Citation
Illustrated catalogue of Ch'ing enamelled wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art

Material Information

Title:
Illustrated catalogue of Ch'ing enamelled wares in the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art
Creator:
Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art.
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Enameled ware ( LCSH )
Enameled ware -- Private collections ( LCSH )
Pottery, Chinese ( LCSH )
Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art ( LCNAF )
亚洲 -- 中国 -- 北京 -- 故宮博物院
亞洲 -- 中國 -- 北京
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China -- Beijing -- Palace Museum
Coordinates:
39.915987 x 116.397925

Notes

General Note:
Attribution on title page: by Lady David, curator
General Note:
Lady David's first name is Sheila
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Percival David foundation of Chinese art : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/152173637/
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : David, Lady, 1914- : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/40725211/

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Archives and Special Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
561867 ( ALEPH )
FZF.107 /166967 ( SOAS classmark )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
PERCIVAL DAVID FOUNDATION OF CHINESE ART
SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES

53 Gordon Square, London, W.C.I
ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF
CH'lNG ENAMELLED WARES
in the
PERCIVAL DAVID FOUNDATION OF CHINESE ART
by
LADY DAVID
Curator
Section 2
1958
166967






824
Flask of Yung-cheng Enamelled Porcelain
H. 11-6 inches


UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
PERCIVAL DAVID FOUNDATION OF CHINESE ART
SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES
53 Gordon Square, London, W.C.I
ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF
CH'ING ENAMELLED WARES
in the
PERCIVAL DAVID FOUNDATION OF CHINESE ART
by
LADY DAVID
Curator
Section 2
1958


PUBLISHED BY THE
SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES


FOREWORD
SINCE the publication of the first section of the Catalogue of the
Percival David Collection, the Foundation and its contents have
become much more widely known. The appearance of the second
section has been unavoidably delayed, but in the meantime a short
illustrated Guide to the whole collection has been produced by the
Curator, Lady David, formerly Miss Sheila Yorke Hardy. This was
urgently needed by visitors to the galleries, and has -been much
appreciated.
I should like to express the thanks of all concerned for the
unstinted help and advice given by Sir Percival David to the Curator
from his unique fund of knowledge and experience.
S. HOWARD HANSFORD,
Head of the Foundation.
March, 1958.


N
-1 Plft -
0.
SO 9 190 200 300 Kg
(metres)
Plan of the Forbidden City, Peking.


V
INTRODUCTION
THIS Catalogue, the second of its series by the present writer,
is a record of the enamelled Ch'ing porcelain and glass displayed
on the ground floor of the Percival David Foundation of Chinese
Art. It does not, however, include the few pieces of enamelled
Ch'ing ware shown on the second floor and placed there especially in
order to afford the student an opportunity of viewing them together
with similarly decorated Ming-marked objects.
The section here discussed has certain interesting features which
may not come readily to the visitor's notice. It consists of relatively
small objects of a delicate and refined type not to be seen, at least
in any number, in public or private collections in this country. We
do not have any large specimens of the splendid famille verte, famille
jaune, or famille noire wares, with their robust and emphatic colouring
and energy of design, that form so conspicuous a feature of the Salting
Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The omission of such
pieces here is deliberate. In forming his collection Sir Percival David
avoided, as far as he felt he should, the duplication of what could be
seen to great advantage in London. For this reason our Ch'ing
enamelled wares tend to illustrate, rather, one or two of the more
neglected aspects of these wares in England, and indeed in most of
the European and American collections. Thus, we have here what
is considered to be the largest and most instructive assemblage of
"Ku Yiieh" wares in the West. Our collection includes no less than
thirty-one specimens of the rare "Ku Yiieh" porcelain and glass, a
number far in excess of those in any other European or American
collection, and for that reason far more instructive in its particular
field.
The Percival David Collection was formed on the lines of the
famous ceramic collection of the great Ch'ing Emperor, Ch'ien-lung.
A good part of this used to be housed and shown in the Ch'ing Yang
Kung1 of the Old Palace Museum in Peking, but is now in storage
at T'ai-chung in Central Formosa. There, as I appreciated on the
occasion of a recent visit, is an assemblage of ceramics much finer
and greater in extent, of course, than ours, though largely of the same
character and quality, so that where we have two or three specimens
of a particular type, in the Ku Kung Collection at T'ai-chung there
may be twenty or thirty. But our porcelains are, I can testify, very
much in this imperial taste, both collections having been made in the
classical tradition of Chinese scholarship and connoisseurship.
The reader will notice that some of the items described in this
Catalogue are stated to have emanated from the Elphinstone Collection.
Such pieces were acquired by Sir Percival David from his old friend,
the late Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, in 1932 and 1933, and should
be distinguished from others generously presented to the Foundation
by Mr. Elphinstone himself in 1952, these being designated "Elphinstone
Gift" in the Catalogue.
1. See plan opposite. Site 5.


Hsuan-yeh, the second Emperor of the Ch'ing Dynasty, was born
in 1654 and died in 1722, having ruled over China from 1662 to 1722
a complete cycle of 60 yearsunder the reign-title of K'ang-hsi.
Nominated to the succession by his father Shun-chih as he lay dying,
K'ang-hsi was only eight years of age when he was proclaimed Emperor.
For the next six years the control of his but lately subjugated dominion
was vested in the hands of four regents. After 1667, however, K'ang-hsi,
a mere lad of 13, took charge of its administration and, often against
the advice of these men and other high officials of the Court, adopted
certain unconventional policies which, in the event, proved fully
justified, reflecting unusual courage, wisdom, and foresight in a ruler
so youthful and inexperienced. Bold and resolute against his enemies,
the supporters of the waning Ming cause, but tolerant and conciliatory
to those who had tendered their submission to the Manchu regime,
K'ang-hsi governed his empire in a just and enlightened manner,
so that it flourished greatly during his long reign, his people enjoying
to the full the fruits of peace, of honest administration, and of a signal
advancement in Western learning for which the Emperor was in great
measure personally responsible.
Early in his reign, K'ang-hsi found himself constrained to deal
drastically with the causes of a number of unexpected national
tribulations. His first preoccupation was with one of his former regents,
Ao Pai (Manchu, Oboi) who continued to exercise considerable influence
at Court. In 1669 Ao Pai was arrested and imprisoned by imperial
orders, and his followers severely punished. Five years later, Wu
San-kuei, the Viceroy of Yunnan, suddenly threw off his feigned
allegiance to the Manchu regime and declared himself, first, the founder
of a new dynasty, and when this attempt failed, a supporter of the
Ming cause. Styling himself Commander-in-Chief of the Ming
military forces, he led his followers in a savage onslaught on the Manchu-
held province of Kiangsi, in the course of which the great Imperial
Porcelain Factory at Ching-te-chen was burnt to the ground. It
was not until the spring of 1681 that, this rebellion having been sup-
pressed and Wu San-kuei captured, tried for treason, and executed,
Kiangsi Province was reported to the Palace to be entirely pacified.
In September of that year an imperial decree was issued ordering, for
the first time since the destruction of the factory, the supply of a
large quantity of porcelain utensils and other objects for the Palace.
A Board of Commissioners, selected from a department of the Imperial
Household, the so-called Nei Wu Fu,2 was sent to Ching-te-chen to
superintend the carrying out of the order. "Previously to this",
to quote Bushell, "the first-class workmen had been levied from the
different districts of Jao-chou; but now all this was stopped, and as
each manufactory was started, the artisans were collected and the
materials provided, the expenses being defrayed from the imperial
exchequer and the money paid when due, in accordance with the market
prices."3 But this Commission proved unsatisfactory and was replaced
in 1683 by another under the chairmanship of Tsang Ying-hsiian,
Secretary of the Imperial Parks, Department of the Board of Works,
who arrived in Ching-te-chen in that year.
2. See Plan of the Forbidden City, Site 2.
3. Description of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, being a translation of the T'ao
shuo, p. 3.


vii
In the meanwhile, another industrial project of the young Emperor
was being put into effect. Enthusiastic patron of the native arts and
industry as well as of Western science, K'ang-hsi conceived the idea
of constructing within the limits of the Forbidden City a series of
workshops in which many of the handicrafts of his country, aided by
the latest inventions which had then been brought to China by Western
missionaries, could be practised. It was not long before this idea
was translated into reality. For its accomplishment Father Ferdinand
Verbiest (1623-88), one of the most active of the Jesuit missionaries
at the Imperial Court, was called in for advice, and by 1680 at least
27 (some authorities say 30) different workshops, manned by expert
craftsmen drawn from all parts of the Empire as well as from amongst
the Western missionaries, were already operating. Their work included
the establishment of metal foundries, glass works, and a clock and
watch manufactory, and the fabrication of cloisonne enamels, objects
in jade, gold, filigree, lacquer, and ivory, wood carving, chiselling
of movable type, map-making, joining and carpentry. The complete
list of crafts as detailed by Bushell, need not here be repeated.4 His
list of the activities of this Bureau of Works, the so-called Tsao-pan
Ch'u, 5 agrees substantially with that given in Chapter 917 of the
Ch'in ting ta Ch'ing hui tien shih It.6 The main office of the Bureau
was housed in the building indicated on the plan of the Forbidden City
here reproduced, and stood almost directly south of the Yang-
hsin Tien,7 the large palace where, as readers of Section I of my
Catalogue will recall, the Emperor Ch'ien-lung lived and slept and
granted audience, and where, too, T'ang Ying, the great 18th century
ceramist, worked as a page and attendant for over twenty years.
Meanwhile, certain workshops of the Bureau, for which accommodation
could not apparently be found in the Forbidden City, had to be located
in other parts of Peking, so numerous had they become. All these
ateliers continued in operation, Bushell informs us, for more than a
century, but after the death of the Emperor Ch'ien-lung they were
closed down one by one, the last of them having been destroyed by
fire in 1869. But the building in the Forbidden City which housed
the main offices of the Tsao-pan Ch'u remained intact, though Sir
Percival tells me that no work of any sort was being carried on there
when he had the building pointed out to him as he was being shown
over the palace during his stay in Peking in 1929.
It is well known that the familiar designation famille verte as
applied to a certain class of enamelled ware of the K'ang-hsi period,
so called because of the predominance of green in its decoration, was
4. Chinese Art, I, p. 108.
5. See Plan of the Forbidden City, Site 1.
One account records that 150 rooms were allocated to the Tsao-pan Ch'u in
1691, and eighteen years later a further 100 rooms. According to another account,
it was only in the Yung-cheng period that the Bureau was moved to the buildings
marked on the Plan, which became its permanent premises thereafter. In
addition to the Bureau in the Forbidden City, there was another Tsao-pan
Ch'u in the Yuan Ming Yiian.
6. I am informed that a good account of the Tsao-pan Ch'u also appears in the
Ch'ing kung shu wen (Aspects of the Manchu Palaces), by Chang T'ang-jung,
published in 1941 by the National Palace Museum, Peking.
7. See Plan of the Forbidden City, Site 4.
For a view of the interior of this Palace, see Bland, J. O. P., and Backhouse, E.,
China under the Empress Dowager, pi. opp. p. 122.


viii
first given to this type by Albert Jacquemart, the well-known 19th
century French collector. The term is of course purely descriptive,
and like all such descriptive terms is somewhat misleading. For it
might as well be applied to Wan-li wu-ts'ai, the five-colour ware of the
Wan-li period (1573-1620) with its usual predominance of green enamels,
as to the later K'ang-hsi ware which was its direct progeny. At first
the famille verte of the K'ang-hsi period included in its repertory an
underglaze blue used in combination with the on-glaze translucent
enamels of green, yellow, and aubergine, together with the lower-
fired overglaze iron-red. This splendid red, called coral by older
collectors, was so thinly applied that at first sight it looks more like
a pigment painted on the surface of the glaze than a fired vitreous
enamel. To this list of enamels there should be added a brownish
black which was often used by ceramic decorators of the period to
trace the outlines of their designs. It is this same brownish black
pigment, covered with a thick greenish translucent glaze, which was
used to produce the green-black ground of the so-called famille noire,
of which we have two examples in the Foundation (Nos. A821 in
Case 1, and 811 in Case 2). But the use of underglaze blue, a feature
of late Ming enamels, was largely replaced in K'ang-hsi wu-ts'ai by
an overglaze violet-blue enamel, which not only improved the quality
of the colour scheme but also simplified the manufacturing process
by obviating the necessity of two different methods of applying colour.
The use of underglaze blue did not at once entirely disappear, however,
and it was in fact used by Ching-te-chen potters whenever and wherever
necessity arose, as for example in the execution of orders from their
foreign clients. Sir Percival David tells me that the' use of blue enamel
dates back at least to the Wan-li period (1573-1620), if not to the earlier
Chia-ching (1522-1566), despite Father d'Entrecolles' statement dating
its invention to about the year 1700. The small octagonal cup in
the Foundation (No. 811 in Case 2), once the property of the late Sir
William Eden, the father of our former Prime Minister, well illustrates
its use on a famille noire specimen datable to about the year 1685.
The attractive violet-blue enamel I have referred to has, in its
K'ang-hsi version, the property of affecting the glaze immediately
surrounding it, a phenomenon first noticed by Hobson. It is, as he has
said,- "often ringed about by a kind of halo of dull lustre, reflecting
faint rainbow tints."8 But this phenomenon is by no means constant,
as he himself has pointed out, nor should students rule out the
possibility of its occurrence on relatively modern copies of K'ang-hsi
famille verte.
Father d'Entrecolles writes how in 1712 porcelain was being painted
with landscapes in a medley of almost all the colours heightened with
gilding, how beautiful some of these pieces were, and how highly priced.9
The worthy Father refers here to the later K'ang-hsi famille verte
porcelain of the type represented in our Collection by a number of
specimens, as, for example, Nos. 803 in Case 3, 814 and 823 in Case 4,
844 in Case 5, and E.G. A842 in Case 6. This type may well have
been one of the innovations introduced into the Imperial Porcelain
Factory by Tsang Ying-hsiian. The thin, almost eggshell, white body,
8. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II, p. 162.
9. Compare Bushell's T'ao shuo, p. 193.


ix
the dainty and delicate designs and the pale translucent colours of
matchless purity, these characteristics, the visitor will note, distinguish
many of our Ch'ing enamelled specimens.
In the early years of the 18th century it was made known to
all in the Empire that the 60th anniversary of the Emperor's birthday
was approaching. Vast preparations for its celebration in 1713 were
put in train. Amongst a great number of ceramic wares which Lang
T'ing-chi (1663-1715), Governor of the Province of Kiangsi (1705-12),
was ordered to have made and sent up to the capital, was this type
of enamelled porcelain, specially devised for the occasion. It was
in fact a development of the famed Ch'eng-hua tou-ts'ai of the 15th
century, and is best seen in the so-called "Imperial Birthday Service"
(see Nos. 812 and 891 in Case 2, and 890 and A836 in Case 5). Dishes
bearing the significant inscription Wan shou wu chiang, "A myriad
longevities without ending" (the traditional imperial birthday greeting)
painted within cartouches round the border, are easily recognizable
as forming part of this service. Its main decorative features are'the
predominant theme of longevity, the exceedingly fine drawing, and
the slight modelling of the contours of the figures, thus already fore-
shadowing the influence of European chiaroscuro.
A feature of another class of enamelled ware of this period, the
porcelain known to the West as famille rose, was the appearance of
an opaque rose-pink colour. This addition to the ceramic decorator's
palette seems to have been introduced into Ching-te-chen towards the
end of the K'ang-hsi period. Honey10 has told us how the rose-pink
or rose-purple from gold chloride and tin was discovered about 1650
by Andreas Cassius of Leyden, and how this "purple of Cassius" was
put to industrial, use by Johann Kunckel in the manufacture of his
ruby glass about the year 1680. When exactly the rose-purple colour
made its first appearance in China it seems impossible for us to determine
at present. Whatever the date may be, this rouge d'or as a colour
invention must surely have been at the disposal of Chinese craftsmen
generally for some time before it was actually used by their potters
in Ching-te-chen. We have in the Foundation an important specimen
(No. A832 in Case 11) painted in famille rose enamels and dated precisely
to the year 1721, the last full year of the reign of the K'ang-hsi Emperor.
But 1721 is admittedly a long way from the date of the discovery
of the "purple of Cassius" in Leyden, as it is from that of the founding
of the Tsao-pan Ch'u in Peking.
It is well known that while these Peking workshops were engaged
in turning out a great variety of goods, in metal or stone, horn, bone
or ivory, none was there produced in porcelain. While it had been
K'ang-hsi's original intention to have a porcelain factory established
in the Forbidden City and, as Father d'Entrecolles informs us, the
Emperor "had porcelain workers sent from Ching-te-chen to Peking,
together with everything proper for this kind of work", the project
failed: "it may be", the Father adds significantly, "that political or
10. The Ceramic Art of China, etc., p. 151.
11. Ibid., p. 152.


XV
other interests had something to do with this want of success".12 In
any case, the project, at least in its initial form, had to be abandoned. In
its stead, as Yang Hsiao-ku in his Ku Yueh Hsuan tz'u k'ao, supporting
Hsu Chih-heng in Yin liu chai shuo tz'u, has said, "Ku Yueh" and other
imperial pieces were ordered by the Tsao-pan Ch'u to be sent from
Ching-te-chen in the white to be decorated and fired in a small enamelling
kiln in the Forbidden City. This statement finds corroboration in
a small white bottle-shaped vase (No. A433 in Case 24 on the second
floor) in the Foundation, to which I have referred elsewhere.13 That
the so-called "cloisonne style" of decoration of enamelled wares, marked,
as many of them are, with the K'ang-hsi or Yung-cheng yii chih cachet
and decorated in opaque "foreign" colours and designs, were made
for the use of the palace is unquestionable. It is my view, moreover,
that it is these bowls (see Nos. A805 and A806 in Case 12 that might
well be designated "Brocade Palace Bowls") which were also sent
up to Peking in the blank, and decorated there by foreign craftsmen,
inexperienced in the technique of ceramic enamelling. This ex-
planation provides, at any rate, a raison d'etre for the varying quality
of such bowls'and similarly decorated cups in the Ku Kung collection
in T'ai-chung, all of which may nevertheless, we think, be justifiably
attributed to the dates of their cachet.14
The Ku Yiieh Hsiian tz'u k'ao by Yang Hsiao-ku, cited above, is
regarded in China as the standard work on Ku Yiieh ware. In it
the author relates how he had come upon a number of specimens in
the palace in a small treasury to the north-east of the Tuan Ming Tien
in the Ch'ien Ch'ing Kung.15. Sir Percival has told me how in 1929,
a few years before this book was published, he himself had seen some
of these and other pieces in the treasury, the vases or bowls packed
separately in specially fitted silk-lined drawers within large cupboards
labelled Tz'u t'ai hua fa-lang, or "porcelain painted in fa-lang enamels".
Fa-lang is a romanization of the Chinese phonetic equivalent for
France, or as it came to mean, Europe, whence the missionaries were
known to have come to the Ch'ing imperial court. The phrase therefore
refers to porcelain decorated in a "Western" style and in "Western"
enamels. Yang attributes the origin of what he regards as "Ku Yueh"
ware to Tsang Ying-Hsiian, who we know had been appointed Super-
intendent of the Imperial Porcelain Factory in 1681. Yang seems to
consider that this term was first applied to the brocade-patterned
bowls and cups decorated in a manner adapted from cloisonne enamels
on a bronze or copper body, and that later its use was extended to
include the class of ware we call Ku Yiieh Hsuan. He states that
this ware reached the zenith of its development between the years
1727 and 1753, when the Imperial Porcelain Factory was functioning
under the superintendence of T'ang Ying, who added brown-black
to the Ku Yiieh decorators' palette and brought both freshness and
brilliance to their designs. According to Yang, the manufacture of
Ku Yueh ware ceased on the demise of T'ang Ying in 1754.
12. See Bushell's T'ao shuo, p. 183, and Burton, W., PorcelainA Sketch of its
Nature, Art, and Manufacture, p. 85.
13. See Oriental Art, II (1949), No. 3, "Ku Yueh HsiianA New Hypothesis",
by S. Yorke Hardy, p. 119, Note 20.
14. See, however, Russell, C., in The Collector, XI (1930), pp. 202-208. Part of
this article is reproduced in Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp. 193-198.
15. See Plan of the Forbidden City, Sites 6 and 7.


xi
Yang describes 103 palace items which he regards as Ku Yiieh.
Of these, four are pairs, making a total of 107 specimens. He records
that eighty-four of them were decorated with flower and bird subjects,
fifteen with landscapes, and four with figure subjects. But these
specimens could only have been a fraction of the total number of
Ku Yiieh pieces in the palace; indeed, I was reliably informed in T'ai-
chung that there are over 400 pieces of that class of ware in storage
there now. Of the thirty-one specimens in the Foundation, twenty-five
are painted with bird and flower subjects, two (Nos. 850 and 851
in Case 11) with landscapes, and four with figure subjects (Nos. 881
in Case 3, A818 in Case 8, and 854 and 864 in Case 11).
In Tai-chung, moreover, I was interested to see the Ku Yiieh
glass bottle-shaped vase lent by the Chinese Government to the great
International Exhibition (Chinese Government Catalogue, Porcelain,
No. 307). This did not seem to me to be as fine as its ceramic counter-
part, referred to by Kuo Pao-ch'ang in his "Introduction" to this
Catalogue (Vol. II, p. 35), which I also saw in New York some years
before its acquisition by the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.16
In T'ai-chung, too, we saw a most attractive pair of Ku Yiieh porcelain
vases decorated with rustic scenes. These are recorded and described
by Yang, and were seen by Sir Percival in the Wu Ying Tien17 in
Peking in 1929. A hanging painting in colours on silk of a delightful
rendering in a single composition of both the rustic scenes on these
vases is in our small private collection. This painting bears a large red
seal of the Pi-shu Shan Chuang (the Heat-avoiding Mountain Villa) or
Imperial Summer Palace at Jehol, and is signed by Lang Shih-ning
(Giuseppe Castiglione).18 The two vases and this painting (all three
were said to have been in Jehol before they were brought to Peking)
well exemplify Juan Yuan's description of the missionary as an artist
able to blend the Chinese and Western traditions of painting into
perfect unity; for the figures are Chinese, though their faces are rendered
in the European manner with the cast shadows and modelling of
Western art. Another very rare specimen of Ku Yiieh porcelain with
figure decoration is the magnificant flask-shaped vase in the collection
of Mr. Moritatsu Hosokawa which I was glad to see in Tokyo. This
vase, a veritable masterpiece of its class, painted with great skill
and charm in delicate "Western" enamels, is decorated with two
mythological scenes, one on either side, in the baroque style favoured
by 18th century Italian artists.19 One of these scenes, it is clear, repre-
sents the "Judgement of Paris", the other, probably the "Return
of Ulysses". Its decoration has in fact been popularly attributed
to the hand of Castiglione, and, in my opinion, not without justification.
Yang goes so far as to say that most of the figure subjects painted on
16. See Old Furniture, II (1927), pp. 172 and 176-177. It is interesting to note
that both these vases have the same poetical inscription.
17. See Plan of the Forbidden City, Site 3.
These vases are also mentioned by Perzynski, F., in "Marks and Decorative
Inscriptions on Chinese Porcelain" in The Burlington Magazine, LI I (1928),
p. 69, n. 11.
18. See International Exhibition of Chinese Art, Commemorative Catalogue, pi. 99,
No. 2097, and Catalogue of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain in the Collection of
Sir Percival David, Bart., pi. XXXVII.
19. Sekai Toji Zenshu, vol. 12, pi. 1 and fig. 80.


xii
Ku Yiieh wares were in fact the work of Castiglione, which is why,
he argues, these have become so very valuable.
Brother Castiglione, 1688-1766 (he has sometimes been erroneously
referred to as "Father" Castiglione), Jesuit missionary, artist and
architect, came to China in 1715. Soon after his arrival in Peking,
he was attached to the imperial court, where under his Chinese name
of Lang Shih-ning, he laboured unremittingly for forty years and
where he became very popular. In addition to the signed painting I
have mentioned, there is positive documentary evidence for the
traditional Chinese belief in Castiglione's influence on the work of
ceramic artists of his time. In 1729, for example, Nien Hsi-yao
(d. 1738), who had been appointed Director of the Imperial Porcelain
Factory at Ching-te-chen three years earlier, published an illustrated
diagrammatical treatise on draughtsmanship entitled Shih hsiieh,
"Visual Learning". In its Preface he acknowledges his indebtedness
to Lang Shih-ning for instruction in the principles of Western pro-
jection and perspective, saying that Lang had "taught him the method
of drawing lines from a fixed point, so that the minutest details (of
a figure or object) could be accurately represented". In the Preface
to the second edition of this technical work which appeared in 1735,20
Nien Hsi-yao relates how as a result of many discussions with Lang
Shih-ning, he had learnt "the way to give a three-dimensional effect
to the drawing of an object with its particular light and shade aspects",
which he describes as "the subtlety of the European method of painting".
It should not be assumed, however, that Castiglione could not and did
not paint in the Chinese manner at all. He was indeed ordered to
do so by the Emperor, and I have already cited two such examples
of his work. Later, however, Nien Hsi-yao and his followers seem
to have had considerable influence on the growing interest at court in
things European, an influence shown as much in the architecture of
the European section of the Yuan Ming Yiian as in Castiglione's
celebrated oil-painting on canvas of the imperial concubine Hsiang
Fei in European armour; as much in the figure-decorated Ku Yiieh
porcelain vase in the Freer Gallery as in its glass counterpart in
T'ai-chung; in the Ku Yiieh figure-decorated porcelain jar and bottle-
shaped vase in our Collection (Nos. 881 in Case 3 and A818 in Case 8)
as in our exquisitely painted glass brush pot and coupe (Nos. 854 and
864 in Case 11).
Much ingenuity has been exercised by modern Chinese writers
on the significance of the seals appended to the verses on Ku Yiieh
specimens, and several hypotheses have been advanced by them in
this regard. Yang says he has found all Ku Yueh pieces decorated
with designs of "yellow autumn flowers" to be sealed Chin Ch'eng,
and with bamboo designs, Pin jan chun tzu, while those decorated with
landscapes21 had seals reading Shan kao shui chang. But we in the
Foundation are far from certain that any safe conclusion can be drawn
20. Sir Percival David recently obtained from the Bodleian Library through the
courtesy of its Librarian, Mr. N. C. Sainsbury, microfilms of the whole of this
rare book, photostats from which, together with translations of the relevant
passages, he has kindly placed at my disposal for the preparation of this
Catalogue.
21. For a fine example of Ku Yiieh ware with landscape decoration, see Old Furniture,
III (1928), pp. 84-85, and 90-91.


xiii
from the relatively few supporting examples there cited, and it would
be better, we think, to leave this difficult question unanswered for the
present.
It has been suggested that in the decoration of Ku Yiieh wares
there is invariably revealed a distinctly Chinese interpretation of a
European scene. But could not the contrary also be true ? Could
it not be that in some Ku Yueh designs we have representations of
Chinese scenes by European artists ? We think that the latter poss-
ibility should not be ruled out. It is, surely, worthy of further consider-
ation and of textual research. We may thus one day be able to identify
and establish by indisputable documentary evidence the hand of
Castiglione himself in the consummate delineation and brushwork of
the three-dimensional European scenes on the Hosokawa flask, and
perhaps even of some collaborator or disciple, of inferior artistic
calibre admittedly, in the European scenes depicted on some of our
Ku Yueh pieces.
The study of Ku Yueh wares has by no means reached finality.
Much investigation remains to be carried out, and the opinions I have
here advanced should be regarded as tentative. Our knowledge
of the history of Chinese ceramic art, as indeed of all Chinese art history,
remains incomplete, and the connoisseur of the future will no doubt
find much in its present literature to supplement, to expunge, and
to correct.
In the preparation of this work I have had, as before, the privilege
of the invaluable assistance of my husband, the donor of the collection,
without whose scholarly guidance and advice I could not have
accomplished the task.
I am also most grateful to Professor Hansford who has been good
enough to edit the typescript and to make some helpful suggestions
which I have been glad to incorporate.
SHEILA DAVID.
March, 1958.


xiv
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARLINGTON, L. C., and LEWISOHN, W., In Search of Old Peking.
Peking, 1935.
BAHR, A. W., Old Chinese Porcelain and Works of Art in China.
London, 1912.
BENNETT, W., A Collection of Rare and Old Chinese Porcelain.
London, 1910.
BLAND, J. O. P., and BACKHOUSE, E., China under the Empress
Dowager. London, 1910.
BURTON, W., PorcelainA Sketch of its Nature, Art, and Manufacture.
London, 1906.
BUSHELL, S. W., Description of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, being
a translation of the T'ao shuo. Oxford, 1910.
BUSHELL, S. W., Chinese Art. London, 1904-6. Reprinted 1914-19.
BUSHELL, S. W., "Chinese Eggshell Porcelain, with 'Marks'In
The Burlington Magazine, London, IX (1906) pp. 324 and 395.
BUSHELL, S. W., Oriental Ceramic Art, Collection of W. T. Walters,
New York, 1897; text edition, 1899.
BUSHELL, S. W., and LAFFAN, W. M., Catalogue of the Morgan
Collection of Chinese Porcelain. New York, 1910.
CHUEN-LUNG Yt7 CHIH SHIH CHI, The Collected Works of the
Emperor Ch'ien-lung. Section I (1736-47).
CHINESE EXHIBITION, A COMMEMORATIVE CATALOGUE
OF THE. London, 1936.
CHUN TING TA CHUNG HUI TIEN SHIH LI, Official digest of
administrative law and practice in the Ch'ing Dynasty. Edition
of 1818.
CONTAG, V., and WANG, C. C., Maler- und Sammler-Stempel aus
der Ming- und Ch'ing-Zeit. Shanghai, 1940.
DA VIES, G. R., Collection of Old Chinese Porcelain formed by George
R. Davies. London, 1913.
DE VERE BAILEY, B. A., "The Old Moon Pavilion Ware". In
The Burlington Magazine, London, LXVII (1935), pp. 264-273.
DEXEL, T., Die For men Chinesischer Keramik. Tubingen, 1955.


XV
DORCHESTER HOTEL LOAN EXHIBITION. London, May-June,
1931.
FRANKS, A. W., Catalogue of a Collection of Oriental Porcelain and
Pottery. Bethnal Green Museum. London, 1879.
GORER, E., and BLACKER, J. F., Chinese Porcelain and Hard
Stones. London, 1911.
GRANDIDIER, E., La Ceramique Chinoise. Paris, 1894.
GULLAND, W. G., Chinese Porcelain. London, 1911.
HIPPISLEY, A. E., A Sketch of the History of Ceramic Art in China,
with a Catalogue of the Hippisley Collection of Chinese Porcelains.
Washington, 1887-88. Reprinted 1900.
HOBSON, R. L., Chinese Pottery and Porcelain. London, 1915.
HOBSON, R. L., The Later Ceramic Wares of China. London, 1925.
HOBSON, R. L., The Catalogue of the George Eumorfopoulos Collection
of Chinese, Corean and Persian Pottery and Porcelain, Vol. V.
London, 1927.
HOBSON, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections. London,
1931.
HOBSON, R. L., Catalogue of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain in the
Collection of Sir Perciv at David, Bart. London, 1934.
HONEY, W. B., Guide to the Later Chinese Porcelains [in the Victoria
and Albert Museum). London, 1927.
HONEY, W. B., The Ceramic Art of China and other Countries of the
Far East. London, 1945.
HUMMEL, A. W., Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington,
1943.
HUTTON, THE BARBARA, COLLECTION OF CHINESE
PORCELAINS, Loan Exhibition at Honolulu Academy of
Arts, Nov. 1956Jan., 1957. Honolulu, 1957.
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF CHINESE ART IN
LONDON, ILLUSTRA TED CA TALOGUE OF THE CHINESE
GOVERNMENT EXHIBITS FOR THE. Nanking, 1936.
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF CHINESE ART, 1935-36,
ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF THE. London, 1935.
JACQUEMART, A., and LE BLANT, E., Histoire de la Porcelaine.
Paris, 1862.
JENYNS, S., Later Chinese Porcelain. London, 1951.


xvi
KU KUNG, Illustrated monthly publication of the Palace Museum.
Peking, 1929-33.
KU YUEH HSUAN TZ'U K'AO, Discussion of Ku Yiieh Ware, by
Yang Hsiao-ku. Peking, 1933.
LEGGE, J., The Chinese Classics. Vols. I & II, Oxford, 1893/95;
Vols. Ill to V, Hongkong, 1865/72.
LI, H. L., Chinese Flower Arrangement. Philadelphia, 1956.
MAYERS, W. F., Chinese Reader s Manual. Shanghai, 1874.
Reprinted 1924.
MORGAN, J. P., Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of Chinese
Porcelain. New York, 1904.
OLD FURNITURE, London, II (1927), pp. 172 and 176-177, and
III (1928), pp. 84-85 and 90-91.
PERZYNSKI, F., "Marks and Decorative Inscriptions on Chinese
Porcelain". In The Burlington Magazine, London, LII (1928),
p. 69.
RUSSELL, C. E., "A Series of Ch'ing Bowls made by Imperial Order".
In The Collector, London, XI (1930), pp. 202-208.
SEKAI TO J I ZEN SHU, Catalogue of World Ceramics. Tokyo,
1956.
T'AO SHUO, by Chu Yen. 1774. See Bushell, S. W., on p. xiv.
TRAPNELL, A., Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain and Pottery,
forming the Collection of Mr. Alfred Trapnell. Bristol, 1901.
TUNG CH'£NG LAO FU CHU AN, Story of a trainer of fighting
cocks, by Ch'en Hung. In T'ai p'ing kuang chi, presented to
the throne in a.d. 987. Photolithographic reprint of 1566 edition.
WILLIAMSON, G. C., The Book of Famille Rose. London, 1927.
YIN-LIU CHAI SHUO TZ'U, Description of porcelains from the
Yin-liu Chai, the studio of the author, Hsu Chih-heng. Shanghai,
c. 1920.
YORKE HARDY, S., "Ku Yiieh HsuanA New Hypothesis". In
Oriental Art, London, II (1949), No. 3, pp. 116-125.


1
CATALOGUE
The illustrations are from photographs by Mr. R. Hunter, Staff Photo-
grapher of the Foundation. An asterisk appears against each of the
items illustrated. The Catalogue of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain in the
Collection of Sir Percival David, Bt.} by R. L. Hobson, is here referred
to as PDC.
800 PAIR OF MINIATURE DISHES OF K'ANG-HSI
& ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides. Fine white eggshell
porcelain decorated in pale transparent famille verte enamels
each with a slightly differing design, inside with a fruiting
and leafy twig of the peach on which is pencilled in gold
the shou "longevity" character in slightly different seal
forms on each of the saucers. On the base is written the six-
character mark of the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722) within
a double circle in underglaze blue. D : 2.1 in. (Q.Scm.)
Note.These saucers must have formed part of the so-
called "Birthday Service", which was made for the
celebration of the 60th birthday anniversary of the Emperor
K'ang-hsi, born on May 4, 1654. The event was observed
in Peking in 1713 with great pomp and ceremony.
802 WINE CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
With rounded sides and everted lip. Fine white porcelain
decorated in transparent famille verte enamels with three
varieties of fish on the outside and a fourth fish inside, and in
under-glaze slip inside with two fish-dragons. Under the
base is a fanciful design in underglaze blue of four shells
within a double square, the whole within a single circle.
Early 18th century. D : 2.2Sin. (5.7cm.)
803 DISH OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and narrow foot-rim.
Fine white porcelain decorated in pale famille verte enamels
with the figure of a bearded scholar seated on a large rock
beneath a pine tree, watching two roosters fighting. Under
the base is written the six-character mark of the Ch'eng-hua
period (1465-87) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
Early 18th century. D : 8in. (20.3cm.)
From the Eumorfopoulos Collection, Catalogue, Vol. V,
No. El20, and pi. 21.
Note.There is a small square illegible seal in pale iron-red
enamel to the right of the figure.
804 SNUFF BOTTLE OF ENAMELLED GLASS
Flask-shaped, with flattened circular body, short tubular
neck and oval base with ringed foot. Fine white semi-opaque


o
glass with decoration carved in relief and enamelled in
famille rose colours. On one side a phoenix, with a sprig of the
ling-chih in its beak, stands on a rock, a blossoming chrysan-
themum plant growing from behind: on the other a pair of
quails, one of them attracted by an insect, stand on a bank
of greensward with a large ornamental rock at the side,
from behind which emerges a blossoming chrysanthemum
branch; asters and grasses are shown growing at the edge.
On the base is pencilled the characters Kuyueh hsiian ("Ancient
Moon Pavilion") in pale gold in a horizontal line. About
1850. H : without stopper 2.3in. (5.8cm.)
The snuff bottle is fitted with a carved coral stopper.
See De Vere Bailey, B.A., "The Old Moon Pavilion Ware"
in the Burlington Magazine, LXVII, No. 393 (December
1935), pp. 264-273, and Yorke Hardy, S., "Ku Yiieh Hsuan
a New Hypothesis" in Oriental Art, II, No. 3, pp. 116-125.
805 PAIR OF DISHES OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
or\a With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
"^b thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted
in pale transparent famille verte enamels with the figures
of three ladies preparing a meal by a low table which supports
various food vessels; one of the ladies with a fan in her right
hand is shown seated on a stool by a brazier, the others
standing, each holding a food vessel. Scattered leaves,
blossoms and butterflies decorate the flattened mouth-rim
of the dishes, details of the whole design differing slightly
on each. On the base is written the six-character mark
of the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within a double circle
in underglaze blue. Early 18th century. D : 6.8m. (17.2cm.)
807 DISH OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted in
pale transparent famille verte enamels with a landscape scene
under a gold-tinted sun with two figures, one of them an archer
with a bow and a quiver of arrows, with one of which he
seems to have shot at the recumbant figure of a tiger. Scattered
leaves, blossoms and butterflies decorate the flattened mouth-
rim of the dish. On the base is written the six-character
mark of the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within a double
circle in underglaze blue. Early 18th century. D : 6.8m.
(17.2cm.)
808 DISH OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted
in pale transparent famille verte enamels with a landscape
scene with rocks, bamboo and pine trees, below which appear
three ladies, one carrying in her right hand a lamp depending
from a ju-i sceptre. Scattered leaves, blossoms and butterflies
decorate the flattened mouth-rim of the dish. On the base
is written the six-character mark of the Ch'eng-hua period
(1465-87) within a double circle in underglaze blue. Early
18th century. D : 6.8in. (17.2cm)


3
809 PAIR OF DISHES OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
oic\ With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted
in pale transparent famille verte enamels with two female
figures, one a Taoist fairy holding a ju-i sceptre in her right
hand, a heavenly deer by her side, the other, her attendant,
bearing the peach of longevity on a dish, three bats, emblematic
of the three blessings, flying over-head, and a small rock and
plants in the background. Scattered leaves, blossoms and
butterflies decorate the flattened mouth-rim of the dishes,
details of the whole design differing slightly on each. On the
base is written the six-character mark of the Ch'eng-hua
period (1465-87) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
Early 18th century. D : 6.8m. (17.2cm.)
For decoration, see Hobson, R. L., Chinese Pottery and
Porcelain, II, pi. 113, fig. 1.
811 CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Deep with six straight sides. White porcelain decorated on
the biscuit in famille verte enamels and overglaze blue,
outside with six shou "longevity" characters in different
forms in a greenish black ground and between volute and
lotus-pod borders, inside with a lotus flower in the centre and
six round the sides below an iron-red enamelled volute border
on a white glazed ground. On the base there is a double
circle in pale underglaze blue. K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722).
H : 2.9in. (7.4cm.)
From the Collection of Sir William Eden, Bart.
812 DISH OF K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted
in pale transparent famille verte enamels with a naturalistic
design of a bird on a pendent fruiting bough of the peach
tree, symbolising longevity, the flattened rim with a brocade-
pattern border rendered in pale iron-red and gold enamels
interrupted by four medallions containing the seal characters
Wan shou wu chiang, "A myriad longevities without ending!".
On the base is written the six-character mark of the K'ang-hsi
period (1662-1722) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 10m. (25.4cm.)
From the Liddell and Russell Collections.
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
p. 189 and colour plate No. 27, and Jenyns, S., Later Chinese
Porcelain, pi. XXIX.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 1729.
Note.This dish formed part, no doubt, of the so-called
"Birthday Service" which was made for the celebrations
of the 60th birthday anniversary of the Emperor K'ang-hsi.
813 SNUFF BOTTLE OF CH'IEN-LUNG
ENAMELLED GLASS *
Of double-gourd form with short neck and flat base. Milky-


4
white opaque glass delicately painted in mixed enamels in
"Ku Yiieh" style with a gourd-vine and red bats; round the
neck is a band of yellow enamel spotted with red, from which
depends a border of pendent leaves. On the base is pencilled
the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95)
in blue enamel. H : 1.6m. (4cm.)
The snuff bottle is fitted with a pearl and coral stopper.
814 CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Deep, with straight sides and small foot. Fine white
porcelain decorated on the outside in transparent famille
verte enamels with the figures of nine boys at play in a rocky
landscape with pine and prunus trees and flowering shrubs.
Late K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722). D : 2.9in. (7.3cm.)
815 SET OF TWELVE WINE CUPS OF
a-1 K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Deep, with slightly rounded sides, everted lip and small base
with deep foot. Fine white eggshell porcelain, each cup decor-
ated in late famille verte enamels and underglaze blue with
a different seasonal flower or plant, some also with rocks,
others with blossoming shrubs, aquatic plants, butterflies,
insects or birds. On the other side of each of the cups appears
a different poetical inscription in underglaze blue, three of
these in seven-character lines, the rest in five-character lines,
the inscription in each case followed by an undecipherable
seal within a single square. On the base is written the six-
character mark of the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722) in very
small script within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 2.6m. (6.5cm.)
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2181.
Note.According to Dr. H. L. Li, of Philadelphia, Pa.,
author of Chinese Flower Arrangement, the following is
a list of the flowers in temperate Central China generally
recognised as representative of the twelve months of the
year:
1st month: Prunus 7th month: Lotus
2nd month: Magnolia 8th month: Pomegranate
3rd month: Peach 9th month: Kueii
4th month: Rose 10th month: Chrysanthemum
5th month: Crab-apple 11th month: Orchid
6th month: Peony 12th month: Narcissus
816 VASE OF CH'IEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of tall baluster form, hexagonal in section and with expanding
neck fitted with two tubular handles, the foot six-sided and
slightly spreading. Fine white porcelain with "orange-peel''
undulating surface, painted with a design in Su Tung-p'o
style, of rocks and bamboo in a shadowy grey pigment with
touches of pink, blue and iron-red on a crackled pale green
ground, and further embellished with an inscription of fourteen
characters in black with three seals in red on one side and an
oval seal in red on another; the characters Shih-chih ("crag")


5
in seal form appear on a jagged rock. The inscription has
been rendered:
"The gentle breeze blows cool below the Grove of the
Seven Worthies.
The pale moon seems wintry as it shines over the Stream
of the Six Talents."
This is preceded by a seal, P'ien yiieh ("Half Moon") and
followed by two others Han and Mo, or "Brush" and "Ink",
which are believed to be the seals of the great ceramist,
T'ang Ying. The oval seal reads Ch'ien-k'un i ts'ao-t'ing
("Heaven and Earth are but a single thatched pavilion"),
a line from Tu Fu. On the base, which has also a pale green
glaze, is written the six-character seal mark of the Ch'ien-lung
period (1736-95) in underglaze blue. H : 14.7m. (36.8cm.)
Note.The "Six Talents of Chu Ch'i (i.e., "of the Bamboo
Stream", mentioned in the Biography of Li Po (699-762),
were Li Po himself, Han Chun, K'ung Ch'ao-fu, P'ei Cheng,
Chang Shu-ming and T'ao Mien, all of whom are said to
have lived under the Tsu-lai Mountains in Shantung
Province; they became celebrated for the songs they sang
and the wine they drank. For the "Seven Worthies"
see Mayers, W. F., Chinese Reader's Manual, p. 29, No. 85.
817 WINE CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Moulded in eight-foil oval form with two rustic bamboo
handles. White porcelain decorated on the biscuit in famille
verte enamels, outside with panels of flowers on a yellow ground
between volute and diaper borders, and inside with a
chrysanthemum in a medallion in the centre of the base and
a conventional chrysanthemum border round the lip. K'ang-hsi
period (1662-1722). W : 3.4m. (8.6cm.)
For a similar specimen, see Grandidier, E., La Ceramique
Chinoise, pi. XXIV, No. 67.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2250.
818 DISH OF K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped; fine white porcelain painted in delicate
enamels. Inside is a large peach shaded in iron-red with
clxiii twigs and leaves in famille verte colours. On the peach
pencilled in gold are the seal characters wan shou, "A myriad
longevities", the imperial birthday greetings. On the outside
are three twigs with green peaches inscribed in gold with the
circular seal form of the character shou, "longevity". On the
base is written the six-character mark of the K'ang-his
period (1662-1722) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 11.3m. (28.6cm.)
Cf. Honey, W. B., The Ceramic Art of China, etc., p. 151
and pi. 131 (a).
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 1731.
819 BRUSH BARREL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of hexagonal section with straight sides, flanged mouth-rim
and "fitted" stand of castellated form. White porcelain,


6
the sides pierced in honeycomb pattern and with filled-in
medallions. Decorated on the biscuit in famille verte enamels
and black, with phoenixes almost heraldically depicted and
landscape scenes in alternate circular and rectangular panels
between borders of the Eight (Taoist) Precious Objects
and the Eight (Buddhist) Emblems of Happy Augury. On
the lightly glazed base there is impressed an undecipherable
seal. K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722). H : 5.1m. (12.8cm.)
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 1692.
820 PERFUME BASKET OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Oval pot-pourri container in the form of a basket with pierced
sides and lid, and bamboo handle (pi liang) with two supporting
branches on either side of the ends of the handle. White
porcelain decorated on the biscuit with flowers between
borders of Greek-key and volute pattern in famille verte
and iron-red enamels. K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722). H : 5.4m.
(13.6 cm.)
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 1664.
821 CUP OF YUNG-CHfeNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded spreading sides and deep foot. Fine
thin white porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels, brown
and iron-red, outside with a poppy and two flowering sprays
of peony, and inside with fruit seeds and a melon. On the
base is written the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng
period (1723-35) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 3.6m. (9.1cm.)
Compare with No. 878.
822 SMOKING-PIPE OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
In the form of a lotus pod with stem and branches, the pod
forming the body of the pipe, while the bowl, in the form of
a small lotus flower has attached to it two small pods, one
open, the other closed. Fine white porcelain decorated in
famille verte enamels and overglaze blue. The whole of the
base is modelled to resemble a lotus leaf which supports
the pod and is enamelled in pale green. Late 18th century.
H : 8.7in. (22.1 cm.)
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 1688.
823 VASE OF YUNG-CH&NG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Bottle-shaped with globular body and tall cylindrical neck.
Fine white porcelain decorated in low relief in famille verte
enamels, on one side with a landscape scene of a mounted
official looking over his shoulder as he gallops away on a
spirited steed, a whip in his upraised right hand, and followed
by his boy attendant carrying a ch'in. On the other side are
a blossoming prunus and a magnolia tree in bloom, rocks,
and two birds flying overhead. On the base is written the
six-character mark of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35) within


7
a double circle in underglaze blue. H : 14.8m. (37.5cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
824 FLASK OF YUNG-CHENG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Bottle-shaped with flattened globular body and short narrow
cylindrical neck with two "cloud-scroll" handles joining neck
clxix anc^ shoulder. Fine white porcelain with slightly undulating
"chicken-skin" glaze artistically painted in famille rose
enamels, on one side with rose-peonies and two birds in
varying shades of green, and in brown and white; on the other
with chrysanthemum and butterflies, blossoming peach and
two long-tailed birds in white picked out in brown and
crimson. On the slightly recessed base is written the mark
of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35) in six seal characters in
underglaze blue. H : 11.6m. (29.4cm.)
From the Collection of the late Lord Redesdale.
Illustrated in Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol. 12, pi. 71.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2277.
825 PAIR OF DISHES OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
a & ^ Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and deep foot. Fine
white porcelain decorated in their interior in famille verte
enamels, one with a scholar possibly one of the Chu tin
ch'i hsien (the Seven Worthies of the Bamboo Grove)
gazing at a small clump of bamboo beside a rock, the other
with a figure of a man carrying a crackled vase who has
stepped out of a building in the direction of a group of vessels
lying on the ground. A square seal appears within the design
of each saucer. On the base is written the six-character mark
of the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within a double circle in
underglaze blue. Early 18th century. D : 6.25m. (15.8cm.)
From the Russell Collection.
826 WINE POT OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
In the form of a peach with handle and spout imitating
branches of its tree, enamelled on the biscuit in pale aubergine
and black. White porcelain decorated on the body with
boughs of blossom in late famille verte enamels, and with a
conventional leaf border near the base. The wine pot is
to be filled through a hole in its base. K'ang-hsi period
(1662-1722). H : 4.6m. (11.6cm.)
827 PAIR OF BOWLS OF YUNG-CHENG
& ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
828 With rounded sides and straight deep foot. Fine white
porcelain delicately painted in sepia in "Ku yiieh" style
with prunus trees in blossom and a distich of ten characters
in black, to which are appended three seals in pink enamel.
The stanza may be rendered:
"The student sees the outline sharp
Of plum bloom by the moonlight cast
On window blind, and breathes the scent
Of unseen flowers wafted past."
PDC
clxxii


8
The seal preceding the verse is hsien ch'un (early spring),
and the two following are yiieh ku (moon ancient) and hsiang
ch'ing (fragrance pure). On the base is written the six-
character mark of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35) within
a double square in blue enamel. D : 4.9m. (12.5cm.)
From the Hippisley Collection.
See Hippisley, A. E., A Sketch of the History of Ceramic
Art in China, Washington 1900, Nos. 328 and 329, p. 406
and pi. 19, Jenyns, S., Later Chinese Porcelain, p. 87, and
Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol. 12, pi. 76.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2276.
829 BOTTLE OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With rounded body and tall slender neck with two tubular
handles attached to it below the mouth-rim. Fine white
glassy porcelain decorated in mixed enamels in "Ku yiieh"
style, on one side with a rock, orchids, roses and grasses,
and on the other with a fourteen-character poetical inscription
in black with three seals in iron-red; the neck with a wide
border of Greek-key pattern and the handles with a scrolling
design, in blue enamel. The inscription may be rendered:
"A wonderful path opens in fairyland, in spite of the thick
clouds;
The iris and the orchid in bloom are fragrant in the warm
spring."
The seal before the inscription has been read hsi hsin (the
heart of elegance) and the two after it, shou (longevity)
and ch'i (wonderful). On the base is written the four-
character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) in greyish-
blue enamel. H : 5.7in. (14.3cm.)
Illustrated in Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol. 12, p. 81.
With rounded sides, everted lip and deep straight foot. Fine
white eggshell porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels
with a landscape scene in which are depicted a pair of quails
(shuang an), signifying "double peace" (a well-known rebus
of greetings for the New Year), flowers and grasses, details
of the design differing slightly on each cup. On the base
is written the four-character mark of the Yung-cheng period
(1723-35) within a double square in underglaze blue.
D : 2.5m. (6.3cm.)
Compare with No. 838.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2220.
Miniature, with rounded sides. Fine white eggshell porcelain
decorated in delicate famille rose opaque enamels, inside
with the design of a fairy, with various Taoist attributes,
830
a Scb
PAIR OF CUPS OF YUNG-CHfiNG
ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
831
SAUCER OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *


9
riding on a leaf among waves, and on the reverse with a border
of waves in pale opaque green enamel. On the base is
written the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng period
(1723-35) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 3.1m. (7.9cm.)
Pair with No. 832.
832 SAUCER OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
Miniature, with rounded sides. Fine white eggshell porcelain
decorated in delicate famille rose opaque enamels, inside with
the design of a fairy standing on waves and bearing a wand
with Taoist attributes, accompanied by a deer with a sprig
of the ling-chih in its mouth; the reverse with a border of
waves in pale opaque green enamel. On the base is written
the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35)
within a double circle in underglaze blue. D : 3.1m. (7.9cm.)
Pair with No. 831.
833 SAUCER OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Moulded and incised in the form of a six-petalled mallow
flower. Fine white eggshell porcelain decorated in famille
rose enamels with two seated male figures, one of them holding
a fan with his right hand and a small gilt cup in his left,
the other with a similar cup in his right hand, a boy attendant
bringing them wine in a gilt ewer; an open scroll with brush
and ink lies displayed on the floor. In the background are
two large jars, one enamelled in blue, the other in crackled
white; a dish of peaches resting on a lacquer stand. 18th
century. D : 5.2in. (13.2cm.)
Note.The faces of the figures are slightly shaded and the
technique suggests European influence.
834 CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Deep, tub-shaped (kang) with rounded sides, straight mouth
and slightly recessed base. Fine white porcelain decorated
with lotus scrolls in opaque orange, blue, green and yellow
"foreign" enamels, in a ground of deep rose; the interior
white and undecorated. On the base is written the four-
character mark Yung-cheng yii chih (Made by Imperial order
in the Yung-cheng period1723-35) within a double circle
in underglaze blue. D : 2.5m. (6.4cm.)
Compare with Nos. 837, 889, A805 and A806.
From the Russell Collection.
For a discussion of the subject, see Russell, C. E. "A Series of
Ch'ing Bowls made by Imperial Order" in The Collector,
Vol. XI, No. 43, Dec. 1930, pp. 202-208 and figs. 3 & 3a,
and Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
pp. 193-199, pi. 29, fig. B.
For a similar specimen see Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese
Porcelain and Pottery, forming the Collection of Mr. Alfred
Trapnell, Bristol, 1901, pi. XXI, No. 151.
Note.This cup was enamelled, it is here suggested, in
one of the 27 official workshops (Tsao pan ch'u) in the
Forbidden City.


835 VERMILION BOX OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Covered box of circular flattened form decorated in brilliant
famille rose enamels with a mille-fleurs design on the outside of
both lid and base, the inside of the former with a five-clawed
dragon and of the latter with floral sprays. The glazed
base is inscribed with the hall-mark Chii jen t'ang chih (Made
for the Dwelling-in-Benevolence Hall), the hall-mark of
Yuan Shih-k'ai, in blue enamel within a double square.
D : 4.5m. (11.2cm.)
From the Russell Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
p. 201, and fig. 361.
Note.This piece was probably made in 1915 at the quasi-
imperial manufactory at Ching-te-chen which had been
inaugurated on the orders of the above-mentioned ambitious
statesman by Kuo Pao-ch'ang, the newly-appointed
Director of the Porcelain Factory.
One of the more important buildings in the Chung Hai
was the Chii Jen T'ang, which was erected by Yuan Shih-k'ai
in 1912-13 in the park known as the Chieh Fan Chi.
(See Arlington, L. C., and Lewisohn, W., In Search of
Old Peking, p. 99.)
The name of the Chii Jen Hall is taken from a passage in
Mencius: "Where benevolence is the dwelling-place of the
heart and righteousness the path of life, the business of a
great man is complete." (See Legge, Chinese Classics, II
p. 468.)
836 SNUFF BOTTLE OF CH'IEN-LUNG
ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of double gourd form with two small loop handles on the
shoulders. Fine white porcelain decorated with gourd vines
in enamel colours on a gold brocaded ground, and fitted with
a gilt filigree metal stopper with ivory spoon. On the base
of the snuff bottle is pencilled in red the mark of the Ch'ien-
lung period (1736-95) in four small seal characters within a
single square on a gold ground. H : 2in. (5cm.)
837 CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Deep, tub-shaped (kang) with rounded sides, straight mouth,
no foot-rim and slightly recessed base. Fine white porcelain
decorated with flowering peonies in opaque pink, blue, green
and brownish-yellow "foreign" enamels in a ground of mottled
orange. A wash of yellow has been added to the colourless
glaze of the interior, giving it a creamy-white appearance.
On the base is written the four-character mark K'ang-hsi
yii chih (Made by imperial order in the K'ang-hsi period,
1662-1722) within a double square in raised blue enamel.
D : 2.5in. (6.4cm.)
Compare with Nos. 834, 889, A805 and A806. .
From the Russell Collection.
For a discussion of the subject, see Russell, C. E., "A Series
of Ch'ing Bowls made by imperial order" in The Collector,
Vol. XI, No. 43Dec. 1930, pp. 202-208 and figs. 4 & 4a,


11
and Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
pp. 193-199, pi. 29c and fig. 350d.
Note.This cup was enamelled, it is here suggested, in
one of the 27 official workshops (Tsao pan ch'u) in the
Forbidden City.
838 cup of Enamelled porcelain *
Deep, almost bell-shaped, with straight sides, everted lip
and straight foot-rim. White semi-eggshell pegmatite porce-
lain painted in juan ts'ai enamels with a design of two quails
by a rock, with flowering tree peonies and a butterfly hovering
above, the design signifying "double peace" (shuang an),
18th century. H : 2.1 Sin. (6.9cm.)
From the Liddell and Russell Collections.
See Jenyns, Soame, Later Chinese Porcelain, pi. LXXXIV,
2B.
PAIR OF BOWLS OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides and straight foot-rim. Fine white
porcelain decorated on the outside with separated blossoming
and fruiting branches in transparent famille verte enamels
and gold on a celadon ground, in a manner designed pre-
sumably to imitate some of the enamelled wares of the Ming
period, details of the design differing slightly on each bowl.
The inside is plain white except for a small five-pointed
floral medallion within a double circle in underglaze blue
in the centre. The mouth-rim is iron-stained. On the base
is written Ta Ming nien chih (Made in the Great Ming
Dynasty) in underglaze blue. D : A.lin. (11.9cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
841 PERFUME BALL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Pot-pourri container of globular form with elaborately pierced
walls. White porcelain decorated on the biscuit in famille
rose enamels with four circular medallions of the flowers of
the four seasons, within borders of scattered blossoms. Round
the mouth, which has a circular orifice, and the foot, which is
incised in the form of a Chinese cash, are two floral bands
similarly ornamented and bordered by a band of scattered
blossoms. 18th century. H : 3.3in. (8.4cm,)
From the Schreiber Collection, No. 159.
For a similar specimen, see Grandidier, E., La Ceramique
Chinoise, pi. XXIII, No. 60.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2265.
PAIR OF DISHES OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and everted lip. Fine
white porcelain decorated inside in pale ink-like enamel,
one with a river scene in the style of Ni Tsan, a boat and two
figures in the foreground, a pagoda in the middle distance
and the sun and slight details of the decoration in red enamel,
the other with a rocky landscape and water scene. On the
839
&
840
842
&
843


12
base is written Ya-yii t'ang chih, "Made for the Hall of Elegant
Rain", in a single column in red enamel. 18th century.
D : 7.9in. (20cm.)
Note.Ya-yii t'ang was a hall-name of Lu Chien-tseng
(1690-1768), scholar and official, who was Chief Salt
Commissioner of Liang-Huai, with headquarters at Yang-
chou. His interest in educational reform was demonstrated
by the academies of learning he established at the various
places where he officiated. After serving for over ten years
as Salt Commissioner, he was accused of peculation, and
tried and sentenced to death by strangulation, but died
in prison before the sentence could be carried out. The
Ya-yii t'ang ts'ung shu, a collection of works of pre-Sung
writers, which he compiled, was published in 1756.
See the Yin liu chai shuo tz'u, ch. 6, and Hummel, A. W.,
Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, I, pp. 541-542.
844 VASE OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of baluster form with slender neck, wide spreading mouth,
and narrowing base which spreads to a wide slightly thickened
foot-rim. Fine white porcelain decorated in transparent
famille verte enamels and gold with the design of a horseman
restraining a spirited piebald steed; a rock and a willow
tree in the distance. Early 18th century. H : 8.1m. (20.5cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
845 BOTTLE OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
With pear-shaped body and slender neck swelling into a six-
lobed bulb below the lip. Fine dead-white glassy porcelain
clxxiii delicately painted in mixed enamels in "Ku yueh" style with
(b) a rock, flowering begonia and iris, and a butterfly. On the
neck is a seven-character poetical inscription in brown with
two seals in iron red; leaf border in blue enamel on the lip.
The inscription may be rendered:
"Dew is fragrant in the middle of autumn."
The oval seal before the inscription reads kao chih (lofty
demeanour) and the square seal after it, ch'iu shih (autumn
scholar). On the base is pencilled the four-character mark
of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) in blue enamel.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2279.
Note.The term "autumn scholar" has been explained
as a scholar whose talent was recognised late in life.
846 PAIR OF DISHES OF RUBY-BACKED
& ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
847 Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and flat base. Fine white
eggshell porcelain painted in famille rose enamels and dark
clxviii brown and blue with a landscape design of rocks, shrubs,
flowering peony and dianthus pinks, and a pair of cocks,
one with brown, black and yellow plumage, the other with
white. The reverse is covered with ruby-pink glaze. The
design of one dish differs slightly from that of the other. On


13
the base is a ruby-pink medallion painted in white reserve
Kung ming fu kuei, hung fu cKi t'ien ("Riches and honour,
and abounding happiness reaching to Heaven !"), in lesser
seal script flanked by two dragons. Late 18th century.
D : 6.1m. (15.4cm.)
Compare with No. 858.
From the Morgan Collection. See Bushell, S. W., and
Laffan, W. M., Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of
Chinese Porcelain, p. 19, G. 13 and 14, and The Burlington
Magazine, 1906, IX, pp. 324 and 395.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2288.
848 BOTTLE OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With depressed pear-shaped body and tall, slightly tapering,
slender neck. Fine dead-white glassy porcelain painted in
cSfx famille rose enamels in "Ku yiieh" style with a rock, roses,
yellow orchids and grasses on the body of the vessel, and
on the neck with a poetical inscription of ten characters
in black and three seals in red enamel. The rendering of
this inscription has presented some difficulty, and the following
version was suggested by Dr. Lionel Giles:
"With morning's light the lovely moon has gone;
But every year we know that spring comes on."
The seal before the inscription reads chia li (beautiful) and
the two seals after it ssu shih (four seasons) and cKang cKun
(prolonged spring). On the base is written the four-character
mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) within a double
square in grey blue enamel. H : 5.5m. (14cm.)
From the Hippisley Collection, Catalogue No. 336, p. 407
and pi. 19. Here is given another and freer rendering of
the inscription.
See Jenyns, S., Later Chinese Porcelain, pi. LXXX (2).
849 BOTTLE OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
With depressed pear-shaped body and tall, slightly tapering,
slender neck. Dead-white glassy porcelain painted in famille
rose enamels in "Ku yxieh" style with a rock, roses, yellow
orchids and grasses on the body of the vessel, and on the neck
with a poetical inscription and three seals in red enamel,
one preceding the inscription chia li (beautiful), and two
following it, ssu shih (four seasons) and ch'ang cKun (prolonged
spring). On the base is pencilled the four-character mark
of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) within a double square
in blue enamel. H : 5.7m. (14.4cm.)
Note.This is a modern copy of No. 848, and is known to
have been made at Ching-te-chen some twenty years ago
from the illustration on pi. CLXX of P.D.C.
850 TWO WINE CUPS OF CHTEN-LUNG
& ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
851 With rounded sides and slightly everted lip. Semi-opaque
white glaze, finely and delicately decorated on the exterior
clxxiv in fam^e rose enamels, on one cup with two scroll-edged
(a) panels of landscape set in a ground of flowers naturalistically


14
rendered within scroll borders; on the other with two large
and two small scroll-edged panels with summer and winter
landscapes set in a green ground closely diapered with floral
scroll-work. Both have the four-character mark of the
Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) in blue enamel on their bases.
H : 1.7Sin. (4.3cm.)
From the Hippisley Collection, see Catalogue Nos. 326 and
327, p. 406, pi. 20.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2216.
852 VASE OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED GLASS *
Bottle-shaped with ovoid body and short tapering neck.
Thick semi-opaque glass decorated in mixed enamels in
clxxiv "Ku yueh" style with rockery and flowering peonies and a
(b) poetical inscription of ten characters in black with three
seals in red. The inscription, on the neck of the vase, consists
of two lines of five characters each and has been rendered:
"Its tender buds enclose golden pollen;
Its heavy flowers form embroidered bags."
The seal preceding the verse is chia li (beautiful), and the two
following are ssu shih (four seasons) and ch'ang ch'un (pro-
longed spring). On the base is incised and filled in with
blue enamel the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung
period (1736-95) within a double square. H : 3Bin. (9.1cm.)
See Bahr, A. W., Old Chinese Porcelain and Works of Art,
1912, pi. XXXIII and p. 74.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2217.
Note.The lines of the inscription are part of a verse
composed by Han Ts'ung, an obscure T'ang poet, on
the "Mou-tan (peony) before blooming".
The same poem and seals appear on a Yung-cheng bowl
decorated in "Ku yueh" style in the Peking Palace Museum.
(See Ku Kung, I. p. 19.)
853 WATER-POT OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED GLASS *
Of ovoid shape with flat base and narrow neck. Milk-white
opaque glass finely decorated in mixed enamels with various
emblems of longevity, including a twisted pine tree, a deer,
a crane standing on a rock, peonies and the ling-chih plant.
Round the mouth-rim is painted a ju-i head border and on
the narrow lip and round it five bats are delicately drawn
in pale iron-red enamel. On the base is incised and filled in
with blue enamel the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung
period (1736-95) within a double square. H : 2.3m. (5.8cm.)
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2215.
854 BRUSH BARREL OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
GLASS *
Of tall cylindrical form with flat base. Thick milky-white
opaque glass decorated in delicate mixed enamels in "Ku yueh"
style with a group of the seven sages; three of them are seated


and listening in reflective mood to the disquisition of a fourth,
an elderly bearded figure in a yellow robe who sits under a
pine-tree behind a cluster of lofty rocks. On the other side
of the vessel stands another bearded figure holding a twisted
crook and receiving peaches from a young man, while another
young man looks on, the whole scene being laid in a grassy
landscape under a clear blue sky. On the base is engraved
the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95)
within a double square, originally filled in with blue enamel.
H : 4in. (10.1 cm.)
From the Ezekiel Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., The Later Ceramic Wares of China,
p. 82.
For an analogous specimen, see Catalogue of the Hippisley
Collection, p. 406, pi. 20, No. 325, and Hobson, R. L., Chinese
Pottery and Porcelain, II, pi. 125, fig. 1.
855 BOWL OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides and slightly everted lip. Fine white
porcelain decorated in "Ku yiieh" style in famille rose enamels,
outside with sprays of convolvulus in a diapered ground of
blue enamel engraved in quatrefoil pattern, and inside with
a peony and rose spray on a plain white ground. On the
base is pencilled the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung
period (1736-95) within a double square in blue enamel.
D : 6.2in. (15.7cm.)
Compare with Nos. 856 and 857.
856 DISH OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped. Fine thin white porcelain, decorated in
famille rose enamels in "Ku yiieh" style. Inside is a delicately
drawn design of blossoming magnolia and peach spray together
with a poetical inscription of ten characters in brown with
three seals in red enamel. The verse has been rendered:
"Moving shadows follow the round moon.
The gentle breeze bears fragrance."
The seal preceding the inscription reads chia li (beautiful),
and the two following it ts'ui (blue-green, or kingfisher) and
p'u (spread wide, or shop). On the reverse appear four
lotus arabesques in similar colours over a ground of opaque
pale green enamel diapered with an engraved quatrefoil
pattern, the foot with a continuous scrolling design. On the
glazed base is written the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-
lung period (1736-95) within a double square in blue enamel.
D : 5.6m. (14.2cm.)
Compare with No. 857, which carries a variant of this
design, and P.D.C. pi. CLXXI.
DISH OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Saucer-shaped. Fine thin white porcelain decorated in famille
rose enamels in "Ku yiieh" style. Inside is a delicately drawn
design of blossoming magnolia and peach spray together with
a poetical inscription of ten characters in brown with three
857
PDC
clxxi


16
seals in red enamel. The verse has been rendered:
"Moving shadows follow the round moon.
The gentle breeze bears fragrance."
The seal preceding the inscription reads chia li (beautiful),
and the two following it hsia (clouds) and ying (reflection).
On the reverse of the dish appear four lotus arabesques in
similar colours over a ground of opaque pale green enamel
diapered with an engraved quatrefoil pattern, the foot with
a continuous scrolling design. On the glazed base is written
the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95)
within a double square in blue enamel. D : 5.6m. (14.2cm.)
Compare with No. 856, which carries a variant of this
design.
Illustrated by Jenyns, S., in Later Chinese Porcelain,
pi. LXXXIII.
858 VASE OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Bottle-shaped with globular body and tapering cylindrical
neck. Fine white eggshell porcelain with "chicken skin"
clxvii markings in the surface of the glaze. Painted in famille rose
enamels and brown with a rock, peony, magnolia, prunus and
other plants, and with three roosters, two in brown, black
and yellow and one in white plumage, with hen and chickens.
Over the lip is painted a bat in pink enamel, and on the base
within a ruby-pink medallion in white reserve appears Rung
ming fu kuei hung fu ch'i t'ien, "Riches and honour, and
abounding happiness reaching to Heaven," in "archaic"
script, flanked by two dragons. Late 18th century. H : 7m.
(17.7cm.)
See Nos. 846 & 847.
From the William Bennett, Clive Kendrick and McKinnon
Wood Collections.
Illustrated in A Collection of Rare and Old Chinese Porcelain,
collected by Sir William Bennett, K.C.V.O., and in Gorer
and Blacker, Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones, II, pi. 225.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2289.
859 DISH OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With wide mouth and rounded sides. Fine white porcelain
decorated in transparent famille verte enamels, iron-red and
gilding. Inside is a peach branch with leaves and one large
fruit with the character shou "longevity" in seal script painted
in gold. Outside there are two groups of Taoist fairies,
the first following a chariot which bears a dish with a basket
of peaches and ling-chih, the chariot drawn by a deer, while
members of the first group are shown carrying various Taoist
attributes and followed by another deer. A second group
following behind a crane includes a fairy carrying a gold double
gourd, from which emanates a long thin stream of vapour
with five bats (wu fu) a rebus for Wu Fu, The Five Blessings
longevity, riches, peacefulness and serenity, the love of
virtue, and an end crowning the life. In the spaces between
the two groups are small and large rocks and clumps of fungus,


17
and round the foot-rim are separated leaves, floral sprays
and butterflies. Early 18th century. D : 8.8m. (22.2cm.)
Compare with No. 863.
From the Reginald Cory Collection.
See' Hobson, R. L., The Later Ceramic Wares of China,
pi. LXVII, fig. 2, p. 89.
For a similar specimen see Hippisley, A. E., A Sketch of the
History of Ceramic Art in China, No. 27, and p. 375, pi. 1.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 1732.
860 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and flat base. Fine white
eggshell porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels, iron-red,
and brown with a landscape scene of rocks, blossoming tree-
peony, and asters, and three quails at rest on the grassy
sward; a wide diaper border surrounds the mouth-rim. The
reverse of the sides is covered with ruby-pink enamel. 18th
century. D : 7.8m. (19.7cm.)
From the Seed Collection.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2229.
861 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and flat base. Fine white
eggshell porcelain decorated inside in famille rose enamels
with a picture of family life. A tastefully attired lady sits
with crossed legs on a rectangular lacquered stool, holding
a peony in her left hand, her right resting on a case of books.
She looks down at her two boys, one of whom carries a jar
of blossoming peony, the other a branch of the lotus. A high
circular lacquer table, furnished with an ornamented bronze
beaker (ku) holding branches of the ling-chih and a white
feather duster behind a ch'i-lin, stands in the background,
as also two large ceramic jars on the left and a large jar and
cover on the righttraditional accessories of the cultured
Chinese interior. A narrow green diaper border, interrupted
by three floral panels, decorates the mouth-rim of the dish,
while its reverse is covered with ruby-pink enamel. 18th
century. D : 7.8m. (19.8cm.)
From the J. E. Taylor Collection.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2218.
862 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and flat base. Fine white
eggshell porcelain decorated inside in famille rose enamels
within a six-petalled central panel with a scene representing
part of the West Lake at Hangchou, a sampan getting under
way in the foreground, a scholar seated in the interior of its
reeded cabin and two boatmen pulling up the sail, while two


18
more push off the boat from the shore. Four other boats
appear in the background and a bridge in the middle distance,
while on the river banks there are huts, and pine and other
trees. Round this central design are two floral borders, one
pink, the other in green mosaic interrupted by three foliated
panels containing sprays of fruit and flowers. The reverse
of the sides of the dish is covered with ruby-pink glaze.
18th century. D : 7.9in. (20cm.)
Compare with Bushell, S. W., Oriental Ceramic Art, fig. 364
and text edition, pp. 896-7.
863 BOWL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With wide mouth and rounded sides. Fine white porcelain
decorated in transparent famille verte enamels and gold.
Inside is a peach branch with leaves and one large fruit, on
which is pencilled in gold the character shou "longevity"
in seal script. Outside there are three groups of Taoist
fairies with two attendants. One of the figures (Hsi Wang
Mu) is shown riding on a stork in flight, while another holds
a gilt double gourd, from which emanates a long thin stream
of vapour and five bats, emblematic of the five blessings; the
other figures carry baskets of peaches, ling-chih and similar
Taoist attributes. In the spaces between the groups appear
small and large rocks and clumps of fungus, and round the
base-rim are separated leaves, floral sprays, and butterflies.
Early 18th century. D : 8.8m. (22.7cm.)
Compare with No. 859.
864 WATER-POT OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
GLASS *
Of ovoid shape, with flat base and small contracted mouth.
Thick milky-white opaque glass decorated in delicate mixed
enamels in "Ku yueh" style with a scene of a young shepherd,
whose features are unmistakably European, tending a ram and
two ewes on a grassy sward within a group of lofty rocks, among
which grow plants and flowering trees. Under the base is
engraved the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period
(1736-95) originally filled in with blue enamel. H : 1.9m.
(4.8cm.)
From the Hippisley Collection, see Catalogue, p. 405, No. 324.
865 DISH OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and everted lip. Fine
white porcelain decorated on the reverse with a mille fleurs
design in famille rose enamels, the interior plain white. On
the base is written Ch'ing-i t'ang chih, "Made for the Ch'ing-i
Hall", within a double square in blue enamel. 18th century.
D : 6.5m. (16.6cm.)
For a similar specimen see Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese
Porcelain and Pottery, forming the Collection of Mr. Alfred
Trapnell, Bristol, 1901, pi. XXXVIII, No. 189.


19
866 WATER-POT OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of depressed globular form with rounded sides, incurving
mouth, and slightly sunk base. Fine thin white porcelain
delicately painted in .famille rose enamels, black, and brown
with an attractive naturalistic design of gnarled boughs of
the blossoming prunus tree. The interior and base are glazed
white, and on the latter there appears the pencilled four-
character mark I-yen chai ts'ang ("Treasure of the Bequeathed
Inkstone Pavilion") within a double square in blue enamel.
18th century. D : 3.3m. (8.3cm.)
From the Russell Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
fig. 353 and p. 200.
Compare Hobson, R. L., The Later Ceramic Wares, p. 83, and
pi. LXII, fig. 3, for a similar water-pot, now in the British
Museum.
867 PAIR OF BOTTLES OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
868 With pear-shaped body and slender neck swelling into a
six-lobed bulb below the lip. Fine white porcelain delicately
clxiii painted in mixed enamels in "Ku yueh" style with a design
(a) of rocks, rose peonies, birds and bamboo. On the neck is
a poetical inscription of two five-character verses in black
with two seals in red. The inscription has been rendered:
"A mass of beautiful colours, and the clear cold breeze
in all directions."
The seal preceding the verse is chia li (beautiful), and the one
following cKang ch'un (prolonged spring). On the bulb and
below the lip is a petal pattern in blue enamel, and on the
base is pencilled the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung
period (1736-95) likewise in blue enamel. H : 3.5m. (9cm.)
From the Reginald Cory Collection.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-35, Cat. No. 2279.
870
869 PAIR OF DISHES OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
^ Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and slightly incurving
foot. Fine white porcelain decorated outside in pale trans-
parent famille verte enamels on a greenish white ground with
an artistic design, which winds over the rim to ornament the
interior, of a berry-laden branch and four butterflies hovering
around and above it, details of the design differing slightly
on each dish. Under the base is written the six-character
mark of the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within a double
circle in underglaze blue. Early 18th century. D : 6.8in.
(17.2cm.)
871 VASE OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Bottle-shaped with rounded sides and straight cylindrical
neck. Fine white eggshell porcelain decorated on a white
clxvi glazed ground in famille rose enamels, brown, and black
with a blossoming spray of roses (rosa sinensis) with green
leaves and a butterfly, the whole most artistically rendered.


20
18th century. H : 5.6m. (14.2cm.)
From the G. R. Davies Collection, Catalogue, No. 31.
See Dexel, T., Die Formen Chinesischer Keramik, p. 66,
and pi. 79b.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2278.
872 PAIR OF BOWLS OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
Shallow with rounded sides, no foot-rim and sunk base.
Fine white porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels on a
white glazed ground with a scrolling branch of blossoming
lotus and a kingfisher, the design differing slightly on each
bowl. On the base is written the six-character mark of the
Yung-cheng period (1723-35) within a double rectangle in
underglaze blue. D : 3.7m. (9.4cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
874 BOWL OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides and everted lip. Fine white porcelain
decorated on a white glazed ground in famille rose enamels
in "Ku yueh" style with a vernal scene of apricot trees
in blossom, a willow, a pair of swallows (hsing liu ch'un
yen), and a poetical inscription of ten characters in black
with three seals in rose enamel. The inscription has been
rendered:
" 'Jade shears' dart through the flowers,
As a 'feather-gowned' with the moon returns."
"Jade shears" here refers to the scissor-shaped tails of the
swallows flying among the flowering apricot, which remind
the poet of a woman in a feather-gown returning home in
the moonlight. The seal preceding the verse reads chia li
(beautiful), and the two following it hsien ch'un (early spring)
and hsu ying (possibly a name). On the base is pencilled in
blue enamel the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung
period (1736-95) within a double square. D : 4.5m. (11.4cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2283.
Note.The pair to this bowl, described and illustrated by
Hobson, R. L., in Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
p. 200, and fig. 352, is in the Barbara Hutton Collection
(see Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition of that Collection
at the Honolulu Academy of Arts, Nov. 1956-Jan. 1957,
pi. XXV). The vase of this set appears in the Illustrated
Catalogue of Chinese Government Exhibits for the International
Exhibition of Chinese Art in London, II, No. 298. See
also Cat. No. 2156.
A similar, but larger bowl in the Wu Ying Tien is listed and
described by Yang Hsiao-ku in his Ku yueh hsiian tz'u k'ao.
875 WINE CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With straight spreading sides and narrow foot-rim. Fine
white porcelain decorated in transparent famille verte enamels


21
on one side with a landscape scene of Li T'ai-po gazing at the
Falls of Szechwan under a gold-tinted sun, a boy attendant
standing behind him; and on the other with a leaf and a seal
in iron-red enamel and gold reading lin chu, "Forest Abode".
In the bottom of the interior is painted a growing shrub of
the ling-chih and on the base the six-character mark of the
Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within a single circle in under-
glaze blue. Early 18th century. D : 2.75m. (6.9cm.)
Compare with No. 876.
From the Russell Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., The Later Ceramic Wares of China, p. 36,
and pi. LXII, fig. 1, and Jenyns, S., Later Chinese Porcelain,
pi. LXXXIV (lc.).
876 WINE CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With straight sides and narrow foot-rim. Fine white porcelain
decorated on the outside with a landscape scene in trans-
parent famille verte enamels. An official on a horse looks
over his shoulder as he rides away from a gnarled leafless
tree growing by a rock, while two bats fly overhead; in the
sky a gold-tinted sun. In the interior of the cup a squirrel
is shown looking up at a spray of fruiting vine, and on the
base is written the six-character mark of the Ch'eng-hua
period (1465-87) within a single circle in underglaze blue.
Early 18th century. D : 2.75m. (6.9cm.)
Compare with No. 875.
From the Russell Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
p. 189, fig. 341.
877 WINE CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides, small base and everted lip.
Fine white eggshell porcelain decorated in pale famille rose
enamels and iron-red with a design of a clump of bamboo,
dianthus pinks, and a bat flying across with the chi-ch'ing,
the jade emblem of good fortune, depending from a ribbon
in its mouth. On the other side are two butterflies with a
half stanza of verse pencilled in black and reading Ch'ing
chu ch'ien ch'iu, "Prayers for good fortune, and a thousand
harvests". A blossom and a bud of the fragrant jasmine
tree are painted in opaque white enamel inside at the
bottom of the cup, and the hall-mark Chih hsiu ts'ao
t'ang, "Thatched Hall of Sesamum Grasses", appears within
a double square in iron-red enamel. Ch'ien-lung period
(1736-95). D : 2.5in. (6.3cm.)
From the Bushell Collection.
See Bushell, S. W., Oriental Ceramic Art, fig. 78, p. 48,
and text edition pp. 85 and 833.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2222.
878 CUP OF YUNG-CHENG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides and small deep foot. Fine white eggshell
porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels, brown, and iron-


22
red, outside with a poppy and two sprays of blossoming peony,
inside with a lichee and fruit seeds, some of which are shaded
in brown. On the base is written the six-character mark
of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35) within a single circle in
underglaze blue. D : 3.6m. (9.1cm.)
Compare with No. 821, and for an analogous specimen,
see Hobson, R. L., The Later Ceramic Wares of China,
p. 73 and pi. LVII, fig. 2.
879 PAIR OF SAUCERS OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
& With slightly rounded sides and narrow foot-rim. Fine
880 white eggshell porcelain decorated in transparent famille
verte enamels with a fruiting branch of the peach tree, sym-
bolical of longevity, details of the design differing slightly
on each saucer. There is no mark on the glazed bases.
Early 18th century. D : 3.8m. (9.6cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
881 VASE OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of ovoid form with short neck and thickened mouth-rim.
Fine white porcelain with "chicken skin" glaze decorated
in pale famille rose enamels in "Ku yiieh" style with an
elegant figure of a shepherdess clad in Chinese attire with
European elements, and wearing a snood to which a peony
is attached. She holds in her right hand a small whip with
a spotted bamboo handle. Round her are two rams and three
sheep, the scene set in a landscape with rocks and rushes.
Two seal characters, reading "Seal of Ch'en" are written
in rose enamel on the body of the vase to the right of the
figure. The glazed base is unmarked. Ch'ien-lung period
(1736-95). H : 12.4m. (31.4cm.)
From the Reginald Cory Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., The Later Ceramic Wares of China,
pi. LXI and p. 83.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2232.
882 FLASK OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Of pilgrim vase form (pien hu) with flattened globular body,
small oval base, and two ribbon-form handles joining the
shoulders to the neck, which has a bulbous centre and contracts
to a small circular mouth. White porcelain covered with a
thick glassy-white glaze and decorated in famille verte enamels
on either side with an eight-petalled flower medallion outlined
in black on a seeded green ground. On this is depicted a
mythical four-footed animal amidst lotus blossoms within a
smaller medallion in the centre, bordered with a scattered
blossom design. The base of the neck is decorated on either
side with the "long life" character in seal form, while the
handles end on the shoulders in small ju-i heads, and the
mouth-rim has a palmate and ju-i head design, from which
tassels depend. The glazed base-rim is ringed with a line of
continuous Greek key pattern. There is no mark on the
white glazed base. H : 7.5in. (19cm.)
Note.For shape, compare with No. A822.


23
883 PAIR OF DISHES OF K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
884 With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain decorated in pale
transparent famille verte enamels with a landscape scene in
which appear Lan Ts'ai-ho carrying a hoe and an attendant
with a basket of flowers; scattered leaves, blossoms, and
butterflies decorate the flattened mouth-rim. Details of the
design on each saucer differ slightly. On the base is written the
six-character mark of the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722) within
a double circle in underglaze blue. D : 6in. (15.2cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
885 BOWL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides, slightly everted lip and deep foot. Fine
white porcelain decorated outside with separated trees and
boughs of fruit and flowers, and inside with a peony medallion
in late famille verte enamels. On the base is written the six-
character mark of the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within
a double circle in underglaze blue. Early 18th century.
D : 6.7in. (17cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
886 PAIR OF WINE CUPS OF K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN
887 Deep, with steep sides, everted lip, and small foot. Fine
white porcelain decorated inside in transparent famille verte
enamels with separated blossoming trees and plants in four
groups, representing the four seasons of the year, a single
circle in underglaze blue in the centre and a double circle
round the lip of the interior. The outside is plain except
for a similar double circle painted round the mouth and a
circle of three lines round the foot in underglaze blue. On
the base is written the six-character mark of the K'ang-hsi
period (1662-1722) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 3.2m. (8.1cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
888 BOWL OF CH'IEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides and small foot-rim. Fine thin white
porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels, iron-red, dark
brown, and black with a scene in which the ling-chih is shown
growing from the base of a blossoming gnarled prunus tree,
and a group of twenty magpies, four of them in flight, the
rest perched on the branches of a prunus tree. Inside there
are three bats painted in iron-red enamel, and on the base
the mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) in six seal char-
acters in underglaze blue. D : 4.3m. (10.9cm.)
889 CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Deep, tub-shaped (kang) with rounded sides, straight mouth,
no foot-rim and slightly recessed base. Fine white porcelain
decorated with flowering peonies in opaque pink, blue, green


24
and brownish-yellow "foreign" enamels, in a ground of
brilliant yellow; the interior creamy-white and undecorated.
On the base is written the four-character mark Yung-cheng
yii chih (Made by Imperial Order in the Yung-cheng period
1723-35) within a double square in raised blue enamel.
D : 2.5m. (6.4cm.)
Compare with Nos. 834, 837, A805 and A806.
From the Russell Collection.
For a discussion of the subject, see Russell, C. E., "A Series
of Ch'ing Bowls made by Imperial Order" in The Collector,
Vol. XI, No. 43-Dec. 1930, pp. 202-208, and Hobson, R. L.,
Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp. 193-199.
Note.This cup was enamelled, it is here suggested, in
one of the 27 official workshops (Tsao pan ctiu) in the
Forbidden City.
890 DISH OF K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted
in pale transparent famille verte enamels with two ladies,
one carrying a libation cup on a dish, the other, an attendant,
also carrying a dish on which rests an ewer painted with the
shou "longevity" character in seal form in iron-red. The
flattened rim has a brocade-pattern border in pale iron-red
and gold interrupted by four medallions containing the
seal characters Wan shou wu chiang "A myriad longevities
without ending !" On the base is written the six-character
mark of the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722) within a double
circle in underglaze blue. D : 9.9m. (25.1cm.)
Compare with Nos. 812, 891 and A836.
From the Elphinstone Collection.
Note.This dish probably formed part of the so-called
"Birthday Service".
891 DISH OF K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides and flattened mouth-rim with
thickened edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted
in pale transparent famille verte enamels with a naturalistic
design of a bird on a pendant fruiting bough, the flattened
rim with a brocade pattern border in pale iron-red and gold
interrupted by four medallions containing the seal characters
Wan shou wu chiang "A myriad longevities without ending !"
On the base is written the six-character mark of the K'ang-hsi
period (1662-1722) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 10in. (25.4cm.)
Compare with Nos. 812, 890 and A836.
From the Elphinstone Collection.
Compare Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private
Collections, p. 189 and colour plate No. 27.
Note.This dish probably formed part of the so-called
'Birthday Service".
892 WINE CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With straight spreading sides and narrow foot-rim. Fine
white porcelain decorated in transparent famille verte enamels


25
on one side with a hsien (immortal) carrying on his shoulder
a basket of flowers slung on a hoe and followed by a deer,
on the other with two bats and a gold-tinted sun amidst
clouds. In the bottom of the interior is painted a spray of
the flowering peony. On the base is written the six-
character mark of the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within a
single circle in underglaze blue. Early 18th century.
D : 2.75m. (6.9cm.)
Compare with No. 893.
From the Liddell and Elphinstone Collections.
893 WINE CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With straight spreading sides and narrow foot-rim. Fine
white porcelain decorated in transparent famille verte enamels.
On one side is a rocky landscape with a man riding on a mule
followed by an attendant carrying an umbrella, in the sky
a gold-tinted sun amidst clouds; on the other side of the
cup a square seal in iron-red. In the bottom of the interior
is painted a peach and the ling-chih, and on the base is written
the six-character mark of the Ch'eng-hua period within a
single circle in underglaze blue. Early 18th century.
D : 2.75m. (6.9cm.)
Compare with No. 892.
From the Liddell and Elphinstone Collections.
894 PAIR OF SAUCERS OF YUNG-CHENG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
895 With rounded sides and slightly incurving foot-rim. Fine
white porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels on a white
ground, inside with a blossoming bough of the prunus inter-
twined with sprays of the tree-peony, and with two hovering
butterflies, the design differing slightly on each saucer. The
outside is decorated with a scrolling conventional floral
design in famille rose enamels on a gilt ground. On the base
is written the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng period
(1723-35) within a double circle in underglaze blue. D : 4.5m.
(11.3cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2282.
896 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With steep straight sides and flat base. Fine white eggshell
porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels with two carp
swimming amongst water weeds. The outside is covered
with rose-pink enamel. There is no mark on the glazed
base. 18th century. D : 5.3in. (13.4cm.)
From the Liddell and Elphinstone Collections.
897 PAIR OF BOWLS OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
898 With rounded sides, everted lip and deep straight foot. Fine
white porcelain decorated outside in famille rose enamels
with a design which winds over the rim to ornament the
interior, of blossoming and fruiting sprays of bamboo and


26
"Buddha's-hand" citron and two butterflies, the details
differing slightly on each saucer. On the base is written
the mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) in six seal
characters in underglaze blue. D : 4.4m. (11.1cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
899 JAR OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of ovoid form with short neck and low straight foot. Fine
white eggshell porcelain covered with pale greenish-yellow
glaze with "orange-skin" surface and decorated in brown
enamel with three dragon-and-cloud medallions separated
by scattered blossoms. On the white glazed base is written
the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35)
within a double circle in underglaze blue. H : 3.3m. (8.4cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2212.
A800 PAIR OF RUBY-BACKED DISHES OF ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
A801 Saucer-shaped, with rounded sides and flat base. Fine
white eggshell porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels
with three cocks, one white and two yellow, an insect, rock,
asters, and peonies; a diaper border round the mouth-rim.
The outside is covered with ruby-pink enamel, and there is
no mark on the glazed base. 18th century. D : 7.8in.
(19.7 cm.)
For similar specimens, see Catalogue of the Morgan
Collection of Chinese Porcelain, 1904 (Vol. I), pis. XX and
XXV, p. 66, Nos. 395 and 396, and the later work under
the same title by Bushell and Laffan, 1910, pis. XX and
XXV, p. 83, Nos. 395 and 396, Williamson, G. C., The
Book of Famille Rose, pi. XXI, Honey, W. B., Guide to
the Later Chinese Porcelain (in the Victoria and Albert
Museum), p. 53 and pi. 89, and Jenyns, S., Later Chinese
Porcelain, p. 57 and pi. LIV.
A802 CUP AND SAUCER OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
a & b Cup with steep, slightly rounded sides and everted lip; saucer
with rounded sides, flat base, and narrow foot-rim. Fine
white eggshell porcelain decorated in thick famille rose enamels
on the outside of the cup and inside of the saucer with the
Arms of Holland, its motto Concordia res parvae crescunt,
and the V.O.C. of the Dutch East India Company with the
date "1728". Inside the rim of both cup and saucer there
is an ogee-patterned border, while the V.O.C. (Vereenigde
Oostindische Compagnie) monogram appears within a single
circle at the bottom of the cup. There is no mark on the
white glazed base of either cup or saucer. Early 18th century.
H : of cup 1.4m. (3.5cm.), D : of saucer 4.2m. (10.6cm.)
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II,
p. 213, Honey, W. B., Guide to the Later Chinese Porcelain
(in the Victoria and Albert Museum), p. 68 and pi. 110 (a),
and Williamson, G. C., The Book of Famille Rose, p. 133
and pi. XXXVII.


27
A803 VASE OF CAMEO GLASS *
Ovoid, contracting to a small mouth. Fine white semi-
opaque glass imitating porcelain overlaid with dark blue
glass which has been cut away in cameo fashion to present
a decorative design, emblematic of happiness and longevity,
of five bats in flight surrounded by the shou, "longevity",
character in seal form. This design is repeated on the
opposite side of the vase, the two motifs being separated
by ringed animal masks posed over a bat, the mouth and base
of the vase ringed with a border of continuous ju-i heads
and the foot with a line of blue. The ringed blue base
is white and unmarked. Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95).
H : 3.2m. (8.lew.)
Compare and contrast with No. A804, which forms a ceramic
counterpart to this class of ware.
A804 VERMILION BOX OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides moulded into five lobes. Fine white
porcelain imitating glass decorated with flower scrolls and
the shou, "longevity", character in seal form surrounded
by a border of bats and flowers in thick blue enamel. On
the base is written the four-character seal mark of the Ch'ien-
lung period (1736-95) in red enamel, the inside of the box
and its base being covered with opaque "foreign" green
enamel. D : 2.6m. (6.6cm.)
Compare and contrast with No. A803, a glass counterpart
to this type of ware.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 1743.
A805 BOWL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides and slightly everted lip. Fine white
porcelain decorated with a continuous peony scroll design
in opaque pink, blue, green, white and yellow "foreign"
enamels in a ground of deep rose; the interior white and
undecorated. On the base is written the four-character mark
Yung-cheng yu chih (Made by imperial order in the Yung-
cheng period1723-35) within a double square in underglaze
blue. D : 4.4m. (11.1cm.)
Compare with Nos. 834, 837, 889 and A806.
From the Elphinstone Collection.
For a discussion of the subject, see Russell, C. E., "A
Series of Ch'ing Bowls made by Imperial Order" in The
Collector, Vol. XI, No. 43Dec. 1930, pp. 202-208, and
Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
pp. 193-199.
Note.This bowl was enamelled, it is here suggested, in
one of the 27 official workshops (Tsao pan ch'u) in the
Forbidden City.
A806 BOWL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
With rounded sides and everted lip. Fine white porcelain
decorated with an intertwining peony scroll design in red,


28
blue, green, and orange-yellow "foreign" enamels in a ground
of yellow; the interior bluish white and undecorated. On
the base is written the four-character mark K'ang-hsi yu
chih (Made by imperial order in the K'ang-hsi period
1662-1722) within a double square in blue enamel. D : 4.5m.
(11.4cm.)
Compare with Nos. 834, 837, 889 and A805.
From the Elphinstone Collection.
For a discussion of the subject, see Russell, C. E., "A
Series of Ch'ing Bowls made by Imperial Order" in The
Collector, Vol. XI, No. 43Dec. 1930, pp. 202-208, and
Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
pp. 193-199.
For similar specimens, see Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese
Government Exhibits for the International Exhibition of
Chinese Art in London, Nanking, 1935, Vol. II, Nos. 198
and 199.
Note.This bowl was enamelled, it is here suggested,
in one of the 27 official workshops (Tsao pan ch'u) in the
Forbidden City.
A807 VASE OF CH'IEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Half-vase, for suspension in a sedan chair, rectangular in
section and with flattened back with three holes for hanging,
the neck fitted with two gilt-decorated dragon handles and
the base with a similarly decorated stand. Fine white
porcelain with clair-de-lune glaze decorated on the front
with a stylised floral design in famille rose enamels on a
scroll-work ground and enclosing a shaped panel, slightly
sunk, on which is written an imperial poetical inscription in
black followed by two seals, Ch'ien-lung ch'en han (The
Imperial Composition of Ch'ien-lung) and Wei-ching wei i
(Concentration and Single-mindedness) in iron-red on a white
ground. The back of the vase, with some twenty tiny spur
marks, is enamelled in clair-de-lune. On the base is written
the six-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95)
in a single horizontal line in underglaze blue on a white
ground, surrounded by an opaque green "foreign" enamel
which also covers the interior of the vase. H : 7.5in. (19cm.)
The inscription may be rendered:
''Kuan wares and those of Ju-chou are famous classes,
Yet the shapes of the new wares are even more admirable.
This hanging vase inspires the traveller to song,
And to the gathering of fragrant flowers by the wayside.
A sedan chair is indeed well-suited for its hanging,
As over its side wild flowers so aptly droop.
The red dust (of the mortal world) is barred from ingress,
But fragrance can penetrate the gauze of the window blind.
Composed by the Emperor in the Ch'ien-lung period and
inscribed By his order."
Note.This eight-line verse of five characters to the line,
here arranged in five lines of eight characters, was composed
by the Emperor Ch'ien-lung in 1742, and is the first on
the subject of ceramics so recorded. It appears in


29
Ch'ien-lung yii chih shih chi, Sec. I, ch. 11, f. 6, where it is
entitled: "On a Hanging Vase".
For the seals, Ch'ien-lung ch'en han and Wei ching wei i,
see Contag, V., and Wang, C. C., Maler- und Sammler-
Stempel aus der Ming- und Ch'ing-Zeit, p. 581, No. 2, and
p. 586, No. 80.
In a letter to Sir Percival David, Kuo Pao-ch'ang, who
had previously owned it, states that this vase was "specially
made" by T'ang Ying himself under Imperial Edict, and
may be distinguished from other vessels "customarily made"
for various palaces within the Forbidden City.
A808 DISH OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and deep foot. Fine
white porcelain delicately painted on the reverse with a
design of intertwining branches of blossoming prunus and
mallow in famille rose enamels and black in "Ku yiieh"
style followed by a poetical inscription of ten characters
with three seals in red in a ground of opaque green enamel;
the interior plain white. The verse has been rendered:
"Their simple dress and wide chequered shadows cling
together."
The seal preceding the inscription reads hsien ch'un (early
spring), and the two following yiieh ku (moon ancient) and
hsiang ch'ing (fragrance pure). On the white base is written
the four-character mark of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35)
within a double square in blue enamel. D : 6.75m. (17.1cm.)
From the Russell Collection.
See Yorke Hardy, S.,"Ku Yfieh HsuanA New Hypothesis"
in Oriental Art, II, No. 3, p. 118, and pi. 1, and Sekai
Toji Zenshu, Vol. 12, pi. 77.
A809 TEA-POT OF CH'IEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
With rounded body, slender curving spout, and rounded
handle, the cover with flattened globular knob. Fine thin white
glassy porcelain decorated in "Ku yiieh" style in famille rose
enamels, black, and brown on one side with rocks, shrubs,
flowering prunus, narcissus, bamboo and ling-chih, and on
the other with a distich of ten characters in black with
three seals in ruby-red enamel. The inscription has been
rendered:
"The few branches of kingfisher-green bamboo
Stretch themselves round the red railings during the night."
The seal preceding the verse reads chia li (beautiful), and
the two following yiieh ku (moon ancient) and hsiang ch'ing
(fragrance pure). The knobbed lid is similarly decorated with
rocks, bamboo, narcissus, and ling-chih. On the base is
written the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period
(1736-95) within a double square in blue enamel. D : A.Sin.
(11.4cm.)
From the Russell Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
pp. 199 and 200 and fig. 351; Jenyns, S., Later Chinese
Porcelain, pi. LXXV, 2, and Sekai Toji Zenshu,Vol. 12, pi. 80.


30
A810 DISH OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides. Fine white porcelain
decorated on the reverse in famille rose enamels and two
shades of brown with a design, which is continued onto the
interior, of a blossoming prunus tree with intertwining
branches and roses, bamboo leaves, and the ling-chih. On
the base is written the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng
period (1723-35) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 11.6m, (29.4cm.)
From the Elphinstone Collection.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2281.
A811 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With rounded sides and wide flattened mouth-rim. Fine
white eggshell porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels
and gold. In the centre is a leaf-shaped panel, surrounded
by a floral diaper and displayed upon a gold ground, with
a picture of family life, a tastefully attired lady of elegance
seated on a stool and looking down at her two small boys
who are playing beside her, one holding a lotus flower, the
other a gilded ju-i sceptre. Two large jars, one of crackled
ware, stand on the ground by the side of a marble-topped
lacquer table, which is furnished with the accessories of a
cultured Chinese interiora vase with peacock plumes and
a branch of the ling-chih, books, brushes, and a bronze chueh.
The slope of the dish is encircled by three borders, a band of
pink with dragon scrolls interrupted by medallions of floral
scrolls in blue between narrower diapered bands of green
and yellow ground. Upon this border is another pink diaper
studded with four dragon medallions and interrupted by
four trellis-bordered panels of white ground painted with
sprays of peony, aster, chrysanthemum, and rosa sinensis;
this is succeeded inside by a foliated diaper of pale lilac,
and outside by a gilded belt of lotus sprays encircling the
rim of the dish. The reverse of the rim is covered with ruby-
pink glaze and the white glazed base is unmarked. 18th
century. D : 8.3in. (21 cm.)
Compare Bushell, S. W., Oriental Ceramic Art, pi. X and
pp. 770-771 of the text edition; Gorer, E. and Blacker,
J. F., Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones, II, pi. 119, fig. 1,
and p. 223; Hobson, R. L., Chinese Pottery and Porcelain,
II, p. 211, pi. 119, and fig. 1; and Honey, W. B., Guide
to the Later Chinese Porcelain, p. 52 and pi. 88.
Note.This type of dish derives its popular Western
name of "Seven-bordered Plate" from the number of its
borders, the gold brocade design round the leaf-shaped
panel counting as one.
A812 PERFUME CASKET OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Pyramidal in form and square double-storied in section,
supported on four bulbous feet, with a domed cover and
flattened top. Fine white porcelain with a partly pierced
design of bamboo leaves within a conventional wave and


31
prunus border painted in pale famille verte enamels. The
flat top of the cover has a scroll-work reticulated design
surmounted by a square knob painted with a ch'i-lin in iron-
red and gold. The inside and the unmarked base are plain.
18th century. H : 7.7in. (19.5cm.)
From the Collection of Lord Kitchener.
For a similar specimen, see Grandidier, E., La Ceramique
Chinoise, pi. I, No. 1.
A813 CUP OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Of deep tazza shape with two partly gilt "cloud-scroll"
handles and gilt mouth-rim. Creamy white crackled hua
shih ware with "orange-skin" surface, decorated on the ex-
terior in famille rose enamels with figures of the Eight
Immortals in a landscape with rocks, pine trees, flowering
shrubs and a stream; a narrow volute gilt border above
the spreading foot-rim. There is no mark on the glazed
base. 18th century. H : 4.1m. (10.4cm.)
From the George R. Davies Collection, see Catalogue,
p. 14, No. 33.
See also Gulland, W. G., Chinese Porcelain, II, p. 395 and
fig. 682.
A814 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides. Fine white eggshell
porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels with a well-
balanced design of a singing bird on a branch of the flowering
magnolia, the outside covered with a ruby-pink glaze. There
is no mark on the white base. 18th century. D : 8in. (20.3cm.)
From the Russell Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
p. 192, fig. 345, and Jenyns, S., Later Chinese Porcelain,
pi. LII, 2.
A815 DISH OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides. Fine white eggshell
porcelain decorated in slip in the centre with two five-clawed
dragons in profile with the flaming pearl, and round the sides
with two similar dragons. At a later date the dish was
re-decorated in pale famille verte enamels and iron-red with
the figure of a scholar in official attire seated on a mound
beneath a blossoming prunus tree and watching the fall
of the flower petals to the ground. On the back of the dish
has been written a four-character seal in iron-red reading
Hsi hua chii shih (The Scholar who cherishes the flowers)
within a single square, followed by Wu chai ya wan (Elegant
Trinket for the Studio of Endeavour), concluding with a
third inscription in "lesser seal" script reading Hsi ch'un t'u
(Scene of the Regretful Passing of Spring), the last two
inscriptions in black enamel. D : l.lin. (19.5cm.)
Note.This interesting dish appears to have been of plain
white eggshell ware of late 15th or early 16th century
date re-decorated in enamels in the late 18th or in the
early years of the 19th century.


32
A816 PAIR OF BOTTLES OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
A817 With pear-shaped body and slender neck, two conventional
dragon handles, and flattened mouth-rim. Fine white glassy
porcelain delicately painted in mixed enamels in "Ku yueh"
style with a rock, roses, and other flowers, the designs differing
slightly on each bottle. On the neck is written a ten-
character poetical inscription in black with three seals in red
enamel, and on the base the four-character mark of the
Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) in pale blue enamel. H : 3.8m.
(9.6cm.)
The inscription, on A816, consisting of two lines of five
characters, has been read in translation:
"It is their purpose to hold fragrance,
And in due season to display their many colours."
The seals being chia li (beautiful) before, and ssu-chih (four
seasons) and ch'ang cWun (prolonged spring) after the in-
scription. That on A817, consisting of two five-character
lines of verse written in columns of seven and three characters,
has been rendered:
"Its tender buds enclose golden pollen,
Its heavy flowers will form embroidered bags."
being part of a verse on "The Mou-tan Peony before blooming"
by Han Ts'ung, an obscure T'ang poet. (Compare with
No. 852.) The seal before this inscription reads hsiang ho
(fragrance and harmony), and those after it Chin Ch'eng
and Hsu Ying, said to be the names of the painters. (See
Yin liu chai shuo tz'u, ch. 6, f. 2b.)
See Jenyns, S., Later Chinese Porcelain, pi. LXXX (1).
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2279.
A818 VASE OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Bottle-shaped with ovoid body and long tapering neck. Fine
white semi-eggshell porcelain decorated in brown and delicate
famille rose enamels (in the manner of a European 18th century
oil-painting) with a pastoral scene of two seated girls, one
leaning on a rock, the other holding a flower, a child at her
side in the foreground, with flowers, trees, rocks, and two
houses with sloping thatched roofs in the background. The
lower part of the neck is decorated with a cresting border in
pink enamel, and the lip is gilt. On the base is written the
four-character seal mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95)
within a double square in iron-red enamel. H : Sin. (20.3cm.)
From the Thompson McEwen and Martin Hurst Collections.
See Williamson, G. C., The Book of Famille Rose, p. 89,
and pi. XL, Antiques, Vol. XXIII, No. 5, May 1933,
"The Editor's Attic", pp. 163-164, and Vol. XXXII,
No. 4, Oct., 1937, Keyes, H. E., "The Ancient Moon
Pavilion", pp. 184-185 and fig. 4. See also, Jenyns, S.,
Later Chinese Porcelain, p. 93 (note 23).
Note.Said to have been brought from China some ninety
years ago by the late Mr. Thompson^ McEwen, a Times
correspondent in Peking, this vase "adorned his collection


33
in a remote island off the Scottish coast . After his
death his belongings were shipped to England but the
vessel was wrecked and many of his treasures went to the
bottom, this amongst the number. There it remained for
years, but was eventually salved."
Exhibited at the Dorchester Hotel Loan Exhibition, London,
May-June, 1931, Cat. No. 384.
A819 PAIR OF BOTTLES OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
A820 With pear-shaped body and slender neck swelling into a
six-lobed bulb below the lip. Fine white glassy porcelain
delicately painted in mixed enamels in "Ku yueh" style
with rocks, chrysanthemum and other flowers; each bottle
with a slightly differing design. On the neck is a ten-character
poetical inscription in black and three seals in red enamel.
The verse has been rendered:
"Elegance the autumnal branches reveal,
Wonderful are the blossoms in their various hues."
The seal preceding the inscription reads kao chih (lofty
demeanour), and the two following pi (bluish-green) and hsia
(red-tinged clouds). On the base is written the four-character
mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95) in pale blue enamel.
H : 3.55in. (9cm.)
Compare with Nos. 867 and 868.
For inscription and seals compare with No. 4876 in the
Grandidier Collection, Musee Guimet, Paris.
A821 DISH OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly slanting everted sides and scalloped lip. Fine
thin white porcelain decorated in famille verte enamels and
overglaze blue enhanced by gilding, inside in the centre with
a landscape containing the figures of the Triad of the Taoist
Cult, Fu, Lu, and Shou (The Three Star Gods of Happiness,
Rank, and Longevity) together with the crane and the stag,
the well-known familiars of the God of Longevity standing
beneath an overhanging pine tree; a wide famille noire border
with reserved panels of cranes in flight amid cloud bands
and deer under pine trees, separated by ju-i lappets and white
prunus blossons, surround this central theme. The underside
of the dish is painted with four sprays of bamboo pencilled in
brown. On the base is written the six-character mark of the
Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) within a double circle in under-
glaze blue. Late 17th century. D : 13.6m. (34.7cm.)
From the van Heukalom Collection.
A822 FLASK OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Of pilgrim-bottle form with flattened globular body, small
oval base, and two ribbed ribbon-form handles joining the
shoulders to the small circular mouth. White hua shih
ware covered with a creamy white crackled glaze and
decorated on either side in pale iron-red and gold with a design
of a confronting five-clawed dragon and pearl amidst clouds,
the sides of the flask with a prunus design on a brocade


34
ground, while its foot-rim is ringed with a narrow lozenge
border in famille verte enamels. There is no mark on the
glazed base. H : 7.4m. (18.8cm.)
A823 PAIR OF CUPS OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
A824 Deep, tub-shaped (kang) with rounded sides, straight mouth,
and slightly sunk base without a foot-rim. Fine white
porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels, on one side with
a rooster, hen, chickens, and the figure of the "Precocious
Chicken Boy" Chia Ch'ang (A.D. 713-811), stamping with
his foot to call them to their meal; rockery and mountain
peonies on the other and a long imperial poetical inscription
dated in the year 1776 in black followed by two Ch'ien-lung
seals in iron-red enamel. In the interior are two figures
of boys carrying sprays of flowers, and on the base the six
seal-character mark Ta Ch'ing Ch'ien-lung fang ku ("Imitation
of the Antique of the Ch'ien-lung period of the Great Ch'ing
Dynasty") in underglaze blue. D : 3.1m. (7.9cm.)
See Nos. A827 and A828.
See Ku Kung, XX, No. 19, where the cups are stated to
have been stored in the Tuan Ning Tien (Pei hsiao k'u),
and compare Illustrated Catalogue of the Chinese Government
Exhibits for the International Exhibition of Chinese Art in
London, II, No. 278.
Note.The decoration is slightly different on each cup.
The inscription has been translated by Bushell, S. W.,
Oriental Ceramic Art, text edition, pp. 49-51. For a
biographical notice of Chia Ch'ang, see Tung ch'eng lao
fu chiian by Ch'en Hung, in the T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi, ch. 485,
ff. la-4a. See also Yin liu chai shuo tz'u by Hsu Chih-heng,
ch. 6, f. 5b.
A825 TEA POT OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
With globular bod}', slender curving spout and rounded
handle. Fine white glassy porcelain, decorated in famille
rose enamels in "Ku yueh" style with lotus flowers and
crinkled leaves, with buds and seed pods, together with a
poetical inscription of ten characters in black and three
seals in red enamel. The lid bears a similar floral decoration,
while its flattened globular knob has the shou, "longevity",
character in seal script painted on it in rose enamel. On
the base of the vessel is written the four-character mark
of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35) within a double square in
blue enamel. (The mark has been abraded, but is visible in
reflected light.) H : 4.3m. (10.9cm.) The inscription has
been rendered:
"Pure as the virtue of the perfect man,
Harmonious as the strength of him who fulfills all his
duties to his fellow men."
The seal preceding the verse reads chia li (beautiful), and
the two following it Chin Ch'eng and Hsu Ying, said to be
the names of the decorators. (But see Yin liu chai shuo
tz'u ch. 6.)


35
From the Hippisley Collection, Catalogue, p. 406, No. 330.
See Jenyns, S., Later Chinese Porcelain, pi. LXXIV (1).
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2224.
Note.This tea-pot forms part of a set with the similarly
decorated cups, Nos. A826 a & b.
A826 PAIR OF CUPS OF YUNG-CHENG ENAMELLED
a & b PORCELAIN *
Tub-shaped, with rounded sides, raised centre and depressed
base without foot-rim. Fine white glassy porcelain decorated
in famille rose enamels in "Ku yiieh" style with lotus flowers
and crinkled leaves, and a poetical inscription of ten characters
and three seals in red enamel, the design differing slightly
on each cup. The verse has been rendered:
"Pure as the virtue of the perfect man,
Harmonious as the strength of him who fulfills all his
duties to his fellow men."
The seal preceding the verse reads chia li (beautiful), and
the two following it ch'ing hsiang (pure fragrance) and chun
tz'u (superior man). On the base is written the four-character
mark of the Yung-cheng period (1723-35) in blue enamel.
D : 2.Sin. (6.3cm.)
Compare with No. A825, with which these cups form a set.
From the Hippisley Collection, Catalogue No. 332, pp. 406-7
and pi. 18.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2224.
A827 PAIR OF CUPS OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN
A828 Deep, tub-shaped (kang) with rounded sides, straight mouth,
and slightly sunk base without foot-rim. Fine white porcelain
decorated in famille rose enamels on one side with a rooster,
hen, chickens, and the figure of the "Precocious Chicken
Boy" Chia Ch'ang (A.D. 713-811), stamping with his foot
to call them to their meal, and a long imperial poetical in-
scription dated in the year 1776 in black followed by two
Ch'ien-lung seals in iron-red enamel. On the base is written
the six seal-character mark Ta Ch'ing Ch'ien-lung fang ku
("Imitation of the Antique of the Ch'ien-lung period of the
Great Ch'ing Dynasty") in underglaze blue. D : 2.75m. (6.8cm.)
See Nos. A823 and A824.
A829 PAIR OF VASES OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
& PORCELAIN *
A830 With ovoid body, high shoulders with three raised nipples
in oval form, and short neck. Fine white glassy porcelain
decorated in famille rose enamels in "Ku Yiieh" style with
rocks, bamboo, and roses, and a poetical inscription of ten
characters in black and three seals in red enamel; the design
differing slightly on each vase. The verse has been rendered:
"[The bamboo's] many branches are lustrous and fair of form.
All four of the seasons are as spring to them."


36
The seal preceding the inscription reads chia li (beautiful),
and the two following ssti shih (four seasons) and ch'ang
ch'un (prolonged spring). On the base of each vase is written
the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95)
within a double square in blue enamel. H : 6.7m. (17cm.)
No. A830 was shown at the International Exhibition of
Chinese Art, London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2280.
A831 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides and flat base. Fine white
eggshell porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels in the
centre with a phoenix standing on a rock; peonies, asters, and
other flowers, and three rows of diaper borders, the second
of these interrupted by three shaped panels containing floral
sprays. The back is covered with ruby-pink enamel and
there is no mark on the glazed base. 18th century. D : 7.7m.
(19.5cm.)
A832 DISH OF RUBY-BACKED ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides. Fine white eggshell
porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels with blossoming
sprays of poppy and crowfoot. The back is covered with
ruby-pink enamel. On the base is written Yu hsin-ch'ou
nien chih (Made in the hsin-ch'ou year recurring, i.e., 1721)
within a double circle in underglaze blue. D : §.\in. (15.1 cm.)
See Franks, A. W., Catalogue of a Collection of Oriental
Porcelain and Pottery, p. 59, No. 441, Bushell, S. W.,
"Chinese Eggshell Porcelain with Marks from the Collection
of the late Hon. Sir Robert Meade" in The Burlington
Magazine, Vol. IX (Sept. 1906), pp. 393-4, Hobson, R. L.,
Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II, p. 213, and Jenyns, S.,
Later Chinese Porcelain, p. 35, pi. LIX (2) for a bowl in
the British Museum with a similar mark.
A833 TEA-POT OF CHTEN-LUNG ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN *
With rounded body and slender spout and handle. Fine
white glassy porcelain, decorated in mixed enamels in "Ku
yiieh" style with a rock, peonies, kao-liang, and geese, and
a fourteen-character poetical inscription in black and three
seals in red enamel. The domed lid is decorated outside
with four flying geese and inside with two. The verse has
been rendered:
"On the rivers and lakes, in the middle of autumn, the
birds drink and peck.
They fly and they screech as the wind whistles through
the reeds."
The seal preceding the verse reads jen ho (benevolence and
. harmony) and the two following it ssu-fang (the Four Quarters)
and ch'ing ching (clear landscape). On the base is pencilled
the four-character mark of the Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95)
within a double square in blue enamel. H : 5.\in. (12.9cm.)


37
A834 VASE OF ENAMELLED GLASS *
Bottle-shaped with depressed globular body and long straight
tubular neck. Milky-white glass decorated in mixed enamels
with a rock, flowering begonia and iris, and a dragonfly in
flight. On the neck is a seven-character poetical inscription
in black, and two seals in red enamel. Round the mouth
is a delicately drawn volute border with pendant leaves in
black on a yellow ground. The verse has been rendered:
"Dew is fragrant in the middle of autumn."
The seal preceding the inscription reads kao chih (lofty
demeanour) and the square seal following it ch'iu shih (autumn
scholar). On the base is incised and covered in blue enamel
the seal Ch'un-shan t'ang chih (Made for the Hall of Pure
Goodness). 18th century. H : 3.8in. (9.6cm.)
For decoration, inscription, and seals compare with No. 845.
Exhibited at the International Exhibition of Chinese Art,
London, 1935-36, Cat. No. 2209.
Note.The term "autumn scholar" has been explained as
a scholar whose talent has been recognised late in life.
A835 SET OF TWELVE CUPS AND SAUCERS OF
a-1 ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Cups, with rounded sides, small foot and everted lip. Fine
white eggshell porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels,
outside and below a shaped gilt border, with a rooster standing
on a rock beside a clump of peonies, and two seals of the artist
Pai-shih shan jen (Hermit of the White Rock). In the centre
is a single peony spray, and a green enamel diaper border
surrounds the mouth-rim. The glazed base is unmarked.
D : 2.8in. (7 cm,)
Saucers, shallow with rounded sides and flat base. Fine
white eggshell porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels
within a leaf-shaped gilt panel with a rooster standing on a
rock; peonies, a green diaper border, and the mark of the
artist Pai-shih shan jen in two similar seals. The reverse
is undecorated and the glazed base unmarked. Ch'ien-lung
period (1736-95). D : 4.5m. (11.4cm.)
Compare Jacquemart, A. and Le Blant, E., Histoire de
la Porcelaine, pi. VIII, fig. 3, Bushell, S. W., Chinese Art,
II, p. 40 and fig. 61, The Burlington Magazine, Vol. IX
(Sept. 1906), p. 395, and Hobson, R. L., Chinese Pottery
and Porcelain, II, pp. 211 and 212.
Note.The cyclical year chia chen on a saucer similar to
those of this set recorded and illustrated by Jacquemart
refers in all probability to the year 1724, as has been argued
by Bushell and Hobson. The artist of the original design
was no doubt a native of Canton, and the date refers in
all probability to the execution of his painting, not to that
of the saucer.
A836 DISH OF K'ANG-HSI ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
With slightly rounded sides, and flattened mouth-rim with
thick edge. Fine thin white porcelain delicately painted
in pale transparent famille verte enamels with a river scene


38
in the foreground with two swimming ducks and a wagtail
standing on a partly submerged rock, and in the middle
distance six other similar birds standing, flying, or perched
on millet stems. The flattened rim is painted in pale iron-
red and gold with a brocade pattern border interrupted by
four medallions containing the seal characters Wan shou wu
chiang, "A myriad longevities without ending". On the
base is written the six-character mark of the K'ang-hsi period
(1662-1722) within a double circle in underglaze blue.
D : 9.9m. (25.1cm.)
Compare with Nos. 812, 890 and 891.
Note.Like the others referred to, this dish doubtless
formed part of the so-called "Birthday Service".
A837 WRITER'S TABLE SCREEN OF ENAMELLED
PORCELAIN
Rectangular, and narrow in section. Fine, greyish-white
porcelain delicately painted on either side in famille rose
enamels in a slightly sunk panel. On one a lakeside scene
with two human figures on a bridge, huts, lofty crags, rocks,
pine, and other trees and plants in the foreground and a
mountain in the distance. On the reverse two long-tailed
birds perch on the branch of a fruiting peach tree growing
from beside a rock. The panels are framed by a narrow
raised border painted to resemble marble, beyond which is
a wide flat one decorated with a design of ch'ih dragons
in underglaze blue in a ground of formalized lotus scrolls,
and with the shou, "longevity", character in seal form in
the centre. The rounded base and lower portion of the rim
of the two upright sides are unglazed. There is no mark.
L : 7.4m. (18.7cm.) D : 6m. (15.2cm.)
A838 BOWL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
With rounded sides and everted lip. Fine white porcelain
decorated on the outside in grey and black on a mottled
canary yellow ground with blossoming tree peony and wisteria,
a magpie perched on one of the branches; the interior of the
bowl glazed plain white. On its outer surface, near the rim,
appears the hall-mark Ta ya chai (The Studio of the Greater
Odes) in iron-red, and near it, in a small oval panel framed
by two dragons, the motto T'ien-ti i-chia ch'un (Spring-time
on Heaven and EarthOne Family). On the base in iron-
red enamel is the mark Yung ch'ing ch'ang ch'un (Eternal
Prosperity and Enduring Spring). Late 19th century.
D : 4.9in. (12.4cm.)
See Bushell, S. W., Oriental Ceramic Art, text edition,
pp. 81-82, and Jenyns, S., Later Chinese Porcelain, p. 96
and pi. CXV (1).
Note.This bowl is of interest inasmuch as it formed part
of a dinner service made for the Empress Dowager, Tz'u
Hsi. For this order bowls and saucer-dishes of the Ch'ien-
lung period are said to have been sent down to Ching-te-
chen from the Imperial Palace in Peking to serve as patterns.
Ta ya chai was the name of one of the later pavilions in


39
the Ch'ang ch'un kung (The Palace of Enduring Spring),
at the western end of the Forbidden City, where the
Empress Dowager used to reside. (Ta ya is the title of
Part III of the Shih ching, "The Greater Odes of the
Kingdom", as translated by Legge.) The propitious mark
under the base of the bowl, as well as the subject of its
decoration point to the season of spring, with its promise
of prosperity, of which season the wisteria is recognised
in China as a floral emblem.
A839 DISH OF YUNG-CHENG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides. White porcelain enamelled
in mixed colours on the back of the dish with a clump of
the ling-chih with its scrolled head of diverse colours and with
branches of the blossoming prunus (met hud) mingled with
sprays of pomegranate (shih-liu), from which twigs wind over
the rim to ornament the interior of the dish. On the base is
written the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng period
(1723-35) within a double circle in underglaze blue. D : 20m.
(50.7 cm.)
For a similar specimen, see Bushell, S. W., Oriental Ceramic
Art, pi. XLVIII, and text- edition, pp. 360 and 787-88.
A840 DISH OF YUNG-CHfiNG ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Saucer-shaped with rounded sides. White porcelain decorated
in famille rose enamels and iron-red with a fruiting peach
(t'ao) painted in two shades of brown, intertwined with the tree
peony and prunus. The underside of the dish is decorated with
the peach tree and its three fruits, and the peony and prunus
with their white and pink flowers respectively, as well as with
three bats in flight in iron-red. The branches wind over the
rim of the dish to decorate its interior. On the base is
written the six-character mark of the Yung-cheng period
(1723-35) within a double circle in underglaze blue. D : 20m.
(50.7cm.)
For a similar specimen, obtained from the sack of the Summer
Palace in Peking, see Honey, W. B., Guide to the Later
Chinese Porcelain, pp. 54, 81 and pi. 91.
A841 VASE OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN
Tall slender oviform body with "trumpet" neck. Fine
white porcelain decorated in famille rose enamels and iron-red
with a golden pheasant standing on a rock on one foot and
gazing down at a quail likewise on a rock and flanked by
flowering peonies, lilies, asters, and other plants and two
butterflies hovering above and to the left of the birds. On
the base is written the four-character mark of the Yung-
cheng period (1723-35) in underglaze blue. H : 9.2in. (23.3cm.)
From the Russell Collection.
See Hobson, R. L., Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections,
p. 199 and colour plate 31, and Jenyns, S., Later Chinese
Porcelain, p. XLIX c.


40
A842 BRUSH BARREL OF ENAMELLED PORCELAIN *
Of cylindrical form with straight sides and flat base. Fine
white porcelain decorated in famille verte enamels and over-
glaze blue with a garden scene with terrace, rock and pine
tree, and the Taoist Triad, Fu, Lu, and Shou, the Three
Star Gods of Happiness, Rank and Longevity, examining
a scroll extended between them. Beside them stands an
attendant (perhaps Tung-fang So) holding a staff to the carved
head of which is attached a double-gourd, ling-chih, and a
ju-i sceptre, emblems of happiness and longevity. On one
side, on a rectangular table rest a beaker-shaped vase (ku),
holding a sprig of the ling-chih, and a Chinese book, traditional
attributes of culture and so of official rank in China, and to
the right of the pine tree is a leaf in green and a seal in iron-
red enamel. On the glazed base is a wide unglazed ring
enclosing a glazed sunken disc. Early 18th century. H : 5.1m.
(13cm.)
Elphinstone Gift.


Plate I
No. 815 D: 6-8 inches
No. 807 D: 6-8 inches
I J: 6-8 inched
No. 81'2 D: 10 inches
No. 803 D: 8 inches


Plate II


Plate III


Plate IV


Plate V
No. 826 //: 4 6 inches
No. 829 H 5 7 inches
No. 827 J): 4-9 inches
No. 828 />: 4 -9
No. 830 DrTTtHck£s
No. 831 I) 8-1 inches
No. 832 I) 3-1 i'mc/h-a


Plate VI
-v.y.v


Plate VII
No. 845 //: 8-8 inches
No. 848 //: 5-5 inches
No. 851 WTlSlnche
No. 854 //: 4 inches
No. 858 A/: 'J-8 /m/m


Plate VIII


Plate IX
No. 885 I): (5-5 inches
No. 863 I): 8-8 inches
\'n. 8(57 U 8-5 inches


Plate X
No. 874 D: 4inches
No 872 />: 8-7 inchcs
No. 878 /): 'J 75 untav
No. 875 2-75 incha
No. 878 D:'AS inches
No .881 //; 12-4 ic//,


Plate XI
No. 890 D: 9-9 inches
No. 891 I): 10 inch,
No. 893 2-75 /m7i No. 888 I): 4-3 inches
No. 885 /): <5-7 inches

No. 890 />. 5-3


Plate XII
No. A801 I> 7-8 inches

No. A804 />: 2-8 inches
No. A808 //.' 3-2 inchcs


Plate XIII


Plate XIV


Plate XV
Mhu & .* *f *
MMfi* t*.*<-*H
* xiiXR
i t ********,
P *t * ft A 4 JL *
No. A824 I): 8-1


Plate XVI




. \;
v -
'
V





' \
I
S-,









1
I
. <' r '

y

I



""v.
C -



-V
4'




Full Text

PAGE 1

UNIVERSIT Y O F LONDO N PERCIVA L DAVI D FOUNDATIO N O F CHINES E AR T SCHOO L O F ORIENTA L AN D AFRICA N STUDIE S 53 Gordo n Square London W.C. I ILLUSTRATE D CATALOGU E O F CH'lN G ENAMELLE D WARE S i n the PERCIVA L DAVI D FOUNDATIO N O F CHINES E AR T by LAD Y DAVI D Curator Sectio n 2 1958 16696 7

PAGE 4

82 4 Flas k o f Yung-chen g Enamelle d Porcelai n H. 11-6 inches

PAGE 5

UNIVERSIT Y O F LONDO N PERCIVA L DAVI D FOUNDATIO N O F CHINES E AR T SCHOO L O F ORIENTA L AN D AFRICA N STUDIE S 53 Gordo n Square London W.C. I ILLUSTRATE D CATALOGU E O F CH'IN G ENAMELLE D WARE S in the PERCIVA L DAVI D FOUNDATIO N O F CHINES E AR T by LAD Y DAVI D Curator Sectio n 2 195 8

PAGE 6

PUBLISHE D B Y TH E SCHOO L O F ORIENTA L AN D AFRICA N STUDIE S

PAGE 7

FOREWOR D S INC E th e publicatio n o f th e firs t sectio n o f th e Catalogu e o f th e Perciva l Davi d Collection th e Foundatio n an d it s content s hav e becom e muc h mor e widel y known Th e appearanc e o f th e secon d sectio n ha s bee n unavoidabl y delayed bu t i n th e meantim e a shor t illustrate d Guid e t o th e whol e collectio n ha s bee n produce d b y th e Curator Lad y David formerl y Mis s Sheil a York e Hardy Thi s wa s urgentl y neede d b y visitor s t o th e galleries an d ha s -bee n muc h appreciated I shoul d lik e t o expres s th e thank s o f al l concerne d fo r th e unstinte d hel p an d advic e give n b y Si r Perciva l Davi d t o th e Curato r fro m hi s uniqu e fun d o f knowledg e an d experience S HOWAR D HANSFORD Head of the Foundation. March 1958

PAGE 8

N 1 Plf t • 0 S O 9 19 0 20 0 3 0 0 K g (METRES ) Pla n o f th e Forbidde n City Peking

PAGE 9

V INTRODUCTIO N T HI S Catalogue th e secon d o f it s serie s b y th e presen t writer i s a recor d o f th e enamelle d Ch'in g porcelai n an d glas s displaye d o n th e groun d floor o f th e Perciva l Davi d Foundatio n o f Chines e Art I t doe s not however includ e th e fe w piece s o f enamelle d Ch'in g war e show n o n th e secon d floor an d place d ther e especiall y i n orde r t o affor d th e studen t a n opportunit y o f viewin g the m togethe r wit h similarl y decorate d Ming-marke d objects Th e sectio n her e discusse d ha s certai n interestin g feature s whic h ma y no t com e readil y t o th e visitor' s notice I t consist s o f relativel y smal l object s o f a delicat e an d refine d typ e no t t o b e seen a t leas t i n an y number i n publi c o r privat e collection s i n thi s country W e d o no t hav e an y larg e specimen s o f th e splendi d famille verte, famille jaune o r famille noire wares wit h thei r robus t an d emphati c colourin g an d energ y o f design tha t for m s o conspicuou s a featur e o f th e Saltin g Collectio n i n th e Victori a an d Alber t Museum Th e omissio n o f suc h piece s her e i s deliberate I n formin g hi s collectio n Si r Perciva l Davi d avoided a s fa r a s h e fel t h e should th e duplicatio n o f wha t coul d b e see n t o grea t advantag e i n London Fo r thi s reaso n ou r Ch'in g enamelle d ware s ten d t o illustrate rather on e o r tw o o f th e mor e neglecte d aspect s o f thes e ware s i n England an d indee d i n mos t o f th e Europea n an d America n collections Thus w e hav e her e wha t i s considere d t o b e th e larges t an d mos t instructiv e assemblag e o f "K u Yiieh ware s i n th e West Ou r collectio n include s n o les s tha n thirty-on e specimen s o f th e rar e "K u Yiieh porcelai n an d glass a numbe r fa r i n exces s o f thos e i n an y othe r Europea n o r America n collection an d fo r tha t reaso n fa r mor e instructiv e i n it s particula r field Th e Perciva l Davi d Collectio n wa s forme d o n th e line s o f th e famou s cerami c collectio n o f th e grea t Ch'in g Emperor Ch'ien-lung A goo d par t o f thi s use d t o b e house d an d show n i n th e Ch'in g Yan g Kung 1 o f th e Ol d Palac e Museu m i n Peking bu t i s no w i n storag e a t T'ai-chun g i n Centra l Formosa There a s I appreciate d o n th e occasio n o f a recen t visit i s a n assemblag e o f ceramic s muc h finer an d greate r i n extent o f course tha n ours thoug h largel y o f th e sam e characte r an d quality s o tha t wher e w e hav e tw o o r thre e specimen s o f a particula r type i n th e K u Kun g Collectio n a t T'ai-chun g ther e ma y b e twent y o r thirty Bu t ou r porcelain s are I ca n testify ver y muc h i n thi s imperia l taste bot h collection s havin g bee n mad e i n th e classica l traditio n o f Chines e scholarshi p an d connoisseurship Th e reade r wil l notic e tha t som e o f th e item s describe d i n thi s Catalogu e ar e state d t o hav e emanate d fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Suc h piece s wer e acquire d b y Si r Perciva l Davi d fro m hi s ol d friend th e lat e Hon Mountstuar t Elphinstone i n 193 2 an d 1933 an d shoul d b e distinguishe d fro m other s generousl y presente d t o th e Foundatio n b y Mr Elphinston e himsel f i n 1952 thes e bein g designate d "Elphinston e Gift i n th e Catalogue 1 Se e pla n opposite Sit e 5

PAGE 10

Hsuan-yeh th e secon d Empero r o f th e Ch'in g Dynasty wa s bor n i n 165 4 an d die d i n 1722 havin g rule d ove r Chin a fro m 166 2 t o 172 2 — a complet e cycl e o f 6 0 years—unde r th e reign-titl e o f K'ang-hsi Nominate d t o th e successio n b y hi s fathe r Shun-chi h a s h e la y dying K'ang-hs i wa s onl y eigh t year s o f ag e whe n h e wa s proclaime d Emperor Fo r th e nex t si x year s th e contro l o f hi s bu t latel y subjugate d dominio n wa s veste d i n th e hand s o f fou r regents Afte r 1667 however K'ang-hsi a mer e la d o f 13 too k charg e o f it s administratio n and ofte n agains t th e advic e o f thes e me n an d othe r hig h official s o f th e Court adopte d certai n unconventiona l policie s which i n th e event prove d full y justified reflectin g unusua l courage wisdom an d foresigh t i n a rule r s o youthfu l an d inexperienced Bol d an d resolut e agains t hi s enemies th e supporter s o f th e wanin g Min g cause bu t toleran t an d conciliator y t o thos e wh o ha d tendere d thei r submissio n t o th e Manch u regime K'ang-hs i governe d hi s empir e i n a jus t an d enlightene d manner s o tha t i t flourished greatl y durin g hi s lon g reign hi s peopl e enjoyin g t o th e ful l th e fruit s o f peace o f hones t administration an d o f a signa l advancemen t i n Wester n learnin g fo r whic h th e Empero r wa s i n grea t measur e personall y responsible Earl y i n hi s reign K'ang-hs i foun d himsel f constraine d t o dea l drasticall y wit h th e cause s o f a numbe r o f unexpecte d nationa l tribulations Hi s firs t preoccupatio n wa s wit h on e o f hi s forme r regents A o Pa i (Manchu Oboi ) wh o continue d t o exercis e considerabl e influenc e a t Court I n 166 9 A o Pa i wa s arreste d an d imprisone d b y imperia l orders an d hi s follower s severel y punished Fiv e year s later W u San-kuei th e Vicero y o f Yunnan suddenl y thre w of f hi s feigne d allegianc e t o th e Manch u regim e an d declare d himself first, th e founde r o f a ne w dynasty an d whe n thi s attemp t failed a supporte r o f th e Min g cause Stylin g himsel f Commander-in-Chie f o f th e Min g militar y forces h e le d hi s follower s i n a savag e onslaugh t o n th e Manchu hel d provinc e o f Kiangsi i n th e cours e o f whic h th e grea t Imperia l Porcelai n Factor y a t Ching-te-che n wa s burn t t o th e ground I t wa s no t unti l th e sprin g o f 168 1 that thi s rebellio n havin g bee n sup presse d an d W u San-kue i captured trie d fo r treason an d executed Kiangs i Provinc e wa s reporte d t o th e Palac e t o b e entirel y pacified I n Septembe r o f tha t yea r a n imperia l decre e wa s issue d ordering fo r th e firs t tim e sinc e th e destructio n o f th e factory th e suppl y o f a larg e quantit y o f porcelai n utensil s an d othe r object s fo r th e Palace A Boar d o f Commissioners selecte d fro m a departmen t o f th e Imperia l Household th e so-calle d Nei Wu Fu, 2 wa s sen t t o Ching-te-che n t o superinten d th e carryin g ou t o f th e order "Previousl y t o this" t o quot e Bushell "th e first-class workme n ha d bee n levie d fro m th e differen t district s o f Jao-chou ; bu t no w al l thi s wa s stopped an d a s eac h manufactor y wa s started th e artisan s wer e collecte d an d th e material s provided th e expense s bein g defraye d fro m th e imperia l excheque r an d th e mone y pai d whe n due i n accordanc e wit h th e marke t prices." 3 Bu t thi s Commissio n prove d unsatisfactor y an d wa s replace d i n 168 3 b y anothe r unde r th e chairmanshi p o f Tsan g Ying-hsiian Secretar y o f th e Imperia l Parks Departmen t o f th e Boar d o f Works wh o arrive d i n Ching-te-che n i n tha t year 2 Se e Pla n o f th e Forbidde n City Sit e 2 3 Description of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, being a translation of the T'ao shuo, p 3

PAGE 11

vi i I n th e meanwhile anothe r industria l projec t o f th e youn g Empero r wa s bein g pu t int o effect Enthusiasti c patro n o f th e nativ e art s an d industr y a s wel l a s o f Wester n science K'ang-hs i conceive d th e ide a o f constructin g withi n th e limit s o f th e Forbidde n Cit y a serie s o f workshop s i n whic h man y o f th e handicraft s o f hi s country aide d b y th e lates t invention s whic h ha d the n bee n brough t t o Chin a b y Wester n missionaries coul d b e practised I t wa s no t lon g befor e thi s ide a wa s translate d int o reality Fo r it s accomplishmen t Fathe r Ferdinan d Verbies t (1623-88) on e o f th e mos t activ e o f th e Jesui t missionarie s a t th e Imperia l Court wa s calle d i n fo r advice an d b y 168 0 a t leas t 2 7 (som e authoritie s sa y 30 ) differen t workshops manne d b y exper t craftsme n draw n fro m al l part s o f th e Empir e a s wel l a s fro m amongs t th e Wester n missionaries wer e alread y operating Thei r wor k include d th e establishmen t o f meta l foundries glas s works an d a cloc k an d watc h manufactory an d th e fabricatio n o f cloisonn e enamels object s i n jade gold filigree lacquer an d ivory woo d carving chisellin g o f movabl e type map-making joinin g an d carpentry Th e complet e lis t o f craft s a s detaile d b y Bushell nee d no t her e b e repeated. 4 Hi s lis t o f th e activitie s o f thi s Burea u o f Works th e so-calle d Tsao-pan Ch'u, 5 agree s substantiall y wit h tha t give n i n Chapte r 91 7 o f th e Ch'in ting ta Ch'ing hui tien shih It. 6 Th e mai n offic e o f th e Burea u wa s house d i n th e buildin g indicate d o n th e pla n o f th e Forbidde n Cit y her e reproduced an d stoo d almos t directl y sout h o f th e Yang hsi n Tien, 7 th e larg e palac e where a s reader s o f Sectio n I o f m y Catalogu e wil l recall th e Empero r Ch'ien-lun g live d an d slep t an d grante d audience an d where too T'an g Ying th e grea t 18t h centur y ceramist worke d a s a pag e an d attendan t fo r ove r twent y years Meanwhile certai n workshop s o f th e Bureau fo r whic h accommodatio n coul d no t apparentl y b e foun d i n th e Forbidde n City ha d t o b e locate d i n othe r part s o f Peking s o numerou s ha d the y become Al l thes e ateliers continue d i n operation Bushel l inform s us fo r mor e tha n a century bu t afte r th e deat h o f th e Empero r Ch'ien-lun g the y wer e close d dow n on e b y one th e las t o f the m havin g bee n destroye d b y fir e i n 1869 Bu t th e buildin g i n th e Forbidde n Cit y whic h house d th e mai n office s o f th e Tsao-pan Ch'u remaine d intact thoug h Si r Perciva l tell s m e tha t n o wor k o f an y sor t wa s bein g carrie d o n ther e whe n h e ha d th e buildin g pointe d ou t t o hi m a s h e wa s bein g show n ove r th e palac e durin g hi s sta y i n Pekin g i n 1929 I t i s wel l know n tha t th e familia r designatio n famille verte a s applie d t o a certai n clas s o f enamelle d war e o f th e K'ang-hs i period s o calle d becaus e o f th e predominanc e o f gree n i n it s decoration wa s 4 Chinese Art, I p 108 5 Se e Pla n o f th e Forbidde n City Sit e 1 On e accoun t record s tha t 15 0 room s wer e allocate d t o th e Tsao-pan Ch'u i n 1691 an d eightee n year s late r a furthe r 10 0 rooms Accordin g t o anothe r account i t wa s onl y i n th e Yung-chen g perio d tha t th e Burea u wa s move d t o th e building s marke d o n th e Plan whic h becam e it s permanen t premise s thereafter I n additio n t o th e Burea u i n th e Forbidde n City ther e wa s anothe r Tsao-pan Ch'u i n th e Yua n Ming Yiian 6 I a m informe d tha t a goo d accoun t o f th e Tsao-pan Ch'u als o appear s i n th e Ch'ing kung shu wen (Aspect s o f th e Manch u Palaces) b y Chan g T'ang-jung publishe d i n 194 1 b y th e Nationa l Palac e Museum Peking 7 Se e Pla n o f th e Forbidde n City Sit e 4 Fo r a vie w o f th e interio r o f thi s Palace se e Bland J O. P. an d Backhouse E. China under the Empress Dowager, pi opp p 122

PAGE 12

vii i firs t give n t o thi s typ e b y Alber t Jacquemart th e well-know n 19t h centur y Frenc h collector Th e ter m i s o f cours e purel y descriptive an d lik e al l suc h descriptiv e term s i s somewha t misleading Fo r i t migh t a s wel l b e applie d t o Wan-li wu-ts'ai, th e five-colou r war e o f th e Wan-l i perio d (1573-1620 ) wit h it s usua l predominanc e o f gree n enamels a s t o th e late r K'ang-hs i war e whic h wa s it s direc t progeny A t firs t th e famille verte o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d include d i n it s repertor y a n underglaz e blu e use d i n combinatio n wit h th e on-glaz e translucen t enamel s o f green yellow an d aubergine togethe r wit h th e lower fire d overglaz e iron-red Thi s splendi d red calle d cora l b y olde r collectors wa s s o thinl y applie d tha t a t firs t sigh t i t look s mor e lik e a pigmen t painte d o n th e surfac e o f th e glaz e tha n a fired vitreou s enamel T o thi s lis t o f enamel s ther e shoul d b e adde d a brownis h blac k whic h wa s ofte n use d b y cerami c decorator s o f th e perio d t o trac e th e outline s o f thei r designs I t i s thi s sam e brownis h blac k pigment covere d wit h a thic k greenis h translucen t glaze whic h wa s use d t o produc e th e green-blac k groun d o f th e so-calle d famille noire, o f whic h w e hav e tw o example s i n th e Foundatio n (Nos A82 1 i n Cas e 1 an d 81 1 i n Cas e 2) Bu t th e us e o f underglaz e blue a featur e o f lat e Min g enamels wa s largel y replace d i n K'ang-hsi wu-ts'ai b y a n overglaz e violet-blu e enamel whic h no t onl y improve d th e qualit y o f th e colou r schem e bu t als o simplifie d th e manufacturin g proces s b y obviatin g th e necessit y o f tw o differen t method s o f applyin g colour Th e us e o f underglaz e blu e di d no t a t onc e entirel y disappear however an d i t wa s i n fac t use d b y Ching-te-che n potter s wheneve r an d whereve r necessit y arose a s fo r exampl e i n th e executio n o f order s fro m thei r foreig n clients Si r Perciva l Davi d tell s m e tha t the us e o f blu e ename l date s bac k a t leas t t o th e Wan-l i perio d (1573-1620) i f no t t o th e earlie r Chia-chin g (1522-1566) despit e Fathe r d'Entrecolles statemen t datin g it s inventio n t o abou t th e yea r 1700 Th e smal l octagona l cu p i n th e Foundatio n (No 81 1 i n Cas e 2) onc e th e propert y o f th e lat e Si r Willia m Eden th e fathe r o f ou r forme r Prim e Minister wel l illustrate s it s us e o n a famille noire specime n databl e t o abou t th e yea r 1685 Th e attractiv e violet-blu e ename l I hav e referre d t o has i n it s K'ang-hs i version th e propert y o f affectin g th e glaz e immediatel y surroundin g it a phenomeno n firs t notice d b y Hobson I t is a s h e ha s said, "ofte n ringe d abou t b y a kin d o f hal o o f dul l lustre reflectin g fain t rainbo w tints." 8 Bu t thi s phenomeno n i s b y n o mean s constant a s h e himsel f ha s pointe d out no r shoul d student s rul e ou t th e possibilit y o f it s occurrenc e o n relativel y moder n copie s o f K'ang-hs i famille verte. Fathe r d'Entrecolle s write s ho w i n 171 2 porcelai n wa s bein g painte d wit h landscape s i n a medle y o f almos t al l th e colour s heightene d wit h gilding ho w beautifu l som e o f thes e piece s were an d ho w highl y priced. 9 Th e worth y Fathe r refer s her e t o th e late r K'ang-hs i famille verte porcelai n o f th e typ e represente d i n ou r Collectio n b y a numbe r o f specimens as fo r example Nos 80 3 i n Cas e 3 81 4 an d 82 3 i n Cas e 4 84 4 i n Cas e 5 an d E.G A84 2 i n Cas e 6 Thi s typ e ma y wel l hav e bee n on e o f th e innovation s introduce d int o th e Imperia l Porcelai n Factor y b y Tsan g Ying-hsiian Th e thin almos t eggshell whit e body 8 Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II p 162 9 Compar e Bushell' s T'ao shuo, p 193

PAGE 13

i x th e daint y an d delicat e design s an d th e pal e translucen t colour s o f matchles s purity thes e characteristics th e visito r wil l note distinguis h man y o f ou r Ch'in g enamelle d specimens I n th e earl y year s o f th e 18t h centur y i t wa s mad e know n t o al l i n th e Empir e tha t th e 60t h anniversar y o f th e Emperor' s birthda y wa s approaching Vas t preparation s fo r it s celebratio n i n 171 3 wer e pu t i n train Amongs t a grea t numbe r o f cerami c ware s whic h Lan g T'ing-ch i (1663-1715) Governo r o f th e Provinc e o f Kiangs i (1705-12) wa s ordere d t o hav e mad e an d sen t u p t o th e capital wa s thi s typ e o f enamelle d porcelain speciall y devise d fo r th e occasion I t wa s i n fac t a developmen t o f th e fame d Ch'eng-hu a tou-ts'ai o f th e 15t h century an d i s bes t see n i n th e so-calle d "Imperia l Birthda y Service (se e Nos 81 2 an d 89 1 i n Cas e 2 an d 89 0 an d A83 6 i n Cas e 5) Dishe s bearin g th e significan t inscriptio n Wan shou wu chiang A myria d longevitie s withou t ending (th e traditiona l imperia l birthda y greeting ) painte d withi n cartouche s roun d th e border ar e easil y recognizabl e a s formin g par t o f thi s service It s mai n decorativ e feature s are'th e predominan t them e o f longevity th e exceedingl y fin e drawing an d th e sligh t modellin g o f th e contour s o f th e figures, thu s alread y fore shadowin g th e influenc e o f Europea n chiaroscuro A featur e o f anothe r clas s o f enamelle d war e o f thi s period th e porcelai n know n t o th e Wes t a s famille rose wa s th e appearanc e o f a n opaqu e rose-pin k colour Thi s additio n t o th e cerami c decorator' s palett e seem s t o hav e bee n introduce d int o Ching-te-che n toward s th e en d o f th e K'ang-hs i period Honey 1 0 ha s tol d u s ho w th e rose-pin k o r rose-purpl e fro m gol d chlorid e an d ti n wa s discovere d abou t 165 0 b y Andrea s Cassiu s o f Leyden an d ho w thi s "purpl e o f Cassius wa s pu t t o industrial us e b y Johan n Kuncke l i n th e manufactur e o f hi s rub y glas s abou t th e yea r 1680 Whe n exactl y th e rose-purpl e colou r mad e it s first appearanc e i n Chin a i t seem s impossibl e fo r u s t o determin e a t present Whateve r th e dat e ma y be thi s rouge d'or a s a colou r inventio n mus t surel y hav e bee n a t th e disposa l o f Chines e craftsme n generall y fo r som e tim e befor e i t wa s actuall y use d b y thei r potter s i n Ching-te-chen W e hav e i n th e Foundatio n a n importan t specime n (No A83 2 i n Cas e 11 ) painte d i n famille rose enamel s an d date d precisel y t o th e yea r 1721 th e las t ful l yea r o f th e reig n o f th e K'ang-hs i Emperor Bu t 172 1 i s admittedl y a lon g wa y fro m th e dat e o f th e discover y o f th e "purpl e o f Cassius i n Leyden a s i t i s fro m tha t o f th e foundin g o f th e Tsao-pan Ch'u i n Peking I t i s wel l know n tha t whil e thes e Pekin g workshop s wer e engage d i n turnin g ou t a grea t variet y o f goods i n meta l o r stone horn bon e o r ivory non e wa s ther e produce d i n porcelain Whil e i t ha d bee n K'ang-hsi' s origina l intentio n t o hav e a porcelai n factor y establishe d i n th e Forbidde n Cit y and a s Fathe r d'Entrecolle s inform s us th e Empero r "ha d porcelai n worker s sen t fro m Ching-te-che n t o Peking togethe r wit h everythin g prope r fo r thi s kin d o f work" th e projec t failed : "i t ma y be" th e Fathe r add s significantly "tha t politica l o r 10 The Ceramic Art of China, etc. p 151 11 Ibid., p 152

PAGE 14

XV othe r interest s ha d somethin g t o d o wit h thi s wan t o f success". 1 2 I n an y case th e project a t leas t i n it s initia l form ha d t o b e abandoned I n it s stead a s Yan g Hsiao-k u i n hi s Ku Yueh Hsuan tz'u k'ao supportin g Hs u Chih-hen g i n Yin liu chai shuo tz'u, ha s said "K u Yueh an d othe r imperia l piece s wer e ordere d b y th e Tsao-pan Ch'u t o b e sen t fro m Ching-te-che n i n th e whit e t o b e decorate d an d fired i n a smal l enamellin g kil n i n th e Forbidde n City Thi s statemen t finds corroboratio n i n a smal l whit e bottle-shape d vas e (No A43 3 i n Cas e 2 4 o n th e secon d floor) i n th e Foundation t o whic h I hav e referre d elsewhere. 1 3 Tha t th e so-calle d "cloisonn e style o f decoratio n o f enamelle d wares marked a s man y o f the m are wit h th e K'ang-hsi o r Yung-cheng yii chih cache t an d decorate d i n opaqu e "foreign colour s an d designs wer e mad e fo r th e us e o f th e palac e i s unquestionable I t i s m y view moreover tha t i t i s thes e bowl s (se e Nos A80 5 an d A80 6 i n Cas e 1 2 tha t migh t wel l b e designate d "Brocad e Palac e Bowls" ) whic h wer e als o sen t u p t o Pekin g i n th e blank an d decorate d ther e b y foreig n craftsmen inexperience d i n th e techniqu e o f cerami c enamelling Thi s ex planatio n provides a t an y rate a raison d'etre fo r th e varyin g qualit y o f suc h bowls'an d similarl y decorate d cup s i n th e K u Kun g collectio n i n T'ai-chung al l o f whic h ma y nevertheless w e think b e justifiabl y attribute d t o th e date s o f thei r cachet. 1 4 Th e Ku Yiieh Hsiian tz'u k'ao b y Yan g Hsiao-ku cite d above i s regarde d i n Chin a a s th e standar d wor k o n K u Yiie h ware I n i t th e autho r relate s ho w h e ha d com e upo n a numbe r o f specimen s i n th e palac e i n a smal l treasur y t o th e north-eas t o f th e Tua n Min g Tie n i n th e Ch'ie n Ch'in g Kung. 1 5 Si r Perciva l ha s tol d m e ho w i n 1929 a fe w year s befor e thi s boo k wa s published h e himsel f ha d see n som e o f thes e an d othe r piece s i n th e treasury th e vase s o r bowl s packe d separatel y i n speciall y fitted silk-line d drawer s withi n larg e cupboard s labelle d Tz'u t'ai hua fa-lang, o r "porcelai n painte d i n fa-lang enamels" Fa-lang i s a romanizatio n o f th e Chines e phoneti c equivalen t fo r France o r a s i t cam e t o mean Europe whenc e th e missionarie s wer e know n t o hav e com e t o th e Ch'in g imperia l court Th e phras e therefor e refer s t o porcelai n decorate d i n a "Western styl e an d i n "Western enamels Yan g attribute s th e origi n o f wha t h e regard s a s "K u Yueh war e t o Tsan g Ying-Hsiian wh o w e kno w ha d bee n appointe d Super intenden t o f th e Imperia l Porcelai n Factor y i n 1681 Yan g seem s t o conside r tha t thi s ter m wa s first applie d t o th e brocade-patterne d bowl s an d cup s decorate d i n a manne r adapte d fro m cloisonne enamel s o n a bronz e o r coppe r body an d tha t late r it s us e wa s extende d t o includ e th e clas s o f war e w e cal l K u Yiie h Hsuan H e state s tha t thi s war e reache d th e zenit h o f it s developmen t betwee n th e year s 172 7 an d 1753 whe n th e Imperia l Porcelai n Factor y wa s functionin g unde r th e superintendenc e o f T'an g Ying wh o adde d brown-blac k t o th e K u Yiie h decorators palett e an d brough t bot h freshnes s an d brillianc e t o thei r designs Accordin g t o Yang th e manufactur e o f K u Yue h war e cease d o n th e demis e o f T'an g Yin g i n 1754 12 Se e Bushell' s T'ao shuo, p 183 an d Burton W. Porcelain—A Sketch of its Nature, Art, and Manufacture, p 85 13 Se e Oriental Art, I I (1949) No 3 "Ku Yueh Hsiian —A Ne w Hypothesis" b y S York e Hardy p 119 Not e 20 14 See however Russell C. i n The Collector, X I (1930) pp 202-208 Par t o f thi s articl e i s reproduce d i n Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp 193-198 15 Se e Pla n o f th e Forbidde n City Site s 6 an d 7

PAGE 15

x i Yan g describe s 10 3 palac e item s whic h h e regard s a s K u Yiieh O f these fou r ar e pairs makin g a tota l o f 10 7 specimens H e record s tha t eighty-fou r o f the m wer e decorate d wit h flowe r an d bir d subjects fifteen wit h landscapes an d fou r wit h figure subjects Bu t thes e specimen s coul d onl y hav e bee n a fractio n o f th e tota l numbe r o f K u Yiie h piece s i n th e palace ; indeed I wa s reliabl y informe d i n T'ai chun g tha t ther e ar e ove r 40 0 piece s o f tha t clas s o f war e i n storag e ther e now O f th e thirty-on e specimen s i n th e Foundation twenty-fiv e ar e painte d wit h bir d an d flower subjects tw o (Nos 85 0 an d 85 1 i n Cas e 11 ) wit h landscapes an d fou r wit h figure subject s (Nos 88 1 i n Cas e 3 A81 8 i n Cas e 8 an d 85 4 an d 86 4 i n Cas e 11) I n Tai-chung moreover I wa s intereste d t o se e th e K u Yiie h glas s bottle-shape d vas e len t b y th e Chines e Governmen t t o th e grea t Internationa l Exhibitio n (Chines e Governmen t Catalogue Porcelain No 307) Thi s di d no t see m t o m e t o b e a s fine a s it s cerami c counter part referre d t o b y Ku o Pao-ch'an g i n hi s "Introduction t o thi s Catalogu e (Vol II p 35) whic h I als o sa w i n Ne w Yor k som e year s befor e it s acquisitio n b y th e Free r Galler y o f Art Washington D.C. 1 6 I n T'ai-chung too w e sa w a mos t attractiv e pai r o f K u Yiie h porcelai n vase s decorate d wit h rusti c scenes Thes e ar e recorde d an d describe d b y Yang an d wer e see n b y Si r Perciva l i n th e W u Yin g Tien 1 7 i n Pekin g i n 1929 A hangin g paintin g i n colour s o n sil k o f a delightfu l renderin g i n a singl e compositio n o f bot h th e rusti c scene s o n thes e vase s i s i n ou r smal l privat e collection Thi s paintin g bear s a larg e re d sea l o f th e Pi-sh u Sha n Chuan g (th e Heat-avoidin g Mountai n Villa ) o r Imperia l Summe r Palac e a t Jehol an d i s signe d b y Lan g Shih-nin g (Giusepp e Castiglione). 1 8 Th e tw o vase s an d thi s paintin g (al l thre e wer e sai d t o hav e bee n i n Jeho l befor e the y wer e brough t t o Peking ) wel l exemplif y Jua n Yuan' s descriptio n o f th e missionar y a s a n artis t abl e t o blen d th e Chines e an d Wester n tradition s o f paintin g int o perfec t unity ; fo r th e figures ar e Chinese thoug h thei r face s ar e rendere d i n th e Europea n manne r wit h th e cas t shadow s an d modellin g o f Wester n art Anothe r ver y rar e specime n o f K u Yiie h porcelai n wit h figure decoratio n i s th e magnifican t flask-shape d vas e i n th e collectio n o f Mr Moritats u Hosokaw a whic h I wa s gla d t o se e i n Tokyo Thi s vase a veritabl e masterpiec e o f it s class painte d wit h grea t skil l an d char m i n delicat e "Western enamels i s decorate d wit h tw o mythologica l scenes on e o n eithe r side i n th e baroqu e styl e favoure d b y 18t h centur y Italia n artists. 1 9 On e o f thes e scenes i t i s clear repre sent s th e "Judgemen t o f Paris" th e other probabl y th e "Retur n o f Ulysses" It s decoratio n ha s i n fac t bee n popularl y attribute d t o th e han d o f Castiglione and i n m y opinion no t withou t justification Yan g goe s s o fa r a s t o sa y tha t mos t o f th e figure subject s painte d o n 16 Se e Old Furniture, I I (1927) pp 17 2 an d 176-177 I t i s interestin g t o not e tha t bot h thes e vase s hav e th e sam e poetica l inscription 17 Se e Pla n o f th e Forbidde n City Sit e 3 Thes e vase s ar e als o mentione d b y Perzynski F. i n "Mark s an d Decorativ e Inscription s o n Chines e Porcelain i n The Burlington Magazine, L I I (1928) p 69 n 11 18 Se e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art Commemorative Catalogue, pi 99 No 2097 an d Catalogue of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain in the Collection of Sir Percival David, Bart., pi XXXVII 19 Sekai Toji Zenshu, vol 12 pi 1 an d fig 80

PAGE 16

xi i K u Yiie h ware s wer e i n fac t th e wor k o f Castiglione whic h i s why h e argues thes e hav e becom e s o ver y valuable Brothe r Castiglione 1688-176 6 (h e ha s sometime s bee n erroneousl y referre d t o a s "Father Castiglione) Jesui t missionary artis t an d architect cam e t o Chin a i n 1715 Soo n afte r hi s arriva l i n Peking h e wa s attache d t o th e imperia l court wher e unde r hi s Chines e nam e o f Lan g Shih-ning h e laboure d unremittingl y fo r fort y year s an d wher e h e becam e ver y popular I n additio n t o th e signe d paintin g I hav e mentioned ther e i s positiv e documentar y evidenc e fo r th e traditiona l Chines e belie f i n Castiglione' s influenc e o n th e wor k o f cerami c artist s o f hi s time I n 1729 fo r example Nie n Hsi-ya o (d 1738) wh o ha d bee n appointe d Directo r o f th e Imperia l Porcelai n Factor y a t Ching-te-che n thre e year s earlier publishe d a n illustrate d diagrammatica l treatis e o n draughtsmanshi p entitle d Shih hsiieh, "Visua l Learning" I n it s Prefac e h e acknowledge s hi s indebtednes s t o Lan g Shih-nin g fo r instructio n i n th e principle s o f Wester n pro jectio n an d perspective sayin g tha t Lan g ha d "taugh t hi m th e metho d o f drawin g line s fro m a fixe d point s o tha t th e minutes t detail s (o f a figur e o r object ) coul d b e accuratel y represented" I n th e Prefac e t o th e secon d editio n o f thi s technica l wor k whic h appeare d i n 1735, 2 0 Nie n Hsi-ya o relate s ho w a s a resul t o f man y discussion s wit h Lan g Shih-ning h e ha d learn t "th e wa y t o giv e a three-dimensiona l effec t t o th e drawin g o f a n objec t wit h it s particula r ligh t an d shad e aspects" whic h h e describe s a s "th e subtlet y o f th e Europea n metho d o f painting" I t shoul d no t b e assumed however tha t Castiglion e coul d no t an d di d no t pain t i n th e Chines e manne r a t all H e wa s indee d ordere d t o d o s o b y th e Emperor an d I hav e alread y cite d tw o suc h example s o f hi s work Later however Nie n Hsi-ya o an d hi s follower s see m t o hav e ha d considerabl e influenc e o n th e growin g interes t a t cour t i n thing s European a n influenc e show n a s muc h i n th e architectur e o f th e Europea n sectio n o f th e Yua n Min g Yiia n a s i n Castiglione' s celebrate d oil-paintin g o n canva s o f th e imperia l concubin e Hsian g Fe i i n Europea n armour ; a s muc h i n th e figure-decorate d K u Yiie h porcelai n vas e i n th e Free r Galler y a s i n it s glas s counterpar t i n T'ai-chung ; i n th e K u Yiie h figure-decorated porcelai n ja r an d bottle shape d vas e i n ou r Collectio n (Nos 88 1 i n Cas e 3 an d A81 8 i n Cas e 8 ) a s i n ou r exquisitel y painte d glas s brus h po t an d coup e (Nos 85 4 an d 86 4 i n Cas e 11) Muc h ingenuit y ha s bee n exercise d b y moder n Chines e writer s o n th e significanc e o f th e seal s appende d t o th e verse s o n K u Yiieh specimens an d severa l hypothese s hav e bee n advance d b y the m i n thi s regard Yan g say s h e ha s foun d al l K u Yue h piece s decorate d wit h design s o f "yello w autum n flowers" t o b e seale d Chin Ch'eng, an d wit h bambo o designs Pin jan chun tzu whil e thos e decorate d wit h landscapes 2 1 ha d seal s readin g Shan kao shui chang. Bu t w e i n th e Foundatio n ar e fa r fro m certai n tha t an y saf e conclusio n ca n b e draw n 20 Si r Perciva l Davi d recentl y obtaine d fro m th e Bodleia n Librar y throug h th e courtes y o f it s Librarian Mr N C Sainsbury microfilm s o f th e whol e o f thi s rar e book photostat s fro m which togethe r wit h translation s o f th e relevan t passages h e ha s kindl y place d a t m y disposa l fo r th e preparatio n o f thi s Catalogue 21 Fo r a fin e exampl e o f K u Yiie h war e wit h landscap e decoration se e Old Furniture, II I (1928) pp 84-85 an d 90-91

PAGE 17

xii i fro m th e relativel y fe w supportin g example s ther e cited an d i t woul d b e better w e think t o leav e thi s difficul t questio n unanswere d fo r th e present I t ha s bee n suggeste d tha t i n th e decoratio n o f K u Yiie h ware s ther e i s invariabl y reveale d a distinctl y Chines e interpretatio n o f a Europea n scene Bu t coul d no t th e contrar y als o b e tru e ? Coul d i t no t b e tha t i n som e K u Yue h design s w e hav e representation s o f Chines e scene s b y Europea n artist s ? W e thin k tha t th e latte r poss ibilit y shoul d no t b e rule d out I t is surely worth y o f furthe r consider atio n an d o f textua l research W e ma y thu s on e da y b e abl e t o identif y an d establis h b y indisputabl e documentar y evidenc e th e han d o f Castiglion e himsel f i n th e consummat e delineatio n an d brushwor k o f th e three-dimensiona l Europea n scene s o n th e Hosokaw a flask, an d perhap s eve n o f som e collaborato r o r disciple o f inferio r artisti c calibr e admittedly i n th e Europea n scene s depicte d o n som e o f ou r K u Yue h pieces Th e stud y o f K u Yue h ware s ha s b y n o mean s reache d finality. Muc h investigatio n remain s t o b e carrie d out an d th e opinion s I hav e her e advance d shoul d b e regarde d a s tentative Ou r knowledg e o f th e histor y o f Chines e cerami c art a s indee d o f al l Chines e ar t history remain s incomplete an d th e connoisseu r o f th e futur e wil l n o doub t find muc h i n it s presen t literatur e t o supplement t o expunge an d t o correct I n th e preparatio n o f thi s wor k I hav e had a s before th e privileg e o f th e invaluabl e assistanc e o f m y husband th e dono r o f th e collection withou t whos e scholarl y guidanc e an d advic e I coul d no t hav e accomplishe d th e task I a m als o mos t gratefu l t o Professo r Hansfor d wh o ha s bee n goo d enoug h t o edi t th e typescrip t an d t o mak e som e helpfu l suggestion s whic h I hav e bee n gla d t o incorporate SHEIL A DAVID March 1958

PAGE 18

xi v SELECTE D BIBLIOGRAPH Y ARLINGTON L C. an d LEWISOHN W. In Search of Old Peking. Peking 1935 BAHR A W. Old Chinese Porcelain and Works of Art in China. London 1912 BENNETT W. A Collection of Rare and Old Chinese Porcelain. London 1910 BLAND J O P. an d BACKHOUSE E. China under the Empress Dowager. London 1910 BURTON W. Porcelain—A Sketch of its Nature, Art, and Manufacture. London 1906 BUSHELL S W. Description of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, being a translation of the T'ao shuo. Oxford 1910 BUSHELL S W. Chinese Art. London 1904-6 Reprinte d 1914-19 BUSHELL S W. "Chines e Eggshel l Porcelain wit h 'Marks'I n The Burlington Magazine, London I X (1906 ) pp 32 4 an d 395 BUSHELL S W. Oriental Ceramic Art, Collection of W. T. Walters, Ne w York 1897 ; tex t edition 1899 BUSHELL S W. an d LAFFAN W M. Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of Chinese Porcelain. Ne w York 1910 CHUEN-LUNG Yt7 CHIH SHIH CHI, Th e Collecte d Work s o f th e Empero r Ch'ien-lung Sectio n I (1736-47) CHINESE EXHIBITION, A COMMEMORATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE. London 1936 CHUN TING TA CHUNG HUI TIEN SHIH LI, Officia l diges t o f administrativ e la w an d practic e i n th e Ch'in g Dynasty Editio n o f 1818 CONTAG V. an d WANG C C. Malerund Sammler-Stempel aus der Mingund Ch'ing-Zeit. Shanghai 1940 D A VIES G R. Collection of Old Chinese Porcelain formed by George R. Davies. London 1913 D E VER E BAILEY B A. "Th e Ol d Moo n Pavilio n Ware" I n The Burlington Magazine London LXVI I (1935) pp 264-273 DEXEL T. Die For men Chinesischer Keramik. Tubingen 1955

PAGE 19

X V DORCHESTER HOTEL LOAN EXHIBITION. London May-June 1931 FRANKS A W. Catalogue of a Collection of Oriental Porcelain and Pottery. Bethna l Gree n Museum London 1879 GORER E. an d BLACKER J F. Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones. London 1911 GRANDIDIER E. La Ceramique Chinoise. Paris 1894 GULLAND W G. Chinese Porcelain. London 1911 HIPPISLEY A E. A Sketch of the History of Ceramic Art in China, with a Catalogue of the Hippisley Collection of Chinese Porcelains. Washington 1887-88 Reprinte d 1900 HOBSON R L. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain. London 1915 HOBSON R L. The Later Ceramic Wares of China. London 1925 HOBSON R L. The Catalogue of the George Eumorfopoulos Collection of Chinese, Corean and Persian Pottery and Porcelain, Vol V London 1927 HOBSON R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections. London 1931 HOBSON R L. Catalogue of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain in the Collection of Sir Perciv at David, Bart. London 1934 HONEY W B. Guide to the Later Chinese Porcelains [in the Victoria and Albert Museum). London 1927 HONEY W B. The Ceramic Art of China and other Countries of the Far East. London 1945 HUMMEL A W. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington 1943 HUTTON, THE BARBARA, COLLECTION OF CHINESE PORCELAINS, Loa n Exhibitio n a t Honolul u Academ y o f Arts Nov 1956—Jan. 1957 Honolulu 1957 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF CHINESE ART IN LONDON, ILLUSTRA TED CA TALOGUE OF THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT EXHIBITS FOR THE. Nanking 1936 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF CHINESE ART, 1935-36 ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF THE. London 1935 JACQUEMART A. an d L E BLANT E. Histoire de la Porcelaine. Paris 1862 JENYNS S. Later Chinese Porcelain. London 1951

PAGE 20

xv i KU KUNG, Illustrate d monthl y publicatio n o f th e Palac e Museum Peking 1929-33 KU YUEH HSUAN TZ'U K'AO, Discussio n o f K u Yiie h Ware b y Yan g Hsiao-ku Peking 1933 LEGGE J. The Chinese Classics. Vols I & II Oxford 1893/95 ; Vols Il l t o V Hongkong 1865/72 LI H L. Chinese Flower Arrangement. Philadelphia 1956 MAYERS W F. Chinese Reader s Manual. Shanghai 1874 Reprinte d 1924 MORGAN J P. Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of Chinese Porcelain. Ne w York 1904 OLD FURNITURE, London I I (1927) pp 17 2 an d 176-177 an d II I (1928) pp 84-8 5 an d 90-91 PERZYNSKI F. "Mark s an d Decorativ e Inscription s o n Chines e Porcelain" I n The Burlington Magazine, London LI I (1928) p 69 RUSSELL C E. A Serie s o f Ch'in g Bowl s mad e b y Imperia l Order" I n The Collector, London X I (1930) pp 202-208 SEKAI TO J I ZEN SHU, Catalogu e o f Worl d Ceramics Tokyo 1956 T'AO SHUO, b y Ch u Yen 1774 Se e Bushell S W. o n p xiv TRAPNELL A. Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain and Pottery, forming the Collection of Mr. Alfred Trapnell. Bristol 1901 TUNG CH'£NG LAO FU CHU AN, Stor y o f a traine r o f fightin g cocks b y Ch'e n Hung I n T'ai p'ing kuang chi, presente d t o th e thron e i n A.D 987 Photolithographi c reprin t o f 156 6 edition WILLIAMSON G C. The Book of Famille Rose. London 1927 YIN-LIU CHAI SHUO TZ'U, Descriptio n o f porcelain s fro m th e Yin-li u Chai th e studi o o f th e author Hs u Chih-heng Shanghai c 1920 YORK E HARDY S. "K u Yiie h Hsuan— A Ne w Hypothesis" I n Oriental Art, London I I (1949) No 3 pp 116-125

PAGE 21

1 CATALOGU E Th e illustration s ar e fro m photograph s b y Mr R Hunter Staf f Photo graphe r o f th e Foundation A n asteris k appear s agains t eac h o f th e item s illustrated The Catalogue of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain in the Collection of Sir Percival David, Bt. } b y R L Hobson i s her e referre d t o a s PDC. 80 0 PAI R O F MINIATUR E DISHE S O F K'ANG-HS I & ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d sides Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s eac h wit h a slightl y differin g design insid e wit h a fruitin g an d leaf y twi g o f th e peac h o n whic h i s pencille d i n gol d th e shou "longevity characte r i n slightl y differen t sea l form s o n eac h o f th e saucers O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 2.1 in. (Q.Scm.) Note. —These saucer s mus t hav e forme d par t o f th e so calle d "Birthda y Service" whic h wa s mad e fo r th e celebratio n o f th e 60t h birthda y anniversar y o f th e Empero r K'ang-hsi bor n o n Ma y 4 1654 Th e even t wa s observe d i n Pekin g i n 171 3 wit h grea t pom p an d ceremony 80 2 WIN E CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h thre e varietie s o f fish o n th e outsid e an d a fourt h fish inside an d i n under-glaz e sli p insid e wit h tw o fish-dragons. Unde r th e bas e i s a fancifu l desig n i n underglaz e blu e o f fou r shell s withi n a doubl e square th e whol e withi n a singl e circle Earl y 18t h century D : 2.2 Sin (5.7cm.) 80 3 DIS H O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d narro w foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n pal e famille verte enamel s wit h th e figure o f a bearde d schola r seate d o n a larg e roc k beneat h a pin e tree watchin g tw o rooster s fighting. Unde r th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 8 in (20.3 cm. ) Fro m th e Eumorfopoulo s Collection Catalogue Vol V No El20 an d pi 21 Note. —There i s a smal l squar e illegibl e sea l i n pal e iron-re d ename l t o th e righ t o f th e figure. 80 4 SNUF F BOTTL E O F ENAMELLE D GLAS S Flask-shaped wit h flattene d circula r body shor t tubula r nec k an d ova l bas e wit h ringe d foot Fin e whit e semi-opaqu e

PAGE 22

o glas s wit h decoratio n carve d i n relie f an d enamelle d i n famille rose colours O n on e sid e a phoenix wit h a spri g o f th e ling-chih i n it s beak stand s o n a rock a blossomin g chrysan themu m plan t growin g fro m behind : o n th e othe r a pai r o f quails on e o f the m attracte d b y a n insect stan d o n a ban k o f greenswar d wit h a larg e ornamenta l roc k a t th e side fro m behin d whic h emerge s a blossomin g chrysanthemu m branch ; aster s an d grasse s ar e show n growin g a t th e edge O n th e bas e i s pencille d th e character s Kuyueh hsiian ("Ancien t Moo n Pavilion" ) i n pal e gol d i n a horizonta l line Abou t 1850 H : withou t stoppe r 2.3 in (5.8 cm. ) Th e snuf f bottl e i s fitte d wit h a carve d cora l stopper Se e D e Ver e Bailey B.A. "Th e Ol d Moo n Pavilio n Ware i n th e Burlington Magazine LXVII No 39 3 (Decembe r 1935) pp 264-273 an d York e Hardy S. "K u Yiie h Hsua n — a Ne w Hypothesis i n Oriental Art II No 3 pp 116-125 80 5 PAI R O F DISHE S O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N or\ a Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h "^ b thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h th e figures o f thre e ladie s preparin g a mea l b y a lo w tabl e whic h support s variou s foo d vessels ; on e o f th e ladie s wit h a fa n i n he r righ t han d i s show n seate d o n a stoo l b y a brazier th e other s standing eac h holdin g a foo d vessel Scattere d leaves blossom s an d butterflie s decorat e th e flattened mouth-ri m o f th e dishes detail s o f th e whol e desig n differin g slightl y o n each O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 6.8m (17.2cm. ) 80 7 DIS H O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h a landscap e scen e unde r a gold-tinte d su n wit h tw o figures, on e o f the m a n arche r wit h a bo w an d a quive r o f arrows wit h on e o f whic h h e seem s t o hav e sho t a t th e recumban t figure o f a tiger Scattere d leaves blossom s an d butterflie s decorat e th e flattened mouth ri m o f th e dish O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 6.8m (17.2cm. ) 80 8 DIS H O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h a landscap e scen e wit h rocks bambo o an d pin e trees belo w whic h appea r thre e ladies on e carryin g i n he r righ t han d a lam p dependin g fro m a ju-i sceptre Scattere d leaves blossom s an d butterflie s decorat e th e flattened mouth-ri m o f th e dish O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 6.8 in (17.2cm )

PAGE 23

3 80 9 PAI R O F DISHE S O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N oic \ Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h tw o femal e figures, on e a Taois t fair y holdin g a ju-i sceptr e i n he r righ t hand a heavenl y dee r b y he r side th e other he r attendant bearin g th e peac h o f longevit y o n a dish thre e bats emblemati c o f th e thre e blessings flying over-head an d a smal l roc k an d plant s i n th e background Scattere d leaves blossom s an d butterflie s decorat e th e flattened mouth-ri m o f th e dishes detail s o f th e whol e desig n differin g slightl y o n each O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 6.8m (17.2cm. ) Fo r decoration se e Hobson R L. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II pi 113 fig. 1 81 1 CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Dee p wit h si x straigh t sides Whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e biscui t i n famille verte enamel s an d overglaz e blue outsid e wit h si x shou "longevity character s i n differen t form s i n a greenis h blac k groun d an d betwee n volut e an d lotus-po d borders insid e wit h a lotu s flower i n th e centr e an d si x roun d th e side s belo w a n iron-re d enamelle d volut e borde r o n a whit e glaze d ground O n th e bas e ther e i s a doubl e circl e i n pal e underglaz e blue K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722) H : 2.9 in (7.4cm. ) Fro m th e Collectio n o f Si r Willia m Eden Bart 81 2 DIS H O F K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h a naturalisti c desig n o f a bir d o n a penden t fruitin g boug h o f th e peac h tree symbolisin g longevity th e flattened ri m wit h a brocade patter n borde r rendere d i n pal e iron-re d an d gol d enamel s interrupte d b y fou r medallion s containin g th e sea l character s Wan shou wu chiang, A myria d longevitie s withou t ending!" O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 10m (25.4cm. ) Fro m th e Liddel l an d Russel l Collections Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, p 18 9 an d colou r plat e No 27 an d Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, pi XXIX Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 1729 Note. —This dis h forme d part n o doubt o f th e so-calle d "Birthda y Service whic h wa s mad e fo r th e celebration s o f th e 60t h birthda y anniversar y o f th e Empero r K'ang-hsi 81 3 SNUF F BOTTL E O F CH'IEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D GLAS S O f double-gour d for m wit h shor t nec k an d flat base Milky

PAGE 24

4 whit e opaqu e glas s delicatel y painte d i n mixe d enamel s i n "K u Yiieh styl e wit h a gourd-vin e an d re d bats ; roun d th e nec k i s a ban d o f yello w ename l spotte d wit h red fro m whic h depend s a borde r o f penden t leaves O n th e bas e i s pencille d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n blu e enamel H : 1.6m (4 cm. ) Th e snuf f bottl e i s fitte d wit h a pear l an d cora l stopper 81 4 CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Deep wit h straigh t side s an d smal l foot Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e outsid e i n transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h th e figure s o f nin e boy s a t pla y i n a rock y landscap e wit h pin e an d prunu s tree s an d flowering shrubs Lat e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722) D : 2.9 in (7.3 cm. ) 81 5 SE T O F TWELV E WIN E CUP S O F a1 K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Deep wit h slightl y rounde d sides everte d li p an d smal l bas e wit h dee p foot Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelain eac h cu p decor ate d i n lat e famille verte enamel s an d underglaz e blu e wit h a differen t seasona l flower o r plant som e als o wit h rocks other s wit h blossomin g shrubs aquati c plants butterflies insect s o r birds O n th e othe r sid e o f eac h o f th e cup s appear s a differen t poetica l inscriptio n i n underglaz e blue thre e o f thes e i n seven-characte r lines th e res t i n five-character lines th e inscriptio n i n eac h cas e followe d b y a n undecipherabl e sea l withi n a singl e square O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) i n ver y smal l scrip t withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 2.6m (6.5cm.) Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2181 Note. —According t o Dr H L Li o f Philadelphia Pa. autho r o f Chinese Flower Arrangement th e followin g i s a lis t o f th e flowers i n temperat e Centra l Chin a generall y recognise d a s representativ e o f th e twelv e month s o f th e year : 1s t month : Prunu s 7t h month : Lotu s 2n d month : Magnoli a 8t h month : Pomegranat e 3r d month : Peac h 9t h month : Kuei i 4t h month : Ros e 10t h month : Chrysanthemu m 5t h month : Crab-appl e 11t h month : Orchi d 6t h month : Peon y 12t h month : Narcissu s 81 6 VAS E O F CH'IEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f tal l baluste r form hexagona l i n sectio n an d wit h expandin g nec k fitted wit h tw o tubula r handles th e foo t six-side d an d slightl y spreading Fin e whit e porcelai n wit h "orange-peel' undulatin g surface painte d wit h a desig n i n S u Tung-p' o style o f rock s an d bambo o i n a shadow y gre y pigmen t wit h touche s o f pink blu e an d iron-re d o n a crackle d pal e gree n ground an d furthe r embellishe d wit h a n inscriptio n o f fourtee n character s i n blac k wit h thre e seal s i n re d o n on e sid e an d a n ova l sea l i n re d o n another ; th e character s Shih-chih ("crag" )

PAGE 25

5 i n sea l for m appea r o n a jagge d rock Th e inscriptio n ha s bee n rendered : "Th e gentl e breez e blow s coo l belo w th e Grov e o f th e Seve n Worthies Th e pal e moo n seem s wintr y a s i t shine s ove r th e Strea m o f th e Si x Talents. Thi s i s precede d b y a seal P'ien yiieh ("Hal f Moon" ) an d followe d b y tw o other s Han an d Mo, o r "Brush an d "Ink" whic h ar e believe d t o b e th e seal s o f th e grea t ceramist T'an g Ying Th e ova l sea l read s Ch'ien-k'un i ts'ao-t'ing ("Heave n an d Eart h ar e bu t a singl e thatche d pavilion") a lin e fro m T u Fu O n th e base whic h ha s als o a pal e gree n glaze i s writte n th e six-characte r sea l mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n underglaz e blue H : 14.7m (3 6.8cm. ) Note. —The "Si x Talent s o f Ch u Ch' i (i.e., "o f th e Bambo o Stream" mentione d i n th e Biograph y o f L i P o (699-762) wer e L i P o himself Ha n Chun K'un g Ch'ao-fu P'e i Cheng Chan g Shu-min g an d T'a o Mien al l o f who m ar e sai d t o hav e live d unde r th e Tsu-la i Mountain s i n Shantun g Province ; the y becam e celebrate d fo r th e song s the y san g an d th e win e the y drank Fo r th e "Seve n Worthies se e Mayers W F. Chinese Reader's Manual, p 29 No 85 81 7 WIN E CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Moulde d i n eight-foi l ova l for m wit h tw o rusti c bambo o handles Whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e biscui t i n famille verte enamels outsid e wit h panel s o f flower s o n a yello w groun d betwee n volut e an d diape r borders an d insid e wit h a chrysanthemu m i n a medallio n i n th e centr e o f th e bas e an d a conventiona l chrysanthemu m borde r roun d th e lip K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722) W : 3.4m (8 .6cm. ) Fo r a simila r specimen se e Grandidier E. La Ceramique Chinoise, pi XXIV No 67 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2250 81 8 DIS H O F K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shaped ; fine whit e porcelai n painte d i n delicat e enamels Insid e i s a larg e peac h shade d i n iron-re d wit h CLXII I twig s an d leave s i n famille verte colours O n th e peac h pencille d i n gol d ar e th e sea l character s wan shou, A myria d longevities" th e imperia l birthda y greetings O n th e outsid e ar e thre e twig s wit h gree n peache s inscribe d i n gol d wit h th e circula r sea l for m o f th e characte r shou, "longevity" O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hi s perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 11.3m (28 .6cm. ) Cf. Honey W B. The Ceramic Art of China, etc. p 15 1 an d pi 13 1 (a). Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 1731 81 9 BRUS H BARRE L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f hexagona l sectio n wit h straigh t sides flanged mouth-ri m an d "fitted stan d o f castellate d form Whit e porcelain

PAGE 26

6 th e side s pierce d i n honeycom b patter n an d wit h filled-in medallions Decorate d o n th e biscui t i n famille verte enamel s an d black wit h phoenixe s almos t heraldicall y depicte d an d landscap e scene s i n alternat e circula r an d rectangula r panel s betwee n border s o f th e Eigh t (Taoist ) Preciou s Object s an d th e Eigh t (Buddhist ) Emblem s o f Happ y Augury O n th e lightl y glaze d bas e ther e i s impresse d a n undecipherabl e seal K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722) H : 5.1m (12.8cm. ) Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 1692 82 0 PERFUM E BASKE T O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Ova l pot-pourr i containe r i n th e for m o f a baske t wit h pierce d side s an d lid an d bambo o handl e (pi liang) wit h tw o supportin g branche s o n eithe r sid e o f th e end s o f th e handle Whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e biscui t wit h flowers betwee n border s o f Greek-ke y an d volut e patter n i n famille verte an d iron-re d enamels K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722) H : 5.4m (13. 6 cm. ) Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 1664 82 1 CU P O F YUNG-CHfeN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d spreadin g side s an d dee p foot Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamels brow n an d iron-red outsid e wit h a popp y an d tw o flowering spray s o f peony an d insid e wit h frui t seed s an d a melon O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 3.6m (9.1cm. ) Compar e wit h No 878 82 2 SMOKING-PIP E O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N I n th e for m o f a lotu s po d wit h ste m an d branches th e po d formin g th e bod y o f th e pipe whil e th e bowl i n th e for m o f a smal l lotu s flower ha s attache d t o i t tw o smal l pods on e open th e othe r closed Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille verte enamel s an d overglaz e blue Th e whol e o f th e bas e i s modelle d t o resembl e a lotu s lea f whic h support s th e po d an d i s enamelle d i n pal e green Lat e 18t h century H : 8.7 in (22. 1 cm. ) Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 1688 82 3 VAS E O F YUNG-CH&N G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Bottle-shape d wit h globula r bod y an d tal l cylindrica l neck Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n lo w relie f i n famille verte enamels o n on e sid e wit h a landscap e scen e o f a mounte d officia l lookin g ove r hi s shoulde r a s h e gallop s awa y o n a spirite d steed a whi p i n hi s upraise d righ t hand an d followe d b y hi s bo y attendan t carryin g a ch'in. O n th e othe r sid e ar e a blossomin g prunu s an d a magnoli a tre e i n bloom rocks an d tw o bird s flying overhead O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n

PAGE 27

7 a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue H : 14.8m (37.5 cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 82 4 FLAS K O F YUNG-CHEN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Bottle-shape d wit h flattened globula r bod y an d shor t narro w cylindrica l nec k wit h tw o "cloud-scroll handle s joinin g nec k CLXI X an c ^ shoulder Fin e whit e porcelai n wit h slightl y undulatin g "chicken-skin glaz e artisticall y painte d i n famille rose enamels o n on e sid e wit h rose-peonie s an d tw o bird s i n varyin g shade s o f green an d i n brow n an d white ; o n th e othe r wit h chrysanthemu m an d butterflies blossomin g peac h an d tw o long-taile d bird s i n whit e picke d ou t i n brow n an d crimson O n th e slightl y recesse d bas e i s writte n th e mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) i n si x sea l character s i n underglaz e blue H : 11.6m (29.4cm. ) Fro m th e Collectio n o f th e lat e Lor d Redesdale Illustrate d i n Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol 12 pi 71 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2277 82 5 PAI R O F DISHE S O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N a & ^ Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d dee p foot Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n thei r interio r i n famille verte enamels on e wit h a schola r possibl y on e o f th e Chu tin ch'i hsien (th e Seve n Worthie s o f th e Bambo o Grove ) gazin g a t a smal l clum p o f bambo o besid e a rock th e othe r wit h a figure o f a ma n carryin g a crackle d vas e wh o ha s steppe d ou t o f a buildin g i n th e directio n o f a grou p o f vessel s lyin g o n th e ground A squar e sea l appear s withi n th e desig n o f eac h saucer O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 6.25m (15.8cm. ) Fro m th e Russel l Collection 82 6 WIN E PO T O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N I n th e for m o f a peac h wit h handl e an d spou t imitatin g branche s o f it s tree enamelle d o n th e biscui t i n pal e aubergin e an d black Whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e bod y wit h bough s o f blosso m i n lat e famille verte enamels an d wit h a conventiona l lea f borde r nea r th e base Th e win e po t i s t o b e filled throug h a hol e i n it s base K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722) H : 4.6m (11.6cm. ) 82 7 PAI R O F BOWL S O F YUNG-CHEN G & ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N 82 8 Wit h rounde d side s an d straigh t dee p foot Fin e whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n sepi a i n "K u yiieh styl e wit h prunu s tree s i n blosso m an d a distic h o f te n character s i n black t o whic h ar e appende d thre e seal s i n pin k enamel Th e stanz a ma y b e rendered : "Th e studen t see s th e outlin e shar p O f plu m bloo m b y th e moonligh t cas t O n windo w blind an d breathe s th e scen t O f unsee n flowers wafte d past. PDC CLXXI I

PAGE 28

8 Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e i s hsien ch'un (earl y spring) an d th e tw o followin g ar e yiieh ku (moo n ancient ) an d hsiang ch'ing (fragranc e pure) O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel D : 4.9m (12.5cm. ) Fro m th e Hippisle y Collection Se e Hippisley A E. A Sketch of the History of Ceramic Art in China Washingto n 1900 Nos 32 8 an d 329 p 40 6 an d pi 19 Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, p 87 an d Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol 12 pi 76 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2276 82 9 BOTTL E O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d bod y an d tal l slende r nec k wit h tw o tubula r handle s attache d t o i t belo w th e mouth-rim Fin e whit e glass y porcelai n decorate d i n mixe d enamel s i n "K u yiieh style o n on e sid e wit h a rock orchids rose s an d grasses an d o n th e othe r wit h a fourteen-characte r poetica l inscriptio n i n blac k wit h thre e seal s i n iron-red ; th e nec k wit h a wid e borde r o f Greek-ke y patter n an d th e handle s wit h a scrollin g design i n blu e enamel Th e inscriptio n ma y b e rendered : A wonderfu l pat h open s i n fairyland i n spit e o f th e thic k clouds ; Th e iri s an d th e orchi d i n bloo m ar e fragran t i n th e war m spring. Th e sea l befor e th e inscriptio n ha s bee n rea d hsi hsin (th e hear t o f elegance ) an d th e tw o afte r it shou (longevity ) an d ch'i (wonderful) O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n greyish blu e enamel H : 5.7 in (14.3 cm. ) Illustrate d i n Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol 12 p 81 Wit h rounde d sides everte d li p an d dee p straigh t foot Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s wit h a landscap e scen e i n whic h ar e depicte d a pai r o f quail s (shuang an), signifyin g "doubl e peace ( a well-know n rebu s o f greeting s fo r th e Ne w Year) flower s an d grasses detail s o f th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h cup O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n underglaz e blue D : 2.5m (6.3cm. ) Compar e wit h No 838 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2220 Miniature wit h rounde d sides Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n delicat e famille rose opaqu e enamels insid e wit h th e desig n o f a fairy wit h variou s Taois t attributes 83 0 a Scb PAI R O F CUP S O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N 83 1 SAUCE R O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N

PAGE 29

9 ridin g o n a lea f amon g waves an d o n th e revers e wit h a borde r o f wave s i n pal e opaqu e gree n enamel O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 3.1m (7.9cm. ) Pai r wit h No 832 83 2 SAUCE R O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Miniature wit h rounde d sides Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n delicat e famille rose opaqu e enamels insid e wit h th e desig n o f a fair y standin g o n wave s an d bearin g a wan d wit h Taois t attributes accompanie d b y a dee r wit h a spri g o f th e ling-chih i n it s mouth ; th e revers e wit h a borde r o f wave s i n pal e opaqu e gree n enamel O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 3.1m (7.9cm. ) Pai r wit h No 831 83 3 SAUCE R O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Moulde d an d incise d i n th e for m o f a six-petalle d mallo w flower. Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s wit h tw o seate d mal e figures on e o f the m holdin g a fa n wit h hi s righ t han d an d a smal l gil t cu p i n hi s left th e othe r wit h a simila r cu p i n hi s righ t hand a bo y attendan t bringin g the m win e i n a gil t ewer ; a n ope n scrol l wit h brus h an d in k lie s displaye d o n th e floor. I n th e backgroun d ar e tw o larg e jars on e enamelle d i n blue th e othe r i n crackle d white ; a dis h o f peache s restin g o n a lacque r stand 18t h century D : 5.2 in (13.2cm. ) Note. —The face s o f th e figures ar e slightl y shade d an d th e techniqu e suggest s Europea n influence 83 4 CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Deep tub-shape d (kang) wit h rounde d sides straigh t mout h an d slightl y recesse d base Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d wit h lotu s scroll s i n opaqu e orange blue gree n an d yello w "foreign enamels i n a groun d o f dee p rose ; th e interio r whit e an d undecorated O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four characte r mar k Yung-cheng yii chih (Mad e b y Imperia l orde r i n th e Yung-chen g period—1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 2.5m (6.4cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 837 889 A80 5 an d A806 Fro m th e Russel l Collection Fo r a discussio n o f th e subject se e Russell C E A Serie s o f Ch'in g Bowl s mad e b y Imperia l Order i n The Collector, Vol XI No 43 Dec 1930 pp 202-20 8 an d figs. 3 & 3a, an d Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp 193-199 pi 29 fig B Fo r a simila r specime n se e Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain and Pottery, forming the Collection of Mr. Alfred Trapnell, Bristol 1901 pi XXI No 151 Note. —This cu p wa s enamelled i t i s her e suggested i n on e o f th e 2 7 officia l workshop s (Tsao pan ch'u) i n th e Forbidde n City

PAGE 30

83 5 VERMILIO N BO X O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Covere d bo x o f circula r flattened for m decorate d i n brillian t famille rose enamel s wit h a mille-fleurs desig n o n th e outsid e o f bot h li d an d base th e insid e o f th e forme r wit h a five-clawed drago n an d o f th e latte r wit h floral sprays Th e glaze d bas e i s inscribe d wit h th e hall-mar k Chii jen t'ang chih (Mad e fo r th e Dwelling-in-Benevolenc e Hall) th e hall-mar k o f Yua n Shih-k'ai i n blu e ename l withi n a doubl e square D : 4.5m (11.2cm. ) Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, p 201 an d fig 361 Note. —This piec e wa s probabl y mad e i n 191 5 a t th e quasi imperia l manufactor y a t Ching-te-che n whic h ha d bee n inaugurate d o n th e order s o f th e above-mentione d ambitiou s statesma n b y Ku o Pao-ch'ang th e newly-appointe d Directo r o f th e Porcelai n Factory On e o f th e mor e importan t building s i n th e Chun g Ha i wa s th e Chi i Je n T'ang whic h wa s erecte d b y Yua n Shih-k'a i i n 1912-1 3 i n th e par k know n a s th e Chie h Fa n Chi (Se e Arlington L C. an d Lewisohn W. In Search of Old Peking p 99. ) Th e nam e o f th e Chi i Je n Hal l i s take n fro m a passag e i n Mencius : "Wher e benevolenc e i s th e dwelling-plac e o f th e hear t an d righteousnes s th e pat h o f life th e busines s o f a grea t ma n i s complete. (Se e Legge Chinese Classics I I p 468. ) 83 6 SNUF F BOTTL E O F CH'IEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f doubl e gour d for m wit h tw o smal l loo p handle s o n th e shoulders Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d wit h gour d vine s i n ename l colour s o n a gol d brocade d ground an d fitte d wit h a gil t filigre e meta l stoppe r wit h ivor y spoon O n th e bas e o f th e snuf f bottl e i s pencille d i n re d th e mar k o f th e Ch'ien lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n fou r smal l sea l character s withi n a singl e squar e o n a gol d ground H : 2 in (5cm. ) 83 7 CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Deep tub-shape d (kang) wit h rounde d sides straigh t mouth n o foot-ri m an d slightl y recesse d base Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d wit h flowering peonie s i n opaqu e pink blue gree n an d brownish-yello w "foreign enamel s i n a groun d o f mottle d orange A was h o f yello w ha s bee n adde d t o th e colourles s glaz e o f th e interior givin g i t a creamy-whit e appearance O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k K'ang-hsi yii chih (Mad e b y imperia l orde r i n th e K'ang-hs i period 1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n raise d blu e enamel D : 2.5 in (6.4cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 834 889 A80 5 an d A806 . Fro m th e Russel l Collection Fo r a discussio n o f th e subject se e Russell C E. A Serie s o f Ch'in g Bowl s mad e b y imperia l order i n The Collector, Vol XI No 43—Dec 1930 pp 202-20 8 an d figs 4 & 4a,

PAGE 31

1 1 an d Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp 193-199 pi 29 c an d fig. 350d Note. —This cu p wa s enamelled i t i s her e suggested i n on e o f th e 2 7 officia l workshop s ( Tsa o pan ch'u) i n th e Forbidde n City 83 8 CU P O F E NAMELLE D PORCELAI N Deep almos t bell-shaped wit h straigh t sides everte d li p an d straigh t foot-rim Whit e semi-eggshel l pegmatit e porce lai n painte d i n juan ts'ai enamel s wit h a desig n o f tw o quail s b y a rock wit h flowerin g tre e peonie s an d a butterfl y hoverin g above th e desig n signifyin g "doubl e peace (shuang an), 18t h century H : 2.1 Sin. (6.9 cm. ) Fro m th e Liddel l an d Russel l Collections Se e Jenyns Soame Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LXXXIV 2B PAI R O F BOWL S O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d straigh t foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e outsid e wit h separate d blossomin g an d fruitin g branche s i n transparen t famille verte enamel s an d gol d o n a celado n ground i n a manne r designe d pre sumabl y t o imitat e som e o f th e enamelle d ware s o f th e Ming period detail s o f th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h bowl Th e insid e i s plai n whit e excep t fo r a smal l five-pointed flora l medallio n withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blu e i n th e centre Th e mouth-ri m i s iron-stained O n th e bas e i s writte n Ta Ming nien chih (Mad e i n th e Grea t Ming Dynasty ) i n underglaz e blue D : A.lin. (11.9 cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 84 1 PERFUM E BAL L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Pot-pourr i containe r o f globula r for m wit h elaboratel y pierce d walls Whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e biscui t i n famille rose enamel s wit h fou r circula r medallion s o f th e flower s o f th e fou r seasons withi n border s o f scattere d blossoms Roun d th e mouth whic h ha s a circula r orifice an d th e foot whic h i s incise d i n th e for m o f a Chines e cash ar e tw o flora l band s similarl y ornamente d an d bordere d b y a ban d o f scattere d blossoms 18t h century H : 3.3 in (8.4 cm, ) Fro m th e Schreibe r Collection No 159 Fo r a simila r specimen se e Grandidier E. La Ceramique Chinoise, pi XXIII No 60 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2265 PAI R O F DISHE S O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d insid e i n pal e ink-lik e enamel on e wit h a rive r scen e i n th e styl e o f N i Tsan a boa t an d tw o figure s i n th e foreground a pagod a i n th e middl e distanc e an d th e su n an d sligh t detail s o f th e decoratio n i n re d enamel th e othe r wit h a rock y landscap e an d wate r scene O n th e 83 9 & 84 0 84 2 & 84 3

PAGE 32

1 2 bas e i s writte n Ya-yii t'ang chih, "Mad e fo r th e Hal l o f Elegan t Rain" i n a singl e colum n i n re d enamel 18t h century D : 7.9 in (20 cm. ) Note.—Ya-yii t'ang wa s a hall-nam e o f L u Chien-tsen g (1690-1768) schola r an d official wh o wa s Chie f Sal t Commissione r o f Liang-Huai wit h headquarter s a t Yang chou Hi s interes t i n educationa l refor m wa s demonstrate d b y th e academie s o f learnin g h e establishe d a t th e variou s place s wher e h e officiated Afte r servin g fo r ove r te n year s a s Sal t Commissioner h e wa s accuse d o f peculation an d trie d an d sentence d t o deat h b y strangulation bu t die d i n priso n befor e th e sentenc e coul d b e carrie d out Th e Ya-yii t'ang ts'ung shu, a collectio n o f work s o f pre-Sun g writers whic h h e compiled wa s publishe d i n 1756 Se e th e Yin liu chai shuo tz'u, ch 6 an d Hummel A W. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period I pp 541-542 84 4 VAS E O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f baluste r for m wit h slende r neck wid e spreadin g mouth an d narrowin g bas e whic h spread s t o a wid e slightl y thickene d foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamel s an d gol d wit h th e desig n o f a horsema n restrainin g a spirite d piebal d steed ; a roc k an d a willo w tre e i n th e distance Earl y 18t h century H : 8.1m (20.5cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 84 5 BOTTL E O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h pear-shape d bod y an d slende r nec k swellin g int o a six lobe d bul b belo w th e lip Fin e dead-whit e glass y porcelai n CLXXII I delicatel y painte d i n mixe d enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h (b ) a rock flowerin g begoni a an d iris an d a butterfly O n th e nec k i s a seven-characte r poetica l inscriptio n i n brow n wit h tw o seal s i n iro n red ; lea f borde r i n blu e ename l o n th e lip Th e inscriptio n ma y b e rendered : "De w i s fragran t i n th e middl e o f autumn. Th e ova l sea l befor e th e inscriptio n read s kao chih (loft y demeanour ) an d th e squar e sea l afte r it ch'iu shih (autum n scholar) O n th e bas e i s pencille d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n blu e enamel Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2279 Note. —The ter m "autum n scholar ha s bee n explaine d a s a schola r whos e talen t wa s recognise d lat e i n life 84 6 PAI R O F DISHE S O F RUBY-BACKE D & ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N 84 7 Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d fla t base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n painte d i n famille rose enamel s an d dar k CLXVII I brow n an d blu e wit h a landscap e desig n o f rocks shrubs flowerin g peon y an d dianthu s pinks an d a pai r o f cocks on e wit h brown blac k an d yello w plumage th e othe r wit h white Th e revers e i s covere d wit h ruby-pin k glaze Th e desig n o f on e dis h differ s slightl y fro m tha t o f th e other O n

PAGE 33

1 3 th e bas e i s a ruby-pin k medallio n painte d i n whit e reserv e Kung ming fu kuei, hung fu cKi t'ien ("Riche s an d honour an d aboundin g happines s reachin g t o Heave n !") i n lesse r sea l scrip t flanked b y tw o dragons Lat e 18t h century D : 6.1m (15.4cm. ) Compar e wit h No 858 Fro m th e Morga n Collection Se e Bushell S W. an d Laffan W M. Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of Chinese Porcelain p 19 G 1 3 an d 14 an d The Burlington Magazine 1906 IX pp 32 4 an d 395 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2288 84 8 BOTTL E O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h depresse d pear-shape d bod y an d tall slightl y tapering slende r neck Fin e dead-whit e glass y porcelai n painte d i n cSfx famille rose enamel s i n "K u yiieh styl e wit h a rock roses yello w orchid s an d grasse s o n th e bod y o f th e vessel an d o n th e nec k wit h a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s i n blac k an d thre e seal s i n re d enamel Th e renderin g o f thi s inscriptio n ha s presente d som e difficulty an d th e followin g versio n wa s suggeste d b y Dr Lione l Giles : "Wit h morning' s ligh t th e lovel y moo n ha s gone ; Bu t ever y yea r w e kno w tha t sprin g come s on. Th e sea l befor e th e inscriptio n read s chia li (beautiful ) an d th e tw o seal s afte r i t ssu shih (fou r seasons ) an d cKang cKun (prolonge d spring) O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n gre y blu e enamel H : 5.5m (14cm. ) Fro m th e Hippisle y Collection Catalogue No. 336 p 40 7 an d pi 19 Her e i s give n anothe r an d free r renderin g o f th e inscription Se e Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LXX X (2) 84 9 BOTTL E O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h depresse d pear-shape d bod y an d tall slightl y tapering slende r neck Dead-whit e glass y porcelai n painte d i n famille rose enamel s i n "K u yxieh styl e wit h a rock roses yello w orchid s an d grasse s o n th e bod y o f th e vessel an d o n th e nec k wit h a poetica l inscriptio n an d thre e seal s i n re d enamel on e precedin g th e inscriptio n chia li (beautiful) an d tw o followin g it ssu shih (fou r seasons ) an d ch'ang cKun (prolonge d spring) O n th e bas e i s pencille d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel H : 5.7m (14.4cm. ) Note. —This i s a moder n cop y o f No 848 an d i s know n t o hav e bee n mad e a t Ching-te-che n som e twent y year s ag o fro m th e illustratio n o n pi CLX X o f P.D.C. 85 0 TW O WIN E CUP S O F CHTEN-LUN G & ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N 85 1 Wit h rounde d side s an d slightl y everte d lip Semi-opaqu e whit e glaze finely an d delicatel y decorate d o n th e exterio r CLXX i v i n f a m ^ e ros e enamels o n on e cu p wit h tw o scroll-edge d (a ) panel s o f landscap e se t i n a groun d o f flowers naturalisticall y

PAGE 34

1 4 rendere d withi n scrol l borders ; o n th e othe r wit h tw o larg e an d tw o smal l scroll-edge d panel s wit h summe r an d winte r landscape s se t i n a gree n groun d closel y diapere d wit h floral scroll-work Bot h hav e th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n blu e ename l o n thei r bases H : 1.7 Sin (4.3 cm. ) Fro m th e Hippisle y Collection se e Catalogue Nos 32 6 an d 327 p 406 pi 20 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2216 85 2 VAS E O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D GLAS S Bottle-shape d wit h ovoi d bod y an d shor t taperin g neck Thic k semi-opaqu e glas s decorate d i n mixe d enamel s i n CLXXI V "K u yueh styl e wit h rocker y an d flowering peonie s an d a (b ) poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s i n blac k wit h thre e seal s i n red Th e inscription o n th e nec k o f th e vase consist s o f tw o line s o f five character s eac h an d ha s bee n rendered : "It s tende r bud s enclos e golde n pollen ; It s heav y flowers for m embroidere d bags. Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e i s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g ar e ssu shih (fou r seasons ) an d ch'ang ch'un (pro longe d spring) O n th e bas e i s incise d an d fille d i n wit h blu e ename l th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e square H : 3 Bin (9.1cm. ) Se e Bahr A W. Old Chinese Porcelain and Works of Art, 1912 pi XXXII I an d p 74 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2217 Note. —The line s o f th e inscriptio n ar e par t o f a vers e compose d b y Ha n Ts'ung a n obscur e T'an g poet o n th e Mou-ta n (peony ) befor e blooming" Th e sam e poe m an d seal s appea r o n a Yung-chen g bow l decorate d i n "K u yueh styl e i n th e Pekin g Palac e Museum (Se e Ku Kung, I p 19. ) 85 3 WATER-PO T O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D GLAS S O f ovoi d shap e wit h flat bas e an d narro w neck Milk-whit e opaqu e glas s finel y decorate d i n mixe d enamel s wit h variou s emblem s o f longevity includin g a twiste d pin e tree a deer a cran e standin g o n a rock peonie s an d th e ling-chih plant Roun d th e mouth-ri m i s painte d a ju-i hea d borde r an d o n th e narro w li p an d roun d i t fiv e bat s ar e delicatel y draw n i n pal e iron-re d enamel O n th e bas e i s incise d an d fille d i n wit h blu e ename l th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e square H : 2.3m (5.8 cm. ) Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2215 85 4 BRUS H BARRE L O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D GLAS S O f tal l cylindrica l for m wit h flat base Thic k milky-whit e opaqu e glas s decorate d i n delicat e mixe d enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h a grou p o f th e seve n sages ; thre e o f the m ar e seate d

PAGE 35

an d listenin g i n reflectiv e moo d t o th e disquisitio n o f a fourth a n elderl y bearde d figure i n a yello w rob e wh o sit s unde r a pine-tre e behin d a cluste r o f loft y rocks O n th e othe r sid e o f th e vesse l stand s anothe r bearde d figure holdin g a twiste d croo k an d receivin g peache s fro m a youn g man whil e anothe r youn g ma n look s on th e whol e scen e bein g lai d i n a grass y landscap e unde r a clea r blu e sky O n th e bas e i s engrave d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e square originall y filled i n wit h blu e enamel H : 4 in (10. 1 cm.) Fro m th e Ezekie l Collection Se e Hobson R L. The Later Ceramic Wares of China, p 82 Fo r a n analogou s specimen se e Catalogue of the Hippisley Collection p 406 pi 20 No 325 an d Hobson R L. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain II pi 125 fig. 1 85 5 BOW L O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d slightl y everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n "K u yiieh styl e i n famille rose enamels outsid e wit h spray s o f convolvulu s i n a diapere d groun d o f blu e ename l engrave d i n quatrefoi l pattern an d insid e wit h a peon y an d ros e spra y o n a plai n whit e ground O n th e bas e i s pencille d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel D : 6.2 in (15.7 cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 85 6 an d 857 85 6 DIS H O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shaped Fin e thi n whit e porcelain decorate d i n famille rose enamel s i n "K u yiieh style Insid e i s a delicatel y draw n desig n o f blossomin g magnoli a an d peac h spra y togethe r wit h a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s i n brow n wit h thre e seal s i n re d enamel Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "Movin g shadow s follo w th e roun d moon Th e gentl e breez e bear s fragrance. Th e sea l precedin g th e inscriptio n read s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g i t ts'ui (blue-green o r kingfisher ) an d p'u (sprea d wide o r shop) O n th e revers e appea r fou r lotu s arabesque s i n simila r colour s ove r a groun d o f opaqu e pal e gree n ename l diapere d wit h a n engrave d quatrefoi l pattern th e foo t wit h a continuou s scrollin g design O n th e glaze d bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel D : 5.6m (14.2cm. ) Compar e wit h No 857 whic h carrie s a varian t o f thi s design an d P.D.C. pi CLXXI DIS H O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shaped Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s i n "K u yiieh style Insid e i s a delicatel y draw n desig n o f blossomin g magnoli a an d peac h spra y togethe r wit h a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s i n brow n wit h thre e 85 7 PDC CLXX I

PAGE 36

1 6 seal s i n re d enamel Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "Movin g shadow s follo w th e roun d moon Th e gentl e breez e bear s fragrance. Th e sea l precedin g th e inscriptio n read s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g i t hsia (clouds ) an d ying (reflection) O n th e revers e o f th e dis h appea r fou r lotu s arabesque s i n simila r colour s ove r a groun d o f opaqu e pal e gree n ename l diapere d wit h a n engrave d quatrefoi l pattern th e foo t wit h a continuou s scrollin g design O n th e glaze d bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel D : 5.6m (14.2cm. ) Compar e wit h No 856 whic h carrie s a varian t o f thi s design Illustrate d b y Jenyns S. i n Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LXXXIII 85 8 VAS E O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Bottle-shape d wit h globula r bod y an d taperin g cylindrica l neck Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n wit h "chicke n skin CLXVI I marking s i n th e surfac e o f th e glaze Painte d i n famille rose enamel s an d brow n wit h a rock peony magnolia prunu s an d othe r plants an d wit h thre e roosters tw o i n brown blac k an d yello w an d on e i n whit e plumage wit h he n an d chickens Ove r th e li p i s painte d a ba t i n pin k enamel an d o n th e bas e withi n a ruby-pin k medallio n i n whit e reserv e appear s Rung ming fu kuei hung fu ch'i t'ien, "Riche s an d honour an d aboundin g happines s reachin g t o Heaven, i n "archaic script flanked b y tw o dragons Lat e 18t h century H : 7m (17.7cm. ) Se e Nos 84 6 & 847 Fro m th e Willia m Bennett Cliv e Kendric k an d McKinno n Woo d Collections Illustrate d i n A Collection of Rare and Old Chinese Porcelain, collected by Sir William Bennett, K.C.V.O., an d i n Gore r an d Blacker Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones, II pi 225 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2289 85 9 DIS H O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h wid e mout h an d rounde d sides Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamels iron-re d an d gilding Insid e i s a peac h branc h wit h leave s an d on e larg e frui t wit h th e characte r shou "longevity i n sea l scrip t painte d i n gold Outsid e ther e ar e tw o group s o f Taois t fairies th e first followin g a chario t whic h bear s a dis h wit h a baske t o f peache s an d ling-chih, th e chario t draw n b y a deer whil e member s o f th e first grou p ar e show n carryin g variou s Taois t attribute s an d followe d b y anothe r deer A secon d grou p followin g behin d a cran e include s a fair y carryin g a gol d doubl e gourd fro m whic h emanate s a lon g thi n strea m o f vapou r wit h five bat s (wu fu) a rebu s fo r Wu Fu, Th e Fiv e Blessing s —longevity riches peacefulnes s an d serenity th e lov e o f virtue an d a n en d crownin g th e life I n th e space s betwee n th e tw o group s ar e smal l an d larg e rock s an d clump s o f fungus

PAGE 37

1 7 an d roun d th e foot-ri m ar e separate d leaves flora l spray s an d butterflies Earl y 18t h century D : 8.8m (22.2 cm. ) Compar e wit h No 863 Fro m th e Reginal d Cor y Collection See Hobson R L. The Later Ceramic Wares of China, pi LXVII fig 2 p 89 Fo r a simila r specime n se e Hippisley A E. A Sketch of the History of Ceramic Art in China No 27 an d p 375 pi 1 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 1732 86 0 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d fla t base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamels iron-red an d brow n wit h a landscap e scen e o f rocks blossomin g tree peony an d asters an d thre e quail s a t res t o n th e grass y sward ; a wid e diape r borde r surround s th e mouth-rim Th e revers e o f th e side s i s covere d wit h ruby-pin k enamel 18t h century D : 7.8m (19.7cm. ) Fro m th e See d Collection Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2229 86 1 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d fla t base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d insid e i n famille rose enamel s wit h a pictur e o f famil y life A tastefull y attire d lad y sit s wit h crosse d leg s o n a rectangula r lacquere d stool holdin g a peon y i n he r lef t hand he r righ t restin g o n a cas e o f books Sh e look s dow n a t he r tw o boys on e o f who m carrie s a ja r o f blossomin g peony th e othe r a branc h o f th e lotus A hig h circula r lacque r table furnishe d wit h a n ornamente d bronz e beake r (ku) holdin g branche s o f th e ling-chih an d a whit e feathe r duste r behin d a ch'i-lin stand s i n th e background a s als o tw o larg e cerami c jar s o n th e lef t an d a larg e ja r an d cove r o n th e right—traditiona l accessorie s o f th e culture d Chines e interior A narro w gree n diape r border interrupte d b y thre e flora l panels decorate s th e mouth-ri m o f th e dish whil e it s revers e i s covere d wit h ruby-pin k enamel 18t h century D : 7.8m (19.8cm. ) Fro m th e J E Taylo r Collection Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2218 86 2 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d fla t base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d insid e i n famille rose enamel s withi n a six-petalle d centra l pane l wit h a scen e representin g par t o f th e Wes t Lak e a t Hangchou a sampa n gettin g unde r wa y i n th e foreground a schola r seate d i n th e interio r o f it s reede d cabi n an d tw o boatme n pullin g u p th e sail whil e tw o

PAGE 38

1 8 mor e pus h of f th e boa t fro m th e shore Fou r othe r boat s appea r i n th e backgroun d an d a bridg e i n th e middl e distance whil e o n th e rive r bank s ther e ar e huts an d pin e an d othe r trees Roun d thi s centra l desig n ar e tw o flora l borders on e pink th e othe r i n gree n mosai c interrupte d b y thre e foliate d panel s containin g spray s o f frui t an d flowers Th e revers e o f th e side s o f th e dis h i s covere d wit h ruby-pin k glaze 18t h century D : 7.9 in (20 cm. ) Compar e wit h Bushell S W. Oriental Ceramic Art, fig 36 4 an d tex t edition pp 896-7 86 3 BOW L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h wid e mout h an d rounde d sides Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamel s an d gold Insid e i s a peac h branc h wit h leave s an d on e larg e fruit o n whic h i s pencille d i n gol d th e characte r shou "longevity i n sea l script Outsid e ther e ar e thre e group s o f Taois t fairie s wit h tw o attendants On e o f th e figure s (Hs i Wan g Mu ) i s show n ridin g o n a stor k i n flight whil e anothe r hold s a gil t doubl e gourd fro m whic h emanate s a lon g thi n strea m o f vapou r an d fiv e bats emblemati c o f th e fiv e blessings ; th e othe r figure s carr y basket s o f peaches ling-chih an d simila r Taois t attributes I n th e space s betwee n th e group s appea r smal l an d larg e rock s an d clump s o f fungus an d roun d th e base-ri m ar e separate d leaves flora l sprays an d butterflies Earl y 18t h century D : 8.8m (22.7 cm. ) Compar e wit h No 859 86 4 WATER-PO T O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D GLAS S O f ovoi d shape wit h fla t bas e an d smal l contracte d mouth Thic k milky-whit e opaqu e glas s decorate d i n delicat e mixe d enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h a scen e o f a youn g shepherd whos e feature s ar e unmistakabl y European tendin g a ra m an d tw o ewe s o n a grass y swar d withi n a grou p o f loft y rocks amon g whic h gro w plant s an d flowerin g trees Unde r th e bas e i s engrave d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) originall y fille d i n wit h blu e enamel H : 1.9m (4.8cm. ) Fro m th e Hippisle y Collection se e Catalogue, p 405 No 324 86 5 DIS H O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e revers e wit h a mille fleurs desig n i n famille rose enamels th e interio r plai n white O n th e bas e i s writte n Ch'ing-i t'ang chih, "Mad e fo r th e Ch'ingi Hall" withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel 18t h century D : 6.5m (16.6cm. ) Fo r a simila r specime n se e Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain and Pottery, forming the Collection of Mr. Alfred Trapnell, Bristol 1901 pi XXXVIII No 189

PAGE 39

1 9 86 6 WATER-PO T O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f depresse d globula r for m wit h rounde d sides incurvin g mouth an d slightl y sun k base Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n .famille rose enamels black an d brow n wit h a n attractiv e naturalisti c desig n o f gnarle d bough s o f th e blossomin g prunu s tree Th e interio r an d bas e ar e glaze d white an d o n th e latte r ther e appear s th e pencille d four characte r mar k I-yen chai ts'ang ("Treasur e o f th e Bequeathe d Inkston e Pavilion" ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel 18t h century D : 3.3m (8.3 cm. ) Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, fig. 35 3 an d p 200 Compar e Hobson R L. The Later Ceramic Wares, p 83 an d pi LXII fig. 3 fo r a simila r water-pot no w i n th e Britis h Museum 86 7 PAI R O F BOTTLE S O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N 86 8 Wit h pear-shape d bod y an d slende r nec k swellin g int o a six-lobe d bul b belo w th e lip Fin e whit e porcelai n delicatel y clxii i painte d i n mixe d enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h a desig n (a ) o f rocks ros e peonies bird s an d bamboo O n th e nec k i s a poetica l inscriptio n o f tw o five-character verse s i n blac k wit h tw o seal s i n red Th e inscriptio n ha s bee n rendered : A mas s o f beautifu l colours an d th e clea r col d breez e i n al l directions. Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e i s chia li (beautiful) an d th e on e followin g cKang ch'un (prolonge d spring) O n th e bul b an d belo w th e li p i s a peta l patter n i n blu e enamel an d o n th e bas e i s pencille d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) likewis e i n blu e enamel H : 3.5m (9 cm. ) Fro m th e Reginal d Cor y Collection Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-35 Cat No 2279 87 0 86 9 PAI R O F DISHE S O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N ^ Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d slightl y incurvin g foot Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d outsid e i n pal e trans paren t famille verte enamel s o n a greenis h whit e groun d wit h a n artisti c design whic h wind s ove r th e ri m t o ornamen t th e interior o f a berry-lade n branc h an d fou r butterflie s hoverin g aroun d an d abov e it detail s o f th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h dish Unde r th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 6.8 in (17.2cm. ) 87 1 VAS E O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Bottle-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d straigh t cylindrica l neck Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d o n a whit e clxv i glaze d groun d i n famille rose enamels brown an d blac k wit h a blossomin g spra y o f rose s ( ros a sinensis) wit h gree n leave s an d a butterfly th e whol e mos t artisticall y rendered

PAGE 40

2 0 18t h century H : 5.6m (14.2cm. ) Fro m th e G R Davie s Collection Catalogue No 31 Se e Dexel T. Die Formen Chinesischer Keramik, p 66 an d pi 79b Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2278 87 2 PAI R O F BOWL S O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N Shallo w wit h rounde d sides n o foot-ri m an d sun k base Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s o n a whit e glaze d groun d wit h a scrollin g branc h o f blossomin g lotu s an d a kingfisher th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h bowl O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e rectangl e i n underglaz e blue D : 3.7m (9.4cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 87 4 BOW L O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d o n a whit e glaze d groun d i n famille rose enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h a verna l scen e o f aprico t tree s i n blossom a willow a pai r o f swallow s (hsing liu ch'un yen), an d a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s i n blac k wit h thre e seal s i n ros e enamel Th e inscriptio n ha s bee n rendered : 'Jad e shears dar t throug h th e flowers A s a 'feather-gowned wit h th e moo n returns. "Jad e shears her e refer s t o th e scissor-shape d tail s o f th e swallow s flying amon g th e flowering apricot whic h remin d th e poe t o f a woma n i n a feather-gow n returnin g hom e i n th e moonlight Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e read s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g i t hsien ch'un (earl y spring ) an d hsu ying (possibl y a name) O n th e bas e i s pencille d i n blu e ename l th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e square D : 4.5m (11.4cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2283 Note. —The pai r t o thi s bowl describe d an d illustrate d b y Hobson R L. i n Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, p 200 an d fig 352 i s i n th e Barbar a Hutto n Collectio n (se e Catalogu e o f th e Loa n Exhibitio n o f tha t Collectio n a t th e Honolul u Academ y o f Arts Nov 1956-Jan 1957 pi XXV) Th e vas e o f thi s se t appear s i n th e Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Government Exhibits for the International Exhibition of Chinese Art in London II No 298 Se e als o Cat No 2156 A similar bu t large r bow l i n th e W u Yin g Tie n i s liste d an d describe d b y Yan g Hsiao-k u i n hi s Ku yueh hsiian tz'u k'ao. 87 5 WIN E CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h straigh t spreadin g side s an d narro w foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamel s

PAGE 41

2 1 o n on e sid e wit h a landscap e scen e o f L i T'ai-p o gazin g a t th e Fall s o f Szechwa n unde r a gold-tinte d sun a bo y attendan t standin g behin d him ; an d o n th e othe r wit h a lea f an d a sea l i n iron-re d ename l an d gol d readin g lin chu, "Fores t Abode" I n th e botto m o f th e interio r i s painte d a growin g shru b o f th e ling-chih an d o n th e bas e th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a singl e circl e i n under glaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 2.75m (6.9cm.) Compar e wit h No 876 Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e Hobson R L. The Later Ceramic Wares of China p 36 an d pi LXII fig. 1 an d Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LXXXI V (lc.) 87 6 WIN E CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h straigh t side s an d narro w foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e outsid e wit h a landscap e scen e i n trans paren t famille verte enamels A n officia l o n a hors e look s ove r hi s shoulde r a s h e ride s awa y fro m a gnarle d leafles s tre e growin g b y a rock whil e tw o bat s fly overhead ; i n th e sk y a gold-tinte d sun I n th e interio r o f th e cu p a squirre l i s show n lookin g u p a t a spra y o f fruitin g vine an d o n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a singl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 2.75m (6.9 cm. ) Compar e wit h No 875 Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, p 189 fig. 341 87 7 WIN E CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d sides smal l bas e an d everte d lip Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n pal e famille rose enamel s an d iron-re d wit h a desig n o f a clum p o f bamboo dianthu s pinks an d a ba t flying acros s wit h th e chi-ch'ing, th e jad e emble m o f goo d fortune dependin g fro m a ribbo n i n it s mouth O n th e othe r sid e ar e tw o butterflie s wit h a hal f stanz a o f vers e pencille d i n blac k an d readin g Ch'ing chu ch'ien ch'iu, "Prayer s fo r goo d fortune an d a thousan d harvests" A blosso m an d a bu d o f th e fragran t jasmin e tre e ar e painte d i n opaqu e whit e ename l insid e a t th e botto m o f th e cup an d th e hall-mar k Chih hsiu ts'ao t'ang, "Thatche d Hal l o f Sesamu m Grasses" appear s withi n a doubl e squar e i n iron-re d enamel Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95) D : 2.5 in (6.3 cm. ) Fro m th e Bushel l Collection Se e Bushell S W. Oriental Ceramic Art, fig. 78 p 48 an d tex t editio n pp 8 5 an d 833 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2222 87 8 CU P O F YUNG-CHEN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d smal l dee p foot Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamels brown an d iron

PAGE 42

2 2 red outsid e wit h a popp y an d tw o spray s o f blossomin g peony insid e wit h a liche e an d frui t seeds som e o f whic h ar e shade d i n brown O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a singl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 3.6m (9.1cm. ) Compar e wit h No 821 an d fo r a n analogou s specimen se e Hobson R L. The Later Ceramic Wares of China, p 7 3 an d pi LVII fig 2 87 9 PAI R O F SAUCER S O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N & Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d narro w foot-rim Fin e 88 0 whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h a fruitin g branc h o f th e peac h tree sym bolica l o f longevity detail s o f th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h saucer Ther e i s n o mar k o n th e glaze d bases Earl y 18t h century D : 3.8m (9.6cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 88 1 VAS E O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f ovoi d for m wit h shor t nec k an d thickene d mouth-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n wit h "chicke n skin glaz e decorate d i n pal e famille rose enamel s i n "K u yiieh styl e wit h a n elegan t figur e o f a shepherdes s cla d i n Chines e attir e wit h Europea n elements an d wearin g a snoo d t o whic h a peon y i s attached Sh e hold s i n he r righ t han d a smal l whi p wit h a spotte d bambo o handle Roun d he r ar e tw o ram s an d thre e sheep th e scen e se t i n a landscap e wit h rock s an d rushes Tw o sea l characters readin g "Sea l o f Ch'en ar e writte n i n ros e ename l o n th e bod y o f th e vas e t o th e righ t o f th e figure Th e glaze d bas e i s unmarked Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95) H : 12.4m (31.4cm. ) Fro m th e Reginal d Cor y Collection Se e Hobson R L. The Later Ceramic Wares of China, pi LX I an d p 83 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2232 88 2 FLAS K O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f pilgri m vas e for m ( pie n hu) wit h flattene d globula r body smal l ova l base an d tw o ribbon-for m handle s joinin g th e shoulder s t o th e neck whic h ha s a bulbou s centr e an d contract s t o a smal l circula r mouth Whit e porcelai n covere d wit h a thic k glassy-whit e glaz e an d decorate d i n famille verte enamel s o n eithe r sid e wit h a n eight-petalle d flower medallio n outline d i n blac k o n a seede d gree n ground O n thi s i s depicte d a mythica l four-foote d anima l amids t lotu s blossom s withi n a smalle r medallio n i n th e centre bordere d wit h a scattere d blosso m design Th e bas e o f th e nec k i s decorate d o n eithe r sid e wit h th e "lon g life characte r i n sea l form whil e th e handle s en d o n th e shoulder s i n smal l ju-i heads an d th e mouth-ri m ha s a palmat e an d ju-i hea d design fro m whic h tassel s depend Th e glaze d base-ri m i s ringe d wit h a lin e o f continuou s Gree k ke y pattern Ther e i s n o mar k o n th e whit e glaze d base H : 7.5 in (19 cm. ) Note. —For shape compar e wit h No A822

PAGE 43

2 3 88 3 PAI R O F DISHE S O F K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N 88 4 Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n decorate d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h a landscap e scen e i n whic h appea r La n Ts'ai-h o carryin g a ho e an d a n attendan t wit h a baske t o f flowers; scattere d leaves blossoms an d butterflie s decorat e th e flattened mouth-rim Detail s o f th e desig n o n eac h sauce r diffe r slightly O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 6in. (15.2 cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 88 5 BOW L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d sides slightl y everte d li p an d dee p foot Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d outsid e wit h separate d tree s an d bough s o f frui t an d flowers, an d insid e wit h a peon y medallio n i n lat e famille verte enamels O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 6.7 in (17cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 88 6 PAI R O F WIN E CUP S O F K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N 88 7 Deep wit h stee p sides everte d lip an d smal l foot Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d insid e i n transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h separate d blossomin g tree s an d plant s i n fou r groups representin g th e fou r season s o f th e year a singl e circl e i n underglaz e blu e i n th e centr e an d a doubl e circl e roun d th e li p o f th e interior Th e outsid e i s plai n excep t fo r a simila r doubl e circl e painte d roun d th e mout h an d a circl e o f thre e line s roun d th e foo t i n underglaz e blue O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 3.2m (8.1cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 88 8 BOW L O F CH'IEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d smal l foot-rim Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamels iron-red dar k brown an d blac k wit h a scen e i n whic h th e ling-chih i s show n growin g fro m th e bas e o f a blossomin g gnarle d prunu s tree an d a grou p o f twent y magpies fou r o f the m i n flight, th e res t perche d o n th e branche s o f a prunu s tree Insid e ther e ar e thre e bat s painte d i n iron-re d enamel an d o n th e bas e th e mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n si x sea l char acter s i n underglaz e blue D : 4.3m (10.9cm. ) 88 9 CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Deep tub-shape d ( kang ) wit h rounde d sides straigh t mouth n o foot-ri m an d slightl y recesse d base Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d wit h flowering peonie s i n opaqu e pink blue gree n

PAGE 44

2 4 an d brownish-yello w "foreign enamels i n a groun d o f brillian t yellow ; th e interio r creamy-whit e an d undecorated O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k Yung-cheng yii chih (Mad e b y Imperia l Orde r i n th e Yung-chen g perio d —1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n raise d blu e enamel D : 2.5m (6.4cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 834 837 A80 5 an d A806 Fro m th e Russel l Collection Fo r a discussio n o f th e subject se e Russell C E. A Serie s o f Ch'in g Bowl s mad e b y Imperia l Order i n The Collector, Vol XI No 43-Dec 1930 pp 202-208 an d Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp 193-199 Note. —This cu p wa s enamelled i t i s her e suggested i n on e o f th e 2 7 officia l workshop s (Tsao pan ctiu) i n th e Forbidde n City 89 0 DIS H O F K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattene d mouth-ri m wit h thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h tw o ladies on e carryin g a libatio n cu p o n a dish th e other a n attendant als o carryin g a dis h o n whic h rest s a n ewe r painte d wit h th e shou "longevity characte r i n sea l for m i n iron-red Th e flattened ri m ha s a brocade-patter n borde r i n pal e iron-re d an d gol d interrupte d b y fou r medallion s containin g th e sea l character s Wan shou wu chiang A myria d longevitie s withou t endin g O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 9.9m (25.1cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 812 89 1 an d A836 Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Note. —This dis h probabl y forme d par t o f th e so-calle d "Birthda y Service" 89 1 DIS H O F K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d side s an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h thickene d edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h a naturalisti c desig n o f a bir d o n a pendan t fruitin g bough th e flattened ri m wit h a brocad e patter n borde r i n pal e iron-re d an d gol d interrupte d b y fou r medallion s containin g th e sea l character s Wan shou wu chiang A myria d longevitie s withou t endin g O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 10 in (25.4cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 812 89 0 an d A836 Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Compar e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, p 18 9 an d colou r plat e No 27 Note. —This dis h probabl y forme d par t o f th e so-calle d 'Birthda y Service" 89 2 WIN E CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h straigh t spreadin g side s an d narro w foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamel s

PAGE 45

2 5 o n on e sid e wit h a hsien (immortal ) carryin g o n hi s shoulde r a baske t o f flower s slun g o n a ho e an d followe d b y a deer o n th e othe r wit h tw o bat s an d a gold-tinte d su n amids t clouds I n th e botto m o f th e interio r i s painte d a spra y o f th e flowerin g peony O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a singl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 2.75m (6.9cm. ) Compar e wit h No 893 Fro m th e Liddel l an d Elphinston e Collections 89 3 WIN E CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h straigh t spreadin g side s an d narro w foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n transparen t famille verte enamels O n on e sid e i s a rock y landscap e wit h a ma n ridin g o n a mul e followe d b y a n attendan t carryin g a n umbrella i n th e sk y a gold-tinte d su n amids t clouds ; o n th e othe r sid e o f th e cu p a squar e sea l i n iron-red I n th e botto m o f th e interio r i s painte d a peac h an d th e ling-chih, an d o n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d withi n a singl e circl e i n underglaz e blue Earl y 18t h century D : 2.75m (6.9cm. ) Compar e wit h No 892 Fro m th e Liddel l an d Elphinston e Collections 89 4 PAI R O F SAUCER S O F YUNG-CHEN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N 89 5 Wit h rounde d side s an d slightl y incurvin g foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s o n a whit e ground insid e wit h a blossomin g boug h o f th e prunu s inter twine d wit h spray s o f th e tree-peony an d wit h tw o hoverin g butterflies th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h saucer Th e outsid e i s decorate d wit h a scrollin g conventiona l flora l desig n i n famille rose enamel s o n a gil t ground O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 4.5m (11.3cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2282 89 6 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h stee p straigh t side s an d fla t base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s wit h tw o car p swimmin g amongs t wate r weeds Th e outsid e i s covere d wit h rose-pin k enamel Ther e i s n o mar k o n th e glaze d base 18t h century D : 5.3 in (13.4cm. ) Fro m th e Liddel l an d Elphinston e Collections 89 7 PAI R O F BOWL S O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N 89 8 Wit h rounde d sides everte d li p an d dee p straigh t foot Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d outsid e i n famille rose enamel s wit h a desig n whic h wind s ove r th e ri m t o ornamen t th e interior o f blossomin g an d fruitin g spray s o f bambo o an d

PAGE 46

2 6 "Buddha's-hand citro n an d tw o butterflies th e detail s differin g slightl y o n eac h saucer O n th e bas e i s writte n th e mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n si x sea l character s i n underglaz e blue D : 4.4m (11.1cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection 89 9 JA R O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f ovoi d for m wit h shor t nec k an d lo w straigh t foot Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n covere d wit h pal e greenish-yello w glaz e wit h "orange-skin surfac e an d decorate d i n brow n ename l wit h thre e dragon-and-clou d medallion s separate d b y scattere d blossoms O n th e whit e glaze d bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue H : 3.3m (8.4cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2212 A80 0 PAI R O F RUBY-BACKE D DISHE S O F ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N A80 1 Saucer-shaped wit h rounde d side s an d fla t base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s wit h thre e cocks on e whit e an d tw o yellow a n insect rock asters an d peonies ; a diape r borde r roun d th e mouth-rim Th e outsid e i s covere d wit h ruby-pin k enamel an d ther e i s n o mar k o n th e glaze d base 18t h century D : 7.8 in (19. 7 cm. ) Fo r simila r specimens se e Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of Chinese Porcelain, 190 4 (Vol I) pis X X an d XXV p 66 Nos 39 5 an d 396 an d th e late r wor k unde r th e sam e titl e b y Bushel l an d Laffan 1910 pis X X an d XXV p 83 Nos 39 5 an d 396 Williamson G C. The Book of Famille Rose, pi XXI Honey W B. Guide to the Later Chinese Porcelain (i n th e Victori a an d Alber t Museum) p 5 3 an d pi 89 an d Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, p 5 7 an d pi LIV A80 2 CU P AN D SAUCE R O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N a & b Cu p wit h steep slightl y rounde d side s an d everte d lip ; sauce r wit h rounde d sides flat base an d narro w foot-rim Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n thic k famille rose enamel s o n th e outsid e o f th e cu p an d insid e o f th e sauce r wit h th e Arm s o f Holland it s mott o Concordia res parvae crescunt, an d th e V.O.C o f th e Dutc h Eas t Indi a Compan y wit h th e dat e "1728" Insid e th e ri m o f bot h cu p an d sauce r ther e i s a n ogee-patterne d border whil e th e V.O.C (Vereenigd e Oostindisch e Compagnie ) monogra m appear s withi n a singl e circl e a t th e botto m o f th e cup Ther e i s n o mar k o n th e whit e glaze d bas e o f eithe r cu p o r saucer Earl y 18t h century H : o f cu p 1.4m (3.5cm.) D : o f sauce r 4.2m (10.6cm. ) Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II p 213 Honey W B. Guide to the Later Chinese Porcelain (i n th e Victori a an d Alber t Museum) p 6 8 an d pi 11 0 (a) an d Williamson G C. The Book of Famille Rose, p 13 3 an d pi XXXVII

PAGE 47

2 7 A80 3 VAS E O F CAME O GLAS S Ovoid contractin g t o a smal l mouth Fin e whit e semi opaqu e glas s imitatin g porcelai n overlai d wit h dar k blu e glas s whic h ha s bee n cu t awa y i n came o fashio n t o presen t a decorativ e design emblemati c o f happines s an d longevity o f five bat s i n fligh t surrounde d b y th e shou, "longevity" characte r i n sea l form Thi s desig n i s repeate d o n th e opposit e sid e o f th e vase th e tw o motif s bein g separate d b y ringe d anima l mask s pose d ove r a bat th e mout h an d bas e o f th e vas e ringe d wit h a borde r o f continuou s ju-i head s an d th e foo t wit h a lin e o f blue Th e ringe d blu e bas e i s whit e an d unmarked Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95) H : 3.2m (8.lew. ) Compar e an d contras t wit h No A804 whic h form s a cerami c counterpar t t o thi s clas s o f ware A80 4 VERMILIO N BO X O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s moulde d int o five lobes Fin e whit e porcelai n imitatin g glas s decorate d wit h flowe r scroll s an d th e shou, "longevity" characte r i n sea l for m surrounde d b y a borde r o f bat s an d flower s i n thic k blu e enamel O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r sea l mar k o f th e Ch'ien lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n re d enamel th e insid e o f th e bo x an d it s bas e bein g covere d wit h opaqu e "foreign gree n enamel D : 2.6m (6.6cm.) Compar e an d contras t wit h No A803 a glas s counterpar t t o thi s typ e o f ware Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 1743 A80 5 BOW L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d slightl y everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d wit h a continuou s peon y scrol l desig n i n opaqu e pink blue green whit e an d yello w "foreign enamel s i n a groun d o f dee p rose ; th e interio r whit e an d undecorated O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k Yung-cheng yu chih (Mad e b y imperia l orde r i n th e Yung chen g period—1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n underglaz e blue D : 4.4m (11.1cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 834 837 88 9 an d A806 Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Fo r a discussio n o f th e subject se e Russell C E. A Serie s o f Ch'in g Bowl s mad e b y Imperia l Order i n The Collector, Vol XI No 43—Dec 1930 pp 202-208 an d Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp 193-199 Note. —This bow l wa s enamelled i t i s her e suggested i n on e o f th e 2 7 officia l workshop s (Tsao pan ch'u) i n th e Forbidde n City A80 6 BOW L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d wit h a n intertwinin g peon y scrol l desig n i n red

PAGE 48

2 8 blue green an d orange-yello w "foreign enamel s i n a groun d o f yellow ; th e interio r bluis h whit e an d undecorated O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k K'ang-hsi yu chih (Mad e b y imperia l orde r i n th e K'ang-hs i period — 1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel D : 4.5m (11.4cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 834 837 88 9 an d A805 Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Fo r a discussio n o f th e subject se e Russell C E. A Serie s o f Ch'in g Bowl s mad e b y Imperia l Order i n The Collector Vol XI No 43—Dec 1930 pp 202-208 an d Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp 193-199 Fo r simila r specimens se e Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Government Exhibits for the International Exhibition of Chinese Art in London Nanking 1935 Vol II Nos 19 8 an d 199 Note. —This bow l wa s enamelled i t i s her e suggested i n on e o f th e 2 7 officia l workshop s ( Tsa o pan ch'u) i n th e Forbidde n City A80 7 VAS E O F CH'IEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Half-vase fo r suspensio n i n a seda n chair rectangula r i n sectio n an d wit h flattened bac k wit h thre e hole s fo r hanging th e nec k fitte d wit h tw o gilt-decorate d drago n handle s an d th e bas e wit h a similarl y decorate d stand Fin e whit e porcelai n wit h clair-de-lune glaz e decorate d o n th e fron t wit h a stylise d floral desig n i n famille rose enamel s o n a scroll-wor k groun d an d enclosin g a shape d panel slightl y sunk o n whic h i s writte n a n imperia l poetica l inscriptio n i n blac k followe d b y tw o seals Ch'ien-lung ch'en han (Th e Imperia l Compositio n o f Ch'ien-lung ) an d Wei-ching wei i (Concentratio n an d Single-mindedness ) i n iron-re d o n a whit e ground Th e bac k o f th e vase wit h som e twent y tin y spu r marks i s enamelle d i n clair-de-lune. O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n a singl e horizonta l lin e i n underglaz e blu e o n a whit e ground surrounde d b y a n opaqu e gree n "foreign ename l whic h als o cover s th e interio r o f th e vase H : 7.5 in (19 cm. ) Th e inscriptio n ma y b e rendered : ''Kua n ware s an d thos e o f Ju-cho u ar e famou s classes Ye t th e shape s o f th e ne w ware s ar e eve n mor e admirable Thi s hangin g vas e inspire s th e travelle r t o song An d t o th e gatherin g o f fragran t flowers b y th e wayside A seda n chai r i s indee d well-suite d fo r it s hanging A s ove r it s sid e wil d flowers s o aptl y droop Th e re d dus t (o f th e morta l world ) i s barre d fro m ingress Bu t fragranc e ca n penetrat e th e gauz e o f th e windo w blind Compose d b y th e Empero r i n th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d an d inscribe d B y hi s order. Note. —This eight-lin e vers e o f fiv e character s t o th e line her e arrange d i n five line s o f eigh t characters wa s compose d b y th e Empero r Ch'ien-lun g i n 1742 an d i s th e first o n th e subjec t o f ceramic s s o recorded I t appear s i n

PAGE 49

2 9 Ch'ien-lung yii chih shih chi, Sec I ch 11 f 6 wher e i t i s entitled : "O n a Hangin g Vase" Fo r th e seals Ch'ien-lung ch'en han an d Wei ching wei i, se e Contag V. an d Wang C C. Malerund SammlerStempel aus der Mingund Ch'ing-Zeit p 581 No 2 an d p 586 No 80 I n a lette r t o Si r Perciva l David Ku o Pao-ch'ang wh o ha d previousl y owne d it state s tha t thi s vas e wa s "speciall y made b y T'an g Yin g himsel f unde r Imperia l Edict an d ma y b e distinguishe d fro m othe r vessel s "customaril y made fo r variou s palace s withi n th e Forbidde n City A80 8 DIS H O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d dee p foot Fin e whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d o n th e revers e wit h a desig n o f intertwinin g branche s o f blossomin g prunu s an d mallo w i n famille rose enamel s an d blac k i n "K u yiieh styl e followe d b y a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s wit h thre e seal s i n re d i n a groun d o f opaqu e gree n enamel ; th e interio r plai n white Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "Thei r simpl e dres s an d wid e chequere d shadow s clin g together. Th e sea l precedin g th e inscriptio n read s hsien ch'un (earl y spring) an d th e tw o followin g yiieh ku (moo n ancient ) an d hsiang ch'ing (fragranc e pure) O n th e whit e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel D : 6.75m (17.1cm. ) Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e York e Hardy S.,"K u Yfie h Hsuan— A Ne w Hypothesis i n Oriental Art II No 3 p 118 an d pi 1 an d Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol 12 pi 77 A80 9 TEA-PO T O F CH'IEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d body slende r curvin g spout an d rounde d handle th e cove r wit h flattened globula r knob Fin e thi n whit e glass y porcelai n decorate d i n "K u yiieh styl e i n famille rose enamels black an d brow n o n on e sid e wit h rocks shrubs flowering prunus narcissus bambo o an d ling-chih an d o n th e othe r wit h a distic h o f te n character s i n blac k wit h thre e seal s i n ruby-re d enamel Th e inscriptio n ha s bee n rendered : "Th e fe w branche s o f kingfisher-gree n bambo o Stretc h themselve s roun d th e re d railing s durin g th e night. Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e read s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g yiieh ku (moo n ancient ) an d hsiang ch'ing (fragranc e pure) Th e knobbe d li d i s similarl y decorate d wit h rocks bamboo narcissus an d ling-chih O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel D : A.Sin. (11.4cm. ) Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, pp 19 9 an d 20 0 an d fig. 351 ; Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LXXV 2 an d Sekai Toji Zenshu, Vol. 12 pi 80

PAGE 50

3 0 A81 0 DIS H O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d sides Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e revers e i n famille rose enamel s an d tw o shade s o f brow n wit h a design whic h i s continue d ont o th e interior o f a blossomin g prunu s tre e wit h intertwinin g branche s an d roses bambo o leaves an d th e ling-chih. O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 11.6m (29.4cm. ) Fro m th e Elphinston e Collection Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2281 A81 1 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d wid e flattened mouth-rim Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s an d gold I n th e centr e i s a leaf-shape d panel surrounde d b y a floral diape r an d displaye d upo n a gol d ground wit h a pictur e o f famil y life a tastefull y attire d lad y o f eleganc e seate d o n a stoo l an d lookin g dow n a t he r tw o smal l boy s wh o ar e playin g besid e her on e holdin g a lotu s flower, th e othe r a gilde d ju-i sceptre Tw o larg e jars on e o f crackle d ware stan d o n th e groun d b y th e sid e o f a marble-toppe d lacque r table whic h i s furnishe d wit h th e accessorie s o f a culture d Chines e interior— a vas e wit h peacoc k plume s an d a branc h o f th e ling-chih, books brushes an d a bronz e chueh. Th e slop e o f th e dis h i s encircle d b y thre e borders a ban d o f pin k wit h drago n scroll s interrupte d b y medallion s o f floral scroll s i n blu e betwee n narrowe r diapere d band s o f gree n an d yello w ground Upo n thi s borde r i s anothe r pin k diape r studde d wit h fou r drago n medallion s an d interrupte d b y fou r trellis-bordere d panel s o f whit e groun d painte d wit h spray s o f peony aster chrysanthemum an d rosa sinensis; thi s i s succeede d insid e b y a foliate d diape r o f pal e lilac an d outsid e b y a gilde d bel t o f lotu s spray s encirclin g th e ri m o f th e dish Th e revers e o f th e ri m i s covere d wit h ruby pin k glaz e an d th e whit e glaze d bas e i s unmarked 18t h century D : 8.3 in (2 1 cm.) Compar e Bushell S W. Oriental Ceramic Art, pi X an d pp 770-77 1 o f th e tex t edition ; Gorer E an d Blacker J F. Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones, II pi 119 fig 1 an d p 223 ; Hobson R L. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II p 211 pi 119 an d fig. 1 ; an d Honey W B. Guide to the Later Chinese Porcelain, p 5 2 an d pi 88 Note. —This typ e o f dis h derive s it s popula r Wester n nam e o f "Seven-bordere d Plate fro m th e numbe r o f it s borders th e gol d brocad e desig n roun d th e leaf-shape d pane l countin g a s one A81 2 PERFUM E CASKE T O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Pyramida l i n for m an d squar e double-storie d i n section supporte d o n fou r bulbou s feet wit h a dome d cove r an d flattened top Fin e whit e porcelai n wit h a partl y pierce d desig n o f bambo o leave s withi n a conventiona l wav e an d

PAGE 51

3 1 prunu s borde r painte d i n pal e famille verte enamels Th e flat to p o f th e cove r ha s a scroll-wor k reticulate d desig n surmounte d b y a squar e kno b painte d wit h a ch'i-lin i n iron re d an d gold Th e insid e an d th e unmarke d bas e ar e plain 18t h century H : 7.7 in (19.5 cm. ) Fro m th e Collectio n o f Lor d Kitchener Fo r a simila r specimen se e Grandidier E. La Ceramique Chinoise, pi I No 1 A81 3 CU P O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f dee p tazz a shap e wit h tw o partl y gil t "cloud-scroll handle s an d gil t mouth-rim Cream y whit e crackle d hua shih war e wit h "orange-skin surface decorate d o n th e ex terio r i n famille rose enamel s wit h figures o f th e Eigh t Immortal s i n a landscap e wit h rocks pin e trees flowering shrub s an d a stream ; a narro w volut e gil t borde r abov e th e spreadin g foot-rim Ther e i s n o mar k o n th e glaze d base 18t h century H : 4.1m (10.4cm. ) Fro m th e Georg e R Davie s Collection se e Catalogue, p 14 No 33 Se e als o Gulland W G. Chinese Porcelain, II p 39 5 an d fig. 682 A81 4 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d sides Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s wit h a well balance d desig n o f a singin g bir d o n a branc h o f th e flowering magnolia th e outsid e covere d wit h a ruby-pin k glaze Ther e i s n o mar k o n th e whit e base 18t h century D : 8 in (20.3cm. ) Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, p 192 fig. 345 an d Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LII 2 A81 5 DIS H O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d sides Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n sli p i n th e centr e wit h tw o five-clawed dragon s i n profil e wit h th e flaming pearl an d roun d th e side s wit h tw o simila r dragons A t a late r dat e th e dis h wa s re-decorate d i n pal e famille verte enamel s an d iron-re d wit h th e figure o f a schola r i n officia l attir e seate d o n a moun d beneat h a blossomin g prunu s tre e an d watchin g th e fal l o f th e flower petal s t o th e ground O n th e bac k o f th e dis h ha s bee n writte n a four-characte r sea l i n iron-re d readin g Hsi hua chii shih (Th e Schola r wh o cherishe s th e flowers) withi n a singl e square followe d b y Wu chai ya wan (Elegan t Trinke t fo r th e Studi o o f Endeavour) concludin g wit h a thir d inscriptio n i n "lesse r seal scrip t readin g Hsi ch'un t'u (Scen e o f th e Regretfu l Passin g o f Spring) th e las t tw o inscription s i n blac k enamel D : l.lin. (19.5cm. ) Note. —This interestin g dis h appear s t o hav e bee n o f plai n whit e eggshel l war e o f lat e 15t h o r earl y 16t h centur y dat e re-decorate d i n enamel s i n th e lat e 18t h o r i n th e earl y year s o f th e 19t h century

PAGE 52

3 2 A81 6 PAI R O F BOTTLE S O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N A81 7 Wit h pear-shape d bod y an d slende r neck tw o conventiona l drago n handles an d flattened mouth-rim Fin e whit e glass y porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n mixe d enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h a rock roses an d othe r flowers, th e design s differin g slightl y o n eac h bottle O n th e nec k i s writte n a ten characte r poetica l inscriptio n i n blac k wit h thre e seal s i n re d enamel an d o n th e bas e th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n pal e blu e enamel H : 3.8m (9.6cm.) Th e inscription o n A816 consistin g o f tw o line s o f five characters ha s bee n rea d i n translation : "I t i s thei r purpos e t o hol d fragrance An d i n du e seaso n t o displa y thei r man y colours. Th e seal s bein g chia li (beautiful ) before an d ssu-chih (fou r seasons ) an d ch'ang cWun (prolonge d spring ) afte r th e in scription Tha t o n A817 consistin g o f tw o five-character line s o f vers e writte n i n column s o f seve n an d thre e characters ha s bee n rendered : "It s tende r bud s enclos e golde n pollen It s heav y flowers wil l for m embroidere d bags. bein g par t o f a vers e o n "Th e Mou-tan Peon y befor e blooming b y Ha n Ts'ung a n obscur e T'an g poet (Compar e wit h No 852. ) Th e sea l befor e thi s inscriptio n read s hsiang ho (fragranc e an d harmony) an d thos e afte r i t Chin Ch'eng an d Hsu Ying sai d t o b e th e name s o f th e painters (Se e Yin liu chai shuo tz'u ch 6 f 2b. ) Se e Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LXX X (1) Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2279 A81 8 VAS E O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Bottle-shape d wit h ovoi d bod y an d lon g taperin g neck Fin e whit e semi-eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n brow n an d delicat e famille rose enamel s (i n th e manne r o f a Europea n 18t h centur y oil-painting ) wit h a pastora l scen e o f tw o seate d girls on e leanin g o n a rock th e othe r holdin g a flower, a chil d a t he r sid e i n th e foreground wit h flowers, trees rocks an d tw o house s wit h slopin g thatche d roof s i n th e background Th e lowe r par t o f th e nec k i s decorate d wit h a crestin g borde r i n pin k enamel an d th e li p i s gilt O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r sea l mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n iron-re d enamel H : Sin. (20.3cm. ) Fro m th e Thompso n McEwe n an d Marti n Hurs t Collections Se e Williamson G C. The Book of Famille Rose, p 89 an d pi XL Antiques, Vol XXIII No 5 Ma y 1933 "Th e Editor' s Attic" pp 163-164 an d Vol XXXII No 4 Oct. 1937 Keyes H E. "Th e Ancien t Moo n Pavilion" pp 184-18 5 an d fig. 4 Se e also Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, p 9 3 (not e 23) Note. —Said t o hav e bee n brough t fro m Chin a som e ninet y year s ag o b y th e lat e Mr Thompson ^ McEwen a Times corresponden t i n Peking thi s vas e "adorne d hi s collectio n

PAGE 53

3 3 i n a remot e islan d of f th e Scottis h coas t . Afte r hi s deat h hi s belonging s wer e shippe d t o Englan d bu t th e vesse l wa s wrecke d an d man y o f hi s treasure s wen t t o th e bottom thi s amongs t th e number Ther e i t remaine d fo r years bu t wa s eventuall y salved. Exhibite d a t th e Dorcheste r Hote l Loa n Exhibition London May-June 1931 Cat No 384 A81 9 PAI R O F BOTTLE S O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N A82 0 Wit h pear-shape d bod y an d slende r nec k swellin g int o a six-lobe d bul b belo w th e lip Fin e whit e glass y porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n mixe d enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h rocks chrysanthemu m an d othe r flowers ; eac h bottl e wit h a slightl y differin g design O n th e nec k i s a ten-characte r poetica l inscriptio n i n blac k an d thre e seal s i n re d enamel Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "Eleganc e th e autumna l branche s reveal Wonderfu l ar e th e blossom s i n thei r variou s hues. Th e sea l precedin g th e inscriptio n read s kao chih (loft y demeanour) an d th e tw o followin g pi (bluish-green ) an d hsia (red-tinge d clouds) O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) i n pal e blu e enamel H : 3.55 in (9cm.) Compar e wit h Nos 86 7 an d 868 Fo r inscriptio n an d seal s compar e wit h No 487 6 i n th e Grandidie r Collection Muse e Guimet Paris A82 1 DIS H O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y slantin g everte d side s an d scallope d lip Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille verte enamel s an d overglaz e blu e enhance d b y gilding insid e i n th e centr e wit h a landscap e containin g th e figures o f th e Tria d o f th e Taois t Cult Fu Lu an d Sho u (Th e Thre e Sta r God s o f Happiness Rank an d Longevity ) togethe r wit h th e cran e an d th e stag th e well-know n familiar s o f th e Go d o f Longevit y standin g beneat h a n overhangin g pin e tree ; a wid e famille noire borde r wit h reserve d panel s o f crane s i n fligh t ami d clou d band s an d dee r unde r pin e trees separate d b y ju-i lappet s an d whit e prunu s blossons surroun d thi s centra l theme Th e undersid e o f th e dis h i s painte d wit h fou r spray s o f bambo o pencille d i n brown O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'eng-hu a perio d (1465-87 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n under glaz e blue Lat e 17t h century D : 13.6m (34.7 cm. ) Fro m th e va n Heukalo m Collection A82 2 FLAS K O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f pilgrim-bottl e for m wit h flattened globula r body smal l ova l base an d tw o ribbe d ribbon-for m handle s joinin g th e shoulder s t o th e smal l circula r mouth Whit e hua shih war e covere d wit h a cream y whit e crackle d glaz e an d decorate d o n eithe r sid e i n pal e iron-re d an d gol d wit h a desig n o f a confrontin g five-clawed drago n an d pear l amids t clouds th e side s o f th e flask wit h a prunu s desig n o n a brocad e

PAGE 54

3 4 ground whil e it s foot-ri m i s ringe d wit h a narro w lozeng e borde r i n famille verte enamels Ther e i s n o mar k o n th e glaze d base H : 7.4m (18.8cm. ) A82 3 PAI R O F CUP S O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N A82 4 Deep tub-shape d (kang) wit h rounde d sides straigh t mouth an d slightl y sun k bas e withou t a foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamels o n on e sid e wit h a rooster hen chickens an d th e figur e o f th e "Precociou s Chicke n Boy Chi a Ch'an g (A.D 713-811) stampin g wit h hi s foo t t o cal l the m t o thei r meal ; rocker y an d mountai n peonie s o n th e othe r an d a lon g imperia l poetica l inscriptio n date d i n th e yea r 177 6 i n blac k followe d b y tw o Ch'ien-lun g seal s i n iron-re d enamel I n th e interio r ar e tw o figure s o f boy s carryin g spray s o f flowers, an d o n th e bas e th e si x seal-characte r mar k Ta Ch'ing Ch'ien-lung fang ku ("Imitatio n o f th e Antiqu e o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d o f th e Grea t Ch'in g Dynasty" ) i n underglaz e blue D : 3.1m (7.9cm. ) Se e Nos A82 7 an d A828 Se e Ku Kung XX No 19, wher e th e cup s ar e state d t o hav e bee n store d i n th e Tua n Nin g Tie n (Pe i hsia o k'u) an d compar e Illustrated Catalogue of the Chinese Government Exhibits for the International Exhibition of Chinese Art in London II No 278 Note. —The decoratio n i s slightl y differen t o n eac h cup Th e inscriptio n ha s bee n • translate d b y Bushell S W. Oriental Ceramic Art tex t edition pp 49-51 Fo r a biographica l notic e o f Chi a Ch'ang se e Tung ch'eng lao fu chiian b y Ch'e n Hung i n th e T'ai-p'ing kuang-chi, ch 485 ff la-4a Se e als o Yin liu chai shuo tz'u b y Hs u Chih-heng ch 6 f 5b A82 5 TE A PO T O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h globula r bod}' slende r curvin g spou t an d rounde d handle Fin e whit e glass y porcelain decorate d i n famille rose enamel s i n "K u yueh styl e wit h lotu s flowers an d crinkle d leaves wit h bud s an d see d pods togethe r wit h a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s i n blac k an d thre e seal s i n re d enamel Th e li d bear s a simila r floral decoration whil e it s flattened globula r kno b ha s th e shou "longevity" characte r i n sea l scrip t painte d o n i t i n ros e enamel O n th e bas e o f th e vesse l i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel (Th e mar k ha s bee n abraded bu t i s visibl e i n reflecte d light. ) H : 4.3m (10.9cm. ) Th e inscriptio n ha s bee n rendered : "Pur e a s th e virtu e o f th e perfec t man Harmoniou s a s th e strengt h o f hi m wh o fulfill s al l hi s dutie s t o hi s fello w men. Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e read s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g i t Chin Ch'eng an d Hsu Ying sai d t o b e th e name s o f th e decorators (Bu t se e Yin liu chai shuo tz'u ch 6. )

PAGE 55

3 5 Fro m th e Hippisle y Collection Catalogue, p 406 No 330 Se e Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, pi LXXI V (1) Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2224 Note. —This tea-po t form s par t o f a se t wit h th e similarl y decorate d cups Nos A82 6 a & b A82 6 PAI R O F CUP S O F YUNG-CHEN G ENAMELLE D a & b PORCELAI N Tub-shaped wit h rounde d sides raise d centr e an d depresse d bas e withou t foot-rim Fin e whit e glass y porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s i n "K u yiieh styl e wit h lotu s flowers an d crinkle d leaves an d a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s an d thre e seal s i n re d enamel th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h cup Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "Pur e a s th e virtu e o f th e perfec t man Harmoniou s a s th e strengt h o f hi m wh o fulfill s al l hi s dutie s t o hi s fello w men. Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e read s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g i t ch'ing hsiang (pur e fragrance ) an d chun tz'u (superio r man) O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) i n blu e enamel D : 2.Sin. (6.3cm. ) Compar e wit h No A825 wit h whic h thes e cup s for m a set Fro m th e Hippisle y Collection Catalogue No 332 pp 4067 an d pi 18 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2224 A82 7 PAI R O F CUP S O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N A82 8 Deep tub-shape d (kang) wit h rounde d sides straigh t mouth an d slightl y sun k bas e withou t foot-rim Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s o n on e sid e wit h a rooster hen chickens an d th e figur e o f th e "Precociou s Chicke n Boy Chi a Ch'an g (A.D 713-811) stampin g wit h hi s foo t t o cal l the m t o thei r meal an d a lon g imperia l poetica l in scriptio n date d i n th e yea r 177 6 i n blac k followe d b y tw o Ch'ien-lun g seal s i n iron-re d enamel O n th e bas e i s writte n th e si x seal-characte r mar k Ta Ch'ing Ch'ien-lung fang ku ("Imitatio n o f th e Antiqu e o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d o f th e Grea t Ch'in g Dynasty" ) i n underglaz e blue D : 2.75m (6.8cm. ) Se e Nos A82 3 an d A824 A82 9 PAI R O F VASE S O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D & PORCELAI N A83 0 Wit h ovoi d body hig h shoulder s wit h thre e raise d nipple s i n ova l form an d shor t neck Fin e whit e glass y porcelai n decorate d in famille rose enamel s i n "K u Yiieh styl e wit h rocks bamboo an d roses an d a poetica l inscriptio n o f te n character s i n blac k an d thre e seal s i n re d enamel ; th e desig n differin g slightl y o n eac h vase Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "[Th e bamboo's ] man y branche s ar e lustrou s an d fai r o f form Al l fou r o f th e season s ar e a s sprin g t o them.

PAGE 56

3 6 Th e sea l precedin g th e inscriptio n read s chia li (beautiful) an d th e tw o followin g ssti shih (fou r seasons ) an d ch'ang ch'un (prolonge d spring) O n th e bas e o f eac h vas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel H : 6.7m (17cm. ) No A83 0 wa s show n a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2280 A83 1 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d side s an d flat base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s i n th e centr e wit h a phoeni x standin g o n a rock ; peonies asters an d othe r flowers, an d thre e row s o f diape r borders th e secon d o f thes e interrupte d b y thre e shape d panel s containin g floral sprays Th e bac k i s covere d wit h ruby-pin k ename l an d ther e i s n o mar k o n th e glaze d base 18t h century D : 7.7m (19.5cm. ) A83 2 DIS H O F RUBY-BACKE D ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d sides Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s wit h blossomin g spray s o f popp y an d crowfoot Th e bac k i s covere d wit h ruby-pin k enamel O n th e bas e i s writte n Yu hsin-ch'ou nien chih (Mad e i n th e hsin-ch'ou yea r recurring i.e., 1721 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : §.\in. (15. 1 cm. ) Se e Franks A W. Catalogue of a Collection of Oriental Porcelain and Pottery, p 59 No 441 Bushell S W. "Chines e Eggshel l Porcelai n wit h Mark s fro m th e Collectio n o f th e lat e Hon Si r Rober t Meade i n The Burlington Magazine, Vol I X (Sept 1906) pp 393-4 Hobson R L. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II p 213 an d Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain, p 35 pi LI X (2 ) fo r a bow l i n th e Britis h Museu m wit h a simila r mark A83 3 TEA-PO T O F CHTEN-LUN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d bod y an d slende r spou t an d handle Fin e whit e glass y porcelain decorate d i n mixe d enamel s i n "K u yiieh styl e wit h a rock peonies kao-liang, an d geese an d a fourteen-characte r poetica l inscriptio n i n blac k an d thre e seal s i n re d enamel Th e dome d li d i s decorate d outsid e wit h fou r flying gees e an d insid e wit h two Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "O n th e river s an d lakes i n th e middl e o f autumn th e bird s drin k an d peck The y fly an d the y screec h a s th e win d whistle s throug h th e reeds. Th e sea l precedin g th e vers e read s jen ho (benevolenc e an d harmony ) an d th e tw o followin g i t ssu-fang (th e Fou r Quarters ) an d ch'ing ching (clea r landscape) O n th e bas e i s pencille d th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95 ) withi n a doubl e squar e i n blu e enamel H : 5.\in. (12.9cm. )

PAGE 57

3 7 A83 4 VAS E O F ENAMELLE D GLAS S Bottle-shape d wit h depresse d globula r bod y an d lon g straigh t tubula r neck Milky-whit e glas s decorate d i n mixe d enamel s wit h a rock flowering begoni a an d iris an d a dragonfl y i n flight. O n th e nec k i s a seven-characte r poetica l inscriptio n i n black an d tw o seal s i n re d enamel Roun d th e mout h i s a delicatel y draw n volut e borde r wit h pendan t leave s i n blac k o n a yello w ground Th e vers e ha s bee n rendered : "De w i s fragran t i n th e middl e o f autumn. Th e sea l precedin g th e inscriptio n read s kao chih (loft y demeanour ) an d th e squar e sea l followin g i t ch'iu shih (autum n scholar) O n th e bas e i s incise d an d covere d i n blu e ename l th e sea l Ch'un-shan t'ang chih (Mad e fo r th e Hal l o f Pur e Goodness) 18t h century H : 3.8in. (9.6cm.) Fo r decoration inscription an d seal s compar e wit h No 845 Exhibite d a t th e Internationa l Exhibitio n o f Chines e Art London 1935-36 Cat No 2209 Note. —The ter m "autum n scholar ha s bee n explaine d a s a schola r whos e talen t ha s bee n recognise d lat e i n life A83 5 SE T O F TWELV E CUP S AN D SAUCER S O F a1 ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Cups wit h rounde d sides smal l foo t an d everte d lip Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamels outsid e an d belo w a shape d gil t border wit h a rooste r standin g o n a roc k besid e a clum p o f peonies an d tw o seal s o f th e artis t Pai-shih shan jen (Hermi t o f th e Whit e Rock) I n th e centr e i s a singl e peon y spray an d a gree n ename l diape r borde r surround s th e mouth-rim Th e glaze d bas e i s unmarked D : 2.8 in ( 7 cm,) Saucers shallo w wit h rounde d side s an d flat base Fin e whit e eggshel l porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s withi n a leaf-shape d gil t pane l wit h a rooste r standin g o n a rock ; peonies a gree n diape r border an d th e mar k o f th e artis t Pai-shih shan jen i n tw o simila r seals Th e revers e i s undecorate d an d th e glaze d bas e unmarked Ch'ien-lun g perio d (1736-95) D : 4.5m (11.4cm. ) Compar e Jacquemart A an d L e Blant E. Histoire de la Porcelaine, pi VIII fig. 3 Bushell S W. Chinese Art, II p 4 0 an d fig. 61 The Burlington Magazine, Vol I X (Sept 1906) p 395 an d Hobson R L. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, II pp 21 1 an d 212 Note. —The cyclica l yea r chia chen o n a sauce r simila r t o thos e o f thi s se t recorde d an d illustrate d b y Jacquemar t refer s i n al l probabilit y t o th e yea r 1724 a s ha s bee n argue d b y Bushel l an d Hobson Th e artis t o f th e origina l desig n wa s n o doub t a nativ e o f Canton an d th e dat e refer s i n al l probabilit y t o th e executio n o f hi s painting no t t o tha t o f th e saucer A83 6 DIS H O F K'ANG-HS I ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h slightl y rounde d sides an d flattened mouth-ri m wit h thic k edge Fin e thi n whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d i n pal e transparen t famille verte enamel s wit h a rive r scen e

PAGE 58

3 8 i n th e foregroun d wit h tw o swimmin g duck s an d a wagtai l standin g o n a partl y submerge d rock an d i n th e middl e distanc e si x othe r simila r bird s standing flying, o r perche d o n mille t stems Th e flattened ri m i s painte d i n pal e iron re d an d gol d wit h a brocad e patter n borde r interrupte d b y fou r medallion s containin g th e sea l character s Wan shou wu chiang A myria d longevitie s withou t ending" O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e K'ang-hs i perio d (1662-1722 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 9.9m (25.1cm. ) Compar e wit h Nos 812 89 0 an d 891 Note. —Like th e other s referre d to thi s dis h doubtles s forme d par t o f th e so-calle d "Birthda y Service" A83 7 WRITER' S TABL E SCREE N O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Rectangular an d narro w i n section Fine greyish-whit e porcelai n delicatel y painte d o n eithe r sid e i n famille rose enamel s i n a slightl y sun k panel O n on e a lakesid e scen e wit h tw o huma n figure s o n a bridge huts loft y crags rocks pine an d othe r tree s an d plant s i n th e foregroun d an d a mountai n i n th e distance O n th e revers e tw o long-taile d bird s perc h o n th e branc h o f a fruitin g peac h tre e growin g fro m besid e a rock Th e panel s ar e frame d b y a narro w raise d borde r painte d t o resembl e marble beyon d whic h i s a wid e flat on e decorate d wit h a desig n o f ch'ih dragon s i n underglaz e blu e i n a groun d o f formalize d lotu s scrolls an d wit h th e shou "longevity" characte r i n sea l for m i n th e centre Th e rounde d bas e an d lowe r portio n o f th e ri m o f th e tw o uprigh t side s ar e unglazed Ther e i s n o mark L : 7.4m (18.7cm. ) D : 6m (15.2cm. ) A83 8 BOW L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Wit h rounde d side s an d everte d lip Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d o n th e outsid e i n gre y an d blac k o n a mottle d canar y yello w groun d wit h blossomin g tre e peon y an d wisteria a magpi e perche d o n on e o f th e branches ; th e interio r o f th e bow l glaze d plai n white O n it s oute r surface nea r th e rim appear s th e hall-mar k Ta ya chai (Th e Studi o o f th e Greate r Odes ) i n iron-red an d nea r it i n a smal l ova l pane l frame d b y tw o dragons th e mott o T'ien-ti i-chia ch'un (Spring-tim e o n Heave n an d Earth—On e Family) O n th e bas e i n iron re d ename l i s th e mar k Yung ch'ing ch'ang ch'un (Eterna l Prosperit y an d Endurin g Spring) Lat e 19t h century D : 4.9in. (12.4cm. ) Se e Bushell S W. Oriental Ceramic Art tex t edition pp 81-82 an d Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain p 9 6 an d pi CX V (1) Note. —This bow l i s o f interes t inasmuc h a s i t forme d par t o f a dinne r servic e mad e fo r th e Empres s Dowager Tz' u Hsi Fo r thi s orde r bowl s an d saucer-dishe s o f th e Ch'ien lun g perio d ar e sai d t o hav e bee n sen t dow n t o Ching-te che n fro m th e Imperia l Palac e i n Pekin g t o serv e a s patterns Ta ya chai wa s th e nam e o f on e o f th e late r pavilion s i n

PAGE 59

3 9 th e Ch'ang ch'un kung (Th e Palac e o f Endurin g Spring) a t th e wester n en d o f th e Forbidde n City wher e th e Empres s Dowage r use d t o reside ( T a ya i s th e titl e o f Par t II I o f th e Shih ching "Th e Greate r Ode s o f th e Kingdom" a s translate d b y Legge. ) Th e propitiou s mar k unde r th e bas e o f th e bowl a s wel l a s th e subjec t o f it s decoratio n poin t t o th e seaso n o f spring wit h it s promis e o f prosperity o f whic h seaso n th e wisteri a i s recognise d i n Chin a a s a floral emblem A83 9 DIS H O F YUNG-CHEN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d sides Whit e porcelai n enamelle d i n mixe d colour s o n th e bac k o f th e dis h wit h a clum p o f th e ling-chih wit h it s scrolle d hea d o f divers e colour s an d wit h branche s o f th e blossomin g prunu s (met hud) mingle d wit h spray s o f pomegranat e ( shih-liu ) fro m whic h twig s win d ove r th e ri m t o ornamen t th e interio r o f th e dish O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 20m (50. 7 cm.) Fo r a simila r specimen se e Bushell S W. Oriental Ceramic Art pi XLVIII an d text edition pp 36 0 an d 787-88 A84 0 DIS H O F YUNG-CHfiN G ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Saucer-shape d wit h rounde d sides Whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s an d iron-re d wit h a fruitin g peac h (t'ao ) painte d i n tw o shade s o f brown intertwine d wit h th e tre e peon y an d prunus Th e undersid e o f th e dis h i s decorate d wit h th e peac h tre e an d it s thre e fruits an d th e peon y an d prunu s wit h thei r whit e an d pin k flowers respectively a s wel l a s wit h thre e bat s i n flight i n iron-red Th e branche s win d ove r th e ri m o f th e dis h t o decorat e it s interior O n th e bas e i s writte n th e six-characte r mar k o f th e Yung-chen g perio d (1723-35 ) withi n a doubl e circl e i n underglaz e blue D : 20m (50.7cm. ) Fo r a simila r specimen obtaine d fro m th e sac k o f th e Summe r Palac e i n Peking se e Honey W B. Guide to the Later Chinese Porcelain pp 54 8 1 an d pi 91 A84 1 VAS E O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N Tal l slende r ovifor m bod y wit h "trumpet neck Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille rose enamel s an d iron-re d wit h a golde n pheasan t standin g o n a roc k o n on e foo t an d gazin g dow n a t a quai l likewis e o n a roc k an d flanked b y flowering peonies lilies asters an d othe r plant s an d tw o butterflie s hoverin g abov e an d t o th e lef t o f th e birds O n th e bas e i s writte n th e four-characte r mar k o f th e Yung chen g perio d (1723-35 ) i n underglaz e blue H : 9.2 in (23.3cm. ) Fro m th e Russel l Collection Se e Hobson R L. Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, p 19 9 an d colou r plat e 31 an d Jenyns S. Later Chinese Porcelain p XLI X c

PAGE 60

4 0 A84 2 BRUS H BARRE L O F ENAMELLE D PORCELAI N O f cylindrica l for m wit h straigh t side s an d fla t base Fin e whit e porcelai n decorate d i n famille verte enamel s an d over glaz e blu e wit h a garde n scen e wit h terrace roc k an d pin e tree an d th e Taois t Triad Fu Lu an d Shou th e Thre e Sta r God s o f Happiness Ran k an d Longevity examinin g a scrol l extende d betwee n them Besid e the m stand s a n attendan t (perhap s Tung-fan g So ) holdin g a staf f t o th e carve d hea d o f whic h i s attache d a double-gourd ling-chih an d a ju-i sceptre emblem s o f happines s an d longevity O n on e side o n a rectangula r tabl e res t a beaker-shape d vas e (ku), holdin g a spri g o f th e ling-chih, an d a Chines e book traditiona l attribute s o f cultur e an d s o o f officia l ran k i n China an d t o th e righ t o f th e pin e tre e i s a lea f i n gree n an d a sea l i n iron re d enamel O n th e glaze d bas e i s a wid e unglaze d rin g enclosin g a glaze d sunke n disc Earl y 18t h century H : 5.1m (13cm. ) Elphinston e Gift

PAGE 61

Plat e I No 81 5 D : 68 inches No 80 7 D: 68 inches I J: 68 inched No 81' 2 D: 1 0 inches No 80 3 D: 8 inches

PAGE 62

Plat e I I

PAGE 63

Plat e II I

PAGE 64

Plat e I V

PAGE 65

Plat e V No 82 6 // : 4 6 inches No 82 9 H 5 7 inches No 82 7 J): 49 inches No 82 8 /> : 4 9 No 83 0 D r TTtHck£ s No 83 1 I) 81 inches No 83 2 I ) 31 i'mc/ha

PAGE 66

Plat e V I •-v.y. v

PAGE 67

Plat e VI I No 84 5 // : 88 inches No 84 8 // : 55 inches No 85 1 WTlSlnche No 85 4 // : 4 inches No 85 8 A/ : 'J8 /m/ m

PAGE 68

Plat e VII I

PAGE 69

Plat e I X No 88 5 I): (55 inches No 86 3 I): 88 inches \'n 8(5 7 U 85 inche s

PAGE 70

Plat e X No 87 4 D: 4inches N o 87 2 /> : 87 inchcs No 87 8 /) : 'J • 7 5 unta v No 87 5 2-7 5 incha No 87 8 D:'AS inches N o .88 1 // ; 124 ic//

PAGE 71

Plat e X I No 89 0 D: 99 inches No 89 1 I) : 1 0 inch, No 89 3 2-7 5 /m7i< a No 88 8 I): 4-3 inches No 88 5 /): <5-7 inches No 89 0 /> 53

PAGE 72

Plat e XI I No A80 1 I> 78 inches No A80 4 /> : 28 inches No A80 8 //. 32 inchcs

PAGE 73

Plat e XII I

PAGE 74

Plat e XI V

PAGE 75

Plat e X V Mh u & . * f •MMfi t*.* <-* H xiiX R i t ********, P t ft A 4 JL * No A82 4 I) : 81

PAGE 76

Plat e XV I

PAGE 77

. \ ; v