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Introduction to the study of the Shanghai vernacular

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Title:
Introduction to the study of the Shanghai vernacular
Creator:
Silsby, John Alfred ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
Shanghai
Publisher:
American Presbyterian Mission Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Chinese
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21 p. ; 18.5 cm.

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Asia -- China -- Shanghai -- Shanghai
亞洲 -- 中國 -- 上海 -- 上海
亚洲 -- 中国 -- 上海 -- 上海
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31.228611 x 121.474722

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VIAF (name authority) : Silsby, John Alfred : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/21765377/

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SOAS University of London
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INTRODUCTION
TO THE STUDY OF THE
SHANGHAI VERNACULAR
EY
JOHN ALFRED SILSBY
V -oo^oc^-.
V /
\ /
SHANGHAI:
AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS
J 9U




THE SHANGHAI VERNACULAR
prefatory.
Thb: Wu (dialects, to which group the vSlianghai Vernac-
ular belongs, are the language of those Chinese who occupy the
southern part of Kiangsu, all of Chehkiang. and a portion of the
adjacent provinces of Aiiliui and Kiangsi. Mr. Von Mollendorl
estimates their number at forty-four millions, while the Shanghai-
Soochow dialect is used by tei^ millions, and can be understood
fairly well by the more intelligent all over the Wu district. As
distinct from that of Soochow the Shanghai Vernacular must be
the language of at least five millions, and it has been extensively
used by foreign missionaries and merchants for more than half
a century.
The Wu dialects are of special importance in linguistic
research. The best philologists seem to agree that they form the
basis of the Japanese go-on ()and Corean and Japanese
transcriptions of sounds, made contemporaneously with the dic-
tionaries, indicate that the IVu dialects are nearer to the Old
Chinese" that prevailed in North China in the time of the
classics than any other of the dialects of China. These dialects
are more ancient than the Mandarin, wliicli, according to Mr.
E. H. Parker, is a corruption of Old Chinese," chiefly caused by
the immense admixture of Tartar and Tibetan blood during the
period 300-900 A.D. Nearly all the characters used to represent
the Shanghai syllables are found in Mandarin and classical dic-
tionaries. The idiom does not greatly differ from the Mandarin,
but the Shaughai dialect is greatly superior in the number of
its syllables, having 720 as compared with 420 in Pekingese.
the spoken lvanguag.
The first thing that a foreign student of the Shanghai dialect
should do is to learn to speak. To do this, two things are
necessary,at least to most of those who study the dialect : First,
a good teacher, and .secondly, the mastery of what is called Shang-
hai Romanization, That a working knowledge of the dialect can
be picked up without these helps is a possibility, but the clearest
and best foreign speakers of the dialect have made use of both
of these helps, and most foreigners are unable to hear with
sufficient accuracy the finer distinctions of the Shanghai dialect
sounds without that systematic method of recording and represent-
iug those sounds which is known as Romanization.


4
THE SHANGHAI VERNACULAR.
To help the student in his efforts to acquire a good pronuncia-
tion the following description of Shanghai Romanizationhas
been prepared. It is advisable that during the first half year the
student should not hamper himself with the study of the character.
The study of the character is no help to the beginner, but rather
a hindrance, and should not be allowed to interfere with the
spo)cen language (luring the earlier months of one's course of
study.
The written language.
Most books in the Shanghai dialect are printed in char-
acter." When the time lias come for beginning the study of the
character, one of the first things to do is to learn the radicals.
It is usual to learn them by number,a difficult and tedious
task,and the numbers are easily forgotten. To assist the
memory the Radical Ode was prepared some years ago, and was
first published in Dr. Mateer's Mandarin Lessons. Many have
found it a great help, and Dr. Mateer used to advise students of
Chinese to commit the Ode to memory as the most effective way
of retaining the radicals in mind. Dr. Fryer, head of the
Oriental Department of the University of California, gives to his
students similar advice.
The writer has composed a New Ode which seems to him
a better mnemonic device than the old one, although some may
think the old is better. We give them both in this book.
The radicals are divided into seventeen groups, according to
the number of pen strokes required to write them.
We would advise students to learn first, the seventeen radicals
which come first in each of these groups. I^earn the number of
each, its form, meaning and pronunciation, and with this as
a foundation the rest may be learned in whatever way the
individual may find most effective. This course will help the
student to remeiiiber the number of strokes in each radical,
and will save a good deal of time in hunting up characters
for a large number of the characters in a dictionary are made
up of two or more radicals, and if the number of strokes is
remembered, there will be no need to stop and count their
additional strokes when looking up these characters in the
dictionary.


CONTENTS.
Part.
The vShanghat vkrnacurvarPrkfatory...
AUH ZIH PmUAH
Shanghai vSvstem of Romanization
Tablk of vShanghai Initials and Finals...
Tablk of thk Radicals...
Thr R ai) ic a lsp ro no l nc ed ant) defined
Introductory Notfc to the New Radical Od
Thk NR\V Radical ODR...
Thk Old Radical Odr ...
12
15
23
55
29
Part. IL
Introductory Statement.
Twenty onk Lessons qivtxq a Compij^te List of Skano-
ha i sylt.ablks with characters illustrating b^ch
Tonk.
5


AUH-Z1H PHING-FAH.
p iau pi mi
ph ing phing
b an^' bang
m a
m eli meh
V eli ?veli
n I ok fok
V GO voo
t ieu tieu
th ien thien
d oeh doeh
ts iang tsiang
tsh oe tslioe
dz u dzu
s oen soen
z ia zia
1 ing Ming
i iak liak
u e 'ne
n auli nuiih
ny ien 'iiyien
ny i iiyi
ng an ngan (
ng a nga
k eu ken i
kh an kluui
(V ah h $L
ky ih ^ kyili
ch uii chuli
j ui jui m
kw en kvven
khweh khweli
an ^wan rm
i mig imi^
y uiii V uin
<
w
h ak hak
hy ooiig livoongj^
liw o hwo
i. eh eh
ni pffl
ts
ths
dz LJ
n z
I r
ng


SHANGHAI SYSTEM OF
ROMANIZATION.
--v/vrw.vw---
The true pronuncialion of Chinese somuls can only be learned
from a Chinese teacher. A large majority of the solimls have
no exact equivalent in English lience the student should bear
in mind that any Romanization used docs not represent English
sounds, but Chinese sounds. This fact can not be too strongly
emphasized. Tlie committee which formulated the present Union
System of RoniHiiization did not liave in mind representation of
Chinese sounds by their nearest Er^lisli equivalents so much as
it had in view the production of a. complete, simple aiul
systematic table whereby all the Chinese sounds should be repre-
sented by Roman letters or combinations thereofand this with-
out the use of diacritical marks. It sliould be borne in min the student that this system does not divide a. word into all its
phonetic elements but rather does it follow a plan well-known
to Chisese scholars; viz., that of dividing each syllable repre-
sented by a Chinese character into two elementsone initial an*l
one final-
thk initials.
The Initials are divided into a Higher a Middle" or
''Aspirated", and a "Lower Series.
In the Upper Series are/,m'vy tis s /w. k
ky, k/w, i andiv. These initials are pronounced in most cases
much the same as in English but without aspiralion, higher in
pitch and with less vibration of the larynx. The apostrophe
before a letter indicates that the letter belongs to the "higher
series." Pure vowel initials belong to this series.
ny has a sound similar to that of ni in spa;//el.
ky=ch in r//urch with all aspiration eliniinated. The middle
of the tongue should be elevated, while the lip drops down to
the lower teeth.
i as an initial has the sound of i in dahlia.
The Aspirates are///, /, I Ik tshkhr/i. khwhhy and
hw (th as 77; o ni sonnot as in Ming).
ch=ch in t//urch.
hy is nearly like ti in I)or"a, but is less sibilant than the
English sh. It should be pronounccd without any pressure of
the end of the tongue against the roof of tlie mouth.
7


SHANGHAI SYSTEM OF ROIVIAXIZATION.
The other aspirates are like the corresponding initials of the
higher series with the addition of a strong aspiration (indicated
by//).
In the Lowf5R Series areb, mvd, dz^ Innyg,
/, gwy, and w. Their pronunciation is much the same as in
English. They are lower in pitch than corresponding initials of
the "higher series," and have more voicebeing pronounced
with more decided vibration of the larynx, but are not quite as
vocal as similar sounds in Euglish. The lower vowel initials,
indicated by an inverted comma (and attended with a slight
aspiration, belong- to this series. It should be noted that this
sign occurs only before vowels and is to be distinguished from
the apostrophe (employed to indicate that a consonant belongs
to the higher series. It should also 1)e noted that the aspiration
referred to is little more than a huskiness in the throat attendant
upon the lower pitch of voice, and should not be sound like ati
initial h.
FINALS.
1. The Vowel Endings area, e, iau.o, oo, oeeuuui
ia, iany ieu, and ie.
2. The NasaTv Endings are () an, en, ien, and oenin
which the n is not sounded, but leugthens out and imparts a
nasal quality to the preceding vowel (b) dngaungoong(or
ong) uni>- and in which no- has the value of .in song\ but
often is nearer the French 11 in bon (r) uin, in which n is sonant
and has a value varying between n and 11.
The Abrupt VowErv Endings areak, ah, ehihauhok,
oehuh and iakin which h and k are the signs of the zeJi-sun^
(and the. vowel is pronounced in a short, abrupt inauner.
k is written after the long vowel" sounds and h after "short
vowel" sounds.
The sounds of the vowels are
a as in far except when followed by n or //when it has the
sound of a in m^rii or inat,
e as in pi?v before h it has the sound of e as in mat.
i as in caprz'ce before h or ng it is shortened to i as in m/tt
or szng.
au as in A ?^ust.
a as in no


9
SHANGHAI SYSTEM OF ROMANIZATION.
oo as in too. Before ng-y oo is often sounded very much like
o in bone. The oo is modified by its environment, and in such
words as foongnoongetc., oo represents a combiiiatiou of the
sounds of ou in ttu?wgh and through.
oe as in Goethe (German o).
eu as in French (Monsi^wr).
u as oo iu foot (always preceded by an 5 sound).
ui as in Iruit (or rather French ii).
In ia, iauieu and ie, we have short i followed closely hy a,
auy euand eas described above.
Of course it is understood that the Chinese sounds iu a
majority of cases vary somewhat from the English sounds which
are given as the nearest equivalent.
The Dok-yoong Z-moo Initials used alone i.e. without
vowels, areis, tshdzsy zmng and r. The first five are
followed by the vowel sound in the second syllable of able
prolonged. Mateer and Bailer use i for this sound and the new
Mandarin Romanized uses i. It is not written, but understood,
in the Shanghai system. m has the sound of m in chasw and n
the sound of n^ in ha^er. r is a sound between final r and L
Tone SignsA degree mark to the right of a syllable
indicates the chui-sung ()e.g.,noong ()
The same mark 011 the left indicates the zan^-suv^ (
ngoo ().
Final h or k indicates zeh-sung
All other words are in the bing -sung.
The following tables give an exhibit of all the initials and
finals of the dialect, systematically arranged. Students of the
dialect will do well to pronounce them after their teacher as a
daily exercise in pronunciation. The List of Shanghai Sylla-
bles given in Part II, is recommended for drill in pronunciation^


Kw kw
Khw khw
Gw gw
Ny 'ny
Ny ny
ng
Z-MOO.

_
k
kh
g



y
ch
h y h
KKGKch
m

Y
Y
'W w
AY w

h
iiy
hw
y w
H H H

P Ph 15 P Ph b
M M 'm m
'V F V V f V
T Th D t th d
y e0

tstscv,s z Ml 1 50 u
1
hrrsDZs z X L?NN
m





|
IO


IUNG-YUIN.

A Aug Ak a g ak Oo Oong 00 oong
Oe Oen Oeh oe oen oeli m
An Ah an ah
E En Eh e en eh JOOa En Ung Uh eu ung uh g
I Ien Ing Ih i ien ing ih U ii
Ui Uia ui uin
Au au [HJ Aung anno; Auh auh la Iang lak lau leu ia iang iak iau ieu m
O Ok o ok
DDK YOONG Z MCM 0.
M m P S s
Ts ts z L
Tsh tsh Lv R I r -^r i
Dz dz . Ng ng


12
TABLE OF
>|
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9()1 2 3 4 5 5 7
7 7 777 7 1/ 7 8 S 8 8 8 S 8 8
>1-
7 S 9.0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7S90I
.5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 66 6 6 6 7 7
{{ 901 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90 I 2 3 4-06
3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 5 5 55555
5
S 9 o I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 I 2 3 .4
8 S 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 99900000
UE3 i
0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
1 ^2 >UU
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


i3
THE RADICALS.
JBB
8901 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o 12 3
5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 67 7 7 7
I I I I I I III I I II III

7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7S90T2 3 456 7
4 4 4 4 4 4 44455555555
IIII T I IIIIITIIIII

3 4 5 6 7 8 C o I 2 3 456 7 S 9 o
22222 22 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4
TII1III1 ITIIIITIII

5 6 7 8 9 o. 2 (o 4 5 6 7 S 9 o 12
OOOOOIIII Till 112 22
U22212317
195969/9899001OI^031050607081 1H 1 ^ ^ 1M
I I I I I 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22222 2
9.
4 5 678 901 2 3 4 56 1789012 3 4
7 7 77 7 7888 S8 8 8 888 99999
II IIIIIIIII II IIIIII II




THE RADICALS^
Shanghai Pronunciation


/ Stroke.
i ih.
One, unity.
Colloquial, ih wak
2 I kwmi. To pass
I through, an upright
ColluquiMl. ih
3 tsu.
* A point, a dot.
Colloquial, ih ^tien.
4 T phUi.
J A stroke to the left.
Colloquial, ih phih.
5 -T ih.
tOne, h curve. --
Colloquial, ^ kyah-
ih-kufi-ih.
6 V joch..
J A barb, a crook.
Colloquial, ih-keu,
ih-0zu 0yeu ih
ihih-kyak.
2 Strokes.
7 ;
._ Two.
8 k deu. _
A cover, a hat.
zung. c. nyung'.
A man.
hA
Colloquial,g^-nyung-
paun ge-}iyw}ig (2iid form).
10 If zimg. A man, the
)li legs of a man. .
11 "7 zeh.
XV To enter.
2 Pak
Kiglit.
33 pj kyoong.


A limit
mih.
To cover,
15 ^ ping-
Icicle, ice
Colloquial,
fien-s.
kyi.
A bench.
kheu.
A receptacle.
i| iau.
,_ A knife, sword.
Colloquial, tsuh-tau (2iid
form).
l9-hf .
/J Strength
14
16
17
m
mt
.

i8

C
1 t ^
wrap.
A ladle, a spoon.



As very few Chinese teachers can give the names of all the
radicals, a well kuowii character is added to aid the teacher in
giving to each radical its proper pronunciation, and in a number
of cases the colloquial designation is also given. When written
above, the radical is designated deu (head) e.g., tshau-
z-deu. When at the side, it is designated paung (side); e.g.,
yan^-z^-paun^. The general designation is booor boo-
e.g., kheu-s-boo.
15


i6
THE RADICALS.
22-60
c .
a ^e.
t, y -m
r- s n V
-eo -n.
^h c 1. -d
5XO
1J
2 3 4 5
2 2 2 2
V isih
A joint, seal.
27 )" hoe7i.
) A cliff.
28 f s.
Selfish, perverse.
29^7 yd
J^Sm Also, again.
3 Strokes.
30 kheu.
Ii A mouth.
51I '
I_I An in closure.
32 H thoo.
Earth.
Colloquial, thih-thoo
paung (2nd form).
33. I
8 A scholar, a sage.
34At
To follow, a step.
35^(7
Moving slowly.
36 hi dzih
^J Evening.
37+ da.
Great.
nyui.
A Avoman.
J A son, child.
mien.
A roof.








in









Colloquial,1 mauts-
* pau-ke'
dea.
fsluing0
42
An inch.
sian.
Small.
43


Lame, weak.
44


m


45
A corpse.
tshch.
A sprout.
san.
A mouiitaiii, hill.
tsh en.
Mountain streams. ^
48koong.
Labor, a workman.
Self.
kyiuio.
A napkin.
J: oen.
A shield, to oppose.
lau.
Immature, tender.
yie7i.
A roof, shelter.
46
47
X
49
50
51
52
53 r^

To move 011.
55-|-|- koong.
Joined hands.







ad §
&g § r- ^
le.p'^.lal ^
-g Aeduhll
eltl, Aw^
a 0 u tft"EL^^ ^^ .
art.macnls.i^
-^Ab^lrplusAS
f5?sal
56575SC59C60c


7
THK RADICALS.
4 Strokes.
liH The heart.
Colloquial, ^ W ^zu-sing-
paung (2nd and. 3rd
forms).
62 koo.
ZX^ A spear.
63 g.
J A door.
64 rp seu.
The hand.
Colloquial,-
patmg (2nd form).
65 ts'
A branch, a prop.
66 Jb A/* phok.
To tap, to rap.
Colloquial, fx. fan-vung
(2nd form).
67-^ vung.
Literature,
,68 teu.
"H A bushel, a peck.
69 rjl kyung.
Ji An axe, a catty.
7of^ faung,
Jj A square.
'lizj^JX^ voo.
yuyu^ Without, not.
72 zeh. c. nyih.
The sun, a day.
73 yoeh.
II To speak.
74 yoeh. c. nyoeh.
J~4 The moon, a month.
75-^ k.
Wood, a tree.
76 fj-p chien.
J\ To owe, deficient.
77 tK"
JLC To stop. 3£
7S yjk- cte.
^ CX Bad, vicious.
61-94
Note.This radical is usually
pronounced tebut Kariglii
gives oeh as the proper sound
and the original meaning of
this radical was "rotten
79 [bone-
To kill.
8ojrL voo.
Vf To deny.
8i pi.
J^L To compare
82man.
Hair, wool.
83 rC
Family name.
S4/=t chi.
^ Breath, vapor.
85-.La >y c.S.
7JV y /f> Water.
Colloquial, san-tien-
s (2nd form).
86
Colloquial, sHen-
hoo (2nd form).
87 nt tsau.
>Claws.
Colloquial, ih-phih
sa?i-tien (2nd form).
88A> voo.
Father.
89 yau'
JX^. Crosswise.
9JJ ziang.
A couch, a frame.
9i LU phi en,
/I A splinter, a slice,
92rfl y^- c. nga.
A tooth.
An ox, a cow.
Colloquial, # ^ 'g zia-nyeu-
paung (2nd form).
> choeii.
A dog. m
Colloquial, J^^^ fan-Qchoen-
paung (2iid form).


i8
95-128
THE RADICALS.
5 Strokes,
95 voen.
SiL Sombre, black.
ZHH A gem.
Colloquial, # zia-nyok-
panng\ zia-
wainig-pauno' (2iid
form).
kwo.
A melon, cucumber.
A tile, brick.
97


98
Sweet.

ioo sung. c. sano .
To produce, live.
i m yoo7tg
JtJ To use.
2

dieiu
A field.
103 JOE "//7V-

o-
othot.M
clfo
=£4.
RDi
qu
o o
11
004o
cs c
M
m
Back to back.
106 i^t buh. c. bak.
til White, in vain.
107 rfr bi*
/5C Skin, bark.
108 im ming.
illL A dish, a platter.
109 viok
The eye.

meu.
A lance, halberd.
in
Vv A dart, an arrow.
2
h3

. i. /./A divine
7j^f* omen, reveal.
Colloquial, H-i-paung
V (3rd form).
I^J A foot-print. :
oo.
/Y^ Grain.
Colloquial,oo-mok-
paling,
yot'h.
A cave.
Colloquial, yoeh-z9-
deu.
7
To set up.

i KS>
6 Strokes.
! so k.
A stone.

ZbV
I J Bamboo.
Colloquial,
119,JA tni.
7|V Rice.
120 jiV mih. c. s.
Tl^jxk Raw silk.
Colloquial,kau-s-
paung,
121 feu.
Tm Pottery.
2

Colloquial, s'Z9-deU
(2nd form),
A sheep.
yui.
Feathers.
laii.
Old, venerable.
r.
Still, yet.
le.
A plough.
The ear.
3
124
125
126
127
123-


9
THE RADICALS.
129-164
X29-J| ioeh,
^p- A pen, a pencil.
i^oi^t n zok, c. nyok.
Flesh.
Colloquial, nyok-z0-
paung (2nd forti
I3t
paung (2nd i
gdzung.
A state!
132 0

133
134
135
137
13
139>|
4|1


Self, from.
ts.
To arrive.
A mortar.
zeh.
The tongue.
tshen.
Opposing,
tseu.
A boat.
kung.
Perverse, %
lyf^ SUil.
Xj Color, vice.
=
Colloquial, if Hshau-
z-deu and
nyan tshau deu
(2nd form).
141 hoo.
A tiger.
142 hwe. c. dzoong
HX An insect.
Colloquial, dzoong-
z-paung.
I43jfil hy0eh'


Blood.
144^^ yiing. c
145
go
Clothes,
|W| To cover.
West,
^ang.
travel, do.



47
48,
49
5
5i
52
53
54






7 Strokes.
kyien9.
To see.
kyak.
A horn, corner,
yien.
Words, to speak.
kok,
A valley.
deu.
Beans.
s.
A pig.
dz.
Reptiles.
pe.
Precious.
Ht^ tshuh.
7fp Naked, flesh color.
56 tseu
57
55
To walk, to go.






a a tsok.
/tJ^The foot, enough.
Colloquial, thih-tsok-
paung (2iid form).
58 sung. The body.
59 kyui.
A wheeled carriage.
60 sing. Bitter.
61 ZU710-. Time.
62 ^ tshiak.
Walking.
Colloqn.ial, chien,tseu-
Is (2nd form).
163 B A region, a city.
Colloquial,.^.yeu-nyi-
too (2nd form).
i64.
Must, wine.


20
11 Strokes.
yui.
A fish.
nyau.
A bird.
loo.
Salt.
I ok.
A deer.
jnuh.
Wheat.
mo,
Htmp
i8r "ST yih.
>4, A leaf, the. head.
182 i^r fooiig,
Wind..
TltS To fly.
184 ^ zuh.
To eat.
The head.
Incense, fragrant.
10 Strokes.
187 gt mo.
^S A horse.
iSS^ra^ kweh.
A bone.
189-^ kau.
High.
190 r^A piau,
Jfe/ Hair.
I J Quarrel.
192^1 tshano0.
HS HeiLbs, essences.
193^^ lihkuh,
P3 An urn.
194 fig kwe.
A demon, ghost.
















165bien.
^tc To pluck, sort out.
166 li
A li (one-third of n
mile). M

8 Strokes.
167 Ziv A. kyung.
.Gold, metal.
Colloquial, £T_
paung (2nd form).
dzang
Long.
HJ
PI
9
6
I
A door, gate. ffl
M
lellr
5r
ull d
/p
1
70C01U
I c I
172 tS0C
To reach to, attain.
tsoc.
Birds.
Rain.
Colloquial, ytii-zc-
deu,
tshing^
175
Blue vsky, green.
fi-
Wrong, no.

176 cS
9 Strokes.
nien.
The face.
177 kuh
Raw hide.
178-ft^ we.
..Leather.
3E Leeks.
J80-^ iung,
Sound.






m
165-200 THE RADICALS.

5 6 7 8 9 o
9 9 9 9 9 C
I I I I I 2


21
THE RADICALS. 201-214
12 Strokes. 14 Strokes,
201 waung. Yellow. 209 bi9. Tlie nose.
202 su. Millet. 210 dzi. Kven, regular. m
2Q3 Bp huh. Black. 15 Strokes.
ts. Embroidery. 13 Strokes, 211 tsh. Front teeth. 16 Strokes,
205 206 A frog. ti.ng. A tripod. Hi 213 loong, A dragon. kwe. A tortoise.
27 koo. A drum. 17 Strokes,
208 su. A rat. 214 yak. A flute. m




THE NEW RADICAL ODE.
introductory notr.
In the hope that the task of learning tlie order of the Radi-
cals may be made still easier, the author lias composed a new
version of the "Ode," condensed into fifty lines, in place of the
eiglity-eiglit of the former version, and with 700 syllables instead
of 993. Each section begins with a nmenionic word (or words)
the consonants of whicli give the number of the first radical in a
group having a given number of strokes. This mnemonic method
has been used successfully by a good many, and is based upon the
following values of letters
T or D = i; N = 2 M = 3 R=4 L=5 CH, TCH or SH = 6; K,
C hard, Q or G hard = 7; F, PH or V=8; P, or B:9; S, Z or C
soft = o. Silent letters and vowels are ignored.
Thus, Do indicates the ist radical and TRiCK the 147th.
Some have successfully applied this method to the whole series
of radicals, but I think that the rhyming method will be more
serviceable to the larger number. It will require some imagin-
ation to see the connection in many of the lines used, but a some-
what grotesque arrangement is often remembered where a more
sensible arrangement would be forgotten.
I11 order that the "Ode may be a help to those who wish
to remember the numbers of the Radicals, it will be observed
that most of the verses (or lines) end with a Radical whose
number is a multiple of five, and that each line contains five
radicals except where, for obvious reasons, this lias been found
inexpedient.
J. A. S.
23




THE NEW RADICAL ODE,
The Ode may be sung to the tune Auld Lang Syne.
One StrokeBkgin Right.
Do thou begin with unity; be upvight to a dot
i i 2 3
No left hand strokenor curvenor crookshould e'er thy rec-
)4 5 J 6
ord blot,
Two Strokes.A Riddi^k.
Qo, give two hats to that old manthe weary tramp of vice
78 9 io
Who eiters eightthe limit gate, with cover all of ice.
II 12 13 ^14 V 15
See now a benchwithin a boxa sword of strength wrapt up.
U 17 18 19 20
A spoonin case conceaVd with ten divineand win the ciip,
21 C 22 C 23 24 25
A seal upon a cliff in seen, made by a selfish hoax,
n 26 i 27 28
And then a small conjunction comes and ends the dual strokes.
X 29
Three Strokes.A IvADY and Hr Son.
O AMy'S mouth enclosure sweet Earths sages' steps
30 33 34
move slow
35
An evening; grand! My lady's son upon the ro^?/" would go.
36 37 39 ' v 4o
An inch too far A small, weak corpsewhere lilies sprout they lay;.
41 424344 45
By mountain streams the workman self -a kerchief hides away.
46 47 495
Go shield the tender neatH your roof\ move onwith joined hands;
51 52 53 54 55
With dart from bow a pigs' head shoot with feathers step the
56 57 58 59
sands.
25


26
THE NEW RADICAL ODE.
Four StrokesWisK Observations.
SHoulD heart with spear from door be piercVlshould hand a
6i \ 62 63 64
branch once tear,
65
If tapping letters by the peck could buy an ax ox square,
66 &7 68 69 7o
Then sure without the sun I speakof moon that shines thru
7i 72 73 74
trees.
75
I owe a stoplest bad rhymes killdenying restful ease.
7677 79 So
Compare my hair and family name with air and water? Shame
8i 82 83 84 85
Hot fire and dcrivsmy father said, if crossiaise, liurt the frame.
86 S7 8S 89 90
Rough spli}ders ia the teeth will make an ox in fury run,
91 92 93
And dogs will follow on until four strokes are fully doue.
94
Five Strokes.What Two Giris Said and Did.
A PaLe black gem ^ a squash and tiletwo sweet-bom girls did pack;
95 96 97 X 98 I!' 99 100
Used for the field warm wraps of cloth when ill lay back-to-back.
IOI io2 io3 f 104 r< 105
White was their skin as dish of snow each eye flash'd like a
io6 io7 io8 109
lance
no
A dart and stone reveald footprints, h\xigrain bedimm'd their
ill 112 Tff 113 114 H5
glance.
Within a cave they sat and thought: "A building we'll erect
116 II?
In which we'll finish five-stroke words, and witness the effect."
Six. Strokes.What Dido and OthkrS Did.
O DiDo fy With Bamboo, riceand silken skirts she ran,
n8ii9 T2a
With crocks and nets and sheep and plumes to catch an aged man!
121 122 123 M 124 125


THE NEW RADICAL ODK.
Still plo7u\i the man, 011 ear a pen his fiesh in wrinkles
Ifn 126 127 J]\ j 28 129 130
hung
The statesman now hi))iself arrived; a mortar mash'd his tongue.
131 132 rg I33 B 134 135
Opposing boats, with men perverse^ in colored grass all dress'd,
136i37 I3 139140
Like tiger-insects^ blood-fi\V(\, wovkd.in clothing from the West.
I4i142143 144 145 146
Seven Strokes.A Drunken Vision.
A TRiCK I see a horn that speaks within a valley wild
47148 149 I5Q
Give beans to pigs while reptiles hurt my precious naked child
i5i 152 153 154155
He walks with foot and body sore,no cart this bitter time
156 157 158 159 i6oI6I
But walkingfill'd with city wine, pluck'd each li a dime.
I62 163164 165 i66
Eight Strokes.K Good Ending.
A DuTCH K&ygoldlong lock'd the gate, but plenty have I
167i68 i69 i7o
gain'd.
I reachd for birds rain liid the bluebut wrong 110 longer pain'd.
171 172173 174 175
Nine Perplexing Experiences.
A DoQgiSH facewith raw-hide skinand leeks that have no sound!
m76 177178 179 i8o
Like leaves in wind out flew my food; my head no perfume
i8i i82 M 183 i84 i85 i86
found.
Ten Strokes About a Horse.
TewFiK, my horse, with bone was hit;high flew my hair and
, 187 1S8 i89 190
beard.
A quarrel rose, and herbs in urns brought in by ghosts appear'd.
I9i 192 193 194


28
THE NEW RADICAL ODE.
Eleven Strokes.Natural History.
A DouBLe fish won't catch a bird; salt will not catch a deer
195 196197 198
But wheat will purchase ropes of hemp whereleven strokes appear.
199 200
Twelve and Thirteen Strokes.Purchase and Adventure.
A NaSTy yellozv millet mush, with black enibvoidry bought
201202 203 204
A NaSaL frog on tripod chased a drjim-scsived rat he'd caught.
M. 205 206 207 H 208
Fourteen^ FifteenSixteen and Seventeen Strokes.
Sundry Observations.
A NaSBy nose is regular; and NeeDeD teeth must suit
r. 209 210 211
A NoDdiNg dragon turtles bite, while ANDRew plays the flute.
212 213 214-
MNEMONIC FOR REMEMBERING THE FIRST RADICAL
OF EACH SECTION.
Strokes.
1. A liat for one old man will do,
2. O honey, give him two and go.
3. Home is the place for mouth like Amy's.
4. Harrow liis heart she never should.
5. A hill now climbs the bivaCk mail pale.
6. Watch not the bamboo Dido fy
7. Oak trees I SEE 'tis not a trick.
8. A foe did steal my goi^d Dutch key.
9. Abe hid from me a face that's doggish.
10. Woods have conceal'd my old horse Tewfik.
11. Dead fish give forth a perfume double.
12. A den of yellow snakes is nasty.
13. A tomb shall hide that frog's old nozle.
14. A tear did wet the nose of Nasby.
15. A tael to fill the tooth was needed.
16. Touch not the dragon while lie's nodding.
17. Take now a flut my merry Andrew.


THE RADICAL ODE.
When Dr. Mateer was putting his Mandarin Wessons through
the press, he conceived the idea that a rhyme might be useful in
learning the meaning and order of the radicals. It was at his in-
stigation, and with the benefit of his helpful criticism, that the
following nonsense was composed in fact the first stanza was
the Doctor's own production. The ode has been found helpful
as a mnemonic contrivance, and is printed in Dr. Mateer's
Lessons with the following note :
"The following ode will relieve the student of much labor in
learning the meaning and order of the radicals. It will serve as
a continuous ladder, with suggestive and ever-varying rounds,
which the student can mount with vastly greater ease than he
can climb the bare pole of arithmetical numbers. Not only is the
first acquirement made easier, but the memory will retain the
ode more firmly and recall it more readily than it will the bare
numbers."
how to bkgin.
{)ne Stroke.Numbers i6.
Beginning with unity just as you ought,
You next make an upright, Iand then make a dot
Make a stroke to the left J then a curve ,and a crook ],
And you've summed up the use of one stroke in a book.
A RIDDLE.
Two Strokes. Numbers 729.
Two hats on one man\ See, that tramp Jlf walking fast,
Enters slyly at eight and the limit is passed.
A covering of ice 7 hides a bench and a box U
A sword of great strength is wrapped up in old socks
A spoon in a case is concealed [ with ten -j- knives.
Divine what this means, and then ask the old wives
Why that seal p on the cliff rmade by some selfish hoax,
Should let a conjunction end up the two strokes
consolation or an unfortunate widow.
Three Strokes.Numbers 3060.
Three smacks on the mouth an enclosure so sweet
That earth's greatest sage follows slowly ^c, to greet.
29


3
THE RADICAL ODK.
This evening great lady your son -had a fall
From a roof that was forty-one i?iches too small /J.
He is lame ,not a corpse and some sprouts M4 from
the hill |Ij,
Washed in streams {{{ by the workmen will keep him
quite still.
Wrap selft in a napkin make shields for the tender
Give shelter to orphans mot'e ^ on, their defender
Joined hands follow Cupid's dart i^, shot from liis bow :
Eat pig's head 3. don plumage his footsteps you know-
SUNDRY REFrvHCTlONS.
Four Strokes.Numbers 6194.
If your heart be once pierced by a spear as you stand,
Then the door of eternity's surely at hand .
When you've mastered this branch of the language, be sure
You've but tapped at the portal of literature .
Though we measure with bushels and catties and
squares
Yet without the sun's light we could not sell our wares.
Why speak of the moon with such rapture my dove
To the shade of the wood do we ozve our first love.
Stop vicious man, kill ^ not Deny not niy prayer
Can life be compared with those locks of red hair
One's family name is as dear as liis breath
Through water 7JC and fire he'll defend it till death.
The claws of a kitten, iny father once said,
Should never scratch crosswise nor climb on a bed j\
And a splint twixt the teeth puts an end to all jokes,
While an ox and a dog will end up the four strokes.
SAD D^ATH OF TWO J^WE^KRS.
Five Strokes.Numbers 95117.
Two sombre gem merchants once ate a cucumber :
They slept on some tiles and how sweet "jf was their slumber!
But to live was no use in a field PEj, at their ease,
In dry goods rolled up, they were killed by disease .
Back to back f^ they were laid, dressed in white 'twas
their wish,


31
THE RADICAL ODK.
With the skin of the cucumber placed in a dish
Then an eye lance . and dart were engraved on 3. stone
As an emblem divine of the foot-prints now flown
This stoue, midst the grain in a cavernous den ,
Was erected to finish five strokes of the pen.
an eccentric ou) statesman.
Six Strokes.Numbers 118146.
Our bamboo and rice silk and crocks I am told,
Our nets sheep and quills must be taxed as of old
And yet we plow on for this fool with long ears
Stick a pen in his flesh cried a boattuan with jeers.
The statesman himself now arrived ^ with a mortar Q :
The tongue that opposed him he'd smash and make
shorter
The boats perverse skipper, with red colored face,
He tied up with grass and dismissed in disgrace.
But when tigers and Insects drew blood he thought best
To travel for clothing and skip to the west .
beware of th£ serpent.
Seven Strokes.Numbers 147i66.
Seven strokes we now see and a horn ,fateful word I
In tbe valley beans grow, and of pigs a whole herd
Great reptiles their precious young offspring are feeding I
With legs bare and naked a lad walks nnheeding
His foot gets a sting and liis body soon dies '
A coach brings his mother : how bitter her cries
Tis high time to run from a region so vile,
Where wine ^ plucks its victims for many a mile .
FIvE^TING riches.
Eight Strokes.Numbers 167175.
Eight strokes and no^f gold after long labor gained,
Doth open the doorway of plenty attained .
But riches, like birds f, when the rain hides the blue
If I am not wrong will fly quickly from you.
foolish ang^r.
Nine Strokes.Numbers 176186.
Nine strokes on the face with a raw-hide or leather ^.
Or een with a leek will raise sounds in all weather.


32
THE RADICAL ODE.
For leaves in the wind when they fly far away,
Don't eat off your head nor burn incense all day.
good advice.
Ten Strokes.Numbers 187194.
Ten strokes 011 a horse with a bone raised on high
Will wear off his hair and soon cause liim to shy.
Don't fight about essences cooked in an urn
Or you'll find yourself doomed with the demons ^ to burn.
fishing and hunting.
Eleven Strokes.Numbers 195200.
Eleven fresli fish and a bird , caught with salt
A deer which eats wheat tied with hemp calls a halt
going to market.
Twelve Strokes.Numbers 201204.
Twelve yellow millet stalks next you will see,
And black silk embroidery purchased by me.
exploit of some frogs.
Ihirteen Strokes.Numbers 205208.
Thirteen little frogs 011 a tripod once sat,
But jumped on a drum when they saw a big rat .
result of a fight.
Fourteen and Fifteen Strokes.Numbers 209211.
Fourteen were the noses S., all euen in height,
Fifteen were the teeth M, which were lost in a fight.
the dragons end it.
Sixteen and Seventeen Strokes.Numbers 212214.
Sixteen dragons sat on a tortoise last June,
Playing seventeen flutes and that winds up my tune.


PART II
COMPLETE LIST
OF
SHANGHAI SYLLABLES


INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
Some four years ago the Complete Shanghai Syllabary
was published, and those who purchased were requested to send
their names to the compiler in order that there might be sent to
them The Shanghai Sound Table," with other matter designed
to assist in obtaining a correct knowledge of Shanghai sounds.
The work of preparing the proposed appendix to the Sylla-
bary was hindered through stress of circumstances, and has never
been completed in the form which was at the time in the writer's
mind but a Romanized Primer was prepared which covers nearly
tlie same ground as tlie sound table which was then contemplated,
and the following twenty-four pages of the Primer, bound in
with this little volume, will, we trust, be a real help to many
students of the Shanghai dialect. It is believed that the arrange-
ment of the Primer is as well suited for a study of Shanghai
syllables and tones as any that has yet been devised, and the use
of the Tract Society's stereotype plates has been secured, to save
the time and expense of a new preparation. There is a list of all
the Shanghai syllables in ordinary use, with three Chinese
characters to illustrate their use in the three tones, -bing sung
zatincr sung ( chui sun() The zeh sung
(is given, of course, under syllables ending in h and k.
On pages io and ii of Part I. there are tables of Initials, (4 Z-moo
and Finals, '4lun^-yuiii which, with the Dok-yoong Z-mooor
elementary syllables, give a systematic view of all the elements
which are used in making up the syllables of the dialect and on
page 6 are fifty syllables, illustrated by fifty characters, which give
in combination all the initials and finals found in the Romanized
Primer. It is believed that frequent drillspronouncing all these
syllables in their three tones after a good, clear voiced teacher
will be of great assistance to one who desires to speak better
than a native for that should be the desire of all students of
the vernacular and this can be doneat least as far as clearness
of pro ii unci ati on is concerned.
This little book is being sent free of cost to all who have
purchased the author's Complete Shanghai Syllabary," and
those who do not receive it are requested to let the undersigned
know that they are entitled to a copy.
Shanghai, South Gate, J. A. Silsby.
August, ign. .
The Romanized Primer is published by the Chinese Religious Tract
Society, and can be obtained at their sales room, No, 119 Szechuen Road.


ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
Di 1 Khoo.
b





BE






IE
#
1)

o
a


a
e
o
i

pa
plia
ba
pe
phe
be
Pi
phi
bi
po
phc
bo
e

a
f.^fc _a.

p-a
ph-a
b-a
p-e
i-e
e
Ao
h--ih .T ?
p b p p b p p b


2
ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
ta
tha
da
tau
than
dau
te
the
de
ti
thi
di
too
di-bi
thi-cleu
tha-tha
the-deu
de-thi
bi-de
bi-dcu
pau-pau
pau-pe
boo-boo
thoo-di
pa_(loo
theu-dau
teu-ba
Di 2 Khoo.
au 00 en
iZ^C

dy
5//
t/M



o ) a uuo
OSUuuallu ooo
hloshcleahael)hsho
t d t ^ d ppb p p p p b




tsau
tseu
tsoo
tslia
tshe
tslii
tslio
tsh an
tsheu
tslioo
dza
clze
dzi
dzo
clzau
clzeu
dzoo
tsh

39 ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
Di 3 Khoo.
s
d,

sa
se
si
so
sau
S(3ll
soo
za
ze
zi
zo
zau
zeu
zoo
tsa
tse
tsi
tso

ts^

.
Z /
0


40 ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
Di 4 Khoo.
Kaung Zeh Sung.
a a e i au o
ak all eh ih auh ok
izA -eA (A

h h
lrl 1 lokhokl oksofcshokl
s^ t t d p p b t t d s z t t d
p
h
I h lih.hlhhglhhlh
bihmhihdihih:asihshl;gjihajsauzau
b t t d s zttdbttd s z


JehlehellhlehehehehM/ehlhhih
tstsMPIi sed/piph

lak khhhahhkkhhlkmA
f sahhalaal^alalalsasllz
p p b pbttld s z szt^tsd


ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
Di 5 Khoo.
Kaung Dok-yoon^ Z-nio.
m ^Wlf. fi^ s
ts Z
tfy r
clz
m-meh clz-dea r-tshien
ts-deu tsh-ts bak-ng
ths-di s-seh sa meh-z
dz-bih meh-z seh-theh-tse
sa-doo sau di SGii-tsauh
se-ba tslum tslie seu-zeh
si-tse tsoo sa till-tau
tsoo tsho tsok-deu sih-bak
plioo-se bali-theh seu-tsih
zeu-soo zak-deu tshih-seh
zoo-zoo tshak-theh auh-tshauh
tse-be sab-th eh pok-theh
tsaii-cleu seh-theh phok-tau
sau /a bi-theh thok-deu
tshau-deu ah-dzeli sau-zok


I zieu
I
tsoe
tshoe
dzoe
tsu
tsbu
dzu
tsni
tshui
dzui
tsia
tshia
tsiau
tshiau
dziau
tsieu
tsliien
(Men
ZAUXG-HE LOO-MO Z 2EH-MT7MO
Di 6 Khoo.
u ui ia iau ieu
(ft

tiau
thiau
diau
tieu
see
zoe
sn t
zu
sui
zui
sia
siau
sieu





.

oe

()
piau
phi an
biau
tia


43 ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
doen
tsmi
tsliaii
dzan
tsen
tslieu
dzen
tsien
tsliien
dzien
tsoen
tslioen
san
zan
sen
/en
si en
zieu
soen
an
Di 7 Khoo.

Kaung Bih-iiing,
en
len
oen

tan
than
dan
ten
then
den
tien
th i en
dien
toon
thoon





_
olllelll
naulllellellcel
ah a eh ekhlc
p pb p pb p pb



ZATJNG-HE LOO-MO Z Z£H*MUNG.
ang
Di 8 Khoo.

mg

aung



s s s nJS
gD gn2gnuln? 5
nlam llDDula§agQO-g g £111
shzasilshzlsaza§ §inInallau
^pt)istsdtstsdtstsd sz.sl.zl ^
({


t .igg g n bcrJDngg
g g glllg m agnggInUnm
ppbpiplbippbta^dc.tithditathdc
.N


45 ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
tilling
clung
tsimg
tsluing
dzung
sung
zang
siang
ziang
tsiang
tshiang
clziana'
boong
toong
thoong
doong
tsoong
tshoong
dzoong
soong
zoong
pung
plmiig
bung
tung
ping-ting
dzaii2;-tsaiing
bang-d/ak
dzeu-dih
dzung-deii
pang-se
bang-se
tsien di-bi
dzan doong-dien
thing tshing-saung
oong

Di 9 Khoo.
ung

iang








10
ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
tshuh
dzuh
tsiak
tsliiak
dziak
soeh
siak
ziak
doeli
tuli
tluih
dull
tsoeli
tshoeh
tsuh
iuh-tsliu
iak-tsak
pih-plmh
tshoen-toeh
thoeh-tlieli
tnli-dzak
siano;-dzak
o
dok-su
s-yak
doeh-theh
li-pa-daung
yoong sing dok su
yi zeu pih-phuli
iak-tsak ih-pak
di po yang-tau
yi yen ill ting yang-san
yi yen ill pung su
soeh-su-sien-^ang
tshino;.tshiiig*saiing-saimg
Di 10 Khoo.

oeh
aeA
uli iak
A




h leh
-lkill111o
a u h u o h
lay p pbtctl


ya
yan
ping
yau
yaung
ye
yien
yen
yi
yoen
yoong
yni
vain
ynng
ian
iang
kill
ie
ien
ieu
i
ioen
ioong
iui
luin
iimg
aAjUNCI-HK LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNQ. 11
Di 11 Khoo.


i /


S


y/


12
'2AUNG-HK LOO-MO Z ZJCH-MUNG.
ka
kna
ga
kang
khang
kan
khan
ke
kiie
ge
ken
khen
kau
khau
gau
Di 12 Khoo.
/
kh
//
k
/
.
§

kaung
khaung
gmmg
kho
koo
klioo
koong
khoong
goong
koen
khoen
keu
kheu
k
ung
khung




13 ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.

kyoong
choong
joong
kyoen
ch oen
joen
kyeu
cheu
jeu
kyung
cluing
jung
kyui
chui
jui
kyain
chuin
juin
fcya
cha
kyang
chang
jang
kyan
chan
kyi
chi
ji
kyien
chien
jien
kyau
cliau
jmi
chaung
jo
Di 13 Khoo.
ky4
ch
cd

/




_


14
ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNG.
kwa
khwa
kwan
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Full Text

PAGE 3

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE SHANGHAI VERNACULAR -u h SHANGHAI: AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS J9JJ

PAGE 5

THE SHANGHAI VERNACULAR l'REFATORY. 1HE dialects, to which group the Vernacular belong,;, are the language of those Chinese who occupy the southern part of all of Chehkiang, and a portion of the adjacent provinces of Anhui and Kiangsi. Mr. Yon estimates their number at forty-four millions, while the ShanghaiSoochow dialect is used by te1~ millions, and can he unt1erstood fairly well by the more intelligent all over the u ~ u
PAGE 6

4 THE SHANGHAI VERNACULAR. To help the student in his efforts to acquire a good pronunciation the followingdescription of'Shanghai Romanizatio n' .has been prepared, It is advisable that fit st half xear the student should not hamper himself with the study of the character. The study of the character is no help to the but rather a hinrlrance, and should not he al]O \\"erl with the spo){en language rluring the e arlier months o f ones course of stu,h. LANr.tJ AGR. Most books in the Shanghai dialect are printed "in character." When the time has come for beginning the study of the of the first things to rlo i s to learn the It is usua l to learn them hy and tedious the II um bets are easily fo r gotten. To assist the memory the Radical Ode some ago, and published in Dr. c\fateer's Mandarin Lessons. Many have found it a great he]p, and Dr.]vlateer to arl vise students o f Chinese to commit the Ode to memorv as the most wav of retaining the radicals in m ind. Dr. Fryer, hearl of the Oriental Department of the University of California, gives to his students similar advice. The writer has composed a )!ew Ode which seems to h i m a better mnemonic device than the old one, although some may think the old is better. We give them both in this book. The radicals are divided into seventeen groups, according to the number of p"en strokes required to write them. \Ve would advise students t o !eat n first. the seventeen radicals which in each of these groups. Learn the number of each, its form, meaning a n d pronunciation, and with this as a fonndalion t ile rest may be lea rnecl in whatever way the indi,-iclu a l most effective. This course will help the student to remember the number of strokes in each radical, and will save a good deal of lime in hunting up characters; for a large number of the characters i n a clictionarv are made up of two or more radicals, an{l if the number is remembered, there will be no need to stop and count their "additional strokes ,when looking up these characters i n the dictionary.

PAGE 7

CONTENTS. P.-1.R'I'. I THE SHA NG HAI"\' !lRN ACUT,AR-PR RFATORY... 3 'AUH Z!R 6 SH.\NGHAI ROM .\NIZATION ... 7 TART,E OF SHANGHAI fNITIA!,S AND FINALS... .. IO TAH!,E O F 1'HB: R.\D!C .\I.S.. ... 1 2 TH!l RAJHCAI,S-PRO:-;'Ol'NCF.D ANll Dr:FINED lN'l'ROJHTC'l'OR\" :1\oTE TO RA DICAT, ODE .. 23 THE New RADICAr. On8. Tm, Or.n RADICAL ODE l'..\RT. IL lNTROr>UC'rOR Y 5'A'EMENT. 25 29 LESSONS r~t\'DIG ..\ LIST OF SH,:1.NO HAI Svr.T.AllI.RS WITH CHARACTERS 11.l.USTRATING EACH TON((. s

PAGE 8

L .ill khw j \\( \ ha hwo hnhwfYWEB-mz tll llti-tllt])}all phing '111a meh 'vch fok Jall ing ang .. ... a aeouo ph b m mvf ,ll l ..... 11 '\v l Tl voo tieu thie n doeh tsiang tshoe dzu 00 ieu 1 e n oeh v ts tsh oe dz ..... z . I. ng r 6 soen Zia Jiak IW 11Yie11 nyi ngan nga ken u oen ia ing iak n ault ny ien ny i 'ng an ng a k eu s E ..

PAGE 9

~HANGHAI OF R()MANIZA'flON. -,. ..-(.-.......-'fHH trne pronunciation U{Chi11c s e can only be lenrned a Chi11ese teacher. A large rna]ority of Ye no exact eg each sented by a Chinese character into two e \ e m e11ls one init i" ]a n1l final. Nll'IAI,S. The Initials are divided into a "Middle ,o r "Aspirated,,and aLower" Series. In the UPPER SERIES Js, s, l, 'n, '11y,11g ,f ky, and initials are pronounced in most cases mucl1 the sam e a s in E nglish, but without aspirati o n higher in pitch and with less "ibratio n of t h e larynx.I'he apostrophe before a letter indicates that the Jetter belongs to the "higher ,;eries." Pure vowel initials belong to this series. ny has a s ounrl similar to that spaniel. ky=dt in dmrch with aJI el i111inaterl. 1he middle the t o ngue should be elevted, ll'hile t h e to tbe lowe r teeth. i as an initial has the sound uf i in lahlia. The ASPJRATS hIi, rh. khw, h !,y and hw (t!z as 'l110111so11-not as in /hinl{). in church. hy is nearly like ti in Portia, but sibilant than the English sh. be pronounced without any pressure of end of the against the r oo f n f the month. 7

PAGE 10

SHANGHAI O F R Oii!.-\.'.'\ lZ.\TION. The other a spirates a r e like the o f the higher series w ith the ag I>et wee n The ABR UP'l' VowEr, ENDl;)i G S a!i, ok u h anrl i nk in which It and k are the signs of the ze/1-smt_!; the. v owel is in a short, abrn} )l m a n n er. k is written a f ter the "long ' sonn
PAGE 11

9 SHANGHAI SYSTEM OF ROMANIZATION. as in too. Before is often sounded very much like o in bone. The oo is modified by its and in such etc., oo represents a combinatiou of the sounds of 01, in though and through. u e as in Goethe ( eu as in Frencl1 (Monsieur). u as oo iu foot (always preceded by ans sound). ui as in frr,it ( or rather In and ie, we have short i followed closely hy a e, as described above. course it is understood that the Chinese sounds iu a majority of cases vary somewhat from the English are given as the nearest equivalent. The DOK-YOONG Z-MOO-" .Initials used alone,i.e. without vowels, and r. The first fiv e are followed by the vowel sound in the second syllable of a bleprolonged. Mateer and Baller use i for this sound and the new Mandarin Romanized uses j. It is not written, but understood, in the Shanghai has the sound of 1in chasm and n .s: the sound of 11.r:in hanger. r is a sound rand/. Tone S ig11s-A degre e m ark to the right of a s ylla ble indicates the dtui0-s1111g The same mark 011 the left indicates the ::a11g-s11111:-e.g.,-0ngoo ('I~). Final Ii or k indicates zeh-s1111g. All other words are in the binl,t s1mg. The following tables give an exhibit of all the initials and finals of the dialect, systematically Students of the: dialec t will do well to pronounce them after their teacher a s a daily in pronunciation. The List of Shanghai S yllables gi\'t,n in Part II, is recommended for drill in pronunciation.

PAGE 12

.. pmH-MM-vLEhr-SZLL-NN IO

PAGE 13

IUNG-YUIN. \ O o oo Ang ang Oong Ak ak Oe oc An Oen an oen Ah ah ()ch oeh ~,.. E e Eu eu En en Ung ung Eh eh Uh uh I l u u Ien 1en I ing Ui Ul Ih ih Uin Ulll Au au Ia 1a Iang iang -IR-: g;:h :"" Iak iak Ian ian ok lea 1eu . . DOK YOONG Z-MOO. >l 111 s s z 'l Ts t.s R r Tsh tsh R r Dz dz Ng n g I I

PAGE 14

1 4) z 3 47 ({< JII TABLE OF 1 2 ,.. 5 1 0 4r-

PAGE 15

Is THE RADICALS. 10syt I 7 1 JI I:::; I ::;!I 153~ 10 rs 171jft i 15 21 16 17

PAGE 17

THE Shanghai Pro11unc;iation nantn utra vo tIII-II
PAGE 18

16 THE 22-60 I tA chest, a = 43 2s I 1To I 45 Y-1 streams ~,\< 29 711 w orkm,an. lJ;:: 3 Strokes. I W 30 n f.heU. month. ue indosure. 32 I. E arth. 2l1 cl form). sci follow, slowly. dzilt. Evening. A 0ts. I T A son, Pl um age, hair. I I I A s tep. 0pa u ke0-I aeu. f nyung. nr OA 5 3 yien. ) A roof, s h elter. ft ve on. I : 57 .=!_ l oo11g, archery. Colloquial, (rst form). 51

PAGE 19

17 'I'HE RADICALS, 4 Strokes. ColJoq paung ( 2nd and 3rd forms). radical is usually pronounced 0te, but Kanghi gives oe/z as the proper sonncl and the original meaning of this radical wasrotten [bone. , 79 .T\; ;~ To kill. 62~ koo. spear. door. voo. = To compare. paung (2nd form). ts. branch, a (2nd form). wool. 831:t!. 0z. Family name. Clzi0. vapor. 8571( 7J'san-0tien0s (2nd form). s6!k>m 68 ~L 0teu. A bushel, a (211dform). 87 l1t" 69 .I I An axe, a catty. 10-t: /J A square. ilz p M!z form). 89~ yau. c. nyih. The sun, a day. r I / I A couch, a trame. 73 Cl yoelz. To speak. 91 I!I n A splinter, a slice. 74 J:t yoelz. .Tl The moon, a c. nga. /J A tooth. \Vood, a tree, 76 c!zien. a cow. owe, pam1.1; (2nd form). stop. paung (211d form)

PAGE 20

18 95-128 THE RADICALS. 5 Strokes. 95 -J-: -pa1111,1r ( 211d form) 97 nT kwo. m elon, ,s st. A tile, .......,. !ten 100 #-J... s uni: c produce, IOI n:t m To u s e. 102 tTt dll'll, A field. 103~ philt. of so o A 1ty u h 1 pa1tng. t o back c. bak. Cl White, i n vain. I 07ftt bi. VC. Skin, b ark. 108 nn JUL A dish, a platter. 1091=11ok. l=I The e y e I ?Jtetl /f A lance, halberd. n 2-rzak. s tone. I/Ilg" fonu 11t. 00. pa1111g. y oehz0-d eu. iJ 6 Strokes. I I l so k I tsok! i-deu. II9...lk paung. 121 h,-0.feu. J.ll Pottery. I m I (211r1 form). I yell/_!{. A s heep. I 11. Old, venerable. I 12 6 ~ r I II IJ Still, yet.

PAGE 21

19 THE RADICALS. 129-164 ioeli. =r, A 7 Strokes. 147 8 kyien" tr!. To see. paung (2nd form). u1J 131 p:; dzung. statesman. 1320 z0 t:I Self, from. arrive. o,w. A mortar. zeh. a:l The tongue. 136 Jr.I-0tshen. :rr Opposing. 137 tseu JIJ A boat. 138 13 .. Perverse. I39b. suit. horu, to speak. I 'CT A valley. deu0. I _v_ Beans. it pig. I I I r--.. Color, vice. pauug (2nd form) z0-deu nyan 0tshan -deu (2n
PAGE 22

20 165-200 THE RADICALS. .. SAM eemdp k . 7CHQJDI234 nonhunanynyny nyny -yneJtpuu 9 Strokes. I.Iii The face. lmh. Raw hide. Leeks. 11 Strokes. A fish. 196 bau. 1rd. l'i Salt. A deer. Wheat. H emp.

PAGE 23

21 THE RADICALS. 201-214 IZ Strokes. 14 Strokes. The nose Millet. !zttlz Black. 21 Eml>roidery. teeth. 13 Strokes. 16 Strokes. ragon. A frog. A t ortoise. r pod. A drum. A rat. flute. ..

PAGE 25

THE NEW RADICAL ODE. INTRODUCTO R Y NO'l'E. In the hope that the task o f le arnin g the order of the Radicals may be ma
PAGE 27

THE NEW RADICAL ODE. The be t o the Auld L a 11g-S y11e. One Stroke.-B~:GIN RIGHT. Do thou begin with unity; be to a dot; I No l eft h ,md stroke, nor c rook shonld eer t h y rec } J 6 o r d blot. Two Strokes.-A RIDDLl. Oo, give two hats to that old man-the weary tramp of ...._ Who enters eiglz t, the gate, with co;.er all of ice. 14 15 See n o w a b e11rh, within a box, a swo r d o f strmgl! t w r a p t up. u A spoon, in case conc ea ld with ten !-divin e and win the ci1p t A seal upon a cli jfis seen, made by a se !fis!t hoax, J 27 .4 2 8 And then a small conjrmr!ion comes and ends the dual stro kes. L.~DY AND HER SON. O AMyS mout/1 enclosure sweet Earths s ag e s' steps t s lo w I Au My son upon the roof would go. Au indt too far! A small, weak c orps e where lilies sp ro u t they l a y; P B y 111,n1ttain strea m s w o rkman's self a k e r c h i ef' hides away. 11J 46 <<< 47 Go shield the te11d e r neath your roof;move on, withfoi n e d hands; r 53 L With dart from bow a pigshead shoo t ;with f e at!t ers ste p the -l; 56 59 .f 6o s ancls 25

PAGE 28

26 THE NEW RADICAL ODE. Four OBSERVA'l'IO!'
PAGE 29

>7 THE XEW RADICAL ODE. d the e a r a pen;-his fieslz in wrinkles Jl hung,-The statesman now himse(f arri;,ed, mashd his tongue. boats, with men penerse, in o/or d grass all Like tiger-i11sect s, blo odfilld, in clothing from !It Seven DRUNKEN VISION. A TRiCK I see! a horn that speaks within a ,alley wild, Give beans to pigs while teptiles hurt my precious 11aked chHd He walks with foot and cart this bitte r But with city wine, heS pluckd each Li a dime. lE 162 Strokes.-A Goon ENDING. A l>uTCH Key-g-old-long lockd the I gain'<\. I reachd for birds; rain hid the blue, hut longer pain 'cl. 1t. 172 1 74 175 Nin e Strokes.-PERPJ,EXING EXPERIENCES A DoOgiSH /act with raw-hide that have 178 Like wind out flew my .foo d ; my !zead n o p e1:fi 1111e 183 found. Te n Strokes.-QUARREr.. ABOU'J' A HORSE. bone was flew my hai r and 190 'beard. A quarrel rose, and lzerbs in urns brought in by a r,pe a r 'd.

PAGE 30

28 THE NEW RADICAL ODE. Eleven HISTORY. A DouBLejish wont catch a bird; salt will not catch a deer; But wheat will purchase ropes of lternp where!even strokes appear. Twelve and Thi,tee n Strokes.-PURCHASE AND ADVF.N' URE. A NaSTy yellow 11tillet mush, with black bougltt! A on chased a drum-scared rat he'd caught. SUNDRY OBSERVATIONS. A a ,J and NeeDeD teet h ruust suit ; ,11-A NoDdiNg urtfes bite, wllile AND Rew plays the flute. MNEMONIC FOR REMEMBERING THE FIRST RADICAL. OF EACH SECTION. Strok e s I. A llat for ONE old man will do. 2. 0 honey, give him TWO and go. 3. Home is the place for MOUTH like Amy's. 4. Harrow his HEART she never should. 5. A hill now climbs the BLACK man pale. 6. Watch not the BAMBOO! Dido fv 7 Oak trees I S EE ,ti s n o t a trick. 8. A foe did steal m y GOLD Dutch key. 9. Abe hid from m e a FACE thats doggish. 10. Woods have conceald my old HORSE Tewfik. 11. Dead FISH give forth a perfume double. 12. A den of YELLOW snakes is nastv. 13. A tomb shall hide that F&OGs old nozle., 14. A tear did wet the NOSE of Nasby. 15. A ta.el to fill the TOOTH was needed. 16. Touch not the DRAGON while he's nodding. 17. Take now a FLUTE m y m erry Andrew.

PAGE 31

THE RADICAL ODE. When Dr. Mateer was putting his Mandarin Lessons through the press, he conceived the idea that a rhyme might be useful in learning the meaning and order of the radicals. It was at his inwith the benefit of his helpfuf criticism, that the following nonsense was composed;in fact the first stanza was the Doctor's own production. The ode has been found helpful as a mnemonic contrivance, and is printed in Dr. MateerS Lessons with the following note The following 0de will relieve the student of much labor i n learning the meaning and order of the radicals. It will serv e as a continuous ladder, with suggestive and ever-varying rounds, which the student can mount with vastly greater ease than he can climb the bare pole of arithmetical numbers. Not only is the first acquirement made easier, but the memory will retain the and recall it more readily wi 11 the bare numbers., HOW TO BEGIN. One Stroke.-Numbers 1-6. Beginning with unity-, just as you ought, You next make an I and then make a dot Make a stroke to the left } then a J, And youve summed up the use of one stroke in a book. A RIDDLe. Two Strokes.-Numbers 7-29. ....,__ on one See, that fast, at eig!zt ;\, and the limit n is passed. A cov'rin g,of ice r hides a benclz } L a:id a box u; A great wrapped up >3 in old socks ; A spoon I:: in a case C is concealed C w;th Divine this means, and then ask the o]d wives Why that seal fJ on the cliff r, made by some hoax, Should let a up the two strokes CONSOLA'UON FOR AN UNFORTUNATE WIDOW. Three .5trokes.-Numbers 30-6o. Three smacks on 1J an sweet That greet. 29

PAGE 32

30 THE RADICAL ODE. This a fall From a was forty-one is not a some sprouts I#! from the hill ill, Washed {~< bv the keep him quite still. Wrap a ski the tend e r i'. ; Give sltelter r to on, their defender! Joined Cupids da1 from his Eat pigs don plumaj;"e ~;his know. SUNDRY RF.Ff,RCTIONS. Fowr Strokes.-Numbers 61-94. If your heart once pierced by you stand, Then the eternitys surely at When youve m astered this the la11gua ge, be sure Youve but the portal of Though we measure with Yet sun's 8 light we could not sell our w ares. Why the such rapture my dove? To the shade of the w e first love. Stop ~ niy prayer! Can life be those locks of reel One's as dear as his Through defend it till death. The claws JR of a kitten, my said, Should never scratch climb on a And a the i e e t an end to all jokes, While an a end up the four strokes. SAD Dl;:ATH OF TWO Five Strokes.-Numbers 95-117. Two once ate a They slept on some tiles how their slum her! But to liv e 1:. was no their ease, In dry were killed by d i s ea s e r Back to back weTe laid, dressed in then

PAGE 33

31 THE RADICAL ODR. With the the cucumber place d in a dt' slt Jill Then au )f and engraved 011 a s As an emblem divi11f? the flown; This stone, midst the in a den Was strokes o f the pen. AN RCCSNTRIC OI.D STATESMAN. Six St,okes.-Numbers 118-146. Our a w Our be taxed as of Am1 for this foo l with long "Stick a his cried a with jeers. The states ,1a11 !::!: The hed smash and make shorter! The with red H e tie d up w i t h grass dis missed in disgrace. But when ll:! d r e w thought bes t To skip to the BEWARE OF THE SER PENT. Seven Strokes .-Numbers 147-166. S even str okes we 11ow a In tbe S i grow and of w h o l e herd; tl!eir offspri n g are feeding! With l e g s bare and l a d walks jfr unheeding; His a sting and his dies; A his mother : how cri e s Tis high a yj)e Where w ine victims for many F I,EETI N G R I CHES Eigh t Strokes.-Numbers 16 7 175. E i ght s trokes l and now gained D oth open the But riches like the the If I am not fly quickly from you. FOOLISH A N G:0:R. Nine 1 7 6-186 Nine strokes o n a raw-hide i'p: o r Or e"eu w i t h a r a ise all weat h er.

PAGE 34

3 2 THE RADICAL ODE. For the they away, Dont your burn day. GOOD ADVICE. Ten Stro kes .-Numbers 1 87-194. Ten strokes o n a a o n Will wear off his soon c ause him to shy Dont in an Or you'll find yourself doome d with t h e burn. FISHING AND HUNTING. I 95-200. E l e v e n a bird.!;';. cau g h t w ith A e ats a halt GOING T O ;\!ARKET. Twelve Stroke s .-Numbers 201--204. T welve b y me. EXPLOIT OF SOME FROGS. 'Ihirteen Str oke s.-Number s 205-208. Thirteen a sat, But jumped on a they saw a big RESULT OF A FIGHT. F ifieen S!rokes.-Number s 209-211. Fourteen were Fift e e n were the were -Jos t in a fight. THE DRAGON S E N D IT. Sixteen and S even teen Strok es.-Numbe r s 212-214. Sixteen sat on a tortoise~ l ast June, Flaying seventeen and that win< 1 s up m y t une.

PAGE 35

PART II A COMPLETE LIST SHANGHAI SYLLABLES

PAGE 36

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. Some four years ago the "Complete Shanghai Syllabary , was ptihlished, an,\ those who purcliase( l were requested to send their names to the compiler iu order that there might be sent to them The S,>\Ill
PAGE 37

ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MONG. Di 1 Khoo. b L I e a a pa pha l>a p-a ph-a b-a eiA ppbPFb p-e ph-e b-e ph-i po pho bo p-o ph-o h-o

PAGE 38

ZAUNGHE L00-1110 Z ZEH-:MUNG ot D 2 au / U ,().,(). ttttd pan phau ban pen pheu poo phoo boo ZA pau-pau pan-pe boo-boo thoo-di pa-doo theu-dau ten-ha di-bi thi-deu tha-tha the-deu de-thi bi-de bi-dcu

PAGE 39

3 ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNODi 3 Khoo. dz 1I 21 tsh ts z 8 f (/, aeohhllt-lae--oaeo :-,au sen soo tsa tse tsi tso sa se SI so za z e Zl zo

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4 ZAUNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZEH-MUNO. Di 4 Khoo. Kaung Zeh Sung. a a e I au ak ah eh ih auh ok ah a auh {')h ,m ... pak bih J}lj tsauh phak bak pah J\. pheh dih bah tah thah dah k sak k zak: sah zah tsak dzak

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ZAUNGHE LOO-MO Z ZEHMU:\'G. 5 Di 5 Khoo. Z-rno. m s ts z r dz m-meh dz-den r-tshien ts-deu tsh-ts bak-ng sa meh-z dz-I}i h meh-z seh-theh-tse sa-doo san di sen-tsanh se-ba tshau tshe seu-z e h tsoo sa? tih-tau tsoo tsho tsok-den sili-bak phoo-se bah-th eh sen-tsih zeu-soo zak-deu tshih-seh zoo-zoo tshak-theh auhtshauh tse-be sah-theh pok-theh tsau-deu seh-t.heh phok-tau bi-th eh thok-deu tshau-deu ah.dzeh sau-z o k

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ZAU~GHE LOO!l-10 Z .ZEH-MtTM.Q -6 Di 6 Khoo. ieu 1au rn tu u oe -te1t ,{J,t:. ttdttdttttdttd piau phi an biau tia tiau thian diau tieu soe zoe uu szszszss

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1 Z..\.UNGHE LOOMO Z ZEHMUNG. Di 7 Khoo. Kaung oen ien en an tulnt-mAnne ..... ... ,4 ... .... a sen knu 4.1.1 soen e n Inln EIIGENU;wi--e

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ZA.lJNG-BE LOO-MO Z Di 8 Khoo. fi 1ng ang aung 98 98n na ah auQU 4.u4.u zanng sang unn t.--I ZSZ pang phang bang ping phing bing paung phaung baung tang tbang dang ting thing ding taung thaung daung

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9 ZAUNGHE LOOMO Z Di 9 Khoo. iang UllQ" -(U.~ boong toong tsoong tshoong dzoong pung phung tung pang-se t sien di-bi dzan doon~:-dien thing tshing-saung qb .. nbMUd pdbdd

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ZA.UNGHE LOO-MO Z ZEHMUNG. 10 Di 10 Khoo. iak .... ..... a e I 0-e/i /}J ? t tshuh tff1J thuh iak yak pub phnh buh toeh thoeh ioeh yoeh iuh yuh iok !ok iah yah li-pa-daung yoong sing dok su yi zeu pih-phuh iak-tsak ih-pak di po yang-tau yi yen ih ting yi yen ih pung su soeh-s1;1-sien-sang iuh-tshu iak-tsak pih-phuh tshoen-toeh thoeh-theh tnh-dzak siang-dzak dok-su s-yak doeh-theh

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11 ~'ONGlJIE L00-1110 Di 11 Khoo. y I i y ya yan yang yau ta mn nu aa ak-n In V.V U V U nl o--n uu vuVMVW yung , e-VWVW yoen le 1en men wong IUI nun mng 1eu I

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ZJ..UNG-HE LOO-MO Z ZlHMUNG. Di 12 Khoo. 12 kh ,{, /,' k / O i kho koo khoo koong khoong goong koe n khoen ken kheu mub muhu n nu UEU KK ka kha ga kang k a n kha n ke khe g e k e n khau khen kau gau

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13 ZAUNGHE LOOMO Z ZEH:('rIUNG J / Di 13 Khoo. ch c c.JIG-Jkcjlc.Jlam-mkd-mu kya. cha Ja kyang chang 3ang kyan chan kyi chi ji kyien chien jien kyau chau jau chaung jo

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ZAUNGHE LOO-MO Z ZEH-1\IUNG. 14 Di gw khw kw mvmnmuhom euauonu kwa khwa kwan khwan gwe kwen kwe kh,vc zia-zia noong tshing yoong dzo tshing zoo, tshing zoo yi yen z-th i khwa-tien chi yi zoo jau-ts le tang kwen-s chuh-kwan-tse nnHHn avuukyhhA

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ZAUl\' G-fIP. LOO-MO Z 15 Di 15 Khoo. kak khak kah chih khah iljih gah knh :kwah tli keh huh kyok kheh geh k kauh khauh kha-weh kha-weh kok-doo tmmg taung-deu chuh-jok tsia kyoeh-ts koong-boo jok chuh-chui chuh-khoo yeu-tsnug jok ih khuh dzang-tsaung tsau.iung kheh-deu yen chub you tsak tan-kauh tsan-tsau ya-ya kwaung-khwch khocn

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ZAUNG-Tm LOO-i\10 Z :lF.II-}!UNG. Di 16 Khoo. 16 ,/4 'n I ~I ,/drd w '1~j ny n ,Ji, m meu 0.LI ly-II ---t-E .. ..... .. 1,11 Ill() (') i moon2: 'man m:-tn me ma ma me men nu mien 'ming ming LHiH It -t l-E

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ZAUNt;.HE LOO:ill O Z Z Ell!llUNG. Di 17 Khoo. 11th lmh lauh lok ; .. .. . lah l e h lih

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18 Y.ElI.,lUNO, Di 18 Khoo. 112'00 ngoen l UO"Ul10' \va wen waung 'wo WO n u n-oun wwwwwhw 'wen nyan uyang nyi nyi nyicn 'nyau nyau nyoen nyoong nycu nyung nyui nga ngang ngan ngan ugen ngau ngaung

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ZAUNGHE LOOM O Z lMUNU. rn Di 19 Khoo. hy hw ~:Y Ila i' hyuin lian hwa he hwe hen han hoo 1< hoong hocn hyung hen .. hung 1ia1i. .. .. lllfJ hya hauh .. hyang .. .. live huh .. .. hycu hyak .. .. .. hyi .. .. hyien .. hyan .. .. hyo .. .. hyoo hwah .. hyoong hweh .. hyoen .. ..

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ZAUN<.,.JU;LUUl\10 :,; Zlm.l1W.NG Di 20 Khoo. 20 v f / / ,tl. ,v. vnng fan fi fo<}nl 1 fung va van vaung veu vung voong voo VI veh veh vok fah feh fok w ah wah ,veh wch wauh vah ngak ngah ngeh ngnh wak nyak nyah nyih nyok nyoeh nyuh

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21 ZA UN fl.}IE LOOl\10 Z Z EH-:i\lUNG. Di 21 Khoo. Inu}muHnloL I l l h } 4 a a ang au an l ten e 'c en 'en ok uh auh anh oeh ch eh ih an ah ah ak eh-thien-'au au-tsen-doong tsoongveh iau wo van kok palsing zien-deu an-hvih-we 'an-pen-nyil1 eusou