Citation
Review of religions

Material Information

Title:
Review of religions
Creator:
Islamic Publications
Place of Publication:
London
Rabwah
Djakarta
Publisher:
The London Mosque
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1902-
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Religion -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Europe -- United Kingdom -- England -- Greater London -- London
Asia -- Indonesia -- Jakarta
Asia -- Pakistan -- Punjab Province -- Chiniot District -- Chenab Nagar

Notes

Original Location:
Originally published in Lahore, Pakistan (then British colonial India).
Ownership:
The Review of Religions is online at http://www.reviewofreligions.org/

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
© 2016 Islamic Publications, The Review of Religions. ISSN No. 0034-6721. All rights reserved.
Resource Identifier:
299010 ( aleph )
00346721 ( oclc )
0034-6721 ( issn )
Per 30 ( soas classmark )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Annual Subscription, 10/- Single Copy, 1/-
The
Revnew of Religions
Edited by MIRZA BASHIR AHMAD, M.A., Qadian, India,
and
A. R. DARD, M.A., London.
Vol. XXIV. June, 1925; No. VI
CONTENTS
NOTES ........................................ ......................... 1
Islam in Gold Coast, The Time of Deliverance, New Campaign against Islam, Modernising Christianity, The Grist of Divorce Mill, Some Christian Missionary Societies, Covenant of Abraham, Faith and Force, Our Martyrs, Dr. Zwemer and Qadian.





ISLAM AND HUMAN NATURE ......... 6
THE STUDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 8
(Hugh Martin, Literary Secretary, S.C.M.)
WHERE EAST AND WEST CAN MEET .............. 12
(Ghulam Farid Malik, M.A.)
NORTH AFRICAN NOTES (Khalid Sheldrake, D.Litt.) 17
CONGRESS OF RELIGIONS ............................. ...... 19
THE GREATEST UNIFYING FORCE IN THE
WORLD ............ (Mohan Lai, M.A., B.T., India) 20
THE PROPHETS ................. (Miss Budd, Holland). 22
GROPING IN THE DARK .. ............................... 25
(Muhammad Din, B.A., R.A.S., Chicago).
TWO SISTERS ...................................................... 28
(Mauivi Sher Ali, B.A., India).
Advertisement Rates of "The Review of Religions"
Full page ......................... £10 per annum.
Half page ............ ........... £5 per annum.
London:
THE AHMADIYYA MOSQUE
63, Melrose Eoad,
Southfields,
S.W. 18.


Ahmadiyya Movement
THE Ahmadiyya Movement which was founded by, Ahmad (1836-1908) the Promised Messiah and the Prophet of the latter days, and which has its Headquarters at Qadian, Punjab,
India, stands in the same relation to Islam in which original Christianity
stood to Judaism. It claims to be the only true representation of Islam
in these days. The present leader of the movement is His Holiness
Hazrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad, of Qadian. The move-
ment has established missions in many parts of the world. The following
are the addresses of some of our foreign missions :
(1) THE AHMADIYYA MOSQUE,
63, Melrose Road
Southfields, S.W. 18,
London, England.
(2) ALMASJID
4448, Wabash Avenue,
Chicago, Illinois
United States of America.
(3) AHMADIYYA ASSOCIATION
Shorts Road
Colombo
Ceylon
(4) THE AHMADIYYA MOVEMENT,
Commercial Road
Gold Coast, West Africa
(5) THE AHMADIYYA MOVEMENT
Mauritius
(6) THE AHMADIYYA MOVEMENT,
141, Sharea Mohammad Ali,
Cairo, Egypt.
(7) THE AHMADIYYA MOVEMENT,
25-27, Alof Street,
Okepopo, Lagos
Nigeria
(8) THE AHMADIYYA MOVEMENT,
Box No. 305, G.P.O,,
Perth,
W. Australia




Talimul Islam High School, Saltpond, Gold Coast.


The
Review of Religions.
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent and the most
Merciful. We praise Him and invoke His blessings upon His
prophet the exalted one.
"A prophet came unto the world and the world accepted him
not, but God shall accept him and establish his truth with mighty
signs."
NOTES.
ISLAM IN GOLD COAST.
Our mission in Gold Coast (started in 1921) is progressing
very steadily under Maului F. R. Hakeem. The first missionary
who was sent there is Mr. A. R. Nayyar. Most of our brethren
there belong to the Fante tribe, who are a very sincere, zealous
and brave people. They are building mosques and opening
schools in different parts of the country. Our frontispiece shows
a School established in Saltpond, the Capital of the Province.
THE TIME OF DELIVERANCE.
The International Bible Students' Association, London, say
in one of their latest leaflets that "All over the earth there rises
a cry for freedom. The peoples of the world are realising as
never before a need for deliverance from their limitations and
their heavy burdens, and there is everywhere a restlessness such
as has never before been experienced in human history." They
further declare that "the recent and present world events,
including the British and Jewish activity in connection with
Palestine," clearly indicate "that the time of deliverance has
come," and "that it is to be confidently expected that this year
will see a very marked development of God's purposes."
We agree to all this. But where is the promised Prince
of Peace? He has already come. It is, let it be known, Ahmad
Vol. XXIV.
June, 1925
No. 6


2
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
of Qadian, who has come in the spirit and power of Christ
according to the prophecies of the Bible. None else, he says,
will ever come and the waiting of all shall be in vain.
NEW CAMPAIGN AGAINST ISLAM.
At the request of the United Council for Missionary Educa-
tion, Mr. W. W. Cash has recently written a book named "The
Moslem World in Revolution," to show that "the Moslems are
mentally accessible to Christian teaching to an extent never
before known." And it is expected "that the study of this book
will lead many to take part in a new campaign to win for
Christ the Moslem peoples of the East."
The Bishop of Salisbury writes: "The situation in the
Moslem world is among the two or three supremely critical
issues now before the Christian Church."
A special invitation was sent to Dr. S. M. Zwemer, Editor
of the "Moslem World," by the British Missionary Societies,
to come and address their May meetings. He has stayed here
for a fortnight and has in his lectures laid special stress on the
need of better organised work among the Mohammadan com-
munities.
MODERNISING CHRISTIANITY.
The Rev. Dr. H. D. A. Major, Principal of Ripon Hall,
Oxford, preaching before the University of Cambridge, is repor-
ted to have remarked as follows: "Very serious efforts have
been made during the last three-quarters of a century to reform
the Church's theology. Terrible doctrines, such as that ever-
lasting torment, the depravity of human nature, the Divine
demand for an expiatory atonement, had been discredited and
abandoned. Other doctrines, such as that of the resurrection
of the flesh and that of the inerrancy of the Scriptures, had been
greatly weakened." He proposes that "in order to be a
disciple of Jesus, no more ought to be required than that the
disciple should call him Lord and Master and strive to follow
Him in daily life."
THE GRIST OF THE DIVORCE MILL.
According to the Census Bureau, more than 165,000 divorces
were granted in the United States in 1923, or one divorce in every
7.5 marriages. In 1905 only 68,000 divorces were granted; in
18 years the number of divorces has risen by more than 140 per


3
cent. Dr. Ellwood, Professor of Sociology in the University
of Missouri, says that divorces are now growing in the United
States four or five times as fast as the population. In 1922 the
State of Oregon had one divorce to every 2.5 marriages.
It shows that in America marriage is made a matter of mere
individual caprice and convenience. In countries where divorce
is not easy to obtain there is a growing tendency to postpone
marriage or to dispense with it altogether.
It is a pity that with the advance of our so-called civilisa-
tion the family the cradle of morality and religion is gradually
tending to disappear, which means a blow to the welfare of
humanity.
Islam stands for moderation and peace. It is the golden
mean. It does not make marriage absolutely indissoluble, be-
cause there arise various kinds of difficulties which really necessi-
tate divorce, but on the other hand it does not make the fair sex
a mere chattel to be thrown away and discarded according to
the dictates of caprice and fickleness. Marriage is a serious
and sacred contract which can be broken only when it is really
necessary for the welfare of all the parties concerned.
SOME CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY SOCIETIES.
There are 700 important missionary societies regularly work-
ing for the cause of Christianity in the world. These include only
the Anglican and Protestant Societies; those connected with the
Roman Church (which constitutes a major portion of Christen-
dom) are separate.
The contributions of the chief countries to these Societies
in 1923 were as follows : £
The United States ................................................9,736,084
Canada ...............................................................722,094
British Societies ..........................................................2,869,353
Norway, Sweden, Holland, and
Switzerland 780,920
Germany 6,395
£14,114,846
In 60 years the missionary budget has risen from just under
£1,000,000 to £15,000,000 a year.
There are 29,188 missionaries, assisted by 150,469 nationals
of the countries in which they are working. There are 858 mis-
sionary hospitals and 1,686 dispensaries.


4
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
COVENANT OF ABRAHAM.
"Dr. Whitney, of Chicago, recommends Circumcision un-
qualifiedly. A long foreskin is a nuisance. It performs no use-
ful function, fosters uncleanliness, harbours germs, and favours
the contraction of disease notably chancres or syphillis, venereal
warts, herpes, gonorrhea, and balanitis. It leads to masturba-
tion; it is one of the causes of epilepsy and various nervous dis-
orders in children, and in adults is a favourable seat for chancres
and retards the cure of gonorrhea.
"Circumsicion: By removing unfavourable reflex influences,
aids greatly the treatment of spermatorrhea, sexual irritability
and other disorders of the genito-urinary tract.
"One of the greatest dangers of an elongated prepuce is the
occurrence of phimosis, which is simply a contraction of the end
of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted. Morton states
that hemorrhoids, falling of the rectum; dilating of the ureters
and pelves of the kidney, and spasmodic stricture are often caused
by the intense straining necessary to force the urine through the
contracted opening. Any foreskin that completely covers the
glands may develop phimosis.
"If circumcision was observed as a national rite it would
reduce the yearly mortality in the United States many thousands.
It would hasten the stamping out of syphillis in both men and
women; save the innocent babies, check the spread of gonorrhea,
and eradicate much of the spastic palsies, simulated hip joint
disease, muscular inco-ordination, and convulsions in young
children. The operation for circumcision is a harmless one does
not delay from work, no discomfort attached either to the opera-
tion itself or to subsequent treatment."
FAITH AND FORCE.
Islam being man's nature, all it needs for its success in
spreading among mankind is that nature should be allowed to
have free play without let or hindrance. Islam's reliance is on
human nature or fitrat. Artificial barriers such as intolerance
and persecution are fitnat' or fitnah and Islam seeks to remove
them in the last resort by the use of force itself. How then
could it tolerate intolerance and persecution? "The whole trend
of Quranic teaching is against it and in one final commandment
it was thunder-pealed to man. "There is no compulsion in faith."
And the reason was obvious. Faith and force, conviction and


5 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

compulsion have no common denominator. They are not on the
same plane. Nor is force necessary for a faith which makes its
appeal to man's reason and to which his nature itself impels him.
"The Comrade."
OUR MARTYRS.
Mr. E. L. Gardner, General Secretary Theosophical Society,
London, writes that the following resolution was passed by the
South Indian Conference, which met at Adyar, Madras, on the
12th April, 1925:
"The members of the Theosophical Society, South India,
assembled in Conference at Adyar, while placing on record their
emphatic protest against the stoning to death in Afghanistan
of certain members of the Ahmadiyya sect of Islam as being
contrary to both humanity and the true spirit of Islam, and while
requesting the Government of India to take necessary steps for
using freedom of conscience to the Indian citizens resident in the
ancient kingdom of Afghanistan, wish to add the assurance that
no political or sectarian feeling whatever has actuated the above
resolution, the Society as such having no political or sectarian
creed whatever."
DR. ZWEMER AND QADIAN.
In an article on Islam in India," published in the "Church
Missionary Review," London, Dr. Zwemer, referring to his visit
to Qadian, says :
" Our reception was most cordial. In fact, they had sent
to meet us at another railway station and invited us to spend
days instead of hours. My friend, Dr. Mohammad Sadiq, of
Detroit and Chicago, was in evidence and apologised that he
could offer us no rocking-chair and honey-dew melons.' They
gave us of their best and we saw all there was to see. Printing
presses, mailing bureau, post office, theological school, girls'
and boys' schools, a busy hive of propagandism. Not only is the
'Review of Religions' published here, but three other maga-
zines; and correspondence is carried on with London, Paris,
Berlin, Chicago, Singapore, and all the Near East; pigeon-holes
filled with possibilities; shelves crowded with encyclopaedias,
dictionaries, and anti-Christian philosophies; an armoury to prove
the impossible; a credulous faith that almost removes moun-
tains."


6
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
ISLAM AND HUMAN NATURE.
There is no doubt in the fact that the real object of all
religions is to make a person follow the will of God in a manner
that all his words, thoughts, and actions may be called the
worshipping of God. Hence only that religion is a true religion
which can create such a spirit of obedience and worship towards
Him by providing means which may lead a man willingly or un-
willingly to a complete surrender of his will to the will of God,
to sacrifice all his desires for His sake, and to entrust all his
works to Him so as to feel pleasure only in the pleasure of God.
A study of human nature shows that there are only two
motives in it for obedience love and fear. There are many who
would sacrifice their lives for the sake of love, and there are
many who would devote the whole of their lives in the service of
others out of fear. There are some who are naturally so con-
stituted as to feel a great repulsion at the use of a little
severity, so much so that they are unable to do anything which
they are forced to do. On the contrary there are some who get
spoiled with love. Sternness can exact as much work from them
as desired, but they would do nothing with courtesy and kind-
ness. We find parents admonishing their children with kind-
ness, but if they take no notice of it they have to adopt severer
methods. If parents were to be severe where they should have
been kind, and kind where they should have been severe, their
children would surely get spoiled. Therefore religions which
inculcate under all circumstances only meekness and love
towards all cannot be called universal, because there
are found some people who would take no notice
whatsoever of meekness and love; and neither are those
religions fitted to work a complete reformation of the whole
world which prescribe severity as a panacea for all kinds of ills
and wrongs, because there are found people whom severity
makes worse. So only that religion can he called a true religion
which combines in itself both kinds of teachings and which pre-
scribes ways and means suited for all kinds of people and for all
occasions.
A Christian says "God is Love," and the sentence sounds
sweet to the ears. But can it do any good to those who are
always found to be obstinate, headstrong, and caring for
nothing else except severity. When such people come to know
that God is Love, and they also happen to believe in Atonement,
they would never care to mend their ways.
The Arya sect of Hinduism declares, on the other hand, that
when a sin is once committed there is no way out of it to for-


7 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

giveness; the sinful person must undergo for it the severe
punishment of transmigrating into a thousand bodies. Such a
dreadful punishment cannot help all human beings to follow the
will of God. When once a sin is committed they would continue
committing more and more sins because they know that they
cannot suffer more than what they have already deserved. When
they have to suffer so much for one sin, why should they lose to
enjoy the world to its full.
Islam is the only religion which keeps in view both these
aspects, and this shows that it is a true religion revealed by the
God of all. In the very beginning of the Holy Quran it lays
down teachings suitable for both kinds of people. As love should
precede fear it has first mentioned those things which inspire
love and gratitude i.e., the beauty and the bounty of God. It
says: "All praise is of God/' Who is free from all kinds of defects
and Who possesses all kinds of beauty and goodness. This is the
personal aspect of His Beauty. Then it mentions the Divine
Bounty by adding the words, Rabbul Alameen i.e., He is
the God of all human beings, animals, stones, and vegetables.
It is He who makes a king and a beggar, believer or other-
wise, to grow like a seed till all gradually attain to the perfect
stage of their development. He is the God equally of all, from
the lowest to the highest.
When a man thinks of the vast provision which God has
made for the welfare and proper development of his physical
body he naturally thinks of what He should have done for his
soul. So He is further described to be Rahman to supply this
need. Rahman revealed the Holy Quran for the guidance of the
soul, about which a question could be asked as to what use could
this Book be for man. So God is further described to be
Rahim, which means that good actions are not wasted He
rewards them as much as possible. But for those who oppose
Him He is the Master of the day of Retribution. If people do
not follow Him out of love He can punish them severely with a
view to reform them, as He does, with hundreds of various kinds
of chastisements and punishments.
A reading of these verses at the time of prayer will lead all
kinds of people to say, as the Muslims do, addressing their
God Thee alone do we worship, and from Thee alone do we
ask for help!
This is a distinctive teaching of Islam suited for the uplifting
of humanity and well adapted for the betterment and advance-
ment of all who seek for righteousness, purity, and piety. It is
surely superior to all others.


8
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
THE STUDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT.
If I had to explain the Student Christian Movement to one
who knew nothing about it I should like to he able to transport
him to the Albert Hall in Manchester one day during the first
week in January of this year. On the platform he might have
seen a slender figure in a blue Chinese robe speaking about his
country, its needs, its hopes, its aspirations to an audience of
some 1,600 students drawn from all over the world to say
nothing of the strangers' gallery. The occasion was one of the
quadrennial conferences of the Student Christian Movement of
Great Britain and Ireland. Such conferences have been held once
in each student generation since the foundation of the Movement
in 1892, except during the War. The audience was composed
of students from 240 British Colleges of all kinds, and of delega-
tions from 33 nations. The Chinese speaker referred to was
Mr. T. Z. Koo, Travelling Secretary of the World's Student
Christian Federation, who was Vice-Chairman of the Confer-
ence, the Chairman being a Scottish Student. The purpose of
the gathering was to consider the international problems of the
modern world in the light of the teaching of Jesus Christ.
In many respects the Conference was symbolic of the Student
Movement and its work. In the first place it may be taken as
illustrating the nature of the membership of the Movement. In
Great Britain the Movement is a federation of self-governing
societies of students in 260 Universities and Colleges. Of the
60,000 students in these Colleges, 10,000 men and women are
members of the Movement. Self-governing National Movements,
similar in character to the British one, are to be found in many
countries throughout the world, East and West. They are
united in the World's Student Christian Federation, which has
a world membership of 30,000 students. It should be said that
membership is confined to present students, which means that
the entire number has to be renewed every three years. In spite
of this it has gone on growing steadily for 30 years. The Move-
ment is thus a Student Movement; it is not one conducted by
senior people for their benefit. In Great Britain at least the
governing committee is composed of undergraduates, and it
regards as its field of work students anywhere.
The Conference also illustrates the scope of the interest of
the Movement. There were few of the great issues with which
humanity is confronted to-day which did not come up for examina-


9 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

tion, as may be seen from a perusal of the published report.*
The Movement began as an organisation for securing volunteers
for foreign missionary work and that feature has always remained.
It now concerns itself with the whole question of the meaning
of Christianity and its application in the modern world. It leads
its members to the study of the Bihle and of Christian doctrine,
of social and international problems. At these Conferences it
tries to secure speakers, leading experts belonging to many
different Christian denominations, and through its Publication
Department it issues every year thousands of volumes dealing
with such issues.
But while the Student Movement does stand for education
and study it tries not to deal with such questions in a merely
academic spirit. By reason of their opportunities, and not be-
cause of any necessary difference in ability between them and
other people, students are called in after life to positions of
influence in society, as teachers, doctors, engineers, politicians,
writers, ministers of religion and business men. The Student
Movement seeks to hold up the ideal of service in all kinds of
occupations. While it is still at heart a Missionary Movement,
it realises that there is little use in sending out to other countries
missionaries of Christianity if the other contacts of the so-called
Christian lands contradict the Missionaries' message. The
Colleges send out year by year many men to the East as business
men and Civil Servants. The Student Movement stands for
the belief that these men, no less than the Missionary, should
express in their lives and work the spirit of Christ.
The international character of the Movement may be further
illustrated by reference to its work on behalf of the foreign
students studying in British Colleges. There are some 4,000 of
these from 60 different countries. They are all grappling with the
difficulties of strange customs and surroundings and often with a
little-known language. They are beset by loneliness, and there
is no little danger of them seeing only the worst side of British
life. The Student Movement tries to help them as British stu-
dents would wish to be helped if they were strangers in a foreign
land thousands of miles from home. It tries to promote friendly
relations between them and British students and British homes.
Here clearly is a unique opportunity for promoting international
understanding and fellowship. The Movement has special Secre-
taries set apart for this work.

" The World Task of the Christian Church." Student Christian
Movement. 2/6.


10
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
An outstanding feature of the work of the Movement in this
connection is the Student Movement House, founded some years
ago at 32, Russell Square, in London. It has a membership of
1,050 men and women from 46 different countries. The house
is a centre for lectures and discussions and for social fellowship.
It is, perhaps, the most cosmopolitan spot in the whole of London.
Membership is open to any student, whatever his religion.
The Student Christian Movement believes in Conferences and
every year a good many of these are held, large and small,
though very few students come to more than one or two during
the whole of their College course. In addition to more local Con-
ferences, national ones are held each July at Swanwick in Derby-
shire, where 1,500 to 1,600 students usually meet at two general
Conferences. Every four years a larger Conference is held of
the type described earlier in this article. But only a compara-
tively small proportion of the members of the Movement can ever
come to such Conferences. The real work is done in the local
Unions scattered throughout the country. Through lectures,
study circles, discussion groups, prayer meetings and the friend-
ship of the members, students are helped to think through their
intellectual and moral problems at perhaps the most critical time
of their lives, when most people choose the ideals which are going
to govern them for the rest of their days. To many men and
women each year the work of the Movement means that a
religion, which has been till then merely conventional, is made
real and eyes which had been confined to local views are lifted
to see something of the wider vistas of the life of the nation and
the world.
The ideals of the Movement are perhaps best summed up in
its official "Aim and Basis," which is an attempt to state in
simple everyday language what the Movement stands for: "The
Student Christian Movement of Great Britain and Ireland is a
fellowship of students who desire to understand the Christian
faith and to live the Christian life.
The Movement seeks to set forth Jesus Christ as the supreme
revelation of God and of the true nature of man. It sees in Him
the one sure guide for all mankind in every sphere of thought
and conduct, in art and industry, in politics and the professions,
in science and education; the source of power for the overthrow
of evil and the renewal of all human life.
The Movement challenges students to recognise the urgent
need of the whole world for Christ, without limit of race or nation,


15 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

and to respond by dedicating their lives to His service as He may
guide them.
It calls them to explore His teaching and to follow the guid-
ance of His Spirit in the pursuit of truth, beauty and righteous-
ness; to prepare themselves by study, discipline, and prayer for
the tasks of the future; joyfully to accept God's gift of deliver-
ance and life for themselves; and to enter the fellowship of wor-
ship, thought and service which is the heritage of the Christian
Church."
The Movement is far from living up to all its ideals, but
surely no one who thinks seriously about the possibilities of such
a Movement among the students of the world can fail to be
impressed by the opportunities it presents for the building of a
better world. As Mr. T. Z. Koo said in one of his addresses at
Manchester, "The Student Movement is building the builders."
HUGH MARTIN.
WHAT IS THE INJIL"?
To the Editor, "Review of Religions."
Dear Sir,
With reference to the article in your last about the Christian
Scriptures and the Qur'an, we shall not get much further till we
define exactly what we are talking about.
It is agreed that the Qur'an claims to be the muhaimin or
guardian of a certain book known as the Injil among the people
to whom the Prophet appealed.
Injil is the Arabic form of the Greek word Evangellion,"
meaning Good News." This name was specially applied to the
collection of Greek writings dating back to the first century
A.D., in which the life and teaching of Christ is set forth.
Manuscripts of these writings in Greek, written in the fifth and
sixth centuries, A.D., besides translations in various languages,
are accessible. Any one with a knowledge of these languages
may satisfy himself that the Book of the Gospels which we now
have is the same as that to which the Qur'an bears witness after
A.D. 600.
Is there a shred of historical evidence that there was any
other "Injil" accepted by the Christian Church at that time?
When that is settled we may go forward. Yours truly,
H. U. WEITBRECHT STANTON.
London, 20th May, 1925.


12
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
WHERE EAST AND WEST CAN MEET.
Mr. Rudyard Kipling expressed a generally accepted view
when he wrote his famous lines:
Oh, East is East, and West is West, and
never the twain shall meet,
Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God's
great Judgment Seat;
Those of the Western people who have seen the East and
those of the Eastern people who have been in the West very
reluctantly admit the fact that there exists such an irreconcilable
disparity between the conditions of the West and the East
that it seems futile to expect a union between the two
in the near future. They are as if two separate worlds which
have nothing in common and hence divided by a gulf which is
unbridgable. In their colour and creeds, in their sentiments and
susceptibilities, in their ideas and thoughts, in their tastes and
predilections, in their civilizations and cultures, in their etiquettes
and manners, in their habits and customs, in their angles of vision
and modes of thinking and in their way of living, and in their
dress and food, they are quite different from each other. The
Westerner thinks more of this world, the Easterner thinks more
of the next. The Westerner is materialistic, sceptic and even
atheist, the Easterner is fanatically religious, superstitious and
spiritualist. The Westerner is epicurean in his tastes, the Easterner
is stoical. The Westerner is practical and worldly-wise, the
Easterner is meditative and introspective. The Easterner is
fatalist, the Westerner believes in volition. The Westerner
is progressive and modernist, the Easterner is conservative, even
reactionary; the Westerner is advanced in science, commerce and
polity, the Easterner is backward; and there are thousands more
differences between the people of the West and those of the East
which should better be left undescribed.
In the description of these differences and variations
I am not praising the one at the cost of the other.
As for myself I am neither Eastern nor Western. To me


13 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

the terms East and West mean nothing. I am describing
these disparities and incompatibilities between the conditions
of the West and the East as being born and bred in the East
and having lived for some time in the West I can to some extent
find them out. I am of those people who believe in the unity of
the West and the East notwithstanding the realism of the former
and the idealism of the latter; nay, I am a firm believer in the
unity of the whole world, despite the fact that labour is up in
arms against capital and nation against nation and race against
race.
There are apparent and unmistakable signs which speak
of a united world and those whom God has gifted with insight
into the future are foreseeing the creation of a commonwealth
composed of all the nations and communities of the world. The
very fact that there is a loud clamour in all quarters for unity,
goodwill and amity, is a happy augury of the coming to being
of a world of reconciliation and harmony on the ruins of the old
world of discord and dissension. The rise of Socialism and the
movement of internationalism, the coming to existence of many
religious movements which aim at the unification of all faiths and
the brotherhood of man, the desire for a common language under-
standable by all, the gradual disappearance of colour prejudice,
the creation of a "league" whose primary object is the equal
and impartial representation of all nations, and the everyday inven-
tions which are facilitating the means of communications and
inter-relations, are signs enough to show that humanity
after it has convulsed for centuries in the quagmire of
wrangling and quarrelling is slowly but surely marching to-
wards unity. Dr. Fournier d' Alhe, the famous scientist, says in
" Quo Vadimus" (published by Kegan Paul) that in only a
hundred years the human race will be unified; the earth wilt be
under one government, and one language will he understood, or
even spoken, all over the world. Our descendants will take
advantage of the enormously increased facilities for transporta-
tion to take an afternoon visit to Timbuctoo. They will in any
case he able to talk with friends there by the universal radio-
telephone, and even to see them by television."
It is not without reason that leaders of different religious
and political thought are yearning for an everlasting


14
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
peace and a feeling of true brotherhood to prevail in
the world. No change takes place here in the world
below unless it is decreed in the heavens above. It is decided
in the heavens that humanity shall no longer remain dis-
united. There shall be only one religion and only one nation in
the world now. God wills that East should modify its rigidity
and West should advance a step forward to meet it.
Notwithstanding our differences we are the descendants of
one ancestor and the members of one family. It does not matter
if some members of the family have colours and tastes different
from the colours and tastes of the others. Is it not a fact that
very often two real brothers have dispositions and leanings
diametrically opposed to each other? Nevertheless they are
brothers and the difference in their dispositions and temperaments
does not create a difference in their love and affection for each
other. Then why is it that we who are the creatures of one Creator
Who neither belongs to the West nor to the East should hate and
dislike one another because some of us are of fairer colour than
the others, and are more advanced in education and polity than
the others? Certainly a man who sees his brother poorer or less
educated than himself instead of jeering at him tries to uplift
him, educate him, and civilize him.
Whether we are Western or Eastern, whether white or
black, we are the sons of one father and the servants of one
God. Our God, our Allah, is the Lord of all the different
peoples, the different ages, and the different countries. He is
the God of the Moslems, the Jews, the Christians, the Hindus,
and the Buddhists alike. He is the Creator of the Europeans,
the Asiatics, the Americans, and the Africans. He is equally
Benevolent and Beneficent to all. His Kindness and Mercy and
Compassion is as unlimited for one race as for the other. If
He created air, fire, water, light, etc., for the white, the black
are also equal partners with them in these things. He is
equally Bountiful and Graceful to all. He is one God, one
Creator, and one Providence. As He Himself is one and is very
jealous of the association of any other being with Him, there-
fore He wishes His creatures and servants to become united


15 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

into one people. As in the provision of the necessary things that
support life He has made no distinction between His creatures,
He wishes, therefore, that His creatures should not make any
invidious distinction amongst themselves. It is His will, and His
will shall be done because He is All-powerful.
Here arises a question. If unity is to come, and, as signs
indicate, it will certainly come, then how will it come? Will it
come by means of leagues and congresses, by making com-
mittees and holding conferences? The world has had enough of
these conferences, leagues, and congresses. After all what are
these leagues made up of? They are composed of heterogeneous
elements which lack a common cord to co-ordinate them, and in
which the strongest has his way and say. The tremendous task
of the unification of mankind is not a small task to be achieved
by the hands of man unassisted with divine help. This object
can see its accomplishment only through a person, who like his
Creator, is neither of the West nor of the East, by him whom God
has sent with the message of peace and unity. At his hands
the world shall become united.
All the Messengers and Prophets of God, all the great
Teachers of humanity, and the ancient sages of different nations
foretold the advent of a Great Reformer in the present times who
was to reconcile the warring communities, countries, and creeds.
Unlike the Prophets of old, who were raised for their specific
communities, this Prophet was to be raised like his Master for the
whole world because his Mission was for the whole world and his
message for the whole of mankind. His appearance was foretold by
Krishna, Zoroaster, Buddha, Isaiah, Daniel, Jesus Christ, and
the Holy Prophet Muhammad (God bless them all). Jesus Christ
likened his second advent to "lightning that flashes from the
East to the West." The Prophet Isaiah said, Who has raised
the Righteous One in the East" (41: 2). The Holy Prophet
Muhammad (may the blessings of God be upon his soul) pointed
to the East and said that that was the place for the appearance
of the Messenger of the Latter Days. Krishna prophesied about
the appearance of a Prophet in the Arya Varta. Zoroaster said


16 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
that the Prophet of the Latter Days would be of Persian extrac-
tion.
The promised Reformer to whose advent these prophecies
refer has already come, and come in the East as was foretold.
God has decreed that the world shall become united at his hands.
He has been sent by the Lord of the heavens and earth, by the
Creator of the black and the white, by the God of Asia and Europe.
He is not an Eastern, though he is born in the East. Like his
Sender He is neither of the East nor of the West. He invites
the whole world to the love of God, because in the love of God
alone the world can and shall unite. He says, "All ye that are
desirous of perpetual happiness and eternal salvation, fly to me,
for here is the fountain which will purge you of all your impuri-
ties and here you will find the salvation which is the fruit of
certainty and a strong faith and perfect knowledge."
The East shall have to bid farewell to its spirit
of revenge, and the West shall have to leave exploita-
tion of the East, and both shall unite in the Spirit of
God and His love. Let those who seek after truth and desire
to attain to the real, true, and actual communion with God,
because only thereby all differences are forgotten, drink of the
Divine nectar that God has provided for them and fly to the fold
of Ahmad, because in him speaks the Spirit of God. If those in
whose hands are the destinies of nations endeavour to cure the
ill from which humanity is suffering without making use of the
remedy which God has provided for them, they will, instead of
nearing the goal, continue to drift away from it. It is ordained
in heaven that God's Kingdom shall be on earth as it is in
heaven. There is only one God in heavens and there shall be
only one people on earth, and this shall come to pass when the
people of earth shall turn to him who has been especially com-
missioned by Divine Hands to bring about peace, goodwill, and
unity into the world.
G. F. MALIK.


17 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

NORTH AFRICAN NOTES.
Recently I was asked to write something about the Moors,
Riffs, Algerians, and other Muslim brethren of North Africa
with whom I have been fortunate to come into close contact.
These fine upright men are a marked contrast to the races of
certain European countries. They are dignified in gait, lovable
in temperament, and seem to hold a certain heritage of nobility.
To visit them at home is a great pleasure. The open-hearted
hospitality and friendship warms the heart and immediately
provides the real difference between a Muslim house and that of
others. The coming out to the gate to greet one is in itself a
forerunner of the generosity within. When one puts out the
hands and a liberal portion of some sweet perfume is poured
over them, it seems a symbol that all worldly uncleanliness is
left behind and only the fragrance of purity prevails. Then the
meal is in itself full of charm. I have sat with my friends, and
the servants ate with us in that charming old patriarchal fashion.
There is no showiness in dress. I well remember the story of
the French officer (one who was known to me prior to the Great
War) who on being invited as the guest of a distinguished Moorish
gentleman, not knowing his host, arrived rather late and sat on
the carpet eating with a number of Moors. At the conclusion of
the meal, not wishing to stay so as to incommode the party
owing to the fact that he was a foreigner, he turned to a Moor
dressed rather more elaborately than the others, and, speaking
French, expressed his hearty thanks for the hospitality shown to
him. One can judge how astounded he was to learn that instead
of the host he had thanked the door-porter, the host being
dressed quite in a simple way.
To-day, if you travel in Morocco or Algeria, you find the
same honesty and simplicity everywhere. It is necessary to get
to the heart of a people to know them, and it makes one rejoice
to find the keen interest displayed by the poorest Muslim concern-
ing his brothers of faith in other parts of the world. To do
business in the Sook or Market is a very different thing from
European cities. When visiting a merchant there is none of the
"no sentiment in business '' idea so prevalent in the large
Western cities. You are courteously invited to partake of a cup
of coffee, and sit chatting on various topics for some little time.
Should the Azan be called, you at once proceed to make ablution
and perform prayer. At its conclusion you will sit in meditation
for a period, and it is easy to observe that mundane affairs are


8
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
completely effaced by high spirituality. Oh for such a state of
affairs in our Western countries! Afterwards business is con-
ducted in a manner which is sufficient to render it a pleasure,
and you part each feeling that he has gained a friend. Often
when asked to accept a small object you may happen to fancy
as a present, one must refuse very tactfully. On one such occa-
sion I was told that the jewels in my conversation outweighed
the value of a hundred such trinkets."
Then the question of the Mosque. Of course, in European
clothes, with an unmistakably European hat, it arouses some
comment when one enters, but after removing the shoes, per-
forming wuzu, and commencing prayer, no notice is taken. At
the end of prayer you enter into conversation with those present.
It is interesting to know how in out-of-the-way spots those
present know of you by repute. Despite the stories circulated
by novelists and others, there is not the slightest objection to a
stanger entering a Mosque. The only difficulty one is likely to
experience is the caution of a well-meaning or over-zealous
policeman who may tell you it is best not to enter. Here it may
be necessary to say that parties of noisy and thoughtless
tourists are not welcome, as indeed parrot-like chatter and
laughter are not welcome in any church in the West. It is a
great pity that owing to the folly of some of these it has been
considered necessary by the European officials to refuse them
permission to visit certain Mosques. Of course the disgruntled
ones immediately say that this is due to Moslem fanaticism."
I remember a lady telling me how she went to a Mosque and
was refused admission. By dint of careful questions I soon
discovered the reason. She suffered for the sins of some of these
foolish globe-trotters.
To return once more to the subject. I have been in contact
with the brother-in-law of Abdul Karim, the Riff leader, and
other people of that country. I find them good Muslims,
honourable and noble, and I feel deeply grieved that they are
now in conflict with France. Throughout Algeria, Tunis, and
Tripoli there is every welcome for a brother in faith, and, despite
the present unnatural divisions, I feel certain that one day these
North African people will unite as a great Muslim nation. Islam
is spreading at a great rate throughout this Continent, and
when the Azan shall ring from Centa to Cape Town civilization
and humanity at large will realise the perfect brotherhood
brought about by Islam, the religion of Peace.
KHALID SHELDRAKE.


19 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

CONGRESS OF RELIGIONS.
" The world is my country,
to do good is my religion."
ELEVEN WORLD RELIGIONS WILL UNITE IN
CONGRESS FOR WORLD PEACE.
For the purpose of bringing the combined influences of the
world's leading religious faiths to bear upon the problem of
world peace, an International Religious Congress will be held
at Geneva in August, 1928. The first announcement of the Con-
gress was made to-day at the headquarters of the Church Peace
Union following a meeting of the trustees of that organisation.
The plan was outlined and discussed at this meeting and the
trustees voted that a portion of the income from the trust fund
set aside eleven years ago by Andrew Carnegie for the promo-
tion of international justice and goodwill through the Churches
should be devoted to the preliminary organisation work of the
Congress to be held three-and-a-half years hence.
Plans already approved indicate that this will be the most
comprehensive gathering of religious leaders that the world has
ever known. Eleven religions will take part; each of which will
be represented proportionately in a World Committee of One
Thousand, as follows: Christians (including Protestants, Roman
and Uniate Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox), Jews,
Muhammadans, Buddhists, Confucians, Shintoists, Taoists,
Hindoos, Parsees, Jains, Sikhs.
Each of these religions will be represented by a vice-presi-
dent. The active work will be under supervision of a Conference
Committee of sixty, which will appoint a Cabinet of seven mem-
bers. The officers will be a President of the Committee of One
Thousand, a Chairman of the Conference Committee, and a
General Secretary.
According to the official announcement the purpose of the
Congress is: "To bring together representatives of the world's
living religions to discuss the questions relating to international
justice and goodwill. To make known the content of each
religion relating to these questions. To compare the ideals of
human brotherhood and world peace of each religion, and, if


20
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
possible, secure agreement on the following propositions:
" The emphasis on human brotherhood as essential to all
"religions."
"World peace can be established only through the recogni-
tion of Universal Brotherhood."
"The religions of the world can co-operate by each working
"in its own sphere for the attainment of these ideals."
"Adoption of general plans looking toward this end."
It is announced that the members of this Committee of One
Thousand will not represent their religions officially "but each
will be chosen because of his own fitness to serve on such a com-
mittee and because he is a believer in one of these great religious
faiths."
As tentatively outlined the Congress will last for fifteen
days. The first and second days will be devoted to organisation
and the delivery of keynote addresses, one each by an outstand-
ing representative of the East and the West, one from the Near
East and one from Central Europe. From the third to the
thirteenth day inclusive, one day each shall he devoted to an
exposition by a leader of one of the great religions on the follow-
ing topic: "What can my religion contribute to International
Justice and Goodwill."
The fourteenth day will be devoted to reports of committees,
adoption of resolutions, etc., and the fifteenth day to appropriate
ceremonies and addresses.
The official languages of the Congress will he English,
French and German.
The plan as outlined to the trustees of Dr. Henry A.
Atkinson, General Secretary of the Church Peace Union, received
general approval by unanimous vote.
"UNITY."
THE GREATEST UNIFYING FORCE IN THE WORLD.
It is not my desire to take the reader into the labyrinth of
religious controversies, rather I would endeavour to point out the
direct and plain road to unity according to my own light, and
would be glad of any helping or encouraging criticism.
It is admitted almost on all hands that the highest principle
of religion is truth. If we can understand the realities of life, it
means we fully grasp the truth. Humanity is one, life is one,
hence religion can be one. Why, then, so much confused and


21 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

heterogeneous mass of religious dogmas and conundrums. This
is due to a partial or entire misconception of truth. As many
divisions from truth, so many divergent religions. If luckily all
people happen to grasp the fundamental truth, there will
assuredly emerge homogenity, and unity out of disunity, trans-
forming the world into a veritable paradise.
If there can be any greatest unifying force in the world, it
can be truth and truth alone, and nothing but truth. Let
us refer to our experience. Suppose we are trying to
find out the solution of a geometrical or arithmetical
problem. As long as we do not find out the true solution
there will exist difference and discord, but if we all arrive at the
correct solution the result will be complete agreement on all
sides. This clearly indicates where truth leads to, and such in-
stances can he multiplied. It is not impossible for us to find the
truth. Is it, then, beyond the pale of possibility to have one
religion? No, never, provided we all put forth our best en-
deavours to this end.
There has been evolution in politics almost all the advanced
countries are trying to adapt themselves to the highest form of
government. It is likewise possible we may one day discover
the highest form of religion to which all men may accommodate.
Let, then, the representatives of various religions form them-
selves into an international religious society or league whose
main function should be the discovery of the common links,
elimination of divergencies, and eradication of undesirable hostili-
ties. Is this impossible? I do not think so.
Is it not a pity that we bicker over trifling religious differ-
ences and never seriously endeavour to unite ourselves in the
light of what is common in religions. We look from an angle of
divergence rather than of convergence. Herein lies our gravest
draw-back. The Hindus, the Mohammadans, and the Christians
all believe in one God, and this belief in the existence of God is in
my opinion the principle of principles and truth of truths. Can
not this belief serve as a silken tie to unite all men together.
The fact is that we have not been able to understand the Highest
existence, the noblest truth in the real and true sense; otherwise
the condition of the world should not have been as it is at
present. Let us hope for the better. Let us wish for the better.
And let us, by toleration and sobriety, make religion and truth
a uniting link between man and man, and nation and nation.
MOHAN LAL


22
THE PROPHETS.
We are giving below one of a series of articles which our
sister, Miss Budd, a very zealous, devout and fearless convert
to Islam in Holland has been writing in the Dutch Press under
the name of "An Ahmady Muslema." Our sister, whose Moslem
name is Hidayat, joined Islam in the fold of Ahmad only a few
months ago. She originally writes in the Dutch language, but
as she knows English fairly well, she has translated this article
in English, a perusal of which will show how far she has pro-
gressed in understanding and assimilating the teachings of Islam.
(Editor, "R. R.")
As a Moslem has to consider all the Scriptures as being of
Divine origin, in the same way he has to recognise all the Prophets
as Messengers of God. The Holy Quran says:
"There has been no people, but a Prophet has been sent to
it." (35: 24.)
This fourth article of faith in Islam aims at inculcating upon
the Moslems that God is the Lord of all peoples and that His
love and mercy go out to all in the same measure. Not only the
Prophet Muhammad, but all the other prophets, no matter at
what time and to what peoples they were sent are to be recog-
nised and believed in as Messengers of God and we see that the
names of all the different Prophets, Moses, Jesus, Buddha and
Krishna, Zoroaster, are mentioned as respectfully in the Islamic
literature as the name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad himself.
According to the teachings of Islam Prophets are of two
kinds:
1. Those who are sent with a Divine Law, being called
Law-bearers like Moses, who brought a Law, and Muhammad,
to whom the last Divine Law was revealed.
2. Those who come to warn, reform and remove cor-
ruptions and resuscitate faith and lead people back to God
after they have gone astray from the right path. They base
their teachings and claims upon the law which is then valid.
All the Prophets after Moses, including Jesus, were
Admonishers, and for them the Law revealed to Moses was
valid. The Prophet Ahmad, the Promised Reformer and Messiah,
was raised to bring back humanity to God in Islam. He based
his teachings and claims upon the last Divine Law as revealed
in the Quran.


23 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

Although many Western people are quite ready to recognise
all the Prophets mentioned in the Old Testament as Messengers
of God, yet with very few exceptions they do not recognise
Muhammad as such. The majority considers him to be a deceiver,
but some who dare not go so far say that he was an extra-
ordinary clever man, an epithet which means nearly the same
thing. I will try to prove that Muhammad was not a deceiver,
but a Prophet of God and a true servant of his Lord.
Muhammad, who was much loved and highly esteemed by the
inhabitants of Mecca (he was called El-Emin, the true, the
righteous one), married, when a young man, a rich widow named
Khadija. After his marriage with Khadija he cut himself apart
from the worldly affairs and entirely gave himself over to religious
meditations.
In his 40th year he received his first revelation. The Voice
which he heard speaking to him very distinctly filled him with
great fear and anxiety. He could not at once decide what really
the Voice meant. He became shy and kept aloof from the com-
pany of men. This condition of suspense and anxiety continued
for six months. It took him time to satisfy himself that he was
chosen by Divine Hands to reclaim corrupt humanity. Surely,
he who doubts Muhammad's sincerity shall have to admit that
the behaviour of a man who has an intention to deceive must be
quite the opposite of Prophet Muhammad's demeanour.
When at last peace came to Muhammad, revelations followed
each other in quick succession; yet it is only after three years
that he started preaching openly. But what was the result? The
man who formerly led an untroubled life and who enjoyed the
esteem and love of all the members of his tribe was ridiculed and
scoffed at. He was threatened with death. These threats cul-
minated in a severe boycott, as a result of which the Prophet
Muhammad with his whole family had to seek refuge in a cave,
to which no ingress or egress was allowed. At last Muhammad
was obliged to leave Mecca secretly.
Should Muhammad really have been an imposter, could he
possibly endure for long years all this mockery, opposition, bitter
enmity and persecution?
Not long ago a reverend gentleman said what has often been
said: "I am quite ready to admit that Muhammad received divine
revelations, indeed there are very beautiful passages in the Quran,
but the passages containing all sorts of commandments and in-
structions do not charm me as those he made himself, and I must


24
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
frankly admit that there Muhammad becomes annoying." In
finding fault with the Commandments and prohibitions of the
Quran the reverend gentleman forgot the fact that Muhammad
was not sent only to revive the faith, but also to introduce a new
laiw, of which commandments and prohibition constitute a com-
ponent part.
One is not "annoyed to read those parts of the Surahs of
the Quran which contain Commandments to regulate daily life,
when he is in need of spiritual comfort. But will a Jew or a
Christian when he turns up Leviticus 27 to comfort his spirit say
that Moses becomes "annoying there? Let him be as fair to
Muhammad as he is to Moses. A Moslem will not say anything
disparaging to Moses because he believes in Moses to be a Mes-
senger of God.
Moreover a man who studies the Commandments contained
in the Quran thoroughly and with an open mind will easily see
that they do not proceed from a human brain.
Notwithstanding all this, if anybody still regards Muhammad
to be an imposter he shall have to answer this question: Why had
not God destroyed his work and ruined him before thousands of
people were caught in his snare, and thus his falsehood and
deception would have become obvious. In Deut., 18-20, we read:
"But the Prophet who will act proudly, speaking a word
in My name, that I have not ordered him to speak, or who
will speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall
die."
The words, "that Prophet shall die," of course, are to be
understood in the sense that God will cut off the life of such a
man before his deeds work mischief among men.
With respect to Muhammad we see, however, that he died
at 63 years of age, after he had entirely accomplished his mission
and the religion of Islam had taken firm foundations and had
attracted hundreds and thousands of millions in its fold. If evil
is not annihilated and virtue does not succeed in this world, then
how can we distinguish between right or wrong.
Is the success of Islam not a clear proof that it is indeed the
only religion acceptable to God?
Here arises a very natural question: If Islam is a true
religion and Muhammad a true Prophet of God, then why is there
no mention about both in the former Scriptures and why has
no Prophet predicted Muhammad's appearance? To answer this
very pertinent question I will refer to the following verses of the
Bible, in which clear prophecies about the Holy Prophet


25 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

Muhammad and about his progenitor Ishmael are to be found.
In Genesis 17, God speaks to Abraham about his covenant
with Isaac and then Abraham supplicates to God: "Oh, that
Ishmael might live before Thy face (Gen. 17, 18).
Ishmael was the son of Abraham and Hagar, and the elder
brother of Isaac. The latter was progenitor of the Israelites,
and the former that of the Ishmaelites or Arabs. Thus the Arabs
and Israelites are brother-peoples.
To Abraham's supplication God answers: "And as regards
Ishmael, I have heard thee."
Thus Ishmael should live "before the face of God," which
is meant that Ishmael's progeny would live and prosper.
This promise was fulfilled, when God raised from among
the Arabs, the offsprings of Ishmael and the brothers of the
Israelites, His Prophet.
As we*read in Deut. 18: 18, the following prophecy: 441 will
raise a prophet from among their brethren like unto thee and I
will put My words in his mouth and he will speak to them all
that I shall command him to speak."
God speaks to Moses and says, that He will raise a Prophet
from among the brethren of the Israelites. Thus this Prophet
will not be raised from among the Israelites nor from among their
progeny, but from among their brethren, namely, the Ishmaelites,
who are Arabs only.
MISS BUDD.
GROPING IN THE DARK.
There is a passage in Micah v., 2, which is generally taken
to be a Messianic prophecy. The scholars who have made a
study of Micah declare this verse to be a gloss by some scribe
who, just to give a relief from the depressing state of affairs,
inserted this passage to give a message of hope to the drooping
spirits of Israel. Evidently it refers to the post exilic periodical
raids carried out by the North Arabians and Jerahmeclites
against the Southern Jews, some of whom were carried into
captivity, and this the writer regards as a visitation from heaven
owing to the permeation of falsehood into the civil and religious
system of Judah. Further on, to mitigate the severity of this
pronouncement, the writer says the Jews will amend, and,


26
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
while on the Jerahmeclite or Arabian soil, they will be delivered
and their opponents will suffer a crushing defeat at Zarephath.
So whenever a raid is attempted by the Ishmaelites there will be
no lack of leaders to retaliate on the invaders. That seems to
be a post-bellum prophecy.
Strange as it may seem, our Christian friends have seized
on it and made it a ludicrously fulfilled presage about the advent
of their Messiah. Ludicrous because the Jews have at least
some semblance of truth in that they applied it to their deliver-
ance either by a Messiah, or by the defeat of the raiders who
had carried away some of their kin into captivity. If the
Christian writers had only confined themselves to this general
Messianic interpretation perhaps they could do it with some
show of semblance, as they have done in many cases where the
prayers of individuals have been given the colour of prophecies.
But in this case the connection which they have tried to establish
between this so-called Messianic prophecy and its fulfilment is
so wide of the mark that one is left gaping with astonishment.
In Matthew ii., 23, it is written that Joseph "came and
dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which
was spoken by the prophets. He shall be called a Nazarene."
The Christian controversialists are up against a great difficulty.
Not a single instance can be cited from the writings of the old
Prophets where one could find such a passage. Not only is the
Old Testament devoid of such blessed message but even the
Jewish books of Mishna and Talmud, etc., are all without any
such prophecy. What is still strange is that the Old Testament
does not even so much as mention the name of Nazareth. Jose-
phus, a great Jewish writer, in his famous history, does not
refer to any such town. Yet to meet such a situation the
Christian advocates have fastened upon this Micah v., 2, pro-
phecy, which does not contain the word Nazareth. It speaks
of another town, Beth-Lehem Ephratah, but it has nothing to
do with either the birth, death, or the ministry of Jesus.
Historians and geographers who have made survey of literature
and topography make the bold assertion that no town by the
name of Nazareth existed in the days of Jesus. In the face of
such facts how spurious seem the claims of these gospel narra-
tors. Elsewhere, as here, they boldly make claims which can
never be substantiated, and present research work has falsified
many of the things which they have recorded as facts.


27
There is another group of people who claim to be modern
but who have outdone their Christian prototypes. These are
the followers of Bal and Bahaullah. They have gone many
steps further. Where they find the word "light" they say it
presages the advent of Bahaullah, and wherever they come
across the word "darkness," whether it is in poetry, drama,
romance, or so forth, they say it stands for the enemies of the
last Manifestation. For instance, John, in his Revela-
tion, 21, 23, describing his vision, says: "And the city
had no need of the sun, nor the moon to shine in it: for the
glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof."
The phrase "glory of God" has been seized upon by the
followers of Mirza Hussein Ali simply because the latter took
upon himself the title of Bahaullah," meaning the glory of
God. The correspondence in significance between the two
phrases entitled Mirza Hussein Ali to the supreme position of
glory of God. This is just the same as to say that if I were to
assume the name of God, and then put forth the claim that
wherever in the older Scriptures the word God occurs it invari-
ably refers to me.
Here is another instance. In Matthew xxiii., 8-12, Jesus
addresses his disciples as follows: But be not ye called Rabbi,
for one is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren.
And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your
Father, which is in heaven. Neither be ye called Masters, for
one is your Master, even Christ. But he that is greatest among
you shall be your servant. And whosoever shall exalt himself
shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be
exalted." As luck would have it the word servant occurs in
one of these verses, and as the successor of Mirza Hussein Ali,
Abbas Effendi by name, chose to call himself Abdul Baha,
meaning the servant of God, hence it is proven that the prophecy
underlying the word "servant" has been fulfilled in his person.
Nor time, nor place, nor rhyme, nor reason, but they would
have them all, context or no context; the one must be called a
Nazarene to fulfil the prophecies given by the old Prophets
which nowhere exist, and the claims of the other two must be
accepted because their self-assumed titles happen to correspond
with a word here or there.
MUHAMMAD DIN.


28
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
TWO SISTERS.
Ayesha and Asma were two sisters. They were the daughters
of an Arab merchant named Abu Bakr. Of this Abu Bakr, who
was among the first converts to Islam, Sir William Muir says in
his "Life of Muhammad" : "Abu Bakr was a diligent and success-
ful merchant. His generosity was rare and his charity unweary-
ing. His judgment was sound and impartial, his conversation
agreeable, and his demeanour affable and engaging. His society
and advice were therefore much sought after by the Coreish, and
he was popular throughout the city (Mecca)".
Of his two daughters, Ayesha and Asma, the world knows
more of the former than of the latter. Ayesha was married to the
Holy Prophet of Arabia (may peace and the blessings of God be
upon him) and of all his wives she was the most intelligent and
keen and understood Islam, the religion taught and preached
by her illustrious husband, best; nay, she knew it better than
many of the men, and was very helpful to him in teaching it not
only to Muslim ladies but also to Muslim men and it (was for this
reason that the Holy Prophet of Arabia (may peace and the bless-
ings of God be upon him!) loved her most. He was wont to say
to his companions, "Learn half the religion from Ayesha." And
we find that after the death of the Holy Prophet (may peace and
the blessings of God he upon him!) his companions often resorted
to her to have many things made clear to them by her. The
questions which they put to her pertained not only to the private
and domestic life of the Holy Prophet or to matters relating to
women, but also to important matters of general interest and even
to the exegises of the Holy Quran. Not only did her contem-
poraries learn much from her, but even the generations that came
after have profited a good deal from her sayings that have been
handed down to posterity by the traditionists. Her words throw
a very useful light on many points which have since become
subjects of controversy. For instance, with regard to the Miaraj
or the Ascension of the Holy Prophet (may peace and the bless-
ings of God be upon him!), she who heard the account direct
from the Holy Prophet himself, held that it was a spiritual vision,
as clear and as real as that one sees in waking, but that it was
not a physical ascension, as many men ignorantly think to-day.
There is another point, with regard to which she expresses a very
valuable opinion, and when we consider that it is a point where
even great scholars have stumbled, we cannot help admiring her


29
sagacity and her grasp of the real spirit of Islam. The point to
which I refer here is the question of the continuation of prophet-
hood in Islam. Although many eminent men in Islam who per-
sonally experienced the spiritual blessings of Islam have declared
that the gift of prophecy still continues in Islam and that what
has been discontinued is only a law-bearing prophethood, yet the
general masses among the Muslims erroneously hold that this
gift which is indeed the highest spiritual gift which God bestows
on His chosen servants has been totally and permanently dis-
continued. With reference to this point, the view expressed or
rather the warning given by Ayesha is extremely valuable and
raises her high in our estimation. She said, "Say He (the Holy
Prophet) is the Seal of Prophets, but do not say, 4 There is no
Prophet after him.' Thus she emphatically refuted the asser-
tion that there was to be no prophet after the Holy Prophet.
She pointed out that the proper way of describing the Holy
Prophet was to use the words which the Holy Quran had used
concerning him, viz.: that he was the Seal of Prophets, which,
as she explained, did not mean that no prophet was to appear
after him, but which on the other hand signified that prophets
were to arise, but they were to be from among his followers and
that only those prophets were to be regarded as true who bore the
seal of the Holy Prophet, i.e., who had the honour of being his
disciples and who attained to the dignity of prophethood by fol-
lowing in his footsteps. In other words, it was through him that
the gift of prophecy was now attainable and that he was in fact a
prophet-maker. This was a distinction which no other prophet
ever enjoyed before. Formerly, prophets received the gift of
prophecy direct from God; they were not indebted to any other
prophet for this boon. Prophets were raised in different countries
and in different ages and they were independent of each other.
But such was no longer the case. Now all the doors of prophet-
hood were closed, save that of the Holy Prophet (may peace and
the blessings of God be upon him!) and prophethood could be
attained only through this one door, i.e., through the medium
of the Holy Prophet. All future prophets were to be the disciples
and servants of the Holy Prophet, who was to be over-lord of them
all. He was the Prophet of prophets and the prophets that were to
come after him were to be given the boon of prophecy through
him. Such was the significance of Khatam-un-Nabiyyeen (the
Seal of Prophets) and Ayesha was keen enough to appreciate this
significance and hence she very shrewdly said, "Say, he is the
Seal of Prophets, but do not say, 4 there is to be no prophet after


30
THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
him.' Indeed she deserves great credit for this observation,
for many failed to see what she was keen enough to observe.
In short, Ayesha plays a very important part in the history
not only of Islam but of Islamic Theology and Islamic exegesis.
She was a remarkable personality, and it will require a volume
to describe her character and attainments. It is, however,
beyond the scope of this short note to attempt any detailed or full
description of her character. I mean to refer here only to one
phase of her character, viz., benevolence, which will serve as an
index to her whole character, for only a noble character could
possess benovelence in such high degree.
She was in the habit of giving away in charity everything
she received and never laid by anything. Those were days of
Muslim conquest and she could have amassed hoards of wealth
if she had only cared to do so. But rendering help to the poor
and needy was a passion with her and she spent all her wealth
in giving relief to the indigent. Her sister's son, Abdullah, took
strong objection to this. "Her hands must be restrained," he
emphatically declared. This reached the ears of Ayesha. She
was told that her nephew took strong objection to her spending
away her property in alms and meant to restrain her from charity.
She made up her mind to correct this fault in him. She knew
that her pleasure was more precious to him than all wealth and
that he would give all to win her goodwill. So she declared:
"On me be a vow if I speak to Abdullah." This made Abdullah
very uneasy. Her displeasure was more than he could bear.
So he began to try all means to conciliate her but she would not
yield. She would not allow him to enter her house. Islam de-
mands that we should not enter other people's houses without first
getting permission to do so, no matter how nearly related they
mav be to us. So he could not enter his aunt's apartments with-
out first gaining her permission and that permission she would
not give. He tried all means in his power but to no purpose.
Not only did Ayesha take upon herself a vow if she saw him, but
as a punishment to him she became even more liberal than before.
In fact, the vow itself was also meant as a punishment. She
knew that he would give all to win her pleasure. So in case she
spoke to him, she undertook to pay a vow, which involved the
very act to which he had taken such strong exception. To
enhance this punishment she let the vow remain indefinite, so
that she might spend as much as she pleased to fulfil her vow.
Abdullah had objected to her spending away her wealth in charity


35 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.

and Ayesha punished him not only by spending even more
liberally than before but also by making her forgiveness of his
unwise act conditional on that very action which he disliked.
That was indeed a very apt punishment. It was eminently fitted
to correct the weakness displayed by her nephew. He must have
deeply repented of his mistake. But he was determined to win
her pleasure at any price. He made some of those nearly related
to the Holy Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon
him) to intercede with her on his behalf, but she would not pardon
his offence. At last a method was suggested to him which
proved effective. She always refused admission when she knew
that it was Abdullah who had asked for it. So it was arranged
that he should go as member of a party consisting of persons
whom she held in high esteem and that party as a body should
ask for permission to enter her house, without letting her know
the names of all the members. Having entered the house by
means of this strategem, he was to rush into the compartment
where Ayesha stood and cling to her and not leave her until she
gave him her pardon. This was done and pardon was obtained.
Now Abdullah sent her four slaves that she might emancipate
them and thus fulfil her vow. The emancipation of slaves is the
highest act of charity in Islam, so much so that, as the Holy
Prophet (may peace and the blessing of God be upon him!) de-
clared, for every limb and every joint and every organ of the
emancipated slave, the corresponding limb and joint and organ
of the emancipator are delivered from hell-fire. Ayesha, however,
was not content with the emancipation of four slaves only, but
she went on purchasing the freedom of one slave after another
until the number reached forty. That number also does not seem
to have satisfied her, for she is reported to have wished that she
had made her vow definite, so that she might have the satisfac-
tion of knowing that she had fully paid her vow. It was thus
that she punished and thereby corrected the weakness of her
sister's son, whom she loved most dearly, next only to her illus-
trious husband, the Holy Prophet (may peace and the blessings
of God be upon him!) and her noble father, Abu Bakr. This
incident throws sufficient light on her benevolent temper and her
contempt of niggardliness and avarice
We do not know as much about Ayesha's sister Asma, as
we know of Ayesha, but what we know of Asma is enough to
show that she too was a worthy daughter of a worthy father.
The following incident will show what a noble spirit she
possessed.


32 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS.
Asma lived to a good old age. Her son, Abdullah, the very
Abdullah whose story we have related above, refused to acknow-
ledge Yazid, son of Moaviah, as the rightful Khalifa, left
Medinah for Mecca and was acknowledged as Khalifatul
Muslimeen by the people of Hedjaz and Mesopotamia. Yazid
sent an army against him, but the expedition was a failure. In
72 A.H. Abdul Malik sent another army against Mecca under
Hajjaj b. Yusaf. The Holy City was besieged. Abdullah fought
bravely, but there seemed to be no chance against the superior
forces of the enemy. At last he was reduced to straits. All his
followers deserted him, save a few who were also wavering and
might have deserted him any moment. At this juncture he went
to his aged mother, Asma, to seek her advice. She was then a
hundred years old He said to her, "Mother, all my companions
have abandoned me, with the exception of a few who are also
vacillating and might abandon me any moment. What will you
advise me to do under the circumstances? Should I go on fight-
ing until I die or should I surrender?" "Do you believe your
cause to be just, my son," asked the old mother. "Yes, I do
believe my cause to be just," replied Abdullah.
"Then go on fighting bravely until you die.''
"Mother, if I am killed, I fear I shall be mutilated," said
Abdullah.
The brave old woman said, "After a goat has been
slaughtered, it matters little to it if it is flayed."
Thus encouraged by the noble words of his brave mother, he
bade farewell to her, went to the Kaaba and passed the night
in prayer. In the morning he was attacked by the enemy and
died fighting single-handed against heavy odds. He was slain
in the Kaaba and thus was fulfilled a prophecy of the Holy Pro-
phet (may peace and the blessings oi God be upon him!) who had
predicted that a ram would be slain in the Kaaba.
Just think of the hundred years old mother bidding her son
her only son go on fighting until he died if he believed his
cause to be just, when the son, being deserted by almost all his
comrades and having despaired of snccess, was half inclined to
surrender! Only a noble lady could have done so.
SHER ALI.


Full Text

PAGE 4

Talimul Islam High School, Saltpond, Gold Coast.

PAGE 5

\tbe 1Re\1iew of 1Reli\1ions. 4..1 Vol. XXlV. jUNE, 1925 No. 6 In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent and the most Merciful. We praise Him and invoke His blessings upon His prophet the one. "A prophe t came unto the world and the w orld accepte d him not, but God shall accept him and establish his truth with mighty signs." NOTES. ISLAM IN GOLD COAST. Our mission in Gold Coast (started in 1921) is progressing very steadily under Maului F R Hakeem. The first missionary who was sent there is Mr. A. R. Nayyar. Most of our brethren there belong to the Fante tribe, who ue a very sincere, zealous and brave people They are building m()sques and opening schools in different parts of the C()Untry. Our frontispiece shows a School established in Saltpond, the Capital of the Province. THE TIME OF The International Bible Students' Association, London, say in one of their latest leaflets that '' All over the earth there rises a cry for freedom. The peoples of the world are realising as never befo.re a need for deliverance from their limitations and their heavy burdens, and there is everywhere a restlessness such as has never before been experienced in human history.'' They further declare that '' the recent and present W()rld events, including the British and Jewish activity in connection with Palestine,'' clearly indicate '' that the time of deliverance has come,'' and '' that it is to be confidently expected that this year will see a very marked development of God's purposes." We agree to all this. But where is the promised Prince of Peace? He has already come. It is, let it be known, Ahmad

PAGE 6

2 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. of Qadian, who has come in the spirit and power of Christ according to the prophecies of the Bible. None else, he says, wdll ever come and the waiting of all shall be in vain. NEW CAMPAIGN AGAINST ISLAM. At the request of the United Council for Missionary Educa tion, Mr. W. W. Cash has recently written a book named '' The Moslem World in Revolution,'' to show that '' the Moslems are mentally accessible to Christian teaching to an -ext.ent never before kn()Wn. '' And it is expected '' that the study of this book will lead many to take part in a new campaign to win for Christ the Moslem peoples of the East.'' The Bishop of Salisbury writes:-" The situation in the Moslem world is among the two or three supremely critical issues now before the Christian Church.'' A special invitation was sent to Dr. S. M. Zwemer, Editor of the "Moslem World," by the British Missionary Societies, to come and address their May meetings. Ue has stayed here for a fortnight and has in his lectures laid special stress on the need of better organised work among the Mohammadan com munities. MODERNISING CHRISTIANITY. The Rev. Dr. H. D. A. Major, Principal of Ripon Hall, Oxford, pr.eaching before the University of Cambridge, is repor ted to have remarked as follows:-" Very serious efforts have been made during the last three-quarters of a century to reform the Church's theology. Terrible doctrines, such as that ever lasting torment, the depravity of human nature, the Divine demand for an expiatory atonement, had been discred:it.ed and abandoned. Other doctrines, such as that of the resurrection of the flesh and that of the inerrancy of the Scriptures, had been greatly weakened.'' He proposes that '' in order to be a disciple of Jesus, no more ought to be required than that the disciple should call him Lord and Master and strive to follow Him in daily life." THE GRIST OF THE DIVORCE MILL. According to the Census Bureau, more than 165,000 divorces were granted in the United States in 1923, or one divorce in -every 7.5 marriages. In 1905 only 68,000 divorces were granted; in 18 years the number of divorces has risen by more than 140 per

PAGE 7

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. 3 cent. Dr. Ellwood, Prof,essor of Sociology in the University of Missouri, says that divorces are now growing in the United States four or five times as fast as the population. In 1922 the State of Oregon had one divorce to every 2.5 marriag,es. It shows that in America marriage is made a matter of mere individual caprice and convenience. In countries where divorce is not easy to obtain there is a growing tendency to postpone marriage or to dispense with it altogether. It is a pity that with the advance of our so-called civilisa tion the family----the cradle of morality and reiigion-is gradually tending to disappear, which means a blow to the welfare of humanity. Islam stands for moderation and peace. It is the golden mean. It does not make marriage absolutely indissoluble, be cause there arise various kinds of difficulties which really necessitate divorce, but on the other hand it does not make the fair sex a mere chattel to be thrown away and discarded according to the dictates of caprice and fickleness. Marriage is a serious and sacred contract which can be broken only when it is really necessary for the welfare of all the parties concerned. SOM'E CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. There are 700 important missionary societies regularly working for the cause of Christianity in the world. These include only the Anglican and Protestant Societies; those connected with the Roman Church (which constitutes a major portion of Christen dom) are separate. The contributions of the chief countries to these Societies in 1923 were as follows :The United States Canada British Societies Norway, Sweden, Holland, and Switzerland Germany 9,736,084 722,094 2,869,353 780,920 6,395 ,114,846 In 60 years the missionary budg,et has risen from just under I ,000,000 to 15,000,000 a year. There are 29,188 missionaries, assisted by 150,469 nationals of the countries in which they arc working. There are 858 mis sionary hospitals and I ,686 dispensaries.

PAGE 8

4 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. COVENANT OF ABQAHAM. Dr. WhitiWy, of Chicago, recommends Circumcision un qualifiedly. A long foreskin is a nuisance. It performs no use ful function, fosters uncleanliness, harbours germs, and favours the contraction of disease-notably chancres or syphillis, venereal warts, herpes, gouorrhea, and balanitis. It leads to masturba tion; it is one of the causes of epilepsy and various nervous dis orders in children, and in adults is a favourable seat for chancres and retards the cure of gonorrhea. ' Circumsicion : By removing unfavourable reflex influences, aids greatly the treatment of spermatorrhea, sexual irritability and other disorders of the genito-urinary tract. '' One of the greatest dangers of an elongated prepuce is the occurrence of phimosis, which is simply a contraction of the end of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted. Morton states that hemorrhoids, falling of the rectum; dilating of the ureters and pelves of the kidney, and spasmodic stricture are often caused by the intense straining necessary to force the urine through the contracted opening. Any foreskin that completely covers the glands may develop phimosis. If circumcision was observed as a national rite it would reduce the yearly mortality in the United States many thousands. It would hasten the stamping out of syphillis in both men and women; save the innocent babies, check the spread of gonorrhea, and eradicate much of the spastic palsies, simulated hip joint disease, muscular inco-ordination, and convulsions in young children. The operation for circumcision is a harmless one-does not delay from work, no discomfort attached either to the opera tion itself or to subsequent treatment.'' FAITH AND FOQCE. Islam being man's nature, all it needs for its success in spreading among mankind is that nature should be allowed to have free play without let or hindrance. Islam's reliance is on human nature or fitrat. Artificial barriers such as intolerance and persecution are fitnat or fitnah and Islam seeks to remove them in the last resort by the use of force itself. How then could it tolerate intolerance and persecution? '' The whole trend of Quranic teaching is against it and in one final commandment it was thunder-pealed to man. "There is no compulsion in faith." And the reason was obvious. Faith and force, conviction and

PAGE 9

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. 5 compulsion have no common denominator. They are not on the same plane. Nor is force necessary for a faith which makes its appeal to man's reason and to which his nature itself impels him. -"The Comrade." OUR M!ARTYRS. Mr. E. L. Gardner, General Secretary Theosophical Society, London, wri.tes that the following resolution was passed by the South Indian Conference, which met at Adyar, M'adras, on the 12th April, 1925 :-'' The members of the Theosophical Society, South India, assembled in Conference at Adyar, while placing on record their emphatic protest against the stoning to death 1n Afghanistan of certain members of the Ahmadiyya sect of Islam as being contrary to both humanity and the true spirit of Islam, and while requesting the Government of India to take necessary steps for using freedom of conscience to the Indian dtizens resident in the ancient kingdom of Afghanistan, wish to add the assurance that no political or sectarian feeling whatever has actuated the above resolution, the Society as such having no political or sedarian creed whatever.'' DR. ZWEMER AND QADIAN. In an article on Islam in India," published in the "Church Missionary Review," London, Dr. Zwemer, referring to his visit to Qadlian, says :-'' Our reception was most cordial. In fact, they bad sent to meet us at another railway station and invited us to spend days ins,tead of hours. My friend, Dr. Mohammad Sadiq, of Detroit and Chicago, was in evidence and apologised that he could offer us no rocking-chair and honey-dew melons.' They gave us of their best and we saw all there was to see. Printing presses, mailing bureau, post office, theological school, girls' and boys' schools, a busy hive of propagandism. Not only is the Review of Religions published here, but three other maga zines; and correspondence is carried on with London, Paris, Berlin, Chicago, Singapore, and all the Near East; pigeon-holes filled with possibilities; shelves crowded with encyclopredias, dictionaries, and artti-Christian philosophies; an armoury to prove the impossible; a credulous faith that almost removes moun tains."

PAGE 10

6 THE REVlJ;..W OF RELIGIONS. ISLAM AND HUMAN NATUR.E. There is no doubt in the fact that the real object of all religions is to make a person folloiW the will of God in a manner that all his words, thoughts, and actions may be called the worshipping of God. Hence only that religion is a true religion which can create such a spirit of obedience and worship towards Him by providing means which may lead a man willingly or un willingly to a complete surrender of his will to the will of God, to sacrifice all his desires for His sake, and to entrust all his works to Him so as to feel pleasure only in the pleasure of God. A study of human nature shows that there are only two motives in it for obedience--love and fear. There are many who would sacrifice their lives for the sake of love, and there are many who would devote the whole of their lives in the service of others out of fear. There are some who are naturally so con stituted as to feel a great repulsion at the use of a little severity, so much so that they are unable to do anything which they are forced to do. On the contrary there are some who get spoiled with love. Sternness can exact as much work from them as desired, but they would do nothing with courtesy and kind ness. We find parents admonishing their children with kind ness, but if they take no notice of it they have to adopt severer methods. If parents were to be severe where they should have been kind, and kind where they should have been severe, their children would surely get spoiled. Therefore religions which inculcate under all circumstances only meekness and love towards all cannot be called universal, because there are found some people who would take no notice whatsoever of meekness and love; and neith-er are those religions fitted to work a complete refmmation of the whole world which prescribe severity as a panacea for all kinds of ills and wrongs, because there are found people whom severity makes worse. So only that religion can be called a true religion which combines in itself both kinds of teachings and which pre scribes ways and means suited for all kinds of people and for all occasions. A Christian says '' God is Love,'' and the sentence sounds sweet to the ears. But can it do any good to those who are always found rto be obstinate, headstrong, and caring for nothing else except severity. When such poop le come to know that God is Love, and they also happen to believe in Atonement, they would never care to mend their ways. The Arya sect of Hinduism declares, on the t>ther hand, that when a sin is once committed there is no way out of it to for-

PAGE 11

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. 7 giveness; the s inful person must undergo for it the severe punishment of transmigrating into a thousand bodies. Such a dreadful punishment cannot help all human beings t() foli()W the will o f God. When once a sin is committed they would continue committing more and more sins because they know that they cann()t suffer more than what they have already deserved. When they have to suffer so much for one sin, why sh()uld they lose to enjoy the world to its full. blam is the ()nly religion which keeps in vieiW both these aspects, and this shows that it is a true religion revealed by the (iod of all. In the very beginning of the Holy Quran it lays down teachings suitable f()r both kinds of poople. As love sh()uld precede fear it has first mentioned those things which inspire l()ve and gratitude-i.e., the beauty and the bounty of God. It says : ''All praise is of God,'' Wh() is free from all kinds of defects and Who possesses all kinds of beauty and goodness. This is the personal aspect of His Beauty. Then it mentions the Divine Bounty by adding the words, Rabbul Alameen "-i.e., He is the God of all human beings, animals, stones, and vegetables. It is He who makes a and a beggar, believer or other wise, to grow like a seed till all gradually attain to the perfect stage of their development. He is the God equally of all, from the lowest to the highest. When a man thinks of the vast provision which God has made for the welfare and proper development Gf his physical body he naturally thinks of what He should have done for his soul. So He is further described to be Rahman to supply this need. Rahman revealed the Holy Quran for the guidance of the soul, about !Which a question could be asked as to what use could this Book be for man. So God is further described to be Rahim, which means that good actions are not wasted-He rewards them as much as pos sible. But for those who oppose Him He is the Master of the day of Retributi()n. If people do not follow Him out of love He can punish them severely with a view to reform them, as He does, with hundreds of various kinds of chastisements and punishments. A reading of these verses at the time of prayer will lead all kinds of people to say, as the Muslims d(), addressing their God-" Thee alone do we worship, and from Thee alone do we ask for help I This is a distinctive teaching of Islam suited for the uplifting of humanity and well adapted for the betterment and advance ment of all who seek for righteousness, purity, and p.iety. It is surely superi()r to all others.

PAGE 12

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. THE STUDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT. If I had to explain the Student Christian Movement to one who knew nothing about it I should like to be able to transport him to the Albert Hall in Manchester one day during the first week in January of this -year. On the platform he might have seen a slender figure in a blue Chinese robe speaking about his country, its needs, its hopes, its aspirations to an audience of some I ,600 students drawn from all over the world-to say nothing of the strangers' gallery. The occasion was one of the quadrennial conferences of the Student Christian Movement of Great Britain and Ireland. Such conferences have been held once in each student generation since the foundation of the Movement in 1892, except during the War. The audience was composed of students from 240 British Colleges of all kinds, and of delega tions from 33 nations. The Chinese speaker referred to was Mr. T. z. Koo, Travelling Secretary of the World's Student Christian Federation, who was Vice-Chairman of the Confer ence, the Chairman being a Scottish Student. The purpose of the gathering was to consider the international problems of the modern .world in the light of the teaching of Jesus Christ. In many respects the Conference was symbolic of the Student Movement and its work. In the first place it may be taken as illustrating the .nature of the membership of the Movement. In Great Britain the Movement is a federation of self-governing societies of students in 260 Universities and Colleges. Of the 60,000 students in these Colleges, 10,000 men and women are members of the Movement. Self-gov.erning National Movements, similar in character to the British one, are to be found in many countries throughout the world, East and West. They are united in the World's Student Christian Federation, which has a world membership of 30,000 students. It should be said that membership is confined to present stud.ents, which means thart the entire number has to be renewed every three years. In spite l)f this it has gone on growing steadily for 30 years. The Move ment is thus a Student Movement; it is not one conducteil by senior people for their benefit. In Great Britain at least the governing Cl)mmittee is composed of undergraduates, and it regards as its field of work students anywhere. The Conference also illustrates the scope of the interest of the Movement. There were few of the great issues with which humanity is confronted to-day which doid n01t come up for examina-

PAGE 13

THE REViEW OF RELIGIONS. 9 -------------------------------------------------tion, as may be seen from a perusal of the published report.* The Movement began as an organisation for securing volunteers for foreign missionary work and that feature has always remained. It now concerns itself with the whole question of the meaning of Christianity and its application in the modern world. It leads its members to the study of the Bible and of Christian doctrine, of social and international problems. At these Conferences it tries to secure speakers, leading experts belonging to many different Christian denominations, and through its Publication Department it issues every year thousands of volumes dealing with such issues. But while the Student Movement does stand for education and study it tries not to deal with such questions in a merely academic spirit. By reason of their opportunities, and not be cause of any necessary difference in ability between them and other people, students are called in after life to positions of influence in society, as teachers, doctors, engineers, politicians, writers, ministers of religion and business men. The Student Movement seeks to bold up the ideal of service in all kinds of occupations. While it is still at heart a Missionary Movement, it realises that there is little use in sending out to other countries missionaries of Christianity if the other contacts of the so-called Christian lands contradict the Missionaries' message. The Colleges send ()Ut year by year many men to the East as business men and Civil Servants. The Student Movement stands for the belief that these men, no less than the Missionary, should express in their lives and work the spirit of Christ. The international character of the Movement may be further illustrated by reference to its work on behalf of the foreign students studying in British Colleges. There are S()me 4,000 of these from 60 different countries. They are all grappling with the difficulties of strange customs and surroundings and often with a little-known language. They are beset by loneliness, and there is no little danger of them seeing only the worst side of British life. The Student Movement tdes to help them as British stu dents would wish to be helped if they were strangers in a fore1gn land thousands of miles from home. It tries to promote friendly relations between them and British students and British h()):ites. Here clearly is a unique opportunity for promoting international understanding and The M()vement has special Secre taries set apart for this work. The World Task of the Christian Church." Student Christian Movement. 2/6.

PAGE 14

10 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. An outstanding feature of the work of the Movement in this connection is the Student Movement House, founded some years ago at 32, Russell Square, in London. It has a membership of 1,050 men and women from 46 different countries. The house is a centre for lectures and discussions and for social fell()wship. It is, perhaps, the most cosmopolitan spot in the whole of London. Membership is open to any student, whatever his religion. The Student Christian Movement believ es in Conferences and every year a good many of these are held, large and small, though very few students come to more than one or two during the whole of their College course. In addition to mof'le local Con ferences, national ones are held each July at Swanwick in Derby shire, where l ,500 to 1 ,600 students usually meet at two general Conferences. Every four years a larger Conference is held of the type described ,earlier in this article. But only a compara tively small proportion of the members of the Movement can ever come to such Conferences. The real work is done in the local Unions scattered throughout the country. Through lectures, study circles, discussion groups, prayer meetings and the friend ship of the members, students are helped to think through their intellectual and moral problems at perhaps the most critical time of their lives, when most people choose the ideals which are going to govern them for the rest of their days. To many men and women each year the work of the Movement means that a religion, which has been till then merely conventional, is made real and eyes which had been confined to local views are lifted to see something of the wider vistas of the life of the nation and the world. The ideals of the Movement are perhaps best summed up in its official '' Aim and Basis,'' which is an att,empt to state in simple everyday language what the Movement stands for: The Student Christian Movement of Gr.eat Britain and Ireland is a fellowship of stud, ents who desire to understand the Christian faith and to live the Christian life. The Movement seeks to set forth Jesus Christ as the supreme revefation of God and of the true nature of man. It s ees in Him the one sure guide for all manldnd in every sphere of thought and conduct, in art and industry, in politics and the professions, in science and education; the source of power for the overthro w of evil and the renewal of all human life. The Movement challenges students to recognise the urgent need of the whole world for Christ, without limit of race or nation,

PAGE 15

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. II and to respond by dedicating their lives to His service as He may guide them. It calls them to explore His teaching and to follow the guid ance of His Spirit in the pursuit of truth, beauty and righteous ness; to prepare themselves by study, discipline, and prayer for the tasks of the future; joyfully to accept God's gift of deliver ance and life for themselves; and to ent.er the fellowship of wor ship, thought and service which is the heritage of the Christian Church.'' The Movement is far from living up to all its ideals, but surely no one who thinks seriously about the possibilities of such a Movement among the students of the world can fail to be impressed by the opportunities it presents for the building of a better world. As Mr. T. Z. Koo said in one of his addresses at Manchester, "The Student Movement is building the builders.,. HUGH MARTIN. WHAT IS THE "INJIL "? To the Editor, Review of Religions." Dear Sir, With reference to the article In your last about the Christian Scriptures and the Qur'an. we shall not get much further till we define exactly what we are talking about. It is agreed that the Qur'an claims to be the muhaimin or guardian of a certain book known as the Injil among the people to whom the Prophet appealed. Injil is the Arabic form of the Greek word '' Evangellion,'' meaning Good News." This name was specially applied to the collection of Greek writings dating back to the first century A. D., in which the life and teaching of Christ is set forth. Manuscripts of these writings in Greek, written in the fifth and sixth centuries, A.D., besides translations in various languages, are accessdbJ.e. Any one with a knowledge of these languages may satisfy himself that the Book of the Gospels which we now have is the same as that to which the Qur'an bears witness after A.D. 600. Is there a shred of historical evidence that there was any other Injil accepted by the Christian Church at that time? When that is settled we may go forward.-Yours truly, H. U. WEITBRECHT STANTON. London, 20th May, 1925.

PAGE 16

12 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. WHER.E EAST AND WEST CAN MEET. Mr. R.udyard Kipling expressed a generally accepted view when he wrote his famous lines :Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet, Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God's great Judgment Seat; Those of the Western people who have seen the East and those of the Eastern people who have been in the West very reluctantly admit the fact that there exists such an irreconcilable disparity between the conditions of the West and the East that it seems futile to expect a union be,tween the two in the near future. They are as if two separate worlds which have nothing in common and hen(:e divided by a gulf which is unbridgable. In their colour and creeds, in their sentiments and susceptibilities, in their ideas and thoughts, in their tastes and predilections, in their civilizations and cultures, in their etiquettes and manners, in their habits and customs, in their angles of vision and modes of thinking and in their way of living, and in their
PAGE 17

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. IJ the terms East and West mean nothing. I am describing these disparities and incomp,atibilities between the conditions of the West and the East as being born and bred in East and having lived for some time in the West I can to some extent find them out. I am of those people who believe in the unity of the West and the East notwithstanding the realism of the former and the idealism of the latter; nay, I am a firm believer in the unity of the whole world, despite the fact that labour is up in arms against capital and nation against nation and race against race. There are apparent and unmistakable signs which speak of a united world and those whom God has gifted with insight into the future are foreseeing the creation of a commonwealth composed ()f all the nations and communities of the world. The very fact that there is a loud clamour in all quarters for unity, goodwill and amity, is a happy augury of the coming to being of a world of reconciliation and harmony on the ruins of the old world of discord and dissension. The rise of Socialism and the movement of internationalism, the coming to existence of many religious movements which aim at the unification of all faiths and the brotherhood of man, the desire for a common language under standable by all, the gradual disappearance of colour prejudice, the creation of a '' league '' whose primary object is the equal and impartial representation of all nations, and the everyday inven tions which are facilitating the means of communications and inrter-relations, are signs enough to show that humanity after it has convulsed f.or centuries in the quagmire of wranglring and quarrelling is slowly but surely marching to wards unity. Dr. Fournier d' Albe, the famous scientist, says in Quo Vadimus" (published by Kegan Paul) that in only a hundred years the human race will be unified; the earth will be under one government, and one language will be understood, or even sp()ken, all over the world. Our descendants will take advantage of the enormously increased facilities for transporta tion to take an afternoon visit t() Timbuctoo. They will in any case be able to talk with friends there by the universal radio telephone, and even to see them by television." It is not without reason that leaders of differ.ent religious and political thought are yearning for an everlasting

PAGE 18

14 THE REVIEW OF RELlliiONS. peace and a feeling of true brotherhood to prevail in the world. No change takes place here in the world below unless it is decreed in the heavens above. It is decided in the heavens that humanity shall no longer remain dis united. There shall be only one religion and oHiy oae nation in the world now. God wills that East should modify -its rigidity and West should advance a step forward to meet it. Notwithstanding our differences we are the descendants of one ancestor and the members of one family. It does not matter if some members of the family have colours and tastes different from the co)()urs and tastes of the others. Is it not a fact that very often two real brothers have dispositions and leanings diametrically opposed to each other? Nevertheless they are br()thers and the difference in their dispositions and temperaments does not create a difference in their love and affection for each other. Then why is it that we who are the creatures ()f one Creator Who neither belongs to the West nor to the East should hate and dislike one another because some ()f us are of fairer colour than the others, and are more advanced in education and polity than the others? Certainly a man who sees his brother poorer or less educated than himself instead of jeering at him tries to uplift him, educate him, and civilize him. Whether we are Western or Eastern, whether white or black, we are the sons of one father and the servants of one God. Our God, our Allah, is the Lord of all the different peoples, the different ages, and the different countries. He is the God of the Moslems, the Jews, the Christians, the Hindus, and the Buddhists alike. He is the Creator of the Europeans, the Asiatics, the Americans, and the Africans. He is equally Benevolent and Beneficent to all. His Kindness and Mercy and Compassion is as unlimited for one race as for the other. If He created air, fire, water, light, etc., for the white, the blacl!: are also equal partners with them in these things. He is equally Bountiful and Graceful to all. He is one God, one Creator. and one Providence. As He Himself is one and is very jealous of the association of any other being with Him, there fore He wishes His creatures and servants to become united

PAGE 19

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. into one people. As in the provision of the necessary things that support life He has made no distinction between His creatures, He wishes, therefore, that His creatures should not make any invidious distinction amongst themselves. It is His wiii, and His wiii shall be done because He is All-powerful. Here arises a question. If unity is to come, and, as signs indicate, it wiii certainly come, then how will it come? Will it come by means of leagues and congresses, by making com mittees and holding conferences? The world has had enough of these conferences, leagues, and congresses. After all what are these leagues made up of? They are composed of heterogeneous elements which lack a common cord to co-ordinate them, and in which the strongest has his way and say. The tremendous task ()f the unification of mankind is not a small task to be achieved by the hands of man unassisted with divine help. This object (;an see its accomplishment only through a person, who like his Creator, is neither of the West nor of the East, by him whom God has sent with the message of peace and unity. At his bands the world shall become united. All the Messengers and Prophets of God, all the great Teachers of humanity, and the ancient sages of different nations foretold the advent of a Great Reformer in the present times who was to reconcile the warring communities, countries, and creeds. Unlike the Prophets of old, who were raised for their specific communities, this Prophet was to be raised like his Master for the whole world because his Mission was for the whole world and his message for the whole of mankind. His appearance was foretold by Krishna, Zoroaster, Buddha, Isaiah, Daniel, Jesus Christ, and the Prophet Muhammad (God bless them all). Jesus Christ likened his second advent to '' lightning that flashes from the East to the West." The Prophet Isaiah said, "Who has raised the Righteous One in the East" (41 : 2). The Holy Prophet Muhammad (may the blessings of God be upon his soul) pointed to the East and said that that was the place for the appearance of the Messenger of the Latter Days. Krishna prophesied about the appearance of a Prophet in the Arya Varta. Zoroaster said

PAGE 20

I6 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. -------that the Prophet of the Latter Days would be of Persian extrac tion. The promised to whose advent these prophecies refer has already come, and come in the East as was foretold. God has decreed that the world shall become united at his hands. He has been sent by the Lord of the heavens and earth, by the Creator of the black and the white, by the God of Asia' and Europe. He is not an Eastern, though he is born in the East. Like his Sender He is neither of the East nor of the West. He invites the whole world to the love of God, because in the love of God alone the !World can and shall unite. He says, '' All ye that are desirous of perpetual happiness and eternal salvation, fly to me, for here is the fountain which will purge you of all your impuri ties and here you will find the salvation which is the fruit of certainty and a strong faith and perfect knowledge.'' The East shall have to bid farewell to its spirit of revenge, and the West shall have to leave exploita tion of the East, and both shall unite in the Spirit of God and His love. Let those who seek after truth and desire to attain to the real, true, and actual communion with God, becaus,e only thereby all differences are forgotten, drink of the Divine nectar that God has provided for them and Oy to the fold of Ahmad, because in him speaks the Spirit of God. If those in whose hands are the destinies of nations endeavour to cure the ill from which humanity is suffering without making use of the remedy which God has provided for them, they will, instead of nearing the goal, continue to drift away from it. It is ordained in heaven that God's Kingdom shall be on earth as it is in heaven. There is only one God in heavens and there shall be only one people on earth, and this shall come to pass when the people of earth shall turn to him who has been especially com missioned by Divine Hands to bring about peace, goodwill, and unity into the world. G. F. MALIK.

PAGE 21

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. 17 NOR.TH AFR.ICAN NOTES. R.ecently I 1was asked to write something about the Moors, R.iffs, Algerians, and other M'uslim brethren of North Africa with whom I have been fortunate to come into close contact. These fine upright men are a marked contrast to the races of certain European countries. They are dignified in gait, lovable in temperament, and seem to hold a certain heritage of nobility. To visit them at home is a great pleasure. The open-hearted hospitality and friendship warms the heart and immediately provides the real difference between a Muslim house and that of others. The coming out to the gate to greet one is in itself a forerunner of the generosity within. When one puts out the hands and a liberal portion of some sweet perfume is poured over them, it seems a syml.wl that all worldly uncleanliness is left behind and only the fragrance of purity prevails. Then the meal is in itself full of charm. I have sat with my friends, and the servants ate with us in that charming old patriarchal fashion. There is no showiness in dress. I well remember the story of the French officer (one who was known to me prior to the Great War) who on being invited as the guest of a distinguished Moorish gentleman, not knowing his host, arrived rather late and sat on the carpet eating with a number of Moors. At the conclusion o.f the meal, not wishing to stay so as to incommode the party owing to the fact that he was a foreigner, he turned to a Moor dressed rather more elaborately than the others, and, speaking French. expressed his hearty thanks for the hospitality shown to him. One can judge how astounded he was to learn that instead of the host he had thanked the door-porter, the host being dressed quite in a simple way. To-day, if you travel in Morocco or Algeria, you find the same honesty and simplicity everywhere. It is necessary to get to the heart of a people to know them, and it makes one rejoice to find the keen interest displayed by the poorest Muslim concern ing his brothers of faith in other parts of the world. To do business in the Sook or Market is a very different thing from European cities. When visiting a merchant there is none of the '' rio sentiment in business '' id.ea so prevalent in the large Western cities. You are courteously invited to partake of a cup of and sit chatting on various topics for some little time. Should the Azan be called, you at once proceed to make ablution and perform prayer. At its conclusion you will sit in meditation for a period, and it is easy to observe that mundane affairs are

PAGE 22

18 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. ---------------------------------completely effaced by high spirituality. Oh for such a state of affairs in our Western countries! Afterwards business is con ducted in a manner which is sufficient to render it a pleasure, and you part -each feeling that he has gained a friend. Often when asked to accept a small object you may happen to fancy as a present, one must refuse very .tactfully. On one such occa sion I was told that the jewels in my conversation outweighed the value ()f a hundred such trinkets.'' Then the question of the Mosque. Of course, in European clothes, with an unmistakably European hat, it _arouses some comment when one enters, but after removing the shoes, per forming wuzu, and commencing prayer, no notice is taken. At the end of prayer you enter into conversation with those present. It is interesting to know how in out-of-the-way spots those present know of you by repute. Despite the stories circulated by novelists and others, there is not the slightest objection to a stanger entering a Mosque. The only difficulty one is likely to experience is the caution of a well-meaning or over-zealous policeman who may tell you it is best not to enter. Here it may be necessary to say that parties of noisy and thoughtless tourists are not welcome, as indeed parrot-like chatter and laughter are not welcome in any church in the West. It is a great pity that owing to the folly of some of these it has been considered necessary by the European officials to refuse them permission to visit certain Mosques. Of course the disgruntled ones immediately say that this is due to Moslem fanaticism." I remember a lady telling me how she went to a Mosque and was refused admission. By dint of careful questions I soon discovered the reason. She suffered for the sins of some of these foolish globe-trotters. To return once more to the subject. I have been in contact with the brother-in-law of Abdul Karim, the R.iff leader, and other people of that country. I find them good Muslims, honourable and noble, and I feel deeply grieved that they are now in conflict with France. Throughout Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli there is every welcome for a brother in faith, and, despite the present unnatural divisions, I feel certain that one day these North African people will unite as a great Muslim nation. Islam is spreading at a great rate throughout this Continent, and when the Azan shall ring from Centa to Cape Town civilization and humanity at large will realise the perfect brotherhood brought about by Islam, the religion of Peace. KHALID SHELDR.AKE.

PAGE 23

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. CONGQESS OF QELIGIONS. '' The world is my country, to do good is my religion." ELEVEN WOQLD QELIGIONS WILL UNITE IN CONGQESS FOQ WOQLD PEACE. 19 For the purpose of bringing the combined influences of the world's leading religious faiths to bear upon the problem of world peace, an International Qeligious Congress will be held at Geneva in August, 1928. The first announcement of the Congress was made to-day at the headquarters of the Church Peace Union follQWing a mee.ting of the trustees of that organisation. The plan was outlined and discussed at this meeting and the trustees voted that a portion of the inc()me fmm the trust fund set aside eleven years ago by Andrew Carnegie for the pmmomon of international justice and goodwill th11ough the Churches should be devoted to the preliminary organisation work of the Congress to be held three-and-a-half years hence. Plans already approved indicate that this will be the most comprehensive gathering of religious leaders that the world has ever known. Eleven religions will take part; each of W!bic'h will be represented proportionately in a World Committee of One Thousand, as follows: Christians (including Protestants, Qoman and Uniate Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox), Jews, Muhammadans, Buddhists, Confucians, Shintoists, Taoists, Hindoos, Parsees, Jains, Sikhs. Each of these religions will be represented by a vice-presi dent. The active work will be under supervision of a Conference Committee of sixty, which will appoint a Cabinet of seven mem bers. The officers will be a President of the Committee of One Thousand, a Chairman of the Conference Committee, and a General Secretary. According to the official announcement the purpose of the Congress is: To bring together repres-entatives of the world's living religions to discuss the questions relating to international justice and goodwill. To make known the content of each religion relating to these questions. To compare the ideals of human brotherhood and world peace of each religion, and, if

PAGE 24

20 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. possible, secure agreement on the following pl'opositions :1 1 The emphasis on human brotherhood as essential to all religions.'' 11 World peace can be established only through the recogni tion of Universal Brotherhood." 1 1 The religions of the world can co-operate by each working 11 in its own sphere for the attainment of these ideals.'' 1 1 Adoption of general plans looking toward this end.'' lt is announced that the members of this Committee of One Thousand will not represent their religions officially 11 but each will be chosen because of his own fitness to serve on such a com mittee and because he is a believer in one of these great religious faiths." As tentatively outlined the Congress will last for fifteen days. The first and second days will be devoted to organisation and the delivery of keynote addresses, one each by an outstand ing representative of the East and the West, one from the Near East and one from Central Europe. From the third to the thir,teenth day inclusive, one day each shall be devoted to an exposition by a leader of one of the great religions on the follow ing topic : 1 1 What can my religion contribute to International Justice and Goodwill.'' The fourteenth day will be devoted to reports of committees, adoption of resolutions, etc., and the fifteenth day to appropriate ceremonies and addresses. The official languages of the Congress will 6e English, French and German. The plan as outlined to the trustees of Dr. Henry A. Atkinson, General Secretary of lhe Church Peace Uni()n, received general approval by unanimous vote. "UNITY." THE GREATEST UNIFYING FORCE IN THE WORLD. It is not my desire to take the reader into the labyrinth of religious controversies, rather I would endeavour to point out the direct and plain road to unity according to my own light, and would be glad of any helping or encouraging criticism. It is admitted almost on all hands that the highest principle of religion is truth. If we can understand the realities of life, it means we fully grasp the truth. Humanity is one, life is one, hence religi()n can be one. Why, then, so much confused and

PAGE 25

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. 21 heterogeneous mass of religious dogmas and conundrums. This is due to a partial or entire misconception of truth. As many divisions from truth, so many divergent religions. Ii luckily all people happen to grasp the fundamental truth, there will assuredly emerge homogenity, and unity out of disunity, trans forming the world into a veritable paradise. If there can be any greatest unifying force in the world, it can be truth and truth alone, and nothing but truth. Let us refer to our experience. Suppose we are trying to find out the solution of a geometrical or arithmetical problem. As long as we do not find out the true solution there will exist difference and discord, but if we all arrive at the correct solution the result will be complete agreement on all sides. This clearly indicates where truth leads to, and such in stances can be multiplied. It is not impossible for us to find the truth. Is it, then, beyond the pale of possibility to have one religion? No, never, provided we all put forth our best en deavours to this end. There has been evolution in politics-almost all the advanced countries are trying to adapt themselves to the highest form of government. It is likewise possible we may one day discoYer the highest form of religion to which all men may accommodate. Let, then, the representatives of various religions form them selves into an international religious society or league whose main function should be the discovery of the common links, elimination of divergencies, and eradication of undesirable hostili ties. Is this impossible? I do not think so. Is it not a pity that we bicker over trifling religious differ ences and never seriously endeavour to unite ourselves in the light of what is common in religions. We look from an angle of divergence rather than of convergence. Herein lies our gravest draw-back. The Hindus, the Mohammadans, and the Christians all believe in one God, and this belief in the existence of God is in my opinion the principle of principles and truth of truths. Can not this belief serve as a silken tie to unite all men together. The fact is that we 'have not been able to understand the Highest existence, thenoblest truth in the real and true sense; orthei'!Wise the condition of the world should not have been as it is at present. Let us hope for the better. Let us wish for the better. And let us, by toleration and sobriety, make religion and truth a uniting link between man and man, and nation and nation. MOiiAN LAL.

PAGE 26

22 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. THE PR.OPHETS. We are giving below one of a series of articles which our sister, Miss Budd, a very zealous, d.evout and fearless convert to Islam in Holland has been writing in the Dutch Press under the name of An Ahmady Muslema." Our sister, whose Moslem name is Hidayat, joined Islam in the fold of Ahmad only a few months ago. She originally writes in the Dutch language, but as she knows English fairly well, she has translated this article in English, a perusal of which will show how far she has pro gressed in understanding and assimilating the teachings of Islam. (Editor, R.. IV') As a Moslem has to consider all the Scriptures as being of Divine origin, in the same way he has to recognise all the Prophets as Messengers of God. The Holy Quran says :-'' There has been no people, but a Prophet has been sent to it."-(35: 24.) This fourth article of faith in Islam aims at inculcating upon the Moslems that God is the Lord of all peoples and that His love and mercy go out to all in the same measure. Not only the Pmphet Muhammad, but all the other prophets, no matter at what time and to what peoples they were sent are to be recognised and believed in as Messengers of God and we see that the names of all the different Prophets, Moses, Jesus, Buddha and Krishna, Zoroaster, are mentioned as respectfully in the Islamic literature as the name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad himself. According to the teachings of Islam Prophets are of two kinds:1. Those who are sent with a Divine Law, being called Law-bearers like Moses, who brought a Law, and Muhammad, to whom the last Divine Law was revealed. 2. Those who come to warn, reform and remove cor ruptions and resuscitate faith and lead people back to God after they have gone astray from the right path. They base their teachings and claims upon the law which is then valid. All the Prophets after M'oses, including Jesus, were Admonishers, and for them the Law revealed to Mfrses was valid The Prophet Ahmad, the Promised R.eformer and Messiah, was raised to bring back humanity to God in Islam. He based his teachings and claims upon the last Divine Law as revealed in the Quran.

PAGE 27

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. 23 Although many Western people are quite ready to recognise all the Prophets mentioned in the Old Testament as Messengers of God, yet with very few exceptions they do not recognise Muhammad as such. The majority considers him to be a deceiver, but some who dare not go so far say that he was an '' extra ordinary clever '' man, an epithet which means nearly the same thing. I will try to prove that Muhammad was not a deceiver, but a Prophet of God and a true servant of his Lord. Muhammad, who was much loved and highly esteemed by the inhabitants of Mecca (he was called El-Emin, the true, the righteous one), married, when a young man, a rich ;wi.dow named Khadija. After his marriage with Khadija he cut himself apart from the worldly affairs and entirely gave himself over to religious meditations. In his 40th year he received his first revelation. The Voice which he heard speaking to him very distinctly filled him with great fear and anxiety. He could not at once decide what really the Voice meant. ft.e became shy and kept aloof from the com pany of men. This condition of suspense and anxiety continued for six months. It took him time to satisfy himself that he was chosen by Divine Hands to reclaim corrupt humanity. Surely, he who doubts Muhammad's sincerity shall have to admit that the behaviour of a man who has an intention to deceive must be quite the opposite of Prophet Muhammad's demeanour. When at last peace came .to Muhammad, revelations followed each other in quick succ.ession; yet it is only after three years that he started preaching openly. But what was the result? The man who formerly led an untroubled life and who enjoyed the esteem and love of all the members of his tribe was ridiculed and scoffed at. He was threatened with death. These threats cul minated in a severe boycott, as a result of which the Prophet Muhammad with his whole family had to seek refuge in a cave, to which no ingress or .egress was allowed. At last Muhammad was obliged to leave Mecca secretly. Should Muhammad really have been an imposter, could he possibly endure for long years all this mockery, opposition, bitter enmity and persecution? Not long ago .a reverend gentleman said what has often been said: I am quite ready to admit that Muhammad received divine revelations, indeed there are very beautiful passages in the QUIan, but the passages containing all sorts of commandments and in structions do not charm me as those he made himself, and I must

PAGE 28

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. frankly admit that there Muhammad becomes annoying." In finding fault with the Commandments and prohibitions of the Quran the reverend gentleman forgot the iact that Muhammad was not sent only to revive the faith, but also to introduce a new laJW, of which commandments and prohibition constitute a com ponent part. One is not annoyed to read those parts of the Surahs of the Quran which contain Commandments to regulate daily life, when he is in need of spiritual comfort. But will a Jew or a Christian when he turns up Leviticus 27 to comfort his spirit say that Moses becomes "annoying there? Let him be as fair to Muhammad as he is to Moses. A Moslem will not say anything disparaging to Moses because he believes in Moses to be a Mes senger of God. Moreover a man who studies the Commandments contained in the Quran thoroughly and with an open mind will easily see that they do not proceed from a human brain. Notwithstanding all this, if anybody still regards Muhammad to be an imposter be shall have to answer this question : Why had not God destroyed his work and ruined him before thousands of people were caught in his snare, and thus his falsehood and deception would have become obvious. In Deut., 18-20, we read: '' But the Prophet who will act proudly, speaking a word in My name, that I have not ordered him to speak, or who will speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.'' The words, '' that Prophet shall die,'' of course, are to be understood in the sense that God will cut off the life of such a man before his deeds work mischief among men. With respect to Muhammad we see, however, that he died at 63 years of age, after he bad entirely accomplished his mission and the religion of Islam had taken firm foundations and had attracted hundreds and thousands of millions in its fold. If evil is not annihilated and virtue does ttot succeed in this world, then how can :we distinguish between right or wrong. Is the success of Islam not a clear proof that it is indeed the only religion acceptable to God? Here arises a very natural question: If Islam is a true religion and Muhammad a true Prophet of God, then why is there no mention about both in the former Scriptures and why has no Prophet predicted Muhammad's appearance? To answer this very pertinent question I will refer to the following verses of the Bible, in which clear prophecies about the Holy Prophet

PAGE 29

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. Muhammad and about his progenitor Ishmael are to be found. In Genesis 17, God speaks to Abraham about his cov.enant with Isaac and then Abraham supplicates to God: Oh, that lshmael might live before Thy face (Gen. 17, 18). Ishmael was the son of Abraham and Hagar, and the elder brother of Isaac. The latter was progenitor of the Israelites, and the former that of the lshmaelites or Arabs. Thus the Arabs and Israelites are brother-peoples. To Abraham's supplication God answers: "And as regards lshmael, I have heard thee." Thus lshmael should live '' before the face of God,'' which is meant that Ishmael's progeny would live and prosper. This promise was fulfilled, w.hen God raised from among the Arabs, the offsprings of Ishmael and the brothers of the Israelites, His Prophet. As we. read in Deut. 18: 18, the following prophecy: "I will raise a prophet from among their b11ethren like unt() thee and I will put My words in his mouth and he will speak to them all that I shall command him to speak. '' God speaks to Moses and says, that He will raise a Prophet from among the brethren of the Israelites. Thus this Prophet will not be raised from among the Israelites nor from among their progeny, but from among their brethren, namely, the lshmaelites, who are Arabs only. MISS BUDD. GROPING IN THE DARK. There is a passage in Micah v., 2, which is generally taken to be a Messianic prophecy. The scholars who have made a study of Micah declare this verse to be a gloss by some scribe who, just to give a relief from the depressing state of affairs, inserted this passage to give a message of hope to the drooping spirits of Israel. Evidently it refers to the post exilic periodical raids carried out by the North Arabians and Jerahmeclites against the Southern Jews, some of whom were carried into captivity, and this the writer regards as a visitation from heaven owing to the permeation of falsehood into the civil and religious system of Judah. Further on, to mitigate the severity of this pronouncement, the writer says the Jews will amend, and,

PAGE 30

:J.6 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. while on the Jerahmeclite or Arabian soil, they will be delivered and their opponents will suffer a crushing defeat at Zarephath. So whenever a raid is attempted by the lshmaelites there will be no lack of leaders to retaliate on the invaders. That seems to be a post-bellum prophecy. Strange as it may seem, our Christian friends have seized on it and made it a ludicrously fulfilled presage about the advent of tbeir Messiah. Ludicrous because the Jews have at least some semblance oi truth in that they applied it to their deliver ance either by a Messiah, or by the defeat of the raiders who had carried away some o:f kin into captivity. If the Christian writers had only confined themselves to this general Messianic interpretation perhaps they could do it with some show of semblance, as they have done in many cases where the prayers of individuals have been given the colour of prophecies. But in this case the connection which they have tried to establish between this so-called Messianic prophecy and its fulfilment is so wide oi the mark that one is left gaping with astonishment. In Matthew ii., 23, it is written that Joseph '' came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets. He shall be called a N azarene." The Christian controversialists are up against a great difficulrty. Not a single instance can be cited from the writings of the old Prophets where one could find such a passage. Not only is the Old Testament devoid of such blessed message but even the Jewish books of Mishna and Talmud, etc., are all without any such prophecy. What is still strange is that the Old Testament does not even so much as mention the name of Nazareth. Jose phus, a great Jewish writer, in his famous history, does not refer to any such town. Yet to meet such a situation the Christian advocates have fastened upon this M'icah v., 2, pro phecy, which does not contain the word Nazareth. It speaks of another town, Beth-Lehem Ephratah, but it has nothing to do with either the birth, death, or the ministry of Jesus. Historians and geographers who have made survey of literature and topography make the bold assertion that no town by the name of N azaretb existed in the days of Jesus. In the face of such facts bow spurious seem the claims of these gospel narra tors. Elsewhere, as here, they boldly make claims which can never be su6stantiated, and present research work has falsified many of the things which they have recorded as facts.

PAGE 31

1HE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. 27 There is another group of people who claim to be modern but who have outdone their Christian prototypes. These are the followers of Bal and Bahaullah. They have gone many steps further. Where they find the word light" they say it presages the advent of Bahaullah, and wherever they come across the word darkness," whether it is in poetry, drama, romance, or so forth, they say it stands for the enemies_ of the last Manifestation.. For instance, John, in his Revela tion, 2 I, 23, describing his vtston, says : And the city had no need of the sun, nor the moon to shine in it : for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof." The phrase glory of God has been seized upon by the followers of Mirza H ossein Ali simply because the latter to()k upon himself the title of '' Bahaullah,'' meaning the glory of God. The correspondence in significance between the two phrases entitled Mirza -Hussein Ali to the supreme position of glory of God. This is just the same as to say that if I were to assume the name of God, and then put forth the claim that wherever in the older Scriptures the word God occurs it invari ably refers to me. Here is another instance. In Matthew xxu1., 8-12, Jesus addresses his disciples as follows: But be not ye called Rabbi, for one is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren. And call no man your father upon the earth : for one is your Father, which is in heaven. Neither be ye called Masters, for one is your Master, even Christ. But he that is great.est among you shall be your servant. And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted." As luck would have it the word servant occurs in one of these verses, and as the successor of Mirza Hussein Ali, Abbas Effendi by name, chose to call himself Abdul Baha, meaning the servant of God, hence it is proven that the prophecy underlying the word '' servant '' has been fulfilled in his person. Nor time, nor place, nor rhyme, nor r.eason, but they would have them all, context or no context; the one must be called a Nazarene to fulfil the prophecies giv.en by the old Prophets which nowhere exist, and the claims of the other two must be accepted because their self-assumed titles happen to correspond with a word here or there. MUHAMMAD DIN.

PAGE 32

28 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. TWO SISTERS. Ayesha and Asma were two sisters. They were the daughters of an Arab merchant named Abu Bakr. Of this Abu Bakr, who was among the first conver,ts to Islam, Sir William Muir says in his "Life of Muhammad": "Abu Bakr was a dilig,ent and success ful merchant. His generosity was rare and his charity unweary ing. His judgment was sound and impartial, his conversation agreeable, and his demeanour affable and engaging. His society and advice were therefore much sought after by the Coreish, ancl he was popular throughout the city (Mecca)". Of his two daughters, Ayesha and Asma, the world knows more of the former than of the latter. Ayesha was married to the Holy Prophet of Arabia (may peace and the blessings of God be upon him) and of all his wives she was the ml}st intelligent and keen and understood Islam, the religion taught and preached by her illustrious husl)and, best; nay, she knew it better than many of the men, and was very helpful to him in teaching it not only to Muslim ladies but also to Muslim men and it 1was for this reason that the Holy Prophet of Arabia (may peace and the bless ings of God be upon him !) loved her m()st. He was wont to say ,to his companions, '' Learn half the religion fmm Ayesha.'' And we find that after the death of the Holy Pr()phet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon him !) his C()mpanions ()ften resorted to her to have many things made clear to them by her. The questions which they put to her per.tained n()t only to the private and domestic life of the Holy Prophet or to matters relating t() women, but also to important matters of general interes,t and even to the exegisesof the Holy Qur.an. N ()t only did her C()ntem poraries learn much from her, but even the generations that came after have profited a good deal fwm her sayings that have been handed down to posterity by the traditionists. Her wmds throw a very useful light on many p()ints which have since become subjects of contr()versy. For instance, with regard to the Miaraj or the Ascension of the Holy Prophet (may peace. and the bless ings of God be upon him!), she who heard the account direct from the Holy Prophet himself, held that it was a spiritual vision, as clear and as real as that one sees in waking, but that it was not a physical ascension, as many men ignorantly think to-day. There is another point, with regard to which she expresses a very valuable opinion, and when we consider that it is a point where even great sc.holars have stumbled, we cannot help admiring her

PAGE 33

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. sagacity and her grasp of the real spirit of Islam. The point to which I refer here is the question 0of the continuation of prophet hood in Islam. Although many eminent men in Islam who per sonally experienced the spiritual blessings of Islam have declared that the gift of prophecy still continues in Islam and ,that what has been discontinued is only a law-bearing propbethood, yet the general masses among the Muslims erroneously bold that this gift which is indeed the highest spiritual gift which God bestows on His chosen servants has been totally and permanently dis continued. With reference to this point, the view expressed or J:ather the warning given by Ayesha is ex,tremely valuable and raises her high in our estimation. She said, '' Say He (the Holy Prophet) is the Seal of Prophets, but do n0ot say, 'There is no Prophet after him.' '' Thus she emphatically refuted the asser tion that ,there was to be no prophet after the Hoiy Prophet. She pointed out that the proper way of describing the Holy. Prophet was to use the words which the Holy Quran bad used concerning him, viz.: ,that he was the Seal of Prophets, which, as she explained, did not mean that no prophet was to appear after him, but which on the other band signified that prophets were to arise, but they were to be from among his followers and that only th0ose prophets were to be regarded as true who bore the seal of the Holy Prophet, i.e., who bad the honour of being his disciples and who attained to the dignity of prophetbood by fol lowing in his footsteps. In other words, it was through him that the gift of prophecy was n>w attainable and that he was in fact a prophet-maker. This was a distinction which no other prophet ever enjoyed before. Formerly, prophets received the gift of prophecy direct from God; they were not indebted to any >ther prophet for this boon. Prophets were raised in different c>untries and in different ages and they were independent of each other. But such was no longer the case. Now all the doors of prophet hood were closed, save that of the Holy Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon him !) and prophethood could be attained >nly through this one door, i.e., through the medium of the Holy Prophet. All future prophets were to be the disciples and servants of the Holy Prophet, who was to be over-lord of them all. He was the Prophet of prophets and the prophets that were to come after him were to be given the boon of prophecy through him. Such was the significance of Khatam-un-Nabiyyeen (the Seal of Prophets) and Ayesha was keen enough to appreciate this significance and hence she very shrewdly said, Say, he is the Seal of Prophets, but do not say, 'there is ,to be no prophet after

PAGE 34

30 THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS, him.' '' Indeed she deserves great credit for this observation, for many failed to see what she was keen enough to observe. In short, Ayesha plays a very important part in the history not only of Islam but of Islamic Theology and Islamic exegesis. She was a remarkable personality, and it will require a volume to describe her character and attainments. It is, hfrwever, beyond the scope of this short note to attempt any detailed or full description of her character. I mean to refer here only to one phase of her character, viz., benevolence, which will serve as an index to her whole character, for only a noble character could possess benovelence in such high degree. She was in the habit of giving away in charity everything she received and never laid by anything. Those were days of Muslim conquest and she could have amassed hoards of wealth if she had only cared to do so. But rendering help to the poor and needy was a passion with her and she spent all her wealth in giving relief to the indigent. Her sister's son, Abdullah, took strong objection to this. '' Her hands must be restrained,'' he emphatically declared. This reached the ears of Ayesha. She was told that her nephew took strong objection to her spending away her property in alms and meant to restrain her from charity. She made up her mind to correct this fault in him. She knew that her pleasure was more precious 1:o him than all wealth and that he would give all to win her goodwill. So she declared : '' On me be a vow if I speak to Abdullah. '' This made Abdullah very uneasy. Her displeasure was more than he could bear. So he began to try all means to conciliate her but she would not yield. She would not allow him to enter her house. Islam de mands that we should not enter other people's houses without first getting permission to do so, no matter how nearly related they mav be to us. So he could not enter his aunt's apartments with out first gaining her permission and permission she would not give. He tried all means in his power but to no purpose. Not only did Ayesha take upon herself a vow if she saw him, but as a punishment to him she became even more liberal than before. In fact. the vow itself was also meant as a punishment. She knew that he would give all to win her pleasure. So in case she spoke to him, she undertook to pay a vow, which involved the very act to which he bad taken such strong exception. To enhance this punishment she let the vow remain indefinite, so that she might spend as much as she pleased fulfil her vow. Abdullah had objected to her spending away her wealth in charity

PAGE 35

THE REVIEW OF RELH.ilONS. Jl and punished him not only by spending even more than before but also by making her forgiveness of his act conditional on that verv action which disliked. That was a very apt punishment. It was eminently fitted to correct the weakness displayed by her nephew. He must have deeply repented of his mistake. But he was determined to win her pleasure at any price. He made some of those nearly related to the Holy Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon him) to intercede with her on his behalf, but she would not pardon his offence. At last a method was suggest-ed to him which proved effective. She always refused admission when she knew that it was Abdullah who had asked for it. So iJt was arranged that he should go as member of a party consisting of persons whom she held in high esteem and that party as a body should ask for permission to enter her house, without letting her know the names of all the members. Having entered tbe house by means of this strategem, he was to rush into the compartment where Ayesha stood and cling to her and not her until she gave him her pardon. This was done and pardon was obtained. Now Abdullah sent her four slaves that she might emancipate them and thus fulfil her vow. The emancipation of slaves is the highest act of charity in Islam, so much so that, as the Holy Prophet (may peace and the blessing of God be upon him I) de clawd, for every limb and every joint and every organ of the emancipated slave, the corresponding limb and joint and organ of the emancipator are delivered from hell-fire. Ayesha, however, was not content with the emancipation of four slaves only, but she went on purchasing the of one slave after another until tbe number reached forty. That number also does not seem to have satisfied her, for she is reported to have wished that she had made her vow definite, so that she might have the satisfac tion of knowing that she had fully paid her vow. It was thus that she punished and thereby the weakness of her sister's son, whom she loved most dearly, next only to her illus trious husband, the Holy Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon him!) and her noble father, Abu Bakr. This incident throws sufficient light on her benevolent temper and her contempt of niggardliness and avarice We do not know as much about Ayesha's sister-Asma, as we know of Ayesha, but what we know of Asma is enough to show that she too was a worthy daughter of a worthy father. The following incident will show what a noble spirit she possessed.

PAGE 36

THE REVIEW OF RELIGIONS. Asma lived to a good old age. Her son, Abdulla:h, the very Abdullah whose story we have related above, refused to acknow ledge Yazid, son of Moaviah, as the rightful Khalifa, ldt Medinah for Mecca and was aeknowledged as Khalifatul M'uslimeen by the people of Hedjaz and Mesopotamia. Yazid sent an army against him, but the expedition was a failure. I.n 72 A.H. Abdul Malik sent another army against Mecca under Hajjaj b. Yusaf. The Holy City was besieged. Abdullah fought bravely, but there seemed to be no chance against the superior forces of the enemy. At last he was reduced to straits. All his followers deserted him, save a few who were also wavering and might have deserted him any moment. At this juncture he went to his aged mother, Asma, to seel. her advice. She was then a hundred years old He said to her, "Mother, all my companions have abandoned me, with the exception of a few who are also vacillating and might. abandon me any moment. What will you advise me to do under the circumstances? Should l go on fight ing until I die or should I surrender?" "Do you believe your cause to be just, my son," asked the old mother. "Yes, I do believe my cause to be just,'' replied Abdullah. '' Then go on fighting bravely until you die.'' Mother, if I am killed, I fear I shall be mutilated," said Abdullah. The brave old woman said, After a goat has been slaughtered, it matters little to it if it is flayed." Thus encouraged by the noble words of his brave mother, he bade farewell to her, went to the Kaaba and passed the night in prayer. In the morning he was attacked by the enemy and died fighting single-handed against heavy odds. He was slain in the Kaaba and thus was fulfilled a pwphecy of rthe Holy Pro phet (may peace and the blessings. ol God be upon him I) who had that a ram would be slain in the Kaaba. Just think of the hundred years old mother bidding her son -her only son-go on fighting until he died if he believed his cause to be just, when the son, being deserted by almost all his comrades and having despaired of success, was half inclined to surrender I Only a noble lady could have done so. SHEll ALl.