Details about Arapaju's environs, genealogy, migrations

Material Information

Details about Arapaju's environs, genealogy, migrations
Series Title:
Folder 25 : Demographics, etc. of Arapaju village in the Kondmal valley
Bailey, F. G. (Frederick George)
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
एशिया -- भारत -- ओडिशा -- कन्धमाल
ଏସିଆ -- ଭାରତ -- ଓଡ଼ିଶା -- କନ୍ଧମାଳ
India -- Arapaju ( LCSH )
Kondmal valley
India -- Kandhamal (District) ( LCSH )
History ( LCSH )
Caste ( LCSH )
Ritual ( LCSH )
Households ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Odisha -- Kandhamal -- Arapaju
20.451728 x 84.161859


General Note:
Folder 25 contains papers about demographics, history, migration, caste composition, ritual, inter-village relations, household lists and maps of Arapaju village in the Kondmal valley
General Note:
Arapaju (Odisha) has the Indian Pincode 762012.
General Note:
Odisha is also known as Orissa
General Note:
Kondmal is also spelled Khondmal and Kandhamal
General Note:
Please note that these documents were not intended for publication by the author. They were notes the anthropologist made for himself and has generously given permission for them to be archived in this manner. -- The documents contained in the archive are ‘fieldnotes’. As such, the documents represent the active learning of an anthropologist about the field. Much of the material was necessarily tentative and speculative as the anthropologist attempted to understand what he saw and heard. The anthropologist would formulate these things differently in a final publication. -- The notes were made in the 1950s and have to be understood as being of their time.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
©2016, F.G. Bailey. Used here with permission. Permission granted to SOAS, University of London to display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.


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----- ttuoux- none villages in 1955-4, the 3isoi
and the local Oriyas tried to persuade me that Arapaju was not
suitable and other Kond villages would be better. They said
there was no well and no decent place to stay. This is true:
watei seems to be got from chua or from the rice-fields: nor
is there a bungalew. The protests may have been too vehement,
and this may be due to the Biois holding some share-crop fields
there and to a Bisoi once having lived there. In other words,
look for some point of friction between Arapaju, which is by
far the biggest and most homogeneous Kond village in the Mutha,
and the Muthadar and his family.
This time they conteneted themselves with suggesting other
Kond villages such as Okusuganda.
In the village Home pointed out the wooden shell of a hoiss
that for e-ly belonged to Jaya1 s (?) grandfather. There is
a fairly big pani khetu below the path from Anda Kohoro's house,
where it leads to the village. This was got by Mokondo 3isoi's
father as jagri and now is share-cropped by Mokondo.
2, From Bisipara the path lies over the 3eherapodera be'rna,
past the house of Sankirton 3hoi (who was drunk and beating his
wife when we passed) going still on the level with 3otopara
visible on the left. There is then a sharp climb, leaving Sikopara
on the left and a sharp descent into the valley in which Arapaju
lies. The path goes through no other villages. That is, to -fee
south-east, and also to the north**rt, theresis a definite
watershed cutting off the village. The line of natural communication
funs along the valley, which runs s.e. from Bobtingia and turns
n.w. at Arapaju, with the stream going into the Balki at Sainpder
(750/5 31,CI).
The village is dispersed into four or five small hamlets
in the main valley, and each smaller valley leading off the main
one has one or two houses in it. This is true at least of the
valley north -east of the path by which we came to the village.
Thi3 dispersion suggests that the valley has been colonized
considerably since (?) 1855, or whatever date peace was enforced
here and made close grouping and fortification no longer necessary.
The original village was probably one of the more compact haafets
in the main valley.
5. We arrived in the first hamlet just after 10 a.m. It
belon s to Anda Kehoroi The men all were away in the fields
boiling halodi.
A. Anda's compound is on a slight rocky rise above the rice
fields and is approached between fenced gardens. Entering, there
is a large shade tree on the right. A house of horizontal planking
runs along on the right. At rights angles to this, and facing
one, is another house. On the left is a cattle shed. The yard
was roughly cobbled and swept clean. At the end of the cattle-shed
nearest the tree is a champa tree and a puja place. Houses all
in good repair and an air of prosperity about them.
5. Fon asked them about the puja place and whether they made
buffalo sacrifice. The woman said they did not do that, but
sacrificed only pigs and goats.
6. There was an old woman, a woman in middle -age and a girl* vfifc^"
who had come visiting from Boida, where she had gone in marriage.
They all spoke Oriya perfectly well, and Fon asked them how they
knew it, and why they were not tattooed in the fashion of Kond
women around TTdaygiri. "Tie middle-aged woman, who was perfectly
confident and articulate to a degree which is rare among Oriya
women when speaking to a white man, explained that she was not
tattooed because they had been in contact with Oriyas. She came
from Dakpal, a hamlet just outside Phulbani. Lnowledge of Oriya
and absence of tattoing she said was typical of the Barma Des, a
word which puzzled Fon. (Barma Des is the country towards Khejuripara:
the Kondraals area is Sikoka: Udaygiri side is Desaka.)
There is other evidence of Hinduism i.e. of contact with

. . irioy nad a Gudi ( meeting-house ), which is
an Oriya institution: there were five mrudungo at the back of
this and they told us that they had brought a nan from 3oad
te teach them how to play it. This nan later came in.
The village schoolmaster is a young Oriya of the Sundi
caste, who served for a time in Sisipara. He does not speak
Xui. He lodges in a Kond compound, having a room to himself.
1 When I asked for an old man who would know all about
genealogies, they sent a Pano to fetch him. The orders were
given in a perfectly clear crisp manner, just as the 3isoi orders
his Panos about here, 'fhere were plenty of Xonds about who
could have gone.
I was allowed into the Gudi without taking off boots
because it was not a 'mahapuroghoro'. 3ut the Panos did not
come in. The drum teacher and the schoolmaster did.
8. At this time of the year there is a direct route from the
village to fhulbani, distant as the c flies about five miles.
In the rains they must either come round by 3isipara ( about 15
miles) or go via the ferry at Tulipaju ( about 12 miles ).
9. I asked Ringa Kohoro (Gen A 1) about who first came
to the village. He said that they stem from Pobingia (75D/5 B9 51)
and then came to Arapaju. (He mentioned Xatrangia, which neither
Fron nor I could fit in. Rome said that they had gone first from
Pobingia to ^atrangia, found it unsuitable and cone on to
Arapaju. Xatrangia is an Oriya village and it is quite in reason
to expect Konds to colonize new land i.e. at Arapaju, rather
than to get good valley land at Katrangia.) The ancestor who cane
was Sula, eight generations back and this would make these events
between 200 and 250 years ago.
Present-time migrations include one^to Sikari (75 D/6 A6 26).
These are Miseri and one or two others in X gen Al. They first
went to iialikpara south of Sikari as holya. Then they got land
from a Xond there (as proja, Rome says) and are living there now.
'here may also be one from the next generation above gone to
10. There was a meeting of the village men after we had gone
for lunch and we heard a party hullooing, as they do when reaching
a village.
A girl from Arapaju jad been betrothed to a man from
Seskajoli. In the meantime she had been made pregnant by a
schoolmaster from Dumberiguda, a Kond. The party from the
groom's village had come to collect an honour payment from the
father of the girl, which he would pay and then recover from the
schoolmaster. While we were there the whole party, Arapaju and
Seskajoli, set off for Duraberiguda to see what the schoolmaster
had to say about it.

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