Citation
Hong Kong : Report for 1908

Material Information

Title:
Hong Kong : Report for 1908
Series Title:
Diplomatic and consular reports
Creator:
Great Britain. Foreign Office.
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Harrison & Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Genre:
Government Document
serial ( sobekcm )
Temporal Coverage:
19080101 - 19081231
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Hong Kong -- Hong Kong -- Hong Kong
Coordinates:
22.3 x 114.2

Notes

General Note:
"Presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of His Majesty, October, 1909."
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue number: Cd. 4448-26
General Note:
亞洲 -- 香港 -- 香港 -- 香港
General Note:
亚洲 -- 香港 -- 香港 -- 香港

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
CF327.42 /23894 ( SOAS classmark )
291455 ( aleph )
Cd. 4448-26 ( Publisher_ID )

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Full Text
COLONIAL REPORTSANNUAL.
No. 617.
HONG KONG
REPORT FOR 1908.
(For Report for 1907, see No. 570.)
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty
LONDON:
PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE,
By DARLING & SON, Ltd., 34-40, Bacon Street, E.
And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from
WYMAN and SONS, Ltd., Fetter Lane, J].C., and
32, Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.w. ; or
OLIYER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court, Edinburgh ; or
E. PONSONBY, 116, Grafton Street, Dublin.
October, 1909.
1909.
[Cd. 4448-26.] Price M.


CONTENTS.
PAGE.
I Finances....................> .......... 4
II. Trade and Shipping, Industries, Fisheries, Agriculture, 5
and Land.
III. Legislation ............ ........................13

IV. Education ..........................................13
V. Public Works ... ..................14
VI. Government Institutions...................16
VII. Institutions not Supported by Government..................16
VIII. Criminal and Police ... ..................18
IX. Vital Statistics ... ... ... 19
X. Postal Service ... ... ... 21
XI. Military Expenditure ............21
XII. General Observations ..................... 22
Sketch Map.


3 COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.

No. 617.
HONG KONG.
(For Report for 1907, see No. 570.)
The Governor to the Secretary of State.
Government House,
Hong Kong,
27th August, 1909.
My Lord,
I have the honour to submit, for your Lordship's informa-
tion, the following general report on the annual Blue Book for
the year 1908.
(14458-2.) Wt. 26122322. 1125. 11/09. D & S.


4
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
I.FINANCES.
The revenue for the year, exclusive of land sales, amounted to
$6,034,849, or $407,608 less than the previous year. Land sales
amounted to $69,358, or $86,624 less than in 1907. The total
revenue from all sources was therefore $6,104,207, or $498,073
less than in the previous year, and $123,683 less than the estimate.
Light dues, fees of court, post office receipts, and miscellaneous
receipts brought in together $150,378 more than was estimated.
The receipts under the remaining heads of revenue were alto-
gather $274,061 less than were anticipated when the Estimates
were drawn up, of which the deficit on land sales accounted for
$230,642.
The expenditure for the year was $5,586,138, exclusive of
public works extraordinary; inclusive of that item, but exclusive
of expenditure on Railway Construction (Loan Account) it was
$6,573,341, or $816,138 more than the total expenditure for 1907.
The principal cause of this increase of expenditure in spite of
a falling revenue, was the loss due to the fall in exchange value
of the dollar. The Estimates of 1907 had been calculated on a
basis of 2s. for sterling salaries, and 2.9. Id. for other items, while
the Estimates for 1908 were calculated at Is. 9d. only. The
expenditure of the year exceeded the estimate by $394,810, due,
inter alia, to a still further fall in exchange, to heavy damages
caused by typhoons, and to the purchase of a dredger for the con-
struction of a refuge for small craft.
The decrease of $123,683 in the revenue, and the excess of
$394,810 in expenditure, make a total shortage, of $5.18,493, to
meet which there was an expected surplus of $49,359 only, leaving
a deficit on the year's working, to be charged to reserves, of
$469,134.
The following table shows the total revenue and expenditure
for the five years 1904-8 :
1904. 1905. 1906. 1907. 1908.
Revenue ...... Expenditure $ 6,809,047 6,376,235 $ 6,918,403 6,951,275 $ 7,035,011 6,832,610 % 6,602,280 5,757,203 $ 6,104,207 6,573,341
Surplus 432,812 202,401 845,076
Deficit ...... 32,871 469,134
At the end of the year 1908, the assets of the Colony amounted
to $506,437. The total liabilities were $789,532, so that the
balance of liabilities over assets amounted to $283,095. Deduct-
ing this sum from the reimbursement due by Railway Construc-
tion Account the balance of Assets (General Account) was
$1,073,041, a decrease of $460,676 as compared with the previous
year, due to the deficit in the year's working.


HONG KONG, 1908.
5
A loan, consisting of inscribed stock at 3-£ per cent, interest,
,£341,799 was incurred in 1893 for Praya Reclamation; Central
Market; Water, Drainage, and Sewerage Works, &c., to be paid
off on 15th April, 1943.
A second loan, consisting of inscribed stock, £1,143,933 at
3J per cent., was raised to cover a loan to the Viceroy of Wuchang
of £1,100,000. The Viceroy in accordance with the terms of
the loan had, up to the end of 1908, repaid £330,000 which was
placed to the credit of a special account for construction of the
British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway.
The amount paid into the Joint Sinking Fund with accrued
interest reached £74,674 14s. 8d. on the 31st of December, 1908.
II.TRADE AND SHIPPING, INDUSTRIES, FISHERIES,
AGRICULTURE, AND LAND.
The total of the shipping entering and clearing in the Colony
during the year 1908 amounted to 532,112 ships of 34,615,241
tons, which, compared with the figures for 1907, show an increase
of 24,478 ships and a decrease of 1,413,069 tons.
Of this total 45,437 ships of 22,306,037 tons were engaged in
foreign trade, and were distributed as follows :
1908. 1907.
Numbers. Tonnage. Tonnage.
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
British ocean vessels repre- 8*3 ; 33*7 31*4
sented.
Foreign ocean vessels rep- 9*2 33*2 33*5
resented.
British river steamers rep- 13*8 19*2 20-1
resented.
Foreign river steamers 2*9 3*3 3*2
represented.
Steamships not exceeding 8*9 0*8 0*3
60 tons.
Trading junks 56*9 9*8 11*5
100*0 100*0 100*0
40,951 vessels of .1,848,522 tons were engaged in local trade and
were distributed thus :
1908. 1907.
Numbers. Tonnage. Tonnage.
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Steamships not exceeding 91*58 84*98 86*31
60 tons.
Junks ......... 8*42 15*02 13*69
100*00 100*00 100*00


6
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
Seven thousand seven hundred and fifty (7,750) steamers, eleven
(11) sailing ships, and two thousand and thirty (2,030) steamships
not exceeding 60 tons, in foreign trade, entered during the year,
giving a daily average entry of 26*8, as compared with 24*8 in
1907.
The average tonnage of ocean vessels visiting the port has again
increased, from 2,825*3 tons to 2,448*6 tons. That of British
vessels has increased from 2,552*2 tons to 2,593*06 tons, while
that of foreigners has increased from 2,136*8 tons to 2,309*9 tons.
In this connection it is interesting to note that during the past
20 years the average tonnage of ocean vessels visiting the Colony
has risen from 1,186*9 tons to 2,448*6 tons.
The average tonnage of river steamers entered during .1908
was 665*5 tons, as against 661 tons in 1907. British river
steamers have increased in average tonnage from 678 tons to 686*5
tons, while foreigners have again decreased from 567 tons to
565*2 tons.
A comparison between the years 1907 and 1908 is given in the
following table:
Class of Vessel.
1907.
1908.
Increase,
Decrease.
British ocean-going
Foreign ocean-going
British river steamers
Foreign river steam-
ers.
Steamships under 60
tons (foreign trade).
Junks in foreign trade
Total
Steam launches ply-
ing in waters of the
Colony.
Junks in local trade..
Grand total..
3,756
4,621
6,828
1,310
1,581
29,564
47,660
419,202
*40,772
7,216,169
7,720,875
4,630,361
743,992
70,021
2,651,470
3.869
4,132
6,246
1,297
4,060
25,833
7,505,270
7,397,836
4,287,482
733,065
181,142
2,201,242
113
2,479
289,101
111,121
489
582
13
3,731
323,039
342,882
10,927
450,228
23.032,891
11,216,532
*1,778,887
45,437
445,724
f40,951
22,306,037
10,460,682
fl,848,522
2,592
26,522
179
400,222
69,635
4,815
1,127,076
755,850
507,634 36,028,310 532,112 34,615,241
Nett ..
29,293
24,478
469,857
4,815
1,882,926
1,413,069
* Including 18,090 conservancy and dust boats of 820,958 tons,
t Including 16,808 conservancy and dust boats of 862,256 tons.
There is an increase in British ocean shipping, entered and
cleared during the year, of 113 ships of 289,101 tons (59 = 26,698
increase in 1907). This increase appears to indicate a very con-
siderable revival of trade during the last quarter of the year after
the general depression, for in each of the first three quarters
decreases were shown as compared with the corresponding periods
of 1907.
British river steamers are shown to have decreased by 582
entries and clearances with a collective tonnage of 342,882 tons.
This decrease is due to the loss of two large, regularly-running
steamers, the Powan and Ying King," and the withdrawal
of a third, the Hoi Sang," from the run during the year.


HONG KONG, 1908.
7
Foreign ocean vessels, which increased by 334 ships of 627,380
tons in 1907, due to the resumption of the Japanese carrying
trade, have decreased by 489 ships of 323,039 tons. This decrease
is general, but is most noticeable under the Norwegian, Japanese,
and German flags, and may undoubtedly be attributed to the
general trade depression throughout the world.
Foreign river steamers show a falling off of 13 ships of 10,927
tons, which is due to the laying up of several of these vessels
after the typhoon of July 27, in which they were damaged. Had
it not been for this, the number and tonnage would have been
considerably in excess of those for 1907. The increase in 1907
was 238 ships of 76,075 tons.
The typhoon, combined with the effects of the trade depression,
which certainly has reacted upon junk traffic as it has upon ship-
ping, may also be held responsible for the decrease in junks in
foreign trade.
The increase shown in steamships under 60 tons is due to the
inclusion of unlicensed privately-owned steam-launches, which
have not previously figured in the returns.
The actual number of individual ocean vessels of European
construction entering during 1908 was 745, being 365 British and
380 foreign. The figures in 1907 were, respectively, 800, 362,
and 438.
These 745 ships aggregated 1,824,237 tons. They entered 3,991
times and gave a collective tonnage of 7,452,498 tons. Thus,
compared with 1907, 55 fewer ships, of 36,008 less tons, entered
.191 fewer times, and gave a collective tonnage decreased by
15,013 tons.
Thus
Steamers. No. of Times entered. Total Tonnage.
Flag.
1907. 1908. 1907. 1908. 1907. 1908.
British {!£xger3 ::: Austrian......... Belgian ......... Chinese ......... Corean ......... Danish ......... Dutch ......... French ......... German ......... Italian ......... Japanese ... Norwegian... ...... Portuguese Russian ......... Swedish ......... United /Steamers States \ Sailing 355 7 9 1 20 2 9 18 33 137 3 111 59 2 10 3 20 1 358 7 9 1 16 6 15 39 129 4 93 39 5 7 3 13 1 1,867 9 30 1 214 14 21 69 202 790 12 534 290 59 13 11 45 1 1,923 10 25 1 229 15 97 169 745 12 434 181 87 13 11 38 1 3,586,510 19,431 106,523 2,903 267,789 21,298 41,122 142,100 294,461 1,246,053 31,704 1,126,517 265,728 19,128 30,912 12,970 251,590 72 3,730,927 21,697 97,789 2,903 291,416 34,211 201,014 289,222 1,188,100 31,400 1,049,540 192,278 23,487 34,326 18,099 245,280 809
Total ...... 800 745 4,182 3,991 7,467,511 7,452,498


8
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
It may not be out of place to draw a comparison liere between
these figures and those of 20 years ago. In 1888, 2,614 British
ships, of 3,265,751 tons, entered the port, against 10,115 ships, of
11,792,752 tons, in 1908. For foreign ships the figures are in
1888, 1,206 ships, of 1,252,862 tons, and in 1908, 5,429 ships, of
8,130,901 tons. These figures are those for ocean and river
steamers, which were not distinguished in 1888, and ocean-going
sailing ships (not junks).
Since Hong Kong is a free port no accurate returns based on
Customs entries can be given of the exports, imports, and goods
in transit.
There are, however, certain items of cargo dealt with in the
Colony, of which, either from their nature and the circumstances
under which they are imported, or from the fact that they are
required by law to be specially reported, substantially accurate
returns can be given. These items are coal, kerosene oil (which
includes all products of petroleum), opium, morphine, compounds
of opium, and sugar.
1,018,753 tons of coal were imported during the year. This
shows a negligible increase of 13,886 tons (1'3 per cent.) over the
imports during 1907.
Of bulk oil 6.1,818 tons arrived, an increase of 17,938 tons, or
40*8 per cent. This appears to have no special significance, but
to be entirely due to the cheap freights ruling and to the instal-
lation by the Standard Oil Company of oil tanks at Lai-chi-kok,
which required filling.
40,018 tons of case oil arrived, being an increase of 3,289, or
8'9 per cent, over the 1907 figures. Here again the cheap freights
were taken advantage of to fill up stocks.
Liquid fuel, which has increased from 3,272 tons in 1907 to
13,832 tons in 1908, was probably affected by the same causes as
were bulk and case oil, in addition to which there has been an
increased demand for this product owing to more steamers using
liquid fuel having visited the Colony during the year.
Although, as has been said, no reliable figures can be given
for general cargo, it would appear from returns received that
there has been a considerable decline in tire1 imports of rice and
flour. The falling off in rice is due to the'exceptional crop in
northern and central China, as a result of which,, prices at
Shanghai and the Yangtze ports were lower than in Siam and
Annam, and the imports from those countries declined in conse-
quence. It is also stated that the rice merchants of Bangkok
instituted a boycott against the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamers
(late Scottish Oriental) which monopolise, the carrying trade
between that port and Hong Kong. The rice trade from the
south having now reverted to its usual conditions, I see no reason
to doubt that this year will see it restored to its former channels.
Flour shows a large decrease, from 147,000 to 91,000 tons, which
appears to be due to the fact that the Colony is ceasing to be the
distributing centre for this commodity. Shipments are now made
direct from ports on the Pacific Coast of North America to


HONG KONG, 1908.
9
Shanghai, Amoy, Singapore, &c., instead of transhipping here, as
heretofore.
There is however a possibility that the Hong Kong Milling
Company being in liquidation some small recrudescence in this
branch of trade may occur.
The total reported imports during the year amounted to
4,170,000 tons, as against 4,366,000 tons in 1907, a decrease of
4*4 per cent. Exports also show a decrease from 2,354,000 tons to
2,103,000 tons, or 10*7 per cent. Transit cargo declined from
3,396,000 to 3,373,000 tons, or 0'7 per cent.
Seventy-one thousand and eighty-one (71,081) emigrants left
Hong Kong for various places during the year. Of these 53,118
were carried in British ships and 17,963 in foreign ships. These
figures show a decrease of 34,886 emigrants, or 32*9 per cent., com-
pared with those for 1907.
It is difficult to account for this large decrease, but there were
probably several contributing factors, such as the general depres-
sion in trade and consequent decreased demand for labour, and the
quarantine restrictions placed upon vessels from the Colony to
other ports, which probably had a great effect. But the chief
causes undoubtedly were :
1. The cessation of assisted emigrants to Banka and Billiton.
This emigration commenced in 1907, and served to
largely swell the figures for that year. The
demand for labour in those islands was not very large,
and all the plantations there were fully manned before
the beginning of 1908.
2. The West River floods checked recruiting during the first
six months of the year.
3. There was a considerable demand for labour on the several
railways under construction in China, which restricted
the recruiting area.
One hundred and fifty-seven thousand eight hundred and
nine (157,809) returning emigrants were brought to Hong Kong
from the several places to which they had emigrated, either from
this Colony or from coast ports. This includes 106 returning
from South Africa. Of the total number 116,094 arrived in
British ships and 41,715 in foreign ships.
Industries.
Sugar Refining Industry.The year 1908 was more favourable
for the sugar refining industry of the Colony than 1907 owing to
the curtailment of supplies of Java white sugars and of Japanese
refined in the China market. As a consequence of this, prices
advanced during the year, and the local refineries were able to
market their sugars under improved conditions. European beets
were conspicuous by their absence doubtless owing to the low silver
rate of exchange for sterling remittances.
Yarn Trade.The extreme depression during the two preceding
years adversely affected the market during the beginning of 1908,


10
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
and prices continued to rule below the parity of those at the pro-
ducing centres. Later in the year the demand improved and
prices rose steadily. Large sales were effected, leaving a fair
margin of profit to importers, while the Chinese dealers did very
well indeed on their purchases. Stocks became abnormally re-
duced, and the year closed with an improving tendency. In May
last the local cotton mill found it advisable to resume full working,
but the difficulty in procuring adequate labour prevented the com-
pany from taking full advantage of the improvement in demand.
The bulk of the production was sold direct to Shanghai and the
northern ports.
Rope-Manufacturing Industry.The remarks made last year on
the rope-manufacturing industry apply in some measures to the
year 1908. Conditions have not altered much in either direction,
prices have been reduced to customers, and there is a larger
demand with increased output.
Cement Industry.The conditions under which this industry
has been carried on have been much the same as in 1907, and there
has been a good demand throughout the year.
Hong Kong Milling Company, Limited.The flour mills at
Junk Bay were not running for the greater part of 1908.
Oriental Brewery, Limited.A recently-established industry
is that of the Oriental Brewery, Limited, at Lai-chi-kok. This
brewery will shortly place its product on the market, and its
capacity is about 100,000 barrels per annum.
Engineering and Shipbuilding.This section of the Colony's
industry was carried on under adverse circumstances. The great
trade depression from which the local shipping suffered severely
made its influence felt in this industry, and the amount of new
construction turned out by the local companies was not very
encouraging.
In regard to war vessels, the active operation of the floating
docks at Tsingtau and at Olongapo in the Philippine Islands, in-
stalled by the German and United States Governments respec-
tively, was responsible for the continuance of a very large falling
off in the docking and repairing of foreign war vessels, the
tonnages dealt with by the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock for
1906, 1907, and 1908 being 64,318, 3,692, and 3,652 respectively,
with apparently no prospect of future improvement. The tonnage
of British war vessels docked was on a level with those prevailing
during the year immediately preceding.
Work in the nature of large repairs to steamers was scarce dur-
ing the earlier half of the year. The typhoon in July, however,
contributed to a large extent towards the improvement experienced
in this direction during the latter half.
During the year a large dock, built by Messrs. Butterfield and
Swire at Quarry Bay, was opened. It is 787 feet long, 88 feet wide
at the top of the entrance, and 81 feet 8 inches at the sill. There
are 35 feet over the sill at ordinary high water. In addition to the
dock there are three slipways, one of them about 950 feet long and
80 feet broad, capable of lifting vessels up to 3,000 tons weight.


HONG KONG, 1908.
11
The other two are about 900 feet long by 60 feet broad, and are
capable of accommodating vessels up to 2,000 tons. There are
also machine shops, boiler shops, a forge and smithy, a foundry,
galvanising shop, saw-mill, and a wood-working department. The
building yard is laid out for four big berths capable of taking on
vessels up to 600 feet in length, and the machinery is adapted to
dealing with this sort of work. The power is supplied by gas
engines, and is transmitted throughout the yard electrically.
Fisheries.
A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong
supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit a large num-
ber of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley,
Shaukiwan, and many others in the New Territories are largely
dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh-water
fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are
oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.
Forestry and Agriculture.
Forestry work has consisted (1) in the formation of 400 acres of
pine plantations in continuation of the harbour belt now extend-
ing some seven miles from Lai-chi-kok towards Lyeemum, (2) the
continuation of afforesting the catchment areas of Tytam, Pok-
fulam, and Kowloon reservoirs, (3) the replanting of felled areas
at Aberdeen and Mount Kellett, (4) the extension of the avenues
of shade trees in Kowloon, (5) the care of existing plantations.
The year was marked by exceptionally good crops of fruits,
vegetables, and rice in the New Territories; especially may be men-
tioned the abundance and excellence of the output of pineapples,
plums, pears, and peanuts.
The chief economic works other than the above have been the
successful establishment of the rare and valuable nanmu or coffin-
wood tree in our nurseries from seeds obtained from Szechuen,
and the collection of information and materials relating to the
trade of the Colony in vegetable products.
With a view to placing the botanical resources of the Botanical
and Forestry Department as far as possible at the service of the
mercantile community of Hong Kong, the Superintendent has
been instructed to collect all possible information upon the vege-
table products of the neighbourhood, or for which Hong Kong is
an emporium. This information is to refer chiefly to the raw or
partly-manufactured products exported from China, and include
the locality of their production, quantity available, country to
which exported, price at port of export, and in the markets to
which they eventually go. Considerable progress has been made
during the year with this scheme, and information with regard to
a few of our more important vegetable products, such as China-
root and Galangal, was collected.
A considerable amount of scientific work upon the flora of the
Colony and neighbouring parts of China has been done in England
and other countries with materials supplied by the Forestry
Department.


12
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
Land Grants and General Value of Land.
The net amount received from sales of Crown land and pier
rights, after deducting expenses of the sales, was $69,358, a
decrease of- $92,101 on the previous year, and $218,481 less than
the average amount received for each of the past five years. Of
this amount $14,665 was received in respect of sales of pier rights
and the right of extending existing piers; $7,078 was received in
respect of sales of Crown land in the New Territories, and the
balance from sales of new lots of Crown land and grants of exten-
sion to existing lots in the Island of Hong Kong and Old Kowloon.
The chief items were for an extension to a soy factory at West
Point (inland lot No. 1,300), and for a renewal of the lease of the
Dairy Farm Company's premises in Wyndham Street for a period
of 75 years, the existing lease of which is about to expire.
The considerable decrease in revenue from sales of Crown land
may be partly attributed-to the fact that in the City of Victoria
there is little available building land left, and partly to the fact
that at the present time there is no great demand for new houses in
the city and in Old Kowloon, a considerable number of Chinese
shops and dwelling-houses being now unlet. The general depres-
sion in the land market, which commenced a few years ago, still
continues, and capitalists who invested in land and buildings at
the high prices ruling some ten years ago have suffered very con-
siderable losses; in many cases properties have been sold by mort-
gagees at far less than the amount of their securities, while many
other mortgagees are holding on awaiting a more favourable
opportunity for realising their securities. There is, however, a
very fair demand in the city for property at reduced prices. There
appears to be no lack of money in the Colony, and a considerable
number of transactions in land have taken place during the past
year.
There have been a large number of sales of small lots of Crown
land for native dwellings and industries in the New Territories,
and the demand for these is likely to further increase, as the
native population now realise the reasonable terms upon which
Crown land can be obtained and the security of tenure afforded by
holding under a long lease direct from the Crown.
Three areas of over 40 acres of land at Tai O in the Island of
Lan Tao for use as salt pans were put up for auction on an 18
years' lease at the upset rental of $.15 per acre per annum, and
after considerable competition one lot of over 21 acres realised as
much as $170 per acre per annum, which shows that salt pans in
a good locality are apparently very remunerative undertakings.
During the j^ear a second area of one square mile in the New Terri-
tories was leased to Sir Paul Chater for 75 years for mining
purposes.


HONG KONG, 1908.
13
III.LEGISLATION.
Twenty-two Ordinances were passed during 1908, of which nine
were amendment Ordinances. A Eire Insurance Companies
Ordinance (No. 3) was passed to authorise the removal of fire
insurance companies from the Register of Companies in certain
cases. Ordinances were also passed to enable foreign corporations
to acquire and hold land in the Colony (No. 7); to provide for the
grant of brewery licences (No. 8); to empower a magistrate to hold
a Small Debts Court in the New Territories (No. 22); to provide
for the registration of chemists and druggists and to regulate the
sale of poisons (No. 12); to regulate theatres and other places of
public resort (more especially in regard to precautions against fire)
(No. 18); and to transfer the Widows' and Orphans' Pension
Fund and its management to the Government of Hong Kong
(No. 15).
IV.EDUCATION.
There are 73 Government and Grant Schools, the most impor-
tant of which is Queen's College. Of these 23 are upper grade
schools with a staff competent to give instruction in all subjects of
the seventh standard and above. These latter schools have an
average attendance of 3,992, and the medium of instruction in all
of them, with the exception of one girls' school, is English. The
50-remaining schools are all lower grade. They comprise one
school for British Indians where English and Urdu are taught;,
five Government and one Grant Anglo-Chinese schools; and 43
Grant Vernacular schools. The average attendance at all these
lower grade schools is 2,186. The total average daily attendance
at both grades of school is 6,178.
The revenue derived from school fees is $54,792 (of which
$3.1,073 is from Queen's College), and is rapidly increasing. This
is mainly to be accounted for by the increasing numbers of
Chinese desirous of an English education.
Higher education is represented by the Technical Institute,
where instruction is given in the evening in mathematics, machine
drawing, building construction, field surveying, and allied sub-
jects; in chemistry and physics; in the English and French
languages, book-keeping, and shorthand. There is also a teachers'
class, at which the junior Chinese masters of Government schools
are expected to attend. The Institute is furnished with a well-
equipped laboratory. The lecturers are chiefly Civil Servants
recruited from the European staffs of Queen's College and the
Public Works Department. These officers receive fees for their
services.
Hong Kong is fortunate in including among its schools two
limited to children of British parentage. Both these schools (one
for boys, the other for girls) are under the Government. In 1908
the combined average attendance at them was 87. As might be
expected, they have a strong patriotic bias; they are supporters of
the Empire League, and the boys' school provides a small but
efficient cadet corps.


14
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
V.PUBLIC WORKS.
The principal public works in progress during the year, exclu-
sive of the railway, were the Kowloon Waterworks and the
Typhoon Refuge for small craft opposite Mongkoktsui. The
former was completed with the exception of the contract for the
main dam, &c., and a few trifling details, but, as mentioned in last
year's report, the works are in such a forward state that the reser-
voir is fully capable of supplying the whole peninsula with
water. Work on the Typhoon Refuge was begun by dredging a
trench to form the base for the breakwater, the hopped dredger
" St. Enoch being purchased locally for this purpose. The
Tytam Tuk Waterworks referred to in previous years' reports were
fully completed.
The new Law Courts and new Government Offices were still
under construction, whilst the following works were completed :
Land Office at Tai Po; market at Sai Wan Ho; extension of staff
quarters at Government Civil Hospital for Nursing Institute;
extension of Wanchai and Saiyingpun district schools; extension
of Mount Gough police-station; animal depots and slaughter-
houses at Ma Tau Kok; four houses at Tai Po for the native
clerical staff, and the service reservoir at West Point (750 feet
level) for supplying the high levels of the city. The lease of One
Tree Island to Messrs. Jardine, Matheson, and Company for the
storage of dynamite having expired, it was decided to require this
explosive to be stored in the Government Depot on Green Island,
and arrangements were made accordingly, a small building for the
storage of detonators being erected. The works of reconstruction
of gullies and extension of nullah training were continued,
$10,000 being spent on the former and $18,150 on the latter.
The prolongation of Robinson Road, Kowloon, mentioned in last
year's report, was completed, and a further section from Waterloo
Road to near Soy Street was undertaken. The extension of the
road past Kowloon City to its junction with the Chin Lan Chu
Road was completed, and new roads from Kowloon City to Shatin
Pass, and from Castle Peak Bay to Ping Shan were begun. Great
improvements in the alignment and grading of several portions of
the Shaukiwan Road adjoining the Taikoo Sugar Refinery and
Shipyard were in progress, and a substantial improvement was
made in the portion of Kennedy Road immediately west of the
public laundries.
Works in progress included a new market at Kowloon Point, the
deepening of Causeway Bay to enable small craft to gain access
to all parts of the Typhoon Shelter at low water, a roof over Blake
Pier, an extension of Government Offices for the accommodation
of the Public Works Department, the raising of Des Vceux Road,
Kowloon, on account of the railway reclamation, and several
other works of smaller magnitude.
The extension and reconstruction of the Albany filter beds was
continued, and good progress was made.
The total amount expended on Public Works Extraordinary
was $1,000,935, and on Works Annually Recurrent $512,336,


HONG KONG, 1908.
15
The typhoon of July 27th caused great damage, and this to-
gether with repairs still being executed on account of the typhoon
of September, 1906, formed a very heavy charge on the recurrent
votes.
During the year 1908 considerable progress was made in the
British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway. About 40 per
cent, of the reclamation for a site for Kowloon Station Yard was
completed, and a very large amount of earthwork was done north
of the Kowloon Hills.
About 3,500 feet of heading was driven in Beacon Hill Tunnel
making a total of 5,600 feet out of 7,212 feet, and a total of
2,700 feet of tunnel was lined complete and an extra 700 feet
excavated to full section ready for lining. The other four
tunnels made good progress, the three short ones being almost
completed. The larger one at Taipo had 572 feet of heading
driven leaving 350 feet to complete.
Nearly all the bridges were completed with the exception of
the iron-work which, however, is all in the Colony. Only three
bridges remain on which no work has been done.
Indents have been sent home for rails, sleepers, and rolling
stock.
Malaria, beri-beri, dysentery, and other diseases were much
less prevalent among the railway employes, due to better organi-
zation.
The expenditure during the year was $3,372,832, making a
total of $6,251,639 up to the end of 1908.
The large amount of rock-blasting with high explosives,
especially in the long tunnel, where moreover drilling is carried
on with very powerful compressed air rock-drills, coupled with
the proverbial carelessness of the Chinese coolie, would lead to
the expectation that a large, number of accidents would occur
among the 3,000 odd coolies employed on the works. It is, there-
fore, very satisfactory to record the fact that from the inception
of the railway in 1906 to the end of the year 1908 there were
only 19. fatal accidents (1 in 1906, 9 in 1907, and 9 in 1908) and
13 other serious ones (8 in 1907 and 5 in 1908).
The Chinese section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway made
considerable progress during 1908 under the able direction of
Mr. Grove, C.R.E., who has stated that there is every prospect
of opening a length from Canton of 30 miles by April, 1910,
and anticipates that he will be able to run through trains for
traffic with the British section on or before July 1st, 1911.
Negotiations carried on at Peking for a Construction Loan for
the northern portion of the Canton-Hankow line had not resulted
in any loan agreement by the end of the year. The southern
section from Canton northwards made some progress under a
Chinese chief engineer, and with Chinese capital. By the end
of the year about 40 miles were open to traffic.


16
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
VI.GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS.
Government Hospitals consist of the Civil Hospital, to which
is attached an isolated Maternity Hospital, the Victoria
Hospital for Women and Children, the Kennedy Town Infec-
tious Diseases Hospital, and the hulk Hygeia used mainly
for the treatment of small-pox cases.
The Civil Hospital contains 150 beds in 29 wards. 2,527 in-
patients and 18,207 out-patients were treated during the year
1908. 279 cases of malarial fever were admitted, as against
243 in 1907 and 239 in 1906. The Maternity Hospital contains
6 beds for Europeans and 4 for Asiatics. 60 confinements
occurred during the year. The Victoria Hospital at the Peak
contains 41 beds. During 1908 234 patients were under treat-
ment. Kennedy Town Hospital contains 26 beds. In 1908 59
cases were treated, of which 3 were plague. On the Hygeia "
150 cases were treated, of which 86 were small-pox.
The Lunatic Asylum is under the direction of the Superin-
tendent of the Civil Hospital. European and Chinese patients
are separated, the European portion containing 8 beds in separate
wards and the Chinese portion 16 beds. 212 patients of all races
were treated during 1908, and there were 11 deaths.
The Tung Wah Hospital, opened in 1872, is mainly supported
by the voluntary subscriptions of Chinese, but receives an annual
grant of $8,000 from the Government. Only Chinese are treated
in this institution. Various other services not appertaining to
a hospital are performed by the institution such as the free
burial of the poor, the repatriation of destitutes, and the organi-
sation of charitable relief in emergencies. Chinese as well as
European methods of treatment are employed in accordance with
the wishes expressed by the patients or their friends. About
half the number are now treated by Western methods. The
hospital is managed by a committee of Chinese gentlemen
annually elected, their appointment being submitted to the
Governor for confirmation, and is under the supervision of a
Visiting Physician who is a member of the Medical Department,
whilst a Chinese Surgeon trained in European medicine is a
member of the Hospital Staff.
VII.INSTITUTIONS NOT SUPPORTED BY
GOVERNMENT.
Among institutions recognised and encouraged, but not to any
considerable extent supported by Government may be mentioned
the Po Leung Kuk, the Hong Kong College of Medicine, and
the City Hall.
The Po Leung Kuk is an institution, incorporated in 1893,
presided over by the Registrar General and an annually-elected
Committee of 12 Chinese gentlemen, for the protection of women


HONG KONG, 1908.
17
and children. The inmates of the Home receive daily instruc-
tion in elementary subjects and are allowed to earn pocket-money
by needlework. During 1908 a total of 403 persons were ad-
mitted. Of these, 86 were released after enquiry, 22 were
released under bond, 150 were placed in charge of their husbands,
parents, or relations, 14 were placed in charge of the French
Consul, 20 were sent to charitable institutions in China, 22
were sent to school, convent, or refuge, 6 were adopted, and 28
were married. One died during the year, one absconded, and
fifty-three remained in charge of the Society at the end of the
year.
An institution named the Eyre Refuge under Mission
auspices, for the same general purposes, was re-organised during
the year under a strong committee, and Government contributes
a small grant. It is hoped that this institution will work in con-
junction with the Po Leung Kuk.
The Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded in 1887.
The government of the College is vested in the Court, of which
the Rector of the College, who has always been a Government
official, is President. The Lecturers, who are Government
officials or private medical practitioners, each receive a small
honorarium, the funds being derived from the fees of the
students and a Government grant-in-aid of $2,500. The mini-
mum curriculum of study is five years, and a preliminary exam-
ination in general accord with the regulations of the General
Medical Council of Great Britain is required. Ill students
have been enrolled up to date (May, 1909); and of these 37 have
become qualified licentiates." Most of the licentiates have
settled in the Colony, and are exerting a most useful influence
in the direction of displacing the native medical methods and
popularising Western medical and sanitary knowledge, while a
considerable number of them are employed as resident surgeons
in the hospitals for Chinese, as medical officers in charge of the
Public Dispensaries, and as assistant medical officers on the rail-
way works. The work of the College has thus far been carried
on in lecture-rooms and laboratories made available in various
hospitals, &c., in different parts of the City. Steps were being
taken to provide adequate buildings of its own; but action was
suspended when the University Scheme was proposed. (See
page 22.) If a University is established, the College will be
merged into its Faculty of Medicine.
The City Hall receives an annual grant of $1,200 from Govern-
ment. It contains a theatre, some large rooms which are used
for balls, meetings, concerts, &c., a museum in which are some
very fair specimens, and a large Reference and Lending Library,
to which new volumes are added from time to time as funds
will allow. The building was erected in 1866-9 by subscription.
Small grants are also given to the Italian Convent ($1,280),
the French Convent (both of which take in and tend abandoned
or sick infants), the West Point Orphanage, the Seaman's
Hospital, and other charitable institutions.
14458
B


18
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
VIII.-CRIMINAL AND POLICE.
The total of all cases reported to the police was 9,562, being
a decrease of 1,978 or 17*14 per cent., as compared with 1907.
In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences
there is a decrease in the former as compared with the previous
year of 64 cases or 1*93 per cent.
The number of serious offences reported was 37 below the
average of the quinquennial period commencing with the year
1904. The number of minor offences reported shows a decrease
of 1,914, as compared with 1907, and was 1,515 below the aver-
age of the quinquennial period.
The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was
4,778, as compared with 5,877 in 1907, but of these only 1,975
were committed for criminal offences, against 2,460 in 1907.
Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 394 less
under the Prepared Opium Ordinance and 139 less for infringe-
ment of Sanitary By-laws.
The daily average of prisoners confined in the gaol was 465,
the average for 1907 being 502 and the highest previous average
being 726 in 1904. The percentage of prisoners to population,
according to the daily average of the former and the estimated
number of the latter, was '14, as compared with '14, the average
percentage for the last ten years.
Owing, however, to the large floating population which is
constantly moving between the Colony and Canton the percent-
age of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of
the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. A
large number of the riff-raffs and thieves of South China found
their way to Hong Kong, and during the year 895 aliens were
banished as undesirablesfor the most part after conviction for
crime.
The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punish-
ments per prisoner being 1'27, as compared with 1*50 in 1907
and 1'21 in 1906.
The prison is managed on the English prison system as regards
first offenders (star class prisoners) who are when at labour and
when located for the night kept apart from old offenders.
Long-sentence prisoners serving two years and upwards are
taught useful trades, including printing, book-binding, washing,
carpentry, boot-making, net-making, painting, and white-wash-
ing, mat-making, tailoring, oakum-picking, &c. The profit on
the work done was $45,420, as against $37,434 in 1907.
There was $5,012 received and credited to Government for non-
Government work, against $5,790 in 1907.
In consequence of the low number of prisoners in custody at
the beginning of the year it was found possible to close the
branch prison.
The prison was considerably damaged in the typhoon of the
27tli July. The work of repairing was immediately taken in
hand by the Public Works Department and completed by the
end of October.


HONG KONG, 1908.
19
The total strength of the Police Force for 1908 was Europeans
135, Indians 410, Chinese 501, making a total of 1,046, as com-
pared with 1,048 in 1907, exclusive in each case of the five
superior officers and staff of clerks and coolies. These figures
include police paid for by the railway, private firms, and other
Government Departments. Of this force the District Officer, 15
Europeans, 112 Indians, and 47 Chinese were stationed in the
New Territories during the year.
The force of District Watchmen, to which the Government
contributes $2,000 per annum, was well supported by the Chinese
during the year. These watchmen patrol the streets in the
Chinese quarter of the city. They are placed on police beats
and are supervised by the European police on section patrol.
IX.VITAL STATISTICS.
The population of the Colony according to the census taken in
1901 was 283,975 while at the census taken in 1906 it was 301,967
exclusive of the New Territories, New Kowloon, and the Army
and Navy Establishments. The estimated population at the
middle of the year under review was 421,499, as follows:
Non-Chinese Civil community 13,200
Chinese population
Hong Kong ... 194,460
Kowloon ... 74,350
Floating population 44,940
Mercantile Marine 2,700
--316,450
Army (average strength) ... ... 4,483
Navy (average strength) ... ... 2,355
--6,838
New Territories (exclusive of Kowloon) 85,011
Total ... 421,499
During the year under review considerable progress has been
made in rendering existing domestic buildings rat proof as a
preventive of plague, 103 ground surfaces of houses have been
repaired, and 811 buildings have had rat-runs filled up witli
cement. In addition 49 basements illegally inhabited have been
vacated.
New buildings (domestic) to the number of 148 were erected
during the year and in these the effect of the present Ordinance
is seen in the increased amount of open space about the houses,
which the law requires. Scavenging lanes which have to be
provided in the rear of new houses also increase the open space
about them and tend to reduce crowding.
During the year there were 986 deaths from plague, compared
with 198 in 1907 and 842 in 1906.
14458 C


20
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
There were 2,498 deaths from respiratory diseases amongst the
Chinese, 748 of which were due to phthisis, a percentage of 8*3
of the total deaths amongst that community.
Beri-beri caused 736 deathsas against 562 in 1907a very
high figure.
The deaths from malaria were 499 as against 579 in 1907, and
448 in 1906. The average number of deaths from this disease
has fallen from 480 in the quinquennium 1899 to 1903 to 422 in
the quinquennium 1904-1908. Military returns of admissions
to hospital for malaria show an increase in the incidence of this
disease, as compared with the year 1907. There were 515
admissions in 1908, being a ratio per thousand of the garrison
of 256, against 287 in 1907 (196 per thousand).
Changes were made during the year in the administration of
the Sanitary Department by an Amending Public Health and
Buildings Ordinance (No. 14 of 1908) whereby the Principal
Civil Medical Officer ceased to be the Administrative Head of
the Department and President of the Board, these duties being
transferred to a cadet officer whose whole time is given to the
work. At the same tiipe the duty of dealing with all private
drainage works and with structural defects of a sanitary nature,
such as deficient window area, defective ground surfaces,
obstructed open spaces, &c., was transferred to certain engineers
of the Public Works Department who, as the Building
Authority, are now entirely responsible for dealing with all
structural defects on private premises.
This amending Ordinance also reduced somewhat the strin-
gency of the law in regard to the erection of cubicles in Chinese
tenement houses and reduced the required floor space per head
from 50 square feet to 30 square feet in all such premises as do
not contain cubicles. The Ordinance also made further pro-
vision for dealing with blocks of insanitary property (s. 154a)
and introduced the principle of an improvement rate for such
cases.
The transfer of duties to the Building Authority has greatly
lessened the work of the Sanitary Department, and as a conse-
quence it has been possible to reduce the Sanitary Staffone
Surveyor and one Overseer of Drainage have been transferred to
the Public Works Department and the number of Sanitary
Inspectors has been materially reduced, while further reductions
are contemplated as vacancies arise.
As a result of the final report of the Indian Plague Com-
mission, issued in 1908, it has been possible to effect a very con-
siderable economy in the matter of the disinfection of plague
houses, a cheap pulicide only being now in use whereas
formerly both pulicide and disinfectants were employed.
The average monthly temperature throughout the year was
71-8 P., as compared with 72-2 P. in 1907 and 72'0 P. during
the ten preceding years. The mean maximum monthly tem-
perature was attained in August, when it reached 87*3 P., and
the mean minimum monthly temperature was recorded in
Pebruary, when it was 54'9 P. The highest recorded tempera-


HONG KONG, 1908.
21
ture during the year was 92*6 F. on the 16th. July, and the
lowest 43-7 F. on the 19th February.
The total rainfall for the year was 91*87 inches, as compared
with an average of 77*31 inches during the ten preceding years.
The wettest month was July, with 22'26 inches, the driest,
November, with 0*15 inch. The greatest amount of rain which
fell on any one day was 7*0 inches on the 23rd July, while no
rain fell on 213 days of the year. The mean relative humidity
of the atmosphere for the year was 79 per cent., as compared
with an average of 77 per cent, during the ten preceding years.
The average daily amount of sunshine was 5*2 hours, being 47
per cent, of the possible duration.
These figures are those recorded at the Observatory, Kowloon,
and there is a very considerable divergence between that place
and Hong Kong (low levels), the Peak District, or Tai Po (New
Territories), both in rainfall, temperature, and humidity.
X.POSTAL SERVICE.
The total receipts paid into the Treasury in 1908 by the Postal
Department amounted to $601,967, from which sum $189,535
was transferred to other heads of General Revenue under which
fees and duties are paid in postage stamps, which are now sold
exclusively by the Post Office, leaving the sum of $412,431 as
the approximate revenue from the Postal Service. The total
expenditure amounted to $371,486 which, being deducted from
the revenue of $412,431, leaves a profit of $40,945.
The Siberian route for transmission of mails to Europe has
become increasingly popular with residents in Hong Kong as
well as in China. The Shanghai Agency commenced to forward
mails to Europe via Dalny and Harbin on September 3rd. The
approximate time occupied in transmission of letters by this route
from London to Shanghai was .16 to 18 days, to Tientsin 16 days,
Weiliaiwei 18 days, and Hong Kong 20 to 23 days.
XI.MILITARY EXPENDITURE.
The Colony contributed $1,250,168 (being the statutory con-
tribution of 20 per cent, of the revenue) towards the cost of the
maintenance of the regular forces in the Colony, including bar-
rack services and defence works.
The expenditure on the Volunteers, which is entirely borne by
the Colony, was $45,554, compared with $45,253 in 1907.


22
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
XII.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.
The assessment made in July, 1907, for tlie year 1907-8 was
adopted for the year 1908-9, the difference in rateable value
being the result of interim-assessments and appeals. The rate-
able value of the whole Colony increased by 0*93 per cent. In
the City of Victoria, the Hill District, Shaukiwan, the Hong
Kong villages, Mongkoktsui, and the Kowloon villages there was
an increase ranging from 0"84 per cent, to 2'92 per cent. In
Kowloon Point and Yaumati there was a decrease of 1'21 per cent,
and 1*45 per cent, respectively. New Kowloon showed an in-
crease of'0*77 per cent. Notices of appeal were given against
the assessments of 249 tenements with an aggregate rateable value
of $452,180. The Court ordered reductions amounting to
$36,195.
Throughout the year negotiations were in progress between this
Government and the Chinese authorities, both at Canton and at
Peking, on the subject of the loss and inconvenience caused by
the depreciation of the Colony's subsidiary currency owing to the
over-issue of small coins by the Mint in Canton, which circulate
freely in the Colony at a heavy discount and cause the legal (sub-
sidiary) currency to fall to a nearly corresponding discount.
This Government adopted the expedient of withdrawing from
circulation $780,000 of subsidiary silver coin and $30,000 of
bronze coin. These coins were shipped to London where they
were melted down and sold as bullion, for £60,501 Is. \d. and
£1,190 Is. respectively. Hp to the close of the year the nego-
tiations with the Chinese Government had not produced any satis-
factory result. The average annual loss to revenue from this
source as calculated for the last three years has been $184,204,
including the loss by demonetization of unissued stocks. The
average loss on the same period, which would have been incurred
by payment of discount instead of demonetization, was $26,777.
The rate of exchange fell from over 2s. to the dollar at the
end of 1907 to an average throughout the year of Is. 9'6rZ. This
involved considerable loss to Government and disorganised the
budget which had been calculated on a basis of 2s. for salaries and
2s. Id. for other items.
Piracy in the Canton Delta was much less rife than it has been
during recent years.
Mr. R. Mansfield, Consul-General at Canton, handed over
charge of the Consulate to Mr. H. H. Fox on the 1st June.
Mr. H. N. Mody generously offered to present the Colony with
the buildings necessary to start a university. His original offer
was to give a sum of $150,000 for this purpose and a further sum
of $30,000 towards endowment. Plans of the necessary buildings
were prepared and, as the Director of Public Works estimated
that the buildings proposed would not cost less than $290,000,
Mr. Mody undertook to provide them in accordance with the
plans which he had approved, no matter what the cost might
be, stipulating, however, that he should use on the buildings the
$30,000 originally given for endowment, if it should be required.


HONG KONG, 1908.
23
It is intended tliat the proposed Hong Kong University shall
have at the outset two Faculties, viz., Medicine and Engineering,
and that the existing College of Medicine, the Technical Institute,
and the local branch of the Sanitary Institute shall be incor-
porated in it. It is hoped that an Arts Course may be added. A
Committee has been formed, with myself as Chairman, to promote
the undertaking.
On the 6th May, a telegram was received from your Lordship
to the effect that His Majesty's Government had decided that
steps must be taken to close opium dens in Hong Kong, as they
recognise it is essential in dealing with the opium question in
Hong Kong we must act up to the standard set by the Chinese
Government." As the result of this telegram the opium ques-
tion was debated in the Legislative Council on several occasions
during the year, and careful investigations were made by the
Government. It had not, however, been decided by the end of
the year what steps should be taken in the matter, as the result
of the International Opium Commission to be held in Shanghai
was awaited.
In the month of June there were very serious floods in the
valleys of the West and North Rivers, causing distress and famine
in many districts of the Kuangtung and Kuangsi Provinces ; and
on the 2nd of July the Legislative Council unanimously adopted
a resolution conveying the deep sympathy of the Colony to the
Governor-General of the provinces concerned, and authorizing
the payment of a sum of $30,000 from the general revenue as a
donation for the relief of the sufferers. A cheque for that amount
was handed to the Governor-General by H.B.M.'s Acting Consul-
General at Canton on the 15th July, and transmitted by His
Excellency to the Charitable Guilds to whom the distribution of
organized relief was entrusted. In addition to this donation,
there was collected by the Tung Wa Hospital the sums of $9.1,528
locally and $371,069 from abroad; while a Chinese bazaar held
in the Colony in aid of the Flood Relief Fund realized $81,690.
The bazaar was interesting as being the first of the kind organized
and managed entirely by the Chinese community; Chinese ladies
took charge of the stalls and both Chinese and European firms
sent large quantities of goods, free of charge, to the Bazaar Com-
mittee for sale.
A sum of $1,000 was subscribed by the colonists of Saigon for
the relief of the distress caused by the seA^ere typhoon of the
18th September, 1906, and it had originally been the intention
of Sir M. Nathan to appropriate this sum for the erection of a
memorial to the French sailors of the French destroyer Fronde "
Avho lost their lives in this harbour during that typhoon. As,
however, the Committee of the Typhoon Relief Fund unani-
mously decided that it was not within their power to make any
grant from the funds for this purpose nor to appropriate thereto
the sum of $1,000 received from Saigon, that money having gone
into the general fund, a special subscription of $2,550 was raised
to defray the cost of erecting an obelisk in Gascoigne Road,
Kowloon, as a memorial to the French sailors in question. The
ceremony of unveiling the memorial took place on the 14th of


24
COLONIAL REPORTS ANNUAL.
June, and Mile. Morel, daughter of the Lieutenant-Governor of
Tongking, unveiled the obelisk.
The proposal to construct a new Typhoon Refuge at Mong-
koktsui, which had originally been made in 1904, and which,
since the typhoon of the 18th September, 1906, had been before
the Typhoon Relief Committee, was favourably reported on by
the Public Works Committee of the Legislative Council, who
further recommended that pending its construction the accom-
modation in the Causeway Bay shelter should be increased by
deeping the area therein which dries at low water. It was esti-
mated that the latter work would cost $70,000, and that a break-
water at Mongkoktsui to enclose 166 acres of sheltered water
would cost $1,540,000. The matter was discussed in Legislative
Council on the 6th August, and with a view to financing the
works a resolution was passed by the Council on that day in-
creasing the dues : (a) for all river steamers entering the waters
of the Colony to five-sixths of a cent per ton register; and (b) for
all other ships entering the waters of the Colony (excepting
British and foreign ships of war) to two cents per ton register. It
is hoped by this means to defray half the cost of the Mongkoktsui
Breakwater, the other half being paid out of the reserve funds
of the Colony; and in the Colonial Estimates for 1909, passed by
the Legislature on the 15th October, a sum of $200,000 is pro-
vided for the Mongkoktsui Typhoon Shelter, and a sum of 20,000
for deepening the shallow area of Causeway Bay to one foot
below Ordnance Datum.
In the meantime, on the night of the 27th to 28th July, the
Colony was struck by another disastrous typhoon in which
26 privately-owned buildings collapsed, with a loss of 59 lives,
and damage was done to 77 Government buildings, with a loss of
one life. The river steamer Ying King foundered with a
loss of 424 lives, including those of the master and three European
passengers. Inside and outside the harbour limits 17 European
and 125 native craft were sunk, many more being wrecked or
damaged. The loss of Government property alone was estimated
at $100,000. The storm swept on to Canton where great destruc-
tion of river craft and much loss of life occurred.
Under instructions from your Lordship a Bill was introduced
into the Legislative Council to provide for the transfer to the
Government of Hong Kong of the Widows' and Orphans' Pension
Fund and of the management and control of the pensions of
widows and orphans. The Bill was passed on the 30th July and
the fund, amounting to a sum of $371,321, was transferred to the
general revenue of the Colony, out of which the pensions in ques-
tion will in future be paid.
A riot broke out in the town of Victoria on the 1st and 2nd of
November in connection with a boycott of Japanese goods by the
Cantonese. This boycott was due to the feeling excited in China
by the Tatsu Maru affair, and was actively organized by the
" National Disgrace Society" at Canton. It soon spread to
Hong Kong, where the Government from the first took active steps
to combat it, with the result that by the autumn several Chinese


Hong-Kong, Kowloon and Adjacent Territories.
Shak-ku
Sa-tsiang
Chong-hang-kang
sYong-tai-shan
frTisam-kai
Wang-kongo
TAI-PUNG-SANG
~~kaiehung(
(gjSa-ng-chung
Wong-mu
\&]jpfuK
Sai-Heung
)Hasha
^X/^Len-tong o
/ Lofong& M
>am-ehun /
TAI-CHAM N
BAY
Ping Cheng
J Croohedt
Harbour]
'JCwaimiao
Port Island
Wan-had
phak-WRn
i Grass I.
)Tap-mun
Shui-wan-teu
Samun*
TOLO HARBOUR
" Whit^-y
Pak-sa wanl
^High I,
Town I.
vPort
Shelter
KOWLOON CITY
Tai-pu-tsai o
Basalt I.
Tung-chung
3-Kong ^ao]
ml ;: SfymkirfyMtuk
jLantad'm.l.
n Qht
.Silver Minelrk-
D Ninepin
d Group
LANTAO M.L.2I
Tai^ku'-eh'au
\pliehail
* Tai-wan\
Lam ma I
(Pok-Liub-
>- Head
(C.d'Aguilar)
ong-ma-kok Fury Roeke
Cheung-Chax
p Wag-Ian
Light house
Lo-ehau
Siu-A-Chau^Cj
hrfrA-ChmfV?
note
Territory under Convention of 1860 HI
Boundary under Convention 1898
Ordnance Survey Office. So utharriplorv,1909.


HONG KONG, 1908.
25
merchants in the Colony had again begun to trade in Japanese
goods. This gradual failure of the boycott movement in Hong
Kong dissatisfied the more violent agitators in Canton, who, there-
upon, made this Colony the scene of an organized riot, which had
for its object the destruction of the shops and goods of such
Chinese merchants as had abandoned the anti-Japanese boycott.
The affair was arranged with such secrecy and skill that the
police of the Colony were completely taken by surprise, and for
the purpose of restoring law and order it was necessary to call
upon the military authorities for assistance. A proclamation
was forthwith issued declaring the Colony subject to the pro-
visions of the Peace Preservation Ordinance, and with the help
of the troops order was restored by the evening of the 2nd Novem-
ber. After that date there was no further outbreak, and drastic
steps were taken to deal with the instigators of the outrage. In
no instance was a Japanese shop or a Japanese subject attacked.
I have, &c.,
F. D. Lxjgard,
Governor, &c.
The Right Honourable
The Earl of Crewe,
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of
State for the Colonies,
&c., &c., &c.


COLONIAL REPORTS.
The following recent reports relating to His Majesty's Colonial
Possessions have been issued, and may be obtained from the
sources indicated on the title page :
ANNUAL.
No. Colony, &c.
581 Mauritius............
582 Straits Settlements ......
583 Southern Nigeria .........
584 Imperial Institute.........
585 Barbados ............
586 Somaliland Protectorate......
587 Trinidad and Tobago ......
588 Sierra Leone .........
589 British G-uiana .........
590 Grenada ............
591 Leeward Islands .........
592 East Africa Protectorate......
593 Bechuanaland Protectorate
594 Northern Nigeria.........
595 Basutoland............
596 Swaziland............
597 St. Helena............
598 Gibraltar ............
599 Falkland Islands ...
600 Uganda ............
601 Imperial Institute.........
602 Northern Territories of the Gold Coast
603 Ashanti ............
604 Ceylon ... .........
605 Weihaiwei............
606 Seychelles............
607 Jamaica ............
608 Colonial Survey Committee
609 Gambia ............
610 Malta ............
611 Sierra Leone .........
612 Turks and Caicos Islands......
613 Gold Coast............
614 Bechuanaland Protectorate
615 Bahamas ............
616 St. Lucia ............
Year.
1907
1906-1907
1907-1908
1907
1907-1908
1907
1907-1908
1908
1907-1908
1908
1907-1908
1908-1909
1908
1908-1909
1908
1908-1909
1908
No.
53 East Africa Protectorate ...
54 Newfoundland
55 Cape Colony ... .....
56 Turks Islands ......
57 Uganda .........
58 British Colonies ......
59 Northern Nigeria ......
60 Nyasaland Protectorate
61 South Africa ......
Subject.
... Veterinary Bacteriological
Work, 1907-8.
... Governor's Visit to the Micmac
Indians.
... Rietfontein Area.
... Salt Industry.
... Governor's Tour.
... Fibres.
... Mineral Survey, 1906-7.
Do., 1907-8.
... Agriculture and Viticulture.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Colony, &c.


Full Text

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