however, a vacant position occurs in their line, or another
hostile piece is among them, then only the piece or pieces near-
est the assailant are captured.

Thirdly. The pieces of the enemy may be captured by a
retreat as well as by an advance. A piece that has been stand-
ing in an adjoining station to some piece or pieces of the enemy
may capture it or them by retreating one point along that line,
if such point happens to be vacant. The limitation defined im-
mediately above applies in this case also.

Fourthly. At the beginning of a game one move only is
permitted to the first side. After that side has moved once, any
piece that is moved is permitted to run amuck in the enemy's
lines, and to go on as long as he finds foes to capture, provided
(a) that he does not return immediately to any point he has
just left, and (b) that he does not take a foe behind him imme-
diately after taking one in front of him, nor one on his right
hand immediately after taking on his left hand, and vice versa.
"Dont eat at both ends, like a leech," says the Malagasy
proverb.

Let us suppose that White is going to move first at the com-
mencement of a game. There is only one vacant point on the
board into which he can move a piece, namely the foibeny or
central point, which we may term C 5, as it is the fifth point of
the third line. There are four white pieces, of which any one
may be moved into the vacant post, those on C 4, D 4, D 5, D 6.
If he advances D5 to C5, then he immediately captures Black's
pieces on B 5 and A 5. Black may now retaliate by withdraw-
ing his piece on B 6 to A 5, thereby capturing White's pieces
on C 7, D 8, E 9. White may now, in any one of several ways,
inflict a series of severe strokes on the unfortunate Black. Thus,
for example,

D 6 to C 7, taking B 8, A 9 ; then
„ B 6, „ A 5 ;
„ B 5, „ B4> B3, B2, B 1.

Now the White piece must stop awhile, for, although the
Black piece at B 7 is under his range, yet in taking it he would
be. transgressing the two laws mentioned above. He would
have to return to B 6, which he has just quitted, and he would
be "eating at both ends, like a leech," which is improper. But
the black piece on B 7 may now very properly provide for
his own safety and circumvent his assailant by advancing
thus:—

B 7 to C 7, taking D 7, E 7 ; then
„ D6, „ E s ; then
„ Ds, „ D4, D3, r>2, Di ; then
it e Si i> C 5, B 5,


154 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

These moves are not given as examples of what the Malagasy
would consider good play, but simply to show the modus ope-
randi of the game.

The game subjoined may be considered an average specimen
of native skill.

FANORONA GAME.

i.

2.

White.
D s to C 5 takes B 5, A 5.

I:

9-

10.

11.

12.
13-
14.

15-
16.
17-

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.
23-
24.
25-

26.

27.

28.
29.

E 8 „ D 8

3- D7

4. c4

c 6

Cs
b4
B7
d9

b 6
d 8
d7

r9
C4

b 8

d 6
b 6
C5

D 7
C7
C 6
C7
B 8
C 8
C9
C 8
C9

C7
b 8
b 7
C5
d 6
C 7
b 6
C 6
C5-
b4.
c4
b 6.
d 8.
AS-
D7.
d 6.
b 8.
C3

C7.
b 6.
D7.

Cs
b4
c4
c7.

C 6.

c7.

b 8.
C 8.
C9.
C 8.
Cg.
D9.

C 8, B 8, A 8.

B7. A7;

a9;

B 9-
C3;

b4, a3 ;

E5;
as;

a 6.

1.

2.

b 6
C 6

Black.
to A s takes C 7, D 8, E 9.

A 4.

c 2.

d4.

A3-
A 4.

3- E6

b 6
C7
D 6
DS
E 5
E 6
E5

5-
6.

7'
8.

9-

10.

11.

12.
i3-

14.
&

i7-

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23-

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

d 2
b 2
C 1
E 2
A 2
b 2
A 1
d 2
Ci
B3

E3
A 2
D3
b 2
b 1
E4
C I
C 2

C3

b4

C5
d4
Cs

d 6
b 6

C 1 „ d 2.

D 6, E 6.
D 8 ;
E5 ;

D4id3,d2,di;
CS;

e4, e3, e2, Ei.
E7.

E 2 C 2.
C 1.
D2.
E 3-
b 2.
C 1.
A 2.
â– D 3-
c 2.
A 2

E4.
b 2.
D4.
A 3-
C 1.

C 2.
C3-
b4.
C 5-
b 6.
C5-
D 6.
C 6.

C 7 and wins.

C3;
As-

C 4-

If the game happens to terminate in a 'draw,' which is fre-
quently the case, then the combat may be recommenced on the
same terms, the other side now taking the first move. Should


155 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

one of the players have been defeated, however, he is not
allowed to play on the same footing as before, for the game
must be altered in a kind of mocking condescension to his
weakness. The new form of the game is called the Vela ; the
one who has conquered is the mpamftihlnam-bela (he who allows
to graze at large); the defeated is homam-bela (a poor sheep
not to be molested for a while in his pasture ground). The
vela game is opened by the victor, who puts forward such of
his pieces as he chooses to surrender to his antagonist. These
pieces may only be taken singly, and the generous conqueror
refrains from taking any of his enemy's pieces, until he has
parted with, one by one, 17 of his own pieces ; then, with the
remaining five, he begins his campaign against the undiminish-
ed forces of his antagonist. If he be a skilful player, however,
he has managed meanwhile to occupy the fortress positions of
the game ; and the hosts of the enemy are probably scattered
in such situations that he will come down on them "like a wolf
on the fold." If the homam-bela is again defeated, he is only
allowed to play the vela form of the game until he has redeemed
himself by a victory. Or he may choose to humiliate himselt
by openly confessing his inferiority, though, as one of my in-
formants says, "few of the Malagasy are willing to do that."
In ancient times grace was accorded to the beaten combatant on
condition of his kneeling down before his conqueror and bleating
like a sheep (mibarareoka), in confession of his weakness.

Here is a specimen of the vela game, including the prelimin-
ary sacrificial moves by which Black gives up, one by one,
the fated 17 pieces. Then the time of reprisals comes, and the
five survivors take the field and will give and take no quarter.

VELA GAME.

White.

Black.

1. C 4 to C 5 takes C 6.

2. C5 ,, C 6 „ C4.

3. D4 „ Cs „ B 6.

4. Cs „ B4 „ A3.

5. D5 „ C5 „ B5.

6. E5 „ D4 „ C3.

7. C 2 ,, C 3 ,, C 1.

8. D 2 „ C 2 ,, B 2.

9. B4 „ Bs „ B3.

10. C3 „ B3 „ A3*

11. D4 ,, C3 „ B 2.

12. C 2 ,, B 2 ,, A 2.

13. Bs „ B4 „ B 6.

14. B4 „ B5 „ B 6.

15. B5 „ B4 B 6.

1. C 3 to C 4.

2. B7 „ C3.

3. Ay „ B6.

4. A 8 „ A 7.

5. A 2 ,, A3.

6. A 9 „ A 8,

7. A3 „ A 2.

8. B 1 ,, B 2.

10.

11.

12.

13-
14.
15-

9. A4 „ A3.

0. A 2 „ A3.

1. A3 ,, A 2.

2. A8 ,, A9.
3- A 5 „ B6.
4. A 7 „ B6.
5- B7 „ B6.

9-


156 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.*

White.
'" to B s takes B 6.
„ B6 „ a 6.

17. Now begins Black's attack.

16. a 9 to A 8.

Black.

B 8 to A 7 takes C g ;

18. d9 „ c9 b 2.

c 8 „ B8

,, JJ o ,, JJ O,

„ C7 „ D6;

nft Eg;
.. C 9;

» CS;

,. E6.

19. B 6 „ A 6 „ C 6.

20. A6 „ A7 ,, A8.

. B7 „ Bb " Bs'.
.. B 6 „ C5 „ A 7 ;

,, C4 ,, C3 :

„ D4 „ E4;

» C3 „ B 2 ;

„ D 2 „ E 1 ;

,, C 1 „ E3 ;

„ B 1 „ D 1 ;

» B 2 „ B3.

21. d3 „ c3.

22. C3 „ D4 ,, B 2*

23. E 2 ,, D 2.

11

21. A i-,, A 2.

22. A 2 „ A 3.

23. A 3 „ B3.

24. D 2 ,, C 1 and wins.

I would just say, in conclusion, that although the fanorona is
still very popular with the people, and their interest in the
game not at all likely to decay, yet probably it will not in
future years be so largely practised as it is now. Life is grow-
ing every year more serious for the Malagasy. The felt neces-
sities for education are filling up more and more the lives of the
young people. Competitions are becoming more eager, and
the burdens of responsibilities are being felt more weighty,
both in the State and in the churches and in the market-places.
The fanorona will do no harm to the busy and to the sensible,
while the idler and the fool may be at times detained by it from
worse employments. Occasionally, I suppose, a few young
fellows are foolish enough to gamble over it; and, just as with
chess and draught players in England, a few here and there
may be tempted by it to forget their proper business. The
Malagasy say that in old times their ancestors employed the
fanorona as a means of begetting and extending friendly feel-
ings among their neighbours ; and I have no shrewder words
to say of it than those said to me by a clever young native, to
whom I am indebted for much of the information in this paper :
"We cannot call it a good sport, and we cannot call it a bad
one; but it may be either good or evil according to the charac-
ter and circumstances of those who engage in it."

W. Montgomery,


1 . j*2 3

6*7 8 9

No, I.-THE FAN0R0N4 BOARD.

Tke.LebUi's audi Figwts lwel will be a. hty to the, descriptions.
ju/en ux, the- cu-ticU.

BLACK

WHITE

No.2.-FANORONA BOARD WITH PIECES,

as arranged ctt conv-riuic&nmJ; of Gam,i,



THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL.

MALAGASY ROOTS:

THEIR CLASSIFICATION AND MUTUAL RELATIONS.

I WISH in the following paper to write of Malagasy roots with more
fulness than, so far as I am aware, they have yet been treated. In
doing so it will be necessary to repeat some facts with which all who
know Malagasy are perfectly familiar; but this repetition will I hope be
excused for the sake of the greater clearness we shall gain from taking a
complete and comprehensive view of the phenomena presented.

The Malagasy being an agglutinative language, the root has more
importance than in languages of other classes, and is more prominently
thrust upon our notice. Thus such a root as solo (substitute) is clearly seen
in a vast number of derivatives, e.g. misblo, misolba, isolbana,fisoloana, mam-
pisilo, ampisoloina, mifampisolo, ifampisoloana, etc., etc. At the same time
the Malagasy language has a greater tendency to obscure the root than
some other members of the same class ; and indeed often almost entirely
hides it in the midst of lengthy prefixes and affixes ; e.g. in the word
ifandavana, from the root la, the a alone remains unchanged, the I of the
root having become d; in ampanohofy, only oho of the root hihoka
remains unchanged, the first h having disappeared on the assumption of
the prefix man (manihoka), and the k of the final syllable having become
f; in dmpifamohina again, only the o remains unchanged : the m,
however, suggests to one familiar with Malagasy forms one of the labials,
and the h in hina also suggests the terminal ka, and so we are soon led
to pbka, the root of the word. Similarly, on appending the pronominal
suffixes, the Malagasy in certain cases cut off the final syllable, e.g. mpia-
natra becomes mpianany, mpianatsika, etc. The Malay does not, I
think, allow such a contraction as this, but appends the suffix to the
unchanged word.

I will not, however, occupy time in showing how roots may be
detected, as a little familiarity with the derivative forms soon enables one
to pick out the roots of all ordinary words ; but will confine myself to the
roots themselves, and as a first step it is desirable we should bear in mind
the three main classes into which the great majority of roots may be
arranged.

Class I. Monosyllables. These are rare : if we exclude conjunctions,
interjections, etc., there do not seem to be more than twelve or thirteen,
and as they are so few I will give all I have noticed:—

(i) be, much, many (Malay besar; Jav. kabe). The J of the Malay
form appears in Malagasy as z in habiazina, etc., and as ts in betsaka,
much.

(z) da, renown. With this compare zo, which is perhaps only another
form of the same word.

(3) fe, thigh (Malay pah ; Polyn. vce).

(4) fy, delicious.

(5) f°> the heart.

(6) la, to refuse (Swa. la, no, from the Arabic (?).


158

MALAGASY ROOTS.

(7) lo, rotten.

(8) ra, blood (Malay darah ; Jav. rah).

(9) re, violence, as of the waves; another form is ria (Kawi ro, violence).

(10) re, heard; this, however, seems to have been shortened from
reny (tsy reniko=tsy reko is still occasionally heard, and the n appears in
the derivatives, e.g. mandrenisa, andrenhana).

(11) to, accomplished, fulfilled (Kawi to, just, true, genuine); the
Swahili derivation given in the Dictionary is unnecessary.

(12) tsy, steel.

(13) zo, renown (Swa. zuri?). Comp. da.

Among the above, which from their simplicity one would expect to
belong to the primitive stock of the language, Marre-de Marin (Gram,
p. 14) notes that to,fe, ra, re are Malayan ; to his list we may add be; and
perhaps the remaining words da, zo,fy,fo, lo, re (heard), may also with
fuller knowledge be hereafter indentified.

Class II. Dissyllables ending in 0, y, or firm a. By 'firm a' is meant
an a not belonging to one of the weak terminals (see Dictionary, p. xxxii.
note). Roots of this class are very common ; e.g. rano, water; ilo, um-
brella ; azo, got; fidy, choice; didy, cutting ; /any, earth, land; voha,
opened ; sola, bald. They are all accented on the first syllable.

Class III. Dissyllables and trisyllables ending in the weak terminals ka,
tra, na. These too are accented on the first syllable, and no root not
of this class can be accented on the antepenult. This class is very
large, and examples will be found in abundance in the Dictionary; the
following will serve as samples : tampoka, suddenly ; kipaka, pushed off;
fatratra, earnestly, thoroughly; henatra, shame ; ninina, regret; hazona,
held ; f&tra, measured (as grain); p6ka, knocked against; dona, same
as the last.

Into the above classes almost all primary roots fall. Some apparent
exceptions are words borrowed from other languages ; e.g. kafe (Fr. cafe),
coffee ; karama, wages (Swa. gharama) ; mizana, scales (Arab, mizan) ;
lalana (formerly laloana ; Fr. la loi).

The third class probably contains the largest number of roots in the
language. But although for grammatical purposes they are considered
roots, there are weighty reasons for considering them rather as modified
and enlarged, than as absolutely primitive, roots, and their light terminals
ka, tra, and na as additions to the original word. The reasons for this
opinion are the following : —

(1) The light terminals are often omitted in some of the provincial
dialects. Thus we find nama for namana (companion), laka for lakana
(canoe), fasy for fasika, (sand, e.g. in the tribal name, Taifasy). Even in
Im^rina we find examples of the same thing, as for instance in lasa and
lasana (gone), isa and isaka (each), iray and iraika (one). Occasionally the
shorter form is in use in Imerina and the lengthened one in the provinces;
e.g. Hova hala (spider), pro v. halana ; Hova fohy (short), pro v.fohika.

(2) In certain words these terminals are interchanged ; e.g fasika and
fasina, sand (the existence of the form fasina is shown by the proper
names Ampasimbe, Ampasimpotsy, Pasindava, etc. This is an extremely
instructive example. The Malay form of the word is pasir; the final


159 MALAGASY ROOTS.

r of which disappears in Taifdsy, becomes na in fasina, and ka in the
common form fasika). Other examples are elanllana and elakelaka,
between ; trobaka, tr&baka, trbbatra, trabatra, pierced ; bvana and
bvaka, chips; tarika and taritra (taritina), drawn; lohalika, knee,
is among the B&z&noz&no called lohalitra; aflnana, the lower part
of the arm, is also called afinaka; loatra, too much, is in some
parts pronounced Ibana; hazona, held, appears with a final tra in
the secondary form sangdzotra, caught in a thicket. And so we
might go on adding examples almost ad libitum, but the above are
ample to show the freedom with- which these light terminals may
be interchanged. Usually no change of meaning is caused by the
change of the terminal, but sometimes a slight modification of meaning
is caused; thus pitsitra means to burst (as a boil), but potsika means
crushed, broken ; fahy (mamahy) is to fatten cattle, but fahitra is the
name of the pen in which cattle are kept during the fattening; fatra means
to measure (rice, etc.),fdtratra, shaken down (as rice in a measure).

(3) Many examples are found (as already shown in some of the above
examples) in which the simple roots exist side by side with the lengthen-
ed forms. Thus from via {re), the rush of water (rano maria or mart,
rushing water), we have nana, a waterfall, mikoriana, to flow (as water
over a rock), and riaka, rushing streams of water after a heavy rain. So
too from sbdisody, hovering, we find misidika, to hover; and from rha
(rtrarera), hanging loosely, we have reraka, weak, faint; and from rdzirozy,
weariness, we have r&zika (mirozika), languishing ; from riba, pillage, we
have rdbaka and rombaka, in much the same sense. So too we find olibly,
curling, blikblika, twisting; Ula, tongue, lelaka, to lick (though here the
analogy of languages would lead us to think the k must be an essential
part of the word ; compare for instance Sans, lih, Gr. leicho, Lat. lingo,
Heb. lakak, Germ, lecken, Eng. lick, Irish lighim, etc.).

(4) The light and uncertain character of the tra is shown by the sub-
stitution for it among the B£tsiI&o of tsa ; but at the same time in form-
ing passives, etc., the essential elements of the root are maintained ;
thus, for example, while they say mamaitsa for mamailra (root, faitra,
comp. the name Andriamamaitrartvo), they form the passive in the usual
way, firana (not fetsana, or some similar form).

(5) The fondness of the Malagasy for these light terminals is well
illustrated by the way in which they use them in giving a Malagasy form
to introduced foreign words. Thus the French livre becomes livatra ;
caisse (or Eng. case) becomes khika. Similar changes are made in proper
names ; thus Stueland becomes Tsitialanitra ; Wills, Oilitra ; Fox, Fab-
kitra ; Capsey, Kapitra ; Sims, Simpitra

(6) Very instructive also is a comparison of these Malagasy forms with
the cognate languages. Occasionally the light terminals are found to
represent different final consonants in the Malayan languages. Thus na
may represent a final n, as in anona (so and so)=Malay anun, and ana-
rana (name)=Malay ngaran ; or ng, as in amalona (eel)=Malay malung ;

* One of the latest and strangest of such changes is that by which the word 'resident* (i.e.
the French Resident) is pronounced resi-an-danitra, which, literally translated, would be
'conquered in heaven' I—Eds,


160

MALAGASY ROOTS.

or r, as in lamosina (back)=Malay lamusir; kambana (twins)=Malay
kambar. So too tra may stand for a Malayan t, as infaitra (bitterness)=
Malay pa.it; lomotra (slime, moss, etc.)=Malay lumut; or for p, as in
atrika (facing)=Malay hadap, Javanese adep (of this word we shall have to
say more below); or for s, as in manitra (fragrant)=Malay manis. We
have also seen above that ka may represent a final r, as infasika (sand)=
pasir.*

Sometimes the true root is obscured in the Malagasy root form, but
reappears in the adjunctive derivatives. Thus sokatra does not readily
suggest the true root [sokaf, or sokap), which can only be seen in the deri-
vatives sokafana, sokafy, etc. The Malayan forms akkap, singap, show that
the true root is better preserved in the derivatives than in the grammatical
root sokatra. So too in minona (to drink), the true root of which inom—
Malay minuiri) appears in the passive inomina, etc; and so also in velona
(living), passive veUmina (=Malay belum).

But not only do the primitive roots receive these light terminal syl->
lables, they are also often enlarged in two other ways : (i) by the inser-
tion of an infix ; (2) by the addition of a monosyllabic prefix. Roots thus
enlarged are conveniently named "secondary roots."

The syllables used as infixes are om, on (in), ol, ar, er. They are insert-
ed immediately after the first consonant of the primary root, and cause
no change of accent.

Thus the root Mhy (laughter) becomes homlhy, which may be used as
a participle (laughing), or may become the root of a regular verb, miho-
mehy (to laugh), from which again a whole family of derivatives spring
(mihomehiza, ihomehezana, mampihomihy, etc. etc.). In the same manner
we get lomano (swimming) from la.no ; serentosento (sighing) from sinto ;
karepoka (the sound of anything crushed; from kepoka. So too from bitika
(anything very small) we have biritika, bolitika, and similar forms ; kitika
(with the same meaning) also becomes hijitik.

These infixes have been shown by the Rev. L. Dahle and M. Marre-
de Marin to be a distinguishing feature of Malayo-Polynesian languages,
and hence they have great significance in determining the true position
of the Malagasy language, and would in themselves almost decide the
question. The above-named writers enumerate in and om, which are the
forms of infix most commonly met with ; to these I have added al and
ar (er), as these too are given by the Abb6 Favre in his Malay Grammar,
and are proved to exist in the Malagasy language by the above examples.
I think it highly probable that a careful analysis of roots would lead to
the detection of many more examples, and probably of other syllables
used as infixes. The word lonjehitra (comp. lonjitia) would seem to
suggest an infix eh ; but in the absence of other examples or of Malayan
analogies it would perhaps be rash to insist upon this.

The monosyllabic prefixes used in forming secondary roots are very
numerous (an, ba, be, da, etc.). Like the infixes, they cause no change of
accent, which still remains on the first syllable of the primary root. It

* Occasionally the Malay has a final consonant which is not represented in the Malagasy
form; thus ala (forest) is in Malay alas; fana (hot) —pana^ ; valy (answer) = wtilas ; tasy
(lake) — tasik ; omaly (yesterday) = kumarin.


MALAGASY ROOTS.

161

is not easy to give any general idea of how they modify the meaning of
the primary root. Sometimes they appear to be simply ornamental, and
one is almost tempted to call them "ornamental monosyllabic prefixes."
But as they do often produce a distinct modification of meaning, I have
in the Introduction to the Dictionary given them a name that in-
volves no theory as to their use or meaning, and have called them
(from the first and last examples given in my list) the an-za prefixes. For
examples see Dictionary, p. xviii.

Our analysis of the roots and their various enlargements leads us to
conclude that it may be laid down as a general rule that all primitive
roots were monosyllables, or dissyllables accented on the first syllable.
I do not, however, mean to assert that we can in all instances point out
the primitive root (for many words must still remain unexplained by the
foregoing hypothesis); but as a general working rule to guide us in our
comparison of the elements of the language we may safely follow it, and
may accordingly, in seeking for primary roots, and in instituting compa-
risons with other languages, disregard : i° an unaccented primary syl-
lable (e.g. tam in the word tamUlina (vilina), as this will most probably
prove to be an an-za prefix; 20 an unaccented syllable formed by a
consonant and om, on, il, er, etc., as here we shall probably on close
analysis find we have an infix inserted in the primary root; 30 the weak
terminals ka, tra, na, as these we have seen are frequently additions to,
or modifications of, a primary root.

But even after having eliminated these accretions, we cannot always be
sure that we have before us the true root. Comparison with the cognate
languages has already shown us how a root may be obscured, and I
think it also leads us to look, not so much to the grammatical root, as to
that form which may be regarded as the stem or base of the adjunctive
forms, as in the examples sokatra and atrika already given above. Many
anomalies disappear when, following out this principle, we compare the
stem thus given with Malayo-Polynesian forms. Let us take for example
the root ktky (scraping), from which we obtain the passive kikisana.
Removing the final ana, which in an ordinary passive affix, we get the
stem kikis. Comparing with this the Malayan equivalent (kikis), we
find we have exactly the same form. In former times we were wont to
regard the j in kikisana as a consonant inserted for the sake of euphony ;
and that the Malagasy, like the Malays (Favre's Grammar, § 3), do insert at
least one consonant, viz. h, euphonically in such words as fihaviany (avy),
is not denied ; but this inserted h is but a stronger form of the diasresis,
and in some words where we should be disposed to insert it (e.g. miha-
hosa), the natives who sit on the Bible Revision Committee deny its
existence altogether, and affirm that mihaosa is the correct form. Maha-
rikivy (acid ; root ivy, saliva) has been given as an example of a euphonic
k, as though the word were from mahary (to produce) and ivy (saliva) :
but another explanation is to be found, and one that seems to me much
more probable, viz. that we have simply a combination of mahary (to
produce) and kivy (saliva), kivy being another and fuller form of ivy
(weakened first to hivy, and then, by omission of the aspirate, to ivy), and
one still found in the language of Gilolo. It appears far more reason-
able to seek for the existence of such so-called euphonic consonants in


162 MALAGASY ROOTS.

some form of the word actually used at an earlier stage in the develop-
ment of the language, than to consider them abitrarily inserted ; and it is
not easy to perceive why kikisana should be more euphonious than kikiana,
which would be the regular form.

Of course if such a word as kikisana stood alone, we might not venture
to base a general argument upon it, but it is by no means an isolated
example ; and I proceed to give others tending to show how apparent
anomalies in Malagasy forms disappear, when we compare them with
their Malayan equivalents :—

Amftaly {a shrub or tree (Ficus soroceoides), the leaves of which are
used as a substitute for sand-paper); pass, ampalesina (smoothed
with amfialy leaves). The s in the passive amfialesina does not
appear in the Malagasy root ampaly, but is found in the Malay
ampalas.

Atrika; pass, atrehina (faced). In this word the true root is not
apparent in the Hova form, but is retained in the provincial atrefina,
the stem of which {aire/) is easily seen to be but a slightly modified
form of the Malay hadafi, and the Javanese adep.

Be, betsaka (much, many); pass, habiazina (increased). Here the Ma-
lay form is besar, the s of which appears in betsaka as ts, and in
habiazina as z.

Fia (to grasp); pass. fiazana. The z of the passive is represented by
the s of the Malayan root, which isperes.

Hehy (scraping); pass, hehezina. The Malay is kakas.

Hery (strength); pass, herezina. The Malay is karas.

Inona (drinking); pass, inomina. The Malay is minum. This word
possesses special interest. In the Malay it means simply to drink,
as it still does in the coast dialects of the Malagasy ; whilst among
the Hova is it is used only of drinking the poison ordeal (tangena).

Lefa (set free); imp. alefaso. The s in alefaso is shown in the Malay
form {lepas).

Lelaka (licked up); pass, lelafina. They^of lelafina may be illustrat-
ed by the Dayak jelafi. Which should here be considered the ori-
ginal consonant may be doubtful; compare what has been already
said on p. 159.

Nify, tify\ adj. mariify (thin); prov. pass, tifisina. Malay nifis ;
Javanese tipis.

Saly (roasting); salazana (a gridiron). Malay salayan ; on the use of y
for z, comp. Marre-de Marin, p. 8, note (1).

Tety (to pass across); tetezana (a bridge). Malay titi, titiyan {y for z
as in salazana).

Tsentsitra (sucking); pass. tsents~efina. Malay sasafi ; Batak sosop,
or sesefi.

The above examples are taken from the valuable pamphlet of Van der
Tuuk* (comp. especially pp. 4, 15, 16, 18) ; and considering them as a
whole, we cannot but feel how much more reasonable it is to seek the
explanation of apparent anomalies in the actual history of the language,
than to allow ourselves to be put off with such an explanation as "eu-
phonic changes of consonants," or "euphonic insertion of consonants."
At the same time we must confess that though the above examples
seem to start us on the right road, there still remain many words that

* Published by Triibner (Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc, xi. 1864).


MALAGASY ROOTS. 163

with our present knowledge we cannot well explain ; e.g. the /in hirifina
and the m in tenomina cannot at present be explained by reference to
cognate languages j and we must conclude either (1) that other forms
once existed in the Malayo-Polynesian stock ; or (2) that the Malagasy
may have been led by analogy to use these consonants, even when their
use was not warranted by the original form of the root. Malagasy philology
is still in its infancy, and much light remains to be thrown on obscure
points.

Having now briefly shown the way in which roots may be conveniently
classified, and the ordinary methods in which they are enlarged and
modified, let us proceed to examine some of their less obvious changes,
and the manifold relations they bear to one another, and how they thus
branch out into many directions and form large and widely extended
families or groups, each of which appears to have sprung from some one
fundamental root. Slight modifications arose, sometimes perhaps only
accidentally, sometimes purposely; and often with the slight change of
form arose some modification of meaning, thus gradually increasing the
stock of synonyms, and enriching the language by enabling it to distin-
guish nearly-related ideas. The chief modifications I have noticed may
be thus classified ;—

(1) The use or omission of certain consonants at the beginning. The
commonest illustrations of this occur in the use or omission of the
aspirate. From the analogy of other languages one would naturally
anticipate in a language So little cultivated as the Malagasy some uncer-
tainty as to the use of the aspirate. And observation entirely agrees
with such anticipation, as may be seen by consulting the Dictionary
under the following words: aloalo and halo, alobbtra and halobotra, anjaka
and hanjaka, atafa and hatafana, ila and Mia (compare too hilana and
tongilana). Under this head may also be compared ebakebaka, interme-
diate space, and habakabaka, the firmanent or expanse ; also hazaka or
hazakazaka, running, and ezaka, running, or exertion generally. Possibly
also a similar relation exists between azo, got, obtained, and hdzona,
held, and between Mny, sufficient for, Mnika, full, and enina, fully
supplied with.

In a similar way we find other consonants used or disused, and some-
times causing a slight modification of meaning ; e.g. omba and bimba, to
cover, ongotra and fongotra, plucked up, ampatra and lampatra, stretched
at full length, indaka and sendaka, peeled off, pulled off; so too atitra,
carried, and tatitra, carried away gradually in small portions. In the
provinces we find \lo used for tsilo, a torch ; and etra, a hem, with which
compare the Hova zaitra, sewing.

(2) Interchange of consonants, (a) The labials {p,f, b, v). Examples of
interchange of labials are very common ; e.g. paoka, to swoop down on
any thing, to carry off, and faoka, to wipe off; so too lefitra and lepika,
folded ; compare too the words reba and refarefa. Again we have Vila and
bila, crookedness; havana and (prov.) haba, a relation ; vetivety, vetivltika,
a short time, and bitika, small ; bory and vory, round ; bolana and volana,
speech ; boraka and voraka, unbound,, loosened ; boaka and voaka, to go
out; and many others which may easily be found in the Dictionary.

(b) The gutturals {h, k, g,ng). Thus we find sahana and sakana, to


164 MALAGASY ROOTS.

place across, to prevent; gaika, to call, and haika, to challenge ; girika,
a point or dot, and hirika, a small hole ; hoho and angogo (prov.) nails ;
fihina, fihitra, and fikitra, to grasp ; kosina, h&sina and hasina, twined;
hehy and hohy, to scratch, and kiky to scrape, gnaw; hihy, laughter, and
Hkikiky, giggling; fongatra and fdkatra, appearing, as a rat from its hole.

(c) Other letters, d and l. The interchange between these is extremely
common, and in certain districts, especially on the West Coast, almost
constant; thus vady, partner, becomes valy ; vadika, to overturn, be»
comes valika. In this, as in some other peculiarities, the provincial form
is nearer the Malayan than is its Hova equivalent; thus the Malay for
vadika is balik, or membalik. Many examples of the interchange of I and
d occur also in the Hova;. thus both dangadanga and langalanga are
used to signify 'tall,' and dingidingy and Hngilingy 'height.'

d and t. As illustrations of the interchange of these letters we have
dbhaka and tihaka, a loud noise, as the report of a gun ; deza and teza,
to be erect; ddboka and taboka, to fall, be thrown down.

l and r. These letters are often interchanged, as in tambolo and tam-
bbro (prov.), name of an herb ; madilo and madiro, the tamarind tree;
raikitra and Utaha (prov.), sticking to (here again the provincial form is
nearer to the Malayan, which is lekat) ; ringiringy and lingilingy, height j
rdha, if, is in some parts pronounced laha ; and to this head may perhaps
be referred the provincial roso, gone, the Hova form of which is lasa.
Roso, however, is also a common Hova word, meaning to go forward,
make progress.

s and t. This is an interchange found in other languages, as for
instance in Hebrew and Chaldee, the Hebrew sh becoming t in Chaldee,
as Heb. shor, an ox, Chal. tor; which word Mr. Dahle has shown* to exist
in Malagasy in the name of the month Adaoro, which takes its name
from the constellation Taurus. The examples in Malagasy of this
interchange of j and t are not very common ; but I have noticed tokana
and sokana, single, alone ; tebiteby, agitation, fear, and sebiseby, confusion,
trouble.

f and ts. This, like the interchange of I and d, occurs constantly,
the Hovas preferring the ts sound, and the provincials the t; thus the
Hova tsidika, to peep, spy out, is in the provinces tilika, with which may
also be compared tily, a watchman. Alatsinainy, Monday, becomes Ti-
nainy; fotsy, white, is on the West Coast foty (Malay putih, another
example of what has been noted above); so too we find tsihy, a mat,
prov. tihy, Malay tikar\ tsinjo, gazed at from a distance, prov. tinjo,
Malay tinjow.

r and tr. These are interchanged in the roots ranga and tranga, to
come into view ; riatra and triatra, torn.

. The above changes occur between consonants recognised as posses-
sing well-established affinities ; but interchanges often occur between
those which are not according to our notions so closely related, as for
example between:—

k and p, in takelaka and tapelaka, anything flat and wide.
K and f, as in kositra and fositra, a kind of insect.

* ANNUAL I. (.Refrint), p. 207.


MALAGASY ROOTS.

165

H and T, as in haino and taino, to listen, attend.

K and T, as in korontana and koronkana, confused.

K and tr, as in olon-M/a and olon-trafa, another person.

p and T, as in karepoka and karetoka, the sound of anything crushed.

j and D, as in jejajeja and dedadeda, blazing, flaming.

j and R, as in jabajaba and rabaraba, groping in the dark (comp. repa-
repa, rciparapa).

j and ts, as injoboka and tsoboka, to be plunged into water (comp. roboka).
This last, however, may be resolved into a simple interchange of
dentals {d and t), as j=dz.

(3) Interchange of vowels. Equal liberty is taken with vowels as with
consonants, the change being sometimes accompanied by a slight
modification of meaning. Thus we find onina, onona, anina, comforted,
assuaged, though anina is more frequently used of the cessation of
passion or violent grief. So too with entana (entanentana), to start up-
ward, and ontana, to be startled (miontana iray Many ny foko, used of one
violently startled) ; and again with sokatra, to open, and sokitra, to clear
out, pick out from a hole, to carve or engrave ; and with bbnabona and
bonibony, puffiness, unnatural swelling (comp. bonobbno); and bobaka
swollen, and boboka, saturated. Other examples are dibadiba and dibidiby,
full to excess ; gagagaga, gogogogo, gigigigy, sobbing ; hinaka and tonaka,
to beat (for interchange of h and t see above); laferana, liferana, lefe-
rana, loflrana, the hock ; ofy, ofo, ofaka, peeling off (comp. ovaka, a
chip) ; r6ritra and riritra, to pull; risika and rosoka, to prompt or encou-
rage ; miimdina and maona, to gallop, rush.

(4) Internal strengthening. This occurs frequently with the labials,
and is effected by adding m to an existing v or b. Thus we have lama,
smooth, lamaka, levelled, lemaka, a plain, and lemba, with the same
meaning as lemaka. So too we find avo, abo, and ambo, all meaning
high ; babo and bambo, booty; and so too avela and ambela, permitted ;
avidy, ambidy, amidy, sold, or paid in exchange for something.

It is worthy of remark that though the more correct speakeis are quite
clear in distinguishing the presence or absence of m before b or p, many
of the people seem very careless on this point, and use or omit the m in
the most arbitrary fashion. Perhaps in no single point is there so much
uncertainty among native writers and printers as in the insertion or omis-
sion of this m, or the n similarly used before d, t, g, or k.

And now that we have passed thus briefly in review the various modes
in which roots are enlarged and modified, we see at a glance how large
groups may be formed which have apparently sprung from some one
sound, but which have been enlarged or modified, and so made use of
for the expression of various shades of meaning more or less closely allied.

Let us for example take the sound av {eb and ef being but variations
of the same). From this We get avo, high, avona and evona, pride, afona
and embona, floating (on the surface,, ebo, boasting, efona, hard breathing,
efoka, pride, haughtiness ; whether evoka, avotra, onibotra, plucked up
(brought to the surface, pulled up P), should also be placed here, is
perhaps open to doubt.

We may selcct as another example the sound ang or aing, and at once.
We find a large family springing up around the parent root; e.g. miaiiiga,


166

Malagasy roots.

to rise, to start; tsinga (prov.), to lift oneself up (maninga); tsangana, to
stand up ; angaria appears to have the same meaning, compare the
common phrase tsy nasiany niangana (he left not a single survivor, lit.
not one standing) ; ainginaingina, enginengina, to be placed on high ;
aingitraingitra, engitrengitra, to be restless (as if constantly moving up
and down ?) ; aingiaingy, pride, arrogance ; angitrangitra, angatrangatra,
haughtiness, wanton gaiety; angoango, piled up in a heap ; taingina,
perched on something.

Or take again the word mibibaka, now used among Christians to
express repentance ; and supposing the crude form to be bab, beb, we
get at once mibaboka, mibebaka, to supplicate, to repent, with which it is
quite possible vavaka, prayer, and vambaka (prov.), confession, are con-
nected. It may even be that vava, mouth, offers the key of the whole
group, prayer being regarded as par excellence the service rendered by
the mouth.

Rera is another root of some interest. It is not used in its simple form,
but appears in several secondary roots, which show that slackness is its
primary idea: barera, to droop, drag, hang loose ; borera, worn loose,
then weak, infirm ; garera, feeble, imbecile ; rernka, loosened, weak,
faint; boreraka, loose, untidy.

As a final example* let us take the stem hav (hev, heb, hef), from which
we get havihavy, hevihevy, hevingevina, to be suspended, to oscillate ; so
too Mvaheva, hevihevy, hebiheby, hebikebika, hevitrevitra, he^ahefa, hevikevika,
all with various shades of the same meaning ; so too hembahemba, Mmpa-
himpa, to flutter (as a flag); hfaohevo, to loiter; hifika, ktfika, to wag the
head.

These examples are sufficient to indicate a way of comparing and
classifying roots, which will often prove instructive by throwing new and
unexpected light upon familiar words, and by leading us to the idea that
lay originally at the base of the conception they now embody. I cannot
expect that any large number of the readers of the Annual will be inter-
ested in a paper of this character, but hope it may be a stimulus to the
few who are not content with our present knowledge of. the Malagasy
language, but are always seeking to render that knowledge fuller
and more exact. How much remains to be done, and in how many
departments our knowledge is but fragmentary, we must many of us feel.
But by combined efforts, each one trying to add something to the com-
mon stock, we may do much towards the attainment of fuller and more
exact knowledge. Only by a much wider acquaintance with the dialects
(their vocabulary, and peculiarities of structure and idiom), and by a
well-established collection of words not yet entered in the Dictionary,
and by a large and comprehensive study of families of roots, such as I
have endeavoured to indicate in this paper, can this much-to-be-desired
end be attained ; and as my contribution, I hereby offer this paper to the
readers of the Annual,

William E. Cousins.

* I had noted other examples, but will only suggest them briefly in artote '.--Engoka {enjo)^
baraihvo, farain^o, etc. Bitika, bolltika, boritika, bolitsika. Vx tivity, vetivllika,etc. Tohi-
ha, bohika, bohlhy, bohXha, Dldiira, vadiditra, hodtdina, etc.


THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL.

167

ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR*

[COMMUNICATED by C. Telfair, Esq., President of the Mauritius Nat.
Hist. Soc.]

THE most prominent characteristic of the Malagasy lan-
guage, in reference to poetry, is a total averseness to rhyme.
Whilst it is admitted that the same identical sound is not legiti-
mate rhyme, the extreme paucity of the language in termina-
tions will ever preclude the introduction of rhyming verses. At
least nineteen-twentieths of the whole vocabulary of words
terminate in a or y, and an immense proportion of these in na
and ny:—all other words terminate in e, or 0, or the diphthongs
ay and ao; and even these are exceedingly monotonous in the
consonants of their penultimate and ultimate syllables. The
best couplet I recollect to have heard has the rhyme of hoe and
me, answering exactly to the English words 'way' and 'may,'
and the jingle of such a rhyme has in the Malagasy language
an unnatural and harsh effect. In the genuine native verses
I have not met with any such instance as the one specified, but
have observed that rhyme of every description seems naturally
from the true genius of the language, and intentionally from
the uncouthness of its effect, inadmissible.

So far I have ventured to assert with confidence, and without
any apprehension of future observation disproving my opin-
ions ; but when the question arises, What then constitutes
poetry or versification in Malagasy ? I am conscious that
uncertainty and error may very possibly attach to the opinions
I shall present in reply. Future observation, combined with a
more adequate knowledge of the subject, may disprove my
present opinion, and substantiate what I at present reject
as destitute of proof. I make these remarks as introductory to
the opinion that quantity (except so far as quantity and the

* I am indebted for this paper to the kindness of my friend Dr. R. Rost, Ph.D., Librarian
to the India Office. Dr. Rost discovered it in. the first volume of the Journal of the Bengal
Asiatic Society, for 1832, and kindly cut out the leaves containing it from his copy in order
that it might be reprinted in the ANNUAL, thinking, very truly, that it would be of interest
to many. Mr. Baker, as will be remembered by some readers, was Superintendent of the
Press of the London Missionary Society in Antananarivo during the early mission of that
Society in Madagascar (Oct. 1828—June 1832, and July 1834-July 1836), and was, together
With the Rev. D. Johns, the last English missionary to leave the island before the outbreak of
persecution. Mr. Baker died only last }^car (see Annual No. IX., p. 121); but this paper
was written by him during his first visit to England, more than 54 years ago. We have
reprinted it exactly as given in the original, with the old-fashioned style of writing Malagasy,
only correcting some obvious errors in spelling and punctuation, as well as that of calling
Rabddonandrianainpoina 'Prince,' instead of 'Princess,' as it should of course be given.
It will be known to many that this was the name by which Queen Ranavalona I, was gene-
rally designated in public proceedings,—Ed, (J.S.)


168

ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

number of syllables and accents may be regarded as necessarily
synonymous) furnishes no rule for measuring Malagasy verses.
No examples have come to my knowledge of lines having a
credible claim to correctness, in which two apparently short
syllables of one line are put to correspond with one long syl -
lable of an equivalent line ; but, where the number of syllables
in a line exceeds those of a corresponding line, the metre is
preserved by cutting off some syllables, and thence gliding
two into one reading ; and by lengthening the half syllables of
verbal terminations into perfect syllables.

Every word in the language is strongly marked by one accent
or more, corresponding in this respect with English. But in
English it is observable that the accent, falling on the vowel,
leaves the syllable short. I do not observe any similar distinc-
tion in Malagasy, excepting that there are a few words termi-
nating in e long, and thence carrying the accent. Probably in
Malagasy the accented syllable is universally long, and the
long syllable universally accented.

Granting the Malagasy verses to be divisible into feet and
capable of being scanned, there is perhaps no instance to be
found of a line corresponding with a line in Latin. In Latin,
the number of syllables varies, and the last is deemed long;
the reverse of these two cases is the fact with regard to Mala-
gasy. Moreover the feet constituting a line seem to have no
correspondence with the purest metres in Latin. Thus the
most harmonious lines in Malagasy coincide syllable for syllable
and accent for accent with the following :

"Tsy hftanao va ny mity Dost thou not see the dead

Maraina tsy mba mamfndro,'' Morning not warm at the fireside,

consisting of an amphibrach, trochee, and amphibrach. These
the natives regard as the most harmonious lines; yet there are
in the same ode lines quite different in respect to the situation
of the accented syllables ; as in the following couplet:

'/Tsy mahalala havan ko tonga Not knowing what kindred shall come
Aiza ny olona ir^ny," Where are people as these ?

lines which, notwithstanding their diversity, do not appear
essentially destitute of harmony.

These lines have more similarity to English, so far is that d
certain uniformity of syllable and accent is essential in both
languages ; and the harmony of the Verse arises from the ac-
centuation and the caesura. The latter seems plainly discernible
in Malagasy, as in this line ;

"V&vahidy hidfrana—mlsy hiiny"
(A door of entrance—that there is),


ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

Yet the verses are unlike to English in respect to their being
destitute of rhyme, unaccented on the last syllable of a line, and
scarcely if ever permitting one line to run on in a continuous
sense into another.

The characters peculiarly essential to Malagasy versification
seem to be chiefly the following: (ij Harmony of syllables
and accentuation; a deviation from which rule produces a
precisely similar harsh discordant effect on the ear as in Eng-
lish. (2) The expression must be diversified, and the words
transposed, as in other languages. (3) Every line must be in
some degree an independent sentiment, or at least a clause
of a sentence, bearing a natural division in the sense, and
thence a pause of the voice in reading or singing. Hence the
sense is often strikingly abrupt and laconic, as will be seen in
the examples of literal translation.

The language abounds much in polysyllables; there are
exceedingly few monosyllables, and perhaps the greatest pro-
portion of the words are of five syllables. Hence a line of eight
syllables generally contains from two to five words, and a line
of twelve is frequently comprised in four words. On this account
a sentiment is rarely attempted to be set off with superfluous
ornaments of language, but stands entirely on the merit of the
figure under which it is conveyed. Of poetical adjectives, so
often highly convenient in English for filling up the metre or
adorning a graceless noun, scarcely an instance occurs in an
entire song. Yet the language, thought, and style of the poetry
is quite of a different cast from prose. Abounding in the bold-
est figures, and the sense left to connect itself by the chain of
thought, it commends itself to the mind as the rude and un-
polished offspring of poetical genius.

It is evident that in a language so exceedingly different from
English, combined with a state of society equally different, it is
impossible, on the one hand, to give an intelligible literal trans-
lation, leaving the reader's imagination to fill up the images ;
and, on the other hand, it is difficult to give a vivid imitation of
the'original. For myself, I pretend not to any talent in poetical
composition, and am induced to make the attempt merely by
the novelty of the subject, until some more able pen shall dis-
play in language more worthy of its subject the gleanings of
orally preserved versification to be found in Madagascar. In
the mean time, I have only to plead for all deficiencies, that I
am not setting forth myself as an author, but only as a trans^
later, and that from a language wherein nothing can be looked
fof rising above mediocrity in the estimation of cultivated minds.
I shall be abundantly requited for my trouble, should these


ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

contributions tend in any measure towards evincing that the
native inhabitants of Madagascar, degraded as they actually
appear, especially when contrasted with the enlightened popu-
lation of civilized Europe, are nevertheless not destitute of
natural genius, nor by any means insensible to the finer feelings
and passions of human nature.

I ought not to conclude without observing, that there is a
kind of composition very prevalent in the language which is
neither perfect prose nor poetry, but seems to form a connecting
link between the two, being both in sentiment and expression
more pithy, figurative, and smart than the former, and yet
destitute of the metre, cadence, etc. of the latter. These pieces
may be called poetical prose. A prose translation of such
fugitive examples as have fallen into my hands would be dull
and unstriking, and a literal rhyming translation impossible ; so
I have chosen, in the accompanying example "On Courtship," a
translation pretty free in expression, but I believe perfectly
correct, though somewhat paraphrased, in thought.*

It appears, as far as I have discovered, that all compositions
in Malagasy, of a poetical turn of thought, are written in this
style, except songs; the latter being the only compositions I
have yet met with evidently written in regular metre.

The following, as well as several succeeding songs, are by a
man called Razafil&hy, who, happening to be a cripple and
unable to work, turned his attention to song-making, by which
it is said he obtains a tolerable livelihood. He is a stoutish
man, rides out on the back of a male slave, and has as buxom
and merry looking a face as any to be seen in Madagascar.!

Note.

[While giving Mr. Baker's interesting paper unaltered, it may perhaps
be well to remark that later acquaintance with the capabilities of the
Malagasy language has not altogether borne out his opinion, in the first
paragraph of the article, that rhymed Verse is impracticable in Malagasy,
still less that rhythmical verse is so. The subject is, however, more fully
treated in the article on "Malagasy Hymnology," a few pages further on in
this number. See also Mr. Richardson's article on "Malagasy 'Tonon-
kira' and Hymnology" in Annual No. II., pp. 23— 35. Many specimens
of native songs are given in Mr. Dahle's Specimens of Malagasy Folk-
lore and in the Publications of the Malagasy Folk-lore Society, and transla-
tions of many are given in the Folk-lore Record, vol. i., i883.—Ed. (j.s.)]

* We are inclined to differ in opinion with our alithor on this subject, and to think that a
mere literal translation, with explanatory notes, would have better illustrated the peculiarities
of thought and idiom in the Malagasy language, than even the best versified imitation.—Ed.
[JtjUR. Beng. Asiat. Soc.]

f As more convenient for the generality of our readers, whom we may safelv presume to be.
unacquainted with the Malagasy language, we have arranged the original text at the foot of
the page, leaving the English version uninterrupted,—Ed. [J.B,A.S.j


ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

I .—Literal translation of an Ode in praise of the Princess Rabodo.
By Razafilaby.

The corners of the houses guns.
Endrehinantsi'va is his portioned land,
Endrehinantsiva his house ;
Possessing much, yet not haughty.
Orphans shall then be plump,
Their mother living, they are well fed.
Yonder is the defence of rock,
Yonder the clothing ofwood, [men.
A fence of spears, yea, second fence of
Long live Rabodonandrianampoina,
A single tree in a lake ;
It is not "How many reign ?"
For there is our only sovereign.

Long, long, may live
Rab6donandrianamp6ina.
To the south of Ambatondrafandana,*
To the north of Ambahimitsfmbina,*
To the west of Ambohimiandra,*
To the east of Amb6hijinahary ;*
The new moon shining in the west,
The full moon rising in the east.
Long live Rab<5do,
Yea Ramb6asalima,
And Rakdtoseh6no of Radama,
And his relations all,
Innumerable they ; [lars,

The portions of land shall then be dol-

The following is the translation of another Ode by the same
author:—

II.—The Great River.

Yonder Ambaniala'sf streams go forth,
Amb6hidrap6tot to the north extends,
To the northward also Ambahitrimanj£ika ;f
jGuide well thy winding course,
Nor kill the people's sons with heedless might.
Too full, thou'rt like an ill cut cloak,
Smothering the head it should set off;
Dried up, thou'rt like an insufficient dress,
Leaving the breast and arms naked.

I.—Ode in praise of Princess Rabodo.

Hono re ny veloma
Rabodonandrianampoina :
Atsimo n' Ambatondrafandana,
Avaratiy ny Ambohimitsimbina,
Andrefana Ambohimiandra,
Atsinanana Ambohijanahary ;
Volana tsinana ny avy andrefana,
Feno manana ny avy atsinanana.
Veloma Rabodo,
Sy Ramboasalama,
Sy Rakotosehenon-dRadama,
Sy ny havany tontolo,
Tsy tambo isaina;
Ny tokotany dia farantsa,

Indro ny rano Ambanialaj
Avaratr' Ambohidrapeto,
Avaratr' Ambohitrimanjaka;
Mahaiza rnandelia,

Ny zoro n'trano dia basy.
Endrehinantsiva ny tokotany ny,
Endrehinantsiva ny trano ny j
Manambe tsy 'mba miavona,
Kamboty dia dongadonga,
Velon' dreny dia botrabotra.
Ao ny miaketso vato,
Ao ny miakanjo hazo,
Rova lefona, ka temitr' olona indray,
Veloma Rabodonandrianampoina,
Hazo tokana an-ony ;
Tgy firy no mandidy,
Ka tompo nay any ao.

II,—Anonibe.

Mahaiza mizotra,
Aza mamono zana' bahoakai
Tondraka, toa misaron' doha ;
Ritra, toa manao sikimbalaka;

* These are names of different parts of the hill on which Antananarivo is built, or of hills
Bn either side of it, and situated respectively south, north, west, and east of the Palace.—EDS.
t This and others are names of villages lying on the banks of the river,
j The whole beauty of the poem lies in a hidden allusion running through it to the king-
dom ; here perhaps is an admonition to the sovereign.


ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

And thus from day to day

Thou rollest onwards continually.

Soon at Ikiopa are thy waters found,

Ikiopa renowned through the world,

Devouring all, yet still unsatiated,*

Lab'ring ever, and still thy work unaccomplished ;

Ambohihoanjo from thy bank not far,

And southward Soavinimerina ;

Behold Antonta abounding in eels,

f From whence murmuring sounds are heard;

The soldier here casts round his wandering eye

Thinking of distant friends.

Here thou art in jeopardy, new-wedded bride,

Should a dispute arise towards the evening;

For caprice controls the unsettled heart;

Discarded, thou wilt soon retrace thy steps !

But we again pursue the river's course.

At Firahantsana next abide ;

The people there with noisy long guns fire, J

And cannons longer and still more noisy,

Spitting the frothy foam and rising phlegm,

Writhing in restless agony and pain.§

Let each unwept forsake his best beloved !

For all partake the bitter curse.||

HI.—Paraphrase of a poem called Ny Momba, or 'The Barren.' By

the same Author.

I To thee who dost all childless live,

Thou, barren, this advice I give :
In place secure thy wealth with foresight lay ;
For then a thousand tongues thou'lt find to say,
"Kind father, dearest mother, thou to me ;"

Ka ny azy re toetr' andro ny
Ka mivalambalan' indray
Koa mankany Ikiopa,
Ikiopa rano malaza,
Homambe, fa tsy voky,
Mivalambalan' indray ;
Mivalana dia any Ambohiboanjo,
Any atsimo ny Soavinimerina ;
Indro koa re any Antonta,
Ka migodongodom' piteny j
Mahita anay lavi'kavana

Izany RakaJa momba,
Tehirizo tsara ny harena ;
Fa raha misy ireny,

Miady mena masoandro,
Ka tsy fantatr' ompanavao,
Tsy vatra n' olona tsy honina.
Izahay re dia handeha,
Ka tonga tany Ifarahantsana;
Ka ny ao mipoa' basy lava,
Ny ao mipoa' tafondro lava,
Mitsipidrora mivalana,
Mamoiza ny mana' malala I
Fa samy efa nozoi' ny.

III.—Ny Momba.

Atao ny hoe, ikiaky nao, ineny;
Tsy mahalavitra ny tany,
Tsy mahasasa' mandeha.

* All other streams run into Ikiopa.

f That is, the sound of the distant waterfall, and by allusion, the repining of the soldiers
going to war.

t Literally true of the Sakalava enemy and, figuratively, of the waterfall Ifarahantsana,

9 Under the figure of the dashing of the water, alluding to the death of soldiers through
war, fever, and famine.

|| Every family has lost some relations in the devastating wars, and all must submit without
repining,


ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

No space their coming stays,
No rugged road delays.
But if thou pine in wretched poverty,
Not thine gay robes to wear,
No flattery soothes thine ear,
No prattling babes entwine,
No equal portion thine.

2 The barren destitute of wealthy store,

Extends her wandering eyes the wide world o'er ;
No loving friend to visit her is found,
No children, prattling all their wants, surround.
If hungry, none a scanty dole shall mete :
If satiate, none the falling crumbs shall eat ;
By none thy sufferings are allayed,
If weary, none shall give thee aid ;
And, hapless, even when thou'rt dead,
No tears shall weep o'er thy last bed.

3 Thy 9hroud not half a dollar buys,
Nor sixpence sheep for sacrifice.
A penny pays for grease to light

Instead of taper thy sad ghost;
No friends shall watch the dreary night;
To shallow grave shalt thou be hurried,
And with regardless haste be buried,

A farthing all the funeral cost.
"Ah ! mother, life is misery."
Yea, barren, such thy fate must be ;
Thou'lt fain the locust* catch, for whom ?
For children of a luckier womb,
Yea, such, ill-fated barren, is thy doom.

4 Now, barren, view thy husband dead,
And thou from parent's distant bed ;

From head to foot sorrow's own image thou,
Unheard by all, thy sad bewailings now.
Ah ! barren, thou in former days,
A father living,
A mother giving,

Fa raha tsy manana ireny,
Lany haingio,
Lany laingia,
Lany zanaka,
Lany zara.

2 Momba Iany harena,
Ny maso no apitrapitra
Tsy misy havan' kamangy,
Tsy misy zaza hitomany.

Noana, tsy manan' kangatahana ;

Voky, tsy manan' kotolorana;

Marary, tsy manan' kitsabo,
Sasatra, tsy manan' kitsetra;
Eny, Ramoinba,
Maty, tsy manan' kitomany.

3 Vitan' damban' doso,
Vitan' ondry n' tsikiajy!

Vitan' tsabora mila voamena,
Atao ny lavenan' tandrevaka.
Tsy misy mpiaritory,
Ialany ny olo kajia.
Maty re aho, raneny.
Izany Rakala momba ;
Misambo' balala
Ho an' janak' olona ;
Eny Ramomba.

4 Rakala momba, momba ka maty vady,

Ka lavi' dray aman' dreny ;
Sady an-doha no an-tongotra,
Miantso ka tsy fanta' ny.

* The poor among the people eat the locusts and feed their children with them.


174

ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

Could'st bathe in water fetch'd by slaves,
Caressed and blest in all thy ways.
Ah ! barren, now how chang'd thy state,
Thy father's life-dream o'er,
Thy mother now no more,
To bathe in tears thy wretched fate,
All cloth'd in rags, thou once might'st hate.
Link'd to some churl, I see in piteous plight
Thee pinch'd and waken'd at the morning light ;
Expelled the cheering hearth, thy wedded right.
"Ah, mother ! life is misery ;
Would I had died in infancy 1"
5 I travelled eastward succour to obtain ;

My father's kindred live hard by ;
Alas 1 I'm chang'd ; they know me not again ;

Ah, mother ! like the dead am I.
I tum'd my steps into the northern way ;

My mother's kindred live hard by ;
Alas 1 I'm chang'd ; thou'rt not the same, they say ;

Ah, mother ! like the dead am I.
I turn'd me back again, and southward ranged ;

My father's sister lives hard by ;
But she, like all my relatives, is changed;

Ah, mother 1 worse than dead am I.
I turn'd again a westward course to tread;

Tis there my mother's sisters live ;
Their dead relation's awful blame they dread,
So careless pitch the boon they give !

VI .—Paraphrase of an Eclogue in Poetical Prose.— Author unknown.

On Courtship.
She. He.

Pray tell me, since you oft profess Rice, which affords our daily food,

Your fervent love to me, And constant life supplies,

To what, if we may give a guess, Is the best emblem of my love,

Your love may liken'd be ? Which never, never dies.

Rav bado, ray bado ;
Fahavelon' dro ray ny,
Fahavelon' dro reny ;
Mandro rano antsakaina ;
Raha mivoaka, tambatambazana.
Ray bado, ray bado ;
Rana maty ro ray ny,
Raha maty ro reny,
Mandro rano maso,
Mitafy lamba tseroka,
Mitoetra amy ny olona ny bado,
Mandry maraina, rongadrongati' ny,
Mamindro, atositosi' ny sasany.
Maty aho, ry neny,
Tsy maty fony kely.

5 Nony nankaroa atsinanana aho ;

Havan' dry kiaky no ao.
Nodiany ny olona tsy fantatra aho,

Maty aho ry neny.
Nony nankao avaratr' aho ;

Havan' dry neny no ao,
Nova' ny ny olon' kafa ;

Maty aho ry neny.
Nony nankao atsimo aho ;

Zanak' olomianadahy no ao,
Nova' ny fahatelo be ;

Maty aho ry neny.
Nony nankao andrefan' aho ;

Zanak' olona mirahavavy no ao :
Ny tao no nanipy kely,
Fa matahotra ny tsiny ny maty.

IV.— On Courtship.

Tia nao tahaky n'inona angaha aho ? Tia ko tahaky ny vary hianao.—Tsy tia nao
izanv, fa atao nao famonjv fo raha noana. Tia nao tahaky n'inona angaha aho ? Tia
tahaky ny rano hianao.—Tsy tia nao izany aho, fa atao nao fitia momba tseroka. Tia nao

aho
ko


ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

She.

Ah no ! not so thy love to me,

For that thou deemest sweet,
Only when hunger presses thee

To take the proffer'd meat.
Then tell me, since you oft profess
Your, etc. (as in the first verse.)
He.

I love you as the fountain pure,

Which yields a sure supply
Of that without whose aid secure
My frame would quickly die.
She.

Ah no ! not so thy love to me,
For that, when dirt adheres
Which others scornfully may see,
Desirable appears.

Then tell me, etc.

He.

The lamba* which around I fold

To guard life's vital flame,
Is that which, next to thee, I hold
Most needful to my frame.
She.

Ah no I for that, when older grown,

Disdain'd, thou wilt reject ;
And ne'er again will it be known,
But lie in long neglect.

Then tell me, etc.

He.

I love thee like the luscious taste

Of a new honeycomb, [haste,
Whose precious fruit is seized with
And borne in triumph home.

She.

Ah no ! for there amidst the sweets,

Though luscious they be found,
The goodness not unmingled meets,
But dregs impure abound.

Then tellme, etc.

He.

I love thee as the sov'reign king

Of this our native land,
Whose endless praises all can sing,
Whose word moves every hand.
She.

To this, in truth, thy love compare,

Whose merely passing by,
Rebuking every vulgar stare,

Abashes every eye.
To him, indeed, thy love compare,
Whose briefest, transient gaze,
With shameo'erwhelms anddeep des-
Or drooping hearts can raise, [pair,
To this, indeed, thy love compare,

I, of desire the end
And goal; wherever you repair,

Still towards me you tend.
And I my love to thee will prove

In all good faith and truth,
A filial daughter's tender love

To parents of her youth ;
Enjoying life, while life shall last,

One house our common home ;
And when the mortal scene is past,
United in one tomb !

E. Baker.

tahaky n'inona ary alio ? Tia ko taliaky ny lamba hianao.—Tsy tia nao aho izany, fa raha
tonta, afindra nao ka tsy tsaroa nao intsony. Tia nao tahaky n'inona angaha aho ? Tia ko
tahaky ny tantely hianao.—Tsy tia nao aho izany, fa misy faikana. Tia nao tahaky n'inona
angaha aho ? Tia ko tahaky ny Andriamanjaka hianao.—Tia nao tokoa aho izany, mandalo
mahamena'maso, mijeiy mahamenatra. Tia nao tokoa aho izany, fa tapi'java'nirina aho,
tapi' java' naleha. Tia ko tahaky ny kiaky sy neny hianao : velona, iray trano ; maty, iray
hazo.

Postscript.

[It may perhaps be well to give, as addenda to the foregoing, another
specimen or two of Malagasy poetry as translated by Mr. Baker, especi-
ally as the books containing them are somewhat scarce, and the pieces
may not be known to many readers of the Annual. The first is taken
from Mr. Ellis's valuable History of Madagascar, vol. i., p. 276 ; it is by
the same native bard who wrote some of the foregoing pieces, Razafi-
lahy.—Eds.]

* The garment which a Malagasy wraps round his body, and which constitutes his only
clothing except what is wrapped round the loins, ajid without which ho is callcd naked.


176

ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

A Song concerning the Dead.

1 Vain man ! observ'st thou not the dead ?
The morning warmth from them has fled,
Their mid-day joy and toil are o'er,
Though near, they meet fond friends no more.
A gate of entrance to the tomb we see,

But a departure thence there ne'er will be.
But where's his dearest friend's reply ?
Ah 1 where are those thus doom'd to die ?

2 Vain man ! observ'st thou not the dead ?
Sweet words forsake their dreary bed;

There's none the mould'ring silk* around his fellow folds,

Or north or south again their visits gay beholds ;

Then shall re-echoing vales no longer cheer,

For them the hill no lofty signals rear.

Their shrouded heads unmoving lie,

Unknown the friends that o'er them sigh ;

Ah ! where are those thus doom'd to die ?

3 Vain man ! observ'st thou not the dead ?
No more their homeward path they tread.
The freeman lost may ransom'd be,

By silver's magic power set free ;

But who those lost from death can buy ?

Ah ! where are those thus doom'd to die ?

Let me prefer true goodness to attain,

Or fool or wise I'm deem'd by transient fame.

New rice, my friends, your cheerful blessing, give,

So from Razafilahy you shall thanks receive.

The second piece is included in Mr. Baker's little work entitled An Out-
line of a Grammar of the Madagascar Language, as spoken by the Hovas
(London : 1864), and is given at the end as a translation of one of the
specimens of native composition :—

Exhortation to Friendship.

1 Let the living love each other ; for the others (the dead) cannot attain it;

for the others are gone home.

2 Let the living love each other ; for the dead are not companions; for the

dead belong to the dead, the living belong to the living ; for the dead
cannot be hoped for, but the living can be hoped for.

3 Let the living love each other; for the kind-hearted attain (life's) end;

people love what touches the heart ; and remorse does not come before
(the deed), but after; and it is you (O men) who shall be full of remorse,
who, angry, give up your heart (to vengeance); but for us, we suffer no
remorse ; when angry, we can be pacified, for vengeance which gets the
mastery becomes a parent of much guilt.

4 Let the living love each other ; and do not build two houses too distant;

for the distant (neighbour) cannot be called in, but the near will be
preferred, and the many (together) are happy; for ants consume a 'Small
store.

5 Let the living love each other; do like the locusts : when fat, they fly off

together.

* Malagasy corpses are wrapped in silk cloths.


ON "THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR.

6 Let the living love each other; do as the carded cotton : though tender,

not broken ; though spun out thin, not snapped; and be as water in
sandy ground: you think there is none, but there is.

7 Let the living love each other; do as in yonder market: the unknown is

easily recognized, and the unseen discovered; uncalled by proclamation,
they assemble.

8 Let the living love each other ; be as the cock's (feathered) garment: the

well-arranged (feathers) are replaced ; from the corpse only are they
separated.

9 Let the living love each other; but do not make the bullock's friendship :

the big one push away the small, and the fat thrust away the lean.

10 Let the living love each other; but do not make the friendship of the

rock : when angry, it cannot be appeased ; when broken, it cannot be
mended ; the big ones never speak, nor do the little ones grow.

11 Let the living love each other; but be not like the rush harefo : smooth

outwardly, but hollow within.

12 Let the living love each other; but make not the water's friendship!

when its companion comes, it gets muddy; the advance guard does not
call out, "Come on," and the rear does not cry out, "Stop for me," but
when they do mix, they become the muddier.



THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR*

TRADE ill Madagascar eludes statistics. Now and then upon the
coast, when a vessel arrives with a cargo of some much-needed
foreign product, the agents of the firm to which the goods are consigned
may be seen doing business undisguisedly with a crowd of native whole-
sale buyers around them, each man anxious to be the first to strike a
favourable bargain and hurry his stock up to the roadside markets of
Im6rina; but here in the Capital the European trader receives his
merchandise from abroad, and collects the native produce in return,
without anybody, except himself, knowing correctly how much passes
through his hands either way. He studiously endeavours to prevent the
circulation of such knowledge, especially amongst his native customers.
The alternations of scarcity and abundant stock can generally be as-
certained by observing the fluctuation of price in the great weekly market
of Antananarivo, the Hova being a keen dealer and ever ready to take
advantage of the accidents of supply and demand ; but beyond prices,
information is very indefinite. Such records are kept by the duty which

* This paper is taken from an English Blue-book for 1885, and consists of a Report on
the trade of this country from W. C. Pickersgill, Esq., H. B. M's Vice-Consul for Antanana-
rivo.—EDS.


178 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

is regularly taken at the ports, but by officials whose salaries consist
chiefly of perquisites and pickings ; and, naturally enough, their accounts
are not remarkable for clearness.

Before the present difficulty with France broke into actual hostilities
it was feared that an attack upon the island would at once destroy all
foreign trade. There were not many persons who gave the native
Government credit for strength enough to provide at one and the same
time an armed resistance to its enemies and a peaceable protection for
its friends. Such protection, however, has not been wanting, and
although during the first six months of blockaded ports and indiscrimi-
nate bombardments there was something like a total collapse of business,
the year which has just ended has been not altogether an unprofitable
one to the few whose acquaintance with the country and its inhabitants
enabled them to foresee how little the roar of cannon upon certain
parts of the coast would affect the daily wants of the populous interior.
The island is far too large for complete blockade, and the attempts
which have been made to coerce the Malagasy into submission by closing
three or four well-known points of entrance have only resulted in the
opening of other channels of communication.

According to the estimates of persons engaged in Madagascar trade,
the total amount of business done in the country during the year 1884
has been about one-third of what was done during the year immediately
preceding the outbreak of war. Of that amount the greater part has
been accomplished through British enterprise. Contrary to expectation,
the American firms were for some time apparently afraid to run the
slightest new risk, notwithstanding their being much better equipped for
hazardous trade than any of their rivals. An interesting illustrative case
is recorded of a British house clearing, it is said, not less than £ 3,000
on a quantity of cotton goods which had already been landed and stored
in an American warehouse at one of the ports occupied by the French.
They were re-shipped, distributed at various places still unblockaded, and
put into the then thirsty inland markets just at the lucky moment. On
these goods the Malagasy Government received double duty, the original
landing having been made before the French obtained possession of the
port at which it took place. Since then many importations have simi-
larly paid duty twice—once at Tamatave, and- then again on being landed
elsewhere.

In addition to the obstacles encountered in getting foreign goods into
the country, there has been even greater difficulty in getting native
products out of it. Pleading the necessity of employing every means within
its power to harass an enemy of overwhelmingly superior strength, the
Malagasy Government declared itself perfectly justified in prohibiting
all exportations, and for some time carried the declaration into effect.
Further deliberations, however, led to the restriction being confined to
articles of food only ; and a later revision of policy, pressed for by Her
Majesty's Consul and myself, brought about the removal of Sugar
and coffee from the prohibited list. Thus trade in this country has been
working in shackles, and only the strong and well-acclimatised firms
have been able to bear up under the strain.


179 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

With due regard to such observations on the impossibility of procur-
ing exact information as have already been made, the trade of Antana-
narivo and the province of Imerina* for the year 1884 may be noted as
follows :—

Imports. Exports.
Articles. Bales. Value. Articles. Quantity. Value.
Cotton sheetings White shirtings. Prints, etc...... Various....... 2,800 1,500 £ 64,400 30,000 20,000 3,000 Hides.... Coffee.. . Wax .... Number. Lbs..... > t .... 230,000 60,000 80,000 £ 172,300 480 1,280 1,000
122,400 175,060

The cotton sheetings are for the most part of American manufacture.
English imitations are sometimes imported, but their inferiority is easily
detected, and they do not find a ready market. It is a great mistake to
think of the Malagasy of Imerina as burning in tropical heat, with only a
few shreds of muslin upon them for the sake of decency. They look for
warmth and durability in their garments, and up to a certain limit will
always pay a good price for such articles as possess these qualities.
When the cold east wind of the dry season is blowing, many of them find
even stout American sheetings too thin for comfort, and there is then a
certain demand for woollen goods. Flannels, blankets, and tweeds,
however, should be imported very cautiously, as there is the greatest
difficulty in preserving such things from the ravages of insects.*

Printed Calicos sell in all parts of Madagascar, but it is not easy to hit
the native taste in patterns, which is very reluctant to be guided by the
fashions of Europe. Moreover, the kind of print which is acceptable in
the eyes of one tribe is often the very opposite elsewhere.

Amongst other articles more or less in constant demand in Antanana-
rivo and the neighbourhood are iron cooking-pots, iron kettles, sauce-
pans and frying-pans, sheet tin and soldering materials, and glass and
putty. Tinware is largely used, but it is not profitable to introduce the
articles ready made. Of carpenters' tools the only kinds which the
native smiths do not forge to the satisfaction of those who use them, are
saws and chisels, the cutters of planes, gouges, augers, braces and bitts.

Second-hand Clothing frequently sells well, especially if the quality is
good, and the signs of previous wear not too evident.

Boots and Shoes are manufactured in the country. Importations, how-
ever, find a market when they are of a superior make and are offered at
reasonable prices,

Umbrellas and Sunshades also meet with ready sale.

Crockery is in daily use by almost everybody. The richer people will

* before the! commencement of the Franco-Malagasy war, X was informed by Samuel
Procter, Esq., Her Malagasy Majest3r1s Consul in England and principal of the oldest English
mercantile firm in Madagascar, that in his opinion the total export and import trade of the
whole island could not be of much less value than one million pounds annually.— ED, (J,5.)


180 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

sometimes buy full services of china, but high-priced goods should be
introduced in very small quantities.

Drugs often fetch very good prices. Those most frequently required
by the natives are : quinine, epsom-salts, iodide of potassium, bichloride
of mercury, santonine, cod-liver oil, carbonate of soda, tartaric acid,
seidlitz powders, etc.

Stationery is needed by a constantly increasing number. The market
l is chiefly supplied by the missionary printing offices, which have the
i privilege of importing such materials of instruction free of duty. The
slates required to meet the wants of upwards of a quarter of a million
children registered as scholars in the various schools, and the Bibles,
New Testaments, and hymn and prayer-books, etc., which are purchased
by them and the adult adherents of over 1,500 churches and congre-
gations scattered throughout the island, form no inconsiderable item of
general trade. It is not customary to mention such things in a com-
mercial report, but every new demand for paper and printing and book-
binding materials must necessarily benefit the firms which produce them.

It should always be remembered that every article of merchandise
offered for sale in the interior of Madagascar has to be carried hither
from the coast 011 human shoulders. Packages which cannot be broken
up and re-arranged at the port of landing should therefore be made up in
certain weights. One man will carry two packages of from 40 to 45 lbs.
each, but the same weight in a single bale will require two men, and the
expense of transit will be doubled. Large packages and heavy packing
materials often increase the cost of imported goods enormously. It is
impossible to pay too much attention to this matter. The wages
received by the porters vary according to the distance travelled, and
sometimes according to the weight carried. For a journey from one of
the nearer eastern ports, Tamatave, Vitomindry, or M&hanAro, to the
Capital, with an ordinary load, they receive 10 shillings per man. It
is usual to divide a number of them into gangs of 10, 15, or 20 men, and
appoint to each gang a trustworthy overseer, who carries the way-bill and
a portion of the wages set apart for the purchase of food on the road.
The pay of this extra man adds from M. to ij. to the carriage of every
load. On the imports and exports of Antananarivo during the year 1884,
which together amount to about £ 300,000, the cost of transmission to
and from the coast is estimated at not less than £ 11,000.

The coinage used in Madagascar is the French 5 franc-piece, No other
form of money will enable the European trader to do business directly
with the natives. It is reckoned in all small transactions as equivalent
to four English shillings, or an American dollar. Against bills on
London it is worth from 3 to 5 per cent. As this coin is not procurable,
except in small quantities and at high rates, anywhere in the neighbour-
hood, the trader who comes to Madagascar unprovided with a working
supply finds himself placed at a grievous disadvantage.

Agriculture.

Crown land may now be obtained on leases of 99 years' duration.
There is no fixed price; every intending occupier may make his own
bargain, but it is not likely that land of good quality will be rented for


181 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

less than two shillings an acre per annum for the first half of the period
and five shillings for the remainder : at any rate, not until newspaper
correspondents and other writers on Madagascar cease to speak of the
island as one of wondrous fertility and a very paradise of natural resour-
ces. A man has little chance of getting a thing on easy terms when his
fellows are continually crying its excellence in the ears of the vendor.
There is no doubt whatever that the soil of Madagascar has been over-
praised. Those who have practically tested its sugar-growing powers
on some of the choicest portions of the eastern sea-board report, that in
a very short time its fertility begins to wane and needs to be artificially
renewed. The rapidity with which certain well-adapted forms of vege-
tation spring up luxuriantly is due rather to the abundant rain of the wet
season and to a tropical sun than to any special richness of the land.
Where the latter is absolutely necessary to profitable production, Mada-
gascar will be found wanting. All this, however, is far from being
intended to imply that the island does not offer a promising field for the
employment of European capital.

Sugar, although not giving results equal to what were expected, is by
no means a failure. Hitherto there have been no plantations established
except in the east; but travellers have noticed that the cane grown by
the natives on the banks of the north-western rivers has the appearance
of being the product of a very suitable soil; and my own observations
in that part of the country lead me to believe that there is land there
which will some day be found more valuable than any on the opposite
side of the island,

Coffee does not grow well on either coast. Nor is that which is
produced in the interior at all satisfactory in amount. As regards quality,
many people consider it little inferior to Mocha coffee. The most success-
ful experiments with it have been made in the neighbourhood of the
westernmost of the two lines of forest which stretch from north to south
between the Capital and the east coast. The elevation there is suitable,
and there is plenty of moisture.

Rice is produced in Imerina in enormous quantities, but the wants of
the population are equally great, and are yearly approaching the limits
of possible supply. Better means of transport therefore would not
develop a trade in this article in the neighbourhood of the Capital.
There lies, however, to the north of Imerina, in the Sihinaka province,
an immense tract of swampy country which is capable of bearing rice
to almost any extent. About the same distance from Antananarivo to
the south again, in the B^tsileo country, there are similar natural advan-
tages awaiting employment. Madagascar rice is of undeniably good
quality. That of Carolina comes from the same stock, seed having been
taken from this country to Charleston in the year 1699.

Wheat seems to thrive fairly well in certain parts of the interior. It is
grown to meet the necessities of the European community, and costs in
the Antananarivo market about six shillings for 100 lbs.

Tea has not been tried here yet, but ought to be. The slopes of the
Imerina hills are thought by many people to be adapted to this cultiva-
tion, Once introduced and found to be successful, the natives would


182 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

take it in hand with great readiness ; it would suit their habits and tastes
exactly. The women of the poorer classes, who are glad to be able to
earn a penny a day by plaiting mats and weaving rofia cloth, would find
more profitable and equally agreeable work in picking and preparing the
leaves of the tea-plant; and the lightness in weight of the marketable
article would allow of its being transported to the coast by the usual
means without overburdening the profits.

Silk, for the same two latter reasons, affords an opening for enterprise
in the interior of Madagascar. It is produced already for the manufac-
ture of the native cloths or shawls called lamba, which are so much
admired by all who have seen good specimens.

India-rubier also deserves attention, especially from whose who are
interested in keeping the European market supplied with this most
valuable product. The indigenous vine yields an excellent quality of
rubber, but the supply is yearly diminishing. It is now found only in
the depths of the forests, far from the security of settled habitations, and
is consequently obtained at considerable risk. No provision is left or
made for future needs, the vines being entirely destroyed by the reckless
men who wander about in search of them. That a properly managed
plantation of this native product would turn out to be a profitable specu-
lation, I have very little doubt. An experiment made by myself a few
years ago in the north-west was entirely satisfactory as far as showing
the possibility of extending the growth of the vine. A single fruit of it,
picked up in the bush, was found to contain no less than 72 seeds, every
one sprouting. These were taken to a piece of swampy ground and
planted at the feet of tall trees already growing therein, where they
readily struck root and for some time flourished, until an unexpected
rise in a neighbouring river overfiooded and carried them away. It
would probably take from four to five years for the vine to grow large
enough to endure much cutting. The natives who witnessed the above
experiment were fully convinced thereby of the practicability of cultiva-
ting the rubber, but such investments for the remote future are not
attractive to them. After the first years of waiting there would be little
need for outlay on a plantation of this vine, as the cost of preparing
the rubber for the market is very trifling.

Cattle abound in this country. No estimate has yet been attempted
of the numbers, but they must be very great indeed. Travellers who
have seen no more of Madagascar than is to be observed on a journey from
the east coast to the Capital are sometimes led to imagine that the island
is but poorly furnished with live stock. It is in the grazing lands of the
north and west that vast herds may be seen roaming at large. For a
man to own 2,000 or 3,000 head is no uncommon thing. The numbers
slaughtered here in Antananarivo during the annual festival of the
Fandrbana are sufficient testimony to the extent of the people's posses-
sions. Capital invested in a selected herd is said to double itself in
three years, when the owner has trustworthy servants who can be put in
charge. In thinly-inhabited districts bullocks are frequently killed for
the sake of the hides and fat, a large animal in such places being worth
from ioj. to 14J. only. The Antananarivo butchers pay from 24J. to 36^.


183 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

for the same kind, Exportation is now* entirely forbidden on account
of the war, but even before that it was greatly hampered by an unwise law
made many years ago, which prohibits the sale of cattle for shipment at
less than 6oj. a head. Various devices for evading this regulation were
resorted to ,by the firms engaged in the trade.. One, largely practiced by
a continental company, was to run a steamer to some unrecognised part
on the west coast, and then'barter with the Sikaliva for guns and powder.
This was regarded by'the Malagasy people as eminently a European me-
thod of provoking them to live up to their treaties with civilised powers.
Another plan was to station a highly-paid native employ6e at one of the
regular ports, and provide him with a sufficient quantity of ready cash
and a foreign passport. In the market he was an ordinary Malagasy pur-
chaser increasing his stock; when the company's vessel arrived, he be-
came, a stranger not amenable to native law. Troublesome inquiries by
the local representatives of the Government were then staved off by means
of bribes. Cattle were thus procured and shipped at an average cost of
28s. each, the duty of 6s. a head included. At Mauritius and Reunion the
usual selling price was about £j 4.J. As there is no such thing known in
Madagascar as contagious disease' in animals, this country would be not
only an abundant but also a safe source of supply for the frozen-meat trade.

Population.

, The inhabitants of the town arid suburbs of Antananarivo are consi-
dered by careful observers to number not less than 100,000. Imerina,
the province which extends around the Capital to a distance of about
50 miles, is the most thickly-populated part of the island. Its people
are fairly industrious, more so by far than those of any other Malagasy
tribe. The skill they show in the cultivation of rice, often in the face
of natural disadvantages, points to their future career as that of agricul-
turists. They can be easily induced to work for wages, but I am con-
vinced that it will be found more profitable in the long-run to draw
them into such connection with coming developments of their country
as will afford them not only an equivalent for their labour, but also a
reward for intelligent interest therein. The Hova race will be proud to
furnish bone and muscle to co-operate with European wealth for mutual
benefit, but it will never submit to be the white man's slave.

Evidently the great problem in Madagascar will be, how to get the
workers and the work together. The highland interior is poor in mate-
rial, but rich in labour ; while the lowland coast is fertile, but lacks the
husbandmen. He who can secure Imerina labourers to cultivate a
lowland plantation will test the merits of the country under the most
favourable conditions. The necessities of defence are now forcing the
population of the interior to distribute itself to some extent, but the
migrations of peace cannot be long delayed if the people continue to
increase in the near future as they have done recently in the past.

Next to the Hova in intelligence, although not in strength of character,
come the Betsimisiraka, who inhabit the eastern coast. They are well
disposed towards foreigners, but the rum trade of Mauritius and Reunion
has already gone far to render them useless for hard and regular work.

* This was at the close of last year, it must be remembered.—Eds.


184 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR.

The Sihanaka and Betsileo tribes, which occupy respectively the
interior provinces north and south of Imerina, are equally docile with
the Betsimisaraka, having, however, an advantage over them in being
more closely allied to the ruling race. The labouring peasant of the
highlands is pretty much the same sort of person throughout the whole
of the central region. To the south of the Betsimisaraka there are
several smaller tribes, of which the Taimdro appears to be one of the
most promising from the intending planter's point of view. A number of
these south-eastern natives were, before the war began, in the habit of
leaving their homes to work on the sugar plantations near Tamatave,
which the Betsimisaraka had failed to supply with labour. They are
known as a fearless race, but are much given to roving, and have the
aspect of being most uncompromising savages.

In the south-west the Ibkra and Mihafily tribes seem to be coming
in some small degree under the influence of trade with Natal. A kind
of broad-bean is cultivated in that part of the country for exportation—a
very hopeful sign indeed in a people who are related to the Sakalava,
for the latter are, without doubt, the least useful and least open to im-
provement of all the Malagasy tribes. Their country, which stretches
along the western seaboard from near St. Augustine's Bay to the northern
extremity of Pisindiva Bay, is, with the exception of such points as are
under the immediate authority of military colonies, almost entirely
uncultivated, altogether unimproved, and very little open to trade. Even
such of the Sakalava as have been under the shadow of the French flag
at Ndsib£ for the last forty years have not made a hundredth part of the
advance in civilisation which the Hova have made during the last ten
years under their own Government.

Mines.

There has been considerable excitement in Antananarivo and the sur-
rounding country during the past twelve months over reported discoveries
of gold and silver. Diamonds even were talked about at one time, and
a few of the more adventurous natives rushed secretly off to the localities
where sudden riches were supposed to lie waiting for the first comer.
Nothing, however, more valuable than a little gold dust has been found
by them, and that only after a great waste of labour, and at the risk of
long imprisonment and chains. For the Government had wisely resolved,
some time before the rumours of discovery had fairly taken wing, to
prevent everything like wholesale demoralisation of the people on this
score, by appropriating whatever mineral wealth the land might contain.
Laws were issued prohibiting unauthorised mining of every description ;
and, seeing that a double advantage lies in thus controlling the search
for hidden wealth, there is but a very poor prospect here for needy
diggers who may be tempted to wander to Madagascar in the hope of
finding comfort for their disappointments elsewhere. Several such have
made ventures already, but a few weeks' sojourn in the island has con-
vinced them of the wisdom of returning whence they came as speedily
as possible, with nothing more valuable to carry away than a caution to
all their comrades and acquaintances.

W. Clayton Pickersgill.


185 THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL.

THE IDEAS OF THE MALAGASY WITH REGARD
TO DESTINY.*

MOST of us who have lived some time in Madagascar must
have noticed the strong fatalistic notions of the people.
Every thing has its set time, which cannot possibly be altered ;
every person, and every animal also, has its appointed time of
death, and nothing that any one may do can either hasten this
or postpone it to a future day. Such seems to be the prevalent
belief among the people. Similarly also most of them seem to
believe that for every one there is a certain amount of trouble
or sorrow, joy or happiness, allotted to him, as well as a fixed
and definite amount of this world's goods; this is decreed for
them as their destiny or fate, and they must accept it.

A few years ago—I have not heard so much of it lately—a
very favourite topic of discussion with the Malagasy youth was :
Can a person die before his day has come ? and can anything
that he may do hasten the day of his death which had been
appointed for him ? The majority always maintained the nega-
tive. Now I am not going to enter on a discussion as to how
far they are mistaken or not in holding these views, all I wish
to do is to give a few curious examples of these fatalistic notions
that have come under my own observation during the past few
weeks.

1. The scene, our dining-room :—We were bidding farewell
to a young woman, an intelligent scholar in my wife's classes ;
she was leaving town to accompany her husband, who had been
appointed governor to a place far away in the south. We were
very sorry to part with her, and she was evidently sorry to
part with us and leave her native place ; but having expressed
this, she added : "Anjarako izany" (That is my lot, or destiny) ;
therefore she must go, and it was no use lamenting it.

2. The scene, the large market-place at the Capital: — One
Sunday, not long ago, I was riding in my palanquin through
the market-place on my return from a service in the suburbs.
As we were going along, one of my men saw a small
piece of money on the ground and stooped down to pick
it up. I remarked to another of my men: "You ought
to have seen that; it would have been a nice present for your

* This short article was written for the ANNUAL of 1885, but had to stand aside for want
of room, I suppose its day had not come ! This explanation is necessary, because the circum-
stances referred to in it, though then of recent occurrence, now belong to the past.


186 MALAGASY IDEAS AS TO DESTLNY.

wife." "No," he replied, "that is not my anjara" (or my share);
as though he thought that all the property in the world was
divided out into fixed lots, and no one could by any possibility
get what was the share of another.

3. The scene, the desert, 'No man's land,' which Mr. Wilson
and I were travelling over on our way to Manandaza and Anka-
vandra:—Some wild cattle were seen, and many of our men set
off to catch 'nobody's beef;' but none were caught. Sqme of
the men remarked: "Tsy mbola tonga ny androny" (Their day
has not yet come). Others said : "2'sy anjarantslka ireo" (They

. are not our share). So until we came upon some fulfilling
these two conditions, 'Their day had come,' and, 'They were
our share,' we were to have no desert beef, and none we had.

4. The scene, Ankavandra in the far west: —Here, most
Unexpectedly to me, I met the father of the young woman spoken
of in Scene No. 1. The governor of this town and I were com-
paring notes about our children; he told me he had one
daughter, from whom he was parted when she was but three
months old, as he was then appointed governor to this place,
and he had not seen her since. As she had recently left with
her husband for a place in the far south, of which he had just
been appointed governor, it was now less likely than ever that
they would meet again in this world. I was expressing my
sympathy with the old man on this account, when one of his
followers remarked: "A njarany izany, koa hanao ahoana hianao ?"
(That is his lot, so what would you have r)

The Rev. W. E. Cousins has well remarked, speaking of the
days before the arrival of the early missionaries : "The almost
universal belief in vlntana, or destiny, had sapped the very
foundation of faith in a free and powerful God." This was very
true at that time, and I fear it is true of many in our day. Some
of them so believe in this, that they will not even try to repent
or turn from their evil ways. Others, when they are taken ill,
at once believe their day has come, and so, utterly despairing
of any recovery, pass away ; many such instances could be
given.

The people find, as so many have found before them, how
impossible it is to understand with our finite wisdom the con-
nection between the fore-knowledge of God—He knowing
every thing, the end from the beginning—and our free will to
choose the good and reject the evil, or to choose the evil and
reject the good.

Henry E. Clark.



MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

AND ITS CONNECTION WITH CHRISTIAN LIFE IN MADAGASCAR.

FEW facts with regard to the history of Christianity are more clear
than the intimate connection which exists between the spiritual
life of any people, and the hymns and sacred songs they sing. In all
. parts of the world, and in all ages, from Apostolic times until the
present, the hymns of every Christian community have closely reflected
its faith, its love, and its aspirations after God, and have been its joy in
prosperity, and its solace in trial and persecution. From the "psalms
and hymns and spiritual songs" of the Apostolic churches, through the
Latin hymns of the mediaeval period, the chorales of the continental
reformed communions, and the outburst of hymnology which accom-
panied and stimulated the revival of spiritual life in England; down to
the sacred songs of the American revivalists—a continually augmenting
stream of divine melody has flowed down the centuries to refresh and
stimulate and console the widely-scattered members of the universal
Church. Here has been the one point of agreement for all, greatly as
they may differ in everything else ; for in their hymns, the Romanist
and the Protestant, the orthodox nnd the latitudinarian, the conformist
and the nonconformist, continually find themselves singing the same
strains, and discover a bond bf union in a heart-devotion to Christ which,
for a time, throws all minor differences into the shade.

The history of Christianity in Madagascar has been no exception to
the general experience of the Church, and from a very early period after
its introduction into the island, hymnology has always been a great
power, and has aided very largely in the promotion of Christian life and
knowledge among the people. The Malagasy tribes with whom we are
best acquainted—that is, those in the central and eastern provinces—
are extremely fond of music and of singing; and they have a very
correct ear for harmony, readily taking the different parts of a tune, and
when they do not know the proper bass, tenor, or alto, frequently im-
provise one for themselves as the tune proceeds. The native songs,
of which between forty and fifty have already been printed, besides a
considerable number still only in manuscript, have no rhyme and but
little approach to metrical structure ; but they are most of them arranged
in a very regular form as regards lines and stanzas, and have a rhythmic
flow, and a frequent parallelism of numbers, much resembling the arrange-
ment of Hebrew poetry. These songs often have a refrain or chorus,
and are sung to tunes which are generally plaintive and in a minor key ;
semetimes one of the party acts as a leader, with a kind of recitative,
the rest of the singers joining in the chorus, often with the accompani-
ment of regular clapping of hands, and the beating of a drum or the
twanging of a native guitar.

The small band of missionaries of the London Missionary Society,
who laboured so strenuously from 1820 to 1835 to lay the foundation of


18 8

MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

the Church in Madagascar, seem to have attempted to give the people
some hymns in their own language as soon as they had reduced the Ma-
lagasy tongue to a written form. They began printing lesson-sheets,
etc. towards the close of the year 1827, and the Gospels on the first day
of 1828 ; and it is probable that some of the first hymns were given to
the people in leaflets or other separate form, since 800 copies of a small
volume of hymns for public worship had been printed by the early part
of April of the same year (1828). Another edition, of 4,500 copies (132
pp.), was printed in 1835, just before the promulgation of the laws for-
bidding Christian worship and teaching.

This hymn-book was reprinted two or three times in England by the
Religious Tract Society during the long quarter-century of persecution
(the first reprint in 1849, an edition of 2,000 copies); and its collection
of 168 hymns was most intimately bound up with the religious life of the
Malagasy, both in the time of comparative freedom they enjoyed pre-
vious to 1835, before their European teachers were obliged to leave
them, and still more so during the long weary period of repression,
which they still call the time when "the land was dark." Some of these
hymns, probably the majority of them, were written by the missionaries
themselves, others by their pupils and some of the more intelligent
native Christians ; but, strange to say, although the excellent fathers and
founders of the Madagascar mission were quite capable of writing metri-
cal hymns in English, as is proved by the translations they gave of
some of the Malagasy hymns, not one of these latter was rhythmical in
structure, much less did they attempt rhyme. Although all their hymns
were arranged in the proper number of syllables to form the familiar
metres known as 'long,' 'common,' 'short,' and 'sevens,' as well as
a few of the 'peculiar' measures, there was no regard at all paid to
accent, so that to those who know the language it is painful to hear the
words tortured by being persistently mispronounced, as they must be,
every time they are sung to a tune of the metres just mentioned.*' It is
difficult to understand why, with the minute and accurate acquaintance
with the Malagasy language they possessed, they did not attempt to
write rhythmical hymns, but such was the fact, a fact which must be
regretted, since, from the improved musical taste of the people, these old
hymns are rapidly becoming obsolete. And yet many of them are,
notwithstanding their metrical defects, beautiful in their language, and
fervent and evangelical in tone. Take, for example, the following, a
free adaptation of "How sweet the name of Jesus sounds" :—

Jeso no anaran-tsoa, Raha mangetaheta isika,

Raha ren' ny mino, Rano velona Izy;

Afaka ny alahelony, Raha ndana, mofon' aina,

* Here are a couple of verses, accented, of so-called 'common' and 'long' metres :—

Dia faly ny fony.

MarAry, ody aina ; etc.

C. M.

L. M.

Ny lalana izay nataon'

Andrinmanitra
Taniy ny olombelona
Marina indrindra.

Haja sy voninahitra
Ho an' Andriamanitra ;
Fa Izy hiany no niahefa
Izay sitraky ny fdny.


MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

189

Almost literally translated :—
Jesus is the blessed name,

When heard by the believer,
Gone is his sorrow,

For glad his heart.
When we are thirsty,
Living water is He ;
When hungry, Bread of life,

111, Medicine of life.
Rock of refuge,

He whom I trust;
Shield to protect me,
Lest I see evil.

Friend and Brother,

Redeemer and Lord,
Life, Way, my Surety,

Receive my praise.
Simple and foolish am I,

Ashamed am I, O Jesus,
My love to Thee

Is little, as nothing.
But Thy love to me

Is one, unchangeable;
Living, I praise Thee,

Dead, praises increase.

Here is another favourite hymn, the key-note of which is, "Jehovah
no anjarako"—"The Lord is my portion" :—

His commands are sweet to me,
His counsels do I love,
His words make wise,
The blood of Christ makes clean.
The world is not sweet to me,
I desire not its delights ;
Farewell to it all,
Jehovah is my portion.

Jehovah is my portion,
I will not be sorrowful,
For Jesus is my Redeemer,
I will therefore, rejoice.
Many are they who love wealth,
Numbers desire money,
But I already possess,
Jehovah is my portion.

Thine indeed, O Jesus,
Is my whole spirit;
Make me Thine own,
Thou art my portion.

We find also translations, or rather, adaptations, of several other well-
known English hymns, such as, "When I survey the wondrous Cross,"
"Lo ! He comes, with clouds descending," "The heavens declare Thy
glory, Lord," "Awake, and sing the song," and "Lord of the Sabbath,
hear our vows." But many others appear to be original compositions,
only slightly, if at all, inspired by English hymns, although full of Bible
thoughts. Here is one referring to the Scriptures

Sweet is Thy word,

Holy Jehovah !

And true is Thy word,

Not to be changed ;

The heavens shall pass away,

But Thy word shall renlain.

Pure is Thy word,

And precious indeed,

So making wise

Those who are simple,

Scattering the darkness,

And bringing the .light.

Good is Thy word,
Renewing the heart,
For there 'tis we see
One Who redeems,
Jesus, well-spring of life,
Washing the guilty.
Desired of my heart
Is the sacred word,
More than great riches,
Or wealth overflowing;
Thy word will I keep,
My enduring possession.

These old Malagasy hymns reflect Very clearly the theological feeling
of the period in which they were written, about half a century ago.
There is a distinct enforcement of the Law and its penalties, but there
is at the same time an evangelical fervour, and a firm grasp of the
redemptive work of the Lord Jesus Christ, as well as a distinct personal


190

MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

appropriation of the blessings He bestows. It was this element in the
early Malagasy hymns which made them so precious to the persecuted
people, and on account of which 'they became interwoven with all the
trying experiences of their Christian life for so many years.

Here and there among this old collection of Malagasy hymns are two
or three decidedly curious specimens of hymnology. These were written
by natives, and one of them consists almost entirely of Malagasy proverbs
strung together, most of which treat of the uncertainty of life, from a
heathen point of view, but with a Christian sentiment at the conclusion
as a kind of 'moral' to the whole. Here is a literal rendering of this
strange composition :—

Life is a broken potsherd, But once only are we young,

No one knows who broke it; One throw (of the spear) only ;

Life is but steam of food, Death is a swift runner,

No one sees where it goes. God is the Lord of life.

The appointed time of death is unknown, To die once may be borne,

A tree on the brink of a precipice, But second death is unbearable ;

No one knows when it will fall, Blest are the believers in Christ,

Whether by day or night. For they shall obtain life.

Such productions are, however, exceptional; and the great majority of
the hymns are quite free from such incongruous elements.

The hymns of fifty years ago were, of course, sung to the tunes of the
same period ; and when we re-commenced mission-work in Madagascar
after the re-opening of the country to Christian teaching in 1862, we
found the people singing tunes now seldom heard in our home churches
and chapels, but which were familiar to English congregations of two
generations ago ; tunes, for instance, such as "Lydia," "Cranbrook,"
"China," "Calcutta," "Rousseau's Dream," "Piety," "Zion's Joy," etc.
During the first few months of my residence in Antananarivo I well
remember hearing tunes sung in the native chapels to extremely slow
time, but although they had a certain familiarity, I could not for some
minutes identify them with anything I knew ; but it gradually dawned
upon me that these were well-known old tunes, but being sung about
four times as slow as was then the custom in England, were so different
in effect as to be at first hearing unrecognisable. I have little doubt,
however, that this slow time was about the speed at which it was usual
for these hymns to be sung by the first missionaries (for we have won-
derfully quickened the pace of our English singing during the last few
years) ; and thus the traditions of the singing of their first teachers had
been kept up during the twenty-seven or twenty-eight years which had
* elapsed Since they were driven away from the island.
' And what a solace and a joy were those old hymns to the early Mala-
gasy Christians 1 Wherever they went they carried their hymn-book
with them, often bound up with their Testaments, and the Strains of
these sacred songs always mingled with their worship. On the very
^ast Sunday evening (22nd February, 1835) that public services were
.â– allowed to be held in the capital city, the Queen's anger was excited as
she passed near one of the native chapels by hearing the hearty singing
of- the congregation ; and she observed to some of her attendants,


MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. 191

"These people will not be quiet until some of them lose their heads."
And so it really proved to be the case again and again, as one after
another of them fell a victim to their sovereign's rage against the pray-
ing customs ; for, like their prototypes in the time of Pliny, they persis-
ted in "singing hymns to Christ as God." Of the first martyr, Rasal&ma,
it is recorded that on being put into chains and cruelly beaten, she
continued to sing ; and so she did still on the following morning, when
she was borne along to the place of execution at the southern extremity
of the long rocky ridge on which the Capital is built. And when another
Christian woman, Raf&rav&vy, with her five companions, had succeeded,
after wonderful perils and hair-breadth escapes, in reaching the coast at
Tamatave, and were safe on the deck of the ship which took them to
England, their first feelings of thankfulness for their deliverance found
expression in singing one of their hymns.

And the strains of sacred song continued to be heard all through
those weary years. In the 'Great Persecution' of 1849, when many
hundred Christians were punished by fines, slavery, chains, and beating,
and when eighteen of them suffered death, the condemned ones sang
the hymn commencing

Ary misy tany sda, There is a blessed land,

Mihafmaritra indrindra. Making most happy.

How appropriate this: was to their position then may be seen by
glancing over the following almost literal translation :—

There is a blessed land, All they longed for obtained,

Making most happy ; All their hearts' desire ;

There no trouble enters, No good thing they lack,

There, no vexing care. Now and for evermore.

There shall the righteous reign, The departing from this life,

Joyful for evermore; Just a moment's pang,

None shall mourn again, Is all that separates us

Of all the dwellers there. From that blessed world.

Their light affliction, a momentary spasm or pang, as the native word
in the fourth verse means, they knew would speedily work for them "a
more exceeding weight of glory." Fourteen of them were taken to be
hurled over the steep cliffs of Ampimarlnana, just below the palace ; and
of one of these it was said that he sang up to the moment he was thrust
over the precipice ; while of them all it is recorded that they sang the
hymn beginning, "Riha ho fity aho," which may be thus translated

When I shall from hence depart, Hark ! they summon me away

And forsake my kindred dear ; To the blessed world above ;

When for me they mourn and weep, There shall I rejoice alway,
I shall go rejoicing there ; There my soul be filled with love ;

When from life on earth set free, All my heart's desires obtained,

There shall I in rapture.be. All I hoped for fully gained.

All things earthly, now farewell!
For I thus fruition find ;
Hence in joys untold I dwell,
Heaven my heritage on high.
From all fear of death set free,
Death is conquered now for me,


MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. 192

Another hymn is also remembered as one of their death-songs—one
which is full of joyful anticipation of beholding the Lord Jesus, and
beginning, "Rlha ho hitany aho, rivo any an-dinitra," almost literally
translated thus :—

When He shall behold me Ah ! conquered is the enemy,

Joyful there in heaven, The conflict for ever o'er.

In the days to come, Assembled are the mighty,

There, in Jesu's presence, Entered are the just';

I shall have gained my desires Every one of the pure rejoices,

And the longing of my heart; Rendering thanks and praise.

Freed from all affliction, Jesus is their glory,

Overflowing with gladness. Jehovah is their shield.

A little later in the day, the remaining four of the condemned Christians,
who were of noble rank, were led to be burnt alive at Firav6hitra, the
northern end of the city hill; and here again the song of praise arose ;
for as they ascended the hill they sang the hymn which for some years
previously had been, and ever since then has continued to be, the dis-
mission hymn of the native congregations of Madagascar, being invari-
ably sung before they disperse. It is always sung to "Mariners," and
probably this was the tune those four Malagasy confessors sang as they
went to their death, and even as the flames rose around them at the
stake. The hymn begins with the words, "H6dy izahay, Z&nahiry,"* and
may be thus rendered :—

Home return we now, Creator, Thanks, abounding thanks, we render

Let Thy blessing from above For the sacred message heard,

Gladden all our waiting spirits Which Thou givest to enlighten
With Thine all-abounding love. Us in knowledge of Thy word.

Gladden Thou us, Dwell among us,

While we sojourn here below. Through Thy presence day by day.

And when death shall hence remove us,

And on earth no more we stay,
Then do Thou our souls make joyful,
Take us on our heavenly way ;

There, rejoicing,
Shall we live in endless day.

The hytlin might almost have been written for such an hour as that,
for death was indeed about to remove them to the heavenly mansions,
to the endless clay, of which they sang ; they were truly "returning
home," not front the earthly sanctuary, where they had so often sung
those words, but to the heavenly one—the house not made with hands.

Yet one more hymn was also sung by the Faravohitra martyrs, . one
which ends in each of its four verses with the words, "Tsardvy izahay"
("Remember us"). Of this hymn the first and the last verses run thus

When our hearts are o'erwhelm'd And when death itself

Because of the oppressor, Approaches us nigh,

When that comes to pass, Lord, Arid spent is our strength,
Remember us. Remember us.

* The Malagasy hymn is no doubt a free rendering of "Lord, dismiss us with Thy bles-
sing," but I have attempted to give a closer translation of the native version than the English
original supplies, and in the same metre,


MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

193

So strikingly appropriate to their circumstances was every one of these
requiem hymns.

Mr. Ellis relates that in a letter he received from the native Christians
at the Capital during his first visit to Tamatave in 1853, they t°Id him
"that a number of them went out to a solitary place, to sing together for
joy at the prospect of receiving copies of the word of God."* While at
the same place for a few weeks in the following year, Mr. Ellis was
frequently visited at night by a number of the Christian Malagasy for
conversation on various subjects. These meetings were always associated
with the reading of the Scriptures and prayer ; but besides this, these
believing people often could not depart without also singing a song of
praise, although it was decidedly perilous for them to do so. Mr. Ellis
•adds that although they bent their heads down, and only sang the native
hymns in an undertone or whisper, to English tunes, he was at times
alarmed lest some unfriendly passer-by should hear. It seemed as if
the instinct of praise could not be repressed among the persecuted
people.

And so, during their long trial of faith and patience, the Malagasy
Christians solaced themselves with their hymns : they sang them in
rice-holes and in caves ; in the recesses of the forests ; on the tops of
lofty hills, where they could watch from afar for any unfriendly approach;
and in stealthy meetings by night in the houses of their friends ;f and,
as we have just seen, the words of these sacred songs were sung on
several occasions with their dying breath. But still they sang on and
believed, as one of their hymns expresses it, that

Not long will endure Shall the sorrowful suffer ;

The stormy night, Yonder is the daybreak,

Not for many days Happiness is near.

And accordingly, in 1861, the sighing of the prisoners was heard ; God
delivered those who were appointed to death ; and with the decease of
Queen RAnav&lona came the opening of the prison-doors to those who
were bound, and freedom of worship was again restored. When Mr.
Ellis arrived at Tamatave in 1862 and met the rejoicing Christians, it
seemed a strange contrast to his former visits to hear them singing aloud,
with cheerful voices, for this part of their worship he had only heard
offered before in a whisper or undertone. And at the close of the service
they sang, with much appropriateness to the occasion, the native Jubilee
hymn, describing the captive and exiles' return :—

Blow loud the trumpet, Une there is Who sets free

Which tells of Christ; All who have been bound,

Yes, proclaim alnud And calls togelher the.scattered,

That the Jubilee is come. For the Jubilee is come.

* Martyr Church, pp. 1S2, 187.

t One of the hymns, which commences with a bright and chcerful ascription of praise to
God, ends with what is like a wail of sorrow from the persecuted, so that one might almost
suppose it to have been written in the very time of trial : —

Oh, our Creator ! For eaves arc our dwelling,

Oh, Jesus the Saviour ! Holes in the rock our refuge ;

Oh, Holy Spirit! Thy mcrcy alone can gladden

Save the afflicted people. The pilgrims 011 their way.


194

MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

To redeem the enslaved, For Satan is conquered,

To obtain a great heritage, There is forgiveness of sin ;

Come home, all ye scattered ones, Return, 0 ye wanderers,

For the Jubilee is come. For the Jubilee is come.

For some few years after the re-opening of Madagascar to Christian
effort, the original hymns prepared by the first missionaries were used
unaltered and without any additions. There was a curious mixture of
old and new tunes ; the former, as already mentioned, 'survivals' of the
early period, and a few of the latter taught by the missionaries then
commencing their work. But with these there came also a number of
other tunes, some picked up from barrel-organs, and dance-music learned
from the military bands,* often most incongruous and inappropriate to
the words to which they were sung ; and together with these were a few
native melodies. From this strange mixture of tunes for religious wor-
ship a number of most elaborate pieces were composed by certain native
musical geniuses. Some of these were of great length and complexity,
occasionally not without considerable ingenuity and some merit in
composition, but sometimes with a curious, and almost comical, bass
accompaniment, more like the grunt of an animal than the sound of a
human voice. But all were utterly unfit for congregational worship •
indeed it often puzzled us how the singers themselves learned such
lengthy and elaborate compositions. It was said that they sometimes
sat up all night practising these pieces, for which they paid a consider-
able sum (for Malagasy) to the teachers. The service of praise was thus
thrown almost entirely into the hands of the singers, many of whom were
slaves, and were often people quite unfit for the position they occupied
as leaders of religious worship. The opening of new chapels in the
country, and the united congregational meetings held on the first Mon-
day morning of every month, were the grand times of display for these
performances, so that this part of the service often became a mere sing-
ing contest, in which parties of singers from different chapels vied with
each other in producing startling effects.

But what (it may be said) were the missionaries doing meanwhile ?
The highly unsatisfactory state of things just described reached its climax
two or three years after the burning of the national idols in 1869, when
for some time there was imminent clanger that the Christianity of the
congregations formed previous to that date would be swamped by the
flood of heathen people who then poured into the existing chapels, and
into the new ones which were being built by hundreds all over the central
provinces. The missionaries were then a small band of not more than a
dozen men, and we were almost overwhelmed by the work of every kind
thus thrown upon us. We were painfully conscious of the evils inevit-
ably arising from such a transitional state of society, and not least by the
unedifying character of public worship, especially in places away from
our immediate influence ; but by teaching good tunes, by speaking upon

â–  * I well remember hearing good Mr. Ellis, in his own peculiar pronunciation and dialect of
Malagasy, gravely rebuking the singers at Ambatonakanga after they had been singing some
particularly lively jig to a rather solemn hymn, by saying, "Tsy mcty izany, ry sakiza ; taka-
ninny fiddle, takaninny danse izany Anglice, "That's not proper, O friends ; like afiddle, like
'â– a dance, is that."


MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. 195

the subject of praise in worship, and by papers and discussions in our
half-yearly Congregational Union meetings, we strenuously endeavoured
to guide public opinion into a more excellent way.

Two or three years previously the late Rev. R. G. Hartley had written
the first rhythmical and rhymed Malagasy hymn, a composition in which
tfye work of the Lord Jesus as the Good Shepherd was beautifully arid
idiomatically expressed. It will t>e seen from the two following verses
that the accent is perfectly regular to the metre : —

J6so Mpamdnjy, Mpiindry tokda, Taomin' ny ritsy, fitahin-tSatan^i,
Ampiverepo hanarak' Anao Efa ho lasan-ko babo 'zahay ;

Qndry mania, manary ny s6a, Fa Hianao no mah6ry mitana,
A?a av.ela hial' aminao. Tsy hahavery ny dndry iray.

Jesus the Saviour, true Shepherd (of sinners),

Cause'to return to go after Thee (now)
Wandering sheep (all) forsaking the pasture,
Do not permit them to wander from Thee.

Led by all evil, deceived by the devil,
Just on the point of captivity gone,
Thou art alone the All-powerful to hold us,
So of the sheep shall not perish e'en one.

The Malagasy verses have a ringing smoothness of cadence which
quite caught the native ear, and when, some time afterwards, they were
set to the tune of "Hail to the brightness," the hymn immediately be-
came very popular. Mr. Hartley wrote about a dozen other excellent
hymns ; these were included in a new edition of the hymn-book which
he edited in England, where he died early in 1870. The same number
of the least meritorious of the old hymns were omitted to make room for
the new ones, so that the figures by which the majority had been known
were retained unaltered. Several of the new hymns were original
compositions ; others were adaptations of English ones, such as "Son
of my soul, Thou Saviour dear," "Begone unbelief," "Jesus, Thy robe of
righteousness," "I'm but a stranger here," etc. It is worthy of remark
that the last hymn written by Mr. Hartley was one expressing perfect
trust in God and submission to His will:—

If dark should be the way, Whether I long shall live,
Jehovah, O my Lord ! Or soon shall pass away,

On Thee is all my trust; My lot's ordained by Thee,
Thou only art my lamp. I would not choose myself.

# r * *

What shall befall I know not, Thy pleasure is my own,

For hidden is from me Jehovah, O my Lord !

The days I yet shall live, Upon Thy word I wait,

Which Thou hast foreordained. In Thee is all my trust.

Meanwhile, others were at work in the same direction. The Tonic
Sol-fa system was taught by several missionaries, and before long many
hundreds of the children and voung people were able to sing at sight
from that notation. With their quick ear and natural taste for music,
they learned rapidly, so that soon many were qualified to teach others.
Several missionaries began writing hymns, some of which were published
in the monthly magazine Teny Soa ('Good Words'), and others in leaf-


196

MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

lets. Some of these were very popular, and were printed and sold by
thousands, many of them together with the tunes in Sol-fa notation ; and
subsequently several large editions of the hymn-book, now nearly doubled
in size, were disposed of, as well as great numbers of cheap school hymn-
books, Sol-fa tune-books, collections of anthems, etc. Many of the
intelligent Christian Malagasy began under English guidance to write
rhythmical hymns, some of which are quite equal to those written by
Europeans. A most marked revival of congregational singing thus took
place, and for some three or four years hymns and hymnology attracted
a great deal of public attention. Several move of the classical hymns of
England were put into a native dress, amongst others, "Rock of Ages"
(a very excellent rendering, of which a specimen verse or two is given
below*), "Come, ye sinners, poor and wretched," "O come, all ye faith-
ful," "Abide with me," "Thou art gone to the grave ;" as well as many
more recent ones, such as "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty," "We
plough the fertile meadows," "Saviour, again to Thy dear Name we
raise;" and many children's hymns, including "Mothers of Salem," "Oh,
that will be joyful," etc.

At the same time—that is, about twelve or thirteen years ago—the hymns
of the American revivalists, Messrs. Sankey, Phillips, and Bliss, found
their way over to Madagascar, and soon became very popular both with,
the Europeans and natives. It was not long before many were put into
a Malagasy dress, and being sung to the same tunes as their English
.prototypes, speedily became the most favourite songs of the people ;
so that for some years past the strains so familiar in England and
America have been equally popular in Madagascar. In church and
school, in the people's houses after they had eaten their evening meal,
in the fields as they were at work, and as they walked along the roads at
night, one constantly heard the music of "Hold the fort," "The sweet
by-and-by," "What shall the harvest be ?" "That will be heaven for
me," "Shall we gather at the river ?" and others far too numerous to
mention. The musical and liquid- and vowel-loving Malagasy lan-
guage easily adapts itself to all the varied metres of European hymns,
and there seems little difficulty in using it in any style of versification ;
.although, from the structure of the language, and the system of suffix
pronouns, the choice of rhymes is much less varied than in English.
.Herewith are specimen verses of hymns in two metres, both exactly
' ^rhythmical and rhymed, the first by an English missionary,f a capital
rendering into Malagasy of the fine missionary hymn, "Hail to the Lord's

* Jeso, Vatolampinay Tsy ny asanay atao

t Rev. J. Richardson, to whom the Malagasy owe much for his efforts to improve their
hymnology (30 hymns in the hymn-book now in use are of his composition), and also for the
most thorough and scientific teaching of the Sol-fa system, and for the preparation of tune-
books, school song-books, etc. Amongst other hymn-writers were the Rnvs. W. E. Cousins,
R. Toy, J. A. Houlder, G. Cousins, R. Baron, and C. T. Price ; and among the natives, J.
Andrianaivoravelona.

O ! arovy lzahay,
Ka ny fonay mba sasao
Manafah' anay izao ;
Mba tsy hisy 'zay hanjo
Olon-tsy mahitsy fo.

Mahato ny didinao ;
Tsy ny hazotoam-po
No mahazo manadio ;
Tsy ny ranomasonay
No mahafa-tros' anay

may.

(Rev. R. Baron.)


MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

197

Anointed ;" and the second by a native Malagasy,* a translation of
"The Lifeboat" from Mr. Sankey's Sacred Songs, both hymns being sung
to the same tune as their English originals : —

Faingana, ry Mpanjaka, Avia, fa mis6nto
Handray ny lovanao ; Aty ny 61onao ;

Faingana re, mba haka Ny fanjakana ento,
Ny tany ho Anao; Fa Tompo Hianao ;

Avia, hampifAly Tsy misy hitomany
Ny malahelo fo, Eo anatrehanao ;

Afaho ny mijaly Hiadana ny tany,
Sy izon' ny manj6. Izay halehanao.

Ry Kapiteny ! be ny ady manjo, Ny fahavaloko aty mba reseo,

Efa ho reraka sy kivy ny fd, Ka taomy aho mba handray rahat£o

Ka hatanjaho.mba hatoky Anao, Ny fi'adian' avy. ao aminao ;

Tompo 0, avia hamonjy ahy izao. Tompo 0, tsinjdvy aho, aza mandao.f

In the promotion of this revival of congregational singing and hymn-
ology in Madagascar the Press of the mission of the Society of Friends
has not been behind that of the London Missionary Society; and we
have a noteworthy illustration of the way in which common Christian
work makes good men overlook minor differences, in the fact that several
of the new hymns were composed by Friends. One of the earliest popular y
children's hymns was written by Mr. Joseph S. Sewell, for several years
the senior member of their mission in Antananarivo. This was a trans-
lation of "Whifher, pilgrims, are you going ?" The translation of "Abide
with me" is also Mr. Sewell's.

An edition of a Sol-fa tune-book was published in 1879, in which
suitable tunes are given for every one of the 247 hymns in the enlarged
hymn-book. These are very varied in character, being derived from a
number of different sources, and the grave and severely classical styles
are mingled with the more lively and popular ones. One or two of the'
old native melodies are retained to the hymns to which they have been
so long sung. Some of the 'Services of Song,' for several years past so
popular in England for Sunday-school anniversaries, festivals, and other
occasions, have been put into Malagasy, the hymns being translated,
together with the connective readings. The "Pilgrim's Progress," "Sa-
muel," and others have in this way been made available for Malagasy
services, and have given great delight to old and young.

Thus it will be seen that in their service of praise the Malagasy con-
gregations have already become largely one with their mother churches
in England who have sent them the Gospel, for they sing numbers of
the same hymns and the same tunes as those sung in England. But we

* Rajaonary, once a pupil of the writer's, and now for some years pastor of the Ambatona-
kanga Memorial Church at Antananarivo.

t These hymns may be read by English readers with little difficulty by observing the accents,.
and by remembering that the vowels have the power of the letters in Italian or French, except
0, which, save in the exclamation, marked o, is always like our English 0 in move, to, do, etc.
The consonants are much the same as in English, except that g is always hard, 5 always s an<^
not like z, and / is hard like dz. In the terminal rhymes (as well as elsewhere), ao is sounded
like ow ; ay (and ai) like eye ; to, like ewe ; and CO like a-oo. The diphthongs ao and ai (ay)
are always long and accented, so they are left here unmarked. I and_y are identical, the latter
being always used as a terminal.


198 MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

may hope that with deepening Christian experience and knowledge, there
will yet be a fuller and more original expression of devotional feeling in
sacred song ; and that many native poets will be raised up who shall do
for the sacred poetry of Madagascar what Watts and Wesley, and Keble
and Lyte and Bonar, and a host of others, have done for English hymn-
ology, and shall thus embody in "immortal verse" the faith, the hope, the
joy, and the yet wider experiences of Malagasy Christianity.

James Sibree, Jun. (Ed.)
Postscript.

The preceding paper was written during my furlough in England about five
years ago, and there is little to be added to what was there said about Malaga-
sy hymnology, and about praise in public worship in this country. The writing
of new hymns has almost ceased of late years, except a few for Sunday-school
anniversaries or other special occasions, and published in separate leaflets or
in some of the monthly periodicals. None .of them have yet been incorporated
in our hymn-book. Judging from what Khave observed since my return to
Madagascar three years ago, I fear it must be confessed that little, if any,
progress has been made of late years in promoting a more congregational
style of worship, as regards the praises offered by the people. It is true that
in most of the large churches in the Capital, as well as in many of the stronger
and more enlightened country congregations, the tunes sung are usually taken
from the Sol-fa tune-book mentioned above, tunes which are appropriate and
devotional, to our European notions, as well as easily learned. But a very
different style of music—if music it may be called— will be heard every Sunday
in the great majority of our country churches. It is difficult to describe these
strange sounds so as to convey any clear idea of them to those who have not
heard them. Noisy repeats of somp refrain, picked up probably from
European sources, with curious alternations' of bass and treble and tenor,
with now and then a passage shewing some idea of a melody, as well as
occasionally a fair harmony—these may be said to characterize the sacred
music of the mass of Malagasy congregations at the present time. Often
these strange compositions are very long and elaborate and must take no
small amount of time and trouble to learn ; they usually embody some words
taken from Scripture, or from some hymn ; but perhaps their most objectiori-
able feature is that only a few can master them, so that anything like
common, congregational, and united vocal worship is impossible.

I think few would object to hear in every service some sacred music
having the character of an anthem, to be sung by the quire only, the majority
of the worshippers not joining audibly in this part; but this should not form
the only or chief portion of the praise. That many of the Malagasy have
some musical taste and power of composing music, will I think be acknow-
ledged by all who have listened to the music of a sacred concert like that given
by the Native Preachers' Association at the Ampamarlnana Memorial Church
on Saturday afternoon, May ist, 1886, when a number of sacred pieces were
sung, several with instrumental accompaniments, and all, I believe, entirely
of native composition. Many of these seemed, aU least to those who had
"_nq scientific knowledge of music, to be most excellent and appropriate, and
suggested that there was sufficient acquaintance with musical science, as Well
, as enough correct taste, in some of our educated native friends to fit them
to be composers of appropriate hymn-tunes and anthems for divine worship.
^Similarly excellent sacred pieces were also sung at the opening of the pretty
village church at Anjanahary on the ist of last July; One is inclined to

\


MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY.

199

think that we Europeans have not yet hit upon'quite the right style of sacred
music for the Malagasy, or upon the right way to go to work in teaching
them. Have we not been a little too exacting in restricting the majority of
the tunes we have taught them to the rather severe modern classical style of
composition and harmonies ? And would not a greater latitude of style of
tune, something with repeats, fugues, and responsive parts, similar to the
tunes sung by our fathers and mothers fifty or sixty years ago, be more
suitable to the present stage of musical culture and taste among the people ?
Especially would it not enable and stimulate a much larger proportion of our
congregations to join audibly and heartily in public praise ? Certainly a
great deal remains still to be done before the singing in the vast majority of
our churches can be deemed satisfactory, wlietKer we consider the spiritual
profit of the worshippers or the glory of God.

I will only add here that I accepted with pleasure the offer of my friend the
Rev. A. M. Hewlett, M.A., to add something about hymnology and sacred
music in his own branch of the Christian church (the Anglican) here in
Madagascar. His paper accordingly follows herewith.—J.S.

SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH MUSIC IN

MADAGASCAR.

\

MUSIC is a great power in education. This fact has been more
and more fully recognized in successive Codes of the Educa-
tion Department in England, and must not be lost sight of by those who
are privileged to have a share in the education and advancement of the
Malagasy nation. A former writer in this periodical* has described the
the love of the Malagasy for the old hymns which were introduced by
the earliest missionaries from England, and which were the comfort
of native Christians in days of persecution. He mentions the defects
in those primitive specimens, especially that singular fact that there
was no attempt at rhythm in them, strong syllables falling for the most
part on unaccented notes in the music. Since Mr. Richardson wrote,
much has been done towards improvement in this matter, but much
still remains to be done. We agree with that writer in wishing that
any style of music which has been, and still is, in whatever degree, the
vehicle of heart-felt prayer, may be allowed to die a gentle death, but
with him we say "it must inevitably go." How strange it would be to
hear an English congregation singing the two following lines to "St.
Anne's" or any common-metre tune :—

The Almighty hath created
Heaven and the ocean.

* Rev. J, Richardson, in the ANNUAL for 1876, p. 23 ; see also Reprint, p. 151, seq.


200

SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH

Yet such is the character of the rhythm in very many Malagasy hymns ;
and the.absence of the 'scanning faculty' in the Malagasy mind up to
the present time is so complete, that such hymns do not excite any
feeling of dissatisfaction. Here then the need of training is seen.
While there is much scope for taste both in music and in poetry, and
much that is accepted in Europe might never be appropriate in Mada-
gascar, yet each art has its absolute rules, which cannot be broken
with impunity ; and we shall never raise music and poetry to their
proper place as powers to educate the native mind and soul, if we
acquiesce in the use of such hymns as those indicated above.

The chief difficulties in the way of mending old hymns or composing
new ones seem to me to be two: (i) the fewness of firm ultimate
syllables in the language, and (2) the number of words that are needed
to give full sense. With regard to the former point, most readers of the
Annual are acquainted with those often-recurring final syllables ha, na,
and tra. Now we shall not get any good poetry or hymns until it is a
recognized canon that to place any one of these in an accented place
in the scanning or music, to allow one of them to fall on the 'down
beat,' is a capital crime, and deserving of the punishment which befalls
an English schoolboy when he makes a false quantity in his Latin.
How many a Malagasy hymn is kept from being classed as 'excellent' by
the admission of this fault 1 Take an instance : Dr. Bonar wrote :—
A few more years shall roll,
A few more seasons come,
And we shall be with those that rest
Asleep within the tomb.

Notice the firm syllable at the end of each line. Don't clip it in singing.
How well that word "tomb" comes out on the dotted semibreve in the
music 1 Now compare the following, which" those who know the Mala-
gasy language will allow to be a fair translation of the above :—
Handalo faingana

Ny taona sisa aty,
Dia body mandry izahay
Hiala sasatra.

I have often taught this by rote to a congregation or school. The
second line falls naturally into rhythm. The Malagasy repeating it say,
"Ny taona sis(a) aty" as naturally as we say, "A few more seisons
c6me." But the fourth line ? All you can hear in the repetition is
"Hiala sasatr." The final a is no doubt sounded by them, but sounded
most lightly; and this is the note that we expect them to hold out for
three beats, thereby murdering either the music or the genius of the
Malagasy language. These three final syllables then must be carefully
avoided in all accented places. And so also should we avoid the suffix
pronouns of the first (singular) and third persons. Take two simple
lines from a version of "Jerusalem the golden :"—

Mpanjaka manan daza
No monin(a) aminy

(i.e. 'He is a glorious King Who dwelleth with them'). Now the last line
in rhythmical enough in reading "No monin{a) aminy" because the


MUSIC IN MADAGASCAR.

201

last syllable may be read short; but if you set it to its tune, and hold
out the last syllable to the final semibreve, you get "No mbmn(a) aminy,"
which is worse than singing in English, "A famous victory." The
same holds good of the suffix -ko ('my'), but, on the other hand, we have
in the suffixes of the first person plural (-ay, -anay, excluding the person
addressed) and the second person singular (-ao, -anao), good firm syllables
which may be used freely, and are happily the forms most needed in
words of prayer. Charles Wesley's beautiful lines :—

Other refuge have I none ;
Hangs my helpless soul on Thee,

are melodiously, if not fully, expressed by
Aiza handosiranay
Afa-tsy ny elatrao ?

('Whither shall we flee if not to Thy wings ?') A Malagasy reading
these lines would naturally read them in rhythm, and, in singing, the
firm ay and ao fit well to the final long notes of the music. It is neces-
sary, however, not to use these syllables so freely as to spoil the sound
by an undue number of aos and ays. This danger may be seen in two
verses of an attempt to render Mr. Keble's hymn, "New every morning
is the love :"—

Hirainay fihiram-baovao, Vaovao ny famindramponao,

Fa nentinao, ry Tompo 6, Ka saotranay hatao vaovao,

Natory tsara izahay, Nampianay ny helokay,

Ka notanjahiriao indray. Fa vOavelanao indray.

And unfortunately we have very few other firm syllables at the end of
words. The forms in oa, as soa, tokba, avokoa, are monosyllabic enough
for the purpose ; so are those in oy, as henby, ampitombby, etc. ; and we
have a few active verbs with the accent on the ultimate, as manome and
manda, and some few primitive roots available, as ra, be,fo; but a large
majority of words throw the accent further back, and this points to our
using metres with a full foot at the end of the lines, rather than those
with one long syllable. Take the first two verses of a Christmas carol,
a translation of the following :—

Waken! Christian children, Zaza Kristiana,
Up! and let us sing Asandratonao

With glad voice the praises Feo hiderana

Of our new-born King. Ny Mpanjakanao.

Up ! 'tis meet to welcome Kristo Tompontsika

With a joyous lay Io Mpanjaka io,

Christ, the King of Glory, Teraka ho antsika,
Born for us to day. Ka mba ifalio.

Here the nas in the first verse and the /'as in the second are safely
disposed of on the unaccented notes. This little carol is translated bv
a native, and is very popular in some of our schools.

A further danger arises from those eminently Malagasy syllables, the
final ka, na, and tra. It is this : some hymn writers have thought it pos-
sible to cut the a off entirely, making it of no account in the scanning.
It is possible in cases when the a is followed by a similar vowel, as in the


202

SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH

specimen above, "No monin{a) aminy," where the two as properly
coalesce into one syllable ; but it is not possible where, by leaving out
the vowel, two consonant« are brought together which do not combine
by the laws of the language. I give two instances of this from another
of our Christmas carols, which is, in spite of these blemishes, deservedly
popular:— " """

Koa mba aoka handeha isika, He ! ny mponina ao an-danitra

Ka hamboa panatitra, No indray miredona ;

Fo madio sy herintsika, Andriamanitra maka nofo

Fanajana sy vavaka. Mbamin-tsatan' olona.

Without entering on other criticism of these lines, I would point out
that a Malagasy cannot pronounce n and j together, so that the words
"Fanajan{a) sy vavaka" are inadmissible. They might, however, be
written, "Fanajan-tsy vavaka," the t saving the pronunciation and the
scanning together. But a worse error, is to try and cut off the final a of
Andriaman\tra, thus bringing r and m together. The only^way to sing
this is to break the minim which properly belongs to the syllable ma into
two crotchets, and to sing ma-ni to them ; thus wfe have the next note
for the syllable tra. But the ideal Malagasy poet of the future will find a
way to avoid such collocations.

It may be said that we are setting up too high a standard, a standard •
to which some of the first English hymns do' not attain. Undoubtedly'
Bishop Ken fell below it when he wrote :— .

Glory to Thee, my God, this nigTit,

and

Under the shadow of Thy wings.

But these have been very properly changed in some hymn-books to "All
praise," and "Beneath." Mr. Keble again wrote :— v

Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear,

and

Abide with me from morn till eve,

in corresponding stanzas ; but the variation is permissible in poetry
intended to be read only, and a good musician setting these lines to
music would vary the beat of his tune to suit them, as Dr. Dykes has done.
At the best we shall probably always have to sing many faulty lines
in Malagasy ; the present writer only pleads that more persistent efforts
should be made to give the people training in the rules of poetical and
musical art.

On the second point mentioned above, much need not be said.
The mind of the Malagasy is for the most part against short forms
of expression. This shows itself in the address of a letter, which
must always be, "To so-and-so, at such a place" (Any.. ao..), or, as in
a bill once brought me by my servant, in which every article of his
marketing had the word amidy, to buy, between it and its price,

thus :—

Threepence to buy fire-wood.
Three halfpence to buy eggs.
Sixpence to buy a turkey, etc.


MUSIC IN MADAGASCAR.

203

If anyone sets himself to translate a hymn from the English, Latin, or
I suppose, German, he will find that he needs many more lines in Mala-
gasy, if he intends to give the full sense. Thus we have a very beautiful
translation of Bonar's verses, "I heard the voice of Jesus say," but the
three verses of the original have become six. The antidote seems to
be : first, for intending hymn writers to choose very simple ideas and
not try to express much in one hymn ; and next, for the people to be
taught that a language must modify itself in poetry, and that the full
complement of articles and conjunctions is not absolutely necessary for
understanding what is meant.

Turning from the question of words to be sung to that of the
music to which they are to be sung, I should be wanting in the courage
of my convictions if I did not express myself emphatically against what
is generally called 'Malagasy singing,' as distinct from th&t' introduced
from Europe. There is no doubt that native congregations can join
very heartily in the whinings and howlings which are called by that
name, and that they find it very hard to get into any European method
of singing. Nevertheless my view is- that in the interests of advance-
ment, and, I would add, for the glory of God in the sanctuary, it must
be superseded. Do not lower an art which has been slowly perfected
,from the days of Palestrina aftd Purcell to those of Handel and Mendels-
sohn, to please the unformed tastes of a nation who only need some
years of patient teaching to become a musical people indeed. A Mala-
gasy child first learning arithmetic naturally writes his figures from left
to right, beginning with the digits on the left hand, then the tens to the
right of them, etc. ; but no teacher of arithmetic has been bold enough
to say that the recognized European method of that science should be
modified to suit the Malagasy. To take another illustration : in music
itself there is _some unpleasant drudgery to be gone through before
proficiency is acquired. "Don't give the child those crude scales to
practise hour after hour. Let him pick out pretty tunes in his own way;"
that is, in the way which a venerable friend of mine calls, "flopping on
the harmonium." Very well, let the child "flop" by all means, but he
will never become a musician or hold his own in competition with his
fellows. I would desire to be at one with the best and wisest mission-
aries who have worked here, in consulting native taste and honouring
native observance in every possible way, but I should cease to deserve
the name of a teacher if I rested content with 'Malagasy singing.' In
the matter of church hymns I would encourage the use of a certain
number of what are called 'popular melodies,' as those from Mr. Sankey's
book, or The Crown of fesus music, but I would endeavour also
to introduce some of a more solidly musical character, as those by
Tallis, Orlando Gibbons, Crotch, and down to that prince of hymn-tune
writers in our own generation, Dr. J. B. Dykes. And through hymn-
tunes I would endeavour to guide the national taste on to higher fields,
hoping that some of us may live to hear "The Messiah" or "St. Paul"
well and religiously rendered in Antananarivo.

There is another matter to which I will allude, as having a possible
Bearing on the future musical history of this nation. An eloquent writer


204 THOUGHTS ON CHURCH MUSIC IN MADAGASCAR.

has said that a cathedral may be called "a shrine for the Book of
Psalms," for in the cathedral, those noblest of all hymns are rendered to
melodious music, without omission and without cessation, month after
month through the centuries. Perhaps many who read this paper will
recall passing visits to Westminster or St. Paul's, or York or Exeter, and
how, while the other music was grander, it was yet the chanting of the
Psalms that especially refreshed their spirits and raised up their thoughts
heavenwards. Surely to give such an opportunity to the Malagasy
is an undertaking which may win the sympathy of all, even though their
own conception of missionary work or of elevating influences may be a
very different one. Such an opportunity it is hoped will be given in the
stone church now rising in the midst of this city, on the north of Ando-
hAlo. The Church of England having come late into the mission-field
of Madagascar, it may very properly be felt that her chief energies
should be given to the more distant and unchristianized parts of the
island, but here in the mother city must be her representative head-
quarters and mother church ; and it may be that in future clays, when
history is written, this praise will be hers : that she translated for the
people such ancient hymns (the property of all Christians) as the "Te
Deum laudamus,"*" and that she especially taught the people to see in
the chanted strains of the Psalter their King suffering, rising, exalted.
Such a witness she might well bear, not to those few alone who claim
her membership, but to all who own the name of Christ. In prepara-
tion for such a work the Psalter is already arranged for chanting, and
is set, for the most part, to single 'Anglican' chants of the ancient and
modern schools; and many of the Psalms, as they recur in monthly
course, are already sung in the temporary church. Is it a very distant
ideal which.fancies them really well rendered to organ accompaniment
every day, and frequently listened to or joined in by many outside the
bounds of the Anglican Mission ? Is it a vain thought to hope to raise
and elevate the Malagasy nation by such a means (among others),
when one considers what a blessing church music of a high tone has
been to many in England ?

"How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land ?" We can do
it, and gladly, if we are helping in any "measure to teach it to others who
are "no longer strangers," but "fellow citizens" with ourselves. And if
there are some here who long to visit England again, that they may hear

"-once more in college fanes

The storm ihoir high-built organs make,
And thunder music, rolling, shake
The prophets blazoned on the panes,"

they may quench their thirst for church music by striving in their
measure to make the natives here partakers in its mystic thrilling power.

A. M. Hewlett.

* It may be remarked that the "Te Deum," translated into Malagasy, was set to music
several years ago bv Mr. W. Pool and published in a small book of Anthems issued in 1873.
Also that the sublime hymn "Veni, Creator Spiritus" was translated by Rev. W. E. Cousins,
and is to be found as No. 17 in the hymn-book ilsed by the l.M.s. and P.F.M.A. congrega-
tions in Madagascar.—Eds.


205 THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL.

THE CHANNELS AND LAGOONS OF THE EAST
COAST OF MADAGASCAR.

IN a previous paper, I had the honour of laying before the
Academy* an outline of the hydrography of Madagascar,
and of shewing that the watershed of the country, instead of
dividing the island into two nearly equal portions, as was for-
merly thought to be the case, is situated much nearer the
eastern than it is to the western coast. This division of the
island into two river basins of unequal size arises from the
position of the mountains, which, almost bathing their feet in
the Indian Ocean on their eastern side, rise gradually by a
series of slopes to a considerable height; while on their western
sides, their general descent is less abrupt, and a vast plain
separates the central mass from the sea.

The rivers also which water the eastern region have a much
shorter course than those which flow towards the west. They
exist in considerable numbers, but their volume is small during
a great part of the year, because, descending by very steep
gradients, they only receive small tributory streams. Issuing
from the mountains, they find a narrow plain against which
the currents of the Indian Ocean impinge with violence; these
currents constantly tending to close up the outlets of the rivers
with sand. And because the volume of water which they
usually bring down is not large, the greater number of them
are unable to open a direct passage into the sea. If, after a
considerable flood, they sometimes force open the bar of sand
which daily accumulates, and which the ocean currents maintain
undiminished, the opening thus temporarily cleared is quickly
re-formed as soon as the river floods decrease.

It follows therefore that these rivers not often having, at least
between the 12th and the 23rd parallels, a direct and permanent
outlet, attain a size and development in the plain which
deceives one as to their true importance. From this cause also
they send out, parallel to the coast, both to north and south,
branches which, sometimes narrow, sometimes broad, following
the level and the configuration of the ground, have usually a
â– considerable length, and which, uniting with several others,
discharge their waters into the sea by a common outlet, often
situated at a great distance from the different streams which
contribute to it.

* The Paris 'Academie des Sciences.


206 THE CHANNELS AND LAGOONS

Thus it comes to pass that these channels are found in every
part of the eastern coast of Madagascar which is exposed to
the great Indian Ocean current, from i6°52' of south latitude
as far as 22°2$. From 16'52' to i8°i3', however, they are at a
considerable distance from each other; and it is only between
the mouth of the Iv6ndrona and that of the M&titanana that
they become sufficiently numerous and near together to be
utilized for coast navigation. Between these two rivers, along a
total extent of 485 kilometres [301 miles], there are twenty-two
channels or lagoons, formed by more than fifty different
streams.

These channels are of very varying dimensions : in some
places they are so narrow that a canoe can with difficulty pass
along, while in other places they widen out to from 200 to 300
mfetres [220 to 330 yards] in breadth; and wherever any
depression of the surface exists they become lakes, which are
sometimes miles in length, and of which the most important
and best known are Nosiv&, Andranok6ditra, Ras6amasay and
Rasoab&, F6noarivo, R&ngazava, and Itamp61o. They are
sometimes separated from the sea only by a simple belt of
sand a few yards in breadth, sometimes by a grassy plain
more or less covered with trees and shrubs, which measures
several hundred yards, occasionally even several miles, in width.
They are not, however, all navigable, at least at all times of the
year, for in the dry season they contain more mud than water;
still, such as nature has made them, they are very useful and do
much to facilitate communication and the transport of goods
along this inhospitable coast, where lighterage is impracticable
from the violent currents and from the heavy surf which almost
constantly prevails, and where, besides, there are neither ports
nor anchorages where vessels can take shelter. We ought,
however, to say, that this natural canal, so commodious in every
respect, has its inconveniences from a sanitary point of view,
for it renders the eastern plain a very hotbed of fever.

The one and twenty isthmuses which separate these channels,
the ampanala.ua, as the Malagasy call them—because they are
obliged to take their canoes out of the water and drag them
along the land to the next channel—have a total length of 46
kilometres [28-! miles], about one eleventh part of the whole
distance; some of these measure only a few hundred yards,
others are as much as from two to three kilometres, and one of
them is eight kilometres [nearly five miles], across.

It was interesting from a geographical point of view to make
a detailed survey of these channels and lagoons, for nowhere
else, as far as my knowledge goes, can there be found so long


OF THE EAST COAST OF MADAGASCAR.

and important a chain as this. This survey, which I made
with care by the azimuth compass, and which is verified by
eighteen astronomical observations,* is reproduced to a scale of
i—145,000 on the map which I am now completing.

On comparing this map with those which have previously
appeared up to the present day, especially with the chart of
the English Admiralty, one sees the considerable difference
which exists between the former outlines, which are altogether
imaginary, and those which are the result of my labours. In
fact, in place of lakes of great size scattered hap-hazard all along
the eastern coast, often at a considerable distance from the sea,
and represented as without any communication with each other,
this map shows, as I have said, narrow channels, almost conti-
nuous, which follow the shore closely, and which do not become
wide except occasionally. The greater part of the towns and
villages which are here marked have been shewn by me for the
first time ; and I have also rectified the position of localities
shewn on previous maps, which places, except four,J were
erroneously marked to the amount of from 15 to 20 kilometres
or more; for in one case, that of the Matitanana, the error was
as much as.28', that is, about 513 kilometres! [32 miles.] These
errors of position with regard to the mouths of important rivers
and of towns frequented by Creole traders for commercial
purposes, have often, in the case of captains of ships, been the
cause of delays which are most prejudical to the interests of
their owners.

Alfred Grandidier.

Supplementary Note.—The above article has been trans-
lated from the French original, a paper contributed to the
Comptes Rend-us des Scances de /' Acadcmie des Sciences of Paris,
March 16, 1885, a copy of which was obligingly sent to me a
few months ago by the author. A few additional particulars
may be here given as to this remarkable chain of lagoons on
the east coast of Madagascar. The "English tourist" referred to
by M. Grandidier in a foot-note was Captain W. Rooke, R.A.,
who, in the months of April and May, 1864, explored the
greater portion of these lagoons in a boat specially constructed
for the purpose at Mauritius. Capt. Rooke was accompanied

* This survey extends along all the coast comprised between the mouth of the Soamianina
(lat. S. i6°52*I5'') and that of the Matitanana (lat. 22°24,i5"), with the exception of the part
situated between Andovoranto (lat. i8°58') and Mahanoro (lat. I9°54'i3")> little over 550
kilometres. An English tourist traversed in 1864 a part of the channels and lagoons of the east
coast, but his account gives no cxact information upon this very interesting subject,
t Andovoranto, Mahanoro, Mahela, and Mananjara.


208 LAGOONS OF EAST COAST OF MADAGASCAR,

by three other gentlemen ; and leaving Tamatave on the 24th
of April, they reached Masindrano, at the mouth of the river
M&nanjara, on the 29th of May. Capt. Rooke appears to have
taken no instruments for the scientific mapping of the country
he traversed, but he carefully noted the succession of channels,
lagoons and lakes, full particulars of which are given in his
paper entitled, "Boat Voyage along the East Coast Lakes of
Madagascar" [Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc., Dec. 1865). Capt. Rooke's
estimate of the proportion of land portage to water-way along
the coast was a little less than one-tenth of the whole distance;
he says that "in no case had the boat to be carried more than
six miles from one lake to another; and frequently, to effect a
junction between two of the lakes, it would only be necessary
to enlarge a small water-course forming a connection between
them." It is evident that with a comparatively small expendi-
ture a continuous and commodious water-way might be made
along 300 miles of coast, connecting the principal ports on this
side of the island, and giving a great impetus to trade. By
cutting less than 30 miles of canal, Iv6ndrona, a little south
of Tamatave, might be connected with Andovor&nto, V&tom&n-
dry, Malianoro, Mah^la, Ambahy, Masindrano and many other
less important places, as well as with the interior up to the foot
of the upper plateau. More than 50 years ago, during the reign
of the first Radama, this great work was actually commenced ;
and a large number of men were gathered together to make the
necessary cuttings to join the lagoons ; but the death of that
sagacious sovereign put an end to the work. It may be hoped
that the present Government may feel itself able at no very
distant date to recommence this undertaking. A great increase
of trade and prosperity along the eastern side of the island
would certainly result from the completion of this 'East Coast
Canal.' It need only be added that some of the most beautiful
scenery in Madagascar is to be found along the shore where these
lakes and lagoons occur. The belt of land between them and
the sea is covered with the freshe.st turf, and clumps of trees and
shrubs scattered over the surface make it appear almost like an
English park. On one side are the glassy waters of the lake,
often spreading away for a mile or two to the west, with the
blue ranges of the interior as a background ; while on the other
side are the magnificent waves of the Indian Ocean, with their
ceaseless roar; and, further out to sea, is the almost uninter-
rupted coral reef, crested with foam, as the great rollers dash
themselves into spray.

James Sibree, Jun. (Ed.)


209 THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL.



BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR.

COULD the readers of the Annual have been introduced about
mid-day on Wednesday, October 28th of last year, into the
Committee-room of the London Missionary Society, which forms part
of the great block of College buildings that are now such a conspicuous
object on the F&ravohitra hill, in Antananarivo, they would have seen,
seated round a long office table, seven European missionaries and two
native pastors. At the head of the table is seated the chairman, the
writer of the present paper; on his right are the Rev. L. Dahle,
superintendent of the Norwegian Mission, Mr. H. E. Clark, of the
Friends' Mission, and the Rev. T. T. Matthews, of the London Mission ;
on his left are seated the Revs. W. Montgomery and R. Baron, F.L.S.,
of the London Mission, and Bishop Kestell-Cornish, of the Anglican
Mission ; while opposite the chairman are Joseph Andrlanaivorav6Iona
and Andriandny, both of them college-trained men of good ability and
large experience. On the table are scattered books and papers, such as
Polyglot Bibles, concordances, dictionaries, commentaries, and printers'
proofs. The Committee met at half-past eight, and after a short prayer
for help began its morning's work—viz. the Book of Malachi. The
work has gone on steadily for nearly four hours, and now the solemn
and awe-inspiring words that form the last paragraph of the Old Testa-
ment are reached, and the first revision of the Malagasy Bible is
complete. Books are closed with a sigh of relief, and all faces are
brightened by the consciousness that a great work has been accomplished.

Twelve years before this the Revision Committee began its work ; but
of the original members4' who took part in the work of the first session,
only three are present this morning—viz. the chairman, the Rev. L.
Dahle, and Pastor Joseph Andrianaivoravelona. At the suggestion of
Mr. Dahle, all kneel round the table, and, with the revised version lying
before them, unite in a few words of earnest and joyful thanks to God,
and commend to Him the work upon which the labour of so many years
has been spent, beseeching Him to make this new translation a stream
of life and blessing to the Malagasy people.

But why has such a laborious task been undertaken ? Did not David
Jones and David Griffiths complete the translation of the Scriptures into
the Malagasy language before the outbreak of the persecution ? And did
not their version, read in secret and at risk of liberty or life, sustain the
faith of the little flock in Madagascar during a quarter of a century of
repression and persecution ? Yes, to the eternal honour of these two
missionaries, and their colleagues, Johns and Freeman, who helped in
th e later stages of the work, be it said that, notwithstanding the multi-
farious duties devolving upon them, they did succeed in thus laying the
foundation of Bible translation in the Malagasy language. David Jones

* Present at first Session, December ist—19th, 1873 : Dr. Mullens, Rev. J. Pillans, visitors
on behalf of B. and F.B.S. ; Rev. W. E. Cousins, Principal Reviser, B. & F.B.S. ; Revs. R.
Toy, J. Sibree, and G. Cousins, L.M.S. ; Revs. L. Dahlc and M. Borgen, N.M.S. ; Mr. J. S.
Sewcll, F.F.M.A. ; Rainimanga, Andrianaivoravclona, and Andriambelo, native helpers,


210 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR.

reached Antananarivo in October, 1820, and David Griffiths in May of
the following year. By the year 1824 they had made a fair start with
their translation work, and by March, 1830, an edition of 3,000 copies of
the New Testament was issued. Five years later (June, 1835) the Old
Testament was completed, and the first edition was printed at the Mission
Press in Antananarivo. All honour, then, to the two Welshmen who,
by their noble work, have laid all future generations of Malagasy under
the deepest obligation. But our work of revision was none the less
necessary, because we delight to think of the good foundation laid by
our honoured predecessors. The experience of Madagascar has been in
no sense exceptional. The work of even such men as William Carey
and Henry Martyn has not met all the wants of those for whose benefit
it was undertaken. And so, in Madagascar, experience showed that
much might be done to render the translation more accurate and
idiomatic. Indeed, in all translation work, even success is but an
approximation to perfection, and no translators, or bodies of translators,
can claim finality for their versions. The present Revision Committee in
Madagascar, though they hope, as the result of thirteen or fourteen years'
work, to present to the Malagasy Christians a translation which all will
acknowledge to be a great advance on what has gone before it, quite an-
ticipate that some future generation of foreign or, perhaps, native schol-
ars, may be able still further to revise and improve their present work.

Without entering into minute and wearisome details as to earlier
movements in the direction of Bible revision, let me state briefly the
origin, constitution, and work of the present Committee of Revisers. In
the early part of the year 1872 it happened that there were present in An-
tananarivo representatives of all the Protestant societies having agencies
in Madagascar, and the need of some united action was felt. The Bible
would be used in all these Missions alike, and naturally all felt a desire
to see the work of revision undertaken by a board that would fully and
fairly represent the different interests involved. A conference was held
on April 3rd, 1872, and, as a result of its deliberations, a formal appli-
cation was made to the British and Foreign Bible Society to grant its
sanction and help to the important work contemplated. The main
features of the plan suggested to the Bible Society were : (i) the appoint-
ment of the present writer to the post of 'Principal Reviser,' to prepare
a preliminary version, to preside at the meetings of the Committee,
and to superintend the printing of its version ; (2) the appoint-
ment of a representative committee composed of missionaries of all the
Protestant societies in the following proportions : the London Mission-
ary Society, three ; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, one ;
the Church Missionary Society, one ; the Norwegian Missionary Society,
two ; the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, one.

The British and Foreign Bible Society promptly and generously agreed
to this joint proposal, and undertook the whole pecuniary responsibility
involved—that is to say: (1) the payment of the salary of the principal
reviser; (2) travelling expenses of the delegates; (3) the cost of native
assistance; (4) the purchase of critical books and stationery; and (5) the
printing of the proofs,


211 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR.

The consent of the Bible Society having been obtained, the next step
was the appointment of delegates. As soon as these had been appointed,
a preliminary meeting was held On July 24th, 1873, at the house of Mr.
W. Johnson, of the F.F.M.A., who had acted as'secretary to the confe-
rence. At this meeting several preliminary questions were discussed,
and it was resolved that, instead of entering at once upon the general
work, a tentative revision of a few selected chapters (viz. Gen. i. —iv.;
Ex. i., ii., xx.; Psa. i.—v.; Matt, v. —vii.) should be made by the
principal reviser, and that a session should be held for the purpose of
discussing these portions and of ascertaining more in detail than Could
be done in general conversation how far the delegates were united in
judgment as to the extent and character of the changes required. This
plan, it was hoped, would simplify the work of the principal reviser, and
give to his future labours greater definiteness and precision. This first
session was held in December, 1873. Daily sittings of five or six hours
were held for about three weeks, and the following portions were revised :
Gen. i.—iii. ; Ex. xx. 1-17 ; Psa. i., ii. ; Mat. v. 1-22 ; vi. 9-13 (in all,
142 verses, or on an average about twelve verses per day).

The general work of revision on the lines laid down was now proceeded
with, and, as will be seen from the foregoing description, comprised two
distinct departments—viz. (1) the preparation of the preliminary version
which was to form the basis of the work, and (2) the revision and im-
provement of this version by the united action of the Committee.

Of the preparation of the preliminary version the following is a brief
description written soon after its completion on September 12th, 1884 : —

"The last proof (Old Testament, No. 220, containing Zech. xi. 9 —Mai. in-
24) was finished on September 12th. This work of preliminary revision was
begun in October, 1873, and has thus stretched over a space of eleven years.
It did not, however, take the whole of this time ; but deducting my absence
on furlough (1876—1878), and the time spent in 1880 and 1881 in preparing
'copy' of the unrevised portions for use in the 'Interim Edition,' I think about
eight years was the time actually spent on it. But it should be remembered
that during the whole of this time about two days a week were taken up with
the ordinary work of the Revision Committee.

"This tentative version has been prepared in a series of'Principal Reviser's
Proofs.' These proofs were octavo in size, printed in clear type, with a wide
margin for notes. Most of them contained eight pages, but a few extended
to ten or twelve. The average number of verses in a proof was about no.
Two hundred and eighty-four proofs have been printed-viz. 64 of the New
Testament and 220 of the Old Testament. The original arrangement was
that three Old Testament proofs should be prepared for each one of the New
Testament, and, at first, this plan was in the main followed. But after a
time it was deemed desirable to proceed at once with the remaining books of
the New Testament, and from July, 1880, to November, 1881, the Old Testa-
ment work was suspended, and the revision of the remaining books of the
New Testament—viz. Acts to Revelation was completed.

"My plan of working in preparing these proofs was to take a page of the
Malagasy Bible pasted on a sheet of paper for notes, and compare this word
for word with the original, using the best critical aids in my possession, and
endeavouring, in the first instance, to make the translation as literal as
possible. Every point that appeared doubtful I marked with a (?), and at
the end of the week I went through these doubtful passages with my native


212 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR.

helper, Ralaiarivony. At the beginning, I had two natives to help me in this
kind of work—viz., Ralaiarivony and Andriamamanga. Both of these
belonged to the caste of andriana (or nobles). They had not enjoyed any
special training, but were pien of good general ability, and of very correct
taste in matters affecting their own language ; and as I wanted help chiefly
in questions of idiom and taste, I do not think I could have made a better
choice. During my absence in England Andriamamanga died, but Ralaiari-
vony has continued to work with me week by week to the end, and great
praise is due to him for his patient care and good taste. In the earlier part
of the work, it usually took us several hours to go through the passages I had
marked thus (?); but as we.advanced, and more points had been settled, and
as I myself grew more accustomed to the work, this time was gradually les-
sened, until in the last portions we spent not more than an hour, or an hour
and a half, in discussing the doubtful points that had arisen out of a week's
work. Friday morning has for some years been the time usually devoted to
this work, and the remaining hours of the day were generally spent in prepar-
ing clean copy for the printer.

"In looking back over the eleven years that have slipped away since I put
my hand to this revision work, I have great reason to thank God for the
enjoyment of health and strength. With very slight interruptions, I have
been able to keep steadily at my work from week to week. During the middle
portion of the work I often felt weary, and almost afraid I could not keep on
till the end ; but, on the whole, what I have done has been a labour of love
and a source of much delight and instruction to myself. The work has grown
upon us all, and we have found the Malagasy language much richer than we
had imagined it to be, and capable of expressing many distinctions and
shades of meaning we had supposed to lie beyond its range. Many more
changes have been made than I originally thought would be necessary ; but we
have felt unwilling to leave anything that could by pains and care be brought
nearer the original. My version has been very largely modified and "greatly
improved by the Committee ; but I think it may be considered to have formed
a useful basis for the united work, and to have facilitated the progress of the
revision."

The work of the Committee has been from these preliminary proofs to
build up what we earnestly hope will become a 'standard version,' which
shall be received with confidence by all Protestants in Madagascar, and
round which, as the years pass, shall gather sacred associations and loving
reverence. At first the Committee held continuous sessions of several
weeks each twice a year. But at the close of the third session a change
of plan was introduced, and instead of holding sessions of several weeks'
duration, the Committee agreed to sit one day per week, with an
occasional session of a week or a fortnight, when arrears of work should
render this necessary. These weekly meetings were begun February
znd, 1875, and were continued without serious interruption till March
7th, 1876, by which time the Committee had revised as far as Exodus in
the Old Testament, and to the end of Matthew in the New Testament.
Owing to the fact that the principal reviser was about to leave for
England on furlough, the work was then suspended.

As soon as possible after his return in 1878, the weekly meetings were
resumed, and from November 14th, 1878, to October 28th, 1885, they
were continued with a reasonable amount of regularity, and occasional
continuous sessions were held at not unfrequent intervals. The rate of
progress naturally varied much according to the character of the portion


213 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR.

under revision. In some of the earlier meetings of the Committee not
more than ten or twelve verses were revised in a whole day. The largest
quantity revised in a single day was 309 verses, but this is easily accounted
for by the character of the portion revised (2 Kings xxv. 2—1 Chron. vi.
66). From sixty to a hundred verses was an average day's work.

Our plan was to meet at 8.30 a.m., and work three hours in the
morning and three in the afternoon. The day's meeting was opened
with a brief prayer, and we then proceeded to revise the portion for
consideration verse by verse. We had with us usually three native
helpers. The Committee sat on 433 days, and held in all 771 sittings,
chiefly of three hours each. The work has been laborious and has been
a heavy tax on our patience; but I think I may truly say we have
attained a fair standard of exactness and thoroughness. The Rev. L.
Dahle, of the Norwegian Mission, has been able to render the Committee
most valuable help, especially from his full and exact knowledge of
Hebrew and the cognate languages. In this department he has been
facile princeps, and the translation owes very much to his untiring care
and keenness of critical insight. But every member of the Committee
has in his own order contributed to the "final result, and the actual
language employed is not the choice of any individual, but is the result
of combined thought and discussion. Many of the happiest and most
apt phrases the version contains have sprung unexpectedly to light in
the midst of our discussions, and have at once commended themselves
to our judgment. As a rule the wishes of the native helpers (within
certain well-defined limits, which as faithful translators we felt bound to
maintain) have been followed as to the actual form of the sentences,"
and even as to the choice of words ; and hundreds of small changes have
been made, which no foreigner would have thought necessary, and of
which few would see the reason, purely out of deference to native opinion.
I think every member of the Committee would heartily confess our
obligations to our native brethren. We ourselves have learned much,
especially as to the possibility of misunderstanding phrases that seemed
to us quite clear, and as to undesirable associations lurking in unsus-
pected quarters. We have again and again been taught the danger of
undue literalism, and have found what numberless pitfalls lie in the path
of one who is dealing with a language not his own. Certainly a greater
humility in estimating our own proficiency in the language should be
one of the fruits of our long-continued work. No amount of familiarity
with it seems to give us quite the instinct and taste of a native ; and we
have been saved from many an ambiguity and from not a few absurdities
by the keener perceptions of our native co-workers. Malagasy transla-
tions of the Bible contain certain often-cited instances of the absurdities
into which a translator may, alas ! too easily fall. We have, for instance,
a translation of Gen. iii. 13, which at any rate suggests the thought that
the woman swallowed the serpent. So, too, from taking the common
preposition amy to mean with, which in some combinations it may do,
we have a translation of Gen. xxiv. 15, which says that Rachel came
forth from her pitcher. In John ix. 1, one translation speaks of a . man
who had been blind from the time .of his begetting a child (nikrdhauy


214 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR.

for nahaterahany). And in Acts xii. 7, the angel is represented as being
more violent than we should think probable, as it is said that he kicked
Peter's side ! If we have been delivered from such serious misrepresen-
tations (as I hope we have been, though I am by no means sure an
ingenious native might not press out of some of our phrases an undesir-
able meaning), we certainly owe this very much to the care, quick per-
ception, and patience of these native helpers.

As to the general character of our revision, I could not, of course,
speak without partiality, as my whole time and thought have been absorbed
in it for ten or eleven years. But I can say that our version is a bond fide
attempt to represent faithfully the original Hebrew and Greek texts. While,
however, we have endeavoured to be faithful translators, we have aimed
not merely at fidelity to the words, but to the thoughts. There is a false
literalism that destroys utterly the claim of the translation to be a faithful
representation of the mind of writer. Our aim has been to steer between
the Scylla of a mechanical literalism and the Charybdis of an over-free
paraphrase. We have also kept before us constantly the fact that our
version is being made for popular use, and we have tried to make the
language as clear, intelligible, and euphonious as possible. With the
valuable help of the natives we hope to produce a version that from
its simplicity and purity of style, and its fidelity to the idioms of the
language, shall be received with pleasure, and shall exercise an elevating
and purifying influence on the literature of the future.

The remaining months we intend to spend on our work will be
devoted to the general simplification and improvement of style from a
native point of view. In order to finish the work by the middle of next year,
and to prevent the necessity of handing it on unfinished to what—as so
many members are leaving next year —would virtually be a new Commit-
tee, this second revision has been mainly left to myself and the three
native brethren, the Committee exercising general supervision and hold-
ing meetings once in two months to decide on difficult and doubtful
points. I fear our task, as even thus simplified, will not be completed
in less than sixty or seventy sittings of six hours each ; but the effect of
this final revision will certainly be to render the style smoother, and to
make it generally more acceptable to the native ear. The task is a very
tedious one, but I think the result will amply repay us for our labour.

The fruits of our long-continued toil are yet to appear. Some portions
of our translation—Pentateuch, Psalms, New Testament—in its first and
incomplete form, have already appeared in the 'Interim Edition' (1882),
and in the small edition of the New Testament (1883). On the whole,
their reception has been favourable, and we are encouraged to believe we
have done much to make the Bible more intelligible. But the final form
of our translation will, especially in the earlier books, be a great improve-
ment on those portions.

For.the workers themselves, I can certainly say the toil has been a
source of spiritual profit and enlarged knowledge. But beyond this
there has been a most clear and manifest gain in bringing thus to a
common work missionaries of varioUB societies, with differihg tastes and
Convictions. The editorial superintendent of the Bible Society, at the


215 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR.

beginning of the work, expressed the wish of our English friends in the
following words : "That no difference of opinion or policy in other
matters may hinder the harmonious proceeding of the present work. It
is hard indeed for men to co-operate when they feel that there is a
material difference between them ; but this Bible revision is a blessed
opportunity for exhibiting to the island the unity of faith in the Scrip-
tures as the authoritative declaration of God's will." And now, as we
near the close of our work and look back upon its progress, we see how
fully this wish has been fulfilled. I may be allowed to quote here a few
words from Bishop Kestell-Cornish's letter a few months since, informing
me that he was about to leave the island, and could no longer join with
us in the work. He says : "I think it may be said without irreverence
that our work together has illustrated the truth of the evangelical
promise, that by The Voice the valleys shall be exalted, the hills brought
low, the crooked made straight, and the rough places plain. And can
we doubt that the result of onr work, in which, however, I have borne
the humblest share, will be a wider revelation of the glory of the Lord ?"

William E. Cousins.

APPENDIX.

List of Members of the Revision Committee.

Name.

1. Rev. William E. Cousins .

2. ,, Robert Toy ..........

3. ,, James Sibree..........

,, George Cousins............

,, Henry Maundrell .........

„ Alfred Chiswell............

,, Lars Dahle..................

,, Martin Borgen ............

Mr. Joseph S. Sewell ........

Rev. R. T. Batchelor...........

,, Benjamin Briggs ........

Mr. Louis Street.................

Rev. Francis A. Gregory,

M.A.....................

Mr. Samuel Clemes ..........

Rev. Charles Jukes..............

,, Harry W. Grainge .....

., Alfred Smith..............

Bishop Kestell-Cornish, D.D.

Mr. Henry E. Clark..........

Rev. Richard Baron ...........

,, William Montgomery ..
,, Thomas T. Matthews ..

Society.

First attendance.

B. & F.B.S.
L. M. S.
L.M. S.

L. M. S.
C. M. S.
S. P. G.
N. M.S.
N. M. S.
F. F. M. A.
S. P. G.
L. M. S.
F. F. M. A.

S. P. G.
f. F. M. A.
L. M. S.
L. M. S.
S. P. G.
S. P. G.
f. F. M. A.
L. M. S.
L. M. S.
L. M. S.

July 21. 73
July 21. 73
July ir. 73
July 21. 73
Oct. 28. 78
Never attended
Never attended
July 21. 73
July 21. 73
July 21. 73
May II. 74
Nov. 16. 74
Feb. 2. 75

June 22. 75
Oct. 28. 78
Nov. 14. 78
Nov. 14. 78
June 24. 79
Aug. 10. 81
Nov. 23. 81
July 19. 82
Aug. 16. 82
Jan. 17. 83

Last do.

Oct. 28. 78
Mar. 7. 76
June 5. 74
Aug. 23.82

Feb. 22. 82
Dec. 11, 74
Mar. 9. 75
Mar. 7. 76
Mar. 7. 76

May
Nov.
Aug.
May 3. 82
Oct. 13. 80

8. 79
2. 81
2. 82

Sittings
attended.

771
156
159

244

507
376
96
148
102
74

85
136

209
211
84
91
279
181

215

172

Note.—The date of issue of each division of the revised version of the Bible is given at
p. 63 of Mr. Sibree's Madagascar Bibliography.


216

THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL.

THE PERSONAL ARTICLE 'I' IN MALAGASY.

THE Rev. W. E. Cousins says, on p. 58 of his Concise Introduction to

the Study of the Malagasy Language, that "variety of opinion has
always existed as to the correct way of writing this prefix. With many
words it is united, as in Ilify, IkAtobe. P6re Weber gives three ways (Die.
Mai.-Fran., p. 329 ; Gram., p. 217) :—(\~) Ny zanaky i foary ; (2) Ny zanaky
foary; (3) Ny zanak' i foary; to these may be added a fourth : (4) Ny
zanak' Ijoary. This last seems the more correct." Four other ways of
writing it may also be added: (5) Ny zanak' ifoary; (6) Ny zanak'
I foary; (7) Ny zanak' I foary; and (8) Ny zanaky Ifoary. Of these
various ways, the second, which is the least correct of all, is the one now
in use. I say "least correct," because the personal article, while it
distinctly appears in Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, becomes in (2) identical
with a form which expresses the possessive.

But it is when the personal article is incorporated in the suffix -ny
(which is very frequently the case1, that the greatest objection to it arises.
Frequently it gives a meaning quite the contrary of what is intended.
Take the sentence : "Nanao izany izy, ka niteny taminy Paoly nanao hoe"
This, it is evident, may mean either : (a) "He did that, and said to
Paul," or, [b) "He did that, and Paul said to him." Sentences that
have come up occasionally in the Bible Revision Committee have been
altered simply to avoid confusion in this particular ; others, however,
have escaped notice, thus 1 Chron. xx. 7 [first revision] runs thus : "Ary
nihaika ny Isiraely izy, ka matiny fonatana, zanaky Simea, rahalahiny Davi-
da." Here it does not appear whether the lehilahy vaventy mentioned in the
previous verse was killed by Jonathan, or Jonathan by the lehilahy vaventy.
Again, in the first chapter of 1 Kings there are the two following pas-
sages : ver. 38, "Dia nidina Zadoka mpisorona.......dia nampitaingina

any Solomona ny ampondravaviny Davida mpanjaka." This, it is evident,
may mean (a) that Zadok caused Solomon to ride on David's ass ; or (b)
that David caused Solomon to ride on his own (Solomon's) ass; or (c)
that David caused Solomon to ride on David's ass. In verse 53 we have :
"Aty avy izy, dia niankohoka teo anatrehany Solomona mpanjaka." This
may mean either (a) that Adonijah bowed himself to Solomon ; or (b)
that Solomon bowed himself to Adonijah. Many more such passages of
uncertain signification doubtless occur in the revised version of the
Scriptures and in other publications. It may of course be said with
truth that the meaning of the -ny in such passages as the above could in
most cases be gathered from the context; but is not that in itself a proof
that the words themselves are not a faithful transcript of the thought they
are intended to convey ?

I have said above that the second form {Ny zanaky foary) is the one
now in use, but as a matter of fact even this is not consistently followed
out. We see, for instance, novorin' Ilehidama, and novoriny Lehidama.
In the Report of the Annual Meeting of the B6tsil£o (L.M.S.) Mission
for the year 1883, page 7, occurs the following sentence : "Indrisy ! fa
tnifamadika amy ny nataony faona ny nataon' Isoarojo."


THE PERSONAL ARTICLE '/' IN MALAGASY. 217

The only objection that has been raised against the / or i being
written separately, or conjoined to its noun, is that it is somewhat dero-
gatory to the person to whose name it is prefixed. Especially is it
objected to when used before the names of God or Christ. But if the y
of aminy in the sentence nankeo aminy Kraisly is meant to express the
personal article, which it certainly is, what less objection can there be
to_>' a/fixed to amin, than to / or i pre fixed to Kraisly? If it is not
thought derogatory to utter the personal article in speech, it cannot be
wrong to write it. Not only so, but the I is by no means necessarily a
derogatory prefix. We say Ikala and Ikoto, it is true ; but we say of the
Queen, Itompokovavy Ranavalona, and of the Prime Minister, Ingahy
(which, by the by, is more honourable than Rangahy). Then we have iva-
diko, idada, ineny, etc. But even though occasionally derogatory or fami-
liar, it is not universally so. In such sentences as anilany Kraisty there
is nothing derogatory, and yet there is no doubt that the y of anilany
really represents the personal article I; then why not write it and avoid
the ambiguity of the phrase ? The form of writing this personal article
is of course a matter of taste. By having the i or / separated from
the noun, the name would stand unaltered, which would be an advan-
tage. If it were employed only where we now have -ny as the sign
of the ablative or possessive and as the suffix of prepositions, as noka-
pohM i Tomasy ; mpanompon! i Petera ; anilari i Paoly, it would be suffi-
cient to avoid all the ambiguity which appears in nokapohiny Tomasy;
mpanompony Petera ; anilany Paoly.

The following passage (, 1 Kings ii. 30) illustrates the personal article
in all the above forms :—

(1) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano-lainy i Jehovah ka nanao taminy
i Joaba hoe : Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka : Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe : Izany no lazainy i Joaba.

(2) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lainy Jehovah ka nanao taminy
Joaba hoe : Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka ; Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy : Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe : Izany no lazainy Joaba.

(3) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano-lain' i Jehovah ka nanao tamin'

i Joaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka : Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy : Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe : Izany no lazain' i Joaba.

(4) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lain' Ijehovah ka nanao tamin'

Ijoaba hoe : Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka : Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy : Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe : Izany no lazain' Ijoaba.

(5) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lain' ijehovah ka nanao tamin'
ijoaba hoe : Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka : Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy : Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe ; Izany no lazain' ijoaba.

(6) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lain' I Jehovah ka nanao tamin'
1 Joaba hoe : Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka : Mivoaha, Fa hoy izy : Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe : Izany no lazain' I Joaba,


218 THE PERSONAL ARTICLE I IN MALAGASY.

(7) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano-lainy I Jehovah ka nanao taminy
I Joaba hoe : Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka : Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy : Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe : Izany no lazainy I Joaba.

(8) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano-lain' IJehovah ka nanao tamin'
IJoaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia,
fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny
mpanjaka indray hoe : Izany no lazain' IJoaba.

Personally I should prefer either the form (3) or (6), because in these
the name stands apart, unchanged by the personal article ; the latter (6)
is somewhat similar to our way of writing English names, as 'Mr.' Brown.
At any rate, form (2), the one now in vogue, is the only one of the eight
possible forms which disguises the personal article.

R. Baron (Ed.).

SIKIDY AND VINTANA:

HALF-HOURS WITH MALAGASY DIVINERS. (NO I.)

WHAT is Sikidy ? My Malagasy professor extraordinarius in this

science gave a short and plain answer to this question, writing
on the cover of his sikidy collection, 'Ny Baiboliri ny Razanay" ("The
Bible of our Ancestors"), and I am inclined to think that he has hit the
nail on the head. I at least, after having lived in this country conti-
nuously for 16 years, have come to the conclusion that this nation has
been much more under the spell of Sikidy and Vintana than under that
of the old idols. These latter have, according to tradition, been introdu-
ced here comparatively recently, and there is certainly a good deal that
tends to prove the correctness of this tradition. At any rate they have
by no means got such a widely-spread and deeply-rooted influence over
the whole nation as have vintana and sikidy. In many provinces even
the most famous idols, as K^limaliza and Ramihavily, were compara-
tively very little known or cared for (Im^rina was chiefly their domain);
but who did not fear the vintana (fate) or trust in the sikidy (divination)?
If you want to look into the future, to detect secret enemies or dangers,
to find out what is to be your lot of good or evil, the sikidy is the means
of doing it. And the best of it is, that it does not, like the Fates or
Parces of old, mercilessly leave you to your destiny, but kindly
undertakes to avert the dreaded evils. If you are sick, the mpisikidy (the
person who understands and practices the sikidy) does not at all—like
many of our modern doctors—treat you 'tentatively,' which really means
leaving you and nature to settle the matter between yourselves as best
you can ; neither are they shallow-minded enough to treat the case
merely 'symptomatically.' As diligent men, they set to work immediately,
and as truly scientific doctors, they first try to find out the cause of the
evil, and then the means of removing it. And if they can give you no
other benefit in a desperate case, they will at least cheer up your spirits


219- SIKIDY AND VINT AN A.



with a good assurance, generally terminating in a very emphatic phrase,
to the effect that, "if you die, you shall be buried on the top of their
head." And even if your spirit has actually left you, they do not give
you up in despair, as I shall have occasion to point out in the following
pages (cf. what is to be said about 'Fangalan-keo').

I am, however, reluctantly forced to admit that I am not able entirely
to exculpate my friends from the accusation that there is a slight tinge
of medical heresy about them, inasmuch as their whole faditra-system
seems to rest upon the homoeopathic principle, "Similia similibus curan-
tur;" for the faditra (i.e. the thing the mpisikidy ordered to be thrown
away to prevent or avert an evil) was generally something that in name,
shape, or number, etc., was similar to the evil in question. E.g. if the
sikidy brought out 'maty rod ('two deaths' , two locusts should be killed
and thrown away to prevent the death of two men ; if it brought out
'mararf ('sick'), a piece of the tree called hazo marary ('a sick tree')
should be made a faditra ; cf. also Malagasy Customs, by Rev. W. E.
Cousins, p. 34. But this, however, I do not intend to enter into any
further here, as my object is only to point out what sikidy really is, and
from whence it originated.

The people had a remarkable trust in their mpisikidy and their art;
this appears even in the names by which they called them. Here in
Im^rina and B6tsil&o it was. quite common to style them simply 'ny ma-
sina' ('the holy ones'), a term which, however, did not so much imply
sanctity as strength and superhuman power. In the provinces—especi-
ally in the south and west—they are generally called ambiasa (ambiaty,
om.bia.ty, etc.), as they were called among the Antandsy at Fort Dauphin
as early as the time of Flacourt; and this term is, as I have shown else-
where,* the Arabic anbia, 'prophet."

Sikidy (Arab, sichr, charm, incantation)f has generally been translated
'divination,' but it has a somewhat wider sense, as it includes both the
investigation of what is secret, and the art of finding out the remedy
for it, if it proves to be of such a nature that a remedy is required ; but
the second depends on the first.

As will be seen in the following pages, there are three kinds of sikidy
\vhich are employed almost exclusively in finding out what is secret (Sikidy
mitovy tsangana, Sikidy tokana, and Lofi-tsikidy), while the other kinds
have more to do with remedying the evils. The first class, however,
forms the sikidy par excellence, manipulated according to a rather intricate
system ; the second class depends upon it and seems to be of a somewhat
more arbitrary character.

* ANNUAL II., p. 87 (Reprint, p. 215).

f An anecdote will illustrate how much tempted the natives still are to trust the sikidy, or
at least to think that some supernatural forces are at work in it. When my friend the Rev.
Mr. Vig at Sirabe—who has collected most of the information I have had from natives about
the sikidy—was employing an elderly man as his informant, this man was rather unwilling to
enter into the subject, saying that it was a dangerous affair. And as Mr. Vig was shortly
after this attacked by robbers and had a narrow escape, he declined to continue, exclaiming :
"Did I not tell you that something would happen f The Devil is in it!" But a younger
tnan, who had first frequented the 'High School for Sikidy' at Ambatofinandrahana and then
afterwards got a fair education with us, was less superstitious, and it was from him that both.
Mt. Vig and I got most of our information,


220-

SIKIDY AND VINT AN A.

The sikidy rests on the vintana as its basis, and it is therefore impos-
sible to treat of the former without to some extent dealing with the
latter also. The vintana (Arab, evinat, times, seasons) means ori-
ginally 'times,' and then the 'destiny' of a man, as depending on the
times, i.e. either the destiny of a man's life 'his vintana), as depending
on the time of his birth, or the fitness (or the reverse) of certain times
for certain actions (e.g. a burial). The first one was the vintana proper,
the second one was more accurately styled San-and.ro (literally, 'the hours
of the day' (Arab, sa'a or se'a, hour, but also used in a wider sense of any
moment in the present time), a term that will explain itself more fully
in the course of this article.

But the supposed influence of the different times on the destiny of
men depends again on the celestial bodies governing them. Therefore
the vintana in its turn rests on astrology. The different days and months
are each made to be connected with different constellations. And, as
I have shown in former articles in this magazine, it is chiefly the 12
Signs of the Zodiac and the 28 'Moon-stations' (Manazil-ul-kamari) on
which the Malagasy (originally Arabic) chronology and astrology
depends, the former being applied to the months (Annual II., p. 77—
82), the latter to the days of the month (Annual III., p. 131). When I
add to this the seven planets of the ancients (i.e. including the sun and
the moon, but excluding the earth and, of course, also the more distant
planets, which were not then known at all), which play an important
part in the san-andro, as will appear later on,—I have, 1 believe, enumerat-
ed all the astronomical elements in the Malagasy astrology and divination.

It would evidently seem to have been the most logical manner of
treating the subject, first to have explained the astrology which is at the
foundation of the OT'«Az«<2-doctrine, and then to have passed on to the
sikidy, which is chiefly to be considered as the practical outcome of it.
But against this proceeding I would object:—

; 1) That the theoretical connection between the three things (astrology,
vintana and sikidy) has already been lost sight of by the natives, and
can in some respects scarcely be traced with certainty in details. What
is left is a terminology in sikidy and vintana which evidently has been
to some extent borrowed from astrology ; while, on the other hand, the
mpisikidy here had no idea themselves either of the nature of that
astrology, or of its connection with their art of divination ; in other
words, the 'art' is still there, but the 'science' on which it was based
is gone, and the original connection between the two can only partially
be traced by means of the terminology.

(2) That the mpisikidy also had a good deal to do outside the domain
of astrology and vintana, for they had not only to find out and, if neces-
sary, counteract the influences of nature, but also those of bad spirits
or bad men (mpamosavy, sorcerers, from mosavy, sorcery, evidently the
Arab, meseya and mesavi, an evil deed, from sa'a, to do evil, akinta shaa,
to look upon one with an evil [invidious] eye).

After these preliminary remarks on the basis and object of sikidy: I
shall proceed to explain the 'art of sikidy' under the following headings :
(1) The Awakening of the Sikidy; (2) The Sixteen Figures ofth& Sikidy;


221- SIKIDY AND VINTANA.



(3) The Sixteen Rubrics of the Sikidy; (4) The Erecting of the Sikidy
(placing the figures in the rubrics); (5) The Working of the Sikidy : (a)
The Sikidy of Identical figures ; (b) The Sikidy of Different figures ; [c)
The Sikidy of Combined figures ; (6) Miscellaneous Sikidy ; (7) Vintana
and San' andro.

I.—The Awakening of the Sikidy ('Fbhan-iSikidy'). The sikidy
was generally manipulated with grains of sand, or beans, or certain seeds,
especially those of the Fano tree (Piptadenia chrysostachys, Bth.). When
the mpisikidy had placed a heap of these seeds or beans, etc., before
him and was about to perform, he inaugurated his proceedings with a
solemn invocation, calling upon God to awaken nature and men, that
these might awaken the sikidy to tell the truth. The following is the
formula used, as obtained from my native informant:—

"Awake, O God, to awaken the sun ! Awake, O sun, to awaken the cock !
Awake, O cock, to awaken mankind ! (olombelona.) Awake, O mankindj to
awaken the sikidy, — not to tell lies, not to deceive, not to play tricks, not to
talk nonsense (mirediredyj, not to agree to everything indiscriminately
fhanaiky be) ; but to search into the secret, to look into what is beyond the
hills and on the other side of the forest, to see what no human eye can see.

"Wake up, for thou art from Silamo be volo (i.e. the 'long-haired Moham-
medans'), from the high mountains, from Rabdrobdaka, Tap61ak6tsik6tsika,
Zafilsimaito, Andrlambivit6alihy, Rak£lihor4nana, Iinakara, Andrfandni-
solanatra, Vazlmba, Anakandriananihitra, Rak^lilivavdlo. Awake ! for
we have not got thee for nothing, for thou art dear and expensive. We
have got (literally, 'hired,' sarana) thee in exchange for a fat cow (tamci-
nany,"* a provincial word for a fat cow, is no doubt the Arab, saman, fatness
=Heb. sh.em.en) with a large hump, and for money on which there was no
dust. Awake ! for thou art the trust of the sovereign and the judgment of
the people. If thou art a sikidy that can tell, a sikidy that can see, and
does not (only) speak about the noise of the people, the hen killed by its
owner, the cattle killed in the market, the dust clinging to the feet (i.e.
self evident things), awake here on the mat !

"But if thou art a sikidy that does not see, a sikidy that agrees to every-
thing indiscriminately, and makes the dead living and the living dead, then
do not arise here on the mat."

This solemn invocation being finished, the diviner begins to 'work
the sikidy.' Before explaining the mode of working it, I must give the
16 figures of the sikidy, which must be known before the working of it
can be understood. But before so doing, I will offer a few remarks on
the preceding invocation.

It is evident that the sikidy was looked upon as the special means
used by God for making known His will to men ; and it is at the same
time characteristic enough that it was thought necessary to 'awaken'
God (see the same idea in j Kings xviii. 27). In the long list of persons
through whom the'people here have got the sikidy, are the Silamo (Mo-
hammedans [from 'Islam'], and then chiefly Arabs, who are also called
Karany, 'readers,' i.e. those who read the Koran) ; and it agrees well
with this, that Arabic words occur even in this exordium (e.g. tamanany
and also sarana (=Arab. ajara, to hire ; same root as sara in saran-
dakana, fare), and still more in the terminology I am about to give and

* Not simply 'a cow,' as stated in the Dictionary.


222-

SIKIDY AND VINTANA.

explain in the following pages. Most of the names in the list above, giving
the 'authorities' from whom the Malagasy have received the sikidy, are
rather obscure. The Anakandriananahitra is, I presume, the same
mythical personage who is elsewhere called simply Rdnakandrfana (or
Anakandri'ana), a ghost that used to haunt some famous caves in Imerina
(e.g. one at Fandina, to the east of Amb6himdnambdla), and from whom,
according to .one tradition at least, both the sikidy and the sampy (idols)
originated. When also the Vazimba are mentioned, I suppose it is
because the diviners were anxious to have the sikidy connected with
everything that was mysterious and pointed back to the mythical days
of old ; but it may also be that the Vazimba really were the people who
first received the sikidy from the Arabs, and that the other tribes in
their turn got it from the Vazimba. One of the names at least (An-
driambavitoalahy) occurs in the old tale of 'Ibonla,'* in the life of whose
hero the sikidy plays a very prominent part.

I may add that individual mpisikidy of any reputation seem each to
have had their own form of address to the sikidy before working it, Or at
least they took the liberty of making considerable variations in the
wording of it, although its general bearing seems to have been very
much the same.

II.—The i 6 Figures of the Sikidy ('Ny Sikidy 16 Anarand ).
Having finished his address, the diviner began to work the sikidy (liter-
ally, 'raise it up,' vianangan-tsikidy), taking beans or fano seeds, etc.,
and arranging them on the floor (on a mat) according to rules we shall
explain presently. These beans or seeds we must represent by dots.
They were the following : —

Hova. Sakalava. Arabs of E. Co, of Africa.
I- : : Jama (or Zoma) .............. Asomb61a Asombola
2. : Alahizany Alizaha Alahoty
3- ::: As6ralahy .......... As6ralahy Alasady
4- .=. Votsi'ra (—Vontsira) .......... Karija Tabaty horojy
5- ! Taraiky...................... Taraiky Asaratany
6- Y Saka .......... Alakaosy Tabadahila
7- V Asdravavy ................... Adabara Afaoro
8. Alikisy ..................... Alikisy Alijady
9- X Aditsima (Aditsimay).......... Alatsimay Alizaoza
10. •':' Kizo ........ Alakarabo Alakarabo
ii. •;• Adikasajy............... Betsivongo Adizony(=Adimizany ?)
12. ;.'; Vanda mitsangana (=Mikarija) Adalo Alahamaly
::: Vanda midndrika (=Molahidy) Alahotsy Alakaosy
I4. :".: Alokola.. Alikola Adalo (?)
15- Alaimdra Alihimdra Alihimora
16. :-: Adibijady............... Alabiavo Bihiava
* See my Specimens of Malagasy Folk-lore, p . 125.


SIKIDY AND VINTANA.

223

The names in the first row are those that were in use in the interior.
The order in which they are given by the different authorities differ to
some extent; but as nothing depends upon the order, I have followed
the one that seems most systematic, commencing with the fullest form
( : i ), and taking away one bean (dot) for each figure until only four
are left ( ; ), and then adding one again to each, by which proceeding
we get the first eight figures. The next eight are formed by placing
twos and ones in various combinations. The theory of the whole is
evidently that not more than eight beans can be used in any figure, and
that all of them must contain four in length, while there may be two or
one in breadth. It follows of course that only 16 figures or different
combinations are possible.

The names in the second and third rows I obtained from an Arab
trader, who has spent most of his life in East Africa and on the west
coast of Madagascar. As he left Arabia when only twelve years old,
he could give me no information with regard to the practice of sikidy
in his native country ; neither did he seem to feel quite certain as to
the correctness of all the information he gave. I have added a query
to the names with regard to which he seemed to hesitate most.

Flacourt* gives us a list of 16 'Figures des Geomance,' as in use
among the tribes in the vicinity of Fort Dauphin more than two hundred
years ago. He does not, however, really give the very figures, but only
their names, to which he adds a Latin translation, viz. :—

Alohotsi, acquisitio. Alacarabo, finer.

Adalou, amissio. Alicozaza, Alimiza, fiuella.

Alihiza, laetitia. Adabara, majorfortuna.

Alinchissa, tristitia. Alaazadi, minor fortuna.

Alacossi, caput draconis. Assomboulo, populus.

Cariza, cauda draconis. Tareche, via.

Alohomore, albus. Alissima, conjunctio.

Alibiauou, rubeus. Alocola, carcer.

He adds that "all these figures have the same meaning and power as
are attributed to them by the authors of Europe." As it would almost
amount to an insult to my readers to suppose that anv of them are
ignorant of what "the authors of Europe" teach with regard to geoman-
cy, I shall of course abstain from commenting upon this very conclusive
information ! We can see at a glance that many of his names are
identical with those used in the interior: Alihiza, Alacossi (=Alikisy ?),
Alohomore, Tareche, Alissima (=Aditsim4), and Alocola ; while others
can be identified with those in the znd and 3rd rows on the oppopite
page, as Alahotsy, Adalou, Alakarabo, Adabara, Assombola, Cariza, Alaa-
zadi (=Alijady), Alabiauou (=Alabiavo and Bihiava), and Alimiza (=Adi-
mizany ?). Only two remain, Alinchissa and Alicozaza, which last, how-
ever, has another name (Alimiza), the identification of which seems a
little doubtful; but I think Alinchissa is=Al-kizo, and Alicozaza=
Adikosajy. If so, all of them are identified.

Flacourt is quite aware that the ompisiquili (mpisikidy) had their
wisdom from the Arabs, as he states that they were very clever in writing

* Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar; Paris : 1661 ; p. 173.


Full Text

PAGE 1

THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL AND MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE. A RECORD OF INFORMATION ON THE TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PRODUCTIONS OF MADAGASCAR, AND THE CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, LANGUAGE. AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF ITS PEOPLE. EDITED BY THE REV. J. SIBREE, F.R.G.S., AND REV. R. BARON, F.L.S., Mz'sszonarz'es o.f tlze L.M.S. No. X.-CHRISTMAS, 1886. ( Part II. o.f Volume III.) ANTANANARIVO: PRINTED AT THE L. M. S. PRESS. 1886. All rights reserved.

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ANTANANARIVO: PRINTED AT THE PKESS OF THE LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY BY MALAGASY PRINTERS.

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ll l. CONTENTS. l'AC:i-F. 1.-THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. By ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE, ESQ., LL.D. ( Rejrz'nted by the kind permission o.f the A utlzor and Pub lz'shers .from "The Geograjhz'cal Dz'stributi'on o..f Animals.") 2.-THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.' By REV. W. MONTGOMERY, L.M.S. . ...• " ..................... "" ".. 148 3.-MALAGASY ROOTS : THEIR CLASSIFICATION AND MUTUAL RELATIONS. By REV. W. E. COUSINS, L.M.S. 157 4.-0N THE PUETRY OF MADAGASCAR. By (the late) REV. E. BAKER, L.M.S. 5.~0N THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR. By W. CLAYTON PICKERSGILL, ESQ., H.B.M.'s VICE-CONSUL 177 6.-THE IDEAS OF THE MALAGASY WITH REGARD TO DESTINY. By MR. H. E. CLARK, F.F.M.A .............. 185 7.-MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY, AND ITS CONNECTION WITH CHRISTIAN LIFE IN MADAGASCAR. By REV. J. S!BREE, L.M.S. . . . .. .. . .. .. .. 187 8.-SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH MUSIC IN MADAGASCAR. By REV. A. M. HEWLETT, M.A., S.P.G ...•...... . ... 199 9.-THE CHANNELS AND LAGOONS OF THE EAST COAST OF MADAGASCAR. By M. ALFRED GRANDIDIER AND REV. J. SIRREE . . . . . . . 205 10.-BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. By REV. W. E. COUSINS 209 * _It will be obsened that the numbering of the. pages_ docs not con.11n?ncc afrnsh, but is continued from the previous number, so that N os. 1x.-x11. may form a flurd Volume, paged consecutively.

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iv. PAGE 11.-THE PERSONAL ARTICLE 'I' IN MALAGASY. By REV. R. BARON, L.M.S ..... 216 12.-'SIKIDY' AND 'VINTANA': HALF-HOURS WITH MALAGASY DIVINERS. (No. I.) By REV. L. DAHLE, N.M.S. .•. •• .• . .. 218 13.-NOTES ON THE BETSILEO DIALECT (AS SPOKEN IN THE ARlNDRANO DISTRICT), By REV. T. ROWLANDS, L.M.S.,. .. 235 14.-SOME BETSIMISARAKA SUPERSTITIONS. By REV. G. H. SMITH, M.A., S.P.G. 239 15.-A NEW MALAGASY GRAMMAR. By REV. 'vV. E. COUSINS. 244 16.-BIAZAVOLA: A MALAGASY BARD. By Vv. CLAYTON PICKERSGILL, ESQ. 17.-VARIETIES: THE PIRATES IN' MADAGASCAR-GEOLOGICAL JOTTINGS THE PRo-;o-MARTYR OF MADAGASCAR-THE ETYMOLOGY OF 'ANTANANARIVO' AND 'ANDRIAMANITRA' 250 18.-LITERAR Y NOTES . . . . 252 19.--BRIEF SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MADA-GASCAR DURING 1886 257 20.-NATURAL HISTORY NOTES 259 21.-RAINFALL OF ANTANANARIVO FOR THE YEAR 1886 260 --=---ILLUSTRATION. DIAGRAi\lS OF THE 'FANORONA' GAME. "• • The Edz'tors do not hold themselves responsible for every oji'ni'on expr_essed by those who contribute to the pages of the ANNUAL, but only for the general character oj t!ze articles as a whole.

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THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL AND MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE. THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. [THE following paper, which forms Chapter xi. vol. I., of the valuable work entitled The Geographi"cal Dzstrz"bzdzon of Anz"mals, by the eminent naturalist, Mr. Alfred Russel \Vallace, is here reproduced by the kind permission of the Author and his publishers, Messrs. Macmillan. A few extracts from other portions of that work, bearing on the fauna of Madagascar and the neighbouring islands, have also been added, in some cases in a foot-note, but in others in an Appendix; and the Editors of the ANNUAL have much pleasure in here acknowledging Mr. Wallace's ready compliance with their request to be allowed to reprint this interesting paper. The only alterations made are by the addition of a note in one or two places shewing, from Island Life, chap. xix., Mr. Wallace's later views on certain points.EDS.] THIS insular sub-region* is one of the most remarkable zoological districts on the globe, bearing a similar relation to Africa as the Antilles to Tropical America, or New Zealand to Australia, but possessing a much richer fauna than either of these, and in some respects a more rerna,rkable one e\•en than New Zealand. It comprises, besides Madagascar, the islands of Mauritius, Bourbon and Rodriguez, the Seychelles and Comoro Islands. Madagascar itself is an island of the first class, being [ nearly J a thousand miles long, and about 250 * It must be remembered that the whole surface of the globe is divided by Mr. Wallace into six zoological •regions,' in each of which broad and clearly marked distinctions are shcwn to exist in the animal life as compared with that of the other great divisions. Each of these regions is again divided into 'sub-rP-gions,' Madagascar and the neighbouring islands forming the 'Malagasy Sub-region' of the 'Ethiopian Region,' a zoological division whieh includes Africa south of the Tropic of Cancer, together with its islands, excepting the Cape De Verde group.-EDS. No. IO,-CHRISTMAS, 1886.

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130 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR miles in average width. It lies parallel to the coast of Africa, near the southern Tropic, and is separated by 230 miles of sea from the nearest part of the continent, afthough a bank of sounding-s projecting from its western coast reduces this distance to about 160 1J1iles. Madagascar is a mountainous island, and the greater part of the interior consists of open elevated plateaus; but between these and the coast there intervene broad belts of luxuriant tropical forests. It is this forestdistrict that has yielded most of those remarkable types of animal life which we shall have to enumerate; and it is prob able that many more remain to be discovered. As all the main features of this sub-region are developed in Madagascar, we shall first endeavour to give a complete outline of the fauna of that country ; and afterwards shew how far the surrounding islands partake of its peculiarities. MAMMALIA.-The fauna of Madagascar is tolerably rich in genera and species of Mammalia, although these belong to a very limited number of families and orders. It is especially characterized by its abundance of Lemuridffi and Insectivora; it also possesses a few peculiar Carnivora of small size ; but most of the other groups in which Africa is especially rich-apes and monkeys, lions, leopards and hyffinas, zebras, giraffes, antelopes, elephants and rhinoceroses, and even porcupines and squirrels, are wholly wanting. No less than 40 distinct families of land mammals are represented on the continent of Africa, only 11 of ~hich occur in Mcl;dagascar, which also possesses 3 families peculiar to itself. The following is a list of all the genera of Mammalia as yet known to inhabit the island:-PRIMATES. Lemuridce. Indrz"sz'nce. species. "Indris........ . . . . . . . . • . 6 Lemurz'nce. "Lemur ....•.•..... , . , . , ,, 15 "Hapalemur . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . 2 "Microcebus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 "Chirogaleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 "Lepilemur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Chz'romyz'dce. "Chiromys ...... . BATS (Chiroptera). Pterojzdce. Pteropus 2 R hz'nolojhzdce. Rhinolophus ............. .. Vesper tz'lz'onzdce. Vespertilio . . . . . . ..•... Taphozous .............. . Noctz'lz'onzdce. Nyctinomus ........•....... INSECTIVORA. Centetzdce. Species. "Centetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 "Hemicentetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 "Ericulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 "Oryzorictes ........... , . . . r •Echinops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Sorz'cz'dce. Sorex ..•.................. CARNIVORA. Cryptojroctz'dce. "Cryptoprocta ......... , ..••

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AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. Viverridce. "Fossa ...•................ , 2 0Galidia ..•••..•.... , • . • .. 3 •Galidictis . . . . 2 "Eupleres ...••.........•.. UNGULATA. Suz'dce. Potamochcerus ......... . RODENTIA. Murz'dce. "Nesomys .... "Hypogeomys .. , . , , , , , , , , , , 0Brachytarsomys , , , , , , . , , , , , 131 We have here a total of 1 2 families, 2 7 genera, and 65 species of Mammals; 3 of the families and 20 of the genera (indicated by asterisks) being peculiar. All the species are peculiar except perhaps one or two of the wandering bats. Remains of a Hippopotamus have been found in a sub-fossil condition, showing that this animal probably inhabited the island at a not very remote epoch. The assemblage of animals above noted is remarkable, and seems to indicate a very ancient connection with the southern portion of Africa, before the apes, ungulates and felines had entered it. The lemurs, which are here so largely developed, are represented by a single group in Africa, with two peculiar forms on the west coast. They also re-appear under peculiar and isolated forms in Southern India and Malaya, and are evidently but the remains of a once wide-spread group, since in Eocene times they inhabited North America and Europe, and very probably the whole northern hemisphere:'' The Insectivora are another group of high antiquity, widely scattered over the globe under a number of peculiar forms; but in no equally limited area represented by so many peculiar types as in Madagascar. South and West Africa are also rich in this order. The Carnivora of Madagascar are mostly peculiar forms of Viverridce, or civets, a family now almost confined to the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, but which was abundant in Europe during the :Miocene period. The Potamochcerus is a peculiar species only, which may be perhaps explained by the unusual swimming powers of swine, and the semi-aquatic habits of this genus, leading to an immigration at a later period than in the-case of the other Mammalia. The same remark will apply to the small Hippopotamus, which was coeval with the great struthious bird ftjyornis. * "EOCENE PERIOD. Primates. The only undoubted Eocene examples of this order are the Ccenoj,ithecus lemuroides from the Jura, which has points of resemblance to the S. Amer, marmosets and howlers, and also to the Lcmurid~c ; and a cranium recently discovered in the department of Lot (S. W. France) undoubtedly belonging to the Lemurida,, and which most resembles that of the West African 'Potto' (Perodicticus). This discovery has led to another, for it is now believed that relnains formerlv referred to the Anoplotherida, (Adaj,is and Anhelotherium from the Upper Eocene of Paris) were also Lemurs" (pp. 124, 125).

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THE FA lJNA OF MADA GA SCAR Rodents are only represented by three peculiar forms of Muridce, but it is probable that others remain to be discovered. BIRDS.-Madagascar is exceedingly rich in birds, and especially in remarkable forms of Passeres. No less than 88 genera and i 11 species of land-birds have been discovered, and every year some additions are being made to the list."" The African families of Passeres are a] most all represented, only two being absent-Paridce and Fringillidce, both very poorly represented in Africa itself. Among the Picarice, however, the case is very different, no less than 7 families being absent, viz. -Picidce, or woodpecker,; ; Indicatoridce, or honey-guides; Megalcemidce, or barbets ; Musophagidce, or plantain-eaters ; Coliidce, or colies; Bucerotidce, or hornbills; and Irrisoridce, or mockers. Three of these are peculiar to Africa, and all are well represented there, so that their absence from Madagascar is a very remarkable fact. The number of peculiar genera in Madagascar constitutes one of the main features of its ornithology, and many of these are so isolated that it is very difficult to classify them, and they remain to this day a puzzle to ornithologists. In order to exhibit clearly the striking characteristics of the bird-fauna of this island, we shall first give a list of all the peculiar genera; another, of the genera of which the species only are peculiar ; and, lastly, a list of the species which Madagascar possesses in common with the African continent. GENERA OF BIRDS PECULIAR TO MADAGASCAR, OR FOUND ELSEWHERE ONLY IN THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. Sylvizace. species. 1. Bernieria. . • 2 2. El\isia ...... 3. Mystacornis .. 4. Eroessa 5. Gervasia Tymalz"idce. 6. Oxylabes.,,. 2 Cinclzace (?). 7. Mesites .... Sz"ttzace. 8. Hyperphes,T. Pycnonotzace (?). 9. Tylas ...... Orz'olzace. 10. Artamia 3 1 I. Cyanolanius. Muscz'capzace. 12. Newtonia .. 13. :!?seudobias .. Lanizace. species. 14. Calicalicus(?) 1 15. Vanga 4 Nectarz'nizace. 16. N eodrepanis. Hirundinzace. 17. Phedina .... Plocezam. 18. Nelicurvius .. Sturnidce. 19. Euryceros ( ?). 20. Hartlaubia .. 21. Falculia Pazctzace. 22. Philepitta Cuculzace. 23. Coua 9 24. Cochlothraustes 1 Leptosomzace. 25. Leptosomus .. Coroczadce. species. 26. Atelornis 2 27. Brachypteracias .... 28. Geobiastes .. Psz"ttaczace. 29. Coracopsis.. 2 Columbzace. 30. Alectrenas,r Tetraonzace. 31 Margaroper dix,i .... Falconzace. 32. Nisoides ... 33. Eutriorchis .. Total species of } 0 peculiar g-enera 5 .Al pyorn ithzace. 34. 1Epyornis * The land-birds now known to inhabit Madagascar number at least 210 species, belonging to 148 genera.-EDS,

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AND THE MASCAREN.E ISLANDS. 133 ETHIOPIAN OR ORIENTAL GENERA WHICH ARE REPRESENTED IN MADAGASCAR BY PECULIAR SPECIES. TurdtdtE, Species. Species. r. Bessonornis.. 1 r8. Centropus r SylvizdtE. 19. Cuculus 2. Acrocephalus '1 Coraciadce. 3. Copsychus(Or.)~ 1 20. Eurystomus .. 4. Pratincola r Alcedimdce. PycnonotziitE 21. Corythornis .. 5. Hypsipetes(Or.)1r 22. lnspidina .. 6. Andropadus.. 1 Upujniice. Campephag-zdCE. 23. Upupa (?) ... 7. Campephaga. Caprimulgziice. Dt'crurziiCE. 24. Caprimulgus. 8. Dicrurus .. , . Cypselzdce. Muscz'cajidCE. 25. Cypselus 9. Tchitrea 26. Ch~tura .... 2 Lanz'z'dce. Psittaczdce. ro. Laniarius.,.. 27. Poliopsitta .. NectarinizdCE. Columbziice. r r. N ectarinia .. 28. Treron ... . PloceziiCE. -29. Columba ... . r 2. Foudia . . . . .. 2 30. Turtur ..... . 13. Hypargos .. , Pteroclzdce. r 4. Spermestes , , 3 r. Pterocles .... AlaudidtE. l'etraonziice. 15. Mirafra .. ,,,, 32. Francolinus., Motacillzdce. Phasz'anzdce. 16. Motacilla.,., 33. Numida .... Cuculzdce. Turnz'cidce. 17. Ceuthmochares 1 34. Turnix ..... . Falconzdce. Species, 35. Polyboroides. 1 36. Circus ..... . 37. Astur .. . .. 3 38. Accipiter 39. Buteo 40. Haliaetus 41. Pernis .... .. 42. Baza ...... . 43. Cerchneis ... . Strig-z'dce. 44. Athene ..... . 4.'i Scops .... .. Rallziice. 46. Rallus ... , . . 3 47. Porzana .. , , r Scolopacziice. 48. Gallinago.,,, Platalezdce. 49. Ibis ........ Podt'czjzdce. 50. Podiceps . , . , Total peculiar spe 1-cies of Eth. or 56 Or. genera SPECIES OF BIRDS COMMON TO MADAGASCAR AND AFRICA OR ASIA. 1. Cisticola cursitans. 2. Corvus scapulatus. 3. Crithagra canicollis. 4. Merops superciliosus. 5. Collocalia fuciphaga. 6. CEna capensis. 7. Aplopelia tympanistria. 8. Falco minor. 9. Falco concolor. 10. Milvus ~gyptius. 11, Milvus m1grans. 12. Strix flammea. These three tables show us an amount of speciality hardly to be found in the birds of any other part of the globe. Out of Irr land-birds in Madagascar, only r 2 are identical with species inhabiting the adjacent continents, and most of these belong to powerful-winged, or wide-ranging, forms, which probably now often pass from one country to the other. The peculiar species -49 land-birds and 7 waders, or aquatics--are mostly wellmarked forms of African genera. There are, however, several genera (marked thus~) which have Oriental or Palffiarctic affinities, but not African, viz. --Copsychus, Hypsipetes, Hypherpes, Atectrenas and Margaroperdix. These indicate a closer approximation to the Malay countries than now exists. The table of 33 peculiar genera is of great interest. Most of these are well-ma.rked forms, belonging to families which

PAGE 10

134 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR are fully developed in Africa; though it is singular that not one of the exclusively African families is represented in any way in Madagascar. Others, however, are of remote, or altogether doubtful, affinities. Sz"ttzda: is Oriental and Palrearc tic, but not Ethiopian. Oxylabes and iv.JJ,stacornzs are of doubtful affinities. Artamza and CJ1anolanz"us still more so, and it is quite undecided what family they belong to. Calz"calzcus is almost equally obscure. Neodrepanzs, one of the most recent discoveries, seems to connect the Nectariniidce with the Pacific Drepaniclire. Euryceros is a complete puzzle, having been placed with the hornbills, the starlings, oras a distinct family. Falculza is an exceedingly aberrant form of starling, long thought to be allied to lrrzsor. Phzlepdta, forming a distinct family (Paic tidce), is most nmarkable and isolated, perhaps with remote South American affinities. Leptosoma is another extraordinary form, connecting the cuckoos with the rollers; Atelornzs, Brachypteracias, and Geobzastes are terrestrial rollers, with the form and colouring of Pdta. So many perfectly isolated and remarkable groups are certainly nowhere else to be found; and they fitly associate with the wonderful aye~aye (Chiromys), the insectivorous Centeticlre, and carnivorous Cryptoprocta,. among the Mammalia. 1hey speak to us plainly of enormous antiquity, of long-continued isolation, and not less plainly of a lost continent or continental island, in which so many, and various, and peculiarly organized creatures, could have been gradually developed in a connected fauna, of which we have here but the fragmentary remains. PLATE VI.-lLLUSTRATING THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE ZOOLOGY OF MADAGASCAR.-The lemurs, which form the most prominent feature in the zoology ofMadagascar, being comparatively well-known from the numerous specimens in our Zoological Gardens, and good figures of the Insectivorous genera not being available, we have represented the nocturnal and extraordinary aye-aye ( ChzromJs madagascarz"enszs) to illustrate its peculiar, and probably very ancient, mammalian fauna; while the river-hogs in the distance ( Potamocha:rus Edwardszz), allied to African species, indicate a later immigration from the mainland than in the case of most of the other Mammalia. The peculiar birds being far less generally known, we have figured three of them. The largest is the Euryceros prevostz~ here classed with the starlings, although its remarkable bill and other peculiarities render it probable that it should form a distinct family. Its colours are velvety black and rich brown, with the bill of a pearly grey. The bird beneath ( Vanga cufvtt'ostris) is one of the peculiar Madagascar shrikes, whose

PAGE 11

AND THE llASCARENE ISLANDS. 135 plumage, variegated with green-black and pure white, is very conspicuous; while that in the right-hand corner is the Lepto soma dz'scolor, a bird which appears to be intermediate between such very distinct families as the cuckoos and the rollers, and is therefore considered to form a family by itself. It is coppery green above and nearly white beneath, with a black bill and red feet. The fan-shaped plant on the left is the Traveller'stree ( Uram'a speciosa), one of the peculiar forms of vegetation in this marvellous island. REPTILES.-These present some very curious features, comparatively few of the African groups being represented, while there are a considerable number of Eastern, and even of American, forms. Beginning with the snakes, we find, in the enormous family of Colubridce, none of the African types; but instead of them three genera-Eierpetodryas, Plzylodryas, and Heterodon-only found elsewhere in South and North America. The Psammophidce, which are both African and Indian, are represented by a peculiar genus, 1l-:fimophz's. The Dendrophidce are represented by Alzcetulla, a genus which is both African and American. The Dryophidce, which inhabit all the tropics, but are most developed in the Oriental region, are represented by a peculiar genus, Langalta. The tropical Pythonidce are represented by another peculiar genus, Sanzz'm'a. The Lycodon tidai and Viperidce, so well developed in Africa, are entirely absent. The lizards are no less remarkable. The Zonuriclai, abundantly developed in Africa, are represented by one peculiar genus, Czcigna; the wide-spread Scincidai by another peculiar genus, Pygonzeles. The African Sepsidai are represented by three genera, two of which are African, and one, A mp!ziglossus, peculiar. The Acontiadce are represented by a species of the African genus Acoutt'as. Of Scincidai there is the wide-spread Euprepes. The Sepidai are represented by the African genera Seps and Scelotes. The Geckotidai are not represented by any p'q.rely African genera, but by Pl~yllodactylus, which is America,n ancl Australian; by 1emzdactylus, which is spread over all the tropics; by two peculiar genera; and by Uroplatz's, Geckolepz's and Plzelsuma, confined to :Madagascar, Bourbon and the Andaman Islands. The Agamidai, which are mostly Oriental, and are represented in Africa by the single genus Agama, have here three peculiar genera, Traclzeloptyclzus, Clzalarodon and Hoplurus. Lastly, the American Iguanidai are said to be represented by a species of the South American genus Oplurus. The classification of Reptiles is in such an unsettled sfote that some of these determinations of affinities are probably erro..;

PAGE 12

THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR neous; but it not likely that any corrections which may be required will materially affect the general bearing of the evidence, as indicating a remarkable amount of Oriental and American relationship. The other groups are of less interest. Tortoises are represented by two African or wide-spread genera of Testudinidce, Testudo and Chersina, and by one peculiar genus, Pyxis; and there are also two African genera of Chelydidce. The AMPHIBIA are not very well known. They appear to be confined to species of the wide-spread Ethiopian and Oriental genera-Hylarana, PolJ,Pedates, and Rappia (Polypedatidce); and Pyxzcephalus (Ranidce). FRESH-WATER FISHES.-These appear to be at present almost unknown. "\\Then carefully collected they will no doubt furnish some important facts. THE MASCARENE ISLANDS.-The various islands which surround Madagascar-Bourbon, Mauritius, Rodriguez, the Seychelles, and the Comoro Islands-all partake in a considerable degree of its peculiar fauna, while having some special features of their own. Indigenous Mammalia (except bats) are probably absent from all these islands (except the Comoros), although Lemur and Centetes are given as natives of Bourbon and Mauritius. They have, however, perhaps been introduced from Madagascar. Lemur maJottenszs, a peculiar species, is found in the Comoro Islands, where a Madagascar species of Vt"verra also occurs. Bourbon and Mauritius may be taken together, as they much resemble each other. They each possess species of a peculiar genus of Campephagidce, or caterpillar shrikes, Oxynotus; while the remarkable Fregi"lupus, belonging to the starling family, inhabits Bourbon, if it is not now extinct. They also have peculiar species of Pratzncola, Hypsipetes, Phedina, Tchi'trea, Zosterops, .Foudza, Collocalza and Coracojszs ; while Mauritius has a very peculiar form of dove of_ the sub-genus Trocaza; an Alectrenas, extinct within the last thirty years; and a species of the Oriental genus of parroquets, Palceornzs. The small and remote island of Rodriguez has another Palceornzs, as well as a peculiar Foudta, and a Drymceca of apparently Indian affinity. Coming to the Seychelle Islands, far to the north, we find the only mammal an Indian species of bat ( Pteropus Edwardsit). Of the twelve land-birds all but one are peculiar species, but all belong to genera found also in Madagascar, except one-a peculiar species ot Palceornis. This is an Oriental genus, but found also in the Mascarene Islands and on the African conti nent. A species of black parrot (CoracJjms Barktap), and a

PAGE 13

ANJJ THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. 137 weaver-bird of peculiar type ( Foudza seychellarum) show, however, a decided connection with Madagascar. There are also two peculiar pigeons a short-winged Turtur and an Alec tn:enas. Most of the birds of the Comoro Islands are Madagascar species, only two being African. Five are peculiar, belonging to the genera Nectarz'.tua, Zosterops, Dzcrurus, Foudza and Alec tramas. Reptiles are scarce. There appear to be no snakes in Mauritius and Bourbon, though some African species are said to be found in the Seychelle Islands. Lizards are fairly represented. Mauritius has Cryptobleplz11rus, an Australian genus of Gymnopthalmidce; flemzdactJlus (a wide spread genus) and Pe ropus (Oriental and Australian)-both belonging to the Gecko tidce. Bourbon has Heteropus, a Moluccan and Australian genus of Scincidce; Phelsuma (Geckotidce) and Chameleo, both found also in Madagascar; as well as Pyxis, one of the tortoises. The Seychelles have Theconrx, a peculiar genus of Gecko tidce, and Chameleo. Gigantic land-tortoises, which formerly inhabited most of the Mascarene Islands, now only survive in Aldabra, a small island north-east of the Comoros. These will be noticed again further on. Amphibia seem only to be recorded from the Seychelles, where two genera of tree-frogs of the family Polypedatidce are found; one ( Megalt"xalus), peculiar, the other ( Rappza) found also in Madagascar and Africa. The few insect groups peculiar to these islands will be noted when we deal with the entomology of Madagascar. EXTINCT FAUNA OF THE MASCARENE ISLANDS AND MADAGASCAR.-Before quitting the vertebrate groups, we must notice the remarkable birds which have become extinct in these islands little more than a century ago. The most celebrated is the Dodo of Mauritius ( Dzdus z'neptus), but an allied genusi Pezophaps, inhabited Rodriguez; and of both of these almost perfect skeletons have been recov8red. Other species probably existed at Bourbon. Remains of twu genera of flightless rails have also been found, Aphanapteryx .[in Mauritius], and Ery thromachus [in Rodriguez J ; and even a heron ( A rdea mega ce;bhala), which was short-winged and sddom flew; while in Madagascar there lived a gigantic struthious bird, the ./EjJJ-or~ nzs. The bearing of these extinct forms on the past history of the region will be adverted to in the latter part of this chapter.* '* "A large parrot, said by Prof. ?.1ilne-Eclwards to be allied to Arn and .11icrogloss"s, alsd inhabited Mauritius; artd another, alliecl to Eclectus, the islancl of Roclriguez. None of these have been founcl in Maclagascar; but the gigantic .-Ej,yornis, forming a peculiar family distinct both from the ostriches of Africa and the }Jinornis of New Zealancl, inhabitecl that island; and there is reason to believe that this may have lived less than ~oo years ago" (p. 164),

PAGE 14

138 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR Dr. Gunther has recently distinguished five species of fossil tortoises from Mauritius and Rodriguez, all of them quite different from the living species of Aldabra. INSECTS.-The butterflies of Madagascar are not so remarkable as some other orders of insects. There seems to be only one peculiar genus, I-feteropszs (Satyridffi). The other genera are African, Leptoneura being confined to Madagascar and South Africa. There are some fine Papzlz'os of uncommon forms.The most interesting lepidopterous insect, however, is the fine diurnal moth Uranza, as all the other species of the genus inhabit Tropical America and the West Indian Islands.* The Coleoptera have been better collected, and exhibit some very remarkable affinities. There is but one peculiar genus of Cicindelidffi ( Pogonostoma), which is allied to the South American genus Ctenosoma. Another genus, Perzdexza, is common to Madagascar and South America. None of the important South African genera are represented, except Eurymorpha; while Jlfeglaomma is common to Madagascar and the Oriental region. Of the Carabidffi we have somewhat similar phenomena on a wider scale. Such large and important African genera as Polyltz'rma and Anthz'a are absent; but there are four genera in common with South Africa, and two with West Africa; while three others are as much Oriental as African. One genus, Dzs trigus, is wholly Oriental, and another, l.lomalosoma, Australian. Colpodes, well developed in Bourbon and Mauritius, is Oriental and South American. Of the peculiar genera, .S'j1/zcerostylis has South American affinities; Jl1"z'crochz'la, Oriental; the others being related to widely distributed genera. The Lucanidffi are few in number, and all have African affinities. Madagascar is very rich in Cetoniidffi and possesses 20 peculiar genera. Bothrorhzrta, and three other genera belonging to the Iclznostoma group, have wholly African relations. Doryscelzs and Chromoptzla are no less clearly allied to Oriental genera. A series of eight peculiar genera belong to the Schizorhinidffi, a family the bulk of which are Australian, while there are only a few African forms. The remaining genera appear to have African affinities, but few of the peculiarly African genera are represented. Glyciphana is charactersitic of the Oriental region. -----------------------------* "J:'he ,v. India Islands possess very few man1malie., all of small size and allied to those of America, except one genus, and that belongs to an order, Insectirora, entirely absent from S. America, and to a family, Centeticlae, all the other species of which inhabit :\fadagascar only. And as ifto add force to this singular correspondence, we have one Madagascar species of a beautiful day-flying moth (Urnnin), all the other species of which inhabit Tropical Ame rica. These insects are gor~eously arrayed in green and gold, and are quite unlike any other Lepidoptern upon the globe' (p, SI),

PAGE 15

AlV.iJ THE MASCAREN.E ISLANDS. i39 The Buprestidre of Madagascar consist mainly of one large and peculiar genus, Polybothrz's, allied to the almost cosmopolite Pszloptera. Most of the other genera are Ethiopian and Oriental; but Polycesta is mainly South American, and the remarkable and isolated genus .Sponsor is confined to Mauritius, with a species in Celebes and New Guinea. The Longicorns are numerous and interesting, there being no less than 24 peculiar genera. Two of the genera of Prionidre are very isolated, while a third, Closterus, belongs to a group which is Malayan and American. Of the Ceram bycidre, Phzlenzatz'um ranges to Africa and the West Indies ; Leptocera is only found eastward in Ceylon and the New Hebrides; while Euporus is African. Of the peculiar genera, two are of African type ; three belong to the Leptura group, which are mostly Palrearctic and Oriental, with a few in South Africa; while Phzlocalocera is allied to a South American genus. Among the Lamiidre there are several wide-ranging, and seven African, genera; but Coptops is Oriental, and the Oriental Praonetha occurs in the Comoro Islands. Among the peculiar genera, several have African affinities, but Tropzdema belongs to a group which is Oriental and Australian ; Oopsz's is found also in the Pacific Islands; Mythergates, Sulemus, and Coedomcea are allied to Malayan and American genera. GENERAL RE.MARKS ON THE INSECT-FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR,-Taking the insects as a whole, we find the remarkable result that their affinities are largely Oriental, Australian and South American; while the African element is represented chiefly by special South African or West African forms, rather than by such as are widely spread over the Ethiopian region." In some families as Cetoniida2 and Lamiida2the African element appears to preponderate; in others, as Cicindelida2the South American affinity seems strongest; in Carabida2, perhaps the Oriental ; while in Buprestidre and Ceram bycidre the African and foreign elements seen nearly balanced, ~Te must not impute too much importance to these foreign alliances among insects, because we find examples of them in every country on the globe. The reason they are so much more pronounced in Madagascar may be, that during long periods of time this island has served as a refuge for groups that have been dying out on the great continents; and that, owing to the numerous deficiencies of a somewhat similar kind in the series of vertebrates in Australia and South America, the same groups * There are also some special resemblances between the plants of Madagascar and South Africa, according to Dr, Kirk.

PAGE 16

THE /!AUNA OF' MAlJAGASCAR have often been ahle to maintain themselves in all these countries as well as in Madagascar. It must be remembered too, that the peculiarities in the Madagascar and Mascarene insect-fauna are but exaggerations of a like phenomenon on the mainland. Africa also has numerous affinities with South America, with the Malay countries, and with Australia; but they do not bear anything like so large a proportion to the whole fauna, and do not therefore attract so much attention. The special conditions of existence, and the long-continued isolation of Madagascar, will account for much of this difference; and it will evidently not be necessary to introduce, as some writers are disposed to do, a special land connection or near approach between Madagascar and all these countries, independently of Africa; except perhaps in the case of the Malay Islands, as will be discussed further on. LAND-SHELLS.-Madagascar and the adjacent islands are all rich in land-shells. The genera of Helicidffi are Vz"trz'.na, Helz'x, Aclzatz'na, Columna (peculiar to Madagascar and West Africa), Bu!t1nz'uus, Czone!la (chiefly Oriental and South American, but not African), Pupa, Strejtaxzs, and Cuccz.nea. Among the Operculata we have Truncate/la (widely scattered, but not African); Cyclotus (South American, Oriental and South African) ; Cyclojhorus (mostly Oriental, with a few South African); Lej topoma (Oriental); Megalomastoma (Malayan and South American); Lz"thziizon (peculiar to Madagascar, Socotra and Southwest Arabia); Otopoma (with the same range, but extending to West India and New Ireland); Cyclostoma (widely spread, but not African); and Omjhalotrojzs (wholly Oriental and Australian). We thus find the same general features reproduced in the land-shells as in the insects, and the same remarks will to a great extent apply to both. The classification of the former is, however, by no means satisfactory, and we have no extensive and accurate general catalogue of shells, like those of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, which have furnished us with such valuable materials for the comparison of the several faunas. ON THE PROBABLE PAST HISTORY OF THE ETHIOPIAN RE GION.-Perhaps none of the great zoological regions of the earth pres'ent us with problems of greater difficulty or higher interest than the Ethiopian. We find in it the evidence of several distinct and successive faunas, now intermingled; and it is very difficult, with our present imperfect knowledge, to form an adequate conception of how and when the several changes occurred. There are, however, a few points which seem sufficiently clear, and these afford us a secure foundation in our endea vour to comprehend the rest.

PAGE 17

AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. 141 Let us then consider what are the main facts we have to account for: r. In Continental Africa, more especially in the south and west, we find, along with much that is peculiar, a number of genera shewing a decided Oriental, and others an equally strong South American, affinity; this latter more particularly shewing itself among reptiles and insects. 2. All over Africa, but more especially in the east, we have abundance of large ungulates and felines antelopes, giraffes, buffaloes, elephants and rhinoceroses, with lions, leopards, and hyrenas, all of types now or recently found in India and Western Asia. 3. But we have also to note the absence of a number of groups which abound in the above-named countries, such as deer, bears, moles, and true pigs; while camels and goats-characteristic of the desert regions just to the north of the Ethiopianare equally wanting. 4. There is a ,vonderful unity of type and want of speciality in the vast area of our first sub-region, extending from Senegal across to the east coast, and southward to the Zambezi; while "\Vest Africa and South Africa each abound with peculiar types. 5. We have the extraordinary fauna of Madagascar to account for, with its evident main derivation from Africa, 'yet wanting all the larger and higher African forms; its resemblances to Malaya and to South America; and its wonderful assemblage of altogether peculiar types. Here we find a secure starting-point, for we are sure that Madagascar must have been separated from Africa before the assemblage of large animals enumerated above had entered it. Now it is a suggestive fact, that all these belong to types which abounded in Europe and India about the Miocene period. It is also known, from the prevalance of Tertiary deposits over the Sahara and much of Arabia, Persia, and Northern India, that during early Tertiary times a continuous sea from the Bay of Bengal to the British Isles completely cut off all land communication between Central and South Africa on the one side, and the great continent of the Eastern hemisphere on the other. When Africa was thus isolated, its fauna probably had a character somewhat analogous to that of South America at the same period. Most of the higher types of mammalian life were absent, while lemurs, Erlentates and Insectivora took their place. At this period Madagascar was no doubt united with Africa, and helped to form a great southern continent,* which * Mr. Wallace in his later work, Island Life, combats (we think quite conclushely) this hypothesis of a great southern continent, called 'Lcmuria' by many writers, and shows that any land connection between Madagascar ancl India must ha,e been by an archipelago of large .. island.s. See pp. 394-399 and 4r7-423, and his maps of the Indian Ocean, at PP 387 ancl 396 . . -EDS,

PAGE 18

14.2 THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR must at one time have extended eastward as far as Southern India and Ceylon ; and over the whole of this the lemurine type no doubt prevailed. During some portion of this period South Temperate Africa must have had a much greater extension, perhaps indicated by the numerous shoals and rocks to the south and east of the Cape of Good Hope, and by the Crozets and Kerguelen Islands further to the south-east. This would have afforded means for that intercommunion with Western Australia which is so clearly marked in the flora, and to some extent also, in the insects, of the two countries ; .and some such extension is absolutely required for the development of that wonderfully rich and peculiar temperate flora and fauna, which, now crowded into a narrow territory, is one of the greatest marvels of the organic world. During this early period, when the great southern continents -South America, Africa and Australia-were equally free from the incursions of the destructive felines of the north, the Struthious or ostrich type of birds was probably developed into its existing forms. It is not at all necessary that these three continents were at any date united, in order to account for the distribution of these great terrestrial birds, as this may have arisen by at least two other easily conceivable modes. The ancestral Struthious type may, like the Marsupial, have once spread over the larger portion of the globe ; but as higher forms, especially of Carnivora, became developed, it would be exterminated everywhere but in those regions where it was free from their attacks. In each of these it would develope into special forms adapted to surrounding conditions ; and the large size, great strength, and excessive speed of the ostrich, may have been a comparatively late development caused by its exposure to the attacks of enemies, which rendered such modification necessary. This seems the most probable explanation of the distribution of Struthious birds, and it is rendered almost certain by the discovery of remains of this order in Europe in Eocene deposits, and by the occurrence of an ostrich among the fossils of the Siwalik hills ; but it is just possible, also, that the ancestral type may have been a bird capable of flight, and that it spread from one of the three southern continents to the others at the period of their near approach, and more or less completely lost the power of flight, owing to the long continued absence of enemies. During the period we have been considering, the ancestors of existing apes and monkeys flourished along the whole southern shores of the old Palcearctic continent ; and it seems

PAGE 19

AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. )ikely that they first entered Africa by means of a land con nection indicated by the extensive and lofty plateaus of the Sahara, situated to the south-east of Tunis c\,nd reaching to a little north-west of Lake Tchad; and at the same time the elephant and rhinoceros type may have entered. This. will account for the curious similarity between the higher fauna of West Africa and the Indo-Malay sub-region ; for, owing to the present distribution of land and sea, and the narrowing of the tropical zone since Miocene times, these are now the only low land, equatorial, forest-clad countries which were in connection with the southern shores of the old Palcearctic continent at the time of its greatest luxuriance and development. This western connection did not probably last long, the junction that led to the greatest incursion of new forms, and the complete change in the character of the African fauna, having apparently been effected by way of Syria and the shores of the Red Sea at a somewhat later date. By this route the old south Palcearctic fauna, indicated by the fossils of Pikermi and the Siwalik hills, poured into Africa; and finding there a new and favourable country, almost wholly unoccupied by large Mammalia, increased to an enormous extent, developed into new forms, and finally overran the whole continent. Before this occurred, however, a great change had taken place in the geography of Africa. It had gradually diminished on the south and east; Madagascar had been left isolated; while a number of small islands, banks, and coral reefs in the Indian Ocean alone remained to indicate the position of a once extensive equatorial land. The Mascarene Islands appear to represent the portion which separated Aarliest, before any Carnivora had reached the conntry ; and it was in consequence of this total exemption from danger that several groups of birds altogether incapable of flight became developed here, culmina ting in the large and unwieldy Dodo, and the more active Aphanapteryx. To the same causes may be attributed the development in these islands of gigantic land-tortoises, far surpassing any others now living in the globe. They appear to have formerly inhabited Mauritius, Bourbon and Rodriguez, and perhaps other Indian Ocean groups, but having been recklessly destroyed, now only survive in the small uninhabited Aldabra islands north-east of the Comoros. The largest living specimen (5{ feet long) is now in our Zoological Gardens.* The only other place where equally large tortoises ( of an allied species} are found, is the Galapagos Islands, where they were --------------------* See ANNUAL No. I., p. 122 ; Reprint of Annual, p. 128.

PAGE 20

THE FAUNA OF MADAGASCAR equally free from enemies until civilized man came upon the scene ; who, partly by using them for food, partly by the introduction of pigs, which destroy the eggs, has greatly diminished their numbers and size, and will probably soon wholly exterminate them. It is a curious fact, ascertained by Dr. Gunther, that the tortoises of the Galapagos are more nearly related to the extinct tortoises of Mauritius than is the living tortoise of Aldabra. This would imply that several distinct groups or sub-genera of Testudo have had a wide range over the globe, and that some of each have survived in very distant localities. This is rendered quite conceivable by the known antiquity of the genus Testudo, which dates back to at least the Eocene formation (in North America) with very little change of form. These sluggish reptiles, so long-lived and so tenacious of life, may have remained unchanged, while every Jligher animal type around them has become extinct and been replaced by very different forms; as in the case of the living Emys tectum, which is the sole survivor of the strange Siwalik fauna of the Miocene epoch. The ascertained history of the genus and the group thus affords a satisfactory explanation of the close affinity of the gigantic tortoises of Mauritius and the Galapagos. The great island of Madagascar seems to have remained longer united with Africa, till some of the smaller and more active Carnivora had reached it; and we consequently find there no wholly terrestrial form of bird but the gigantic and powerful lEpyornis, well able to defend itself against such enemies. As already intimated, we refer the South American element in Madagascar not to any special connection of the two countries independently of Africa, but to the preservation there of a number of forms, some derived from America through Africa, others of once almost cosmopolitan range, but which, owing to the severer competition, have become extinct on the African continent, while they have continued to exist under modified forms in the two other countries. The depths of all the great oceans are now known to be so profound that we cannot conceive the elevation of their beds above the surface without some corresponding depression elsewhere. And if, as if probable, these opposite motions of the earth's crust usually take place in parallel bands, and are , to some extent dependent on each other, an elevation of the ''sea-bed could hardly fail to lead to the submergence of large 1,tracts of existing continents; and this is the more likely to occur on account of the great disproportion that we have seen exists between the mean height of the land and the mean depth

PAGE 21

AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. 145 of the ocean. Keeping this principle in view, we may, with some probability, suggest the successive stages by which the Ethiopian region assumed its present form, and acquired the striking peculiarities that characterize its several sub-regions. During the early period, when the rich and varied temperate flora of the Cape, and its hardly less peculiar forms of insects and of low-type Mammalia, were in process of development in an extensive south temperate land, we may be pretty sure that the whole of the east, and much of the north, of Africa was deep sea. At a later period, when this continent sank towards the south and east, the elevation may have occurred which connected Madagascar with Ceylon ; and only at a still later epoch, when the Indian Ccean had again been formed, did central, eastern and northern Africa gradually rise above the ocean, and effect a conjunction with the great northern continent by way of Abyssinia and Arabia. And if this last change took place with tolerable rapidity, or if the elevatory force acted from the north, towards the south, there would be a new and unoccupied territory to be taken possession of by immigrants from the north, together with a few from the south and west. The more highly organized types from the great northern continent, however, would inevitably prevail ; and we should thus have explained the curious uniformity in the fauna of so large an area, together with the absence from it of those peculiar Ethiopian types which so abundantly characterize the other sub-regions. Our knowledge of the geology and palreontology of Africa being so scanty, it would be imprudent to attempt any more detailed explanation of the peculiarities of its existing fauna. The sketch now given is, it is believed; founded on a sufficient basis of facts to render it not only a possible but a probable account of what took place ; and it is something gained to be able to show that a large portion of the peculiarities and anomalies of so remarkable a fauna as that of the Ethiopian region can be accounted for by a series of changes of physical geography during the Tertiary epoch, which can be hardly be considered extreme, or in any way unlikely to have occurred. ALFRED R. WALLACE. NOTE.-The contractions used in the table given overleaf stand for the six zoological 'regions' as proposed by Mr. Wallace, viz. : Pala:arclic: all Europe, Africa north of the Sahara, and all Asia except India and the Inda-Chinese Peninsula; Oriental: India, the Indo-Chinese Peninsula1 Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines; Ausfrali"an: Australia, New Guinea, Celebes, the Moluccas, and New Zealand; Ethiopian: Africa south of the Sahara, and its islands ; Nearclic : North America and Greenland ; and l\Teotropical : Central and South America,-EDS.

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14.6 THE FAl!NA OF MADAGASCAR APPENDIX. FAMILIES OF ANIMALS INHABITING THE MALAGASY SUB-REGION. For Mammalia and birds see ante (pp.130-133). REPTILIA. FISHES (FRESH WATER). OpMdia. Acanthopterygii. r. Typhlopida, ...... All but Nearctic. 35. Labyrinthire ..... Aust., Neotrop. 7. Colubrida, ...... Almost Cosmop. 38. Mugillidre ......... Or., Moluc. 9. Psammophidre ... Orient. and S. Pali:earc. 52. Chromidre ......... Or., Neotrop. II. Dendrophida-, ... Or., Aust., Neotrop. Physostomi. 12. Dryiophida-, ...... Or., Neotrop. 59. Siluridre ............ All Trop. 17. Pythonid,e ......... All Trop. 73. Cyprinodontidre. Palrearc., Or., Amer. 23. Hydrophida-, ...... Or., Aust., Panama. 75. Cyprinidre ......... Als. fr. Aust. & S. Am. 25. Viperida-, ......... Or. Pahearctic. Lacertilia. 34. Zonurida, ......... All Amer., N. Ind., S. Europe. 41. Gymnophthalmida-, ............ Pala,arc., Aust. 4. Scincida, ......... Alm. Cosmop. 47. Sepidre ............ South Palrearctic. 48. Acontiada-, ...... Ceylon and Moluc. 49. Geckotida-, ......... Alm. Cosmop. 51. Agamida-, ......... Or., Aust., S. Palrearc. 52. Chameleonidre ... Or., S. Palrearc. Crocodilia. 55. Crocodilida, ...... Or., Neotrop. Chelonia. 57. Testudinre ........ All count. ex. Aust. 58. Chelydidre ......... Aust., S. Amer. AMPHIBIA, Anoura. 17. Polypedatida, ... Cosmop. 18. Ran1da, ............ Alm. Cosmop. INSECTS (LEPIDOPTERA). Diurni (Butterflies). r. Danaidre ......... All W. coun. & Canad. 2. Satyridre ..•...... Cosmop. 6. Acra,idre ..... • . . All Trop. 8. Nymphalida, ...... Cosmop. 9. Lybytheid::e ...... Als. fr. Aust. only. 10. Nemeobiid::e ...... ., ,, and Nearct. r3. Lycrenidre ......... Cosmop. 14. Pierida-, r5. Papilionid::e r6. Hesperiidre ..... . Sphingidea: 17. Zygremdre ........ ,, r9. Agaristidre ...... Aust., Or. 20. Uraniidre ......... All Trop. 22. Egeriidre ......... Cosmop. ex. Aust. 23. Sphingida, ........ Cosmop. (pp. 294-299.) SUB-ORDER (OF PRIMATES)-LEMUROIDEA. Family 6-Lemurz"dce ( II genera, 53 species). Found in all sub-regions of Palrearctic region; and in all but E. Africa of Ethiopian region. The Lemuridre, comprehending all the animals usually termed Lemurs, and many of their allies also, are divided by Prof. Mivartwho has carefully studied the group-into four sub-families and eleven genera, as follows :Subfamz"ly lndrisinre, consisting of the genus Indrzs (5 sp.), is confined to Madagascar. Subfamz"ly Lemurinre, contains five genera, viz. :-Lemur (15 sp.); Ha jalemur (2 sp.); Mz"crocebus (4 sp.); Chi"rogaleus (5 sp.); and Lejz"lemur (2 sp.) ; all confined to Madagascar. Sub:famz"ly Nycticebinre, contains four genera, viz.: -Z..lyc#cebus (3 sp.)small, short-tailed, nocturnal animals, called slow-lemurs-range from E. Bengal to S. China, and to Borneo and Java; Lorzs (1 sp. )-a very small tailless, nocturnal lemur, which inhabits Madras, Malabar and Ceylon ; Perodz"c#cus ( T sp. )-the Potto-a small lemur with almost rudimentary forefinger, found at Sierra Leone (pl. v., vol. i. p. 264); Arctocebus (1 sp.)the Angwantibo-another extraordinary form, in which the forefinger is quite absent, and the first toe armed with a long claw-inhabits Old Calabar. Sub:famz"ly Galaginre, contains only the genus Galago (14 sp.), which is confined to the African continent, ranging from Senegal and Fernando Po to Zanzibar and Natal.

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AND THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. Family 8-Chz'romyi"dce (1 genus, 1 species). The Ayeaye ( Chzromys), the sole representative of this family, is confined to the island of Madagascar. It was for a long time very imperfectly known, and was supposed to belong to the Rodentia; but it has now been ascertained to be an exceedingly specialized form of lemuroid type, and must be considered to be one of the most extraordinary of the mammalia now inhabiting the globe. (Vol. ii. pp. 176, r77.) The Lemuroid group offers us one of the most singular phenomena in geographical distribution. It consists of three families, the species of which are grouped into six sub-families and 13 genera. One of these families, and two of the sub-families. comprising 7 genera, and no less than 30 out of the total of 50 species, are confined to the one island of Madagascar; of the remainder, 3 genera, comprising 15 species, are spread over Tropical Africa; while three other genera, with 5 species, inhabit certain restricted portions of India and the Malay Islands. " • " In Madagascar, where less complex conditions prevailed in a considerable land area, the lowly organized Lemuroids have diverged into many specialized forms of their own peculiar type; while on the continents they have, to a great extent, become exterminated, or have maintained their existence in a few cases in islands, or in mountain ranges. In Africa the nocturnal and arboreal Galagos are adapted to a special mode of life, in which they probably have few competitors, (Vol. ii. pp. 197, 180.) ORDER INSECTIVORA. Family 18.-Centetz"dce (6 genera, 10 species). The Centetidre are small animals, many of them having a spiny covering, whence the species of Centetes have been called 'Madagascar hedgehogs.' The genera Centetes (2 sp.), Hemzcentetes (1 sp.), Erz"culus (1 sp.), Echz"nops (3 sp.), and the recently described Oryzorzctes (1 sp.), are all exclusively inhabitants of Madagascar, and are almost or quite tailless. The remaining genus, Solenodon, is a more slender and active animal, v-ith a long rat-like tail, shrew-like head, and coarse fur; and the two known species are among the very few indigenous mammals of the West India Islands, one being found at Cuba (pl. xvii. vol. ii. p. 67), the other in Hayti. Although presenting many points of difference in detail, the essential characters of this curious animal are, according to Profs. Peters and Mivart, identical with the rest of the Centetidre. We have thus a most remarkable and well-established case of discontinuous distribution, two portions of the same family being now separated from each other by an extensive continent, as well as by a deep ocean. (Vol. ii. p. 188.) ORDER CARNIVORA. Family 24.-Cryptoproctz"dce (1 genera, 1 species). The Cryptoproctaferox, a small and graceful cat-like animal, peculiar to Madagascar, was formerly classed among the Viverridre, but is now considered by Prof. Flower to constitute a distinct family between the Cats and the Civets. (Vol. ii. p. I 94.) ORDER RODENTIA, Famz"ly 55 .-.iJl.lurz"dce. Nesomys, Hypogeomys, Brachytarsomys, Madagascar. Of Rodentia, Murid~ alone found in Madagascar (out of 14 families).

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THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL. THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.' N OBODY can reside very long in Madagascar, or in these central parts of it, at any rate, without occasionally observing little companies of the natives bending eagerly over some mathematical looking diagram rudely scratched on roadside stone, or on the top of a rock, or, more roughly still, on the sun-baked clay of the wayside. If you look a little at the figure of the diagram, and consider the multiplicity of squares, diagonals and adjacent parallelograms involved in it, you may think the people are discussing some Malagasy rider to one or other of the propositions in the Second Book of Euclid. Take the trouble to ask, however, and you will find that they are simply playing at their national game, the Fanoruna. Games of skill or chance, generally speaking, do not attract much interest among the Malagasy. They have originated very few, and do not seem to care much for such as they have had opportunities of learning from Europeans. A few of the upper classes play occasionally at cards, dominoes, and loto. I have never seen dice anywhere among them, and very likely there are not fifty natives in all the island who know anything at all of chess or draughts. But they all understand the fano rona ; that is played everywhere, in-doors and out of doors, in the town and in the country, and by all classes, high and low, young and old. Almost everywhere in the houses of the people, except the very poorest, you may find the /anorona board, though very often it is only the back of the akalana ; chopping block) or of the sahaja (wooden winnowing platter). But playing out of doors seems most attractive to the younger Malagasy, and they can extemporise a board, or a substitute for a board, anywhere. On the wooden sheds in the market-places, on the tiled paving around the school-houses and college buildings, on the stones around the open elevations where the Judges sit, on the paved way outside the Palace, on the roadsides where the palanquin bearers congregate, at the stone-gate entrances into the villages, on the flat rocks of the hillsides, on which the little slave children sun themselves while tending their masters' sheep or cattle-everywhere you may find the signs and tokens of the fanorona players. The most respectable students in the L. M. S. College will frequently employ the few minutes' interval between some of their morning classes in a hasty game. I have seen two or three of our most grave and potent city pastors stop with one

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THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.' 149 accord to watch and criticize the wavering fortunes of a chance game that was being fought out on the wayside. Some of the older andrzandahy (chiefs) and senior officers of the palace are reputed to be the best players in the country. The vener.. able old princess who died two years ago at Ambohijoky, and 1 who in her girlhood, about fourscore years ago, was one of 'the twelve wives' of King Andrianarnpoinimerina, had been in her . time a famous player at the fanorona. There are still alive in i Antananarivo several old people who remember very well the coronation of Rada.ma I., in the year 181 o, and the great gathering on that occasion in the plain of Imahamasina. All the various tribes and orders of the people were that day ranged around the King after the pattern of the various sides and diagonals and intersections of the (anorona ! In one of Radama's campaigns in the southern parts of the island, a Betsileo king, whom he was besieging, had perched himself on the summit of his stone-barricaded gateway, and in unblessed ignorance of the dangerous powers of the muskets which Radama had acquired from the English, he was giving only one eye to the approaching enemy, and employing the other in a friendly game of fanorona with one of his officers. The poor fellow never finished his game, for an unlucky bullet put it all out his head in a moment, in its swift 'check to the king.' Of much older date than these incidents are some traditionary stories the Malagasy preserve about one Andriantompokoindrindra, who should have succeeded to one of the petty kingdoms in Imerina, and who lived at Ambohimalaza (a few miles east of the present Capital) perhaps some two hundred years ago. He seems to have been great-grandson of the famous King Andriamasinavalona, who reigned long and ably over the whole of Imerina, and on whose death the kingdom of the Hova was split up into several small divisions by his numerous sons. The father of Andriantompoko was king over a large part of eastern Imerina, and as this was his eldest son, he was heir-apparent to his father's kingdom. When the father began to grow old, the young chief occupied his mind by devising plans for the better conduct of his kingdom after he should attain his father's place. Public gatherings, with singing and dancing round the king, seem to have been very important parts of state business in those times, and one day, while watching some of his children, who were playing at his feet with tsaramaso (beans), and arranging them in straight lines and cross Imes, according to their different colours, the thought struck him that he ought to have such an arrangement of the different orders of hi:., i;ubjects when they should be

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150 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.' gathered to dance around him, on the occasion of his first appearance among them as king. After consulting with his wife, and then with his wise men, he elaborated his plan, which was that of a large square divided into sixteen smaller squares, with the two intersecting diagonals. On the outer sides of the large square he proposed to arrange the 'Olo-mainty' (Black people,.) ; the diagonal lines were to be occupied by the Hova; the other inner lines were to be occupied by alternate rows of Hova and andri'ana (chiefs or nobles). By and by he discovered that the Olo-mainty might be aggrieved if they were arranged exclusively on the outside lines and 'out in the cold ;' so he devised four small additional diagonal lines, on which some of that tribe might be ranged, nearer to the King and the centre of the gathering. This, according to the native tradition, was the origin of the fanorona ; and the lines above described correspond exactly with the appearance of the lines of half the fanorona diagram as it is now used. As he had yet no opportunity of marshalling his subjects, he spent a good deal of time in working over these plans for them; and after a while he conceived the notion of arranging them also for sham fight, and the various methods for attack and defence were elaborated by him with his tsaramaso instead of soldiers. Finding out after a while that the attacked side, properly defended, would be always victorious, he doubled the number of squares on his mimic field, and succeeded in immensely improving the 'scientific' character of the game, and very greatly increasing the possibilities of careful moves both fot attack and for defence. Thus runs the native tradition as to the origin of the fanorona, and I am rather disposed to believe that the account is substan~ tially true. At first, I thought it mythical, and was inclined to suppose that the game must have been introduced into Mada~ gascar by the Arabs. It will be seen at a glance that the 32 squares of the fanorona are precisely similar to those on the half of an ordinary folding draught-board or chess-board. The moving and capturing power of the pieces is not unlike that of the draughtsmen ; every piece is of identical power and value, just as in draughts; and the number of pieces employed on each side in the earlier and simpler form of the fanorona was just twelve, the same as employed on each side in draughts. Now, if I do not mistake, the game of draughts was introduced into England or Scotland from Egypt, two or three centuries ago. It seemed therefore possible enough that the Malagasy fanorona was originally a variety of the draughts game; that both games * Still a recognized divi~ion of the inhabitants oflmerina. They are descendants of dark and non-Hova tribes captured m former ware, but are now free people.~EDS,

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TH.E MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.' 151 were invented by the Egyptians or Arabs; and that, just as English sailors or travellers carried the one game to Britain the Arab sailors and traders may have brought the other gam~ to Madagascar. Now, however, after considering the apparently unvarying character of the native tradition as to its local origin, and the undoubted facts that the fanorona lines have been repeatedly used in arranging the various clans and orders of the people around the sovereign on the great festival days at Imahamasina-these and some other circumstances dispose me to believe that the game is of Malagasy origin, and probably arose in some such way as stated in the traditionary account which I have roughly given above. Before proceeding to describe particularly the method of playing the fanorona, there is anotherlittle story aboutAndriantompokoindrindra which is too good to be left untold. The King his father, who reigned, I believe, at Ambohidrabiby, happened to be at war with some of his neighbours, who made a raid on his territory and were marching up against him in his capital. Messengers were sent out hastily to his sons, who had been placed in charge of various towns round about, that they must come at once with their soldiers to meet the approaching enemy. As soon as the younger sons heard, they arose at once and went to the father's help. But when the messenger came to Ambohimalaza, Andriantompoko was engrossed with a difficult position in his favourite game, the fanorona; and the answer he returned to his father's message was: "Yes, but I will finish this game of three against five first." The messenger returned with the answer he had got, and after a long delay Andriantompoko arrived with his forces. But he was too late, for the enemy had been routed already. And the tough old King his father, along with the elders of the people, resolved that day that neither Andriantompoko nor any of his descendants should ever be allowed to reign, seeing that he had flung away the kingdom for his "three against five.'' Curiously enough, the descendants of this man, the Zanatompo, still reside at Am bohimalaza, and their family is still known by the name of Andriantompokoindrindra. And the circumstances of their ancestor's disgrace are said to be preserved in the current proverb: "Three against five, and toss away the kingdom" (" Telo no ho di'my mahavery fanfakana"). How "history repeats itself" ! The fanorona board is a rectangular parallelogram, divided into 31 equal squares. Gather these, in your eye, into eight larger squares, containing four each; draw the diagonal lines in each of tht:: eight, and the/anorrma figure is complete, Forty-

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152 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA! four movable pieces are required for the game-twenty-two on each side. With the Malagasy these are usually little pebbles and potsherds, or beans and berries. We, however, will call them the Black and the White pieces. The two players sit opposite each other, having the long sides ofthe/anoronaadjacent to them. The pieces are then arranged on the corners or angle-points, not on the squares, as in chess or draughts. There are five of these long lines on the board, each containing, of course, nine angle-points, and the pieces are thus arranged:-Black : First Line 1 .••. 9 Second ,, I ..•. 9 White: Fourth ,, I .•.. 9 Fifth ,, 1 .. , 9 The third, or central line, is occupied by the eight remaining pieces, placed alternately thus :-Black r , 3 , 6 , 8 White 2 , 4 , 7 , 9 One point remains unoccupied, the central angle-point of the board, the fifth of the third line. This represents the royal seat in the public gatherings, but in the fanorona game it is called the foz'biny ('navel'). The object aimed at by each of the players is, as in draughts, to remove the whole of the adversary's pieces from the board. But much caution is required, for we shall see that a few pieces well posted may easily annihilate more than four times their number in weaker situations; and, as in real warfare, even the very numbers of a force may sometimes prove their ruin. A few examples here will show the various ways in which the game may be opened, and the manner in which the pieces are moved and the adverse pieces captured. Let us suppose that the pieces are all placed, as just described above (see diagram 1 ). For convenience of description let the five lines on which the pieces are posted be called respectively A, B, C, D, E, instead of first Jin~, second line, third line, etc. Any one of these letters then, with a numeral appended, will be an easy refer~ ence to the piece that is to be removed, or to a hostile piece that has to be captured and removed from the board. Then remember:--First, that a piece may he moved in any direction-forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally, to the first station in that direction, if such station be vacant. Second. If there be now no other vacant station between the attacking piece just moved and the enemy's piece along that line, these, whatever their number, are captured at once, as far as they stand in unbroken order on the line attacked,

PAGE 29

TJ/E MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.i 153 If, however, a vacant position occurs in their line, or another hostile piece is among them, then only the piece or pieces nearest the assailant are captured. Thirdly. The pieces of the enemy may be captured by a retreat as well as by an advance. A piece that has been standing in an adjoining station to some piece or pieces of the enemy may capture it or them by retreating one point along that line, if such point happens to be vacant. The limitation defined immediately above applies in this case also. Fourthly. At the beginning of a game one move only is permitted to the first side. After that side has moved once, any piece that is moved is permitted to run amuck in the enemy's lines, and to go on as long as he finds foes to capture, provided (a) that he does not return immediately to any point he has just left, and (b) that he does not take a foe behind him immediately after taking one in front of him, nor one on his right hand immediately after taking on his left hand, and vice versa. "Dont eat at both ends, like a leech," says the Malagasy proverb. Let us suppose that White is going to move first at the commencement of a game. There is only one vacant point on the board into which he can move a piece, namely the foz"beny or central point, which we may term C 5, as it is the fifth point of the third line. There are four white pieces, of which any one may be moved into the vacant post, those on C 4, D 4, D 5, D 6. If he advances D 5 to C 5, then he immediately captures Black's pieces on B 5 and A 5. Black may now retaliate by withdrawing his piece on B 6 to A 5, thereby capturing White's pieces on C 7, D 8, E 9. White may now, in any one of several ways, inflict a series of severe strokes on the unfortunate Black. Thus, for example, D 6 to C 7, taking B 8, A 9; then ,, B 6, AS; .,B5, R4,B3,B2,B1. Now the White piece must stop awhile, for, although the Black piece at B 7 is under his range, yet in taking it he would be. transgressing the two laws mentioned above. He would have to return to B 6, which he has just quitted, and he would be "eating at both ends, like a leech," which is improper. But the black piece on B 7 may now very properly provide for his own safety and circumvent his assailant by advancing' thus:-B 7 to C 7, taking D 7, E 7; then ,, D 6, ,, E 5; then ,, D5, ,, D4, D3, D2, Dr; then ,1 ES, ., CS, B 5

PAGE 30

152 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.' four movable pieces are required for the game-twenty-two on each side. With the Malagasy these are usually little pebbles and potsherds, or beans and berries. We, however, will call them the Black and the White pieces. The two players sit opposite each other, having the long sides ofthefanoronaadjacent to them. The pieces are then arranged on the corners or angle-points, not on the squares, as in chess or draughts. There are five of these long lines on the board, each containing, of course, nine angle-points, and the pieces are thus arranged:-Black : First Line I ..•. 9 Second ,, I. .•. 9 White : Fourth ,, I .... 9 Fifth ,, 1 , , , 9 The third, or central line, is occupied by the eight remaining pieces, placed alternately thus :-Black I , 3 , 6 , 8 White 2 , 4 , 7 , 9 One point remains unoccupied, the central angle-point of the board, the fifth of the third line. This represents the royal seat in the public gatherings, but in the fanorona game it is called the !oz!Jeny ('navel'). The object aimed at by each of the players is, as in draughts, to remove the whole of the adversary's pieces from the board. But much caution is required, for we shall see that a few pieces well posted may easily annihilate more than four times their number in weaker situations; and, as in real warfare, even the very numbers of a force may sometimes prove their ruin. A few examples here will show the various ways in which the game may be opened, and the manner in which the pieces are moved and the adverse pieces captured. Let us suppose that the pieces are all placed, as just described above (see diagram 1 ). For convenience of description let the five lines on which the pieces are posted be called respectively A, B, C, D, E, instead of first lin~, second line, third line, etc. Any one of these letters then, with a numeral appended, will be an easy refer ence to the piece that is to be removed, or to a hostile piece that has to pe captured and removed from the board. Then remember:--First, that a piece may be moved in any direction-forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally, to the first station in that direction, if such station be vacant. Second. If there be now no other vacant station between the attacking piece just moved and the enemy's piece along that line, these, whatever their number, are captured at once, as far as they stand in unbroken order on the line attacked,

PAGE 31

THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA.i 153 If, however, a vacant position occurs in their line, or another hostile piece is among them, then only the piece or pieces nearest the assailant are captured. Thirdly. The pieces of the enemy may be captured by a retreat as well as by an advance. A piece that has been standing in an adjoining station to some piece or pieces of the enemy may capture it or them by retreating one point along that line, if such point happens to be vacant. The limitation defined immediately above applies in this case also. Fourthly. At the beginning of a game one move only is permitted to the first side. After that side has moved once, any piece that is moved is permitted to run amuck in the enemy's lines, and to go on as long as he finds foes to capture, provided (a) that he does not return immediately to any point he has just left, and (b) that he does not take a foe behind him immediately after taking one in front of him, nor one on his right hand immediately after taking on his left hand, and vice versa. "Dont eat at both ends, like a leech," says the Malagasy proverb. Let us suppose that White is going to move first at the commencement of a game. There is only one vacant point on the board into which he can move a piece, namely the fot"beny or central point, which we may term C 5, as it is the fifth point of the third line. There are four white pieces, of which any one may be moved into the vacant post, those on C 4, D 4, D 5, D 6. Ifhe advances D5 to C5, then he immediately captures Black's pieces on B 5 and A 5. Black may now retaliate by withdrawing his piece on B 6 to A 5, thereby capturing white's pieces on C 7, D 8, E 9. White may now, in any one of several ways, inflict a series of severe strokes on the unfortunate Black. Thus, for example, D 6 to C 7, taking B 8, A 9 ; then ,, B 6, ,, A 5 ; ,, B5, ,, R4, B3, B2, B 1. Now the White piece must stop awhile, for, although the Black piece at B 7 is under his range, yet in taking it he would be_ transgressing the two laws mentioned above. He would have to return to B 6, which he has just quitted, and he would be "eating at both ends, like a leech," which is improper. But the black piece on B 7 may now very properly provide for his own safety and circumvent his assailant by advancing thus:B 7 to C 7, taking D 7, E 7; then ,, D 6, ,, Es; then ,, D5, ,, D4,D3,D2,D1; then , 1 ES, ,, C 5, B 5,

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154-THE MALAGASY GAJl,fE OJ! 'Ji1ANORONA.' ,These moves are not given as examples of what the Malagasy would consider good play, but simply to show the modus ope randi of the game. The game subjoined may be considered an average specimen of native skill. FANORONA GAME. WHITE. BLACK. I. D 5 to C s takes B S, A s. I. B 6 to AS takes C 7, D 8, E 9. 2. E 8 ,, D 8 ,, C 8, B 8, A 8. 2. C 6 ,, B 6 ,, D 6, E 6. " c 7 DS; ,, D 6 " Es; " D 5 D4,D3,D2,D1; " E 5 " C5; ,, E 6 " E4, E3, E2, EI. 3 D7,,C7 " B7, A7; 3 E6 " ES " E7. ,, B 8 A9; " B 7 " B9. 4 C4 " c s " C3; 4 C1 " D 2. " D6 " B4, A3; " c 7 " Es; B6 " A5; " C6 " A6. g: C6 " CS 5. D2 ,. E2 C2. C5 " B4. 6. B2 ,, C I. 7. B4 " c 4 " A4. 7 C1 " D 2. 8. B7 " B6. 8. E2 " E 3 9 D 9 " DB. 9 A2 " B2. 10. B6 " A5. ID. B2 " c I. I I. D 8 ,, D7. I I. AI ,, A 2. 12. D 7 " D6. t2. D2 " D 3 13. C9 " BB. 13. C1 ,, C 2. 14. C4 " C3 " C2. 14. B3 ,, A 2 ,, C3; " A 4 " A5. 15. BB " c 7 15. E3 " E 4 16. C7 ,, B 6. 16. A2 ,, B 2. 17. D 6 ,, D7. 17. D3 " D 4. 18. B6 "C5 " D4. 18. B2 ,, A3. 19. C5 " B 4 " A3. 19. BI " c I. 20. B4 "C4 " A4. 20. E4 " D 4 C4. 2 I. D7,, C7. 21. Cl ,, C 2, 22. C 7 ,, C 6. 22. C2 " c 3 23. C6 " c 7 23. C3 " B 4 24. C7 ,, B 8. 24. B4 " c 5 25. B 8 ,, C 8. 25. Cs ,, B 6. 26. CB ,, C9. 26. D 4 " C 5. 27. C9 ,, C 8. 27. C5 " D6. 28. CB " c 9 28. D 6 ,, C6. 29. C9 ,, D9, 29. B 6 ,, C 7 and wins. If the game happens to terminate in a 'draw,' which is fre quently the case, then the combat may be recommenced on the same terms, the other side now taking the first move. Should

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THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORON'A..' 155 one of the players have been defeated, however, he is not allowed to play on the same footing as before, for the game must be altered in a kind of mocking condescension to his weakness. The new form of the game is called the Vela ; the one who has conquered is the mpampihznam-bela (he who allows to graze at large); the defeated is homam-bela (a poor sheep not to be molested for a while in his pasture ground). The vela game is opened by the victor, who puts forward such of his pieces as he chooses to surrender to his antagonist. These pieces may only be taken singly, and the generous conqueror refrains from taking any of his enemy's pieces, until he has parted with, one by one, 17 of his own pieces ; then, with the remainingfive, he begins his campaign against the undiminished forces of his antagonist. If he be a skilful player, however, he has managed meanwhile to occupy the fortress positions of the game ; and the hosts of the enemy are probably scattered in such situations that he will come down on them "like a wolf on the fold." If the homam-bela is again defeated, he is only allowed to play the vela form of the game until he has redeemed himself by a victory. Or he may choose to humiliate himselt by openly confessing his inferiority, though, as one of my informants says, "few of the Malagasy are willing to do that." In ancient times grace was accorded to the beaten combatant on condition of his kneeling down before his conqueror and bleating like a sheep (mzbarareoka), in confession of his weakness. Here is a specimen of the vela game, including the preliminary sacrificial moves by which Black gives up, one by one, the fated 1 7 pieces. Then the time of reprisals comes, and the five survivors take the field and will give and take no quarter. WHITE. l. C 4 to C 5 takes C 6. 2, c 5 " c 6 " c 4• 3 D4,, C5 B6. 4• C5 "B4 " A3. 5 D 5 ,, C 5 ;, B 5 6. E5 ,, D4 ,, C3. 7. C2 ,,C3 ,, Cr. 8. D 2 ., C 2 ,, B 2. 9 B4,, B5 " B3. IO. C 3 ,, B 3 A 3; I I. D 4 " c 3 " B 2; 12. C2,, B2 ,. A2. 13. B 5 ,, B 4 ,, B 6. 14. B 4 ,, B 5 ,, B 6. 15. B 5 ,, B 4 ,; B 6. VELA GAME. BLACK, r. C 3 to C 4, 2. B 7 ,, C 3 3. A 7 ,, B 6. 4. A8,,A7. 5. A 2 ,, A3, 6. Ag,. A 8, 7. A3;1A2. 8. B I " B 2. 9 A4,, A3. ro. A21,A3. 11. A3,, A2. 12. A 8 ,, A 9. 13. A5,, B6. 14. A 7 ,, B 6. 15. B 7 ,, B 6,

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156 THE MALAGASY GAME OF 'FANORONA! WHITE, 16. B4toB5takesB6. 17. C6,, B6 ,, A6. 19. B 6 ,, A 6 20. A6,, A7 21. D3,, C3. " " B 2. • C6. AS. 22. C 3 ,, D 4 ,, B 2, 23. E 2 ,, D 2. 24. D 2 ,, C I and wins. BLACK. 16. A 9 to A 8. 17, Now begins Black's attack. B 8 to A 7 takes C 9 ; ,, B7. ,, C7,D7,E7. 18. C 8 ,, B 8 D 8, E 8; ,,C7 ,, D6; ,, DB ,, E9; "E7 C9; ,, D6 ,, C5; ,, C 6 E 6. 19. B7,, B6 B5. 20. B 6 ,, C 5 A 7 ; ,,C4 C3: "D4 " E4; ,, C3 B2; ,, D2 ,, Ex; ,, C1 ,, E3; ,, BI D1; ,, B2 ,, B3. 21. A 1,, A 2. 22. A 2 ,, A 3 23. A3 " B3. I would just say, in conclusion, that although the fanorona is still very popular with the people, and their interest in the game not at all likely to decay, yet probably it will not in future years be so largely practised as it is now. Life is growing every year more serious for the Malagasy. The felt necessities for education are filling up more and more the lives ofthe young people. Competitions are becoming more eager, and the burdens of responsibilities are being felt more weighty, both in the State and in the churches and in the market-places. The /anorcwa will do no harm to the busy and to the sensible, while the idler and the fool may be at times detained by it from worse employments. Occasionally, I suppose, a few young fellows are foolish enough to gamble over it; and, just as with chess and draught players in England, a few here and there may be tempted by it to forget their proper business. The Malagasy say that in old times their ancestors employed the /anoro1ta as a means ofbegetting and extending friendly feelings among their neighbours; and I have no shrewder words to say of it than those said to me by a clever young native, to whom I am indebted for much of the information in this paper : "We cannot call it a good sport, and we cannot call it a bad one; but it may be either good or evil according to the character and circumstances of those who engage in it," W. MONTGOMERY,

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No.L-THE FANORONABOARD, T/t.d.,etteJs and, F~we.s lure: will be a keg t,o tlie descrrptwn.s. ' -_yiuen in, tJw wtic.le. BLACK WHITE No.2.~ FANORONA BOARD WITH PIECES, 1 as ar1aiwed at comJ"1'1v1.cun..eru qf Ci'arni, J -;; ~-<.. . . ------

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THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL. 157 MALAGASY ROOTS: THEIR CLASSIFICATION AND MUTUAL RELATIONS. I WISH in the following paper to write of Malagasy roots with more fulness than, so far as I am aware, they have yet been treated. In doing so it will be necessary to repeat some facts with which all who know Malagasy are perfectly familiar; but this repetition will I hope be excused for the sake of the greater clearness we shall gain from taking a complete and comprehensive view of the phenomena presented. The Malagasy being an agglutinative language, the root has more importance than in languages of other classes, and is more prominently thrust upon our notice. Thus such a root as solo (substitute) is clearly seen in a vast number of derivatives, e.g. mi'solo, mi'soloa, i'soloana,fisoloana, mam pi's6lo, ampi'sol6ina, mifampi'solo, ifampi'soloana, etc., etc. At the same time the Malagasy language has a greater tendency to obscure the root than some other members of the same class; and indeed often almost entirely hides it in the midst of lengthy prefixes and affixes ; e.g. in the word ifandavana, from the root la, the a alone remains unchanged, the l of the root having become d , in ampdnohify, only oho of the root h6hoka remains unchanged, the first h having disappeared on the assumption of the prefix man (manohoka), and the k of the final syllable having become /, in dmpifamohina again, only the o remains unchanged : the m, however, suggests to one familiar with Malagasy forms one of the labials, and the h in hina also suggests the terminal ka, and so we are soon led to p6ka, the root of the word. Similarly, on appending the pronominal suffixes, the Malagasy in certain cases cut off the final syllable, e.g. mpia natra becomes mpianany, mpi'anatsika, etc. The Malay does not, I think, allow such a contraction as this, but appends the suffix to the unchanged word. I will not, however, occupy time in showing how roots may be detected, as a little familiarity with the derivative forms soon enables one to pick out the roots of all ordinary words ; but will confine myself to the roots themselves, and as a first step it is desirable we should bear in mind the three main classes into which the great majority of roots may be arranged. Class I. Monosyllables. These are rare: if we exclude conjunctions, interjections, etc., there do nnt seem to be more than twelve or thirteen, and as they are so few I will give all I have noticed:-( 1) be, much, many (Malay besar; J av. kabe). The s of the Malay form appears in Malagasy as z in habiazina, etc., and as Is in betsaka, much. (2) da, renown. With this compare zo, which is perhaps only another form of the same word. (3) fe, thigh (Malay pah , Polyn. va). (4) fy, delicious. (s) Jo, the heart. ( 6) la, to refuse ( Swa. la, no, from the Arabic ( ?).

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r.sSi MALAGASY ROOTS. ( 7) lo, rotten. (8) ra, blood (Malay darah; Jav. rah). (9) re, violence, as of the waves; another form is ria (Kawi ro, violence). (, o) re, heard ; this, however, seems to have been shortened from reny (tsy renz'ko=tsy reko is still occasionally heard, and the n appears in the derivatives, e.g. mandrenesa, andrenesana). (r r) to, accomplished, fulfilled (Kawi to, just, true, genuine); the Swahili derivation given in the Dictionary is unnecessary. ( 12) tsy, steel. ( r 3) zo, renown (Swa. zurz' ?). Comp. da. Among the above, which from their simplicity one would expect to belong to the primitive stock of the language, Marre-de Marin (Gram. p. , 4) notes that to,/e, ra, re are Malayan ; to his list we may add be; and perhaps the remaining words da, zo, fy, Jo, lo, re (heard), may also with fuller knowledge be hereafter indentified. Class II. Dz'ssyllables endz'ng z'n o,y, or firm a. By 'firm a' is meant an a not belonging to one of the weak terminals (see Dz'cti'onary, p. xxxii. note). Roots of this class are very common; e.g. rdno, water; elo, um brella ; dzo, got ; /fdy, choice ; didy, cutting ; tdny, earth, land ; voha, opened ; sofa, bald. They are all accented on the first syllable. Class III. Dz'ssyllables and trz'syllables endz'ng z'n the weak termz'nals ka, tra, na. These too are accented on the first syllable, and no root not of this class can be accented on the antepenu!t. This class is very large, and examples will be found in abundance in the Dictionary; the following will serve as samples : tdmpoka, suddenly ; kfpaka, pushed off; /dtratra, earnestly, thoroughly; henatra, shame; nenz'na, regret; hdzona, held; /dtra, measured (as grain); p6ka, knocked against; dona, same as the !ast. Into the above classes almost all primary roots fall. Some apparent exceptions are words borrowed from other languages ; e.g. ka/e (Fr. ea/!), coffee; kardma, wages (Swa. gharama); mz'zdna, scales (Arab. mz'zan); laldna (formerly lalodna; Fr. la loz'). The third class probably contains the largest number of roots in the language. But although for grammatical purposes they are considered roots, there are weighty reasons for considering them rather as modified and enlarged, than as absolutely primitive, roots, and their light terminals ka, tra, and na as additions to the original word. The reasons for this opinion are the following : ( r) The light terminals are often omitted in some of the provincial dialects. Thus we find ndma for ndmana (companion), ldka for ldkana (canoe),/dsy for/dsz'ka, (sand, e.g. in the tribal name, Taifdsy). Even in Imerina we find examples of the same thing, as for instance in ldsa and ldsana (gone), zsa and fsaka ( each), z'ray and z'raika (one). Occasionally the shorter form is in use in Imerina and the lengthened one in the provinces; e.g. Hova hdla (spider), prov. hdlana; Hova/6lzy (short), prov./ohz'ka. ( z) In certain words these terminals are interchanged ; e.g fdsz'ka and /dsz'na, sand (the existence of the form /dsz'na is shown by the proper names Ampdsz'mbe, Ampdsz'mpotsy, Pdsz'nda7Ja, etc. This is an extremely instructive example. The Malay form of the word is pasz'r; the final

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MALAGASY ROOTS. i59 r of which disappears in Taifdsy, becomes na in fdsina, and ka in the common form fdsika). Other examples are elanelana and elakelaka, between ; lrobaka, trdbaka, trobalra, trabatra, pierced ; ovana and ovaka, chips; tarlka and laritra (tarzHna), drawn; lohalz'ka, knee, is among the Beza:nozano called lohalz'tra; afenana, the lower part of the arm, is also called afenaka ; loatra, too much, is in some parts pronounced loana; hazona, held, appears with a final tra in the secondary form sangdzolra, caught in a thicket. And so we might go on adding examples almost ad lz'bitum, but the above are ample to show the freedom with which these light terminals may be interchanged. Usually no change of meaning is caused by the change of the terminal, but sometimes a slight modification of meaning is caused; thus potsitra means to burst (as a boil), but polsz'ka means crushed, broken ; fahy (mamahy) is to fatten cattle, but fdhilra is the name of the pen in which cattle are kept during the fattening; fdlra means to measure ( rice, etc.), fdtralra, shaken down ( as rice in a measure). (3) Many examples are found (as already shown in some of the above examples) in which the simple roots exist side by side with the lengthen ed forms. Thus from rz'a (re), the rush of water (rano maria or marl, rushing water), we have rzana, a waterfall, mikor{ana, to flow (as water over a rock), and riaka, rushing streams of water after a heavy rain. So too from sodisody, hovering, we find mi'sodz'ka, to hover; and from rha (rlrarera), hanging loosely, we have reraka, weak, faint; and from rozirozy, weariness, we have rozika (mz'rozika), languishing; from roba, pillage, we have robaka and rombaka, in much the same sense. So too we find olz'oly, curling, olz'kolz'ka, twisting; Ula, tongue, Waka, to lick (though here the analogy of languages would lead us to think the k must be an essential part of the word ; compare for instance Sans. lz'h, Gr. leicho, Lat. lz'ngo, Heb. lakak, Germ. lecken, Eng. lz'ck, Irish lz'ghim, etc.). (4) The light and uncertain character of the Ira is shown by the sub stitution for it among the Betsileo of Isa , but at the same time in forming passives, etc., the essential elements of the root are maintained ; thus, for example, while they say mamailsa for mamai'tra (root, faitra, comp. the name Andrzamamaz'tranvo), they form the passive in the usual way,ferana (notfelsana, or some similar form). (5) The fondness of the Malagasy for these light terminals is well illustrated by the way in which they use them in giving a Malagasy form to introduced foreign words. Thus the French lz'vre becomes lzvalra ; cai'sse (or Eng. case) becomes kesika. Similar changes are made in proper names; thus Slueland becomes Tsilzalanz'lra; Wills, Ozli'tra; Fox, Fao kz'lra; Capsey, Kapitra; Sims, Szmpitra:1(-( 6) Very instructive also is a comparison of these Malagasy forms with the cognate languages. Occasionally the light terminals are found to represent different final consonants in the Malayan languages. Thus na may represent a final n, as in dnona (so and so )=Malay anun, and ana rana (name)=Malay ngaran; or ng, as in amalona (eel)=Malay malung; * One of the latest and strangest of such changes is that by which the word 'resident' (i.e. the French Resident) is pronounced resi-an-danitm, which, literally translated, would be 'conquered in heaven' I-EDS,

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160 MALAGASY ROOTS. or r, as in lam6st'na (back)=Malay lamusir; kambana (twins)=Malay kambar. So too Ira may stand for a Malayan I, as infaitra (bitterness):= Malay pail, lomotra (slime, moss, etc.)=Malay lumut , or for p, as in atrika (facing)=Malay hadap, Javanese adep (of this word we shall have to say more below); or for s, as in manz'tra \fragrant)=Malay manis. We have also seen above that ka may represent a final r, as infasz'ka (sand)= pasir.*' Sometimes the true root is obscured in the Malagasy root form, but reappears in the adjunctive derivatives. Thus sokalra does not readily suggest the true root :sokdf, or sokap), which can only be seen in the deri vatives sokafana, sokafy, etc. The Malayan forms akkap, singap, show that the true root is better preserved in the derivatives than in the grammatical root sokatra. So too in mfnona (to drink), the true root of which inom= Malay minum) appears ill the passive in6mz'na, etc; and so also in velona (living), passive vel6mina (=Malay belum). But not only do the primitive roots receive these light terminal syl. lables, they are also often enlarged in two other ways: ( r) by the insertion of an infix ; ( 2) by the addition of a monosyllabic prefix. Roots thus enlarged are conveniently named "secondary roots." The syllables used as infixes are om, on (z'n ), ol, ar, er. They are inserted immediately after the first consonant of the primary root, and cause no change of accent. Thus the root hehy (laughter) becomes homehy, which may be used as a participle (laughing), or may become the root of a regular verb, mz'ho~ mehy (to laugh;, from which again a whole family of derivatives spring (mihomeheza, ihomehezana, mampihomehy, etc. etc.). In the same manner we get lomano (swimming) from lano; serentosenlo (sighing) from senlo ,' karepoka (the sound of anything crushed1 from kepoka. So too from bztz'ka (anything very small) we have bz'rftz'ka, bolftz"ka, and similar forms; kztz'ka (with the same meaning) also becomes ki.Jzlik. These infixes have been shown by the Rev. L. Dahle and M. Marre de Marin to be a distinguishing feature of Malayo-Polynesian languages, and hence they have great significance in determining the true position of the Malagasy language, and would in themselves almost decide the question. The above-named writers enumerate in and om, which are the forms of infix most commonly met with ; to these I have added al and ar (er:, as these too are given by the Abbe Favre in his Malay Grammar, and are proved to exist in the Malagasy language by the above examples. I think it highly probable that a careful analysis of roots would lead to the detection of many more examples, and probably of other syllables used as infixes. The word lon.Jehitra ( comp. !6n.Jz'l1a) would seem to suggest an infix eh; but in the absence of other examples or of Malayan analogies it would perhaps be rash to insist upon this. The monosyllabic prefixes used in forming secondary roots are very numerous (an, ba, be, da, etc.). Like the infixes, they cause no change of accent, which still remains on the first syllable of the primary root. It --------------------------------* Occasionally the Malay has a final consonant which is not represented in the Malagasy form ; thus ala (forest} is in Malay alas; Jana (hot} =j,anas; valy (answer)=w!
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MALAGASY ROOTS. 16r is not easy to give c1,ny general idea of how they modify the meaning of the primary root. Sometimes they appear to be simply ornamental, and one is almost tempted to call them "ornamental monosyllabic prefixes." But as they do often produce a distinct modification of meaning, I have in the Introduction to the Dictionary given them a name that in volves no theory as to their use or meaning, and have called them (from the first and last examples given in my list) the an-za prefixes. For examples see Dictionary, p. xviii, Our analysis of the roots and their various enlargements leads us to conclude that it may be laid down as a general rule that all primitive roots were monosyllables, or dissyllables accented on the first syllable. I do not, however, mean to assert that we can in all instances point out the primitive root (for many words must still remain unexplained by the foregoing hypothesis); but as a general working rule to guide us in our comparison of the elements of the language we may safely follow it, and may accordingly, in seeking for primary roots, and in instituting compa risons with other languages, disregard : i0 an unaccented primary syl lable (e.g. tam in the word tamb6lz'na (v6lina), as this will most probably prove to be an an-za prefix ; 2 an unaccented syllable formed by a consonant and om, on, z'l, er, etc., as here we shall probably on close analysis find we have an infix inserted in the primary root ; 3 the weak terminals ka, Ira, na, as these we have seen are frequently additions to, or modifications of, a primary root. But even after having eliminated these accretions, we cannot always be sure that we have before us the true root. Comparison with the cognate languages has already shown us how a root may be obscured, and I think it also leads us to look, not so much to the grammatical root, as to that form which may be regarded as the stem or base of the adjunctive forms, as in the examples s6katra and atrika already given above. Many anomalies disappear when, following out this principle, we compare the stem thus given with Malayo-Polynesian forms. Let us take for example the root kfk_y (scraping), from which we obtain the passive kikfsana. Removing the final ana, which in an ordinary passive affix, we get the stem kz"kis. Comparing with this the Malayan equivalent (kz"kz's), we find we have exactly the same form. In former times we were wont to regard the s in kzkfsana as a consonant inserted for the sake of euphony ; and that the Malagasy, like the Malays (Favre's Grammar, 3 ), do insert at least one consonant, viz. h, euphonically in such words as fihaviany (avy), is not denied ; but this inserted h is but a stronger form of the di::eresis, and in some words where we should be disposed to insert it (e.g. mz'ha hosa), the natives who sit on the Bible Revision Committee deny its existence altogether, and affirm that mihaosa is the correct form. Maharzkfvy (acid; root z'vy, saliva) has been given as an example of a euphonic k, as though the word were from mahary (to produce) and ivy (saliva) : but another explanation is to be found, and one that seems to me much more probable, viz. that we have simply a combination of mahary (to produce) and kz'vy (saliva), kz"vy being another and fuller form of ivy (weakened first to hz"vy, and then, by omission of the aspirate, to ivy), and one still found in the language of Gilolo. It appears far more reason able to seek for the existence of such so-called euphonic consonants in

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r62 MALAGASY ROOTS. some form of the word actually used at an earlier stage in the development of the language, than to consider them abitrarily inserted; and it is not easy to perceive why ki'kfsana should be more euphonious than ki'kfana, which would be the regular form. Of course if such a word as kzldsana stood alone, we might not venture to base a general argument upon it, but it is by no means an isolated example ; and I proceed to give others tending to show how apparent anomalies in Malagasy forms disappear, when we compare them with their Malayan equivalents :A mjJaly (a shrub or tree (Fz'cus soroceoz'des), the leaves of which are used as a substitute for sand-paper); pass. ampalesina (smoothed with amjJaly leaves). The s in the passive ampalesina does not appear in the Malagasy root amjJaly, but is found in the Malay amjalas. Atrika; pass. atrehi'na (faced). In this word the true root is not apparent in the Hova form, but is retained in the provincial atreflna, the stem of which (atref) is easily seen to be but a slightly modified form of the Malay hadaj, and the Javanese adej. Be, betsaka (much, many); pass. habiazz'?za (increased). Here the Ma lay form is besar, the s of which appears in betsaka as ts, and in habiazina as z. Fia ( to grasp) ; pass. flazana. The z of the passive is represented by the s of the Malayan root, which is jeres. Hehy (scraping); pass. hehezina. The Malay is kakas. Hery (strength); pass. herezina. The Malay is karas. Inona (drinking); pass. in6mina. The Malay is minum. This word possesses special interest. In the Malay it means simply to drink, as it still does in the coast dialects of the Malagasy ; whilst among the Hova is it is used only of drinking the poison ordeal (tangena). Lifa (set free); imp. alefaso. The sin alefaso is shown in the Malay form (lejas). L!laka (licked up); pass. lelaflna. The f of lelaflna may be illustrated by the Dayakfelaj. Which should here be considered the ori ginal consonant may be doubtful; compare what has been already said on p. 159. Nify, tify; adj. manify (thin); prov. pass. ti.fisina. Malay nipis; Javanese tijis. Saly (roasting); salazana (a gridiron). Malay salayan; on the use ofy for z, comp. Marre-de Marin, p. 8, note (I). Tety (to pass across); tetezana (a bridge). Malay titi, titiyan (y for z as in salazana). Tsentsi'tra (sucking); pass. tsentsefina. Malay sasaj; Batak sosoj, or sesej. The above examples are taken from the valuable pamphlet of Van der Tuuk* (comp. especially pp. 4, 15, 16, 18); and considering them as a whole, we cannot but feel how much more reasonable it is to seek the explanation of apparent anomalies in the actual history of the language, than to allow ourselves to be put off with such an explanation as "euphonic changes of consonants," or "euphonic insertion of consonants." At the same time we must confess that though the above examples seem to start us on the right road, there still remain many words that • Published by Triibner (Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc, xi. 1864).

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MALAGASY ROOTS, with our present knowledge we cannot well explain; e.g. the/ in hir?fina and the m in ten6mina cannot at present be explained by reference to cognate languages ; and we must conclude either ( 1) that other forms once existed in the Malayo-Polynesian stock ; or ( 2) that the Malagasy may have been led by analogy to use these consonants, even when their use was not warranted by the original form of the root. Malagasy philology is still in its infancy, and much light remains to be thrown on obscure points. Having now briefly showq the way in which roots may be conveniently classified, and the ordinary methods in which they are enlarged and modified, let us proceed to examine some of their less obvious changes, and the manifold relations they bear to one another, and how they thus branch out into many directions and form large and widely extended families or groups, each of which appears to have sprung from some one fundamental root. Slight modifications arose, sometimes perhaps only accidentally, sometimes purposely; and often with the slight change of form arose some modification of meaning, thus gradually increasing the stock of synonyms, and enriching the language by enabling it to distin guish nearly-related ideas. The chief modifications I have noticed may be thus classified :-( r) The use or. omfssion of cert~in consonants at the beginning. The commonest illustrations of this 9ccui' in the use or omission of the aspirate. From the analogy of other languages one would naturally anticipate in a language so little cultivated as the Malagasy some uncer tainty as to the use of the aspirate. And observation entirely agrees with such anticipation, as may be seen by consulting the Dictionary under the following words : dlodlo and halo, alobotra and halobotra, anjaka and hdnjaka, atd/a and hatajana, Ua and hfla (compare too hllana and tongzlana). Under this head may also be compared ebakebaka, interme diate space, and hdbakabaka, the firmanent or expanse; also hdzaka or ha2akdzaka, running, and ezaka, running, or exertion generally. Possibly also a similar relation exists between dzo, got, obtained, and hdzona, held, and between Mny, sufficient for, henika, full, and enina, fully supplied with. In a similar way we find other consonants used or disused, and some times causing a slight modification of meaning; e.g. 6mba and b6mba, to cover, 6ngotra and/6ngotra, plucked up, dmpatra and ldmpatra, stretched at full length, endaka and sendaka, peeled off, pulled off; so too dtzira, carried, and tdNtra, carried away gradually in small portions. In the provinces we find ilo used for !silo, a torch; and etra, a hem, with which compare the Hova zazlra, sewing. (2) Interchange of consonants. (a) The labials (p,f, b, v). Examples of interchange of labials are very common ; e.g. paoka, to swoop down on any thing, to carry off, and faoka, to wipe off; so too lijitra and lepika, fold eel ; compare too the words reba and rifarifa. Again we have vila and bila, crookedness; hdvana and (prov.) haba, a relation; z•etivety, vetz'vetz'ka, a short time, and bitika, small ; b61y and v61y, round ; b6lana and volana, speech ; b6raka and voraka, unbound,. loosened; boaka and v6aka, to go out; and many others which may easily be found in the Dictionary. (b) The gutturals (h, k, g, ng). Thus we find ,dhana and ,dkana, to

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MALAGASY ROOTS. place across, to prevent ; gaika, to call, and haz'ka, to challenge ; gfrika, a point or dot, and hirika, a small hole; hoho and angogo (prov.) nails; ffhi'na, ffhi'tra, and /fkitra, to grasp ; kosz'na, h6sz'na and hasz'na, twined ; hehJ' and hohy, to scratch, and kiky to scrape, gnaw; hehy, laughter, and kfkikiky, giggling; f6ngatra and /6katra, appearing, as a rat from its hole. (c) Other letters. D and L. The interchange between these is extremely common, and in certain districts, especially on the West Coast, almost constant ; thus vady, partner, becomes va{Y ; vadz'ka, to overturn, be, comes vdlz'ka. In this, as in some other peculiarities, the provincial form is nearer the Malayan than is its Hova equivalent ; thus the Malay for vddika is ba!i'k, or membalz'k. Many examples of the interchange of l and d occur also in the Hova ; thus both dangaddnga and langaldnga are used to signify 'tall,' and dfngzdfngy and lfngzllng_y 'height.' D and T. As illustrations of the interchange of these letters we have dohaka and t6haka, a loud noise, as the report of a gun ; deza and teza, to be erect; ddboka and tdboka, to fall, be thrown down. L and R. These letters are often interchanged, as in tambolo and tam boro (prov.), name of an herb; madUo and madiro, the tamarind tree; raz'/u'tra and Waka (prov.), sticking to (here again the provincial form is nearer to the Malayan, which is lekat) ; ringiringy and lingz'lingy, height ; rdha, if, is in some parts pronounced !aha ; and to this head may perhaps be referred the provincial roso, gone, the Hova form of which is lasa, Roso, however, is also a common Hova word, meaning to go forward, make progress. s and T. This is an interchange found in other languages, as for instance in Hebrew and Chaldee, the Hebrew sh becoming t in Chaldee, as Heb. shor, an ox, Chai. tor; which word Mr. Dahle has shown* to exist in Malagasy in the name of the month Adaoro, which takes its name from the constellation Taurus. The examples in Malagasy of this interchange of s and t are not very common ; but I have noticed t6kana and sokana, single, alone ; tebiteby, agitation, fear, and sebz'seby, confusion, trouble. F and TS. This, like the interchange of l and d, occurs constantly, the Havas preferring the ts sound, and the provincials the t ; thus the Hova tsidz'ka, to peep, spy out, is in the provinces tilz'ka, with which may also be compared lily, a watchman. Alatsinainy, Monday, becomes Ti nainy; /6tsy, white, is on the West Coast /6ty (Malay putz'h, another example of what has been noted above) ; so too we find tsihy, a mat, prov. tfhy, Malay tikar; tsinjo, gazed at from a distance, prov. tfnjo, Malay Hnjow. R and TR. These are interchanged in the roots ranga and tranga, to come into view ; riatra and trfatra, torn. The above changes occur between consonants recognised as posses sing well-established affinities ; but interchanges often occur between those which are not according to our notions so closely related, as for example between :-K and P, in take/aka and tapelaka, anything flat and wide. K and F, as in kositra and /6sitra, a kind of insect. • ANNUAL J. (Reprint), p. 207.

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MALAGASY ROOTS. H and T, as in haino and taino, to listen, attend. Kand T, as in korontana and koronkana, confused. K and TR, as in 6lon-kdfa and olon-trdfa, another person. p and T, as in karepoka and karetoka, the sound of anything crushed. J and D, as injejajfja and dedadeda, blazing, flaming. J and R, as injdbajdba and rdbardba, groping in the dark (comp. repa repa, rapardpa). J and TS, as injoboka and ts6boka, to be plunged into water (comp. roboka). This last, however, may be resolved into a simple interchange of dentals (d and t), asj=dz. (3) Interchange of vowels. Equal liberty is taken with vowels as with consonants, the change being sometimes accompanied by a slight modification of meaning. Thus we find 6nina, 6nona, dnina, comforted, assuaged, though dnina is more frequently used of the cessation of passion or violent grief. So too with entana (entanentana), to start up ward, and ontana, to be startled (nziontana iray hi"any ny foko, used of one violently startled); and again with sokatra, to open, and sokz"tra, to clear out, pick out from a hole, to carve or engrave ; and with bonabona and bonibony, puffiness, unnatural swelling (comp. bonobono); and bobaka swollen, and b6boka, saturated. Other examples are dibadiba and dibzdiby, full to excess; gdgagdga, gogogogo, gigigigy, sobbing; hinaka and tonaka, to beat (for interchange of h and t see above) ; laferana, liferana, lefe rana, loferana, the hock; ij.y, ofa, 6faka, peeling off (comp. 6vaka, a chip) ; r6n'tra and rirz'fra, to pull ; risika and rosoka, to prompt or encou rage ; nz6inz6z'na and nzaona, to gallop, rush. (4) Internal strengthening. This occurs frequently with the labials, and is effected by adding nz to an existing v or b. Thus we have lanza, smooth, ldnzaka, levelled, lenzaka, a plain, and lemba, with the same meaning as lemaka. So too we find dvo, dbo, and dmbo, all meaning high ; bdbo and bdnzbo, booty ; and so too ave/a and ambela, permitted ; avidy, anzbidy, amidy, sold, or paid in exchange for something. It is worthy of remark that though the more correct speakers are quite clear in distinguishing the presence or absence of nz before b or p, many of the people seem very careless on this point, and use or omit the nz in the most arbitrary fashion. Perhaps in no single point is there so much uncertainty among native writers and printers as in the insertion or omis sion of this m, or the n similarly used before d, t, g, or k. And now that we have passed thus briefly in review the various modes in which roots are enlarged and modified, we see at a glance how large groups may be formed which have apparently sprung from some one sound, but which have been enlarged or modified, and so made use of for the expression of various shades of meaning more or less closely allied. Let us for example take the sound av (eb and e/ being but variations of the same). From this we get avo, high, dvona and evona, pride, afona and embona, floating (on the surface,, ebo, boasting, ifona, hard breathing, ifoka, pride, haughtiness ; whether evoka, dvotra, 6ntbotra, plucked up ( brought to the surface, pulled up?), should also be placed here, is perhaps open to doubt. \Ve may select as ctnother example the sound ang or ai'ng, and at once we find a large family springing up around the parent root ; e.g. 11tiai11ga,

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166 MALAGASY ROOTS. to rise, to start ; tsinga (prov. ), to lift oneself up (maninga) ; tsangana, to stand up; angana appears to have the same meaning, compare the common phrase tsy nasiany nz"angana (he left not a single survivor, lz't. not one standing); aznginaingina, enginengina,. to be placed on high; aingitraingz'tra, engitrengz'tra, to be restless (as if constantly moving up and down ?) ; aingiaingy, pride, arrogance ; angitrangz"tra, dngatrangatra, haughtiness, wanton gaiety; angoango, piled up in a heap ; taingz"na, perched on something. . Or take again the word mz"bebaka, now used among Christians to express repentance ; and supposing the crude fortn to be bab, beb, we get at once nzz'baboka, mibebaka, to supplicate, to repent, with which it is quite possible vavaka, prayer, and vambaka (prov.), confession, are connected. It may even be that vdva, mouth, offers the key of the whole group, prayer being regarded as par excellence the service rendered by the mouth. Rera is another root of some interest. It is hot used in its simple form, but appears in several secondary roots, which show that slackness is its primary idea : barera, to droop, drag, hang loose ; borera, worn loose, then weak, infirm ; garera, feeble, imbecile ; reraka, loosened, weak, faint; boreraka, loose, untidy. As a final example"' let us take the stem hav (hev, heb, hef), from which we get havihavy, hevihevy, hevingevz'iza, to be suspended, to oscillate; so too h_Jvahev~, hevihevy, hebi'heby, hebzhebika,_ hevitrevz'tra, h1Jahiff, hevzhevzka, all with vanous shades of the same meamng ;_ so too hembahemba, hempa hempa, to flutter (as a flag) ; hevohevo, to loiter; hifika, kifika, to wag the head. These examples are sufficient to indicate a way of comparing and classifying roots, which will often prove instructive by throwing new and unexpected light upon familiar words, and by leading us to the idea that lay originally at the base of the conception they now embody. I cannot expect that any large number of the readers of the ANNUAL will be interested in a paper of this character, but hope it may be a stimulus to the few who are not content with our present knowledge of_ the Malagasy language, but are always seeking to render that knowledge fuller and more exact. How much remains to be done, and in how many departments our knowledge is but fragmentary, we must many of us feel. But by combined efforts, each one trying to add something to the common stock, we may do much towards the attainment of fuller and more exact knowledge. Only by a much wider acquaintance with the dialects (their vocabulary, and peculia~ities of structure and idiom), and by a well-established collection of words not yet entered in the Dictionary, and by a large and comprehensive study of families of roots, such as I have endeavoured to indicate in this paper, can this much-to-besdesired end be attained ; and as my contribution, I hereby offer this paper to the readers of the ANNUAL, W1Lt.IAM E. COUSINS. " I had noted other examples, but will only suggest them briefly in a rtote :--Engoka (en("o), bamin'
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THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL. ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR."" [COMMUNICATED by C. Telfair, Esq., President of the Mauritius Nat. Hist. Soc.] THE most prominent characteristic of the Malagasy language, in reference to poetry, is a total averseness to rl}y_m~. Whilst it is admitted that the same identical sound is not legitimate rhyme, the extreme paucity of the language in terminations will ever preclude the introduction of rhyming verses. At least nineteen-twentieths of the whole vocabulary of words terminate in a or y, and an immense proportion of these in na and ny :-all other words terminate in e, or o, or the diphthongs ay and ao; and even these are exceedingly monotonous in the consonants of their penultimate and ultimate syllables. The best couplet I recollect to have heard has the rhyme of hoe and me, answering exactly to the English words 'way' and 'may,' and the jingle of such a rhyme has in the Malagasy language an unnatural and harsh effect. In the genuine native verses I have not met with any such instance as the one specified, but have observed that rhyme of every description seems naturally from the true genius of the language, and intentionally from the uncouthness of its effect, inadmissible. So far I have ventured to assert with confidence, and without any apprehension of future observation disproving my opinions; but when the question arises, What then constitutes poetry or versification in Malagasy ? I am conscious that uncertainty and error may very possibly attach to the opinions I shall present in reply. Future observation, combined with a more adequate knowledge of the subject, may disprove my present opinion, and substantiate what I at present reject as destitute of proof. I make these remarks as introductory to the opinion that quantt'ty ( except so far as quantity and the * I am indebted for this paper to the kindness of my friend br. R. Rost, Ph.D., Librarian to the India Office. Dr. Rost discovered it in. the first volume of the .'rournal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, for 1832, and kindly cut out the leaves containing it from his copy in order that it might be reprinted in the ANNUAL, thinking, very truly, that it would be of interest to many. Mr. Baker, as will be remembered by some readers, was Superintendent of the Press of the London Missionary Society in Antananarivo duringthe early mission of that Society in Madagascar (Oct. 1828-June 1832, and July 1834--July 1836), and was, together With the Rev. D, Johns, the last English missionary to leave the island before the outbreak of persecution. Mr. Baker died only last year (sec ANNUAL No. IX., p. 121); but this paper was written by him during his first visit to England, more than 54 years ago. vVe have reprinted it exactly as given in the original, with the old-fashioned style of writing Malagasy, only correcting some obvious errors in spelling and punctuation, as \\ell as that of calling Rab0donandrianamp6ina 'Prince,' instead of 'Princess,' as jt should of course be given. It will be known to many that this was the name by which Quee11 Rimavalona I. wa6 gene rally designated in public proceedingij,-ED, (J,S,)

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168 ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. number of syllables and accents may be regarded as necessarily synonymous) furnishes no rule for measuring Malagasy verses. No examples have come to my knowledge of lines having a credible claim to correctness, in which two apparently short syllables of one line are put to correspond with one long syl -lable of an equivalent line ; but, where the number of syllables in a line exceeds those of a corresponding line, the metre is preserved by cutting off some syllables, and thence gliding two into one reading; and by lengthening the half syllables of verbal terminations into perfect syllables. Every word in the language is strongly marked by one accent or more, corresponding in this respect with English. But in English it is observable that the accent, falling on the vowel, leaves the syllable short. I do not observe any similar distinction in Malagasy, excepting that there are a few words terminating in e long, and thence carrying the accent. Probably in Malagasy the accented syllable is universally long, and the long syllable universally accented. Granting the Malagasy verses to be divisible into feet and capable of being scanned, there is perhaps no instance to be found of a line corresponding with a line in Latin. In Latin, the number of syllables varies, and the last is deemed long; the reverse of these two cases is the fact with regard to Malagasy. Moreover the feet constituting a line seem to have no correspondence with the purest metres in Latin, Thus the most harmonious lines in Malagasy coincide syllable for syllable and accent for accent with the following: "Tsy h{tanao va ny maty Dost thou not see the dead . Maraina tsy mba mam{ndro/' Morning not warm at the fireside, consisting of an amphibrach, trochee, and amphibrach. These the natives regard as the most harmonious lines; yet there are in the same ode lines quite different in respect to the situation of the accented syllables ; as in the following couplet: •/rsy mahalala ha.van ko tonga Not knowing what kindred shall come Aiza ny olona inlny," Where ate people as these? lines which, notwithstanding their diversity, do not appear essentially destitute of harmony. . . These Imes have more similarity to English, so far as that a certain uniformity of syllable and accent is essendal in both languages ; and the harmony of the verse arises front the ac" centuation and the cresura. The latter seems plainly discernible in Malagasy, as in this line : "Vavahady hidlrana-misy hiany" (A door of entrance-that there is),

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ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. 169 Yet the verses are unlike to English in respect to their being destitute of rhyme, unaccented on the last syllable of a line, and . scarcely if ever permitting one line to run on in a continuous sense into another. The characters peculiarly essential to Malagasy versification seem to be chiefly the following : ( 1) Harmony of syllables and acr.entuation; a deviation from which rule produces a precisely similar harsh discordant effect on the ear as in English. ( 2) The expression must be diversified, and the words transposed, as in other languages. 13) Every line must be in some degree an independent sentiment, or at least a clause of a sentence, bearing a natural division in the sense, and thence a pause of the voice in reading or singing. Hence the sense is often strikingly abrupt and laconic, as will be seen in the examples of literal translation. The language abounds much in polysyllables ; there are exceedingly few monosyllables, and perhaps the greatest proportion of the words are of five syllables. Hence a line of eight syllables generally contains from two to five words, and a line of twelve is frequently comprised in four words. On this account a sentiment is rarely attempted to be set off with superfluous ornaments of language, but stands entirely on the merit of the figure under which it is conveyed. Of poetical adjectives, so often highly convenient in English for filling up the metre or adorning a graceless noun, scarcely an instance occurs in an entire song. Yet the language, thought, and style of the poetry is quite of a different cast from prose. Abounding in the bold est -figures, and the sense left to connect itself by the chain of thought, it commends itself to the mind as the rude and unpolished offspring of poetical genius. It is evident that in a language so exceedingly different from English, combined with a state of society equally different, it is impossible, on the one hand, to give an intelligible literal translation, leaving the reader's imagination to fill up the images; and on the other hand, it is difficult to give a vivid imitation of the !original. For myself, I pretend not to any talent in poetical composition, and am induced to make the attempt merely by the novelty of the subject, until some more able pen shall display in language more worthy of its subject the gleanings of orally preserved versification to be found in Madagascar. In the mean time, I have only to plead for all deficiencies, that I am not setting forth myself as an author, but only as a trans~ later, and that from a language wherein nothing can be looked for risifig above mediocrity in the estimation of cultivated minds. I shall be abundantly requited for my trouble, should these

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170 ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. contributions tend in any measure towards evincing that the native inhabitants of Madagascar, degraded as they actually appear, especially when contrasted. with the enlightened population of civilized Europe, are nevertheless not destitute of natural genius, nor by any means insensible to the finer feelings and passions of human nature. I ought not to conclude without observing, that there is a kind of composition very prevalent in the language which is neither perfect prose nor poetry, but seems to form a connecting link between the two, being both in sentiment and expression more pithy, figurative, and smart than the former, and yet destitute of the metre, cadence, etc. of the latter. These pieces may be called poetical prose. A prose translation of such fugitive examples as have fallen into my hands would be dull and unstriking, and a lzteralrhyming translation impossible; so I have chosen, in the accompanying example "On Courtship," a translation pretty free in expression, but I believe perfectly correct, though somewhat paraphrased, in thought."' It appears, as far as I have discovered, that all compositions in Malagasy, of a poetical turn of thought, are written in this style, except songs; the latter being the only compositions I have yet met with evidently written in regular metre. The following, as well as several succeeding songs, are by a man called Razafilahy, who, happening to be a cripple and unable to work, turned his attention to song-making, by which it is said he obtains a tolerable livelihood. He is a stoutish man, rides out on the back of a male slave, and has as buxom and merry looking a face as any to be seen in Madagascar. t NOTE. [WHILE giving Mr. Baker's interesting paper unaltered, it may perhaps be well to remark that later acquaintance with the capabilities of the Malagasy language has not altogether borne out his opinion, in the first paragraph of the article1 that rhymed verse is impracticable in Malagasy, still less that rhythmical verse is so. The subject is, however, more fully treated in the article on "Malagasy Hymnology," a few pages further on in this number. See also Mr. Richardson's article on "Malagasy 'Tononkira' and Hymnology" in ANNUAL No. II., pp. 23-35. Many specimens of native songs are given in Mr. Dahle's Spedmens of JW'alagasy Folk lore and in the Publzi:atz'ons of the Malagasy Folk-lore Society, and transla tions of many are given in the Folk4ore Record, vol. i., 1883;-ED. u.s.)] " We are inclined to differ in opinion with otir author on this subject, and to think that a mere literal translation, with explanatory notes, would have better illustrat.ed the peculiarities of thought and idiom in the Malagasy language, than even the best versified imitation.-ED. [JbUR. BENG. ASIAT. Soc.] . t As more convenient for the generality of our readers, whom we may safelv presume td be. unacquainted ,vith the .Malagasy Jang Lia~e, we have arranged the original text at the foot of the page, leaving the English version tinmterrupted,-ED, U.B.A.S;]

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ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. 1.-Li'teral translati'on of an Ode z"n praise of the Princess Rab6do. By Razafilahy. Long, long, may live Rab6donandrianampoina. To the south of Ambatondrafandana," To the north of Ambohimitsimbina,"' To the west of Ambohimiandra,• To the east of Ambohijanahary ;" The new moon shining in the west, The full moon rising in the east. Long live Rab6do, Yea Ramboasalama, And Rakotoseheno of Rada.ma, And his relations all, Innumerable they ; [lars, The portions of land sh:3-ll then be dol-The corners of the houses guns. Endrehinantsfoa is his portioned land, Endrehinantsiva his house; Possessing much, yet not haughty. Orphans shall then be plump, Their mother ljving, they are well fed. Yonder is the defence of rock, Yonder the clothing of wood, [men. A fence of spears, yea, second fence of Long live Rabodonandrianampoina, A single tree in a lake ; It is not "How many reign?" For there is our only sovereign. The following is the translation of another Ode author:~ by the satne II.-The Great Rz've;-. Yonder Ambaniala'st streams go forth1 Amb6hidrapetot to the north extends, To the northward also Amb6hitrimanjaka ;f +Guide well thy winding course, Nor kill the people's sons with heedless might, Too full, thou'rt like an ill cut cloak, Smothering the head it should set off; Dried up, thou'rt like aninsuffi.cient dress, Leaving the breast and arms naked. 1.-0de in praise of Princess Rabodo. Honore ny veloma Rabodonandrianampoina : Atsimo n' Ambatondrafandana, Avaratry ny Ambohimitsimbina, Andrefana Ambohimiandra, Atsinanana Ambohijanahary; Volana tsinana ny avy andrefana; Feno manana ny avy atsinanana. Veloma Rabodo, Sy Ramboasalama, Sy Rakotosehenon-dRadama, Sy ny havany tontolo, Tsy tambo isaina ; Ny tokotany dia farantsa, Indro hy rano Ambaniala; Avaratr' Ambohidrapeto, Avaratr' Ambohitrimanjaka; Mahaiia mandeha; Ny zoro n'trano dia basy. Endrehinantsiva ny tokotany ny, Endrehinantsiva ny trano ny I Manambe tsy 'mba miavona, Kamboty dia dongadonga, Velon' dreny clia botrabotra, Ao ny miaketso vato, Ao ny miakanjo hazo, Rova lefona, ka temitr' olona indray. Veloma Rabodonandrianampoina, Hazo tokaua an-ony ; Tsy firy no mandidy, Ka tompo nay any ao. lL-Anonibe. Mahaiza mizotra, Aza mamono zana' bahoaka, Top.draka, toa misaron' doha; Ritra, toa manao sikimbalaka; * These are names of cliffetent parts of the hill on which Antananarivb is built, or of hills tin either side of it, and situated respectively south; north, west, and east of the Palace.-EDs. t This and others are names of villages lying on the banks of the ri,cr. + The whole beauty of the poem lies in a hidden allusion running through it to the kliig dom ; here perhaps is an admonition to the sovereign.

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ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. And thus from day to day Thou rollest onwards continually. Soon at lkiopa are t):iy waters found, Ikiopa renowned through the world, Devouring all, yet still unsatiated, * Lab'ring ever, and still thy work unaccomplished; Ambohiboinjo from thy bank not far, And southward Soivinimerina; Behold Antonta abounding in eels, t From whence murmuring sounds are heard; The soldier here casts round his wandering eye Thinking of distant friends. Here thou art in jeopardy, new-wedded bride, Should a dispute arise towards the evening; For caprice controls the unsettled heart; Discarded, thou wilt soon retrace thy steps! But we again pursue the river's course. At Firahintsana next abide; , The people there with noisy long guns fire,+ And cannons longer and still more noisy, Spitting the frothy foam and rising phlegm, Writhing in restless agony and pain. Let each unwept forsake his best beloved! For all partake the bitter curse.II III.-Paraphrase of a poem called Ny Momba, or' The Barren.' By the same Author. To thee who dost all childless live, Thou, barren, this advice I give : In place secure thy wealth with foresight lay; Fer then a thousand tongues thou'lt find to say, "Kind father, dearest mother, thou to me;" Ka ny azy re toetr' andro ny Ka mivalambalan' indray Koa mankany Ikiopa, Ikiopa rano malaza, Homambe, fa tsy voky, Mivalambalan' indray ; Mivalana dia any Ambohiboanjo, Anv atsimo ny Soavinimerina ; Incfro koa re anv Antonta, Ka migodongoaom' piteny ; Mahita anay lavi'kavana !zany Rakala momba, Tehirizo tsara ny harena ; Fa raha misy ireny, Miady mena masoandro, Ka tsy fantatr' ompanavao, Tsy vatra n' olona tsy honina, lzahay re dia handeha, Ka tonga tany lfarahantsana; Ka ny ao mipoa' basy lava, Ny ao mipoa' tafondro lava, Mitsipidrora mivalana. Mamoiza ny mana' malala I Fa samy efa nozoi' ny. III.-Ny Momba. Atao ny hoe, ikiaky nao, ineny; Tsy mahalavitra ny tany; Tsy mahasasa' mandeha. * All other streams run into lkiopa. t That is, the sound of the distant waterfall, and by allusion, the repining of the soldiers B"dirig to war. t Literally true of the Sakala.va enemy and, figuratively, of the waterfall Ifarahantsana, 9 Under the figure of the dashing of the water, alluding to the death of soldiers through war, fever, and famine. II Every family has lost some relations in the devastating wars, and all must submit without repining.

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ON THE POETRY OF MA.DA GA SCAR. No space their coming stays, No rugged road delays. But if thou pine in wretched poverty, Not thine gay robes to wear, No flattery soothes thine ear, No prattling babes entwine, No equal portion thine. 2 The barren destitute of wealthy store, Extends her wandering eyes the wide world o'er; No loving friend to visit her is found, No children, prattling all their wants, surround. If hungry, none a scanty dole shall mete : If satiate, none the falling crumbs shall eat; By none thy sufferings are allayed, If weary, none shall give thee aid; And, hapless, even when thou'rt dead, No tears shall weep o'er thy last bed. 3 Thy shroud not half a dollar lmys, Nor sixpence sheep for sacrifice. A penny pays for grease to light Instead of taper thy sad ghost; No friends shall watch the dreary night; To shallow grave shalt thou be hurried, And with regardless haste be buried, A farthing all the funeral cost. "Ah! mother, life is misery." Yea, barren, such thy fate must be; Thou'lt fain the locust'" catch, for whom ? For children of a luckier womb, Yea, such, ill-fated barren, is thy doom. 4 Now, barren, view thy husband dead, And thou from parent's distant bed; From head to foot sorrow's own image thou, Unheard by all, thy sad bewailings now. Ah! barren, thou in former days, A father living, A mother giving, Fa raha tsy manana ireny, Lany haingio, Lany laingia, Lany zanaka, Lany zara. 2 Mamba !any harena, Ny maso no apitrapitra; Tsy misy havan' kamangy, Tsy misy zaza hitomany. 3 Vitan' damban' doso, Vitan' ondry n' tsikiajy; Vitan' tsabora mila voamena, Atao ny lavenan' tandrevaka. Tsy misy mpiaritory, Ialany ny olo kajia. Maty re aha, raneny. Izany Rakala mamba ; Misambo' balala Ho an' janak' olona; Eny Ramomba. 173 Noana, tsy manan' kangatahana; Voky, tsy man an' kotolorana ; Marary, tsy manan' kitsabo, Sasatra, tsy manan' kitsetra; Eny, Ramomba, 4 Rakala mamba, mamba ka maty vady, !{a lavi' dray aman' drcny; Sady an-doha no an-tongotra, Miantso ka tsy fanta' ny. Maty, tsy manan' kitomany. * The poor among the people eat the locusts and feed their children with them.

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ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. Could'st bathe in water fetch'd by slaves, Caressed and blest in all thy ways. Ah! barren, now how chang'd thy state, Thy father's life-dream o'er, Thy mother now no more, To bathe in tears thy wretched fate, All cloth'd in rags, thou once might'st hate. Link'd to some churl, I see in piteous plight Thee pinch'd and waken'd at the morning light; Expelled the cheering hearth, thy wedded right. "Ah, mother! life is misery; Would I had died in infancy I'' 5 I travelled eastward succour to obtain ; My father's kindred live hard by; Alas! I'm chang'd; they know me not again; Ah, mother! like the dead am I. I turn'd my steps into the northern way; My mother's kindred live hard by; Alas! I'm chang'd; thou'rt not the same, they !:!ay; Ah, mother! like the dead am I. I turn'd me back again, and southward ranged; My father's sister lives hard by; But she, like all my relatives, is changed; Ah, mother! worse than dead am I. I turn'd again a westward course to tread; Tis there my mother's sisters live ; Their dead relation's awful blame they dread, So careless pitch the boon they give! IV.-Paraphrase of an Eclogue z'n Poeti'cal Prose. -Author unknown. On Courtshz'j>. She. He. Pray tell me, since you oft profess Rice, which affords our daily food, Your fervent love to me, And constant life supplies, To what, if we may give a guess, Is the best emblem of my love, Your love may liken'd be? Which never, never dies. Ray bado, ray bado ; Fahavelon' dro ray ny, Fahavelon' dro reny ; Mandro rano antsakaina ; Raha mivoaka, tambatambazana. Ray bado, ray bado ; Raha maty ro ray ny, Raha maty ro reny, Mandro rano maso, Mitafy lamba tseroka, Mitoctra amy nv olona ny bado, Mandry mar"aina, ronga
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ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. 175 She. Ah no ! not so thy love to me, For that thou deemest sweet, Only when hunger presses thee To take the proffer'd meat. Then tell me, since you oft profess Your, etc. ( as in the first verse.) He. I love you as the fountain pure, Which yields a sure supply Of that without whose aid secure My frame would quickly die. She. Ah no ! not so thy love to me, For that, when dirt adheres Which others scornfully may see, Desirable appears. Then tell me, etc. He. The lamba," which around I fold To guard life's vital flame, Is that which, next to thee, I hold Most needful to my frame. She. Ah no I for that, when older grown, Disdain'd, thou wilt reject; And ne'er again will it be known, But lie in long neglect. Then tell me, etc. He. I love thee like the luscious taste Of a new honeycomb, [haste, Whose precious fruit is seized with And borne in triumph home. She. Ah no! for there amidst the sweets, Though luscious they be found, The goodness not unmingled meets, But dregs impure abound. Then tell me, etc. He. I love thee as the sov'reign king Of this our native land, Whose endless praises all can sing, Whose word moves every hand. She. To this, in truth, thy love compare, Whose merely passing by, Rebuking every vulgar stare, Abashes every eye. To him, indeed, thy love compare, Whose briefest, transient gaze, With shameo'~rwhelms and deep desOr drooping hearts can raise. [pair, To this, indeed, thy love compare, I, of desire the end And goal; wherever you repair, Still towards me you tend. And I my love to thee will prove In all good faith and truth, A filial daughter's tender love To parents of her youth ; Enjoying life, while life shall last, One house our common home; And when the mortal scene is past, United in one tomb! E. BAKER. tahaky n'inona ary aho? Tia ko tahaky ny lamba hianao.-Tsy tia nao aho izanf, fa raha tonta, afindra nao ka tsy tsaroa nao intsony. Tia nao tahaky n'inona angaha aho . Tia ko tahaky ny tantely hianao.-Tsy tia nao aho izany, fa misy faikana. Tia nao tahaky n'inona angaha aho? Tia ko tahaky ny Andriamanjaka hianao.-Tia nao tokoa aho izany, manclalo mahamena' maso, mijery mahmnenatra. Tia nao tokoa aha izany, fa tapi' java' nirina aha, tapi' java' naleha. Tia ko tahaky ny kiaky sy neny hianao : velona, iray trano ; maty, iray hazo. POSTSCRIPT. [IT may perhaps be well to give, as addenda to the foregoing, another specimen or two of Malagasy poetry as translated by Mr. Baker, especially as the books containing them are somewhat scarce, and the pieces may not be known to many readers of the ANNUAL. The first is taken from Mr. Ellis's valuable Histoiy of Madagascar, vol. i., p. 276; it is by the same native bard who wrote some of the foregoing pieces, Razafilahy.-Eos.J * The garment which a Malagasy wraps round his body, and which constitutes his only clothing except what is wrapped round the loins, a,nd without which ho is called naked.

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ON THE POETRY OF MADAGASCAR. A Song concerm'ng the Dead. Vain man! observ'st thou not the dead? The morning warmth from them has fled, Their mid-day joy and toil are o'er, Though near, they meet fond friends no more. A gate of entrance to the tomb we see, But a departure thence there ne'er will be. But where's his dearest friend's reply? Ah! where are those thus doom'd to die? 2 Vain man! observ'st thou not the dead? Sweet words forsake their dreary bed; There's none the mould'ring silk" around his fellow folds, Or north or south again their visits gay beholds ; Then shall re-echoing vales no longer cheer, For them the hill no lofty signals rear. Their shrouded heads unmoving lie, Unknown the friends that o'er them sigh; Ah I where are those thus doom'd to die? 3 Vain man ! observ'st thou not the dead? No more their homeward path they tread. The freeman lost may ransom'd be, By silver's magic power set free; But who those lost from death can buy ? Ah! where are those thus doom'd to die? Let me prefer true goodness to attain, Or fool or wise I'm deem'd by transient fame. New rice, my friends, your cheerful blessing, give, So from Razafilahy you shall thanks receive. The second piece is included in Mr. Baker's little work entitled An Out li'ne of a Grammar of the Madagascar Language, as spoken by the Hovas (London: r 864-), and is given at the end as a translation of one of the specimens of native composition:Exhortatz'on to Frz'endshzp. Let the living love each other; for the others (the dead) cannot attain it ; for the others are gone home. 2 Let the living love each other; for the dead are not companions; for the dead belong to the dead, the living belong to the living; for the dead cannot be hoped for, but the living can be hoped for. 3 Let the living love each other; for the kind-hearted attain (life's) end; people love what touches the heart ; and remorse does not come before (the deed), but after; and it is you (0 men) who shall be full of remorse, who, angry, give up your heart (to vengeance); but for us, we suffer no remorse; when angry, we can be pacified, for vengeance which gets the mastery becomes a parent of much guilt. 4 Let the living love each other ; and do not build two houses too distant; for the distant (neighbour) cannot be called in, but the near will be preferred, and the many (together) are happy; for ants consume a sr,nall, store. 5 Let the living love each other; do like the locusts : when fat, they fly off together. • Malagasy corpses are wrapped in silk cloths.

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ON THE POETRY OF MADA GA SCAR. 177 6 Let the living love each other; do as the carded cotton : though tender, not broken; though spun out thin, not snapped; and be as water in sand;\' ground: you think there is none, but there is. 7 Let the living love each other; do as in yonder market : the unknown is easily recognized, and the unseen discovered; uncalled by proclamation, they assemble. 8 Let the living love each other; be as the cock's (feathered) garment: the well-arranged (feathers) are replaced; from the corpse only are they separated. 9 Let the living love each other; but do not make the bullock's friendship: the big one push away the small, and the fat thrust away the lean. IO Let the Jiving love each other; but do not make the friendship of the rock: when angry, it cannot be appeased; when broken, it cannot be mended; the big ones never speak, nor do the little ones grow. 11 Let the living love each other; but be not like the rush harefo : smooth outwardly, but hollow within. 12 Let the living love each other; but make not the water's friendship : when its companion comes, it gets muddy; the advance guard does not call out, "Come on," and the rear does not cry out, "Stop for me," but when they do mix, they become the muddier. THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR."' TRADE in Madagascar eludes statistics. Now and then upon the coast, when a vessel arrives with a cargo of some much-needed foreign product, the agents of the firm to which the goods are consigned may be seen doing business undisguisedly with a crowd of nativ.e whole sale buyers around them, each man anxious to be the first to strike a favourable bargain and hurry his stock up to the roadside markets of Imerina; but here in the Capital the European trader receives his merchandise from abroad, and collects the native produce in return, without anybody, except himself, knowing correctly how much passes through his hands either way. He studiously endeavours to prevent the circulation of such knowledge, especially amongst his native customers. The alternations of scarcity and abundant stock can generally be ascertained by observing the fluctuation of price in the great weekly market of Antananarivo, the Hova being a keen dealer and ever ready to take advantage of the accidents of supply and demand ; but beyond prices, information is very indefinite. Such records are kept by the duty which * This paper is taken from an English Blue-book for 1885, and consists of a Report on the trade of this country from W, C. Pickersgill, Esq., H. B. M's Vice-Consul for Antanana. rivo.-EDS.

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178 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR. is regularly taken at the ports, but by officials whose salaries consist chiefly of perquisites and pickings; and, naturally enough, their accounts are not remarkable for clearness. Before the present difficulty with France broke into actual hostilities it was feared that an attack upon the island would at once destroy all foreign trade. There were not many persons who gave the native Government credit for strength enough to provide at one and the same time an armed resistance to its enemies and a peaceable protection for its friends. Such protection, however, has not been wanting, and although during the first six months of blockaded ports and indiscrimi nate bombardments there was something like a total collapse of business, the year which has just ended has been not altogether an unprofitable one to the few whose acquaintance with the country and its inhabitants enabled them to foresee how little the roar of cannon upon certain parts of the coast would affect the daily wants of the populous interior. The island is far too large for complete blockade, and the attempts which have been made to coerce the Malagasy into submission by closing three or four well-known points of entrance have only resulted in the opening of other channels of communication. According to the estimates of persons engaged in Madagascar trade, the total amount of business done in the country during the year 18 84 has been about one-third of what was done during the year immediately preceding the outbreak of war. Of that amount the greater part has been accomplished through British enterprise. Contrary to expectation, the American firms were for some time apparently afraid to run the slightest new risk, notwithstanding their being much better equipped for hazardous trade than any of their rivals. An interesting illustrative case is recorded of a British house clearing, it is said, not less than 3,000 on a quantity of cotton goods which had already been landed and stored in an American warehouse at one of the ports occupied by the French. They were re-shipped, distributed at various places still unblockaded, and put into the then thirsty inland markets just at the lucky moment. On these goods the Malagasy Government received double duty, the original landing having been made before the French obtained possession of the port at which it took place. Since then many importations have simi larly paid duty twice-once at Tamatave, and then again on being landed elsewhere. In addition to the obstacles encountered in getting foreign goods into the country, there has been even greater difficulty in getting native products out of it. Pleading the necessity of employing every means within its power to harass an enemy of overwhelmingly superior strength, the Malagasy Government declared itself perfectly justified in prohibiting all exportations, and for some time carried the declaration into effect. Further deliberations, however, led to the restriction being confined . to articles of food only ; and a later revision of policy, pressed for by Her Majesty's Consul and myself, brought about the removal of sugar and coffee from the prohibited list. Thus trade in this country has been working in shackles, and only the strong and well-acclimatised firms have been able to bear up under the strain.

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THE TRADE AND COMMERCE 'OF MADAGASCA_R. 179 With due regard to such observations on the impossibility of procuring exact information as have alread, been made, the trade of Antana narivo and the province of Imerina* for the year 1884 may be noted as follows:-IMPORTS. EXPORTS. Articles. Bales. Value. Articles. Quantity. Value. ---------Cotton sheetings 2,800 64,400 Hides .... Number. 230,000 172,300 White shirtings. 1,500 30,000 Coffee .. Lbs. .... 60,000 480 Prints, etc ...... .. .. 20,000 Wax .... " .... 80,000 1,280 Various ..... .. .. .. 8,000 Various ... ...... .. .. ...... 1,000 ---122,400 175,060 The cotton sheetings are for the most part of American manufacture. English imitations are sometimes imported, but their inferiority is easily detected, and they do not find a ready market. It is a great mistake to think of the Malagasy of Imerina as burning in tropical heat, with only a few shreds of muslin upon them for the sake of decency. They look for warmth and durability in their garments, and up to a certain limit will always pay a good price for such articles as possess these qualities. When the cold east wind of the dry season is blowing, many of them find even stout American sheetings too thin for comfort, and there is then a certain demand for woollen goods. Flannels, blankets, and tweeds, however, should be imported very cautiously, as there is the greatest difficulty in preserving such things from the ravages of insects."'' Prz'nted Calz'cos sell in all parts of Madagascar, but it is not easy to hit the native taste in patterns, which is very reluctant to be guided by the fashions of Europe. Moreover, the kind of print which is acceptable in the eyes of one tribe is often the very opposite elsewhere. Amongst other articles more or less in constant demand in Antanana rivo and the neighbourhood are iron cooking-pots, iron kettles, sauce pans and frying-pans, sheet tin and soldering materials, and glass and putty. Tinware is largely used, but it is not profitable to introduce the articles ready made. Of carpenters' tools the only kinds which the native smiths do not forge to the satisfaction of those who use them, are saws and chisels, the cutters of planes, gouges, augers, braces and bitts. Second-hand Clothitt~ frequently sells well, especially if the quality is good, and the signs of previous wear not too evident. Boots and Shoes are manufactured in the country. Importations, how ever, find a market when they are of a superior make and are offered at reasonable prices. Umbrellas and Sunshades also meet with ready sale. Croc/wy is in daily use by almost everybody. The richer people wiII t11 t3dore th,1 co111mencemcnt of the Franco-Malagasy war, I was informed by Samuel Procter, Esq., Her :VIalagasy ;\'lajesty's Consul in England and principal of the oldest English mercantile firm in Madagascar, that in his opinion the total export and import trade of th~ whole island could not be of much Jess valu~ than one million po1m•h aimually,ED, (J,S,)

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r8o THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR. sometimes buy full services of china, but high-priced goods should be introduced in very small quantities. Drugs often fetch very good prices. Those most frequently required by the natives are : quinine, epsom-salts, iodide of potassium, bichlo~ide of mercury, santonine, cod-liver oil, carbonate of soda, tartaric acid, seidlitz powders, etc. Statz"onery is needed by a constantly increasing number. The market I is chiefly supplied by the missionary printing offices, which have the ; privilege of importing such materials of instruction free of duty. The slates required to meet the wants of upwards of a quarter of a million children registered as scholars in the various schools, and the Bib1es, New Testaments, and hymn and prayer-books, etc., which are purchased by them and the adult adherents of over 1 ,500 churches and congre gations scattered throughout the island, form no inconsiderable item of general trade. It is not customary to mention such things in a com mercial report, but every new demand for paper and printing and bookbinding materials must necessarily benefit the firms which produce them. It should always be remembered that every article of mer,chandise offered for sale in the interior of Madagascar has to be carried hither from the coast on human shoulders. Packages which cannot be broken up and re-arranged at the port of landing should therefore be made up in certain weights. One man will carry two packages of from 40 to 45 lbs. each, but the same weight in a single bale will require two men, and the expense of transit will be doubled. Large packages and heavy packing materials often increase the cost of imported goods enormously. It is impossible to pay too much attention to this matter. The wages received by the porters vary according to the distance travelled, and sometimes according to the weight carried. For a journey from one of the nearer eastern ports, Tamatave, Va.toma.nury, or Ma.hanoro, to the Capital, with an ordinary load, they receive I o shillings per man. It is usual to divide a number of them into gangs of I o, 15, or 20 men, and appoint to each gang a trustworthy overseer, who carries the way-bill and a portion of the wages set apart for the purchase of food on the road. The pay of this extra man adds from 8d. to 1s. to the carriage of every load. On the imports and exports of Antananarivo during the year 1884, which together amount to about 300,000, the cost of transmission to and from the coast is estimated at not less than 11 ,ooo. The coinage used in Madagascar is the French 5 franc-piece. No other form of money will enable the European trader to do business directly with the natives. It is reckoned in all small transactions as equivalent to four English shillings, or an American dollar. Against bills on London it is worth from 3 to 5 per cent. As this coin js not procurable, except in small quantities and at high rates, anywhere in the neighbour hood, the trader who comes to Madagascar unprovided with a working supply finds himself placed at a grievous disadvantage. AGRICULTUR!l:, Crown land may now be obtained on leases of 99 years' duration. There is no fixed price; every intending occupier may make his own bargain, but it is not likely that land of good quality will be rented for

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THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR. 181 less than two shillings an acre per annum for the first half of the period and five shillings for the remainder : at any rate, not until newspaper correspondents and other writers on Madagascar cease to speak of the island as one of wondrous fertility and a very paradise of natural resour ces. A man has little chance of getting a thing on easy terms when his fellows are continually crying its excellence in the ears of the vendor. There is no doubt whatever that the soil of Madagascar has been over praised. Those who have practically tested its sugar-growing powers on some of the choicest portions of the eastern sea-board report, that in a very short time its fertility begins to wane and needs to be artificially renewed. The rapidity with which certain well-adapted forms of vege tation spring up luxuriantly is due rather to the abundant rain of the wet season and to a tropical sun than to any special richness of the land. Where the latter is absolutely necessary to profitable production, Mada gascar will be found wanting. All this, however, is far from being intended to imply that the island does not offer a promising field for the employment of European capital. Sugar, although not giving results equal to what were expected, is by no means a failure. Hitherto there have been no plantations established except in the east ; but travellers have noticed that the cane grown by the natives on the banks of the north-western rivers has the appearance of being the product of a very suitable soil ; and my own observations in that part of the country lead me to believe that there is land there which will some day be found more valuable than any on the opposite side of the island. Coffee does not grow well on either coast. Nor is that which is produced in the interior at all satisfactory in amount. As regards quality, many people consider it little inferior to Mocha coffee. The most successful experiments with it have been made in the neighbourhood of the westernmost of the two lines of forest which stretch from north to south between the Capital and the east coast. The elevation there is suitable, and there is plenty of moisture. Rz'ce is produced in Imerina in enormous quantities, but the wants of the population are equally great, and are yearly approaching the limits of possible supply. Better means of transport therefore would not develop a trade in this article in the neighbourhood of the Capital. There lies, however, to the north of Imerina, in .the Sihanaka province, an immense tract of swampy country which is capable of bearing rice to almost any extent. About the same distance from Antananarivo to the south again, in the Betsileo country, there are similar natural advan tages awaiting employment. Madagascar rice is of undeniably good quality. That of Carolina comes from the same stock, seed having been taken from this country to Charleston in the year 1699. Wheat seems to thrive fairly well in certain parts of the interior. It is grown to meet the necessities of the European community, and costs in the Antananarivo market about six shillings for 100 lbs. Tea has not been tried here yet, but ought to be. The slopes of the Imerina hills are thought by many people to be adapted to this culti vation. Once introduced and found to be successful, the natives would

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182 THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR. take it in hand with great readiness ; it would suit their habits and tastes exactly. The women of the poorer classes, who are glad to be able to earn a penny a day Ly plaiting mats and weaving roffa cloth, would find more profitable and equally agreeable work in picking and preparing the leaves of the tea-plant ; and the lightness in weight of the marketable article would allow of its being transported to the coast by the usual means without overburdening the profits. Silk, for the same two latter reasons, affords an opening for enterprise in the interior of Madagascar. It is produced already for the manufacture of the native cloths or shawls called lamba, which are so much admired by all who have seen good specimens. Indz'a-rubber also deserves attention, especially from whose who are interested in keeping the European market supplied with this most valuable product. The indigenous vine yields an excellent quality of rubber, but the supply is yearly diminishing. It is now found only in the depths of the forests, far from the security of settled habitations, and is consequently obtained at considerable risk. No provision is left or made for future needs, the vines being entirely destroyed by the reckless men who wander about in search of them. That a properly managed plantation of this native product would turn out to be a profitable specu lation, I have very little doubt. An experiment made by myself a few years ago in the north-west was entirely satisfactory as far as showing the possibility of extending the growth of the vine. A single fruit of it, picked up in the bush, was found to contain no less than 72 seeds, every one sprouting. These were taken to a piece of swampy ground and planted at the feet of tall trees already growing therein, where they readily struck root and for some time flourished, until an unexpected rise in a neighbouring river overflooded and carried them away. It would probably take from four to five years for the vine to grow large enough to endure much cutting. The natives who witnessed the above experiment were fully convinced thereby of the practicability of cultivating the rubber, but such investments for the remote future are not attractive to them. After the first years of waiting there would be little need for outlay on a plantation of this vine, as the cost of preparing the rubber for the market is very trifling. Cattle abound in this country. No estimate has yet been attempted of the numbers, but they must be very great indeed. Travellers who have seen no more of Madagascar than is to be observed on a journey from the east coast to the Capital are sometimes led to imagine that the island is but poorly furnished with live stock. It is in the grazing lands of the north and west that vast herds may be seen roaming at large. For a man to own 2,000 or 3,000 head is no uncommon thing. The numbers slaughtered here in Antananarivo during the annual festival of the Fandroana are sufficient testimony to the extent of the people's posses sions. Capital invested in a selected herd is said to double itself in three years, when the owner has trustworthy servants who can be put in charge. In thinly-inhabited districts bullocks are frequently killed for the sake of the hides and fat. a large animal in such places being worth from 10s. to 14s. only. The Antananarivo butchers pay from 24s. to 36s.

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THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR. 183 for the same kind. Exportation is now* entirely forbidden on account of the war, but even before that it was greatly hampered by an unwise law made many years ago, which prohibits the sale of cattle for shipment at less_ than 6os. a head. Various devices for evading this regulation were resorted to .by the firm~ e11ga'ged in the trade. One, largely practiced by a continental c_ompany, was to run a steamer to some unrecognised part on the west coast, and then bar_ter with the Sakalava for guns and powder. This was r.egctrded by the Malag~sy people as eminently a European method of provokin_g them ~o, Jive ?-P to th~ir tre~ties with_ civilised powers. Another plan was t_o _stat_1on a h1ghly-pa1d native employee at one of the regular ports, and provide him with a sufficient quantity of ready cash and a foreign passport. In the market he was an ordinary Malagasy purchaser ircreasing his stock; when the company's vessel arrived, he be came. a stranger not amenable to native law. Troublesome inquiries by the local representatives of the Governpient were then staved off by means of bribes. Cattle were thus procured and shipped at an average cost of 28s. each, the duty of 6s. a head included. At Mauritius and Reunion the usual selling price was about 7 4s. As there is_ no such thing known in Madagascar as contagious disease in animals, this country would be not only an abundant but also a safe source of supply for the frozen-meat trade. POPULATION. . The inhabitants of the town a:ii:a suburbs of Antananarivo are consi "dered by careful obse_rvers to number not less than roo,ooo. Imerina, the province 'which extends .around the Capital to a distance of about 50 miles, is the most thickly-populated part of the island. Its people are fairly industrious, more so by far than those of any other Malagasy tribe. The skill they show in the cultivation of rice, often in the face of natural disadvantages, points to their future career as that of agricul turists. They can be easily induced to work for wages, but I am convinced that it will be found more profitable in the long-run to draw them into such connection with coming developments of their country as will afford them not only an equivalent for their labour, but also a reward for intelligent interest therein. The Hova race will be proud to furnish bone and muscle to co-operate with European wealth for mutual benefit, but it will never submit to be the white man's slave. Evidently the great problem in Madagascar will be, how to get the workers and the work together. The highland interior is poor in mate rial, but rich in labour; while the lowland coast is fertile, but lacks the husbandmen. He who can secure Imerina labourers to cultivate a lowland plantation will test the merits of the country under the most favourable conditions. The necessities of defence are now forcing the population of the interior to distribute itself to some extent, but the migrations of peace cannot be long delayed if the people continue to increase in the near future as they have clone recently in the past. Next to the Hova in intelligence, although not in strength of character, come the Betsimisaraka, who inhabit the eastern coast. They are well disposed towards foreigners, but the rum trade of Mauritius and Reunion has already gone far to render them useless for hard and regular work. * This was at the close 1,,f last year, it must be remembcred.-EDS.

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184THE TRADE ANIJ COMMERCE OF MADAGASCAR. The Sihanaka and Betsileo tribes, which occupy respectively the interior provinces north and south of Imerina, are equally docile with the Bctsimisaraka, having, however, an advantage over them in being more closely allied to the ruling race. The labouring peasant of the highlands is pretty much the same sort of person throughout the whole of the central region. To the south of the Betsimisaraka there are several smaller tribes, of which the Taimoro appears to be one of the most promising from the intending planter's point of view. A number of these south-eastern natives were, before the war began, in the habit of leaving their homes to work on the sugar plantations near Tamatave, which the Betsimisaraka had failed to supply with labour. They are known as a fearless race, but are much given to roving, and have the aspect of being most uncompromising savages. In the south-west the Ibara and Mahafaly tribes seem to be coming in some small degree under the influence of trade with Natal. A kind of broad-bean is cultivated in that part of the country for exportation-a very hopeful sign indeed in a people who are related to the Sakalava, for the latter are, without doubt, the least useful and least open to im provement of all the Malagasy tribes. Their country, which stretches along the western seaboard from near St. Augustine's Bay to the northern extremity of Pasindava Bay, is, with the exception of such points as are under the immediate authority of military colonies, almost entirely uncultivated, altogether unimproved, and very little open to trade. Even such of the Sakalava as ha\le been under the shadow of the French flag at N osibe for the last forty years have not made a hundredth part of the at.!vance in civilisation which the Hova have made during the last ten years under their own Government. MINES. There has been considerable excitement in Antananarivo and the sur rounding country during the past twelve months over reported discoveries of gold and silver. Diamonds even were talked about at one time, and a few of the more adventurous natives rushed secretly off to the localities where sudden riches were supposed to lie waiting for the first c;omer. Nothing, however, more valuable than a little gold dust has been found by them, and that only after a great waste of labour, and at the risk of long imprisonment and chains. For the Government had wisely resolved, some time before the rumours of discovery had fairly taken wing, to prevent everything like wholesale demoralisation of the people on this score, by appropriating whatever mineral wealth the land might contain. Laws were issued prohibiting unauthorised mining of every description ; and, seeing that a double advantage lies in thus controlling the search for hidden wealth, there is but a very poor prospect here for needy diggers who may be tempted to wander to Madagascar in the hope of finding comfort for their disappointments elsewhere. Several such have made ventures already, but a few weeks' sojourn in the island has convinced them of the wisdom of returning whence they came as speedily as possible, with nothing more valuable to carry away than a caution to all their comrades and acquaintances. W. CLAYTON PICKERSGILL.

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THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL. THE IDEAS OF THE MALAGASY WITH REGARD TO DESTINY."' MOST of us who have lived some time in Madagascar must have noticed the strong fatalistic notions of the people. Every thing has its set time, which cannot possibly be altered ; every person, and every animal also, has its appointed time of death, and nothing that any one may do can either hasten this or postpone it to a future day. Such seems to be the prevalent belief among the people. Similarly also most of them seem to believe that for every one there is a certain amount of trouble or sorrow, joy or happiness, allotted to him, as well as a fixed and definite amount of this world's goods; this is decreed for them as their destiny or fate, and they must accept it. A few years ago-I have not heard so much of it lately-a very favourite topic of discussion with the Malagasy youth was : Can a person die before his day has come? and can anything that he may do hasten the day of his death which had been appointed for him? The majority always maintained the negative. Now I am not going to enter on a discussion as to how far they are mistaken or not in holding these views, all I wish to do is to give a few curious examples of these fatalistic notions that have come under my own observation during the past few weeks. 1. The scene, our dining-room :-We were bidding farewell to a young woman, an intelligent scholar in my wife's classes; she was leaving town to accompany her husband, who had been appointed governor to a place far away in the south. We were very sorry to part with her, and she was evidently sorry to part with us and leave her native place; but having expressed this, she added: •'Anfarako z'zany" (That is my lot, or destiny); therefore she must go, and it was no use lamenting it. 2. The scene, the large market-place at the Capital :-One Sunday, not long ago, I was riding in my palanquin through the market-place on niy return from a service in the suburbs. As we were going along, one of my men saw a small piece of money on the ground and stooped down to pick it up. I remarked to another of my men: "You ought to have seen that; it would have been a nice present for your * This short article was written for the ANNUAL of 1885, but had to stand aside for want of room, I suppose its day had not come! This explanation is necessary, because the circum stances referred to in it, though then of recent occurrence, now belong to the past.

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186 MALAGASY IDEAS AS TO DESTINY. wife." "No," he replied, "that is not my anfara" (or my share); as though he thought that all the property in the world was divided out into fixed lots, and no one could by any possibility get what was the share of another. 3. The scene, the desert, 'No man's land,' which Mr. -W:ilson and I were. travelling over on our way to Manandaza and Anka vandra :-Some wild cattle were seen, and many of our men set off to catch 'nobody's beef;~ but none were caught. Sqme of the men remarked: "Tsy tnb9la tonga ny androny" (Their day has not yet come). Others said:. "Tsy anfarantszka zreo" (They _ are not our share). So until we came upon some fulfilling these two conditions, 'Their day had come,' and, 'They were our share,' we were to have no desert beef, and none we had. 4. The scene, Ankavandra in the far west :-Here, most unexpectedly to me, I met the father of the young woman spoken of in Scene No. 1. The governor of this town and I were comparing notes about our children ; he told me he had one daughter, from whom he was parted when she was but three months old, as he was then appointed governor to this place, and he had not seen her since. As she had recently left with her husband for a place in the far south, of which he had just bee_n appointed governor, it was now less likely than ever that they would meet again in this workl. I was expressing my sympathy with the old man on this account, when one of his followers remarked: "A nfarany z"zany, koa hanrio ahoana hzanao ?" (That is his lot, so what woulri you have ?) The Rev. W. E. Cousins has well remarked, speaking of the days before the arrival of the early missionaries : "The almost universal belief in v"intana, or destiny, had sapped the very foundation of faith in a free and powerful God." This was very true at that time, and I fear it is true of many in our day. Some of them so believe in this, that they will not even try to repent or turn from their evil ways. Others, when they are taken ill, at once believe their day has come, and so, utterly despairing of any recovery, pass away ; many such instances could be given. The people find, as so many have found before them, how impossible it is to understand with our finite wisdom the connection betweer1 the fore-knowledge of God-He knowing every thing, the end from the begtnning-and our free will to choose the good and reject the evil, or to choose the evil and reject the good. HENRY E. CLARK.

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MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY, AND ITS CONNECTION WITH CHRISTIAN LIFE IN MADAGASCAR. FEW facts with regard to the history ~f Christianity are more cl~ar than the intimate connection whic;h exists between the spiritual life of any people, and the hymns and sacred so11gs they sing. In all . parts of the world, and in all ages, from Apostolic times until the present, the hymns of every Christian community have closely reflected its faith, its love, and its aspirations after God, and have been its joy in prosperity, and its solace in trial and persecution. From the "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs" of the Apostolic churches, through the Latin hymns of the medi::eval period, the chorales of the continental reformed communions, and the outburst of hymnology which accompanied and stimulated the revival of spiritual life in Englap.d, down to the sacred songs of the American revivalists-a continually augmenting stream of divine melody has flowed down the centuries to refresh and stimulate and console the widely-scattered members of the universal Church. Here has been the one point of agre.,ement for all, greatly as they may differ in everything else; for in their hymns, the Romanist and the Protestant, the orthodox nnd the latitudinarian, the conformist and the nonconformist, continually find themselves singing the same strains, and discover a bond bf union in a heart-devotion to Christ which, for a time, throws all minor differences into the shade. The history of Christianity in Madagascar has been no exception to the general experience of the Church, and from a very early period after its introduction into the island, hymnology has always been a great power, and has aided very largely in the promotion of Christian life and knowledge among the people. The Malagasy tribes with whom we are best acquainted-that is, those in the central and eastern provincesare extremely fond of music and of singing; and they have a very correct ear for harmony, readily taking the different parts of a tune, and when they do not know the proper bass, tenor, or alto, frequently im provise one for themselves as the tune proceeds. The native songs, of which between forty and fifty have already been printed, besides a considerable number still only in manuscript, have no rhyme and but little approach to metrical structure; but they are most of them arranged in a very regular form as regards lines and stanzas, and have a rhythmic flow, and a frequent parallelism of numbers, much resembling the arrangement of Hebrew poetry. These songs often have a refrain or chorus, and are sung to tunes which are generally plaintive and in a minor key; semetimes one of the party acts as a leader, with a kincl of recitative, the rest of the singers joining in the chorus, often with the accompaniment of regular clapping of hands, and the beating of a drum or the twanging of a native guitar. The small band of missionaries of the London Missionary Society, who laboured so strenuously from 1820 to 1835 to lay the foundation of

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rBB MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. the Church in Madagascar, seem to have attempted to give the people some hymns in their own language as soon as they had reduced the Ma lagasy tongue to a written form. They began printing lesson-sheets, etc. towards the close of the year 1827, and the Gospels on the first day of 1828; and it is probable that some of the first hymns were given to the people in leaflets or other separate form, since Soo copies of a small volume of hymns for public worship had been printed by the early part of April of the same year ( 1828 ), Another edition, of 4,500 copies ( 132 pp.j, was printed in 1835, just before the promulgation of the laws forbidding Christian worship and teaching. This hymn-book was reprinted two or three times in England by the Religious Tract Society during the long quarter-century of persecution (the first reprint in 1849, an edition of 2,000 copies); and its collection of 168 hymns was most intimately bound up with the religious life of the Malagasy, both in the time of comparative freedom they enjoyed pre vious to 1835, before their European teachers were obliged to leave them, and still more so during the long weary period of repression, which they still call the time when "the land was dark." Some of these hymns, probably the majority of them, were written by the missionaries themselves, others by their pupils and some of the more intelligent native Christians; but, strange to say, although the excellent fathers and founders of the Madagascar mission were quite capable of writing metri cal hymns in English, as is proved by the translations they gave of some of the Malagasy hymns, not one of these latter was rhythmical in structure, much less did they attempt rhyme. Although all their hymns were arranged in the proper number of syllables to form the familiar metres known as 'long,' 'common,' 'short,' and 'sevens,' as well as a few of the 'peculiar' measures, there was no regard at all paid to accent, so that to those who know the language it is painful to hear the words tortured by being persistently mispronounced, as they must be, every time they are sung to a tune of the metres just mentioned . .,. It is difficult to understand why, with the minute and accurate acquaintance with the Malagasy language they possessed, they did not attempt to write rhythmical hymns, but such was the fact, a fact which must be regretted, since, from the improved musical taste of the people, these old hymns are rapidly becoming obsolete. And yet many of them are, notwithstanding their metrical defects, beautiful in their language, and fervent and evangelical in tone. Take, for example, the following, a free adaptation of "How sweet the name of Jesus sounds":Jeso n6 aniran-ts6a, Riha ren' ny mino, Afaka ny ilahelooy, Dia fily ny fony. Riha mangetaheta isika, Ra.no velona Izy; Riha noana, mofon' aina, Mariry, ody aina; etc. * Here are a couple of verses, accented, of socalled 'common' and 'long' metres :-C. M. L. M. Ny lalana izay natii.on' Andr"iamanitra Tamy ny olombelona Marina indrindra. Haja sy voninahitra HO an' Andriamanitra ; Fa lzy hiiiny no mahefa lzay sitraky ny fony.

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MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY 189 Almost literally translated :-Jesus is the blessed name, Friend and Brother, When heard by the believer, Redeemer and Lord, Gone is his sorrow, Life, Way, my Surety, For glad his heart. Receive my praise. When we are thirsty, Simple and foolish am I. Living water is He; Ashamed am I, 0 Jesus, When hungry, Bread of life, My love to Thee Ill, Medicine of life. Is little, as nothing. Rock of refuge, But Thy love to me He whom I trust; Is one, unchangeable; Shield to protect me, Living, I praise Thee, Lest I see evil. Dead, praises increase. Here is another favourite hymn, the key-note of which is, "Jehovah no anjarako"-"The Lord is my portion":-Jehovah is my portion, His commands are sweet to me, 1 will not be sorrowful, His counsels do I love, For Jesus is my Redeemer, His words make wise, I will therefore rejoice. The blood of Christ makes clean. Many are they who love wealth, The world is not sweet to me, Numbers desire money, I desire not its delights; But I already possess, Farewell to it all, Jehovah is my portion. Jehovah is my portion. Thine indeed, 0 Jesus, Is my whole spirit; Make me Thine own, Thou art my portion. We find also translations, or rather, adaptations, of several other well known English hymns, such as, "When I survey the wondrous Cross," "Lo ! He comes, with clouds descending," "The heavens declare Thy glory, Lord," "Awake, and sing the song," and "Lord of the Sabbath, hear our vows." But many others appear to be original compositions, only slightly, if at all, inspired by English hymns, although full of Bible thoughts. Here is one referring to the Scriptures :~ Sweet is Thy word, Good is Thy word, Holy Jehovah! Renewing the heart, And true is Thy word, For there 'tis we see Not to be changed; One Who r<'deems, The heavens shall pass away, Jesus, well-spring of life, But Thy word shall rerrtain. Washing the guilty, Pure is Thy word, Desired of my heart And precious indeed, ls the sacred word, So making wise More than great tiches, Those who are simple, Or wealth overflow,ng-; Scattering the darkness, Thy word will I ke,~p. And bringing the ,light, My enduring possession. _These old Malagasy hymns reflect very clearly the theological feeling of the period in which they were written, about half a century ago. There is a distinct enforcement of the Law and its penillties, but there is at the same time an evangelical fervour, and a firm grasp of the redemptive work of the Lord Jesus Christ, as well as a distinct personal

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190 MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY appropriation of the blessings He bestows. It was this element in the early Malagasy hymns which made them so precious to the persecuted people, and on account of which they became interwoven with all the trying experiences of their Christian life for so many years. Here and there among this old collection of Malagasy hymns are two or three decidedly curious specimens of hymnology. These were written by natives, and one of them consists almost entirely of Malagasy proverbs strung together, most of which treat of the uncertainty of life, from a heathen point of view, but with a Christian sentiment at the conclusion as a kind of 'moral' to the whole. Here is a literal rendering of this strange composition:-Life is a broken polsherd, No one knows who broke it; Life is but steam of food, No one sees where it goes. The appointed time of death is unknown, A tree on the brink of a precipice, No one knows when it will fall, Whether by day or night. But once only are we young, One throw ( of the spear) only; Death is a swift runner, God is the Lord of life. To die once may be borne, But second death is unbearable ; Blest are the believers in Christ, For they shall obtain life. Such productions are, however, exceptional ; and the great majority of the hymns are quite free from such incongruous elements. The hymns of fifty years ago were, of course, sung to the tunes of the same period ; and when we re-commenced mission-work in Madagascar after the re-opening of the country to Christian teaching in r 862, we found the people singing tunes now seldom heard in our home churches and chapels, but which were familiar to English congregations of two generations ago ; tunes, for instance, such as "Lydia," "Cranbrook," "China," "Calcutta," "Rousseau's .Dream," "Piety," "Zion's Joy," etc. During the first few months of my residence in Antananarivo I well remember hearing tunes sung in the native chapels to extremely slow time, but although they had a certain familiarity, I could not for some minutes identify them with anything I knew ; but it gradually dawned upon me that these were well-known old tunes, but being sung about four times as slow as was then the custom in England, were so different in effect as to be at first hearing unrecognisable. I have little doubt, however, that this slow time was about the speed at which it was usual for these hymns to be sung by the first missionaries (for we ,have won derfully quickened the pace of our English singing during the last few years) ; and thus ~he traditions of the singing of t~eir first teach~rs had been kept up dunng the twenty0seven or t,venty-e1ght years which had , elapsed since the}' were driven away from the island. . And ,vhat a solace and a joy were those old hymns to the early Mala0 &'~sy Christians! Wherever t_hey. w~nt they carried their hymn_-book ,y1th them, often bound up with their Testaments, and the strams of fhese sacred songs ahvays mingled with their worship. On the very _fast Sunday evening (zznd February, 1835) that public services were ~allo,ved to be held in the capital city, the Queen's anger was excited as she passed near one of the native chapels by hearing the hearty singing ofthe congregation ; and she observed to some of her attendants,

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MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. 19 I "These people will not be quiet until some of them lose the~r heads." And so it really proved to be the case again and again, as one after another of them fell a victim to their sovereign's rage against the pray ing customs ; for, like their prototypes in the time of Pliny, they persis ted in "singing hymns to Christ as God." Of the first martyr, Rasalama, it is record~d that on being put into chains and cruelly beaten, she continued to sing; and so she did still on the following morning, when she was borne along to the place of execution at the southern extremity of the long rocky ridge on which the Capital is built. And when another Christian woman, Rafaravavy, with her five companions, had succeeded, after wonderful perils and hair-breadth escapes, in reaching the coast at Tamatave, and were safe on the deck of the ship which took them to England, their first feelings of thankfulness for their deliverance found expression in singing one of their hymns. And the strains of sacred song continued to be heard all through those weary years. In the 'Great Persecution' of r 849, when many hundred Christians were punished by fines, slavery, chains, and beating, and when eighteen of them suffered death, the condemned ones sang the hymn commencing Ary misy tany soa, There is a blessed land, Maafinaritra indrlndra. Making most happy. How appropriate this was to their position then may be seen by glancing over the following almost literal translation :-There is a blessed land, All they longed for obtained, Making most happy; All their hearts' desire; There no trouble enters, No good thing they lack, There, no vexing care. Now and for evermore. There shall the righteous reign, The departing from this life, Joyful for evermore; Just a moment's pang, None shall mourn again, Is all that separates us Of all the dwellers there. From that blessed world. Their light affliction, a momentary spasm or pang, as the native word in the fourth verse means, they knew would speedily work for them "a more exceeding weight of glory." Fourteen of them were taken to be hurled over the steep cliffs of Ampamarlnana, just below the palace; and of one of these it was said that he sang up to the moment he was thrust over the precipice ; while of them all it is recorded that they sang the hymn beginning, "Ra.ha ho faty aha," which may be thus translated:~ When I shall from hence depart, Hark ! they summon me away And forsake my kindred dear; To the blessed world above ; When for me they mourn and weep, There shall I re_ioice alway, I shall go rejoicing there ; There my soul be lilied with love i When from life on earth set free, All my heart's desires obtained, There shall I in rapture_ be. All I hoped for fully gained. All things earthly, now farewell! For I thus fruition find; Hence in joys untold I dwell, Heaven my heritage on high. Frum all fear of death set free, Death is conquered now for me.

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192 MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. Another hymn is also remembered as one of their death-songs-one which is full of joyful anticipation of beholding the Lord Jesus, and beginning, "Ra.ha ho hltany aho, ravo any an-danitra," almost literally translated thus :-When He shall behold me Ah! conquered is the enemy, Joyful there in heaven, The conflict for ever o'er. In the days to come, Assembled are the mighty, There, in J esu's presence, Entered are the just'; I shall have gained my desires Every one of the pure rejoices, And the longing of my heart; Rendering thanks and praise. Freed from all affliction, Jesus is their glory, Overflowing with gladness. Jehovah is their shield. A little later in the day, the remaining four of the condemned Christians, who were of noble rank, were led to be burnt alive at Faravohitra, the northern end of the city hill; and here again the song of praise arose ; for as they ascended the hill they sang the hymn which for some years previClusly had been, and ever since then has continued to be, the dis mission hymn of the native congregations of Madagascar, being invari ably sung before they disperse. It is always sung to "Mariners," and probably this was the tune those four Malagasy confessors sang as they went to their death, and even as the flames rose around them at the stake. The hymn begins with the words, "Hotly izahay, Zanahary,"* and may be thus rendered :-Home return we now, Creator, Thanks, abounding thanks, we render Let Thy blessing from above For the sacred message heard, Gladden all our waiting spirits Which Thou givest to enlighten With Thine all-abounding love. Us in knowledge of Thy word. Gladden Thou us, Dwell among us, While we sojourn here below. Through Thy presence day by day. And when death shall hence remove us, And on earth no more we stay, Then do Thou our souls make joyful, Take us on our heavenly way ; There. rejoicing, Shall We live in endless day. The hymn might almost have been written for such an hour as that, for cleath was indeed about to_ remove them to the heavenly mansions, to the endle_ss day, of which they sang; they were truly "returning home," not front the earthly sanctuary, where they had so often sung those worcls, but to the heavenly one-the house not made with hands. Yet one more hymn was also sung by the Faravohitra mattyrs, one which ends in each of its four verses with the words, ''Tsarovy izahay" ("Remember us"). Of this hymn the first and the last Vetses run thus:-When our hearts are o'erwhelm'd And whe11 death itself Because of tht' oppressor, Approaches us nigh, vVhen that comes to pass, Lord, And spent is our strength, Remember us. Remember us. * The Malag-asy hymn is no doubt a free rendering of "Lord, dismiss us with Thy bles sing," but I have attempted to give a closer translation of the native version than the English original supplies, and in the same metre.

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MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. 193 So strikingly appropriate to their circumstances was every one o[ these requiem hymns. Mr. Ellis relates that in a letter he received from the native Christians at the Capital during his first visit to Tamatave in 1853, they told him ''that a number of them went out to a solitary place, to sing together for joy at the prospP.ct of receiving copies of the word of Goel."* While at the same place for a few weeks in the following year, Mr. Ellis was frequently visited at night by a number of the Christian Malagasy for conversation on various subjects. These meetings were always associated with the reading of the Scriptures and prayer ; but besides this, these believing people often could not depart without also singing a song of praise, although it was decidedly perilous for them to do so. Mr. Ellis -adds that although they bent their heads down, and only sang the native hymns inan undertone or whisper, to English tunes, he was at times alarmed lest some unfriendly passer-by should hear. It seemed as if the instinct of praise could not be repressed among the persecuted people. And so, during their long trial of faith and patience, the Malagasy Christians solaced themselves with their hymns: they sang them in rice-holes and in caves ; in the recesses of the forests ; on the tops of lofty hills, where they could watch from afar for any unfriendly approach; and in stealthy meetings by night in the houses of their friends ;t and, as we have just seen, the words of these sacred songs were sung on several occasions with their dying breath. But still they sang on and believed, as one of their hymns expresses it, that Not long will endure Shall the sorrowful suffer; The stormy night, Yonder is the daybreak, Not for many days Happiness is near. And accordingly, in r 86 r, the sighing of the prisoners was heard ; God delivered those who were appointed to death ; and with the decease of Queen Ranavalona came the opening of the prison-doors to those who were bound, and freedom of worship was again restored. When Mr. Ellis arrived at Tamatave in r 862 and met the rejoicing Christians, it seemed a strange contrast to his former visits to hear them singing aloud, with cheerful voices, for this part of their worship he had only heard offered before in a whisper or undertone. And at the close of the service they sang, with much appropriateness to the occasion, the native Jubilee hymn, describing the captive and exiles' return :-Blow loud the trumpet, Une there is Who sets free iV'hich tells of Christ; All who have been bound, Yes, proclaim aloud And calls together the.scattered, That the Jubilee is come. For the Jubilee is come. * Martyr Church, pp. r82, ,87. t One of the hymns, which commences with a bright and cheerful ascription of praise to God, en~s with what is like a wail of sorrow from the persecuted, so that one might almost suppose it to ha,e been written in the very time of trial:-Oh, our Creator! For caves arc our dwelling, Oh, Jesus the Saviour! Holes in the rock our rcfug-e; Oh, Holy Spirit ! Thy mercy alone can gladden Save the afflicted people. The pilgrims on their way.

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194 MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. To redeem the enslaved, For Satan is conquered, To obtain a great heritage, There is forgiveness of sin; Come home, all ye scattered ones, Return, 0 ye wanderers, For the Jubilee is come. For the Juqilee is corn~. For some few years after the re-opening of Madagascar to Christian. effort, the original hymns prepared by the first missionaries were used unaltered and without any additions. There was a curious mixture of old and new tunes ; the former, as already mentioned, 'survivals' of the early period, and a few of the latter taught by the missionaries then commencing their work. But with these there came also a number of other tunes, some picked up from barrel-organs, and dance-music learned from the military bands; often most incongruous and inappropriate to the words to which they were sung ; and together with these were a few native melodies. From this strange mixture of tunes for religious worship a number of most elaborate pieces were composed by certain native musical geniuses. Some of these were of great length and complexity, occasionally not without considerable ingenuity and some merit in composition, but sometimes with a curious, and almost comical, bass accompaniment, more like the grunt of an animal than the sound of a human voice. But all were -~_t~~ly U_!lfit [or c_ori_gregatio11al wor~ti_Qj indeed it often puzzled us how the singers themselves learned such lengthy and elaborate compositions. It was said that they sometimes sat up all night practising these pieces, for which they paid a considerable sum (for Malagasy) to the teachers. The service of praise was thus chrown almost entirely into the hands of the singers, many of whom were slaves, and were often people quite unfit for the position they occupied as leaders of religious worship. The opening of new chapels in the country, and the united congregational meetings held on the first Monday morning of every month, were the grand times of display for these performances, so that this part of the service often became a mere singing contest, in which parties of singers from different chapels vied with each other in producing startling effects. But what (it may be said) were the missionaries doing meanwhile ? The highly unsatisfactory state of things just described reached its climax two or three years after the burning of the national idols in 1869, when for some time there was imminent clanger that the Christianity of the congregations formed previous to that date would be swamped by the flood of heathen people who then poured into the existing chapels, and into the new ones which were being built by hundreds all over the central provinces. The missionaries were then a small band of not more than a dozen men, and we were almost overwhelmed by the work of every kind thus thrown upon us. We were painfully conscious of the evils inevit ably arising from such a transitional state of society, and not least by the unedifying character of public worship, especially in places away from our immediate influence ; but by teaching good tunes, by speaking upon . * I well remember hearing good Mr. Ellis, in his own peculiar pronunciation and dialect of Malagasy, gravely rebuking the singers at Ambatonakiinga after they had been singing some particularly lively jig to a rather solemn hymn, by saying, "Tsy mety izany, ry sakiza; takaninny fiddle, takaninny dansc izany ;" Anglice, "That's not proper, 0 friends; like afiddle, like 1a dance, is that."

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ll(ALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. the subject of praise in worship, and by papers and discussions in our half-yearly Congregational Union meetings, we strenuously endeavoured to guide public opinion into a more excellent way. Two or three years previously the late Rev. R. G. Hartley had written the first rhythmical and rhymed Malagasy hymn, a composition in which tl}e work of the Lord Jesus as the Good Shepherd was beautifully an-d idimp.atically expre~sed. It will )Je see11 from the two following verses tJ;!,i.t the accent is perfectly regular to the metre:Jeso Mpamonjy, Mpiandry tokoa, Taomin' ny ratsy, :fitahin-tSatap,a, ,'\mpiveren.o hanara){' Anao Ef"1, ho lasan-ko babo 'zahay; Qndry m,ania, manary ny sea, Fa Hianao no mahery mitana, ,Al!:a avela h,iil' aminao. Tsy hahavery ny ondry iray. Jesus t,h~ Saviour, true ~hepherd (of sinners), Caus.e to return to go after Thee (now) Wandering sheep (all) forsaking the P~i?ture, Do not permit them to wander from Thee. Led by all evil, deceived by the devil, Just on the point of captivity gone, Thou art alone the All-powerful to hold us, So of the sheep shall not perish e'en one. The Malagasy verses have a ringing smoothness of cadence which quite caught the native ear, and when, some time afterwards, they were set to the tune of "Hail to the brightness," the hymn immediately became very popular. Mr. Hartley wrote about a dozen other excellent hymns; these were included in a new edition of the hymn-book which he edited in England, where he died early in 1870. The same number of the least meritorious of the old hymns were omitted to make room for the new ones, so that the figures by which the majority had been known were retained unaltered. Several of the new hymns were original compositions ; others were adaptations of English ones, such as "Son of my soul, Thou Saviour dear," "Begone unbelief," "Jesus, Thy robe of righteousness," "I'm but a stranger here," etc. It is worthy of remark that the last hymn WGitten by Mr. Hartley was one expressing perfect trust in God and submission to His will:-If dark should be the way, \Vhether I long shall live, Jehovah, 0 my Lord ! Or soon shall pass away, On Thee is all my trust; My lot's ordained by Thee, Thou only art my lamp. I would not choose myself. What shall befall I know not, Thy pleasu;e is m•y own: For hidden is from me Jehovah, 0 my Lord! The days I yet shall live, Upon Thy word I wait, \Vhich Thou hast foreordained. In Thee is all my trust. Meanwhile, others were at work in the same direction. The Tonic Sol-fa system was taught by several missionaries, and before long many hundreds of the children and young people were able to sing at sight from that notation. With their quick ear and natural taste for music, they learned rapidly, so that soon many were qualified to teach others. Several missionaries began writing hymns, some of which were published in the monthly magazine TenySoa ('Good Words'), and others in leaf-

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( 196 MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. lets. Some of these were very popular, and were printed and sold by thousands, many of them together with the tunes in Sol-fa notation ; and subsequently several large editions of the hymn-book, now nearly doubled, in size, were disposed of, as well as great numbers of cheap school hymnbooks, Sol-fa tune-books, collections of anthems, etc. Many of the intelligent Christian Malagasy began under English guidance to write rhythmical hymns, some of which are quite equal to those written by I Europeans. A most marked Jevival of congregational singing thus took place, and for some three or four years hymns and hymnology attracted a great deal of public attention. Several more of the classical hymns of England were put into a native dress, amongst others, "Rock of Ages" (a very excellent rendering, of which a specimen verse or two is given below"''), "Come, ye sinners, poor and wretched," "0 come, all ye faith ful," "Abide with me," "Thou. art gone to the grave ;" as well as many more recent ones, such as "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty," "We plough the fertile meadows," "Saviour, again to Thy dear Name we raise;" and many children's hymns, including "Mothers of Salem," "Oh, that will be joyful," etc. At the same time-that is, about twelve or thirteen years ago-the hymns of the American revivalists, Messrs. Sankey, Phillips, and Bliss, found their way over to Madagascar, and soon became very popular both with, the Europeans and natives. It was not long before many were put into a Malagasy dress, and being sung to the same tunes as their English .prototypes, speedily became the most favourite songs of the people; so that for some years past the strains so familiar in England and America have been equally popular in Madagascar. In church and school, in the people's houses after they had eaten their evening meal, in the fields as they were at work, and as they walked along the roads at night, one constantly heard the music of "Hold the fort," "The sweet by-and-by," "What shall the harvest be ?" "Thar will be heaven for me," (
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.MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY 197 Anointed;" and the second by a native Malagasy,"'' a translation of "The Lifeboat" from Mr. Sankey's Sacred Songs, both hymns being sung to the same tune as their English originals : -Faingana, ry Mpanjaka, Handray ny lovanao; Faingana re, mba haka Ny tany ho Anao; Avia, bampifaly Ny malahelo fo, Afaho ny mijaly Sy azon' ny manjo. Avia, fa misento At5" ny 6lonao ; Ny fanjakana ento, Fa Tompo Hianao; Tsy misy hitomany Eo anatrehanao ; Hiadana ny tany, Izay halehanao. Ry Kapiteny ! be ny ady manjo, Ny fahavaloko aty mba reseo, Efa ho reraka sy kivy ny fo, Ka taomy a.ho mba handray rahateo Ka hatanjabo.mba hatoky Anao, Ny fiadian' avy ao aminao; Tompo 6, avia hamonjy ahy i(':aO. Tompo 6, tsinjovy a.ho, aza mandao.t In the promotion of this revival of congregational singing and hymn-ology in Madagascar the Press of the mission of the Society of Friends has not been behind that of the London Missionary Society; and we have a noteworthy illustration of the way in which common Christian work makes good men overlook minor differences, in the fact that several of the new hymns were composed by Friends. One of the earliest popular / children's hymns was written by Mr. Joseph S. Sewell, for several years the senior member of their mission in Antananarivo. This was a transs lation of "Whitner, pilgrims, are you going?" The translation of "Abide with me" is also Mr. Sewell's. An edition of a Sol-fa tune-book was published in 1879, in which suitable tunes are given for every one of the 247 hymns in the enlarged hymn-book. These are very varied in character, being derived from a number of different sources, and the grave and severely classical styles are mingled with the more lively a1'1d popular ones. One or two of the old native melodies are retained to the hymns to which they have been so long sung. Some of the 'Services of Song,' for several years past so i:iopular in England for Sunday-school anniversaries, festivals, and other occasions, have been put into Malagasy, the hymns being translated, together with the connective readings. The "Pilgrim's Progress," "Samuel," and others have in this way been made available for Malagasy services, and have given great delight to old and young. Thus it will be seen that in their service of praise the Malagasy congregations have already become largely one with their mother churches in England who have sent them the Gospel, for they sing numbers of the same hymns and the same tunes as those sung in England. But we * Rajaonary, once a pupil of the writer's, and now for some years pastor of the Ambatonakanga Memorial Church at Antananarirn. t These hymns may be read by English readers with little difficulty by observing the accents,, and by remembering that the vowels have the power of the letters in Italian or French, except 0 1 which, save in the exclamation, marked 0, is always like our English o in move, to, do, etc. The consonants are much the same as in English, except that g is always hard, s always s an!l,/ not like z, and./ is hard like dz. ln the terminal rhymes (as well as elsewhere), ao is souncled like ow; ay (and at) like eye; io, liku ewe; and co like a-oo. The diphthongs ao and ai (aJ') are always long and accented, so they are left here unmarked. I and)' are identical, the latter being always used as a terminal.

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ig8 MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. may hope that with deepening Christian experience and knowledge, there will yet be a fuller and more original expression of devotional feeling in sacred song ; and that many ,native poets will be raised up who shall do for the sacred poetry of MacHigascar what Watts and Wesley, and Keble and Lyte and Bonar, and a host of others, have done for English hymnology, and shall thus embody in "immortal verse" the faith, the hope, the joy, and the yet wider experiences of Malagasy Christianity. JAMES SIBREE, JUN. (ED.) POSTSCRIPT. THE preceding paper was written during my furlough in England about five years ago, and there is little to be added to what was there said about Malaga sy hymnology, and about praise in public worship in this country. The writing of new hymns has almost ceased of late years, except a few for Sunday-school anniversaries or other special occasions, and published in separate leaflets or in some of the monthly periodicals. Non~of them have yet been incorporated in our hymn-book. Judging from what I have observed since my return to Madagascar three years ago, I fear it must be confessed that little, if any, progress has been made of late years in promoting a more congregational style of worship, as regards the praises offered by the people. It is true that in most of the large churches in the Capital, as well as in many of the stronger and more enlightened country congregations, the tunes sung are usually taken from the Sol-fa tunebook mentioned above, tunes which are appropriate and devotional, to our European notions, as well as easily learned. But a very different style of music-if music it may be called-will be heard every Sunday in the great majority of our country churches. It is difficult to describe these strange sounds so as to convey any clear idea of them to those who have not heard them. Noisy repeats of some refrain, picked up probably from European sources, with curious altern~tions of bass and treble and tenor, with now and then a passage shewing some idea of a melody, as well as occasionally a fair harmony--these may be said to characterize the sacred music of the mass of Malagasy congregations at the present time. Often these strange compositions are very long and elaborate and _must take no small amount of time and trouble to learn; they usually embody some words taken from Scripture, or from some hymn ; but perhaps their most objectiorlable feature is that only a fe\oV can master them, so that anything like common, congregational, and unit'ed vocal worship is impossible. I think few would object to hear in every snvice some sacred music having the character of an anthem, to be sung by the quire only, the majority of the worshippers not joining audibly in this part; but this should not form the only or chief portion of !_he praise. That many of the Malagasy have some musical taste and power of composing music, will I think be acknowledged by all who have listened to the music of a sacred concert like thatgiyen by the Native Preachers' Association at the Ampamarlnana Memorial Churd1 an Saturday afternoon, May 1st, 1886, when a number of sacred pieces were sung, several with instrumental accompaniments, and all, I believe, entire'ly of iiative ccimpositioii. Many of these seemed, at._ least to those who had _no scientific knowledge of music, to be most excellent and appropriate, arid suggested that there was sufficient acquaintance with _musi~al science, as ,..,_ell 1 as .enough correct taste, in some of our educated native friends to fit them to be composers of appropriate hymn-tunes and anthems for divine worship. /Similarly excellent s1;1~red pieces were also sung at the opening:_of. th~ prett:r village church at AnJanahary on the I st of last July. One ts mchned to ' \

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MALAGASY HYMNOLOGY. 199 think that we Europeans have not yet hit uponrquite the right style of sacred music for the Malagasy, or upon the right way to go to work in teaching them. Have we not been a little too exacting in restricting the majority of the tunes we have taught them to the rather severe modern classical style of composition and harmonies ? .And would not a greater latitude of style of tune, something with repeats, fugues, and responsiye par_t~, similar to the tunes sung by our fathers and mothers fifty or sixty years ago, be more suitable to the present stage of musical culture and taste among the people ? Especially would it not enable and stimulate a much larger_ proportion of our congregations to join audibly and heartily in public praise? Certainly a great deal remains still to be done before the si~ing in the vast majority of our churches can be deemed satisfactory, w~er we co~ider the spiritual profit of the worshippers or the glory of God. . I will only add here that I accepted with pleasure the offer of my friend the Rev. A. M. Hewlett, M.A., to add something about hymnology and sacred music in his own branch of the Christian church (the Anglican) here in Madagascar. His paper accordingly follows herewith.-J.S. SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH MUSIC IN MADAGASCAR. M USIC is a great power in education. This fact has been more and more fully recognized in successive Codes of the Education Department in England, and must not be lost sight of by those who are privileged to have a share in the education and advancement of the Malagasy nation. A former writer in this periodical"" has described the the love of the Malagasy for the old hymns which were introduced by the earliest missionaries from England, and which were the comfort of native Christians in days of persecution. He mentions the defects in those primitive specimens, especially that singular fact that there was no attempt at rhythm in them, strong syllables falling for the most par( on unaccented notes in the music. Since Mr. Richardson wrote, much has been done towards improvement in this matter, but much still remains to be done. We agree with that writer in wishing that any style of music which has been, and still is, in whatever degree, ~he vehicle of heart-felt prayer, may be allowed to die a gentle death, but with him we say "it must inevitably go." How strange it would be to hear an English congregation singing the two following lines to "St. Anne's" or any common-metre tune:--The Almighty hath created Heaven and the ocean. " Rev. J. Richardson, in the ANNt:AL for 1876, p. 23; sc,e also Reprint, p, 151, seq.

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200 SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH Yet such is the character of the rhythm in very many Malagasy hymns; and the abs~nceof the 'scanning faculty' in. the Malagasy mind up to the present time is so complete, that sucli hymns do not exdte any feeling of dissatisfaction. Here then the need of training is seen. While there is much scope for taste both in music and in poetry, and much that is accepted in Europe might never be appropriate in Mada gascar, yet each art has its absolute rules, which cannot be broken with impunity ; and we shall never raise music and poetry to their proper place as powers to educate the native mind and soul, if we acquiesce in the use of such hymns as those indicated above. The chief difficulties in the way of mending old hymns or composing new ones seem to me to be two : ( 1) the fewness of firm ultimate syllables in the language, and ( 2) the number of words that are needed to give full sense. With regard to the former point, most readers of the ANNUAL are acquainted with those often-recurring final syllables ka, na, and Ira. Now we shall not get any good poetry or hymns until it is a recognized canon that to place any one of these in an accented place in the scanning or music, to allow one of them to fall on the 'down beat,' is a capital crime, ancl deserving of the punishment which befalls an English schoolboy when he makes a false quantity in his Latin. How many a Malagasy hymn is kept from being classed as 'excellent' by the admission of this fault ! Take an instance: Dr. Bonar wrote :-A few more years shall roll, A few more seasons come, And we shall be with those that rest Asleep within the tomb. Notice the firm syllable at the end of each line. Don't clip it in singing. How well that word "tomb" comes out on the clotted semi breve in the music! Now compare the following, which.those who know the Mala gasy language will allow to be a fair translation of the above :-Handalo faingana Ny taona sisa aty, Dia body mandry izahay Hiala sasatra. I have often taught this by rote to a congregation or school. The second line falls naturally into rhythm. The Malagasy repeating it say, "Ny tdona sis(a) ary" as naturally as we say, "A few more seasons come." But the fourth line ? All you can hear in the repetition is "Hi"dla sdsatr." The final a is no doubt sounded by them, but sounded most hghtly; and this is the note that we expect them to hold out for three beats, thereby murdering either the music or the genius of the Malagasy language. These three final syllables then must. be carefully avoided in all accented places. And so also should we avoid the suffix pronouns of the first (singular) and third persons. Take two simple lines from a version of"] erusalem the golden:"-Mpanjaka manan daza No monin(a) aminy (i.e. 'He is a glorious K!ng Wh? dwelleth ';it? the~') .. N~w the last line in rhythmical enough m readmg "No monm(a) amzny, because the

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MUSIC IN MADAGASCAR. 201 last syllable may be read short ; but if you set it to its tune, and hold out the last syllable to the final semibreve, you get "No monin(a) ami11y," which is worse than singing in English, "A famous victory." The same holds good of the suffix -ko ('my'), but, on the other hand, we have in the suffixes of the first person plural (-ay, -anay, excluding the person addressed) and the second person singular (-ao, -anao ), good firm syllables which may be used freely, and are happily the forms most needed in words of prayer. Charles Wesley's beautiful lines:-Other refuge have I none; Hangs my helpless soul on Thee, are melodiously, if not fully, expressed by Aiza handosiranay Afa-tsy ny elatrao ? ('Whither shall we flee if not to Thy wings?') A Malagasy reading these lines would naturally read them in rhythm, and, in singing, the firm aJ' and ao fit well to the final long notes of the music. It is necessary, however, not to use these syllables .so freely as to spoil the sound by an undue number of aos and ays. This danger may be seen in two verses of an attempt to render Mr. Keble's hymn, "New every morning is the love :" Hirainay fihiram-baovao, Vaovao ny famindrarriponao, Fa nentinao, ry Tompo 6, Ka saotranay hatao vaovao, Natory tsara izahay, Nampianay ny helokay, Ka notanjahiriao indray. Fa vdavelanao indray. And unfortunately we have very few other firm syllables at the end of words. The forms in oa, as soa, tokoa, avokoa, are monosyllabic enough for the purpose; so are those in oy, as he111~v. ampitombo_,11, etc. ; and we have a few active verbs with the accent on the ultimate, as manome and manda, and some few primitive roots available, as ra, be, ./o; but a large majority of words throw the accent further back, and this points to our using metres with a full foot at the end of the lines, rather than those with one long syllable. Take the first two verses of a Christmas carol, a translation of the following :Waken! Christian children, Up! and let us sing With glad voice the praises Of our new-born King. Zaza Kristiana, Asanr!ratonao Feo hiderana Ny Mpanjakanao. Up! 'tis meet to welcome Kristn Tnmpontsika With a joyous lay lo Mpanja ka io, Christ, the King of Glory, Teraka ho antsika, Born for us to day. Ka mba ifalio. Here the nas in the first verse and the kas in the second are safely disposed of on the unaccented notes. This little carol is translated bv a native, and is very popular in some of our schools. A further danger arises from those eminently Malagas;y syllables, the final ka, na, and tra. It is this: some hymn writers have thought it possible to cut the a off entirely-, making it of no account in the scanning. It i's possible in cases when the a is followed by a similar vowel, as in the

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202 SOME THOUGHTS ON CHURCH specimen above, "]\lo inonz'n(a) anu'ny," where the two as properly coalesce into one syllable ; but it is not possible where, by leaving out the vowel, two consonant.I! are brought together which do not combine by the laws of the language. I give two instances of this from another of our Christmas carols, which is, in spite of these blemishes, deservedly popular :Koa mba aoka handeha isika, He! ny mponina ao an-danitra Ka ham boa panat1tra, No indrav miredona; Fo madio sy hcrintsika, Andriamanitra maka nofo Fanajana sy vavaka. Mbamin-tsatan' olona: Without entering on other cnt1c1sm of these lines, I w~mld point out that a Malagasy cannot pronounce n and s together, so that the words "Fanajan(a) ,v; vavaka" are inadmissible. They might, however, be written, "Fanajan-ts_y vavaka," the t saving the pronunciation and the scanning together. But a worse error is to try and cut off the final a of Andrz'ainan(tra, thus bringing rand m together. The only"way to sing this is to break the minim which properly belongs to the syllable ma into two crotchets, and to sing ma-nz' to them ; thus we have the next note for the syllable tra. But the ideal Malagasy poet of the future will find a way to avoid such collocations. -.... It may be said that we are setting up too high a standard, a standard to which some of the first English hymns do not attain. Undoubted!( Bishop Ken fell below it when he wrote :-. Glory to Thee, my God, this nignt, and Under the shadow of Thy wings. But these have been very properly changed in some hymn-books to "All praise," and "Beneath." Mr. Keble again wrote :' Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear, and Abide with me from morn till eve, in corresponding stanzas; but the variation is permissible in poetry intended to be read only, and a good musician setting these lines to music would vary the beat of his tune to suit them, as Dr. Dykes has done. At the best we shall probably always have to sing many faulty lines in Malagasy ; the present writer only pleads that more persistent efforts should be made to give the people training in the rules of poetical and musical art. On the second point mentioned above, much need not be said. The mind of the Malagasy is for the most part against short forms of expression. This shows itself in the address of a letter, which must always be, "To so-and-so, at such a place" (Any .. ao .. ), or, as in a bill once brought me by my servant, in which every article of his marketing had the word amz'd_y, to buy, between it and its price, thus:-Threepence to buy fire-wood. Three halfpence to buy eggs. S-ixpence to bzey a turkey, etc.

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MUS](; IN .MADAGASCAR. 2.03 If anyone sets himself.to translate a hymn from the English, Latin, or I suppose, German, he will find that he needs many more lines in Mala gasy, if he intends to give the full sense. Thus we have a very beautiful translation of Bonar's verses, "I heard the voice of Jesus say," but the three verses of the original have become six. The antidote seems to be : first, for intending hymn writers to choose very simple ideas and not try to express much in one hymh; and next, for the people to be taught that a language must modify itself in poetry, and that the full complement of articles and conjunctions is not absolutely necessary for understanding what is meant. Turning from the question of words to be sung to that of the music to which they are to be sung, I should be wanting in the courage of my convictions if I did not express myself emphatically against what is generally called 'Malagasy singing,' as distinct from thttf introduced from Europe. There is no doubt that native congregations can join very heartily in the whinings and howlings which are called by that name, and that they find it very hard to get into any European method ,of singing. Nevertheless my view is, that in the interests of advance ment, and, I would add, for the glory of God in the sanctuary, it must be superseded. Do not lower an art which has been slowly perfected from the days of Palestrina ahd Purcell to those of Handel and Mendels sohn, to please the unformed tastes of a nation who only need some years of patient teaching to become a musical people indeed. A Maia, gasy child first learning arithmetic naturally writes his figures from left to right, beginning with the digits on the left hand, then the tens to the right of the!p, etc. ; but no teacher of arithmetic has been bold enough to say that the recognized European method of that science should be modified to suit the Malagasy. To take another illustration : in music itself there is -.:>ome unpleasant drudgery to be gone through before proficiency is acquired. "Don't give the child those crude scales to practise hour after hour. Let him pick out pretty tunes in his own way ;" that is, in the way which a venerable friend of mine calls, "flopping on the harmonium." Very we1l, let the child "flop" by all means, but he will never become a musician or hold his own in competition with his fellows. I would desire to be at one with the best and wisest mission aries who have worked here, in consulting native taste and honouring native observance in every possible way, but I should cease to deserve the name of a teacher if I rested content with 'Malagasy singing.' In the matter of church hymns I would encourage thP use of a certain number of what are called 'popular melodies,' as those from Mr. Sankey's book, or The Crown of Jesus music, but I would endeavour also to introduce some of a more solidly musical characte'r, as those by Tallis, Orlando Gibbons, Crotch, and down to that prince of hymn-tune writers in our own generation, Dr. J. B. Dykes. And through hymn tunes I would endeavour to guide the national taste on to higher fields, hoping that some of us may live to hear "The Messiah" or "St. Paul" well and religiously rendered in Antananarivo. There is another matter to which I will allucle, as having a possible bearing Ori the future musical history of this nation. An eloquent writer

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204THOUGHTS ON CHURCH MUSIC IN MADAGASCAR. has said that a cathedral may be called "a shrine for the Book of Psalms," for in the cathedral, those noblest of all hymns are rendered to melodious music, without omission and without cessation, month after month through the centuries. Perhaps many who read this paper will recall passing visits to Westminster or St. Paul's, or York or Exeter, and how, while the other music was grander, it was yet the chanting of the Psalms that especially refreshed their spirits and raised up their thoughts heavenwards. Surely to give such an opportunity to the Malagasy is an undertaking which may win the sympathy of all, even though their own conception of missionary work or of elevating influences may be a very different one. Such an opportunity it is hoped will b.e given in the stone church now rising in the midst of this city, on the north of Ando halo. The Church of England having come late into the mission-field of Madagascar, it may very properly be felt that her chief energies should be given to the more distant and unchristianized parts of the island, but here in the mother city must be her representative headquarters and mother church ; and it may be that in future clays, when history is written, this praise will be hers : that she translated for the people such ancient hymns (the property of all Christians) as the "Te Deum laudamus,"* and that she especially taught the people to see in the chanted strains of the Psalter their KING suffering, rising, exalted. Such a witness she might well bear, not to those few alone who claim her membership, but to all who own the name of Cmusr. In preparation for such a work the Psalter is already arranged for chanting, and is set, for the most part, to single 'Anglican' chants of the ancient and modern schools; and many of the Psalms, as they recur in monthly course, are already sung in the temporary church. Is it a very distant ideal which fancies them really well rendered to organ accompaniment every day, and frequently listened to or joined in by many outside the bounds of the Anglican :Vlission ? Is it a vain thought to hope to raise and elevate the Malagasy nation by such a means (among others), when one considers what a blessing church music of a high tone has been to many in England ? "How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land?" We can do it, and gladly, if we are helping in any measure to teach it to others who are "no longer strangers," but "fellow citizens" with ourselves. And if there are some here who long to visit England again, that they may hear " --once more in college fanes The storm tlwir high-built organs make, And thunder music, rolling, shake The prophets Llazoned on the panes," they may quench their thirst for church music by striving in their measure to make the natives here partakers in its mystic thrilling power. A. M. HEWLETT. * It may be remarked that the "Te Deum," translated into Malagasy, was set to music lscycr,il years ago by Mr. ,v. Pool and published in a small book of Anthems issued in 1873. Also that the sublime hymn "Vcni, Creator Spiritus" was translated by RcL ,v. E. Cousins, and is to be found as No. 17 in the hymn-book used by the L.M.S. and F.F.M.A. congrega tions in Madagascar.-EDS,

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THE ANTANANARIVO ANNl!.AL. 205 THE CHANNELS AND LAGOONS OF THE EAST COAST OF MADAGASCAR. IN a previous paper, I had the honour of laying before the Academy* an outline of the hydrography of Madagascar, and of shewing that the watershed of the country, instead of dividing the island into t'ho nearly equal portions, as was formerly thought to be the case, is situated much nearer the eastern than it is to the \'\estern coast. This division of the island into two river basins of unequal size arises from the position of the mountains, which, almost bathing their feet in the Indian Ocean on their eastern side, rise gradually by a series of slopes to a considerable height; while on their western sides, their general descent is less abrupt, and a vast plain separates the central mass from the sea. The rivers also which water the eastern region have a much shorter course than those which flow towards the west. They exist in considerable numbers, but their volume is small during a: great part of the year, because, descending by very steep gradients, they only receive small tributory streams. Issuing from the mountains, they find a narrow plain against which the currents of the Indian Ocean impinge with violence; these currents constantly tending to close up the outlets of the rivers with sand. And because the volume of water which they usually bring down is not large, the greater number of them are unable to open a direct passage into the sea. If, after a considerable flood, they sometimes force open the bar of sand which daily accumulates, and which the ocean currents maintain undiminished, the opening thus temporarily cleared is quickly re-formed as soon as the river floods decrease. It follows therefore that these rivers not often having, at least between the 12th and the 23rd parallels, a direct and permanent outlet, attain a size and development in the plain which deceives one as to their true importance. From this cause also they send out, parallel to the coast, both to north and south, branches which, sometimes narrow, sometimes broad, following the level and the configuration of the ground, have usually a -considerable length, and which, uniting with several others, discharge their waters into the sea by a common outlet, often situated at a great distance from the different streams which contribute to it. * The Paris 'Academie des Sciences.'

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2.06 THE CHANNELS AND LA GOONS Thus it comes to pass that these channels are found in every part of the eastern coast of Madagascar which is exposed to the great Indian Ocean current, from 16' of south latitude as far as 22'. From 16'52' to 18', however, they are at a considerable distance from each other; anri it is only between the mouth of the Ivondrona and that of the Matitanana that they become sufficiently numerous and near together to be utilized for coast navigation. Between these two rivers, along a total extent of 485 kilometres [301 miles], there are twenty-two channels or lagoons, formed by more than fifty different streams. These channels are of very varying dimensions : in some places they are so narrow that a canoe can with difficulty pass along, while in other places they widen out to from 200 to 300 metres [220 to 330 yards] in breadth; and wherever any depression of the surface exists they become lakes, which are sometimes miles in length, and of which the most important and best known are Nosive, Andranokoditra, Rasoamasay and Rasoabe, Fenoarivo, Rangazava, and Itampolo. They are sometimes separated from the sea only by a simple belt of sand a few yards in breadth, sometimes by a grassy plain more or less covered with trees and shrubs, which measures several hundred yards, occasionally even several miles, in width. They are not, however, all navigable, at least at all times of the year, for in the dry season they contain more mud than water; still, such as nature has made them, they are very useful and do much to facilitate communication arid the transport of goods along this inhospitable coast, where lighterage is impracticable from the violent currents and from the heavy surf which almost constantly prevails, and where, besides, there are neither ports nor anchorages where vessels can take shelter. We ought, however, to say, that this natural canal, so commodious in every respect, has its inconveniences from a sanitary point of view, for it renders the eastern plain a very hotbed of fever. The one and twenty isthmuses which separate these channels, the anzpana!ana, as the Malagasy call them-because they are obliged to take their canoes out of the water and drag them along the land to the next channel-have a total length of 46 kilometres [ 28i miles], about one eleventh part of the whole distance; some of these medsure only a few hundred yards, others are as much as from two to three kilometres, and one of them is eight kilometres [ nearly five miles J, across. It was interesting from a geographical point of view to make a detailed survey of these channels and lagoons, for nowhere else, as far as my knowledge goes, can there be found so long

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OF THE EAST COAST OF MADAGASCAR. 2_07 and important a chain as this. This survey, which I made with care by the azimuth compass, and which is verified by eighteen astronomical observations/ is reproduced to a scale of 1-145,000 on the map which I am now completing. On comparing this map with those which have previously appeared up to the present day, especially with the chart of the English Admiralty, one sees the considerable difference which exists between the former outlines, which are altogether imaginary, and those which are the result of my labours. In fact, in place of lakes of great size scattered hap-hazard all along the eastern coast, often at a considerable distance from the sea, and represented as without any communication with each other, this map shows; as I have said, narrow channels, almost continuous, which follow the shore closely, and which do not become wide except occasionally. The greater part of the towns and villages which are here marked have been shewn by me for the first time; and I have also rectified the position of localities shewn on previous maps, which places, except four,t were erroneously marked to the amount of from 15 to 20 kilometres or more; for in one case, that of the Matitanana, the error was as much as_28', that is, about 51i kilometres! [32 miles.] These errors of position with regard to the mouths of important rivers and of towns frequented by Creole traders for commercial purposes, have often, in the case of captains of ships, been the cause of delays which are most prejudical to the interests of their owners. ALFRED GRANDIDIER. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE.-The above article has been translated from the French original, a paper contributed to the Comptes Rendzrs des Slances de l'Acadlrnz"e des Scz"ences of Paris, March 16, 1885, a copy of which was obligingly sent to me a few months ago by the author. A few additional particulars may be here given as to this remarkable chain of lagoons on the east coast of Madagascar. The "English tourist" referred to by M. Grandidier in a foot-note was Captain vv. Rooke, R.A., who, in the months of April and May, 1864, explored the greater portion of these lagoons in a boat specially constructed for the purpose at Mauritius. Capt. Rooke was accompanied * This survey extends along all the coast comprised between the mouth of the SOamiii.nina (!at. S. 16'15-') and that of the i\Utitilnana (lat. 22'15"), with the exception of the part situated between Andornrii.nto (!at. 18') and M,,hanoro (ht. 19'13"), a little o\'er 550 kilomCtrcs. An English tourist traycrscd in 18.64 a part of the channels anU. lagoons of the east coast, but his account gives no exact information upon this very interesting sulijcct. t Andovoranto, Mahanoro, Maheia, and Mananjara.

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.208 LA GOONS OF EAST COAST OF MADA GA SCAR, by three other gentlemen ; and leaving Tamatave on the 24th of April, they reached Masindrano, at the mouth of the river Mananjara, on the 29th of May. Capt. Rooke appears to have taken no instruments for the scientific mapping of the country he traversed, but he carefully noted the succession of channels, lagoons and lakes, full particulars of which are given in his paper entitled, "Boat Voyage along the East Coast Lakes of Madagascar" '.Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc., Dec. 1865_). Capt. Rooke's estimate of the proportion of land portage to water-way along the coast was a little less than one-tenth of the whole distance; he says that "in no case had the boat to be carried more than six miles from one lake to another; and frequently, to effect a junction between two of the lakes, it would only be necessary to enlarge a small water-course forming a connection between them." It is evident that with a comparatively small expenditure a continuous and commodious water-way might be made along 300 miles of coast, connecting the principal ports on this side of the island, and giving a great impetus to trade. By cutting less than 30 miles of canal, Ivondrona, a little south of Tamatave, might be connected with Andovoranto, Vatoman dry, Mal1anoro, Maheia, Ambahy, Masindrano and many other less important places, as well as with the interior up to the foot of the upper plateau. More than 50 years ago, during the reign of the first Radarna, this great work was actually commenced; and a large number of men were gathered together to make the necessary cuttings to join the lagoons; but the death of that sagacious sovereign put an end to the work. It may be hoped that the present Government may feel itself able at no very distant date to recommence this undertaking. A great increase of trade and prosperity along the eastern side of the island would certainly result from the completion of this •East Coast Canal.' It need only be added that some of the most beautiful scenery in Madagascar is to be found along the shore where these lakes and lagoons occur. The belt of land between them and the sea is covered with the freshest turf, anJ clumps of trees and shrubs scattered over the surface make it appear almost like an English park. On one side are the glassy waters of the lake, often spreading away for a mile or two to the west, with the blue ranges of the interior as a background ; while on the other side are the magnificent waves of the Indian Ocean, with their ceaseless roar; and, further out to sea, is the almost uninterrupted coral reef, crested with foam, as the great rollers dash themselves into spray. JAMES SIBREE, JUN. (ED.)

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THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL. 209 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. COULD the readers of the ANNUAL have been introduced about mid-day on Wednesday, October 28th of last year, into the Committee-room of the London Missionary Society, which forms part of the great block of College buildings that are now such a conspicuous object on the Farav6hitra hill, i"n Antananarfvo, they would have seen, seated round a long office table, seven European missionaries and two native pastors. At the head of the table is seated the chairman, the writer of the present paper; on his right are the Rev. L. Dahle, superintendent of the Norwegian Mission, Mr. H. E. Clark, of the Friends' Mission, and the Rev. T. T. Matthews, of the London Mission; on his left are seated the Revs. W. Montgomery and R. Baron, F.L.S., of the London l\Iission, and Bishop Kestell-Cornish, of the Anglican Mission; while opposite the chairman are Joseph Andrianaivoravelona and Andrianony, both of them college-trained men of good ability and large experience. On the table are scattered books and papers, such as Polyglot Bibles, concordances, dictionaries, commentaries, and printers' proofs. The Committee met at half-past eight, and after a short prayer for help began its morning's work-viz. the Book of Malachi. The work has gone on steadily for nearly four hours, and now the solemn and awe-inspiring words that form the last paragraph of the Old Testament are reached, and the first revision of the Malagasy Bible is complete. Books are closed with a sigh of relief, and all faces are brightened by the consciousness that a great work has been accomplished. Twelve years before this the Revision CommiUee began its work; but of the original members"' who took part in the work of the first session, only three are present this morning--viz. the chairman, the Rev. L. Dahle, and Pastor Joseph Andrianaivoravelona. At the suggestion of Mr. Dahle, all kneel round the table, anc.l, with the revised version lying before them, unite in a few words of earnest and joyful thanks to Goel, and commend to Him the work upon which the labour of so many years has been spent, beseeching Him to make this new translation a stream of life and blessing to the Malagasy people. But why has such a laborious task been undertaken? Diel not David Jones and David Griffiths complete the translation of the Scriptures into the Malagasy language before the outbreak of the persecution ? And did not their version, read in secret and at risk of liberty or life, sustain the faith of the little flock in Madagascar during a quarter of a century of repression and persecution ? Yes, to the eternal honour of these two missionaries, and their colleagues, Johns and Freeman, who helped in the later stages of the work, be it said that, notwithstanding the multi farious duties devolving upon them, they did succeed in thus laying the foundation of Bible translation in the Malagasy language. David Jones ~ns.;;-,t at first Session, December rst-r9th, 1873: Dr. Mullens, Rev. J. Pillan~, Yi~it~rs on behalf of D. and F.B.S. ; Rev. ,v. E. Cousins, Principal Reviser, B. & F.B.S. ; Rc,s. R. Toy, J. Sibrce, and G. Cousins, L.M.S.; Re\'s. L. Dahle and M. Borgen, N.?ILS.; Mr. J. S. Sewell, F.F.l\LA. i Rainimi\nga, AndrlanaivoravClona, ancl Anddambelo1 native helpc~s.

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219 BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. reached Antananarivo in October, 1820, and David Griffiths in May of the following year. By the year 1824 they had made a fair start with their translation work, and by March, 1830, an edition of 3,000 copies of the New Testament was issued. Five years later (June, 1835) the Old Testament was completed, and the first edition was printed at the Mission Press in Antananarivo. All honour, then, to the two Welshmen who, by their noble work, have laid all future generations of Malagasy under the deepest obligation. But our work of revision was none the less necessary, because we delight to think of the good foundation laid by our honoured predecessors. The experience of Madagascar has been in no sense exceptional. The work of even such men as William Carey and Henry Martyn has not met all the wants of those for whose benefit it was undertaken. And so, in Madagascar, experience showed that much might be done to render the translation more accurate and idiomatic. Indeed, in all translation work, even success is but an approximation to perfection, and no t1anslators, or bodies of translators, can claim finality for their versions. The present Revision Committee in Madagascar, though they hope, as the result of thirteen or fourteen years' work, to present to the Malagasy Christians a translation which all will acknowledge to be a great advance on what has gone before it, quite anticipate that some future generation of foreign or, perhaps, native schol ars, may be able still further to revise and improve their present work. Without entering into minute and wearisome details as to earlier movements in the direction of Bible revision, let me state briefly the origin, constitution, and work of the present Committee of Revisers. In the early part of the year 1872 it happened that there were present in Antananarivo representatives of all the Protestant societies having agencies in Madagascar, and the need of some united action was felt. The Bible would be used in all these Missions alike, and naturally all felt a desire to see the work of revision undertaken by a board that would fully and fairly represent the different interests involved. A conference was held on April 3rd, 1872, and, as a result of its deliberations, a formal application was made to the British and Foreign Bible Society to grant its sanction .and help to the important work contemplated. The main features of the plan suggested to the Bible Society were : ( 1) the appointment of the present writer to the post of 'Principal Reviser,' to prepare a preliminary version, to preside at the meetings of the Committee, and to superintend the printing of its version ; ( 2) the appointment of a representative committee composed of missionaries of all the Protestant societies in the following proportions: the London Mission ary Society, three; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, one ; the Church Missionary Society, one; the Norwegian Missionary Society, two ; the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, one. The British and Foreign Bible Society promptly and generously agreed to this joint proposal, and undertook the whole pecuniary responsibility involved-that is to say: ( 1) the payment of the salary of the principal reviser; ( 2) travelling expenses of the delegates ; (3) the cost of native assistance; (4) the purchase of critical books and stationery; and (S) the printing of the proofs,

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BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. zu The consent of the Bible Society having been obtained, the next step was the appointment of delegates. As soon as these had been appointed, a preliminary meeting was held on July 24th, 187 3, at the house of Mr. W. Johnson, of the F.F.M.A., 'who had acted assecretary to the conference. At this meeting several preliminary questions were discussed, and it was resolved that, instead of entering at once upon the general work, a tentative revision of a few selected chapters (viz. Gen. i.-iv.; Ex. i., ii., xx.; Psa. i.-v.; Matt. v,-vii.) should be made by the principal reviser, and that a session should be held for the purpose of discussing these portions and of ascertaining more in detail than could be done in general conversation how far the delegates were united in judgment as to the extent and character of the changes required. This plan, it was hoped, would simplify the work of the principal reviser, and give to his future labours greater definiteness and precision. This first session was held in December, 1873. Daily sittings of five or six hours were held for about three weeks, and the following portions were revised : Gen. i.-iii.; Ex. xx. 1-17; Psa. i., ii.; Mat. v. 1-22; vi. 9-13 (in all, 142 verses, or on an average about twelve verses per day). The general work of revision on the lines laid down was now proceeded with, and, as will be seen from the foregoing description, comprised two distinct departments-viz. ( 1) the preparation of the preliminary version which was to form the basis of the work, and ( 2) the revision and improvement of this version by the united action of the Committee. Of the preparation of the preliminary version the following is a brief description written soon after its completion on September 12th, 1884 :-"The last proof (Old Testament, No. 220, containing Zech. xi. 9-Mal. iii 24) was finished on September 12th. This work of preliminary revision was begun in October, 1873, and has thus stretched over a space of eleven years. It did not, however, take the whole of this time ; but deducting my absence on furlough (1876-1878), and the time spent in 1880 and 1881 in preparing 'copy' of the unrevised portions for use in the 'Interim Edition,' I think about eight years was the time actually spent on it. But it should be remembered that during the whole of this time about two days a week were taken up with the ordinary work of the Revision Committee. "This tentative version has been prepared in a series of' Principal Reviser's Proofs.' These proofs were octavo in size, printed in clear type, with a wide margin for notes. Most of them contained eight pages, but a few extended to ten or twelve. The average number of verses in a proof was about uo. Two hundred and eighty-four proofs have been printed viz. 64 of the New Testament and 220 of the Old Testament. The original arrangement was that three Old Testament proofs should be prepared for each one of the New Testament, and, at first, this plan was in the main followed. But after a time it was deemed desirable to proceed at once with the remaining books of the New Testament, and from July, 1880, to November, 1881, the Old Testament work was suspended, and the revision of the remainingbooks of the New Testament-viz. Acts to Revelation was completed. "My plan of working in preparing these proofs was to take a page of the Malagasy Bible pasted on a sheet of paper for notes, and compare this word for word with the original, using the best critical aids in my possession, and endeavouring, in the first instance, to make the translation as literal as possible. Every point that appeared doubtful I marked with a (?), and at the '.'!I'!C! of the week I went through these doubtful passages with my native

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112 .BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. helper, Ralaiarivony. At the beginning, I had two natives to help ine in this kind of work-viz., Ralaiarivony and Andriamamanga. Both of these belonged to the caste of andrzana (or nobles). They had not enjoyed any special training, but were 111en of good general ability, and of very correct taste in matters affecting their own language ; and as I wanted help chiefly in questions of idiom and taste, I do not think I could have made a better choice. During my absence in England Andriamamanga died, but Ralaiarivony has continued to work with me week by week to the end, and great praise is due to him for his patient care and good taste. In the earlier part of the work, it usually took us several hours to go through the passages I had marked thus(?); but as we advanced, and more points had been settled, and as I myself grew more accustomed to the work, this time was gradually lessened, until in the last portions we spent not more than an hour, or an 'hour and a half, in discussing the doubtful points that had arisen out of a week's work. Friday morning has for some years been the time usually devoted to this work, and the remaining hours of the day were generally spent in preparing clean copy for the printer. "In looking back over the eleven years that have slipped away since I put my hand to this revision work, I have great reason to thank God for the enjoyment of health and strength. With very slight interruptions, I have been able to keep steadily at my work from week to week. During the middle portion of the work 1 often felt weary, and almost afraid I could not keep on till the end; but, on the whole, what I have done has been a labour of love and a source of much delight and instruction to myself. The work has grown upon us all, and we have found the Malagasy language much richer than we had imagined it to be, and capable of expressing many distinctions and shades of meaning we had supposed to lie beyond its range. Many more changes have been made than I originally thought would be necessary ; but we have felt unwilling to leave anything that could by pains and care be brought nearer the original. My version has been very largely modified and greatly improved by the Committee; but I think it may be considered to have formed a useful basis for the united work, and to have facilitated the progress of the revision.'' The work of the Committee has been from these preliminary proofs to build up what we earnestly hope will become a 'standard version,' which shall be received with confidence by all Protestants in Madagascar, and round which, as the years pass, shall gather sacred associations and loving reverence. At first the Committee held continuous sessions of several weeks each twice a year. But at the close of the third session a change of plan was introduced, and instead of holding sessions of several weeks' duration, the Committee agreed to sit one day per week, with an occasional session of a week or a fortnight, when arrears of ,York should render this necessary. These weekly meetings were begun February znd, 187 5, and were continued without serious interruption till March 7th, 1876, by which time the Committee had revised as far as Exodus in the Old Testament, and to the end of Matthew in the New Testament. Owing to the fact that the principal reviser was about to leave for England on furlough, the work was then suspended. As soon as possible after his return in 1878, the weekly meetings were resumed, and from November 14th, 1878, to October z8th, 1885, they were continued with a reasonable amount of regularity, and occasional continuous sessions were held at not unfrequent intervals. The rate of progress naturally varied much according to the character of the portion

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BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. 213 under revision. In some of the earlier meetings of the Committee not more than ten or twelve verses were revised in a whole day. The largest quantity revised in a single day was 309 ~erses, but this is easily accounted for by the character of the portion revised (2 Kings xxv. 2-1 Chron. vi. 66). From sixty to a hundred verses was an average day's work. Our plan was to meet at 8.30 a.m., and work three hours in the morning and three in the afternoon. The day's meeting was opened with a brief prayer, and we then proceeded to revise the portion for consideration verse by verse. We had with us usually three native helpers. The Committee sat on 433 days, and held in all 77 r sittings, chiefly of three hours each. The work has been laborious and has been a heavy tax on our patience; but I think I may truly say we have attained a fair standard of exactness and thoroughness. The Rev. L. Dahle, of the Norwegian Mission, has been able to render the Committee most valuable help, especially from his full and exact knowledge of Hebrew and the cognate languages. In this department he has been facilt princeps, and the translation owes very much to his untiring care and keenness of critical insight. But every member of the Committee has in his own order contributed to the final result, and the actual language employed is not the choice of any individual, but is the result of combined thought and discussion. Many of the happiest and most apt phrases the version contains have sprung unexpectedly to light in the midst of our discussions, and have at once commended themselves to our judgment. As a rule the wishes of the native helpers (within certain well-defined limits, which as faithful translators we felt bound to maintain) have been followed as to the actual form of the sentences; and even as to the choice of words; and hundreds of small changes have been macle, which no foreigner would have thought necessary, and of \Yhich few would see the reason, purely out of deference to native opinion. I think every member of the Committee would heartily confess our obligations to our native brethren. We ourselves have learned much, especially as to the possibility of misunderstanding phrases that seemed to us quite clear, and as to undesirable associations lurking in unsuspected quarters. W c have again and again been taught the danger of undue literalism, and have found what numberless pitfalls lie in the path of one who is dealing with a language not his own. Certainly a greater humility in estimating our own proficiency in the language should be one of the fruits of our long-continued work. No amount of familiarity with it seems to give us quite the instinct and taste of a native ; and we have been saved from many an ambiguity and from not a few absurdities by the keener perceptions of our native co-workers. Malagasy translations of the Bible contain certain often-cited instances of the absurdities into which a translator may, alas! too easily fall. We have, for instance, a translation of Gen. iii. r 3, which at any rate suggests the thought that the woman swallowed the serpent. So, too, from taking the common preposition alllJ' to mean with, which in some combination~ it may clo, we have a translation of Gen. xxiv. 15, which says that Rachel came forth from. her pitcher. In John ix. 1, one translation speaks of a. man who had been blind from the time _of his begetting a child (niterdhcw,,Y

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214 BIBJ;,E ~.EVI.SJON WORK IN MADAGASCAR. for nahaterdhany). And in Acts xii. 7, the angel is represented as being more violent than we should think probable, as it is said that he kicked Peter's side! If we have been delivered from such serious misrepresentations (as I hope we have been, though I am by no means sure an ingenious native might not press out of some of our phrases an undesir able meaning), we certainly owe this very much to the care, quick perception, and patience of these native helpers. As to the general character of our revision, I could not, of course, speak without partiality, as my whole time and thought have been absorbed in it for ten or eleven years. But I can say that our version is a bona ftde attempt to represent faithfully the original Hebrew and Greek texts. While, however, we have endeavoured to be faithful translators, we have aimed not merely at fidelity to the words, but to the thoughts. There is a false literalism that destroys utterly the claim of the translation to be a faithful representation of the mind of writer. Our aim has been to steer between the Scylla of a mechanical literalism and the Charybdis of an over-free paraphrase. We have also kept before us constantly the fact that our version is being made for popular use, and we have tried to make the language as clear, intelligible, and euphonious as possible. With the valuable help of the natives we hope to produce a version that from its simplicity and purity of style, and its fidelity to the idioms of the language, shall be received with pleasure, and shall exercise an elevating and purifying influence on the literature of the future. The remaining months we intend to spend on our work will be devoted to the general simplification and improvement of style from a native point of view. In order to finish the work by the middle ofnext year, and to prevent the necessity of handing it on unfinished to what-as so many members are leaving next year -would virtually be a new Commit tee, this second revision has been mainly left to myself and the three native brethren, the Committee exercising general supervision and holding meetings once in two months to decide on difficult and doubtful points. I fear our task, as even thus simplified, will not be completed in less than sixty or seventy sittings of six hours each ; but the effect of this final revision will certainly be to render the style smoother, and to make it generally more acceptable to the native ear. The task is a very tedious one, but I think the result will amply repay us for our labour. The fruits of our long-continued toil are yet to appear. Some portions of our translation-Pentateuch, Psalms, New Testament-in its first and incomplete form, have already appeared in the 'Interim Edition' (1882), and in the small edition of the New Testament ( 1 8 3;. On the whole, their reception has been favourable, and we are encouraged to believe we have done much to make the Bible more intelligible. But the final form of our translation will, especially in the earlier books, be a great improvement on those portions. For. the workers themselves, I can certainly say the toil has been a source of spiritual profit and enlarged knowledge. But beyond this there has been a most clear and manifest gain in bringing thus to a common work missionaries of various societies, with differing tastes and convictions. The editorial superi11tendent of the Bible Society, at the

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BIBLE REVISION WORK IN MADAGASCAR. 215 beginning of the work, expressed the wish of our English friends in the following words : "That no difference of opinion or policy in other matters may hinder the harmonious proceeding of the present work. It is hard indeed for men to co-operate when they feel that there is a material difference between them ; but this Bible revision is a blessed opportunity for exhibiting to the island the unity of faith in the Scrip tures as the authoritative declaration of God's will." And now, as we near the close of our work and look back upon its progress, we see how fully this wish has been fulfilled. I may be allowed to quote here a few words from Bishop Kestell-Cornish's letter a few months since, informing me that he was about to leave the island, and could no longer join with us in the work. He says : "I think it may be said without irreverence that our work together has illustrated the tnith of the evangelical promise, that by The Voice the valleys shall be exalted, the hills brought low, the crooked made straight, and the rough places plain. And can we doubt that the result of onr work, in which, however, I have borne the humblest share, will be a wider revelation of the glory of the Lord?" WILLIAM E. COUSINS. APPENDIX. List of Members of the Revision Committee. Name. Society. !First attendance. Last do. Sittings attended. I. Rev. William E. Cousins ...... B. & F.B.S. July 2r. 73 771 2. " Robert Toy ............... L.M.S. July 2I. 73 Oct. 28. 78 156 3 " James Sibree ............... L.M.S. July II, 73 Mar. 7. 76 159 July 2r. 73 June 5. 74 4. .. George Cousins ............ L. M. S. Oct. 28. 78 Aug. 23. 82 244 5. " Henry Maundrell ......... C.M. S. Never attended --6. " Alfred Chi swell ............ S.P.G. Never attended --7. " Lars Dahle .................. N.M.S. July 2r. 73 507 8. ,, Martin Borgen ............ N.M.S. July 21. 73 Feb. 22. 82 376 9. Mr. Joseph S. Sewell ......... F.F.M.A. July 2I. 73 Dec. II, 74 96 10. Rev. R. T. Batchelor ............ S. P. G. May II. 74 Mar. 9 75 148 rr. ,, Benjamin Brigiss ......... L. M. S. Nov. r6. 74 Mar. 7 76 102 12. Mr. Louis Street .................. F.F.M.A. Feb. 2. 75 Mar. 7 76 74 13, Rev. Francis A. Gregory, M.A. S. P. G. June 22. 75 May 8. 79 85 14. Mr. Samuel ci~,;;~~............ F.F.M.A. Oct. 28. 78 Nov. 2. 81 136 15. Rev. CharlesJukes ... ::.::::::::: L.M.S. Nov. 14. 78 Aug. 2. 82 209 16. ,, Harry W. Grainge ...... L.M. S. Nov. q. 78 May 3 . .S2 2II 17. ., Alfred Smith ............... S. P. G. June 24. 79 Oct. 13. 80 84 18. Bishfr Kestell-Cornish, D.D. S. P. G. Aug. 10. 81 91 19. Mr. enry E. Clark ........... F.F.M.A. Nov. 23. 81 279 20. Rev. Richard Baron ............ L. M. S. July r9. 82 181 2I. " "William Montgomery .. L. M. S. Aug. r6. 82 215 22. " Thomas T. Matthews ... L. M. S. Jan. r7. 83 r72 N'OTE.-The date of issue of each division of the revised version of the Bible is given at p. 63 of Mr. Sibrce's Madagascar Bibliography.

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216 THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL. THE PERSONAL ARTICLE 'I' IN MALAGASY. THE Rev. W. E. Cousins says, on p. 58 of his Concise Introduction to the Study of the J11alagasy Language, that "variety of opinion has always existed as to the correct way of writing this prefix. With many words it is united, as in Ilafy. Ikotobe. Pere Weber gives three ways (Dz"c. Mal.-Fran., p. 329 ; Gram., p. z 17) :-( 1) Jl{y zdnak_y 1jod1y; (z) Ny zana/01 Joa1y; (3) Ny zanak' z'Joa1y; to these may be added a fourth: (4-) Ny zanall' Ijoa1y. This last seems the more correct." Four other ways of writing it may also be added: (S) Ny zanak' zJomy; (6) Ny zanak' IJoa1y; (7) Nyzanak' I Joaiy; and (8) Ny zanaky IJomy. Of these various ways, the second, which is the least correct of all, is the one now in use. I say "least correct," because the personal article, while it distinctly appears in Nos. 1, 3, 4-, 5, 6, 7, and 8, becomes in (z) identical with a form which expresses the possessive. But it is when the personal article is incorporated in the suffix -11)' (which is very frequently the case', that the greatest objection to it arises. Frequently it gives a meaning quite the contrary of what is intended. Take the sentence : "Nanao z'zai!J! z'zy, ka niteny tamz'1!J! Paoly nanao hoe." This, it is evident, may mean either: (a) "He die! that, and said to Paul," or, (b) "He did that, and Paul said to him." Sentences that have come up occasionally in the Bible Revision Committee have been altered simply to avoid confusion in this particular ; others, however, have escaped notice, thus I Chron. xx. 7 [ first revision~ runs thus : "Aiy nz'haz'ka ny lsz'raely z"zy, ka matin,y Jonatana, zanaky Sz'mea, ralzalahiny Davi da." Here it does not appear whether the lehz"lalzJ' vavent_y mentioned in the previous verse was killed by Jonathan, or Jonathan by the lelulahy vaventy. Again, in the first chapter of I Kings there are the two following passages: ver. 38, "Dia nzdina Zadoka mpzsorona...... , dza nampziaingina any Solomona ny ampondravaviny Davida mpanjaka." This, it is evident, may mean (a) that Zadok caused Solomon to ride on David's ass; or (b) that David caused Solomon to ride on his own (Solomon's) ass; or (c) that David caused Solomon to ride on David's ass. In verse 53 we have: "Ary avy z"zy, dia niankohoka teo anatrehany Solomona mpanjaka." This may mean either (a) that Adonijah bowed himself to Solomon; or (b) that Solomon bowed himself to Adonijah. Many more such passages of uncertain signification doubtless occur in the revised version of the Scriptures and in other publications. It may of course be said with truth that the meaning of the -ny in such passages as the above could in most cases be gathered from the context; but is not that in itself a proof that the words themselves are not a faithful transcript of the thought they are intended to convey? I have said above that the second form (Ny zanaky Joaiy) is the one now in use, but as a matter of fact even this is not consistently followed out. We see, for instance, novorz"n' Ilehzdama, and noz,oriilJ' Lehzdama. In the Report of the Annual Meeting of the Betsileo (L.M.S.) Mission for the year 1883, page 7, occurs the following sentence: "Indrisy ! fa mif amadi'ka amy ny nataony Jaona n)' nataon' Isoarojo."

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THE PERSONAL ARTICLE 'I' IN MALAGASY. 217 The only objection that has been raised agaimt the I or z' being written separately, or conjoined to its noun, is that it is somewhat derogatory to the person to whose name it is prefixed. Especially is it objected to when used before the names of God or Christ. But if the y of amz'ny in the sentence nankeo aminy l{raz'sty is meant to express the personal article, which it certainly is, what less objection can there be to .Y affixed to amz'n, than to I or z' prefixed to Krazs(v ? If it is not thought derogatory to utter the personal article in speech, it cannot be wrong to write it. Not only so, but the Eis by no means necessarily a derogatory prefix. We say Ikala and Ikoto, it is true; but we say of the Queen, Itompokovavy Ranavalona, and of the Prime Minister, In![al,y (which, by the by, is more honourable than Rangal,y). Then we have z'vadz'ko, z'dada, z'neny, etc. But even though occasionally derogatory or fami liar, it is not universally so. In such sentences as am'lany Krazsty there is nothing derogatory, and yet there is no doubt that the y of am'lany really represents the personal article I, then why not write it and avoid the ambiguity of the phrase ? The form of writing this personal article is of course a matter of taste. By having the z' or I separated from the noun, the name would stand unaltered, ,vhich would be an advantage. If it were employed only where we now have -~J' as the sign of the ablative or possessive and as the suffix of prepositions, as noka pohz'n' z' Tomasy; mpanompon' z' Petera , anz'lan' z' Paoly, it would be sufficient to avoid all the ambiguity which appears in nokapohz"ny Tomasy; mpanompony Petera , anz"lany Paoly. The following passage l r Kings ii. 30) illustrates the personal article in all the above forms :(r) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano-lainy i Jehovah ka nanao taminy i Joaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny mpanjaka in dray hoe : I zany no lazainy i J oaba. (2) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lainy Jehovah ka nanao taminy Joaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka; Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Henaia nitondra teny tany amy ny mpanjaka indrayhoe: !zany no lazainy Joaba. (3) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny tranolain' i Jehovah ka nanao tamin' i J oaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny mpanjaka indray hoe: !zany no lazain' i Joaba. (4) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lain' Ijehovah ka nanao tamin' Ijoaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary 11enaia nitondra teny tany amy ny mpanjaka indray hoe : !zany no lazain' Ijoaba. (S) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lain' iJehovah ka nanao tamin' iJoaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny mpanjaka indray hoe: !zany no lazain' iJoaba. (6) Ary Benaia tonga tao amy ny trano lain' I Jehovah ka nanao tamin' 1 .Joaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha, Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny mpanjaka indray hoe: !zany no lazain' I Joaba.

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218 THE PERSONAL ARTICLE 'I' IN MALAGASY. (7) Ary Benaia tonga tao arny ny trano-lainy I Jehovah ka nanao tarniny I Joaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany amy ny rnpanjaka in dray hoe : !zany no lazainy I J oaba. (8) Ary Benaia tonga tao arny ny trano-lain' IJ ehovah ka nanao tarn in' IJ oaba hoe: Izao no lazain' ny mpanjaka: Mivoaha. Fa hoy izy: Tsia, fa eto hiany aho no ho faty. Ary Benaia nitondra teny tany arny ny mpanjaka indray hoe: !zany no lazain' IJoaba. ' Personally I should prefer either the form (3) or ( 6 ), because in these the name stands apart, unchanged by the personal article ; the latter ( 6) is somewhat similar to our way of writing English names, as 'Mr.' Brown. At any rate, form ( 2 ), the one now in vogue, is the only one of the eight possible forms which disguises the personal article. R. BARON (ED.). SIKIDY AND VINTANA: HALF-HOURS WITH MALAGASY DIVINERS. (NO I.) WHAT is Sz'kidy? My Malagasy professor extraordinarius in this science gave a short and plain answer to this question, writing on the cover of his sz'kzdy collection, "Ny Bazbolzn' ny Razanay" ("The Bible of our Ancestors"), and I am inclined to think that he has hit the nail on the head. I at least, after having lived in this country continuously for 16 years, have come to the conclusion that this nation has been much more under the spell of Sz'kidy and Vintana than under that of the old z'dols. These latter have, according to tradition, been introduced here comparatively recently, and there is certainly a good deal that tends to prove the correctness of this tradition. At any rate they have by no means got such a widely-spread and deeply-rooted influence over the whole nation as have vintana and sikzdy. In many provinces even the most famous idols, as Kelimalaza and Ramahavaly, were comparatively very little known or cared for (Imerina was chiefly their domain); but who did not fear the vintana (fate) or trust in the sz'/ddy (divination)? If you want to look into the future, to detect secret enemies or dangers, to find out what is to be your lot of good or evil, the sikzdy is the means of doing it. And the best of it is, that it does not, like the Fates or Farces of old, mercilessly leave you to your destiny, but kindly undertakes to avert the dreaded evz'ls. If you are sick, the mpisikzdy (the person who understands and practices the sz'kzdy) does not at all-like many of our modern doctors-treat you 'tentatively,' which really means leaving you and nature to settle the matter between yourselves as best you can ; neither are they shallow-minded enough to treat the case merely 'symptomatically.' As diligent men, they set to work immediately, and as truly scientific doctors, they first try to find out the cause of the evil, and then the means of removing it. And if they can give you no other benefit in a desperate case, they will at least cheer up your spirits

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SIKIJJY AND VINTANA. 219 with a good assurance, generally terminating in a very emphatic phrase, to the effect that, "if you die, you shall be buried on the top of their head.'' And even if your spirit has actually left you, they do not give you up in despair, as I shall have occasion to point out in the following pages (cf. what is to be said about 'Fangaldn-keo'). I am, however, reluctantly forced to admit that I am not able entirely to exculpate my friends from the accusation that there is a slight tinge of medical heresy about them, inasmuch as their whole fdditra-system seems to rest upon the homceopathic principle, "Sinzz"Na sinu"lz'bus curantur ;" for the fadz"tra (i.e. the thing the mpz'sz'k1dy ordered to be thrown away to prevent or avert an evil) was generally something that in name, shape, or number, etc., was similar to the evil in question. E.g. if the siki'dy brought out 'maty roa' ( 'two deaths' , two locusts should be killed and thrown away to prevent the death of two men ; if it brought out 'mardry' ('sick'), a piece of the tree called hdzo mardry ('a sick tree') should be made a faditra; cf. also Malagasy Customs, by Rev. W. E. Cousins, p. 34. But this, however, I do n_ot intend to enter into any further here, as my object is only to point out what sz'kz'dy really is, and from whence it originated. The people had a remarkable trust i_n th_eir mpz'sikqy and their art ; this appears even in the names by which they called them. Here in Imerina and Betsileo it was. quite common to style them simply 'ny md sina' ('th~ holy ones'), a term which, however, did not so much imply sanctity as strength and superhuman power. In the provinces-especially in the south and west-they are generally called ambiasa (ambidty, ombidty, etc.), as they were called among the Antanosy at Fort Dauphin as early as the time of Flacourt ; and this term is, as I have shown else where,* the Arabic anbza, 'prophet." Sikidy (Arab. si'clzr, charm, incantation)t has generally been translated 'divination,' but it has a somewhat wider sense, as it includes both the investigation of what is secret, and the art of finding out the remedy for it, if it proves to be of such a nature that a remedy is required ; but the second depends on the first. As will be seen in the following pages, there are three kinds of sikz'dy \vhich are employed almost exclusively in finding out what is secret (Sz'kzdy mitovy tsdngana, Sikz'dy tolwna, and Loji-ts1'kidy), while the other kinds have more to do with remedying the evils. The first class, however, forms the sikzdy par excellence, manipulated according to a rather intricate system ; the second class depends upon it and seems to be of a somewhat more arbitrary character. * ANNUAL II., p. 87 (Reprint, p. 2r5). t An anecdote will illustrate how much tempted the natives still are to trust the silddy, or at least to think that some supernatural forces are at work in it. When my friend the Rev. Mr. Vig at Slrabe-who has collected most of the information I have had from natives about the sik_idy-was employing an elderly man as his informant, this man was rather unwilling to enter into the subject, saymg that it was a dangerous affair. And as Mr. Vig was shortly after this attacked by robbers and had a narrow escape, he declined to continue, exclaiming: "Did I not tell you that something would happen. The Devil is in it!" But a vounger tnan, who had first frequented the •High School for Sikid/ at Ambatofinandriihana and then aftetwatds got a fair education with us, was less supentitious, and it was from him that both. Mt, Vig and I got most of our information,

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220 SIKIDY AND VINTANA. The sz"kz"dy rests on the vz'ntana as its basis, and it is therefore impos sible to treat of the former without to some extent dealinowith the I:> . latter also. The vz'ntana (Arab. evz'nat, times, seasons) means ori-ginally 'times,' and then the 'destiny' of a man, as depending on the times, i.e. either the destiny of a man's life 'his vz'ntana), as depending on the time of his birth, or the fitness ( or the reverse) of certain times for certain actions (e.g. a burial). The first one was the vz'ntana proper, the second one was more accurately styled San-dndro (literally, 'the hours of the day' (Arab. sa'a or se'a, hour. but also used in a wider sense of any moment in the present time), a term that will explain itself more fully in the course of this article. l3ut the supposed influence of the different times on the destiny of men depends again on the celestial bodies governing them. Therefore the vintana in its turn rests on astrology. The different days and months are each made to be connected with different constellations. And, as I have shown in former articles in this magazine, it is chiefly the 12 Signs of the Zodiac and the 28 'Moon-stations' (Manaz1'!-ul-kamarz') on which the Malagasy ( originally Arabic) chronology and astrology depends, the former being applied to the months (ANNUAL II., p. 77-82 ), the latter to the days of the month (ANNUAL III., p. 131 ). When I add to this the seven planets of the ancients (i.e. including the sun and the moon, but excluding the earth and, of course, also the more distant planets, which were not then known at all), which play an important part in the san-andro, as will appear later on,-I have, I believe, enumerated all the astronomical elements in the Malagasy astrology and divination. It would evidently seem to have been the most logical manner of treating the subject, first to have explained the astrology which is at the foundation of the vz'ntana-doctrine, and then to have passed on to the sz'kidy, which is chiefly to be considered as the practical outcome of it. But against this proceeding I would object:. 1) That the theoretical connection between the three things (astrology, vz'ntana and sz'kzd_y) has already been lost sight of by the natives, and can in some respects scarcely be traced with certainty in details. What is left is a terminology in sikzdy and vz'ntana which evidently has been to some extent borrowed from astrology ; while, on the other hand, the mpisz'k1'dy here had no idea themselves either of the nature of that astrology, or of its connection with their art of divination; in other words, the 'art' is still there, but the 'science' on which it was based L gone, and the original corinection between the two can only partially be traced by means of the terminology. ( z) That the mpz'sz'k1dy also had a good deal to do outside the domain of astrology and vz'ntana, for they had not only to find out and, if neces sary, counteract the influences of nature, but also those of bad spirits or bad men (111pd11wsdvJ', sorcerers, from nwsdvy, sorcery, evidently the Arab. meseya and mesavz', an evil deed, from sa'a, to do evil, akz'nta s/iaa, to look upon one with an evil [invidious] eye). After these preliminary remarks on the basis and object of sz'kzdy, I shall proceed to explain the 'art of sz'Jai(v' under the following headings : ( r) The Awakening of the Sz'kz'dy , (2) The Sixteen Figures of the Sikti& i

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S!KIDY AND VINTANA. 221 (3) The Sixteen Rubrics of the Sz"kz'dy; (4) The Erecting of the Sz"kz"dy (placing the figures in the rubrics); (5) The Working of the Szla'dy: (a) The Sz'kz'dy of Identical figures ; (b) The Sz'kz'dy of Different figures ; (c) The Sz'kz'dy of Combined figures; ( 6) Miscellaneous Szlddy; ( 7) Vintana and San' andro. I.--THE AWAKENING OF THE SrKIDY ('Fohan-tSz'kz'dy'). The sz'ki"dJ1 was generally manipulated with grains of sand, or beans, or certain seecls, especially those of the Fdno tree (Pzptadenz"a chiysostachJ1s, Bth. ). When the mpzsz'kzdy had placed a heap of these seeds or beans, etc., before him and was about to perform, he inaugurated his proceedings with a solemn invocation, calling upon God to awaken nature and men, that these might awaken the sz'kzdy to tell the truth. The following is the formula used, as obt;:iined from my native informant:-"Awake, 0 God, to awaken the sun! Awake, 0 sun, to awaken the cock! Awake, 0 cock, to awaken mankind! (6lombelona.) Awake, 0 mankind, to awaken the si'kzdy,-not to tell lies, not to deceive, not to play tricks, not to talk nonsense (mi'redz'redy), not to agree to everything indiscriminately (hanai'ky be); but to search into the secret, to look into what is beyond the hills and on the other side of the forest, to see what no human eye can see. "\Vake up, for thou art from Sz'lamo be v6lo (i.e. the 'long haired Mohammedans'), from the high mountains, from Raboroboaka, Tapelaketsiketsika, Zafitsimaito, Andriambavit6alahy, Rakelihoranana, lanakara, Anddanoni solanatra, Vazfmba, Anakandrfananahitra, Rakelilavavolo. Awake! for we have not got thee for nothing, for thou art dear and expensive. We have got (literally, 'hired,' sarana) thee in exchange for a fat cow (tamanany;• a provincial word for a fat cow, is no doubt the Arab. saman, fatness =Heb. shemen) with a large hump, and for money on which there was no dust. Awake! for thou art the trust of the sovereign and the judgment of the people. If thou art a sikzdy that can tell, a sikzdy that can see, and docs not (only) speak about the noise of the people, the hen killed by its owner, the cattle killed in the market, the dust clinging to the feet (i.e. self evid,:nt things), awake here on the mat! "But if thou art a sikzdy that does not see, a sikzdy that agrees to everything indiscriminately, and makes the dead living and the living dead, then do not arise here on the mat." This solemn invocation being finished, the diviner begins to 'work the szladji,' Before explaining the mode of working it, I must give the 16 figures of the .szla"dy, which must be known before the working of it can be understood. But before so doing, I will offer a few remarks on the preceding invocation. It is evident that the sz"kz"d_y was looked upon as the special means used by God for making known His will to men ; and it is at the same time characteristic enough that it was thought necessary to 'awaken' God (see the same idea in J Kings xviii. 27). In the long list of persons through whom the.people here have got the sz"kz"d_y, are the Silamo (Moh~mmeclans [from 'Islam'], and then chiefly Arabs, who are also callee\ Aardn_y, 'readers,' i.e. those who read the I(oran); ancl it agrees well with this, that Arabic words occur even in this exorc\ium ( e.g. la111an,111)' and also sarana (=Arab. ajara, to hire; same root as sdra in sdmn-11__!:':!-_~a, fare)_,_ and stil~ more in the terminology I am about to give and ?<" Not simply 'a cow,' as stated in the Dictionary.

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222 SIKIDY AND VINTANA. explain in the following pages. Most of the names in the list above, giving the 'a1Jthorities' from whom the Malagasy have received the sz"kz"dy, are rather obscure. The Anakandriananahitra is, I presume, the same mythical personage who is elsewhere called simply Ranakandr!ana (or Anakandrfana), a ghost that used to haunt some famous caves in lmerina (e.g. one at Fandana, to the east of Amb6himanambola), and from whom, according to .. one tradition at least, both the sz"kz"dy and the sampy (idols) originated. When also the Vazimba are mentioned, I suppose it is because the diviners were anxious to have the sz7ddy connected with everything that was mysterious and pointed back to the mythical days of old ; but it may also be that the Vazimba really were the people who first received the sz"kzdy from the Arabs, and that the other tribes in their turn got it from -the Vazimba. One of the names at least (An driambavitoalahy) occurs in the old tale of 'lbonla,'% in the life of whose hero the szlddy plays a very prominent part. I may add that individual mpz"sz"kz"dy of any reputation seem each to have had their own form of address to the sz"kz"dy before working it, or at least they took the liberty of making considerable variations in the wording of it, although its general bearing seems to have been very much the same. II.--THE 16 FIGURES OF THE SIKIDY ('Ny Sz"kz"dy 16 Anarana'). Having finished his address, the diviner began to work the sz"kzdy (liter ally, 'raise it up,' nzandngan--tsz"kidy), taking beans or fano seeds, etc., and arranging them on the floor (on a mat) according to rules we shall explain presently. These beans or seeds we must represent by dots. They were the following : -Hova. 1. ; ; Jama (or Zoma) 2. ,, Alahizany 3. :': As6ralahy Sakalava. Asombola Aliza.ha As6ralahy 4 .. '. Votsira (=Vontsira) .... , ... , . Karija 5. ! Taraiky ............. , .. _ ..... Taraiky 6. . ;" Saka . _ .. . .. . . . Alakaosy 7. :,: Asoravavy ................. .. 8. :_: Alildsy ... _ ................ . 9. : < Aditsima ( Aditsimay) ......... . 10. ; Kizo Adabara Alikisy Alatsimay Alakarabo 11. -: Adikasajy . . . . Betsiv6ngo 12. ::: Vanda mitsangana (=Mikarija) Ada.lo 13. ::: Vanda miondrika (=Molahidy) Alahotsy 14. ::: Alokola.. Alikola 15. ;; Alaimora 16. :-: Adibijady .............. . Alihimora Alabiavo Arabs of E.Co. of Africa, Asombola Alahoty Alasady Tabaty horojy Asaratany Tabadahila Afaoro Alijady Alizaoza Alakarabo Adizony(=Adimizany ?) Alahamaly Alakaosy Adalo (?) Alihimora Bihiava ----------------~---------------* See my Specimens of Malagasy Folk-lore, p. 125.

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SIKIDY AND VINTANA. The names in the first row are those that were in use in the interior. The order in which they are given by the different authorities differ to some extent; but as nothing depends upon the order, I have followed the one that seems most systematic, commencing with the fullest form ( : J ), and taking away one bean ( dot) for each figure until only four are left c / ), and then adding one again to each, by which proceeding we get the first eight figures. The next eight are formed by placing twos and ones in various combinations. The theory of the whole is evidently that not more than eight beans can be used in any figure, and that all of them must contain four in length, while there may be two or one in breadth. It follows of course that only 16 figures or different combinations are possible. The names in the second and third rows I obtained from an Arab trader, who has spent most of his life in East Africa and on the west coast of Madagascar. As he left Arabia when only twelve years old, he could give me no information with regard to the practice of sz7u'dy in his native country ; neither did he seem to feel quite certain as to the correctness of all the .information he gave. I have added a query to the names with regard to which he seemed to hesitate most. Flacourt* gives us a list of 1 6 'Figures des Geomance,' as in use among the tribes in the vicinity of Fort Dauphin more than two hundred years ago. He does not, however, really give the very figures, but only their names, to which he adds a Latin translation, viz. :-Alohotsi, acquzsitz"o. Alacarabo, jnter. Adalou, amzsszo. Alicozaza, Alimiza, puella. Alihiza, lcetz"Na. Adabara, mafor .fortuna. Alinchissa, trzs##a. Alaazadi, mz'nor .fortuna. Alacossi, caput draconis. Assomboulo, populus. Cariza, cauda draconzs. Tareche, vza. Alohomore, albus. Alissima, confunc#o. Alibiauou, rztbeus. Alocola, career. He adds that "all these figures have the same meaning and power as are attributed to them by the authors of Europe." As it would almost amount to an insult to my readers to suppose that any of them are ignorant of what "the authors of Europe" teach with regard to geomancy, I shall of course abstain from commenting upon this very conclusive information! We can see at a glance that many of his names are identical with those used in the interior: Alihiza, Alacossi (=Alikisy ?), Alohomore, Tareche, Alissima ( =Aditsima.), and Alocola; while others can be identified with those in the znd and 3rd rows on the oppopite page, as Alahotsy, Adalou, Alakarabo, Adabara, Assombola, Cariza, Alaa zadi ( =Alijady), Alabiauou ( =Alabiavo and Bihiava), and Alimiza ( =Adimizany ?). Only two remain, Alinchissa and Alicozaza, which last, how ever, has another name ( Alimiza), the identification of which seems a little doubtful ; but I think Alinchissa is=Al-kizo, and Alicozaza= Adikosajy. If so, all of them are identified. Flacourt is quite \!,Ware that the ompz'szquz'lz' (mpz'sz'kz'd_y) had their wisdom from the Arabs, as he states that they were very clever in writing * Histofre de la Grande Isle Madagascar; Pads: r66r; p. r73.

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SIKIDY AND VINTANA. with Arabic characters, and adds that they used to learn also a good deal of the language together with the characters, and frequently wrote chapters of the Koran on the books they made use of in their art. He even gives us a complete list of ecclesiastical orders of the ombz'asy, with Arabic names, but amusingly mistranslated ; caHbon, for instance, he says means a bishop ; it is of course the Arabic ketab, a clerk, a writer. And the translations he adds to the 1 6 names of sikz'dy figures quoted above is not much better; Tareche (Arab. tariq, way), however, he translates correctly. As a good many of these names are exactly the same as those of the Malagasy months, which Flacourt on the very same page correctly identifies with the names of the constellations in the Zodiac, it is the more strange that this should have escaped his notice, and that he should have mistranslated them as he does (Alahotsy is:;::Pisces ; Adalou is=Aquarius ; Alaazadi is=Capricornus ; Alacossi is =Sagittarius; Alacarabo is=Scorpio; Alimiza is .:Libra; and Assombola is= Virgo). As to the others, there was nothing to guide him, since he did not know Arabic And even if he had known it, he might have felt greatly embarassed when dealing with words which have undergone such changes that their origin can scarcely be traced, and have besides often through usage acquired a meaning with regard to which their etymology is no guide. It is easy enough to see that Alohomoi-e does not mean 'white,' as Flacourt gives it; its sound points to al-ahamar, the 'red one ;' but I have a suspicion that it is a corruption of Alahamady (Aries in the Zodiac, used as the name of a month here in the interior), and written Alahemali in Flacourt (d and l easily interchange in Mala gaso), a form that might easily become Alohomore, as l and r are fre quently interchanged in Malayo-Polynesian languages. I do not, how ever, intend to enter more fully into the question of the meaning of all the names given by Flacourt; I have. mentioned this only by way of illustration. On the whole, I believe that nearly all the names he has given refer to the heavenly bodies. As to many of them, I have already pointed out that they refer to the constellations of the Zodiac. Adabara is beyond doubt the first moon-station in the month Adaoro (Ad-daharanu; see ANNUAL III., p. 1311 ; Alocola seems to be=Alikili, the third moonstation in Adimizana (Libra), and Alissima=Assimaka, the second moonstation in Asombola. The remaining five (Alihiza, Alinchissa, Ceriza, Alibiauou, Tareche) I am unable to identify with any star or constellation. Returning to the 16 names in use in the interior, we see at a glance that they differ greatly both from those in use on the west coast and those given by Flacourt. Some are partly Malagasy, whilst most of them are entirely Arabic. I shall take them in order and offer a few remarks on each:-1. '_Jama is evidently the Arabic fenza, union, i.e. the figure in which all the beans (8) that can possibly occur in any of these figures are united. In the others only 4 to 7 occur. The Arabic rootfama, to unite, to congregate, is the same as in Zoma (Friday, literally, 'congregation,' i.e. day of congregiltion). In Flacourt, as well as on the west eoast and among the Arabs . ?), this hgure is called Asombola (Virgo). The name '.Jama evidently only refers to the shape of the figure, entirely disregardmg the astrology which is at the root of it.

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SJKIDY' AND VINTANA. 2. Alahz'zany, Flacourt, Alahiza. In Arabic al-ahzanu means etymologically 'grief.' But what astronomical meaning it may have besides this, I cannot tell. 3. Asoralahy is very obscure. Its first part, Asora, seems to be the Arabic as-sahr, the month, a root which occurs in many other Malagasy month-names, especially in the provinces. In lmerina we have Asaramanitra (the •fra~rant month') for the Fandroana month. In the provinces we have Asaramanara, Asaramanitsa, Asarabe, etc. But whether the last part of the word is the Malagasy lahy (masculine) or not, I dare not say. 4. Asoravavy I take next because of the apparent similarity of its etymology. although this is not always its place in the sikz'dy arrangement. Asora is 'month,' and vavy, if Malagasy, would mean feminine, 'the feminine month,' ar. the former would be 'the masculine' one. 5. Votsz"ra or Vontszra, which the Sakalava call Kari/a, and the Arabs in East Africa, Tabaty horofy, is probably the Carzza of Flacourt. This last word is perhaps a synonym to Alahamady, for karaz or kuraza in Arabic (Syr. koaizo) means a ram, especially the one that carries the bell and leads the way; for Aries (al-hamalu [=Alahamady], the wether) was by the ancients considered the leader of all the animals in the Zodiac. 6. Taraiky is at any rate the Arabic tariq, way. But what astronomical meaning it may have besides, I cannot tell. 7. Saka is also the provincial name for a month, and I believe it is a synonym for Adalo, which as an astronomical term means the Aquarius of the Zodiac, and then the IIth month of the Malagasy year, Adalo (Arab. ad-dalvu) properly means a water-bucket, and then, as an astronomical term, Aquarius. Saka is a popular name for a water-carrier, and when the Malagasy put Saka for Adalo, they only did what we do when we speak of 'the Great Bear' instead of {lrsa ma.for. ilve have the same root in the verb mantsaka (the root of which is saka, not tsaka, as given in the Dictionary), to draw water. 8. Aliki'sy is, I think, the same as Alakaosy (Sagittarius of the Zodiac, and name of the gth month). 9. Adz"tsima (Aditsimay) the Malagasy evidently understood to mean 'a battle that does not burn.' I suspect it to be a corruption (with transposition) of Adimizany (Libra in the Zodiac, and the 7th month). It might, however, be=As-simak, a synonym to Alohotsy=Pisces. 10. ICzzo I cannot explain at all. 1 r. Adikasafy is equally obscure. 12. Vanda mzlsangana (=Mikari.fa) ;and 13. Vanda mzondrika ( =Molalzz'dy). That mitsang-ana means 'standing,' and mzondrika, 'bowing,' everybody knows; but what Vanda is, I cannot tell. Mikarifa may be the Arabic mikrez, an awl. Molahz'dy looks very like the Arabic malahadu, thrusting, beating, affliction; but it might as well be a corruption of the Arabic molz'd, nativity. 14 Alokola, which the natives sometimes turn into alok' ~Zona ('shade of a man'), seems to be the Arabic Alzkilu, the 17th of the moon statiolls (the 3rd one in Adimizana). 15. Alaimora; according to Malagasy etymology this would mean, 'taken gently.' But as the older form given by Flacourt is 'Alohomore,' and as some of the natives here say 'Alahamora,' I feel sure that the lz is original, and that the word is an Arabic one. It looks like the Arabic al-ahnzaru, which does not, however, as Flacourt thinks, mean whz"te, but red. But I do not at all feel sure that it is not, after all, only a corruption of Alahamady, as I have already hinted at in another place. 16. Adzoifady seems to be a curious composition, or rather, juxtaposition,

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226 SIKIDY AND VINTANA. of two Arabic names for 'goat.' <_Jady means 'goat' and Capricornus, and, with the article and a little corruption, this gives us Adijady (a Malagasy month-name). Adz'bz'. appears to be the Arabic ath-thabz', the goat. Probably both of them have been used promiscuously for Capricornus, and then were joined into one word. IIL-THE 16 RUBRICS OF THE SIKIDY ('Ny Sz'/ddy 16 Reny,' 'The 16 mothers of sikziiy' '. To the 16 figures of the sz'kz'dy correspond the 16 rubrics,i:, or places in the arrangement of the sz'/ud)', one being placed in each rubric, not, however, that all of the figures must necessarily occur. More rubrics may perchance get the same figure, as this depends only on hap-hazard. If we arrange the rubrics in the manner usual in the practice of szkziiy, we get the following table :-">; 40 0 r..~ f-< 4.0<; 0 Zatovo Marina ,!>-;)',!>~ -Yo!> '0 • • Vehivavy ~-r.~0 -------<>''?,:. "9 • • Faba-ls"' .r~ .~"--"""":--..,...-----.--;---;--....,-v_aJ_o-:.f..;,/" -euoraA lu ,"!"!•.L • Zatovo an-trano hafa -elf!IV I • • .. • • Marina do. __ , __ -----------As~-eJp-uoro _• -1--___:_:_ _:_:___ __:_:__ _•_ -_:_:___ Vehivavy do. zo101o}I • • \ • • Firiariavana do. ~<.';~~ II~ II > o.> I:"' ..., 4~ ::, 'd "' ... '.,.,$:;',.,0::-:,0 :::!.~ ;;;;--" 004 s ~:,-Q. " ::, ~ !I 'd ::, Z ::i. " ... ::, ::, 0 ..,.,1: ,l ::; u, " ::, 0 0 " (>~ ]:;;' s II g-::, i::\ "''< ;;.: " .;-\!'",;. .s. ;;; ::, ... '< ::, ,,_ \! '.:'.:.. ~II '< " ::, " ..::..~ It will be seen at a glance, however, that we have got more than 16 names here, although the rubrics are really not more than 12, corresponding, I believe, to the 12 Signs of the Zodiac. If a skilful diviner is asked for 'Ny sz'kzi{JJ 16 re~JJ', he will only enumerate the four names given in the first row ( Tale -Vohz'tra), the four to the right of it (Zat6vo-Fahavalo), and the eight below ( Trano-Fahasiz:_y), giving us the 16 complete. * What Mr. Dahle here terms 'rubrics' arc given in former books and in the Dictionary as 'columns' of the sikidy.-EDS,

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SIKI.DY AN.D VINTANA. The others seem to be considered as accessory and of secondary importance. Some of them are simply repetitions, with this only difference, that they refer to things in another man's house, not in that of the inquirer for whom the si'kzdy operation in question is undertaken. Others are placed to the left side of the lower square and at its two corners. As I have thought best to give the native names of the rubrics above, I shall now enumerate and translate them, adding an explanatory note to some of them. r. Tale. This word is not Malagasy. I have no doubt that it is Arabic, although the explanation may be doubtful, as there are many possibilities with regard to its derivation : In Arabic tala means 'to ascend,' and in the 3rd conjugation (tcila), to make a thing ascend from the abyss of darkness and obscurity into light, to investigate, to explore, to enquire into; from whence we get the noun talia, explorer, inve,tigator, which corresponds exactly with what the Tale in sz'kz'dy really is, as it always represents the person or thing concerning whom (or which) the enquiry is made. But I admit that other derivations from the same root (as tulz'a, good fortune, horoscope, etc.) might be suggested. 2. Harena," property, is a Malagasy word ; and so is 3. Fahatelo, the third one. My native informant says that Fahatelo here represents the relations of the Tale, the one for whom the enquiry is made. 4. V6hz'tra, town, village, is Malagasy too. These four all represent the person or thing concerned in the sz'ki'dy. If the thing in question is of such a nature that it can fairly be considered as falling under the headings 'property,' 'relatiqns,' or 'village,' one of these rubrics is chosen to represent it; but if it is a person (not a slave, for his position is under the 'property'); or, upon the 'Yho\e, anything th;it cannot be group~d under any of these three headings, it comes under Tale. 5. Zat6vo, a _vouth, a young person, is Malagasy. 6. Marzna (or marzny), a slave. This word is an etymological puzzle; it is at any rate neither Malayan nor African. The Arabs generally use abz'd (the provincial Malagasy abz'ly) for a slave; I cannot but thihk that marz'na must be the Arabic maruna (plur, of marun), 'men,' especially with the idea of 'strength.' It was probably used by the Arab slave-traders as a term by which they recommended their slaves as strong masculine fellows. In this manner it may have been introduced amongst the coast tribes, who have no other slaves than those they have bought from the Araqs. Here in the interior the word is only used as a technical term in the sz'kz'dy, and was most likely introduced here through the medium of the inhabitants of the coasts. 7 Vehz'vavy, woman, is Malagasy; and so also is 8. Fahavalo, enemy. In the repetition of the same terms (only referring them to another house), the diviners use Fz'riarzavana in its place, and in a similar sense. This latter is not a Malagasy word at all; I believe it to be the_ Arabicfiraru, the running away fro,n, or escaping, an enemy, and then, 111 general, to move, walk. run. 9. Trano, house, ' 10. Lalana, way, road, !_ all Malagasy. I I. Mpanontany, an 'inquirer, , 12 .. As6rotany is to all appearance like the name of C:rncer in the Zodiac; but still I should doubt whether it is the same word. The natives often put !1,ndr)':'na (nobleman, or king) instead, and sometimes Razana (ancestors) as its equivalent, which makes me think that As sultani'(Arabic for sovereign, emperor, sultan) is the original form, and that it h~s beFn changed uncon-

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S!K/DY AND VINTANA. sciously into Asorotany to make it like the word the Malagasy already knew • as the name of a month. 13. Andriamam'tra, God, is Malagasy. 14. Nz'a ; not a Malagasy word at all. There is probably a root nz'a in Malagasy in the sense of error (verb mania, to wander about, then, to err, -generally referred to a root sz'a, because the reduplicated form is manzasfa, while neither m'a or sz'a are in use except as root of this verb; but as nz'a in Melanesian means error, sin, I think ni'a is the true root, and the s an inserted consonant of dissimilation), and also an introduced Arabic one meaning intention (Arab. ni'ya=intenti'o, proposi'tum ani'nd) ; but none of these seems to correspond to the ni'a in the sikidy. Foi this last one the diviners sometimes put Hanina (food), evidently regarding this as is equiva lent. This puts us on the track. It seems to be the Arabic ni ( or niun, with the 'Tanwin' ), which means meat, especially underdone meat (caro semi"cocta). The reason why this rather strange term should be used, I cannot tell. Perhaps there is something at the bottom of the sikz'dy theory that justifies it. 15. The two remaining ones are Malagasy, viz. Masina, the holy one, is a general epithet applied to the mpi'sz'kz'dy, and here it stands for his name. r6. Fahasfvy, the ninth, for which term sometimes rano (water) is substituted. This I cannot explain to my satisfaction. Fahasz'vy is sometimes used in the figurative sense of 'the departed,' 'the spirits of the dead ; ' but what has that to do with rano in the sense of 'water' ? If we could suppose rano to be only a corruption of the Arabic runna (jojulus, homz'nes), or of rana (spectaculum) in the sense of an apparition, it would at any rate give us a better equivalent for Fahasz'vy in the sense of 'the departed ones,' but this is, I confess, only a guess. The remaining names not included in the 1 6 seem to be Malagasy (cf., however, kororosy). They are the following:-I. Biby ratsy (=Kary), a bad animal (=a tabby cat). 2. Tsi-nahy (=vz'na ho avy, my native informant says is the unexpected, the future ; vz'na is the Arabic evina [evinat], pl. of en, evan, time, season, probably the same word as vz'ntana). 3. K6ror6sy; if this is a Malagasy word, it means sliding, gliding; but I doubt it. Perhaps it is the Cariza of Flacourt. 4. Olon-dratsy, bad men. 5. Alzka, a dog. 6. Tsznin' ny velona, the blame of the living. 7. Tsfnin' ny maty, the blame of the dead. 8. Ra be mandrzaka, much bloodshed, 9. Osy, a goat. ID, Ondry, a sheep. II. Akoho, a hen. 12. V6romb6ahazo, the name of a bird, but what kind I cannot tell. 13. Tsi-ifa, what is not done or finished. 14. Mamo-hifa probably stands for mamo-efa (?), tired of doing (?), or, rather, tired of what is done(?). To these remarks on the names of the rubrics, I must add a few hints as to the manner of reading (examining) the figures put into them, viz.:-I. The four first ones (Tale= Volzz"fra) and the eight below (Trano= Fahasivy) are to be read from above downwards (vertically). 2. The eight to the right (Zatovo=-Fahavalo, repeated twice) are to l)e read from right to left (horizontally).

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SJKIDY AND VINTANA. 3. The four to the left ( Kororosy= Tsinin' ny velona) are to be read from left to right (horizontally). 4. Those at the two corners to the left are read in a peculiar manner, viz.: (a) Two of them (Tsi-nahy and Tsinin' ny maty) are read in a straight line (a diagonal) from one corner to the opposite one. (b) The other two ( Biby ratsy and Ra mandrz'aka) are to be read in curved lines, each of them taking in two of the middle squares of the larger square to which they belong and terminating respectively at the two ends of the rubric Andrz'a manz'tra, each of them on the same side on which they commenced. 5. Two (Ondry and Akoho) of those on the two upper corners of the uppermost square are to be read from the corner where the name is placed to the opposite corner below (in a diagonal, Just as in No. 4, a). The same is the case with the two other corner figures, Tsz'. efa and Mamohe/a, only that the last one is read from below to the opposite corner above. 6. The two other corner figures above, Ondry and Voromboahazo, are to be read in the manner described under No. 4, b. IV.-THE ERECTING OF TH~ SrKIDY ('Fdnangdnan-tSikidy,' i.e. the placing of the figures in the rubrics). In the diagram at the beginning of the preceding section I have filled all the rubrics with figures as a veritable mpisikidy would do, only that I have used dots to represent his beans or seeds. I shall now try to give the rules for this 'erecting of the sikidy.' 1. The first four rubrics (Tale-Vohz'tra) are filled with figures in the following manner. From the heap of beans before him the mpi'sikidy takes a handful at random, and from this handful he takes out two and two till he has either two or one left. If two are left, he puts two beans, if one, one bean into the first (upper) square of Tale. In the same manner . he fills the remaining three, and then proceeds to fill Harena, Fahatelo, and Vohzlra, square by square, from above downwards. 2. When these four rubrics-all representing the person or thing regarding whom or which the sz'kziiy is made-are filled in the manner described, the remaining eight are filled by a combination of these, or of others that have already been filled by a combination of these. This is done in such a manner that two figures are chosen and compared square by square from above downwards. If this combination gives dissimilar numbers (i.e., if one of the two combined squares has one bean, and the other two), only one bean is put in the corresponding square of the new figure to be formed; but if it gives similar numbers li,e. if the two combined squares both contain one, or both two beans), two beans are put into it. 3. These combinations are subjected to the following rules:-(a) Tale and Harena (i.e. a combination of the two in the manner described) form (mamoaka) Lalana. (b) .Falzatelo and Volulra form Asorotany. (c) Ldlana and Asorotany form Mjanontany. (.d) Zatovo and JM'arzna form Nz'a. (e) Vehivavy and Fahavalo form Fahasivy. (f) Nz'a and Fahasivy form Masina, (g-) .iv.lasina and JM'janontany form A ndriamanz'tra, (h) Andro and ]'ale form Trano.

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SIKIDY AND VINTAiVA. A gl.l.nce at the diagram I have given will show that all the eight figures below have actually been formed according to these rules. If we, for instance, compare Tale and Harena, from which Lalana is to be formed, we get dissimilar numbers all the way, as all the pairs of squares have one and two, and consequently Lalana gets only one bean in all its squares. Exactly the same procedure-mutatzs mutandzs-takes place in the filling in of the remaining seven rubrics below. V.-THE WORKING OF THE SrKIDY. When the sikz'dy is erected in the manner described above, the question arises: What is to be done with it ? How to work it so as to get an answer to your questions, a medkine for your sickness, or a charm against the evils of which you may be appre hensive, etc. ? Let me remark at the outset, that the sz'Ju'dy properly deals with questions put to it. To answer these is its proper function. But if you ask what is the root of an evil, or the means of removing or averting it, etc., the answer will of course point out to you the cure of your. evils as well, and so far, appear as ars medz"ca. There are, however, kinds of sz7u"dy in which no question is put, but the remedy or prophylactic against the evil is proposed at once. But as these are rather different from an ordinary szhz'dy-process, I shall treat of them in a separate section. What concerns us now is, the ordinaty sikidy, the business of which is to give us answers to our questions. The first thing we have to examine, after having 'erected the sikidy' is, what figure we have got in the rubric Andriamanitra ,for out of the I 6 figures, there are only 8 ( Jama, TaraikJ1, Vanda mitsangana, Vanda miondrzha, Alokola, Adz'tsima, Asoralahy, Asoravavy) that 'agree' with An drieunanitra. These are called the 'Nobles' or 'Kings' of the sz"kz'dy ('An drz'an' ny szhz'dy'), whereas the remaining 8 are called the 'Slaves' of the sikz'dy ('Andevon-tsikzii.y'). If you happen to get any of the latter in the said rubric, the sikz'dy is said to be 'folaka' (literally 'tamed,' i.e. invalid), and you have to destroy the whole and begin anew; for your szhdy has not done the proper honour to Andriamanitra (putting a slave in His rubric) and consequently cannot be expected to tell you the truth in His name. The saying of the d.iviners that only 8 of the 16 figures agree with, or are applicable to, God ('mety ho amin' Andn'amanitra') has been curiously misunderstood (for instance, by Mr. Ellis in his History of Madagascar, vol. I., p. 4-4-3) as meaning, that it never happened that any other figure got into the rubric Andrz'amanz'tra. When this point is successfully overcome, the .next business is to choose one of the four first rubrics ( TaleVohz'tra) to represent the question, or, rather, the person or thing it refers to. As Tale is to represent everything that cannot be put under the headings 'property,' 'relations,' or 'village,' the choice cannot be very puzzling; and I suppose the mpzsi kzay, as a rule, settles this question in his own mind before entering upon his work; but he is not obliged to settle it before coming to the point in the operation at which we have now arrived. This being settled, the proceedings branch out into the follo1Ving parts : -A. The Sikidy of Identical Figures-; B. The S1hz'dy of Dif[erent (Unique) Figures; and C. The Si/11ii;_y of Combine,! Figure8,

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SIKIDY AND VINTANA. 231 A.-The Si'lu'dy of Identz"cal Figures ('Sikidy mitovy tsangana'). Having settled what rubric is to represent the question, the next thing is to examine which of the r 6 figures has got into the rubric representing it. This being found, we go on examining all the other figures except the remaining three available for representing the question (for these have nothing to do with the answer J, that is to say, those on the right side, those on the left, and those on the two corners to the left ( cf. what has been said about the manner of reading them). If we, thus examining them, find that any of them is like the one representing the question, this may or may not settle the question, or, in other words, give us the answer. This depends on the nature of (name of) the rubric in which it is found. If I expect a ship and am going to enquire about its coming by means of the sikzdy, the rubric Harena (property) is of course to represent it. If in this rubric I find, for instance, the figure Jama (_ j 1 ), and on further. examination find the same figure in the rubric Andro, this gives me no answer, as there is no natural con nection between the two conceptions. If, on the contrary, I find the same figure in the rubric marked Ldlana, then of course I know that the ship is at any rate already on the way. I have then got an answer to the chief question ; but there may still be good reason for a sharp look-out, for there may be difficulties in its. way. Suppose that I also find the same figure in the rubric marked Fahavalo (enemy), my mind will immediately be filled with gloomy apprehensions of pirates. Not a bit more cheerful will be my prospects, if I find the same figure under Ra be mandrz'aka (much bloodshed). But what a consolation, on the other hand, if the same figure reappears under the rubric Nia (food); for then I must certainly be a blockhead if I do not understand that, although the ship may have a long voyage, there is no fear of scarcity of food on board; and so on. It is easy enough to see that a man with much practice and a good deal of imagination could produce much 'information' in this manner; and I suppose that in a good many cases the mpisz'ki"dy were able to find an answer already in this first act of their proceedings, even if the means of finding it might seem scanty enough to ordinary mortals. But the operations do not end here ; for, quite apart from the identity of the figure representing the question with one of more of those in the other rubrics, it is cif great importance to find out whether some of the others are mutually like one another, and in how many rubrics the same figure occurs in a szkzdy. In this respect my native helper gives me the following rules :-r, If Fahast'vy and ilfast'na are alike (i.e. happen to have the same figure), it means Tst'-rongatra, which my man explains to signify Tsy mt'hetsi'ka, does not move, agitate. 2. If Fahasi'vy and Nia are alike, it means jyfatz'-roa (two deaths), i.e. two of something must die, most likely two persons ; but the evil may be averted by killing and throwing away two locusts as a fadtlra. (Cf. the old Greek story about Astyages, who thought that the prediction that Cyrus would become king was fulfilled by his being nominated king in the children's play.) 3. If Fahatelo and Harena are alike, it means Vahoaka (a crowd of people), i.e. that a crowd of people may be expected. 4. If Trano and Llfjanontany are alike, it means Tszndrz'tasJ (pressed down by an encampment [?], i.e. Ll1at the enemy is coming.

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232 SIKIDY AND VINTANA. 5. If Trano and Ldlana are alike, it means Sampona (hindered), i.e. that some unforeseen hindrances are to occur. 6. If Andro and Asorotany are alike, it means Lahz"-antitra (old man) i.e. that the sick will recover and reach old age. 7. If Fahasivy and Asorotany are alike, it means Ravoakony, which my native informant explains to mean that rano iontsanam-bdva (i e. water with which the mouth is cleansed) is to be thrown away as afaditra to avert an evil. What this peculiar word voakony literally means, I cannot tell with certainty, but I suspect it to be a hybrid. The last part of it-which is at any rate scarcely Malagasy-seems to be the Arabic qommi", a mouthful; the first part may be the Malagasy voaka (thrown out), with the prefix ra (the termination ka falls out in compounds); and the whole might then mean 'a mouthful thrown out.' 8. If Vohitra and Fahatelo are alike, it means Fz"toan-tsz"-mz"hatra, i.e. 'the fixed time agreed on will not be kept.' 9. If Lalana and Nia are alike, it means Fehi-tsz"-r6so, i.e. 'the fehy, in all its senses of finding, commanding, superintending, etc., will not go away.' 10. If A lokola ( : := ) occurs three times, i.e. in three different rubrics, in a sz"kz"dy, it means that three stones are to be thrown away as afaditra to avert an evil. u. If Vanda mz"tsangana occurs three times, the feathers of a white hen are to be afadi'tra. 12. If A laimora ( ; -; ) occurs twice, it means Indroa mena (twice red), or, in plain words, that the son of a mighty man is likely to be a mighty man too. This explanation of the repeated Alaimora shows that the Arabic diviners (who have been the teachers of the Malagasy ones) themselves have had in their mind the very etymology suggested tentatively for this word, taking it to be the Arabic Al ahmaru, 'the red one.' But whether they have been right or not in their explanation is quite another question. The word may for all that really be only a corruption of Alhamalu (=Alahamady), as hinted at by me before. 13. If Saka ( ,) occurs in Trano, and Vontsira ( .=.) in Tale, or Alaimora ( ;-; ) in Trano, and Adibi/ady ( :-: ) in Tale (in a Sikidy 'mifanomboka' or 'mifanatrika"), this is called Fa1ani'l6hany (literally, hysteron-proteron), i.e. the case will follow the analogy of the one preceding it. If my child, who was formerly ill, was cured, this one "'.ill be cured; if it died, this one will die too. If my brother, who went to the war, returned safely, I shall do so too; etc. The remains or end (farany) of seven different things should be made afaditra. 14. If a sikidy happens to contain 8 Vontsira ( . =. ), they are called 'the eight healthy men' ( Ny valo lahy salama), and are considered an excellent remedy against diseases, as will be shown later on. It is evident that many of these 'meanings' can be construed into answers to questions, although the general tendency of many of them seems to be rather to point out the /adz'tra to be used against the evil. But it might happen that the figures were all unlike one another, at any rate that those that were like the one in the rubric representing the question were so incongruous with it that even the most inventive imagination and the greatest acuteness, sharpened by long practice, would prove unequal to the task of construing it into a reasonable answer to the question. In such cases the mpz'sz"kz'dy was obliged to have recourse to other operations, viz. the •Sz'kirfy t6kana' and the 'L6fin-tsz'kz'd_y,' of which the first one is comparatively simple, while the latter one was very corn plicated.. I shall now proceed to explain briefly each of these;

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SIKIDY AND VINTANA. 233 B.-The Sikz'dy of Different ( Unz'que) Fz'gures ('Si"kirf:y !6/wna'). If it happens that any of the r z chief rubrics ( TaleVohz'tra, and Trano -Fahasivy) get a figure which is not to be found in any other of the said rubrics, this is called Szhdy tokana, 'a sikidy that stands alone'. Consequently we get r 2 kinds of Sfkz'dy tokana, as any one of these rubrics may happen to get a figure which is the only one _of its kind in the sikz'dy in question. Often many of the rubrics may happen to have such unique figures (in my diagram, for instance, Masina has such a unique figure [ :: ], and so has Asorotany [ :.: ], Trano [ ::: ], and Tale [ ::: J). But it would be strange indeed (although it is possible) if all the r 2 rubrics got different figures, so that all the rules for Sikz'dy tokana should be applicable in the same sikz'dy. The r 2 rubrics are enumerated in certain order Ly the diviners. First comes Andriamanitra, then the rubrics at the top of the diagram (Tale Vohz"tra), and finally the seven remaining ones below ( Trano-Fahasivy, omitting A ndro). In all the 1 2 classes of sikz'dy tokana, the meaning depends on which of the r 6 figures it is that occurs as unique in the rubric in question. In many cases only a few of them have any special meaning attached to them, as will appear from the following rules regarding each class:-r. Unz'que Fz'gures z'n the Rubrz"c God ('Sz'kidy tokana~ amin' An driaman#ra'). As only 8 of the figures can be placed in this rubric without makirig the whole szrddy invalid (as pointed out above), we get only 8 bran ches, viz.-(a) If At#tsima ( :,: ) occurs in this rubric, it means Tsy mz'gam-pz'to ('not knocking against something 7 times,' or, rather, that you can do a thing seven times without knocking your head against any hindrances). (b) If Asoravavy ( =,= ), it is called iv.liaro-arivo, and the meaning is, thiit you throw away a cooking-pot full of rice, and you are likely to get rich ; a short and plain answer to the question: 'How am I to get rich ?' (c) If Asoralahy ( ,': ), it is called iv.lahatsangana. If this figure is taken and applied to a reed (vr!lotsang-ana)-of the same length as the man for whom the sikzdy is worked, and this is thrown away, it will bring good luck. (d) If Alokola ( ,:: ), it is called Zanahari-b6to (literally, 'a boy-god'), and is an excellent charm against gun-shot (6di-basy). (e) If Vanda mz'ondrika. ( ::: ), it is called Faramz"onena ('utterly afflict ed'), and is a good medicine if used in the following manner: the beans making the figure are taken and mixed with tambz"noana (a herb). The sick person then has to lick this six times, and the remainder of it is put on the top of his head. (f) If Vanda mz'tsangana ( ::: ), it is called Heloka ('guilt'). The 6 beans in the figure are to be placed on as many akifam-bary \ chaffs of rice), which are then to be thrown away as afaditra to avert evil. ( g) If :Jama ( j 1 ), it is called Bezanahary l 'much of the Creator' ?), and an andrarezina (a kind of tree, Trema grisea, Baker) is to be the faditra. (h) If Taraiky ( j ), it is called Kelzandriamanitra ('little of God'), and a white hen and the tree called F6tsinanalzary (Senedo cochlearifolius, Bojer, 'the white one of the Creator' ?) is to be thefadzlra. 2. Unique Fz'gures in Tale. This is the only rubric in which all the figures have a special meaning, and consequently we get no less than 16 * And so with the native naines of the Sikidy tokana in all the other rubrics.

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SJKIDY AND VINTANA. rules for this kind of sikidy tokana; but as the whole are very much in the same style as what I have already given under Andriamanz'tra, I do not think it worth while to trouble the reader with all these rules, as I do not intend to enable him to practise the sikzdy (this secret I shall of course keep for my own use!), but only to give him an idea as to what it is. 3. Unique Figures in Harena; 12 of the 16 figures are given as having a special meaning when found only in this rubric. 4. Unique Figures in Fahatelo ; only 2 (Jama and Taraiky) are regarded as having a special meaning. 5. Unique Figures in Vohitra ; includes 13 ( ?) of the 16 figures; nothing peculiar. 6. Unique .Figures in Trano ; 14 of the figures are regarded as having a special meaning, of which the first one ( Saka) is considered an excellent remedy against sterility, if the beans of the figure ( ,) are mixed with milk, which is then to be put into 14 pumpkin-shell fragments and given to 14 chil'cl.ren, who are to put some rice into a pot, from which the sterile woman eats it. Many of the rules in this kind of sikzdy have a reference to sterility, sickness or death. 7. Unique Figures in Lalana ; only 4 of the figures have any special meaning; nothing peculiar about the rules. 8. Unique Figures in Mpanontany; 11 of the figures have a special meaning. 9. Unique Fzg-ures in Asorotany; 4 figures with special meanings. 10. Unique Figures in Nia; only one ligure ( Alaimora) with a special meaning; it is called Manfakamena ('red king'). If the sikzdy in question refers to the king, it is considered a good omen; but if to a sick man, it is bad and means Ra mandriaka ('blood in streams.') r 1. Unique Figures in Masina; 3 figures with a special meaning, of which the lirst one refers to money, the other two to diseases. 12. Unique Fzg-ures in Fahasivy; 4 figures have a special meaning, but nothing particular otherwise. I have given the special rules for this kind of sz7uiiy only so far as regards the first one ('God'), just to show the general style and bearing of them. If I had done the same as regards all these 12 clases, it would have required too much space. Suffice it to say, that they either simply suggest an answer to a question, or (more frequently) at the same time also give a remedy against the evil intimated by the answer. Before leaving this section some words should be added upon two other kinds of sz'ki"dy which are closely connected with the preceding 12 clauses, and are by the natives called respectively, Sikzdy Mifamdly (i.e. 'sz'kz'dy mutually corresponding with one another, and Szkzdy Fdnahdna, which my native helper explains to mean janatz"tra hasolony ('a sacrifice as substitute for a person'); but these must be reserved for the concluding paper. L. DAHLE. (To be Concluded in our next Number.) " On account of the demands upon our space, a description of 'The Sikidy of Combined Figures' (Lojiit-sikidy), which Mr. Dahle had supplied, must also be left to be given with the concluding paper on •:VIiscellancous Sikidy' and 'Vintana,' which he has kindly promised for the next number of the ANNUAL,-EDS,

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THE ANTANANARIVO Al\Tl\TUAL. 235 NOTES ON THE BETSILEO DIALECT ( AS SPOKEN JN THE ARINDRANO DISTRICT). AL THOUGH it is generally understood that the language spoken throughout the island of Madagascar is' essentially one, yet the dialects of the several tribes, and even of different clans, vary considerably. People from adjacent provinces have often great difficulty in understanding one another; and so great is the difference between the dialects of Imerina and South Betsileo, that a Hova hearing the latter for the first time can only catch the general drift of the speaker's remarks, and probably will fail to do even this if the Betsileo are excited and speak rapidly. The Hova dialect, being the written language and taught in the schools, is gradually making its way in the provinces where there are Hova garrisons and traders ; but hitherto, so far as influencing the common speech of the people is concerned, its effect is of the smallest. I have been asked to contribute a paper to the ANNUAL on the Betsileo dialect as distinct from that spoken by the Hova . but as the dialects spoken in the northern districts differ somewhat froni those of the south, these "Notes" will have reference only to that portion of the province of which Ambohimandroso forms the centre. Sandra, Lalanglna and Manandrlana each have their peculiarities, but my acquaintance with these is only small. Let it be understood th.at it is the dialect of that portion of the Betsileo province known as Arindrano that I now propose to compare with the language of Imerina, and not that of the Betsileo as a whole. The difference between the two dialects is seen in the (1) Pronunciation; (2) Use of Different Words ; (3) Peculiar Uses of Words ; and (4) Construc• tion of Sentences. Add to these a peculiar Intonation, and little more remains to be said. !.-PRONUNCIATION. 1. Mand n before the consonants b,j, d, t, kin the Hova words are almost invariably dropped; e.g.:-Mamba (H) Mab" (B) Crocodile. Mpanompo Panopo Servant. Mankato Makato Obey, :Manda (H) Mainty Mada(B) Maity A wall. Black, 2. When not followed by the above-mentioned consonants, the n is commonly pronounced as ftg' in ring, hang, etc. ; e.g. :-Manetsa (H) Mangetsa (B) To transpant. Manisa (H) Mangisa (B) To count. 3. The z in the middle of Hova words is often dropped by the Betsileo ; e.g.:-Izy (H) 1-y (B) He, she, it, they. Aiza (H) Aia (B) Where? 4. The final y in Hova words is almost always changed into e, as the Betsileo have a great objection to the i sound. The final a may be said to follow the same rule, though with many exceptions; e.g. :-Ony (H) Onge (B) River. Koka (H) Koke (B) Omaly Omale Yesterday. Ketraka Ketrake Shout, etc. Faint, etc. I in the middle of a word is also occasionally changed into e; e.g.:-Raikitra (H) Reketse (B) Just, right, etc. Hevitra (H) Hevitse (B) Thought, etc. 5. The r in the ending tra in the Hova dialect is invariably changed into S by the Betsileo ; e.g. : Menatra (H) lvfengatse (B) Ashamed, Fanjaitra (H) Fan/aitse (B) Needle.

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236 NOTES ON THE BETS/LEO DIALECT. 6. The final syllable na in the Hova words is altogether dropped by the Betsileo ; e.g. :Tanana (HJ Tanga (B) Hand. Sahona Salio Frog. Varahina (HJ Varahe (BJ Brass. In the districts around Fianarantsoa, however, the na is retained but 1s sounded very lightly. 7. In a large number of Betsileo words, a letter is changed or added ; or one or more syllables are added; or a change of form, and something approaching reduplication, takes place. But it would be difficult to classify all these changes, as no more than two or three words follow the same rule. The following words illustrate the most common of them :-No (H) Ro (BJ Particle. Omby (H) Aombe or AngAry Ara And. ombe (BJ Ox. Tsy Tsa Not. Folo Faolo Ten. Ataovy Ataovo Do or make. Tongotra Tomboke Foot. Matokia M atokisa Trust. Izao Izizao That or thus. Sahy Sal,y Bold, Zozoro Zorozoro A rush. Tapitra Tampitse Finished. Famonjena Famonjea Salvation. 8. Some of the demonstrative pron,ouns and adverbs of place may serve as further illustrations of these changes: -lo (H) Ioio (B) This. Ato (H) Ity ItoJ' or Itoe That. Eo Itsy Ititoheke do. Ao Ireto Iretohe These. Etsy Ireo Ieohe do. Atsy Ireny Ireo do. Eroa Ety Etoy or Etoe , Here. Aroa Aty Atoy or Atoe do. Ary Eto Eteto do. Atato (B) Eoeo or Eoheo Aceo or Aoheo Etsetsy Atsatsy Eroahe Aroahe Arihi! Here. There. do. do. do. do. do. do. II. --USE OF DIFFERENT WORDS. There are some two or three hundred words in constant use among the Betsileo which are probably absolutely unknown in Imerina, besides a large number of unfamiliar er obsolete Hova words; while, on the other hand, very many of those most familiar to the Hova are never heard among the Betsileo. To give a complete list of such words, however, is beyond the scope of these "Notes;" a few examples will suffice; e.g. :-Rihana (HJ Vatse (BJ Upper floor. Tanety Tamboho A plain. Vavahady Lozo/,e Gate. Mangahazo Kajaha Manioc. Raha Leha If. Angamba 'Jvlainga Perhaps. Zavatra Raha Things. Lainga Vande A lie. Indry* E-e Here it is. Tsia* (HJ Rehetra Tata ho ato Any naraina Anio Rahampitso maraina Rahampitso E-heorA-a (BJ A.by or Abe Oratronge Saihandro Androange Ange mangampt'ntso Ange handro No. All. Lately. This morning. To-day (future), To-morrow morning. To-morrow. Examples of the use of the above:-(a) Nahita azy tato ho ato aho (H). (I saw him lately.) Hz'tako oratronge z'-y (B). (b) Lasa izy andro any (H). (He went off this morning.) Roso taty saz'handro z'-y (B). (c) Raha-tsy avy anio izy, angamba ho tonga izy rahampitso (H). (If he does not come to day, perhaps he will come to-morrow.) Leha tsa avy androange z'-y, maz'nga dz'a ho avy ange handro (B). (d) Lasan' ny fahavalo ny vehivavy rehetra (H). (The enemy took away all the women). Tong:an' nyj'alzavalo ny apela abe (B). (e) Osa Rabe, fa Ranaivo no sahisahy (H). (Rabe is a coward, but Ranaivo is brave). Osa Rabe, fa Ranaz'vo ro mahasaky raha (B). * Note the accents,

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NOTES ON THE JJETSILEO DIALECT. :z.n III.-PECULIAR USES OF WORDS, CASES, AND TENSES. The Betsileo use most of the personal pronouns differently from the Hova; thus:1. •Izaho' (I) invariably becomes aho; e.g. :-Hoy izaho (H); Hoe aho (B); I said. 2. The accusative case of the rst person plural, hangay, is always used instead of the plural nominative, 'izahay.' Also the accusative case of the 2nd person singular and plural, viz. hangao and hangareo, are always used for 'hianao' and 'hianareo.' Note that the a at the beginning of Hova words is often aspirated by the Betsileo, hence the lz in above examples. It may be, however, that hangao and hangareo were formerly 'hianao' and 'hianareo,' only that the z' is now dropped. 3. \Vhere the Hova suffix pronoun -ny is joined to the preposition amy, th~ Betsileo use the personal pronoun azy as well, thus : Lazao aminy (H) ; Ambarao amin' azy (B). Mifanantera aminy (H); Mifanantera amin' azy (B). 4. The preposition any, used before proper nouns by the Hova, is also used before the accusative case of the personal pronoun (3rd pers.); e.g.:Omaly no nambolenay azy (H); Omale no nambolengay ang' azy (B). 5. The Betsileo have a peculiar way of combining the present and past tenses, and also the future and past tenses, in some expressions, the following being the most common : Miala. eto (H) Miala teto (B). Hiala eto aho Ho roso teto aho. Ho afa.ka eto izahay Ho afake teto hangay. Hesorina hiala hianao Hala teto hangao. Hiainga ho any izy Hien1;a tange i-y. JV.-MONTH-NAMES. The following are the names of the Betsileo months, side by side with those of the Hova months, but as the former depend more on the time of rice-planting, harvest, and the flowering of certain grasses and plants, than on the phases of the moon, the comparison is only approximately correct:-Asorotany (H) Alahasaty Asombola Adimizana Alakarabo Alakaosy Vatravatra (B) Asotrizonjo Hatsiha Valasira Faosa Volamaka Adijady (H) Adalo Alohotsy Alahan1ady Adaoro Adizaoza Volakiahia (B) Sakamasae Sakave Volambita Asara1natsv Asaramangitse V.-TRANSLATION OF SCRIPTURE. The following translation of the rst Psalm, side by side with the Hova Revised version, will give the reader a general idea of the extent of difference between the two dialects. Hova. I, Sambatra ny olona Izay tsy mandeha eo amy ny fisainan' ny ratsy fanahy, Ary tsy mijanona eo amy ny la.Ian' ny mpanota, Ary tsy mipetraka eo amy ny fipetrahan' ny mpanazimba. 2. Fa ny lala.ny Jehovah no sitrany; Ary ny Ialany no saintsaininy andro amanalina. 3. Dia toy ny hazo nambolena eo amoron' ny rano velona izv, Izay mamoa anlv ny fotoany, Ny raviny koa tSy mba malazo ; Ary ny asany rchctra ataony lavorary. Betsileo. r. Sambatse ny olo Izay tsa mandeha eo amy ny fisaingan' ny ratsy fangahe, Ara tsa mienge eo amy ny la.Ian' ny mpan gota, Ara tsa mitoetse eo am-pitoeran' ny mpangaratsy. 2. Fa ...... * ny didin' Angahare ro teane; Ara ny didine ro saisainginc andro amangale. 3. Dia tahake ny hazo nambole teo amo-rong-drano velo i-y, Izay mamoa amy ny taongc, Ara ny ravcnc koa tsa mba malazo; Ara ataonc cfa soa ahc ny asangc. * The dots are put in to represent a peculiar way the Betsileo have of drawling out certain words.

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2.3~ NO'.FES 9.N THE JJETSlLEO DIALECT. Hova. Betsefleo. 4. Fa tsy mba toy izany ny ratsy fa-4. Fe ... ro ... tsa mba to' izay ... ny ratsy nahy, fangahe, [i-y. Fa toy ny akofa aelin' ny rivotra izy. Efa ...... tahake ny ara-bare aelen-drivotse 5. Ary amin' izany dia tsy hahajanona eo 5. Ara amin' izay dia tsa hahatoetse eo amy ny fitsarana ny ratsy fanahy, amy ny fitsarii ny ratsy fangahe, Na ny mpanota eo amy ny fiangonan' ny Na ny mpangota eo am-pivorian' ny marina. mare. 6. Fa fantatry Jehovah ny lalan' ny ma-6. Fa ...... fatats' Andrianangahare ny larina, Ian' ny mare, Fa ny lalan' ny ratsy fanahy ho very. Fa ...... ny la.Ian' ny ratsy fangahe ho vere. VI.-ACCENT AND INTONATION. The Betsileo intonation is somewhat broader and heavier than that of the Hova, and they have a peculiar way of drawling out ~ome words, esp,ccially the conjunctions.fa=.fea (=.fe) and ka, to which they sometimes attach a kind of particle; e.g . .fe .... ro; see v. 4 in the above Psalm. Sometimes, however, when they get excited in disputes or at a kabary, they speak with great rapidity (still, however, with an occasional drawl); so that it is almost impossible for any one whose ear is unaccustomed to their speech to grasp a third of what they say:They are also very demonstrative when speaking, often dancing and leaping about in a frantic manner; and their actions and grimaces at a kabary, for instance, are often very amusing. ' Like the Hova they are very fond of proverbs, illustrations, and fables ; and, to the best of my knowledge, are far more clever thari the Hova in extempo-lrizing a parable or illustration. Many of our Betsileo preachers have all the elemenls of good speakers, and with a little polish would certainly make ' creditable orators. Those who have had any education, however, hardly ever preach in their own dialect, but in more or less perfect Hova. And as that dialect alone is written, we think it wise to encourage the Betsileo to learn and speak it as much as possible. T. ROWLANDS. ~-SOME BETSIMISARAKA SUPERSTITIONS. THOUGH the Betsimisa.raka, in common with all heathen nations, have an intense appreciation of the power for evil possessed by the spirits in which they believe, they yet seem superior to many in that they do recognise One Being, supreme over all. They have no fiction of destiny or fate, to which even the king of the gods' must bow, for they do not say that a man's life is governed by a good or evil fate, but that he is 'tsara (good) Zanaha,y,' or 'ratsy (bad) Zanahary.' This Zanahary they represent as a Supreme Being, Creator of all things, immaterial, without visible form, dwelling above, and being everywhere. He, in all religious observances, is invoked first of all. Though they use both 'tsara Zanaha1y' and 'ratsy Zanaha1y,' as mentioned above, they will not allow that evil comes from Him ; the former expression

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SOME BETSIMISARAKA SUPERSTITIONS. 239 is often used in the sense of a 'providence' or 'piece of good fortune.' Any Betsimisaraka having a natural defect or peculiarity will not say simply, "I was born so," but, "so Zanahary made me." I remember also the case of a village idiot who did odd jobs for the inhabitants, such as pounding rice or cutting firewood. When the people tried to take advantage of J-iis weakness of intellect and cheat him of his wages, he would say, "You think you can cheat me because I am a fool, but Zanahary sees.'' The lesser divinities, 'Zanahary kel_;,' are also reverenced, as well as the dead ancestors ; of the latter each family has its own ; and the more remote they are, the more they seem to be reverenced ; these are all invoked in their religious ceremonies. Owing to some connection with their ancestors, certain animals are reverenced by various tribes ; e.g. one familydaims to be descendPd from a woman who was born of a cow, and therefore does not eat beef; another shews the greatest respect for the bdbakoto ( Lz'chanotus brevz~,,udatus), the largest species of lemur, because one was said to have saved an ancestor from a severe fall; the dead body of this lemur they bury with the honours paid to a human being, and any person having shot one would find it hard to get a night's lodging in one of the villages of the tribe. The angatra, which is much dreaded, seems to correspond exactly to the vulgar 'ghost' in England. It is, they say, the spirit of the dead person and dwells in the air, but more particularly haunts the place where the body lies, sitting, some say, at the head of the corpse. No Betsimisaraka would approach a grave after dusk, and they believe that diseases or misfortunes befall those who offend the angatra in any way, or even take up their abode too near them ; loud talking or laughing, it is said, is peculiarly objectionable to some of these ghosts. They can give no reason for their dread, but they believe that the design of the angatra is to cause fear. In some cases, they say, it is heard to speak even in broad daylight, without any appearance accompanying the voice. On one occasion in the country one of my boatmen was sleeping alone in a small outbuilding in use as a kitchen ; about midnight we were aroused by terrible groans and exclamations, and on our going to him, we found him sitting up trembling, and he declared to us that he had not been asleep, but that soon after he lay clown something came and grasped him by the throat, preventing him for some time from calling out. He assured us that there was a ghost there, and that he must come and share our house, which he did. One can only be aston-( ished that such ghostly visitations are not more common, considerino that a native usually retires to rest immediately after a very hearty meat Besides the spirits already mentioned, almost every tree or stone or piece of ground seems to have its demon or spirit, generally exerting its power for evil on offence given, but sometimes for good. \Ve find a result of the latter belief in the custom of making a thank-offering (manao lsikafara) on a particular spot, if the ground had been more than ordinarily productive; or if it were the site of a house, after inhabiting which the owner had been remarkablv fortunate. In this case, after the usual invocations, he invokes this <'holy ground,' that is, I suppose, the spirit

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240 SOME .BETSIMISARAKA SUPERSTITIONS. under whose protection it is, though as a fact, the place or thing itself is always spoken of. Passing one day in a canoe along a very narrow stream quite overhung with trees, I noticed that in one particularly awkward spot the branches were covered with strips of cloth knotted on to them. On asking the rowers why this particular tree was thus deco rated, I was told that "it is mighty, it killed a Vazdha." The truth soon appeared on enquiry: a trader passing and finding the thick overhanging branches most inconvenient, had them hacked down, and it so happened that shortly afterwards the said trader died. His illness and death were put down to the vengeance of the offended spirit of this tree, and hence the respect shewn to it, and the desire to propitiate it. (I have not discovered whether the spirit of the tree is supposed to be a male or a female; it would be curious to see if we should get at anything like the ancient Nymph of the tree.) It may be noticed, in passing, that attaching a strip of cloth is the recognised mode of propitiation or, at any rate, of shewing respect; I have seen a stone of peculiar sanctity swathed in a comparatively large piece, but such liberality is the exception. Another curious custom in this same narrow stream is that of knotting the long flags on the margin ; this I was assured was done, as we should say, 'for luck.' On another occasion our boat passed a lovely spot, when the end of a range of hills met the water in a steep slope clothed with fine trees and dense creepers. This was the more remark able, as the surrounding heights were quite bare, and it really looked at first sight as if the natives had been loath to spoil the effect of this beautiful bit of scenery ; but, on asking how it was that this had escaped being cleared for rice-planting, I was at once told that the attempt had been made, but that there was 'something' there. "What do you mean by something?" I asked, "snakes, or wasps, or what?" "No! No!" was the answer, "something uncanny; and any one who has attempted to clear it has very shortly come to a bad end." It is quite clear that the guardian spirit of that place had a better appreciation of natural beauty than the natives. The thank-offering (manao tsi'kafara) mentioned above is, as we have seen, intimately connected with this belief in local spirits, and it will serve as a type of other religious ceremonies. It is the usual form of thank-offering for any piece of good fortune, recovery from illness, preservation from danger, etc. It is generally held at one of the memo rial stones or posts which are found scattered about the country, and most frequently in the centre of the villages. The main part of the ceremony is killing an ox. This is taken to the appointed place, together with a supply.of native rum. The ox having been slaughtered, sotne portion is set apart with a little rum and white rice, and thes_e are placed upon a sort of table made of short sticks bound together with creepers. Then the spirits are invokecl,-first Zanahary le/u'be, then the lesser divinities, male and female, white and reel, then a long stri11g of the ancestors of all present. It is a deadly insult to omit to invite any one member of a family, and to pass over the name of one of the ancestors is also a serious offence. The invocation ended, the meat is divided amid singing, dancing, and rum-drinking; the close of the ceremony is

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SOME RETSIMISARAKA SUPERSTITJONS. 241 usually general intoxication. In the offering of the first-fruits, while the chief ceremonies are virtually the same, though more elaborated and generally held in the house, it is the custom in some districts to allow the children to scramble for the meat and rice which had been set apart for the spirits. I can get no explanation of the custom of calling upon the gods, white and red ; some say it has no particular meaning, and so we may suppose only arises, like the altar "to the unknown god," from a fear lest some god should be omitted. The objects which are Fady, or tabooed, seem to be much more numerous than in Imerina, and some are very curious. Some ofour newly-entered school-children would eat nothing that had been carried in a hat; on one occasion many refused to partake of the laoka (relish, on the coast always fish\ because the boy who had been sent to buy the salt for it had brought it back in his cap. On another occasion, at a school treat, whe:n the children were ravenously hungry through long waiting, and the meat was just being served out, one big fellO\r got up suddenly and, with tears in his eyes, walked off and threw himself down under a bush ; poor fellow! to eat any part of an ox's head was /ady in his family, and he had just caught sight of a piece of jaw amongst the meat. Many again will not touch an eel (this is especially the case with the more southern tribes); and while you may pass through one village. swarming with pigs, in the next, pork is fady, and not a pig is to be seen. These ideas are frequently very inconvenient, as in the case of a servant whose fa& was milk, for she was very unwilling even to carry a vessel containing it, for fear any drop should be spilled upon her. Coming to the Folk-lore of the Betsimisaraka, it is curious to find the main features of the stories which come to us from other countries rep resented also in these; in the fe\\' instances I propose to give, everyone will probably recognise some similarity to stories they have known from child hood, and yet in every case these tales have been told me by the natives. First then we have Mermaids, called Zdzavavy an-drano, which cer tainly have a strong family likeness to those of sailor lore; they are said to be seen sitting upon rocks or by the shore (not generally the sea-shore, by the way), combing their hair, which is very long and beautiful. There are said to be some dwelling under the bluff at Mahanoro ; and on rare occasions others are said to have been caught in the nets of fishermen in other waters. The story goes that one fisherman out alone caught one in his net, and, being captivated by her beauty, proposed that she should become his wife ; ~he consented, but warned him that he must never reproach her with her origin, or she would be compelled to leave him ; to this he agreed, and the couple lived happily together for some tim(', three children being born to them. But one day, the man coming in at mid-clay hungry and tired and, says the story, rather drunk, found his food not ready; this ]eel to words, and finally the man, losing his temper, said, "Who are you to talk to me in that way? you are nothing but a thing I took out of the water." The wife made no. ans,Yer, but on returning m the evening again, the fisherman found her gone, ancl with her his two younger children. The rest was told him by his eldest boy. As soon

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24-2 SOME BETSJMISARAKA Sl!PERSTJTJONS. as his father had left the house after his meal, his mother took him and the two other children down to the water, and holding one child in each hand (and the baby, I suppose, on her back in the usual fashion, but history saith not), she at once plunged in and dived. The boy soon had enough of it, and his mother noticing that he was being suffocated, took him ashore again and said, "You are no good ; go back to your father ! You are no son of mine !" Then leaving him on the shore, she again dived with her two children and was never seen again. It appears, however, that these dwellers in the water are not always females. In a large piece of water on the high(water)-way south of Mahanoro, between Amb6diharana and Andranotsara, is said to be a colony of people possessing large herds of cattle. The story is that a father and two sons lived on the shore of this lake. One day a serious quarrel occurred about driving up the cattle into their pen, and the father declared that he would have nothing more to do with them if they would not obey him. The two young men apparently took him at his word, went down to the water, and were last seen paddling out into the lake in their canoe. Some months after they returned home and asked their father if he was ready to give way; on his sternly refusing to do anything of the sort, they ,vent off again in their canoe and returned no more ; and, says the story, there they are, doing very well under the water, with large herds of oxen. The story further says that after high winds, when the water has been much agitated, leaves which have been used as spoons and dishes, and the other ordinary refuse of a Betsimisaraka house, are washed up. No account is given of how these two young men became a colony ; one is sorry to miss the probably interesting story of their watery wooing. Whatever we may think of the story, the fact remains, that the natives have a great dread of this piece of water, and are always much relieved when they h.ave got safely over it. This is more particularly true of the people in the immediate neighbourhood, and if you ask them why they are especially afraid of this lake, they say, "Because there is 'something' in it," which is perhaps more than one can say of the story. We next come to the forest, and from there we gef endless stories of the 'Kalan6ro,' a sort of wild-man-of-the-woods, represented as very short of stature, covered with hair, with flowing beard, in the case of the male, and with an amiable weakness for the warmth of a fire. An eye-witness relates that once, when spending a night in the heart of the forest, he lay awake watching the fire, which had died down to reel embers, when suddenly he became aware of a figure answering to the above description warming himself at the fire, and apparently enjoying it immensely. According to his story, he put a summary end to the gentleman's enjoyment by stealing down his hand, grasping a stick, and sending a shower of red-hot embers on to his unclothed visitor, who immediately, and most naturally, fled with a shriek. Another tells how, on a similar occasion, the male appeared first, and after inspecting the premises and finding, as well as a fire, some rice left in the pot, summoned his better half; the pair squatted in front of the fire and--touching picture of conjugal affection-proceeded to feed one another!

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SOME BETSIMISARAKA SUPERSTITIONS. 243 One must confess that the creature described looks suspiciously like one of the lc1.r<{er sorts of lemur; but in a village near Mahanoro, and on the verge of the forest, the inhabitants say that very frequently these wild people come foraging in their houses for remnants of food, and may be heard calling to one another in the street. As might naturally be expected in a country covered in every direction with rivers and lagoons, all alike swarming with crocodiles, there are mai1y stories of the marvellous escapes or dreadful deaths of people who who have met with them ; but in addition to these, there are some curious ideas current about these brutes. The Mpamosavy (witches) are always represented as being on most friendly terms with the crocodiles; it really seems to be a well-authenticated fact that these women can with impunity go down to the waterside after dark. They ate said frequently on these occasions to feed their strange pets with rice, and sometimes to entice them out of the water and take them for a stroll through the village at midnight; they are also accused of trying to persuade people to bathe near the lair of their pet crocodile, with a view to furnishing him with a satisfactory meal. It is also said that if a cro codile has attacked any person and torn off a limb or portion of flesh, and the wound proves fatal, the crocodile will sooner or later find its way to the grave of its victim. Many, I have been t.old, have been surpri3ed by daylight while doing so, and, being bad travellers on dry land, have been easily overtaken by the inhabitants and slaughtered. It is quite certain that it is not so very uncommon to hear of a crocodile being found on dry land, far away from any water, but its motive in placing itself so fatally at a disadvantage must of course be mere matter of conjecture. The above particulars have been collected merely in the ordinary course of work and travelling, a,nd will serve some purpose if any one is thereby induced to undertake a more thorough investigation of what can hardly fail to be an interesting subject. G. HERBERT SMITH. A NEW MALAGASY GRAMMAR. AMONG the fir~t fruits of peace between France and Madagascar is a welcome addition to the smc1ll, but steadily increasing, number of works helpful to those interested in the study of the Malagasy languag-e, viz. a Grammar in French, by th,~ Rev. Pere Cansseque, S.J., • recently published at the Press of the French Mission. This is a book of 198 pp. 12mo, that is, nearly double the size of Pere "\Vebber's Grammar (1855), and about half as large as that of Pere Ailloud ( 1872 ). This Grammar is clear and concise in =:rrangement, and is well illustrated by a good selection of genuine Malagasy * Gra1nmaire 11falgache par Le R. P. Pt"trn~ Cattsscqtte, S.J., 1vlissionare de 1vladagascar. Antananarivo. Imprimcric Catholi,1uc, 1886,

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244 A NEW MALAGASY GRAMMAR. ---------------------------------phrases. The most serious objection to certain portions is, that they seem to 'be formed too much on the style of grammars of the Latin and of modern J European languages, and we get what appear such needless paradigms as those contained on pp. 68-81, etc., and we hear too much of "conditional" and ''subjunctive" moods, as if we had under our consideration a language in which separate forms for these moods actually existed. These, together with other apparently needless matter (e.g. r, La grammaire malgache enseigne a parler et a ecrz're correctment en malg-ache), seem to have been inserted more for the use of Malagasy students than for foreigners ; and as we meet them in our perusal of the book, it is due to the author to bear in mind his own explanation contained in the preface ("Dans la reduction de cette grammaire, f' at' suz'vi le plan de la grammaz're generate, et cela pour deux raz'sons: premierement, par cette methode, nos eleves malgache seront mz'eux inz'tz'es a /' etude de la langue franfaz'se; en second lz"eu, z'l m' a semble que mes compatrzotes seraient bz'en az'ses de trouver les matzeres traitees dans le meme ordre que dans leur propre langue. On pourrait afouter que la clarte ne perd rz'en a cet arrangement). On comparison with the Grammar of Pere Ailloud published 14 years ago, the present work will be seen to possess far greater clearness of arrangement and more conciseness of statement, and it also greatly excels its predecessor in its selection of examples. To one belonging to what Pere Causseque calls "the Anglo-Malagasy school," this new Grammar has peculiar interest, in that it shows a much greater disposition to conform to general usage in the mode of writing Malagasy than has been shown by anything hitherto written by a French author. Especially noticeable is the clear and decided position Pere Causseque takes as to the desirability of joining the fragments of the personal pronouns with the words they define. For years it has seemed an incomprehensible thing to many here that French writers could still be content to follow the earlier Protestant missionaries (as shown, for instance, in the New Testament of 1830, and in the Bible of 1835), and write mpzanatr'o, mpiana' ny,fo ko, amy ko, etc., instead of mpzanatro, mpzanany, foko, amiko, etc. Let us hope that at last all authorities will agree to follow the usage that has prevailed from 1862 in "the Anglo Malagasy school," as the mode most in harmony with that followed in other languages in which these abbreviated pronominal suffixes exist, and in favour of which Pere Causseque now so clearly and cogently argues in this new Grammar. To the Grammar itself Pere Causseque adds an Appendix of 47 pp., in which he states with some fulness his reasons for proposing several changes in the mode of writing certain classes of phrases. This Appendix can be obtained separately for sixpence, and is worthy of careful study by every one interested in Malagasy orthography. There are four points in it that demand special notice. (,) The first of these is the Use of the Apostrophe. Pere Causseque says very justly that we of "the Anglo-Malagasy school" do not seem to have attained to any consistent and well grounded principles as to the use of this sign. Confessedly much uncertainty and perplexity are felt by those who have the responsibility of correcting the press. Indeed one of our best linguists has asserted that where the use of the hyphen begins reason ends (see ANNUAL VI., p. 63, etc.), and possibly he would be quite willing to include the apostrophe also in his doctrine of despair. Pere Causseque proposes to remedy this uncertainty by the introduction of one simple and thoroughgoing principle, viz., that the apostrophe be used only and always to mark an elision, either of a single vowel or of a syllable, whether with or without a euphonic change of consonant. He would thus write satrok' andrzana, satro' b6rozany, lzevi' teny,fantatr' izy mzanalw, lalan' ny 6/ona, anatre-

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A 1\TEW 111ALA GASY GRAMMAR. han' ny vah6aka, etc. Though some of these phrases thus written would look strange for a time to those who have been accustomed to our present way of writing them, one cannot fail to see at a glance that in that most troublesome task, the teaching of young Malagasy to write their own language with correctness, the labour would be greatly lessened were we to adopt this one simple rule, which would cover thousands of examples. There would of course still remain the uncertainty as to whether two words had become so intimately united as to have become one, and thus no longer requiring any break to suggest their origin; for instance, are we to write zava' p6ana or zavap6ana, hevi' teny or hevi'teny, 6lom' potsin' andriana or olompotsz"n' andriana? But usage would gradually settle all outstanding questions of this kind. (2) The second principle I refer to is, that the Hyphen should only be used when uncontracted words are sufficiently united in meaning to require some sign of their connection, but cannot be considered to have so far coalesced as to form single words. Thus Pere Causseque would write tori-teny, loha teny, te-ho sambatra, etc. This again would be an easily understood rule, and would tend greatly to diminish the number of hyphens in use. We of "the Anglo-Malagasy school"' have been accustomed to use the hyphen not only in such cases as the above, but also when a syllable has been thrown away, as in zava-joana, misdmbo-balala, olo marina, and also when, through the elision of a vowel, two consonants have come together, as in . ji#avan-karena, jisotr6ant6aka. (3) Another important change advocated by Pere Causseque is the Omission of the Apostrophe in such phrases as tranon' ny olona, volan' ny mpivaro tra. His strongest argument in favour of this change is, that it enables us to see at a glance whether a word belongs to what he well names "mots decroissants," or to "mots croissants," that is to say, between nouns ending in a weak terminal (ka, tra, na), and those that possess a firm terminal. This distinction is clearly marked m the language, and it might be a gain to use a simple n with no apostrophe with words possessing the firm endings, whenever they are followed by a possessive case, etc. ( or, as French Grammarians would say, by their "complement indirect," see u). Pere Causseque argues that the apostrophe is neither necessary, useful, nor fre~ from inconvenience (see Appendix, p. 19-22). As specimens of the various classes of words affected by the adoption of this rule, Pere Causseque gives the following : a I jitenin ny olona. c J l,ranon zo 6lona zo. I hitan ny reny tsara. hitan z" Fara. b I tranon olona. ! tanim bary. t hitan Mona. d I tanin ketsa. That some sign of connection between a "mot crozssant • and its "complement indz"rect is required, Pere Causseque fully concedes, and refers to Pere \Vebber's statefi-,ent to the sa111e effect: "Ce .fail sz important n' a pas klzappe au ginz'e du P. Webber. Des l'annee 1855, il le constate dans sa grammaire, p. 59, en.ces termes: 'Les hovas lcs plus z"ntellz"gents, di't-il, doublent toufours le ny et ecrivent 'ny tranony ny vahz"ny, ny nataony ny JJ,fpanfaka, ny tompony ny lakana.'" Pere Causseque was not probably aware that the above statement was taken from the Grammar of Mr. Edward Baker (p. 26', formerly Missionary Printer here. For some years we printed a double ny, as in the above examples; but in 1873 I proposed to substitute an apostrophe for they of the first ny, and to write thus : tranon' ny olona (see my Grammar, p. 44 of the first edition). This plan was adopted tenta tively by the Bible Revision Committee, and In il remilrbbly short time was tl'celved with ;ipprobation 1:Joth by native5 and by foreigners of "the Anglo-

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A NEW MALAGASY GRAMMAR. ---------------------------------Malagasy school." This swept away a vast number of ambiguities, and was a fair representation of the actual pronunciation. Of course on Pere Causseque's principle that the apostrophe marks an elision, we are bound either to show that the n' represents a ny, or to acknowledge ourselves convicted of an inconsistency. I have long inclined to the belief that this n (with the similar n or m found in such compounds as tdnin-ketsa, tanim-bary) is a fragment of the pronominal suffix ny; but I cannot point to any decisive proof that this is so; and ;is the printing of n' involves a theory, and the simple n equally well represents the sound, and would enable us to see at a glance whether the word before us was one that had suffered the loss of a final vowel ("mot d/croissanl'), or one that, having a firm final syllable, had received the addiLion of n to indicate that it was followed by a possessive, agent, etc., I c;i n see that Pere Causseque"s suggestion has some clear advantages, and ccimmene serious irreverence in writing z' Jesosy and i Jehovah. But what, one might ask, is the difference between teniny Jesosy and tenin' i Jesosy? The sound is the same, and the second form appe;.irs to suggest the true an;ilysis of the phrase. Much inconvenience arises from our not using this prefix, as Mr. Baron has abundantly shown. Some ti111e since I received a note pointing out an ambiguity in our translation of r Kings xv. 33 ("tao Tirza Basa''). The corn bi nation uf these two words wggested that Ji'rza Basa is a compound proper noun (like Kai'sarz'a-Ftlzpo, c:tc.). The sugges-

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A NEW MALAGASY GRAMMAR. tion of the writer was that we should write "tao Tirza i Basa," which he said would at once convey the correct meaning. I hesitate to recommend the adoption of this suggestion in the new edition of the Bible soon to be printed, because it has received no fair trial in our general literature. Supposing it were fairly tried for a few years, until competent judges could form an opinion as to its usefulness and propriety, it might be hereafter introduced into editions of the Scriptures. I have selected the four suggestions enumerated above, because they seem to me of great interest and importance, and also because I think that, as far as possible, foreigners of all parties should strive to attain uniformity in their modes of writing Malagasy. 'vVe are certainly drawing nearer to this desira ble goal, and may now cherish the hope that soon there will be no "AngloMalagasy" or "Franco-Malagasy" school; but that in Malagasy, as in our own languages, there will be, in the main, but one standard, to which all careful writers will feel bound to conform. WILLIAM E. COUSINS. BIAZAVOLA: A MALAGASY BARD. THE author of the following vagabond verses seems to have been one of those gifted unfortunates who sometimes straggle into the charmed domains of genius from the border--land of craziness. But Biazavola had as much of the rogue as of the artist in his nature, and his morals were as loose as the rhythms of his ditty. He appeared in Antananarivo during the time of the first Ranavalona. Certainly not a shining light to enter the darkness of those much overclouded days, for he quickly became notorious by preying on the people through their superstitions. The account he gave of himself was, that h~ was a scion of a princely family of western Onjatsy;':,and that like most of that peculiar caste, he had the power of the evil tongue. Sakalava-land has always been the haunt of sorcery and things mysterious, and the Hova of Imerina were not prepared thirty years ago, as they probably would be now, to dispute the claims of an unknown prophet who had confidence enough in his professions to dare a crowded market-place to put him to the test. "Better lose the little that I require," said Biazavola, "than be followed by the Onjatsy's curse," as he. boldly walked amongst the squatting traders and helped himself to whatever took his fancy. To whom were the sufferers to s1ppeal ? Did not the terrible Queen herself summon the chiefs of this stranger's clan to curse the white-men's war ships when they assembled to attack her eastern ports? Biazavola, with an Arabian waist-cloth about his loins, a conical red hat upon his head, and a staff of sacred tamarind in his hand, was master of the situation. 11 Priests or
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BIAZA VOLA: A MALAGASY iJARlJ. The mild-faced wanderer, for of such an aspect one conceives him to have been, into whose eyes, when thwarted, would leap the flash of a doomful imprecation, was more than a match for all the uninspired sanity of the chafferers of the mart. But alas! Biazavola could not be always great. His erratic wits would sometimes straggle home again, and then he became a common fool. On such occasions he used to stand in the busy thoroughfare and deliver what he called a 'Message from the Throne,' admonishing all and sw1dry in good set terms not to cheat or steal, but to pay their way like honest men and women. The Malagasy are quick to see the joke which lurks in outrageous inconsistency, and must have been prodigiously amused. Amusement, however, soon casts out fear, and so it came about that when Biazavola began his Onjatsy operations in a market near the Royal Palace, a complaint was made to Her Majesty respecting him, and he was immediately put in chains. The fetters, it is said, were unusually heavy, and, in some way or other, one of his legs was broken, and he became a wretched cripple. Then it was that Biazavola's demon urged him into song. His misery made a bard of him. He took to himself half of a dried pumpkin-shell, attached it to a suitable handle of wood, fitted on three taut strings, composed his jigging ditty, and once more appeared in the great market-place, with a much better outfit this time than any amount of Onjatsy curses. There was probably not much music in his rude guitar, but he had an excellent voice, and the bubbling human nature of his verse carried everything before it. He touched Imerina in its tenderest heart and became a tremendous success. No longer was it necessary for him to help himself unlawfully to the needs of life: he was helped by all who heard him. He had sung his song, he deserved his supper, and there was enough and to spare both for him and the slave-girl who was his constant companion, and of whom he sometimes used to sing:-"l shall never forget my Tsaramiera; If there's broth in the pot, we shall drink together, And if meat be left, we shall eat together." But there was little room for genius in the land in those days, and least of all for genius which could not hold its tongue. Biazavola con trived to offend almost as much by his repentance as he had previously done by his crimes ; and it was decided to rid the city of him as a too pathetic nuisance. His chains were removed, and he and his Tsaramiera were compelled to return to the quarter whence they came. I Ry vahaaka, ry alana ! Tsantsa anic Hiazavala: N efa tsy nangalatr' alona, Tsy mba nihady fasana, Tsy mba nanamy trana, Tsy mba nangalatr' amby; Fa matin' ny ,ava tsy nahy, Ka matin' ny vava nataony. IBIAZAVOLA. 3 Ry vahaaka, ry alana ! Ny ana-dray aman-drcny Alatsaha any an-kiba, Fa tsipak' ambelahy : Ka mahavaa, mahafaty, Tsy mahavaa; mahafanina. ~adv mananatra anar0a aho No malidatsa ny tcnako, 5 Ry vahoaka, ry olana ! Tsy mba nitoto vary aho; Tsy mba nantsaka rana aho ; Tsy n1ba nisoron' afo aha ; Tsy mba nitaana zezika aha; Tsy mba nikapa hazo aha ; Tsv m ba nitaoria vata al10 ; l>adako o, neniko o, havako O !

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BJAZAVOLA A MALAGASY BARD. 2 4 6 Ry vahoaka, ry olona ! Ry vahoaka, ry olona ! Latsa no menatr' olona ; Tsontsa anic aha e ! Ry vahoaka, ry olona ! . Izao teniko izao, ry zareo, Ento amin' Ikalatokana: Idada niampofo, Latsa anie aho e ! Tsy lamoka nitrotro ; Resy anie aho e ! Mifona anie aho e ! Mandady anie aho e ! l\1Iitsotra anic aho c ! Mibaboka anie aho e ! Mihohoka anie aho e I Dadako o, ry zokiko o ! Very anie aho e ! Neniko o, ry zandriko o ! Ory anie aho c ! Havako o, ry taniko o ! Ambaka anie aho e ! Sakaizako o, ry namako o I Maty anie aho e ! 7 Dadako o, tsy tsontsa va re aho ? N eniko o, tsy latsa va re aho ? Zokiko o, tsy resy va re aho ? Zandriko o, tsy very va re aho ? Havako o, tsy ory va re aho? Tanika o, tsy mcnatra va re aho ? Namako o, tsy ambaka va re aho? Sakaizako o, tsy maty va re aho ? BIAZA VOLA (TRANSLATION). r O good people and countrymen ! Luck has left Biazavola ; Yet he never kidnapped anyone, Never on tombs made robbery, Never was he a burglar, Never he lifted cattle ; He's guilty of things unintended, A felon for talking too freely. 2 0 good people and countrymen ! Shamed am I now in sight of you; But daddy used to nurse me, And never grew tired of fondling; Daddy mine 0, 0 brother mine O ! Mammy mine 0, 0 sister mine O ! Kith and kin 0, 0 home of mine O ! Friendso'mineO, 0 mates o'mineO ! 3 0 good people and countrymen ! The counsel parents give you, Let it find a place in your bosoms ! Or like a bull 't may kick you, If it hit you it will kill you, Or if not 't will take your breath away; I am giving you advice and warning And an awful example too. 4 0 good people and countrymen ! Luck it has left me, I say, Shamed am I now, I say, Down in the mud, I say, Lost altogether. I say, vVretched indeed, I say, Abused and cheated, I say, Done for for ever and aye. 5 0 good people and countrymen ! Never would pound the rice, Biaza, Never would go to well, Biaza, Never would feed the fire, Biaza, Never would fetch manure, Biaza, Never would chop up wood, Biaza, Never would carry stones, Biaza, Daddy mine 0, mammy mine 0, kith and kin O I 6 0 good people and countrymen ! My prayer praying to the Queen, my kind folks, Take it up to Ikalatokana; I plead and beseech Her indeed, I grovel before Her indeed, A suppliant sinner indeed, A penitent prostrate indeed, In dust and in ashes indeed. 7 Daddy mine 0, I'm vagabond, am I not? Mammy mine 0, reproach to you, am I not? Brother mine 0, downtrodden, 0 am I not? Sister mine 0, I 'm castaway, am I not? Kith and kin 0, in misery, am I not? Home of mine 0, ashamed of thee, am I not? Mates o' mine 0, I' m badly-used, am I not? Friends o' mine 0, I'm done for, O am I not? W; CLAYTON PICKERSGILL,

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250 THE ANTANANARJVO ANNUAL. VARIETIES. THE PIRATES IN MADAGASCAR. CHARLES X. had returned to his dominions after his mad plunge into the Ukraine, and the, to him, fatal and decisive battle of Pultowa. His fortunes had become desperate, but his Prime Minister, Gortz, formed a scheme to benefit his master. The details of this scheme introduce the following passage: " For a long time past, pirates of all nations, and particularly from England, had formed amongst themselves an association and infested all the seas of Europe and America. Pursued everywhere and, when captured, granted no quarter, they at last retired to the coast of Madagascar. Here were these desperate men, notorious for deeds that only lacked justice to be called heroic. They sought for a prince who would be willing to receive them under his protection; but the laws of nations shut them 'out from all the ports of the world. "From the time that they were sure that Charles had returned to Sweden, they hoped that this. prince, with his passion for war, which it seemed necessary for him to make, and lacking both fleet and soldiers, would come to some happy arrangement with them ; they therefore sent a deputy to him, who came to Europe in a Dutch vessel. He proposed to Baron Gortz to receive them at the port of Gotten burgh, where they offered to render themselves up with sixty vessels, loaded with wealth. "The baron induced the king to agree to the proposition; and the following year two Swedish gentlemen, named Cromstrom and Mendal, were sent to complete ihe negociation with these corsairs of Madagascar. Charles found afterwards some help more noble and more important in the Cardinal Alberoni, a powerful genius, who had governed Spain so long for his own glory, and very little for the good of Lha t country." Translated from Hzstoi're de Charles xii. jar Voltaire, by THOS. BROCKWAY, GEOLOGICAL JOTTINGS. DURING a visit to Antsihanaka the year before last, I saw an exten sive deposit of limestone, of a coarse crystalline texture, some reddish, some white. It occurs about a mile south of Ambatondrazaka, and also a liule further distance north of thal town. No use has ever been made of it, and its true nature is unknown to the natives. Yellow jasper rock occurs in the same neighbourhood, and also a compact cherty rock almost like flint. Quartz is very plentifully distributed throughout the district of Antsihanaka, and in some parts the hill-sides are covered with immense blocks of the pink or rose variety. On one hill, in addition to ordinary white quartz of every degree of transparency, I found the rose, milky, and smoky varieties, and also a bright blue Slone apparently quartz also. lmbedded in the quartz rock was a large crystal, over six inches across, of a dull-blue colour; but as I had no suitable tools with me, it was impossible to get anything but small pieces, into which it easily broke from the effect of long exposure of its upper surface to the weather. Probably it is kyanite. Evidences of former volcanic action are met with on all sides of the Lake Alaotra in this district; and some miles inland from the northernmost limit, where the land has risen to a considerable height, are various circular

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VARIETIES. depressions having all the appearance of ancient craters. In one instancP. conclusive evidence was afforded of the correctness of this opinion ; for a gully leading down from one of these depressions had been laid bare and showed cliffs of decided volcanic origin.-J. \VILLS. THE PROTO-MARTYR OF MADAGASCAR. IN the palatial residence of the Duke of Westminster, Eaton Hall, Cheshire, is a magnificent Gothic chapel, which is adorned by a series of stained glass windows, representing the "Te Deum." In one of the two opposite windows illustrating the verse, "The noble Army of Martyrs praise Thee," is a group containing the following figures :-"SS: Ignatius and Polycarp, Bishop Patteson, Ridley and Latimer with the candle, Savonarola, Huss, James Parnell, a [Quaker] lad of eighteen, who died a prisoner for conscience sake in Colchester Castle ; and, in the next compartment, SS. Viva Perpetua, Agnes, the child martyr, Felicitas, with Mary Dyar, Anne Askew and Rasalama (who suffered in Madagascar). The intention is to shew that martyrdom survives to our own day, and that it is by no means true that sacrifices are not still demanded as tests of Christianity.'' ( The Grajhz'c, Jan. 23, 1886, p. 100.) Little could the humble, patient, and simple-hearted Malagasy woman have imagined that within half a century of her death, her name would rank among the martyrs and saints of Christendom, and her figure be emblazoned with theirs in the chapel of one of the most ancient of England's Norman nobility.-ED. (J.S,) THE ETYMOLOGY OF 'ANTANANARIVO' AND 'ANDRL1.MANITRA.' I HAVE long had doubts as to the correctness of the usually received explanation of the meaning of the word Antananarivo, viz. 'City of a thousand Towns,' but could not find a better. Lately, however, in talking with an old and very intelligent Malagasy pastor, he suggested, I think, the right meaning, viz. that Tananarivo or Antananarivo is not 'City of a thousand Towns,' but 'City of a thousand Men,' the full name being, it seems, Tanana rivolahy ; because it had in former times a thousand soldiers stationed in it. _ The above St'ems to be by far the most likely explanation ; and as it is confirmed by others, I feel quite satisfied that it is the true one. The former explanation of the name of God, Andriamanitra, used to be 'The sweet scented Prince;' but some ten or twelve years ago, I got a very different explanation from one of the best and most intelligent of our Maia -gasy pastors, and his explanation was this: He said that mdnitra meant •fresh,' as well as 'fragrant,' and that the name Andriamanitra meant 'The fresh, the enduring, Andriana,' the one who never becomes corrupt. In illustration and confirmation of what he advanced, he told me that when Rada.ma I. died, the corpse was kept in the palace for about a fortnight, until the OQour from it was very strong indeed ; but no one dared to say what Martha said of her brother; on the contrary, with the most fulsome Jlattery, some of them said: "Andriamanitra tolwa izy,.fa mbola mani'tra ,{:a tJy maimbo akory" (''He is certainly God, for he is still fresh and does not smell at all"). The explanation was received at the time with some poohpoohing; but it seems now to be practically accepted as the best explanation of the name Andriamanitra, and has been incorporated in the recently re-arranged Malagasy-English Dictionary. Speaking of the name Andriamanitra, I am reminded of a note to a paper on "The Ancient Theism of the Hovas," by the Rev. '0.'. E. Cousins, in the first number of the ANNt:AL. After mentioning the various suggestions that had been made with regard to manz'lra, we have (3) "that manz'tra is

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VARIETIES. a lengthened form of many, and means weighty, powerful (a suggestion of Dr. Davidson); this meaning of many appears in the word manz'lahy, wealthly, powerful, and probably in manirano, dropsy (heavy from water?); comp. too French Diet., s.v. many" (ANNUAL No. I. 1875; p. 7). \Vith regard to manz'tra being a lengthened form of many, that is very likely indeed, as ka, tra, and na are most probably only suffixes; but I hardly think it is a lengthened form of that many which appears in manirano or manz'lahy, as it has no connection with 'weight' or 'power,' but means 'fetid.' Manz'rano, dropsy, does not mean 'heavy from water' at all; it is the name given to dropsy from the odour of the water that comes from the body when it is opened after death. Dropsy is one of the very few cases in which, if a person dies, the body is allowed to be opened, in order to let the water escape, as the people consider it would be wrong to bury one who has died of dropsy in the graves of their ancestors; and the smell of the water that comes from the corpse is such, that the disease is named from it, as they say it is just like rano many, i.e. stagnant, stinking water. In the Dictionary we find manz'lahy given thus: "Manz'lahy, s. and adj. [LAHY, masculine.] A fern used in vapour baths for malarial fever ..... Also wealthy, strong." Manz'lahy is a very strong-smelling grass (ahz'tra), I have been told ; of course it may be a kind of a fern, as perhaps the Malag-asy would not know the difference, and it emits such a strong odour when trodden upon that it is quite overpowering; and a man is said to be manz'lahy, because from personal prowess, or fierceness, or from wealth, he is able to bribe right and left, so that no one can stand before him.-T. T. MATTHEWS. LITERARY NOTES. NEW BOOKS ON MADAQASCAR. (1) Hz'stoz're Physique, Natu relle et Polz'tz'que de Madagascar, publz'ee par Alfred Grandz'clz'er. Vol. I. Geographz'e. Texte.-rre Partz'e. L' Imprimerie Nationale, Paris: 1885; pp. 96, 4to. ( 2) Notz'ce sur les Travaux Scz'en tzjiques de M. A ifred Grandz'clz'er. Gauthier Villars, Paris : 1884 ; pp. 54, 4to; avec deux C;irtes. EveryreaderoftheANNUALwill know the name of the eminent French travel !er and savant, M. Alfrid Grandidier, and will also know that for several years past he has been engaged in bringing out successive portions of his magnificent work descriptive of this island, which is to comprise no fewer than 28 quarto volumes, with many hundred illustrations in the finest style of chromo-lithography, as well as photographs. Although the volume on the geography of Madagascar is called the 'first,' it has been preceded by several others on the mammalia and birds of this country." By the courtesy of the author we have received a copy of the first part of the volume on geography, which consists solely of a historical account of the successive steps by which Madagascar has become known to the test of the world, from the era * For daks of publication of these, a~ well ae other particulars, see A M
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LITERARY NOTES. of Strabo and Ptolemy, through the has brought together a vast mass of Middle Ages, down to modern times. information about this country deriM. Grandidier, after a careful exam-ved from the most recent and trust-ination of all the data, believes worthy sources, and this is given in that Madagascar was the island veryfulldetail; scientific'proceedings' known to the ancients as Menu-and 'transactions,' mission reports, thi'as; and to Edrisi, thP. eminent consular returns, explorers' and mis. Arabian geographer, as Chezbezat. sionaries' journals, etc., etc., being An elaborate and minute account is all laid under contribution. The given in foot-notes of the steps by thorough and minute character of the which successive portions of the coast book may be seen from the fact that of the island became known and the first chapter, consisting of a were described by different explorers; "Historical Sketch" of the country, and particulars are given of the comprises no less than 176 pages, observations made for determining and contains in appendices copies of the longitude of various points on all the treaties with foreign powers the coast. Fiftyone pages of text from the year 1814 down to the are followed by forty-six pages of amendments of the Anglo-Malagasy tables giving the names and approx-treaty of Feb. 1883. The chapters imate positions of about 1600 places on geography and topography, na-on the coasts of Madagascar. Ano-tural history, population, manufac-ther part, issued together with this tures and trade, are also equally full; one of letter-press, contains a corn-and a bibliography of 23 pages plete series of fac-similes of all known contains a number of entries not maps of Madagascar, from the included in Mr. Sibree's Bi'bli'ogra earliest rude and imperfect attempts jhy published here last year. Accut9 delineate its outline, down to M. racy as to facts and native names, Grandidier's own maps. We hope etc., has been secured by the co-to give in the next number of the operation of several of the L.M.S. ANNUAL a very full account of the missionaries now or recently residing scientific researches of M. Grandi-in England. The numerous maps dier in this country, translated from give a special value to this book, one the work whose title is the second of them being contributed by M. of those given above. Grandidier. It will be noted that (3) Madagascar. An Historical Capt. Oliver only claims to be a and Descripti've Account o.f the 'compiler,' and large extracts are Island and its Dependenci'es. Com-made from previous books and pam j,i'led by Capt. S. Pasfield Oli'ver, phlets. Of new or original mformaF.S.A ., F.R. G.S. Macmillan and tion, therefore, with regard to Mada-Co., London: 1886; with 14 Maps gascar, there is not much in these and Diagrams; 2 vols., abt. 560 pp. volumes; but Capt. Oliver has shewn each. admirable industry in the way in Ever since Capt. (then Lieut.) Oliwhich he has brought together facts ver's first visit to Madagascar, more of all kinds from all sources, while than twenty-four years ago, as one he has arranged them so as to be of the sui'te of General Johnstone, at very easily referred to. As a book the time of the coronation of King of reference Capt. Oliver's MadaRadama II., he has retained a warm gascar must henceforth take its place interest in this country, and has as a standard work and indispensible written several books and papers to all who are interested in this relative to it and its people.• In the counLry. volumes now being printed ( of which The titles of the following Frc,nch a number of the proof-sheets only ,vorks are taken from Capt. Oliver's have as yet reached us) Capt. Oliver 'Bibliography' mentioned above: -~A Madagasc~--;-B;:;,li~.~rnflty, PP 29, 30; and ANNUAr.:-rx., PP r7-26, and 122,

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LITERARY NOTES. -----------------------------.. -----(4) JW:ada,g-ascar. Par .H. Cas ton net des Posses. Paris: 1884. (~; Vingi Ans a iW:adagascar, Coloni'zatzon, Tradi'tzons Historiques, MaJurs et Croyances; d'apres les notes du Pere Abina/ et des plusz'eurs missz'onaires de la Com pagnie de Jesus. Par le Pl;re de la Vaisszi;re, S.J. Pa1is: 1885. (6) La France et l'Angleterre a J,
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LITERARY NOTES. African ( especially Galla and Somali) elements being found diversely intermingled amongst the Hova, Sakalava, Betsimisaraka, and other native communities. The Comoro, Seychelles, an_d Mascarenhas (Mau rit1us, Reunion, and Rodriguez) archipelagoes are treated with equal thoroughness, and the work is provided with a map of the Indian Ocean, an index, and numerous wellexecuted woodcuts.-From Nature. (14) Etude comjar(itz'vedes langues Jv.[algache et Malaise, par le R. P. Jean, mz'ssionaire a Madagascar c 1884).'" Thi& is a small pamphlet of 11 pages, published by the Geographical Society of Paris, and preceded by a highly eulogistic introduction by M. Alfred Grandidier. The essay consists of a brief and orderly statement of similarities between the Malagasy and Malay languages noticed by the writer when reading the Malay Grammar of the Abbe Favre. t To those whose attention has never been ea lied to the evidence on which the Malagasy has long been recognised as belonging to the Malayan family of languages, this brief essay will be at once interesting and instructive ; but to those who are already familiar with the main lines of evidence, it will afford no little surprise that any one at this time of day should draw up such a statement as the above, apparently in the belief that he had struck a vein of gold hitherto unrecognised and unexplored. The main facts here given have long been well known, and have been set forth by such writers as Baron vV. Von Humboldt, Van der Tuuk, and Marre-de Marin, to say nothing of various papers that have appeared in the pages of this ANNUAL. One paragraph in Pere Jean's essay appears, however, to contain new matter, viz. his suggestion that the Malagasy causatives in mamjiand mampan are derived from the M,ilay forms in mem-jer; thus in Malay we have anak (child), beranak (to beget), mem-jer-anak-kan (to cause to beget). These forms do assuredly look wonderfully like their Malagasy equivalents: teraka (offspring, descendants), miteraka ( to beget, etc.), mamjiteraka (ta cause to beget, etc.). If this Malayan form mem-per were accepted as that out of whicl1 the Malagasy forms arose, the theory of Mr. Dahle (ANNUAL No. IV. p. _92) would of course fall to the ground. There seems, however, one serious objection to Pere Jean's theory,perhaps a fuller examination of kindred languages woulri show it not to be fatal-viz. that in the examples he gives, the kan and not the ber seems to be the particle that giws the notion of causation. This brief essay, though it cannot be regarded as producing anything new, is nevertheless a satisfactory statement, as far as it goes, and shows even to a casual reader how the similarities existing between the two languages comp<}red lie in their very nature and structure, and are not simply accidental likenesses in individual words. To one statement of the writer M. Grandidier very justly demurs, viz. that the Hova should be considered l the original form of the Malagasy I language. Evidence to the contrary . would not. we think, be far to seek. PAPERS AND PAMPHLETS ON MA DAGASCAR.-In the Comptes ren dues de l'Academze de Sciences of Paris (paper read July 20, 1885), is an article entitled :t "Observations on the Fauna of the Island of Great Comoro, to the north west of Madagascar, by MM. Milne-Edwards and E. Oustalet." From a careful study of the birds and mammals of this " This critical notice was written last year, but had to be omitted through the demands upon our space. t Grammaire de lei la1tg1te Jlfalaisc, par l'Abb(:, JJ. Favre. Vicmnc: Imprimcric lmp6riale et Royale, 1876. :t The titles of this ancl the following papers arc, of course, translations of the original French titles, which we arc unable to give, as the source of our information (iVature) gives them only in English.

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LITERARY NOTES. island the authors conclude that it is not a geographical dependence of Madagascar, that it was never attached to that region, and that its fauna has borrowed from the sur rounding lands. [Nature, July 30, 1885; p. 311.J In the same publication (paper read Aug. 3 1, r885J is an article entitled : "On certain points in the Physiological action of Tanguin, the Poison used in Ordeals in Madagascar." By M. Ch. E. Quinquand. [Nature, Sept. 17, 1885.J vVe have a contribution to Malagasy craniology in the fol!owing paper in the Bulleti'ns de la Soczite d'An throj,ologz'e de Parz"s, tome ix., fasc. i., 1886: "On certain Hova and Sakalava Skulls, by M. Trucy." "Both of these cranial groups are dolichocephalic, with an index of about 74, which is nearly the same as that of the Arabs of Algiers and the Pariahs of Bengal. The Hova and Sakalava appear to be more intelligent than any other tribes of Madagascar; but while the Sakalava q.ueen, the ally of France, submitted with her husband to be made the subject of careful anthropometrical observations, she enjoined upon the French officers to punish with death any one who opened or rifled a grave. It was consequently only by artifice and extreme circum,pection that M. Trucy was able to obtain crania or other human bones. In the discussion which followt•d, regarding the mixed characters of the Hova crania, MM. Topinard, Dally and others entered warmly into the question of typical and other distinctions of race." [,Va ture, June 24, 1886; p. 185.J In The Chronz'cle of the Lond. Mz'ss. Soc. for July, 1886. is a papn by the Rev. W. E. Cousins, entitled, "Bible Revision ,vork in Madagascar;" pp. 272-281 (reproduced at pp. 209-215, ante); and in the same publication for Oct. 1886, by the same writt'r, is a paper entitled, "Twenty five Years' Progress in Imcrina." In The ':Journal of the Royal Unz'ted Servz'ce Insti'tuti'on, vol. xxix. No. 132, is a paper by Capt. S. P. Oliver, F.R.G.S., etc., entitled, "Examples of Military Operations in Madagascar by Foreign Powers, and Native Campaigns, 1642 1881 ; pp. 1003-1044. Other political pamphlets are as follows: Mz'nz'stere des Affaz'res Etrangeres. Documents Dz'j,lomatz'ques. Affaz'res de Madagascar 1884-1886. Paris: r886. Raj,j,ort faz't au nom de la Com mz'ssz'on chargee d'examz'ner la ra tzjicatz'on du Traz'te du r7 Dec. 1885. (Govt. Papers.) Paris: 1886. In the Kolnz'sche Zez'tung, 1886, is a paper entitled, "Beschreibung des Festes der Fan..Q.IQana in Madagascar," by Mr. A. Levy. In the Edz'nburgh Revz'ew for Jan. 1886 is an article entitled, "France and Madagascar.'' In the Proceed z'ngs of the Scottz'sh Geographz'cal Socz'ety, 1886, is a paper by Rev. W. D. Cowan entitled, ''Travels in Eastern and Central Madagascar; the Present Condition and Commercial Future of that Island.'' MAPS OF MADAGASCAR.-"Carte des Environs de Tananarivo (Madagascar) par le P. Roblet, S.J. Echelle au 1/100,000." This map, of 15 in. by 12 in., shows the country as far as Ampirafaravato, 15 miles north of Antananarivo, and to Amboanjobe, 7 miles south of it, and from Ambo himalaza in the east, to Anosimanjika in the west. The streams, lakes and marshes are all shown in blue, and the mountains are shaded in brown. Every town and village is distinguished by a different mark, according to population, from hamlets of JO houses up to towns of more than 500 houses. This is a very pretty and useful map. In The Chronicle of the L.M.S. for February is a small map (5 in. by 4 in.) of the province of Antsihanaka by Rev. J. Sibree. This map illustrates a paper by Rev. J. Wills (also in the March number) entitled, "Tour among the Sihinaka." A new and much more perfect, as well as a larger, Map of Madagascar than any yet published in this country is now in course of preparation by Mr. W. Johnson of the F.F.M.A.

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LIT.ERARY NOTES. 257 WORKS IN MALAGASY.-Ny Fahasambarana sy ny Lalan' ny Fan /akany Jesosy Ifrazsty (Exposition of Mat. v., vi. and vii.), by Rev. T. T. Matthews. L.M.S. Press: 8vo, pp. 203.-Ny Fomba .F'ampz"anarana (Theory and Practice of Teaching and School Management), by H. F. Standing. F.F.M.A. Press: 8vo, pp. 140, with woodcuts and lith. illustrations. Tantara Maha.finar#ra (Stories and Anecdotes), collected by Rev. T. T. Matthews. L. M. S. Press: 12mo, pp. 137.-Lesona amy ny ICen-izstry, by H. F. Standing. F.F.M.A. Press: 12mo, pp. 95, with lith. illustrations.-.Fzlazana ny Dog-ma sasa ny eken" ny Ekklesia Angli"kana sy ny Ekklesza maro koa miray IComo nzona aminy. Nadikany F.A. Gregory, M.A. S. P. G. Press: 8vo, pp. xiv. and 445. (A translation of part of Bishop Harold Browne's well-known work on "The Thirty-nine Articles.") This is an important and valuable contriqution to Malagasy literature. It is the only work in the language that deals at all fully with dogmatic theology as a whole ; and though it is written from an Anglican standpoint and for Anglican students, it contains of course very much that Christians of all communions acknowledge and 'teach. Mr. Gregory has not translated the whole of the English work ; and apparently the Malagasy branch of the Anglican Church wi11 possess only 26 Articles, instead of the historic 39. The Introduction ( on the book of Nature and the book of Holy Scripture) contains a concise account of modern scientific doctrines, and strongly maintains the position, that 'evolution,' even if ultimately accepted universally, should by no means lead us to abandon our belief in the presence throughout the entire range of natural phenomena of intelligence and purpose. The fo1lowing Medical Publications by Dr. J. T. Fox have been issued from the F.F.M.A.. Press :-Ny Boky Klz"nz"kaly Voalohany, na Fomba Fzzalzana ny Marary (First Clinical Handbook), with illustrations ;-Lesona amy ny Anatomy, Nos. I. and II., with i1lustrati-0ns ;-Lektora ny amy ny Ratra, etc. (Lectures on Wounds and Hurts) ;-Sary amy ny Anatomy, Fiz. I. (Anatomical Drawings, 1st pt.) New Maps of Kanana and Pales faz"na (each 2 ft. 6 in. by I ft. 7 in.) have also been issued from the F.F.M.A. Press. BRIEF SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MADAGASCAR DURING 1886. POLITICAL-THE FRANCO-MALAGASY WAR. As every reader of the ANNUAL knows, the war between this country and France was terminated ( even before the issue of our last" number) by the conclusion of a treaty of peace signed at Tamatave on _th~ 12th o[ December, 1885. The pnnc1pal pomts of this treaty are as fo11ows : "The government of the French Republic will represent Madagascar in all its foreign relations;" "a French Resident with military escort will reside at Antananarivo," presiding "over the foreign relations of Madagascar, without interfering with the internal administration of the states of Her Majesty the Queen;" "Her Majesty the Queen of Madagascar will continue, as heretofore, to preside over the internal administration of the whole

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258 BRIEF SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS. island;" a sum of ten millions of francs is to be paid by the Malagasy Government in settlement of French ,claims, and of war damages, Tamatave to be occupied by French troops until the full payment of the said .sum ; and the French Government reserves to itself the right of occupying the Bay of Diego Suarez. Very .conflicting opinions have been expressed both in this country and by the European press as to the real bearing of this treaty upon the future -of Madagascar. \Ve will not attempt any discussion of these points, only expressing our sincere hope that the treaty may prove to have secured a lasting peace to this country, as well as a continuance of its independence, and an increase of its prosperity." On the 28th of January M. Patrimonio (French Consul-General at Zanzibar) and Admiral Miot came up to the Capital as French plenipotentiaries, and returned to the coast .after a week's stay in Antananarivo; and on the 14th of May the French Resident-General, M. le Myre de Vilers, with his suite, including _M. Buchard, Resident for the Capital, M. Daumas, Vice -Resident, and other officers, arrived in Antananarivo, and took up his residence in the city. The French flag was form ally hoisted again in the Capital on the 14th of July. The French Roman Catholic mission was also re-organized in the month of April, the Rev. Pere Cazet, formerly Apostolic Prefect, having been appointed Bishop. During the months of June, July and August, the troops which have been stationed respectively at ManJikandrianombana (near Tamatave), at Anorontsanga, and at Mojanga, for the past three years, returned to Imerina and were received with welldeserved honour and festivities by the Queen and the people. A new levy of troops has since been made, and the newly-organized regiments, to the number of from 15,000 to 16,000 men, were inspected by the Queen and Court at a great Review on the 2 I st of October. NEW GOVERNORS AND CONSUL. During the year several new Governors have been appointed to important positions in place of old inefficient officers. The English Consul for Madagascar, J. Hicks Graves, Esq., has retired, and Lieut. J. G. Haggard, R.N., has been appointed as his successor. COMMERCIAL. -Negociations have been proceeding for some time past for the establishment in Madagascar of a Bank by an English syndicate ; but nothing has yet been definitely arranged. A Telegraph to connect the Capital with Tamatave is to be constructed under French management. LITERARY.-REVISION OF THE MALAGASY BIBLE. The second and final revision is now making satisfactory progress. The Committee has revised to the end of the Psalms, and Mr Cousins, with his three native helpers ( Toseph Andrianaivoravelona, Andrian6ny, and Frank Rasoama nana) has reached the end of the Lamentations. The revision will prob ably be completed about May 1887. MEDICAL. -During-this year the medical missionaries connected with the missions of the F.F.M.A., L.M.S. and N.M.S. in Antananarivo have formed a Board for the more systematic and united teaching of their students, for examinations in medicine and surgery, and for the giving of a diploma to those students who successfully pass the final examinations. At a large meeting held in the Lecture Hall of the L.M.S. College on the 17th of September tl~e first diplomas were handed by His Excellency the Prime Minister to eight students, who will henceforth be entitled to put after their names the letters 'M.M.M.A.', i.e. 'Member * While these pages are passing through the press, it is announced that a French loan for the payment of French claims and war damages (see above) has been accepted by '.he Malagasy Government ; and that consequently Tamatave will soon be restored to the native authorities.

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BRIEF SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS. z59 -0f the Medical Missionary Academy.' The French Resident-General, together with most of the foreign community residing in the Capital, was also present on the occasion. TRAVELS AND EXPLORATION. -We see from Nature (p. 612, 1886, a) that Dr. Konrad Keller, a German ttaveller, was to make a scientific exploring expedition in this country, but we have no further particulars. Mr. Albert Daruty (de Grandpre), one of the secretaries of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius, accompanied by Mr. A. L. Michel, is now making a exploratory tour through the central and south-eastern parts of this island for the purpose of forming collections in natural history and botany. The Rev. R. Baron, F.L.S., has also made a journey of nearly four months' duration through the Antsihanaka province, Mandritsara, and and across the island to the northwest, to Anorontsanga, returning by way of Mojanga and Mevatanana. Although this journey was undertaken of course primarily for missionary work, we doubt not that we shall be able to give in our next number many noteworthy particulars of scientific interest collected by Mr. Baron during his long journey. NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. THE ORCHIDS OF MADAGASCAR. ' ' MR. H. M. Ridley read a paper on Orchids from Madagascar. The collection (fifty in number) was obtained by Mr. Fox in the neighbourhood of Imerina. Among them are three genera new to the flora of the island, viz. Arnottz"a, indigenous to the Mauritius; Brownleea, hitherto -Only known from South Africa; Holotlzrix, an East African representative. Another interesting novelty is Satyrz"um gzg-as."-Linnean Society; Dec. 17, 1885.-Nature, Dec. 24, 1885; p. 190. MADAGASCAR CROCODILES. "CUVIER, in the Ossenzents Fossi"les, p. 44, mentions a specimen of a crocodile from Madagascar brought by M. Havet, and considers it the same as the one from Continental Africa. I was inclined to do the same with two specimens of the young in spirits, which the Museum received as coming from Madagascar. Lately the British Museum has received a rather large specimen direct from Mr. Lormier, who has collected in Madagascar; and on comparing this specimen and the other two with specimens of C. vulgarz"s from Continental Africa, of about the same size, I find that they all have the beak rather longer and slenderer compared with its breadth, and with straighter sides. At the same time, the sides of the lower jaw of all the specimens from Madagascar are pale and marbled with darker spots, and the sides of the abdomen of the large stuffed specimens are marked with dark rounded spots placed in oblique cross lines,-two peculiarities which I have not observed in any of the specimens from Continental Africa. I am therefore inclined to think they indicate that the crocodile which inhabits Madagascar is distmct from that which inhabits Continental Africa; and I

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zbo NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. propose to call it Crocodzlus madagascarzensz"s. I have seen it somewhere observed that the crocodile of Madagascar is like the crocodile from America, Molz"nza acuta, but this is a mistake ; for though its head somewhat approaches in shape and proportion that of M. acuta, its skull and the shields of the body are those of a true crocodile. 11 Crocodz'lus madag-ascarzensz"s. The beak slender elongate,. with a slight ridge on each side of the central line, united just behind the nostrils. Sides of the lower jaw pale, with large irregular black spots. There are three specimens of this crocodile in the British Museum."-Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., in Proc. Zoo!. Soc. 1874; p. 154. "Among the recent scientific missions ordered by the French Minister of Public Instruction, we find the following: M. Bordas, to study the zoology of the Madagascar Islands, of the Seychelles .and Comoros."....,. Nature; July 2, 1885; p. 2og. "Entomologz'cal Society; March 3, 1886. Mr. W. J. Williams exhibited on behalf of Mr. C. Bartlett, a gigantic hairy and spiny larva, perhaps allied to Gastrojacha, from Madagascar."-..iVature; Mar. 11, 1886; p. 455. It may interest those who study the natural history of Madagascar to hear that a specimen of a male Aye-aye has recently been obtained by the Rev. J. Wills from the upper belt of forest to the east of Imerina. Hitherto it had been believed that this animal was confined to the lower and hotter forest region of the country ; but it appears to have a wider range than was formerly supposed to be the case.-EDs. RAINFALL OF ANTANANARIVO FOR THE YEAR 1886. Month. No. of days rain fell., Quantity., Rainfall for r885. Average fall from r88r-r884. inches inches inches. January .... 14 days 2 16 13, February .. 12 " 4 14ro 7'78 March ... 14 " II 14 2 8 April ..... 6 " I l "22 I '41 May ...... 4 " June ...... 3 " '21 'II July ...... 2 " oo August .... I " September .. 2 " 2 October .... l " 3 I 4o November .. " 3 5 5 December .. 23 " 19 8 9 Total .... \ 94 days I 47 I 52 I 52 ED. (J.S.)