Iran League quarterly

Material Information

Iran League quarterly official organ of the Iran League, Bombay
Alternate title:
Anjuman-i Īrān Līg (Bombay, India)
Anjuman-i Iran Līg (Bombay, India)
Place of Publication:
Iran League
Publication Date:
Multiple languages


Subjects / Keywords:
Parsees -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Civilization -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Iran
Asia -- India


Cultural Journal published by the Iran League between 1930 and 1960, which aimed at reviving and strengthening cultural and other ties between the Parsis of India and the Zoroastrians of Iran. ( ,, )
Includes book reviews
Title also in Persian; text in English or Persian
General Note:
"Official organ of the Iran League, Bombay."

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
382223 ( ALEPH )
X290018675 ( OCLC )
237210933 ( OCLC )
Per 9 ( ddc )


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Vol. II


No. 1


The Editor's Notes
Zoroastiian Religious Literature
Religious Symbology of Persian Carving ...
Persia, Past and Present
Persia and Regenerated Iran
British and Soviet Interests In Persia
Influences in Persia

... 1

... 17

... 29

... 39

... 47

... 51

... 61

Frontispiece, 50





February to March

March to April

March to April
(Easter Holidays)

May to June
September to October

November to December

December to January
(Xmas Vacation)

Ceylon Tour.

Eliora and Ajanta Caves Tour.

Tour to Bhopal, Gwalior, Delhi,
Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and
Kashmir Tour.
Kashmir Tour.
Mount Abu Tour.
Ceylon Tour.

Tour to Bhopal, Gwalior, Sanchi,
Delhi, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri,
Udaipur and Jaipur.

o :

Just 'published: "The Iran-Iraq Traveller's Guide," price Rs. 114
For full particulars apply to :—


Gresham Building, 45, Esplanade Road,


Mr. Jehangir Bahman-Behram, the Parsi Mayor of Bombay, and Mr. Lloyd-George, M.P., ex-British Premier, at th*
civic reception given to the latter on his arrival in Bombay on the 4th December 1931.

j (jiV- ^fjk fl jt- ut. s~a jf\, ^jy O:.1

Parsi Anjuman Memorial Meeting held on the 22nd November, 1981 in honour of late Mr. Jehangir Jamshedjee
Vimadalal, which recounted the memorable services the deceased gentleman rendered to the Parsi
Community for over three decades, and resolved to perpetuate his memory.


Vol. II ] OCTOBER 1931 [ No. 1


The Late Editobs' Sebvices

This Quarterly now passes under a new Editor, and that
The Late Edi- lends an occasion for taking a review of its
tore and Their pasfc WOrk. The Iran League Bulletin and the
Quarterly both had the good fortune of having
for their first Editors such capable men as Mr. G. K. Nariman
and Dr. Irach J. S. Taraporevala; and under their able
guidance they attained that form which gave them the well
deserved reputation of efficient service and advancement of
the cause they had been intended to promote ; and the public

therefore owe a debt of gratitude to them both.

* * *

We recall with pleasure the sincere enthusiasm with which
Mr. Nariman set himself to work to infuse into the Bulletin
that lively interest which led us to await its further issues with
a sense of expectant enjoyment. It was therefore unfortunate
that he could not afterwards agree with the management on
the policy the Bulletin was to pursue, and laid down hie

editorship ultimately.

* * *

2 the ie an league quarterly [Oct.

While vie regret this the most, we do indeed hope that Mr.

Nariman will still continue serving andpromo-

Our Aims and . , ,, , . ,

Ow Work ting just that very cause which once was so

dear to his own self. We believe that the aim
remains the same with us as it was with him. Dear old
Iran had fallen on evil days, and both her children at home
as we abroad, raise our voice, if not our hand, to arouse her from
that state of stupor and inefficiency into which great misfortunes
and long misrule had placed her. And if we hail with joy the
supreme endeavour her great sons are making to rid her of those
abuses and abasements into which she had fallen, no person in
the world can possibly find fault with us for doing so.

Often a cry is raised from certain and varied quarters that

Our interest in ^ran league is attempting to trifle with the

Iran's Present Ac- established creed of Iran when it is showing
active sympalby with what is happening there
now, and endeavouring to help her to know her past. There
is no apparent reason for such an imputation. The adherents
of that creed all over the world should equally be pleased that
a people which have figured so eminently and well in it, have
been sincerely and seriously engaging themselves now to
remove those abuses and abasements which it should be a dis-
grace to any community in the world to continue in. And if
the Iran League, or the men who agree with its aims, applaud
them and assist them in that endeavour, those adherents have

rather the reason to thank them for doing so.
* *

We therefore trust and hope that such imputations will now
cease, and for ever. To raise Iran socially, morally, economi-
cally and politically, is the object of her true sons both
at home and abroad ; and the Iran League will never flinch
in its endeavour to rouse the Parsees to do everything in their
power to help the dear old land in this noble aim and endea-
vour. And if, to help herself to succeed in this aim with


the editor's notes


certainty and efficiency, Iran is keen to know her past, why
should she not do so ? Why should she not yearn to revive in
herself that which had made her once so glorious and so
worthy ? Why should she not acquaint herself with those
noble teachings and beliefs of her past which had given her an
ideal social order, an ennobling morality and an adorable
spiritual eminence ? And if the Parsees assist her in doing so,
they serve both their dear old motherland, and a cause approva-
ble before the God of Goodness; and no amount of difficulty
or opposition shall deter them from that noble oauge and

* *

An Inseparable Bond

Quite another imputation i3 likewise laid against the Iran
still Our inte- League whan it tries to persuade the Parsees
remainln Para* to lend a helping hind to Iran in her supreme
mount effort to rise. It is alleged that in doing

so the Parsees are showing .ingratitude to this country of
their adoption. This imputation is however as unreasonable
as the other. Indeed it is noh always clearly seen that the
Parsees are among the oldest inhabitants of this beautiful
and noble land: for, really speaking, they had commenced
settling in it since millenniums past, and not only after
the fall of the Sasanian dominion as it is commonly
understood. Some large bands did indeed emigrate and
settle here on that occasion also; but Parsees were known
to be in India during the Achiemenian, Parthian and Sasanian
times (558 B.C.—652 A.C.) as they held some portion or
another of this great land as a part of their great dominion
of those days. Hence it is quite long since that they have
become the true children of the soil; and so they will love
and serve it with as great sincerity and devotion as any other

people settled in this country might claim to do. ;:

* * <*

4 the ie an league quarterly [Oct.

Every Parsee in India loves this noble land as his dear
The Parsee's darling mother: he has gambolled on her
citizenship ^ore bosom, grown on her milk and prospered in
A^yreotheJacom! her vast and rich expanse; and hence his regard
"junity for her is one of gratitude, fidelity and love. He

has served her with greater sincerity, selflessness and sacrifice
than any other people, and h6 will continue to do so till the
end of times. Politically too th6 Parsee has quite greater right
to her oitizenship than either the Hindu or the Moslem. These
olaim it by right of conquest, for the Hindus conquered India
from the Dravidians, and the Moslems from the Hindus. But
the Parsees claim it by rights of treaty, sacrifice and service;
and so their claim on India is more sacred, more certain and

more deserved than of any other people.

* * *

If Parsees have receded in the back-rows in Indian
, politics now, that is not because thev have

The Parsees and , J

the Indian Aspira- become lukewarm in their support of her
twnB right political aspirations : this rather hap-

pens beoause the great communities are so much engrossed
in their own interests and their own importance that they
mostly neglect the Parsees, overlook their proper merits and in
some few oases even view with open jealousy and hostility
their prosperity and eminent state, and do all they can to bring
both these down. By God's grace however, the Parsees will
yet prosper and serve the motherland with sincerity and true
oonoern whether they are given any credit or thanks for it or

* * *

The Parsees cannot and should not however forget all their
past, and neglect other bonds besides those whioh tie them
to India. Both strong claims of blood and of past happy
memories bind them to dear old Iran and her people too; and
if- they do something for these also, that should not be set down

as neglect or ingratitude towards dear mother Hind.

• * *

1931J the editor's notes §

Happily however that section of the Indian community
that has sometimes been showing jealousy and

Tlie P&rB66S aud * •

the other Com. hostile attitude towards the Parsees is very
rinNa^onthe small. The vast majority of the Indians love
and admire them both for their virtues as for
their great services to the country. Instances are not rare,
as when, for instance, a visitor from distant Multan onoe met
a member of the community in a pleasant suburb of Bombay,
stopped him and inquired whether he was a Parsee, and when
he was told that he was, he glowed with genuine pleasure and
expressed it both by words and by looks. All Indians as a rule
love them as brothers and cousins, and the Parsees reciprooate
that affection with even greater regard of friendship and

brotherly love.

* * •

Among these, all the Indian leaders of known respectabi-
lity stand pre-eminent: and the most stalwart
Parsee Work aud of them all, Mr. Gandhi, has expressed the
Em?nlu0ndLsy kindest regards for the Parsees, in the most
unequivocal terms, and on every proper occa-
sion. The sincerity of this sentiment is so great and so over-
powering in these great leaders, that on that most momentous
occasion in the history of present India, when the Indian leaders
met the British members of the Round Table Conference, this
great leader of theirs again took up the supreme moment of his
inaugural address at it, to refer to the Parsees in the following
glowing terms: "lam glad to say that the Congress was con-
ceived in an English brain, and nursed by two great Parsees,
Sir Pherozeshah Mehta and Mr. Dadabhoy Naoroji, the Grand

Old Man of India......Now, what oannot the two nations of

Britain and India do with their united forces and possibilities
—one a brave nation noted for its fight against slavery and the
other, a very ancient one, representing the two great cultures
of Islam and Hinduism, and absorbing, among others, the
whole of the splendid Zoroastrian stock—in numbers almost
suboognizanGQ, bat in philanthropy and enterprise almost


the iran league quarterly


unsurpassed! " Such kindly sentiments from great Indian
leaders are not rare: and the 'Parsees receive them with
grateful and appreciative satisfaction.

The Parsee is by nature philanthropic and benevolent :
_ D he flies even into trouble for himself at the

Tne Parsee

Disposition for promptitude of instinct, when he rushes to

intercede on behalf of any poor Indian molested
by some bully or troubled by some enthusiastic member
of the police. This is not an uncommon experience of
the police in Bombay, and though these resent it they
admire it in the depth of their heart. The mere piteous look of
any mendicant sends his hand at once into his pocket to take
out some coin for that suffering unit of humanity, without
caring to ask himself whether that is really a deserving case
for charity. Whenever and wherever he notices suffering,
public wrong or general want he stirs himself spontaneously
and immediately to relieve them by effort, often magnificent
and never below his means.

* H= *

Above everything else he loves this land of his birth, and
misses no opportunity to serve her and to share her blessings
with other children of her soil. Whatever his momentary
troubles here may be, his genial, sanguine and enterprising
disposition dispels it soon and he lives on happily for himself
and also for his fellowmen, living a life of activity for himself
and usefulness to the country. Though therefore some Parsees
will, by all means, go to help their ancient motherland and
settle there, the future of the vast majority of the community
is tied down to this beautiful land of their adoption, and they
have such sterling qualities that while sparing their energy
and enterprise also for their ancient home, they will devote
them unabated and always in the service of this great and
good land, and their service will be appreciated, admired and
valued by the whole Indian nation.


the editor's notes


The Parsee's Destiny even Higher in the
India of the Future

The Parsees will always sympathise in and sincerely
The Parsee in co-operate for winning all the rightful aspira-
diEpeneaMe in the tions and claims of the Indian nation, as being

Future India ' °

themselves an integral portion of it. And
whenever India obtains its full share of independence and
self-rule, it will always find in the Parsees its most disinteres-
ted, capable and public-spirited statesmen, administrators, and
public servants ; and indeed then India could not send to the
councils of the nations any more devoted, more worthy or more
achieving representatives than the Parsees. Let it however
happen as Providence may decree it to be; we on our part shall
always go on serving the motherland with unending efforts

and perennial work.

$ * %

The Parsee may indeed figure even higher than this in the
India of the future. Let him immediately take the lead to
form the " Grand League of the Smaller Minorities in India",
including in it the backward classes and even the Sikhs. It is
apparent that the Hindus on the one side and the Moslems on
the other will form permanent parties in the future politics of
India, and a fairly powerful third party is needed to keep the
balance between these two, which are sure to welcome it as a
necessary middle party to tone down the inevitable opposition
and party spirit between them. It is apparent that the Parsees
as an extremely small but intelligent minority will play a very
leading part in this " Grand League of the Smaller Minorities
in India," as their interests are the least likely to conflict with
the common interests of the masses. Their public and benevo-
lent spirit will lead them to serve the cause of the League most
faithfully and with an attitude of fairness and friendliness
towards the two leading parties in the land. In any case the
Parsees are quite confident of always having the most friendly
relations with all their countrymen; and this confidence has


the iran league quarterly


publicly been voiced when Sir Padamji Ginwala spoke in the
Minority Committee of the Round Table Conference thus: "I
belong to a community which is not asking for any special
privileges. We are quite satisfied that we shall be able to
work in peace and harmony with our fellow-countrymen, and

we are not putting forward any claims at all."

» * *

Their Sound Remedial Measures

At prese nt the whole Parsee community is perplexed with
the discomfiting problems of unemployment,
ty^Present Tr ou- disorganized trade and industry and all the
Errors'""1 ? aSt resulting distress. This is the nemesis of
almost the criminal neglect and indifference of
its leaders whil e things were knocking grave warnings for years.
Notwithstanding wise and common sense suggestions some-
times publicly made, the only thing done was the giving of
doles ridiculously tiny in application, and even indiscriminate
in some cases. This remedy really aggravated the disease it
was intended to cure, for, it gave no impetus to work for
obtaining relief from the trouble, and took away all sense of
self-respect and faith in oneself; and the ranks of the commu-
nity's poor increased almost daily. No avenues for work,
employment or enterprise were opened for them : these were
rather being narrowed or even closed by the community's great
leaders of industry and their great merchant princes. Even
those big industries that were started by Par si talent and
Parsee capital had not even a sprinkling of the Parsee
employed. The great Parsee offices had disproportion-
ately few Parsee hands. Thus while Parsee leaders of
trade and industry allowed Parsee talent and Parsee capi-
tal being exploited and misappropriated by others, the
mass of the community wag neglected by them. They never
thought of starting industries as would be purely manag-




ed and manned by Parsees, nor filled their offices with
Parsee brains and Parsee hands to the extent of their urgent
and just claims. Indeed we have no intention of creating
a spirit of clannishness among the Parsees. Let us by
all means generally share our work and its fruit with our
fellow-countrymen, but let not our leaders therefore overlook

the community's just and fair prior claims to them.

* * *

The community poured their hoardings and their savings
into their hands to help them to start enter-
ParsTvimaland Pâ„¢es by which they hoped to benefit in the
Parsi Work neg- end; and these permitted this great treasure

lected by Recent 1 D

Leaders to be gambled away in the most unscrupulous

way. Instead of trusting Parsee talent and
Parsee help they trusted and employed other and doubtful
helps, and the results have been the most disastrous for all.
There has been one glaring instance proving the great worth
of Parsee talent, Parsee vim and Parsee work. The late Mr.
Jamshedji Tata had a firm faith in them, and the genius to
find his right men; and the success he attained in almost every-
thing he attempted was as much the result of the talents and
helps he employed as of his own great genius. His successors
changed his policy, and the consequences have been too well-
known to need any repetition or description here.

Let the Parsee leaders of trade and industry therefore
change their angle of vision now, and again turn their eyes to
pure Parsee worth. Let them fill vacancies in their great
organisations with Parsees wherever they can, and likewise
create the possibilities of Parsee employment and pure Parsee
help in them, and we have the fullest confidence that they will
have no cause to regret that in any way.

Happily the mistake is now well seen and realized. Even
The Errors now the esteemed Trustees of the Parsee Punchayet
dial1 andMeaSu"es Funds are making a move in the matter, and
organized another influential organization under good


the iran league quarterly


Sir Hormusji Adenvala is striving every nerve to wipe off
old mistakes and to entirely change the method of
work. It is stringently intended to stop dole giving, excep-
ting in cases of absolute necessity, or of disabled, decrepit and
old persons, and to promote self-help and initiative for inde-
pendent and productive work. Every right-thinking Parsee is
on their side and is keen to help them in every way possible.
It is hoped the great charity organizations will find means to
assist them with the funds at their disposal, and private indi*
viduals too will follow their example. It is a happy augury of
success in this effort that the High Court of Judicature in
Bombay has just sanctioned the diversion of the goodly sum
of thirteen lacs of rupees which are in the hands of the
Trustees of Manekji Seth's Wadi, to the working of a poly-
technic scheme for the Parsees.







Krupp Ernemann Imperator and Standard
Reinforced and Other Cinema Apparati and

General Price List on Application.


The Excelsior Theatre, Fort, Bombay.


the editor's notes


Various measures have been formulated and proposed for
the remedying of Parsee unemployment. Dairy and poultry
farming, horticulture, shop-keeping, street vending, etc., are
intended to be encouraged and fostered. This is good in itself,
and will no doubt help to bring some relief; but these can
absorb a fraction only of the Parsee unemployed, whereas
unhappily the wants of these are very great and very pressing.
Means must therefore ba found for even more extensive, more
certain and more immediate relief. We may therefore make a
suggestion or two in the matter, specially because these may

also work in any industrial movement in Persia too.

* * *

The Pabsees and the Textile Mill Industry

The Parsees were the pioneers in starting textile industry
in Bombay, but they did nothing to draw to it
Textile8 industry0 pure Parsee labour even in a right proportional
way. Some partial attempts were and even are
now being made; but they have not succeeded fully for appa-
rent reasons. Those that were invited to work in it were
asked to do so under quite uncongenial conditions. Mostly
these would have to work with hands far below them both
morally and intellectually, under insanitary conditions gene-
rally and for a length of hours unsuited to them. It has not
yet been attempted to remove these. It is sometimes said
that textile mill-industry is doomed in Bombay. If it
thrives elsewhere in India and in the world, there is no proper
reason why it should not succeed in Bombay too. Many
discreet people have shown this and pointed out the reasons
for the failures, which are all remediable. The principal of
these is the quality of labour employed. We all have been
familiar by now with the Bombay mill hand: he is generally
ignorant, incompetent, inefficient, unconscientious, incapable
of understanding his real good, and playing in the hands of
unscrupulous agitators. All this would have been impossible

if pure Parsee labour had been working any mill.

* * *



We suggest therefore the immediate inauguration of a small
but most efficiently equipped spinning and
madeVsefu^and weaving mill in quite sanitary buildings and
Attractive for jn ^g mi
them °

lity. The machinery should be the most upto-
date and productive of the best possible results to compensate
for lesser hours and higher pay to the employed. The whole
organisation should be purely Parsee; even menial labour as far
as practicable should be Parsee. Everything should be clean,
airy, bright, and cheerful. All amenities too should be provi-
ded, such as a cool and cheery reading room and library, a
roomy comfortable and decent restaurant, a mill club with
good lawns and gardens, and a creche inviting and exhilara-
ting in itself. The hours of work too should be at the most
eight for men and seven for women, and adjusted as 8^-1 and
2-5^ for men and 9-1 and 2-5 for women for every full wor-
king day. There should be a full weekly holiday with a weekly
half holiday added to it if possible. Communial holidays
should of course be all observed.

The great advantage of this industry is that it absorbs
quite a large number of hands, and provides almost immediate
earnings to even novices, for the average Parsee man or
woman has enough intelligence to acquire the technique and
steadiness of work within about a month's time at the most.
Even for people ordinarily engaged in other avocations, this
industry would offer immediate casual relief during possible
intervals of unemployment as they too could begin to earn
almost immediately at least maintenance wages. Provision
should always be kept at the mill for absorbing such casual
labour at any time.

The payments should be fortnightly for the first six
months and then monthly always afterwards, because short
period payments are not likely to promote thrift in the

* * *


the editor's notes


Other Fields

Attempts are already made to invite all Parsee employers,
whether in Bombay or elsewhere, to make room
andL "Land-Hof- Parsee helps in their business by all possible

cultivation Land" effort- There are lar8'e Parsee concerns
throughout India which may do a good deal
to help in this hour of anxiety for their whole community.
Even the Anjumans in distant Rangoon, Hong-Kong, Shan-
ghai, Canton and Kobe, may be specially requested to co-operate.
And alongside this, the many Parsee peasant proprietors and
large estate holders may also be approached to absorb as many
Parsee youths as possible, if not as employees, at least as
apprentices in return for all found and some pocket money.
This will be a training for them to induce them to return to
the land, which a large section of the community ought to do
for personal as well as communial benefit. The various
mofussil Anjumans wor king in conjunction with the Parsee
Punchayet Board in Bombay may be requested to help in this

It may just be noted in passing here, that it is highly
essential for the benefit of the community to form a "Union of
Parsee Farmers, Peasant Proprietors, and Land Holders," and
to arrange provision of expert help periodically and legal help
in cases of difficulty. This would be far better and easier than
to think of founding colonies under impracticable schemes.

A Universal Remedy for Unemployment

The next suggestion we have to make will solve the
A Universal Re Pr°blem of unemployment all over the world,
medy for Unem- It would require a little present sacrifice on


the part of the employed to help their brethren
in distress, for, under it we recommend the larger employers
reducing the salaries .of their present employees by a small
percentage, aud utilising this whole saving in engaging
suitable men from among the unemployed. This may in-

14 the iran league quarterly [Oti.

directly help in augmenting their results without more cost,
and the present employees may get the satisfaction of helping
their less fortunate brothers besides getting for their own
selves an assurance against the problem of unemployment
facing them too at any time, and probably also getting some
relief in their daily arduous work, and also profiting ultimately
owing to the general cheapening of things. Indeed the social
order of the whole human race would improve considerably
if this spirit of self-sacrifice and mutual help were fostered
and employed everywhere. The governmants too need not
be concerned owing to the consequent cheapening of things, for
more employment and cheaper prices would lead to greater

consumption and more trade and more of tax collections.

* * ♦

A Change for the Persian Government

All this may carefully be looked into by a committee
A Chance for exPer^s) and needful may be outlined
the Persian and worked out without a moment's unnecessary
Government delay. If the whole comunity co-operates, there

can be nothing but sure success, and a permanent boon too
may be achieved thereby.




Stop No. 21,
1st Lane, Mangaldas Market, BOMBAY.




the editor's notes


In the multitude of the Parsee unemployed are quite a
fair number of experts in various branches of occupation and
industry. The Persian Government who often need and
engage foreign experts, may as well employ some Parsees, if
they suit their needs. Indeed if this Government are really
keen for Parsee co-operation in the regeneration of dear old
Iran, they can do nothing better than first giving employment
to Parsee experts, for, on their assurance and initiative Parsee
capital and Parsee enterprise may flow into the land and do
for Iran what few other foreign men can ever hope to do with
the same sincerity and disinterestedness.

Some of the great Parsee organisations must immediately
prepare a list of such experts, marking those among them that
are prepared to enter service of the Persian Government, and
present this list to these.

* =!= *

Apropos of this we quote below the kind letter the emi-
nent minister Hon. Taimur Tash has recently

^ Gracious

sage from h.i.m. written to the Iran League, in behalf of His
the Shab Imperial Majesty the Shah, and hope that the

Parsees who can respond to it may do so with all the enthu-
siasm and concern possible to show in the case :—

" To

The esteemed Anjuman of the Iran League,


" The valued letter addressed by you the esteemed
Anjuman of the Iran League, expressing the sincerest
regards on behalf of the Parsees of India, for the Shahan-
Shah of Iran and their ancient country, has been cordially
received. The royal heart of His Imperial Majesty was
exceedingly glad to read the high opinion and patriotic
feelings expressed in respect of the progress of the country
and its enlightened government of the day.


the iran league quarterly


" As men tioned by your Anjuman, we regret to admit
that in the past decades, owing to utter negligence and
carelessness of the former authorities towards the happiness
and well-being of the country, the communication between
Persia and the Parsees of India (who indeed are the
flourishing sons of Iran), had been absolutely neglected,
with the result that complete separation has followed such
lack of close contact. But now through the sympathetic
solicitude of the present enlightened government of His
Imperial Pahlavi Majesty, the work of regeneration of the
ancient land has right earnestly commenced, and the
ill-efiects of the past regime have automatically vanished.

" Your loyal praise and respectful admiration of the
reforms inaugurated by His Imperial Majesty, have
produced a profound impression upon His Imperial
Majesty, and has considerably drawn him towards the

" One of the strongest solicitudes of His Imperial
Majesty in respect of the Parsees is that the Parsees should
now manifest their sympathy in some concrete shape
towards Iran, which is their motherland and also the cradle
of Zarathushtra. His Imperial Majesty's prayers are that
the Parsees should be instrumental in bringing about the
speedy regeneration of the country.

" Hoping that the esteemed League whose main
objects are the establishment of a close contact between
the Parsees and Persia, and the strengthening of the bond
of spititual tie which is being realized now, may prosper
and be happy more and more.

" With kindest wishes,
Taimur Tash. "


PH. NO 42483




Beheamgore T. Anklesaria, M.A.

We find 'Vohu Mananh', 'Asha vahista', 'Khshathra
vairya', 'Spent& Aramaiti', 'Haurvatat' and 'Ameret&t' in the
G&th&s, where the qualificative 'amesha spenta' is not applied
to them as in the later Avestan texts: q.e.d., the ' amesM
spenta' are the product of the poets of the later Avest&!
These six qualificatives, these six attributes, of Ahura Mazda
personised as well in the G&thas as in the later Avesta,
having been termed 'AmesM spenta' ( = " Immortal Beneficent-
beings") in the later Avesta, does not add to or take away any-
thing from the lofty concept of these 'Amesha spentas' as
found in the G&tMs. If a later generation of poets thought fit
to call these concepts "immortal," does it not redound to the
glory of the poets who immortalised these concepts, who
perfectly understood and explained to their congregation of
believers the monotheistic teaching of their holy prophet who
first revealed to the world the ideal of one Creator with His
six attributes and many other qualities, which are little under-
stood as yet by the non-Zoroastrian linguists and their Zoro-
astrian followers ? The fault, if any, was not perpetrated so
much by the poets of the later Avesta as by the non-Zoroas-
trian interpreters and translators of the later Avestfi who gave
a wrong version of this and other Zoroastrian theologioal
terms, and by their Zoroastrian followers who quietly accepted
the version, without giving any thought to the meaning con-


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veyed by terms of Christian theology applied to Avestan

The Christian versionists of the Avesta, with no fault of
theirs, saw the vision of their own "arch-angels" and "angels"
in the 'Amesha spentas' and 'Yazatas' of the later Avest&, and
the so-called Zoroastrian reformers, accepting the interpre-
tation as correct, perceived in the "worship" of these 'AmesM
spentas' and 'Yazatas', a "worship" of more than one God, the
God of the Gtbth&s, Ahura Mazda the Creator, owing to the
members of their community being surrounded by communi-
ties who believed in more than one God, communities whose
ideals they had imbibed, by remaining continually in touch
with them and in the midst of their social surroundings.

The 'Amesha spentas', wrongly termed "arch-angels" by
the Christian versionists, can be reckoned to be six only in
number, but the later Avestan poets, just like the poet of the
Zamy&d Yast, have counted them to be seven in number, coun-
ting the 'Spenta Mainyu', (="the Beneficent Spirit"), the
first and foremost amongst them, as one of them. This will
clearly explain how the term 'spenta' began to be applied to
the six attributes of Mazda, who was ' Spento-tema,' (="the Most-
Beneficent"), and at the head of the seven 'Ameshas' (^'Im-

Whilst studying the evolution of the 'Ameshft spentas'
from the G&th&s, the point, to be carefully studied from the
G&thas and the later Avestan texts, is the name given to the
Creator, to the Almighty, and His epithets as found in the
G&th&s and introduced by the later Avestan poets in their

The surviving seventeen hymns of the five Gathas of
Zarathustra contain 238 stanzas, 122 of 3 lines, 65 of 5 lines,
and 51 of 4 lines, making up in all 895 lines. The Pahlavi
summary writers of the Nasks have counted the 'Ashem,'
'YatM,' 'Yenhe H&tam,' 'Yasna Haptanhfiiti' and 'A. airyema
ishyo' as five 'fragards' of the Gathas, making up in all 22


zoroastrian literature


'fragards'. In these 238 stanzas, the poets of the G&thas
address or refer to God: only by the appellation 'Ahura'
(-'Lord") about 19 times, only by the appellation 'Mazda'
(-'Omniscient") about 68 times, and He is called 'Mazda Ahura'
or 'Ahura Mazda' (="Omniscient Lord") in about 109 places,
out of which in 42 places, the terms 'Ahura' and 'Mazd&' are to
be found separated from each other for the purposes of poetry
or otherwise, and learned translators at times treat them as
two distinct words in some of these stanzas. The term 'Mazda'
(-'Omniscient") seems to have been used solely for the God-
head in the G&tha hymns; not so 'Ahura' (="Lord") which has
been used there as the appellation of beings other than 'Mazda'
also, and seems, therefore, to be a term common to more than
one being and not a special name for the Godhead alone.

The denominative verb 'maz-daonh6-dAm' (="do you be
immensely informed") occurs only once in the G&th& hymns,
in Y. 45, 1c, and it was never the intention of the inspired
seer, holy Zarathustra, to compare to the "Omniscient"
the members of his congregation, who had come, from-
near and distant parts, to listen to his sermon embodied in
this elevating hymn,'At fravakhshy^'. But the reference to
'Mazdao-s-cbA ahuraonho' (="the Omniscient and the 'ahuras'"),
in Y. 30, 9b and 31, 4a, is clearly to the Omniscient Creator
and some of His confreres, "the lords" (='ahuras'), whom
the later Avestan literature has named "the Beneficent Immor-
tals" (='Amesha spenta') an d'Ya zatas'.

The hymns 'At t& vakhshya' and 'T& ve urv&U', embodied
in Yasna Has 30 and 31, are two memorable sermons of
the holy prophet, who has himself clearly recognised
'Vohu mananh,' 'Asha,' 'Khshathra,' 'Aramaiti,' 'Haurvat&t'
and ' Ameretat' as the ' ahuras ' ( = " lords "), and who are
confreres of Mazd&. It is very important to note that the
co-workers of "Mazda" were given the same appellation
'ahura,' as given to Him by the prophet himself. It is certain
that the term 'ahur&onh.6' connoted a larger number of beings


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i Oct.

than those connoted by the term 'amesha spenta' in the later
Avestan texts.

The 'vahistem......yim.........hazaoshem ahurem' (="the

best friend and lord") prayed for by the holy prophet, for
Frashaostra and himself, in Y. 28, 8, is nobody else than the
Kayanian king Vistaspa referred to in the seventh stanza of
the same hymn.

The 'usta ahurem' sought for by Geus urva' in Y. 29, 2,
is none other than the holy prophet himself, as regards whose
mission on earth, for the salvation of humanity and
the animal kingdom, this beautiful hymn was written by
one of his faithful apostles. It can be clearly seen from the
sixth and eighth stanzas of the same hymn that no 'ahu'
nor 'ratu,' "lord temporal nor spiritual," was known, but
Spit&ma Zarathustra, to give relief to the "soul of the Universe"
(= ' Geus urvan') when it complained to 'Mazda' and asked for
a saviour.

Y. 31, 8 gives clear proof of the significance of the term
'ahura' as "a lord", where the holy prophet addresses Mazda
in the following strain:—

" Thus did-I-contemplate Thee with-meditation, Oh-
Omniscient (-Mazda')! ever the first worthy-of-worship, Father-



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zoroastrian literature


of-^c-Good-Mind, as I-seized Thee m-both-viy-eyes, the real
originator and lord (-'ahura') in-^e-works oHfoe-existence of-

This stanza beautifully brings out the working of the
mind of Zarathustra, when he wanted to find out an apt attri-
bute of the "Omniscient Creator" 'Mazdti', whom he raised to
the high pedestal of the Godhead, whilst preaching his mono-
theistic creed before the orthodox multitude of 'daeva yasnas',
who had become desirous of listening to his new thought,
and it distinctly shows that 'Mazdi' was the name given to
the Godhead, as proved by the very name of our religion,
'mazda-yasni', and 'ahura' was only a qualificative of 'Mazd&',
a qualificative used also for beings other than 'Mazda'. We
cannot, however, ignore the fact that the Zarathustrian creed


has been termed, also, 'Ahuiri', 'Zarathustri.'

In Y. 31, 10, the 'v&strya fshuyant', "increaser of pas-
ture", is called 'ahura ashavan', "holy lord".

In Y. 33, 3, too, 'ahura' is used for a human "senior" or

The later Avestan literature is not lacking in instances
to show that 'ahura', the qualificative of 'Mazda', was used as
an appellation of beings other than 'Mazda. As for instance,
in the Tir Yast, 36: 'ahura-cha khratu-giit6' = "the lords hav-
ing-deep-wisdom" : where there is a reference to learned sages.

The above instances go to show that the holy prophet
himself and his compeers speak with reverence and esteem in
the divine hymns themselves, of beings other than 'Mazd&,'
of beings spiritual and human as 'ahuras' = "lords," leaving
open the gateways of inspiration for the future poets of Iran
to expand the ideals, laid bare in the G&th&s.

In the hymns of the G&th&s, to Ahura Mazda, Lord
Omniscient, has been given the epithets: 1) 'mainyu' (="Spirit,"
"spiritual"), 2) 'spenta' (=Pahlavi 'awazAni' = "beneficent"),
'spany&o' (="very-beneficent"), 3) 'spent6-temo', ' spenistd',
'sevisto' (-"most-beneficent"), 4) 'Vispanam datarem'(="Creator


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of-all"), 5) 'Vanheus damis mananho' (-"Creator of-Vohuman"),
'Ashahya damim' (-"Creator of-Asha"); 'Dami' (="Creator"),
6) 'Ashava' (="Holy"), 7)'vilvfto' (= "knowing"), 8) 'vichir6'
(="judge"), 9) 'hu-dao', 'hu-daohho' (="of-good-knowledge"), 10)
'takhmem' (="valiant"), 11) 'Mr6'(= "chief"=Pahlavi'sardar'),
12) 'urvatho', 13) 'fry6', 14) 'hazaosha' (="Pahlavi 'dust'=
"friend", "well-wisher"), 15) 'Zatha pta ashahya' (="Begetter
and father oHhe-holj-Oidet-in-the-universe"), 'Ptarem VanhSus
Mananh6' (= "Father of-i^e-Good-Intelligence"), 'Pta' (="Fa-
ther"), 16) 'Brata' (=" Brother"), 'H6i dugeda hu-shyaothna

A —» .

Ara-maitis' (="His daughter Ara-maiti of-good-deeds"), 17)
'Tasha G6us' ( = "Moulder oBfte-Uni verse"), 18) 'Vlsp&-
hishas' (="All-observant"), and 19) 'Vafus' (-"Creator").

The creators of the later Avestan texts, the poets and com-
posers of the Yasna, the Yasts and the Vendid&d, prepared out
of these epithets a standard formula for the invocation of
Mazda: 'Ahura Mazd&, Mainyo sp^nista, Datare gaetha-nam
astvaiti-nam, AsMum'!(="Oh Lord Omniscient, Spirit most-bene-
ficent, Creator of-material existences, Holy!"). They must have
been very close students and followers of the holy prophet's
inspiration, who selected the best four of the Gatha epithets
wherewith to invoke their Lord Omniscient. This is not all.
They evolved from these ancient epithets and from the entire
composition of the divine Gatha hymns innumerable epithets,
attributes and appellations to recognise their Creator: mainly
in Yasna Ha 1 and in Ohrmazd Yast, some of which, not
being properly understood by the European scholars, have
evolved comments and criticisms adverse to Zoroastrianism.

Of these epithets of Mazda, 'spenta' (-"beneficent") along
with 'mainyu' (-'spirit') was used as the name of the first of
the seven 'amesh& spenta' and the.compound 'Spenta mainyu'
(="Spirit beneficent") plays an important part in the creation
of the world as one of the two 'payft thw6rest&ra', "protectors
and moulders of the Universe," his companion in the work
being 'afira mainyu.' This epithet, 'spenta,' was also applied


zoroastrian literature


by the poets of the Gtithas themselves to another 'amesh-i'
(="immortal"), 'Ara-maiti,'1 to the 'khratu' (="wisdom") of Pouru-
chista',2 daughter of Zarathustra, and to 'nar', "man"3. The
poets of the later Avesta, imitating their Master, applied the
epithet to all the 'ameshas'.

Rational thinkers, in incessant touch with nature, medita-
ting over the inspiration of their prophet, the poets of the
later AvesttL studied, visualized before their eyes, and pro-
pounded, for the sake of the appreciating Zoroastrian multitude
of their own days and for those in future generations to come,
the noble vision of the saint and sage, profoundly conceived
and beautifully expressed for the first time in the world, the
vision which no human eyes had ever before observed, the
vision which was seen "when all earthly senses were lulled
to sleep, when meditation only waked", the vision which
portrayed, with vivid imagination, the existence of one
supreme Creator, surrounded with seven "immortal beneficent"
attributes and other "adorable" qualities, working for the
weal and progress of the Universe, each one of the seven
having been entrusted with his or her own special travail, in
order to fulfil and bring about the vast designs of their all-
knowing Brother, Father and Friend, the Almighty Creator,
as co-workers responsible each for his or her own mandatory
work and duty, for the upkeep and preservation of man, animal,
fire, precious ore, earth, water and vegetable. Creatures of an
Immortal Creator, immortal themselves, they have to work
eternally, remaining ever wakeful, against the forces working
in opposition to the life of the creatures of their "Friend Omni-
scient" (='Urvatho Mazda,'), and to preserve these creatures, for
ever, from disease, decrepitude and death. Crusaders in the
endless propaganda of strife against the "Spirit beneficent,"
they are the resurrectors, the renovators, who reinstil the
breath of life into the bodies of the creatures and re-quicken

1 ' Speutfi, Aramaiti': Y. 32, i>c; 33, loc; 34, 9a, 10b; 49, 2c; 51, 4b, lib.

2 'Thwa khrathwa spenista' : 53, 3d.

J) ' Speutakhya-cha neres' : Y. 34, 2b; 'nS epentd* : Y. 4H, 3a, c; 48, 7c; 51, 21a.


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the dead. Eternal resurrection and renovation goes on in the
world because of them, these sleepless servers. If they be
not "immortal, " who else could be ?

It is not easy to trace the birth of the ideals of the later
Avesta as regards these seven "Beneficent Immortals
(='Amesha Spenta').

The "holy man" (= 'na as hava') of" beneficent nature" ('=n&
spento') is, according to the Gathas, a "lord" like-Mazda ('ahuro
thwawas') destined to educate mankind and to lead them to
the "straight path of profit" (='erezfts savanh6 patho') of this
life material and of the spiritual. He is "better than-the-good,"
the best of all human beings in the world, and thus the repre-
sentative of Mazda here in material life. Such a man is to be
secured from amongst the class of 'athra-vans,' "priests," of
the community, whose function it is to be as holy as the
Omniscient Lord, and to make the members of his congrega-
tion as holy and perfect, by means of inspiration from 'Mazda.'
As soldier of 'Mazda', he has to fight against all the ills
brought on by 'Anra mainyu' for the deterioration and destruc-
tion of the beneficent creatures and creation.



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zoroastrian literature


Zarathustra saw the beginning of all things in the 'Mananh,'
(=Sanskrit 'manas'), "Intelligence" of Mazda, as so ingeniously
expressed in Y. 31, 11:

"When first T/ww-shapedst for-us material-life, Daen& and-
Wisdom by-means-of-Thy-Intelligence, Oh Mazda! when'JThou-
gavest life kH/te-corporeal-existence, when Thou-gavest works

This 'Mananh,' divine "Intelligence," is almost always
qualified by the epithet 'vohu' ( = "good") in the GtLtha hymns,
sometimes by 'vahista,' ( = "the best"2), and once in a way it is
termed 'vahyo ashyas-cha' (= " better and purer"3).

This "divine Intelligence," 'vohu Mananh,' is attached to
'vohu mainyu'4 or 'vahisfca mainyu,'5 "the good spirit" or "the
best spirit," which seem to be other terms for 'Spenta Mainyu,'
or 'Spenista Mainyu', "the Beneficent Spirit," "the Most-benefi-
cent Spirit."

This divine Intelligence has mouth and tongue where-
with it unfolds to the inspired prophet the divine Truth by
means of the Word6. This divine Intelligence did come to the
holy Zarathustra at a certain period of his life, when he saw
the vision beautiful as yet unseen by any, when he heard the
Word as yet unheard of any, the Word which he unfolded
by way of admonition to the listeners as soon as he was ripe
for action.7 Zarathustra had conferred with the divine
Intelligence, and by means of it with Mazda and the other
'Ameshas'8; the information derived during the conferences is
given out in the GatM,s.

It is this divine Intelligence which is the keeper of the
Wisdom ('Khratu"') of the Omniscient, and the path of this

1. See also Y. 33, 6b; 34,2a; 49,6b; 46, 7e, 18e.

2. See Y. 31, 7b; 51,4c; 28, 9b; 31, 4b; 32, 6b; 33,9b; 32, lie; 50,
4b; 33, 6a; 47, 14; 50, lc-d.

3. Y. 48, 4a. 4. Y. 45, 5e, 8c; 48, 8d.

5. Y. 33, 6'a. 6. Y, 47, 2b; 46, 14e; 51, 3b; 44, 8c; 45, 8c.

7. See Y. 43 and 31. 8. Y. 44; 43; 31, 13-17; 47,3d; 49, 2d.

9. Y. -28, lc; 48, 3d,


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Intelligence is the 'Daen2i/ of the "Future Benefactors"
(='Saoshyanto'), which the virtuous gladdens with holiness.1
This path leads to a 'demana,'3 "dwelling place" of 'vohu
Mananh' (^"divine Intelligence"), the 'Men Gaire,'8 the 'Garo
dem&na,"4 the "abode of divine music eternal," the mansion
wherein dwells our Father Ahura Mazda, Lord Omniscient,
the residence for the holy souls, the celestial abode of Ahura
Mazda unto whioh Zarathustra dedicates his soul, accompanied
with the divine Intelligence.

It is the Wisdom of this divine Intelligence which
Zarathustra prays of Ahura Mazda, wherewith he may rejoice
the "soul of-the-Universe" (='Geus-cha urvanem'5). It is with
this prayer that the Ahunavaiti G&thtL commences, a soul
elevating prayer, the like of which is rare in the G&tha

Ahura Mazda gives "good habitation and happiness"
('husheitis ramamcha') by means of the divine Intelligence.6
The tiller of the soil, the holy lord, is the welfare worker of
the divine Intelligence.7 There is long life, too, in the
Kingdom of divine Intelligence.8 Aramaiti will increase
vigour and ability by means of the Kingdom of divine
Intelligence along with 'Asha' (="the holy Order in the

Just as the "Beneficent Spirit" (='Spenta Mainyu') has his
adversary and opponent, the 'Anra', so has the "divine Intelli-
gence", 'vohu manahh', its adversary: the 'aka mananh;'10 'vohu
mainyu', too, has his antagonist, the 'aka mainyu,'11 and the
' achistahya dem&na mananho' is their "infernal abode."15

What do we gather from this brief symposium of the
thoughts of Zarathustra with regard to 'vohu mananh'?

1 Y. 34, 13. 2 Y. 32, ;5c.

3 r. 28, 4a. 4 Y. 60, 4d; 51, 15b.

5 Y. 28, 1. 6 Y. 29, 10b; 30 10b.

7 Y. 31, 10; 33, 8. 8 Y. 33, 5.

9 Y. 34, 11. 10 Y. 32, 3, 5; 33, 4; 47, 5.

11 Y. 32, 5. 12 Y. 32, 13-


zoroastrian literature


Not only in the later Avestd, but in the Pahlavi tradition,
too, tradition based for the most part on the later Avestan texts
which are now missing, do we find the same thoughts repeated
in other words or clad in exquisite verse, developing and
unfolding the original ideals of the divine songs.

The Vendtd&d, whilst describing the reception of the holy
soul in 'garo nmana,' in the mansion of Ahura Mazd£b, of the
'Amesha spenta' and of the other holy beings, depicts 'Vohu
mananh' rising from the golden throne as the receiver, who
welcomes the holy soul in Mazda's mansion.1

The Avestan text of the Vohuman Yast is preserved only
in a small fragment appended to the Hormazd Yast. It is
not, therefore, possible to test the value of the ideas contained
in the Pahlavi 'Zand-i Vohuman Yasn,' in the absence of the
entire Avestan text of the Vohuman Yast, which must have
been a book of predictions, whereby Mazda informed Zarathua-
tra of the first beginnings of material life and of what will
happen at the end.2 In the Avestan fragment of the Vohuman
Yast, the "tongue of Ahura Mazd&3" is certainly 'vohu Mananh,'
the "divine Intelligence," at whose coming, Zarathustra first
recognized Mazda by means of His Words.4

The later Avesta writers have made 'Khratu' (=the
" Wisdom" of Mazda) and 'Chisti' (="Reason") the constant
companions of 'vohu Mananh,' "divine Intelligence,"5 whose
co-wor kers are 'Gao' and 'Rama,' in the Gathas as well as in
the later Avestan texts.0

In Yasna H& 31, containing the 'T&-ve urv&ta' hymn,
Zarathustra addresses Ahura Mazd2i:—

"Thine was 'Aramaiti'r (= "Perfect-Devotion"); thine,
Oh Maker oH/ie-'Gao' (=" Universe")! was 'Khratu' (="Wis-
dom") spiritual; Oh Mazd& Ahura (="Omniscient Lord")!

1. See Vd. 19, 31-32. 2. See Hormzad Yt., 26 and of. Y. 31, 11.

3. Hormazd Yt, 28. 4. Y. 43, 11.

5. See Sir0E& I, 2; H. 2; Hormazd Yt., 26; cf. V. 28, 1; 48, 3.

6 . Y.2 i , I; 29, 10; 33, 3. 7. Presiding over the Earth.


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when T/iOM-didst-lay-down the path for-her (i.e., the 'Gao'),
either with-^e-Pastor or him who might not be a Pastor.

"Then she (i.e., the'Gao') chose of-these-two (i.e., the
Pastor and him who was not a Pastor) the fertilizing Pastor
for-her self, holy lord, welfare-worker of-'Vohu Mananh' (="the
Good divine-Intelligence")1."

The two stanzas, quoted, show how Zarathustra under-
stood the plan of the Universe conceived by its Maker.
'Ara-maiti,' which literally means "Perfect Devotion," in whom
the later Avestan interpreters of the Gatha saw the beneficent
Immortal attribute of Mazda, whose province it was to preserve
the Earth ('Zemanh'), is clearly discernible here as such.
The 'Gao', the 'Gao spenta' of the later Avestfb, required a ferti-
lizing Pastor ('vastrim fshuyantem') to lead her straight to
the Path which Mazda laid down for her, a holy lord to work
for her welfare. This welfare-worker was to work with 'Vohu
Mananh,' and the divine 'Khratu' of 'Mazda.'

1 Y. 31, 9-10,

(To be continued.)


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(Continued from last issue page 386.)

The Sub-lunar World and its Temptations.

At the bottom of Plate No. 10 is drawn the Sub-lunar
World, which attracts below, the struggling Farohara. There is
the atmosphere of Impurity (Evil Thoughts, Words and Deeds)
and Temptations.1 Consequently being resident there, Zoroas-
trians constantly pray for " the contemptuous defeat of Angre
Mino " during the entire day, both in their repeated Kushti
prayers and the five prayers in the five Gahs of every day.
Thus the influence of the sub-lunar forces is sought to be
counteracted by this " mental suggestion."3 On the other hand
the constant invocation of Good Thoughts, Words and Deeds
and " May I please Lord Ahuramazda " in the daily prayers
are positive " mental suggestions " that lead upwards and
heavenwards and so the wings of the Farohar are seen
expanded in the middle of this plate. The two side wings and
the one bottom wing are composed of feathers, each of which
represents an Immortal and withal indispensable virtue, which
must assuredly be cultivated, ere the full expansion of the
wings or the complete enfoldment of Farohar is accomplished.
To counteract Evil Thoughts, Words and Deeds, which are
more clearly described in the Hindu Shastras as the Six
Enemies of Humanity in the form of six Primordial sins—Lust,
Hatred or Anger, Avarice, Delusion, Pride and Envy—that
hold man fettered in the sub-lunar realms, the help of a Fire-

1 In the Hindu Shastras the six enemies of man are called lust, anger, greed;
d elusion, pride and envy.

2 Compare the present day theory of M. Coue of progress by auto-suggestion;


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alfcar is taken by a Zoroastrian. This constant invocation and
service of Fire (even of the domestic hearth which should not
be allowed to go out throughout his life,) effects a breach in
the arch, that confines man in the sub-lunar regions. Out he
thus leaps into Independence, the spiritual Realms, where he
by dint of unwearying devotion to Duty and Religion,
(whatever be his, by birth and whether he deems them high
or low is of no account, and whether he be of the East or the
West matters not,) unfolds himself. According to Lord
Zarathushtra's1 teaching he must first cultivate Good Mind
(Vohutfun) based on Faith. And this is oomposed of (1)
Purity of Mind2, (2) Love-Mercy, (3) Resignation to Lord
Ahura's Will, (4) Humility, (5) Self-restraint, (6) Contents
ment, (7) Bliss, (8) Justice, (9) Repentance and (10) Righteous-
ness. Dwell perpetually on these and try daily, hourly and
every moment to make these your own. All the struggle,
the good fight that is waged within, consists in establishing
these in the heart so firmly, so fixedly and so absolutely that
they become a part of one's own nature and the violation of
these becomes acutely painful and unsufferable. Then alone
Good Mind is secured. The hollowness of the vain boast of
smatterers that their mind is pure, and needs no support or
confirmation from the ritual and doctrines of their own
religion, will reveal itself, when they question themselves
honestly and by introspection or reference to a spiritual guide,
to ascertain how many of the above ten transcendant virtues
they lack. The man who has not made these virtues his
own, is fit only for Death, the wages of Sin, and not Immor-
tality, the wages of merit. He has to struggle on until
complete purification is achieved, in Eternity of Time. He
need never despair, as All Time is at his Lordship's disposal,
each Farohar being a son of Lord Ahura Himself, exactly as
Lord Christ described Himself and man.

1 Same as Lord Zoroaster. 2 Compare carefully the Bhagvad Gita,

Chapter XVII, verses 14 to 16, where mental contentmen^ equilibrium, silence, self-
control a nd purity of nature are proclaimed as composite parts of Mental Tapas.

1931] symbology of Persian carving 31

Good Word.

Next we come to the lower wing of the Farohar of Plate
No. 10. The second mighty achievement needed for evolution
is of the Good Word. Its components are (1) Truthful-
ness and (2) spoken prayers. If we travel upto our sister
Aryan religion, the Hindu, in the Bhagvad Gita, we are in-
formed that the true austerity or Tapas of the speech consists in
(1) Truthfulness, (2) speech causing no annoyance to the hearer,
pleasant and loving and (3) the practice of the study of and repe-
tition of the Holy Scriptures. Thus we see the Zoroastrian
and Hindu ideas are coincident.

Righteous Deeds.

To the right wing of Plate No. 10 we now turn our atten-
tion. This wing of the Farohar Is unfolded, when Good Deeds
are indulged in. Righteous conduct is needed as practical
prayers or religion. Living on the practical, worldly, or in
Zoroastrian phraseology, the " bony " plane, we cannot avoid
" bony " action not even for a moment. Then as action is
unavoidable, transcendental action is depicted in our holy
religion thus. It comprises (1) Self-sacrifice, (2) Pure exercise
of power, (3) Industry, (4) Victory, (5; Preaching1, (6) Achieve-
ment of Health and (7) Beauty, (8) Holy War, (9) Charity,
(10) Progress or Evolution.

Farohar reaches the Sun.

On the exercise of this wing being also accomplished
perfeotly, the Farohar wings his flight aloft to Khorshed Yezad
(the sun) and by His Grace and Guidance, the Highest Garo-
neman of Holiest Ahuramazda can gradually be scaled by
the dauntless, high-souled and untiring Evolving Farohar.

1 Thie might in a sense be included in Good Word.


the iran league quarterly


Comparison of Christian Virtues.

Just for the sake of comparison and clarification of
vision, we might notice the three theological virtues of
Christ (1) Faith, (2) Hope and (3) Charity and the four
cardinal virtues (1) Prudence, (2) Justice, (3) Fortitude and

(4) Temperance, and the seven gifts of the Ghost (1) Wisdom,
(2) Understanding, (3) Counsel, (4) Fortitude, (5) Knowledge,
(6) Piety, (7) The fear of the Lord ; and lastly the 12 fruits of
the Holy Ghost (1) Charity, (2) Joy, (3) Peace, (4) Patience,

(5) Benignity, (6) Goodness, (7) Longevity, (8) Mildness,
(9) Faith, (10) Modesty, (11) Coutiuency and (12) Chastity.
It will be evident that the Zoroastrian virtue are more logical
basic and complete.


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1931] symbology of persian oa eying 33

Evolution Summarised.

Turn we now to Plate No. 11. It is a succicnt summary of
evolution though not found in Persian sculpture or painting. At
the bottom is the sub-lunar world wherein the human soul is
born with head downwards in the mother's womb, typified by

Plate No. 11

the inverted triangle. The process of unfoldment of the soul
is exhibited there. The upturned triangle is the symbol of
fire. All the temples of all the great religions are shown—the
Zoroastrian, Hindu, Christian, Moslem and Buddhist. It will
be seen that they all are modelled on the Fire or the triangle.


the iran league quarterly


tapering upwards. Thus the basic symbology is of Fire, the
First of all Gods, according to the Hindu Shastras. It will
now appear plain, why Fire is held in the deepest reverence
by Zoroastrians, and why no ritual of theirs is performed
without the presence and testimony of Fire. Three-fourths of
the Vedic ritual consists also in the worship of Fire, as the
Lord's holiest symbol, nearest man's hands, the other two
rather comparatively distant means of salvation being the
Holy Sun and the Holy Moon.

When worship in any of the holy places or churches is
accomplished in exact compliance with the commandments
of the Prophet of each man or woman's religion by birth1, what-
ever it be, and the Farohar^ has as in Plate No. 10 indicated, cul-
tivated the virtues mentioned, the Farohar expands conscious-
ness and wings aloft to the sun, provided he is guided cor-
rectly in the Path of Meditation by a Guru who has trodden
that Path. The consciousness of the Farohar unites by the
process, in a flash, with that of the Holy Sun and there the
Farohar secures the Spiritual Guide. For this process, we
shall submit some chapters and verses later on from the
Avesta. This Guide trains the Farohar to develop so far, as
to get into touch with the Yazads and Ameshaspends, the
Angels and Archangels near the Mercy Seat of Supreme
Ahuramazda. The evolution in the higher planes is never a
matter of description, discussion or disclosure to the outside,
uninitiated world, as Lord Christ has said truly of these
pearls of inward knowledge " Throw not pearls befors swine ".
Whether to-day, to-morrow or after hundreds, thousands or
millions of years of waiting, high or low, the human Farohar
is bound to rise to the full stature of Divinity by purification
of "Ashoi ", according to the definite and reliable promise of
Lord Zarathushtra.

1 " Know ye not brethren that the Lord of All makes no mistake in His unerring
wisdom, in assigning a religion to each human being, most suited to his evolution
hitherto and giving him a birth in a family practising that religion 1" 2 Comparo
the scientific aspect hidden in it, putting near it a modern aeroplane.

1§31] symbology of persian carving 35

Plate No. 12 reveals some of the inner and spiritual
truths, well worth a study. "God is light and in Him is no dark-
ness at all ". On a square base is an upward directed flame.
The square vessel represents the massive substantial or ' bony'

(4) Teviahi) wherein burns the flame of the Higher Trinity
(of Urvan, Baodhang and Fravashi) the Soul, Budhi and
Spirit. Above the square must ever be a layer of " ashes "
of the burnt offerings, ere the flame can burn. Without these


the iran league quarterly


ashes, the flame would consume the square vessel itself. Such
ashes alone can bear the heat and warmth of the Fire that
crowns the vessel. The ashes of humility formed of the con-
stant sacrifices of scented sandal wood and frankincense typify-
ing Holy thoughts, words and deeds—without which the fire
could not subsist,—are a symbol also of unworldliness, other-
worldliness, renunciation of the Lower, in favour of the Higher.
The word Righteousness implies a complete renunciation,
Sanyas or Negation of all evil thought, word and deed, without
exception or compromise. The sacred Fires of the Zoroastrians
are symbols of the unattached. Fire accepts all that is sacri-
ficed into it. Fire stands alone on the holy altar and is not used
for any earthly purpose. Renunciation has been misconstrued
into an abandonment of action. The highest authorities have
deemed the renunciation not of action but of the fruits of action,
as true Renunciation. Says Lord Srikrishna " The creatures
with bodies cannot wholly dispense with 'actions' and hence
the renouncer of selfish action or fruits of action is the true
Renouncer, Sanyasi or Tyagi " (Bhagvad Grita, XVIII-11). It is
impossible for man to renounce action. Every sense of his, works
throughout the day; several of these also work at night. The
mind works more quickly and powerfully than the five senses of
man. The work of the mind rules the world. Thus doing one's
Dharma or duty prescribed by the highest scriptures and
ideals of the religion and race one is born into, without hoping
or asking for any reward, return or recompense, is true renun-
ciation. Virtue for the sake of virtue, duty for1 its own sake
and righteousness for the sake of righteousness- and for no
other motive, gain or reward is the highest Ideal of Humanity
taught by the G-reat Prophets, Masters of Wisdom, Avatars
of the Lord or His beloved saints. The ashes of sacrificial fire

1 Hyat ashai Vahishtai ashem.



ph. no 42483


symb0l0gy op persian carving


are the fittest symbols of renunciation. On this symbol of
renunciation, the ashes, the Fire of the temple is installed
and shines and burns day and night and is kept apart
from all utilitarian taint whatever. These ashes are im-
printed on the forehead by the Devotee in acknowledgment of
this necessity of renunciation as well as of humility and
these holy ashes have further the power to destroy or restrain
the evil inclinations of his mind. Fire on the ashes is the first
symbol of pure light, living for the sake of furnishing an Image
of Truth, upholding itself for its own sake, without any earthly
ase to grind or object to achieve or motive to fulfil. It is a
true symbol of the Spirit in numerous senses. It speaks
without words to its friend the Fire of Spirit within the man,
that shines but burns not.1 The Zoroastrian's Holy of
Holies is fitly made on earth of the combined fires of all
human hearths, from the scavenger's to the priest's and king's
and it includes the fire of lightning from the skies. Every one
of the fire3 is purified nine times before being utilised thus. All
fires reunite in one, at once and this is the manifestation of
the consummation of purest love, rising from love of family,
friends, community, country, enemy, mankind, and all living
creation unto love of God. And so do all Spirits merge in
one Universal Lord- of light. They appear distinct even
like sparks of one fire, so long only as you keep the materials
thereof distinct. All materials thrown into fire assume
only one form, that of fire. Till then there is the unavoidable
juxtaposition of the black fuel and the bright light, the two
opposing twins, shadow beneath the lamp, that reveals the
indispensability of Matter and the sacrifice of Matter for the
appreciation of the power, knowledge, love, and all-perme-
ability of the Spirit. Again that the highest manifestation of
the beauty of fire requires the purging and burning away of the
lower self, is a mighty truth that Fire teaches us. Fire is thus
the manifestation of the Triumph of the Spirit over Matter.

(To be continued.)

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Bhopal Karachi Mangalore Ranchi Vizagapatam


Gband Achievements op the Early Persians

Under the auspices of the Iran League and the Irani
Zarthoshti Arijuman, Dr. Zal Khurshedji Pavri, M.A., Ph.D.,
gave an interesting lecture on " New Iran" last Wednesday
evening at K. R, Cama Oriental Institute. Our Editor, Mr.
Sohrab Jamshedji Bulsara, M.A., was in the chair.

Before inviting the lecturer to deliver his discourse the
chairman observed that the lecturer was too well-known to
them all to need any introduction, still he was glad to have to
say that Dr. Pavri had commenced his good work quite early
as he had begun to serve Iranian science even before he com-
pleted his academic career ; and since then he had read or
written so much on the subject that he was already a well-
known figure amidst all the orientalists of the world. He had
not confined his researches to religion and ethics only : he was
likewise paying equal attention to history. They had already
heard recently his lectures on the Parthians and the Kurds,
and that evening he was going to tell them something interes-
ting about " New Iran".

" We have generally been knowing old Iran", the chairman
continued, " as far as the Shah Nama, or sometimes the other
Namas, are able to tell us about it. But some of the most
glorious pages of early Iranian history are written elsewhere,
and these we all have not cared to read with sufficient zeal or
clearness of vision. I remember some Parsi undergraduates
at college being astonished when they were told that Mithri-
dates or Meherdates the Great of Pontus was a Persian, or that
the great commander Narses or Nairyosang who conquered
and ruled over Italy and Spain for the Roman state was also a
Persian. A little careful reading similarly would tell us that
other Persian generals Artabanus, Artasiris and Prince


the iran league quarterly


Kobades had likewise conquered and acquired Carthage, Sicily
and other places for the same state, that at a later stage
a noble Persian Hormizdas had attained the high and holy
office of the Pope, and that a good, brilliant and near scion
of Yezdagird Sheheriar had been offered the imperial crown
of the Eoman world which a high sense of fidelity and loyalty
led him to decline accepting.

" This was not probably the limit of Persian energy and
Persian enterprise : besides the grand achievements of the
Persians of those days for the glory of their own race and the
dignity of their own power, they spared valiant and brainy
men to go out and succour other nations of the world for the
sake of service and for giving action to overflowing energy
and enterprise.

Stirring Deeds of Post-Sasanian Persians

" This fact therefore should well be borne in mind by
people who seem to think that Persia had practically become
defunct since the Arab conquest. Nothing could be farther
from the truth : Persians became active in the affairs of the
Islamic world almost immediately they entered it. They took
active and valued part in the numerous events that followed
the death of Caliph Omar, and set themselves so diligently to win
back their independence and their ancient preeminence in the
world that, within a hundred years from the conquest, dynas-
ties of pure Persian descent as the Saffarids, the Samanids, the
Ziyarids and the Buwayhids, drove the Arabs out of all Persia
and even took Bagdad, the capital of the Caliphs, under their
supreme and guiding control. It was indeed they who fostered
and achieved the Abbasid revolution, and by that great feat
pushed their supremacy over the Arabs even in the Islamic
state. And indeed it was owing to the wise and glorious admi-
nistration by the Persians that the Caliphs Al-Harun and
Al-Mamun got so much famed in the world.


persia, past and present

â– 41

"About the same time, the Carmathians trod down all
Arabia and all Syria under their Persian leaders, the Al-Jan-
nabis ; and history records the curious fact that it was really a
Persian genius, Abu M. ' Ubaydu'llah, who conquered about
that time north Africa and laid the foundation of the far-famed
Fatamid Caliphate of Egypt. The great and noble Saladin,
who repelled the tremendous forces of united European chivalry
by his supreme valour and wisdom, too, was a Kurdish Persian ;
and the Persians entered far away Spain alongside the Moors
and settled in Andalusia. These seem to be Persians of the
bluest blood, for they came from the Shiraz province; and in
memory of their dear old town established Xeres in the south
of Spain. It is worth while noting what is really interesting
that in their new home too they continued the manufacture
of the national drink of the Shiraz wine which in its
rebirth has acquired world-wide reputation and been celebrated
as sherry wine.

"These Persian settlers in Andalusia did not rest content
with the distance of land they had reached, and went out to the
farthest end of the world in search of new activity and new
enterprise. They thus founded the state of Chile in South
America, and made it the best and the most humanely govern-
ed of the states of all Latin America.

" The enterprise of the Persians at home got in the mean-
time a great set-back when the terrible avalanches of Turanian
invasions rolled over them and laid their homes and their insti-
tutions in ruins. But no power in the world could crush for
ever the spirit and genius of this great people. They again rose
and prospered. Even within the last two centuries the nation
showed such power under the guiding genius of the good Shah
Mahmud Kaiani, the great Nadir Shah and the noble
Karimkhan the Zend, that both Russia and Turkey quailed
before that power. But just when Iran seemed established as a
first class power in the world, Aga Mahmudshah Kajar was
brought out by the fates to crush it again, and he disgraced all


the iran league quarterly


humanity by those monstrous acts which led him to destroy the
purest and most valued blood of all Iran,

The New Iran

" The New Iran however is up again, and is startling the
world by its wonderful achievements. I would not therefore
now come between you and the learned lecturer, in hearing
his account of what it has been doing during these years ; and
so I request him to deliver his interesting discourse to us."

Dr. Pavri in delivering his lecture said :

When the operations of the last war came to an end in
the Fall of 1918, there was probably none of the belligerents
to whom the conclusion of hostilities was more welcome than
Persia, a nominally neutral country.

Persia was officially a neutral during the war ; it had no
reason to side with either parties since the Russians and the
Turks were both disliked for their aggressions, but practically
it became the " Belgium of Asia" with the difference that
unlike Belgium, Persia could not defend herself.

The Russian Revolution although it greatly harmed
Persian commerce was of some advantage to the Persian
Government, since the new government of Russia refused to
recognise the Anglo-Russian Agreement of 1907 and permitted



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persia, past and present

â– 43

the debt owed by Persia to Russia to be extinguished. The
conclusion of the Turkish armistice led to the withdrawal
of Turkish troops from Persia.

When, on August 9th, 1919 an " Agreement between
His Brittanic Majesty's Government and the Persian Govern-
ment " was signed at Teheran, the anticipations of possible
English action in regard to Persia seemed to be justified.

The controversy about the Anglo-Persian agreement
which began at once did not end till 1925. From the British
point of view it was a great unselfish attempt to set Persia on
her feet while from the Persian point of view it meant a "prac-
tical British protectorate." In the United States it ruflled the
august calm of the Senate where it was attacked and defended.
The State Department officially disapproved and its disap-
proval was published by the American Legation at Teheran;
nothing was obtained by correspondence with Great Britain
except a note from Lord Curzon justifying the agreement.
The charge that it should have been submitted to the League
of Nations was repelled on the ground that negotiations had
been begun before the League of Nations existed even on
official paper. Lord Curzon declared that its aim was not to set
up a protectorate but to give Persia " expert assistance and finan-
cial aid which would enable her to carve out her own fortune
as an independent and still living country"; he also said that
the peace of Asia would be held by a block of territory from
Burma to Mesopotamia in which peace would be kept. Irrita-
tion was caused in France by this agreement although the
Persian Foreign Minister expressed a pious hope that good rela-
tions would be maintained.

Happy Auguries of a New Eba

The Cossack division which had come down from its grea-
test strength of 11,000 to about 8,000 had had no great suc-
cess in operations against the Russians. However, it occupied
Teheran on February 21, 1921, under Riza Khan and brought a
journalist, Zia-ud-Din to power; he soon resigned and was suc-|


The iran league quarterly


ceeded first by Riza Khan and then by a cabinet of Kawam-
us-Saltana in which Riza Khan was Minister of War. The
plan of the new government was to develop Persia without
either British or Russian influence. Its first desire, therefore,
was for the abrogation or rather the rejection by the Majlis of
the Anglo-Persian agreement and the withdrawal of British
troops, and its second aim was to secure the removal of the
Russian troops from Gilan. It succeeded in having the Bri-
tish troops leave the country, the South Persia Rifles were dis-
banded and the Majlis when it met, for the first time since
1916, rejected the Anglo-Persian agreement. In the summer
of the same year Lord Curzon declared that that agreement
could never be resuscitated. Negotiations with Russia were
continued and in February a treaty was concluded, towards
the end of the same year the Russians evacuated Enzeli and
since then Persia has maintained diplomatic relations through
an Ambassador at Moscow.

During the past five years far-reaching advances have
been made by the Persian Government in the domain of edu-
cation. Among the most important of such developments have

(1) The establishment of several hundred new schools
in towns and villages, and among the tribesmen ;

(2) The raising of the level of the secondary schools by
adoption of a new curriculum; the publication of model text-
books for the elementary and secondary schools ; the engage-
ment of adequately trained native teachers ; the recruitment of
foreign professors from France and Germany; the construc-
tion of laboratories; the institution of examinations for the
Baccalaureate, and a marked increase in the number of school
buildings, completed or under construction. Resulting from
these changes, graduates from the secondary schools of Persia
are now admitted to European universities without examina-
tion, on the same basis as are from other like educational in-
stitutions in France, Germany and England.


persia, past and present

â– 45

Persia is at the beginning of a new era under the leader-
ship of His Majesty Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the statesman-
ship of His Highness Teymourtash, Minister of Court, and
under the present regime there is destined to become increa-
singly evident a development in civilisation and culture which
will restore to Persia the fame and renown of her past glories.

Its Bright and Speedy Work

At the close of the lecture the chairman Mr. Bulsara obser-
ved : " We all have been very thankful to Dr. Zal Pavri for the
very interesting discourse he has given us to-night. The great
pains he has taken over collecting such valuable statistics and
notes are worthy of praise. We have seen now how circum-
stances placed Iran as recently as only a little over a decade
ago, into a state of coma, when its whole governing machinery
was disorganised, the central authority almost ruined, and the
imperial treasury left empty. With a state of things as would
damp any other people's initiative and enterprise, the great
men of the land have got themselves to work and to set things
in order and to stand the country again on her feet. The task
has been huge and herculean, and we have seen how it is
grappled with equal magnitude of effort, energy and wisdom.
The results apparently have to show themselves better, but
what has been attempted and what has been achieved in such
a record short time, are rare and marvellous in the history of

" Notwithstanding our wonted boasting for enterprise and
practical wisdom, we have spent the last many years in merely
criticising our faulty educational system, and have attempted
and achieved no real reform. Whereas the wise measures
adopted by the great men in power in Persia show how they all
point to national utility and benefit; and their proper fruit is
sure to come in good time.

" Still indeed the reputation for practical wisdom, and
power for nation building and public benefaction in the Parsis

4b the iran league quarterly [Od.

of India, has been so great that men in the ancient home think
we can do wonders and a real great service if we can make up
our minds to help our anoient motherland; and so in a recent
communication to the Iran League, the celebrated Persian
Minister, H. H. Taimur Tash, writes: ' One of the strong-
est solicitudes showed by H.I.M. towards the Parsis is that the
Parsis should now manifest their sympathy in some concrete
shape towards Iran, which is their motherland as well as the
cradle of Zarathushtra. His Imperial Majesty's prayers are
that the Parsis should be instrumental in bringing about the
speedy regeneration of the country.'

" Notwithstanding their failure in their own case, Parsi
genius and Parsi vim can indeed achieve wonders if seriously
set to work. We must not therefore allow ourselves to be mis-
guided or discouraged by any hostile oriticism, but let those of
us who can, do our mite in lending a helping hand in the dear
old land's early regeneration. And whoever may do so will do
well to study first with care such things as Dr. Pavri's valuable
statistics and notes."

Thanks to the chair and garlanding of the lecturer and
the chairman terminated the interesting function.


By Prof. Rezwi, m.a.

An interesting study of the Zoroastrian religion in the light
of Biblical and Quranic teachings. Highly spoken of by eminent
scholars of India and Europe. To be had of the Manager,
The Moslem Chronicle, 6, Hastings Street, Calcutta, and the
Iran League, at Kamar Bldg., Cawasji Patel Str., Fort, Bombay.
Price Rs. 3 (Board), Ra. 2-8 (Paper).


Wonderful Work of the Persians: Great and Varied
Reforms in the Country


One of the countries of Asia that has suffered most by
centuries of depradations and misrule is Persia. Persia had
been historically great, very flourishing and much more
populated. She therefore possesses as muoh potentiality for
normal recovery as for industrial and engineering developments.

Permanently freed from shackles of foreign powers, and
enlightened by education, travel and lessons of the great war,
Persians have by a stupendous effort brought about marvellous
changes in the country in record time. Powerful forces have
been set into motion and there is no going back. Briefly

The police and the army have been well organised.

The whole country brought under central authority.

Constitutional laws and uniform justice established.

Roads and communications opened everywhere.

Town municipalities and improvements started.

National and agricultural banks formed.

Concessions to foreign banks terminated.

Finances and revenue set in order.

Chambers of commerce and commercial reviews founded.

Foreign telegraph services in the country taken over.

Foreign subjects and interests brought under fixed laws.

Compulsory service, registration of person and property,
eto. enforced.

Ecclesiatic control removed.

Schools for boys and girls started everywhere and high""
standard of education and qualifications fixed.

Postal, telegraph, telephone and aerial services organised,

Pressing social laws taken in hand, etc. etc,


the iran league quarterly


Such achievements in a poor devastated country, seething
in lawlessness, corruption and religious fanaticism, are in the
opinion of impartial observers a record in history. Inspite of
this and the powerful world movement for re-organisation,
some people are reluctant to read the signs and prefer to
entertain doubts.

The Pabsis in India : the Difficulties of their Situation

After twelve hundred years of domicile in India, the
Parsis are still a distinctive minority. They have not been
completely assimilated into the Indian nation, and stand in
danger of being swamped or squeezed out by the overwhelming
national and economic forces. They are also over-concen-
trated in a very expensive city, so that the masses are neither
able to look after themselves or take to open fields. Millions
have hence to be invested to enable the poor and the unemploy-
ed to live an unhealthy precarious existence. I daresay, any
proportion of the Parsis who decide to identify their interests
with Persia today and to join hands with the Persians in the
coming regeneration could within a short time be completely
assimilated into the Persian nation.

England with all its wealth and power is groaning under
the dole system. She is making frantic efforts to depopulate
into other regions. Economists have recognised that emigra-
tion without simultaneous transfer of capital is impossible.

Now, with our own daily accumulating crores of charity
funds, the poverty and misery of the masses are inoreasing,
not mitigating. In it not the reason that unproductive living
is like a bottomless sink and a thirsty barren desert ? Let
us assume 500 unemployed family men. To feed say, 2000
persons at, at least Rs. 300 per annum would require Rs.

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parsis and regenerated iran


600,000 annu ally, which capitalised at 4 per cent gives an
investment of Rs. crores, unproductive. By productively
investing this sum in some of the working fields detailed herein,
it would be in teresting to find out how many more families
could earn independent, honest living under much healthier
and happier atmosphere.

Persia offers a Gbeat Field for Parsi Work
and Enterprise

But our wasted resources every year in all kinds of
sentimental institutions and unemployment doles, monies
wiped out in trade depressions, stocks and speculations, in
extravagances connected with city life, etc., amount to many
times more than the above figure, and when we consider our
unmarried youths and dwindling vitality we cannot but realise
that our community is heading for demoralisation and exhaus-
tion. Sheer economic forces will compel us to decentralise
rather sooner than later. The only hope is Persia.

By pursuing a resolute policy of enterprise in this our
ancient land, we may within the next 50 years be relieved
of our poverty canker; material and moral strength, and the
habit of simple living and hard work will then be restored to
the coming generations.

Doctors, lawyers, journalists and amateurs have had their
say. Questions have been muddled and pressing economic
and social issues, I submit, have been mixed up with religion,
history and sentimentality. It is now for industrialists,
agriculturists, engineers and financiers to take the field, study
the opportunities between themselves and act boldly. There
are lots of schemes, engineering, mining, manufacture, agricul-
tural, etc., worked out by experts for the Government and by
independent individuals of high standing in which the Parsis
could interest themselves :—

Teheran electrification, coal mines, hydro-electric, sugar
factory, cement factory, irrigation projects, railways and docks,
textile and other manufacturing industries, etc., etc., we may


the iran league quarterly


further include town water supplies, building construction,
cotton and tea plantations and many more. Some of these
propositions require immediate attention, some careful study
and time. There is no reason, however, why sensible decisive
start should not be made now, so as to secure for ourselves
positions of influence, trust and enduring interest.

We are through with talking; we have to act now, and
God helps those who help themselves.


Literature Relating to Persia.

The following books etc. are available for sale at the office of
the Iran League to its members at a reduced price:—

Rs. a.

The Gathas, by Aga Poure-Davoud with notes in

English by Mr. D. J. Irani ...... cloth bound 3 8

paper bound 2 8

The Yashts, Vol. I, by Aga Poure-Davoud ............6 8

Avestana Javahiro, by Mr. F. K. Dadachanji,

Vol. I ....................................3 0

„ II ................:• 3 4

Parsis: A People of the Book, by Prof. Rezwi,

paper bound ... ... ••• ••• 2 8

card bound ........................3 0

Iran-Iraq Guide (in Gujarati), by Mr. K. A. Fitter 1 4

Armaghan Nawruz ..............................0 8

Circle of Perfection (a chart)......... •■• 0 2

Biography of the first Parsi Missionary Mr.
Maneckji L. Hataria, by Messrs. G. K. N. and

K. A. F......................................0 6

Persia and Parsis, by Mr. G. K. N. ................1 0

Khiale Pahlavi Iran, by Ervad A. Pavri............0 3

P ersian Pictorial Post cards (24) ..................1 8

„ Album (by Messrs. Fitter and Chaina) ... 2 4
Iran League Quarterly (supplied to members at a

nominal price,minimum Rs. 2) ... ••• 2 0

Coloured picture of Darius the Great, 4x3" size .. 0 (3

[Postage extra.]

Karnar Bldg., Cowasji Patel Street,
Fort, Bombay.

Rangoon, the Burmese capital, has an old flourishing Parsi population. Some of its members plajr
a leading role in the city's affairs. Dr. K. R. Dalai had long been its Health Officer, and recently
retired after a distinguished and appreciated service. Among the honours paid to him at the time was
the above reception held by his Parsi friends and admirers.

J J j J j)j £ o^j O^-jk jl ^J. ^^ ^ cSk. bj^J

^Jj A.AA ji* JVJ . j\ . <~S~ C—l j j^ ^Uj^ l^-l jl

The vernacular of the Parsis in India is
•Gujarati; but they speak it in their own way.
The Gujarati Hindus have been resenting this,
but to no avail. A great Parsi poet however
has long since been ravishing the hearts of
delighted Hindus with beautiful Gujarati
verses, many of which have entered their
cycle of popular and household songs, and
have made the name of the poet dearer to
them than ever. And these have handsomely
honoured him at a number of recent functions
for celebrating the jubilee of his birthday.
The group shows a part of the gathering at
•one of them in which the poet, Mr. Ardeshir
Khabardar, is seen between Dr. Sir Jivanji
Modi and ex-Judge Krishnalal Jhaveri.


A Discussion in the House of Lords

Lord Lamington's sympathies for Persia have always
been profound and sincere. In June last he raised certain
queries in the House of Lords relating to affairs in Persia, and
the state of Britain's present interests in this land. A note of
anxious concern in respect of these last ran through them.
Certain matters seemed to touch En glish interests more than
those of others, and information was sought whether the Bri-
tish Government were doing all that was necessary for retain-
ing Persia's sympathies and cooperation in all mutual relations-
The replies Lord Parmoor gave were clear and sound and
Pulsating with sympathies for Persia's interests and her
present big efforts. But his lordship did not appear satisfied
that the measures Persia had been taking in her interests
were sound.

The Persian Position

Hon. Foroughi, the able Persian minister, has since
sent a rejoinder to this, and reciprocating the sympathies of the
British Government, has shown how the Persian Government
have taken care in their recent measures that while these
helped her in tiding over her present difficulties they did not
become unfair or hard on any other people in political and
trading relations with them, and that if British interests met
them in the spirit of co-operation they would find the Persian
measures in no way impeding them.

British and Soviet Interests in Persia

The interests of the British and the Soviet Governments in
Persia are so conflicting that we need not explain how any
apparent preponderance of influence of either in Persia rouses

the iran league quarterly [Oci.

the suspicion of the other. We have been watching very close-
ly the plans and the operations of those great men who are at
the helm of affairs in Persia, and we see that the general
Persian temperament to be fair and friendly with all is gui-
ding them even in this great work of statecraft, and they have
been scrupulously avoiding doing anything likely to create
ill-will between the country's great neighbours. It is however
clear that such even attitude may appear to any one of these
two as not sufficiently fair to themselves; but as the great
Persian minister points out, if these will place themselves in
Persia's position they will realise the difficulty of her situation
and the great and honest endeavour she has been making to
solve them with wisdom and fairness to all.

The Gulf-Caspian Railway : Its Vast Importance to •
Russian Commercial Intebhsts

It is an open secret, for instance, that the Persian rail-
way connecting the Caspian Sea with the Persian Gulf is
considered by some men as likely to prove beneficial to
Russian interest and adverse to British trade. This may
probably be the first and the apparent result; but Iran's minis-
ters have wisely seen that while this great enterprise will
benefit Iran and her trading interests by all possible means,
it will not indeed prove so adverse to British trade as it may
at first sight appear: for, if the British trading community
changed their methods and fell in with the altered state of
things, their traditional business instincts should guide them
to see the ways and means of taking a goodly share in the
vask outward and inward Soviet trade which is likely to flow
across this new and great avenue of international commerce.
And hence it is that the Persian statesmen are unshaken in
their belief in the soundness of the enterprise and pursue and
push it against all opposition and the many and great adverse
circumstances. We remain unshaken in our belief that the
result will prove that the Persians are acting wisely and rightly
in this case.

1931] british and soviet interests in persia 53

Soviet Interests in the Gulf more Economic than Political

We hope the British statesmen realise that the Soviet's
interest in the Persian Gulf is more economic than political now.
An attitude of fairness to that interest will result in the
mutual good of all concerned. It will never be a wise policy to
keep that great power and the great community of nations over
which it rules, blocked up in a state of aloofness. Let it be
admitted now into free commerce with the rest of the world,
and let it find an easy and convenient outlet for doing so.
No other avenue in the world offers her such easy and conve-
nient outlet as Persia promises to provide by constructing
her great state railways. Russia will be made more happy
and more contented that way; and dealings with happy and
contented Russia ought to prove advantageous and beneficial
to the whole world and to Britain the most of all. That
discussion in the House of Lords however was both in-
teresting and sympathetic towards Persia's interests in its
tone. We are thankful for that outflow of kindly feelings
towards Persia. A clear and authentic account of that
discussion has appeared in the Times of Jane 26th last, and
we are again indebted to its valued columns for quoting it
below :—


The Soviet's Aggressive Trade Policy in Persia
Lord Lamington asked for the latest information as
to our relations with Persia, also as to what steps had been
taken to protect British commercial interests in connexion
with exchange control and with the recent establishment by
the Persian Government of a trade monopoly, and as to the
present condition of Persian affairs. He moved for papers.
The noble lord recalled the fact that the Russian Govern-
ment had set up large organizations in Northern and Central



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1931] british and soviet interests in persia 55

Persia. They had established a Russian bank with various
branches. But this year the trade agreement between Russia
and Persia expired, and Persia told the Soviet Government
that she intended to exclude all Russian trade organizations
from Persia. Russia retorted to this that by the Treaty of
1921 Persia was not able to do this, though, on her side,
Russia could quite properly exclude from Russia Persian
merchants. All this time Russia had been dumping her goods
to the greatest extent possible. He believed it was true to
say that the Persian match industry had been practically
destroyed. As a last resort against these measures taken
against Persian interests, on February 25 of this year the
Persian Parliament passed a Bill to give the Persian Govern-
ment a monopoly of all foreign trade, so that it could compel
Russia at the frontier to take Persian goods on equal terms
with Russian exports. This measure had had a very serious
effect on all foreign trade, particularly on our trade with
Per sia.

The Interests of other Nations in Progressive Persia

We had been most conciliatory in all our efforts to win
back Persian friendship and to develop a good understanding.
He understood that we had just conclud ed a treaty of com-
merce, and we had also done as much as we could in the way
of friendly concessions. There were other questions of which
he had given Lord Parmoor private notice, including the
matter of the abolition of capitulations. He had also read in
The Times not long ago about the question of Turkey making
a road from the Black Sea to Trebizond into North-West
Persia, so as to avoid going through Soviet Russia. Perhaps
the noble lord could say something about that. As to aviation,
it was very noticeable that the Jankers German Company had
for some years been operating in Persia, to the great advan-
tage of that country. From 1927 to 1929 they carried about
10,000 passengers without any serious accident. In fact,
German influence in Northern Persia had become very con-


the iran league quarterly


siderable. He believed they staffed, to a very large extent, the
National Bank, and the Chief Financial Adviser of Persia at
present was a German. The French, also, were very busy in
framing educational arrangements in Persia, and they operated
a great wireless station in that country. In fact, our former
interests in Northern Persia seemed to be considerably lessen-
ed as compared with those of other countries. He did not
com plain of the action of his Majesty's Government; there
might be various causes which had led to this rather humilia-
ting position. Very great improvements had been made in
Persia. There was now no brigandage, and about 6,000 miles
of roads could be traversed with reasonable comfort. The
condition of the people had largely improved. All this had
been accomplished very largely through the influence of the
Shah, who had been the leading spirit in the Persian exhibition
which had so delighted Western civilization, and at which, for
the first time, some of the finest examples of Persian art were
shown in London. He hoped that Lord Parmoor would be
able to say that our present relations with Persia were

Lord Parmoor, in reply, said that be was not aware
that there were any papers tfcat could be laid, but inquiries
would be made, and if there were any papers that could
be laid they should be laid. So far as he knew our rela-
tions with Persia were of a friendly kind, and his Majesty's
Government were desirous of doing all they could to ensure
that Persia should be prosperous and peaceful under a
strong and independent Government. Negotiations for a
general treaty and a commercial treaty between the two

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Britain's Friendly Attitude

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1931] british and soviet interests in persia 57

countries had been proceeding for a considerable time
through his Majesty's Minister at Teheran. Agreement had
been reached on a number of points, but certain difficulties
were still outstanding. His Majesty's Government were
confident, however, that, if the Persian Government so desired,
the negotiations could without difficulty be brought to an
early and successful conclusion. Unfortunately, it had not
been possible of late to make further progress in these nego-
tiations, though his Majesty's Government were not without
hope that the Persian Government would in time come to
realize that a settlement of outstanding questions was in the
mutual interest of both countries.

The Exchange Situation and Persian Measures
for Meeting It

Referring to the principal measures of exchange control
and trade monopoly, Lord Parmoor said the exchange control
of February 24, 1930, set up a commission for fixing the rate
of exchange and placed stringent restrictions on dealings in
foreign exchange. That was not favourable to trade between
this country and Persia. The so-called foreign trade monopoly
laws of February 25 and March 11, 1931, were really in the
nature of import restriction measures. Under these laws the
import of certain luxuries and articles competing with local
products had been prohibited and that of others seriously cur-
tailed. Such imports as were admitted within the limits
of fixed quantities were only admitted against a guaran-
tee to export Persian produce of an equivalent value. These
restrictions undoubtedly placed foreign traders in Persia in a
position of great difficulty. The restrictions imposed last year
on exchange transactions prevented foreign traders in Persia
in most cases from transmitting any money out of Persia.
Representations had accordingly been addressed to the Persian
Government by our Minister at Teheran on the general ques-
tion of these exchange regulations and their adverse effect on
trade, and further representations had been repeatedly made


the iran league quarterly


on behalf of individual British firms whose interests had been
affected by the difficulty of transmitting to this country the
proceeds of their sales in Persia.

Persia's Recent Monopoly Laws, and Her Attitude
towards Soviet Activities

The further legislation passed in February and March of
this year—the so-called monopoly laws—had brought all
foreign trade to a standstill, he believed both import and export.
As soon as his Majesty's Government learned of the intention
of the Persian Government to introduce such legislation our
representative at Teheran was instructed to inform the Persian
Government of the apprehension with which, his Majesty's
Government viewed such a proposal, and of their desire to be
reassured as to the effect on British trade. The reply of the
Persian Government was that their decision to adopt this
policy had been taken on account of the acute economic crisis
prevailing in that country. Whether the present very elabo-
rate restrictions, which were bound to result in great disloca-
tion of normal trade relations, could properly be reconciled
with Persia's treaty obligations was a question which was still
under the consideration of H.M. Government, who did not
desire to do anything which would seriously embarrass the
Persian Government in meeting their difficulties, provided that
the restrictions imposed on British trade did not last longer
than the emergency which they were designed to meet, and
provided that in practice British trade was not handicapped in
competition with the trade of other countries.

In regard to Soviet activities, reports reached H.M.
Government to the effect that the Soviet Government some
years ago were exploring the possibility of arranging for some
kind of combination with Asiatic Moslem States. While there
was no reason to believe that such a project was welcome to
the Persian Government, H.M. Government were clearly not


PH. NO 42403


1931] british and soviet interests in persia 59

in a position to state what precisely was the attitude adopted
towards it by the various Governments concerned. So far as
they knew, it was not favourably entertained by Persia.

Sound Progress in Persia. Britain's Kind Appreciation
of Persia's Great Efforts

Since the abolition of the capitulations on May 10, 1928,
all foreign nationals in Persia had been subject to the jurisdic-
tion of the Persian Courts. Few, if any, serious complaints from
British subjects of injustice had been brought to notice, which
tended to show that the Persian authorities were fully alive to
their responsibilities and were endeavouring, to the best of their
ability, to establish an efficient and adequate judicial system.
In matters of taxation British subjects received the same
treatment as Persian nationals. Regarding the agreement
with Imperial Airways, the Persian Government had recently
intimated a new route across Central Persia to be used for
international aviation between Iraq and India, and Imperial
Airways had been permitted to survey that proposal. No pay-
ment was due to his Majesty's Government from the Persian
Government in connexion with the South Persian Rifles.
He was informed that the Turkish Government had decided
to repair the old road from Trebizond to the Persian frontier.
The work was to be completed in two years, and when the
road was open to motor traffic North-West Persia would have
a new and important means of communication with the West,
which should greatly facilitate trade. In conclusion, he
would remind their lordships that it was the great desire of the
Government to be on a friendly footing with the Persian Govern-
ment in order that, together and to their mutual advantage,
they might do what was necessary for all forms of prosperity
so far as Persia was concerned. (Hear, hear.)

Earl Peel said that, on the general question, our
attitude towards Persia was extremely simple and plain. It
was to our interests and the interests of India that there should


the iran league quarterly


be an ind ependent Persia able to negotiate on free and equal
terms with all her neighbours. They could only wish that
that friendly attitude were maintained by the other neighbours
of Persia.

Viscount Mersey suggested that a dispatch should be
called for from his Majesty's Minister at Teheran, which would
give information both to their lordships and the general trading

Lord Parmoor said that he would certainly convey the
suggestion to the Foreign Office, and also make inquiries
as to whether any papers on commercial relations could be

The motion for papers was withdrawn.

For business in Persia, consult:—


(FOUNDED 1901 )

importers and exporters,





Bunder Abbas London

I Tele : " DQRABJEE "

In all parts of Persia,

Minab Yezd.


Bentley's A.B.O. 6th Edition^



The Times has been writing sound articles on Persian
affairs, and we have often quoted some of them for the benefit
of those readers whom that paper does not reach. In its
issue of 8th April last, a well-informed writer discussed the
interesting subject of " Influences in Persia"; and it was only
the great pressure on our columns that compelled us to hold
over noticing it till now. It is so full of interesting and refresh-
ing matter and reliable information about the state of things in
Persia, that we shall be quoting the whole of it below.

An Arresting Topic : Persia's Interests in the Gulp
and Her Sovereign Claims to it
But there is one thing in it which arrests our special
attention. The interests of the Shah's Government in the Gulf
are natural and far-reaching. Persia's sovereign supremacy
over it is of the greatest importance to the development
of her future schemes and her further progress. There are
numerous other interests in the Gulf; but the only real
rival to Persia's sovereign claim to it is Great Britain. An
association of nearly a hundred and fifty years and a long and
well-studied plan of holding control of it, have led to establish-
ing a very firm grip of Britain over it. Britain even claims
the responsibility of policing the Gulf, and that important func-
tion is placed under the control of the British Resident at
Bushire. Even recently a fully equipped naval depot is open-
ed in the Persian island of Henjam. Naturally Persia feels that
all this is an infringement of her sovereign rights.

Britain's Main Interests in the Gulf
To be unequivocal, Britain has four principal interests in
the Gulf:—

(1) Control of the pearl fisheries around the Bahrein

62 the Ie AN league quarterly [Oct.

(2) Safeguarding of the British vested interests in the
Anglo-Persian Oil Company;

(3) Control of the Gulf Trade ; and

(4) Holding in check all Russian projects to get an out-
let in the Gulf.


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Maneckji C. Petit, Esq.
and many others. Copies of testimonials on application to:

Director : BYRAM M. IRANI.


influences in persia


As late as the days of Karim Khan the Zend, the Persian
power was supreme in the Gulf, because Basra and its pro-
vince too were in Persia's hands then. But the confusion that
followed that great ruler's death led to a flagging of that power,
and offered others the opportunities to grasp it. Persia thinks
that that advantage taken when she was sick and weak was not
fair, and that her natural and ancient sovereign rights should
be respected and restored to her now. She has been in the
earnest over her claims in this respect, because, besides crea-
ting a new and great port at Bunder Shahpur, she has also com-
menced building a little navy and is sending a number of her
youth to Italy for being trained up as naval officers. In doing
this she does not of course intend posing as a rival to Britain;
she simply wishes to show to the world that she is prepared
to take over the important function of policing the Gulf, and
is employing the proper means for doing it with efficient and
real authority.

The Soviet Interests in the Gulf : How far These
mat be Entertained

We have elsewhere discussed in this number the important
issues following on the Soviet getting a trading and commer-
cial outlet in the Gulf. We feel little doubt that even the
steady British political thinkers will agree with the main views
expressed in that place. If Persia is strong and Russia res-
pects her sovereign rights, there is little likelihood of that
outlet offering the Soviet the opportunity to create any serious
political danger to British interests; rather the meeting of
Soviet and British interests in the Gulf, and a mutually confi-
ding commercial intercourse between these two great powers
are likely to lead to a friendship that has never before appear-
ed possible. Indeed even if some faint danger were to arise
from that source, Britain could easily meet it without infrin-
ging Persia's sovereign rights and her sovereign supremacy in
the Gulf.


the iran league quarterly


It need hardly be added that a powerful Persia ruling in
her own waters, would rather help in ensuring such a friendly
intercourse between these nations.

The other British interests in the Grulf can also be safeguar-
ded by a trusting exchange of views with Persia for doing so.
The great sympathy recent British politicians have been show-
ing towards Persia's aspirations and her rightful claims, will,
we hope, help in a solution of all such difficulties and the resti-
tution of Persia's proper rights.

We now give below this interesting article in the Times:—

The traveller who after a long absence revisits Persia
cannot but be struck by the changes and ameliorations that
have taken place in every aspect of the country. The fall of an
effete dynasty, five years of a new regime under a capable
Shah, the birth of a spirit of nationalism throughout the
country—all these have left their mark on every branch of the
administration and upon the land itself.

Persia is not yet free from anxieties, but much has
already been accomplished. In a country that was formerly

Striking Recent Changes



PH. NO 42483


influences in persia


a prey to constant revolt, and at all times to brigandage, secu-
rity of life and property has been assured. In its foreign
policy the Persian Government has, without disturbance of its
relations with the European Powers, succeeded in freeing
itself from the drawback of the Capitulations, and the Shah is
to-day an independent monarch. By an act that was perhaps
unduly energetic, but in the end will clear the atmosphere,
the Persian Government cancelled all existing treaties, with
the exception of that of 1857 with Great Britain, which, being
a Treaty of Peace, concluded at the termination of a short
war, is irrevocable except by mutual consent. In two cases
European Governments have negotiated new treaties: in
others they are content to adopt a modus vivendi. In spite of
this action of the Shah, arbitrary though it may appear, the
foreign relations of Persia have not suffered, and, his Majesty,
anxious to place Persia on a footing of reciprocal and endu-
ring good-will, especially with all his neighbours, is intent
upon the consolidating of her good relations with them and
commercially with Russia.

Progress in Teheran and Other Cities
Judicious Town Planning

In the land itself the Tesults of progress are notable.
Extensive roads have been constructed, and Teheran during
the last few years has changed from a second-rate oriental
town to a city that presents many of the amenities of a capital,
and is being reconstructed, with due regard to its promising
future. Teheran can be reached in six days' air travel from
London. Only 11 hours of flight separate it from Damascus
and seven from Bushire. The days of wearying caravan jour-
neys are finished, and motor roads are available for those to
whom the aeroplane does not appeal.

The influence of occidental ideas and methods, which is
being felt throughout the Middle East, is nowhere more evi-
dent than in Persia to-day. This, though more apparent in

6G the iran league quarterly [oct.

the capital, applies in a lesser degree throughout the country*
Picturesque and narrow streets with their open stalls stocked
with local produce are being demolished to make way for wide
boulevards, with modern glass-fronted shops. Many buildings
old and new, have been destroyed to broaden main thorough-
fares, and have the incidental advantage of opening up enchan-
ting vistas of distant snow-capped mountains.

New streets are being driven through the old bazaar
quarter of Teheran, and the authorities probably intend that
it shall disappear altogether, as"also the beautiful and historic
gates at the entrances of the town, with their coloured tiles
and frescoes. In a few years' time the Persian schoolboy
will regard the gates of Shimran and Yussefabad in much the
same way as his' English contemporary does the Moorgate and
Aldgate of London. The famous wall and battlements sur-



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f V. P. P. As. 12/- extra.

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influences in persia


rounding the city are gradually disappearing, and the moat on
the outside, which has formed its chief defence for many cen-
turies, is being filled in and built over with small brick villas
similar to hundreds to be seen in any London suburb.

The tendency in the present scheme of town planning
is to develop more towards the Elburz mountains, where in
the foothills are the summer residences of the Foreign Lega-
tions. The construction of a wide highway leading from the
Shah's city palace to his country residence, half-way up the
mountainside overlooking the town, has given this much
additional impetus. Avenues and groves of trees have been
planted, and small cafes are springing up at advantageous
points with views of the countryside.

Various Government buildings, among them the Posts
and Telegraphs, the Municipality, and the " Nazmia," which
is the Scotland Yard of Persia, are newly built with imposing
facades, and more and more approach the European standard.
The town is illuminated by electric light, and an efficient
telephone system is installed. Motor-omnibuses are supple-
menting the antique Belgian horse tramway, and taxicabs are
gradually taking the place of the old horse-drawn " drushki."

Improvement of the Road System and Building of


Caravans of camels or mules wandering through the city
are now comparatively rare, and are vanishing to the less-
travelled district of the Persian country-side. This is not sur-
prising, since caravans bringing goods from Baghdad or the
Persian Gulf, to the capital take at least three weeks, while
motor transport can do the journey in three days. This is
greatly due to the remarkable improvement and maintenance
of the Persian road system, but in very great part also to the
increased security from brigandage, which only a few years
ago was of frequent occurrence in the more distant districts
of Persia.

KP" The latest book on Persia.

Written by :—Kaikhosrow A. Fitter,

Secretary, The Iran League.
Published by :—Messrs. JEENA & Co.,
Conducted Tours Organisers and
Shipping Agents, Bombay 1.

This is the only reliable and indispen-
sable Traveller's Guide for Persia and Iraq.
It i s written in Gujarati from the Parsi point
of view, and therefore, it will be valuable
to Parsi travellers in particular. It contains hints to
travellers, gives informations on varied matters—manners,
customs, religions, languages, climate, population, curren-
cy, H. I. M. Reza Shah's Government, trade, commerce
and industries of Persia, ancient ruins, motor routes and
their mileage, short descriptions of towns and places of
interest, railways time table and fares, etc., Junker's
Air Service time tables and fares, etc. Its further
utility lies in several maps and illustrations. The book
is recommended to the public by H. E. the Persian Con-
sul for Bombay and Lt.-Col. Merwan S. Irani, I.M.S.
It is attractively bound and bears the coloured picture of
Emperor Darius the Great.

Price—Bs. i/4 only postage As. 4 extra.

Can be had from :—The Iran League, Kamar Bldg.,
Cowasji Patel Str., Fort; Messrs. Jeena & Co., Gresham
Bldg., Esplanade Road, Fort; and Messrs. J. B. Karani
& Sons, Parsi Bazaar, Fort, Bombay.

influences in persia


From the financial point of view it is Persia's misfortune
rather than her fault that she is the victim of circumstances
not entirely of her own creation. The world crisis, the fall in
silver, the too sudden raising of the standards of life resulting
in general extravagance on the part of the people, have
brought about a situation that will require delicate handling.
The proposed change in the near future from a silver to a gold
standard, and the existing arbitrary fixing of an official value
of silver in its relation to gold, havealmo3t paralysed exchange
and dangerously disorganized trade. The increased tariff in
America on the import of Persian carpets—a staple industry
—has added to the difficulties.

A substantial revenue is assured to Persia by the income
derived from the Anglo-Persian Oil Company's concessions,
which last year amounted to nearly £1,500,000. As a set off
to this valuable asset the Persian Government is faced with the
expensive problem of the Caspian and Persian Gulf Railway.
Already this ambitious soheme has cost over £3,000,000, and
only the extreme northern and southern sections have been
undertaken, and that without appreciable results. It is esti-
mated that about £30,000,000 will be required to complete
the central, and difficult, portion of the line.

The Persian Gulf: Its Complex Interests

England's position in the Persian Gulf is one of long
standing. The British Government's relations with the
Sultans of Muskat were entered into over a century ago, while
it is 147 years since an arrangement was oome to with a pre-
decessor of the Sheikh of Bahrein, who ruled over a group
of islands that had formerly belonged to Persia. Koweit, at
the north-west corner of the Gulf, is still more directly under
British protection. With the remaining sheikhs of the
" Pirate Coast" England is allied by local agreements. At
Bushire, on the Persian ooast, the British Government has
installed a Resident, who controls political action and the
policing of the Gulf. At Heajam—a Persian island near


the iran league quarterly


the southern extremity of the Gulf—a British naval depot has
been more recently constructed, with a wireless station and
such accessories as the presence of warships necessitates.
The anchorage is sheltered, and in spite of the great heat the
island is relatively healthy. It is a constant resort of his
Majesty's ships and one of the rare places in the Gulf where
the crews are able to indulge in exercise and sports.

Two circumstances have recently called the attention
of the British and Indian Governments to the Persian Gulf.
The first is the change of dynasty in Persia and the conse-
quent increase of Persian authority ; the second, the progress
of aviation and the opening up of air communications with
India and beyond. The Persian Government, under the
energetic Riza Shah, having set its house in order, proceeded
to revise its relations with the foreign Powers and turned its
attention to the Gulf. It was evident to both the Persian
and the British Governments that the situation there existing
required a new and permanent settlement. Negotiations have
been proceeding for two years, and on more than one occasion
have seemed to be on the point of settlement, but always the
Persian Government has hesitated. It is now demanding the
cession of two islands, which are not England's to give but
are the property of an independent sheikh.

At the present moment the negotiations for a treaty
between the British and Persian Governments are at a stand-
still. Until some change comes about, the status quo of the
Persian Gulf will be maintained.

Please consult for your PAST, PRESENT and FUTURE:

Patel Building, Bomonji Master Road, Dhabi Talao,
Bombay. Branch^Near Hakim Asha, Opp. Tram Terminus,
Grant Road, Bombay. Charges Moderate.


est. 1922.


Aims and Objects.

To renew and continue the connection between the old land of Iran and
Hind ; to continue and encourage fraternal sentiment towards and interest and
enthusiasm in the cause of Persia ; to confederate the Zoroastrian population in

Persia with a view to increase, to ameliorate their condition and to strive for

their uplift ; to make researches with reference to their religion and ancient
Parsi history; to stimulate commercial relations with Persia; to encourage
Parsis to visit the old land, as businessmen or as travellers, for change of
climate and health ; to obtain and spread among Parsis and others, by means of
literature, authentic information regarding the state of affairs in Persia ; to
secure the sympathy of the Imperial Persian Government aud the Persian
subjects towards the cause of Parsis in relation to Persia.

President :

Sir Hormusji C. Adenvala, Kt., m.v.o., o.b.e.

Vice-Presidents :

J. J. Vimadalal, Esq., m.a., ll.b.
D. J. Irani, Esq.. b.a., ll.b.
F. K. Dadachanji, Esq., b.a., ll.b.
The Hon. Mr. H. M. Mehta.


Sir Hormusji C. Adenvala, S. R. Bomonji, Esq.

Kt., m.v.o., o.b.e. Pirojshaw R. Vakharia, Esq-

Mrs. Dhunmai F. Arjani. Ruttonji F. Ginvala, Esq.
Peshotanji D. Marker,-Esq. The Hon. Mr. H. M. Mehta.

Hon. Patrons:

H. H. Sir S. M. S. Aga Khan, g.c.i.e., g.c.s.i., g.c-v.o., k.c.i.e., &c.
Malek-ut-Tujjar M. J. Shushtary.

Secretary: Hon. Auditor:

Kaikhosro A. Fitter, Esq. Capt. Sohrab R. Bamji.

Hon. Treasurer: Editor of the Quarterly:

Phiroze S. Guzder, Esq. Sohrab J. Bulsara, Esq., m.a.

Office : Kamar Bldg., Cowasji Patel Street, Fort, Bombay.

Telegrams: "Iranleague"

1- Solicitors.



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Sole A gents:—


16, New Queen's Koad, and Apollo Pier Road, Bombay.
Benches'.—Ahme^abad, Karachi, Magpurs Sphere an>I Amfealla.
Telegrams:—'58 CYCLOSTERS". Telephone i Wo. 204S&,

Edited by Sohrab Jamshedji Bulsara, M.A., published by Kaikhoshro Ardeshir Fitter,
Secretary, the Iran League, at Kamar Bldg., Cowasji-Patel St., Fort, Bombay, and
rrinted by Hosang T. Anklesaria, at the Fort Printing Press, 1, Parsi Bazar St.,

Forts Bombay.