Citation
Siam : Report for the year 1901 on the trade of the consular district of Bangkok

Material Information

Title:
Siam : Report for the year 1901 on the trade of the consular district of Bangkok
Series Title:
Diplomatic and consular reports
Creator:
Great Britain. Foreign Office.
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Harrison & Sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce
พาณิชย์
International trade
การค้าระหว่างประเทศ
Genre:
Government Document
serial ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Thailand -- Bangkok Metropolitan Administration -- Bangkok
Coordinates:
13.75 x 100.466667

Notes

General Note:
"Presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of His Majesty, September, 1902."
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue number: Cd. 786-202
General Note:
เอเชีย -- ประเทศไทย -- กรุงเทพมหานคร -- กรุงเทพมหานคร

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
CF327.42 /23894 ( SOAS classmark )
291455 ( aleph )
Cd. 786-202 ( Publisher_ID )

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Full Text
No. 2898 Annual Series.
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPORTS.
SIAM.
REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1901
ON THE
TRADE OF THE CONSULAR DISTRICT OF
BANGKOK.
REFERENCE TO PREVIOUS REPORT, Annual Series No. 2705.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty,
SEPTEMBER, 1902.
LONDON:
PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTYS STATIONERY OFFICE,
BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTINS LANE,
PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY.
And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from
EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.C^
and 32, Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.W.;
or OLIVER & BOYD, Edinburgh;
or E. PONSONBY, 116, Grafton Street, Dublin,
[Cd. 786202.]
1902.
Price Three Halfpence,


CONTENTS
Page
General volume of trade ............................................... 3
Exchange............................................................... 3
Exports .............................................................. 3
Bice................................................................. 3
Teak............................................................. 5
Marine products...................................................... 6
Pepper............................................................ 6
Treasure ............................................................ 6
Bullocks ............................................................ 7
Woods, other than teak.............................................. 7
Black silk piece-goods .............................................. 7
Hides ............................................................... 7
Birds nests......................................................... 7
Rubies and sapphires................................................. 7
Sticklao ........................................................... 7
Raw silk ............................................................ 7
Rubber............................................................... 7
Imports ............................................................... 7
Cotton goods ........................................................ 7
Treasure .......................................................... 8
Steel, iron and machinery............................................ 8
Railway tenders ..................................................... 9
Gunny bags........................................................ 10
Silk goods ........................................................ 10
Sugar ............................................................. 10
Cotton yarns ..................................................... 10
Kerosene.......... ............................................... 10
Hardware and cutlery .............................................. 10
Foreign clothing.................................................... 10
Liquors ........................................................... 11
Oils ............................................................... 11
Drugs ........................................................... 11
Matches ............................................................ 11
Jewellery........................................................... 11
Wood ............................................................. 11
Mattings .......................................................... 11
Fireworks ....................................................... 11
Lamps............................................................. 12
Tobacconists stores ............................................... 12
Brass ............................................................. 12
Coal............................................................... 12
Paints ........................................................... 12
Cement ........................................................... 12
Cycles ......................................................... 12
Countries trading with Siam ........................................ 12
Shipping ............................................................. 14
Labour troubles .................................................... 15
Lighterage difficulties ............................................ 16
Railways ............................................................. 16
Telegraphs ........................................................... 16
Electric light and tramways........................................... 16
Building in Bangkok................................................... 17
Waterworks............................................................ 17
Gambling ............................................................. 17


Mo. 2898.
Animal Series.
Reference to jp'evions Report, Annual Series No. 2705.
Report on the Trade and Commerce of the Comular District of
Bangkok for the Year 1901
By Mr. Consular Assistant Carlisle.
(Received at Foreign Office, August 5, 1902.)
The total value of the foreign trade of the port of Bangkok General
during the year 1901 was 7,172,353/, showing an increase
1,507,994/. over 1900. The average value of the dollar was lower ra e
in 1901, and the annual dollar value of the trade shows an increase
of 17,197,551 dol.
The bulk of this increase is in the exports, and is due to the
exceptionally large output of rice. Imports, however, show a
satisfactory advance also, and although the rice export, good as it
was, did not come up to that of 1893, the total value of the trade
is the highest yet recorded, that of 1893 only reaching 6,716,192/.
(the dollar at that time being reckoned at 2s. 7c/.).
The rate of exchange for 1901 has been taken in this report Exchange
Is. ll^d. per Mexican dollar, the average rate for the year; and
that for 1900 at Is. Ilfd.
The total value of exports from Bangkok to foreign countries Exports,
was 4,366,967/., an increase of 1,279,148/. over 1900. Tofcal value-
As mentioned above, and as forecast in the reports on the years E,ice*
1899 and 1900, the rice export was a very large one, being only sur-
passed by the year 1893, when, according to the customs returns,
775,701 tons were exported. The export in 1901 amounted to
684,924/. tons, valued at 3,484,263/., an increase of 270,380 tons
and 1,258,793/. over 1900.
There was but little trade in European rice at the beginning
of the year, but a very good demand for China and Singapore.
Prices were from 80 to 85 ticals(80 ticals equal 4/. 12s. 6c/.) per coyan
(about 24 cwt.) for best Nasuan (garden rice) and 70 to 76 ticals
for poorer qualities. Supplies were heavy up to the beginning
of April, the mills having in March almost more than they could
handle. Prices went down at the end of May on the arrival of
supplies from the north, but rose towards the end of June,
reaching the maximum in July. The high rates were maintained
until nearly the end of the year. wucg
The year was on the whole an excellent one for the miller.
(162) A 2


i
BANGKOK.
The combination of German rice millers (referred to in the report
for last year) has had the effect of putting the European trade for
Hamburg and Bremen almost entirely in the hands of local
German millers. The British firms cannot even enter into com-
petition. There was, however, plenty of business for the Eastern
markets. From Singapore, especially, there was a big demand
throughout the year, and the prices ruling gave good returns to
the millers. There was also a good demand for Hong-Kong, and
it remained fairly equal.
The export was made up approximately of the following
items:
Articles. Quantity.
White rice .. .. Tons. 289,400
Broken white rice .. 64,900
White meal.. 41,300
Cargo rice .. 265,200 17,100
Broken cargo rice ..
Cargo meal .. .. .. . 4,600
Paddy .. 2,400
The greatest exports were in the months of May, June,
August, September and October, in each of which the output
was about 60,000 tons or over, that for October being the largest
of all.
Complaint is made that the quality of the grain brought to
market is steadily deteriorating. This is due partly to want of
care in the selection of the grain used for sowing and partly in
carelessness in cleaning the rice and in not preserving it from rain
and sun before it is despatched to Bangkok. It is said that even
from the best districts there is a marked change in the quality of
the rice. This certainly deserves the attention of the Ministry of
Agriculture, rice being so far the most important product of the
country. Much of the lack of care complained of is doubtless
due to scarcity of labour, a trouble which hampers the trade
of Siam in many directions.
Another point in which Government assistance would prove
useful to the trade is the collection and publication of timely
information affecting the prospects of the coming crop. This is
done in other countries, and can only be organised by the
Government. At present, Bangkok merchants depend for their
information as to the state of the crop, the area under cultiva-
tion, &c., on the boats coming down from up-country, and their
information must necessarily be very local.
All indications for the present year (1902) promise at the
time of writing a greater export than in 1901, and it is said
that it may even exceed the amount given by the custom-house
as the export for 1893, about the correctness of which some doubt
exists.
Of the common rice exported to Germany much is used for


BANGKOK.
5
brewing and the manufacture of starch. The bulk of the best
Nasuan75 is re-exported to South America. There are at present
some 23 rice mills in the Bangkok district.
The returns of the custom-house give the export of teak as Teak-
amounting to 43,735 tons, valued at 240,864?., which is 1,526 tons
and 83,884?. less than in 1900. In addition to this there were
61,461 bundles of teak shingles of a value of 2,762?.
According to information supplied, however, by a leading firm
engaged in the trade the exports were considerably larger than in
1900, and amounted to 50,408 tons. This amount was divided
amongst the following destinations :
Country. Quantity.
India. Tons. 20,043
Europe .. .. 13,157
Hong-Kong.. 11,145
Singapore .. 3,084
J apan . 1,064 922
Shanghai ..
Saigon .. 776
Colombo 217
Total .. 50,408
The custom-house figures give the export to India as amounting
to 15,556 tons only. Whichever of the two figures is nearer the
mark, there is no doubt that the export to India has been
increasing every year, the timber being largely used there by the
railways and for house building, &c.
The European figures are given as practically the same by
both authorities, and, if correct, show an increase of nearly 2,000
tons over the previous year, despite the fact that the total import
of teak into Europe from all countries in 1901 was only about
two-thirds of the import of 1900. Apart from shipbuilding, the
demand for teak in England for general purposes, building, furni-
ture, &c., is largely increasing, and many orders now come from
Europe for timber cut to special sizes.
The f.o.b. value of timber shipped from Siam was about 9?. per
ton for the European cargoes and 51. per ton all round for the
rest. The local market prices for rough logs obtaining during the
year showed a considerable falling-off, especially when the fall
in the exchange value of the tical is considered. Owing to
exchange it is difficult to arrive at the approximate average rate,
but probably from 3?. to 3?. 10s. is very near the price at which
some 10,000 or 12,000 tons changed hands.
As to the prospects of the teak export trade of Siam in the
immediate future it is difficult to speak, as opinions differ as to
the effect that the new Government forestry regulations will have
upon the output. It is said that shipments during 1902 are
likely to be moderate, and that the output will probably be
(162)


6
BANGKOK.
Marine
products.
Pepper.
diminished during the next few years. Under the new regula-
tions only half of each forest is allowed to be worked, the other
half being held in reserve, and no fresh girdling is allowed for
the time in either area without special permission. The increased
royalties on logs are now too commencing to operate, and it is
said that a large number of logs were hurried forward in 1901
with a view to escaping this increase, and that in this way many
inferior logs were sent down which did not produce timber fit for
export.
The teak trade, both in the forests and in Bangkok, continues
mainly in British hands. It is one which requires large capital,
and the small trader has been almost eliminated.
The heading marine products in Annex B include beche-de-
mer, dried and salt fish, fish maws, dried mussels and prawns,
shark fins, turtle shells and ray skins. The export of these shows
an increase in value of 36,7191. over the previous year.
The export of pepper was a large one, being much in advance
of that for 1900. The custom-house gives the export as 1,156
tons. This is probably a good deal in excess of the amount
actually exported. The customs derive their figures generally
from the export entries supplied by shippers, and in the case of
goods such as pepper, on which there is no export duty, shippers
frequently apply for permission, to export a quantity slightly in
excess of that which they intend to ship so as to leave some
margin. However, there is no doubt, whatever the exact figures
may be, that the export in 1901 was considerably above the
average.
Prices varied from to 9\d. per lb. in the London market,
as against %\d. to 8\d. in 1900. The prices have a tendency to
rise each year. Local prices were from 68 ticals (5 ticals equal
3 dol. Mexican) per picul (133£ lbs.) in the commencement of
1901, advancing to 73 ticals at the end of April and rising to
75 ticals in May. Prices remained at 73 and 74 ticals until the
end of October, when they rose again to 75 ticals in November.
Finally, in consequence of a sudden rise in the home market,
they went up to 82 ticals in December, the highest price paid
being 85 ticals.
This year (1902) pepper is coming in rapidly, but the export
will probably only amount to 70 per cent, of that of 1901.
Prices have been steady for the new season's pepper (which
begins to come in at the end of March), remaining at 82, 83 and
84 ticals.
The pepper all comes from the Chantaboon district. The
export now almost entirely consists of white pepper, that is, pepper
with the outer husk removed. Most of the export goes to London,
some to Liverpool, some to New York and a little to San Francisco.
Small lots are bought up by Chinese for Hong-Kong.
There seems to be no sign of any extension of the area of
pepper cultivation in Siam.
The export of treasure, that is coin, shows an increase of about
26,00QZ.
Treasure.


BANGKOK.
7
10,396 bullocks, to the value of 33,298/., were exported during Bullocks,
the year, as against 15,938, valued at 48,524/., in 1900. This
falling-off was due partly to a regulation passed in Singapore
stipulating for certain conditions to be observed in the ships par-
taking in the trade. The export was accordingly suspended, while
the vessels were making the necessary alterations in their accom-
modation. Quarantine restrictions also interfered with the export
for some time. Some of the ships have not found it worth their
while to effect the required changes which certainly seemed to be
called for in the interests of humanity. Rates for carrying cattle
have risen.
The export of woods other than teak, which include agilla, Woods other
sapan, paddo, yellow, box, ebony, rose and other woods, show no thanteak-
advance.
Amongst other exports, which do not appear separately in Other
Annex B, are black silk piece-goods, which amounted to 41,757/., exPorts-
an increase of 2,600/. on the previous year. These goods are not 8^g
manufactured in Siam, but are imported from China, dyed black p
with the fruit of a black wood tree, and re-exported mostly to
Singapore. The reason apparently for having them dyed here is
that the fruit in question only keeps fresh for about 15 days, after
which it is useless for dyeing.
Buffalo and cow-hides were exported (mostly to Singapore) to Hides,
the value of 26,340/., and deer-hides to the value of 5,760/.
Edible birds' nests, which are collected on certain islands in Birds nests,
the Gulf of Siam, were valued at 23,272/. The export went, of
course, to Hong-Kong and China.
Rough rubies and sapphires exported are estimated at 18,191/. Rubies and
About 585 tons of sticklac, worth 16,992/., were exported. g*^*8*
This product comes chiefly from the north of Siam.
The export of raw silk was valued at 16,641/. In 1900 it was Raw silk.
14,000/. The Government is at present giving some attention to
the methods adopted in the production of silk with a view to
improving its quality and value.
Among products which do not yet take a regular place in the Rubber,
exports of Siam, but for which there may be a future, is un-
doubtedly rubber. The question is now under consideration, and
it is known that rubber producing trees are found in some quantity
in certain parts of the country, notably in the eastern provinces.
One or two small experimental shipments have already been made,
but little is known at present of the product or the possibility of
cultivation, and the Ministry of the Interior are prosecuting
enquiries. It is believed that traders from the French side of the
Mekong have been obtaining rubber from the eastern provinces of
Siam for some time.
The total value of imports from foreign countries was 2,805,386/., imports,
an increase of 228,846/. over 1900. If the value of treasure im- Total value-
ported be deducted from both years the increase is 273>341/. The
total import is the largest recorded yet for any year.
The import of cotton goods (excluding yarns, which are, as c )tton gods*
usual, put under a separate heading in the enclosed Annex B),


BANGKOK.
Treasure.
Steel,
iron and
machinery.
was 539,094Z., as against 409,058Z. in 1900, an increase of prac-
tically 130,000/. According to the figures given by the Statistical
Department of the Siamese Customs, the various countries can be
calculated roughly to share in this import in the following pro-
portions :
Country. Percentage.
Singapore .. ., .. .. .. 50*31
United Kingdom .. .. .. .. 16*77
India.. .. .. ., 11 -84
Switzerland.. .. .. .. . 715
Holland 4-56
Hong-Kong.. .. .. .. .. 3*63
Germany 3-61
Other countries 2-13
Total .. .. 100 -oo
In connection with the import from Singapore, the remarks
made below in connection with the figures given in Annex C must
be borne in mind.
Previous reports have enumerated the principal items of which
the imports consists, and there is nothing new to chronicle in this
respect.
The import of treasure (that is of gold and silver coin and gold
leaf) continues to show a decrease.
Steel, iron and machinery have again largely increased, the
import rising from 169,346^. to 246,954Z. The items were as
follows:
Articles. Value. Total.
£ £
Iron
Bar, angle bolt and rod ,, 10,529
Sheets and plates 19,262
Wire, wire-rope and cable ,. 11,252
Cast and manufactures thereof ,, 8,627
Wrought and manufactures thereof .. 63,678 113,348
Steel
Bars and plates .. .. .. .. 8,745
Manufactures of, unenurnerated 9,691 18,436
Machinery and parts thereof .. 115,170
Total 246,954
Machinery shows an increase of 37,843Z. over 1900. The
proportionate shares of the countries supplying these goods was
approximately as follows for the two years 1900 and 1901:


BANGKOK.
9
Percentage.
Country.
1900. 1901.
Germany.. 9*60 37*30
United Kingdom 46 *40 33*60
Singapore ,. 31 -20 ; 20 -70
United States .. 5-10 2-60
China .. .. 1*90 1-10
Hong-Kong i 1*70 I 0-60
Other countries. .. 4*10 | 4*10
Total 9 9 100 *00 | 100 -oo
These figures as they stand show a very large increase in
imports from Germany. It must, however, be pointed out that the
bulk of the German import consists of material imported for the
Government by the Royal Railway Department, the direction of
which is in German hands, and which has in consequence been
strongly inclined to favour German productions. The total
German import of these goods amounted to 92,147/. Nearly the
whole of this consisted of wrought iron (and manufactures
thereof) and machinery, which were 46,475/. and 43,858/. respec-
tively. Of the former item at least 45,000/. consisted of bridge-
work, rails, fish-plates, &c., for the Eoyal Railway Department,
and of the latter at least 36,200/. was for locomotives and other
railway material for the same department. That is to say that
at least 88 per cent, of the total German import of iron, steel and
machinery was Government material for the railway. This would
seem to suggest that German goods found readier purchases in
the railway department than elsewhere in Siam, to say the least of
it. The question of open tenders is one of considerable interest
to all the countries trading with Siam and a few words on the
subject may not be out of place.
In the month of January, 1902, a railway tender, containing Railway
specifications for the supply of rolling-stock required for the tenders.
Petchaburi line was communicated to His Majestys Minister by the
Siamese Foreign Office.
Tenders with designs and specifications were to reach Bangkok Term for
not later than April 1, beyond which date no tender would be tenders,
considered.
A later communication stated that drawings and further par-
ticulars were to be obtained from the Philadelphia Commercial
Museum, Philadelphia, United States of America, or from Herr
Rehbein, Blucher Strasse 2, Leipsig, Germany. The Acting
Director-General of the Siamese Railways, Herr Kloke, at the
same time stated that this information had been published in the
following papers:Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung (Berlin),
Revue G&ierale des Chemins de Fer (Paris), The Engineer
(London).
Some correspondence took place with the Siamese Govern-


10
BANGKOK.
ment on the subject of the shortness of time allowed for the tenders
to be received at Bangkok, viz., April 1, it being argued that
sufficient time from the middle of January (when the first inti-
mation was received by the foreign representatives) to April 1,
had not been given to allow of foreign firms to compete. .Refer-
ence was also made to the omission on the part of the Siamese
Railway Administration to enclose the sketches and other docu-
ments, which foreign firms had experienced great difficulty in
obtaining.
During the month of April, the tenders, 19 in number, were
opened in Bangkok, and a decision given in favour of the firm of
Gottfried Lindner, of Halle, this firm being the cheapest of the
tenderers, who were composed of the following nationalities :
Nationality.
Number.
American
Danish
Hungarian
German
1
1
1
16
Gunny bags.
Silk goods.
Sugar.
Cotton yarns.
Kerosene.
Hardware
and cutlery.
Other
imports.
Foreign
olothing.
Ten of these tendered for the total supply, and nine for part of it
only.
It is hoped that in future more time will be allowed for
foreign firms to compete, and this can be assured by a commu-
nication by the Siamese Government of all the necessary details
to the foreign representatives in Bangkok, who will be enabled to
transmit such details without loss of time to the commercial
centres in their countries for the purpose of wide circulation
amongst those interested.
The largely increased import of gunny bags, as shown in
Annex B, was of course directly due to the large rice export for
which they are used.
Silk goods show a decrease of 13,504/. 86 per cent, of the
import came from Hong-Kong and China.
Sugar also decreased by 18,012/.
The import of cotton yarns increased by 18,908/. Turkey-red
yarns amounted to 15,854/., white yarns to 25,482/., and coloured
yarns (other than Turkey-red) to 30,832/. The bulk of the im-
port, that is 7,732 bales out of a total of 9,753 bales, is merely
entered as coming from Singapore, but is mostly British in
origin.
Kerosene oil shows a falling-off of 33,823/. The import was
nearly all from Sumatra. A large amount of it was carried in
British bottoms.
Hardware and cutlery increased by 20,546/. Of the import,
44 per cent, is recorded as from Germany, 21 per cent, from the
United Kingdom, 18£ per cent, from Singapore, and 9^ per cent,
from Hong-Kong and China.
Among miscellaneous imports, foreign articles of clothing are
one of the largest items, amounting to 68,100/. in value. These


BANGKOK.
11
include a certain amount of Chinese goods. The import entered
as from the United Kingdom was over 14,500/. The demand for
articles of foreign clothing is likely to increase, as Western ideas
and habits extend amongst the mass of the population. The use
of hats of foreign manufacturechiefly cheap felts and straws
for instance, has increased largely in recent years. So has that of
foreign boots and shoes, stockings and socks. Cheap cotton
singlets and shirts are also imported to a large extent, Japan
sending a considerable quantity of cr6pe shirts. Cheap shawls in
bright colours are also popular.
The liquor import amounted to 59,983/., of which 18,070/. con- Liquors,
sis ted of samshoo (native spirit from China). In 1900 the import
was 66,044/., of which 21,312/. was for samshoo, and in 1899 the
figures were 68,952/. and 28,459/. respectively. It appears, there-
fore, that during the last three years the import of European
liquors has remained practically stationary, while that of samshoo
has fallen off* some 35 per cent. This, unfortunately, does not
mean that the population is drinking less, but that the local dis-
tilling of spirits has largely increased. Of the European import,
brandy, of which 79,864 gallons were imported, was the most
valuable item, 37,232 gallons coming from Germany, and 38,409
gallons from Singapore. Whisky was represented by 24,166
gallons, 9,374 gallons from Singapore, 8,405 gallons from Germany,
and 6.106 gallons from the United Kingdom. Beer and wine
were imported to the values of 10,800/. and 8,300/. respectively.
Castor, cocoanut, engine oil, wood oil and turpentine grouped Oils,
together amounted to 43,580/. The bulk of the import was
merely entered as from Singapore.
Chemical products and drugs, which include a large amount of Drugs.
Chinese medicines via Hong-Kong, represented a value of
40,510/.
The import of matches, nearly all of them of Japanese manu- Matches,
facture, was 31,190/.
Jewellery and precious stones was imported to the value of Jewellery
29,870/., of which 18,875/. came from the United Kingdom. Gold ^q1s\U9
and silverware (including plate) was 6,714/., of which our share
was 3,527/. Some 10,400/. worth of jewellery was re-exported,
having been brought on approval or for sale here and not dis-
posed of.
Planks, rafters and scantlings were imported from Singapore Wood,
for building purposes to the amount of 27,678/. in value. There is
plenty of wood in the forests of Siam equally suitable, and when the
forests are opened up and transport facilities are afforded, it will
probably take the place of wood imported from Singapore. At
present the extraction of native timber of this class appears to be
too expensive to pay.
Mattings and manufactures of rattan, bamboo and straw were Mattings,
imported to the value of 26,000/. Most of them came from Hong-
Kong and China.
Under the head of fireworks are included also joss-sticks and Rework*
papers and Chinese crackers. The value of the import was


12
BANGKOK.
Lamps.
Tobacconists
stores.
Brass.
Coal.
Paints.
Cement.
Cycles.
Annex C.
Countries
trading with
Siam.
25,500Z. As might be expected, it came almost entirely from
Hong-Kong, China and Japan. The manufacture of the superior
sort of fireworks has recently commenced in Bangkok, and articles
are turned out here apparently equal in quality to the Japanese.
Lamps and parts thereof represented about 24,400/., 7,230Z.
from Germany, 6,340Z. from the United States, 5,200/. from Singa-
pore, 3,970/. from Hong-Kong and 1,300/. from the United
Kingdom. The lamps most in use among the population are cheap
glass ones to be hung from a rafter or beam, or cheap glass table-
lamps. There is also a considerable sale of American fan lamps,
with clockwork mechanism inside them, but these are compara-
tively expensive.
Tobacconists stores, such as manufactured tobacco, cigars and
cigarettes were imported to the value of 23,459/. They came from
nearly every part of the world, the largest imports being from Hong-
Kong (11,779/.), Singapore (3,948/.) and the United Kingdom
(2,007/.). The great majoritj' of the tobacco smoked in the country is
native-grown, and the use of foreign tobacco is mainly restricted to
the chief towns. Small cardboard packets of cheap cigarettes are
popular. Other tobacconists stores were imported valued at 2,994/.
Brass and brassware, mostly from Hong-Kong, was valued at
21,000/.
12,375 tons of coal were imported of the value of 20,240/. The
import was divided as follows:
Country.
Quantity.
Japan
United Kingdom
Singapore ..
Hong-Kong..
Holland *
Belgium
Tons.
4,712
3,501
2,404
1,138
420
200
Paints, colours and dye-stuffs come mainly from Singapore and
the United Kingdom. Their value was 19,500/.
The extensive building which has been going on in Bangkok
for some time has caused a considerable increase in the import of
cement, which has risen from 11,275 casks valued at 5,411/. in
1898, to 25,972 casks valued at 13,796/. in the year now under dis-
cussion. Nearly one-half of the import came from Denmark,
6,656 casks from Germany, 3,597 casks from Italy, 1,912 casks from
Singapore and 921 casks only from the United Kingdom.
The import of cycles and accessories was only 1,279/., as com-
pared with 7,291/. in 1900 and 17,546/. in 1899. There is
practically no market for them at present, as the place is still
full of machines which were purchased when the fashion for
cycling was at its height and have since been abandoned.
Attention has been drawn in previous reports to the fact that,
owing to the bulk of the exports and imports being entered as to
and from Singapore and Hong-Kong, which in most cases are only


BANGKOK.
1
ports of transhipment, it is impossible te arrive at a real estimate
of the shares of the various countries in the trade of Siam. The
same remark holds good for the year under discussion. Thus
according to the figures given in Annex C, the percentages of
the countries sharing in the import trade are approximately as
follows:
Country. Percentage,
Singapore .. Hong-Kong .. United Kingdom .. .. .. .. Germany India.. China Dutch East Indie3 .. .. Other countries Total .. 4t*25 22-50 12-00 7*50 4-50 3*50 2*25 6*50 100 -oo
An experiment has, however, just been made by the custom- house with a view to showing the importations from Singapore apportioned to the various countries of production. This was carried out under the following conditions. The country of origin was obtained from the marks on the goods. In a few cases the goods wTere unmarked and were not included. No par- ticular time was taken, but entries taken of portions of the months of March and April to the value of 1,201,302 dol. 33 c. (Mexican) were dealt with, this sum being about 10 per cent, of the total importation from Singapore per annum. The result was as follows:
Country of Origin. Value in Mexican Dollars.
i Dol. o.
United Kingdom 1 1 604,765 15
India j 253,907 8
Dutch East Indies 123,377 41
Germany.. ' 87,742 85
Other countries .. 131,509 84
Total.. .. c. 1,201,302 33
That is to say, these countries had the following percentages
(approximately) of this import of 1,201,3 02 dol. 33 c.:
Country. Percentage.
United Kingdom .. 50*35
India 21*10
Dutch East Indies 10-25
7-30
Other countries .. . n-oo
Total 100 -oo


14
BANGKOK.
Shipping.
One cannot, of course, argue with absolute certainty that these
figures would be in the same proportions if taken for the entire
year, but there appears to be no reason why they should not be
approximately so. If, therefore, we assume for the moment that
they would be and that the same proportions held good in 1901,
and if we divide in those proportions the 41*25 per cent, of goods
imported from Singapore (as given in the first of the above tables),
we would get the total import trade of Siam for 1901 shared as
follows:
Country. Percentage.
United Kingdom . 32 *75
Hong-Kong.. 22*50
India 13 *20
Germany 10-50
Dutch East Indies .. 6-50
China 3*50
Other countries 11 *05
Total .. 100-00
The imports from China would appear in considerably greater
proportion if the Hong-Kong imports were classified in the same
manner.
British shipping at the port of Bangkok again showed a
decrease in tonnage for the year 1901. This was partly due to
the sale of the Scottish Oriental line, referred to in previous
reports, for although that event took place at the commencement
of 1900, many of the boats continued to run for some time under
the British flag.
The total shipping entered under all flags rose from 380,477
tons in 1900 to 548,043 tons in 1901, owing to the big rice export.
German tonnage increased from 187,215 to 289,151 tons, Nor-
wegian from 17,155 to 86,802 tons, and all the other flags show
an increase, except Siamese and Bussian, which declined 961 and
1,496 tons respectively, and British, which dropped by 11,500 tons.
The boats which had been sold to the North German Lloyd, but
continued to run under the British flag during 1900, amounted to
57,600 tons. Two of the boats, owing to a legal difficulty in their
formal transfer, continued to run under the British flag until about
May, 1901, their tonnage entered during that year amounting to
10,100 tons. The decrease in our tonnage for 1901 might, there-
fore, have been expected to reach 57,600 less 10,100 tons, that is
47.500 tons. Instead of that it was, as above stated, only 11,500
tons. It may, therefore, be considered that of the extra tonnage
entered in 1901 we received 36,000 tons. Similarly, the increase
in German shipping might have been expected to amount to
47.500 tons. Instead of that it was 101,900 tons. Accordingly,
54,400 tons may be taken as their share of the increased entries.
We may, therefore, divide the increased entries of 167,500 tons
during 1901 over 1900 as follows:


BANGKOK.
15
Table showing Share of Shipping in Increased Entries.
Nationality. Quantity.
Norwegian .. Tons. 69,600
German 54,400
British 36,000
Danish .. .. .. 4,100
Austro-Hungarian .. 3,000
Belgian 1,300 700
French
Swedish 500
Dutch 300
Total 169,900
Decrease in Siamese and Russian ships .. 2,400
Total increase 167,500
From this it is evident that the United Kingdom did not get her
fair share of the extra tonnage. The increase in Norwegian shipping
is noteworthy. It is mainly to be attributed to the cheapness of
running these vessels, and to the fact that they can be chartered
at a dollar rate, whereas British boats require sterling. Owing,
too, to the collapse in the Baltic trade a number of small Nor-
wegian boats were sent out east, where British boats of a suitable
size and tonnage were difficult to obtain. British owners appa-
rently do not find it remunerative to send small boats out here.
What are wanted for Bangkok are boats taking most of their
cargo with a draught of not more than 13 feet, so as to avoid the
delays and expenses of lighterage, and fitted with side ports and
every facility for loading rice.
The project of a French line of three boats to run to Singapore,
for an annual subsidy of 12,00(B., still appears to be hanging fire.
The Danish East Asiatic Companys steamer, which was
running down the Malay coast, has been purchased by the North
German Lloyd, being replaced by two boats, which, though
apparently belonging to the East Asiatic Company, sail under the
Siamese flag.
Five British vessels, of a tonnage of 10,600 tons, cleared for
Europe with rice during the year.
A British steamer of 472 tons was purchased by a local British
firm during the year, and put on the run to Singapore, for which
she was especially well adapted, being able to load to her full
capacity inside the river, and thus avoid the vexatious and expen-
sive delays at the anchorage outside the bar. She has now,
however, been sent on a charter to Manila.
In addition to the shipping given in Annex A, 46 junks, of an
aggregate capacity of 7,240 tons, were cleared inwards during the
year.
The Chinese coolies continue masters of the port, and the Labour
position as regards them has not improved, but rather the reverse,troubles-


16
BANGKOK.
Lighterage
difficulties.
Railways.
Telegraphs.
Electric
light and
tramways.
since the report for 1900 was written. The supply of coolies is
evidently not sufficient, and they are able to impose their terms
upon the employers. The surplus of deck passengers (mostly
Chinese coolies) arriving at Bangkok in 1901 over those that left
was about 10,400. In 1900 it was 9,200, and in 1899 14,000.
The men employed on the lighters are perhaps the most
troublesome of any. Much of the loading has to be done outside
the bar, and cargo is sent down there generally in sailing lighters
with Chinese crews. The North German Lloyd now, however,
own three steam lighters, and a British firm during the year got
out another. It is said that one of the principal firms intends to
have lighters built which will be towed outside by steam tugs,
and which will be strong enough to be towed to Singapore with
the ship if necessary.
Besides the State railway to Korat with its branch to Lopburi,
both of which have been working for some time, the Government
are at present building a metre gauge line westwards to Batburi
and Petchaburi, which has already reached the former place, and
are extending the Lopburi line northwards with a view to its
ultimately reaching Chiengmai. They have also had a survey
made for a line to Siracha, a small town on the east coast of the
gulf opposite Koh-si-Chang, which is at present the favourite
watering-place of Bangkok. This line is designed to run through
a very rich rice district, which is at present but inefficiently by
canals.
The question of tenders for the supply of material to the rail-
way department has been dealt with above in connection with the
import of steel, iron and machinery.
The condition of the telegraph line to Chiengmai is discredit-
able to those responsible. A telegram recently took a month to
come from Chiengmai to Bangkok. The line has been a continual
cause of complaints for years, the distance between the two towns
is only some 400 miles as the crow flies, and no effective measures
have been taken to keep it in something approaching working
order. At present it is useless to pretend that Bangkok is in
telegraphic communication with Chiengmai.
The cable from the anchorage at Koh-si-Chang to the main-
land has not been repaired, or rather relaid, yet, and the lack of it
causes considerable inconvenience to the Bangkok shipping trade.
The post and telegraph department generally has given rise
to many well founded complaints from merchants and others
during the year.
Both the tramways and the electric lighting of Bangkok are
now run by the Siam Electricity Company, a Danish concern,
from the same power station. Some miles of new tram line
was opened during the year and is doing extremely well. Further
extensions are still talked off. Electric lighting is now general
in Bangkok, as well as in mills, public buildings and private houses,
and on the roads. There has been a considerable demand for
electric ceiling fans, which are being supplied to most of the chief
buildings and many private residences. The Palace has recently


. BANGKOK.
17
given an order for between 40 and 50. They are supplied from
America. The import of electric goods and apparatus for the
year was valued at 15,654/. Of this amount 9,037/. came from
the United States, 5,086/. from the United Kingdom, and the
balance, 531/., from Germany and Singapore.
The opening of new roads and the building of shops and houses
has continued in Bangkok with unabated vigour despite the in-
creasing dearness of labour, and the town, on the whole, bears a
much more orderly and civilised appearance than it did a few
years ago. The idea of building a new palace on a large scale
for the king at Dusit Park, in the suburbs of the town, has, how-
ever, been abandoned, His Majesty being satisfied with the
present building there, which was originally erected as a
temporary palace.
The need of a system of waterworks for Bangkok has been a
cry of the foreign resident for a long time. At the end of each
dry season, when cholera makes its periodic appearance and claims
a greater or less number of victims, the Government is said to be
seriously contemplating providing the capital with a supply of
pure water, but with the advent of the rains the matter appears
to be forgotten or shelved. One of the latest propositions is that
of the Siam Electricity Company, which offers to supply water to
Bangkok, taken from the river at Bangpain below Ayuthia, to the
amount of at least 5,000,000 gallons per diem for 300 days in the
year, the cost of same being 1 tical (at present equivalent to Is.)
per 10,000 gallons for the first 1,500,000,000 gallons each year,
and half that price for any quantity in excess. Nothing is said
in this offer apparently of filtration or of the distribution of the
water in Bangkok, and without these the scheme can hardly be
said to be complete. Bangpain water, though doubtless much
superior to that article in Bangkok, would still be by no means
entirely above suspicion.
A great step in the advance of the country will have been
made when the Government succeeds in substituting some other
source of revenue for the income it at present derives from the
gambling houses. Most of the gambling monopolies in the
country are held by Chinese, and the large profits that they make
mostly go to China, thus forming a constant drain on the wealth
of the country. Incidentally the public recognition and encourage-
ment given to gambling of all sorts among a people only too
inclined to it by nature, fosters improvidence and crime of every
description. It is hoped that in the near future the re-organisa-
tion of the taxes may enable the Government to raise the necessary
revenue directly from the land instead of by the way of the
gambling farmers.
Building in
Bangkok.
Waterworks.
Gambling.
(162)
B


18
BANGKOK.
Annex A,Keturn of all Shipping at the Port of Bangkok
during the Year 1901.
Entered.
Sailing. Steam. Total.
Nationality. Number Number Number
of Yessels. Tons. of Yessels. Tons. of Yessels. Tons.
British .. i ! 151 130,306 151 130,306 4,891
Siamese .. l 308 10 4,583 289,151 11 i
German .. i ,. 272 272 1 289,151
Norwegian i 11 5,867 90 ' 80,935 101 86,802
French .. 2 684 27 10,355 29 11,039
Danish .. 1 381 5 9,237 6 9,618
Dutch ,, 15 6,435 15 6,435
Russian .. .. 2 ! 4,505 2 4,505
Austro-Hungarian ,. .. 2 ! 3,016 2 3,016
Belgian .. 1 1,291 1 1,291
Swedish .. 1 989 1 989
Total 15 7,240 576 540,803 591 548,043
1900 .. 14 7,511 440 372,966 454 380,477
Cleared.
Nationality. Sailing. Steam. Total.
Number of Yessels. Tons. Number of Yessels. Tons. Number of Yessels. Tons,
British .. i 150 128,329 150 128,329
Siamese .. 1 308 10 4,583 11 4,891
German .. ,, 267 287,442 267 287,442
N orwegian 10 5,493 91 82,130 101 87,623
French .. 1 395 26 9,776 27 10,171
Danish .. 1 381 5 91237 6 9,618
Dutch 15 6,435 15 6,435
Russian .. 2 4,505 2 4,505
Austro-Hungarian ! 1 1,508 1 1,508
Belgian .. .. 1 1,291 1 1,291
Swedish .. 1 989 1 989
Total 13 6,577 569 536,255 582 542,802
1900 .. 13 7,369 437 370,704 450 378,073


BANGKOK.
19
Annex B.Return of Principal Articles of Export from Bangkok
during the Years 1900-01.
Articles. 1900. 1901.
Quantity. Value. 1 Quantity. Value.
Rice .. Tons 414,544 £ 2,225,470 684,924 £ 3,484,263 240,864
Teak .. 45,26 L 324,748 43,735
Marine products i )j 13,669 121,821 18,650 158,540
Pepper >> 699 46,640 20,115 1,156 82,968
Treasure .. .. 46,210
Bullocks Head 15,938 48,524 i 10,396 33,298
Woods, other than teak Tons 7,483 31,724 i 6,800 29,818
Other articles.. 268,777 291,006
Total 3,087,819 4,366,967
Return of Principal Articles of Import into Bangkok during
the Years 1900-01.
Articles. 1900. 1901.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.
Cotton goods £ 409,058 £ 539,094
Treasure.. .. 336,304 .. 291,809
Steel, iron and machinery ,. 169,346 246,954
Gunny bags .. .. 91,432 135,626
Opium .. Chests 1,567 141,149 1,472 125,064
Silk goods ,, 128,177 114,673
Sugar ,. , , 101,819 83,807
Cotton yarn Bales .. 7,013 53,260 97,887 9,753 72,168
Kerosene.. Gallons 4,355,517 4,038,943 64,064
Hardware and cutlery .. 33,112 53,658 1,078,469
Other articles 1,014,996
Total .. * 2,576,540 2,805,386


Annex C.Table showing Total Value of all Articles Exported
from and Imported into Bangkok to and from Foreign
Countries during the Years 1900-01.
Country. Exports. Imports.
1900. 1901. 1900. 1901.
£ £ £ £
Singapore 1,428,320 1,968,518 963,812 1,156,408
Hong-Kong 1,161,324 1,684,276 684,074 630,610
United Kingdom 88,564 50,660 274,170 335,261
India 114,321 72,477 98,259 127,566
G-ermany 2,301 1,199 75 242,071 141,913 207,892
China .. 8,678 141,319 99,373
Dutch East Indies 4,642 77,143 66,068
United States ,. 308 5,985 22,520 20,294
Cochin China .. 14,325 11,563 10,112 9,060
Europe (destination un- known) 258,715 291,357
Other countries 18,367 26,740 153,218 152,944
Total 3,087,819 4,366,967 2,576,540 2,805,386
LONDON:
Printed for His Majestys Stationery Office,
By HARRISON AND SONS,
Printers in Ordinary to His Majesty.
(1400 9 | 02H & S 162)


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