First lessons in Lonkundo

Material Information

First lessons in Lonkundo
Moon, Everard R. (Everard Roy), 1879-1962 ( Author, Primary )
Foreign Christian Missionary Society ( Editor )
Place of Publication:
Bolenge, Congo Belge
Mexico Press, Foreign Christian Missionary Society
Publication Date:
Bantu (Other)


Subjects / Keywords:
Bantu languages ( lcsh )
Mongo-Nkundu language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Temporal Coverage:
- 1917
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Congo (Kinshasa) -- Équateur -- Bolenge
Afrique - Congo (Kinshasa) - Équateur - Bolenge
0.0001 x 18.2167


General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Moon, Everard R. (Everard Roy), 1879-1962 : URI
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Foreign Christian Missionary Society : URI

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Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
626898 ( ALEPH )
Y Mongo-Nkundo A /794379 ( SOAS classmark )


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o ^

Everard R. Moon

Foreign Christian Missionary Society
Bolenge, Congo Belge
may, 1917


This series of lessons in the Lonkundo language
has been prepared for the sole purpose of helping
the new missionaries to quickly gain a working know-
ledge of the language spoken by the large majority
of the people among whom the F. C. M. S. is working in
Equatorial Africa. It is not an exhaustive work on
Lonkundo Grammar but those who wish to further
study the language will find much of wealth and
beauty that could not be included in these lessons.

The author does not claim originality in the
material used in this book, in fact there is but
little that has not appeared in print before. He is
deeply indebted to all who have helped to reduce the
Lonkundo language to writing, and especially to
the small Lonkundo Grammar compiled by Mrs. R. J.
Dye, and published at Bolenge. August, 1910.

If the book helps some missionary, in all the
press of the mission work here in Africa, to more
easily and quickly acquire the language, the author
shall feel amply repaid for all the labor spent in its

The Author.



The Lonkundo Alphabet consists of 22 letters.
Some of the letters have two ditinct sound values.

Letter. Pronounced. Phonetic value. Example.
a ah as a in father bala. behold
b bay b but basi, water
c chay ch cheek ci, straightm
d day d do dub a, to fish
e aye a ate eto, cloth
e ** e let el a, to ripen
f fay f fat feka, to forbid
g gay g go ngav if
h hay h he hao. excla- mation
i oe y y l machine ila, to put
j jay j jay jila, to wait
k kay k kind kika, only
1 lay 1 like langa. to love
m may m May mesa, table
n nay *y n not na? whafl
n n canon nsoni. shame
0 oh o note ola, to go forth
6 ou ought oma, awe
p pay P put papal a, paper
9 say S sun sala, to work
t tay t ,f take tena, to cut
U 00 u *' flute ulu. tortoise

Let-er. Pronounced. Phonetic value. Example.

w way as w in will wa-wa, quicicii
y yea y yet yela, to briny
z zay z zeal nzala. hunger
z ? dz adz oza, cause to

come out

Th? letter / is often blown through the lips, be-
ing pronounced as though preceeded by p. and some-
times is pronounced very much like c. The letters
m and n are nasal and when the initial letter of a
word, care must be taken not to pronounce it as
though preceeded by a vowel; as, mba, palm nut*.
not emba. The word begins with the lips tight to-
gether. The letter z always has a dz sound except
when preceeded by a nasal, then it has the simple
z sound.

Much more might be said about pronunciation pe-
culiar to the native, but the best way to get the
finer shades is directly from the native.

Pronounce:- kanda. sieze: bote, medicine; tefela,
speak; ngamo? howl Nzakomba, God: poso. pay; fonga,
to put away: duola. (1) rub out; mpaka. an elder: jefa,
sun; ijwa. a recepticle: jitsangu. an ear of corn:
cima. to din: bikya. to heal.

(1) In all vowel combinations each vowel is given
its full value.

Note, q as representing the sound ts has been used
in all our translations up to the present. All words
written in this book with Ts will be found in the
1915 edition of the vocabulary with p , as jitsuku.
formerly jipuku. a hat.


In Lonkundo. the verbs are of first importance.
Many ideas are contained in the Lonkundo verbs that

in other languages are expressed by different parts
of speech.

In this lesson we will begin to learn the first
or consonant conjugation, which includes all verbs
beginning with consonants except a few of those be-
ginning with b which belong to the second conjugation.

Model Conjugation

Indicative Mood. Present. Affirmative
tomba, carry (a)

Sing. Plu.

ntomba, I carry totomba. we carry

otomba. you carry lotomba, you carry

atomba, he carrier batomba. they carry

Note the personal pronominal prefixes for the
nominative case: n, o, a. to, lo, ba. These are add-
ed to the imperative singular, which is the simplest
form of the verb, and is the form that is given in
the vocabul ary


tomba, carry
kenda, go.
tefela, speak
kota, write
sola, wash

bon to. man
bonoju. child
bonkanda. book
jitsuku, hat
eto, cloth

banto, men
bonoju, children
benkanda, books
basuku, hats
bito. clothes


Exercises: Translate into English: Nkota. Totefela.
Sola eto. Batomba benkanda. Atomba. Tosola. Otefela.

Translate into Lonkundo: I go. He carries. Write
thou. They wash the clothes, (b) Carry the hat.
The man is talking (talks). They are washing clothes.
(cj Carry ye.

Notes on lesson two: fa) In Lonkundo the accent
falls almost invariably on the penult.

(b) There are no articles in Lonkundo. so the Eng-
lish artcles are not translated.

(c) The plural affirmatve imperative of the first
conjugation is the same as the second person plural
present affirmative.


Lonkundo. is rarely spoken in its full form, for the
natives make many elisions in speaking. These
elisions are all quite regular and give but little
trouble after the general rules are mastered. It
is better for beginners not to make many elisions.
Following are some of the most important rules:-

Rule 1. When an initial vowel of one word fol-
lows a final vowel of another word, the weaker vow-
el is often elided, it nearly always being the final
vowel as.

Sola eto, becomes soleto, wash the cloth
Kola ikenge. * kolikenge. take a .slate
Rule 2. Nouns beginning in b following a vowel,
drop the b if it preceeds a. e, or o. the proceeding
vowel is usually dropped also.

Unelided form: Elided form:

Tomba bonoju. Tombonoju.

Somba benkenda Sombenkanda

la. a/irf-used in connecting words or phrases.


somba, buy
kela. do; make
ka, (jive

senduku, box
itoko, spoon
ikenge. slate
lopi, pencil
bondele. white person
lokongd. dish
mpate. sheep
nta, goat

tombela, carry to. or for
sima. want; desire
langa. want; love
yela. bring
basenduku. boxes
totoko, spoon
tokenge, slates
njopi, pencils
bendele* white people
nkongo. dishes
mpate. sheep
nta, goats


Translate into English:- 1. Kela senduku. 2. Ye-
la lopi. 3. SonToa nta. 4. Kolitoko. 5. Kaya bonoju
benkanda. 6. Lotombasenduku. 7. Bontalanga mpate.
8. Nsima lokongo. 9. Lotombelanto totoko. 10. Yela
mpate la nta. 11 Njela lopi. (1)

Translate into Lonkundo:- 1. I am making a box.
2. They go. 3. We wash dishes and spoons. 4. He writes
books. 5. He wants a slate and pencil. 6. He gives
a spoon to the man. (J) 7. Buy (Imp. Plu.) the dish-
es. 8. Carry to the white man a dish and spoon. 9.
The white man loves books. 10. The child is speaking.
(jJ Note that a nasal before y changes it to./.
(:>) The indirect object immediately follows the
verb. The direct object follows the indirect.

Elision Continued.

Rule 3. Nouns in hi anl ji following a vowel drop
these prefixes before b, c, d, t and p, and occasion-
ally some other consonants. The preeeedir.g vowel
is retained:

Unelided form: Elided form:

Yela jitsuku. Briny a hat Yelatsuku.

Somba bito. Buy clothes Sombato.


Rule 4. Nouns in lo following a vowel change lo
to e. the preceeding vowel being dropped:
Unelided form: Elided form:

Nda ioola, In heaven Ndeola.

Yela lokongo. Bring a dish Yehekongo

sembola, straighten
bela. pull
cika. stop, leave
duka. paddle a canoe
sesa. bid farewell
komba. shut

jibaya, board
itoko. mat
lobulu. room
mpaka, elder
wato, canoe
mesa, table

Translate into English: L Cika cuka nda mesa.
2. Duka wato. 3. Losesa bampaka. 4. Sembolebulu
5. Komba bikuke. 6. Kom'bola senduku. 7. Yela totoko.
8. Batombasenduku nda lobulu. 9. Yakendo. 10. To-
mbela mpaka bonkanda. 11. Cika bonkanda mesa.

Translate into Lonkundo:- 1. Bring the boxes here..
2. Open the windows and straighten the room. 3. Leave
the boxes in the room. 4. They are bidding the white

kombola. open
yaka, come

a. nda, in or on
endo, here

ko. and. used in connecting
sentences or clauses
babaya, boards
totoko, mats
mbulu, rooms
bampaka, elders
biato, canoes
bamesa, tables


man farewell. 5. He is pulling the table. 6. We are
paddling the canoe. 7. They want a canoe. 1. You (plu.)
come here and w'ash the floor (boards). 9. Leave the
clothes in the trunk. 10. Buy the mat. 11. Bring a
board and a mat. 12. Shut the door and open tlm box.
13. The elders are going.


For each affirmative form of the verb there is
usually a corresponding negative.

Negative. Present Indicative of tomba.
mpotombe, I am not carrying tofotombe. ire are not carrying
ofotombe. you are lofotombe. yon '

afotombe, he i,s * bafotombe .they

Neg. Imperative

Sing, totombake, Plu. tetombake. do not carry

Note the same personal pronominal prefixes as
the affirmative: fo is inserted between them and the
stem. Note that in the first person singular, the nasal
changes the / to p.

Note. Verbs in nga, mba, nda, ka. usually have
e as final vowel in the negative.

Verbs in za and ya usually take a except ya. to come.

Abilitatives. reversives, datives and all the longer
forms take a, as ntombela, Neg., mpotombela.

Write the Present. Indicative. Negative conjuga-
tion of a number of verbs we have had.



monga, stay, remain bunga, forget
sal a work cwa, go
feta, dwell lenkina. again
basi, loafer lae. tvhy?
jitsala, [jarden basala, gardens
sukulu, school basukulu. schools
Mama, title of respect for lady Bamama, Pin. of Mama
ntsete, lock, key ntsete. locks, keys
itswa, light, lamp totswa. lights
Translate into En; glish: 1. Tosolake mesa. 2. Lo-

fosale. 3. Ofokende lae? 4. Tombitswa lenkina. 5. Lo-
foyela basenduku lae? 8. Tokendake. 7. Bafokote. 8. To-
fosale. 9. Mposombe jibaya. 10. Afosale jitsala lenkina.
11. Tomongake. 12. Ofosese bondele lae? 13. Yelabasi.
14. Tobungake.

Translate into Lonkundo: 1. I do not go to
school. 2. We do not dwell here. 3. They do not
work. 4. Work in the garden. 5. Why do you not bring
the keys? 6. Leave the candles in the box. 7. Carry
the white woman water.


The Verb to be


Pres. Aff.

nde, I am
ole. thou art
ale, tie is

tole, ice are
lole, you are
bale, they are
Pres. Neg..

Sing. Pin.

mpa. I am not tofa. we are not

ofa. you are nor lofa. you are not

afa. he is not bafa, they are not

Possession is expressed in Lonkundo by the verb
to be and ia, meaning with: as, Ale la jitsuku. He
has a hat. Lit. He is with a hat.


tanda. spread
buna, fight
ekoto. shoe
bikoto, shoes
mbata, chair
mbete, bed
etumba, a fight

bitumba. tights
loswe, today
eko, there


nko? where? whither?
ngamo? hold



emi, I. me
we, you

Personal Pronouns

iso, we. us
inyo, you

ende, he. she, him iyo. them, they

Note:- These are either nominative or objective,
masculine or feminine.

Translate:- 1. Tole. 2. Ale. 3. Bafa. 4. Nde la
senduku. 5. Tofa la bikoto. 6. Mama ale nko? 7. AT
eko. 8. Nkela senduku ngamof 9. Tanda mesa. 10.
Tomba mbata mpene. 11. Oleko.

Translate into Lonkundo:- 1. Where are they? 2.
They are not here. 3. She is in the garden. 4. They
are fighting a fight. 5. How shall I spread the bed?
6. They are not going today. 7. I do not have a chair.

The Personal Pronouns are often used for empha-
sis: as, Emi mpokende. I am not going. The pronoun
may be omitted but the pronominal prefix must be used.

Translate into English:- 1. We otomba. 2. Ende
afosale. 3. Iso tofosole. 4. Inyo lokenda. 5. Iyo
bafobunetumba. 6. We ofokende lae? 7. TombeTiyo
benkanda. 8. Ende afosale loswe lae? 9. Inyo losala


Noun Clauses and Concording Prefixes.

In common with other Banto languages, the Lo-
nkundo has the alliterative prefixes to the nouns,
which, as particles, are prefixed to other words in
the sentences to show their agreement: as. Jitsuku
jikam jile nko? Where is my hat? Here the prefix ji
of jitsuku is seen in the possessive pronoun jikam
and the verb, to be, jile.

According to their prefixes, which primarily de-
note number, the Lonkundo nouns are divided into
eleven classes. (See following table). These classes
with their concording prefixes must be thoroughly
mastered, otherwise it is impossible to speak Lonku-.
ndo correctly.

Table of Noun Classes and Concording Prefixes.

Sing. Plu. Con. Pre.
Cl. Pre. Ex. Pre. Ex. Sing. Plu.
I n- ndoi ba- bandoi. friend e, o ba
ise ba- bais e, father e, o ba
II bo- bonto ba- banto. man o ba
III w- waji ba- baaji, wife 0 ba
IY ji- jitsuku ba basuku, hat ji ba
V senduku ba- basenduku. box e ba
VI bo- bonkanda be- benkanda, book bo be
VII e - eto bi- bito. cloth e bi
VIII w- wato bi- biato, canoe bo be
IX lo- lokongo n- nkongo, disk lo i
lo- lofoso m- mposo, skin lo i
X n- nta n- nta, a oat e i
m- mpate m- mpate, sheep e i
XI i- itoko to- to toko, spoon i to
or ba- batoko. or ba


Note. The first; three classes refer to persons.
The fifth class is composed largely of foreign words
that have no class prefix in the singular. Names of
trees are found generally in the sixthclass, while
most names of animals are found in the tenth class.

These are always prefixed by the concording pre-
fix of the thing possessed. Ex.- Jitsala jikam, My
garden. Bonkanda boke, Your book.

Translate:- 1. My boxes. 2. His boxes. 3. Their
sheep. 4. Your boards. 5. Our room. 6. Your
rooms. 7. His window. 8. Thy canoe. 9. Your
canoes. 10. Our table.

Translate:- 1. (1) Iseke ale mpe. 2. Jitsuku ji-

kam jile mpe nda mesa. 3. Bito bikae bifa nda se-
nduku. 4. Iso tofa la benkanda. 5. Nde la itoko T
inkanya. 6. Iyo bafa la mbete. 7. Lofotombela
bendele mbata lae? 8. Mpokendeko loswe.

(l) After names refering to persons the verb takes
the regular pronominal prefix of the verb conjuga-
tion. If the prefix of the noun class is used it makes
it a relative clause, as:- Iseke ale mpe. Your father
is there. Is'eke ele mpe, Your father who is there.

Possessive Pronouns.


PI ura,l

-kami or -kam. my or mine
-kawe or -ke, thy or thine
-kande or -kae, his or hers

-kiso, our or ours
-kinyo. yours
-kiyo. their or theirs


Past Indicative of Tomba.



ntombaki, I carried
otombaki. you carried
atombaki. he carried


totombaki. we carried
lotombaki. you carried
batombaki. they carried

N egative

ncitomba, I did not carry ntatomba we did, not carry
ntotomba. you did, not carry ntalo- or ntetomba. you *'
ntatomba. he did not carry ntaba- or ntatomba. they

tena. cut
lota, run for fear
lela, cry

bosumane, a saw
yanda. axe
cwanda. axes
ntan do. r iver

botamba. tree
jidala. oranae
ilombe. house
lobi. yesterday
or tomorrow
Mpoto. Europe

Tranlsate:- 1. Ende afetsa nko? 2. Ncikenda lobi.
3. Nteyela bikoto bikam lobi lae? 4. Ntesala nda
jitsala lobi. 5. Babunaki etumba ndolenge. 9.
Ncilota nta. 7. Bonoju alela. 8. Tolelake. 9. Te-
na botamba la yanda. 10. Totenake la bosumane.
11. Ntalokota benkanda lobi. '

Translate:- 1. Wash the clothes. 2. They washed
the clothes. 3. We did not wash the clothes. 4.
The man did not go. 5. You did not bring my hat.
6. The children ran away from the white man. 7.


They love school. 8. You did not take the dishes.

9. Why did you not give the white man a pencil?

10. They did not bring my clothes and shoes. 11.
Carry the chairs into the house. 12. He went to
Europe. 13. My house is there. 14. The oranges
are here. 15. The river is there.

We have had the personal pronominal prefixes for
the nominative case; below are those for the objec-
tive case.

These immediately preceed the verb stem. The
Lonkundo sentence. Nkolo tolela. may help you to re-
member these prefixes. It means Lord we cry.
N-ko-lo. the singular prefixes spell Nkolo. Lord. The
plural prefixes spell the first person plural of lela.
to cry. To-le-la. (we cryj

Examples:- Onka, you give me. Batotombela base-
nduku. They are carrying the boxes for us.

Translate:- 1. Onjela lopi. 2 Tololanga. 3 Lo-
tokaya basuku (l) bakiso. 4. Bansesaki. 5. We
ntonsesa. 6. Atolota. 7. Onka basi. 8. Ofonjela
wato lae? 9. Tolalanga.

Translate: 1. He gives. 2. He gives me. 3. He
does not give. 4. He does not give me. 5.


-n or -m. me
-ko. thou
-lo, her. or him

-to. us
-le. you
-la. them

(See table on next Page).

Table for theuse of the objective pronominal particles with the c nsonant verbs.

bikva. to heal

Me n. m you ko him do us to you !e them -la
I- n. m - - n kobi k v a n jol obi k y a i - njoiebikya n jo] abikya
njokobikya njebikya nj abikya
you o oiubikya wobikya otobiky a abikya
lie a ambikva akoi-ikva alobikya at obikya a 1 ebikya alal.ikya
obikya ebikya a obikya
aombikya* aokobikya* aolobikya aotobikya* aol eb iky a* a ol abikya*
we to tokobikya tolobikya tol ebikya tolabikya
cwobikyad cwc bikyat cwabikyat
you lo ombikya j wobikya lotobikva j w abikya
they ba ambikya bak obikya bal obikya bat obikya bal ebikya balabikya
bobikya. bsbikya . baabik va
ba mibikya* baokobikya* bao^bikva * baot >bikya* baolebikya baolubikya

*For the explanation of the tense of these marked words see Lesson XIV.

I Gene rally used in questions, or the subjunctive.

Where two or more forms are given the first form should be-thoroughly mastered before

attempting the use of the other forms.

Where the spaces are left blank the meaning would be obtained by the use of tbe
reflexive form of the verb, as: Njoyabikya /heal nujsdf. See Lesson XXX.


me. (2) 6. They do not live here. T. They worked

in the garden. 8. You did not carry the hatchet
yesterday. 9. My house is not here. 10. The chil-
dren cried.

ft) Words like jicsuku. where is follows the prefix
.// in the singular, drop the t in the plural, as: jitsuku.

(2) i preceeded by a nasal changes to d.


Demonstrative adjectives. These are really only
encivtics on the concording prefixes. The accent
is on the prefixes.

-ne. or e, this* near the speaker.

-nko. that, near the one spoken to.

-hi. that. yonder, far from both.

-ko. that, aforementioned or referred to.

-so. that, unseen or unknown to the speaker.

Examples: Onka jibaya jine, (jive me this board.

Onjela jibaya jinko. bring me that board.

Onjela jibaya jini. .........yonder.

Onjela jibaya jiko. '' the aforementioned.

Onjela jibaya, jiso jisona we. bring whichever you
may choose.

These also take the concords of the nouns modified.

Ex-.- Oajela benkanda beuma. Bring me all of the
books. Onjela bonkanda bomo, Bring me another book
of same kind. Onjela bonkanda bonkina. Bring me
a book of another kind.

Translate:- 1. Itoko ine. 2. Totoko tonko. 3.
Tomba sanduku ene. 4. Totombake bonkanda boni.


5. Onjela lopi Jonko. 6. Lotomba tokenge tonko
nda sukulu. 7. Somba babaya bauma. 8. Tena
jibaya jihi. 9. Totenake jibaya jine. 1.0. Tombela
bondele mbata emo. 11. Ntokombola bikuke biuma
lae? 12. Mpotombe basi bamo.

Translate:- 1. Bring me another hat (same kind).
2. Wash ail the clothes. Spread the bed. 4. Do
not carry that chair. 5. Carry him some more spoons
(different kind). 6. They did not wash all dishes.
7. We did not run away from that goat. 8. Do not
buy any more spoons of that same kind. 9. My
house. 10. Those houses yonder.


The place for adjectives is very largely filled in
Lonkundo by adjective phrases which are always
introduced by adjective particles which have special
forms for each class of nouns.

The adjective particles are seen below in italics:

Class Sing. Plu.
I Nkana ea lolango. Bankana ha lolango.
II Bonto oa yoyo. Ban to ha yoyo.
III Waji oa jituka. Baaji ha jituka.
TV Jitsuku ja wane. Basuku ha wane.
V Senduku ea nsuki. Basenduku ha nsuki.
VI Bonkanda tea sukulu. Benkanda bia sukulu
VII Eto ea ndoci. Bito bia boloci
VIII Wato wa bolo. Biato hia bolo.
IX Lokongo ja soso. Nkongo ya soso.



X Nkoi ea jale. Nkoi ya jale.

XI Itoko ya nsuki. Totoko ca nsuki.

I. The adjective particles are used a great deal with
abstract nouns in forming adjective phrases.

These abstract nouns are naturally divided into two
classes: (1) Those which take the concording prefix
of the noun modified, thus having different forms for
the different classes. (2) Those which have a fixed
form for all classes.

The adjectival nouns of the first class are:-
-be, evil -saji. smallness

-loci, goodness -nene. largeness

-tale, length

(See table on next Page.)

The beginner should bear in mind that there is a
dialectical difference between the different sections
of the Ba-Nkundo race, and perhaps there is nothing
in which the variations are greater than in the use of
adjectival nouns, but the older members on the sta-
tions should be able to point out wherein the local
usage differs from these lessons.

(l) With the singular of nouns referring to persons,
Classes I, II, and III, the prefix bo- is frequently
used in the adjectival noun instead of the class

(1) When the noun modified takes i or e as a con-
cording prefix, the adjectival form has a nasal prefix:
as, Eto ea ndoci. instead of, Eto ea loci.

Exception to above rule:- The singular of Class
XI does not take a nasal prefix; as, Itoko y'iioci, not.
Itoko ya ndoci.

Table showing the use of the adjectival nouns of the first Class.

Class Unelided form
Nkana ea boloci
I Nkana ba ndoci (2)
(I) Bankana ba baloci
II Bonto oa boloci
(i) Banto ba baloci
hi Waji oa boloci
(1) Baaji ba baloci
IV Jitsuku ja jiloci
Basuku ba baloci
V Senduku ea ndoci (2)
Basenduku ba baloci
VI Bonkanda wa boloci
Benkanda bia beloci
VII Eto ea ndoci (2)
Bito bia biloci
VIII Wato wa boloci
Biato bia beloci
IX Lokongo ja 161 oci
Nkongo ya ndoci (2)
X Mbuji ea ndoci (2)
Mbuji ya ndoci
XI Itoko ya iloci
Totoko ea toloci
Batoko ba baloci

Elided form

(3) Nkana eyoloci, A good sister or brother.
Nkana ea ndoci. A good sister or brother.
Bankana baloci. Good sisters or brihers.

(3) Bonto ow oloci, A good man,

Banto baloci. Good men,

(3) Waji ow oloci, A good wife.

Baaji baloci. Good wires.

Jitsuku jadoci. A yood hat.

Bdsuku baloci. Good hats.

Senduku ea ndoci. A good box.
Basenduku baloci. Good boxes.
Bonkanda w oloci, A good book.
Benkanda bi'eloci, Good books.

Eto ea ndoci. A good doth.

Bito biadoci. Good clothes.

Wato woloci. A good canoe.

Biato bieloci, Good canoes.

Lokongo jeloci. A good dish.

Nkongo ya nddci, Good dishes.

Mbuji ea ndoci, A good antelope.

Mbuji ya ndoci. Good antelopes.

I toko yiloci, A good spoon.

Totoko ra toloci. Good spoons.

Batok baloci. Good spoons,


(3) See Rule 2 next lesson for the use of y and
iv. With the prefix bo these adjectival nouns become
nouns of Class VI.

The following is a partial list of the abstract nouns

of the second class:-

Sing. Flu,

isisi, littleness tosisi

bojito. weight: heaviness All the others hare no

j-ituka, beauty plurals used in the sense

bokae. acidity; sourness oj adjectives.

buke. much, many

bolo. hardness

boju, softness

oju, newness

mpia. sharpness

mpio, coldness

tsa, heat

eje, sweetness

nsuki. largeness

yoyo, blackness

pepe, thinness

fufu, whiteness

fe, lightness

tu, blackness

soso. brightness (red)

Translate:- 1. Banto ba yoyo* 2 Basi ba tsa. 3.
Basi ba mpio. 4. Bana ba tosisi. 5. Betamba bi
etale. 6. Itoko yinene. 7. Tofaka ca tonene. 8.
Basi ba mamela. 9. Biato bietale..

Translate:- 1. Bring me the red book. 2. Take the
sharp knife of Iluku. 3. Where are the little goats?

4. A good hat. 5. A bad box. 6. Good clothes,
7. Large canoes. 8. Why did you not bring me the
long canoe? 9. The good dish. 10. The red dish.


II. The adjectival noun may be used as the com-
plement of the verb to be. Example:- Wato bole botale
mongo. The canoe is eery long. Lokongo lofa boloci.
The dish is not yood.

Future Tense of Tomba.

iijifotomba, 1 shall carry cifotomba we shall carry
wifotomba, you unit jifotomba. you will carry
ifotomba. he will carry bifotomba. they will carry

mpaotomba. I shall not tofaotomba, we shall not
carry carry

ofaotomba, you will lofaotomba, you will
afaotomba, he * bafaotomba. they

Translate:- 1. Yesu ale boloci mongo. 2. Njifovela
lokongo jeloci lobi. 3. Ofaokenda lenkina. 4. Bito
biadoci bile nko? 5. Senduku ea ntale ele nda sitola.
6. Banto ba yoyo bafaosola ndolenge. 7. Ekuke e
ilombe. (See Rule 1 next page.) 8. Etei eyonkanda.
(See Rule 2 next page.) 9. Elaka eyelango. 10.
Bonto owelango.

Translate: 1. Tomorrow you will wash the dirty
clothes. 3. We shall live in Heaven. 3. You did
not bring me a good hat. 4. That man is strong. 5.
Jesus will come again. 6.- Some more letters will
come Saturday. 7. The slave of the chief will run


Rule 1. When oa and ea are wiih nouns having
an initial vowel as in the singular of Classes VII and
XI, only the final a is elided.

eyeekenje? of a stone e!itoko, of a spoon

oekala, of a cup oilombe, of a house

Rule 2. When ea and ea are used with the sing-
ular of nouns of Class VI, the b is elided, the a of the
adjective particle is drop and y or w is inserted for
euphony: Ekenze ea bojito, becomes Ekenze eyojito.
A heavy stone. Bonto oa botale becomes Bonto ow
otale, A. tall man.

The singular of Class IX changes lo to e and follows
the same ruie:

Etei ea lokongo. becomes Etei eyekongo. The inside
of a dish.

Bomoto oa lofoso, becomes Bomoto owefoso. A
Talkative woman.

Note. A few apparent exceptions are found in a few
words that have lost a semi-consonant b. as eoto
(eboto) a relative. These follow Rule 2. Eto eyeoto.
The relative's cloth.

Adjectives. Continued

III. The adjective particle oa combined with an
abstract noun qualifying a personal noun or pronoun
understood, is often used substantively.

Examples:- oa mpamba. the mighty one
oa nguya, the strong one

owobe. the evil one

The adjective particle is also employed to indicate

Ex.- Waco wokulaka, The chief'* canoe
Benkanda bia Bongongolo. Bongoriqolo's hook*.
Translate:- 1. Bontowoloci. 2. Bana ba tosisi.

3. Oa ka. 4. Oa soke. 5. Ifaka yolumbu. 6.
Jitsuku jIso. 7. Jitsuku jikam jile nko? 8. Eto
ea ndoci.

Translate:- 1. Ilukus house. 2. My pencil. 3.
The good house. 4. The bed room. 5. Soft trees,
b. Men of strength. 7. A tall man. 8. A sour or-
ange. 9. A big hat. 10. The childrens house. 11.
Most high God.

Adjectives. Continued.

V. The adjective particles may be used with the
common nouns.

Bitoko bia mbembele. mosquito hoots.

Wato wa nkai, a paddle canoe.

VI. The adjective particle is often used with parti-

Bitoko bia nkakenda. shoes for travelling, participle
of kenda.

Bosomane wa njatata, a rip saw. participle of ata.
Note. Participles are treated in Lesson XXII.

The comparative and the superlative degrees are
usually expressed by the use of lekola and leki. surpass.
Ex.- Akolekola botale. He is taller than you. Alekola

bant'uma nguya, He exceeds, all men (in) strength. Oleki
lofoso, You talk too much. Lit. You exceed (in) talk.

The most common past and present tense is the
following: but it is sometimes confusing, for the
only way of distinguishing past from present is by the
context and a slight modulation. The past is pi*o-
nouced with a rising inflexion on the prefix.

Sing. Flu.

njotomba, I carried totomba, we carried

otomba. you " lotomba. you

aotomba. he baotomba, they

These same forms are sometimes used for the future.
Translate:- 1. Aoiekola bant auma nda wanya.
2. Baosomba bito biadoci nda Wangata. 3. Oleki
wamba. 4. Basi balekola buke. 5. Ofosale nda
tsala lenkina? 6. Nkina njifokenda. 7. Onjela
bikoto bikam bia mbembele. 8. Aosala lobi ko ifosala
lenkina lobi la jife: lolo loswe afosale. 9. Onjila.
10. Somba lopi ja nkakote.

Translate:- 1. The spoons are not good. 2. Will
they come here tomorow? 3. Do not carry the large
box. 4. Your wisdom exceeds. 5. God will car-
ry us to Heaven. 6. Bad people shall not live in
Heaven. 7. Why did you run away from work yes-
terday? 8. I forgot my book. 9. He put away the
tools in the tool house. 10. Where did you find the
the hammer? 11. Bring the heavy box to the house.
12. Forgive me. 13. Forgive us. 14. Play the


The Cardinals are declinable from one to five, taking
the concording prefixes according to Class. All the
others remain the same save for a few plurals, for
these are really nouns.

The general prefix for the first five is oha.

Sing. Pin.
0 mpampa
1 -omonkolo
2 -fe bafe
3 -sato basato
4 -nei banei
5 -tano batano
6 botoa betoa
7 nsambo nsambo
8 mwambi mwambi
9 ibwa tobwa
10 jom. lontuku ntuku. baom
20 ntuku ife
30 isato
40 inei
50 itano
60 otoa
70 ' nsambo
80 mwambi
90 ibwa
100 bonkama benkama
1000 nkoto nkoto


10. 000 kesi

100.. 000 bokoka

1.000. 000 lone




bake si. or kesi

10*000,000 efuna bipuna

Note 1. The plurals of the digits above fire are not
used except in multipication: as 2 x 9 are 18, tobwa tofe
wete jam la mwatnbi. But nine spoons would be totoko
ibwa, and not totoko tobwa.

Note .2. Cardinals follow the noun.

Note 8. La. and, is used to connect numerals.

Ex.- 11. join Tomonkolo; 25. ntuku ife Tatano:
34, ntuku isato l'anei: 46, ntuku inei lotoa: 137.
bonkama la ntuku isato la nsambo.

Note 4. Above twenty, the noun they qualify is
repeated with the last number when under ten: as.
189 men, banto bonkarna la ntuku ibira I'anto mwambi.

Note o. Units are represented by nseke. which
literally means what is left oret\ odd ones. The Lo-
nkundo system is decimal, and ten or a multiple of
ten is the perfect number: nseke is what remains.

2. Ordinal Numerals. These are expressed by
means of the adjective particle agreeing with the noun
expressed, or understood,

5. Distributive Numerals. These are formed by
reduplication of the Cardinals: as,

1st person, bont'oa joso
1st steamer, basua ini joso
3rd man, bonfow'asato
13th bird, ifulu yajom la tosato


om on kol* onion koto. one each.
bafafe. two each

Aotoka balala basatasato. He gave us three oranges

4. Numeral Adverbs. There are no real numeral
adverbs. The number of times an action is performed
is shown by a special derivative of the verb itself.

bosola bomonkolo. one washing

besoTenei. four washing.s

In multiplication the plural of the number is used:
as. 3x2 are 6. basafafe iceie botoa, two threes are
six. This signifies that there has been a division into
threes, and two groups of three are taken. This is the
common practice in Congo, dividing everything into
bundles of a certain number each, and then selling
for so much each bundle: so this method is readily
understood by the children in beginning multiplication.

5. Fractions. There is no original way of expres-
sing fractions, but the following has been adopted:-
efate. a part, from at a. to split.

14- etat'emonkoloko ea bitate bipe, one part of two
bitate bitsato bia bitate binei. three parts of four

6. Interrogative of Number, -nga is an enclytic
to the concording prefix, which agrees with the noun
expressed. Class I. II. III. IV. V. banga: VI. VIII.
benga VII. binga: IX. X. inga: XI. tonga, or banga.
See chart of concord ing prefixes. Lesson VII.

Bikoto binga. Row man// shoes'?

Babaya banga. How many boards?

Learn the numbers as given up to ten thousand.

Translate: 1. Nsoso ntuku ife la nsosibwa. 2\


Loyeia babaya jom l'atano. 3. Bonto oa mwambi.
4. Ilombe ya joso ile oju. 5 Kaya banto bafafe. 6:
Bonciele ifotoka balala bat-anatano. 7. Banoju bifo-
cwa sukulu. 8. Aoyela bi-ato benga? 9. Nse ntuku
itano la nse isato.

Translate:- 1. They will stay five days. 2 Three
more white people will come. 3. Do not forget God's
words. 4. Give to the children two fish each. 5.
Fifty-five men came yesterday. 6. They did not bring
ns letters. 7. Bring me the black book. 8. The love
of God is not lacking. 9. Take to Mr. Smith the
Third book. 10. Carry these two good boards. ft)
t(l) In sentences where several adjectives follow a
noun the order is usually as follows:- 1st noun: 2nd
demonstrative; 3rd. possessive: 4th, numeral: 5rh.
qualifiyer. Benkanda bene bekae besato bieloci.

These three good books of his.


Second Conjugation. Semi-Consonant Verbs.

Present Affirmative

m bon da, I pray toonda. we pray

odnda. you pray loonda, you pray

aonda. he prays baonda. he prays

Present Negative

mpoonde, I do not pray tofoonde. we do not pray

ofoonde, you lofoonde. you *

afoonde. he does bafoonde, he does

Imperative Affirmative
bonda, may thou loonda. pray ye


Imperative Negative

toondake. pray thou not teondake. pray ye not
Past Affirmative

mboondaki, I prayed todndaki. we prayed

oondaki, you prayed loondaki. you prayed

aondaki, he prayed baondaki. they prayed

Past Negative

ncionda, I did not pray ntatoonda. we did not pray

toonda. you " nteonda, you

ntaonda, he ntaonda. they

Future Affirmative

njifoonda. I shall pray cifoonda. we shall pray

wifoonda. you will njifoonda. you will

ifoonda. he bifoonda, they

Future Negative

mpaoonda. 1 shall not pray tofaoonda, ume shall not pray

ofaoonda, you will lofaoonda, you will "

afaoonda. he bafaoonda.Mc//

This conjugation is quite like the first except for the
dropping of the b of the stem in most forms, and a few
euphonic changes.

The following are a few of the verbs of this conju-

banga. beqin bata, obtain, possess

banda. read batana, quarrel

betama. sleep, lie down

Translate:- 1. Cifoanga sukulu jife. 2. OetamaV
(Used as a good-night greeting). 3. Teatanake. 4.
Loanda etate ea joso nda bonkanda wa Yoane. 5.


nse lobi? 6. Nyo-nyo ntatoata. 7. Tokoonda. 8.
Baanda benkanda bia sukulu. 9. Bontafobika la
yoko kika.

Translate:- 1. We shall not receive any more box-
es. 2. They will read ten passages in Matthew. 3.
They are quarreling. 4. They shall not sleep here.
5. Do not begin this work today. 6. They received
twenty-seven letters (benkanda) but we did not
receive one letter. 7. My spoons are not good; bring
me three good spoons.


1. Locatives. These take the first four enclytics
given as demonstratives, (Lesson X), and have about
the same relative meaning as to distance.

ane, ae, here
anko, there
ani, yonder
eko, there

Direction is shown by mpe, thither, and endo, endoko,

2. Interrogatives.

nko? where?

-nga? how many?
ngamo? how?

Nko, is often omitted in speaking, the question being
shown by the rising inflexion. Ex:- Ale, for Ale nko?
Where is he?

3. Adverbs of manner are translated by:-


(1) Adjectival nouns: as. Aosola boloci, He
washed well.

(2) Prepositional phrases, la wanya. with wisdom.
or wisely.

4. List of adverbs with their meanings:

aeyoko, now

o: e; ende. o nde: yes

limpo; lonko; linko, soon; at once

lenkina, again

nko. oidy; just

nga. like

nkina, may he: perhaps
nyonyo, no

soi. seldom; infrequently
nye. altogether
la, also; too

5. A list of English words and phrases and
their Lonkndo equivalents.

above, nd'ajiko
below, nd'anse
before, nda joso; joso
behind, ndafeha; nda rnbusa
likewise, eleng'eko
always, baka-baka
forever, bideko la'deko
a little while, fele
afterwards, l 'afeka
a long time, ejingi
carefully, ikoke

daily, okyaefa: kia kia; bekolo Vekolo
gladly, Vosalo


illy; badly, Vobe

long ago. kala-kala; biongo-biongololo

tomorrow, lobi

yesterday, lobi

today, loswe

qui-ckly, wa wa

Translate:- 1. Yakendoko. 2. Nco mpe. 3 W
ane? (Greeting) 4. Inyanko? (Greeting) 5. Iseke
ale nko? Aleko ndola. 6. Ole la mpatmga? (l) 7.

Njifokela ngamo? 8. Wiji wa ntando. (2) 9. Wiji

wilombe. 10. Osala la nguya. 11. Onjela bikoto
bikam bile ndanse ba mbete. 12. Bala wiji boe. 13.
Wija ntando. (Beyond the river) 14. Tolombe toF
eko tonga?

Translate:- 1. Where are the brick? 2. They are
under the house. 3. You work badly all the time. 4.
Put away the dishes. 5. There is a garden in front
of the house. 6. Come quickly. 7. I made this
table a long time ago. 8. I will go to school after
dinner. 9. Look that way. 10. The cups are on the
top of the cupboard. 11. Towards the steamer. 12.
Beyond the garden.

(1) -nga always takes the concording prefix of the
noun modified.

(2) Direction is often expressed by wiji, which
means way, place or direction.



We, who are used to speaking a prepositional lan-
guage. feel very much the lack of any definitejneaning
in the Lonkundo prepositions. The few prepositions
in Lonkundo are used with a great variety of mean-
ings. and very often where we would use a preposition
in English the idea is included in the Lonkundo verb,
and no preposition is used.

Example:- Oncingoza joi jine, Explain this word
for me.

The following are the most commonly used preposi-

1. Of, has been treated under Adjective Particle
Lesson XII.

2. La, usually translated, with

3. Nda; a, in or, on. have a wide use

4. Eka, to; for

5. Eka, at; at the place of

6. Tu o, except

7. Lako, hut for

d. Ndatsa. between

9. Ndatei ba, inside of

10. Ndetei ea, inside of

11. Ndanza ba. outside of

12. Ndajiko ba, on top of

13. Ndanse ba. underneath

14. Nda joso ja, in front of

15. Ndafeka ba, behind

Note that the last several are in reality prepositonal
phrases formed with nda.


Translate:- 1. Yaka lobi la nkesa. 2. Elo elinyo.

3. Iyo baosangyaiso, ko ntabena bonto nye, tu o Yesu
kika. Matt. 17; 8. 4. Nda tsemi la we. 5. Basaji
baleko ndajiko bilombe. 9. Asalaki joso eka Boweya.
7. Lako Yesu nkebiko. 8. Ale la lobiko.

Translate:- 1. The knives and forks and spoons
are in the cupboard, but the meat dish is on top of the
cupboard. 2. The boards are underneath the house.
3. Some people are inside of the house and some are
outside. 4. No one is wmrking except me. 5. You
should go with him. 6. He is working as boy at the
traders. 7. Leave the wood behind the house. 8.
There is a palaver between him and the white man.
9. The disciples all loved Jesus except Judas.


La, and, connects words or phrases.

Ko, and. connects coordinate clauses.

Lala, bothand
Nkinankina, eitheror
Nga, if

Ele, for;
Nde; lolo nde, but
Sekende, but (sarcastic)

Nyango, lest:- Lest may also be expressed by lo
which is used as a particle in the negative form of the
verb: or by nyango and /o, Ex:- Nyango tofobunga.
tofolobunga, or nyango tofolobunga. These three
forms have the same meaning, Lest we forget. There


are other conjunctions, some of which will be treated
under clauses.

Translate:- 1. Tokela boloci eliso tolanga Nza-
komba. 2. Yela bosumane la yanda. 3. Osola bito
bine, nkina loswe nkina lobi. 4. Baoya ko baokenda
lenkina. 5. Cifokenda. Temi la Mama. 6. Ncifo-
yela bipeko nyango bolemo. (1) 7. Nga njokenda

njifokenda la wato wa nkae. 8. Aotefela baoi
boloci ndomwa, lolo nde beketo bekae bele bebe.

Note. (1) Very often after nyango. the verb is
omitted. This sentence would probably be translated:
I did not bring tools lest I should find work to do.

Translate:- 1. Bring me either six or seven. 2.
Go to your work at once lest I pay you off. 3. If you
work well I will give you a present, but if you do not
work well I will give another man your place. 4. We
are happy because we love God. 5. We will go to
Wangata and preach there. 6. He has a slate and'a
pencil, but he has no book. 7. If you read all of this
book I will give you another. 8. Fry the meat and
bake the bread and heat water for tea. 9. The doctor
will come either today or tomorrow.


Past and Future Tense of the verb, to be

nki. I was
oki. you were
aki, he was


toki. we were
loki. you were
baki. they were


N egative

Sinn. Piu.

nciki. I was not ntatoki, we were not
ntoki, you were not ntaloki. you were not
ntaki. he was not ntabaki, they were not
The verb yala, to become or abide. supplies the future
for the verb to be.


Sing. Plu.

njifoyala. 1 shall be. become cifoyala. we shall be, become
wifoyala, you will be, jifoyala, you will be,

ifoyala. he will be, bifoyala, they will be,

N egative

Sing. Plu.

mpaoyala. I shall not be tofaoyala, ice shall not be
ofaoyala, you will not be lofaoyala, you will not be
afaoyala, he will not be bafaoyala. they will not be

Translate:- 1. Nki la mpate itano nde emonkolo
eolota. 2. Emi la we, cifocwa mpe eka Isea Mpela.
3. Lako Yesu nkebiko. 4. Kola babaya nkina bafe
nkina basato. 5. Lolango ele Nzakomba la Yesu bo-
n'okae. 6. Nciki eko. 7. Ntabaki la joi ja Nzako-
mba. 8. Aki la nkange lolo abika. 9. Ifoyala nk
eko. 10. Bifoyala bocweji wa nke nke.

Translate:- 1. We shall live forever in Heaven. 2.
Bring me a saw and two long boards. 3. I am work-
ing at Boweyas. 4. Come here at once lest I pun-
ish you. 5. Where were you this morning? 6. He
did not have one good thing. 7. If you do not work
your body will not become strong.


Vowel Verbs

Present Tei

njeta, I call
wete. you call
eta, he calls



mpete. I do not call
ofete, you do not call
afete. he does not call



of eta. to call


ceta. we call
jeta. you call
beta, they call

tofete, we do not call
lofete. you do not call
bafete, they do not call

eta, call thou loeta, call ye


Sing. Plu.

tawetake. call thou not tajetake. call ye not
Past Affirmative


njetaki, I called
wetaki, you called
etaki, he called

Pres, and Past


cetaki, we called.
jetaki, you called
betaki. they called
Affirmative, Common tense


njoleta. I call
oleta, you called
aoleta, he called



toleta, we called
loleta, you called,
baoleta, they called
Past Negative

nceta, I did not call ntaceta. we did not call
ntaweta, you did not call ntajeta, you did not call
nteta, he did not call ntabeta, they did not call


Future Affirmative



njifeta, 1 shall call
wifeta, you will call
ifeta, he will call

cifeta, we shall call
jifeta, you will call
bifeta, they will call

Future Negative



mpaeta. I shall not call
ofaeta, ycu will not call
afaeta, he will not call

tofaeta, we shall not call
1 ofaeta, you will not call
bafaeta, they will not call

Some Vowel Verbs:-
ila. put

emala, stand up
emba, sing
amba. answer: believe
am by a. put down

imeza, believe; agree
am bo la. pick up
inoza, forgive

ola. come out
oza. put out

oka, hear

Note. In some forms of this conjugation you
often hear the verb pronounced as though there was
a w before the initial vowel of the verb stem as: cweta.

Translate:- 1. Jemala. 2. Tawetake lenkina lo-
swe. 3. Olamba Yesu? 4. Owimezaki. (1) 5.

Olola. (Used as a morning gcoliu&) 6. Mpimeza.
7. Cifambola bailo lobi la nkesa. 8. Jambya lofoso.
9. Ambya nkoni ko ambola bonsanswa. 10. Jemba
nsao bonkama la mwambi.

Translate:- 1. Put out the tools. 2. Put salt in
the soup. 3. Why did you (Plu.) not stand up?

4. You did not believe me. 5.' He does not hear. 6.
I did not hear. 7. Forgive me. 8. Stand up and we
shall go. 9. Did you call me? 10. Call them again
lest they forget.

Use of Objective Pronominal Particles with vowel verb, Amba.

Subj. me-n you-ko him-lo us-io you-le them- la
pro. I- n nkwamba njowamba n jo j amba njolamba
onjamba ocamba
you-o owamba olaamba

he-a we to anjamba akwamba to kw amba aowamba towamba acamba ajwamba tojwamba alamba tolaamba
lonjamba locamba
you-lo lowamba cwamba lolaamba

they-ba banjamba bakwamba bawamba bacamba bajwamba baamba baolaamba



By carefully noting the following examples you will
see the manner of forming the present participles of
the various conjugations.

First Conjugation, or Consonant Verbs:

kenda. Participle, nkakenda. or nkekenda






ntatomba, or ntotomba

mmameka, or mmemeka



more common'

Note: The forms given in italics are
up river.

Second Conjugation or Semi-Consonant Verbs-:
bonda, pray Participle, mbonda. praying
betola. waken. mbetola, wakening

Third Conjugation or Vowel Verbs:

eta., call Part njeeta. or njeteta. calling
emba, sing njeemba. or njembemba. singing:
emala. stand njemala. standing

Note (1) The longer forms are more eommonly

Note (2) There is no reduplication in verbs of
more than two syllables.

The Participles are used:-

1. To distinguish between certain verbs.

Ex:- kita. to hold. Participle nkita
kita. to arrive, nkakita

2. To tell the conjugation of dissyllables beginning
with b.


Ex.- bika, Part.- mbabika. 1st Conj.

bela. mbabela,

banda. mbaanda. 2nd Conj.

bata, mbaata,

3. The present participle is often used as a noun.

Ex., njinoza, forgiveness, from inoza, forgive

njakana. repentance, yakana, repent

4. The pariiciple is used after the verbs with or
without o, inserted between to denote intensiveness
or exclusiveness.

Ex.- Aokenda o nkakenda, He went and kept on going.

Aosaia o nsasala, He worked only working.

5. The participle is used with the negative form of
the verb and la denoting not even.

Ex.- Ntakenda la nkakenda.

Note that the participle may be repeated any
number of times.

Ex.- iia )daka wato. ndaduka, ndaduka. They paddled
the canoe and kept on paddling.

The repetition of the participle indicates intensified
and continuous action, but nothing is implied as to re-
sult: but if the imperative form of the verb is repeated
it imolies that the action was useless.

tCx.- Baoduka wal ), duka. duka, duka, They paddled
and paddled the canoe. but it was useless.

6. The participle is also used with the adjective par-
ticle as an adjectival noun.

Ex.- Bikutw bia nkakenda. Shoes for traveling.

Bosumane wa ntatena, Saw for cutting crosswise.
Translate:- 1. Tosola bito nsasola mbile, mbile.


2. Njokolaka laka. laka* ko nye; batoi bake baokinda.

3. Olamba Yesu? 4. Njowamba. 5. Tolombe to-
nga toleko ndola? 6. Boma nsosife yaende. 7. A-
tolanga o ndalanga. 8. Olimeza Yesu kamba tobika la
njimeza. 9. Onjinoza.

Translate:- 1. I told you yesterday but you would
not agree. 2. We heard this song yesterday. 3. I
will put out my things. 4. Take out (safola) every-
thing in the canoe. 5. Do not forget these words.
6. He worked and kept on working. 7. He did
not work at all. (Use participle with la). 8. Bring
me a rip-saw.


The infinitive is the same as the second person
singular, present affirmative, except in vowel verbs
which retain the regular form for the infinitive, not
changing o to w as the present affirmative, second
person singular of the vowel verb does.

1. The infinitive is used with cwa, to go; ya, to come:
and banga, to begin; and a few other verbs just as the
infinitive in English.

Ex.- Aocosala, He has gone to work.

Baoya osomba bito, They have come to buy cloth.

2. The infinitive is also used with sila.

Ex.- Njosilosomba, I have bought.

3. The infinitive is used with two auxiliary verbs
hong a and fonga.

Ex.- Kongotomba, Carry again.


Fongotomba, Keep carrying.

The auxTSaries are conjugated in the regular way.

4. Singi. with the infinitive is used with the
meaning of just before, or when about to.

Ex- Asingi okenda, When he is about to go.
Translate:- 1. Mbunaki etumba ea ndoci: njosiT
osiza mboka ekam: mpongaki wambo. II Tim. 4: 7.

2. Bifoyosala' lobi. 3. Baocosamba jikambo. 4.
Tosingi okita cwifolota bito biadoci. 5. Lokong
omeka. 6. Lofongosala elaka nko bolemo bosila.

7. K mgokatsa basi.

Translate:- 1. Keep on sweeping the floor. 2.
When you are about to finsh, call me. 3. They have
gon^ to fight. 4. He has gone to get water at the
spring. 5. He has already gone. 6. Stand up and

go again.


Subjunctive Mood
First Conjugation
Sing. Plu.

ntombe. I may carry totombe, we may carry

otombe. you may carry lotombe, you may carry

atom be, he may carry batombe. they may carry

Second Conjugation


mbonde, I may pray
oonde, you may pray
aonde, he may vray


toonde, we may pray
loonde, you may pray
baonde, they may pray


Third Conjugation

njete. I may call cete, we may call

wete, you may call jeta, you may call
ete. he may call bete, they may call

The Subjunctive of the verb to be is the same as
the Indicative.

The negative subjunctive is the same as the present
negative indicative.

1. The subjunctive is used with kela and cika
in a hortatory sense.

Ex.- Cika tokende, Let us go.

Kela toonda. Let us pray.

2. Final clauses take the subjunctive introduced by
te, that, which is often equivalent to the English to.

Ex. Olanga te ncwe? Do you want me to go?

3. The subjunctive is also used with amba to ex-
press permission.

Ex.- Ambokende, He may go.

Wambokende, You may go.

Note.- The amba is conjugated but the verb
remains the same for all persons and numbers.

Translate:- 1. Olanga te nkokaya nganji? 2. A-
oyela bosolo tasombe bito. 3. Akuola efosa te asale
nda jitsala. 4. Yesu aoya ndokiji tatosikolakiso.
Baangotongya tolombe tokiyo. 6. Bikuke binko bi-
obwa; cifila bimo biadoci lobi. 7. Ososima wanya
kelaye nda sukulu la ngonga ea njuteya. 8. Cika
cute nkele Yesu ko toonde nkelEnrie. (Song No. 55)

9. Njambokenda? 10. Ale la mposa tatobikya.


There are some verbs that end the subjunctive with a.

Translate:- 1. Come, let me see. 2. They may
work. 3. They work that they may receive clothes.

4. Let us go home. 5. Promise me that you will not
(go. Promise, cika elaka.)


Give the rule for each of the following elisions:

1. Soleto. 2. KoTitoko. 3. Sombenkanda. 4.
Yelasenduku. 5. Baajafe. 6. Yelatsuku. 7. To-
lombe cato. 8. Belabaya. 9. Lokombolakuke.

10. Ndeola. 11. SoTekongo. 12. Aonkundelesako.

Write the translations of the following, giving both
the fall and the elided forms.

1. Two men. 2. Three children. 3. This spoon.

4. Bring one board. 5. How many wives has' he?
6. He did have nine, but now he has only four. 7.
He is in his room.


Write the Present and Past Negative of monga, stay.
Translate:- 1. He did not forget. 2. He did not stay
long. 3. He does not speak well. 4. Why does he
not dwell with you? 5. They did not come to school
but they did not forget their pay.


Review the conjugation of the verb to be. How is

possession expressed in Lonkundo?


Translate:- 1. He has a chair and a bed in his
house. 2 He did have a have a table but it was des-
troyed by fire. 3. Where was he? 4. I was not


Give the personal pronouns for the Nominative and
Objective cases.

What are possessive pronouns?

Translate:- 1. My book. 2. Your hat. 3. Their
houses. 4. Carry their slates to him. 5. You
went. .6. Why did they not go? 7. We all worked



Review the objective pronominal particles.

Translate in class and analyze:- 1. Mpokoka. 2.
Ende ntatoka. 3. Baompama. 4. Bifotobatela. 5.
Woka. 6. Waka. 7. Njesangelaki. 8. Oncingoza.

Study again carefully the table of noun classes
Page 11.


You have already had the classification of verbs
according to their initial letters. (1) consonant. (2)
semi-consonant. (3) vowel.

We will now give a classification according to final
syllables. It is not necessary to commit these six
groups, but they should be carefully studied till you
understand the principles involved in this classification.

I. Dissyllables whose final consonants are b. /. k.


II. Verbs ending in -ola: sundola, sembola. oia, bold.

III. Verbs ending in -laoT-nda. except these ending
in -ola: fend a f bila, kitelci, bunda.

IV. Dissyllables and trisyllables ending in -no: nova,
iekuna: buna.

V. Dissyllables ending in -sa: usa, kisc.

VI. Dissyllables ending in -ta: kuta. ata.

1. A?:ive, which may be transi:ive or intransitive.

Kisa. sit down: tena. cut.

2. Stative, denoting a state or condition. Kinda.
to he satisfied.

THE DIFFERENT FORMS that verbs may take are:

1. Simple.

2. Causative.

3. Passive.

4. Stative.

5. Dative, or Applied.

6. Reversive.

7. Reciprocal.

8. Intensive.

9. Potential., or Abilitative.

10. Reflexive.

Very few verbs occur in all forms.

1. The simple forms may be either active or stative.
Active, tena. cut.

Stative, koka. be sufficient.

2. The causative forms are made by changing:

a. The final vowel of the verb stem to -ya in
gr oups I and IV.


fukya, cause to shake, from fuka. to shake.
bunya. cause to break. from buna, to break.

b. The ending -ola of group II to -za.

oza. cause to come out. from ola, come out.

c. The -la of group III to -za.

saza, cause to work, from sala. to work.

d. The -nda of group III to -nza.

bunza. cause to mount, from bunda. to climb.

e. The -ta of group VI to -tsa.

kutsa. cause to cool, from kuta. to cool.

f. The simple and causative of group V are
usually alike.

g. A few verbs take -eya: Seya. cause to quar-
relL from sa, to quarrel: eneya, to show,
from ena. to see; leva, to feed, from la. to eat.

Note that there are several meanings to the causative

1. To cause to do the the action of the verb, bu-
nya, cause to tig hi.

2. A stative meaning, boza, to be broken, from bola,
to break.

3. To render assistance in the performance of the
action of the verb, saza, to assist, also to cause to work,
from sala, to work.

4. To perform the action of the verb for someone, a
dative meaning, amboza, to pick up for. from ambola,
to pick up.

5. An intensive meaning, fatsa, to accuse wrongfully.
from fata, to accuse.

Translate:- 1. Onkomboza senduku ene. 2. Se-


mbola lobulu. 3. Kangela bendele bekele bef efe. 4.
Jifa baiso. 5. Nkongo inga yoboza? 6. Kutsa basi.
7. Mampa* baosila kela bamo. 8. Aompasta. 9.
Kaya bafaya basi ba mmamela. 10. Cika te boya wa
Nkolo Yesu. la lolango ja Nzakomba. lisangano y
Elimo ea Buie bayale liso aeyoko la bideko ladeko.

Translate: 1. Pick up the scissors. 2. Hang up
the clothes. 3. Lower the mosquito net. 4. Stop
your noise. 5. Hold my hat. 6. Hand this pencil to
the captain. (Use the causative of kita.) 7. Jesus is
the owner of life. 8. The white man does not want
me to carry his gun. 9. Tomorrow we will pay you
all. 10. Hunt the sheep.

* Mampa is a foreign word and you will find a differ-
ence among the natives as to which class it belongs.
Many place it in the tenth class. There is a growing
tendency to place foreign words in the tenth class, as
franc emo nkolo. francs ife. kilo emonkolo, kilos itano.
The noun is given no prefixes, number being alone
indicated by the concords.

Verbs. Continued.

The Passive form is made by changing the final
vowel to -ama. unless the stem vowel is a. in which
case the passive termination is -ema. (1)

Ex. Baosembama. they are straightened

The agent is seldom ever used with the passive.

The passive form is seldom used by the natives.


except with a few verbs.

It is well to avoid this form as much as possible.

The Stative Form.

1. In verbs of group II, the stative is formed by
changing -ola to -wa,

Ex. Kombwa, to be opened, from kombola, to open.

2. Some forms ending in. -ana, -ngana, -sana. are

Ex. Silingana. to be completely qorie.

Ungusana, to be lost.

Fitana. to be destroyed.

3. Many of the simple forms are stative in meaning. -
Ex. Sila. to be finished.

Fula. to increase. abound.

Koka, to be sufficient.

Translate:- 1. Olenga lae? 2. Ndenga lofoju. 3.
Jibaya jolatsa. 4. Nkoni yotenya. 5. Bosumane
bofitana. 6. Banto baolungusana nda ngonda. 7.
Bote bosila nye. 8. Toma tofula mpafula mongo.

9. Osilofita jikulo jikam, mpita. mpita. 10. Lofong*
oyela nkoni.

Translate:- 1. Letters have come from Europe. 2.
Are you tired? 3. No I am not tired, but I have a
sore on my foot. 4 Return to the house. 5. Tomor-
row bring back my knife. 6. The doors are open. 7.
That tree is destroyed. 8. The windows are shut.

(1) It is difficult to draw the line between what are
passive and what are stative. Often the verbs in -ma
seem to be as purely passive as verbs in -ama or -ema
while verbs in -ama and -ema are often stative.


(2) What seems to be the real passive in Lonkundo
is the following form: Biku/ce baokomha. It means the
doors that have been shut by some one. I call your
attention to this form that you may further study it,
as its use may be purely local, not being used in other

Applied or Dative forms.

Applied or dative forms are made by replacing the
final vowel by -ola. Ex. Tomba. carry. tombela. carry
to or for some one. The meaning is that the noun or
pronoun following next the verb is to be regarded as
the indirect object and the next noun as the direct
object. The action is performed on the direct object,
to, for, or in behalf of the indirect.

Ex. Tombela Njoji bonkanda. Carry Njoji the book.

Remember that the causative of the verbs of group 11
ending in -o/a has a dative meaning. See Lesson
XXIV, Note 4.

Translate:- 1. Asela bosaji toma ca ndala. 2. O-
njetele banoju bafe. 3. Onjoleza toma. 4. Nkota-
ndela mesa? 5. Losambela banoju basimisi. 6.
Njoya te onkelele bote. 7. Otokambele belemo loswe.
(1) 8. Oncingoza joi jinko. 9. Otokomboza senduku.

10. Olaisamela joi jinko.

Translate:- 1. Pick up the knife for me. 2. Put
away my francs for me. 3. He destroyed my
clothes. 4. He has gone to Mbandaka to buy me


some salt. 5. Heat me some water that I may bathe.
6. Christ laid down His life for us. 7. We will tell
all people the good news.

(1) You will find the subjunctive a more polite way
of giving commands than the imperative, especially
when you are addressing older and more trustworthy
men. This form is more of a request than a command.


The reversive is formed by changing the final vowel
of the simple form to -ola. Reversive forms all belong
to group 11. The suffix -ola is equivalent to the
prefix di.s- or un- in English. The stative is made by
changing -ola to -wa.

Ex. Komba, to close.

Kombola, to open.

Kombwa. (stative) it is open.

The reversive form may be:

1. A pure reversive, having an action directly op-
posite to that of the simple form.

Ex. Kuta, cool. Kutola. to warm over.

2. Intensive, of an intensive action of a verb in one
of the other groups.

Ex. Sangola. to lift up, from sangya, to lift.

There are also many verbs in -ola which have no
reversive meaning.

Ex. Fengola, to scold or censure.

Fonola, take away from, snatch from. take by force.


Translate:- 1. Ambya, ambola. 2. Tungya. tu-
ngola. 3. Ika jibaya, kela ntene. 4. Njosilotena,
(1) ikvi. 5. Bikuke biokDtnbwa. 6. Kut >la loso.
7. Kuka nyama. 8. Kutola bekele. 9. Isold. falanga.

Translate: 1. Rip (unsew) this coat. 2. Shut
your eyes. 3. Open your eyes. 4. Turn that board
end for end. 5. The chain is caught (kofa) on the
tree, loosen it. 6. Put less (kokola) salt in the soup.
7. Unlock the house and put out for me a bag of
salt. 8. Do not dig up all the bad things of long ago.

(1) I kola, to take a weigh t off.

Ikwa, to take oneself off.

Reciprocal and Reflexive.

The recipr )cal is limited to active transitive verbs.
It is formed by changing the final vowel of the simple
or causative forms to -ana. They all become poly-
syllables of group 11. The meaning is that the action
is performed by two or more persons, on. to. for. with,
or in behalf, of each other, according to the meaning of
the verb.

Ex. Langana, love one another.

Telana, roof for each other.

Soolana. visit together.

Note: The are many verbs which end in -ana.
which have no reciprocal meaning. Many are intensive
stative. Ex. Ungusana, to he lost entirely, from unga.
to he lost.


Reflexive. This is formed by prefixing yo- to the
simple stem, the tense sign preceeding it. It indicates
that the subject is also the object of the verb.

Ex. Aoyakdta. he cut himself.

Aoyakoma, he hanged himself.

Note 1. The reflexive pronoun is often added to
intensify the reflexive idea.

Ex. Aosolomongo, he washed himself.

Note 2. Often the reflexive, when used with a
plural subject has a reciprocal meaning.

Ex. Baoyakola, they struck each other.

Baoyalombole, they comforted each other.
Translate: 1. Bana ba Nzakomba balangana. 2.
Baotelana tolombe tokiyo. 3. Babelana ndakambo.

4. Aoyatua jiso. 5. Baolambana toma. 6. Cifena-
na lenkina. 7. Boacwosomba toma, 8. Lofekwa
lojingitana. 9. Kela tosesane. 10. Otosesele ba-
ninga bakiso nda Longa.

Translate:- 1. We shall all meet each other in
Heaven. 2. He has cut his finger. 3. Let us love
each other. 4. Give him a rope, let him hang himself.

5. They comfort one another. 6. I love. 7. Jesus
loves me. 8. That man loves only himself. 9. Chris-
tians always love each other.

Potential and Review.

The potential is formed by replacing the final vowel
of the simple form by -eya. This signifies the subject is


able to perform the action of the verb, or be in the state
of the verb.

Note that with the negative tenses, the meaning is

Ex. Kindeya, to be able to be satisfied with food.

Afokindeya, not able to be satisfied.

Saleya, to be able to work.

Afosaleya. he is not able to work.

Translate: 1. Afokindeya. 2. Njea Lonkundo nd 1
onkanda lolo loleum lokam lofotefeleya. 3. Afaosa-
leya lenkina. 4. Cifokambolemo wa Nzakomba. 5.
Aoyatungola. 6. Jemala. 7. Emaza jibaya. 8.
Kutola banganju. 9. Onkateza basi. 10. Kaya ba-
noju tokenge. 11. Wakaya njcpi. 12. Benkanda
beofitana, otoka bemo. 13. Yakendo. 14. Njokweta
eta. eta. eta, ko nye, ntoya. 15. Boma nsoso ife.
16. Cifotekva nta iuma yaende. 17. Kafola
nyama. 18. Kaya bontonto jibondo jikae. 19.
Wambokende, lolo nde tomongake. 20. Ofong
okemya joi ja Nzakomba.

Translate: 1. Where is my hat? 2. Bring me my
shoes. 3. Shut the door. 4. Sweep the floor. 5.
Set the table. 6. Spread the bed. 7. Lower the mo-
squito net. 8. You may go. 9. Keep on working.
10. He has gone to fish. 11. Do not forget again.
12. He cut his finger. 13. You have spoiled niy
clothes. 14. You are hiding something from me. 15. He
spoke concerning the workmens houses. 16. They
pull each other into trouble. 17. You will cook two
chickens for us tomorrow. 18. He is not able to be


satisfied. 19. He will be able to work tomorrow.
20. He will come tomorrow but he will not stay long.

Clauses, Present Relative.

With this lesson we begin the study of clauses. We
canno, in these lessons give a complete list of all the
clause forms, but the forms given should be thoroughly
mastered. Enough forms are given to enable you to
speak quite fluently. We will first take the relative

In the subjective relative clauses, present tense, the
verbal prefixes are e. o, in the singular, and ba in the
plural. When the antecedent is personal, when imper-
sonal the verb takes the concording prefixes of the
antecedent. We will try to give examples in each of
the three conjugations.

Relative clauses, subjective, present tense.

Affirmative. Singular

Bontotomba, The man who carries or is carrying.

Endoonda, He who prays.

Emo ndeta, I who call or am calling

Banto batomba. The men who carry.

Iyo baonda, They who pray.

Iso bandeta, We who call
N egative. Singular

Emofotombe, I who do not carry.

Endafoonde, He who does not pray.

Bontofete, The man who does not call.



Inyo bafokende. You. who do not go.

NOTE: Sometimes the concording prefix is used as
the verbal prefix instead of o even when the anteced-
ent is personal.

Ex. Nzakomha ebika, God who lives.

Translate: 1. Bontotefela aeyoko jina na? 2.
Balanga Nzakomba bifobuza mpoji. 3. Bafolange bi-
fosundola baoi ba Nzakomba. 4. Eudotoianga. ifoto-
kaya lobiko lofosila. 5. Banto batona bolemo bafoate
jikonza nye. 6. Banoju bacwa sukulu bifoata wanya.
7. Emokolanga. 8. Inyo bafomba Nzakomba, mpa
baate lobiko ngamo? 9. Os (1) olota. 10. Bonto
nko (2) loswele okondela nda basua kelafute. 11.
Jitsuku jile nda mesa jile wete jikam. 12. Takanya
babaya bauma bafitanvi.

(1) Oso, who so ever

(2) Nko loswele, no certain. who ever.

Translate: 1. All who want medicine let them

come at the ringing of the bell, (with the bell.) 2. Our
Father who is in Heaven. 3. Those who do not forget
Gods Word will receive a crown. 4. Those who fish
now will not catch (kill) any fish for it is very high
water (mpela ele nsuki mongo). 5. The boy who tells
lies will be punished. 6. He who believes. 7. I who
call you am your older brother. 8. People who do not
gather together in the name of Jesus will forget the


Relative Clauses, Objective
Present Tense. Affirmative

Bojito botomba we, the load which you carry.

Loondo loond',ende, the prayer which he prays.

Toma tondoz* (a) ende, the things that he is putting out.

Present Tense. Negative

Bojito bofa bontotombe. the load which the man does
not carry.

Loondo lofa we o onde, the prayer which you do not

Note that in the negative we have fa prefixed by the
concording prefix.

Translate: 1. Baoi bafiso wea. 2. Beketo befa
Nzakomba olange. 3. Bipeko bifisosale baka baka.
bifonge ndilombe ya bipeko. ko bipeko bisaliso ocw
aefa joza la nkesa. 4. Bito bilotiyo ndokolo w eye-
nga bile bidoci mongo. 5. Toma tondeta we nda
Mpoto. 6. Esanji ekunda Mama ele nsuki. 7. Ba-
baya bafisotekya bale ndanse bilombe. 8. Nkana

Translate. 1. The school that we love. 2. The

books which we do not like. 3. The fish that we

catch. 4. The chickens which we buy are very small.
5. But the price we pay is too high. 6. The pictures
which the white man makes. 7. Laws which men

make. 8. Laws which men do not fear. 9. The God

whom men do not know.


Relative Clauses, Subjective
Past Tense. Affirmative.

Bontotombaki, the man who carried.

We oondaki, you who prayed.

Iyo bandetaki, they who called.

Past Tense. Negative

Iso batatomba. we who did not carry.

Endotoonda. he who prayed not.

Banto bateta. people who did not cail.

NOTE: The distinguishing feature of this form is
the ta giving hat a, plural, ota. singular. The a is elided
in vowel verbs. In these past negative clauses the
words may take the suffix hi, distant past, as, Banto
batetaki, etc.

Translate: 1. Bosaji osalaki. 2. Banoju bataandaki
lobi nda sukulu bifoanda loswe. 3. Banto batokaki
baoi ba Nzakomba joso boka aeyoko foie. 4. End
otakenda. 5 Endokundaki. 6. Iyo bataka bana
bakiyo toma. 7. End'obwaki ndelokekiso. 8. Ngo-
ya la fafa batolangaki. 9. Basenduku batakombwa.
10. Oki eko na?

Translate: 1. They who worked yesterday. 2.
He who went home. 3. The white men who came
from Europe. 4. The canoes which did not sink. 5.
The boy who fell in the river. 6. Men who did not
know God. 7. God who loved us. 8. The child who
had nothing to eat. 9. Who were there?


Relative Clauses. Objective
Past Tense. Affirmative
Bojito bokimotombaka, the.load which I carried.
Loondo lokindoondaka, the prayer which he prayed.
Toma tokivowozaka, the things which they put out.

Past Tense. Negative

Bojito bokimi ncitomba, the load, which I did not carry.
Loondo loki nyango ntaonda, the prayer which mother
did not pray.

Toma toki we ntawoza. the thing* which you did not
put out.

NOTE: The verbs that you have in these past neg-
ative clauses ar3 the same forms that you had in
Lesson VIII.

Translate: 1. Lobiko loki Nkolo otoyelaka. 2.
Nzakomba eki banBowambaka. 3. Tolombe tokisoto-
ngyaka. 4. Jiko.nza jiki'nde ntawena. 5. Aotefela
baoi bakimi ncea. 6. Baokela beketo beki Nzakomba
ntalanga. 7. Bonkanda boki'mokotaka.

Translate: 1. The hat which he bought. 2. The
canoe which they stole. 3. The people whom we
loved. 4. The things that we did not like. 5. We
know him whom we have believed. 6. The prayer
which the Lord prayed. 7. The things which Moses
forsook. 8. The things which we did not agree to.



Relative Clauses. Subjective Future

Subjective future, affirmative. These are the same
as the present tense.

Ex. Bonto otombojito, the man who wilt carry the

Emoonda, I who will pray.

Iso bandeta. we who shall call.

Subjective Future. Negative

Bontofetaki. the man who will not call.

Emofoondaki. I who will not pray.

Banto bafotombaki. they who will not carry.

The suffix ki the distinguishing feature here. The
future negative subjective is often just the same as the
present, requiring the context to determine whether
present or future.

Translate: 1. Banoju baya lobi la nkesa bifoata
efosa nda sukulu. 2. Bonto ofoondake. afata lobiko.
3. Bandetinyo. 4. Banto bankotele benkanda. 5.
Bafokende nda jidako bafainama. 6. Baninga bafo-

Translate: 1. People who will not work shall not
eat. 2. Those who will help me tomorrw will recieve
presents. 3. Children who will not play. 4. The
white man will remove all workmen who will not obey
(oka. hear) his words.



Relative Clauses. Objective Future
Table of relative future particles.

Class Singular Plural
i. Nkana ea Bankana ba
II. Bonto oa Banto ba
hi. Waji oa Baaji ba
IY. Jitsuku ja Basuku ba
V. Senduku ea Basenduku ba
VI. Bonkanda boa Benkanda bia
VII. Eto ea Bito bia
VIII. Wato wa Biato bia
11 M Lonkogo loa Nkongo ya
X. Nkoi ea Nkoi ya
XI. Itoko ya Totoko or toa
Batoko ba

The unelided forms of the future relative particles
are used in the objective, affirmative, future relative

Ex. Affirmative. 1. Bojito boa bontotomba, the
load that a man will carry.

2. Loondo loa fafoonda, the prayer that father will

3. Bontoa em'oeta, the man that I shall call.

Note that the agent comes between the particle
and the verb.

Ex. Negative: 1. Bojito bofa bontotombaki. the
load that a man will not carry.


2. Loondo lofa fafondaki, the prayer that father
will not pray.

3. Bonoju ofa ngoya wetaki, the child that mother

will not call.

Note that in these negative future clauses we have
fi prefixed by the concording prefix. These differ
from the present only by the suffix ki.

Translate: 1. Basenduku bafiyotombaki. 2.

Benkanda befa bont'oandaki. 3. Baninga ba isolanga.

4. Basua ba isosomba. 5. Ilombe ya endotonga.
6. Jipeca j if a banto babe wenaki. 7. Bonkanda
wa Nzakomba bole wete jweji (1) loisoezama. 8.
Toma tofinyo wozaki. 9. Wato wa bontosengaki

Translate: 1. Clothes that we will buy. 2. Wood
that the workmen will cut tomorrow. 3. Boards
which they will not bring. 4. Shirts that men will
like. 5. Oranges that the boys will pick. 6. Bring
the hat that I will wear tomorrow. 7. We will go in
the canoe which he will bring.

Note (1). A few words beginning with j take lo for
the concording prefix.


Present and Future

Temporal Clauses.

The adverbial conjunctions of time are aore for the
present, a or ea for the future.


E or a to mbiso bojito, when or as we carry the load.


A or e tomba we bojito, when or as you carry the


A (or ea) emotomba bojito, when 1 shall carry the

A (or ea) inyotomba bojito, when you shall carry the

A (or ea) iso wamba, when we shall believe.

Note that in the present the simple form of the verb
is used and the verb is placed between the adverb and
the subject, while in the future the subject comes be-
tween the adverb and the verb. The verb is what
may be called the clause form because of its frequent
occurence. It always begins with o except the vowel
verbs which begin with w.

Translate: 1. E kenda we. 2. A lakiso. 3. A
Yesoya. 4. Ea woya. 5. Ea bacweji bauma otakana
ndeola. 6. (Ea lokendo lokam osila.) 7. A end'
osima. 8. (A bito bikae osila.) 9. E cwiso ndola.

Translate: 1. When I go. 2. When I shall go.
3. When they work. 4. When they shall work. 5.
When the workmen carry the boxes. 6. When we
shall sing songs. 7. (When the house is finished.) 8.
When the visitors shall have gone we will talk your
affair. 9. When the school bell rings we shall go.

Temporal Clauses. Past

Eki and aki are the adverbial particles of the past
temporal clauses.



Ekindotombaka. when he carried.

Akimocola, when I went home.

Akinyokendaka. when you went.

Ekiyo wenaka, when they saw.

Eki and aki are interchangable, the i of the adverb
seems to be so important that it is seldom elided, the
following vowel being elided instead.

Translate: 1. Akiyosalaka. 2, Eki basua oke-
ndaka Kitambo. 3. Aki bendele oyakendo joso.
4. Aki banto ba-Nkundo wambaka Yesu. 5. Ekind
oomaka njoku. 9. Eki wosombaka bito binko. 7.
Aki Nkolo weaka. (Jno. 4:1) 8. Eteni oyokiji eki

Yakoba okaki bonokae Yosefa.

Translate: 1. When I went. 2. When you went.
3. When he went. 4. When we went. 5. When
you (pi.) went. 6. When they went. 7. When the
white man built these houses. 8. When they heard
they believed.


Temporal Clauses. Continued

While or as is usually expressed by ele for the pre-
sent and eki for the past.

El'emi nda mbete. while I am in bed.

Ekimi nda Mpoto. while I was in Europe.

Whenever is expressed by using ekeke (time) in the
regular forms of the objective clauses. Ekeke may be
either expressed or understood.

Ex. (ekeke) esima we, whenever you like.

(ekeke) ekindosimaka, whenever he likes.

(ekeke) ea wosima, whenever you shall like.


NOTE: Literally these would be translated as. the
time which you like. etc.

Translate: Ekiso nda Bobangi toomaki nyama
iuke mongo. 2. Lobi la nkesa elemi nda mbete wi-
fonjela kobu ea kawa. 3. Njifocweko ekeke esimemi.
4. Ekeke endimezonto Yesu ifobikya. 5. Ekeke
nkoloswele eki sodubaka tookmaki nse. 6. Elende
nda Kitambo ifonsombela bokwa. 7. Ekindosalaka
ndOkukulu aobunga baoi ba Nzakomba. 8. Eaw
olanga njifokolaka.

Translate; 1. While I am working bring me some
drinking water. 2. Whenever you go in the woods
carry a gun. 3. Whenever he shall come I shall give
him a present. 4. While he was in Europe.he did
not forget U9. 5. Whenever they went to school

they carried their books.


Temporal clauses. Continued

1. Until is expressed by elaka with o or nko.

Ex. Elaka nko bolemo bosila. until the work is fin-

Elaka o nioya, until I come.

2. Before is expressed in the following ways.

Etafa basua. okenda. before the steamer shall go.

Eki basua batakenda. before the steamer shall go.
Eki basua atafokenda, before the steamer went, or

had gone.

Eki basua atafokende. before the steamer went. or
had gone.

Often you hear this form.


Basua batafokenda. before the steamer goes.

Iso totafokenda, before we go.

Before is some times expressed by nda joso ja in a
future clause: as, nda joso ja isokenda. before we shall

3. Just before is expressed by with the
infinitive. See Lesson XXIII.

Translate: 1. Eki Yesu atafoya. 2. Elaka o ba-
nsango baoya. 3. Ekimi ncifoya. 4. Etafa isotswa
ngonda. 5. Mpokobikyeya elaka nko bote boya jima
Mpoto. 6. Totafokenda o koma toma nda senduku.
7. Nki la mposa mongo te nde elambene ea ndekana
Tinyo nda joso ja emokamba. (Lk. 22:15)

Translate: 1. Until Jesus comes. 2. Before the
bell rings. 3. Before the canoe left. 4. We shall not
have fish before the low water comes. 5. Before the
white men came we did not know books. 6. Just
before you go to Europe you will sell me some of your
clothes. 7. You shall not go to town until you have
cleaned the whole house.

Conditional Clauses

1. The clause containing the condition is regularly
introduced by: Nga. Wenaka. Ayaka.

2. The clause containing the conclusion is often
introduced by cike or siki. Ng'afa ngoko cike njolesa-
ngelaB Jno. 14: 2.

SIMPLE CONDITIONS implying nothing as to


Present-Ngolanga. njifokenda, if you like, I will go.

Past- Ngafita (or. Ngafitaki) bipeko. njifowimoia,
if he spoiled the tools, I will remove him.

Future- Ngaosale, njifosalangana, if he will work, I
will rejoice. Wenaka nkaosala. njifosalangana, if he
will work I will rejoice.

Should is expressed by -nyango used with the indic-
ative. -nyango takes the personal pronominal prefixes
of the regular verb congugation.

Anvangoya, if he should come.

Banyangolanga. if they should love.

' -nyango often means simply when. Onyang okenda.
when you go.


Present -Ngabika ciki aoyola. if he were well he
would come home.

Past-Ngaoya, siki aoata. if he had come he would
have received. Ngaosaia (or asalaki) ciki njolofuta, if
he had worked I would have payed him.

Concessive Clauses: The introductory words are
mpeka la used with any regular forms of the verb.

Present- Mpeka lakenda ifoya, even if he goes he will

Historical- Mpeka laokende ifoya, even if he he gone
he will come.

Past- Mpeka laokenda ifoya, even though he has gone
he will return.

Note 1. Mpeka la is sometimes followed by lolo.

Mpeka la ncicwa sukulu, lolo rttbandonkanda. Al-
though I did not go to school, yet I read.


Note 2. Concession is also expressed by the use
of the present subjunctive in a hortatory sense, with
kela. or ciki. See Lesson XXIY.

Kela Nzakomba akumyame, let God be praised.

Cika toonde. Let us pray.

Note 3. Sometimes la is used in the sense of
though, nde following in the sense of yet.

Lauma bakenda ndeum mpaokenda. Though all are
going I shall not g<>.

Sometimes nyango is used with la.

Lauma banyangookenda ndeum mpaokenda.
Even though all should go. yet I shall not go.

Translate. 1. Ngotswaki nsango cike njokoka-
mbya. 2. Wato bonyangoya. mpa tokende. 3. Nga
balanga bote bifoya. 4. Nga aolanga bokwa siki
baoyokola. 5. Mpeka laobwa ifobika. 6. Mpeka
la onsangala joi jinko mbile. mbile, mbile mpaoimeza.
7. Nga njofwaki cike njoyela bonkanda bokam. 8.
Lauma banyangokosundola nde iso tofaokosundola.
9. Wenaka nkasua aoya loswe, cifokondela. 10.
Ngolanga Yesu cike okela tompoto tokande. 11.
Kela tofongocinziana nda balotsi.

Translate: 1. If he were there he would answer.
2. If we go we will buy you some clothes. 3. Even
though I did not write yet I did not forget you. 4.
Let us go at once lest we be late. 5. If they loved
their work they would learn quickly. 6. If every
body should come to church the church would not
hold them. 7. If you do not fall into evil you will
receive a crown of life. 8. Even though you hide
your evil deeds from me you can not hide them from


Causal Clauses

E le and eki introduce causal clauses in the present
and past time respectively.

Afosale elende oka nkange.. He does not work because
he is sick.

Ntaya ekende ntaata bonkanda, He did not come
because he did not receive the letter.

Ebwela and jikambo often preceed the causal clause
to introduce and intensify the meaning.

Abwaki ndinkengesu ebwelekindotolangaka. He
died on the cross bee :i use he loved us.

Aotsola jikambo eki nyangokaka nkange. lie went
he me because his mother was sick.

Ke is used as a particle of contrast in questions.

Endoa nguya ke afokusa, otango ndemi. He the
strong is notable, do you think that I am?

Translate: 1. Bafokeme nda bidimo eliyasu-
ndola bitakanelo baka-baka. 2. Tofoate basangu
ebweleki nyama ofitaka basala bakiso. 3. Tolanga
Yesu ekindotobwela ndinkengsu. 4. Banto jom ke
bafamboleya bojitoonko. otango ndeum kika? 5.
Totswa nda nsango eliso wimeza Nkolo ekiso.

Translate: 1. We love Him because He first loved
us. 2. They paid him off because he did not work
well. 3. We love those boys because they always
help us. 4. We went hunting because we had great
meat hunger. 5. You love darkness because your
deeds are evil.



Translate: 1. Otswa nko? 2. Wima nko? 3 0-
ndetaki na? 4. Banto baki endo joso bale nko? 5.
Loyaka, lonsalela. 6. Kombola ekuke eki wokomb
aka lobi. 7. Bayafita bionge bikiyo lesokako. 8.
Afotefeleya Lingala. 9. Yela bipeko bisala we. 10.
Kela banto basala nda sapate baye. 11. Bolemo boki
nyokambaka lobi bofoonge. 12. Bito bia emoeta.
13. A endoya. 14. -Eliso nda Mpoto. 15. To-
bungake baoi basangelemi aeyoko. 16. Banto ba-
langa Nzakomba bifosalangana lobi ndeola. 17. Ng
ondanga wifonjela. mba. 18. W'oya cifotefela joi
jinko. 19. Kela totswa eka Nzakomba, kamba Ende
kika ale la baoi bebiko. 20. Mpeka la totswa Mpoto
tofaobunga baninga bakiso endoko.

Translate: 1. Come unto Jesus. 2. Bring me the
seventh board. 3. Go to the forest and bring four
poles each to day. 4. If your work is sufficent I will
pay you this evening. 5. You watch the house while
I am at school. 6. If he comes let him help you. 7.
The things that I once loved I now hate. 8. If you
will bring me a thousand ndele I will buy them for
five centimes each. 9. The time has come, let us go,
10. ;iWhen Jesus comes will he find. faith on the
earth? 11. Let us go at once lest we are rained on.
12. If he should come, let him in. 13. Without Jesus
there is no life. 14. Even though he tries he is not
able to work. 15. Before the steamer goes put on lots
of fruit. 16. You must work till the task is done. 17.


The words that we shall learn tomorrow. 18. Pur-
posless speaking is the mark of the fool. 19. If you
are not able to work go to the doctor and get medicine.
20. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights
he afterwards hungered



I. Alphabet and Pronunciation.

II. Consonant or First Conjugation, Present, Indica-
tive, Affirmative.

III. Elisons; Rules 1 and 2.

IY. Elisions: Rules 3 and 4.

Y. Consonant Conjugation. Present. Indicative, Neg-

VI. Verb to be.

VII. Noun Classes and Concording Prefixes.

VIII. Consonant Conjugation. Past Indicative.
Affirmative and Negative.

IX. Objective Pronominal Particles.

X. Demonstrative Adjectives.

XI. Adjective Particles.

XII. Adjectives Continued, and Future of First

XIII. Adjectives Continued.

XIV. Adjectives Continued. Comparison.

XV. Adjectives Continued, Numerals.

XVI. Semi-consonant or Second Conjugation.

XVII. Adverbs.

XVIII. Prepositions.

XIX. Conjunctions.

XX. Verb to be, Past Tense.

XXI. Vowel, or Third Conjugation.

XXII. Participles.

XXIII. Infinitives.

XXIV. Subjunctive Mo'od.

XXV. Review.


XXVI. Classification of Verbs According to final

XXVII. Verbs: Passive and Stative.

XXVIII. Verbs: Applied or Dative.

XXIX. Verbs: Reversive.

XXX. Verbs: Reciprocal and Reversive.

XXXI. Verbs: Potential and Review.

XXXII. Clauses. Present Relative, Subjective.

XXXIII. Clauses, Present Relative. Objective.

XXXIV. Clauses, Past Relative. Subjective.

XXXV. Clauses, Past Relative, Objective.

XXXVI. Clauses. Future Relative. Subjective.

XXXVII. Clauses, Future Relative. Objective.

XXXVIII. Clauses. Temporal, Present and Future.

XXXIX. Clauses, Temporal Past.

XL. Clauses, Temporal Past, Continued.

XLI. Clauses, Temporal, Continued.

XLII. Clauses. Conditional, Concessive.

XLIII. Clauses, Causal, Contrast.

XLIV. Review.

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