Citation
Hong Kong : [Hong Kong.] Report for 1907

Material Information

Title:
Hong Kong : [Hong Kong.] Report for 1907
Series Title:
Diplomatic and consular reports
Creator:
Great Britain. Foreign Office.
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Harrison & Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
亚洲 -- 香港
亞洲 -- 香港
Genre:
Government Document
serial ( sobekcm )
Temporal Coverage:
19070101 - 19071231
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Hong Kong
Coordinates:
22.3 x 114.2

Notes

General Note:
"Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty, August, 1908"
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue number: Cd. 3729-24

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
291455 ( aleph )
CF 327.42 /23894 ( SOAS classmark )

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Full Text
COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.

No. 570.

HONG KONG.

REPORT FOR 1907.

(For Report for 1906, see No. 521.)



August, 1908.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOB HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE,
By DARLING & SON, Ltd., 34-40, Bacon Stkeet, E.

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from
WYMAN and SONS, Ltd., Fetter Lane, E.C., and
32, Auingdon Stbeet, Westminster, S.W. ; or
OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Couht, Edinburgh ; or
E. PONSONBY, 116, Guafton Street, Dudlin.

1908.

[Cel. 3729-34.] Price 2d.


CONTENTS.

page

Finances .......................................... 4

Tradk and Shipping!, Industries, Fisheries, Agriculture, and

Land........................... 6

Legislation...........................12

Education........................... ... 12

Public Works ... ... ... ............14

Govehnment Institutions ........................16

Institutions not Supported by Government ..................17

Criminal and Police ..............................18

Vital Statistics..........................................19

Postal Service ... ..................... .. 21

Military Forces and Expenditure ... ... ... 22

General Observations........................ 23


3 COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.



No. 570.
HONG KONG.

(For Report for 1906, see No. 521.)

The Governor to the Secretary of State.

Government House,
Hong Kong,

24th June, 1908.

My Lord,

I have the honour to submit for Your Lordship's in-
formation the following general Report on the annual Blue
Book for the year 1907 :

1125 Wt 24282 8/08 D & S B 33198


4

COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.

I.FINANCES.

The revenue for the year, exclusive of land sales, amounted
to $6,442,529 or $179,540 less than the previous year. Land
sales amounted to $159,750, or $155,982 less than in 1906.
The total revenue from all sources was therefore $6,602,280,
or $432,731 less than in the previous year. All the main
sources of revenue show an excess over 1906 with the exception
of licences, rent of Government property, interest, and land
sales.

Light dues, licences, fees of Court, Post Office receipts, and
rent of Government property brought in together $300,504
more than was estimated. The receipts under the remaining
heads of revenue were, all together, $146,249 less than were
anticipated when the estimates were drawn up.

The expenditure for the year was $5,028,553, exclusive of
public works extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was
$5,757,203, or $1,075,407 less than the total expenditure of
1906.

Deducting from the actual receipts for 1907 the total actual
expenditure, there was a surplus of $845,076 on the actual
working of the year.

(A.) General Revenue and Expenditure.

The following is a brief abstract of revenue and expenditure
for the years 1906 and 1907:

Revenue.

1906. 1907. Increase. Decrease.
Light Dues............ Licences and internal revenue not otherwise specified. Pees of Court, &c.......... Post Office ............ Bent of Government property Interest ............ Miscellaneous ......... Water Account ...... Land sales ............ Amount transferred from Praya .Reclamation Fund. $ c. 77,722.04 4,765,227.78 470,151.53 420,454.04 826.699.20 8,068.42 53,747.24 315.733.21 97,208.32 $ c. 80,389.00 4,530,468.75 498,621.05 445,420.92 809,647.90 77,982.34 169,750.29 $ c. 2,666.96 28,469.62 24,966.88 24,235.10 $ c. 234,769.03 17,051.30 8,068.42 155,982.92 97,208.32
Total $ 7,035,011.78 6 602,280.25 80,338.46 513,069.99
Deduct increase ...... 80,338.46
Nett decrease ... 432,731.53


HONG KONG, 1907. 5

Expenditure.

1906. 1907. Increase. Decrease.
Non-effective charges General administration ... Law and order Public health ......... Public instruction ...... Public works ......... Defence ............ S c. 333.823.31 1,404,287.42 832,919.87 659,413.66 162.973.32 2,086,655.96 1,352,537.14 Si £ 313,658.67 1,034,695.00 847,418.62 648,951.61 184,028.19 1,468,857.48 1,259,594.00 S c. 14,498.75 21,054.87 § c. 20,164.64 369,592.42 10,462.15 617,798.48 92,943.14
Total 6,832,610.68 5,757,203.47 35,553.62 1,110,960.83
Dcduct increase 35,553.62
Nett decrease ... S 1,075,407.21
The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1903-1907:
1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907.
Kevenue ...... Expenditure 5,238,857.88 5,396,669.48 $ c. 6,809,047.99 6,376,235.30 6,918,403.85 6,951,275.26 $ Surplus ...... 432,812.69 202,401.10 845,076.78
Deficit ...... 157,811.60 32,871.41

from which it will be seen that both revenue and expenditure
for the year were lower than at any time since 1903.

(B.) Assets and Liabilities.

At the end of the year 1907, the assets of the Colony
amounted to $2,650,733.99, or, including arrears of revenue,
$2,739,712.32. The total liabilities were $1,205,995.13, so
that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to
$1,533,717.19.

(C.) Public Debt.

Inscribed Stock at 3| per cent, interest, £341,799 15s. 1 d.
incurred for Praya Reclamation; Central Market; water,
drainage, and sewerage works, &c., to be paid of£ on 15th
April, 1943.

Inscribed Stock at 3| per cent, interest (loan of £1,100,000
at 4£ per cent, to Viceroy of Wuchang) £1,143,933 Is. 4d.
(Amount repaid by Viceroy placed to credit of Special Account
£220,000, which has been advanced therefrom for Railway
construction.) Sinking fund commences in 1911.


6

COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.

The amount paid into tlie Joint Sinking Fund with accrued
interest reached £61,813 4s. 4d* on the 31st of December,
1907.

II.TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES,
FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.

(A.) Trade and Shipping.

The total of the shipping1 entering and clearing at ports in
the Colony during the year 1907 shows an increase of 77,DOS
vessels of 3,281,042 tons when compared with the correspond-
ing figures for 1906, in which year there was a decrease of
1,437,823 tons due to loss of local vessels in the typhoon. The
greater part of this is due to internal traffic" steamships not
exceeding 60 tons plying within the waters of the Colony." If
local trade be eliminated, it is found that the remaining figures
show the respectable increase of 3,110 vessels of 579,814 tons.

This increase is distributed as follows:

British ocean-going vessels, 59 ships of 26,698 tons.

Foreign ocean-going, vessels, 334 ships of 627,380 tons.

British River steamers, 364 ships with a decrease in
tonnage of 212,137 tons.

Foreign river steamers, 239 ships of 76,075 tons.

Steamships not exceeding 60 tons, 703 ships of 29,739
tons.

Jnnks in foreign trade, 1,411 vessels of 32,059 tons.

The actual figures of arrivals and departures are as
follows:

Foreign Trade.

Of British Ocean-/ 1,876 arrivals of 3,605,941 tons.

going. \ 1,880 departures 3,610,228

Of Foreign Ocean-/ 2,306 arrivals 3,861,570

going. j 2,315 departures 3,859,305

Of British River) 3,412 arrivals 2,316,889

steamers. \ 3,416 departures 2,313,475

Of Foreign River J 655 arrivals 371,996

steamers. | 655 departures 371,996

Of Steamships not/ 791 arrivals 3,015

exceeding 60 tons. ( 790 departures 3,006

Of Junks in Foreign/ 14,782 arrivals 1,320,892

Trade. \ 14,782 departures 1,330,578

Total Foreign Trade 23,822 arrivals 11,512,303
23,838 departures 11,520,588

* This includes the snm of £14,352 8s. Id. surplus of interest paid by the
Viceroy on the loan of £1,100,000.


HONG KONG, 1907

f

The movements of the Star" Co.'s ferry launches, of
private steam-launches, and of fishing junks do not appear in
the above figures.

Eight thousand two hundred and thirty-nine (8,239)
steamers, 10 sailing ships and 791 steamships not exceeding
60 tons, in foreign trade, entered during the year, giving an
average daily entry of 24'77 European-constructed foreign-
going ships, as compared with 22'5 in 1906.

The average tonnage of ocean-going vessels entered has
increased slightly, from 1,784*9 to 1,785'6 tons, while that of
river steamers has declined from 734 to 661 tons. The British
ocean average has decreased from 1.945 to 1,921 tons. Tlie
foreign ocean average has increased from 1,654 to 1,670 tons.
The British river steamer average has declined from 749 to 678
tons and the foreign river steamer average has declined from
62.3 to 567 tons.

A comparison between the years 1906 and 1907 shows:

For ocean vessels under the British flag, an increase of 59
ships of 26,698 tons.

Local Trade.
Of Steamships not (209,601 arrivals of exceeding 60 tons. \ 209,601 departures Of Junks in Local ( 20,820 arrivals Trade. ( 19,952 departures 5,608,266 tons. 5,608,266 892,818 586,069 .,
Total Local Trade / J30.421 arrivals ( 229,553 departures 6,501,084 6,494,335 5)
Grand Total Local ( 254,243 arrivals and Foreign. ( 253,391 departures ., 18,013,387 18,014,923
Thus in foreign trade: Per cent. British ocean-going vessels represented ... 31*4 Foreign ocean-going vessels represented ... 33'5 British river steamers represented ... ... 20" 1 Foreign river steamers represented ... ... 3'2 Steamships not exceeding 60 tons represented... 0'3 Junks represented ... ... ... ... 11*5
ioo-o
While in local trade:
Steamships not exceeding GO tons represented... SG'3 Junks represented ... ... ... ... 13'7
ioo-o


8

COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL..

In British river steamers an increase of 304 ships with a
decreased tonnage of 212,137 tons, which is mainly due to the
withdrawal of the large sized steamer Hankow and the addition
of the two small Macao steamers Sui Tai and Sui An.

For foreign ocean vessels an increase of 334 ships of 627,380
tons is shown, which is wholly due to the Japanese firms in-
creasing their carrying trade. Under this flag, an increase of
455 ships of 976,450 tons is found, with a general falling off
under other flags.

For foreign river steamers an increase of 238 ships of 76,075
tons is shown, which can be accounted for by vessels under
the German, Chinese, and Portuguese flags making more trips
in 1907 than in 1906.

For junks in foreign trade, an increase of 1,411 vessels of
32,059 tons.

A decrease in local junk trade, 10,844 vessels of 263,768 tons
which may be ascribed to the cessation of the naval extension
work and to the falling off in conservancy boats.

The actual number of individual ocean-going ships of
European construction entering during the year was 800, being
362 British and 438 foreign.

These 800 ships agrgegated 1,860,245 tons. They entered
4,182 times and gave a collective tonnage of 7,467,511 tofts.
Thus compared with 1906, 70 less ships of 73,514 less tons,
entered 170 more times and gave a collective tonnage increased
by 306,183 tons.

The 800 vessels were divided as follows between the several
nationalities:

Vessels entered. Times. Total tonnage.
355 British Steamers 1,867 3,586,510
9 Austrian 55 30 106,523
1 Belgian 5? 1 2.903
20 Chinese 55 * 214 267,789
2 Corean )) * 14 21,298
9 Danish 55 21 41,122
18 Dutch 5? 69 142,100
33 French )) 202 294,461
137 Greiman 55 790 1,246,053
3 Italian 55 12 31,704
111 Japanese 55 534 1,126,517
59 Norwegian 55 290 265,728
2 Portuguese 5) 59 19,128
10 Russian 5) 13 30,912
3 Swedish 55 11 12,970
20 United States Steamers 45 25],590
7 British Sailing Ships .. 9 19,431
1 United States 1 72

Total 800

4,182

7,467,511


HONG KONG, 1907.

9

The figures relating- to the import and export trade of tlie
port, given in previous years, have, as pointed out annually,
been based upon information which can only be characterised
as unsatisfactory and the results as erroneous and misleading.
As it is obvious that such returns have no value, they are dis-
continued in the form they have hitherto taken, but the aggre-
gates of the reports received are shown, for purposes of com-
parison, in round numbers. These include imports of sugar
and imports and exports of opium, of which accurate returns
are rendered.

The aggregates show an increase of about 300,000 tons in
imports, of about 191,000 tons in exports, and of about 518,000
tons in transit cargo.

The total reported import and transit trade of the port for
1907 amounted to 23,819 vessels of 11,512,223 tons carrying
about 8,237,000 tons of cargo of which about 4,841,000 tons
were discharged at Hong Kong.

Similarly, the export trade of the port was represented by
23,841 vessels of 11,520,068 tons, carrying about 3,049,000
tons of cargo, and shipping about 729,000 tons of bunker coal.

During the year 1907, 16,515 vessels of European and
American construction of 20,311,400 tons (net register),
reported having carried about 10,842,000 tons of cargo, as
follows:

One hundred and five thousand nine hundred and sixty-
seven (105,967) emigrants left Hong Kong for various places
during the year. Of these 78,576 were carried in British ships
and 27,391 in foreign ships. The year 1907 has proved to be
the record year in the history of the Colony for the numbers of
emigrants shipped.

One hundred and forty-five thousand eight hundred and
twenty-two (145,822) immigrants were reported as having been
brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they
had emigrated, either from this Colony or from coast ports.
This includes 905 returning from South Africa. Of the total
number, 112,742 arrived in British ships and 33,080 in foreign
ships.

The total revenue collected by the Harbour Department
during the year was $348,300 (including $24,098 previously
collected by the Registrar-General's Department for boat
licences, the issuing of which was transferred to this depart-

Tons.

Import cargo
Export cargo
Transit cargo

Bunker coal shipped

4,366,000
2,355,000
3,396,000
725,000

10,842,000


10

COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.

ment from the 1st January, 1907), as against $298,106
collected in the previous year, showing an increase of
$50,193:

$

1. Light Dues ......... 80,389.00

2. Licences and Internal Revenue... 116,122.40

3. Fees of Court and Office ... 151,746.30

4. Miscellaneous Receipts ... ... 42.40

Total ... $348,300.10

(B.) Industries.

During 1907 the price of refined sugars in the East still
further declined, principally as a result of the lower cost of
raw sugar, but also owing to the determined competition of
Japanese refineries seeking to capture the local refineries' old
established Chinese connections. The quantity of sugar
refined in Hong Kong was however larger than for years past,
and was disposed of in China and other markets,, although at a
loss in some instances, and oil very small margins of profit in
others. By the end of 1907 the strenuous competition from
Japanese quarters had however, exhausted itself, and it is con-
fidently expected by those best able to form an opinion that
local industries will be able to maintain and improve their
position.

The demand for yarn during 1907 was even more unsatis-
factory than during the previous year, which was undoubtedly
due to the failure of almost every yarn shop in the Colony.
These failures threw a quantity of yarn on the market which
had to be disposed of at a reduction of $20/25 per bale on the
contract price. Owing to the large stocks on hand it was
found necessary to decrease the output of the local cotton mill
by reducing the number of spindles running, and during the
last three months of the year short time was also resorted
to.

Both exchange and the price of raw material have been in
favour of the rope factory, enabling them to reduce their sell-
ing price to their customers to a lower limit than for some
years. On the other hand the lower price induced a greater
demand and the factory's turnover accordingly showed a fair
increase.

No further additions have been made to the plant of the
Cement Company, which with a good demand for cement has
been kept continuously employed throughout the year.

The flour mills at Junk Bay were kept running continuously
night and day, including many Sundays.

Four hundred and twenty-two (422) vessels of 1,001,001 tons
and 112 launches, lighters, &c., were docked and repaired,


HONG KONG, 190?.

11

compared with 449 vessels of 1,063,454 tons and 79 launches,
lighters, &c., in 1906. One hundred and eleven (111) steam-
launches and other vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 6,311
were built during the year.

A small new industry has recently been established in this
Colony, i.e., that pursued by the Wai San Knitting Co., Ltd.,
but the Company is still in its infancy.

Another recently established industry is carried on by the
Imperial Brewing Co., Ltd. Large quantities of their products
are being exported to the various ports in China. The capacity
of the plant is 2,750,000 gallons per annum.

(C.) Fisheries.

A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong
Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a
large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen,
Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territories
are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity.
Fresli-water fish is imported from Canton and the "West River.
There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.

(D.) Forestry, Botanical Science, and Agriculture.

In Hong Kong fifty-four thousand two hundred and ninety-
five (54,295) pits were dug and sown with pine seeds by the
departmental staff. Thirty thousand pits were sown by con-
tract with no result in the majority of cases. In the New
Territories 111,156 pits were dug by contract and sown by the
department; while 24,557 were planted by the department,
and 8,000 by contract. One hundred and fifty-two shade trees
were planted in streets in Kowloon, and 45 in streets in Hong
Kong; while 265 trees were planted along the newly formed
banks of May Road and Conduit Road. Six hundred and
ninety-six bamboos were planted along roads at the Peak and
elsewhere, while 92 hydrangeas and 102 azaleas were planted
out on Crown land in various parts of the peak.

(E.) Land Grants and General Value of Land.

The amount received from sales of Crown Land was
$161,459, being $154,274 less than the receipts for the previous
year. This falling off may be attributed to the continued
depression of business throughout the year and to general
tightness of the money market. The principal items were for
sites for a cigar factory in Kowloon and for a brewery at
Lai Chi Kok in the New Territories, a lot at North Point, and
land for an extension of the Standard Oil Company's new
premises at Lai Chi Kok.


12

COLONIAL REPORTS

IANNUAL.

III.LEGISLATION.

Sixteen Ordinances were passed during 1907, two of which,
No. 9 of 1907 and No. 10 of 1907, afford facilities to certain
foreign companies for carrying on their business in the Colony
in the same manner as if they had been incorporated under the
law of the Colony; whilst another, No. G of 1907, continued the
incorporation granted under the Ordinance of 1866 of the
leading local banking concern for a further period of 21 years
and empowered it to increase its capital subject to certain
conditions.

A Life Insurance Companies Ordinance (No. 11 of 1907) was
passed in accordance with Imperial precedent, to secure the
solvency and permanency of companies carrying on the busi-
ness of life insurance in the Colony.

A Seditious Publications Ordinance (No. 15 of 1907) was
enacted in order to prohibit the publication in the Colony of
matter calculated to excite disorder, or to incite to crime, in
China.

A Companies (Local Registers) Ordinance (No. 16 of 1907)
was passed based on the Imperial Act of 1883 and makes pro-
vision for companies registered in the Colony but carrying on
business elsewhere, to keep local registers of members.

IVEDUCATION.

The number of Government and Grant Schools, including
Queen's College, is 79, of which 25 are Upper Grade Schools
with a staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of
Standard YII. and 54 are Lower Grade Schools under purely
native management. Generally speaking, the Upper Grade
Schools are taught in English, and the Lower Grade Schools
are taught in the vernacular.

The total number of pupils in average attendance at Govern-
ment and Grant Schools was 5,924 against 5,496 in 1906. Of
these, 2,144 were in Government and 3,780 in Grant Schools:
3,569 pupils received instruction in English, and 2,355 in the
vernacular. The proportion of boys to girls was 3,761 to
2,163.

The revenue derived from school fees was $49,223, $30,442
of which was received from Queen's College.

The expenditure including that on Queen's College was
$184,028, being 3T9 per cent, of the total expenditure of the
Colony.


HONG KONG, 1907.

13

Hygiene has now become one of the regular subjects of study
in all Government and Grant Schools, English and vernacular.

The manual on Hygiene issued to the English schools has
been translated into Chinese and is in use in all the vernacular
grant schools.

The annual competition for the challenge shield presented
by Sir Matthew Nathan, K.C.M.G., took place in December.
Seven teams entered for the competition. There was no com-
petition in the advanced course this year.

Evening Continuation Classes opened in October, 1906, and
were continued until the end of May, 1907, when they closed
for the summer. Examinations were held at the end of the
session, and certificates were granted to successful students.

In May a committee was appointed to inquire into the
subject of instruction at the evening classes. A report was
published in September with the result that the classes were
reorganised and, under the title of the Hong Iiong Technical
Institute, reopened in October.

The object of the Institute is to afford facilities for a com-
mercial and scientific training to students generally, and to
enable those who have left school to continue their studies.

The following table shows the subjects taught at the
Technical Institute, and the number of students who entered
for each subject:

Engineering Section. Commerce- Section. Science Section. 'Building Construction Field Surveying Machine Drawing ... Steam... Mechanics: Elementary Do. Advanced Mathematics: Elementary... Do. Advanced ... English : Junior Do. Senior French : Junior Do. Senior { German : Junior Do. Senior Shorthand : Elemental-y Do. Advanced Book-keeping C Chemistry : Theoretical J Do. Practical ] Physics : Elementary [_ Do. Advanced ... 28 ... 21 ... 21 ... 23 ... 18 ... 12 ... 9 ... 10 ... 41 ... 25 ... 23 ... 9 5 ... 6 ... 35 ... 9 ... 19 ... 14 ... 12 ... 10 ... 5
Total...... ... 355


14

COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.

The total expenditure during the first session of the
Technical Institute was $4,412; total receipts (students' fees)
were $1,377.

The classes were attended for the most part by Chinese, but
a considerable number of Europeans also attended. The
students take a deep interest in their work and generally
have made very great progress in their studies.

There is a well equipped chemical laboratory. The lecturers
are for the most part officers belonging to the public works,
education, and medical departments and Queen's College who
receive fees for their lectures.

"Visual Instruction.Arrangements have now been made by
which regular courses of lectures are delivered during the cool
weather at the prominent Government and grant schools in
the Colony, ilhistrated by the lanterns which were purchased in
1905.

Many schools which had no opportunity of taking the course
when the lanterns first arrived took the course for the first
time this year, and to them the sets of slides were quite new,
but in the case of several schools the lectures covered the same
ground as last year. It will be necessary to vary these lectures,
which have again been full of interest to all concerned, next
year by the addition of some new sets of slides, and the sugges-
tion that they should illustrate emigrant life in Canada,
Australia, and other parts of the Empire appears a very happy
one.

V.PUBLIC WORKS.

The principal public works in progress during the year, ex-
clusive of the railway, were the Tytam Tuk Waterworks (1st
section) and the Kowloon Waterworks, both of which have
been described in previous reports. The former were prac-
tically completed and fair progress was made with the latter,
which are now in such a forward state as to be fully capable of
supplying the whole peninsula with water. The extension of
the distribution system to the important villages of Sham
Shui Po, Kowioon City, and Taikoktsui was completed and the
substitution of mains of larger diameter for those originally
laid at Kowloon Point was in progress to ensure an efficient
supply of water for fire extinction purposes, the erection of
large godowns being in progress there.

The new Law Courts and new Government Offices were still
under construction, whilst the Public Mortuary near Yaumati
and the Time Ball Tower on Blackhead's Hill, Kowloon, were
completed. A new building to accommodate the Land Office
at Tai Po, which had hitherto been housed in a temporary


HONG KONG, 1907.

15

matshed structure, was in progress: a new market at Sai-
Wan-Ho, near Skaukiwan, was practically completed: an
extension of the staff quarters at the Government Civil
Hospital was undertaken to afford accommodation for the
nurses hitherto supported by the Nursing Institute; and a
jinricksha shelter was erected close to the Star Ferry pier in
Salisbury Road, Kowloon. As the construction of the railway
involved the demolition of the slaughter house and cattle
depot at Hunghom, the erection of new slaughter hoiises and
depots was begun at Ma Tau Kok. Provision is made in the
new establishments for considerable development beyond
present requirements. The works of reconstruction of gullies
and extension of nullah training were continued, $10,000
being spent on the former and over $23,500 on the latter. A
large tank for flushing a portion of the sewerage system of the
city was constructed at the junction of Water Street and
Queen's Road West; the rifle ranges for the use of the
Volunteer Reserve Association at the Peak and King's Park,
Kowloon, were extended; a new service reservoir at West
Point for supplying the high levels of the city was begun; a
new cable reserve was established at North Point and the
cables were transferred to it; an obelisk in memory of the
French sailors lost in the typhoon of the 18th September, 1906,
was erected; and the construction of a retaining wall behind
Inland Lot 1,523 to obviate the risk of landslips which
threatened to endanger the conduit conveying the water from
Tytam to the city was completed.

The Mee Lun Lane Improvement Scheme was completed.
Another section of Robinson Road, Kowloon, extending from
Market Street to Waterloo Road was undertaken and the
removal of the hill north of Yaumati Theatre was continued,
the material being used for private reclamation work north of
the Naval Coaling Depot. The extensions of Conduit Road in
easterly and westerly directions and of the road past Kowloon
City mentioned last year were completed, and a further section
of the latter road extending to its junction with the Cliiu Lan
Chu Road was undertaken. A new path, connecting Barker
Road with May Road, as the extension of Conduit Road in an
Easterly direction has been designated, was completed.

The extension and reconstruction of the Albany Filter Beds
was continued, fair progress being made with the work.

The total amount expended on public works extraordinary,
exclusive of advance accounts and deposits not available, was
$784,320 and on works annually recurrent, $538,041. By the
transfer of the item typhoon and rainstorm damage from
the former head to the latter, the first-mentioned sum has been
diminished by $106,659 whilst the last-mentioned has been
correspondingly increased.

Good progress was made on the British section of the Hong
Kong-Canton Railway the cost of which is being defrayed by
fi Loan.


16

COLONIAL REPORTS IANNUAL.

During tlie year 1907 the re-alignment consequent on the
detailed survey by the construction engineers was completed
and work commenced over the whole length. The reclamation
for a site for Kowloon station yard was started in June. The
actual heading driving' in Beacon Hill Tunnel may be said to
have started on January 1st, 1907. During the year 'two
thousand one hundred feet of heading was driven from both
ends and from the shafts sunk at both the north and south
sides and four hundred and sixty-five feet of tunnel fully lined.
About two-thirds of the compressor plant was in working order,
the headings not being far enough advanced to necessitate
special ventilating plant. There was difficulty experienced at
first in obtaining sufficient labour for work underground but
towards the end of the year on the rates being raised slightly
a large number of skilled mining coolies returned from South
Africa flocked to the work.

Bridge building progressed steadily all through the year as
well as earthwork and the minor tunnels, there being no very
great difficulties to contend with except in one of the latter.
A temporary metre gauge line was laid from the sea front at
Lokloha to the north face, the shaft (278 feet) was completed,
and a considerable number of houses for staff erected. The
systematic issue of quinine to all rail employes resulted in a
diminution of malarial fever.

The expenditure on the work during the year amounted to
$2,314,915.

VI.GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.

(A.) Hospitals.

Government hospitals consist of the civil hospital, to which
is attached an isolated maternity hospital, the Victoria hospital
for women and children, the Kennedy Town infectious diseases
hospital, and the hulk Hygeia used mainly for the treat-
ment of small-pox.

The civil hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,711 in-
patients and 17,302 out-patients were treated during the year
1907. 243 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against
239 in 1906 and 267 in 1905. The maternity hospital contains
6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 87 confinements
occurred during the year. The Victoria hospital at the Peak
contains 41 beds. During 1907, 211 patients were under treat-
ment. Kennedy Town hospital contains 26 beds. In 1907,
63 cases were treated, of which 16 were plague. On the
" Hygeia 167 cases were treated, of which 96 were small-pox.


HONG KONG, 1907.

17

(B.) Lunatic Asylum.

The asylum is under the direction of the superintendent of
the civil hospital. European and Chinese patients are
separate, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate
wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 222 patients of all
races were treated during 1907, and there were 13 deaths.

(C.) The Tung Wah Hospital.

This hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the
voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual
grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are
treated in this institution which takes the place of a poor-
house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute. Yarious
other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by
the Institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatria-
tion of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in
emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treat-
ment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by
the patients or their friends. About half the number are now
treated by Western methods and the number is steadily in-
creasing. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese
gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being sub-
mitted to the Governor for confirmation; is under the direct
charge of a Chinese Resident Surgeon, paid by the Govern-
ment; and is under the supervision of a Visiting Physician
who is a member of the Medical Department.

VII.INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY
GOVERNMENT.

Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to
any considerable extent supported by Government may be
mentioned the Po Leung Kuk, the College of Medicine for
Chinese, and the City Hall.

The Po Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893,
presided over by the Registrar General and an annually-elected
Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of
women and children. The inmates of the home receive daily
instruction in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn
pocket-money by needlework. During 1907, a total of 345
persons were admitted. Of these, 85 were released after en-
quiry, 5 were released under bond, 131 were placed in charge
of their husbands, parents, or relations, 1 was placed in charge
of the Japanese Consul, 1 in charge of the French Consul, 22
were sent to charitable institutions in China, 16 were sent to
school, convent, or refuge, 12 were adopted, and 38 were
married. Thirty-four persons remained in charge of the
Society at the end of the year.

33198 B


18

COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.

The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1887.
The government of the college is vested in the Court, of which
the rector of the college, who has always been a Government
official, is president. 102 students have been enrolled up to
the end of 1907, and of these 33 have become qualified licen-
tiates and have obtained various posts under Government and
elsewhere. The institution is of great value in spreading a
knowledge of Western medical science among the Chinese;
and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates
in the public service and in the Chinese Dispensaries the
senior students have frequently been made use of for various
purposes during epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of
$2,500 is made to the college, to be used as honoraria to the
lecturers, who are either Government officials or medical prac-
titioners in local practice. Steps are at present being taken
for the provision of adequate buildings for the purposes of the
College, which has hitherto carried on its work in various
lecture-rooms and laboratories placed at its disposal by
hospitals and other institutions in different parts of the City.

The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from
Government. It contains a reference and circulating library
and museum.

VIII.CRIMINAL AND POLICE.

The total of all cases reported to the Police was 11,540, being
an increase of 396 or 3'55 per cent, as compared with 1906. In
the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there
is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous year
of 27 cases or "81 per cent.

The number of serious offences reported was 297 below the
average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year
1903.

The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of
423 as compared with 1906.

The number of minor offences reported was 385 above the
average of the quinquennial period.

The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was
5,877, as compared with 5,799 in 1906, but of these only 2,460
were committed for criminal offences, against 2,575 in 1906.
Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 84 less
under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 44 less for infringe-
ment of Sanitary By-laws.

The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 502,
the average for 1906 being 518 and the highest previous
average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to
population, according to the daily average of the former and
the estimated number of the latter, was "144, as compared with


HONG KONG, 1907.

19

"161, tlie average percentage for the last ten years. The prison
discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per
prisoner being- 1'50, as compared with 1"21 in 1906 and
1-47 in 1905.

The remunerative labour carried on in the gaol consists of
printing, book-binding, washing, carpentry, boot-making,
net-making, painting, and white-washing-, mat-making, tailor-
ing, oakum-picking, &c., the profit on the work done being
$37,434, as against $34,495 in 1906.

The total strength of the police force for 1907 was, Europeans
135, Indians 410, Chinese 503, making a total of 1,048, as com-
pared with 1,047 in 1906 exclusive in each case of the five
superior officers and a staff of clerks and coolies. These figures
include police paid for by the railway, private firms, and other
Government departments. Of this force the District Officer
and 13 Europeans, 101 Indians, and 45 Chinese were stationed
in the New Territories during the year.

The force of District Watchmen, to which the Government
contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the
Chinese during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets
in the Chinese quarter of the city. They are placed on police
beats and are supervised by the European police on section
patrol.

IX.VITAL STATISTICS.

(A.) Population.

The population of the Colony according to the census taken
in 1901 was 283,975, while at the census taken in 1906 it was
301,967 exclusive of the New Territories, New Kowloon, and
the army and navy establishments. The estimated population
at the middle of the year under review was 414,308, as

follows:

Non-Chinese Civil Community ' 12,700

Chinese Population

Kong Kong ... ... 192,400

Kowloon ............... 71,950

Floating Population ... 43,530

Mercantile Marine ... 2,700

- 310,580

Army (average strength) ... 3,920

Navy (average strength) ... 2,157

---6,077

New Territories (exclusive of Kowloon) ... ... 85,011

Total ... 414,368

At the census taken in 1906 the average strength of the navy
present in the Colony was 4,698,

3319s s


20

COLONIAL REPORTS

IANNUAL.

(B.) Public Health and Sanitation.

During the year under review considerable progress has been
made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat proof as a
preventive of plague; 370 ground surfaces of houses have been
repaired, and 1,201 buildings have had rat-runs filled up with
cement. In addition 44 basements illegally inhabited have
been vacated.

New buildings (domestic) to the number of 142 were erected
during the year and in these the effect of the present ordinance
is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses,
which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be
provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space
about them and tend to reduce surface crowding.

During the year there were 198 deaths from plague, com-
pared with 842 in 1906 and 287 in 1905.

There were 1,825 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst
the Chinese; 655 of these deaths were due to phthisis, a per-
centage of 9'6 of the total deaths amongst that community.

Beri-beri caused 562 deathsa high figure.

The deaths from malaria were 579, as against 448 in 1906
and 287 in 1905, an increase which it is hoped will only be
temporary. The average number of deaths from this disease
has fallen from 526 in the quinquennium 1898 to 1902 to 383
in the quinquennium 1903-1907. Military returns of admis-
sions to hospital for malaria show a marked reduction in the
incidence of this disease, as will be seen from the subjoined
table:

Admissions for Malaria : European Troops.

Year. Strength. Admissions. Deaths. Ratio per 1,000.
1898 ...... 1,569 595 10 379-3
1899 ...... 1,643 829 5 504-6
1900 ...... 1,484 629 4 423-8
1901 ...... 1,673 1,010 4 603-7
1902 ...... 1,381 1,523 6 1,102-8
1903 ...... 1,220 937 2 768-0
1904 ...... 1.426 390 1 273-5
1905 ...... 1,370 348 0 254-0
1906 ...... 1,525 480 4 314-75
1907 ...... 1,461 287 0 196-00

(C.)-Climate.

The average monthly temperature throughout the year was
72'2 F., as compared with 71'8 F. in 1906 and 72"0 F. during
the ten preceding years. The maximum monthly temperature
was attained in July, when it reached 87'1 F.; and the


HONG KONG, 1907.

21

minimum monthly temperature was recorded in February,
when it was 55'2 F. The highest recorded temperature
during- the year was 91'6 F. on the 29th August, and the
lowest 45'0 F. on the 31st January.

'The total rainfall for the year was 93'54 inches, as compared
with an average of 77"9G inches during the past ten years.
The wettest month was September, with 19"46 inches, the
driest, February, with only 0"1G inch. The greatest amount
of rain which fell on any one day was 5'530 inches on the 15th
September, while no rain fell on 215 days of the year. The
relative humidity of the atmosphere throughout the year was
77 per cent., as compared with an average of 77 per cent,
during the past 10 years. The average daily amount of sun-
shine was 5"2 hours, being 46 per cent, of the possible duration.

X.POSTAL SERVICE.

The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1907 by the
Postal Department amounted to $586,375 from which sum
$140,954 was transferred to other heads of General Revenue
under which fees and duties are paid in stamps, which are now
sold exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $445,420
as revenue of the Postal Service. The total expenditure
amounted to $366,452, which being deducted from the revenue
of $445,420 leaves a profit of $78,968.

A direct exchange of Money Orders with Iiiaochau came
into force on 1st July.

A new Parcel Post arrangement with Japan came into
operation on 1st October.

The Postal Convention of Rome, which was signed on 26th
May, 1906, came into operation on 1st October, 1907; the
principal changes introduced being the raising of the unit of
weight of letters from £ oz. to 1 oz. in the case of letters posted
in Hong Kong and Liu Kung Tau and from \ oz. (14" 17325
grammes) to 20 grammes at the other Agenciesand the ex-
change of International Reply Coupons with the principal
countries included in the Postal Union.

The Tientsin Agency availed of the opportunity to send
direct mails to Europe overland via Harbin from 17tli October.


22

COLONIAL REPORTS I

ANNUAL.

XI.MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE.
(A.) Regular Forces.

The following return shows the average number and com-
position of the forces employed in the Colony during 1907:

Europeans. Indians. Chinese.
VI o T o a Corps. d w o d
Ctl & O ffl to a> d^ O o > W. O.'s, & Men o d 'cd ~o
O £ H
General Stall (Officers only) 5 5
Garrison Staff (W. O., N. C. 5 5
Officers only).
Royal Garrison Artillery...... 27 G33 GGO
Royal Engineers 1 i 259 ' 55 326
Army Service Corps 4 23 32
Royal Army Medical Corps 8 43 51
A. O. Department and Corps G 30 36
A. P. Department and Corps 3 8 11
Hong Kong & Singapore Bn. R.G. A. 11 7 7 435 460
3rd Middlesex Regiment ... 16 425 441
119th Infantry ......... 10 15 748 773
129th (D.C.O.) Baluchis...... 11 14 734 759
Indian Subordinate Medical De- 1 4 5
partment. -- -- __ --.
Total ...... 113 1,438 37 1,921 55 3,5G4

(B.) Colonial Contribution.

The Colony contributed $1,214,340.05 (being the statutory
contribution of 20 per cent, of the Revenue) towards the cost
of the maintenance of the Regular Forces in the Colony in-
cluding Barrack Service and Defence Works.

(C.) Volunteer Corps.

The total establishment of the corps is 443 of all ranks. The
strength on the 31st December, 1907, was 289, made up as
follows: Staff 7 ; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 199;
one Engineer Company, 45; Troop 38.

The members of the Corps are now all armed with the new
1I.L.E. short rifle and the latest pattern equipment.

The period for the annual Camp of Instruction was again 16
days; it was held in October, 1907, and was well attended.

The Mounted Troop Camp was held at Fan Ling in the New
Territories. The Camp took place during the Christmas holi-
days. Much useful work was done.


HONG KONG, 1907.

23

The Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve Association numbered
two hundred and twenty-eight members at the close of the
year, a decrease of 23 members as compared with 1906.

Members of this Association, who must be over 35 years of
age, are afforded opportunity to make themselves proficient in
rifle shooting, and undertake to enrol themselves under the
Volunteer Ordinance in the event of hostilities.

A small Cadet Corps was commenced in May, 1906, with
boys from the Victoria British School; there are now 18 in the
school and 4 others. The Cadets are instructed in squad drill
and semaphore signalling. They attended Camp, and many
are already very efficient signallers.

The new headquarter building was opened in December,
1906, and is already very popular. A well equipped
gymnasium has been installed, and classes are held regularly.
The cost of the building has been entirely defrayed and no
debt remains.

The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne
by the Colony, was $45,253, compared with $47,351 in 1906.

XII.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

The year was characterised by continued severe depression
in trade.

The Colony appears to have recovered from the over-specula-
tion indulged in in anticipation of the conclusion of the war
between Russia and Japan, and her trade has resumed a
healthier condition, though the volume is still restricted. The
large stocks accumulated during the speculative period have
taken a long time to work off, and fresh imports have been
small, because for various reasons, one of which was caution
induced by previous over-speculation, China has imported a
smaller quantity of merchandise.

The assessment made in July for the year 1907-8 showed that
the rateable value for the whole Colony has decreased by
2'52 per cent. In the Hill District, Shaukiwan, the Hong
Kong villages, and in Kowloon except in the important
District of Yaumati, the assessment showed an increase rang-
ing from 1'07 per cent, to 11 "76 per cent. But in the City of
Victoria a decrease of 3'42 per cent, and in Yaumati a decrease
of 5'65 per cent, were shown. In New Kowloon a remarkable
increase from a rateable value of $38,930 to one of $61,835, oi
an increase of 58'83 per cent., was shown.

In the New Territories continued progress has been observ-
able in the making of several roads by the private enterprise
of villagers, and by the erection of new houses. The Crown
Rent (Land Tax) was paid with an alacrity that was almost
inconvenient; and there was a marked decrease in crime in
spite of the large numbers of coolies employed on the Railway
Works.

The loss and inconvenience caused by the depreciation of (he


24

COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.

subsidiary currency by tlie over-issue of small coins by tlie
Mint in Canton continued.

The Hong- Kong Government adopted the expedient of with-
drawing from circulation all its subsidiary coin received as
revenue, and succeeded in inducing the authorities at Canton
to temporarily suspend the coining of small coins at the Mint
at Canton. A Committee was appointed to consider the causes
of the depreciation of the subsidiary coinage of the Colony
and to advise what steps could be taken to rehabilitate it. As
a result of the enquiry the Government addressed strong repre-
sentations through the proper channels to the Chinese autho-
rities both at Peking and Canton urging the suspension of the
coinage of small coins at the Canton Mint until the coins had
again reached par. No definite reply had been received to
these representations at the close of the year.

The Committee appointed in 1906 to collect funds and
administer relief to the sufferers by the disastrous typhoon of
18th September, 1906, completed their labours early in the
year and reported that they had collected $279,903, all but
$11,000 of which was contributed by residents in the Colony
and by firms doing business with it. Of this sum $198,002
were spent in replacing or repairing 1,601 cargo boats, junks,
and other craft lost or damaged, while $46,668 were spent on
the relief of destitutes (including 205 women and children) and
the recovery and burial of dead. The balance of $33,768 has
been placed in the custody of the Government as a fund for
relief in similar circumstances. Thirty thousand dollars were
also contributed by the Chinese Government to the Tung Wa
Hospital and have been set apart by that institution to serve
as a similar fund. A further sum of $106,659 was spent
during the year out of Revenue in repairs to Govern-
ment Works and Buildings caused by the typhoon of 18tli
September, 1906. In September a very heavy rain-storm
caused considerable damage to the Kowloon catchwater and
to other Government Works.

The Commission which had been appointed in the previous
year to enquire into the administration of the sanitary laws
and the existence of corruption in the Sanitary Department
issued their report in April. The Commissioners found that
widespread corruption existed among the subordinate Sanitary
Staff, and on the evidence furnished by the Commissioners
several Sanitary Inspectors were tried by the ExecutiveCouncil,
suspended, and dismissed. Much of the dissatisfaction with
the administration of the Public Health Ordinance was re-
moved by the amendment of a section dealing with open spaces
in the rear of existing houses, and by a free use of the power
of exemption from the provisions of the law relating to
cubicles in Chinese tenement houses. A Committee was
appointed to enquire into this subject and their recommenda-
tions with several suggestions made by the Commissioners and
others are being embodied in amendments of the Public
Health Ordinance. In the result it is anticipated that, thanks


HONG KONG, 1907.

25

to the ungrudging labours of the Commissioners, the Sanitary
Department will in future be more honestly served while many
improvements will be effected in the Sanitary Law and the
method of its application.

In consequence of the high rate of exchange, which reached
more than 26-. 3d. to the dollar, the Secretary of State for the
'Colonies, with the concurrence of unofficial members of the
Legislative Council, allowed the sterling salaries of Civil
Servants to be paid at the rate of 2s. to the dollar when the
rate of exchange is above that figure and at the rate of the day
when it is below it.

During the year the claim for compensation on account of
the lives lost in the piracy of the S.S. Sianam, referred to in
the Report of last year, was settled; and the Provincial autho-
rities have now adopted measures which it is hoped will be
effective in the suppression of piracy in the Delta and on the
West River.

Mr. F. Grove, Chief Resident Engineer, and a considerable
staff were at work on the Chinese section of the Hong Kong-
Canton Railway during the year. The survey was completed
and steps were taken for beginning construction early in the
current year.

His Excellency Cheng Yan-tsun succeeded His Excellency
Chau Fuk as Governor-General of the Two Kwang Provinces.

Mr. H. H. J. Gompertz acted as Attorney-General until the
arrival of Mr. W. Rees Davies in July.

Mr. E. Osborne was appointed a member of the Legislative
Council vice Mr. G. Stewart who left the Colony, and Mr. H.
Keswick took the place of Mr. W. J Gresson absent on leave.

H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught accompanied by H. R. H.
the Duchess of Connaught and the princess Patricia of
Connaught visited the Colony early in the year. His Royal
Highness unveiled statues of His Majesty the King-Emperor
and of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales which had been presented
to the Colony by Sir Paul Chater, C.M.G. and Mr. J. J. Bell-
Irving respectively.

Their Royal Highnesses attended an entertainment given in
their honour by the Chinese community at the Ko Shing
Theatre.

Sir Matthew Nathan, K.C.M.G., Governor, left the Colony
on the 20th April to take up the governorship of Natal, and
the Colonial Secretary (Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G.) administered
the Government imtil my arrival on the 29th July, 1907.

I have, &c.,

F. D. Lugard,

The Right Honourable Governor, &c.

The Earl of Crewe,

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State
for the Colonies.
&c., &c., &c.


COLONIAL REPORTS.

The following recent reports relating to His Majesty's Colonial
Possessions have been issued, and may be obtained from the
sources indicated on the title page :

ANNUAL.

No. Colony, &c. Yea:'.
539 Leeward Islands ... 1906-1907
540 Straits Settlements ............ 1906
541 Turks and Cnicos Islands H
542 Somaliland Protectorate ...... ... 1906-1907
543 Bahamas... ... ... ... ......
544 Barbados...... ... ... ...... 11
545 Trinidad and Tobago ... ...... )l
546 Grenada...... 11
547 Mauritius 19u6
548 Fiji ..................
549 Jamaica ... ... 1906-1907
550 British Guiana ... ... ... ...... ... ,,
551 Northern Nigeria ...
552 British Honduras ... ... ...... 1906
553 St. Lucia... ... 1906-1907
554 Southern Nigeria ............ 1906
555 St. "Vincent ... 1900-1907
556 Basutoland ............... ... ))
557 East Africa Protectorate ......... ... ))
558 Uganda Protectorate............ ...
559 Swaziland ............... ,,
560 St. Helena ............... 1907
561 Ceylon.................. 11
562 Falkland Islands ............ ... n
563 Gibraltar.................. ... ||
564 Ashanti.................. n
565 Colonial Survey Committee......... ... 1907-1908
566 Northern Territories of the Gold Coast 1907
567 Seychelles ............... >j
568 Bermuda... ............ ... n
569 Weihaiwei JJ

No.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Colony, &c.

45 East Africa Protectorate

46 Northern Nigeria

47 Do. do.

48 Nyasaland Protectorate

49 East Africa Protectorate

50 British Colonies

51 Southern Nigeria

52 South Africa......

53 East Africa Protectorate

Subject.

Geology.

Mineral Survey, 1904-5.
Do. do. 1905-6.
Do.

"Veterinary Department.
Cultivation of Cotton.
Forest Administration.
Native Education.
Yeterinary Bacteriological
Work, 1907-8.


Full Text

PAGE 1

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL. No. 570. I-IONG If ONG. REPORT FOR 1907. (For Report for 1906, 8ee No. 521.) fm,enteb fo both ~ott.S$ of ~nrliammt h!! QI:.ommnnl) of ~i.s ,tanjcst!]. August, 1908. LONDON: PRINTED FOR HIS M:AJJ<:;STY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY DARLING & SON, LTll., 34-40, BACON STilEET, E. And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.C., and 3-2, AmNGDON Sr1tEET, WESTMINSTER, s.w. ; or OLIVER & BOYD, TwEEDDALJ~ CounT, EDINilUltGJI; or E. PONSONBY, 116, GnHTON STREET, DunLIN. 1908. (Ccl. 3729-34.] Price 2d.

PAGE 2

CONTENTS. PAGE FINANCES 4 TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTllJES1 FIS[IERIES1 AGIUCOLTURE1 AND LAND G LEGISLATION... 12 EDUCATION ... 12 PUDLIC WORKS 14 GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS 16 h15TITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED DY GOVERNMENT 17 CRIMINAL AND POLICE 18 "VITAL STATISTICS ... 19 POSTAL SERVICE 21 MILITARY FORCES AND EXPENDITURE .. 22 GENERAL 0llSERVATIONS . 23

PAGE 3

COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL, 3 No. 570. HONG I{ 0 NG. (For Report for 190G, see No. 521.) 'J'ng GovERXOR TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE. Government House, Hong :Kong, 24th June, 1908. !llr LORD, I HAVE the honour to submit for Your Lordship's in formation the following general Report on tlrn annual Blue Book or the year 1907 : 1125 Wt 24282 8/08 D & 8 n 33198 A~:

PAGE 4

4 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL. !.-FINANCES. 'l'he revenue for the year, exclusive of land sales, amounted to $G,442,529 or $179,540 less than the previous year. Land sales amounted to $159,750, or $155,982 less than in 190G. 'l'he total revenue from all sources was therefore $G,G02,280, or $432,731 less than in the previous year. All the main sources ,of revenue show an excess over 190G with the exception of licences, rent of Government property, interest, and land sales. Light dues, licences, fees of Court, Post Office receipts, and rent of Government property brought in together $a00,504 more than was estimated. The receipts uncler the remaining heads of revenue were, all together, $14G,249 less than were anticipated when the estimates were drawn up. The expenditure for the year wn,::; $5,028,553, exclusive of public works extraordinary; inclusive of that item it was $5,757,203, or $1,075,407 les::; than the total expenditure of 1906. Deducting from the actual receipts for 1907 the total actual expenditure, there was a surplus of $845,07G on the actual working of the year. (A.) GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. The following is a brief abstract of revenue and expenditure for the years 1906 and 1907 : -Light Dues .. Licences and internal rnvenue not otherwise specified. Fees of Court, &c. . . .. Post Office ... .. Rent of Government property ... Interest ... ... ... Miscellan~ous .. ,.. Water Account ... .. Land sales ... ... .. Amount tmnsfcrrcd from Praya J:(cclarnation Fund. Revenue, ln06. 1907. $ c. $ c. 77,722.04 80,389.00 4,765,227.78 4,530,468.75 470,151.53 420,454.04 826,699.20 8,068.42 5jl,747.24 3lfi,733.21 97,208.32 498,621.05 445,420.92 809,647.90 77,~82.34 159,750.29 Total $ 7,035,011.78 6,602,280.25 Deduct increase Nett decrease ... Increase. I Decrease. $ c. 2,666.96 28,469.52 24,966.88 24,235.10 $ c. 234,759.03 17,051.30 8,068.42 155,982.92 97,208.32 80,338.16 513,069.99 80,338.16 432,731.53

PAGE 5

HONG KONG, 1907. 5 E:J:penditure. 190G. 1907. I Increase. I Decrease. $ c. :ii c. Non-effective charges ... ... 33,J,823.31 313,658.67 General administratiuu ... ... 1,404,287.42 1,034,G95.00 Law and order ... ... ... 8il2,919.87 847,418.62 Public health ... ... .. 659,413.66 648,951.iil Public instruction ... ... 1G2,97il.32 184,028.19 Public works '" ... ... 2,086,G55.% 1,468,857.48 Defence ... ... ... .. 1,31>2,537.14 1,259,594.00 ----------Total ... 6,832,610.68 5,757,203.47 Deduct incroase Nett decrease ... $ c. -14,498.75 21,054.87 --35,553.62 ... $ s c. 20,164.6 4 2 369,592.4 10,462.1 617,798.4 92,943.1 1,110,960.8 31,,553.G -5 8 4 3 2 1,075,407.2 The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure for the five years 1903-1907 :-1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907. I $ c. $ c. $ c. $ (!, $ c. Revenue ... 5,238,857.88 6,809,047.99 6,918,403.85 7,035,011.78 6,602,280.25 Expenditure ... 5,3!)6,669.48 G,876,235.30 6,951,275.26 G,832,GlO.GB 5,757,203.47 Surplus ... .. 432,812.69 202,401.10 845,076.78 ------------Deficit ... ... 157,811.60 32,871.41 -from which it will be seen that both revenue and expenditure for the year were lower than at any time since 1903. (B.) ASSETS AND LIABILITIES. At the end of the year 1907, the assets of the Colony amounted to $2,650,733.99, or, including-arrears of revenue, $2,739,712.32. The total liabilities were $1,205,995.13, so that the surplus of assets over liabilities amounted to $1,533, 717.19_ (C.) PUBLIC DEBT. Inscribed Stock at 3} :er cent. interest, ,799 15s. Id. incurred for Praya Reclamation; Central Market; water, drainage, and sewerage works, &c., to be paid off on 15th April, 1943_ Inscribed Stock at 3J per cent. interest (loan of ,100,000 at 4l per cent. to Viceroy of '\Vuchang) ,143,933 ls. 4d. (Amount repaid by Viceroy placed to credit of Special Account ,000, which has been advanced therefrom for Railway construction.) 1Sinking fund commences in 1911.

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UOLONI AL REPOR1'S-d1Ntl At. 'l'he amount paid into the Joint Sinking Fund with accrued interest reached ,813 4s. 4d. on the 31st of December, 1907. II.--TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES, AGRICULTURE, AND LAND. (A.) TRADE AND SHIPPING. ''l'he total of the shipping entering and clearing at ports in the Colony thuing the year 1907 shows an increase of 77 ,"908 vessels of 3,281,042 tons when compared with the corresponding figures for 1906, in which year there was a decrease of 1,437,823 tons due to loss of local vessels in the typhoon. The greater part of this is due to internal traffic-" steamships not exceeding 60 tons plying within the waters of the Colony." If local trade be eliminated, it is found that the remaining figures show the respectable increase of 3,110 vessefs of 579,814 tons. This increase is distributed as follows: -British ocean-going vessels, 59 ships of 26,o98 tons. Foreign ocean-goin~;. vessels, 334 ships of 627,380 tons. British River steamers, 364 ships with a decrease in tonnage of 212,137 tons. Foreign river steamers, 239 ships of 76,075 tons. Steamships not exceeding GO tons, 703 ships of 29,739 tons. Junks in foreign trade, 1,411 vessels of 32,059 tons. The actual fi.gures of arrivals and departures are as follmrn :1''ureign Trade. Of British Ocean-{ 1,876 arrivals of going. 1,880 departures ,, Of Foreign Ocean-{ 2,306 arrivals ,, going. 2,315 departures ,, Of British River { 3,412 arrivals ,, steamers. 3,416 departures ,, Of Foreign River { u55 arrivals ,, steamers. 655 departures ,, Of Steamships not { 791 arrivals ,, exceeding 60 tons. 790 depart.ures ,, Of ,Tunks in Foreign { 14,782 arrivals ,, Trade. 14,782 departures ,, 3,f\05,941 tons. 3,610,228 ,, 3,861,570 ,, 3,859,305 ,, 2,316,889 ,, 2,313,475 ,, 371,996 ,, 3il,996 ,, 3,015 ,, 3,006 ,, 1,320,892 ,, 1,330,578 ,, Total Foreign Trade 23,822 arrivals ,, 11,512,303 23,838 departures ,, 11,520,588 Thi~ includes the sllm nf ,352 8s. Icl. surplus of interest paid by the Viceroy on the loan of ,100,000.

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tiONG KONG, i907. Local Trade. Of Steamships not { 20!1,601 arrivals of exceeding 60 tons. 209,601 departures ,, Of Junks in Local { 20,820 arrivals ,, Trade. 19,952 departures ,, Total Local Trade { 230,421 arrivals ,, 229,553 departures ,, ----, 5,608,266 tons. 5,608,266 ,, 892,8] 8 ,, 586,069 ,, 6,501,084 6,494,335 " Grand Total Local { 254,243 arrivals ,, 18,013,387 and Foreign. 253,391 departures ,, 18,0l4,!J23 " Thus in foreign tra
PAGE 8

8 COLONIAL lUH-'01{'1'8-ANNUAL, In British river steamers au increase 0 3G4 ships with a Jecreasecl tonnage 0 212,137 tons, which is mainly Jue to the withurawal 0 the large sized steamer H ankow an
PAGE 9

HONG KONG, 1907. 9_ 'l'be figures relating to the import and export trade of the port, given in pi'evious years, have, as pointed out annually, been based upon information which can only be characterised as unsatisfactory and the results as erroneous and misleadinu:. As it is obvious that such returns have no value, they are discontinued in the form they have hitherto taken, but the aggregates of the reports received are shown, for purposes of comparison, in round numbers. These incl u
PAGE 10

COLON1At REPO.R.'tS-ANNUAt. ment from the 1st January, 1907), as against $298,106 collected in the previous year, showing an increase of $50,193 :1. Light Dues 2. Licences and Internal Revenue ... 3. Fees of Uomt and Office 4. Miscellaneous Receipts 1l'otal (B.) INDUSTRIES. $ 80,389.00 116,122.40 151,746.30 42.40 $348,300.10 During 1907 the price of refined sugars in the East still further declined, principally as a result of the lower cost of raw sugar, but also owing to the determined competition of Japanese refineries seeking to capture the local refineries' old established Chinese connections. 'l'he quantity of sugar refined in Hong Kong was however larger than for years past, and was disposed of in China and other markets,, although at a loss in some instances, and on very small margins of profit in others. By the end of 1907 the strenuous competition from Japanese quarters had however, exhausted itself, and it ir; con fidently expected by those best able to form an opinion that local industries will be able to maintain und improve their position. 'l'he demand fur yarn during 1907 was even more unsatisfactory than during the previous year, which was undoubtedly due to the failme of almost every yarn shop in the Colony. These failures threw a quantity of yarn on the market which had to be disposed of at a reduction of $20/25 per bale on the contract price. Owing to the large stocks on hand it was found necessary to decrease the output of the local cotton mill by reducing the number of spindles running, and during the last three months of the year "short time was also resorted to. lloth exchange and the priee of raw material have been in favour of the rope factory, enabling them to reduce their selling price to their customers to a lower limit than for some years. On the other hand the lower price induced a greater ~emarnl and the factory's turnover accordingly showed a fair increase. No further additions have been rnacle to the plant of the Cement Company, which with a good demand for cement has been kept continuously employed throughout the year. 'l'he flour mills at Junk Bay were kept running continuously night and day, including many Sundays. Four hundred and twenty-two {422) vessels of 1,001,001 tons and 112 launches, lighters, &c., were docked and repaired,

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i-.i.O~G KONG, 1907. 11 compared with 449 vessels of 1,063,454 tons and 79 launches, lighters, &c., in 1906. One hundred and eleven (111) steamlaunches and other vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 6,311 were built during the year. A small new industry has recently been established in this Colony, i.e., that pursued by the Wai .San Knitting Co., Lttl., but the 'Company is still in its infancy. Another recently established industry is carried on by the Imperial Brewing Co., Ltd. Large quantities of their products are being exported to the various ports in Chiua. The capacity of the plant is 2,750,000 gallons per annum. (C.) FISHERIES. A considerable proportion of the boat-population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territories are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. 'l'here are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay. (D.) Fo1msTRY, BOTANICAL ScIENCE, AND AGRICULTURE. In Hong Koug fifty-four thousand two hundred and ninetyfive (54,295) pits were dug and sown with pine seeds by the departmental staff. 'l'hirty thousaml pits were sown by contract with no result in the majority of cases. In the New Territories 111,156 pits were dug by contract and sown by the department; while 24,557 were planted by the department, and 8,000 by contract. One hundred and fifty-two shade trees were planted in streets in Kowloon, and 45 in streets in Hong Kong; while 265 trees were planted along the 1ie-wly formed banks of )fay Road and Conduit Road. Six hundred and ninety-six bamboos were planted along roads at the Peak and elsewhere, while 92 hydrangeas and 102 azaleas were planted out on Crown land in various parts of the peak. (E.) LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE 01!' LAND. 'l'he amount received from sales of Crown Land was $1Gl,459, being $154,274 less than the receipts for the previous year. 'rl1is falling off may be attributed to the continued depression of business throughout the year and to general tightness of the money market. 'l'he principal items were for sites for a cigar factory in Kowloon and for a brewery at Lai Chi Kok in the New Territories, a lot at North Point, and land for au extension of the Standard Oil Company's new premises at Lai Chi Kok.

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12 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL. III.-LEGISLATION. Sixteen Onlinances were passed during 1907, two 0 which, No. 9 0 1907 and No. 10 0 1907, afford facilities to certain foreign companies for carrying on their business in the Colony in the same manner as i they had been incorporated under the law 0 the Colony; whifst another, No. G of 1907, continued the incorporation granted under the Ordinance 0 18G6 0 the leading local banking concern for a urther period 0 21 years and empowered it to increase its capital subject to certain conditions. A Lie Insurance Companies Ordinance (No. 11 0 1907) was passed in accordance with Imperial precedent, to secure the solvency and permanency 0 companies carrying on the business 0 lie insurance in the Colony. A Seditious Publications Ordinance (No. 15 0 1907) was enacted in order to prohibit the publication in the Colony 0 matter calculated to excite disorder, or to incite to crime, in China. A Companies (Local Registers) Ordinance (No. 16 0 1907) was passed based on the Imperial Act 0 1883 and makes provision or companies registered in the Colony but carrying cin business elsewhere, to keep local registers 0 members. IV.-EDUCATION. The number 0 Government and Grant Schools, including Queen's College, is 79, 0 which 25 are Upper Grade Schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all the subjects of Standard VII. and 54 are Lower Grade Schools under pmely native management. Generally speaking, the Upper Grade Schools are taught in English, and the Lower Grade Schools are taught in the vernacular. The total number 0 pupils in average attendance at Government and Grant Schools was 6,924 against 5,496 in 1906. 0 these, 2,144 were in Government and 3,780 in Grant Schools: 3,569 pupils received instruction in English, autl 2,365 in the vernacular. The proportion 0 boys to girls was 3,761 to 2,163. The revenue derived from school fees was $49,223, $30,442 0 which was received from Queen's College. 'fhe expenditure including that on Queen's College was $184,028, being 3 per cent. of the total expenditure 0 the Colony.

PAGE 13

HONG KONG, 1907. 13 Hygiene has now become one of the regular subjects of study in all Government and Grant :::lchools, English and vernacular. 'l'he manual on Hygiene issued to the English schools has been translated into Chinese and is in use in all the vernacular grant schools. The annual competition for the challenge shield presentecl by Sir :Matthew N atlrnn, K.0.}I.G., took place in December. Seven teams entered for the competition. 'rhere was no competition in the advanced course this year. Evening Continuation Classes opened in October, 190G, and were continued until the encl of :;\'fay, 1907, when they closecl for the summer. Examinations were held at the encl of the session, and certificates were grantecl to successful students. In :May a committ,ee was appointed to inquire into the subject of instruction at the evening classes. A report was publishecl in September with the result that the classes were reorganised and, under the title of the Hong Kong Technical Institute, reopened in October. 'rlie object of the Institute is to afford facilifies for a commercial and scientific training to students generally, and to enable those who have left school to continue their studies. The following table shows the subjects taught at the 'l'echnical Institute, and the number of students who entered or each subject:~ ( Building Construction I Field Surveying I Machine Drawing Engineering j Steam... . . .. Section. 11 Mechanics : Elementary I Do. Advanced .. Mathematics : Elementary .. l Do. Advanced ( English : Junior I Do. Senior I French : Junior Do. Senior Commerce Section. German : ,Junior I Do. Senior I Shorthand : ElementaryDo. Advanced L Book-keeping { Chemistry : Theoretical Science Do. Practical Section. Physies : Elementary Do. Advanced Total ... 28 21 21 23 18 12 9 10 41 25 23 9 5 6 35 9 19 14 12 10 5 .. 355

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14 COLONIAL REPORTS-A.NNUAL. The total expenditure rluring the first session of tl1e Technical Institute was $4,412; total receipts (students' fees) were $1,377. The classes were attended or the most part by Chinese, but a consiclerahle number of Europeans also attended. The students take a deep interest in their work and gPnernlly have made very great progress in their studies. There is a well equipped chemical laboratory. The lecturers are or the most part officers belonging to the public works, education, and medical departments and Queen's College who receive fees or their lectures. Visual Instruction.-Arrangements have now been made by which regular courses of lectures are delivered during the cool weather at the prominent Government and grant schools in the Colony, illustrated by the lanterrn; which were purchased in 1905. Many schoolR which had no opportunity of taking the course when the lanterns first arriverl took t.he course or the first. time tl1is year, and to them the sets of slides were (]Hite new, but in the case 0 several schools the lectures coverea the same grounrl as last year. It will be necessary to vary these lectures, which have again been foll 0 interest to all concerned, next year by the addition 0 some new sets 0 slides, and the suggestion that they should illustrate emigrant life in Canada, Amitralia, and other parts 0 the Empire appears a very happ,v one. V.-PUBLIC WORKS. The principal public works in progress during the year, ex clusive 0 the railway, were the 'l'ytam '.l'uk "\Vaterworks (1st section) and the Kowloon Waterworks, both 0 which ha.vP, been described in previous reports. The former were practically completed and fair progress was made with the latter, which are now in such a forward state as to be fully capable 0 supplying the whole peninsula with water. The extension 0 the distribution system to the important villages 0 Sham Shui Po, Kowioon City, and Taikoktsui was completed and the substitution 0 mains 0 larger diameter or those originally laid at Kowloon Point was in progress to ensure an efficient supply 0 water or fire extinction purposes, the erection 0 large godowns being in progress there. The new Law Courts and new Government Offices were still under construction, whilst the Public Mortuary near Yaumati and the Time Ball Tower on Blackhead's Hill, Kowloon, were completed. A new building to accommodate the Land Office at Tai Po, which had hitherto been house(l in a temporary

PAGE 15

HONG KONG, 1907. 15 matshed structure, was in progress: a new market at Sai VV an-Ho, near Shaukiwan, was practically completed: an extension of the staff quarters at the Government Civil Hospital was undertaken to afford accommodation for the nurses hitherto supported by the Nursing Institute; and a jinricksha shelter was erected close to the Star Ferry pier in Salisbury Road, Kowloon. .A.s the construction 0 the railway involved the demolition of the slaughter house and cattle uepot at Hunghom, the erection of new slaughter houses and depots was begun at Ma Tau Kok. Provision is made in the new establishments for considerable development beyond preRent requirements. The ,rnrks of reconstruction of gullies and extension of nullah training were continued, $10,000 being spent on the former and over $23,500 on the latter. A large tank for fiuRhing a portion of the sewerage syRtem of the city was coirntructed at the junction of Water Street and Clueen'R Roacl vVest; the rifle ranges or the use of the Volunteer Reserve Association at the Peak ancl King's Park, Kowloon, were extended; a new service reservoir at West Point for supplying the high levels of the city was begun; a new cable reserve was establiRhed at North Point and t.lie cableR were transferred to it; an obelisk in memory of the French sailors lost in the typhoon of the 18th September, 1906, was erected ; and the construction of a retaining wall behind Inland Lot 1,523 to obviate the risk of landslips which threatened to endanger the conduit conveying the water from Tytam to the city was completed. 'rhe Mee Lun Lane Improvement Scheme was completed. Another section of Robinson Road, Kowloon, extending from :Market Street to Waterloo Road was undertaken and the removal of the hill north of Yaumati Tlieatre was continued, the material being used for private reclamation work north of the Naval Coaling l)epot. The extensions of Conduit Road in easterly and westerly directions and of the road past Kowloon City mentioned last year were completed, and a further section of the latter roa
PAGE 16

.16 COLONIAL REPORTS-ANNUAL. During the year 1907 the re-alignment consequent on the detailed survey by the construction engineers was completed ancl work commenced over the whole length. The reclamation for a site for Kowloon station yard was sfarted in June. 'l'he actual heading clrivingin Beacon Hill Tunnel may be saicl to have startecl on January 1st, 1907. During the year two thousand one hundrecl feet of heacling was driven from both ends and from the shafts sunk at both the north and south sides and four hundred and sixty-five feet of tunnel fully lined. About two-thirds of the compressor plant was in working order, the headings not being far enough advanced to necessitate special ventilating plant. 'There was difficulty experienced at first in obtaining sufficient labour for work underground but towards the end of the year on the rates being raised slightly a large number of skilled mining coolies returned from South Africa flocked to the work. Bridge builcling progressed steadily all through the year as well as earthwork and the minor tunnels, there being no very great difficulties to contend with except in one of the latter. A temporary metre gauge line was laid from the sea front at Lokloha to the north face, the Rhaft (278 feet) was completed, and a considerable number of houseR for staff erected. The syst.ematic issue of quinine to all rail employes resulted in a diminution of malarial fever. The expenditure on the work during the year amounted to $2,314,915. VI.-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS. (A.) HOSPITALS. Government hospitals consist of the civil liospital, to which is attached an isolated maternity hospital, the Victoria hospital for women and chilclren, the Kennedy Town infectious diseases hospital, and the hulk "Hygeia" used mainly for the treatment of small-pox. 'l'he civil hospital contains 150 beds in 19 wards. 2,711 inpatients and 17,302 out-patients were treated during the year 1907. 243 cases of malarial fever were admitted as against 239 in 1906 and 267 in 1905. 'l'he maternity hospital contains 6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 87 confinements occurred during the year. The Victoria hospital at the Peak contains 41 beds. During 1907, 211 patients were under treatment. Kennedy Town hospital contains 26 beds. In 1907, 63 cases were treated, of which 16 were plague. On the '' Ilygeia" 167 cases were treated, of which 96 were small-pox.

PAGE 17

HONG KONG, 1907, 17 (B.) LUNATIC ASYLUM. I'he asylum is under the direction of the superintendent of the civil hospital. European and Chinese patients are separate, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 222 patients of all races were treated during 1907, and there were 13 deaths. (C.) THE TUNG WAH HOSPITAL. 'l'his hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated in this institution which takes the place of a poor house and hospital for Chinese sick and destitute. Various other services not appertaining to a hospital are performed by the Institution, such as the free burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organisation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About half the number are now treated by Western methods and the number is steadily increasing. The hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the Governor for confirmation; is under the direct charge of a Chinese Resident Surgeon, paid by the Government; and is under the supervision of a Visiting Physician who is a member of the Medical Department. VIL-INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY GOVERNMENT. Among institutions recognised and encouraged but not to any considerable extent supported by Government .~ay .be mentioned the P6 Leung Kuk, the College of Med1cme for Chinese, and the City Hall. The P6 Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893, presided over by the Registrar General and an annually-~lected Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protect10n of women and children. The inmates of the home receive daily instruction in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money by needlework. During 1907, a total of 345 persons were admitted. Of these, 85 were released _after enquiry, 5 were released under bond, 131 were placed 1;n charge of their husbands, parents, or relations, 1 was placed m charge of the Japanese Consul, 1 in charge of the French Consul, 22 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 16 were sent to school convent, or refuge, 12 were adopted, and 38 were mani~d. 'l'hirty-four persons remained in charge of the Society at the end of the year. 3319/l

PAGE 18

18 COLONlAt RltPOll.'!'S-ANNU At. The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1887. The government of the college is vested in the Court, of which the rector of the college, who Las always been a Government official, is president. 102 students have been enrolled up to the end of 1907, and of these 33 have become qualified licentiates and have obtained various posts under Government and elsewhere. 'l'he institution is of great value in spreading a know ledge of ,V estern medical science among the Chinese ; and in addition to the employment of certain of the licentiates in the public service and in the Chinese Dispensaries the senior students have frec1uently been made use of for various purposes dming epidemics. A Government grant-in-aid of $2,500 is made to the college, to be used as honoraria to the lecturers, who are either Government officials or rnedical practitioners in local practice. Steps are at present being taken for the provision of adequate buildings for the purposes of the College, which has hitherto carried on its work in various lecture-rooms and laboratories placed at its disposal by hospitals and other institutions in different parts of the City. The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Government. It contains a reference and circulating library and museum. VIII.-CRIMIN AL AND POLICE. 'rhe total of all cases reported to the Police was 11,540, being an increase of 396 or 3 per cent. as compared with 190B. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous year of 27 cases or Sl per cent. The number of serious offences reported was 297 below the average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year 1903. The number of minor offences reported shows an increase of 423 as compare1 with 1906. The number of minor offences reported was 385 above the average of the quinquennial period. 'l'he total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 5,877, as compared with 5,799 in 1906, but of these only 2,460 were committed for criminal offences, against 2,575 in 1906. 0 committals for non-criminal offences there were 84 less under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 44 less for infringement of Sanitary By-laws. The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 502, the average for 1906 being 518 and the highest previous average being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population, according to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter, was as compared with

PAGE 19

HONG KONG, 1907. 19 the average percentage for the last ten years. The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punishments per prisoner being 1 50, as compared with l in 1906 and 1 in 1905. '.l1he remunerative labour carried on in the gaol consists of printing, book-binding, washing, carpenhy, boot-making, net-making, painting, and white-washing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c., the profit on the work done being $37,434, as against $34,496 in 1906. '.l'he total strength of the police force for 1907 was, Europeans 135; In
PAGE 20

20 COLONIAL 1mro1nS-ANNUAL, (B.) PUBLIC HEALTH AND 8ANITA'rION. During the year under review considerable progress has been made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat proof as a preventive of plague; 370 ground surfaces of houses have been repaired, and 1,201 buildings have had rat-runs filled up with cement. In addition 44 basements illegally inhabited have been vacated. New buildings ( domestic) to the number of 142 were erected during the year and in these the effect of the present ordinance is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses, which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space about them and tend to re
PAGE 21

UONG KONG, l!J07. 21 minimum monthly temperature was recm
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22 COLONIAL REPuRTS-ANNUAL. XL-MILITARY FORCES AND EXPEN DI'l'URE. (A.) REGULAii FORCES. The following return shows the average number and com position of the forces employed in the Colony during 1907: -Europeans.[ Indians. Chinese. -_rn -"'-0 0 i:i 0 .; "' Corps. .... c;; "' z <:.> z !! EE ur g 0 00 ,:n rti ci .... 0~ "' ...... .; "' .:':; O"' 0 d c., EE ,!! ..., '2d 0 "' > z 0 z ...... E:-i I I I General Staff (Officers only) ... 5 ----5 Garrison ::itaff (W. 0., N. c. -5 --5 Officers only). Royal Garrison .Artillery ... ... 27 G33 -GGO Royal Engineers ... ... ... 1 t 259 --55 326 Army Service Corps ... ... 4 28 --32 Royal Army Medical Corps ... 8 43 ---51 A. 0. Department and Corps ... G 30 ---36 A. P. Department and Corps ... 3 8 ---11 Hong Kong & Singapore Bn. R.G .A. 11 7 7 435 -460 3rd Middlesex Regiment ... ... 16 425 --441 119th Infantry ... ... ... 10 -15 748 773 129th (D.C.O.) Bal11chis ... ... 11 -14 734 -759 Indian Subordinate Medical De--1 4 -5 partment. -------------'l'otal ... ... 113 1,438 37 1,921 55 3,5G4 (B.) COLONIAL CONTRIBUTION. The Colony contributed $1,214,340.05 (being the statutory contribution of 20 per cent. of the Revenue) towards the cost of the maintenance of the Regular Forces in the Colony including Barrack Service and Defence "\Vorks. (C.) VOLUNTEER CORPS. '11he total establishment of the corps is 443 of all ranks. The strength on the 31st December, 1907, was 289, made up as follows: -Staff 7; two Garrison Artillery Companies, 199; one Engineer Company, 45; 'Troop 38. 'rhe members of the Corps are now all armed with the new M.L.E. short rifle and the latest patt.em equipment. The period for the annual Camp of Instruction "as again 16 days; it was held in October, 1!)07, and was well attended. The Mounted Troop Camp was held at Fan Ling in the New Territories. The Camp took place lluring the Christmas holi days. Much useful work was clone.

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HO~G KONG, 1907. 23 ~rhe Hong Kong Volunteer Reserve Association numbered two hundred and twenty-eight members at the close of the year, a decrease of 23 members as compared with 190G. Members of this Association, who must be over 35 years of age, are afforded opportunity to make themselves proficient in rifle shooting, and undertake to enrol themselves under the Volunteer Ordinance in the event of hostilities. A small Cadet Corps was commenced in May, 190G, with boys from the Victoria British School; there are now 18 in the school and 4 others. The Cadets are instructed in squad drill and semaphore signalling. They attended Camp, and many are already very efficient signallers. "l'he new headquarter building was opened in December, 1906, and is already very popular. A well equipped gymnasium has been installed, and classes are held regularly. 'l'he cost of the building has been entirely defrayed and no debt remains. 'rhe expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by the Colony, was $45,253, compared with $47,351 in 190G. XII.-GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 'The year was characterised by continued severe depression in trade. The Colony appears to have recovered from the over-speculation indulged in in anticipation of the conclusion of the war between Russia and Ja pan, and her tra
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24 COLONIAL ItEl'ORTS-ANNUAL. subsi
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HONG KONG, 1907. 25 to the ungrudging labours of the Commissioners, the Sanitary Department will in future be more honestly served while many improvements will be effected in the Sanitary Law and the method or its application. In consequence of the high iate of exchange, which reached more than 2s. 3d. to the dollar, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, ,vith the concurrence or unofficial members of the Legislative Council, allowed the sterling salaries of Civil Servants to be paid at the rate of 2s. to the dollar when the rate of exchange is above that figure ancl at the rate or the day when it is below it. During the year the claim for compensation on account of the lives lost in the piracy of the S.S. 8ianam, referred to in the Report of last year, was settled; and the Provincial authorities have now adopted measures ,vhich it is hopecl will be effective in the suppression of piracy in the Delta and on the "'\Vest River. Mr. F. Grove, Chief Resident Engineer, and a considerable staff were at work on the Chinese section of the Hong KongCanton Railway during the year. The survey was completed and steps were taken for beginning construction earTy in the current year. His Excellency Cheng Yan-tsun succeeded His Excellency Chau Fuk as Governor-General of the 'l'wo Kwang Provinces. Mr. H. H. J. Gompertz acted as Attorney-General until the arrival of Mr. "'\V. Rees Davies in July. Mr. E. Osborne was appointed a member of the Legislative Council vice Mr. G. Stewart who left the Colony, and M:r. H. Keswick took the place of Mr. W. J. Gresson absent on leave. H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught accompanied by H. R. H. the Duchess of Connaught and the princess Patricia of Connaught visited the Colony early in the year. His Royal Highness unveiled statues of His Majesty the King-Emperor and of H. R.H. the Prince of "\Vales which had been presented to the Colony by Sir Paul Chater, C.M:G. and M:r. J. J. BellIrving respectively. 'Their Royal Highnesses attended an entertainment given in their honour by the Chinese community at the Ko ,Shing Theatre. Sir Matthew Na than, K.C.M:.G., Governor, left the Colony on the 20th April to take up the governorship of Natal, and the Colonial Secretary (Mr. F. H. May, C.M.G.) administered the Government until my arrival on the 29th July, 1907. The Right Honourable The Earl of Crewe, I have, &c., F. D. LUGARD, Governor, &c. His :M:ajesty',s Principal Secretary of State &c., for the Colonies. &c., &c.

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COLONIAL REPOR'l'S. The following recent reports relating to His Majesty's Colonial Possessions havA been issued, and may be obtained from the sources indicated on the title page:A~NUAL. No. Colony, &c. Yea:. 539 Leeward Islands 1906-1907 540 Straits Settlements l!JO(i 541 Turks and Caicos Islands 5 Somaliland Protectorate 1906-l!l07 543 Bahamas ... 544 Barbados ... 545 Trinidad and Tobago 546 Grenada ... 547 Mauritius 19uG 548 Fiji 549 Jamaica ... 1!)06-1907 550 British Guiana ... 551 Northern Nigeria 552 British Honduras 1906 553 St. Lucia ... 1906-1!)07 554 Southem Nigeria l!lOG 555 St. Vincent 190G-1907 556 Basutoland 557 East Africa Protectorate 558 Uganda Protectorate 559 Swaziland 560 St. Helena l!:107 561 Ceylon ... 562 Falkland Islands 5G3 Gibraltar ... ,, 564 Ashanti ... 565 Colonial Survey Committee 1907-1908 566 Northern Territories of the Gold Coast 1907 5G7 Seychelles 568 Bermuda ... 569 Weihaiwei :MISCELLANEOUS. No. Colony, &c. 45 East Africa Protectorate 46 N onhern Nigeria 47 Do. do. 48 Nyasa.land Protectorate 49 East Africa Protectorate 50 British Colonies 51 Southern Nigeria 52 South Africa ... 53 East Africa Protectorate Subject. Geology. Mineral Survey, 1904-5. Do. do. 1905-6. Do. Veterinary Department. Cultivation of Cotton. Forest Administration. Native Education. Veterinary Bacteriological Work, 1907-8.