Citation
Elementary Zulu

Material Information

Title:
Elementary Zulu a course of easy elementary lessons in the Zulu language
Creator:
W., M. F.
Place of Publication:
Cape Town
Publisher:
Juta & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
zulu
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Zulu language -- Grammar ( LCSH )
Genre:
Grammars
Temporal Coverage:
- 1921
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- South Africa -- Western Cape -- Cape Town
Coordinates:
-33.925278 x 18.423889

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
399167 ( ALEPH )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
EASY ELEMENTARY LESSONS

IN THE ZULU LANGUAGE

Intended Chiefly for Beginners and Junior Pupils

JOHANNESBURG. PORT ELIZABETH.

1921




ELEMENTARY ZULU

A COURSE OF

EASY ELEMENTARY LESSONS

IN THE ZULU LANGUAGE

Intended Chiefly for Beginners and Junior Pupils

By M. F. W.

JUTA & CO. Ltd.

CAPE TOWN. JOHANNESBURG. PORT ELIZABETH.
1921




PREFACE,

In introducing this little work on the study of Elementary
Zulu, I may perhaps be permitted to state briefly the reasons
â– which induced me to compile it, and to touch upon one or two
other points.

First, then, I wish to emphasise the word “ Elementary ” in the
title. The book has no pretensions beyond such as would be
thus indicated.

Second, I may say that in past years I have had considerable
experience of school-work in South Africa. It has occurred to me
as being somewhat remarkable that no systematic endeavours
have been made (so far as I am aware) to teach in the ordinary
school curriculum at least a sufficient knowledge of the Zulu
language to boys of European descent or parentage.

By the words “sufficient knowledge” I mean such a knowledge
as would be of service to them in their ordinary daily dealings
with the natives. I will go further and say—such a knowledge
as would enable them to study and to make good and intelligent
progress in Zulu, whi<& most certainly would be of the very
greatest service to them in fulfilling the various duties and
offices which they may be called upon to undertake in later years.

Now such a knowledge may be of the greatest utility and im-
portance. It may certainly be affirmed that a good knowledge
of Zulu is undoubtedly most desirable for almost every white
person resident in Natal, the Transvaal, and the adjoining por-
tions of South Africa. One is constantly coming into touch with
natives, and hence one feels constantly the need of some acquaint-
ance with the language spoken by them.

As regards books in Zulu, there are many to be had, and some
of them are excellent. The knowledge they impart is without
doubt of great service in many cases. But I think that they will
be found of only limited service to beginners and to junior pupils

One fault is that they seem to presume some previous know-
ledge or insight on the part of their readers, such as very
often does not exist. Again, they have always seemed to me to


fail in not being sufficiently full in the explanation of difficult
points, and also to fail in not being graduated carefully and
easily, so as to render it possible that progress may be at once
easy and sure.

These are some of my objections to these volumes, and my
remarks are based on a certain amount of practical experience in
the teaching of this subject especially with regard to those who
were quite new to it, or nearly so.

It is therefore my wish to offer in the present volume, an
Elementary Course, as practical, gradual and simple as possible.
As to subject matter, I make no claim to originality; as to
method, form, and treatment, I do make some claim, however.

I trust that the book may be of service, especially to those
for whom it is particularly intended. I have aimed as far as
possible at correctness, clearness, and easy progress from the
simple to the more difficult portions of the subject.

There are, I feel sure, many faults and defects in the book.
For all such, I ask indulgence. It is no easy task tq render
simple and readily learnt such a language as Zulu. Here one’s
previous knowledge of European languages is of very slight help.
Hence I ask a forbearing and indulgent judgment upon many
imperfections.

. The book is Elementary. While the Zulu given in it may, in
a sense, be considered as quite correct, and as being sufficient
on many occasions to enable one to deal with the natives, and
furthermore as having been revised and passed by several persons
of competent knowledge and experience, yet there is something
more to be said regarding it. One must realise that the native
habits of thought, and the resultant expression in words differ
most widely from those of Europeans.

Hence one may say that the first thing to be done is to know
enough through study and practice to understand, and be under-
stood by, natives.

This much may be accomplished wholly or in part by the help
of the present volume.

The second object to be striven for is to get, through con-
versation, study of native books and papers, and the publications
of whites who know Zulu, real Zulu, thoroughly, an insight into
the real language as spoken by natives amongst themselves.


This is a most instructive study, and of great interest, for it is
not. merely “learning Zulu” in the true and full mean-
ing of the words, but is also a study of the native mind and heart.

In concluding these remarks, I may add that among my pupils
at different times were some who were “well-up” in spoken Zulu.
These came as a rule from farms or country stores But though
they spoke fluently, they failed on two points. They could not
write or spell the language, and they had practically no idea of
its grammatical construction. To such as these, amongst others,
I trust that this little volume may prove useful.

M.F W.

CONTENTS.

Page

Preface .... 3

Introductory Remarks .... 7

The Alphabet, Pronunciation, etc. 8

Methods regarding Exercises, Notes, etc. 10

Verb, Infinitive and Indicative, Present Tense 12

Click “ C ” 15

Notes on Verbs in “ isa ” 17

The Infinitive as Verbal Noun, etc. 18

Place of Adverbs 19

Direct Objective Case (distinguished from Nominative) 20

Verb : Interrogative Form 22

Nouns: 1st Class: umu um u (aba o) 24

Position of Objective case 25

Order of words in simple sentences 26

Adjectives and Adverbs 29

Click “ Q ” 31

Nouns: 2nd Class 32

Click “ X ” .. 36

Nouns: 3rd Class .. .. .. .. .. 41

Verb: Imperative Mood, Affirmative and Negative 44

Supplementary Lesson; General Remarks 47

Nominative of Address, or Vocative Case 50

Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense 50

Particles: Pi, Ni, Nini, ngani, etc. 51

Nouns: 4th Class .... 53

Verb: Indicative, Simple Future 58

Zaku, yaku, etc. 59


CONTENTS, Con.

Page

Nouns: 5th Class .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 61

Nouns: 6th Class ........................................67

Verb: Imperative with Objective Case prefixed .. .. 68

Nouns: 7th Class Abstract nouns .. .. .. .. .. 70

Nouns: Sth Class : Infinitives .. .. .. .. .. 74

Imperative mood; Passive form of Present Tense; affirm.

and negat. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 75

Verb: Past Indicative, and Future (2nd form) .. .. 78

Adjective used as Epithet.............. ................. 82

Phrases.............. .. .. .. .. . . .. 85

Adjectives and Particles; Degrees .. .. .. .. 86

Eduze, pezu, kude, nganeno, petsheya, pansi, etc. .. .. 88

Subjunctive mood .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 89

Ukuba, funa,' etc., ekaya................................90

Synopsis of Part II. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 93

Proper Nouns of Places in Natal, etc............... .. 94

Phrases................................ .. .. .. 96

Vocabulary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97

Nouns according to Class .. *.......................98

Particles .. ... .................. .. .. .. 102

Verbs regular, causative, etc............................102

Adjectives .... .. ........................104

Adverbs .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104

Pronouns — with a concluding Note .......................105


7

Introductory Remarks.

The Zulu Language bears a comparatively slight resemblance
to European languages. It has had a grammar compiled for it,
by European writers, however, and this grammar is modelled as
far as possible on those grammars which have been made from
the material existing in the languages of the writers. Yet the
Zulu grammatical forms differ very widely in many instances
from those found in European languages. This point must be
carefully attended to, from the very commencement, when one
studies this language.

For example, Nouns are arranged in eight separate and dis-
tinct classes, according to their Prefixes and each class has a
separate corresponding form of personal (and other) pronouns
used with it exclusively. These pronouns are always used with,
and in addition to the noun itself: thus

Umuntu means a man, a person, an individual,
loba means writes.

Yet one must not say “ umuntu loba',” “the man writes;”
the pronoun “u” which belongs to the same class as “umuntu,”
must be used with it; thus,

“ Umuntu u loba ” which literally means, “the man he writes.”

This is an invariable rule in the Zulu language.

Again the form of the pronoun may change the tense (the

meaning as regards time,) of

Ngi vuma — I agree (Simple
present tense.)

Nga vuma — I agreed
(Simple past tense.)

However, the Verbs have also
many tenses; for example:

Ngi vumile — I have agreed
(Perfect tense).

verb. Thus:

Bengi vuma — I was agree-
ing. (Past progressive
tense.)

special forms of their own in

Angi vumanga — I did not
agree. (Past emphatic
negative.)


• 8

Many similar instances might be given, but enough has been
said to draw the attention of the student to the fact that Zulu
differs in many important particulars from European languages.

These particulars, then, deserve very special attention from all
who desire to know this language well, and every endeavour is
made in the following pages to bring them prominently before the
notice of the student.

Note.

A Vocabulary arranged in the manner that the present writer
considers the most practical and useful, will be found at the
end of the book. To it, he begs to refer the student when in
doubt or difficulty regarding any of the words used in the book.
Special and irregular plurals will usually be found indicated, in
brackets, after the singular form of the nouns.

(It is almost needless to say that any suggestions, comments,
critical remarks, etc, will be most gratefully received by the
present writer at any time. They may be addressed to him, c/o
Office of the Publishers.)

(A general, table of Contents will be found at the end of the
book, but from the nature of the Methods, followed, in the volume,
this table can only be regarded as, in general, indicating where
the subjects mentioned begin to be treated.)

PRONUNQIATION OP the alphabet.

European letters have been adjusted, as far as possible, to
the expression of Zulu sounds. As a rule, the letters have the
same value. The exceptions, and some general remarks, given
below, should be studied.

VOWELS.

a is pronounced as a in father.
e is pronounced as e in where.
i is pronounced as i in machine.
0 is pronounced as 0 in no.
u is pronounced as u in rule.


9

DIPHTHONGS.

ay is pronounced as ah-hee (joined closely and pro-
ai au is pronounced as ah-oo nounced quickly.) (joined closely and pro-
eu is pronounced as eh-oo nounced quickly.) (joined closely and pro-

nounced quickly.)

CONSONANTS.

j is pronounced as j in join
S is pronounced as g in go (never soft as in gem).
k is pronounced as a sound between k and g in Eng- lish.
r is pronounced as a rough h, pronounced partly in the throat.
hl is pronounced as shl (or thl)
dhl is pronounced as dshl (or dthl).
CLICKS: C j Q> and x.

are usually reserved for the expression of certain click
sounds, peculiar to the language. These will be explained
later.

All letters not mentioned here, are pronounced as in English.
The accent of words, while fairly well distributed over the whole
of a word, yet tends to emphasis on the penultimate syllable;
that is, the last syllable "but one; and sometimes in speaking, the
last syllable itself is almost silent, or altogether so.

Some writers favour the introduction in certain words of
an “h” after “b”; thus, “bheka” instead of “beka”; also the
introduction of a “t” before the letter “s” in certain words; thus,
“dontsa,” instead of “donsa”. These additional letters are said to
be needed to express a particular inflection of the voice in these
and other similar words. It may, however, I think, be looked
upon as an open question as to whether one should adopt these
changes or not.

A slight accent-mark (') will, however, be found useful
occasionally, and has been introduced in connection with certain
words in this book.


10

METHOD OF USING THE EXERCISES.

In the first instance the exercise is to be done in the usual
way.

Having translated, for example, from Zulu into English, the
next thing to do, is to close the printed book for a few minutes,
and then proceed to re-translate the exercise just written by
yourself in English, back to Zulu.

Now open the printed book again, and compare carefully your
Zulu version with what is given in the book, noting and correct-
ing all mistakes, endeavouring at the same time to find the
reason of their occurrence; then rewriting the whole correctly.

The same process should be followed in the alternative case,
English into Zulu, in all details.

Thus, two exercises will be at once provided for every one
given in the book. If the pupil follows this plan, his progress
may be sZowe?’, but it will certainly be much surer. There can be
no doubt, besides, that great familiarity with words and with
•construction and arrangement of sentences in Zulu, will be readily
acquired; and further, the memory will be helped so much, that
the tedious task of memorizing will be almost entirely removed.

METHODS AS REGARDS THE NOTES, RULES, AND
REMARKS.

It is practically impossible for most people, to remember,
word for word, a large number of notes and rules, however useful
and necessary they may seem to be. The following method of
overcoming this difficulty is recommended as at once simple,
practical and efficacious. Take a rule or note. Read it over two
or three times attentively and carefully. When you consider
that you have obtained a good and clear idea of the substantial
meaning of it, close the book, and go over the rule in your mind
for a minute or two. Then reopen the book and read the rule
once more, this time comparing your own idea, with the meaning
of the rule, as expressed in the book.

This little exercise of the mind will be found to produce an
excellent effect, and the practice of it need not be limited to
Zulu, but can be extended to any subject of study, almost, and
it produces most useful and excellent results.


11

If it be used, together with the method already explained
regarding the Exercises, it may be looked upon as quite a mental
training in a small way. But it ought to be done seriously and
thoroughly as well as constantly.

In addition to the foregoing, one may also, in a general way,
advise the student when he has reached, say, the middle of the
bdok, to turn back, and read over again,—in fact, to review
thoroughly,—the matter which he has already gone through.
Many points will be found to have escaped his attention, or so
I think he will find; and, in any case, his recollection of all
important points will be made much fresher; his knowledge of the
subject-matter will be made much more familiar and thorough;
and he will be, as it were, more competent to deal with the re-
maining part of the book, and so to bring his studies to a suc-
cessful conclusion.

If the plan just mentioned should not commend itself to the
student, then at least, reviews of what has been done during
each week, should be regularly made, and will help to attain the
same end.


12

ELEMENTARY ZULU.

LESSON FIRST.

Verb Active; Indicative Mood; Present Tense;

— (taken together with) —

SIMPLE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

Uku tanda — to love, to like.

In English, the word “ to ” is the sign of the Infinitive Mood
of the Verb. “Uku” (or ukw before a vowel) is the sign of tlie
Infinitive in Zulu.

Uku tanda, is Present Infinitive.

INDICATIVE PRESENT (Simple).
Singular. Plural.

1st. person love. Ngi tanda — I Si tanda — We love
2nd. person U tanda — thou Ni tanda — You love
lovest.
3rd. person U tanda — he Ba tanda — They love.

loves.

In the above tense, u tanda, when emphasised on the u, means
thou lovest (or you love, when speaking to only one person) ;
and when emphasised on the tanda, it means, he (she or it)
loves.

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE OR EMPHATIC.

Singular. Plural.

1. Ngiya tanda — I am loving

2. Uya tanda — You are

loving

3. Uya tanda — He is loving

Siya tanda — We are loving.
Niya tanda — You are loving.

Baya tanda — They are lov-
ing.


13

The remark just made regarding “ u tanda ”, applies also to
“ uya tanda ”.

Ngiya. tanda, Siya tanda, etc. may also mean: I do love, We
do love, etc. This is the Emphatic form.

Ngi is pronounced as ngee; not as ing-ee.

U is pronounced as oo; not as you.

Si is pronounced as see; not as sigh.

Ni is pronounced as nee; not as nigh.

Ba is pronounced as bah; not as bay.

Ngiya is pronounced as ngee-yah; not as ingee-ya.

Baya is pronounced as bah-yah; not as bay-a.

(See pronunciation of Alphabet already given.)

The Personal Pronouns (Simplest forms) then are:

Ngi — I. Si — We.

U — You (or thou) . Ni — You.

U — He, she, it. Ba — They.

These are used with the Present, and Perfect (Present-
complete) Tenses of the Verb.

In the Progressive and Emphatic forms, a slight addition (ya)
appears:

Ngi becomes Ngiya. Si becomes Siya.

U becomes Uya. Ni becomes Niya.

TJ becomes TJya. Ba becomes Baya.

These are only used with the Present Tense, Indicative.
Observe how a slight change in the pronoun-form, shows a change
in the precise meaning of the Verb. This feature of the Zulu
language has already been referred to, in the introductory re-
marks. Other instances will be noted later on.

The forms Ngiya, Uya, and the rest, are often used also when
there is no noun-nominative expressed, and consequently the
pronoun alone appears as nominative to the verb. This may be
the case even though the meaning of the Verb be neither pro-
gressive nor emphatic.

With regard to the third person pronoun-forms, both in Singu-
lar and Plural, it may be said here that these are subject to
special changes. The rules regarding them will be introduced,
one after another, as needed.


14

EXERCISE 1A.

Write out in full, in Zulu and in English, the Present Tense
Indicative; both Simple and Progressive forms; of the Verbs:

Uku siza — to help.
Uku tenga — to buy.
Uku bona — to see.

Uku biza — to call.

Uku kuluma — to talk.
Uku funda — to read.

Give the English of the Emphatic form of the two last Verbs.

EXERCISE IB.

Translate:

1. Ngiya siza.

2. Uya tenga.

3. Siya funda.

4. U bona.

5. Uya bona.

6. Niya kuluma.

7. Babiza.

8. Baya funda.

9 Baya kuluma.

10. Ngi tenga.

11. Niya bona.

12. Uya biza.

(Note.—The pronoun is occasionally joined to the verb.}

LESSON SECOND.

Present Indicative (Continued).

VOCABULARY: Verbs.

Siza — help, assist.

Biza — call, demand, ask for.
Bona — see, observe, notice.
Buza — enquire, ask about.
Busa — be glad, be happy.
Donsa — pull, draw along,

lead.

Funda — read, learn.

Baca — hide, conceal one’s
self.

Buta — gather, collect.

Buya — return, come back.
Bema — take snuff, smoke.
Linga —- try, attempt, en-

deavour.

Dhla — eat.

Sebenza, work.

Some writers favour the insertion of a “t” between the n and
s in such verbs as donsa, thus, “ dontsa ”.


15

Distinguish well the difference in sound as well as in spelling
between such words as buza and busa. The z having a softer
sound than the s, follows the same line of pronunciation as in
English.

Note (a)—The verb baca has just been introduced. As was
mentioned in the Alphabet, the letter “ C ” is reserved for one
of the click sounds.

The click “ C ” is usually produced by placing the tip of the
tongue against the inside of the upper gums in the mouth, and
then drawing it back rather briskly. The resulting sound is the
click “ C ”. It is a little difficult at first to combine the pronun-
ciation of the click with that of the word in which it appears.
Practice, patience, and close attention to the speech of natives,
or others who have already mastered the difficulty, will help the
learner very much. Apply these remarks to the pronunciation of
baca, and of all Zulu words in which the letter ‘F C ” appears.

EXERCISE 2A.

1. I am helping. 2. They are enquiring. 3. He is happy.

4. We are calling. 5. They are hiding themselves. 6. She is
gathering. 7. He is returning. 8. He is eating. 9. They take
snuff. 10. You see. 11. They work. 12. We do learn. 13. He
does pull. 14. I do try. 15. I am reading. 16. You are eating.

17. He is trying to work (ukusebenza). 18. You (plural) are

sending. 19. You (singular) learn. 20. They are leading.
21. We are helping.

EXERCISE 2B.

1. Si siza. 2. Ubuza. 3. Ngi busa. 4. Ba biza. 5„ Niya baca.

6. Ba buta. 7. Siya bona. 8. Ngi buya. 9. Niya bema.
10. Ngiya linga. 11. Siya donsa. 12. Uya tanda, 13. Baya
kuluma. 14. Ba dhla. 15. Ni funda. 16. Siya sebenza. 17. Uya
linga ukudonsa (to pull).

Write out present simple of uku linga — to attempt; also
present progressive or emphatic of uku busa — to be glad.


16

Remarks.

.As the student goes on, he should as far as possible, commit
to memory the tenses of the Verb, as given; the Vocabularies;
and the substance of the remarks or notes.

He ought also to read or speak aloud any Zulu words already
acquired, so as to make the sounds familiar to his ears? This
may be done when alone; or, for purposes of criticism and cor-
rection, in the company of a European who knows the language
well, or even in the presence of a Zulu native. However, as to
the last mentioned, I cannot say that- I very much recommend
the practice. Apart from the peculiarity of the minds of Natives,
one may quite possibly pick up wrong accents and distorted
words from ignorant Natives, and one can hardly hope to acquire
any language correctly from those who, being young or ignorant,
may indeed speak their own language correctly in some fashion,
but yet on account of their want of experience, and of accurate
knowledge, are scarcely competent for the correct guidance of
beginners.

When the student has made good progress in Zulu, then he
may, with greater safety and profit, have recourse to the help of
intelligent natives.

LESSON THIRD.

Present Indicative (Continued)

VOCABULARY: Fer&s.

Tenga — buy.

Tengisa — sell.

Kuluma — speak, talk.

Loba — write.

Bala — count, write, trans-

Tanda — love, like, wish for.
Lima —- plough, hoe.

Hlakula — weed-, (as a garden

late.

Fundisa — teach, instruct.
Hlupa — annoy, be trouble-

or field).

Tshaya — strike.

Gijima — run.

Bonga — praise, thank.
Kuleka — salute, honour, wor-

some (to).

Hleba — speak ill of, slander.
Hleka — laugh, laugh at.

ship.

Bopa — bind, tie up.

Kala — cry, croak, scream.


17

Such words as “ Tshaya ” need some care in pronunciation.
The sounds in tshaya are very nearly the same as “ t-shy-ah ”
would be in English,

(a) One may also observe rather frequently such verbs as
tenga, tengisa; funda, fundisa; buya, buyisa; such verbs are
evidently related to one another. Although this will be treated
of, more fully, later, still one may say here, that while tenga
means “ to buy ”, tengisa, means “ cause to buy ”, that is “ to
sell,” as regards a customer or person who can be led to pur-
chase something that one has for sale; funda means “ to learn ”,
fundisa, “ to cause to learn ”, that is “ to teach ”; buya, “ to
come back ”, buyisa, “ to cause to come back ”, that is “ to bring
back ”, and so on. For this reason, tengisa and such verbs are
called causative verbs, and the ending “ isa ”, frequently points
to the causative form of a verb.

EXERCISE 3A.

1. Ngi tenga. 2. Siya tengisa. 3. Uya sebenza. 4. Si busa.

5. Baya kuluma. 6. Ngi tanda. 7. Niya lima. 8. Siya hlakula.

9. Ngiya loba. 10. Uya fundisa. 11. Siya bala. 12. Baya gijima.

13. Ukala. 14. Ngiya tshaya. 15. Si tengisa. 16. Ba bonga.
17. Uya mba.

EXERCISE 3B.

1. You are speaking ill. 2. I am laughing. 3. They are trouble-
some. 4. We salute. 5. You are ploughing. 6. I am digging.

7. We do love. 8. I am striking. 9. I like to teach (uku
fundisa). 10. You like to read (ukufunda). 11. We wish to sell
(ukutengisa). 12. I want to buy (ukutenga). 13. They desire
to learn (ukufunda). 14. They wish to come back (ukubuya).
15. I want to dig (ukumba). 16. They teach; we learn.

17. We like reading (reading = to read = ukufunda).

18. You are calling; they are running. 19. I am counting; he is
writing.

Funa v — want, wish for. mba — dig (as with a spade),

kuleka v — salute.


18

b) Same writers make distinction between bala = write and
bala = count. Thus the first is written “ bhala ■*, and the other
“ bala ”; or again, the first is marked b£la, the first “ a ”
(accented) being pronounced as “ah”; whereas the other word
is pronounced with a very short “ a ”.

(c) mba means dig, in the ordinary sense; lima, to work the
ground, as in ploughing, etc. This is the usual distinction.

LESSON FOURTH.

Verb Active: Infinitive Mood.

PRESENT TENSE.

The Infinitive as will have been noticed already, is shown by
the particle uku; this becomes ukw, when it occurs before a
vowel. Thus:—

Ukubiza —• to call. TJkukanya — to shine.

Ukubuyisa — to send back. Ukw ala — to refuse.

Ukutula — to keep quiet. Ukw azi — to know.

The Infinitive present may be used as a Verbal Noun, as in
English. When it is used in this sense, it forms the Eighth
Class of Nouns in Zulu.

These nouns will be dealt with in their turn later on.

The “ uku ” or “ ukw ” is usually joined to the Verb: as,
ukubona, ukwazi, ukukala.

EXERCISE 4A.

1. We are buying. 2. I wish to know. 3. He wants to refuse.

4. They seek (funa) to slander. 5. We want to run. 6. They
like to buy; he wishes to sell. 7. They are trying (linga) to
write well. 8. They like laughing (to laugh = ukuhleka) very
much. 9. They are weeding; they are trying to work well.

10. She (uya) likes to talk very much. 11. We are laughing.


19

they are crying. 12. We are teaching; they keep quiet; they
are trying to learn well. 13. He cries. 14. We are coming back
now. 15. You are very troublesome; (say — troublesome very
much).

EXERCISE 4B.

1. Si funa ukwazi manje. 2. Ni tanda ukubonga. 3. Baya
kala kakulu manje. 4. Ngi kuluma futi. 5. Uya funa
ukuhlakula manje. 6; Uya tanda ukufunda kahle. 7. Baya
hlupa kakulu.

Write out the Present Infinitive in Zulu of:

dig gather Salute try
send back pull help laugh
know come back work seek
annoy refuse plough teach
eat talk run sell
cry see slander be silent, (keep
quiet).
VOCABULARY: : Adverbs.
Manje — now. Kahle — well, nicely.
futi —* again, once more. kakulu —• very much, very.

Adverbs usually come immediately after the verb, or at the
end of the sentence, but may (and should) be inserted in the
particular part that they are needed to emphasise: (never,
however, between pronoun and verb).

(a) Very particular attention is recommended with regard to
the exact spelling of Zulu words. Unless exactness be constantly
practised, confusion and doubt, as to what a word really means,
may arise later. Many words, in this language, as in others,
differ from one another very slightly in spelling. Care, there-
fore, is needed, as to exact spelling, and indeed, as to correct
meaning, also.

(b) All words and exercises, in Zulu, ought, not only to be
written and learnt, but also to be read aloud a few times, slowly,
distinctly, and even emphatically. This practice will be found
of good service in time. Emphasis, however, is to be used with
great moderation, in ordinary matters.


20

LESSON FIFTH.

Personal Pronouns.

DIRECT OBJECTIVE CASE.

The forms of the Simple Objective, given below,, should be
compared with the forms of the Nominative, given in Lesson
First.

Singular.

1. Ngi — me.

2. ku —• you.

3. m (or mu) — him (her,

Plural.

Si —• us.

Ni — you.
Ba — them.

it.)

(a) The remark already made in Lesson First, with reference
to the JMrd-person pronoun-forms of the Nominative, applies
here also. The forms of third-person pronouns depend always
upon the nouns, according to what particular class those nouns
belong to. Full explanations regarding this will be given when
the nouns are being dealt with. Meanwhile, the personal pro-
nouns, Nominative and Objective, already given, are perhaps
the simplest forms, and should be carefully noted.

(b) The place of the objective pronoun is just before the Verb,
in a sentence. It consequently comes between the Nominative
pronoun and the Verb: thus :—

Ngi m bona (literally “I him see”,) — I see him.

Siya ni biza (literally “ We you call ”) — We call you.

(c) The particle “ ya ”, added sometimes to the Nominative
pronoun (simple form), is never added to the objective form;
thus the Nominative may be “ ba ” or “ baya ”, but the corres-
ponding objective is “ ba ” only.


21

EXERCISE 5A.

1. Baya ni funa. 2. Siya m bona. 3. Ngiya m biza. 4. Uya ni
hleka. 5. Uya si tanda. 6. Ngi m bamba. 7. Niya ngi siza.

8. Uya ku hleba. 9. Ngiya ni kuleka. 10. Baya ni bonga.

11. Siya baca. 12. Ngi ni fundisa. 13. Uya si tshaya.

14. Ngiya ba geza. 15. Si m buyisa. 16. Uya funa ukufunda.
17. Niya bema kakulu manje. 18. Siya kuluma futi. 19. Ngiya
donsa kahle. 20. Ngi ku bonga manje.

EXERCISE 5B.

1. He wants to know them. 2. We like him very much.
3. They are laughing at us. 4. They are talking again now.

5. We thank you. 6. ITe is looking for you. 7. They salute us.
8. He is striking it again. 9. We are smoking. 10. They pull
him; he wishes to refuse. 11. He is hiding himself again, to-day.

12. They speak ill of me. 13. They annoy us very much.

14. We wish very much to help him (to help him = uku m siza).

15. He teaches them; they read well. 16. They are working well,

but he is talking again very much. 17. I praise you now.

IS. We try to help you (to you help = uku ni siza). 19. You are
working well. 20. He laughs at you very much. 21. I am.
washing.

VOCABULARY: Verbs.

Geza — wash.

Bamba — hold, catch or take hold of.

Kodwa (conjunction) — but. Namhla, namhlanje, namuhla =
to-day.

Namhlanje is perhaps the most usual form of the three words
used for “ to-day ”. They are all derived from “ mhla ” which
means “ day ”.

As already shown in the exercise, such portions of a sentence
as “ to see us ”; “ to strike him ”, and so on, are translated as if
they were “to us see ”, “ to him strike ”, thus:

uku ngi hleba — to slander me.
uku ba bulala — to kill them,
uku ku bonga — to praise thee.

Note.—The above are frequently written thus:

ukungihleba ukubabulala ukukubonga, etc.


22

LESSON SIXTH.

Verb Active: Interrogative Form.

€}uestions, asked aloud, depend a good deal on the tone or
inflection of the voice. For written or printed questions, the
note of interrogation (?) is used. This is very often represented
by the particle “ na ” used after the verb, or at the end of a
sentence; both in written and spoken Zulu. “ Na ”, however,
though very frequently used, is occasionally omitted. This
appears to depend somewhat on the form which the question
takes. Observation of the usage of intelligent natives, on this
and other points is a good means of getting a clear idea of how
to use it. Suitable examples, will, however, be provided in this
book, so as to help the learner.

Examples:—

Ni m tanda na (literally “You like him?”) —Do you like him?
Ngiya ku siza na (literally I am helping you?) — Am I helping

you?

Ba ni funa na (literally They are looking for you?) — Are they
looking for you?

Niya ngi hleka na (literally You are laughing at me?) — Are you
laughing at me?

Uya m bona na — (literally You see it?) — Do you see it?

(a) In colloquial English, we frequently hear such questions
as: You are laughing at me, are you? You see it plainly, don’t
you? These, and such questions as the voice indicates by its
tone, are rendered by the direct question form as given above,
when they are asked in Zulu.

(b) If this book be used in Class-work, or teaching privately,
the Master is recommended to practise constantly the asking of
simple questions in Zulu; taking care that the answers be given
as correctly as possible, in Zulu also.


23

EXERCISE 6A.

1. Do you praise her? 2. I am looking for you. 3. We salute
him; does he saute you? 4. Do you wish to learn well? 5. Is he
working to-day? 6. Do I annoy you very much? 7. Are you
helping them? 8. Am I troublesome? 9. Is he cooking now?
10. Am I silent? 11. Is she sick? 12. Are you eating again?

13. Is he writing to-day again? 14. Do you speak ill of me?
15. They are looking at me now.

EXERCISE 6B.

1. Ngiya hleba na? 2. Uya gijima na? 3. Uya funda kahle na?

4. Siya hlupa na? 5. Niya sebenza lapa na? 6 Uya m bona
lapaya? 7. Ehe, siya m bona lapo. 8. Baya ngi biza na?

9. Ewe, baya ku biza futi. 10. Baya gijima kahle na? 11. Yebo,
ba gijima kahle kakulu. 12. Niya fundisa namhlanje impela.
13. Niya ba siza kakulu na? 14. Baya ngi kuleka futi manje?
15. Ehe, Baya ku kuleka kakulu.

VOCABULARY: Adverbs.

Ehe, ewe, yebo — all mean
“ Yes

Yebotina — Yes, certainly.
(rarely used)

Impela — Truly, indeed, for
certain.

Lapa — here.

Lapo —• there.

Lapaya — over there, yonder.
Kahle kakulu — very nicely

indeed.

Kahle kakulu — very well in-
deed.


24

LESSON SEVENTH.

Nouns of the First Class.

Note (a)—English Nouns usually have the distinction between
Singular and Plural shown at the end: Zulu Nouns have the
same distinction shown at the beginning, by means of forms
named “ Prefixes ”.

Prefixes : Singular number:— umu, um, u.

Prefixes: Plural number:— aba (sometimes 0 and abe).

VOCABULARY: Nouns.

Singular.

Umfana — boy.

Umntwana — child.

Umuntu — person, man.
Umlungu — white man.

Umfazi — woman.

Udade — sister.

Umfo — brother,

Umzalwane — cousin.

Umfundi — pupil, learner.
Umfundisi — teacher (clergy-

man).

Umpeki — cook.

Umlimi —■ farmer (plough- ’
man).

Unonqai — mounted police-
man.

Ufakazi — witness.

Umeyane (umiyane) — mos-

quito.

Umese — knife.

Plural.

Abafana —• boys.

Abantwana — children.
Abantu — persons, men,

people.

Abalungu (abelungu) —white
men.

Abafazi — women.

Odade — sisters.

Abafo — brothers.
Abazalwane — cousins.
Abafundi — pupils.
Abafundisi — teachers,

(clergymen).

Abapeki — cooks.

Abalimi —• farmers.

Ononqai —• mounted police.

Abafakazi — witnesses.
Omeyane (omiyane) —• mos-

quitoes.

Omese — knives.

(See Class III).


25

(b) The personal pronouns corresponding to all Nouns of the
first class in the Nominative case, are

Singular. Plural.

u or uya ba or baya

These are to be used with the Present Tense, Indicative mood
of the Verb; either hy themselves, if the noun is understood (not
expressed) ; or in addition to the noun, if that be expressed. For
example:—

Uya hleka — he laughs (“uya” agreeing with “umuntu”).
Umlungu uya tula — (literally, the white man he is silent).

The white man is silent.

Omeyane ba hlupa — (literally the mosquitoes they are trouble-
some). The mosquitoes are troublesome.

Baya hleba — they slander (they — baya, agreeing with abantu).
Umfazi u gijima — the woman (she) runs.

(c) The grammatical arrangement referred to just now in
note (b) applies not only to the first class, but to all the eight
classes of nouns. Each class has its own separate and distinct
forms of the third person pronoun, singular and plural. These
pronouns must always come immediately after the nouns they
agree with, in a sentence, when the nouns are nominative to a
verb; they are even put in a sentence in the objective form
(given below), and agreeing with an objective noun when there
occurs such a noun in a sentence. The distinction then is this:—
the corresponding personal pronoun must accompany and follow
a Nominative noun; it may accompany and precede an objective
noun, (or the verb which governs such an objective noun).

The objective forms of u, uya; ba, baya; are

Singular. Plural.

m ba

Thus: Abafana ba m hlupa umfundisi; will literally mean:
“ the boys they him annoy the teacher”; this will mean, in
ordinary English, “ the boys annoy the teacher ”.


26

Ba agrees with abafatna (Nominative case),
m agrees with umfundisi (Objective case).
The order of words then, is as below:—

1. Noun nominative:

2. Pronoun nominative: agree-

as Umfazi = the woman.

ing with (1)

3. Pronoun objective: agree-

as uya = (she)

ing with (5)

4. Verb

5. Objective noun

as m = (him)
as biza = calls
as umntwana = the child.

In full: Umfazi uya m biza umntwana = The woman calls the
child.

This arrangement of words, on account of its being so different
from the English arrangement, should be carefully noted, and
well practised. One cannot do better than to try rearranging
simple and even more difficult English sentences in accordance
with the Zulu order of words, shown above. Adverbs in Zulu
usually come immediately after the verb, or at the end of the
sentence.

EXERCISE 7A.

Take all the Singular Nouns given at the beginning of this
Lesson, and with the help of the Verbs given already, form short
sentences; using each noun alternately as Nominative in one
sentence and objective in the next: thus, the mosquito troubles
the child; the child kills the mosquito; the farmer calls the cook:
the cook helps the farmer ; and so on.

EXERCISE 7B.

Do as before, only changing the nouns from Singular to
Plural; thus, the people are looking at the mounted police; the
mounted police ask for the witnesses; and so on.

VOCABULARY: Verbs.

Bulala — kill.

Funa — ask for, seek.


27

LESSON EIGHTH.

Nouns of the First Class (Continued).

Nouns of this class, for the most part, refer to persons and
so are called personal nouns. Class III. of nouns may be ob-
served to resemble Class I. in some degree. Speaking generally,
the distinction as to meaning is, that while Class I. deals with
persons, Class III. deals with inanimate objects, plants, etc.

Note (a)—Do not forget that Singular and Plural in Zulu
nouns are distinguished by the Prefixes of each: hence the dis-
tinction is shown at the beginning and not at the end of all Zulu
nouns. All Prefixes with their corresponding personal pronouns
(third person) must be carefully noted, and remembered.

(b) Nouns in nominative and objective cases are alike in form.

EXERCISE 8A.

1. Are the people selling? 2. Yes, they are selling again to-day.

3. I want a knife; I wish to buy it (say: I wish to it buy).

4. Are you speaking? 5. I am calling the cook. 6. The mos-
quitoes annoy me very much now (say: now very much).
7. Do you see the mosquito? 8. Yes, the boy is here; he is
looking for it now; he kills it. 9. The women are very ill;
we are ill also. 10. The boys want the white man. 11. Do the
children write well? 12. Yes, the teacher helps them very much;
he teaches them very nicely. 13. He is looking for the children
now. 14. He likes them very much. 15. The witness is speaking
ill of me. 16. The mounted policeman is returning now.


28

EXERCISE 8B.

1. Abantwana ba tanda ukuhlala kakulu. 2. Baya ngi biza
manje; ngiya gijima. 3. Abafana ba m hlupa umlimi; uya
jama kakulu. 4. Abafazi baya hla kula manje; kodwa abantwana
baya funda. 5. Abafo baya ba funa odade nambla. 6. Ngiya
ba siza abazalwane. 7. Abelungu ba bulala omeyane. 8. Urdpeki
uyagula kakulu futi namhlanje. 9. Siza m bona umlungu.

10. Abantu ba tula manje. 11. Umfana u loba kahle: uya funda
kahle futi. 12. Umfundisi u tanda uku ba fundisa abantwana.
13. Ngiya m'bona lapaya. 14. Uya m bona lapo na? 15. Yebo,
kodwa abafazi baya buya futi. 16. Ufakazi uya ngi hleba;
abantu ba ngi hleka manje. 17. Nembala uya jama na?

18. Ebe, uya jama kakulu.

Voca&wZan/.

jama v — look sternly, or angrily.

Nembala — really? indeed?
blakula v — weed; clear weeds out.

Nembala is always placed at the beginning of a sentence, and
is sometimes spelt: “ Imbala ”. It usually implies some doubt;
as in English “ Really, do you tell me so, indeed? ” implies slight
surprise, mingled with doubt.

“ Ya ” though often used as an affirmative is not Zulu, but
belongs to the Dutch language: (ja — yes).

The composition of easy sentences by the pupil, out of the
subject matter to hand at the time, is highly recommended and.
ought to be practised constantly: it helps immensely in learning
both words and construction of sentences, as well as in training,
the mind to think for itself independently.

Kakulu when placed immediately after a noun, emphasises
the meaning of the sentence with regard to that noun: after a
verb, it emphasises the verb: the same applies to adverbs, phrases*,
etc.


29

LESSON NINTH.

Adjectives and Adverbs.

'Note (a)—With regard to the classes of Nouns; and also to
adjectives and adverbs as treated in the present lesson; it may
be said that only the easier and the plainer parts of each subject
are taken at first. In later parts of the volume more extended
and detailed treatment on these and other points will be given.
This plan is followed for greater ease and facility in understand-
ing the subject, in the case of junior pupils and first beginners;
the aim of the book being to provide a very easy and gradual
course in the language.

(b) It may be added here that one particular kind of spelling
has been adhered to, in this book. Others however, have
adopted, in some cases, other spellings for the same words.
This will be noted from time to time for students, in order to
show that the words, though spelt differently, are identical in
meaning; in fact are the same words. For example the verb
“ to strike ” “ uku tshaya ” as given in this book, appears, in
some authors’ works, as “ uku tyaya Many similar instances
may be observed, and should be noted carefully by the student,
in order to avoid doubt later.

The Personal Pronouns are used, not only with Verbs, but
also with Adjectives, and with certain Adverbs; this is es-
pecially the case when such Adjectives or Adverbs are used as
predicates in a sentence; that is, when they are used in a manner
akin to Verbs and affirm or deny something concerning the
Subject, or nominative Noun or Pronoun, either expressed or
understood. With Verbs the corresponding personal (3rd person)
pronoun, of the first class, is, for the Singular u, and for the
Plural, ba.

With adjectives and adverbs “ um ” and “ mu ” are sometimes
used instead of “ u ”. “ Ba ” is always used with the plural

nouns: thus :—


30

Umuntu u kona — (literally, the man he here), the man is here.
Umfana mu hie — (literally, the boy he nice), the boy is nice.
Umfazi um futshane — (literally, the woman she short), the

woman is short.

(Kona is the affirmative form of that word; another form of
the same expresses the negative, as will be seen further on).

All Classes of Nouns act with the Adjective or Adverb in the
same way as the First Class: in short, when a Verb, or some
word used instead of a Verb, is used as a Predicate the noun
is accompanied by its corresponding pronoun, just as if it were
nominative to a verb; in every Class of Noun, this is the case.

Questions are asked in the usual way by the use of the particle
“ na ” as already explained: thus:—

TJmfazi u kona na? — (literally, the woman she here?) Is the
woman here?

Ehe, u kona — (literally, Yes, she here), Yes, she is here.

From these remarks one may gather that when there is na
real Verb in a sentence, the personal pronoun acts, in some way,
as an Auxiliary Verb.

EXERCISE 9A.

1. The man is black. 2. Really, are the people good?

3. No, they are very bad, (say: they bad very much).

4. The children do indeed love to play. 5. I prefer (like) to be
quiet. 6. The child is really good (really, thoroughly — impela).

7. There are many witnesses (say: the witnesses are many).

5. Do you call me? 9. Not at all, I call the man. 10. The boy is
tall, but the woman is very small (say: short very much).

11. The children yonder are very honest indeed. 12. The men
here are wicked, but the women are kind. 13. The brother
works well, but the sister is fond of playing (say: likes to play
very much). 14. Is the white man very sick to-day? 15. Yes,
he is sick indeed to-day. 16. I am helping him, he is resting
now.


31

EXERCISE 9B.

1. Omiyane ba kona lapa; ba ngi hlupa kakulu, 2. Ufakazi
uya kuluma manje futi. 3. Umntwana muhle. 4. Abantu ba
ningi namhlanje. 5. Abafana baya ba hleka abafazi. 6. Niya
ngi hleka futi? 7. Cabo, siya tula. 8. ITmlimi uya lima namuhla.
9. Umzalwane ukona na? 10. Ca, uya baca manje. 11. Abantwana
ba buka umese. 12. Umlungu uya gula kakulu. 13. Abantwana
ba m funa umfundisi; baya tanda ukufunda impela.
14. Nembala umfana umfutshane na? 15. Ca, mu de impela.
16. Ngiya ni biza. 17. Uya si biza na? 18. Imbala uya tanda
abantwana na? 19. Ewe, ngiya ba tanda kakulu. 20. Umntwana
muhle, kodwa abafana ba bi. 21. Abafazi ba qoto na? 22. Yebo;
kodwa abantu lapa ba bi impela. 23. Umuntu mu bi. 24. Imbala
abantu ba hie na? 25. Yebo, bahle kakulu impela lapa.
26. Umuntu umnyama. 27. Umfana muh le. 28. Uya ba siza
abafazi lapo kakulu.

VOCABULARY: Adjectives.

hie or nhle = nice, good, pretty, well-conducted, kind.

qoto = honest.

ningi = many, much.

de = tall, long, distant.

futshane — small, short, under-sized.

bi = bad, wicked, ill-disposed, ill-conducted.

ca = no.

cabo = no (emphatic).

hai = not at all.

atshi = not by any means.

(qabo = cabo).

Verbs.

Tula = keep quiet. Tata = take.

(a) The adjective qoto, and the particle qabo occur in this
lesson. Q is one of the letters reserved for the click sounds.
It represents a click made by the tongue in the roof of the mouth,


32

and somewhat resembles the sound produced by drawing a tight
cork from the neck of the bottle. It is therefore rather a full,
rich, vigorous sound. Practice with words in which it occurs,
and attention to the speech of those who have mastered the
click, will always prove useful in acquiring it.

(b) Cabo is sometimes written and pronounced QABO: it may
mean an increase of emphasis in the word “ No ”.

(c) *Atshi” is spelt by some writers “ atyi ”. See previous
note on “ tshaya ” and “ tyaya

The following may be mentioned as perhaps something in the
way of a parallel in affirmation and negation:—

Yebotina — Yea verily. Yes by all means; certainly.

Aiketina — Oh it’s nothing — nothing at all. Don’t mind. Never

mind.

(These particles are not pure Zulu, and in many places are
not used at all.)

LESSON TENTH.

Nouns of the Second Class.

Prefixes of Nouns: Singular Plural

ili, i. ama.

Corresponding personal Pronouns (3rd. person) used with
Present Tense, Indicative of verb; also with Adjectives and Ad-
verbs; Nominative case.

li a

(“ma” is sometimes used with adject.

and adverbs.)

Objective form of the same:

li

wa


33

Note, (a) The suffix “ya” may de added to “li” and “a”;
thus:—

“ liya ” and “ ay a ”, with the Present tense, Indicative of the
verb, as it was with u, uya; ba, baya; in the first class of Nouns.

VOCABULARY.

Singular.

Uzulu — a Zulu native (1st
Class).

Izulu — sky, heaven.

Ilanga — the sun, day, day-
light, weather.

Igama — name, letter of a
word.

Iqanda — egg.

Ifu (Ilifu) — cloud.

Itshe (Ilitshe) — stone.

Izwi (Ilizwi) — word, voice.
Izwe (Ilizwe) — land, piece
of country.

Ikaya — home, house.

Isaka — sack.

Ihashi — horse.

Ikati — cat.

Isondo —* wheel.

Isango — gateway, gate.

I Vila — lazy person.'

Ixegu — old man.

Izinyo — tooth,
i Bunu — Dutchman, Boer.

Itafula — table.

Ihembe (Iyembe) — shirt.
Ibantshi — coat.

Ibulukwe — trousers (pair of)

Ikofi —1 coffee.

Itiye — tea.

Ifastele — pane of glass,
window.

(There is in some places

Plural.

Amazulu — Zulu natives;
the states or conditions
of weather; Zulu Nation.

(No plural).

Amagama — names, letters
of a word.

Amaqanda — eggs.

Amafu — clouds.

Amatshe — stones.

Amazwi — words, voices.
Amazwe — pieces of land or
country.

Amakaya — homes, houses.
Amasaka — sacks.

Amahashi — horses.

Amakati — cats.

Amasondo —• wheels.
Amasango — gates.

Amavila — lazy people.
Amaxegu — old men.
Amazinyo — teeth.

Ama Bunu —- Dutchmen,
Boers.

Amatafula — tables.
Amahembe — shirts.
Amabantshi — coats.
Amabulukwe — pairs of
trousers).

No plural.

No plural.

Amafastele— windows, panes,
spectacles.

a corrupted use of “ amalanga ”
“ days ”.)

plural of “ ilanga ”, meaning

Some adjectives and Verbs are given at the end of the exercise.
Where a word in the Vocabulary above has a second form

given in brackets, the first is the more usual of the two, but the
other may sometimes be observed in use.


34

EXERCISE 10A.

1. The table is here; it is very wide. 2. The eggs are very nice;
the Boers are eating them. 3. The cook wishes to cook the eggs
immediately. 4. Do you like coffee? 5. No, I prefer (like)
tea. 6. Do you like it very much? 7. Yes, I do like it very much.

8. Do you wish to buy shirts? (say: to shirts buy). 9. No, I
am looking for a coat. 10. I want a pair of trousers at once,
(immediately). 11. The horse runs very well (kahle kakulu).

12. The boys are cleaning the windows; they are working well
now. 13. You are reading the words clearly (well). 14. The sun
is very bright today (say: shines very much). 15. Are you look-
ing at the piece of land? 16. Yes, we wish to buy it, (say: to it
buy). 17. The stones are small yonder, but they are many.

EXERCISE 10B.

1. Amafuma banzi kakulu; izulu li mnyama manje. 2. Uzulu
uya lala; umlungu uya m biza. 3. Ivila li hlala; amaxegu aya
kuluma. 4. Ikati li kona manje; liya mkulu; liya gijima kahle
impela. 5. Ilanga li balele namhlanje. 6. Ifastele li banzi;
isango li banzi futi. 7. Umntwana umfutshane kakulu. 8. Uya
kala kakulu; umfazi uya m tshaya manje. 9. Ilanga li puma.
10. Uya wa buka amafastele? 11. Ehe, umfana uya wa sula
kahle. 12. Ama Bunu atanda ikofi. 13. Amatshe maningi lapaya.
14. Itshe lapo likulu. 15. Ni tengisa amageja lapa? 16. Siza li
sula itafula. 17. Ngiya funa ihashi manje. 18. Siya li leta
konamanje. 19. Itiye li mnandi. 20. Amatafula lapo makulu
impela. 21. Amazinyo ma ncinyane.

VOCABULARY: Ver&s.

Sula — clean, make clean, wipe. (Geza is used for “ wash ”).
Kanya — shine, be bright, glitter, look well.

Leta — bring, carry, conduct (to a place).

Hlala — sit, sit down, rest.

Lala — lie down, rest, sleep, (or play, but the usual word for
this is “ dhlala ”).


35

Balele — be fine, be hot, (as the sun, the weather, or climate).
(Used in perfect tense only).

Puma — go out, come out, rise up, rise, as, “ ilanga li puma ”
the sun rises.

Adverbs:

Masinya; masinyane = immediately, directly.

Kona manje = just now, at once, without delay.

Puti = again, also, once more.

Lapo = there, (the forms, elapo and alapo, are also sometimes
found).

Adjectives:

mhlope — white. Ihashi li mhlope — the horse is white,
ncane — small Igama li ncane — the letter is small,

ncinyane — very small. Amatafula ma ncinyane — the tables

are very small.

ningi —• many, much. Amafastele ma ningi — (the windows are
many, i.e. there* are many windows).

mnandi — sweet, nice, agreeable to the taste.

banzi — broad, wide, large in width. Amazwe ma banzi — the
lands are wide.

Kulu, Mkulu — large, big, great, huge. Amazinyo ma kulu —
the teeth are big. Itshe li kulu (or mkulu) — the stone i^
big.

(a) The use of such forms as “nhle” for “hie”, nice, agree-
able, proper, well-conducted, good; and “ mkulu ” for “ kulu ”,
big, important, great; with some other instances to be dealt with
later, depends firstly, a good deal on the fact of custom; and
secondly, upon, in some degree, a desire for euphony, or ease in
pronunciation. This last feature will be found, not only here,
but in many other places, in the construction of the Zulu lan-
guage.

(b) Ilanga, ikofi, itiye, and kindred words, have no plural;
which arises, as one may easily understand, from the meaning of
the words themselves.


36

(c) i Bunu (Boer), i Sulumane (an Indian or Hindoo) and
such words, have the root-part (i.e. that immediately following
the^;prefix) usually commencing with a capital letter. This is
customary in words giving names of nations.

(d) Uzulu, Amazulu, when written uZulu, amaZulu, refer to
Zulu natives. See preceding note (c). The name amaZulu may
perhaps have been adopted as a flattering title, something like,
“ Nation of Heaven ”, “ children of the Sky ”, or some such
fanciful idea. Thus, the Emperor of China was formerly called
the “ Son of Heaven ” and something of the sort is not infrequent-
ly to be noticed with many peoples, either barbarous, or only
half-civilized, from our point of view.

(e) The word “ixegu” has been introduced in this lesson.
X is one of the letters reserved for click sounds. The X click
is, as a rule, produced at the side of the mouth, by the tohgue,
just over or near the lower back-teeth. The sound is much
sharper than either the “ C ” or “ Q ” click. It is used in Eng
lish, as well as in Zulu, in one way at least, that is, as an ex-
pression of some annoyance or diappointment. Patience, and
attention, with persevering practice, will enable the student to
pronounce it in its proper place, in the wofrds in which it occurs.
There are some other clicks, of a more difficult kind, to be met
with among the natives, especially among certain sections of
them. But they will not be dealt with in this book. For one
reason, because they are very uncommon, and frequently quite
local to the people of some one district, and for another, because
if they have to be learned, they are best acquired from the
natives themselves; book directions being practically useless for
them.


37

LESSON ELEVENTH.

Nouns of the Second Class (Continued).

The Prefixes of this class, “ ili ”, “ i ”, and “ ama ’’ have, as
has already been seen, the third-person pronoun forms “ li ” and
“ a ” with verbs; these may appear as “ liya ” and “ aya ” for
progressive and emphatic purposes; just as “ u ” and “ ba ” in the
first class, become “ uya ” and “ baya ”.

The suffix “ ya ”, however, is only used with the Nominative
pronoun, and in connection with the Present Tense of the Verb.

The pronoun-forms used with adjectives are very frequently
“ li ” and “ ma ” ; more rarely “ a ” instead of “ ma ” ; those used
with Adverbs are the same, except perhaps that “ a ” is used a
little more frequently with adverbs than with adjectives.

When a noun, though not expressed, is known, the correspond-
ing personal pronoun must be used; liya duma — there is
thunder, literally, it thunders; here “ li ” or “ liya ” is used, be-
cause “ izulu ” is the noun understood though not expressed.

Do not forget the objective pronouns of this Class: “ li ” and
“ wa ”.

A distinction by slight emphasis must be maintained between
such words as “ izwe ” and “ izwi ”. They are very like, in spell-
ing, and in pronunciation, hence the need, both in speaking and
writing, to distinguish carefully between them, so as to lead to
no mistake or confusion as to the correct meaning of what is
said or written.

Certain nouns are used only in the Plural number: as,

Amanzi — water. A manga — lies, false state-

Amafuta — fat, oil, grease, ments.

butter. Amasi — sour and lumpy

Amandhla — vigour, strength, milk.

energy. Amabibi — rubbish.


38

Amasi is a food much liked by native men, in the kraals.

Amabomu — intentions, purposes, is used with the particle
“ nga ” ; a contraction is made, and “ nga amabomu ”, is written:
“ ngamabomu ”; this new word is then to be understood as mean-
ing, “intentionally, on purpose, deliberately, wilfully.”

Amandhla — strength, vigour; is used in like manner, with
“ nga ”, and contracted as before: ngamandhla, then means:
vigorously, energetically.

Uya sebenza ngamandhla — he works vigorously — he puts
energy into his work.

The particle “ nga ” means “ with, by means of, by the help of ”
there is another particle, “ na ”, which means “ with ” or “ and ”;
and is a sort of substitute for the English words “ have ” or
“has”, thus:—I have, thou hast (you have), he, she or it has.
We have, you have, they have; are all translated into Zulu as,
I with, he with, we with, and so on; ngi na, u na, u na, si
na, ni na, ba na. Both “ nga ” and “ na ” are to be contracted
with the first letter of the word immediately following.

Thus

I am going with a horse — Ngiya hamba nehashi (na ihashi).

I am going on horseback — Ngiya hamba ngehashi (nga ihashi).

(that is, by means of a horse).
Remark that a i slyq contracted, and become e.

The sentence “ ngiya hamba nehashi ” may also be expressed as,
“ngiya hamba ngi nehashi”, literally: “ I go, I with a horse”.

Contractions are carried out, as below:—

a a becomes
a e (or i) becomes
a u becomes
a o becomes

a ngi na amandhla — nginamandhla.
e u na imiti —u nemiti.
o si na umfana — sinomfana.
o Ni na odade — Ninodade.

(Contraction of a.... i.... is doubtful.)

(a) This contraction of particles ending in “a”, with a vowel
following, is of general application, and should be carefully noted.


39

(b) The personal pronouns are used with the Particles, in the
same way as with Verbs: as “ ba namandhla ” (ba na amandhla),
literally, they with strength or vigour - - they are energetic,
strong, vigorous^ etc.

(c) Amanga may mean, when used as an Interjection, some-
thing like “That’s not true”,; “I don’t believe you a bit”. It
literally means “ lies ”, and is frequently used by Natives as a
word of disbelief. However, it does not seem to be regarded by
them as being in any way lacking in respect. In fact, it may
be used as a joking word with other natives; and simply as an
equivalent to the English phrases, “ Not at all ”, “ It is not so,
by any means ”, when speaking to a white person, or to a
superior. However, white people are apt to consider the use of
this word as a sign of insolence on the part of a native, unless
they are previously made aware of the harmlessness of the
meaning that it frequently conveys. Much depends on who uses
it. It may, of course, in some instances, bear the full meaning,
i.e., “ That’s a lie! ”

EXERCISE 11 A.

1. I see a frog. 2. There are many toads (say: the toads are
many). 3. There are many people over yonder. 4. They are
singing very vigorously (say: singing with vigour very much).

5. There are old men there too (say: old men are present also).

6. Gold shines brightly. 7. The cat is bad. 8. The boy works
hard (with vigour). 9. Is the tea here? 10. Yes, it is here now.

11. The mosquitoes annoy the children very much indeed here.

12. Are the sisters here? 13. No, they are working to-day.

14. Yes, they are present. 15. The man is very small indeed,
but the woman is tall. 16. They are annoying you, on purpose.

17. I wish to go there on horseback to-day. 18. We are going
there now with horses. 19. We have a horse yonder. 20. He
allows the boys to go there. 21. The woman tells lies, but the
â– child is very good (good indeed).


40

EXERCISE 11B.

1. Siya hamba sinamasi. 2. Ni namufuta na? 3. Ngi ne-
bantshi (na ibantshi). 4. Unomntwana (U na umntwana).

5. Ba namaqanda. 6. Siya bamba manje sinebasbi. 7. Uya buya
namahasbi (na amahashi). 8. Ufakazi uya xoka impela.

9. Ngiya wa leta amayembe namabantsbi (na amabantshi).

10. Niya hamba ngamahashi namahla. 11. Amaxegu aya kuluma
kakulu lapaya; kodwa abafazi lapa baya tula. 12. Amasele a
kona; ngiya wa bona manje. 13. Ngi vumela abafana ukubamba
namblanje. 14. Ngi nebantsbi nebulukwe. 15. Baya tanda
ukubamba ngamabasbi impela. 16. Niya ngi blupa ngamabomu.
17. Amanga! siya hleka. 18. Siya tanda ukublabelela kakulu.
19. Abantu ba kona lapa manje? 20. Ebe, ba kona. 21. Ibasbi
li kona futi? 22. Yebo, likona lapa. 23. Ikati li bi na? 24. Ewe,
li bi impela.. 25. Ngiya li tanda igolide.

VOCABULARY.

Verbs.

Hlabelela — sing, cbant,
sbout.

Kanya —< sbine, glitter.
Vuma — allow, consent.
Vumela —< agree, permit.
Xoka — tell lies.

Adverbs:

Lapayb. —• over there, yonder.
Lapa — bere, in. tbis place.
Lapo — there.

Kona — bere (or there), pre-
sent.

(Ikakulu is a form of
kakulu sometimes used to. em-
phasise Nouns.)

Nouns.

Isele, iselesele — frog, toad; plural, amasele, amaselesele.
Igolide — gold; no plural.

Note.—The native “ singing ” is not far removed from shout-
ing : ukuhlabelela — “ untrained singing ”.


41

LESSON TWELFTH.

Nouns of the Third Class.

Note.—The nouns which are here placed under the heading—
3rd Class—are usually put by other writers, under either the
fifth or sixth class. The present writer, however, has preferred
to place them here. There is a certain likeness between them,
and the nouns of the first class. The distinction between them
has already been mentioned. In order to prevent confusion
between them and the first class nouns, the second class nouns
have been put in the place usual with previous writers.

But that having been done, it is considered advisable to take
them at once, instead of deferring them to the fifth or sixth
classes, for which indeed there seems to be no particular reason.

PREFIXES.

Singular. Plural.

Umu, um, u. imi.

Personal Pronouns: 3rd Person, Nominative Case.

With verbs : u i

With adjectives : u, um, mu. i, mi.

With adverbs: u, (sometimes um, mu) i, (or mi sometimes)

Objective forms of the same:
wu,

VOCABULARY.

Singular,

Umuti — tree, medicine.
Umfula — river.

Umsebenzi — work.

Umese — knife (of 1st class)

Umsundu — worm.
Umpongolo — barrel, tub,

cask.

yi.

Plural.

Imiti — trees, medicines.
Imifula — rivers.

Imisebenzi — works.

Imimese —• knives (see

Class I.)

Imisundu — worms.
Imipongolo —1 barrels, tubs,

casks.


42

Umgodi — hole, excavation.
Umkuba — custom, habit.

Umuzi — kraal, family,
native home.

Umkumbi — ship.

Umbila — mealies.

Umhlobo — friend.

Umbala — colour.

Umteto — law. regulation,

commandment.

Umlenze — leg.

Umlomo — mouth.

Umunwe — finger.

Umzimba — body (living).
Unyaka — year.

Umoya —• air, wind, spirit.
Umudwa — line (drawn).
Umutsha — native dress of

men as worn in kraals.

Imigodi — holes.

Imikuba —• customs, manners,
habits.

Imizi — native homes, fami-
lies.

Imikumbi — ships.

(rare in plural) (imibila)
Imihlobo — friends.

Imibala — colours.

Imiteto — laws, etc.

Imilenze — legs.

Imilomo — mouths.

Iminwe — fingers.

Imizimha — bodies (living).
Iminyaka — years.

Imimoya — winds, spirits.
Imidwa — lines (drawn).
Imitsha — native dresses as

worn in the kraals.

EXERCISE 12_A.

1. The tree here is small, but the trees yonder are indeed
very tall. 2. There are many years. 3. The colours shine.
4. Is the medicine bitter? 5. No, it is quite (impela) sweet.

6. The friend helps me now. 7. The law is bad. 8. The regula-
tion is good. 9. The customs there are very bad. 10. I see a
river over there. 11. We eat with the mouth (nga umlomo —
ngomlomo). 12. We write by means of the fingers (nga iminwe
— ngeminwe). 13. The finger draws a line. 14. The native
dresses are here. 15. A worm is here now. 16. They are
digging a hole yonder. 17. The witness is looking cross.

18. The ship cuts through the water. 19. Do you wish for (fuma)
work? 20. No, I am going now. 21. The legs and the body are
short.

EXERCISE 12B.

1. Imiti mi ningi; iluhlaza impela. 2. Siya wu tata umpongolo
namhlanje. 3. Uya wu funa umhlobo manje? 4. Yebo, ngiya
wu funa namuhla. 5. Si yi funa imipongolo. 6. Imigodi banzi
kakulu. 7. Ngi wu funa umsebenzi impela. 8. Umzimba lapo


43

umnyama. 9. Umhlobo uya jama impela. 10. Siya yi leta
imimese manje. 11. Imizi mi ningi; i kona lapaya. 12. Baya wu
dhla umbila. 13. Imikumbi iya wa dabula amanzi. 14. Baya
mba umgodi lapo. 15. Imigodi lapa mi ningi. 16, Imisundu i
kona; mi ningi kakulu. 17. Unomutsha (u na umutsha).

IS. Sinemilomo. 19. Imitsha kona. 20. Umfula ubanzi kakulu.

21. Umoya unamandhla (u na amandbla — is strong).

22. Umkuba mubi impela. 23. Umuti mu de. 24. Imilenze mi
ningi, kodwa mi futshane kakulu.

(a) Adjectives, when monosyllables or dissyllables frequently
take the longer form of pronouns, to agree with them, in the
plural number.

Regarding um or mu, (the singular form), the choice of one or
the other seems to be governed by euphony; that is, by ease or
agreeableness of sound. This applies to the First and Third
classes. As regards the Second Class, it frequently takes ma
with such adjectives as have been referred to, above, in the
plural number. Adverbs with the First and Thrid Classes often
take u simply, in the Singular number. Some examples are
given below:—

Umuntu mu de — the man is tall.

Umfazi umfutshane - - the woman is small.

Umudwa umfutshane — the line is short.

Umutsha mu hie — the dress is nice (native dress).
Iminwe mi de — the fingers are long.

Imilomo mi banzi — the mouths are wide.

Imigodi mi kulu — the holes are big.

Imiti mi ningi — the trees are numerous.

Amahashi ma ningi — the horses are numerous.

Amatshe ma kulu — the stones are large.

Abantu ba ningi — the people are numerous.

Imiteto mi bi — the laws are wicked (bad).

Note — With “kona” use “i”; “mi” is generally used with
Adjectives; “ i ” with verbs, and many adverbs.


44

VOCABULARY.

Verbs.

Baba — taste bitter, be bitter.
Dweba — draw (as a line,

etc.).

Jama — look cross or sternly.
Tata — take.

Mba — dig (as with a spade)

Geza — wash.

Dabula — cut, cut through
(as water) tear (as a
cloth).

Lala — lie down, sleep.
Qapela — pay attention.

LESSON THIRTEENTH.

Verb Active.

PRESENT TENSE OF INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE
MOODS.

The Infinitive mood has for its sign “uku” (or “ukw” before
a vowel) ; it continues to be used in the same manner as
hitherto. There are however, some additional uses, which will
be dealt with, fully, under Class VIII. of Nouns. It should be
noted here that it acts in Zulu, (as in English), very often as
a Verbal Noun, with no plural; its accompanying pronoun in this
case being “ ku ”, for nominative and objective alike, with Verbs,
Adjectives and Adverbs.

Ukwazi may mean — to know — or simply knowledge.

Ukuhlakanipa may mean — to be clever - - or simply cleverness.

Ukutenga may mean — to buy — or simply buying.

Ukutengisa may mean — to sell — or simply selling.

Ukukanya may mean — to be bright — or simply brightness.

Imperative Mood: Present Tense: Simple (1st form).

Affirmative.

Singular.

Plural.

Sebenza — work.

Sebenzani — work (you or

Beka — look.
Funda — learn.

ye).

Bekani — look (you or ye).
Fundani — learn (you or ye)


45

Singular,

Negative.

TJnga sebenzi —- do not work.
TJnga beki — do not look.
TJnga fundi -— do not read.

Plural.

Ninga sebenzi — do not work
Ninga beki — do not look.
Ninga fundi — do not read.

The following is the Imperative Present, conveying a meaning
of command, condition, desire or permission.

Uku-tanda, = to love.

Imperative present (2nd form).

Singzilar.

Plural.

1. Angi tande — let me love.

2. Au tande — do thou love.

3. Aka tande —1 let him (her,

it) love.

Asi tande — let us love.

Ani tande — do (you) love.
Aba tande —- let them love.

The letter “ M ” is sometimes prefixed to the pronouns above,
thus:— Mangi, Mau, Maka; Masi, Mani, Maba. The meaning
remains unchanged. A slight emphasis ought to be put upon the
final letter of the verb“e ”, to distinguish it from possible con-
fusion with “ tanda ” and “ tandi ”, which have other meanings,
and belong to other moods. The negative form of this tense
“let me not love”, “let him not goi/', and so on, will be re-
served for a later lesson.

It will have been remarked that the simplest form of the Verb,
is the Imperative present, Affirmative, (first form). This is
the root of the verb; as, Bamba, biza, hamba, in the singular;
the same, with “ Ni ” (meaning “you”) added, bambani, bizani,
hambani, for the plural. The accent is also moved forward one
syllable; thus bambani, bizani, hambani.

The Negative Imperative Present given above is a compound.
Its construction will be better understood as we advance.
“ Unga ” and “ Ninga ” mean something like “ you may ”. Do
not forget that the final letter “ a ” of the affirmative Verb,
becomes “ i ” in the negative form. This is a real sign of negative
meaning in Zulu.

Unga tandi (meaning “you may not love”) — do not love.
Ninga tengi (meaning “you may not buy”) — do not buy.


46

The Verb “Musa” (singular) and “Musani” (plural) means:
“ Don’t ”, or “ You must not It is used with the Infinitive
Present, and frequently, either thus used, or alone, it indicates
disapproval; sometimes strongly marked disapproval.

Musa ukuhlupa umntwana = Don’t annoy the child.

Musani ukuhleba = Do not slander!

The particles “ ke ” and “ bo ” are frequently used with the
Imperative present affirmative (first form), and also on some
other occasions. The first indicates slight emphasis, the second
strong emphasis.

Singular. Plural.

Tula ke — be quiet, please. Tulani ke — be quiet, please

Tula bo — be quiet at once, Tulani bo — be quiet at once.

With “ke ” the accent is moved forward one syllable (as shown
above). With “bo” it remains unchanged.

EXERCISE 13A.

1. Do not buy lands; " buy horses. 2. Let us go to-day.
3. Don’t hurt the cat. 4. Do not slander the man 5. Let him
go now. 6. Do (you) go also. 7. Let us love (Him) God.
8. Run now; let us run also. 9. Do not annoy the poor person.
10. The old men like to smoke very much indeed. 11. I see them
yonder. 12. Keep quiet and go immediately. 13. Go out at once.

14. Sit down, please. 15. Help the old man; don’t annoy him.

16. Bring a knife here. 17. Bring in the coffee and tea, just now.
18. Clean the table nicely. 19. Clear away the rubbish (amabibi).

20. Don’t smoke; work well to-day. 21. Bring the horses here
at once.

EXERCISE 13B.

1. Ngiya li funa ikati. 2. Amakati akona; ngi wa leta manje.
3. Ungatengi amahashi; tenga amazwe. 4. Amazulu maningi:
akona lapo. 5. Ningahlupi umhlobo. 6. Ungahleki amaxegu.

7. Leta amanzi konamanje. 8. Ungatati amatafula. 9. Abafana


47

ba sebenza ngamandhla impela. 10. Abautu ba m hleka
umfundisi. 11. Ningahleki; tulani bo. 12. Lalelani imiteto
nemikuba. 13. Biza umfokazana. 14. Musani ukuduba amadoda.

15. Ungabizi abafana; asi bambe manje. 16. Aka lete ibashi
masinyane. 17. Sizani ixegu. 18. Hambake manje. 19. Uya
funa umutsba na? 20. Ewe, ngiya funa umutsba namblanje.

21. Musani ukutenga umbila; siya wu tenga manje.

22. Ningadwebi imidwa lapo. 23. Ungahlebi abantu. 24. Funda
kahle. 25. Uya bema kakulu; ungabemi. 26. Ihasbi linamandhla.
27. Siya bamba manje; asi bambe ngamabashi. 28. Siya buya
sinamabasbi. 29. Tatani omese. 30. Imimese i kona na?

31. Musa ukukuluma manje; umlungu uya jama kakulu.

32. Imiti i baba impela. 33. Imilenze incane. 34. Niya si blupa;
ninga blupi umfundisi futi (also). 35. Hlala pansi manje.
VOCABULARY: Nouns.

Umfokazana (1) — poor person (abafokazana).

Indoda (2) — man (see Class 4) (amadoda).
uNkulunkulu (1) — God.

Verbs.

Susa — take away, clear (something) away.

Lalela — obey, listen to.

Duba -- despise, treat slightingly.

Hlupa, blusa — bother, disturb, annoy (rarely used
in some places).

Sula — clean, make clean.

Hlala pansi — sit down (pansi = down).

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON (to be read).

Pronouns have frequently been written hitherto as separated
from Verbs, Adjectives, or Adverbs; thus:— “ uya tengisa
The usual custom, however, is to join them; thus:—
“ uyatengisa ”. What has been written as “ Baya m bona’
umeyane ”, for distinctness and clearness, may be written
“ Bayambona umeyane

This point ought to be duly noted, in order to avoid confusion
and difficulty in understanding the exact meaning of certain
phrases.


4S

For the sake of elegance and euphony, do not write, for
example, “ Ba ba bona ”, which moreover might be Imperfect in
tense, but rather, “ Baya ba bona ”, or as noted above,
“ Bayababona ”. This should be done, even though the sentence
be neither progressive, nor emphatic.

Many points dealing with euphony in arrangement, will be
observed, as the student progresses.

English people, following the style of spoken English com-
monly heard in our days, are inclined to speak rapidly, and to
cut words rather short. Many such phrases as: “ ’Morning,
how d’y’do? ” “What’s th’ news t’-day?” spoken somewhat in
this way, are to be heard constantly. But in Zulu, it is safer
and better to speak at a moderate rate, and to pronounce every
word fully and distinctly. The Native accentuation, which is
peculiar, can best be learned from natives, by listening care-
fully to their methods of articulation, when speaking to one
another. A “ good ear ” is, of course, of much service on such
occasions.

The native intonation is soft and rather full in sound. It is
slow, and sometimes almost approaches a drawl. Though hot
unmusical, it seems often to be cast in a “ Minor Key ”, so to
speak. These are all points deserving of careful attention, if
one desires to speak Zulu well.

Many white people at times find some difficulty in making
themselves understood by natives, especially by strange natives;
and this too, in spite of the fact that they know Zulu fairly well.
This may arise from several causes, some of which are suggested
below:—

(a) The rendering of English into Zulu too literally, and not
according to the Zulu construction of sentences.

(b) A habit of speaking too quickly and indistinctly.

(c) The use of words not according to their exact meaning.

(d) Natural slowness of understanding on the part of some
natives. This is by no means rare, amongst all human beings,
of whatever colour.

(e) The fact of the native not being accustomed to the voice
of the person who speaks to him.


49

Experience and observation will suggest other reasons also.
But with a little patience and care, much may be accomplished
in putting matters right.

In addition to the preceding remarks, another rather important
matter might be touched upon. There is a corrupt dialect, (if
indeed it can be called a dialect), which goes by the name of
Kitchen-Kafir. This is so widely diffused that, in the eyes of
many, especially of those of unobservant nature, or imperfect
education, it represents the Zulu language. That this should
be so, is, of course, absurd, yet so stands the fact. On some
occasions when the present writer has given exercises to be
done by his pupils, they sought, in their difficulties, the aid of
the houseboy, or kafir-servant; and he,—supplying what he
thought they wanted, and could understand,—gave them choice
selections of excellent Kitchen-Kafir ;Such gems, as, “Mina ai
’ase “ for “ I don’t know ”; “ Upi amehlo ga wena ”, for “ Where
are your eyes?” or “look at what you are doing”; “Wena
spoogaspook ” for “ you are a foolish person ” ; “ Figesa lizeche ;
i figesa lo gomage ”, for “ Bring the plate, don’t bring the cup ”;
were duly presented and received without enthusiasm. In fact,
red ink sufficiently marked their entire rejection. Yet, one could
notice the underlying thought, which seemed to criticize the re-
jection somewhat in this wise: “Not right, eh? But I had it
straight from the Kafir boy’s lips,—4 suppose he knows his own
language as well as any white man: anyhow, I’d rather believe
a native about his own language.”

Quite true, and yet quite untrue. One might as well be guided
into correct English, by the more distinctive inhabitants of
Whitechapel or Ljmehouse. Yet this point, in teaching Zulu,
certainly constitutes a real, tangible difficulty; and needs to be
worked hard at, in order to have it overcome.

With regard to euphonic forms in Zulu, not only ease in
pronunciation, but also- long habit, custom, and tradition dating
from times when the language was not well-defined, have all
had their influence in the introducing and maintaining of such
forms.

This is undoubtedly a subject for close and careful study and
observation. Similar forms exist in all languages: for example:


50

in English, “ a ” becomes “ an ” before a vowel; also compare
the insertion of “t” in “a-t-il?” (instead of a-il?) in French.

The student will do well to practise composing short and easy
sentences, affirmative and negative, questions, with answers to
the same, and so on; this will make his mind really familiar
with Zulu words and phrases, and give him a ready expression
in Zulu, for his thoughts.

LESSON FOURTEENTH.

There is no word in Zulu corresponding to the English words
“ a ”, “ an ” and “ the ”. Any noun, therefore, according to the
sense of the sentence may be understood to have either the “ a ”
or “ an ”, or “ the ”, before it: indoda — a man or the man:
iqanda — an egg or the egg.

The Nominative of Address, or Vocative.

This is the form of the noun used in speaking to one or to
several persons. In Zulu, it is formed, both in Singular and in
Plural, by dropping the first letter of the Prefix of the noun:
thus:—

Nominative.

Nominative of Address.

Umuntu

Abantu

Amadoda

Amazulu

Imihlobo.

’Muntu

’Bantu

’Madoda

’Mazulu

’Mihlobo.

Indicative mood: Verb active.

Perfect (Present Complete) Tense: affirmative.
Ukuhamba = to go.

Singular.

Plural.

1. Ngi hambile (or hambe) —
I have gone.

2. U hambile (or hambe) —
You have gone.

Si hambile (or hambe) —
We have gone.

3. U hambile (or hambe) —
He (she, it) has gone.

Ni hambile (or hambe) —
You have gone.

Ba hambile (or hambe) —
They have gone.


51

The third person Pronouns given above, are those of the first
Class of Nouns. If the noun be of the Second Class, the pro-
nouns will be li and a; for the Third Class, u and i.

This will be found to apply also to each of the remaining five
Classes. Each has its own distinctive pronouns. This tense
takes the same third-person pronouns as the Si/mple Present
Indicative, i.e. u and etc., the suffix ya, as in uya, baya, is not
used with this tense.

Hambile, or hambe, tandile or tande, etc., are used more or
less indifferently, some preferring the first, others the second
form of this tense. The final “ e ” in “ hambe ”, “ tande ”, etc.,
is slightly emphasised, and is pronounced like “ e ” in the English
word “ ten ”.

Pi, a particle meaning “where?” is used with Verbs and
Pronouns. With both it comes last in the question; as—•

Usebenza-pi? (literally “you work where?”) — Where do you
work?

Ba-pi? (literally “they where?”) — Where are they?

Ihashi li-pi? (literally “the horse is where?”) — Where is the
horse ?

Upi umutsha? — Where is the native-dress?

Api amaxegu? — Where are the old men?

In the latter examples, the sentence may be considered to run
thus:— Where is it? — the umutsha: Where are they? — the
old men: hence the question part finishes with “ pi ”; the ad-
ditional words being explanatory. Hence we may have “ Ihashi
li-pi?” or “ lipi ihashi?” and the same, with all nouns.

Note the advancing of the accent, one syllable: thus:—

U sebenza na? — Are you working?

U sebenza-pi? — Where are you working?

This is very frequently the case in Zulu, as to accentuation.

Ni, is a particle meaning “what?” It follows the same rules,
as to accentuation, and as to place in a sentence, as “ pi ”, and
is used with Verbs and Pronouns in the same way: thus:—

U funa-ni (literally, you want what?) — What do you want?


Ni bona-ni (literally, you see what?) — What do you see?
Abelungu ba biza-ni? (the white men, they demand what?) —

What are the white men asking for?

(Note well constructions above).

Nini — when? at what time?) Both follow the same rules
Ngani — Why? for what reason?) as ‘ Pi” and “ Ni ”.

(Ngani is not very frequently used.)

Urnfana ubuyile nini na? (literally, the boy, he has come back

when?) — When did the boy return?

Abantu ba fikile nini na? — When did the people arrive?

Abafazi ba gijima ngani na? — Why are the women running?
Abalimi ba lima namhlanje ngani na? — Why are the farmers

ploughing today?

EXERCISE 14A.

1. Why are you laughing? 2. Don’t treat the Boers slightingly,
men. 3. Boy, you must not sleep now. 4. The teacher spoke;
the children kept quiet. 5. We have brought the horses; they
are here now. 6. Boys, bring (some) stones. 7. The day before
yesterday the woman cleaned the windows and tables, here;
yesterday she went away. 8. Early this morning I drank (some)
coffee. 9. Children, bring the horse here now. 10. I am going
yonder on horseback today. 11. The eggs are here; let him cook
them at once. 12. The Zulu wants to buy shirts and a coat.
13. Are the eggs really nice? 14. Yes, they are quite nice.
15. White man, I have called you. 16. Last night the witness
arrived. 17. Don’t pull the horse; bring it here gently.
18. Yesterday I saw the clergyman; I saluted him; he came to
see the old man. 19. Are you sick? 20. Yes, I am very sick
indeed. 21. Don’t talk very much (kakulu). 22. The weather is
bad today. 23. The cat is very ugly. 24. Don’t hurt it.

EXERCISE 14B.

1. Bahleka ngani na? 2. Umfundisi u fikile izolo. 3. Unga leti
ihashi manje. 4. Ekuseni ngi wa bonile amaselesele. 5. Ngi
m bongile umfana kakulu ekuseni. 6. Ungahlebi abantu
ngamabomu. 7. Umuntu uya bema. 8. iZulu li wa tengisile
amayembe. 9. U ngi hlebile izolo. 10. Peka amaqanda; unga


53

peki ikofi. 11. Se benza bo! 12. Si donsile amahashi. 13. Ngi
wa bonile lapo. 14. Ningalali manje, ’bafana. 15. Ungasizi ama-
vila; siza amaxegu nabafokazana. 10. Abantwana ba hlabele la
kakulu .lapaya. 17. Ba hlabelelile (or hlabelile) kakulu pezolo
fnti. IS. Ngi hambe manje; ani hambe konamanje 19. Abantu
aba tule namhlanje. 20. Akabuye masinyane. 21. Ngiya funa
uku in bona impela. 22. Amanga, uya funa ukuhleka ma.nje,
Nembala, abantu ba bi lapa? 23. Ehe, ba bi kakulu. 24. TJnga-
hambi manje; hlala pansi.

(a) The word “indoda” is usually considered an irregular
noun. The plural form “ amadoda ” is considered to belong to
the Second Class; and it will be observed that the singular form
“ indoda ” is given under Class IV, with which it is more
correctly used. There are some other irregular nouns that will
be introduced later.

VOCABULARY: Adverbs.

Izolo — yesterday. Izolo kusihlwa — yesterday evening.

Izolo — yesterday. Pezolo — last evening.

Pansi — down.

Kutangi — the day before yesterday.

Ekuseni — early this morning; early in the morning.

LESSON FIFTEENTH.

Nouns of the Fourth Class.

PREFIXES.
Singular Plural
i, in, im. izi, izin, izim.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Nominative case; 3rd. Person.
with Verbs, i. with Adjectives, i, in, im. .with Adverbs, i, (sometimes in, im.) zi. zi, zin, zim. zi, (sometimes zim, zin)
OBJECTIVE CASE: Personal Pronouns
yi. zi.


54

VOCABULARY.

Incwadi — book, letter,
paper.

Insimbi — bell, gong, iron.
Inkabi — ox.

Inkomo — cattle.

Inkomazi — cow.

Inja — dog.

Inkuku — fowl.

Inkukukazi — hen.

Inyoni —■ bird.

Inyosi — bee.

Inyoka —- snake.

Indawo — place, locality.
Inhlanzi — fish.

Inhlansi — spark, flame.
Indhlela — path, way, road.
Intambo — string, cord, rope.
Insizwa — young man.
Induku — walking stick.
Intaba — hill, mountain.

Into — thing, something, any-

thing.

Indhlu — house, dwelling.
Imbali — flower.

Indaba — affair, story,

matter.

Imbuzi —- goat.

Imvu — sheep.

Inkunzi —* bull.

Inkau -- monkey.

Ingulube — hog, pig.
Imbongolo — ass, donkey.

Izincwadi — books, etc.

Izinsimbi — bells, gongs.
Izinkabi — oxen.

Izinkomo — cattle.
Izinkomazi — cows.

Izinja — dogs.

Izinkuku — fowls.
Izinkukukazi — hens.
Izinyoni — birds.

Izinyosi — bees.

Izinyoka — snakes.
Izindawo — places, etc.
Izinhlanzi — fish, fishes.
Izinhlansi — sparks, etc.
Izindhlela — paths, etc.
Izintambo — cords, etc.
Izinsizwa — young men.
Izinduku — walking sticks.
Izintaba — hills.

Izinto — things.

Izindhlu — houses, etc.
Izimbali —- flowers.

Izindaba — affairs, etc.

Izimbuzi — goats.

Izimvu — sheep.

Izinkunzi — bulls.

Izinkau — monkeys.
Izingulube — hogs, pigs.
Izimbongolo — asses, etc.

Some authors say that “imbali” (flower) is really “imimbali”,
an irregular plural, and meaning “ flowers ”. If this be so, there
is no singular, and it is a third class Noun, plural form.

Distinguish well between such nouns as “ umpongolOj ” or
“ umbongolo ” ; a barrel or tub; and “ imbongolo ”, a donkey ; also
“ indaba ” and “ ijitaba ” ; “ inhlanzi ” and “ inhlansi ”; and so
on; the difference must be maintained both in writing and in
speaking.


55

In English sentences such as: “I saw a donkey, a goat, a bull,
and a sheep yonder ”; and is only used between the two con-
cluding nouns: but it is put between every noun and the follow-
ing one, in Zulu: the sentence above therefore must be regarded
for purposes of translation as though it ran thus:—

“ I saw a donkey and a goat and a bull and sl sheep yonder.”

“ Na ” is the Zulu particle for “ and ”; it is contracted with a
following vowel, as has been already explained. Thus the
sentence already given, would be, in full, and without con-
traction, as below: *

Ngibonile imbongolo, na imbuzi, na inkunzi, na imvu, lapaya.

But, correctly rendered with contraction, thus:

Ngibonile imbongolo nembuzi, nenkunzi, nemvu, lapaya.

In the same way:

Siya biza abantwana, nomfazi, nezinsizwa — We call the children,
the woman, and the young men.

This is of general application in sentences of this kind.

EXERCISE 15A.

1. Are the papers here? 2. Yes, they are here. 3. Bring the
walking sticks here at once. 4. The hills are small, but the
river is very wide. 5. Do-not wash the things now; wipe the
table. 6. Relate the affair. 7. I related the story; the men
laughed, but the women were silent. 8. The man is making up
false stories; the old man yonder tells lies also. 9. I saw frogs
and snakes there last night. 10. He has brought goats, dogs,
sheep, cattle and a donkey. 11. Yesterday he came; today he is
going. 12. Work well, boys; don’t be lazy (lala). 13. Yes certain-
ly, sir, (nkosi) ; we have been working (sebenzile) hard today.
14. What do you want? 15. We are looking for work. 16. You
must not (Musani) talk and sing here; keep quiet. 17. Where
is the home? It is just here. 19. Yesterday we tied up the
oxen, asses, horses and goats; in the afternoon we worked hard;
last night we talked, we sang, (and) we rested. 29. Put out the
flames at once. 21. What do they relate? 22. They make up
false stories; they told me lies yesterday; do not believe (kolwa).


56

EXERCISE 15B

1. Ngi yi bopile inkabi pezolo. 2. Amadoda lapa aya xoka.
3. Beka intambo konalapa. 4. Mbala niya funa ukusebenza na?
5. Ewe, siya funa impela. 6. Ngi zi letile izinhlanzi konamanje.
7. Ni hamba-pi: ni hamba-nini? 8. Cimani izinhlansi
masinyane. 9. Bopa izimvu, nezimbuzi nezinya. 10. Usebenza-pi?
11. Izinyoni nezinyosi ziya ndiza. 12. hambe; siya hleka
kakulu. 13. Angi size amaxegu nabafazi. 14. Aka size abant-
wana. 15. Abantwana ba lobile kahle kakulu. 16. Ononkai ba
bambile na? 17. Yebo, ba hambile impela. 18. Una-ni na? (you
with what?) 19. Ngiya gula. 20. Ni vela-pi na? 21. Inzizwa
ikona; iya li biza ixegu. 22. Izindbleia zinhle (zi nble) ; zi banzi
kakulu. 23. Umfazi ufikile namhlanje. 24. Lota zincwadi
25. U sebenzile kahle impela; ngi m bongile. 26. Ngi sebenzile
ngamandhla, ’nkosi. 27. Ikaya li-pi? Abantu ba-pi? amabasbi
a-pi? izimvu nezimbuzi zi-pi? imitsba mi-pi? 28. Ipi indawo?
29. Zi-pi izinyoka manje? 30. Zi hambile ’nkosi. 31. Amanga;
izinyoka ziningi lapaya; ngi zi bonile impela. 32. Hambani
kahle; asi bambe manje.

With the Present Indicative, “ ya ” may be added to “ i ” and
“ zi ” as previously, iiL the cases of “ ba ”, “ baya ” ; “ li ”,
“ liya ” ; etc.

VOCABULARY: Verbs.

Tshela —< tell, relate.

Qamba — compose, make up.

Qambamanga — make up false stories; tell lies (Qamba amanga)
Beka — put, place, (bheka — look, v.)

Cima — put out, extinguish, (as a fire, etc.)

Fika — arrive, come to.

Vela — come from.

Ndiza — fly, soar in the air.

Xoka — tell lies, (unusual among Zulus, but used sometimes
in Natal).

Bopa—fasten up, secure well, tie (up).


57

Adverbs.

Izolo — yesterday; (pezolo = last night).

(izolo kusihlwa is a better expression than pezolo).

Konalapa — just here.

Entambama — in the afternoon; after midday.

Emmini — at noon, (it may mean also “:in the day-time”;
“about the middle of the day).”

(a) It would be almost impossible to introduce all the words
given in the Vocabularies, into the Exercises, without making
the latter too long. The pupil is, however, urged to go over each
Vocabulary, little by little, and to make short sentences, (state-
ments, and questions too, when possible) on each word or group
of words. This will at once exercise the pupil’s ingenuity and
familiarise him with the words themselves. Steady and con-
scientious use of the Method, (mentioned in the beginning of the
book) with regard to the Exercises, is strongly recommended.

(b) mkulu and kulu; hie and nhle; de and nde; dala and
ndala; mbi and bi; futshane and mfutshane; all these, and
some others besides, may be regarded as alternative and in
many cases, optional forms of each adjective. Euphony or easy
pronunciation, together with custom or habit, have much to do
in determining which form should be used; thus:—

Izintaba zinde (or zide) — The mountains are high.

Into imbi — The thing is bad.

Imvu imfutshane (ifutshane) — The sheep is small.

Izinhlansi zikulu (zinkulu) — The sparks are big.

Izinyoni zinhle (zihle) — The birds are pretty.

Izinto zidala (zindala) — The things are old.

Izindaba zibi (zimbi) — The affairs are not good (are bad).
Izindhlu zinkulu (zikulu) — The houses are large.

Imizi mikulu (not minkulu) — The kraals are extensive.


58

LESSON SIXTEENTH.

Verb Active.

INDICATIVE MOOD: Simple Future, Affirmative.

This is formed by placing “ yaku ” between the simple forms
of the personal pronoun (ngi, si, ni, etc.) and the Verb.

Singular. Plural.

Ngi yaku loba - - I shall Si yaku loba — We shall
(will) write. write.
U yaku loba — You will Ni yaku loba — You will
write. write.
U yaku loba — He (she, Ba yaku loba — They will

it) will write. write.

The third personal-pronoun forms given above are those of
the first class of Nouns. The other classes of nouns, as in other
tenses, take here also their own particular pronoun-forms in
place of'w and ba; thus:—

CLASS II.

CLASS III.

CLASS IV.

Ihashi li yaku gijima — the horse will run.

Amasela a yaku ntshontsha — thieves will steal,
Umhlobo u yaku fika — the friend will arrive.
Imizimba i yaku guga — bodies will grow old.
Inkanyezi i yaku kanya — the star will shine.
Izimbongolo zi yaku konya — donkeys will bray.

And the same with all the remaining Classes of Nouns, each
class with its own particular form (Singular and Plural) of the
personal pronoun, (third person).

Note well that the same personal-pronoun forms are used with
Simple Present tense, Perfect, and Simple Future; (the affirma-
tive forms of each of these tenses, that is.)

Present Tense: Ngi tanda —11 love.

Perfect Tense: Ngi tandile — I have loved.

Ngi tande — I have loved.

Simple Future: Ngi yaku tanda — I shall or will love.


59

In place of “ yaku ”, another form “ zaku ” is used instead,
when one speaks of coming to a place.

Ngi zaku buya lapa kusasa = I will return here tomorrow.

However, “ yaku ” is occasionally used in this sense, also,
-and the two forms are regarded by many competent Zulu writers
as exactly the same, in meaning.

EXERCISE 16A.

1. He will write the letters. 2. Take the papers now. 3. They
have gone early this morning (ekuseni kakulu) ; they will bring
the horses, cattle, and sheep tomorrow. 4. You will see the
teacher in the afternoon. 5. He will teach the boys every day.
6. The woman and the old man are here; they seek food
(ukudhla). 7. The children will come back on the day after
tomorrow. 8. Tie up the horses and goats now; I will see them
in the morning. 9. I will buy the horse; I have need of (fuma)
it. 10. Tomorrow we shall arrive at Durban (eTekwini). 11. We
have arrived here last night. 12. Yesterday in the afternoon, I
told the people to be quiet. 13. Be silent; do not talk here.
14. I will call the witnesses. Don’t tie up the goats; tie up the
dog. 15. He will bring the horses, dogs, and cows here this
afternoon (emtambana). 16. Did you stay (Have you stayed)
here last night? 17. Yes, sir, I arrived yesterday, (and) I
stayed here last night; I will go tomorrow morning early
(kusasa ekuseni). 18. Don’t stay here; go now. 19. No, teacher
I have arrived just now. 20. Boy, bring the tea at once; we
want it immediately. 21. Sit down, now.

EXERCISE 16B.

1. uTom uhlala-pi? 2. Uhlala lapo, ’mnunzana. 3. Uya m
’azi na? 4. Ehe, ngiya m ’azi impela. 5. Ukona manje?
6. Ngiyakolwa ukuti ukona namhlanje. 7. Asi sebenze ngam-
andhla namuhla. 8. Itiye linamandhla kakulu. 9. Tshaya
insimbi; sifuna amanzi. 10. Uya funa ukutenga izinto? 11. Cabo;


GO

ngiyafuha ukutengisa izimvu nezimbuzi. 12. Vala amafastele;
vula umnyango manje. 13. Ngi yaku tshela umfazi; uyakupeka
inkuku konamanje. 14. Abantu baya sebenza ngamandhla
impela. 15. Uya hleba ngamabomu. 16. Niya ngi hlupa namhla
kakulu, ’bantwana. 17. Si yaku hlala lapaya kusasa emtambama.
18. Ixegu ligula. 19. Uyakufa konamanje. 20. Uya gula na?
21. Cabo, ngiya pila impela.

VOCABULARY: (The numbers refer to the Classes of Nouns).
Entambama —• in the afternoon; this afternoon.

Kusasa — to-morrow, to-morrow morning.

Ngomuso — to-morrow.

Kutangi — the day before yesterday (on the day, etc.).
Ngomhlomunye = the day after to-morrow (on the day after.

etc.).

Ngemihla — daily, every day, on every day.

Ekuseni — early in the morning.

Ukuyaleza — to tell, command, order.

Ukudhla — to eat; used as a verbal Noun, it means “ food ”.
TJkuhlala — to stay (in or at a place).

UkW’azi — to know, to be acquainted with.

Ukukolwa — to believe.

Ukuvala — to close; to shut, to turn oft (as water from a tap).
Ukuvula — to open, to turn on (as the opposite of ukuvala).
Ukugula — to be sick or ill.

Ukufa — to die (or be dead) : (possibly sometimes for “to be
extremely ill ”).

TJkupila —• to be in good health; to be robust, well, etc.
Etekwini (from iteku — bay) — at, in, around Durban.
uTom (1) — Tom (see note (a)).

ukuti — that (conjunction) : (really a verb meaning “to say”,
“to wit”.)

Inkosi (4 and 2) — chief, sir. Both these nouns are terms of
Umnunzana (1) — worthy man, sir. respect, and in addressing
anyone = <“ sir ”.

Umnyango (3) — door, doorway.

(a) English (and other) proper names frequently have an

“u” prefixed in Zulu, and are regarded as belonging to the first
Class of nouns.


G1

(b) ukufa means “to be dead”, or what is almost equivalent,
so ill as to be dying, or at the point af death. The true mean-
ing, however, is the first given.

(c) Certain nouns will be noticed, as we progress, as being
slightly irregular, seeming to belong to one class for the singular,
and to another class for the plural. These will be duly noted
for the information of the student. Inkosi (4 and 2) is a case
in point.

(d) A point of some importance is this: Be sure of the true
meaning of an English sentence before you translate it into
Zulu. Thus: “ You will bring the things here to-morrow ”;
may be simply an announcement of a future event; but it may
also be a command or order, given in a polite manner; if the
first, then it is to be translated thus:—

Uyakuleta izinto lapa kusasa.

But if it be the second, then according to that meaning, it is
to be translated thus:—

Beta izinto lapa kusasa.

LESSON SEVENTEENTH.

Nouns of the Fifth Class.

PREFIXES.

Singular. Plural.

isi (or is’) izi (or iz’)

NOMINATIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS (3rd Person).

With Verbs, Adjectives:

Adverbs, and Particles:

si zi

Objective Personal Pronouns.
si

zi


G2

VOCABULARY:
Isimbila — a mealie-garden. Izimbila
Isisebenzi — a workman, labourer. Izisebenzi
Isihlalo — a chair, saddle, something to sit on. Izihlalo
Isinkwa — bread, loaf of bread. Izinkwa
Isicatulo — shoes, boots, footwear. Izicatula
Isikati — time, clock, watch. Izikati
Isandhla — hand. Izandhla
Isando — hammer. Izando
Isalukazi —- old woman. IzalukazL
Isibane — candle, lamp, light. Izibane
Isitsha — plate, dish, bowl, saucer. Izitsha
Isigqoko — hat, cap, headgear. Isigqoko
Isikumba — skin. Izikumba
Isicamelo — pillow, head-rest. Izicamela
Isivalo — door, shutter. Izivalo
Isifo — illness, sickness. Izifo
Isitebele — stable. Izitebele
(from English).

(a) Isalukazi is spelt isalugazi by some writers, also
usalugazi (1).

(b) Konje is a word signifying “So then?” “Well, then”;
or such phrases as “Do you tell me that — ”; “Is it possible
that — ”; in sentences expressing surprise, doubt, etc. It is
akin in meaning to “ Mbala ”, “Nembala”; (or to a word
“ Nyanisa ”, which though not Zulu, is frequently heard from
Natives in Natal; and is sometimes pronounced “ in-yan-is ”) :
all these follow the same rule as to place in sentence, etc., thus:

Konje abafana babi impela na? — So then the boys are very
bad indeed?

Konje ni buyile kutangi? = Do you mean to say you returned
two days ago?

(c) The verb “lala” = lie down, etc.; makes as its perfect

tense >“ lele ” ; = “ be asleep ”. “ Lalile ” is practically never

used.


63

EXERCISE 17A.

1. So then the doorway is quite small? 2. Yes, sir, it is very
small indeed. 3. The stable is wide: there are many horses there
(say: many horses are present there). 4. Where are you, boy?
5. I am resting, don’t disturb me. 6. Are you annoying him on
purpose? 7. The flowers here are beautiful; I like them ex-
ceedingly (kakulu). 8. I will see the Boer to-day; he is going
to Durban. 9. He arrived yesterday (and) rested here.
10. We are going on horseback. 11. English people (ama
Ngisi) like tea and coffee. 12. The pillows are very white
indeed. 13. The sickness is very troublesome. 14. I am holding
the child. 15. Look at the cat! 16. The cat is killing a mouse;
she killed a rat yesterday. 17. The boy is holding the horse.

18. The skins are here now. 19. I want to see them (to them
see). 20. What are they looking at over there? 21. They are
looking at (some) dresses.

EXERCISE 17B.

1. Eakani izingubo. 2. Amadoda akona. 3. Izulu lihle manje;
li bomvu impela. 4. U-pi manje? 5. Umnunzana ukona; uya
ku biza. 6. Umkuba mubi. 7. Ufakazi uyaku hamba manje.

8. Konje uhambile na? 9. Ngi fike izolo. 10. Amatshe a lukuni
kakulu. 11. Insimbi i lukuni futi. 12. AmaBunu namaNgisi
maningi; ngi wa bona impela (plainly). 13. Amajuba mahle;
andiza pezulu. 14. Impuku ikona; izimpuku ziningi lapa.
15. Sinamahashi. 16. Unebantshi ne bulukwe nehembe. 17. Siya
hamba ngamahashi: siyaku sebenza ngemandhla. 18. Niya
buka-ni na? 19. Itiye libi kodwa ikofi lihle. 20. Konje ikofi
limnandi na? 21. Isifo sibi. 22. Isitebele lapo sibanzi.

23. Izivalo zinde (zide). 24. Konje amafastele ma ncinyane?

VOCABULARY:

Igundane (2) — rat.
Impuku (4) — mouse.

Ijuba (2) —• pigeon, dove.
Bomvu — red, orange-

coloured.

Mhlope — white.

Pezulu — high up, up above
Konje —'SO then, etc.

Ingubo (4) — dress, blanket,

clothes.

iNgisi (2) — Englishman.
Kona — here, present.


64

Verbs.

Tokoza,. jabula — be happy, Tetisa — scold.

be joyful. Limaza — hurt, wound.

Faka — put on.

The numbers after the nouns show the classes to which they
belong.

LESSON EIGHTEENTH.

Nouns of the Fifth Class (Continued).

As the student may have noticed already, a number of Adverbs
are evidently derived from Adjectives. For example:—

Adjectives.

hie — nice, etc.

bi — bad, etc.

mnandi — pleasant, sweet,
etc.

ningi — much.

ncane, ncinyane — little, etc.
kulu —■ big.

Adverbs.

Kahle, kuhle — nicely, etc.
Kabi — badly, etc.
kamnandi — pleasantly, etc.
kaningi — abundantly, etc.
kancane — very little,
kancinyane — slightly, by de-
kakulu — very much, greatly.

The usual prefix is “ ka ”; but in a few cases “ku”.

EXERCISE ISA.

1. The mealie-fields (izimbila) are green. 2. When have you
seen the snakes ? 3. To-day; early this morning, sir. 4. The old
woman is very black. 5. The horse drinks water very much.
6. The dishes are big. 7. The hat is ugly indeed. 8. Don’t look
at the stars; word hard, boys. 9. The woman has thoroughly
scolded the children : they are crying very much. 10. Where are
the workmen? 11. They are here, sir. 12. Bring the hammers
here. 13. I want to buy a saddle. 14. Clean the boots well.
15 Don’t bring the lights; I am going out (puma). 16. What


65

time is it? (si-ni). 17. The young man has a mealie-garden
here. 18. We want hats and coats; don’t bring the shirts.

19. I want a loaf of bread; bring a plate also. 20. Extinguish
the candle at once. 21. Sit down; here is a chair. 22. The boots
hurt me very much. 23. Open the door at once; but shut the
windows. 24. Turn off the water; go home now (ekaya — home).

EXERCISE 18B.

1. Isimbila si luhlaza. 2. U zi bonile izimvu nini? 3. Zi-pi
manje? 4. Ninga buki izinkanyezi, ’bafana. 5. iNgisi li fike
ngehashi. 6. amaBunu a wa tetisa amaZulu kakulu. 7. Uya
kuluma kabi manje. 8. ’Sisebenzi, autande umsebenzi.

9. Abantwana abahambe ekaya (home) konamanje. 10. Izigqoko
zibi kodwa izingubo zinhle. 11. Isalukazi simnyama. 12. Sulani
izicatulo kahle. 13. Umuntu ukulumile kancane. 14. Izihlalo
zifutshane kodwa zinhle impela. 15. Inkosi iya ba siza. 16. Ba
zi tshayile izimbongolo kabi. 17. Isinkwa si tsha. 18. Imizi mi
kulu. 19. Isandhla si lukuni. 20. Isigqoko si mpofu. 21. Isitsha
sikona. 22. Izitsha ziningi lapa. 23. Isando sifutshane.

24. Umuntu mu bi; uya qambamanga impela. 25. Isalukazi
simbiza umfana. 26. Indhlela imbi. 27. Umlungu mude.
28. Umuzi umkulu. 29. Imilomo ibanzi (mibanzi). 30. Imiti
mide lapo; siyakuhlala ngomuso. 31. Umuti u baba kakulu;
ninga wu puzi. 32. Musani ukuluma amanga. 33. Umfundisi
ujamile; abafana nabantwana nezintombi, ba tulile impela. (See
note (c) ).

(a) Do not forget that clicks are indicated by the letters c.,
q. and x,

(b) Remember that the particles, pi — where, ni — what,
nini — when; ngani — why; ngapi — where to? whither? are
usually (almost invariably) placed at the end of the sentences in
which they directly occur. This is undoubtedly the safest and
most correct place for them.

They are of themselves, interrogative, and are only followed
by “na”, when great emphasis is needed, in the question.

(c) When there happen to be two or more nouns, Personal
Nouns, differing as to their classes, in a sentence,—either as
Nominative or Objective to the same Verb; then such Nouns


66

are taken as a collective Nominative under Class I; or as a
collective Objective under the same Class; hence when it is
necessary in this particular case, to express the Personal pro-
noun, it will be “ ba ”; thus, for Nominatives:—

Abafana, nezinsizwa, namadoda ba hambile manje.

The boys, young men, and men have gone now.

Here ba would only agree with abafana; the proper prefixes of
the others require respectively zi and a; but as has just been
explained, ba is taken as a general prefix in such cases as this,
with personal nouns. It is the same with the objective case;
thus:—

Ngiyakubabazi abafazi nezalukazi nezintombi.

I will call the women, the old women, and the grown girls.

(d) The above being understood with regard to nouns relating
to persons; the following is the rule for all other nouns:—

KU, the personal pronoun of Class VIII, may be used as a
general pronotcn; or the following method may be used. Take the
personal pronoun of the Class to which the last noun belongs,
for nominatives; and the personal pronoun of the class to which
the first noun belongs, for objectives; thus, for Jcu:—

Ingonyama nezinkunzi, nezimbongolo ku (or kuya) zulazula.

The lion, the bulls, and the mules are wandering about.

Again for nominatives, thus:— (prefix of last noun occurring).

Izimvu namahashi nezinkabi zi (or ziya) gijima.

The sheep, horses and ozen are running.

(zi is used as agreeing with izinkabi, the last of the three
nouns).

For objectives, thus: (prefix of first noun occurring).

Ngi wa tshaya amahashi nezimbongolo, nenja.

I am striking (beating) the horses, the mules and the dog.

(wa js used; it agrees with amahashi, the first of the nouns).


07

LESSON NINETEENTH.

Nouns of the Sixth Class.

PREFIXES.

Singular. Plurav.

Ulu, u. Izi, (izin, izimj.

Personal (3rd person) Pronouns; nominative and objective;

used with Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, and Particles,
lu zi.

The personal pronoun-forms (3rd person) hitherto given, (or
to be shortly given in Classes VII. and VIII.) are used with the
Present Tense, either by themselves, or with a suffix “ ya ” sub-
joined, thus “luya, ziya”; they are used (but without “ya”)
with the Perfect Tense in “ ile ” and in “ e ”; and they are also
used with the Future Tense in “ yaku ” and “ zaku ”. The
student is recommended strongly to make as sure as possible of
his knowledge of the complete set of prefixes belonging to the
eight classes of nouns, and of the personal pronouns belonging
to them, as heretofore given, or still to be given. Many other
kindred details and developments will be found, later, to depend
largely upon them. They are the root, as it were, and a good
sound knowledge of them will be found to help the memory im-
mensely, and to suggest the true form of the later developments,
on several important points.

VOCABULARY:

Utango — hedge, fence

IJlimi (ulwimi) — tongue, language,
uti (uluti) — stick,
ubambo — rib.

ukuni (rare in singular) — firewood,
unwele — hair,
unyawo — foot.

izintango

izilimi (izilwimi)

izinti

izimbambo

izinkuni

izinwele

izinyawo


G8

ulwandhle — sea, ocean.

upondo — horn.

usuku (ulusuku) — day.

uhlobo — kind, sort, species.

upape — feather.

ubisi — milk (amasi — sour,

lumpy milk is 2nd class).
Uzipo — claw.

izilwandhle

izimpondo

izinsuku

izinhlobo

izimpape

izinzipo.

Imperative Mood, Present Tense:

(used with Objective Case as Prefix).

When pronouns (1st, 2nd and 3rd person), of the objective
Case as used with the Imperative mood; (as in English “bring
me”; “give him”) ; then firstly, they are put before the Verbal
form; and secondly, the last letter of the Verb is changed into e,
and slightly accented.

For example, the direct Imperative will be:—

siza = help. sizani = help (ye).

also, the permissive form will be:—

ausize = do thou help. anisize = do ye help.

But the form we are dealing with, having Objective case as
prefix; will be:—

Singular.

ngi size — help me.
m size — help him.
si size — help us.
ba size — help them.

Plural.

ngi sizeni — help (you) me.
m sizeni — help him.
si sizeni — help us.
ba sizeni — help them.

Sizeni being “ size ”, “ help ” with “ ni ”—“ you ” added; when
one is addressing two or more, directing them to help, etc.

Again: Leta isinkwa; letani isinkwa; or aulete isinkwa;
anilete isinkwa; may also be expressed thus:—
si lete insinkwa (literally, it bring the bread) — Bring the bread.

zi lete izinkwa (literally, them bright the loaves) — Bring the
loaves.

si leteni isinkwa (literally, bring (ye) the loaf) — Bring the
loaf.


G9

si and zi are here the objective pronouns agreeing with isinkwa,
izinkwa; and governed directly by the verb “ lete ” or “ leteni

The same applies to all the objective pronouns, without excep-
tion, thus:—

Wa leteni amabantshi namabulukwe — Bring ye (them) the
coats and trousers.

Wa agrees with amabantshi and amabulukwe (2nd class).
Zilete izitsha — bring the dishes,
li leteni ihashi — bring (ye) the horse.

EXERCISE 19A.

1. Trim (it) the hedge. 2. Take ye (them) the sticks. 3. The
woman is bringing the firewood (izinkuni). 4. I have noticed
(bonile) a hair there. 5. Where is it now? 6. I want to buy
a horn. 7. Bring it here at once. 8. Prune (them) the trees-
very carefully (kahle kakulu impela). 9. Chop (it) the firewood
in the afternoon. 10. Wash (sula) (it) the table well. 11. The
horses yonder are bay-colour. 12. Take the dishes; put them'
there. 13. The claw is very large. 14. The feathers are quite
short, (futshane impela). 15. Don’t bind the claw. 16. Do you
want to buy horns and feathers? 17. Yes, do you sell them here?
IS. When will you sell them? 19. I will sell them on the day

after to-morrow, in the afternoon. 20. The days are short now.

21. Bring the tea now, (and) let the cook do the meat at once

(the cook let him cook the meat, etc.).

EXERCISE 19B.

1. Lu nqume utango. 2. ’Bafana, ku nqumeni (or nqumani)
imiti nezintango. 3. Zi tezeni izinkuni futi. (also). 4. Zi tateni
izinti. 5. Izinti zincane. 6. Siya kuluma ngolimi (nga ulimi).
7. Izinwele zimpofu. 8. Ngi lu bonile upondo lapo ekuseni.

9. Lupi? 10. Ba bacile namhlanje. 11. Izimbambo zi-pi?
12. Ulwandhle lu-pi? 13. Ubisi lu-pi manje? 14. Lu kona.
15. Umfazi uya zi leta izimpape nezimpondo. 16. Ngiya funa
ukuzitenga (uku zi tenga). 17. Ufikile nini? IS. Konamanje
ufikile; u kona manje. 19. Izinpape ziopi? 20. Zi kona lapa


70

’innunzana. 21. Uya zi tenga ngemali? 22. Ehe, ngiya zi tenga
ngemali. 23. Ngi lu funa ubisi masinyane. 24. Gundani izinwele
kahle. 25. Akagunde izinwele. 26. Ba zi gunda izinwele kabi
kakulu. 27. Asi ba tshaye. 28. Izinsuku ziningi. 29. Ulwandhle
lubanzi kakulu. 30. Unyawo lu-pi? 31. Zibuke izimbambo.
32. Ziningi izimhlobo na?

VOCABULARY: Verbs.

Nquma — prune, trim, cut, clip, (as trees, hedges, etc.)
gunda, puca — cut, shave, (as hair, beard, whiskers, etc.).
Tenga — buy, is always succeeded by “ nga ” contracted with

succeeding vowel, as:— ngi tenga ngemali, (nga-
imali) — I buy with (by means of) money.

teza — cut, chop (as firewood),
tata — take.

Adjectives:

mpofu — dun-colour, roan, also pale or yellow; also poor,

•sundu — red-brown or bay-colour.

.'Zibadu — spotted, speckled,
inyaluti — grey.

mdubu — grey.

LESSON TWENTIETH.

Nouns of the Seventh Class.

ABSTRACT NOUNS.

Prefixes.

Singular Plural

Ubu or u (None).

With Verbs, adjectives, adverbs and particles, the 3rd. person
corresponding pronoun is “ bu ”, both in nominative and objec-
tive cases: it may be “ buya ” with Present tense of Indicative
mood; but only “ l)u ” with Perfect, and Future Simple, in
“ yaku ” and “ zaku ”, and, indeed, all other Tenses.


71

These nouns have no plural; which, as the student will readily
understand, arises from their meaning.

Njalo, when used as an adjective, means: thus, like that, so.
Njalo when used as an adverb means: continually, always.
Njalonjalo when used as an adverb means: continually, always.
Thus: Ubuntu bu njalo — Human nature is like that.

VOCABULARY:

Ubuntu — human nature, derived from umuntu (1) — a man.
Ubumnyama — darkness, blackness, derived from mnyama —

black.

Ubude — height, depth, length, derived from de — long, tall.
Ububi — evil, wickedness, badness. derived from bi —

wicked, ugly.

Ubuhle — gentleness, beauty, peacefulness, derived from hie —
gentle, nice.

Ubudoda — manliness, manly qualities, derived from indoda (2)
— a man.

Ubuti — poison, harmful drug, derived from umuti (3) — a
medicine.

Ubutakati — witchcraft, sorcery, derived from umtakati (1) —
witch-doctor.

Ubumpofu — poverty, poorness, derived from mpofu — poor.

Many other words of this class will be met with. The deri-
vation of them may not be so obvious as those given just now, but
enquiry and observation will result in much interesting know-
ledge being acquired.

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES:

Utshani — grass.

Utshwala — kafir-beer,
ubuula — foolishness, folly,
ubuso — face,
ubusika — winter,
ubutongo — sleep,
ubutakataka — weakness,
ubuhlungu — pain.

ubukali — sharpness,
ubutuntu — bluntness,
ubwomi, ubomi — life,
ubukosi — chieftainship,

royalty.

ubungane —• infancy,
ubukwele — jealousy,
ubumpumpute — blindness.

Note, (a) : when a verb in the direct Imperative mood com-
mences with a vowel, it is correct to place the letter “ y ” before
it; it is usually joined to it: thus:—


72

ukw engula — to skim: y-engula (or yengula) ubisi — skim the
milk.

ukwenza — to act, to do: y-enza (yenza) kable -- act gently;
wait a little.

(b)The Infinitive affirmative of the Verb active, “to buy”, is
ukutenga.

The negative form of the same, will be:
ukungatengi — not to buy.

Note the insertion of “ nga ” after “ uku ”; and the change of
the final vowel from “ a ” to “ i

Compare this also, with the negative form of the direct Impera-
tive.

Ungatengi — do not buy: ningatengi — do not (ye) buy.

(c) The English verb “to have”; Present Indicative; has al-
ready been touched upon: the affirmative form being:

Singular. Plural.

<

1. Ngi na (I with, I and) — Sina — we have.

I have.

2. u na (thou with, etc.) — Nina — you have.

thou hast.

3. u na (he, she, it with, etc.) Bana — they have.

— he has.

The third personal pronoun follows the class of its noun, as
usual; these given above are first-class. In addition “ na ” is
contracted with a following vowel in the next word, as already
explained, (na u - no; na i - ne, etc.)

The negative form of the same is given below:

1. A ngi na — I have not
A u na — You have not.

3. A ka na — He has not.

A si na — We have not.
A ni na — You have not.
A ba na — They have not.

3rd. personal pronouns as before; note change from “ u ” how-
ever in 3rd. singular to “ ka ”; “ akana ” is also written “ ’kana ”
The literal meaning is something like “ not I with ”; “ not he
with ” etc.


73

Banemali (Ba na imali) —*They have money.

Abana ’mali — They have no money.

Unomntwana (u na umntwana) — He has a child.

Akana ’mntwana (or ’kana ’mntwana) — He has not a child (no
child).

Note carefully these negative forms. For the affirmative, “ na ”
is contracted with the initial vowel following; for the negative,
it is not; but the first letter of the succeeding word is entirely
dropped. This practise is of very general application in Zulu
for negative forms.

The interrogative forms of the foregoing are formed in pre-
cisely the way usual with Verbs, that has been already fully ex-
plained in past lessons.

Akana ’zimvu na? — Has he no sheep?

Abana ’mali na? — Have they no money?

EXERCISE 20A.

1. We have no cattle. 2. Has she no goats? 3. Yes, sir, she
has goats yonder. 4. So then, the poison is here? 5. Do they
suffer? 6. They suffer very much indeed. 7. The weakness is
great (ningi> today. 8. Sheep is gentle; it is peaceful indeed.

9. Do you tell me that (konje) you are asleep in the afternoon?

10. The old men, old women, men, women and children yonder
drank beer early this morning. 11. The darkness is great early
in the morning. 12. The depth was great. 13. Tell him not
to buy potatoes today. 14. I have no beer here, sir. 15. They
have beer there; I saw it today. 16. Do you like beer? 17. Do
not drink it. IS. I saw the men the day before yesterday; they
like to drink. 19. Human nature is like that. 20. Do not read
books; work energetically; don’t be lazy Gala). 21 Go out now,
children.

EXERCISE 20 B.

1. Utshani bu luhlaza impela manje. 2. Ngiya bu tanda ut-
shwala. 3. Abafana baya m hlupa umfazi ngokungasizi (nga uku
nga sizi). 4. Ubuula bu yaku peza konamanje. 5. Umuntu
u-vela-pi? 6. Aungene, ’nkosi. 7. Bu-pi utshwala? 8. Izintombi


74

zi bu letile; bukona manje. 9. Akana ’nkomo na? 10. Qabo;
akana ’nkomo; unezimbuzi, nezimvu, nezinja. 11. Ngiya ku
kolwa; ngiyaku hamba konamanje. 12. Ubumpofu bu kona.

13. Mtshele ukungatengi amazambane (potatoes) namuhla.

14. Ngi bu zwa ubublungu. 15. Asina ’mali; banemali lapaya.

16. Anina ’mali lapa na? 17. Oa, ’nkosi. imali ipelile. 18. Sin-
amazwe impela. 19. Ungaleti ubuti; kulete ukudhla (ku agreeing
with ukudbla). 20. Ngiya bu tanda ubudoda impela. 21. Ubude
bu ningi (bu kulu). 22. Konje ubuti bukona na? 23. Ubutakati
bunamandbla. 24. Ngena manje, ’mnunzana. 25. Izwe nezin-
dhlela linezintaba. 26. Umfazi utsbaya abantwana ngenduku
(nga induku). 27. Si bu tande ububle impela. 28. Ubuso buble.
29. Musani ukutenga; utshwala bu-bi lapa. 30. Ubumpumpute
bu kona. 31. Ngiyaku tenga izingubo ngemali (nga imali)
nambla.

VOCABULARY:

Ver'bs. Nouns.

Zwa — suffer (as pain, etc.) Igundane (2) — rat.

peza — come to an end, stop. Imali (4) — money,

pela —’ cease, leave off, finish.

lele — be asleep; (see Lala).

ngena —- enter, go in, come in.

LESSON TWENTY-FIRST.

Nouns of the Eighth Class.

PREFIXES.

Singular: uku No Plural.

With verbs, adjectives, adverbs and particles, the 3rd.
personal pronoun, as in previous Classes) ; nominative and objec-
tive is:'

Ku (or Kw before a vowel).

This class of nouns is almost entirely composed of Infinitive
Mood, Present Tenses of Verbs, used as Verbal Nouns, thus—
Ukukanya, to shine, is used as a Noun, and means, brightness,
brilliancy, light, etc.


75

VOCABULARY:

Ukuqala (to begin) — beginning, commencement.

ukutula (to be quiet) — peace, quietness, silence.

ukupa (to give) — gift, donation.

ukutokoza (to be joyful) — joy, cheerfulness.

ukukutala (to be diligent) — diligence, persevering activity in
work.

ukudhla (to eat) — food.

ukufa (to be sick, or dead) — sickness, death, ill-health.

ukupila (to be well) — life, good health.

ukwazi (to know) — knowledge, understanding.

ukwona (to offend, to sin) — sin, offence, sinning.

ukwabela (to give among many) — distribution.

ukwetemba (to hope) — hope, hopefulness.

ukulalela (to obey) — obedience, submission.

ukungalaleli (negative of ukulalela) — disobedience, insub-

ordination.

ukubonga (to praise) — praise, thanks.

ukungabongi (not to praise) — dis-praise, etc.

The Imperative mood, Present Tense, Active form, has already
been given. The following is the Passive form.

AFFIRMATIVE.

Singular, Plural.

Bongwa — be praised. Bongwani — be ye praised.

'Negative.

TJngabongwa or (ungabongwi) Ningabongwa (or wi) — be
— do not be praised. ye not praised.

These forms can only be used, of course, where the meaning
of a verb will allow it.

(a) The passive voice of the Infinitive Verbal nouns given
above, as already indicated, is formed by the insertion of the
letter “ w ” before the final vowel, thus:—

Ukwabelipa — to be given among many.

Ukulalelwa — to be obeyed.

Ukubongwa — to be praised.


76

The negatives are formed as usual, thus—

Ukungalalelwa (or ukungalalelwi) to be disobeyed, i.e. not to be

obeyed.

Ukungabongwa (or ukungabongwi) not to be praised.

Ukungabelwa (or wi) not to be given among many.

The same will apply to all examples of these Nouns and Infini-
tive forms of the Verb. The ending wa is the usual (and
probably the more correct) ending; ivi is occasionally used,
however.

EXERCISE 21A.

1. Look at (them) the bees; they fly prettily; they are buzz-
ing very much. 2. They will go soon now; but they will return
early in the morning. 3. I am very glad, Sir; I like to see
them very much. 4. Laziness is very bad (bad very much) ; do
not be lazy (lala), boys; let us work well today. 5. Let him go
home (ekaya) at once. 6. Do not talk, boys, you must not (do
not) talk here. 7. The old man likes sleeping, but the others have
worked very wTell indeed; I praise them highly (kakulu). 8. We
thank you, Sir, we will rest now. 9. Shave the beard carefully;
(and) come back at once. 10. Do you know (bow) to read?

11. The white man blamed laziness very much yesterday; we in-
tend to work (i.e. we will work) well today; he will praise us,

12. It hurts me very much. 13. The clergyman hesitated very
much in speaking; the boys laughed; the old men were silent.
14. The women have bought eggs and fowls at Durban today;
they are very pleased (jabula) now. 15. Let the children weed;
let the grown girls stay here; I wish to see them now. 16. Per-
haps we shall work yonder on the day after tomorrow. 17. I have
shaved the beard and the hair last flight, the children have seen
me; they are laughing. 18. I arrived yesterday; they got here
(i.e. arrived) on the day before (i.e. kutangi). 19. Where is the
stranger? Is he here now? 20. Yes, Sir, he is there; he is eat-
ing mealies. 21. The questions are numerous (ningi), but I have
answered them well. 22. Is that enough? 23. Yes, that is quite
enough. 24. Let us stop now!


77

EXERCISE 21B.

Y. Ukulalela kuhle impela; kepa kubi kakulu ukunga-laleli.

2. Ukulalelwa kuhle; kepa kubi ukungalalelwa. 3. Baya tanda
ukubuza imibuzo nokupendula (na uku - ). 4. Ukwona kubi im-
pela. 5. Ukuqala kulukuni. 6. Ngi ku tanda ukuzitoba. 7. Si ku
bongile. 8. Ukupa kukulu, ’bantu. 9. Ukutokoza kuhle.

10. Ukupumula kuhle futi. 11. Konje ukuzidhla ku kona, ’bantu?
12. Abalungu ba kuluma ngokwazi (nga ukw - ). 13. Ukwesaba
kulula. 14. Ukuloba nokufunda (na uku - ) kahle, kulukuni,
’bantwana. 15. Abantu balele manje. 16. K’ubusuku bu kona.

17. Ngi hlalile lapaya, ekuseni namuhla. 18. Si hlalile konalapa,
’nkosi. 19. Baya zi dansula izibambo ngewis'a (nga i - ).
20. Ilanga li pumile; izinkomo zi jabulile; izinja zi konkoyile;
amatole agijimile njalo. 21. Imuntu mubi; unamanga njalo njalo.
22. Abantu ba zi nquma izintango ngamandhla. 23. Uya kwazi
(ku azi) ukufunda? 24. Kupela manje; kuningi impela.

VOCABULARY.

Verbs.

Dansula — strike (with a
stick, etc.).

Buza — ask, demand, en-
quire.:

Buza (bhuza) — buzz or hum
(as a bee).

Pendula — answer, turn
(again).

E’saba (ukwesaba) — fear,
be afraid.

Yeka — stop.

Tetisa —< scold, blame.
Pumula — rest, take repose.
.Tabula —• be glad, full of joy.
Konkota — bark (as a dog),

etc.

Pataneka — hesitate in
speaking.

Vilapa — be lazy.

NOUNS:

Umfiki (1) — stranger, new arrival (fika).
Iwisa (2) — knob-kerrie.

Ukuzidhla (8). — pride, vanity.

Ukwesaba (8) — fear, terror,
imibuzo (3) — questions, enquiries,
ukuzitoba (8) — humility,
ubuvila (7) — sloth, laziness,
ukuvilapa (8) — sloth, laziness.


78

Adjectives, Adverbs, etc.

lula — easy.

kalula — easily,
mhlaumbe — perhaps,
kupela — that is all.
lukuni — hard, difficult.

kepa or kanti noko — how-
ever.

(or nakuba) — but, never;
theless.

kuningi — that is enough.

(K’ubusuku (ubusuku) = at night.)

LESSON TWENTY-SECOND.

Verb Active.

INDICATIVE MOOD; (AFFIRMATIVE).

Past (Imperfect) Tense; and Future Tense (2nd Form).

This past tense corresponds to the ordinary Imperfect tense
in English,

PAST SIMPLE.

Singular.

1. Nga tenga — I bought.

2. Wa tenga — You bought.

3. Wa tenga — He bought.

Plural.

Sa tenga —• We bought.
Na tenga — You bought.
Ba tenga — They bought.

FUTURE TENSE (2nd form).

This form of the Future is used when a promise is given; or
a fixed intention to do something, is made known; “ ngo tenga ”,
then means: I promise to buy; it is my intention to buy.
“ I will buy ” conveying in this instance a full implication of the
ideas mentioned above.

1. Ngo tenga — I will buy. So tenga — We will buy.

2. Wo tenga — You will buy. No tenga —-You will buy.

3. Wo tenga — He will buy. Bo tenga — They will buy.


79

Note (a)—In each of the two tenses given above, the 3rd
person pronouns are those of the First Class of nouns. Those
for the past simple, in the other Classes of nouns are here given:

Class II. la in Singular. a in Plural.
„ HI. wa in Singular. ya in Plural.
„ iv. ya in Singular. za in Plural.
„ V. sa in Singular. za in Plural.
„ VI. lwa in Singular. za in Plural.
,, VII. bwa or ba in Singular. no plural.
„ VIII. kwa in Singular. no plural.
The 3rd person pronouns the Future (2nd form) are for the same Classes; next given, thus:— as used with
for Class II. lo in Singular. 0 in Plural
for Class III. wo in Singular. yo in Plural.
for Class IV. yo in Singular. ZO in Plural.
for Class V. so in Singular. ZO in Plural.
for Class VI. Iwo in Singular. ZO in Plural.
for Class VII. bo or bwo in Singular. no plural.
for Class VIII. kwo in Singular. no plural.

These two tables may be learned, practically, as one; let the
student first note the distinction in meaning; and then let him
remember that where a occurs in the pronoun of the Past tense,
o occurs in that of the Future (2nd form). (Note: instead of
“ba” (class VII) “bwa” are sometimes used.

“ bo ” “ bwo ”

Examples: Past Tense pronoun-forms.

2. Amahashi a gijima — The horses ran.

3. TJmhlobo wa fika izolo — The friend arrived yesterday.

4. Izinsizwa za sebenza — The youths were working.

5. Isicamelo sa lukuni — The pillow was hard.

6. Umoya lwa namandhla — The wind was strong.

7. IJbutakataka bwa hlupa — The weakness, was troublesome.

8. Ukudhla kwa mnandi — The food was sweet.

The student is recommended to exercise his ingenuity, by
making up a similar or more extended list of examples witil
regard to this form of the Future Tense; paying particular
attention to the meanings, promissory or intentional.


80

YoZe (b)—The ordinary form of the Future is that shown by
“ yaku ” and “ zaku ” : these are really composite ; thus :—
ya is a verb — go; and uku — to: ya uku — yaku — go to.
za is a verb = come and uku — to: za uku — zaku — come to.
“ ya ” therefore means “ go ”: ukuya —• to go.

“ za ” therefore means “ come ”: ukuza — to come.

Hence it follows that:—

Si yaku tanda — (Si ya ukutanda) — (We are going to love) —
We shall love.

Si zaku siza — (Si za ukusiza) — (We come to help) — We
shall help.

“ Ya ” and “ za ” become in their past tenses, u Ye ” and “ ze ”,
respectively: hence one may write:—

Ba yeku buza (Ba ye ukubuza) — They have gone to enquire.
Si zeku kuluma (Si ze ukukuluma) — We have come to talk.

In some other instances also, the first letter in “ uku ” is
omitted: thus one may sometimes find:—

Musani ukuhamba — Don’t go; you must not go, written in
this way:

Musani ’kuhamba — Don’t go, etc.

EXERCISE 22A.

1. The boys do not obey the teacher. 2. Do not beat the
children like that. 3. You are continually beating them.

4. Where is the food now? 5. The pieces of land are very
broiad. 6. Don’t buy potatoes to-day. 7. I have not bought them;
I was buying mealies. 8. I promise to learn (will learn) to-
morrow; but to-day I will rest. 9. They intend to arrive (will
arrive) here on the day after to-morrow. 10. They went the
day before yesterday. 11. The dew was very heavy yesterday.
12 The shirt was old, but the coat was quite new. 13. The
chief was calling the sisters. 14. Will you work (do you
promise to work) ’ to-day very hard indeed. 15. Yes, certainly,
Sir, we will work very hard to-day. 16. The land is hilly (i.e.,
has hills). 17. Don’t beat the witness. 18. We are not foolish
(i.e., have not foolishness). 19. We promise to trim the hedges
to-morrow morning early, Sir. 21. We intended to prune the
trees yesterday.


SI

EXERCISE 22B.

1. Umfazi u zaku sebenza lapo na? 2. Yebo, ’nkosi. 3. Yeka
manje; kuningi; ’mnunzana! 4. Utshwala ba kona. 5. Bupuze

(kupuze) manje, ’ndoda. 6. Izicatulo zi kona na? zi beke lapa.
7. Tenga izinkomo ngemali. 8. Zitenge izibane futi. 9. Sa zi teza
izinkuni, konalapa. 10. Sa kuluma ngomlomo. 11. Nginobuhlungu,
12. Izisebenzi zo fika kusasa, ’nkosi. 13. Mus'ani uku ngi blupa;
ngiya gula namhla. 14. Ba-pi abantu? Angi ba boni.
15. Ngenani manje, ’banunzana! 16. Gijima mSanje, ’bafana.

17. Ba lele impela. 18. Ibasbi liya quqa kahle. 19. Ngiya qinisa,
’nkosi. 20. Siya funa ukutenga iqoma, ngemali, manje.
21. Siy’azi, ’mnunzana. 22. Niyakw’azi (yaku azi) ngomuso,
’bantwana.

VOCABULARY: Verbs.

Quqa —• trot (as a horse).

qinisa —- speak truly, affirm, declare.

sauzela — keep on scolding; nag (used in Natal, but only rarely
in Zululand).

yeka — stop, cease (from doing something) : (from “ukuyeka”
or “ukweka”).

yemuka — go away, depart, (from ukwemuka; see ensa, engula,
etc.).

Nouns.

Amazolo (2) — dew (used only in the plural).

Iqoma (4) — a basket for mealies.


82

LESSON TWENTY-THIRD.

The Adjective used as Epithet.

Hitherto all adjectives have been used as Predicates; thus,
for example:—

„ Ubuntu bu bi — Human nature is bad.

Izinsizwa zi ningi — The young men are numerous.

But when the Adjectives is used as a description, or word as
to quality, etc., regarding »a person or object; as “ the bad
boy ”; “ the old coat ” ; “ the beautiful horse ” ; “ poor men
etc., then the construction to be used will be something like
“ the boy who he bad ”; “ the horse which it beautiful ”; “ the
coat which it old”; etc. Thus, to contrast the two methods of
using the Adjective, and to illustrate the foregoing remarks:—•

TJmfana mubi — the boy is bad: but
Umfana omubi — the bad boy.

The word “ omubi ” is formed from “ a ” ■—* who ; “ u ” — he;
“ mu ” — he and “ bi ” = bad ; so that it runs thus :—

Omubi (a .u contracted into o; mu, bi,) — who he he bad.

Ihashi lihle — the horse is beautiful,
lhashi elihle — the beautiful horse.

elihle — a *i lihle — which it beautiful — which is beautiful,
that is: “ the horse which is beautiful ” — the beautiful horse.

Umuntu umpofu — the man is poor.

Umuntu ompofu — the poor man.

Ompofu (as before) — a u mpofu — who he poor — who is poor
—- the poor man.


83

In like manner also:—

Incwadi enlile (a i nhle) — a nice book.

Izincwadi ezinhle (a izi nhle) — nice books.

Inkabi enkulu (a i nkulu) — a big ox.

Abantu abakona (a ba kona) — the people present: (who are
present).

Note well this, however. When a verb is used in place of an
adjective; with the meaning of an adjective; that is, as an
epithet; then “ yo ” is very frequently added to it, at the end;
thus:—

Umuntu ofundileyo (a u fundile yo) — literally “a man who
he has learned ”; that is “ a learned man ”; the adding of
“ yo ” brings the accent upon the “ e ”; thus:—

Ofundileyo: (penultimate syllable).

Again:—

Intombi ehlonipayo (a i hlonipa yo) — (who she acts modestly)
— a modest girl.

Izintombi ezihlonipayo (a izi hlonipa yo) — modest girls.

(a) It will be .observed that words used as Epithets are
placed after the words they qualify. Strong emphasis would be
indicated if the word used as Epithet were placed in front
instead.

Verbs active and passive, may be used as Epithets, (prac-
tically as direct adjectives) in accordance with the examples
just given. As to Passive verbs, the matter will be explained,
under the Passive Voice, later on.

The contraction of “a”, with a vowel succeeding, is carried
out with all pronouns of every class, when they begin with a
vowel: a with u produces o; a with e or i produces e; and so on,
as has been previously explained.

EXERCISE 23A.

1. The boy is bad. 2. The bad boy. 3. The men are numerous.

4. Many men. 5. A deep pool. 6. A strong ox (a i namandhla).
7. Lofty hills. S. The boy tells lies (has lies). 9. The lying
boy: (a u na — ). 10. The white custom. 14. Bad people.
15. Old trees. 16. The trees are old yonder. 17. Tall men.


S4

18. The mouths are wide. 19. Wide mouths. 20. Many things
trouble me. 21. The kraals are large. 22. Large kraals.

23. Short hoys. 24. A beautiful woman. 25. The women here
are beautiful.

EXERCISE 23B.

1. Umntwana omuhle. 2. Abantu abamnyama ba kona manje;
ba fike izolo. 3. Ihashi elibi la gijima; li gijima ngokutshetsha
(nga uku tshetsha; by means of to go quick — with great speed,
very quickly). 4. Ngi zi tanda izinto ezimhlope. 5. Zikona
manje izitsha eziluhlaza. 6. Imizi emikulu miningi lapaya.
7. Abantu ababi ba hambile izolo* S. Ukudhla okumhlope ku
kona. 9. U ku pekile na? 10. Ngi wu bonile umsinga omude.
11. Izwe linezintaba ezinde. 12. Umuti omkulu u kona lapa.
13. Umfazi wa zi leta izinti eziningi. 14. Siya m bona urnfana
omfutshane impela. 15. Amadoda amaningi bo sebenza lapa
ngomhlomunye entambama. 16. Abafazi baya biza innyama
emnandi manje. 17. Ningabizi innyama, ’bafazi; hambani kahle.
18. Musani ukuhlala lapa; yemukani konamanje. 19. Sukani bo,
’bafana, ningalali lapo,! 20. Umbila ombi. 21. Yenza kahle; so
buyela konamanje. 22. Tata izinyawo. 23. Ba ponsa umlomo
pezulu (see voc.). 24. Amadoda lapaya mahle impela.
25. Ngemihla nga zi funda izincwadi. 26. Saku bona, Tnngane!

VOCABULARY: Verbs.

Ukutshetsha — to go quickly, to hurry.

ukusuka —• to get away, to clear out (in vulgar, colloquial
language).

ukusala — to remain, rest in place.

ukubuyela - - (like buy a) to return, come back.

ukwfenza — to do, to act, to make.

ukubila — to boil, to make (something) boil.

ukubilisa

ukuvagatsha — to go for a walk or stroll.

ukuduma — to thunder.

ukuponsa — to throw (sometimes spelt as “pontsa”).
ukuqapela — to pay attention, take care.


85

PHRASES.

Tshetsha — quick now, hurry up! be quic^! etc.

Suka — Be off now, clear out; get away! etc. (It is often used
to mean “Go along with you”, etc.)

Hamba kahle — farewell; goodbye (said to one who is leaving).
Saia kahle — rest well; goodbye (said to one who is remaining'

in the place the speaker is just leaving).

Yenza kahle — Gently, wait a moment; stop a little, please, etc.
Saku bona; Sani bona —-We saw you; (ordinary salutation,

equivalent in some degree to “ Good morning ”, “ Good day ”,
etc.)

Qapela! —• Take care, mind what you are doing!

Ba ponso umlomo pezulu — (literally, “ they throw the mouth
upwards ”) they talk too much, too noisily, etc.

Tata izinyawo — (literally “take feet”). Come now, don’t be
slow, get along quickly, etc. Also “ Tata inyawo ”.

Pezulu — upward, upwards, high up, above, etc.

Ngemihla — daily, every day.

Isikati (5) — time, hour of the day.

Isikati si ni? — (the time it what?) What time is it?

Ku lungile — That is quite right (all right).

(a) Some idioms (or special ways of expressing an idea) in
Zulu, have been given above; some more will be given, from
time to time, in order to bring before the student’s mind, the
difference in the Verbal idea, and the rendering of same, where
the root of the idea is identical in English and Zulu. This is a
matter of considerable interest, and worthy of careful attention
and close study on the part of all students of the Zulu language..

(b) Saku bona; Sani bona; the Zulu equivalent for “Good
morning ”, etc., is properly spelt and pronounced as given. But
natives colloquially, often say “ Sa ’u bona ”; it is even written
so, by some. The same applies to the Future forms “ yaku ” and
“ zaku ”. These are sometimes pronounced and written as
“ya’u”; “za’u”; or even as simply “ yau ” and “zau”. The
full forms are always correct, but, in colloquial language, the
others are fairly common.


S6

Compare English colloquial phrases (not however to be highly
approved of), such as

“ I couldn” see ’m ” for “ I could not see him.”

“ They wish he?d go ” for “ They wish he would go.”

This “ clipping ” process is to be found in a greater or less
degree, in every spoken language, colloquially used, on ordinary
occasions.

LESSON TWENTY-FOURTH.

Adjectives and Particles.
Degrees of Adjectives.

Adjectives form the Comparative degree by the help of the
particle “ kuna ” — “ than ”; placed before the second noun
that'is being compared. The final letter of “kuna” is contracted
in the usual manner with the initial vowel of the noun, thus:—

Indhlovu inkulu kunehashi (kuna ihashi) means literally “ the
elephant is big than the horse ”; this is the Zulu method of
saying: “ is bigger than — ”.

Izinja zikulu kunamakati (kuna amakati) — dogs are bigger
than cats.

Umfana umfutshane kunendoda (kuna indoda) — The boy is
(not so tall) (shorter) (as) (than) the man.

The Superlative is formed by putting the Adverb kakulu —
very much, exceedingly, very, — after the adjective, thus:—

Umfana mubi kakulu = The boy is very bad.

Umfana omubi kakulu — The wicked (or very bad) boy. That
is: “the boy who is lyad, very much indeed.”

Again:—

Indhlu inkulu kakulu — the house is very large,
but

Indhlu enkulu kakulu — the biggest house. (That is :— “ the
house that is big very much”).


S7

'Note.—Where necessary, emphasise slightly the difference be-
tween “ inkulu ” and “ enkulu ” ; “ mubi ” and “ omubi ”;

“ izinhle ” and “ ezinhle ”; etc.

Vote (a).—Referring to the concluding paragraphs of Lesson
Twenty-third, the following additional remarks may be made.
Besides the forms “ yaku ”, “ zaku ”, “ ya’u ” ; “ z’au ”; “ yau ”
and “ zau ”; there is yet another, much used by natives:— “ yo ”
and “ zo ” ; probably a corruption of “ yau ” and “ zau ”.

Ordinary forms in Zulu, are usually not very much accented;
but when an unusual form is introduced, it is as well, to make
it as clear as possible, by careful articulation and accentuation;
even putting a distinct stress on the more distinctly unusual
part or syllable of a word or phrase, thus:—

Ngiya bona — I see.

Uya buta — You gather.
Uya bopa — He binds.

Siya tula — We are quiet.
Niya kuleka — You salute.
Baya hlakula —• They are

weeding.

Ngiyo bona —' I shall see.

Uyo buta — You will gather.
Uyo bopa — He will bind.
Siyo tula — We shall be

quiet.

Niyo kuleka — You will
salute.

Bayo hlakula — They will
weed.

“ Zo ” follows the same notion as “ zaku, za’u ”; it conveys the
idea of coming to a place.

Sizo fika — We shall arrive.

Ikati lizo buyela konamanje — The cat will come back just now.
Amaxegu azo buya, kusasa — The old men will return tomorrow.
Ufakazi uzo fika emtambama — The witness will arrive this

afternoon.

(b) Negatives of “yaku” and “zaku” are,, respectively
“ yiku ” and “ ziku ”. The negative forms of the Verbs “ ya ” and
“ za ”, are “ yi ” and “ zi ” and so, one may regard “ yiku ” and
“ ziku ” as being really the same as “ yi’ku ”, or “ yi uku ”;
“ zi’ku ” or “ zi uku ”.

The following particles will be found very useful, they should
be carefully studied and committed to memory.

The “ kwa ”, or “ na ”, in each case, is to be contracted with
any initial vowel immediately following it.

Contractions are to be carried out in the way already explained
in several previous lessons.


88

Eduze kwa, Eduze na — close to; near to; Eduze kwomfula —
near to the river. (Eduze na, is seldom used.)

Pezu kwa — on, upon, on top of; Pezu kwopahla — upon thb
roof.

Kude kwa, Kude na — on this side of; Nganeno kwesimbila —
on this side of the mealie-field.

Petsheya kwa — on the other side of; Petsheya kwezintaba —
Petshaya kwa — on the other side of the hills.

Pansi kwa — under, beneath.

Pakati kwa — within, inside (of) ; Pakati kwemizi (kwezindhlu)
— inside the houses, inside the kraals (native village).

Ngapandhle kwa, — outside of.

Emva kwa — behind. Emva kwomuti —• behind the tree.

Neno kwa (or na) is another form of Nganeno kwa (or na).
(Endhlini — a form (locative) to be later explained - • among, in

among the huts, houses, etc.)

EXERCISE 24A.

1. Outside of the huts. 2. Call the boys, children. 3. I see a
very beautiful horse. 4. Where (is it) Sir? 5. We will read
now, teacher. 6. The horse is more beautiful (lihle kakulu) than
the ass. 7. On this side of the river. 8. On the other side of
the road. 9. The horses are running well today. 10. I wish to
see the beautiful cat, at once. 11. Under the chairs. 12. Close
to the child. 13. Do not bring tea, boy; bring coffee; let the
water boil now. 14. The boy will read better (kahle kuna) than
the girl. 15. The house has very large windows, and small
doors. 16. The children do not see the teacher. 17. Behind the
stones; far from the path. 18. Put the coffee and bread upon
the table, girl. 19. We seek (funa) honest people; let us go (to)
the other side of the river. 20. He works badly. 21. The sun is
much bigger (kulu kakulu) than the moon. 22. The honest men
are here now, Sir. 23. You will see the cattle tomorrow, men.

24. The farmer prefers dogs to cats (i.e. likes dogs better than
cats). 25. Near the dog. 26. The boys annoy the teacher more
(kakulu) than the children and the girls.


S9

EXERCISE 24B.

1. Tata izinyawe; angina ’sikati. 2. Qapela manje, ’mfana.
3. Itiye linamandhla kakulu. 4. Amanzi aya bila na? 5. Ni
hambapi manje? 6. Siyaku vagatsha. 7. Tsbaya insimbi; sifuna
amanzi. 8. Wa leteni konamanje. 9. Izulu libi namhla;
linamafu. 10. La (luma impela izolo kusililwa. 11. Babize abant-
wana, ’bafana. 12. Tulani bo. 13. Ijuba likona pezu kwopabla.
14. Sibabonile' abantu petsheya kwezintaba. 15. Nganeno kwen-
taba izimvi ziningi impela. 16. Bizani Abantwana, ’mfana.
17. Musani ukuhleba; musani ukuqambamanga, ’bafana. 18. Konje
uya m hleba umuntu na? 19. Eduze kwendhlu, izinkukukazi
ziningi, ’nkosi. 20. Saia ngapandble kwefastele. 21. Uyakubuta
izimbali namhlanje, ’mntwana? 22. Umuntu uyakufika nini?
23. Insizwa inesigqoko esimnyama, nebantshi elimhlope. 24. Leta
isibane esikulu lapa kokonamanje; sibeke lapo, ’mfana.

25. Zisule izihlalo futi (also).

VOCABULARY :

Upahla (3) — roof.

Isibondo (5) — pole.

(or isibonda).

Umblaba (6) — earth.
Umhlabati (6) — ground,

soil,

Isihlabati (5) — loose sand.
Ugalo (7) — finger (not often

used).

Isitimi (5) — brick.

Isitelo (5) — fruit.

LESSON TWENTY-FIFTH.

Verbs: The Subjunctive Mood.

The Subjunctive Mood of Zulu Verbs consists of the Present
Tense only. This tense is the same as the Simple Present
Indicative, in form, except on two points.

(a) The last letter of the Verb is changed from “a ” to “ e
for example, “ tanda ”; “ tande ”.

(b) While all the other personal pronoun-forms are the same
with both tenses, a difference occurs in the first-class 3rd. person-
al pronoun. With the Present Indicative, this is “ u ”, but with
the Present Subjunctive, “ a ”.


90

The general meaning of the Subjunctive is the same as in
English, and depends more or less on the use (expressed or
understood) of such words as “may”, “might”, “could”,
“ would ”, or “ should

Singular.

Plural.

1. Ngi tande —• I may love.

2. U tande — You may love.

3. A tande — He may love.

Si tande — We may love.
Ni tande — You may love.
Ba tande — They may love.

The other personal pronouns (Classes II to VIII are the
•same as with the Simple Present Indicative, as mentioned above.

The general uses to which this Mood is put are as shown below:

(a) Where the Future Indicative is frequently used in English,
when asking a question, the Subjunctive Present is used in Zulu;
for example: Si bize manje na? Shall we call now? Ngi hambe
na? Shall I go? However, the Future Indicative may also be
used.

(b) After the words “Ukuba” — so that; “funa” — lest;
“ ukuze ” and words expressing result, design, intention or pur-
pose ; the Subjunctive Present is used; for example: Ngi yaku m
siza ukuba a sebenze ngamandhla: I will help him so that he
may work very well, (or vigorously) ; Sibizile abafana ukuba
bageze izitsha; We have called the boys in order that they should
(or may) wash up the plates.

(c) In such English sentences as: go to work, (i.e. go that you
may work) ; we will stay here and read, (i.e. we will stay here
so that we may read); rest in the house and eat and sleep;
come along with me (i.e. come, you may accompany me) ; — one
may observe that although the verb in English appears to be
co-ordinate or equal in value, yet there is a hint of subordination
in all the verbs following the first or principal one in a sentence.

In Zulu, the English word “ and ” is not translated at all in
this case, but quite omitted; and instead, the second and succeed-
ing verbs in the sentence are put in the Subjunctive.

Hence the English sentence:— We will remain here and learn
will be translated as though it were — We will remain here,
we may learn (or so that we may learn). In Zulu this will
heSiyakuhlala lapa, sifunde: (or ukuba sifunde.)


91

Tai like manner: 1 will come to work, on tlie day after tomorrow,
will be:—I will come so that I may work, on etc.

In Zulu:—Ngiyaku za ukuba ngi sebenze ngomhlomunye or Ngo
za ukuba, etc.

Come out and weed now — Come out so that you may weed
now; or simply:—Come out, you may weed now.

Puma (Woza), uhlakule manje.

(d) The Subjunctive is also much used in sentences that seem
to contain criticism, or contrasting one thing with another; for
example:

The men like beer; the children like fruit; the women are
fond of clothes. This sentence (and similar ones) must be
translated as if it were:

The men like beer; the children may like fruit: the women
may be fond of clothes.

Amadoda a tanda utshwala; abantwana ba tande izitelo;
abafazi ba tande izingubo.

Note. This tense may mean not only Present but Past, and in a
sense, even Future, time.

It may also be said that there is an application of this Mood
which will be explained when Adjectives of number (one, two,
three, etc.) are being dealt with.

Some writers put under the heading “ Subjunctive mood ”
that particular form “ let me go ”, “ let us pray ”, “ let him see ”,
which has already been given in this book, under the Imperative
mood. Hence this tense-form may be called either Subjunctive
or Imperative; but here it has been given as Imperative, as it
may conceivably stand alone.

EXERCISE 25 A.

1. Don c smoke wild hemp, boys. 2. The boys come here to
smoke (that they may smoke) ; they do not work at all (impela).
3. Learn to work well; pay attention. 4. I told you early this
morning to open the windows (amafastele). 5. You are always

talking; you talk too much. 6. Come (woza) with me; I am
going yonder. 7. Stop fighting at once, boys. 8. I want firewood;
bring (some) now. (you may bring it now). 9. Where are the
screws? (izikonkwane). 10. What is the matter with you? (You
are with) or have) what?). 11. Do you know (it) the road?


92

12. Yes, Sir, I know it well (impela). 13. No, I do not know it
at all (impela). 14. Come in, boys, and take the books, and
return home (ekaya) at once. 15. Wait till (ze) I return (sub-
junctive). (Hlala, ngi ze — ).

EXERCISE 25B.

1. Unga yi bemi insangu, ’mfana. 2. Hamba manje, utate
incwadi. 3. Ngi ku tshelile ukuba u fulatele. 4. Fulatela
masinyane. 5. Umlungu uya tshela abafana ukuba ba sebenza
ngamandhla namhlanje. 6. Abize manje na, ’nkosi? 7. Si hambe
konamanje na? 8. Usizile amantombazana ukuba ageze nga-
mandhla. 9. Bayakuhlala lapa ukuba bafunde kahle. 10. Pumani
manje, ’bafana; nikulume, nihlale manje. 11. Hambani, nisebenze
konamanje. 12. Uhlala lapa ulobe, ufunde. 13. Woza uhambe
manje lapaya. 14. Puma, ubambe inkuku, u yi bulale. 15. Ba
basile umlilo lapo, funa (lest) ba godole ekuseni.

The negative form of this mood will be given later on. In it
the final vowel “ a ” of the verb, becomes tl i ”, and all pro-
nouns have “ nga ” joined to them: v.g. nginga, unga, anga, singa,
ninga, banga. (linga, inga, singa, etc.)

VOCABULARY:

Isangu (4) — wild hemp (a virtually poisonous herb, sometimes
smoked by natives and others. The effects resulting from
such smoking are very bad).

Ukuba — that, in order that.

Funa — lest, for fear that. (Both funa and ukuba are followed
by the Verb in Subjunctive mood).

Ekaya — (locative) to (or at ) one’s home, house, etc.

Kuningi kakulu — too much, exceedingly much.

Qapela (v) — pay attention, take care, mind what you do.
Fulatela (v) — turn round.

Bulala (v) — kill, (sometimes also cruelly).

Basa (v) — build up (as a fire, etc.).

Godola (v) — be chilled with cold, feel very cold.

END OF PART I.

Note.—The Synopsis of Part II. (when published) is given on
next page.


93

PART II following very much the lines hitherto indicated,
will be arranged to deal with:—

1. Nouns Genitive case.

Indicative Mood, past tenses: (ela into ele for Perfect, etc.).

2. Nouns: locative: Dative case.

Fanele, ’luto, nje, tile.

3. Irregular nouns and Diminutives.

Numeral adjectives.

4. Nouns of relationship.

Days of the week.

Subjunctive negative.

Possessive Personal Pronoun.

5. Reflexive, causative, objective Verbs (active and passive).

6. Irregular verbs.

Participles.

7. Emphatic Personal Pronouns (affirmative and negative).

8. Demonstrative Pronouns and Adverbs.

9. Impersonal statements.

Objective e.

Optative and Potential Moods.

10. Limitation of Verbs by: sa, ka, hlezi, buya, anela, etc.
Special cases of Genitive, (Possessive).

11. Possessive Personal Pronoun.

Interrogative Pronoun, etc.

12. Phrases and Idioms.

Tables : statements: phrases: vocabularies, notes,
contents, etc.


94

Proper Names of Places in Natal, etc,

Note.—In this list, the name itself and its locative form,
(meaning— in, at, to, from, close to, near by, alongside, on,
upon, etc.) will in many cases be found together, the locative
form coming second invariably. Here, there are given only
those names which in Zulu differ from the European names
given to the particular places in question. As may readily be
observed, Native names are used in many places both by whites
and blacks: for example, Inchanga, Matawana, Ingogo, Amajuba,
Umtwalumi, etc.

Also many natives have become quite familiar with the
European names of places. However this short list may possibly
be of iservice in some cases. It can only be considered as a
rough and imperfect list of a few of the localities in and around
Natal, but it may be easily enlarged, by enquiring, as occasion
offers, of natives regarding the names of particular spots. It
may be said, however, that such names are often very local
indeed, and practically unknown outside a very restricted area.
As regards all names not South African in origin, the Ordinary
English use should be followed entirely.

NATAL — i Botwe; izwe lase ’Botwe;

Durban (the Bay)

Congella

The Bluff

e Botwini.

i Teku; e Tekwini.
i Kongela ; e Kongela.
isi Bubulungu; esi

Verulam

Stanger

Tongaat

Port Shepstone

Umkomaas

Botha’s Hill

Camperdown

Thornville Junction

Thornybush

Richmond
Eland’s Kop

Bubulungu.

i Pikanini; e Pikanini.
u Dukuza ; kwa Dukuza.
u Tongati; e Tongati.
i Saide ; e Saide.
im Komanzi; em Komanzi.
i Bota ; kwa Bota.
i Cibi; e Cibini.
in Sangu; en Sangwini.
im Putshini; em Putshini;

em Putshinyini.
i Lovu; e Lovu.
isi Nyambuti; esi Nyambuti.


.95

Eland’s River —

Boston —

Ixopo —

Stuartstown —

Pietermaritzburg —

Grey town —

New Hanover —

Natal Table Mountain —
Otto’s Bluff —

One Tree Hill —

Noodsberg —

Krantz-kop —

Zwart-kop Blackridge —
Spitz Kop —

Howick —

Lion’s River —

(& thereabouts) —

Mooi River —

Weston, etc. — )

Estcourt — j-

Bushman’s River — )

Weenen —

Colenso —

Ladysmith — )

Klip River — J

Buffalo River —

Sunday’s River —

Beggarsberg —

Champagne Castle — )

Cathkin Peak — J

Drakensberg —

Giant’s Castle

or Head —

Mount Erskine —

Mount Gilboa —

Lang’s Nek —

Pakado’s Peak —

Spion Kop —

Little Bushman’s

River —

i Newadi; en Newadi.
in Hlosana; en Hlosana.
i Xopo; e Xopo.

um Gungundhlovu; em

Gungundhlovu.
um Gungundlilovana; em

Gungundhlovana.
um Tshwati; em Tshwati.
um Kambati; em KambatinL
i Kwela; kwa Kwela.
im Vugatsha; em Vugatsha

(or em Vugatshini).
u Zwati; Ozwatini.
u Ntunjambili; en

Ntunjambili.
im Bubu ; em Bubu.
in Tweka; en Tweka; en

Twekini.

u Noqaza ; kwa Noqaza.
im Pofanyana; em

Pofanyana.

im Pofane; em Pofane.

um Tshezi; em Tshezi.

u Nombamba; kwa Nobamba.
isi Kepe; esi Kepeni.
um Nambiti; em Nambiti;

(u Nengula:e).
umz Inyati; emz Inyati.
in Daka; en Daka ; kwa

Daka.

ama Nkamane; kwa or
kwaama Nkamane.

um Dedele; em Dedele.

u (lu) Kahlamoa; kwa

Kahlamba.

um Ponsirau.

u Masenda.

u Pumulonja.

ama Juba ; ema Juba,
in Tanyana; en Tanyana.
in Golo ; en Golo.
um Sunduze.


96

Pentrich —

Port St. John’s —

Graham’s Town —

King William’s Town —
Orange River —

um Sindusi; em Sindusi.
umz. Imvubu; emz Imvubu.
i Rini; e Rini.

i Qonci; e Qonci.
is’Angqu; es’Anquini;

Great Fish River

es’Anqu.

i Nxuba; en Nxuba.

(Many others may be learnt by enquiry, as already mentioned.)

PHRASES.

Tjfuna ni? —• What do you want?

Izulu li buyisa — Rain is coming; it will turn wet.

Ftanda loku yini na — Do you like this—yes or no?

Aka hlakule — Let him do the weeding.

Aka pume amahashi — Let the horses out.

Aso bona induna — Let us go and see the headman.

Ilya kuluma ngami — You are talking about me.

Upi lapo? Imina — Who is there? It is I.

Mina ngedwa — I alone (only I!)

Lomfana uyaku y’azi indoda — This boy will know the man.
Nginokwazi kunaye — I know no more than he does.

Uma utanda, unga puma — If you wish you may go out.

Ni tinina? — What do you say?

Usekaya na? — Is he at his place (at home)?

Yenza kahle —• Wait a minute.

Musa ukwenza loko — You musn’t do that.

Ufanele ukweza loko — You must do that.

Akunacala — That’s all right (i.e., of no importance).

Kwenze njani? — What has happened?

Lendoda inzima — This man is influential.

Ngisize emakaleni — Give me a pinch of snuff.

Banetama — (They have a mouthful). They are liars.

Mbala kunjalo — Is it really so.

Ubani igama lako? — What is your.name?

Note.—When Part II. is studied many more Phrases will be
found, and as to many of them, if the intelligent student
analyses them, he will discover certain curious methods of ex-
pression. For example:—

Ngi size emakaleni — means literally: “ help me in the nostrils ”,
i.e. “ give me a pinch of snuff ”, etc.


97

Vocabulary: Zulu=English.

NOUNS: FIRST CLASS.

(See Lesson 7th and following lessons).

English Proper Names are very frequently included in this
class, and then should have “ u ” prefixed, as, uTom, uDick,
uCharlie, etc.

Umalusi — Shepherd, shepherd-boy.

umbali — clerk, writer.

umfelwakazi — widow (also spelt uinfelokazi).

umfiki — newcomer; stranger; new arrival in a place,
umfokazana — poor fellow, poor man.

Unkulunkulu — God; the Almighty (the “Great-Great” one).
Umnunzana — respectable man; worthy person; (Sir),
umhloli — inspector; (in a lower sense “spy”).

Umsindisi — Saviour (sindisa, save).

umtetimacala — judge, magistrate, arbitrator.

umtshayeli — driver (tshaya, strike, beat).

umtakati — wizard, witch; “rain-doctor”, etc.

umtanami — my child! (Nominative of address).

umzali — parent, relation.

Uzulu — a Zulu native (see Lesson 10th).

umfana — child, boy.

umntwana — small child; baby; etc. (also heir).

umuntu — man, person, individual.

umlungu —• white man.

umfazi — woman.

umese — knife; (from the Dutch) ; (see also Class III),
umeyane (umiyane) — mosquito, stinging midge or gnat,
ufakazi —■ witness; (see ubufakazi, 7th Class).

unonqai — mounted Police (of Natal, Zululand, etc.),
umlimi — digger, farmer, (possibly farm-labourer),
umpeki — cook.

umfundi— pupil, scholar.

umfundisi — teacher, clergyman, etc.


9S

umfo — my (or our) brother.

udade — sister (plural odade).

umzalwane — brother.

umngane — friend (plural: abangane).

ubaba —■ my (or our) father (plural: obaba).

umame — my (or our) mother (plural: omame).

umhambi — traveller, wanderer (from hamba).

usaoti — salt (no plural).

ugwai — tobacco, snuff (no plural).

umpondwe — pound (money or weight; plural: ompondwe).
umbaimbai — gun, cannon (plural: ombaimbai).
ushukela — sugar (no plural; from the English word),
umalume — uncle.

ufezela — scorpion (plural: ofezela).

NOUNS: SECOND CLASS.

Izulu — sky, heaven, (see

Uzulu).

Ifu — cloud.

Ilanga — sun, day, daylight,
weather.

Iqanda — egg.

Igama — name, letter of a
word.

Itshe — stone, rock.

Ikofi — coffee (no plural,

from the English).

Itiye — tea (no plural, from

the English).

Isele; Iselesele — frog.

Tzwe — land, piece of country
Izwi — word, voice.

Ikaya — home, house.
Tfastele — window (from the

Dutch).

Iwisa — knob-kerrie.

Igolide — gold (no plural).
Ibokisi — box.

Tsela — thief.

Isulumane — Arab or Indian.
Ikati — cat.

Ihashi — horse.

Isaka — sack.

Isondo — wheel.

Isango — gateway, gate.

Ivila — lazy person.

Ixegu — old man.

Izinyo — tooth.

Ibunu — Boer, S.A. Dutch-

man.

Ingisi — Englishman.
Igundane — rat.

Ijuba — dove, pigeon.
Itafula — table.

Ihembe—shirt (also iyembe).
Ibulukwe—trousers, breeches.
Ibantshi —• coat.

Indoda — man (see Class 4).
Inkosi — chief, king, (Sir)

(see Class 4).


Full Text

PAGE 5

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

PAGE 6

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

PAGE 7

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

PAGE 8

2$%!)KI(*1))M$%!)KM(*1))MEH+#4K03+#1"8+,"(4@+&"8+1)+3#+/"9+MF$%!)KE(*1))4)#1&!$%!)EG$%!)K(*1))K!/"!""8+)EL03+#1"8+0$$B1))"8+/$#0$/#+)+!+!)+B1//"#01!!+'1EIH+#4K1)!"&1"8+21!%%#+; !/$#0
PAGE 9

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

PAGE 10

SF1!.)"0"*1#"!)1!&+)0"'(4+'"8+!24%+!$%'((1)4++!)1"$#1,(+1+!"$!$/(+)%+!$(+/1&(1%*%"//+#)"!01!."03$#1!31#"&%*1#)/#$0%#$3+1!*1!'%1'+)(+)+31#"&%*1#)2(+!2+)+#8+8+#.)3+&"1*1+!"$!/#$01**,($+)"#+$-!$,(")*1!'%1'+,+**21!+8+#.+!+18$%#")01+"!(+/$**$,"!'31'+)$4#"!'(+03#$0"!+!*.4+/$#+(+!$"&+$/(+)%+!H$&14%*1#.1##1!'+"!(+01!!+#(1(+3#+)+!,#"+#&$!)"+#)(+0$)3#1&"&1*1!%)+/%*2,"**4+/$%!1(++!$/(+4$$-$"2(+4+')$#+/+#(+)%+!,(+!"!$%4$#"//"&%*.#+'1#"!'1!.$/(+,$#)%)+"!(+4$$-3+&"1*1!"##+'%*1#3*%#1*),"**%)%1**.4+/$%!"!"&1+2"!4#1&-+)21/+#(+)"!'%*1#/$#0$/(+!$%!);")1*0$)!++*+))$)1.(11!.)%''+)"$!)2&$00+!)2&#""&1*#+01#-)2+&2,"**4+0$)'#1+/%**.#+&+"8+4.(+3#+)+!,#"+#11!."0+(+.01.4+1#+))+$("02&T$//"&+$/(+%4*")(+#)<;'+!+#1*214*+$/$!+!),"**4+/$%!1(++!$/(+4$$-24%/#$0(+!1%#+$/(++($)2/$**$,+2"!(+8$*%0+2(")14*+&1!$!*.4+#+'1#+1)2"!'+!+#1*2"!"&1"!',(+#+(+)%4@+&)0+!"$!+4+'"!$4+#+1+
PAGE 11

J1.")3#$!$%!&+1)1(:(++;@$"!+&*$)+*.1!3#$?1"1%")3#$!$%!&+1)1(:$$!$%!&+A%"&-*.<;@$"!+&*$)+*.1!3#$?+%")3#$!$%!&+1)+(:$$!$%!&+A%"&-*.<;@$"!+&*$)+*.1!3#$:!$%!&+A%"&-*.<@")3#$!$%!&+1)@"!@$"!")3#$!$%!&+1)'"!'$ )$/1)"!'+0<-")3#$!$%!&+1)1)$%!4+,++!-1!'"!!'?*")(#")3#$!$%!&+1)1#$%'((23#$!$%!&+31#*."!(+(#$1(*")3#$!$%!&+1))(*;$#(*<(*")3#$!$%!&+1))(*;$#(*
PAGE 12

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

PAGE 13

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

PAGE 14

#$$%&'()' '()"")=;1-+!$'+(+#,"(<=-%1!1=$*$8+2$*"-+!!'*")(2(+,$#6$7")(+)"'!$/(+!/"!""8+$$$/(+H+#46-%7;$#'$4+/$#+18$,+*<")(+)"'!$/*"+!/"!""8+"!%*%-%1!12")#+)+!!/"!""8+JH;"03*+<)3+#)$!*$8+'"1!1="1!1=+*$8+ !3+#)$!1!1=($%"1!1=$%*$8+*$8+)D#3+#)$!1!1=(+11!1=(+.*$8+*$8+)!(+14$8++!)+2%1!12,(+!+03(1)")+$!(+0+1!)($%*$8+);$#.$%*$8+2,(+!)3+1-"!'$$!*.$!+3+#)$!
PAGE 15

D (+#+01#-@%)01+#+'1#"!'6%1!172133*"+)1*)$$6%.11!17'".11!12".11!12+&01.1*)$0+1!K$*$8+2+$*$8+2+&(")")(+03(1"&/$#0'"")3#$!$%!&+1)!'++B1)"!':++")3#$!$%!&+1)$$B1).$%"")3#$!$%!&+1))++B1))"'("")3#$!$%!&+1)!++B1)!"'(1")3#$!$%!&+1)41(B1)41.'".1")3#$!$%!&+1)!'++:.1(B1)"!'++:.11.1")3#$!$%!&+1)41(:.1(B1)41.:1;++3#$!%!&"1"$!$/*3(14+1*#+1.'"8+!<(++#)$!1*#$!$%!);"03*+)/$#0)<(+!1#+K'"="=+=$%;$#($%<"=$%=+2)(+2"1=(+.(+)+1#+%)+,"((+#+)+!21!+#/+&;#+)+!:&$03*++<+!)+)$/(+H+#4!(+#$'#+))"8+1!03(1"&/$#0)21)*"'(1""$!;.1<133+1#)K'"4+&$0+)'".1"4+&$0+)".14+&$0+).1"4+&$0+)".14+&$0+).114+&$0+)1.1(+)+1#+$!*.%)+,"((+#+)+!+!)+2!"&1"8+4)+#8+($,1)*"'(&(1!'+"!(+3#$!$%!:/$#02)($,)1&(1!'+"!(+3#+&")+$/(+H+#4(")/+1%#+$/(+%*%*1!'%1'+(1)1*#+1.4++!#+/+##+$2"!(+"!#$%&$#.#+?01#-)(+#"!)1!&+),"**4+!$+*1+#$!(+/$#0)'".12.121!(+#+)21#+$/+!%)+1*)$,(+!(+#+")!$( +93#+))+21!&$!)+A%+!*.(+3#$!$%!1*$!+133+1#)1)!$0"!1"8+$(+8+#4(")01.4+(+&1)++8+!($%'((+0+1!"!'$/(+H+#44+!+"(+#3#$?'#+))"8+!$#+03(1"&"(#+'1#$(+("#3+#)$!3#$!$%!:/$#0)24$("!"!'%?*1#1!*%#1*2"01.4+)1"(+#+(1(+)+1#+)%4@+&$)3+&"1*&(1!'+)(+#%*+)#+'1#"!'(+0,"**4+"!#$%&+2$!+1/+#1!$(+#21)!+++

PAGE 16

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

PAGE 17

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
PAGE 18

M -')(+)%+!'$+)$!2(+)($%*1)/1#1)3$))"4*+2&$00"$0+0$#.(++!)+)$/(+H+#421)'"8+!B(+H$&14%*1#"+)B1!(+)%4)1!&+$/(+#+01#-)$#!$+)+$%'(1*)$$#+1$#)3+1-1*$%1!.%*%,$#)1*#+1.1&A%"#+2)$1)$01-+(+)$%!)/10"*"1#$(")+1#)V(")01.4+$!+,(+!1*$!+B$#2/$#3%#3$)+)$/&#""&")01!&$#?#+&"$!2"!(+&$031!.$/1%#$3+1!,($-!$,)(+*1!'%1'+,+**2$#+8+!"!(+3#+)+!&+$/1%*%!1"8+$,+8+#21)$(+*1)0+!"$!+2&1!!$)1.(1:8+#.0%&(#+&$00+!(+3#1&"&+31#/#$0(+3+&%*"1#".$/(+0"!)$/1"8+)2$!+01.A%"+3$))"4*.3"&-%3,#$!'1&&+!)1!")$#+,$#)/#$0"'!$#1!1"8+)21!$!+&1!(1#*.($3+$1&A%"#+1!.*1!'%1'+&$##+&*./#$0($)+,($24+"!'.$%!'$#"'!$#1!201."!++)3+1-(+"#$,!*1!'%1'+&$##+&*."!)$0+/1)("$!24%.+$!1&&$%!$/(+"#,1!$/+93+#"+!&+21!$/1&&%#1+-!$,*+'+21#+)&1#&+*.&$03++!/$#(+&$##+&'%"1!&+$/4+'"!!+#)(+!(+)%+!(1)01+'$$3#$'#+))"!%*%2(+!(+01.2,"('#+1+#)1/+.1!3#$/"2(18+#+&$%#)+$(+(+*3$/"!+**"'+!!1"8+)J"' '(*'+HK+#)+!'1=4%.+!'")1=)+**%*%01=)3+1-21*-$41=,#"+1*1=&$%!2,#"+2#1!):1!1=*$8+2*"-+2,")(/$#"01=:3*$%'(2($+*1-%*1=,++:2;1)1'1#+!*1+%!")1=+1&(2"!)#%&*%31=1!!$.24+#$%4*+:$#/"+*<)(1.1=)#"-+"@"01=#%!$!'1=3#1")+2(1!-%*+-1=)1*%+2($!$%#2,$#:)$0+;$<*+41=)3+1-"**$/2)*1!+#*+-1=*1%'(2*1%'(1)("3$31=4"!2"+%31*1=&#.2&#$1-2)&#+10

PAGE 19

E %&(,$#)1)6)(1.17!++)$0+&1#+"!3#$!%!&"1"$!(+)$%!)"!)(1.11#+8+#.!+1#*.(+)10+1)6:)(.:1(7,$%*4+"!!'*")(2;1
PAGE 20

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

PAGE 21

(+.1#+&#."!' +1#++1&("!'B(+.-++3A%"+B(+.1#+#."!'$*+1#!,+**D+&#"+)L+1#+&$0"!'41&-!$,I$%1#+8+#.#$%4*+)$0+B;)1.=#$%4*+)$0+8+#.0%&(
PAGE 22

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

PAGE 23

OI1.1!"/%!1 ".104$!1D'".104"P1L.1!"(*+-1I.1)"1!1M'"041041E".1!'")"P1F.1-%(*+41'".1!"-%*+-1G1.1!"4$!'1".141&1 '"!"/%!")1D.1)")(1.1L'".141'+P1I"04%.")1M.1/%!1%-%/%!1E".14+01-1-%*%01!@+F".1-%*%01/%"'".1$!)1-1(*+ G'"-%4$!'101!@+OI+,1!)$-!$,(+0 +*"-+("08+#.0%&(D(+.1#+*1%'("!'1%)L(+.1#+1*-"!'1'1"!!$,I+(1!-.$%M+")*$$-"!'/$#.$%E(+.)1*%+%)F+"))#"-"!'"1'1"!+1#+)0$-"!'G(+.3%**("0B(+,")(+)$#+/%)++")(""!'("0)+*/1'1"!2$:1. (+.)3+1-"**$/0+D(+.1!!$.%)8+#.0%&(L+,")(8+#.0%&($(+*3("0;$(+*3("0Y%-%0)"P1
PAGE 24

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
PAGE 25

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

PAGE 26

L H"-0'". "";1<=!'*")($%!)%)%1**.(18+(+")"!&"$!4+,++!"!'%*1#1!*%#1*)($,!1(++!K%*%$%!)(18+(+)10+")"!&"$!)($,!1(+4+'"!!"!'24.0+1!)$//$#0)!10+6#+/"9+)7#+/"9+)K"!'%*1#!%04+#K=%0%2%02%#+/"9+)K*%#1*!%04+#K=141;)$0+"0+)11!14+
PAGE 27

I ;4<(+3+#)$!1*3#$!$%!)&$##+)3$!"!'$1**$%!)$/(+/"#)&*1))"!(+$0"!1"8+&1)+21#+%%.14141.1(+)+1#+$4+%)+,"((+#+)+!+!)+2!"&1"8+0$$$/(+H+#4B+"(+# "/(+!$%!")%!+#)$$;!$+93#+))+
PAGE 28

M 11'#++),"(141/1!1;$0"!1"8+&1)+<201'#++),"(%0/%!")";4@+&"8+&1)+<(+$#+#$/,$#)(+!2")1)4+*$,K=$%!!$0"!1"8+K #$!$%!!$0"!1"8+K1'#++:1)0/1P"Y(+,$01!"!',"(;
PAGE 29

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
PAGE 30

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

PAGE 31

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

PAGE 32

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
PAGE 33

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

PAGE 34

D 1!)$0+,(1#+)+04*+)(+)$%!3#$%&+4.#1,"!'1"'(&$#-/#$0(+!+&-$/(+4$*+")(+#+/$#+#1(+#1/%**2#"&(28"'$#$%))$%!#1&"&+,"(,$#)"!,("&("$&&%#)21!1+!"$!$(+)3++&($/($)+,($(18+01)+#+(+&*"&-2,"**1*,1.)3#$8+%)+/%*"!1&A%"#"!'";4<14$"))$0+"0+),#"+!1!3#$!$%!&+NK"01.0+1!1!"!&#+1)+$/+03(1)")"!(+,$#6$7;&
PAGE 35

DD $+2;1<(+)%//"96.1701.+1+$6*"71!617B(%)K=6*".171!61.172,"((+#+)+!+!)+2!"&1"8+$/(+8+#421)",1),"(%2%.1B41241.1B"!(+/"#)&*1))$/$%!)HP%*%=1%*%!1"8+;)*1))
PAGE 36

DL OG(+14*+")(+#+B"")8+#.,"+ (++'')1#+8+#.!"&+B(+$+#)1#++1"!'(+0D(+&$$-,")(+)$&$$-(++'')"00+"1+*.LJ$.$%*"-+&$//++VI$23#+/+#;*"-+<+1MJ$.$%*"-+"8+#.0%&(VE+)2$*"-+"8+#.0%&(FJ$.$%,")($4%.)("#)V;)1.K$)("#)4%.<$210*$$-"!'/$#1&$1G,1!131"#$/#$%)+#)1$!&+2;"00+"1+*.<(+($#)+#%!)8+#.,+**;-1(*+-1-%*%< (+4$.)1#+&*+1!"!'(+,"!$,)B(+.1#+,$#-"!',+**!$,D$%1#+#+1"!'(+,$#)&*+1#*.;,+**
PAGE 37

DI 1*+*+=4+/"!+24+($2;1)(+)%!2(+,+1(+#2$#&*"01+<;)+"!3+#/+&+!)+$!*.<%01='$$%2&$0+$%2#")+%32#")+21)26"*1!'1*"3%017(+)%!#")+)/ ".1)"!.1B01)"!.1!+Y"00+"1+*.2"#+&*.$!101!@+Y@%)!$,21$!&+2,"($%+*1.%"Y1'1"!21*)$2$!&+0$#+13$Y(+#+2;(+/$#0)2+*13$1!1*13$21#+1*)$)$0+"0+)/$%!
PAGE 38

DM ;&<"%!%;$+#<2"%*%01!+;1!!"1!$#"!$$<1!)%&(,$#)2(18+(+#$$:31#;"+(1"00+"1+*./$**$,"!'(+]B3#+/"9<%)%1**.&$00+!&"!',"(1&13"1**++#(")")&%)$01#."!,$#)'"8"!'!10+)$/!1"$!);
PAGE 39

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

PAGE 40

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

PAGE 41

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
PAGE 42

LG O".1(1041)"!101)" "!10%/%1!1VD'"!+:41!)(";!1"41!)(")4"!+2'*"+#H%01=1**$,2&$!)+!H%0+*1=>1'#++23+#0"O$-1=+***"+)/ ".131.4=S$8+#(+#+2.$!+#131=4+#+2"!4")3*1&+13$=(+#+$!1=4+#+;$#(+#+<23#+?)+!;-1-%*%")1/$#0$/-1-%*%)$0+"0+)%)+$+0?3(1)")+$%!)<)+*+2")+*+)+*+=/#$'2$1B3*%#1*2101)+*+2101)+*+)+*+'$*"+='$*B!$3*%#1*%(+!1"8+6)"!'"!'7")!$/1##+0$8+/#$0)($%?"!'K%-%(*14+*+*1=6%!#1"!+)"!'"!'7

PAGE 43

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

PAGE 44

L 0'$"=($*+2+9&181"$!0-%41=&%)$02(14"0%P"=-#11*2/10"*.2!1"8+($0+0-%04"=)("304"*1=0+1*"+)0(*$4$=/#"+!041*1=&$*$%#0+$=*1,#+'%*1"$!2&$001!0+!0*+!P+=*+'0*$0$=0$%(0%!,+=/"!'+#0P"041=4$.;*"8"!'
PAGE 45

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

PAGE 46

LL H+"141=1)+4"+#24+4"+#J,+41=#1,;1)1*"!+2+&<101=*$$-&#$))$#)+#!*.11=1-+41="';1),"(1)31+<+P1=,1)(J14%*1=&%2&%(#$%'(;1),1+#<+1#;1)1&*$(<1*1=*"+$,!2)*++3N13+*1=31.1+!"$!%&'(HJHJ(+!/"!""8+0$$(1)/$#"))"'!6%-%7;$#6%-,74+/$#+18$,+*
PAGE 47

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

PAGE 48

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`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

PAGE 49

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
PAGE 50

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

PAGE 51

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

PAGE 52

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

PAGE 53

I (+("#3+#)$!#$!$%!)'"8+!14$8+21#+($)+$/(+/"#)*1))$/$%!)/(+!$%!4+$/(++&$!*1))2(+3#$?!$%!),"**4+1!1B/$#(+("#*1))21!("),"**4+/$%!$133*.1*)$$+1&($/(+#+01"!"!'/"8+*1))+)1&((1)")$,!")"!&"8+3#$!$%!)(")+!)+1-+)(+)10+("#:3+#)$!3#$!$%!)1)(+6#+)+!!"&1"8+2"+1!+&2(+)%//"91)"!%.1241.12")%)+,"((")+!)+104"*+2$#(104+21!"*+$#1!+2+&21#+%)+0$#+$#*+))"!"//+#+!*.2)$0+3#+/+##"!'(+/"#)2$(+#)(+)+&$!/$#0$/(")+!)+(+/"!1*6+7"!6(104+7261!+72+&2"))*"'(*.+03(1)")+21!")3#$!$%!&+*"-+6+7"!(+!'*")(,$#6+!7"2131#"&*+0+1!"!'6,(+#+V7")%)+,"(H+#4)1!#$!$%!)"(4$("&$0+)"!(+A%+)"$!B1)=S)+4+!P1:3"V;*"+#1**.6.$%,$#-,(+#+V7<=(+#+$.$%,$#-V1:3"V;*"+#1**.6(+.,(+#+V7<=(+#+1#+(+.V(1)("*":3"V;*"+#1**.6(+($#)+"),(+#+V7<=(+#+")(+($#)+V3"%0%)(1V=(+#+")(+!1"8+:#+))V3"1019+'%V=(+#+1#+(+$*0+!V!(+*1+#+9103*+)2(+)+!+!&+01.4+&$!)"+#+$#%!(%)K=(+#+")"V=(+%0%)(1K(+#+1#+(+.V=(+$*0+!K(+!&+(+A%+)"$!31#/"!")(+),"(63"7B(+1?""$!1*,$#)4+"!'+93*1!1$#.+!&+,+01.(18+6(1)("*":3"V7$#6*"3""(1)("V71!(+)10+2,"(1**!$%!)$+(+181!&"!'$/(+1&&+!2$!+).**14*+K(%)K=)+4+!P1!1V=#+.$%,$#-"!'V)+4+!P1:3"V=(+#+1#+.$%,$#-"!'V(")")8+#./#+A%+!*.(+&1)+"!%*%21)$1&&+!%1"$!"2")131#"&*+0+1!"!'6,(1V7/$**$,)(+)10+#%*+)21)$1&&+!%1"$!21!1)$3*1&+"!1)+!+!&+21)63"721!")%)+,"(H+#4)1!#$!$%!)"!(+)10+,1.K(%)K=/%!1:!";*"+#1**.2.$%,1!,(1V<=(1$.$%,1!V

PAGE 54

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

PAGE 55

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
PAGE 56

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

PAGE 57

II !!'*")()+!+!&+))%&(1)K6)1,1$!-+.21'$1214%**21!1)(++3.$!+#7B")$!*.%)+4+,++!(+,$&$!?&*%"!'!$%!)K4%"")3%4+,++!+8+#.!$%!1!(+/$**$,?"!'$!+2"!%*%K(+)+!+!&+14$8+(+#+/$#+0%)4+#+'1#+/$#3%#3$)+)$/#1!)*1"$!1)($%'("#1!(%)K=6)1,1$!-+.1'$114%**)(++3.$!+#7617")(+%*%31#"&*+/$#61!7B"")&$!#1&+,"(1/$**$,"!'8$,+*21)(1)4++!1*#+1.+93*1"!+(%)(+)+!+!&+1*#+1.'"8+!2,$%*4+21!,"($%&$!?#1&"$!21)4+*$,KR'"4$!"*+"04$!'$*$2!1"04%P"2!1"!-%!P"2!1"08%2*131.1%2&$##+&*.#+!+#+,"(&$!#1&"$!2(%)K'"4$!"*+"04$!'$*$!+04%P"2!+!-%!P"2!+08%2*131.1!(+)10+,1.K".14"P1141!,1!12!$0/1P"2!+P"!)"P,1=+&1**(+&("*#+!2(+,$01!21!(+.$%!'0+!(")")$/'+!+#1*133*"&1"$!"!)+!+!&+)$/(")-"!OI#+(+313+#)(+#+V +)2(+.1#+(+#+D#"!'(+,1*-"!')"&-)(+#+1$!&+L(+("**)1#+)01**24%(+#"8+#")8+#.,"+IJ$:!$,1)((+("!')!$,B,"3+(+14*+M+*1+(+1//1"#E#+*1+(+)$#.B(+0+!*1%'(+24%(+,$0+!,+#+)"*+!F(+01!")01-"!'%3/1*)+)$#"+)B(+$*01!.$!+#+**)*"+)1*)$)1,/#$')1!)!1-+)(+#+*1)!"'(G+(1)4#$%'('$1)2$')2)(++32&1*+1!1$!-+.+)+#1.(+&10+B$1.(+")'$"!' $#-,+**24$.)B$!C4+*1P.;*1*1
PAGE 58

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

PAGE 59

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
PAGE 60

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

PAGE 61

I !3*1&+$/6.1-%721!$(+#/$#06P1-%7")%)+"!)+12,(+!$!+)3+1-)$/&&'"P1-%4%.1*131-%)1)1Y,"**#+%#!(+#+$0$##$,$,+8+#26.1-%7")$&&1)"$!1**.%)+"!("))+!)+21*)$2:1!(+,$/$#0)1#+#+'1#+4.01!.&$03++!%*%,#"+#)1)+91&*.(+)10+2"!0+1!"!'OM+,"**,#"+(+*++#) 1-+(+313+#)!$,D(+.(18+'$!++1#*.(")0$#!"!';+-%)+!"-1-%*%
PAGE 62

!'".1/%(1%-%+!'")1"P"08%!+P"04%P" H1*1101/1)+*+B8%*1%0!.1!'$01!@+D'".1-%)(+*1%0/1P"B%.1-%3+-1"!-%-%-$!101!@+L41!%41.1)+4+!P1!'101!(*1"03+*1I.1(*+41!'1014$0%M".1!'"(*%31!10(*1-1-%*%2C41!,1!1E".1-%(*1*1*131.1-%)1)1+0104101F9+'%*"'%*1.1-%/1-$!101!@+ G.1'%*1!1V 14$2!'".13"*1"03+*1HK;(+!%04+#)#+/+#$(+*1))+)$/$%!)6)"#70!.1!'$;D<=$$#2$$#,1.;1
PAGE 63

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
PAGE 64

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
PAGE 65

MD OE$(+!(+$$#,1.")A%"+)01**V +)2)"#2"")8+#.)01**"!++D(+)14*+"),"+K(+#+1#+01!.($#)+)(+#+;)1.K01!.($#)+)1#+3#+)+!(+#+
PAGE 66

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
PAGE 67

MI "0+")"V;)":!"
PAGE 68

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
PAGE 69

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

PAGE 70

F%*,1!(*+=)+12$&+1!%3$!$=($#!%)%-%;%*%)%-%<=1.%(*$4$=-"!2)$#2)3+&"+)%313+=/+1(+#%4")"=0"*-;101)"=)$%#2*%03.0"*-") !&*1))
PAGE 71

)"1!P"1#+(+#+(+$4@+&"8+3#$!$%!)1'#++"!',"(")"!-,12"P"!-,1B1!'$8+#!+"#+&*.4.(+8+#46*++7$#6*++!"(+)10+133*"+)$1**(+$4@+&"8+3#$!$%!)2,"($%+9&+3?"$!2(%)K=1*++!"10141!)("!1014%*%-,+=#"!'.+;(+0<(+&$1)1!#$%)+#)11'#++),"(10141!)("1!1014%*%-,+; !&*1))<"*++"P")(1=4#"!'(+")(+)2*"*++!""(1)("=4#"!';.+<(+($#)+O#"0;"<(+(+'+ 1-+.+;(+0<(+)"&-)D(+,$01!")4#"!'"!'(+/"#+,$$;"P"!-%!"
PAGE 72

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

PAGE 73

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
PAGE 74

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

PAGE 75

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
PAGE 76

EL P"4%*+"*+B4%-$!101!@+-1!1C!-$0$!1VGN14$B1-1!1C!-$0$B%!+P"04%P"2!+P"08%2!+P"!@1'".1-%-$*,1B!'".1-%(1041-$!101!@+ 4%03$/%4%-$!1D)(+*+%-%!'1+!'"101P1041!+;3$1$+);$#>$4+/$#+18$,+*<(")&*1))$/!$%!)")1*0$)+!"#+*.&$03$)+$/!/"!""8+$$2#+)+!+!)+)$/H+#4)2%)+1)H+#41*$%!)2(%)=-%-1!.12$)("!+2")%)+1)1$%!21!0+1!)24#"'(!+))24#"**"1!&.2*"'(2+&

PAGE 77

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

PAGE 78

EM (+!+'1"8+)1#+/$#0+1)%)%1*2(%)=-%!'1*1*+*,1;$#%-%!'1*1*+*,"<$4+")$4+.+2"+$4+$4+.+-%!'14$!',1;$#%-%!'14$!',"
PAGE 79

EE O -%*1*+*1-%(*+"03+*1B-+31-%4"-1-%*%%-%!'1:*1*+*" -%*1*+*,1-%(*+B-+31-%4"%-%!'1*1*+*,1D1.11!1%-%4%P1"0"4%P$!$-%3+!%*1;!1%-%:)&$*24*10+%0%*1=#+)21-+#+3$)+14%*1=S4+'*12/%**$/@$.$!-$1=41#-;1)1$'<2+&11!+-1=(+)"1+"!)3+1-"!'H"*131=4+*1P.K0/"-";<=)#1!'+#2!+,1##"81*;/"-1<,")1; <=-!$4:-+##"+-%P"(*1;F<=3#"+281!".-,+)141;F<=/+1#2+##$#2"0"4%P$;D<=A%+)"$!)2+!A%"#"+)2%-%P"$41;F<=(%0"*".2%4%8"*1;E<=)*$(2*1P"!+))2%-%8"*131;F<=)*$(2*1P"!+))

PAGE 80

EF /)& / "&*%*1=+1).-1*%*1=+1)"*.20(*1%04+=3+#(13)2-%3+*1=(1")1***%-%!"=(1#2"//"&%*-+31$#-1!"!$-$=($,:+8+#;$#!1-%41<=4%2!+8+#B(+*+))-%!"!'"=(1")+!$%'(;C%4%)%-%;%4%)%-%
PAGE 81

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

PAGE 82

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
PAGE 83

O 0/1P"%P1-%)+4+!P1*13$!1V +4$2C!-$)"D+-101!@+B-%!"!'"BC0!%!P1!1^L)(,1*141-$!1I%3%P+;-%3%P+<01!@+2C!$1MP"&1%*$P"-$!1!1VP"4+-+*131E+!'1"P"!-$0$!'+01*"F"+!'+"P"41!+/%"1P"+P1"P"!-%!"2-$!1*131G1-%*%01!'$0*$0$'"!$4%(*%!'%2 P")+4+!P"P$/"-1-%)1)12C!-$)"D%)Q1!"%-%!'"4*%31B!'".1'%*1!10(*1L1:3"141!%V!'"414$!"I'+!1!"01!@+2C41!%!P1!1^M"@"0101!@+2C41/1!1E1*+*+"03+*1F41)4"*".1A%A1-1(*+'".1A"!")12C!-$)" G".1/%!1%-%+!'1"A$012!'+01*"201!@+ ".C1P"2C0!%!P1!1 ".1-,C1P";.1-%1P"
PAGE 84

F :J01'(" "3'0"(+#$1**1@+&"8+)(18+4++!%)+1)#+"&1+)B(%)2/$#+9103*+K=X4%!%4%4"=%01!!1%#+")41P"!)"P,1P"!"!'"=(+.$%!'0+!1#+!%0+#$%)%,(+!(+@+&"8+)")%)+1)1+)&#"3"$!2$#,$#1)$A%1*".2+&2#+'1#"!'a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

PAGE 85

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
PAGE 86

L F(+0$%()1#+,"+"+0$%() G1!.("!')#$%4*+0+ (+-#11*)1#+*1#'+ 1#'+-#11*) D($#($.) L4+1%"/%*,$01! I(+,$0+!(+#+1#+4+1%"/%*O D0!,1!1$0%(*+ 41!%1410!.10141-$!101!@+B41/"-+"P$*$D(1)("+*"4"*1'"@"01B*"'"@"01!'$-%)(+)(1;!'1%-%)(+)(1B4.0+1!)$/$'$A%"&-=,"('#+1)3++28+#.A%"&-*.
PAGE 87

FI )(+)(1=A%"&-!$,2(%##.%3^4+A%"&]^+&%-1=+$//!$,2&*+1#$%B'+1,1.^+&;")$/+!%)+$0+1!6$1*$!',"(.$%72+&<1041-1(*+=/1#+,+**B'$$4.+;)1"$$!+,($")*+18"!'<1"1-1(*+=#+),+**B'$$4.+;)1"$$!+,($")#+01"!"!'Q"!(+3*1&+(+)3+1-+#")@%)*+18"!'<+!P1-1(*+=+!*.2,1"10$0+!B)$31*"*+23*+1)+2+&1-%4$!1B1!"4$!1=:+)1,.$%B;$#"!1#.)1*%1"$!2+A%"81*+!"!)$0++'#++$6$$0$#!"!'726$$1.72+&
PAGE 88

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

PAGE 89

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

PAGE 90

FF %P+-,12%P+!1=&*$)+$B!+1#$B%P+-,$0/%*1=!+1#$(+#"8+#;%P+!12"))+*$0%)+<+P%-,1=$!2%3$!2$!$3$/B+P%-,$31(*1=%3$!(4#$$/%+-,12%+!1=$!("))"+$/B'1!+!$-,+)"04"*1=$!("))"+$/(+0+1*"+:/"+*+)(+.1-,1=$!(+$(+#)"+$/B+)(+.1-,+P"!141=+)(1.1-,1=$!(+$(+#)"+$/(+("**)1!)"-,1=%!+#24+!+1(1-1"-,1=,"("!2"!)"+;$/
PAGE 91

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
PAGE 92

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
PAGE 93

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
PAGE 94

+)2"#2-!$,",+**;"03+*1
PAGE 95

D /$**$,"!'8+#.0%&((+*"!+)("(+#$"!"&1+2,"**4+1##1!'+$+1*,"(K=$%!)+!""8+&1)+!"&1"8+$$231)+!)+)K;+*1"!$+*+/$#+#/+&2+&< $%!)K*$&1"8+KJ1"8+&1)+1!+*+2C*%$2!@+2"*+D##+'%*1#!$%!)1!J"0"!%"8+)%0+#1*1@+&"8+)L$%!)$/#+*1"$!)("3J1.)$/(+,++-%4@%!&"8+!+'1"8+$))+))"8++#)$!1*#$!$%!I+/*+9"8+2&1%)1"8+2$4@+&"8+H+#4);1&"8+1!31))"8+
PAGE 96

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

PAGE 97

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

PAGE 98

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
PAGE 99

E % &. ,#.5/.'"0K;+++))$!E(1!/$**$,"!'*+))$!)
PAGE 100

%0/$=0.;$#$%#<4#$(+#%1+=)")+#;3*%#1*$1+<%0P1*,1!+=4#$(+#%0!'1!+=/#"+!;3*%#1*K141!'1!+<%4141=50.;$#$%#
PAGE 101

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

PAGE 102

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
PAGE 103

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

PAGE 104

G / "%P+-,1;$#!1<=&*$)+$+P%-,1=$!$3$/2$!%+-,1;$#!1<=/1#/#$0O'1!+!$-,1;$#!1<=$!("))"+$/+)(+.1-,1;$#!1<=$!(+$(+#)"+$/)&+31=($,+8+#2%-%"=(12%-%41=(12/%!1=Q*+) +041*1B041*1=#+1**.2"!++V-$!@+=)$(+!2")"V!.1!")1=#+1**.V3"=,(+#+V1!)"-,1=%!+#24+!+1(231-1"-,1="!)"+;$/<2!'131!(*+-,1=$%)"+$/081-,1=4+("!2!+!$-,1;$#!1<=$!("))"+$/1!"!$-$B!1-%41=!+8+#?(+*+))%-%P+=(12!'1=4.0+1!)$/-$,1=4%!1=,"(!"=,(1V!"!"=,(+!V!'1!"=,(.V!'13"=,(+#+$V"!,(13*1&+V;-+4$2%-%2+&21#+%)+"!&$!!+&"$!,"(H+#4)2+&
PAGE 105

GD 14%*1=&%2+1#21!)%*1=)#"-+;,"(1)"&-2+&<(*1=+1(*1*1=3*1.2$!)1;$!)1<=3%**2%41=+)3")+2&$!+0!2%01=S(%!+#2)$%!*$%?*.,+41=#1,;1)1*"!+2+&<+-1=)$3+0%-1='$1,1.2+31#+!'%*1=)-"0+!P1=,$#-21&B$201-++)141=4+1/#1"2"!/+1#++041=($3+/1="+/1-1=3%$!;1)&*$("!'-++3$!)&$*"!'2!1')+4+!P1=,$#-)"P1=(+*321))"))%-1='+$%2'+1,1.2+&)%*1=,"3+)%)1=1-+1,1.

PAGE 106

GL 1!1=*$8+2*"-+211=/+&(2&1##.21-+2+!'1=4%.+!'")1=)+**+")1=)&$*+P1=&%2&($32;/"#+,$$2+&<)(1.1=4+12)#"-+2)(+*1=+**2#+*1+2)(+)(1=(%##.2'$A%"&-*.2$-$P1=4+@$./%*2'*12%*1=4+A%"+2-++3A%"+281'1)(1='$/$#1,1*-281*1=&*$)+2)(%28+*1=&$0+/#$08"*131=4+*1P.;1*)$H"*1<28%*1=$3+!2%#!$!;1)1132+&<8%01=3+#0"21**$,28%0+*1=1'#++23+#0"2.1='$;$<2.1*+P1=+**2&$001!2$#+#9$-1=+***"+)P1=&$0+;$
PAGE 107

GI +!104101="!(+1/+#?!$$!+00"!"=1!$$!2-%)1)1B!'$0%)$=$?0$##$,!'$0(*$0%!.+=(+1.1/+#$0$##$,!'+0"(*,1=+8+#.1.-10!1!"=),++*.2-1!"!'"=14%!1!*.28+#.0%&(-1!&1!+B-1!&"!.1!+=8+#.*"*+2)*"'(*.!@1*$=)$2*"-+(12!@1*$!@1*$=&$!"!%1**.21*?,1.)-1*%*1=+1)"*.0(*1%04+B-%4%)%-%=3+#?(13)3+P%*%=%3,1#)A=Q!+#(+(+1"!'61#"&*+)7&+#1"!18+#4"1*/$#0),"**4+/$%!2)%&(1)K=+%P+-,1=&*$)+$-%3+*1=(1")1**-%!"!'"=(1")+!$%'(;0%&(
PAGE 108

$$:"(#+'1#$(")31#$/(+H$&14%*1#.2(+3#+)+!,#"+##+&$00+!)(+)%+!$'+1!!'*")(:%*%"&"$!1#.$/1W)01**)"P+2)%&(1)01.4+(1110$+#1+3#"&++")+!'1'+"!&$03"*"!'14$$-$/("))$#%3$!8+#.)"03*+1!)$0+,(1*"0"+*"!+)2,("&(2,(+!3%4*")(+2(+#%)),"**0++1**(+!++)1#")"!'4$(/#$0(+3#+)+!1#21#21!+8+!/%#(+#)%.$/(+%*%*1!'%1'+%3$1&+#1"!3$"!