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Antananarivo annual and Madagascar magazine

Material Information

Title:
Antananarivo annual and Madagascar magazine a record of information on the topography and natural productions of Madagascar, and the customs, traditions, language, and religious beliefs of its people
Creator:
Sibree, James, 1836-1929 ( Editor )
Baron, Richard, 1847-1907, 1847-1907 ( Editor )
Cousins, George, 1842-1926 ( Editor )
London Missionary Society -- Madagascar Mission
Place of Publication:
Antananarivo
Publisher:
Press of the London Missionary Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Missions -- Periodicals -- Madagascar ( lcsh )
Periodicals -- Madagascar ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Madagascar
Afrique -- Madagascar
Afrika -- Madagascar
Coordinates:
-20 x 47

Notes

Creation/Production Credits:
Nos. 1-3 edited by J. Sibree; no. 4 by G. Cousins; 5-7 by R. Baron; 8-24 by J. Sibree & R. Baron.
System Details:
Nos. 1-24 (1875-1900)
Biographical:
Did not appear in 1879, 1880.
Acquisition:
Hardyman Madagascar Collection

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License. This license allows others to download this work and share them with others as long as they mention the author and link back to the author, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
Resource Identifier:
300527 ( aleph )
03782948 ( oclc )
0378-2948 ( issn )
Classification:
Per 3 ( ddc )

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THE

ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL

AND

MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE.

RECORD OF INFORMATION ON THE TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PRODUCTIONS
OF MADAGASCAR, AND THE CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, LANGUAGE,
AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF ITS PEOPLE.

edited by

JAMES SIBREE, JUN

Missionary of the L. M. S., Author of Madagascar and its People."

NO. I.CHRISTMAS, 1875.

ANTANANARIVO :
PRINTED AT THE PRESS OF THE LONDON MISSIONARY

SOCIETY.

1875.

AII rights reserved


iii.

CONTENTS.

page

1.OUR OBJECT AND AIMS. By the Editor................. i

2.THE ANCIENT THEISM OF THE HOVAS. By Rev. W. E.
Cousins................................................... 5

3.JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO MOJANGA AND THE NORTH-
WEST COAST. By Rev. H. W. Grainge................. 12

4.THE MALAY AFFINITIES OF THE MALAGASY LAN-
GUAGE. Two Letters from Rev. J. Duffus and Rev. W.
Dening to Rev. W. E. Cousins......................... 36

5.THE JOURNEY BETWEEN ANTSIHANAKA AND THE
EAST .COAST. By Rev. J. Pearse and Mr. R. Aitken 42

6.THE LATE MR. JAMES CAMERON : HIS LIFE AND
LABOURS. A Funeral Address by Rev. R. Toy.......... 48

7.FARAHANTSANA, ITASY, AND ANKARATRA: Scrap
from a Note Book. By Mr. W. Johnson (with a Map of Lake
Itasy)...................................................... 56

8.NOTES ON IKONGO AND ITS PEOPLE. By Mr. Geo.

A. Shaw.................................................. 64

9.REMARKABLE BURIAL CUSTOMS AMONG THE BE-
TSILEO. By Rev. J. Richardson........................ 70

10.FROM TWILIGHT TO GROSS DARKNESS. Being chiefly
a Narrative of what happened on the Way, in a Journey to
ANKAVANDRA and IMANANDAZA. By Rev. W. C.

plckersgili...... ................... ..................... 76

11.AMBONDROMBE AND ITS GHOSTS. By Rev. W. E.
COUSINS................................................. 95

12.DRURY'S VOCABULARY OF MALAGASY WORDS, WITH
NOTES. By Rev. J. Richardson......................... 98


iv.

PAGE

13.-THE BURNING OF THE IDOL RAMAHAVALY. Trans-
lated by the Editor from a Native Account.................. 107

14.NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS ON MADAGASCAR.......... 111

15.SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS CONNECTED WITH
MADAGASCAR DURING THE YEAR 1875. By the Editor. 115

16.LIST OF ENGLISH BOOKS, PAMPHLETS AND PAPERS
ON MADAGASCAR. By the Editor...................... 119

17.VARIETIES:Malagasy 'Sons of God,'' page 11'Heavenly
Princesses' 47An early Sonnet on Madagascar, 97-The
Behosy Tribe, 106Gleanings from Livingstone's Last Jour-
nals," 110Lee in Madagascar, 114Dr. Vanderkemp and
Madagascar, 118Madagascar Tortoises, 122The Zahana,
123A hitherto little-noticed use of the Particle No, 124.

H>3iMK'
ERRATUM

In the accompanying map of Itasy for Miadamanjaka read Ambohitri-
manjaka, and call the town immediately to the south of that mountain, Mia-
damanjaka. The word Ifaliarivo should be Lfalimanarivo.


THE

ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL

AND

MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE.

OUR OBJECT AND AIMS.

IN presenting the first number of this magazine to our readers
it seems fitting that a few -words should be said as to the
circumstances which led to the proposal to issue such a publication,
and also as to the object and aims we have in view.

"With regard to the former of these points, the facts are briefly
these: At the Four-monthly meeting of the missionaries of the
London Missionary Society and the Friends' Foreign Mission Associa-
tion, which was held at Antananarivo on August 10th of this year,
a most interesting paper was read by Mr. J. S. Sewell, on a journey
recently made by him and the Rev. W. C. Pickersgill to the Saka-
lava country to the west. Mr. Pickersgill then followed in a speech
describing many striking incidents of their journey which had not
been mentioned by Mr. Sewell; and a lively discussion took place.
Seeing the great interest excited by the paper read and the informa-
tion given orally by our friends, I ventured to make a suggestion
that we should try and prepare, say every Christmas or New Year's
Day, a pamphlet or magazine containing accounts of any journeys
made during the year in new or previously little-known parts of this
country ; together with papers on the philology, traditions, natural
history, botany, geology, and physical geography of Madagascar.
This suggestion was so cordially received, that I prepared a circular
pointing out the different subjects which might be taken up in such
a publication, and asking for the co-operation of those who were
interested in the matter. The responses to this request are embodied
No. 1.Chbisimas, 1875.


2

Our Object and Aims.

in the following pages; and I am encouraged to think that if all
missionaries resident in Madagascar will help as they have opportu-
nity there will be no difficulty in finding ample material of an interest-
ing character for at least an annual issue of this publication; or we
might possibly get out a number once in six months.

"Our object and aims" were pointed out in the circular already
mentioned; but in order to place them on more permanent record,
as well as to give a few hints to those who may not have seen that
paper, I make no apology for transferring to these pages the chief
points referred to.

"We must all I think have often felt how limited is our knowledge
of the great island where we live and labour. With the exception
of the capitals of the two central provinces and their immediate
neighbourhood, and the roads from the coast east and north-west,
and in two or three other directions, a vast proportion of this country
is still a "terra incognita" to us. A glance at M. Grandidier's
map of Madagascarprobably the most correct map of the country
yet publishedshews large portions of the island as blank spaces
completely unknown to Europeans ; probably one half of Madagas-
car is still unexplored. Within the last year or two, however,
journeys have been made in new districts, and interesting accounts
of them have been published.* It is probable that in future years
there will be a still greater increase in our knowledge of the Geo-
graphy of the country ; and it seems desirable that there should be
some permanent record of such research. Even the bare Itineraries
of such journies would be valuable, giving names of villages, hills,
and streams on the route, and distances traversed; especially if
accompanied by observations by the aneroid barometer, so that
approximate sections of lines of country might be laid down.

In the course of our daily work and intercourse with the people
we all of us occasionally meet with interesting facts connected with
the History, Manners, Habits of Thought, etc. of the Malagasy.
Such items of information, if carefully noted and recorded in such a
publication as this, would in time form a valuable addition to our
knowledge of the inhabitants of Madagascar. From intelligent
English-speaking natives we might perhaps get papers, or materials

* See "List of Books, Pamphlets and jara ; From Fianarantsoa to Ikongo; To
Papers on Madagascar," towards the end of Antsihanaka and back; The Sakalava.
this Annual; From Fianarantsoa to Mauan-


3 Our Object and Aims.



for papers, on some subjects of which we yet know accurately very
little, such as : Fanompoana (government and feudal service), Tribal
Relations, and the Government of the country, especially as regards
the inferior and subordinate officials.

It is most desirable that any Traditions, Legends, Fables, or
Folk-lore* that may be met with should be preserved, as throwing
valuable light on the origin of the different tribes. The relation of
these to each other also deserves careful investigation. Now that
missions have been established in provinces as far north as Antsiha-
naka, and as far south as Ambdhimandroso in the Betsileo, with
possibilities of others in yet more remote districts,not to mention
the Mission stations in Imamo, Vakin' Ankaratra, and Vonizongo,
we may hope to have information which will throw valuable light
upon the connection between the different races inhabiting Madagas-
car. New Proverbs should also be noted down, and variations on
proverbs previously known.

In Philology it would be of great service in perfecting our know-
ledge of Malagasy to record any words not already given in our
dictionaries, especially lists of words in other dialects than the Hova;
noting down words used in some districts in a different sense from
their customary usage in Imerina, and giving the names of animals,
plants, or places in which uncommon or hitherto unknown words
are used, as in these names words may be fossilized which have
become obsolete in ordinary usage, but yet may form valuable links
of connection with well-known roots.

Many of us take an interest in the Physical Sciences; some in
natural history, others in botany, others in geology and physical
geography. Anything new in such branches of knowledge might
form the subject of articles in this publication ; and scientific ques-
tions might be discussed in its pages. If any one would accompany
such papers with sketches of natural objectsanimals, birds, insects,
or plantsI would do my best to give them a permanent form in
lithography; doing the same also with any sketch-map of newly
explored districts.

It would also be of service to collect and preserve any information
with regard to the Idolatry, Superstitions, and Religious Beliefs of

* Even the nursery rhymes told by Mala- ave not unworthy of being noted down and
gasy mothers and nurses to their children preserved.


4

Our Object and Aims.

the Malagasy, before the remembrance of these passes away from the
minds of the people. The form and appearance of their idols,
customs connected "with their worship, and things which were 'facly'
(tabooed) to them, etc. etc., must be recorded now, or they will soon be
forgotten. An account is given in the following pages of the burning
of one of the chief idols; could not some of our friends obtain
information as to the burning of others, together with particulars as to
their appearance, the duties and privileges of their guardians, etc. ?

Papers on the Progress of Christianity amongst the people, and
its influence upon their minds and conduct and habits, might be
contributed by some of us ; many interesting facts shewing the stages
through which religious thought passes would thus be preserved,
often forming instructive parallels to facts recorded in apostolic and
early-church history. Striking Illustrations and Figures used by
our preachers are often well worth preservation, as throwing light
upon the native mind as affected by the gospel.

In the matter of Statistics, any information as to population, birth -
and death-rate, temperature, rain-fall, imports and exports, etc. etc.,
will be of service ; and our friends engaged in the Medical profession
will perhaps be able to give us valuable facts and observations in
their special department of work. Perhaps a page or two may be
devoted to "Notes and Queries" on subjects upon which further
information is desired; while a short Summary of Important Events
occurring during the year will form a useful record for future refer-
ence. Anecdotes, which we all occasionally meet with, illustrating'
the modes of thought, habits, and customs of the people, will be
welcome ; and indeed, information and facts of all kinds connected
with Madagascar and its people will find an appropriate record in
the pages of this magazine.

With such a wide range of subjects, appealing to such a variety
of tastes, we should certainly have no difficulty in providing at least
once a year a number of papers which should have a permanent value
and interest. Encouraged by the co-operation already shown, I
confidently appeal to all our readers to help us in this undertaking;
and to make any suggestions which would be likely to render the
publication more useful and interesting.

Editor.

Ambohimanga, Christmas, 1875.


5 The Ancient Theism of the Horns.



THE ANCIENT THEISM OF THE HOYAS.

THE darker aspects of the religious beliefs of the Malagasy have
been already described with sufficient minuteness in the
History of Madagascar, by the Rev. W. Ellis, and other works on the
island and its inhabitants. To the first Christian missionaries the
painful conviction that gross darkness enshrouded the minds of the
people must have been ever present. The almost universal belief in
mntana, or destiny, had sapped the very foundation of faith in a free
and powerful God ; the dread of sorcery had overcome even the
noblest instincts of human nature; while the common practise of
resorting to idols and keeping charmspieces of wood, scarlet cloth,
beads, etc.tended to enfeeble the powers of the mind, and to hold
men in a state of perpetual childhood. The common fruits of idolatry
and superstition were alas abundant. Thousands perished from
taking the tangena, or poison ordeal, on the charge of sorcery;
thousands too were destroyed in domestic wars ; lying and cunning
were considered proofs of cleverness; and licentiousness held
undisputed sway. Thus the honoured men, who, in the reign of the
first Radama, brought to the central province of Madagascar the
words of everlasting life, as they looked around upon the people
they had come to bless, had indeed reason to mourn over the
degradation and misery into which idolatry had plunged its followers.
But amidst all this darkness there were gleams of light: faint indeed,
yet still perceptible to the close observer. Much as the missionaries
had to discourage them, they could still discern here and there
grounds of encouragement and hope.

In the first place, idolatry in Madagascar had never assumed a
position thoroughly self-consistent. Apparently derived from
different sources, and composed of heterogeneous elements, it was
never able to present a firm front to the aggressive spirit of Christian-
ity. It had little power of cohesion ; and hence, with greater ease
and rapidity than the more hoary and elaborate systems of India and
other lands, it has crumbled into dust before the onward progress of
the kingdom of Christ.

Again, even in the worst times, when idolatry was gaining an
increasing power for evil, and continually developing fresh phases of
superstition, its sway was still far from universal. There are those
among the natives who maintain that numbers of the old inhabitants
kept themselves tree from the pollutions of idolatry, and that many
who did resort to the idols did so under the pressure of some great


6

The Ancient Theism of the Hovas.

trouble, "which stupefied the better part of their nature, and exposed
them to the seductive influence of superstition. Among the native
proverbs many exist that show a spirit of disbelief in the prevailing
practices. One is to the effect that "a favourable declaration of the
sikidy (divination) is not an occasion for dancing, nor an unfavourable
declaration an occasion for weeping."* Another says that "an offering
is not ddi-faty (a preventive of death), but simply dla-nenina" f
(something done to prevent needless regret hereafter, though it may
be without any hope that it will effect good). Idolatry is again held
up to ridicule is the following: "Like a woodman who has lost his idol:
to get a new one is the quicker plan ;" J i. e. quicker than searching
for the old one, as blocks of wood are easily obtainable. And again :
"Like a diviner making unreasonable demands, and the sick are
bidden by him to dance." || In addition to this, many still affirm, as
they did in the time of the former missionaries (see Hist, of Madr.,
v. I., p. 397), that idolatry was a comparatively recent introduction.
In confirmation of this it may be stated that traditional accounts
still exist showing that some, at least, of the more noted idols were
brought to Imerina from remote parts of the island.

But not only is idolatry as it existed in Imerina to be regarded as
an introduction of somewhat modern date, and as an introduction from
which a thoughtful minority had always stood aloof; but alongside
of all the superstitious practises that had gained a footing among
the people, there still existed the tradition that the primitive religion
had been a simple theism. This theism was undoubtedly meagre
and inadequate, but it presented a nucleus of elementary truth
around which the fuller and grander teachings of God's word were
hereafter to cluster.

The remainder of this paper will be devoted to the illustration and
confirmation of this statement; and the writer will endeavour to show,
not only that the name of God was well known and commonly
used, but that there existed also some knowledge of His attributes.

The first missionaries to Madagascar had not to engage in a long
and weary search, such as Mr. Moffat describes as being necessary
in South Africa, before they could find a name for the Divine Being.
Names existed and were in common use. One thing that soonest
strikes a missionary on his arrival in Madagascar is the frequency
with which the name of God passes the lips of the natives. During
his voyage out he will have given his leisure hours to the
study of the language in which he hopes in years to come to declare

* Sikidy soa tsy andihizana; sikidy ratsy I Toy ny Tanala very sampy, lea ny raa-

tsy itomaniana. nova no liaingana.

+ Ny ala-faditra tay odi-faty, fa ala- ]| Toy ny mpisikidy mila voatsiary, ka ny

nenina. marary 110 ampandihiziiia.


7 The Ancient Theism of the Hovas.



the love of the Great Father of all nations. He will therefore have
acquired a small vocabulary before reaching his destination : among
the words he has learned will undoubtedly be Andriamdnitra, the
name of God. And when he first strains his ear to catch some of
the words that are being uttered all around him, he will notice,
perhaps with no small amount of surprise, that the name of God is
constantly used by all. If the frequent use of the name implied a
full knowledge of God's character, and carried with it due reverence,
the Malagasy would have to be ranked among the most devout of
nations. For every favour, however small, the usual formula of
thanks is : Hotahin' Andriamanitra hianao, May you be blessed of God;
but, as usually happens with formulas, constant use has robbed the
phrase of its meaning. The name of God is also invoked in support
of the truth of a statement; and one who is at all sensitive in such
matters cannot hear without pain even little children appending to
the most simple affirmations the phrase: Marina amin' Andriamanitra,
True by God. Thus although the knowledge of God's name is, for
some reasons, a source of encouragement, the joy at finding it so
commonly used is soon clouded over by the sad conviction that
practically it inspires those from whose mouth it is so constantly
falling with little or none of the reverence which is due to its divine
owner.

The names of God in use in Imerina are chiefly two: Andriama-
nitra and Andriananahdry. They are frequently pronounced together.
The prefix Andria- (or: Andriana-) means literally prince or noble ;
but it is also commonly used as a personal prefix with masculine
proper nouns ; thus these two names are an evidence that God was
regarded as a person by those with whom they originated. The first
name is compounded of the prefix Andriana and the adjective mdnitra,
fragrant. The whole may be translated : The Fragrant One.* Thus
the name would appear to indicate that the Divine Being was not
regarded with feelings of dread and abhorrence, but rather, on the
contrary, with sentiments, of delight. We have shown that the
prefix Andriana leads us to believe that God was regarded as a person ;
there was, however, a constant tendency to degrade the sacred name
and to apply it to anything strange, or of unusual excellence. Rice
was called Andriamanitra, as also was silk: the former probably from
its being, as the Malagasy say, tohan' ny aina, the support of life;
the latter, because used to Avrap the body in after death. Silk was

* Other explanations have been suggested:
viz. (1) that Andriainanitra stands for
Andrian-danitra, Prince of Heaven (Hist,
of Madv. vol. 1, p. 390) ; (2) that manitra
(scented) has reference to the offering of
incense (Madv. and its People, p. 395) ;
(3) that manitra is a lengthened form of

many, and means weighty, powerful (a
suggestion of Dr. Davidson); tins mean-
ing of many appears in the word manilahij,
wealthy, powerful, and probably ill mani-
ratio, dropsy (heavy from water?); comp.
too I'rench Diet. s. v. many.


8

The Ancient Theism of the Hovas.

sometimes also called Andriamanitra indrindra; i. e. God in the
highest degree, indrindra being the sign of the superlative degree.
Velvet was called "son of God." The sovereign was addressed as the
"God seen by the eye" (comp. Psa. lxxxii. 6) ; and not only so, but the
attributes of God were openly ascribed to royalty. In a kabdry
during the reign of the late queen Rasoherina, one of the judges said:
"There is no other source of life, but Rasoherina alone is the source of
life." Parents were also addressed as visible Gods; such a manner of
address however appears to have been common among more civilized
nations,* and certainly possesses a deep foundation of truth. The
idols again were addressed as "Gods." The spirits of their ancestors
were also said by the Malagasy to be lasa ho Andriamanitra, "gone
to be God" (or Gods): the language has no form for the plural, so that
it is impossible to tell exactly whether the idea attached to this
phrase was that of absorption into the essence of the one God, or
simply exaltation to a higher state of being so as to be numbered
among heroes and demi-gods. Ancestors were certainly believed to
possess supernatural powers, and were appealed to in prayer. A
European has been known to be addressed as God by a beggar,
probably only as a piece of gross flattery. These illustrations are
enough to show that the word Andriamanitra was often used in a
vague sense like our word divine, or the Hebrew name Elohim; but
such uses of the word were, with more or less intelligence, known to
be but figurative; and undoubtedly the name was originally intended
to be, what, in spite of all such tendencies to deterioration as those
referred to above, it continues to be, that is, the personal name of
the supreme God.

The second name, Andriananahwry, conveys a deeper meaning
than Andriamanitra. It is composed of the personal prefix Andriana,
which has already been considered, and the word nahdry (or : nana-
hary) the past tense of the verb mahary, to create; and hence means
either: The Prince who created, or, more simply, regarding Andriana
as a prefix only: The Creator. This word seems never to have
been used with the wide and figurative meaning of Andriamanitra.
Both names occur in an old form of invocation, said to have been
in use long before the introduction of Christianity: "0 Andriamanitra,
fragrant throughout the universe; 0 Andriananaliary, who didst
create the heaven and the earth." Andriananahary is often used with
the strange addition "who didst create us with hands and feet,"
these members standing as representatives of all the physical powers
and faculties. In some parts of the island (and occasionally in
Imerina too) the name Zanahdry is used as the equivalent of the

* E. r/. the dii terrestres of the Romans, of Cicero,
and the Parentem vereri ut Deum debemus


9 The Ancient Theism of the Hovas.



Hova Andnananahary. The meaning is the same, the essential part
of the word nahdry remaining unchanged; Za is probably a personal
prefix similar to the Hova Anclriana or Met. Thus in Madagascar
there have existed from time immemorial appropriate names for the
Supreme Being, into which revelation has been able to infuse a
deeper and fuller meaning.

But in addition to the mere name of God, the Hovas possess a
number of proverbial sayings called Ohabdlan' ny Ntaolo, or
Proverbs of the Ancients, said to have been handed down from
generation to generation for ages, and to embody a faith older than
the belief in divination, charms, and idols, which prevailed in more
recent times. From these sayings it is manifest that some of the
attributes of God were acknowledged. His dwelling-place was
believed to be in heaven; for a strangely worded proverb says:
"Like a little chicken drinking water: it looks up to God," i. e.
heavenwards.* When Andrianampoinimerina, father of Radama I.,
was about to die (1810), he gathered his ministers together, and in a
pathetic address commended his son to their care, beginning his
charge with a solemn declaration that he was going home to God,
and would dwell in heaven. God was also confessed to be greater
than the imagination of man could conceive ; thus another proverb
says: "Do not say: God is fully understood by me"f (literally,
"got by me in the heart"). God's omniscience was also confessed in
the words : "God looks from on high and sees what is hidden or
again in the following : "There is nothing unknown to God, but he
intentionally bows down his head"|| (i. e. so as not to see) : a
remarkable parallel to Acts xvii. 30. Again, God's omnipresence is
implied in another extremely common saying : "Think not of the
silent valley (i. e. as affording an opportunity for committing some
crime) ; for God is over the head."§ God was also acknowledged to
be the author of life as the ordinary phrase used in congratulating
the parents of a newly-born child is: "Salutation, God has given
you an heir."1f Another proverb speaks of God's power to control
the waywardness of man : "The waywardness of man," it says, "is
controlled by the Creator ; for it is God alone who commands"**
(or governs). The common form of thanks (May God bless you)
already referred to, shows that God was also considered to be the
source of blessing. A successful man was called Bezanahary, "having

* Toy ny akoho kely misotro rano, ka
Andriamanitra no andrandrainy.

t Aza manao Andriamanitra azoko am-po.
+ Avo fijery Andriamanitra ka niahita ny
takona.

|| Tsy misy tsy fantatr' Andriamanitra,
fa saingy minia miondrika Izy.

§ Aza ny loliasalia mangingina no lieve-
rina; fa Andriamanitra no ambonin* ny
lolia.

IT Arahaba nomen' Andriamanitra ny
fara.

** Hatraitr' olombelona zaka-Nanahary,
fa Andriamanitra hiany no mandidy.


10

The Ancient Theism of the Hovas.

much of God," or "many Gods." One specially prospered or saved
from threatening calamity was said to be nihirdtan'Andriamanitra,
"glanced on by God," or, having God's eye opened upon him. That
God's gifts are sometimes delayed, and should be patiently waited
for, was also confessed in the following proverb: "God, for whom
the hasty will not wait, shall be waited for by me."* Again, God
was looked to as the rewarder of acts of kindness ; hence the
common phrase : "Although I should not (be able to) reward your
kindness, it will be rewarded by God."f He was also the recognized
protector of the helpless; this is significantly conveyed by the
following: "The simple one (the fool) should not be defrauded; for
God should be feared."J And that all other means of protection
were believed to be vain without God's blessing is shown by a
prayer, formerly chanted by the women in companies when their
husbands had gone to the wars :

"Although they have many guns,
Although they have many spears,
Protect thou them, 0 God."§

God's truth again was expressed thus : "God loves not evil ;"||
"Let not God be blamed, let not the Creator be censured ; for it is
men who are full of twisting (i. e. tortuous, evil ways)," implying
that upon them, and not upon the righteous God, blame should fall.
That He was regarded as the rewarder of good actions, and the
punisher of crime, is indicated by the proverb : "A snake that has
been killed ; it has no hands to avenge itself; but it waits for God,"
or, in another version, "for the avenging of its life, taken by its
destroyer."41* Another proverb conveys the great truth that God
himself is the Supreme Judge, whose condemnation is to be feared
more than the censure of our fellow men : "It is better to be held
guilty by men than to be condemned by God."f f

Such sayings as these show unmistakably that though Madagas-
car was polluted by the abominations of heathenism, there were
still lingering traditions of a purer faith. Not that these sayings,
taken by themselves, can be considered as a fair representation of
the practical faith of the people. They were rather relics of a faith
that was in process of being utterly obliterated by gross superstition ;
at least such is the opinion of some of the Malagasy themselves, an

* Andriamanitra, Izay tsy andrin' ny
maika, andriko hiany.

+ Na tsy valiko aza, valin'Andriamaniti'a.

£ Ny adala no ho tsy ambakaina, Andria-
manitra no atahorana.

§ Na be basy anie,
Na maro lefona anie,
Avovinao anie issy, Andriamanitra 6.
]| Andriamaiiitra tsy tia ratsy.

IT Andriamanitra tsy omen-tsiny, Zana-
liary tsy omem-pondro, fa ny olombelona
no be siasia.

** Bibilava vonono: tsy manan-titnan-
kamaly, fa Andriamanitra (or todin' aina)
no andrasany.

i t Aleo meloka amin' olombelona toy izay
meloka amin' Andriamanitra.


11 The Ancient Theism of the Hovas.



opinion which facts tend to corroborate. How long such traces of
the primitive faith would have lingered on, we cannot say ; but we
can with confidence affirm that, with the Bible in the land, they
have now been lit up with a new light, and are not likely to be
forgotten, but will ever awaken feelings of gratitude to Him,
who even in the time of Madagascar's darkness did not leave
Himself without witness ; and who in His great goodness has now
more fully published His glorious truth. The dim and trembling
lamp, burning only with the oil of tradition, has been refreshed by
a supply of the clear and life-giving oil of revelation. May the
light never more grow dim, but ever increase till the dawn of that
day which shall bring eternal light and splendour to all who know
and love the true God.

Those who, whilst reading this paper, have borne in mind the
position of the missionary, will readily understand how valuable such
sayings as have been enumerated are to him. He can follow the
example of the great missionary, and avail himself freely of all such
national sayings. They can become stepping-stones from which he
may lead men to higher and yet higher truths ; just as Paul availed
himself of the inscription at Athens and the hymn of Aratus, and
from them advanced to the declaration of truths more grand and
far-reaching than any that Athens with all her boasted wise ones had
ever heard before.

William E. Cousins.



MALAGASY 'SONS OF GOD.'

In old Malagasy fables a class of beings called Zanak Andriamanitra
(Sons of God) were often referred to. Among other remarkable qualities
ascribed to these Zanak' Andriamanitra was that they could not be killed.
To this general exemption from death, however, one strange exception
was made, viz., that they would die if they could be made to drink ardent
spirits.

W. E. C.


12

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 12

JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO MOJANGA AND THE
NORTH-WEST COAST.

STARTING from Antananarivo
on July 20th (1875), we were
in hopes of passing quickly over the
first portion of our journey; but
several of our men had been Dr.
Mullens's bearers last year, and
naturally wished if possible to obtain
the same amount of wages for this
trip as they had received from him
for the last; and therefore, although
they eventually agreed to go for
little more than the usual monthly
wage, they played all the most
provoking tricks their ingenuity
could devise to hinder us. Five
times we endeavoured to start, and
five times were deserted by just
a sufficient number of men to render
it impossible for us to go on. Indeed
we quite feared that the journey
would have to be given up altoge-
ther, simply from this cause.

On account of these difficulties
with the men, it was not until the
third day after leaving Antananarivo
that we were able to start from
Fihaonana, and consider ourselves
fairly on the way. Towards evening
we reached Ankazobe, a small and
wretched village about hours N.
of Fihaonana. This place is very
difficult to enter on account of the
deep ditches by which it is surround-
ed ; and as it was impossible for
some of the men with our goods to
get in at all, we pitched our tent
for the first time just outside this
village, learning a lesson in the
process which I flatter myself was
learned pretty thoroughly, viz.
Always to pitch our tent by daylight
if possible, for darkness, hunger, and

weariness help none of the parties
concerned, and put all in a profuse
perspiration and general state of
bewilderment.

Saturday, July 24th. About
midday we reached Ilazaina, a
village at the foot of Angavo, 3
hours N. of Ankazobe. This village
contains about 34 houses; and is
entered through two large holes cut
in a rampart, which is completely
overgrown with Tsi-afak' dmby.*
The inner entrance is strengthened
by stone sides, and the usual circular
stone doors. The church is a wretch-
ed building of clay, capable of
holding about 100 people. It is
rapidly falling to pieces, although
it has not been very long built. The
pastor, Razakatsinatry, was absent
at the time of our visit; but we
learned that the congregation, while
good, is largely composed of people
from the surrounding hamlets. There
are 10 membersfour of these being
able to read, but there is no school,
and there is only one Bible in the
village. Nevertheless, in the midst
of all the filth and squalour of the
place, we found an old andriambdwij,
the chief woman of the place, who
was so clean in her dress, so gentle
and kindly in manner, so intelligent
in conversation, and withal so warm-
hearted and apparently sincere a
Christian woman, that we felt they
were not altogether without at least
one living epistle, certainly known
and easily read by them all. May

* I. e. "Impassable by cattle," the name
of a bushy plant full of small thorns, used
for hedges and fences.


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

13

God spare her long and help her
greatly, that her light may shine
brightly and clearly in that dark spot.
In the evening we went to Mahari-
d&za, a distance of one and a half or
two hours N. of Ilazaina. This
place is more strongly defended by
ditches, tunnels, and palisades than
any we had yet seen. As large
herds of cattle are driven into the
village for safety at night, and
innumerable pigs either for profit or
pleasure choose to remain there by
day, the whole place is covered to
a depth varying from 2in. to 3ft.
with finely powdered manure. On
entering we raised a considerable
amount of dust and general astonish-
ment ; for having determined to
pitch our tent inside the village, we
set a few of our men to sweep away
the filth from the cleanest spot we
could select. You may guess the
result. I first tried to get to wind-
ward of the horrible cloud, but
not being able to find that desirable
quarter, as there happened to be no
wind at the time, sent a man to fetch
water, and then ran away till the
atmosphere cleared. I had better
have stopped : for running through
the first hole in the entrenchment
of the village, I heard a cry of
" Omhj 6 /" and saw the head of an
ox, closely followed by his tail,
coming through the outer entrench-
ment. As the people evidently
expected to see me run, I stood my
ground with true British pighead-
edness, and waited in the narrow ditch
for the big beast to pass ; but this
one was closely followed by another,
and that by a third :the whole of
the herds were coming in for the
night, and the fosse was soon as full
of oxen as of dust. There was no
escape: grunting, puffing, blowing,
and bellowing, in they came, and
with nothing but bare hands to

smack them, I was hustled and
jostled, bumped and butted, pushed
and driven about, until after three
quarters of an hour I came out in com-
pany with the last calf, choked with
dust, streaming with perspiration,
and inwardly vowing that the very
next time I heard the cry of "Omby
6 .'" I would run for it, however
undignified it might appear.

Sunday, July 25th. We remained
all day at this place, conducting
services, teaching hymns, and cate-
chizing the people. In the morning
there was a congregation of about
70; in the evening it was not so
good. The people as a whole we
found deplorably ignorant. They
knew nothing about Jesus Christ,
or their need of a saviour. The
sum total of their religious know-
ledge appeared to be, that there is
but one God, and that He loves
them,a slender creed truly; but
we may be thankful that they know
even this, for it is more than is
known by some of their neighbours.
The pastor here is a man quite
incapable of instructing them. There
is no school, and only three in the
place make any pretence to reading,
and with them it is little more than
pretence. However, two know their
letters, and one can spell short
syllables pretty correctly; so we
gave him a New Testament, nailed
some lesson-sheets to the walls of
the chapel, and encouraged him to
teach his still more ignorant neigh-
bours, in hopes that additional help
may be rendered at some early date.
And thus we left them, saddened
and humbled to think we could do
so little for those in such great need.

Monday, July 26th. We left for
Kinajy, a distance of about four
hours N.W. of the high hills bound-
ing North Vonizongo. This place
is far in advance of Ilazaina and


14

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 14

Maharidaza. The chapel is clean
and well built. Andriambelo, the
pastor, is an intelligent man and
very tolerable preacher. The con-
gregation numbers about 180 on
Sunday mornings, many of the
people coming from the surrounding
district. The evening service is
strictly a service of song. Few
except the singers assemble, and
these appear to have the service
entirely in their own hands. The
church numbers 14 members. There
is a school with 18 scholars and
two teachers. It is said that 32 of
the people here can read; but we only
found four who could read fluently.
We made the teachers a present of
lesson-sheets for the school, and
distributed a few books among the
scholars, with which they were great-
ly delighted. These folks are really
eager to learn. I shall not soon
forget the manner in which they
crowded round Mr. Baron as he
gave them a Bible lesson : eyes and
mouths both open. The only unin-
terested person was the Governor
himself, who occupied a seat by Mr.
Baron's side. He, poor man, had his
attention called off by sundry Mala-
gasy plagues, and very coolly stripped
himself before the assembled congre-
gation to hunt for his tormentors ;
and actually turned his clothes inside
out, and carefully inspected every
crevice in his skin, without in the
least diverting the attention of the
congregation.

About midday we left this place
for Amb6hinaorina,3£hours N. This
is a tolerably large village of 50 or
60 houses. On enquiring for the
chapel we were directed to one of
the least reputable looking houses
in the village. It was very dirty,
having no mat, stool, table, pulpit,
or any article of furniture whatever.
After looking round this filthy build-

ing we were not surprised to hear
that there was no pastor, preacher,
deacon, or member; no school, no
books, not even a Bible for the church,
nor one person in the place able to
read. Yet we were assured that the
people assemble here, wait a decent
time, sing, sometimes pray, and then
separate. Before leaving we found
a man who could just tell his letters,
we therefore nailed a lesson-sheet
on the walls, and obtained a pro-
mise from him that he would teach
what he knew until a better teacher
could be found. We also assembled
the people, and presented them with
a Bible and a hymn book, to be
tept for the use of any passing trader
or soldier who might be able to
conduct a service for their benefit.

On the way to this place the men
were much troubled by a grey fly,
called by them Tsi-mati-tehaka (not
killed by a slap), and also by the
Mdka fdhy, a little mosquito which
is very troublesome during the day,
but entirely disappears towards eve-
ning. The latter part of our journey
was in consequence made to a regular
slapping accompaniment, caused by
the men killing the tiresome crea-
tures. We also noticed about this
part a large number of earthen
mounds, varying from one to two
and a half feet in height; these were
the nest of a large ant credited by
the men with uncommon sagacity.
We were told that they make regular
snake traps in the lower part of these
nests ; easy enough for the snake to
enter, but impossible for it to get out of.
When one is caught the ants are said
to treat it with great care, bringing
it an abundant and regular supply
of food, until it becomes fat enough
for their purpose ; and then, accor-
ding to native belief, it is killed and
eaten by them. However their
sagacity does not inspire the na-


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

15

tives with sufficient regard for them
to prevent their knocking off the top
of one of these nests, scooping out the
centre, and there building a fire to
cook their rice. And cruel as the
practice is, I can scarcely wonder at
its being followed, for with a hole
made near the bottom for draught,
you have a regular furnace in less
than two minutes.

Tuesday, July 27th. Started for
Ampotaka, four hours N. W. of
Ambohinaorina. As there appeared
some hopes of benefiting the people
here by a few hours' catechising and
general instruction we determined
to remain and spend the afternoon
and evening with them. We were
afterwards very thankful that we did
so, for the people were very ready to
learn, and many of them intelligent
enough to thoroughly appreciate the
instruction given, and therefore we
were amply repaid for the delay.
The village is about the same size as
Ambohinaorina; the chapel some-
what smaller, but better kept. The
furniture is simple if not neat: consist-
ing of a few mats for the flooring, a
chipped log for a chair, in case the
preacher should require such a luxury,
and the framework of a table, the
legs of which are very nicely let into
the ground about 6in., as they cannot
be persuaded to keep their respective
positions by any other means. This
we found rather a common practice
in these villages; and at first thought
it a precautionary measure to avoid
accidents should the preacher become
very energetic in his delivery. Here,
as at the former place, there is really
uo church, no pastor, and as a rule,
no school; but at the time of our
visit, Ilainimiaraka, an evangelist sent
out by Mr. Stribling, had been teach-
ing for nearly a month. The people
had evidently received some benefit
from his instructions, and had been

shaken out of that apathetic state so
lamentably visible at Ambohinaorina.
They sang with considerable spirit
several hymns he had taught them,
and were eager to hear more of the
way of salvation. But the time of
his stay had been too short for much
to be expected from his endeavours ;
and I am sorry to say he was unable
to remain longer, and left the place
with us on the following morning.
Seeing a clear stream of water some
little distance from the town, I thought
of enjoying the luxury of a bath here;
but when just entering the water
I heard Baron shouting "Aoh'aloha !
AoH aloha !"* Turning round I saw
him racing full speed towards me to
say he had just seen two immense
crocodiles a little higher up, and that
I had better take care. The warning
was not lost upon me ; and I make
a note of the matter here, that it may
serve as a warning to any who may
follow, this being the first place on
the journey at which we met with
any of these exceedingly ugly cus-
tomers. In a small lake about 200
yards from the village there are a
few very large ones. Every one of
these is apparently as well known to
the villagers as the members of their
own families : one of the largest is
known by them as 'Old brownie,'
another as 'Yellow back,' and sundry
other smaller specimens by names
equally descriptive but most uncom-
plimentary. We were told by the
villagers that at night, when the
gates of the village are shut, the
smaller ones walk up the hill (a very
steep one by the way), and carry
on fine junketings outside the walls,
but that the very largest appear only
once a year. All of which, while
impossible for us to accept as a fact
in natural history, may be accepted
as the firm belief of many of the
* "Stop a bit! Stop a bit!"


16

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 16

people hereabout, together with sev-
eral other matters : e. g. that the
crocodiles live chiefly on stones,
stealing cattle, pigs, and people
merely as a relish to the harder fare.
Also, that smitten with the charms
of the pretty little divers, and other
water-birds, they choose their mates
from among them, and so crocodile's
eggs are produced. It is quite cer-
tain that a very good understanding
seems to exist between the birds and
the crocodiles, the birds swimming
about close to the noses of the
crocodiles without the least fear;
but I soon found that the mutual
understanding arises from the fact
that the birds are much too sharp
for old slimy to catch, however
hungry. A wounded bird however
is snapped up with great avidity.
Afterwards in our canoes upon the
river we had many an exciting race
with the crocodiles for ducks that
we had shot. Timid at other times
they became bold enough then. To
add an interest to the chase we often
gave the duck in danger to the men.
Then the fun became fast and furious;
the paddles would flash and the boat
fly; the men shout and scream in
their excitement; torrents of abuse
would be hurled at the head of the
black monster gliding so smoothly
and swiftly through the water ;
and when, as too often happened,
the great jaws opened and our poor
duck disappeared, such a perfect
cataract of Malagasy epithets fol-
lowed him to the muddy depths as
rendered nightmare certain if memo-
ry and conscience did their work.

Wednesday, July 28th. Started
this morning for Andriba, a distance
of hours. The scenery on the
way to this place is much more
imposing than any of the preceding
on account of the great height and
ruggedness of the hills. In some

places it is grand, and in others
rendered perfectly beautiful by
the many rapids in the river, and
the luxuriant foliage of the trees
upon the banks. Our men however
saw little beauty in the choicest
spots, being far too much afraid of
the fahavdlo (enemies and robbers),
who are supposed to make this one of
their favourite resorts. Horrible
tales were told of the fierceness and
cruelty of these people ; all of which
we took "cum grano salis." Indeed
as we saw nothing of these very
fierce beings, we believed that they
existed chiefly in the imagination of
our bearers. I was therefore the
more surprised when by purest
accident we actually caught one of
these gentry on our return. He was
a spy sent out to reconnoitre our
little party ; but unfortunately for
himself, happened to shew his head
over the ridge of a hill, near which
we were cooking our rice, just as
some of our folks were looking in
that direction. Up jumped a couple
of Sakalava, and gun in hand gave
chase. My men clustered round in
a dreadful state of alarm, and begged
of me to load with ball, as the
enemy were close upon us. All was
confusion in our little camp. Before
the two Sakalava chasing the spy
could reach the top of the hill, the
fellow had hidden himself in the
long grass, so that on reaching the
top they were utterly at a loss.
Meanwhile, having my gun charged
with small shot only, I fired off
both barrels in order to load with
ball; and it so happened that in
firing I pointed the gun just in the
direction of the spot where the man
was hiding; whereupon thinking
he was seen and being deliberately
aimed at by a Yazaha (foreigner) with
a gun that had already gone off twice
without reloading, and for aught


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

17

he knew might go off twenty times
more, the poor fellow jumped up
to run for his life. Off started the
men in pursuit, and soon afterwards
brought him in prisoner.

It was quite early in the day
when we first caught sight of mount
Andriba. This mountain has a very
peculiar shape ; as approached from
the south it appears to have a large
flat top, and in shape reminded me
of nothing so much as the stump of
an immense tree left in the earth.
It is the N. W. boundary of the vale
of Andriba, a valley that appeared
about 8 miles broad by 9 long. Like
most valleys in these parts, it con-
sists of a series of undulations that
might well pass for hills in a more
level country. The whole is well
watered by numerous streams, and
far more thickly populated than the
surrounding country. It contains
upwards of 20 villages and hamlets.
Some of these however are very
small, consisting of five or six houses
only; the larger portion on an ave-
rage number about 20, but in Man-
gasoavana, by far the largest of them
all, there are upwards of 70 houses.
I ought to say were, for at the
time of our visit nothing was to be
seen but a thick cactus hedge and
a few charred sticks, the place having
been entirely burned down a week
or two previously. There are six
churches in this valley, viz., Man-
gasoavana, Maroharona, Tsiafaka-
riva, Manakona, Ambohitrakanga,
and Fanjavarivo.

Mangasoavana is regarded as the
reni-fiangdnana (mother church),
and appears to be the centre of the
spiritual life and intelligence of the
district. Unhappily, in consequence
of the recent fire, together with a
serious outbreak of small-pox, we
could not meet with the people here.
This was the more to be. regretted

as we had hoped to bring to some
practical issue the suggestion thrown
out by Mr. Jukes during his visit
last year respecting an evangelist
for the district. The remainder of
these churches are in a very unsatis-
factory condition both as regards
numbers and attainments. One of
the most intelligent men at Mana-
kona told us that the people meet
to pray in the chapel simply from
the fear of being considered disloyal
subjects, but that they are in the
habit of meeting immediately after
in the usual heathen fashion to
work the silddy (divination), and
pray to their ody (charms or idols).
Here also we met with the first
signs of drunkenness.

Thursday, July 29th. Reached
Malatsy in about an hour and a
quarter. This is the last village
before entering the efitra (desert, or
rather, uninhabited country). Here
there is a governor, and a garrison
of Hova soldiers, and the difference
between this and the villages last
named is very marked. The people
seem altogether of a superior class
sober, intelligent, and anxious to
learn. We had scarcely entered the
chapel before there was a general
stir in the place : and after about ten
minutes the governor came, Bible
in hand, with several members of
his family, and a large following of
young men and women dressed in
clean Idmbas, to welcome us and
obtain some help in the understand-
ing of God's word. "You are the
sowers," said the old man, "and we
the fallow ground, therefore we
come that you may sow the good
seed in our hearts." It cannot be
surprising that with such people we
had a most pleasant time. It was
late at night before we separated,
and then we had fairly to turn them
out. It is scarcely possible to help


18

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 18

contrasting garrison towns in Mada-
gascar with those at home. Here,
wherever Hova troops are quartered,
you may be sure of better order,
greater sobriety, and superior intel-
ligence. You may also generally
reckon on a flourishing church, with
equally flourishing schools; where-
as in garrison towns at home,
there is more drunkenness, disorder,
and general immorality than in any
other. Considering the size of the
place, the congregations here are
good, as a rule numbering about 140.
There are 20 members, of these 18
are able to read, and the remaining
two are learning. There is also a
school with 15 scholars and two
teachers. On my return I found that
an entirely new chapel had been
erected, superior in every respect to
the former.

Friday, July 30th. Started on
our journey through the efitra.
During the early part of the day we
were agreeably surprised to find it
a much more pleasant place than we
had anicipated. The scenery greatly
resembles the scenery of Imerina,
excepting that every hollow abounds
in tropical treesRofia, Adabo,
Akaboka, Tree-ferns, etc. etc. What
still more surprised us was the
absence of troublesome insects, of
which we had been told so much.
However, they atoned for apparently
negleoting vis on first entering this
region by their ferocious attacks
later in the day. On stopping for
the night, just before sunset, we
were literally in a cloud of mosqui-
toes, eyes, nose, ears, hands, were
bitten, rebitten, and bitten again by
these pests, until nothing but the
most violent exertion in flapping
ourselves with branches of trees
gave us the slightest relief. Hap-
pily for us some cattle had lately
passed, and plenty of cowdung was

left on the ground. By setting fire
to some of this, and standing in the
smoke, we gained relief; and by
pitching our tent to windward were
able to get some sort of sleep, but
it could scarcely be called balmy.
On starting the following morning,
the mosquitoes, who had paid us
most unremitting attention from the
time of our arrival, were so trouble-
some that the men had to carry
burning pastiles of oxdung, so that
we were again regaled with fumes
suggestive only by contrast of Araby
the blest. But any thing was
infinitely preferable to the stinging
of the hateful creatures. What they
were made for was a question that
forced itself upon us with painful
reiteration. If for the purpose of
perfecting the patience of long-
suffering missionaries, I am afraid
they utterly failed to fulfil the object
of their creation in my spiritual
experience. My hands were swollen
like the hands of a leper, my nose
blotched and blistered, and my ears
tingled in exquisite agony after
having assumed the shape and
consistency of a pair of discarded
goloshes.

On the way one of the men brought
us an immense chameleon. It mea-
sured 18 in. in length. Sometimes
these creatures look really handsome
in their coat of many colours, but
this was without exception the most
diabolical object it was ever my lot
to see. Its colours were the colours of
dirt and darkness mingled, and its
eyes so malicious that I required no
second warning to keep my fingers
away from its mouth.

Seizing the opportunity while the
men were cooking rice, I went to
a beautiful piece of running water
for a wash, intending to be very
careful, as I knew there were croco-
diles in the water, centipedes in the


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

19

wood, and scorpions under the stones.
And I here found that such a simple
operation as washing may become
really exciting, if under such circum-
stances you use soap plentifully
about the eyes, and allow your
imagination full play. A rotten log
in the stream becomes a crocodile,
and incautiously knocking against
it, you almost feel its teeth ; while a
few gnats biting well in concert
make you feel tolerably certain that
you have been stung by a gigantic
scorpion, and that by nightfall you
will be nothing more than a swollen
and discoloured corpse.

Saturday, July 31st. We came
in sight of the Ikopa at Inosifito,
and travelled for some distance along
its banks. It is here a splendid
stream, but broken by many islands,
and dotted by innumerable rocks.
These break up the water into hun-
dreds of beautiful eddies and rapids,
that may probably delight future
Malagasy artists, but must for ever
prevent navigation. We had hoped
to cross the efitra in two days, but
were not able. It was therefore
Sunday morning before we reached
Mevatanana. On arriving about
10 o'clock, we found the people
assembled in the chapel, and Raini-
soa of Vonizongo just concluding
the service. The chapel is a large
new building. The sides are made
of upright split rails, and are placed
so far apart as to suggest the idea
of being in a remarkably clean cattle
pen, or gigantic bird cage. The
roof however is well made, and
there is a capital verandah running
quite round, so that it is not only
well ventilated, but extremely cool:
indeed so cool, that on our arrival,
although it had been thronged with
people for upwards of two hours, it
was quite refreshing to enter. We
heaped blessings ou the heads of

the architects and builders, for
we had been fairly broiled on the
way. But there is a drawback about
this place that very shortly foroed
itself upon our attention, namely, a
most offensive odour. The people
assured us it was occasioned by the
new wood used in the construction
of the place : but on applying my
nose to various posts and door
frames, to the great amusement of
the wondering deacons, 1 formed my
own conclusions, and went sniffing
rouud outside, feeling certain that
I should discover the source of the
annoyance there. But I was utterly
at fault. There was not even the
faintest suspicion of the ordinary
odours pertaining to Malagasy village
life. I suppose therefore that the
deacons were right, but if so I hope
I may never smell a chip of that
wood again.

This is the only place we visited
in which a collection is made every
week for church purposes. On the
morning of our visit the amount
collected amounted to three shil-
lings. It was collected in miniature
tin pots, and these were placed on
the table during the service.

The chapel holds about 200people,
and was crowded at the time of our
visit. There are however but 24
members, only eight of whom are
able to read. The pastor is a very
unsuitable man, apparently wanting
in every thing which specially recom-
mends a man for such an office.
He is assisted by four preachers of
about equal attainments with himself.
There is said to be a school of 43
scholars, but it was hard to find
any traces of teacher or scholars.
Drunkenness is very common in the
town, with all its concomitant evils:
brawling, fighting, and general
uproar. We remained here during
the Monday and part of the Tuesday


20

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 20

following the day of our arrival,
instructing the people, gathering
information respecting our route,
hiring lakana (canoes), and making
preparations for our journey down
the river, this being the point where
the river becomes navigable for
small craft. We hired two large
lahana for $ the owner agreeing
to wait any time we pleased, at any
and every place we chose to visit
on the way. And I must say that
although we had reason to form a
very slight opinion of his moral
character in some matters, he most
faithfully fulfilled his contract with
us in this.

Understanding that there was a
church at Amparihibe, about five
hours N. E. of Mevatanana, we
agreed to separate : Baron to go
down in the lakana with the tent
and baggage, and I to go by land
to Amparihibe and join him two
days after at Ambinana. The road
from Mevatanana to Amparihibe is
very uninteresting, the country hum-
mocky, and abounding in long rank
grass. There are also barardtra
swamps near the river. This bara-
ratra is something between rank
prickly grass and fine bamboo. It
grows to a height of eight or nine
feet, with a feathery plume at the
top, looking graceful enough in the
distance, but having blades that
pierce the skin like a knife. The
swamps are just passable at this
season, if blessed with paticnoe and
a thick skin, but I suppose utterly
impassable during the heavy rains.
In one of these swamps we came
upon an animal which was quite
new to me. It is called Sitry, and
closely resembles a young crocodile,
indeed some of the people declared
that it was one, but it differs very
much from the crocodile in the
shape of its head, and also in its

habits, for it runs and climbs trees
like a squirrel when pursued, and
apparently lives in their hollow
trunks. The one we saw on this
occasion was about 15 inches in
length, but we afterwards found
larger specimens.

A few minutes after seeing this
creature we came in sight of the
Betsiboka, a very wide but shallow
river at this season, except in mid-
stream. Amparihibe stands on a
hill jutting out from the opposite
shore ; as there is no regular ferry
unfortunate travellers have to wade
out across the shallows as far as they
dare, and shout to the villagers on
the opposite side, until some one
happens to hear. After which there
is nothing to be done but to make
your way to the nearest sand-bank
that gives good footing, and wait
with all the patience you can muster.
Of one thing you may be certain:
that however extensive your stock,
it will all be required. My men
seemed to know the customs of the
place ; for they first had a good wash,
or as good an one as they could in
three inches of water; for the horri-
ble crocodiles would not let them
go deeper on peril of their limbs and
lives. After this they proceeded to
wash their clothes in a very leisurely
way, sticking a couple of spears in
the sand to support their clothes'
line. All this was done, and the
clothes well dried, before there was
any appearance of the boat. At last
it hove in sight about a mile up
the stream. After waiting so long
we were all anxious to get across,
therefore as soon as the canoe
reached us, we jumped in without
delay, filling it nicely. The boatman
pushed off, and we were just getting
into deep water, when to our conster-
nation we found the boat was filling
rapidly,the water rushing in


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

21

through a hole in the stern about
the size of a soup-plate, which in
our hurry we had not noticed. Of
course there was some little commo-
tion among us, and by the timely
help of the boatman, who lost his
wits, his pole, and his balance alto-
gether, we upset the lakana, and
turned everybody and everything
into the water. Happily the water
was only up to our loins, but that
was far too deep for safety in these
parts ; and we all seemed to know it,
for everyone began shouting, scream-
ing, splashing and kicking in the
most alarming fashion; and thus
scaring the crocodiles we scrambled
again on to the sand-bank from
which we had so lately started. We
all looked somewhat the worse for
the wetting, but the dripping Vazaha
(foreigner) seemed to afford great
amusement. I am not sure that
even he looked so ridiculous as he
felt, for on the opposite bank all the
rank and beauty of the town had
assembled to welcome and to do
him honour, and thus of course
witnessed the whole proceeding.
However, the boat was soon righted,
and another man sent to ferry us
across. All seemed quite ready to
forget the mishap ; but after a very
kind reception by the governor and
his family, my feelings compelled
me to hint at the fact that I was
very wet, and should be glad to
retire to change my clothes. Here
I was confronted by a new difficulty,
for there was not a dry article
belonging to me except one sheet.
Scarcely was I wrapped in this before
in trooped a deputation of ladies;
and quick as ladies usually are in
taking a hint, I actually used up all
my best blushes before they gained
even a dim notion of my discomfort,
and all my very strongest Malagasy
before they consented to leave.

The evening was spent in chat-
ting with the governor and the
pastor of the church, both extremely
ignorant men, whom I was sorry
to find occupying such positions.
The chapel is large enough to hold
about 300, but it is very slightly
built. On Sunday mornings it is well
filled, but in the afternoon very
thinly attended. There are two
preachers besides the pastor, and
42 members, of whom only 10 are
able to read. The school meets
but twice a week, and then the
attendance is very small. In answer
to enquiries I found there was
but one Bible in the place, and
that is the property of the church.
On making a present of one to the
governor for the use of his family,
he seemed vastly delighted, although
himself unable to read one word.
Notwithstanding the ignorance of
the people here they were extremely
kind ; the little governor not know-
ing how to do enough for me.
Rice, fowls, and pork were sent in
such abundance that I knew not
what to do with them. A general
order was given to my servant by
the governor to fetch anything and
everything I might want from his
house ; he himself sending whatever
he thought likely to add to my
comfort. And as the time for leav-
ing drew near, a great drum was
beaten in the centre of the town.
(This, as I afterwards learned, was
the signal for the ladies to dress.)
And on coming out shortly after I
was fairly confused to see the prepa-
rations that had been made to do me
honour. There was a guard of sol-
diers, followed by a military band
consisting of two violins, a big drum,
and a little drum with a small boy to
beat it. There was the governor, -car-
rying a silver-mounted gun, his wife
with her head fairly covered with


22

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 22

golden ornaments, his children and
servants in gala dress, and a whole
batallion of ladies following in purple
and scarlet and fine twined linen.
On reaching the sand about half a
mile from the town, the procession
halted, compliments were exchanged,
and with the governor's blessing, and
two soldiers to shew me the way,
I went off to meet Baron, near
Ambinana, at the junction of the
Ikopa and the Betsiboka.

The way was the most unpleasant
I have yet travelled, being almost
entirely through swamps of barara-
tra, the spear-like blades of which so
plagued the men in carrying that I
was obliged to walk nearly all the
way, and therefore arrived at Ambi-
nana quite tired out, but blessing
myself that the troubles of the day
were ended. But, alas! compara-
tively, they were only beginning.
The march in the burning sun was
as nothing, the pricking of the bara-
ratra a thing not to be mentioned, in
comparison with the misery occasion-
ed by the swarms of mosquitoes
that beset us here. I thought I had
been sufficiently tormented by these
pests before, but the past was render-
ed utterly unworthy of mention by
the experience of that night. I had
done my best to prepare, in conse-
quence of preliminary warnings, by
wrapping- myself in a thick rug, and
putting my head in a rush basket
well covered with folds of netting.
It was a beautiful contrivance, and I
fairly chuckled to myself as I lay
down ; believing that no moka could
by any ingenuity get at me. But
they did. At first I would not believe
it; and thought the first sharp
little sting was the effect of a vivid
imagination : for I could hear thou-
sands of them outside. Soon it was
of no use ; I could not give myself
credit for such a very vigorous ima-

gination as became absolutely neces-
sary to impose on my feelings. The
misery increased. I twisted, and
rolled, and cuffed, and slapped, and
smacked myself, until the perspira-
tion poured down my face. It became
utterly unbearable. I dashed away
my head-gear, leaped to my feet,
and spent the remainder of that
horrible night enveloped in a dense
smoke that half choked and quite
blinded me.

The following morning was suffi-
ciently beautiful, and its experiences
sufficiently novel, to make us entirely
forget the miseries of the night. It
was our first day on the river ; and
after the jolting of the Jilanjdna, the
swift and easy motion of the lakana
was very enjoyable. Our pleasure
would however have been greatly
increased if we could have been
quite sure the lakana would not
turn over; as it was, our convictions
partook of quite an opposite charac-
ter, for being round at the bottom
they heeled over with the slightest
movement. Once fairly packed
we could not change our seats ; and
for a few hours dared scarcely turn
our heads, or blow our noses. A
good boat, punt, or even a decent
raft, in which we could have comfor-
tably floated clown the river, would
have rendered our enjoyment perfect.
Nevertheless, as it was, it was a
great treat, and an experience never
to be forgotten. True, in places,
and for long distances, the banks
were bare; but in other parts, the
high hills in the distance, and the
great forest trees with gnarled roots
by the shore, twisting and knotting
themselves about the broken rocks,
were extremely grand. While the
intense stillness, and absence of all
trace or sign of man, together with
the tameness of the birds and other
living creatures in the woods, made


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

23

one feel almost a cotemporary of
our first parents in the new-made
world. Passing a bend in the river,
the scene would altogether change.
The water spreading out into a broad
expanse like some large lagoon,
would be dotted with islands bearing
the earliest forms of vegetation ; or
broken by numerous sand-banks,
where the great slimy crocodiles by
scores lay sunning themselves with
mouths wide open, or slowly swam
in the muddy stream. Imagination
quickly filled in the Ichthyosaurus,
Plesiosaurus, and other needful de-
tails, and there we were in the far
distant geologic periods, beholding
the world yet in process of formation.
Suddenly, close to my side, there is a
most deafening bang ; up fly thou-
sands of birds wheeling and scream-
ing in mid-air; up jumps every
crocodile within sight, snapping its
jaws, and plunges madly in the
water ; the river seems to boil with
the commotion. It was only Baron's
gun; but it has dispelled all those
dreams by fancy bred, and brought
us back to the nineteenth century
with a cruel jerk.

Thursday, August 5th. To day,
for the first time, we had to
depend on our skill as sportsmen for
a dinner ; and I think neither of us
will soon forget either the dinner
or the dining room. For dinner we
had caught four black parrots and
a turtle. For a dining room we
chose a grove of immense cikondro
(bananas): tall trees that went tower-
ing up far above ; their broad green
leaves falling gracefully over at the
top and forming long colonnades of
gothic arches; the dead leaves droop-
ing at the sides and the ashy grey
trunks forming a beautiful contrast
to the bright green above. A large
akondro grove in the Sakalava coun-
try must be seen to be believed in.

This seemed' a place worthy of the
occasion; for we were anticipating
with great gusto a dish of real turtle
soup, a dish that neither of us had
tasted in our lives. The cook seem-
ed to feel that there was something
important connected with that turtle,
and took great pains to follow our
directions. After a decent interval
we were told that it was ready. We
needed no second call, but immediate-
ly took our seats. First came the
inevitable vary (rice) ; then followed
the black parrots, looking blacker
without their feathers than they had
ever looked with them; after this,
four small pieces of perfectly dry
flesh. Poor Baron gave a great cry
of horror. It was indeed our turtle.
We had forgotten to tell the man to
save the soup; and thinking it
common pot-liquor, he had thrown
it all away, reserving the drj' meat
only as our dainty dish. Poor Baron !
Black parrots were nothing to him
after that dreadful blow. True he
only exploded in English, but the
cook went away so crestfallen that I
had to follow and comfort him. Some
of the men also had a rare feast on
this occasion, the dish consisting of
an immense brown bat, which I had
shot the evening before. It was
truly an immense fellow, measuring
upwards of four feet across the wings.
Great numbers of these creatures are
to be seen about this place at sunset;
and what seemed to me most curious
was that they were always flying in a
direct line from the setting sun. They
are so large, and fly so straight and
steadily, that in the doubtful light I
supposed them to be benighted crows,
for they have precisely the same
deliberate motion of the wings.

Chatting with an old Sakalava
while the men were packing up, we
happened to ask him his name ;
whereupon he politely requested us


24

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 24

to ask one of his servants standing
by. On expressing our astonishment
that he should have forgotten this,
he told us that it was fady (tabooed)
for one of his tribe to pronounce
his own name. We found this was
perfectly true in that district, but
it is not the case with the Sakalava
a few days further down the river.

The next day, Friday August 6th,
we reached Ankarabato. When
nearly close to our landing place,
I had the good fortune to shoot a
crocodile dead on the spot. As I
had always understood this was
impossible (and experience was fast
leading me to believe it), it may
interest some to know that the ball
entered just behind the eye, and took
a downward direction, lodging in the
lower jaw on the opposite side of the
head. The one shot was small in
comparison with the majority of
those we saw, measuring only 8ft.
9in. When opened there were
several handfuls of pebbles in its
stomach, about the size of spanish
nuts, but nothing more nourishing.
We also took out of it 18 eggs. On
examining the head we found there
was a double set of ej'e-lids, one
transparent, the other quite opaque.
Most of the teeth close like the teeth
of a shark, the upper ones fitting
into the spaces between the lower,
and vice- versa ; but in the crocodile
there are also holes both in the upper
and lower jaw to admit the points
of the teeth, like a sheath. The two
long teeth immediately in front of
the lower jaw pass right through
the bone, and come out on the upper
side of the upper jaw when the mouth
is closed. There were also six fangs
on each side of the head, three above
and three below, that fit outside the
jaws like the tusks of a boar. On
the whole, I never saw such a dread-
ful snapping apparatus in my life ;

a shark's mouth looks innocent by
comparison. The skin, while tough,
was not so horny as I expected, nor
were the long spines on the back so
hard as I supposed; but perhaps
the specimen was of tender years.

After landing and examining our
prize, our next care was to send to
Trabonjy and inform the governor
of our arrival; requesting also that
some trustworthy person, able to give
information respecting the. state of
the church and schools, might be
allowed to come to us where we had
pitched our tent, as we understood
it was not safe to enter the town
with our men an account of the
prevalence of small-pox. Next morn-
ing, however, six or eight of the
chief men came bringing a letter
from the governor, in which he stated
there was no cause for fear, and
that the people would be most glad
to see us. I therefore started off at
once, taking a few books and papers.
The road is through a pleasant piece
of country well stocked with akanga
(guinea fowl), and in many parts
thickly overgrown with the TdJiona.
This is a kind of palmetto, bearing
a hard brown nut, called by the
natives Vdantsdtrona, from which the
§akalava here make toaka (spirits).
We passed through one village in
which all the people seemed fully
employed in making this intoxica-
ting spirit; we therefore took the
opportunity of examining the pro-
cess, which was as follows:The
nuts are first bruised, then placed
in earthen pots let into the ground.
When filled with these nuts, water
is poured in until it reaches the
brim; then the pots are covered
with pounded husks of the aforesaid
nuts, and the whole left for eight
days ; after which the liquor is dis-
tilled in the usual simple native
fashion. It is thea flavoured with


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

25

the bark of various trees to suit the
taste, and considered fit for use.
The latter part of the process is
not at all needful to meet the taste
of the manufacturers : they and
their families helping themselves
from the open pan into which the
spirit runs from the still whenever so
disposed. Even the little children,
picking up a pot-sherd, dipped and
drank at their pleasure. It is pitia-
ble enough to see the blear-eyed
parents idling about these villages,
or to hear them shouting in their
drunken merriment; but still more
so to see the little naked children
staggering in their play. I am bound
however to say that I never saw the
least sign of drunkenness among
the Hova soldiers or their families.
They live quite apart from the Saka-
lava, and are strictly forbidden by law
to touch the toaka, or allow any of
it to be brought within the stockade
which always separates their part
of any town from the Sakalava and
Mozambique. I believe the law is
obeyed to the letter, and only wish
some such law could be made binding
on the Sakalava also. The present
system of things in many of their
towns and villages cannot from its
very nature have been in operation
long, or the country would have
become depopulated. And if what
I saw in some of the villages in the
north fairly represents the state of
tribes in the west and south, there
will soon be no need of Hova garri-
sons to keep the peace, for there will
be no enemy to break it. Tompo-
kolahy o wont you buy a little ?"
said a half drunken fellow to me as
I passed where he and his family
were all busily distilling. I was hot
upon the subject then, for the evil
was under my very eyes, and fairly
roared out No They all started,
and as head and heart were full, I

tried to shew them what toaka was
doing for them, their families, and
country. They soon forgot it all,
no doubt, for they were scarcely any
of them sober ; but I shall not soon
forget what one of them told me
there. He said : "It was you Yazaha
who taught us ; we never knew how
to make it until you came. You
have been our teachers." God grant
they may learn other lessons the
Yazaha are endeavouring to teach
equally as well.

Preceded by the guides sent by
the governor we reached our des-
tination in about an hour and a
half. Not the Trabonjy visited by
Dr. Mullens and Mr. Pillans last
year, for that was completely burnt
down a week or two after they left,
but a new town built on an eminence,
called Mahatombo, a little distance
from the former site. The upper,
or Hova portion of the town, contains
about 60 houses, besides the chapel;
the lower about 100, but many of
these so-called houses are but wretch-
ed huts. In this lower town we no-
ticed a few Arabs and many Mozam-
biques. The new chapel is a nice
clean building, having walls covered
with rofia cloth, and a large calico
awning over the desk. It is capable
of holding 400 with comfort; but
the governor told me that 470 is the
usual congregation. Of these, 230
are members of the church, a very
large proportion, and one that may
well awaken suspicion as to the
conditions of membership, and the
state of church discipline. But so
far as we could learn, they are far
more careful in these matters than the
majority of the churches in Imerina.
There are three preachers, thirteen
deacons, and a school contain-
ing 53 children, taught by three
teachers, who receive $2 per month
from the church funds. There are


26

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 26

also classes for adults on Mondays
and Thursdays. We were most
thankful to find the whole tone of
Christian life and feeling here far
above any thing we had thus far met
with ; we were thoroughly at home
with Christian brethren. Rainisoa-
manana, who appears to be at the
root of all the good here, is both
governor and pastor. He is a tall
and hearty man, open-handed and
open-hearted also. There is a sin-
gular charm about him, together with
an elevation of character and conver-
sation that won our regard and
affection at once. He is a kindred
spirit with Razaka and Rainitrimo,
but not being quite so aged has more
fire and energy. By his thoroughly
honest and consistent character he
has won the confidence of the Saka-
lava, east and west; and those who
will trust no other Hova official
appear to trust him with perfect
confidence. In Trabonjy he is the
patriarch, honoured and loved by
all. We were also greatly pleased
to meet here, and afterwards at
Amberobe, Ratsisalovanina, a mes-
senger from the church at Mojanga;
and we learned that the churches at
Mojanga, Marovoay and Trabonjy
have united to send preachers and
messengers throughout the whole of
the surrounding country to visit and
instruct the churches. To arrange
the business a six-monthly meeting is
held at these three places in turn.

On Monday August 9th, we start-
ed for the purpose of visiting some
very large towns a few days inland
to the west, in which we understood
there were Christian churches that
had never yet been visited by any
European. We were directed to
land at Madiravalo, about half a
day's journey down the river from
Trabonjy. Arriving, we required ex-
tra men to carry us and our belong-

ings, but found the people so evi-
dently bent on improving the oppor-
tunity of enriching themselves at our
expense, that we were compelled to
take to the boats again. Learning
from a couple of Arabs that there
was a large village a short distance
beyond the next bend in the river,
where men could be hired, we start-
ed in hopes of reaching the place
before sunset. But the notion these
people had of a short distance differed
considerably from ours. We went on
mile after mile, examining the banks
with the greatest care, but there
were no signs of house, hut, or human
being. At last, about half an hour
after sunset, we turned into a small
tributary stream, full of sand-banks.
After ascending this for some hours
we turned into a kind of open drain ;
and about two miles up this drain
we found a landing-place, but no
signs of any town or village could
we see in the uncertain moonlight.
Firing our guns, the sudden shout-
ing of people, and the frantic bark-
ing of innumerable dogs, assured us
in the boats that all was right, while
it awakened the most lively fears in
every one else that all was wrong;
and that some invisible enemy was
making a night attack upon them.
Happily we found that a white face
is a very good substitute for letters
of introduction; and pitching our tent
in the middle of the village, we all
quickly and easily drifted into the
land of Nod.

In the morning we found that we
had landed at a place called Antafia-
karano, a small dirty Sakalava village,
in which the sole occupation of the
peopele seemed to be the distilling
and drinking of toaka. The same may
be said of all the adjacent villages
without feai'j of any action for defa-
mation of character. The country 011
this side of the river is rough and well


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

27

wooded, but not very populous, ex-
cepting in the vicinity of the towns
we went specially to visit. The first
of these, Beseva, is three hours west
of Antafiakarano. It contains about
130 houses, for the most part large
and well built; the streets are wide
and tolerably regular. On visiting
the chapel we found it in rather a
dilapidated condition, but were told
they were about building a new one.
On returning from Ambohibe we
spent a Sunday here, and found a
congregation of about 100, which
just comfortably filled the place.
There are only 13 members in
fellowship, but 26 adults in the
congregation are able to read, and
21 have either a Bible or Testament.
The governor was very busy in
church matters during our stay,
but the impression left upon our
minds in this place was very unfa-
vourable. An air of unreality per-
vaded the whole; and the more
carefully inquiries were made, the
more convinced we became that the
fear of being considered disloyal
subjects of the queen is the only
motive which at present has any
great influence with them in attend-
ing the church or sustaining its
ordinances.

Amberobe is one day and a half
west of Beseva. It is a much larger
place than we expected to see,
containing upwards of 300 houses,
and is altogether better built than
either Mevatanana or Trabonjy. On
arriving, its regular streets and
orderly appearance struck us as
quite novel in Madagascar. Going
out early on the following morning,
I was astonished to find a regular
army of scavengers scraping the
roadways. Holes had been dug at
convenient distances along the cen-
tre of the roadway, and a number
of men with spears stuck into short

logs for scrapers, were collecting
all offensive matters into these
holes, and then scattering over the
surface the earth thrown out to
make them. Thus I learned that
under certain circumstances it may
not be the height of folly to dispose
of dirt Irish fashion, viz: by
digging a hole to put it in. It is
to be hoped that neither horses nor
wheeled carriages will be introduced
here for some time to come, as
accidents may probably happen from
the practise of digging fresh holes
every morning, and filling them with,
dust and refuse. We found many Mo-
zambique slaves, and a tolerable
number of Arab and Karana traders
in the neighbourhood. The chief
occupation of the people appears to
be the rearing of cattle, large
numbers of which they send into
Imerina through Vonizongo. There
is also a considerable trade in
india-rubber and hides ; these are
sent to Mojanga for exportation.
Toaka is distilled in abundance
just outside the palisades. We
found a chapel capable of holding
500 or 600 people, and were told that
it is filled every Suuday. Like the
building at Beseva it is in a sad
condition, but wood had been
collected to build another. The
people are lamentably ignorant, and
the pastor, preachers, and deacons
themselves have scarcely any intelli-
gent idea of their duties, or even of
the leading facts and doctrines on
which Christianity itself is founded.
In illustration of the above I may
refer to a rather curious case of
church discipline which took place
while we were there. Having
requested the church members to
meet us after the school examination
we conducted, one man made his
appearance, so evidently the worse
for liquor that even the Bible carried


28

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 28

very carefully under his arm did
not avail to keep up a becoming
church-going appearance. On direct-
ing the attention of several of
the leading men to this individual,
and enquiring whether he was not
mamo (drunk), they at once said
Yes; and moreover added that
he was often in that condition. We
then asked who he was; and were
told that he was a member of the
church, and had been chosen as one
of their regular preachers. On
enquiring if they thought such
conduct becoming in a man occupy ing
such a position they were at a loss
for an answer. At last one of them
appeared struck by an idea, and
brightening up said: "No, he is diso
fanjakana" (he is wrong as regards
the kingdom, i. e. he is breaking the
laws). After a time we led
them to see pretty clearly that he
was not only 'diso fanjakana,' but
*diso Jivavahana' also, and a person
altogether unworthy to be either
a preacher or member of the church.
We then called a special church
meeting; and after instructing them
respecting their duty in all such
cases, the man was expelled. We
then requested the pastor and
deacons to go to the man, and tell
him what had been done ; and also
urged them to do all in their power
to shew him the evil of his conduct,
that they might if possible bring
him to repentance and newness of
life. We then thought the matter
concluded, but about half an hour
after, the deputation sent to wait
on the offending member returned
and told us the business was finished;
that they had conveyed our message
and done our bidding. "And done
it well," said one perspiring mem-
ber. "Yes," said another, "we have,
thoroughly, with a stick." "What ?"
we both cried, "what have you done

with a stick ?" "Why you told us to
do our best to bring him to repen-
tance, and so we thrashed him."
Sure enough on making inquiry
we found that they had thrown him
on the ground, and publicly given
him a most hearty thrashing for
disgracing them all before the Va-
zaha. And so effectual were the
means used, that while we were yet
speaking the culprit himself came
in, much sobered, and bearing a
slate in his hand, written from top
to bottom with the most abject
confession of his sin and expressions
of bitter repentance. All then
united in asking whether after such
an exhibition of sorrow he should
not be immediately restored to his
former position as member and
preacher in the church. And it
was with great difficulty we could
get even the best of them to see
that no such thing should be done
until a renewed life proved the
reality of his repentance.

Returning to Beseva we found
the place in an uproar. The Sakalava
were out playing at Idtohdndry, a
sort of boxing match open to any
and every one who chooses to step
into the ring. For a ring is formed
and ring keepers appointed, with
sticks to keep order, the said sticks
being used with very considerable
effect. There was an immense
crowd, a great dust, a big drum
beaten without intermission, and
a most horrible mixture of cheering,
hooting, and groaning as the chances
of the fight varied. On moonlight
nights this is the favourite pastime,
and as toaka is plentiful, it may
easily be guessed to what scenes it
gives rise.

In the woods between Amberobe
and Beseva we met with the Voa-
vdtaka, a fruit quite new to me, but
I believe common in other parts


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

29

near the coast. It is perfectly
round; has a hard shell of a golden
yellow colour, and is rather larger
in size than a cricket ball. Inside
is a soft mass of a mud colour, but
sweet and pleasant to the taste. Of
these we all made a hearty feast;
and as they are rather more diffi-
cult to eat in a dainty and cleanly
fashion than ripe mangos, we smear-
ed ourselves pretty considerably
in the process. We also met with
large numbers of black parrots,
wild guinea fowl, and butterflies of
a very large and rare species.

Embarking once more in our
canoes on Monday, August 16th,
we drifted down the stream for a
couple of hours, and then turned up
another branch of the river on the
west side; and in about half an hour
found ourselves abreast of Mahabo,
the last town we visited on the
west bank. The town is built on
a wooded hill about one hour's walk
from the river. On arriving we
found the whole garrison, consisting
of five men and a boy, drawn out to
grace our reception. The governor
shortly appeared in great style,
wearing a pair of bright scarlet
trowsers, and a long-tailed blue
coat. Before taking the least notice
of us, he put his little army through
a series of evolutions, not at all
fitted to strike terror into our hearts,
whatever may have been the inten-
tion. Compared with Beseva the
town is small, containing not more
than 60 houses. Being very isolated
we were not surprised to find the
people very backward. We found
a church, but no Bible in the place.
It is also doubtful whether there is
a pastor. When I enquired, the
schoolmaster turned to the governor
and whispered : "You are the pastor,
you know ;" but this the governor
flatly and very energetically denied.

Whereupon some two or three old
men signified their assent, and point-
ing to the schoolmaster, said : "You
are the pastor," but this he would
not admit; and we left them all
very much in doubt as to whether
they really have a pastor or not;
and if so, who he is. According to
their own account they have three
teachers, and 18 scholars in the
school, but I very much doubt this.
There are however two preachers
and four or five deacons, and five of
the adults are able to read with a
little difficulty. The chapel is an
extraordinary building; but the
builder's ingenuity has been appa-
rently taxed to the utmost in devising
a pulpit into which nothing less
agile than a wild cat can enter
without performing a series of
perfectly original gymnastic exerci-
ses, extremely trying to the preacher,
while extremely amusing to the
congregation. We were treated
with great kindness by these poor
folks: beef, milk and honey being
supplied in abundance ; and on the
morning of our departure the gover-
nor, together with the whole of the
congregation, in clean and many
coloured garments, came down to the
river-bank to bid us farewell and
beg of us to send them help. Think-
ing of their ignorance and helpless-
ness, it was touching to hear the
sad wild melody they sang as they
came marching from under the trees
into the open space by our tent.
It seemed to me like the wailing
of the "Miserere;" a great lump
rose in my throat, as the music
died away, and an involuntary cry
escaped: "God help them:" a cry in
which, I trust, you too will join,
kind reader, and with the cry,
consider what may be done for their
salvation. The great difficulty in
this part will be the extreme un-


30

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 30

healthiness of the climate. From all
I could learn the place is never free
from fever, and in the rainy season
it is impossible for any stranger to
remain.

As it is very dangerous to perform
the rest of the journey in a lakana
on account of the chopping waves
near the mouth of the river, and the
rough weather sometimes experien-
ced in the bay, we were compelled
to go on to Marovoay, in order to
obtain one of the dhows trading
between that place and Mojanga.
In order to reach this place we had
to cross the main stream, and go for
several miles up another tributary
running east. But hearing that
small-pox was fearfully bad in the
town, we encamped about a mile and
a half to the west, on the opposite
side of the water. On the way we
caught a live crocodile among the
rushes on the bank. Of course it
was very young, and not more than
two feet long ; but although young
it made matters much more lively
than pleasant in the lakcma. It
was such a veritable little savage,
that to keep it out of mischief we
were reduced to the necessity of
either drawing all its teeth, or else
towing it alongside. The latter plan
was adopted and afforded much
amusement. It snapped and snarled,
and apparently endeavoured to bark,
but its vocal powers wer.c not equal
to this performance. But I can
vouch for one thing, and that is,
that these creatures sleep with their
mouth wide open, and of course
snore horribly. When near Tra-
bonjy, on the way home, one big
fellow who had chosen the same
sand-bank for a lodging as ourselves,
made such an uproar a few yards
from the stern of the lakana in
which I was sleeping, that I could
not stand it. Being a bright moon-

light night I caught up a spear, and
jumped over the side with the bene-
volent intention of picking his teeth,
or otherwise teaching him better
manners. But he must have slept
like the proverbial weasel, with one
eye open, for when close upon him,
he snapped his jaws like a gin,
jumped back as though convulsed
with a nightmare, and with the
spear just grazing his scaly hide,
tumbled into the water, splashing
me from top to toe. I promised to
take something better than a spear
next time; and something that
would not require getting to such
close quarters.

Thursday, August 19th. Friend
Baron was off at daylight to hire a
dhow, and about 8 o'clock I saw it
coming down. We were soon on
board, for the tide was in our favour,
and time was precious; several of
the men, together with myself,
having symptoms of serious illness.
We were scarcely off before we saw
a small lakana containing two men
coming down from Marovoay at
racing pace. They brought us a
paper from the governor and pastor
giving the following particulars of
the then present state of the church.
I say the then present state of the
church, because I have just heard
that the small-pox has made such a
a fearful diminution in the numbers.
Indeed, according to report, the place
is now deserted: the people having
taken to the woods in order if
possible to escape the infection.
The numbers were as follows :Two
pastors, ten preachers, 26 deacons
and 14 deaconesses ; 285 members
in communion ; a congregation of
545, and a school containing 57
scholars. We were extremely sorry
that we were compelled to pass by
so large and important a place; but
having men already greatly weak-


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

31

ened by fever, we felt it would have
been unwise to have entered, lest we
should catch and spread the infec-
tion : not knowing at the time how
widely it had already extended.

With the turn of the tide we
found ourselves in difficulties, for
the wind turned against us also.
After the crew had made desperate
but unsatisfactory attempts to tow
us along from the shore, we came to
anchor. On landing in what appear-
ed a pleasant grove, to our surprise
and disgust we found ourselves in
a mangrove swamp. Immense trees
were growing rankly in a slimy
mass of decaying matter that fairly
stank of miasma. These swamps,
interspersed with mud-banks, extend
for miles on both sides of the river.
Indeed with slight exceptions, they
appear to extend from Marovoay
right down to where the river
empties itself into the Bay of Mo-
janga. At the top of every tide they
are covered with water, and welter
and steam in the broiling sun until
the top of the next tide covers them
again. They thus form one of the
most horrible fever beds it is possi-
ble to conceive. With the return
of the tide we slowly dropped down
the river, and after awhile found
ourselves in the bay. Here the
breeze freshened, and the little boat
went skimming, bounding, and leap-
ing away towards Mojanga; which
we reached at dawn on the morning
of Friday, August 20th.

Unhappily I was not able fully to
enjoy the moonlight ride, as I had
become too unwell to sit up. How-
ever, 1 managed to amuse myself
by watching the Arab captain, who
having to steer all through the
night, prepared himself in the fol-
lowing fashion :First, he went
forward and partook of a plentiful
meal of rice; then returning to his

post, disrobed himself, and twisted
nearly the whole of his rather exten-
sive wardrobe round his head and
throat, thereby covering his nose
and mouth in voluminous folds of
white longcloth, until it was utterly
impossible for him to shout his
orders, and apparently impossible
to breathe. Then, squatting on the
stern-rail, like a chicken at roost,
he sat speechless and almost motion-
less through the long night, yet
carefully watching and skilfully
steering the little boat, so as to take
every possible advantage of the
wind. Many times, on looking up, he
appeared to my slightly disordered
imagination like a gigantic mushroom
on a very thick black stalk. Among
the notes and queries for future
consideration, it has struck me that
it would be curious to learn why, in
the name of all that is stifling, these
folks, together with the Mozam-
biques and Malagasy, so carefully
cover up their heads at night. One
intelligent traveller has remarked
that while all natives of tropical
countries thus endeavour to stifle
themselves at night, the African
tribes, in addition to covering the
head, usually lie flat upon the face ;
and queries whether the flatness of
their noses is owing to this extraor-
dinary custom. So soon as we
grounded on the beach, the men
leaped ashore. ''Now," said the
captain, "all of you who have
fever, make a large fire, then wash
in the sea, dry yourselves by the
fire, and you will never be troubled
with fever again.'' However favour-
ably the cold water cure might
have been received later in the day,
the men positively refused to enter
the water at half-past four in the
morning; therefore I cannot give
an opinion on the value of this
Arabic cure for taw (fever).


32

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 32

A first glance at Mojanga rather
prepossessed me in its favour. Seve-
ral high castellated houses standing
near the shore, gave a substantial
appearance to the place, altogether
in contrast with the flimsy structures
to which we had become accustomed
in the Sakalava country. These
were the houses of the Arab traders.
They are very strongly built, and
within are extremely cool and com-
fortable. But the vast majority of
the houses are simply built of rofia
and palmetto leaves. Two days
would be sufficient to build the most
elaborate, and two minutes more
sufficient to destroy it utterly. The
lower town is long and straggling;
the houses stretching along the beach
for upwards of a mile and a half.
The upper town stands on rising
ground about half a mile from the
shore. It is far more substantially
built than the Sakalava houses below,
but there is nothing architecturally
beautiful about it, nor are there
likely to be any ruins to interest
future Malagasy antiquarians. By
the way, what will that coming race
do, whose forefathers have never
dreamed of building with anything
more substantial than sticks or mud
from the time of the creation ?
About half a mile N. W. of the
upper town, on a point of land, is
the fort. It is chiefly used as an
observatory. The condition of the
walls, and the state of the few ship
guns mounted inside, suggest that
the Malagasy are a people dwelling
like the ancient Zidonians, careless, if
not secure. Between the fort and
the upper town is a splendid site for
a missionary's house. It is high
and comparatively cool, while near
enough to either town to be easily
accessible, and just far enough away
to escape the evil odours of both.
On three sides is the sea, and all

around a magnificent grove of man-
go trees. On enquiry, we found that
it probably would be necessary
to bring men from Imerina to
build it, as the folks here who can
be hired are not only without the
necessary skill, but moreover demand
excessive wages, and decline to work
for more than two or three hours
daily.

1 Immediately on our arrival, a
packet of letters was brought to us.
Among the rest, one from the Prime
Minister enclosed in one from Mr.
Briggs, urging our immediate return
to Antananarivo, on account of a
reported outbreak of small-pox in
the district; as it was feared from
its virulence it would be necessary to
cut off all communication between
the infected district and the central
province, On enquiry we found
that the way was already stopped,
troops having been placed right
across the country. Looking at the
letter, more carefully, we found that
it should have been delivered to us
at Mevatanana, three weeks before ;
but that the bearers, instead of being
five days, had been sixteen on the
way, so that they did not arrive there
until ten days after our departure.
We felt therefore that we were in
no very enviable position. We had
never dreamed of any difficulty in
returning, and therefore when we
reached any place where small-pox
was exceptionally prevalent we sim-
ply kept clear of the infected town
or village, and went on. Now we
were fairly trapped. And to make
matters worse, we found that Mo-
janga itself was not only infected,
but that the disease was making such
ravages as to spread universal alarm,
and stop nearly all the business and
usual employments of the people.
Society was completely disorganized.
The numbers sick, or in attendance


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

33

on the sick, were so great as to give
quite a deserted appearance to the
place. The congregation in the lower
church was reduced to a mere hand-
ful ; in the upper one it was not
much better ; and the school was
disbanded as the disease was carrying
off so many of the children. On
account of the infectious nature of
this sickness we were not able to
assemble the people in any great
numbers, even had we wished. The
Sunday services, however, were con-
tinued as usual; Mr. Baron taking
the larger part of the work, as I was
unable to leave the house for a fort-
night after our arrival on account of
illness. It will thus be seen that one
object -of our visit could from the
nature of the case be but very im-
perfectly accomplished. But we saw
quite sufficient of the place and the
surrounding district to make us feel
that it would be utter folly to expect
any one man to do the work which
the district demands. If one were
placed at Mojanga, he might exercise
a nominal superintendence, but cer-
tainly could do little more, except in
Mojanga itself. The district fairly
extends from Mojanga in the north
to Mevatanana in the south, a distance
of between five andsix days'journey;
embracing, besides the churches in
these places themselves, with their
surrounding districts, the large and

o 1 o

important towns of Marovoay, Tra-
bonjy, and Amparihibe. From east
to west it is still larger, extending a
distance of between seven and eight
days'journey; and embracing Anko-
ala, Tsarahonenana, Tongodrahoja,
Ambodiamontana, Tsarahafatra, Ma-
habo, Beseva, and Amberobe, with
their districts. The most of these are
large garrison towns, not at all to be
compared to villages in Imerina.
The mere oversight of these places
would be more than enough for one
man, especially when we consider

the trying nature of the climate, and
the difficulty of travelling. But
nominal oversight is not at all what
they require ; they need careful and
methodical instruction. The churches
in these districts are the fruit of
unassisted native zeal; Christian tra-
ders and soldiers passing through,
or stationed in their midst, have done
what they can, and they have done
well; but something more is needed
to establish and instruct them. We
could see, and they themselves feel,
the need. It was truly pitiful to
hear the reiterated cry for help.
With one or two noble exceptions,
such as Trabonjy, Mojanga, and
perhaps Marovoay, the pastors are
not at all fitted to instruct the people.
They need pastors and teachers; and
if they cannot be supplied from
Imerina, then a missionary's first
duty would be to prepare men to
fill these offices. But how is it
possible for one man to overtake all
this work ? It is utter folly to
expect it. The work is already far
larger than we have been in the
habit of thinking, and it is likely to
increase. Moreover this district
has been regarded as a favourable
position for opening work among the
Sakalava; and I suppose no better
opening could either be found or
desired. From Amberobe the Saka-
lava to the west are easily reached
through friendly tribes, and from
Mojanga those to the north; while
in the east are large numbers under
Hova rule, with whom no difficulty
need be found. My own opinion
is that two European missionaries
are absolutely needed ; and if the
medical mission cannot send a qua-
lified man to these parts, one at least
of these two should have consider-
able medical skill. These should
be assisted by at least two native
evangelists, one to be stationed at
Amberobe'in the west, and one at


34

Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. 34

Tongodrahoja in the east.

Finding that so little could be
done in the midst of the general
alarm and distress, we soon began
to think of leaving. For Mr. Baron
going to England, the way was clear;
but for myself returning to Antana-
narivo, there seemed no very cheer-
ing prospect. At first I supposed
it would be easy to get some coast-
ing vessel, and go round the north
of Madagascar to Tamatave, and so
home; but it appeared that rounding
the island at that season was not so
easy as I imagined, and moreover,
no vessel could be obtained. Then
I hoped to succeed by going to
Nosibe, but was foiled there ; and on
the arrival of the mail was assured
by the captain that I should meet
with no better success either at
Mozambique, or Zanzibar ; both of
which seemed to present a loop-hole
of escape. At last I determined
that rather than remain an indefinite
time at Mojanga I would make an
attempt to run the blockade. In
this I was joined by several andria-
na., who were very glad to have a
Vazaha to keep them in countenance.
After a little consultation we resolved
to go by water as far as possible,
instead of by the usual overland
return route; thinking we should
run less risk of being stopped on the
river, especially if we travelled by
night, as we then proposed. Accor-
dingly, after providing ourselves and
our men with food sufficient to last
a fortnight, we hired a dhow large
enough to hold the whole company,
amounting with the crew of five, to
over SO persons. It was a very
close fit ; and once packed there
was little room to shift our position,
and none for the majority to lie
down at night, except by lying upon
one another. Crossing the bay
again, we entered the river, but
unfortunately, our captain knew

nothing of the mud-banks in this
river, and so ran us on to one the
very first night. With the rise of
the tide on the following day we
got off; and to prevent such an
accident again we hired a Sakalava
to pilot us. But he, poor fellow,
used only to his small canoe, ran us
on to another, right in the middle of
the river, which is very wide here,
and at the very top of the tide. Of
course as the tide fell the boat tilted,
and for two days we were thus ex-
posed to the broiling sun, alljammed
together in a tilted boat, without a
chance of escape. No lakana came
in sight, no human being appeared
along the banks, and none dared
attempt to swim ashore, for the cro-
codiles were so numerous all round
that any one making the attempt
would have been snapped up at once.
Having no shelter, in a little time
the intense heat, and the miasma
arising from the fetid mud, began
to tell upon us. I became so bad
that I could not sit without being
propped up, and several others were
little better. To add to our distress,
on the second day small-pox broke
out among us. First, one was taken,
then two more. Crowded as we
were we could not separate these
from their fellows ; and I shall not
soon forget the look of some, as they
found themselves next to men in
whom this fearful disease was break-
ing out.

I am sure that in their fear and
horror, when they first looked on
the disfigured faces of the sick, some
of them would have thrown the poor
fellows overboard if I had not been
there. As it was, I got one on each
side of me, and did my best to doctor
and comfort them. On the third
day we got the boat off; and not
daring to venture further in the
dhow, for fear of similar accidents,
two of the andriana went off through


Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast.

35

the woods to get help at Trabonjy,
which we reckoned was about three
days'journey from us. Later in the
day I managed to hire a passing
canoe, and went up the river to hire
nurses and procure necessaries for
the sick. While some of us were
thus absent, the captain, in his fear,
put the whole company ashore, and
left them. Whereupon almost all
who were able ran away, leaving
the sick near an unfriendly Sakalava
village, at Madirovalo. When the
nurses arrived, whom I had hired
and sent off as quickly as possible,
it was too late to save one man, for
he, poor fellow, in his delirium had
run away into the long grass towards
the river ; and as no trace was ever
seen of him after, he is supposed by
his companions to have entered the
water to slake his burning thirst,
and so to have been seized by the
crocodiles. It may appear a very
far-fetched supposition to some, but
not to any who have been near the
place ; for the chances are very
small that a man entering the water
there will escape them.

On the following Sunday evening
I found all the men who had run
away on a sand-bank near Ankaro-
bato. It so happened that they
were on the wrong side of the river
to get home, and had no means of
crossing, for swimming was out of
the question. Thinking it best to keep
the men as much separated as pos-
sible, incase the infection should still
be working among us, and having
these gentlemen nicely trapped, I
gave them rice, matches, and soap,
and thus left them for a few days to
do quarantine ; I and the few men
who were with me taking up our
position on a sand-bank immediately
opposite, so that I could have all
under my eye, and see that my orders

about washing, etc., were properly
carried out. On the tenth day after
leaving Mojanga, finding that the
disease spread no further among our
little party, I thought we might safely
proceed, and therefore Rainisoamana -
na, the governor of Trabonjy, having
promised to do all that was possible
for those left behind, we started
afresh. It was only from dire necessity
that we ventured to enter Trabonjy
at all on our return, as we feared
the good old governor would be
compelled to detain us all in accor-
dance with instructions from head
quarters ; we were therefore as sur-
prised as delighted to get away, and
that without difficulty.

Unhappily, notwithstanding all
my precautions, the horrible nendra
broke out among us again and again
on the way. Many of the men also
suffered greatly from fever, and were
unable to carry their loads. To
relieve tliein I had to throw away
some of my things, together with
curiosities I had collected on the way.
Many times I was driven to my
wits' end to know what to do with
the poor fellows, and myself either ;
for exposure to the intense heat by
day, and to the heavy dews by
night, when sleeping in the canoe
on the river, and afterwards in the
open country, together with the
anxiety occasioned by these repeated
outbreaks of disease among the
men, brought on another violent
attack of fever. But as we gradually
ascended to a higher level after
leaving Mevatanana, we all began
to gain strength rapidly ; and with-
out anything further worthy of note
arrived at Antananarivo again, safe
if not sound, on Wednesday, Septem-
ber 29th, having been absent just
ten weeks and two days.

H. W. Ghainge.


36

The Malay. Affinities of the Malagasy Language.

THE MALAY AFFINITIES OF THE MALAGASY
LANGUAGE.

THE mutual relations of the Malay and Malagasy languages have been
repeatedly noticed, but hitherto no one familiar with the Malagasy
has devoted much attention to the subject. The following letters have
been for some time in my possession, and I am induced to publish them
here in the hope that the interesting information they contain may induce
some one to enter more fully into the comparison of the two languages.
A list of books in which materials for such a comparison exist is
given in the appendix to my "Concise Introduction to the Study of the
Malagasy Language." To the materials there noticed may be added a
paper in the Contemporary Review for February 1873, by the Rev. S. J.
Whitmee, L. M. S., entitled "The Ethnology of Polynesia." I have
recently noticed the title of a book published in the seventeenth century,
the title of which (Goth Arthusius, Colloquia latino malaica et madagasca-
rica, Francfort, 1614) indicates that from even that early period this
question had attracted some attention.

W. E. Cousins.

LETTER FROM REV. J. DUFFUS.

On board S. S. Noma,
Somewhere near Seychelles ;

Tuesday, Jan. 19, 1864.

Dear Cousins,

As I have been amusing myself for
the past few days looldng over a Malay
Grammar and Dictionary, I thought
it would interest you to know a little
about Malay and its resemblances to
Malagasy and differences from it, so
far as I have noticed them; and so
I shall proceed to mention a few
things about the grammar, and then
to give you a few words which are
alike and nearly akin to the Malagasy
words .having the same sound and
signification. I am sure you would
be interested as well as profited by
the perusal of a Malay grammar and
dictionary.

ALPHABET. Twenty six letters, A, B, P,
T, I, H asp., Khgutt., etc. etc., written in
Arabic characters, introduced, by Maliome -
tan priests. Reads from right to left.
Pronunciation different in different pro-
vinces ; e.g. banya, banyak.

No ARTICLE.

NOUNS. No terminations to express
either number or case.

Gender, (i) Of human beings: lakke,
male; parampoan, female; orang lakke,
man; orang parampoan, woman.

(ii) Of beasts, birds, etc. : jantan, male ;
betina, female ; cooda jantan, horse; cooda
betina, mare.

(iii) Inanimate objects, no gender.

Numbeb. To express many the noun

is repeated : orang, man ; orang orang, men.
When a numeral adjective is made use of, the
substantive is, for the most part, not repeat-
ed : cooda, a horse ; cooda sa pooloo ecor, ten
horses; batoo, a stone; batoo dua poolo batoo,
twenty stones; batoo sedekit, a few stones.


37 The Malay. Affinities of the Malagasy Language.



Case. Expressed by prepositions pre-
ceding the noun.

ADJECTIVES follow the substantive.

Comparison of. Comparative by lebbe,
more. Superlative by ter, most, or derre
pada Samoa,, most of all.
E.g. Moora, cheap.

Lebbe moora, cheaper.

Ter moora, cheapest.

Moora derre pada Samoa, cheapest of
all.

PRONOUNS. Personal.
Per. Singular Plural

1. Ako, or Saia Camee, or Saia orang

2. loo, or Zoo Camoo, or Loo orang

3. Dea Deorang

Possessive.

1. Kitta sindirre Camee, or Saia ponca

2. Kitta ponea Camoo, or Loo ponea

3. Tuan ponea Deorang ponea,

Relative.

Scappan, who. Julian, whose. Nang
mannee or seappan, which. Appan, what.

Demonstrative.

Etoo, that. Enee, this.

VERB. Different from Malagasy in having
no prefixes to express reflective, active,
causative, etc., verbs. No change of root
for participles, imperatives, or abstract
nouns, etc. The root undergoes no change
to express either voice, mood, or tense;
these are expressed by other words prece-
ding or following the root; c.g. Poocool,
to beat.

ACTIVE. Indicative. PASSIVE.

Present Tense.

Ako poocool Camee poocool Ako sooda ber
poocool

lo poocool Camoo poocool ,

Dea poocool Deorang poocool '

Past. Tense.

Ako sooda poocool, Ako sooda jaddee

and so on, as above. ber poocool, etc.

Future Tense.

Ako mao poocool, Ako adda jaddee ber
etc. poocool, etc.

Imperative.

Singular. Plural. -

Poocool la joo Bear la camee poocool

Bear dea poocool Poocool la camoo

Bear deorang poocool

Potential

Present. Ako boolee poocool, etc.

Past. Ako sooda boolee poocool, etc.

Future. Ako ma6o boolee pdocool, etc.

Participles.

The present participle active is formed
by prefixing ba to the root; the past by ber
or ta :

Ba poocool, beating.

Ber poocool, beaten.

Kera, to think : Ba kera, thinking.

Ber or ta kera, thought.

All passive verbsas in Englishare
made up of participles of the past tense :
Ako sooda ber poocool, I am beaten.

Verbal Nouns.

Abstract nouns are made by adding awn
to the verb : Mabooc, to be drunk; mabooc-
awn, drunkenness.

Juree before a verb=mp in Malagasy :

Basso, to wash; juree basso, a washer. Pern,
pen, peni, peng also = nip. : Chooree, to
steal; pcnchooree, a thief. Bree, to give ;
pembrec, a giver. Soorat, to write; penioo-
rat, a writer. Ebor, to comfort; pengebor,
a comforter.

The following prefixes to a few verbs do
not add anything to their signification, but
seem to approach to the Malagasy prefix to
the active verb in man :

Laloo or melaloo, to depart.

Masooc or mcmasooc, to enter.

.4 co or menicKO, to acknowledge.

Ampoon or mengampoon, to forgive.

ADVERBS.

Jam, an hour, Tiop tiop jam, hourly.

Arree, a day, Tiop tiop arree, daily.

Booloon, a month, Tiop tiop booloon,
monthly.

Tawon, a year, Tiop tiop tawon,
yearly.

The young of any living creature are
expressed by the word anak :

Orang, person; Anak orang, child.

Cooda, horse ; A.nak cooda, colt.

Doomba, sheep ; Anak doomba, lamb.

Anjing, dog; Anak anjing, puppy.

NUMERALS.

1 Satoo or Sa.

2 Dua.

3 Tega.

4 Ampat.

5 Lema.

6 Nam or annam.

7 Toojoo.


38

The Malay. Affinities of the Malagasy Language.

8 Delapan.

9 Samibelan.

10 Sa pooloo or pooloo.

11 Sa bias.

12 Dua bias.

13 Tega bias.

20 Dua pooloo.

21 Dua pooloo satoo.

22 Dua pooloo dua.

23 Dua pooloo tega, and so on up to 29.

30 Tega pooloo, and so on up to 90.

100 Ratoos.

1000 Riboo.

2000 Dua riboo.
10,000 Saxa or Sa laxa.
100,000 Keetee or Sa keetee.

In the slumbering of things they have
express words for the several kinds of things
so numbered, which they always repeat
after the number ; e.g. orang distinguishes
the human species :

Orang lakkee dua orang, two men.

Orang anak tega orang, three children.

Ecor distinguishes all other living
objects ; e.g. Cooda ampat ecor, four horses.

Batoo distinguishes a natural entire solid
body ;e.g. Batoo dua pooloo batoo, twenty
stones. Giggc sa pooloo batoo, ten teeth.

Booa distinguishes artificial things com-
posed of solid materials; e.g. Rooma tega
poolo boa, thirty houses.

Bidjee distinguishes vegetables; e.g. Po-
hone lemapooloo bidjee, fifty trees.

To all fruits they prefix booa. Ley dis-
tinguishes things that grow thin naturally ;
e.g. Dawon tega pooloo ley, thirty leaves.
Keping distinguishes things artificially
thin; e.g. Cartas dua ratoos keping, two
hundred sheets of paper.

DAYS OF THE WEEK.
Malagasy Malay

Alahady Ahad or Harree Ahad.

Alatsinainy Sinnem

Talata Salasa

Alarobia Roboo

Alakamisy Kumis

Zomd Jo o mat

Sabotsy Saptoo

As to syntax I can say nothing, as the
grammar says nothing. I shall -finish this
abstract by giving you a list of the words
that I have found similar or nearly similar
to the Malagasy, and I have gone light

through the long Malay part of the diction-
ary.

English Malagasy Malay
Moon and volana boolona
Month
Sky lanitra langit
Stone vato batoo
Weight vato (mizana) batoo
Way lilana jalan
To change (mi) ova oobah
To increase (mi) tombo tombo
To pass by (man)dalo(lalo) laloo
Pineapple mananasy ananas
Child anaka anak
Male lahy lakkee
Son anaka lahy anak lakkea
Bone taolana toolang
Bamboo volo boolo
Hair volo boolo
Ripe masaka masak
Unripe manta mantah
Cheap mora moora
Hand tinana tangan
Writing, to soratra soorat
write
Hand-writing sora-tanana soorat tangan
Charcoal arina arang
Cape tanjona tanfoong
Year taona tawon
Cord tady (Sak. ta- ly) tallee
Pus nana nanah
Crocodile voay (Bets. and Sak.) voaya
Dung tay tai
To kill mamono (vo- boono
no)
To drink minona (.Bets.) minnoom
To dwell monina moonoon
Fruit voa booa
Fig voara booa ara
Fruitful mamoa babooa
Remainder sisa sisa
Earth tany tana
Heel tomotra (te- toomit
nin'ny ntao-
lo)
Man olona orang
I, me aho, ko ako
Red mena mera
Vein, sinew ozatra oorat
Remove (mi) findra pinda
Stumbled tafintohina tafoontoh
To swear manompa sompa
Skin hodifcra coolit
To leak mitete meleleh
Leech dinta linta
Lightning helatra kelat
Liver aty antee, aootee
Mite olitra oolat
Nail hoho kookoo


39 The Malay. Affinities of the Malagasy Language.



English

Tongue
Toddy
White
Yam

News, etc.

Fear

Fire

Flint

Paper

Blunt

Eve

Day

Sun

Blood

Lips

Full

Gnat

Malagasy

lela

toaka

fotsy

ovy

kabary

tahotra

afo

vato afo

taratasy

dombo

maao

andro

maaoandi'o

ra

raolotra
feno

moka

Malay

leda

toarck

pootee

ooby

cabar

taooot

appee

batoo appee

cartas

tompool

mata

arree

mata arree
dara
mooloot
poonoo
iliamooc,
mamoke,
yamook
oojang

mattee.maooy

Rain orana

Death maty

I dare say you will be tired enough
of this by the time you have got this
length, at least I am tired of writing.
I might mention some other things I
have noticed, but the foregoing
examples may induce you to get a
Malay grammar and dictionary and
go through it for yourself.

Yours truly,

John Duffus.

Rev. "W. E. Cousins,
Antananarivo .

LETTER FROM REV. W. DENING.

S. S. Legislator,

China Seas,

Nov. 13, 1673.

My dear Brethren,

Being, as far as I know, the only
missionary that after having become
acquainted with the Malagasy lan-
guage has been iu a position to hear
the Malay language spoken, and to
enquire into its structure, I venture
to think that a communication from
me on the subject of the affinity of
the two languages may not be unin-
teresting to you. Since entering the
Straits of Malacca I have given my
undivided attention to this subject.

I have been fortunate enough to meet
with both books and men who have
supplied me with information, which,
though of a fragmentary and imperfect
nature, yet may prove adequate to
stimulate some of your number whose
taste lies in this direction to investi-
gate the subject thoroughly. 1 am
extremely sorry that the possession
of a large Japanese grammar on board
acts as a barrier to prevent me from
indulging further in the entertaining
task of comparing the Malay and
Malagasy languages. I have already
found myself carried away by the
great interest which attaches itself to
this comparison, and were I again to
become connected with the Madagas-
car Mission, I should enjoy most
thoroughly this study as a recreation
in the midst of more arduous duties.
I shall commence by subjoining a list
of Malay words with their Malagasy
equivalents, and then proceed to make
remarks on the general structure of
the language. I very much regret
that I am not in possession of Profes-
sor Humboldt's paper on the subject,
so you must pardon me if I repeat
what he has already remarked.

[Besides giving the numerals, days
of the week, and some of the other
words already given (viz. boaya (voay),
talang (taolana, pronounced by Bets.,
taolang), bua(voa), tana{tany), tangan
(tanana), ulat (olitra), bunoh (vono),
nyainoh (moka), lalu (lalo), langit
(lanitra), anacha (anaka), mata hari
(masoandro), tahot (tahotra), tuaka
(toaka), tahun (taona), mati (maty),
bulan (volana), Mr. Dening's list con-
tains the following additions :]

Ewjlish Malagasy Malay
To bathe Fly Grapes Kidneys To hang Horn niandro lalitra roaloboka voa (mi) hantona tandroka mundo lalat baa anggor bua pinn gang gantong, tandok


40

The Malay. Affinities of the Malagasy Language.

English Malagasy Malay
Husband lahy laki
Lazy malaina malas
Man lehilahy lakilaki
To murder mamono olona bunoh orang
Kite langoro (Bets.) lang
Knife kiso (Bets.) saron' ondana kison
Pillow-case sarong bantal tareki
To pull (mi) tarika
Eight hand ankavanana tangan kanan
To sharpen (man) asa asuli
Silly, foolish bodo bodoli
To spear manomboka tombak
(tomboka) bintang
Star kintana
To swallow (mi) telina tul an
Swell (of the alona alunalun
sea)
This iny ini
Warm (ma) fana panas
Wind ngany (Bets.) angin
"Worm ltankana, oli- tra chachink, ulat

Instances of Reduplication.
Loud, kuakuat
To loiter, lengalenga
Maid, dayant/dayang
To mock, olokoluk
To pitch, galagala
Purse, pundipundi
Shadow, bayangbuyang
Shy, malitmalu

Malayized English "Woeds.
Tobacco, Tumbako (Cf. Bets, tambaka)
Towel, tawala

The Malay language is written in
Arabic characters, with four letters
added. Publications in which the
Roman character is made use of, as
in China, Japan, and some parts of
India, so among the Malay, are becom-
ing more and more numerous. It
is from several of these that I have
taken many of the words given above.
Other words I took down from the
lips of Malay-speaking people. The
pronunciation of Malay is very similar
to that of the Malagasy. Any one
knowing the latter could pronounce
the former after a few days' study.
The Europeans in those parts claim
for it the honourable title of the
Italian among Eastern languages, oil
account of its softness and beauty.
There does not seem to be such a

fulness and variety of expressive
power as is found in Malagasy, which
defect arises from the lack of those
shades of meaning derived from the
verb, of which our Malagasy tongue
is so fruitful.

Before passing on to remark on the
words written above, I may here note
several points of affinity with the
Malagasy I have noticed in the con-
' struction of the Malay.

1.It has no inflection of verba,
nouns, or adjectives.

2.It has both exclusive and inclu-
sive pronouns, the same form being
used in the nominative and objective
case. Kita is exclusive, and Jcarmi in-
clusive.

3.Reduplication is very common ;
vide instances given above.

4.The Malay prefixes to the verb,
though differing slightly in form from
those of the Malagasy, yet constantly
bear the same meaning and are used
in the same way. Their bur seems
to correspond very frequently to the
Malagasy man, and 'their mum to our
mampi or maha (in some cases); e. g.
tomloh, to grow, makes burtomboh,
to increase, whether transitively or
intransitively I do not know; then
again, in illustration of the prefix mum:
busargieat; mun busar Jeanto make
great, or magnify.

5.The Malays have a participial
affix in an.

The pronunciation of some of the
Malay words is more in accordance
with the Betsimisaraka pronunciation
than the Hova. The former are in
the habit of pronouncing the Hova n
as ny; e.g. lanitra is called langit;
tunana, tanyan ; manasa, mangasa. It
has occurred to me that formerly the
Betsimisaraka invariably pronounced
in this way, but that constant inter-
course with the Hovas has led to its


41 The Malay. Affinities of the Malagasy Language.



discontinuance in the case of some
words.

The words above will in many ways
speak for themselves, and I expect to
some of you will say more than they
have to me. I think you can rely on
the spelling of them, as I have been
careful to test my spelling of words
I heard by the books in my possession.
I might have added many of more
doubtful affinity with Malagasy, and
yet of considerable interest in other
ways, such as, e.g., our word for
whisper being mibitsika, and theirs
being burbisek; their word for that
being itee, ours for this, ity ; their
word for day being hctri; and ours
for its end, hariva; and again our
miharihary meaning manifest, or per-
haps, done during the day; their
word jaw/an corresponds in every way
to our aza; e.g. jangan takut=aza
matahotra; our word for thin is ma-
nify, theirs nipis; their word for
hatchet is hapah, and ours for to hew,
mikapa ; theirs for mouth, mulut, and
ours for lips, molotra.

The numerals I think are from the
Arabic; the days of the week, and
the names of the months (which latter
I have not mot with) as in Malagasy
are Arabic; it would be interesting
to know what changes the words
have undergone in passing into the
several languages.

The Malay word for God is the
Arabic Allah. I have discovered that
our Malagasy word Andriana is a
Sanscrit word. Also that the Malay
and Malagasy word maty is also found
in Arabic and Hindustani, in fact in
all the Semitic languages; it is said
to be akin to the Hebrew math, to die;
our English word checkmate* is derived
from this word. You may have found
out this ; but never having heard it

* Hindustani shuh-mat, Arabic shah-mat:
the shah (king) ia dead.

in Madagascar I mention it here. I
am extremely sorry that pressing
duties prevent my pursuing the subject
further. I feel how utterly unworthy
of the topic has been my treatment
of it, but I trust I have said enough,
to make it evident to you all that the
study of Malay by Malagasy mission-
aries would doubtless tend to throw
light on the meaning both anoieut
and modern of numbers of Malagasy
words, which otherwise would remain
as to their special signification enig-
mas. Shouldany of you take the subject
in hand, I may mention three books
which have been recommended to me
by Malay scholars of the Straits of
Malacca:

1.A Grammar of the Malay Lan-
guage, with an introduction and praxis.
By William Marsden, F. R. S., au-
thor of a Malayan Dictionary, and of
The History of Sumatra. To be had
at Singapore, if not elsewhere.*

2. Wallace's Malay Archipelago.
This book is just out. It contains
a comparison of the various Malay
dialccts, all in Roman character.

3.Vocabulary of the English and
Malay Languages. By the Rev.Kis-
bury, Singapore, who has spent 34
years in the Straits of Malacca, 15
years as an L. M. S. missionary.

The Malays, I hear, as a distinct
race are dying out.

That the Lord of the Harvest may
still bless and favour you, and that
being blessed you may constantly
remember in your prayers Japan and
the labourers there, is the earnest
desire of

Yours in Christ Jesus,

Walter Denixg.
The Rev. W. E. Cousins ;

Secretary of L. M. S.,
Antananarivo, Madagascar.

* It may be had of AV. H. Allen and
Co., London.


42 The Journey between Antsihanaka and the Hast Coast.

THE JOURNEY BETWEEN ANTSIHANAKA AND THE
EAST COAST OF MADAGASCAR.

IN the present limited state of onr acquaintance with the greater
portion of this vast island, any information as to routes
through new or little-known parts of it is of value. Within the last
few months a hitherto almost unknown route has been opened up :
that between Ambatondrazaka, the chief town of the Sihanaka, and
Fenoarivo, on the east coast. Having been kindly favoured by the
Rev. J. Pearse with a few notes of the journey from the coast, and
by Mr. R. Aitken with a much fuller account of a journey to Feno-
arivo, we are able to give a description of the country, and itineraries
of the routes traversed by these two gentlemen.

Mr. Pearse says : "The character of the country from leaving
Fenoarivo until getting through the forest resembles in its main
features that from Ranomafana to Analamazaotra, on the journey
from Tamatave to Antananarivo, only that it is much more difficult;
the hills are higher, ascents and descents more perpendicular, tracks
through the forest much more confined, and the passes sometimes so
narrow that the men had to dig away earth before they could get
our cases through. There are not so many travellers-trees as on
the journey between Ranomafana and Analamazaotra, but forests
of very graceful bamboos are numerous, especially nearer Fenoarivo.
The population is very scanty, and the villages small, and after
entering the forest (which requires two days quick travelling to
pass through), at great distances one from the other. Night after
night, the great majority of our baggage bearers had to sleep out in
the open air, covered only by temporary sheds of sticks and grass,
which they hastily put up for themselves ; and day after day they
cooked their rice by the side of some small stream over which they
had to pass. It would take an ordinary traveller six days to come
from Fenoarivo to Ambatondrazaka; but owing to our circumstances,
and the fact that we had to wait for some of the luggage to come up on
several occasions, we were twelve days on the way. The following
is a list of the places at which we stayed, and besides which there
are hardly any other places worth mentioning :


43 The Journey between Antsihanaka and the Hast Coast.

hrs. ms.

Aug. 12th. Th. Fenoarivo to Ambatomipaka............................4-00

,, 13th. Fr. Ambatomipaka to Anosibe ........ ..............2,00

,, 14th. Sat. Anosibe to Mahanoro ..............................4-00

,, loth. Sun. Stayed at Mahanoro

iKti ivr f Mahanoro to Ambodimanga ............................4,00

" lbtl1, mon' j Ambodimanga to Antsahatavy..........................4-00

17th T ( Antsahatavy to Isalanginana..............................5-30

" u' [ Isalanginana to Tsarasambo .........................4-30

,, 18th. Wed. Stayed at Tsarasambo

iQfh Th I Tsarasambo to Antelomanambato ....................5-00

" j Antelomanambato to Tendrirano......................5-00

(Antelomanambato is the name of an open space in the
forest, 110 houses. There are no houses from Tsara-
sambo to Tendrirano.)

20th. Fr. Tendrirano to Ambatomanga ..................o'OO

,, 21st. Sat. Ambatomanga to Ambohimanga ........................3-00

,, 22nd. Sun. Stayed at Anibohimanga

,, 23rd. Mon. Ambohimanga to Ambatondrazaka......................3'00

Mr. Aitken, after giving particulars of the journey from Imerina
to Antsihanaka, says : "Leaving Ambatondrazaka next morning at
9 o'clock, and slowly crossing the south-east corner of the great
plain, which was quite dry, we arrived at Ambohimanga at 1 p.m.,
where funeral ceremonies were being held, and plenty of toaka
drinking. In the afternoon I had some duck shooting on the
margin of the lake (Alaotra), and passed the night at Ambatomanga.
The weather being fine and the moon about full there was a splendid
view across the lake from the elevated stand-point of the village.
Early next morning, sending off the entana first, I hired a canoe,
and after an hour and a half's shooting brought away as much as a
man could cany of various kinds of wild ducks and water-fowls,
forming abundant provision for us for the three following days.
Leaving Ambatomanga at 7"30 by the road leading E.N.E. over a
bare undulating country, I was annoyed when shortly after a thick
drizzly mist came on, preventing one from getting the fine views I
had expected of the northern portion of the Alaotra and of the
surrounding country. At about 11 o'clock, breakfasted at a village
called Amboditsimandainga, and leaving at 1 p.m., arrived at Iten-
drirano at 2"30, where we halted for the night, as there are no other
villages to be met with eastwards on the road for one long day's
journey. Leaving Itendrirano at 5'30, we entered the forest at
about 7 o'clock, but previously got our last look of the Alaotra ; a
very fine view of it, lighted up by the morning sun, from a hill
near the margin of the forest. On entering the forest the inevitable
drizzle came on, and kept on nearly all day more or less. I had not
been ten minutes in the woods before numbers of the large grey and


44 The Journey between Antsihanaka and the Hast Coast.

yellow lemurs surrounded us, leaping and screaming from tree to
tree.' I killed one, the rest retiring howling into the recesses of the
forest. During the da) I shot two black and white babac'ootes, and
two small specimens of the grey lemur ; by lingering a little great
numbers might be had, as they literally swarm in that part of the
forest. The tracks through the forest are much more difficult to
traverse than those through the Analamazaotra district, there having
been at no time any great breadth of clearing made, only the brush-
wood, tanglewood and creepers have been partially cut away, so that
ODe winds and twists about among the great forest trees in a most
tortuous manner, very harassing to the bearers. The ravines are
also much steeper and deeper than on the southern road, and altoge-
ther much more toilsome.

"At 9"30 we 'outspanned' at a place called Anlterana, where was
a collection of the rudest of low sheds besides a clear running stream,
and breakfasted in very comfortless fashion, the drizzle still
continuing. Left at 11 o'clock, and over roads worse and worse;
and after as fatiguing a journey as ever I had in the country, arrived
at Tsarasambo at 6-30. Darkness having just fallen I had to send
back some men with a lantern for the remainder of the cntana, the
last of which only arrived at about 8 o'clock, although most of the
packages were very light and none heavy. Tsarasambo is a miserable
Betsimisaraka village, but I was glad to be able to buy some good
white rice, the rice of the Sihanaka we had found very bad having
a vile taste, and a smell of rotten straw, acquired doubtless from
their not thatching their stacks properly.* Left next morning at
6, and passed over tracks worse and worse, steeper and deeper, and
through forest denser than ever ; arriving at a village called Itsi-
langina at ll-30, a wretched but beautifully-situated place at the
confluence of two mountain streams; the tongue of land having
been cleared of wood formed quite a cheerful opening in the midst
of the dense forest. Leaving at 1*45 we had still some rough work
to do, but gradually improving as Ave moved eastward, until at
about 4 o'clock we fairly emerged from the forest, all of us thoroughly
glad of it. The eastern fringe of the forest shews some beautiful
scenery; the country gets gradually opener, but always
undulating ; the hills and hollows here cleared, there bosky with
trees, shrubs, or bamboos. After another two hours' hard marching
we reached Anlsahatava at 6"15, a noisy, dirty, rum-drinking village,
situated in the valley of, and near the banks of, a considerable
stream they here name Mahambo. I suppose it is the stream that

[* The Silmiaka do not store tlieir lice in pits, as is tlie custom in Iinerina, but make
it up into small stacks, like small circular liay-ricks, which are seen by hundreds, dotting
over the great plain o£ Aiitsihanaka. Ed.]


45 The Journey between Antsihanaka and the Hast Coast.

reaches the sea near that town on the coast. I shot several speci-
mens of a black and yellow lemur to-day ; but there were fewer to
be seen in this part of the forest than farther west. Next morning
left at 5-30, fording- the stream, here about 30 yards wide, shallow,
but with a strong current; soon afterwards we crossed a very high
ridge, from which we had a view of as beautiful a country as I have
yet seen in Madagascar; in its undulations resembling a good deal
the district to the east of Ampasimbe, but clothed with a more varied
and richer dress of wood, shrubs, wild saffron, long grasses, and
the graceful bamboo predominating. Nowhere does one see bare
mamelons and hill slopes, but all present more or less wavy masses
of foliage of all shades of green. We reached Ambodimanga, a
rather tidy little village at 10, leaving at 1215 ; the day was very
hot and the temperature between the hills ultra tropical. In this
part of the country there are numerous little villages of from five to
twenty houses, scattered about among the hills, most prettily situated,
nestling as it were in the leafy hollows. At 4-30, arrived at the
finely situated but tumble-down village of Mahanoro, and there
passed the night.

"Leaving next morning at 5"30 we traversed a fine but less
interesting country than yesterday's journey ; the hills being lower
and less prominent ; and here I also remark another striking
difference to the road via Maromby, viz., the almost entire absence
of ratimpotsy; all the houses are lined and roofed with bamboo.
Arriving at the village of Nosibe, situated in a rather flat uninter-
esting patch of country, I took a hurried breakfast, and set off
at 11-15, with the bearers at a smart pace, in order to reach Feno-
arivo early. After crossing the flat patch we ascended the last high
ridge, of hills which advance irregularly to within two hours' ride of
the coast. The ascent is long and toilsome, but the scenery is very
fine, and on reaching the summit of the highest ridge the view
obtained is truly magnificent, so grand that I will not here attempt
to describe it, but merely hint that one can see the coast-line from
beyond Foule-pointe in the south, to the island of St. Marie's in the
north. I doubly enjoyed the freshness of the sea breeze, and the
whole scene, from feeling that I was nearing home again. The
spurs of the hills that run out irregiilarly eastwards from that
high ridge advance to very near the sea-shore, becoming lower as
they approach it; some of them may be said to run into the sea,
giving the coast-line here a much bolder aspect than it has south of
Tamatave.

"On the summit of one of these hillocks is built Yohimasina, about
miles S.W. of Fenoarivo, with the fort and residence of the


46 The Journey between Antsihanaka and the Hast Coast.

Hova commandant; but having business at Fenoarivo I had no time
to spare for visiting Vohimasina, but pushing on, reached Fenoarivo
at about 4 o'clock, and was kindly welcomed by Mr. Frye. Feno-
arivo seems a thriving busy port; large quantities of rice, india-
rubber, hides, bags, etc., are yearly shipped from it. Left Fenoarivo
next morning at 7 o'clock, the road to Tamatave following the
shore-line for the most part, but now and then crossing the slightly
elevated promontories, and fording or ferrying several streams.
After two hours'ride,although I took nearly three, having lost the
track on crossing a promontory,:we arrived at Mahambo, also a
thriving little town. Breakfasting with Mr. Sival, a French
engineer, now engaged in trading here, I left again at one o'clock,
and after a rather wearisome ride through brushwood and over sandy
beaches, resembling some parts of the road to And6voranto, but
wanting the beautiful glimpses of lake scenery,arrived at Foule-
pointe at 5-30. Foule-pointe has not the prosperous appearance
that Fenoarivo has, but looks as if it had seen better days; and
near the custom-house the large masses of mango and other fruit
trees, too closely planted, gave the place a rather dark and gloomy
appearance as seen in the fall of dusk. We left next morning by
moonlight at 4 o'clock, and reached Ifontsy at 9-15, having twice
crossed considerable streams in very cranky canoes. Left Ifontsy
at 10 o'clock, and after a very tiring ride of six hours, chiefly along
the sandy beach, arrived at Tamatave at 4-30.

"Just a few remarks on some thoughts that naturally strike one in
making a journey from the interior of Madagascar to the coast, with
regard to the progress of the people in knowledge and civilization :
1st. One cannot help seeing that they are getting their light from
the centre, and not from the coast. At the village of Ankorona,
where I passed the night after leaving Ambohimanga (Imerina), I
was besieged with lads wanting to be taught, especially two, who
would have me, nolens volens, go over the map of Europe with
them on a small school atlas map they had. I was too tired to
indulge them long, but I gave them a Malagasy Gazety, which
they went off with to read in great glee; they seemed glad of any-
thing to read. But as one recedes from Imerina this desire for
knowledge gets duller, but brightening again as we approach Amba-
tondrazaka, where it now seems active, doubtless owing to the
arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Pearse ; but after leaving there, and as one
nears the coast, the light of learning and the spirit of enquiry for
it are both alike quenched in the rum-cask ; and total ignorance of
and interest in all 'tdratasy' (books) reigns supreme. It is a darkness
that may be felt. 2nd. Looking at the country in its physical aspects
again, I have a strong impression that in the future of Madagascar,


47 The Journey between Antsihanaka and the Hast Coast.

Imerina will completely lose its influence over the rest of the pro-
vinces, and that the countries of the Betsimisaraka and the Sakalava
are sure to be the great wealth-producing districts. "When once
the agricultural resources of these rich provinces have been unlocked
by the magic hand of labour, the sceptre will surely depart from
the city of the Hovas, and they themselves be the first to migrate
thither, and the seat of government be transferred to some part of
the coast. What a dreary, barren-looking country Imerina does
seem after passing through the richer belt, with its more favourable
climate for vegetation and richer soils !"

ITINERARY OP JOURNEY PROM AMBATONDRAZAKA TO

TAMATAVE.

11).<:. ms.

( Ambatondrazaka to Ambohimanga..............................................4'00

( Ambohimanga to Ambatomanga..................................................3-00

( Ambatomanga to Amboditsimandainga......................................3'30

1 Amboditsimandainga to Itendrirano......................................l-30

Itendrirano to W. edge of forest, l.V hours; to Ankerana... 4-00

Ankerana to Tsarasambo..............................................................Y^O

Tsarasambo to Itsilangina............................................................5'30

Itsilangina to E. edge of forest, 2J hours ; to Antsahatava.. 4-30

Antsahatava to AmbodimangS,....................................................4'30

Ambodimanga to Mahanoro..........................................................4'15

Mahanoro to Nosibe......................................................................5' 15

Nosibe to Fenoarivo........................................................................4'45

Fenoarivo to Mahambo....................................................................2'00

Mahambo to Foule-pointe.......................................4-30

( Foule-pointe to Ifontsy...............................................o'l 5

( Ifontsy to Tamatave......................................................................C'OO



'HEAVENLY PRINCESSES.'

When Malagasy orators wish to be very polite to ladies in their
audience they use the high-sounding title anclriambavij lanitra; or,
heavenly princesses ! w. e. c.


48 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

THE LATE MR. JAMES CAMERON: HIS LIFE AND

LABOURS.

A FUNERAL ADDRESS BY THE REV. R. TOY, OCTOBER itli, 1875.

SOMEWHERE about a year and a half ago, a fresh grave was
opened in this church-yard to receive the remains of one of our
number, who had arrived scarcely 18 months before, fresh from
her native country, to consecrate her life to missionary service; and
now to-day another grave is open, and Ave meet again, full of
sadness, to bury one of the oldest and truest and best-tried friends
of the mission in Madagascar, and almost the last of the former
missionaries in the island. The one died while looking forward
with hope to a life of service in the work to which she had devoted
herself; the other, after half a centuiy of honourable work performed
and servicc rendered.

Mr. Cameron, whose death we mourn to-day, was born on the 6th.
January, in the year 1800, and is therefore more than 75 years of
age, an old man and full of years. -When a young man he offered
his services to the London Missionaiy Society, who about five years
before had established a mission in Antananarivo, and was accepted.
He was then 25 years old, and was appointed to succeed Mr. Brooks,
who had previously been sent out to instruct the natives in the
various departments of wood-work, but had been attacked by the
fever oftbe country, and had succumbed to its power. Mr. Cameron
was received at the Mission House with much kindness. I have
heard him more than once refer with delight to his warm reception
there, and to the pleasant way in Avhich some of the members of the
Board spoke to him. Before leaving England he was requested to
go to Manchester, where he spent nearly a year assisting in preparing
the cotton machinery for Madagascar ; and on his arrival here in
1826, aided in setting it up at Amparibe, where Mr. Cummins, who
had been sent out to introduce and superintend the manufacture of
cotton yarn, resided.

Mr. Cameron took up his residence here at Ambatonakanga, and
was engaged in constructing machinery and other public works,
and under his emploj' there were engaged about 600 youths. Soon
afterwards, lie seems to have taken an active part in getting the
printing-press into action, Mr. Hovenden, the printer, having died
a short time after his arrival of Malagasy fever ; and I suppose Mr.
Cameron must have been present when the first 23 verses of


49 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

Genesis were printed, as the original copy fell into his possession,
and was carried by him to the Cape of Good Hope ; and, as he believed,
deposited in Sir George Grey's 'Library there. Within two yeara
after his arrival the king died, and though the queen had stated
that she would continue to pursue the course begun by her prede-
cessor, it was soon manifest that an entire change of policy was being
steadfastly pursued. Notice was given of her intention to withdraw
from the Treaty with England; the English agent was insulted and
dismissed ; the missionaries were called together and asked whether
they could not teach the people something more useful, such as soap-
making from materials found in the country. Evidently unless a
favourable answer Avas forthcoming, the government was contempla-
ting sending them awa}r. It was then to Mr. Cameron that the
missionaries looked for help ; and taking a week for considering and
studying the matter, he was able to meet the messengers of the
government on the following week with two small bars of tolerably
good white soap, with a promise of being able to continue its
manufacture. So, for the time being, the mission was saved, and
the further services rendered by Messrs. Cameron and Chick in
constructing machinery and other things urgently required by the
government still further prolonged the mission for four or five
years. There is little doubt that the continuation of the mission
from 1829 until 1835 was mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire
of the government for the services of Mr. Cameron and one or two
of the other artizans. Mr. Cameron, in his "Recollections," enume-
rates a long list of discoveries and works effected by himself and
his colleagues ; but he modestly refrains from telling us how great
a share he himself took in all this, although there are strong grounds
for believing that he was the principal discoverer and promoter of
them all. In the same unobtrusive way he says : "It has been
thought that in the dispensation of an overruling Providence the
artizans were the means directly or indirectly of prolonging the
existence of the Mission from 1829 to 1835," and adds: "But on
this we would not write too confidently." But here again he abstains
from mentioning what I believe to be a fact: that about this time
he had a most advantageous appointment offered him in Australia, or
in one of the other English Colonies, but that after mature deliberation
he decided to continue his services here in Madagascar, and that this
especially was the means employed by God in keeping the mission
together for the next few years.

In 1835, however, when the principal works undertaken by Mr.
Cameron and his coadjutors were completed, the government
could no longer endure the presence of the missionaries; and
although the queen was willing to retain the services of Mr. Cameron


50 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

and one or two other artizans, they all wisely and honourably
threw in their lot with the missionaries, and with them quitted the
country.

It must not, however, be supposed that during these years Mr.
Cameron confined himself to merely secular employments. He
threw himself heartily into all matters having to do with the
spiritual interests of the people. He made over his own ground
at Ambatonakanga to the London Missionary Society for the build-
ing of the first Malagasy chapel, and the erection of a school and
other buildings. When the chapel was finished, he became a
deacon, and was one of those upon whom devolved the examination
of the first candidates for baptism and church-fellowship. While
instructing his large staff of natives in useful mechanical arts, he
paid great attention to their moral and spiritual improvement, and
encouraged their attendance at the newly-erected place of worship;
and some of his workmen were among the first converts to Christianity
in the island. He held Bible classes for instructing the people in
the Word of God ; he had Russell's Catechism translated and circu-
lated among the people ; and in every possible way united with the
missionaries to help them in carrying on their spiritual Avork.
Thus, whilst labouring with his own hands, and occupied continually
in secular Avork, he at the same time devoted himself earnestly and
faithfully to such spiritual work as he felt himself competent to
undertake.

The time noAV referred to closes the first period of Mr. Cameron's
active life. The second includes the time spent by him at the Cape
of Good Hope, from 1835, when he left Madagascar, until his return
in 1863. He had left the country where for nine years he had
laboured so effectually, but he had not broken off his connection
with the people. While at the Cape he received frequent letters
from the officers and persecuted Christians, telling him of their
sorrows and trials, and begging for books and Avriting materials;
and Avas always ready to help and encourage them in their distress,
and to render help to them in various ways. In 1853 he accom-
panied Mr. Ellis on his first visit to the coast, and Avas appointed by
the Chamber of Commerce in Mauritius to negociate Avith the govern-
ment of Ranavalona I. as to the terms on which the trade, ruptured
by the combined attack of the French and English on Tamatave
in 1845, should be renewed. He succeeded so Avell in arranging
matters that the merchants of Mauritius paid $3000 more than the
sum he had succeeded in persuading the Malagasy government to
accept. During these negociations he made two visits to the country,
and succeeded, in conjunction with Mr. Ellis, in secretly conveying
to the Christians a large number of NeAV Testaments, Psalms, and


51 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

tracts of various descriptions among the Christians. He then returned
once more to the Cape, where he remained till the year 1863.

We come now to the last period of Mr. Cameron's life, and the
second of the time spent by him in Madagascar. The queen, who
from the year 1835 had exerted all the powers of her government
for the destruction of Christianity, died in 1861. Mr. Ellis, imme-
diately after the news of her death reached England, left for
Madagascar, and arrived at the Capital the next year, and was
followed soon after by some of the present missionaries. The
former, a short time after his arrival, negociated with the king for
a grant to the L. M. S. of the sites of the present Memorial Churches,
including the one at Fiadanana. The king acceded to his request,
and Mr. Cameron was invited by Mr. Ellis to undertake their
superintendence and erection. lie readily accepted the offer, and
leaving wife and children and children's children at the Cape, he
came here alone to the scene of his former labours, after an absence
of 28 years ; and was warmly and heartily welcomed by his former
friends and pupils. I well remember the first time I saw him. Just
a month before his arrival we had commenced monthly union
prayer-meetings, which have been held regularly till the present
time. The first one was at Analakely, but, on account of the very
large number present, the service was held in the open space where
the temporary chapel now stands. On the following month we met at
Ambatonakanga, and again in the open air, outside the old chapel,
which has since been pulled down. Mr. Cameron had arrived that
same day, and after the people were assembled, I remember his tall
upright figure, fine face, and long white hair, as he came into the yard
and walked slowly through the people, shaking hands with one and
another until he reached the place where Mr. Ellis and the other
missionaries were seated.

The first two years after his arrival were embittered somewhat
through misunderstandings with the Directors at home. Since 1835
a new generation had sprung up at the Mission House, and little
was known of Mr. Cameron except through the brief notices of him
in Mr. Ellis's History of Madagascar, together with the mere fact
that he had been Mr. Ellis's companion in 1853, on his failure to
get permission to go to the Capital. Mr. Cameron's friends would
fain have had him return to the Cape, but he persisted in staying
here among the people of his adoption. He lived to see himself
better known and thoroughly respected by the Board of Directors at
home ; and the o]d friendship between himself and Mr. Ellis, which
had for a time been overshadowed, was again renewed until the death
of the latter in 1872.


52 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

Since Mr. Cameron's return to Madagascar lie has led a most
active and useful life. He maintained a connection not only with the
L. M. S., but also with the Government. The latter sought his
help almost immediately after his arrival. The beautiful palace at
the east of Manjakamiadana (Manampisoa) was his first important
work. He erected a large undershot water-wheel at Anosimaha-
velona, so as to supply more effectually the water at the powder-
mills ; but his last and greatest work for the government was the
erection of the noble structure that surrounds the great palace, and
which is now all but completed. The government have always
respected and reposed great confidence in him. They knew that
they could trust him entirely; that he was their true friend ; and
to the last, their friendship towards him has continued unbroken;
and now to-day, by their representatives, and by the funeral they are
giving him, they shew that they mourn his death as do we, his fellow-
workers and countrymen.

Mr. Cameron always felt great esteem for the Queen and Prime
Minister, and would have done any thing in his power to serve
them. He could sympathise with them in their public actions.
Even when he did not approve of what they did, he saw their
difficulties, and was ever ready to make allowance for them. He
was able to regard them from a Malagasy, and not merely from a
European, point of view. Eut, whilst working for the government
continually, and sympathising with them in matters in which many
of us were divided in opinion, his fealty towards the L. M. S. never
faltered. He was deeply attached to our Society, and has laboured
hard to the end in its behalf. He assisted in the completion of the
Church where we are now assembled; he built the Memorial
Church at Faravohitra and the present one at Analakely ; he superin-
tended the erection of the Hospital, some of the mission houses, and
several important village churches ; he carefully surveyed and
mapped all the principal places in Imerina, with the roads leading
to them; prepared a similar map of the places on the road to
Fianarantsoa, as well as several towns in the neighbourhood of that
capital; and although his map has been superseded by one more
complete in detail and general finish, yet it is not too much to say
that but for Mr. Cameron's assistance, freely and generously given,
the latter could never have been produced.

But the journey to the Betsileo was too much for a man at his
advanced age, and it would have been better had it never been
undertaken. He was weary and almost worn out when he returned,
and has scarcely been well long together since. It has long been
evident to us all that he was breaking up, and that he could not


53 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

last many more years. His illness three or four months ago shook
him exceedingly, and, although he recovered comparative health
and strength, he himself evidently felt that his end was drawing near.
It is only a short,time ago that he requested me to take away the
things he had at Analakely belonging to the College. About the
same time he stated that he could no longer go about as before, but
as he had been teaching from the Bible for many years, and had
kept notes of the lessons he had given, he should like to occupy his
time a good deal in re-writing them, and publishing them in a
permanent form for the use of the Malagasy teachers and preachers.
He thought they might be useful, and it would be something to
leave behind after he was gone. To the last he has been working
at these lessons; often while in bed he has been engaged upon
them. His heart was set upon getting them put into print while he
lived. I believe the whole or nearly the whole of those on the
Four Gospels are now ready for the printer. He has not lived
to see the full accomplishment of his wish, but it is to be hoped
that, as a mark of our respect for the dead, his last most earnest and
steadfast desire will be faithfully fulfilled.

Mr. Cameron was altogether a remarkable man. I believe he
was mainly, if not altogether, self-taught. And yet how extensive
his knowledge as a builder his experience was great; he belonged
however more to the old school than to the new. He believed in
substantiality more than beauty of outline.* He was also well
acquainted with many of the physical sciences, and delighted in
teaching them to such of the natives as found pleasure in listening to
his instructions. He knew something of chemistry, he was well
acquainted with physics, he took great and perhaps special delight
in astronomy. Our annual almanack has depended hitherto solely upon
him. How delighted he was to have to tell the natives beforehand
of an eclipse, whether of the sun or the moon We all remenber
his enthusiam in respect to the recent Transit of Venus. How he
tried to explain to the Malagasy the reasons and importance of its
occurences. When the morning came he sent to call me, and when
I got up to Faravohitra Church-yard, although it was only five
o'clock in the morning, he was already there waiting for the sun to
rise and the clouds to break. Though he failed to see the sun at
the time of first contact, he watched the final passage of the planet
from the edge of the sun's disk, and made calculations, which he
sent to the Astronomer Royal at the Cape.

[* Notwithstanding this, however, the two palaces upon which he was engaged shew a
minute and accurate acquaintance with the classic styles ; the timber palace is most
picturesque in general outline and detail, and the stone work of the great palace reproduces
most faithfully and effectively three of the orders of Roman architecture. Ed.]


54 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

But if his intellectual faculties were of a high order, so were his
moral. He loved truth and hated falsehood. He believed thoroughly
in the Bible as the great moral force which alone is able to make a
nation great and strong. Whilst engaged in secular pursuits and
studies he was, as in former years, perfectly at home in his Bible
class, whether at Analakely or at other places. He taught a class
almost to the very last in the Analakely Sunday school, and took
great interest in the spread of the gospel throughout the country.
In his theological opinions he was liberal. He held most firmly to
the great fundamental truths of Christianitya full and free redemp-
tion through the sacrifice of our blessed Lord on the Cross. He
was not given to speak much of his own religious experience; he
was too reserved for that. But we do know that he was a true and
firm believer in the Lord Jesus Christ, and that to the last his whole
trust was in Him.

Mr. Cameron died as he had lived, quietly and calmly. We were
all surprised when we heard of his death. On Tuesday he had a
severe attack of inflammation, but on Wednesday he was much
better. On Saturday afternoon I visited him, expecting to find him
recovered, but on going into his bed-room was grieved and shocked
with the change that had taken place. He seemed thoroughly
conscious, but too low and weak to notice much; he sat up in bed
for a few, minutes, but it was evidently too much for him, and he
asked to be laid down again. Soon afterwards I left, to see him no
more till I looked upon his corpse yesterday. Whilst there on
Saturday afternoon I could not help feeling that he would not long
survive, but I did not think his end was so near. As the night
drew on it become more and more evident that death was approach-
ing. After midnight he became less restless, and dozed a great
deal until about 7 o'clock, when he quietly and gently breathed his
last, and entered into rest.

We could all of us have wished that he had lived long enough to
have returned to the Cape, and have passed away surrounded by
all his family ; but it has been ordered otherwise, and it is well
that it should have been so. He loved the Malagasy with a love
very unostentatious, but very real and strong. During the many years
of his absence his thoughts were with the people here, sympathising
with them in their sufferings, helping them in their needs, and
longing for the clouds of darkness to pass away. And when his
hopes and prayers were realized and the way opened for his return,
he felt that this was his place. His heart had always been here.
It had been endeared to him by many close and tender associations.
Here he had spent the first years of his married life ; here his
children had all been born, and here some of them had died. Here


55 The late Mr. James Cameron : his Life and Labours.

he had laboured, and taught, and achieved success. He belonged
to Madagascar more than to the Cape, and it is well that here,
among the people of his choice, the people whom he has striven so
long through storm and sunshine to enlighten and to help, he should
die, and here be buried on the spot where his first home in Mada-
gascar stood, where he spent the first years of his missionary life,
and where some of his children lie buried.

But we must- not suppose that in coming out again it was an
easy thing for him to give up wife and children and all that he
held dear at the Cape. To one who knew him, it was easy to see
that he was a man of strong family affections, though not the man to
reveal them openly to others. I remember how sad he was when
intelligence first reached him of the death of his wife, who had
been united to him for more than 30 years, and how this sadness
was again renewed when the wedding-ring from her own finger
reached him here in his loneliness. We all know how much he
loved his daughter, who gave up the society of her friends and
relatives to help and comfort the old man in his solitude. It is only a
few months ago that I heard him speak with fatherly pride of his
only son, who has won such a high and honourable place for
himself at the Cape.

To his family far away it will be a great sorrow when they hear
that they will see his face no more in the flesh, but it will be a
consolation to them to feel that he was affectionately nursed
and tended by her who now mourns his loss ; and that he has passed
away honoured and reverenced, and esteemed and loved by so many
who have learned his goodness and his worth.

We could not have expected him to live much longer, he had more
than passed his threescore years and ten ; but nevertheless, for a
time at least, he will be sadly missed. The government will miss
him as a friend and helper, and as one who always had the best
interest of the country at heart; the natives generally will miss
him, as an old and well-known friend of the Malagasy ; the church
at Analakely will miss him as a fellow-member, a teacher, a guide
and helper ; we shall all miss him at our meetings and in our work ;
the old house at Analakely, his former and latest residence, will look
sad and dreary without his well-known and always cheering
presence. We all mourn his loss to clay as one who has been a kind-
hearted, gentle and cheerful friend and fellow-worker. Those
who knew him least honoured and esteemed him; those who knew him
most admired and loved him.


56

Farahantsana, Itasy, And Arikaratra.

FARAHANTSANA, ITASY, AND ANKARATRA:

SCRAPS FROM A NOTE-BOOK.

FARAHANTSANA. Nov. 30th,
1874. Left home a little before
seven this morning. Crossing the
rice-fields to the west of the
town, we gained the banlc of the
river Ikopa, whose course wc follow-
ed for many miles. At length we
reached a large extent of marshy
ground, where girls were busy catch-
ing small fishes in hand-nets form-
ed of rushes. Two girls, waist-
deep in water, had charge of each
net; grasping it at each end they
dragged it through the water, while
attached to it by a cord and trailing
after, was a large spherical jar, into
which they popped the fish at every
haul. There we left the river-bank
for a time and turned off over a
spur of high ground, past a market
called "Monday," close to which
stood the chapel, whence we could
hear the children's voices reciting
their lessons. We continued our
way past several villages, when
suddenly a very beautiful view burst
upon us of miles of level valley,
reminding me of the Lea meado'ws,
with stretches of high reeds streaking
with deeper colour the light green
carpet of grass, groups of cattle
picturesquely scattered here and
there, the river meandering hither
and thither over the plain, while
high above all, at the northern extre-
mity, rose the huge hill called Am-
bohimanoa, crowned with ruined
walls.

After some enquiries, we descen-
ded to the plain, and struck straight
across to a low headland on its
western side, where we were told

the river Fito enters the Ikopa.
On nearing this, we found a canoe
manned by two boys, who were
collecting fodder for cattle. They
took us across the river, and on as-
cending the rising ground we could
trace the two rivers, which, ten
miles to the south, came within
half a mile of each other, but sepa-
rating again do not meet till they
reach this spot.

We now struck north for Ambo-
himanoa, to the summit of which
we climbed. This was once a large
town (as towns are here), with the
remains of two or more surrounding
walls enclosing a large space, with
traces of stone foundations of houses,
and what seems to out-last every
other vestige of man's work here,
the deep narrow-mouthed rice-pits,
how full of beautiful ferns. The
hill seems to be mainly composed of
vato-didy, a soft red. stone or hard-
ened clay, used by the people to a
small extent in making lamp-stands,
blocks to support cooking utensils,
etc., and has lately been introduced
into outside work in some of the
larger buildings of the capital.

But the view from the summit
was wonderful, mountains and
peaks wherever the eye turned, but
reaching their highest elevation iu
the range of Ankaratra, to the south-
west ; and immediately below, the
valley we had just crossed, with its
three rivers, which, uniting into one,
turned round the hill on which we
stood and lost itself again among the
hills to the north. A steep descent
brought us quickly to the river again,


Farahantsana, Itasy, and Ankaratra.

57

at a spot where a canoe was at hand
to take us across, and getting once
more into my palanquin we quickly
trotted over some three or four miles
of uneven ground till we reached
this place.

The Ikopa here makes a plunge
over a steep bed of rock, perhaps
falling some thirty feet, and con-
tinuing to fall during the next mile
to a much lower level. The main fall
is very pretty, hardly grand unless
in flood time ; at present it is divi-
ded by groups of rocks into three
channels, each of which in its fall is
very beautiful and of quite different
character from the others; but no
one view of the whole can be obtain-
ed which will compare with falls to
be seen in the forest.

***

Ambohibeloma is one of the real
old towns remaining on the summit
of a steep high hill, the topmost
point being crowned by the palace
of the old kings who at one time
reigned supreme in this part of the
country. When, however, Andri-
anampdinimerina commenced to
subdue and annex all the tribes
about him, the king here being un-
able to offer successful resistance,
fled to the west, and remained there
during his life, while some royal
favourite was placed here in his
stead. His descendant is still here,
and in the position of pastor of the
church. He has followed the example
of our Henry VII., and made peace
by taking in marriage the present
representative of the old line of kings,
a good and superior woman, and
a help to her husband in his church
work. A noticeable feature of the
place is the large number of fine
handsome Amdntana% trees, which

* A large handsome tree, allied to the
ficus family of plants. It has glossy leaves,
much like those of the india-rubber tree. Ed.

surround the upper parts of the
town, and give them a pleasant
picturesque air unusual hereaway.

Isoamahamanana, Dec. 2nd. Last
night we made up for previous
want of sleep, and did not get away
very early this morning, and only
made a short stage over the hill to
Ambatolevy to dinner. We came
somewhat out of our way in doing
so, in order to reach a stone bridge
by which to cross the swollen river,
too deep to ford. This is one of the
many stone bridges built by Radama
II., and of which I suppose there is
not one left in good condition. The
arches are generally semicircular
and high, but the pathway not more
than four feet wide, and the whole
built of small stones. It is rare to
see a perfect arch, including the
coping, and rarer still to find one
which has not very much settled
out of the perpendicular ; the place
of the broken arches is supplied in
this case, wrhere half the bridge has
fallen and only two archcs, in bad
condition, remain, by an embankment
of stone and earth, held together
by stakes, run out from the opposite
bank to make the passage complete.

Since dinner we have passed
through some very beautiful scenery
among the woods of the Tapia
tree, on the leaves of which the
silk-worms feed. I was struck, too,
with the large number of fine amon-
tana growing, singly or in small
groups, in the neighbourhood of the
villages.

This town, which we reached
about five o'clock, is completely
surrounded with a bright belt of
green Avi-dv-y* trees. In the fork of
the trunk of one immediately in
front of my house is what looks
like a great mass of hay, perhaps

* Another species of fiats, but "with
smaller leaves than the anwntana. Ed.


58

Farahantsana, Itasy, and Arikaratra.

three feet across, and as much or
more in height. I supposed the
people had been storing their fuel
there to be out of the way, but was
told it was the nest of a large bird
called the Takatra. We often see
the bird among the wet rice grounds;
it is a species of heron or umber,
with a tuft of feathers behind the
head.

My good landlady sits near me as
I write, twisting silk. She has
already removed the little spines
which are found in the cocoons,
and takes the latter, and pulls them
each out into a mass of light down ;
and now taking up the little puffs one
by one and opening them out, twists
them into a thread with her fingers,
clearing off any imperfections with
her teeth, and winds it on a small
bamboo stick some four inches long,
into which she has thrust the little
finger of her left hand. She is
amused at my wishing to bargain
for her half-covered stick to carry
away as a specimen of native manu-
facture, but none the less pleased
to receive a small piece of silver in
exhange for it.

Ambaniatavy, Dec. 3rd. We left
the good lady at her cocoons this
morning, and struck straight across
country for Ambdhimiangara, the
highest mountain in this direction.
After a two hours' run we reached
its foot, and another hour brought
us to the summit. It is a kingly
hill, higher by head and shoulders
than any other near it, its crown of
white stones rising some eighteen
hundred feet above the lake lying
blue at its feet. At rather more
than half-way up the ascent, we
passed for some distance along the top
of a precipice, which, some way off,
appeared like a huge wall one hun-
dred feet high, ofa soft silvery grey
colour; while below us the ground

sunk sheer away into the valley.

The view from the summit was
magnificent, the centre of the whole
of the lovely lake Itasy embosomed
in its bright green hills, a pearl
encircled with emeralds, with moun-
tains upon mountains in every direc-
tion as far as eye could reach; fierce
thunderstorms were being marshall-
ed hither and thither, and to be
counted by the half-dozen wherever
the eye turned. Now and again
they formed close at hand, threaten-
ing us in our lofty watch-tower, but
turned aside and passed away down
the valley to the north in a deluge
of rain. Ankaratra's highest peaks
were lost in clouds, but Inanobe
rose sharp and square against the
southern horizon, while away to the
north were many strange unknown
points. After spending an hour or
more on these summits, where, by the
bye, we found sundry remains of
divinations practised by these poor
ignorant people, we set off to descend
on the western side, the hill so
steep that we had to go "en zig-zag."
The whole mountain is a mass of
quartz; where the rocks protrude,
it is toned down to silvery grey by
lichens, but where the rain has
washed it away, it appears as coarse
sand and pebbles of the purest
white, with an occasional speck of
pink. We had now a good ride
along the north-western arm of the
lake to this place. The view of
mountains and water as we drew
near was extremely lovely. The
end of the lake, forming as it were
a little lake in itself, and reflecting the
deep blue and white masses above,
lay calm in the bright sunshine,
encircled with rich green hills,
while clusters of houses, embowered
in peach and other trees, grouped
themselves around its shores ; here
and there a canoe's dark line among


59 Farahantsana, Itasy, and Arikaratra.



the sedges showed where the fisher
was at work with hook and line for
the morrow's market; and across
the meadows to the right a herd of
cattle was slowly wencling its way
to fresh pastures. Altogether it
formed a ?jmaha-te-sketch indrindra*
piece; but my men were tired and
drenched by a shower we had just
encountered, so we held on our way.
On arriving here I took advantage
of the daylight to sketch the outlet
of the lake, where the waters pass
as it were through a gateway of
boulders into the river Lilia. Across
the low dip in the hills opposite
appears the main part of Itasy, this
end forming a long arm which bends
round a central hill to this point.

Friday, Dec. 4th. Went down
the Lilia as far as the waterfall at
Ambohipo. A more beautiful fall
I think I never saw. The river,
broken, into three streams, falls iu
foaming white masses over an edge of
black lava some fifty feet deep. The
whole bed of the river for a mile
above is of the same black character,
the lava broken in innumerable
blocks, and setting out in vivid
colour the verdure on the river
banks. We viewed the falls from a
steep bank of shrubs and trees,
which greatly added to their beauty.
We found among the many ferns
growing in the clefts of the rocks
one which had not been seen before,
making the two hundredth variety
in the collection at Faravohitra !
We now turned back again towards
lake Itasy, and crossing the river,
ascended the central hill noticed
yesterday to Ambohidrano. I walked
on to the most prominent point
to get observations for mapping the
lake. It lay deep blue round three
sides of us, with its everlasting
mountains round about, with gardens

*"CauBing to wish to sketch exceedingly.'

of fruit-trees nestling at their feet.
After dinner we left Ambohidrano,
and skirting the western shore of
the lake came to this place, Mora-
tsiazo. On the way we passed for
some distance through a lane be-
tween high hedges of prickly-pear
in fruit. There most have been
tons of fruit. I never saw the like :
they were hanging, round and rosy,
by thirty and forty in a cluster, and
looked so tempting that I ventured
to taste them. The men gathered
me three or four, carefully rubbing
off the spines, which are most
troublesome if they enter the skin.
I might get to like them if there
was nothing better at hand; in
flavour they are something like an
unripe gooseberry, but scarcely so
acid. On reaching this place I went
down to the water's edge in hope
of finding a canoe to take ine across
to a high promontory on the south
side, where I might do a little
"observating." For some time,
however, no canoes appeared, except
such as were employed in fishing, and
which were too small to venture
out into the open. Whilst waiting
on the shore a stiff shower came on,
when it was curious to see the
occupant of every little boat put on
a huge hood made of mats sewn to-
gether at top and back; shielded
by these they defied the rain and
quietly continued their work. At
length we hailed a large canoe
which was passing at some distance
out, and having made a bargain
with the owner we set off on our
trip. A haudful of grass in the
bottom of the boat formed our seats,
while a rower, with his spade-like
padclle, knelt, one at the bow and
the other at the stern, and away
we went, now in the open, now
cutting our way among the reeds, or
clearing a path through fields of


60

Farahantsana, Itasy, and Arikaratra.

blue water-lilies. The rain clouds
quite hid the further end of the
lake, while patches of blue sky were
still visible above, and the foot of a
brilliant rainbow stood up on the
apparently boundless water and
was lost in the clouds above.

I am told here that Itasy was
once a huge swamp, and that its
becoming a clear lake is within the
knowledge or perhaps the traditions
of the people. A very large extent
of swamp at present exists on the
south side, and a little also -at the
north-west corner.

Mahatsinjo, Dec. 5tli. "We have
only made a short stage to day,
leaving Itasy, and striking right
through Mandridrano to Ambalava-
to, and then to this place. Ambala-
vato is a singular town, surrounded
by two or three concentric walls,
built of dry blocks of lava. The
gate is at one side, where a narrow
passage is made through the outer
walls, and the inner one fitted with
folding doors. The place appears
to be the residence of the great man
of the district and his numerous
dependents, rather thau an open
town. I found his lordship in con-
clave with his wise men round him,
all squatting on the floor, and trans-
acting business relative to some
Mozambiques.

My present resting-place is a large
town, the largest I suppose this
side of Antananarivo, and the capital
of Mandridrano, and abounds in
cattle, pigs, and children. Our road
to day led us past a great bare space
on the high ground where a market
is held every Monday. Close to
this was pointed out a small hollow
in the hill where the cold-blooded
slaughter of a number of people took
place soon after the death of llada-
ma II. A large number of the
inhabitants of Mandridrano refused

to acknowledge his successor, having
been persuaded into the belief that
he was still living. Steps were at
oncc taken to bring them to sub-
mission. On one occasion the inhab-
itants of a rebel village presented
themselves before the officer charged
to quell the insurrection, bringing a
quantity of food, rice, poultry, etc.,
in token of submission; he received
the present graciously, and then
ordered his soldiers to spear to death
the poor unarmed people. They
drove them down into the little
hollow above-named, and there
carried out his orders. The deep
green of the grass, with a bleached
bone here and there attested the
truth of the story. There are many
stories told of that terrible time : of
an innoccnt man ordered to be shot,
but the gun could not be made to
fire. "God protected him,"' said
one of my men reverently on hearing
of it; of another man who spent
several days in hiding among the
reeds by the side of lake Itasy,
being in constant fear of crocodiles
below, and searching soldiers above.

Fenoarivo, Dec. 8th.We were
off in good time this morning, and
up the hill behind Masondray, called
Ambohitsarabe, a stupendous crag
rising 1,500 feet above the river
Kitsamby. The upper part of the
rock is in places perpendicular, and
on the summit are the traces of
several former villages. Masoudray,
where we had rested for the night,
is on high ground itself, so that the
ascent to the summit of the hill is
very easy, and does not at all prepare
you for the view down into the deep
valley below : the river winding in
its tortuous course, and a thousand
hollows worn deep into the flanks of
the hills by the streams which feed
it. The descent to the river, and
the ascent again on the other side,


61 Farahantsana, Itasy, and Arikaratra.



were very toilsome, but the bearers
worked away manfully, and at length
we got over the edge of the valley,
and had a good road before us the
rest of the way.

This town has obtained some noto-
riety of late, and is looked upon in the
Capital as a very bad place,inasmuch
as about two years ago a party of
men went hence and made a raid on
the Sakalavas to the west, bringing
away a large booty in cattlc. The
goverment sent down an armed force,
and took up to a place near town a
considerable number of the inhabi-
tants, where they were required to
inform against the ringleaders. Three
men were specified and brought
back here, and executed by spearing.
Most of the inhabitants fled or dis-
persed about the neighbourhood, but
the Queen ordered all to return home
and re-occupy their village, where
they have since lived in peace, pro-
bably congratulating themselves that,
thanks to the more enlightened and
humane sentiments implanted by
Christianity, no more of them had to
pay the penalty of their lives for
their misdeeds.

I was awakened in the dim early
dawn next morning by the most
pitiful weird wail of a boy, repeated
again and again : "Make haste my
mother ;""Make haste my friends."
The tone of grief in which it was
uttered was truly heart-rending, and
on going to the window to enquire
of the passers-by, whose hurrying
footsteps I heard, I was told that a
child had died during the night, and
it was customary at dawn to commence
the wailing of the relatives. First
one and then another took the lead,
now a young voice, full and shrill,
with a low murmuring accompani-
ment by others ; now the indistinct
utterance of an old man bewailing
his loss, or again, that of a female,

pitiful and sad. They kept this up
with but little intermission while we
remained, and we were very glad to
get away and escape the melancholy
sound.

ft ft ft ft %
Ambohipiarenana, Dec. loth. I
left Antoby this morning, S. C. ac-
companying me some two and a half
hours' ride to some hot water springs
on the edge of the river Sasarotra.
The place is worth a visit, a little
level space, perhaps sixty feet in
diameter, surrounded by rocks and
bushes, with a dozen or more springs
of hot water bubbling up here and
there, so hot that we could not bear
to keep our hands in. The water
appears to be impregnated with iron.

ft ft ft ft ft
Miantsoarivo, Dec. 18th. Wo
only made a very short day's journey
yesterday to Ambatofotsy, where
about eleven o'clock in the forenoon
we surprised the elderly teacher in his
work of colouring and decorating the
pulpit and the upper end of the
church. The good folks here have
been putting up a new chapel, and
our friend, in his coarse black shirt,
was diligently engaged giving a
finish to the decoration of the inte-
rior. Our worthy friend's efforts at
decoration were by no means so
unsuccessful as some that it has
been our fortune to sit within sight
of. On a pediment of purple, with
broad lines of black, stood the pol-
pilra, the lines of which were picked
out with bright blue on a white
ground. The remaining walls of the
church were allowed to remain of
the same colour as the floor or the
ground outside, which, while not
particularly soothing to the eyes, is
rendered less obnoxious, by the "dim
religious light" which a lack of
windows is as capable of producing
as the more ordinary and costly plan.


62

Farahantsana, Itasy, and Arikaratra.

After other conversation, we
explained the object of our visit,
viz., to climb to the summit of the
neighbouring mountain range of
Ankaratra. I had previously been
up one of the higher points, but
there were evidently much higher
ones to the south, and as it has
been an unsettled point as to which
is the loftiest, I was anxious to
settle the question. We had now
approached the western side of the
range in hopes of finding guides at
Ambatofotsy who would take us to
the summit. I therefore laid before
our elderly friend what were my
intentions and wants, and i-ight well
he served me, running about from
hamlet to hamlet in search of such
young men as he deemed likely to
know the mountain paths. But it
was a busy time with the people,
who were engaged planting their
rice, and it was not till we had
waited a considerable time that he
brought a youth to come and talk
about it. Thereupon ensued a
conversation as to what we wanted :
was it to go to the summit, or only
to the base of the summit ? ancl
particularly, was there any pork in
our luffaage ? for in that case his

DO o

venturing to go was out of the ques-
tion. We assured him that we
should take 110 pork with us, so that
he need not fear ; but in the end he
declined to go. Then our fussy
friend was off again, and presently
brought another, who would, per-
haps, go so far as to point out the
summit, but not to climb to the
top, not if I should offer him a
dollar even. And so we wasted our
time, one and another coming to
talk about it, and finally declining to
venture. There evidently was a deep-
laid fear of doing anything which
might call down the vengeance of
the gods of the hills, in the form

of terrific tempests, waterspouts,
etc. And how did they know but
what the authorities up there might
be highly offended at their taking a
foreigner up, when pigs and their
flesh werefady (tabooed) ? The people
here even, which is within a day of
the capital, expressed their great
surprise that we had been able
safely to pass right through the
dreaded region unharmed. As we
found that we could not get good
sleeping quarters nearer to the
mountains than Ambatofotsy, we
decided to remain the night there;
and hoped that, meanwhile, some of
the young men about would consent
to guide us on the morrow. Even-
tually two men agreed to take us.

We were astir at half-past four
this morning, and when about to
start, on enquiring for the guides
we found that one was poorly and
the other had not turned up. There
was nothing else for it but to go
without, so wc set off, intending to
find our way as we could. We had
not gone far, however, across the
valley before we saw two men
coming quickly after us. They
proved to be our guides, and as they
came up, the one with whom I had
made the bargain explained that
his companion had not known of our
having "shaken hands" over the
business, or he would not have ex-
cused himself on the plea of illness !

We now made our way across the
heads of several fine valleys studded
far below with numerous little ham-
lets, and up on to a high table-lancl
with many little peaks around of
volcanic formation ; wc travelled on,
walking and riding for nearly five
hours, till at last, on turning round
a low hill which rose above the
general level, our guides exclaimed :
'There is Tsiafajavona,1' and right
before us were ranged a chain of


Farahantsana, Itasy, and Ankaratra.

63

peaks rising higher and higher to
the furthest and most northern. We
stood on a sort of broad causeway,
the only easy way to the summit,
and from which, to right and left,
the ground fell steeply away in
deep valleys, whose streams flow
respectively to north-west and
south-east. Our guides were reluc-
tant to go further, 'so I shortly dis-
missed them, and climbed the first
and most southerly peak, 8,368
feet* in altitude. This was clearly
not the highest point, and we set
off skirting round the steep sides of
the conical hills in a northerly
direction, till we reached a point
8,618 feet; but, exhausted though we
were with the hard and continuous
climbing, there yet loomed a higher
point some distance further north,
so calling on my poor fagged men,
we again descended, and again
climbed to what proved to be the
summit of the range, and, I suppose,
the highest point in Madagascar,
8,763 feet above the sea. Now we
saw the peculiar plan of the range,
there being, in fact, two ranges
lying in the form of a cross, the
intersection being marked by a
small cone. From the east the
ground rises gradually in long sweeps
of rounded downs, but to the west
there was a perfect tempest of
mountain peaks of all manner of
shapes, bounded at the furthest
visible limit by a chain of strange,
weird, contorted rocks, a good day's
journey away. Away to the east
the rivers lay mapped out over the
plain, which from that height
appeared beautifully even and
smooth ; having travelled over it, I
was surprised at its appearance. To
the south we saw hills more than
half-way to Fianarantsoa, and to the

* I give the figures as I have since
corrected them with Mr. Cameron's help.

north lay lake Itasy and its grand
mountain, backed up by innumerable
unknown hills beyond. The capital,
too, was distinctly visible, and
starting from it I obtained a good
set of observations.

My men had enjoyed the joke
immensely yesterday, when the
question of pork was raised by the
natives, but as-we drew near these
mysterious heights, they did not feel
quite so easy in mind, and on my
talking jokingly about it they begged
me to be silent. But now it so fell
out that we were on the summit
together, and having become used to
the mountain tops, and having had
an hour's stiff climbing among them,
they were the more ready to listen to
reason, and were a little ashamed
of their previous fear.

We ascended yet another point,
Ambohimirandrina, a considerable
distance to the north again, which
had been spoken of as possibly high-
er than this, but we found it to be
nearly a hundred feet lower.

The wind was bitterly cold, and
we were cold and hungry, and glad
that the remainder of our way here
was, easy going, a three hours' run
over smooth descending downs. We
passed our baggage before we got
in, and found that the poor fellows
had missed their way, and had to
retrace their steps; and that, after
all, pork in the shape of lard, had
been carried unwittingly over a
part of Ankaratra. These old su-
perstitions take a long time to root
out, as may be witnessed at home
in out-of-the-way places, but our
going up Ankaratra may be one
little help towards their removal.

War. Johxson.

NOTE. The Map accompanying this paper
has been drawn by Mr. Johnson from his own
observations, and lithographed and printed
by Mr. ICingdon. Ed.


64

Notes on Ikongo and its People.

NOTES ON IKONGO AND ITS PEOPLE.

T the time that Radama I., king of Imerina, made the power

of the Hovas felt in the Betsileo, some of the tribes (without
resistance) swore allegiance, and even presented the hasina (dollar
of allegiance) on his first appearance among them. The Isandra
Avas the first tribe to bow to the Hova yoke, and they have accor-
dingly ever since been considered the senior tribe, and in all official
and formal meetings they take the first and most honourable place.
The Ilalangina and Iarindrano, on the other hand, gave very much
more trouble to the king of Imerina ; and active warfare continued
with varying success for many years ; although the arms of the
Hovas were very superior to those of the Betsileo. This may be
accounted for by the nature of the country. A casual visitor could
not fail to be struck with the naturally-fortified spots chosen by
these people for their villages. With very few exceptions the
Betsileo villages are on high hills, and on the summits of rocks, the
ascent to which is often extremely difficult, and winds through (in
6ome cases) quite a quarter of a mile of prickly-pear, impenetrable
to bare feet and half-naked bodies. The wonder is, not the trouble
they gave the Hovas, but that they were ever subdued. The Ilalan-
gina was the last tribe to submit, being traditionally the more warlike,
and constantly engaged in petty feuds, village fighting against village,
and organizing cattle-stealing raids upon each other.

Bordering the Ilalangina and the Iarindrano to the east is the
great forest, extending from the extreme north of the island to its
most southern point, forming a belt of varying width between the
central plateau and the low-lying plains around the sea-coast. The
people inhabiting the southern forest region appear to be, in many
respects, different both from the coast tribes on the one hand, and
the Betsileo on the other. The difference of physiognomy is so
marked that no one, after living here a few years, could mistake
one for the other. Their language is also a separate dialect, having
many different words, and very many words modified in sound: so
much so, that on a recent visit I was amused at the difficulty a man
brought up in the Capital had in making himself understood and in
understanding a Tanala, as the people residing in this part of the
forest are called.

The northern part of this forest district is under the government
of Raovana, the queen of the Tanala, as she is called by the Betsileo


65 Notes on Ikongo and its People.



and her own people. These have submitted to the Hovas since the
time of Radama I., who established Raovana in her position.
Farther south, however, is a clan of hardy daring men, the Ikongo,
who banded together to resist the inroads of the Hovas, which they
successfully did on more than one occasion, sustaining one siege of
eighteen months, and another of twelve months, in both of which
the Hovas lost considerably, and eventually withdrew ingloriously.
Since this last siege, although nominally acknowledging Ranavalona
as queen of Madagascar, there has been no real submission ; and to
the present time they remain an unconquered people, having a
king, prime minister, governors, and judges of their own. The
nature of their country has greatly contributed to this indepen-
dent spirit, even if it cannot be said that their hardihood is alto-
gether owing to the boldness and isolation of the land in which they
were born and nurtured. The inhabited part of Ikongo forms a
long narrow valley or basin, about 60 miles in extent from north to
south, and about 15 or 20 miles from east to west. It is bounded
on all sides by ranges of high hills ; those on the east and west
forming part of the general mountain system of Madagascar ; and
the lower hills on the north and south being spurs from the longer
ranges. On all sides there is a- forest, grand and beautiful, but so
dense as to be almost impassable ; the roads, or rather paths, are so
narrow and so closely overgrown, as to preclude the possibility of
two people walking abreast. The difficulty of travelling is further
increased by the broken nature of the ground, and the trunks of fallen
trees being allowed to remain as they fell; in many cases forming
a barrier anything but pleasant to overcome. The forest on the east is
eight hours' journey in width, so that the "gate of the Ikongo" is a real
protection. To the naturalist, the fauna of this dense forest does not
offer much that is interesting, for the one point that strikes the travel-
ler is the solitude and quietness ; the natives call it "the quiet forest."
Vegetation, however, is most luxuriant and beautiful, and when
standing in one of the many open glades, into which the sunshine
can penetrate, the prospect is all that is enchanting ; but once in
the dense, damp, semi-twilight again, one cannot shake off a certain
creepy, dungeon feeling; the superfluity of the beautiful creating
the repugnant. It is with a sense of relief that the traveller emer-
ges into either the rich green verdure of the lower plain, or upon
the more bleak and rugged table-land on the west. The forest is
gradually being encroached upon, for the purpose of forming fresh
plantations of maize and sweet potatoes; but why the people should
burn down so much timber that could be employed for building or
other purposes, merely to plant maize, when the whole valley is
open to them uncultivated, cannot be accounted for, except on the
score of laziness and an utter indifference to the future. The


66

Notes on Ikongo and its People.

former is most probably tbe ruling principle, as it is far easier to
set fire to a patch of forest, and when cold to drop the corn into
holes dibbled in the ashes, in which it grows rapidly, than it is to
prepare a piece of clear land by digging. In the same way the rice is
grown in the Ikongo, where instead of being planted and constantly
kept under water as in the Betsileo, it is sown like wheat on the
hill-sides.

The food of the people resembles that of the Betsileo and Hovas,
and consists of rice, manioc, sweet potato, beans, and a species of
millet. Abundance of fish is caught in the rivers, and there appears
to be no want of cattle and poultry; but there are no sheep or pigs.
The people say that if they tried to keep pigs, they would soon join
their friends the wild hogs in the forest, and themselves become
wild.

Their clothing is of the scantiest description, and consists of mats,
plaited from a soft rush called harefo, which grows in such abun-
dance as to form the principal, if not the only, article of trade with
the Betsileo on the western border of the forest. For the use of
the women the mats are made like a sack open at both ends, are
slipped over the head, and tied with a piece of bark round the
waist. For the men they are cut and sewn into the shape of a jacket
with short sleeves, and open in front. Soft as the rush is for a rush,
this must be anything but a comfortable dress.

Their burial customs are peculiar. They make no tombs, as the
Betsileo and Hovas do, but bury their dead in the forest with no
other mark than a notched tree to keep the spot in remembrance.
The carrying of the body to its last resting-place is accompanied
with yelling and screaming ; but I saw no ostentatious mourning and
weeping as with the Betsileo. At certain places on the road the
body is placed on the ground, and a series of games is .commenced,
in which wrestling and the spear-exercise form a prominent part.
Burying is called "throwing away the corpse."

The population I should estimate at between eight and ten thou-
sand, and that, in times of peace, is scattered over the whole area of
the country in small hamlets of from 12 to 30 houses. But when a
rumour of war reaches them, they at once assemble in their fortress.
This consists of a long flat-topped hill, very precipitous on all
sides, especially on the west and north, where the faces of the cliffs
are perpendicular masses of smooth granite. The hill is about five
miles long, and about 1000 or 1500 feet above the level of the plain.
On the summit are five towns, the one to the south being apparently
nearly as large as Fianarants6a, with some good-sized houses.
Two streams of water take their rise near this southern town, and


67 Notes on Ikongo and its People.



flew along the whole length of the hill, descending in a clearly-
defined cascade, near the northern extremity. It is principally
owing to this fact that the people can effectually defy all siege, as
they can plant and sow as well on the top of the hill as in the
valley, whilst the only ascent is so narrow and difficult as to require
but few to guard it against an assaulting army. Several guard-houses
are built on long poles, at short intervals along the eastern part of
the hill. Each guard is furnished with a gun, usually an old Eng-
lish flint-lock, and in such a condition as to be equally dangerous to
the man using it as to the enemy shot at. Still, all attempts at
sudden attack could be frustrated, more especially as the roads in
every direction through the country are under a complete system of
surveillance. Each village in fact has its own chief, judge, and guards,
even though there may be but five or six other families in the
place. Every man when travelling carries one or two spears, which,
although guns are used, are their principal weapon, and in the use of
which they are extremely expert. They also use shields, round,
made of wood, slightly convex and covered with raw hide, with a
handle in the centre of the back, but with no sling for the arm. In
the use of this some have gained a strength and suppleness of wrist
quite astonishing.

Polygamy is practised among them, and the number of a man's
wives is determined by his ability to keep them. Ratsiandraofana,
the king, has ten, and many whom I questioned had three, four, or
six, according to their wealth. Marriage is contracted at a very
early age ; even earlier than in other parts of Madagascar. In my
last visit I was quite taken aback after chatting with a boy and
girl, perhaps half-grown, to find they were not brother and sister, as
I supposed, but manno boy and wife.

Their religion, if they can be said to have any, is a blind super-
stitious belief in a superior Being, who is able to kill them, and
destroy their rice and houses with lightning, and drown them in
the floods of rain ; but they had never thought of Him as the maker
of the earth and all things, still less as a God of Love. Each Sabbath
day however that I have spent in the country I have held a service,
though ostensibly for my own men, yet so arranged as to matter
and explanations as to give the stragglers, of whom there were
sometimes 40 or 50, a good notion of what our religion consisted.
For, in my first interview with the king, he very decidedly interdic-
ted the "praying to the Baptism," a notion (very misty) which he
had obtained from some sham Hova traders, who after telling them, as
I suppose, that they had been baptised, had in a cold-blooded way
murdered the men who came to trade with them, and took their wives


68

Notes on Ikongo and its People.

and children as slaves. So he wanted to have nothing to do with
the religion professed by those who treated them in that manner.
I then felt I had a good opportunity of telling him some of the
truths of Christianity ; and at the close I said we only prayed to one
Being, that is God. But I failed to a great extent to shake his
determination not to have anything to do with the praying. So
rather than be refused altogether I thought it best for the rest of
my visit only to speak of the teaching, and not mention the "pray-
ing," feeling assured that as the principal reading-book will be the
New Testament, they will, in the mere endeavour to learn to read,
gain much of the knowledge they seemed so anxious to keep out of
their country. Ratsiandraofana gave me permission to go and come
amongst them whenever I like, and not to wait for guides ; that I
might send a teacher, if not a Hova, and that when I came down
again they would be glad to see my wife, and to have their wives and
daughters taught needlework, etc.

Their great desire is not so much for enlightenment, as for the
power, which they feel to be a great one, of reading and writing, to
save them using the troublesome and untrustworthy method of
conveying all messages by word of mouth. This plan of communica-
tion nearly led to serious consequences in my latter visit, when on
account of a false statement made by the bearers of a message, a
rumour was set afloat to the effect that they were on the eve of
sustaining a siege by the Hovas. As was perhaps natural to a sus-
picious people, my return amongst them was immediately connected
with the unpleasant intelligence, and the chief people from all parts
were called to attend a kind of parliament by the king. Our bearers
were so frightened as to be on the point of leaving my wife and me
to our fate, and running home for their lives, if we would not consent
at once to return. By a little reasoning, however, I induced them
to give up such a foolish and impracticable design, as I felt sure
the whole mistake could be rectified, and no harm would come to
them so long as they stayed with us. And so it proved, for I was
able to shew the king that I had no connection whatever with any-
thing done by the government in Imerina or Fianarantsoa, and
reiterated my former statements, that my sole object in coming
among them was to instruct them and supply them with teachers.
When I reached Fianarantsoa I discovered the Queen had sent two
representatives to examine into the state of the churches and
schools in Betsileo ; and that when they arrived in the town a salute
of nine guns was fired in honour of the distinguished visitors, but
who were attended by none but their personal attendants and bearers.
This, by the time it reached the people in Ikongo, was exaggerated
into an army under the command of two generals, bringing nine


69 Notes on Ikongo and its People.



cannon, and that, as all the tribes in subjection to Ranavalona were
at peace, their ultimate destination must be Ikongo.

The first teacher was sent to them in 1874. He was well received,
and an evident desire for knowledge was shewn by the people. He
went to the king, who received him kindly, called a meeting of the
people, and told them he should like them to learn; but that he
would not try to force them, as he knew they were busy with their
rice planting. "Oh !" said one chief, "I wish to learn ; so my wife
and I will make the two first scholars." Then another and another
joined, till there were eleven pupils in the first school in Ikongo.
The teacher set to work to drill them in the alphabet, and after a
day or two received a message from Raboba, the second in command,
to go to his town and let him hear what all this talk about teaching
meant. Rafanahy (the teacher) went and explained why I had been
there, and why he had come; when Raboba said, "I too wish to be
a friend of the Vazaha (foreigner) who came here, and I will give you
twenty scholars to begin with." This he did ; and so the teacher
had, in different places, thirty-one willing and anxious to learn;
and there were many others desirous to receive instruction, but in
towns the teacher could not reach.

In 1875 I took two trained Betsileo teachers down to the king,
and was gratified with the kind and cordial way he received them,
offering, without any suggestion from me, to build them a house
and school-room; and as they were strangers and had no land in that
country, he would supply them with all the rice they would require
for themselves and families. This was not the only encouraging
circumstance connected with this visit. A better understanding of
my motives in coming among them seemed to exist than on the
former occasion, and a decided spirit of inquiry about "the praying"
had manifested itself. Although not willing to countenance openly
my preaching to my bearers and any who liked to come, yet I
found that both Ratsiandraofana and others had been listening outside
the tent and house; and had, after the service, called the teachers
and asked them to read several passages from the Bible to him.
Their selections must have been directed by the All Wise, as they
appear to have made a deep impression on his mind, and he has
even gone so far as to retract what he said on a former occasion, and
admit that the religion that teaches such things must indeed be good.
Thus the good seed is being quietly, almost secretly, sown, and will
with the Divine blessing, bring forth fruit in the hearts of the
people, even without their consent.

Gteobge A. Shaw.


70

Remarkable Burial Customs among the Betsileo.

REMARKABLE BURIAL CUSTOMS AMONG THE
BETSILEO.

DURING my two years' residence in Betsileo I saw and heard
many strange things. But certainly the strangest I saw or
heard of were the ceremonies in connection with the burial of the
dead.

The reader must understand that the various tribes called Betsileo,
who inhabit the southern portion of Central Madagascar, were con-
quered by the Hova king Radama I.; and since that time they have
been in subjection to the Hovas. The people, however, pay very
great respect to their own hereditary princes, of whom there are a
great many. It is their custom to kneel to these petty princes
whenever they meet with them, whether in house or field, street or
market. A few of them seem to be more intelligent than the
common people, and this may be partly owing to the comparatively
milder treatment they have received at the hands of their conquerors
than has been accorded to the people as a whole. The majority of
them, however, are sorry specimens of humanity, mere brutes in
human form ; and it can only be from custom that such honour is
given them. It is readily confessed by the Hovas that more defer-
ence is paid to these princes than is paid to the Queen herself; and
at their death they certainly make much ado.

I arrived one morning at a village where one of these princes
dwells ; one of his grandchildren had died that very morning, and
I found the people in an unwonted state of excitement. I was
informed that I could hold no meeting in the chapel or village on
that day, or for some days to come. Hearing that I wished to
stay as a spectator of the ceremonies I had often heard of, the people
very reluctantly gave me permission; and I was conducted to a
house which would command a good view of all the proceedings.
Seeing that it was only a child who had died, not so much ceremony
was observed as is consequent on the death of a grown-up prince.

In the first place, a public meeting was called of the whole
village and the surrounding hamlets; and then, in front of the
residence of the grandfather of the child, the names of the dead's
illustrious ancestors were called over by a man, leaning, while he
spoke, on another man's shoulder. Both men were clothed in
coarse dirty garments, but one shoulder of each man was bare.

On the dispersion of the people, two young bullocks were sent for
from the fields, and they were driven with great uproar into a pit


71 Remarkable Burial Customs among the Betsileo.

fifteen or twenty yards square in front of the old man's house, and
south of the house where the corpse lay. Two men then bound their
outer garments round their waists, and entered the pit to "wrestle"
with the oxen. In a very quick time, but after a hard struggle, each
man threw his ox. They then very dexterously, but cruelly, turned the
right fore leg of each bullock over its head, and locked it behind its
left horn, and the left fore leg behind the right horn in the same
manner. It was pitiable to see the bullocks in their "struggles for the
first few minutes, but they very soon lay as still as if dead. A small
knife was then fetched with much ceremony from the house of
the young prince's grandfather, which was close to the pit on the
east. This knife was sharpened on one of the stones forming the
walls of the pit. One of the bullocks was then killed by its throat
being cut, but before a deep incision was made the first blood that
flowed was carried on the knife to the grandfather to be licked ; the
rest was smeared on the stone on which the knife had been sharpen-
ed, and then the knife was used to make the deep incision, from
which the blood flowed freely, and the ox was left weltering in its
own blood close by the living one. During the time the bullocks
lay in the pit (two hours) many preparations were being made
in and around the house. In a little while, up came three
men with two fiddles and a very large drum, all of native
make, but of European models ; and to "while away the sorrow of
the relatives" these men went round and round the house, playing
the most fantastic jigs imaginable to the thumping of this big
drum at both ends.

In the meantime, men, women and children kept entering the
house by the opening on the south, and leaving it by the one on the
west. This house was of one story, and about ten feet by eight,
with two openings about two feet above the ground, one on the
south, and another on the west, of about 1ft. 9in. by 2ft. But for
this occasion the lower part of the south window was dug out, thus
making the entrance 4ft. by 1ft. 9in.

A procession of women, with no clothing upon them save a coarse
rush mat fastened round the waist, and with their black, uncombed,
curly hair standing out from their heads at almost a right angle (so
stiff it was), then entered the house by the south entrance, carrying
the possessions of the deceased prince ; and the whole immediately
emerged by the west entrance in the following order, the drumming
and fiddling being recommenced with increased gusto. The sound
was also increased by two men taking up their station to the north
of the two oxen, one beating with his fingers upon a rude native
drum about half the size of an English kettle-drum, which was hung
in front of him, the other blowing a large shell.


72

JRemarkable Burial Customs among the Betsileo.

First there were twenty-one women, each carrying something,
and walking in single file. These possessions consisted of English
plates of various sizes, shapes, and patterns, from a small tea-plate
to a large soup-plate, oval and oblong, the common willow pattern,
and one or two gaily coloured, but mostly white. One carried an
ordinary penny looking-glass with tin frame; another had a green
salt-cellar, and the last carried a small tumbler drinking-glass.
These were all oarefully carried in both hands and held before the
breast. A shilling in England would have bought the whole lot,
but doubtless they had cost many dollars here. Then came a clean,
tall girl; her hair was combed and hung over her shoulders, which
were bare ; a striped outer garment (lamba arindrano) was fastened
below the armpits and reached to the ground ; she carried a beau-
tiful native basket on her head, and rolled up above that a very fine
rush mat. Then came a man carrying a hatchet. Now came the
coffin ; a long box covered with coloured cloth, and with a roof-like
top (trano-tdrona) ; on the ridge, and down the sides, and at the
end, were arranged thirty solid silver rings, ranging from four inches
in diameter to the size of finger-rings, and weighing from five or
six ounces to half an ounce. Two women walked on each side of
this coffin carrying ox-tails, which they waved constantly above
and around the coffin. Then came three men walking abreast.
Then three women on men's shoulders, pick-a-back fashion, and
with a man on each side holding up a leg; these women were
naked, but covered with a very coarse rush mat which would not
remain in its proper place. These three women were the chief
mourners, and their strange yelling makes me shudder as I now
write more than four years after I heard it.

In that order the procession left the house, went round a few
houses to the north and west of the pit, and then entered at the
opening on the south-west. They arranged themselves round the
two oxen ; the coffin, however, was carried to the south of the
oxen, and there brought to a stand ; a small knife was again fetched,
with which the throat of the remaining ox was cut; the hatchet
which was carried was dipped in the blood, the covering of the body
was lifted, and the blood taken up by the hatchet was smeared on
the head of the corpse, and the corpse was carried across the neck
of the slaughtered animal. The wailing, drumming, fiddling, and
shell blowing was carried on during the whole of this time, and the
procession left in the same order they had entered ; but on the
arrival of the corpse at the entrance of the pit, another stoppage
was made. Then a man stationed himself under the coffin, two
bottles of native rum were brought, and one was poured over him,
while his companions received it in their open palms and drank it
up. The man over whom it had been poured then took some in his


73 Remarkable Burial Customs among the Betsileo.



hand and anointed the head of the corpse. The other bottle was
then divided among the men of the company, no vessel being
provided, but each drinking as it was poured into the hollow of his
hand.

These ceremonies had lasted so long that I was now obliged to
leave, for I had a journey of three hours yet to make.

I afterwards made enquiries as to the rest of the ceremonies
observed; they are a? follows :

The third day after death the body swells; it is then taken from
the coffin, and rolled upon planks until it becomes all of a pulp.
On the fourth day another ox is killed, and the skin from that and
those killed previously are cut up into long strips. The corpse is
then held upright against the beam of the house, an incision is
made in the he6l of each foot, and all the putrid liquid matter is
collected in a large earthen pot or pots, and. when nothing is left
scarcely but skin and bone, the corpse is strapped to the beam and
there left. Great care is taken of these pots, and the corpse cannot
be removed from the house until a small worm appears in one of
them; this sometimes takes two or three months in appearing.
The worm is allowed to grow a little ; then the body may be buried,
and the killing of oxen is increased. The body is then buried
with much state, and the earthen pot in which is this worm is
placed into the grave too, and a long bamboo is put in the pot, an
opening being left at the top of the tomb through which this bamboo
protrudes. After six or eight months, this worm climbs up the
bamboo, and makes its appearance in the town. It is called fandno ;
and is of lizard shape. Then come the relations of the dead, who
approach this lizard, saying : "Art thou so and so ?" if it lifts its
head, that is an infallible sign that it is he or she. The plate the
deceased last ate off is fetched, an ox's ear is cut, and the blood on
the knife is carried along with some rum on the plate and placed
before this fanano, and should it eat the blood and drink the rum
then no more doubt can be entertained as to the identity of the thing.
"Let us then go into the house" the people say, and a clean cloth is
laid on the ground, th% fanano steps upon the cloth, and is carried
amid great rejoicing, killing of oxen, and feasting, into the town.
After this the fanano is carried back to the tomb, where it remains,
grows to an enormous size, and for ever remains the guardian of the
town.

I do not at all doubt the correctness of this account, for I have
seen many things that confirm it, although I have not seen the
"worm" itself. I know the body is kept in the house ; I have seen
the bamboo and the earthen pot; and I have heard from the lips of


74 Remarkable Burial Customs among the Betsileo.

the chief prince of one of the tribes when his mother was dead:
"She has not yet appeared in the earthen pot, and so I cannot bury
her body." Of this prince's mother I know that for nearly three
months from the time of her decease, as also the decease of her
sister, and until the fanano appeared, the people in the whole district
were not allowed to dig or plant. There was danger of a famine,
and the Hova authorities were obliged to interfere and hasten the
appearance of this fanano. I also know that more than 500 bullocks
were killed during the time of mourning and rejoicing.

I also went to see these sisters lying in state. Both bodies were
placed in the coffin, which was covered with the finest of linen. The
ceiling of the house in which they were laid (about 18ft. square)
had been removed, and the walls and roof, reaching right up to the
ridge-pole, were also carefully covered with the finest linen, and
the floor was covered with the finest mats I have seen in the country.
"Without exception, I think the house was the cleanest I have ever
seen.

The coffins were laid in the centre of the house. There were nearly
100 silver rings on the sides of the coffins, of the same description
as those I had seen before, and there were also the coins of twenty -
seven nationalities fastened around the coffin ; among which were
an English threepenny piece, American cent and dollar, etc., etc.
Outside the house were two men beating drums, and a number of
slave girls wailing and singing.

Much might be written about their tombs. They are very deep in
the earth, some of them being as much as 60 feet deep, and are
approached by a gradually descending passage opening some 40 or
50 feet distant from the tombs. The tombs of the rich are sometimes
15 or 16 feet square, and are quite on the surface of the ground ; and
the four walls and roof are formed of five immense slabs, which are
brought from great distances, and involve almost incredible labour.
I measured one stone of pure granite with my umbrella, and carefully
noted down the particulars when I came home. It was a little over
18ft. long, 10ft. wide, and nearly 3ft. thick in some parts. Five
such stones make a tomb. These stones are obtained by burning piles
of cow-dung on the top of rocks, and these slabs split off. I once
was in a tomb 18ft. long, 14ft. wide, and 10ft. high, formed of five
stones, in one of which, on the west, had been cut an opening, and a
rude stone door, working in stone sockets, had been fixed there.

The superstructure takes various forms. Sometimes there are
several pieces of wood, huge beams in fact, stuck up over the tomb,
and carved from the bottom to the top. Sometimes a stone is erected
as a memorial of the dead. These are of all sizes and shapes : some


75 Remarkable Burial Customs among the Betsileo.



straight and smooth, others crooked and rough. The finest I saw
was almost circular, was 12 ft. in circumference, and I should think
nearly 20ft. high above the ground. It is said to have occupied
four years in making and dragging from the quarry to the place
where it is erected. Sometimes these stones are covered with carved
oxen and birds.

The more honourable superstructure, however, is a solid mass of
masonry erected over- the stone tombs which I have just described.
These are square or oblong in shape, and about 6ft. or less high. A
cornice is worked round the top, and on this are laid the skulls of all
the oxen killed at the funeral, etc., regularly arranged. I have seen
one, now rapidly falling into decay, on which were no less than 500
such skulls. The most symmetrical that I ever saw was a new tomb,
on which in the outer square, were arranged 108 skulls of oxen in
most regular order; every other skull being that of an ox whose
horns had grown, downwards. There were also two other squares of
skulls arranged behind this one. It was a strange sight to see so
many skulls of oxen, from the mouth to the tip of the horn, arranged
thus, and bleaching in the sun.

There are a few other strange customs I noticed; and in some
future number, should our magazine prove successful, I may write
again. In the meantime, would it not be a good thing for all the
missionaries living at a distance to note down all peculiar customs ? as
I am afraid that we shall soon lose all remembrance of old customs
before the march of the Gospel; and while we thank God that He is
bringing to nought so much that is connected with idolatry and
superstition, yet, as matters of history, we should try to preserve from
oblivion all we see and hear of connected with the old times.

J. Richardson.


76

From Twilight to Gross Darkness.

FROM TWILIGHT TO GROSS DARKNESS.

BEING CHIEFLY A NARRATIVE OF WHAT HAPPENED ON THE WAY,
IN A JOURNEY TO ANKAVANDRA AND IMANANDAZA.

FAR away westward of blue Itasy
and the throng of old volcanoes
at its outlet; beyond the river Sakay
and a heated plain of tall, rank
grass, often higher than the head of
a mounted man, where two prone
mountains and a sheer, craggy height
are ever welcome landmarks ; and
farther still, beyond an unpeopled
region of hills, wooded in all its
hollows, and falling clear off at last
in one long barrier line, there lies a
mighty valley. And we first peered
into it from the brink of that head-
long eastern wall, wondering if any
great sea-flood had ever poured be-
tween there and the answering
heights, far-drawn in rock-breasted
cliff, thirty miles nearer sunset across
the void. Along those cliffs the
Behosy live, a harmless people, few
in number, and little known, even
here, except by name ; and beyond
them, down to the sea, are fighting
Sakalava in their kingdom of Menabe.
Away to the north, the mountain
walls open out on a stretch of
seemingly limitless plain. This is
the Mavohazo country, roamed, like
Menabe, by restless Sakalava, of whom
every mother's son is armed, and will
fighton very slight provocation.
A gleam of water, as of a river flow-
ing from that widening plain, threads
the long valley almost through-
out, but the weight of the stream
comes down in a sweeping curve
from the piled-up east, and quietly
gets away out to the sea through a
gorge in in the Bemarahathat cliff-
like range to the west. Between the

place where this river, the Ima-
nambolo, first sweeps down upon its
unshadowed course and the valley's
northern end, there is a small Hova
town called Andranonandriana. Ano-
ther, much larger, lying just within
the river's curve, is famous here as
Ankavandra, and there is a third
nearly four days'journey to the south,
called Imanandaza.* These are all
outposts of the Imerina government;
each is fortified by a bristling high
thicket of prickly-pear, each has a
considerable settlement of friendly
Sakalava loosely scattered outside,
and each is in charge of a governor
and lieutenant, to whom we had
obtained letters of introduction from
Queen Ranavalona's Prime Minister
husband.

There were two of us. One was
a hale, grey-headed Friend, carrying
a small tripod, and a trap to catch
mountain-tops with, strapped to the
side of his palanquin. In his breast
he carried a most sleepless determi-
nation to make a map of the route.
As for the other, he was not without
concern for the mountain-tops, seeing
that he generally helped to bag them,
but he had also a rather keen inter-
est in smaller game, and cherished
slaughterous intentions respecting all
wild-cattle, birds, andskulking beasts.
No Quarterly Meeting would have
chosen him as a suitable travelling
companion for the F. F. M. A.'s
senior representative in Madagascar.

[* These places and rivers are all shewn on
the lithograph map accompanying Mr. Sew-
ell's pamphlet entitled The Sakalava. Ed.]


77 From Twilight to Gross Darkness



But there was unbroken good-
fellowship throughout the journey
notwithstanding. For the bond of
union was a warm desire to find
entrance for light among the dark-
ened Sakalava; and the younger
traveller learnt something of patience
and faithful zeal from daily contact
with their living power ; whilst the
good Quaker gradually grew recon-
ciled to the company of loaded fire-
arms in the tent, and, once or twice, I
believe, when our larder was reduced
to gravyless drumsticks, inwardly
wished me a chance of rejoicing in
bloodshed.

We had arranged to meet at Ima-
hatsinjo, a large village lying a few
hours' journey S.W. of Lake Itasy.
The journal, which, to my great
astonishment, I faithfully kept going
day by day throughout the whole
five weeks, now tells me that "I left
my home at Ambohibeloma on Fri-
day, June 11th, 1875, with sixteen
men ; eight, bearers of luggage, and
eight to carry the owner thereof.
Soon after getting fairly on the road,
one of the eight with the baggage
began to show signs of breaking
down." I remember this poor mise-
rable verjr well. He was laughed
at by all the women in the village
as we started on account of his
shaky gait ; and now he came
hobbling up with both hands on his
naked stomach, looking unutterably
wretched, and declaring himself very
very poorly indeed. He had no
business to hire himself out for such
a journey, and instantly got his
discharge with a good Samaritan
twopence tied up in his waist-cloth,
and a spoonful of something-stronger-
than-water down his throat. There
were a few houses close by, so I felt
no compunction on leaving him.

No halt was made for midday
eating, as the men seemed disposed

to push on to our destination. "We
reached it just before sunset," con-
tinues the journal, "and my apart-
ment for the night is furnished with
a rough wooden four-post bedstead,
a big drum, four fiddles, and a couple
of crinolines. I have just had my
evening meal and a deputation from
the village and its church, bringing
a basket of rice, half a pig, and a
live fowl. The fowl is for my break-
fast, the rice and pork have been
divided amongst the men, and the
evening and the morning have been
the first day. It is a fair, moonlight
night, cold and clear through all the
heavens, and as I leaned out at the
rude window a moment ago and
faced the starry north, I thought of
my friends in far-off social Old
England. God bless them every
one, and incline their hearts to write
me more letters and expect but a few
to be answered."

The next day, after crossing the
roots of the bold mountain which
screens Itasy on the north, another
of the 78 churches over which Mr.
Peill and I hold a joint episcopacy
lay on the route, convenient for a
short halt. This is one of those rare
places in the district which have a
reputation for diligence and general
good behaviour. It fosters several
forlorn churches out in the wilds;
its pastor was away at the time of
my visit, helping to rear a newly-
appeared infant in a semi-Sakalava
town on the banks of the Sakay, and
it has also two or three legitimate
children of its own to attend to. I
wish I could add that mother and
offspring are really doing well. As
usual, the most important work of
all was being neglected : I refer to
the school. It was managed after
this curious fashion :All the scho-
lars who can read were given a fine
long holiday of 50 weeks a year,


78

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

meeting only once a month for further
instruction! The rest were learning
twice a week. We have since sub-
mitted the school to a thorough ex-
amination, and surprised both scho-
lars and those who were supposed
to be teaching, by showing them
how far they are being outstripped
even by churches which long have
borne a name disreputable. Shame
is all but the most effective power
we can bring to bear upon these
Malagasy. The place in question
has now promised to pay seven-
eights of a properly qualified teach-
er's salary, and there is more pro-
bability than is usual in such cases
that the money will be collected.
But, alas where is the man to come
from ? We have already waited
two years for a trained teacher to
manage the school at our station,
and are patiently waiting still. Here
in this one district alone we have
6444 children belonging to the 63
schools which are now in existence,
more or less. These have all attend-
ed at least once, and their names
are on the registers ; 2898 of them
I saw counted before my own eyes
at the late examinations. But the
schoolmasters who ought to be teach-
ing them reading, writing, arith-
metic, simple Bible history, cleanli-
liness, and good behaviourwhere
are they ?

But come along, I was going to
Ankavandra, I believe, and on the
evening of the second day had got
as far as the outlet of that lake Itasy
so often mentioned. "And there,"
says the journal, "I was put into the
draughtiest hut in the village. The
Malagasy have a notion that all
Europeans like to be kept cool, and
little thought how near that unfor-
tunate notion brought them to ma-
king a funeral of their guest. I
tried several schemes for keeping

myself warm whilst having tea and
waiting for bedtime ; but not even
a blazing wood-fire, aud all its in-
evitable smoke, which one of the men
got up for my benefit, could still the
enemy and the agressor. At last I
was fairly driven to call for help,
and rig up the tent for a place of
refuge. Underneath its shelter I
pushed my bed, and slept in tolerable
comfort."

The next day was Sunday. Just
before the service a woman came
inquiring. She got the chief man
of the village to ask me if I could
help her to find some buried money,
between two and three hundred
dollars, which a relative of hers,
dying suddenly, had leftnobody
knew where. It is not enough in
every case, you see, for a missionary
to be a plain divine. This woman's
want required a diviner. "The
church here is an old mud house,
made slightly bigger by a few more
feet of the same material. The
pulpit is likewise of earthy origin,
but adorned with some fine, plump
birds, perched on remarkably well-
behaved trees. The latter look as
if the)' had known the use of the
backboard, and had been made to
sit upright at meals. After the
service I went about three hours
southward, and joined Mr. Sewrell at
Imahatsinjo.

"Monday, June 14th. We ought to
have left for Ankavandra this morn-
ing, but are delayed by the non-arri-
val of an extra tent which Mr. S.
had ordered to be sent from the capi-
tal for the use of our men. The day
has been spent in climbing a neigh-
bouring height to take a few pre-
liminary observations, and get a
glimpse of the country through which
we have to travel. And now we
make up our beds, hoping to be
awake again before six, and, by


79 From Twilight to Gross Darkness.



about seven, fairly off towards the
desert and a few weeks' pleasant
roving in the west.

"Tuesday, June 15th. For more
than half the day we have been
coming back upon the path I took
from the foot of Itasy to Imahatsinjo,
in order to get ourselves into the
main track ; our guide not knowing
the country well enough to make a
straight run from the point of depar-
ture. We made a mistake in not
ordering to the front some men we
engaged just before starting. But
everybody seemed to agree at once
to the route proposed, by a veteran
bearer from Ambohibeloma, and we
all followed his lead like sheep, with
the exception of three, who followed
it more like human beings than any
other animal I know of. It was
supposed that we should not have,
at any rate, more than two hours of
this round-about process. But the
sun got up to twelve o'clock, and
was fast declining beyond, without
any signs of our going after him
down to the west. And then there
was a general halt and council held
upon the spot. We seem to have
been aimlessly wandering along a
series of valleys, and some proposed
that we should strike over the hills
from where we stood. Others ap-
peared more inclined to strike our
guide. 'Where's this beaten path
you promised us ?' they demanded
of the veteran. His reply was: 'You
evidently think I've been telling you
lies, so look here If we don't find
a road at the foot of Ingilofotsy
yonder (pointing to a mountain some
distance ahead) then kill me dead !
that's all!' It scarcely needs to be
added that the worthy veteran was
not killed, either dead or otherwise,
for we found the beaten path accord-
ing to his description, and also a
rather fine waterfall, which he had

never promised. But any one could
see that we were at least half a day's
journey to the east of where we
ought to have been. And now it
occurred to somebody to ask those
three Imahatsinjo men why they
didn't prevent us from going all
that weary way round ? The answer
they gave must justify a previous
remark concerning them. 'Oh!'
they said, 'yon fellow (referring to
the veteran) made out that he knew
all about the road, and so we thought
we would let him show it.'

"Our route all the way from Ima-
hatsinjo has frequently been over
old volcanic cinders, and through
dry, hard grass, quite shoulder-high.
We are now encamped for the night
close to a miserable little village
called Imorarano, about a thousand
feet lower than our quarters of yes-
terday. There has been a smart
shower of rain, and we have had a
present of a solitary fowl, accompa-
nied with a request that we would
stay over to-morrow, and let the
people be assembled. There is a
wrctched turf shed here, into which
the folks creep on Sundays, by way
of falling in with the national custom.
But nobody preaches, nobody can
read." This is a very suitable place
for a young minister's first pastorate.
The bishops of the diocese, however,
give notice that all candidates will be
expected to leave the dignity of the
cloth at home, and bring out a brick-
mould and a copy of the Alphabet
instead.

"Wednesday, June 16th. Our
desire to understand the geography
of the land led us, this morning, to
the t9p of a lofty crag which rose
temptingly near to the now well-
defined road. We noticed a small
lake lying about five miles E. An-
dranomena is the name by which it
goes. There is said to be another


80

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

of considerable size further north ;
and we were told of a big waterfall,
a companion of the one passed
yesterday, to be seen somewhere a
little lower down the same stream.
About noon we ate boiled rice, cold
fowl, and guavas at a village of five
or six reed houses, on the E. bank of
the Sakay. Judging from the nume-
rous streams which are said to flow
into it from the Ankaratra range of
mountains, this river must become a
powerful sweep of water by the
time it nears the sea. It was fully
a hundred yards wide at the ford.

"Our tent is pitched in the midst
of a few huts on a hill, to the south
of the road along which we were
going. Several such hamlets are to
be met with at far-off intervals in
this stretch of country known as
desert. They are chiefly inhabited
by slaves in charge of grazing cattle,
are difficult of access, and serve as
places of safety for the herds when
threatened by thieving Sakalava.
The Sakalava, however, it must be
explained, seldom need to go out
plundering without an excuse, as
cattle lifting is a kind of sport in
which many within the borders of
the Hova territory are only too
ready to lead the way."

The next morning, Thursday, the
17th, we decided to change the route
and pass to the south of those two
'prone mountains,' which are con-
spicuous landmarks on a broiling
prairie. Our previous direction
would have taken us along a nor-
thern track which lies between them.
That 'sheer, craggy height' was now
our steering-point, and Antaniman-
dry, a military station at its base,
our intended quarters for the coming
night. The journal says that we
stopped for dinner at Itsinjoarivo,
which is also a garrison village, the
first on the road. "It is protected

by a fence of tropical thorns, more
than 18 yards wide, and harbours a
dozen old soldiers, most of whom
are too weak to fight, and too con-
firmed in their squatting to run away.
There used to be twenty, they say,
but the rest are dead. During
our morning march the men kindly
rescued an unfortunate blind calf
from a hungry fate. It had fallen
into a hollow. What a lively picture
the scene would make There was
the helpless offspring down below,
and the forlorn old mother above,
very ungratefully threatening to dash
headlong upon the boisterous crew
who were hauling her progeny up
with a rope. However, she seemed
to be immensely pleased as she went
off licking its poor blind face ; and
I suppose the sight was intended to
reward us for our trouble, for she
never turned round to thank us."

At Antanimandry we found that
the officer in charge had been expect-
ing our visit for several months.
He was in great trouble just then.
His daughter had died a few days
before, leaving a new-born babe
that was wailing for milk, and there
was no woman near who was able
to suckle it. Our mission there, evi-
dently, was to give comfort, and
explain the mystery of a feeding-
bottle. Feeling better able to show
our sympathy with the poor man
and his family in a simple evening
service than by a formal visit to their
house, we asked them to assemble
in the church by candlelight. They
all seemed glad to attend, and surely
were not allowed to go away
unrefreshed. We were very much
pleased to find several young people
who could read, and other signs of
life in that small gathering in the
wilderness. The governor is also
pastor.

"Friday, June 18th. This has been


81 From Twilight to Gross Darkness



a long hard day, although we did
not leave Antanimandry very early.
We were delayed a little by having
to advise our friend the komandy
(commander) about his asthma, and
leave him a dose or two of medicine
for his fever; and then came off
with a couple of 'the ten-thousand
men' (the native army is so called)
to guide us to our next resting-place.

"Just before noon we halted by a
stream, and in less than ten minutes,
several huge pots of rice were
perched above blazing fires, and one
of the tents hurried up for our
own accomodation. Mr. S. went
up a neighbouring mound to forage
for hill-topsthe map being ever to
the foreand I ran off down the
stream and found a most delicious
bath. Very soon after we got on
the march again, a second watering-
place was crossed, and then a third,
where the men all threw their
burdens down, intending to make
themselves at home for the night.
It required a very firm refusal on
our part to prevent such a waste of
daytime. I got myself carried over
the water, and started off at full
speed on foot with both our guides,
leaving Mr. S. to reconcile the two
and thirty to the plain necessity of
following. The sun had set before
we reached the next town, and there
was no small difficulty made about
letting us in after the gate had been
walled up with heavy timbers. Even
after the needful permission to enter
had been applied for and obtained,
the guard was not at all disposed
to put himself about, and refused to
remove more than two or three logs,
which only left room enough to
creep through. Adopting the Eastern
fashion of speech, I asked him if he
thought his servant was a dog, and
made him bare the entrance right
down to the ground, Mr. S. came

up just as all was clear. The
komandy is plainly not versed in
the ways of the world in Imerina.
Instead of sending some one to
see us safely within the enclosure,
he arranged himself in his big
house, and after a timeoccupied
no doubt in making things look
as imposing as possiblecalled
us in to be received. The matter
of the gate he wanted to treat as a
joke, and was about to lay all the
blame upon our two guides, had he
not been checked by an unceremo-
nious outburst against his badly-
disciplined soldiery. We have had
a house set apart for our use, and a
present of rice and a fowl. How
we shall find things in the morning
I cannot tell, but certainly our
moonlight experience of Antsiroa-
mandidy is not over encouraging.
The place is more strongly fortified
than either of the two others we
have entered, there being a ditch
inside the impenetrable thicket.

"Saturday, June 19th. Things
have turned out much more pleasant
than we expected. Our komandy
has somehow been brought to con-
duct himself with a little less display
of his petty authority, and the al-
tered behaviour tends not a little to
our comfort and peace of mind. He
sent word this morning before
breakfast that he was waiting with
the soldiers to receive us at his
house. Whereupon he had our
compliments forwarded to him, and
a message to the effect that he might
have to wait a very long time
before we favoured him with our
presence. Not many minutes after-
ward the great man and his followers
appeared at our door, and of course
we went out to say 'good morning,'
and treated him with all due respect
and friendliness. He begged us to
stay over Sunday, and, on our con-


82

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

senting, ordered a large quantity of
rice and a pig to be laid before us
as a present, and a cow to be instantly
milked for our benefit. But he
had evidently been hurt in his mind
at our not bringing a letter from the
Prime Minister to him, as well as
to the governors further on; and
with pardonable suspicion, wished
to see the notes we were reported
to be carrying. He might look at
the outsides, we told him, if he
pleased, which he dicl^ and was
apparently satisfied that all was
right. On being asked to assem-
ble all the young people for a short
examination and a little teaching,
he readily issued the needful com-
mands, and also took care that our
hint about cleanliness was attended
to as well. There was much washing
of clothes and lamba going on out-
side the village all the morning.

' 'After dinner we betook ourselves
to the reed-and-cow-dung structure,
which is the church, and were very
soon followed by a crowd of men
and women, and boys and girls,
nearly all looking their best. Mr.
S. examined those who professed to
be able to read, and discovered six
who did well enough to merit a
penny gospel. Doubtless there has
been some little advance upon utter
heathenism here, but the beast that
has wallowed in filth may come out of
the sink without being cleansed.
We have little hope of Antsiroaman-
didy : its women have already cursed
their children's children. An or-
dinary Malagasy girl, who happens
to be passing through, looks like
purity itself among her equals here.
The governor's secretary is principal
preacher. He discourses upon no-
thing but the Proverbs, and has been
to ask for the exegesis of'Surely the
churning of milk bringeth forth but-
ter, and the wringing of the nose

bringeth forth blood : so the forcing
of wrath bringeth forth strife.' The
New Testament, we found, was a
land unknown to him in spite of his
having a Bible, for which he gave a
dollar. What the condition of the
flock is may be gathered from the
state of this their shepherd. As for
the komandy, he, poor creature,
knows less than anybody.

"And now let me come to con-
fession, by way of preparing for the
Sabbath. I had a great row this
morning with one of Mr. S.'s bear-
ers, who happened to come into the
house whilst some of my own were
asking whether we intended going
on to-day or staying over to morrow.
On hearing me answer that possibly
we might choose to start after
dinner, and that all had better be
prepared, he squatted himself down
uninvited, and impudently replied
to the effect that Mr. S. and I could
go on if we pleased, but that all the
men would stay behind. Whereupon
he was bidden at once to take him-
self and his impertinence out of the
place, which he refused to do. In
two seconds more he was tumbled
out, head first; and that's my
humble confession. Certainly it
was either a deed of violence, or a
healthy exercise of muscular Chris-
tianity that I indulged in. Anyhow,
the man abused me well, saying all
manner of evil against me falsely
within hearing of half the village.
He afterwards however came to his
senses, and returned to beg pardon,
which was granted. But Mr. S.,
who had then appeared upon the
scene, told him he had only just
cscaped being dismissed without his
wages, which would have been a
far sorer calamity than twice the
number of bruises he got.

"Sunday, June 20th. The atten-
dance at church both morning and


83 From Twilight to Gross Darkness



afternoon has been, of course, all that
could be expected in a desert-bound
town of 100 houses, with no dependent
hamlets. One has to say 'of course,'
because it is a prevailing custom
among the Malagasy to keep the
greater part of their virtues well
wrapped up, like their bits of finery,
safe from contact with daily life and
this vile world. Only a special
occasion can draw them out. It was
this proverbial trait of the native
character which made the late Mis-
sionary Deputation from Englandfeel
how almost impossible it was for
them to see things as they really
are even outwardly, except in the
few places which they were able to
visit quietly and unannounced. A
considerable sale of hymns and the
first Reading Book has been one
result of our stay. The homandy
insisted on buying the identical
sixpenny Testament which I had
used during the service; for the
same reason, I suppose, that every-
body in this country is so eager to
buy second-hand clothes from us.
The doctor's shop has also been
opened for several easy cases.

' 'There are a few Sakalava staying
here, most of them distinguishable
by a small, flat, white shell, pointed
with a red bead worn, and upon the
forehead.* We have had a little
talk with one of thema fine intel-
ligent fellowand can see no
reason why a visit should not be
paid to Ambongothe district from
which he comes. The people there
consider themselves part of Ranava-
lona's kingdom. Last night there
was a friendly struggle between
this Sakalava and an active youth
belonging to Imerina. It was carried

[* An almost exactly similar ornament
is worn by some of the African tribes ; see
Livingstone's Popular account of Missionary
Travels and Researches in South Africa;
p. 205. Ed.]

on pretty much like 'wrestling, ex-
cept that only the right arm was
used, and only the right shoulder
seized upon. After they had time
to make a fair trial of their strength
I got the two to separate, and grasp-
ing the big Sakalava by his knotted
muscles, inquired if all the men of
Ambongo were like himself. He re-
plied that he was a very poor speci-
men of them, on account of his
unusually dark skin.

"Monday, June 21st. At length
wre are out in the open desert, and
shall see no more dwellings till we
come to Ankavandra on Thursday
evening. A stoppage was made for
dinner at Imarovatana, a dirty, old-
soldier-guarded village, W. of An-
tsiroamandidy. Whilst waiting for
the meal we employed ourselves in
securing the position of a few hills,
and then entering the house to
which we were invited, set to work
upon a handful of children, with
intent to .secure them also. The
chief man, a homancly on a small
scale, was just coming back from
escorting the body of his child a
short distance on its way to be
buried somewhere east as we enter-
ed the village ; and we felt that he
would be none the worse for having
his grief broken in upon by hearing
the briefly-told tale of a Father's
love unto life everlasting repeated
by those with whom his child had
played.

"The inhabitants of these desert
villages must surely lead a wretched
existence. Not a soul dare venture
out of this enclosure unarmed, and
hunger and thirst are enemies ever
within. A day or two ago a man
and his wife went down into the
fields to look after their rice. They
were pounced upon unawares by a
prowling gang, and the woman
carried off. The husband only


84

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

escaped with Tiis life through, a gun
missing fire. We are being accom-
panied by a number of people
returning to Ankavandra and neigh-
bouring places, and they are glad to
have our protection, we hear. An
escort of soldiers from Antsiroa-
mandidy will join us to-morrow.
On leaving Imarovatana travellers
west become owners of all the cattle
which they can pick up on the road.
At least so I was told, and on the
strength of the information, shot one
of two young bulls which were grazing
on a hill-side about a. couple of
miles from our present place of
encampment. The two and thirty have
had most of it for supper, and now,
after family worship in their tent,
they lie packed beneath its shelter,
and the snoring thereof is as the
sound of tired men, who have eaten
well, and are full.

"Tuesday, June 22nd. The cara-
van numbers nearly 70 in all, and
looks like a guerilla band, bristling
with guns and spears. All have
kept well together to-day, and a
good steady march, broken as usual
for the mid-day meal, has brought
us to our resting-place on a slope
near a sounding stream. Several wild
cattle were sighted on the road, and
immediately onreaching the camping
ground, our Sakalava friend, four
of the men, and myself went off to
look for everybody's-beef. One of
the escorting soldiers followed to
join in the sport, and was the first
to find big game. The Sakalava
and I were trying to get at some
grisly boars that were hiding in a
swamp, when we heard a shot, and
running up out of the hollow, came
upon our companions just in time
to see a full-grown bull trotting off
on the other side of the valley,
where he had been wounded whilst
feeding. The majority seemed dis-

posed to let him go, and began to
talk of returning to the camp, as
the sun was close upon setting. At
my request, however, chase was
given. It was easy to track the
beast by a broad trail in the long
grass, and stains of blood left here
and there, but we never found him.
Another was dimly descried on the
farther side of a clump of trees
beyond a marsh full of reeds ; and
our barbaric comrade was asked to go
over and show his skill. Let me de-
scribe him while he prepares for the
attempt. He is limbed like a young
Hercules, and dressed like a noble
savage. A piece of dark-blue calico
is tucked about his loins and relieved
against the swarthy skin by a care-
less fold of white. All the rest is
bravery. His leathern belt and
shot-pouch are heavy with studded
brass nails. A brass-bound powder-
horn swings therefrom at the end
of two short chains, and the crimson-
tipped shell is pushed jauntily aside
over his right temple. Gun and
spear are almost as much part of
himself as teeth and nails.

"Whilst on our way after the
wounded bull, a bird about the
size of a pigeon started suddenly
out of the grass and made a quick,
short flight across the path. A
pair of civilised eyes scarcely saw
what it was that had passed. But
the Sakalava spear was as quick as
the bird. It glanced through a
closing wing as it fell, and was
recovered together with the scattered
feathers in a good-humoured burst of
vexation. We left its owner making
ready for the game which had just
been sighted. I noticed him with his
ramrod down the long barrel of his
gun, and, fancying he was loading,
began to think he was only a half-
bred hunter after all. But he quietly
turned the weapon wrong-side-up,


85 From Twilight to Gross Darkness



and slipped out a ball. 'That,' he
whispered, 'was an extra one for the
enemy, had any appeared; one
will do for the bull.' And then he
picked up his other and more
primitive weapon, and stole across
the marsh like a cat's shadow. Not
a reed was seen to move along the
whole of his stealthy way. By and
bye he showed on the other side, and
got under cover of the trees. Soon
after, we heard the report of his
gun, and a call for us to join him
where he was. By the time we
reached the place there was only
just enough daylight left to enable
us to see a fine brown beast lying
slain at his feet. Then we made a
fire and sat roasting beef for a
couple of hours or more, until the
moon rose, every man attending to
his own wants and burning his own
fingers. The viscera seemed to be
in special favour at our feast.
Almost every individual entrail
from that bull was scorched upon
the fire and gnawed at. I had all
manner of unmentionable delicacies
kindly pressed upon my attention,
but, with one or two ordinary
exceptions, I kept to my plain
broiled steak and its seasoning of
salty ashes."

Here was a capital opportunity
for winning a Sakalava heart, even
if our noble savage and I had not
been recognised friends already.
He was delighted with a present of
half-a-dozen lucifer matches, and a
handful of shot. They were carefully
packed away in his pouch, and long
ere this have been wondered at
and gossiped about in many a village
of wild Ambongo. My manifest
interest in his welfare was responded
to by a truly characteristic attention,
which, though slight, was full of
meaning. He got up and fetched
my gun from a tree against which

I had left it on sitting down by the
fire, and laying the weapon beside
me said: "Keep that near as long
as you are travelling in this part of
the country." I now got him to
tell me where he had been a-oina:
that he was thus returning home.
His account of himself was to the fol-
lowing effect: Four months before,
he left his people, much against his
father's wish, with ten head of cattle
for sale wherever the best market
could be found. A younger brother,
quite a lad, stole away to accom-
pany him; and these two drove
their tedious charge across the
unpeopled wilderness of hills, and
right on up to Imerina's capital.
They were now making their way
back again by the ordinary road,
carrying home the- proceeds of the
expedition, to wit : six red cotton
handkerchiefs, all in a piece and
meant to be worn as a lamba, a
score and a half of forged iron
bullets, an iron rat-trap, and 70
dollars in money. The net profits
on their adventure would be some-
where about £10. "But did nobody
attack you in the desert?" I askecl.
"Four men followed us one day
with evident intent," was the reply,
given as if relating a simple matter
of course. "Were they armed?"
"Yes, like myself, all of them."
"And what did you do to get rid
of them ?" "I called out that they
would be fired at, if they didn't
leave us alone," he said, "but they
still kept dogging our path, following
along a ridge above us, until I saw
that they were soon going to have
us at a great disadvantage." "And
then?" "And then I made my
brother drive on the cattle, and
going towards the front of the ridge,
knelt down to take aim at the
vagabonds." "And fired?" "No,
they all went off, and we saw no


86

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

more of them." Surely Fortune
favours the brave And I was not
sorry, O barbaric friend, to find thee
guiltless of human blood,though
Heaven alone knows what deeds
thou hast allowed that old French
musket to do, and on what errands
thou hast sent thy shafted iron
since first they became thine
inseparable familiars.

There was now light enough in
the sky for us to see the shape of
the country again. "Upon which,"
records the useful journal, "we made
our way back laden with meat
enough for the whole camp. There
has been a general waking up since
we arrived, and those who had already
had the usual supper, and rolled them-
selves upintheirlamfta for the night,
are now stewing and broiling beef,
with much clatter of tongues, beneath
the breezy moonlight.

"Wednesday, June 23rd. This
morning we safely passed the spot
around which all the terrors of this
lonesome way are for ever flitting
like ghostly shades. It is a few
yards of path between two dark
glens, where the woods have hidden
murderous men, and convenient
boughs served as rests for their
levelled guns. Several travellers
have lost their lives there. Since
we left Imarovatana the country
has changed its aspect a great deal,
and for the better. There is, how-
ever, no such stretch of forest as we
imagined. Here and there, and, it
may almost be added, everywhere,
the valleys and deep ravines are
thick with trees ; but there is no
long, sounding road beneath arching
boughs, such as leads from Imerina
to the coast on the east. Our pro-
gress measured in direct line would
not amount to very much, seeing
that once or twice the road has
doubled upon itself like'a sheep's

bowels,' saicl our unfastidious fol-
lowers. Still we have brought our
destination within half a day's jour-
ney, and hope to be at Ankavandra,
or Imiadanarivo, as the town is
really called, by noon to-morrow.
This evening we invited the Sakalava
into our tent for a chat. He is the
son of the chief man of a village
called Ampangoro, and says that he
would not only allow us to teach
his little girl, but also learn himself,
were we to go and live in Imavo-
hetzo.

"Thursday, June 24th. Our last
night's sleeping-place was in what
we at first supposed would be a
snug retreat. There was a clear
stream, a winding wood in a hollow,
and abundance of fuel. But there
were also plagues of biting insects
which swarmed about us until the
sun set; and then came a raving
wind, making us shiver beneath
thick blankets. The road this morn-
ing for a time was pretty much
like that of yesterday, Wandering
about over swelling high land, but
dissimilar in having fewer trees
below in the glens. At noon we
came to the brink of the mountain
Wall, and looked down into that
mighty valley which has already
been described. The descent was
such as to make us feel thankful
that our return would be by a
different route. Above, the aneroid
stood at 2450 ; below, at 300. Thus
we are all but on the sea level.
Once more the unnameable smell of
the tropics steals into one's nostrils,
and the heat glows full in all the
air. At the foot of the pass we
crossed the Akoliofotsy, a small
river which was stepped over oil
our road yesterday ; went by some
magnificent tamarind trees, and
after a short ride on good level
soil, most grateful to the footsore


87 From Twilight to Gross Darkness



bearers; passed over the stream
called Ankavandra, and came to the
entrance of Imiadanarivo. One of
the three military folks who accom-
panied us had been sent on before
with a note to announce our ap-
proach, but he had idled on the road,
and arrived only just before us. In
consequence of this we, were kept
waiting an unconscionable time
before being asked to enter. In fact,
we had to suggest that we should be
allowed to do so and get something
to eat whilst formalities were being
prepared, before we relieved our
weary frame of mind. The two
officials who came out to greet us
with rusty swords and carry our
message to the governor, were both
well on towards being drunk. One
of them, we learn, has been preach-
ing here of late, being a relative of
the homancly, on a visit. The other
followed us into our house in
considerable distress about one of
his official shoes. The heel had
come off in a lump, and he seemed
to expect us to mend it for him.

"After a cup of tea we went to
pay our respects to the man of 11
honours who rules this outermost
portion of Ranavalona's kingdom,
and also to deliver the letter from
the Prime Minister. Our reception
was in full state, several chimney-pot
hats and military great-coats figuring
in the assembly. The governor is
a much older man than the one at
Antsiroamandidy, and also seems to
be a wiser. All passed off pleasantly
enough, and not long afterwards
we had a visit from the old man's
young wife, or rather one of them,
for there are two, it seems, and all
the ladies of the town. They marched
into our premises like a stage
procession, each one shaking hands
with both of us as she entered.
A young man accompanied them,

and did the speechifying. We both
replied, and then the procession
turned tail, shook hands ad. lib.,
and retired, After dark, the second
man in command came in with a
troop of followers carrying food for
the strangers. The Prime Minister's
injunction, expressed in his note,
about hospitable treatment, was
evidently being respected. There
were three large baskets of rice in
the husk, a large quantity pounded
white and clean, a whole pig just
killed, and a live ox,the latter to
be brought to-morrow morning.

"Since our evening meal we have
been trying to find out the state of
the church by closely questioning
the principal preacher. Things seem
to be in a poor way, if one may
judge from his scant knowledge
and general bluntness of constitution.
What we have both been longing
to meet with out here, namely : a
truly Christian man, with an average
amount of information, does not
appear likely to be found in
Imiadanarivo. There is no great
difficulty in the way of large num-
bers of Sakalava being taught, if
only the right man could be secured
to do it. Those in Ambongo are
thoroughly friendly, and here we
have the chief of all the Sakalava
dwelling in this wide valley sitting
with the Hova nobles as third in
rank, and helping to welcome the
strangers from Imerina."

The following morning Mr. S.
was poorly, and the work of exam-
ining the school, teaching a new
tune, and preaching to the most
picturesque congregation I have
seen, fell entirely to me. There
were only about 50 present at the
commencement, we having requested
that the children might be got
together first. Whilst busy with
these, numbers of grown-up people


88

From Twilight to Gross Darkness.

gathered about, and a man came to
ask if the 'Christians' might be
brought in.

"Yes," was my reply, and I
wanted to add, "by all mes ns, my
good fellow, if you have any here,"
but I knew he wouldn't understand
me. The place was soon crowded
out, and the school-examination had
to be conducted before the whole
assembly. After the service there
began a lively traffic in books,
which went on until dark, and
would have continued to the total
loss of our well-earned evening's
quiet, had we not joined the Early
Closing movement and resolutely
shut up our shop.

"Saturday, June 26th. Andra-
nonandriana has turned out to be
much nearer than we expected to
find it. It was' nearly 8 o'clock
when we left Imiadanarivo, and
only 4 in the afternoon when we
came to the end of our journey,
although two hours were spent in
shooting on the road. There are
clouds of ducks upon the marshes
here, and I know not to what
proportions the game-bag might
have swelled, had the men not seen
a youDg crocodile : nobody would
fetch the birds after that. Let me
be careful on this occasion to guard
my hale old friend from all suspicion
of being a participator in these
wanton pleasures. He was other-
wise occupied. And now I'll be
revenged on him for not taking
more interest in the sport. This is
where and how I found him : He
was comfortably seated beneath a
shady tree near a Sakalava village,
eating his dinner in the focus of an
admiring semicircle of highly-orna-
mented women-folk, who seemed
quite fascinated by the cheerful
spectacle, for when I happened to
sit down so as to shut out their

view, they immediately shifted to
another post of observation, from
which they could gaze as before.
The object of their undisguised
admiration now responded by giving
them each a biscuit. Think of that,
ye Quarterly Meetings Of course
I was naturally led on to be
similarly gallant, and added a little
jam ; and our servants said : 'Eat,
ladies.' Such is the force of exam-
ple.

"The inhabitants of this village
have only quite recently come from
the west, which fact accounts for
their ignorance of the Hova dialect,
and our consequent difficulty in
talking with them. Many of their
number had their faces daubed
with coloured earth in various
patterns, and their teeth half covered
with jet black stains. Nearly all
the women had their ears bored
and stretched, and the big ugly hole
filled with a circular wooden orna-
ment. Some wore metal rings about
their wrists and ancles, a string of
beads around their necks, and a
fillet of spangles on the forehead.
Several of the fillets had a French
3 franc-piece in gold, or a dummy
thereof, for the central decoration.
Such are the fashions here. The
spreading waves of crinoline have
not yet come upon the squaws of
the roving Sakalava.

Our reception here at Andranon-
andriana was pretty much the same
as that we met with at the last
place, except that we were only
kept waiting a short time. The
desire we expressed at Imiadanarivo
to be allowed to make ourselves at
home in the house allotted to us,
before formally visiting the gover-
nor, had apparently been made
known here, as we were shown at
once to our quarters after being
admitted within the vegetable forti-


89 From Twilight to Gross Darkness.



fications. We are the first white
men, with the exception of two
wandering collectors of natural cu-
riosities, who have visited these
places ; and no doubt the big folks
are mightily exercised in their
minds as to the proper mode of
receiving us. Our carrying letters
from the Prime Minister, and being
known to have charge of the church-
es, of course adds not a little to the
general perplexity. The Sakalava
here seem to be much less on an
equality with the Hova than those
at Imiadanarivo.

"They all sat at the lower end of
the room during our reception by
the governor this afternoon. The
difference is due almost entirely, we
believe, to the character of the
Sakalava chief. He is a drunken,
worthless fellow, who commands no
respect from the Ilovas, and conse-
quently his people are all but
despised.

"Sunday, June 27th. There were
no Sakalava present at church this
morning, at any rate none that
were recognisable by dress or orna-
ment. But just before the afternoon
service the wife of the chief and
one or two other women came to
see us, and were easily persuaded
to attend. The contrast between
their paint-bedizened faces, and the
clcanly aspcct of the Hova women,
was very striking. We have sold
a few small books, and have been
not a little pestered by people
wanting to buy every imaginable
kind of thing, just as we were at the
other towns. They seem resolved
not to understand that we have not
come prepared to supply all their
wants. Some ask for spectacles,
others want breeches and boots.
The women come to inquire for
rings and thimbles and combs, and
are very curious to know what

there is in our boxes. 'Have you
any camphor ?' asks one. 'How
much will you take for your blan-
kets ?' demands another. In fact
we could very easily sell all that
we have, and, even still more easily,
relieve ourselves of the proceeds by
giving to the poor. The tunes which
were taught this morning are now
being sadly maltreated by an over-
zealous company of singers in a neigh-
bouring house, to one's grievous
annoyance. But there is no remedy
that can be applied during so short
a stay. Do what one will, these
Malagasy congregations continue to
twist and twirl our melodies about
until they find something which
sticks in their ears."

On the Monday we returned to
Imiadanarivo, after receiving au
assurance from the governor that
he would use his power to put a
stop to the making and selling of
rum amongst the Hova residents.
Pray don't imagine, however, that
any great reformation has been the
result of our visit and good advice.
The probabilities are 100,000 to 1
that the governor has not lifted a
finger in the matter. If one could
stay with him for a few months, and
insisted upon his visiting every
dwelling and breaking up all the
stills, possibly there might be a
change for the better.

"Tuesday, June 29th. The people
were assembled in the church before
we had finished breakfast, and we
found the rickety building crowded to
overflowing. A great many Sakalava
were present, and for the most part
joined heartily in learning to sing a
new hymn with which the service
was opened. Mr. S. preached, and
afterwards we adjourned to the
governor's house to talk about the
school." As a result of our urgent
appeals on behalf of the children at


90

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

Ankavandra a teacher was subse-
quently sent for ; and, wonderful to
relate, a young man has actually
gone out from Imerina to live there.
He is a natural son of the second
governor by a slave woman, and
that accounts for the uncommon
ease with which his services have
been secured.

The same day's entry goes on to
relate how we visited the Sakalava
chief in his own village, and how
we made ourselves at home in his
house; my worthy companion occu-
pying the only chair, and I squatting
on a big cushion beside our host
and his brass-studded gun. We
learned that the unfortunate condi-
tion of his people in the north was
not unknown to him, nor would the
stiff advice which he purposed
forwarding to his drunken deputy
be the first which it had been found
necessary to send. On returning to
our quarters we were besieged, as
we have been ever since we first
entered the place, by all manner of
visitors. Mr. S. was constantly
keeping shop, and I was nearly
driven wild by the most intractable
set of patients I ever saw physicked.
Besides putting my slender skill
upon painful stretch, and wearying
out my wits by wanting remedies
for a legion of complaints out of the
small stock of medicines I had at
command, the creatures were conti-
nually re-appearing with inquiries
as to what they were to eat, and
what they were to abstain from.
I soon fell into a settled formula
adapted to every case : "Don't eat
tobacco," I said ; "Never drink rum,
or tell lies, or cheat, or steal, or
commit adultery, but refrain from
all kinds of evil, and do your best to
wash yourself clean." One woman
looked very glum on being prohibi-
ted tobacco, and came two or three

times to see if some little commuta-
tion of the sentence could not be
obtained.

"Wednesday, June 30th. Started
on the journey south, gratified not a
little by hearing some of the children
say, as we left the town, how sorry
they were to have us go away.
Crossed first the Ankavandra stream,
and then the Akohofotsy, and had
our dinner cooked on the southern
bank of the Marolaka, near a village
of the same name. This is the stream
by which we encamped the day
before the great descent. Its waters
come tumbling down to the valley
almost in one precipitous fall. Our
tents are pitched for the night near
another stream within half a mile
of the Manambolo. Not far from us
there is a Sakalava village, through
which we passed, greatly, it appears,
to the perplexity of the old chief who
rules in it. He came soon after our
arrival, looking very sorely hurt, and
not much unlike one given to smo-
king hemp. A few kind words from
us, informing him of our earnest
desires for the welfare of his tribe
in general, quickly relieved his mind,
but he could not take our offered
hands. Some native doctor has been
prescribing for him, and he is forbid-
den to touch a .stranger's hand lest
the medicine should not act. But
he says the Europeans are as the
Almighty, and intends coming to-
morrow to try what their nostrums
will do. Doubtless he will find himself
more inconveniently beset with pro-
hibitions than before. Poor old
Sakalava chief!

"The trees have been delightful to-
day. In summer the road is gorgeous
with oleanders, and the royal tama-
rind overshadows every hamlet. Some
of the latter trees reach a gigantic
growth. There were several under
which a hundred oxen are accus-


91 From Twilight to Gross Darkness



tomed to shelter and not a horn of
them feels the sun."

The entry for Thursday, July 1st,
records that we were sorely torment-
ed with mosquitoes the previous
night. "The men nearly all forsook
the swarming tent, and lay down on
the smoky side of their fires in the
open air." It also tells how we
rested for dinner by the river Itondy,
a large tributary of the Manambolo.
"There were very few people in the
village, its former residents having
been called away to live near Anka-
vandra on account of rebellious con-
duct. One of the big tamarinds here
shelters a distillery. Bananas are
largely used in the making of Saka-
lava rum. There are acres upon
acres of them in this valley.''

Mention is likewise made of an
old Sakalava who accompanied me
down to the Itondy to point out a
convenient spot for a bath, and enter-
tained me with an account of his
voyage round the island in a French
trading-vessel. He was thoroughly
agape when he got to Mauritius and
Bourbon. "Those are good lands,"
he said, "good lands most truly,"
and he would gladly have stayed
there, and meant to do so, but the
representative of the Hova goverment
compelled him to return to the land
of his ancestors. "Shouldn't I be a
fool," he added, to wear my dirty
old lamba and live in a miserable
country like this, if I had a chance of
getting to such good lands as those ?"
I thought he was little less than a
fool for continuing to wear his "dirty
old lamba" in any case, and straight-
way he wanted to beg some soap to
wash it with.

"The road in the afternoon was
most laborious, winding over sterile
braes, and fretted continually by mile
after mile of loose pebbles, which
our luckless bearers called 'physio

for invalids.' Towards sunset we
looked from the brow of one of the
low hills which spread over this part
of the valley, and were gladdened by
the sight of the Itondy, fringed with
trees, and the village we had set our
minds upon reaching, lying below
within easy distance. At least so
they appeared, but the latter proved
to be so difficult of access that it
might as well have been twice as far
away. A few of us were striding
hard upon the footsteps of our chief
guide after we had got down
from the overlooking height, and
expecting every moment to come
out clear of the high grass and
besetting reeds, when suddenly we
came to a dead halt in the thick
of a tangle of brushwood and creep-
ers. The track had been quite
overgrown. A desperate effort was
made to crush down all the opposing
mass, but we very soon beat a quick
retreat, coming back to our compa-
nions nearly stung to screaming by
the very mother of all nettles and
itching. It was a laughable sight to
see our guide scrubbing his bare back
against a rough tree to relieve the
torment. In a few minutes we return-
ed to the conflict and succeeded in
finding a passage, and also in cross-
ing a deep ditch of water, after
which the way was free up to the
village."

It was from this village that some
300 cattle had been stolen by Ime-
rina thieves about a couple of
months before. We heard of the
affair whilst waiting at Imahatsinjo,
but little expected finding ourselves
right in the midst of the injured
Sakalava. "There were only a few
women in the place on our arrival,
just as night was closing around.
Almost immediately, however, their
men came hurrying up armed from
the fields. Then there was a long


92

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

parley with the officer of our
three-man esoort, in which every
thing was most volubly explained,
as far as we could see, to the
satisfaction of the Sakalava. We
could only make out a very little
of what was said, but the grunts
with which it was received were
mostly those of assent, and as soon
as the speech-making was over,
guns and spears and big bold limbs
took themselves off, and left us to
pitch the tents, and make ourselves
at home. The women had already
fetched water for us at our request,
and a lad brought a log of wood
for us to cook our supper with.
Before the meat was finished, the
Sakalava fires were blazing too,
some of them out of doors like our
own ; and the noise about them
gradually became louder and more
uproarious, until all the warriors got
warmly drunk, and began marching
around the village singing and dan-
cing, and rattling their arms. The
burden of the chorus was that 'Ime-
na is never friendly long,' and as
the procession passed not far from
the encampment, our entire company
was indirectly invited to give an ac-
count of itself, in answer to: 'Whose
slaves are these that come treading
onltoera's land?' (Itoera is king
of Imenabe, the Sakalava territory
west of the Manambolo river, and the
Bemaraha hills.)

"After this, the song and chorus
went dying away in the distance,
and we thought the revellers had
gone to bed. But they had only
been off to beat up a few more com-
panions, and now returned with a
greater noise than ever, marching
straight upon the ground we occu-
pied. Mr. S. and 1 happened to
be walking about outside the tent,
and had a special performance
of whoop and stamp and clang-

ing of weapons, extemporised at
once for our edification. 'Yes,
that's pretty good,' we said, accos-
ting our visitors, the moment there
was a slight lull in the row, 'but
wait a little and you shall have a
specimen of our singing.' We then
called out the two-and-thirty, and
led them off in a favourite hymn.
A piece of rag aflame in a handful
of fat threw a fitting light upon the
opposing groups. For the whole
scene was a candle glimmering in
outer night; and it made the dark-
ness visible. The majority of our
followers are far from being true
samples of Imerina light, but half a
century of Christian teaching has
shone even down to those who are
slaves within the gate. And when
one of them, a man of recognised
worth and godfearingness, stood up
at the close of the hymn, and prayed
for the midnight west, the contrast
became more striking than ever.
After the worship was over somebody
bade the guns and spears goon with
their frolic, meaning no doubt to
keep Imena on friendly terms as long
as possible. But they could not
excite themselves up to another
chorus, and one of them was heard
to say: 'Who's going to dance when
we've just been praying ?' The
rest of the night was spent in peace."

The next day but one we arrived
at Imanandaza. And here the light
goose-quill must be restrained, and
compelled to state the results of our
observations and inquiries. We
went as spies to reconnoitre, and are
fully convinced that at least two
kingdoms of the Sakalava may be
reached from the interior of the
island as easily as from the coast.
Those dwelling in the immediate
neighbourhood of the three Hova
military stations, as recognised
subjects of Ranavalona, are visibly


93 From Twilight to Gross Darkness



waking to a sense of their ignorance.
We noticed this more especially
during our visit to their chief at
Ankavandra. In the course of the
conversation we had with him, he
told us that he had been thinking
over the advice we gave to the Imia-
danarivo people about a teach-
er, and meant himself to pay a lad
from there to come afid teach the
Sakalava children in their own
village. Here then is the door of
entrance' already ajar, and possibly
the future teachers for Imavohazo
already going to school.

But they will need a great deal of
waking up and kindly encourage-
ment. Ankavandra must be visited
regularly at least once a year, and
friendly intercourse with the king
of the north pushed on each time,
if the desire of our hearts is to be
obtained. As to Itoera and Imena
down by the sea, any decided
advance on the part of the Anka-
vandra Sakalava would probably
be felt west of Ibemaraha, but the
country appears to be more acces-
sible to Europeans from Imanandaza.

We made strict inquiries as to the
kind of reception a missionary would
meet with. Itoera, it seems, is a
young man, and not long ago was
visiting a corner of his kingdom
lying south of the town just mention-
ed, where he advised the people to
live at peace with all their neigh-
bours ; which is hardly the advice
that his turbulent predecessors would
have given. Just now however,
his beard is beginning to grow, and
this most natural occurence demands
the life of one of the highest in power
next to himself. Who the unfortu-
nate will be nobody will know until
the very last moment. Consequently
the country is somewhat excited.
"But what about our visiting him ?"
we asked of the Sakalava informant,

the deputy at Imanandaza, "would he
receive us as friends ?" "Yes," was
the answer, "if you don't take any
Imerina people with you." "Then
if we were to get men from you and
your chief at Ankavandra, all would
be right?" "Yes, the Imena have
confidence in you Europeans, and
also in the Arabs, but the Hova they
hate with all their hearts." "Why ?"
"Because they've cheated so often."

Thus there are kingdoms to be
won in the wild-hearted west, and
no lack of men on the Madagascar
field who are ready to lead the first
assault. But the charges of warfare
are somewhat heavy. One wonders
if they will be forthcoming.

Besides the substance of the above,
the journal contains, as a result of
much inquiry, a rather important
geographical note, which may be
conveniently inserted here. "No
Sakalava whom we have met with
knows anything whatever about that
lake 'Imania,' which appears on
most of the maps of the island. It
ought to be found not far from Ima-
nandaza, according to its pictured
position, but men who have wandered
far and wide assure us that no
such sheet of water is to be seen."
If this native evidence be accepted
as deciding against the existence of
a lake, the most probable explana-
tion of its appearance on the maps
is to suppose that the summer flood-
ing of two large rivers at their
confluence was taken for a perennial
mere. This becomes all the more
likely when it is remembered that
one of the two large rivers is the
'Mania,' which comes up from the
Betsileo country to the south. The
other is the Sakay, already mention-
ed on previous pages. After being
weighted by the Kitsamby and a
number of smaller streams from the
Ankaratra range, this river rolls in


94

From Twilight to Gross Darkness

a thundering fall upon the Betsiriry
plain, a little beyond Imanandaza.
We were told that the roar can
sometimes be heard two days' jour-
ney off. Itsiafadrehareha is the
name of the fall, and the river now
becomes the Mahajilo. After the
junction with the Mania its name is
changed once more, and it goes on
to the sea as Itsiribihina or Itsitso-
bohina (the 'Unfordable'). It is navi-
gable all the way in light draught
canoes, and is used by traders from
the Comoro islands as a means of
access to various inland towns. Itsi-
manandrafozana is the name of the
town at its mouth.

The journey home was begun in
good spirits. From Wednesday
morning to Sunday noon we were
making all possible haste through
the wildernesss. The track had
often to be felt for by our feet rather
than seen with our eyes, and the
towering rank grass was swept down
in front by a stick held crosswise
before one's face. At every stage we
left miles of it rolling in fire. The
next travellers would be grateful for
the clearance.

One morning we met a gang of
wild-cattle hunters. There were
about 60 of them, and they had beeu
two days out. Ten head of cattle
were the result of their roaming.
Upwards of 400 sometimes go out
together on such expeditions, prowl-
ing over these unpeopled wastes for
two or three months at a stretch.
The}' carry rice, cooking-utensils,
and mats, etc., but no tents. A hand-
ful of sticks and a bundle of grass
soon makes them a shelter from the
wind and dew. The cows and calves,
when fairly surrounded, are grabbed
at, seized, and bound, but the bulls
always stand up to give battle, and

almost invariably get off, unless shot.

Nothing else of any importance
oceurcd, except much illness among
our bearers. For several days I had
four so bad with fever as scarcely
to be able to walk, and one of them
was going to die on the road in
despair had I not put him in the
palanquin and made his companions
carry him. But there was no lack
of jollity in spite of small troubles.
The noonday halt was always a
hearty time. And then after the
cooking and the rest came the gene-
ral bundling up again. "Don't start
until I've packed my load,"I remem-
ber one much-talking youth crying
out. "It's the Vazaha's property
I'm thinking of," he added, "and
not myself. If any Sakalava steals
me he'll be sure to sell me to Imerina
again, and I shall get back home all
the same. But these boxes won't.
Go on !"

"Monday, July 12th. We are now
ascending into mid-winter. An easy
day's journey has brought us up to
3500 feet, and early to-morrow we
shall be at Imahatsinjo. Our invalids
are all the better for the change of
air. The tents are set up just outside
a well-dunged cattle-village, and one
of the women of the place, who had
never seen a European before, has
thus given vent to her astonishment
at finding us something different
from her vague imaginings: "Hanky !
olona Many izy /" i.e., ."Bless me !
they're only human !"

True! O woman of the well-dunged
village Only human. But there's
not much wisdom in that 'only.'
For let us but be truly human, and
it must follow, as the night the day,
that we cannot then be false to that
which is Divine.

W. C. PlCKERSGILL.


Ambondrombe and its Ghosts.

95

AMBONDROMBE AND ITS GHOSTS.

THE Malagasy possessed before the introduction of Christianity
but faint notions of any state after death. What can be gathered
from old sayings and superstitions is somewhat obscure and confused.
The dead were spoken of as having 'nody mandry,' a phrase
that means literally 'gone home to sleep'; it is often used for
spending the night at a place and returning the next day, and on
this account has been supposed to imply the hope of a return from
the grave. Sometimes the dead were said to have become ishiontsl-
nona (nothing), or to have changed into wind (lasan-ko rivotra).
At other times they were spoken of as having gone away and
become Gods (lasdn-ko Andriamanitra) ; and in accordance with
this belief they were commonly addressed in prayer. The belief in
ghosts, which, with all its vagueness and superstition, presupposes
the continued existence of the departed, is extremely common
throughout the island. The names by which these shades of the
departed are known are many. They are called matdatda, ambirba
(or : ombiroa, amirdy, arimoy), lolo. The latter name, meaning also
butterfly, presents a remarkable coincidence with the use of the
Greek word psyche. Angatra is also used as the name of a spirit,
but more probably means a demon than the ghost of a human
being. In Betsileo two names are found, which are not used in
Imerina, viz. kindly, and fahasivin' ny maty. Fahasivin' ny maty
means literally 'the ninth of the dead.' Two other of the ordinals are
used in an analogous manner : fahavalo (eighth) meaning an enemy ;
and fahatelo being applied more generally to all besides one's self and
one's friends and relations. The kindly appear to inspire the Betsileo
with strange fears, and are described as having red hollow eyes,
slender waists, etc., in fact very much as if the idea of their form
had arisen from the thought of a human skeleton, and had been
grotesquely decorated by the superstitious fancy of the people.
These descriptions were given with great minuteness to the writer
and Mr. Cameron when on a visit to Betsileo with Dr. Mullens and
the Rev. J. Pillans two years ago, and were evidently believed in
most firmly by the people.

We were led to make inquiries in this direction by the fact that
we were within sight of a place celebrated in the legendary lore of
Madagascar, indeed a kind of Malagas}' Olympus. We had often
heard of Ambondrombe, as the place to which the spirits of the
departed go after death, and knew that it was said to be somewhere


96

Ambondrombe and its Ghosts. 96

in the Betsileo country ; but the first sight of the mountain itself
was quite unexpected. We were on the highest part of the ridge
on which the strange old village of Ivatoavo (High Rock) is situated,
and had a splendid view of the country around us. Immediately
below us to the south lay the plain of Tsienimparihy, an almost
level space walled in by hills on nearly all sides, and rendered most
picturesque by the many little green rings hedging the Betsileo
vdla (hamlets). Far away to the east of us was a long hill, evidently
of great height, the ridge of which formed a gentle bow-like
curve. Upon asking its name we found it was the far-famed Ambon-
drombe, or, as the Betsileo call it, Iratsy or Irantsy (the evil place).
It lies on the eastern border of the Betsileo country, and divides it
from the home of the Tanala, who live in the lower country to the
east of it.

The top of the mountain is often shrouded with clouds, and was so
the second time we caught sight of it at another stage of our
journey. This, with its height, and the fact of its being almost
inaccessible from thick brushwood and steep rock, has helped to
make it a place around which the superstition of ages has delighted
to cast a mantle of mystery. We asked if any one had ever climbed
the hill, but were assured no one dared go near it. We enquired
if any one would become our guide, but found that even the hope
of getting some money from the Europeans, one of the strongest
motive powers in Madagascar, was no inducement to undertake so
perilous a task.

Some evil-doers, it is said, in old times fled to Ambondrombe for
safety, and cultivated friendly relations with the kindly, and settled
permanently among them ; but of their descendants, if they ever had
any, our informant could tell us nothing. We asked what was
known of the place and who were its inhabitants, and were told it
was tdnin-ddlo, a land of ghosts, and that it was the 'place to which
all sovereigns go immediately after their decease. They are not,
however, supposed to remain there permanently, but to be carried
from the cloud-crowned head of Ambondrombe to yet higher regions.

The geography of the place is said to be this : the top of the hill
is divided into three portions: the south belonging to Andrianampoi-
nimerina, the middle to Radama I., and the north to Ranavalona I.
In the centre is an open space like Andohalo, the place of public
assembly in the centre of Antananarivo.

When a sovereign is about to die, the ghosts are said to assemble
and form in lines and squares in true military style, and then wait
the approach of the royal guest, whom they welcome with the strains
of music and the firing of royal salutes. Indeed they seem to be
most loyal sprites, as when the present queen reached Fianarantsoa,


Full Text

PAGE 1

//'alley wifh many vc1lcGni<:. corus. \ \ --------------------------------, !-V~pof LAJi]~ lTASIHANAKA. ,Jlar7a:(:f FJ-raPlred .". lhrnu.r,1tl:er 2nea:ch ea.re r;-,r"erJ' Zo M~ day B7'" t:ke 1reek 1Jn.. ,rla.cll. kcW. }'&ilcan .. c.C (!ralcr.s-l-hur 'l ~ 'lerl' .rl"{u-,t h.cn-L11tr be r.rt &O?JI _)71..cne l:Jzan th.use.. ;,:rc..a rJc.e.d. DiVl.2.-ionb .La""\.e '1.X"'c.U>'." .. .ir.alzcwo I I I .Tarcr.:o .;_ l n!i?.~ ~ .3 ?wvanht. ,f... ,_7',n6uv:ou.u1dr,lrna ,f ..Z{'/'i-atc,,J.--~., 6.: 41y'zva 7J.lfan.ctu.nt.l,o. -------_ -__ 11':c_cc,J:'-'-.--'

PAGE 2

THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL AND MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE. RECORD OF INFORMATION ON THE TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PRODUCTIONS OF MADAGASCAR, ANO THE CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, LANGUAGE, AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF ITS PEOPLE, EDITED BY JAMES SIBREE, JUN., Missionary of tlze L. 1v. S., A utlwr of'' .'1:[adagascar and zls People.'' No. !.-CHRISTMAS, 1875. ANTANANARIVO: PRINTED AT THE PRESS OF THE LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 1875. All rig/zts reserved,

PAGE 3

iii. CONTENTS. PAGE r.-OUR OBJECT AND AIMS. By the EDITOR ......... ,....... 1 2.-THE ANCIENT THEISM OF THE HOVAS. By REV. W. E. COUSINS................................................... 5 3.-JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO MOJANGA AND THE NORTHWEST COAST. By REV. H. \V. GRAINGE................. 12 4.-THE MALAY AFFINITIES OF THE MALAGASY LANGUAGE. Two Letters from REV. J. DUFFUS and REV. vV. DENING to REV. "\V. E. COUSINS ................. 36 5.-THE JOURNEY BETWEEN ANTSIHANAKA AND THE EAST .COAST. By REV. J. PEARSE and MR. R. AITKEN 42 6.-THE LATE MR. JAMES CAMERON: HIS LIFE AND LABOURS. A .Funeral Address by REV. R. TOY.......... 48 7.-FARAHANTSANA, ITASY, AND ANKARATRA: Scraps .from a Note Book. By MR. "\V. JOHNSON (with a Map of Lake Itasy)...................................... 56 8.-NOTES ON IKONGO AND ITS PEOPLE. By MR. GEo. A. SHAW' ........................................ 64 9.-REMARKABLE BURIAL CUSTOMS AMONG THE BETSILEO. By REV. J. RICHARDSON .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 70 10.-FROM TWILIGHT TO GROSS DARKNESS. Beingcliie.fly a 1Varratire o.f wlzat lzajpe11ed 01t t!ze TVaJ, in a '.Journey to ANKA VANDRA and IJ1:1ANA2VDAZA. By REV. W. C. PICKERSGILL.,, 76 ir.-AMBONDROMBE AND ITS GHOSTS. By REV. W. E. COUSINS ......... .. ,. 95 12.-DRURY'S VOCABULARY OF MALAGASY WORDS, WITH NOTES. By REV. J. RICHAN.DSON .. ; .. ............ ,...... 98

PAGE 4

iv. PAGE 13.-THE BURNING OF THE IDOL RAMAHAVALY. Trans. lated by the EDITOR from a Native Account ............... 107 14.-NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS ON MADAGASCAR.......... III 15.-SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS CONNECTED WITH MADAGASCAR DURING THE YEAR 1875. By the EDITOR. 115 16.-LIST OF ENGLISH BOOKS, PAMPHLETS AND PAPERS ON MADAGASCAR. By the ~DITOR ...................... 119 17.-VARIETIES :-Mala,gasy 'Sons of God,' page 11-'Heavenly Princesses,' 47-An early Sonnet on 11::ladag,zscar, 97-The Belzosy Tribe, ro6-Gleaningsfrom "Living:rtone's Last ':Jour nals," 110-Ice in Madagascar, 114-Dr. Vanderkemj and 11adagascar, 118-Madagascar Tortoi"ses, 122-The Zahana, 123-A hitherto lz'ttle-noticed use of the Particle No, 124. ERRATUM ln the accompanying map of Itasy for Miadamanjaka read Ambohi'trimanjaka, and call the town immediately to the south of that mountain Mia~ damanjaka. The word Ifaliarivo should be ijalz'manarivo.

PAGE 5

THE ANTANANARIVO ANNUAL AND MADAGASCAR MAGAZINE. OUR OBJECT AND AIMS. IN presenting the first number of this magazine to our readers it seems fitting that a few words should be said as to the circumstances which led to the proposal to issue such a publication, and also as to the object and aims we have in view. With regard to the former of these points, the facts are briefly these : At the Four-monthly meeting of the missionaries of the London Missionary Society and the Friends' Foreign Mission Associa tion, which was held at Antananarivo on August lOth of this year, a most interesting paper was read by Mr. J. S. Sewell, on a journey recently made by .him and the Rev. W. C. Pickersgill to the Saka lava country to the west. Mr. Pickersgill then followed in a speech describing many striking incidents of their journey which had not been mentioned by Mr. Sewell; and a lively discussion took place. Seeing the great interest excited by the paper read and the informa tion given orally by our friends, I ventured to make a suggestion that we should try and prepare, say every Christmas or New Year's Day, a pamphlet or magazine containing accounts of any journeys made during the year in new or previously little-known parts of this country; together with papers on the philology, traditions, natural history, botany, geology, and physical geography of Madagascar. This suggestion was so cordially received, that I prepared a circular pointing out the different subjects which might be taken up in such a publication, and asking for the co-operation of those who were interested in the matter. The responses to this request are embo:lied No. 1.-CHRis:rru:As, 1875.

PAGE 6

2 Otw ObJect ancl Aims. in the following pages ; and I am encouraged to think that if all missionaries resident in Madagascar will help as they have opportunity there will be no difficulty in finding ample material of an interesting character for at least an annual issue of this publication; or we might possibly get out a number once in six: months. "Our object and aims" were pointed out in the circular already mentioned; but in order to place them on more permanent record, as well as to give a few hints to those who may not have seen that paper, I make no apology for transferring to these pages the chief points referred to. We must all I think have often felt how limited is our knowledge of the great island where we live and labour. With the exception of the capitals of the two central provinces and their immediate neighbourhood, and the roads from the coast east and north-west, and in two or three other directions, a vast proportion of this country is still a "term incognitct" to us. A glance at l\f. Grandidier's map of Madagascar-probably the most correct map of the country yet published-shews large portions of the island as blank spaces completely unknown to Europeans; probably one half of l\fadagas car is still unexplored. '\Vithin the last year or two, however, journeys have been made in new districts, and interesting accounts of them have been published."' It is probable that in future years there will be a still greater increase in our knowledge of the Geography of the country; and it seems desirable that there should be some permanent record of such research. Even the bare Itineraries of such journies would be valuable, giving names of villages, hills, and streams on the route, and distances traversed; especially if accompanied by observations by the aneroid barometer, so that approximate sections of lines of country might be laid down. In the course of our daily work and intercourse with the people we all of us occasionally meet with interesting facts connected with the History, Manners, Habits of Thought, etc. of the Malagasy. Such items of information, if carefully noted and recorded in such a publication as this, would in time form a valuable addition to our knowledge of the inhabitants of Madagascar. From intelligent English-speaking natives we might perhaps get papers, or materials See "List of Books, Pamphlets and ia1ci; Froni Ficinaicmtsoa to Ikongo; To Papers on l\Iaclagascar," towards the end of Antsihancika and back; The Sakalava. this Annual; From Ficrnarn11t~oa to llfcman.

PAGE 7

Oitr Object ancl Aims. 3 for papers, on some subjects of which we yet know accurately very little, such as: Fanompoana (government and feudal service), Tribal Relations, and the Government of the country, especially as regards the inferior and subordinate officials. It is most desirable that any Traditions, Legends, Fables, or Folk-lore* that may be met with should be preserved, as throwing valuable light on the origin of the different tribes. The relation of these to each other also deserves careful i:dvestigation. Now that missions have been established in provinces as far north as Antsiha naka, and as far south as Ambohimandroso in the Betsileo, with possibilities of others in yet more remote districts,-not to mention the Mission stations in Imamo, Va.kin' Ankaratra, and Vonizongo, we may hope to have information which will throw valuable light upon the connection between the different races inhabiting Madagas car. New Proverbs should also be noted down, and variations on proverbs previously known. In Philology it would be of great service in perfecting our know ledge of Malagasy to record any words not already given in our dictionaries, especially lists of words in other dialects than the Hova; noting down words used in some districts in a different sense from their customary usage in Imerina, and giving the names of animals, plants, or places in which uncommon or hitherto unknown words are used, as in these names words may be fossilized which have become obsolete in ordinary usage, but yet may form valuable links of connection with well-known roots. Many of us take an interest in the Physical Sciences; some in natural history, others in botany, others in geology and physical geography. Anything new in such branches of knowledge might form the subject of articles in this publication ; and scientific ques tions might be discussed in its pages. If any one would accompany such papers with sketches of natural objects-animals, birds, insects, or plants-I would do my best to give them a permanent form in lithography ; doing the same also with any sketch-map of newly explored districts. It would also be of service to collect and preserve any information with regard to the Idolatry, Superstitions, and Religious Beliefs of Even the nursery rhymes told by l\IaJa. are not unworthy of being noted down and gasy mothel's and muses to their child1en pl'eserved.

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4 Our ObJect ancl Aims. the Malagasy, before the remembrance of these passes away from the minds of the people. The form and appearance of their idols, customs connected with their worship, and things which were 'jacly' (tabooed) to them, etc. etc., must be recorded now, or they will soon be forgotten. An account is given in the following pages of the burning of one of the chief idols ; could not some of our friends obtain information as to the burning of others, together with particulars as to their appearance, the duti-1s and privileges of their guardians, etc.? Papers on the Progress of Christianity amongst the people, and its influence upon their minds and conduct and habits, might be contributed by some of us ; many interesting facts shewing the stages through which religious thought passes would thus be preserved, often forming instructive parallels to facts recorded in apostolic and early-church history. Striking Illustrations and Figures used by our preachers are often well worth preservation, as throwing light upon the native mind as affected by the gospel. In the matter of Statistics, any information as to population, birth and death-rate, temperature, rain-fall, imports and exports, etc. etc., will be of service ; and our friends engaged in the Medical profession will perhaps be able to give us valuable facts and observations in their special department of work. Perhaps a page or two may be devoted to "Notes and Queries" on subjects upon which further information is desired; while a short Summary of Important Events occurring during the year will form a useful record for future refer ence. Anecdotes, which we all occasionally meet with, illustrating the modes of thought, habits, and customs of the people, will be welcome ; and indeed, information and facts of all kinds connected with Madagascar and its people will find an ,appropriate record in the pages of this magazine. vVith such a wide range of subjects, appealing to such a variety of tastes, we should certainly have no difficulty in providing at least once a year a number of papers which should have a permanent value and interest. Encouraged by the co-operation already shown, I confidently appeal to all our readers to help us in this undertaking ; and to make any suggestions which would be likely to render the publication more useful and interesting. EDITOR, Ambohimanga, Christmas, 1875.

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The Ancient Theisin of the Hovas. 5 THE ANCIENT THEISM OF THE HOV AS. THE darker aspects of the religious beliefs of the Malagasy have been already described with sufficient minuteness in the History of Madagascar, by the Rev. W. Ellis, and other works on the island and its inhabitants. To the first Christian missionaries the painful conviction that gross darkness enshrouded the minds of the people must have been ever present. The almost universal belief in vintRna, or destiny, had sapped the very foundation of faith in a free and powerful God ; the dread of sorcery had overcome even the noblest instincts of human nature ; while the common practise of resorting to idols and keeping charms-pieces of wood, scarlet cloth, beads, etc.-tended to enfeeble the powers of the mind, and to hold men in a state of perpetual childhood. The common fruits of idolatry and superstition were alas! abundant. Thousands perished from taking the tangena, or poison ordeal, on the charge of sorcery ; thousands too were destroyed in domestic wars; lying and cunning were considered proofs of cleverness; and licentiousness held undisputed sway. Thus the honoured men, who, in the reign of the first Rada.ma, brought to the central province of Madagascar the words of everlasting life, as they looked around upon the people they had come to bless, had indeed reason to mourn over the degradation and misery into which idolatry had plunged its followers. But amidst all this darkness there were gleams of light : faint indeed, yet still perceptible to the close observer. Much as the missionaries had to discourage them, they could still discern here and there grounds of encouragement and hope. In the first place, idolatry in Madagascar had never assumed a position thoroughly self-consistent. Apparently derived from different sources, and composed of heterogeneous elements, it was never able to present a firm front to the aggressive spirit of Christian ity. It had little power of cohesion; and hence, with greater ease and rapidity than the more hoary and elaborate systems of India and other lands, it has crumbled into dust before the onward progress of the kingdom of Christ .Again, even in the worst times, when idolatry was gaining an increasing power for evil, and continually developing fresh phases of superstition, its sway was still far from universal. There are those among the natives who maintain that numbers of the old inhabitants kept themselves free from the pollutions of idolatry, and that many who did resort to the idols did so under the pressure of some great

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6 Tl1e Ancient Tl1ei.sm of tlie Hovas. trouble, which stupefied the better part of their nature, and exposed them to the seductive influence of superstition. Among the native proverbs many exist that show a spirit of disbelief in the prevailing practices. One is fo the effect that "a favourable declaration of the sikhly ( divination) is not an occasion for dancing, nor an unfavourable declaration an occasion for weeping."* Another says that "an offering is not odi~fdty (a preventive of death), but simply Jla-nenina" t (something done to prevent needless regret hereafter, though it may be without any hope that it will effect good). Idolatry is again held up to ridicule is the following: "Like a woodman who has lost his idol: to get a new one is the quicker plan ;" + i. e. quicker than searching for the old one, as blocks of wood are easily obtainable. And again: "Like a diviner making unreasonable demands, and the sick are bidden by him to dance." II In addition to this, many still affirm, as they did in the time of the former missionaries (see Hi.st. of Madi., v. I., p. 397), that idolatry was a comparatively recent introduction. In confirmation of this it may be stated that traditional accounts still exist showing that some, at least, of the more n.oted idols were brought to Imerina from remote parts of the island. But not only is idolatry as it existed in Imerina to be regarded as an introduction of somewhat modern date, and as an introduction from which a thoughtful minority had always stood aloof; but alongside of all the superstitious practises that had gained a footing among the people, there still existed the tradition that the primitive religion had been a simple theism. This theism was undoubtedly meagre and inadequate, but it presented a nucleus of elementary truth around which the fuller and grander teachings of God's word were hereafter to cluster. The remainder of this paper will be devoted to the illustration and confirmation of this statement; and the writer will endeavour to show, not only that the name of God was well known and commonly used, but that there existed also some knowledge of His attributes. The first missionaries to Madagascar had not to engage in a long and weary search, such as Mr. Moffat describes as being necessary in.South Africa, before they could find a name for the Divine Being. Names existed and were in common use. One thing that soonest strikes a missionary on his arrival in Madagascar is the frequency with which the name of God passes the lips of the natives. During his voyage out he will have given his leisure hours to the study of the language in which be hopes in years to come to declare Sikidy soa tsy anclihizana; sikidy ratsy tsy itomaniann. t Ny ala-faditra tsy odi-faty, fa alanenina. Toy ny Tanala very sampy, ka ny ma nova no haingana. II 'foy ny mpisikidy mila voatsiary, ka ny marary no ampandihizina.

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The Ancient Theism of the Hovas. 7 the love of the Great Father of all nations. He will therefore have acquired a small vocabulary before reaching his destination : among the words he has learned will undoubtedly be Anclrimndnitra, the name of God. And when he first strains his ear to catch some of the words that are being uttered all around him, he will notice, perhaps with no small amount of surprise, that the name of God is constantly used by all. If the frequent use of the name implied a full knowledge of God's character, and carried with it due reverence, the Malagasy would have to be ranked among the most devout of nations. For every favour, however small, the usual formula of thanks is : Hotahin' Anclri(t}nctnitnt ltianao, May you be blessed of God ; but, as usually happens with formulas, constant use has robbed the phrase of its meaning. The name of God is also invoked in support of the truth of a statement; and one who is at all sensitive in such matters cannot hear without pain even little children appending to the most simple affirmations the phrase: Marina amin' Andriamrtnitra, True by God. Thus although the knowledge of God's name is, for some reasons, a source of encouragement, the joy at finding it so commonly used is soon clouded over by the sad conviction that practically it inspires those from whose mouth it is so constantly falling with little or none of the reverence which is due to its divine owner. The names of God in use in Imerina are chiefly two: Ancli'iamd nitra and Andriananalidry. _They are frequently pronounced together. The prefix Andria(or: And1Jana-) means literally prince or noble; but it is also commonly used as a personal prefix with masc1tli11e proper nouns ; thus these two names are an evidence that God was regarded as a person by those with whom they originated. The first name is compounded of the prefix Anclrirmrt and the adjective mdnitra, fragrant. 'l'he whole may be translated: The Fragrant One.* Thus the name would appear to indicate that the Divine Being was not regarded with feelings of dread and abhorrence, but rather, on the contrary, with sentim~nts. uf delight. 1Ve have shown that the prefix Andriana leads us to believe tlrnt God was regarded as a person ; there was, however, a constant tendency to degrade the sacred name and to apply it to anything strange, or of unusLrnl excellence. Rice was called Aiirli-iamrmitm, as also was silk: the former probably from its being, as the l\folagasy say, t6/wn' ny aina, the support of life; the latter, because used to wrap the body in after death. Silk was Other explanations lmve been suggesterl: viz. (1) tlrn.t Andriam:iuitrn st.rnrls for Andri;rn-rlanitrn, Prince 0 l-Iea ven l ilid. of illaclr. vol. 1, p. JUO); (2) th;tt manitl'a (scented) has reference to the offering 0 incense (Jlfac/1. and its People, p. JU5) ; (:J) that inanitrn is a lengthened form of many, arnl means weighty, powornl (,t suggestion of Dr. Davidson) ; tl1is me,m ing 0 mar1y appears in the 1wonl nianila/1,y, wealthy, powerful, ancl probably in ;na,ii-1ano, dropsy (heavy from water?) ; comp. too French Diet. s. v. 1nany.

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8 The Ancient Theism q/ the Hovas. sometimes also called .A.nd1'iamani"tra indrindra; i. e. God in the highest degree, indrindra being the sign of the superlative degree. Velvet was called "son of God.'' The sovereign was addressed as the "God seen by the eye" (comp. Psa. lxxxii. 6); and not only so, but the attributes of God were openly ascribed to royalty. In a kabaiy during the reign of the late queen Rasoherina, one of the judges said: "There is no other source of life, put Rasoherina alone is the source of life." Parents were also addressed as visible Gods ; such a manner of address however appears to have been common among more civilized nations,"' and certainly possesses a deep foundation of truth. The idols again were addressed as "Gods." The spirits of their ancestors were also said by the Malagasy to be lasa ho Andriamanitra, "gone to be God" ( or Gods) : the language has no form for the plural, so that it is impossible to tell exactly whether the idea attached to this phrase was that of absorption into the essence of the one God, or simply exaltation to a higher state of being so as to be numbered among heroes and demi-gods. Ancestors were certainly believed to possess supernatural powers, and were appealed to in prayer. A European has been known to be addressed as God by a beggar, probably only as a piece of gross flattery. These illustrations are enough to show that the word Andriamanitra was oHen used in a vague sense like our word divine, or the Hebrew name Elohim; but such uses of the word were, with more or less intelligence, known to be but figurative; and undoubtedly the name was originally intended to be, what, in spite of all such tendencies to deterioration as those referred to above, it continues to be, that is, the personal name of the !upreme God. The second name, A.ndriananahdry, conveys a deeper meaning than An(li'iamdnitra. It is composed of the personal prefix Andrfrma, which has already been considered, and the word nahd,y ( or : nanahdry) the past tense of the verb mahary, to create; and hence means either : The Prince who created, or, more simply, regarding A.ndriana as a prefix only: The Creator. This word seems never to have been used with the ,vide and figurative meaning of .A.ndriamanitra. Both names occur in an old form of invocation, said to have been in use long before the introduction of Christianity : "0 Andriamanitra, fragrant throughout the universe; 0 Andrianana!ta,y, who didst create the heaven and the earth." Andriananahary is often used with the strange addition "who didst create us with hands and feet," these members standing as representatives of all the physical powers and faculties. In some parts of the island (and occasionally in Imerina too) the name Zanahdry is used as the equivalent of the E. rt, the dii teirestres of the Romans, of Cicero, and the Panntem ve1c1i i1t Demn debenius

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Tlie Ancient Theism of tlie Hovas. 9 Hova Andriananaliary. The meaning is the same, the essential part of the word nalidry remaining unchanged ; Zee is probably a personal prefix similar to the Hova Ancli'iana or Ra. Thus in Madagascar there have existed from time immemorial appropriate names for the Supreme Being, into which revelation has been able to infuse a deeper and fuller meaning. But in addition to the mere name of God, the Hovas possess a number of proverbial sayings called Oliabulan' ny Ntaolo, or Proverbs oi the Ancients, said to have been handed down from generation to generation for ages, and to embody a faith older than the belief in divination, charms, and idols, which prevailed in more recent times. From these sayings it is manifest that some of the attributes of God were acknowledged. His dwelling-place was believed to be in heaven; for a strangely worded proverb says: "Like a little chicken drinking water: it looks up to God," i. e. heavenwards.* When Andrianampoinimerina, father of Radama I., was about to die (1810), he gathered his ministers together, and in a pathetic address commended his son to their care, beginning his charge with a solemn declaration that he was going home to God, and would dwell in heaven. God was also confessed to be greater than the imagination of man could conceive; thus another proverb says: "Do not say: God is fully understood by me"t (literally, "got by me in the heart"). God's omniscience was also confessed in the words: "God looks from on high and sees what is hidden;"+ or again in the following : "There is nothing unknown to God, but he intentionally bows down his head"JI (i. e. so as not to see) : a remarkable parallel to Acts xvii. 30. Again, God's omnipresence is implied in another extremely common saying : "Think not of the silent valley (i. e. as affording an opportunity for committing some crime); for God is over the head." God was also acknowledged to be the author of life as the ordinary phrase used in congratulating the parents of a newly-born child is: "Salutation, God has given you an heir."~ Another proverb speaks of God's power to control the waywardness of man: "The waywardness of man," it says, "is controlled by the Creator ; for it is God alone who commands"** (or governs). The common form of thanks (May God bless you) already referred to, shows that God was also considered to be the source of blessing. A successful man was called Bezanahdry, "having Toy ny akoho kely misotro rano, ka Anclriamanitra no anclranclrainy. t Aza manao Anclriamanitra azoko am-po. :t Avo fijery Anclriamanitra ka mahita ny takona. II Tsy misy tsy fantatr' Andriamanitra, fa saingy minia miondrika Izy. Aza ny lohasaha mangingina no heve~ rina; fa. Andrian1n.nitra. no a1nbonin' ny loha. Arahaba nomen' An,lriamanitra ny fara. "* Hatraitr' olombelona zaka-Nanahary, fa Andriamanitra hiany no mandiJy.

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10 T!ie Ancient Theism of tlw Hovas. much of God," or "many Gods." One specially prospered or saved from threatening calamity was said to be niliirdtan' Ancli'iamanifra, "glanced on by God," or, having God's eye opened upon him. That God's gifts are sometimes delayed, and should be patiently waited for, was also confessed in the following proverb : "God, for whom the hasty will not wait, shall be waited for by me."* Again, God was looked to as the rewarder of acts of kindness ; hence the common phrase: "Although I should not (be able to) reward your kindness, it will be rewarded by God."t He was also the recognized protector of the helpless ; this is significantly conveyed by the following: "The simple one (the fool) should not be defrauded; for God should be feared."! And that all other means of protection were believed to be vain without God's blessing is shown by a prayer, formerly chanted by the women in companies when their husbands had gone to the wars:-"Although they have many guns, Although they have many spears, Protect thou them, 0 God." God's truth again was expressed thus : "God loves not evil ;"II "Let not God be blamed, let not the Creator be censured ; for it is men who are full of twisting (i. e. tortuous, -evil ways)," ,r implying that upon them, and not upon the righteous God, blame should fall. That He was regarded as the rewarder of good actions, and the punisher of crime, is indicated by the proverb : "A snake that has been killed ; it has no hands to avenge itself; but it waits for God," or, in another version, "for the avenging of its life, taken by its destroyer.";:," Another proverb conveys the great truth that God himself is the Supreme Judge, whose condemnation is to be feared more than the censure of our fellow men: "lt is better to be held guilty by men than to be condemned by God."tt Such sayings as these show unmistakably that though J\fadagas car was polluted by the abominations of heathenism, there were still lingering traditions of a purer faith. Not that these sayings, taken by themselves, can be considered as a fair representation of the practical faith of the people. 'l'hey were rather relics of a faith that was in process of being utterly obliterated by gross superstition ; at least such is the opinion of some of the Malagasy themselves, an Anclriamanitm, Izay tsy anclrin' ny mailm, anclriko hiany. t Na tsy valiko aza, valin'Anclriamanitra. Ny aclala. no ho tsy a.inUak .. tina, Andria,~ n1anitra. no ata.l10rana. Na he basy ,inie, Na. 1naro lefona anie, Arovinao anie izy, Andri:unanitrn. 0. II Andriamauitra tsy tia ratsy. 'IT Anclriamanitra tsy omen-tsiny, Zana hary tsy omem-ponclro, fa ny olombelona no be siasia. ** Bibilava vonono: tsy nrn1utn-t,\nankamaly, fa Anclriamanitm (01" toclin' aina) no andrasa.ny. H Aleo meloka amin' olombelona toy izay meloka amin' Andriamanitra.

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Tlie Ancient Theism qf tlie Hovas. 11 opinion which facts tend to corroborate. How long such traces of the primitive faith would have lingered on, we cannot say; but we can with confidence affirm that, with the Bible in the land, they have now been lit up with a new light, and are not likely to be forgotten, but will ever awaken feelings of gratitude to Him, who even in the time of Madagascar's darkness did not leave Himself without witness ; and who in His great goodness has now more fully published His glorious truth. The dim and trembling lamp, burning only with the oil of tradition, has been refreshed by a supply of the clear and life-giving oil of revelation. May the light never more grow dim, but ever increase till the dawn of that day which shall bring eternal light and splendour to all who know and love the true God. Those who, whilst reading this paper, have borne in mind the position of the missionary, will readily understand how valuable such sayings as have been enumerated are to him. He can follow the example of the great missionary, and avail himself freely of all such national sayings. They can become stepping-stones from which he may lead men to higher and yet higher truths ; just as Paul availed himself of the inscription at Athens and the hymn of Aratus, and from them advanced to the declaration of truths more grand and far-reaching than any that Athens with all her boasted wise ones had ever heard before. WILLIAM E. Oousrns. MALAGASY 'SONS OF GOD.' In old Malagasy fables a class of beings called Zdnal.' Anctriamdnitra (Sons of God) were often referred to. Among other remarkable qualities ascribed to these Zanak' Andriamanitra was that they could not be killed. To this general exemption from death, however, one strange exception was made, viz., that they would die if they could be made to drink ardent spirits. W. E. C.

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12 Visit to Mojanga and tlie NoPtli-west Coast. JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO MOJANGA AND THE NORTH-WEST COAST. STARTING from Antananarivo on July 20th (1875), we were in hopes of passing quickly over the first portion of our journey; but several of our men had been Dr. Mullens's bearers last year, and naturally wished if possible to obtain the same amount of wages for this trip as they had received from him for the last ; and therefore, although they eventually agreed to go for little more than the usual monthly wage, they played all the most provoking tricks their ingenuity could devise to hinder us. Five times we endeavoured to start, and five times were deserted by just a sufficient number of men to render it impossible for us to go on. Indeed we quite feared that the journey would have to be given up altogether, simply from this cause. On account of these difficulties with the men, it was not until the third day after leaving Antananarivo that we were able to start from Fihaonana, and consider ourselves fairly on the way. Towards evening we reached Ankazobe, a small and wretched village about 6! hours N. of Fihaonana. This place is very difficult to enter on account of the deep ditches by which it is surrounded ; and as it was impossible for some of the men with our goods to get in at all, we pitched our tent for the first time just outside this village, learning a lesson in the process which I flatter myself was learned pretty thoroughly, vi:,;. Always to pitch our tent by daylight if possible, fo1 darkness, hunger, and weariness help none of the parties concerned, and put all in a profuse perspiration and general state of bewilderment. Saturday, July 24th. About midday we reached llazaina, a village at the foot of Angavo, 3 hours N. of Ankazobe. This village contains about 34 houses; and is entered through two large holes cut in a rampart, which is completely overgrown with Tsi-afak' dmby.~ The inner entrance is strengthened bv stone sides, and the usual circular stone doors. The church is a wretched building of clay, capable of holding about 100 people. It is rapidly falling to pieces, although it has not been very long built. The pastor, Razakatsinatry, was absent at the time of our visit; but we learned that the congregation, while good, is largely composed of people from the surrounding hamlets. There are 10 members-four of these being able to read, but there is no school, and there is only one Bible in the village. Nevertheless, in the midst of all the filth and squalour of the place, we found an old andriambavy, the chief woman of the place, who was so clean in her dress, so gentle and kindly in manner, so intelligent in conversation, and withal so warmhearted and apparently sincere a Christian woman, that we felt they were not altogether without at least one living epistle, certainly known and easily read by them all. May I. e. "Impassable by cattle," the name of a bushy pfant full of amall thorns, used for hedges and fences,

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Visit to Mojanga and tlie Noith-west Coast. 13 God spare her long and help her greatly, that her light may shine brightly and clearly in that dark spot. In the evening we went to Mahari daza, a distance of one and a half or two hours N. of Ilazaina. This place is more strongly defended by ditches, tunnels, and palisades than any we had yet seen. As large herds of cattle are driven into the village for safety at night, and innumerable pigs either for profit or pleasure choose to remain there by day, the whole place is covered to a depth varying from 2in. to 3ft. with finely powdered manure. On entering we raised a considerable, amount of dust and general astonishment; for having determined to pitch our tent inside the village, we set a few of our men to sweep away the filth from the cleanest spot we could select. You may guess the result. I first tried to get to wind ward of the horrible cloud, but not being able to find that desirable quarter, as there happened to be no wind at the time, sent a man to fetch water, and then ran away till the atmosphere cleared. I had better have stopped: for running through the first hole in the entrenchment of the village, I heard a cry of "Omby d !" and saw the head of an ox, closely followed by his tail, coming through the outer entrench ment. As the people evidently expected to see me run, I stood my ground with true British pighead edness, and waited in the narrow ditch for the big beast to pass ; but this one was closely followed by another, and that by a third :-the whole of the herds were coming in for the night, and the fosse was soon as full of oxen as of dust. There was no escape : grunting, puffing, blowing, and bellowing, in they came, and with nothing but bare hands to smack them, I was hustled and jostled, bumped and butted, pushed and driven about, until after three quarters of an hour I came out in com pany with the last calf, choked with dust, streaming with perspiration, and inwardly vowing that the very next time I heard the cry of" Omby d !" I would run for it, however undignified it might appear. Sunday, July 25th. We remained all day at this place, conducting services, teaching hymns, and cate chizing the people. In the morning there was a congregation of about 70; in the evening it was not so good. The people as a whole we found deplorably ignorant. They knew nothing about Jesus Christ, or their need of a saviour. The sum total of their religious know ledge appeared to be, that there is but one God, and that He loves them,-a slender creed truly; but we may be thankful that they know even this, for it is more than is known by some of their neighbours. The pastor here is a man quite incapable of instructing them. There is no school, and only three in the place make any pretence to reading, and with them it is little more than pretence. However, two know their letters, and one can spell short syllables pretty correctly; so we gave him a New Testament, nailed some lesson-sheets to the walls of the chapel, and encouraged him to teach his still more ignorant neigh bours, in hopes that additional help may be rendered at some early date. And thus we left them, saddened and humbled to think we could do so little for those in such great need. Monday, July 26th. "\Ve left for Kinajy, a distance of about four hours N.vV. of the high hills bound ing North V onizongo. This place is far in advance of Ilazaina and

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14 Visit to Moj'anga and tlie Noitli-west Coast. Maharidaza. The chapel is clean and well built. Andriambelo, the pastor, is an intelligent man and very tolerable preacher. The con gregation numbers about 180 on Sunday mornings, many of the people coming from the surrounding district. The evening service is strictly a service of song. Few except the singers assemble, and these appear to have the service entirely in their own hands. The church numbers 14 members. There is a school with 18 scholars and two teachers. It is said that 32 of the people here can read; but we only found four who could read fluently. vVe made the teachers a present of lesson-sheets for the school, and distributed a few books among the scholars, with which they were greatly delighted. These folks are really eager to learn. I shall not soon forget the manner in which they crowded round Mr. Baron as he gave them a Bible lesson : eyes and mouths both open. The only uninterested person was the Governor himself, who occupied a seat by Mr. Baron's side. He, poor man, had his attention called off by sundry Mala gasy plagues, and very coolly stripped himself before the assembled congre gation to hunt for his tormentors; and actually turned his clothes inside out, and carefully inspected every crevice in his skin, without in the least diverting the attention of the congregation. About midday we left this place for Ambohinaorina, 3thours N. This is a tolerably large village of 50 or 60 houses. On enquiring for the chapel we were directed to one of the least reputable looking houses in the village. It was very dirty, ha:ving no mat, stool, table, pulpit, or any article of furniture whatever. After looking round this filthy build-ing we were not surprised to hear that there was no pastor, preacher, deacon, or member; no school, no books, not even a Bibleforthe church, nor one person in the place able to read. Yet we were assured that the people assemble here, wait a decent time, sing, sometimes pray, and then separate. Before leaving we found a man who could just tell his letters, we therefore nailed a lesson-sheet on the walls, and obtained a pro mise from him that he would teach what he knew until a better teacher could be found. ,ve also assembled the people, and presented them with a Bible and a hymn book, to be kept for the use of any passing trader or soldier who might be able to conduct a service for their benefit. On the way to this place the men were much troubled by a grey fly, called by them Tsi-mati-teliaka (not killed by a slap), and also by the ~ffoka fohy, a little mosquito which is very troublesome during the day, but entirely disappears towards eve ning. The latter part of our journey was in consequence made to a regular slapping accompaniment, caused by the men killing the tiresome crea tures. w e also noticed about this part a large number of earthen mounds, varying from one to two and a half feet in height; these were the nest of a large ant credited by the men with uncommon sagacity. ,ve were told that they make regular snake traps in the lower part of these nests ; easy enough for the snake to enter, but impossible forittogetout of. "Then one is caught the ants are said to treat it with great care, bringing it an abundant and regular supply of food, until it becomes fat enough for their purpose ; and then, accor ding to native belief, it is killed and eaten by them. However their sagacity does not inspire the na-

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Visit to MoJanga and tlw Nortli-west Coast. 15 tives with sufficient regard for them to prevent their knocking off the top of one of these nests, scooping out the centre, and there building a fire to cook their rice. And cruel as the practice is, I can scarcely wonder at its being followed, for with a hole made near the bottom for draught, you have a regular furnace in less than two minutes. Tuesday, July 27th. Started for Ampotaka, four hours N. ,v. of Ambohinaorina, As there appeared some hopes of benefiting the people here by a few hours' catechising and general instruction we determined to remain and spend the afternoon and evening with them. We were afterwards very thankful that we did so, for the people were very ready to learn, and many of them intelligent enough to thoroughly appreciate the instruction given, and therefore we were amply repaid for the delay. The village is about the same size as Ambohin.aorina ; the chapel somewhat smaller, but better kept. The furniture is simple ifnot neat: consist ing of a few mats for the flooring, a chipped log for a chair, in case the preacher should require such a luxury, and the framework of a table, the legs of which are very nicely let into the ground about Gin., as they cannot be persuaded to keep their respective positions by any other means. This we found rather a common practice in these villages; and at first thought it a precautionary measure to avoid accidents should the preacher becomr. very energetic in his delivery. Here, as at the former place, there is really no church, no pastor, and as a rule, no school ; but at the time of our visit, Rainimiaraka, an evangelist sent out by Mr. Stribling, had been teach ing for nearly a month. The people had evidently received some benefit from bis instructions, and had been shaken out of that apathetic state so lamentably visible at Ambohinaorina. They sang with considerable spirit several hymns he had taught them, and were eager to hear more of the way of salvation. But the time of his stay had been too short for much to be expected from his endeavours; and I am sorry to say he was unable to remain longer, and left the place with us on the following morning. Seeing a clear stream of water some little distance from the town, I thought of enjoying the luxury of a bath here; but when just entering the water I heard Baron shouting "Aok'aloha Aok' aloha !"*" Turning round I saw him racing full speed towards me to say he had just seen two immense crocodiles a little higher up, and that I had better take care. The warning was not lost upon me ; and I make a note of the matter here, that it may serve as a warning to any who may follow, this being the first place on the journey at which we met with any of these exceedingly ugly cus tomers. In a small lake about 200 yards from the village there are a few very large ones. Every one of these is apparently as well known to the villagers as the members of their own families : one of the largest is known by them as 'Old brownie,' another as 'Yellow back,' and sundry other smaller specimens by names equally descriptive but most uncom plimentary. w e were told by the villagers that at night, when the gates of the village are shut, the smaller ones walk up the hill ( a very steep one by the way), and carry on fine junketings outside the walls, but that the very largest appear only ouce a year. All of which, while impossible for us to accept as a fact in natural history, may be accepted as the _firm belief of many of the "Stop a. bit! Stop a. bit!"

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16 Visit to MoJanga and the North-west Ooast. people hereabout, together with sev eral other matters : e. g. that the crocodiles live chiefly on stones, stealing cattle, pigs, and people merelv as a relish to the harder fare. Also, that smitten with the charms of the pretty little divers, and other water-birds, they choose their mates from among them, and so crocodile's eggs are produced. It is quite cer tain that a very good understanding seems to exist between the birds and the crocodiles, the birds swimming about close to the noses of the crocodiles without the least fear ; but I soon found that the mutual understanding arises from the fact that the birds are much too sharp for o_ld slimy to catch, however hungry. A wounded bird however is snapped up with great avidity. Afterwards in our canoes upon the river we had many an exciting race with the crocodiles for ducks that we had shot. Timid at other times they became bold enough then. To add an interest to the chase we often gaye the cluck in danger to the men. Then the fun became fast and furious; the paddles would flash and the boat fly; the men shout and scream in their excitement ; torrents of abuse would be hurled at the head of the black monster gliding so smoothly and swiftly through the water ; and when, as too often happened, the great jaws opened and our poor cluck disappeared, such a perfect cataract of Malagasy epithets fol lowed him to the muddy depths as rendered nightmare certain if memo ry and conscience did their work. ,vednesday, July 28th. Started this morning for Anclriba, a distance of 6! hours. The scenery on the way to this place is much more imposing than any of the preceding on account of the great height and l'uggedness of the hills. In some places it is grand, and in others rendered perfectly beautiful by the many rapids in the river, and the luxuriant foliage of the trees upon the banks. Our men however saw little beauty in the choicest spots, being far too much afraid of the jaliavalo ( enemies and robbers), who are supposed to make this one of their favourite resorts. Horrible ta:les were told of the fierceness and cruelty of these people ; all of which we took "ciem grano salis." Indeed as we saw nothing of these very fierce beings, we believed that they existed chiefly in the imagination of our bearers. I was therefore the more surprised when by purest accident we actually caught one of these gentry on our return. He was a spy sent out to reconnoitre our little party ; but unfortunately for himself, happened to shew his head over the ridge of a hill, near which we were cooking our rice, just as some of our folks were looking in that direction. Up jumped a couple of Sakalava, and gun in hand gave chase. My men clustered round in a dreadful state of alarm, and begged of me to load with ball, as the enemy were close upon us. All was confusion in our little camp. Before the two Sakalava chasing the spy could reach the top of the hill, the fellow had hidden himself in the long grass, so that on reaching the top they were utterly at a loss. Meanwhile, having my gun charged with small shot only, I fired off both barrels in order to load with ball ; and it so happened that in firing I pointed the gun just in the direction of the spot where the man was hiding; whereupon thinking he was seen and being deliberately aimed at by a Vazaha(foreigner)with a gun that had already gone off twice without 1eloading, and for aught

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Visit to JJioJanga and the North-west Ooasf. 17 he knew might go off twenty times more, the poor fellow jumped up to run for his life. Off started the men in pursuit, and soon afterwards brought him in prisoner. It was quite early in the day when we first caught sight of mount Andriba. This mountain has a very peculiar shape ; as approached from the south it appears to have a large flat top, and in shape reminded me of nothing so much as the stump of an immense tree left in the earth. It is the N. \V. boundary of the vale of Andriba, a valley that appeared about 8 miles broad by 9 long. Like most valleys in these parts, it con sists of a series of undulations that might well pass for hills in a more level country. The whole is well watered by numerous streams, and far more thickly populated than the surrounding country. It contains upwards of 20 villages and hamlets. Some of these however are very small, consisting of five or six houses only; the larger portion on an ave rage number about 20, but in Man gasoavana, by far the largest of them all, there are upwards of 70 houses. I ought to say were, for at the time of our visit nothing was to be seen but a thick cactus hedge and a few charred sticks, the place having been entirely burned down a week or two previously. There are six churches in this valley, viz., Man gasoavana, Maroharona, Tsiafaka riva, Manakona, Ambohitrakanga, and Fanjavarivo. Mangasoavana is regarded as the reni-fiangonana (mother church), and appears to be the centre of the spiritual life and in telligeuce of the district. Unhappily, in consequence of the recent fire, together with a serious outbreak of small-pox, we could not meet with the people here. This was the more to be .. regretted as we had hoped to bring to some practical issue the suggestion thrown out by Mr. Jukes during his visit last year respecting an evangelist for the district. The remainder of these churches are in a very unsatis factory condition both as regards numbers and attainments. One of the most intelligent men at Mana kona told us that the people meet to pray in the chapel simply from the fear of being considered disloyal subjects, but that they are in the habit of meeting immediately after in the usual heathen fashion to work the silddy (divination), and pray to their ddy ( charms or idols). Here also we met with the first signs of drunkenness. Thursday, July 29th. Reached Malatsy in about an hour and a quatter. This is the last village before entering the e.fttra ( desert, or rather, uninhabited country). Here there is a governor, and a garrison of Hova soldiers, and the difference between this and the villages last named is very marked. The people seem altogether of a superior classsober, intelligent, and anxious to learn. \Ve had scarcely entered the chapel before there was a general stir in the place : and after about ten minutes the governor came, Bible in hand, with several members of his family, and a large following of young men and women dressed in clean lambas, to welcome us and obtain some help in the understanding of God's word. "You are the sowers," said the old man, "and we the fallow ground, therefore we come that you may sow the good seed in our hearts." It cannot be surprising that with such people we harl a most pleasant time. It was late at night before we separated, and then we had fairly to turn them out. It is scarcely possible to help

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18 Visit to Mofanga and tlie Nmtli-west Coast. contrasting garrison towns in Mada gascar with those at home. Here, wherever Hova troops are quartered, you may be sure of better order, greater sobriety, and superior intel ligence. You may also generally reckon on a flourishing church, with equally flourishing schools; where as in garrison towns at home, there is more drunkenness, disorder, and general immorality than in any other. Considering the size of the place, the congregations here are good, as a rule numbering about 140. There are 20 members, of these 18 are able to read, and the remaining two are learning. There is also a school with 15 scholars and two teachers. On mv return I found that an entirely ne;v chapel had been erected, superior in every respect to the former. Friday, July 30th. Started on our journey through the efitra. During the early part of the day we were agreeably surprised to find it a much more pleasant place than we had anicipated. The scenery greatly resembles the scenery of Imerina, excepting that every hollow abounds in tropical trees-Rofia, Adabo, Akaboka, Tree-ferns, etc. etc. what still more surprised us was the absence of troublesome insects, of which we had been told so much. However, they atoned for apparently neglecting us on first entering this region by their ferocious attacks later in the day. On stopping for the night, just before sunset, we were literally in a cloud of mosqui toes, eyes, nose, ears, bands, were bitten, rebitten, and bitten again by these pests, until nothing but the most violent exertion in flapping ourselves with branches of trees gave us the slightest relief. Happily for us some cattle had lately passed, and plenty of cowdung was left on the ground. By setting fire to some of this, and standing in the smoke, we gained relief; and by pitching our tent to windward were able to get some sort of sleep, but it could scarcely be called balmy. On starting the following morning, the mosquitoes, who had paid us most unremitting attention from the time of our arrival, were so troublesome that the men had to carry burning pastiles of oxdung, so that we were again regaled with fumes suggestive only by contrast of Ara by the blest. But any thing was infinitely preferable to the stinging of the hateful creatures. What they were made for was a question that forced itself upon us with painful reiteration. If for the purpose of perfecting the patience of long suffering missionaries, I am afraid they utterly failed to fulfil the object of their creation in my spiritual experience. My hands were swollen like the hands of a leper, my nose blotched and blistered, and my ears tingled in exquisite agony after having assumed the shape and consistency of a pair of discarded galoshes. On the way one of the men brought us an immense chameleon. It mea sured 18 in. in length. Sometimes these creatures look really handsome in their coat of many colours, but this was without exception the most diabolical object it was ever my lot to see. Its colours were the colours of dirt and darkness mingled, and its eyes so malicious that 1 required no second warning to keep my fingers away from its mouth. Seizing the opportunity while the men were cooking rice, I went to a beautiful piece of running water for a wash, intending to be very careful, as I knew there were croco diles in the water, centipedes in the

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Visit to Mojangct and the North-west Coast. 19 wood, and scorpions under the stones. And I here found that such a simple operation as washing may become really exciting, if under such circum stances you use soap plentifully about the eyes, and allow your imagination full play. A rotten log in the stream becomes a crocodile, and incautiously knocking against it, you almost feel its teeth ; while a few gnats biting well in concert make you feel tolerably certain that you have been stung by a gigantic scorpion, and that by nightfall you will be nothing more than a swollen and discoloured corpse. Saturday, July 3lst. vVe came in sight of the Ikopa at Iuosifito, and travelled for some distance along its banks. It is here a splendid stream, but broken by many islands, and dotted by innumerable rocks. These break up the water into hundreds of beautiful eddies and rapids, that may probably delight future Malagasy artists, but must for ever prevent navigation. We had hoped to cross the e.fitra in two days, but were not able. It was therefore Sunday morning before we reached Mevatanana. On arriving about 10 o'clock, we found the people assembled in the chapel, and Raini soa of Vonizongo just concluding the service. The chapel is a large new building. The sides are made of upright split rails, and are placed so far apart as to suggest the idea of being in a remarkably clean cattle pen, or gigantic bird cage. The roof however is well made, and there is a capital verandah running quite round, so that it is not only well ventilated, but extremely cool : indeed so cool, that on our arrival, although it had been thronged with people for upwards of two hours, it was quite refreshing to entE'!'. We heaped blessings on the heads of the architects and builders, for we had been fairly broiled on the way. But there is a drawback about this place that very shortly forced itself upon our attention, namely, a most offensive odour. The people assured us it was occasioned by the new wood used in the construction of the place : but on applying my nose to various posts and door frames, to the great amusement of the wondering deacons, I formed my own conclusions, and went sniffing round outside, feeling certain that I should discover the source of the annoyance there. But I was utterly at fault. There was not even the faintest suspicion of the ordinary odours pertaining toMalagasyvillage life. I suppose therefore that the deacons were right, but if so I hope I may never smell a chip of that wood again. This is the only place we visited in which a collection is made every week for church purposes. On the morning of our visit the amount collected amounted to three shil lings. It was collected in miniature tin pots, and these were placed on the table during the service. The chapel holds about 200people, and was crowded at the time of our v1s1t. There are however but 24 members, only eight of whotn are able to read. The pastor is a very unsuitable man, apparently wanting in eyery thing which specially recom mends a man for such an office. He is assisted by four preachers of about equal attainments with himself. There is said to be a school of 43 scholars, but it was hard to find any traces of teacher or scholars. Drunkenness is very common in the town, with all its concomitant evils: brawling, fighting, and general uproar. vVe remained here during the Monday and part of the Tuesday

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20 Visit to Mojanga and the North-west Coast. following the day of our arrival, instructing the people, gathering information respecting our route, hiring ldkana (canoes), and making preparations for our journey down the river, this being the point where the river becomes navigable for small craft. We hired two large lakana for $ 9!, the owner agreeing to wait any time we pleased, at any and every place we chose to visit on the way. And I must say that although we had reason to form a very slight opinion of his moral character in some matters, he most faithfully fulfilled his contract with us in this. Understanding that there was a church at Arnparlhibe, about five hours N. E. of Mevatanana, we agreed to separate : Baron to go down in the lakana with the tent and baggage, and I to go by land to Amparihibe and join him two days after at Ambinana. The road from Mevatanana to Amparihibe is very uninteresting, the country hum mocky, and abounding in long rank grass. There are also bdrardtra swamps near the river. This bara ratra is something between rank prickly grass and fine bamboo. It grows to a height of eight or nine feet, with a feathery plume at the top, looking graceful enough in the distance, but having blades that pierce the skin like a knife. The swamps are just passable at this season, if blessed with patience and a thick skin, but I suppose utterly impassable during the heavy rains. In one of these swamps we came upon an animal which was quite new to me. It is called Sitry, and closely resembles a young crocodile, indeed some of the people declared that it was one, but it differs very much from the crocodile in the shape of its head, and also in its habits, for it runs and climbs trees like a squirrel when pursued, and apparently lives in their hollow trunks. The one we saw on this occasion was about 15 inches in length, but we afterwards found larger specimens. A few minutes after seeing this creature we came in sight of the Betsiboka, a very wide but shallow river at this season, except in mid stream. Amparihibe stands on a hill jutting out from the opposite shore ; as there is no regular ferry unfortunate travellers have to wade out across the shallows as far as they dare, and shout to the villagers on the opposite side, until some one happens to hear. After which there is nothing to be done but to make your way to the nearest sand-bank that gives good footing, and wait with all the patience you can muster. Of one thing you may be certain : that however extensive your stock, it will all be required. My men seemed to know the customs of the place ; for they first had a good wash, or as good an one as they could in three inches of water; for the horri ble crocodiles would not let them go deeper on peril of their limbs and lives. After this they proceeded to wash their clothes in a very leisurely way, sticking a couple of spears in the sand to support their clothes' line. All this was done, and the clothes well dried, before there was any appearance of the boat. At last it hove in sight about a mile up the stream. After waiting so long we were all anxious to get across, therefore as soon as the canoe reached us, we jumped in without delay, filling it nicely. The boatman pushed off, and we were just getting into deep water, when to our conster nation we found the boat was filling rapidly,-the water rushing in

PAGE 25

Visit to Mojanga ancl the North-west Ooast. 21 through a hole in the stern about the size of a soup-plate, which in our hurry we had not noticed. Of course there was some little commo tion among us, and by the timely help of the boatman, who lost his wits, his pole, and his balance alto gether, we upset the lakana, and turned everybody and everything into the water. Happily the water was only tip to our loins, but that was far too deep for safety in these parts ; and we all seemed to know it, for everyone began shouting, scream ing, splashing and kicking in the most alarming fashion ; and thus scaring the crocodiles we scrambled again on to the sand-bank from which we had so lately started. We all looked somewhat the worse for the wetting, but the dripping Vazalta (foreigner) seemed to afford great amusement. I am not sure that even he looked so ridiculous as he felt, for on the opposite bank all the rank and beauty of the town had assembled to ,;elcome and to do him honour, and thus of course witnessed the whole proceeding. However, the boat was soon righted, and another man sent to ferry us across. All seemed quite ready to forget the mishap ; but after a very kind reception by the governor and his family, my feelings compelled me to hint at the fact that I was very wet, and should be glad to retire to change my clothes. Here I was confronted by a new difficulty, for there was not a dry article belonging to me except one sheet. Scarcely was I wrapped in this before in trooped a deputation of ladies; and quick as ladies usually are in taking a hint, I actually used up all my best blushes before they gained e,en a dim notion of' my discomfort, and all my very strongest Malagasy before they consented to leaye. The evening was spent in chatting with the governor and the pastor of the church, both extremely ignorant men, whom I was sorry to find occupying such positions. The chapel is large enough to hold about 300, but it is very slightly built. On Sunday mornings it is well filled, but in the afternoon very thinly attended. There are two preachers besides the pastor, and 42 members, of whom only 10 are able to read. The school meets but twice a week, and then the attendance is very small. In answer to enquiries I found there was but one Bible in the place, and that is the property of the church. On making a present of one to the governor for the use of his family, he seemed vastly delighted, although himself unable to read one word. Notwithstanding the ignorance of the people here they were extremely kind; the little governor not know ing how to do enough for me. Rice, fowls, and pork were sent in such abundance that I knew not what to do with them. A general order was given to my servant by the governor to fetch anything and everything I might want from his house ; he himself sending whatever he thought likely to add to my comfort. And as the time for leaving drew near, a great drum was beaten in the centre of the town. (This, as I afterwards learned, was the signal for the ladies to dress,) And on coming out shortly after I was fairly confused to see the prepa rations that had been made to do me honour. There was a guard of sol diers, followed by a military band consisting of two violins, a big drum, and a little drum with a small boy to beat it. There was the governor, -car rying a silver-mounted gun, his wife with her head fairly covered with

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22 Visit to MoJanga and tlie North-west Ooast. golden ornaments, his children and servants in gala dress, and a whole batallion of ladies following in purple and scarlet and fine twined linen. On reaching the sand about half a mile from the town, the procession halted, compliments were exchanged, and with the governor's blessing, and two soldiers to shew me the way, I went off to meet Baron, near Ambinana, at the junction of the Ikopa and the Betsiboka. The way was the most unpleasant I have yet travelled, being almost entirely through swamps of barara tra, the spear-like blades of which so plagued the men in carrying that I was obliged to walk nearly all the way, and therefore arrived at Ambinana quite tired out, but blessing myself that the troubles of the day were ended. But, alas compara tively, they were only beginning. The march in the burning sun was as nothing, the pricking of the bararatra a thing not to be mentioned, in comparison with the misery occasioned by the swarms of mosquitoes that beset us here. I thought I had been sufficiently tormented by these pests before, but the past was render ed utterly unworthy of mention by the experience of that night. I had done my best to prepare, in conse quence of preliminary warnings, by wrapping myself in a thick rug, and putting my head in a rush basket well covered with folds of netting. It was a beautiful contrivance, and I fairly chuckled to myself as I lay down ; believing that no moka could by any ingenuity get at me. But they did. At first I would not believe it; and thought the first sharp little sting was the effect of a vivid imaginatiou: for I could hear thousands of them outside. Soon it was of no use; I could not give myself credit for such a very vigorous imagination as became absolutely necessary to impose on my feelings. The misery increased. I twisted, and rolled, and cuffed, and slapped, and smacked myself, until the perspira tion poured down my face. It became utterly unbearable. I dashed away my head-gear, leaped to my feet, and spent the remainder of that horrible night enveloped in a dense smoke that half choked and quite blinded me. The following morning was suffi ciently beautiful, and iis experiences sufficiently novel, to make us entirely forget the miseries of the night. It was our first day on the river; and after the jolting of the filai!J"dna, the swift and easy motion of the lakana was very enjoyable. Our pleasure would however have been greatly increased if we could have been quite sure the lakana would not turn over; as it ,vas, our convictions partook of quite an opposite charac ter, for being round at the bottom they heeled over with the slightest m9vement. Once fairly packed we could not change our seats; and for a few hours dared scarcely turn our heads, or blow our noses. A good boat, punt, or even a decent raft, in which we could have comfor tably floated down the river, would have rendeied our e1~joyment perfect. Nevertheless, as it was, it was a great treat, and an experience never to be forgotten. True, in places, and for long distances, the banks were bare ; but in other parts, the high hills in the distance, and the great forest trees with gnarled roots by the shore, twisting and knotting themselves about the broken rocks, ,vere extremely grand. while the intense stillness, and absence of all trace or sign of man, together with the tameness of the birds and other living Cl'eatmes in the woods, made

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Jli'sit to MoJanga and the North-west Coast. 23 one feel almost a cotemporary of our first parents in the new-made world. Passing a bend in the river, the scene would altogether change. The water spreading out into a broad expanse like some large lagoon, would be dotted with islands bearing the earliest forms of vegetation; or broken by numerous sand-banks, where the great slimy crocodiles by scores lay sunning themselves with mouths wide open, or slowly swam in the muddy stream. Imagination quickly filled in the Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, and other needful de tails, and there we were in the far distant geologic periods, beholding the world yet in process of formation. Suddenly, close to my side, there is a most deafening bang; .up fly thousands of birds wheeling and scream ing in mid-air; up jumps every crocodile within sight, snapping its jaws, and plunges madly in the water ; the river seems to boil with the commotion. It was only Baron's gun ; but it has dispelled all those dreams by fancy bred, and brought us back to the nineteenth century with a cruel jerk. Thursday, August 5th. To day, for the first time, we had to depend on our skill as sportsmen for a dinner; and I think neither of us will soon forget either the dinner or the dining room. For dinner we had caught four black parrots and a turtle. For a dining room we chose a grove of immense akdndro (bananas) : tall trees that went tower ing up far above ; their broad green leaves falling gracefully over at the top and forming long colonnades of gothic arches; the dead leaves droop ing at the sides and the ashy grey trunks forming a beautiful contrast to the bright green above. A large akondro groye in the Sakala:va coun try must be seen to be believed in. This seemed a place worthy of the occasion; for we were anticipating with great gusto a dish of real turtle soup, a dish that neither of us had tasted in our lives. The cook seemed to feel that there was something important connected with that turtle, and took great pains to follow our directions. After a decent interval we were told that it was ready. \Ve needed no second call, but immediately took our seats. First came the inevitable vary (rice); then followed the black parrots, looking blacker without their feathers than they had ever looked with them ; after this, four small pieces of perfectly dry flesh. Poor Baron gave a great cry of horror. It was indeed our turtle. 'Ne had forgotten to tell the man to save the soup; and thinking it common pot-liquor, he had thrown it all away, reserving the dry meat only as our dainty dish. Poor Baron! Black parrots were nothing to hiin after that dreadful blow. True he only exploded in English, but the cook went away so crestfallen that I liad to follow and comfort him. Some of the men also had a rare feast on this occasion, the dish consisting of an immense brown bat, which I had shot the evening before. It was truly an immense fellow, measuring upwards of four feet across the wings. Great nmnbers of these creatures are to be seen about this place at sunset; and what seemed to me most curious was that they were always flying in a direct line from the setting sun. They are so large, and fly so straight and steadily, that in the doubtful light I supposed them to be benightecl crows, for they ha ye precisely the same deliberate motion of the wings. Chatting with an old Sakulava while the men were packing np, we happened to ask him his name ; whereupon he politely requested us

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24 Visit to MoJanga and tlie No1tli-west Coast. to ask one of his servants standing by. On expressing our astonishment that he should have forgotten this, he told us that it wasfady (tabooed) for one of his tribe to pronounce his own name. We found this was perfectly true in that district, but it is not the case with the Sakalava a few days further down the river. The next day, Friday August 6th, we reached Ankarabato. vVhen nearly close to our landing place, I had the good fortune to shoot a crocodile dead on the spot. As I had always understood this was impossible (and experience was fast leading me to believe it), it may interest some to know that the ball entered just behind the eye, and took a downward direction, lodging in the lower jaw on the opposite side of the head. The one shot was small in comparison with the majority of those we saw, measuring only 8ft. 9in. ,vhen opened there were several handfuls of pebbles in its stomach, about the size of spanish nuts, but nothing more nourishing. vVe also took out of it 18 eggs. On examining the head we found there was a double set of eye-lids, one transparent, the other quite opaque. Most of the teeth close like the teeth of a shark, the upper ones fitting into the spaces between the lower, and vice-versa; but in the crocodile there are also holes both in the upper and lower jaw to admit the points of the teeth, like a sheath. The two long teeth immediately in front of the lower jaw pass right through the bone, and come out on the upper side of the upper jaw when the mouth is closed. There were also six fangs on each side of the head, three above and three below, that fit outside the jaws like the tusks of a boar. On the whole, I never saw such a dread ful snapping apparatus in my life; a shark's mouth looks innocent by comparison. The skin, while tough, was not so horny as I expected, nor were the long spines on the back so hard as I supposed ; but perhaps the specimen was of tender years. After landing and examining our prize, our next care was to send to Trabonjy and inform the governor of our arrival; requesting also that some trustworthy person, able to give information respecting the state of the church and schools, might be allowed to come to us where we had pitched our tent, as we understood it was not safe to enter the town with our men an account of the prevalence of small-pox. Nextmorn ing, however, six or eight of the chief men came bringing a letter from the governor, in which he stated there was no cause for fear, and that the people would be most glad to see us. I therefore started off at once, taking a few books and papers. The road is through a pleasant piece of country well stocked with akanga (guinea fowl), and in many parts thickly overgrown with the Tdliona. This is a kind of palmetto, bearing a hard brown nut, called by the natives Vdantsdtrona, from which the ~akalava here make tdaka (spirits). We passed through one village in which all the people seemed fully employed in making this intoxicating spirit ; we therefore took the opportunity of examining the pro cess, which was as follows :-The nuts are first bruised, then placed in earthen pots let into the ground. vVhen filled with these nuts, water is poured in until it reaches the brim ; then the pots are covered with pounded husks of the aforesaid nuts, and the whole left for eight clays ; after which the liquor is dis tilled in the usual simple native fashion. It is thea flavoured with

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Visit to Mofanga and tbe Nortlt-west Coast 25 the bark of various trees to suit the taste, and considered fit for use. The latter part of the process is not at all needful to meet the taste of the manufacturers : they and their families helping themselves from the open pan into which the spirit runs from the still whenever so disposed. Even the little children, picking up a pot-sherd, dipped and drank at their pleasure. It is pitiable enough to see the blear-eyed parents idling about these villages, or to hear them shouting in their drunken merriment; but still more so to see the little naked children staggering in their play. I am bound however to say that I never saw the least sign of drunkenness among the Hova soldiers or their families. They live quite apart from the Saka lava, and are strictly forbidden by law to touch the toaka, or allow any of it to be brought within the stockade which always separates their part of any town from the Sakalava and Mozambique. I believe the law is obeyed to the letter, and only wish some such law could be made binding on the Sal~alava also. The present system of things in many of their towns and villages cannot from its very nature have been in operation long, or the country would have become depopulated. And if what I saw in some of' the villages in the north fairly represents the state of tribes in the W0St and south, there will soon be no need of Hova gani sons to keep the peace, for there will be no enemy to break it. "Tompokolahy 6 won,t you buy a little?" said a half drunken fellow to me as I passed where he and his family were all busily distilling. I was hot upon the subject then, for the evil was under my very eyes, and fairly roared out No! They all started, and as head and heart were full, I tried to shew them what toaka was doing for them, their families, and country. They soon forgot it all, no doubt, for they were scarcely any of them sober ; but I shall not soon forget what one of them told me there. He said : "It was you Vazaha who taught us ; we never knew how to make it until you came. You have been our teachers." God grant they may learn other lessons the Vazaha are endeavouring to teach equally as well. Preceded by the guides sent by the governor we reached our des tination in about an hour and a half. Not the Trabonjy visited by Dr. Mullens and Mr. Pillans last year, for that was completely burnt clown a week or two after they left, but a new town built on an eminence, called Mahatombo, a little distance from the former site. The upper, or Hova portion of the town, contains about 60 houses, besides the chapel ; the lower about 100, but many of these so-called houses are but wretched huts. In this lower town we no ticed a few Arabs and many Mozam biques. The new chapel is a nice clean building, having walls covered with rofia cloth, and a large calico awning over the desk. It is capable of holding 400 with comfort; but the governor told me that 470 is the usual congregation. Of these, 230 arc members of the church, a very large proportion, and one that may well awaken suspicion as to the conditions of membership, and the state of church discipline. But so far as we could learn, they are far more careful in these matters than the majority of the churches in lrnerina. There are three preachers, thirteen deacons, and a school contain ing 53 children, taught by three teachers, who receive $ 2 per month from the church funds. There are

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26 Visit to MoJanga and tlie Noi-tli-west (Joast. al~o classes for adults on Mondays and Thursdays. We were most thankful to find the whole tone of Christian life and feeling here far above any thing we had thus far met with ; we were thoroughly at home with Christian brethren. Rainisoamanana, who appears to be at the root of all the good here, is both governor and pastor. He is a tall and hearty man, open-handed and open-hearted also. There is a singular charm about him, together with an elevation of character and conver sation that -won our regard and affection at once. He is a kindred spirit with Razaka and Rainitrimo, but not being quite so aged has more fire and energy. By his thoroughly honest and consistent character he has won the confidence of the Sakala va, east and west; and those who will trust no other Hova official appear to trust him with perfect confidence. In Trabonjy he is the patriarch, honoured and loved by aH. We were also greatly pleased to meet here, and afterwards at Amberobe, Ratsisalovanina, a mes senger from the church at M6janga; and we learned that the churches at l\fojanga, Marovoay and Trabonjy have united to send preachers and messengers throughout the whole of the surrounding country to visit and instruct the churches. To arrange the business a six-monthly meeting is held at these three places in turn. On Monday August 9th, we started for the purpose of visiting some very large to,vns a few days inland to the west, in which we understood there were Christian churches that had never yet been visited by any European. We were directed to land at Madiravalo, about half a day's journey down the river from Trabonjy. Arriving, we required ex tra men to carry us and our belongings, but found the people so evi dently bent on improving the opportunity of enriching themselves at our expense, that we were compelled to take to the boats again. Learning from a couple of Arabs that there was a large village a short distance beyond the next bend in the river, where men could be hired, we start .eel in hopes of reaching the place before sunset. But the notion these people had of a short distance differed considerably from ours. vVe went on mile after mile, examining the banks with the greatest care, but there were no signs of house, hut, or human being. At last, about half an hour after sunset, we turned into a small tributary stream, full of sand-banks. After ascending this for some hours we turned into a kind of open drain; and about two miles up this drain we found a landing-place, but no signs of any town or villag~ could we see in the uncertain moonlight. Firing our guns, the sudden shouting of people, and the frantic barking of innumerable dogs, assured us in the boats that all was right, while it awakened the most lively fears in every one else that all was wrong; and that some invisible enemy was making a night attack upon them. Happily we found that a white face is a very good substitute for letters of introduction; and pitching our tent in the middle of the village, we all quickly and easily drifted into the land of Nod. In the morning we found that we had landed at a place called Antafia karano, a small dirty Sakala-va village, in which the sole occupation of the peopele seemed to be the distilling and drinking of toaka. The same may be said of all the adjacent villages without fear, of any action for defa mation of character. The country on this side of the river is rough and well

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Visit to Mqjanga and the North-west Ooast. 27 wooded, but not very populous, ex cepting in the vicinity of the towns we went specially to visit. The first of these, Beseva, is three hours west of Antafiakarano. It contains about 130 houses, for the most part large and well built ; the streets are wide and tolerably regulal'. On visiting the chapel we found it in rather a dilapidated condition, but were told they were about building a new one. On returning from Ambohibe we spent a Sunday here, and found a congregation of about 100, which just comfortably filled the place. There are only 13 members in fellowship, but 26 adults in the congregation arc able to read, and 21 have either a Bible or Testament. The governor ,vas very busy in church matters during our stay, but the impression left upon our minds in this place was very unfa vourable. Au air of unreality per vaded the whole ; and the more carefully inquiries were made, the more convinced we became that the fear of being considered disloyal subjects of the queen is the only motive which at present has any great influence with them in attend ing the church or sustaining its ordinances. Amberobe is one day and a half west of Beseva. It is a much larger place than we expected to see, containing upwards of 300 houses, and is altogether better built than either Mevatanana or Trabonjy. On arriving, its regular streets and orderly appearance struck us as quite novel in Madagascar. Going out early on the following morning, I was astonished to find a regular army of scavengers scraping the roadways. Holes had been dug at convenient distances along the centre of the roadway, and a number of men with spears stuck into short logs fol' scrapers, were collecting all offensive matters into these holes, and then scattering over the surface the earth thrown out to make them. Thus I learned that under certain circumstances it may not be the height of folly to dispose of dirt Irish fashion, viz : by digging a hole to put it in. It is to be hoped that neither horses nor wheeled carriages will be introduced here for some time to come, as accidents may probably happen from the practise of digging fresh holes every morning, and filling them with dust and refuse. We found many Mo zambique slaves, and a tolerable number of Arab and Karana traders in the neighbourhood. The chief occupation of the people appears to be the rearing of cattle, large numbers of which they send into Imerina through Vonizongo. There is also a considerable trade in india-rubber and hides ; these are sent to Mojanga for exportation. Toaka is distilled in abundance j nst outside the palisades. ,v e found a chapel capable of holding 500 or 600 people, and were told that it is filled every Suuday. Like the building at Beseva it is in a sad condition, but wood had been collected to build another. The people are lamentably ignorant, and the pastor, preache:s, and deacons themselves have scarcely any intelligent idea of their duties, or even of the leading facts and doctrines on which 8hristianitv itself is founded. In illustration of "the above I may refer to a rather curious case of church discipline which took place while we were there. Having requested the church members to meet us after the school examination we conducted, one man m:ide his appearance, so evidently the worse for liquor that even the Bible cariied

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28 JTisit to Mofanga ancl the Nort!i-west Coast. very carefully under his arm did not avail to keep up a becoming church-going appearance. On directing the attention of several of the leading men to this individual, and enquiring whether he was not marno (drunk), they at once said Yes; and moreover added that he was often in that condition. We then asked who he was; and were told that he was a member of the church, and had been chosen as one of their regular preachers. On enquiring if they thought such conduct becoming in a man occupying such a position they were at a loss for an answer. At last one of them appeared struck by an idea, and brightening up said: "No, he is diso fanjakana'' (he is wrong as regards the kingdom, i. e. he is breaking the laws). After a time we led them to see pretty clearly that he was not only 'diso fanjakana,' but 'diso fivavaliana' also, and a person altogether unworthy to be either a preacher or member of the church. We then called a special church meeting; and after instructing them respecting their duty in all such cases, the man was expelled. "\Ve then requested the pastor and deacons to go to the man, and tell him what had been done ; and also urged them to do all in their power to shew him the evil of his conduct, that they might if possible bring him to repentance and newness of life. We then thought the matter concluded, but about half an hour after, the deputation sent to wait on the offending member returned and told us the business was finished; that they had comeyed our message and done our bidding. "And done it well," said one perspiring mem ber. "Yes," said another, "we have, thoroughly, with a stick." "What?" we both cried, "what have you done with a stick ?" "Why you told us to do our best to bring him to repen tance, and so we thrashed him." Sure enough on making inquiry we found that they had thrown him on the ground, and publicly given him a most hearty thrashing for disgracing them all before the Va zaha. And so effectual were the means used, that while we were yet speaking the culprit himself came in, much sobered, and bearing a slate in his hand, written from top to bottom with the most abject confession of his sin and expressions of bitter repentance. All then united in asking whether after such an exhibition of sorrow he should not be immediately restored to his former position as member and preacher in the church. And it was with great difficulty we could get even the best of them to see that no such thing should be done until a renewed life proved the reality of his repentance. Returning to Beseva we found the place in an uproar. The Sakalava were out playing at tdtolidndry, a sort of boxing match open to any and every one who chooses to step into the ring. For a ring is formed and ring keepers appointed, with sticks to keep order, the said sticks being used with very considerable effect. There was an immense crowd, a great dust, a big drum beaten without intermission, and a most horrible mixture of cheering, hooting, and groaning as the chances of the fight varied. On moonlight nights this is the favourite pastime, and as toaka is plentiful, it may easily be guessed to what scenes it gives rise. In the woods between Amberobe and BeseYa we met with the Voa vdtaka, a fruit quite new to me, but I believe common in other parts

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JT,tsit to Mofanga and tlie No1'tli-10est Coast. 29 near the coast. It is perfectly round; bas a hard shell of a go1den yellow colour, and is rather larger in size than a cricket ball. Inside is a soft mass of a mud colour, but sweet and pleasant to the taste. Of these we all made a hearty feast ; and as they are rather more diffi cult to eat in a dainty and cleanly fashion than ripe mangos, we smear ed ourselves pretty considerably in the process. We also met with large numbers of black parrots, wild guinea fowl, and butterflies of a very large and rare species. Embarking once more in our canoes on Monday, August 16th, we drifted down the stream for a couple of hours, and then turned up another branch of the river on the west side; and in about half an hour found ourselves abreast of Mahabo, the last town we visited on the west bank. The town is built on a wooded hill about one hour's walk from the river. On arriving we found the whole garrison, consisting of five men and a boy, drawn out to grace our reception. The governor shortly appeared in great style, wearing a pair of bright scarlet trowsers, and a long-tailed blue coat. Before taking the least notice of us, he put his little army through a series of evolutions, not at all fitted to strike terror into our hearts, whatever may have been the inten tion. Compated with Beseva the town is small, containing not more than 60 houses. Being very isolated we were not surprised to find the people very backward. We found a church, but no Bible in the place. It is also doubtful whether there is a pastor. When I enquired, the schoolmaster turned to the governor and whispered: "You are the pastor, you know;" but this the governor flatly and very energetically denied. Whereupon some two or three old men signified their assent, and pointing to the schoolmaster, said: "You are the pastor," but this he would not admit ; and we left them all very much in doubt as to whether they really have a pastor or not ; and if so, who he is. According to their own account they have three teachers, and 18 scholars in the school, but I very much doubt this. There are however two preachers and four or five deacons, and five of the adults are able to read with a little difficuHy. The chapel is an extraordinary building; but the builder's ingenuity has been appa rently taxed to the utmost in devising a pulpit into which nothing less agile than a wild cat can enter without performing a series of perfectly original gymnastic exerci ses, extremely trying to the preacher, while extremely amusing to the congregation. "\Ve were treated with great kindness by these poor folks : beef, milk ancl honey being supplied in abundance ; and on the morning of our departure the gover nor, together with the whole of the congregation, in clean and many coloured garments, came down to the river-bank to bid us farewell and beg of us to send them help. Think ing of their ignorance and helpless ness, it was touching to hear the sad wild melody they sang as they came marching from under the trees into the open space by our tent. It seemed to me like the wailing of the "Miserere ;" a great lump rose in my throat, as the music died away, and an involuntary cry escaped: "God help them;" a cry in which, l trust, you too will join, kind reader, and with the cry, consider what may be done for their salvation. The great difficulty in this part will be the extreme un-

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30 Visit to MoJanga and tlie Nortli-n-est Coast. healthiness of the climate. From all I could leam the place is neyer free from fever, and in the rainy season it is impossible for any stranger to remain. As it is Yery dangerous to perform the rest of the journey in a lakctna on account of the chopping waves near the mouth of the river, and the rough weather sometimes experien ced in the bay, we were compelled to go on to Marovoay, in order to obtain one of the dhows trading between that place and Mojanga. In order to reach this place we had to cross the main stream, and go for several miles up another tributary running east. But hearing that small-pox was fearfully bad in the town, we encamped about a mile and a half to the west, on the opposite side of the water. On the way we caught a live crocodile among the rushes on the bank. Of course it was very young, and not more than two feet long; but although young it made matters much more lively than pleasant in the lakana. It was such a veritable little savage, that to keep it out of mischief we were reduced to the necessity of either drawing all its teeth, or else towing it alongside. The latter plan was adopted and afforded much amusement. lt snapped and snarled, and apparently endeavoured to bark, but its vocal powers wew not equal to this performance. But I can vouch for one thing, and that is, that these creatures sleep with their mouth wide open, and of course snore horribly. vVhen near Tra bonjy, on the way home, one big fellow who had chosen the same sand-bank for a lodging as ourselves, made such an uproar a few yards from the stern of the lakana in which I was sleeping, that I could not stand it. Being a bright moon-light night I caught up a spear, and jumped over the side with the bene volent intention of picking his teeth, or otherwise teaching him better manners. But he must have slept like the proverbial weasel, with one eye open, for when close upon him, ~ie snapped his jaws like a gin, Jumped back as though convulsed with a nightmare, and with the spear just grazing his scaly hide, tumbled into the water, splashing me from top to toe. I promised to take something better than a spear next time ; and something that would not require getting to such close quarters. Thursday, August 19th. Friend Baron was off at daylight to hire a dhow, and about 8 o'clock I saw it coming down. "\Ve were soon on board, for the tide was in our favour, and time was precious ; several of the men, together with myself, having symptoms of serious illness. "\Ve were scarcely off before we saw a small lakana containing two men coming down from Marovoay at racing pace. They brought us a paper from the governor and pastor giving the following particulars of the then present state of the church. I say the then present state of the church, because I have just heard that the small-pox has made such a a fearful diminution in the numbers. Indeed, according to report, the place is now deserted: the people having taken to the woods in order if possible to escape the infection. The numbers were as follows :-Two pastors, ten preachers, 26 deacons and l 4 deaconesses ; 285 members in communion ; a congregation of 545, and a school containing 57 scholars. We were extremely sorry that we were compelled to pass by so large and important a place; but having men already greatly weak

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Visit to MoJanga and the North-west Coast. 31 ened by fever, we felt it would have been unwise to have entered, lest we should catch and spread the infec tion : not knowing at the time how widely it had already extended. With the turn of the tide we found ourselves in difficulties, for the wind turned against us also. After the crew had made desperate but unsatisfactory attempts to tow us along from the shore, we came to anchor. On landing in what appeared a pleasant grove, to our surprise and disgust we found ourselves in a mangrove swamp. Immense trees were growing rankly in a slimy mass of decaying matter that fairly stank of miasma. These swamps, interspersed with mud-banks, extend for miles on both sides of the river. Indeed with slight exceptions, they appear to extend from Marovoay right down to where the river empties itself into the Bay of Mo janga. At the top of every tide they are covered with water, and welter and steam in the broiling sun until the top of the next tide covers them again. They thus form one of the most horrible fever beds it is possi ble to conceive. '\Vith the return of the tide we slowly dropped down the river, and after awhile found ourselves in the bay. Here the breeze freshened, and the little boat went skimming, bounding, and leap ing away towards Mojanga; which we reached at dawn on the mormng of Friday, August 20th. Unhappily I was not able fully to enjoy the moonlight ride, as I had become too unwell to sit up. However, I managed to amuse myself by watching the Arab captain, who having to steer all through the night, prepared himself in the fol lowing fashion :-First, he went forward and partook of a plentiful meal of rice ; then returning to his post, disrobed himself, and twisted nearly the whole of his rather exten sive wardrobe round his head and throat, thereby covering his nose and mouth in voluminous folds of white longcloth, until it was utterly impossible for him to shout his orders, and apparently impossible to breathe. Then, squatting on the stern-rail, like a chicken at roost, he sat speechless and almost motion less through the long night, yet carefully watching and skilfully steering the little boat, so as to take every possible advantage of the wind. Many times, on looking up, he appeared to my slightly disordered imagination like a gigantic mushroom on a very thick black stalk. Among the notes and queries for future consideration, it has struck me that it would be curious to learn why, in the name of all that is stifling, these folks, together with the Mozam biques and Malagasy, so carefully cover up their heads at night. One intelligent traveller has remarked that while all natives of tropical countries thus endeavour to stifle themselves at night, the African tribes, in addition to covering the head, usually lie flat upon th face ; and queries whether the flatness of their noses is owing to this extraor dinary custom. So soon as we grounded on the beach, the men leaped ashore. 'Now," said the captain, "all of you who have fever, make a large fire, then wash in the sea, dry yourselves by the fire, and you will uever be troubled with fever again." However favour ably the cold water cure might have been received later in the day, the men positively refused to enter the water at half-past four in the morning; therefore I cannot give an opinion on the value ot' this Arabic cure for tazo (fever).

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32 Visit to JJfojanga and tlie Nortli-icest Coast. A first glance at Mojanga rather prepossessed me in its favour. Seve rn! high castellated houses standing near the shore, gave a substantial appearance to the place, altogether in contrast with the flimsy structures to which we had become accustomed in the Sakalava country. These were the houses of the A1:ab traders. They are very strongly built, and within are extremely cool and com fortable. But the vast majority of the houses are simply built of rofia and palmetto leaycs. Two days would be sufficient to build the most elaborate, and two minutes more sufficient to destroy it utterly. The lower town is long and straggling ; the houses stretching along the beach for upwards of a mile and a half. The upper town stands on rising ground about half a mile from the shore. It is far more substantially built than the Saka lava houses below, but there is nothing architecturally beautiful about it, nor are there likely to be any ruins to int~rest futme Malagasy antiquarians. By the way, what will that coming race do, whose forefathers liaYe never dreamed of building with anything more substantial than sticks or mud from the time of the creation ? About half a mile N. w. of the upper town, on a point of land, is the fort. It is chiefly used as an observatory. The condition of the walls, and the state of the few ship guns mounted inside, suggest that the l\lalagasy arc a people dwelling like the ancient Zidonians, careless, if not secure. Between the fort and the upper town is a splendid site for a missionary's house. It is high and comparatively cool, while near enough to either town to be easily accessible, and just far enough away to escape the evil odours of both. On three sides is the sea, and all around a magnificent grove of man go trees. On enquiry, we found that it probably would be necessary to bring men from Imerina to build it, as the folks here who can be hired are not only without the necessary skill, but moreover demand excessive wages, and decline to work for more than two or three hours daily. Immediately on our arrival, a packet ofletters was brought to us. Among the rest, one from the Prime Minister enclosed in one from Mr. Briggs, urging our immediate return to Antananarivo, on account of a reported outbreak of small-pox in the district; as it was feared from its virulence it would be necessary to cut off all communication between the infected district and the central province, On enquiry we found that the way was already stopped, troops having been placed right acrtss the country. Looking at the letter.more carefully, we found that it should have been delivered to us at Mevatanana, three weeks before ; but that the bearers, instead of being five days, had been sixteen on the way, so that they did not arrive there until ten days after our departure. \Ve felt therefore that we were in no very enviable position. 'We had never dreamed of any difficulty in returning, and therefore when we reached any place where small-pox was exceptionally prevalent we simply kept clear of the infected town or village, and went on. Now we were fa1rly trapped. And to make matters worse, we found that Mo janga itself was not only infected, but that the disease was making such ravages as to spread universal alarm, and stop nearly all the business and usual employments of the people. Society was completely disorganized. The numbers sick, or in attendance

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Visit to Mojanga and tlie Nortli-west Coast. 33 on. the sick, were so great as to give quite a deserted appearance to the place. The congregation in the lower church was reduced to a mere hand ful ; in the upper one it was not much better ; and the school was disbanded as the disease was carrying off so many of the children. On account of the infectious nature of this sickness we were not able to assemble the people in any great numbers, even had we wished. The Sunday services, however, were con tinued as usual ; Mr. Baron taking the larger part of the work, as I was unable to leave the house for a fort night after our arrival on account of illness. It will thus be seen that one object -of our visit could from the nature of the case be but very im perfectly accomplished. But ~e saw quite sufficient of the place and the surrounding district to make us feel that it would be utter folly to expect any one man to do the work which the district demands. If one were placed at Mojanga, he might exercise a nominal superintendence, but cer tainly could do little more, except in Mojanga itself. The district fairly extends from Mojanga in the north to Mevatanana in the south, a distance ofbetweenfive andsix days' journey; embracing, besides the churches in these places themselves, with their surrounding districts, the large and important towns of Marovoay, Tra bonjy, and Amparihibe. From east to west it is still larger, extending a distance of between seven and eight days' journey; and embracing Anko ala, Tsarahonenaua, Tongodrahoja, Ambodiamontana, Tsarahafatra, Ma habo, Beseva, and Arnberobe, with their districts. The most of these are large garrison towns, not at all to be compared to villages in Imerina. The mere oversight of these places would be more than enough for one man, especially when we consider the trying nature of the climate, and the difficulty of travelling. But nominal oversight is not at all what they require ; they need careful and methodiealinstruction. The churches in these districts are the fruit of unassisted native zeal; Christian traders and soldiers passing through, or stationed in their midst, have dona what they ean, and they have dona well ; but something more is needed to establish and instruct them. \Va could see, and they themselves feel, the need. It was truly pitiful to hear the reiterated cry for help. \Vith one or two noble exceptions, such as Trabonjy, Mojanga, and perhaps Marovoay, the pastors are not at all fitted to instruct the people. They need pa~tors and teachers; and if they cannot be supplied from Imerina, then a missionary's first duty would be to prepare men to fill these offices. But how is it possible for one man to overtake all this work ? It is utter folly to expect it. The work is already far larger than we have been in the habit of thinking, and it is likely to increase. Moreover this district has been regarded as a favourable position for opening work among the Sakalava; and I suppose no better opening could either be found or desired. From Amberobe the Saka lava to the west are easily reached through friendly tribes, and from Mojanga those to the north; while in the east are large numbers under Hova rule, with whom no difficulty need be found. My own opinion is that two European missionaries are absolutely Reeded; and if the medical mission cannot send a qua litied man to these parts, one at least of these two should have consider able medical skill. These should be assisted by at least two native evangelists, one to be stationed at Amberobe'in the west, and one at

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\ 34 Visit to Mofan,qa and tl1e Noitli-1cest Ooast. Tongodrahoja in the east. Finding that so little could be done iu the midst of the general alarm and distress, we soon began to think of leaving. For Mr. Baron going to England, the way was clear; but for myself returning to Antana narivo, there seemed no very cheering prospect. At first I supposed it would be easy to get some coasting vessel, and go round the north of Madagascar to Tamatave, and so home; but it appeared that rounding the island at that season was not so easy as I imagined, and moreover, no vessel could be obtained. Then I hoped to succeed by going to N osibe, but was foiled there ; and on the arrival of the mail was assured by the captain that I should meet with no better success either at Mozambique, or Zanzibar ; both of which seemed to present a loop-hole of escape. At last I determined that rather than remain an indefinite time at Mojanga I would make an attempt to run the blockade. In this I was joined by several andria na, who were very glad to have a Vazaha to keep them in countenance. After a little consultation we resolved to go by water as far as possible, instead of by the usual overland return route ; thinking we should run less risk of being stopped on the river, especially if we travelled by night, as we then proposed. Accor dingly, after providing ourselves and our men with food sufficient to last a fortnight, we hired a dhow large enough to hold the whole company, amounting with the crew of five, to over 110 persons. It was a very close fit ; and once packed there was little room to shift our position, and none for the majority to lie down at night, except by lying upon one another. Crossing the bay again, we entered the river, but unfortunately, mu captain knew nothing of the mud-banks in this river, and so ran us on to one the very first night. ,vith the rise of the tide on the following clay we got off; and to prevent such an accident again we hired a Sakalava to pilot us. But he, poor fellow, used only to his small canoe, ran us on to another, right in the middle of the river, which is very wide here, and at the very top of the tide. Of course as the tide fell the boat tilted, and for two days we were thus ex posed to the broiling sun, all jammed together in a tilted boat, without a chance of escape. No lakana came in sight, no human being appeared along the banks, and none dared attempt to swim ashore, for the cro codiles were so numerous all round that any one making the attempt would have been snapped up at once. Having no shelter, in a little time the intense heat, and the miasma arising from the fetid mud, began to tell upon us. I became so bad that I could not sit without being propped up, and several others were little better. To add to our distress, on the second day small-pox broke out among us. First, one was taken, then two more. Crowded as we were we could not separate these from their fellows ; and I shall not soon forget the look of some, as they found themselves next to men in whom this fearful disease was break ing out. I am sure that in their fear and horror, when they first looked on the disfigured faces of the sick, some of them would have thrown the poor fellows overboard if J: had not been there. As it was, I got one on each side of me, and did my best to doctor and comfort them. On the third day we got the boat off; and not daring to venture further in the dhow, for fear of similar accidents, two of the anclriana went off through

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Visit to JJ:lojanga ancl tlie No1t!i-west Ooast. 35 the woods to get help at Trabonjy, which we reckoned was about three days' journey from us. Later in the day I managed to hire a passing canoe, and went up the river to hire nurses and procure necessaries for the sick. While some of us were thus absent, the captain, in his fear, put the whole company ashore, and left them. Whereupon almost all who were able ran away, leaving the sick near an unfriendly Sakalava village, at Mad\rovalo, When the nurses arrived, whom I had hired and sent off as quickly as possible, it was too late to save one man, for he, poor fellow, in his delirium had run away into the long grass towards the river; and as no trace was ever seen of him after, he is supposed by his companions to have entered the water to slake his burning thirst, and so to have been seized by the crocodiles. It may appear a very far-fetched supposition to some, but not to any who have been near the place ; for the chances are very small that a man entering the water there will escape them. On the following Sunday evening I found all the men who had run away on a sand-bank near Ankaro bato. It so happened that they were on the wrong side of the river to get home, and had no means of crossing, for swimming was out of the question. Thinking it best to keep the men as much separated as pos sible, in case the infection should still be working among us, and having these gentlemen nicely trapped, I gave them rice, matches, and soap, and thus left them for a few days to do quarantine ; I and the few men who were with me taking up our position on a sand-bank immediately opposite, so that I could have all under my eye, and see that my orders about washing, etc., were properly carried out. On the tenth day after leaving Mojanga, finding that the disease spread no further among our little party, I thought we might safely proceed,and therefore Rainisoamana na, the governor of Trabonjy, having promised to do all that was possible for those left behind, we started afresh. It was only from dire necessity that we ventured to enter Trabonjy at all on our return, as we feared the good old governor would be compelled to detain us all in accor dance with instructions from head quarters ; we were therefore as sur prised as delighted to get away, and that without difficulty. Unhappily, notwithstanding all my precautions, the horrible nend1'a broke out among us again and again on the way. Many of the men also suffered greatly from fever, and were unable to carry their loads. To relieve them I had to throw away some of my things, together with curiosities I had collected on the way. Many times I was driven to my wits' end to know what to do with the poor fellows, and myself either; for exposure to the intense heat by day, and to the heavy clews by night, when sleeping in the canoe on the river, and afterwards in the open country, together with the anxiety occasioned by these repeated outbreaks of disease among the men, brought on another violent attack of fever. But as we gradually ascended to a higher level after leaving Mevatanana, we all began to gain strength rapidly ; and without anything further worthy of note arrived at Antananarivo again, safe if not sound, on ,v ednesday, September 29th, having been absent just ten weeks and two days. H. w. GRAINGE,

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36 The Malay .Affinities of the Malagasy Language. THE MALAY AFFINITIES OF THE MALAGASY LANGUAGE. THE mutual relations of the Malay and Malagasy languages have been repeatedly noticed, but hitherto no one familiar with the Malagasy has devoted much attention to the subject. The following letters have been for some time in my possession, and I am induced to publish them here in the hope that the interesting information they contain may induce some one to enter more fully into the comparison of the two languages. A list of books in which materials for such a comparison exist is given in the appendix to my "Concise Introduction to the Study of the Malagasy Language." To the materials there noticed may be added a paper in the Conternpoiary Review for February 1873, by the Rev. S. J. Whitmee, L. M. S., entitled "The Ethnology of Polynesia." I have recently noticed the title of a book published in the seventeenth century, the title of which (Goth Arthusius, Colloquia latino malaica et madagasca rica, Francfort, 1614) indicates that from even that early period this quest.ion had attracted some attention. w. E. COUSINS. LETTER FROM REV. J. DUFFUS. On board S. S. Noina, Somewhere near Seychelles; Tuesday, Jan. 19, 1864. Dear Cousins, As I have been amusing myself for the past few days looking over a Malay Grammar and Dictionary, I thought it would interest you to know a little about Malay and its resemblances to Malagasy and differences from it, so far as I have noticed them; and so I shall proceed to mention a few things about the grammar, and then to give you a few words which are alike and nearly akin to the Malagasy words .having the same sound and signification. I am sure you would be interested as well as profited by the perusal of a Malay grammar and dictionary. ALPHABET. Twenty six letters, A, B, P, T, I, H asp., Kh gutt., etc. etc., written in Arabic characters, introduced by Mahome tan priests. Reads from right to left. Pronunciation different in different pro vinces ; e.g. banya, bamyak. No ARTICLE. NOUNS. No terminations to express either number or case. GENDER. (i) Of lminan beings: lakke, male ; paiainpoan, female ; oiang lakke, man ; orang paiainpoan, woman. (ii) Of beasts, birds, etc. : jantan, male ; betina,, female; cooda jcintan, horse; cooda bctinct, mare. (iii) Inaniinateobjccts, no gender. Nu~IBER. To express ina,n!J the noun is repeated : orang, man ; oranv oianv, men. ,vhen a numeral adjective is made use of, the substantive is, for the most part, not repeat ed : coodci, a horse ; coodct sa pooloo eco1, ten horses ; ba,too, a stone; batoo d,ua poolo batoo, twenty atones; bcitoo sedekit, a few stones,

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The Malay Affinities of the Malagasy Language. 37 CAS!l, Expressed by prepositions pre cecling the noun. ADJECTIVES follow the substantive. COMPARISON OF. Comparative by lebbe, more. Superlative by tei, most, or dein pada, sa,moa,, most of all. E.g. llfooia,, cheap. Lebbe mooia,, cheaper. Tei 111001a, cheapest. llf ooia der?'e pada sanwa, cheapest of all. PRONOUNS. PERSONAL, Per. Singular Plural 1. Ako, or Sa,ia 2. Ioo, or Loo 3. Dea Cainee, or Sa,ia, oia,ng Cainoo, or Loo orang Deoiang POSSESSIVE. 1. Kitta sindii're Camee, or Saia 1Jonea 2. Kitta ponea Camoo, or Loo ponea :i. Tuan ponea Deoiang ponea RELATIVE. Seappan, who. Jullan, whose. Nang niannee or seappan, which. Appan, what. DEMONSTRATIVE, Etoo, that. Enee, this. VERR. Different from l\Ialagasy in having no prefixes to express reflective, active, caus&tive, etc., verbs. No change of root for participles, imperatives, or abstract nouns, etc. The root undergoes no change to express either voice, mood, or tense ; these are expressed by other words prececling or following the root ; e.g, Poocool, to ben,t. ACTIVE. INDICATIVE. PASSIVE. Present Tense. Ako poocool Cainee poocoo/ Ako sooda ber poocool I o poocool Cainoo poocool Dea poocool Deoiang poocool Past. Tense. ete. Ako sooda poocool, Ako sooda jaddee and so on, n,s above. bei poocool, etc. Future Tense. Ako mao poocool, Ako addaja,ddee be1 etc. pooaool, etc. Singular. LIIPERA1'IVE, Plural. Poocool la joo Beai de.a poocool Beai lei camee 1Joocool Poocool la, camoo Beai deomng poocool PoTEN1'L\L. P1esent. Ako boo/ee poocool, etc. Past. Ako sooda boolee voocool, etc. Future. Ako niaoo boolee p6ocool, etc. PARTICIPLES. The present participle active is formed by prefixing ba to the root ; the past by bei or ta: Ba j)OOCOOl, beating. Be?' poocool, beaten, Kera, to think : Ba keia, thinking. Bei or ta kern, thought. All passive verbs-as in English--are made up of participles of the past tense : Ako sooda bei poocool, I am beaten. VERBAL NOUNS, Abstract nouns are made by aclcling awn to the verb : Mabooc, to be drunk; mabooc awn, drunkenness. J uice before a verb=inp in Malagasy :Basso, to wash ;juiee basso, a washer. Penz, pen, peni, peng also= nip. : Clwoiee, to steal ; penclwoiee, a thief. Biee, to give ; pembiee, a giver. Soomt, to write; penioo1a.t, a writer. Ebor, to comfort ; pengebo1, a comforter. The following prefixes to a few verbs clo not add anything to their signification, but seem to approach to the Malagasy prefix: to the active verb in man :-Laloo or melaloo, to clepart. llfasooc or memasooc, to enter. Aco or 1nenictco, to acknowledge. Anipoon or mengampoon, to forgive. ADVERBS. Jani, n,n hour, Tiop tiopjain, hourly. Aiiee, a clay, Tiop tiop airee, daily. Booloon, a month, Tiop tiop booloon, monthly. Tawon, a year, Tiop tio1J tawon, yearly. The young of any living creature are expressed by the worcl anc,k :Orang, person; Anak omng, chilcl. Cooda, horse ; A nak cooda, colt. Doo1nba, sheep; Anak doomba, lamb. Anjing, clog; Anak anjing, puppy. NUMERALS. 1 Satoo or Sa. 2 D1ia. 3 Tega. 4 Ainpat. 5 Lemc,. 6 Nam or cmna1n. 7 Toojoo.

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38 T!ie Malay .Ajfinitles of tlle Malagasy Language. 8 Delapan. 9 Samibelan. 10 Sa pooloo or pooloo. 11 Sa btas. 12 Dua blas. 13 Tcga blas. 20 Dua pooloo. 21 Dua pooloo satoo. 22 Dua pooloo dua. 23 Dua pooloo tcga, and so on up to 29. 30 Tega pooloo, and so on up to 90. 100 Ratoos. 1000 Riboo. 2000 Dua 1iboo. 10,000 Saxa or Sa laxa. 100,000 Kcetce or Sa keetce. In the numbering of things they have express words for the several kinds of things so numbered, which they always repeat after the number ; e.g. rn-ang distinguishes the human species :-Oi-ang lakkcc dua omng, two men. 01a11g anak tcya 01ang, three children. Ecin distinguishes all other living objects ; e.g. Cooda ainpat ccoi, four horses. Batoo distinguishes a natural entire solid body; e.g. Batoo ducqiooloo batoo, twenty stones. Gir1ge sa pooloo batoo, ten teeth. Booa distinguishes artificial things com posed of solid materials ; e.g. Roorna tcga poolo boa, thirty houses. BidJce distinguishes vegetables; e.g. Po. hone leina pooloo bidJcc, fifty trees. To all fruits they prefix booa. Ley dis tinguishes things that grow thin naturally ; e.g. Dawon tcya poo/oo ley, thirty leaves. I(eping distinguishes things artificially thin; e.g. Caita& dua ratoos keping, two hundred sheets of paper. DAYS OF THE WEEK. Malagasy Alahady Alatsinainy Talata Ala1obia l\Ialay Ahad or Ha1Tee Ahad. Sinneni Balasa Ro boo Alakainisu I{uinis Zoinc'1, Joo1nat Sabotsy Sctp!oo As to syntax I can say nothing, as the grammar says nothing. I shall finish this abstract by giving you a list of the words that I have found similar or nearly similar to the Malagasy, and I have gone light through the long Malay part of the diction, ary. English Malagasy Malay l\Ioon and volana boolona Month Sky lanitra langit Stone vato batoo Weight vato (mizana) batoo ,vay lalana jalan To change (mi) ova ooba.h '.!.' o increase (mi) tombo tombo To pass by (man)clalo(lalo) laloo Pineapple mananasy ananas Child anaka anak Male lahy lakkee Son anaka lahy anak lakkea Bone taolana toolang Bamboo volo boo lo Hair volo boolo Ripe masalrn masak Unripe manta mantah Cheap morn. moora Hanrl tanana tangan Writing, to soratra soorat wiite Hand.writing sora-titnana soorat tangan Charcoal arina arang Cape tanjona tanfoong Year taona ta won Cord tady (Sak. tatallee ly) Pus nan a nan ah Crocodile voay (Bets. voaya and Sak.) Dung tay tai To kill mamono (voboo no no) To clrink minona(Bets.) minnoom To dwell 1nonina moonoon Fruit voa booa Fig voara booa ara Frnitful mamoa babooa Remaincler sis a sis a Earth tany tan a Heel tomotra (tetoomit nin'ny nte.olo) lllan olona orang I, me aho, ko ako Red men a mera Vein, sinew ozatra oorat Remove (mi) finclra pinda Stumbled tafintohina tafoontoh To swear manompa sompa Skin hoditra coolit To leak mitete meleleh Leech din ta linta Lightning helatra kelat Liver aty antee, aootee Mite olitra oolat Nail hoho kuokoo

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The Malay .Affinities of tlze Malagasy Language. 39 English Tongue Toddy White Yam News, etc. !?ear Fire Flint Paper Blunt Eye Day Sun Bloed Lips Full Gnat Malagasy lela to aka fotsy ovy kabary tahotra afo vato afo taratasy llombo maso andro masoandro ra molotra feno moka Malay led a toarck pootee ooby ea bar tacoot appee batoo appee cartas tom pool mata arree mata arree dara moo loot poonoo iliamooc, mamoke, yamook Rain orana oojang Death maty mattee,maooy I dare say you will be tired enough of this by the time you have got this length, at least I am tired of writing. I might mention some other things I have noticed, but the foregoing examples may induce you to get a Malay grammar and dictionary and go through it for yourself. Yours truly, JOHN DUFFUS, REV, W. E. COUSINS, ANTANANARIVO, LETTER FR01lf REV. W. IJENING. S. S. Legislator, China Seas, Nov. 13, 1873. My dear Brethren, Being, as far as I know, the only missionary that after having become acquainted with the Malagasy language has been in a position to hear the Malay language spoken, and to enquire into its structure, I venture to think that a communication from me on the subject of the affinity of the two languages may not be uninteresting to you. Since entering the Straits of Malacca I have given my undivided attention to this subject. I have been fortunate enough to meet with both books and men who have supplied me with information, which, though of a fragmentary and imperfect nature, yet may prove adequate to stimulate some of your number whose taste lies in this direction to investigate the subject thoroughly. I am extremely sorry that the possession of a large Japanese grammar on board acts as a barrier to prevent me from indulging further in the entertaining task of comparing the Malay and Malagasy languages. I have already found myself carried away by the great interest which attaches itself to this comparison, and were I again to become connected with the Madagascar Mission, I should enjoy most thoroughly this study as a recreation in the midst of more arduous duties. I shall commence by subjoining a list of Malay words with their Malagasy equivalents, and then proceed to make remarks on the general structure of the language. I very much regret that I am not in possession of Professor Humboldt's paper on the subject, so you must pardon me if I repeat what he has already remarked. [Besides giving the numerals, days of the week, and some of the other words already given (viz. boaya (voay), tulang (taolana, pronounced by Bets., taolang), bua(voa), tnnct (tany), tnngan (tanana), ulctt (olitra), bunoh (vono), nymnok (moka), lctlu (lalo), langit (lanitra), anacha (anaka), mctta hmi'. (masoandro), tctkot (tahotra), tztaka (toaka), talmn (taona), mati (maty), bitlan (volana), Mr. Dening's list contains the following additions :-J Euulish 'l'o bathe Fly Grapes Kidneys rro hang Horn 111alc,gasy I !11alc,y ruandro mundo lalitra lalat -ioctloboka j bua anggor vmt I bua pinn gang (mi) hantona gantong. tandroka I tandok

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40 Tiu! Malay .Affinities qf the Malagasy Language. Envlish llfalauasy Jlfalav ----Hn9band lahy laid Lazy malnina malas l'!Ian lehilahy lakilaki Tommder mamono olona bnnoh orang Kite langoro (Bets.) lang Knife kiso (Bets.) kison Pillow. case saron' ondana sarong bantal To pull (mi) tarika. tareki Right hancl ankavanana tangan kanan To sharpen (man) asa asah Silly, foolish boclo bocloh To spear manomboka tombak (tomboka) Stair kintana bin tang To swallow (mi) telina tuhtn Swell ( of the alona alnnalun sea) This iny ini ,varm (ma)fana !Janas Wind ngany (Bets.) angin ,vorm kankana, olichacbink, ulat tra INSTANCES OF REDUPLICATION. Loncl, kua/.:uat 'l'o loiter, lenr1alenga l\Iaicl, dayan11dc,yang To mock, olokoluk To pitch, r;alagalc, Purse, imndipundi Shadow, bayangbiiyang Shy, 1,w,lwnalu llIALAYIZED ENGLISH VYORDS, Tobacco, Tu1nbako (Cf. Bets. tambaka) Towel, tawalc, The Malay language is written in Arabic characters; with four letters added. Publications in which the Roman character is made use of, as in China, Ja.pan, and some parts of India, so among the Malay, are becoming more and more numerous. It is from several of these that I have taken many of the words given above. Other words I took down from the lips of Malay-speaking people. The pronunciation of Malay is very similar to that of the Malagasy. Any one knowing the latter could pronounce the former after a few days' study. The Europeans in those parts claim for it the honourable title of the Italian among Eastern languages, on account of. its softne8s and beauty. There does not seem to be such a fulness and variety of expressive power as is found in Malagasy, which defect arises from the lack of those shades of meaning derived from the verb, of which our Malagasy tongue is so fruitful. Before passing on to remark on the words written above, I may here note several points of affinity with the Malagasy I have noticed in the con. struction of the Malay. 1.-It has no inflection of verbs, nouns, or adjectives. 2.-It has both exclusive and inclu sive pronouns, the same form being used in the nominative and objective case. Kitct is exclusive, and lcarmi in clusive. 3.-Reduplication is very common ; vide instances given f!:bove. 4.-The Malay prefixes to the verb, though differing slightly in form from those of the Malagasy, yet constantly bear the same meaning and are used in the same way. Their bur seems to correspond very frequently to the Malagasy man, and 'their mum to our marnpi or maha (in some cases); e. g. toinl,oh, to grow, makes burtomboh, to increase, whether transitively or intransitively I do not know ; then again, in illustration of the prefix mum: b1tsar=great; mun buscw kan=to make great, or magnify. 5.-The Malays have a participial .affix in an. The pronunciation of some of the Malay words is more in accordance with the Betsimisaraka pronunciation than the Hova. '!.'he former are in the habit of pronouncing the Hova n as ng; ~.g. lanitra is called langit; tunaua, twngan; manasci, mangasa. It has occurred to me that formerly the Beisimisaraka invariably pronounced in this way, but that constant intercourse with the Hovas has led to its

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Tlie Malay Affinities of tlie Malaga8?J Language. discontinuance in the case of some words. The words above will in many ways speak for themselves, and I expect to some of you will say more than they have to me. I think you can rely on the spelling of them, as I have been careful to test my spelling of words I beard by the books in my possession. I might have added many of more doubtful affinity with Malagasy, and yet of considerable interest in other ways, such as, e. _q., our word for whisper being mibits,:/"ci, and theirs being bnrbisek; their word for tluit being ?'.tee, ours for this, -ity; their word for day being hcwi; and ours for its end, hciriva. ; and again our mihaiihary moaning mwuj'est, or perhaps, done during the day ; their word .fcmgan corresponds in every way to our aza; e.g. Jcingnn takiit=aza inatahotl'a ; our word for thin is mcimf y, theirs m:pi:s; their word for hatchet is lcapak, and ours for to hew, rni!mpa ; theirs for mouth, 11wlut, and ours for Zips, molofra. The numerals I think are from the Arabic; the days of the week, and the names of the months (which latter I have not met with) as in Malagasy are Arnbic; it would be interesting to kno1V what changes the words have undergone in passing into the several languages. The l\falay word for God is the Arabic Allah. I have discovered that our Malagasy word .Anclriann is a Sanscrit word. Also that the Malay and Malagasy word mnty is also found in Arabic and Hindustani, in fact in all the Semitic langmiges; it is said to be akin to the Hebrew muth, to diP-; our English word chec!.uiate* is derived from this word. You may have found out this ; but never having heard it Hindnstani shuh-;nat, Ambic shah-mat: the sluth (king) is clead. in Madagascar I mention it here. I am extremely sorry that pressing duties prevent my pursuing the subject further. I feel how utterly unworthy of the topic has been my treatment of it, but I trust I have said enough to make it evident to you all that the study of Malay by Malagasy mission aries would doubtless tend to throw light on the n10aning both ancient and modern of numbers of Malagasy words, which otherwise would remain as to their special signification enigmas. Should any of you take the subject in hand, I may mention three books which have been recommended to me by Malay scholars of the Straits of Malacca :-1.-LI. Grmmnar of the J.1.alny Lang1iage, wWi cm introcluction ancl praxis. By William M,irsden, F. R. S., author of a il{alciyan Dictfonary, and of 'l'hc History of Sumatra. To be had at Singapore, if not elsewhere.* 2.-Wallace's JJfolny Arckipelago. This book is just out. It contains a comparison of the various Malay dialects, all in Roman character. 3.-Vuwbiilm'!f of the English ancl ,.l{alay Lcinguages. By the Rev.-Kisbury, Singapore, who has spent 34 years in the Straits of Malacca, 15 years as an L. M. S. missionary. The Malays, I bear, as a distinct race are dying out. That the Lord of the Harvest may still bless and favour you, and that being blessed you rua,y constantly remember in your prayers Japan and the labourers there, is the earnest desire of Yours in Christ Jesus, WALTER DENL'Wo 'l'he Rev. W. E. Cousrns; Secretary of L. M. S., Antananaiivo, Madagascar. It may be had of W. H. Allen and Co., London.

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42 The Journey bet1ceen Ant.sihanaka and the East Coast. THE JOURNEY BETWEEN ANTSIHANAKA AND THE EAST COAST OF MADAGASCAR. IN the present limited state of our acquaintance with the greater portion of this vast island, any. information as to routes through new or little-known parts of it is of value. Within the last few months a hitherto almost unknown route has been opened up : that between Ambatondrazaka, the chief town of the Sihanaka, and Fenoarivo, on the east coast. Having been kindly favoured by the Rev. J. Pearse with a few notes of the journey fi'om the coast, and by Mr. R. Aitken with a much fuller account of a journey to Feno arivo, we are able to give a description of the country, and itineraries of the routes traversed by these two gentlemen. Mr. Pearse says : "The character of the country from leaving Fenoarivo until getting through the forest resembles in its main features that from Ranomafana to Analamazaotra, on the journey from Tamatave to Antananarivo, only that it is mucli more cl1ffic11lt; the hille are higher, ascents and descents more perpendicular, tracks through the forest much more confined, and the passes sometimes so narrow that the men had to dig away earth before they could get our cases through. There are not so many travellers-trees as on the journey between Ranomafana and Analamazaotra, but forests of very graceful bamboos are numerous, especially nearer Fenoarivo. The population is very scanty, and the villages small, and after entering the forest (which requires two days quick travelling to pass through), at great distances one from the other. Night after night, the great majority of our baggage bearers had to sleep out in the open air, covered only by temporary sheds of sticks and grass, which they hastily put up for themselves; and day after day they cooked their rice by the side of some small stream over which they had to pass. It would take an ordinary traveller six days to come from Fenoarivo to Ambatondrazaka; but owing to our circumstances, and the fact that we had to wait for some of the luggage to come up on several occasions, we were twelve days on the way. The following is a list of the places at which we stayed, and besides wliich there are hardly any other places worth mentioning:

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Tlie Journey between .Antsilwnaka ancl tlie East Coast. 43 Aug. ,, ,, ,, ,, 12th. Th. 13th. Fr. 14th. Sat. 15th. Sun. 16th. Mon. 17th. Tu. 18th. Wed. 19th. Th. Fenoarivo to Ambatomipaka ... .. .... Ambatomipaka to Anosibe ... Anosibc to Mahanoro ..... ........ Stayed at Mahanoro f Mahan?ro to Ambodimanga .... .... Ambod1manga to Antsahatavy ........... j Antsah~tavy to Isalanginana ............ l Isalangmana to Tsarasambo .... ... Stayed at Tsarasambo f Tsarasambo to Antelomanambato ...... l Antclomanambato to Tendrirano ....... (Antelomanambato is the name of an open space in the forest, no houses. There are no houses from Tsarasambo to Tendrirano.) hrs. ms. 4 2 4 4 4 5 4'30 5 5 20th. Fr. Tendrirano to Ambatomanga ..... 5 21st. Sat. Ambatomanga to Ambohimanga .......... aoo 22nd. Sun. Stayed at Ambohimanga 23rd. Mon. Ambohimanga to Ambatondrazaka ... 3 Mr. Aitken, after giving particulars of the journey from Imerina to Antsihanaka, says: "Leaving Ambatondrazaka next morning at 9 o'clock, and slowly crossing the south-east corner of the great plain, which was quite dry, we arrived at Ambohimanga at 1 p.m., where funeral cel'emonies were being held, and plenty of toakct drinking. In the afternoon I had some duck shooting on the margin of the lake (Alaotra), and passed the night at Ambatomanga. The weather being fine and the moon about full there was a splendid view across the lake from the elevated stand-point of the villaO'e. Early next morning, sending off the entana first, I hired a can~e, and after an hour and a half's shooting brought away as much as a man could carry of various kinds of wild ducks and water-fowls, forming abundant provision for us for the three following days. Leaving Ambatomanga at 7 by the road leading E.N.E. over a bare undulating country, I was annoyed when shortly after a thick drizzly mist came on, preventing one from getting the fine views I had expected of the northern portion of the Alaotra and of the surrounding country. At about 11 o'clock, breakfasted at a village called Amboditsimandainga, and leaving at 1 p.m., arrived at Itendrirano at 2, where we halted for the night, as there are no other villages to be met with eastwards on the road for one long day's journey. Leaving Itendrirano at 5, we entered the forest at about 7 o'clock, but previously got our last look of the Alaotra; a very fine view of it, lighted up by the morning sun, from a hill near the margin of the forest. On entering the forest the inevitable drizzle came on, and kept on nearly all day more or less. I had not been ten minutes in the woods before numbers of the large grey and

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44 Tlze Journ,ey beticeen Antsi'lwuakct and tlie East Coast. yellow lemurs surrounded us, leaping and screaming from tree to tree: I killed one, the rest retiring howling into the recesses of the forest. During the da) I shot two black and white babacootes, and two small specimens of the grey lemur ; by lingering a little great numbers might be had, as they literally swarm in that part of the forest. The tracks through the forest are much more difficult to traverse than those through the Analamazaotra district, there having been at no time any great breadth of clearing made, only the brush wood, tanglewood and creepers have been partially cut away, so that one winds and twists about among the great forest trees in a most tortuous manner, very harassing to the bearers. The ravines are also much steeper and deeper than on the southern road, and altogether much more toilsome. "At 9 we 'outspanned' at a place ca.lled Ankerana, where was a collection of the rudest of low sheds besides a clear running stream, and breakfasted in very comfortless fashion, the drizzle still continuing. Left at 11 o'clock, and over roads worse and ,vorse; and after as fatiguing a journey as ever I had in the country, arrived at Tsarasambo at 6. Darkness having just fallen I had to send back some men with a lantern for the remainder of the entana, the last of which only arrived at about 8 o'clock, although most of the packages were very light and none heavy. Tsarasambo is a miserable Betsimisaraka village, but I was glad to be able to buy some good white rice, the rice of the Sihanaka we had found very bad having a vile taste, and a smell of rotten straw, acquired doubtless from their not thatching their stacks properly.* Left next morning at 6, and passed over tracks worse and worse, steeper and deeper, and through forest denser than ever ; arriving at a village called Itsl. langl.na at 11 a wretched but beautifully-situated place at the confluence of two mountain streams ; the tongue of land having been cleared of wood formed quite a cheerful opening in the midst of the dense forest. Leaving at 1 we had still some rough work to do, but gradually improving as we moved eastward, until at about 4 o'clock we fairly emerged from the forest, all of us thoroughly glad of it. The eastern fringe of the forest sbews some beautiful scenery; the country gets gradually opener, but always undulating; the hills and hollows here cleared, there bosky with trees, shrubs, or bamboos. After another two hours' hard marching we reached An1sahatava at 6, a noisy, dirty, rum-drinking village, situated in the valley of, and near the banks of, a considerable stream they here name 1\fahambo. I suppose it is the titream that [* The Silrnnaka clo not store their rice in pits, as is the custom in Imerina, but make it up into small stacks, like small ci,rcular hay.ricks, which are seen by hundreds, clotting over the great plain of Autsihanaka. ED.]

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The Journey bet1ceen Antsilwnal.-a and the East Coast. 45 reaches the sea near that town on the coast. I shot several specimens of a black and yellow lemur to-clay ; but there were fewer to be seen in this part of the forest than farther west. Next morning left at 5, fording the stream, here about 30 yards wide, shallow, but with a strong current; soon afterwards we crossed a very high ridge, from which we had a view of as beautiful a country as I have yet seen in Madagascar ; in its undulations resembling a good deal the district to the east of Ampasimbe, but clothed with a more varied and richer dress of wood, shrubs, wild saffron, long grasses, and the graceful bamboo predominating. Now here does one see bare mamelons and hill slopes, but all present more or less wavy masses of foliage of all shades of green. "'Ve reached Amboclimanga, a rather tidy little village at 10, leaving at 12 15 ; the clay was very hot and the temperature between the hills ultra tropical. In this part of the country there are numerous little villages of from five to twenty houses, scattered about among the hills, most prettily situated, nestling as it were in the leafy hollows. At 4, arrived at the finely situated but tumble-clown village of J\Iahanoro, and there passed the night. "Leaving next morning at 5 we traversed a fine but less interesting country than yesterday's journey ; the hills being lower and less prominent ; and here I also remark another striking difference to the road via l\Iarombv, viz., the almost entire absence of rarimpot.~y ; all the houses are" lined and roofed with bamboo. Arriving at the village of N osibe, situated in a rather flat uninter esting patch of country, I took a hurried breakfast, and set off at lll5, with the bearers at a smart pace, in order to reach Feno arivo early. After crossing the flat patch we ascended the last high ridge/ of hills which advance irregularly to within two hours' ride of the coast. The ascent is long and toilsome, but the scenery is very fine, and on reaching the summit of tho highest ridge the view obtained is truly magnificent, so grand that I will not here attempt to describe it, but merely hint that one can sec the coast-line from beyond Foule-pointe in the south, to the island of St. Marie's in the north. I doubly enjoyed the freshness of the sea breeze, and the whole scene, from feeling that I was nearing home again. The spurs of the hills that run out irreg'lilarly eastwards from that high ridge advance to very near the sea-shore, becoming lower as they approach it ; some of them may be said to run into the sea, giving the coast-line here a much bolder aspect than it has south of '.l.'amatave. "On the summit of one of these hillocks is built V ohimasina, about 1! miles S."W. of Fenoarivo, with the fort and residence of the

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46 T!te Journey between Ant8ilianaka and the East Coast. Hova commandant; but having business at Fenoarivo I had no time to spare for visiting Vohimasina, but pushing on, reached Fenoarivo at about 4 o'clock, and was kindly welcomed by Mr. Frye. Feno arivo seems a thriving busy port ; large quantities of rice, india rubber, hides, bags, etc., are yearly shipped from it. Left Fenoarivo next morning at 7 o'clock, the road to Tamatave following the shore-line for the most part, but now and then crossing the slightly elevated promontories, and fording or ferrying several streams. After two hours'ride,-although I took nearly three, having lost the track on crossing a promontory,.:_we arrived at Mahambo, also a thriving little town. Breakfasting with l\fr. Sival, a French engineer, now engaged in trading here, I left again at one o'clock, and after a rather wearisome ride through brushwood and over sandy beaches, resembling some parts of the road to Andovoranto, but wanting the beautiful glimpses of lake scenery,-arrived at Foule pointe at 5. Foule-pointe has not the prosperous appearance that Fenoarivo has, but looks as if it had seen better days; and near the custom-house the large masses of mango and other fruit trees, too closely planted, gave the place a rather dark and gloomy appearance as seen in the fall of dusk. '\Ve left next morning by moonlight at 4 o'clock, and re.ached Ifontsy at 9, having twice crossed considerable streams in very cranky canoes. Left Ifontsy at 10 o'clock, and after a very tiring ride of six hours, chiefly along the sandy beach, arrived at Tamatave at 4. "Just a few remarks on some thoughts that naturally strike one in making a journey from the interior of Madagascar to the coast, with regard to the progress of the people in knowledge and civilization:lst. One cannot help seeing that they are getting their light from the centre, and not from the coast. At the village of Ankorona, where I passed the night after leaving Ambohimanga (Imerina), I was besieged with lads wanting to be taught, especially two, who would have me, nolens volens, go over the map of Europe with them on a small school atlas map they had. I was too tired to indulge them long, but I gave them a 1.1Ialagasy Gazety, which they went off with to read in great glee; they seemed glad of anything to read. But as one recedes from Imerina this desire for knowledge gets duller, but brightening again as we approach Amba tondrazaka, where it now seems active, doubtless owing to the arrival of l\'Ir. and Mrs. Pearse; but after leaving there, and as one nears the coast, the light of learning and the spirit of enquiry for it are both alike quenched in the rum-cask ; and total ignorance of and interest in all 'tdratdsy' (books) reigns supreme. It is a darkness that may be felt. 2nd. Looking at the country in its physical aspects again, I have a strong impression that in the future of Madagascar,

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Tile Journey between Antsiltanaka and tile East Coast. 47 Imerina will completely lose its influence over the rest of the provinces, and that the countries of the Betsimisaraka and the Sakalava are sure to be the great wealth-producing districts. vVhen once the agricultural resources of these rich provinces have been unlocked by the magic hand of labour, the sceptre will surely depart from the city of the Hovas, and they themselves be the first to migrate thither, and the seat of government be transferred to some part of the coast. vVhat a dreary, barren-looking country Imerina does seem after passing through the richer belt, with its more favourable climate for vegetation and richer soils !" ITINERARY OF JOURNEY FROM AMBATONDRAZAKA TO TAMATAVE. { Ambatondrazaka to Ambohimanga ...................... Ambohimanga to Ambatomanga ....................... .. { Ambatomanga to Amboclitsimandainga ........... ,., .. Amboditsimandainga to Itendrirano.... ..... { Itendrirano to W. edge of forest, l! hours; to Ankerana .. Ankerana to Tsarasambo .............................. { Tsarasambo to Itsilangina ................... ......... Itsilangina to E. edge of forest, 2! hours ; to Antsahatava .. { Antsah~tava to Ambodimanga.. .. .. .. ............... .. Ambod1manga to Mahanoro ........................... { Mal~anoro to N os!be .................................. N os1be to Fenoanvo .......................... ... { Fenoarivo to Mahamb~ ......................... .. Mahambo to Foule-po1nte ................. ....... { Foule-pointe to Ifontsv..... ... Ifontsy to Tamatave ................................ 'HEAVENLY PRINCESSES.' hrs. ms. 4 3 3 l 4 7-30 5 4 4 4 5 4 2 4 5 6 When Malagasy orators wish to be very polite to ladies in their audience they use the high-sounding title anclriambavy lanitra; or, heavenly princesses! w. E, c.

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48 T!ie late JJfl', James Cameron : Ms L{fe and Labours. THE LATE :M:R. JAl\IES CAMERON: HIS LIFE AND LABOURS. A FUNERAL ADDRESS BY THE REV. R. TOY, OCTOBER 4th, 187ii. SOM:E"YVHERE about a year and a half ago, a fresh grave was opened in this church-yard to receive the remains of one of our number, who had arrived scarcely 18 months before, fresh from her native country, to consecrate her life to missionary service; and now to-clay another grave is open, ancl we meet again, full of sadness, to bnry one of the oldest and truest and best-tried friends of the mission in JHadagascar, and almost the last of the former missionaries in the island. The one died while looking forward with hope to a life of service in the work to which she had devoted herself; the other, after half a century of honourable work performed and ,;ervicc rendered. Ur. Cameron, whose death we mourn to-clay, was born on the 6th January, in the year 1800, and is therefore more than 75 years of age, an old man and full of years. "\Vben a young man he offered bis services to the London Missionary Society, who about five years before bad established a mission in Antananarivo, and was accepted. He was then 25 years old, aud was appointed to succeed Mr. Brooks, who had previously been sent out to irn1truct the natives in the various departments of wood-work, but had been attacked by the fever of the country, ancl had succumbed to its power. Ml'. Cameron was received at the l\Iission House with much kindness. I have heard him more than once refer with delight to his warm reception there, and to the pleasant way in which some of the members of the Board spoke to him. Before leaving England he was requested to go to Manchester, where he spent nearly a year assisting in preparing the cotton machinery for .Madagascar ; and on his arrival here in 1826, aided in setting it up at Amp,tribe, where Mr. Cummins, who had been sent out to introduce and superintend the manufacture of cotton yarn, resided. l\Ir. Cameron took up his residence here at Ambatonakanga, and was engagerl in constructing machinery and other public works, and under his employ there were engaged about 600 youths. Soon afterwards, he seems to have taken an active part in getting the printing-press into action, ~fr. Hovenclen, the printer, having died a short time after his arrival of Malagasy fever ; and I suppose Mr. Cameron must have been present when the first 23 verses of

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Tlie late JJf'I'. James Oamel'on: liis Life ancl Laboim. 49 Genesis were printed, as the original copy fell into his possession, and was carried by him to the Cape of Good Hope ; and, as he believed, deposited in Sir George Grey's :Library there. ,vithin two years after his arrival the king died, and though the queen had stated that she would continue to pursue the course begun by her prede cessor, it was soon manifest that an entire change of policy was being steadfastly pursued. Notice was given of her intention to withdraw from the Treaty with England; the English agent was insulted and dismissed; the missionaries were called together and asked whether they could not teach the people something more useful, such as soap making from materials found in the country. Evidently unless a favourable answer was forthcoming, the government was contempla ting sending them away. It was then to Mr. Cameron that the missionaries looked for help ; and taking a week for considering and studying the matter, he was able to meet the messengers of the government on the following week with two small bars of tolerably good white soap, with a promise of being able to continue its manufacture. So, for the time being, the mission was saved, and the further services rendered by Messrs. Cameron and Chick in constructing machinery and other things urgently required by the government still further prolonged the mission for four or five years. There is little doubt that the continuation of the mission from 1829 until 1835 was mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire of the government for the services of Mr. Cameron and one or two of the other artizans. Mr. Cameron, in his "Recollections," enume rates a long list of discoveries and works effected by himself and his colleagues; but he modestly refrains from telling us how great a share he himself took in all this, although there are strong grounds for believing that he was the principal discoverer and promoter of them all. In the same unobtrusive way he says: "lt has been thought that in the dispensation of an overruling Providence the artizans were the means directly or indirectly of prolonging the existence of the Mission from 1829 to 1835," and adds: "But on this we would not write too confidently." But here again he abstains from mentioning what I believe to be a fact : that about this time he had a most advantageous appointment offered him in Australia, or in one of the other English Colonies, but that after mature deliberation he decided to continue his services here in Madagascar, and that this especially was the means employed by God in keeping the mission together for the next few years. In 1835, however, when the principal works undertaken by Mr. Cameron and his coadjutors were completed, the government could no longer endure the presence of the missionaries ; and although the queen was willing to retain the services of Mr. Cameron

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50 The late Mi. James Oame,on : ltis Life and Laboiws. and one or two other artizans, they all wisely and honourably threw in their lot with the missionaries, and with them quitted the country. It must not, however, be supposed that during these years Mr. Cameron confined himself to merely secular employments. He threw himself heartily into all matters having to do with the spiritual interests of the people. He made over his own ground at Ambatonakanga to the London Missionary Society for the building of the first Malagasy chapel, and the erection of a school and other buildings. when the chapel was finished, he became a deacon, and was one of those upon whom devolved the examination of the first candidates for baptism and church-fellowship. ,Yhile instructing his large staff of natives in useful mechanical arts, he paid great attentioR to their moral and spiritual improvement, and encouraged their attendance at the newly-erected place of worship; and some of his workmen were among the first converts to Christianity in the island. He held Bible classes for instructing the people in the Word of God; he had Russell's Catechism translated and circu lated among the people; and in every possible way united with the missionaries to help them in carrying on their spiritual work. Thus, whilst labouring with his own hands, and occupied continually in secular work, he at the same time devoted himself earnestly and faithfully to such spiritual work as he felt himself competent to undertake. The time now referred to closes the first period of Mr. Cameron's active life. The second includes the time spent by him at the Cape of Good Hope, from 1835, when he left Madagascar, until his return in 1863. He had left the country where for nine years he had laboured so effectually, but he had not broken off his connection with the people. while at the Cape he received frequent letters from the officers and persecuted Christians, telling him of their sorrows and trials, and begging for books and writing materials ; and was always ready to help and encourage them in their distress, and to render help to them in various ways. In 1853 he accom panied Mr. Ellis on his first visit to the coast, and was appointed by the Chamber of Commerce in Mauritius to negociate with the government of Ranavalona I. as to the terms on which the trade, ruptured by the combined attack of the French and English on Tamatrive in 1845, should be renewed. He succeeded so well in arranging matters that the merchants of Mauritius paid $3000 more than the sum he had succeeded in persuading the .Malagasy government to accept. During these negociations he made two visits to the country, and succeeded, in conjunction with Mr. Ellis, in secretly conveying to the Christians a large number of New Testaments, Psalms, and

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The late Mi. James Oamel'on: liis Life and Labou1s. 51 tracts of various descriptions among the Christians. He then returned once more to the Cape, where he remained till the year 1863. "\Ve come now to the last period of l\fr. Cameron's life, and the second of the time spent by him in l'IIadagascar. The queen, who from the year 1835 had exerted all the powers of her government for the destruction of Christianitv, diecl in 1861. Mr. Ellis, imme diately after the news of her death reached England, left for Madagascar, and arrived at the Capital the next year, and was followed soon after by some of the present missionaries. The former, a short time after his arrival, negociatecl with the king for a grant to the L. M. S. of the sites of the present Memorial Churches, including the one at Fiadanana. The king acceded to his request, and l\fr. Cameron was invited by Mr. Ellis to undertake their superintendence and erection. He readily accepted the offer, and leaving wife and children and children's children at the Cape, he came here alone to the scene of his former labours, after an absence of 28 years ; and was warmly and heartily welcomed by his former friends and pupils. I well remember the first time I saw him. Just a month before his arrival we had commenced monthly union prayer-meetings, which have been held regularly till the present time. The first one was at Analakely, but, on account of the very large number present, the service was held in the open space where the temporary chapel now stands. On the following month we met at Ambatonakanga, and again in the open air, outside the old chapel, which has since been pulled down. M:r. Cameron had arrived that same day, and after the people were assembled, I remember his tall upright. figure, fine face, and long white hair, as he came into the yard and walked slowly through the people, shaking hands with one and another until he reached the place where Mr. Ellis and the other missionaries were seated. The first two years after his arrival were embittered somewhat through misunderstandings with the Directors at home. Since 1835 a new generation had sprung up at the Mission House, and little was known of Mr. Cameron except through the brief notices of him in Mr. Ellis's IIisto1y qf .,_1/adagascal', together with the mere fact that he had been Mr. Ellis's companion in 1853, on his failure to get permission to go to the Capital. Mr. Cameron's friends would fain have had him return to the Cape, but he persisted in staying here among the people of his adoption. He lived to see himself better known ancl thoroughly respected by the Board of Directors at home; and the old friendship between himself and .Mr. Ellis, which had for a time been overshadowed, was again renewed until the death of the latter in 1872.

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52 The late Mr. James Gamel'on : ltis Life and Labours. Since Mr. Cameron's return to Madagascar he has led a most active and useful life. He maintained a connection not only with the L. ::M:. S., but also with the Government. The latter sought his help almost immediately after his arrival. The beautiful palace at the east of Manjakamiadana (Manampisoa) was his first important work. He erected a large undershot water-wheel at Anosimaha velona, so as to supply more effectually the water at the powder mills; but his last and greatest work for the government was the erection of the noble structure that surrounds the great palace, and which is now all but completed. The government have always respected and reposed great confidence in him. They knew that they could trust him entirely; that he was their true friend ; and to the last, their friendship towards him has continued unbroken; and now to-day, by their representatives, and by the funeral they are giving him, they shew that they mourn his death as do we, his fellow workers and countrymen. Mr. Cameron always felt great esteem for the Queen and Prime Minister, and would have done any thing in his power to serve them. He could sympathise with them in their public actions. Even when he did not approYe of what they did, he saw their difficulties, and was ever ready to make allowance for them. He was able to regard them from a J\falagasy, and not merely from a European, point of view. But, whilst working for the government continually, and sympathising with them in matters in which many of us were divided in opinion, his fealty towards the L. M. S. never faltered. He was deeply attached to our Society, and has laboured hard to the end in its behalf. He assisted in the completion of the Church where we are now assembled; he built the Memorial Church at Faravohitra and the present one at Analakely ; he superin tended the erection of the Hospital, some of the mission houses, and several important village churches ; he carefully surveyed and mapped all the principal places in Imerina, with the _roads leading to them ; prepared a similar map of the places on the road to Fianarantsoa, as well as several towns in the neighbourhood of that capital ; and although his map has been superseded by one more complete in detail and general finish, yet it is not too much to say that but for Mr. Cameron's assistance, freely and generously given, the latter could never have been produced. But the journey to the Betsileo was too much for a man at his advanced age, and it would have been better had it never been undertaken. He was weary and almost worn out when he returned, and has scarcely been well long together since. It has long been evident to us all that he was breaking up, and that he cot1ld not

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Tlie late Mr. James Cameron : his L(.fe and Labours. 53 last many more years. His illness three or four months ago shook him exceedingly, and, although he recovered comparative healtb. and strength, he himself evidently felt that his end was drawing near. It is only a short.time ago that he requested me to take away the things he had at Analakely belonging to the College. About the same time he stated that he could no longer go about as before, but as he had been teaching from the Bible for many years, and had kept notes of the lessons he had given, he should like to occupy his time a good deal in re-writing them, and publishing them in a permanent form for the use of the Malagasy teachers and preachers. He thought they might be useful, and it would be something to leave behind after he was gone. To the last he has been working at these lessons; often while in bed he has been engaged upon them. His heart was set upon getting them put into print while he lived. I believe the whole or nearly the whole of those on the Four Gospels are now ready for the printer. He has not lived to see the full accomplishment of his wish, but it is to be hoped that, as a mark of our respect for the dead, his last most earnest and steadfast desire will be faithfully fulfilled. Mr. Cameron was altogether a remarkable man. I believe he was mainly, if not altogether, self-taught. And yet how extensive his knowledge as a builder his experience was great ; he belonged however more to the old school than to the new. He believed in substantiality more than beauty of outline.* He was also well acquainted with many of the physical sciences, and delighted in teaching them to such of the natives as found pleasure in listening to his instructions. He knew something of chemistry, he was well acquainted with physics, he took great and perhaps special delight in astronomy. Our annual almanack has depended hitherto solely upon him. How delighted he was to have to tell the natives beforehand of an eclipse, whether of the sun or the moon! ,v e all remenber his enthusiam in respect to the recent Transit of Venus. How he tried to explain to the Malagasy the reasons and importance of its occurences. \Vhen the morning came he sent to call me, and when I got up to Faravoliitra Church-yard, although it was only five o'clock in the morning, he was already there waiting for the sun to rise and the clouds to break. Though he failed to see the sun at the time of first contact, he watched the final passage of the planet from the edge of the sun's disk, and made calculations, which he sent to the Astronomer Royal at the Cape. [* Notwithstanding this, however, the two palaces upon which he was engaged shew a minute and accurate acquaintance with the classic siyles ; the timber palace is most picturesque in general outline and detail, and the stone work of the great palace reproduces most faithfolly and effectively th1ee of the 01ders of Roman architectiire. Eu.]

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54 T/1e. late Mi. Jam('s Camcl'on : !tis Life and Labours. But if his intellectual faculties were of a high order, so were his moral. He loved truth and hated falsehood. He believed thoroughly in the Bible as the great moral force which alone is able to make a nation great and strong. Whilst engaged in secular pursuits and studies he was, as in former years, perfectly at home in his Bible class, whether at Analakely or at other places. He taught a class almost to the very last in the Analakely Sunday school, and took great interest in the spread of the gospel throughout the country. In his theological opinions he was liberal. He held most firmly to the great fundamental truths of Ch~istianity-a full and free redemp tion through the sacrifice of our blessed Lord on the Cross. He was not given to speak much of his own religious experience; he was too reserved for that. But we do know that he was a true and fi_rm believer in the Lord Jesus Christ, and that to the last his whole trust was in Him. :Mr. Cameron died as he had lived, quietly and calmly. 1Ve were all surprised when we heard of his death. On Tuesday he had a severe attack of inflammation, but on ,Vednesday he was much better. On Saturday afternoon I visited him, expecting to find him recovered, but on going into his bed-room was grieved and shocked with the change that had taken place. He seemed thoroughly conscious, but too low and weak to notice much; he sat up in bed for a few, minutes, but it was evidently too much for him, and he asked to be laid clown again. Soon afterwards I left, to see him no more till I looked upon his corpse yesterday. 1Vhilst there on Saturday afternoon I could not help feeling that he would not long survive, but I did not think his end was so near. As the night drew on it become more and more evident that death was approach ing. After midnight he became less restless, and dozed a great deal until about 7 o'clock, when he quietly and gently breathed his last, and entered into rest. "\Ve could all of us have wished that he had lived long enough to have returned to the Cape, and have passed away surrounded by all his family; but it has been ordered otherwise, and it is well that it should have been so. He loved the Malagasy with a love very unostentatious, but very real and strong. During the many years of his absence his thoughts were with the people here, sympathising with them in their sufferings, helping them in their needs, and longing for the clouds of darkness to pass away. And when his hopes and prayers were realized and the way opened for his return, he felt that this was his place. His heart had always been here. It had been endeared to him by many close and tender associations. Here he had spent the first years of his married life ; here his children had all been born, and here some of them had died. Here

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Tlie late lJfJ'. Jmiies Came1'on : his L'[fe and Labows. 55 he had laboured, and taught, and achieved success. He belonged to Madagascar more than to the Cape, and it is well that here, among the people of his choice, the people whom he has striven so long through storm and sunshine to enlighten ancl to help, he should die, and here be buried on the spot where his first home in Mada gascar stood, where he spent the first years of his missionary life, and where some of his children lie buried. But we must, not suppose that in coming out again it was an easy thing for him to give up wife and children and all that he held dear at the Cape. To one who knew him, it was easy to see that he was a man of strong family affections, though not the man to reveal them openly to others. I remember how sad he was when intelligence first reached him of the death of his wife, who had been united to him for more than 30 years, and how this sadness was again renewed when the wedding-ring from her own finger reached him here in his loneliness. w e all know how much he loved his daughter, who gave up the society of her friends and relatives to help and comfort the old man in his solitude. It is only a few months ago that I heard him speak with fatherly pride of his only son, who has won such a high and honourable place for himself at the Cape. To his family far away it will be a great sorrow when they hear that they will see his face no more in the flesh, but it will be a consolation to them to feel that he was affectionately nursed and tended by her who now mourns his loss ; and that he has passed away honoured and reverenced, and esteemed and loved by so many who have learned his goodness and his worth. We could not have expected him to live much longer, he had more than passed his threescore years and ten ; but nevertheless, for a time at least, he will be sadly missed. The government will miss him as a friend and helper, and as one who always had the best interest of the country at heart ; the natives generally will miss him, as an old and well-known friend of the Malagasy; the church at Analakely will miss him as a fellow-member, a teacher, a guide and helper ; we shall all miss him at our meetings and in our work ; the old house at Analakely, his former and latest residence, will look sad and dreary without his well-known and always cheering presence. vVe all mourn his loss to day as one who has been a kind hearted, gentle and cheerful friend and follow-worker. Those who knew him least honoured and esteemed him; those who knew him most admired and loved him.

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56 Farahantsana, Itasy, and Ankarcttra. FARAHANTSANA, ITASY, AND ANKARATRA: SCRAPS FROli:f A NOTE-BOOK. FARAHANTSANA. Nov. 30th, 1874. Left home a little before seven this morning. Crossing the rice-fields to the west of the town, we gained the bank of the river Ikopa, whose course we follow ed for many miles. At length we reached a large extent of marshy ground, where girls were busy catching small fishes in hand-nets form ed of rushes. Two girls, waist deep in water, had charge of each net; grasping it at each end they dragged it through the water, while attached to it by a cord and trailing after, was a large f'phcrical jar, into which they popped the fish at every haul. There we left the river-bank for a time and turned off over a spur of high ground, past a market called "l\fonday," close to which stood the chapel, whence we could hear the children's voices reciting their lessons. "\Ve continued our way past several villages, when suddenly a very beautiful view burst upon us of miles of level valley, reminding me of the Lea meaddws, with stretches of high reeds streaking with deeper eolour the light green carpet of grass, groups of cattle picturesquely scattered here ancl there, the river meandering; hither and thither over the plain, while high above all, at the northern extremity, rose the huge hill called Am bohimanoa, crowned with ruined walls. After some enquiries, we dc>sccncled to the plain, and struck straight across to a low heaclland on its western side, where we were told the river Fito enters the Ikopa. On nearing this, we found a canoe manned by two boys, who were collecting fodder for cattle. They took us across the river, and 011 ascending the rising ground we could trace the two rivers, which, ten miles to the south, came within half a mile of each other, but separating again do not meet till they reach this spot. ,;v e now struck north for Am bo himanoa, to the summit of which we climbed. This was once a large town ( as towns arc here), with the remains of two or more surrounding walls enclosing a large space, with traces of stone foundations of houses, and what seems to out-last every other ,estige of man's work here, the deep narrow-mouthed rice-pits, now full of beautiful ferns. The hill seems to be mainly composed of vato-didy, a soft reel. stone or hardened clay, used by the people to a small extent in making lamp-stands, blocks to support cooking utensils, etc., and has lately been introduced into outside work in some of the larger buildings of the capital. Hut the view from the summit was wonderful, mountains and peaks wherever the eye turned, but reaching their highest elevation in the range of Ankaratra, to the southwest; and immediately below, the valley we had just crossed, with its three rivers, which, uniting into one, turned round the hill on which we stood and lost itself again among the hills to the north. A steep descent brought us quickly to the river again,

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Farahantsana, Itasy, ancl Ankaratra. 57 at a spot where a canoe was at hand to take us across, and getting once more into my palanquin we quickly trotted over some three or four miles of uneven ground till we reached this place. The Ikopa here makes a plunge over a steep bed of rock, perhaps falling some thirty feet, and con tinuing to fall dur.ing the next mile to a much lower level. The main fall is very pretty, hardly grand unless in flood time; at present it is divi ded by groups of rocks into three channels, each of which in its fall is very beautiful and of quite different character from the others ; but no one view of the whole can be obtain ed which will compare with falls to be seen in the forest. Ambohibeloma is one of the real old towns remaining on the summit of a steep high hill, the topmost point being crowned by the palace of the old kings who at one time reigned supreme in this part of the country. When, however, Andri anampoinimerina commenced to subdue and annex all the tribes about him, the king here being un able to offer successful resistance, fled to the west, and remained there during his life, while some royal favourite was_ placed here in his stead. His descendant is still here, and in the position of pastor of the church. He has followed the example of our Henry VII., and made peace by taking in marriage the present representative of the old line of kings, a good and superior woman, and a help to her husband in his church work. A noticeable feature of the place is the large number of fine handsome Amdntana>-' trees, which A large handsome tree, allied to the ficus family of plants. It has glossy leaves, 111uch like those of the inclia-rubber tree. ED. surround the upper parts of the town, and give them a pleasant picturesque air unusual hereaway. Isoamahamanana, Dec. 2nd. Last night we made up for previous want of sleep, and did not get away very early this morning, and only made a short stage oYer the hill to A1nbatolevy to dinner. \Ve came somewhat out of our way in doing so, in order to reach a stone bridge by which to cross the swollen river, too deep to ford. This is one of the many stone bridges built by Radama II., and of which I suppose there is not one left in good condition. The arches are generally semicircular and high, but the pathway not more than four feet wide, and the whole built of small stones. It is rare to see a perfect arch, including the coping, and rarer still to find one which has not very much settled out of the perpendicular ; the place of the broken arches is supplied in this case, where half the bridge has fallen and only two arches, in bad condition, remain, by an embankment of stone and earth, held together by stakes, run out from the opposite bank to make the passrige complete. Since dinner we haYc passed through some very beautiful scenery among the woods of the Tapza tree, on the leaves of which the silk-worms feed. I was struck, too, with the large number of fine amon tana growing, singly or in small groups, in the neighbourhood of the villages. This town, which we reached about five o'clock, is completely surrounded with a bright belt of green Aviavy'1 trees. In the fork of the trunk of one immediately in front of my house is what looks like a great mass of hay, perhaps Another species of -ficus, but with smt,ller leaves than the crnwntcrna,. ED.

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58 Frl1'ahantsana, Itasy, and A.nkaratra. three feet across, and as much or more in height. I supposed the people had been storing their fuel there to be out of the way, but was told it was the nest of a large bird called the 'lakatra. We often see the bird among the wet rice grounds; it is a species of heron or umber, with a tuft of feathers behind the head. My good landlady sits near me as I write, twisting silk. She has already remowd the little spines which are found in the cocoons, and takes the latter, and pulls them each out into a mass of light down ; and now taking up the little puffs one by one and opening them out, twists them into a thread with her fingers, clearing off any imperfections with her teeth, and winds it on a small bamboo stick some four inches long, into which she has thrust the little finger of her left hand. She is amused at my wishing to bargain for her half-covered stick to carry away as a specimen of native manu facture, but none the less pleased to receive a small piece of siher in exhange for it. Ambaniatavy, Dec. 3rd. vVe left the good lady at her cocoons this morning, and struck straight across country for Ambohimiangara, the highest mountain in this direction. After a two hours' run we reached its foot, and another hour brought us to the summit. It is a kingly hill, higher by head and shoulders than any other near it, its crown of white stones rising some eighteen hundred feet above the lake lying blue at its feet. At rather more than half-way up the ascent, we passed for some distance along the top of a precipice, which, some way off, appeared like a huge wall one hundred feet high, ofa soft silvery grey colour; while below us the ground sunk sheer away into the valley. The view from the summit was magnificent, the centre of the whole of the lovely lake Itasy embosomed in its bright green hills, a pearl encircled with emeralds, with moun tains upon mountains in every direc tion as far as eye could reach ; fierce thunderstorms were being marshall ed hither and thither, and to be counted by the half-dozen wherever the eye turned. Now and again they formed close at hand, threatening us in our lofty watch-tower, but turned aside and passed away down the nlley to the north in a deluge of rain. Ankaratra's highest peaks were lost in clouds, but lnanobe rose sharp and square against the southern horizon, while away to the north were many strange unknown points. After spending an hour or more on these summits, where, by the bye, we found sundry remains of divinations practised by these poor ignorant people, we set off to descend on the western side, the hill so steep that we had to go "en zig-zag." The whole mountain is a mass of quartz; where the rocks protrude, it is toned down to silvery grey by lichens, but where the rain has washed it away, it appears as coarse sand and pebbles of the purest white, with an occasional speck of pink. vV e had now a good ride along the north-western arm of the lake to this place. The view of mountains and water as we drew near was extremely lovely. The end of the lake, forming as it were a little lake in itself, and reflecting the deep blue and white masses above, lay calm in the bright sunshine, encircled with rich green hills, while clusters of hornscs, embowered in peach and other trees, grouped themselves around its shores ; here and there a canoe's dark line among

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Faraliantsana, Itasy, and Anl,al'atra. 59 the sedges showed where the fisher was at work with hook and line for the morrow's market ; and across the meadows to the right a herd of cattle was slowly wending its way to fresh pastures. Altogether it formed a malia-te-sketch indrindra:lf. piece ; but my men were tired and drenched by a shower we had just encountered, so wq held on our way. On arriving here I took advantage of the daylight to sketch the outlet of the lake, where the waters pass as it were through a gateway of boulders into the river Lilia. Across the low dip in the hills opposite appears the main part of Itasy, this end forming a long arm which bends round a central hill to this point. Friday, Dec. 4th. \Vent down the Lilia as far as the waterfall at Ambohipu. A more beautiful fall I think I never saw. The river, broken into three streams, falls in foaming white masses over an edge of black lava some fifty feet deep. The whole bed of the river for a mile above is of' the same black character, the lava broken in innumerable blocks, and setting out in vivid colour the verdure on the river banks. ,v e viewed the falls from a steep bank of shrubs and trees, which greatly added to their beauty. "\Ve found among the many ferns growing in the clefts of the rocks one which had not been seen before, making the two hundredth variety in the collection at FaraYuhitra '. ,v e now turned back again towards lake Itasy, and cro~sing the river, ascended the central .hill noticed yesterday to Ambohidrano. I walked on to the most prominent point to get observations for mapping the lake. It lay deep blue round three sides of' us, with its everlasting mountains round about, with gardens *"Causing to wish to sketch exceedingly.' of fruit-trees nestling at their feet. After dinner we left Ambohidrano, and skirting the western shore of the lake came to this place, Mora tsiazo. On the way we passed for some distance through a lane between high hedges of' prickly-pear in fruit. There most have been tons of fruit. I never saw the like: they were hanging, round and rosy, by thirty and forty in a cluster, and looked so tempting that I ventured to taste them. The men gathered me three or four, ca1efully rubbing off the spines, which are most troublesome if they enter the skin. I might get to like them if there was nothing better at hand ; in flavour they are something like an unripe gooseberry, but scarcely so acid. On reaching this place I went down to the water's edge in hope of finding a canoe to take me across to a high promontory on the south side, where I might do a little ''observating." For some time, however, no canoes appeared, except such as were employed in fishing, and which were too small to venture out into the open. Whilst waiting on the shore a stiff shower came on, when it was curious to see the occupant of every little boat put on a huge hood made of mats sewn together at top and back ; shielded by these they defied the rain and quietly continued their work. At length we hailed a large canoe whfoh was passing at some distance out, and having made a bargain with the owner we set off on our trip. A handful of grass in the bottom of the boat formed our seats, while a rower, with his spade-like paddle, knelt, one at the bow and the other at the stern, and away we went, now in the open, now cutting our way among the reeds, or clearing a path through fields of

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60 Faralwntsana, Itasy, and Ankaratra. blue water-lilies. The rain clouds quite hid the further end of the lake, while patches of blue sky were still visible above, and the foot of a brilliant rainbow stood up on the apparently boundless water and was lost in the clouds above. I am told here that ltasy was once a huge swamp, and that its becoming a clear lake is within the knowledge or perhaps the traditions of the people. A very large extent of swamp at present exists on the south side, and a little also ~t the north-west corner. Mahatslnjo, Dec. 5th. "\Ve have only made a short stage to day, leaving Itasy, and striking right through Mandridrano to Amb:'tlava to, and then to this place. Ambala vato is a singular town, surrounded by two or three concentric walls, built of dry blocks of lava. The gate is at one side, where a narrow passage is made thrcugh the outer walls, and the inner one fitted with folding doors. The place appears to be the residence of the great man of the district and his numerous dependents, rather than an open town. I found his lorclship in con clave with his wise men round him, all squatting on the floor, and trans acting business relative to some Mozambiques. My present resting-place is a large town, the largest I suppose this side of Antananarivo, and the capital of Mandridrano, and abounds in cattle, pigs, and children. Our road to day led llS past a great bare space on the high ground where a market is held every l\1onday. Close to this was pointed out a small hollow in the hill where the cold-blooded slaughter of a number of people took place soon after the death of llada ma II. A large number of the inhabitants of Mandridrano refused to acknowledge his successor, having been persuaded into the belief that he was still living. Steps were at once taken to bring them to sub mission. On one occasion the inhabitants of a rebel village presented themselves before the officer charged to quell the insurrection, bringing a quantity of food, rice, poultry, etc., in token of submission; he received the present graciously, and then ordered his soldiers to speaT to death the poor unarmed people. They drove them down into the little hollow above-named, and there carried out his orders. The deep green of. the grass, with a bleachied bone here and there attested the truth of the story. There are many stories told of that terrible time : of an innocent man ordered to be shot, but the gun could not be made to fire. "Goel protected him," said one of my men reyerently on hearing of it; of another man who spent several days in hiding among the reeds by the side of lake Itasy, being in constant fear of crocodiles below, and searching soldiers above. Fenoarivo, Dec. Sth.-,ve were off in good time this morning, and up the hill hehind Masondray, called Ambohits,'trabe, a stupendo.us crag rising 1,500 feet above the river Kitsamby. The upper part of the rock is in places perpendicular, and on the summit are the traces of several former villages. Masoudray, where we had rested for the night, is on high ground itself', so that the ascent to the summit of the hill is very easy, and does not at all prepare you for the view clown into the deep valley below : the river winding in its tortuous course, and a thousand hollows worn deep into the flanks of the hills by the streams which feed it. The descent to the river, and the ascent again ou the other side,

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Faraliant.sana, Itasy, ancl Ankamt1a. 61 were very toilsome, hut the bearers worked away manfully, and at length we got over the edge of the valley, and had a good road before us the rest of the way. This town has obtained some noto riety of late, and is looked upon in the Capital as a very bad place,inasmuch as about two years ago a party of men went hence and made a raid on the Sakalavas to the west, bringing away a large booty in cattle. The goverment sent clown an armed force, and took up to a place near town a conside1:able number of the inhabi tants, where they were required to inform against the ringleaders. Three men were specified and brought back here, and executed by spearing. Most of the inhabitants fled or dis persed about the neighbourhood, but the Queen ordered all to return home and re-occupy their village, where they have since lived in peace, pro bably congratulating themselves that, thanks to the more enlightened and humane sentiments implanted by Christianity, no more of them had to pay the penalty of their lives for their misdeeds. I was awakened in the dim early dawn next morning by the most_ pitiful weird wail of a boy, repeated again and again: "Make haste my mother ;""Make haste my friends." The tone of grief in which it was uttered was truly heart-rending, and on going to the window to enquire of the passers-by, whose hurrying footsteps I heard, I was told that a child had cliecl during the night, and it was customary at dawn toeommenee the wailing of the relatives. First one and then another took the lead, now a young voice, full and shrill, with a low murmuring accompani ment by others; now the indistinct utterance of an old man bewailing his loss, or again, that of a female, pitiful and sad. They kept this up with but little intermission while we remained, and we were very glad to get away and escape the melancholy sound. :/: Amhohipiarenana, Dec. 15th. I left Antoby this morning, S. C. ac companying me some two and a half hours' ride to some hot water springs on the edge of the river Sasarotra. The place is worth a visit, a little level space, perhaps sixty feet in diameter, surrounded by rocks ancl bushes, with a dozen or more springs of hot water bubbling up here ancl there, so hot that we could not bear to keep our hands in. The water appears to be impregnated with iron. :{: Miantsoarivo, Dec. 18th. "\Ve only made a very short day's journey yesterday to Ambatofotsy, where about eleven o'clock iu the forenoon we surprised the elderly teacher in his work of colouring and decorating the pulpit and the upper encl of the church. The good folks here have been putting up a new chapel, and our friend, in his coarse black shirt, was diligently engaged giving a finish to the decoration of the inte rior. Our worthy friend's efforts at decoration were by no means so unsuccessful as some that it has been our fortune to sit within sight of. On a pediment of purple, with broad lines of black, stood the polpitra, the lines of which were picked out "ith bright blue on a white ground. The remaining walls of the church were allowed to remain of the same colour as the floor or the ground outside, which, while not particularly soothing to the eyes, is rendered less obnoxiom,. by the "dim religious light" which a lack of windows is as capable of producing as the more ordinary and costly plan.

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62 Faralumtsana, Itresy, and .A.1ikaratm. After other conversation, we explained the object of our visit, viz., to climb to the summit of the neighbouring mountain range of Ankaratra. I had previously been up one of the higher points, but there were evidently much higher ones to the south, and as it has been an unsettled point as to which is the loftiest, I was anxious to settle the question. ,v e had now approached tlrn western side of the range in hopes of finding guides at Ambatofotsy who would take us to the summit. I therefore laid before our elderly friend what were my intentions and wants; and right well he served me, running about from hamlet to hamlet in search of such young men as he deemed likely to know the mountain paths. But it was a busy time "ith the people, who were engaged planting their rice, and it was not till we had waited a considerable time that he brought a youth to come and talk about it. Thereupon ensued a conversation as to what we wanted : was it to go to the summit, or only to the base of the summit ? and particularly, was there any pork in our luggage ? for in that case his venturing to go was out of the ques tion. \V c assured him that we should take no pork with us, so that he need not fear ; but in the encl he declined to go. Then our fussy friend was off again, and presently brought another, who would, per haps, go so far as to point out the summit, but not to climb to the top, not if I should ofler him a dollar even. And so ,ye wasted our time, one and another coming to talk about it, and finally declining to ,enture. There evidently was a deep laicl fear of doing anything which might call clown the vengeance of the gods of the hills, in the form of terrific tempests, waterspouts, etc. And how did they know but what the authorities up there might be highly offended at their taking a foreigner up, when pigs and their flesh were.fady (tabooed)? The people here even, which is within a clay of the capital, expressed their great surprise that we had been able safely to pass right through the dreaded region unharmed. As we found that we could not get good sleeping quarters nearer to the mountains than Ambatofotsy, we decided to remain the night there; and hoped that, meanwhile, some of the young men about would consent to guide us on the morrow. Even tually two men agreed to take us. "\Ve were astir at half-past four this morning, and when about to start, on enquiring for the guides we found that one was poorly and the other had not turned up. There was nothing else for it but to go without, so we set off, intending to find our way as we could. We had not gone far, however, across the ,alley before we saw two men coming quickly after us. They proved to be our guides, and as they came up, the one with whom I had made the bargain explained that his companion had not known of our having ''shaken hands'' over the business, or he would not have ex cused himself on the plea of illness We now mad~ our way across the heads of several fine valleys studded far below with numerous little ham lets, and up on to a high table-land with many little peaks around of volcanic formation ; we travelled on, walking and riding for nearly five hours, till at last, on turning round a low hill which rose above the general level, our guides exclaimed : "There is Tsiafajavona,'' and right before us were ranged a chain of

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Faraliant8ana, Itasy, and Ankarafra. 63 peaks rising higher and higher to the furthest and most northern. \Ve stood on a sort of broad causeway, the only easy way to the summit, and from which, to right and left, the ground fell steeply away in deep valleys, whose streams flow respectively to north-west and south-east. Our guides were reluctant to go further, 'SO I shortly dis missed them, and climbed the first and most southerly peak, 8,368 feet*' in altitude. This was clearly not the highest point, and we set off skirting round the steep sides of the conical hills iii a northerly direction, till we reached a poit{t 8,618 feet; but, exhausted though we were with the hard and continuous climbing, there yet loomed a higher point some distance further north, so calling on my poor fagged men, we again descended, and again climbed to what proved to be the summit of the range, and, I suppose, the highest point in Madagascar, 8,763 feet above the sea. Now we saw the peculiar plan of' the range, there being, in fact, two ranges lying in the form of a cross, the intersection being marked by a small cone. From the east the ground rises gradually in long sweeps of rounded clowns, but to the west there was a perfect tempest of mountain peaks of all manner of shapes, bounded at the furthest visible limit by a chain of strange, weird, contorted rocks, a good day's journey away. Away to the east the ri1,ers lay mapped out over the plain, which from that height appeared beautifully even and smooth; having travelled over it, I was surprised at its appearance. To the south we saw hills more than half-way to Fianarantsoa, and to the I give the figures as I have since corrected them with l\Ir, Cameron's help. north lay lake Itasy and its grand mountain, backed up by innumerable unknown hills beyond. The capital, too, was distinctly visible, and starting from it I obtained a good set of observations. My men had enjoyed the joke immensely yesterday, when the question of pork was raised by the nati,es, but aswe drew near these mysterious heights, they did not feel quite so easy in mind, and on my talking jokingly about it they begged me to be silent. But now it so fell out that we were on the summit together, and ha Ying become used to the mountain tops, and having had an hour's stiff climbing among them, they were the more ready to listen to reason, and were a little ashamed of their previous fear. ,ve ascended yet another point, Ambohimirandrina, a considerable distance to the north again, which had been spoken of as possibly higher than this, but we found it to be nearly a hundred feet lower. The wind was bitterly cold, and we were cold and hungry, and glad that the remainder of our way here was, easy going, a three hours' run over smooth descending clowns. We passed our baggage before we got in, and found that the poor fellows had missed their way, and had to retrace their steps ; and that, after all, pork in the shape of lard, had been carried unwittingly over a part of Ankaratra. These old su perstitions take a long time to root out, as may be witnessed at home in out-of~the-way places, but our going up Ankaratrn may be one little help towards their remo,,al. ,v~r. JOHXSOX. NO'l'E. 'l'he 11.fap a,comp,rnpin.<7 this pape1 has been d1'((.WiL bp 1lfr. Johnson fl'Vm his awn obserrntions, and lithou1aphed crnd 1ni11tcd by llfr. Kingdon. Eu.

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64 Notes on Ikongo and its People. NOTES ON IKONGO AND ITS PEOPLE. AT the time that Rada.ma I., king of Imerina, made the power of the Hovas felt in the Betsileo, some of the tribes (without resistance) swore allegiance, and even presented the '1.asz'.na ( dollar of allegiance) on his first appearance among them. The Isandra was the first tribe to bow to the Hova yoke, and they have accor dingly ever since been considered the senior tribe, and iu all official and formal meetings they take the first and most honourable place. The Ilalang1na and Urindrano, on the other hand, gave very much more trouble to the king of Imerina; and active warfare continued with varying success for many years ; although the arms of the Hovas were very superior to those of the Betsileo. This may be accounted for by the nature of the country. A casual visitor could not fail to be struck with the naturally-fortified spots chosen by these people for their villages. ,Vith very few exceptions the Betsileo villages are on high hills, and 011 the summits of rocks, the ascent to which is often extremely difficult, and winds through (in some cases) quite a quarter of a mile of prickly-pear, impenetrable to bare feet and half-naked bodies. The wonder is, not the trouble they gave the Hovas, but that they were ever subdued. The Ilo1au gina was the last tribe to submit, beit1g traditionally the more warlike, and constantly engaged in petty feuds, village fighting against village, and organizing cattle-stealing raids upon each other. Bordering the Ilalangina and the hrindrano to the east is the great forest, extending from the extreme north of the island to its most southern point, forming a belt of varying width between the central plateau and the low-lying plains around the sea-coast. The people inhabiting the southern forest region appear to be, in many respects, different both from the coast tribes on the one hand, and the Betsileo 011 the other. 'l'he difference of physiognomy is so marked that no one, after living here a few years, could mistake one for the other. Their language is also a separate dialect, having many different words, ond very many words modified in sound: so much so, that on a recent visit I was amused at the difficulty a man brought up in the Capital had in making himself understood and in understarnling a Tana.la, as the people residing in this part of the forest are called. The northern part of this forest district is under the government of Raovaua, the queen of the Tanala, as she is called by the Betsileo

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Notes on Ikongo and its People. 65 and her own people. These have submitted to the Hovas since the time of Radama I., who established Raovana in her position. Farther south, however, is a clan of hardy daring men, the Ikongo, who banded together to resist the inroads of the Hovas, which they successfully did on more than one occasion, sustaining one siege of eighteen months, and another of twelve months, in both of which the Hovas lost considerably, and eventually withdrew ingloriously. Since this last siege, although nominally acknowledging Ranavalona as queen of Madagascar, there has been no real submission ; and to the present time they remain an unconquered people, having a king, prime minister, governors, and judges of their own. The nature of their country has greatly contributed to this indepen dent spirit, even if it cannot be said that their hardihood is alto gether owing to the boldness and isolation of the land in which they were born and nurtured. The inhabited part of Ikongo forms a long narrow valley or basin, about 60 miles in extent from north to south, and about 15 or 20 miles from east to ,vest. It is bounded on all sides by ranges of high hills ; those on the east and west forming part of the general mountain system of Madagascar ; and the lower hills on the north and south being spurs from the longer ranges. On all sides there is a; forest, grand and beautiful, but so dense as to be almost impassable ; the roads, or rather paths, are so narrow and so closely overgrown, as to preclude the possibility of two people walking abreast. The difficulty of travelling is further increased by the broken nature of the .ground, and the trunks of fallen trees being allowed to remain as they fell ; in many cases forming a barrier anything but pleasant to overcome. The forest on the east is eight hours' journey in width, so that the "gate of the Ikongo" is a real protection. To the naturalist, the fauna of this dense forest does not offer much that is interesting, for the one point that strikes the travel ler is the solitude and quietness; the natives call it "the quiet forest." Vegetation, however, is most luxuriant and beautiful, and when standing in one of the many open glades, into which the sunshine can penetrate, the prospect is all that is enchanting ; but once in the dense, damp, semi-twilight again, one cannot shake off a certain creepy, dungeon feeling ; the superfluity of the beautiful creating the repugnant. It is with a sense of relief that the traveller inner ges into either the rich green verdure of the lower plain, or upon the more bleak and rugged table-land on the west. The forest is gradually being encroached upon, for the purpose of forming fresh plantations of maize and sweet potatoes; but why the people should burn down so much timber that could be employed for building or other purposes, merely to plant maize, when the whole valley is open to them uncultivated, cannot be accounted for, except on the score of laziness and an utter indifference to the future. The

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66 Notes on Ikongo and its People. former is most probably the ruling principle, as it is far easier to set fire to a patch of forest, and when cold to drop the corn into holes dibbled in the ashes, in which it grows rapidly, than it is to prepare a piece of clear land by digging. In the same way the rice is grown in the Ikongo, where instead of being planted and constantly kept under water as in the Betsileo, it is sown like wheat on the hill-sides. The food of the people resembles that of the Betsileo and Hovas, and consists of rice, manioc, sweet potato, beans, and a species of millet. Abundance of fish is caught in the rivers, and there appears to be no want of cattle and poultry; but there are no sheep or pigs. The people say that if they tried to keep pigs, they would soon join their friends the wild hogs in the forest, and themselves become wild. Their clothing is of the scantiest description, and consists of mats, plaited from a soft rush called liarefo, which grows in such abun dance as to form the principal, if not the only, article of trade with the Betsileo on the western border of the forest. For the use of the women the mats are made like a sack open at both ends, are slipped over the head, and tied with a piece of bark round the waist. For the men they are cut and sewn into the shape of a jacket with short sleeves, and open in front. Soft as the rush is for a rush, this must be anything but a comfortable dress. Their burial customs are peculiar. They make no tombs, as the Betsileo and Hovas do, but bury their dead in the forest with no other mark than a notched tree to keep the spot in remembrance. The carrying of the body to its last resting-place is accompanied with yelling and screaming ; but I saw no ostentatious mourning and weeping as with the Betsileo. At certain places on the road the body is placed on the ground, and a series of games is ,eommenced, in which wrestling and the spear-exercise form a prominent part. Burying is called "throwing away the corpse." The population I should estimate at between eight and ten thou sand, and that, in times of peace, is scattered over the whole area of the country in small hamlets of from 12 to 30 houses. But when a rumour of war reaches them, they at once assemble in their fortress. This consists of a long flat-topped hill, very precipitous on all sides, especially on the west and north, where the faces of the cliffs are perpendicular masses of smooth granite. The hill is about five miles long, and about 1000 or 1500 feet above the level of the plain. On the summit are five towns, the one to the south being apparently nearly as large as Fianarantsoa, with some good-sized houses. Two streams of water take their rise near this southern town, and

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Notes on Ikongo and its People. 67 flow along the whole length of the hill, descending in a clearly defined cascade, near the northern extremity. It is principally owing to this fact that the people can effectually defy all siege, as they can plant and sow as well on the top of the hill as in the valley, whilst the only ascent is so narrow and difficult as to require but few to guard it against an assaulting army. Several guard-houses are built on long poles, at short intervals along the eastern part of the hill. Each guard is furnished with a gun, usually an old English flint-lock, and in such a condition as to be equally dangerous to the man using it as to the enemy shot at. Still, all attempts at sudden attack could be frustrated, more especially as the roads in every direction through the country are under a complete system of surveillance. Each village in fact has its own chief, judge, and guards, even though there may be but five or six other faniilies in the place. Every man when travelling carries one or two spears, which, although guns are used, are their principal weapon, and in the use of which they are extremely expert. They also use shields, round, made of wood, slightly convex and covered with raw hide, with a handle in the centre of the back, but with no sling for the arm. In the use of this some have gained a strength and suppleness of wrist quite astonishing. Polygamy is practised among them, and the number of a man's wives is determined by his ability to keep them. Ratsiandraofana, the king, has ten, and many whom I questioned had three, four, or six, according to their wealth. Marriage is contracted at a very early age ; even earlier than in other parts of Madagascar. In my last visit I was quite taken aback after chatting with a boy and girl, perhaps half-grown, to find they were not brother and sister, as I supposed, but man-no! boy and wife. Their religion, if they can be said to have any, is a blind super stitious belief in a superior Being, who is able to kill them, and destroy their rice and houses with lightning, and drown them in the floods of rain ; but they had never thought of Him as the maker of the earth and all things, still less as a God of Love. Each Sabbath day however that I have spent in the country I have held a service, though ostensibly for my own men, yet so arranged as to matter and explanations as to give the stragglers, of whom there were sometimes 40 or 50, a good notion of what our religion consisted. For, in my first interview with the king, he very decidedly interdic ted the "praying to the Baptism," a notion (very misty) which he had obtained from some sham Hova traders, who after telling them, as I suppose, that they had been baptised, had in a cold-blooded way murdered the men who came to trade with them, and took their wives

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68 Notes on Ikongo and its People. and children as slaves. So he wanted to have nothing to do with the religion professed by those who treated them in that manner. I then felt I had a good opportunity of telling him some of the truths of Christianity ; and at the close I said we only prayed to one Being, that is God. But I failed to a great extent to shake his determination not to have anything to do with the praying. So rather than be refused altogether I thought it best for the rest of my visit only to speak of the teaching, and not mention the "praying," feeling assured that as the principal reading-book will be the New Testament, they will, in the mere endeavour to learn to read, gain much of the knowledge they seemed so anxious to keep out of their country. Ratsiandraofana gave me permission to go and come amongst them whenever I like, and not to wait for guides ; that I might send a teacher, if not a Hova, and that when I came down again they would be glad to see my wife, and to have their wives and daughters taught needlework, etc. Their great desire is not so much for enlightenment, as for the power, which they feel to be a great one, of reading and writing, to save them using the troublesome and untrustworthy method of conveying all messages by word of mouth. This plan of communica tion nearly led to serious consequences in my latter visit, when on account of a false statement made by the bearers of a message, a rumour was set afloat to the effect that they were on the eve of sustaining a siege by the Hovas. As was perhaps natural to a sus picious people, my return amongst them was immediately connected with the unpleasant intelligence, and the chief people from all parts were called to attend a kind of parliament by the king. Our bearers were so frightened as to be on the point of leaving my wife and me to our fate, and running home for their lives, if we would not consent at once to return. By a little reasoning, however, I i:n,duced them to give up 1mch a foolish and impracticable design, as I felt sure the whole mistake could be rectified, and no harm would come to them so long as they stayed with us. And so it proved, for I was able to shew the king that I had no connection whatever with anything done by the government in Imerina or Fianarantsoa, and reiterated my former statements, that my sole object in coming among them was to instruct them and supply them with teachers. When I reached Fianarantsoa I discovered the Queen had sent two representatives to examine into the state of the churches and schools in Betsileo; and that when they arrived in the town a salute of nine guns was fired in honour of the distinguished visitors, but who were attended by none but their personal attendants and bearers. This, by the time it reached the people in Ikongo, was exaggerated into an army under the command of two generals, bringing nine

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Notes on lkongo ancl its People. 69 cannon, and that, as all the tribes in subjection to Ranavalona were at peace, their ultimate destination must be Ikongo. The first teacher was sent to them in 187 4. He was well received, and an evident desire for knowledge was shewn by the people. He went to the king, who received him kindly, called a meeting of the people, and told them he should like them to learn ; but that he would not try to force them, as he knew they were busy with their rice planting. "Oh!" said one chief, "I wish to learn; so my wife and I will make the two first scholars." Then another and another joined, till there were eleven pupils in the first school in Ikongo. The teacher set to work to drill them in the alphabet, and after a day or two received a message from Raboba, the second in command, to go to his town and let him hear what all this talk about teaching meant. Rafanahy (the teacher) went and explained why I had been there, and why he had come ; when Raboba said, "I too wish to be a friend of the Vazaha (foreigner) who came here, and I will give you twenty scholars to begin with." This he did ; and so the teacher had, in different places, thirty-one willing and anxious to learn ; and there were many others desirous to receive instruction, but in towns the teacher could not reach. In 1875 I took two trained Betsileo teachers down to the king, and was gratified with the kind and cordial way he received them, offering, without any suggestion from me, to build them a house and school-room; and as they were strangers and had no land in that country, he would supply them with all the rice they would require for themselves and families. This was not the only encouraging circumstance connected with this visit. A better understanding of my motives in coming among them seemed to exist than on the former occasion, and a decided spirit of inquiry about "the praying" had manifested itself. Although not willing to countenance openly my preaching to my bearers and any who liked to come, yet I found that both Ratsiandraofana and others had been listening outside the tent and house ; and had, after the service, called the teachers and asked them to read several passages from the Bible to him. Their selections must have been directed by the All Wise, as they appear to have made a deep impression on his mind, and he has even gone so far as to retract what he said on a former occasion, and admit that the religion that teaches such things must indeed be good. Thus the good seed is being quietly, almost secretly, sown, and will with the Divine blessing, bring forth fruit in the hearts of the people, even without their consent. GEORGE A. SHA w.

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70 Remailcable Burial Oiestoms among tlie Betsileo. REMARKABLE BURIAL CUSTOMS AMONG THE BETSILEO. DURING my two years' residence in Betsileo I saw and heard many strange things. But certainly the strangest I saw or heard of were the ceremonies in connection with the burial of the dead. The reader must understand that the various tribes called Betsileo, who inhabit the southern portion of Central Madagascar, were conquered by the Hova king Rada.ma I.; and since that time they have been in subjection to the Hovas. The people, however, pay very great respect to their own hereditary princes, of whom there are a great many. It is their custom to kneel to these petty princes whenever they meet with them, whether in house or field, street or market. A few of them seem to be more intelligent than the common people, and this may be partly owing to the comparatively milder treatment they have received at the hands of their conquerors than has been accorded to the people as a whole. The majority of them, however, are sorry specimens of humanity, mere brutes in human form; and it can only be from custom that such honour is given them. It is readily confessed by the Havas that more defer ence is paid to these princes than is paid to the Queen herself; and at their death they certainly make much ado. I arrived one morning at a village where one of these princes dwells ; one of his grandchildren had died that very morning, and I found the people in an unwanted state of excitement. I was informed that I could hold no meeting in the chapel or village on that day, or for some clays to come. Hearing that I wished to stay as a spectator of the ceremonies I had often heard of, the people very reluctantly gave me permission; and I was conducted to a house which would command a good view of all the proceedings. Seeing that it was only a child who had died, not so much ceremony was observed as is consequent on the death of a grown-up prince. In the first place, a public meeting was called of the whole village and the surrounding hamlets ; and then, in front of the residence of the grandfather of the chilcl, the names of the dead's illustrious ancestors were called over by a man, leaning, while he spoke, on another man's shoulder. Both men were clothed in coarse dirty garments, but one shoulder of each man was bare. On the dispersion of the people, two young bullocks were sent for from the fields, and they were driven with great uproar into a pit

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Remarkable Burial Oiestoms among the Betsileo. 71 fifteen or twenty yards square in front of the old man's house, and south of the house where the corpse lay. Two men then bound their outer garments round their waists, and entered the pit to "wrestle" with the oxen. In a very quick time, but after a hard struggle, each man threw his ox. They then very dexterously, but cruelly, turned the right fore leg of each bullock over its head, and locked it behind its left horn, and the left fore leg behind the right horn in the same manner. It was pitiable to see the bullocks in theirstruggles for the first few minutes, but. they very soon lay as still as if dead. A small knife was then fetched with much ceremony from the house of the young prince's grandfather, which was close to the pit on the east. This knife was sharpened on one of the stones forming the walls of the pit. One of the bullocks was then killed by its throat being cut, but before a deep incision was made the first blood that flowed was carried on the knife to the grandfather to be licked ; the rest was smeared on the stone on which the knife had been sharpen ed, and then the knife was used to make the deep incision, from which the blood flowed freely, and the ox was left weltering in its own blood close by the living one. During the time the bullocks lay in the pit (two hours) many preparations were being made in and around the house. In a little while, up came three men with two fiddles and a very large drum, all of native make, but of European models; and to "while away the sorrow of the relatives" these men went round and round the house, playing the most fantastic jigs imaginable to the thumping of this big drum at both ends. In the meantime, men, women and children kept entering the house by the opening on the south, and leaving it by the one on the west. This house was of one story, and about ten feet by eight, with two openings about two feet above the ground, one on the south, and another on the west, of about lft. 9in. by 2ft. But for this occasion the lower part of the south window was dug out, thus making the entrance 4ft. by lft. 9in. A procession of women, with no clothing upon them save a coarse rush mat fastened round the waist, and with their black, uncombed, curly hair standing out from their heads at almost a right angle (so stiff it was), then entered the house by the south entrance, carrying the possessions of the deceased prince; and the whole immediately emerged by the west entrance in the following order, the drumming and fiddling being recommenced with increased gusto. The sound was also increased by two men taking up their station to the north of the two oxen, one beating with his lingers upon a rnde native drum about half the size of an English kettle-drum, which was hung in front of him, the other blowing a large shell.

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72 Remarkable Burial Customs among the Betsileo. First there were twenty-one women, each carrying something, and walking in single file. These possessions consisted of English plates of various sizes, shapes, and patterns, from a small tea-plate to a large soup-plate, oval and oblong, the common willow pattern, and one or two gaily coloured, but mostly white. One carried an ordinary penny looking-glass with tin frame; another had a green salt-cellar, and the last carried a small tumbler drinking-glass. These were all carefully carried in both hands and held before the breast. A shilling in England would have bought the whole lot, but doubtless they had cost many dollars here. Then came a clean, tall girl ; her hair was combed and 'hung over her shoulders, which were bare; a striped outer garment (tdmba drindrdno) was fastened below the armpits and reached to the ground ; she carried a beau tiful native basket on her head, and rolled up above that a very fine rush mat. Then came a man carrying a hatchet. Now came the coffin; a long box covered with coloured cloth, and with a roof-like top ( trdno-1:orona) ; on the ridge, and down the sides, and at the end, were arranged thirty solid silver rings, ranging from four inches in diameter to the size of finger-rings, and weighing from five or six ounces to half an ounce. Two women walked on each side of this coffin carrying ox-tails, which they waved constantly above and around the coffin. Then came three men walking abreast. Then three women on men's shoulders, pick-a-back fashion, and with a man on each side holding up a leg ; these women were naked, but covered with a very coarse rush mat which would not remain in its proper place. These three women were the chief mourners, and their strange yelling makes me shudder as I now write more than four years after I heard it. In that order the procession left the house, went round a few houses to the north and west of the pit, and then entered at the opening on the south-west. They arranged themselve round the two oxen ; the coffin, however, was carried to the south of the oxen, and there brought to a stand; a small knife was again fetched, with which the throat of the remaining ox was cut; the hatchet which was carried was dipped in the blood, the covering of the body was lifted, and the blood taken up by the hatchet was smeared on the head of the corpse, and the corpse was carried across the neck of the slaughtered animal. The wailing, drumming, fiddling, and shell blowing was carried on during the whole of this time, and the procession left in the same order they had entered; but on the arrival of the corpse at the entrance of the pit, another stoppage was made. Then a man stationed himself under the coffin, two bottles of native rum were brought, and one was poured over him, while his companions received it in their open palms and drank it up. The man over whom it had been poured then took some in his

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Remarkable Burial Oitstoms among tlie Betsileo. 73 hand and anointed the head of the corpse. The other bottle was then divid.ed among the men of the company, no vessel being provided, but each drinking as it was poured into the hollow of his hand. These ceremonies had lasted so long that I was now obliged to leave, for I had a jour~ey of three hours yet to make. I afterwards made enquiries as to the rest of the ceremonies observed ; they are a~ follows :-The third day after death the body swells ; it is then taken from the coffin, and rolled upon planks until it becomes all of a pulp. On the fourth day another ox is killed, and the skin from that and those killed previously are cut up into long strips. The corpse is then held upright against the beam of the house, an incision is made in the heel of each foot, ancl all the putrid liquid matter is collected in a large earthen pot or pots, and. when nothing is left scarcely but skin and bone, the corpse is strapped to the beam and there left. Great care is taken of these pots, and the corpse cannot be removed from the house until a small worm appears in one of them; this sometimes takes two or three months in appearing. The worm is allowed to grow a little; then the body may be buried, and the killing of oxen is increased. The body is then buried with much state, and the earthen pot in which is this worm is placed into the grave too, and a long bamboo is put in the pot, an opening being left at the top of the tomb through which this bamboo protrudes. After six or eight months, this worm climbs up the bamboo, and makes its appearance in the town. It is calledfandno; and is of lizard shape. Then come the relations of the dead, who approach this lizard, saying: "Art thou so and so ?" if it lifts its head, that is an infallible sign that it is he or she. The plate the deceased last ate off is fetched, an ox's ear is cut, and the blood on the knife is carried along with some rum on the plate and placed before this fanano, and should it eat the blood and drink the rum then no more doubt can be entertained as to the identity of the thing. "Let us then go into the house" the people say, and a clean cloth is laid on the ground, the fanano steps upon the cloth, and is carried amid great rejoicing, killing of oxen, and feasting, into the town. After this the fanano is carried back to the tomb, where it remains, grows to an enormous size, and for ever remains the guardian of the town. I do not at all doubt the correctness of this account, for I have seen many things that confirm it, although I have not seen the "worm" itself. I know the body is kept in the house; I have seen the bamboo and the earthen pot; and I have heard from the lips of

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74 Remarkable B111'ial Customs among tlie Betsileo. the chief prince of one of the tribes when his mother was dead: "She has not yet appeared in the earthen pot, and so I cannot bury her body." Of this prince's mother I know that for nearly three months from the time of her decease, as also the decease of her sister, and until the janano appeared, the people in the whole district were not allowed to dig or plant. There was danger of a famine, and the Hova authorities were obliged to interfere and hasten the appearance of thisfanano. I also know that more than 500 bullocks were killed during the time of mourning and rejoicing. I also went to see these sisters lying in state. Both bodies were placed in the coffin, which was covered with the finest of linen. The ceiling of the house in which they were laid (about 18ft. square) had been removed, and the walls and roof, reaching right up to the ridge-pole, were also carefully covered with the finest linen, and the floor was covered with the finest mats I have seen in the country. Without exception, I think the house was the cleanest I have ever seen. The coffins were laid in the centre of the house. There were nearly 100 silver rings on the sides of the coffins, of the same description as those I had seen before, and there were also the coins of twenty seven nationalities fastened around the coffin; among which were an English threepenny piece, American cent and dollar, etc., etc. Outside the house were two men beating drums, and a number of slave girls wailing and singing. Much might be written about their tombs. They are very deep in the earth, some of them being as much as 60 feet deep, and are approached by a gradually descending passage opening some 40 01 50 feet distant from the tombs. The tombs of the rich are sometimes 15 or 16 feet square, and are quite on the surface of the ground; and the four walls and roof are formed of five immense slabs, which are brought from great distances, and involve almost incredible labour. I measured one stone of pure granite with my mnbrella, and carefully noted down the particulars when I came home. It was a little over 18ft. long, lOft. wide, and nearly 3ft. thick in some parts. Five such stones make a tomb. These stones are obtained by burning piles of cow-dung on the top of rocks, and these slabs split off. I once was in a tomb 18ft. long, 14ft. wide, and I Oft. high, formed of five stones, in one of which, on the west, had been cut an opening, and a rude stone door, working in stone sockets, had been fixed there. The superstructure takes various forms. Sometimes there are several pieces of wood, huge beams in fact, stuck up over the tomb, and carved from the bottom to the top. Sometimes a stone is erected as a memorial of the dead. These are of all sizes and shapes : some

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Remarkable Burial Customs among t!w Betsileo. 75 straight and smooth, others crooked and rough. The finest I saw was almost circular, was 12 ft. in circumference, and I should think nearly 20ft. high above the ground. It is said to have occupied four years in making and dragging from the quarry to the place where it is erected. Sometimes these stones are covered with carved oxen and birds. The more honourable superstructure, however, is a solid mass of masonry erected ove1; the stone tombs which I have just described. These are square or oblong in shape, and about 6ft. or less high. A cornice is worked round the top, and on this are laid the skulls of all the oxen killed at the funeral, etc., regularly arranged. I have seen one, now rapidly falling into decay, on which were no less than 500 such skulls. 'l'he most symmetrical that I ever saw was a new tomb, on which in the outer square, were arranged 108 skulls of oxen in most regular order ; every other skull being that of an ox whose horns had grown downwards. There wern also two other squares of skulls arranged behind this one. It was a strange sight to see so many skulls of oxen, from the mouth to the tip of the horn, arranged thus, and bleaching in the sun. There are a few other strange customs I noticed ; and in some future number, should our magazine prove successful, I may write again. In the meantime, would it not be a good thing for all the missionaries living at a distance to note down all peculiar customs? as I am.afraid that we shall soon lose all remembrance of old customs before the march of the Gospel ; and while we thank God that He is bringing to nought so much that is connected with idolatry and superstition, yet, as matters of history, we should try to preserve from oblivion all we see and hear of connected with the old times. J. RICHARDSON,

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'16 From Tioiliglit to Gross Darkness. FROM TWILIGHT TO GROSS DARKNESS. BEING CHIEFLY A NARRATIVE OF WHAT HAPPENED ON THE WAY, IN A JOURNEY TO ANKAVANDRA AND IAfANANDAZA. FAR away westward of blue Itasy and the throng of old volcanoes at its outlet; beyond the river Sakay and a heated plain of tall, rank grass, often higher than the head of a mounted man, where two prone mountains and a sheer, craggy height are ever welcome landmarks ; and farther still, beyond an unpeopled region of hills, wooded in all its hollows, and falling clear off at last in one long barrier line, there lies a mighty valley. And we first peered into it from the brink of that head long eastern wall, wondering if any great sea-flood had ever poured be tween there and the answering heights, far-drawn in rock-breasted cliff, thirty miles nearer sunset across the void. Along those cliffs the Behosy live, a harmless people, few in number, and little known, even here, except by name ; and beyond them, down to the sea, are fighting Sakalava in their kingdomofMenabe. Away to the north, the mountain walls open out on a stretch of seemingly limitless plain. This is the Mavohazo country, roamed, like Mena be, by restless Sakalava, of whom every mother's son is armed, and will fight-on very slight provocation. A gleam of water, as of a river flowing from.. that widening plain, threads the lorig valley almost throughout, but the weight of the stream comes down in a sweeping curve from the piled-up east, and quietly gets away out to the sea through a gorge in in the Bemaraha-that cliff like range to the west. Between the place where this river, the Ima nambolo, first sweeps down upon its unshadowed course and the valley's northern end, there is a small Hova town called Andranonandrlana. Another, much larger, lying just within the river's curve, is famous here as Ankavandra, and there is a thiru nearly four days' journey to the south, called Imanandaza."" These are all outposts of the Imerina government; each is fortified by a bristling high thicket of prickly-pear, each has a considerable settlement of friendly Sakalava loosely scattered outside, and each is in charge of a governor and lieutenant, to whom we had obtained letters of introduction from Queen Ranavalona's Prime Minister husband. There were two of us. One was a hale, grey-headed Friend, carrying a small tripod, and a trap to catch mountain-tops with, strapped to the side of his palanquin. In his breast he carried a most sleepless determi nation to make a map of the route. As fo1 the other, he was not without concern for the mountain-tops, seeing that he generally helped to bag them, but hehad also a rather keen inter est in smaller game, and cherished slaughterous intentions respecting all wild-cattle, birds,andskulking beasts. No Quarterly Meeting would have chosen him as a suitable travelling companion for the F. F. M. A.'s senior representative in Madagascar. [*These places and rivers are all shewn on the lithograph map accompanying llir. Sew, ell's pamphlet entitled The Sakalava. ED.]

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From Twilight to Grass Darkness. 77 But there was unbroken good fellowship throughout the journey notwithstanding. For the bond of union was a warm desire to find entrance for light among the dark ened Sakalava; and the younger traveller learnt something of patience and faithful zeal from daily contact with their living power; whilst the good Quaker gradually grew recon ciled to the company of loaded fire arms in the tent, and, once or twice, I believe, when our larder was reduced to gravyless drumsticks, inwardly wished me a chance of rejoicing in bloodshed. ,ve had arranged to meet at Ima hatsinjo, a large village lying a few hours' journey S.W. of Lake Itasy. The journal, which, to my great astonishment, I faithfully kept going day by day throughout the whole five weeks, now tells me that "l left my home at Ambohibeloma on Friday, June llth, 1875, with sixteen men; eight, bearers of luggage, and eight to carry the owner thereof. Soon-after getting fairly on the road, one of the eight with the baggage began to show signs of breaking down." I remember this poor mise rable very well. He was laughed at by all the women in the village as we started on account of his shaky gait ; and now he came hobbling up with both hands on his naked stomach, looking unutterably wretched, and declaring himself very very poorly indeed. He had no business to hire himself out for such a journey, and instantly got his discharge with a good Samaritan twopence tied up in his waist-cloth, and a spoonful of something-strongerthan-water down his throat. There were a few houses close by, so I felt no compunction on leaving him. No halt was made for midday eating, as the men seemed disposed to push on to our destination. "vVe reached it just before sunset," con tinues the journal, "and my apartment for the night is furnished with a rough wooden four-post bedstead, a big drum, four fiddles, and a couple of crinolines. I have just had my evening meal and a deputation from the village and its church, bringing a basket of rice, half a pig, and a live fowl. The fowl is for my break fast, the rice and pork have been divided amongst the men, and the evening and the morning have been the first day. It is a fair, moonlight night, cold and clear through all the heavens, and as I leaned out at the rude window a moment ago and faced the starry north, I thought of my friends in far-off social Old England. God bless them every one, and incline their hearts to write me more letters and expect but a few to be answered." The next day, after crossing the roots of the bold mountain which screens Itasy on the north, another of the 78 churches over which Mr. Peill and I hold a joint episcopacy lay on the route, convenient for a short halt. This is one of those rare places in the district which have a reputation for diligence and general good behaviour. It fosters several forlorn churches out in the wilds; its pastor was away at the time of my visit, helping to rear a newly appeared jnf'ant in 1\ semi-Sakalava town on the banks of the Sakay, and it has also two or three legitimate children of its own to attend to. I wish I could add that mother and offspring are really doing well. As usual, the most important work of all was being neglected : I refer to the school. It was managed after this curious fashion :-All the scho lars who can read were given a fine long holiday of 50 weeks a year,

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78 Prom TiDiligld to Gross Darkness. meeting only once a month forfurther instruction! The rest were learning twice a week. \Ve have since submitted the school to a thorough ex amination, and surprised both scho lars and those who were supposed to be teaching; by showi11g them how far they are being outstripped even by churches which long have borne a name disreputable. Shame is all but the most effective power we can bring to bear upon these Malagasy. The place in question has now promised to pay seven eights of a properly qualified teacher's salary, and there is more pro bability than is usual in such cases that the money will be collected. But, alas! where is the man to come from? \Ve have already waited two years for a trained teacher to manage the school at our station, and are patiently waiting still. Here in this one district alone we have 6444 children belonging to the 63 schools which are now in existence, more or less. These have all attended at least once, and their names are on the registers ; 2898 of them I saw counted before my own eyes at the late examinations. But the schoolmaster5 who ought to be teaching them reading, writing, arith metic, simpl(l Bible history, cleanli liness, and good behaviour-where are they? But come along, I was going to Ankavandra, I believe, and on the evening of the second day had got as far as the outlet of that lake Itasy so often mentioned. "And there," says the journal, "l was put into the draughtiest hut in the village. The Malagasy have a notion that all Europeans like to be kept cool, and little thought how near that unfortunate notion brought them to ma king a funeral of their guest. I tried several schemes for keeping myself warm whilst having tea and waiting for bedtime ; but not even a blazing wood-fire, and all its in evitable smoke, which one of the men got up for my benefit, could still the enemy and the agrcssor. At last I was fairly driven to call for help, and rig up the tent for a place of refuge. Underneath its shelter I pushed my bed, and slept in tolerable comfort." The next day was Sunday. Just before the service a woman came inqmrmg. She got the chief man of the village to ask me if I could help her to find some buried money, between two and three hundred dollars, which a relative of hers, dying suddenly, had left-nobody knew where. It is not enough in every case, you see, for a missionary to be a plain divine. This woman's want required a diviner. "The church here is an old mud house, made slightly bigger by a few more feet of the same material. The pulpit is likewise of earthy origin, but adorned with some fine, plump birds, perched on remarkably well behaved trees. The latter look as if they had known the use of the backboard, and had been made to sit upright at meals. After the service I went about three hours southward, and j oinecf Mr. Sewell at Imahatsinjo. "Monday, June Hth. we ought to have left for Ankavaudra this morn ing, but are delayed by the non-arri val of an extra tent which Mr. S. had ordered to he sent from the capital for the use of our men. The day has been spent in climbing a neigh bouring height to take a few pre liminary obsernttions, and get a glimpse of the country through which we have to travel. Aud now we make up our beds, hoping to be awake again before six, and, by

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F,rom Twi'.ligM to Gross Darkness. 79 about seven, fairly off towards the desert and a few weeks' pleasant roving in the west. "Tuesday, June 15th. For more than half the day we have been coming back upon the path I took from the foot ofltasy to Imahatsinjo, in order to get ourselves into the main track ; our guide not knowing the country well enoug'fi to make a straight run from the point of depar ture. ,ve made a mistake in not ordering to the front some men we engaged just before starting. But everybody seemed to agree at once to the route proposed by a veteran bearer from Ambohibcloma, and we all followed his lead like sheep, with the exception of three, who followed it more like human beings than any other animal I know of. It was supposed that 'we should not have, at any rate, more than two hours of this round-about process, But the sun got up to twelve o'clock, and was fast declining beyond, without any signs of our going after him down to the west. And then there was a general halt and council held upon the spot. \Ve seem to have been aimlessly wandering along a series of valleys, and some proposed that we should strike oyer the hills from where we stood. Others ap peared more inclined to strike our guide. \Vhere's this beaten path you promised us ?' they demanded of the veteran. His reply was: 'You evidently think I've been telling you lies, so look here If' we don't find a road at the foot of Ingllofotsy yonder (pointing to a mountain some distance ahead) then kill me dead! that's all !' It scarcely needs to be added that the worthy veteran was not killed, either dead or otherwise, for we found the beaten path according to his description, and also a rather fine waterfall, which he had never promised. But any one could see that we were at least half a day's journey to the east of where we ought to have been. And now it occurred to somebody to ask those three Imahatsinjo men why they didn't prevent us from going all that weary way round? The answer they gave must justify a previous remark concerning them. 'Oh !' they said, 'yon fellow (referring to the veteran) made out that he knew all about the road, and so we thought we would let him show it.' "Our route all the way from Ima hatsinjo has frequently been over old volcanic cinders, and through dry, hard grass, quite shoulder-high. we are now encamped for the night close to a miserable little village called Imorarano, about a thousand feet lower than our quarters of yes terday. There has been a smart shower of rain, and we have had a present of a solitary fowl, accompa nied with a request that we would stay over to-morrow, and let the people be assembled. There is a wrl'tched turf shed here, into which the folks creep on Sundays, by way of falling in with the national custom. Dut nobody preaches, nobody can read." This is a very suitable place for a young minister's first pastorate. The bishops of the diocese, however, give notice that all candidates will be expected to leave the dignity of the cloth at home, and bring out a brick mould and a copy of the Alphabet instead. "\Vednesday, June 16th. Our desire to understand the geography of the land led us, this morning', to the t9p of a lofty crag which rose temptingly near to the now well llefined road. "\Ve noticed a small lake lying about fiye miles E. An dranomena is the name by which it goes. There is said to be another

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80 F1om Twiliglit to G,oss Da1'kness. of considerable size further north ; and we were told of a big waterfall, a companion of the one passed yesterday, to be seen somewhere a little lower down the same stream. About noon we ate boiled rice, cold fowl, and guavas at a village of five or six reed houses, on the E. bank of the Sakay. Judging from the nume rous streams which are said to flow into it from the Ankaratra range of mountains, this river must become a powerful sweep of water by the time it nears the sea. It was fully a hundred yards wide at the ford. "Our tent is pitched in the midst of a few huts on a hill, to the south of the road along which we were going. Several such hamlets are to be met with at far-off intervals in this stretch of country known as desert. They are chiefly inhabited by slaves in charge of grazing cattle, are difficult of access, and serve as places of safety for the herds when threatened by thieving Sakalava. The Sakalava, however, it must be explained, seldom need to go out plundering without an excuse, as cattle lifting is a kind of sport in which many within the borders of the Hova territory are only too ready to lead the way." The next morning, Thursday, the 17th, we decided to change the route and pass to the south of those two 'prone mountains,' which are con spicuous landmarks on a broiling prairie. Our previous direction would have taken us along a northern track which lies between them. That 'sheer, craggy height' was now our steering-point, and Antaniman dry, a military station at its base, our intended quarters for the coming night. The journal says that we stopped for dinner at Itslnjoarivo, which is also a garrison village, the first on the road. "It is protected by a fence of tropical thorns, more than 18 yards wide, and harbours a dozen old soldiers, most of whom are too weak to fight, and too con firmed in theirsquatting to run away. There used to be twenty, they say, but the rest are dead. During our morning march the men kindly rescued an unfortunate blind calf from a hungry fate. It had fallen into a hollow. What a lively picture the scene would make There was the helpless offspring down below, and the forlorn old mother abo,e, very ungratefully threatening to dash headlong upon the boisterous crew who were hauling her progeny up with a rope. However, she seemed to be immensely pleased as she went off licking its poor blind face ; and I suppose the sight was intended to reward us for our trouble, for she never turned round to thank us." At Antanimandry we found that the officer in charge had been expecting our visit for several months. He was in great trouble just then. His daughter had died a few days before, leaving a new-born babe that was wailing for milk, and there was no woman near who was able to suckle it. Our mission there, evi dently, was to give comfort, and explain the mysterJ of a feeding bottle. Feeling better able to show our sympathy with the poor man and his family in a simple evening service than by a formal visit to their house, we asked them to assemble in the church by candlelight. They all seemed glad to attend, and surely were not allowed to go away unrefreshed. We were verv much pleased to find several young people who could read, and other signs of life in that small gathering in the wilderness. The governor is also pastor. "Friday, June 18th. This has bee11

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F'l'om TwiligM to Gross Da1'kness. 81 a long hard day, although we did not leave Antanimandry very early. We were delayed a little by having to advise our friend the kornandy (commander) about his asthma, and leave him a dose or two of medicine for his fever ; and then came off with a couple of 'the ten-thousand men' (the native army is so called) to guide us to our next resting-place. "Just before noon we halted by a stream, and in less than ten minutes, several huge pots of rice were perched above blazing fires, and one of the tents hurried up for our own accomodation. Mr. S. went up a neighbouring mound to forage for hill-tops-the map being ever to the fore-and I ran off down the stream and found a most delicious bath. Very soon after we got on the march again, a second watering place was crossed, and then a third, where the men all threw their burdens down, intending to make themselves at home for the night. It req1.1ired a very firm refusal on our part to prevent such a waste of daytime. I got myself carried over the water, and started off at full speed on foot with both our guides, leaving Mr. S. to reconcile the two and thirty to the plain necessity of following. The sun had set before we reached the next town, and there was no small difficulty made about letting us in after the gate had been walled up with heavy timbers. Even after the needful permission to enter had been applied for and obtained, the guard was not at all disposed to put himself about, and refused to remove more than two or three logs, which only left room enough to creep through. Adopting the Eastern fashion of speech, I asked him if he thought his servant was a dog, and made him bare the entrance right down to the ground, Mr. S. came up just as all was clear. The kornandy is plainly not versed in the ways of the world in Imerina. Instead of sending some one to see us safely within the enclosure, he arranged himself in his big house, and after a time-occupied no doubt in making things look as imposing as possible-called us in to be received. The matter of the gate he wanted to treat as a joke, and was about to lay all the blame upon our two guides, had he not been checked by an unceremo nious outburst against his badly disciplined soldiery. We have had a house set apart for our use, and a present of rice and a fowl. How we shall find things in the morning I cannot tell, but certainly our moonlight experience of Antsiroa mandidy is not over encouraging. The place is more strongly fortified than either of the two others we have entered, there being a ditch inside the impenetrable thicket. "Saturday, June 19th. Things have turned out much more pleasant than we expected. Our kornandy has somehow been brought to conduct himself with a little less display of his petty authority, and the al tered behaviour tends not a little to our comfort and peace of mind. He sent word this morning befo~e breakfast that he was waiting with the soldiers to receive us at his house. ,vhereupon he had our compliments forwarded to him, and a message to the effect that he might have to wait a very long time before we favoured him with our presence. Not many minutes after ward the great man ancl his followers appeared at our door, and of course we went out to say 'good morning,' and treated him with all due respect and friendliness. He begged us to stay over Sunday, and, on our con-

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82 From Twiliglit to G1'oss Dadcness. senting, ordered a large quantity of rice and a pig to be laid before us as a present, and a cow to be instantly milked for our benefit. But he had evidently been hurt in his mind at our not bringing a letter from the Prime Minister to him, as well as to the governors further on ; and with pardonable suspicion, wished to see the notes we were reported to be carrying. He might look at the outsides, we told him, if he pleased, which he die~ and was apparently satisfied that all was right. On being asked to assem ble all the young people for a short examination and a little teaching, he readily issued the needful com mands, and also took care that our hint about cleanliness was attended to as well. There was much washing of clothes and lamba going on out side the village all the morning. '' After dinner we betook ourselves to the reed-and-cow-dung structure, which is the church, and were very soon followed by a crowd of men and women, and boys and girls, nearly all looking their best. Mr. S. examined those who professed to be able to read, and discovered six who did well enough to merit a penny gospel. Doubtless there has been some little advance upon utter heathenism here, but the beast that has wallowed in filth may come out of the sink without being cleansed. We have little hope of Antsiroaman didy : its women haYe already cursed their children's children. An or dinary Malagasy girl, who happens to be passing through, looks like plll'ity itself among her equals here. The governor's secretary is principal preacher. He discourses upon nothing but the ProYerbs, and has been to ask for the exegesis of 'Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter, and the wringing of the nose bringeth forth blood: so.the forcing of wrath bringeth forth strife.' The New Testament, we found, was a land unknown to him in spite of his having a Bible, for which he gave a dollar. What the condition of the flock is may be gathered from the state of this their shepherd. As for the komandy, he, poor creature, knows less than anybody. ''And now let me come to con fession, by way of preparing for the Sabbath. I had a great row this morning with one of Mr. S.'s bear ers, who happened to come into the house whilst some of my own were asking whether we intended going on to-day or staying over to morrow. On hearing me answer that possibly we might choose to start after dinner, and that all had better be prepared, he squatted himself down uninvited, and impudently replied to the effect that Mr. S. and I could go on if we pleased, but that all the men would stay behind. Whereupon he was bidden at once to take him self and his impertinence out of the place, which he refused to do. In two seconds more he was tumbled out, head first ; and that's my humble confession. Certainly it was either a deed of violence, or a healthy exercise of muscular Chris tianity that I indulged in. Anyhow, the man abused ine well, saying all manner of evil against me falsely within hearing of half the village. He afterwards however came to his senses, and returned to beg pardon, which was granted. But Mr. S., who had then appeared upon the scene, told him he had only just escaped being dismissed without his wages, which would have been a far sorer calamity than twice the number of bruises he got. "Sunday, June 20th. The atten dance at church both morning and

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From Twilight to Gl'oss Darkness. 83 afternoon has been, of course, all that could be expected in a desert-bound town of lOOhouses, with no dependent hamlets. One has to say 'of course,' because it is a prevailing custom among the Malagasy to keep the greater part of their virtues well wrapped up, like their bits of finery, safe from contact with daily life and this vile world. Only a special occasion can draw them out. It was this proverbial trait of the native character which made the late Mis sionary Deputation from England feel how almost impossible it was for them to see things as they really are even outwardly, except in the few places which they were able to visit quietly and unaunounced. A considerable sale of hymns and the first Reading Book has been one result of our stay. The komandy insisted on buying the identical sixpenny Testament which I had used during the service ; for the same reason, I suppose, that every body in this country is so eager to buy second-hand clothes from us. The doctor's shop has also been opened for several easy cases. "There are a few Sakalava staying here, most of them distinguishable by a small, flat, white shell, pointed with a red bead worn, and upon the forehead.* we have had a little talk with one of them-a fine intel ligent fellow-and can see no reason why a vi~it should not be paid to Ambongo-the district from which he comes. The people thtJre consider themselves part of Ranava lona's kingdom. Last night there was a friendly strugglc between this Sakalava and an active youth belonging to Imerina, It was carried [* An almost exactly similar ornament is worn by some of the African tribes ; see Livingstone's Popula1 acconnt of 1lfissionary Tm eels and Researches in So11th A/rim; p. 205. ED.] on pretty much like wrestling, except that only the right arm was used, and only the right shoulder seized upon. After they had time to make a fair trial of their strength I got the two to separate, and grasp ing the big Sakalava by his knotted muscles, inquired if all the men of Ambongo were like himself. He re plied that he was a very poor speci men of them, on account of his unusually dark skin. "Monday, June 2lst. At length we are out in the open desert, and shall see no more dwellings till we come to Ankavandra on Thursday evening. A stoppage was made for dinner at Imarovatana, a dirty, old soldier-guarded village, W. of An tsiroamandidy. whilst waiting for the meal we employed ourselves in securing the position of a few hills, and then entering the house to which we were invited, set to work upon a handful of children, with intent to secure them also. The chief man; a komancly on a small scale, was just coming back from escorting the body of his child a short distance on its way to be buried somewhere east as we enter ed the village ; and we felt that he would be none the worse for having his grief broken in upon by hearing the briefly-told tale of a Father's love unto life everlasting repeated by those with whom his child had played. ''The inhabitants of these desert villages must surely lead a wretched existence. Not a soul dare venture out of this enclosure unarmed, and hunger and thirst are enemies eve1 within. A day or two ago a man and his wife went down into the fields to look after their rice. They were pounced upon unawares by a prowling gang, and the woman carried off. The husband only

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84 From Twilight to Gross Darkness. escaped with iis life through a gun missing fire. We are being accom panied by a number of people returning to Ankavandra and neigh bouring places, and they are glad to have our protection, we hear. Au escort of soldiers from Antsiroa mandidy will join us to-morrow. On leaving Imarovatana travellers west become owners of all the cattle which they can pick up on the road. At least so I was told, and on the strength of the information, shot one of two young bulls which were grazing on a hill-side about a. couple of miles from our present place of encampment. The two and thirty have had most of it for supper, and now, after family worship in their tent, they lie packed beneath its shelter, and the snoring thereof is as the sound of tired men, who have eaten well, and are full. ''Tuesday, June 22nd. The cara van numbers nearly 70 in all, and looks like a guerilla band, bristling with guns and spears. All have kept well together to-day, and a good steady march, broken as usual for the mid-day meal, has brought us to our resting-place on a slope near a sounding stream. Several wild cattle were sighted on the road, and immediately on reaching the camping ground, our Sakalava friend, four of the men, and myself went off to look for everybody's-beef. One of the escorting soldiers followed to join in the sport, and was the first to find big game. The Sakalava and I were trying to get at some grisly boars that were hiding in a swamp, when we heard a shot, and running up out of the hollow, came upon our companions just in time to see a full-grown bull trotting off on the other side of the valley, where he had been wounded whilst feeding. The majority seemed disposed to let him go, and began to talk of returning to the camp, as the sun was close upon setting. At my request, however, chase was given. It was easy to track the beast by a broad trail in the long grass, and stains of blood left here and there, but we never found him. Another was dimly descried on the farther side of a clump of trees beyond a marsh full of reeds ; and our barbaric comrade was asked to go over and show his skill. Let me de scribe him while he prepares for the attempt. Reis limbed like a young Hercules, and dressed like a noble savage. A piece of dark-blue calico is tucked about his loins and relieved against the swarthy skin by a care less fold of white. All the rest is bravery. His leathern belt and shot-pouch are heavy with studded brass nails. A brass-bound powderhorn swings therefrom at the end of two short chains, and the crirnson ti pped shell is pushed jauntily aside over his right temple. Gun and spear are almost as much part of himself as teeth and nails. "Whilst on our way after the wounded bull, a bird about the size of a pigeon started suddenly out of the gra5s and made a quick, short flight across the path, A pair of civilised eyes scarcely saw what it was that had passed. But the Sakalava spear was as quick as the bird. It glanced through a closing wing as it fell, and was recovered together with the scattered feathers in a good-humoured burst of vexation. We left its owner making ready for the game which had just been sighted. I noticed him with his ramrod clown the long barrel of his gun, and, fancying he was loading, began to think he was only a half' bretl hunter after all. But he quietly turned the weapon wrong-side-up,

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From Twilight to G1oss Darkness. 85 and slipped out a ball. 'That,' he whispered, 'was an extra one for the enemy, had any appeared; one will do for the bull.' And then he picked up his other and more primitive weapon, and stole across the marsh like a cat's shadow. Not a reed was seen to move along the whole of his stealthy way. By and bye he showed on the otner side, and got under cover of the trees. Soon after, we heard the report of his gun, and a call for us to join him where he was. By the time we reached the place there was only just enough daylight left to enable us to see a fine brown beast lying slain at his feet. Then we made a fire and sat roasting beef for a couple of hours or more, until the moon rose, every man attending to his own wants and burning his own fingers. The viscera seemed to be in special favour at our feast. Almost every individual entrail from that bull was scorched upon the fire and gnawed at. I had all manner of unmentionable delicacies kindly pressed upon my attention, but, with one or two ordinary exceptions, I kept to my plain broiled steak and its seasoning of salty ashes." Here was a capital opportunity for winning a Sakalava heart, even if our noble savage and I had not been recognised friends already. He was delighted with a present of half-a-dozen lucifer matches, and a handful of shot. They were carefully packed away in his pouch, and long ere this have been wondered at and gossiped about in many a village of wild Ambongo. My manifest interest in his welfare was responded to by a truly characteristic attention, which, though slight, was full of meaning. He got up and fetched my gun from a tree against which I had left it on sitting down by the fire, and laying the weapon beside me said : "Keep that near as long as you are travelling in this part of the country." I now got him to tell me where he had been going that he was thus returning home. His account of himself was to the fol lowing effect: Four months before, he left his people, much against his father's wish, with ten head of cattle for sale wherever the best market could be found. A younger brother, quite a lad, stole away to accompany him; and these two drove their terlious charge across the unpeopled wilderness of hills, and right on up to Imerina's capital. They were now making their way back again by the ordinary road, carrying home the. proceeds of the expedition, to wit : six red cotton handkerchiefs, all in a piece and meant to be worn as a lamba, a score and a half of forged iron bullets, an iron rat-trap, and 70 dollars in money. The net profits on their adventure would be some where about "But did nobody attack you in the desert?'' I asked. "Four men followed us one day with evident intent," was the reply, given as if relating a simple matter of course. "\Vere they armed?" "Yes, like myself, all of them." "And what did you do to get rid of them?'' "I called out that they would be fired at, if they didn't leave us alone," he said, "but they still kept clogging our path, following along a ridge above us, until I saw that they were soon going to have us at a great disadvantage." "And then?" "And then I made my brother drive on the cattle, and going towards the front of the ridge, knelt down to take aim at the vagabonds.'' "And fired?" "N"o, they all went off, and we saw no

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86 From Twitiglit to Gross Dal'l.ness. more of them." Surely Fortune favours the brave And I was not sorry, 0 barbaric friend, to find thee guiltless of human blood,-though Heaven alone knows what deeds thou hast allowed that old French musket to do, and on what errands thou hast sent thy shafted iron since first they became thine inseparable familiars. There was now light enough in the sky for us to see the shape of the country again. "Upon which," records the useful journal, "we made our way back laden with meat enough for the whole camp. There has been a general waking up since we arrived, and those who had already had the usual supper, and rolled them selves upin their lainba for the night, are now stewing and broiling beef, with much clatter of tongues, beneath the breezy moonlight. "Wednesday, June 23rd. This morning we safely passed the spot around which all the terrors of this lonesome way are f.or ever flitting like ghostly shades. It is a few yards of path between two dark glens, where the woods have hidden murderous men, and convenient boughs served as rests for their levelled guns. Several travellers have lost their lives there. Since we left Imarovatana the country has changed its aspect a great deal, and for the better. There is, how ever, no such stretch of forest as we imagined. Here and there, and, it may almost be added, everywhere,-the valleys and deep ravi1ies are thick with trees ; but there is no long, sounding road beneath arching boughs, such as leads from Imerina to the coast on the east. Our pro gress measured in direct line would not amount to very much, seeing that once or twice the road has doubled upon itself like-'a sheep's bmvels,' said our unfastidious followers. Still we have brought our destination within half a day's jour ney, and hope to be at Ankavandra, or Imiadanarlvo, as the town is really called, by noon to-morrow. This evening we invited the Sakalava into our tent for a chat. He is the son of the chief man of a village called Ampangoro, and says that he would not only allow us to teach his little girl, but also learn himself, were we to go and live in Imavo hazo. "Thursday, June 24th. Our last night's sleeping-place was in what we at first supposed would be a snug retreat. There was a clear stream, a winding wood in a hollow, and abundance of fuel. But there were also plagues of biting insects which swarmed about us until the sun set; and then came a raving wind, making us shiver beneath thick blankets. The road this morning for a time was pretty much like that of yesterday, wandering about over swelling high land, but dissimilar in having fewer trees below in -the glens. At noon we came to the brink of the mountain wall, and looked down into that mighty valley which has already been described. The descent was such as to make us feel thankful that our return wo11ld be by a different route. Above, the aneroid stood at 2450; below, at 300. Thus we are all but on the sea level. Once more the unnameable smell of the tropics steals into one's nostrils, and the heat glows full in all the air. At the foot of the pass we crossed the Akohofotsy, a small river which was stepped over on our road yesterday; went by some magnificent tamarind trees, and after a short ride on good level soil, most grateful to the footsore

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From Twiliglit to Gross Darkness. 87 bearers ; passed over the stream called Ankavandra, and came to the entrance of Imiadanarlvo. One of the three military folks who accom panied us had been sent on before with a note to announce our ap proach, but he had idled on the road, and arrived only just before us. In consequence of this we, were kept waiting an unconscionable time before being asked to enter. In fact, we had to suggest that we should be allowed to do so and get something to eat whilst formalities were being prepared, before we relieved our weary frame of mind. The two officials who came out to greet us with rusty swords and carry our message to the governor, were both well on towards being drunk. One of them, we learn, has been preach ing here of late, being a relative of the lwmaucly, on a visit. The other followed us into our house in considerable distress about one of his official shoes. The heel had come off in a lump, and he seemed to expect us to mend it for him. "After a cup of tea we went to pay our respects to the man of 11 honours who rules this outermost portion of Ranavalona's kingdom, and also to deliver the letter from the Prime Minister. Our reception was in full state, several chimney-pot hats and military great-coats figuring in the assembly. The governor is a much older man than the one at Antsiroamandidy, and also seems to be a wiser. All passed off pleasant] y enough, and not long afterwards we had a visit from the old mah's young wife, or rather one of them, for there are two, it seems, and all the ladies of the town. They marched into our premises like a stage procession, each one shaking hands with both of us as she entered. A young man accompanied them, and did the speechifying. We both replied, and then the procession turned tail, shook hands ad. li'.b., and retired, After dark, the second man in command came in with a troop of followers carrying food for the strangers. The Prime Minister's injunction, expressed in his note, about hospitable treatment, was evidently being respected. There were three large baskets of rice in the husk, a large quantity pounded white and clean, a whole pig just killed, and a live ox,-the latter to be brought to-morrow morning. "Since our evening meal ,ve have been trying to find out the state of the church by closely questioning the principal preacher. Things seem to be in a poor way, if one may judge from his scant knowledge and general bluntness of constitution. What we have both been longing to meet with out here, namely : a truly Christian man, with an average amount of information, does not appear likely to be found in Imiadanarivo. There is no great difficulty in the way of large num bers of Sakalava being taught, if only the right man could be secured to do it. Those in Ambongo are thoroughly friendly, and here we have the chief of all the Sakalava dwelling in this wide valley sitting with the Hova nobles as third in rank, and helping to welcome the strangers from Imerina.'' The following morning Mr. S. was poorly, and the work of exam ining the school, teaching a new tune, and preaching to the most picturesque congregation I have seen, fell entirely to me. There were only about 50 present at the commencement, we having requested that the children might be got together first. whilst busy with these, numbers of grown-up people

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88 From Twilight to Gross Darlcness. gathered about, and a man came to ask if the 'Christians' might be brought in. "Yes," was my reply, and I wanted to add, "by all mfii ns, my good fellow, if you have any here," but I knew he wouldn't understand me. The place was soon crowded out, and the school-examination had to be conducted before the whole assembly. After the service there began a lively traffic in books, which went on until dark, and would have continued to the total loss of our well-earned evening's quiet, had we not joined the Early Closing movement and resolutely shut up our shop. "Saturday, June 26th. Andra nonandr\ana has turned out to be much nearer than we expected to find it. It was nearly 8 o'clock when we left lmiadanarivo, and only 4 in the afternoon when we came to the end of our journey, although two hours were spent in shooting on the road. There are clouds of ducks upon the marshes here, and I know not to what proportions the game-bag might have swelled, had the men not seen a young crocodile : nobody would fetch the birds after that. Let me be careful on this occasion to guard my hale old friend from all suspicion of being a participator in these wanton pleasures. He was other wise occupied. And now I'll be revenged on him for not taking more interest in the sport. This is where and how I found him: He was comfortably seated beneath a shady tree near a Sakalava village, eating his dinner in the focus of an admiring semicircle of highly-orna mented women-folk, who seemed quite fascinated by the cheerful spectacle, for when I happened to sit down so as to s)rnt out their view, they immediately shifted to another post of observation, from which they could gaze as before. The object of their undisguised admiration now responded by giving them each a biscuit. Think of that, ye Quarterly Meetings Of course I was naturally led on to be similarly gallant, and added a little jam ; and our servants said : 'Eat, ladies.' Such is the force of exam ple. "The inhabitants of this village have only quite recently come from the west, which fact accounts for their ignorance of the Hova dialect, and our consequent difficulty in talking with them. Many of their number had their faces daubed with coloured earth in various patterns, and their teeth half covered with jet black stains. Nearly all the women had their ears bored and stretched, and the big ugly hole filled with it circular wooden orna ment. Some wore metal rings about their wrists and ancles, a string of beads around their necks, and a fillet of spangles on the forehead. Several of the fillets had a French 3 franc-piece in gold, or a dummy thereof, for the central decoration. Such are the fashions here. The spreading waves of crinoline have not yet come upon the squaws of the roving Sakalava. Our reception here at Andranon andriaua was pretty much the same as that we met with at the last place, except that we were only kept waiting a short time. The desire we expressed at lmiadanarivo to be allowed to make ourselves at home in the house allotted to us, before formally visiting the gover nor, had apparently been made known here, as we were shown at once to our quarters after being admitted within the vegetable forti-

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F',om Twili.glit to Gross 1Ja1kness. 89 fi.cations. We are the first white men, with the exception of two wandering collectors of natural cu riosities, who ha'l"e 'l"isited these places; and no doubt the big folks are mightily exercised in their minds as to the proper mode of receiving us. Our carrying letters from the Prime Minister, and being known to have charge of the church es, of course adds not a little to the general perplexity. The Sakalava here seem to be much less on an equality with the Hova than those at Imiadanarivo. "They all sat at the lower end of the room dUl'ing our reception by the governor this afternoon. The difference is due almost entirely, we believe, to the character of the Sakalava chief. He is a drunken, worthless fellow, who commands no respect from the I-Iovas, and conse quently his people are all but despised. "Sunday, June 27th. There were no Sakalava present at church this morning, at any rate none that were recognisable by dress or orna ment. But just before the afternoon service the wife of the chief and one or two other women came to see us, and were easily persuaded to attend. The contrast between their paint-bedizened faces, and the cleanly aspect of the I-Iova women, was very striking. vVe have solc.l a few small books, and have been not a little pestered by people wanting to buy every imaginable kind of thing, just as we were at the other towns. They seem resolved not to understand that we have not come prepared to supply all their wants. Some ask for spectacles, others want breeches and boots. The women come to inquire for rings and thimbles and combs, and are very CUl'ious to know what there is in our boxes. 'Have you any camphor ?' asks one. 'How much will you take for your blankets?' demands another. In fact we could very easily sell all that we have, and, even still more easily, relieve ourselves of the proceeds by giving to the poor. The tunes which were taught this morning are now being sadly maltreated by an over zealous company of singers in a neigh bouring house, to one's grievous annoyance. But there is no remedy that can be applied during so short a stay. Do what one will, these Malagasy congregations continue to twist and twirl our melodies about until they find something which sticks in their ears.'' On the Monday we returned to Imiadanarivo, after receiving an assurance from the governor that he would use his power to put a stop to the making and selling of rum amongst the I-Iova residents. Pray don't imagine, however, that any great reformation has been the result of our visit and good advice. The probabilities are 100,000 to 1 that the governor has not lifted a finger in the matter. If one could stay with him for a few months, and insisted upon his visiting every dwelling and breaking up all the stills, possibly there might be a change for the better. "Tuesday, J nne 29th. The people were assembled in the church before we had finished breakfast, and we found the rickety building crowded to overflowing. A great many Sakalava were preseL1t, and for the most part joined heartily in learning to sing a new hymn with which the service was opened. Mr. S. preached, and afterwards we adjourned to the governor's house to talk about the school.'' As a result of our urgent appeals on behalf of the children at

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88 From Ticiliglit to Gross Darkness. gathered about, and a man came to ask if the 'Christians' might be brought in. "Yes," was my reply, and I wanted to add, "by all mtR ns, my good fellow, if you have any here,'' but I knew he wouldn't understand me. The place was soon crowded out, and the school-examination had to be conducted before the whole assembly. After the service there began a lively traffic in books, which went on until dark, and would have. continued to the total loss of our well-earned evening's quiet, had we not joined the Early Closing movement and resolutely shut up our shop. "Saturday, June 26th. Andranonandrlana has turned out to be much nearer than we expected to find it. It was nearly 8 o'clock when we left lmiadanarivo, and only 4 in the afternoon when we came to the end of our journey, although two hours were spent in shooting on the road. There are clouds of ducks upon the marshes here, and I know not to what proportions the game-bag might have swelled, had the men not seen a young crocodile : nobody would fetch the birds after that. Let me be careful on this occasion to guard my hale old friend from all suspicion of being a participator in these wanton pleasures. He was other wise occupied. And now I'll be revenged on him for not taking more interest in the sport. This is where and how I found him: He was comfortably seated beneath a shady tree near a Sakalava village, eating his dinner in the focus of an admiring semicircle of highly-orna mented women-folk, who seemed quite fascinated by the cheerful spectacle, for when I happened to sit down so as to shut out theil' view, they immediately shifted to another post of observation, from which they could gaze as before. The object of their undisguised admiration now responded by giving them each a biscuit. Think of that, ye Quarterly Meetings Of course I was naturally led on to be similarly gallant, and added a little jam ; and our servants said : 'Eat, ladies.' Such is the force of exam ple. "The inhabitants of this village have only quite recently come from the west, which fact accounts for their ignorance of the Hova dialect, and our consequent difficulty in talking with them. Many of their number had their faces daubed with coloured earth in various patterns, and their teeth half covered with jet black stains. Nearly all the women had their ears bored and stretched, and the big ugly hole filled with a circular wooden orna ment. Some wore metal rings about their wrists and ancles, a string of beads around their necks, and a fillet of spangles on the forehead. Several of the fillets had a French 3 francpiece in gold, or a dummy thereof, for the central decoration. Such are the fashions here. The spreading waves of crinoline have not yet come upon the squaws of the roving Sakalava. Our reception here at Andranon andriaua was pretty much the same as that we met with at the last place, except that we were only kept waiting a short time. The desire we expressed at lmiadanarivo to be allowed to make ourselves at home in the house allotted to us, before formally visiting the gover nor, had apparently been made known here, as we were shown at once to our quarters after being admitted within the vegetable forti-

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From Twili{llit to Gross Darkness. 89 :fications. We are the first white men, with the exception of two wandering collectors of natural cu riosities, who ha,e visited these places; and no doubt the big folks are mightily exercised in their minds as to the proper mode of receiving us. Our carrying letters from the Prime Minister, and being known to have charge ofthe church es, of course adds not a little to the general perplexity. The Sakalava here seem to be much less on an equality with the Hova than those at Imiadanarivo. "They all sat at the lower end of the room during our reception by the governor this afternoon. The difference is due almost entirely, we believe, to the character of the Sakalava chief. He is a drunken, worthless fellow, who commands no respect from the Havas, and conse quently his people are all but despised. "Sunday, June 27th. There were no Sakalam present at church this morning, at any rate none that were recognisable by dress or orna ment. But just before the afternoon service the wife of the chief and one or two other women came to see us, and were easily persuaded to attend. The contrast between their paintbedizened faces, and the cleanly aspect of the Iforn women, was very striking. vVe have sold a few small books, and have been not a little pestered by people wanting to buy every imaginable kind of thing, just as we were at the other towns. They seem resolved not to understand that we have not come prepared to supply all their wants. Some ask for spectacles, others -..rnnt breeches and boots. The women come to inquire for rings and thimbles and combs, and are very curious to know what there is in our boxes. 'Have you any camphor ?' asks one. 'How much will you take for your blankets?' demands another. In fact we could very easily sell all that we have, and, even still more easily, relieve ourselves of the proceeds by giving to the poor. The tunes which were taught this morning are now being sadly maltreated by an over zealous company of singers in a neigh bouring house, to one's grievous annoyance. But there is no remedy that can be applied during so short a stay. Do what one will, these Malagasy congregations continue to twist and twirl our melodies about until they find something which sticks in their ears.'' On the Monday we returned to Imiadanarivo, after receiving an assurance from the governor that he would use his power to put a stop to the making and selling of rum amongst the Hova residents. Pray don't imagine, however, that any great reformation has been the result of our visit and good advice. The probabilities are 100,000 to 1 that the governor has not lifted a finger in the matter. If one could stay with him for a few months, and insisted upon his visiting every dwelling and breaking up all the stills, possibly there might be a change for the better. Tuesday, June 29th. The people were assembled in the church before we had finished breakfast, and we found the rickety builclingcrowded to overflowing. A great many Sakalava were present, aucl for the most part joined heartily in learning to sing a new hymn with which the service was opened. Mr. S. preached, and afterwanls we adjourned to the governor's house to talk about the school." As a result of our urgent appeals on behalf of the children at

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90 From Twilight to Gioss IJa1kness. Ankavandra a teacher was subse quently sent for; and, wonderful to relate, a young man has actually gone out from Imerina to live there. He is a natural son of the second governor by a slave woman, and that accounts for the uncommon ease with which his services have been secured. The same day's entry goes on to relate how we visited the Sakalava chief in his own village, and how we made ourselves at home in his house; my worthy companion occupying the only chair, and I squatting on a big cushion beside our host and his brass-studded gun. We learned that the unfortunate condi tion of his people in the north was not unknown to him, nor would the stiff advice which he purposed forwarding to his drunken deputy be the first which it had been found necessary to send. On returning to our quarters we were besieged, as we have been ever since we first entered the place, by all manner of visitors. Mr. S. was constantly keeping shop, and I was nearly driven wild by the most intractable set of patients I ever saw physicked. Besides putting my slender skill upon painful stretch, and wearying out my wits by wanting remedies for a legion of complaints out of the small stock of medicines I had at command, the creatures were conti nually re-appearing with inquiries as to what they were to eat, and what they weie to abstain from. I soon fell into a settled formula adapted to every case : "Don't eat tobacco," I said; "NeYer drink rum, or tell lies, or cheat, or steal, or commit adultery, but refrain from all kinds of evil, and do your best to wash yourself clean.'' One woman looked very glum on being prohibi ted tobacco, and came two or three times to see if some little commuta tion of the sentence could not be obtained. "Wednesday, June 30th. Started on the journey south, gratified not a little by hearing some of the children say, as we left the town, how sony they were to have us go away. Crossed first the Ankavandra stream, and then the Akohofotsy, and had o.ur dinner cooked on the southern bank of the Marolaka, near a village of the same name. This is the stream by which we encamped the day before the great descent. Its waters come tumbling down to the valley almost in one precipitous fall. Our tents are pitched for the night near another stream within half a mile of the Manarnbolo. Not far from us there is a Sakalava village, through which we passed, greatly, it appears, to the perplexity of the old chief who rules in it. He came soon after our arrival, looking very sorely hurt, and not much unlike one given to smo king hemp. A few kind words from us, informing him of our earnest desires for the welfare of his tribe in general, quickly relieved his mind, but he could not take our offered hands. Some natiye doctor has been prescribing for him, and he is forbid den to touch a sti'anger' s band lest the medicine should not act. But he says the Europeans are as the Almighty, and intends coming to morrow to try what their nostrums will do. Doubtless he will find himself more inconveniently beset with pro hibitions than before. Poor old Sakalava chief! "The trees have been delightful to day. In summer the road is gorgeous with oleanders, and the royal tama rind overshadows every hamlet. Some of the latter trees reach a gigantic growth. There were several under which a hundred oxen are accus-

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From Twiliglit to Gross Darkness. 91 tomed to shelter and not a horn of them feels the sun." The entry for Thursday, July lst, records that we were sorely torment ed with mosquitoes the previous night. "The men nearly all forsook the swarming tent, and lay down on the smoky side of their fires in the open air." It also tells how we rested for dinner by the "ti ver Itond y, a large tributary of the Manambolo. "There were very few people in the village, its former residents having been called away to live near Ankavandra on account of rebellious con duct. One of the big tamarinds here shelters a distillery. Bananas are largely used in the making of Saka lava rum. There are acres upon acres of them in this valley." Mention is likewise made of an old Sakalava who accompanied me clown to the Itoncly to point out a convenient spot for a bath, and enter tained me with an account of his voyage round the island in a French trading-vessel. He was thoroughly agape when he got to Mauritius and Bourbon. "Those are good lands," he said, "good lands most truly," and he would gladly have stayed there, and meant to do so, but the representative of the Hova goverment compelled him to return to the land of his ancestors. "Shouldn't I be a fool,'' he added, to wear my dirty old lamba and live in a miserable country like this, if I had a chance of getting to such good lands as those?'' I thought he was little less than a fool for continuing to wear his "dirty old lctmba" in any case, and straight way he wanted to beg some soap to wash it with. "The road in the afternoon was most laborious, winding over sterile braes, and fretted continually by mile after mile of loose pebbles, which oui luckless bearers called 'physio for invalids.' Towards sunset we looked from the brow of one of the low hills which spread over this part of the valley, and were gladdened by the sight of the Itondy, fringed with trees, and the village we had set our minds upon reaching, lying below within easy distance. At least so they appeared, but the latter proved to be so difficult of access that it might as well have been twice as far away. A few of us were striding hard upon the footsteps of our chief guide after we had got down from the overlooking height, and expecting every moment to come out clear of the high grass and besetting reeds, when suddenly we came to a dead halt in the thick of a tangle of brushwood and creep ers. The track had been quite overgrown. A desperate effort was made to crush down all the opposing mass, but we very soon beat a quick retreat, coming back to our compa nions nearly stung to screaming by the very mother of all nettles and itching. It was a laughable sight to see our guide scrubbing his bare back against a rough tree to relieve the torment. In a few minutes we returned to the conflict and succeeded in finding a passage, and also in cross ing a deep ditch of water, after which the way was free up to the village." It was from this village that some 300 cattle had been stolen by Imerina thieves about a couple of months before. 'iVe heard of the affair whilst waiting at Imahatsinjo, but little expected finding ourselves right in the midst of the injured Sakalava. "There were only a few women in the place on our arrival, just as night was closing around. Almost immediately, however, their men came hurrying up armed fro1n the fields. Then the1e was a long

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92 From Twilight to Gross Darkness. parley with the officer of om three-man esoort, in which every thing was most volubly explained, as far as we could see, to the satisfaction of the Sakalava. We could only make out a very little of what was said, but the grunts with which it was received were mostly those of assent, and as soon as the speech-making was over, guns and spears and big bold limbs took themselves off, and left us to pitch the tents, and make ourselves at home. The women had already fetched water for us at our rnquest, and a lad brought a log of wood for us to cook our supper with. Before the meat was finished, the Sakalava fires were blazing too, some of them out of doors like our own ; and the noise about them gradually became louder and more uproarious, until all the warriors got warmly drunk, and began marching around the village singing and dan cing, and rattling their arms. The burden of the chorus was that 'Ime na is never friendly long,' and us the procession passed not far from the encampment, our entire company was indirectly invited to give an account of itself, in answer to: Whose slaves are these that come treading on Itoera's land?' (Itoera is king of Imenabe, the Sakalava territory west of the Manambolo river, and the Bemaraha hills.) "After this, the song and chorus went dying away in the distance, and we thought the revellers had gone to bed. But they had only been off' to beat up a few more com panions, and now returned with a greater noise than ever, marching straight upon the ground we occu pied. Mr. S. and I happened to be walking about outside the tent, and had a special performance of whoop and stamp and clang-ing of weapons, extemporised at once for our edification. 'Yes, that's pretty good,' we said, accosting our visitors, the moment there was a slight lull in the row, 'but wait a little and you shall have a specimen of our singing.' \Ve then called out the two-and-thirty, and led them off in a favourite hymn. A piece of rag aflame in a handful of fat threw a fitting light upon the opposing groups. For the whole scene was a candle glimmering in outer night; and it made the dark ness visible. The majority of our followers are far from being true samples of lmerina light, but half a century of Christian teaching has shone even down to those who are slaves within the gate. And when one of them, a man of recognised worth and godfearingness, stood up at the close of the hymn, and prayed for the midnight west, the contrast became more striking than ever. After the worship was over somebody bade the guns and spears goon with their frolic, meaning no doubt to keep Imena on friendly terms as long as possible. But they could not excite themselves up to another chorus, and one of them was heard to say: 'Who's going to dance when we've just beerr praying ?' The rest of the night was spent in peace." The next day but one we arrived at Imanandaza. And here the light goose-quill must be restrained, and compelled to state the results of our observations and inquiries. \Ve went as spies to reconnoitre, and are fully convinced that at least two kingdoms of the Sakalava may be reached from the interior of the island as easily as from the coast. Those dwelling in the immediate neighbourhood of the three Hova military stations, as recognised subjects of Ranayalona, are visibly

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From Tll'ilight to G1'oss Da1'kness. 93 waking to a sense of their ignorance. ,v e noticed this more especially during our visit to their chief at Ankavandra. In the course of the conversation we had with him, he told us that he had been thinking over the advice we gave to the Imia danarivo people about a teach er, and meant himself to pay a lad from there to come afl.d teach the Sakalava children in their own village. Here then is the door of entrance already ajar, and possibly the future teachers for Imavohazo already going to school. But they will need a great deal of waking up and kindly encourage ment. Ankavandra must be visited regularly at least once a year, and friendly intercourse with the king of the north pushed on each time, if the desire of our hearts is to be obtained. As to Itoera and Imena down by the sea, any decided advance on the part of the Anka vandra Sakalava would probably be felt west of Ibemaraha, but the country appears to be more acces sible to Europeans from Imanandaza. We made strict inquiries as to the kind ofreception a missionary would meet with. Itoera, it seems, is a young man, and not long ago was visiting a corner of his kingdom lying south of the town just mention ed, where he advised the people to live at peace with all their neighbours; which is hardly the advice that his turbulent predecessors would have given. Just now however, his beard is beginning to grow, and this most natural occurence demands the life of one of the highest in power next to himself. ViTho the unfortu nate will be nobody will know until the very last moment. Consequently the country is somewhat excited. "But what about our visiting him?" we asked of the Sakalava informant, the deputy at Imanandaza, "would he receive us as friends?" "Yes," was the answer, "if you don't take any Imerina people with you." "Then if we were to get men from you and your chief at Ankavandra, all would be right?" "Yes, the Imena have confidence in you Europeans, and also in the Arabs, but the Hova they hate with all their hearts." "Why ?" "Because they've cheated so often." Thus there are kingdoms to be won in the wild-hearted west, and no lack of men on the Madagascar field who are ready to lead the first assault. But the charges of warfare ai;e somewhat heavy. One wonders if they will be forthcoming. Besides the substance of the above, the journal contains, as a result of much inquiry, a rather important geographical note, which may be conveniently inserted here. "No Sakalava whom we have met with knows anything whatever about that lake '!mania,' which appears on most of the maps of the island. It ought to be found not far from Imanandaza, according to its pictured position, but men who have wandered far and wide assure us that no such sheet of water is to be seen." If this native evidence be accepted as deciding against the existence of a lake, the most probable explana tion of its appearance on the maps is to suppose that the summer flood ing of two large rivers at their confluence was taken for a perennial mere. This becomes all the more likely when it is remembered that one of the two large rivers is the 'Mania,' which comes up from the Betsileo country to the south. The other is the Sakay, already mention ed 011 previous pages. After being weighted by the Kitsamby and a number of smaller streams from the Ankaratra range, this river rolls in

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94 From Ttdligld to Gross Darkness. a thundering fall upon the Betsiriry plain, a little beyond Imanandaza. ,v e were told that the roar can sometimes be heard two days' journey off. Itsiafadreharehn. is the name of the fall, and the river now becomes the Mahajilo. After the junction with the Mania its name is changed once more, and it goes on to the sea as Itslribihina or Itsitso bohina (the 'Unfordable'). It is navi gable all the way in light draught canoes, and is used bv traders from the Comoro islands as a means of access to various inland towns. Itsi manandrafozana is the name of the town at its mouth. The journey home was begun in good spirits. From Wednesday morning to Sunday noon we were making all possible haste through the wildernesss. The track had often to be felt for bv our feet rather than seen with ou; eyes, and the towering rank grass was swept down in front by a stick held crosswise before one's face. At every stage we left miles of it rolling in fire. The next travellers would be grateful for the clearance. One morning we met a gang of wild-cattle hunters. There were about 60 of them, and they had been two days out. Ten head of cattle were the result of their roaming. Upwards of 400 sometimes go out together on such expeditions, prowling over these unpeopled wastes for two or three months at a stretch. They carry rice, cooking-utensils, and mats, etc., but no tents. A hand ful of sticks and a bundle of grass soon makes them a shelter from the wind and dew. The cows and calves, when fairly surrounded, are grabbed at, seized, and bound, but the bulls always stand up to give battle, and almost invariably get off, unless shot. Nothing else of any importance occured, except much illness among our bearers. For several days I had four so bad with fever as scarcely to be able to walk, and one of them was going to die on the road in despair had I not put him in the palanquin and made his companions carry him. But there was no lack of.jollity in spite of small troubles. The noonday halt was always a hearty time. And then after the cooking and the rest came the general bundling up again. "Don't start until I've packed my load,"I remember one much-talking youth crying out. "It's the Vazaha's property I'm thinking of," he added, "and not myself. If any Sakalava steals me he'll be sure to sell me to Imerina again, and I shall get back home all the same. But these boxes won't. Go on!" "Monday, July 12th. We are now ascending into mid-winter. An easy day's journey has brought us up to 350_0 feet, and early to-morrow we shall be at Imahatsinjo. Our invalids are all the better for the change of air. The tents are set up just outside a well-dunged cattle-village, and one of the women of the place, who had never seen a European before, has thus given vent to her astonishment at finding us something different from her vague imaginings: "Hanky olona Many izy !" i.e., :'Bless me they're only human!" Tru() 0 woman of the well-dunged village! Only human. But there's not much wisdom in that 'only.' For let us but be truly human, and it must follow, as the night the day, that we cannot then be false to that which is Divine. W. C. PICKERSGILL,

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.A.mbonclrombe and i'ts Ghosts. 95 AMBONDROMBE AND ITS GHOSTS. THE Malagasy possessed before the introduction of Christianity but faint notions of any state after death. What can be gathered from old sayings and s1;1perstitions is somewhat obscure and confused. The dead were spoken of as having 'nocly mdndry,' a phrase that means literally 'gone home to sleep' ; it is often used for spending the night at a place and returning the next day, and on this account has been supposed to imply the hope of a return from the grave. Sometimes the dead were said to have become tsznontsz-1zo11a (nothing), or to have changed into wind (ldsan-ko dvotra). At other times they were spoken of as having gone away and become Gods (lasdn-ko A.ndriamdnitm); and in accordance with this belief they were commonly addressed in prayer. The belief in ghosts, which, with all its vagueness and superstition, presupposes the continued existence of the departed, is extremely common throughout the island. The names by which these shades of the departed are known are many. They are called rnatoatoa, ambiioa (or: ombiroa, amiroy, arimoy), lolo. The latter name, meaning also butte1jly, presents a remarkable coincidence with the use of the Greek word psyche. .Llngatrn is also used as the name of a spirit, but more probably means a demon than the ghost of a human being. In Betsileo two names are found, which are not used in Imerina, viz. kindly, and falictszvin' ny mdty. Fahasi'Cin' ny maty means literally 'the ninth of the dead.' Two other of the oi'clinals are used in an analogous manner: faltavdlo ( eighth) meaning ari enemy; and faliatelo being applied more generally to all besides one's self and one's friends and relations. The k:iuoly appear to inspire the Betsileo with strange fears, and are described as having red hollow eyes, slender waists, etc., in fact very much as if the idea of their form had arisen from the thought of a human skeleton, and had been grotesquely decorated by the superstitious fancy of the people. These descriptions were given with great minuteness to the writer and Mr. Cameron when on a visit to Betsileo with Dr. Mullens and the Rev. J. Pillans two years ago, and were evidently believed in most firmly by the people. 1V e were led to make inquiries in this direction by the fact that we were within sight of a place celebrated in the legendary lore of Madagascar, indeed a kind of Malagasy Olympus. "\Ve had often heard of Ambondrombe, as the place to which the spirits of the departed go after death, and knew that it was said to be somewhere

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96 .Ambonclrombe and its Gliosts. in the Betsileo country ; but the first sight of the mountain itself was quite unexpected. ,v e were on the highest part of the ridge on which the strange old village of Ivatoavo (High Rock) is situated, and had a splendid view of the country around us. Immediately below us to the south lay the plain of Tsienimparihy, an almost level space walled in by hills on nearly all sides, and rendered most picturesque by the many little green rings hedging the Betsileo vdla (hamlets). Far away to the east of us was a long hill, evidently of great height, the ridge of which formed a gentle bow-like curve. Upon asking its name we found it was the far-famed Ambon drombe, or, as the Betsileo call it, Iratsy or Irantsy (the evil place). It lies on the eastern border of the Betsileo country, and divides it from the home of the Tana.la, who live in the lower country to the east of it. The top of the mountain is often shrouded with clouds, and was so the second time we caught sight of it at another stage of our journey. This, with its height, and the fact of its being almost inaccessible from thick brushwood and steep rock, has helped to make it a place around which the superstition of ages has delighted to cast a mantle of mystery. ,ve asked if any one had ever climbed the hill, but were assured no one dared go near it. vV e enquired if any one would become our guide, but found that even the hope of getting some money from the Europeans, one of the strongest motive powers in Madagascar, was no inducement to undertake so perilous a task. Some evil-doers, it is said, in old times fled to Ambondrombe for safety, and cultivated friendly relations with the kindly, and settled permanently among them ; but of their descendants, if they ever had any, our informant could tell us nothing. vVe asked what was known of the place and who were its inhabitants, and were told it was tdnn-dolo, a land of ghosts, and that it was the 'place to which all sovereigns go immediately after their decease. They are not, however, supposed to remain there permanently, but to be carried from the cloud-crowned head of Ambondrombe to yet higher regions. The geography of the place is said to be this : the top of the hill is divided into three portions: the south belonging to Andrianampoi nimerina, the middle to Rada.ma I., and the north to Ranavalona I. In the centre is an open space like Andohalo, the place of public assembly in the centre of Antananarivo. When a sovereign is about to die, the ghosts are said to assemble and form in lines and squares in true military style, and then wait the approach of the royal guest, whom they welcome with the strains of music and the firing of royal salutes. Indeed they seem to be most loyal sprites, as when the present queen reached Fianarantsoa,

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.A.mbondrombe and its Ghosts. 97 a few weeks before these accounts were given us, the people of Imahazony, a town having Ambondrombe in full view to the N. E., heard, as they were cooking their evening meal, a salute of three guns. Strange sounds, it is said, often alarm those living near the mountain; some of them, however, show that the ghosts are supposed to lead a life wonderfully similar to that of their more earthly neighbours. The lowing of cattle and the crowing of cocks are said to be often heard. At times a voice will be heard shouting : "Bring me a calabash to milk the cows with." The race too must be con tinued, for midwives are among the inhabitants. When we made inquiries as to the probability of obtaining a guide, one old man said : "If you Europeans go to the top of Ambondrombe you must indeed be righteous people, and we shall all believe in you." Probably the missionaries in Betsileo will some day undertake the exploration of this famous mountain, and break the power of the superstition, which, notwithstanding the profession of Christianity, evidently has a firm hold on the minds of the people. W. E. Cous1Ns. AN EARLY SONNET ON MADAGASCAR. "TO llfY FRIEND WILL DAVEN ANT, UPON HIS POE11f OF 'MADAGASCAR.'' "What mighty princes poets are Those things The great ones stick at, and our very kings Lay down, they venture on; and with great ease Discover, conquer, what and where they please. Some phlegmatic sea-captain would have staid For money now, or victuals ; not have weigh'd Anchor without'em: Thou (Will) do'st not stay So much as for a wind, but go'st away, Land'st, view'st the country; fight'st, put'st all to rout, Before another could be putting out! Ancl now the news in town is : 'Davenant's come From Madagascar, fraught with laurel home;' And welcome (Will) for the first time, but prithee, In thy next voyage, bring the gold with thee." Sm JorrN SUCKLING; Born 1609, died 1642. Comptroller of the household to King Charles I. Note. This is one of the earliest notices of Madagascar to be met with in English literature. I have not been able to find the poem of Sir ,villiam Davenant's which is the subject of the above sonnet. Can any one inform us as to its character, ancl what special connection Davenant had with Madagascar to induce him to make this island the subject of a poem? And can any one inform us where the.first mention of Madagascar is to be found in English literatttre? ED,

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98 Drury's "Vocabulary of the Madagascm Language." DRURY'S "VOCABULARY OF THE MADAGASCAR LANGUAGE," WITH NOTES. AFTER I had been in Betsileo for a year I began to think that the language there spoken originally, while perhaps springing from a common stock, was totally different from that spoken by the Hovas ; and this arose from my meeting with many words in common use among the Betsileo that were (1) not to be found in the Dictionaries ; and also from (2) the ignorance among the Betsileo of many common Hova words ; and (3) many common Hova words having quite a different signification in Betsileo; e.g. (I) maina for maizina ; rnarlny for akaiky. (2) habakabaka, mangoakoa (B") ; kintana, faj1ry (B) ; varavaran-kely, hoaka (B); sahiratsy, langeza (B); rovitra, rota (B); ranjo, voavitsy (B). (3) matavy meaning matsatso rneloka ,, tezitra Hova ,, andriana ndma-lahy ,, sakaiza rdha ,, zavatra as mahay raha=mahay zavatra. The never occurring tra in finals, but always tsa, and the very distinct nasal n, also strengthened me in my opinion. I thought that intercourse with the Hovas had forced them to change their language. I changed my opinion, however, before I left; and the perusal of Robert Drury's book, but more especially the Vocabulary, has quite convinced me that the language has really been one all over the island. All, I think, B is used for Betsileo, are dialects springing from one common stock. I do not know that I have read any thing about Madagascar that has given me such pleasure, and hits set me off thinking so much, as has this Vocabulary of Drury's. Many of the words are there just as the Betsileo would speak them to this day ; vidlil Ldnitra sky Jlfanita sweet vasi:tra ox Oratrony, to-day and some words in his Vocabulary would not be known to those who have not been out of Imerina, but which are common in Betsileo ; see leg, knife, hearken, etc. It will be easily perceived that allowing for the diiilectical influences and the English spelling, the large majority of Drury's words are Hova now ; and as they were written in England 150 years ago they could not have been learned from the Hovas. If one's work would only allow it, what pleasure it would yield to make a circuit of the island, go among all the coastal tribes, east and west, and compare their peculiarities l In going through this Vocabulary, I have come to the conclusion that Drury himself did not write it; in fact could not; but that it was written from dictation. DrID'y was only 14 years of age when he left England. From his eleventh year he had desired to go to sea, and thus being restless, it is likely he would not be well educated.

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100 Driery's "Vocabula,y of tlze Madagascar Langieage." English All alive ants arm ask aunt above adding adorn advise afar off afraid after aged agree aiming age._ alone altar alter amaze anchor anger angle ankle anoint answer any body appoint arm-pit archer arise army alTOW ascend ashes asleep awoke argument alligator Body Drury's Malagasy ear be valu vetick (a,) vorecka munganton l'rorvovvaranuke a.mbunna tovoungay (b) merervaugher (c) mearnorro larvitch mertorhocks afarrong antitchs melongore (d) rnunondroer antitch ea.rare fesoronegher youvoyea chareck tumborto maluke merminter (e) pucopuke whosora mungonore lerhulu mermutore kelleck permawlay fuher taffick anucfalla (/) rnunonego lavanuck (11) lentey (h) mertearro meanconne voarha jorzarmaner Modern Malagasy aby {B) velona vitsika mangataka rahavavy It naka {?) o.mbony tovony miravaha mianara lavitra matahotra afar a antitra manondro (?) antitra irery fisoronana {?) ovay tserika tambato (?) rneloka (B) maminta pokopoko{pv hosory ? lehy olona ? helika foha tafika anak.fmanainga {?) lavenona mahatsiaro miankany voay a,, The omission of s after t is common in Betsileo. b. An imperative from toiona,, meaning something to boot, an addition. c. Imperative from ?nirava,ka,, d. Evidently an imperative from longo, a friend (SJ. e. Active from finta,na,, a fish-hook. f. I can find no word like this in the dictionaries, but I was once told in Fianarantsoa that Raboba of lkongo was Fanalo-lahy, meaning a good spearman, so that alo or a/a, may mean something which throws. g. A good example of the interchange of na, and ka,. 1,,. Can this come from lentikci 1 very likely. English boy brother basin brass black bull brains breast belly back beef bird belly-full beads blood bandy boil broil boil over butterfly blunder-buss bite broke buy broth blow beat bullock bitter backbone bad big bald-head barrel bee before beg behind bottle bosom beheaded bullet bastard by and bye broom beard breath bones beans bed Drury's Malagasy j orzarloy he royloyhe lerveerferuchs sarber minetay omebayloyhe bet tu trotter troke ambosick haner voro vinchy arraer (i) raw sekearf mundavy metonu mundroer (j) tondrotto basso munghabecks foluck rnevele ro chuffu fufuho (k) vosists rnerfaughts towler lambosick rawctha bay soroluher brecker ran a tentala ungulore mungprtock affarro folokuke (l) arrongher {ni) tompucluher baller sarray and.reek anna arny mermoffer (n) somuchs anygha towler an tuck keban Modem Malagasy zazalahy rahalahy lo via saba {pv.) mainty ornbelahy betro tratra troky(B) lamosina hen a vorona vintsina harana ra mandevilevy rnitono roatra (?) basy folaka mividy ro tsofo fofoka vositra mafaitra [ na taola-lamosiratsy be sola-loha bariky renitantely angaloha rnangataka afar a folakoho haranana tapaka-loha bala sary mama fa somotra aina taolana kibana (S) i. Coral (beads) of the sea : vide French Dictionary. j. Mmid?'Octt?'a,, spill, to run over, etc. k. Pass. imperative perhaps from fofoka,, to strike down. l. From the French flacon. in. I can find ha,?'ana,na, a gizzard. n. A good example of his cockneyism11.

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Drury's "Vocabulary of the Madagascar Langitage." 101 English basket ball borrow book or pa-per buffalo bee-hive bundle blind burning bell belly-ache bread bladder beauty baked bow bark barrel of a gun Drury's Malagasy harro hechurch mungaborrow terra toss howlu tohoke mevorovore (o) chemerheter mundavengher(p) potchew merrawrafu moffu tervenneer sengger (q) tongoffu ranafalla(?-) hulitcharzo cornu (s) blU'den enter Child [ ces annack carravan vungember cocoa-nut wooernew cloud rawho cold merninchy calabash vartarvo copper sarbermaner cat chacker cow omeba.yvovva cattle omebay cheek fa who crow quark call kyhu clear merlu (t) crooked maluke cock kuholoyhe capon kuho vosist candle charreck choose mechutors covetous mertete cotton hawsey (u) conjmor umossee climb munganeeher (v) chest sundoke coffin harzowonger come ha veer cock crow kuhumtu1ganu chin somo calf anuackanomebay clout seeke clean merrere Modern MalagasL harona manambotra taratasy haolo sohoka vorovoro tsy mahita mandcvona ? marary fo mofo tavy hena sang a tono-afo (?) reni-fa (1-) hoditra hazo kanona entana anaka vanga (S) voaniho rahona mangitsy (B) voatavo saba mena saka ombivavy omby vaoka (?) goaika keho madio meloka akoholahy akohovositra ? ? ? hasina mananika hazovorona a via [no akoho manesomotra anakomby sikina riry o. Viele French Diet., p1'end1e, p01ti1'. p. From the action of fire. q, Tsam-sanga is used often. ?', See also a?Tow. s. From the French can~n, perhaps. t. This is again a change of d. u. Viele French Diet. cotonfiliJ. v. Imperative with final syllable left out. w. F1om the teeth, points, of the comb. English comb common or plain coward calf of a leg canoe change carry creep [sed circumci cane caul choke cream cannon cotton-tree chamelion cloudy cloud cry cutlass come here civil come down come along cartouch box Daughter dark dish dog dry day dirty dram drunk dead dripping done duck deaf dust dew door divide drone dream droppecl dropped it Earth ear eye eyelids eyebrows Drury's Malagasy morrotondro (w) munto merwoozo veete Jacker mernercollu entu lomorly meforer tangerer sassuchhan er bohair hendro futore zare taw merauho rauho tomonghe vearawrer mehoveatowe woccust mejuchore aloyho fitter pinner annackampeller myeak (x) ampondrer amboer mungetterhetter hawncu:o merlauchs azzoloyhe wooersekarfe morte solick effer cherere merrengha lumbook aundew varavongher vackue ferzimbe munganofee larchuck larchorho tonna so fee moffu (z) volohea.k volohondring Modern Malagasy maro tondro manta(?) mavozo voa vitsy (B) lakana manakalo ento ? mifora. ? ? hendrony ? ? tan a mirahona rahona tomany viara mihfavia [etoy (?) mizotso ale ha anakampela (B) am boa mangetaheta andro maloto hazolahy voasakafo (?) maty solika efa tsiriry maraina lemboka andro varavarana vakio vazimba manonofy i latsaka i latstany sofina maso volo-volo handrina a;, This is probably a misprint for rnycak, and may possibly be for rnc,ka, which would mean the same as maiina, which means dark. z. This double f is evidently a printer's error for the double s written in the old style.

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D1ury's "Vocabulaty of tlze Madagascar Language,1' 99 Then he was 14 years in captivity, and associated only with sailors for another 14 years or so before his Adventures were written. Thus we might call him an uneducated man. The Vocabulary, however, is written with care, and we can see evidence of method and rule in all the words. Let us remember, too, that he was a cock ney ; hence that ever recurring 'r'; vide merheeter, henar, etc. (mahita, hena) ; as also the 'w' in such words as 'voa,' which he puts 'woer.' What scribe would think he would carry his cockneyisms into another language ? Hence, writing as he, Drury, spoke, we have all the 'rs' and 'ws' carefully written down, as also the phonetic sound of the Malagasy 'e,' as in day, may ; see great. It is very likely he lwd not a good ear, and this will also account for some blunders. Seeing also that he was a captive always thinking of escape, he would not apply himself to the study of the language ; and many of us have met with people who have been for years in a foreign country, yet have no intelligent acquaintance with the language. Let it be remembered, too, that the Betsileo and all ( ?) the coastal tribes have a strong nasal 'n.' Were I writing in English character the word 'anay' as pronounced by the Betsileo I should certainly write it "aangigh." L is very frequently used for d among the Sakalava: see, buy, small, wife, etc. Then again the Betsileo never say tra but a kind of tsct ; mianatsa, etc. etc., and which Drury represents by eh, or tch. I found, too, that the Betsileo, Saka.lava, and other tribes very frequently drop the final na, lea, trct; and also use them interchangeably; e.g. f asika, for f asina; olo, for olona, etc.; and as those finals are so often left out by Drury, does it not con firm what some of us have been thinking of for a few years past, that all roots were originally monasyllabic or dissyllabic, and that the na, ka, and tra are accretions ? I can quite imagine Drury being taken into some quiet study, or perhaps relating before a select company in his father's coffee-house; and as his amanuensis asks him these words one by one, as : ''Now what is the word for 'red' ?" he would at once say 'mctner' and down goes a phonetic English representation of exactly what he said. They would come to the word side. "Now what is the word for 'side' ?'' He would say: "Which? side of a thing, or side, ribs?" "Side, ribs," says his interrogator. "Oh," says Drury, putting his hand on his side, Tehezako, not pronouncing his final "o" very distinctly-and down goes tehezac, pronominal suffix as well as the noun. I can fancy the same in He tucko, for hz'.talco, etc. And again, his un:trained ear would prevent him from detecting the 'r' in andriana, and he would very likely pronounce it dian, and down goes clea, English as in sea, flea, etc., and another 'an' to make up dri an: doubtless the word stands for andriana. As I have said, I have been intensely interested in this book and Vocabulary, and as it is so ancient for :Malagasy literature (150 years), I thought it well just to draw up these few introductory pages while the matter was fresh in my mind, to stimulate us to more research into the Malagasy language.

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102 Driery's "Vocabulary of the Madagascar Language." English elbow enemy eat even enough ell egg evening eight eighty eight hun-dred eight thou-sand east Father fence forehead foot fruit finger fish fishing line friend four five fifteen five ancl twenty five and thirty five and forty five and fifty five and sixty five and seventy five and eighty five and ninety five hundred five thousand fat flower (e) flea fly fickle fool Drury's Malagasy heroy raffaloyhe humonner me1er tondra (a) hanarlavver tule arever varlo varlofolo varlozawto varlo arevo I Modern Malagasy kibo rafilahy homana tondraka ? tody hariva valo valofolo valozato valoarivo teenongher atsinanana royya or arber ray, aha (B) faretchs faritra. hondring handrina feendeer (b) fandia (B) wooerarzo voahiizo tonedro tondro feer (c) fiana (S) tollevinter \ tadi-flntana lonego ( d) longo effutchs I efatra deeme dimy folodeeme amby ') rowafolo deeme I amby talufolo deeme amby effuchfolo dee-I de:~er!l~1eeme1 l amby [ enuigfolo neeme easily amby seen fetofolo deeme I amby varlofolo deeme amby ::::;tw::eme JI deeme arevo vonedruck vonclraka(B) turvol o tavolo peer ? lawletchs lalitra harraravvo ? addoller adala a. As "tondraka ?l'!J taona," vide French Diet. b. The name given to the feet of princes in Betsileo. c. Fiana is a common word for fish in Menabe. d. The e is ins,;rted to lengthen the o, e. Evidently a mistake for jlou1. Drury's English I Malagasy fly away tumeelingher file choffer full i fenn u full moon volormer autchs fright mertawhoutchs tight mealler fighting mealle fire ossu (! ) fishing merminter flint affovarto flesh nofuch fox, foser forty effuch folo fan fernimper fly tumeeling (g) feathers, volo or hair fetters flame flower, or blossom fleshfork freemen fill it up forget flux fry flag flood fetch fist fortunate fast God grandfather grandmo-ther grandchild guinea-corn ground gold green goat get up {:~along garment gun girl parrapingo lellar vonegha. (h) fundrambaha. ner lovohitchs fennuyea hawlingho tonchoruck mungendy floy forora.wno mungolor fettock moss fortuchs deaan l:'nghorra.y rozackloy he rozackampeller zaffu ampember ton volarmaner michne (i) osa fahavvo munclaher munclahanner sekey or lamber ampegaur rutchs jorzorampeller Modern Malagasy tilina tsofa feno [tra volana antimatahotra miadia miady afo maminta afo valo nofoko fosa efatra folo tilina volo parapaingo lel (afo) vonyo fandrombakena lohavohitra fenoy hanadino ? manendry fara~ano man gala ? ? fatratra (?) Andrianana hary ray anaka la. hy (?) ray anaka ampela(?) zafy ampemba tany volamena ma.itso osy ? mandeha mandehana sikina, lamba a.n1pingaratra (S) zaza ampela f. Another mistake, the clouble f has been mistaken for double s. g. Sakalava for tsidina. h. A good example of the nasal n. i, The n is probably a misprint ; read michue.

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Drurv's "Vocabulaiy of tlie Madagascar Language. 103 English Drury's Modern English Drury's Modern Malagasy Malagasy Malagasy llfala~~ great bay be Jar senevolo sinivolo goose onego-onego ? idle merwoozzo mavozo guinea-hen congar akanga jealous mermerrothhe ? guts tenaugh tsinay jest somoneger somonga get farther mesorangha miesora any joint sandre sandry (arm) g~ass habbetchs ahitra I won't zawho merloy izaho malaigive me some mungaymay rnanome I will atawuch ataoko [na] g~ve you none chemlUlgamay tsy manome I'll do no more[ cheme ow-tsy manao give youmayow orneo quere akory good suer soa itch (j) hauta haotra guard ambenner ambeno I zawho izaho grow metornbo mitornbo iron ve vy great way larvitchs lavitra island nosa nosy gunpowder pounday pondy King vanzaccar mpanjaka not good chesuer tsy soa kick k)timpaughho tsipaka get you gone meangor miaingil. kill vonu vono garlic tonegulick tongolo kidneys wooerhaner voahena grindstone sunghe1er tsingerina ketch sumboro sambon~ grind sunghern tsingero knife messu misa (B good while ail er ela kite r,erponge papango House trangho trano knee uhalleck lohalika honey tentala tantely Ladle suddro sotro he:,t merfanner mafana land tata or tonna tany hail avandrar havandra lance luffu lefona head luher loha lie down mundraer mandria hair volo volo light merzavvo mazava hand tong her tlmana. lightning munghaluchs manelatra heart fn fo lights rabuchhaner raboka hena hog lambo Iambo (pv.) hook vinter fintana look or see merchlnsove1 mitsinjovy horn tondrook tandroka looking-glass hachoro hetsoro (S) hide mevonoor mivony low eever, iva hyde hulutchs hoditra let go ellyfoy alefoy hungry homerserray ? lie mervancla. mivandy (B) hundred zawto zato love taark tiako hat satook satroka little kala kely hoof hooto hoho live valu velona. here inteer inty lemon voersarra voasary hear merray mah are loss lavo levona (!) hen coohovovva akohovavy leaf ravven ravina hearken metinoor mitaina (B) lead ferock fir aka hot moy may lips so neg he sony hill, or moun-vohitcht vohitra. leg tome book tomboko (B) tain liver attinhaner atihena. head-ache luhermungalohalouse hough hao lelu long lavvar lava husband valley (S) vady lend mungaborro mamambo-hatchet fermackey famaky tra (?) halt tarehu ? lock, or key fungheily fanalahidy how do you do? whosuer ho SO:\ lock of a gun sophe ampegar sofina hunt mungoro mangorona satch hole la.vvack lavaka long while alelur elaela how many fera firy locust verloller valala hoe soro ? lizarcl roso horse suwaller soavaly left hand tougher a vveer tanan-avia heel hehu ? lean merheer mahia hedgehog sorer ? looseness ohorawha ., .,.ra hiccough suecendrotch tsikendrotra lobste1 orur orona (pv.) hire metombozzar mitarnbazo j. As in mihaotm, to scratch. hark metinore mitainoa re ha1umer fornurore fanoto (?) (B) k, The imperative form, :perhaps, tsipalw,

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104 Driery's "Vocabulary of tlie Madagascar Language." English lick don't love it Man mad many maggot mother moon men milk monkey midnight mouth musk me-lon mucl million muskittoes morning to-morrow mead marrow melt milt mouse Nail of fin-ger navel nine neck ninety nine hun-dred nothing night north needle no nose nigh net nettles Oath one old ox oil open t'other clay Potatoes plantain plantation plant pap partridge pine-apple Drury's Malagasy lalouw* hallucht loyhe tounzaccar mawrow oletchs ranna voler hulu ronoonu vergee mutungalla vovvor wantange futuck arr la moco emerrawha hummerrawha toak manuccover tennoo (l) arrachaner varlarvo oho feutch seve woozzo seve folo seve zawto shemishe aulla avarruchs fingihts charra oroong merreena arratto fundrozo mefontorr eser antichs vositchs tongon tongher (rn) sucorffu orertroung ovemarme ounche tateck fumbulayher nunu hattacottoe mernasse Modern Malagasy lelafo halako ity lahy tanjaka (?) maro holitra reny voli1.11a olona ronono varika -maton-alina vava voatango fotaka. alina (?) moko a.-maraina (?) a.maray to aka menaka teno ar ... hena voalavo hoho foitra sivy vozona sivi-folo sivi-zato (pv.) tsy misy alina avaratra fanjaitra tsa (B) orona mariny hara to ? mifanta Isa antitra vositra ta:iJ.atana sokafy oratrony (B) ovy mamy hotsy (B) famboly nono mananasy This is very likely an imperative in a, lelafo or lelao, from lela, lelaka. l. Vide French Diet. 1'eno "dissont." in. Tanatana is the castor-oil plant. English pillar plumb powder point pistol poison prisoner pot pipe poor people pepper pluncler 1>itch ple<1sant pirnte 1mrnlain periwinkle pigeon Quick Rain rainbow rammer razor red rice rich rise rough run rope runaway ripe 1ibs Drury's Malagasy ounder lomoty (n) poundey metrondroer plato vorick (o) sambuch velongha keloyhe l'a.ITOC hulu saccavero mundravor let a mertarva kindoc toyanomebaloy. he dedder dahew merlacky orer avvar (p) funhochuck feharratchs man er varray manzarry fuher meraffu (q) lomoy tolle (!') leffer mossock tow lertahazuc right Sand salt hand tougher avanner fasse sail son sun slave steer sugarcane sugar sweet star spoon silver scull serer Joy annacloyl:re andro anaavo (s) rorvovva array sererruarme marme verseer (t) suto volerfutey harrandluher Modern Malagasy an dry lamoty pondy (pv.) mitondro poleta (?) vorika sambotra vii any kilanjy (?) reraka olona sakaviro manclrava dity matavy ? tain-ombelahy ? ? malaky orana avana fanoto (?) :fiharatra mena vary manzary foha marofa olomay (B) tady lefa (B) mas aka faolan -tehe za/,;o tanan-avana fasina (B) sira lay anakalahy anclro andevo ? fary simmamy mamy fajiry (B) sotro volafotsy karan-doha n. Larnoty is the wild plum, the word should be plum. o. U secl in speaking of ody. p. The final syllable dropped and the cockney 1 put on. q. Vide French Diet. 1. A very good example of the substitution of l for d among the Sako.lava .. s. l.VIispri.ntecl : the first a, should be d. t. A large star ( or planet in Betsileo ).

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Drury's "Vocabulary of the JJfaclagascm Language." 105 English shoulder sleep shot six seven seventeen seventy six hun-dred seven hundred six thous3and seven thou-sand small sunrise sunset small small shot spittle spit south sore sour ship stink strong short spirit seize shoe stool Drury's Malagasy soroke meroro borseer eanning fee to folofeetoambe feeto folo ean.ning za wto feeto zawto eanning arevo feeto arevo merlinick terrack soffutch andro oruff pottchuck eva mundorer ateemo boy mervoyhe sambo manche merharee fuher lulu samboro hunghermaro feketrar sick merrawra sky longi tchs smooth merlammer sound,noise } or bark-ing of a mungano dog shoot teferu shave haharu soft merlemma smothered settuck smoke lembook smoke a metroher tobacpipe co shut the arradingho door sell vele sour milk ronoonumandr:i. sea servant, sir snares see I see it shirt seat speak sweet-scen-ted sc;>me 1eac salamonger faundric merheter he tucko commeser fetuaruc mevolengher maungetchs mishe Modern Malagasy soroka miroro (S) basia en.i.na fito 1 J madinika teraka tsofotra fats aka ivy mandrora atsimo vay mavao sambo mantsina mahery fohy lolo (?) sambory fiketrahana marary lanitra malama maneno tifiro haratra male my setroka (pv.) lemboka mitl'Oka arinclrino vidy [dry ronono man riaka salama fandrika mahita hitako somizy (?) fitoerako mivolo.na manitra misy English Drury's Malagasy wander mungozooner munding speckle shake stay spring of vovo water spring of the year spring of agunlock swim shame split small-pox staff skin side slender spinage serpent snake spin stand steel steal scissors snore sweat sing shore spit silly sheep spider stone sink Tamarind tankard take think trumpet thirteen three thunder-bolt thigh thunder town thread thorn told tears tobacco toe two ten twenty thousand thief teeth tongue sarrar allesoro lomong manghetchs vaccu creer zahharr huletchs tohazuc merlenec orngha manerrander mary mundoroutchs mechangonner veoffo mungaulutchs hette mearoutchs lingetch meansa,v tomeboho fermerlarzo1 mernay oundy morrotongher varto tumborto keley furnumerrauno rumbessu mevetchevetche anchever folotaluambe folu talu apmy fay ho took tannarr fola forte mungaborrow rawnomossu tobacco annackinc roaa. folo roaafolo arevo ampegalutchs neefa leller Modern Malagasy vandana mangozohozo monina (?) vovo lomano menatia vakio ? zara hoditra tehezako maclinika (?) a nan a menarana ? mijanona vi-afo mangalatra hety mierotra dinitra misa tamboho? ? ? on dry maro. tongo-tra vato tambato? kily (S) fanome -rano rambesina mihevitretra. an-tsiva folo telo amtelo [by ? fe kotroka tanana foly fatika (S) manambara ranomaso tobako ? roa folo roafolo arivo mpangalatra nify lela.

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106 Driwy's "Vocabula1y of tlte Madagascar Language." English Drury's Modern English Drury's Modern Malagasy Malagasy Malagasy Mal11:gasy tie fahaugh (v) vahao what are you eno tough noro inona atao-trigger funghatchu(w) hatsika doing? nao? tail ohe (x) ohy wadding lmets hoto land turtle hacha:ffu ? west andre:ffer andrefana sea turtle fauuu fano wood for firing ha toy ha.tay tall lavvor lava wonder cherrec tserika turn metuleher mitodiha work mearsar miasa tell one, two, mungesau manislli wife walley valy (S) tread [&c. hechawho hitsaho weary mocoutchs mokotra through (z) torawho toraho white man verzarhar Vazaha thrive \munzarre manjary wide mertarcheths mitaritra or take rumbessu rambesina mitatra tutanag forockfutey firaka-fotsy whisper bisabise bitsibitsika timber harzo hazo wasp fundroso ? Uncle ranaloyhe ? wrist soro ? under umbonna am bony wise merhehitchs mahihitra? udder vorotchs ? winter fouser ugly rawtche ratsy whistle fuke foka vomit mundoer mandoa weave mernendru ? uncivil chewoocust ? wet lay lena ,vater rawno rano Yam ave ovy water-melon woerzarvo voata.vo years color ? wax luco loko year taough taona warm moy may yes toguore tokoa wave onezur onjana yonder aruea aroa wind ornghin anina (a yesterday umorla omaly wood auler ala [breeze) Sunday Alhaida Alahady white fute fotsy Monday Alletenine Alatsinainy wild melampo lemby(deserTuesday Talorter Talata what? eno inona? [ ted)? ,vednesday Alarrerbeer Alarobia what's this ? eno toey inona itoy? Thursday Commeeshe Kamisy* what's the mat-eno zow inona izao? Friday Jumor Zoma tar? Saturday Sarbueche Sabotsy* v. This is evidently meant for untie. The omission of Ala in Thursday, and w. Fihatsim-basy, or fanatsim-basy. of A in Saturday is common in Imerina x. Vide Queue, French Diet. even. z. This should be throw. J, RICHARDSON, NATIVE ACCOUNT OF A TRIBE CALLED 'KALIO' OR 'BEHOSY.' About a week's journey to the we3t of the Capital is a tribe called the Kalio or Belu'>sy. They live in a woody country extending from Mojanga. to Maha.ho. Their food is honey, eels, and lemurs. The lemurs are caught in traps and fattened. They are black, and in appearance are much like the Sakalava. They make network of cords, hence the name Beliosy. See Fch. Diet., s. v. hosy. They jump from tree to tree like monkeys, and cannot easily be followed, as the country is rocky. They are extremely timid, and, if captured, die of fright. Can any one confirm or contradict the above account ? W. E. C. [For notice of the country where these people live, see Mr. Pickersgill's paper, p. 76, ante. The Behosy seem to resemble in the>r he.bits the 'Monkey Men' of Dourga Strait, New Guine~; see Wood's Natural History of Man, Vol. ii. p, 224. Eo.]

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Th.e Burning of the Idol Ramahavaly. 107 THE BURNING OF THE IDOL RAM AHA V ALY.* TRANSLATED FROJJf A NATIVE AC
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108 Tlie Buming of the Iaol Ramahavaly. I will burn them with it; so deliver up everything." And so everyone who was there was astonished. And the idol was kept in a wooden box, there in the corner of the house called the zoio-firardzana,"' and when they were told to fetch it, they all looked at each other, for they were afraid of the idol, and would not fetch it. Then the Queen's messengers said, "Do yon fetch it, Rainivelo ;" so I rose to fetch it, Rainisoamana hirana and Rainandrianaly whispering to me, "Take good care lest you fall from the ladder ;" so I went up the ladder and brought down the box with the idol in it, and all its belongings, and everything in which they were placed. There were two large wooden boxes ; and 15 large baskets with covers, and 11 smaller ones with covers; and 9 honey boxes ;t and :they were all as full as they could be. The smaller baskets were full of leaves and pieces of wood used as charms ; and the honey boxes were full of idols or charms made of small pieces of wood fastened together alternately with small Bilver links, and coral, and beads, in this fashion [here in the ms. is a sketch of one of these ody, something apparently to be used as a fillet for the head or an armlet J : things to be worn across the shoulder, and round the neck, and on the head, on going to war ; all the honey boxes were filled with charms of this kind. One of the wooden boxes was filled with red lamba and scarlet cloth. And in the other box was the idol itself, which they call Ingahibe. [Perhaps the nearest, and not inappropriate, translation of this word is 'The old gentleman.'] This consisted of two pieces of wood, seven finger-breadths in length, and about the size of one's wrist in thickness. And their coverings were : first, dark blue cloth, secondly, native silk cloth, and thirdly, scarlet cloth ; and they were also anointed with castor oil, and with a gum used for burning as incense; and between them were coral beads, and pieces of silver, and white beads; and outside they were ornamented with pieces of scarlet cloth and dark blue cloth, so that their appearance was like a bird having wings and head, the body glittering with the different kinds of beads fastened to it ; its form was something like this : [here in the ms. a sketch is given which has_ a rude resemblance to a bird.] And I must confess that although I had taken hold ofit, I still half thought it something having life, but after holding it up some time, I remembered that I was holding it too long through my joy, while The north-east corner of Hova houses, so calleu from the 1,hy, a kind of invocatory chant to the ancestors and idols being sung there. It is esteemetl the most sacred part of the house, and in it the fixed bedstead is generally placed. t A piece of the trunk of a tree, about a foot to eighteen inches ueep, ten to twelve inches in diameter, hollowed out and used to bring honey from the fo1est.

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T!te Burning of t!te Idol Ramaltavaly. 109 they on the other hand were lost in amazement seeing me pull it to pieces. Then they said, all speaking confidently: "If Rainivelo does not die .suddenly, then there surely is what they call Jehovah, to whom he prays," for while still holding it up I discoursed upon the nothingness of idols, and spoke of the power of God and the mercy of Jesus Christ. And when I was just going to burn it, I said: "Look, all of you, for I will chop it up with the axe," then taking the axe I split it up, but it was a little troublesome, for the wood was slippery with the castor oil. And as I was about to burn it in the fire, Rainandrianaly said: "Take good care of your fire, for if it goes out, they will say, 'lngahibe has put out the fire ;' so I put some fat and firewood before I lighted it. And when the fire was well kindled, I put on first all the smaller articles and the leaves. So when they were on fire, the proverb was fulfilled: Ainbarivatry mitain-tenany, satria vonto tseroka. ["A.mbdrivdtry (a shrub, the pigeon-pea) burning itself, because full of grease."] And again, when Ingahibe was thrown on the fire, it reminded one of the saying: Horiiilca namo nosan-kena, lwa levona mbct amy ny jonosany. ["Horzrika (the edible leaf of an arum, but often used from its size to wrap up smaller vegetables), vegetable wrapper, then eaten together with what it wrapped."] And when they were all in the fire there was a fine blaze, for I took care that all should be destroyed, so glad was I in burning them. And when all was consumed we all went away home; and as we were going along the road Ramangidy's people said: "Parson Rainivelo will fall, you'll see, and die." However I happened to be behind them all the while, though they did not know it ; so when I said: ''Here I am, for whoever tells you that, tells a lie," they were all ashamed and had nothing to say for themselves. So when I came to Alakamisy [ or Thursday, the name also of the place where the market is held on that day, near Ambohimanga J I told everyone I came near of all the people assembled at the market about our burning the idol, for although there were many idols here among the Malagasy, there was not one of all of them equal to Ramahavaly. And after Ramahavaly's burning, I visited 21 congregations one after another, preaching every Sunday about the destruction of the idols, and the burning of Ramahavaly, and the fulfilling of the Scriptures, and the power of Jesus Christ ; and this is what I preached, John xx. 24-29, especially the words: "Be not faithless, but believing." My reason for visiting those congregations was

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110 The Burning of the Idol Ramahavaty. that they were all in the vicinity of the idol village, as well as containing many people who believed in it and acknowledged its power. These are the names of the 21 congregations to whom I preached as stated above:-1.-Ambohimanga 8.-Isaoka 15.-Ilafy 2.-do. (Andakana) 9.-Ambodifahitra 16.-Ambohipanja 3.-Imeritsiafindra 10.-Ambohitrantenaina 17.-Inamehana 4.-Imerimandroso 11.-1\fanandriana 18.-Ambohidratrimo 5.-Imahatsinjo 12.-Ifiaferana 19.-Mandrarahody 6.-Imangarano 13.-Ambatofotsy 20.-Ampasika 7.-Imanankasina 14.-Ilazaina 21.-.A.varatr' Ampa [nanina I preached nothing else until I had visited all these congregations. RAINIVELO, Pastor. [.TIanslated by the EDITOR.] GLEANINGS FROM "LIVINGSTONE'S LAST JOURNALS." (A) WORDS SIMILAR TO MALAGASY. l.-Sanclaritse, gum copal=sanclarosy. Used by Arab traders. The native name is lcurnbe (v. 1, p. 30), or, in some parts, rnchenga (v. 1, p. 70). 2.-Biir.t bwa, name of a fruit =(voa ?) (v, 1, p. 149). 3.-Khan,ga, guinea fowl=alcanga (v. 1, p. 31). 4.-111achna lcangct, guinea fowl's eye=rnason' alcanga (?) (v. 1, p. 180). 5.-111asu lcantussi, bird's eye =maso (?) (v. 1, p. 180). 6.-Shuare Raphia, (native ?) name of a palm=raofia (?) (v. 1, p 208). 1.-Ngombe, an ox=omby (v. 2, p. 55). 8.-Lamba, something woven ("weavers of the Lamba,"-v. 2, p. 56). Mal. lamba, cloth. 9.-Bolongo, friendship (v. 2, p. 69); cf. longo, a friend, in Sakalava (v. 2, p. 69). 10.-Matanga, a melon= voatango (?) (v. 2, p. 221). (B) CUSTOMS LIKE THOSE OF THE JJIALAGASY. 1.-The poison ordeal is common, and vomiting is a sign of innocence (v. 1, p. 134). The name of the ordeal is muave; is this connected with mosavy 1 2.-A ceremony of blood-drinking, similar to the fati-clra, is a common ratification of peace and pledge of friendship, as among the Malagasy (v. 1, p. i.:2The manner of beckoning with the palm clown, noticed by Livingstone (v. 1, p. 346), corresponds exactly with the Malagasy practice. 4.-The way of dressing the hair in little knobs noticed (v. 1, p. 81) by him seems to be similar to the fashion commonly adopted here. 5. "The Makonde blame witches for disease and death ; when one of a village dies, the whole population departs" (v. 1, p. 28). The Sakalava are said to do the same. W, E. C.

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Notices of New Books on Madagascar. 111 NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS ON MADAGASCAR. (1) Twelve Months in Madagascar. By Joseph Mullens, D.D., Foreign Secretary of the London Missionary Society. London: J. Nisbet and Co. We are glad to welcome from the graphic pen of Dr. Mullens an addition to the not very voluminous collection of books on Madagascar. In the twelvemonth of his stay in this country he possessed unusual opportunities for seeing those portions of the Island where the L. M. S. mission is in operation ; and bis book gives a picturesque, and, on the whole, not very far from correct account of both the country and people, as far they came under bis notice. It is not very remarkable, considering the circumstances of the visit of the Deputation, and their want of that thorough acquaintance with the people which only constant intercourse with them can give, that the Doctor's views of the Malagasy are somewhat strongly tinted with rose-colour. The congregations and people, as seen by the Deputation in most of their tours through the country, presented by no means their usual every-day aspect, and consequently, left a far more favourable impression as to their progress than the actual state of things warrants one in forming. So that we demur very strongly to the statement that the Doctor and his colleague "everywhere came into closest oontact with the native churches, to an ex:tent that no Englishman, missionary or traveller, had ever done before" (preface, p. v.). On the contrary, we affirm that every missionary in active work comes into far closer contact with his people at every Bible class and Sunday service than the Deputation could possibly do at any of the places they passed through. And this .was just because, as Dr. Mullens says, they "saw the religious life of the people on the large scale, not merely in its details in a single locality." Making, however, allowance for the above causes of misconception, the book contains much to interest not only those who have never been in Madagascar, but also those who are familiar with it. No one has yet described the physical features of the country half so minutely and picturesquely as Dr. Mullens has done in this book. The Doctor has a gift for physical geography, and has pictured the mountain ranges, the rice plains, and the river valleys of the interior with real enthusiasm. We can hardly however go quite so far as he does in his admiration of the bare hills and dreary landscapes of many parts of Imerina. And though by no means belonging to the nil admirciri class of people, who go from Dan to Beersheba and find all barren, we can hardly help smiling at the profusion with which the epithet 'noble' is strewn over his pages when speaking of hills and rocks. True we sometimes have gorgeous effects of light aud shade, and the red clay hills glow at sunset with a marvellous intensity of colour ; but the exquisite purity of the air at some times of the year would glorify any landscape, however devoid of interest. But we owe warm thanks to the Doctor for his excellent and minutely detailed Map of the two chief central provinces. It is a real gain to our knowledge of the country ; and we could have wished that Dr. Mullens's geographical researches could have been extended over the whole island. We are sorry, however, that by some oversight, the map does not bear upon it some recognition of the

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112 Notices of New Books on Madagascar. great services rendered by the late Mr. Cameron, in the preliminary surveys, triangulation, and measuring of base-lines, without which the map could not have the same claims to accuracy which it now possesses. This is acknowledged in the book, but many will see the map who will not see the book, or will soon forget Mr. Cameron's share in its production, even if they have read about it. In the chapter on "Lake Itasy and the Volcanic District," Dr. Mullens has made a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the physical geography of the island. It is true that for some years past it has been known that there were evident traces of volcanic disturbance in the molten appearance of the rocks in the west and south of Imerina, and in the pumice and cinders occasionally met with in those parts. In a journal of the Rev. T. Campbell, C. M. S., printed in the Church ll1issiona1y Intell'i gencer, June, 1869, p. 192, there are interesting details of these appearances ; but Dr. Mullens has given far fuller information on the subject, and has shewn how extensive and energetic these subterraneaR influences must have been, and how very conspicuous are its traces in the great number of extinct craters north and south of the mass of Ankaratra. With regard to Dr. Mullens's estimate of the population of Madagascar, while agreeing with him that probably former estimates were too high, we have a strong impression that he errs in the other direction. Somewhat positive statements are made in the book, and were put forward rather prominently at the L. M. S. Annual Meeting in May of this year, about the mere "guesswork" upon which former estimates of the population were founded; but on examining the estimate made by the Deputation, it is perfectly evident that they also have largely used "guess-work" with regard to several of their items. The Sakaliva country, for instance, which stretches the whole western side of Madagascar, 970 miles long, and overlapping considerably at each end, they only passed through once, by an unfrequented route ; yet it is confidently set down as containing 500,000people,-neither more nor less. The; same remark applies to the inhabitants of the eastern coast, to those living in and between the two great lines of forest, to the people of Ikotigo, and to the Ibara tribes ; some of these latter indeed were not seen at all by Dr. Mullens and his colleague. We have a strong impression, derived from reports, more or less reliable, that both the Sakalava and Ibara countries will be found to be more thickly peopled than Dr. Mullens thiuks ; but before we can set down exact figures we need more exploration of the country in these directions. Two-thirds, at least, of the island are practically unknown to us. In the sixth chapter, which treats of "The Land and People of Madagascar," Dr. Mullens has most ingeniously woven together in a concise narrative all the most important facts known as to the history of the Malagasy people ; we think however that the dates he gives for some of the most importa!1t events in their history before they were known to Europeans are very problematical (see pages 178, 179, 181). But he gives some interesting particulars as to the activity of comme_).'ce and navigation in the Indian Ocean many centuries ago, which confirm the generally-held belief that the Hovas and other allied whiter tribes are of Malay stock, and which show how easily emigration might have taken place from the Malay Archipelago in this direction at a rather remote era. 'l'he four or five page-illustrations given, and some of the smaller ones, are so good that we -..vish that Dr. Mullens had given a larger selection from the extensive series of photographic views he took when travelling in Madagascar. We have been amused by the rather free translations Dr. Mullens gives of some Malagasy names;

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Notices of New Books on Madagascar. 113 "Get your tiffin" may do on a stretch for Mandanivatsy (p. 235), but to the meanings given of Tsi-enim-parihy (p. 81), Sakalava (p. 168), Malaimbandy (p. 170), Sihanaka (p. 262), Tanin-dolo (p. 89), and some others, we put a very emphatic query. In the names of places both in the book and the map there are many instances showing that the rules of Malagasy orthography have not been understood ; thus we have Ambohiveloma, Ampasimfotsy, etc. But, as we have said, we heartily welcome the book ; and we trust that it will not only strengthen the interest which has been felt in Madagascar for many years past by the friends of missions, but will direct the attention of scien tific explorers,-geologists, naturalists and botanists,-to this country, as a field where there is still ample room for research in various departments of science. (2) From F-iandrantson to flcongo. Beiny Notes of et Jouriwy made on behalf of the London Missionary Socie ty. By George A. Shaw; pp. 19. Antananarivo : A. Kingdon. This little pamphlet is a record of some true missionary exploration and work. The tribe called Ikungo, living in a district of the same name to the south-east of the Betsileo country, have long been noted for their independent character, and the deter mined and successful resistance they have made to the Hovas. By exercising judgment, tact, and patience, Mr. Shaw has at last got access to tbis people ; and in his pamphlet he describes his visit (in Sept. and Oct. of last year) to the strongly fortified mountain, also called Ikougo, which is the capital and citadel of the tribe. Even he, however, was not allowed to enter the place, but he gives a description of it. The difficulty of access to Ikongo may be understood from the following extract :-"Quite early this morning we became aware by tbe firing of guns that the king was leaving the fortress, on his way to me. So I again anxiously awaited him, fully expecting he would soon put an end to our suspense. But I was told that though so close, it would take quite a day to get either. up or down the intricate path. So I had nothing to do but wait till next day." Although the Ikongo chief and his people were strongly prejudiced against "the praying," as being in their minds closely connected with Hova domination, Mr. Shaw was able to place a teacher to instruct them in reading, etc. ; and with this he was obliged for that time to be content. But he was encouraged in having made any opening for light to enter. We advise those of our readers who have not seen the pamphlet to procure and read it for themselves. We are happy to give in the preceding pages further information kindly supplied by Mr. Shaw, after a second visit made to Ikongo, as to the prospects of spreading the gospel amongst its people. (3) The Sal.aldvct. Being Notes of a JourneymadefromAntananmivoto some Towns on the Bordei of the Snlcalavrt Territoty, in Jmw and July, 1875. By Joseph S. Sewell.; pp. 24, with a Map. Antananarivo : A. Kingdon. This interesting pamphlet opens up a part of Madagascar never before visited by a missionary, and only once or twice crossed by a European trader or naturalist. Up to the present time none of the M>tdagascar races have seemed so inaccessible to the gospel as the widely spread tribes of the Sakalava. In the neighbourhood of Ankavandra and Imanandaza, however, -Hova garrison towns on the edge of the Sakalava territory to the west of Madagascar, and from seventy to eighty miles from the Mozambique channel-there seems a very favourable opening for commencing mission work among these tribes. The Sakalavas in the neighbourhood seem to live in friendly relations with the Hovas, and to be favourably

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114 Notices of New Books on Madagascai. disposed to Christianity. It is greatly to be wished that Mr. Sewell's suggestion should be carried out, and that each of these two important places should be occupied by a good native evangelist, so that the Sakalava tribes living near each respectively may be taught, and their children brought into schools. But the paper kindly prepared by Mr. Pickersgill, who was Mr. Sewell's companion on his journey, and given in the preceding pages, entere fully into this question, and supplies many facts omitted by Mr. Sewell in his account. Besides the interest which this paper has from a missionary point of view, it adds some valuable information to our knowledge of the geography and physical features of central Madagascar. Instead of the hills west of Lake Itasy forming the edge of the central plateau of the island, as was at one time supposed, Mr. Sewell's journey shews that this elevated portion of Madagascar extends for nearly two degrees of longitude west of Antananarivo, with high hills at its western edge, and then dips down suddenly into the plain of Bemaraha, a valley somewhat resembling that of Ankay on the eastern side, but at a much less elevation above the sea-level, 300 or 400 feet only, instead of about 3000 feet. The sections given with the map show that the central plateau of this island has a cup-shaped hollow towards the centre, with the edges higher on each side. This, it will be remembered, is on a smaller scale what the southern half of the African continent is on a larger one, aR shewn by Dr. Livingstone's travels and researches. The analogy is curious and suggestive. Mr. Sewell's map also shews the course of a very important river, the Tsiribihina, hardly known by name even before, which receives the Mania, from North Betsileo, and the Mahajilo, the Kitsamby, and other considerable streams from Imerina and the district to the west. Altogether, the pamphlet is a interesting and valuable addition to our knowledge of this country, and of some of its numerous tribes. ICE IN MADAGASCAR. I have very often wondered how many missionaries have seen ice in this country. Until the other day I never heard of any one except Mr. Street and myself, who saw some at Manalalondo, on the morning of the 15th June, 1872. Manalalondo is situated in one of the Vakinankaratre. valleys, in latitude 19 15'. On the morning in question, taking a walk on the hill sides, I was attracted by the appearance of the rice fields, and on descending to examine them I found them covered over with ice, perhaps a quarter of an inch thick or more, the ground was also covered with white hoar frost. On our journey the same morning we met some natives carrying a large piece of ice, which must have been half an inch thick. I need perhaps hardly add, that although I have very often been there since, I have never seen any ice except on the one occasion mentioned. H. E. CLARK,

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Bdej Sumrna1'!J of Irnpo1tant Events. 115 BRIEF SUMMARY MADAGASCAR OF IMPORTANT DURING THE EVENTS YEAR 1875. IN POLITICAL. There has been not a little excitement during the year on the subject of slavery, and the importation of slaves into Madagascar. As far as can be ascertained, the royal proclamation of Oct. 2, 1874, decreeing the freedom of all slaves brought into Madagascar since the signing of the Anglo-Malagasy Treaty, June 7, 1865, is practically a dead-letter. It is still a disputed point whether any slaves have actually been set free as a result of the proclamation, although, according to Sir Bartle Frere and other good authorities, from 8000 to 10,000 slaves are imported annually. It is impossible to believe that such large numbers of slaves can be introduced into the country without the connivance of local governors and other officials ; and from information received from those who have lately been on the coast, both east and north-west,, it appears that there are regular establishments for the reception of newly-imported slaves, where they are kept until they can speak a few sentences of Malagasy. Not long ago a gang of slaves who could hardly speak a word of the language was seen only a few miles south of the Capital by a missionary of the L. M. S. Those who know the allpervading influence of the central goverment, even in remote parts of the island where Hova officials are stationed, can hardly avoid concluding that it must be to the interest of some persons very high in position not to put a stop to this state of things ; and that, notwithstanding proclamations which read exceedingly well, nothing very effectual will be done to stop the slave trade unless a constant pressure is exercised by England to oblige the native government to observe their treaty engagements. The presence of a British Consul on the north-west coast would probably do much to check the evil. About the middle of the year there was considerable exercising of the public mind on the subject of medical attendance. In June, Dr. Parker, of the L. M. S. mission in Betsileo, was sent for by the Queen to be Court Physician; and in September, Dr. Mackie, who had left Antananarivo for the Cape, returned from Tamatave, having accepted a similar position. In a royal proclamation delivered in Andohalo on August 6th, the Queen informedhe_r subjects of these appointments ; tellmg them that her medical officers should also attend the people free of charge, and that she would even give them medicine if she had any suited to their complaints. In April, May and June, considerable excitement was caused in North-west V onizongo by the discovery of a hot sulphur spring in that neighbourhood, It is said that some one passing by the place, and being afflicted with one of the very common skin diseases of the country, happened to bathe in the water, and to his surprise and delight found himself, like Naaman, freed of his complaint. The fame of this cure soon spread, and the poor ignorant people, thinking the water would heal every disease that flesh is heir to, flocked in great numbers to the spot. Some 8000 people, it is reported, were there at one time, living in tents, so that the villages for some distance were almost deserted.

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116 Brief Summary of Important Events. But instead of gaining benefit, a large proportion contracted new diseases, and numbers died from fever ; so that at last the government were obliged to interfere and disperse the assembled crowds. An analysis of the water shews that it contains sulphates of magnesia and soda, and common salt. RELIGIOUS. In the early part of the year, a special series of six services, one every week, was held in the church at Avaratr' Andohalo, for youths and young men, to impress upon them the importance of personal religion, and the obligations of purity of conduct and heart. Some startling revelations as to the low state of morals among young people, and, as it was feared, an increase of licentious habits, greatly encouraged by the openly vicious conduct of young men of the upper classes,-was the immediate cause of holding these services. It is to be feared also that there has been latterly a great increase of drunkenness, notwithstanding the stringent laws of the native government against the making or sale of spirits. In June the usual half -yearly meeting of the Isan-enim-bulana (lit. "every six -months"), the Church Congress or Congregational Union of the churches in Imerina, was held in the Memorial Church, Faravohitra. The Rev. C. Jukes presided; and papers were read on 'The sending of Native Missionaries by the Union'; 'The Observance of the Lord's Day' ; and 'The taking care of the House o.f Prayer.' The meeting was well attended, and it was resolved to send two native missionaries to the Ibara tribes in the south of the Island, and to make half-yearly collections for their support, in June and December, in all the churches connected with the Union. On June 24th, the spacious and handsome church of the Norwegian Mission at Antananarivo was opened for divine worship. Almost all the Norwegian missionaries in the central provinces were present and took part in the services; and a large number of the members of the other Protestant missions also attended. The church is a commodious structure, mostly of sun-dried brick, designed in a simple Gothic style, and in the form of a Latin cross. It has a lofty tower of burnt brick in the centre of the northern end, crowned by a short spire covered with zinc. The church stands in a commanding position at Ambatovinaky, above one of the chief roadways of the city, and is a prominent object from the west and northwest of the Capital. In August, an L. M. S. mission was commenced amongst the Sihanaka by the arrival of the Rev. J, Pearse and Mrs. Pearse at Ambatondrazaka. During the year some important missionary and exploratory journeys have been made by members of the L. M. S. and F. F. M.A. missions: viz., Mr. G. A. Shaw to Ikongo; Rev. H. W. Grainge toMojanga; Mr. J. S. Sewell and Rev. W. C. Pickersgill to Ankavandra and Imanandaza; and Rev. T. Brockway along part of the East coast. But as full accounts of the three former are given in the preceding pages it is unnecessary to do more than mention them here. On August 3rd the foundation-stone of a Hospital for women and children, in connection with the S. P. G. mission in Antananarivo, was laid by Mrs. Lindsay at Ankorahotra. LITERARY. The Revision, of the Malagasy Bible has been proceeded with during the year by the Committee of Delegates, and under the supervision of the Rev. W. E. Cousins, Revising Editor. The portions revised during the year are Genesis xlv.-1., the whole of the book of Exodus, and Matthew xvii. 14-xxi. 32. The committee have met every Tuesday since Feb. 9th. A Malagasy Bible Dictionary has been commenced during the last halfyear, under the editorship of Revs. J,

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Brief Summa1y of Impo,tant Events. 117 Sibree, P. G. Peake and T. T. Mat thews. It will probably be a work of from 700 to 800 pages, demy octavo, and illustrated. A Malagasy English Dictionary has also lately been commenced under the charge of a small committee of members of the L. M. S. and F. F. M.A., and edited by Mr. Street. This Dictionary, it is proposed, shall include every known Malagasy word, so far as this is attainable, giving also those of other dialects than the Hova. It will probably be a much larger work than Mr. Johns' Dictionary, and the usage of most words will be shewn by illustrations taken from the proverbs, lcabary, and other purely native productions. A small English-Malagasy Dictionary, chiefly intended for Malagasy students, but most useful also to English residents, has lately been published by Mr. J. S. Sewell. The year 1875 will probably be memorable in the future literary history of Madagascar as the date of the commencement of the first Malagasy newspaper. Ny Gazety ,lfalagusy was commenced on May lst of this year, and has already a large circulation. It is a monthly paper of four pages, and issued at one eranambutry ( one third of twopence) per copy. May it soon become a weekly, and eventually a daily paper, and do much to stimulate and enlighten the native mind. OBITUARY. The death of Mr. Cameron, of the L. M. S. mission, on October 3rd, is noticed at full length in the preceding pages, and an account given of his long and honourable lifework. The Rev. Dr. Percival, of the S. P. G. mission at Tamatave, died of fever on his way from the Capital to the East coast, at Ranomafana, on April 4th. On May 21st, the oldest officer of the Malagasy army, Rainingory, 16th Honour, died at Ambohimanga. He was supposed to bP. not less than 100 years old, and until very recently had been a hale and vigorous old man. He was born at Ambohibeloma; and was greatly esteemed as a brave soldier by the first Rada.ma, whom he accompanied in most of his war expeditions in various parts of the island. In his old age he was greatly respected and beloved by his family and friends. The Queen shewed him all honour, and directed that as he was a hundred years old his corpse should be wrapped in a hundred red silk lamba. The family tomb where he is buried is said to have used as a hiding-place by the Christians in the persecution. Postscript. Since the above was in the printer's hands, we have to record, with heart-felt sorrow, the sudden and unexpected death of our dear friend and neighbour, the Rev. J, T. Wesley. Mr. Wesley had not been five months in the Island, and was hoping to proceed to Antsihanaka, as the colleague of Mr. Pearse, in the cold season of 1876. But he suffered from the heat of the climate as the hot season approached ; and although no serious apprehension was entertained until a day or two before his death, he rapidly sank, owing to inflammation of the liver, and died at Antananarivo on Dec. 19th; and was buried in the Ambatonakanga Church-yard on the following Tuesday. We made spec1al reference to his death on the following Sunday afternoon, at An tsahamanitra church, Ambohimanga, in an address founded on 1 Thess. iv. 13-18. At this church Mr. Wesley was accustomed to attend, and in it, hardly three months after his arrival .in Madagascar, he preached his first Malagasy sermon. His loss is sincerely regretted by the native congregation, to whom he had endeared himself by his loving and gentle disposition,-as well as by his own countrymen and women. ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF MISSION ARIES. Arrived. Aug. 23rd. Rev. J, Pearse and Mrs. Pearse (Antsihanaka Mission). July 2Gth. Rev. J. T. Wesley and Mrs. Wesley (Antsihanaka Mission).

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118 Brief Summaiy of lmpo1tant Events. July26th.Rev.C. T. Price and Mrs. Price (Betsileo Mission). July26th. Miss Brockway (Betsileo Mission). Aug. 9th. Mr. John Parrett and Mrs. Parrett (Imerina Mission). Left. July 20th. Rev. R. Baron. Aug. lOth. Mr. W. Pool and Mrs. Pool. Aug. lOth. Miss Gilpin. EDITOR. THE FIRST ARRANGEMENTS FOR A PROTESTANT MISSION IN MADAGASCAR. EXTRACT FROM THE 'EVANGELICAL MAGAZINE,' MARCH, 1812. "A very interesting letter has been received by the Directors from their venerable Missionary, Dr. Vanderkemp, who, with a zeal unchilled by advancing age, it appears has, in all probability, embarked ere this on a mission to our newly acquired con quest,"' the Island of Madagascar; and with such a concurrence of favourable circumstances as would induce the hope that his way thither was marked by the finger of God. "The Doctor thus expresses himself in a letter from Cape 'l'own under the date of October 31 : 'The morning of yesterday afforded us abundant materials both for thanksgiving and prayer. Brother Pacalt arrived from Bethelsdorp with Verhoogd and the young Caffre captain, Tjaatzoe, fully determined to proceed with me by the first opportunity to Madagascar. The same moment I received two letters, one from Mr. Bird, the Colonial Secretary, informing me that the new Governor of Cape Colony, Sir John Craddock, would forward my views and those of my associates, in proceeding to Madagascar by such means as might be in his power, whenever I should have decided upon carrying the projected Mission to that Island into execution :-the other from brother Thompson, at the Isle of France, containing interesting news of Madagascar; that he got at Bourbo_n a Catechism in the Madagascar language, with a Latin translation ; that he had not yet seen Governor Farquhar, but his Secretary informed him that his Excellency was very desirous that a Mission should be established in Mad~gascar; and would not only give a free passage to the island, but presents for the Chiefs, The Madagascar tongue, it appears, is a corruption of the Arabic ; and the letters of the Catechism were Arabic characters.' Note. The journey Dr. Vanderkemp proposed to undertake was never accomplished, owing to his death shortly after the date given above. It was not until eight years afterwards that the L. M. S. mission was commenced in Antananarivo b_y the Rev. David Jones. ED. [Mauritius and Bourbon had just been taken from the French ; and l\Iadagallcar was considered merely as an appendage to these small islands, and a part of the French posseuions in the Indian Ocean. ED,]

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List of Books, etc., on JJfadagascar. 119 LIST OF ENGLISH BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND PAPERS ON MADAGASCAR. (Thinking that many of the readers of the ANNUAL would be interested in seeing what has already been written about Mada gascar, and where they can obtain information on special subjects connected with its geography, natural history, botany, philo logy, etc., I have, at considerable pains, prepared the following account. It is the most full and complete of any list yet published, but is still, I know, far from being a perfect one ; there are several papers on the botany of the Islancl of which I have been unable as yet to obtain the particulars. ED.) BOOKS. 1.--The A1li-entu1es of Robeit D1iry dul'ing Fifteen yea1s' Captil,ity on the Island of Madagascar; containing a Description of that Island ; an Account of its Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce ; with an Account of the Manners and Customs, "\Vars and Civil Policy of its Inhr,bitants ; to which is added a Vocabulary of the Mada gascar Language. London.: 1728. (la,, An abridged account of the above is given in vol. :{ of Chambers' Miscellany of Useful and Ent,rrtaining Tracts, new ed. 1872.) 2.-Life of Benyowski. 3.-The Luss of the 'Winte1ton' East Indiama11,, By Capt. Buchan. 4.-Voyages to explore the Shmes of Af1-ica, ,frabia, and llfadagasca1. By Commodore Owen, R.N. London: 18-(?). 5. -Voyage to llfadagasra1 and the East Indies. By the Abbe Rochon. Translated from the French. With a l\Iap. London : 1793 ; pp. 406. 6.-A Histo1 of the Island of Madagas ccw; comprising a Political Account of the Island ; the Religion, Manners and Customs of its Inhabitants, and its Natural Productions. "\Vith an Appendix, containing a History of the several attempts to introduce Christianity into the Island. By Samuel Copland. With a Map. London : 1822 ; pp. 369. 7.-The Widowed Missiona1y's Jou1nal; containing some Account of Madagascar; and also a Narrative of the Missionary Career of the Rev. J. Jeffreys. By Keturah Jeffreys. Southampton: 1827; pp. 216. 8. -Hist01y of Madagasca1. Compiled chiefly from original documents, by Rev. "\Vm. Ellis. 'With Maps and Illustrations. 2 vols. London : 1838 ; pp. 1054. 9.-A Na1'1'ative of the Pe1secutions of th~ Ch?istictns in Madagasca1, with Details of the Escape of the Six Refugees now in England. By Revs. J. J. Freeman and David Johns. London: 1840; pp. 298. 10.--Chapters xlix.-lii. in Tyerman and Beunet's Voyages ar,d T1avels ,ound the W01ld, pp. 269-288; 2nd eel. London: 1840. ll.-Madagasca1 Past and P,esent; with Considerations as to the Political and Com mercial Relations of England and France, and as to the Progress of Christian Civiliza. tion. By a Resident. London : 1847. 12.-Th1ee Visits to Madagasca, during the years 185:3, 1854, and 1856 ; including a Journey to the Capital; with Notices of the Natural History of the country, and of the present Civilization of the People .. By Rev. vV. Ellis. Map and lllustrations. London : 1859 ; pp. 476. 13.-The Last Tmrels of Ida Pfe(ffe1; inclusive of a Visit to Madagascar. Translated by H. "\V. Dulcken, Ph. D. London : 1861 ; pp. 338. 14.-Madar1asca1: its lltissions and its 11:faity,s. By Rev. E. Prout. London: 1862. 15.-Madagasca1 and the Malagasy ; with sketches in the Provinces of Tamatave, Betanimena, and Ankova. By Lieut. S. P. Oliver, R.A. Illustrations in Chromo lithography. London: 1863. 16.The Gospel in llfadagascai; Preface by Bp. Ryan. London: 1863. 17.-The Aye-aye (Cheiromys Madagas cariensis), a l\Ionograph by Prof. R. Owen. London : 1863 (?). 18.-llfau,itius and llfadagascar. By Bp. Ryan. London : 1863. 19. -llfadagasca1 : its Social and Reli gious P,ogiess. By l\frs. Ellis. Landor,: 1863 ; pp. 208. 20.-111adagasca, Revisited; describing the Events of a New Reign, and the Revolution which followed it. By Rev. vV. Ellis, Illustrations. London : 1867 ; pp. 502. 21.-1Wadagasca1 and its People. By Lyons l\Iac Lead, Ex-Consul at Mozambique. 22.-The ilfaity, Chu1ch: a Record ef the Introduction, Persecutions, and Triumphs

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120 List qf Books, etc., on Madagascar. of Christianity in Madagascar. By Rev. \V. Ellis. Illustrations. Lond. 1869; pp. 400. 23.-Madagasca1 and its Peor,le: Notes of a Four Years' Residence. "With a Sketch of the History, Position, and Prospects of Mission Work amongst the l\~aJagasy. By James Sibree, Jun., Archt. of the l\Iemorial Churches. Map and Illustrations. London : 1870 ; pp. 576. 24.-The Powdei JJionkeys: the Adventures of two Boys in the Island of l\fadagas car. By "William Dalton. London : 187 4. (Called by the Athenemn, "Trash for Boys.") 25.-P1oceedings of a Missionaiy Confe1 ence helcl at Antananarivo, Maclagascar, in Jan. 1874. Antananarivo : 1874; pp. 161. 26.-Twelve 1lionths in Mada_qasca1. By Joseph Mullens, D.D., Foreign Secretary of the L. 1\1. S. Illustrations. London: 1875; pp. 334. 27.-Three or four Chapters in Life of William Ellis, JJiissiona,y to the Sonth Seas and Madagascar. Bv his Son. London: 1874. PHILOLOGICAL. 1.--A D-ictiona1y of the JJialagasy Language. In Two Parts : English-Malagasy, by Rev. J. J. Freeman; Malagasy-English, by Rev. D. Johns; assisted by native Malagasy. Antananarivo : 1835 ; pp. 705. 2.-An Outline of a Grarnmai of the Malagasy Language, as spoken by the Hovas. By E. Baker. Port Louis : 1845 ; London : 1864 ; pp. 48. 3.-A Granima, of the JJialagasy Lan guage in the Ankova Dialect. By Rev. D. Griffiths. Woodbridge: 1854; pp. 244. ~.-Int1oduction to the Languaye and Lite1atu1e of Madagasca,. By Rev. Julius Kessler. W"ith Hints to Travellers and a new Map. London : 1870 ; pp. 90. 5.-JJicilagasy P,oveibs ; collected by M~ssrs. "\V. E. Cousins and J. Parrett, aml prmted for the use of Europeans interested in the Study of the Language. Antanana nvo : 1871; pp. 78. 6.-A Concise lntioduction to the Stud11 of the JJfalagasy Lanyiiaye. By Rev. Vi. E. Cousins. Antananarivo: 1873 ; pp. 80. 7.-Malagasy Kaba1y from the time of And1ianamponime1ina. Collected by Rev. "\Y. E. Cousins. Antananarivo: 1873; pp. 58. 8.-G1dmcwalJicilagasy. (JJialayasy.) lst part. By Rev. G. Cousins. Antananarivo : 1873 ; pp. 70. 9,-:-Diks(onaiy Englisy sy Malagasy ho any 1zay m1ana.tra Teny Englisy. Nataony Joseph S. Sewell. Antananarivo: 1875 l'P 10.-Dictionnaire JJialgache-F1ancais, re. clige par les Missionaires Catholiques de l\Iadagascar, et acfapte aux Dialectes de toutes les Provinces. Reunion : 1855 ; pp. 798. 11.-Dictionnaim F,ancais Malgache, redige par les l\iissionaires Catholiques de Madagascar, et adapte aux Dialectes
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Li.st of Books, etc., on Madagascar. 121 JJ!edico-(}hinirgical Society : Apr. 6, 1864; pp. 12. 15.-0n the Egg of Epyornis. Ily G. D. Rowley, Esq. 16.--A Boat Voyage along the Coast Lakes of East ilfarlag:cscar. By Capt. ,v. Rooke, R.A., etc. Roy. Geog. Soc. Dec. 11, 1865 ; pp. 13. 17. -On Ankova, the Centml Province of il[adagascar; and the Royal or Sacrecl Cities. By Rev. ,v. Ellis ; Dec. 11, 1865. P,oc. Roy. Geo!f. Soc., vol. x. No. 11, Feb. 20, 18GG; also in Journal, R. G.S., vol. xxxvi. 18.-A Visit to the North-east Provinces of l\Iadagascar. By Rev. H. llfaundrell, C. !II. S. Roy. Geoy. Sol". J m1. 1.867. l!J.-Choreomm1ia : an Historic:il Sketch. "'ith some Account of an Epi,lemic observe,! in l\Iadagascar. By Dr. A. Davidson. Edin. llfed. Jou1. Aug. 1867; pp. 15. 20.-The H0vas a]l(l other characteristic Tribes of llfalpe Town : 187::l; pp. 330-338. 32.-Customs and Curiosities of llfa,fa. gascar. By Dr. A. Davirlson. S,.u,day Jlfayazine; June, July, and Sept., 187:3. Illustrations. 3:3.-An Account, Historimil arnl Physio logical, of the i\Iadagascar Ordeal Poison, the T,mghinia Venenifera. By Dr.A.Davidson. Journal of Anatomy cmd Physiolovy; vol. viii. pp. 97 -112. 34.-From Fianarantsoa to ilfonanj,ira. By G. A. Sh,iw, L. :IL S. Antananarivo: 187 4 ; pp. 11. :v,.-To Antsih,mak,t fin
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122 Va1'ieties. VARIETIES. llfADAGASOAR TORTOISES. MR. C. S. Salmon, Chief Commis sioner of the British Government in the Seychelles Islands, has sent two very rare and wonderfully big specimens of the tortoise kind to England. They are consigned to Dr. Gunther, of the British Museum, who is probably the most eminent scientific authority upon reptiles and animals of that description; but they will be taken care of in the Regent's Park Gardens of the Zoological Society. It was rather difficult to get a cage made strong enoagh to hold the male tortoise, the force of this animal being so prodigious that the stoutest and toughest timbers, with thick iron bars, were scarcely sufficient to keep him in confinement. Both fortoises are natives of the Island of Aldebra, north of Madagascar, but they are not of the same species. The male tortoise, which is much the larger of the two, measures 5ft. 5in. length of the upper shell, and Mt. 9in. width of that shell; the head and neck, when fully thrust out, are lft. 9in. long ; the body is Sft. lin. circumference, The weight is about 800 lb. The head, 6in. broad and 7in. long, somewhat resembles that of a boa constrictor. The feet are 6in. or 7in. diameter, with nails 2in. or 3in. long. This tortoise was brought to the Seychelles Archipelago about seventy years ago; being then small, he could be put into a coat pocket. He has been in the Calais family ever since, sometimes residing in the island of Silhouette, another time at Mahe, but latterly at Cerf Island, the property of Mr. Calais. This animal is capable of growing to twice his present size, being yet adolescent. The Aldatra tortoises live to a vast age, and grow very slowly ; but the breed is becoming rare, especially the large specimens. This is much the largest specimen of its kind now extant. In order to bend the head downwards the animal has to incline to the right or left, but he cannot bend it much. He will eat any vegetable food, dried leaves, banana leaves, bread-fruit, and pumpkins, He ehews and swallows by jerks, and drinks by sucking up a good deal of water by the nostrils. He sleeps always with the fore part of his upper shell jammedagainst something hard. He never moves in the night from the posture he takes up to repose in, but lies down two hours before sunset, and does not stir till an hou1' after sunrise. He objects to be in the direct rays of the sun for more than half an hour. No weight put on his baek seems to affect his walk, which is slow and clumsy. It is believed he could 'carry a ton weight; but he is very fat, and gets blown after walking twenty or thirty yards, and stops and rests awhile. The female tortoise is younger, but is already full grown, whieh is known by the shell. The male has mueh regard and affection for her, and is annoyed when she is disturbed and made to move on. She has been seen to carry him on her back. Her dimensions are as follows: -Circumference at greatest girth, 5ft. 4in. ; length of shell, 3ft. 4in. ; breadth of shell, 3ft. lOin.; fore foot, 4!in. in Can any one inform us as to the situe,tion of this 'Island of Aldebra,' or, as it is spelt a little lower Jown, 'Aldatra.'? I have carefully examined both maps and Gazetieers, but can find no such name given in any map or book which I have had access to. En,

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Varieties. 123 diameter. Her form fa rounder than the male.-Illustrate<.l London News, July 3rd. 1875. 1Yote. From the illustration given with this account, these tortoises seem to be closely allied, as regards the shape of the plates of their shell, with the Geometric Tortoise, which is somewhat common in Madagascar; and perhaps still ruore so with the Elephantine Tortoise (Testiido eleplwntina), which is a native both of the Seychelles and the Comoro Islands. See Cassell's Popitlar Natural History, vol. iv., pp. 11, 12. ED. THE 'ZAHANA.' THE Zdhctna is the native name of a tree indigenous to the forests of Madagascar, which has been introduced pretty largely into treeless Imcrina. Its tim her is used as pillars in the small native houses, as it does not easily rot under ground. In England it would doubtless be regarded as a handsome ornament in shrubberies or lawns. It is an evergreen with dark glossy leaves, and bears a pretty pink flower something like a large single blossom of the horse-chestnut; its seeds arc imbedded in a pod surrounded by a sweet pulp, which is edible. It is compact in its growth, and reaches from 20 to 40 feet in height. Its peculiarity is its leaves. Each leaf of the ordinary zahanct is like two leaves, the end of one joined to the top of the other ; the under one being somewhat the larger. A slight scratch with a pin on the leaf shows white, so that it can be written on by any sharp-pointed instrument; and the writing will last as long as the leaf. A deep scratch, howev'r, turns black as in any other leaf. The white film lies invisible on the surface, but can be scraped off as a whitish powder with a sharp knife. It would be interesting to submit this powder to chemical analysis. In the ordinary zahana the leaf is divided into two ; but iu passing through the forest at Andrangoloaka and Vodivato I found speciruens whose leaves were divided eight times, articulated length-wise, forming as it were a tapering chain of eight links. This variety must be far from common, as a native who was with me, and who is often in the forest, had never seen one before. Another native says that it is the richness of the soil which causes the leaf to lengthen and divide itself. The only leaf mentioned in Balfour's Mmrnc,l cif Botcmy as articulated lengthways like the zalwna is the orange leaf; and it seems still to be a question whether it is to be regarded as a compound leaf, or a simple leaf articulated to a ,vinged fetiole. Now the whanrr. leaf with eight divisions must undoubtedlv be a compound leaf ; and if so, is not its companion, divided only twice, also compound; and if so, should not the orange lea. also be so regarded ; the only difference is that the under part of the orange leaf is much smaller than the upper, whereas in the zahamt it is rather larger ; but the articulation is precisely the same in both leaves. J. WILLS.

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124 Varieties. ON A HITHERTO LITTLE-NOTICED USE OF THE PARTICLE NO. "THE correct or incorrect use of the particle no," says the Rev. W. E. Cousins, in his Conc,,;se In troduction to the Stncly of the Malagasy La11g1.w_r;e(p. 59), "isno unfair criterion of the skill a European has attained in speaking Malagasy." Mr. Cousins proceeds to classify the various uses of no as a discriminative particle as three: it being used to emphasise (1) a subject, (2) an adjunct, and(a)a state ment; and then gives examples of its use in each of these particulars. The Rev. W. Montgomery has however recently drawn attention to the fact that no is used with still another shade of meaning : being frequently employed in interrogative sentences, where it is generally the first word in the sentence, and has very much the force of nalwana. ; ka could also be substituted for it with little difference in the rneauing. Mr. Montgomery has kindly supplied me with a number of sentences illustrating this use of no, from which I select the following as likely to be of some interest to students of :\-Iala gasy :-No dia anao hiany izany, ka anaovanao hoe, an' olona? No fantatrao hiany ny fividiny, ka. a.latsakao indray ? No tsy haninao ny sakafonao ? No tsy mandeha miana tra hianao, fa an toandro ny andro ? No tsy omenao indrny ny volako, kanefa anio no fotoana? No fay tonga tany indray hianao onrnly? No tsy misy olona akory anefa co ? No tsy ncntiuao taty amiko indray ro izy e ? No matory antoandro re ise ? No tia ahy izy, Im no tsy .p1ba tiako? No malain-kiady hianao, ka no tsy omenao ny ahy ? No tsy nantsoirnio ahy mha misy izany ? No tsy haninao indray itsy izy, nefa. eo mitomany; (zaza) No tsy aoka izay, fa cfa ho lany ny tarataw? Mr. Cousins "gives me the following additiou~l illustration :Raha mba manao ,1ty, raha mba. mtnana afcro, raha mba mila, 110 ny an' olona no kojikojona? EDITOR. ANT AN AN ARIVO : PRINTED AT THE L. M. S. PRESS. 18i5.