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Hindi manual

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Title:
Hindi manual comprising a grammar of the Hindi language both literary and provincial; a complete syntax; exercises in various styles of Hindi composition; dialogues on several subjects; and a useful vocabulary
Creator:
Pincott, Frederic
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Lockwood
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Hindi
Edition:
7th ed.
Physical Description:
387 p. ; 17 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Hindi language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Hindi language -- Composition and exercises ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India
Coordinates:
21 x 78

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VIAF (name authority) : Pincott, Frederic : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/405405

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SOAS, University of London
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THE HINDI MANUAL




THE

HINDI MANUAL.

COMPRISING

A GRAMMAR OF THE HINDI LANGUAGE BOTH LITERARY
AND PROVINCIAL; A COMPLETE SYNTAX;
EXERCISES IN VARIOUS STYLES OF HINDI COMPOSITION j
DIALOGUES ON SEVERAL SUBJECTS; AND A
USEFUL VOCABULARY.

B'i

FREDERIC PINCOTT, M.R.A.S.

SUITOR AND ANNOTATOR OF THE s'aKUNTALA IN HINDI J EDITOR OF
THE URDti ** ALF LAILa; AND TRANSLATOR OF THE SANSKRIT

hitopades'a."

SEVENTH EDITION

LONDON

Kegan Paul, Trench. Trubner & Co. Ltd.

BROADWAY HOUSE. GARTER LANE. E.C.


LONDON:

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,

DTJE.E STREET. STAMFORD STREET. S.E., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET,


PREFACE

TO THE THIRD EDITION

The rapid sale of this Man.ial has encouraged the
Publishers to have this edition thoroughly revised, and
entirely reprinted, instead of merely amending the stereo-
typed plates. Those who compare the present with former
copies will see that it has been improved and extended
throughout, not by mere insertions in bulk, but by the
introduction of fresh idioms and more apt illustrations,
sentence by sentence, throughout the entire work. The
additional matter has been introduced, for the most part,
among the Classified Idiomatic Sentences, that being the
portion of the book which has been held to be the most
valuable, as it is also the most original. This Manual is
the first book which ever made a serious attempt to teach
the idiomatic constructions of an Oriental language; and
the student will find this section of the book (in connec-
tion with an intelligent use of the Nominal Verbs given
on pp. 53-64, and the special verbal constructions on pp.
38-39.) of the greatest use to him in any attempt to
express himself elegantly and fluently in Hindi. Entirely


VI

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

new points have been dealt with under Verbal Com-
pounds, Passives, Impersonals, Intensives, Nominals, the
Participles, the uses of the Negative, and the methods
of Reckoning introduced into the Dialogues. Selections
from a remarkable translation of Goldsmiths Deserted
Village have also been added, in order to familiarize the
student with Hindi verse,a very popular form of compo-
sition. About 50 pages of new matter have been added
in this way to the book; but, in order to reduce the total
bulk, about 20 pages of the mere reading Exercises have
been removed.

Another change of some importance has been made*
When the book was first prepared it was thought useful
to include illustrations of inelegant and local forms oi
speech. The book being intended for general use/
it seemed needful to indicate to the learner some of
the peculiarities he might not infrequently meet with,
The present edition has been made much more uniform
in character, nothing being included in it which do*.:
violence to the standard forms of Hindi. The Manual is,
however, a practical work, intended for those who will
have to use the language in their daily avocations ; there-
fore such constructions as may be met with in the better
class of newspapers, and in commercial operations, could
not fairly be excluded. The book as it now stands will,
however, it is hoped, meet any objections which were
formerly urged against its composite character.

Every Hindi sentence and example in the book is taken
from some work (mostly of recent date) by a native
Hindu of a Hindi-speaking district: there is nothing


PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

Yll

here of what is called European Hindi, or Missionary
Hindi. The examples were, therefore, not written to
exemplify the rules, but are the natural expressions
of men who had no expectation of their words* being
used for such a purpose. Authority (volume and page)
can be adduced for every Hindi sentence here printed.
This has been deemed a matter of special importance;
for it is the guarantee that the Manual presents the
language to the student as it really is.

Both the Nagari and the Homan characters are given,
to adapt the book to two classes of learners.

Since the publication of the first edition of this book
the Hindi language has grown apace, and cannot much
longer be denied its rightful place in the public offices of
the sixty millions of people who speak it. There is
something anomalous in the attitude of the Indian
Government towards this wide-spread vernacular. Half a
century ago, when very little indeed was known of the
real condition of the provinces where it is spoken, Urdu
was adopted as an official language in the honest belief
that it was the language of the people. The Court of
Directors rightfully held that justice should not be ad-
ministered in a language foreign to the mass of the
people; but, although the mistake has been long since
discovered, the Urdu, which is foreign both invocabulary
and in the very alphabet in which it is written, is main-
tained as the only medium of communication with the
Government of the country, and in the administration of
justice. The Hindi language is, however, rapidly forcing
its way to the front, and the enormous literature now in


Vill PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

process of formation will render it impossible for the
present extraordinary state of things to be long main-
tained.

In the preparation of the first edition of this book I
enjoyed the invaluable assistance of Dr. Fitzedward
Hall, D.C.L. Oxon., whose high scholarship and critical
acumen have long been widely acknowledged. The
evidences of his care and deep Oriental learning remain
impressed upon the work. It has also been my good
fortune to receive the friendly comments and corrections
of Raja Lachhman Singh, one of the ablest and most
chaste of Hindi writers. With painstaking care that
courteous gentleman read through every page, and I
have gladly availed myself of the improvements which
his ripe judgment led him to suggest. Amendments of
Navina Chandra Rai, famed for the elegance and learned
character of his many Hindi works, have also been
included in the present edition, for which my thanks
are due.

FREDERIC PINCOTT.


CONTENTS

Grammar Page 1
Pronunciation . 3
The Article . . 7
The Substantive . . 8
The Adjective . 12
The Pronoun . 16
The Yerb . 21
The Yerb hon& . 26
Intransitive Verbs . 30
Transitive Verbs . 35
Passive Verbs . . 37
Special verbal constructions . 38
Causal Verbs . . 40
Compound Verbs . 47
Nominal Verbs . 52
Particles . 64
Adverbs . . 65
Prepositions . 67
Conjunctions . . 70
Interjections . 71
Provincial Hindi . . 72
Braj Bhasha . 76

IART II.

Idiomatic Sentences Classified.

Substantives :

The Nominative
The Agent .
The Accusative
The Dative

84

85

86
89


X

CONTENTS,

Substantivescant. The Genitive . Pa^e 93
The Ablative . . 103
The Locative . . 112
Apposition ... . . 120
The Plural ... . . 121
Adjectives .... . . 128
Pronouns .... ... . 132
Verbs : TheAorist. . . 138
The Future . 143
The Imperative ..... . 146
The Indefinite Imperfect . . 150
The Present Imperfect . 151
The Past Imperfect .... . 153
The Contingent Imperfect . . 153
The Presumptive Imperfect . 154
The Negative Contingent Imperfect . . 155
The Indefinite Perfect . 155
The Present Perfect .... . 157
The Past Perfect .... . 158
The Contingent Perfect . 159
The Presumptive Perfect . . 159
The Negative Contingent Perfect . 160
The Progressive Present . . 161
The Progressive Imperfect . 162
Verbal Compounds Frequentatives and Acquisitives . 163
Continuatives ..... . 163
Inceptives ..... . 166
Desideratives . 167
Impersonate . 168
Passives and Neuters .... . 168
The Infinitive ..... . 173
The Noun of Agency .... . 177
The Present Participle . 181
The Perfect Participle . 185
The Conjunctive Participle . 193
Intensive Verbs ..... . 203
Nominal Verbs ..... . 205
Adverbs .......
The Negative . 214
Prepositions ...... 216
Conjunctions ...... . 219
Iteration . 224

Ellipsis 0 . 238


CONTENTS.

XI

Pass

Numerals, &g. . . ... 24.4

Cardinal Numbers . . ... 244

Ordinals ... . ... 246

Fractions ... ... 246

Weights, &c. . . . ... 248

The Calendar, &c. . . ... 249

Points of the Compass . ... 251

Names of Places . . ... 251

List of Colours . . . ... 253

PARt III.

Exercises .... . .... 257

Dialogues .... . .... 291

Domestic ... . .... 301

Relationship . . .... 310

Eating and Drinking . ...... 312

Visiting ... . ... 314

Money ... . ... 315

Number and Quantity . ... 317

Time .... '. ... 322

Buying and Selling . ... 325

Travelling . . ... 327

Hunting . ... 833

PART IY.

Vocabulary

. 337


^rf% <*t*t 3iTT tt i
*st?tt titt tt ttittt n
^srw fti^ tt fljr ^r? i

<* m sfw w^r *rr? i


f^'^rr tjf-'rnr ttt to % ii
ffrsr v? 5rm ^rir *fcft i
ms tpfcrsr sf'^B vtfl n

Tfr -wq-% tt ^r^3T |

Sfli- TrTT tit Tfr
*TT 7T ff Tfr TrTT |

TtT TT WTf*TTf? TTTsf H
wfw Wt? Wt fVrfft i
^fm r wtt ^s:fr ^tnff n

Sft 3? TT ^rfTTfT ^ TTTT ||

TT f* ffT
[R&mdya i


HINDI MANUAL.

PART I-GRAMMAR.

The Hindi language makes use of the Nagari (or
Sanskrit) alphabet, which is written, like the English,
from left to right. The alphabet is simple, methodical,
and legible; and is admirably adapted to the needs of
the Hindi language.* The vowels have two shapes,
the initial and non-initial.

a d i t u 4 ri ri e ai o an

Initial

Non-initial i f 1 "t

o cv. a £

The consonants are methodically arranged under the
following classes :

Gutturals W lc *r 0 s vgr n
Palatals cln chh or 3 ^ Jh 71
Linguals t H" th ^ Dentals rT t vj ih ^ d ir dh T n
Labials H P Mr PJl ^ b H bh H m
Semivowels v y x r 1 ^ v or w
Sibilants, &c. ^ sh ^

* There are written characters, which represent running-hand
forms of the Nagari. Two ordinary forms are called Kayathi and
Mahajani, whic)i necessarily require some practice before they can
be read with ease.

1


9

HINDI MANUAL.

Besides the foregoing a dot ( *) is used to express the
nasal twang frequently recurring; and two dots ( : )
represent the weak aspirate, h. There is also a complex
character^ which in Hindi is pronounced like gy
hard; in the Pan jab it is pronounced gny ; and, in the
Dakkhan, gny. Another complex letter is for lesk.

There is no non-initial form for short a, because every
consonant, simple or compound, is supposed to be fol-
lowed by short a, unless some other vowel is attached to
it. The method of adding the vowels to the consonants
will be understood from the following example :
hi hi lei hi leu hi hi hi Ice Icai lco lean lean leak
^ far stt ft f w it ^ ^ Ctrl' cifr eff
When it is needful to indicate that no vowel follows the
consonant a short stroke is added to it; thus lcf ah

When two or more consonants occur without an inter-
vening vowel, they are joined together in a simple manner
so as to forni one character. The letter r, however,
undergoes change of shape when in combination. When
immediately preceding another consonant, it is written as
a small curve above it; thus, arka; when immediately

following another consonant, it is written as a short
straight stroke beneath it; thus, dgvd. The other

combinations will be readily understood from the follow-
ing examples:

ky let* Id lev kick let leliy gn gy gl gv gm ghy ghr

ghn nk ng click ckckli chy jy jr jv jj jjh jin ncli nj

^ ^ f f W W HZ *5: W 7$ 'W ef

ty tt fth dy dg M ddh mj nt ntli nd nn ty tr tn

tv tk tt till tp tvi is dy dr dv dg dd ddh dbh dhy

Â¥ ** 7% ^

dhr dhv ny nv nm ns nt nd ndli py pr pv pi pp pt pm


GRAMMAR.

3

sr ^ ^ hs T5T ^ 2T
by hr bj bd bb bbh Jihm bhr my m r ml mn mm mh yy
*T * c c ^ JI W rT ^ ^ * * X Ki
ru rd rg rj rt rth rd rdh rp TV rs rh ly Im ll m
q ^ ^ ^ ^ w
vy vr sy sr sv sn si , sch svn shy shv shk slit shth
^ ^ if ^ w 13
shm slip sy sr sv si sn sk st sth sp ss liy hr
~W US
hv hi hm hn

When more than two consonants immediately follow
one another, they are combined on the same principle as
that above illustrated; thus, tsv is 7^, mbl is 7^-, and
so on.

Pronunciation.

Be careful to pronounce short a as the a in the word
America. The other vowels should receive the conti-
nental sounds ; thus, d as in father ; i as in pin ;
i as in police ;. n as in bull ; n as in rule ; ri as
in brink ; ri the same longer ; e as ay in pay ;
ai as y in my, pronounced as a diphthong, that.is,
like the ati in Sanskrit, and ate in Hindi; 0 as in note;
and au as ow in now/ or more properly with the
diphthongal sound of atu. The pronunciation here given
of ai and au is only approximate. The real sounds are
a little complex, but easily acquired by the ear. Col-
loquially the vowel ri is pronounced like the consonant
and vowel ri (f^), or even ir (xt) > thus 1PTT kripd com-
passion, is pronounced, indifferently, kripd or kirpd.

The consonants are sounded as in English, with the
following exceptions:The dentals are much more dental
than in English ; the teeth should be distinctly touched
with the tongue in their pronunciation. The linguals
are more akin to the English dentals; and, in fact, Eng-

1 *


HINDI MANUAL,

lish words containing t and d are written with lingual
letters by Hindus. To pronounce the linguals properly
the tongue must be lifted higher and further back
against the roof of the mouth than is customary in Eng-
lish, and this gives to these letters a somewhat hollow
sound. When a dot is placed under the lingual ^ and -g-

(thus -g-), they are pronounced like r and rh respec-
tively. These sounds are also delivered from the roof of
the mouth, and do not differ greatly from the d and dh.
They are, however, distinctly different from the semi-
vowel r (-^), which must be trilled in Hindi, as is the

case in French or Italian. The letter s (w) is sounded
like ss in the word session. Practically no distinc-
tion is made between the pronunciation of 'jr and both

being sounded like sh in English; but w is, by some,

pronounced like Jch (see p. 6, 1. 14). W! is nearer in
sound to the English sh than it is to s. The Hindi
sh is lingual, and requires the tongue to be lifted well
to the roof of the mouth. The pronunciation of the
four ns need cause no trouble. When conjoined as com-
pounds with other consonants, their sounds are deter-
mined by the letters which immediately follow them;
thus in pronouncing the words a.nlc, (inch,

and, ant, it is impossible to avoid giving to each n

its proper pronunciation. Practically the dental n is
very common; the lingual n occasionally occurs; the
others are rare. The nasal of most frequent recurrence,
and the sound which gives a peculiar tone to the whole
language, is termed anunctsih, and is given by passing a
vowel sound through the nose, just as the French pro-
nounce such words as bon, good. Examples are found
in the words Tcahdii, where ? talidn, there, which
consist of Jcahd and tahd passed through the nose. A yet
stronger nasalization is called anuswdr, found in such
words as ails, share, bdnh, arm. The distinction
between anundsilc and anuswdr is, however, too refined
for vulgar practice, and the two are confounded together


GRAMMAR.

5

and written in the same manner; thus

The letter g always has the hard sound, as in the words
begin, begun; this is also the case with the gy
given as the pronunciation of ; thus fermust be

sounded big-ya (not bi-jya). (See p. 2, line 4.)

A most important peculiarity of the Nagari alphabet
remains to be noticed, viz. the aspirated letters. These
do not differ in hind from the non-aspirates, but only in
intensity. In pronouncing them, the letter h, which is
connected with each of them in the Roman character,
must not be, in the least, separated from the letters
themselves, but must be understood simply as a symbol
indicating intensity in sounding the letters. Thus ^ hli

differs from h only in intensity, and some practice is

required before the habit of properly uttering these con-
sonants can be acquired by English people. Thus

hand, one-eyed; tht*TT hhdnd, to eat, and ^f^T*TT
Tcahdnd, to cause to speak, are as distinctly different
from each other in sound as they are in sense.

In Hindi every letter should be fully and clearly pro-
nounced, no letter being clipped short, as is sometimes
done in English. When a letter is doubled, it must be
fully sounded twice ; as pattan, a city (pron. pat-tan).
Einal short a is not pronounced, except in poetry ; thus
the word which is theoretically guna, is pronounced

gun, and so in all other cases. In the same way short a
at the end of the base of a word is not pronounced even
after the addition of terminations ; thus ^ har, do,

cfiTrrr hartd (not haratd), doing. Words of two syl-
lables containing short a in the second syllable, reject
that letter when any termination beginning with a vowel
is added; thus nihal, issue, f*r^r^rT riihld,

issued. When a word ends in a compound it is a
common custom, colloquially, to insert short a before the
final; thus, murahh, a fool ; fay bipar, a priest

sdstar, literature ; M'gr samildar, or even samun-


6

KINDI MANtTAIi.

dar, the ocean. Educated Hindus consider murhhat
vipra, sdstra,. samudra to be the correct way of pro-
nouncing, such words. Short a is pronounced after a
final y ; thus fyq priya, beloved ; tlya, a

woman ; also in a few monosyllables, as q na, not ;
^ chlia, six. These peculiarities of short a will give

but little trouble, as they follow natural laws easy of
recognition.

y is often pronounced like/ as qj\ yucj, pronounced jug,
a yoke; yogya, pronounced jog, suitable; fi-*5

c\

surya, pronounced suraj, the sun. This peculiarity
applies more to the Eastern than to the Western area of
Hindi.

sh is very often pronounced exactly like hh; thus
is either dosh or dohh ; is bhdshd or bhdlchd.

ph is sometimes vulgarly pronounced as/.

As an exercise in- pronunciation learn to carefully dis-
tinguish the sounds of the following words :

Mrd, a worm.
hhird, a cucumber.
qxx^TT hdtnd, to cut.
cffiTT^TT hdtnd, to spin.

hard, hard.
ig^g-X hhardt, erect.

?g^X hhardt, pure.

ig^X hharrd, a curry-comb.

^"2"X hatd, cut.

hattd, robust.
hhaftd, sour.

jth&y gd,> a cow.*

TE[x^t ghdfiy a wound.
3I^3T gat'd, buried.

^X ghard, a water-pot.
3T^X gaVhd, a ditch.
ghord, a horse.
gord, a white man.
irrft, gdri, a carriage.
jnTd g^rh abuse.f
ofl^T jdvd, cold.

-^X^T jhdrd, cleared.

* Gap is a Persian form. The approved Hindi forms are g(i or

g&p,

t This is Eastern Hindi. The Western form is gait.


GRAMMAR.

7

pulse.

^T^r throw.

^T^r dhal, a declivity.

?ft do> givo-

%ff dho, wash.

bahri, a goat.
bahhrt, a house.
xpg~iTT pornuy to fall.
Tj"^"5rr pnrhud, to read.
bdt, a word.
bat, a road.

^f-?T bhdt, boiled rice.
vtty blidt, a bard.
motiy fat.
ffl moa pearl.
rot if bread.
TT-ffr roU> prying.
sdtf seven,
sa^/i, with.
settlit sixty.-

The Exercises given further on will serve as examples
of transliteration, and for practice in pronunciation.

With respect to accent it may be remarked that there
is no general rule for accentuating any particular syl-
lable ; practice in speaking will rectify any improprieties.
In the case of verbs the accent always falls on the root-
syllable of simple verbs, and on the inserted a of deriva-
tives. Thus, sun'mif to hear, sund'na, to cause to
hear. By this accent the Indefinite Perfect of the one
is distinguished from the 2nd pers. sing. Imperative of
the other ; thus, sun a, heard, but sunn', do thou cause
to be heard (i'.e. rehearse).

THE ARTICLE.

There is nothing in Hindi corresponding to the English
a and the. Unity and indefiniteness are expressed
by the use of eh, one, or hoti, some one; as, eh
manna or hoti mdnus, a certain man. Such words are
much less frequently used than a or an in English. De-
finiteness is expressed by the demonstratives yah, this,
viali, that, or, in certain cases, by the addition of to
to the noun.


8

HINDI MANUAL.

THE SUBSTANTIVE.

There are but two genders in Hindi, the masculine and
feminine; and there is no rule by which words of the ono
class can be readily distinguished from words of the
other. The gender of some substantives is necessarily
decided by the sense; as mdnus, a man, stri, a
woman These are the only words about which there
is much certainty; the gender of the rest must be
acquired by practice. This uncertainty affects all lan-
guages which, like the French, have but two genders.
Some Hindi words are both masculine and feminine;
some have recently changed their genders ; and some
(e.cj. or, side) change their gender with change of
number.

The chief rules for distinguishing the genders of Hindi
nouns may be stated as follows :

1. Words denoting the male kind are masculine, and
those denoting females are feminine.

2. Nearly all nouns ending in short -a, or a consonant
(except a few Arabic words in 4, and Persian words
in -s), are masculine.

3. Native Hindi words ending in long -d are masculine.

4. But Sanskrit abstract nouns in -td, and those formed
by the affix -a (technically called dp), are feminine.

5. All word£ ending in short 4 are Sanskrit, and, for
the most part, retain the gender they have in that lan-
guage ; but Sanskrit neuters in 4 become feminine in
Hindi.

6. Nouns formed by the Sanskrit affix 4i are femi-
nine.

7. Native Hindi and foreign words ending in long 4,
also those formed with the Sanskrit affix 4 (technically
ip), Sire feminine.

8. Those formed with the Sanskrit affix 4 (technically
in), are masculine.

9. Words ending in short -u are Sanskrit, and retain
the gender of that language, but Sanskrit neuters in -u
become masculine in Hindi.


GRAMMAR*

9

10. Nouns ending in long -u are masculine.

11. Nouns ending in long -a derived from the Sanskrit
termination -n, follow the natural law of gender, i.e.
those denoting males are masculine, and those denoting
females are feminine.

12. Such words as end in -e, -ai, -o, and -au, are few in
number, and are, for the most part, masculine.

Declension.

The following is the general scheme for declining Hindi
nouns:

Singular. Plural.

N. trc

cjliar, a house.

Ag. gr

ghar ne, by a house.

A. sik or ^ (ft

ghar or ghar Ico, a house.

D. -si?:

ghar Ico, to a house.

ghar led, of a nouse.

Ab. ^ %

ghar se, from a nouse.
Loc. ^

ghar men, in a house.

V %

he ghar, 0 house *

VX

altar, houses.

gharoh ne, by houses.

^ or ^TT

ghar or gharoh Ico, houses.

gharoh Ico, to houses.

3TT

gharoh led, of a:house.

%

gharoh se, from houses.

3r

gharoh men, in houses.
he gliaro, O houses !

* Indians will not allow this as a separate case. They insist
that it is only a form of the Nominative appropriate to past tenses
of Active verbs.


10

HINDI MANDAD.

In the Accusative and Dative, tafiii is sometimes sub-
stituted for ho ; ho is frequently both pronounced and
written huh, and huh, and around Dehli the particle ne
is sometimes used instead thereof*; in the Ablative, son
or ten may take the place of se; the Genitive hd is, dialec-
tally, replaced by ho, hau, har, or herd; and the Locative
men is also replaced by moh, man, mdhih, mdhjh, &c.
The Locative, also, takes other postpositions in different
senses, as par, at, upon, and tah, Ion or lauh, up to ;
as us chdr-pdti par so rahd, he slept on that bed-stead ;
main ghartah ckald gay a, I went up to the house. The
Vocative is like the inflected form of nouns, but drops the
final nasal in the plural. A few nouns deviate slightly;
thus, beta, a son, he beta, O son (sometimes, also,
he bete), bhdfi, a brother, he bhd/iydt, O brother mdti,
a mother, he maiyd, O mother

The foregoing scheme of declension is applicable to all
nouns in the language, with the following modifications:
Nouns ending in i or it (long) shorten these vowels before
the plural affix -on; those ending in i insert y also for
euphonys sake. Thus, mail, masc. a gardener, mdli-
yoh hd, of gardeners; pothi, fern, a book, 'pothiyoh
hd, of books. Feminines ending in consonants, di-
phthongs, and d (long), form the nominative pluralf by
the addition of -eh; and those ending in i, add -dh.
Thus, rat, fern. a night, rdteh, nights ; pothi, fern.
a book, potliiydh, books. Some nouns in short i
optionally ftrop that vowel in the plural; thus, sampatti,
success, sampattiyoh hd or sampattoh hd, of suc-
cesses.

The most important deviation from the scheme, how-
ever, occurs in the case of nouns masculine (not purely
Sanskrit) ending in long d. These admit of true in-
flexion by changing that termination to -e in the oblique *

* This may arise from contiguity to the Panjab $ the regular
Accusative1 termination in Panjabi being nhh.

+ What is;/3aicl of the nominative, singular or plural, applies also
to that form of the accusative which does not take the affix ko.


GRAMMAR. :

11

singular and nominative plural, and by dropping it alto-

gether in the oblique plural. Thus:
. Singular.' Plural.
N. ^IfT ; .v
ghord, a horse. ghore, horses.
Ag. *ftf ^ a
ghore ne, by a horse. ghoron ne, by horses.
A. or ^ft ifb? or T^r-fr
ghord or ghore ho, a ghore or ghoron ho, horses.
horse.

ghore ho, to a horse. ghoron ho, to horses.
0. Wrir fiT 3TT
ghore hd, of a horse. ghoron led, of horses.
Ab. -EfVt % %
ghore se, from a horse. ghoron se, from horses.
Loc. ,
ghore men, on a horse. ghoron men, on horses.
v. % tft-f %
he ghore, 0 horse ! he glioro, 0 horses !
Pure Sanskrit words, such as rdjd, a king, ddtd,
a giver, &c, retain the Ion g d throughout; thus, rdjd
hd, u of a king, rdjdon hd, of kings.
Exceptional peculiarities of inflection are such as the
following:
Nom. Sing. Nom. Plural.
Tsf^Eft dhdjdni, m. smoke. "sr dhiipi.
bhauh, f. eyebrow. bhauwen.*
iuk gdte, f. cow. JTTV gdpi.
sonh, f. oath. or^Y% sopiov sonheh
vom, f. downy hair.f vrt ro pi.

* The Norn. pi. may also be bhaveii, bhonen, or bhonheii.
t There are other Singnlar forms of some of the words here given,
to wit, <7u,o, son, and von or run respectively. The plurals are none
the less irregular.


12

HINDI MANUAL.

The following reject the
affix:

Nom. Sing.

9(^ii a COW.

TlH rom, f. downy hairs.
gdnw, m. village.
ndnw, m. name.

HTW pchiw, m. foot.
ddnw, m. snare.

final on adding the plural

Genitive Plural.

3TH&Y cfTT Of COWS.

m of hairs.

JIT^ FT of villages.

rf^Y of names.

qf^Y qrr of feet.

^f^Y 'qrT f snares.

Feminine diminutives in -iyd form the nominative
plural by the addition of the nasal only ; thus

dibiyd, 44 a small box, dibiydn, 44 small boxes,

guriyd, 44 a doll, guriydn, 44 dolls. Feminines in at
times, are made to form the nominative plural in four
ways, at the option of the speaker; e.g. laleri,

44 a stick, pi. lakrt, lalcrbi, lakriyen, or lakriydn, 44 sticks.
Of these laleriydn is generally considered the most correct.
In the Panjab, and even as far as Debit, the best nom.
pi. form of lalcri is held to be lakriyen ; and so of other
feminines in -i.

Besides the inflexional method of forming the plural
in -on, the same idea is frequently expressed by the
addition of such words as log, 44 people, gan, troop,
jdti, 44 species, jan, genus; thus, rdjdlog, 44 kings,
leukkurgan,44 dogs, strijdli,44 women, gurujan,44teachers,
purushgan led, of men, strigan Jed, 44 of women.

ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives are generally uninflected, and are simply
placed before the substantives they qualify, as in English.
Those ending in long d are generally inflected; changing
the final d to e before all the cases masculine, except
the nominative singular; and changing the d to i before
all feminine substantives, singular or plural. Thus, bard


GRAMMAS.

13

gTiora, a> large horse, bareghorepar, on a large horse,
bare ghore, large horses, bari ghori, a large mare,
bari ghoriyon par, on large mares.

As the Genitive Case of nouns fulfils the functions of
an adjective, it is treated as an adjective in Hindi, and
the affix kd is inflected in precise accordance with the
foregoing rule. Thus, ghore kd khur, the horses hoof,
ghore ke khur se, from the horses hoof, ghore ke khur,
the horses hoofs, ghore ki kdthi, the horses saddle,
ghore ki kdthiydh, the horses saddles. Thus it is seen
that kd is made to agree in gender with the substantive
with which the genitive noun is constructed, and not with
the genitive noun itself.

A few adjectives may be formed by adding bhar,
full, to nouns; as, rat lco nindbhar sona nahih miltd,
sound sleep is not obtained at night.

The form bhard produces several adjectives, sucn as
mala-bhard, replete with filth, Idja-bhard, very
modest, bisha-bhard, charged with venom.

In literature adjectives are frequently formed by the
addition of rupi to substantives ; thus, dharma-rupi, vir-
tuous, kashta-nl'pi, grievous, gydna-riipi, scholastic,
sansdra-rupi, terrestrial, pratibimba-rupi, shadowy.
This termination is sometimes changed to sivardp or
swarupi.

Adjectives denoting deprivation or non-posses-
sion are formed by the addition of Inn to substantives ;
thus, buddhi-Mn, bereft of sense, rupa-hin, deprived
of beauty.

Pandits form adjectives (and adverbs also) by the aid
of purvak ; thus, niyama-pitrvak, regular, mitratd-ptir-
vak, amicable, hatha-purvak, obstinate.

The word sahbandhi is also employed, to produce ad-
jectives ; thus, jwdldmukhi-sahbandhi, volcanic, dhruva-
sanbandhi, polar, i.e. connected with the poles of .the
earth.

Comparison of Adjectives.

The Comparative is rendered by the ablative case in
connection with an adjective* there being no inflexions in


14

HINDI MANUAL.

Hindi to express degrees of comparison. Thus, yah ghar
us se bard had, this house is greater than- th'at, madhu
se mithd, sweeter than honey, waft lakri is hath ke>
tukre se Iambi hai, that Stick is longer than this piece
of wood (lambd=\ong). The words aur and adhik are
used in the sense of more in forming comparatives ;
thus, wah is se adhik bhdri hai, that is much heavier
than this, yah aur burd hai, this is worse (i:e. more
bad).# '

An elegant method of forming the comparative is.by
the aid of the Word a/pekshd, comparison ; thus, wah
bdyu Id apekshd adhik thandd ho jdtd hai, that is becom-
ing colder than the air (lit. that,-in comparison with the
air, more cold is becoming). The cumulative comparative
is expressed by the continuative verb ; thus, ivah din din
hard hota jdtdl hai, it gets stronger day by day (lit.
that, day by day, strong, keeps on becoming).

Another method of ^expressing the comparative degree
is by the aid of the conjunctive participle; thus, ek ek se
barhkar thd, each was greater than the other.

The words bahut and bard are used in the sense of
very, to intensify a quality without indicating com-
parison ; tlius, bahut bhdri patthar, a very heavy stone,
bard chavrd, mdrg, a very wide road, bari bhdri but, a
very important affair.

The Superlative is expressed by Using an adjective with
the ablative of sab, all ; thus, sab se bard, greatest
(lit. than all great), yah briksli sab brikshoii se undid, had,
this is the tallest of trees (lit. this tree thaii all trees
is tall). Sometimes the locative is brought into use
instead of the ablative; thus, in per oh men bard y alii hai,
this is the greatest of these trees (in such sentences,
however, men is the equivalent of the English among ).

The Superlative without comparison is rendered by two
ad jectives, the first in the ablative; thus, achchhe se
achdihd, the best, thore se thord, the least, bahut se
bahut, the extreme.- The genitive, also, is similarly *

* The word bhi may be added to enhance the meaning; thus yah
aur bht bar&hai, this is still larger.


GRAMMAR.

15

employed ; thus, achchhehe achchhe dan, the best gift's.
Sometimes the emphatic hi is employed instead of the
ablative ; thus, bahut hi burd, the worst (e.g. dhruv he
bahut hi pas he sthdn, the places quite near to the pole,
lit. the poles most near places). The repetition of
the adjective has, at times, a similar meaning ; e.g. bare
bare dholce wahdh the, huge blocks were there.

The following sentences illustrate what is called the
absolute comparative and superlative.

Kallu is fortunate.Kallu
sukhbhagi hai.

Mallu is more fortunate.
Mallu aur sukhbhagi hai.

Hannu is still more fortu-
nate.Hannu aur bhi
sukhbhagi hai.

Gannu is the most fortu-
nate.Gaunu sab se sukh-
bhagi hai.

W* t

cv.


Cv

TsT

Cv

Ji-g jg % ^vruft I

CN

Ke versing the position of the adverbial prefix intensi-
ties the meaning; thus, bahut gahrd means very deep,
but gahrd bahut means exceedingly deep. In literary
Hindi the words afi, very, atyant, extremely, and
pa-ram, best, are also commonly employed in this sense ;
as atihdl, a very long time, atyant bhaydnah, exceed-
ingly terrible, pa ram sundar, most beautiful.

Likeness, or similitude, is often denoted by the
addition of sd to adjectives, substantives, pronouns, or
participles; as, nild sd, phfil, a blueish flower, pile se
patte, yellowish leaves, cldrim sd darahtd hai, it splits
like a pomegranate, ivah dg si hai, it is like fire,
pawan sd chalnewdld ghordt, a horse swift as the wind,
sidhd Ur sd mdrg, a road as straight as an arrow, turn
sd homal, as delicate as you. Added to the genitive,
it betokens likeness to something appertaining to the
noun; as, bagh he se ddnt, teeth like those of a tiger,
sink hi si dyuti, dignity like a lions. The words aisd,
jaisay and sarihhd are used for a similar purpose; thus,


16

HINDI MANUAL,

par ki aisi lakiroh ko, ic feather-like streaks, dp jaise
bhale manushya, so worthy a man as you, ko,ele sarikhe
kale aise ho jdtd hai, it is becoming as black as coal.
The affix sd is also used to intensify the sense; thus,
unchd sd pahdr, a very high mountain, bare se ghore,
very large horses, bahut se mendak, very many frogs,
tanak sd bhi bal, even the smallest strength.

PRONOUNS.

The persona] pronouns are declined as follows* :

Sing.

N. ^

main, I.

Ag. xi a

main ne, by me.

A. & D. g-jg or -g-g- eft

mujhe or mujh ko, me,
to me.

G. xtxt, , Sxft

merd,mere,meri, of me,
my, mine.

Ab. -g-g- %

mujh se, from me.
Loc.-g-5r W

mujh men, on mek

Plural.

ham, we.

H T ^ vi iY T

ham ne, hamoh ne, by us.

W\, ^hY ^ft

hamen, ham ko, hamon ko,
us, to us.

hamdrd, hamdre, hamdri, of
us, our, ours.

% ^hY H

ham se, hamoh se, from us.

, ^hY H

ham men, hamoh men, on us.

The use of the three forms of the genitive has been
explained under Adjectives, p. 13.

* The forms ^hY fYj ^hY !, ^HY W, vTHY and iptf
ft, &c.y&o., ^^Y Ft, &c. &c. &c., are so uncommon

as to be considered positively wrong by many Indians. Among
them the only forms in active use are S/^Y ^ and ^T#


GRAMMAR.

17

Sing.

N- T

tu, thou.

Ag. -<£*

tu ne, by thee.

A.&D. -g-§ -g-g-

tujhe, tujh ho, thee, to
thee.

n. -wtt -sr, 3ft

fora, tere, teri, of thee,
thy, thine
Ab. gy %

se, from thee,
too. g-g- if

tujh men, on thee.

Plural.

TP*

tftm, you.

TP* ^ TT^' %

turn ne, tumhoh ne, by you.
g"%, -g-fl ipfr ^
tumhen, turn ho, tumhon ho,
you, to you.

TPfTTT , , TpSlft

tumhdrd, tumhdre, tumhari,
of you, your, yours.

TT* g-ff %

turn se, tumhon se, from you.

g-fl 3, g-^fr 3

turn men, tumhon men, on
you.

The personal pronouns constantly form the plural, col-
loquially, by the addition of log; thus, hamlog, we,
tumlog, you ; and, in their case, log is inflected in the
oblique cases ; thus, hamlog on hd, our, tumlogon hd,
your, &c.

To express the third personal pronoun the demonstra-
tives yah, this, and wah, that, are employed, which
are thus declined :

Sing.

N- f, t

yah, ih, i, e, this.

Ag. x* 3

is ne, by this.

A. &D. ^} -5-% f ^

yah, ise, is ho, this, to
this.

G-'^rr

i$ ha, of this.

Plural.

ye, yah, they, these.

T*r 3, 3

in ne, inhoh ne, by these.

inhen, in ho, inhoh ho, these,
to these.

in hd, inhoh hd, of these,
their, theirs.

9


18

fitNfcl MAlfttAt,

Sing. Plural.
Ab. T* 3 T^r # %
is se, from this. in se, irihon se, from these.
L. T* T^T V T^f W
is men, on this. in men, inhoii men, on these,
The demonstrative wall, that, is declined thus,
Sing. Plural.
N. TT, -sfr
waA, A, v/, wo, that. we, wall, they, those.
G. ^ ^rr ^r eRT, ^rr
ws kd, of that. un led, unhoh kd, of those.
&c. &c. &c.

The remaining pronouns are declined as follows:
Relative.

Sing.

n. *fr

jo, who, which.

G* fare

jis led, of whom, of
which.

Plural.

jo, who, which,
fare ^TT fap^Y 3TT

jin led, jinlioh led, of whom,
of which.

N.

so, that.

U. ffrw ^rr

tis led, of that.

Correlative.

so, those.

ffrw CRT fmtf RT

tin led, tinlion led, of those.

N. #r

kann, who?
G. fare

v Ms kd, of
whose ?

Interrogative,

kaun, who ?

fare c*tt f

whom? Am kd, Million led, of whom ?
whose ?


GUAM MAR.

19

The indefinite pronouns leo/t, anyone/* and kuchh,
anything, something/ are peculiar, inasmuch as kot% is
declined in the singular only; thus, N. lco/t, anyone,
G-. Icisi My of anyone. Kuclih is indeclinable. An
interrogative Icyd, what? applicable to things only,
has also no plural form. The singular inflected form is
Mhe My of what ? Mike ho, for what ? and so on.

The pronouns may be used both substantively and
adjectively. When substantively used they adhere to
the schemes given above; when adjectively used the
plural in -on is rejected, and the postposition added to
the noun only. Thus, wait naukar kaiy he is a servant,
anlion hi naulcar yalidn Italy their servant is here ; but,
adjectively, wah naulcar yalidn Italy that servant is here,
un nankaroii Mi khdnd, the food of those servants
(never unhon naukaron Mi),

When respect is intended to be shown, the person
addressed is styled dp. This word undergoes no change
of form, but assumes the postpositions, as dp ko, dp led,
&c.f and forms the plural by addition of log, as dplogf
dplogon led, &c. The same word dp is also used as a
reflexive pronoun; but in this sense it is declined in the
singular, as follows;

N.

dp, self.

Ag. ^rr
dp ne, by self.*

A. D. efTt ^Xf$ fHf*

apne ko, apne tatin, self, to self#

G.

apnd, apne, apni of self.

* The Reflexive form dp ne is mord theoretical than useful; for,
With active verbs, the construction isj R&m Chandra ne dp khet
kdtd, fUm Chandra reaped, the crop himself. In its Honorific
flense dp ne is in constant requisition.

2 #


20

HINDI MANUAL#

Ab. ^rrxr h

dp se, from self.

Loc.

dp men, apne men, in or on self#

Notice the shortening of the initial vowel: it is of
much importance.

The plural is the same as the singular. There is a
Genitive dpas led, 44 of themselves/ and a Locative dpas
men, 44 among themselves. Vulgarly, dpus led, dpus men.

The genitive is often apdnd, and even apne dp led ; and
a common form of the accusative is apne dp, or apne dp
leo.

The reflexive pronoun is used as the substitute for the
other pronouns, when referring to the subject of the verb.
Thus, main apni pothi le jdtd hurt, 44I am carrying away
my book, wall apne ghar ho jdtd hai, 44 he is going to his
oxen house, wah apne dmon ho hhdte liaih, 44 they are
eating their own mangos, main dp jdtd huh, 44 I myself
am going.

In rare instances, we find, instead of dp, the word nlj,
qualified possessively; thus, na us he nij he liye hai, it
is not for himself.

Pronominal Adjectives.The most important of these
are the following:itnd or ittd, 44 this much, utnd or
uttdy 44 that much, jitnd or jittd, 44 as much, titnd or tittd,
44 so much, hitnd or hittd, 44 how much ? aisd, 44 this-like,
such, waisd, 44 that-like, such, jaisd, which-like, as,
taisd, that-like, so, haisa, what-like ? how ? These
are all inflected, like adjectives (p. 13), according to the
gender of the noun to which they refer.

Compound Pronouns.These are constructed in the
following manner:jo hoj, whoever, jo huchh, what*
ever, aur huchh, something else, huchh aur, some
more, aur hoi, someone else, hoj aur, some other,
aur haun, who else ? aur hyd, 4 4 what else ? sab hoj,
44 everyene, sab huchh, 44 everything, hoj na hoj, 44 some-
one or other, huchh na huchh, something or other.
These compounds are subject to the same changes of


GRAMMAR.

21

inflection as the simple pronouns ; thus* jis Icist led, of
whoever, Icisi na last led, of someone or other.

Kticlih is often added to pronouns to impart to them an .
indefinite sense; thus, leyd Icuclih, whatever? leitnd
kuclili, how much soever! Icaisd kuchh, howsoever,
balmt kuchli, a good deal.

VERBS.

There is but one general scheme of conjugation
in Hindi; and there are very few irregular verbs.
Nevertheless, from a refined delicacy in discriminating
temporal relations, the Hindi verb is not such a simple
affair as might be supposed.

The scheme of conjugation comprises the base, the
infinitive or gerund, the noun of agency, three simple
participles, and fifteen tenses. Of the tenses, three are
formed from the base ; viz.

1. The Aorist.

2. The Future.

3. The Imperative.

Six are formed from the Imperfect Participle; viz,

4. Indefinite Imperfect.

5. Present Imperfect.

6. Past Imperfect.

7. Contingent Imperfect.

8. Presumptive Imperfect.

9. Negative Contingent Imperfect.

Six are formed from the Perfect Participle; viz,

10. Indefinite Perfect.

11. Present Perfect.

12. Past Perfect.

13. Contingent Perfect.

14. Presumptive Perfect.

15. Negative Contingent Perfect.*

* The names of the tensps are partly adopted from Mr. Kelloggg
Hindi Grammar?


22

HINbl MANUAL,

Besides the foregoing, two forihs produced with tenses
of the verb rahnti are sufficiently common to be shown
in the paradigm of every verb; for these I suggest the
names, Progressive Present and Progressive Imperfect.
These two last forms express the idea that the action
is, or was, going on at the present or past time respec-
lively. These forms have remained unnoticed in former
Grammars; but they are of great importance in Hindi,
and are in continual use in conversation.

The Base may consist of one or more syllables, andjnay
end in either a long vowel or a consonant.

The Infinitive or gerund is formed by adding -nd to the
base. Verbs are entered in dictionaries in the infinitive
form; but the base can always be found by simply reject-
ing the final -nd; thus, Jcarnd, to do, base Jcar; bJiij-
W'ind, to have sent away, base, bhijwct.

The Noun of Agency is formed from the infinitive by
(banging -nd to -ne, and adding the affix wdld, wdl, ward,
hard, or Mr. Thus, from Jcarnd, to do, we get Jcarne-
tvdld, a doer; so also from dend, to give, deneivddd,
a giver. When the three latter affixes are applied, chiefly
in the Eastern Hindi district, the final d of the infinitive
is altogether rejected ; thus, from Jcaran (= Jcarnd) comes
Jcaranhard or JcaranMr, a doer, and from den (= dend),
denwdrd, denJidrd, or denMr, a giver. In this way from
Jiond, to be, comes both Jionewdld and JionJidr, what is
to be.

The Imperfect Participle is formed from the base by
affixing the syllable -td; thus, from Jcar comes Jcartd,
doing, from Jio comes Jiotd, being, and from de comes
detd, giving, and so on.

In the Eastern district this participle is formed by the
addition of t only ; as Jcarat for Jcartd; and, in parts of
the Western district, we meet with both t and tu; thus,
karat or kartu, for Jcartd, doing.

The Perfect Participle is formed from the base by affix-
ing thereto the letter d; thus, chhornd, to abandon
G>ase cJihor), chJwrd, abandoned, mdfvAj to strike


GRAMMAR.

23

(base mar), mard, struck. There are seven* verbs in
Hindi which form the perfect participle, in a slightly
irregular manner. They are the following:

Infinitive.

^TT

hond, to be.

harnd, to do.

^TT

dend, to give.

lend., to take.

'STT^TT

jdndy to go.

'3i*r*rr

fhdnnd, to determine.

Perf. Part.

hutd, been,
fcfrsn

Jciydy done.

f^r

diyd, given.

liydy taken.

gaydy went.

B^T or BTBT

thayd, or thdnd, determined.

It will be seen that, except the last, these verbs are
the commonest in every language, which may account for
the irregularity. The regular form hard, done, instead
of hiyd, is commonly heard in some places, especially
around Farukhabad.

These little deviations in the formation of the participles '
produce no irregularity of conjugation; for, whatever
form of participle be adopted, that foVm is carried
I through the tenses to which it is applicable, with perfect
regularity.

* The verb marwd, to die, sometimes has mufi, dead **
(which happens also to mean cursed ), for its perfect participle j
and verbal bases ending in long vowels shorten them, thus,

to drink, becomes piyd, drunk.

f The regular form jCiyd will be mentioned further on,


24

HINDI MANUAL.

The two auxiliary tenses
Sing.

main hint, I am.

&

til hai, tbou art.
wah 7iai, he is.

r\.

H *TT

mcii //^a, I was.
thd, thou wast.
be was.

are as follows

Plural.

___

ham haiii, we are.

TPi ^

turn ho, you are.

* %*

we hain, they are.

ton the, we were.
g-H ^

turn the, you were.
we the, they were.

In the last tense it is seen that tlid becomes the in
the plural. In the feminine the forms are, main thi, I
was, ham thin, we were, &c. These changes are in pre-
cise accordance with those of adjectives (see p. 13) ; and
the long a termination of all verbal forms is subject to the
same changes ; thus, Jcartd, doing, becomes Jcarte, lcarti,
kartin, according to its use as a masculine plural, or femi-
nine singular or plural. When the feminine i follows
another i, it coalesces with it, as seen below.

Singular. Plural.

Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem.
to do efiT*TT ^TT-sfF
Icarnd karni karne karnin
doing ^TTfTT WTfff
Icartd ka. bi karte kartih
done *rf
Iciyd ki Jdye kin

* w$h may also bp used in the 3rd pers. plur, of all verbs.


GRAMMAR.

25

Sing. Plural.
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem.
given f^IT
diyd di diye din
taken f^r^T
liyd li liye lift
doer
Jcarnewald Jcarnewdli Jcarnewdle karnewdlin
I shall do
Tcarungd Tcaruhgi Jcarenge Jcarengin

and so on in all cases.

The conjngational terminations of the Aorist, in Hindi,

Sing. Plural,
1st person uh X eh
2nd person O
3rd person v: e e h

The Imperative has the same terminations, merely
rejecting that of the 2nd pers. sing.

The Future simply adds gd (changing to ge, gi, gin, see
p. 13) to the foregoing; thus,

Sing. Plural.

1st person uhgd ifir ehge

2nd person vJTT e9& ^ftir oge

3rd person egd iSr enge

The letter w is often inserted between the e of these
terminations and bases ending in a, i, e, or o; thus, pite or
piwe, he may drink, jpitegd or jpiwegd, he will drink.
Bases ending in e generally reject that letter altogether
before all terminations of these three tenses; thus, de,
give, makes dun, I may give, dungd, I shall give,
dun, let me give ; le, take, lungd, I shall take,

# cffX^Tf^rqf Tfarne\v&liy&n may also be need,


26

HINDI MANUAL.

huge, we shall take, &c. These changes are purely
euphonic.

The Imperative is identical with the Aorist; but it
rejects the termination of the 2nd pers. sing. There is a
Kespectful form of the Imperative, produced by the inser-
tion of i (changeable to iy) between base and termination ;
thus, metro, strike, mdriye, be pleased to strike,*
chalo, go, chaliye, be pleased to go.# The syllable
get is, at times, superadded to the -ye of this respectful
form ; thus, mdriyegd, you will be pleased to strike,
chaliyegd, 41 you will be pleased to go, &c. &c. When
the base ends in a vowel, j is inserted before this iy, for
the sake of euphony; thus, pi, drink, pijiye, be
pleased to drink, si, sew, sijiye, be pleased to sew ;
and diphthongs are simplified, thus,^o, be, Tiujiye, be
pleased to be, le, take, Ujiye, be pleased to take, de
give, dijiye, be pleased to give. The verbs Icarnd
and mama are apparently anomalous; thus, Icar, do/*
hijiye, be pleased to do, mar, die, miijiye, be so good
as to die (but see the perfect participles of these words,
based on Id and mu respectively, p. 23 and note).

The student will now be prepared to follow the conju-
gation of a verb ; and the verb which presents the greatest
number of euphonic variations is the common word hona,
to be.

Infinitive.^t*TT bond, to be.

Noun of Agency.^t^WT^TT, ^f?T-

^TTT, irV^r^lT, lionewdld, honehdrd, honehdr,

honihdrd, honihdr, honhdr, be-er, about to be.

Imperfect Participle.'rfy 7io7i£, being.

Perfect Participle.7m/t, been.**

Conjunctive Participle7m,
holce, hokar, hokarlce, having been.

* The form in -o, as mariyo, chaliyo, &c. differs slightly in

meaning from the simpler form; thus, mdro means beat (imme-
diately), but tn&riyo means beat (at some future time),


GRAMMAR.

27

Tenses from tlie Base,

Aorist.I may be,
king.

Si' or -^r^r
main hon or ho,un.

or

tu ho/3,* liowe or ho.

^ ^ or
wah ho,e, howe, or ho.

I shall be, I am, &c.

Plural.

or

ham hon^e,* hori, or ho wen.
-g-TT ^ or
turn ho or ho/>.

? or
we hon,e, hon, or howen.

Future.I shall be, &o.

Sing.

WW or

main hunga or hopniga.

T£ ^TT, or ^?3TT

tu hoga, hoyega,J or howega.

WT, or

wah hoga, hoyega, or howega.

Plural.

^ ^T3T, ^f|JT or

ham honge, hor^egef or ho-
wenge.

-g*T or ^r^tjr
turn hoge or lio^ge.

? ^l5r, ^JJT or
we honge, hohyege,f or ho-
wenge.

Imperative.Let me be, be thou, &o.

Identical with the Aorist; except as to the 2nd pers.
sing., of which, the termination being rejected, the form
is tu ho, be thou.

* Ho,e and hohp are pronounced hoy and hony, respectively, each
as one syllable.

t Pronounced hony-yey as two syllables,
if Pronounced hoy-y

28

HINDI MANUAL.

Tenses formed from the Imperfect Participle.

Indefinite Imperfect.I would be, I had been, had I
been, &c.

Sing.

i¥ ttHtt
main hota.

Plural,
ham hote.

tu hota.

turn hote.

wah hota

we hote.

Present Imperfect.I am being or becoming, &c.

H ^fr^rr W %

main hota hun. ham hote hain.

f it* ^ ^

tu hota hai. turn hote ho.

^TfTTt ^ %'

wah hota hai. we hote hain.

Past Imperfect.I was being or becoming, <&c.

H Tt fTT WT
main hota tha.
^TITT

tu hota tha,.
7T^ Tt rTT WT
wah hota tha.

ham hote the.
-g-H

turn hote the.
we hote the.

Tenses formed from the Perfect Participle.
Indefinite Perfect.I was or became, &c.

main h^a.
g: sHST
tu hu^.

*1

wah hu,a.

ham hu,e.
-g-H src
turn hu,e.
*§

we hu,e.


GRAMMAR*

29

Present Perfect.I was or have become, &c.

Plural.

ham huye haiii.

Sing.

If

main huya hun*

g: ^

tu hu;a hai.

5W IT
wah huya hai.

turn h^e ho*

S few*

5T srv; ^
we huye haih.

Past Perfect.I was or had become, &c.

I ^TT

main hu/i tha.
tu hu/i tha.
wah hu/t tha.

5TV Vf

ham huye the.
7JTT I
turn hu(e the.

S "N

we liuye the.

Contingent Perfect.I may have been or become, &e.

I* sT^TT

main h^a lion,
tu huya howe.
wah hu/i howe.

^Y

ham hu,e lion.

ip* ^

turn huye ho.
I ^Y
we huye hoii.

Presumptive Perfect.I must have been or become, &c.

If sT^JT

main huya hunga.
5; ^TT ^TC
tu hu,a hoga.

^ ^JTT
wah hu,a hoga.

^Yif

ham huye honge.
^Yjt

turn huye hoge.
I ^Yjt

we huye lionge.


30

HINDI MAN DAL*

Tbe omitted tenses of bond are of too rare occtirreiiet!
to need further mention than that their form will he seen
by the conjugation of the intransitive verb,, which will
now be fully set forth.

Infinitive.^"^fcTT chalna, to go.

Base.-xT^r elial, go.

Noun of Agency.-^rst^Twr, &c., chalne-

wdlii., chalanhdrd, &c., goer, about to go.

Imperfect Participle.^^frTT dialtd, going.

Perfect Participle.chald, gone.

Conjunctive Participle.

dial, chale, chalhar, chalice, dialkarlce, having

gone.

Intransitive Verb,

Tenses formed from the Base.
Aorist.I go, I may go, I shall go, &c,

Sing.

Plural.

ham chaleh,

main chalun,

3:

tu chale.

turn clialo.



wah chale.

we chalen.

Future.I shall go, &c,

main chain nga.k

ham chalenge.

T ^^7rTA

tii chalega.
wah chalega.

turn chaloge.

we chalenge.


GftAMJtfAffc,

31

Imperative.Let me go, &c.

Sing.

Plural.

main chalun. ham chaleh.

g: ir* "wr

tu chal. turn chalo.

wall chale. we chalen.

Respectful Imperative.clialiye, xF^T^JTT, c^ia-
liyega, he pleased to go.

Tenses from the Imperfect Participle.

Indefinite ImperfectI would go, T had gone, had I
gone, fcc.

W^Trn W

main dial lit. ham chalte.

tu chalta. turn chalte.

^PsTrrT ^

wall chalta. we chalte.

Present Imperfect.I am going, &c.

^^TrTT ^

main chalta hun.
9: ^fTT %
tu chalta liai.

wah clialta hai.

ham chalte liain.
turn chalte ho.
we chalte hain.

Past Imperfect.-

If ^r^TrTT wr

main chalta tha.

a: ^PfTfTT TT
tu chalta tha.

^ ^fTT WT
wah chalta tha.

-I was going, &c.

ham chalte the.
turn chalte the.
we chalte the.


32

HINDI MANUAL,

Contingent Imperfect.I may be going, Ac,

Sing.

H ^r^TfTT

main chalta ho^n.

tu chalta howe.

^ ^HTT
wall cbalta bo we.

Plural.

ham cbalte bon.
TpT

turn cbalte bo.
we cbalte bon.

Presumptive Imperfect.I must be going, Ac.

If ^rJTT w

main cbalta htinga.

*^^rrTT ^UTT
tu chalta boga.

^ ^HTT ^JIT
wab cbalta boga.

bam cbalte honge.
g-H ^JT

turn cbalte boge.

we chalte honge.

Negative Contingent Imperfect.Were I going, bad I
been going, &c.

*r ^^TfTT ^tfTT

main cbalta hota.
g; ^fTT

tu cbalta hota.

xT^rfTT ^rTT
wab cbalta hot a.

bam cbalte bote.
-g-H

turn cbalte bote.
?

we cbalte bote.

Tenses from the Perfect Participle.

Indefinite Perfect.I went, Ac.

main chala.

T

tu chala.

^ ^rr

wab chala.

W

bam cbale.

g*

turn cbale.

*\ _ "S

we cbale.


GRAMMAR,

Present Perfect.I have gone,
Sing.

main chain huft.

tu chain hai.

^ tT
Plural.

ham chale hain.
turn chale ho.

*\ r\.

wah chain hai.

we chale hain.

Past Perfect.I had gone, &c.

iT 'WT

main chain tha.

tu chain tha.
V* *fT

wall chain tha.

ham chale the.
g*T -rf# vj
turn chale the.

we chale the.

Contingent PerfectI may have gone, &c.

main chain lio^uft.
13: ^'^T ^
tu chain howe.
^ ^T^TT

wah chain howe.

ham chale ho ft,

g* ^

turn chale ho.
we chale hoft.

Presumptive Perfect.I must have gone, &c.

if tPSTT #JTT
main chala hunga.
rr£ tT^TT ^jtt
tu chala hoga.

ITS ^TT ^JTT
wah chala hoga.

^

ham chale lionge.
g* vftii
turn chale hoge.

we chale honge.

3


34

HINDI MANUAL.

Negative Contingent Perfect.Had T gone, &c.

Sing.

$T
main chala hota.

tu chala hota.
5T? ^IT ^TcTT
wall chala hota.

Plural.,

ham chale hote.
-g-H

turn chale hote.
K we chale hote.

Forms produced by help of rahna.

The Progressive Present.1 am going along.

T^T W

main chal ralia liun.

tu chal ralia hai.

^ T^T
wah chal raha hai.

^ ^

ham chal rahe liain.
g-H

turn chal rahe ho.

# %*
we chal rahe liaih.

The Progressive Imperfect.I was going along.

main chal raha tha.
^ TTT
tu chal raha tlia.
^ Ten-

wall chal raha tha.

ham chal rahe the.

*g-*r

turn chal rahe the.
we chal rahe the.

The use of the last two forms will he understood by
remarking that they are used to express an act actually in
progress at the time spoken of. Thus, I speak (or am
speaking) Hindi, main Hindi boltd huh ; I am talking
away in Hindi/ main Hindi bol radio, huh; I was
yesterday speaking Hindi, hai main Hindi boltd tlid; I
was at that moment talking away in Hindi, usi chhin
main Hindi boh valid ihd.


- GRAMMAR;

§5

The Very common verb jdna, to. go, is conjugated in
precise accordance with the foregoing paradigm, its per-
fect participle being, however, gayd> gone ; thus, main
jatd hfin, I am going, main gayd hun, I have gone,
main jdtd hotd, had I been going, main gayd hotd,
had'I gone, &c. &c.

All intransitive verbs in the Hindi language are conju-
gated like chalnd.

lg^ Remember that there are, of course, Feminine
forms of all the tenses (except the Aorist and Imperative),
framed by changing the terminations -a and -e, to -i and
-in respectively ; thus, Sing. masc. main chaltd hotd ; fern.
main chalti hoti; Plur. masc. ham chaltehote ; f'em. ham
chalti hot hi.

Transitive Verbs.

In all the tenses formed from the base, and those
formed by the help of the Imperfect Participle, transitive
verbs are conjugated exactly like intransitive verbs; but
the tenses deduced from the Perfect Participle are formed
in a peculiar manner. In these. last-mentioned tenses
(throughout the greater part of the Hindi area), the
nominative form of the pronouns is discarded, and the
Agent takes its place. This change gives a passive con-
struction to the verb, which, as a consequence, no longer
agrees with the nominative or agent, but with the object
or accusative. For example, purush pothi parhtd hai,
the man is reading the book ; in this case the verb,
being formed with the imperfect participle, agrees with
the nominative purush. But in the past perfect tense we
must say punish ne pothi parhi hai, the man has read
the book (lit. by the man the book has been read).*
Here the agent purush ne is employed, and the verb
becomes feminine to agree with the accusative pothi,
book. It is the book which has been read, not

* This is not the explanation of Indian scholars, and it admits of
question; but it is that which commends itself to many Europeans.

3 *


36

HINDI MANUAL.

the man This is an important peculiarity of Hindi,
which must be clearly apprehended ; but, however strange
it may seem at first, a little practice will soon make it.
familiar.

Tenses from the Perfect Participle of Transitive Verbs.

The nominative assumes the form of the Agent, and the
verb agrees, in gender and number, with the Object. The
useful verb Tcarna, to do, is taken as an example.

Indefinite Perfect.I did, &c.

^, -g-H ii m. sing, ft^T,

f. sing. m. pi. f. pi.

main ne, tu ne, us ne, ham ne, turn ne, unhon ne m.
sing, kiya,/. sing, ki, m. pi. kiye,/, pi. kin.

Present Perfect.I have done, &c.

^ ^ % JM- sing.

f^T 't, f- sing, cfl't, m. pi. f. pi. %.

main ne, tu ne, us ne, ham ne, turn ne, unhoh ne kiya
hai, ki hai, kiye hain, ki hain.

Past Perfect.I had done, &c.

H $, ^ sing.

f^T ^r, f- sing,
main ne, tu ne, us ne, ham ne, turn ne, unlion ne kiya
tha, ki thi, kiye the, ki thin.

Contingent Perfect.I may have done, &c.

if -5T, g: ^T, ^ m- sing.

fiwT Tt, f- sing, eft ^ m. pi. ^Y, f. pi. ^Y.

main ne, tu ne, us ne, ham ne, turn ne, unhon ne kiya
ho, ki ho, kiye lion, ki hon.


GRAMMAR.

37

Presumptive Perfect.I must have done, &c.

If ipr w, ^*£1 ^ m- sing-

fw ^jrr, f- sing, qft m. pi. ^t3i f- P1-

Tfjft

main ne, tu ne, us ne, ham ne, turn ne, unhon ne kiya
hoga, ki hogi, kiye honge, ki hongi.

Negative Contingent Perfect.Had I done,
If it, 17 a, w, ^*T TpT -M, ^ m. sing.

fw*tT 'VtTTT, f- sing, m- Pi- f- Pi-


main ne, tu ne, us ne, ham ne, turn ne, unhon ne [kiya
hota, ki hoti, kiye bote, ki hotiri.

Theie are a few verbs which, although transitive in
signification, do not usually take the case of the Agent in
the Peifect tenses. They are as follows:land, to
bring, larnd, to fight, bolnd, to speak, bhnlndt, to
forget, baknd, to chatter. The same is true of Com-
pound Transitives, the last member of which is neuter,
such as le jdnd, to take away, khd jdnd, to eat up,
kar baithnd, to finish off, charli baithnd, to over-
power ; and of Intransitive compounds, although the last
member may be a transitive, such as dial dend, to go
away, ho lend, to accompany. What are called
Frequentatives and Acquisitives, also (see further on),
although formed with karnd and pdnd, never take the
case of the agent. The verbs samajhnd, to comprehend,
andjannd, to bear offspring, sometimes do, and some-
times do not, take the agent.

Passive Verbs.

There being a bountiful supply of Neuter verbs in
Hindi, the verb is but seldom called upon to assume the
passive form; when such a form is required, it is j>ro-


38

HINDI MANUAL.

duced by adding the tenses of jdnd, to go, to the
Perfect Participle of some other verb. Thus, from dend,
to give/* comes diydjdna, to be given ; from dehhnd,
to see, comes delchd jdnd, to be seen. The conjuga-
tion is merely that of jdnd, and therefore need not be
here repeated. The participle as well as the auxiliary-
must agree with the subject; thus, Jcoj purush delchd
jdtd thd, some man was being seen, hoj stri delchi jdti
thi, some woman was being seen, we dekhe ga,e the,
they had been seen.

It is here needful to introduce the following compound
tenses ; for, although some of them, especially the passive
forms, are of rare occurrence in Hindi books, still it is
impossible to attain a thorough knowledge of the lan-
guage until a familiarity with such locutions is attained.
As the conjugation of these forms is perfectly regular,
only the 3rd pers. sing, of each is given. A few of the
simple tenses are introduced to complete the series of
changes.

1. He may write.Wah likhe.

2. He can write.Wah likh sakta hai.

3. He would (or might) write.Wah likhta. -

4. He could write.Wah likh sakta (or saka).

5. He should (or ought to) write.Us ko likhna cha-

liiye.

6. We must (or shall) write.Us ko likhna hoga.

7. He used to write.Wah likha karta.

8. He may be writing. Wah likhta howe.

9. He can be writing.Wah likhta rah (or ho) sakta

hai.

10. He has been writing.Wah likhta raha, hai.

11. He might (or would) be writing.Wah likhta hota

(or rahta).

12. He could be writing.Wah likhta ho sakta (or saka).

13. He should (or ought to) be writing.Us ko likhta

rahna chahiye.

14. He must be writing.Wah likhta hoga.

15. He will be writing,Wah Ukhta rahega,


GRAMMAR.

39

16. Ho may have been writing.Wah likh (or likhta)

valia howe.

17. He can have been writing.---Wah likhta rah saka

hoga.

18. He will have been writing.Wah likhta rah chuk-

ega.

19. He might (or would) have been writing.1Wah likhta

rah a hot a.

20. He could have been writing.Wah likhta rah saka

hota.

21. He should (or ought to) have been writing.Chahiye

tha ki wah likhta raha hota.

22. He must have been writing.Wah likhta raha hoga.

23. He may have written.TJs ne likha ho.

24. He can have written.Wah likh saka hai (or hoga).

25. He will have written.Wah likh chukega.

26. He might (or would) have written.Wah likhe hota

(or Us ne likha hota).

27. He could have written.Wah likh saka hota.

28. He should (or ought to) have, written.Us ko likhna

chahiye tha.

29. He must have written.Us ne likha hoga.

30. It may be written.Wah likha j awe.

31. It can be written.Wah likha ja sakta hai.

32. It might (or would) be written.Wah likha jata.

33. It could be written.Wah likha ja sakta (or saka).

34. It should be written.Chahive ki wah likha jawe.

35. It must be written.Wall likha jawega.

36. It may have been written.Wah likha gaya ho.

37. It will have been written.-Wah likha ja chukega.

38. It might (or would) have been written.Wah likha

gaya hota.

39. It could have been written.Ho sakta tha, ki wah

likha gaya hota,.

40. It should (or ought to) have been written.Chahiye

tlia ki wah likha gaya hota.

41. He is about to write.Wah likhnewala hai.

It will be'seen that these expressions, some of which
ftre phraseological, and not conjugational, are of the


40

HINDI MANUAL.

importance to anyone endeavouring to express English
ideas in the Hindi language. The forms here given are
applicable to every idea; and each can be inflected
through every person, singular and plural. Thus, if we
wish to say, I ought to have knelt, we take the 28th
model sentence, and adapt it thus, Mujh ko ghutne ke
bal baithna chahiye tha ; so, by the 18th model, We
shall have been walking, is Ham chalte rah chukenge ;
and, by the 39th model, The letter could have been
sent, must be rendered by Ho sakta tha ki chittki
bhijwa di gayi hoti. These numerous auxiliary com-
pound tenses have heretofore remained unnoticed.

Causal Verbs.

Simple verbs are generally made causal and doubly
causal by the addition of d and wd, respectively, to the
base ; thus, chalnd, to go, chaldnd, to cause to go
(i.e. to propel, move, or drive), chalwdnd, to cause (an-
other) to cause to go to cause to be moved, driven,
or propelled). Many of these causals are better translated
by different words in English; thus, sunnd, to hear,
sundnd, to tell (i.e. to cause to hear), sunwdnd, to cause
to tell ; parhnd, to read, parhdnd, to instruct (i.e.
to cause to read), 'parhwdnd, to cause to instruct. A
few more examples are here added by way of illustration.

Simple Verb.

to fall
to melt
to ascend
to be hidden
to burn

Causal. Doubly Causal.
girana girwana
fjTTT'STT ftTT^T^TT
ghulana ghulwana
^T^T^TT
char h ana, charhwana
TfTTT ^^T^TT
chhipana chhipwana
f^xn*rr f^rq^T*TT
jalana jalwana
^f^T^TT

givna

fjTK*TT

ghulua

charhna

chhipna

f^^TT

jalna


GRAMMAR.

41

Simple Verb. Causal. Doubly Causal.
to be pressed dabna dabana dab wan a
^RTRT ^r to arrive ; pahunchna pahuricliana pahurichwana
MssRTRT
to be saved bachna bachana bach wan a
SRTRT 5trrtrt
to be sounded bajna] bajana bajwana
T^T*TT RRTRT q*nTRT
to meet milna milana milwana
fWJTT f^rr^rr
to move hiln a hilana bilwana
fy^rsTT fw^rr fa^PiWT
to fly urna urana urwana
^r^rr ^RTRT
to rise uthna uthana nth w ana
^BTRT
Many bases consisting of ( iWo short t syllables, the latter
of which is short a, reject that vowel in the causal, but
not in the doubly causal form. Thus
to shine chamalviia ch amkana chamak wan a
R*RTRT R^qTqTRT
to seize pakarna pakrana pakarwana
q^*TT TRRTRT
to be tried paiukhua parkhana parakhwana
qT^RT TTW^RT
to be introduced parachna parchana parachwana
RTRTRT TRRRTRT
to return palatna pal tan a palatwana
rw^trt
to be melted pighalna pighlana pighalwana
fxr^wT finr^ri'srT faw^r
to be scattered bitharna bithrana bitharwana
fawn fa-*j^urr


42

HINDI MANUAL.

Simple Verb. Causal. Doubly Causal.
to wander bhatakna bhatkana bhatakwana
*TT
to blaze up bharakna bharkana bharakwana
vifcfrsrT w&w?r*n
to understand samajhna samj liana samajhwana
^-^TT
to move sarakna sarkana sarakwana
nrw* T fsxw?
Monosyllabic bases containing long vowels shorten the
vowel in the causal forms. Thus
to be awake jagna jagana jagwana
WTJT5TT nTTTT r^TTT
to conquer jitna jitana jitwana
S^TTSTT Pshttht f^Tfr^TSTT
to be wet bhigna bhigana bhigwana
*ft3T*TT fairrsTT f^3Trx^TT
to resolve ghumna gliumana gliumwana
^rr
to swing jhulna jhulana jhulwana
^^frsrT
to sink dubna dubana dubwana
^T^TT
to forget bhulna bbulana bkulwtma
<\ wrsrr VJ
If the base end in a long vowel, besides its being
shortened, regularly or irregularly, l is inserted. The
following are examples.
to drink pina pilana pilwana
iflHT ^f^T^TT f^r^r^T^n
to sew sina silana silwana
^TT fWT^TT fw^T^rr
to touch chhuna chhulana chliulwana
W*TT $ Wgr^T^fT


GRAMMAR,

43

Simple Verb. Causal Doubly Causal.
to give dena dilana dilwana
^*TT f^TTT f^sr^rsrr.
to wash dhona dhulana illnilwana
TT V^TT^rT
to cry rona rulfina rulwana
TT*TT W*n?TT
to sleep sona sulana s ulwa.ua
^T^TT W^T

The diphthongs ai or an between two consonants in a
monosyllabic base generally remain unchanged in the
causal forms. Thus :

to swim pairna pairana pairwana
^TOTT
to sit baithna baithana baithwana
fB-*TT fBT5TT f^T-JTT
to run daurna daurana daurwana
Several neuter verbs with a short vowel in the 1
lengthen it in the causal (instead of adding a), but
m the doubly causal form. Thus:
to be cut katna katna katwana
ejr^T^rr
to be buried garna garna garwana
V, 3TT^*fT < JPfsiTsrT
to be supported thamna thamna thamwana

to be nourished palna palna. p.ilwana
-qr^TSTT TT^r*TT WSTT^TT
to die marna marna mar w ami
^STT *K^TT ^^cn*rr
to be laden ladna ladna lad wan a,
^tt^t


44

HINDI MANUAL.

Simple Verb. Causal. Doubly Causal.
to bo tied bandhna bandhna bandhwana
TT ^fV5TT
to issue nikalna nikalna nikalwana
f*RrTW*TT f^RT^r^T^TT
to be pulled kliinclina khinchna khinchwana
^T^rr
to be plaited guthna guthna guthwana
JT^rsTT VJ VJ
The causals of some verbs are more or less irregular
>rm. Thus:
to eat kb ana khilana khilwana
*3T*TT fWT^T fw^n^n
to take lena liwana
^TT f%^rT*TT
to enter paithna paithalna
^a-^TT ^3-I^r*rT
to lie down letna litana litwana
f^T^TT f%^TVTT
to be perforated chhidna ehbedna ehhidwana
f^'STT fw^T^TT
to be filed ritna retna ritwana
T"*T*TT
to be melted ghulna gholna ghulwana
^STT
to appear dikhna dekhna dikhlana
^a^TT f^WT^TT
to remain rahna raklina rakhwana
T^TT TWT XWZTsn
to be rent phatna pharna pharwana
qfT^TT
to be sold bikna bechna bikwana
fr^rarr ^^TT fN^TSTT


Git AM M All.

45

Simple Verb,
to escape chhutna .

VJ

to be broken tutna

to be split pnutna

qr^T

Causal.

chhorna

wtT'sn
torn A.
ffW^rr
phorna

^Wsri

Doubly Causal.

ehliurwana

w^f^tf

turwana

g'^rr^TT

phurwana

qj^T-STT

VJ

A few verbs have two or more ways of forming the
causal; as,

3f^*TT kahna, 44 to say xfngTTT kahana or eff^F^TF kali-
lana, 4 to cause to tell.

^TT Kabila, 44 to be pressed ; ^f^TF dabna or
dabana, 44 to compress.

nibarna, to be ended ; f*r^T^*TT nibarna or
f*rq"^*TT niberna, to accomplish, finish.
f^^TT chhidna, to be pierced; i^*rr chhedna, 44 to
pierce; fw^F*TT chliidana, to have pierced.

HfaWF bhiglina, 44 to be wet; fHJTF*TF bliigana or fVraffSTT
bliigona, 44 to moisten.

siklina, 44 to learn pg^^TF sikhana or fa^F^TF
sikhlana, 44 to teach.

l?^TT chhutna, 44to be let go ; chhorna or

chliurana, 44 to release, 44 abandon.

dubna, 44 to be immersed; -^f^TF dubanaor

Vj VJ

dubona, 44 to immerse.

^TF deklina, 44 to see f^^F*TF dikhana or f^?§^rF*rF
dikhliina, 44 to show.

^TF baithna, 44 to sit ; baithana, fq-H^TF^TT bith-

lana, fq^F^r*TF baithalna, fV3T*TF bithana, or -t^F^TSTT
baithfdna, 44 to seat.

*TF rakhna, 44to retain; t^F*TT rakhaua or ^r^T^TT
rakhwana, 44 to give in charge.


46

nmbi MA^trAii*

There are many words in Hindi, derived from nouns,
which are made verbal by the causal affix ; they are, how-
ever, neuter in signification, and are conjugated intransi-
tively. Thus, from ris, anger, comes

risiydna, to feel anger, or to be angry: from
ghdm, sunshine, comes ghamdnd, to bask

in the sun ; from chanchal, fickle, comes

^f^T^rr chanchaldnd, to be unsteady. In this way
are formed

f*$W*TT khisana, to be abashed.
f^T*TT khiyana, to be worn.

kliujlana, to itch. Also transitive in the
sense of to scratch.

^!TT*rT ghabrana, to be agitated.
gr^^TT^TT kumhlana, to wither.

*^TTT*TT tewrana, to be giddy.

Closely allied to the above are a large number of
reduplicate verbs, most of them onomatopoeic.

The following are a few transitives

khatkhatana, to rap.
jharjharana, to flop.
thartharana, to shake.
fjrefJT^TTT girgirana, to beseech.
tingtingana, to twang.

^qT^-q'T'ifX kliupkhupana, to envy.

bhurbhurana, to sprinkle powder.

The following are intransitive

kharkharana, to rattle.
khadkhadana, to bubble.
khalkhalana, to rumble.
gahgahana, to quiver.


GRAMMAS.

4?

chhalchhalana, to mutter.
W*rw*Tr*n chhanchhanana, to simmer.
HWWWT'irT jhanjh'anana, to tinkle.

OT*W*TT jbaijhalana, to glitter.

Vf*qP3T^T pharpharana, to flutter.
f^wfwrsrr khilkhilana, to giggle.

q| f^urrsTT ghinghinana, to turn sick at.
chichiyana, to squeak.
cbincliinana, to squeak.
jbirjbiraua, to rave.

JTrJrirr*rT gungunana, to mutter.
cbulchulana, to tickle.

Tfr^rxR pbuspbusana, to whisper.

Vj Vj

Tbe following are not regular reduplicates :
chbatpatana, to flounder.

^TT^TT*TT larbarana, to stammer.
f^rpR^TT^T jbilmilana, to flicker.
frTTpRTT*TT tirmirana, to dazzle.

Tbe use of ordinary verbs and causals may be illus-
trated by tbe following examples :ghar bantd hai, tbe
bouse is being built ; thawafi ghar bandta hai, tbe mason
is building tbe bouse ; rdjd ghar banwdtd hai, tbe king
is having tbe bouse built.

Compound Verbs.

There are eleven kinds of verb-combinations, more or
less partaking of a compound character, which must be
here specified, as they are constantly brought into use,
mid are in some respects peculiar. They are called
Intensive/, Potentials, Completives, Frequentatives, Desi-
deratives, Continuities, Static^ls, Inceptives, Permissives,
Acquisitives, and Nominals.


48

HINDI MANUAL.

Intensives.These are formed by adding certain verbs
to the bases of other verbs, with the object of intensify-
ing the meaning of the base. The verb used as an
auxiliary loses entirely its own meaning, and merely adds
force to the base to which it is joined. Those most
commonly used for this purpose are shown in the fol-
lowing examples:

fjnr*rT girana, to upset, fjy^y ^*TT gira dena, to throw
down.

Tfr^vrT torna, 'to break, ffjlT tor dalna, to break

to pieces.

^TT khana, to eat, ?§y -gfpsfy kha jana, to eat up.
q^*TT pina, to drink, -q) -^-y pi lena, to drink down.
f down.

^fcTT banna, to be made, ^tTT ban ana, to be
fully made.

^TT rna, to weep, ^ ly^-syy to baithna, to despair.
ft^r*TT bolna, to speak, sj^-jyy bol uthna, to

speak out.

karna, to do, f^?§T*rT kar. dikhana, to
realize, to accomplish fully.
cfTTcTT karna, to do, ^y^y kar baithna, to do

once for all.

^^ry charhna, to ascend, ly^crr charh baithna,
to overpower.

cfT Iona, to take, ^#ry le lena, to take away.
^y*yy hona, to be, ^ orr^-y ho jana, to become.
^ry^cTy katna, to cut, cfyy^ ^T^TTT kat dalna, to cut
up.

^y*yy ana, to come, ^y fsr^yvrr nikalna, to emerge.
^yy hona, to become, ^ ^yy?ry ho ana, to become
forthwith.


GRAMMAR,

49

The verbs given as second members in the foregoing
compounds combine with a large number of bases to
produce intensive verbs.

A kind of intensive is produced colloquially by em-
ploying the inflected masculine form of the perfect
participle, instead of the base. The compounds thus
formed denote slightly more intensiveness and instanta-
neousness than those formed from the base. Examples of
this form of intensive are to be found in books. Thus,

TvTSTT bach rahna, to avoid, bache

rahna, to keep clear of, avoid entirely.

jn? kah dena, to state, cjri ^tt kahe dena, to
state earnestly or authoritatively.

^ de dena, to consign, hand over,

diye dena, to hand over at once.

TT^r*TT kar dalna, to effectuate, ^T^r*TT kiye
dalna, to do violently or suddenly.

Potentials.These are formed by adding the tenses of
the verb salcnd, to be able, to the base of some other
verb; thus, khd sakndf to be able to eat, bol salcnd,, to
be able to speak, and so on. Frequently, in conversa-
tion, the inflected infinitive is used instead of the base;
thus, bolne saktd hai, he is able to speak, toe silchne sakie
haih, they are able to learn. But this is considered
more colloquial than elegant. In some parts of India
even the uninflected infinitive is employed; thus, main
dend saldd lmn, I am able to give.

Comjiletives.These compounds are formed by adding
the tenses of chulcnd, to have finished, to the base of
another verb. It indicates the completion of the act more
decidedly than the perfect tenses of simple verbs ; thus,
us ne khdyd, he ate, but wah khd clmkdy he finished
eating. The future tense of chuknd produces a com-
pound generally equivalent to the English future perfect;
thus, wall khd chulcegd, he will have eaten. (For
other examples of chulcegd, see p. 39.) From the very

4


50

HINDI MANUAL.

nature of this compound, the past tense is that which ia
most frequently used.

Frequentatives.These compounds denote the habitual
or repeated performance of an act; and they are formed
by adding the tenses of Tcarnd, to do, to the perfect
participle of any verb. The participle is in the masculine
singular form, and remains unchanged, whatever may be
the gender or number of the subject; thus, wah pdrhd
karti liai, she is in the habit of reading we kahd hark
liaiii, they are constantly saying.

Bemember, that this compound is conjugated intran-
sitively in all the tenses; thus, wah likhd kartd haif he
is constantly writing; wah likhd kiyd hcii, he wrote
repeatedly. But the common form is wah likhd kartd
(see p. 38).

Desicleratives.These are formed by adding the tenses
of. chdhnd, to desire, to the masculine singular form of
the perfect participle: parhd chdhnd, to wish to read,1"
wah hold chdhtd lmi, he wishes to speak. Not infre-
quently the inflected infinitive is used instead of the
participle ; as, karne chdhnd, to wish to do ; and the
uninflected infinitive is still more common; as, pind
chdhnd, to wish to drink, ko/i nikalnd chdhUl hai,
somebody wishes to come out.

The perfect participle is never used with the past
tenses of chdhnd ; therefore, such locutions as us ne parhd
chdihd are unknown. Other forms are used instead
thereof; for example, us ne chdhd hi walidii jd/ilu (lit. ho
wished thus, I would go there), he wished to go
there; us ne wahdu jane lei ichchhd hi (lit. he formed the
wish of going there), he wished to go there; Mohan
ne dj eh haje ghar jand chdhd, Mohan wished to go home
at 1 oclock to-day.

The respectful imperative form clidhiye is constantly
used in the sense of the Latin oportet, it is needful or
.fitting ; as, us he liye ek haras clidliiye, it will require a
year for that purpose. It is often used with the iiir
finitive, as wahdul jdnd chdhiye, one ought to go there.!
It is also constantly used with the aorist; as, chdhiye ki
koj wahdh jdwe, one ought to go there. (See also pp*


GRAMMAR.

51

38,39.) This locution has a plural form, chdhiyen ; as, mil
jane chdhiyen, they must be found, apne durdclidr chhorne
chdhiyen, we must abandon our evil practices-; it has
also a past tense, chdhiye thd ; as, chdhiye thd hi nacli he
tir par hotd, it was necessary that it should be on a river
bank. There is likewise a form chdhiyegd, with a future
signification, e.g. us ho jitnd pdni chdhiyegd usi he anusdr
dyd haregd, all the water he will require will come
continually.

In Frequentatives and Desideratives the perfect par-
ticiple of jdnd, to go, is jdyd (not gayd) ; thus, main
jdyd chdhtd huh, I desire to go ; main jdyd hartd huh,
I am frequently going.

Desideratives often express that which is about to
be ; thus, ghari bajd chdhti thi, the clock was about to
strike.

Continuatives.These are formed by adding the imper-
fect participle of a verb to the tenses of jdnd, rahnd, and,
or chalnd. The participle agrees with the subject in
gender and number. Thus,

VT*) ^fTr ^THTT ^

^rft w*ft t

ft ^ ^TfT efrT

eTT

TI% XTTft

pani bahta jata hai.The
water keeps flowing on.
nadi ki dhar bahti rahti
hai.The stream of the
river keeps flowing on.
us ke man men is bat ka
ghamand hota chala.
This conceit continued to
exist in his mind,
haule haule pani upar barh-
ta ay a,.The water con-
tinued gradually to rise.

In some cases the perfect participle is used, instead of
the imperfect participle, in a similar sense. The perfect
participle, also, must agree with the subject; thus, lauhcli
chalijati thi, the slave girl was going along.

Staticals.These verbs express existence in a certain
state; and they are formed by adding the imperfect par-

4 *


52

HINDI MANUAL,

ticiple o£ one verb to the tenses of another. The participle
is in the inflected masculine form, and undergoes no
change. Thus,

^ wall stn hanste ati tin.-1

That woman was coming
laughing.*

Incentives.These express an action as beginning, or as
being resumed after interruption; and they are formed
oy adding the tenses of lagnd to the infinitive of any
other verb in the inflected masculine form; thus, halm
lag a, he began to sa y, he went on to say, or he re-
sumed ; hluine lagnd, to begin to eat, and so on.

Permissives.These are formed by adding the inflected
masculine infinitive of verbs to the tenses of dend, to
give, and they express permission or allowance to per-
form the act named by the infinitive ; thus, hhane dend,
to permit to eat; bolne dend, to allow to speak; us
ne us ho jane diyd, he allowed him to go.

Acquisitives.These are formed in the same way as the
last; but they take pdnd (instead of dend), because they
express the getting or obtaining permission to do the act
indicated by the infinitive ; thus, pine pdnd,, to get (leave)
to go; bolne pdnd, to obtain (permission) to speak;
mam pa,rime nahm pd-dvgd-, I shall not be allowed to
read. In this construction the verb pdnd is always con-
jugated intransitively, the agent never being used in the
perfect tenses ; thus, wall (not us ne) hhdne nahln pdy he was not allowed to eat ; wah jogi se lcuchh kahne no>
pdyd, he was not allowed to say anything to the Yogin.
1Sominals.These form a highly important class of
verbs in modern Hindi; they contribute an unlimited
number of expressions, and are largely made available
in the development of the language. They are formed
by combining a substantive or adjective with a verb;
and, being subject to peculiarities of regimen, they

* The ordinary imperfect participle conveys frequently a similar
meaning; thus, wah stri liansti ati thi also means That woman
was coming laughing.*


GRAMMAR.

53

require explanation somewhat commensurate with their
importance. The following lists show the effect pro-
duced upon nouns by compounding them with verbs ; and
also the changes of meaning produced in many of the
verbs so formed by using different cases in connection
^vith them. For example, us ne udhcir diyci, he dis-
charged the debt ; but us ne us ho udhdr diyd, he
advanced him a loan. Again, us neus ho uddhdr hiyd,
he rescued him ; but us ne us hd uddhdr hiyd, he did
away with it. Very many nominals are formed by the
help of harnd, to do; but later on it will be shown
that other verbs are also pressed into service.

First List.

The first list contains verbs which, although formed
with lcarnd, and conjugated transitively, yet bear a neuter
signification.*

achambha
tarn a,to be astonished.

adhinta,! k.,to
be humble.

abhiman k.,to be
conceited.

acharan k.,to be-
have, act.

ichchha k.,to be am-
bitious.

duha,i k.,to cry for
help.

nihchai k.,to be
convinced, make sure.

panditayi k., to
display learning.

bal k.,to put forth

strength, to make an
effort.

has k.,to have done
with, desist.

bhartta k.,to take a
husband.

W<£TT bhala k., to act
wisely.

vfh5T*T bhojan k.,to feed,
take a meal.

maila k.,to
be troubled in mind,
yatna k.,to try, make

an effort.

* To save space the word JcarnfiL is not repeated after each nouQj
hut is understood throughout the first five lists.


54

HiNDi MAtftfAL,

raman k.,to enjoy
pleasure.

lamb a k.,to stretch
out.

Iambi cliauri k.,
to boast.

laj k.,to be ashamed.

lobli k.,to be greedy.
rv^ vfid k.,to dispute.

by all k., to cele-
brate a marriage.

vismay k.,to be
dismayed.

1 santi k.,to be com-

posed.

jfj-qp sok k.,to be grieved.

sail chit k., to

hoard.

santosh k.,to be
content.

saiiyam k.,to check
desire.

^^rTT surta lc.,to display
valour, summon up cour-
age.

Second List.

The verbs of the second list require the accusative-
dative sign Ico to be used in connection with them ; tkpy
then bear the following significations: %

^T^TT angikar
karna,to agree to, ac-
cept, submit to.

^frr aniti k.,to do a I
wrong to.*

achhadan k.,to

cover.

^Tf^nr^r alingan 1c., to
embrace.

ahar k.,to eat,

i

consume.

Tg-^-pC uddbfir k.,to rescue,
upades k.,to ad-
vise. i

^^Tof*r uparjan k., fo
acquire.

f^T chhiina k.,to pardon,
excuse (a thing).
jtw gun k.,to benefit, do
a kindness to.

gralian k.,to clasp,
accept.

eh in tan k.,to me-
ditate, contemplate,
chhedan k.,to cut,

cut off.


c\ c\

break into pieces.

* Aniti IcarnOj takes par as well as ho.


GRAMMAS.

55

rfre*r taran k.,to punish,
beat.

tyfig k.,to abandon,
give up.

^T dahan k.,to burn,
consume.

dak k.,to burn.

^KUT dharan k.,to bear,
possess, know.

TT^ nas k.,to ruin de-
stroy.

fsp^nr nivaran k., to
prevent.

firr* nihchai k.,to re-
solve on.

^f^TJT parity ag k., to
renounce.

paripalan k.,
to protect, cherish.

pasand k., to ap-
prove.

palan k.,to protect,
cherish, nurse.

piclihe k.,to cast be-
hind the back.

prakfis k., to illu-
minate.

SPUR pranfim k.,to make
an obeisance to.

^frnrRR pratipadan k.,
to enunciate.

vnfhr pvabodli k.,to, in-
struct.

prarnan k., to

assent to, accept.

bids! k., to dismiss.

bhakslian k.,to eat.

bhang k.,to violate,
infringe.

Mwr bhala k.,to do good
to.

bhed k., to distin-
guish.

bhog k.,to enjoy.

*fh5T*r bhojan k.,to eat.

mar dan k., to

crumble.

moh k.,to infatuate.

^n*T5T bilan lc.,to caress,
fondle.

erq- vadh k.,to kill.

varjan k.,to avoid,
varnan k.,to de-
scribe.

^ bas k.,to subdue. .

vyapfirk., to engage
in (business).

Â¥rr^*T sasan k.,to chastise,
sikshfi k., to in-
struct.

sahan k.., to tolerate,
smaran k., to re-
member.

swikfir k.,to con-
sent, to choose.


56

HINDI MANUAL*

^7?jT hatya lr.,to murder, haran k.,to destroy,

^r*r hanan k.,to slay, seize,
destroy.

Third List.#

The next is a longer list, containing verbs which require
the ge&itive, to give them the meanings here assigned.
Nouns marked feminine of course take Jci; all the rest are
masculine, and take Jed.

^T*TT adhyayan
karna,to peruse.

anadar k.,to dis-
parage.

anuman k., to

infer.

anuslithan k.,to

VJ

observe, attend to.

(f-)> apakirti k.,
to defame.

apaman k.,to de-
spise.

^Tr^TT (f.), apeksha k.,to
wait for.

abhyas k.,to prac-
tise, repeat, study.

avalamban k.,

to rest or rely on.

acharan k., to

practise, do.

atithya k.,to show

hospitality to.

adar k.,to honour,
arambh k.,to begin.

(£) asanka k.,to
suspect.

as ray k.,to be de-
pendent on.

(f.), ichchha k.,to

desire.

uddhar k.,to re-
move, do away with,
vjxpirn: upakar k.,to help,
khed k., to grieve
about.

tetttt ghat k.,to kill, de-
stroy.

chintan k.,to pon-
der on.

f^WTT (f*) eh in ta, k., to

reflect on, be anxious
about.

(f-) clieshta k., to

endeavour after, strive
for.

^fTcfrut (£) chaukasi k.,
to guard.

^-£7 thattha k.,to deride.


GRAMMAR.

57

fe^rrsTT thikana k., to
learn about.

Tfr^r tfiran k.,to punish,
beat.*

TSjUT tyag k.,to abandon,
give up.

7^TJT*r tyagan k.,to aban-
don.

dhanyavad k.,to
give praise to.

VIT*r dhyan k., to give
thought or attention to.

fsnr^- nigrah k., to re-
strain.

(!) ninda k., to

scorn, disparage, blame.

nihchai k.,to re-
solve on.

nyaya k.,to judge,
arbitrate for.

^rfrqT^rsr paripfilan k.,to
protect, cherish.

(f.) pariksha k.,
to make trial of.

RT^r*r palan k.,to protect,
cherish, nurse.

Tft^r pichha k.,to follow,
pursue.

xtt^ (f.) puchh pachli
k.,to investigate, audit.

Jrsft (f.) puchlia gachhi
k.,to investigate, audit.

cr pujan k., to honour,
yap (f.) pujfi k.,to ho-
noui.

Ujrx: pyar k., to caress,
fondle.

prakas k.,to reveal.
srfcr-qT^r pratipfil k., to
foster.

SjfffT'BT pratishtha k.,to
consecrate.

(f-) pratiksha k.,

to await.

UTftfrT (f-) pratiti k.(
to rely on.

pradakshin k.,to

pass round.

tfiTT'QT pram an k.,to assent
to, accept.

(f.) prasahsa k.,to
bestow encomium on.
str^T (f-) prarthna k.,
to solicit.

fsi^T (£) priya k.,to do

the pleasure of.

bakhan k.,to de-
scribe.

(f.) bara,i k., to
extol, magnify.

(f.) bad ha k.,to dis-
tress.

f^JTT'3' bigar k.,to harm.

* Tafan Jcarnd takes ho as well as k&.


58

HINDI MANtTAL.

fwfft (f-) binti k.,to en-
treat.

moli k.,to love.

T'^Tir rakslian k.,to pro-
tect.

TvTT (f.) raksliA. k., to
guard.

(f.) rakliwfili k.,
to guard, protect.

?rq- vadh k.,to kill.

varnan k.,to de-
scribe, relate.

vicliar k., to deli-
berate about.

vivaran k.,to de-
scribe, comment on.

viswas *k.,to put

confidence in.

vistar k.,-to develop.

JTTH*T sasan k.,to chas-
tise.

fVnrr^iT sislitachar k.,to
be courteous.

T sodhan k.,to j ustify.

sanchayk.,to collect,
sampadan k.,to
acquire.

Fov

The following verbs requ
the meanings indicated.

^T*TT anugrah kar-

VJ

na,to be favourable to.

sanman k.,to re-
spect.

s any am k.,to keep
in subjection.

sahyog k.,to asso-
ciate with.

satkar k.,to treat
respectfully.

(f-) salali k., to

consult regarding.

samhna k.,to en-
counter.

(f.) sudh k.,to re-
member.

sevan k., to be
addicted to.

^37 (f.), seva k.,to serve.

^rfrr (f-) stuti k., to

VJ

praise.

^rTT^T sthapan k.,to esta-
blish.

75^ spars k.,to touch.

smaran k., to re-
member.

(f.) hath k.,to insist
on.

(f.) I1A11 k.,to injure.

th List.

re par or upar, to give them

anyaya k.,to do in-
justice to.


GSAMMAB.

avalamban k.,

to rest or relv on.

asar k.,to make an
inq:>ression on.

gj-Trr kripa or kirpa k.,to
show favour to.

ghamancl k.,to be
proud of.

day A k.,to have com-
passion on.

xr^TTT^T paclihtaw.a k.,to

have regret on account
of.

^RUTrrT kripanata k., to
be niggardly of.

Fifth

The verbs in the next list
ofTTT'STT acharan
karna, to behave, act
towards.

^5fr5p^; anand k.,to enjoy,
^ykshama k.,to forbear,
abstain.

guzara k.,to sub-
sist on.

droll k.,to be ini-
mical to.

prasn k., to put a
. question to.

sj1tv5*tt prartlina k.,to ask,

Pray.

Ttffr priti k.,-to show af-
fection for.

59

kop k.,-to be angry
with.

krodh k.,to be angry
with.

kshama k., to pardon,
excuse (a person).

dhyan k., to give
thought or attention to.

prem k.,to show affec-
tion for.

bharosa k.,to trust
to.

ftrWTC vis was- k.,to put
confidence in.

List. v

equire the ablative se.

^ bail* k.,to be at en-
mity with,
bhav k.,to fear.

bhalayi k.,to prac-
tise beneficence towards.
fa^rTT mitrata k.,to make
friends with.
or mel or hel

mel k.,to form an inti-
macy with.

fcp^nr vivali k,,-to marry
(anyone).

sail gam k.,to join
with.


60

HINDI MANttlL.

Some verbs prefer he sdth. The following are ex-
amples :

sirq-^r kapat karna,

to practise deceit on.

JTHT gaman k., to have
sexual intercourse with.
^TfT^rrrr datavyata k.,to
deal generously by.

"bhalai k.,to prac-
tise beneficence towards.
The following take he sail
HfT cfrxr^TT thattha karna,
to make sport of.

fH^rTT mitrata k., to
make friends with.
or mel or kel

mel k.,to form an inti-
macy with.

samagam k., to
associate with.

tftfrT priti k., to make
friends with.

A few require the locatival men, as follows :

*TT pravritti karna,

to engage in.
yiiyr praves k.fto enter
into.

xfn rati k.,to be attached
to, take pleasure in.

sandeh k.,to be ap-
prehensive about.

The following require the words hi or:

HT^cTT mukh karna,to ^T*r dhyan k., to give

face. thought or attention to.

The verb prdrthnd harnd requires both se and hi in the
sense of praying to anyone for anything : thus, us ne apne
hdp se us he buldne hi prdrthnd hi, she begged of her
father to send for him.

The Nominals in the succeeding lists are formed by
the help of a variety of verbs; and they are sufficiently
numerous to show that, although harnd is most com-
monly used for this purpose, it is by no means the
peculiar auxiliary of Nominals.

Where any particular case of the object is required, the
sign of the case is given in parentheses.


GxfcAMMAB.

61

Nominals formed with marna.

|T^ ?nT*TT kud mania,to
jump.

f^farr cliirighar

marna,to scream.

(tt) mrsn jhapatta

mania,-to make a dash at.
("VX) thattha

marna,to mock at, de-
ride.

iff JT ding marna,

to boast.

lTRp| fHXsn dubld mania,
to plunge, dive.

*TlT*rr burki marna,

VJ

to dive, splash in.
qrwfjr lUT^TT phalahg mar-
na,to leap.

Nominals formed with khana.

^T*fT gham khana,to

enjoy the sunshine, to
bask.

*PJ ^Tctt ghus khana,to
take a bribe.

dah khana,to
be jealous.

^t*tt dli oka khan a,
to make a mistake.
^T*rr bhay khana,to

be afraid. With se= to
be afraid of.

wr ^T*TT mfir khana,to

be beaten. With se= to

be beaten by.

*TWT ^fTfT murchha khana,
e\

to swoon, faint. f
^T*TT saun khana,to
taker an oath. Witli ht,
to swear bv.

^T*tT kori khan a,to
get a whipping.

(wt) f^r*rr mar khi-
lana,to beat, punish.

Nominals formed, with lagtl
(VX) TTT*f ^f3TT*TT tak la-
gan a,to take aim.

^rJrriTT dayo lagana,to
bet.

0*t or <*ft) ^fjrr^-T dosh
lagana,to blame, calum-
niate, accuse.

In a, clialana, and bicharna.

WT ^TJTTVTT pata lagana,
to make inquiry about
anyone.

(fO) ^TfT "^T^TT bat cha-
lana, to broach con-
versation about.


62

HINDI MANUAL.

^^TTTT mukki chalana,
to deliver a blow.

^^rT*rT mnnli chalana,
to attempt to bite to
bite at.

(^ft) day a ki-

charn a,to take jnty on.

T2UX f^ir^TT pyar bi-
charna,to feel or enter-
tain love.

f^r^T bhay bicharna,

to feel or entertain
fear.

Nominals formed with dena.

^TT udhar dena,
to discharge a debt.

( to lend to.

fPBT ^TT kasht dena,to
afflict.

(wt) WTf ^TT kies dena,
to annoy.

^TT chhula,! dena,

to be felt.

f^^§TT ^TT dikhap dena,
to appear in sight, to seem.

The verbs in the following
in various wavs, and are ;
order of the verbs'by the h<

fT^i ^t*tT niscliay ana,
to appear certain.

^T*rT ydd ana to
occur to memory.

^t*tt hath ana,to be

found.

^T*TT sunayi ana,-to
become heard.

^TT ^*TT duha;i dena,
to cry for help.

(ht:) ^t*t ^TT dhyan dena,
to reflect on.

^TT pakra;i dena,
to be seized.

^TT bandha;i dena,

. to be bound.

(h) HT^T ^*17 matha dena,
to devote ones self to.

^TTT ^*TT suna;i dena,
to be heard.

list of nominals are formed
ranged in the alphabetical
p of which they are formed.

^btstt pair uthana,to
set out, start.

(^) TSflTSTT t>iit johna,
to look out, expect.

ofTTcT^rr kal jotna,to
drive the plough.

smaran di-
khana,to remind.*

* Sinara1} kardnd and ydd dikhldnd are alternative forms.


GRAMMAR.

63

(ejft) TTT rah dekhna,

-r-to look out for, wait for.

(^) VTT*T T*X?n dhyan
dliarna,t(? pay attention
to.

(vx) W[^X^J kail dliarna,
to listen.

(^) ifr^TT ha til dhona,
to despair of, renounce.

TTcfr^-iTT jar pakarna,
tc/take root.

T^3"*TT dikhayi parna,
to appear in sight.

f*T^T Tf *TT nischay parna,
to be ascertained.

Terr ^W*rT pata phchhna,
to make inquiries about
anyone.

^TT'srT niurili banana,
to express feelings

through the countenance.

t*TT*TT raso^ banana,
to cook.

(
na,to sell to anyone.

XlXi vrt*TI saris bharna,
to sigh.

(Vt) *T*TT ^T*r*rT bliala
manna,to take well or

. in good part.

(%) TT *rr5"5rT murih mor-

na, to avoid, abstain
from.

(yt) T^^rr apeksha

rakhna, to require,
need.

(tt or e?rr) vit^t t^tt

dhyan rakhna,to think
about, keep attention
fixed on.

(Vt*t) W*TT prem

rakhna, to be in love
with.

T^*TT mukh rakhna,
to end, terminate, result.

(Vt) TsWr sudk rakh-
na, to care for, look
after.

^^F*Tt nischay rahna,
to appear certain.

^TJT*TT hath lagna,to
be found.

'ZWT ^TT*TT takkar Jarna,-
to butt, push.

(^t) TTiT %5tt nam lena,
to mention a name.

^TTT pallav lena,to

be superficial (lit. to pick
up straws).

^Tt^T ^J*TT niol lena,to buy.

%Tr ^am lena,to rest,

take breath.

%*TT hida lena,to

take leave.

vachan lena,

to make a covenant.

^517 saris lena,to re-

re, breathe.

nas liona or

stroyed.


64

HINDI MANUAL.

sjcp'T'Scr ^TciT prakas hona,
to be elucidated.
f^T ^T*TT bida bona,to
take leave.

Tfr^ ^TT-iTT lot pot

ho jana,to flounder.

^tTT lop bona, to
disappear. c

Some of the nominals contained in the foregoing lists
may not be, strictly speaking, compound verbs ; but they
are given, as it is practically convenient to treat them as
such in a Manual. An inspection will show that these
are no mere lists of words; but are the kernels of so
many idiomatic nuts. If heedfully used, they will greatly
extend the students means of expressing himself in
Hindi.

COMPOUND WORDS.

One among many distinctive peculiarities of Hindi, as
compared with Urdu, lies in the freedom with which
compound words are formed ; and this applies not only
to the Sanskritized form of Hindi, but also to the lan-
guage of every-day life. Numerous examples may be
found in every page of Hindi, such as chirimdr, a
fowler ( = bird -|- killer) ; ghursdl, a stable (ahorse +
apartment) ; blmp> a king ( = eart.h + protector) ; sukhad,
pleasant (pleasure + giving); desnihUd, banish-
ment (=countrv +putting out), and so on. They are
formed upon definite principles; but, as their meanings
can be ascertained from the dictionary, nothing further
need be said of them here.

PARTICLES.

Under this term may conveniently be comprised all
those indeclinable words which are classified, in Western
languages, as Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and
Interjections.


GRAMMAR.

65

Adverbs.These are based, mostly, on nouns, pronouns,
or verbs. A very useful set, derived from certain pro-
nouns, are as follows:

Near. Remote. Interrogative. Relative. Correlative.
r or tt^I or
ab tab kab or kad jab or jad tab or tad
now then when ? when then

yah fin walifin kalian j ah an tali fin
here there where ? where there
/TNC f?nrv
idhar udhar kidliar j id har tidliar
hither thither whither ? whither thither
*fr ^T
yon won kyon ,iyri tyori
thus in that way liow r* as so
W
aisfi waisa kaisa j aisfi taisa
this-like that-like wliat-like ? which-like that-like
TtU fcfrTfT fanTT frlrTT
itta utta kitta jitta titta
this much that much how much ? as much so much
Tfnrr Pr?T^TT PsrrTSTT f itna utna kitna jitnfi titna
this much that much how much ? as much so much

The last three rows are, properly, adjectives, and are
inflected in the usual manner (see p. 13) ; but they are
also constantly used adverbially; for example, itne men,
in the meantime, aise men, in the same manner,
so. These words may take the usual affixes, to modify
their meanings, and undergo the usual changes of form
ni doing so; thus, walutn se, thence (iit. from there),

h


66

HINDI MANUAL.

Iddhar se, whence ? ab talc, up to the present time,
ab led, belonging to the present.

Kalian talc often indicates indefinite or inappreciable
extent; as, un led barnan main Icalidh talc Icariin? to
what extent can I describe them ? meaning that detailed
descrijDtion is impossible. Jab talc is used for while
but, when followed by a negative, it means until.

The emphatic particle hi is often added to the fore-
going; as, abhi, just now, aisa hi, just like this,
Icaisd hi, howsoever, Icitnd hi, however much. When
hi is joined to the second row, it coalesces with each word;
thus, yahdh becomes yahih, just here, wahdh becomes
wahih, just there ; but Icahih has an indefinite meaning,
whereabouts ? somewhere. This last word is often
added to other words, to make them indefinite; thus,
jahih Icahih, wherever ; and it is also prefixed to adjec-
tives in the same sense ; as, Icahih barhlcar, ever so
much greater, indefinitely greater. The word Icahih
followed by a negative is the equivalent of the English
lest ; as, Icahih ham logon lei bhi ivaisi hi durdam na
have, lest just such a misfortune happen to us also.
Two adverbs are at times used together, as jaluih
tahdh, here and there, jaise taise, somehow or other,
by hook or by crook. The insertion of the genitive
sign marks identity; as, jahdh led tahdh, in the same
place, jyoh led tyoh, in the same way ; and the nega-
tive, indefiniteness ; as, Icahih na Icahih, somewhere or
other.

These adverbs are also used peculiarly ; as, par lei aisi
lalcir, a feather-like streak, dp jaise bhale manushya
lei Icanyd, the daughter of so worthy a man as you
(lit. you-like worthy mans daughter). The aorist of
chdhnd is used to give indefiniteness; as, chdhe jitnd bard
ho, howsoever great it may be, chdhe jitnd Icasht pdwe,
however much annoyance he may deceive.

Many adverbs are expressed by the ablative case of
nouns ; as, ghamahd se, proudly, jhat se, quickly ;
or by the locative; as, sahaj men, easily. Some
adverbs are broken-down Sanskrit locatives, or imitations
of ther ; as, tarlce or sawere, early. Examples of repe-


GRAMMAR.

67

titions are hr am hr am se, successively clhire dhire,
slowly, gently.

Another increasingly popular method of forming adverbs
is by the help of the conjunctive participle; thus, bebas
liohar, unresistingly, nirds holcar, disappointedly,
niche mulch hohar, headlong, eh eh harhe, singly,
mulchya harhe, chiefly, dhruv harhe, firmly, and so on.
Educated men will also employ purvah as an affix ; thus,
adarpurvah, courteously, sulchpurvah, at ease.

There are numerous phraseological adverbs, such as
bat hi bdi men, suddenly, mdthe he bal, headlong,
pith he bal, backwards, muhh he bal, forwards, ho na
ho, undoubtedly, anyhow, perhaps, &c.

A few peculiar adverbs are leal, yesterday or to-
morrow ; parson, two days ago or two days lienee ;
tarson, three days ago or three days hence; and
narson, four days ago or four days hence. The
verb used with these adverbs discriminates the sense in
which they are to be understood.

Prepositions.The Hindi language does not jiossess a
set of mere particles for prepositions as is the case in
English. A few ancient prepositions are still preserved,
hut only as inseparable prefixes to verbs, nouns, and par-
ticiples. The prepositional office is filled by certain nouns,
which require the nouns whose relations they define to be
in one of the oblique cases. Thus, before him is ren-
dered by (in) the front of him, us he sdmlme (men).

% The following, which are masculine, require the geni-
tival he:

^TTJT deje, before, beyond.
xfH? piclihe, behind.

sdmhne, in front, op-
posite.

upar, above.
niche, beneath.

7f% tale, beneath.
-qTG- pds, near.
fcTeff^ nilcat, near.
fjf) -cj nagich, near.
bhitar, within.
andar, within.

5 *


68

HINDI MANUAL.

bdhar, without, out-
side.^5

Tjj-sy scitli, with.

fq*TT bind, without, desti-
tute of.

^*JT sancj, along with.

idhar udhar,
around,, to and from.

Melt, between.

f^-JT dldg, towards.

for, on account of.
arth, for, on account of.

^TT^Tir lcdran, for, by reason
of.

Hn: mare, through, in con-
sequence of.

"g-yxq dwurd, through, by
means of.

qyjr HJT lag hiutg, near, al-
most.

fV^TPC siwdte, besides, over
and above.

adhilc, above, in addi-
tion to.*

samip,] near, close to.

^rfafT, sarikd, sari-

hhd, like, similar to.

sadris, like, similar to.

xmy*r samdn, like, equal to."f
tidy a, like, equal to.

xnx par, across, on the
further side.

-q-x; pare, beyond, after.

nere, near.
cR~iT Jcane, near.

q*r£ palte, instead of, in
requital of.

qq;qj- badle, instead of, in
exchange for.

hath, through, by
the medium of.

^T^rPC anantar, after,
q-y^ bad, after.

anusdr, according
to, in conformity with.
fsrpRTf nimitta, on account
of.

%-g- 7o/w, by reason of.
fq-q-q vishay, about, in re-
spect of.

fqqqj viruddha, against,
contrary to.

f^cr viparit, against,
contrary to.

srfrTfr^r pratilcul, contrary
to.

^-qx:!"5^ upardnt, after
(time).

qfe^pahile, before (time).411
I -qxware> beyond,exceeding.

* The words buhar, adhik, and pahilc, may also, on occasions,
take the ablative^ se. ^,

f Towards Rajputana the word sam&n is often treated as a
feminine noun.


GRAMMAR.

69

Some of the foregoing words tire also used without the
genitival he.

A few words are attached directly to the oblique
base and do not usually take the genitival sign. For
example:

samet, together with.

^rfV?T sahit, with, possessed of.

rdhiti without, destitute of.

T^^5fr paryant, up to, as far as.

The word anus dr, is, also, often attached directly

to an oblique base.

Some words, which are feminine, necessarily require
the genitival sign Id. Thus :

TTT ndfin, like, similar to.

^rffcT bhdnti, like, similar to.
apehshd, in respect of.

The word or, side, direction/ has the curious
distinction of being generally feminine in the singular,
and masculine in the plural; thus, ns Id or, in that
direction or towards that; but us he char on or, on
all four sides of it, or all around it; us he donou or,
on both sides.

When transitive conjunctive participles (such as chhorhe
or chhorhar, except, exclusive of ) are used preposi-
tionally, they necessarily require the accusative.

The following Persian and Arabic words are also some*
times used in Hindi:

gird, around.

eftix; bagair, without, destitute of.
^TT^ bd/is, by reason of.
muwdfik }

^iFqr^r majih ) 55

37% waste, for, on account of.
sabab, for, by reason of,


70

HINDI MANUAL.

Conjunctions.The following are the most commonly

used conjunctions, some of
phraseological:

^rT, or aur, au, or
aru, and.

*ft bhi, also, even.

fmX phir, again, moreover.

puni, punar,
again, moreover.

Tpy*~r[" paraiitu, but.

%f^T5r leldn, but.

hintu, but (literary
style).

bar an, nay, rather.
ballci, nay, rather,
far H, that, for, or, to wit,

&c. &c.

hyhhi, because.

3-]- wd, or.

athawd, or, or else,
ya, or.

^T *37 Wib W(i> either
... or.

chdho .

chdho, either or.

*r -rf\ ^ na to ... na,

neither .. nor.
qsTT W hyd hyd,
whether ... or; both .
and.

gT% - clidlie ..

chdhe na} whether...or no.

which, it will be seen, are

^7% Tfxchdhe.. .par,
although yet.

*fr jo, if.

yadi, if.
agar, if.

frTH TJT tis par, besides.

Ftp? xrx: *ft tis par bM,
nevertheless.

rft to, then, indeed.
so, therefore.

ffpj ^ tis se, therefore.

"fTT nahbii to, other-
wise.

fr ... jo ... SO, if ..

then.

oft *ft jo bid, al-
though.

^fq- yadyapi, although.

rfr *ft tan. bhi, even
then, nevertheless.

TrwTfxr tathdpi, nevertheless.

T ^ff fefT na ho hi, lest.

*T 'Tt fsfT aisd na ho Id,
lest.

fcfTH' f^r his liye hi, in-
asmuch as.

fwu efiT^^T fhis hdrandci,
forasmuch as.


oo aj

GRAMMAR.

71

Interjections.The following are the most common :

% lie, O (respectful).

aji, O (familiar).

^77 5 77 are, re, 0 (disrespectful).

The foregoing are employed in addressing superiors,
equals, and inferiors, respectively.

dhanya, bravo !

jay jay, bravo !

victory !

scidliu, bravo!
wdh, good well done!
^7 Jo, lo!

hay lidy, alas !

<£, ah (despondency).

iili, pah (disgust)
vi vi thu tliil, pah (disgust)
grf ^ clihi chid, fy!

fvi^ff dhilCy shame!

fvygj'rxr dhilclca.r, shame!

-=r-q- chip, hush !
dtir, begone!
swasti, salutation!

The common salutation from an inferior to a superior
(as from a school-boy to his tutor) is bandage

service Muhammadans or Europeans are saluted
with sal dm, peace! Brahmans with

namaslcdr, obeisance! but to each other the Hindus
generally cry Ham! Ram! the name of a cele-

brated deity.


72

KINDI MANUAL.

PROVINCIAL HINDI.

Hind?, being spread over a vast tract of territory,
occupied very largely by a rural population, necessarily
presents considerable varieties. Minutiae left out of
account, the whole mass may be roughly divided into
two groups, the Western and the Eastern. The student
must understand that the dialects comprised under these
two comprehensive terms are nothing more than varying
phases of one general type of speech, the whole, of which,
taken together, constitute what is understood by Hindi.

It will occasion no surprise to hear that the rustic
dialects are generally characterized by a broadening
process;* thus, hi is represented by lean, leer, herd, &e.;
he appears as kai; ko, as lcaun, kalian, kanhcui, knhu,
&c.; men is represented by mon, mdhi, mdliai, mahan,
mdhjhy &c. ; linn as hauh; e becomes ai; ho becomes hav,
<&c. &c. This, which is little else than mere change of
pronunciation, strangely metamorphoses the words, and
obscures intelligibility, until the ear becomes accustomed
to such local peculiarities.

The principal divergences of declension are as follows:
The Nominative is chiefly affected by peculiarities of
pronunciation. The Accusatival and Datival particle ko
or kauh becomes, in Raj pu tan a, nai, or ai; in the Eastern

# It must not bo supposed that tho literary forms have been
corrupted into their provincial representatives; on the contrary,
the rustic forms arc sometimes nearer in appearance, at all events,
to those which, rightly or wrongly, are generally considered their
prototypes,


GRAMMAR.

73

family, it is ha, ho, lcahhah, or hi. The Agential sign ne is
modified to a vowel termination -ai in Rajputana, and
disappears entirely in the Eastern group. It deserves
especial notice that the peculiar construction of verbs with
the agent belongs exclusively to the Western branch of
Hindi. The Ablative is pretty constantly in se, te, or teii;
but in Rajputana the popular forms are stiii, and iin. The
Genitive is generally in led, ho, or lean ; in Rajputana ro, ho,
go, or lo; and, in the Eastern group, har or ha. The Loca-
tive is chiefly affected by pronunciation, being in men,
main, md, may in Rajputana, mdhai and mdtai.

The Plural inflection is -on, -ami, or -an; in Braj and
the Eastern group, -an or -ani.

In the case of the Pronouns the differences are mainly
those of pronunciation; but those differences are great
enough to disguise the words almost beyond recognition,
The bases of the 1st personal pronoun are main, mujh, me,
and mo, either with or without an aspirate; the plural is
pretty constantly ham, except in Rajputana, where an is
added to the singular, as is also the case with nouns (thus,
main, mhaih, mha, or ma, singular; but man or mhdn,
plural). The 2nd personal pronounis tu, to, or ta, and, in
the plural, turn. In Rajputana the t is aspirated, and the
plural formed by -an, as before. The other jmonouns are
inflected on similar principles ; the elementaiy bases of
all the forms being those of standard Hindi, modified
according to the foregoing indication of the habits of the
respective districts.

The substantive verb, as might be expected, undergoes
many changes. Besides the usual broadening of the
vowels, in Kanauj the syllable -gd or -go is regularly
affixed to the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, of the Present, and
mgeh in the 1st and 3rd pers. plur. In parts of Rajputana
the initial aspirate is replaced by a palatal, thus, chhun,
chhai, &c. for huh, hai, &c.; and in the Eastern group
another base bd or bat is used as the substitute for ho(nd),
In the Past tense the standard forms thd, the, become, in
Braj, ho or lmtau and he or hute respectively, and, in Raj-
putana, ho or chho, sing., and lid or chhd, plur. In the
Bastem area the verb rahnd is used to form the past tense.


74

HINDI MANUAL.

As regards general conjugation, it may be remarked
that the Infinitive termination -nd becomes, in Braj, naufi
or -wau; in Raj pu tan a, -no or wo ; and, in the Eastern
district, -na or -ba. The Aorist is tolerably constant in

form throughout the whole Hindi area, except that, in
Rajputana, the terminations are, characteristically, -un,
-ai, -ai, an, o, ai; and, in the Eastern family, a peculiar
termination -s is found for the 2nd pers. sing. It is quite
common colloquially to fortify the aorist with the sub-
stantive verb, as is illustrated further on. It is verj
commonly used as a present tense. The Future has four
varieties: (1.) the standard form, by addition of -gd (in
some places -lo) to the aorist; (2.) the generally used
rustic form, by addition of -haun, -hai, -hai, -hain, -hau,
lain (changeable, in Rajputana, to -linn, -hi, -hi, -hdh, -ho,
-hi) to the base of any verb* ; (3.) the Rajput form, by
addition of -syuh, -si, -si, -sydii, -syo, -si, to the base; and
the Eastern form, by addition of -bun, -be or -bes, -e, -ha,
-bo, -hain, to the base.f The Imperative agrees with the
aorist except in the 2nd pers. sing., which is generally the
simple base. The Present tense is the present participle
with the Present of the substantive verb for an auxiliary;
in Rajputana, however, the sense of the present tense is
expressed by the aorist fortified with the substantive
verb. The Perfect tense is formed by the perfect participle
assisted by the substantive verb. In the Eastern group,
the construction with the agent being unknown, the past
tenses have peculiar sets of terminations, the most usual
of which areSing., 1st pers. -uh, ifih, or efih, 2nd and
3rd pers. -u, -etu, -es, -isi; Plur., Ist'pers. -e, -in, or enhi,
2nd pers. -e, -en, -enhi, or -itu, 3rd pers. -e, -en, -enlii, or
-ini.

It is not unusual to hear the lower classes of Eastern
Hindi speakers express past time by the simple addition

* Short i is generally inserted between the base and these
terminations.

f These terminations are not regularly affixed in the Eastern
area; they are, in strictness, applicable to Oudh. Sometimes
alone is added for all persons, singular and plural.


GRAMMAR.

75

of -is for all persons ; thus, Jcihis, I, thou, he did, Icahis,
I, thou, he said, &c. Even in the Western area the agent
is frequently rejected; thus, instead of the standard form,
turn ne Icyd lcalia, one may hear turn led lcahin, what did
you say ? (n being a plural inflection to agree with turn,
the nominative).

The frequent repetition of the verb hond causes it to
undergo more than usual alteration; and its forms are,
therefore, more varied than is the case with other verbs.
Thus, in Rajputana, the base becomes hive or hwai,
throughout; in Kumfion, it is hu ; and, in Braj, it is hwai,
in the future tense. A common form of the future of
hond, in rustic Hindi, is

hoyihaun ^TT%* hoyihain

hoyihai hoyiho

hoyihai hoyihaih

In both West and East the present perfect and past
perfect tenses are colloquially formed from a different
base, becoming hhayo orbhayau in the singular, and bhaye
in the plural throughout. In the Eastern area, bha, bhai,
or bhaye occurs in both singular and plural.

The present participle, instead of the standard form -id,
is -tu in Braj, -to in Rajputana, and 4 in the Eastern area.
In Braj, the final u may be dropped in the plural; thus,
ho tic, being, sing., but hotu or hot, being, plur. The
perfect participle, instead of the standard -d, is -yau in
Braj, -yo in Rajputana, and the base of the verb alone in
the Eastern area. ^

The corrupted forms of words are, of course, more
common colloquially than their more precise Sanskritic
equivalents; thus, jo, if, is preferred to yadi; the latter
more often appears under the form^'a^; so, also,jfo bin and
tau bhi, are colloquial, while yadyapi and tathapi are lite-
rar y ; and^cme or Icyd j due, and even the Persian shay ad
are used in preference to the Sanskrit forms Jcaddpi or
haddehit. Of course educated Hindus prefer Sanskritic
forms even in conversation. The great obstacle to the


7G

HINDI MANUAL,

development of Hindi is tbe unhappy propensity of
native authors to scorn colloquial forms of speech. Thus,
instead of giving life and vigour to literature, by bring-
ing it into close union with the wants, desires, and
feelings of living men, they are unconsciously building up
a wall of separation between the two, by rejecting well-
known terms of ready comprehension, and by the inser-
tion of unknown and bye-gone vocables. An instance
of this is found in the writings of even the liberal-minded
Raja S'iva Prasada, who states that there are but two
ways of expressing the idea et cetera, 1. the Arabic
wa fjhaira, 2. the Sanskrit ityddi, and he tolerates these
because there is no help for it, whereas he must have
known that, colloquially, this idea is commonly expressed
by repeating a word with a slight variation; thus, dere ere,
tents, &c., i.e. tents with their appurtenances ; ghore
ore, horses, &c., i.e. horses, donkeys, mules ; lcos has,
kos, &c., i.e. kos and other measures of distance.
Jingling repetitions of this kind are, also, often used
without, in any wise, affecting the sense; thus, Icaprd
ivaprct means simply clothes.

The foregoing remarks on colloquial Hindi are not
intended to teach the dialects, but merely to point out
the leading peculiarities which the student must expect
to meet with. The colloquial forms of all languages
present endless diversities, which nothing but actual resi-
dence among natives can teach ; and Hindi is no exception
to this rule. There is, however, one dialect the practical
value of which is so great that a more particular notice of
it will be useful to the learner. This is the Braj dialect,
spoken in the Doab, and for a certain distance on both
sides of the Ganges and the Jumna. It receives its name
from the vraja, or cow-pens, in the forest of Vrinda near
Mathura, where the god Krishna is fabled to have passed
his time. This tradition, and real historical circumstances,
have given to this dialect much importance; it is regarded
as the purest and sweetest Hindi; and it is used in poetry
to the almost entire exclusion of what is considered by


GftAMMAk.

77

Europeans as the standard language. The Braj dialect
being still largely spoken, the following description of
its peculiarities will serve as a practical illustration of
other dialectal forms.

Examples of Declension

Masculine: purusli> man

Nom. punish purush
Ay- punish neb, or ni purusli kau, ke, ki purushani* nen, or ni
Gen. purushani kau, ke, ki
Acc. purusli kauri purushani kaun
Dat. purusli kaun purushani kaun
Ab. purusli son, or ten purushani son or ten
Voc. he purusli he purushau
Feminine: putri, daughter.**
N. putri putri
Ay. putri neii, or ni putrinf nen, or ni
G. putri kau, ke, ki putrin kau, ke, ki
Ac. putri kaun putrin kau n
D. putri kaun putyin kaun
Ab. putri son, or teii putrin son, or ten
V. he putri he putriyan
The first personal pronoun is as follows:
N. haun or main ham
Ay. main, or mo nen ham nen
G. merau, mere, men mo kaun or mo hi hamarau, Ac. ham kaun, ham an kaun or hamain
D. mo kaun or mo hi ham kaun, haman kaun or hamain
Ab. mo son ham son or haman son

* Throughout the plural, final short i may optionally be dropped.
, t Substantives in may form their inflected plural in -iyan
instead of in.


78

HINDI MANUAL,

The second personal pronoun, tu or teft, is similar to the
above, to being the oblique base in the singular, and
turn or tumani in the plural. The gen. plur. is turn-
hdrau, &c., or tihdrau, &c. '

The third personal pronoun is

wah, he, she, it, that.

N. wah we or te.
Ag. wa or ta neh un or tin neh
G. wa or ta kau, ke, ki un or tin kau, ke, ki
Ac. wa or ta kauh or ta hi un or tin kauh or unhaift
D. wfi or ta kauh or ta hi un or tin kauh or unkain
Ab. wa or ta son un or tin son
The proximate demonstrative.
yali, this.
N. yah ye
Ag. ya neh in or win neh
G. ya kau, ke, ki in or win kau, Ice, ki
Ac. ya kauh or ya hi in or win kauh, inhaih or winhaih
D. ya kauh or ya hi in or win kauh, inhaih or winhaih
Ab. ya son in or win son

The reflexive pronoun is both singular and plural;
thus

N. ap

Ag. Tip neh

G. ap kau or apanau

Ac. ap kauh or apan lcauh

D. ap kauh or apan kauri

Ab. ap son or apan son

The interrogative is declined on the model of the
demonstrative; haun or ho being the nom. sing, and plur.,
and hd and hin the sing, and plur. oblique bases respec-
tively. The Eelative and Correlative follow punctually
the same scheme.


GRAMMAR.

79

The absolute interrogative is

N. and Ac. kaha or ka, what ?99
Gen. kahe kau. ke, ki
Fat. kahe kaun
Abl. kahe son

The Indefinite kofl, someone, anyone, becomes Mint
in its inflected form. Kacchu, something, anything, is
uninflected.

Verbal Inflection.

The following is the for]
Braj Bhfrkhfi

haun, I am
liai, thou art
hai, he is

ho, I was
ho, thou ivast
ho, he was

of the substantive' verb in

hain, we are
hau, you are
haiii, they are

he, we were
he, you were
he, they were

The rest of the verb honauh or hwaiwau, u to be, is
thus conjugated

AoristI may be, &c.

haunuii or ho,uii# liaun e
hoye ho^i or hau

ho;e haun^e

FutureI shall be, &c.

ho^haun, hwaihaun,
ho/ungau or haunungau
ho^ihai, hwaihai, ho,egau,
or howaigau,
ho^hai, hwaihai, ho,egau,
or howaigau *

hO/ihain, liwaihain,
liaun^ege or howaingai
hoyihau, hwailiau,
ho/uge, or haugai
hoyihain, hwaihain,
haunyege or howaingai

* Personal pronouns can, of course, be prefixed.


so

HINDI MANUAL.

Indefinite ImperfectI was,
hotu or hotau hotu or hot

hotu or hotau hotu or hot

hotu or hotau hotu or hot

Present ImperfectI was, &c.

hotu hauh hotu hain

hotu hai hotu hau

hotu hai hotu hain

The aorist also may he used as a present tense.

Past ImperfectI was,
hotu ho hotu he

hotu ho ; hotu he

hotu ho hotu he

Present PerfectI have been,
bhayau haufi
bhayau hai
bhayau hai

bhaye bain
bliaye hau
bhaye hain

Past Perfect I had been,
bhayau ho
bhayau ho
bhayau ho

bhaye he
bhaye he
bhaye he

Conjunctive Participle.

hwai, hwaikari, hoyekai, ho;ekari, (fee.

Other verbs are conjugated in a similar manner, it being
borne in mind that the present participle, in 13raj, ends
in 4u, and the past participle in -yau.


GRAMMAR.

81

The following is a specimen of Braj Bliakka:

^ ^ tt w I ttt I

T* ^ ^ #f ^r% I finr ^

^T*T *THT ^r ir # F*hTt I ^T ^ *J

tt i fer^ f^*r W ^tt^- ^Ttt: ^ ^ff^ tt^tt

^ -^Tefr^: ^ i fr^TT ^ f^rarc # t?nr tt^tt ^
*ft h fr^TT^fr f^r qrV^r ^ ^ or m
xffg- ^ | ^T % XTTWT f% qT ^ ^
n* ^f^cfr *TT# I

Ek samcn kaliu des men ati barska bhayi; ta ten kal
paryau. Tab wakah ke kitek Rajput kaliuh cliakari
kaun chale. Tin ke satb Yudhiskthir nam ek kumhar hu
hwai liyau : wu ke matlie men gha/v ho. Kitek din men
kahu aur des manhin jay ek raja ke yhan chakar bhaye,
Kumhar ke lilar kau gha/v dekhi raja neh Apne ji men
bieharyau ki yah ko/u barau sur hai ju ya neh sanmukh
cliot khayi liai. Ya. ten raja wa hi wa ke sab satkiyan ten
adliik manai.

Once upon a time there was excessive rain in a certain
country, and a famine was the consequence. Then sundry
Kajputs of that place went for service elsewhere; and a
certain potter named Yudhishthir also accompanied them.
There was a wound on his forehead. After a time, having
entered some other country, they became servants of a
king. Perceiving the wound on the potters forehead,
the king thought within himself: This is some mighty
hero, inasmuch as he has received a wound in front.
In consequence of this, the king respected him more than
all his companions.

The following specimen of Braj poetry will be useful,
as illustrating the dialect, its elliptical character, and a
most popular style of composition.

6


HINDI MANUAL*

82

qrfqH

f -sft H# ^qq fqq q -ST f/TT Wt H# HtK t f

wm qrfT'H I

HfT'T qft qiT ^T? qfT JTq ^fHTH -grTT II

mfr q H^rqft qqrr qgr?r qrqr #t wtfy qfrl1 fq1* ^
q*r qT qqfirq i

qifr htF*t qft# q q Trfq qft# qfhrfq q~T q^rqq
q *r q^qq qfcq n

Kabitta.

Dainaun bhalau supatha, kupatha pai na dunau bbalau;
sunau bbalau bhauna, pai na khala satha karayai |

Santana kau laghu sanga, jara kau gurutwa chanri;
sadhu kau sahaja, au asadbu kripa dariyai ||

Tbori yai sarafi nafa bahuta, juwa kau cbhanri; parikai
kusanga, apa bala son sapariyai |

Hari mani lijai, pai na rari kijai nichani son; sarabas-i
dijai, pai na parabasa pariyai ||

Verse.

To give (in) a good cause (is) well; but (in) a bad cause
(to give even) twofold is not well. An empty bouse
(is) well; but do not associate witb tbe vile.

(Even) a little association witb tbe good (is well; but)
avoid tbe guru-ship of tbe foolish. Tbe kindness of
tbe upright (is) spontaneous; but one should fear
(that of) tbe unjust.

Even a little brokerage (brings) much profit: forsake
(that) of gambling. Having fallen (iuto) bad society,
ones self (together) witb (ones) strength is involved.

Acknowledge defeat; but do not wrangle witb the low.
Give ones all; but do not fall (into) anothers power.

In tbe foregoing it will be seen that bhauna stands for

bhavarij a place or house santana or santan is the


GRAMMAR.

83

plural inflection of saht or sat, the good; sahaja is
saha+ja, born with, i.e. spontaneous; thori is equal
to thori, little ; sarufi and nafd are corruptions of
Arabic words, showing that no one need avoid such
foreigners ; parihai and sapariyai represent parize, and
sapariye, respectively ; the final i of hdri, mdni, and rdri
is a Braj addition to the standard forms : nicliani is the
plural inflection of nich, low ; sarabasa or sarbas stands
for sarvasiva, ones all ; and j^irabasa or parbas is from
par, another, and vas, power.


84

hind: manual.

IDIOMATIC SENTENCES
CLASSIFIED.*

The normal order of the sentence in Hindi is, 1st the
subject, 2nd the object, and 3rd the predicate ; qualifying
words generally precede the words to which they relate;
hut extensions of the subject, object, and predicate are
variously disposed.

Nominative.There is nothing peculiar in the use of
this case. It leads the sentence; and the verb agrees
with it in gender, number, and person.

Two men were going to a foreign ^
country.Do manushya pardes* ^ *
jate the.

I shall not return just yet.Main T^f

abhi nahin lautunga. ^

The jackal yells.Syar bolt*! hai. ^

The earth rotates. Prithwi %

ghumti hai. *

Vocative.The sign of this case is used for serious
invocation ; as^ he Lnoar, O God lie pandit, 0
scholar It is always omitted when the vocative word
coneys last; as, ^ah jmstah liam ho clo, bhdi, Give us
this Wmk, bi-efc^r Yahdn dto, Ji, Come here, Sir.
The Vo^^ive l^ometimes marked by a prolongation of
the last ; as, bahind, O sister or by a termina-
tion ; as, O sister

---------*- ----------------------------;-----------

* The numerous illu^Bfcions here given are not intended merely

to exemplify the rules t^^r which they occur, but to offer also a
great variety of idioi instructions, differing from each other

Substantives.

in respects which sc
cularize,

a work as the present cannot parti-


IDIOMATIC SENTENCES,

85

The Agent.

This case is principally used with the past (or perfect)
tenses of active verbs ; and the verb then agrees with
the object (see p. 35). 'When the particle ho is used
with the object (see p. 88), concord is prevented.

I had seen the ships boat.Main ft ^ *rr^

ne jahaz hi nayo deklii thi.
or, Main ne jakaz Id nao ko deklia
tha.

Chanakya destroyed theNandas.
Chanakya ne Nandon kfi nas
kiya.

A black snake bit me there. :
Walian kale sanp no mujhe kat
liya.

Rohan closed both his eyes.Ro-
han ne apni donoh ankhen band
kar lih.

They received the punishment
commensurate with the wrong
they had committed.Unhon ne
apne kiye huye aparadli ka palta
dand pay a.

It had been better had I not killed
my girl.Main ne apni larki na
tnari hoti to achchha tha.

I ought to have called out.Cha-
hiye tha ki main ne pukara liota.

Tft

Cfff ^T TSTT

^ tr^f <*rr

rrsi f^r^T

^ 3tt

q'T^T

W *?j- r

^trft 7ft ^Ep^T

TIT

^Tf%7j 7TT fqr ^

^rfTT

Sometimes, but rarely, the agent is used with the verb
land, to bring thus

Who brought my chariot here ? ^:i ^

Mera rath yahan kis no lay a ? ^IT'?IT

Not infrequently the nominative is npcd with past
tenses of active verbs: the verb mayagree with it in


86

HINDI MANUAL,

the usual way. This is a common practice in the Braj
dialect, and in Eastern and Southern Hindi. Thus

Yesterday I informed you,
Kalh ham hah sunaya, &c.

Have you seen ice ?Turn baraf -gpu l"qi
dekhe ho ?

God has made them luminous
(and) they shine.Parameswar
un ho sajyoti banaya liai, we
chamakte hain.

Did you then have ^such a lovely
form as this ?Ap tabhi aise
prem ka swarup dharan kiye
hain r

rf u^fr-
fcT ^ ^

%*

^ETT-q- rr^ft W cfTT
^^q- T-TRW FcfiX %'

Man has solved many things by
intelligent investigation which
were formerly thought to be in-
scrutable to science.Manushya
kitek vastu ko gyfin se khojkar
nikfila hai, jin ko pahile gyan
agochar samajhte the.

The Sarinyasis conjointly drew out
all the store from my burrow.
Sannyasiyan milkai mere bil
ten sab dlian karlii liyau.

^ qft

vj VJ

ttt^t ^ f^r-

f fof^r -qrt
hF^% tTT*t

^riFf F^r4r

The Accusative.

There are two forms of the accusative; that like the
nominative, and that formed by the aid of the particle Ico.
The greatest puzzle of Hindi lies in the proper use of
these two forms; for, although mistake is impossible
when the mind is fairly penetrated by Hindi, yet so much
depends upon feeling, that it is impossible to formulate
precise rules for their employment.

The nominative form is used in an indefinite sense;
thus

All the fish of the lake became

men, women, boys, and girls. qri



IDIOMATIC SENTENCES.

87

Sarowar ki machhliyan sab stri,
purush, balak, larki ho ga,ih.



Irrational beings and inanimate objects frequently take
the nominative form; thus,

He threw the shells about.
Guthli idhaor udhar pherik din.

The king took the fish and looked
at it.Raja ne machhli lekar
dekhi.



The nominative form is also used with figures and

quantities. Thus,

The remaining 3,000 mudras I rftT
buried.S'esh tin sahasra mu-
dra gar din.

He gave him 400 mohars.Char -^tt ^ ^fl

sau mohar us ko din.

He put all four fishes down to fry. -sr
TJs ne charon machhli bhunne ^§T^ff

ko dalin. *

The nominative form is used with nouns in immediate
connection with the verb ; ho is added when, for any
reason, the Accusative stands away from the verb; thus,
Larhd ddnton se chane chabdtd hai, or Larhd chanoh ho
ddnton se chabdtd hai, The boy is chewing chick-peas
with his teeth. The first is a simple affirmation; the
second brings the teeth into more notice.

The excellent alone recognize the cfft JrufY Trf%-
excellent.Guni ko guni hi pa- *
hichante hain.

The particle ho is used with the Accusative to give it a
distinctive sense, and to individualize the object, as it
were. Thus,

The subtracting the smaller from ^rt ^

the greater.Chhote ko bare ^xTT
men se ghatana.


88

HINDI MANUAL.

In the French Language white HTNT V

mountain is called Mont Blanc. -q-^ qft iff -^i
Frasisi bhaslm meii swet par-
vat ko Mon Blan lcahte bain. 3T^"
Bring the plough out of the house, eft ^ % *TT

Hal ko gliar men se la.

How will you get the boat into the or^T %

water ?Nayo ko jal men kaise
le chaloge ?

This particularizing of the object does not, in any wav,
convey the sense of the English definite article; but
merely brings the objective character of the noun clearly
into view. Hence ho is constantly employed in sentences
containing remarks upon something already mentioned.
Precisely in accord with this is the use or non-use of ho
with the perfect tenses of active verbs. The use of the
agent case, by involving a passive construction, converts
the object into the subject of the verb, and, accordingly,
the verb agrees with it in gender and number. When,
however, it is desired to particularize the object, the par-
ticle ho is added. The noun, then, becomes manifestly
accusative, and, there being no nominative in such sen-
tences to influence the verb, it falls at once into its simple
uninflected form. Thus,

us ne ek bheri dekin
He saw an ewe.

-si* w ^rr

us ne ek bheri ko dekha.
u He saw an ewe.

The first is the ordinary assertion of seeing a sheep;
the second specifies with some particularity the nature of
the object seen. There is no means of rendering this
idiom into English. Emphasis, even would be incorrect;
for ho is not emphatic, it is merely distinctive.

The particle ho is constantly used with nouns indicating
rational beings, proper names, and names of offices, &c.


Full Text

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