Citation
Russia : Report on the trade of Siberia

Material Information

Title:
Russia : Report on the trade of Siberia
Series Title:
Diplomatic and consular reports
Creator:
Great Britain. Foreign Office.
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Harrison & Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Азия -- Россия -- Сибирь
Genre:
Government Document
serial ( sobekcm )
Temporal Coverage:
19021101 - 19021131
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Russia -- Siberia
Coordinates:
60 x 105

Notes

General Note:
"Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty, November, 1902"
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue number: Cd. 787-21

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
291455 ( aleph )
CF 327.42 /23894 ( SOAS classmark )

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Full Text
No. 585 Miscellaneous Series.
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPORTS.

RUSSIA.

Report on the trade of SIBERIA,

Presented to loth Houses of Parliament by Command oj His Majesty,.
NOVEMBER, 1002.

London

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE,
BY HAKRISON AND SOXS, ST. MARTIN'S LAXK,

printers in ordinary to iiis majesty.

And to 1)0 purchased, oitlier dircotlv ov through any Bookseller, from
EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE, East IIahding Strekt, Fleet Street, E.O.r
and 32, Ar.iNonoN Strket, "Westminster, S.W.;
or OLIVER & BOYD, Edikbuboii;
or E. PONSOXBY, 116, Geaito.v Street, Dublin.

1902.

[Cd. 78721.]

Price Twopence.


CONTENTS.



r.vge

Siberian Railway .............................................................................................................................................................................3

Opening of traffic ......................................................................................................................................................................3

Feecling lines ......................................................................................................................................................................................................0

Siberia, main divisions .........................................................................................................................................(>

Railway prospects ..................................................................................................................................................................7

Immigration ...................................................................................................................................................................................................7

Benefits to Siberia............................................................................................................................................................................................8

Goods traffic ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................0

'Passenger and mail traffic........................................................................................................................................................................II

'Grain .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Butter ............................................................................................................................................................................12

Tea ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................M-

Volunteer Fleet ........................................................................................................................................................................................................IS

Trade of Amour region ......................................................................................................................................................................16

Mancliuvinn trade ........................................................................-..............................................17

iRusso-Chincse trade................................... ................................................................................................................17

Russo-Japmese trade ................................................................................................................................................................................IS

Russian trade with lier Pacific ports ................................................................................................................................18

Foreign trade with Russian Far East................................................................................................................................18

Shipping in the Far East.........................................................................................18

Trade conditions in the For East....................................................................................19

Trade openings in Siberia........................................................................................19

Imports in 1900 ...........................................................................s................................................21

Exports in 1900 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

Imports, 1830 to 1900 ...............................................................................................................................................................................22

Shipping at Vladivoslok in 1900................................................................................................................................................23

IS"ikolaievsk-ou.Amour in 1900 ..................................................................21

,, Vladivostok and Jfiliolaisvsk-on-Amour, 1893 to 1900 ........................25

British shipping at A'ladivostok in 1900........................................................................................................................25

1 poud .. .. = (roughly) 3G lbs,, or (exactly) 30112807 lb;., or
0 016121789 ton

1 ton .. .. (roughly) 62 pouds, or (exactly) G2'027855 pouds
1,000,000 pouds 10,121 tons
1 poud .. .. 520645 ounces troy

1 verst .. .. (roughly) ; mile, or (exactly) 0'662879 mile
1 dessiatine .. (roughly) 2'7 acres, or (exactly) 2'69972 acres
1?. sterling .. 9 roubles 45 copecks
1 rouble .. (roughly) 2s., or (exactly) 2s. ljd.
1 copeck .. 1d.

1,000,000 roubles (roughly) 100,OOOJ., or (more exactly at above
rate) 105,735?.

Note.The materials and data, from which this report is drawn up, arc the
official and other journals and trade returns of Russia, a detailed study entitled
" Siberia under the influence of the Great Railway Route," by Mr. M. N. Selikhoff,
Assistant Chief of the Commercial Section of the Siberian Railway, and various other
sources.


No. 585.

Report onTrade of Siberia lnj Mr. Henry Cooke, british
Commercial agent in russia

(Received at Foreign Office, October 21, 1002.)

The political and strategical uses of the Siberian Railway, its Introductory,
commercial opportunities and travelling' facilities, the resources
and enterprise, have been the theme of fertile and picturesque
discussion from the most varying aspects. Now that the whole
line from the Urals to the Pacific is on the eve of being opened
.for regular traffic, a few dry but definite data, derived from
Russian sources, and not always available in the United Kingdom,
may, perhaps, be of interest in assisting opinion as to the general
commercial conditions and prospects of the new route.*

.Starting from Cheliabinsk, on the eastern side of the Urals, Extent of the
the Siberian Railway winds, almost to Irkutsk, along the
-55th parallel, within the same degree of latitude as Moscow, railway lino.
Crossing the Tobol at Kourgan (241 vcrstsf from Cheliabinsk),
the Isliim at I'etropavlovsk (490 vcrsts), and the Irtish at Omsk
{746 versts), it readies the Ob, the great Western Siberian
waterway, at the station of the same name, 1,332 versts from
Cheliabinsk. This was the section until lately known as "the
West Siberian Railway. The former Central Siberian section,
and with it the Siberian Railway proper, passing the Yenisei at
Krasnoyarsk, ends at Irkutsk. The ground thus covered from
Cheliabinsk measures 3,048 versts (2,032 miles).

The Trans-Baikal line, so-called, begins at Irkutsk, at 62 versts
distance from Lake Baikal. And here, at the lake, occurs the only
break in the whole course. The ice-breaking steam ferries have not
fully answered expectations, and the construction of the so-called
Oircum-Baikal line, round the southern bend of the lake, is being-
pushed forward. From Missovoi, the other side of the lake, the
main line continues eastward to Chita and Kaidalovo, a distance
of 757 versts from Lake Baikal, Here, at Kaidalovo, it breaks
off into two branches, one running eastward to Nerchinsk and

* The present report, which is in some respects supplementary to one issued in
190D (No. 533 Miscellaneous Series), to which readers could refer, more especially
with reference to the natural resources and more or less permanent conditions of
the country in question, does not cover the whole trade of Siberia, owing to the
absence of available statisticsforeign goods entering overland from or vi:l
European Russia not paying the customs duty at the Siberian frontier. The trade
thus carried on is not, therefore, separately included in Russian officiul trade
returns.

+ 1 verst = i mile.

(189) A 2


4

.SIBERIA.

Sretensk, 252 versts from Kaidalovo, and ending there, on the:-
banks of tlie Shilka, at 1,096 versts distance from Irkutsk. Thin
was constructed in pursuance of the original plan, by which the
railway was to follow the course of the Shilka and the Amour.
The well-known agreement with China, and the formation of the
Chinese Eastern Eailway Company, opened the way for a more
direct route to the Pacific. From Kaidalovo, therefore, the main
line strikes south-eastward, and after a run of 324 versts, reaches
the Chinese frontier at the station of Sibil1 (Russian side), or that
of Manchuria (Chinese side).

At this point commences the Chinese Eastern or Manchurian
line, which, running via Khailar, Tsitsikar and Ivharbin, in a
direct eastern course through Chinese territory, ends at the
Ussurian frontier station of l'ogranitchni, the distance covered-
being 1,440 versts. Thence a further short stretch of rail brings-
the main line eastward to Nikolsk, on the Ussurian branch,
by which, runniug south, the Pacific is at length reached at
Vladivostok, this final trip over Russian territory covering
153 versts. The entire route thus traversed from Cheliabinsk:
to Vladivostok by the direct rail journey, excluding the short
break at Lake Baikal, measures 5,824 versts (3,883 miles;, viz.:

Distance.
Versls.
3,048
819
324
Sibir-Pogranitclici .. .. 1,410
Pogranitehni-YladiTOstok.. 193
Total ...... 5,824

i

lit addition to the above, there is the southern branch of the
Manchurian line, from Ivharbin to Port Arthur, 980 versts, and
the remainder of the Ussurian line, from Nikolsk to Khabarovsk,
619 versts; or, including a small off-shoot from the main line-
to Tomsk (89 vcrsts), and another to Omsk ('! versts), as well,
as the Kaidalovo-Sretensk section (252 versts), the entire stretch
of rail in Asia, generally known as the Siberian Railway, covers

The distances from the two capitals of Russia to CJieliubinsk;.
and thence to Vladivostok and Port Arthur, are as follows:

Distance
In Russian territory .. Chinese Yersls. 5,372 2,420 Miles. 3,581 1,613
Total 7,792 5,191


SIBERIA.

O

Begular traffic is now open to the Maiu-hurian i'l-ontier station. Opening of
By next yeav the entire route from Europe to tlie Pacific will be ,1'a(lic-

-open to the public service. Trains, indeed, have already run
through to Vladivostok and Port Arthur. In August or this year,

according to official telegrams, Prince Komatsn and suite accom-
plished the whole journey from Moscow to Port Arthur by a
special through train in just short of 14 days. Hitherto, however,
traffic across the Manchurian section lias been mainly for official
purposes and favoured passengers. Naturally, under these
circumstances, and owing, indeed, to the temporary traffic thus
^prematurely forced forward, details in matters of accommodation,
.comfort and speed may not have justified the over-sanguine
.expectations of European travellers, accustomed to constant and
rapid through communication. As regards the one break in the
through route to the Far East, the short .stretch round the southern
bend of Lake Baikal is to be ready by January 1, 1905. Mean-
while, the ice-breakers and steam ferries across the lake, will, as
hitherto, maintain the continuity of the through traffic. The
Manchurian section is to be placed next year in regular goods
and passenger through communication with the general railway
.system of Bussia. A Special Commission, to assemble at

St. Petersburg towards the end of September, 1902, and an
International Conference' to meet shortly at Paris, are to
elaborate tariffs and to discuss questions connected with inter-
national through traffic.

The opening of regular traffic on the Manchurian section is
expected by the beginning of 1903. Three trains weekly, with
restaurant, sleeping cars and all conveniences, will run, to begin
with, in addition to postal trains. The trip from the station of
Manchuria to Dalni will take 70 hours, the proposed fare being
105 r. (111. 2s.) 1st class and 66 r. (Gl. 19*) 2nd class. Since
October 15/28 of this year the three sections of the Trans-
Baikal line, viz., Irkutsk-Baikal, Missovoi-Sretensk, and
Kaidalovo-Mancliuria, have entered into regular communication
with the Prussian railway system. Next year will thus see the
inauguration of regular traffic over the entire extent of rail to
the shores of the Pacific,

* The official "Commercial and Industrial Gazelle" of St. Petersburg of
October 18/31 Inst slates tliat the Manclmrian section will not be opened for
-regular traffic by January 1. 1903, as previously given out.

(189)

Distance.
1 Vcrele.
fit. Petcrshu rg-Chc'.iabirsk ( ; ?i Mosjaiv) 2.C69
Moscow-Cneiiabiuslf .. 2,059
tilicIiiibiiis'i-Vliifiivos'ok >- ..! 5,82 i
Pol l. Aitlmr .. (3,125
PI;. Pctrrsbiirg-VliuUrotlolr .. 8.4S3
Port Arthur S,794
-Mcscow-YIadivoslok 7,883
IV11 A rllivir 8,184


6

SIBERIA.

It is intended that within the near future passengers may he able
to reach Dalni in .18 days, Pekin in 19 days, and Chinese or Japanese-
ports in 20 to 2.1 clays, from Central European towns, counting
2 to 3 days from the latter to the western frontiers of European
Russia. While by the Suez route the journey from London to
Shanghai, "Nagasaki or Yokohama takes 34 to 37 days and costs-
700 to 780 r. 1st class, via the Siberian rail it will be covered in
18 to 20 days, at a cost of from 350 to 390 r., while later both
time and expense may be further shortened. It is unfair to judge
from the temporary and incomplete services, which have been in
Force hitherto, how far and when the traffic of the eastern portions,
of the route will realise the expectations and intentions published
with regard to the through journey.

Feeding lines. 'Jiie Moscow-Zlatoust-Samara line is the only main one con-
necting European Russia with the Siberian Railway. The Tinmen
Perm and Kotlass-Viatka-Perm lines meeting at Ekaterinburg,,
the centre of the Ural mineral district, join the main Siberian
route at Chelyabinsk. The Perm-Kotlass route now brings-
Siberian grain to the Xortliern Dwina and Archangel for export
to the markets of Western Europe, over 0,000,000 ponds (96,726
tons) having been despatched in this direction in 1901. A second
great main line, the St. Petersburg-Vologda-Viatka Railway now
building, to be completed by 1905, will bring the capital into
direct touch, and not as at present via Moscow, with the Siberian
route. In Siberia itself the main line has to depend, for its feeding:
connections with the interior, on the magnificent waterways which
cross its route. The interchange of goods which British enterprise
carried on for some years between the Thames, on the one side,
and the Obi and the Yenisei, on the other, via the Kara Sea, has.
apparently now been suspended.

Siberia, main Erom the point of view of its commercial and industrial

divisions. expansion, Siberia is somewhat sharply divided at Irkutsk or
Lake Baikal into two main parts, the one east the other west of
the lake. The western portion, extending to the Urals, and
including the so-called granary of Siberia, is almost exclusively
agricultural, grain and cattle rearing being the chief avocations
of the population. Its produce, more especially grain, butter,,
eggs, game, &c., reach the markets of Western Europe. The-
eastern portion traversed by the railway route, and extending
from the lake to the Manclmrian frontier, lies in a region mainly
mineral. Unlike the western districts of Siberia this Trans-
Baikal territory produces as yet little, if anything, for export to-
European or other markets. Eor the development of its mineral
resources, hands, machinery and even food products will probably
find their way mostly from or via the Ear East. The country west
of Lake Baikal will, therefore, trade more directly with Russia
and Europe, and chiefly in the export of its own agricultural
produce, while the Trans-Baikal will come rather within the range
of enterprise directed from the Pacific, and apparently should as
yet develop rather an import than an export trade. The vast
Amour territory, bordering Northern Manchuria, from which the-


7 .SIBERIA.

agreement with China diverted the originally projected rail route,
which was to coast that river to the Pacific, is to all appearances
likely to suffer from a decline of the trade and traffic which its
river communications brought to and from the railway at Irkutsk
and the Pacific. Its journals this year repeatedly bewail the-
isolation that is overtaking such but lately rising centres as;
Blagovestchensk and the river borderland generally.

Speaking generally, the commercial, as apart from the official, General view
world of Russia hardly as yet regards the new route with the of tlie railvray
eager attention it attracts abroad. Foreign countries naturally PTOSPect9*
closely follow the possibilities it opens out as a medium of inter-
national transport east and west. The trade connections of
Western countries with the nations of the Pacific are incom-
parably greater than those of Kussia herself with either China or
Japan. Russia's trade intercourse with her Asiatic neighbours, as
the figures given later show, is comparatively inconsiderable,
Siberia itself, so far, with the exception of its grain and more
recent butter trade, may be said to have no very noticeable inter-
national commerce. It has no manufacturing industry. The whole-
country is more or less undeveloped. Its population of about
8,000,000 is almost solely engaged in agricultural pursuits.

The immigrant influx is of the same peasant class. The
urban inhabitants alone show the progress that modern communi-
cations and greater accessibility to the outer world have intro-
duced into Eussia's vast Asiatic dominions. Put the passing trav-
eller who mistakes the civilisation of Tomsk, Irkutsk and the few
other towns of Siberia as representative of the country as a whole,
should diverge altogether from the route of the railway. The urban
population forms but 8 per cent. It is not, therefore, from the
point of view of the immediate advantages to Russia's own foreign
trade that the Siberian thoroughfare can be regarded at present.

Russians, however, apart from its political or strategical
aspects, look rather to its future potentialities (1) as the con-
necting medium between their new Far Eastern possessions and the
heart of Russia, and as another outlet to the ocean; (2) as the means
of facilitating and furthering direct trade in the future with
China and Japan; (3) as a great transit route for passengers,
goods and mails between west and east, and xice vcrsil; and (4) as
the instrument for the colonisation and opening up of Siberia.

As regards the latter, the railway has rather to create thanv
to carry a traffic. It has already served as a spur to the eoloni- -
sation and civilisation of this huge inert expanse of territory.,
whose very name hitherto stood but as a symbol of isolation. The-
commercial value of the new route to Siberia itself, and, indeed,
to Russia, seems, then, to be rather a matter of the future than of
the immediate present. The soil has yet to be thoroughly prepared
before the fruits can be garnered.

The immigration of peasantry from European Russia to Siberia immigration
and the Far East seems for the present to have reached its cul- to Siberia an<£
minating point in 1899. It had risen from a total of 61,435 in the Far East-
1-893 to 223,981 in 1899. In 1900 the number was 219,000, and
last year 128,131.


8

.SIBERIA.

Especially noticeable is the increased number of emigrants
wlio returned last year to European Eussia, chiefly under the
influence oE the bad harvests of 1900 and 1901 in many Siberian
-districts.

Probably, too, the best arable and more accessible plots of land
had been already apportioned to their predecessors in this move-
ment. Whatever the reason, 55,233 re-entered liussia, including
31,330 actual emigrants, 18,019 "khodoks" or pioneer emigrants,
sent out ahead to reconnoitre on behalf of groups of would-be
settlers, and 5,884 peasant labourers returning from temporary work.
Of the 18,019 pioneer emigrants who returned, 13,647 had come
to no arrangements. It is premature, however, to state that this
immigiation movement to Siberia is on the decline, as much
depends on the orders or recommendations received by rural or
provincial authorities in Russia.

SJeuefits to The benefits reaped by Siberia itself from the flood of light

Sibcm. which the railway has flashed over this hitherto remote and hidden
region have already made themselves felt over the accessible dis-
tricts each side of the line. Though as yet capital still lags, and
practically no manufacturing industry lias arisen, the railway has
largely facilitated immigration, inter-communication, and local
traffic generally, besides giving a spur to the development of the
internal waterways and navigation. The main towns and districts
within touch of the rail give abundant evidence of their with-
drawal from their former isolated conditions and environment.
Cheaper communications aucl freights have increased competition,
and lessened, the cost of goods and commodities that Western
civilisation ranks among the necessities of existence. Among
such, for instance, should be mentioned sugar, kerosene, iron,
textiles, &c. Capital can circulate more freely from place to place.
Foreigners have started business offices in Western Siberia, mostly
in connection with the butter industry. The butter making
industry, indeed, has made extremely rapid progress. The produc-
tion of Siberian butter for export has risen from 150,000 ponds
(5,416,800 lbs.) in 1898, to 1,860,000 pouds (67,168,320 lbs.) in
1901. This year the export, according to an estimate made early
in the year by the Assistant Minister of Finance, is expected to
reach 2,500,000 pouds (over 90,000,000 lbs.). This trade is
entirely a product of the railway. The first dairy producing
butter for export was founded in 1894 only. The number of estab-
lishments of the kind now at work had by last year risen to 1,800

The carriage of g.din by the railway lias increased from
3,780,000 pouds (60JD37 tons) in 1896, to 18,145,000 pouds
(292,515 tons) in 1900. The imports in general, still inconsider-
able, increased fourfold between 1897 and 1899.

The gold and other mineral industries, although the former at
least has shown little progress of late, may be developed by the
wider opportunities now opening, and by the greater accessibility
to modern mechanism and methods generally.

Nor, of course, can Siberia do otherwise than benefit from its
intermediate position in the international through traffic that is
bound to follow.


SIBERIA

i)

Wi'uh regard to the cost and p vying capacity of this great Cost and gain,
undertaking, the following extract from an article in the official
" Messenger of Finance" of November 11 of last year, smns up its
present position:"As is well known, the Siberian Railway at
present not only yields a deficit, but does not even cover working
expenses. Nor, taking into consideration the high cost of con-
struction, over 780,000,000 r., can it be expected to become
speedily remunerative." The writer then estimates the working
expenses in 189!) at 5,000 r. per verst, or, if the Manchurian
section be now included, at 0,000 r. In all, taking the length at
7,792 vevsts, the approximate working expenditure would amount
to 47,000,000 r. a-year, not including interest on capital, &e.
To cover expenses the receipts should reach about 80,000,000 r.,
which would require the carriage of 600,000,000 pouds of goods
annually at the existing high tariff's, or, merely to cover working
expenses, 370,000,000 pouds.*

According to official data, the goods traffic on the Siberian Goods traffic.
Railway in 1900 amounted to 42,800,000 pouds (689,979 tons),
against 39,066,000 pouds (639,456 tons) in 1899. Siberia in 1900,
however, suffered from bad harvests, while, too, for a considerable
time all goods traffic was totally suspended by reason of the
mobilisation of troops and the necessities of military transport
owing to the Chinese disturbances in that year. Nor, of course,
was through transit yet opened. Mr. Selikhoff, Assistant Chief of
the Commercial Section of the Siberian Railway, places the actual
goods transport in 1900 far in excess of the above amount, which
did not include the traffic in all descriptions of goods and materials
for the needs of the railway, and for building and reconstruction
purposes, &c., all of which, with the exception of timber, ballast,
&c., had to be imported from Europe. The actual transport figures,
according to bis estimation, were :

Quantity.
Bail way and construction material .. Stone, sleeper.?, ballast, (local) Pouds. 50,000,000 G5.000,000 85,000,000
Tolnl Equiv. in tons 200,000,000 3,224,200
The "' Messenger of Finance;' in an official report, gives tlio goods traffic in 1901 under the following headings (not including railway material, &c.):
Quantity.
Trims-Baikal Siberian........ TJssuri .. Pouds. 22,100,000 53,093,000 17,064,000 Tons. 356,274 Sj5,912 275,088
* 1,000,000 pouds = l(i,121 tons; 1,000,000 r. = 105,735/.


10

SIBERIA.

The gross receipts on the Siberian line proper (Gheliabinsk
Irkutsk) in 1901, including passenger traffic, were 15,259,851 ].,.
against 13,838,557 r. in 1900, or 4,869 r. per verst in 1901, against
4,415 r. per verst in 1900. On the Trans-Baikal line thev
amounted in 1901 to 4,178,377 i\, against 2,116,649 r. in 1900, or-
3,568 r. per verst in 1901, against 3,863 r. per verst in 1900.

Taking the statistics of the strictly commercial goods trafli;-.'
of the Siberian Railway proper in 1900, and the total as first
given, 42,800,000 pouds (689,979 tons), nearly half, or 17,575,000
pouds (283,326 tons) consisted of grain, mostly wheat, while oi:'
the remaining goods the transport of meat exceeded 2,000,000
pouds, tea, coal, table butter and rails, &c, (the latter for the-
Manelmriau Railway), following with figures above 1,000,000-
pouds each.

With regard to the traffic possibilities of the future it is early
as yet to speak with any definiteness. Mr. Selikhoff, the authority
mentioned above, from calculations set forth in detail, estimates-
the minimum goods traffic of the Siberian and Trans-Baikal line*
within the near future at 190,000,000 ponds (3,062,990 tons), or
including the Manchurian section 300,000,000 pouds (4,836,300
tons).

This conclusion he arrives at after full consideration of the
special conditions of Siberia, and judging by the rate of goods
traffic in European Russia per population, allowing 451i lbs. per
annum per head in Siberia or half the rate in Russia. He assume.-,
too, the reduction of the existing high freights and the necessary
improvement of the traffic arrangements in general.

The estimated total of 190,000,000 pouds is thus composed:

The capacities of this great through thoroughfare as the
world's carrier east and west can be, however, under present con-
ditions at least, but rough and indefinite estimates. It is safe U>

Articles. Quantity.
rouils.
Grain 80,000,000
Coal and cuke 20.000,000
Wood materials and firewood 10,000,000
25,000,000
Cattle products 8,000.000
Small manufactured floods 5,000,000
Kerosene anil products 5.'. 00.000
Cattle (200,01 0 bead) ...... 4.000.000
Various minerals .. 5X00,000
Traffic connected with fairs 3.COO.OOO
Machinery 2,000,000
Sugar 2,500.000
Tea............ 2;OQO,000
Rait............ 2,003,000

Various 15,000,000*
* 1,000,000 pouds = 16,121 tons.


SIBERIA

M

say lliat 1 lie line is not at prm-nt, ami may not lie for years yet,,
in a position to cope with anything like the possibilities ami
requirements that the future may reveal or exact. The object in
view, hitherto, has been of an expansive rather than of an in-
tensive character. The rails have been run through from end to
end, and the aim demanded by political and strategical considera-
tions thus attained. Its commercial utility is but a secondary
consideration in comparison, but now that the main object is
accomplished, both military and economic necessities will forcibly
concentrate attention on the adaptation of its transport capacity
to international requirements, if the burden of its future main-
tenance is to be materially lightened.

Busso-Siberian traffic alone, pending the population and
development of the country, (-an influence but little the scale of
cost and gain. To what extent the railway will realise expecta-
tions in international traffic the near future should assist in
forming an estimate. Trade circles are still feeling their way,
and rival routes striving to maintain their former supremacy.

Cheap and cumbrous cmrmcdities can hardly bear the charge
of so prolonged a land jouiney. The sea will probably hold its
oun in the carriage of all but valuable cargoes, perishable articles,
and goods deliverable by fixed date.

But hopes, too, are placed on passenger and mail traffic, to Pnssen
meet which, in anything like the proportions expected, the entire and nl
accommodation and arrangements would have to be considerably tTOe-
extended. Nor is it clear, under existing postal arrangements at
least, to what extent the railway as an intermediary only will
benefit in the transmission of mails. Hitherto only two quick
trains have run through weekly, and the accommodation afforded,
owing to the luxury and conveniences required by long distance
travelling, is limited to a comparatively small number of
passengers."*'

Should expectations be realised, as in time they may easily be,,
this single track will have to bear the immigration movement,,
the internal circulation of Siberia itself, the possibilities called
forth by the opening out of the dormant resources of the country.,
and the international through traffic in passengers, mails and
goods, not to mention the claims of official and military necessities.
This is in addition to its present goods traffic to and from Eussia,
New feeding lines too, such as the St. Petersburg-Vologda-
Yiatka Eailway now building, must in time pour an additional
burden on to the carriage capacity of the main route. With, on
the one side, the resources and enterprise of Europe, and on the
other the teeming populations of the East, and midway an un-
developed expanse surpassing in extent the whole superficies of
Europe, but which can be traversed in 10 or 12 days, it would be
difficult to over-estimate the future that lies before this masterful
undertaking. That future may be somewhat distant yet, as at
present the railway is ahead of the country it serves, which needs
first peopling and then developing.

* Three through quick trains now run weekly (Monday, Wednesday and.
Saturday) from Moscow, starting nl 3 r.u.


12



Already, however, during the last live years, with official
'encouragement, over 1,000,000 immigrant settlers have crossed
the Urals, or, in other words, an inllux equal in number to one-
eighth of the population of Asiatic Russia. But they are almost
entirely of the sr.mo peasant class, a hardy rugged element, but
slow to welcome innovation and possessed of neither capital nor
enterprise. So far the butter making industry is the sole exten-
sive development due to the railway. The rapid progress made
in this branch of Siberian trade, under the influence of the in-
creasing demand in the United Kingdom, foreign capital and
modern improvements, is a striking instance of the success, that
may attend other endeavours to work the resources of the country
for the markets of Russia and abroad.

Passenger The general passenger traffic in 1901 is shown by the following

traffic. figures:Siberian Railway, 669,220; Trans-Baikal, 449,418;

Ussuri, 526,022. At present three through quick trains run each
week from Moscow, each with accommodation for G8 passengers,
or 10,008 yearly. Mr. Selikhoff estimates the minimum future
passenger transit alone at 25,000 from each end, or one train full
per day for the through traffic only, and fears that even this
minimum number may find the railway unprepared.

Enteniatiousl No train accommodation is yet provided 1W the international

nails. mail transit traffic the new route is expected to attract. From

detailed calculations, worked out to moderate and minimum figures
from postal data of the countries likely to avail themselves of the
shorter route, the above named authority estimates the future
transit mail carriage at 1,000,000 pouds (16,121 tons), requiring
two to three special carriages from each end per diem by, of
course, express or mail trains. Existing international postal
arrangements would need modification before any profit to the
railway itself, as an intermediary only, could be derived from this
mail traffic.

jrain. Grain occupies the first place in the goods traffic of the

Siberian line. Owing to bad harvests the amount carried in 1900
(17,575,000 pouds, or 283,326 tons) declined in comparison with
the two preceding years (20,264,000 pouds, or 326,676 tons in 1898).
Wheat, which forms more than half of the grain freight, comes
from the more western regions of the railway, between (Jheliabinsk
and Petropavlovsk, mostly from the districts of Ishim and
Kourgan, in the Government of Tobolsk. Barley and rye are
grown in the central parts of the same Government, and oats in the
vicinity of the railway. The provinces of Tobolsk and Tomsk
yield about 40 per cent, of the total annual crops. In addition to
the Baltic route, Siberian cereals are now exported by the Perm-
Kotlass Railway to Archangel, and thence abroad, 6,038,000 pouds
having followed that direction in 1901, against 1,430,600 pouds in
1900. The new line now under construction, which is to bring
St. Petersburg into direct communication with Cheliabinsk via,
Vologda, "Viatka and Perm, will open another export route for
Siberian grain produce.

Iwtter. One of the first direct results of the completion of the western


SIBERIA

section ol the railway, has been the extremely rapid progress made-
in the production and export of Siberian butter, chiefly owing to-
the continually growing demand for this product in the United
Kingdom. Numerous Danish and German, and some British
offices, engaged in this trade are already established in various-
Siberian transit centres. Dating only from 1894, previous to
which no butter at all wus produced for export, and commencing
in the neighbourhood of Kourgan, it has now spread to Omsk,
Kainsk, Novo-Xikolaievsk, Barnoul, Biisk and Minussinsk. It is-
now the main resource of the peasant population of these districts.
The establishment of peasant associations and societies, supplying"
the various export offices, has taken from the industry something
of its original piecemeal and primitive character, while the superior
enterprise and modern improvements of the export firms, foreign
and Russian, which have settled in the country itself, could not but
greatly better the conditions of production. Their depots at
Kourgan, Kainsk, Omsk, &c., furnish the necessary dairy apparatus
and appliances. The United Kingdom and Denmark are the
principal centres of demand, though the Siberian product is also
met with so far east as Dalni and Port Arthur, and even in China
and Japan. Now, too, with the establishment of direct communi-
cation via Riga, Siberian butter reaches the London market direct,
and not under Danish marks or via Denmark only. Prices are
usually settled by arrangement for the whole year, or for at least
nine months, between the export offices and the peasant producers,,
whether associations, societies, or otherwise, who meet in January
at Kourgan for this purpose. Outside purchases are settled
according to current market prices, during the first nine months
by London, Copenhagen and other foreign quotations, and from
October to December by those of St. Petersburg and Moscow.

Prices at the nearest market range between 9 and 10| r.
the poud, or from 19.?. to 22s. per 30 lbs., in the Government of
Tobolsk, and between 9i and 1H i\, or from 20s. to 24s.
in that of Tomsk. The butter reaches the nearest railway transit
points either by cart or river, and is packed for export in beech
casks of foreign make. Something is still left to be desired in the
technical manufacture of this article, though as the export to the
exacting British market rapidly increases from year to year, things-
must have improved since the International Exhibition of St..
Petersburg in 1899 classed Siberian butter last among the pro-
ducts of its kind, expert analysis ranking 46 per cent, as unsatis-
factory, 46 per cent, as satisfactory, 8 per cent, as good, and none-
as excellent.

The Government is doing all in its power to facilitate carriage-
arrangements to the Baltic ports, and to multiply cold storage-
conveniences en route.

The progress made in this new branch of industry, however,.,
may have its negative side. Complaints are constantly being made
that the peasantry, in their c-agerncss to dispose of all their avail-
able supplies of milk to the export offices, are unduly sacrificing
the regular nourishment of their children, but it is rejoined that


14

SIBERIA

the increased earnings should so react oil tboir general welfare as
to enable them to provide for their own families as well.

The following table shows how rapidly this industry has sprung
up and advanced during the last few years :

Year. Number of Establishments.. Production for Export. Quantity.
Ponds. Lbs.
1893 1-10 150,000 G,4-1(5,bOO
1899 83-1 300,000 10,83 i,GO J
1900 1,107 1.100,000 39,723,200
1901 1,800 1,S60,000 07,1 (i8,320
1902 2,500* 2,500,000t 93,280,000
____ _______. ______ __

* Unofficial sources placc tlicra at less than 2,030. It probably depends on
111 e term used, buttery, creamcry, dairy, &c., so:~.e of which hardly merit the
designation.

f Estimated.

-Xea. The new overland route may revolutionise the conditions of the

tea trade in Russia. As an article of widespread consumption
among Russians of all classes, and in view of the increasing

O 7 . O

import of Ceylon tea of late years, some more detailed information
may be of interest. While Russia is, undoubtedly, the largest
consumer in Europe, so far as the quantity of the liquid tea drunk
is concerned, the amount of tea consumed, owing to the different
method of mixing, is but 0'93 lb. per head per annum, "whereas in
the United Kingdom it is over (j lbs. (taking the data of 1900).
It is far more expensive than in the United Kingdom, 4-s. per lb.
of 14-g ozs. being the price for average tea, but owing to the weak
infusion habitually prepared it is made to go much further.

Russia imported altogether 3,483,806 pouds of tea
<125,807,202 lbs.) in 1901, against 3,492,547 pouds
(126,122,857 lbs.) in 1900.

Of the above amounts, 651,765 piculs (86,902,000 lbs.) were
imported from China in 1901, and 754,414piculs (100,588,533 lbs.)
in 1900, while in 1899 the import was 925,634 piculs
(123,109,322 lbs.). The supply from China lias, therefore,
diminished by 36,207,322 lbs. since 1899, partly accounted for by
the import of Ceylon teas, which, according to a report of the
Russian Vice-Consul at Colombo, has risen from 3,000,000 lbs. in
1895 to 20,000,000 lbs. in *1900, and (estimated) 23,000,000 lbs.
in 1901. Ceylon tea is used in Russia mainly for blending pur-
poses, Russian taste not yet appreciating, its particular flavour as
.a drink by itself. About 50 per cent, now comes through Russian
firms established in the island. Its special qualities and com-
parative cheapness have now established a firm hold on the Russian
market.

Chinese teas hitherto reached Russia either direct by sea,
mostly in the Volunteer Fleet steamers from Hankow to Odessa,
or overland via Siberia. The Siberian routes were:


SIBERIA

15

1. By water to Tientsin, thence overland via Kalgan and
Kiakta to Irkutsk. This, the ancient caravan route, will probably

'.'.succumb to the altered transport conditions.

2. By sea to Vladivostok, and thence

(a) By the Ussurian Railway to Khabarovsk, thence up
the Amour and Shilka to Sretensk, and so on to
Irkutsk.

(l>) To the station of Iman, on the Ussuri line, thence by
the liiver Ussuri to the Amour and Shilka.

3. By sea to Nikolaievsk on the Amour, and thence by the
Amour and Shilka.

The incidence of duties has hitherto played an important part
in the distribution of tea within the Empire. An increase of 3 r.
per poud of the duty on tea conveyed via Siberia has just been
decrecd with a view to equalising the cost of delivery by sea and
by land.*

It seems to be expected that the Ussuri and Amour routes will
now lose their tea cargoes, as indeed the main part of their traffic.
The chronic detentions caused by the shallowness of the Amour
were a perpetual hindrance to regularity of delivery. The rivalry
between the overland and sea routes must now largely depend, of
course, on freights. The railway tariffs are not yet definitely
decided. According to the Press, a special tariff came in force
'from August ">! last for the carriage of tea from the station of
'Manchuria to St. Petersburg, via the rail route, viz., 316'35 c. per
pond for the whole distance.

It is early at the present moment, a turning point in the con-
dition of tea transport, to forecast the extent of the changes that
may occur. The Manchurian railway authorities and the Govern-
ment are evidently doing their best to attract this valuable freight
to the direct land way. The former in June last telegraphed to the
Moscow Exchange asking how much tea would be despatched by
rail, adding that 700,000 ponds could be sent from July 1 to
November 1. The reply received stated that the main part had
already been sent either by sea to Odessa, or via the Amour, and
that only 20,000 pouds had been declared for the direct land
route.

Of the total import of tea to Russia, amounting in 1900 to
3,492.547 ponds (126,125.678 lbs.), and valued at 47,223,037 r.,

* The duties arc

Per Pond.
Jiv European frontiers Erick tea, black or green By Semirceliensk, Steppe, Irkutsk and Amour regions J'lack, flower, green and yellow teas 'Roubles c. 31 50 .! 11 25 25 50


16



from nil countries, the following shows the distnluDum according
to country of despatch :

From 1 Quantity. Yalu?.

l'mids. ' Lbj.

Oront. Britain...... 209,741. 0.7-1A880

China........ 3,001. *85 lOd,3S9,G2fi

Ceylon ...... 139,3U2 .r.,032,(i 10

JCast India ...... 01,105 2,200,023

Boublos.
5.337,3'J8
37,65-1,752
2,7GO,H5 L
1,064.519

It seems possible that the indirect trade in tea to Russia, via
the United Kingdom, will now be considerably curtailed.
, J'hc The Volunteer Fleet is one of the first to feel the loss of traffic

j ensuing from the opening of the overland route. Not one of its

steamers left this year from St. Petersburg and the Baltic for the
Par East. Thirteen trips, however, Mere made front Odessa. Its-
passenger traffic, to quote the official Commerce and Industrial
Gazette," has been very slight, as most pnssengers took the over-
land route." It is threatened, too, with the loss of its tea traffic,,
hitherto itc chief commercial freight, but, as the trading significance
s of this fleet is altogether secondary to its naval character, and to its-

military and Government transport uses, its services will probably
wholly reveit to its original official duties.
Trade of the The trade of the vast Amour Paver territory, since the eon-
Amour region. st,ruction of the line through Manchuria., is threatened with well-
nigh complete extinction. According to a detailed report of the
Governor-General of the Pri-Amour district, published in the
"Moscow Yiedomosti," of September 14/27, 1902, the river
traffic of the Amour, now diverted to the Manchurian Bailway,
and the commercial enterprise and well-being of all the adjacent
region, with the large outlays expended on the development of
this river traffic while it remained the sole link connecting the
Siberian railway with the Pacific, are now left to their fate. The-
river traffic, and all connected with it, was the sole source of
earning to all the surrounding district, the gold industry so far not
having proved successful, while the import of cheap Manchurian
grain renders agriculture unprofitable. "What industry there is-
continues the report, will shortly have to cease operations. The
whole region, in fact, to quote the leading article of the above-
j'ournal on the report referred to, "has, since 1900, rapidly
declined in all that concerns trade, industry, general prosperity
and civilisation." Or, as the report itself closes, "Thus, the
measures taken to attract goods and passenger traffic to the
Manchuvian line will result in the complete ruin of the Pri-Amour
country."

The imports are chiefly cattle and grain from Manchuria, and
the exports to the latter mostly manufactured goods, tools,
furs, &c. The imports from abroad fell from 2,960,627 r. in
1895 to 1,953,109 r. in 1899. The export trade, during the same-
interval, remained stationary at an average annual amount of
2,000,000.r.


SIBERIA.

17

According to an article in the Commercial and Industrial Manehurian
Gazette," of St. Petersburg, of September 12/25 last, the import trade trade,
of Manchuria amounted to 2,603,000/. in 1899, and to 2,856,000/.
in 1901. The imports from the United States in 1899 reached
the sum of 1,080,000/. The following articles of import have
nearly trebled in amount since 1899 : soap, nails, lamps, looking
glasses, candles and tobacco. The last-mentioned increased from
3,833/. in 1899 to 25,000/. in 1901, mostly American, "due to
active advertising." The import of sewing machines considerably
increased, and would do so on a larger scale if cheaper, without
unnecessary polish and ornamentation, and in general only cheap
goods can find a market. The import of American cotton goods
declined from 163,550/. in 1899 to 75,920/. in 1901, owing to
increased use of Indian goods. American kerosene rose by |

1,000,000 gallons, the import in 1901 being 3,170,000 gallons. >
American flour, which in 1900 stood at 38,334/., declined to
21,667/., due to the construction of a large flour mill at Shanghai.

The same journal, in a later issue, gives the following list of
articles which, with the opening of the railway, would find a
ready sale in Manchuria among the Chinese population: glass,
glass bottles, lamps, 'cloth, cheap textiles, boots and galoshes,
sweets, simple agricultural machinery, sickles, scythes, cheap
ploughs, kerosene, soap, candles, lubricating oils, wall paper,
furniture, reacly-made clothing, leather goods, harness, spirits, beer,
butter for the Russian population, &c.

Among articles of export from China and Manchuria to be
developed by the railway, the chief are: tea, silk goods, woollen
carpets, beeswax, fur goods, bristles, china and porcelain, raw hides
and skins, &c. Manchurian grain might easily replace American
in the Ussuri region, where, too, its cattle produce would be
welcomed. Neither of these products would be needed in Siberia
or Russia except, perhaps, in the Trans-Baikal. Russians in the
Amour territory are already complaining of the influx of cheap
Manchurian grain to the prejudice of local agriculture.

The northern parts of Manchuria, unlike the southern, though
fruitful and productive, are as yet but thinly peopled. With no
manufacturing industry, its agricultural produce, competing with
Siberian, can only find a market eastwards, or at most in the
Trans-Baikal and in the Amour region, at the expense of the local
Russian immigrant element.

European Russia imported from China in 1901 goods to the Kuseo-
value of 21,400,000 r., against 16,193,000 r. in 1900. The total Chinese trade,
imports to the Russian Empire from China in 1900 amounted
to 45,945,059 r. (of which tea formed 37,654,752 r.), against'
43,500,000 r. in 1899. The exports from Russia to China,
although they have doubled since 1890, are still inconsiderable,
in 1900 only 6,701,931 r., against 7,525,597 r. the previous year.
They consist mainly of cotton textiles (3,818,672 r.) and petroleum
(1,132,571 r.). Over 32,000,000 gallons of the latter were
despatched to China from Russia in 1901, or some 200,000 gallons
less than in 1900. The United States, on the contrary, increased
(189) B


18

.SIBERIA.

their export of this article to China from 34,000,000 gallons
in 1900 to over 57,000,000 gallons in 1901. The exports from
European Russia to China in 1901 reached but the trifling total
of 3,635,000 r., though this was more than three times the amount
of 1900.

Jtusso. According to a Japanese official source, the exports from Japan

Japanese to European Russia in 1901 amounted to 85,232/., against 62,333/.
trade. in 190()j ^ tQ Agiatic Russia) 229,045/., against 354,183/. the

previous year. The value of the imports to Japan from European
Eussia is but small, viz., 21,074/. in 1901, against 30,923/. in 1900.
Asiatic Eussia, however, supplied the island Empire with 451,470/.
worth of goods in 1901, against 571,671/. in 1900. The total
trade between the two countries, therefore, is comparatively little,
and showed no sign of improvement last year. The export from
Eussia consists chiefly of kerosene (2,420,000 r. in 1899), oil cakes,
&c., salt fish, and cotton prints and other textiles, the latter to
the value of 15,000 r. only. Japan, on the other hand, despatched
to European Eussia in 1900, copra, 307,915 r.; joiners' and turners'
ware, 143,000 r.; and, in much less amounts, iron boiler work,
chinaware, tin, tea and raw silk.

The trading intercourse of Eussia and her two Ear Eastern
neighbours, considering the extent, resources and standing of the
countries concerned, is, thus, comparatively insignificant, tea from
China alone attaining any substantial dimensions.
Russian trade European Eussia despatched to her Pacific ports in 1901 goods
with her to the value of 49,964,000 r., against 56,636,000 r. in 1900, three-
uci ic ports, feurths of which were manufactured articles, including iron
goods (6,509,000 r.), clothing, &c. (5,281,000 r.), cotton textiles
(3,948,000 r.), and steel goods (3,780,000 r.). Firearms, &c.,
declined from nearly 6,000,000 r. in 1900 to 797,000 r. in 1901.
Among food products the chief commodities are sugar (2,072,000 r.)
and tobacco, also thus included (2,014,000 r.), with sweets, preserves,
spirits, &c., to smaller amounts.
Foreign trade Few statistics are available bearing on foreign trade with
^Rus-n Russian Pacific ports during 1901, while the official Russian
"r 'as' figures refer only to 1900, and to then dutiable articles only.

The trade between Japan and Asiatic Russia is given above.
According to American official returns, the exports from the
United States to Asiatic Russia have gradually declined from
over 3,000,000 dol. during the 12 months ended June 30, 1900,
to 1,505,842 dol. in the next 12-month period, and to 1,032,520 dol.
during the year ended June 30, 1902, not including 517,809 dol.
to "Russian China." America imported from Asiatic Russia
during the last-mentioned period goods to the value of only
34,183 dol., against 3,529 dol. for the year closing on June 30,
1901. American exports to China, on the other hand, have more
than doubled during the year ended June 30, 1902 (24,731,728 dol.),
compared with the previous 12 months.
Shipping in Foreign-voyage shipping entering Vladivostok in 1900
the Far East amounted to 331,615 net register tons, of which 246,058 tons
were under foreign flags and 85,557 tons Russian. British


SIBERIA.

19

shipping came second, with 73,766 net register tons (40 steam-
ships), and then Japanese, German, Norwegian and American.
British vessels arrived chiefly from China and the United States.
The shipping of Nikolaievsk-on-the-Amour in 1900 was almost
wholly foreign, as of the aggregate net register tonnage of 34,934,
only 2,121 tons were Russian. Japan headed the list with 87
vessels (of which 28 were steamers) and 14,000 tonnage, followed
by the United Kingdom with 10 steamships and 11,658 tonnage.

According to an American Consular report, 761 steamers
entered Port Arthur in 1901, of which 268 belonged to the
Chinese Eastern Railway steamer service, while 191 were under
the British Hag, and 121 under the Japanese. The chief imports
were cotton piece-goods, silk goods, metals, flour, household effects,
paper, sugar and tobacco; and among other articles, building
materials, timber, kerosene and machinery. Port Arthur, though,
seems to be destined rather for a military, naval and administra-
tive centre than for commercial purposes, while the new town of
.Dalni, with a population already of over 50,000 and the rights of
free trade, is hailed as the growing emporium of the Pacific.

Foreign trade in the Far East has hitherto been largely in the Triule
hands of a few big firms established in the country itself, and J^"1^?^ 's
dealing in Russian and foreign goods and commodities of all
descriptions. Their central establishments at Vladivostok, Kha-
barovsk, Nikolaievsk-on-Amour, and Blagovestchensk, with
branches scattered over lesser towns and villages, are really
general stores and agencies doing wholesale and retail business in
a wide range of goods, extending from agricultural machinery to
groceries. Three such firms, now old established, one Russian, one
German, and the third American, have held a practical 'monopoly
in Far Eastern trade so far as Russia's possessions in that region
are concerned. The closing of the free ports, the shifting of traffic
routes, the practical suspension of the Amour River traffic, and
the total abandonment which now looms over the lately rising
trade of the whole Amour region, owing to the completion of the
Manchurian Railway, have naturally affected the character and
extent of their former exclusive hold of the trade of the district.
The conditions, in fact, are altogether changing. The American,
after 30 years of profitable business, is now partially curtailing
his trade operations. These firms, established before the Far East
began to attract attention, with their thorough knowledge of the
country, people and local conditions, reaped the benefits of the
first awakening of this remote region, though now wider compe-
tition must follow the introduction of the railway and the revolu-
tion it is entailing on local trade conditions generally.

Though these firms deal largely in Russian goods as well, it is
not to be wondered at if American and German articles are more
conspicuous than British. So, too, in the construction of the
Manchurian railway, according to a recent report of the United
States' Commercial Agent at Vladivostok, American locomotives,
tools and supplies were used at all points."

It is much on the same lines that trade has been carried on, ^^ iu

Siberia.


20

.SIBERIA.

and will have to be continued in Siberia generally, rather from
establishments embracing different varieties of goods than in
specialised branches. Siberia is too vast, and its interior too un-
developed, to be fed from any one central point in any one class of
articles only. And it is in the country itself, rather than from abroad,
that business will have to be started, for a thorough acquaintance
with local requirements and conditions is of the first necessity.
The question of credit, too, and long credit is the rooted custom in
Russian trade dealings, is naturally greatly facilitated by an
intimate knowledge of local people and circumstances. In time,
no doubt, with the development of the mineral and other natural
resources of the country, mostly with the aid of foreign capital, a
demand must arise for improved machinery and technical appli-
ances which Siberia itself certainly cannot and which Russia can
but partially supply. These will be ordered direct from abroad.
At present, owing to the vast preponderance of the rural and agricul-
tural element over the urban, and the absence of manufacturing
industries of any importance, the goods most in demand will be of
the simpler and less costly kind, articles which meet the means
and requirements of the native and immigrant peasant population.
The less complicated descriptions of agricultural machinery, and
dairy appurtenances for the rapidly spreading butter-making
industry, are the chief needs of Western Siberia. Swedish
separators seem most in use. The cotton and other textiles in
demand among the mass of the population can be supplied by
Russia herself. Food products, groceries, &c., and everything
beyond the barest necessities which the country itself will furnish,
come from Russia, with the exception of tinned commodities of all
kinds, and anything approaching a luxury. Most of these foreign
food products will be, however, but in limited demand, as even in
Moscow, where British biscuits, preserves, sauces and canned
goods generally are largely exhibited, the prices are altogether
abnormal. So, too, with British spirits and beers. Whisky is sold
in Moscow at 85. and 10s. the bottle in the wine shops, and at 11. Is.
(10 r.) in some of the restaurants. It is more in manufactured
articles, technical goods and appliances, &c., which Russia cannot
make and cannot do without, that trade may be done in Siberia,
including also such comparative luxuries as cycles, typewriters,
photographic appurtenances, &c., for which the growth of Siberian
towns must create a certain demand.

The country in general is now brought within the range of
possible trade and into connection with Russia's and the world's
centres of production and demand. Its unwieldy size, however,
its sparse and almost purely peasant population, its want of sea
communication, apart from the Far East, and its still backward
condition, more particularly so away from the districts covered by
the main line, cannot but retard the development of its many
latent sources of natural wealth.

It would be premature to expect any very sudden or wide
awakening of commercial or industrial enterprise, so far as to
affect foreign trade openings at least, in a country whose area


siberia.

21

exceeds that of the whole of Europe, but whose population is that
of the British Isles of two centuries ago. Its main waterways,
excepting in the Ear East, magnificent as they are, How but to the
inaccessible Arctic Ocean. Save within the environment of the
few large towns, the conditions still preserve much of their former
primitive character. The immigration movement is not that of a
superior race flooding the country at once with a new spirit of
enterprise, launching capital freely, and introducing modern
methods and means. Something of this kind has happened,
indeed, in the butter-producing regions of Western Siberia, but
in general, there and elsewhere, the immigrants are of the same
rugged peasant element that struggles for existence in the villages
of Russia. The great railroad is ahead of the country, but for
this very reason the present is the time to look round, and easy
and even luxurious means of doing so are now within reach of
industrial enterprise and the commercial community generally.

Imports from Abroad via Russian Asiatic Frontiers in 1900.

Food Products. Raw and Semi- manufactured Materials. Animals. Manufactured Goods.
By Caucasian frontier .. Astrakhan ,, Central Asian (Persia and Afghanistan) .. ,, Russo-Cliinese over- land frontier "Via, Irkutsk and other Siberian custom-houses By Ussinsk frontier Yiil Primorskaia territory (dutiable goods only) .. Roubles. 8,251,884 1,806,370 2,559,693 510,610 16,800,165 7,388 3,766,857 Boubles. 10,0*4,566 2,086,185 3,395,707 2,845,417 89,655 51,557 5,814 Roubles. 609,738 359,753 811,286 63,455 Roubles. 9,090,999 134,528 1,086,572 2,574,224 761,367 1
Total .. 33,702,067 18,518,901 1,844,232 13,647,691
Imports via Russian Asiatic Frontiers in 1900.
From Yalue. Of which
Persia United Kingdom Afghanistan Germany.. East India United States Other countries Eoubles. 29,779,030 20,396,591 3,097,837 2,116,070 1,916,4.14 1,823,414 1,715,570 1,571,884 5,296,981 22,500,000 r. food products 8,750,000 r. food products, and 8,750,000 r. raw and half-manufac- tured material 1,938,000 r. manufactured goods, and 1,000,000 r. raw and lialf-manufac- tured materials 1,500,000 r. raw and half-worked ma- terials 1,474,819 r. manufactured goods 1,047,000 r. food products 713,000 r. manufactured "goods 1,540,000 r. manufactured goods
Total .. 67,713,791


22

SIBERIA.

Exports via Russian Asiatic Frontiers to Abroad in 1900.

To 1 i Value. i Of which
Persia .. France .. .. United Kingdom Turkey .. ., Egjpt...... China Germany.. .. .. Other countries Eoubles. 20,648,970 12,750,000 11,923,000 9,831,000 8,535,000 8,168,000 6,677,000 6,4LO,COO 21,998,918 11,000,000 r. food products, and 7,000,000 r. manufactured goods 8,000,000 r. raw and semi-manufactured materials 10,261,000 r. raw and semi-manufac- tured materials 8,000,000 r. raw and semi-manufocturcd materials 7,000,000 r. raw and semi-manufactured materials 8,137,000 r. row and semi-manufactured materials 4,500,000 r. manufactured goods 4,539,000 r. raw and semi-manufactured goods
Total .. 106,931,888
iMror.TS from abroad via Russian Asiatic Frontiers daring the Years 1890-1900.
I Value.
1890. 1895. 1698. 1899. 1900.
By Caucasian frontier ... ,, Astrakhan ,, ,, Central Asian frontier (Persia and Afghanistan) ,, Kusso-Chinese overland frontier ... ...... "Vift. lrkutek and other Siberian custom- houses... By Ussinsk frontier "Via Primorskaia territoiy (dutiable goods only; lloublcs. 12,979,188 3,241,730 5,555,572 14,049,100 4,400 83,307 Roubles. 15,830,'>77 4,313,073 7,131,237 4,449,279 2I,'45,373 82,126 105,493 Roubles. 26,653,818 4,341,058 8,087,240 5,037,823 21,003,741 136,214 147,137 Roubles. 27,182,536 4,493,569 7,026,457 5,809,897 22,540,853 143,153 281,878 Uoubles. 27,997,187 4,027,083 7,401,725 6,741,537 17,651,187 122,400 3,772,672
Total ......| 36,281,481* 53,005,803 66,510,115* 67,538,348 67,713,791
* Including goods imported vifL the mouths of the Yenisei and Obi, viz., in 1890 to the value 13GB, 164 r., and in 1898 to the value of 1,102,476 r.


Table showing Shipping at Vladivostok daring the Year 1900.

Entered.

Flag. Sailing. Steam. Total.
With Cargo. In Ballast. With Cargo. In Ballast.
Number Net of Registered Vessels. Tons. Cargo Discharged. Number of Vessel?. Net Registered Tons. Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons. p Number j Net l-.- i i i of Registered Discharged. .Ves3cls_| $Qns_ Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons.
Russian .. British Japanese German Norwegian United Stales Other countries 2 l> 1 155 596 1,201 .. Pouds. 1,000 22,000 113,000 3 i 180 *58 51 39 48 42 17 5 11 67,732 72,015 51,803 53,786 20,387 6,735 18,895 Pouds. 2,108,000 i 15 4,706,000 ; 1 1,078,000 j 12 3,465,000 3 1,890,000 2 32,000 1 1,136,000 2 17,490 1,751 12,664 1,944 1,988 1,347 888 71 40 07 46 19 6 13 85,557 73,760 65,121 56,931 22,375 8,0S2 19,783
Total under foreign flag .. Total under foreign and Russian flag.. 7 9 1,797 1,952 135,000 136,000 l 4 58 233 162 213 223,621 291,353 i i 12,313,000 21 20,582 i 14,421,000 36 j 38,072 191 262 246,058 331,615


Table showing Shipping at Nikolaievsk-on-Amour during the Year 1900.

Entered.

Flag. Sailing. Steam. Total.
With Cargo. With Cargo. In Ballasl.
Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons. Cargo Discharged. Number of Vessels. Net Keeisterecl tv i ] Tons. i Discharged. Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons. Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons.
British Norwegian .. .. .. Aufstro-Hungarian Russian Total under foreign flag all flags 58 5,842 Ponds. 201,000 28 10 3 3 1 7,999 11,658 3,650 3,501 1,471 Ponds. 199,000 531,000 116,000 189,000 82,000 1 "l 163 650 87 10 3 3 2 14,004 11,658 3,650 3,501 2,121
58 58 5,842 5,842 201,000 201,000 44 45 26,808 28,279 1,035,000 1,117,000 1 2 163 813 103 105 32,813 34,934


siberia.

25

Fab Eastern Shipping.

Table showing Vessels entering Vladivostok and Nikolaievsk-on-
Ainour during the Years 1895-1900.

Total, including Coasters. Foreign Voyage Shipping.
Number Net Total. Under Foreign Flag. Under Russian Flag.
; of Vessels. Registered I ons. Number: Net of [Registered Vessels.; Tons. Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons. Nurnber of Vessels. Net Registered Tons.
Vladivostok (1900) Niliolaievsk on Amour (1900) ... 337 123 442,680 48,324 262 I 331,615 105 34,934 191 103 246,058 32,813 71 2 B5.557 2,121
Total, 1900 1899 Average, 1896-99 460 41ft 346 491,004 452,254 345,2?8 367 306,54!) 35:; 398,308 271 289,377 294 208 217 278,871 251,33!) 196,778 73 85 54 87,678 146,969 92,59!)

Ketuun of British Shipping at Vladivostok during the Year

1900.

Steamers.

Arrived. Sailed.
From and To. With Cargo. In Ballast. With Cargo. iii Ballast.
Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons. Number of Vessels. Net Registered Tons. Number of Vessels. Net Registered T ons. Nunibel of Vessels. Net Registered Tons.
Russian Paeifie ports ...... Germany...... United Kingdom China ...... Japan ...... United States ... 2 5 17 3 12 3,663 11.860 20,857 5,5;0 30,055 1 1,751 1 3,591 1 2 30 2,332 2,'sion 66,401
Total 39 72,015 i 1,751 1 3,591 33 71,642

Note.No British sailing vessels.

(189)


LONDON:
Printed lor His Majesty's Stationery Ofticc.
Ky HARRISON AND SONS,
Printers in Ordinary to His Majesty.
(1400 11 | 02HAS 189)


Full Text

PAGE 1

No. 585 Miscellaneous Series. DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPORTS. RUSSIA. REPOR'l1 ON THB TRADE OF SIBERIA .. Presented to both !louses of Pai'Hament by Command of l!is Najesty,, ,;_VOVEJIBER, HJO;!. LON DOK: PRINTED FOR. HIS l\U.rn:ll'Y'S S1'A1'I0K lmY OFFICE, DY HAHllISOK .AX]) :-:;o::,;s, ST. )[AHTJX'S LAXN, Plt!riTlmS IX OlUl!XAHY l'O ll!S MAJES'l'Y. And to be pnrchnsctl, either directly or through n.ny D.ookselle,, from EYRE & SPOT'l'JSWOODB, ];AS'r I L~HJJ!XG ST1rn1,:, Ji H!F.'r STm:,:T, E.0.~ am! 32, Am1'c1>ox STn 1,:r,;1, ""1,:s'l')!IX>;"l'ER, S. \V.; o, OLIVJ<:Jt & llOYD, E1m,llliHGll; or E. PONSOXBY, 116, GRAF-ros Sm1:r,:1, DUBLIN. 1902. [Cd. 787-21.J Price T1cope11ce.

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CONTENTS. Sibcr'.an Railw,iy .............................................................................. Opening of Lrnffic .......................................................................................... Si fe~~~i ';!,;,~~~f i vi;;~,~~ .. : .:. :.:.:: : :: : : :.:: .: :. ::: : ::: : : :: : :.::: :: : : : : ::::::::: :: : : : : : : : : : : : :: : : : : :: : : :::::: :: ~~!~;[:iii~~sp~.~.~~ .. :.:::...:..:.::.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::.::.::::..::::::::::::::::::::: Benefits to Siberia ............................................................................................. ,.Goods traffic ...................................................................................................... ',Pt!sscnger and mail traflk ................................................................................... Grain .................................................................................................................. r.lC:E 3 G 7 7 8 !) 11 12 Butter .................................................................................................................... 12 'l'c.a ........................................................................................................................ 1 Volunteer Fleet .................................................................................................... 16 trrnde of .A.mour region ........ ............................................................................... 16 :Manchurian trndc ................................................................................................ 17 ;.Russo-Chinese tru,l" .... ................ ................................................................. ..... 17 Russo-J ap~nesc trt1de ....................................................................................... 18 Russian trade with her Pacific ports ................................................ ................ 18 Foreign trade with Russian Fur East................................................................ 18 Shipping in tbo Far .East .................................................................................... 18 Trade conditions in the For East........................................................................ 19 Tro.de openings in Siberia.................................................................................... 19 Imports in 1900 ........................................................................... ,........................ 21 Exports in 1900 ................................................................................................... 22 Imports, 1890 to 1900 ...................................................................................... 22 Shipping at Ylndivostok in 1000 ....................................................................... 23 Xikolaicnk-ou.A111011r in 1900 .................................................. 21, ,, Vlaclirnst.ok and Nikolai~vsk-011-Arnour, 189:i to 1000 .......... British shipping at Ylatlivostok in 1900 ........................................................... 1 pond (roughly) 3G lba., or (exactly) 36 lb2., or 1 ton 1,000,000 ponds 1 poud l versL . 1 clessiatinc ll. sterling l rouble 1 copeek 1,000,000 roubles 0 ton (1ougbl;v) 62 ponds, or (exaetls) G2i855 ponds 16,121 tons 526 ounces troy (roughly)"} mile, or (exactly) 0 mile (roughly) 2 acres, or (exactly) 2 acres 9 rou bl cs 45 copecks (rot1ghly) 2s., or (exnctly) 2s. I!;d. -~-d. (roughly) 100,000l., or (more cxartly at aborn 1-.1te) 10:i,735l. NOTE.-'.l'hc materials and dala, froni "i\"hich this report is drawn up, arc tho official and oLher journals [l,Ud trade returns of Russia, a detailed study entitled "Siberia. under the iufiucncc of the Great Rnilway Route," by Mr. M. N. ~lelikhoff, Assistant Chief of the Commercial Section of th
PAGE 3

No. 585. Miscellaneous Series. Ji,1,ud u,1 th, Tmdc ,!f 8iuCi'ia 7,.'J Jfr. Jf,,1ry C'ool.c, Rrifi.~h C'o1;1mi:n:ia{ _-J:rnJ in 1/ n,,8i<,. (Rccci,ccl at Foicign Olllce, Oclol,cr 21, 1()02.) The 1Joliticltl aml strategical nse;; uf Llw Siberian Haihrny, its foll'odnctory. -cum111crcial opportunities and travelling faLilities, the resonrces
PAGE 4

4 SIBEIUA. Sretensk, 252 vorstil frurn Kaidalovo, arnl ending there, on Lhe .. b::mks of the Shilka, at l,O!)G nrsts uistanco from Irkutsk. Tliis was constructed iu pursuance of the original I_Jlan, by which the railway was to follow the course of the Shilka and the Amour. The wcll-known agrecmcnt \\-ith China, and the formation of the Chinese Eastern Raihrny Company, opened the W8)' for a more direct route to the Pacific. From KaiLlaloYo, therefore, the main line strikes south-castwanl, and after a run of ;124 versts, reachc:-. the Chinese frontier at the station of Sibir (Rnssinn side), or tliat of Manchuria (Cltincse si(lc). ';) .At this point commences the Chinese Eastern Ot' :'.'.Ianclrnrian line, which, running via Khailar, Tsitsilrnr and Kharbin, in ,t direct eastern cour~e through Chinese territory, ends at tlw Ussnrian frontier station of l'ogranitchni, the distance coverert being 1,440 versts. Thcnce a further short stretch of rail brings the main line eastward to :Xikolsk, Pll the Ussnrian branch, by which, running south, the l'acific is at length renched at Vladivostok, this final trip over Russian territory covering 193 versts. The entire route thus traversed from Cheliabinsk to Vladivostok 1Jy the direct rail journey, excluding thP short break at Lake Baikal, measures 3,824 versts (:1,883 miles), Yii. :Cheliabinsk-frkutsk Irkutsk-Knidalo-vo,, Kaido.lovo-Sibir Sibir-Pogrnnitdrni Pogre.nitchni-Vladirn;tok . Total Distonco. Versls. 3,018 819 324 :: I 1,440 I 193 .. 1--5,824--1 In addition to the above, there is the southern lJranch of the Manchurian linf', from Kharhin to Port Arthnr, 980 Yersts, anlf the rernaimler of the r sirnrian line, from Nikolsk tn Khabarornl,, (jl!) YE'rsts; or, including a small off-shoot from the main line to Tomsk (89 vcrsts), and another to Omsk (:: wrsts), as wPll. as the Kaidalovo-Sretensk ,r:ctiou (2,:;2 vcrst,;\ tltP entin stretch of rail in Asia, generally known as the Siberian Railway, cowrsIn Russian tcrl'itory ,, Chinese To~:1! Distance. Yersls. ~[jl,,,. 5,3i2 3,581 . I 2,420 1,613 i,' I 7,702 I 5,101 Tlw Llistanr;es from the two capitals <:f llussia to Chelial;imk~. nnd thence to Vladivostok anrl Port Arthnr, nre a<; follows:-

PAGE 5

SIDEl:I.-\. Rt. Pc:i"er~h1;r;_r-Che:iubir.:,:;k ( .-il Jfos:'J".\) : Mo~cow-Ci1c-liiLbius!c . . . (:)Ju:li.Lbi11s'.i-Vl,u~i,'ok 1 ., Pod; A1-t.,,H1 . SL. I'dC'l',UtLrg-Vl11clico~tofr i ., 1.'ort .~ rtLm _\1 csco,,-Yln.di,ostok l'c,1 t A 1 h 'II' !Ji;L,nce. Ycr~fs. t.l'.69 t,059 5,82t G,li5 ~.4.93 8,794 i,883 8,184 5 ltegnhr tmftic is 110w open Lo the :\land111rian frontier station. Opc!1iug 0 Dy next year the entire rnute from Emo1,e to ti1e Pacific will be trnOw. 1)pe11 to the p11 blic service. TrainF:, incleerl, lia rn a lre,ldy rnn t.hrough to Vladivostok and Port Arthur. 1 n August or this year, according to official telegrams, Prince Knnrntsn m11l suite accnm ,,plished the whole journey from .:\Iosc,;w to l'ort Artltnr l1y a special through train in just short of l..J. days. l fitl1ertu, l1owcw.r, trnflic across the 11anch urian section l ws IJ1)en rn :1 i II lv for oJ'Jici,11 purpu:;es arnl favoured passcngeri". Xa turally, 1~nder thcsl1 -circumstances, and owiug, inclee(l, to the tcrnpnmr.r trnHic thus \prematurely forced forward, details in matters of accunnnodati,)11, .{'.omfort and speed may not have justili~ll the over-sanguine .expectations of European trn,Yellers, accust, ,me,l to constant and. rapiLl through communication. .1\_s reg,uds Llw oue break in the thro'.lgh route to the Far East, the short stretch ronnd the sun them bend of Lake Baikal is to be ready by ,January l, 1905. Mean while, the iee-breakers and steam ferries across the lake, will, as hitherto, maintain the continuity of the through trafnc. The ::\Ianelrnrian section is to be placed nexL year i 11 regular goods and passenger through comrnuuication ,ritlt tl10 general !'ailway -system of Hussia. A Special ( 'ommi~siou, to asse,.ibl.:! at St. l?etersbnrg towards the end of September, HJ02, anll an lnternational Conferenceto meet sli:rt]y at P,uis, rtre tu elaborate tariffs awl to discuss 11uesti,:,n, c~Jnnectcd with interuational through traffic. The opening of regular traffic on the Manchurian section is expected by the beginning of l90~L" Three trains weekly, with restaurant, sleeping cnrs and all co1n-cnicnces, will run, to begin with, in addition to postal trains. The trip from the station of Manchuria to Dalni will take 70 hours, the proposed fare hsing 105 r. (lll. 2s.) 1st cla,;s ancl GG r. (Gl. l!h.) 2nd ch,ss. Since October 15/28 of this year the three scctious of the TransJ3ailrnl line, viz., Irkutsk-Baikal, J[issovoi-Sretensk, and Kaidalovo-Manchuria, have entered into regular communication with the Russian railway system. Xext year \\'ill thus see the inaugmation of regular traffic over tl1e entire extent of r;1il to the shores of the Pacific. The offiti,1! "Commercial ancl Incluslri~l Gazette" of S~. Pcle1~Lu1g of -octohcr 18/31 Inst slates th,t t.he l\fonchurinn sect.ion ,rill not lJc oper,d for ::regular tmific by January 1, 1903, ns pre'l"io:1sly giren out. (189)

PAGE 6

G smm:u, It is intemlell that \\itltin the near fnlnre passm1;:;on; llla_y Le al,Je to reach Dal11i in ] 8 days, Pekin in 19 days, ancl C'hi11ese or Japanesv ports in 20 to 21 cltiys, from Central European towns, com1ting 2 to 3 days from the ln.tter to the western frontiers of EnropC'an Russia. While by the Suez route the journey from London tn Shanglrni, Nagasaki 01 \'" okoharna takes 34 to :n clays ancl ('Ost~ ,00 to 780 r. 1st class, Yi.t the Siberian rail it wili l,e cownd in 18 to 20 clays, at a cost of from :360 to 390 r., while later Loth time ancl expem;e mn.y be further shortened. It is nnfair to judge from the temporary a11cl incomplete services, which have been i11 force hitherto, hoY,' far and when the traftlc of the eastern portion,;. of the route will realise the expectations ancl intentions pnl,lishe1l with regard to the thruugh journey. Feeding Iinl'~. The l\1oscow-Zlatunst-Samara line is the only main one conSiberin, urnin clivieiom. necting European Russin with the Siberian Bail way. The Tiumen l'erm am! Kotbss-Viatlrn-Perm lines meeting at Ekateriubml:(", the centre of the Ural mineral district, join the main Siberian route at Cheliabiusk. The Perm-lCotlass ron to no\\ brings. Siberian grain to the X orthem Dwina ancl Archangel for export to the markets of "\\" c:;;;tern Europe, over u,000,000 ponds (D6,72G tons) haYing been llespatchec1 in this direction in 1901. A secornl great main line, th2 St. Petersbmg-Vologda-Viatlrn Hail way now building, to be completed by 1905, will bring the capital iuto direct touch, and not as o.t prese11t viu. Moscow, with the Sil,eria11 route. In Sibei-ia itf,clf the main line has to depend, for its feeding'. connections with the illtcrior, on the magnificent waterways which cross its route. The illtcrchange of goods which British enterprise carried 011 for some years between the Thames, uu the one siLle, and the Obi and the Y enisei, on the other, via the Kara Sea, ha~-apparently now been suspended. ]from the point of view of its commercial and illllnstrial expansion, Siberia is ::;omewhat sharply divided at Irkutsk or Lake Baikal into two main parts, the one east the other west of the lake. The westem portion, extending to the Urals, and including the so-cttllell granary of Siberia, is almost exclusively agricultnral, grain and catLle roaring being the chief avocations of the population. lts proLlnee, morl:) especially grain, butter, eggs, game, &c., ro:1clt the markets of 1,Vestern Europe. The eastern portion tmversed by the railway route, and extending from the lake to the l\fanclrnrian frontier, lies in a region mainly mineral. Unlike the western districts of Siberia this TransBailrnl territory produces as yet little, if anything, for export to European or other markets. }'or the development of its mineral resources, hands, machinery and even food prnducts will probably find their way mostly froi;1 or via the Far East. The country west of Lake Baikal will, therefore, trade more directly with Russia ancl Europe, and chiefly in the export of its own agricultnrnl proclnce, while the Trnns-Bailrnl will come rather within the range of enterprise directed from the Pacific, and apparently should as yet develop rather an import il1an an export trade. The Yast Amour territory, lJordcring Northern l\fanclrnria, from which the

PAGE 7

SIDEHIA. ,.... ,, agreement with China diverted the
PAGE 8

llleuefit, to :_Ebc1lll. Sll3EllIA. Especially noticeable is the increm;ed u umber of emigrau ts who returned last year to European Russia, chiefly undcl' the inl1uence o[ the bad harvests of 1000 and 1901 in many Siberian ,districts. Probably, loo, the best araLle aml more accessible plots of land had been alreaLly apportioneLl to their predecessors in this move ment. whatever the reason, 55,233 re-entered Hussia, including 31,330 actual emigrants, 18,01!) "khOLloks" or pioneer emigmnts, sent out ahead to reconnoitre on behalf of gl'oups of would-Le settlers, and 5,884 peasant labourers returning from temporary work. Of the 18,019 pioneer emigrants \\ho returned, 1::l,647 hatl come to 110 arrangements. It is premature, however, to state that this irnmig1ation movement to Siberia is on the decline, as much depends on the orders or recommendations received by rural or provincial authorities in Russia. The benefits reapeLl by Siberia itf;elf fru,n tlie fio,1u of light \Yhich the rail way has flashed o,er tl1is hitherto remote and hiLlclen rer:ion have alreacly made themselves felt over the accessilJle dis ;tricts each side of the line. Though as yet capital still lags, a,ml pmctically no manufacturing imlustry has a,risen, the rail way lms largely facilitated immigration, inter-cornmunica,tion, aml local traffic generally, besides giving a, spur to the Llevelopment of the internal ,rnterwrtys aucl navigation. The main towns ancl districts within touch of the rail gi\'e abumlant evidence of their \Yith {!rnwal from their former isolated conditiom; and environment. Cheaper comnrnnications aud freights have increased competition, and lessenefl. the cost of goods ancl. commodities that W estem civilisation ranks among the necessities of existence. Among such, for instance, sbonlcl be mcntionccl sugar, kerosene, iron, textiles, &c. Capital ean circulate more freely from pla,cc to place. :Foreigners have started business offices in w estcrn Siberia, mostly in connection with the butter imlustry. The butter 111aki11g industry, i.udeed, has made extremely rapid progress. The produc tion of Siberian Lutter for export has risen from 150,000 pouds (5,416,800 lbs.) in 18!)8, to 1,860,000 ponds (67,168,320 lbs.) in 1901. This year the export, according to a11 estimate made early in the year liy the Assistant Minister of Finance, is expected Lo reuch ~,500,000 pouds (over !)0,000,000 llJs.). This trade is entirely a prnclnct of the rail way. The first dairy produciug butter for export was foundt:d in 18!)-! only. The number of estab lishments of tlie kiml now at work had liy last year risen to 1,800 The carriage of g. ,dn by the rnilway has increased from ;J,780,000 ponds (G0,9:J7 tons) in 1896, to 18,14:3,000 ponds (292,515 tons) in 1900. The imports in general, still ineo11sidcr able, increased fomfold Letween 1897 aucl 1889. The gold and other mineral inrlnstries, although tbe former at least has sho\\"11 li tLle prngress oi late, may be developed by the wider opportunities now opening, and by the greater accessibility io modern mechanism '1ncl methods generally. Nor, of course, can Siberia do otherwise than Lenefi t from its intennecliate position in the international through traffic that is Louml to follow.

PAGE 9

SIREL:L\. 9 "WiL11 rc~n.nl to the cmt allll p tyill~ c;1pacity of this great Cost ,incl gain. 1.mdcrtaking, the foU.Jwing cxtmct from an art.icle iu the otliciul Messenger of :Finance" of X ovember 11 of la,st year, snms np its }Jl'esent position :-" As is well known, the Sibe!'ian Railway at present not only yiehb ,t deficit, but 1lue.~ not cveu cover working expenses. Nor, taking into consideration the high cost of con-strnction, OYCl' 780,000,000 r., can it lJe expected to become speedily rcmuuemtive." The writer then estimates the working expe1rnes in 1890 at G,000 r. per verst, or, if tl1e Mauchmian section be now iuclnded, at Ci,000 r. In all, taking the length at 7,79'.!. Yeist.s, the approximate \Yorking expenditure woukl amount to -!7,000,000 r. a-yeai', noi; including interest ou capital, &e. To cover expenses the receipts should reach about 80,000,000 r., \Yhich wouhl recp1ire the eaniage of G00,000,000 poucls of goods annually at the existing l1igh tarim, or, merely to cover working expenses, ::1,0,000,000 ponds.* According to ofticinl data, the gooJs traffic on the Siberian Goods traffic. Railway in lDOO amounted to 4:Z,800,000 ponds (689,979 tons), against 39,666,000 ponus (GJ9,-!5G tons) in 1899. Siberia in 1900, howc,er, suffered from bad han-ests, while, too, for a considerable time all goods trafric was tot:tlly suspended by reason of the mobilisation of troops and the necessities of military transport owing to the Chine:-;e disturbances in that year. Nor, of course, was through transit yet opened. I\Ir. Selikhoff, Assistant Chief ol' thJ Commercial Section of the Siberian I:ailway, places the actual goOlls trnn;;po!'t in 1000 far in exct)SS of the aboYc amount, wbieh llill not im:lmle the trafnc in all llescriptions of goods and materials for the needs of the rail \\'ay, and for building and reconstrnction purposes, &c., all of which, with the exception of timber, ballast, &c., hall to be importecl from Emopc. The actual transport figures, according to his estimation, \H're :Com 111 ereial tr,dlic . :Hail way and constrnetion malerial Slone, sleepers, ballast-, &~. (!ocnl) Tolnl Quantily. Poucls. 50,000,000 G5,000,000 . 85.000,0CO 1----Equh. in tons I 200,000,000 3,224,200 The ").fossrng2r of Finance," in an ofiicial report, giYes the goous traflic in 19CJ1 under the following headings (not including railway materiRl, &c.):------------------T1,m~-D,tikal Siberian Ussmi Quantity. Poucl;. 22,100,000 j 53,093,000 .. 1 17,064,000 'fans. 35G,274 835,912 275,088 1,000,000 pouis = rn, 121 tons; l ,OOCl,000 r. = 105,735l.

PAGE 10

SlllEnIA. The gross roc0ipts 011 the 8iberian lino proper (Cl1elial1insl: Irkutsk) in 1901, inclndiug passenger traffic, were 15,259,85.J r.,_ against 13,8:38,557 r. in 1900, or 4,869 r. per Yerst in 1901, against 4,415 r. per verst in 1900. On the Trans-Baikal line they amonnted in 1901 to cl,178,377 r., agaimt 2,116,640 r. in 1900, r,r ;:,568 r. per verst in 1901, against 3,863 r. per ,erst in 1!)00. Taking the sta,tistics of the strictly commercial goods traflito" of the Siberian Hail way proper in 1900, and the total as fir;-;t given, 42,800,000 pornls (689,97D tons), nearly half, or 17,575,000 ponds (:28n,326 t01rn) consisted of grain, mostly wheat, while oi' the remaining goods the tranc:;port of meat execedc'thc mininrnm goods tratlic of the Siberian aml Trnns-Baikal lillf'& within the near future nt 190,000,000 ponds (:J,062,9()0 torn;), rw including the Manclrnrian section 300,000,000 pouds ( 4,8:JG,noo tons). This conclusion lie arrives rrt after full consirlPration of tL, special cumlitions of Siberia, and jndging by the rote of good~ traffic in European Rnssia per population, nllowiug JGl} llrn. per ann11111 per head in Siberia 01 half the rate in Russia. He assume.,. too, the reduction o~ the existing high freights and the necessa~r improvement of the traffic arrangements in general. The estirnate1l total oi' 190,000,000 ponds is thus compn,c d :-Arlie le,. Grain Coal ontl cukc W opcl materials and firewood Goods in trnnait CaWe pl'Oducts . . Sm11ll 11urnnfo,.turcd r,oocls Kerosene an;ooo 25,000,0CO 8,000,000 5,000,000 5.'.0(l.()00 1.000.000 5.C00,000 3.C00.000 2,000,000 2,500,000 2;0@0,000 2,00~,ooo 1,500,\JOO 15,0CO,OOO> "' ] ,OC0,000 puucls = lG,l 21 tous. The capacities of this great through thornughfare n:o llw world's carrier east aml west can be, however, m1der present co11clitions at least, lmt rnngh and indefinite estimates. It is safe lu,

PAGE 11

SlllI-:1:L\. H ~ay tliat !he liue rn m,t ,1,t 1,1-cH,nl, and rn.1y 110t lie for years ye!,. iu a posilion to c011c '-' iLh :rnytliing like tl1e possibilities and requirements that tlw future 11:.1:y reYcal or exact. The object iu view, hitherto, has bcrn of Hll c:qJa11sivc rather than of an intcnsiYe character. The rnils LaYe 1Jeen rnn through from end tn end, arn1 the aim deniandecl hy political mH1 strategical considel'il l ions tlrns a tlninec1. Its comme1 cial utility is lrnt a aecondar.r ccJ1Sidcration in comparison, lmt now that the rnaiu cbject i8 accl:mplid1u1, Loth military and economic necessities ,rill forcibl.r c011centrate attention on the ndnptation of its transport capacity to internaiic,nal reriui1e111cts, if the bmden of its fntnre rnaintrn:mce is tn Le rnnterially lightcuu1. Hrn,so-Siberian trnffic aluuP, pen1ling the population and dl:1clopu;ent of the cotillLry, c,111 influence 1Jut little the :,:calc of cost and gain. To what extent the railway ,rill realise expecta tio11s in intemational troflic the near future should assist in fonuing an estimate. Trade circles arc still feeling their way, aw1 rival routes striYing to maintain their former supremacy. Cl!eap and e:mnbrous crm:111CLlities c:an lwnlly hear the charge of rn pnilougecl a lant1 jon1J1ey. The' sea will proLahly hold itr-, 01111 in the e:arriagc of all lJut Ya!unblc cargoes, perishable article8, am1 uoods clelivcrable b, fixe<1 elate. But hopes, too, arc placed on passenger am1 mail traffic, to l'niseugcrrnEct which, in anytl1i11p; like tlw proportions expected, the entire ond mail. ncl'.u1rnuoduliou ant1 n.naugements would l1avc to be considerably trnffic. cxtern1ed. .Kor is it clear, urnler existi11g postal arrangements at least, to ,rlmt extent the raihrny as an intermediary only will benefit in the transmission of mails. Hitherto only two quick trains have run through weekly, arn1 the accommodation afforded, owing to the luxury arnl co11n11iouccs required by long distance traxelling, is limited to n c:ornparati"vely small number of passengers.{, Should expectations Le real iscd, as in time they may easily Le, this single track ,vill haw to bear the immigraLion Htovement,. the internal circulation of Siberia itself, the possibilities called forth by the opening out of ilie clormnnt rcsomces of the country .. and the international tlirough lral1Ic in passengers, mails and goods, not to mention the claims of ofiicial and military 11ecessities. Tl1is is in addition to its present goods tialiic to and from Ilus8ia. N cw feeding lines too, sncli as the St. Peters burgVologcla Yiatka Railway now bu.ildiug, rnn$t in time pour an adllitionnl burden on to the carriage ca1mcity of the main route. ..With, on the one side, the resomces alll1 e11terprise of Europe, and on tlw other the teemiug popnln tio11;3 of t ltc East, and mid way an un,1cYeloped expanse smpassing in extent the whole irnperficies of Europe, but which can be tra\'ersc
PAGE 12

12 8lB,:l!lA. Alre;:uly, lio1rn 1er, d min.~ ihc L,st, Ji 1, years, 11it h offici,d encouragement, 01,-r 1,000,000 immigrant settlcr8 ha1e crosscil the Urals, or, in otl1cr words, nn inflttx cqw1l i11 mrn!bcr to oneeighth of the popnlntio11 of Asi,,tic Hussin. Bnt they are almo~t entirely of the s::.mc pemmut dass, a hardy ruggerl element, lntt 'Slow to welcome in11oyation a111l p,hc;essed of neither capital nor enterprise. So far the ll'.1 Lter nm kin~ industry is the sole extcnt sive development dne to the rnilwny. The rapid progress madt 'in this lmrnch of Siberian trndc, umlcr the in{iuence of the in creasing demand in the United Kingdom, foreign capital aml modern improYernent,s, is a strikin::; instance of the success. thatmay attend other cncleaYoms to 1rmk the resources of the country for the nrnrkets of Hussia and al1roa
PAGE 13

S!JlEl(l,\, section of the railwaY, has 1,(~Cll the cxtrnrnelr mpi1l progress madein the production an~l export of Siheri:m Lt;tter, cliiefl)' owing tl,, the continually growing demand for this product in the Unitell Kingdom. Numerous Danish and German, and some Britisl1 llffices, engaged in this irndc are already established in various :-,iberian tranf:it centres. l>:tling only fron1 180-!, previonc; to which no hntter at nil Wt,s pr0rlnced for export, a1:
PAGE 14

:--; 11; i: 1:1 .\. the i11c1\:ased oarniugs ::;hould so rtaet oa t!,oir general welfare a::; to enable them lo provicle for their ow11 families as well. The following table show.s him rapillly this imlustry !ms spmug np and advanced dmi11g the last few ycan; :-1893 18\19 1900 1901 1902 y X11mhe, of ]>roduclia11 I Q ft -=----Est:~ish.mcnts. ~r Export. 1--u'~.l-'_ J'o,ids. Lbs. . 1.10 150,000 1 G,'i-lG,bOJ :!;J.J 300,000 I 10,831,COJ l,lOi 1,100,000 ::39,723,200 1,800 1,860,000 G7,Hi8,320 :!,500* 2,500,000t 9,>,:280,000 Unofficial sonl'ces place them :tt ll';s th,m :2,0)0. It prababl_v cfopends on ihe t~rm tBed, buttery, cre11mc1y, dairy, &e., rn ';e of whieli lrnnlly mrrit the designation. t Estimated. The new ovcrlaml routc mav ren,lutiu11isc Lhe conditions of the lea trade in Russia. As an :u-ticle of widespread consumption among Russians of all classe.q, all(] in Yiew of Lhe increasing import of Ceylon teu, of late years, some rnorn detail ell information may be of interef::t. ,vhile ltussia is, undonl>teLlly, the largest consumer in Europe, so far as the quantity of the liq uicl tea drunk is concen1ed, the amount of tea consumecl, owing to the different method of mixing, is but 0 lb. per head per annum, wheTCas in the United Kingdom it is over (j lbs. (taking the clat'.L of 1900). lt is far more cxpensi ve thnn in the F nited Kingdom, 4s. per lb. -of 14} ozs. lJeing the price for a,cra_Qo tL-11, bnt owing to the weak infusion habitually prepared it is ma1le to go much further. Russia imported altogether :J,48::i,80G ponds of tea (125,807,202 lbs.) in lDOl, against :3,492,547 ponds ,(126,122,857 lbs.) in 1900. Of the above amounts, 6.-11 ,7GiJ piculs (86,!)02,000 lbs.) wore imported from China in 1901, and 754,414 picnls (100,588,533 lbs.) in 1900, while in 189!) the import was 925,634 pie.uh; (123,109,322 lhs.). 'l'he supply from China has, therefore, -diminished by 36,207,322 lbs. since lS!JD, part-ly accounted for by the import of Ceylon teas, which, according to a repo1-t of the llussian Vice-Consul at Colombo, has risen from :3,000,000 lbs. in 1895 to 20,000,000 lbs. in ""1900, and ( estimated) 23,000,000 lbs. in 1901. Ceylon tea is used in Hussia mainly for blending purposes, Russian taste not yet appreciating its particular flavour as .a. drink by itself. About 50 per cent. now comes through Hussian firms established in the island. Its special qnaliLies and com p,trative cheapness have now established a firm hold on the Russian market. Chinese teas liitherto renchr,d Jlussia either direct by sea, mostly in the Yulunteer Fleet steamer.3 from Hankow to Odessa, -or owrland vi,\ Siberia. The ~iberian rontes were:-

PAGE 15

Sinl~lll.\. 15 ] Uy water to Tientsin, thence on~rland vi:t Kalgan and Kiakta to Irkutsk. This, the ancient cuavan rout3, \\ill probably :s11rcnml1 to the altered transport conditions. :!. By sea to Vladi rnstok, arn l thence( a) By the Ussurian Hailway to Khalxuovfik, thence up the Amour and Shillrn to Srctensk, and so on to Irkutsk. (b) To the station of Iman, on tile Ussuri line, thence by the lti vor U ssuri to the Amonr and Shillrn. :3. By sea to Nikolaievsk on the s\mour, and thence lJy the .Amonr and Shilka. The incidence of duties has hitherto played an imporLaut part in the distribution of tea wit.bin the Empire. An increase of 3 r. per pond of the duty on tea conveyed Yia Siberia has just been decreed with a view to equalising the cost of delivery by s(a and liy land.'r. It seems to be expected that the U ssmi and Amour routes will uow lose their tea cargoes, as indeed the main part of their traffic. The chronic detentions caused by the shallowness of the Amom were a perpetual hindrance to regularity of delivery. The rivalry hetween the overland and sea routes must now largely depend, of course, on freights. The rail way tariff.'3 are not yet definitely decided. Aceording to the Press, a special tariff came in force "from Angust :; l last for the carriage uf tea from the station of ::\Ianchuri,1, to St. l'otcrslmrg, vifi tlio rail route, yiz., 316:35 c. per ]'Olid for the whole distance. It is early at the present moment, a turni11g point in tlte co11
PAGE 16

The Volunt.crr Fleet .. 1G STllEl:L\. from all countrius, tltc following cri-Amonr tlisLrict, published in the ".}Ioscow Yiedomosti," of Sertember 14/27, 1002, the river traffic of the Amonr, now di vorted to the l\Ianclnuian Rail way, :rnd the commercial enterprise and ,rell-lJciug of nll thr. adjacent region, with the large outlays expended on the deYclopment of this river trnllic while it remained the sole link connceting the .Siberian railway with the Pacific, are now left to their fate. Tlw river traffic, and all connec;;ccl with it, was the sole source of earning to all the surro1111di11g tlislrict, the gold industry so far not having provcll successful, while the import uf cheap ::\Ia11chmia11 grain renders agriculture uuprofitalile. what industry there is0 continues the report, will shortly ha.Ye to cease operations. The whole region, in fact, to quote the leading article of the above ,iournal on the report referred to, "has, since 1 900, mpidly declined in all that concerns trade, industry, general prosperity and civilisaLion." Or, as the rerort itself closes, "Tlrn;;, the measures taken to attrnct goods and passenger traffic, lo the l\lauchurian line will result in the complete ruin of the l'ri-Amour country." The imports are chiefly cattle ancl grn.iu from ::\Ianclrnria, a111l the exports to the latter mostly manufactured goods, tools, fnrs, &c. The imports from abroad fell from 2,060,62 r. rn 1895 to 1,96::,109 r. in 1899. The export trade, dmiug the Rarne interval, remaiued stationary at an arnrnge annual amount of 2,000,000 .l'.

PAGE 17

SIBERIA. 17 According to an article in the "Commercial and Industrial Manchurian Gazette," of St. Petersburg, of September 12/25 last, the import trade trade. of Manehuria amounted to 2,603,000!. in 1899, and to 2,856,000l. in 1901. The imports from the United States in 1899 reached the sum of 1,080,000l. The following articles of import have -nearly trebled in amount since 1899 : soap, nails, lamps, looking glasses, candles and tobacco. The last-mentioned increased from 3,833l. in 1899 to 25,000l. in 1901, mostly American, "clue to active advertising." The import of sewing machines considerably increased, and would do so on a larger scale if cheaper, without unnecessary polish and ornamentation, and in general only cheap goods can find a market. The import of American cotton goods declined from J _G:J,5501. in 1899 to 75,9201. in 1901, owing to i. increased use of Indian goods. American kerosene rose by 1,000,000 gallons, the import in 1901 being 3,170,000 gallons. 1 A91m_:6r~c1 an 1 flot1.,1r,thwhich tin tl.900 fsto 1od atfl 38,33~ 1z1., tdeSc1linedh ~o [' ':.: "" ,Li I ., c ue o e cons rue 1011 o a arge our m1 a 1ang a1. The same journal, in a later issue, gives the following list of articles which, with the opening of the railway, would find a ready sale in l\fanchnria among the Chinese population: glass, glass bottles, lamps, cloth, cheap textiles, boots and galoshes, sweets, simple agricultural machinery, siddes, scythes, cheap ploughs, kerosene, soap, candles, lubricating oils, wall paper, furniture, ready-made clothing, leather goods, harness, spirits, beer, butter for the Russian population, &c. Among articles of export from China and Manchuria to be developed by the railway, the chief are: tea, silk goods, woollen carpets, beeswax, fur goods, bristles, china and porcelain, raw hides and skins, &c. Manchurian grain might easily replace American in the U ssuri region, where, too, its cattle produce would be welcomed. Neither of these products would be needed in Siberia or Russia except, perhaps, in the Trans-Baikal. Russians in the Am_om territory are already complaining of the influx of cheap Manchurian grain to the prejudice of local agriculture. The northern parts of Manchuria, unlike the southern, though fruitful and productive, are as yet but thinly peopled. With no manufacturing industry, its agricultural produce, competing with Siberian, can only find a market eastwards, or at most in the Trans-Baikal and in the Amour region, at the expense of the local Russian immigrant element. European Russia imported from China in 1901 goods to the Russovalue of 21,400,000 r., against 16,193,000 r. in 1900. The total Chinese trade. imports to the Russian Empire from China in 1900 amounted to 45,945,059 r. (of which tea formed ~W,654,752 r.), against 43,500,000 r. in 1899. The exports from Russia to China, although they have doubled since 1890, are still inconsiderable, in 1900 only 6,701,931 r., against 7,525,597 r. the previous year. They consist mainly of cotton textiles (3,818,672 r.) and petroleum (1,132,571 r. ). Over 02,000,000 gallons of the latter were despatched to China frow Russia in 1901, nr some 200,000 gallons less than in 1900. The United States, on th" coutrary, iucrnased: (189) B

PAGE 18

Russo. Jnpaneso trade. 18 SIDERTA. their export of this article to China fr@1 3-!,000,000 gallons in 1900 to over 57,000,000 gallons in 1!)01. The exports from European Russia to China in 190 l reaclml but the tri(ling total of :\636,000 r., though this was more than three times the amount of 1900. According to a ,Japanese official source, the exports from ,Japan to European llussia in HlOl amounted to 85,232l., against 62,3331. in 1900, and to .Asiatic Russia, 229,046[., against 354,l83l. the previous year. The value of the imports to Japan from European Russia is but small, viz., 21,07 4l. in 1901, against 30,923l. in 1900. Asiatic Russia, however, supplied the island Empire with 451,470/. worth of goods in 1901, against 571,67ll. in 1900. The total trade between the two countries, therefore, is comparatively little, and showed no sign of improvement last year. The export from Russia consists chiefly of kerosene (2,420,000 r. in 1899), oil calrn.3, &c., salt fish, and cotton prints and other textiles, the latter to the value of 15,000 r. only. ,Japan, on the other hand, despatched to European Russia in 1900, copra, 307,915 r.; joiners' and turners' ware, l-!3,000 r.; and, in 1uuch less amounts, iron boiler work, chinaware, tin, tea and raw silk. The trading intercourse of Russia and her two Far Eastern neighbours, considering the extent, resources and standing of the countries concerned, is, thus, comparatively insignificant, tea from China alone attaining any substantial dimensions. Russian Lradc European Russia despatched to her Pacific ports in 1901 goods with hrr to the value of 49,964,000 r., against 56,636,000 r. in 1900, threel'ucific ports. fourths of which were manufactured articles, including iron goods (6,509,000 r.), clothing, &c. (6,281,000 r.), cotton textiles (3,948,000 r.), and steel goods (3,780,000 r.). l<'irearms, &c., declined from nearly 6,00o;ooo r. in 1900 to 797,000 r. in 1901. Among food products the chief commodities are sugar (2,072,000 r.) and tobacco, also thus included (2,014,000 r.), with sweets, preserves, spirits, &c., to smaller amounts. F01eii:n trudc Few statistics are available bearing on foreign trade with with Russian Russian Pacific ports during 1901, while the official Russian For East. figures refer only to 1900, and to then dutiable articles only. The trade between Japan and Asiatic Russia is given above. According to American oft1cial returns, the exports from the United States to Asiatic RusRia have gradually declined from over 3,000,000 dol. during the 12 months ended June 30, 1900, to 1,505,842 dol. in the next 12-month period, and to 1,032,520 dol. during the year ended ,June 30, 1902, not including 517,809 dol. to "Russian China." America imported fro!ll Asiatic Russia during the last-mentioned period goods to the value of only :J4,183 do!., against ::l,529 do!. for the year closing on June 30, 1901. .American exports to China, on the other hand, have more than doubled during the year ended ,June 30, 1902 (24,731,728 dol.), compared with the previous 12 months. Shipping in Foreign-voyage shipping entering the Far East amounted to 331,615 net register tons, were under foreign flags and 85,G57 Vladivostok in 1900 of which 246,058 tons tons Russian. British

PAGE 19

SIBERIA. 19 shipping came second, with 73,766 net rerrister tons ( 40 steam ships), and then Japanese, German, N orw~gian and American. British vessels arrived chiefly from China and the United States. The shipping of Nikolaievsk-on-the-Amour in 1900 was almost wholly foreign, as of the aggregate net regist,er tonnage of 34,934, only 2,121 tons were Russian. Ja pan headecl the list with 87 vessels ( of which 28 were steamers) and 14,000 tonnage, followed by the United Kingdom with 10 steamships and 11,658 tonnage. According to an American Consular report, 761 steamers entered Port Arthur in 1901, of which 2G8 belonged to the Chinese Eastern Railway steamer service, while 191 were under the British flag, and 121 under the Japanese. The chief imports were cotton piece-goods, silk goods, metals, flour, household effects, paper, sugar and tobacco ; and among other articles, building materials, timber, kerosene and machinery. Port Arthur, though, seems to be destined rather for a military, naval and administra tive centre than for commercial purposes, while the new town of Dalni, with a population already of over 50,000 and the rights of free trade, is hailed as the growing emporium of the Pacific. Foreign trade in the :Far East has hitherto l.Jeen largely in the Trn,l~. lmnds of a few big firms established in the country itself, and tchonn.FitioiE,s m 1 1 R l f l l t f 11 e 11.r 'llst. lea mg m cussrnn anc ore1gn gooc.s am commoc 1trns o a 1 lescriptions. Their central establishments at Ylaclivostok, Khabarovsk, Nikolaievsk-on-Amour, and Blagovestchensk, with lJranches scattered over lesser towns and villages, are really general stores and agencies doing wholesale and retail business in a wide range of goods, extending from agricultural rnacl1inery to groceries. Three stwh firms, now old established, one Russian, one German, and the third American, have held a practical i11011opoly in Far Eastern trade so far as Russia's possessions in that region are concerned. The closing of the free ports, the shifting of traflie routes, the practical suspension of the Amour Uiver traffic, and the total abandonment which now looms over the lately rising trade of the whole Amour region, owing to the completion of the Manchurian Railway, have naturally affected the character and extent of their former exclusive hold of the trade of the district. The conditions, in fact, are altogether changing. Tbe American, after 30 years of profitable business, is now prutially curtailing his trade operations. These firms, established before the Far East began to attract attention, with their thorough knowledge of the country, people and local conditions, reaped the benefits of the first awakening of this remote region, though now wider compe tition must follow the introduction of the rail way and the revolu tion it is entailing on local trade conditi01~s gern,rally. Though these firms deal largely in Russian goods as well, it is uot to be wondered at if American and German articles are more conspicuous than British. So, too, in the construction of the Manchurian railway, according to a recent report of the United States' Commercial Agent at Vladivostok, "American locomotives, tools and supplies were used at all points.'' T It is much on the same lines that trade has been carried on, 0;:~:g3 in Siberi:i.

PAGE 20

20 SIBERIA. and will have to be continued in Siberia generally, rather from establishments embracing different varieties of goods than in specialised branches. Siberia is too vast, and its interior too un developed, to be fed from any one central point in any one class of articles only. And it is in the country itself, rather than from al,roacl, that busiijess will have to be started, for a thorough acquaintance with locar requin,,meuts and comlitions is of the first nece!3sity. The question of credit, too, and long credit is the rooted custom in Russian trade dealings, is natmally greatly facilitated by an intimate knowledge of local people and circumstances. In time, no doubt, with the development of the mineral and other natural resources of the country, mostly with the aid of foreign capital, a demand must arise for improved machinery and technical appli ances which Siberia itself certainly cannot and which Russia can but partially supply. These will be ordered direct from abroad. At present, owing to the vast preponderance of the rural and agricultural element over the urban, and the absence of manufacturing industries of any importance, the goods most in demand will be of the simpler and less costly kind, articles which meet the means and requirements of the native anu immigrant peasant population. The less complicated descriptions of agricultural machinery, and dairy appurtenances for the rapidly spreading butter-making industry, arc the chief needs of Western Siberia. Swedish separators seem most in use. The cotton and other textiles in demand among the mass of the population can be supplied by Russia herself. Food product~, groceries, &c., and everything beyond the barest necessities which the country itself will furnish, come from Russia, with the exception of tinned commodities of all kinds, and anything approachiug a luxury. Most of these foreign food products will be, however, but in limited demand, as even in Moscow, where British biscuits, preserves, sauces and canned goods generally arc largely exhibited, the prices are altogether abnormal. So, too, with British spirits and beers. whisky is sold in Moscow at Ss. and 10s. the bottle in the wine shops, and at ll. ls. (10 r.) in Rome of the restaurants. It is more in manufactured articles, technical goods aml appliances, &c., which Russia cannot make and cannot do without, that trade may be clone in Siberia, including also sucl1 comparative luxuries as cycles, typewriters, photographic appurtenances, &c., for which the growth of Siberian towns must create a certain demand. The country in general is now brought within the range of possible trade and into connection with Russia's and the world's centres of production and demand. Its unwieldy size, however, its sparse and almost purely peasant population, its want of sea communication, apart from the Far East, and its still backward condition, more particularly so away from the districts covered by the main line, cannot but retard the development of its many latent sources of natural wealth. It would be premature to expect any very sudden or wide awakening of commercial or industrial enterprise, so far as to affect foreign trade openings at least, in a country whose area

PAGE 21

SIBERIA. 21 exceeds that of the whole of Enrope, but whose population is that of the British Isles of two centuries ago. Its main waterways, excepting in the Far East, magnificent as they are, flow but to the inaccessible Arctic Ocean. Save within the environment of the few large towns, the conditions still preserve much of their former primitive character. The immigration movement is not that, of a superior race flooding the country at once with a new spirit of enterprise, launching capital freely, and introducing modern methods and means. Something of this kind has happened, indeed, in the butter-producing regions of Western Siberia, but in general, there and elsewhere, the immigrants are of the same rugged peasant element that struggles for existence in the villages of Russia. The great railroad is ahead of the country, but for this very reason the present is the time to look round, and easy and even luxurious means of doing so are now within reach of industrial enterprise and the commercial community generally. IMPORTS from Abroad via Russian Asiatic Frontiers in 1900. By Caucasian frontier .. ,, Astraklrnn ,, Centrnl Asinn ( Persia und Afghanistan) .. Russo-Chinese overland fronLier Viu. Irkutsk and other Siberian cuslom-houses By U ssinsk frontier Viil. Primorskaia territory ( dutiable goods only) .. 'l'otal Raw and I Food SemiAnimals. Manufactured Products. rnanufacLured Goods. Materials. -----------------------Roubles. Roubles. Roubles. Roubles. 8,251,884 10,0i4,566 609,738 9,090,999 l,806,3i0 2,086,185 134,528 2,559,693 3,395,707 359,753 1,086,572 510,610 2,845,417 811,286 2,574,224 16,800,165 89,655 761,367 7,388 51,557 63,455 3,766,857 5,814 1 33,702,fl67 18,518,901 1,844,232 13,647,691 ------i--hrPOllTS via Russian Asiatic Frontiers in 1900. China Persia From-United Kingdom Afghanistan Germany . East India France United States Other countries .. Total Value. Roubles. 29,779,030 20,396,591 3,097,837 2,116,070 1,916,414 1,823,414 1,715,570 1,571,884 5,296,981 67,713,791 Of which-22,500,000 r. food products 8,750,000 r. food prod11cts, and 8,750,000 r. r1tw nnd ha.lf-m,mufoc tured material -1,938,000 r. manufactured goods, and 1,000,000 r. raw and half-manufac tured materials 1,500,000 r. raw and half-worked materials 1,474,819 r. manufncLured goods 1,047,000 r. food prnducts 713,000 r. manufactured goods 1,540,000 r. manufactured goods

PAGE 22

22 S1Bl!":H!A. EXPORTS vi!t Russian Asiatic :Frontiers to Abro:1d m 1900. To-Vuluc. Of which-----'------------------Pcrsi11 .. I Roubles. 20,648,970 / 11,000,000 r. food products, nncl Fmnce United Kingdom Turkey llol111nd Egypt Chi1111 Gcrnrnny Othe1 count,riee , 'fotul I i ! i .. I 1 .. 12,750,000 11,923,000 9,831,000 8,535,000 8,168,000 li,677,000 6,4LO,COO 21,998,918 I 7,000,000 r. m11nufoctured goods 8,000,000 r. mw and semi-manufe.cturccl m11tc1i11ls 10,261,000 r. rnw 1111d semi-m11nufnc tured mu!erie.ls 8,000,000 r. r11w and scmi-m11nufocturrcl mater in ls 7,000,000 r. r11w and semi-nJ11nufocture(l mnteriah 8,137,000 r. mw o.nd somi-manufactured n111terinls 4,500,000 r. manuf11ctured ~cods 4,539,000 1. raw e.nd semi-mo.nufe.ctured goods :-------' / 106,931,sss I hrrorns from abroa36 -7,997,IM, ., Astrakhun 11 31241,730 41313,0iJ 41341165~ 41493,~69 J 4,0U,083 ,. Central Asian frontier I 1 {Persin nnd Afghanistan) 5,555,572 1 7, 13 J,237 8,087 ,'.!-ll.i 7,026,457 71401, 72& ,. H.us_so-Chinese ovcrht.nd I' 1 [ fronller ... ... ... 4,449,279 5,03718~3 5,liG!J,897 6,741,537 Vitl Irkutsk and other I Sibrritm custum, houses ... I 14,049, IOO 21, 451373 21,003,741 22,fi40,853 17,651, 1~7 By Ussinsk frontier ... 4,400 1 82,120 136,214 j HJ,153 122,lOO Via Primorskaia territo1y j I I (d~tinble goods only/ .... 83,307 j 105,493 147,137 I 281,BiB 3,772,:7.:__ Tola! 36,281,481" I 53,065,863 66,510,115" i 67,538,348 Gi,713,791 Including goods imported. vift. the mouths of the Yenis~i nnd Obi, ,iz., in 1890 to the volue 1368,184 r., ond in 189ij to the vulne of 1,102,478 1.

PAGE 23

Fle.g. Russie.n :British Japune;e German NorwP-giun 17 nited States othJr conntrics Total under foreign flag .. Tot11l under foreign and Russian flag TABLE showing Shipping at Vladivostok during the Year 1900. ENTERED. Sailing. Steam. --------------Total. With Cargo. In Balfast. With Cargo. In Balla~t. -r---,~I I ----, N~berl.Rei:1ed i D" Cf1go d Nu:ber Reg~~~red Nu~ber, Rcgf.~!rcd i D" Cfrgo d Nu:bor Rci~red Ki~fber i Reis~!red Ve,sele. Tons. I !Sc mrge VesselP, 'fans. 1 T'etsels.11 Tons. l_::a~gc 1 Vessels. Tone. Vessels. Tons. i Pouds. I Pouds. : 1 2 155 1,000 i 3 180 51 I 67,782 I 2,108,000 15 17,490 71 85,557 1 I 39 72,015 '1,706,000 1 : 1,751 40 73,76(i 6 596 22,000 1 ii8 48 I 51,BOll I 1,078,000 12 J 12,664 67 65,121 1 1 1,201 113,000 : 42 53,786 I 3,465,000 1 3 j 1,944 46 56,H31 1 I 1 17 I 20,387 1,896,000 I 2 1 1,988 19 22,375 I .. I .. . 1 5 6,785 I 32,000 I 1 I 1,347 6 1 8,08.! I .. _____ .. ___ .. I 11 I 18,895 1,136,000 : __ 2 I __ 888 13 19,783 i I ii I 7 1,797 135,000 1 58 162 223,621 12,313,000 21 20,582 191 246,058 I 291,353 H-,421,000 9 1,952 136,000 38,072 233 !!62 331,615 213 36

PAGE 24

TABLE showing Shipping at Nikolaievsk-on-Amour during the Year 1900. ENTERED. Sailing. Steam. I I Total. I I I --------------i--------------,---------Wi~h Cargo. I With Cargo. Flag. ______________ _______ ------V easels. e'Ig~s ere Discharged. Vessels. ons. Net Cargo Registered 1.l'ons. ; DiscburgeJ. I Net 'I I Number of R t d Cargo Number of -------------------1 Pouds. 1------,------------Japanese .. .. 58 5,842 I: 201,000 I Pouds. B1itish .. , .. , I Norwegian .. .. .. .Aur,tro-li ungnrian , Russian . .. .. 28 10 3 3 1 Total under foreign llag --~ 's,;:;201,000 ,----;,--" e,ll ll&gs 58 5,842 201,000 45 I I 7,999 199,000 11,658 531,000 3,650 116,000 3,501 180,000 1,471 82,000 26,808 1,085,000 28,279 1,117,000 In BallasJ. Net IN b Net Number of Registe1ed um er of Registere Vessels. Ton~, Vess~ Tons. -----I 1 163 87 14,004 .. .. 10 11,658 .. .. 3 3,650 .. .. 3 3,501 1 650 2 2,121 -----l 168 108 82,818 2 813 105 34,934 00 .... td t,;j d F

PAGE 25

SIBERIA. 25 FAR EASTERN SHIPPINu. TABLE showing Vesseh; ~uteriug Vladivostok arnl Nikohievsk-011Arnour clnring the Years 189,5-l!JOO. Tow), including Co11Btere. Foreign Voyage Shipping. I j Tot!. Under forei,:n Under Russian Nun1berl Net -----~'l~:~ ______ I l'lao:. ; of !ReA"ietered1 : 'Vessels,, ons. I Number I Net Number11 Net Number Net, I : of ,Registered of 11tegistcred of fltegiotcrccl I Vessels.; Tomi. VeH~cls. Tons. YesHel~. Tons. Vladivostok (1900) :; 3:17 I 442,G80 262 l. :J:lt,61~ I ml I 246,0/i8 71 I 85,557 Nilwlaievsk on -I I I Amour (1900) : 123 48,:l24 105 34,934 103 : 32,813 2 1 2,121 Tota.I, 1900 ... :1 ~ 491,004-m :lG6,,,4!J 29-1' 278,871-_7_:i_1-8i,67B ,, 1899 ... 41f> 4n2,:!5l ;~:):: :1!J8,:rn~ 2G:; 2f>t,3:rn Ha 140,969 Average, 1895--91.1 \ 34G 345,l~tJ 2i'l ~89,377 21; 1!.16,7itl 54 92,59U llETULtN of Briti:;h Shi]Jpiug at Vladivostok during the Year 1900. From and To. Hussian l'ucific ports Germany ... United Kingdom China Japan United States 'l'otul (189) STEAMERS. -----Arrini~______ I Sailed. ________ -Witl11Cargo._ 1 .. With1Curgo:.__ 1~~alls~ Number Net Number Net Numbcq Net Number' Net of Reghtcrcd of Registered of jRcgisterctll of I Hcgistcrcd Vessels. '!'ons. Ve::::scls. Tons. Vessels.; 1 ons. Vessels. Tons. --1------_______ i ____ -----'11 l 1,71>1 i l 2,332 2 3,66:l 5 ll,860 1 3,591 17 20,857 I ;J 5,5,0 ... I ... :: :::::: J,:;,11-=;---a.i~1 NoTE.-No ~ritish saihng vessels. 2 30 71,042 (' .,

PAGE 26

LONDON: Print.cd for His MajeRty's Stationery Office. fly HARRISON AND SONS, Printers in Ordinary to His MajeRty. ( 1400 l l I 02-H k. S 189)