Ao Naga grammar with illustrative phrases and vocabulary

Material Information

Ao Naga grammar with illustrative phrases and vocabulary
Clark, E. W., Mrs., 1832- ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
Printed at the Assam secretariat Print. Office
Publication Date:
Sino-Tibetan (Other)


Subjects / Keywords:
Ao language -- Grammar ( LCSH )
English language -- Dictionaries -- Ao language ( LCSH )
एशिया -- इंडिया -- नगालैंड
এছিয়া -- ভাৰত -- নাগালেণ্ড
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Nagaland
25.67 x 94.12


General Note:
3 preliminary leaves, 181 pages ; 25 cm

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Archives and Special Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
10241571 ( ALEPH )
EM3103 /6478 ( SOAS classmark )
GPE Naga 415 /464200 ( SOAS classmark )


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Full Text




Mrs. E. W. CLARK,






Presented by

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. ,<3<3<£ Alcnj$<^hr?7> fCy





Mrs. E. W. CLARK,












In the preparation of this work, I have had access to
my husband's Ao Naga-English Manuscript Dictionary,1
and am also indebted to him for personal assistance,
especially on the Grammar.








Adjectives ...



Conjunctions ...




Division of Time

Measures of Length and Weight

Illustrative Phrases ...

English-Ao Vocabulary










42- 43


43- 44






BY a tradition, more or less supported by present facts,
the Naga tribe known as the Ao have from very early times
had two dialects,the Zungi and Mungsen. The legend is, that
a colony of Zungi and friendly Ahoms migrated to these parts
hundreds of years ago. The Zungis stopped for years at Zungi
Imti, a place just behind the upper villages of the tribe, and
the Ahoms resided awhile at a place now occupied by one
of the upper villages called Lungmisa or Tzumar Menden.
Tzuma is what the Aos call the valley of Assam, and Tzumar
Menden means the seat or abode of Assamese, or Ahoms, as
they were called before the English occupation of the valley.
The Ahoms are said to have lived not many years in the hills,
and then to have moved down into the valley. By tradition,
while the Aos were still in the one village called Zungi Imti,
the Mungsen lived near, but just below them. At first there
is said to have been no intermarriage between the two peoples,
but for many years there has been ; yet to this day the
difference in physique between the two can frequently be
noted, the Mungsen being more Mongolian. In many
instances these two classes have lived for generations in the
same village and intermarried, yet the two dialects have
remained. In other villages where the Zungi or Mungsen has
very largely predominated the weaker dialect has succumbed ;
but even in such villages both dialects are generally under-
stood, though only one may be spoken in the village.

When Zungi and Mungsen converse together, each
frequently, though not always, speaks his own dialect. From
the first, Zungi has evidently been the dominant element in
the Ao tribe, and only among the Zungi do the village offices
descend in family lines. This dialect is now decidedly more'
prevalent than the Mungsen. Some words of the latter have
crept into the Zungi dialect, but only very few, considering the
long and intimate relationship of the two dialects. The
language of the books thus far printed in Ao is Zungi, and this
is employed in the following pages.




The Nagas had no books or letters ; in making books for
the Ao tribe of Nagas, the English or Roman alphabet has
been used. By the system in vogue at present for Roman-
ising the languages of India proper, the letter a is used to
correspond with the first Sanskrit vowel, and it is presumed to
have the sound of short , like u in bat. This use of a may
be convenient for languages and dialects of Sanskritic
origin, but it is very inconvenient for other languages,
especially if there be a desire to avoid diacritic marks. In
giving an alphabet to a people, these marks should be used
as little as possible, because they are troublesome to write,
liable to break off in process of printing, and as their projec-
tions require extra space, it is very difficult to print a large book
like the Bible in a form small enough to be convenient for
general use.

It is also important that each letter have one sound and
be allowed no great deviation. If, now, to the letter a be
assigned the sound of short a, then ai=uiy and ao=uo, and
auuu. In other words if a represents short it, it cannot
be used in forming diphthongs. Hence, as to the power of a,
the Indian system of Romanising has been departed from, but
adhered to in most other respects. In short, the Roman
vowels in Ao books have the Italian sound, and in support
of this system are the highest authorities,the Royal
Geographical Societies of London and Paris. As a result of
some inquiry, it may perhaps be asserted that this system is
now, outside of India, the basis of Romanising the unwritten
languages of the world.

Sounds peculiar to a language may require new characters
or diacritic marks to indicate them. The sound of u in bat
is said to be foreign to the old Roman alphabet, and to
represent this sound in Ao Naga a new letter has been formed,
it is a looped v* thus, v. The character is easily written and
readily distinguished by the eye. In this way the Ao alphabet
is completed, the essential sounds represented without a
diacritic sign. The alphabet is as follows :

Vowels and Diphthongs.

a has the sound of a in father, ah.
e ,, ,, ,, e met and th#y.

* The loop of this new character should have been larger and more distinct, s ns to appear as a loop rather than a dotM. M. C.



i has the sound
0 tt ft tt
a tt tt
V ft tt it
ae, ai ft tt tt
ao, au tt ft a
ay ft tt tt

of i in pm and ptque.
o note, mote.

oo fool, tool.

u bwt, cut.

i tee, rtte.

,, ou ,, out, mound.

ano uroe, bowl.


b as in English.
c always soft.
d as in English.

f >> )> >)

g always hard.
h seldom used to aspi-

rate a vowel.
j always soft.
k as in English.

>> i> >>

m >> >) >>

n as in English.
P >> n >>

9. >> n


' ,, >> >>

s always soft.
t as ir. English.
v >> ,, >>

x not used.
y as in English.

% >) a >>

The diphthong ay is very seldom heard. The diphthongs
ae, ai, though sounded alike, are both needed ; the same is true
of ao and au. Between the two last a slight distinction
in sound can be made, but practically none is observed. The
diphthong oi is not heard. At one time the variations of
sound between that of e in met and they, also that of i in pm
and ptque, were indicated by diacritic marks; but these
distinctions confused the pupils learning the alphabet, and
retarded their progress. Furthermore, it was ascertained
that the Nagas did not need them as an aid to correct
pronunciation; they were serviceable only to the foreigrer who
had not well mastered the language, h'or these reasons
diacritic marks do not now appear in Ao books.

The single consonants in the Ao language have about the
same power as in English: but f is not heard in Ao words
except in tefset, lefset x is not used at all. The chief use
of c is in combination with A, and this ch has the sound of ch
in church ; c is also used in a few instances after 5 to prolong
its sound. The letter/ is always soft as in/oin, and g always
hard as in ^ive ; sh is sounded as in s/tine. There is scarcely
any use of h except in the combinations ch and sh. The
letters q, v, and w are used but little. The letters ng when
written together are pronounced as one letter, never, separately,

B 2


as, ang-u not an-gu, and ang-a not an-ga. Few words
begin with d, e, g, u, or v. A notable feature in Ao words is
that many of them end with short u, y. This sound as final
is one that a foreigner finds a little difficult to articulate

The vowels are not always permanent, as, ka (one), but one
emphaticone onlybecomes ketang instead of katang
From tenuk or nuk (the eye), we have in one direction
nokshi to look on desiringly, to covet, and in the opposite
direction nyka and anyk, seeing to, watching. When
two vowels come together, there is generally a coalescence
or elision, and sometimes also a new vowel sound is the
result. Sv , the stem of one of the verbs, to be , should have
as an imperative form svang , which becomes sang ; kv,
my, and o, word, unite and become ku; gv or (kv , the stem
of the verb to give, becomes in the imperative kwa or
kwang instead of kva or kvang There is one word so
metamorphosed as to be hardly recognisable, it is mokolung
for metkulung. But of such changes even in the most
common colloquial terms there is hardly a parallel to this.

There are more mutations among the consonants than the
vowels; those most frequently interchanged the one for the
other are b and /, d and t, g and k, occasionally b and v,
m and n. In fact, among the words of everyday use almost
any letter may be changed for euphemism, and to this end
the letter / is brought into the language in the two sole
instances of its use above specified.

When the final consonants in a verbal form are ts, these
are changed into ^before a suffix beginning with a, as agytsy
(to give to some one beside the speaker); by adding a becomes
agyza , not agytsya , by adding ang it becomes agvzang ,
not agvtsvang.

It may be remarked here that peculiar inflections for
giving different ideas to the same word is a device of articu-
lation seldom resorted to in Ao-Naga, though so common
in the Chinese and its cognates. In the Ao language, articu-
lation is by vocables represented by letters, though in a very
few instances words have different meanings by accenting
different syllables.


For the indefinite article a or an the numeral for one,
ka or kati, is used, and for the v/e have demonstrative
pronouns or demonstrative suffixes. If we allow that an



article can follow its noun as well as precede it, then what
has been termed a demonstrative suffix may be called the Ao
definite article. For example, nisung is man , and nisungzi
is the man , or this man, reference being to a particular man
just named. Such a phrase as the man who, must be
constructed quite differently in Ao Naga, as will be seen under
the subject Pronouns. There is a use of the letter t in
this language which in some instances closely resembles
that of a definite article. This use of t is restricted to verbal
forms and adjectives, and will be illustrated under Verbs
and Adjectives.


One peculiarity about Ao nouns is the paucity denoting
abstract ideas. The prevailing mode of thought is not in
that line. It can be said according to your faith be it unto
you , but the preferable form is as you have believed be it
unto you. Instead of saying heis given to meditation', the
Aos would say he meditates much. They have no word for
kingdom , their villages were little independent democracies.
They have no good word for reign or dominion , nor for
height , depth , or width , form or colour , health or
wealth, north or south. Abstruse abstract terms one
would not expect to find among a rude people who
have had to struggle hard and constantly to get needful
food and to ward off enemies; but the absence of so many
common abstract forms is rather .remarkable, especially
as such forms can be made with the greatest facility, as for
instance, meim is the stem of the verb to love , and temeim
is love; so sangwa is the stem of the verb to illumine,
and tesangwa is light ; so also we have temang faith,
from the verb to believe; in like manner abstract terms
could be multiplied almost indefinitely.

Nouns are formed from other parts of speech as easily
as in English. One way of forming an abstract noun from a
verb root has just been given. A variation of this mode is thus,
pela is the stem of the verb to rejoice, the future form of
which is pelatsy will rejoice, and tepelatsy is joy, tepelaba
or pelaba is also joy ; the ba in this word is doubtless the third
personal pronoun pa changed to ba and used as a suffix; in a
similar way from tazung , the adjective good, we have
tazungba the good one or the best; the adjective aeiga,
many, takes the form aeigati, and is a noun, as aeigati
ashitsy many will say ; ziyong is the stem of the verb to-



eat a meal, and ziyongtsv is food; ali means to be, to
reside, alidak place of abode, residence, aliba a resi-
dent ; alep means to cut and talepdak cut place, the
cut; ki is the word for house, nung means in, and pu
or bu is an old word for man, and from these three words
we have ki-nung-pu house-in-man, the man of the house,
the husband; in the same way is formed kinungtzy ,
the woman of the house, the wife. This case-ending, or
postposition, takes on a verbal suffix thus, nunger
-which should mean is in or those who are in. The word
probably originated in connection with the name of a
village, as, Molung nunger, those who are in Molung*
village, residents' of Molung; in process of time Molung
nunger came to mean Molung people, the nunger
losing its fundamental idea of in and becoming little more
than a plural symbol, as we may say, the Israelites , the
Londoners . Tenu signifies a younger brother or sister, and

tenu nunger means the younger brothers, including perhaps
sisters. Suppose a Nagas name is Wati and that he
persuades several men to go fishing with him, it may be
said, the Wati nunger have gone a fishing. But the
'use of nunger indicating plurality is limited to instances
similar to those above cited. Another illustration may be
given of the formation of compound nouns: ku means the
hair of the head, sv is the stem of the verb to shave , and
nok is the name of an instrument used as an axe and a knife,
and kusvnok is hair-shaving knife or razor.

Verbal Nouns.

The verbal noun, of which pelaba is given above as a
specimen, deserves a little further notice. Ashi means to
say, and ashiba may mean what has been said , or he
who said , or those who said . This verbal noun may as an
adjective qualify a noun or pronoun ; as a noun it may be the.
subject nominative of another verb, or it may be in
any one of the oblique cases required by another verb,
while at the same time as a verb it may have a nominative of
its own or control oblique cases ; in short, it presents at the
same time the characteristics of a noun and of a verb. A
couple of illustrations may be given :

Ya ku abenbanvm hiki ka agyzang.

This load bringer to hiki one give.

(Give a hiki to the one who brought the load.) ;



Padak azvkbae kvdang ashi.

Him struck who me to said.

(He who struck him said to me.

This form ending in ba has been termed a verbal
noun, as it is so purely substantive in form, but there is a
participial noun ending in r, which in places may be substi-
tuted for the form in ba , as shishi means to traffic, to
trade, and for trader shishir or shishiba may be used;
so also for trading shishir or shishiba may be employed, as,
pa shishir age , of shishiba age , takar akvm he became
rich by trading. The verbal form ending in r is restricted
to the present perfect, it cannot be used for time long
past, but the participial noun is not thus restricted. Parenoke
tang adoker is a proper form for 1 they have just arrived , but
for they arrived yesterday parenoke yashi adoker is not
proper, the true form is parenoke yashi adok. But the partici-
pial noun is not thus limited, as tang adoker azi oda ashi
those just arrived said so , or yashi adoker azi oda ashi
those who arrived yesterday said so, are both proper Ao Naga

There is another verbal noun occasionally heard, it ends
with the demonstrative suffix tu or to instead of zias,
shikatu = ashibazi , and zvmbikatu = zvmbibazi , and
lepkatu = lepkazi. Summing up the verbal nouns, they
may be arranged thus :

(1) temang, tesangwa, temeim ;

(2) tepelatsv, ziyongtsv ;

(3) aliba, pelaba, ashiba ;

(4) ashir, shishir, adoker ;

(5) alidak, alepdak ;

(6) shikatu, zvmbikatu.

The classes (1) and (2) are two ways of forming abstract
nouns, the first (1) is simply the stem of the verb with te or
t prefixed, while the second (2) is from the future tense or the
infinitive mode of the verb which ends in tsv ; the other four
classes, viz., (3), (4), (5), and (6), may have a subject nomi-
native, while retaining the characteristics of nouns.


To the names of persons ba is generally affixed for males
-and la for females. For human beings tebur (///., man is)
means male, and tetzyr female ; for the lower animals we have
jtebong male, tetzyr female, and these latter terms may be



applied to plants and flowers of which the sexes are distinguish-
able and known ; but, as a rule, sexual terms are not applied
to inanimate objects. To the general rules given above,
there are a few exceptions. The common word for bull is
nashi pongzi, and for cow nashi tzvla; according to the rule
these should be respectively nashi tebong and nashi tetzvr.
Again, ak stands for swine, and regularly the male should be
ak tebong and the female ak tetzyr, but instead we have for
the male tesv or taei and for the female tin or shiben.

Alar means slave and alarsang a male slave, alarla a female
slave. Asangur means young men, and aeir, aeirtvm young
women ; lar-sanger , women and men, in English we transpose
and say men and women. Par lar their women (their female
relatives), par sangar their men (their male relatives), im
sanger (village males) men of the village, sangremer widower,.
amitzvr widow.

If to a pair of animals the term atzv-abungba is applied,
it implies they are mated, the corresponding term for husband
and wife is apu-ani or abu-ani. Husband is kinungpu and
wife kinungtzv. Tebu or bu is used for father, and tetzv
or tzv for mother, ozvla my mother, our mother, mother.
As a term of respect pabu, the father, is often applied to an
oldish man whose services have been that of a father to the
village : tebuti chief father or patriach. Tebu or tebuti is-
also a familiar term for boy, and tenv or tenvla a like term,
for girl.


As a general rule, nouns are supposed to be plural, hence-
there is no real need of a plural sign, though tvm as a suffix
is sometimes used for this purpose. The singular is indicated
by the numeral one , ka , kati , ketang , or the noun may
have a qualifier that identifies it with a preceding singular form..

There is a dual form in frequent,.though not exclusive, use ;
it is na, an abbreviation of ana two, as tanvk-o togo-na
both nephew and uncle ; tanur-o tetzv-na, Z/Z., child and
mother two (both the child and its mother) ; tsungkvm-o
mei-na both dry and rainy season ; any ita-na both sun and

There is another numeral suffix, prungla, which in use
closely resembles the dual na, save that it is not limited to
two, but may be applied to any numeral from two upward.
There is no corresponding English word, and we have to
translate it by each or aZZ, but prungla is not used for each



individually, or all; other forms express these ideas, and
prungla is applied only to numerals, as anaprungla both,
or each of the two, asvmprungla all three, or each of the
three, and so on indefinitely.


The Aos have apparatus sufficient for usual case-endings
except for the genitive, but if the other cases are provided for,
this one without a special sign would cause little inconvenience.
(See another explanation in the paragraph under Adjectives
beginning Of one noun modifying another.) Take the third
personal pronoun pa, which may mean he, she, or it, but for
convenience suppose it masculine, and we have

Nom. ... Pae or pa He.
G en ... Pa His.
Dative, ... Panvm Panung Padang Padange, e ... To or for h ... In, to, or fc ... To him. To him, to place.
Acc. ... Padak, pa ... Him.
Inst, ... Pa-a ... By him.
Assoc. ... Paden ... With him.
Abt. ... Panunge ... From him.

The nominative suffix e is not constant, but is frequently
dropped when its omission would cause no confusion. The.
dative suffix nvm , meaning to or for, is not in universal use,,
some villages preferring nung , which may be printed as a
postposition. In books thus far printed nvm as a suffix has
not been used, but it is a dative sign of many villages, and
should appear as such on the printed page. Those who use
nvm or nung also use dang , dange , and e . Verbs of
asking require dang affixed to the remote object as if the idea
were to address the inquiry or request to such a person, as
Yohandang asongdangang inquire of Yohan, z'.e, put your
inquiry to him. Yohandang mishiang ask Yohan for some-
thing, i.e., make your request to him. Dange and e as
noun suffixes imply motion to or toward ; the former is applied
to persons, the latter to places, as pae Yohandange ao he has
gone to Yohan ; pae areme ao he has gone to the jungle, the
word arem meaning jungle. In use, badang and badange
are usually heard instead of padang and padange .



The dative suffix of place must sometimes be translated by
in or by along by or on, as pae koba lemange ao? On
what path did he go ? pae tzy-kyme atu he went up on the
bank or by the bank of the stream; pae tzy-kyme atu andL
pae tzv-kvm-nung atu are alike correct, and have the same
meaning; pae par ime (or imtake) ao he went by their
village or through their village.

The accusative suffix dak is in general use, some verbs
always requiring it, while with others its presence is a matter
of indifference, unless confusion would be caused by its
absence. As may have been observed in its several uses as
noted above, dang is an accommodative suffix, and in the
printed books it has been used as an accusative suffix in
many instances where Nagas deem an accusative sign needless
but tolerate the dang; it should not however be regarded as
a proper accusative suffix.

The instrumental sign a is only occasionally affixed, as,
teketa by hand, more commonly the postposition age is
used as pa age by him as an agent.

The associative affix denis constant, in expressions of
association or companionship.

There has been a considerable hesitation in classing nung,
nunge, and den as substantive suffixes. In books thus far
printed they have been deemed postpositions, and placed
separate from the nouns, but in the closing remarks under Post-
positions are some pretty conclusive reasons given for consi-
dering nung and den as substantive suffixes; and if this is the
decision for nung, evidently nunge must be put in the same


Personal Pronouns.

Singular .


.. S Na


( Ozo, ozonok, onok
\ Asen, asenok

7 Nenok
^Parenok, pare


Thou, you.
He, she or it.



All the pronouns except ni and pare may take the
nominative sign e , as nae , ozoe asenoke

The first person plural asen and asenok imply friendship,
as those who like to associate together, the speaker identifying



himself as associated with the others included in the terms
asen, asenok, we, our; but where common interests or co-
partnership do not exist, asen and asenok cannot be used.
The termination nok in the plural forms is doubtless lok
with the first consonant changed by euphemism; lok means
a group, a multitude, the full form being telok , but the te is
usually dropped in composition, so o-nok means our group
or our crowd. In the same way we have o-ba our father,
ozyla our mother, odi our elder brother, oyela our elder

Pronouns are declined like nouns, but ni seldom takes
the nominative suffix e. There are also possessive forms for
my, as kv, ke , k , and in the other oblique cases kv or ke
is more commonly used than ni , as kvnvm, kvdang , or
ketang , kedak , keden . In a few instances kv appears
where good grammar would require a nominative form, as
kyna {lit., my you or my two) for, I and you, we two, also
kv kija {lit., my alone) for I alone. Very likely these are
colloquial corruptions, as in low English maybe heard me and
you for I and you. In the second person ne is a possessive
form, and is frequently heard instead of na in the oblique
cases, as nenvm, nenung, nedang, or netang, netak,
1 neden , instead of nanvm, nanung , nadang , nadak , and
* naden.


The stems of these are doubtless a and i , the former,
taking the plural suffix tvm , becomes atym and means
these, and in the form ya the y is simply an intensive
letter to bring out with more force the succeeding vowel. For
this purpose y will sometimes in conversation be inserted
even in the middle of a word where it does not properly
belong. As to the demonstrative stem i it unites with dak
which as a suffix sometimes means place, as idak or idakzi
this place, here ; it unites with len path, as ilene this way; it
unites with dang which as a suffix sometimes has the force of
when or while, as idang or idangzi this time, then ; i also
takes on the suffix ba or pa and becomes iba or ibazi.
From a we also have aba, abazi, azi, and atu or ato; the
4 tu or to of the latter form may be an abbreviation of toyu or
xtoyo to point to, and so atu or ato would mean this one as
if pointing to it; to may also be used as a demonstrative suffix,
as nisungto that man, tezangto that fruit. The letter e *



sometimes appears as a demonstrative stem, as elen, elenzi,
but in this service e has only a limited use, and it is probably a
colloquial corruption of i , or a The zi as a demonstrative
suffix was probably once identical with ji, signifying true, and
hence azi would mean this very one, and nisungzi this very
man, or this same man.

As may be inferred from the above remarks on the
structural formation of demonstratives, we have of this class
among pronouns ya aba , abazi, azi, ati , atu , atvm ,
iba, ibazi ; pais also occasionally used this way, as pa.
nv , that day. These demonstratives are used adjectively or
substantively without change of form. Those in most
frequent use are iba, ibazi, aba, abazi, and azi, the
former generally referring to what is near, and azi to that
which is more remote, but this distinction is not always
observed. They are sometimes employed as third personal
pronouns, especially iba and azi.

The demonstrative suffixes are zi and tu or to, and
these, as has been previously remarked, frequently remind one
of the English definite article. These suffixes are frequently
employed in connection with other demonstratives, thus
exhibiting an apparent redundancy of forms, as iba nisungzi \
where iba nisung or nisungzi would seem to be sufficient and
in better taste; kabazi or kvbazi means this one ; and it may-
be added that the suffix 1 zi may be attached to any numeral,
to an adjective, to an adverb, to a conjunction, or to a verbal
form. As an example of its use with a numeral iba nisung
anetzi, or nisung anetzi, or nisung metsvzi; of its use with an
adjectivenisung tazungzi, nashi azakzi; examples of its use
with adverbs amazi, idangzi, angzi, ilenzi, angnungzi;
examples of its use with conjunctions abenzi, anungzi,

ayongzi; example of its attachment to the verbal form liazi


The indefinites are ka or kati one, kare some, and
langka something, some, as nisung ka or nisung kati
one man, a certain man; nisung kare some man or some
men ; kare nangzyk, kare menangzyk some confessed, some
denied, kati nangzyk one confessed, pae langka aben asy
maben ? has he brought anything or not ? pae langka lene ao
he has gone in some direction. To the above may be added,
aeiga, aeigati, aeisa, much, many; ishika few, ishita
quite a number; azak all; anu , tali , more, many; tangar,



other, another. The indefinites and interrogatives may be used
adjectively or as pronouns. The indefinite negatives are
kecha/ shinga, as shingae mao no one has gone, kecha
maben not anything has been brought. The indefinitely
comprehensive forms are shiresa whoever, kechisa
whatever, and kechisarena whatsoever.


These for persons are shir ? shiba ? who ? for things
4 kechi ? what? for persons or things koba ? who ? and qei ?
how many ? as qei lir ? how many are there ? in which query
qei may stand for persons, animals, or things; used
adjectively, kechi may be applied to persons.


There are no relatives corresponding to English modes of
thought. The relatives are interrogative in form, and the
antecedent becomes a subsequent, as

Shibae tang aru pae azi oda ashi,

Who just now came he so said,

which in English we reverse and say he who just now came
said so . Avoiding the relative, a shorter expression of the
same idea is tang arubazi azi oda ashi (Zz?., now the having
come he, thus said). In books there is a tendency to prefer
the condensed form, but the construction of sentences with
relative clauses is very common in ordinary conversation
and in formal addresses.

Reflexive.The reflexive pronoun for all persons and
numbers is pei

Reciprocals.There are no reciprocal words, the idea of
mutual relation or action is expressed by a verbal suffix, as,
parenoke meimtep they loved each other.

Distributives.There are no distributive pronominal
adjectives, the idea is indicated by a suffix to a noun, as

nisungs/zzzz or nisungafo/z each man.


Adjectives proper, as, good, bad, hot, cold, long, and short,
also the numerals, usually follow the substantives which they
qualify, so also do inany of the pronominal adjectives when
used adjectively, as nisung tazung a good man, or the man is
good ; nisung mazung the man is bad ; nisung azake all men;



nisung qei ? how many men ? nisung asym three men. On
the other hand, as those preceding the noun may be given-
examples like these ibala nisung such a man, kobala
nisung ? or komama nisung ? what sort of a man ? Also with
the words for day and night the numerals precede. Sentences or
phrases that qualify nouns or pronouns, verbal adjectives, and
nouns that modify other nouns usually precede the noun

Verbal Adjectives are of four forms, one ending in la
one ending in tsv, one in ba, and one in r. Achior

chi means to eat, and oset means material or things ;;
tachila oset what one would eat, edible material; tachitsy
oset things to be eaten, suitable to be eaten, or what will be
eaten ; arutsv means will come and nisung man, tarutsv
nisung the man who will come, the coming man, taruba
nisung the come man, the man who has come; ashi

means said, and ashiba o the spoken word, told
narrative ; ashir o has the same meaning, but is not in so
frequent use. These latter forms one in ba and one in r
as ashiba and ashir; both of these forms may be used
substantively as noted under nouns, and both, whether used
adjectively or substantively, may as verb forms have a subject,
as pae ashi , he said ; and pae ashiba o or pae ashir o
he said word, the story as told by him.

0/ one noun modifying another, there are many
instances in Ao Naga, as there are not a few in English, and
some of these may be written together, and so be properly
called compound nouns; but in many cases the better way
would be to admit that nouns become adjectives and
modify other nouns, as, for instance, a railway carriage ; here
railway is in form a noun, but it modifies carriage as an
adjective; instances very many can be adduced. As ail
illustration of a proper name doing the work of an adjective
take a Barnum advertisement , which may mean an
advertisement gotten up in style like Barnums, or it may
mean one of Barnums own; or in other words (i) this is
a Barnum advertisement, (2) or this is one of Barnums
advertisements may mean the same thing, the word Barnum
serving as an adjective in the first (1) sentence, corresponds
to Barnums as a possessive in the second (2) sentence.
Take another illustration, this is a Krupp gun may mean
this is one of Krupps guns, here Krupp as an adjective
in one sentence corresponds to Krupps , a possessive form, in
the other.



Now it will be seen that a free use in any language of
nouns and proper names as adjectives largely removes the
necessity of a possessive case; this is very likely the reason
why there is no genitive sign in Ao Naga. This explanation
will be the more readily accepted when it is understood how
easily in this language words pass from one part of speech
to another. Azung , signifying good, is both a verb and an
adjective, as are also some other words, azungtsv will be
good or will be serviceable., zunger is good. It is possible
that zunger should be considered both an adjective and a
verbal form, for not a few words take on their stems this verb
suffix er , or r , in becoming adjectives, as amang
darkness, mang-manger very dark. The reduplication of
the stem as in the instance just given usually adds some
intensity. The prefixing of te or t frequently adds some
force, as tazung good, is a stronger form than zunger
good, and still more intensity is expressed by putting on the
suffix ba or pa, as iba tazungba, this is the good
one, or this is the best.

A formal comparison is expressed by affixing dang to
that with which the comparison is to be made, followed by the
adjective, as azidang ibazi tazung than that this is
good; or azidang ibazi tazungba than that this is the
best; or again, azakdang ibazi tazung than all, this is
good; another form is azakdang ibazi tazungba than
all this is the best; still another form, tazungtuba the best
by a little, or a little the best. As observed under demonstra-
tives, the demonstrative suffix zi may be attached to an
adjective, as we may say azidang ibazi tazung or
azidang iba tazungzi , and both forms have the same
meaning. It will be seen that in expressing degrees of inten-
sity and comparison, the Ao adjective is rich in forms, perhaps
inclined to redundancy. There are of course separate words
modifying adjectives, but these belong rather to adverbs than
to the formation of adjectives.

As modes of comparison would be looked for under
adjectives, so certain forms, though not adjectives, may be
noticed here, as for instance,

Idakzi kechi tali zymbitsy ?

Than this what more is to be said ? or shall be said ?

Another form of same meaning is idangzi tali kechi
zymbitsy ? Both forms are correct, and both .idiomatic; yet



European ideas of language, classic or modern, are run
athwart. Take the first word idakzi, here we have a demon-
strative root i with the accusative or locative suffix dak , which
has the demonstrative suffix zi attached. The whole word
idakzi meaning, in the above sentence, than this or than this
indeed, but in another situation it may mean in this -place, here.
But how is this idakzi , meaning than this, to be parsed ? It is
governed by tali more, which in this sentence is a noun and
the subject of the verb 1 zymbitsv . Idangzi is disposed of

in the same way, except that dang is the dative or time suffix,
and idangzi in another place might mean at that time, then.
Forms similar to the above are

Idakzi {or idangzi) anu kechi

Than this more what

Idakzi {or idangzi) zia kechi

This beyond what

zvmbitsv ?
shall be said ?

zvmbitsy ?
shall be said ?

Comments on the idiomatic use of zvmbitsv must be
reserved for verbs. Another illustration is

Idakzi {or idangzi) zia kenyonge asvtsy {or asv-ang)
Than this rather at once to die {or having died)


is well.

The numerals take the dak suffix, thus, metsy
twenty, metsvdak zia more than twenty, there are more
than twenty.


The Ao verb makes no distinction for person, number, or
gender. There are some passive forms, but these are appa-
rently accidental. A proper passive voice does not appear,
though there is plenty of apparatus available, and this being
occasionally drawn upon, would have doubtless led to the
development of a passive voice had the need of it been felt.
Kechi o ainkar age zvmbiaka , what was said by a prophet, is
a passive form, and other examples could be given, but

Madokba nashi pa age angu,

The lost cow him by found,

is shorter, and to the Ao man has the same meaning

Madokba nashi pa age angu aka.

The lost cow him by found was.



Hence the Ao seldom uses a passive form unless it is to
secure an additional shade of thought. Nearly all Ao verbs
being without change of form, either transitive or intransitive,
removes nearly all demand for passive forms. To illustrate
this point the preceding illustration may be readduced
madokba nashi pae angu he found the lost cow ; madokba
nashi pa age.angu the lost cow was found by him. In both
of these examples the verb angu (found) is in the same form,
and so it would be in other tenses, nor is it necessary to name
the agent in the passive form, as Madokba nashi angu the
lost cow has been found. The absence of a passive voice
is at first embarrassing to one who has been accustomed to its
use, but as sobn as he realises that in Ao Naga a verb may
be transitive or intransitive, active or passive, without change
of form, then all is easy, the passive voice is seen to be un-
necessary and the language simpler without it. But to
emphasize an idea a passive form is not unfrequently used, as
pae zvmbitsy , he will speak, is future active ; anu kechi
zymbitsv ? what more shall be said ? is the same form passive.
To emphasize the idea one may say 1 anu zvmbitsv kechi aka ?,
what more is there to be said ?


Of primary inflections the Ao verb is poor, but of
secondary inflections or conjugations it is rich. The primary
forms will be first considered. Take the verb aben to bring,
the stem of which is ben. The initial a may be termed an
augment, but when the Nagas speak of this verb they call it
aben , taben , or teben, and in the Vocabulary as well as in
the larger dictionary this verb will be found under aben rather
than ben ; this remark applies to a large class of verbs.

Indicative Mode.

Present ... Bener, bendage, bendar, occasionally


Present Perfect Abener.

& Accustomed.

Preterit ... Aben, aben-ka, benka, benogo.

Future ... Bendi, bentsy.


Present ... Bener, bena, bendang, bendaka;

negative mabene.

Past* ... Aben, benerang, or abenerang.




Imperative Mode.

Benang ; negative taben or teben.

Infinitive Mode.

Bentsv, tabentsv, bene, tebene (occasionally), tabene,
abene, tabentsv.

Potential Mode.

Bentet or abentet ; to this auxiliary suffix tet, meaning
able, are attached the tense and participial suffixes of the indi-
cative mode. See subsequent notes on Potential Mode.

Subjunctive Mode.

On the conditional forms see remarks on Subjunctive Mode.

Remarks on Tenses.

Present Tense.The distinctions between bener and
abener as present and present perfect forms are not always
observed. Of the suffixes dage and dar , some villages prefer
one form and some the other, but both have the same meaning
and are used for what is in progress with no intimation of a
completed action. In some verbs as aru to come, the initial a
is never dropped; with such this a is retained when the dage is
affixed, as arudage is coming ; preterit aru, not aaru.'

The form abener is termed present perfect, for it means pro-
perly that some is being brought and that some has been brought,
as parenoke scong abener means not only they are bringing
wood, but implies that some has been brought, the prefix a
denoting past or completed action and the suffix er or r what
is going on. This suffix er means is, being a relic of a sub-
stantive verb ; but if the main verb-stem ends with a vowel, the
e of er disappears, as zvmbi to speak, present tense zymbir
not zymbier. The present perfect form, as abener, may
denote a customary action, it is frequently so used. For another
way of indicating customary action see notes on ali, under Sub-
stantive Verbs.

It is uncertain whether the Aos would prefer to consider
the initial a in aben and in other verbs of like construction and
inflection, as a prefix in the nature of an augment, or whether
they would consider this a a part of the verb-stem that is
frequently dropped when certain suffixes are added. On the
side of the latter view something can be said ; some prefer to



use abene rather than bene for a telic future, and when the
preterit suffix ogo is used, the form is benogo and not abeno-
go. To this it may be replied that when the preterit suffix is
used, that is sufficient; the retaining of the preterit prefix would
be a redundancy, and as to some using this augment on a future
form, it must be conceded that irregularities and inconsistencies
are to be expected in a language never before reduced to
writing. It is doubtless better to consider only the shorter
form of the verb, the stem. With verbs whose initial stem
letter is a, the prefix a would not be apparent, because by the
genius of the language where two vowels come together one
is absorbed. Admitting this, nearly all the primary verbs and
some of the compound verbs take the augment. It may be
remarked here, if a verb-stem not beginning with a has more
than one syllable it is not a pure primary but a compound or
a primary that has taken on an auxiliary. To this general
statement there are but few exceptions.

Preterit.As to the difference between the two preterit
forms aben and benogo, the latter emphasizes the fact or event
as past and gone. Ogo is no doubt a preterit of 0, stem of
verb to go . Ni shigo ( shi-ogo ) means not only I have

spoken, but that iny speaking on the subject is done. Instead
of ogo there will sometimes be substituted ku, as aretsy-ku, or
aretsv-kur for aretsyogo .

The form aben-ka or aben-aka is a paraphrase rather
than a verb form (see above remarks on passive voice), but
benka is a form sometimes used instead of aben. These
two forms can frequently, be substituted the one for the other
without much change of thought. In other cases the ka has
the force of though; for such use of ka see remarks on aka
under substantive verbs.

With the primary verbs that do not take the augment a,
the naked stem is the short preterit form, as ni zymbi I have
said ; with the compound verbs the absence of any suffix reveals
the short preterit as ni benshi I have used.

To one not well versed in the language, adok may at times
appear to be a preterit formative. Though it may not be
classed among the formative elements, yet, as it is much used
and its use somewhat peculiar, a little notice may here be taken
of it. The primary meaning of this adok is to come into view,
to appear, to become manifest; but as indicating a revealed
result, there is no one English word to match it, not even in
English slang. Shirang means to be ill or sick, pa shiranger

C 2



adok he turned up sick, pa mazvmbie adok he not speaking
appeared, i.e., he as a dumb man put in an appearance. Aoyar
means a thief, pa aoyar adok he turned out to be a thief.
Tasvr means to be dead, pa tasvr he is dead ; pa tasvr adok
is a common expression, but in English all we can say is, he is
dead, and leave the adok untranslated.

Future Tense.Ks to the future suffixes di and tsv as
bendi , bentsv , the former is generally used for a near future,
frequently where we would use a present tense, as ni odi I will
go, for I am going; ni shidi I will say, for I say ; while the
form ending in tsv refers indefinitely to the future; but the
form in di is not really restricted to the near future, though
this is its more common use.


Participle, Present.As to the participles, the present,
which end in r or a, are generally interchangeable, as pae scong
bener aru or bena aru he came bringing wood ; but sometimes
these forms in r or a are used for a completed action, some-
times for a future : parenok or kelen after their going, after

they had gone ; zilu means to write, yamae zilua lir it is
thus written ; ni oa padang shidi I going will tell him, I will
go and tell him.

The form ending in dang is usually translated by the
English when, while, or as, for example, pae arudang tsunglu
aru as he was coming the rain came, it rained when he was
coming. The form daka (gs bendaka ) emphasizes the time or
process, as pae lemang nung arudaka tsunglu aru as he was
coming along on the path the rain came. Of these two forms
arudang is in more common use. Instead of dang , there are
some old forms ending in tu, occasionally heard as okatu for
odang, lukatu for aludang, and tokotu for tokodang;
this suffix tu is a shortened form of the demonstrative atu.

The form ending in e is used instead of that ending in
a or r when the participle takes the negative prefix ma, as pa
scong mabene aru he wood not bringing came, he came without
bringing wood ; the same may be expressed by using the
suffix dang, as scong mabendang pa aru .

Participle, Past.The form aben is followed by the
postposition age (by), or nung (in), as aben age , aben nung
'aben age or ben age can sometimes be interchanged with the
present participle bena , in which case it can be rendered by
a present participle in English ; less frequently aben age and
aben nung can be used interchangeably. Here it may be



remarked that, while the postposition 1 age is limited to the
meaning by or by means of, the postposition, or case ending
nung though having a fundamental meaning of in, yet it must
frequentlybe rendered in English by other words. The past
,participle with nung, has usually a causal force, and then in
English the participle is turned into a verb of past tense and
nung, is translated because, as

Tekinungpu aru nung tekinungtzv pelar,

The husband having come in the wife rejoices,

[In the husband having come, the wife rejoices,] or, in better
English [The wife rejoices because the husband has come.]

Another example :

Techir ango mishi nung tebure

The child fish having asked for in (or on) the fathei
per agytsvtsy ?

a snake will give ?

[If a child has asked for fish, will the father give a serpent ?]

The postposition yong is sometimes used instead of nung,
as pae yamae ashi yong kv ain adok on account of his
having said that my wrath arose.

The participle ending in rang or erang, as aben^rzw^ ,
always contemplates a completed act, either future or past, as
scong abenerang arung ma having brought the wood come, or
come when you have brought the wood, scong abenerang pa
aru having brought the wood he came, or he came after he
had brought the wood.

It may be noted that the Aos often resort to participles,
and avoid conjunctions where the English would prefer verb
forms and conjunctions.

The past participle with tashi , so long, or until, has a
peculiar use in the negative, as Herod asy tashi pae angzi ali
until Herod died he remained there; this form is allowable, but
the following is more common :

Herod masy tashi pae angzi ali.

Herod not dead until he there remained.

Ni maru tashi angzi liang ma.

I not having come so long there stay.

[Wait there until I come.]


Ni masv tashi.

I not dead so long.

[Until I die, or so long as I live.]



For other participial forms see Verbal Nouns under Nouns
and Verbal Adjectives under Adjectives.

Remarks on Imperative Mode.

The simple imperative is usually softened down by adding
a particle like ma or nei or ko, which have somewhat the force
of our word -please, as scong benang ma arungnei, arung-
ko . As before noticed,' if in the Ao language two vowels come
together in a compound word or inflection, one of them is
usually absorbed or the two unite and form a new vowel. So
with aru to come, the imperative is not 'aru-ang but arung
and the imperative of alu is alung, still luang is some-
times used ; so atu has the two forms, atung and tuang
The imperative of ashi is shiang , of aji ajiang , of ao
oang which is pronounced as if writtenwang. The verb
ao , to go, has also another imperative, ong , which means
go on, keep going.

The negative imperative is peculiar. The usual negative is
ma, not, but this is never used in the imperative, which is formed
by prefixing t or te .to the verb-stem, as taru dont come,
teben do not bring, teshi do not speak. Yet this / or/tfis
frequently prefixed to the infinitive mode, to participles or tense
forms of the indicative mode, but never has a negative force exr
cept in the imperative mode.

When a verb form ending in tsy takes the imperative
suffix ang, the ts is changed into 2 and the y disappears, as,
bendaktsv , cause to bring or cause to be brought, imperative
bendakzang and negative imperative tebendaktsv.

The future tense with ma is sometimes used with an
imperative force, as na marutsv you will not. come, but this
can hardly be considered an imperative form.

Remarks on Infinitive Mode.

The different forms bentsv, tebentsy, bene, tebene,
all have about the same meaning, in some places the prefixing t or
te seems to add a little force. Sometimes the forms abentsy
and tabentsy , also abene and tabene will be heard.


Parenoke scong bene ao.

They wood to bring have gone.

Ni tagytsvtsy maka.

I to give is not.
fl have nothing to give.l



Not unfrequently the infinitive is followed by the post-
position asoshi or yong as

Langka asongdangtsv yong ni aru.

Something to inquire about for I have come.
[I have come (for) to inquire about something.]

Tanurzi tefsetsv asoshi Herod bushitsv.

The child to kill for Herod will seek.

[Herod will seek (for) to kill the child.]

Remarks on Potential and Subjunctive Modes.

As noted above, the idea of able is expressed by adding
:tet to the stem of the verb, as, bentet able to bring. There
are many auxiliary suffixes, and for general remarks on the
same see Secondary Conjugations. In the present tense
bentet , becoming benteter , is not unfrequently shortened
to benter .

To express permission or consent by may, the Aos have
no verb form; this idea must be indicated by a paraphrase;
but for may denoting a contingency, and for shall, should,
would, and must, to express these ideas the language is fairly
well equipped. In illustrating these, conditional forms will be

Saiyutsungir kechisarena saiyudir azi zungzunga angang

Whatever the teacher may teach, or shall teach, that heed

Kodang ni Rongpur donga ludir Bor Sa-ab-den o

When I shall go down to Sibsagar, I will have a talk with
the Bor Saheb

It will be observed that the conditional ending with dir
contemplates a fulfilment, expects a realisation.

The suffix la means would, should, or must, and laba
sometimes shortened to ba means must, as agi to take, to
accept, ni agilar (present tense) I would take, am disposed to
take. A real positive desire is indicated by the suffix ny see
Secondary Conjugations. Tany pa olaba he ought to go
to-day, or he must go to-day; yashi pa aotsvba he ought
to have gone yesterday. This aotsyba is a contraction for



aotsv (infinitive of go), and aliba was necessary, full,
form aotsv alilaba.

Asong pa aotsvla or olaba.

He should go, or ought to go, to-morrow.

Pae tazung mozv azvm asvbo mysvla,

He proper medicine drank if not died would,

[If he had taken proper medicine, he would not have died], or
in another form, quite as idiomatic,

Pae tazung mozy azvm asvbo mysve lila

He good medicine drank if not dying would


There are three past conditional forms of like force, and.
for convenience of comparison they are here placed together:

Pae mozy azvm-asvbo mvsyla.


,, ,, zvm-shibo ,,

There is another conditional referring to the past, which,
is not conditional in form, though it is in thought:

Ni aeiben shi-aka parenoke mangar.

I many times said was they not heed are.

[Though I have told them many times they dqj not heed.].
Saka, but or yet , may be inserted, as,

Ni aeiben shiaka saka pare mangar.

Though I have told them many times yet they heed not.
The future conditional forms are three, dir, ra (or era)r

and shia : all are suffixes. The first, dzr, has been illustrated
above, and, as there noted, it looks for a realisation; but the
suffix ra or era is a pure conditional, it gives no intimation as
to probability; shia has the force of even though, or even


Kodang ni Waramong ime tudir idangzi na anir..
When I Waramong village to go up, then you taken

will go.

[When I go (and I am intending to go) to Waramong
village, you will go along.]

In narrating events, dir may be used where in the past
a present or future contingency was contemplated, as>



alvmle im tulure im tila nung kechi taginvtsv ngudir azi
parenoke bener ao formerly those of large villages on seeing
anything desirable in a small village they carried it away.

Pae yamae shira ni odi.

He so say if I will go.

(If he say so, I will go.)

A paraphrase of the same, like this, may sometimes be

Pae yamae shidi svra, ni odi.

He so will say be if I will go.

[If it be that he shall so say, I will go.]

The form raj, era, rabang, rabangila may refer to a
present as well as future contingency, rarely to a past; the
same is true of shia. A fuller development of the ra form

Bor Sa-ab tanv yage arurabang azangla ni iba

Bor Saheb to-day here come if then I this

o indang pa-den zymbitsv.
affair about him with will talk.

Examples of shia:

Tsungsang mazungshia ni odi.

Weather bad even if I will go.

[Even if the weather be bad I will go.]

Parenok ain adokshia nae time benshiang ma.
They anger arise even though you properly behave.
[Even though they get angry do you behave properly.]

Ka that has been classed as a past conditional may
sometimes be used to express a present contingency, as

Na oaka nfbo maotsv.

-> You gone is I will not go.

[Even if you go (Zz'A, have gone) I will not go.]

The bo in nibo needs a little explanation ; it is about
equivalent to, as to, so far as concerned, so that the above
example fully expressed would read like this,even if you go,
as to me I will not go ; or, even if you go, so far as I am
concerned I will not go. This bo meaning as to or as far as
concerns, may be attached to any noun or pronoun, and is-
considerably used.



But when bo is affixed to a verb form it has usually the
force of if as in examples above, azvm-asybo zym-shibo
It has another peculiar use that may here be noted, as

Pa tarubo arutsv.

He come if will come.

[If he comes, he will come, a non-committal statement.]

Pa tangashibo angashir.

He hearing as to hears.

So far as hearing is concerned, he hears, but as to the
probability of his heeding nothing is intimated. In the first
illustration, tarubo is regarded as a verb form, and the bo
has the force of if\ in the second example tangashibo is
a participial noun, and the bo has the force of as to or as

It may be remarked here that the understanding of the
verb forms throws light on such verbal adjectives as achitsv
(or tachitsy ) and achila (or tachila). Tachitsv is the
infinitive active or passive, and so tachitsy oset things to
be eaten or suitable to be eaten. In tachila the ia means
would, and tachila oset things or material that would be
eaten, edible material. Hence, as verbal adjectives, tachitsy
and tachila mean about the same thing, though quite
differently formed.

Secondary Conjugations.

Many of the primary verbs take on verbal modifiers
( mostly of one syllable), which form a component part of the
original stem. These verbs thus constituted may take all the
tense, participial and modal inflections of the primary verb,
though there is a tendency to drop the augment from these
verbs. Some of these verbal modifiers may be recognised as
the stems of words in use, but many of them, if they ever served
as independent words, have become obsolete. One, namely,
zyk , might be supposed to be from azvk , a word in common
use ; but azvk , stem zyk , means to strike, a meaning it never
has as a verbal modifier ; azyk as an adverb means upward, but
as an auxiliary to a verb it may mean doisan, never up. It may
be well to notice briefly these verbal modifiers that are most
in use and indicate the prevalent meaning of each.

Daktsy is a causal; the stem of the verb previously con-
jugated was ben , to carry or to bring, so bendaktsy means to



cause to carry or cause to bring, and causing to carry is some'
times synonymous with, to send. As noted above, bendaktsy
in the positive imperative becomes bendakzang; the negative
imperative tebendaktsv does not mean simply do not cause
to bring, but may also mean do not allow to bring. This remark
holds true of many causal negative imperatives.

Dang as a modifier constituting a component part of a
verb is not much used, and when so used it sometimes does
not materially change the meaning of the primary. The chief
use of1 dang is first as an emphatic particle; secondly, it is used
as a dative suffix to a noun, as a suffix to that with which a
comparison is made, and as a participial suffix; thirdly, it has
some use as a verbal modifier: as a verb, aji means to see, and
ajidang means to examine, to look after, to care for. In some
cases the primary verb is essentially modified, as lem is the
stem of a verb meaning to divide, and lemdang as a compound
verb, means to divide in halves if not otherwise specified; so
also sadang and radang mean primarily to break or divide in
halves. O sometimes means, to weigh, but odang is the usual
verb for, to weigh ; sometimes this may mean to divide into two
equal parts by weighing. Am means to take hold of by the
hand, amdang^ means to feel of, to handle.

Dok or lok is much used and means away, off,, getting
rid of something not wanted, as aridok to drive off or drive
away, leptok to cut off what is not wanted,' rvngtok to saw off
what is not wanted.

Et indicates persistency or continuance, as am, to take
hold of; amet, to take hold and hold on ; ajeb to grasp,

ajebet to grasp and not let go ; apu to seize, puet to
seize and hold.

Chi or ji is restricted to impending mishaps, and means
almost, nearly, as arakchi nearly strangled by water, .alang-
chi nearly fell down, while walking or running, tsvkchi nearly
fell from something, tefsetchi nearly killed, syji nearly
dead, madokchi'. almost lost.

Ket means up or upon, as azungket to lift up, or lift
up on to, apuket to shoulder and so lift up on to, nungket to
push up on to, atsvket to pull up on to, nashi akvmket or
aniket to bring cattle up to the village, nisung kidange
aniket to lead a man up into a house.

La and labaThe force of these auxiliaries has already
been shown under Potential and Subjunctive Modes.

Lok, to attach to, to set on, as, angenlok to nail fast or
spike fast to mejalok or menalok to stick fast to by some



adhesive substance, azunglok and nunglok to urge others
on to do, zalok to call others to help, and'anilok to -
bring and attach them to a cause as helpers.

Ma as a verbal modifier has three distinct meanings,.
and the ma signifying first or before, doubtless originated
from tama or tamasa before, first, as azung to eat (of
people), onoke zungmadi we will eat first, let us eat before
doing anything else ; pa-nung agvtsvma-ang give to him first;
tsungrem im bushima-ang seek first the kingdom of God..
This ma meaning first or before can frequently be translated
immediately, as zungmadi let us eat immediately.

Another ma means in halves, as aeima split in halves,
chakma broken in halves, rvngma split in halves by

Another ma means to finish, to end, as, benma or penma
to finish bringing, mapa inyakma work finished or completed,

alu ruma cultivation reaping finished.

Mi means to make a mistake or blunder, zymbimij to
make a mistake in speaking, as .to make a misstatement or
forget a point in a formal address, takmi to make a' mistake
in weaving. _

Nv is a desiderative and is much used, for it is the only
vehicle for expressing a desire or wish, there being no noun for
this idea: aginy to desire to get, zvmbinv to desire to

Ok may be from akok to be able, it implies some force,
though not necessarily violence ; korang asem or asen to put
on a hat or cap ; korang semok would mean to pull a hat on
with force or to jam it on ; tetzvr aniok is to lead a woman
away in marriage, the woman is presumed to be modest, hence
the bridegroom must use some constraint or force-to take her
to his house ; shiok would properly mean to speak forcibly or
loudly, but it really means to send word to.

Pelok is sometimes used with the meaning of erring
or doing imperfectly, as scv rem means to dye cloth, and scy
rempelok poorly or badly dyed.

Pet has a signification similar to mi, and the one can
frequently be substituted for the other, as zvmbipet for zym-
bimi. Kenaten means to sing a song, ken tenpet (or
tempet)to make a mistake or blunder in singing, ken
tenmi has the same meaning. Aro means to temper steel
or iron, and ropet badly tempered. Moko achi is to smoke
tobacco, mokoa chipet sick or stupid from smoking too much,
kania chipet stupid by smoking opium.



Ref conveys the idea of thoroughness and completeness,
as imkong yiprep people all fast asleep, imkong kishirep
doors all fastened as in a village at midnight, entzv amrep an
egg smashed by squeezing in the hand, ajetrep to break by
grasping, akurep to pound to pieces, leprep to cut to

Sa gives the idea of fineness or pulverisation, as aeisa
to split fine, kusa to pound fine, to pulverise, menungsa
to crush or grind fine, ngusa to bite much, to bite and badly

Sem. Asen as a verb, sometimes has an idea of unity
or association, and sen changed to sem has, as a secondary
suffix, about the force of con in Latin or English, as atsvsem
to pull, or pull up, with something, as to pull up grain with
weeds, chisem to eat with, as to eat relishing bits along with
the food ; sem 1 as a modifier has only a limited use.

Sep. Asep means to extinguish or to become extinct,
and sep as a modifier has this meaning, ,as muksep to
kill plants by overshadowing, mi remsep to smother out
fire by covering over, rosep to thoroughly evaporate by

Set imparts the idea of thoroughness, completeness, as,

tsubuseta thoroughly alarmed; set usually implies a

thoroughness to a destructive end, as arakset thoroughly
strangled to death by water, lepset cut to death,

tsungset speared to death.

Shia as a verbal prefix has the force of re, a fact that
will subsequently be more fully noted. But shi as a modify-
ing suffix usually contains more or less the idea of again,
repetition, sometimes even to satiety, and sometimes scarcely
changing the primary. Alen to bind, alenshi to rebind ;
yanglu to make, yanglushi to remake or repair; agi to
take, agishi to have taken enough, i.e., to be sufficient;
chishi to eat sufficiently ; zvmshi to drink sufficiently ;
bilimshi to think again or think much ; zymbishi to talk to
satiety ; anga occasionally means to hear, but this is the only
meaning of 1 angashi ; am means to take hold of by the hand,
.and amshi means to handle, but amshi and benshi also
mean to practice or observe instructions, precepts, customs,
or rites, ideas quite different from the primaries am and
aben .

Tak, occasionally dak, gives the idea of hitting, colliding
Against, hitting and becoming fast, as lung aentak throwing
a stone and hitting, tsyktak, colliding against, meret-tak



rubbing against so as to become fast, ajeptak to grip on to
and hold fast.

Tang, one of the meanings of atang, is to sever and tang'
as a modifier of a primary verb, indicates severance, as leptang
cut off, svktang (or tsvktang) broken off as a branch or
broken in two as a stick, raktang and toktang to break
and sever a rattan, string, or rope.

Tern (or tvm), this modifier is doubtless from atem or
atvm to end, to finish, and it implies a completion of the
action of the primary verb. It will be remembered that this
was one of the meanings of ma, and it will be seen to
correspond to one of the uses of zvk; as, for instance, reaping
of cultivation finished, may be expressed in three ways: alu
ruma , alu rutvm , and alu ruzvk, but the first takes the
preterit suffix ago more readily than the other two, as

rumago .

Ten.Among the meanings of the verb aten are, to
assemble, to collect material together, to be present or with,
to tremble, and the modifier ten apparently partakes now of
one of these ideas and now of another and sometimes of the
postposition den with or by ; but the more prevalent meaning
is that of collecting together: aniten the collecting together of
beings that can move, benden to bring together inert
material; atvp means to club, and atvpten means to make
legs, or legs and arms, shake or fly like clubs, as a young child
when angry kicks and strikes with legs and arms.

Tep imparts such ideas as mutually, together, one for
another, as parenoke meimtep they mutually loved, or loved
each other; leptep tsungtep cutting and spearing each other,
mutually making war; .sentep mutually coming together, to-
assemble; alen tep binding several things together;

melefitep to exchange one for another ; aeitep mutually
erring, or confusing things and so making a mistake ; chitep
to eat together; zvmtep to drink together.

Tet usually means able, as otet able to go, arutet able to
come ; tet sometimes denotes successful or complete action, as
im may mean to seek, and imtet means sought and found ;
one meaning of ali is to buy, alitet bought; bilim means
to think, bilimtet to remember; jaja to walk, jatet to out
walk; agi to take, agitet to take out, as out of a basket.
The present tense of a verb ending in tet is teter or the.
shortened form ter, as bilimteter or bilimter.

To denotes that the action of the verb is incomplete, as
anakto to scratch or claw, but not to kill; lepto to cut,


. 3*

but not in two ; chito to eat and leave something; zymto to
drink some, but not all.

Tok, see dok above.

Tsy indicates to or for-another, rather than the speaker, as
mezy to smear or anoint ones self, but mezvtsv to smear or
anoint another; pae kakvtzi ky-nung agytsy he will give the
paper to me, pae kakvtzi jfi-nung agytsytsy he will give
the paper to another person.

Zung, the stem of the verb to be good, when appended
to the stem of another verb, sometimes adds the idea (1) of
well, completely, thoroughly, and (2) sometimes the idea
of time for an act, as

Pa anu masvzunge parenoke toksvr ao.

He yet not dead fully they leaving went.

[When not yet fully dead, they abandoned him.]

Azi mapa inyakzunger there is time to do this work;
azi mapa mainyakzung there is no time to do this work.

Tangar mapa inyak nung ibazi mainyakzung on account
of doing other work there is no time to do this

Zoko tanv imtake tokozungtsy.

Yet to-day to the village to go up there will be time.
[There will yet be time to go up to the village today.]
Tanv Yazange aozunger there is time to go to Yazang

to-day; tanv Yazange mozung there is not time to go to
Yazang to-day.

This is a favourite way of saying there is time or there is
not time to perform the act contemplated.

Zy. The primary azv means to bend, to crook, or to wind
around as a bean vine, but the modifier zy gives the idea of
swaying, oscillating or wabbling; aen to blow of wind, enzv
blow and cause trees and plants to sway about; anokzv to
. make a wavy appearance as a field of grain or a sheet of
water moved by the wind ; jepzy and sozv to swing back and

forth, to oscillate; lokzv to wabble as a loose post.

Zyk, there is a verb] azvk meaning to strike, and an adverb
azyke or azvklen meaning upward, but zyk as a modifier
indicates (x) a motion down, not up, and (2) the completion
of an act, as senzvk to percolate down, to strain ; this zyk ,
down, is precisely the opposite of ket , as azungket to lift a
thing up on to something, so azungzvk to lift a thing down
from some place. Nashi akvmket to bring cattle up to a
village ; nashi akvmzvk to turn cattle loose and let them go
down from the village, which among Nagas is always on the



hill top ; zyk implying completion, corresponds as noted above
to tem or tvm and to one meaning of ma, as zymbizvk to
finish speaking. There are two instances in which the modify-
ing effect of zyk is peculiar, as anga to mind, to hear;
angazvk to learn or know by hearing ; aji to see; ajizvk
to )earn or know by observation.

Zen is a modifying suffix, but does not properly belong
to secondary conjugations, as it is never inflected; it is a
frequentative, as tsunglu aruzen aru the rain came
repeatedly, or tsunglu aruzen arur the rain comes repeatedly,
or tsunglu aruzen arutsy it will rain repeatedly, tsunglu
aruzen arurabang if it rains repeatedly. It will be noted
that the verb is repeated when zen is used, and that the
inflection for tense or mode is not on zen .

Shia as a prefix has the force of re, but it has only a
very limited use, as shia-agi to take back, shia-agvtsy to
give back, shiabendaktsv to send back, shia-aru to return,
to come back to life, as to revive from a swoon or to arise
from the dead, shia-adok reappeared, returned. As a matter
of convenience shia and zen are put in this list of verbal

Substantive Verbs.

The substantive verbs are, aet , ali , aka, ar , asv and
er . Of these, aet , ar , and er have but a limited use, and
quite possibly ar and er may be only different pronouncia-
tions of the same. Aet , besides being a substantive verb,
means also to be near or to come near, as taet be not near, or
do not come near; azi anogo aetdage , that time (or that day)
is approaching, or is near; aet , meaning is, has usually the
additional idea of in or near, as na mulung nung etera (or
aetera) if it is in your mind, if you are so minded;
tzv aet asv maet ? is there water or not ? the full idea
being, is there any water in the water vessel ? pa tashi aet
his strength is, the full idea being he has strength in
his body, he is powerful; pa imlibilim aet his mercy is,
there is mercy in his mind, he is merciful. Mi aet there
is fire, more fully there is fire in the ashes or there is fire
in the pipe. In instances like the above aet is in frequent
use, but its range of service is very limited. The et noted
under Secondary Conjugations as implying persistency,
continuance, may be the stem of aet , which is et .



Ar and er are present tense forms, and when used mean
simply Zy, they are only occasionally heard and are evidently
relics of verbs otherwise obsolete. As ar and er are present
tense forms, the stems, if there were originally more than one,
must have been a and e; the a may be the suffix of the
participle ending in a, as bena and the e may be the suffix
of the negative participle, ending in e, as mebene ; the er is
doubtless the present tense and present participle terminal, and
the future ending tsv may be from an old form atsy.

Aka and ali are the substantive verbs most used, the
former is more commonly employed in speaking of things, and
the latter of persons, though ali is not unfrequently used in
speaking of things. Aka and ali are really preterit forms,
the stems being respectively ka and li , yet aka and
ali are used in asking questions as if they were present

tense forms, as :

Pakti ataktsv yong aka asv maka ? Kar.

Mat to weave splints are or not are ? Are.

[Are there splints or not for weaving a mat? There are.]

Here we have a present tense question put in preterit
form, and the answer in a proper present tense form. The
;same may be said of ali, as:

Pa kidange ali asv mali ? Lir.

He house in is or not is ? Is.

[Is he in the house or not ? He is in.]

As noted in remarks on conditional forms under Potential
and Subjunctive Moods, ka has sometimes the meaning of

Kar, the present tense form ofaka, sometimes implies
ownership, and is equivalent to the English has or have, as,
shironge ki kar jackals have holes ; ozve tesep kar' birds
have nests: in these sentences shironge (jackals) and ozve
(birds) cannot be in the possessive case, for they both end in e,
which is the nominative sign. Pae teti takvm kar' he ever-
lasting life has.

I Under Secondary Conjugations was given et as imparting
the idea of persistency, continuance; aka taking this modify-
ing suffix presents the forms aket, ket, keter, meaning, is
fast to, adheres to, has constantly, has belonging to it. Pa
tezak-nung aryr keter there is dirt adhering to his face, his
face is dirty. Nashizi tezv ana aket the cow has two horns,
she has them constantly, they belong to her. Nisung




tetsung ana aket, nashi tetsung pezv keter man has (as a
part of him) two legs, cattle, have four.

Ali li may mean simply to be, or it may mean to
continue to be, to live,' to remain, to reside, and to be
habitual, to be customary :

Pae kechi nung liasv, angzi ana nv ali.

He what place in was, there two days remained.

Scv aben means to put on or wear a shawl, and pa scv
abena ali she was wearing a shawl, or she was accustomed
to wear a shawl. O-li aru-li habitually going and coming. It
will be noted, as in the first of these illustrations, that liasv is
sometimes used as a preterit instead of ali . It may also be:
observed that for the stem li the form le will sometimes be
heard, especially in the negative, and it will be remembered
that the negative participle ends in e. Liorle joined with
a verb in the negative indicates determination or resolution,,
as, ni mole I am not going, am determined not to go; lir
with a present participle is much used in forming a.
periphrastic present tense, as, pa mena lir, he is sitting; pa.
noktaka lir he is standing.

The substantive verb asy, sv means not only to be, but
also to cause to be, to make, and is frequently used where in
English do is used, as where we would say, do it, do so,
as when one boy a little distance from another, threatening to-
hurl a spear at him, the latter may reply, syang, do, or doit;
a mother teaching her child to speak may say a word or a
sentence and wishing the child to repeat it, say, svang
(sang) do it, meaning say it.

Tesy dont do, yamae tesv, or azi oda tesv do not do
like that, or do not do so. Kechi asv ? or kechi asvr ? what
is done ? or what has happened ? or what is the matter? Pa
asoshi (or pa age) kechi asvtsv ? what will be done with this ?
or what can be made of it? what is it good for? Na kechi
asv? what are you doing? Pa may mean he, she, dr it, so
pakecha masvtsv he, she, or it is not good for anything, i.e.,
useless, worthless; ni pa indang kechi asvtsv? what will I
do with him, with her, or with it ? Na kechi svnvr ? what do

you wish to do ? or wish done for you ? Azi oda mesynve ni

bilimer I am not disposed to do thus.

For making or building a house asv is the word used,
as, parenoke ki svdage they are building a house. There is
an asy, sv which means to die ; the imperative of asy to be
and asy to die is svang pronounced sang, in other words



by the pronunciation of the imperative asv sang' all that is
left of the verb asv is the letter ang being the imperative

For the ordinary uses of a substantive verb, asv renders
little.service as compared with aka and ali. Asa verb/tffe
asv comes in frequently as a helper, and so it may perhaps be
characterised as an auxiliary substantive, and as such its
more common meaning is being so, or with nung as asv-nung1'
because so; azi svra if this be so, or if it be so ; 'aeisa asy-
nung because there were many. Asy is used frequently
as a helper in the formation of connectives whether con-
junctions or adverbs. It serves as an interrogatory particle, as x

Tezangzi tamen asy?

The fruit ripe is ?

a fuller form is

Tezangzi tamen asy mamen ?

The fruit ripe is (or) not ripe?

[Is the fruit ripe or not ?]

In instances like this the English renders asv by or, but in
the Naga mind it probably retains the idea of an interrogative
substantive verb. As a substitute for or between wTords or ideas
in the same sentence ,asv renders much service, but asv is not
used between different sentences ; for such an or the Aos have
no good word. Na aotsy asy maotsv ? is correct Ao Naga for
will you go or not go ? But for such an expression as, I will
go to-day or I will go to-morrow, for this or asy will not
answer. The statement I will go to-day or to-morrow may be
put in another form, as, if I do not go to-day, I will go to-mor-
row , and this latter form can easily be put into Naga, as:

Tanv ni odi mesyra (or azi mesvra) asong
To-day I will go not be if (this not be if) to-morrow

will go.

Another way is

Tany ni maora, asong aotsy.

To-day I not go if, to-morrow will go.

Sv the stem of .asy enters into two other words, which
in English are rendered or, viz., svshia and syli , as,

Nisung ka, tebur svshia, tetzvr syshia, tain syshia,
Person one male if be, female if be, old if be ?

tanur syshia, yage arung ma.
young if be, here come.

[Let one person come here, male or female, old or young.}
D 2



In the foregoing, svli may be substituted for svshia
From asv we have asvbo if, svra if, mesvra if not,
masv is not; Asy enters into the composition of
kechiasvr, kechisv dang, kechisvnung, andsvdi.

Verbs.Miscellaneous Remarks.

Nuhg may be a postposition, but nunga is frequently
used for no, not so, it is not so, and nung as an imperative
means dont, do not; this is probably the only negative
imperative that does not require t or ts as a prefix.

' Ma as an expression of dissent has about the same force
as to impoliteness and meaning as I wont .

The substantive verb is frequently omitted, as, pa ma-
zung it bad, for it is bad .

If a participle and a verb are related to each other as
cause and effect, that which expresses the cause usually
precedes, as, pa arua ashi he coming said, or he by coming
said. But this order is in a few instances reversed, as, pa
tena asvk he shivered with cold, here cold (asyk) is the
cause of the shivering or trembling, and according to the
usual order the phrase would be pa asvka aten instead
of pa tena asvk; awang means to warm, so amua awang
having become brittle by heating, by the general rule would be
awanga amua instead of amua awang; azv atsung means
blood gathered and settled, and we have azv atsunga aku for
aku-nung , azv atsung , because of a blow the blood settled.

4 Meso means to lift, and nung to shove or push, and
when these two verbs are united in a compound signifying to
lift and shove, the usual order would be meso-nung, but in the
case of this compound and a few others the order is reversed,
and we have nung-meso .

There are some verbs which appear to be properly
agglutinated compounds, which either (i) are not proper
compounds, or (2) their negative forms are irregular, as
4 arishi , which, if not a proper compound, should be aria ashi ,
but the form is arishi , and so should in the negative be
marishi, but tH£ negative is arimashi; so sensakasem,
negative should be mesensakasem , but it is sensak-masen ;

ja-atu is in negative ja-matu , and akvmtsubu is in nega-
tive akvm-metsubu. But if the constituent parts of the
compound have become obsolete as single words, or if in the



compound the parts have been so changed that the original forms
are difficult to identify, in such cases the compound takes the
negative as usual; examples : zymbi negative mezvmbi
inyak negative 1 mainyak yanglu negative meyanglu
In like manner tsubu reprang bilim and many others ;
of these-quite a number beginning with m, as, mishi,
mepishi etc.

There are only a few double negatives in Ao Naga ; they
occur usually when words of similar meaning are associated
together, and the second word becomes a sort of reduplication
of the first, as, kyta asen, the kyta is probably from *ka
one, or ketang one, and ketang asen shortened to keta
(or kyta ), asen would mean to agree in purpose or sentiment
as one, and as persons so agreeing become attached to each
other, so kyta asen came to mean to love, and finally both
kyta and asen would be occasionally used separately with
the meaning of to love or to be united as one ; in other words,
asen came to be a reduplicate of kyta or keta : so now we
have kyta asen to agree as one, to love, and mvkvta masen
to disagree, to be at variance. So also azvk aru , negative
mazvk maru , and anvb alu , negative manvb malu . Simi-
larly constructed are the double negative compounds mezyng-
meshi, magi-marutsv, and (mesen-metu, mesa-mechi.

A verb stem may take t or te as a prefix, and be inflected
without any essential change of meaning, except in the
imperative mood, where the prefix t or te becomes a formative
element, and imparts a negative force. Aside from the im-
perative, this prefix is seldom used, except with the present
and future tenses and participles to impart some emphasis,
as, onok pezy taoutsv, we four are goinggoing is the word
with us ; parenok taor they are just going, or have just gone,
or they are indeed going. The following participial adjectives
always take this prefix : tanganvtsyka desirable or pleasant
to hear, taginvtsvka desirable to receive, acceptable,
tajinytsyka pleasant to see, attractive to the eye.

Verbal Discriminations.

The Ao language is meagre as to generalization, but the
verb is rich in discriminating terms. The long list of modi-
fiers under Secondary Conjugations illustrates this fact,
and nice discriminations of closely related acts are also
indicated by different verbs, as, alep, lep has a somewhat



general meaning, signifying to cut : alang means to cut by a
light blow, as to hack, to gash a little, or cut off small things ;
aji to cut and cause to lean over, as to open a path through
thick sprouts by cutting and causing the little trees to lean
one side or the other from the intended path ; alen to cut
down a largish tree, not a small one ; aren to cut by hard
steady pressure of the hand, as to shave off smoothly the end
of a small, hard stick ; arvng to cut with a drawing or shaving
motionby something having a rough edge, something that
cuts and tears ; aten to cut rattan, especially to cut it in
suitable length to bring from the jungle ; atsvng to cut with
an instrument like an axe, to chop ; awa to cut with a shaving
or drawing motion, but not with an instrument having a
rough edge ; ayip to cut by horizontal strokes, as to mow.

Again, ashi or shidok is the more general word signify-
ing to wash, to cleanse by washing, as, 1 scv ashi or scv
shidok to wash clothes, but to wash the face the verb is mei
or meitok to wash hands, metsvk , metsvktok to wash the
legs and arms 1 meit-dok; to bathe the body. tzvshigo to
bathe knd wash tzvshigotok, tzvsentok; to wash the mouth
4 mechutok to immerse tzysen.

This sharp discrimination of closely related acts enables
a speaker to express himself with much precision, but it is a
little hard on the memory of foreigners. Though the language
is capable of such precision as to the matters of ordinary life
of the people, yet it must be remembered that they live in
Asia, and that it is characteristic of Asiatics to use language
with more latitude than do Europeans; words are not used
with so close a regard to their precise meaning. The standard
of truthfulness here is not so high and exact as in countries
moulded by Christianity. If the friends of a sick person
are alarmed and. desire medicine administered quickly, they
will, perhaps, say the person is dying, when in reality he may
or may not be seriously ill. An arm somewhat badly bruised
may be spoken of as broken, when in fact there is no indica-
tion of a fracture. A man may be asked for change for a
rupee, and perhaps he will reply that he has no small coin,
when all he means is that he has none he wishes to spare.


Adverbs not serving as conjunctions are usually placed
before and near the verbs they qualify, but ashi or ashiko,



meaning perhaps, is usually placed early in a sentence, not
unfrequently the first word, or it may constitute the only
word in response to a question. Adverbs often serve as con-
nectives between sentences, and- then their position is early
in the sentence they introduce. Svdi, meaning probably,
follows its verb. 0

The comparison of adverbs resembles that of adjectives

Padang nae tazungba inyak.

He than, you well (or best) worked.

[You woiked better than he.]

Azakdang nae tazungba inyak.

All than, you well worked.

[You worked the best of all.]

In the above illustrations tazungba is in form a noun,
'but qualifies the verb inyak like an adverb. Comparison is
not made much by adverbs, the tendency being to construct
sentences in such forms that comparison can be by adjectives.

There are few adverbs that are used exclusively as such ;
as in other languages, verb stems and adjectives slightly
modified serve as adverbs. But into the composition of
those of more frequent use enter nouns, pronouns, and postposi-
tions, as, kolene, whither, has as its base len meaning path
-or direction, to which is prefixed ko the stem of the interroga-
tive pronoun koba, thus we have kolen ? what path or what
direction ? putting the dative suffix to 1 kolen, we have kolene ?
whither? so that kolene is really a compound noun in the
dative. In ama, atenzi, ilene, ibagvtsy , idakzi, idangzi,
.and irriamae, the initial vowels are stems of demonstrative
pronouns ; azage is a contraction of azi age . The postposi-
tions or case endings age, nung, and nunge will be recog-
nised in several words in the list below, which embraces many of
the adyerbs in most common use :

Atuseir after that, after-

Ai , aih yes, just so.

Alvmle formerly, anciently.
Ama so, like this.
Angnunge thence.
'Angnungzi thence.
Angzi there, then.

Apiga far in time or place.
' Atangshi truly, truthfully.
Atenzi with that, then.


Au , ao yes.

Azage thither.

* Azi oda that manner, so.
Azyke upward.

Elene this way, thither.

Elenzi this way, thither.



Ibagvtsye after that, after-

Idage, idake hither, here.

Idakzi here.

Idangyongzi then, imme-

Idangzi at that time, then.

Ilene this way.

Imamae thus.

Jijila truly, truthfully.

Kaatsv why ?

Kala very well, well said.

Kanga very, greatly.

Kara-kara quickly.

Kecha with negative utter-

ly, entirely.

Kechiasvr why, wherefore ?

Kechiba why ?

Kechi koda how ?

Kechinung in what, where ?

Kechinunge from what,

whence ?

Kechishi why.

Kechisv why ?

Kechisvdang when ?

Kehisydanga with nega-

tive, never.

Kechisvnung wherefore.

Kechiyong why ?

Keleme along with, toge-


Kelene that way, thither.

Kelen-kelena every direc-

tion,this way and that way.
Kena again.

Ken-ken .occasionally.

Kenvmati .daily.

Kenyny frequently.

Kenyonge at once.

Kesa why ?

Kobala like what ?

Koda how ?

* Kodang when ?

Kodanga with negative,

Kode with negative, no
way, never.

Kolene whither ?

Kolen-nunge whence ?

Komama like what ?

Kong where ?

Konge whither ?

Kong-nunge whence ?

Kopiga how far (in time or

place) ? *

Lene toward.

Luage down there..

Ma interrogative and impera-

tive particle.

No or noh indeed ?

Nung or nunga no.

Oage yonder.

Olene thither.

Ongzi there.

' Otia publicly.

Pamae thus.

Piketa not far in time or space...
Qeiben how many times ?

Sashia sharply, thoroughly.

Svdi probably.

Tali too much, exceedingly-
Tamalen forward.

Tangnow, immediately.

Tangyonge immediately.

Tesye subsequently.

Tesvlen backward.

Time properly, according to

good usage.

Tuage up yonder.

Yage hither.

Yakte quickly.

Yamae *thus.

Yaseir after that, sub-

Zung-zunga well, properly,,



Interrogative adverbs may be used relatively. There is no
proper adverb for only . For numeral adverbs see Numerals.


Particles preceding nouns and governing them are called
prepositions, so when like words follow the nouns governed
they are called postpositions. A few of these are from other
parts of speech, as, asvshi (pronounced asoshi), from the
verb 1 asy den (or ten ), from the verb aten ; kelen
from ka and len ; madak from ma surface ; zaktang
from zak or tezak the face ; matsungdang from ma
before, and tsung feet; of rongnung rong is a noun
meaning a clump or group. Some postpositions take the dative
suffix e, indicating motion to, as, kelen one side or beyond,.
kelene to the other side, across ; so madang in presence of,.,
and madange to the presence of; also matsungdang in pre-
sence of, and matsungdange to the presence of.

Den , or ten , also nung and nunge , are classed
below as postpositions, but they probably should be considered
as suffixes of nouns, because den and nung are treated
as parts of the nouns they follow; for, as if forming a com-
ponent part of the noun, note how the demonstrative suffix zi
is appended, how meaning also, is appended, and how dang
as an emphatic particle is appended :

Boy to the give S j correct, but

Tanurzi nung agyzang ; incorrect because the
Boy the to give )

should follow nung as if tanurnung were one word. So we
have ibadenzi rather than ibazi den. Kongshir to
touch, requires nung , and as there is no adverb meaning only,,
emphatic particles are used to give the idea of only, so we have:

Ni pa scvnungdang kongshira.

I his garment to touch if.

[I his garment to (emphatic) touch.] [If I only touch his

Panunga agyzang.

Him to also give.

[Give to him also.]

Padena medemer ka lir.

Him with also associate one is.

[With him also is an associate.]



If nung is classed as a case-ending, so also must nunge
be so considered, for the one is only a different form of the

A List of Postpositions.

Age by, with.

J Alyma beyond, besides, over.
Amae, mae like.

Ana near.

Anasa near.

Any ma'against, opposed.

Madange to presence of, to.
Mae before, outside.

Melen or melene in place

of, exchange for.

Meyong for, belonging to.

Mykyta around.

Asvshi (pronounced asoshi) Nung in, to, at, on, by.

for, for sake of, in order to.

Atvma by, in name of.

Chia, zia exceeding, more than.

Den, ten with, in connection

Donga to, unto, until.

Indang respecting.

Kelen at one side, after,

* Kelene across.

Kvbok under, below.

Kvtsv after.

Madak over, upon.


1 Nunge from.

Rongnung among.

Rongnunge from among,

Svlen after, behind.

Tali exceeding, more than.
Tama before.

Tamasa before, in front of.
Tashi until, as long as, as
far as.

Telung inside, within.

Tesy behind.

Tetsungda between.

Yong for, by.

4 Madang in presence of, before. Zaktang in front, before.

Zaktange to the presence of, to the front.


Among the Aos, thoughts are conceived and expressed as
related by cause and effect, by sequence, unity, or opposition,
or as related by time as before, or after, or eotemporaneous, but
the adding of one idea to another is not a favorite mode of
expression ; in other words, the conjunction aseir (and) is little
used between sentences, the use of participles frequently
obviating the need of and; even in connecting words it is not
so much used as in English. Sometimes between words, where
the English would insert and, the Aos string them together
without any conjunction. Sometimes o appended to such
words serves as a sort of conjunction, as, Ali-o, tzy-o, nisung-o,



shiruru-o, ozv-o, ango-o, scongdong-o, ya azak, Tsungrem age
yanglu Earth, water, man, animals, birds, fish, trees, all
these were made by the Lord.

As has been previously remarked, many adverbs of place,
time, and manner serve as conjunctions to connect sentences.
There are but few words used exclusively as conjunctions. As
noted in adverbs, so in the composition of conjunctions, abbre-
viated phrases are much used. To bring this fact prominently
before the eye a long list of adverbs has been given, and as in
this respect conjunctions are so similar to adverbs, a list of
conjunctions is not given, but instead the learner is referred to
the Vocabulary.


Interjections of the Aos present no special features worthy
of note. Some of the more common are here given :

Ail hai! Beware !

Aiatai! aiyatai! Alas woe !

Ho ho-ho halloo !

Uh disgust.

Kvta, kala, so be it, very well.

Lanli! bravo well done !

Nei , placative, indeed.

No 1 indeed 1


The Ao language has sufficient inflection to allow of
flexibility in the arrangement of subordinate sentences. Long
involved sentences are generally avoided, hence the construc-
tion is marked by simplicity. The relative positions of
different parts of speech have already been noted in previous
chapters. The adverb svdi (meaning probably) follows the
verb qualified, but usually the chief verb is last; the subordi-
nate clauses, are arranged as best they may be to secure perspi-
cuity. The subject nominative may be first in a sentence, or
in any other place where it may best serve the full and clear
expression of the main and subordinate thoughts. As partici-
ples and verbal nouns may have a subject nominative, some care



must be exercised that the main nominative is not placed where
it would be deemed the subject of these participial forms as :

Nok age alepdak-nunge azy aeim.

Dao by cut place from blood flowed.

[Blood flowed from the wound cut by a dao.]

In this sentence blood is the subject, and if it were placed
before the verbal noun alepdak it would become its subject
and so destroy the sense. The sentence may be lengthened,
so as to give alepdak a proper subject as :

Pa pei teben nok age alepdak-nunge azy aeim.

He his own arm dao by cut place from blood flowed.

In this sentence pa, he, is the subject of alepdak , (cuf
place') or, as we say, the cut. To express the thought of this
sentence in English, it must be entirely recast, as, the blood
flowed from a cut he (made) on his arm.

As was remarked under Substantive Verbs, the verb to be
is frequently omitted where it would be deemed necessary in
English. So also when from the context or from the subordi-
nate clauses the main subject nominative is apparent, it may
not be expressed ; and a like remark applies to the objective.

Ni pa scvnungdang kongshira anybtsy.

I his garment to (only) touch if will be healed.

In this sentence ni (/) is the subject of kongshira, and
must be also considered the unexpressed subject of anybtsy

Ni padang shir nedange yok.

I to him speaking to you sent.

I instructing him sent (him) to you ; in Ao the second him
as the object of yok (sent) is not expressed, because in the
Naga mind it is evident who is sent. This suppressing of a.
nominative or an objective can only be properly done whew-
such suppression causes no ambiguity.


Ka. 8. Ti.
Ana. 9. Tvko.
Asvm. 10. Ter.
Pezv. 11. Teri ka.
Pungu. 12. Teri ana.
Trok. 13. Teri asym.
Tenet. 14. Teri pezy.



15. Teri pungu.

16. Metsv maben trok.

17. Metsv maben tenet.

18. Metsv maben ti.

19. Metsy maben tvko.

20. Metsy.

;2i. Metsvri ka.

:22. Metsvri ana.

26. Semvr maben trok.

27. Semvr maben tenet.
30. Semvr.

36. Lir maben trok.

40. Lir.

46. Tenem maben trok.

50. Tenem.

56. Rokvr maben trok.

60. Rokvr.

70. Tenem ser metsy (50 &

80. Lir anasv (twice 40).

90. Telang tvko.

100. Telang or Noklang.

1000. Meyirizang, meirzang.

As will be observed from the above, the Aos have distinct
names for the digits, and the compounds are regularly formed
Up to sixteen, as, ten and one are eleven teri ka, ten and two
are twelve ten ana, &c.; also from twenty to twenty-six, twenty
.and one metsvri ka, twenty and two metsvri ana , &c. The
same with thirty, forty, &c. But when the six is reached in
the compounds, the succeeding ten seems to be anticipated,
.and we have for sixteen metsy maben trok twenty not brought
six, equivalent to the sixteen before twenty; metsv; maben
tenet, the seventeen before twenty, &c. In the same manner
from twenty-six to thirty, on reaching the six, thirty is antici-
pated, thus semyr maben trok the six before thirty,
"twenty-six, lir maben trok the six before forty, thirty-six,


This method of counting is very objectionable to children
learning the use of figures, as in adding up a column if the ,
.amount is seventeenmetsv maben tenet the mind catches
the twenty, and two is very likely carried instead of one to
the next column. In the schools an effort is being mhde to
discard the above irregularities, and count regularly thus, teri
trok sixteen, metsvri trok twenty-six, &c.


First, second, third, &c., are formed by adding sv or buba
to the cardinals, except for the first, as

First, Mvzyng, kesv, or kesvka.

Second, Anasv or anabuba.

Third, Asymsy or asvmbuba, &c.



Numeral Adverbs are formed by adding the suffix ben
to the cardinals, but as in the ordinals the first (once) is an,

Once = Kendang.

Twice = Anaben.

Thrice = Asvmben, &c.

Mnltiplicatives are formed by adding ben or sv.to1
the cardinals.


One-half = teradang, terama (or) anasa alemer shilemka.
{or talemka).

One-fourth = pezv alemer shilem ka {or talemka).
Two-fifths = pungusv alemer shilem ana (or talem ana).
Two and one-half = ana aseir anasv -alemer shilem ka -(or:

talem ka).

Division of Time.


Year = Kym.

This year = Takvm.
Next ,, = Sangkvm.

Year after next = Sangkvmba.
Last year = Yakym.
Year before last =s Yakvmba.
Yearly = Kvmshia.


Cold weather, dry season = Tsungkym.

Warm weather, wet season = Mei, or meyi.


The new year begins with the reaping of paddy, and the-
moon in which the first bit of ripe grain is brought up to the
village marks the first month of the year :

First month = Ita ka.

Second ,, = Ita ana.

Third ,, = Ita asvm.

Fourth ' = Ita pezv, &c, up to the sowing of pen?.

rice, wdfich is the ninth month, when the count is as follows :

Ninth month = Pentensy ita (sowing pen rice).

Tenth ,, = Luti tensy ita (sowing luti rice).

Eleventh ,, = Moatsy ita (village festival).

Twelfth = Ja-me-za i,




Thirteenth month = Amla'ita, shila maza.

Monthly = Itashia.

Moon = Ita (or) i (a month).

New moon = Ita asong.

Half ,, Ita mangku lepma.

Full ,, = Ita anvmi, ita naridang.

Moon waning = Ita imar.

Moon perished = Ita ima.

Interval between moons (moon invisible) == Ita irem,


The Aos had no division of time into weeks and no specific
names for days, but counted forward and backward as follows:

To-day = Tany.

To-morrow = Asong.

Day after to-morrow = Yanv.

Second day after to-morrow = Imnv.

Third ,, ,, = Mokony.



-= Mykyny.

= Songtoknv.

Yesterday = Yashi.

Day before yesterday = Yakvnv.

One, two, or three days before that = Yakynyba.
Daily Kenvmati, anogoshia.


Night = Aonung, amang.

To-night Taonung.

To-morrow night Asong-onung.

Night after to-morrow night = Yanv-onung.

Second night after to-morrow night = Imnv-onung.

Third = Mokonv-onung.

Fourth = Mykvnv-onung.

Fifth = Songtokny-onung,

Last night := Yasong.

Night before last = Yakonung.

One, two, or three nights before that = Yakonungba.
Nightly = Amangshia, kununga-mati.



Divisions of Day and Night.

Just before cock crowing = Aenkungbang.

First cock crowing = Myzvng aenkung.

Just at dawn Sangwabang.

'Twilight Kiba-rerer, tangdang-rera, zyngia-zyngia.
Reddening of the sky.= Anv-tsung ayang.

'.Sunrise = Anvpunge.

About 9 or io a.m. = Toroto.

About I p.m. = Anzongmeshi.

About 3 p.m. = Anzongmanga.

About 4 or 5 p.m. = Akpur meshi.

Sunset = Any aeir, any taor.

Early evening = Likongtsvtsv, likongdang, nikongtsvtsy,

After evening meal = Tzv-ki sen.

<9 or io p.m. = Kishirep (doors all fastened),
io or ii p.m. = Yiprep, mezangrep (all asleep).
Midnight = Aietrvm.

Measures of Length.(Tasazyk.)

Am ka = Distance between tip of fingers across the breast
with both arms extended.

Toko chima = Distance from breast bone to tip of fingers
of one arm extended.

Syklep ka = One cubit.

Aka ka One span.

Katsvba = A short span.

Kalangba = A long span.

Tekabu alem = A hands breadth.

Yong-sym alem = Three fingers breadth (temeyong
asvm alem).

Yong-na alem = Two fingers breadth (temeyong ana

Temeyongka alem = One fingers breadth.

An am's length of course varies somewhat with different
persons as do the other measurements ; but an am is from 5
feet to 5 feet 6 inches.



Dry Measure (Paddy Measure).(Tatakzvk.)

Imzi = The village measure.

Pua = There'were formerly four puas to one imzi now
in some villages there are only a little more than

Yi molok = One half a 'pua.

Nvbu molok = About two and half make one pua/a
days wages in paddy.

Aentzy molok = One-half a yi molok,value of an egg.

In villages bordering on Assam the imzi is smaller than in the
villages farther back : the small imzi of paddy may be about
ten seers, and the largest may be twenty seers. In measuring,
the imzi is always heaped.

A pua is a little more than five seers.

A yi molok of paddy is estimated as equal in value to a
tzvma-scong of fermented rice ready to be made into yi *
(maud}, hence the name yi molok.

Tekabu ka = One handful.

ana = Two handfuls.

,, asvm = Three handfuls.

,, medema = One double handful.

,, ,, ana = Two double handfuls.

,, asvm= Three ,, &c.

,, ka medemtet = To scoop up a single handful.

,, medemtet =To scoop double handfuls.


Scongti = About two and one-half seers.

Tzvma-scong = About one-half a scongti.

Some villages have a weight called puakypba, interme-
diate between scongti and tzvma-scong .





Is he able to carry that load ?

He is now able to walk about
the village, but unable to
go into the jungle.

He intended to go, but was

Are they able to carry the

They say they are unable.

Gd and bring as much rice

as you are able to carry.

While milking, give the cows
as much ground rice as
they will eat.

"Thfe Nagas stood about the

About what did the quarrel
begin ?

Some men are talking about
going to the plains.

He inquired about you.

The woman seems about to


I will remain here about a

About .how many fowls are
they ?

The boy has been absent
from school four days.

His family have been absent
from this village a year.
Why do you abuse that man ?

He abuses his child.

Those men are abusing

each other.

These two men are abusing
each other at their backs

Ku azi abentsy pae akok asy
makoktsv ?

Tangbo pae imtong-nung senzv-
ter saka areme motet.

Pae moe ati.

Parenoke scongdong apur otet
asy motet ?

Parenoke menangznk.

Tsvk takok tashi abene oang

(wang), (or) tsyk tabentsi}
tashi abene oang.

Nashi mamatzv imdang, nashi
tsyk menungsaba qei chinv-
dir, azi chidakzangma.

Ao-nungere Sa-ab mijkypbanga.

Kechi age rarabangsen tenzvk ?

Nisung kare Tzvmae alutsy

Ne indang pae asongdang.
Tetzvrzi tasvr ama lir, (or)

tetzyrzi asy akvmna tsungda-
nung lir, (or) tetzyrzi tasyr lir.

Yange ni ita Yashi lidi.

Aen qeike shia lir ?

Tanurzi kakvt ashidak pezv ny


Asen imtak pa kibong kvm
keta male.

Nae kechiba pa sensatsvr, (or)
atalatsvr ?

Pa pei chir mTjkvt meson.
Parenoko parenokna sensatep-


Iba nisung anetzi kanga tilutep-
er, (or) pi matsungdang
tenvng menyktsvr.



He says his head aches, his
back aches, his tooth
aches, and he asks for

Her head aches because she
has brought a heavy load.

After you have eaten come
to me.

After finishing that work go
to your house.

After this I will go.

I will go after Sunday._

"This news reached our village
after all had gone to cul-

"The boys followed after him.

"They hurried after the
enemy, but did not over-
take them.

They hastened after the
Saheb, but, not over-
taking him, returned.

Come after a little while

Sweep this room and after'
wards dust it well.

.Have all the cows come up ?

Take all the medicine in the

I never saw anything so bad
in all the country.

Yesterday I waited for him
all day.

He worked all day.

Get all the things (every-

thing) ready for the jour-

Bring all the rice from the
granary on the cultivation.

Gather up all the grain you
put out to sun.

Tokolak menyr, teperem ashir,
tepo angur ta, pae mozy

Ku reta aben-nung pa kolak

Zi chiyongerang kv madange
arung ma.

Azi mapa inyak;flr ne kidange
oang ma.

Azi seirkytsy ni odi.

Amung nv kelen ni odi, (or)
Deobar mungeran^g ni odi.
Asen imvr alue kvpa or kelen

azi osang im atong.

Tanurtvm pa sylen anitak, (or)

Parenoke arvr ina ao, saka

Parenoke Sa-ab aritaka ao,
memenep-nung shia-aru.

Piga lir arung ma, (or) ken
lir arung ma.

Iba taktangzi oktokang, tesy
zung-zunga aeidokang.

Nashi azake adoker ma ? (or)
arogo ma ?

Kakvt-nung mozy alepba tem-
shia (or azaki) chiang.

Yamazi tamazung kechasvdan-
ga alima temang-mxng, ni

Yashi pa ashoshi ni ango
mung a ata ali.

Any lua tashi pae mapa inyak.
Aene aotsv auybalu renemang.

Alu zen-nunge tsvk arukushia
benang ma.

Pua ayuba tsvk okshia lokang.




Empty out all (every bit) of
the rice from the rice

There are almost four mea-
sures of paddy.

He has almost finished his

The boy is almost well.

We were almost at the village
when we met the Saheb.

The widow lives alone.

They left him alone and fled.
He alone (he only) said so.
He alone is bad.

Man shall not live by bread

Let the child alone} and it
will do well enough.

This is the best mat among
them all.

The boy stood among the

Methan are among the cows.

A male methan is among the

He reaped another mans

a book ; bring another

Two men are going to the
plain, another is going
a fishing.

After resting on the Sabbath
our people arise early the
next morning.

The council arose and dis-
persed. .

They arose and were off.

He arose to speak with much

self importance.

The young woman is asleep.



Zi-nunge tsvk temshia tokzyk

Tsvk imzi pezv tera mazungza'
(or) mesongza.

Pa tainyakmar lir (or) mapa
inyakmar atemata lir.

Tanurzi mazungtur (or)

Tanurzi anvb^a manyb.

Im matong tsungda Sa-ab azu-
ru, (or) im tsung-nung (or) im
tong ana, Sa-ab den azurutep..

Pa kija amir.

Parenoke pa kija toksvr azen.
Pae sa yamae ashi.

Padfow^ mazung.

Nisunge am tesa age malitsy.

Tanurzi odang yuzang, pa:

Pakti azakdang tazungba ya.

Tanurzi tambur rongnung nok-
taka ali.

Nashi-atezz (or rongnung') scy

Scvbong ka nashi telok tsung-
da-nung lir.

Pae />z lu aru.

Kakvt ka bena arung ; anu ka.

Nisung ana Tzvmae alutsv,.
tangare tzv yoke aor.

Deobar munger asen imer
asongzi yakte shishir.

Im mungdang aramesor sen-
shia ao.

Parenoke apusoa ogo.

Pae nvlak asongtsv mezy

mvkvma noktak.

Aeirzi mezanga lir.



'The child is sleepy.

He is lying down but is not


Sitting by the fire makes one

She did not take the medi-
cine because it was

1 came because of what he

He came because I called

He should take the medicine
before eating.

I told you before, that you
could not go.

Multitudes went before him
and followed after him.
Since our village was formed

has he stolen cows ? No,
before that.

He was before my time.

Do not stand before the

They went before the Saheb.

Our ancestors formerly
{before'} had this practice.

Your house is better than

I think you better send the
man this word.

Is the sick man better to-
day ?

Blow the fire until it blazes.

The wind blows so hard he
is afraid of falling tree

.Boilthe milk and put it away.

Tanurzi amonva lir.

Pae yipten-nung mepitaka lir,
saka mezanga mao, (or) me-
zange moe rongtaka lir.

Mimung anaSae amen-nung te-
nuk svremer.

Mozv taku zsy-nung pae

Pae zvmbi age (or yong} ni

Ni 3.23,-nung pae aru, (or) ni
azar anungzi pae aru.

Zi zwachiyongdang pae mozy
achitsv tim (or) chilaba.

Mvzvng na to ta, ni shikato.

Pa tamalen, tesvlen nisung te-
lokti ao.

Asen im kvmer, pae nashi
aoyar asv, masv ? Masv,


Kvdang tama pae liasv.

Sa-ab zaktang tenoktak.

Parenoke Sa-ab-dang tamasa

Tzvrebure aliomle pa mae

Kv kidang ne ki tazungba.

Padang o ya mae shioktsy
zunger ta ni bilimer.

Tanyp shirangba nisungzi zung-
tur ma ?

Mi mezangro tashi apuang, (or)
mi mvka ao tashi apuang.
Mopung kanga a^/z-nung pae

tokusyktsy tsvremer.

Mamatzv aketa sor yuzang ma.



When the water boils, boil an

A large boil has appeared on
his neck; it is a carbuncle.

He has borrowed two rupees
and will pay in rice.

He wishes to borrow money
without interest, but if
unable he will borrow and
pay interest.

He breaks a great many

The cooking pot fell and
broke in pieces.

Break the nut and eat the
fruit; do not break the

He broke my walking stick.
The bridge breaking, the cow

fell through and broke her

The pigs broke through the
fence and got into the

The bull broke the rope while
being bound.

The boys broke the rope by

He stepped on the bamboo
cup and broke it ; he broke
the bamboo water pail by
striking it with the back
of his dao

He struck the slate with a
stick and broke it.

The basket is bent together
and broken.

The women are bringing
water ; the boys have gone
to bring wood.

Young men have gone down
to bring up loads for the

Tzv ja atutekz, entzy ka me-


Pa tokong-nung mesonga waka
komo tulu adok ; pa nashi
komo, (or) shi komo.

Pae tatsvk ana agua agi yong.
tsvk ataktsv.

Pae metemedang />nyr, saka
mangurabang tatem aguvarc.

Pae lung so aeiga raksar (or)

Zibo tsyka kusa.

Tezangto chakrega chiang ;
entzvzi techakma, nei.

Pae kv mechi kusvk.

Apu kusvka nashizi tsyka
tetsung svktang.

Ak atsv rakgoka atsvki aeir,
(or) atsye aeir.

Nashipungzi alendang lisv tok-

Tanurtvme lisv atsvtepdang

Pae maravk ajymre/> ; nokzv
age pae tzy shi kureg.

Pae scongsv age lungpak teg-
reg (or) tepsa.

Molok negreg (or) nepsa.

Tetzvrzi tzy ta-a bendage ;
tanurtvm scong bene ao.

Sepai ku abentsn asangur alur..



The sick mans companions
have brought him up.

Moses brought the Israelites
out of Egypt.

The boys bring up the cows
at night.

By hard language his relatives
brought him.

The slave was brought by

They brought away his dao
by violence.

When will you tear down
your house and rebuild!

I am building a new one now.
He builds a back platform to
his house.

Can you make (build)
benches for the school
house ?

A bridge has been built across
the Jhanzi river, and by it
a good road is made.

Some of our villagers are
shaving splints to make

The child burned its hand
with a coal of fire.

The leg smarts where it was
burned by a hot iron.

I burnt my hand 4n the

I burned an orifice in the pipe
stem with a hot wire.

Yesterday I saw Temlu
village burn.

This wet wood will not burn.
Strong chillies burn the

He has heart-Z>Mr.

Naga custom is to burn off
the bristles of dead pigs.

I sent medicine by the boy.
The news came by- the Wa-
ramong men.

Medemere shirangba gunger

Mosae Yihudanunger Miz lima
nunge anir ao.

Nikongdang tanurtyme nashi


Soseme pa kangshir anir- aru.
Alarzi merenshia bener aru.

Parenoke pa nok rakzvka bener


Na pei ki kodang bensa a asy ?

Tan ni ki tasen sydage.

Pa pei sconglang atemer.

Kakvt ashidak men den yang-
luter ma ?

Milaktzv-nung apu ala} aseir
pa azanga lemang zung-
zunga agi.

Asen imer kare pakti ataktsy
yong mechia nadage.

Tanurzi mizang age teka arong.

Tetsung in tatsvk age a/^Z-nung

Kv kabu aot-nung belem.

Bong mesye-atsy age tembok.

Yashi Temlu im arongba ni

Scong taei-nung mi myka aotsy.
Meresa kanga ashi-nung tebang

Pa temulungzang azyr.
Aonunegre ak meroker.

Tamxx-nung ni mozv bener yok-
Iba osang Waramongnunger
sanga aru.



This was spoken by the

They went to Suzu by way
of Acangma.

He crossed the river by a

Stand by me (with me).

By and by we shall go down
to Assam.

Be careful.

Use your books carefully.

She puts away her things
very carefully.

Open the box at Amguri and
count the things carefully.

He attends carefully to his

Carefully consider what he

Carefully heed what the
teacher says.

Can four men carry the Mem
Saheb to Waramong ?

Five load-carriers will be

Nagas do not carry their
children in their arms, but
carry them on their backs.

Did those who went fishing
catch many fish by
poison, ?

The hawk caught a hen.

The hawk caught a hen,

but did not carry it

Ainkar age o ya zvmbi.

Parenoke Asangma azanga
Suzu imtake atu.

Pae rong age (or n,ung) tzy
zui ao.

Kv madang liang (or ky den

Piga lir onoke Tzymae alutsy,
(or) yamj-immj Tzymae


Nenoke pei kakyt anga benshi-
ang ma, (or) nenoke pei
kakyt zungzunga benshiang

Tetzvrlae pei oset (or kizen)

Amguri aliba scongden agen-
pok oset zung-zunga zvng-
dangang, (or) zung-zunga

Pae pei mapa nentak-nentaka

Pae kechi shidir sashia metet-
ang ma.

Saiyutsungir kechi saiyudir te-
mulung-nung tenok tenoka

Nisung pezv Mem Sa-ab Wa-
ramong imtake apungtsv
koker ma ?

Ku abenda pungu agitsy.

Ao-nungere pei chir azunger
mao, saka p linger ao.

Tzy yokere ango kanga apu asy
mapu ?

Orija aen ka sva ao.

Orija aen ka ajeptur yutsy.



He caught fever by sleeping
in the jungle.

The boy ran and caught up
with us.

On what did his cloth
catch ?

The cat caught the cloth in
her claws.

He caught the orange.

He caught the small-pox from

another village.

Give me change for this rupee.

The load is not too heavy if
you change often.

He changed daos, and has
carried off mine.

Day and night change suc-

Yesterday he told a different
story, he changes his state-

Dont change your statement.

He changes his story much.

The village officers have been

He had a fever chill this

Did he have a chill last
night ?

He is chilled by getting wet
in the rain.

This is a very chilly day.

In climbing a tree, one boy

climbs by shinning up,
another cuts notches and
climbs, another climbs like
a cat, and another climbs
by clinging and.walking up.

Climb the tree and pick me
some fruit.

Pa arem-nung ayip-nung imra
mena, (or) imra mlok, (or)
imra enlok.

Tanurzi aritaka aru-nung onok
(or onokden) menatep.

Pa scv kechi-nung itak ?
Tanye scv-nung a] epet.

Pae jembeny^^A

Pae pi imerdak aiak mena aru,

(or) menatep.

Tatsyk ka meyong tanyk
sen kva.

Nenoke melentep melentepa
benera, ku kanga maretsv.
Pae nok melena kv nok bener


Amango sangwana belentepa

Yashi zvmbiba o tany pae aset-


O tasetshi, (or) o tesenchi,
(or) o tasepshi.

Pa o tejep-tejep, (or) o tesem

Tatar menden atsyng.

Pa anvptang atena shiranger.

Yasong pa shiranger aet asy
maet ?

Tsunglu aja-nung, pae ayanga
ashir, (or) ayanga lir.

Tanybo kanga asyker.
Scongdong azyk atudang ta-

nur ka asepa atu, tangar ka
zenzang alanga atu, tangar
ka ajepa atu, tangar ka aen
jaja atu.

Scongdonge tuang tezang
kvnym ongzang.



Close the door.

Close your books and put
them up.

He closes his eyes as if he
were asleep.

He closes his mouth.

The cold season has come,

and men are travelling.

The weather is cold and wet.

The boy says he has no cloth
and is cold.

The child is ill with a cold.

I will not bathe in cold water,

bring me warm water.

Come here.

He came yesterday.

Come, let us go.

Come down to the cultivation.
Come down from the tree.

Come out of the house im-

The Assamese came up to
the village, and came into
our house.

The coolies complain that
their loads are heavy.

He complains about his pay.

He made complaint to the

What are you doing here ?
A case in court.

He confuses his statements.
His mind is confused, he

cannot say.

There is great confusion in
the village.

Kishi ayubangang, (or) kisht
tsybangang, (or) ki shiang
fit. fasten), (or) ki shibang-
ang fit. fasten).

Kakyt lembanga yuang.

Pa mezanga ao ama tenuk

Pae tebang mejemb anger.
Tsungkym arur nisunge aene

aotsy lir.

Tsungsang mokong-mokongert
(or) tsungsang ter a ajir.

Scy makanung asyker ta tanur

Tanure imra age shiranger.
Tzyzy age ni temang mechi-

gole (meshigole) tzy miri
benang ma.

Yage arung.

Pae yashi aru.

Arungzong odi.

Alue arung ma.

Scongdong azyk-nunge alung

Kidang-nunge aluma-ang.

Tzvma-nunger im tonger ozo
kidange atu.

Ku abenba pei ku tali aret-
xoxagjashia ashir.

Pa ta indang temulung mackr
ashi, (or) nvbu indang pa
temulung machi ashi.

Pae o akar.

Yange kechi svr? O kar.

Pa o aeitep.

Pa shisa tsungmi-nvmg meshi-

Imtak kanga rong-rong shishir^



In the house everything is
in confusion.

Whosoever shall confess me
before men.

He confesses that he is

Who did this ? I am the

Cook rice, cook vegetables,
and cook the beef in the

Warm (cook over) the fowl
that was cooked yester-

When the bread is light bake
it (cook it).

Roast (cook) a couple of
yams in the ashes.

Is there any cooked rice and
vegetables ?

The child should eat only soft

cooked rice.

He speaks the Ao language

If you do not reckon
correctly, you cannot trade

When you come before the
Saheb, state the facts


This man is courageous, but
that one has not af article
of courage.

Some of the villagers have
very little courage.

Bring the cover to the tin
and put it on; cover the
cooking pot.

Cover the rice pot and vege-
table pot with a leaf.

Cover the sick man with his

The tiger is hid under a cover
of weeds.

Ki oset temtak scongnanger.

Shiresa nisung madang ni

Kv taei lir ta, pae au-ra-aka
(or) nangzyk.

Ya shibae amshir? Ni arer.

Zi soroang, ain soang, nashi sht
zibo-nung sangang.

Yashi asoba aenzi solemang..

Am pokraka viangang.

Aot lem-nung gnv anet tsvkang,
(or) pelemang.

Ziz^?, ainr
Tanurzi zi tejepra achitsy tim.

Pae Ao o pendeta ashir.

Shitak mezvngtera nae meshi-

Nae Sa-ab madang arura, &
atangshi zymbiang ma.

Iba nisungzi tascv aet saka
pabo aen mulungzang tener.

Im kare kare pokpa-pokri.

Merangbongdang temvkvtsvzi
bener arua mvkytang; zibozi


Zibo, ambo lembangang.

Shirangbazi pei scv abenlok-
zang ma.

Keyibazi scongo pok-nung
atsyka lir.



The growing rice covers the
ground now.

The cultivation is covered
with weeds.

Cover the basket with a palm

Cover over the grain with a

Cover the fowl with a basket.
The load is well covered.

The sun is covered (obscur-
ed) by a cloud.

The boy has cut his toe with
a dao, and this man has
cut his hand with a knife.

He cut his leg with a sharp

He cut his foot against a
sharp bamboo stump.

Cut down the dry tree and
cut it up for firewood.

Cut the wood short and fine
for the stove.

Cut open this tin with a

How many heads were cut
off in that affray.

Cut off the end of the pipe

Cut off eyen and square the
end of the stick.

Cut the grass in front of the

She cut her cloth with the

He cut the tin in two with
the shears.

Dig a ditch, and dig holes
for the posts.

The child disobeys his

Tangbo mo age ali sembanga
lir, (or) mo mesonga lir (or)
motsung zintur.

Alu aei semshia meigo, (or) alu
aei age sakogo.

Kuzi scera shi age meibangang.
Tsvkzi molok sgprembangang.

Aenzi molok age sembangang.
Kuzi zungzunga meia lir.

Any mepeta tsybanga lir.

Tanurzi pei temeyong nok age
alep, aser tamburzi teka
kotare age wazyk.

Pa pei tetsung anisem-nung

Pa pei tetsung ao tembang-
nung chizyk.

Ya scongdong takong lenzyka


Mimung asoshi scong tatsvtsy

Tambongdangzi kotare age


Azi leptepdang tokolak qei
atang ?

Luli bang rentokang.

Scongdong metema alangtok-


Kima aei ayvpang.

Tetzvrzi pei scv mejeptsv age


Pae tam mejeptsy age mejepma.

Kvlentzv eitang, tungshi,
tungnv ongken toang.

Tanurzi pei tzvrebur o mangar,
(or) tanurzi pei tzvrebure
ashi mangar.



Dont disobey Government

I have discharged the man.

He will get no more money
until he discharges his debt.

Among the children one has
an amiable disposition,
another has a bad temper,
another is quick tempered,
and their mother is irrit-

He was very obstinate yes-
terday, sometimes he is


Dont! ...

Dorit use that, dont touch


Don't do thus!

Don't bother me !

I doubt the truth of his state-

Why do you stand doubting.
Drive the pigs away, drive the
fowls out of the garden.
Day before yesterday they

drove up cows from Assam
and drove them into the

The man is drunk.

Spread the rice in the sun

to dry.

Is the rice dry ? If it is dry,
gather it up.

If the cloth is dry fold it and
put it away.

The springs are dry because
of deficient rainfall.

By the water cooking out
(drying out) of the pot
the vegetables burned.

The cut jungle on the culti-
vation being very dry, it
burned well.

Kompani ozvng teraksa ma.

Ni pa tenyng zentsy, (or)


Pa sen-atsv memenok tashi,
pae anu sen mangutsv.

Iba tanur rongnung kabo kymli
synyr, kabo kvmli sakli
mazung, kabo meit tema-
bang, parenok tetzy kymh-


Yashi pa temulung melem, ken.
ken pae lungkak aeter.


Azitamshima! (or) tekongshi !.

Azi oda tamshi ma (or) tesv !
Zangzonga teli, (or) meinateli!
Ni pa o atsy ayonger.

Nenoke kechiba ajitaka alii
Ak aridokang, atsyki-nunge

aen intokang.

Yakanv parenoke Tzvma-
nunge nashi akym, aser
areme akymoktzy.

Nisungzi yi age mesep.

T svk puang, or pudakang.

Tsvk ara asv mara? Arar a

Scv takong svra kuleptena

Tsunglu maru-nung tzvbu:

Ambo tzv rosep-xwzxg ain


Alu ajiba kongseta ali-nung,
kao arong.



If the thatch is dry I will
buy it.

He has searched everywhere^
and cannot find his

He has left it somewhere

Conduct yourself properly
wherever you are.

Wher ever he went he told his

Wherever the Saheb goes
we will go.

He has been faithful in his

According to your faith be it
unto you.

He is unfaithful

He would not go alone into

the jungle for fear of

LMen should fear the Lord ..

The women going for wood
were thoroughly frightened
and fled.

Feed the fowls, feed the
pigs, and feed the horse.
Because the grass is short

the cows feed a long
distance away.

When the mother goes to
the cultivation, the little
sister feeds the child.

I forbidYixs going to the old
village, but give him
permission to go to the

You forgot to ask him yes-
terday, do not forget it to-

I shall not forget you when
I am away.

Azy tasy asvbo ni alidi.

Pae azaklen bushir, nok mang-

Pae langka-nung toksvr svdi.

Nae kechisv-nung lider, tazung
imsev benshiang ma.

Pae konge ao, pei o ashi.

Sa-abe kolene odir, ilenzage
ozoe aotsv.

Pae tangshi tangshia inyak.

Nenok amangba amazi, nenok-
dang svang.

Pa mulung matang.

Kei Zsz^w-nung pa kija areme


Meimchire anung Tsungrem
tsungken tsybutsv tim.

Tetzvr scong bene ao-nung
tsybuseta (or) aoksa, or
tsyremseta, (or) ajymseta
(or) tsyseta pungshi azen.

Aen-nung chidakzang, ak jef-
ang qor goksyang.

Chiyongtsv maka-nung nashi,
arem talangka-nung chiyong-

Tetzv alue aodang, tenylae nu


Pa imzenbae tokotsv ni
scongtem saka Tzvmae
alutsv melar.

Yashi padang asongdangtsv
nae amar, tanvbo bilimtet

Ni aene aodang nenok bilimtsy
f it. will remember).



He is a very forgetful servant
Have the lamps been filled.
to-day? They have been


He gives the village measure
crown ing full.

Fill the box even full of

The streams are full to over-

Gather up all the rubbish
and pile it in a heap to burn.

Gather all the fruit on the

Give him the book.

Give me the book.

If he is ill I will give him

Parents should govern their

An ungoverned child is very

The village officers govern
the village.

The plants in the garden
are growing nicely.

This boy is growing very fast
When he is grown^ he will be


He says he cannot grind the
grain alone, you help him.

You must help him bring up
the thatch.

Help the sick man.

I think there is no help for

this sick man.

.How far \\a.s he gone? He
did not go far.

How large is the boy ? As
large as this one ? About
so large.

Azi kilirzi temulung mazvng.
Tanv milen bong-nung totzv

shiok asv meshiok ? Shiok-

Pae imzi mesonge ataker.

Tsyk age scongden tebang
medcma songa yuang.

Ayong metsunga moe ao.

Jana azak hendena tarongtsv
nanga tenang.

Scongdong-nung tezang azak

Kakvtzi panvm agvzang.
Kakvtzi kv-nung kwang


Pa shiranger svra, ni panym
mozv zvmdaktsvdi {lit.
cause him to drink).

Tzvrebure pei chir azvoktsv

Mazvokba chir tesempar.

Tatare pei im azvok, (01) zung-
zunga kazvker.

Atsvki-nung tsvnvtsy zung-
zunga meidage.

Iba tanurzi mela-mela indage.
Pae indakakibo. Temang tulu


Pae kijae tsyk menungsatsv
menangzvk, nae ken semang

Na-na {lit. you two) azv sente-
fa (or semtefa') apuang.

Nae shirangbazi riariang.
Shiranger ibaebo anogo maka

ta ni bilimer.

Pae kofiga ao ? Talangka mao
(or) apigate mao.

Tanurzi kopiga, (or) shir
banger? Pa den sakcsa?



It is so big, that size.

Is it like this ?

Hots} long will he stay in
Rungpur ?

As long as I give him liberty.

Now-a-days how many mea-
sures of rice can you buy
for a rupee ?

In one day how many times
can you go and bring grain
from your cultivation ?

If that is the case, he cannot

If he had understood, he
would not have come.

If our boxes are at Amguri,
bring them up.

//you are going to Kotak
to-day, start early.

If he thinks he is able to go,
let him go.

If the weather is bad we will
not winnow the grain.

Even z/the weather is bad,
the grain must be win-

//others get angry, conduct
yourself properly.

If \k is your wish, Ill send

Even if I die with you, I will
not deny you.

It had been good for that
man if he had not been

He made a mistake, but his
intentions were good.

Is he in the house or not ?

Is it necessary for him to

Eitetete, (or) iba tetet, (or) pa

Ibala lir ma ? or imama lir ?

Pae Rvngpur-nung kopiga

alitsv ?

Kotashi (or kopigai) ni me-

Tanv asong tatsvk ka yong
imzi qei aliter (or) atakteper.

Ken nv yong na alu-nunge
tsvk bene qei bentet ?

Azi ode svra, pa motetsv, (or)
ode kibo pa motetsv.

Pae metet asvbo (or meteta.
sang), marula.

Amguri-nung ozo scongderr
lirabangila, bener atung ma.

Nae tanv Kotake tudi svra
yakte apusoang ma.

Pae aotsv nangz-vkvra pa.

Tsungsang mazungmz tsvk

Tsungsang mazungsAzzz tsyk

Tebangere ain adoksZtzzz na
time liang ma.

Ne mulung-nung eiterzz ni o

Ne-den keleme sy-aka ni na me-
nangzvka ta mashitsv.

Pa masoe ali, pa meyong ta-
zungba svla.

Pa jimi-aka, saka pa mulung-
sen tazung.

Pae kidang ale (ali) asv male
(mali) ?

Pa aotsv tenungdaktsv aka.-
asy maka ?



Is there water in the spring ?
Are there splints for weaving

mats ?

He is mistaken.

It is my will.

Because his word is reliable,

I believe him.

What villagers are these ?

Are your villagers well ?

The girl keeps her books

The boy keeps all the pice
he gets.

The boys older brother kept
him from evil ways.

Keep secret what I have told

I know she tells the truth.

I dont know.

I know him, he used to live
in our village.

He knows what you say.

It is dark now, come when it
is light.

Light the lamp first, then
light the fire.

The lamp is dim, make it
brighter {lighter} ; turn it up.

Turn the lamp down and let
it be.

If you are the light of the
world, let your light shine.

When the Nagas are in the
jungle, they light their
pipes by flint and tinder.

These loads are very light.

Tsvbu-nung tzv aet asv maet?
Pakti ataktsv yong aka asy

maka ?

Pae aei ar (or) pae aeitep, (or)
jimi, (or) tsungmi.

Kv mulung nung er, (or) eiter,
(or) lir, (or) ir.

Pa o atangshi asy-nung, ni.

Parenok qei imer ?

Nenok imer (or im) zunger

Hr ma ?

Aeirzi pei kakvt zung-zunga.
mervka benshir, (or) meshi-
meshia benshir.

Tanurzi kechi poisa angu, azi
azak rizunga ayur.

Pa tamazung len-nunge teti sot,
(or) pa mazunge ali teti sai-
yutet, (or) tamazung lea
meyoke saiyutet.

Ni nadang o shiaka rema liang

Pa ashiba o atangshi ni meter..
Ni vnemetet.

Ni pa shiter, alvmle pae asea

Na zvmbiba o pae angater, (or)
shiter, (or) metet.

Tang amanger, sangwadang
arung ma.

Tamasa milen tsyklokang tesv
mi apuang.

Milen mechi-mechir, zangrodak-
ang ma; preptetang.

Milen prepoka yuzang ma.

Nenok alima sangwa svra sang-
wazang ma.

Aore arem-nung ali dang, mit-
svktsv renra age mokobong


Ku ibaebo pungpar-punghar.




Feathers are light.

The bread is light.

Your cloth is light colour.

In darkness and in light God
keeps us.

Get out of the light!

Did the lightning strike the
tree ?

He has gone to look for his

He has gone to look for eggs.
Look well after white ants

underneath the house.

She could not come to school
because there was no one
to look after the child.

He went to look after his

He went to look for a cul-

They went to look over all
the village cultivation.

When the mother is away,
the older sister looks after
the child.

He has lost a goat; he lost
three rupees while going
to Kotak.

Where did you lose your
money ?

You tost much by not hear-
ing the Scripture lesson
this morning.

In going to Waramong we
met Songrachi men.

Women have gone to meet
the men bringing loads.

Enyo reper-reper.

Am pokraka lir.

Ne sen temesong (or) ne scy
scybu (or) tzn-rempelok.

Mangli-sangwali-mmg Tsung-
reme onok kvmzvka lir (or)
sota lir.

Telemdang, takvmdang, te-
tongdang !

Scongdong iba-nungzi tsungi
aei asy maei.

Pa pei nashi bushia ao.

Pae entzv ajidange ao.
Toko-nung oa shipo atu asy

matu zung-zunga reprangang

Tanur reprangba male-nung
pae skule maruter.

Pa pei lu semdange ao.

Pa lu sydange ao.

Parenoke im lu azak sydange

Tetzv malidang teyi nu ajir.

Pa nabong ka madok ; Kotake
atudang pae tatsyk asym
endok (or) endoker adok.

Nae kechi-nung sen endoka-
nang ? (or) kong madoka

Tanvp Laishibaotsv mangashi-
nung na kanga akoksa.

Onoke Waramonge atudang
Songrachi-nunger azurutep.

Tebur ku abenba tetzvr lenzi




'The Waramong and Yazang
paths meet near the Tiro

I met him yesterday.

He is mending the hole in

the fence.

Mend the hole in the roof.
Mend the hole in the mat,

mend the edge of the mat,
and mend the broken chair.

They are in the boat
mending the fish-nets.

The woman is mending
one hole in her cloth by
patching and one hole by

The Saheb is repairing
{mending') the house posts
by splicing.

Sugar is mixed with the me-
dicine, so that he cannot
taste the bitter.

The cook is in the cook house,
macerating and mixing
curry stuff.

While cooking the food, mix
the seasoning well.

The Nagas in cooking toge-
ther decayed fish, beans,
&c., mix in seasoning well.

My brother and my elder sis-
ter live with me.

When I was asleep, he stole
my iron.

Whose hog is this ? Mine.
This is OTjy walking stick.

Who brought this news')

How old are you ?

He is old and infirm

The old woman wears an old


Give me one pencil; there is
only one.

Waramong aser Yazang lemang

Tzvrvng merepa lemjem.

Yashi ni pa angur {lit. saw).
Pae atsv tapok tangdage.

Kilim tapok syokiang.

Pakti tapok syang, pakti bangzi

syang, aseir menden raksaba

Parenoke rong-nung zvtzvk
metena lir.

Tetzvrzi pei scv tapok Yz.ateg-
dage aseir tapok ka arerdage.

Sa-ab ki tufignu, tungshi me-
tendakt syr.

Mozv mojitsv den meyokteg-
nung kecha makur (or) ta-
ku machitet.

Zi sorobae sorojiokdak ain
menemtsv oset aeishia lir.

Ziongtsv asodang menemtsv
oset zung-zunga arertegang.

Aore ngashi, azvngkenshi aso-
dang ain menemtsv zung-
zunga arershir.

Ky nu aseir ke\ kv den lir.

Ni mezanga alidang pae ke in
(or kin) aoya.

Yashirak? Tfak.

Ibaebo ke mechi.

Iba osang shibae sanga aru.
Na sor kvm qei (or) qei ka?
Pa 5-nung mvkokmein.

7antzyrzi scv zen abefier.

Tezilutsv ka kv-nung kwang
(gyang) ; ketang lir.

F 2



I told you once, how many
times must I repeat it ?

Open the box and take out
the things.

Open the package.

Open out the mats, I want to
see them.

He stood with mouth open in

He opened the fishs mouth
and took out the hook.

How can I open this bottle
without a corkscrew ?

The children can pick up the
fruit that has fallen on the
ground, but must not pick
any from the tree.

They have gone io pick pan.
Strangers sometimes pick our

flowers without asking.

Pick the fowl.

He picked the sliver out of
his own finger.

In pouring milk out of the
bottle into a cup, some was
spilled (poured') on to the

In pouring grain out of the
basket, some fell (was/>0wx-
etP) on the ground.

In pouring grain into the bas-
ket, dont pour it on to the

Pour the rice into my bag.
Pour out the bad water from

the cup, and pour in clear

Pour water on to my hands to
wash them.

These give proof against you ;
show your proof.

Kendang ni ashir, o shilu qei-
ben zvmbitsv ?

Scongdenzi lapoka oset agi-

Talepzi sala-ang.

Pakti sala lemang, ni aji

Pae bangka noktaka lir.

Pae angu bang ayu-nung bo-
roki atsvzvk.

Teprepba malidang bong-
dangzi koda lapoktsv ?

Alima-nung tsvkba tezang'
tanurtvm shitenang, scong-
dong-nung tang aliba tong

Parenoke patiwa atene ao.
Aener kare masongdange ozv

naro ken-ken apeter.

Enyo pet-tokang.

Pa pei temayong-nunge aer.

Bongdang-nunge maravk-
nung mamatzv inokdang
(or enokdang') kare ali-nung


T svk zi-nunge tokzvkdang.
tsvk kare ali-nung toktok.

Tsvk molok-nung tokokdang:
ali-nung tetokshi.

Zang kv zuli-nung svdakang.-
Tzv tamazung maravk-nunge

intoker, tzv mervk-mervker

Teka metsyktsv tzv izvkang.

Ibatvme- na anvma kuli agvt-
svr ; nae tetezvtsv saiyuang..



"They sought -proof to con-
demn him.

When it is proved you will

While the sick man is quiet,
the children should be


Why this noise? Keep quiet.

Go quietly.

The food is ready, let us eat
at once.

Everything is ready for the
journey, let. us start.

We will rest on the bank of
the Tiro river.

You said you were very tired
last night, are you rested
this morning?

He says he is very -weary (all
tired out).

In weighing the load, dont let
it rest on the ground.

The Molung school house is
built by placing the sills on
stones, and on these the
posts rest.

The wall rests on that timber.
We are going travelling from
village to village, and will

return after ten days.

They are going, to Amguri
and return to-day.

The goods having been re-
turned, the money was re-
turned also.

Ripe fruit is good to eat, but
unripe and half-ripe fruit is
not eatable.

..Are the raspberries ripe ? Not

Pa aeitsytsv asoshi parenoke
mokolung bushir.

Tezvr metetsv (or) tezvdang-
er metetsy.

Shirangbazi scongzema ali-
dang tanurtym mokorae

Kechiba azatepa ? (or) kechi-
ba rongronger ? Tokora

Taneme jaja wang (oang)

Zi renema lir onok zi ziyong-

Aene aotsv anvbalu, asenok

Tzyrvng tzykvm-nung anendi.

Yasong na kanga anir ta ashi
tanvp aniscongzvktogo ma?

Temang azak tamen kvmogo
ta, pa ashir.

Azongdang ku ali-nung tajen-
tak ma.

Molung skul ki lung ma-nung
scongpak lar, iba ma-nung
tungnu ajeneta yanger.

Jarazi iba scong-nungzi ajen.
Tang onoke imlusva or, ny ter


Tanvbo parenoke Amguri lu-
lene aotsv.

Shishi lutep-wong, sen shia-


Tezang tamen achitsv zunger
zokorla tezang tazy, tokolu

Koreishi zang tamen asy ma
men? Anu mamen.



The guavas are ripe.

Is the boil ripe! Ripe, but

not opened.

Rub (polish) the silver spoons
and knives.

I will rub medicine on your
e yelids, but do not rub them
with your fingers.

Is he satisfied! He is well

He asks if the Mem Saheb is
satisfied with the things he

They ate and drank and were

These men are always grum-
bling and dissatisfied.

I wish to send this letter to
the Amguri Saheb.

I sent a man yesterday.

I have sent word to all the


He is shaking with fever.

Shake the tree, gather up the

fruit and bring it in.

Does your house shake in a
strong wind ?

Shake the dust off your feet
before coming into the

Shake the tablecloth.

The dog seized the cat and
shook it.

This mat is shorty it will not

The centre post is short, it
will not reach.

Moduriam zang mesconga lir.

Komo tenra asv matenra?'
tenraka metembok.

Taribi chikoko, kotario me-
yuang ma.

Ni ne-nuk-kypsv-nung mozv
age mezytsydi (or nvtsvdi),.
nae tanetshi ma.

Pa mulung achir asv machir ?

Pa aliba oset-nung, Mem Sa-
ab tenuk asung asv masung
ta pae asongdanger.

Parenoke ziyong-qeyonger

Ibae nisung temulung teti.
machi-nung, nem-nemshia

Amguri aliba Sa-ab dang iba
kakvt ni bendaktsynyr fix)

Yashi nisung ka ni yokogo.

Im ime ni o shiokogo.

Pa ramin age atena lir.
Scongdongzi anokshia tezang

shitena bener arung.

Mopung kanga aondang, na
ki senshi asv masenshi ?
(or anokshi ?).

Kidange matudang tetsung-
nunge aoyi temtoka tokang.

Zi ziyongdang alemba scy

K7no tanv ngur rykten.

Paktizi tatsy, maeimtsy.

Tungshizi nangdanga, tilaka-


Cut short wood for the stove,
long wood will not go in.

The potatoes are a seer short

The potatoes brought are a
little short weight.

This fruit is very sour (acid).
The milk is sour, skim it.

The cloth is spread out on
the grass to bleach.

The tree spreads out its
branches, and shades the path

The news spread throughout
all the villages.

Wring the wet clothes, and
spread them on the grass.

From the Jhanzi river to Bura
Haimong the path is very
steep and in some places


The rock is too steep, they
cannot get up.

Yonder peak is steep and high.
In time of famine many villa-

ges suffered.

Although you have great pain
in your side, you will not
suffer (endure) a plaster !
suffer it.

He was grieved (suffered)
because of his elder brothers

This cloth is thick, that which
you bought yesterday is


The milk is thick, loppered.
The cows are thin, because

the grass is short.

Merang mimung-nvm scorig
tatsv soang,. scong talang-
bo masem.

Shizang seret ka mabensa.

Shizang abenba seret matu.

Iba tezangzi kanga tasen.
Mamatzv tain, tymo teptet-


Scy mescongdaktsvtsy aei
ma-nung alem.

Scongdongzi kongsang sanga
lemang akvmbang.

Osangzi imshia sangtong (or)
osangzi aeim songa ao.

Scvzi mesentoker aei ma aen-
toka yuang.

Milaktzv-riunge imzen kimung
donga, lemang kanga atang,
tesvm tesvm kanga jang-


Lungbang tasak ali-nung
parenoke matuter.

To-age tenemti temesong.

Wara alidang im aeiga kang-

shir (or) to ashi (or) tima-

Na tesa kanga angu aka, saka.
teneploktsv maremter na!
aremang ma.

Teti aretsv zvmbiba o anga-
shi-nung tenu mulung zvrep-


Iba scyzi temelem, nae ya-
shi alibazi tapu (or) apu-


Mamatzv telunga lir.

Aei tareptsy maka-nung, na-

shi kongra adok (or) kongra



The water having cooked
out (evaporated) of the
fruit, the juice is thick.

Elephants have thoroughly
trampled down the growing

The cultivation was thorough-
ly burned.

Because he was ill, he let his
cultivation go without tho-
rough weeding.

If food is thoroughly chewed,
it is easily digested.

He was faint and thoroughly

'Question him thoroughly about
the affair.

His elder brother killed a deer
by spearing it (spearing


Though you go I will not.
Though I told you, you do

not believe.

Although he is bad do not
get angry.

The boys threw clubs at the
monkeys and stoned them.

He threw a spear at the deer
but did not hit it.

These vegetables are decayed,
throw them out.

It is time to go.

Is it time to reap ? Not quite

Last cold season I went to
Rungpur, at that time I met
the Bor Saheb.

Had I known what time you
would come, I would have

Tezang ain rosej> (or kong-
sep} nung, aintzy mvkang-

Shiti mo ajvm.?# (or ajymr^)

Alu kao arung.

Pae shirang-nung pa lu inyak-
toa ayu.

Ziyongtsv mejak^zz svra, mela-
melar aresa aotsv.

Pae lumese/zzlir.

Iba o indangzi padang sashia
asongdangang ma.

Pa teti mescvzi ny age tsyng-


Nae oaka nibo moli.

Ni nedang shiaka na mamang-


Pa mazungs^z# na ain tadok

Tanure shingodak sconga me-
re j), lunga aon.

Pae mescvdak ny yoker (or
tsvoktsyr) metsvngshi.

Ainsotsvzi tashi ar endokang
(or) shikur entokang.

Taotsy meshigo (or) aotsy

Alu arutsy ma/pang aet asy
maet? Anur.

Yakvm ni Rvngpure ao aser
'fo2.-tensazi Bor Sa-ab-den

Koba-z2?z ta ni metet asybo atalila.



The girl was late to school
this morning, and there was
no time to write.

There is no time for the work
now, Ill do it to-morrow.
'There is time to do the work

now, do it.

When the Saheb was here,
there was no time to talk
about this.

He has not come for a long


The women take turns in
sweeping the chapel; whose
turn is it now ?

Do not go until I come.

As for me, I am not going to

reap until my crop is ripe.
From his coming until now he

has given me trouble.

The moatsy holidays begin

to-day, and will last until

Until he is grown, he is not
suitable to teach.

Use this hoe to work in the
garden; don't use that one.

There is no rice in the tin,
it is all used up.

He uses a walking stick.

It is useless to talk thus.

Dont talk nonsense (useless

Dont use quarrelsome lan-

He is better of his illness, and
walks about the village.

Tanvp tetzvrzi skule menur
aru-nung kakvt zilutsv ano-
go maka.

Zoko mainyakzungka, asong

Anu azibo inyakzunger, in-

Sa-ab yange alidang iba ozi
indang zymbitsv mazung,
(or) mezvmbizung.

Pae apiga maru, (or) pae
telangka maru.

Tetzyrtvme sarasadem ki
zvnga tena aoker; parenok
rongnung tang shiba ata
(or shir atajl

Ni maru tashi toe liang.

Alu zungzunga raamen&z^

nibo marule.

Pa arur (or aruba)-nunge tang
tashi ni jashidaktsvr.

Tanv-nunge moatsy tenzvk,
tan honibar donga amung-

Nvbu mazungdang pae saiyu-
tsungitsv tim masv, (or) pa
maindangbo tim masv.

Atsyki-nung apitsy, kotrang
ibaebo benshiang; azibo
tebenshi (or) tamshi.

Merang zangketsv-nung zang
maet, agimar (or) lumar.

Pa mechi (or azok) benshir.
Azi oda zymbitsv amazok (or)

angateketa (or) tezangzvk
maka (or) samesa.

Mesa-melem tezymbi (or)

atvm ata (or)

mesa-mechi ,,

Jana sembong tezymbi.

Shirang zungtu-nung pae
tak senzTjr (or) jajar.




The child is able to walk a

How many steps did he take ?

She is walking back and forth
in front of the bungalow.

Asen,' sen,'

His house leaks, he is a lazy

He is ill with dysentery,
and cannot walk in the

He conducts his business

Some neighbours are kind
and affectionate, others
behave badly towards each

A crowd of Sangtong people
are coming.

His word is authority in our

The woman gets money for
pounding rice.

When he goes out, he puts
on his hat, he takes it off
when he comes in.

The enemy set fire to the
village, and fled.

Your new cloth looks very

He is comfortable now, but
I will come and see him
in the morning.

He is to the manor born.
Have you put up the horse ?

Tanurzi tere me] aka aor.

Kamere qeika ao? (or) qei-
ben mej aka ao ?

Pa kima sei.

and combinations.

Pa kilim tapok aeisy-nunge
tsunglu asen, pa azy


Pa azv-awz-nung shiranger,
imtong-nung mesenzvr.

Pa pei mapa zung-zunga
asener, (or) sen-sena inyak-

Kishikinar kare kyta asencs
lir, kare senentepa lir.

Sangtong-nunger sena adok-

Asen imtak pa o sena lir.

Tetzvrzi tsvk asew-nung sen

Kimae ao-nung pa korang
asener, kidange atu-nung
korang senzvker.

Arvrzage imtak mi sener
senshi ao.

Ne scy tasen tajinvtsyka.

Tangbo pae senega lir,
zokorla ni asenvp pa aji-
dange arudi.

Pae sensoba.

Qor sent aka yogo ma ?



They went to pillage the

Shove up the fire brands
under the cooking pot.

He is making brass chains.

He has inherited property, he

puts his money at interest,
and thus adds to his

Twist the rope.

Strain the soup.

It is wrong for you to treat

him disrespectfully because
he is poor.

When the people are collected,
we will begin worship.

The posts are not perpendic-

One side of the NAga'dao
is steel, the other side is
iron ; if well tempered it
holds an edge well, poorly
tempered is bad.

In cutting up a dead animal,
some meat poison entered
a slight wound in his hand,
and produced carbuncles
on his body.

Is the fruit sweet or sour?
When travelling they cook

fish and rice in a section
of bamboo.

Water percolates through the

He perspires freely under the
heavy load.

A woman gossiping about
caused a great quarrel.

Parenoke im sen senmake ao.

Zibo mimung-nung milung
sang asenokokang, (or)

Pae yongmen sen asener.

Pae sen amang-nung, sentem

agytsy azi oda pa tali

Lisvzi senang.

Shitzv senzvkang.

Pa sensaker asv-nung nae

sensatsn mazung.

Nisung senteper Tsungrem.
kylvmtsy tenzyktsv.

Tungshi tungnu senshia, (or)>
senprepa lir,

Ao nok kelen sentsv, kelen
noksv aser teroraba zunga
sentet, saka terobet mazung.

Tashi shi ss^zdang, pa ket-
nung zvbu tila liasv-nung
tasv shi mozv ia pa mang-
nung nashira komo adok.

Tezangzi tanang asy tasen?
Aene aodang parenoke angoF

zi bongdang-nung asener.

Lung mori-nunge tzy asener.-

Pa ku teret ben-nung asentzv
kangadang imer.

Tetzvr ka nvngstfzza nyngs^zza-
jaja-nung bangs^/z tulu-



'Six days shalt thou labour
and do thy work.

On the Lords Day four of his
disciples were baptized.

Trok nv tasena ne mapa azak

Ken Tsungrem amung ny-
nung pa nvtsung pezy


Aten ten] and combinations.

The children are gathering
to sing.

He is whistling a tune.

The cows are gathered in a


Listen if you wish to know
what is said.

When it thunders the child
shakes with fear; Ill stay
with her.

Try and see if you can ford
the stream.

As there are many men to-day
hollowing out the big village
drum, it will soon be done.

The bird bringing material for
a nest has lighted on the
tree branch.

Yesterday the young men
went into the jungle to cut
rattan ; to-day they are
enlarging (digging deeper)
the spring.

The abscess is ripe, and should
be opened.

The village officers have
assembled to investigate
important affairs.

In bad weather paddy is dried
on the shelves over the fire.

Is the water pail under the
eaves ?

They are sowing and cover-
ing over the grain.

Tanurtvme ken atentsv aten-


Pae pio age ken tendage.

Nashi telung atena lir.

Ashiba o metetnvra tenarong
tenang ma.

Tsungmuk /£w-nung tanurzi
atena lir ; ni pa-/£ alitsv.

Tzy atentet asy matentet
tendangang ma.

Tanvp nisung aeigate scong-
kong zz/^z-nung yakte
temboktsv (z^zzpoktsv).

Ozv tesep atendang scong-
dong kongsang-nung te-
ma lir.

Yashiasangurtymearer atentsy
areme ao ; tanvp parenok
tzvbu arok-aroka atendage.

Komo tenra lir, pa tembok-
tsvla (z'ezzpoktsyla).

O tulu songloktsytsv tatare

Tsungsang-mazung-nung tsvk
tsvk-z^zz atener.

Kin yang-yang-nung tzvshi
aten asy maten ?

Alu-nung parenoke metsy
proker atener.



It is proper for the mother to
reprove her child, but
other people should not
censure and harass it.

In spreading mats on the floor,
let them lap a little.

They were sent to spy out the

Hold out your hand, and I
will give you something.

The Miri Nagas dye yarn red.
He run a knife into the fleshy

part of his arm.

1 Azy zy? and combinations.

The blood circulates through
the body.

Blood flowed freely from the
wound, but it was arrested
by the application of scrap-
ings of inside bark of ash.

He singed his cloth by the

Our people are clearing up
their cultivation.

Thatch is better than okshi
for roofing.

The water is deep, and they
must cross by their might.
That young man is very


The bean vine twines around
the tree.

The mother embraces her

The child clings to his father
to prevent his going to the

He was cured of the cramp
by cupping.

He covets desirable things.

By chopping hard wood, the

edge of the axe was turned.

Tetzvesa pei chir tebanga aten-
dangtsy tim, saka pi aeiga
atentoka tezvmbi.

Atvm-nung pakti tera aten-
tepa lemang.

Ali tendang tenrir parenok

Teka tentakang, ni langka

Mirie song ang atener.

Pa pei tebentsv-nung kotari


Temang-nung tezv age azy

^wbu-nunge azy kanga ima
lir, saka scongpet renra
neplok-nung azy im anen,
(or) azy mesep.

Pae pei scv mi age (or nung)

Asen imer alu azy-azyr.

Kilim atongtsv okshidang
azy tazung.

Tzy a^-nung parenoke tashi'
age atentsvla.

Asangurzi tashi tazy tulu.

Loli zy zya scongdonge atur.

Tetzv pei chir azy aeter, (or)
,, ,, azybunger.

Techir pei bu Tzvmae meyo-
kle, pa tetsung-nung azy
ata ali.

Tezv svtetdak azy ajet-nung
pa anvb.

Pae taginvtsvoset azyabunger.
Scong intsv alen-nung po




He grieved, because his culti-
vation was trampled down
by elephants.

The tree sways in the wind.

Force a bend in the ridge
pole, and fasten it.

The eyes smart with smoke.
Some of the Wabi dogs are

good hunters.

Decked out in ornaments, he
appears well.

He works with dexterity, but
his work is slovenly.

Turn around the cooking pot.
Bring the raw meat and cold


His visit to Rungpur was

The housewife serves her
guests with f maud.

Alu shiti ajvmsa-nung pa
temulung azyr.

Mopung aen-nung scongdong
azy alu, azy atu.

Scong azyoka alenang.

Mokozv age tenuk azyr.

Wabi kare, kare shims# tesashi.

Pa sobutsv sobur azy-azyr.


Pae zyba-zyba mapa inyak,
saka inyak sajep.

Zibo azyang.

Shi tazy aser tzv-^# bener

Rvngpure ao azyyz. adok.

Kibutzv pei kidang sentepba
aener yi zwazya (g>&zy)

Promiscuous Phrases.

Where were you ? Where have
you been ?

Where are you going ?

When will you return ?

Have you a family? Yes, I
have a wife and four children.
What do you worship ?

You do not appreciate the

Lords kindness.

He is shivering with cold, let
him come to the fire and

He scooped up water in his
hands and drank.

My father is ill, and wishes

Na kechisa ali (or) kechi-nung
ali ? Kolene ao ?

Kolene aotsv ?

Kodang shilangtsy ? (or)
shia-arutsv ?

Na ki nunger ali asv mall ? Au,
kibutzy aser tanur pezv lir.

Nenoke kechisa kvlvmer?
Anung Tsungrem meim aka,

ntnoke temeim mazar (or)
pa meim memetet.

Pa atena svka lir, mi awangtsv
pa arung.

Pae tzv teketa medemteta

Kv bu shirang-nung mozv
azymnyr (or mishir).



How is he ill, ? what is the
matter ?

He says his whole body is
sick, and he has fever every
other day.

Yesterday he was moderately

A decoction of guava leaves
is good to stop diarrhoea.

He was a strong man, but is
debilitated by long illness.

"The swelling on his side is

Since the rains are over the
streams are subsiding.

With your mouth full of
chewing bark, how can you
articulate yourwords ? With
chewing bark in your mouth,
how can you talk ?

To be chewing bark and spit-
ting in the presence of the
Saheb is disrespectful.

Why are you going to Rung-
pur ? I am taking down
mats to trade.

Jewelry is cheap at Rungpur,
but high priced in the hills.

At the market people sell for
cash only.

In Naga Hills some buy and
pay down, others buy on

Will the women sell their
ornaments ? Better buy at

Pae komama shiranger, tashi-
dak kong ali ? (or) tashidak
kobala ?

Temang azak shiranger ta pa
ashir, aser tia tia aeter, (or)
tialili shirangli, (or) ken ny
shirangli, ken ny tili.

Pae yashi shirang tiyari ka aet.

Moduriam to metazyker azvm-
nung pokshi anentsv zunger.

Agidang nisungzi tashi tulu,
saka apiga shirang-nung, pa
tashi azvm, (or) tashi atang

Pa tesa awakba aremdage (or)

Mei sei-nung ayong akonger,
(or) tsungkvm aru-nung tzv

Tebang sali age sunga lir,
kechi koda o areptetsv?
Tebang-nung sali mangvmer
kechi koda o zymbitsy ?

Sa-ab madang sali chir aseir
metsv metsvrdang akvm

Na kechiba Rvngpure ao ?
Shishitsv pakti bener ao.

Sobu solemtsv Rvngpur-nung
talitsv shizvba (lit., easy
trade) azi Ao lima-nung

Wati-pure jeptaksa ayoker.

Ao lima-nung nisung kare
jeptaka ali, kare bangtsva

Tetzvrtvm pei azvk yokdisv,
meyokle ? Kongtu-n u n g
alitsy zunger.



Have our villagers finished
weeding their rice? They
are weeding for the last

Is there prospect of a good
harvest this year ?

Paddy on forest cultivation is
hard to thrash.

Paddy on old cultivation is
easy to thrash.

The cultivation has gone bad.
The meat is going bad, there

is a bad smell.

She was ashamed to ask for
what she wanted.

To-morrow I wish to begin
building a house, get fifty
or sixty men.

I will pay the usual daily

Twenty men go to bring posts,
fifteen men to bring bam-
boos and poles, six men to
bind thatch for roofing,
eight men to bring founda-
tion stones, and five men to
level off the ground.

I want a large quantity of
rattan; how can it be
bought? (or) what is the
price ?

In sawing planks, saw straight,
crooked or warped ones are

Yesterday when our people
went fishing, did they get
many fish ?

He does not wish to go, he is
afraid of danger on the

Tangbo asen imer alu inyak-
ira asv masv ? Parenoke

Takvmbo tsyk arutsv mesv--
ker ?

Mein lu tsyk merang, (or),
anetsy tasak.

Pen lu tsyk mela, (or) anetsy

Alu shioka ao.

Shizi shizvker svdi, tashinem

Pae tak-nung memishir.

Asong-nunge ni ki svnvr,;.
nisung tenem, rokvr imang..

Nybu yari agvtsvdi.

Nisung metsy tungshi tungnu
apue aotsv, nisung teri
punguzi scongkvm bene
aotsv, nisung trok azv me-
jeptsv, nisung ti lung nok-
tang apue aotsv, nisung
pungu ali medem-medema

Arerlang aeiga aginvr; koda-
sa alidir? (or) kodasa shi-
shir ? (or) kodasa yokdir ?
(lit., how is it sold) ?

Scongpak rvngdang indang-
indanga rvngangma, scong-
pak tekirak, mesena aor

Yashi asen imer tzve ayok-
nung ango aeiga apu asv
mapu ?

Pa monvr lendong ka azuru
azvmer (or) lendong langka.
azuru azvmer.



Last night two men did not
come up, they may have
met with an accident.

You do not come to chapel
now-a-days, why? What is
the matter?

Ill come.

I reproved him, but did not
punish him.

I punished him by reproof

Some methan have short
thick horns, some have
long horns.

That young man and
woman are engaged and will
soon be married.

That young woman was mar-
ried yesterday.

What is the matter in the
village ? I hear a great

Last night all the village was
sound asleep, and no one
felt the earthquake.

When the blind woman comes
to our house, she finds the
gate by feeling with hef
hands, as men in the dark-
ness find the path by feel-
ing with their feet.

Put more wood under the
rice pot.

Have you splints enough for
the basket ? Not quite.

Have you eaten ? not yet.
Have you had a good meal ?

I have.

They eat rice with their hands.

Yasong nisung ana madok,
parenoke tzvngi-kechi ka
asv, svdi.

Tanv asong nae sarasadeif-
dake maru, kechisVnung ?
kechi asy ?

Arutsv, (or) arutsvdi.

Padak ni mazyke aretsvogo.

Ni tebanga aretsvkur tema-

Scv zv kare maravkba (like a
maravk), kare zv sangba.

Asangure aeir aniasong,
yakte anioktsv.


yasong^kei ao.

Imtak kechiasv ? kanga
rongrongshishi angashin

Yasong ime teyiprep-nung ali,
menoknok shingae meme*

Tenuk tapokba tetzyr ozy
kidange arudang, atsy ki-
shi teketa ajymdanga angur,
ya mae amang ijipchi-nung
nisunge ajymzya len shiter.

Zibo mimung-nung scong

Molok ataktsv yong agishi asy
magishi ? (or) molok
meyong, yong peri asy
meperi ? Anu.

Nae zi ziyonger ma? Anu.

Na chiyongshia asy mechi-

yongshi ? Chiyongshigo.

Parenoke zi teketa tepteta




Do you wish my dao ? Take

Groom the pony, bring him
to me, and hold him until
I am ready.

Pull up and throw out the
coarse grass, lest it smo-
ther out the doob grass.

Look well to the cows
wound, and see if there be
flyblows or maggots.

The boy said he was not
bringing firewood, but
material for fencing.

After talking much about
going and threatening to
go, he went.

He intended to go but did not
I am busy now, come again.

Well, what do you wish ?
Nothing, I have come
because I was at leisure.

My hands are full of work;
he is very idle.

The fruit is good and meaty.
The fruit is light and worth-


The fruit is blasted.

His house is full of things
{lit. no empty place).

He is thoughtless, inconsi-

The woman is pregnant and
near delivery.

By the old custom the house
and things belonging to a
woman dying in childbirth
were cast away as sinful.

Kv nok mishir na? Ang.

Qor kupetsv age mesvshizang,
qor kvdange anir arung,
ni merenem tashi sota liang,
(or) mechioke liang.

Aei tulu atsvteta endokang,
azi mesvra arer yi muksep-

Nashi zvbu-nung metsvk kulo-
ka, mesen ali asv mali,
zungzunga ajidangang ma.

Atsv atsvba ni bena lir, scong
maben ta tanurzi shiaka.

Pa temteta ao.

Pa moe ati.

Tangbo ni mazvngka, tesy
arung ma.

Na kechi mishir ? Kecha
memishir, ni kazv ali-nung

Nibo mapa tenuk ar ; pa tela.

Tezangzi zyngzynger.

Tezangzi mazvng, tachitsy


Apung-nung tezang mazvng
(or) tazvngla.

Pa ki mazvngka.

Pa temulung mazvng, yakte

Tetzvrzi temang mazvng, nu
amungtsv mapanger, (or)
tangbo iba tetzvrzi temang

Agi imscv age tetzvr tangset
asy-nung, pa ki, scvoshi,
sobutsv azak menen toker.



The Ao people formerly
strangled illegitimate chil-
dren and cast them away.

She is very sad on account
of the death of her child,
she mourns continually.

I know your sorrow, and sym-
pathize with you.

Last night we heard wails
for the dead, and to-day
the body has been carried

TJaga parents love their chil-
dren and relatives are kind
and affectionate.

The child is disheartened, and
you should encourage him.

They agreed to meet at
Waramong after ten days.

Tor 15 cattle he promised to
give a male methan.

The young men going on a
tiger hunt, on finding the
tiger one man was seized.

'Was the man seized, killed ?
.He is still alive, but cannot


Euphemisms sometimes used
to mean that a person has
been killed by a tiger.

The Bor Saheb visited all the
villages of the Ao tribe.

.Dry-season travellers are
coming in now.

Rainy-season travellers go at
any time.

Alvmle Aore asangchir tvkong-
nung lenseta entok.

Pei chir asv-nung pa temulung
ashir, menungradang alir,
(or) menungraseta lir.

Ne temulung raksa-nung (or)
ayanger, (or) jashi-nung,
kv mulung ashir.

Yasong nisung asv-nung,
onok mangy ima ola anga-
shir, tanv tasv mang

Aor tzvrebure pei chir meimer,
sosemo sosemna kvta asen.


Tanurzi menangzvke bilimer,
nae padang azong-me-
sotsv tim.

Ter nv lir kvtsvr, parenoke
Waramong imtak senteptsy
anogo azvng, (or) azyngtep.

Nashi teripungu yong, scy-
bong ka yokdi ta, pae zynga
ashi, (or) 0 azyng,

Asangur keyi bushi-nung, pa,
den azurutep nisung ka

Angubazi asv, asv masv ?
Tangbo masvka, saka

makymtsvla, (or) tangbo
takym, saka makymtsv.

"| Pa scongo age ama.

Pa ter age ama.

J Pa areme achi.

Bor Sa-abe Ao im asv, (or)
Bor Sa-abe Ao im sya jajar,


Bor Sa-abe Ao im lu sv.
Tangbo tsungkym en-jeter

atongdar, (or) atongetdage.

Mein-jeter pei mulung age
aene ao.

G 2



As soon as the cold season
comes, we shall begin to

Some of our people are going
to visit friends in other

Naga villages that have been
at variance will become
reconciled under English

How can people of a village
live at variance with each
other ?

In the cold season Suzu
villagers are passing back
and forth through our
village to the plain.

Dkha Haimong villagers are
continually going to and fro
between their village and

The village is peaceful and

They are a prosperous

In passing under the fallen
tree trunk will my head
hit ?

Dont hit the curtains in
passing through the door-

I cannot understand you,
speak more distinctly.

He goes rapidly from one
point to another in his talk.

He errs in his statements, I
cannot have any confidence
in him.

Tsungkvm arudang, onok
yakte aene aotsv.

Asen imer kare kare tembar-
den nguteptsv, (or
azuruteptsv) aene aor.

Kompani apu akvm-nung, Ao*
mvputepe aliba im azak

I memo imerna mvkyt mesene
lira, kechi koda litetsv ?

Tsungkvm-nung Suzu-nungere
Tsvmae aludang asen.
imtak seisvbunga lir.

Imzenba-nungere asen imtake
olia roli (o-li aru-li) ta lir..

Im sadok-sadoka lir.

Kiji kizung, (or) kisa kilim.

Scongtnang laoba kyboke
aodangkv tokolak tsvkta-
ktsv asv masv ?

Kikym seidang tetong-
dangtsv-nungzi tekongshi,.
(or) tetsvkshi (or) tetangshi.

Ni mangater, o repteta
zvmbiang, (or) o arepta
zvmbiang, (or) o rateta-

Pa o zvmbidang o punga-
punga zymbir.

Paeo jimia ta (or) otsungmia
ta, nibo mamanger.



Mis word is of no account.

He has no reputation in his
own village.

He has no regard for village

He has great confidence in
his own ability.

Whatever happens tell the

Why are you out of temper
this morning ?

Do not speak disrespectfully.

The boy is impudent, send
him away.

;Some men are proud of a
great name, and like to be

They had a plot to seize the

They did not accomplish their

They arrested him by force.

In former times the upper vil-

lages when they saw what
they wanted in smaller vil-
lages, took it away by force.

*The man was accused of slan-
dering his neighbour, but
upon inquiry his innocence
was established.

Pa o, masen mea, (or)
pa o shingae masen, (or)
pa o mazyng meshi, (or)
pa o tila, (or) pa o mesa

Pa pei imtak taso meshika, (or)
pa pei imtak taso mashi
(/?/.,) birth not spoken of).

Pae im o mesen metu.

Pakokerta nangzvka lir, (or)
paebo nangzvker.

Kodakirna tiazy tezvmbi.

Tanvpyia kechi-nunge tsyki
aka ? (or) tanvpyia kechi-
nunge tsvkia-nang ?

Tzvya oya zvmbia teli, (or)
tzv machi o machi zymbia

Tanurzi mezy-mykyma,


Nisung kare kare nvngsang
tulu aginyr asykym, takar-
den kichir synvr, (or) tezak
merem asar.

Pa aputsv parenoke tasa asar,
(or) pa ashitsv parenoke
sang asu.

Parenok sa-nung matalok,
(or) parenok tasa makym-

Parenoke pa tashi ima apu.
Alvmle ayongbang-nungere im

tila-nung kechi taginytsy
ngura, azi parenoke rakzvk
rakteme bener ao.

Pa kiyonger tiazy ta ashi-
nung, okar o zvmbi-nung
pa temeten akym.



The woman brought a suit in
court against 1. husband
for putting her away.

Is the case decided ? It is.

The man was found guilty,
and the court decreed that
the cultivation, the grain,
and other property should
be divided half and half.

Has the decree of the court
been executed ? Yes, the
separation is complete.

If we had not returned from
touring before the rain,
what would we have done ?

Without the old people what
would the children have
done ?

Whatever the Lord purposes
comes to pass.

Bring a handful of rice.

The spices have lost their
flavour, are tasteless.

There is an abundance of
food in the village.

The village officials proclaimed
that to-day the village
would clean the springs, and
that no one, old men or
boys, should go to the cul-

In harvest time the village
officers often forbid the
people going abroad.

The village is bound for

The village shook off all re-
sponsibility for him.

Tekinungpo pei kinungtzy
pala-nung, tetzvrlae paden>

Tangbo iba o tamen asy ma-
men ? O zymbizvk, (or},
o renemogo.

Tebur taei adok, pa tetzvr-
nung aluo, tsyko, oset azalc.
lemdangtsy zvmbigo.

O bendangtetogo ma ? Au,

Tsunglu maru dang aene aoba-
nunge shia-malu asybo,
onok koda svla-nang ?

Tambure malira tanur kechi
svla ?

Anung Tsungreme kechi
svnvr azi asvtsv, (or) kechr
asatsv azi adi.

Zang pa-ar arung, (or) zang-
pateta bener arung.

Menemtsv oset osaosar,ayi-

Imchi imzung.

Tany im tzybu mesemtsy, tam-
bur svli, tanur svli, shingaer
alue maotsv ta, tatare aeim-

Alu arudang tatare ken kens.,
im aen azvng.

Moatsydang aen azyng.

Ime pa indang scy aja.



There is always a hum in a
large village.

He is skilled in war.

^Messengers on important
affairs have come.

Messengers on important
affairs have been sent.

We expected the weather
would be bad, but it is

You did not go to the plain
this morning? No, I was
not afraid of getting wet by
the rain, but was afraid of
the swollen streams.

The boy brought a load of
firewood, threw it down
before the house, split it,
gathered it up with both
hands, and put it in the

The Nagas believe if the
point of the spear which
they stick in the ground
when walking is well
smeared with bears bile,
the leeches along the path
which the man goes may
be troublesome for that day,
but will soon perish, and will
not trouble men for three
years. This smearing of the
spear will retain its virtue
for a day.

Im tulu nanung teti aeter.

Pa aryr sala metet.

Tzydang odangtsv tongogo.

Tzydang odangtsy ogo.

Tsungsang mazungtsy ta
bilim, saka kanga azung.

Tanyp nae Tsvmae malu ?
Au, tsunglu ajaba tsubur
masv, tzy metsung ajymer.

Tanurzi scong bener, kimae
scongku shizvk (or scong-
ku shitok) tesv, scong soa
kidang aremketa ayu (or
apuketa ayu).

Shim tasv age nvlak-nung
zung-zunga mezvrabang,
bener sei nvbo pangji ni-
sungdak angutsv, tesy
yakte amatsv, kym asvm
tashi ya lemang jajadang
nisungdak mangutsv ta
Aore bilimer ; aser ya mozy
nylak-nung temezy nyzi




A, an {lit. one)










About (around)

About (near)






Abuse, v.





Account, n.








Acute (intellectually)







Ka, ketang.


Anen, arem.


Sempa, tenra achir, metsyk-


Akok, tizyk, (tet as verbal suffix.
Anogo maet aso, tanur tokshi,

moposhia entok.

Alipoker nisung.

Indang; chika, shika, shi as

verbal suffixes.

Mvkvta, mvkvpbang.


Tama, teka.

Male, (mali) maten.

Mesep, asemshi, metenzvk.
Mamangtsv, mamangtetsv,

tangatsv o masy.

Aeiga, aiyiga, aeisa, timba.
Sensa, sensa masa, atala.

Agi, agizyk.

Tsvngzi kechi, aoksairo, aoksa

Den, medem, meina, meina ao.
Atalok, kvmtet.

Tazvngba, tazvngdangba, yong-
syk amba, yongsvk-sykba.

Aietsv, oka.

Shitak, zungpung, oji, ojishi.
Angu, ashi, mener.



Yangluba, benshiba, amshiba.

T ekymdang, terurur, ashi-abung.
Ratet, shisarasa,api-apa, tasang-

ra, sangra sangji, purapuji.
Apet, sytep, putep.

Benden, loktep.

Amen, mena, menalok, mejatep.
Mena, mena-menar, meja.

Ana, anasa, merepa.























Agreement, n.
Agreement, to make an
Aid, v.


Aim at


Alarm, v.








Tenuk asung, tenuk sunga aji,
mere, nukshi.

Au-ra-aka, ai ta asy, nangzyk,

Aretsv,areja, nemtem, nungtem.
Azv-azv, sobutsy-sobu, azvk-


Nuktapangta, jabojare.
Anymer, tenukenvr, tsvkchir,



Temeim, temerer.

Kangshi, kangshidaktsv, tima-
tvmdaktsv, toshidaktsv.

Timatvm, toshi.

Tetsung age.

Tsvbu, azvm, tzvrem, atsy,

Tesy, kelen; ang as a verbal

Ibakvtsvr, yaseir, tesylen, atuseir.
Tana, tanaben.

Asor kvm.

Tain, tambur, tantzvr, arishir.
Tebungpaba, takvmdangba.
Zyrok-roka angu, shing-shinga


Putep, o enjem, o entep,
pangjem, kvta-asen, sytep.

O zvmbitep, tatongshi.
Tatongshi, o zvmbizvk,o renem.
Yiari, yari, riyari, asem.


Tindang tezv, teka mvzyng.
Tangu, mopung.

Sangok, sangoktsv, tsvbudaktsy
Aiatai, aya-tai.

Kasa, metem, sako.


Azak, temang, inti.

Mela ; daktsv as a verbal suffix.
Mescyshi, mescvtet.

'Chia as a verbal suffix, sh?

as a numeral suffix.



Almighty Takokba.
Alms Maong, angati agvtsvbar odedang agvtsvba, masasa. agytsvba.
Alone Kija, kisong, mesong, dang and sa as suffixes.
Along with Den, ten, den medem.
Already, adv. Tanga.
Also A, 0, as suffixes ; ya.
Altar Tenladak, apu.
Although Azi saka ka, and shia as sufExes-
Altogether Azake keleme, azake kenyonger meja.
Always Teti, kenvmati.
Amazed Scongmanger, bangkar.
Amber Bvrem, brem lung.
Ambiguous Tetezytsv anet.
Ambitious Temaren kymnvr, ulunvr.
Ambush Mendang, lemene ao.
Amidst Tetsungda, tsungda, rongnung^ tiung.
Among Rongnung, tsungda-nung.
Amount Bendenba.
Amputate Oat ok, rongtok.
Amuse Mescvzvk, peladaktsv.
Anchor Rongsotsy.
Ancient Alvmle, tari, alipokdang, puti.
Ancients Tarinunger, alvmle pur,tzvrebur Aser, aseir; and 0 affixed to nouns.
Angel Teyar, tenyar.
Anger Ain, terasa.
Angle Tanep, takudak.
Angry Ain adok, temulung jashir,rasar.-
Anguish Temulung ayang, temulung ashir
Animal Shiruru.
Animal (domestic) Kidang shiruru, kiset shiruru..
Ankle T enyklang.
Anna (4 pice) Sorotia.
Annihilate Sama.
Announce Sangok, aeimten aeimdang..
Annoy Mescvshi.
Annual Kymshia.
Annul Masendaktsy, mangadaktsy.

Full Text




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