Citation
Burmese grammar

Material Information

Title:
Burmese grammar
Creator:
Bridges, James E. (James Emile), d. 1922 ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
Rangoon
Publisher:
British Burma Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Burmese

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Burmese language -- Glossaries, vocabularies, etc. ( LCSH )
Burmese language -- Grammar ( LCSH )
Genre:
Grammars
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar -- Yangon Region -- Yangon
Coordinates:
16.85 x 96.183333

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
393517 ( aleph )
GPC415 /74442 ( soas classmark )
GPC415 /74443 ( soas classmark )

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BURMESE GRAMMAR

BY

James E. BRIDGES, m.a.,

Late Indian Civil Service.







BURMESE GRAMMAR

BY

James E. BRIDGES, m.a.,

Late Indian Civil Service.

Rangoon :

BRITISH BURMA PRESS

1915.

PRICE Rs. 3*








I


TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PART IAlphabet and Pronunciation.

Page.

Vowels ... ... ... ni.X

Consonants ... ... ... X7Tv^f

Compound Consonants ,

Permutations ... ... X^XAX

Burmese Names of Letters and Symbols ... ... xxxxiii

Conjunct Consonants ... ' xxiii

Tones ... ... ... xxiiixxv

Pronunciation of Burmese ... ... xxvixxxv

Punctuation ... ... xxxv

Abbreviations ... ... ... xxxvixxxvn

PART 28Modern Burmese.

Articles ... ... 1

Nouns ... ... ... 1

Proper Nouns ... ... ... 2

Adjectival or Verbal Nouns ... ... 3

Gender ... ... ... ... 34

Number ... ... ... ... 6

Declension ... ... ... ... 66

Personal Pronouns ... ... ... 611

Reflexive Pronouns ... ... ... H

Reciprocal Pronouns ... ... ... 1.1

Interrogative Pronouns and Adverbs ... ... I2

Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs ... ... ... 13

Relative Pronouns ... ... ... 1616

Adjectives ... ... ... ... 1617

Comparative ... ... ... ... 17

Superlative ... ... ... ... 13

Demonstrative Adjectives ... ... 13

Possessive Adjectives ... ... ... ... 19

Indefinite Adjectives, ... ... ... 19

Distributive Adjectives ... ... ... ... 20

Cardinal Numbers ... .. ... ... 21

Ordinals ... ( ... ... ... 22

Fractions ... ... ... ... 23

Weights ... ... ... 23

Measures of Length ... ... ... 23

Measures of Capacity ... ... ... ... 23

Numeral Affixes ... ... ... ... 2429

Money ... ... ... ... 30

Verbs ... ... ... ... 3C


( H )

Page.

Indicative Mood ... ... ' ... 31

Imperative Mood ... ... ... 3132

Plural of Verbs ... ... ... ... 33

Infinitive ... ... ... ... 3334

Present ... ... ... 35

Imperfect ... ... ... 35

Future ... ... ... ... 35

Perfect ... 3637

Causative Verbs ... ... ... 37

Transitive Verbs ... ... ... ... 37

Passive Voice ... ... ... ... 38

Compound Verbs ... ... ... ... 39

Pali Verbs ... ... . ...

Affirmation and Negation ... ... ... 40

Negation ... ... ... 4143

Interrogation ... ... ... ... 43

Idiomatic Use of Burmese Verbs ... ... ... 45

Verb to be and to have ... /... ... 4749

Adjectival Verbs ... ... ... 49

Auxiliary Verbal Affixes ... ... ... 5055

The Honorific Affix ... ... ... _ 55

Honorific Verbs and Nouns ... ... .5557

Adverbs ... ... ... ... 5761

The Adverb hmya ... ... ... 52

Prepositions ... ... ... ... 6366

Secondary Nouns ... ... ... ... 6668

Co-ordinating Conjunctions ... ... ... 6870

Subordinating Conjunctions ... ... 7075

Interjections ... ... ... ... 75

Noun clause as subject or direct object ... ... 75

Noun clause in the possessive ... ... ... 77

Noun clause with words spoken ... ... ... 7880

Noun clauses with hpyit and shi ... ... ... 30

General remarks on noun clauses ... ... ... 8182

Time ... ... ... ... ... 82-84

Dates ... ... ... ... ... 84

Compound Nouns ... ... ... ... 8792

Construction of the Burmese Sentence ... ... 93

Burmese Correspondence ... ... 9i97

Idiomatic Use of Burmese Words ... ... ... 98

Appendix IInterrogative Pronouns and Adverbs ... 100

Appendix IIIndefinite Pronouns and Adverbs ... 102

Appendix IIIConjunctions ... ... ... 104

PART IIILiterary Language.

Declension ... ... ... 106

Personal Pronouns ... ... ... ... 108

Interrogative Pronouns and Adverbs ... ... 108




( i )

A

Page.

Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs ... ... ... 408

Relative Pronouns ... ... ... I ~

Adjectives ...

Numeral Affixes ... ... j*

Verbs. Tense Affixes ... *£

Interrogation ...

Negation ... , .

Verbal Affixes ... 11K

Emphatic Affixes ... ... | &

Adverbs ... ... b

Prepositions ...

Conjunctions ... ... *

Pali Words ..................... 128

Pali Prayers ... ... ... 128-1-9

PART IVColloquial Language.

Declension ... ... JfO

Pronouns ... ... ... ... I^1

Interrogative Pronouns and Adverbs ... ... 131

Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs ... ... ... ls3

Relative Pronouns ... ... ... ^4

Adjectives ... ... ... *34

Demonstrative Adjectives ... ... ... 434

Numbers ... ... ... ... ^5

Verbs ... ... ... ... ... 135

Interrogation ... ... ... 436

Negation ... ... ... ... ... \36

Verbal Affixes ... ... ... ^7

Emphatic Affixes ... ... ... 137

Conjunctions ... ... ... ^8

Adverbs ... ... ... ... 139

Prepositions ... ... ... ... ... 139

Noun Clauses ... ... ... ... 339

Colloquial Forms ... ... ... 141146








8



v,-*-----*



BURMESE MANUAL

Pi KT I.

The Alphabet and Pronunciation.

Burmese is atonal language belonging to the Mongo-
lian family like Chinese and Siamese. It is a monosyllabic
language, but in the course of time some syllables have lost
their meaning and become amalgamated with others. With
the spread of Buddhism into Burma, Pali became the reli-
gious language of the people and many words of more than
'One syllable were introduced into the language.


i

BURMESE MANUAL.

(i) The alphabet is derived from the square Pali and con-
sists of 42 letters of which 32 are consonants and 10 vowels..

(ii) The vowels are :

Initial form. Symbol or form of vowel when combined with consonants to form words. Value.
Generally in Pali words. In Burmese words.
1 2 3 4
30 30 non- a
330 300 3 or "1 * a
co d 38 38 O O i i
eor § 3^ I u
§ a u
c c c e
33 30 e:
foo or cSo C300 G0 aw
c{§5 C3oS c5 aw
30 30 0 an
3^ 3^ 0 0
3^ 1 on

Note.1 is used instead of 0 with the consonants Oil Oil Gil 31 OH
and OH as the use of 0 with these letters would lead to confusion by
making them resemble other letters, thus OO wa might be mistaken for
00 ta


BURMESE MANUAL.

iii

The vowels are only used in the form given in column
i (except 30 a, 30 D a and 30 e :) when the vowel itself
forms a word or is placed at the beginning of words of Pali
origin; thus co j soft, J this, gu egg, Q0aw-za
relish. They are more generally combined with the vowel
30 as shown in column 2.

Burmese grammarians include 30 an amongst the
vowels. It is a nasal letter called in Pali anuthwara and
in Burmese COOSCOOSOOS the-.-Me'-tin (from

the:-///: small or minute1 and 008 tin to place
on

The vowels are only written in their original character
when they form distinct words or are part of a compound
word. When combined with consonants to form words,
they are always represented by the symbols given in
column 3.




iv BURMESE MANUAL.

The sound and transliteration of each vowel are as
follows :

Vowel. Symbol. Pronuncia- tion * Example. Repre- sented in transliter- ation by
none s a in rural 33 = asa a
339 < o or 1 a in amiss a in fur o ma 339003 = a a
or 33 o z *n pig ana 8 = mee i
gj or 35 o i in machine Q o = mee i
g or § or 3^ I o in boot gog 00- u
§ ors? II oo in pooh doo gsO^zzOo u
G or G33 G ay in say 1 00 go may e
j£> nearly as ai o = pe e:
(eg or g ego G-9 or G-l in fair aw in law GO^ = paw aw
or G339 c(5}5 or G33$ g-5 or g-T aw in drawl coi = paw aw
33 an un in dun 3g33 = an
3^ O i o in holy hswe:-an § = po 0
1 I o in pot, knot gcS =
L on in cone pyok ^j=zyon on

an should be pronounced without letting the tip of the tongue touch the
roof of the mouth. (S. K., page 1.)

* It is exceedingly difficult to give the exact sound of Burmese vowels
in English as they correspond more to continental than to English vowels.
3311 33911 0S11 uSll Oil c£> 1/3^ are the French vowels a or e, A, i, 1, e
and fc and il 3^ is the German or Italian u.


BURMESE MANUAL.

V

(iii) Consonants.When not combined with
any other letter every consonant has the sound of the
vowel 3D inherent in it, thus cc = ka. o sa.

The consonants are:
(0 Gutturals. co ka d hka O ga co ga c nga.
(2) Palatals. o sa So hsa O' za qj za jOO nya.
(3) Cerebrals* ta g hta c? da Z) da coo na> ' j
(4) Dentals. co ta co hta 3 da o da na, V. J
(5) Labials. o pa c hpa O ba oojba o ma.
(6) Liquids. co ya q+ya co la g la.
(7) Semi-vowel. O wa.
(8) Sibilant. CO tha || (sometimes pronounced hard as th in thirst and sometimes soft as th in thee> thine}.
(9) Aspirate. OO ha.

In the consonants bracketed together, the aspirated letter has the
same sound as the non-aspirate.

* Cerebals and g la are noc of frequent occurrence and are only
found in words of Pali origin.

f The tendency of modern Burmese is to substitute CO for 0 when-
ever possible and 00 is then pronounced hpa.

£ This letter is commonly pronounced ya, but in Arakan and in a few
words, especially those derived from the Pali, it is pronounced ra.

11 Hard tli is transliterated th and soft th is transliterated tfu


vi

BURMESE MANUAL.

The student should be careful to pronounce the Bur-
mese unaspirated consonants k, s, t, p without any aspira-
tion whatever. This is somewhat difficult as these conso-
nants are aspirated in English*; thus the aspiration is
clearly heard in such words as king, cat (and still more in
the German kann and somewhat less in sea, tame, pipe.
These unaspirated consonants should therefore not be
pronounced like English consonants, but like French conso-
nants in such words as comment, savoir, toujours, pouvoir
in which no aspiration at all is heard.

The student will have no difficulty in pronouncing the
Burmese aspirated consonants as it is only necessary to
exaggerate somewhat the aspiration of the same English
consonants.

The only other consonant'which requires notice is rrga
which is a guttural sound, pronounced without allowing the
tongue to touch the palate. At the end of a word, it has the
sound ng as heard in hang.

OD COD c8 9 GOD 6b CCO3 cooS o CO <9
ka ka ki ki ku ku ke k£ : kaw kaw kan ko
C ol S 9 9 CO b Col ccT o 0
hka hka hki hki hku hku hke hke : hkaw hkaw h ikan hko
O 8 8 9 9 CO b col coT o O Q
ga ga gi gi gu gu ge gfc : gaw gaw gan go
C cl 8 8 9 9 co b ccl ccT O o §
nga nga ngi ngi ngu ngu nge ngfc: ngaw ngaw n gan ngo
O OD 8 8 9 9 GO b COD col o o §
sa sa si si su SU se s& : saw saw san so
CO COD s8 08 9 a? CCO db GOOD cso5 o co
hsa hsa hsi hsi hsu hsu hse hs£ : hsaw hsaw hsan hso

* See Primer of Phonetics by Henry Sweet, M.A., §123, and following.


BURMESE MANUAL.

vii

(?) .za 0)0 za a zi § zi zu ZU G ze & z£: CO)0 zaw CO)S zaw o (?) zan Q zo
e £03 £§ a a ce =53 s5 £ e§
nya nva nyi nyi nyu nyu nye ny£: nyaw nyaw nyan nyo
<03 000 c8 88 £03 6b GOO 3 ' goo5 co
ta ta ti ti tu tu te t£: taw taw tan to
00 ODD 08 08 00 co < GOO ob £003 coo5 o oo
hta hta hti hti htu htu hte hte: htaw htaw htan hto
3 3l 8 8 C9 C3~l csT o 3 $
da da di di du du de de: daw daw dan do
?> P $ $ $ s Gp c^>5 * 1
na na ni ni nu nu ne ne: naw naw nan no
O ol 8 8 £0 b Gol coT 6 §
pa pa Pi Pi pu pu pe p£: paw paw pan po
0 03 8 8 4 hpa hpa hpi hpi hpu hpu hpe hp&: hpaw hpaw hpan hpo
0 03 8 8 8 on GO 0 £03 co5 o 0 §
iba ba bi bi bu bu be bfc: baw baw ban bo
0 03 8 8 GO X O £03 co5 6 §
ma ma mi mi mu mu me me: maw maw man mo
CO 003 oS 08 O£ 2 GOO 6b COO3 cooS o oo
cp 8 ccp ccj5 o 8 §
-ya ya y1 yi yu yu ye y£: yaw yaw yan yo


viii

BURMESE MANUAL.

CO COO c8 c8 2 CCO cb GOTO Cco5 o 03
la la ii li lu lu le lfc: law law lan lo
O ol 8 8 2 2 CO Q col coT o O §
wa wa wi wi wu WU we w£: waw waw wan wo
OO 300 o3 oS 2 COO 6b cooo coo5 30 3
tha tha thi thi thu thu the the: thaw thaw than tho
OO 030 c8 c8 2 COO 6b COOO cco5 o OO
ha ha hi hi hu hu he he: haw haw han ho

(iv) Compound consonants.Compound con-
sonants are formed by combining simple consonants with
one or more of the four consonants co ya? q

and co which are then written in a symbolic form.

Consonant. Symbol. Combined with CO Represented in transliteration by*
OO ya ya J G cq f kya, gya.

* G-ya in chis combination is pronounced as the English j ; ch is soft as
in church. Taw Sein Ko remarks (p. 3) : In the combination CQj kya
the k should not be pronounced separately from the y, but both should be
sounded together, care being taken that the k is not in the least aspirated.
This may be accomplished by keeping the teeth together before attempting
the pronunciation of the combination. Thus the pronunciation of Kyaukse
approximates more to Chaukse than to K(a)yaukse which is generally
heard amongst Europeans.


BURMESE MANUAL.
Oq) cqp O§ cq][ Oqj|[ COQ] O^J

S S:

9J 91

g S:

91 9J:

@ s go IL egg
kyi kyi kyu kyu kye kye :
3 911 911L cqj
8 g @1 Sil eg g
chi chi chu chu che che
3 q 9; I 9111 Cqj
@ 1 9 S 6n cS (§

pyu pye pye
x

pya pya pyi pyi pyu

9) 9P <§ 9? 911

g go @ g @[

hpya hpya hpyi hpyi hpyu hpyu hpye hpye

91 9P 91L 91L C91 91

S 6 B B Sl Sil gS S

91 IL C91 91'

Sil cS 6

coqp ccqjS oqj o^_
(op gq5 (p (c§
: kyaw kyaw kyan kyo

C9P cqj5
ego cg5 g

: chaw chaw chan cho

cqp cq]5 qj $
ego c(q5 g

: pyawpyaw pyan pyo
cqjo cqj5 qi
ego cg5 g g

lipyaw lipyaw hpyan hpyo

9P cop q]
ego cg5 g g

: my aw myaw my an myo

mya mya myi myi myu myu mye my&
(V)

Consonant. Symbol. Combined CO with Represented in transliteration by
O wa 6 2 kwa
2 po eog
kwa kwa kwi kwi kwe kw& :
s §0 o 8. 8 eg
hkwa hkwa hk wi hkwl h ikwe hkw& :
g g3 o g. o g cg 9
ngwa ngwa ngwi ngwi ngwe ngwfc:



BURMESE MANUAL.

(vi)

Combined with
Consonant. Sym- bol. 0 CO or Cj Represented in transliteration by
CO and CO
03 ha J s hma
CO ya and S'51 sha
CO ha j! SJ hlya but pron. sha
C| ya and 1 03 ha j c si and S hmya i

S S3 e§ SL SILGS S C£SGS5 s $

1 hnya hnya hnyi hnyi hnyn hnyn linye linyfc: liny aw hnyaw hnyan hnyo

? JP ? J fc ill G? > G? G?5 > S

hna hna lini hm linu. linn hne hn&: hnaw lmaw hnan lino

9


hma hma hmi hmi hmn hmn lime hme: hmaw hmaw hman hmo

CXp OJ3 Xp X} op|[ COJ exp GOJ3 COjS OJ C$>

51 51 8 51 51 51 C51 C5P G51^ 51 fi

sha sha shi shi shn shn she sh&: shaw shaw slian sho

si sp 3 4 sn sin gsi s) gsp csi5 si 4
§ 5b @ @ Si Sil gS S g@ cS5 S 0

hmya hmya hmyi hmyi hmyu hmyu hmye hmyibhmyaw hmyawhmyan hmyo


BURMESE MANUAL.

XI

cgfcgp c§ ofj cgj[ cc^ cgjccgp ccgjS cgj c$

aha aha shi sin shu shu she she : shaw shaw shan sho

(vii)

Combined with Represented
Consonant. Symbol. in translitera-
00 and Q tion by t
CO ya and 1 1
O wa 1 1 a 1
Gj ya and 1 n >kyua, gyua I
O wa 1 1 J to IS J
Gj } a, o wa 'I
and oo ha > J u B hmyua.
a GCg]? <%!
G s
kyua kyue : kyue :
a gf §1
§ cl OS
chua chua chue : chue:
id ll

CE 6

hmyue hmyu£ : shwe shwd :

* The correct pronunciation of this combination is hlya, but in the

spoken language, it is generally pronounced sha.


Xll

BURMESE MANUAL.

(viii) Permutations of final Consonants.

We have seen (§ iii7 that every consonant in Burmese has
the sound 3D a inherent in it, but many consonants at the
end of words do not end with the sound a and are then
marked by the sign ^called athat 3DOOo5 that which
kills/ Such final consonants change their sound and the
vowels and the semi-vowel O wa which precede them

also change their sound ; these changes are called permuta-
tions and are shown in the following tables :

(ix) When the vowel 30 a is combined with the follow-
ing final consonants the combination is pronounced as fol-
lows :

o5 k s ng s s ny cS or 5 t or p § or 8 n or m o5 y
et in it 1, t e, in or e at an e
Burmese example. cooS let oS win 0 CO sit 03g5 thi iiyin @g§ pye COgSs 16: O3cS tat CO 8 lat pan: 08:hpan: cooS lfc
Vowel pro- nounced as in Eng- lish word. 'l 1 1 J-met 1 J sin sin fee sin say fair 'I i [- fat 1 J fat fair

Note.Final consonants are pronounced in Burmese without any escape
of breath*thus put in Burmese would be pronounced like put in put down
and the k imyaik like c in active.

* See Primer of Phonetics by Henry Sweet, m.a. § 143. '

t Note.It is only practise which will tell the student which of the
four sounds g8 has ; sometimes a circular dot is placed ovqr g8 when it has
the sound IHl thus nyhi. The sound is only used in colloquial language


go5 §8 @8 gg go5 g$ gS gS goS

myet myin myit myi myat myan myat myan my&

go5 g5 g8 gg5 go5 g§ gS g
hnget hngin hngit hngi hngat hngan hngat hngan hng&

510S $8 $8 $g5 $06 $$ $8 $8 $oS

shet shin shit shi shat shan shat shan shd




xiv BURMESE MANUAL.

(x) When the vowel 38 i is combined with the fol-

lowing final consonants the combination is pronounced as
follows :
o5 or 5 t or p $ or 8 n or m
eik ein
Burmese example. 8o5 peik c88 leik 38$ ein. c8S lein. 0
Vowel pronounced as English word. vein

c8o5 08S 8o5 88 c8o5 c8S 8p5 8|S

keik keik seik seik teik teik yeik yeik

c8$ cBS 8$ 88 8$ 88 83$ cB8 8$ 88
kein kein hkein hkein sein sein tein tein pein pein

o^o5 ^c6 gS (§S

kyeik cheik kyeik cheik shein


BURMESE MANUAL.

XV

(xi) When the vowel u is combined with the fol-
lowing final consonants the combination is pronounced as
follows :

o5 or 8 t or p or or (S n or
ok on
Burmese example. ccpo5 yok C Vowel pronounced as in English word. bone

CCj>Cr5 ccpS kok kok sok sok tok tok yok yok
ccp<5 o 9 S
kon kon son son ton ton pon pon
yon yon Ion won hon kyon chon hnon
oq[Of5 cqS 9llS 65 gto5
kysk kysk chk pysk chttk pysk

fiote.When preceded by Cj ya combined with a con-
sonant the vowel o is short as in knot, pot, lot.


-XVI

BURMESE MANUAL.

(xii) When the diphthong C30D aw is combined with

the following final consonants the combination is pro-
nounced as follows :

oS k 8 ng
auk aung
Burmese example CODdoS kauk GOODS S kaung:
Vowel pronounced as
in English word. LU VV

GOODClS GO3O$ gcoocjS ccpcS cooo8
kauk sauk tauk yauk kaung
cooS cood8 colS
saung taung paung
c(opo$ c(|oa5 csjpS c(ogo8 ccgjooS
kyauk chauk chaung kyaung hlyauk (shauk)

C^poS

shauk shaung


BURMESE MANUAL.

xvii

(xiii) When the diphthong 3^ o is combined with the
following final consonants the combination is pronounced
as follows

oS k 8 ng
aik aing
Burmese example cgoS laik cQS kaing
Vowel pronounced as in English word. lyre

cQoS ^0$
kaik saik taik yaik kaing saing taing paing

c^_o5 goS gS |8 cgS oc$8 4s
kyaik chaik pyaing hnaing hlaing kyaing chaing

(xiv) When the semi-vowel O wa is combined with
the following final consonants the combination is pro-
nounced as follows :

o5 or § or £ or
t or p n or m
ut un
Burmese example ogo5 lut 0 mun :
Vowel pronounced as Lull
in English word. DUJ1


xviii

BURMESE MANUAL.

Cgo5 ogoS cg$ 8 0g$ ga$ gy §
kut

tut

kun sun lun put yun nun

& ogo5

nun mun lut

gjo5 ogoS og
chut hlut hlun pyun

(xv) o wa combined with £} ya also takes the sound u

Ga <%)

yua yue kyu£:

(xvi) o5 t and 8 P n and 8 m or n combined with o
wa are pronounced not at and an, but ut and un.

oo5 oS o^> oS 6 g.

wut wut wun wun wun nun

It is absolutely necessary that the student should learn
by heart the vowels, their symbols, the consonants and the
compound consonants, he should copy them out until he
knows them thoroughly and then practise writing them
out without looking at his book.

It is not however necessary for the student to attempt
to learn the permutations by heart, it is sufficient if he will
remember that the permutations are arranged according
to vowels and he can look up the permutation of each word
as he comes across it; thus in hsan,coo5 lat, OOpS
thi,^o5 n£ the vowel is a and the permutations will be

found in § (ix); in 8o5 seik and ^o5 yeik the vowels is i
and the permutations will be found in § (x).


BURMESE MANUAL. XIX

In the permutations the vowels are changed as fol-
lows :

a = a, I, e, in or & :

u = o or d (when preceded by ya combined with a

consonant.)

i = ei.

o ai.

aw = au.

vva = u (before t, p, n, m, or when combined with ya).

The following table of permutations may be found
useful for easy reference.

Final Consonant. Combined with
30 a aS i u 3^ o C330 aw O wa
oS k et aik auk
S ng in aing aung
6 s it
£§ ny i, e, in, & :
o5 t or <5 p at eik ok ut
n or & m an ein on un
o5 y d yok yu


XX

BURMESE MANUAL.

BURMESE NAMES OF LETTERS AND
SYMBOLS.

Consonants.qjgSs byi:

OO = oogs ka-gyi: great ka.

3 = oCg? hkagwe : curled up hka.

Gutturals. ! O = oco5 ga-ngO little ga.

03 = ao CO! ga-gyi: great ga.

C G nga.

O = CCg)S sa-Ion : round sa.

20 = OocSS hsa-lein: twisted hsa.

Palatals.

drawn za.

iron-hook ta.

Cerebrals.

g = gO
1

4

breasted da.

2? £)GC|Cj{O$ da-ye-hmok water-dip -

per da.

COO = COofc§* na-gyi: great na.




BURMESE MANUAL. xxi

CO = COoSsg ta-wun:-bu pot-bellied ta

CO = OOOoS OgS hta-hsin-du: elephant-
fetter hta.

Dentals. -! Q = ocogs da-dwe : youngest da.

O = C303oSgoS da-auk-chaik con.
cave-bottom da.

Labials. = }>co5 na nce small na. O = OcOCoS pa-zauk steep pa. O = o^scgS hpa-ok-htok capped hpa O = GOOoSgoS ba-det-chaik con- cave-top ba. OO = OOCg^S ba-fion : hunchback ba. 0 = 0 ma.
Liquids -i foO = OOOoScooS ya-pet-let supine ya ; C| = GjCOOOoS ya-gauk crooked ya. CO = CO la.
Semivowel. 0 = 0 wa.
Sibilant CO = OO thss.
Aspirate. OO = 03 ha.
Liquid. 8= Sa-flyi s g^at la.


xxii

BURMESE MANUAL.

Vowels.Q3C| tha-ya

The vowels have no names but their symbols are
named as follows ;

D or~| = qj cha placed down.

O cps(^sco8 8on:-gy i :-tin large circle

placed on.

= 0^s(o^CoSoo$Oc5 lon:-gyl:-tin-hsan-
hkat large circle placed upon and
kernel put in.

[ = OQG^pSscS ta-chaimg:-ngin one line

drawn.

J[ = J>ScqpS?cS hna-chaung:-ngin two lines

drawn.

c = OOCOO^S tha-we-hto : thrust out.

= cpoSoS nauk-pyit thrown backward.
C 3 or C-H = COCOONS}] tha-we-hto :-cha thrust out

and placed down.

C5 or CT = OOCOO^sqC^C^Stha-wa-hto :-cha-she-

hto: thrust out, placed down, and
thrust forward.

= COOSCOOSOOS the:-tfie:-tin small or
rpinute (thing) placed on.

= O^sfc^sco6oo5gj?8sc8 ion :-gyi :-tin-

ta-chaung :-ngin large circle placed
on and one line drawn.


BURMESE MANUAL.

xxiii

[ = GOOSC3OSCoSc0Gqp8scS the -.-the

tin-ta-chaungz-ngin small or minute
(thing) placed on, and one line drawn.

Consonant symbols.

J = OOoS yaPira ya lifting up-

Q = G|^8 ya-yit ya encircling-

6 = ^ wa-hswe : wa suspended-

J = OOcQs ha-hto : ha thrust out

Conjunct consonants.In many Pali words two
letters of the same class are written one above the other

-

and the top letter is a final consonant, thus oopO, this-sa.

Sometimes double consonants are found in Burmese
words. These are not, however, conjunct consonants, but
are merely placed over each other to save space in writing.

thus cgOS = 3DODStha-ma: andjg^ooSs tha-mi:

The final consonant is occasionally placed over the

initial consonant of the next syllable ; thus for 3o8s

ein:-gys jacket, OOCodo for OoSsCOOD thim :-feaw ship

The 6 used in this way is called ooS§2 kin :-zi :

f

I 0t16S. (J. §3739- L §51). There are three tones

in Burmese, the simple, the checked and the heavy. The
checked tone is denoted by a small round dot called C30DoS
Qg auk-myit the understop 3 and is placed below a letter
thus GO me 1 to forget. The heavy tone is denoted by two
round dots called Oo5c>ji>8c^2 wut-a-hna-3on: or
G^jColoS she-pauk they are placed after a letter thus
GO2 nie: to ask?


xxiv

BURMESE MANUAL.

In the simple tone the word is pronounced with a
rising inflexion of the voice; in the checked tone the voice
is suddenly checked or arrested; in the heavy tone the
sound is prolonged with a falling inflexion.

Taw Sein Ko (p. 3) advises the foreign student to use

the following table to accustom himself to the correct
utterance of the tonal inflections:
GO COO OOOS 08 c8 c8s c^
ka ka ka: ki ki ki: ku ku ku:
COO GOO COOS oooS 60 66 GOOO GOOD Coo 5
ke ke k : ke ke ke : kaw kaw kaw
0 0 co co QOS
kan kan kan:
There are many Burmese words ; spelt alike and dis-
tinguished only by these tones , so that the student should

notice them as much as possible, thus :
CCO06 taursghill, south.

COQoS stiff.

o

COOo8 basket, to demand,

GOO08 htaungprison, to set a trap, to place upright
COO08 to Lend.

o

COOoSs to pound.

Q8 mysnto see.
high.

S pony.

CGj ye water.

CGp to write.

icgO kyawater lily^ long.

to hear, space between.


BURMESE MANUAL.

XXV

03 sa letter.

03$ to eat.

CQdS saungcoverlet.
coo£ to watch, wait for.
COZ)Ss harp, to be on one side.
CCO eair, wind.

CCO to practise.

CCOS bow (.), four, heavy.

O^ panto ask leave, beg.
O^S flower, tired,
cl ngaI

cb fish, five.

qp hpyamat.

qp fever.

g pyato show.

(cp ashes, blue.

Qo: flat, level.

C^> ne sun, to stay.

G^ day.

GO meto forget.

COS to ask.

CO weto divide.

co: far.

303 thapleasant.

003$ son.


XXVI

BURMESE MANUAL.

Pronunciation of Burmese.*

Hard consonants are softened when they come in con-
tact with vowels or nasal sounds in the same way as in
many other languages, but in Burmese the change only
takes place in pronouncing the word and not in writing
and the consonant is affected by the letter which precedes
it and not by the one that follows it, thus Qg kyi: large
and OOQCQS hka-Ie: child when joined to such words as
cq |u man and oSs min: king, ruler, are pronounced as

if they were written Qs gyi: and OCCOS ga-le : but the
writing remains the same.

lu-gyi: elder.

C^OOGCOS lu-ga-le : boy.

S min-gyi : great ruler.

oSsOTCCOS min-ga-le : little ruler.

The rule regarding these phonetic changes may be
stated as follows :

(i) When two words or syllables, the first of which
ends in a vowel or nasal sound (ng, ny, n or m) are placed
side by side so as to form a new word or convey a single
idea, the initial of the second word or syllable, if it is a
hard consonant is changed into a soft consonant, thus :

CO ka or 3 hka becomes o ga.

O sa or co becomes za,

CO ta or CO bta becomes 3 d

O pa or o bpa becomes 0 ba.

Oqj kya or qj cha becomes qj gya.

OO tha (hard) becomes 00 th& (soft).

* These rules are taken from different grammars (see Judson, §§ 33

86 and § 78, Lonsdale §§ 4750 and § 193, notes (1) and (2); Taw Sein Ko

pp. 6062 and 6667).


BURMESE MANUAL.

XXVU

Note.This rule generally applies to single words ok
more than one syllable in which the etymology of the parts
has been lost; thus : oulg sa-ba-. paddy, qoCOS sa-ga: word
but it does not apply to verbal nouns and other nouns
beginning with 30 a, thus: 300^2 a-kyo: advantage,

£c(cgo£s a-kyaung: fact, OOOJS 3DOO§! a-kii: a-than:
trading.

It also applies to auxiliary verbal affixes, oSoOD thi-
tka, hso-baing.

It does not apply to synonymous or nearly synony-
mous verbs, but it often applies in the case of compound
verbs, especially when the etymology of the second part
has been lost, thus :

po-hsaung to convey.

CGpSsojj yaimg:-cha to sell off.

C^oEjiS sie-htaing to reside.

OgoSooO kw6-ka to protect.

[qOO pya-tha to show.

GOOSES the-hson : to die.

Gjcpo^ pyaw-hso to speak.

hson :-hpyat to decide (case),
in which no phonetic change takes place.


xxviii

BURMESE MANUAL.

oSsoqjSs hkln : -gym: to arrange.

C^8co$: taing-dan : to complain.

CCOoSso^ taung :-ban to entreat.
i^OCg sha-bwe to search (or.

in which the phonetic change occurs.

(2) Nouns and pronouns immediately followed by the

case affixes cQ ko 3002 a : c(ccp8 kyaung twin

phmaor^i B (suppressed) are always pronounced with
the abrupt tone.

Note This rule applies to compound nouns or pro-
nouns in which the first part of the compound is really a
genitive with (fj) i suppressed.

cqcps CgJ^CCoS (your lordships royal slave = I) is
pronounced : hpa-ya-kyun~daw,

COCpS (headman of the law = Judge) is pro-

nounced ta-ya-tha$yi:

(3) When the first word or syllable ends in 8 ng or
n or a hard consonant and the second word or syllable

begins with n G m r a soft consonant, the n of the
first word or syllable is assimilated to q m or the hard
consonant changed into n.


BURMESE MANUAL.

xxix

8^SO mein:-ma woman,is pronounced and often written

COCoSo thsn:"baw ship, is pronounced thim :-baw

nit-na to suffer, is pronounced and often written
^>8^0 nin-na

CGODoSco auk-me to regret, is pronounced and often
written C30o8gGO aung:-m

OD myan-ma Burmese, is pronounced and often
written mya-ma (coll. 0OO ba-ma).

hkin-bya : Sir or Madam, is pronounced and
often written ^Sqpg hkim-bya :

4j>oS8 hmat-mi, to remember, is pronounced and often
written c^8 hman-mi

pod-ma paragraph, section, is pronounced
pon-ma

(4) Many words ending in long a or u often
shorten in pronunciation their first and second syllable
when another word or syllable is added to form a compound
word.

ools sa-ba : paddy-

odlso^ sa-ba-gyi granary.


XXX

BURMESE MANUA1

OODOS sa-ga: word.

O000S<^ sa-ga-bon proverb.

COsl? (pron. cools) ta-ga : gate.

COol S^ ta-ga-ni red gate.

OOODS ma-ya: wife.

ma-ya-gyi chief wife.

OOOOSCcS ma-ya-nge lesser wife,
oh nga: fish.
ch8 nga-pi fish pastej
qIsC^DCtS nga-chauk dried fish.

0^(o^S thu-gyi: or tha-gyi : headman.

myo-tha-gyi : town headman.

QOJO^^S hle-tha-gyi: boat owner.

OOCpJO2@s ta-ya-tha-gyi : Judge.

Note.On the analogy of this rule when more than
two words are joined together in pronunciation, the accent
is thrown on the last syllable and the long vowels of the
other words or syllables are shortened.


BURMESE MANUAL.

XXXI

OCj)Spj CgJ^ cco5 (of the race of the slaves of
your lordship = 1) is pronounced hpa-ya-kyun-daw-myo :

COOd£ soo5 c(jpo5sj 1896, is pronounced.

htaung-shit-ya-kOi-ze-chauk-hku.

(5) The QD or 30^ an of an initial syllable is dropped.
COoS hsa-bin hair.

COols ta-ga : door.

O^OO^g OS pa-gan-bya : plate,
cod ta-nga fisherman.

00^000 ta-za ornament, tool.

O^S c8
O§S O pa-be: blacksmith.

CO^OOOS ta-da : bridge.

(6) The u or u of the first syllable of a word is often
elided.


4

xxxii

BURMESE MANUAL.

O^^Cx|g thu-gyi: or tha-gyi : headman.

OCj>C}6 ba-yin king.

SoC^GpS mi-ba-ya: queen (consort).

<^cQs pa-hto: pagoda.

tha-ye: soldier.

C^GgS tba-hte: merchant.

tha-hko : thief.

O^CoS tha-nge, child.

pa-hso : waist cloth.

(7) Many words are softened in pronunciation by the
insertion of y.

08 Py>t to throw (generally written jg8)
op8 myi to name.

0g5 my* future affix.

OpgSs pyis-si : property.

COOgS ta-foyi (coll, ta-b) pupil, disciple.

i tense affix becomes y in colloquial.


BURMESE MANUAL.

xxxiii

(8) Initial consonants are aspirated.
8 hmi to reach (often written §).

^C>5 hnok to draw (often written ^o5).

|5 hnaing to be able (often written ^5).

08 hmin ink (often written ^>6).

a-hBun very (often written

OOCCCS hka-l : child (often written 3GCCS in L.B.)

(9) When the relative pronoun is suppressed, the verb
of the relative clause is softened if preceded by a vowel or
a nasal, thus :

333^ oloocp; 3 a-hso-ba-ta-ya-hkan the defen-
dant mentioned in the plaint.

33C^S cis GpCO^oSiSa-bpos^gaz-ya-dan-ein a
house worth Rs. 500.

330^ COoSs CC^JOoScgC a-yu-daw-gan shauk-
hlwa a petition of appeal.

cpolog^: hko:-ya-ba-pyis-si: stolen property

coo; (gc^oSspo'l oggS; da-mya-taik-ya-ba-
pyis-si: dacoited property.

(10) When the same word is used as a verb and a
noun, there is generally a difference in pronunciation.

OOCCp sa-ye : clerk.


xxx iv

BURMESE MANUAL.

3^(^00 ment (military).

3O^Oo5s a-fcmu-dan : soldier, constable.

o8§S 00,2)5 myin :htein to look after a
horse.

: o8§S myiai-dsin: groom, syce.
cQc^S? OOpS mye-taing:-MI to measure land.

roye-daing : a surveyor.

(u) In many words derived from Pali, letters used in
the original spelling are retained although they are not
pronounced in Burmese, thus we find many silent conso-
nants at the end of these words and many silent vowels in
the body of these words:

O£)8glo5 a-desb-bo meaning, from a-dip-pa-yo.

O^GpoS an-da-yo evil, from an-ta-ra-ya.

33oloS a-p state of punishment, from a-pa-ya.
g(Jlo5 u-p stratagem, from u-pa-ya.

gtj>o5 u-bok performance of duties of religion, from

u-paw-tha-hta.

u-yin garden, from u-ya-na.


BURMESE MANUAL.

XXXV

ku-too religious merit, from ku-tha-Ia.

O^oS ko body, from ka-ya.

P^dsin-nyim assent, engagement, from pa-
hti-rsya-nan.

^o5 kpo profit, reward, from hpa-!a.

QcS Bjo military officer, from ba-la.

CQStOO pa-da treasure.

C\Z"

mo s sky, rain, from mo-hga.

mo (mount) Meru, from me-ru.

q8c8^ thl-ho Ceylon, from thi-hala.

OO^?o5 thsns-gyo to perform funeral rites, fromf hln-
ga-ya.

Punctuation (L. §411-414).

The stops used in Burmese punctuation are |, IJ and

H.

The first mark | called ^SoOGCCS paik-hkd-le: isnow
seldom used, II being substituted for it.

The second mark (j is used when we would use a
comma, a semi-colon or a full stop.

The third mark || ii is used to divide paragraphs.


xxxvi

X

eft

&

§

c§

BURMESE MANUAL.

ABBREVIATIONS.

for (JgS i

C1 >?

hnaik.

OO£$ thi.

Og5 (pron. <3jg5) myi.
COgS? Ei :

Cj8! or <*s COgSsGOOoSs la-gaung: (only written

in its abbreviated form when it is
a demonstrative adjective, not
when it is a conjunction).

c8s CCOoSs kaung :

cS c(cgo6 gyaung.

S or cS

GOOD thaw.


BURMESE MANUAL

xxxv ii

3D

£

for oS with <2303, Gpnauk, *
OO$>a5 anet

oqj^S kya-nok
^0]j8 kyek.

CQjQ kya-ma
OQjpSo kyok-ma
|oS

GOOOO^JDS ,

O?S

COC^jO

oosoSo

cogo

j- for OgJ^S kyua-nok

j-for Tgj^O kyun-ma

$i>a5 nan-net

COOOoSoqpg yauk-kya :
C^co8 la-lin
COoSoOD let-ya
OqSsGCOO thim :-baw
CQgSSCOOoS thwe :-thauk

* In modern Burmese this abbreviation is also employed after other
vowelsthus Cjo5 yet day is often written GJ the GJ is then often suppres- ,
sed with numbers and alone remainsthus is written for

the fifth day.

c/ o

O over a number means rupee and is probably an abbreviation of
g money over the number = c anna and is an abbreviation of
anna; <8 over a number = pie and is an abbreviation of E^8 pie thus
would mean Rupees four, annas five, pies three.




1 i-'*'

i



-















PART II.

In these grammatical notes and the exercises which
follow, an attempt has been made to deal separately with
Burmese as it is written and spoken by educated people in
modern days, excluding the more complicated and often ob-
solete literary forms as well as the slip-shod and elliptical
forms of the colloquial which may be described as slang.

The examples given in the exercises have been taken
chiefly from Burmese Petitions,* so that the students may
have the opportunity of using the sentences separately and
then as a connected text.

THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

Articles.

There is no definite article in Burmese and the indefi-
nite article is sometimes expressed by the use of* one and
a numeral affix.

Nouns.

Collective nouns are generally formed by using several
words together.

kyue^nwa: (buffaloes + bullock?) cattle.
sit-ths-&o-ba (soldiers accompanied by officers) army.

Collective nouns are also formed by using a general
and a particular word together :

ko-Bet(body + hand) body.

a-wut-pa-hso : (clothes + waist-cloth) clothes.

hnit-Ba (years + months) many years.

Ba-yet (months + days) many days.

* Burmese Petitions by J. E. Bridges, University Press, Oxford, 1907.


2

BURMESE MANUAL.

Proper Nouns.

There are no family names in Burmese and words
generally indicating relationship are prefixed to names
which usually have a meaning, such as hpyu white, ni red,
Maung (Mr.) Hpyu, Ma (Miss or Mrs.) Ni.

The words used before proper names often indicate
the relative rank of the speaker and the person spoken to
or the estimation in which the person is held. The words
prefixed to the names of men are :

Nga indicating inferiority, Nga Hpyu.

Maursg (brother) indicating equality, Maung Hpyu.

Ko (a-ko elder brother) indicating superiority, Ko

Hpyu.

U : (uncle) indicating superiority or age, U : Hpyu.

In Upper Burma petitioners and suitors always spoke
of themselves as nga and were so addressed by Upper
Burma officials. In English times this distinction is seldom
observed and nga is seldom seen or heard in our courts.

The words prefixed to the names of women are :

Mi (a-mi daughter) indicating inferiority, Mi Ni.

Ma (a-ma elder sister) indicating equality, Ma N|.

Mo (a-m3 mother) indicating superiority, Me Ni.

A-yi: or daw or a-daw (aunt) indicating superiority
or age, A-yi Ni or OavTNi

shwe golden, royal, is often placed before a name to
indicate respect or the estimation in which the speaker is
held.

Names of countries, towns, villages, rivers, etc., are
never used (except colloquially) without the word country,
town, village, river, etc., being placed after them. The


BURMESE MANUAL.

capital of a country has the word myo-daw? royal town,
placed after it. Mandalay was always spoken of as the
golden royal town. The principal town of a township
(country) has the word myo-ma (chief town) placed
after it.

Adjectival or Verbal Nouns.

[L §70] Verbal nouns are formed from verbs or
adjectives by pre-fixing a or adding chin*: or chet, a-
kaung : or kaung :-gyin: goodness, a-hson: or hson :-gyin .
extremity, a-pyaw or pyaw-gyet speech.

chot comes from a-chet subject, matter, and is
generally used to form nouns from verbs meaning, < to
speak, think, etc.

Gender.

(L §82. J §55-56.) There is no grammatical gender
in Burmese, the natural distinctions of the sexes alone
makes the gender of nouns as in English, ma is the sign
of the feminine gender.

In the case of rational beings different words may be
used to express the masculine and feminine genders or the
affix ma may be joined to the masculine form to denote the
feminine gender.

Masculine.

a-hp father
maung brother
ba-yin king
lin husband
min-tha ' prince
tha-hte : merchant
a-ko elder brother

Feminine.

a-m mother

hna-ma sister

mi-ba-ya : queen (consort)
ma-ya : wife
min-tha-mis princess
tha-hte:-ma merchants wife
a-ma eld jt sister

* chin comas frcm a-chin : act' or deed.


4

BURMESE MANUAL.

Masculine.

nyl younger brother (of
men)

hpa-htwe : uncle, fathers
vounger brother or step-
father

u :-yi s uncle, mothers bro-
ther

Feminine.

nyi-ma younger] sister (of
women)

a-yi : aunt, a fathers younger
sister

gyi :-daw aunt, mothers-
sister (elder)

Sometimes the words tha and thu are med to denote
the two genders. (L §85.)

a-nya-^a: 1 a man, native a-nya-^u 1 a woman, na-
a-htet-tha sj of Upper ahtet-thu J tive of Upper.

Burma. Burma,

auk tha : a man, native of auk thu a woman, native of

Lower Burma Lovfrer Burma

ein-Zfta male member of a ein-thu female member of a

household household

yua//6a villager yua-^u villager (woman)

When the inhabitants of a country, town, etc., or the
inmates of a house are spoken of generally, the masculine
and feminine nouns are used together.

pye-ZAu pye-t/t the people of the country, myo-th^
myo-fAa the townspeople, ein~^u ein-^a the inmates
of the house.

When birds are spoken of hpa or hpo is generally used
to express the masculine.

kyet-hpa cock. kyet-ma hen.

ngan :-ho gander. ngan :-ma goose.

For animals htl : is used for masculine,
hkwe-.-til: dog- hkwe:~ma bitch,

wet-htis boar. wet-ma sw.

nwa :-di: bull, ox. na-ma cow.


BURMESE MANUAL.

5

Number.

(L §73-81. J §51.) Nouns form their plural by add-
ing mya : or to to the singular, mya : is an adjective
meaning many and is generally used in connection with
inanimate things and to in connection with persons
or animate things, but this rule is not strictly adhered to.

Plurality in the sense of universality is expressed by
the reduplication of the noun and prefixing a to the re-
duplicated form arpye fcye countries, ^-myo-myo all towns.
When the noun consists of two words or syllables either of
them miy bi reduplicated, a-nain^ngan-naing-ngan or
a-naing-namg-ngan all kingdoms (T. S. K. p. 64. J §51).
Some grammarians consider these forms as adverbial [L.
§45* (viii) J. §T26 (5)].

Word order, The plural affix is placed immediately
after the noun Bu-do-tAf, the men, yua-mya :-hma, in the
villages.

Declension.

(L §87-98. J §5Q7I>) There is no true declension
in Burmese, as nouns are not inflected, and the so-called
cases are formed by adding td the nouns certain particles,
many of wh;ch have now lost their separate meaning.

The chief case particles are :

Norn, thi* or hma or ka, Bu-/Ai orlu-hma or lu-ga, man

Gen. i Bu-i or lu, mans.

Dat. tio, Bu-go, to man.

Acc. ko, Bu-0O, man.

Nominative, thi is the true nominative particle.

* In short simple sentences and in clauses where the noun is placed

zjlose to its verb, the nominative affix thl may be omitted [L §9 I (ii)].


6

BURMESE MANUAL.

hma is emphatic and generally has the meaning of
* as t/ as for, concerning, 1 in regard to, or is used to
call attention to that about which one is going to speak
and then means as follows. It is also the affix used in
noun clauses.

lea is chiefly used, with verbs of saying, telling, think-
ing, considering, etc., but is often used instead of thl.

Genitive.The genitive always precedes the noun to
which it refers like the English possessive ins.

The particle i is generally omitted and the noun or
pronoun standing in the genitive is pronounced with the
checked tone or if it ends in a or q, the vowel may be
shortened thu-hkwe : his dog, nga-a-hpe my father.

Dative. The accusative particle ko is used also for
the dative and the ko belonging to the noun in the accu-
sative is then left unexpressed. hka-lo-go ye-pe :-ha please
give (some) water to the child.

Accusative.The accusative particle ko is often used
instead of thq to indicate motion towards a place.

Word order.The case particle always follows the
word to which it refers.

Personal pronouns.

(L. §181-189. T. S. K. pp. 68-70. J. §77-78.) -The
personal pronouns of the first and second persons are

(a) when addressing equals in rank.

/st person.

(1) kyun-nok (m) kyu-ma

(f) kyun slave, nok
small, used also in
speaking in a fami-
liar manner of one
self.

2nd person.

(1) thin (m. and f.) is used
in the literary lan-
guage without any re-
ference to relative
rank. When used col-
loquially, it denotes
some inferiority.


BURMESE MANUAL.

7

1st person.

In modern Burmese
kyun-nok is often
written kya-nok to
avoid the use of the
word kyun, (slave)
and thus disguise the
humiliating deriva-
tion of this pronoun.
In colloquial kyun-
nok is often con-
tracted to kyok.

and person.

(2) kw (plural kwe-yo) is

used in the vocative
only in colloquial, it is
placed at the end of
the sentence and cor-
responds to the Eng-
lish old fellow ma*
thi-hu.s-la :-gwe dont
you kv^Lw, old fellow.

(3) (body) is used chiefly
in colloquial.

(4) shin (pron. yin) novice

with maung (brother)
or ko (elder brother)
is used by women to
men younger or older
than themselves. Ko
yin is used colloquially
by men without reference
to age.

(5) shin, lord, master, is used

by women as a polite
form of address to men
or women; shin-ma is
used by husbands to
wives; taw is used in
the same way, but is
considered rather im-
polite.

(6) hkimbya: (corruption of

tha-hkin-hpa-ya: lord

and master) is used by
men as a polite form
of address to men or

women.


8

BURMESE MANUAL.

(6) when addressing inferiors in rank.

/sf person.

(i) nga (m. and f.) also
used when speaking
to oneself, also when
speaking to children
or in anger to
equals.

ta-ga.

(c) when addressing superiors in rank

(1) a-kyun-nok (m. and f.)

(2) kyun-daw (m.) royal

slave, kyun-daw-ma,
kyu-ma (f.)

(3) kyun-daw-myo: (m.) of

the family of the
royal slaves, kyun-
daw-myo-ma (f.)

hpa-ya; (Your Majesty,
my lord, sir) may be
prefixed to hpa-ya-
kyun-daw hpa-ya-
kyun-daw-myo:

ta-byi-daw royal disciple
(m.) is used by a lay-
man addressing a
pongyi, ta-byi-daw-
ma is the feminine.

2nd person.

(1) nin (m. and f.) used to

persons considered
very inferior or to
children, also to
equals in anger.

(2) min: or maung-min:

(m.) (brother.) nyi:
or nye or me-min:
are the feminine
forme of min: and
maung min:

(3) ta-ga is used by a pon-

gyi when addressing
a layman, ta-ga-ma
is the feminine of

Burmans do not make use
of the pronoun of the second
person in addressing persons
of superior rank.

ko-daw (royal self) ko-
daw-myat (eminent royal
self) ko-daw-a-shin (lord
royal self) ko-daw-a-shin-
myat (lord, master) a-shin-
myat-hpa-ga: (eminent

lord, master) (all m. and f.)
are used to members of< a
royal family, officials of' a
royal family, officials of high
rank, and pongyis.

L?. J


BURMESE MANUAL.

9

Personal pronouns of the third person.

thu (probably from bq person) is only applied to
rational beings. There is no pronoun used for animals or
inanimate objects, the noun is merely repeated with a
demonstrative adjective hto, th\ or fla-gsmng :

thin: and chin : are used in a disrespectful way to
mean that thing or creature.'

mi-mi is used instead of the genitive thu-i. It has how-
-ever a more emphatic possessive meaning than thu-i and
means ones own, his or her own.|u-ta-yauk~thi ms-
mi-ein-hma fatwet-thwa a man went out from his

own house. With this meaning of own it has come to
be used instead of thu to mark emphasis : she-ga mi-mi-
os-ea-go mhmi-hpwotyue hta :-gy ^aw, ya-hku mi-
mi-os-sa-go mi-mi-hnyun-pya-byi whereas formerly he
himself hid his own property, he himself has now pointed
out his own property.

General remarks on the use of Personal
pronouns.

Personal pronouns in Burmese mark rank so sharply
that their use is generally avoided except where the
respective position of the parties is clearly defined . such
as parents and child, master and servant, friends of the
same age, etc., so that people addressing others politely
generally use nouns in speaking to others in the third per-
son and also use nouns in speaking of themselves in the
third person.

If a person has any official position the use of a per-
sons title is obligatory, and Burmese officials dislike being
addressed by their name instead of their title. In Burmese
times if a man was addressed officially by his name instead
of his title, this meant disgrace. It is usual to add to the


10

BURMESE MANUAL.

title min : meaning 1 a ruler/ 1 an official/ hence 1 noble as
nobility of office was the only nobility in Burma, myo-ok-
min: tha-gyi-min The word min: is often used in ad-
dressing politely people who are not really officials ; thus
lu-gyi-min: in speaking to a village elder, she-ne-min : in
speaking to an advocate.

The wife of a man of official or social rank has the
word ka-daw (lady) added to her husbands title :

wun gyi-ka-daw wife of a minister of state,
min-kd-daw wife of any official,
tha-gyi-ka-daw wife of a headman,
hle-zi-ka-daw wife of a boat owner,
pwe-ka-daw wife of a broker.

The use of the pronoun of the second person is gener-
ally avoided when addressing persons politely even if infe-
rior in rank ; if they have no title, it is usual to find some
title with reference to the profession of the person spoken
to or to some work of religious merit which he has or is
assumed to have performed, such titles would be yua-lu-gyi;
(village elder) hle-tha-gy i: (headman of a boat), thim-baw.
tha-gyi: (headman of a ship), pauk-hpaw (relative, gene-
rally used to Chinamen) o-tha-gyi i 'cook, headman of the
pots,used to Shans),kyaung*~ta-ga(founder of a monastery),
hpa-ya-ta-ga (founder of a pagoda). Terms of relationship
are also used according to the age and sex of people in ad-
dressing them politely, a-hpo: or hpo-e (grandfather) a-
hpwa: (grandmother) a-hpa (father) a-mo (mother) a-ko
(elder brother) a-ma (elder sister) nyi (younger brother)
mating or a-maung (a womans brother) nyi-ma (younger
sister) tha : (son) tha-mi: (daughter) myi: (grandson).

A pongyi speaking to a person of high rank would
speak of himself as hsa-ya (teacher) and of the person
addressed as ta-ga-daw royal giver (contraction of da-ya-


BURMESE MANUAL.

u

ka? giver) an English official speaking to a pongyi would
generally address him as hsa-ya-daw and speak of himself
as ta-ga-daw.

Europeans are generally addressed as tha-hkin. Thi word meaning lord/ master, is used in the literary Bur-
mese with words of relationship: hpa-gin, lord father, me-
gin lady motherit was applied in Upper Burma to the
wives and daughters of high officialshkin-Ie-u : the lady
Le U : In Lower Burma it has now become the equivalent
of our word Mr.

Reflexive pronouns.

(L. §195. J.§77.) The reflexive pronoun [is formed
by affixing ko body, self to pronouns or nouns, and
taing is usually added to konga-ko-daing Bok-thi I my-
self did it.

The pronoun mi-mi is used reflexively with kcthir
mi-mi-ko-go a-Iun-myat-thi-hu htin-i that person con-
siders himself very excellent.

Reciprocal pronouns.

(L. §200.) a-chin-gyin: is the reduplicated form of
a-chin : (fellow) and is equivalent to each other, one
another, thu-do a-chin-gyin s yaik-kya-^i they struck
each other, one another.

(L. §121.) A reciprocal pronoun can also be formed
by combining ta with a numeral affix and reduplicating this
combination^ thu-do-Z/J ta-yauk-ko-ta-y&uk mon:-gya-
thi they hate each other, one another.

Plural pronouns.

The personal pronouns are declined like nouns, they
make their plural exclusively with to


3 2

BURMESE MANUAL.

Interrogative Pronouns and Adverbs.

(L. §137-142. J. §82 83 and 87-88). The interrogative
pronouns are formed from the adjectives myi-rAi and be,
which mean what/ which/ by adding some noun to them
either expressed or understood.

The words formed with myM/U are exclusively written
forms, generally used in business and official documents.
The words formed with be are only used in conversation.

Modern language. Spoken language.
(1) What ? Which ? (ad- jective). myi-£7u be
(2) What thing? What? myi-^i (a-ya)-tfo ba
(3) Towards what myi-^i (ne-ya)- be
place ? Whither ? be-(a-kyaung)-
(4) On account of what myi-7/J (a-ky-
reason ? auagj-^yaung tfyaung
<5) In what place ? Wtiere? myi~77J (aio-ya) hma or <2win be (ne-ya)-bma
(6) From what place ? myi-^i (ne-ya) foo-tfa
Whence ? hma or ^a
(7) What person? Who? myi-^y * bo-^u
(8) At what time? myi-£7i,ia-hl
When ?
(9) How much ? myi-bmya* he-gauk
(10) How many ? bG-bna (with nume- ral affix) be-hna (with nu- meral affix)
(11) Towards what manner? How? myi-7/J-ni: or myi- tho or myi-ge- tho be-no or be-flo
(12) What kind of ... ? myi-thi myo : be myo:

* When hmya or thu is used with myi-7/J the thi is sup-
pressed and the forms become myi-bmya and myi-^y.


BURMESE MANUAL.



In questions relating to quantity in mass or number,
definite or indefinite, myKM or be combined with hmya
and used directly after the noun it qualifies. In speaking
be'lauk is used instead of be-hmya.

hmya is an adverb with the meanings much/ f as much
as, so much as, as many as, even.

In questions relating solely to a definite number be-
hna is placed after the noun it qualifies and the numeral
affix of the noun added to it (the word hna is not the cardinal
number, it is merely a prefix to the numeral affix.)

lu be-hna-yauk-Be (£#. men what many) how many men
myH/u cannot be used in this manner.

TFoni order The interrogative pronoun or adverb is-
placed immediately before the verb.

Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs.

[L. § 146-150 and 228*235. J § 82 and 126 (8).] Thej
interrogative pronouns and adverbs are also used as indefi-
nite pronouns and adverbsand the adverb hmya (cor-
rupted to hma in colloquial and sometimes in the written
language) is usually added.to them or the verb ma-hso (yuo)
which means 1 not saying. be ... ma-hso, signifies < not.
saying whatever (person, animal, or thing) in particular,
' anything whatsoever.

The forms ending in hmya or hma can only be used in-
negative sentences, whereas the forms ending in ma-hso,
can be used in affirmative and negative sentences.


*4

BURMESE MANUAL.

Modern language.

myi-^/ii-hmya

inyi£/?inia-

hso

.myi*W£o-

hmya

.myi-$W-go-

ma-hso

myi-£7U-a-

kyiung-

^yaung-hmya

anyi-£W-a-

kyaung-

^yaung-ma-

hso

myb^-hma-

hmya

myi-^i-hma-

ma-hso

myi-^u-hmya

jtiyi-O-ma-

hso

Ac.

Spoken language.

ba-hma

be-ma-hso

be-hma

bo-po-ma-

hso

bs-£?y zuing-
hma

be-^yaung-

ma-hso

be-hma

bc-hma-ma-

hso

be-^u-hma

bo-^u-ma-

hso

A J.

In negative sen-
tences.

nothing what-
> ever, nothing
j at all

nowhere (with
motion)

! for no reason
whatever

I

J

nowhere (with-
out motion)

no one what-
ever, no one
at all

In affirmative
sentences.

anything what-
ever

anywhere or
wherever (with
motion)

for any reason
whatever

anywhere or
wherever (with-
out motion)

any one what-
ever or whoever

The indefinite adjectives ta-zon-ta-ya or ta-zon-ta-
yauk, may be used in addition to the forms myi-Z/U-hmya,
and myi-(A,i ... ma-hso, to intensify the indefinite meaning.

Word orderThe adverb hmya is always placed
immediately after the case affix.


BURMESE MANUAL.

15

Relative pronouns.

[L §368-369 and 377 (4) J- §4-25(3)]. The re-
lative pronouns are expressed in Burmese by

() the ten^e affixes thi* (often changed to thaw) cr
ynyi (both pronounced with the checked tone).

ngo-ffa.(or ttaw) hka-le : the child who cries, yauk-
inyi mi-thim-haw the steamer that will arrive.

() ya which is used in the same way as thaw but
often carries with it an idea of indefiniteness.

thin-ya a-mein-go p :-ba please give any order that
may be suitable.

(c) thi (shortened to fha) followed by the adverb hmya
(hmya meaning as much as, as many as/ even ) and
tha-hmya corresponds to whatever in English.

shi-^a-hmya-myin :-mya :-the-ZAi (the horses as
many as were there died) whatever ponies were there, died.

The relative pronoun is very often suppressed in
Burmese especially when there is more than one relative
clause :

kyun-daw-myo :-haing Than-lyin-taik-shi Be-mya s

the paddy fields (which) I own (and which) are situated in
the Syriam circle.

a-htet-tha-din-za-htok-w3-ya-ba Man-da-l :-myo-
n IWa-Cho-hso-f/tu-meim :-ma a woman called Ma Cho
who lives in Mandalay and was mentioned in the last issue
of our paper.

* The student should remember that thi or thaw corresponds
to any caso of the relative in English and means not only who or
which, but to whom or which, in whom or which, etc., thu ne-
f/taw-ein, the house in which he lives, kya-nok pe
sa-ok the book which I gave.


i6

BURMESE MANUAL.

hko-ya-ba-pyis-si [lit. the property included in the
theft) the stolen property.

shauk-win-ba-pyis-si : the property mentioned in the
petition.

sa-ba : htaung-thon-ya-ba hle-ta-zin : a boat in
which thirteen hundred baskets were contained. Some-
times the relative clause is placed after the noun by using

thu.

kyun-daw-myo-a-ml a-thet-nga :-za-yue-£/tu my

mother who is aged 50 (a person who is aged 50).

Word order The relative clause always precedes the
noun which is its antecedent in English, ze-hma hsan-
hko :-i/taw l\Hhi kyun-daw-myo-tha : hpyif-pa thi the
man who stols rice in the bazaar is my son. It will be
noticed that the words of the relative clause are in exactly
the opposite order to the words in English and that the
Burmese order is bazaar in rice stole who (the) man.

Relative clauses ending in tha-hmya may be used be-
fore or afhr their antecedents in Englishshi-^a-hmya-
myin : or myin:-shi^Aa hmya, whatever ponies were
there.

Adjectives.

Adjectives have three different forms

() simple or compound adjectives like she long, myift
high, me : black, net dark.

kyi :-myio great, eminent,
me :-net, dark, black,
a-hpo-dan, valuable.

() reduplicated adjectives which are really adverbs
such as me :-me : dark, hpyu-byu white.

(c) substantival adjectives with a prefixed such as
a-hpyw white, a-me s black.




BURMESE MANUAL.

17

(L. §105. J. §80.) 2\djectives of quality, quantity and
pronominal adjectives are connected with the noun they
qualify by means of the connective particle thaw or thi as
kaung s-ZAaw-Hu (a) good man, hla-^aw-pan : a pretty
flower.

Simple adjectives of this class may also be post-fixed
to a noun, no connective is then required and the two form a
kind, of compound noun as Qu-gaung : good man.

The connective particle thaw or thi is really the relative
pronoun and the adjective is used as a verb kaung :-^aw-Iu
is therefore the man who is good.

In diminutive nouns formed with hha-le : the adjec-
tive is placed between the two nounsthus Qu-zo-ga-le :
a naughty little boy, myin-hyu-ga-le: a small white pony.

Comparative.

(L §158-169 J. §94) The comparative is not formed
in Burmese by changing the form of the adjective, but by
placing the preposition htet after the noun or pronoun which
forms the standard of comparison, tf/u-pan: ho-pan :-det
hla-^Ai {lit. this flower, that flower above, is beautiful) this
flower is more beautiful than that one.

htet comes from a-htet i upper or superior part and
means above or c beyond'

Verbs meaning to surpass, to exceed with or without
the conjunction yue* (which gives the verb the force of a
participle) may be used in addition to htet. Such verbs
are:

* In colloquial yu is generally omitted.


BURMESE MANUAL.

18

tha to surpass exceed to s to increase, advance,
lun to surpass, go beyond po to exceed.

f/U-pan ho-pan:-det tha- (or tha-yue) hla-^i {lit.
this flower above that flower is surpassing beautiful). This
flower is much more beautiful than that one.

Superlative.

(L. §170 J. §95)The superlative is formed by turning
the adjective into a verbal noun and then combining it with
a-hson: extremity, termination (from hson : 1 to come to
an end) tfj-lu a-kaung :-zon :-hpyit*-thi this man is the
best {lit. is at the extremity or utmost point of goodness).

The full expression is a-kaung :-i-a-hson-hma, and
in forming a compound noun i and the initial a of a-hson :
are suppressed as well as the preposition hma.

The broad practical rule is that ; the superlative is
formed by placing the adjective between the a and hson s
of a-hson:

Demonstrative Adjectives.

(L. §127. J. §82). f/ti, this or these, hto (ho) that
or those.

la-gaung : is the abbreviation of li:-gaung :< and, also?
It means 'the same or that same, fla-gaurtg-lu-do-£/ij
< the, those or these men?

Word order.The demonstrative adjective is placed
immediately before its noun, thi-lu this man, hto-hkwe :
that dog.

* As the superlative in Burmese is really a noun it cannot be
turned into a verb by the addition of a tense affix and the verb
hpyit must always be used with the superlative.


BURMESE MANUAL.

19

Possessive Adjectives.

There are no possessive adjectives in Burmese and
their place is taken by personal pronouns in the genitive
my book, kyun-nok-i-sa-ok : his pony, thu-myin :

Indefinite Adjectives.

(L. §122. J. §84-85-86). a-3on :* [or a:-lon:] 'all,
whole, and a-lon :-zon all are prefixed or affixed to the
noun, myin :-a-lon :-do all the hors-s.

apaung: all is really a noun signifying 'whole
sum or amount. Used as an adjective, it is always affixed
to the noun it qualifies. hka :-3e-apaung :-do all the
boys, the total number of boys.

, ta-cha ; 'other is prefixed to nouns, ta-cha: pye-mya:-
hma, in other countries.

Other is also expressed in Burmese by :

() thu the pronoun of the third person, thu-os-sa-

go ma-hko :-hnin do not steal the property
of others ;

() tit (shortened to ta) with a numeral affix : yua-

ta-hku-Z/^o to another village, tha :-tayauk
ya-aung pyu-daw act so as to get another
son.

*The Adjective a-Bon : is also used to express 'the whole. It
is then follows a numeral affix preceded by ta and drops its a,
ta-hnit-lon : the whole year, ta-ne-lon : the whole day, thim-
baw-ta-zin-lon : the whole, the entire ship, nwa-ta-gaung-
Ion : the whole bullock.

When a-Bon : is affixed to a plural noun, it also drops its a or
changes it to sa and signifies all the number denoted by the
numeral attached to the noun, hna-ein-lon: (or hna-ein-za-
lon :) both houses, thon-ein-lon : all the three houses.


20

BURMESE MANUAL.

ta-cho some is prefixed to nouns or affixed, ta-chn
hka-le :-do thi or hka-le : ta-cho-do-MI < some children?

ni: few/ not many/ little is seldom used in that
form except as a verb ; it is more usually found in the
adverbial or substantival forms, ni :-ni: [ne-ne] a-nl: or

a-ni :-ngc.

mya : many is used as the plural affix of nouns and
is therefore not used in this form to mean many ex-
cept as a verb. It is usually found in the forms a-mya:,
mya-zwa, mya :-mya : to express manythus Bu mya:
men, lu-a-mya : many men.

a-myauk-a-mya: many, a large number and mya-
bya : abundant; are often used instead of mya:

(23) Distributive Adjectives.

(L. §124). taing : every ; 3u-daing:? every person, ne-
daing: every day, hnit-taing : every year.

a-thi : a-thi: or athi : several (when attached
to a verb a-thi :-Z/J: is an adverb and means severally.)

Indefinite Adjectives.

(L. §125. J. §101). ta-hku-gu, ta-yauk-yauk, ta-
gaung-gaung any one/ some out of several.

ta-hku-ta-le ta-yauk-ta-le, ta-gaung-ta-Be, few/
here and there one.

> _ _ __ _

ta-zon-ta-ya, ta-zon-ta-auk ta-u :-ta-yauk, ta-zon-
ta-hku, some one. A

These adjectives are used in the same manner as nume-
ral affixes (see p. 24) thus those ending in yauk apply
to rational beings, those ending in kaung to animals, etc.

Word order.These indefinite adjectives are placed
after the noun without any connective.

* Some/ when used as a partitive adjective, need not be

translated or is translated by nc-nc ; hfa-min : (or nC-ne) pe

ba give (me) some rice. Some....others is expressed by re-

peating ta-cho


BURMESE MANUAL.

21

Cardinal Numbers.

tit one
hnit two

thon: three
le: four.
nga: five.
chauk six.
hkun-hnlt seven

shit eight,
ko : nine.
ta-hse* ten

hse-tit eleven,

hse-hnit twelve,

hrra-hs twenty,

thon :-z thirty,

le :-z forty,

nga :-z fifty,

chauk-hs sixty,

hkun-hna-hs seventy,
shit-hs eighty.

ko:-z: ninety.

(shortened to ta both in
writing and pronuncia-
tion when followed by a
numeral affix or another
number).

(shortened to hna in pro-
nunciation but not in
writing when followed
by a numeral affix or
another number).

(shortened to hkun-hna?
in same way as hnit
two).

(generally shortened to
hse when followed by a
numeral affix or another
number).

*kyeik, ten, is often used instead of hs in numbering rational
beings, lu ta-gyeik ten men, lu thon :-gyelk thirty men.


22

burmfse manual.



ta-ya
hrta-ya
ia-htaung
ta-thaung:
ta-thein :
ta-than:
ta-ka-de

one hundred.

two hundred.

one thousand.

ten thousand.

one hundred thousand (one lakh).

one million.

ten million (one crore).

a-seik, a quarter (of ioo), is often used in colloquial in-
stead of 25.

ta-beit-tha (one viss), hna-peit-tha (two viss) are
often used in colloquial instead of 100 or 200 when speaking
of rupees, as the rupee weighs one tical and there are 100
ticals in a viss (3 65 lb.).

Ordinals.

(L. §ro8. J. §102). The ordinal numbers are formed
by adding myauk to the cardinals follow ed by their numeral
affixes, thus tha : hna-yauk-myauk, or hna-yauk-myauk
thaw tha s, the second son. Pali ordinals are however
generally used instead of Burmese ordinals from one to ten
and they are prefixed to nouns without any connective
particle, pa-hta-ma-ne the first day, pyin-sa-ma hsa-ya
the fifth teacher.

pa-hta-ma first.
du-ti-ya second.
ta-ti-ya third.
sa-dot-ta fourth.
pyin-sa-ma fifth.
hsa-hta-ma sixth
tha-ta-ma seventh.
a-hta-ma eight.
na-wa-ma o ninth.
da-tha-ma tenth.


BURMESE MANUAL.

23

Fractions.

The words used to express fractions are :

a-wet? hta-wet or ta-wet? half,
a-seik quarter,
a-paing:

a-pon C share, portion.

a-su j
thus ta-wet half.

thon :-zeik three-quarters,
hna-pon ta-bon half,
hna-paing : ta-baing : half,
thon :-zu hna-£U two-thirds,
le :-bon-thon :-bon three quarters.

Weights. Money.

one pe = T\th of a tical i anna,

two pe = i mu; 2 annas,

four pe = i mat 4 annas,

four mat = 1 kyat (tical or tola) 1 rupee.

100 kyat = 1 peit-tha* (viss = 365 lb.) 100 rupees.

Measures of Length.

a-thit

Bet-thit

fingers breadth.

8 thit = x maik.

12 thit = 1 twa.

2 twa = 1 taung (cubit).

4 taung = 1 Ban.

7 taung z=: 1 ta.

1000 ta z= 1 taing (about 2 miles).
Measures of Capacity,
sa-ie = uVth of a tin: (bushel).

4 sa-ie z= ~ pyi

4 pyi == 1 seik.^

2 seik zz: 1 hkwe.

2 hkwe = 1 tin: (bushel).

\With multiples of ten hkwet is used instead of peit-tha?


24

BURMESE MANUAL.

Numeral Affixes.

(L. §109-111. J. §96-98). When numerals are attach-
ed to nouns, certain words called numeral affixes are
attached to the numerals and are used to describe some
quality of the noun mentioned, thus 1 five men is expres-
sed in Burmese by men five rational beings' two eggs
by eggs two round things two boats 1 by boats two
long things.

Some of the numeral affixes in most common use

are:

fiTheadJ in sPeakin§ of human beings.

tha-hte : ta-u: a rich man.
yauk-kya : hna-yauk two men.
meim-ma nga :-yauk five women.

pa: in speaking of pon-gyis*and persons of high social
or official rank, also of immaterial objects.

ya-han thon :-ba : three pon-gyis.
min : ta-ba : a ruler.

min-gyin ta-ya : hse-ba: the ten rules observed
by rulers.

bsu : of Buddhas, pagodas, images and pa-ya-baiks
(native books).

hpa-ya: le :-zu four Buddhas, pagodas, or
images.

pa-ya-baik bna-hsu two pa-ya-baiks*

hku inanimate objects which have no distinguishing
quality.

sa-bwO ta-hku a table.
ka-Ia-htaing thon :-gu three chairs.


BURMESE MANUAL.

25

si: to ride, of vehicles and riding animals.

ya-hta : hna-sT s two carriages,
myin s ta-zi s one pony,
hsln thons-zis three elephants,
hie le:-zi: four carts.

hkun : from a-hkun: sound, voice, of words,
sa-ga : hna-hkun s two words.

yat? item, of words, customs.

sa-ga : hna-yat two sayings,
hton :-zan ta-yat one custom.

sin : elongated, of things whose length considerably
exceeds their breadth.

hie ta-zin : one boat,
da: hna-sin: two swords,
hlan then :-zln : three spears.

chaung : from a-chaung: a bar, of things straight and
stiff.

dok ta-chaung : one stick,
hmin-dan le:-gyaung: four penholders.

kaung from a-kaung brute animal, of animals.

myin: ch&uk-kaung six ponies,
hsin hkun-hna-kaung seven elephants,
nga ; hna-kaung two fish.

fjya: flat.

paik-hsan ta-bya: a pice,
pyln thon-bya : three planks,
pa-gan shlt-pya : eight plates.

chat? flat and thin.

sek-ku ta-chat one sheet of paper,
pyin hna-chat two planks.


26

BURMESE MANUAL.

Ion : round or cylindrical.

o : nga :-lon : five pots,
u hkun-hna-lon: seven eggs.

hsaung building.

ein ta-hsaung a house.

kyaung : ta-hsaung a school.

taik thon :-zaung three brick buildings.

saung from a-saung? collection of writings, of writ-
ings, letters, books.

sa ta-zaung one letter,
sa-ok le :-zaung four books.

kwin : from a-kwin: what is circular, of rings,
let-sut ta-gwin : one ring.

pin a tree, applied to any thing long as thread, hair.

on: Ie:-bin four cocoa-nut trees,
hsan ko :-bin nine hairs,
chi chauk-pin six threads.

hte from a-hte, cloth.

ein:-gyl hna-hte two jackets,
pa-wa chauk-hte six handkerchiefs.
tha-ga-Iat le :-de four pieces of flannel,

tweed.

let, hand or arm, of weapons, tools, things carried
in the hand.

thin-nat nga :-Iet five guns,
htI: hna-!et two umbrellas.

tan from a-tan> intervening space/ interval/ of
nouns denoting what occurs at intervals of time
or space.

a-kyo : le :-dan four rewards.

a-tat hse-shit-tan the eighteen sciences,


BURMESE MANUAL.

27

The words used for pairs are :

son from a-son: what is complete

myin : ta-zon : a pair of horses.

shin : from a-shin : pair of beasts of burden,
nwa : ta-shin, a p lir of bullocks.

hpet from a-hpet? one of a pair.

hpa-nat ta-hpet one sandal.

let hna-hpet two hands.

chi ta-hpet one fcot.

kan : ta-hpet one bank (of river).

yan from a-yan? a pair, of things which go in pairs,
na-daung : ta-yan a pair of ear-rings.

Word order.(L. §77) Numerals with their numeral
affixes follow the nouns they qualify.

The plural affix may be added to nouns with a numeral
affix, but it is generally omitted, lu hna-yauk-to or lu
hna-yauk two men.

(L. §114 J. §99 ) When a noun has no numeral affix
of its own, it is repeated after the numeral, myo hna-myo
two towns, pye hna-pye to countries.

Sometimes the noun is substituted for its proper affix,

ein nga :-ein for ein nga :-zaung ; min : le :-min : for min :

le-ba : four rulers.

(L. §115.) Nouns denoting measures of length, capa-
city or weight, have no numeral affixes and are repeated
after the numeral pe nga :-be five feet, tin nga :-din s five
bushels.

The word denoting the measure of length, capacity or
weight is however generally omitted in front of the numeral
when the thing measured is mentioned.


28

BURMESE MANUAL.

a-lya: nga :-be five foot length.

sa-ba : nga :-din : five bushels (baskets) of paddy.

la-hpet chauk-chin: six baskets (panniers) of green

tea.

hsi hna-peit-tha two viss of oil
na-no ta-beit-tha on e viss of milk.

(L. §116.) Nouns denoting time have also no numeral
affixes and the numerals are prefixed to them nga :-yet five
days; hna-hnit two years, chauk na-yi six oclock.

(L. §119 ) In certain compound nouns, the last ele-
ment of the compound becomes the numeral affix by the
simple insertion of the numeral between the elements,
thayet-pin mango tree, tha-yet-nga :-bin five mango trees ;
sa-ok book, sa-ko :-ok nine books; kun-yuet betel leaf,
kun :-hna-yuet two betel leaves.

I (L. §112 J. §97.) When the number is an exact
multiple of 10 the numeral affix is omitted.

myin : hna-hsc twenty ponies,
nwa : thon :-ze thirty oxen.

II When the number is exactly 10 the numeral affix
may be used or not.

myin ta-hse or myin s hse-gaung ten ponies,
u ta-hse or u hse-gyat ten eggs.

III With all other numbers the noun is placed first and
the number with its numeral affix immediately after it.

hpya nga :-gyat five mats.

ya-han le :-ba : four monks.

da : hse-hna-sin : twelve knives.

myin : hna-hse-nga :-gaung twenty-five ponies.

nwa : hse-le:-gaung fourteen oxen.


BURMESE MANUAL.

29

The following words are often used in addition to
numeral affixes:

() ye* (from a-ye number) preceded by a numeral affix.

Iu-u:-ye hkun-hna-yauk seven men.

Iu-u:-ye ta-hse ten men.

nwa : kaung-ye nga :-gaung five oxen.

nwa : kaung-ye ta-hse ten oxen.

() paung : or a-su-zu-baung : meaning total number.

lu-baung : nga :-yauk five men.

Qu-baung : ta-hse ten men.
iu-baung: thon:-ze-le :-yauk thirty-four men.
nwa-baung: hkun-hna-kaung seven oxen,
nwa-baung : hna-hse twenty oxen.

(c) chein from a-chein < weight.

hsi-gyein ta-hse ten viss of oil.

In the case of measures of weight and dates the numeral
affix used varies according as the?, number is an exact
multiple of 10 or an intermediate number.

Dates.In dates pyi (full, complete) is used with 10 or
an exact multiple of 10. hku (individual thing) with all
other numbers.

ta-htaung shit-ya-chauk-hsc-byi-hnit i860,
ta-htaung shit-ya-chauk-hse-thon :-gu-hnit 1863,

Weight In speaking of weight ta-hkwet (from hkwet
a cup) and peit-tha (a viss) are used in the same manner, f

nga :-beit-tha = 5 viss, a-hkwet ta-hse or hkwet
ta-hse = 10 viss.

* The numeral affix yauk is not used with ye.


3o

BURMESE MANUAL.

Money.

In speaking of money ngwe (silver) or ngwe din:-ga:
(coined silver) or kyat-thon-din:-ga: (current coin) are
used and the numeral affix is kyat (a tical) or pya : what
is flat/

ngwe nga :-gyat or ngwe nga-bya : five rupees,
ngwe ta-hse ten rupees,
ngwe hna-hse-le-gyat twenty-four rupees,
hna-pe: or ta-mu: = 2 annas,
le :-be or ta-mat: = 4 annas.

nga:-mu: = 8 annas (there are 10 small mu

in one rupee).

ta-gyat mat-tin: = 12 annas (lit. one rupee minus
4 annas.)

ta-gyat mu:-din: = 14 annas (lit. one rupee minus
2 annas.)

The words used for the smaller coins are :

pc : for anna (rath of one rupee).

paing for pie (x^th of one anna).

pais-hsan for pice (3 pies or | quarter for one

anna).

Thus four rupees five annas three pies would be ngwe
le :-gyat nga :-be : thon :-baing*

Verbs.

(L §285-286. J'§108, 100, hi). Verbs have no personal
inflections; they have two moods, the indicative and the
imperative, and three tenses, the present and the past (which
are in the same form), the future and the perfect. Other
tenses are mentioned by grammarians but they are merely
formed by using different conjunctions with the verbal roots
and they are not tenses properly so called. I he most
important particles in forming tenses and moods are:


BURMESE MANUAL. 31

Indicative Mood.

Present and pastthi (or i)thu pe i-thj (or i ) he
gives or he gave.

Futuremyi or leim-myithupes-myi (or leim-
myi) he will give.

Perfect or pluperfectpyi :-byi or pyithu pe :-pyi s-
byi he has (or had) given,

Note leim-myi is a contraction of le? euphonic affix,
and an? literary future affix, and carries an idea of possibi-
lity or eventuality.

Word orderThe tense particle always follows the
verb.

Imperative Mood

(L. §297-301. J. §111-112). This mood is formed by
using the verbal root alone or the verbal root with taw.

The verbal root alone or with taw forms a very strong
and peremptory command. It is used only by persons in
authority to their inferiors or by those who through anger
or displeasure assume a tone of authority over others.

In addition to taw the following affixes are also used :

che

le

laik*

pa
on:
san :

The polite affixes are very often used with the more
imperious to soften down the harshness of an order or two
of the polite affixes are used together.

| imperious.
> polite.

* Laik is almost entirely confined to colloquial speech.


32

BURMESE MANUAL.

please go (very polite).

thwa: )

thwa :-daw [ . . .

thwa.-laik > go (very imperious),

thwa :-l j

thwa :-ba-daw \

thwa :-laik-pa I .

thwa i-laik-san: fPease go (imperious but polite),
thwa :on :-daw

thwa ;-ba
thwa :-ba-on :
thwa :-zan:-ba

The affix hie is used to imply motion towards the
spe aker.

hno :-hle come and awake (me).

hke (L. p. 193) is used in the same way with the verbs
yu to take, la to come, hkaw to call.,

yu-ge bring here,
la-ge come here,
hkaw-ge call here.

With other verbs hke indicates that the doer is to go >

and come away from a place after doing the action indicat-
ed by the verb.

kyi-ge look (and go or come away),
sa-ok-ko pe:-ge give the book (and leave).

The affix so is used to express i let us; it is a collo-
quial affix.

thwa :-gya-zo let us go.

se implies a direct command given to a second person
but affecting a_third person. thwa:-z make (him) go. The
insertion of pa or pa-le between this affix and the verbal
root changes the command into an entreaty addressed to a


33,

BURMESE MANUAL.

person on behalf of a third person, thwa s-ba-ze or thwa :
ba-le-zo (you) please let (him) go. By placing ya between
pa and se the third person is changed to the first person,
thwa :-ba-ya-zo please let (me) go.

se or pa-ze (J. §113) when prefixed to thaw and
following a verbal root expresses a wish, thin-kawngs-sa:-
ba -ze-^/taw may you be prosperous thia a-thet she-ba-
ze-thaw may your life be long !

Plural of Verbs.

(L. §361-363. J. 116). Verbs form their plural by the
addition of kya. When the subject in the plural is express-
ed, the plural affix may or may not be used with the verb.
When the subject in the plural is left unexpressed, the affix
must be used ; if not, the verb will show that the subject is
in the singular.

Word order.The plural affix is always placed imme-
diately after the verb except in the perfect when it is
placed between pyi: and byi.

thu-do thwa:-gya (or gya-ba)-£/J they go (or went),
thu-do thwa :-gya=myi they will go.
thu-do thwa :-pyi : gya-byi they have (or had) gone,
thwa :-gya~daw



J go (very imperious).

thwa :-gya-laik

thwa :-gya-ba-daw > . __, .. x

thwar-gya-laik-pa J Please (^penous but Pohte)

thwa i-gya-ba-on : J PIease § (VCry Pollte)'
Infinitive.

F

[L. §288 310-312. ]. §123 and 125 (2 and 3)]. There
is no infinitive* proper in Burmese but there is an infinitive
of purpose or gerund which is formed by combining a ver-
bal root with yan or hpo

* In many cases where we use the infinitive, Burmese use
auxiliary verbal affixes, the use of which will be explained here-
after. ya-2-£7?,i ho wishes to get :


34

BURMESE MANUAL.

This gerund is used to express:

() end or purpose :

thu-Y/T kyi-yan la-^i he came to look,
yaung :-yan (bo) kon-mya: goods to sell,
p :-yan (bo) la-th\ he came to give.

() necessity

a-lok-lok-yan shi-tf/J I have work to do.
kyue :-my i-p :-yan a-ni :-nge-hmya
shi-ba-l/J (I) have only a small debt to pay.

End or purpose may also be expressed by :

(a) a verb in the future tense in myi *thu-f/ti yaik-
myi la-£/u he comes to beat.

(b) the conjunction aung (L. 6401. J. §ioq) mean-
ing that/ in order that.

(c) a verb used adverbially ; (L. §307) thu-/Ai mi-mi-
nyi-go a-kyi-a-shu + Ba-^i he comes to see his younger
brother.

kyun-nok-ko ein-hma a-saung-hta :-ge-^i (he) left
me in the house to watch.

yan is often used to form a verbal noun : a-ye-baing-
min-tha-hkin-hpa-ya s shauk-yan petition to his honour
the Deputy Commissioner, mya-ma-sa-ga : thin-kya s-yan
hket-tha-Ia : is it difficult to learn the Burmese language ?

Other Tense Affixes.

There are a number of affixes used in forming tenses
in addition to those already mentioned.

* Sentences ending in myi are really sentences with words
spoken in which hu has been omitted, thus the sentence given
means he came saying I will beat?

+ Stevenson (D. p. 1) states that this is a colloquial form.


BURMESE MANUAL.

35

Present.

The affix hse:* indicates present time and requires
the insertion of shi or hpyit between it and the verbal
affix.

ya-hku a-hka yore-daw-dwin sit-me : share lian :-z s
shi-tf/i! (the case) is now being inquired into and settled in
court.

Imperfect.

(L. §329). A tense corresponding to our imperfect is
formed by placing the verb ne (to stay, remain) directly
after the verbal root kyun-nok s&ung-ne-^j I was waiting.

Future.

(J. §117). mys or lem-myi with the verb repeated
and kaureg: after the first verb is used to denote the pro.
bability of a future action, kyun-nok thw a:-gaung:-thwa
myi (or thwa: ieim-myi) 1 shall probably go.

* There is some difference of opinion amongst grammarians
as to the force of this affix.

Taw Sein Ko (p. 77) gives it as a colloquial affix signifying the
continuance of an act and as the sign of the progressive tense.

Stevenson (D. p. 443) states that it indicates present time, very
often with the same force as Syet and that in common usage it
denotes the immediate future and is often used with lu yauk-lu
yauk-hse : on the point of arriving.

Lonsdale [§328 (5)] states that it is used to denote an action
as on the point of beginning and requires the insertion ^of shi or
hpyit between it and the verbal affixkyun-nok sa:-ze:shi-f/ii
I am about to eat, thim :-baw yauk-she : shi-Z/J the ship is
about to arrive. When hse : is reduplicated, it intensifies the idea
of the immediate occurrence of an event thi hse <-ze: or tho-
myi hse :-ze : about to die.




36

BURMESE MANUAL.

Perfect.

(L. §330-338. J. §115). pyi:-byi* or pyi, hnin or
le, hpu: and hke are alo used as past affixes.

* Lonsdale states that the difference between pyi: and pyi
is as follows : (L. §330 and 331).

pyi signifies to be replete, perfect, full f/J-hka-B : sa-
ga :-pyi-tAi this speech of this child is perfect (i.e., clear, distinct)

Used as a tense auxiliary, pyi indicates that the action or
state denoted by the verb has begun, bat does not indicate whether
it is continued or terminated and it has no corresponding tense in
English.^ lu-ga-3 : hta-min-ea :-byi the boy has began to eat
rice., thu ye-cho :-byi he has begun to bathe, hka~B : eik-py I
the child has gone to sleep.

With intransitive verbs of motion, the English perfect may
be used_to translate pyi, thu thwa:~foyi he has gone, thu
hta-byi he has risen : mi thsm-baw yauk-pyi the steamer has
arrived.

pyi: signifies to be done, completed, finished f/il-aBok
Pyis-Z/zi this work comes to an end, ^i-a-lok-pyi rmyi this
work will come to an end.

pyi: combined with pyi indicates that the. action or state
denoted by the verb is completed and forms a tense correspond-
ing to the English perfect.

tfou ea :-pyi :-byi he had finished eating, he has eaten.

When pyi: is followed by a conjunction expressing time as
hiyin or-, thaw when, hma or nauk after,5 it forms a tense
corresponding to the English perfect and pluperfect.

thu-sa >pyi -foSyin htwet-tfowa :-Se-/,fti when he had
eaten, he departed, thu fota-m?n :-sa :-foyi :-nauk eik^tat-tfoi
he is wont t_o sleep after he has eaten, thu hta-min :-sa :-foyi
hlyin ia-!eim-myi when he has eaten rice, he will come.

Judson states (§108) that pyi is a verbal affix denoting the
past, sometimes the future, and is changed into pyi : when followed
by another assertive affix.


BURMESE MANUAL.

37

hnin denotes the action to have been performed before
some other past event and is sometimes considered as form-
ing a pluperfect ; it corresponds to our already, before
hand/ in advance/ thu sa :hnin-byi he has already eaten.

Be is used in the place of or in conjunction with hnin,
kyun-nok ta-da :-£/&o yaukhlyin mi-fhim-baw htwet-
thwa:-ie-byl (or htwet-thwa :-hnin-le-byi) when I arrived
at the wharf, the steamer was already gone.

hpu : conveys the idea of before/ ever/ tf/u-sa-ok
hpat :-hpu-hyi (I) have read this book before, thi sa-ok-
kohpat :-hpu :-tha-Ea : have (you) ever read this book ?
In negative sentences sa is often prefixed to hpu : thi-
a-thi-go ma-sa j-sa-bii : (I) never ate this fruit before.

hke denotes the occurrence of an event at a place and
time other than those of which the person is speaking or
writing, kyun-aiok sa ;ge-byi I ate (and left) ; tfou p :
ge-myi he will give (and leave).

When hk is used with the verbs yu to take, la to come,.
hkaw to call, it implies motion towards the speaker ; yu-g
bring here, la-ge come here, hkaw-ge call here.

Causative Verbs.

(L. §245. J. §118) These verbs are formed by affixing
s to other verbs, thu-go Bok-k?ung-ze-tf7J (I) made him
work, hka-le-go thwa :-ze-£/u (I) made (the) child go,
sa-ok-ko kya-ze-^ZJ (I) caused (the) book to fall.

Transitive Verbs.

(L. §246 and 441. J. §106 ) Some intransitive verbs are
made transitive by aspirating the initial consonant of the


3

BURMESE MANUAL.

verb, or if it has a corresponding aspirate by changing it
for such aspirate.

kya to fall
kyan to remain
nein to be low

cha to throw down or put down
chan to leave out
hnein to lower

nyut to be bent to stoop hnyut to bend

In the two following verbs ya-yit of the intransitive is
changed into ya-pin in the transitive.

kyauk to fear chauk to frighten

ky to be crushed che to crush

Passive Voice.

(L. §280-284.) There is no passive voice in Burmese
the passive idea is rendered by using an active verb and
understanding the subject, thus this book was printed last
year is rendered (I-we-they) printed this book last year,

tftl-sa-ok'ko mahnik-ka pon-hneik B^ik thi.

Some grammarians hold that intransitive verbs such as
kya to fall, nyut to stoop, to be bent, are used as passive
verbs and that hkan (to bear) is used in the same way, but
in such sentences as sa-ok kya-ZAi the book fell, and thu-
thi nBa-a-yaik-hkan-i/ii he received (suffered) a beating
from me, kya is merely an intransitive verb and hkan a
transitive verb.

Some Burmese verbs have a passive meaning and
others have both an active and a passive meaning :

myi to be called or named,

hso to speak, say or to be spoken, said,

hu to speak, say or to be named, called,

twin to be named.

py: to finish or to be finished.


BURMESE MANUAL.

39

Compound Verbs.

(L. §443-448) are formed (I) by the union of a noun
and a verb or (II) the union of two verbs:

(I) na :-htaung to listen (na: ear htaung to erect).

wun-myauk to be glad, to rejoice (wun: belly,
myauk to be raised, elevated).

chaung :-hso: to cough, have a cough (chaung:
wind, passage, hso : bad).

mye-taing: to measure (mye earth taing: to
measure).

hka-yhthwa s to journey (hka-yi: journey, thwas
to go).

mi:-htun: to light (mJ; fire, light, htun: to illu-
minate).

(If) Compound verbs formed by the union of two verbs
are of four kinds.

(1) Those whose elements are synonymous or nearly
so.

y&ik-hnet to beat,
kyi-shu to look at, look after,
po-hsaung to convey.

;(2) Those whose elements though not exactly of the
same meaning are clearly allied to each other.

lok-kaing to work, do, make (lok to do kaing to
hold, handle).

saik-pyo: to set seeds or plants (saik to set pyos
to plant),

chet-pyok to cook (chet to cook pyok to boil),

hkwe-wo to divide (hkwo to split wo to distri-
bute).


4 BURMESE MANUAL.

(3) Those whose elements are in no way connected in

meaning

yaung :-w to trade (yaung: to sell, we to buy),
hsln-hso to repeat, issue (an order) (hsin to place.

one upon another hso to speak).

(4) Those consisting of two elements the first of

which is a verb or an adjective used as a verb
and the second a word whose meaning is ob-
scure.

kyan-zi to contrive, plan,
pyet-si to perish, be destroyed.
yo-Z/to to respect.

ke-ye to revile,
so-yein : to be anxious,
hkin :-gyin : to arrange,
taing :-dan to complain,
taung :-foan to entreat, to beg.
sba-bwe to search,
hpan :-zi to arrest.

Pali Verbs.

(L. §446). Pali verbs are formed by uniting Pali
nouns with Burmese verbs.

tha-di-hta : to be careful, beware (tha-di atten-
tion hta: to placet.

a-ma-ltan to agree to, take responsibility, stand
security (a-ma affirmation, yes, hkarn to bear),
ga-di-hta : to promise (ga-di promise hta : to put,

keep).

dan-pe : to punish (dan punishment, penalty p :
to give).

Affirmation and Negation.

Yes and 'no are less used in Burmese than in
English, and the ordinary way of answering a question is


BURMESE MANUAL.

41

by repeating the verb, thu-do hta-min ssa KAa-fiama-
$a :-ba. Are they eating rice ? No.

hok-thi, hok-pa-^/J, [hok-k] mean true, it is' so,
yes.

ma-hok^ ma-hok-pa? [ma-hok-hpu :J mean not true,
it is not so, no, not.

kaung :-byI (it is well) means very well/ ( all right/

When addressing persons much superior in rank, the
'following forms may be used for yes :

hman-ba (it is true).

m :-t5n-fea [lit. 1 place your order on my head),
u-hteak yuet-pa [Itf,. 1 carry your order on the top

of my head).

\ In differing from a superior, or describing anything
connected with an inferior part of the body, the following
words are generally prefixed :

thi-nyisn : (or thi :) hkan-ba (£i£. please be patient or
forgive)^ _

Ica-daw-ba-j [lit. I beg your pardon).

There formulas are also used amongst equals in making
an apology and the first is then used to younger people
and the second to elder people than the speaker (S. p. 175).

Negation.

(L §341-355. J. § 120). In the persent and past ten-
ses in thi or I the negation is expressed by prefixing ma
to the verb omitting the tense affix thi or I

thu pe he gives or gavethu ma-pe s (or ma-pe s

-ba) he does not or did not give.

L The negation may also be formed by using ma-hok (is

not true) which is more emphatic than ma, thu pe :-th>
ma-hok ( lit. his giving is not true.)


42

BURMESE MANUAL.

In the future in myi the negation is not expressed by
ma alone but by ma-hok, thu-pe :-myi ma-hok he will not
give.

The perfect affix pyi when used with a negative is
often used for the purpose of expressing intention, resolu-
tion or promise: thu ma-Ia-byl ordinarily signifies he has
not come) but may mean he does not intend to come.

In order to avoid the ambiguity attached to the use of
pyi, Burmese generally employ a verb in the negative in
the present or past tense and say thu ma-la, instead of
thu ma-la-byi 5 or they add 1 the : yet, thu ma-la-Z/te :
he has not yet come.

The polite particle pa is generally used in negative
sentences thu ma-p :-ba he did not give.

There are two instances jn which the negative ma is
used with the tense affixes ths or myi.

(1) in a question thu ma-pe :-Z&a- (or myi) |a ; does

or did (or will) he not give ?

(2) in a noun clause, thu pe :-/Ai (or myi) ma-pe

thl (or myi)-go ma-thi-ba I do not know
whether he gave (or will give) or not.

In colloquial hpu : is used in the place of the particle
thl with a present, past or future tense : thu ma-pe :-bu :
may mean he does not, did not or will not give/

In the imperative mood (L. §209. J. §T 11), the nega-
tion is expressed by ma with hnin ; ma-pe :-hnin do not
o-ivethe polite particle pa is used to soften the harshness
of an order, ma-pe :-fca-hnin, please do not give.

Word order.ma is generally placed immediately be-
fore the verb. In the perfect tense formed with pyj the


BURMESE MANUAL. 43

negative ma is prefixed to pyi :> thu sa :^ma-pyi : he has
not eaten.

In the imperative the verb is placed between ma and

Vmin.

The negative ma is placed :

() between the noun and the verb in compound

verbs formed of a noun and a verb: thu na
ma-htaung he does not listen ;

() before the compound verb or before each part

of the compound in verbs which are synony-
mous, nearly synonymous, unconnected in
meaning.

thu ma-yaik-hnet or thu ma-yaik ma-hnet he did

not strike.

thu ma-lok-kaing or thu ma-Sok ma-kaing he did

not work.

thu ma-yaung :-wc or thu ma-yaung : ma-we he

did not trade.

(c) before the compound verb in verbs of which
the second part has lost its meaning thu
ma-kyan-zi he did not plan ;

( verb, ba-yin pyon-daw-ma-mu the king did
not smile.

Interrogation.

(L. §340. J. §110). All interrogative sentences ter-
minate in interrogative affixes which are placed after the
tense affix. The thi when followed by an interrogative
affix is often shortened to tha.

In questions to which the answer is simply 1 yes or
no 5 the affix la ; is used.


44

BURMESE MANUAL.

In questions to which the answer is not simply yes
or no the interrogative affix io : must be used.

The broad practical rule is that Is: must be used when
myi or bo occur in the sentence and in all other cases la :

thu p :-^a-la : does (or did) he give ?

thu pe :-myi-la : will he give ?

thu pe :-pyi :-byi-!a: has (or had) he given ?

be-tf/iu-le: who is he?

bo-thwa: -myhSe : where are you going?

myi-hmya pe :-£Aa-le : how much did you give ?

be-gyawng ma-la-^a-Bo : why did you not come ?

Word order.The interrogative affixes are always
placed last.


BURMESE MANUAL.

45

Idiomatic use of Burmese Verbs.

There are many differences in the use of Burmese and
^English verbs.

(a) The same verb often has both an active and a
passive meaning, thus:

hu to call, name or to be called, named
myi to call, name or to be called name,
hso to say, speak or to be said, spoken,
peik to shut or to be shut,

hti to touch (strike) or to be touched, struck

(hti-hkaik).

Io to want or to be wanting,

saung to watch over or to be watched over,
ye-cho : to give a bath or to bathe.

(&) Other verbs have two different and sometimes
opposite meanings :

thin to learn or to teach.

kya: to hear or to inform, report.

che : to lend or to borrow.

hnga ; to rent or to hire,

hkan to receive or to apply for.


46

BURMESE MANUAL.

(c) Two verbs are often used together when a verb-
and an adverb would be used in English.

htwet-thwa : to go out and go, to go away.
pye:-thwa: to run and go, to run away.
yu-thwa : to take and go, to take away.
Iwe-thwa : to carry and go, to carry away.
laik-la to follow and come, to come along.
yaung :-cha to sell and send off, to sell off.

(c) The idea of place or direction or the manner of
doing a thing is often described in verbs.

hpyit shi to be (without any reference to-
place).
- to (be with reference to place.)
hta: = to place (generally).
tin = to place (aboveh
t = to place (before).
ht = to put in.
hse: = to clean by water (hands,, plates, etc).
shaw to wash (clothes or hair by rubbing).
hput - to wash (clothes by beating).
thit = to wash (face).
chi = to carry (by lifting).
hsaung = to carry.
kaing = to hold, carry (in hand).
th - to carry from one place to- another.
htan: to carry on shoulder.
lw to carry on back (or in womb).
yuet - to carry on head.


BURMESE MANUAL.

47

yaik = to strike.

hkat = to strike (by side blow) hence
applied to fanning, row-
ing, and foot-ball.

pok - to strike (with hand).

hkok = to strike (with sword).

hto : to strike (from shoulder) with

fist.

htu to strike (by pounding),
htaung: = to strike (by pounding with the

elbow).

Verb 1 to be' and to have.'

(L. §253260). To be is translated into Burmese by

(a) shi when some idea of place is conveyed,
such as is here/ is there, is in, kyun-
daw-myo-tha : ein-hma shi-ba-^f my son is
in the house.

(6) hpyit when there is no idea of place, thi-lii
kyun-daw-myo-tha: hpyit-pa-lAi this man is
my son.

Note.When the verb to be is used with a possess-
ive adjective in the sense of u to possess/ to own, it
may be rendered in Burmese by paing Thus, u Are
these your fields ? would be Zfti-le-mye-go paing-/Aa tap

To have is translated into Burmese by

(a) shi with a noun followed by the preposition
hma in. Thus I have the book would be
in me the book is. kya-nok-hma sa-ok
shi-ZAi.


BURMESE MANUAL.

.48

(&) pa to accompany, to be with, to be
contained/ to be included, to be mention-
ed/ used to render the English to have with
one/to have brought. Thus, have (you)
(a) cigar (with you) ? would be : hse :-leikpa-
ZAa-la : Have (you) brought (a) gun ? thin-
nat pa-/Aa-la :

Note.The verb hpyit is never used with simple
adjectives of quality, because these adjectives are turned
into verbs by the addition of a tense affix.

Note.The verbs hpyit and shi are often under-
stood especially in interrogative sentences

Other meanings of shi and hpyit.

From meaning 'to be here shi comes to mean to live,
* to exist/ especially when used in the positive with the :

yet or in negative sentences, min-mi-ba shi-//i,e :-^a-
!a:, ma-shi-ba, are your parents still alive, they are not.

In addition to meaning to be hpyit has various other
meanings, i.e., to become/ 'to happen/ 'to take effect.
' to accomplish/ to be practicable.' kyun-nok hsa-ya
hpyit-thb I am a teacher or I become a teacher. In simple
negative sentences hpyit invariably means ( become
kyun-nok hsa-ya ma-hpyit, does not mean I am not (a)
teacher but 1 did not become (a) teacher. To convey
the idea of 1 be in such a sentence the verb hok, true/
must be used in place of hpyit as kyun-nok hsa-ya ma-hok
(lit. I a teacher not true) I am not a teacher.

When shi is used with yan it often has the meaning
of to have to. ta-ya-hkan-do-^o kyun-daw-ma-ga
kyue :-myi-pe-yan a-ni :-ngo-hmya shi-ba-^/J. I have
only (even) a small debt to pay to the accused.


BURMESE MANUAL.

49

Both shi an d hpyit are often used at the end of noun
clauses in a redundant manner and could be rendered by
to happen, but this is an idiomatic use of these verbs
and they need not be translated in such sentences. (See
Noun clauses p. Soy,

shi is also sometimes used to mean it may be that/ it
is possible. nga-do pyan-ya-^i mu-li; shi-ifei ma-pyan-
ya-^i-mu-li : shi thl it may be that we return or that we
do not.

Adjectival Verbs.

(L. §151 (6). All adjectives of quality and two adjec-
tives of quantity, mya: many and ni: few, little, may be
used as verbs by adding to them the tense particles thi or
myi or pyi :-byi, and these adjectival verbs form their
interrogation and negation in the same manner as ordinary
verbs.

Z/d-hka-Ie : hso :-MJ this child is (or was) naughty.
Z/zi-hka-!e : hso :-£/i,a-8a : is (or was) this child

naughty ?

t/ii-hka-a: ma-hso: this child is (or was) not
naughty.

/Ai-hka-ie : ma-hso :-zAa-!a : is (or was) not this
child naughty ?

ma-hso :-hnin do not be naughty.

kaung :-myi (it) will be good.

kaung :-byi (it has been well) very well, all right.

It should be remembered that as Burmese adjectives
can be changed into verbs by the addition of the tenge par-
ticles, they can never be used with the verbs shi to be
(here) or hpyit, to be, to become. The following senten
ces are apparent exceptions to this rule: a-hpo :-gyi t-thv
kyan :-gyan : ma-ma shi-ZAe i-thi the old man is still hale,
and strong, min :-gyi-hsin-daw a-ms: hpyit-thi the Rings
elephant is black. ZAi-pan: a-hla-zon: hpyit-thi this;
flower is the prettiest, but the words which are translated


50

BURMESE MANUAL*

by adjectives in English are not adjectives in Burmese.
Icyan :-gyan s ma-ma is an adverbial form and a-me i and
a-hla-zora: are noun forms of the adjective.

Auxiliary verbal affixes.

(L. §360. J. §117). A large number of verbal and

adjectival roots which are used after verbs to express some
additional idea often change their original meaning when
they are so attached to verbs.

Meaning when used
alone.

Meaning when following
another verb.

to begin, be first.

More, again, 1 yet, also
used as a polite imperative
affix. In negative senten-
ces, it invariably means

yet.

As an auxiliary, it is pro-
nounced on 5

sa to begin, be first (always Retains same meaning,
followed by the verb pyu
to do.)

at to be fit, proper, suit->|
able

kaung: good

titaik to be worth, to have
a certain value.

ya fit, proper, right

lyaw suitable, proper, be- I
coming

thin suitable, proper, be- |
coming J

^Right, proper, ought, should.


BURMESE MANUAL. 51

Meaning when used
alone.

Meaning when following
another verb.

naing or hnaing to prevail,
conquer, win

tat to know, understand,
to be skilled

chin (never used alone)

Io to desire, wish, want
se to send

$an : to try

me to remain, abide, stay

pyan to return, repeat, in-
terpret, translate, etc.

hpyit to be, become, etc.

mi to get hold of, to take
captive

mye: constant, permanent

Able to, can (=pouvoir).

(1) skill,knowledge(==sawir)

(2) habit or wont

(3) native character, essen-

tial quality orproperty

to wish, desire, to have a
tendency to

Retains same meaning

{(1) to cause to happen

(2) to permit, allow, let

Used as polite imperative
particle

Used to form a present or
imperfect tense

To take up or do again, to re-
peat, resume

To take effect, be practica-
ble, possible to happen;
often corresponds to for
certain/ without fail9

Implies accident or chance
negligence or inadvertence

1 To continue the same/ as
usual/ customary


52

BURMESE MANUAL.

Meaning when used
alone.

ya to attain, get, gain, ob-
tain

laik to follow, accompany

wo easy

hie to turn round
wun (never used alone)
tha pleasant, clear

Meaning when following'
another verb.

(i) implies compulsion, ob-
ligation, necessity, duty
or (2) opportunity, pri-
vilege of getting or
gaining

In negative sentences ya
when used with a verb
in the second person ex-
presses, 1 prohibition? Ia
the third person it im-
plies either prohibition
or absence of oppor-
tunity.

Implies the following out or
carrying out with com-
plete effect of an action.

Implies that the action is
done without difficulty
or hesitation

Implies motion towards the
speaker.

To dare.

Free to do, to have the
opportunity, to be proper,
to have room.

Many of these verbs are often used impersonally in
English, but they are always used personally in Burmese.

ma-yon-£/iin-f/taw-thii-go ma-yon-ya. It is not proper to
trust (iit they should not) those who should not be trusted..


BURMESE MANUAL.

53'

(L. §357- J- §II8.) Other verbal affixes are parti-

cles having no particular meaning of their own but add.
something to the meaning of the verb they are attached to.

che (J- §118). conveys the notions of:

() to proceed to an action, thin sa :-gye you (pro-

ceed to; eat, nga ye:-syemyi I will (proceed,
to) write ;

() the realization of an action, thu fflan~da-9e z-myo-

tho thwa :-gye-£/u he (really) did go to Man-
dalay. fev} J

J J-

taw (J. §117.) is employed with the following mean-

ings

() permissive force, thin sa :-lo-hByin sa :-daw if youi

wish to eat, you may eat;

() nearness of an event, kyun-nok thwa :-daw-myi

J will go (immediately), mi :-thim :-baw yauk-
taw-myi the steamer is about to arrive or will
arrive soon ;

t

e (c) finality, kyun-nok-to-hma the-yan-^Aa shi-daw-

thi (as for us) we are (as a final issue) only to
die, or there is nothing but death left for us;

(cZ) needlessness when affixed to hnin in prohibitive-
sentences, hto-//i,o-hpyit-yue thin-do pin-ban:-
yon-hmya-^a hpyit-myi |f ma-thwa :-gya-
hnin-daw. Th^t being so, you will merely tire:
yourself, you need not go.

1 Note.With taw meaning lmmediately the verbs;

hpyit and shi are often used and must be'used if-the verb-
is followed by a conjunction : mi :-thim f-baw y£u1ctaw-
myi shi-hlyin wrhen the steamer was about tb ariive.


34

BURMESE MANUAL.

yet (from yet-set to be cruel).

(1) in affirmatory sentences implies that the agent is

cruel or unfeeling enough to perform the action
denoted by the verb, thu-ZAi mi-mi-nyi-yin:-go
-bin that-pit-yet-thi he heartlessly murdered
even his own younger brother.

(2) in negative sentences it implies that the agent has

not the heart to perform the action thu-tha:-go
chit-thaw-gyaung. ta-yan-ta-hka-hmya ma-
yaik-yet because he loves his son, he cannot
bear (has not the heart) to beat him at any
time.

yit to stay behind, kyun-nok pyu-yit-thi remaining
behind I did it, thu ne-yit-thi he remained behind, thin
ne-yit you stay behind.

sha implies commiseration or sympathy on the part of
the speaker, thu the-sha-byi he is dead, poor fellow.

Note.The affix sha always follows the verb in
Burmese and not the noun as in English.

pa expresses politeness or deference and must be
used with the verb when an inferior speaks to a superior in
age or rank. It is also used by superiors addressing in-
feriors politely. It corresponds to the English 1 please but
it may be used with any tense of the verb and not like
1 please with the imperative only.

thu-do Ba-gya-ba-^i they come (or they came),
hpa-ya-kyun-daw a-si-yin-daw-hkan-ba-£ftj I beg to

report for orders.

kyun-daw-myo : thwa :-ba-myE I will go.
thu thwa :-pyi :-ba-byi he has gone,
thwa :-laik-pa

thwa :-ba-daw ^please go.
thwa :-ba-on : J


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