Our Sudan

Material Information

Our Sudan its pyramids and progress
Ward, John, 1832-1912
Place of Publication:
John Murray
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
xxii, 360, [1] p. : ill., maps, plans ; 26 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Sudan ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Sudan
أفريقيا -- السودان
15 x 32
8 x 30


Statement of Responsibility:
by John Ward.

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Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
563995 ( aleph )
OCM03859566 ( oclc )
ER0960 ( soas classmark )


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Our Sudan

Its Pyramids & Progress


gold ornament worn on the forehead by the women of
lower nubia.

They are handed down from mother to daughter, and are very ancient. The people
are all now Moslem and are not aware that it was a Christian emblem.

the statue of general gordon, khartoum.
The late Onslow Ford, B.A., Sculptor.




Author of "Egypt; its Pyramids and Progress"
" The Sacred Beetle "
"Greek Coins and their Parent Cities," etc.

Africa semper aliquid novi offert




[A// Rights Reserved.]


harrison and sons, printers in ordinary to his majesty,
st. martin's lane.





sunrise on the nile.


A few years ago I published a little book on Egypt, entitled
Pyramids and Progress, which Lord Cromer allowed me to dedicate
to him. At that time the Sudan was in the hands of the Dervishes
and inaccessible. Now, thanks to Lord Kitchener, it is under the
British flag, and being open to all the world, is likely to be visited, in
yearly increasing numbers, by the pleasure seeker, the archaeologist, and
the promoter of commercial enterprise.

In the hope of being of service to some of these, I have undertaken
my present task, and shall be more than repaid if I succeed in arousing
in them one tithe of the interest which I have experienced in the study
of tliis remarkable country.

The new territory is enormous compared with Egypt, and in
consequence a larger volume, and one 011 somewhat different lines from
my earlier work, was necessary. Lord Kitchener asked me to dedicate
the book to him, and this compliment inspired me with a desire to
do my best.

For many of the illustrations and for much information regarding the
remote provinces, I am indebted to kind friends, too numerous to mention
in a short preface. Without their aid this book could never have been
written, and to every one of them I tender my warmest thanks with
apologies for not mentioning them individually.


progresstiie young ideaomdurman.




Dedication to Lord Kitchener............ .................. vii

Portrait of Lord Kitchener.............................. ix

Author's Preface.................................... xi

Contents ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xiii-xv
Sketch Map... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxiii
List of Illustrations ........................ ...... xvii-xxii


Preliminary ....................................

Preparations for the Campaign Against the MahdiSir Evelyn WoodLord Grenfell
Sir Archibald Hunter The Battle of Toski near Abu Sinibel The Intelligence
Department : Sir Reginald Wingate, Count GleichenLord Cromer and the Irrigation
Projects of Sir W. Garstin.


Lord Cromer's Despatch Regarding Sir William Garstin's Irrigation Piiojects, Proposed
Railways, etc.....................................


Wadi Halfa to Khartoum by Railway ........................ 17

Wadi HaifaSir Percy GirouardAbu HamedBathsProposed Railway to Dongola
Wadi AmurBerberEl DamerThe AtbaraShendiPyramids of MeroeBan


Wadi Halfa to Amara ry the Nile........................... 27

Ben HurBuhen The Second CataractAbusir SarrasSemnaKummaAncient
Nile RegistersUsertesen I.Amenendiat III.Thothmes III.Gold Signet Ring
AmaraKerma, etc.


solib and its templescolossal llon ........................ 43

SedingaSolibThe Historical Scarabs of Amenhotep III.Tombos IslandArgo Island
The Three Colossi Temple of Seti at SesebiHannekThe Third CataractNew and
Old Dongola.





The Temples and Pyramids of Jebel Barkal and Napata ............... 61

The Story of Taharqa and the Holy MountainNapataThe Pyramids of Zuma, Kurru,
Jebel Barkal, Nuri, and TangassiChristian RuinsFortresses The Fourth Cataract.


Abu Hamed to Khartoum by the Nile ........................ 73

Abu HamedFifth CataractBerberThe AtbaraThe Battle of the AtbaraCount
GleiclienAbu KleaAbu KruKortiThe Bayuda Desert PassGakdulThe
JaalinEl DainerMetemmaShabluka CataractJebel RoyanKhartoum.


The Advance to Omdurman, 1898 ........................... 91

Kerreri BattlefieldThe Attack and Seizure of Omdurman, 2nd September, 1898The
21st LancersThe Sudanese under MacdonaldThe Flight of the KhalifaScenes of
the BattleThe Omdurman of To-day.


Gordon's National MonumentThe New Khartoum ... ...............115

The New CityThe Governor-General's PalaceThe Gordon CollegeThe Memorial
ServiceGordon's StatueNative VillagesSudan ClubBanksZoological Gardens
Excursion to Soba.


The Antiquities of the "Island of Meroe" .....................145

The Pyramids of MeroeThe Jewellery found by FerliniQueen KandakeThe Antiquities
of Ban NagaThe Temples of NagaTemples of MessauratTemples of Wadi el
Sufra, etc.


Incidents Subsequent to the Campaign of 1898 ..................... 1G7

The Fashoda AffairMarchandThe Death of the Khalifa and his Emirs, 24th November,


The Nile Beyond Khartoum. Part First........................183

General Description of the Nile Beyond KhartoumThe Conqueror of the Sudd, Lieut. -
Col. Peake, R.A.The Sudd and its conquestLord Cromer's Visit to Gondokoro,
Described by the Countess Valda Gleichen The Inspections of the Governor-General
The SobatLake No.





The Nile Beyond Khartoum. Part Second .....................219

Sir William Garstin's Great Project to Avoid the SuddLake NoBahr el ZerafBahr el
Jebel Sir William Garstin's New CanalThe Sudd RegionHellet NuerShambe
KenisaBorKiroMongallaLadoGondokoroRejafLahoreAlbert Nyanza
Victoria Nyanza.


The Blue NileMajor Gwynn's Frontier Scenes... ... ... ... ... ... ... 251

The Governor-General's Inspections of : the Gezira, the Blue Nile, the Raliad and Dinder,
Sennar, Singa, RoseiresColonies of Sudanese Soldiers, FamakaMajor Gwynn's
Illustrations of the Natives on the Abyssinian Frontier.


A Peep into Abyssinia. With Mr. C. E. Dupuis on His Unique Expedition ...... 283

OmdurmanWad MedaniAbu HarazThe Blue NileThe RaliadGedarefAradeb
DokaGallabatThe Circuit of Lake TsanaDebra TaborFaslierThe Atbara to
Berber Kassala Suakin.


The Land of "Gum Arabic." Darfur a......................327

The Governor-General's Inspection of the Province of KordofanOmdurman to El Obeid
Remarkable trees which store waterl)eep WellsDarfurThe Story of Nur Bey
Angara, Ex-Dervish Emir.


"The Bahr el Ghazal Province ...........................343

Recent Visit of the Governor-General to WauMajor Boulnois, Governor of the Province
The Story of Zubeir PashaThe Niam-NiamPigmiesPhotographs by Captain


Gold Ornament worn by Women
Statue of Gordon, Khartoum ...
Portrait of Lord Kitchener ...
Sunrise on the Nile
ProgressThe Young Idea, Omdurman
PyramidsAs Seen from the Railway
Colour Party, 9th Sudanese
Gordon's Steamer "Bordein"
Sketch Map............ xxn


Battle of Toski ......

Village Raided by Dervishes

Abu Simbel.........

PortraitSir Evelyn Wood

Lord Grenfell
Ancient Egyptian Soldiers



Express Steamer Ibis ".........

PortraitLord Cromer.........

A Pastoral...............



The Sudan Express
Railway Material for Sudan
PortraitSir Percy Girouard
Railway Workshops
Nile near Halfa (3 views)

Station No. 2 ......

Wadi Amur Bridge
Atbara Bridge (3 views)...

Station No. 4 ......

Platelayers, 1898......

Pyramids from Railway...
Sirdar's Landing Stage ...


Second Cataract ......

The Nile at Halfa






i, 144


River Front, Halfa
Stele of Buiien ...














Usertesen I. (portrait of)...
Thothmes III. (portrait of)

Sarras Fort .........


Second Cataract .........

Temple, Ben Hur.........

Xth Sudanese Drilling......

Semna Temple .........

Kumma Temple .........

Semna Temple .........

Thothmes doing Homag

Usertesen's Signet Ring......

Jeweller's Weight
Map of River, Semna

Scene on River, Semna......

Inscription on Rocks at Semna

Portrait of Amenemiiat......

Carving of Thothmes, Semna ...
Temple of Amara.........

Temple, Medinet Habu ...

The Lion of Amenhotep...

Temple, Luxor .......

Solib (2 views)
Temple at Sedinga
Plan of Solib Temple ...
PortraitQueen Tyi

Ameniiotep III

Temple at Solib.......

Defufa ..........

Colossi at Thebes.......

Avenue of Sphinxes at Karna
Scarab of Ameniiotep and Tyi.

Marriage Scarab.......

Lion Hunt Scarab

Temple of Sesebi.......

Seti I. ..........

Mummy .......

Colossus in Quarry
Young Lion...
Southern Colossus
Northern Colossus

Kiiandak ..........

Ruins of Monastery














































Colossal Ram .........

Plans of Temples (2) ......

Sculptures in Temples (2)

ShabakaPortrait ......

Taharqa's Scarab.........

Kneeling Portrait ...

Pyramids of Nuri.........

Jebel Barkal
from S.E.

Ruined Monastery ......

View of Jebel Barkal Temple
Rock Sanctuary

Pyramids of Nuri.........

Jebel Barkal

Plan of Pyramids, Nuri......

Removal of the Ram ......

Plan of Holy Mountain

Taharqa's Queen.........

Taharqa Worshipping ......

Sculptures at Jebel Barkal ...



Too Late Sir Herbert Stewart

Wounded ............

Count GleichenPortrait ......

Klippspringer, Suakin .........


Sir Archibald HunterPortrait

RAriDS near Abu Hamed ......

Nile near Shendi (2 views) ......


Atbara in Flood............

Advance to Omdurman, Intelligence

Work (4 scenes)
Dervish Prisoners, Battle of Atbara
Advance to Omdurman (4 scenes)
Metemma, Palm Groves ...
Metemma, Shabluka (4 scenes)
Mr. Leigh HuntPortrait
Shabluka Cataract (4 scenes)
Dervish Fort...


Monument to 21st Lancers ......

Lieut. Grenfell, the Sirdar, Col.






























Battle of Kerreri .......

The Advance to Omdurman (4 scenes)
Kitchener on the Look-out
Entry into Omdurman
Sir Hector MacdonaldPortrait
Advance to Omdurman (4 scenes)
The Maiidi's Tomb, Present State .

2 Sept., 1898

The Advance to Omdurman (4 scenes)

Battle of Omdurman .......

The Advance to Omdurman (3 scenes)
Erecting the Kerreri Monument

Khalifa's House..........

The Maiidi's Tomb as it was ...
The Khalifa's Scaffolds
The Maiidi's Tomb, Interior ...
The Khalifa's Black Flag


Omdurman. The Khedive's Visit (

scenes) ............

Siiilluk War Dance (2 scenes)...
Omdurman of To-day, the Grocer
(4 scenes)

A Religious Pro


Omdurman of To-day, Ox from White

Nile ............

Omdurman of To-day (4 scenes)

Sir Rudolf von Slatin......

Map of Khartoum and Omdurman
Omdurman of To-day Camel Fair

Sheep Market

(4 scenes)...

(4 scenes)...
Native Types of Hairdressing (4 styles)
Omdurman, the Grain Market...
Khartoum First Agricultural Show.



Gordon Memorial Service
Sir Reginald WingatePortrait
Palm Groves, Khartoum
Junction of White and Blue Niles

Gordon's Palace Ruins......

Gordon's Garden

Hoisting Flags at Khartoum ...

Baron von Tiedemann, 1898

Sir H. Rawlinson, 1898 ......

Commander Iveppel, R.N., 1898...




Colonel Rogers, E.A., 1898 ............121

Khartoum, the Palace..................122

Club Gardens ............122

1898 (4 scenes) ............123

Bank of Egypt, Khartoum ............124

Jaalin and other Natives ............124

Map of New Khartoum..................125

Corridor of Gordon Palace ............126

Governor's Body-guard..................126

Scenes at the Palace (3 scenes) ... 127

The Lamb in the Palace Gardens ... 127

Gordon's Statue in London ............128

Scenes at the Palace (4 scenes) ... 129

The King of the Cranes (2 scenes) ... 130

Scenes at the Palace (4 scenes) ... 131

Siiilluk Warriors' Sham Fight ... 132

The Lamb from Soba ..................132

Lieut.-Col. StantonPortrait............133

Capt. the Hon. C. JamesPortrait ... 133

The Zoological Gardens... ... ... 134

The Mosque, Khartoum..................134

Khartoum, "Gordon's Tree" ............135

Halfaya ..................135

River Scene..................135

The War Office ............135

Fair at Native Villages ............136

Weekly Wash ............136

Khartoum (4 scenes) ..................137

The Gordon College ..................138

The Jeweller ........................139 '

Soba, Ruins of City (4 scenes)............140

Rest-House ... ... ... ... 141

Inscription on Ram ... ... 142

Ruins of Christian Church ... 142

Father OiirwalderPortrait ... ... 143



Temple in Classic Style, Naga ... 145

Carved Block at Naga..................146

Map of Meroe Pyramids..................147

Great Pyramid, Meroe..................148

Southern Pyramids, Meroe ............148

Great Group Pyramids, Meroe...... 149

General View, Pyramids, Meroe ... 149

Pyramids near the Nile......... 149

Ethiopian King ............ 150

Cartouche of Queen Kandake...... 150

Present State of Pyramids (4 scenes) 151

Southern Group of Pyramids...... 152

Pyramid with Temple ......... 152

Jewellery Found by Ferlini ...... 153

"The Stout Queen," Meroe ... 154
Jewellery from Meroe ... ... 154
Sculpture at Sufra ...... ... 154
Jewellery at Berlin ...... ... 155
Ruins at Ban Naga ...... ... 156
Ruins at Naga, Eastern Temple ... 157
Western Temple ... 157
Altar from Ban Naga ...... ... 158
Naga, 4 Scenes from Temple ... ... 159
Meroe, Scene from Pyramid ... 160
Naga, Scene from Temple ... 160
The Western Temple ... 161
Great Temple ...... ... 161
Colossal Sheep ...... ... 162
Messaurat, Temple ...... ... 163
Central Temple ... 164
Wadi el Sufra, General View ... 165
Temple ...... ... 165
Column ...... ... 166



Troops Marching to Hoist the Flag... 167

Dinka Village ........................168

Fasiioda Expedition (4 scenes)............169

Marciiand Mounting the Deck ... 170

Fasiioda Expedition (4 scenes)............171

Marchand Coming to Visit the Sirdar 172

Capture of Dervish Steamers (4 scenes) 173

Band Playing to Siiili.uks ............174

M. Marcha.ndPortrait..................174

Death of KhalifaReturn ... 175

Emir, Formerly Governor of Dongola 176

In Camp ... ... ... ... ... 176

Khalifa Expedition (4 scenes)............177

After the Action 178
the Dead Khalifa

and His Emirs (4 scenes) ... ... 179

The Khalifa's Gibba ..................180

The Khalifa Expedition (4 scenes) ... 181
One of the Sudan Development Com-
pany's Steamers ..................182


Lieut.-Col. Malcolm PeakePortrait 183

The Sudd-


Cutting a Trench




tage. | page.
The SuddSteamer Hauling ...... 187 : Map of Proposed Canal...... 222
Burning the Sudd...... 188 Taufikia ............ ... 223
(4 scenes) 189 Bor ............... 224
(4 scenes) ......... 191 Victoria Nyanza, Ripon Falls... ... 225
(4 scenes) ......... 193 Baiir el Zeraf ... 226
Lord Cromer's Visit to Gondokoro Shilluks Fishing......... ... 226
Wood Supplies ......... 195 Inspection at Taufikia...... ... 227
American Mission ......... 195 Tonga, Shilluks (2 scenes) ... 227
Baris ............... 195 Lake No ............ ... 227
Gondokoro ............ 195 The Bahr el Ghazal ...... ... 228
At Fachi Shoya ......... 197 Floating Sudd ......... ... 228
Dom Palms, Lul ......... 197 Sudd and Ambach (2 scenes) 229
Fashoda............... 197 Village in the Sudd (2 scenes)... ... 229
Shilluk Warriors ......... 197 Floating Sudd ... 230
War Dance 199 Island Breaking off... ... 230
After the Dance...... 199 Shambe, Dinkas ......... ... 231
War Dance......... 199 Bari Villages (3 scenes) ... ... 231
Dinkas at Lul ...... 199 Nuer Fishing Huts ...... ... 232
Siiilluks at Lul ......... 200 Herds of Dinka Cattle...... ... 232
Grass Fires ............ 201 Dense Growth of Sudd...... ... 233
The Sudd (2 views)......... 201 Natives at Kenisa ...... ... 233
Belgian Station, Lado 201 Baris and their Huts (2 scenes) ... 233
Dinkas at Lul ......... 202 The Sudd Unconquered...... ... 234
Landing Place at Renk (2 views) 204 Dinka Cattle ......... ... 234
Dink a Cattle at Renk 204 Four Native Scenes at Kenisa ... 235
Wood Station ... 204 Bor ............... ... 236
Major Watson, Sir R. Slatin 205 Baris near Bor ......... ... 236
El Dueim, Camels Resting... 206 Mongalla, Lado and Kiro (4 ... 237
Dinkas, Shilluks and Nuers (4 scenes) ...
scenes) 207 Bari Huts............ ... 238
Tebelein 208 Jebel Lado............ ... 238
Siiilluk Cattle, Wau ...... 208 Jebel Lado from the Sudd ... 239
Kaka, White Nile......... 209 Sheikh of Lado ... 239
Melut, White Nile......... 209 Dinka Children, Shambe...... ... 239
Kodok and Bazaar (2 scenes) 209 Bari Huts............ ... 239
Grass Fires ............ 210 Kiro............... ... 240
Der el Ahamda ......... 210 Mongalla (3 views) ...... ... 241
Siiilluks (4 scenes) ......... 211 The African Rifles, Gondokoro ... 241
American School, Doleib Hill ... 212 Mongalla ............ ... 242
Sir R. Slatin, Major Markham ... 213 Lado............... ... 24 i
A Halt in the Sudd ...... 213 Kiro, Lado, Mongalla (4 scenes) ... 243
Jebel Illiri, Siiilluks Fishing 213 Lado, Lord Cromer's Visit (2 scenes) ... 244
River Baro ............ 214 Mongalla and Lado (4 scenes) ... ... 245
Itang Village............ 215 Rejaf............... ... 246
Anuak Girls, River Sobat...... 216 Reception in Belgian Territory
Near Mongalla ......... 218 views) ... 247
The Sudan at Gondokoro ... 247
CHAPTER XIII. Gondokoro ... ... 247
SIR W. GARSTIN'S NEW CANAL. Ripon Falls, Victoria Nyanza... ... 248
Mongalla ............... 219 The Albert Nyanza ...... ... 249
Sir W. E. GarstinPortrait ...... 221 Gyassa on the Blue Nilk ... 250





Sin Rudolf vox SlatinPortrait ... 251

Telegraph Expedition*, 1898 (2 scenes) 252

Abu Haraz...............252

Village Graveyard ..................252

Junction of Niles, Khartoum............253

Ruins of Old Sennar .........254

Mosque of Old Sennar ... ... ... 254

Kamlin, Blue Nile (3 scenes) ............255

Brother Sheikhs of Rufaa ............255

Stone Boats on Blue Nile ............256

Governor-General's Steamer on Blue

Nile ...............256

Native Rafts and Boats (4 scenes) ... 257

Presenting Arms to Governor-General 258

Boat-Building ............258

Roseires (4 scenes)............259

Junction with Rahad River ............260

Dinder River ............260

Wad el Abbas (3 scenes)..................261

Karkaj ...............261

Gezira, Women Dancing..................262

(4 scenes) ... ... ... ... 263

Managil, Gezira......... ... 264

Blue Nile near Singa .........264

Gezira (4 scenes)............265

General Sir Leslie BundlePortrait 266

Karkaj, Blue Nile (4 scenes) ............267

Colonel .FergussonPortrait............268

Roseires ...............268

Sennar, Gov.-Gen.'s Visit (3 scenes) ... 269

Blue Nile near Abdin.........'269

Fetisii-tree, Hillet Tisaga ............270

Colony of Old Soldiers (4 scenes) ... 271

Market Scene, Gidami ..................272

Gallabat from the Fort ............272

Singa, Blue Nile (4 scenes) ............273

.Tebel Menza ... (Major Gwynn) 274

Metongwa ... 274

Gallas, Gidami ... 275

Hamid Wakil of Hojali 275

Hojali and His Staff 276

Bamboo Jungle ... 276

Beni Shangul ... 276

Jebel Kassala ... 276

River Pibor ... 277

Yabus River ... 277

Near Sinkat ... 277


Famaka ...... (Major Gwynn) 277

Gyassa on Blue Nile 278

Jebel Keili ... ... 278

Dinka Boys, Lower Sobat 278

Gidami, Market ... 278

Native Houses, Gunig 279


)) j> j> >> '

River Yabus near Roseires 279

Buruns near Fashoda 279

Mahomet wad Hojali 280

- "womber" Yembo ... 280

Gallas at Gidami ... 280

Beni Shangul Plateau 280

Burun Village ... 281

River Dinder ... 281

Nuers, Upper Sobat 281

Dinka Boys, Upper Sobat 281

Near Roseires ... 282

River Atbara near Gallabat 282

River Dinder in Early Flood 282

Flock on the Atbara 282



C. E. Dupuis Portrait..................283

Map of Lake Tsana ..................284

Fantasia, Abu Haraz ..................285

"Shady" Tree, Halt ..................285

River Raiiad ........................286

West Shore, Lake Tsana ............286

On the Rahad (4 views)... ... ... 287

Drawing Water near Gedaref ... 288

Camp near Gedaref ..................289

River Atbara near Gedaref ............289

Drawing Water at Gwerbe ............290

Sirdar's Party en Route ............291

Acacia Forest............291

Watering Camels at Doka ............292

Road from Gallabat to Lake Tsana 293

Camp in Bamboo Forest ... ... ... 293

Waterfall, River Abai..................294

Battlefield where King John was


Camp at Sara ............295

Head Priest, Karata ..................296

Reeds and Papyrus, Lake Tsana ... 297

Crossing River Abai ..................297

Lyciigate of Church ..................298

Between Abu Haraz and Gedaref

(4 scenes) ... ... ... ... 299



Abai lllver...............300

River Atbara (2 scenes)......... 301

Kassala and the Gash (2 scenes) ... 301

Abyssinian Soldier-Guide ...... 302

Near Debra Tabor (3 scenes) ...... 303

Gandwaha River............303

Deldi Toll House ......... 304

Old Portuguese Bridge......... 305

Outlet, Lake Tsana (2 scenes)...... 305

Ruined Church, Siedever ...... 305

Coffee Plantations, Zegi ...... 306

River Reb...............306

Volcanic Rocks ............307

At Petty Chief's House......... 307

Ford on the Abai... ... ... ... 307

Halt on the Atbara ......... 307

Candelabrum Euphorbia.........308

Religious Ceremony, Debra Tabor ... 309

Camp at Sara ............309

River Abai (2 scenes) .........309

River Atbara (2 scenes).........310

Koratsa Village (2 scenes) ...... 311

The Doctor Fishing in Abai ...... 311

Camp at Woreb ............311

Junction of Atbara and Settit ... 312
Atbara (Kassala and Berber Road)... 312
Zegi, Market and Church (2 scenes) ... 313

Crossing the Abai .........313

Belfry House of Church, Koratsa ... 313

Kassala ...............

Rocks at Goz Rejeb (2 scenes) ... 31(

Gallabat Road (3 scenes) ......

Rocky Gorge, Atbara

Natives at Kassala .........

Aradeb, River Atbara.........

Scenes on the Gedaref Road (2 views)

Dom Palms, Atbara .........

Junction of Atbara and Nile......

River Atbara (3 scenes).........

Camp on the Atbara .........

Kassala ...............

Suakin-Berber Railway begun (2
scenes) ... ... ... ... 32i
Scenes near Gallabat and Gedaref

Scenes at or near Suakin (3)......


The Sirdar en Route to Suakin
Atbara-Suakin Railway (2 views)

Kassala (2 views)............

Lieut.-Col. Penton and Major Friend



Nur Bey AngaraPortrait
Gum at Omdurman

Camel Drinking Trough......

El Obeid (2 scenes) ......

Dervish Widows Sorting Gum ...
El Obeid, Crowd Waiting
En Route to El Obeid (4 scenes)
Cattle at a Desert Well
El Obeid Road (4 scenes)
Fungor, Kordofan...

Camp on the Road ......

Scenes by the Way (4)......

Greater Bustard ...

Women at El Obeid ......

Dancing Women (4 scenth)
El Obeid Bazaars and Inspection
(2 scenes)

El Obeid Notables, Mudiria (2 scenes)

Loading Up : Review (2 scenes).....

Slatin Reading Address to Sheikhs ..

Native Officers (2 vit^vs) .....

Bivouac on the Road ........

Kordofan Arabs and Chief

317 Balceniceps RexPortrait 343
317 Hellet el Nuer............ 344
318 The Baiir el Ghazal ......... 345
318 Blocked by Sudd 346
319 Mouth of River Roiil......... 347
319 Sultan N'Dorma............ 349
320 Sultan Tambura............ 350
Scenes at Les Rapides" (3)...... 351
320 Tribal Dance of the A jars ...... 351
Sultan Tambura and His Mother 352
321 Northern Dinkas............ 353
323 Red-skinned Jurs ... 353
323 Atwot Chief's Son 353
324 Atwot Archers ............ 353
325 Zubeir PasiiaPortrait 355
325 at Khartoum ...... 356
326 Nile fish (Latus Niloticus) 362




Gordon's steamer "bordein."

Originally a Thames Penny Eoat, this old craft did good service in Gordon's time,
and is still at work.




defeat of the dervish army sent to conquer cairo. toski, 3rd august, 1889.
sir f. grenfell (now lord grenfell) directing the assault.

preparations- for the campaign against the mahdi.
sir evelyn wood, lord grenfell, sir archibald hunter.
the battle of toski near abu simbel.
the intelligence department: sir reginald "wingate, count gleiciien.
lokd cromer and the irrigation projects of sir william g austin.






The earliest tourist records that he found Egypt not only a land of wonders, but a land
of contradictions beyond all others. It is still so, after thousands of years. Here evil
seems actually to produce good, and calamities are blessings in disguise.

The follies of its rulers could no farther go, the ancient land was apparently in
hopeless ruin. This was in 1882, when Egypt fell into our hands, all unsought by us.

No other nation would have anything to do with it; it was derelict. AVe stuck to
our task, pulled the old land out of the mire of insolvency, and taking away its
reproach, made its rule a model of good government.

But ere we accomplished our task, the hero Gordon had been murdered by the
people he was sent to save, and the Sudan was lost to Egypt. The frontier line was-

colossal statues of rameses ii., abu simbel ox the xile, near toski.

withdrawn to Wadi Haifa in 1886. Two years before, Gordon had written these
words, If Egypt is to be quiet, the Mahdi must be smashed up." The relief
column arrived too late to save him, but his words were not forgotten, and
when Egypt had been put firmly under the honest government of Lord Cromer,
preparations were commenced for the avenging of Gordon by the conquest of the
Sudan. The first step was to create an army. Some of England's best soldiers were
selected to train up and drill the nativesyellow and blackto fit them for being
good soldiers. Sir Evelyn Wood was chosen (after the defeat of Arabi at Tel el Kebir

3 b 2


by Wolseley in 1882) to begin the formation of a new Egyptian force. This took time,
but good results came sooner than was expected. The Mahdi was dead, his Khalifas
were still active, and threatening to conquer Egypt itself. Wad el ISTegumi, one of the
best Dervish generals, led 4,000 fighting men, and some 7,000 camp followers, past
Wadi Haifa, by the western desert, with the avowed object of advancing on Cairo, and
conquering the Christian World.

We had only a small garrison at Haifa. General Grenfell (now Lord Grenfell)
was then Sirdar. British troops were on the way from Cairo, but Grenfell, finding the
Dervish hosts making rapid progress northwards, hastened to stop their progress. He

had only two Egyptian and four Sudanese
battalions, a troop of the 20th Hussars,
and some artilleiy. By keeping the Der-
vishes away from the Nile, the multitude
was helpless, suffering from thirst in
the waterless desert. Grenfell trusted his
men, and at Toski, near Abu Simbel, on
3rd August, 1889, led them against the
enemy, who was utterly routedpractically

The Gippies and Sudanese fought well,
and the victory had such a fine moral effect
that every native regiment has been found
reliable ever since. Their fighting in the
Sudan was equal to that of British troops.
The Dervishes never attempted again to
invade Egypt. The hopes of the Khalifa of
conquering the world had come to an end.

Sir Archibald Hunter (now in high
command in India) was a young officer
under Sir Francis Grenfell at the Toski
affair, where he was wounded. After the
Toski collapse the Dervishes gave less trouble.
Father Ohrwalder escaped from prison at Omdurman in 1891, and Slatin Bey in 1895,
through the efforts of Sir Eeginald Wingate's clever Intelligence Department. They
brought valuable tidings of Dervish doings, and helped Sir Herbert Kitchener greatly
in his preparations for the campaign for the smashing of the Mahdi."

The history of this war has been told by abler pens than mine. The present
volume is only an attempt to describe the vast region we have conquered and
been called upon to develop, or to bring back to civilisation. Incidents of the
campaign or historical events are only mentioned where they serve to illustrate
the localities described or depicted.



" Our Sudan is almost as large as Europe, and possesses nearly as many nation-
alities. Compared to its extent, Egypt is a mere strip of land along the Nile.
Dervish cruelty has depopulated our new empire, but under the beneficent British
flag, the prolific races of the Sudan will multiply and develop into industrious
agriculturists, peaceful handicraftsmen, and happy, contented peoples.

During visits to this region, and while compiling the information about the remote
provinces, I have been struck with the great extent and variety of their physical
characteristics. I have been also surprised to find that what was labelled desert"
in the maps frequently proves to be fertile land. Much of this was once cultivated,
when there was an immense population.
This land can be tilled again, when supplied
with irrigation.

Sir William Garstin has just presented
to Lord Cromer a Report of some 250
foolscap pages on the resources of the waters
of the Nile for the irrigation of Egypt
and the Sudan. This Report is a very
remarkable work; but it is too technical,
and too extensive, for publication here.
However, Lord Cromer's Despatch on this
subject is not too large to copy in full into
these pages, and it forms an admirable
rdsumd of the entire subject.

It will be seen that Lord Cromer
promises to give all that is demanded, even
to the extent of Twenty-one millions sterling,
over a number of years, provided that this
outlay is really needed, and agrees to give
the £24,000 a year for the necessary pre-
liminary surveys.

Lord Cromer also alludes to his- anxiety

j lord grenfell, g.c.b., f.s.a.

for the railway development of the Sudan.

The Suakin railway is much needed, is far advanced, and will be ready in a year.

Coal at present is £6 a ton at Khartoum. No coal, it is much to be feared,
exists in the Sudan. Some inflammable oil has been seen bubbling up, but it is
noc true petroleum. Coal and also mineral oils are a necessity and must therefore
be imported. The Suakin railway will bring these to Khartoum for one-half the
cost of railway transit from Alexandria or Port Said.

The Berber-Suakin railway will also convey cotton, dura, gum, and all the
products of the Sudan to the world's markets at moderate rates.


lord grenfell, g.c.b., f.s.a.


Railway extension to Gedaref and Kassala is suggested, and Lord Cromer
mentions proposed lines from Omdurman to Kordofan and from Khartoum to
Wad Medani 011 the Blue Nile. A line is promised from Abu Hamed to Dongola.
This last is peculiarly gratifying to people of antiquarian tastes, for most of the
old cities and antiquities are found along the Nile at inaccessible places away from
any road or railway. Once made accessible, these localities will bring in revenue
by the issue of tickets to tourists, as is clone in Egypt. The Government have
begun to build Best-houses at the ancient sites, while a Museum lias been commenced
at Khartoum, and soon 110 doubt a Sudanese Antiquarian Department will be

The land of many parts of the Sudan is admirably adapted for cotton culture.
Companies to work plantations are being encouraged, and it is said by experts that
when Irrigation is given, there can be enough cotton produced to supply all the
English demand. The only difficulty is the absence of population.

Sir William Garstin deserves the thanks of the country for his lucid report on the
Nile supplies. The great river and its feeders are the life-blood of the whole region
from the Equator to the Mediterranean. There is no doubt, from Sir William
Garstin's Report, that the supply of water can be greatly increased and utilised for
both the Sudan and for Egypt.

This book is written for people who may have the idea of visiting Khartoum
and the Upper Nile. It is also written with the object of attracting notice to
the Sudan, as yet virtually an unknown land to the English people.

When I applied to my friends of the Government Departments at Cairo and
Khartoum for photographs of regions I had been unable to visit myself, I was
almost overwhelmed with their kindness, so many excellent photographs were sent
me. I thought to make a selection, but all were so good and many were so curious,
representing places never depicted before, that I said, Let them all come." The
advice I give to people studying this book is Skip the letterpress, the pictures will
teach you all you need to know."

The Nile is actually the origin of Egypt. Herodotus knew this, and aptly
called Egypt the Gift of the Nile." Egypt is rainless, and only the farthest Sudan has
its rainy season, consequently anything relating to the amplification of the storage of
the Nile, is all-important for both countries, and the Irrigation Department becomes the
most important public office in everything connected with the Nile Valley. I11 Egypt,
to quote a late writer in the Times, the Constellation Aquarius contains stars of the
very first magnitude. Sir William Garstin is the bright particular star" of that
constellation, and his masterly Report on the Nile, of the year 1904 is perhaps the finest
of its kind ever issued. The Despatch of Lord Cromer contains its essence, and what is



move, approves of all the Garstin recommendations. This wonderful analysis by the
master mind of Egypt is placed at the front of the volume, as owing to its importance
it deserves the place of honour.

Lord Cromer's training has shown itself in the men who, after serving Egypt, have
made their mark elsewhere, Lord Milner, Lord Kitchener, those already named, and
hosts of others. Fortunately when war is past, peaceful men like Sir Reginald Wingate
and Count Gleichen have to remain longer to consolidate good government. Wmgate's
" underground railway laid the plans for developing the Sudan while yet in Dervish
hands. Count Gleichen showed himself an able pupil in carrying on the work of
the Intelligence Department.


One is of black men, armed exactly as certain tribes in the Balir el Ghazal to-day, the other consists of natives of lighter
colour, their spears and shields such as used by the Dervishes recently.

(From a Tomb of the Old Empire at Mer, near Atsiout. Now in Cairo Museum.)

Count Gleichen's interesting Sudan Handbooks taught our soldiers, from 1896 to
1899, where to go and what to expect in an utterly unknown land. Every important
text-book for the Sudan, for the past ten years, bears this young officer's name. Of
course a soldier has to go where he is sent, and after active service in South Africa, he
has now left Egypt. His Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is a great work which was much
needed and will be a monument to his fame.

His labours in Egypt as Intelligence Officer may have been supposed to be
completed when he was ordered elsewhere. We shall yet have more works from
his pen, it is to be hoped, relating to the Nile Valley, the region he knows better
than any other writer.


The Hon. Colonel Talbot and Gwynn Bey, in the interesting Reports
accompanying the Survey of the Sudan, are completing the descriptive work begun
by Count Gleiclien. Major Gwynn's photographs, giving illustrations of border
peoples never before depicted, are most interesting.

It is possible that Sir William Garstin's scheme for catting a great Nile Canal,
may entirely solve the Sudd problem. If successful, it will revolutionize Egyptian
Irrigation. Mr. Dupuis provides us with tidings of Abyssinia, such as have not been
received since the days of Bruce, while his beautiful photographs give us pictorial
illustrations of a hitherto unknown country and its interesting people. His descriptions
of the scenery are most graphic and give a vivid idea of his adventurous journey.

The Annual Inspection of remote provinces by the Governor-General has a
civilising influence of great importance. The photographs of these progresses of
Sir Reginald Wingate tell their own tale. Everywhere he is welcomed by happy
faces, and hailed by chiefs and sheikhs, by headmen and village people, especially
by the female population, as their deliverer.

The photographs of the natives of Ivordofan are most interesting. Scliweinfurth
was afraid to venture there only some thirty-five years ago (" Darfur and Kordofan
are the hiding-place of every murderer and malefactor in Central Africa," says
Schweinfurtli in his Heart of Africa). The dear old man still lives, and looks like
living. He is hale and hearty: I saw him in Cairo in 1904; how surprised he
will be to see those photographs. The remotest provinces are being gradually
brought under the influence of the genial Sirdar. Darfur will come next. At
present it is impossible to get a single illustration of that region.

The Bahr el Ghazal will follow in the path of civilisation. Of the Niam Mam,
and of its Pigmies as well, Sir Reginald has sent me a number of excellent photo-
graphs showing much character. When this race give up their unpleasant gastronomic
tendencies they seem physically to be the finest race in Central Africa. They assert
that they are not now cannibals; let us hope they may stick to their new principles.

I was much struck, in visiting the Sudan, by the unexpected number of ruins of
Pyramids, Temples and Cities of 2,000 to 5,000 years ago, and the vestiges of Christian
edifices, which, before the days of Islam, extended all over the land. I have
collected illustrations of these antiquarian remains, hoping to awaken an interest in
the ancient civilisation of this land of which, though it has accidentally come under the
influence of the Pax Britannica, we as yet know little.

The travels of Caillaud (1825), Hoskins (1835), and Lepsius (1845) have served to
supply many illustrations and descriptions of antiquities which have been seldom or
never visited by antiquarians since their times.





lord cromer's analysis and decision regarding sir william garstin's

reports on irrigation, 1904.
railway development in the sudan.






The Earl of Cromer to the Marquess of Lansclowne.{Received 2nd May.)

Cairo, 22nd April, 1904.

My Lord,

It will be within your Lordship's recollection that on the 19th June, 1901, I forwarded a
Report prepared by Sir William Garstin on the Upper Nile irrigation projects (see Egypt
No. 2, 1901"). Sir William Garstin did not at that time make any definite proposals; he
merely indicated the direction which further inquiry might advantageously take.

Since 1901 Sir William Garstin has made a prolonged tour in the Upper Nile region.
He has embodied the information he was able to obtain in a further Report, which I have
now the honour to inclose. It is a document of the highest interest and value. I beg to
draw your Lordship's attention more especially to Appendix I.

At my request Sir William Garstin drew up a rough sketch of the irrigation programme
which might possibly be adopted in the future. It must be borne in mind that in each of the
cases mentioned by Sir William Garstin the financial, and in most cases the' engineering,
features of the particular proposals require further study. The figures must, therefore, 011I31
be regarded as very approximative.

I have no hesitation in saying that Sir William Garstin's programme may safely be
adopted in the following sensethat the aim of the Egyptian Government should be to work
gradually up to the execution of the schemes which he proposes. The main question to be
decided is, what portions of the general plan require relatively early treatment, and what
portions, on the other hand, can be left for future consideration.

Sir William Garstin works out to an estimated expenditure of £ E. 21,400,000, of which
£ E. 13,000,000 would be in the Sudan and £ E. 8,400,000 in Egypt.

It is not to he thought that the proposed expenditure in the Sudan will only benefit
that country. Such is far from being the case. The main item is £ E. 5,500,000 for
works on the Bahr-el-Gebel. This expenditure is almost entirely on Egyptian account.
Broadly speaking, I may say that the whole plan is based 011 the principle of utilising the
waters of the White Nile for the benefit of Egypt, and those of the Blue Nile for the
benefit of the Sudan.

Sir William Garstin remarks :" There could, of course, be no question of carrying
out such a programme in any very short space of time. In fact, even if the money were
available, it is scarcely possible that these works could be executed under a period of ten to
fifteen years, under the most favourable circumstances."



Your Lordship will observe that Sir William Garstin proposes to employ an additional
staff in order to study the various projects to which he alludes. This is the only point which
requires an early decision. The cost will be £ E. 24,000 for the first year. The money will
be granted. A more difficult question is to find the right men for the work. This matter
will be left in Sir William Garstin's hands.

In my last annual Report, under the head of The Egyptian Debt," I stated what
sums might possibly be made available, in the near future, to be applied to capital
expenditure. I may now, perhaps, go a step further and state what are the projects
which would appear to stand first in order of importance.

As regards Egypt, the first thing to do is evidently to provide the money for converting
the lands of Middle Egypt from basin into perennial irrigation. About £ E. 600,000 will
be spent during the current year on attaining this object. A further sum of about
£ E. 1,000,000 will have to be provided in future years. When this money has been spent,
the whole of the programme comprised in the construction, at its present level, of the
Assouan and also of the Assiout dam will be completed.

Next in importance I place the necessity of providing a considerable sum of money
probably about £ E. 3,000,000to place the Egyptian railways in thorough order.

Turning to irrigation, the first new work which, I venture to think, should be undertaken
is the raising of the Assouan dam. This would cost about £ E. 500,000.

It may, perhaps, be possible to deal simultaneously with the remodelling of the Rosetta
and Damietta branches, the roughly estimated cost of which is £ E. 900,000.

It would not, in any case, be possible to begin work at either of these last-named projects
at once. Both require further examination.

It will be seen that this programme involves a capital expenditure of £ E. 5,400,000,

It is, probably, not necessary at present to form even an approximate programme for
a more remote future, but I may say that the works contemplated by Sir William Garstin
oil the Bahr-el-Gebel would appear to come next in importance. Indeed, as Sir William
Garstin has pointed out, the execution of these works forms a necessary portion of the
schemes of which the raising of the Assouan dam and the remodelling of the Rosetta and
Damietta branches constitute a part.

As regards the Bahr-el-Gebel works themselves, Sir William Garstin puts forward two
alternatives, namely, either to construct an entirely new channel for the Nile between Bor
and the Sobat, or to improve the Bahr-el-Zeraf. The former project would possibly cost
£ E. 5,500,000, the latter £ E. 3,400,000. Both estimates must be considered as
approximations of the very roughest description. I have no hesitation in expressing an

Middle Egypt canals

Railways (extending probably over some years)

Raising Assouan dam ...

Remodelling Rosetta and Damietta branches...

£ E.

Total ...




opinion that, should the former of these two projects lie found capable of execution, it should
he adopted in preference to the latter, in spite of the extra cost. But no opinion can be
formed on this subject until the levels have been taken and the matter more fully examined.

The remaining projects to he executed, either in Egypt or for the special benefit of
Egypt in the Sudan, are :

£ E.

Regulation of the lakes............... 2,000,000

Barrages between Assiout and Keneh... ... ... 2,000,000
Conversion of Upper Egypt basins ... ... ... 5,000,000

Total............... 9,000,000

The consideration of these projects may for the present be postponed.

It has to be borne in mind that, in addition to the expenditure on irrigation, very
considerable sums of money would have to be spent on drainage. All experience has shown
that drainage must advance pari passu with irrigation.

Sir William Garstin estimates that when the whole of his Egyptian project is carried out
750,000 acres of land will be converted from basin into perennial irrigation; 100,000 acres
will be made capable of being irrigated by pumps; 800,000 additional acres will be brought
under cultivation ; and that, at very moderate rates, the increased revenue to be derived from
taxation will be £ E. 1,205,000 a year.

I now turn to such works as are intended more especially to benefit the Sudan.

The first point manifestly is to complete the Suakin-Berber Railway, now in course of
construction. It will cost about £ E. 1,750,000. I shall be disappointed if it is not finished
by the spring of 1906.

Next in order of importance I should be inclined to place the Gash project, the execution
of which need not await the completion of the Suakin-Berber Railway. It is roughly
estimated to cost £ E. 500,000. About 100,000 acres will be brought under cultivation.
Assessing the land tax at P. T. 50 an acre, the increased revenue would amount to
£ E. 50,000. Should the engineers, after further inquiry, report faArourably on this project, I
should be disposed to recommend that it be taken in hand so soon as the money can be

The remaining Sudan irrigation projects mentioned by Sir William Garstin are :

£ E.

Reservoir at Rosaires1 ... ... ... ... ... 2,000,000

Barrage on the Blue Nile1 ............ 1,000,000

Ghezireh Canal system............... 2,000,000

Total............... 5,000,000

I am inclined to think that the expenditure of capital on improving the railway
communications of the Sudan should take precedence of the execution of any of these projects.

1 In spite of the engineering advantages to be obtained by the adoption of the Lake Tsxna
project, I am of opinion that, on political grounds, the alternative plan mentioned above is to be



My main reason for holding this opinion is that the construction of a railway up the
Blue Nile, at all events, so far as Wad Medani, will greatly facilitate, and also cheapen, the
construction of a barrage on the Blue Nile, and of a reservoir at Rosaires.

I should add that in all these Sudan projects the question of whether the population
requisite to cultivate any new lands will be forthcoming is a very doubtful factor.

Besides a railway to Wad Medani, it is very desirable to construct a line along the proper
right bank of the Nile from the neighbourhood of Dongola to Abu Hamed. I have stated in
my last Annual Report that the line from Kerma to Wadi Haifa is about to be closed.

Further, a line to connect El Obeid with the Nile is much required, both on military
grounds and also in order to enable the Kordofan gum to find a market.

I cannot give the figures in connection with these three railway projects, as no estimates
have as yet been made.

Your Lordship will observe that Sir William Garstin estimates that, when the whole of
his scheme is completed, 1,000,000 acres in the Sudan will be brought under cultivation, and
that the direct return in the shape of land tax, at P. T. 50 an acre, would be £ E. 500,000 a
year. The whole, or at all events the greater part, of this money would, of course, be utilised
to diminish the Egyptian contribution now paid annually to the Sudan Government. In
fact, the only hope of rendering the Sudan ultimately self-supporting lies in the judicious
expenditure of capital on railways and irrigation.

To sum up, all that it is proposed to do for the moment is to spend £ E. 24,000 a year
on the employment of a competent staff to examine more closely into some of the various
projects to which Sir William Garstin has directed attention.

Subject to any changes which the result of further inquiry may necessitate, an attempt
will be made in the relatively near future to carry out an Egyptian railway and irrigation
programme, involving a capital expenditure of £ E. 5,400,000. This programme will
involve raising the Assouan dam and remodelling the Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile.

In the Sudan, subject to the same conditions as in the case of Egypt, an attempt will be
made to undertake the Gash project, and, in due timethat is to say, when the Suakin-
Berber Railway is completedto still further improve the railway communication.

This general programme is quite sufficiently ambitious for the present. It will, by itself,
take some time to execute. As events develop, and as further informationboth technical
and financialis obtained, it will be capable of modification, and possibly of extension.

As to when the capital will be forthcoming, and in what amounts it will be available, I
can say nothing very positive at present. A good deal will depend on the ultimate results of
the international negotiations now in progress.

I cannot close this despatch without recording my opinion that all interested in Egyptian
affairs owe a deep debt of gratitude to Sir William Garstin for the care and the conspicuous
talent with which he has treated this very important question.

I have, &c.,

(Signed) CROMER.






Major Phipps.

wadi halfa, sir percy girouard,
ai!u hamed, baths, proposed railway to dongola, wadi amur, berber, el damer,
the atbara, shendi, pyramids of meroe, ban naga,
halfaya, khartoum.




It may seem somewhat puzzling to the reader to notice several
chapters with titles almost similar. But a glance at the Map will
explain this. The modern highway to Khartoum leads as direct as
it was possible to make the railway for military purposes. This is
described in Chapter III. But as all the old and most of the
modern cities are found along the Nile, the ancient highway, these
are described in Chapters IAr.. V., VI., VII., and YIII.

In Chapter IX. Khartoum is reached by the ancient route.



Wadi Halfa to Abu Hamed by Railway.

The journey from Cairo to Assuan and the First Cataract and along the river to
Haifa, has been fully described and illustrated in the author's companion volume,
Egypt ; its Pyramids and Progress.

The frontier line between Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is at the
twenty-second parallel of latitude. The Express Mail Steamers for the Sudan
start above the Assuan Reservoir and convey the passengers by the Nile as
far as Wadi Haifa. Tickets are obtainable at Cairo, Luxor, or Assuan. The
express train for Khartoum goes right through from Haifa, at present only

stopping at Abu

Hanied, Berber,
Shendi, and at
the last station,
opposite Khartoum.

As every holder
of a ticket from
Cairo to Khartoum
can only travel by
the military rail-
way from Haifa
onward, it will be
well to make that
journey first in order
in the volume.

Let us, there-
fore, take the
ordinary route from
Wadi Haifa to

Khartoum, by the military railway, through the desert to Abu Hamed. The greater
part of the journey is made at night, to avoid the burning arid waste of 230 miles
in the worst bit of desert, perhaps, in Africa; certainly the worst that now has an
admirably appointed train-de-luxe traversing it. It is hard to believe that not many
years ago an entire caravan from Korosko perished in a sand storm in attempting
to cross it. When Lepsius travelled to the Sudan, in 1840, lie took eight days from
Korosko to Abu Hamed, though he had every appliance for safe and rapid travelling
across the desert.

19 c 2


Major Phipps.


D.S.O., R.E.

The railway was a necessity of Lord
Kitchener's campaign, or it would never have
been placed across an utterly unproductive,
hideous desert. Some day, perhaps, its course
may be altered, and the trunk-line carried
through a populous, or at least a fertile region.

This line was Sir Percy Girouard's greatest
engineering feat; it was laid at the rate of
upwards of a mile a day, one day 5,200 yards
were laid. It was completed on December 31st,
1897. It was a bold scheme and splendidly
carried out.

Time was everything, the Dervishes had
to be struck quickly and surely, and the master
mind of Kitchener, keenly alive to all the
failures in transport arrangements of the past,
determined that there should, this time, be
" no such word as fail." In Girouard the
great general found the man he wanted, as he
always did find the man to carry out every detail of his splendidly conceived campaign.

Every train has to carry 9,500 gallons of water for its own consumption in
traversing the waterless desert, which is a great tax on its usefulness. There are
" stations through
the desert, Nos. 1
to 9," with loops to
allow trains to pass;
photographs are
given of some of
these lonely posts.

There are often
wonderful mirages
seen from this
desert railway.

I once saw a
marvellous scene
on the eastern
side at early
morning palm
groves, lakes, with
flocks of white
pelicans on their



Midwinter Bey.



Lt.-C'ol. Pen ton.




margins, and strings of camels winding along a desert track. It remained some
ime, and I proceeded to sketch itwhen lo it vanished. There was no such
thingnothing of the kind between us and the Red Sea, 400 miles away.

Abu Hamed has lost its ancient importance as a place of meeting of the
caravans from Ivorosko by Murrat Wells. There are no supplies to be had at Abu
Hamed, and were it not for the desert railway station its very name would never
now be heard.

There is little to notice here save the excellent baths, erected by orders of the
Sirdar (Sir Reginald Wingate) which are enjoyed exceedingly by those who have
journeyed across the fiery plains. After a night in the arid desert air, the luxury
of a warm and also a cold bath, served in perfect style, is a thing not to be forgotten.
Lord Cromer's nronosed railwav along the right bank of the Nile to Dongola

will start from Abu
Hamed. When this
is made it will
afford access to the
Pyramids and Tem-
ples of Jebel Barkal,
and the temples at
Solib and beyond.
These also in time
will no doubt be
made accessible by
roads from Dongola.
These Temples and
Pyramids are fully
described in Chap-
ters IV., Y. and YI.
There are several

stations between Abu Hamed and Berber at which express trains do not stop.
Deep khors (dry ravines), are occasionally bridged by the railwayI give a view
of one of these at Wadi Amur, 50 miles south of Abu Hamedwhence we get
a peep of the Nile and its scenery as the express train flies along without stopping
till Berber is reached.

Berber (361 miles from Abu Hamed) is now a long straggling village of mud
huts. The district contains about 5,000 inhabitants:

Berber was taken by the Mahdists on May 26th, 1884, and was recaptured by
the Anglo-Egyptian forces under Lord Kitchener on September 6th, 1897. It is now
the capital of the Berber province and the headquarters of an Egyptian battalion.
The old town, a mass of ruins, lies to the south. It is possible that Berber will
become an important place when the railway from thence to Suakin is completed.

STATION NO. 2 IN 1899. Captain Sholto Douglas, It.E.

hal fa to khartoum by railway.

(c. E. I)upuis, Cajpt. S/ioIfo DougJ ax, Midwinter Beg.}


the east of the rail-

, , PLATELAYERS, 1898-9. Captain Sholto Douglas, R.E.

way. Iney are best

STATION NO. 4. Midwinter Bey.

much during the Dervish reign of terror. Its population and
increasing, and there is quite a good market. Caravans come
is a railway station at Kabushia, 26 miles from Shendi, where
and fertile soil. An
agricultural company
lias erected pumps
for irrigation pur-
poses, and the local-
ity is rapidly im-

After crossing
the Atbara, a short
distance north of
Shendi, the pyramids
of Meroe, of which
there are nearly a
hundred, are seen
about two miles to

El Damer (392
miles from Abu
Hamed) is the next
station.1 At present
there is a popula-
tion of about 700,
mostly of the loyal
Jaalin. Being a more
healthy place than
Berber the garrison
will be moved to El
Damer. El Damer
was once famous for
its university and
learning. It had
fallen upon evil
days and suffered
prosperity are rapidly
from Gedaref. There
there is good grazing

1 Here the iron bridge crosses the River Atbara. This was constructed in America, as the great
strike of engineers paralysed all such contracts in England at the time. It delayed progress of the
war and the completion of the railway, considerably. The railway line from the Atbara to Khartoum
was not laid until the year after the war was over.



visited from Shendi. A special section must be devoted to these and other antiquities
in this neighbourhood, the remains of the ancient kingdom of Meroe, whose origin
and date are still very mysterious. (Chapter X.)

Shendi (471 miles from Abu Hamed) was once an important place with 7,000
inhabitants, but Meheinet Ali, enraged at the murder of his son Ismail, in 1822,
had the inhabitants massacred. The place is healthy and the land excellent.

Extensive railway workshops, the best railway station in the Sudan, built of
a handsome local stone, are the boast of Shendi. It was taken by the Egyptian
army on March 26th, 1898. Shendi is on the site of the ancient capital of the
kingdom of Meroe. In Brace's time it was remarkable for the finest men and
most beautiful women in the Sudan.

The railway from Shendi to Khartoum (104 miles) leaves the river for a
long way so that travellers by the express trains miss the Nile altogether and


the picturesque Sixth Cataractthe Shabluka. We fly past a number of small
wayside stations, but as there are no hotels or rest-houses and the trains that stop
at every station are inconvenient for travellers, we will not linger to describe

According to Lepsius, the journey by the Nile's course was, in 1840, quite
safe and open. He describes it as both interesting and picturesque, and some day it
may be again made available.

The Shabluka Cataract will be described in Chapters VII. and VUJ., when
we make the voyage by the Nile. This region is likely to become very important
as the cataract may be utilised for supplying water for the fertile land on both


sides of the river where cotton growing on a large scale can be developed. But the
direct military railway carries us on through an uninteresting country, and by this
time we are heartily glad to leave the train at Halfaya, opposite Khartoum, on the
Blue Nile. A steam ferry conveys the passengers from the railway to the opposite
shore. We pass the stately Palace of the Governor-General, embosomed in trees, and
in a few minutes arrive at the hotel landing stage.

We shall now devote several chapters to the route by the river's banks, making
an imaginary journey all the way from Abu Haifa to Khartoum, by the winding-
Nile, the ancient highway, stopping to notice anything of interest by the way, and
making detours to describe adjacent places of interest.

wadi halfasirdar's landing stage. Midwinter Bey.





wadi halfa, ben hue, abusir, sarras, semna, kumma, am aha,
usertesen i., amenemhat iii., thothmes iii.
the gold signet ring of usertesen i.



Wadi Halfa to Abu Hamed by the Course of the Nile.

The river Nile was of course the ancient highway, along which all the old, and most of
the modern, cities are found. In the previous chapter we have already described the
modern route direct across the desert from "Wadi Haifa to Abu Hamed.

It is expected that the Government will shortly be in a position to facilitate
excursions to the ancient sites along the Nile, and to form for the Sudan a Department of
Antiquities, one of the duties of which will be to give information, with tariff of
expenses for camping outfits, from Wadi Haifa, Abu Hamed, Shendi, etc., etc. When
the proposed rail-
way is made from
Abu Hamed to Don-
gola, facilities will be
made for reaching
Jebel Barkal and the
Pyramid fields there,
and those of Tangassi,
Nuri, Kurru, and
Zuma. Till then
they can only be
visited by camping
out with tents and
camels and some
amount of escort.

In the first
place, however, it
may be stated, for

those who are not pressed for time, that there is now a respectable hotel at Wadi
Haifa, and that the place is worth a couple of days' stay.

Wacli Haifa is now a large town. It comprises, in fact, two towns, about a mile
apart; the northern being known as Taufikia, and the southern portion as The
Camp." When I first visited it in 1894, it was a wretched assemblage of mud huts
where a strong garrison of Egyptian soldiers was quartered, and only two British
officers, Majors Lloyd and Palmer. They treated my party with great kindness and
provided us with an escort of the Mounted Camel Corps, with whom we visited the Second
Cataract. This was necessary, for though there was a fort and garrison at Sarras, 33 miles
beyond the Cataract, the Dervishes had raided a village not far off a few clays before.

29 '



Wadi Haifa is now
a prosperous place
with 3,000 inhabi-
tants, and is the
seat of the Sudanese
Railway Adminis-
tration, with fine
engineering work-
shops, which are
well worthy of a

On the west
bank,opposite Haifa,
there are remains of
the ancient town of
Buiien with ruins

the river front, iialfa.

Dupuis. 0f two temples of
the Xlltli Dynasty, and a fortress of the same date. The northern temple contained a
remarkable stele (carried off by the expedition of Champollion and Rosellini, about
70 years ago), now in Florence, Captain Lyons recently excavated the temple and
found the lower half of the stele which Rosellini
had not noticed. It is now in Florence also, and
Dr. Breasted has translated the whole inscription.
(S.B.A., Vol. XXV.)

It proves to be a document commemorating
the conquest of the Sudan by Usertesen I. (c. 2750
b.c.) with a list of ten cities taken by him, these
being represented by oval battlemented panels, each
held by a captive and with the name of the town
in the centre. These places were all between Buhen
and Dongola, and the text describes a rich and
populous region, with quantities of grain and other
crops. This contrasts curiously with the state of
the land at the present day. Dr. Breasted's article
is most interesting. He shows that the king's name
should be read Senwosret, from which the Greeks
coined Sksostris, attributing his deeds to many
later Pharaohs and vice versd.

South of this, at Ben Hur, five miles from
Haifa, there is another temple, erected, it is believed,

1 Haifa was the headquarters of the frontier force from 1885 to 1898, but now no garrison is necessary.


usertesen i.

Ra Kiiefer Iva

Throne Name.

(Professor Breasted.)

the campaign of usertesen i., the conqueror of the sudan, C. 2750 b.c.

From the Proceedings, Society of Biblical ArclueologyVol. XXV., copied by permission of IV. Nash, Esq., lion. See.




(British Museum.)



men kheper ra.

by Thothmes IIl. (c. 1550 u.c.) the blocks of which bore
inscriptions, many of which, I fear, have disappeared. This
temple is best seen 011 the land journey to Abusir, not far from
the ferry.

The Second Cataract is a magnificent sight. It can be
reached by boat or by land. The land journey is the most
interesting. On reaching the summit of Abusir a most impressive
view of the scene of desolation extending southwards for many
miles is unexpectedly displayed before us. On a clear day the
mountains of Dongola can be seen. The waste of rocky rapids
extends for several miles. At High Nile it must be a glorious
sight, and one cannot help regretting that Sir William Willcocks
had not placed his Great Dam here, instead of at Philae. But
he must not be blamed, for when he came here to survey the
site, he needed an esdort of 150 men, armed to the teeth, to
convoy him to Semna, where he wished to see the records of the
Nile's height of
4,500 years ago.
At that time,

there was no hope of the Sudan being
conquered, so Willcocks had to make
his Reservoir lower down the river.
One day there will be a Dam made
here also, where nature has done half
the work already. If 50 feet of water
were held up at this point, it would
feed the crops all the way back to Abu
Hamed, or beyond, and give the Sudan
perennial irrigation as well as Egypt.
The vertical cliff at Abusir bears
hundreds of travellers' names, among
which are the signatures of Champol-
lion, Rosellini, Lepsius, and many
other great men.

The railway along the Nile, from
Haifa to Kerma, is of a rough
description. It was originally laid in
a hurry for the Dongola Expedition
in 1896, the previous line having been
destroyed by the Dervishes. It has



Lady Amherst of Hackney.


second cataract. sarras, etc.

(Lad1/ Amherst, Midwinter Bet/ and others.)


bad curves and gradients and is liable to wash-outs and may have to be abandoned, Lord
Cromer tells us. He promises instead a line from Abu Hamed to Dongola, but that
will not serve this district. It certainly would seem the duty of the authorities to provide
communication with this once thriving and populous part of the Nile. Here are the
stations and distances. Although the railway may be removed the distances may be useful.


Wadi Haifa to Sarras ... 33 miles. On the river.

Anibigol ... 64 In the desert; wells.

Akasha ... 86 On the river.

Kosha ... 105 On the riverrail strikes desert.

Kuror ... 137 In desert.

Dalgo ... 164 Railway rejoins river.

Kerma ... 203 On the river.

Iverma to Dongola 30 miles. Transport by donkey or camel, or by river when
the Nile is high.

We will now proceed along the Nile towards Dongola from the Second Cataract,
describing what may be of interest by the way. Three miles south of Abusir (Count
Gleichen tells us in his excellent Anglo-Egyptian Sudan) there are the remains of an
ancient fortress and small temple at Matuka, built by Usertesen I. of the Xllth Dynasty.

On a large island opposite are the remains of a similar fort, and on another small
island to the south are the ruins of a Christian Church called Darbe, from which a
magnificent view is obtained.

At Sarras, 33 miles from Haifa, there is a modern fort and barracks. This was
the frontier fortress before the last campaign. The view of the Nile, looking south,
is very beautiful. I am indebted to Lady Amherst of Hackney for the accompanying
illustrations taken in 1896.


The Temples of Semna and Kumma.
Forty-three miles south of Haifa, where the Nile narrows, are the fortress temples
of Semna and Kumma built by Usert'esen III. (Xllth Dynasty) : rebuilt and extended
by Thothmes III. (XVII Ith Dynasty). They are in fair preservation still, with a


temple and fort on either side of the river. Semna on the west bank is 300 feet
above the river, Kumma, opposite, being 400 feet above it. Sir William Willcocks, who
visited this place to inspect the ancient records of High Nile," graven on the rocks, was


struck with the suitability of the locality for a reservoir. He conjectured that the Xllth
Dynaety Kings must have made one here, which has now disappeared. The heights
of the flood as recorded are 25 or 26 feet higher above those of present years,

35 d 2


and Sir William Willcocks points out that if there were originally a reservoir here, this
discrepancy would be accounted for. He considers that this Kilometer was made
in connection with the ancient great irrigation works at Lake Moeris. In 4,000 years
all traces of any ancient Dam would have disappeared, but a careful search may still
discover some remains of the embankments. The records on the rocks are a number


of short inscriptions giving the Nile's height at flood for many years, and are most
interesting proof of the engineering talents of the great kings of the Xllth Dynasty,
whose example after 4,500 years we are at length striving to emulate.

We have seen that at Buhen near Haifa, Usertesen I. of the Xllth Dynasty was
styled the Conqueror of the Sudan. In the great respect paid to his memory in the
carving on the walls of the temple at Semna, the same idea is evident. Usertesen is




represented in heaven in his sacred boat. Thothmes of the XVIIIth Dynasty, from his
earthly kingdom, reveres him. There is no doubt but the object of these Xllth
Dynasty Kings was to seize the gold-mines of the Sudan. Captain Amery tells me that
a rich gold mine has been opened almost due west of Semna, between the military
railway and the Red Sea. They are undoubtedly the ancient workings, and are far
from being exhausted.

Some years ago when journeying by the Nile in Egypt along with my friend,
Professor Sayce, I acquired the gold signet ring of Usertesex I., of which an
engraving is appended. It is believed to be of Sudanese metal, and is a wonderful
relic of one of the greatest and wisest rulers who ever sat upon the throne of
Egypt. It is the oldest royal ring known and weighs 678 grains of pure gold.

weight of the royal
jeweller of usertesen i.

Imperial Museum, Vienna.

weight of the royal
jeweller of usertesen i.

Imperial Museum, Vienna.

the gold signet ring of
usertesen i.
From the Author's Collection.

I recently found the name of the goldsmith who possibly made the ring, on a
weight in the Museum of Vienna. I append illustrations of this curious object.
It will be seen that the cartouche of Usertesen is on one side, and the inscription the
royal jeweller Hor Mera," on the other. My attention was drawn to this weight by
Dr. Flinders Petrie. It is of alabaster, weighing 853 grains, i.e. troy of the gold-
standard of 213 grains. No doubt it was from the jeweller's toinb. There was a
set of eight weights, but they have disappeared. Possibly this notice may induce owners
and keepers of collections to be on the look out for them.

The Twin Fortresses of Semna. and Kumma.

Caillaud, Hoskins, and Lepsius all unite in praising the selection of the site of
these twin fortresses. Doubtless, there was once a large and populous town also here,
as the traces of the fortifications are of vast extent. The village of Semna, on the
west bank of the Nile, is now a miserable place.


the gorge of the nile between semna and kumma.

plan of the temples and forts on both sides.


The position is admirable for defence or for control of the Nile. The rocky islets seem
made by nature for a Dam, and it is not to be wondered at that the makers of Lake Moeris,
the C4reat Kings of the Xllth Dynasty, turned their attention to its exploitation.

When Caillaud's Expedition was made into these regions Mehemet Ali was carrying 011
war in the south to avenge his son's murder, and Caillaud in some way was permitted to
accompany the troops. The quaint engravings give an admirable idea of the place and of
the state of affairs in 1820, and 110 later representation has ever been made.



The Ancient Records of High Nile engraved ox the Rocks at Semna

and Kumma (Zepsius).

Tt is interesting to possess the portrait of one
of the pioneers of Egyptian irrigation whose
records are still found on the living rock where
his officers carved them 4,400 years ago. This
splendid portrait is in the Hermitage Museum
of St. Petersburg, and is a likeness of a great
and wise King and at the same time one who was
an enlightened and beneficent ruler. He had two
titles, the second being found in these inscriptions.




His Second Name.

Inscription on the Rocks at Semna,





/VWN/'v |


nine, the level of the Nile of the 8th year (and) during the 9th
Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt. En Maat i;a
With the troop of soldiers belonging to the attendant of the
Sebek-Jchu deceased, his good name was A a Shepses deceased
possessor of the order of merit born of Atau. (His mother's name.)

Dr. Herbert Walker, who kindly translates this for us, says this was evidently
a military expedition as well as one to record the readings of the Nilometer. The other
records are quite short in comparison with this one.

In the year
year under the
Living for Ever
prince's (table).

Short Inscription from the Rocks on the Kumma side.

o n n


Translation.Lord of the Nile of the 41st year under the Majesty of the King
of the North and South Maat en ra, living for ever and ever.

The oval sign with a line through it at the upper right corner is the mark for the
actual height of the flood.




In the remarkable relief which we here engrave,
which still remains in the Temple of Semna,
Usertesen III., of the XHth Dynasty, is represented
giving divine benefits to Thothines III,

o o

The magnificent stele, which is now in Berlin,
was found at Semna by Lepsius. This elaborately
records the conquests of Usertesen III. in these
regions. No doubt other historical inscriptions still
remain here, awaiting discovery. Lepsius did not
excavate, he merely copied the inscriptions above
ground and carried off anything portable, to
enrich the Museum of his patron, the king of

A few more words about these interesting twin-temples. Their architecture is in
simple but massive style, yet elegant. There have been extensive buildings near,
apparently strongly fortified, and with extensive
barracks. The temple on the east bank has its
polygonal columns standing. The temple 011 the west
bank is more massive, but more ruinous. In the
inscriptions the credit of the earliest conquest of
this region is always given to Usertesen I., and
Thothmes III. pays homage to him and to
Usertesen III. in the temples, restored or built
1,000 years later, in the XYIIIth Dynasty.

Lepsius describes remarkable hot sulphur
springs at Okme, 011 the west bank. These may be-
come valuable health-giving waters when the country
is developed, as they seem to possess wonderful
restorative qualities. The natives have great faith
in their ellicacj', and Lepsius describes how they
were made use of. There was a tower erected over
the fountain, with walls nine feet thick, evidently
once an important thermal bath. The natives, however, made use of the sulphurous
waters by being immersed in holes dug in the ground and covered with rushes to keep
off the steam. There were sixteen hot springs within a small space.




The Temple of Amara.

At Amara, near the village of that name, are important ruins of a temple of
Ethiopian origin with sculptured columns. Here, to quote from Lepsius, we first meet
with the curious Ethiopic hieroglyphic texts, as yet untranslated. They are based
011 Egyptian signs, but express a lost language which cannot be read till some bilingual
texts are found. Remains of an earlier temple 011 the site here may perhaps exist
under this present structure. Such a commanding position would have been utilised by
the Xlltli and XVIIIth Dynasty builders, and researches by scientific excavators may
find records of earlier settlements 011
the same spot. The date of the existing
temple of Amara is probably as late,
or later, than 500 b.c., for we here
see the stout Queens in evidence, who
are not found of an earlier date and
whom we shall see frequently at Nag a
and other cities of the Sudan, in the
region known to the classic writers as
the kingdom of Meroe. Very possibly
excavations here would show that the
existing temple was merely a recon-
struction of a much older edifice. The
present building is very simple in plan.
A wide doorway (19 feet) flanked by
two columns each 3 feet 8 inches in
diameter, of which fragments remain.
Inside, eight columns, richly sculp-
tured, 3 feet 8 inches in diameter,
symmetrically placed in an apartment
53 by 30 feet. Hoskins and Lepsius
praise the sculpture and the command-
ing situation of the temple.

The twin temples of Semna and Kunima are such a short way from Wadi Haifa
and the Second Cataract, that it would not strain the powers of the authorities to any
great degree to facilitate their being visited with comparative ease and safety. At the
present time, it is almost impossible for a tourist to reach them, while in the last
century the visit to Semna was quite an easy excursion. It is not too much to say
that the records of the Nile levels 011 the cliffs at the margins of the gorge at Senina,
are the most interesting thing of the kind in the world, being quite unique, and their
survival to our time, is little short of marvellous,






In Hoskins' account of this place he describes the natives as clean and
industrious and the region fertile. Hoskins was told of the remains of many ancient
cities and temples in the neighbourhood which he had not time to visit.

At Sai Island, 130 miles from
Haifa, there are remains of a town
and a Christian Church and exten-
sive cemeteries. There is also
a temple with inscriptions of
Thotitmes III. and Amenhotep I.
(XVIIIth Dynasty). The columns
of the church are granite monoliths ;
each has Greek crosses on the
capital. At Jebel Dusli is a tine
tomb with carvings of the time of
Thotiimes III.

The whole neighbourhood seems
to abound in ruins of a past
civilisation, and a careful archae-
ological survey should be made
of it.

This temple at Thebes will
give an idea of the style of the
columns of the temple at Amara
when in a more perfect state.

(See Chapter VI., Page G3.)
The Scarab shown on page G3, was found here.





The cartouches of Amenliotep were altered to those of Taharqa.

sedinga, solib, the historical scarabs of ameniiotep iii.,
tombos island, argo island, the three colossi,
temple of seti at sesebi, hannek, the third cataract, new and old dongola.


for comparison of the architectural features of amenhotep's buildings in

egypt and the sudan. .

The column* are absolutely identical in design with those of the same king's temple at Solih.








sedinga: temple of queen tyi. Lepsius.

Ti-ie Temple of Queen Tyi at Sedinga.

At Sedinga, six miles from Sai island, there are remains of a fine temple built by
Ameniiotep III. on the east bank. This temple was dedicated to his Queen Tyi, and

their cartouches are found side by side, as at Thebes.
Caillaud and Hoskins portray the ruins, which are
in fine style, but neither of these travellers took
time to excavate or to endeavour to find the plan
of the temple which has evidently been violently
destroyed. It was undoubtedly a beautiful structure
and deserves careful exploration.

Seven miles beyond we come to the ruins of
perhaps the finest temple built in the XVIIIth
Dynasty. These are the ruins of Solib, also built
by Amenhotep, and certainly are the handsomest in
the Sudan." (This is the epithet used by Hoskins.)

Here Amenhotep III. glorifies himself as a
deity as he did his beloved Tyi at Sedinga. The
architect must have been the same genius who
worked for this monarch at Thebes. The columns
are identical in design, but in better preservation,
and are very elegant. It evidently had avenues of

plan of temple at solib. .

The outer pylons have disappeared. colossal carved lions and rams in thesame style as


@ mum
as @@
HE @




bbb be

in BOD I ill

bbbb bb


b a

bsbb bh

100 Ft


those of Karnak. Many of these colossal animals were carried off by Taharqa to
decorate his own temple at Jebel Barkal about 800 years later.

The temple of Solib stands in a splendid situation. It is very imposing as it rises
up proudly at the extremity of the desert, the only beacon of civilisation in a sea of
barrenness; it is picturesque as it is extraordinary, and a little way off, has the beauty
of an exquisite Grecian temple. But on nearer approach, we see that it is of the
iinest, true Egyptian architecture, and the plan is chastely simple.

" The first pylon was 600 feet from tire Nile but is entirely ruined, and the material
nearly all carried away. A flight of steps led irp to a court, before the second pylon ;
this court is 70 feet long and 45 feet wide. Six massive columns of 10 feet diameter
stood in the court, but they have been carried off, only their bases remain." This was
in the time of Hoskins ; I fear more destruction may have gone on since his time. He
remarks that the second pylons are not solid, as usual in Egyptian temples, but consist


portrait of queen tyi. wnicn i are standing. iney amenhotep hi.

From the Cairo Museum. are a]l 0f the bud-sliaped-Capital British Museum.

type, 19 feet 4 inches in circumference, and of exquisite elegance of proportions. On
several of the columns are the cartouche and titles of Amenhotep III. and those of
Amen Ea. Only one retains part of its architrave, and it is one of the most perfect
and beautiful."

The next court is more destroyed, but the plan can still be traced. It is also 78
feet long, and had 32 columns, the circumference of each 17 feet, but not one of them is
standing. The next chamber contains the remains of 12 columns, only one, a beautiful
one with a graceful palm capital, remains upright. The drums of these columns were
ornamented with sculptured figures of prisoners in relief. Turreted ovals contained the
names of the countries conquered. The figures were intended for portraits of the
different races subdued; some with fine features, and others of Negro type ; the hair of
the one represented long, hanging down the shoulders, the other with thick lips, wide
nostrils, high cheek bones and woolly hair. The temple extended beyond this room, 540



feet in all. Fragments of columns which were three feet in diameter lie about, where
other buildings existed. It is possible that the foundation, if excavated, would give
the plan of these buildings also. Much sculptured work adorned the temple, of which
traces remain everywhere. All the inscriptions are in true Egyptian hieroglyphs.

The scenery of the neighbourhood is, according to Hoskins, still grand, even
magnificent. On one side the trackless yellow desert, bounded only by the horizon; on
the other a luxurious and beautiful vegetation flourishes, with the silvery Nile beyond.
The remains of the ancient city extend for a considerable distance to south and north.
On the bank of the river, 240 yards further north than the temple, are the remains of


a small pier, while 200 yards to the north of this pier there is a projection of stone?,
thrown into the river, apparently to form a port.

In the British Museum are the pair of magnificent lions in black granite, which
Lord Prudhoe brought from Xapata, early in the past century: these, Lepsius informs
us, were originally rifled from Solib by Taharqa.1 The splendid colossal Bam
which Lepsius carried off from Napata, was originally erected by Amexiiotep III. at
Solib. There are buried under the sands doubtless many more of these colossal

1 It is strange that these are the only known colossal lions of early Egyptian work. They possibly
formed an allusion to the lion-hunting feats of the king's youth, before he married the great Syrian
Princess Tyi. These lion-hunts most likely took place in the wild region where he afterwards buill
these Temples of Sedinga and Solib. There were no possibilities of hunting lions in a densely
populated land such as Egypt was then. But in the Sudan there were many lions and still these
animals abound in many districts.


solib, sedinga, defufa.




rams, as this king was very partial to avenues of the same figures. Not one of all the
hundreds in the avenue at Ivarnak is perfect, while the one from Solib, now in
Berlin, is as fresh as the day it was carved.

Fortunately, fair portraits exist of Amenhotep and his Queen, of which engravings
are given. This notable royal pair seem to have been remarkable for their good
looks. They were certainly the model couple of ancient Egyptian History. Their
" marriage scarabs are unique, and Amenhotep seems to have been as proud of his
union with the great Syrian princess, as he was when he was engaged in hunting
lions to her honour.

I have given much space to illustrate and describe this magnificent temple, which
has hitherto been passed over by archaeologists. It is peculiarly interesting to us
because it serves to show what the same king's temple at Thebes must have been

like. The Tlieban temple has utterly perished, only the twin
colossi which stood at its gates remain. At Solib we find.
1,000 miles along the winding Nile, a temple which may be a
duplicate of the lost great Theban temple of Ameniiotep III.

This temple of Solib was probably the finest he ever
built. It is recorded that Amenhotep and Tyi both went
to Nubia specially to attend its inaugural ceremonies.

His temple at Thebes and this one were probably
similar in design, with a couple of colossi before the gates
of each. At Thebes the temple has disappeared, but the
colossi remain: here the temple remains, but there is no

scarab of tyi and amen- ' f

hotep. sign of the colossi. There being two colossi on the Island

TyVs name in a cartouche giving lier . .

equal rank vim her husband. of Argo, comparatively near at hand, of an earner Egyptian
King than Amenhotep, would make us suspect that there were colossi before the temple
of Solib. Excavations might prove if there ever were any, their foundations may still
exist. (A friend suggests that Amenhotep had commenced to remove Sebekhotep's
colossi to adorn his own temple, but I hesitate to admit this view.)

It is the duty of the Egyptian Government to facilitate approach to this wonderful
outpost of a lost civilisation, which has probably never been seen by any living

Amenhotep III. was one of the greatest nionarchs who ever ruled Egypthis date
was 1414-1379 b.c. At Luxor, Ivarnak, and Thebes no complete design of his has come
down to our times : we possess only fragments of his graceful architecture, beside which
that of later builders is coarse and vulgar in contrast. Here one entire work of his yet
remains, sufficient being left to find its original plan. No doubt more of Ainenhotep's
and Tyi's large historical scarabs, so scarce, might be discovered here with proper
search, for they were possibly made to commemorate events that happened in this


Amenhotep's Official Scarabs.

These great scarabs are curious, being only issued by Amenliotep. They are very
scarce and seem to have been distributed to each province as a sort of official
announcement of his marriage with a great lady whom he considered to be as exalted
as himself. Two of these scarabs, from the author's collection, are engraved (full size)
in order to induce a search for others similar to them in this locality.


The "Lion Hunt" Scarabs of Amenhotep III. and Queen Tyi.

There are other official scarabs of this sovereign, made on a similar scale to the
marriage one. The most interesting of these is one recording the king's hunting of
lions, which may have occurred in these regions. One of the Lion Hunt scarabs from
the author's collection is here reproducedfull size.

Translation of the Lion Hunt Scarab of Amenhotep III.

^ s V (J


sf.sebi : temple of seti i. Caillaud.

Having devoted man}7 pages to the wonders of Solib, we must now resume our
journey. Still travelling south, a number of the remains of ancient forts occur. One
of these near Sese, on the left bank of the Nile, is a fine example. The view
from it is magnificent, and the many forts both far and near tell of a former numerous
and warlike population, which has now almost disappeared.

A few miles south of this is Sesebi opposite the modern town of Dalgo. Here
are the scanty ruins of a once beautiful temple bearing the cartouches of Seti I.,
XlXth Dynasty, the most southern point where his name has been found, which
proves that the story of his Sudan expeditions on his Egyptian monuments is true.
Some doubts have been thrown on his having been in Ethiopia, but he called himself
king of these regions. His son, Rameses II., seems to have completed his southern
labours by the erection of the, great temple of Abu Simbel, although Lepsius says he
built at Jebel Barkal, which is doubtful.

The style of this temple differs from the
Caillaud's illustration, given above, shows the
state of the ruins in 1820; since then I
am told that one of the columns has fallen.
Everything built by Seti was beautiful and
nothing as good as his architecture was done
after his death. His date was 1327-1275 b.c.
His mummy is in the Cairo Museum, his coffin
is in London (at Sir John Soane's Museum) and
his tomb is at Thebes. His mummy is the only

one that is really pleasant to look at-the SKT1 offering to the goddess of truth.
intellectual head seems in a peaceful sleep. Seti (Temple of Abydos.)


other temples of the same king.


needed much capital for his many temples, and no doubt he, like all the other Egyptian
kings, came to the Sudan for its gold treasures. Plans of his gold mines have been
found, some of them seem to have been in the Sudan. If so, it is probable they are
among those that are now being reworked.

In the neighbourhood of the temple are situated the ruins of a city 011 an artificial
platform, the regular circumvallation of which is well preserved, and from which there
is an extensive view of the forts and mounds of lost towns around. This district is
enclosed by an encircling bend of the river, and travellers would be led across a desert

road on the west side to avoid it. Hoskins, in
this way, never saw these interesting ruins, and
this hint is given for future travellers' use.

Still going south, we reach Hannek, at the
Third Cataract, passing by more forts and remains
of once flourishing cities and large fields of ruins
whose names are lost. Some of these forts are
picturesquely situated among broken rocks and
islands; the place is marked Said Fanti on the
maps. Beautiful groves of palm trees here afford
the mummy of seti i. pleasant shade from the day's heat, and add to

Vasei'"1- the almost romantic scenery. There are high
mountains here, one especially notable, Jebel Ali Borsi, called from an Arab hero.

The Third Cataract, when the Nile is low, impedes navigation for many miles.
The river is full of islands, many of which are capable of being well cultivated.

Opposite Hannek is Tombos Island with extensive ancient granite quarries. In
one of these there still lies a colossal statue of a king of the XHIth Dynasty,
c. 2500 b.c., which seems never to have been finished.

tombos island : unfinished colossus in a granite quarry. Hoskim.



This reminds one of the unfinished obelisk lying in the quarry at Assuan. The
stone here is red granite, and there is no doubt that the two colossi on Argo island,
some twenty miles further south, were worked in this quarry also. These three statues
are of the Xlllth Dynasty, 700 years earlier than the time of Seti, whose temple is
described above.

Near Koya, 011 the west bank, are fields of ruins, denoting ancient cities as
yet unexplored whose names are lost. O11 the east bank, near the Cataract, we
find at Kerma the end of the old railway from Haifa, which is now threatened with
removal. North of Kerma there are the remains of enormous ancient granite bridges,

O o >

which evidently belonged to a great city, 011 the east side of the river. The ruins are
spread over the plain, and its immense ancient cemetery adjoins them. Two large
masses of ruined brickwork are conspicuous, one of which is called Kermaji, the other
Defufa. Each has an
ante-temple attached,
yet they are not pyra-
mids but very ancient
Egyptian strongholds.
These are built of
ancient Nile (unburnt)
bricks. They resemble
the ancient Egyptian
forts near El Kab in

Many fragments
of statues are lying
about and hieroglyph
inscriptions in the
best Egyptian style.
Lepsius thought these
proved this to have been the oldest important Egyptian settlement 011 Ethiopian
ground, and the granite bridges to have belonged to it.

There are many inscriptions on the rocks near the river, some bear the cartouches
of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and an inscription of eighteen lines bears the date of the second
year of Thothmes I. (c. 1540 b.c.), and 011 another tablet adjoining the cartouche of
Amenhotep III. (c. 1414 b.c.).

The country near Hannek was very pleasing in Hoskins's time, Hat and fertile. The
luxuriousness of the vegetation on the islands, the acacias, the picturesque groups of
palm trees, the masses of rock impeding the current, and varying the tint of the river by
the white surges they create, and in the distance the yellow sands, formed altogether a
soft and lovely landscape. The beauty of the First Cataract has been improved off the
face of the earth. The Second Cataract remains till some future Willcocks dams its


grandeur. But here, in a locality belonging to our nation, is scenery more beautiful
than either First or Second Cataracts, were we only enabled to visit it. Were some
facilities afforded it would have its thousands of visitors annually. The land has been
closed to travellers for several generations; now that it is at peace, and in our hands, it
offers temptations for the artist as well as the antiquarian, which it is hoped may be
soon made available.

The soil in this region is the best and most fertile in the whole Sudan.
Hoskins speaks of great quantities of indigo plantations hereabouts in his time,
and 500 water-wheels employed in its cultivation on the great Isle of Argo, which we
are now approaching. It has been swept with war and Dervish oppression since
then, but now that is gone for ever, the fertile land will be all the richer for
the rest, and the population will return. The rapid natural increase of the sturdy
people in times of peace, and with none to enslave them, or make them afraid,


will soon provide the population the land had in ancient times, which it is quite
fit to support. Of course this will be helped by improved irrigation.

Hoskins describes the Isle of Argo as very fertile, covered with palms, sycamores,
and pastures, with much cattle and horses, but only partially cultivated. It is about
25 miles long and 5 broad, and abounds with hares, pigeons, quail and partridges.
There are many ancient ruins, which have never been properly explored. The most
important remains are the two colossal statues of Sebekiiotep III. of theXIIIth Dynasty
(c. 2400 b.c.). They lie prostrate, and at some distance from one another, as if they
had been ready to remove elsewhere.

Both statues are of excellent workmanship, and about 25 feet high. They are of
granite, and were brought from the quarry in the island of Tombos, 20 miles or
more to the north. They evidently stood before some neighbouring temple ruins.
There is also a small seated statue of the same king, and inscriptions of his


date; also figures of baboons of a much later period. The island at this early
date must have had crowds of inhabitants, and the very moving and erection of
these great figures must have been done both by numbers and with skilled labour.
Monuments of the same Egyptian, king have been found at Tanis in the Delta,
1,000 miles distant, showing the extent of his rule. This island and the neighbouring
region teems with antiquities, which have never been properly investigated.

Dongola, known by the natives as El Orde (the camp), is marked New Dongola on
the map,1 to distinguish it from Old Dongola, about 90 miles further south along the river
011 the right bank, which is now a mass of ruins. New Dongola is still an important
town, on the left bank, and high above the inundation. It has Government offices,
a good bazaar, and several thousand inhabitants. It was founded in 1822, the
Mamelukes having destroyed Old Dongola in 1820. This was the great centre of the
slave trade, and as late as sixty years ago caravans of wretched creatures brought across


desert from Kordofan, Sennar, and Abyssinia met here for distribution of their human
goods among dealers, who forwarded tliein on to Cairo. Hoskins describes the cruel
treatment to which he saw them exposed, and this went on till Gordon's time, and to
our own days. Now it is a thing of the past, we may fervently hope, as our conquest
of the Sudan makes slave dealing and slave trading illegal under the British Hag.

Khandak is the first modern place we have depicted, as the antiquities have
demanded all our space. This is a thriving place, the headquarters of the Mamuria.
It is built on an elevation overlooking the river, and is hours' steaming from
Dongola. There is much wood in the district and 440 salvias (native water-wheels),
each supporting four families. The large fort in the middle of the town commands
the river. It is now in ruins, but is still an important feature commanding, as it

1 New Dongola was tlie military base of the unsuccessful British expedition to relieve Gordon in
1884. The last of the garrison was withdrawn in 18S6, and the place abandoned to the Dervishes.



does, the desert passage to Merawi as well as the river. It has a small bazaar.
Colonel Penton bought some scarabs at this bazaar, which he gave me; they are
genuine, but late in date, about 500 b.c.

A populous district lies between New and Old Dongola, but it has not been
explored for antiquities. Old Dongola has a picturesque situation, with its fortifications,
on a rock 500 feet high, but now shelters only a few miserable inhabitants. It was
formerly the capital of the great Christian Empire of Ethiopia, and judging from its
ruins must have been a great and prosperous place 600 years ago. Upon a mountain
near the ruins stands a mosque, from which there is a delightful prospect all around.
An Arabic inscription at this mosque tells how the Christians were wiped out by the
Moslem conquerors. This marble record states that the building was opened on

the 20th Iiabi el
An eh in the year
717 (1st June, 1317),
after the victory of
Safeddin Abdallah
el Nisr over the
Infidels." The ruins
of Christian churches
exist all over the
Sudan, but not one
was in existence in
the whole country
when we conquered
the land, showing
how the infidels "
had been extermi-
nated by the Moslem

A few words as

to modern events in these remote places by the winding Nile's banks. These regions are
quiet now. quiet as the grave, in ancient times stirring localities. But even in our own
time, they have been the scenes of sharp combats in the checking of the Mahdist revolt.
An attempt was made to establish a loyal native government at Dongola, in 1885, when
the Egyptian expedition retired. The natives were against the Mahdists, but fell to
pieces on the advance of the enemy. The Anglo-Egyptian troops were encamped along
the river. There were 1,700 British, and 1,500 Egyptians. Sir F. Stephenson gave the
Dervishes a decisive beating at Ginnis, in December, 1885. Abdulhazid, their leader,
was wounded, and the trouble ceased for a time. But in 1886, the frontier was
moved to Haifa, and the Dervishes contented themselves with tearing up the railway
line, and raiding the villages of friendlies. The British soldiers were now withdrawn,




and Haifa was left to be defended by the Egyptian garrison alone. We have seen how
Lord Grenfell turned them to account at Toski in 1889. Sir H. Kitchener became
Sirdar in 1892, and at once set himself to the task of preparation to smash the
Mahdi"the legacy left us by Gordon. The native army, which owes its reconstruction
to Sir Evelyn Wood's labours from 1883, had at Toski shown itself reliable, and was"
now becoming a brave force, fit to expel the foe, when well led.

In June, 1896, Kitchener surprised and almost annihilated the Dervishes at Firket.
Dongola was reoccupied in September, 1896, the enemy having bolted on the advance of
our troops. Sir Archibald Hunter was made governor of Dongola province, for a time,
till the orders came for the advance on Khartoum.

From Old Dongola to Merawi, the course of the Nile, describing a semicircle
of about 100 miles, turns to the north. Many ancient forts are passed, and at
Jebel Deka, on the left bank, the massive walls of a Christian fortress are seen on a
projecting sandstone rock, with the remains of several large buildings, among which is a


small church (with three aisles), also in ruins. The whole nave rested on four columns
and two wall pillars. Many ruined churches of the same type are found in the Sudan.

Not far off at Magal, on the opposite side of the Nile, there is a much larger
Christian church. Among the ruins are monolith granite columns, 13^ feet high, and
half-way up a sort of divided capital of 18 inches by 2 feet in diameter. This church had
five aisles. Further up the river we come to Bachit, where the rock wall of the desert
descends to the Nile, and bears upon it a fortress with 18 semicircular towers of defence.
In the interior, under heaps of rubbish, was the ruins of a Christian church, which
seemed to have marked the centre of the fortress. The church was almost identical
with the one at Deka described above. That an enormous population of Christians
must have filled the land before the Moslem conquest is proved by these Christian
churches which abound everywhere. In earlier days the land was densely peopled too,
as we have already found; and in Moslem times, and down to Meliemet Ali's seizing
of the country, it was very populous. Since then it has been on the decline, till our
own days, and ruins are found everywhere. I am indebted mainly to Lepsius for the
foregoing description of this region, and the architectural details are his.



Six or seven miles south of New Dongola, on the right bank, is a delicate little
Egyptian temple, date unknown, in good preservation. I am indebted to Count
Gleiclien for this information, mentioned in his Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

But I will give the description at greater length, from Count Gleichen's earlier
book 011 the Gordon Expedition, With the Camel Corps up the Nile.

"Not long after we had settled at Dongola, an important addition arrived in the
shape of Colonel Colborne, who had been acting as correspondent to the Daily News
with the river column. He at once proceeded to make himself comfortable by living
in a house close to the Nile, and mooring his dahabeah alongside. Being of an

' c? O

antiquarian turn of mind, he somehow discovered that there were some remains
of a temple four or five miles up stream, and resolved to dig it out. Accordingly,
half a dozen of us accompanied him thither, 011 his dahabeah and in whalers,
drank his brandies and sodassuch a luxuryand pretended to be deeply interested
in the proceedings.

" To tell the truth, it was a curious place. The only outward signs of it at
first were the broken tops of some pillars, all but buried in the sand. So we
hired a lot of niggers, and set them to work with shovels. Very soon the pillars
began to grow, and the niggers found themselves on the roof of a tiny temple.
Digging away all round this, disclosed some interesting hieroglyphics c>n the walls, and
seven or eight feet down, we came on some large figures in relief of gods and goddesses,
together with the top of the entrance into the holy place.

" As enough had been done for one day, we returned home, intending to come
another time. It so happened that a strong wind blew for the next three days,
and when we returned to the place nothing was visible but the broken pillar tops
as before: all our labour was buried in the sand drift. As we had 110 guarantee
that the wind wouldn't do it again, we didn't try again, and left the sands to their

" The only other things near the place were dozens of little green copper
deities strewn about: it must have been a god-foundry in its day, for in some
places there were hundreds of broken crucibles and pieces of pottery and bronze
rings, and things green with age. I also picked up a transparent green lizard
with big eyes (alive), and what rather astonished me was that he threw off his
tail, leaving it curling and wriggling in my hand. I tried to join him and his tail
again, but some sand had got in between and it wouldn't stick, so I left him forlornly
looking at it."

The mystery of Count Gleichen's lizard I cannot explain, but the temple
was (and is) doubtless an Egyptian one of the very best period. Let us hope that
the next party of antiquarians may be more successful, for no doubt it will wait for
their coming, entombed in the kindly sand, as it has waited for 3,500 years.





the story of taharqa and the holy mountain, napata.
the pyramids of zuma, icurru, jebel barkal, nurl and tangassi.
christian ruins, fortresses, the fourth cataract.






The Pyramids and Temples of Napata.

We now come to the locality of the Pyramids of the Sudan. There are several

fields of these ancient monumentsthe Pyramids of Zuina and Ivurru on the west

bank and Tangassi on the east bank, with those of Nuri

and Jebel Baikal twenty miles further lip the Nile. There

must be a hundred large pyramids and as many smaller

with the vestiges of numerous other tombs of similar form.

It is difficult to account for this crowd of witnesses to an

ancient civilisation and a dense population, for only their

princes were deemed worthy of the honour of a pyramid for

their last resting-place. The neighbourhood of Napata was

always regarded as a sacred spot, long before Taharqa chose

it as his own. Doubtless the Xllth Dynasty Kings,

Usertesen and Amenemliat, had forts and temples here.

Amenhotep and Tyi of the XYIIIth Dynasty, were not

From Maspero's Passing of the likely to neglect the neighbourhood of the Holy Mountain."
Empires. "-S.P.C.K. JO o j

About 1,000 years b.c. a great awakening came upon
Napata. From some cause unknown the kings of the XXIInd Dynasty had quarrelled
with the prince-priest of Thebes, and he and many of his priests migrated to
Napata, there to found a new Thebes, and spread the

worship of Anion. This drew the attention of Nubian piankhi-taharqa.
princes to Egypt, and Piankhi, an Ethiopian, led an army
into Egypt and conquered it. Piankhi wrote the story of
his prowess on a great stone monument, which is in Cairo
Museum. This was about 700 b.c.

After that, Ethiopian princes ruled Egyptthe XXVth
Dynasty, about 690 b.c., Shabaka, Shabataka, and Taharqa
came to the throne successively. I found a scarab of
Tirhaka1 at Thebes, near a temple he had restored, the
smaller one at Medinet Habu. It has the cartouche of
Piankhi joined with that of Taharqa, showing that he
claimed descent from Piankhi. There are many memorials
left at Jebel Barkal of Taharqa and Piankhi. There
ought to be also remains of works by all the kings named
above, and doubtless proper investigation would find them.
Petrie discovered in Egypt, in a most unpromising-looking

1 Various renderings of the same name.

scarab of taharqa from
thebes, with double car-
touche. taharqa and


place, the desert behind Abydos, all the lost tombs of the early kings of Egypt of the
Ist and TInd Dynasties. Another Petrie, if lie were to search here, might find quite
as much of unknown history, and fill up many gaps.

Taharqa left his mark all over Egypt, but came home here to die at his native
place, and doubtless Piankhi left full records of his deeds in his native Napata.

The different angle of the southern pyramids from those of Egypt is at once seen,
and is difficult to account for. Many of the Nubian pyramids seem to have had an
upper chamber, which never is found in the Egyptian. Whether these had subterranean
chambers we do not know, as 110 proper examination has been made; in fact, everything
connected with the Ethiopian monuments, temples and tombs is an unsolved problem.
Nor has any information been given as to whether the bodies interred were

mummified or otherwise.

The universal vulgar belief exists that ancient tombs
and pyramids always contained treasure. Lepsius tells us
that even the Pashas and Mudirs, and all the natives,
constantly asked him how much gold he had found in the
search for antiquities. This wide-spread belief among all
classes of natives and officials, accounts for the fact of
every pyramid, especially the larger ones, being in a ruined
state, and of some only foundations remain. The fact that
treasures were found in some of those at Meroe in the last
century no doubt excited the cupidity of the natives, and it
is to be feared will produce the ruin of the pyramids, unless
means are taken by the Government for their protection.

Near the village of Zuma rises an old fortress with
From Maspcro's Fassivu oj the tOWd's of defence, the outer walls of which were destroyed


about a century ago.

At Zuma there are three pyramids near together, and then further 011, there are
the ruins of thirty pyramids, and the quarries from which they were constructed are
close at hand. Eight of these pyramids were about 20 feet high, and are the most

There are traditions here that the Nile ouce reached and fertilized this region,
which is now covered with drifting sand. Of course, the wearing down of the Cataracts,
the natural dams, may account for this, but weirs could 110 doubt be easily constructed
to give a supply of water for irrigation and restore the country to its old fertility.

At Kurru, 011 the right bank, several miles further 011, are the ruins of no less than
twenty-three pyramids (named Quntur) two being 35 feet high, well built of sandstone;
others are of black basalt. Westward of all is found the ground plan of a large massive
stone pyramid, whose foundation is in the rock. Lepsius considered that this pyramid
belonged to the royal Dynasty of Napata, its solid architecture distinguishing it
from all the others. Again, several hours' journey, at Tangassi, 011 the opposite shore,









there are mounds of bricks, and beyond, more than twenty ruined pyramids, originally
with the core of Nile bricks, but formerly cased with stone, which is proved by the
numerous blocks lying about. As in other cases, each pyramid seems to have had a
small chapel or ante-chamber on the eastern side.

On the left bank of the Nile extends, at a right angle, the Wadi Ghazal. Here are
the extensive ruins of a great Christian convent, with a line church in the centre. It
is built of white sandstone up to the windows, and above them of unburnt brick.
The walls are plastered with a thick coat of alabaster, and painted. It had a
vaulted apse and triple nave. All the arches are round. Christian crosses are frequent
of the form known as Maltese. The whole is a type of the ancient Christian church of
the country. It measures about 80 feet by 40. The church has been surrounded by a
great court and many vaulted convent cells built of rude blocks are arranged around it.
A large building, 46 feet long, was probably the house of the prior.


Two burial-places were on the south side, with many gravestones inscribed in Greek
or Coptic. Lepsius says he carried off every legible Greek inscription. He says these
are the most southern Greek inscriptions he had found, but since his time I believe
that some have been seen at Soba, beyond Khartoum.

We will now visit the Pyramids of Nuri, on the left bank, opposite Baikal.
The mountains here are of porphyry, and veil the pyramid fields for a time, though
many round black mounds, and pyramidal grave-hillocks, are passed. Then a village is
reached with twenty-five pyramids, stately and originally well built, but, being of
sandstone, much disintegrated. Only a few retain the smooth casing which all
originally possessed. One of them measured 110 feet square. The principle of
construction is the same as many Egyptian pyramidsa small inner pyramid being
encased in all directions by courses of stone. At one part of the west side the
smoothened face of the innermost surface was distinctly visible within the eight-foot





thick, well-joined outer mantle. Little is to be found here of ante-chambers, only two
.are to be seen in fact; many of the pyramids are too close together to admit of them,
at least on the east side, where they are to be expected. A pyramid with varying angle,
as at Dahshur, is found here. Lepsius only found one inscription, but he did not
excavate. He considers the Nuri pyramid-field to be much older than the other one
beyond the Holy Mountain. It will be remarked from the engraving that the angle
of the pyramids more nearly resembles that of the Egyptian ones, which may
indicate greater antiquity.

Tiie Ethiopian ThebesNapata and its Holy Mountain.

Here we come in sight of Jebel Barkal, or the Holy Mountain," which lies at
some distance from the Nile 011 the western side, and rises alone, with steep sides and a

broad platform, from the sur-
rounding plain. The mass of
rock commands attention by
its peculiar shape and situation,
a huge table-rock" 300 feet
high, and three-quarters of a
mile long. It, with its great
plain, was such a remarkable site
for a city, that possibly the
Xllth Egyptian Dynasty Kings
founded settlements here, and
certainly those of the XVIIIth.
But most of the remains now to
be seen consist of buildings of the
XXVth Dynasty, the cartouches
of Piankhi and Taharqa being most in evidence. Later sculptures prevail also.
Hoskins gives a drawing of one of the Ethiopian potentates of whom we have heard
already, and whom we shall meet frequently at other places along the Nile.

Lepsius thinks that Napata, the city of Taharqa, was some distance from the Holy
Mountain," probably where we now find the village of Merowe. Count Gleichen thinks
the modern village of Abu Dom Sannum, on the south bank, marks the site of Nept,
Nepita, or Napata, all varieties of the ancient name.

The modern Merowe undoubtedly preserves the ancient classical name of the region
Meroe. Lepsius tells us that he frequently found the name Meroe in hieroglyph on the
monuments in various parts of the country.

In the neighbourhood of Jebel Barkal are found both temples and pyramids.
There are seventeen pyramids on the western side of the mountain, one of these being
88 feet square and much ruined. It has four small pyramids near it, possibly for the




king's daughters, similar to the arrangement at Gizeh. North-west of this group are
eight fine pyramids, on an eminence which adds to their effect. They extend for
550 feet from east to west, and each has or had its little temple or sacred ante-chamber.
Their height varies from 35 to 60 feet, and they have each from 30 to 60 steps, receding
about six inches. They have smooth border courses and all have a steep angle. The
porticoes or ante-chapels are sculptured, the hieroglyphs are Ethiopian generally, which
cannot, so far, be read. But there are steles in Egyptian text at Berlin and at
Cairo, which came from Jebel Barkal, and have been translated. The vignettes will
illustrate the pyramids better than any description. In all probability each pyramid
was built for one of the ancient blood royal. The temples of Jebel Barkal are on
the opposite side of the rock from the pyramids, to the south.


The Holy Mountain ^ J) is a mass of soft sandstone, and as the six
temples are almost all close to, and underneath the cliff, the rock has fallen on them,
and they are now in a much worse state than when visited by Hoskins and Lepsius.
Even in Hoskins's time, two of the temples had been destroyed by the falling
masses. Taharqa's great temple being clear of the rock was better preserved, except
where it had been wantonly destroyed. Lepsius saw so much destruction going on, that
he thought he was doing good service in carrying off every portable monument, just
as Lord Prudhoe had clone at an earlier date. The magnificent Earn now at Berlin,
and the two black granite Lions at the British Museum, came from this temple. There
is no doubt that these all came originally from Solib, as already explained, being the loot
of Amenhotep's temple there. On inscriptions now visible, we find that Taharqa's
name is the most prevalent, although Lepsius tells us that one of the temples was



erected by Earaeses II., of the XVIIIth Egyptian Dynasty, and was dedicated to the
god Anion.

The great temple was 116 by 50 feet inside. The plan of the double pylons can be
distinctly seen, with the court between, and other courts and sanctuaries beyond, and a
shrine excavated in the rock. The sculptures were coloured richly and there was an
altar of granite, with four figures of Taharqa at the corners, a beautiful piece of work,
now carried off. Colossal statues decorate the columns. Much has been destroyed and
carried off since Hoskins was there, but the foundations still remain. 1 give copies
of his plans of the two most important temples at the beginning of the chapter.

There are several smaller temples which possibly were erected by Piankhi and other
earlier Ethiopian Princes, but were repaired by Taharqa. The works of King Taharqa,
whose remarkable deeds in Palestine are recorded in the Bible, and whose name is

graven on his works in the Delta, at
Thebes, and elsewhere in Egypt, are
found in their greatest development
here. As this is fully 1,000 miles
from the scene of his labours at
Tanis his palace, temple and tomb
in the Sudan are worthy of more
attention than they have received.
A king who could lead a great army
against Sennacherib into Syria and
so deliver Hezekiah must have been
great and powerful.

The Romans sent an army of
10,000 foot and 800 cavalry into
Ethiopia to check the invasion of
Kandake, an Ethiopian queen who,
with a well-equipped force, had
advanced as far as Philae. We are told that the Romans took and destroyed Napata.
This was 23 b.c. But the kingdom of Ethiopia must have recovered itself, for the kings
or queens of that country are heard of after the introduction of Christianity. The
Romans made no settlement here, but contented themselves with making Queen
Kandake pay tribute. In the Acts of the Apostles we are told that Philip baptized
the envoy of another Queen Candace," and this probably led to the introduction of
Christianity into Ethiopia. The name Kandake, or something very like it, was found
by Lepsius in the hieroglyphic cartouches here and at Bakrawiya. It was a title more
than a private name, and was apparently borne by many queens of this region.



The Fourth Cataract bars the Nile's free passage a clay's journey north of Jebel
Barkal, and there are many islands and dangerous rapids on the river. Yet even here



taharqas queen.
Museum of Sydnc-y, N.S.W.

Lepsius found many ruins of fortifications
and other ancient buildings. Many villages
and mountains are called Merowe, which
Lepsius explains by Merui being merely in
the native tongue white and white rocks and
reefs being prevalent in the district. Even the
cataract is called Shellal Merui from the same
cause. There is a great ruined fort in the
cataract district, most picturesquely situated.
It is built of good sun-dried bricks cemented
with mortar and plastered over with the same.
Within are many rooms with niches and arched
doorways, and the whole is surrounded with a
wall of rough stone. Count Gleichen tells us
that opposite Hamdab Island, beyond the
Cataract, are the ruins of a pyramid. The
cataract possibly prevented Caillaud, Hoskins
and Lepsius, from following the course of the
Nile hence to Abu Hamed, for they both avoided
this part of the river. So we have no anti-
quarian tidings whatever of the Nile's banks between Abu Hamed and the Fourth
Cataract, and must leave that region for future explorers, or till the promised railway
along the river bank, connecting Abu Hamed with Merowe, is made.

It is seldom visited now, though there were tough jobs pulling the gunboats over
the rocks during the Gordon relief expedition. There are districts of fertile land as
Abu Hamed is approached, fed by Sakias.

Caillaud, Lepsius and Hoskins followed ancient precedent in passing by the caravan
track about 200 miles
right across the desert
from Korti to Metemma
(leading towards the
other Meroe, with its
ruins and pyramids),
near the modern town
of Shendi, thus saving
the long bend of the
Nile which winds double
the distance. As we
shall see the architecture
and sculpture (as well

as the hierolyphs) of painting at jebel barkal, taharqa worshipping.



the two places are identical in style, it is probable a similar direct communication
existed between them. For as far as we know at present, no antiquities exist along
the 300 miles of river where the Fourth and Fifth Cataracts are found. No doubt
these cataracts impeded the communication by water and the two important branches
of the same Kingdom of Ethiopia" must have kept open this connecting thorough-
fare straight across the Bayuda desert. This route is still in use, and there are good
wells about half-way.

It is true the pyramids of the Sudan, compared with those of Egypt, are modern
structures. It seems that when pyramid building was extinct in Egypt, it began anew
here. But still these pyramids have a very respectable antiquity from 3,000 years
downward, and supply a missing link as the history of a thousand years may

be found to be re-
corded here. Lep-
sius carriedoff many
inscriptions, but
there must be many
more underground
awaiting the in-
telligent labours of
an expert with the

From the days
of Taharqa to the
advent of Christi-
anity, the history of the ancient kingdom of Meroe is almost a blank, the whole of
Ethiopia became Christian, and so long remained. The Cross was crushed 'out by the
fanaticism of Islam. But there was a great civilised Christian Empire here for nearly a
thousand years. Of this period we have no reliable history. Doubtless much can be
evolved from a scientific investigation of the ancient monuments of the country. It is
likely soon to be undertaken by the proper authorities, those who now rule the Sudan
which we hold as a sacred trust for the memory of Gordon. The British Museum did
some good pioneer work of this kind just after the country fell into our hands, but
cannot be expected to send their officials here again. Researches should be made under
a properly constituted Antiquities Department in connection with the Museum at
Khartoum. It will be a long and important undertaking, but doubtless a commencement
will soon be made. By the laws of the Sudan, none of the finds can leave the country
now, they will all go to the Khartoum Museum.

The Holy Mountain was a shrine of worship of many faiths, the centre of the
civilisation of Ethiopia for ages. It now belongs to England, and we are bound to give
it our protection and careful attention.



II sk ins.

Full Text




GOL D ORNAM E N'l' WORN ON THE FO'REHEAD BY THE WOMEN OF LOWER UBIA. Th e y a r e h anded down from mother to daughter, and are very a ncient. The people a re all now Mosl em and are n o t aware t hat it was a Chris t ian emblem.


THE STATUE OF G ENERAL GORDO N KHA R TOUM. The l a t e O nslow Ford, R. A., Sculpto r












AUTHOR'S PREFACE. A FEW years ago I published a little book on E(jypt, entitled Pyramids etnd Progres which Lord romer allowed rn to dedicate to him. At that time the Sudan wa i.n the hand of the Den ish es and inacces sib l Now, tha11ks to Lord Kitchen er, it is under the British flag, and being open to all th world, js lik ly to b visited, i n yea rly increasing numbers, by the pl asure eeker, the archEBolo ist and th promot r of comm rcial enterpris In the hop of bting of ser ice t om of the e I h ve undertak n my p1esent task, nd shall be rnor than repaid if I ucc d i n arou in in them on tithe of the intere t which I hav exper ienc:.1d in the study of this remarkabl c untry The new t rritory is enormou com1 ared with Egypt and in cou eq uenc e a larg r volume and on on somewhat dj:fE r nt Jin s from my ear lier work, w nece ary Lord Kitchener asked m to dedicate the book to him, and this complim nt in pired me with a de ir to o my best. For many of th illustrations and for much informati n regarding the remote provinces I am indebted to kind fri nds, too num rous to mentio n in a short preface. Without their aid this book could n r ha e been wr itten, and to every one of them I tender my warm t thank with apologies for not mentioning them individuall y JOHN WARD.




OUR UDAN ITS PYR MID AND PROGRESS D E D ICA TION TO Lo RD Krr IIEKER ... P Lo RD Krrc HEN 1 ~ R PREFA CE CONTENTS. PAGE. Vll ix xi xiii -xv ... xxiii xvii xxii CHAPTER I. PR.ELIMl A RY Preparation for the Campaign Against the Mahdi' i r Eve l n Wood Lord Grenfell ir Archibald Hunter The Battle of Toski n ar Abu imbe l -The J ntellig nc De.paetment : ir R e ginald v\Tingate, ount le.ichen-Lo r l Or m e r a n l the Irrigation Project of ir W. ar tin. CH PTER II. LORD CROMER's DE P A 'l'CH REGARDING 'rn WILLIAM GAR. Trn's IRRIGA' l'IOK PROJECT PRoros.i;;n RAILWAY E 'rc .... CH PTER III. W ADI HALFA ro KHAR'roul\r RY RAILWA Y Wadi HalfaS ir Percy Girouard -Abu Hamed-Baths-Propo ed Railway to Dongola. Wadi Amur-BerberRl Darner-The tbara-hencli-Pyramid of Meroe Bau N aga-Ha lfaya-Khartou m. H PTER I w ADI HALF A TO MARA BY 'l'HE NILE ... Ben Hur-Buben-The 'econd Cataract -Abnsir-Sarrasemna -Kumrua-Ancie:1t Ni l e Regi tersserte en I.-Ame11emhat III.Thothmes III.-Gold Signet RingAmara-Kerma, e t c HAP'J'ER V. 'oLrn A D ITS TEMPLEs-CoLossAL LION Sedinga-olib -The Historical Scarabs of Amenhotep III.-Tombos Island-Argo IslandThe Three Colos i -T e mple of Seti at Sesebi-Hannek--The Third Cataract-New and Old Dongola. Xlll 1 9 17 27 43


CU "N"TE"N"T CHAPTER VI. THE TE fPLE .AYD PYRA.}IID OF JEBEL BARKAL AND NAPATA. The tory of Taharqa and the H o ly Mountain-NapataThe Pyramids of Zuma, Kurru, Jebel Barkal, Nnri, and Tangas i-Chri tian Ruins-Fortrcs e The Fourth Cataract. HAFTER VII. Anu HA11rno TO KHAR' I'O M BY 'l'HE NILE Abu H amed-Fifth cataract-Berber-The Atbara-The Battle o f the tbaracount leichen-Abu Klea-Ahu Kru-Korti-Tbe Bayurla Desert Pass-Gakdul-The Jaalin-El Darn e r fotemma-habhlka ataract-Jebel Royan Khartoum. CHAPTER VIII. THE ADVANCE '1'0 0MDURM.AN, 1 9 Kerreri Battlefield-The Attack an l Seizure o f Omdurman, 2nd September, 1898 The 21st Lancers Th udan ese under Macdo n aldThe Flight of the Khalifacenes of the attle-The Omdurm a n of To-day. H PTER IX. GDRDON' N.A'l'IONA.L 1'1oNUME:sr-THE NEw KHAR'l'OUM The New City-T~1e covernor-Gen era l' s P a lace-The Gordon College-The Memor i al e r viceordoll's tatue-Native Villages-ndan fob-Banks-Zoologica l Gardens -Excursi on to oba. CH PTER X. THE AN'l'IQUITIES OF THE I LA.ND OF MEROE ,, The Pyramids of M roe-The J ewellery found by Ferlini Que e n Kandake-The Antiquitie of Ban Naga-Tbe T emp l es of Naga-T e mpl es of M essanrat-Temples of Wadi e l ufra, etc HAFTER XI. INCIDE~ r S u B EQ EN'r TO THE 1AMP AIGN OF 1 9 Tb F a boda ffair-Marchand -The D eath of the Khalifa and his Emirs, 24th Nov e mber, 1 99 CHAPTER XII. THE NrLE BEYOND KHA.R'l'OUM PART Frnsr ... G n era l De cription of the Nile Beyond Khartoum-The onqueror of the udd, Lie ut. ol. P eak .A.-The Sudd and i ts conquest--Lord Cromer's Visit to Gondokoro, De crib J by the countess Valda Gleichen -The In. pections of the Governor -GeneralThe obat-Lake No. XlV PAGE. 61 73 91 115 145 167 183


CO"f:vTE"f:vT. ''HAPTE XIII. THE NILE BEYOND KHAR'r CDL PART Eco~ D ir William ar tin' s reat Project to Avoid the udd Lake No -Bahr e l Zeraf-ahr e l Jebel--ir William Garstiu's New anal-The udd Region-H llet Nuer-Sbambe Kenisa-Bor-Kiro-fongalla-Lado-Olldokoro-R jaf-Laborelbert Nyanz~ Vi ctor ia N yanzn,. H PTER XIV. THE BLUE NILE-MAJOR WY~N' FRONTIER 'CENE .. The Governor-General' Inspections of : the 'ezira, the Blue il the Rahad and Dinder, em1ar, inga, Roseires-olonie of udau e oldi r Famaka Major 'wynn's Illu tration. of tli atives on the bys. inian l!'rontier. CH PTER XV. A PEEP rnr ABY INIA. Wrnr MR. E. D P IS ON Hr NIQ E EXPEDITIO~ Omdurm::i.n-Wad Medani -bu Haraz-The Bln il The Rahad-Gedarefradeb Doka -Gallabat-The ir c nit of Lake T. aua -Debra Tabor-Fasher-Tbe Atbara to B rber-Ka sala uakin. 'H PTER .r. VI. THE LAND OF Ul\'I RABIC." 0 .ARF R The Governor-G neral s In pection nf t.he Provine of Korclofan md urman to El beid -Remarkable tr es which store water-Deep Wells-Darfnr-Th tory of ur Bey n oara Ex-Dervish Emir. HA PTER r vn. "THE BAHR EL HAZ L )) PROVINCE Recent Visit of the Goveinoreneral to Wau-Major Boulnois, Go rnor of he Pl'Ovin e -The "tory of Znbeir Pa ha-The Niam-Niam -Pirrmie Photograph by aptai n B thell. xv PAGE. 219 251 2 ; 3 327 343




LI T OF ILL GOLD RNAi\:IEN'l' WORN BY w MEN RDON, KnAR'l'O M .. LORD Kr'l' RENER . PAGE. iii lV ix X MD RMAr Xll RAILWAY xv 10LOUR p AR'l'Y, G RDON's '1'EA1'1ER SKE'l' H MAP ... xvi: XXlV xxiii, 144 RELI 1I Y 1H PTER. BA 'l'TLE OF To~KI VILLA.GE RAIDED BY DERVI HE B 'IMBEL ... P R'rRArr-Sm K'iELYN W D LORD G1:m. FELL N lEN'l' E GYPTIAN OLDIER 1HAPTER I f LORD RO 1 E DE P T H. ExPRE s TEA rnR Im. .. PoRTRArr-LoRD 1RoMER .. 1H \.I TEI III. DE''E T R ILW Y. THE S o.,Lll ExPRE I ILW.AY MA'l'ERIAL F l DAN . . AIL' AY W RK UOP JILE NE.AR HALF.A (:3 views) 'l'A'l'ION N 2 W ADI IUR BRIDGE TBARA BRIDGE ( 3 v ie w s ) .. rArro No. 4 PLA'l'ELAYER 1 9 PYRAMID, FROM RAILWAY ... IRDAR', LANDING 'l'AGE ... 1H PTER IV. ECOl'l D A'l' AR.A T THE ILE .A'l' HALFA PAL f. RIVER FRO ''l', HALF A SrEu~ o F B HEN l 2 3 4 5 7 9 11 ]2 17 19 20 20 21 22 23 23 A 24 25 26 27 :.8 29 30 31 xvi i TRA T ION ER'l'E E:N I (I ortrait of) .. Tn THMES III. (portiait f ) ARRA, FORT ( 2 view ) E ONO 1ATARA T TEMPLE BEN H R . Xrn DANE F. DRILLING ... 'EMNA TEMPLE K UMMA TEMPLE EMN A TEl\f PL 1,; THOTIIl\fE D ING HOMAGE ERTE EN 'I ,l'l"E'l' Rnw . JEWELLER.' WEIGHT M .AI OF RIVER, 1EMNA ENE N RIVER, 'EM 'A IN. RIPTION N Ro K A'l' SEMN A POR'l'R.AIT K MM.A. ;\f m~rn IHA'!' ... AR, ING OF Tn 'l'HME 'EM.NA TEMPLE OF TEMPLE 1:EDINI!:'1' AB 1H \.PTE I OLlB. Tm, LI N OF AMENII '!'Er . TEMPLE, L XOR LIB ( 2 view ) TEMPLE A'l' EDlr GA LAN OJ!' OLIB TEMPLE I R'l'RAIT -EE TYI TEMPLE '1' LION H N'l' TEMPLE OF ,E'l'I I. LIB III A'l' KAR AK A.' D TYI. b PA E. :30 32 32 33 33 33 34: 35 35 36 :35 37 37 :3 3 39 39 ;39 -:l(J 41 4.2 42 4 3 4-:1: 45 46 46 47 -!7 4 49 49 49 50 51 5-"' r.;3 5~ 54 5-! 55 5G 57 5 59




LI. T OF ILLUi TRA.TIOM OLONEL ROGER E ., 1 9 KHAR'l'OUM, 'rHE p ALA E ... L U B GARD EK 1893 ( 4 scenes) B~K OF EGYP'l' KHAR'l'OUM JAA.LIN A D OTHER NA'l'I E MAP OF NEW KHARTO ]If CORRIDOR OF GORDON p ALACE GovERNOR's BoDY-G ARD ... CENES A'l' THE PALA E (3 'Cene ) THE LAMB IN rHE PALA 'E 'ARDEN GORDON' 'l'A'r E IN LoNDO~ CENES A'r THE PALA E ( 4 cenes) THE KING OF THE RANE. (2 scenes) 'CENES AT 'rHE PA.LACE ( 4 scenes) H ILLUK W A.RRIORS' HA f FIGH'r THE LAMB FROM OBA Lrnu T.-CoL. rAN'l'ON P R'rRAIT ... CAPT. THE HoN. C. J MEsP R'I'RAI'l' THE ZooLOGICA.L GARDEN .. THE Mo QUE, KHAR'l'OUM ... KHARTOUM, (( GORDO ) TREE)) HALFAYA ,, RIVER 'cENE .. ,, THE WAR 0FFI E F .AIR A'r NATIVE VILLAGE. WEEKLY WASH Kn R'l'OUM ( 4 sce n e ) THE GORDO OLLEGE THE JEWEL~ER SoBA, R I s OF ITY ( 4 c e n e,.) ,, REsT-Ho SE ... INSCRIPTION 0~ RAM ,, R IN,' OF 1HRI. "!'I.AN 'HUR 11 FATHER 0HRWALDER-POR'l'RAI'l' .. 'H PTER .L THE ISLAND O F 1EROE. TEMPLE I CLA IC S'11YLE, NAGA CARVED BLOCK AT NAG.A . MAP OF MEROE PYRAMID .. GRE. A'l' PYRAMID, MEROE Sou'rHERN PYRAMIDS, MEROE GREA'l' GROUP PYRAMID MEROE ... GE ERAL Vrnw, PYRAMID, MEROE PYRAMIDS NEAR 'l'HE NILE ... ETHIOPIA KI "G CA.RTOUCHE OF QUEEN KANDA.KE . PRESENT TA'l'E F PYRAMID ( 4 sce n es) OUTHERN GROUP OF PYRAMID, PYRAMID WITH TEll'!PLE JEWELLERY FouND BY FERLINI PA,E. Ll 122 )22 123 124 124 125 L6 126 127 127 12 129 130 131 132 132 133 1:3:3 134 134 135 135 135 135 136 136 137 J 38 139' 140 141 )42 )42 143 145 146 147 148 148 149 149 149 150 150 151 152 152 153 XlX THE ro r Q EEN," MEROE JEWELLERY FROM MEROE ULP'l'URE A 'l' UFRA JE~ELLERY A'l' BERL! R 1N A.'l' BA A.GA R IN A'l' A.GA EA TERN TEMPLE M.EROE, NA.GA, " E "E FR M PYRAMID ENE FROM TEMPLE THE WE 'l'ERN TEMPLE t REA'I' TEMPLE ,, OLO SAL HEEP MESSAURAT, TEMPLE WA.DI EL " EN'l'RAL TEMPLE UFRA, GENERAL VIEW TEMPLE ... OL M T HAPTER X I. PAGE. 154 154 154 155 lb6 157 157 158 159 1 6 0 160 161 161 162 163 164 165 165 166 FA'H D -THE DEATH O F THE KH LIFA. TROOP MARCHI o 'l'O Hor."r 'rHE FLAG .. DINKA VILLAGE .FA HODA R PEDI'l'ION ( 4 scenes) ... MARCHAND Mo N'l'ING THE DECK F ASHODA ExPEDI'rI N ( 4 scene ) ... MARCHAND 'oMrnG 1 VI rr rrrE SmnAR AP'l'URE F DERVI H 'l'EAMERS (4 scenes) BA D PLAYING 'l'O HII.1.UKS M MARCHA.No-PowrRAl'r ... DEA'l'H ] l HALIFA-RE'l'ORN EMIR, FORMERLY GovERNOR OF DoNGOLA I N CA [P KHALIFA ExPEDI'l'IO~ ( 4 scene ) . AF'I'E1 'l'HE A 'l'I T 'l'HE .KAO KHALIFA. AND Hr EMm (4 cene) THE KHA.LIFA:. :til3BA THE KrrALIFA ExPEDI'r10 (4 scenes) 0 E F 'l'HE S D N DEVELOPMENT OMIANY, 'l'EAMER CHAPTER II. 167 168 169 170 171 172 1 7 3 174 174 175 176 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 THE O Q E T OF THE UDD. Lrnu r .-CoL. 1:ALCOLM PEAKE-PORTRAIT THE uDD-P.A.rYR U'l'TING A TRENCII ... 183 184 186


OUR UDA ITi PYR.A.)}fJDS AliD PRUGRB S. THE Sunn-STEAMER HAULING " BURNING THE 'unn (4 scenes) (4 scenes) (4 scenes) Lo Rn ROMER's V r 11 To GoNDOKORo-W oon PPLIES MERICAN Mrs ION BARI GoNDOKORo A'I' FACHI 'H Y A DoM PALMS LuL FA HODA .. SHILLUK w ARRIOR ,, ,, WAR DANCE AFTER THE DAN'CE WAR DANCE ... DINKA AT L L SHILL KS AT L L GRAS FIRES Tm: U DD ( 2 views) BELGI N TATION, LADO Dr KAS AT LtL LA :rmNG PLACE AT RE K (2 view ) DINKA CATTLE .AT RENK WOOD TATTON ... MAJOR w AT ON, LATIN EL DoEIM, CAMEL RE TING ... DTNKAS, HILLUK AND N ER ( 4 scen':ls) ,TEBELEJ SHILLUK CATTT,F., w AU K.AKA, WHITE NILE .. MELUT, WHI'l'E NtLE .. KoDoK AND BAZAAR ( 2 scenes) GRASS FIRE. DER EL HAMDA HILL KS ( 4 seen es) AMERICA 'cHooL, DoLEIB Hru .. Sm R. SLATIN MAJ R MARKHAM A HALT IN '!'HE DD JEBEL lLLlE,I, :::3BILL UJ< S Fr HING IYER BAR I rA G VILLAGE ... .AN AK GmLs, Rn ER OBA'I' ... NEAR Mo GALLA CHAPTER XIII. PAGE. 187 188 189 191 193 H)5 195 19.195 19, 197 197 197 199 199 199 199 200 201 201 201 202 204 2l14 204 205 206 207 208 208 209 209 209 210 210 211 212 213 213 ""13 214 21fl 216 21 SIR W. GAR TIN' NEW CANAL. MONG.ALLA 219 Sm W. E. G.ARSTIN-POR'rRAl'r . 221 XX MAP OF PRoro ED CA. A L ... TAUFIKIA BoR 1 TORT A N YANZA, RrPo~ FALL BAHR EL ZERAF HILL K Fr HING IN 'PECTION AT TA FIKIA TONGA, HILL K (:... cenes) LAKE No THE BAHR EL GHAZAL FLOA'l'ING UDD A~D H (2 cenes) on ( 2 cenes) ... REA.KING FF ... HAMBE DINKA BARI VILLAGES ( 3 sc enes) ... NuER Fr HING H urs HERD F DINKA UA1'rLE DENSE GROW'l'H F U DD .NATIVE. AT KE I A BARIS AND rHEil H 'l' (2 cene~) THE UDD u :rcoNQ ERED Dr K A'I"rLE FOUR N A'l'IVE SCENE,' A'l' KENI A BoR BARI EAR Bou LADO MONG.ALLA scenes) BARI H U TS Jr~BEL LADO ... AND JEBEL LADO FROM THE U DD HEIKH OF LAD DINKA 1HILDREN, HAMBE . BA~I H1 TS ... Krno ... MoN :rAL L A (3 view ) Km THE AFRI A :r RrFLE GoND Kor.o MONG.ALLA LADO Kmo, LADO, MoNGALLA ( 4 scene ) LADO, LORD CROMER' Vi. I'l' ( 2 ,cene ) MoNGALLA AND LADO (4. cene ) ... REJAF ... REcEP'l'ION r~ BELGTAN T:imRI'l'ORY view ) THE 'DAN AT GoNDOKORO 'ONDOKORO RIPON FALL, 'IC'l' RIA NYA~ZA. THE ALBERT NYANZA GYASSA ON THE BLUE NrLR PAGE. 222 223 2A 225 2:...6 226 227 :...':...7 2:...7 :...'28 228 2.29 229 "'30 230 231 ;;,31 ""32 23.2 233 233 233 ,.,34 23-.1: 2:35 236 236 (-1 237 238 238 239 239 239 2 :39 240 .241 :...41 242 2 4 2 243 244 245 2 6 (.2 :247 247 :...47 248 249 250


LI T OF ILLUSTRATION>-. PAGE. C H APTER XIV. THE BLUE NILE ND MAJOR GWYNN' FRONTIE CENE 'rn R DOLF VON LATix-PoRTRAIT TELEGRAPH EXPEDI' l'ION, 1 8 9 8 ( ... cenes ) BU HARAZ . VILLAGE GRAVEYARD J u crroN OF NILES, KHARTO M R IN OF OLD ENNAR ~10SQ E OF OLD ENNAR KAMLIN, B L E NILE (:3 s ce n e s) BROTHER 'HEIKH OF UFA A E NILE G VERNOR-GENERAL'. TEAMER ON BL E NILE ATIVE RAF'r tND B OA T ( 4 sce nes) PRE EXTING m.r T O GovERXOR-GE, ERAL BoAr-B ILDING o E n E ( 4 sce nes ) .. Juxc1rox wrrH RAHAD RIVER DINDER RIVER AD .EL BB.A (3 cenes ) .. KARKAJ GEZIRA WOMEN D A 'CING ( 4 sc ene ) iAXA IL GEZIRA L E NILE NEAR INGA GEZIRA (4 cene ) GE. ERAL IR L E LIE R NDLE-P R'l'RAl'l KARK J BLUE NILE (4 scenes) OLO, EL FERGU ox-PoR'rRA l'I' . scenes ) fi'ErrsII'l'REE, HrLLE'l' TISA.GA OLONY OF OLD OLDIER ( 4 scenes) J\1ARKE'l' ENE, GIDA1i'Il GALLA.BA'!' F ROllI 'l'HE FQR'r 1 GA, BLUE NILE ( 4 scene.) JEBEL MENZA (.Major Gwynn) 1E'l'ONGW A ... GALL.AS, GIDAMI HAMID vv AKIL oF HoJAL1 H JALI AND HI T1.\.FF B AMBO J UNGLJ<~ BENI HANG L J EBE:L KA SALA ,IYER PIBOR YAB s RIYER N .EA.R ]NKAT ,, 251 252 252 252 253 2 4 254 255 255 256 256 :,,,5 7 258 258 2 9 260 260 261 .... Gl ... 62 263 264 2 6 4 265 266 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 272 272 273 274 274 275 275 276 _76 ..,76 276 ...,77 .,./77 277 XXl FA.MAKA (Major Gwynn) GYA A ox BLUE ILl~ JEBEL KEILI ... DrnKA Boy LowER oB.\.'l' GIOAMI, M RKET NA 'l IVE H OUSES, G NIG RIVER YAB s NJ,JAR R o EIRE BuR N L'EA R F A.SHOD "MAHOMET "\VAD HOJALI 'WoMBER" YEMBO .. GALLAs A'I Gm.AMI .. B E I HANG L PLATEA BuR VILLAGE RIYER Di DER N ER, l PPER OBAT DiNKA BOYS, 1 PPER 'OBAT NEAR Ro EIRE RIVER '! 'BARA 'EAR G ALLABA'I' RIVER INDER IN EARLY FLOOD FLOCK ON THE TBAR C H PTER XV. " " " VI IT TO BYSSI I C E. UPUI -POR'l'RAI'l' MAP OF LAKE T 'ANA F .ANT.ASI A, ABU H A RAZ H A DY '.' TREE, HALT RIVER R AHAD WES'l' HORE, LAKE Ts.ANA ON 'l'HE RAH \.D ( 4. view ) ... DRAWING W.A'rER EAR GED \.RE F CAMP NE1c\.R EDAREF RlV.l!:R AT.BARA NEAR EDAREF DRAWING w .ATER AT GWERBE SrnDAR' PARTY EN Rour E Ac \. I.A FoRE 'l' ... W A'I'EltlNG CAMEL r ] OKA ROAD FROM G LLABA'l 'l' LAKE 'J' \.NA CAMP IN B.Al'tfBOO F RES' r ... WA'l'ERFALL, RIYER BAI .. B.A.T 'I'LEFIELD "HE R E Knw JonN WA KILLED ... CAMP A'r ARA HEAD PRIES'!', KAR.\.'l' \ REEDS AND PAPYRU.' LAKE T A~.A ROS rnG RIYER BA[ LYCIIGATE OF CHURCH BETWEEN B HAR.-\Z XD GEDAREl' (-! scenes ) PAGR. 277 2 7 8 278 2 7 ~78 279 279 279 2 3 '..., -! :a.8:j .2 5 2 6 :a.B G 287 290 :l9l 29] 29:l 29;3 :.9:3 :.94 :,,,!) 295 :..96 297 297 298 :299


OUR [DATY; IT1 PYRA.ll!lID A.ND PROGRESS. PAGE. AB1 \.I RIVER . 300 RIVER TBA RA (2 cene ) 301 KA ALA AND THE GA H ( 2 cenE, ) 301 ABY !NI.AN SOLDIER-IDE 302 NEAR DEBRA TABOR (3 scene ) 303 G D" AH.A RIVER . 303 DELDI ToLL Hou E 304 OLD PoRTUG E E BRIDGE . 305 Oun':Er LAKE T .A.NA ( 2 cene ) 305 RUINED H RCH, IEDEVER 305 'oFFEE PLAN'rATIONs, ZEGI 306 RIV"ER REB . 306 VOLC IC R CK 307 Ar PETTY CHIEF'S Hou E... 307 F RD ON THE BAI... 307 HALT 0~ THE ATBARA 307 CANDELABRUM E PRORBIA... 308 RELIGIOUS EREMONY, DEBRA TABOR 309 CAMP A'r 'ARA 309 RIVER BAI ( :a. cen e ) 309 RIVER 'l'BARA (2 scen e ) . 310 KoRA'r A VILLAGE (2 scene ) 311 THE DOCTOR FISHING IN ABAI 311 CAMP A'r ,voREB 311 J N '!'ION OF TB.ARA AND 'E'l"rrr :31:c., ArBARA (KA ALA A-"D BERBER RoAD) . 312 ZEGI, MARKE'r AND HUR H (2 scenes) . 313 CR ING 'l'HE BAI 313 BELFRY Ho E F H R H, KoRAT A 313 KA ALA Ro K AT Goz REJER ( 2 cene:) GALLA.BAT R AD (3 cenes) Ro KY GORGE, TBARA NA'rIVE AT KA ,'.ALA 314 316, 314 315 315 317 ARADEB, RIVER ATBARA 317 CE~E ON THE EDAREF ROAD ( 2 view::1) 317 DoM PALM rB.ARA 318 J N rION OJ<' TB.ARA AND NILE... 31 R1 ER ATBARA ( 3 cene ) 319 CAMP ON THE ArBARA 319 KA ALA 'UAKIN-BERBER nes) ... NEAR 320 RAILWAY BEGUN (2 322, 320 .ALLABA'l' .AND 'EDA REF (4 view ) 32 1 CENE, A'r R NEAR UAKDI (3) 323 KA, ALA-KADMIA... 323 THE IRDAR EN ROUTE TO AKIN 324 ArBARA, AKIN RAILWAY (2 v iews) 325 KA 'ALA (2 v iews) ... 3 25 LIE '!'.-COL. PENTON AND 1AJOR .FRIEND 3 26 XXll PAGE. HAPTER XVI. THE LAN OF "G M ARABIC. KOR OFAN-DAR]UR. UR BEY ANGARA--PoR'l'RAI'r 327 Gu f AT 0 MD RM.AN 328 CAMEL DRI~ KING TROUGH... 328 EL OBEID (2 cenes) 328 DER ISH WIDows SoR'l'ING GuM ... 329 EL OBEID, CROWD WAITING 330 EN R TE TO EL OBEID ( 4 seen ,-) 331 CATTLE AT A DESERT WELL 332 EL OBEID ROAD ( 4 scenes) 333 .F NG R, KORDOFAN... 334 CAMP ON THE OAD 334 SCENE BY THE WAY (4) 335 GR!!:A'l'ER Bu T.\RD ... 336 WOMEN A'r EL OBEID 336 DANCING W ME ( 4 scent:-.) 337 EL 0BE1D BAZAARS .AND lNSPEC'rl N (2 cene ) 33 E L OBEID No'l'ABLES, MuDIRIA (2 scenes) 338 LOADING P: REVIEW (2 scene.)... 339 LATIN RE.ADI~ G DORE S TO HEIKHS . 341 N A'rivE 0FFI ERS (2 vi .vs) 341 BIVOUAC OK 'l'HE ROAD 341 KORDOFAL~ RABS ASD 'HIEF 342 'H PTER X II. THE BAHR EL HAZ A L RuCENlCEP REx-PoR'l'RAIT 343 HELLE'l' EL OER . 344 THE BAHR RL 'RAZ.AL 345 ,, BLOCKED BY S DD 346 MOUTH OF RIVER R HL 34 7 SuvrAN N 'DoRMA 349 SULTAN TAMBURA ... CENES A'l' L E RAPIDES" ( 3 ) TR!BAL DAN E OF THE AJAR ULTAN TAMBORA A ro HIS MO'l'H.ER NORTHERN DINK AS .. RED-SKINNED JURS .. Arwor Carn~'s SoN Arwor RCHER Z BEIR .t'ASHA-P OR'l'RAI'l' .A' l KHART OU M NILE FISH ( L a t us Nil oticus ) 350 351 3 5 1 3 52 3 5 3 353 353 3 5 3 355 356 36 2


SKETCH MAP ',, ',, OUR SUDAN 20 ',,,.,',,, ', ,, ::0 rn z 0 I ...... ,, 100 50 100 200,Mn.ts .___..__....._ ________ ___. I I I ,,l ____ .. ------,,,' ------...... ,,,' \ __ ,,,,--<:::) ',,,\\~ .. t J[IIH MEl00B ','_ : :!.(!-f..~G~,:;.:;;:-'!- .. 1 DO -Y.-: NVER,' \ ~ ( ABIAD \ I TI IIIOA ru~JO( ,.,:i..oat I Kl.aKfllA EL'fASHfR i u 11tUSH ,,,,' fOG" I I I I 10 0 .......... ............. /{AM JA.MAD .t,..... / wAD &ANDA )t. MUU,.WASHI { EL NAHUO \. <:t~~1~L,1L, ) 0,.11.A. ~L TAWfl\:HfSHAkAF,I. IAO.f'. --S, ( 0 M I< ) ......... < THE SHADING DENOTES THE SUDD REGION. PRO~~


GORDO::S-'S STEAMER "BORDEIN. Orig inally a Thames Penn y Eoat, this o ld craft did good serv i ce in Gordon' s time, and is still at work. XXlV






OUR SUDAN; ITS PYR .. MIDS A D PROGRE PRELIMIN RY HAPTER. THE ear li est touri t records that he found E~ypt not only a Ian l of wonders, but a land of contra lictions beyond a ll others It is still so, after thousands of years. Here evi l seems actually to produce good, and ca l amities are b l essings in disguise The follies of its rulers cou l l no farther go, the an ient land was apparently in hopeless ruin. This was in 1882, when Egypt fell into our hands, a ll unsought by u No other nation would have anything to do with it it was derelict We stuck to our task, pulled the old land out of the mire of insolvency, and taking away its reproach, made its rnle a model of goo l gov rnment. But e r e we accomp lish ed our task, the hero Gordon had been mur lere l by the people he was s nt to save, and the 'udan was lost to Egypt. The frontier lin wa COLOSSAL sr \..TUES OF RAMESE, H., ABU SIMBEL ON 1'1IE 'ILE, NEAR 1'0SKT. withdrawn to w a li Halfa in 1886. Two year before, Gordon had written th ese words, "If Egypt is to be quiet, th Mahli must be smashed up." The r e li e f column arrived too late to save h im, but his wor ls were not forgotten, an l when Egypt had been I ut firmly under the honest government o r Lord rom r, preparations were commenced for the av n g ing of Gordon by tlie conquest of the udan. The first t p was to er ate an army Some of Euglan ls be t soldiers w re elected to train np an l lrill the natives-yellow and black-to fit them for l e ing good soldi ers. ir Evelyn Wool wa cho e n (after the defeat o : f rabi at T el e l K bir 3 B 2


0 UR S DA i'\ ; IT. P YRAJ!llDS A "YD P ROG RE b W lsel yin 1882) to be0in the formation of a new Egyptian force. This took time, but good results came sooner than was expected The fahdi was d ad, his Khalifas were still act iv and threatening to conquer Egypt itself. Wadel Negumi, one of the best ervi h genera ls led 4,000 fighting men, and some 7,000 camp followers, past Wadi Halfa, by the western desert, with the avowed object of ad, ancing on Cairo, and conqu rjng th Christian World. We had on l y a small garrjson at Halfa enera l Grenfell (now Lord Grenfell) was then irdar. Briti h troops were on the way from a iro, but Grenfell, finding the Dervi h hosts making rapi l proaress northward hastened to stop their progress He F.IELD-MARSHAL SIR EVELYN WOOD, G C.B. had only two Egyptian and four udanese battalions, a trnop of the 20th Hussars, and some artillery. By keeping the Der vishes away from the Nile, the multitude was helpless, suffering from thirst 111 the waterless desert. Grenfe11 trusted bis men, and at Toski near Abu imbel, on 3rd August, 1889, J ed them against the enemy, who was utterly routed-practically destroyed. The Gippies and udanese fought well, and the victory ha l such a fine moral ffect that every native regimenL has been found re li ab l e ever s i nce. Their fighting in the udan was equa l to that of British troops. The Dervishes never attempted again to invade Egypt. The hopes of the Kbalifa of conquering the world had come to an end. Sir Archibald Hunter (now in high command in India) was a young officer under Sir Francis Grenfell at the Toski affair, where he was wounded. After the Toski collapse the Dervishes gave less trouble. Father Ohn, alder escaped from prison at Omdurman in 1891, and 8latin Bey in 1895, through the efforts of Sir Reginald Wingate's c l ever Intelligence Department. Thej brought valuable tidings of Dervish doings, and helped ir Herbert Kitchener greatly in his pre1 arations for the campaign for the'' smashing of the Mahdi." The history of this war has been told by abler pens than mine The present volume i only an attempt to describe the vast region we have conquered an l been called upon to develop, or to bring back to civilisation Incidents of the cam 1 aign or hi stor ical events are only mentione l where they serve to illustrate the lo ca lities describe l or lepicted 4


NEJtV PROJEUTS J!'OB IREIGA2.1ION-RAIIAVAYS. Our udari is a l most as l arge as Europe, au l possess e s near l y as many nation a li ties Compared to its extent, Egypt is a ruere strip of l and along the i le. Dervi h cruelty ha;~ lcpopulated our new empire, but under the benefi nt British flag, the pro l ific races of the S n lan will multip l y and l e velop into in lustrious aaricultu r i ts, I eacefu l handicraftsmen, and happy, contented peoples. During vi its to this region, an l whil comp ilin g the informati on about the remote prov i nces, I have been struck w ith the great extent and var iety of th i r physioal character i stics. I h ave been a lso s urpri sed t o find that what was l abe ll ed lesert" in the mar s fr q u ntly proves to be fertile 1 a nd. Much of this was once c ul t i vated, w h en ther e was an imm nse population Thi s l a n l can be t illed aga in w hen supp li ed with irrigat ion. ir William arst in h as jus t presented to Lord romer a eport of some 2 5 0 foolsc ap pages on th e ~esources of th e waters of the Nil e for the irrigat ion of E gypt and the udan. This R port i s a very r e m a rk ab l e work; but it i s too t c hnical an l too extensive, for publication hern. H oweve r, Lord r orner's Despatch on this s ubj ect i8 not too l a r ge to copy in full into these page s and it forms au admirabl e re iwie of th entire s ubj ect It will b see n tha t L ord C rom er prom i ses to give all that is demanded, even to the ex tent of Tw en ty-one millions sterling, over a number of yea rs pro v id e l that this outlay is r ea ll y needed, and agrees to g i ve the ,000 a year for the necessary pre liminary surveys Lord Cromer also a llud es to hisanxiety for the railway development of the udan. LORD GRENFEL L, G C.B., F S .A. The Suakin railway is much needed, is far advanced, and will be ready in a year. Coal at present 1s a ton at Khartoum. No coal, it is much to be f ea r ed, exists in the Sudan Some inflammable oil has been seen bubbling up, but it is not true p e troleum. Coal and al o mineral oils are a necessity and must therefor e be imported. The Suakin rai lway will bring these to Khartoum for one-half the cost of rail way transit from A lexandria or Port Sa id. The Berber-Su akin rai l way w ill also conYey cotton, dura guru, and all th e pro lucts of the 1udan to the world 's markets at moderate rates. 5


0 P I UDA"T>., IT PYB OJIDS A D PPOGRE 1 Railway exten ion o 1edarnf and Ka a l a i ugg ted, and Lord 1romer mention propo ... e l line s from Omdurman t Kordofan and from Khartoum to ,ad 1e lani on t.he Blu :Nil lin is promise l from Abu Hamed to Dongola. Thi l a t is p cu li arly gratif) ing to peopl of antiquarian ta te for mo t of the old ities and antiquitie are found along the Nil at inacces ibl place away from any road or rail wa nc made ace s ibl the e localities will bring in revenue by the i ue of tickets to tour i t as i s lon ju Egypt. The Goverumeut hav beg un t.o bui l d Re t-houses at the anci nt site whi l e a Mn eum h as been comm need at Khartoum, and soon n o doubt a udan e ntiquarian Department wi ll b organi ed. Th e l and of many I arts of the ... ndan i admirab l y adapte l for cotto n cu l ture. Companies to work plantation are being encouraged, and it i s said by experts that when Irrigati on i s g i ven, there can be enou.; h cotto n produced to supp l y a ll the En g lish demand The o nl y difficulty i' th ab ence uf population. S ir v\ illi am Garstin leserve th thanks of th ountry for his lucid report on the Nile s upplies. Th e great river and its feede r are the life-bl ooJ of the whole region from the Equator to the Me literranean. Ther e is n o doubt, from ir ,~ illi am a rstin' Report, that the s uppl y of wat r an be great ly increas d a nd utili sed for both t h e S udan a nd for E gy 1 t. Thi book i s written for p eop l e who m ay h ave the idea of v i s itin g Khartoum and th Upper :Nil e It is a lso written wit h the object of attr acting noti ce to the uclan, as yet virtua ll y an unknown l and t th En g li s h peopl e Whe n I applied to my fri ends of the Government D partments at a iro and Khartoum for photographs of regions I had been una bl e to visit myself, I was almost overwhe l med w ith their kinduess, so many exce ll ent photographs were sent me. I thought to make a selection, but a ll were so good a nd m any wer e so c urious, representing pla ces n e v er depicte l before that I said Let them a ll corn ." The advice I g iv e to peo1 l e s tud y in g t hi s book i s kip the letterpr ess, the pictures wi11 teach you a.11 you need to kuo w Th e :Nil e i s actuall y the ongm of E ypt. Herodotu kn w lhis, an l aptl y called Egypt the "Gif t of the Nil e. E;ypt i s rainl ess, and on l y th farthest udan h a. its rainy seaso n consequent l y an r t hing re latin; to th amp lifi ati ou of t h e storage of the ile, i a ll-i mpor tant for both countrie and th lrri(l'ation epa r truent becomes th most important pub1ic office in ev rythin; conn et l wit h th ile alley In Egn t, to quote a late writer in the Time , tbe on te ll a ion Aquariu contain tar of the very first magnitude Sir illi am Gar tin is the "bright particular tar" of that constellation, and his ma ter l y Report on the il of the y n.r 1904 i perhaps the fine t of its kind ver is "u d The espatch of Lor 1 romer ontains it s ence, and what i 6


SIR REGJ 1LD WINGATE-CO T GLEICHE~. more, approve of all th Gar tin re c omm 11 lation Thi s won le1fol ana l si by th m as ter mind of E aypt is plac l at the front of the volu me, as owing to i t importanc it de erve the I l ace of honour. L ord Crorner's traininoha hown it lf in the men who, after serving Egypt, l1ave ma le their mark e l sewher Lord Miln er, Lor l Kitc h ener, those already named, and ho ts of oLli rs. Fmtunat l y wh n war is I a t peac ful men lik e Sir Reginald Wingate and Count l e ich e n h ave to remain l ong r to con o lidaLe good governme n t in gate' uu derg r o un d railway" l aid the I lan for develop in g tlie udan while yet in D e rvish h aucls. aunt l e i c h n howe l him e lf an ab l e pnpil in carry in g 0!1 the work of the Inte llig e n c D e p ar tment. HI 'l'ORY R.EPEA'l' IT ELF 'l'WO COMPA 'IES OF SOLDIER RAI ED BY A GENERAL OF FIVE '!'HOU AND YEAR .AGO FOR U DANESE WARFARE. One i. o f bluck men, armed e x ac tl y ns c ertu in tribe~ in t h e Buhr el Gh a z a l t o -day? t h e oth e r c o nsi ~ ts of ntlli ves of lighter colour t h eir sl'cars and shi elds s u c h a. u se d by the D e rvish e s r e c e ntly. ( F 1n a T om b o l th e Old E mpfre a t l i fer, nea r A. si o itt Now i i Cci i r o -~fuseum. ) Count Gleichen's interest in g ndan Handbook tauo ht our soldier from 1896 to 1899 wher to go an l w hat to expect in a n utter l y unknown l a nd. Every important text-book for the \1dan, for tb past ten yea r,, bears thi s young officer's nam e Of cou r s a soldi e r ha to go wh e r e he i s sent, a11 l a ft e r act.i ve serv ice in outh Afric;1, h e h as now left Egypt. Hi Anglo-Egypt i a n 'uclan i s a g r a t wor k which was much n eded an l will be a m n um nt to hi fame His l abour in E pt as Inte lli g nee Offic r may have bee n supposed to be comp l eted w h u h wa r dcr e l 1 ewbere. v, e sha ll yet have more works from his pcm, it is to be hoped, relatin g to t.he Nil Valley, the reg i o n he knows bette r than any t h er writer. 7


OUR SUDAN; IT PYRAA!IDS grn PROGRESS. Th e Hon. o lon e l Talbot a u l wynn y, m the intere ting Reports a ccomp a n ying the urvey of tbe u lan, are ompleting the d cri1 tive work begun b Count Gleichen. 1:ajor G w nn' photographs, g 1 v m g illn strations of border peoples n e r before de1 icLed, a r e mo t inte r tinrr. It fo pos ible that ir Willia m a r tin's sc h eme for utting a g r ea t il e 1a nal may entirely solve the Sudd problem. If ucce fnl, it will r e volutioniz e E gyptian Irrigation. Mr. Dupuis provides u with tidin s of Abys inia such as h ave not been received ince the d ay of Bruce, while his beautiful photograph s give us pi cto ri a l illustrations of a hitherto unknown country an l it inte r est in g peop l e Hi. lescriptions of the scener3 a re most graphic and g i, e a vivi 1 id a of his a dventurou s journ ey The Annual Inspection of remote I rovinc e by the Gov rn r-Gen ral has a civ ili ing influence of great importance. The photographs of the .. e progresses of ir Reginald Wingate tell their own tale. Everywhere he is welcomed by happy faces, and h a iled by chiefs and sheikhs, by hea lmen and village I eople, especially by the female population, as their deliverer. The photographs of the natives of Korlofan are most interesti n g Schweinfurth was afraid to venture there only some thirty-five years ago (" Darfur an 1 Kordofan are the hiding-place of every murderer and malefactor in Central Africa," says Schweinfurth in his Hea1t of Africa). The lear old man still lives, an 1 luok s like livin g He is hale and h earty : I saw him in airo in 1904; how surprise l he will be to see those photographs. Th e remotest I rovinces a r being gradually brought under the influen ce of the gen ial irdar. arfur will come next. At present it is impossible to get a single illustration of that r g ion. The Bahr el Ghazal will follow in the path of ci vili ati on Of the Niam Niam, and of its Pigmies as well, Sir Regiuald ha s sent me a number of excellent photo graphs showing much character. When this rac g ive up their unpleasant gastronomic tendencies they seem physi cally to be the finest race in entral Africa They assert that they are not now cannibals; let us hope they may stick to their new principles. I was much struck, in visiting the udan by the unexp ected number of ruins of Pyramid', T emp l es and Cities of 2,000 to ,OOO years ago, and the vetit iges of Christian edifices which, before the duys of I lam, extend d all over the Ian l I have collecte l illustrations of these antiquarian r main hoping to awaken an interest in the ancient civili ation of this l and of which, t hou g h it bas acc identally come under the influenc e of the Pax Britannica, we as yet know litt1e. The travels of aillaud (1825), Hosbns (1835 ), and L psius (1845) have served to uppl y many illustrations and descriptions of antiquities which hav e been seldom or never isited by antiquarians s ince t heir time . 8




.A P .ASTOR.AL llo n C. James 12


OUR SUDAN ITS PYRAMID~ AND PROGIE CHAPTER II. L RD CROMER S DESPATCH, ENCLOSING SIR VdLLIAM GAR TIN' EPORT 0 r THE UPPER NIL i IR I ATION PROJECTS, 190 4 11/ie E arl of Cromer to th e Marqitess of Lansdowne .-(Received 2nd Jv.lay. ) airo, 22n i April, 1 904. MY LORD IT w ill be with in your Lor lship' s reco ll ection that on the 1 9th June, 1 901, I forwar led a Report prepared by ir William Garstin on the Upper N ile i r ri gation projects ( ee "Egypt No 2, 1901 "). ir William Garst in did not at that time make any defini te proposal ; he mere l y indicated the direction whi c h further i nquiry might advantageo usly take Since 1901 ir William Garstin h as made a prolonged tour in the Upper Nile reg ion. He has embodied t h e info r mation he as ab l e to obtain in a fur ther eport, which I have now t he honour to in c lose. It is a document of the hi ghest interest and va lu e I beg to draw your Lordship's attention more especia ll y to Appendix I. t my request Sir William arstin d re w up a rough s ke tch of the irrigation programme which might possibl y be adopted in the future. It must be borne in min l that in each of t h e ca, ses mentioned by Sir William Garstin the financial, and in most ea es the eng jn eerjng features of the particular p roposa l s require further stud y The figures must, t h erefore, only be regarded as very ap p rox im ative . I h ave no he sitation in say in g that f ir v\ illi am Garst in' s programme may safe l y be ado pted in the foll owing sense-that the aim of the Egyptian Government shoul

0 R S DA ITS PYRA ~IDS 1 "N'D PROGRE Yom Lord hip wi ll observe that ir "'\7\ illiam Gar tin propose to employ an al liti nal taff in order to tu.dy the variou. projects to which h e a llu de This is the onl y point whi h r quires a n ear l y deci i on. The co t w ill le E. 24,000 for the first year. The mon y "ill l granted. A more lif:licult q u est ion i s to find t h e right men for t h e \\; ork. Thi ma ter will be l eft in ir v'\ illi am Gar t i n' hand In my last annua l Report, under the head of 'The Egyptian Debt," I tated what um. mig h t po ibl y be made ava il ab le, in t h e near future, to be app li ed to capita l expe nditure. I may now, perh a ps, go a to p furthe r and state what are the project which would a pp ea r to stand first in order of importance . regard. Egypt, the first thing to do i evident l y to provide the money for conYerting the l ands of 1iddle Egn t from ba. in into perennial irrigation. About E. 600,000 will be spent during th current year on attaining this object A further sum of a l ont E . 1,000,000 will h ave to be provid e d in future yea r s When this money ha been s p e n t, the whole of the progr a mme compris ed in the con truction, at i ts p resent l eve l of the Asso u a n and a lso of the A s iout lam will be completed ext in import a nce I pl ace the necessity of pro v iding a c on s iderable s um o f m oney probably about E. 3,000,000 to place the Egyptian railways in thorough order. Turning to irrigation, the :fir t new work which, I venture to t hink, s hould be undertaken i.t h e rai in g of the A ouan dam Thi would cost about E. 500,000. It may, perhaps, be pos i b l e to deal sim u l taneou ly with the re modellin g of the Ro setta ancl amietta branch s, the ro u g hl y e. timated c o t of which i s E. 900,000 It woul d not, in any case, be po s i b l e to begin work at either of these l ast-named project at once Both requ i rn further examination I t will be een that this programme invo l ves a capital ex p enditure of E. 5,400 OOO, namely: -Mi ld l e Egypt canal. Raihvay (extend i ng probably over some years) Raising Assouan dam ... Remodelling osetta and Damie t t a branches ... T ota l ... E. 1,000,000 3,000,000 500,000 900 ,000 5,400, 000 It i probal l y, not nece ary at present to form even an ap p roximate pro gramme for a more r e mot e future, but I may say tha t the works contemplated by ir William 1ar t ill on the Bahr-el-Gebel would a pp ear to come n ext in imp ortance Indeed, a ir ,, illi am 1 ar tin has pointed out, the execut ion o f these works form a necessary por tion of the chemes of wh i c h the rais i ng of the A ouan lam an 1 the remode lling of the Ro etta au 1 Damietta branches con titute a part. s regar fa the ahr-elebe l works t h emse l ves ir William Garstin puts forward two c lternatives, namely, ither to construct an ntirely new c h anne l for the N il e between Bor an d the Sobat, or to i mprove the ahr-1-Zeraf The former project would pos ibly co t E. -,500,000, the latter E. 3,400,000. Both est im ates must be c on s id ered a approximations of the very roug h est descr iption. I h ave no hesitation in expressing an 1 4


LOPD GRO-WER'1 DESPATCH, EGYPT, 190-:1:. opinion that, should the former of the e two project be found capable of execution it houl l be adopted in preference to the latter, in spite of the extra co t But no opinion an b formed on thi sub j ect until the l eve l s hav been taken an l the matter morn full y examined The remaining proje c ts to 1 e executed either in Egypt or for the special benefit of Egypt in th Su Jan, are : Regulation of the l ake Barrages between ssiout and Keneh .. Conver ion of Upper Egypt basins Total ... E. :i,000,000 2,000,000 5 OOO OOO 9,000,000 The consideration of these project may for .the present be po tponed It has to be borne in mind that, in addition to the expen liture on irrigation, verj considerable s u ms of money would h ave to be spent on drainage. A ll exper i ence has shown that drainage must advance pari pa u with irrigation. ir William Garstin estimate that when the whole of hi Egyptian project is carried out 750,000 acres of land will be converte l from ba in into perennial irrigation; 100,000 acre will be m a de capab l e of being irrigated by pumps 00,000 additiona l acre will be brought under cu lti vation ; an l that, at very moderate rate. the in creased revenue to be derive l from taxation "ill be E. l,:i05,000 a year. I now tnrn to such work a are intende d more e pecially to benefit the ~udan The first point manifestly is to complete the Suakinerber Railway, now in cour e f co11struction It will cost about E. 1,750,000. I sh:1.ll 1 e di sa ppointed if it i not :fini he l by th pring of 1906. ext in order of import ance I should be inclined to place the I ash project, the executi n of wh ich nee l not await the comp l etion of the u a kin-B erber Railwa It i s ronghly ~tim1:itcd to cost E. 500,000 About 100,000 acres will be brought un ler cultivation. Assessing the land tax at T. 50 an a.ere, the inc rea ~ e l revenue wou l d amount to E 50,000 Shoul l the engineers after further inquiry, report favournhly on this project, I honlcl be disposed to recommen l that it be taken in ha,nd so oon as the money can be provided. The remaining udan irrigation proje c t m e ntione l by ir v illiam Garstin are : E. Reservoir at Rosaires 1 .. Barrage on the Blue il 1 hezireh Canal ystem ... ...,000,000 1,000 OOO .., 000,000 Total . 5 000,000 I am inclined to think that the expenditure of cap ital on impr ving the rail" ay communications of the Sudan sho ul l take precedence of the execntion of a.ny of the. e pr j e ts. 1 In pite of the engiue ring advantage to be obtained by the ad pti on of the Lake T .ma project, Tam of opinion that, on political groun l the alteruativ e pLm menti ned abov is to be pre ferred. 15


OUR DA PYRAMID A D PROGRESS. ~l y main reason for h o ldi ng this opin i on i t hat the con. tru tion of a railway u p the Blue 1 il at a ll vents, so far as ,1.,r a 1 Medani will greatl y facilitate, and a lso c h eape n, the on truc t i on of a barrage on the Blue N ile, and of a reservoir at Rosaires I hould add that in a ll the e ndan project the quest i on of w heth er t h e p pulation requi ite to cultivate ny new l auds w ill be forthcoming i a very doubtful factor e ide s a railway to ,, ad Me.dani it i s very d i rab l e to construct a line along the proper right bank of the Nil e from the neighbourhood of D ngola to Abu Hamed. I have stated in my last Annual eport that the line from Kerma to vVad i H a l fa i s about to be clo sed Further, a line to connect El Obeid w~th the Nile i muc h r eq uired, both on military ground and also in order to enable the Kordofan gum to find a market. I cannot give t he figur e in con nection v\ ith the e three railw ay proje cts, as no estimates h ave a yet been made. Your Lo r lship w ill observe that Sir William Garstin estimates that, when the who le of bis c beme i completed, 1,000,000 acres in the uda n will be brought under culti, ation, and t hat the direct return in the shape of l and. t ax, at P. T. 50 an acre, would be E. 500,000 a year. The whole, or a t a ll event s the greater part, of thi mone y would, of course, be utilised to limini h the Egyptian contribntion now p aid a nnually to the udan Governmen t In fact, t h e on l y hop e of rendering the Sndan ultimate l y selfs upporting lie s in the judiciou s expenditure of capital on railw ays and irriga tion To um up, a ll that it i s propo sed to do for the moment is to spe n d E. 24,000 a year on the employment of a c ompetent s t aff to examine more clo e l y into ome of the various proje t to which ir v\ illi a m Garstin has dire cted a ttention ubj ect to any c h a nges w hi ch the result of further inquiry ma y nec essitate, an attempt will be made in the re l ative l y near future to carry out an Egyptian r a ilw ay and irrigation pr gramme invo lvin g a capital expenditure of E 5,400 OOO. Thi programme wi ll invo h e rais ing the A sou a n dam and remode lli ng the osett a and Damietta bra nche s of the Nile. In the Sudan, s ubject to the a me coii.ditions as in tbe cas e o f Egypt, an attempt wi ll be made to underta ke the Gash proje c t, and, in due time-that is to say, when the uakin Berber Railw ay i s comp leted-to still further impro ve the railway commun i cation This genera l programme is quite suffic ientl y ambitious for the present It w ill, l y i t elf, take s ome t ime to execute As events develop, and as further information both technical and fina ncial is obtained, it ,Yill be ca p ab le of modification, and possibly of extension. A to when the capital will be forthcoming, and in what amounts it will he available, I can ay nothing very positive at pre ent. A good deal will depend on the ultimate results of the international neg tiation s no-w iu progress. I cannot c lo se this despatch without recording my opinion that all interested in Egyptian af f a i rs owe a deep deb t of gratitude to ir V\ illi am arstin for the care and the con. picuous talent with which he h as treated this -very important quest ion. I have, ~c., (Signed) 0 0 1ER. 16




NOTE. IT ma y seem somewhat pnzzlin; to the r ea der to noti c severa l c h apters wiLh titles a lmo t s imilar. But a g l ance at the Map ill ex plain thi The mod ern hi g h way to Khartoum l ead a direct as it was po ibl e to make the rai l way for military purp oses This i d e cr ib ed i n hapt e r III. But as all the old and mo t of the mod ern citie s a r found a l ong the Nile, the anc i en t hi ghway, thes<:: are described in h a]?te r IV. V., VI. VII., and VIII. In C h apter IX. Khu.rtoum is reach e d by the ancie11t route 18


HAPTER III. WADI HALFA TO ABU H A IED BY RAIL-WAY. Trrn journey from afro to Assuan and the Fir t ataract and along th rn r to Halfa, has been fully lescribed and illustrateL l in the author's companion volume, Egypt) it Pyra1nicl and Progr e s The front i e r line between Egypt and the n g l o -Egyptian u lan js at the t entysecond parall e l of latitude. The Expre s fail team rs for tbe uclan start above the Assua n Reservoir and convey the pas e ugers h y th ile a. far as Wa.di Halfa. Ticket. are obta in ab l e at Cairo, Luxor, o r Assuan. The express tmin for Khartoum goes right thro u gh from H a l fa, at p r ent on l y JifaJor P hipp stopping at Al: u Harned, erber, h enc li, an l at the l a t station oppo ite Khartoum. As every hold 1 of a ticket from airo to Khartoum can on l y tra\ l by the 111ilitary rail way from Halfa onwanl, it will b w 11 to mak that j ourney fir t inor l 1 in the vo lume. Let u ther fore, take the ord iuary rout from W adi Half a t Khartoum, by the mi litiuy rai l way, through th desert to lrn Hamed. The 0 reate r part of Lhe journey is made at night, to a, oid the burnincr arid waste of ,., 0 m il es in the \\"Or t b i t of de ert, perhaps, in Africa; certain l y tb worst that now has a n adm i rably ar pointe l frain -cle-l1txe traversi11g it. It is hard to b liev e that not many years ago an entire caravan from Koroslrn I erishecl in a. and st rm in attemr ting to cro s it. vvhen Ler ius travell ed to the 'uclan, in 1840, h took eight da.ys from Korosko to Abu Hamed, though h e had every appliance for safe and r ap id trave lli ng ac;ro::;s the ] !:!ert. 19 2


OUR -------------LIEU'l'.-COL. SIR E. P GIRO ARD, K.C. LG., The rail way was a n ee ssity of Lord Kitchener's campajo,n, or it would never l1ave been p la ced across a n ntt rly unproductive, hid ous desert ome lay, perhaps, i ts course may be altered, and the trunk-line carried through a popu l ous or at l east a ferti l e region. This lin e wa Sir Percy Giroua rcl's gr atest e ngin ering feat it wa l aid at the rat of up war ls of a mHe a lay, one clay 5,20 0 yards were l aid It was completed on December 31st, 1897. It was a bold scheme nncl splendidly carried out. Time was everyt hing, the Dervishes had to be struck quickly and su r ely, and the master mind of Kitchener, k e uly a liv e to a ll the fai lur es iu. tran port a rr a ng ements o f the past, det rmined that there shou ld, thi time, be "no sueh word as fail." In Girouard the n . o., R E. great genera l found the man he wautecl, as he alway lid find the man to carry out eve ry detail of hi splendidly conceived campaio n. Every train hRs to carry 9,500 o-all ons of water for its own consumpt i on in traversing the waterless desert, which is a great tax on its u efulness There are tations throuo-h the desert, "N os. 1 to 9 with loop to allow train. to pass; photographs are given of some of these lon e l posts. There are often wonderfu l mirag een from thi.., desert rail way. I once saw a rnarv llous scene on the eastern side at early morning -palm 0Toves, l akes, with flock of white pelicans on their ,. ..... 7~,~~~WADI HALFA: .RAILWAY WORKSHOP~. 20 Midwint e1 By.


IIALFA TO KHARTOUM: BY UATL W Y (Lt. -Col. Pe11lo11, Jl!lidwinier B ey ) 2 1


OUR UDA!V; ITS P1RA1 1UDS A0.D PROGRESS. margins, and trin s of camels win ling along a de ert track It r mained some ime, and I proce ded to ketch it-when lo it vani hed. There was no such thing-nothing of the kind between us and the Red Sea, 400 miles away. Abu Hamed bas lost it ancient importance as a place of meetlllg of the caravans from Karo ko by lVIurrat Wells. There are no upplies to be had at Abn Harne 1, antl were it not for the desert railway stati n its very name would never now be heard. There is little to notice here save the excellent baths, erected by orders of the Sirdar ( ir Reainald Wingate) which are enjoyed exceedingly by those who have journeyed across the fiery plains After a night iu the ari l desert air, the luxury of a warm and also a col d bath, served in perfect style, is a thing not to be forgotten. Lord Cromer's proposed railway along tb right bank of the Nile to Dongola will tart from Abu Harne L When this 1s macle it will afford acce. to the Pyramids an l Tem ples of J ebel Barkal, and the temples at Solib and beyond. These also in time will no doubt be mad acces ible by roads from ongola. These Templ s and Pyramids ar fully described in Chap .ters n ., V. and VI. There are several station between Alm H::i, m d and Berber at which expre trains lo not stop. Deep khor (dry ravine ), are occa ionally bridged by the railway-I give a view of one of th se at '\i\ adi Amur, 50 miles south of .A,lm Hamed-whence we get a peep of the Nile and its c nery a the express train flies along witho u t stopping 'rA'l 'ION :NO. 2 IN 1899. C ap tai, i holto ])ougl as ll.B. til1 rber is r ached Berber ( 61 mil from Abn Harne 1) is uow a long straggling village of mud hut The 1istrict ontains abont OOO inhabitant : erber was t~. ken by the 1VIahdi.'ts on fay 26th, 1884, and was recaptur 1 b the nglo E yptian forces un 1 r Lord Kitchener on S ptember 6th, 1897. It is now the capital of the Berber I rovince an l tb hea lquarters of an Egyptian l attalion. The old town a mass of ruin lies t the south. It is possible that B rb r Vi ill become an important place when th railway from thence to uakin i completed


1 -.:) i:,., R AILWAY BRJDGE OVER THE WADI AMUR. .Mid winlei l3 e y. 'EMPORAR): l3JU])(m OYER 'l'TTE ~ \'l' B \ R..~, 1 898. a pt. S/10110 JJ01,ffla-~, R.F;. BRlDGE'OVER THE A'rBARA IN COURSE OF BUILDl:NG llfidw i n l er Bev. THE A'l'BARA BRIDGJ!; E, D111mi~ E P>-.,_::: c5 Fi ;:i::: ;i,.. 1-3 0 c:::: b;j >< >H ;:i,:< ,-... S) t::, ... ~ Q ;'i-;::,.. 0 t::, 0 J; A., ~b::l .:_,


OUR UDAN; ITS P} RAJl11D A D PROGRE -1 El D a m r ( 392 mile s from Abu H ame d) i the next tation.1 At pr s nt ther is a po1 nl a ti on of about 700 1110 t l y of the loy a l J aalin. Being n. mar healthy plac than erber the garrison will be moved to El Dam r El Darner was once famous for its univ e rsity and learning. It ha l fallen upon evil clays an l ufferecl muc h during the Dervish reign of terror. Its population and I rospeT.'ity are rapidly incr asin~, and there is quite a good market. Caravans come l'rom Gedaref Ther i ... a railway station at Kabushia, 26 mile from h end i where th re is good graziug and fertile soil. An agricultural company ha erected pump for irri gation pur-po es, and the locality it:i rapidly im proving. After crossrng the Atbara, a short distance north of 'hencli, the pyramids of Meroe, of whieh there are ne arly a h un lr cl, are seen about two miles to the east of th rail way. Th y are best PLATELAYER.'3, 1898-9. Captain Sholto JJoug las, R.E. 1 Here the iron bridge crosses the River Atbara. Thi was constructed in America, as the gieat strike of engineer paralysed all such contracts in England at the tim~ It de l ayed progress of the war and the compleiio11 of the railway, con s iderab l y The rail way line from the Atbara to Khartoum was not laid until the year a .fter the war wa.8 over 24


1 'HEJ..DI, PYRAMID OF MEROE, IUJARTO ]!I. isited from 'hendi A spec i a l sect i n mu t b levoted to these an l other antiquiti s iu this n e i g hbourhood tbe remain of the an ient kingdom of M ro\ who origin and dat are till very myst rious. ( hapter X.) Sheudi (471 mile from Abu Bame 1) was once au important plac with 7 OOO inhabitants, but Mehen1 t Ali, enraged at the mur ler of his son Ismail, in 182~, had the inhabitants ma sacre l. The p l ace is h althy and the land exc llent. Extensive railway worhshops, the best rail way station in the u-:lan built of a hau isome l ocal ton ar the boa t of Sb n li. It was taken by the Egyptian army on March 26th, 1898. 'hendi i on the site of the ancient ar ita l of th kingdom o f Mero'i. In Druce's time it was rernarkaule for the finest men and most beautifu l women in the 'uda.n. The rail way from Shendi to Khartoum (104 mile ) l eaves the river for a long way o that traveller by the expr &s trains miss the Nil e a J togeth r and MEROE (BAKRAWlYA)-PYRAMIDS A SEE FROM THE RAILWAY Caill a1td the picture q u e ixth Cataract-the Shabluka. vVe fly past a nurn ber of small wayside stations, but as there a r e no hotel or re. t-hou s s and the trains that tor at every station are inconv enient for travellers, we will not linger to describe them. According to Lep s ius the journ y by th Nil 's course wa ; in 1 840, quite safe and open He describes it as both inte r ting and picturesque, and some day it may be aga in ma l e available. The Shab luk a Cataract will be described in Chapters VII. and YIU., when we make the voyage by the Nile. This region is likely to become very impormnt as the cataract may be utilised for supplyin g water for the fertile Ian l on both 25


OUR SU.DAN; ITS PYRAMID A D PROGRESS. ides of the river where cotton growi n g on a l arge ca l e au b develop l. But the lirect milita.ry railway carries us on through an uninterc country, and by thi time we a r e heartil y g lad to l eave t h e train at Halfaya, 01 posite Khartouw, on the Blue Nile. A steam err) conveys the passengers from t h e railway to the opposite sho r e We p ass the statel y P a l ace of t h e Govenior-G neral, embosorne l in tre s and in a few minutes arrive at the hotel Ian ling stage. "\ e s h all now devote several chapters to t h e route by the riv e r bank making an imaginary journey all the way from Abu H a l fa to Khartoum, by the win ling Nile, the ancient highway, stopping to notice anything of inte r es t by the ay, and making d etours to describe adjacent places of interest. WAD! HALF.A.-, IJ1D.A.R', L \. DING TAGE. Midwinte? B ey 20




THE NILE AT HALFA. Midwint er B eY,. 28


iHAPTEB I W .ADI HALFA TO ABU liA)IED BY THE OUR 'E OF THE NILE. 1'HE river Nil e was of cour se the anc ient highway, a l ong which a ll the old, and most of the ma lern, cit ies are found In the previous chapter we have already described the modern route direct across the lesert from W ad i Halfa to Abu Harned It is expecte l that the Government wi ll short ly be iu a position to faci litate xcursions to the anc ient sites a l ong the Ni le, an l to form for the u lan a DepR.rtment of A nti quit ies, one of the duties of which will be to give information, with tariff of expenses for campina outfits, from Wadi Halfa, Abu Harne l. Shend i etc etc "'\Vhen t h e proposed rail way i s made from Abu H arne l to Don gola, fac ili ties w ill be made for reaching J ebe l Barkal and the Pyrami d field there, and those of Tangassi, Nuri Kurru, and Zuma. Till t h e n they can on l y be visited by camp in g out with tent and came l s and some amount of escort In the first place however, it may be state l, for 0~ THE ILE NEARJ:NG WADI HALF .A. thos who are not presse l for t i me, that there is now a respectable hotel at v,..r a li Halfa, and that the p l ace i s worth a coup l e of day stay "'\Vadi H a l fa is now a l arge town. It comprise., in fact, two towns, a uout a mi l e apart the northern being known a Taufikia, and the sou them porti on as The amp When I first i i ted it in 1 894, it was a wrntched assemb l age of mud hut. where a strong garr j son of Egyptian sol diers was q uarter ed, and on l y two Briti h officers, Ma j ors Llo yd an l Palmer. They treated my party with c;reat kindness and provi led u w i t h a u escort of t h e Mounted a m e l Corp with whom we vis i ted the econd Cataract Thi s was neces ary, for t h o u gh the re was a fort an l garrison at ar~as, 33 miles beyond the ataract the Dervishes had raided a v ill age not far off a few days befor 29


OUR I UDA 11' PYRA1l1ID1 A D PROGRE vVadi Halfa is now a pro perous p lac with 3,000 inhabi tants, and is the seat of the \1danese Railway Admini tration, wit;h fine ngineering work s hops, which are well worthy of a Vi it.1 On the wet bank,opposite Halfa., there are remains of the ancient town of BUHEN w ith ruins of two temples of the XIIth Dynasty, a nd a fortress of the sarn date The northern temple contained a remarkable ste le ( carr ied off by the expedition of O hampollion an l Ro e llini, about 70 years ago), now in Florence. 'apta in Lyon s r cently excavated the temple and found the lower half of the ste le which Rosellini had not noticed It i s now in : Florence al. o, an l Dr. Breasted has translated the whol insc ription. (S.B.A., Vol. XXV. ) It proves to be a document commemorating the conquest of the 'udan by UsERTE, EN I (c. 27 0 B.C ) with a list of t n cities tak n l>y him, th e l eing represented by ova l battl emented panel each held by a captive and with the narn of the town in the centre These places were all between Buhen and Dongola, and the text le crib a ric h and I opulous region, with quantities of grain an l th r rn1 s Thi c ntra 'ts curious l y with th state of the l and at the pre nt da3. r. Br a to l artic l e i mo t interesting. He how thnt the kincr' houl l be real E vvo I ET, from which the coined E o TRI attributing his u. ed to mauy l a t r Pharaohs an 1 ice e 1 a South of this, at Ben Hur, :6. mil from Halfa, there i another temple, erect 1, it i b li vecl, ER'l'E EN I. ' "~" ,,-.,,, 0 A KnEPER KA C u] 1 Halfa wa the headgu arter. of the fronti r force from 1885 to 1898, but now no ga.nison i s necessary 30


(Profe s so1 Breasted.) Tlllt} C \i\lPAlnN OF USER.TE E I., THE O] TIIE DAN c .:.., 75 0 B . TELE FOU ND I N TIIE TEM.PLE F THE ANCIENT 'l' W~ F BUilEN OPPO ITE ,YADI IIALFA.. TOW IN THE M U E U M, FLOREN E Fl'o m th e "P1o ceecling Soci ety of B ib l ica l Ai'chceol ogy V ol X.Y V copi cl uv p ermission of 1V. Ncuilt, E~r.i., llon ~ 1 31


OUR DA IT' PYRAMID1 AND PROGRE1 l y THOTIDIE 1II. (c. 1550 B .) th block of which bore in cription many of which, I .f a1, h ave lisapp are l. This t 1111 l is be t een on the land journe to Abusfr, not far from the fen The econ l "'iataract is a magnificent sight. It can be r ache l Ly boat or by land. The land journey is the most intere ting n reaching the urnmit f Abusir a most impressive view of the scene f desolation xtending southwards for many miles is un XI ected l y di played before u On a c l ear day the mountains of Don ola can be seen The waste of rocky rapids extend for v nd mil es t High ile it must be a g l orious THO'fHMES III. (Brit is h Jl1usew11.) ight, an l one cannot hel1 regretting that ir William iVillcocks bad not p l aced hi. r at am here, instead of at Philae. But he mu t not b blamed, for wh n h ame here to s ur vey the ite, he ne d l an s ort of 150 men, armed to the teeth, to convoy him to EMNA, where he wi h d to sec the records of the MEN KHEPER RA ile's heiglit of 4, 500 y ar ago. At that tiru there was no hope of the Sudan being conquered, so Willcock had to make his Reservoir lower lawn the riv r. One lay there w ill be a Dam made h re a lso; where nature bas done half the work alrea ly. If 50 fe t of water were held up at this point, it would feed the crops all the way back to Abu Hamed, or beyond, an l give the u lan perennial irrigation a well as Egypt. The vertical cliff at Abusir bears hundre 1s of traveller names, among which are the signatures of hampol lion, RoseUini, Lepsiu and many other CTreat 111 n. The railway a lon g the Nile, from Halfa to Kenna, of a rough description It was originally lai l in a hurry for the Dongola Expedition in 1896 the previous line having been destroyed by the Dervishe It has GARDNER GUN : FORT A.T SARRA.S Lady .tlmhe1-.~t of Hackney 32


c., w ti 'l'EMPLE OF BEN HUR. TEMPLE OF BEN HUR AND STEAMER "IBIS," NEAR WADI IIALFA. 0 0 ti 0 !)> 1-3 ;i,.. :;j > 0 ~ ;:,;, ;:-, > v(/2 t?=:l ri 9 '-;i '.:J b:1 ;;:,,, l .:.; 0


OUR UDA "N"; ITS PYRAJl{JDS A.1.YD PROGRESS. bad curve and 0radients and is liable to wash -outs and may ha Ye to be abandone 1, Lord romar tells us. He promises instead a line from Abu Hamed to Dongola, l ut that will not serve this <.Ii.strict. It certainly wotild seem the duty of the authorities to pro, icle com:111unication with this once thriving and populous part oE the Nile Here are the tations an l distances. Although the rail way may be removed the distances may be useful. vV adi Half a to arras Ambigol Akasha Kasha Kuror Dalgo Kenna K erma to Dongola oO miles the Nile is high 33 miles. On the river. 64 In the desert wells. 80 On the river. 10~ On the river-rail strikes l ert. 13 7 In desert.. 164 Railway rejojns river. 20'' ,, On th e rivei. Transport by donkey or camel, or by riv e r vhen "'\l{ e will now procee l alonO' the Nile towards DongolJ:1 from tbe S cond Cataract d what may be of interest by the way. Three miles south of Abu,ir (Count Gleich n t ll s us in his exce ll ent Anylo-Egyptia n ~'1,t,cla,n) there are the r emains of an ancient fortress an l small tern! le at fatuka, built hy U sertesen I. of the XIIth Dyna ty. On a laro islan l opposite are the r e main s of a imilar fort, an l on another small islan l to the uth are the ruins of a Christian 1lrnrch called D a rbe, from whi h a magnific ent vi w is obtaine 1. At Sarras, 33 miles from Halfa, ther is a modern fort an l barracks. Thi wa the frontier fortr s before the last campajgn. The view of the Nile, lookin g outh i. very beautiful. I am indebted to La ly Amherst of Hackney for the accomr anyinu illustrati n. taken in 1896 34


THE TEMPLES OF SEi\INA AND KUMMA. Forty-three miles south of H alfa, where the Nile narrows, are the fortress temples of SEM:NA and KUMMA bui l t by USERTESEN III. (XIIth D ynasty) : r ebuilt and exten le l by THOTHMES III. (XVIIIth Dynasty). Th ey are m fair vreservation still, with a rEMPLE ON 'l'FlE R[GU'r B \.NK. cii/laud. te mpl e and fort on ei ther side of the river. mna on the west bank i s 300 fee t above the ri ver, Kumma, opposite, being 400 feet above it. S ir Will i a m vVillcock who visite d this p l ace t o inspect the ancient r c ord of "Hi g h Nile," g r aven on the rocks, was EMNA TEi\:IPLE ON 'l'HE LEF'r BANK. Cai llcwd struck w1 t h the suitab ility of the l oca lity for a re ervoir. He c onj ctnre l that the TIIth Dynae ty Kings must have mad e o n e h re, whi c h h as now di a.1 peared Th h e i .; hts o f the flood as recorded a r e 2 or 26 f eet h i g h er above tho e of I r esent ars, 35 D 2


OUB SUDA r ; IT1 PJ RAMID1 A D PRO +RE 1. and Sir William 'Willcocks points out that if th re were orjginally a res rvoir here thio discrepancy would be accounte l for. He con id rs that this iJometer was ma 1 in connection with the ancient great irrioation ,, ork at Lu.k Moeri In 4,000 year all traces of a n y ancient am would hav di a1 p are l but a car ful ar h rnay still di cover ome remain~ of the embankment The me r ls on the rocks are a numb 1 TEMPL!l: A'l' SEMNA Hoskins. of short inscri1 tions g1vrng the Nile's h eight at flood for many year an l are most interesting proof of the engineering talents of th great kin g of th XIIth Dynasty, wh~se example after 4,500 yea rs we are at l ngth strivin; to mulate. We h a e seen that at Buhen near Halfa, Usertesen I. of the XIIth yna. ty was styled the Conq u ero r of the ud a n In the great respect to his memory in the carving on the wa ll s of the ten1ple at emna, the ame idea. i, evi lent. ert sen i s 'l'El\IPLE OF SE 'fNA-TBOTBME III. DOHW HO fAGE 'l'O ERTESEN 1. A THE FIRST COX

GOLD I 1JG 0.EJ' RD\ G OP U, 'E.RTE 'EN' I re1 resented in heav n in his acre l boat. 'rhothme of tb X IIIth Dynasty, from hi arthly l ingdom, rev r s him. Th r i no donbt but the object f h e XIItb yna ty King. was to eize th, gol 1-mine of th u lan. aptain Amery tells me that a rich gol l mine ha b en 01 n d almo t du we t of enma, between the military rail way and the Re l a. They ar un loubt lly the ancient workin0., an l are far from b i1w exhaust l. ome y ars a o wh n j urn ying by th ile in Egn t along with my frien 1, I rofessor ay e, I acq uir cl th a kl ignet ring of U ERTE E~ I., of which an n raving is a1 pen l d. It i l li \ eel to b of \1clau se metal, an l i a won lerful r lie of one of th greate t an l ise t rulers who ever sat upon the throne f Jfoypt. It i the olcle t royal rina known au l "ei0hs 678 grain of I nre nol l. WEIGH'r OF 'l'HE ROYAL JEWELLER OF U ER'l'E 'EN J. /1111 r i a l M iu,mm l'fr 1 ,in. F ro m th e .-111lho1'.s Co/lectio, i WEIGH'l' OF 'l'RE 1 OYAL JEWELLER O.F ER'l'E 'EN I. J, n perial ,lfu.seu,11, V ien ;1n. I recently foun l the narn f the g lcl mith who po i bly ma le the nn on a w ight in the Mu u111 of "\ i una I ap1 encl illu tration of this curious obj t. It will be e n that the cart n cli f 1 rt en i on one side, an l th in. criptiou "tli r yal jeweller HOR MEJA on th other. My att ntion wa drawn to thi w ight by r. Flinder 1 tri e J t is of alabast r, wei hing 5 ; grain i.e 1iro of the gol 1-tan larl of 213 0rain :No doubt it \Ya from tl1e jeweller' torn b. Th r wa a set of ight weights, but they ha, e di a1 p are L l os ibl thi notice ma' in luce own r an l k epers of o ll 'Lion t be 011 th l ok out f r them. THE T,u . F rrTRE, ".' E.' OF E:\IXA AKn K .\DIA. 1A IL L A 1 Ho:KJ~. arnl LErs1 s all unite in piai inf t h lection f th ite these twin fortr ss ou btl there wa once a larn and poI ulou town al. h r as the trace of th fortifi ation. ar of a~t xtent. Th illage of emna, on th "est bank f the Nil i. now a mi r ble place :37


THE GORGE OF THE rrLE BE L'WEEN SE. \1.NA. AND ICU.\HfA. Caillaud. PLAN OF THE TEMPLE, A_' D FORTS ON BOTH IDE, The po ition i admirab le for defence or for control of the Nile The rocky i s lets seem made by nature for a am and it is not to be wondered at that the m cLkers of Lake Ioeri the Great I ing of the XIIth Dynasty, turned their attention to its exploitation. When Caillaud' E:x.1>edition was made in to the e region ~ Mehemet Ali was cc:1,rrying on war in the south to avenge hi son' murder and Caillaud in some way was permitted to accompany the troops. The quaint engravings give an admirab le idea of the place and of the tate of affairs in 1820, an l no l ater representation has ever 1 een made. 3


AVOIE.:VJ1 ~A. ILE REGJ TER AT SEA1.~ 1 A ~D KUL.llA. THE N rn~T TIE OHJ>R OF H IGH ILE E\'C P ED 0~ 'J'ffE Ilo K,' AT EMNA PORTRAIT OF Al\'.fE)IEi\IIIA'l' llL AND K UMMA (Lep i u ) It i int 1 ting t I o e the portrait of on pi neer of E gy ptian irrigation who till foun l on the livin g rock wh ere hi officer carved them J ,400 ea r ao Thi plen li l l ortrait i in t he H ermitage Mu e mn of t Peter lmrg, a nd i s a like ne f a great anrl wi e Yin5 and at the same time on w110 w a an nlight enecl and b n ficent ruler. H h acl tw o ti l e th sec nd be in g fonncl in tl~ s in scri1 ti n A Ml~ M 'HAT. l\IA.A 'l'. ES R.A. lfi.j e c o ncl Ircim e l:N".-'-.l.1fPTI0:N" 0~ THE HOOKS AT ,1Ei\f~A (-;;7"..Qr'~=o)~t I O Q11111=i=OIIII= I 1L:::.~ o ~~li<==>1111or__._;ic11110 Translation In the year nine, the l eve l of the Nile of the 8th yea r (and) duri1w the 9th yea r under the Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt. EN MA.AT RA Living f r Ever. With the troop of soldiers belonging to the attendant of the prince s (table). 1e bek-khu, deceased, his good 11ame was Aa Shepses deceased po se. sor of the order of merit born of Ata'u.. (Hi mother's name.) Dr. Herbert vValker, who kindly translates this for u says this was evident l y a military exped ition as well as one to record the readings of the N ilometer The other r cord ar quite short in comparison with thi one HOHT h ,'C HIPTIO~ FltOM THE ROOK,' ON THE Y M~'.IA IDE. o n n --1 c:::::::J Q___,e 1 <:=:> 11 11 0 f /\/'NV\ D Pran l ation.-Lord of the Nil e of the 41st yea r under the M[l,je ty of the Kin g of the North an l outh MAAT EN RA, livin0 for eY r a nd ever. The ova l ign with a lin e through it at the upJ er right corner i. the mark for the a tual height of the flood. 39


OUR 'UDA1.V; IT1' PYRAJlllD I A}, D PROGRES. \,_ few more word abon t the e inter ting twi11-tem1 l s. Their architecture is rn sim1 le but ma. iv tyl yet legant. There have been extensive buildings near, apparently trongly fortifi Ll, and with xtensiv barrack The t mple on the ea t bank ha it pol nal column standin;. Th e temple 011 the we t bank is more ma i ve, but mor ruinous. Tn the in cription the e re lit of the arlie t conquest f thi region is a l ways giv n to U ERTE 'E I., and THOTlHIE III. pay homao-e t him and to U ERTE, 'E. III. in the temple restore l or built 1,000 year l ater, in the X IIIth yna ty. In the 1 markable reli f whi h we h r ngrav which 8till remain in the Temple of Semna, U erte en III., of the XIIth Dynasty, i r present d giving clivin benefit to Thothm s III. The mao-nificent tele, whi c h i now in Berlin was foun l at Sernna by L p ius. Thi laborately re orls th conq u ts of U sert n ITT. in tb se regions loul t other hi. torical in cripti ns still remain h~1 awaiting liscovery. L p iu di l not excavate, h merely opiecl the in cr iption a b v (l'rmrnd an l carri cl off Rl1) thin; portable, to emid1 th Mu um of hi patron, th kin f Prussia. Lep iu pring at de c ribes r niarkable kme, n the we t bank. liot Th ul1hm may b come aluable heal h-giving wat e r wl, cn th o nntry ortant thermal bath. Th native however, mad n e f the sulphurous water by b ing imm r e l in h olr dng in the g r ountl and ov re l with rn he t kee1 off the team. Ther \\ re ixt en hot I rings wiLhiu a small opa 4


:THE TE~!PLE OP AMARA. THE TE)IPLE OF ~1IARA. At A MARA, n ar th villag f that u ame, are inq ortant ruins f a tem1 1 of Ethiopian ori gin with culptur e l columns H r to qu te from Lep ius, w fir t m et w ith t h e cmio u s Ethiopic hiero lyphic texts, as yet untranslat d Th y are ba cl on Egyptian ign but xpr s a lost l angu::tge whi c h cannot be read t ill ome bilin ual text are found. Remains of au earli e r templ e on th ite h r ma I erhaI s xi t uncl r thi present stmcture. uch a commandin g positi n woul l _have b n utili eel 1 y the XIIth and VIIIth ynasty buil ler and r searche by scientific xcavator may find r eco r l. of : :n-lier ettl ments on t h e same spot. The date of the exi ting mple of mara 1 probably a l ate, or l a ter, t han 500 B.C for we here s e the stout Que n in evidence, who not found of an ea.rli r date and whom w hall se frequ ently at Naga an l other itie of the udan, in t h e region known to th cla .. i c writers as t h e kingdom of Meroe. V ery possibly x avation here woul d h ow that t h e x i s tin g templ e was merel y a r co n truction f a much older e lifice. The I resent i s very simpl e in plan. wide doorway (19 feet) :flanked by two column eac h 3 feet 8 inche' in diameter, o f which fragments r e m ai11. In icle, i ht lumn ri hl y s uJi -tured, 3 fe t 8 111 he. in cliam t r symmetri cally place l iu a u ai.artm nt -C) by 3 0 f t. Ho kin and L p iu } raise th cnlpture an l th umman ling ituatiun o f the t 1111 ,l e ----------,----=:-=-::-=~-------, T~1e twin templ s o f emna anu Kumma ar uch a b rt way from i\ li Halfa and the eond ataract, that it would not strain the powers of the a a th riti s t uny ureat clegr e to facilitate their b in g vi ited with ornparative ease a n i safety. At the I r esent time, it fo almo t impos. ible f r a touri t to reach t h m while in th fa, t century the visit to "emna was quite a n easy excmsion. It i s not too much to y that the record of the Nil l ev L s on t h e cliff: at the margins of the o r ge at emna, are the most interest ,ing thing of t h kin l in thworld, b ing quite uni que, an l th ir urvi val to ur t im i s little s hort f marv llo u .. H


0 :s, UD.l.B J I1' PYRA.llfID1 1 A ~D PROGRE1 I In Hoskin account of thi 1 l ace h e descrj l 0 th nativ a cl an and indu trions an l th region ferti le. Hoskin wa to l d of the remain of 111any ancient cities and ternr les in the u eighbou rho o l whi c h h e ha l not t i me to vi it. At AI IsLAKD, 130 m iles from H alfa, there ar rema in s of a town and a Chri t i an 1hurch an l xt n sjv cem t rie Th e r e i s a l o a templ with in sc ription of THOTRME IlI. and AMENHOTEP I. (XVIIIth Dynasty) The columns of the church a r granite monolith each h as Gr k rosse on the capital. At J e l e l Dush is a fine tomb with ca r vino o f the time o f THOTllME, III . Th e whole 11ei0hbourhood eerns to abound in ruins of a pa t c ivilisati on, an l a ca r e ful a rch o l oaica l surv y hould be mad o f jL. Thi s tem1 l e at Thebes w ill g i ve an ilea of the sty l e of the column s of the temple at Amara wh 11 in a more perfect tate 42 (. 'ee Chapter VT., Pa ge G3.) The Scar a b show 1 o n pcige G 3 gcis .founc1 heie.




F OR '0:.\IPARVO~ OF THE AR HITEOT PAL OF A~lE~HOTEP BUILD!~ ,, IN E YPT A~D THE UDA 'l'E.\JPLE OF Al\iE:-IHOTb:P III., A' l L XOR, EGYP l 'J'lie eolumns a,e cibsolutely iclenlical in d esi_r;n w i tli t lwse <:?/ Ifi e same Icing's t emple at 'olil~. 44-




OUR SUDA~; IT> PJ R 11!1.ID A ~D PROGRE S EDINGA: 'l'EMPLE OF Q UEE TYL L e p siiis THE TEMPLE OF QUEEN TYI AT EDIN GA AT SEDIN A, six miles from ai islan l, there are remajns of a fine temple built by Ai\IE JHOTEP III. on the east bank. This tenq le was dedicated to his QUEEN TYI, and [!][!][!] l~lf~l!l l!J[!]l!] [!][!JI!] 1!][!][!] l!ll!ll!l l!l l!l [!] [!] l!l l!l 00 [!JI!] I!] l!J I!][!! [!J(!J l!llil 0000 ~Ii] l!J[!J Iii [!J [!I lil [i] l!l [!] l!J Ii] l!l l!l l!ll!Jl!J[!l [!l 00 [i] 00 [jJ [jJ [jJ l!Jl!J[!J l!Jli][!J (!J [!] [!] (!J [j][!Jl!] l!l 50 100 Fr ''" //// PLill'l" OF TEMPLE AT OLIB. The out r P ylons h ave disa ppecwcd. 200 their cartouches are found side by side, as at Thebe,. Oaillau l and Hoskins portray the ruins, which are in fine sty le but neither of the e trave ll ers took time to excavate or to endeavo ur to find the plan of the temp le which has evidently been vio lentl y lestroye l. It was un loubteclly a beautifu l structure and deserves carefu l exploration. Seven miles beyond we come to the ruins of perhaps the :finest temple built in the XVIIIth Dynasty. These are the ruins of 10LIB, a lso built by Amenhotep, and certain l y are th "handsomest in the Su :tan." (This i::; the epithet use l by Hoskins.) Here AME HOTEP III. g lorifies himself a a deity as he li l his beloved Tn at Sedinga Th e architect must have been the same g uius who worke l for this monarch at Thebes. The column s are identical in design, but in better preservation, an l are very legant. It evident l y had avenues of colossal carve l lions and ram, in the same sty l e a 46


AJl1ENHOTEP'S TEMPLE A T SOLIE. those of K a rn ak. Many of thes e col as a l a nimals were cani d off by T a harq a to decorate his own temple at J ebe l Barkal about 800 years lat r. Th e temple o f Solib stands in a plendicl ituation. "It i vtr,r imp o ing as it rises up proudly at the extre mity of the d 8ert, thA onl y beacon of c ivilisati on in ::i ea of bar r en n ess; it i pieture sq u e as it i s extraord in a r y, a nd a little way ff, ha the beauty of an exquisite Grecian temp le. But on nearer ar proach, we see that it is of the finest, true Egyptian a r c hi tecture, a ud t h e p lan is cha t l y s imp1e. "The first pylon was 600 feet fr om the Nil e but i entir ely ruine d and the mate ri a l nearl y a ll ca rri ed away A flight of tep l ed up to a court, b fore the econd pylon; t his court is 70 feet l ong and 4 -feet i le. i x mas ive column s of 10 fe t ham eter toad in the court, but they have bee n caniecl off, on ly t h eir base r main." This was in the time of Hosk ins; I f ar mor l truction may have gone o n ince hi tirn He remarks that. the s con l p3 l ons ar not o l i 1 a u sua l in Egyptian t rnpl but onsi t Fl'orn th e Ccti?'o 1 of sma ll a 1 artm ent,, an 1 a the r have no doors he think this was clone to economi e stone The -e p y l ons arn p a n e ll e l, h e thinks, for the ame purp e, b u t i t add to the effect Each win i 78 feet wid the doorway being 11 make the to t a l 167 feet; the depth of t h e pylon 24 t Th v 1 w into th e grea t court b bind i s m agnificen t It is 90 f et by 113, a nd hacl 28 columns of which 7 a re stan ling They a r e all of the b u 1-, haped-cap ital COL SS.AL POR.'rR.A.I 'l OF A.MEN HO'rEP III. Briti s h ltl usewn. t3 pe, 19 feet 4 inc h s in c ir c urufel' ence, a n l of exq ui i te e l gance of pr I ortio n On seve r a l o f t h e columns a r t h e carto u c h e a n l titles f AME IIOTEP III. a n l t h e of Ame n Ra. Only on retain. part of its arc hi trave, and i t i o u e of th most I rfe t and b :1.utiful Th n xt court i s mor e cl troyecl, but th plan can still be trace 1. It i s a l o 78 feet l ong, and had 2 column the circumferen of ea h 1 7 f et, but not on of them i tancling The n ex t c h a mb er c nta in s t h e r e mains of 12 columns on l y on a beautiful one with a g raceful I a.l m vapita l remains u pri(J'ht The drums of the e olum ns were orna m nte d with sc ulptur e l fig u res of I rirnner.:; in relief. Turreted ovals conta in l the name f the cou nt.rie conq u er d. Th e :figure were inten le l for portraits of the l ifferent races s ubdu e d ; some with fin e t a tures, and ot h e r s of egro typ the hair of t he one r epre nted l o ng hanging lawn the boulders t h e other with thic k lips, w i d nostr il hi g h cheek bone and woolly hair. Th e temp l e ex ten led beyond thi s room, 40 n


0 R 'DA IT1 I PYRAMID1 I AN]) PRO GRE feet i11 all. Fragm nts of column which were thl'ee feer, in diamet r lie about, wher oth r bnil ling . xi t l. It i pos. ibl t hat t h e foundation, if xcavated, would g i, e the pl, n of th buil ling al o. foch sculptured work adorned th temple, of which trac remain eryw h ere. 11 t h e in crip t i ons are in true Rgyptiau hieroglyphs. The cenery f h n i hl ourhoo 1 i accorc lin g to Ho kin still grand, e en magnificent none id e the trackl yellow c.lesert, bound l on l y b th horizon; on the oth r a luxuri ous and bea utiful v egetat ion flourishes, with the silvery Nil e b eyond The rema in of t h e ancient c ity ext n l for a con id era bl e listance. to south and north. On t h e bank f t h e river, 240 yard further n orth t han the t emple, are the remain of 'l'H E 'l'E~PLE OF ~1EXHOTEP Ill. AT OLIB llo s kins a mall Ii 1, while :a, 0 yard to th north of tl1is pier there i s a projection of tone~ thrown into t h e riv er, apparen t l y to form a port. In the Briti h J\Iu.e u m are the pair f m agnificent lion s in black granite, which Lon1 I'ru 1ho bro uuht from apata, arly in the past century: these, L epsi u informs u ''" re r i ginally rifled from o li b by Tabarqa.1 Th e sp l ndid col o sa l Ram which Lei in. ca rri cl off from Nar a t a, wa originally er c tecl by AME HOTEP III. at lib. Th 1 ar 1 mi l under the an ls doubtl ss many more of these colos sa l 1 It i s stra nge that t he ear t h e o nl y known colo. a l lions of early Egyptjan wo1 k They possibly form d an al ln ion to the lion-hunting feat o f t h e king' youth, befor e h e married the great Syri a n Prin e T yi. The e lion -Lunt mo t likely t o ok place i n the wild reg\on where h e R.fte1 w ard. buil1 t h e e T mples o f 'edingR. and 8o lib. There were no po ibiliti e of hunting lio ns i n a densely populated land suc h a Egypt wa. t h en But in the udan there were many lions and still these animal ,ibound ju many di tricts. 4


;lo:::; t,;j ANClE.N'l' FOR'!' A'l' D.l~FUFA. THEBES : TH.I!: COLOSSl O'I<' Al\11!:NilO'l'l!:I' lll. DURlKG THE INUNDATION. 'l'UESE S 'l OOIJ BEFOIW A TEMl' Lli: WHICH HAS ALL VA"'ISHED. illENHO'rEP's AVENUE OF RAM-SPHINXES AT KARNAK, EGYP' r identical in d e sign and size with those e r ecte d b,IJ liim at Solib. U1 0 s:::: .. td U) t_:,:j 8 z Q ? t:l t_:,:j "'l C: '-::::I ?>


OCR SUDAA ; IT PYBAJv!JDS A D PROGRE I 1 tarn as thi kin wa very partial t av nu of th ame figure. Not one of all the hundred in the avenue at Karnak i I rf t, while the one from 'o lib now in rlin, i a fresh af\ the day it was carY l. Fol'tunatel3, fail' portrait ex i t of menhotep an l his Que n, of which engravino~ are i ven. This notable r yal pair e m to ha, e been remarkabl for th ir good looks. They w r certainly the mo l 1 coupl of ancient :Egyptian History Th ir "maniag carabs are unique, aud A.1u nhot p seem to have been as proud of hi union with th great Syrian prin e a h e was when. he wa engaged in hunting lion s to her honour. I ha, e given much space to illustrat an l l cribe thi magnificent t mple, which has hitherto been passed over b) arch, ologi L It is peculiarly interesting tu u becau e it s rv s to show "' hat the am king'. t mple at The be mu t ha, b n SCARAB OF TYI A 'D AME T lik Th Th ban temple has utted.) perish d, only th twin cola i which tool at it. gat s remain. t 1o lil we fi11d: 1,000 rnil s al n the will ling Nile, a t mpl which may be a duplicate of th lost great Th ban temple of Ai\IEl IIOTEP III. This te1111 of olib was probably th fine t he ff\ r l uilt. It i r corded that Amenhotep an l Tyi both w nt to Nubia sr ecially to att n l it. inaugural c reruonie Hi ternpl at Th bes and this one w r probably similar in le ian, with a couple of colossi before the gate. of each. At Thebes the temple has disar peared, but the cola. si remain; her the temple remains, but ther is no HOTEP. sign of the c lossi. There being two cola si on the I lan l Tyi' s name in a caito uche gi'

A:-.IE:\'HOTEP'' 0FFI 'IAL ~CAHADS. The e ureat scarab are curiou 1 ing 01113 issu d by Amenholep. They are very carce an l eem to hav e been 1i tribut l t o each province as n. ort of ofti ial announcement of his marriage "ith a 5reat lad y whom he con id"rel to b a xaltel as himself. Two of these scarab, from the author' collection, are engraved (full size) in or ler lo indue a sea r c h for ot h r.~ irnil ar to them in thi loca lit r TRAN,' LATION OF THE "MAHRIA Ti,: 'CARAB" OF AME 1HOTEP UEEN TYI. Line 1. t B 2 })i r~ Lz'ves tlte Horus, tlze strong bull, resplendent z'll Trullz, tlte doubl e ruler, es tablz'slzi1,g r~t~ = 3.~ <>= f '1 = _n laws, pacifyi1w tlze t-wo lands. Tl, e golden Hortts, g r eat of valo /tr, s111z"ting the Asiatics, l 4. (6~] ~0 o~nJ ~t S t~ 0 { K i ,Lwof (};E'}/m~1 and} A1llenhotep.I.II. so1t of the Sm,, { 11~t~~1,T,,~;ePb } giviug life. Tlt e royal wife, ower 3 J'r 1 u1e 1 oJ ,te cs, ~o c~~~\\) t-~ :: NV\NV\~ ----N\/\NV\ the great one, Tyi living Tlze name o.f her fathe r tlte na1lle of ~r ~} 7. D} D her moth e r Thuya. Site is tlte wife of tlze migltty ki11g . 8 D .LJX~ 1 I( I<=> u, <=:> nn ] D NV\NV\~ <=> MNW\ ]~ C3LJ I 9 I~ \\ a<=> m IO. 11 \\ I His bo1111dary to the o uth er11 one .l(a1J' tlt e J\Torthem one to lJ/Iesopotamia 51 E 2


OUR SUJJA"N' ITS PYRA~MID 1 101D PBOGRE 1 THE "LrnK HuNT" SCARABS O F AtIENHOTEP III. AND UEE T Yr. There are other officia l s ca rabs o f this sov r e io-n, made n a imi l ar sca le to th marriage one Th e most inte r est in g of the e is one recordin g the king's hunting of lion which may h ave occurred in these regions. One of the Lion Hunt scarab. from t h e author's collection is h ere r er roduced-full size. Line 1. f Lives ru O 111 TRAN LATIO~ OF THE CC LIO H NT > 1 'ARAB OF i\fENH TEP III. the Horus, the strong bull, 8 resple11dmt in Tntt!t, double ruler establishin g ---1] Ri~,~ laws, paci/J i1tg th e two lands. Tlze golde1t Horus, great of valour, smiting th e Asi atics, 4. C 61n ] { Ki11g of Uppe r ond} A h 1,,1, III. J fil, S { .rlmenlwtep } ~ f.,, ,,,, l ; Lowe r E g ypt. m e n zo e r son OJ ze un, ruleroj Tlt e bes, gwtllg l_;l. -'-,t e roya w1:;e, C c ~ q ~ J m 6 JL x a the great one Tyi Tlze 1wmber of liom taken by lzis Majesty in !us !tu1tting himself, Jgg _n 7 { I b C <=> 1 n 8. R r rb 1t @ 1 1 begi1tniJ1g from year I unto Jear 10. Lions 52 -fierce 102.


TEJIJPLE OF I ET! I. AT I E1_1EBI. 'E, EBI : 'TEMPLE OF SETI I. 'cti//01,cl Having devoted many I ages to the wonders of olib, \ve urn t now resume ur journe3. till trav llino nth, u n u mb r of the r 111u in of ancient fort occur One of the e n ar ll;, E, on t h 1 ft bank of t h :Nil i a fine exampl The view from it is rnag nifi c nt, and t he. many fort both far aucl n ea r tell o f a former m1m r o u s and warlike po 1 nlu tio11, which has now a lm ost disappeared. A few mil e outh of this i 'ESEBI opposite t h e mod m town of a loo. He1 ar the scanty ruins o r n one beautiful temple bearing the carto uch of 'ETI I., XIXth yna t3, t h e m o t south ern point where hi s name h as be u faun l, which proves that t h e story of bi. udan e xp editions on his Egyptian monuments i s true. 'ome doubts h ave be n thrown on hi having been in Ethiopia, but h called himself king of these r eg io n His s n, RAMESE II., seems to have comp leted hi outhem l abour by the recti n f tlrn oTeat Lempl of Abn Simbel, althoug h L e p -ills says he built at J ebe l Barkal, whi h i s doubtful. The tyle nf this t mple differ from the other temples of the sam king 'aillaud s illm~trat i on, g i \ en above, how s the state of t h e rnin in 1 82 0 ; since t hen I a m told t hat o n e of t h e c o lu m n s h a s fallen. E, er) thing lmil t by 'eti w~1 beautiful and nothino a go o l a bi ar hitecture "as d o n e aft r his d ath. Hi lat w a 1 3 27-1275 B.C His mummy i in th airo l\1u urn his coffin i s in Lon

OUR UDA "N",. JT I PYRAHJD11 A 1 n PBOGBE I'. nee l ed much capital for his many temples, and no

WVFINJSHED OOLOS u;, KERUA, HA"?NEK This remin ls one of the unfinished obe lisk lyin g in the quarry at Assuan. The tone here is re l granite, and there is no doubt tlrn. t the two colo ssi on Argo i lan l, some twenty miles further south, were worked in this quarry al o. These three statu s are of the XIIIth Dynasty, 700 year5 earlier tha1{ the time of Seti, whose templ is cl scr ibed above. Near Kaya, on the we::;t bank, are fi of rnin len ting ancient citie a yet un xpl orecl wlto. e name ar l ost On th cast bank, near the Cataract, we fin l at Kerma the n l of the o ld railwn.y from Halfa, which is now threatened with r moval. North of Kerrna arc the remain of enormous anc ient granite brirlo, which evidently belonge l to n. great city, on t h e ea. t i le o f t h e river. The ruin. are prea l over th plain, a n l its immense an cient cemetery a ]joins them. Two l arge masses of ruined brickwork are con picu tL, on of which is a lled Kerman, the other D e fufa. Each ha an ante-te1111 l e attac h l y t the y are not pyramid. but very an cient E0yptian stronghold Th se a r e built f ancient Nil e (nnburnt) brick The y 1 embl the anc ient Egyptian forts near El Kab in Egypt. Many fragment of statues are l ying about and hi roglyph in."criptions 111 t h best E oyptia n style. YOU~G LION FROM THE SUDAN, PRESEN'rED ro THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN Lep ius thought these DUBLIN, BY rn R. LATIN. proved this to have been the oldest important Egyptian settlement on Ethiopian 0'I'Oun l, an l the granite bridges to have belonged t it. There are many in criptions on the rocks near the river, some bear th cartouches of t he XVIIIth Dynasty, and an in cr i1 tion of eighteen lin es bears the elate of the econ ] year of THOTHMES I. (c. 15-:1:0 B . ), and on anoth r tablet adjoinh1g the ca1'touch of ?11:ENHOTEP III. (c. 1414 B.C.) The country near Hann k w as very pleasing jn Hoskin 's t i me, flat and ferti l e Th luxuriou s n ess of the vegetation on the island the acacias, the picturesque gro up s o f palm tr the masse of rock impe ling th cmrent, an l aryin the tint of th ri, er by the whit surges they create, an l in the di. tance the y llow sa nd., formed altogether a ft and lo v l y l andscape The beauty of the Fir t Cataract h::i been improved off the face of the earth. The Second ataract remain t ill ome future Willcock dam its 5


0rnndeur. But here in a lo ca lity belonging to our nation, i cenery rnor bea utiful than e ither First r econd ataract., were we only enabled to Yi it it. v, ere om faci li ties afforded jt would have its thou a n 1 of isit or annually Th Jan 1 ha been clo ed to trave ll 1 \ for s ev eral ge neration now that it is at penc and in our hand it offer t emptations for th arti t a w 11 a the antiquarian whi h i t i hor eel rnay 1 soon made a, a ilabl e Th ojl in tbi region i th e he t an 1 most fertile in the wh l \1 lnn. H kin s sp aks of i at quantiti e of indioo pl antatio n h r eabont in hi tim a n 1 5 00 water-wheel ewploj d in it cu ltiYation on th gr at I 1 of Argo, w hi h -we ar now a pproa c hing. It h a be n "-ept with war a nd ervi h opr r 1011 ince then, but n w that is gone for ever, th e fertil e l a nd will be a ll the ri c h r for the rest, and the population wi ll return. The ra1 id natural increa. e of th e sturd T l eople in times of peace, and with non e to en l ave th m or u1ake them afraid ISLE O F ARGO : SOUTH COLO 'SUS FROM TIIE SOUTH. will soon I rovi le the population the lnnd had in ancient times, which it is quite fit to support. f eou r se thi. will be helped by irnr roved irrigation. Ho. kins describe the I 1e of Argo as very fertile, overed with palms, yca1uore a nd pastur s, with much cattl e ::tnd hor ses, but on l y l arti a lly cultivate(l. It i a.bout ""''w mi] lonQ' a nd i5 broad, and abounds with hare I igeon quail and partridg e Th re are many ancient ruin which hav 11ev r been prop rly exp l ored The most important r mains ar the two colossal tatne of El3EKHOTEP III. of the XIIIth Dynasty 2400 n .. ). They lie pro trate, and at some distanc from one another as if th y h a l been r a ly to r e move e lsewh ere Both 'taLu s are of ex0ellent workman hip, anc.1 about 2 fe t high. They ar of grR.nite, and were brought from the quarry in th island of Tombo 20 miles 01 more to the north. They vi lently Load befor om neighl oming temple ruin. Th ere i al a mall seat c.1 tatu of tli same kiua, and in cription' of hi r-:5


EH DO.LYGOL L, J{H 1 r DAE-, OLD DO '.\r IOL 1. date; al figur f baboons of a much later p e rio 1. Th i lan l at thi e rly date mu t hav had crowd of inhabitant,, and the Y ry 111 ing an l re tion of the e great fioures mu t have b en don-both by numb r. an l with kill l lal our. :Monument of the sam Egyptian. king have be 11 fouml at Tanis in he elta, 1 OOO rnil s di tant, hawing the extent of hi rule This i land and th neighbourino r niou teem with antiquities, which bav n ev r 1 een pr p rly inYe bgate 1. Do :OLA, knm n by the native a El Orde (the cam1 ), i marked w Dono-ola 011 the mar ,1 to li ti1JO'ui hit from 011 Dono l a, about 90 rnil further outh along the ri \ r on the r ight bauk, which i now a ma. s of ruin :r ew 0110-ola i till an im1 orta11 t town, n the left bank, and high abov the iuundati n. It ha iovermnent ffice,, a O'Ood bazaar, an l e, rnl thou ancl inhabitant It wa. f und cl in 182:,.,, the l a ,meluke having cl stroy cl Old l ongola in 1820. Thi \rn tli uT at celltre E th ixty year ao caravans of wr t heel creatur brou ht acro.-. I LE OF ARGO : N R'.l'HERN COLO S FROM 'l'HE OUTH. Caillcmd. cl ert from Kord fan, 'ennar, an l by siuia met here for li. tributi 11 g 11 among cl aler who forwar le l them on to iairo. cruel tr atment to which he aw th m expo e 1 and thi w nt on t ill Gor lon' .. tim and tc, our ow n day:. N \V it i a thing of th pa t w may f rv ntly h pe, a our onque t oE the u lan makes lav clealino and l a tradin; illegal und 1 th Briti h ftau Khan lak i the first mo l m place w have depicte d, .t the autiquiti ha, demanded all our I a e. This i a thrivinoplace, the headquarters f the Mamuria. It i buil t on an el ation overlooking the river, and i. 8 hour.' teamin fr m D ngo l Ther i much wood in th di trict and 440 akia (naLive water-wheel.,), a h npr ortin g four familie The large fort in th mid U of the town commands th river. It i now in rui n but is till an imr rtant f atme c mman liiw, a it 1 NewDongula"a tliemilita. 1 ba, e f theuu u efnlBriti1 exp ditio11tor live 'orlonin -!. The hrt o f t he 6 ani:-;on wn. withdra wn in l e 6, a nd the place abanclonet.l to the Dervishes. 57


OUR SUDA IT I PYRA~ilD1 A"i:rD PROGRESS. does, th L1esert I a sa e to Mera wi a w 11 as the river. It has a mall bazaar. olonel Penton bought so m e scarabs at this bazaar, which he gave me; they are crenuine, but late in date, about -oo B .. A I opu l ou <.listri L li between New and ld Dongola, bnt it has not been e xr lored for antiquities. 011 ongola h as a picturesque ituation, with its fortification o n a rock 5 00 feet high but n w shelter. on l y a few miserable inhabitant, It wa formerly the apital of the crreat 'hri tian Em1 ire of Ethiopia, a nd judging from it ruins mu t have been a gren.t and I ro p rou plac 600 years ago. Upon a mountain n ea r th ruins tan l. a mosqu from which thel'e is a d ligbtful pro pec t all aroun l. An Arabic in cription at his mo qu tell s how the 'hri tian were wiped out by the :Moslem onc-lueror Thi marbl record states that the buil li1w wa opened "on KHA.:NDAK, DONGOLA MUDIRIA. M a,jor PhiJ)p . the 20th Rubi 1 .A neh in the y ur 717 (1st June, 1 ")17), after the victory of SE!,fe l lin Abdallah 1 isr over the Infidels." The ruin of 'luistian chur he exi t all ov r the 'uda.n, but not one was in existence in the whole conntr when w conquered the Ian~ nho~ing how the in:fid 1 ha l been extermiuat c1 by th Mo lem conqu rors. A few worl a t rn dern event:; in these remot pla es by the winding Nile' banks. These region are quiet n w, qni ta. th grave, in anci nt time stirring Jocaliti s. Bnt even in our own tim they have b en the cenes of harp combats in the checking of the Mahdist revol t. An att mpt was rnaLle to e tablish a loy a l native gov rnin nt at Dongola, in 1885 wh n t he. Eon tian xr e lition r t.ired. The native were against the Mahdi t.' but fell t o pieces on th ad va11ce of the e nemy. The Anglo-Egyptia n troops wer encamped a lonO' the river. Ther were 1,700 British, and 1, 00 EO'YI tian S i r F teph n on gave the Dervi he a d e i iv bating at Ginni, in D c mber, 188-. Ablnllrnzid, their l ead r, was wound Ll, and th trouble ceased for a tim But in 1 86, th frontier w a move l to Hal fa, ,rnd the Dervishes contented them e h es ,, ith tearing ur the rail way line, an l raidincr th ill age. of frien lli s The British .ol liers were now with lrawn, 5


JJERA WI, JvlAGAL, BACHI'L'. and Halfa was l eft to be defended by the Egyptian garri on alo11e We have en how Lord Gr nfell turned them to acconnt at To ki in 1889. ir H. Kitchen e r became ir lar in 1892, aucl at once set himself to the ta k of preparation "to smash the Mahdi "-the legacy l eft us by Gordon. The native army, wh ich owe its reconstruction to ir Evelyn Wood's l abours from 1883 had at Toski hown itself reliable, :md wa now becoming a brave force, fit to expel the foe, when well lec.1. In June, 1896, Kitchener surprised and almost annihi l ated the Dervi h s at Firket. Dongola wa reoccupied in September, 1896, the enemy having bolted on the advance of our troor s 'ir Archibald Hunter was made governor of Dongola I ravine for a time, till th orders came for the advance on Khartoum. :E rom 011 Dongola to l\1e rawi, the cour e of the :Nile, d scribing a semicircl of about 100 miles, turns to the north. Many ancient forts are passed, an l at J ebel Deka, on the left bank, the massive walls of a hristian fortress are een on a projecting and tone rnr.k, wit.h the r mains of severa l large bui ldin g., among which i a R INS OF CI1R1STIAN MON'A TERY NEAR MAGAL. L e p sii is. small churcl~ (with three ai~le ), a l o in ruin. The whole nave re ted on four columns and two wall pillars. Many ruined churches of the ame type are found in the 'udan. Not far off at lVIagal, on the opposite sid of the Nile, there i s a much l a rg r 'b.Tistjan c hurch. Among the ruins are monolith granite columns, 13 fe t high, and half-way up a sort of divid cl capital of 18 inches by 2 f et in liamet er This church hac.1 five a i l e Further up th river we come to Bachit, where th rock wa ll of th cl rt descen l to the :Nile, and bears upon it a fortress with 18 semicircular towers of lef n e. In the interior, under heaps of rubbish wa Lhe rnin of a hri tian church whi h seeme 1 to have marked the centre of the fortress. The church wa a lmost id entical with th one at Deka de crihed above That a n enormons population of hri stian mu t have filled the l and before the lVIo l m conque t is proved by the e 'hr i s tian c hurches which abound everywher In ear lier da:) the l and was densely p opled to as we h ave already found; and in Mo l em times, and lawn to Mehemet A li' s Reizing of th country it was very populous in e then it ha b en on th le line, till our own day and ruin are found everywhere. I am indebt d main l y to Lepsius for the foregoiug le. cr ipti on of this region, and the architectura l letail arr.. bi 59


OUR UDAN; IT> Pl RAMJDS i \D PROGRESS. i r or even miles south of New Dougola, on the right bank, is a delicate little E yptian tem1 le, late unknown, in good preservat ion. I am indebted to Count l e ich n for this information, mentioned in his Anglo -Egyptian itdan But I will giv th de ription at great r l ength, from 1ount Gleichen' ea.rli r book on th or lon Expe htion, With the Gam,el Corps ir,p the !\ ile Jot 1 ng aft r w h a l settl cl at ongola, au important aclditi n anive



JEBEL BARKAL. PLANS OF THE TE~1PLE :z o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 ._'.._ ~ "_.."_.._" __. I 00 FT SMALLER TE 'IPLE GREAT TEMPLE. SCULPTURES IN rnE GREAT TEMPLE, JEBEL BARKAL (i2 (Ho kins.)


HAPTER VI. THE PYI AMID. AKD TEUPLE OF NAP \.T "\iVE now com e t o the l ocality of the P y ramid of the \1 lan. Th ere ar sev ral fields of these a n cient monum ent -th Pyraru ids of Zum a and Kurru on the \\ t bank and T anga s i on t h e ea t 1 an k wi h those of un and J ebe l Barkal twenty mil e s fur t h r up the Nil There must be a hundred l arg pyramids a n l a many sma ller with the est j ges o f numerous t b r tomb of imil ar form. It i s liffi cult to account for thi s cro d of witne. s s to an SHABAKA. anci ut c i vili ation and a dense population for 01113 th ir prince s wer e d ee m ed worth y of the hon our of a pyramid for their last re t in g -pl ace. The neighbourhood of :N apata wa. a l wa3 s r egard l as a acred spot, l ong before Tah a r qa c h ose it as hi s own. Doubtless the TIIt h ynasty Kin g U sertesen and Am nemhat, bad forts an l templ s here. Amenhotep an l T y i of the XVIIIth y nasty, were not From !olaspero's Passing of the like l y to neglect the neighbourhood of the H o l y 1ou ntain. Bmpires.'' S.P .C.K. About 1 000 years B. a great awake nin g came up on N apata From some cause unknown the kings of the XXIInd Dyna ty h ad quarrelled with the prince-priest of Thebes, and he and many of hi s I r i est mi0Tate1 to Na pata, there to found a new The bes an l s pr ad the worship of Amon This drew the attention of Nubian princes to Egypt, an l Piankhi, an Ethiopian, led a n ann3 into Egypt and conquered it. Piankhi wrot the story of bis prowess on a great stone monument, whi c h i s in Cairo Museum. This was about 700 B.O. After that, Ethiopian princes ruled Egypt-the XXVt. h D y nasty, about 690 B.O. habaka, habataka, and Taharqa ca me to the throne ucc es si vely. I found a scarab of Ti1haka1 at Thebes, near a temple he had r es tored, the s maller one at Medinet Habu. It has the ca rtouche of I iankhi joined with that of Tab arqa, s howing that he c l a im ed descent from Piankhi. There are man y m morial s l ft at J ebe l of Taharqa and Piankhi. Th r e ugbt to be also remains of works by all the kings name d ab ove, and loubtless I roper inves tigation would find them. I trie discovered in Egypt, in a most unpromisin g -lookin g 1 Vario u s rendering of the same n ame 63 PIANKHI-TAHARQA. SCARAB OF TAHARQ A FROM THEBES, WITli D OUBLE CARTOUCHE. TAHARQA. AND P JANKHI.


0 R 1UDA -;y lT1 p YRA1 }JIDS A D PPOGRE1 place, the desert behind Abydos, all the lost tombs of the early king of Egypt of the I t and !Ind Dynasties. An the1~ Petrie, if he were to earch here, might :find 1uite a much o f unknown history: an l fill up many ;aps. Taharqa l eft his mark all over Eoypt, bnt came home here to die at his nat_ i\ p lace, and doubtles Pia.nkhi left full record of his deeds in his 11ative Napata. Th different angle of the southern pyramids from those of Egypt is at once se e n, and is difficult to account f r. Many of the ubian I yramicls eem to have bad an upper c hamber, w hi ch never i faun 1 in the Egy} tian. Whether these had subterran .an c hambers \;\,"C do not know, as no proper xaminatiou has be n made; in, everything connected with the Ethiopian monument t mp le. an l tombs i s an nnsolve l problem. or ha an inf rmation 1 u given a to whether the bo li interred w r TAHARQA, From Maspe_ro' s., ~>ass~r>.q oj the E11L1n res. -8.P.C.R. mummified or oth rwise. The univer a l vul gar belief exist that ancient tomb and pyramids always containe l treasure. Lepsius tells us that even the } ashas an 1 l\1ndirs, arnl all the nativ con tantly asked him how much gold h had faun l in h e search for antiquitie...., This wide spread helief among all la ses of natives an l officia ls, accounts for the fact of eve ry I yramid, e pec ially the l arge r ones, in a ruine 1 tate, an l of ome only foundalions rema1n. The fact that trea, nre wer found in ome of tbo e at !I:eroe in th l a t ntury no doubt excited the cup idit y of the nati v s, and it i to be fear"d will produce the rnin of the pyramids, unl mean are tak n by the Government for their protecti n. Near the village of Znm a ri es an ol l fortress "ith towers of defen e, the outer wa ll s of whi h were lestroye l about a century ago t Zuma there are tbr e pyra.micl n ar together, and then further on, ther are t he rum of thirty pyramids aud the quarri s from which they v, ere con tructed are cl seat hand. Eight of thes pyramid were about 20 feet higl1, an.1 are the mo t rui n e l. Th re are traditions here that the Nil ouce reached and fe1tilized this region which is now covered with drifting sand. f course, the w aring lawn of tl1e 1ataract ', t he natural dams, may account for this, but weirs could no doubt be easily con tmcted to gi. ve a sur ply of water for irrigation aml re to r e the country to it ol l fertility. At Knrrn, on the ri_;ht bank, ev ral mile further on, are the ruins of no less than t wenty -three pyramid (name 1 untur) tw being 35 feet high, well built of sau l ton ; others are of black basa lt. ,Ve tward of all is founl the ground plan of a large mas i,e tone pyramid, who e faun lation is in th ro ck. Le1 sius considered that thi p yramid be longed to the royal Dynasty of apata, its solid arch it ecture distinguishing it from all the oth r .Again v r a l hour 'journey, at Tauo-a si on the oppo it h or 64




OUR > P RAA1ID I A N'D PROGRE there a r mouncl8 of bricks, and beyond, more than twenty ruine l pyramids, originally with th9 core of Nile brick but formerly ea eel with stone, which is proved by tl1e numerous blocks l ying abo ut. As in other cases, each p yramid se0ms to have had a small chapel or ante-c hamber on the eastern si le. On the l eft bank of the Nile extends, at a right angle, the Wadi Ghazal. Here are the exien~ive ruins of a great Christian convent, a fine church in the ce11tre. It is built of white sandstone up to the windows, alld above them of unburnt brick. The walls are plastered with a thick coat of alabaster, and paiuted. It had a vaulted apse and triple nave. All the arches are round 1hri stinn crosses are frequent of the form known as Malt.ese. The whole is a type of the ancient h1 istian church of the country It mensures about 80 feet by 40. The church has been surrounded by a great court and mau vaulted convent ce lls built of mde blocks are arranged around it. A large building, 46 feet loug, was probably the house of the vrior. RUCNS OF GREAT CHRISTIAN MONASTERY NEAR NAP.A.TA. Two burial-places were on the south side, with many gravestones inscribed in Greek or Coptic Lepsius says he carried off every legible Greek inscription. He says these are the most outhern Greek in'3cription s he had found, but sin ce bis time I believe that some have been saen at Saba, beyond Khartoum. We will now vi. it the Pyramidt:i of N uri, on the l eft bank, opposite Barlrnl. The mountains her are of porphyry, and veil the pyramid fields for a time, though many roun l ulack moum1s, and pyramidal grave-hillocks, are passed. Then a village i s reached with twenty-five pyramids, stately and or iginall y well built, but, being of sandstone, much disintegrated Only a few r eta in the smooth casing which all originally possessed. One of them measmel1 llO feet quare. The princip l e of constructio~ is the same a many Egyptian pyramids-a small inner pyramid being ncased in a ll direction by course of tone At one part of the west ide the smoothened face of the-innermo t surface was distinct l y visible within the eig ht-foot 66


0 -..J '=:l JEBEL BARK.AL, TEMPLE l!'ROM THE EAST. PYRAMIDS OF NURI. J-EBEL BARK.AL, ROCK SANCTUARY OF TEMPLE. PYRAMIDS AND TEMPLE, JEBEL HARK.AL 1-;j >< !;:,;f > H t:J U1 > z t:1 f-3 t:tj '"'" :_:::j U1 0 ):::j ;i>-1-;j > 1--3 ?'-,,--... [ -~ c., t ..:....,


OUR SUDA IT1 PYRA~AlID A D PROGEES thick, w 11-joined outer mantle Little i to be found h re of ante-chambe1 ouly two to be een in fa,ct; many of the pyrami. ls are too close togeth r to admit of them, :at least on the east side, where th y are to be exr ected. A pyrami 1 with varying angle, :as at Dahshur, is faun l here. Lep ius only found one inscription, but he did not iexcavate He cons ider s the N uri pyramid-fiel l to be much older than the other oue beyond the Holy Mountain It will be remarked from the e n grav ing that the an01 of the pyramid more nearly r semble that of the Egyptian ones, which may indicate greater antiquiLy. THE ETHIOPIA. THEBE -NA.PATA AND rr HOLY Mou TAIN. Here we come in sight of JEBEL B.t\.RKA.L, or "the Holy Mountain," which li s at some distance from the Nile on the western side, and rises a lone, with steep sides and a ... /.. II -=,, ,, ~ ~400Fr PLAN OF THE PYRAMIDS OF .i: URI. broad p l atform, from the sur rounding plain. The mass of rock commands attention by its peculiar shape and situation, a huge "table-rock" 300 feet high and three quarters of a mile long. It, with its great plain, was such a remarkable site for a c.ity, that possibly the XIIth Egyptian Dynasty Kings founded settlements h ere, and c rtainly those of the XVIIIth. But most of the remains now t ; o b seen consist of buildings of the XVth Dynasty, the cartouches of PIANKBI and TAHARQA being most in evidence Later sculptures prevail also. Hoskins gives a drawing of one of the Ethiopian potentates of whom we have heard a lready, and whom we shall me .et frequently at other p l aces along the Nile. Lepsius thinks that N apata, the city of Taharqa, was some

JEBEL BARKAL-RE1vlOVAL OF THE RAAf. king's daughters, similar to the arrang ment at Gizeh. North-west f this group are eight fine pyramids, on an eminence which adds to their effect They extend for -50 feet from east to west, and each has or had its little temple or sacred ante-chamber. Their height varies from 35 to 60 feet, and they have each from 30 to 60 steps, receding about six inches. They have smooth border courses and all have a steep angle. The porticoes or ante-chapels are sculptured: the hieroglyphs are Ethiopian genera lly, which cannot, so far, be read. But there are steles in Egyptian text at Berlin and at airo, which came from Jebel Barkal, and have been translated. The vignettes will illustrate the pyramids better than any description. In all probability each pyramid was built for one of the ancient blood royal. The temples of J ebel Barkal are on the opposite side of the rock from the pyramids, to the south. THE REMOVAL OF 'fE.E COLOSSAL RAM FROM JEBEL BARKAL BY LEP IUS. The Holy Mountain ( (1) is a mass of soft sandstone, and a the six temp les are a l most all do e to, and und erneath the cliff, the rock has fallen on them, and they are now in a much worse state than when visited by Hoskins an l L psius. Even in HoHkins's time, two of th temple had been destroye l by the fa llin masses Tabarqa's great temple being c l ear of the rock was better preserv cl, except where it had been wantonly l troyed Lepsius saw so much destruction going on, that he thought he was doing goo l f.ervic in carrying off ev ry portable monument, ju t a~ Lorl Prudhoe had don at an ea rli er date. The magnificent Ram now at Ber:lin, and the two black uranite Lions at the British Museum, cam from this temple. There i no doubt that th se all came origina ll y from 1olib, as alr a ly exp l ained, being th loot of Amenhotep's temple tliere. On inscriptions now vi ible, we fin l that Ta.harqa's name is the most preva l ent, a lthou gh Lepsius tel l s us that one of the temples was 69


OUR S DA A.l\ D PROGRE erected by Rameses II., f th XVIIIth Egn tian Dynasty, and wa ledicate l to the god Amon. Th great t mple was 116 by O et in i l e Th ]:>lan of th Jouble pylon can be disLinctly een, with Lhe (;Ourt between, and other court aud a octuaries bey n l, and a shrine xcavatecl in th rock. Th sculptures w re colourerl richly an l th re was an altar of granit with four :figur s of Taharqa at the corners, a beautiful piece of work, now carri d off. Colo sal statues decorate the olnrnn Much has l> en lestroyed and carried off since Ho.kins was ther but th fonncla.tion till remain T give copie of hi 1 lan of the two mo, t important temples at the beg innin g of th chaI ter. There veral maller temples which I o sib l y were erected by Piankhi an l 10th r earlier ELhiopian Princes, but were repair d b:5 Taharqa. The v orks of King Taharqa, whose remarkable deeds in Palestine are recorded in the Bible, and whose name i s / /JEa PYRAMIDS ... ~L.. s-1 i:. ~+ "1< graYeu on hi \\'Orks in the Delta, at Thebes, and el~ewbere in Egypt, are found in their g r aatest development here As tltis i fully 1,000 miles from tlie seene of his labours at Tani:3 his pa l ace, templ e and tomb in the Sud11 n are worthy of more attention than they lm ve rccei vi:~d. A king who could l ead a great army against Sennacherib into Syria and so

THE .FOURTH OATAR WT, WAY AGRO> 'S J'HE DESERT. Lepsius found many rnin of' fortifications and other anc ient buildings. Many villag s and mountains ar called MeroweJ which Lepsius expfains Ly :VI erui being rner l y in t.he native tongue white" and white rocks an l r efs being prevalent iu the district. Even the ca taract is called Shel1a1 lferu i from t he same cau e. There is a great ruined fort in the cataract district, most picturesqnely situated It is built of good snn-dried bricks cemented with mortar and plastered over with the same. Within are 111any rooms with niches and arched rloorways, and the whole is s urrounded with a wall of stone. 1ount Gleichen tell u s that opposite Ham lab Island, beyond the Cataract, are the ruius of a pyramid. The cataract possibly prevented Ca.illaud, Hoskins and Lepsius, from following the course of the Nile henc e to Abu Hamed, for they both avoided this part of the river. So we have no anti quarian ti lings w hate er of the Nile's banks between Abu Hamed and the Fourth Cataract. and mu t leave that region for future exp lor ers, or till the prnmised railwa3 a lon g the river bank, connecting Abu Hamed with Mero we, i s made. It is s ldom vi ited now though there were tough jobs pulling the gunboats o, r the rocks during the Gordon relief expedition Ther are listricts of fertile l and a Abu Hamed is approac:he<.l, fed by Sakias. Caillaud, Lepsius and Hoskins followed ancient prec dent in pa i11g by the carav,n1 track about 200 miles right across the desert from Korti to Metemrna (leading toward the other Meroe, with its ruins and. pyramids), near the modern town of Shendi, thus saviug the lon g bend of the Nile which winds doubl the distance. A we sha ll see the architecture and sculpture (as well as the hie ro g lyph s) of PAINTING A'l' JEBEL BARKAL, 'PAHARQA WORSHIPPIN G 71

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OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS AND PROGRESS. the two places are identical in style, it is probable a simi lar direct communication ex isted between them. For as far as we kuow at present, no antiq11ities exist along the 300 miles of river where the Fourth and Fifth Cataracts are found. No doubt these cataracts impeded the communication by water an l the two important branches of the same "Kingdom of Ethiopia" must have kept open this connecting thorough fare straight across the Bayuda desert. This route is still in use, and there are good wells about half-way. It is true the pyramids of the Sudan, compa r ed with those of Egypt, are modern s tructures. It seems that when pyramid building was extinct in Egypt, it began anew here. But still these pyramids have a very respectable antiquity from 3,000 years downward, and supply a missing link as the history of a thousand years may II skin. be found to be re corded here. Lep sius carried off many inscriptions, but there must be many more under0round await ing the mtelligent labour s of an expert with the sp ade From the days of Tabarq a to the ad vent of Cbri tianity, the hi tory of the ancient kingdom of Me roe i s a lmost a blank, the whole of Ethiopia became Chr i stian, and so l o n g remain ed. Th e Cross was crushed out by the fanaticism of Islam. Bnt there was a great civi lis ed bristian Empire here for nearly a thousand years Of this period we have no reliable history Doubtless much can be evolve l from a scientific investigation of the ancient monuments of the country. It is likel y soon to be undertaken by the proper author ities, those who now rule the 'udan which w hold as a sacred trust for the memory of Gordon The British Museum did some good p ion eer work of this kin l just after the country fell into our hands, bnt cannot be expected to send their official::; h ere aga in. ResearchP-s should be made un ler a properly constituted Antiquities Department in connectio n with the at Khartoum. It wi ll be a lon g aud important undertaking, but doubtle s a commencement will soon be made y the l aws of the .._ udan, none of the finds can l eave the country now, they will all go to the Khartoum Museum. The Roly Mountain was a shrine of worship of many faiths, the centre of the civilisation of Et;11iopia for ages It now belongs to England, and we are bound to give iii our protect.ion and c areful a ttention. 72

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TIIE KLIPPSP1U GER, ERKOWEIT, UAKIN, 1904 Lieut.-Col Penton. 76

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C H PTEl ""\ II. ALO G THE RIVER FROM ABU HAMED TO KHARTOUM. A. the traveller to Khartoum will necessarily make the journ e y by railw a y from Abu Hamed, he will se e but little of the Nile, the ancient highway. It may b e well therefor e to say a few words about the river banks, which the impetuous plannel' of the Military Railway av ided wherever he found level ground and an opportunity to pursue his l eloved straight course, avoiding all curves and st~ep gradients where he could. An almost uninhabited listrict, with a lon g series of rocky rapids, lies between the ] OURTH CATARAC T and Abu Hamed. The FIFTH ATARA T, about 100 miles beyond Abu Hamed, impedes the free passage of the river, but even before the rapids are rnached, as well as beyond them, there are many rocky reefs which make navigation SAK I A : UPPER NILE. difficult, except at highest Nile. Thirty miles south of the Fifth Cataract we come to Berber, already described in Chapter III. Between Abu Hamed and Berber there are many green patches; these, and many acacias and Dom palms prove that this region would be fertile if cultivated and no doubt once was. At pre sent there is a very scanty popula tion, but the peaceful state of the country wm soon remedy this state of affairs on both banks of the river. Between Berber and the Atbara River (20 miles) the l and i s more populous and therefore there i s greater cultivation, but still room for more The Atbara deserves our notice, as being the first river that adds its water to the Nile, or more correctly, we might say, the last help the great river gets on its lon g course to the l\..fediterranean. The Atbara is a turbulent and powerful stream after the rainy season in Abyssinia, where it bas its source but its bed is a lmost dry in winter. When in flood it drives the Nil e aga inst the western bank and piles up huge sandbanks, which make the Nile navigation Jifficult. 77

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OUR SUDA~ IT PJ. R.A.11.fJDS .A 1 D PROGRES. When the Atbara i named, mention must be ma le of the victory gained on it. banks, in April, 1898, which was really the inst decisive engagement of Kitchener's campaign against the Dervishe ; and to understand its import it is necessary to carry back the tale to military events at Abu Harned an l Doogo1a The Intell igence Department, being supplied with full particulars of th Dervi h plaus by the escaped prisoners Ohrwa1 ler and Slatin, had now information which was turned t o good account, and the network of the conquest of the Sudan wa thus being s l owly but surely extended. The first deeisive act of Kitchener's campaign for the avenging of Gordon's murder was, we have seen, in hapter V., the occupation of Dongo la, on September 23rd 1896 and the Nile was recovered as far a Meroe. The Dervishes were making themselves objectionable at Abu Harne l, an l a the Desert Railway wa rapidly approachiug the Nil e at that place a flying column was despatched u n der Major General (now Sir Archibal l) Hunter to dislodge them. Abu Harne l was occupied on August 7th, and four g unboats were dragge 1 up to the Fourth Cataract, an arduous under taking. Frien lly tribes ha l occupied Berber for us, and ,ve held the Nile up to the Atbara. But Mahmoud's g r eat erv ish army wa known to be skulking some 30 mile up the A tbara, havi1w been joined by the ubiquitous Osman Digna and his foll ower from tbe eastern desert. The rai l way had reached Abu Ham cl in November, 1897 and our comm uni cations .with Egypt were now simp lified. In March, 1898, the army wa SIR .ARCHIBALD HU TER, D.S. O strengthened by a B riti sh brigade and the force was pushed up to Berber to intercept Mahmoud's army No t i dings cou l d be got in the uninhabited eastern desert of the w h ereabo uts of the Dervishes, but on the 30th March ir Archibald Hunter c l ever l y l ocated the zereba of Mahmou l, and l ooked in. Intelligenc was imme liately conveyed to the irdar, the troops advanced, an l on Good Friday, 8th April, 1898, they came up with the enemy encamped at Nakhe il a facing the open desert, and with the :1.ry betl of the A tbara in his rear. Our troops m ade a fierce and rapid attack on a thorny zereba-protecte l position, performing a splen lid pie ce of work. The Cameron Highlanders led the assanlt, but the native troops, Suclane e and Egyptian, had the honour of b ing the first in the Dervi h camp Thus Kitchener' army gained th Battle of tbe Atbara over the hosts which Mahmoud and O sman D i gna 7

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'!'HE NILE RAPIDS NEAR ABU HAMED. -1 co 'l'HE NlLE NEAR SHENDI. BERBER; TRIUMPHAL ARCH FOR THE KHEDIVE'S VISIT. P> t:d q t:l P> <' trj d >-3 O ;:I; P> q 0 C: c. [ R.. cEi (b ::s ;:,.. l

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0 E UD.A FI' P YR.AVID D PROGRE,. had ma". ed to advance on erber with the obj et of cutting ff ur r treat.. Mahmoud was take11 pri oner an l hi ho t utt rly routed. Osmau Digna escaped as usual. This wa the real cm hin g of the rvi h I ower and the beginning of the eucl, their greatest al'my being aunihilat d and their best genera l a pl'i oner. A strong fort was er cted at tb Atbara, aml preparation was there made for the total annihilation of the Khahfa power in the autumn of the same year. The town of El amer, beyond the junction of the Atbara, wili un loubtedly again become a great place, a it was in anci nt day From the mouth of the tbara to Khartoum is 210 miles by river. n this part of the ile' course there are 20 miles of rapids, the most important of which is known as the SIXTH ATARACT, or babluka, where the Nile run for several miles through a deep ravin Here there are many fertile islands, and the scenery is often mo t picturesque Much of the country shows traces of THE ATB.A.RA IN FLOOD, AUGUST, ]898 Si? Regi11al d Wingate. former cultivation, but thorny scrub and halfa grass ha for cen tmies been allowed to encroach over soil that was fertile land. It undoubtedly could be restored to fertility by proper treatment, but it would require capital to do so thoroughly, capital and more inhabitants. It is be l ieved that ever since the Moslems seized the country, this deterioration has been going on under the rapacious Turkish governors. The Pyramids of Meroe are about three mi les from the river, near the village of ur, and give their name to the tongue of land between the ile and Atbara, which has always been called" The Isle of Meroe," and is so named by Strabo. HENDI, 86 miles from the tbara mouth, was, it is said, the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Meroe, and tradition points out the district as the home of the ueen of 'Sheba, who visited olomon about O B .C. Mehemet Ali razed the town to the ground to avenge the murder of his son Ismail, who had been burnt to death in bis house hy the native rulers in 1 22 owing to his cruelties. It is th ceutre of a fine brazing district, and will be an important place some day. There are extensive railway workshops here, and it is the headquarters of the Cavalry of the Su lan 80

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O D R D AN; rr I PYRA.Jl!ID A "N"D PROGRES1. Oppo site b e ndi i s M e t emma whence the caravans formerly started for Korti on t he b e nd of the Nile towa rd Don g ola thus cutting aero s the Bayud a de sert an l saving 500 mil e s of the winding Nil This was un loubtedly the ancient highway between the ea ~tem and western hvi ions of the old Kingdom of Mero e The pa s across the Bayuda desert was used by the Desert Column sent to relieve Gordon in 188"'. Near the southern end ofthe track was fought the battle of Abu Klea, where the Sudanese soldiers fir t stood fire (when ir Evelyn Wood was Sirdar in 1884), and justified the faith that v. as afterwards realised, that they were the material for good soldiers Wad Habashi 42 miles from Sbendi was the starting point of the Expedition under Kitchener iu 'epternber, 1898, which resulted in tbe Battle of Omdurman and the final victory over the Dervishes. Metemma bas fine grove of palm ome of them most picturesque an l sba dy. The fertile I an l is supp lied with Nile water by Sakias. l DERVISH PRISONERS FROM 'l'HE BAT'fLE OF THE ATBARA Sir Herbert t wart's sad fate, wh ich paralysed the efforts of th Gorclon Relief Expedition of 1 80, seems to need some de cription of those pl aces where the incdents occurred Th e whole story of that expedition is admiralily told by Count Gleichen in his book, W i th th e Gam e l Corps i t p th e 1.i l e Written by a young guardsman in bis twenty-second y ar it i s a remarkable piece of work. Its de. cr iptions place every thing naturally befoT the eye; especia ll y vivid is the account of the terrible desert journey between Korti a nd Metemma-that ancient highway and its mysterious w ll s and ravines in the Bayuda, desert. Th e battles of Abu Klea and Abu Kru, in both of which Gleichen bad a part, are cl v rly and yet modestly described. Therefore I commend thi work to those who may not know it, merely quoting his words as to the death of Sir Herbert t6wart: '' It was a heavy blow to the whole force, for he was be l oved and admired by ev ry man 1n the column ; we had hoped against 82

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OUR UDAN; ITS PYRAMID A "f:TD PROGRE 1 hop seeing him linger on, week after week, an l finally start on his journey with the convoy. But it was not to be the journ y had dan;eronsly increased his fever an l he had died ju. t within sight of Gakdu1. It was a persona l loss to every one of us. It seemed only ye. terday that he was riding about the colu mn on his little bay horse, talking to everybody, with a cheery word or bit of chaff for all1 officer or man alike; hi tall figure an l yellow puggaree well-known to every man in the force Never a harsh worl did he use; even on the trying morning of Abu Klea as at all times his orders were given (so to sp ak) good-naturedly, without fuss or hurry, and when he had m::ide every arrangement neces ary he lit a cigarette and sat quietly down among us as if he was in his garden at home. Not to speak of his military tal nts and soldier-like qualities he was a r e al good sor( and I don't know that higher praise could be given to any one The void it left in every one's heart was very painful-a void nothing could fill and for days afterwards I woke with a feeling of something gone . There wa no l eade r of his mark to carry them on to Khartour.11 in time everything was '1 Too Late after that. Khartoum was reached two days after Gordon's death. All the incidents of this time, the arriva l of Gordon's four steamers off Metemma, the subsequent wreck of two of them, and of Lord Charles Beresford's ga llant rescue are related in Coun t Gleichen's interest ing volume, better, I think, than anywhere e l se The result of a perusal of it all, is to increase our admiration for the system pursued by Kitchener in the war of retaliation. But of course the two cases were very different, and had Kitchener been kept back by a cheese -p aring Government at home, even he might have had l ess success GROVE OF PALMS NEAR METEMMA. Sir R. Win gat e The land here was once richly cultivated, as is proved by the remains of ancient cana ls, and will be again, when cleared of the thickets of mimosa and halfa grass which now monopo lis e the ferti l e soil. The rebellion of 1884 was fatal to agricultural work, and the faithfnl J aa liu who Ii ved in these parts were exterminated by the Dervishes. The J aalin liad joined the Britii:;h, and as Kitchener could not make use 84

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0 R SUDA~ IT PYJ1,AMID I A 0.D PROGRES. of these faithful allies in any other way at the time, 5,000 tand of arms, and cartridges in abundance, were sent them to enable them to hold lVIetemma. But the arms never reached the honest J aalin. Mahmoud, the Dervish commander, got wind of this through his spie He intercepted the arms, surrounded the J aalin, and murdered every man and man-child, reserving only the women for the harems. The illustrations of the Shabluka Gorge and Oataract, and of the Dervish forts, which made it almost impassable, wer~ kindly supplied to me by Sir Reginald Wingate. These photographs were taken in the campaign of 1898 as the army advanced. Two solit ary peaks at the northem end of the Shabluka Gorge, Jebels Royan and Tyem, one on eac h side, are striking objects in the land scape. MR. LEIGH HUNT. it: he has offered to import Near this the steamer Bo rdein went aground when returning from Khartoum in 1885. At Gei la, near vVacl Ramla, Zubejr Pasha, ha hi residence. ThP. river now is more peacefnl, and the country more open. There are larg e and fertile islands producing rich crops. Much of the land beyond the Atbara and near the Sixth Cataract will su i t admirab l y for growing exce llent cotton, when irrigatiou and abundant labour can be provided. The wonder is that the British otton Growing Associations do not inve s t in land, whi ch Lord Cromer is anxio n to sell to capitalists wh o cou ld work it. Incidentally it may be remarked that Mr. Leigh Hunt, au American capitalist, hailing from the Southern States, has recently visite l the d i strict, and has made arrangements for the purchase of fertile land for this industry. He has not only done so, but sho ul d there be need for skilled l abour (from the Sou thern tates) to train the natives in the culture of cotton. The soil is there, with glorious sunshine a ll the year round, and we are going to give it once more its life-bloo I-irrigation. But the l and js depopulated. Mr. Leigh Hunt VI ould supply cotto n growers, were he allowed. But we must first provide water, and start cotton-growing, of the quality needed in Englan~, as soon as we can. otton is grown already, and of excellent quality, but only for native consumption Competent a uthoriti es assert that the udan is capable of producing enough cotton for all the wants of British mills an d in quality equal to the best Sea Islan l variety There is a station at Ban Naga, the nearest point on the railway to the antiquities of that plac N aga, lVIessama t EL ufra, and other ancient cities But these i uin...: are 6

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0 E SUDA IT PYRAMIDS AND PROGRES' so important, that after visiting Omdunnan and Khartoum, a sr ecia l chapter (X.) mnst be devoted to them. s there is not much to attract on the river after passiug the 'ixth atarac.:t, I propose now to devote myself to the charter ... on the campaigns oE Omdurman and Khartoum, illustratin0 them mainly by the I hoto graphs supplied me by ir Regina ld V\ ingate. I often met Mr. Leigh Hnnt in Egypt in 1904. He i a rno t interesting man, and I believe i of the same English fami l y which produced his great n amesake Anxious to serve England, he inten d s to devote his attention to growing cotton in the Sudan. I doubted the wi dom of bis project to bring col oured men from America, who e a ncestor s were West Afric,1,n blacks. "But the negroes I would bring," he said, "are descended from East African blacks. Up to 1 835 the great supply of imported negroes in the Southern tates, came from .Alexandri;:i., and were lave s hanied from the Sudan-a regular trade existed between the Mediterranean and Virginian port and fast ail in g vessell='l made the passage safe l y, aud brought thousands of Eastern bla cks to the Southern States." I was much astonished, but h e a ured me he had found the wbol details of the tl'affic out from official documents. "These are tbe people," he said," who e de cen lant I would bring to the udan if I am permitted.'" I had a lette r from Mr. L e igh Hunt in October, 1904. He writes, "I have just receive d a. ample of the first col ton growll on our plantation at the mouth of the Atbara. It is a good quality and what eucourag~s me much, it was plauted on June 14th and r ipened in l ess than three months from planting, which makes me most hop e ful for basin irrigation I am l eaving shortly to luok after the work this winter." SBABLUKA: lJERVlSH ]OH.'1'1 1898. Sfr R. JV,n gnt e I

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( ~ ..... .. i. 11 -..... !,,. ( P 1om a, 1 J hotog,uvh by th e Rev. F. Lle11e llyn Gwynne, MONUMENT TO THOSE OF THE 21ST LANCERS WHO FELL A T THE BA'l'TLE OF KERRERI, . 2 D SEP'fEMBER, 1898. 89

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co l-.0 TROOPS EN ROU'rE TO OMDURMAN, 1898. EN RO U'l'E TO OMDURMA.N, 1ST SEPTEMBER, 1898. EN ROU'rE '1'0 OMDURMA.N, 1898. EN ROU'l'E '1'0 OMDURMA.N, 1898. A '!'ROOP BARGE. 1-3 t::j P>t:1 >z 0 e:j ~ ~ t "' 0

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CHAPTER VIII. THE Amr N E TO 0MDUR IA wE now journey up the Nile and approach the battlefiel:l of Kerre ri, about s1wen miles from Omdurman. General Kitchener's Anglo-Egyptian Army had met ith no oppositjon since the battle of the Atbara on 8th March, 1898, and werp, encamped at. Egeiga, eiaht miles from Omdurman. Our force consisted of 10 armoured gunboa,ts, with two 40-pounder guns, and 23,000 men nearly equally divided between Egyptian and British. These had marched along the west bank of the ixth Cataract, the gunboats acting in concert from the river wherernr possible At Egeiga our1forces were fiercely attacked by the Dervishes, commanded by the Kbalifa in p rson, on the morning of the 2nd Septemb r, 1898. He thought to carry the po iLion with a rush. It was a well-planned assault, but th Dervishes were repulsed after two hours' fighting with great slaughter, at long range. The Sirdar moved rapidly in purauit, drove the Dervishes before him, and the flight bec.ame a rout. 40,000 of the enemy were flying before our troops, prisoners, or abjectly grovel l ing for mercy. The Dervishes formed and renewed the attaek several times at Kerreri and were pursued as far as Omdurman, where all resistance ceased. The Sirdar him self had gone on to KITCHENER EXAMINING COUN'l'RY NEAR KERRERI, Isr SEPTEMBER, 1898. Omdurman, and riding up coolly to the garrison, toll them he would spare th ir lives if they would l ay down their arm Anyone of them m ight have taken his life, but bis quiet fearless action proved irre istible. They accepte<;l the terms and laid down their arms and there was no more r istance save from a few fanatical Baggara horsemen,. who were soon si l enced The Khalifa had fled to bis house. The irdar followed him and entered by the front door, as the Khalifa escaped into the crowd at the back door, flying on a fleet camel away southwards along the Nile among his own tribe the Baggarn He had prepared for flight. Thus Mahdism in the Sndan was for ever crushed The first attack of the Kha lifa bad been tremendous, was skilfully planned, and was mainly f lt Ly General Macdonald's 93

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OUB > UDAN; ITS PYRAJ,1IDS A D PROGRE S. -------------------------------------brigade of u lanese They wern twice attacked m the right rear, th 8 enemy seemingly rising out of the ground, being con cealed m the numerous with which field abounds. khors the The "right-about-face" of the 9th, 10th, and 11 th Sudanese was splendid and saved the situation. For this their {!Ommander was ENTRY INTO OMDURMAN, 2ND SEPTEMBER, 1898 specially named Aide de Camp to the Queen, and some time after h e was knighted as Sir Hector Macdonald .1 This for a Highland lad, with no friends, who had risen from SIR HECTOR MACDONALD. the ranks, was a great reward. I met this modest o.tficer a few months after the battle of Kerreri, and complimented him on hi splendid tactics "No," he said, the credit i s not miue, but belongs to my Sudanese. I could move them about as a shepherd's dog moves his master's sheep. I trust them implicitly to do a uytbin g that soldiers could do." I had seen him years bef'ore, drilling these same Sudanese :it the Abbasiyeh Barracks, Cairo, and could understand what he aid, but it was hi splendid training that made them what they were. Had it been possible to allow this gallant officer to remain at the head of his stalwart Sudanese, be cou l d have J ed them to victory in any land and under any condition of warfare After a short service at the South African war, he was sent to Ceylon. This was like an e xile to the active, earnest soldier, and seemed to break his heart. 1 Poor "Mac" showed me the Queen's telegram making him her ide de Camp, which was sent by hers elf from Balmoral. He told me it was such a special honour that no promotion or title c ould equal it. 94

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co EN R O UTE TO OMDURMAN, 1898 20 MILES OFF. EN ROUTE TO OMDURMAN, 1ST SEPT., 1898. FROM TO P OF JEBEL SHEIKH. EN ROUTE TO OMDURMAN, 1898. 10 MILES FROM KERRERI. EN ROUTE TO OMDURMAN, 1898, >-3 l:;rj p;.t::J <: 0 l:;rj f-'3 0 0 'c'.' 8 q

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OUR SUDAN; IT PYRAMID1 AND PROGRESS. THE MAHDI TOMB. PRESENT STAT.1. A dashiug cavalry attack wa needed and arranged for by Kitchener. But the ground proved to be furrowe l with dry water course which were used by the nemy for concealment One unfortunate occurrence hap pened in almost the very first charge. The 21st Lancers were th only British cavalry with the exped ition. This regiment had been form l nearly a century ago, but strange to say, had never been in action. Here they obtained their "baptism f fire." Theirs became the first char ge, and fiercely ga lloping, determined to win their l aure ls, the horse of one of their number fell into a "khor," and before the rest could rein in, more than twenty of them tumbl d over one another into the ravine, and were speared by Dervishes concealed below the banks. They had been drawn to their death, but. not one of their treacherou enemies escaped. Having avenged their comrades the 21st Lancers re-formed and nev r stopped till they arrived, the fir t at Omdurman. Greg,t sorrow was felt for the lo ss of youn Lieutenant Grenfell, the nephew of Lord Grenfell, who fell le ading hi men, pierced by many wounds. A marble obelisk has been erected on the spot where they are buried near the fatal khor. I have v i sited the battlefiel l, and the tale of the engagement, with the flight of the Dervishes, was exp lain e l to me by one \\'ho was present. I ha l a friend with me, the Rev. Llewellyn Gwynne, the re pected Briti h char lain at Khartoum. We took the first photograph of the monument, of which an illu tration i s subjoined. An enlargement of this was sent by request to Mrs. Llewellyn, aunt of the young hero who p risbed at the head of his Lancers. She howed l1er gratitude by sending a donation of to the Rev Llewellyn Gwynne towards the fund for 'rHE MAHD11S TOMB, OMDURMAN, 2ND SEPTEMBER, ]. 9 96

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buil lin g an English I rotestant Ch ur c h at Khartoum. vVhen mentioning this, I may as well ca ll at1 ntion to t he ne d for this church. The service ba at I r s nt to b held in one of the rnoms of the I)alace, as sufficient rnouey has not b en receive l to build a church s ui tab l e for the capital o f the Anglo-Egyptian udau The gove rnm nt has b iven an excellent site, free of all rent for ever There s b ou1 l be enough euthusiasm yet remaining for t.he hero Gordou to erect a s uitabl e Ohri tian church at the scene of his martyr lorn. But the greater events of outh Africa e med to make t he nee ls of the model city of th u lan quite forgotten There is yet time to remedy this-the Tre as urer, La ly Wingate, th Palace, Khartoum, is the ad lress for subscriptions. Orn lurman i only seven mil lue outh from the battlefiel l. Th conic a l hill which rises in th e centre of the plain of K rr ri, is tlie be. t po int of view Here we can ee beneath our feet the cour e of ' the lo t battl borne down by the flyi ng" all the way to the 0reat, mean, stragg li n g erv i h ea pi tal. At its best, Omdurrnan alway had, for Euro_I ean eyes a mean appear a nce It co, ers an e normou space 5 mi l es by 1 deep followin.; the cour~e of t h e river throughout. Two or three wide streets traverse it, but the whole is a network of twist ing l ane, When we ent r cl it, tb whole I lac e w a in a state of indescriuab l e filth Corpses of men and animal lyin g unburied, op n cess-pit mer l y bo l es sunk in the sand or mud open to th burning un, ca used a horrib l e tench among the l anes A few of t h e principal hou ses were w 11 built, principall y thos of the Khali fa an l Yakub, and the Bei t 1 Amann, or Dervi h toreho u e, hau str ong walls, as had a l o t h e prisons, where the wret h w r hu 1dl etl together with o u t food exce p t for what they cou l d buy; au l tho e that had no money to buy food were l eft to die. Withi n the Beit e l Amana, w h en I aw it, was a collection of anc ient armour, obso l te g u ns, and mitrailleuse the Dervishes ha l tried to repair, with pil s of ea t-iron bullets l y i n g be s ide them; quantities of sabre -rroof (woollen padded) h e l mets, scimitars, dag e r bayonets, ru ty musk ts, jibba or D .rvish unifo r ms i n aaudy I atched barbaric t y l ; rickety hor e I isto ls, flint guns, a n l matchlocks, shie l ds of rhinoceros 98

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co co ::r:: I IN CAM P EN ROU'l'E TO O MDURM.i\N i -THE KHO R WHERE 21ST LANCERS WER E ATTACKED, KERRERI. EN ROU'l' E l'O OMDURM.AK, 1898-NEARING RilA.ll' l'O Ul\I. ERECTING TIIE MONUMEN'l' TO THE 2 1 S T LANCERS, KERRERI. 8 ;: z 0 e:::.: 8 0 0 ::a: t::I p,. z f t:;j :::! Cl) :, .,,.. c,; 0

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OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS AND PROGRESS. hide, anc i nt sanda l s and l eggings, a ll piled in confu ion to0ether Th e mosqne was a m an buil ling in a l arge enc l osure, full of poor houses scare ly fit for pig stye the Khali fa' hous the best in the p l ace, with a kind of audience hall an l sheltere l cla'is with two wooden columns sup porting the overhanging roof, still surv i ves His women's apart ments were very bare, but w h n hung with rugs and carpets, may PORCH OF KBALIFA' s HOUSE, OMDURMAN. have been comfortab l e enough. N ar this, let into the wall of the narrow lane outside, we find a mar b ] e tab l et with thi in cripti n : -HUBERT HOvV ARD DIED HERE II EPTEMBER 1 98. Thi s wa the youthful son of the Ear l of 1arli le, who was correspondent of th 2.1ime with t h e army of Kitchener. He was with the ea rl y pursu e r s of the D erv i s hes, from Kerreri battl efie ld, and was making some notes or sketches here, when h e wa accidentally killed by the s plinter of a s hell when the conquerors were fir in g on the Mahdi s tomb, near the place. I had seen him at Cast l e Howard a br ight and hand some boy, a few years before. I met his father, Lord Carlisle, late r in E gypt on his way to vi sit the scene of his son's death and erect this monument. Tbe fine young fellow was a g reat favourite with all his friends in the irda r 's army The lome of t he Mahdi' s tomb wa THE MAHDI'S TOMB AS IT WAS a consp i cuo u s 1nark for the centre of Omdurm an ; it was frequently struck~by the Briti h s h e lls, and quite ruined. It was neces ary to do this it as it wou ld hav e become 1()0

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OUR DAN; IJ' PYRAllUD I AllD PROGRES. a shrine for fanatical I ilgrim ages where the superstitious natives wou l d have war hipped. The tomb of Gordon' murderer, the wretch who sent the hero's gory head in a ba to the rrison to be thrown at 1atin's feet, had to be destroyed by his avengers. The Mahdi was such a ferocious, brutal, sensual wretch, that his memory is best wiped out, a.nd every trace of his existence era e l. He had proclaimed himself immortal, yet one of the women whom he had injure l poisoned him in Jun, 1885. On his leatbbed he named four of his r e lati,es or friends to be Khalifas, to succeed him in succession These Khalifas asserted, as the Mahdi had done, that they bore charme l lives, and were invulnerable. All are lead now; noL one of these men seemed to possess a sing l e virtue, save that of desperate valour when m1 ler the influence of fanatical excitement. The u~ rers untl r th ir horrible tyranny were th ir own people while they kille l the men who in any way o pposed the m the women were pared to suffer n worse treatment. All thi I rorn that it was right and vroper to wreck the Mahdi's tomb, though at the time there vvanting tarians were not humanito blame Lord Kitchener for de 'troying the "sanctuaries" of 'l.'E E KHALUA ARRJAGE. '11ptni1l ..,J,o//o Doug/a.~, R.E. 01ndunnan. Every-where the nati\ welcomed him as their deliverer, pecia.lly the negro races, fo1 the real object of Mahdism was the prosecution of the nefarious traffic in s l ave:;, which Gordon had abolished Black and white now are all, under the protection of the British flag, as free as if they had been born in England. The retribution which we were call e l upon to vis i t on Mah 1ism has brought about the salvation of the country. H e sta mp e d o nly b efo r e your wall and tbe tomb ye knew w a dust; H e gathered up unde r his a rm11it all the swords of your trust; He set a g uarc\ o n your grana ri e s, securi n g the wea k from tha stron g, He said, G o work the w a t e rwheels, tha t w r t1bolishec\ so long. Kipli,1[1. 102

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OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS AND PROGRES,S. THE 0MDURMAN OF To-DAY. Our narrative has l ed us to Omdurman with Kitchener's victorious army. There was no Khartoum then, it had been wiped ou t for ever, so thought Gordon's murderer and bis blood-thirsty, destroying crew, little thinking that it woul l ar ise I hamix like from its ashes, the fairest city in Central Africa ( ee Chapter IX.) Before quitting Omdurman we may describe its appearance to-day. It has no pretensions to beauty, it is a mean grovelling Arab town, and its general plan remains the same as when the DeI"Vish s h e ld it. Now it is clean, swept and garnished, with good houses, and the streets policed and decently kept. There are many good shops, mostly kept by Greek merchants, and here the principal trade of the Sudan is carried on-gum, ivory, and ostrich feathers. When I was there, a mile of the sloping beach was devoted to the drying and sorting of gum Thi s was done by little circles of women, working with deft fingers, sk ilfull y arranging the vario us classes and qualities. All these poor souls were Dervish widows," widowed or deserted by their lords on the lestruction of the Dervish I ower. Their ugly, but very contented, faces seEmed to denote that they were very happy on their wage of two piastres a day, and no husb ands to support . OMD RMAN THE LIPTON OF THE MARKET. eeing the name of Cavvadias in Greek letters over one of the l argest warehouses, I entered and asked if the owner was any relation of the celebrated Epbor of Athens (Minister of Art in Greece) the owner came forward and told me he was the youngest of a l arge family in Cepbalonia, the e ldest of which b ad risen to the high position of my friend in Athen He asked me to be present at the cerern:ony of l aying the first stone of his firm's new warehouse, a handsome building in Khartoum. I hav e met the Ephor of Athens since then aud told him of my meeting with bis brother in the Su lan. They had not met for many years and he was delighted to bear tidings of bim from one who hacl seen him. 104

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OUR 1 1U D A IT 1 1 YR i~fID A(\D PlWGRE I suppose a i 1 my readers have heard of :Fathe r Ohrwalder, whose wonderful story of escap from the Mahdi'. clutches, along with two Au. trian isters of Mercy, has be n so a uly edit d by ir Reginald Wingate. I hear l that h e had returned to Omdurman, and paid him a vi it. OMD RMAN. A RELIGIO PROCE ION OF SHElKRS AND VARIO s TRADER. He has rebuj)t his house, s nb tantiall y, and planted a palm in the centre of hi little courtyard. There w re no tr es in Omdurrnan, o th i s is a wi e innovation, and by this time h e will no do n bt be sittin g 11nde r its shade, for vegetati on is rar id here. I was much interested in t lti s weet-voiced, amiabl e ge n t l ema n Remarking on the haru.ship of his pa sage through 800 mi l e of lesert in an enemy' country, he said "bu t my sufferings were as 110th ing corn pared with t h ose of the poor lacli e ; I w n I r t he y eve r nrn \ l th ir trial s." H n ow occupies himself in teaching hoo l and h e told me that m st of his everal hundred I upil s were the ch il lren of his former acquaint ances in the town, and he ha l as many as h e could teach They wm 1 am nothing AN OX FR0;\1 !'HE WHJTE NILE 106

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OUR SUDAN; IT PYRAMID AND PROGRESS. but good from their association with Father Ohrwalder He had bis portrait taken at my request. ( ee Chapter IX.) He is only fifty years old, but wears a look of greater age owing to his sufferingB; everyone, native and immigrant, poor or rich, loves and esteems the good man. He speaks all their languages as well as English, Italian and French, and of course his own native German. He adores the English, and intends to spend bis life under our protection u udolf van latin I did not see on this occasion. He was away on one of his frequent tours, as Inspector-General of the Sudan, through the remote provinces. The SIR RUDOLF VO~ SLATIN, 1898. tidings that these two fugitives from the Mahdi brought to our clever Intellig ence Officer of those lays (now the Sirdar and Governor-General of the Su lan) mainly contributed to our conquest of the udan. And it is equally certain tha t neither Ohrwalcler or laLin would ever have been able to escape from the Kha lifa's clutches, but by the underground rail way manipulated by the astute Sir Reginald Wingate. I give portrait of a characteristic good Slatin, taken by Sir Reginald Wingute in the stirring times of 1898. latin was the leader and guide of tLe expedition; be knew every Rpot. To show what Omdurman and Khartoum were like in those days I append a plan, which was published 111 Cou11:t Gleichen's Suda, n Hanclboolc of 1895 publi s hed for the use of our army. The information was derived mainly from 11' Rudolf van latin who knew the places so well that he was able to make the m a p from memory. The plan of Omdurman is good for to-day as to the main irreg ularities of the old town. Now it is being altered greatly and prepar e d for the use of electric tram ways! The wide extent of Dervish Omdurm a n is accounted for by its havin g bad 4 00,000 inhabitants within its ea rthwork s It has now but 48,000, but i s increasin g It lies on 000d 0rave l foundation, and should be a he althy I lac e It had a b ad re1 utation for health in Dervish days, but the :filthy dwellings of the people were suffic ient to account for that, an l the fact that the refuse and offal was allowed to 108

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i\I.AP OF KHARTOD M: AND 01IDURMA.l~ IN GORDON'S TIME. KHARTUM AND OMDURMAN YARDS IVilLC8 ><, I 0 0 OMDURM.A.N .A.ND KHARTOUM .ABO UT 1890. FACSIMILE OF THE MAP IN CO N T GLEICHEN'S "HANDBOOK." Principa lly from information suppliecl by Slutin. The Khartoum s hown is Gorclon's city, with his fortifications. 1 hll map s ho ws the rel n ti,e positions of the two town8. 109

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OUP 'U.DAN ). IT I PYBAMID1 1 A 1\ D PROGRE1 1. AMEL FAIR, OMDURM.A.J.'i. accumulate, would int nsify any out1 break uf li ease. It i now, un l r Briti h managem nt, a m t healthy I l ace for the greater I art of the year. The scene on a market-day at Omdurman is busy and picturesque. The varie l breeds f cattle an 1 h I Lord William Cecil. show of fate gr at imr roYement, an l mdurman bi l s fair to be the great depot for attle of the udan. The came l fair is very interesting, the baby camels being playful while soft and gentle in manner, and much lependent on their gaunt, bad-tempered mothers. The mixtur of tribes who attend these fairs is quite as vari ed and a extraor linary ns the animals. The st) 1 s of hair-dressing are most elaborate and sorn of the m are th work of year It is mainly the mal who take such tronbl e in their chevelure, the belles have a style of their own which reqnir more time to develop than would le exr ected, but is kept in order by -profuse indulg nee in castor oil. When I was at Omdurman a distinguished soldier s ho wed me much politeness I had travelled in bis company from Cairo This was olonel : Fergu sson, then th Commander of the Garrison and District of Omdurrnan He h a 1 been m many tough fights ince he joined the Egyptian army in 1896. In fact he was in every im portan t engagement. He is now Colone l of the Grenadier uards. I have to thank him for m uch valuable information 111 the corn piling of this volume. SHEEP MARKET, OMDURMAN 110 M r TV. A. Cecil.

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..... ..... ..... 'l'HE DOORWAY LEADING 'l'O THE EUROPEAN PRISONER& QUART!l:RS, OMDURMAN, 3RD SEPTEMBER,".)898. THE ADVA.. ~ CE O F THE CAMERA, OMDURMA.l.~ THE KIIALIFA'S HOUSE. 'l'HE Cl'l' Y OF 'fHE KHALIFA LOOKING 'l'O\YARDS KERRERT. OMDURMAN: WOi\f~ AT A WJLL. 1-3 ::r: t;::j >d <; 0 t;::j 0 0 .__. 8 C: !:d -;., E ,,..... :::! .:,.. <:,
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CHAPTER IX. GOR N' NATIONAL MONUME T-THE NEW KHARTO M. WHERE G RDOFELL. DIVINE SERVICE HELD 0~ THE PO'r ON 4'rH EP'rEMBER, 1 98 J,', orn llt e pictw /Jy R. C. W oodci ll r the p1opel'iy of t h e King, co11ie d /Jy .~pecictl JJCmtissio,i ol t h e L o, l 'ha1,,balni,t. THE NEW lTY THE VER Olt-' EKERA.L' PA.LA 'E. THE 01rno~ OLLE E. THE MEMORIAL 'ER\ lCE TO ,ORDON GORDON' 'l'AT TE. 1ATIVE VILLAGE ', UDAN LUB BANK OF EGYPT ZOOLOc:J 'AL GARDEN EX UR IO::-l TO 'OBA. 115 I 2

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'HAP T Ell I .,. THE NEW h .. T:IARTO ;\J. THE model c ity of Centra l Afr i ca i o u the Bln e Nile, about three mil e from Omdnrman which i on the White N il e It i s a great cont r ast to the Dervish town in every way T o begin wit h what strike u when a rrivin g i that i t i embo orned in a gro e JUNCTION OF ,,BITE NILE ANlJ BLUE NTLE, KHARTOOM. Sir R. lli11gat e of w 11 grown trees. The e r v i s hes when the.) ackecl an d burnt the ov r11or's Rous and a ll the othe r bui l 1rng. 111 t h e p l ace, forgot to destroy the tre s Even tho se p l ante d by Gordon' own hand s still flomi b and b e hind the mai1. 1 b uil lin g of th n w Palace, the h e ro's ros b e ls still exi t, h a ing been found nnd e rn ath the rnins of his residency. I h a\' been told that some of the ro ses that now flouri h exceeding l y a rose from th e roots or Gordon's own plants w hi ch till remain in th e g round; this may be a strrtch of the im ag ination, bnt it i s poss ibly trne. Kharto um i s quite a mod e rn rlace h a,ing Leen foun ded by Mehernet Ali as the sea t of the Guverno r Genera l about 1 ;JO, and stands in a fine high and h ealthy sit.nation. Th e promontory on which it i s built tretc he s b et, een the two Nile lik a n 1-i:l ep h a nt' s Trunk," the meaning of th e native name When Ki tdrnn e r cros e l er to the ruin of Kharto um i mmediate l y aft r the Dat.tle of Omdunna n 11 found the p l a c a tan....,l of wee 1 aml GORDO"N S PAL \.CE RUI~S Lt. Col. Penton. 119

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OUR SUDAN). ITS PYRA.JVIJDS A. D PROGRE demol i shed houses, and not a living creature in the ruins. Of Gordon s overnment House th re were only some ruined wa ll One of Gordon's old guar ls was found who had stood by his master at the l ast moment. H ha l been bad l y wounded at the time of the massacre, feigned death and so escaped. Thi s man pointed out the spot where the hero had been hacked to pieces RUlNS OF THE PALACE A D GORDO~ 's GARDEN, 4TH SEPTEMBER, 1 98 On thi s spot Kitchener at once made arrangements for hol Jing a re li gious service to Gordon's memory-4th September, 1898 The g unb oat commanded by Gordon's neph e w is see n in t he centl'e ove r tbe ru ins. This was ca lled the second funeral of Gordon, an l was conducted with much solemnity, a ll the troops, native and British, crowding round with unco vered he ads The service was con lucted by three Briti h clergymen, C hurch of England, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and was most impressive. Forei g n attaches were there, notable amo n g them being the Count von Tiedemann in hi ruag nifi en t uniform of the White uirassier It was remarked that he and many others were mur. h affected ~ming the ceremony. The banners of England and of Egypt overhead were HOISTING BRITISH AND EGY PTIAN FLAGS KHAR'fOUM, 4TH SEPT 1898 120

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0 R DA"A) IT PlRAfl1ID A1'D PROGREi i. display l H oating side by ide The 1 l a) ing and ingiog of o l sav e th Qu ~n," made the e r moniRl into a cle lication the conq u reel Ian l t o t h e pro t ction of Great ritain. D miug the cere mony the gunboat M e lik, ommandecl by Gor l on' n ph w, wa moo1 L1 out i<.l Bein g hig h :Nil it KHAR'l'OUM : SOU' l'H VERA:KD.A.H OF PALACE. was see n ver the ruined wall Minute guns w re fir ec1 from it while the c remony I roe cl ll. A n xcellent pictur of this ceremony, from photograr h taken at th time an l information upplied by 'ir R eginald vVingate, is now the property of the King. I h a v e b ee n graciou s l y permitte d to have the picture cop i e d for this c hapter. The lay after, a large body of m n were se t vi g orously to '"' ork to clear out the palace ruins for the n ew trnctur which at o n ce b ega n to ari se from the scene of desolation. In o rder to onvince the native pop ulRtion of th reality of the con 1ue. t, and of our d t ermination for the permanent ocnpa tion of the country, Lord Kitchener, afte r his Yic tor.), at once set a liout tu r e buil l h ... h artourn, on a pl ndicl sca l e, a u l 1i it is a id, himself lrew out on the a u r 1 hi I I a n for rebuilcl i nf, ordon s 'UDA~ CLU B GARDEN', KHA R'l'O. M D aiiJson 122

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l-0 I:,,; I 'l'IIE GU:N130.A'l' '' SIIEIKII '' ON WIIITE NILE. F KIIAR'rOU M, 4'l'II 1--RUINS OF OLD KilARTOU. M : IIOUSES OF LEADING MEN. ::r: 0 ~ ~-;::; Cl) .:) i ;;:,.. "' 0

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OUR s'UDA"tv; ITS. PYRA~ll!lIDS AND PROGRESS. THE BANK OF EGYPT, KHARTOUM D avids o n city. The idea was that the desi g n hould show the lines of a collection of Union Jacks. Lord Kitchener was indefatigable in hurrying on the develo1 ment of Khartoum, and the reconstruction of the government of the conquere l country was taken in hand at once. There was not time to send to London for plans for the buildings) and so the Royal Engineer officers did the best they could. Colonel Gorringe, it is said, designed the Palace, and a mo t effective and elegant bui ldin g it is. It is well adapted for a sunny climate, and is one of the most beautiful buildings of its kind, of entire l y original design. The plain river front accentuutgs the beauty of the e le gant southern fa ade. The grand scale on which the new city was conceived, and it fine situation7 are combining to make modern Khartoum a city to be proud of. The Palace is in the centre of the town and is surrounded uy a spacious garden, with groves of stately palms an l other fine trees Permanent government offices and public buildings hav e ar isen spread over the wide expanse, laid apart for a future great c ity. ince then many noble institutions and imposing private homes are arising on a ll si les There are several handsome banks, one of which, the Bank of Egypt, I engrave. The manager, Mr. Davidson, s howed me much kindness; many illustration s were supplied by him, and he has been my correspon lent since. The National Bank has al o a fine banking establishment, and as it is the Land Bank of the Govern ment, it w ill be a useful in stitution for the natives. Much has been done to l eve l an l l ay out the streets of Khartoum but it i s as yet only the she ll of a city. But the plan 1 nds itself to g radu a l development and trees are growing up a lon g the main streets. There are Clubs foe Officers and also simi lar institu tions for non-coms. At the Su lan lub I was frequently a guest It is an excellent house and has a l ove l y garden SUDANESE NATIVES, PRINCIPALLY J.A..A..LT L
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>-' L-.:) C,l1 PLAN OF THE CITY OF KHARTOUM AS DESIGNED BY LORD KITCHENER, 1 898 1. The Palace. 2. Government Offices. 3. Mudiria and Zaptia ffW~lk. IIIA$HA ~P.ACtic.!__ -~~J 4 Works Department Buildings. .. t 5 Military Hospital. 6. N uzl, e t c 7. Gordon Coll ege 8 Post and Telegraph. 9. Hotel Grounds 10. Mosque 11. Site for Church 12. Gove rnm e nt Shops 13. Gov e rnment Market. 14, Gordon's Statue 1 5 Christ ian Cemetery 16. Sudan Club. BRITISH / --,;.:,.-s.;.-.;. ----wEsr------~ f ~:ooOoo ~QwJ~~:l QQOOD 0 ~c!DD00 DD~DD~DD~ [[::gO 0[]~00~0 DO OtJ~D ~rJDD~~DD~[]~1-cJDD~D~lJD ~OD tJ0 DDtJc::::J:c:=i c::I ~C::)c:J~~DD[l ABBAS SQUARE LI tl DO~~[] D D c:::J ~c:::J ODD D =~C!DD IZMl ,,dDD!J~D:DtJ[:gDB ~o.oo ggoo~otJ~D;D ,,d[DCJJg[]D0~!lCJ ;CJOQ Bc:JDD~D!ZJ!lO;D LJ00lJ~DDtff~DDDGBorr3DD=~oo~~0 ................. .............. . ~onlJ~r,ffi=~ilQ~ :::,,,,831 ; ~ ~ -~~~l'DWl~t>r+Jffl ~,r, btu ,:'= ~""' .... :.:-:~.-::.:.:: :::~<~~ .. .z.i_:.:jj;);_~~~ : ; ~ .... : .. : .. .:-:-:-~: ... : : : :.::_.<-~, ;.:;)'.->/:~:-< .~~-~:,Z:::-:-:-:' BLUE NILE PLAN OF KHARTOUM, REDUCED FROM THE GOVERNMENT SURVEY, 1904. The frontage along th e river is t w o rn iles -----------------------------------------------' Fl ::,; i-,3 0 q 0 1-3 0 I t:J --.:1

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OUR ..,UDAN; IT1 PYR 1 ffID A D PRO rRE CORRIDOR TN THE GORDON COLLEGE. Rev. Llewellyn G w y ,me. f se eial acr s of line palms. There is a 000d hotel in Khartoum, and shops, mostly kept by Gree k merchants. The D ervi. hc s l eft u s a n inheritance rn thousands of their "v" idows," who are a ll employed in the city as garde n ers, na.vvi and stree t sweep rs, happy on t,To or three pia tres a day, quiet, industri ous, I atient worker all. The Gordon Colle ge was one of Lord Kitc hen er' s original schemes for er cting a permanent en lowed b uilding, to point to the great idea of e levatin g the natives of th e Sudan by means of education. When h e pail a hurried visit to London to receive the thauks of the nation an l hi title, he askeu for an l obta in ed from the British public, ,000 for endowment of the or
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OUR SUD.AN; I11 PYRAMID .A. T D PRO G RES1 needed his igorous mea ures. In his enforced ab ence an able successor in the rebuilding and r establishment of a model capital, was found in ir Reginald Wingate, who became Sirdar and Governor-General of the Sudan. There was to be no re t for the gr at soldier, and Lord Kitchener, having won his country's battles in outh Africa, wa hurried off to assume command in India. On bis way be paid a brief visit to Khartoum, the wonderful city he had planned as the crowning monument of the regeneration of the Sudan. He expressed much GORDON Statue b y R am o 1 'hornyc r o f l, It A Trafalgar Squ a re, London. pleasure and satisfaction at the development of the work in his enforced absence, and signalized his visit by inauguratin g the statue of Gordon, in the principal square of the new city, called by the hero's name. This is a fine statue, almost the last work of the late Onslow Ford, R.A., and forms the fronLispiece to this volume. The hero 1s represented on his camel with all it s native trappings correctly shown, just as he was wont to start on hi s expeditions through the country. It was r e late l in the Times recently how one day a poor old black woman, who had been a pensioner of Gordon's days, came back to Khartoum, and see ing the statue exclaimed, "God be praised, the Pasha Gordon has come again Here she had seated herself for an entire day-and she related how she had sat long by his camel, and that still he would not look at her-he who had never passed her without a kindly nod before "Is he tired or what is it?" she said; but after many visits she came home glad at last, for the Pasha had nodded his head to her The statue of Gordon by Ramo Thorn ycroft, R.A. (in Trafalgar Square, London), is generally esteemed as exce llent. The artist kindly gave me a photograph of this fine work, which is here reproduced as the best portrait of the hero The attitude i s said to be a wonderfully correct realisation The Sirdar's chaplain, the Rev. Llewellyn Gwynne, is a great favourite with a ll, from the Sirdar to the poorest inhabitant. He has learned nearly all the native l anguages, and teaches in the evenings numbers of young fellows who are busy all day. He is foremost in every good work and yet be is most po1 ular as an athlete with the army, for he is an expert in all games Mr. Gwynne was my constant companion whenever he could spare time from his duties, and many of my photographs were taken with his assistance 12

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PYRAVID11 1 D PROGBE11. i\lr. 0-wynn h ap l aincy at Khartoum ame abo u t uml e r peculiar c ircurnstan c After Lord Kitc h011 r 's conqu st, t he you n g c l ro-yrnan arriv cl at Kharto mn a mis ionary from a Lon lon ciety, to do what he coul l for the h eat h en of entral frj a Kitc h e n e r was unwrnin g to a dmit mi s ionari at this ear l y stage, a n l told Mr. wynne so, when he was officiall3 brought before him. Instea l of se nding him back, Lord Kitc h n er remarked that there w ere plenty of h ath n among the British an l s ugge. ted t ha t h e might remain at Kha rtoum as tb ir haplain. The ) oun o man heerfully acce1 t d tb off r and i g ned for a seven yea rs a ppointment. H e i s s till t here, and when the new church js uuilt for which Lady Wingate js colleeting fnnds, e v e r yone hop e that the R ev Llewellyn Gwynne may be th fir t p a tor. Tb e site se l ecte d for the churc h i on of the b t in I ha1-toum a nd the Goverrnnent h ave g i ven the land rent free for ever. At pr sent Divin e ,-.. or, hip i s con luctecl in a room in t h e alace w h ere "God srw the King" i s sung by all stand in g after s rv1ce : this h as be e n done e v ery unday since orclon's M rnorja l e remony. The Palace g roun l s a r e beautiful and well kept. I vas a fr eq u ent vi~it0r and h ad, as a compan ion a beautiful rare bird from t h Bahr e l Ghazal, which h ad been sen t as a g ift to the irdar. He i s a l ong -l egged crane, with a n enor mou s bill like that o f a pelican, appar ently of whalebo11e. From this an 1 hi s dignified aspect he h as got the fine n ame of Bcilceniceps Re'. But the n at.i es, with l ess r espect, call him "Abu JVIarkub, the fath e r of hoes. He i s p erfect l y tame and very fond of company, and join s any party of v i sitor n e day whe n I was trying rep ated l y to take s n apshots of him h e sat down a nd yawi;ied h e h a d enoug h f m y photography. In the alace Garden I r marked a colos a l car ved animal, of wh i c h no o n e knew the or i gin or antiquity. But somebody a id it had be e n orclon 's, a nd it was well cared for, a nd tre.ated with much r ...,pect, as a memento of him. It ha l TIRED oF ms roRTRAtT BEING TAKEN. 130

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OUR UDAN; IT PYR.A ~fID A n PROGRE 1 t buried under the rnin when the Dervish 1 velled the Government Hou e, and so e cape l 1 struction I h ard all about it fr m Fath r brwalder, who re collected wh n or l n brought it to his garl n. It came from the ruins of OBA, an ancient Christian city on the Blu Nile. HILLUK WARRIORS: SHAM FIGHT AT KHARTO M. An ace unt of a v1 1t to j oba will b found at the end of the chapter. A erman Lo,cl Willi am C ecil savant ha l discov re l theLamb at oba, aml de cribe l it, years b for but of thi I uppose Gor lon wa. n t a war He knew the ruin w re 1bl'ist.ian by th I r sence of the eras on the column' of the ruine l church th re, which no doubt wer e tanding in hi time and ha l he not r moved the L amb to a 1 l ace of safety, i t would have be n br ken up for buildino-stone 'oba had been n s cl a a quarry for supplying material for Khart um for tw nt y or thirty year The interior f the Palace is most charmin in every aspect. I enjo yed many vi its to it, thank to it hospitable host ir Reginal l and La ly V\ in gate The irclar' won lerful coll ection of trophi s n.n l r li e of his lon g experience at the Intelligen Department are well worth a journey to Khartoum to see. Every cla some J oung officer woul l arrive unexpe tedly, bringing new from the r mater pro vince aucl their keen interest rn their clnti s a lded much to one' p l asur 11 w re so younO', active, full of life; h or e, and thor u g h n joyment f their profession. when ther gymkha na, offi ers and n l was a and men, l'HE LA:liB FROM SOBA. 132 The Rev. Llewellyn G 1 ynne

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THE llfUDIR OF KH RTO llf. LlEU T.-COL. STANTON, MUDIR OF KHARTO M white, b l ack, and yello\,, a ll competed together in equality in splendi l efforts of field sports au l military xerci es, it wa ea y Lo tell how the E g) ptians and Sudanese ha l become such w 11 di. cipline l and effective soldiers E;YI t ancl our u Ian ar fo1tunate in the Briti h officer who are selected for their government. Tho e I met a La ly Win gate's gu sts vv re specimens of the best of England young soldiers, and deeply intereste l in their work. The Mudir (Governor) of Khartoum, olonel tanton, often :wted as my gu i d and made my visit to Khartoum one of the most delightful experiences. He ha helped me in a ll my literary an l antiquarian effort for the Sudan, and I have learned much b his assistance. Many of my best photographs an l the descrir tion of the anbquities in these region are lu to hi unceasing kindness. I owe to the Hon. uthbert Jame wh m I met first nit Khartoum, much know le lge abou t the udan, and many of tli most interesting pbotographs were s le c ted for me, localized and labelled by hi r ady wit. He was in much of the early work in the campaign on the White Nile, but has since been m ai nly enO'age l on the financial ,Ldmiui .. tration of the countr His intimat knowled g of all udanese matters has be.en of the greatest se rvice to me. Another friend Captain H. F. Am ry, whose acquaintance I made at Kbartoum, ha given me, t h en and ince, so much help that it wou l d be l ase ingratitud to omit my h arty thanks, which I g'laclly plac e on rncord. He i s now th acti n g 1hief of Int lligence, and h as lib e rally supp li ed me with informa tion on every mysterious region and answered every question His knowledge of ev rything connected with the ..._ u lan is extraor Ii.nary, and 1:33 CA PT. THE ITON CUTHBER' JAMES Assistant Finan c ial ec r etary, 1904.

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OUR > UDA"f:IT IT1 PYRAffID A D PROGRE withouli hi help my book would bav been full of error Mr. A. L Butler, who look s after the preservation of game in the Sudan, tak s u great int rnst in the Zoological Gardens at Khartoum. Practical science ha been greatl y benefited by the researches of Dr. Bal four, v-7110 is connccte l with the Scien tific taff of the Sudan Gov .rnm nt. Th bites of certaiu moequitoes have been blamed for causing the malal'ial fever which at ertai n easons is ery 'l'HE ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN KHAR'l'OU L .Da:vicloil prevalent in the udan. r. Ba.lfour ha I rnve l that tho e insects at Khartoum are certainly the fever-1 roducing variety, and hac, followed up hi discovery by xtirpatin g them a.s far as po sib le. This has l een lone by a carefu l sea rch for all the old wr.lls in which they bred, incre ased and multiplied to an enormou degree. These wells h ave been a ll t.r ated with crude petroleum, an l dosed up ; the mosquitoes havi1w been thus abo li heel, malarial fever ha dis appeared from Khartoum. A Mnsenm of ntiquities for th Sudan is in course of formation at Khartoum. There are, however, 110 an ieut l uil ling i11 or near the plac and on l y one arcbm logical mblem of old-Lime civilization. The population i increasing rapidly, ancl churches of every hristirm den mination are pringing up. A handsome Mo qne is being e r cted, on ground g iven by the Government. 011 Khartoum u a l 60,000 inl1abitants, it now ha s 8,000 within the old walls, but the r t_1eiglibourhood has 20 000 and rapidly increasina. At first it was s uppo sed that it wou l l ntirely replace Omdnrman a a s at of tra 1 but it is vi l nt that much of the eommerce will r main in it old quarters, and it is n v r wise to remove an ancient mark t. Tliere is room for both towns, but Khartoum of cour, e is paramount a ~ the apital of the ''u lan. The auoriginu,l tribes are being we ll cared for and gradually taught the lignity of labour, whil e t heir own native tribal divisions are r spected each tribe being quartered separatel y 134 'rlIE MOSQUE, KHARTOUM Lt.-Col. P enton It

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f--1 o MILES SOUTH OF KHARTOUM. e o n the eve of the attcick o n Khartoiw,. THE WAR OFFICE, KHARTOUM. RAILWAY S'l'A TION, TTALFAYA. KHARTOUM NORTH. D avicls o STEAMER WI'l'H BARGES A LONGSIDE. BLUE NILE, Fl P:: :i,,. 1-:3 0 q ~-i. i (b I:) ;;,-, (b ... e., '-'

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OUR SUDAi:i; IT PYBA~fID Ai':i D PBOGBE1 >. FAIR .AT THE .ATIVE QUARTERS D avidson. Empty bottles a r e the medium of exchange. m mod 1 vi ll ages outside the city which a r e I olic d by thernselve and con trolle 1 by their own hea lm n. In thi way the Baggara, hillnks, :Oinkas, Jartlin, l erbcrs Nuers, a nd other tribes are taught to dw 11 in unity an l yet not compelle l to g ive up their primi tive syste m of life-each tl'ibe allowed to being build their dwellings 111 their own fa hion. Some ha, e huts of reeds, others of brick or earth, some even ar burrowed in the g round. Every style of simple savage life can be studied-a visit to their dozen of settlements is a most interesting experience, an l the dignity with which they recci v vi itors is plea ant to witnes All em happy and contented; all able to work get employment in Khartoum returning at night to tl~eir I rimiti ve homest ads The rail way from the north terminates at H a l fa) a, opr osite Khartoum, with which it i s conn cted by a t am ferry Kha rtonm, with the town of Halfaya and Orn iurman, are unite d in one dis trict the three towns and tb ir enYiro11s forming one Mudiria, controlled from Khartoum. 'rHE DARK LA.DIE,, WEEKLY WASH, KHARTOUM Daiiclson. 136

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OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAjJfIDS A"T:lD PROGRESS. RECENT TIDINGS OF THE GORDO~ COLLEGE. The Gordon College is now working, and I add a quotation from a rec ent correspon lent of the 1'imes to show how practical a form the instruction is taking. "The Gordon College must always attract the interest of all Englishmen when hearing about Khartotm1 The education now being given ~t the college is neces sar il y elementary only. It has not been opened three years, and nearly all pupils now in t he college have been taught there everything they know except reading and writing. The pupil may now be divided into three classes :-" 1. Boy. un lergoing the ordinary course of primary education according to the Egyptian curricu lum. The principle is being followe l of educating them as far as pos ible in their own mother tongue before they are adva.nced to any foreign language. 2 A cla s for thee lucation of young men of the better c l asses, sheikh's sons, etc who it is hoped will fill two important offices in their own country life-(1) the village schoolma ter ; (2) the kadi or judge of the Mehkene h Sharieh or Mussulm an Comts. "The advantage of en li sting the sons of the best hou ses of the Sudan as teacher of the chi ldr en of the country mu. t sugge t itse lf to every one, and it is very io1portant that t h e same class shou ld be well trained to admini. ter the Mussulman l aw of the land. The Courts deal with marriage, divorce, an l a ll que tions of inheritance. The stu lents selected for this branch of the I ul li e serv ice will spend severe d years under in truction in the office of the l egal secretary (wheth er in the Gordon College or not I do not lrnow) after completing their act ual colleg e coarse The progre s that these young men have made is very rema.rkable. They are the very class which it wa, s thought to be most difficult to attract to any schoo l or college j but there are 60 of them attending classes now Vi1 ell dressed, clean, an~, b a ring them se l ves li ke Aral gentlemen, they are a credit to themselves and to the college. THE GORDON COLLEGE, KHA.RTO M IlIVER FRONT. .Da v icl s o n "3. Owing to the munificence of a visitor to Khartoum full equipment for a technical school bras been pro-, ided and technical education h as begun The pupils are mostl y boys 13

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THE GOBDON COLLEGE-THE .AMEBIO.AN SCHOOLS. from 14 years of age and onwards. They can a ll read and write a nd know some figurns. The Sudani, both Arab and b l ack, is men best as a mechanic. He takes to the work hop like a young duck to the water, and there w ill be an ample field in t h e count r y for the employment of s killelic choo ls, wher I have beard that on l y Arab i c is taught, I am h appy to say that the Ameri can Mission 1c hools, wh i c h have done so mu c h for Egypt, h ave h ad a centra l estab li shme n t in K h artoum s ince 1900 They h ave bran ches in Orn lurman, Hal faya, Wadi Hal fa and v\ a l Medani ( on the Blue Nile), Kassa l?, and on the Sobat, away in the Land of the Su kl. I have seen the good these people do in Egypt, and tltey wi ll be a b l essing to the u lan. They t eac h a ll com ers and edu ca t e ma l e and femal e teachers from among the nativesr and make thei r sch ools almost se lf-.-upp or ting. The kuow l edge of the Eng li sh l angunge, w ith the I ractice of the Chris ti an virtues, that these schoo l s ha, e spread over Egypt, i s a thingto be hop e l for amo n g t h e negl ecte l natives of the udan. Lord Crorner's opini on of the work of these schoo l s w ill be found ia C h apte r XII. ---------------H is r e l ated of t h e state of the country when Kitchenc-::r con q u e r ed it, as s howin g to wha t d ep th s of barbarism the Dervis hes h ad reduce l the l eop le, t h ey h ad l ost the art of making bri cks a n l l ay i ng them, thern wer e 110 traclesmeu, n o ca r penters. Itali a n s h ad to ue e1up l oyed to teach them the s i mp l est s kill e d l abour A l ready this s t ate of affai r is reversed industr y i s in th e ascenda n cy a nd l ocal skill ed l abo ur h as beco m e plentiful. 'l 'HE NATIVE JEWELLER HAS RE'l'URNED I bave. cvcra l excell e n t spec imen s of h is wor k, whic h Remz i Bey got him to make for me. 13 9

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I-' fj:>. ,:::., SOBA: R UINS OF CHRISTIAN CHURCH. S OB A : CAPITAL OF A COLUMN, A NCIENT CIIRIS'l'IAN CITURCFf. R UINS OF SOBA, BLUE NILE. A V I SIT '1'0 THE R UINS OF 'fHE CIIRIS'flAN CITURCH, SOBA. 0 bj r'" f "' <::) -~ <..::. f.tJ .,,.. i-;,; ~ b ~-0

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AN .ANOIE.f..T OHRISTIA0! CITY EAR KHARTOWL EXCURSION TO OBA. As oba is so near to Khartoum we will de scr ibe it a a c1 vel pm nt of our visit to Gordon' city. Th e Government have recently er cted a Rest-hou e for visitors there, and it deserves to be spelt with a cap it al "R." It i a g od beginning, and is the fir t provi ion of its kin l provid cl for tourists in the n lan. We may thank 1olonel tanton for this thoughtfulne which ha been so well carri l ut. On the ea t bank of the Blue :Nile, about thirteen miles from Khartoum, are, or n1,ther were, the ruins of a great city Duemichen, the de cribes the discovery of the place, by him, in 1863 great stone an im a l (now preserved in the Palace Garden at Khartoum) with the inscription, he says-" This sheep, with the foundations of a hri tian asilica, a nd rman savant and traveller, thu .. In giving an illu tration of the several well preserved cap i tals, with the cross upon them, was brought to light by me during excava tions undertake n in 1863, not far from Saba (the sta oba of Strabo, who wrote about 3 0 B .C.) This anima l is ornamented with Ethiopian hi e rog1yphics, REST-HOUSE AT SOBA. an l rep~ese nts the most sout h ern discov er y of such language. The inscription proves that the city of Saba was within the borders of the anc ient Ethiopian Empire f Meroe.' '' It proves that on the spot, where afterwar ls rose the capital of the old hri tiau Empire, ca ll ed by the Arab geographies 'Alna,' there must hav e been formerly an old Ethiopian city, which, to judge by the nam of the river transmitted to us, viz., 'A ta Sobas' (the river of Sobas) had the same nam e which ~a been pr ervecl t.ill the present day in that of the v ill age of Saba near the ruins. Th e site of the capital of this district, which can be no other than the ancient province of Alua, i thns pr ved Th e native name o-f the Blue Nile is Azrel\., wl1i h thus till retain I art of the claRsical nam This sheep was sub equently brought to Kb~rtoum by Gordon probably be ans it was found in the ruins of a Christian hurch 141

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OUR, UDAN; IT 1 YRAMID1 I .A ~ T D PROGRE Th ton an 1 tho u ands of uoat -load. of burnt bricks had be e n carried off to b u e d in the buildin g of' the theu n w town of Khartoum. This ha l gone on for forty y ars before Gord.on s tim and ~as till in progres The sands ba l blown o, r the foundations of the ancient cit and it "as cow.pletely forgotten when yjsiting I. hartoum I wa much trnck ,, ith t h e ancient stone animal, which I cam upon unexpectedly in a comer of the great garden attache l to the a l ac The grave l of the path was piled up against the base. Thinkin0 that it might bear an in cription I carefu ll y raked the gravel back, and discover ed the inscription which I cop ied. Nobo ly in Khartoum in pre~ent times had noticed the IN t;RIPTlON ON BASE OF THE LAMB A T KHARTOUM, 'ORTH SIDE. )y'J{~ FRAGMENT ON BA E, SO TH SIDE. ON BASE, EAST END. :Stone h er, and none had dreamt of an im,c riptiou being on it. Tb only "oldest inhabitant" in the neighbourhood was }father Ohrwalder, and to him I applied. V\ hen I vi ... it l him at his hou e at Omdurman w h ad a long cam ersation about this monument. He knew all about the beast, and told me how Gordon had saved it from destruction, as a hrjstian relic. But, strange to sa3, Ohr'l;\alder had never notic ed the inscription. After I returned to En0l and, I nccidentally came upon the r cord of Duemichen's discovery and hi clever translation of the inscription which neither Profes or I trie or Sayce, Llewellyn :xriffith or Dr. Herbert Walker cou ld read Du mich nhaclea ily r al the word "' .Alua an l o lr w hi own conclusions Ree ntly o lon 1 'tanton, [ndir o f Kharloum, accom -pani cl by th Briti l c h ar l ain, the R v Ll we llyn wynne, visit l the place. They describe the whole p 1 ain as covered wit h old fou n lations, and re mains of burnt brick, til es and fragments OBA : RUINS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 1 42

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A!\ OIEN~T E LV; -PA T HER OHR FV A LDER. of 'to n Four o T a nit e column s pro tru l out o f t h sand, and m ark all t hat r rna iu s o f Du mi cli n s a sili ca of Chris tian tim a pit a ls with c ro e s o n eac h i l e lie 'tr wn a bout. E xc avation by Lie uten a u t 1o l o n 1 f tn.nt o n and t h e r ev. Ll w lly u nn b rou ght to light one p artic ularly fin s culp ture d c a pital, p o s ibl y o n e o f t h o s n by Dne michen forty years ago and pel'haps buri e d ag ain by him for th e s ak of security. They came also within the enclo s ure of the church, upon sev e r a l g raves cont a inin g s k e l tons, which they reverently covered up again The city had evi lently been of gr at extent. There is a tradition of anoth r mine l city on Lhe opposite si le of the B lu e Nile, and that a great bridge of briek in former lays crossed the river near this The "Bridge of Brick" legend is curious, as it may ha. ve been a dam to regulate t h e storage or supp l y of water for irrigation purposes when the river falls to it low r summer l evel. This might have b e en just a similar "Regulator" to that which Mr. Dupuis will shortly be building, either here or further up the Blue Nil Father Ohrwalder toll m of the t r a dition of the Great Christian Empire of Soba which is, he has no doubt, the Sheba of the Bib le and the name by wh i ch the place i known to this day. Col one l tanton and tbe Rev Llewellyn Gwynue related that the natives tell of ruins still ex i stin 6 of m my other cities in this region and of oth rs on the west towar ls Darfur. An a "eel h eikh toll 1r. Gwynne that his grandfather (ancestors) were all hristian, but wer fore cl to accept Islam by the conquerors. He said, You will now want cz,-,,f J. /Y I A to make u become hrist -ian again /., /' V~i,-.....,, it i s only natural." But Mr. wynne said we only wished to l ea e all to follo w ==their own religion as long as they were s ati. fied of its tmth. Another native gent l eman took a liffi rent view of hristianity. H e i a tine l ooking man and knew or lon. I was introduced to him a n l like l him much. This man came to Mr. Gwynne an
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OUR SUDAN). IT P1RAMID A D PROGRE KI'I RENER' 1 C HOOL Being a translation of the ong that wa rna le b!J a JJ1ohamrnedan c hoolm,a ter of Bengal Infcintry (sonie tim, e on ervice at 'ltakin) whe n he hecird that fl itchener wa taking money from the Enr1lish to bu,ilcl et n{aclri sa for Hiib hee -01 a College for the Sudanese, 1 898 Orr Hub liee, cal'l' your ho in om band and bow ,our h ad on your br a t Thi i th m ag of Kitchene r who did not break OU in jet. It wa p rnritt cl to him to fulfil the longappoin cl encl ordained of old over om cl a l H e tamped on l y b efo r e your wall and th Tomb ye 1..-ne w v.-as du H e gath red up under bi armpit all t ]rn ,Yard of om tru~ t : He ta guard on your granarie ecuring the w a k from the trong : H aid:-' Go work the ,Yaterwh e 1 hat ,rnr aboli heel o l ong He ail:-' Go afely, being aba eel. I J1ave ac om pli L cl my v w.' That wa the 111 rcy of Kitchen r 'ometh ]Ji maclne now! He do not de ire a y de ire, nor den e a y d evi e : H e i pr I aring a econcl ho t-an army to make ou wi e. Not at t h e mouth own city, not eeking or money to buy Kno wing that are forfeit by battl e and have no right to liv H e b g for man to bring yo u 1 arning-and all h e Engli h give It i iheiT t r ea tue-it i theis plea ure-thu are th ir heart inclined : For Uah reat cl th Engli b rnacl -th madde t of all mankind F r o m ' 1'he Fii:e Nations 1 1!, tlmen and Co., l'ubli s he1s, L ondon 144 They do not onsider th Meaning of Thing ; they con ult not creed nor clan B hold, th y c lap t h e l ave on th back and b e hold h e ari th a man Th y terribly arpet the arth with d ad and before their annon cool They walk unarmed by two and tlll'ees to call t h e living to c hool. H w i s thi r ea on ( which i h ir r ea on ) to judge a cholar worth By ea ting a b all at tl1ree trn.ight tick and clef ncling the am with a fourth ? But t bi t h ey do (whic h i s doubtle a pell) and other matter mor trange, ntil by h operation of years, th heart of theiT cholar. hang : Till the_e make ome and go grea boat or e ngine~ u1 on t lie rail (But a 1" ay the Engli h watch n ea r b to prop them when the fail) ; Till the make law of h eir o "-n hoice and Judge of th fr wn blood ; And all t h e mad Engli s h o b ey t h e Judge and ay that t h Law i g ocl. ertainl y t h ey w r e mad from of old : but I one new thing, That t h e magi c ,,h ereby t h ey work their magi c wherefrom heir fo rtune pring-M a b e t hat th y h ow all people their magic and a k no I rice in r turn. WJ1e r efore, ince ye ar bound to that magic 0 Hub h make ha te and learn ertainly a l o i Kitchener rna l. But one s me thing I know-If he h broke you be minded to teach you, to li.i Madri a go. 'o, ~md carry our ho in yom hand and bow yom h ad on your br a t, For he h did not lay you in port, h e will not teac h yo u in j e t RUDYARD KIPLING

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CARVED BLOCKS AT NAGA. J,fr, Pe?cy G Lo rd, R.E. 146

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.. . : : . D THE PYRAll!I.IDS OF Jv.lEROE. E s E l R T ._ ____ .1000 Fr. / HIGH MEROE: MAP OF THE PYRAMID FIELD (BAKRAWIYA). THE I LA.ND OF MEROE." ~ GH ( : GROUND rI \ GI\.OUNO .... .. Ho~ l ins. Tr!ABO, Ptolemy, and other historians and geographers, some .u,000 years ago, have ca ll e l the peninsula or rather the tongue of land between the Atbara (Astoboras) and Blue Nil e (Astopas) the "Is1an l of Mero ... Thj region was one a r i ch kingdom fu ll of citie who e remains are still to b e seen It was a l so a I opulous district and doubtless a part of the c ivili sed kingdom whose power extended between the SECOND and FouRTII ATARACT, communications being kept up with N apata, 1 y the land transit across the Bayuda desert, which till exists between the present towns of Korti o r Merowe and S hendi. It is necessary to mention all this again, as we have no proof that the pyramids h re had any connection with tho$e of N apata. This region was undoubtedly rich in ancient tiroes, but is now steeped in wretchedness give it back agricultural possibilities and it may return to prosperity. The g reat ed ific es we are about to describe must h ave cost eno rmou s sums, and there seems no other source of wealth but agriculture for deriving n n y return from the l and, for it does not seem to possess minerals. It i hoped that by ca lling the attention of the Government to this re i on's wea lth of ancient remains, the authorities may b gin to see the necessity for protecting these price l ess records of a great past. For it is to be feared that if irrigation and agriculture be l argely developed, and some ten or twenty thousand immigrants brought in to the now deserted wastes, the ruins will be exposed to dangers which tbey hav e hitherto scare l. THE PYRAMID OF MEROE. fter crossing tbe Atbara and a short listance north of h end i, the "Pyramids of Meroe come in sight, c l arly seen on the ast from the railway, about two mil es away They are ge n rally known as the Pyramids of Bakrawiya, the name of the village near 147 L 2

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OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS AND PROGRESS. them. Tra v e llers of the last century called them the Pyramids of Assom or .... ur, th name of another vi ll age near the vast pyramid fie] L At present they a r e best visited MEROE, THE GREAT PYRAMID. Caillaud. from Shen di, where the fast trains s top Some day ome other stati ons will be mad avai l able, no doubt, and Rest-houses wi ll be provided and arrangements made for parties of tourists visiting a scene a lmost as wonderfu l as akkara hen we get nea r them, we find that tber arc three separate groups of pyramids Th e prin cipal group i s on hiol1 ground on the north, and h r there ar in all about thirty pyr~mi:l large and small Nearly a ll h ad, or have, the small tem1 le ou the eastern ide (which we have seen at the imilar structur in the north-western part of the ancient Kingdom of il:ero"i, n ar Napata). A valley iutervene and south of this there are the ruins of about twentyfi\'e more pyrami l s About a mi l e further west, in the sandy p l ai n there are the remains of some twenty-four smaller I yrarni ls ery po ss ibly the ruins of many other:3 ha, e been buried in the lriftin g san l. One of th pyra mids in th Fincipal gro np ha. an a r hed antechamb r, an l in this pyr?'mid, L I iu say Ferlini found the c 1 bratecl treasu re, which i now in the Berlin Mu, e mn. MEROE, SOUTHER PYRAMIDS FROM 'l'EE NORTH -W EST Ca illaucl. Lepsius Sa.) S he had great hfficulty in reading the Ethiopian hierog l yphs, b u t h m ade out, to his own satisfaction the name of on of the cartoucbes, that of the Queen Kan lake, 14

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!Ti Pl R 1 ~IID 10W PRO GREi to wh m t ; h p mmi l n l the j e w llery ru .~t I robably b e lon e L Lep ius b li eved that th best buil lings at that pl ace, and here re of her epo h. }from thes e I) rami ls and temp l es, he tell us that he was ab l e to uiscover 110 1 s. tl a 11 eight en royal name but had not time t.h n to tucly their order or eq nence of their r ign Uufortunately he never ha l the tirn ", and so we till remain in ignorance of this mo t important step towards lmowl dge of their hi tory and date. Every one of these pyramids must have contain ed a roya l personag Lepsius made plans of every pyramid and temple, and copied the inscriptions of many, a lthou gh he could on l y guess at their meaning, hoping one day to be able, by m ans of further research, to discover the import of many signR which the later Ethiopian had ad le l to the Egyptian alphabet. Th r ~ ';f.,L."w"" I opti alphabet has 6 l etter 2-nd Lepsius n n I h thought these xtra hieroglyphic signs m ight be i ~ I 1 <&[ ri xp l aine l by them, but no farther light ha be n :~ c:----:::1 cA. t on them since hi day, and when I a1 plied t--t'--t~-l----+-1--+r-----1-J..1--..~..:....~-1+-J<;.=-~,--++-~ r cent l y to Professors Petrie, a3 ce and others, ages ago. they all pleaded their ignorance of this scr i pt. I illu strate the pyramid-groups from ai ll aud, showi n g their state in 18:20, others from Ho. kins in 1833, and a lso illu strations from Ler sius .After this vi. it of Ho kins the Italian traveller J!'erlini came 011 the cene, and in his zeal for ancient treasur i t is to be feared, lid much injury to several of the ancient monum ents The ruin d condition of these rn nnments in aillaud' time how DACE L elisius. that the SI oiler's hand had been at WOl'k ut the n w of F rlini' find of jew 1lery pread an over the countr), an l 150

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I-' QI TIIE LARGEST rYRA.MIDS TO THE NORTH-EAST. M.A.I.N GROUP OF PYRAMTDS. PYRAMIDS NEARES'r TIIE RUIN. CENTRAL GROUP OF PYRAMlDS. 1-"d ;i,,-e5 t:, Ul 0 1-;:j Fa, t:,:j :::0 0 ~l:rj: 1-"d i;:d t;i:j Ul t:,:j z 1-,3 Ul ......... t,i 9 ~-0

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OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS A "N"D PROGRESS. MEROE, THE SOUTHERN GROUP OF PYRAMIDS. Lepsius. when Lepsius came, armed with a firman, prntected by a government convoy and with all the prestige of a royal mission of discovery, he foun l evei-yone convinced 1 -hat he came in search of gold and je els It is to be feared that the damage may have been lone to these monuments by tr asure seekers since the days of Lepsius and therefore it is to be hop e l that they may soon b e 1 laced under protection. In. the 1 tters of Lepsius, he states that be ha l no doubt whatever that the Qlrnen w h o owned the jewellery which we e n g rave, w as the Kan lake who e repre entation he saw jn the pyrami l, with her n a ils more than an in c h lon g He als p tates that he had engage d the cawa s who had be en with Ferlini when h e found the j weller and he was hown the hol e in the wall where it came from. Lep s ius loe not seem to have searched for such treasures, at l east not in the way Ferlini a1 pear. to ha e don I found a copy of F rlini's pamph let in the Briti. h Museum, of which I had a translation made and J\1ERO E rYRAMID wrTH DECORATED TEMPLE. Ho,ki ns. I re enterl to the a u thorities at Khartoum. Here i an extract from :B erl ini 's own account; he bad pulle l about several t mples and p ramids before he was succe sful in hi earches for treasure:-" Dejected at our barren re earcbe in the smaller pyrami ls I determined, as a last re sort, t o try for al etter resu l t in one of the larger ones stan ding at the top of the hill, and decided to work upon the only one that remained intact .... It was formed of sixty-four steps .... the whole height was twenty-six metre and about forty two metres on every side. I saw that the s ummit cou ld easily be demolished as it was a lr eady beginning to fall. . there was soon room for other workmen . . vVe could see through the hole that was opened into the hollow space holdi ng certain obj ects It was composed of roughly-wrought stones. After the 152

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I-' c.,-. ,:,., l\'IERO.E: JEWELLERY FOUND IN A PYRAMID BY F ERLINI. COPY OF FERLTNI'S PLATE, FROM Il1 S PAMPHLET, DESCRIBING THE JEVtRLLERY. 1 6 12 17 11 9 . 8 10 I --14 i (r) 21 6 @) 3 0 15 l 21 Apparently the vases were p a ck ed full o f the smalle r j ewellery, which is n o w in Berlin. The larger vessels seem to h ave found their way into Muse um s in Italy. 4 18 1 1--....j ?:/2 t:::; t/2 c5 C) t;,;:i C) N N t;,;:i

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FERLL1'11'S DISCOVERJ OF JEWELLERY. larger tones which covered the u1 per t rey were remove l, w di c vere la 1 1 w quare pace formed by the stones of the step of tbe four i le walls, about five feet hi 5 b, an l si. or even long. The first thing that met our eyes W<:L a large body covered with white cotton cl th or by .ns whiuh crumbled to piece at the fir t toucb, and underneath thi a bier or litter f wo cl, quadri l ateral, supported on four smooth cylindr i cal l eg its balustrade formed of a number of piece. of ,voo l placed alternately, a l arge and a small, and representing symbo li cal figureslotu flower, uraeus, etc etc Under this bier was found the va es ,vbich c ntaine l the precious objects wrapped in woven-cloth. Tbere were four vase and a semicir ul a r up these were a ll made of a kin l of bronze . . In the centre of the pyramid wa a niche formed by three stones. vVhen these were removed I saw some objects wrapped in loth. These proved to be two bronze vases, perfect, of elegant shape and workmanship .... Some years afterwards, Eerlini offered the treasure to the British Museum. It was d e lined a being pit,rious. Lepsius ha1 pened to be in London at the tim and carried off JTerlini ~ rnd the jewe ll ery to Berlin, where it was at once p u r chased by the King of Prussia, a n l i now the chief treasure of the Berlin Museum, more than 500 objects filling several cases, and oth er objects are pre served in T u rin. They exhibit a mo t rema r kab l e variety, and eem to show a gradua l t ion transi f r o m JEWELLERY FROM '.IEROE NOW 1N BERLIN MUSEUM. ].,gyptian art to c l assic styles, and thu give a very corr et ide a of the date of the tomb which Lepsius thought may be ju t before th hristian era. Hut some of the objects may have been much more anci nt. The objects appear to be of many different dates Whether they wer hidden in the time of troubl (perhaps wh n the Roman army entere l th country) or bnriecl at Queen Kan lake's deceas we cannot te11, thoubh proper scientific examination miglit even yet discover. Strange to say, neitb r L p ius or other travell r.s hav evel' told u if the bodies ento 1nbed li re wer mummifie l or not. Nor have there L ee n any search s, as far as I kn ", for 'haft::; or tomb 155

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OUR, SUD.AN; ITS PYBA~!lID .A D PROGRESS. RUIN AT BA NAG.A ( 'EE P .AGE 161 ) Cai {lau c l c hamb ers underneath these pyrami l uch as have alwa s been foun l in pyrari ls in N ortbern Egypt. Ferlini's account, if to bP. relied on, would lea l us to uppose that the tomb c hamb r wa above Toun l a nd that the corp "e fell to dust on being expo ed to the air, bnt his account is not clear, and he, at best, was evil ntl y a sordid trea. me eeker, an l by no means a scient ifi d i coverer like Lepsius What ver their period, those who built these pyramids ha l an evi lent connection with the builders of those of N apata and its neighbou~hoorl. The angl of the s lop the mall astern chape l s and temple are almost the same. On the other hand, we fin l no large temples here such as we ball ee at Naga But the great yrami l here has, upon the pylons of th little t mpl sculr ture of a "stont queen," who may be the ame person who is represented on one of the larger temp l es at Naga as they are exactly the same style These resemblances would seew to prove that all three regions, o widely apart, N apata, Bakraw i ya, and :N aga are all, part and parce l the work of t,h same race of men, if not actually of contemporary date. But if it was all one homogeneous kingdom, where are we to find the remains of its metropo lis? Ther e is no evidence of any great city having existed here Ho kin speaks of a pace between the riv e r an l the I yrami ls strewed with burnt brick and fragments of walls; tb se wonl l only indicate a mall town, but we woul d expect grnater ev i lence of the capital of a kingdom Where the metropolis of Meroe was, is still a mystery This great pyrarni 1 -fiel d was 011ly a ro al necropo l i When the arch ~ologica l survey of the 'udan r evea ls the mysteries of thi region the site may be discovered ; at present it see m s to ha ve been on l y a vast cemetery, u c h as a kkarn or Gizeh in Egypt. L epsiu tells of his lliscovery of three extensi v cemeter i es north of the Meroe pyramids The tom b. at a distance seemed to be pyramids, but were nly round heaps of desert stones One had ,..,6 grave mounds, a nother 21, and another 40. There was a large one often in the centre and some had a circumva ll ation of four-cornered shape 156

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..... Ot -:r NAGA, VIEW OF TJIE GREAT EASTERN TEMPLE TAKEN FROM S.W. NAGA, VIEW OF THE WESTERN TEMPLE AND THE PYLONS FROM E 0 ;-, t,::j z 1--3 t:,j q 8 0 ;-, z G:l U2 P> 1--3 ...--. ? :::::: 0

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OUR SUDAN) IT PYRAJl!lID AND PROGRESS. He ha l not time to excavate .~o as to ascertaiu the period of their rection. Th re were upwards of 200 tombs in all. eeing what wonderful M have b en found in the Fayum by Mes r Grenfell an l Hunt, working for the Egypt Exploration Fund, it seem worth while to lraw scientific attention to the many unexplored tombs in thi region, an l also the rock tombs contiguous to th citi s of Naga an l its neighbourhood. Lord Cromer allud d to the translations of these reek M in his First Report of 1904, as being most us ful to him in making comparisons of the government of Egypt in ancient and modern times. Here in "Our udan" there are tombs and pyrnmids of the Greek and Latin periods, as found in the Fayum; search shoul l be made in this reg i on for similar proofs of history. When the king-priests of Amon migrated to the south, they doubtless carried with them many ancient papyri, which may now be found in their tombs or pyramids here No documents were found or expected by Lepsius as this wa before the Fayum di coveries, and nobody thought that such things existed among the neglected cemeteries and rubbish heaps of vanished cities. BAN NAGA. About 50 miles onth of these pyrn.mids (29 miles south of Shendi) w come to Wadi Ban aga, which seem to have been, as its name implies, an offshoot AL'r R FROM .BAN NAG.A-BERLlN. 158 of the city of Naga, but much neare1 the Nile. The ruins of N aga are about 35 miles from the river, away in ,vhat is now almost all desert, but was once fertile l and, at lea t for a con siderable part of the year. Here there are many remarkable temples and other bui l lings, but no pyramids Remains of other cities are found at Messaurat and W adi el Sufra in the desert north of N aga, but there arc no pyramids at either place, as far as is known. So the pyramids of Bak rawiya may have been the burial p l ace of the royal fami l ies of these ancient cities, as akkara was for Memphis These three groups of ruins are n ar enough to hav be n visited by Lepsius, on one occasion, all in two days. The ruin at an Naga are now most easily a1proachcd, by rail,ray

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OUR SUDAN. ANTIQUITIE O F THE "ISLE OF l\'IEROk" 160 MEROE (BAKRAWIYA). S LPTURE FROM ONE OF THE PYRAMID .-( F 11n L epsiu '' D enkmalm." ) Observe the length of the Queen's nail Thi s was to show that h e had never done any work. The sa m e custom still obtains in many part of Africa. TAGA CULPTURE ON 'l'IIE LARGER 'l'EMPLE, WEST WALL. (Fro1n L e psius Denk1nale1/') It is notable that the decoration s on the Queen' robe are undoubte dly t h e cross, but whether a more anc ient ymbol or the Christi a n emb le m it i s impossible to say

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TEMPLES A T BAN NAG.A AND NAG.A NA.GA-THE WESTERN TEMPLE FROM S.E . C c i illa1id. travell r from Shendi. Lepsius visited Ban Naga before rea hing the more important ruins of N aga At Ban N aga all the ruins visible were two little temples, one having pillars with Typhon and Horus heads, rather rudely sc u lptured (1 age 1 5 6), the other ha l roun l columns cove red with writing much worn away. Lepsius excavated here, and found three altars on wbioh were royal cartouches s imil a r to tho se NAGA-GREAT TEMPLE FROM THE WEST. C11illnu d. 161 roya l name which he a.f tenvar ls found at Naga "They were in very bard sandstone, and with saws, hamm e rs and axe he cut the la r gest one into many piec s to make it portable, and took it and other relics to Berlin:" It weig h ed 50 cwt.,has been well joined, and is now a very notable object in the Museum. H e te ll s us that they were found in their M

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OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRA.~/IIIIDS A.ND PROGRESS. places, carefully let into a smooth pavement formed of square slabs of "to ne with hard plaster poured over them. On the west side of thi altar the King, on the east the Queen, n,re represented, with their name : on the other side two goddesses. There i s :also engraved on the north side the hieroglYI hie of the North ; and on the south s id e that of the South. The other altars" (which should be foun l there still, possibly now buried under the sand) "bore similar representations." Ban Naga ha" a fine group of palm trees near it, and must have been in its day the centre of a rich and ferble district.. Further excavat ion and iuvestigation may yet di cover much in this loc ality. NAGA. :NAGA lies 23 miles to the south-east of Ban Naga, and was evi lently a much more important place. There are three important ruin of temples of late Egyptian sty l These are covered in many parts with in criptions. Two most to the south were built by the same king. On both temples the king is r e presented accompanie l by his queen. "SHEEP" FROM NAGA. L epsius There is behind them the figure of another royal personage who bears different names on the two temples. The eartouche here is a copy of that of the ancient king USERTESEN I (Sen-wosret) of the XIIth Dynasty. Th e Ethiopian monarch had adoptec;l the royal name of an Egyptian king some 2,500 years earlier. A similar thing was done in modern names at a smaller distance of time by European sovereigns. It was not done to deceive-but it did deceive Cailland and others. Lepsius, of course, knew better. These cartouches resemble in sty le those at Meroe (Bakrawiya), but are of different names, and in two other cases imitations of ancient Egyptian royal names, which must not deceive future traveller There i s a thir l temple to the north, much ruined, which has the cartouche of another king on the door linte ls, in quite a different style from all the others. But the chief object of interest here, is an exquisite little temple in the classic sty le quite a gem (See page 145.) It bears no inscription, but as it is 162

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,, TEn!lPLE OF .ROMAN-EGYPTIA01 STYLE-MES, 'AU.RAT partially buried in the sand, scientific excavation may discover its origin by careful search for a foundation leposit un ler the door sill, or at the corners as is so often found in Egyptian templ s We are told that the Romans uever sett le d so far south Yet here we find undoubted evidence of Roman influence with distinct Egyptian characteristics, facing lions of Egyptian style, along with pilasters and arched openings carved with what might be called Renaissance treatment The date of the latest buildings cannot be earlier than 200 A.D. while some struct ureti here may possibly go hack to 1,000 years B.C These ruins are a puzzle as to period of their erection, that can only be solved by scientific search. The danger is, that if not protected till the time comes for legitimate inquiry, they are in such a crumbling condition that ignorant digging, or search for trea ure, may destroy them entire ly Several of these temples at Naga though erected for Egyptian, Lave been subsequently applied to C hri stian worship, as is shown by the ymbo l of the cross which they bear. ME SA RA'f, FROM 'HE SOU'fH. Caillaucl One of them has been approached by an avenue of heep, or lambs of which severa l remain This is anot h e r Egyptian feature in architecture. The Egyptians had the phinx ram-headed to typify their God Amon, the C hristians imit a ted the style but transformed the sphinxes into figures of the sacred Lamb. Duemicben proved the Christin.n date of the stone Lamb from oba.. Th e wave of Christianity had carried the Cross to the remotest corners of the ud an, and every shrine of the old faith ha l been converted to Christian worship. An ancient road led direct l y south from N aga, for eighty miles to SoBA on the Blue Nile. There are said to be the ruins of severa l towns along this route At Saba there are, or were, colossal Lambs exact l y similar to those at N aga, and an important Christian Church to which a separate chapter is devoted (See Chapter IX.) Between N aga and the Nile a great solitary mountain rises out of the wi ld erness, Gebel Buerib acting as a l andmark. This is a great contrast to the many mountains and va lley s which s urround Wadi el Snfra and Messaurat. 163 M 2

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OUR 1UDAN; IT PYRAfifIDS AND PROGRESS. ME AUH.AT EL AGA. Some four hours' journey north of this, the road leads through a ravine to the ruinl:l of 1\/Iessaurat. Lep ius exp lains that this word is Nubian for walls adorned with pictures" an l i app lied to all the remains of cities hereabouts. The country is covered with grass and bushes al).d is good land. Hoskins passe l the ancieut bed of a canal for toring rain water, for it is high to r eceive the Nile. Lepsius saw in various places, cisterns then empty, made to store up the water, for this region has its rainy season. !fes aurat po ses es imm en e remains of antiquity, one group of ruins alone measures nearly ,OOO feet aro und its square enclosure Lep ius thinks it is not of very high antiquity but evid ntly lid not pend much time on its investigation. The temples Lere h ave tasteful columns of novel design, and must have been very beantifnl. MESS.AURA'.l' EL NAG.A : CENTRAL TEMPLE FROM THE EAST. Cailla111d. The "little" temple at 1\/Iessaurat has pillars with scu lptures of riders on lion s and elephants, and although Lepsius, who was in search for Egyptian art, calls them ,: barbaric," the work shows much good taste and free original treatment. The huge artificial cistern here called Wot lVIahemC1t must have stored up an enormous quantity of water and the country requires to revert to the ancient means to restore its fertility. The brick are frequently found to have been burnt in these regions, to stand the heavy tropical rains. Not one of these canals and cisterns is now put to any use, they seem to have been n g lected for centuries. WADI EL SUFRA The mountain chain which Lepsius ca lls J ebel e l N aga h a to be followed for two hour in a northward direction, until we come to a ravine, opening into a more e lev ated 't,-alley, 1 Sileha, which widens out and is overgrown with grass and bushes, 164

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WADI EL UFBA, RUINED GITIE and brinas us to J hel Loaar. This region is calle l el ufra, or the T ab le, a r exp ressive appellation for th flat volcanic levation of which it con i t Here li e another group of ruin which were visite l and d e picted by aillau l and Lepsius and by Hoskins, but he gave them another name 111 error. These show a very refined quality of work and great originality of design. Lepsius dubbed them "late sty le :, younger than N aga." So he di l not bestow much time on describing WADI EL SUFRA. Ho s k i ,is. them, though he engraved one of the columns, which i s repro luce l on th next page. It struck me that this t mple especia ll y called for fur ther res arch. If it be, a Lepsius seems to think, of classic date, that i l ate r e k r Roman, some in, cription WAD! EL SUFRA, Ho.~l.:in s. wou ld certainly be faun l by u se of th I a l e The columns with the figure. roun l the lrums have a res e mblance to the column from Templ of iana at E1 1 esu in th ritish Museum. If I am corr t in thi., th n it may ive a cl u to t h da t about 500 B C But how cou ld tidings of the r at Artemisian shrine reacl 1 tLis remote spot? It is a myst r v n g reater than that of the Roman" t mple at N aga, yet the resemblance is unrui si akable. 16 5

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OUR 'UDAN; IT PYRAll!lIDS AND PROGRES. By Lhe way, Lep ius tells us that be found a Roman inscription at Naga, an l also that he carri ed off a reek tablet from oba U nfortunately he does not give us transl ations of what was eugrave l on them, a h e published nothing but his volume of letters, inteu ling to write an exhaustive work upon his wonderfu l voyages in the East; of course we cannot expect detailecl information in mere l e tter-writing and he n e ver bad tim e to write th great book. Doubtless these Roman and Greek tablets are in the Museum at B rlin. Lepsius was a gr at scho l ar, and if he found inscription s in Latin and reek so far up the Nil e then we need not b e much astonished if we fin l architecture so far away, inrlu e nc l l y Greek or Rom a n ta t There were so many lions about, that Hosbns's men were afra id to go any farther into the desert and he h a d to abandon his inteuded journey to Naga, which he therefore n eve r saw In the time of Lepsius's visit he heard of lions 1 e ing about, but nev e r saw any near his camp. Lepsius ays that these ancient cities, which evidently were rich a nd populous, were remarkable as being all placed far from the r eac h of Nile water The va ll eys in many places round N aga an l e l sewhere, were cultivated land, and at the time of his visit, covered with dhurra stubble. The inhabitants of heucli, Ban N aga, Metemma a nd villages far away and on both sides of the Nile, came here to cultivate the land and harvest dhurra. The tropical rain is suffic ient to f rtilize the oil of this e xtensive region, an l was evidently stored in tanks which can still be seen ----------------It i s interesting to note in r eference to Lepsiu 's discovery of the name of "Kandake on the pyramids and temp l es in the Isle of Meroe, the connection bc,tween that lad y and the story of the conversion to Chri stianity of the viz ier of an Ethiopian queen of the same name (Can lace in our Scriptures). This ev nt took place after the Roman had sent an army into Ethiopia to pu ni sh this southern potentate for refu ing to pay FRo:rrrwADIELSUFRA. tribute and for rai ing a n army to invade Roman territory. Augu Lus treated her l eniently :md she wa allowed to make peace. This permitted h er vizier to make t he pil g rima ge to P a le tine, where Philip baptized him (Acts v iii). There was a tradition that in this way Christianity made its way into Ethiopia, the Queen of that country, with her p ople, h av i ng quickly embrace l the Faith of the Cross, w h n its ti hngs r ached her country. 1G6

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SKETCH MAP -->-~--,,U R IQQ 50 100 200,MILl' '',, .__ _,___....._ ____ ..,;.._ ___ _. SUDAN ,, ::0 r, z 0 I ,,, I I I ,,-,,,' -----... "', \ ,,--------a ,, __ \\\ . ,' te Jf6EL MEIOOB :'_.1_:!.(!-~la~-,:;,.:;;:-'!-.i D O~ -y .. -iNY ERA '\~ \ A"\'. ( ABIAO \ I TI! IIOA TUA.JO[ ,.,~OBE 1 } l\l&KE81A EL'FA IUPIUSH ,.,' FOG~ ,._ ~.,. ...... ,<\~SHER /t,:~ JAM AD )t,'t>'i, MEN~W.t.SMI ( :7~:H8U~OA \ <:tE,.,el~LFIL, ) DARA ~L TAWIIIH{,SHAR.AF A FA!,HtlM.H 't' T/\\ .. QA '1: QEL OBEID ,.,.,\::::--s, 0 M f? Oe:BtKIR 10 ./ 0 THE SHADING DENOTES THE SUDD REGION. PRO~"

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CHAPTER XI. INCIDENTS SUBSEQUENT TO THE CAMPAIGN OF 1898. THE FASHODA AI!'FAIR. THE DEATH OF THE KHA LIFA. TROOPS MARCHING OUT TO HOIST THE FLAG A T F ASHODA. THE FA HODA I CIDENT. BY the battl e at Orn human the Anglo-E gyptia n army h ac.1 in one day finall quelled the D e r v i s h revolt. Thou g h short it was a decisive struo-gle. No food for o ur weary troops could h found in Omdurman. g uard was rar idly placed over the r~1ined town, but the army had to be vict u alle d from our camp Th e intrepid Kitchener and lris staff were actua ll y without fool an l water until darkn ss had set in an l some, it i s to be feare l, had nothing until next clay. All the hi deous prison s wer opened Poor N euf 11 was foun l heavny ironed and wa m irri d on board t h e gun boa t Sh e ikh, whe r e the manacle s a n d heavy bar of iron whi c h he had worn for e l even years were filed an l struck off. The Derv ish es qu i ckl y live tecl themselves of the ir "gibbas" an l, hidin g thefr arms, appeared as simple, 167

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OUB SUDAli; IT1 PJRAJlfIDS A D PROGRESS d fenceless nati v A guar l wa sent aero the river to take po s s i on of the ruin of Khartoum. N t day th troops returne l from pur uino th flying erv i she bringing in many prisoners. That J:.>ast ma t r of "Intelli gence," ir Rebinald ingate, fonnd from th Khalifa' intimates that l I atches ha l be n r cei ve l a few day before the battle, wiLh tiling that a mi litary force of Europeans had taken possession of Fashocl a The Khalifa had at once sent two E his steamers up the Whit Ni l e to ascerfain the truth of the r epo rt. ne of these steamers return d to mdurman on the ,-.,.th eptember a nd f 11 into our hands, surr nclering g l ad l y when they found it h e l d by th British troops. It was true, Fashoda was in t h e L ands f a whjte force, t h e steamer had been heavily fire l on, an l escaped with difficulty. The bu ll et f uucl j u the steamer were French. A DINKA VILLAGE, EN ROUTE TO FASHODA, 1898. Kitchener ac t ed with hi s usu a l promptitude. He l eft full d i rections for the conduct of affairs i n hi s absence, for stamp ing out the remainin g ervi hes, an l, fittino out an expe l ition for Fashoda, whic h he l ed himself, starte l on the lOLh eptember, 1898. There we r e 5 g u nboats, 2 udanese battalion 100 Cam ran High I a n lers, and an Egypti an battery. The irdar commanded in person, h aving w ith him 'ir Peginalrl V\ in ga te, Lor l E lwarcl Cecil, Captai n vVatson, Major Jackson, onunand r Kepp e l R. ., Captain (now iolon 1) Peake (in h arge of the guns) and oth rs. On t h e way they came up with a Derv i s h force of some 700, .at Renk, routed them a nd seized their st ame rs on the 1 th. On the 19th they found the French exped i t ion under omman la11t farcband, entr nche l at Fa hoda Thi handfu l of men (ouly 9 Europ ans and so111e 100 negal se sol d i ers) had been attacke 1 by the Dervis h es, with two steamer on the 25th August Marchand had repul8ed them but was pre1 arincr for a secon d attack, when the irdar' Egyptian gunboats happily ar peared on th scene and possibly saved them from a.unihilation In any case their s u pp li s had run s hort, a nd they had many s i ck and bad l y n eeded med ic a l a id. 'lhe Briti h troops and guns w re l anded and took position commanding the ] reu(jh po. t an l the o l d line of Egyptian works, about 3 00 yards from the mu ldy 16

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OUR SU DAiY; IT PYRAMID A D PROGRE ed0e of the Nile. A tall mast was brought ready to hoist t h e Briti h and Egyptian flags ; nothing h ad been forgotten. After a polit e me sage ha l be n con v eyed to M. Marchand, as kiu g him to vi it the irdar, repres enting the Khedive of Egypt, whose territory had been infrin ged, M Marchand and another ~ Fr ench offic 1 came on board the vesse l and the Sirclar received them a l o ne. Lor l Kitchener is a m a n of dee fa, not word he h as n e ver told u the deta il s of the conversation, but the re sult was that he did not insist on the French flag bei n g I ulle d dow n from the fort, l ea ving that to b e dec id ed by diplomac y later. But he h o i ted the Eoypti an flag on the ol l Egyptian fort. The Su lane. e band struck up the Khe livial anthem, the \rdar hims elf ca ll ed for three cheers for the Khedive. l\fM MARCHAND AND GERMAIN MOUNTING TO UPPER DECK O F THE SIRDAR'S STEAMER AT FASHOD.A, The Briti h fla g h ad been a ll t h e t im e fly ing fr o m th e Da,l m an ad joinin g creek. vVhe n the details ca m e to be known much sy m pathy was felt for Marchan l and bis little band. Th y left Fra n ce yea r s before and kuew n othing of the r e cent events ju Europe and E gypt. Kitchener seems at once to have gaine d the respec t of his visitor, and they parte l 000 l friend s The "whis k y and s oda inci l ent, rel ated hereaf t e r, no doubt h a pp e n ed, an l new s p a p ers were provided, giving r ecent history to the bel a t e d Frenchmen. An account of th e "c~"(jct,ire Fashoda" has be e n recentl y (August, 1904) publi s hed by the Fige, ro new~paper Thi s revives an a lm ost for gotte n episod e which, had we not h a d a m a n li ke Kitc h ener on the s pot, mi ght have p lunged us into wa r with our nearest cont in ntal neighbours. Fortunately, Kitch n er's quiet but strong personality bru h e d as id e all ha ty act ion. Marchand, a b r ave and intrep i l explorer, hfl, d only done his luty. When the British flag was h oisted, a l most a lon gside tha t of the Frent5h, it gave t im e to their Governme~t to we i g h t h e matter well. Within three months they not only h au led l awn their flag and evacuate d Fa1,hoda, but a settlement of "spheres of 170

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>-' -;r >-' EN ROUTE TO F.A.SHODA, SEP'l'EMBER, 1898. EN ROUTE TO F .ASHODA, 1898. NATIVES OF KAWA WELCOMING THE FIRST STEAMER EN ROUTE TO FASHODA. EN ROUTE 'l'O F ASUODA : A HA.LT IN THE SUDD. p:l l:'=j b:j > U1 l:rl 0 t:, > z 0 8 l:z:j z :-3 'S. s c:, 0

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OUR U DAN; IT PYRAMID A~D PROGRESS. infl.uenc ,ms the outcome of the "c~ffair ," and are now better fri nds than we have ev r bee n with our neare t n e i g hbours, w hil e the boundaries of the .Anglo-Egyptian S udan are lon g s inc e definitely settl ed Col o n e l arch an l states that he, when chief of tbe 1ongo ile Mission, h a l had an interview with Lord Kitchener at Fashoda in 18!)8. Col onel Marchand recounts how Lord Kitchener first 1 arnt of his presence at Fashoda through some ud anese pri sone rs, who were captured by the Anglo-Egyptian force just after they h ad been beaten by the French Mission. On the arri al of the Egyptian flotilla at the Fre nch post, a British officerColonel Lord Edw ard Cecil-had gone to Colon e l Marchand to inform him of Lord Kitchener's desire t o have a n interview with him, and had requested him, in view of the British com mander's superior rank, to pay his visit to Lord Kitchener first. olonel Marcban d had accordingly proceeded on board the steamer in which Lord Kitchen e r was. He was alone on the bridge of the steamer. Colon e l Marchand continues-" I salute d him. He returned my salute, and coming towar ls me with outtr e t c hed b a nd, asked. me to be s eated, and complimented me on my expedi t i o n Lord Kitc h ener meanwhile as king r_ne about our march and I questioning him about his victory at Omdurm an. .A f w minutes l ater I return e d to the fort., where Kitchener MM. MARCHAND A.ND G E RMAIN COMING TO VISIT THE came to return my visit, and gave lllC srnoAR o N ARRIVA L AT FASHODA n ews of France In the course of this conversat ion the irdar informed o l one l M a r c h and of the change o f Ministry in Fra nc e In his rsion of the interv iew Marchand winds up with-" V e ry we ll, sa i d Kitch n e r in the be s t of t em per. "Then l e t us have a whisk y and soda." No doubt the l ast sen t ence is a true bit o f histo ry that ac tually occurred They then s pa.rated, Kitc h e n e r p r omi s in g to send him some newspapers. Marchand's detai l e d account of the conversation occupies half a column of the Figaro. It is r a th e r thea trical in style, and may really not have been written by Marchan l at all. In any case it is only a ones ided relation of a s hort interview, and as Lord Kitc h e n er b as n eve r g iven u s hi s recol l ections of the event, may be 172

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OUR SUDA iY; ITS PYRAJlfIDS A ~D PROGRESS. passed over now. Lord Kitchener was evident l y very polite to the French O'entlemen and offered them what help he could. Having hoisted the British and Egyptian flags, south of the French fort flag at Fashod::i. n batt8lion of udanese soldiers, with four guns and a gunboat, were l eft at this point under command of fajor Jackson Fashoda was evacu BAND PLAYING 1'0 SHILLUKS NEAR FASHODA. ated on the 11th Decem ber, 1898, by Marchand obat and .Abyssinia and the Red Sea, and his companions, an l proceeding by the they arrived in France in the follo wing May The .Anglo-Egyptian troops proceeded up the Nile, and hoisted their flags at the Sobat, where a battalion of Sudanese soldiers was left as garrison under aptain Gamb l e During the Dervish rule the Nile pa sage had been neglected, and the Bahr el J ebe l was found to l>e comp l etely barred with sudd. Major P8ake was sent with a gunboat up the Bahr e l Ghaza l and hoisted our flags at Meshra e l Rek. fajor Stanton exp lor ed the Bahr e l Zera for 175 miles, hoisting the -flags at a ll stations whi l e the Sabat and its tributaries were exp lor ed, surveyed, and mapped for nearly 300 miles. Thus the prompt action of Kitchenel' in the Fashoda case l ed to the peacefu l recovery for Egypt of all the southern Sudan The photo graphs in this chapter were given me by ir Reginald Wingate. Marchand's portrait I got from a friend in Paris 17-! C fMANDA:N'l' MARCHAND.

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EXPEDITIO TO IJ'IliD THE KHALIIJ'A. THE KHALIFA'S LAST TA.ND. But the Khalifa was known to be still uncaught he was skulking away in the deserted, almost unknown ; region, near Sherkeila, in the country of hi tribe, the Baggara. Wingate's Intelligence scouts reporte l the Dervishes to have but 3,000 men and, being short of food, to be moving t owards J ebel Geclir, about 100 miles west of the White Nile, and 200 miles north of Fashoda : here he must have collected recruits In J annary, 1899, a force was organised and
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OUR 1UDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS AND PROGRESS. 'I'HE J!:MIR YUNIS, FORMERLY DERVISH GOV.l!.RNOR OF DUNU1 LA. ( One of the few Emirs who escapecl d eHth-he hid undel' the Khalifa's body at 0111debreikat, 2 4th Novembel', l399.) caruel corp Maxims and irregulars, with orders to engage the enemy, and hold firm to his position till the infantry arrived. At 10 a .m. the Maxims oened fire from a hill about 800 yards from t he enemy's camp. With their usual pluck, the Dervishes left their camp, made straight for the hill, which was bare of trees for some 100 yards from the base, and de~perately tried to carry it. The Sudanese infantry arrived at this moment, but th ir h elp wa~ not required, for the DP.rvish rush had been by that time stopped for good, by the fire of the guns, the foremost of their number being shot down within ninety-four paces. Ahmet lfedil himself turned and with several Emirs fled southwards to join the main body of Dervishes which, in strength about 4,000, was moving north war l to Gedid, 24 mile.3 off. This was where the water was, and it was imperative for us to 1each the wells before the enemy. Accordingly at 11 45 p.m. on the 22nd, Win gate's force started off, marched through the whole night and reached their destin ation the next day, watered their thirsty animals freshed and rethemrnl ves, resuming their march at mi lnjght of the 23rd, and by four 1N CAMP NEAR GEDID-EXPED1TI0N AGAlNST THE RHALlF.A, 1899 176

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OUR SUDAN; IT PYRA M1D AND PROGRES. o'clock the next morning reach d a grassy plateau overlooking the Khalifa's camp at mdebreikat. This time, at least, the Khalifa meant to make a stand. Instead of keeping under the shelter of a hill, as at mdurman, he placed himself in the forefront of the battle, n.nd his principc1l Emir -some 15 01 20 in number, with the single exception of the kulking O ruan Digna,1-dismounted from their horses, grouped themselve round their chief, aud led the fighting men to the attack. It was, however, the usual tragic story. At the proper moment Maxims and 12-pounders opened fire upon the devoted fanatics. Rifles joined in the affray at 400 yards, and in the desperate charge, the Khalifa and most of his Emir peri hed. Abdullahi, Ali Wad Helu, Ahmet Fedil a11d many ther important Emirs, on seeing the day Jost, spread their sheepskins under them and calmly awaited death. The ervish loss was 600, and some 3,000 captives an l 6,000 women and children were taken. The Khalifa's son was taken prisoner. The Egyptian loss was 4 killed and 29 wounded. This vic tory finally stamped out Dervish rule in the u
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OUR > UD.AN IT1' PYE.AfiIID11 A r.D PROGRE . VVith the leath of tb Klialifa an l hi aan t h er was no more resistance, and t11e riti h rule became verywhere popular a n l w e l comed by tho. e who bad bac k e l t h Mahli, as s u ccess i w l e med genera ll y in t h rient. The littl e army ot back t o Dm lurman on the 29th ov rnber. Th ey h ad only l e f t on the 1 th h avina marched 61 mil in Gl consecuti e hours, fought two s ucce ful engagement de troyed the Khalifa and his chief Emir and the l ast remna n t of Dervi h tyranny, an l brought back ome 10 000 I rison e rs. n tbe 22nd D ecemb r, 1899, Lor l Kitch ener being called away to the outh African War, ir Re g in a ld Wingate was appointed irdar au 1 Governor General of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian udan. Since ir Reginald v\ ingate became Governorenera l he h as had an arduou tas k THE GIBB WHI H WAS WOR .BY TTIE KUALIFA WHEN KILLED. the ex ploration and dev lopm e nt, as well as the 5 ove rnmen t of a vast, hitherlo unknown territory a l most as exte nsiv as E urop e Eve ry season h e ca rries out fficial Inspec tions of the v a riou province all of which a r e as widely c liffuing as th ey are r mot from each ot h er In these inspection h i s often accompanied by } i s o ld fri nd Sir Rudolf von la.tin, who h as mad the > u l an his home, a nd whose offieia l pos ition is that of Inspe ctor-General. These Inspections will s h ort l y h a ve e mbraced every province of the udan The Governorenera l besi d s has a lready g i ven th series of photograr lis which embe lli h this book Th ese comp-ise the "\iVhite :Nile an l the ln e Ji l w ith t,heir tributaries; t he tbara and 'uak in ; w ith visits to Kassa l a, e laref, 'ennar, a n d to Kordofan. Th ese photographs, an l m a ny others s upplied m e by ir W. Ga rRtin and ther hiefs of p ar tm ents an l many of their officers and otb r friends, ,, ill affor d pictures of the scenery a n l native life of these remot e region which w ill be mor i nteresting than a n y l engthy descr iption of mine The valleys of tbe Ni l e's tri b u tarie s w ill t hu be illustrate l by those who h ave exp l ored them. ,, itb the story of the pper Niie, I propose to gi, e the illu trations of the rec nt r markable exp ditio n of Mr. 1 E Dupui s to Abyss ini a a nd t he Blue

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OUR SUDAN; IT PYRAJVIID A D PROGRE Nile and Atbara. This intrepid explorer has also g iven m all hi beautiful I hotoo-mphs for I ublicabon. It was uecassary, in or ler to tell the story of Khartoum, to add to it that of the Fashoda affair and the de:1th of the Khalifa. A pause will now be ma le to visit the great Nile beyond Khartoum, to its remotest origin at th Equatorial L akes. Having followed the White Nile to it source, we shall proceed to explore the eastern provinces -the Blue Ni l e a.nd -its tributaries. That accomplished we shall vi it Abyss inia with Mr. Dupuis . Subsequently the western provinces, Kordofan, Darfur, an l the Bahr el Ghazal ,vill conclude our volume. 0 E OF THE SUD.A. DEVELOPME T OMP.A.NY' 'l'E.A. fER 1 2

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~------------------------------PAPYRUS, Th e Papyrus plant p.rovided t h e means of recordin g for our benefit, the a n c ient civili sa tion of E g ypt. Its use bas departed and the plant is extinct in the olcl land. But unfortunately, it flouri s hes ex ceedingl y in the south. It i s t he greatest impediment to our efforts to imp ro ve the udan, and this baneful plant bring s destructi o n to 35,000 squa re miles of its territory. A pnpyr u s gro ve ne v ertheless, is a very bea u tifu l ob j ect. 4 1 4

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H PTER. XII. GE.r: EH.AL DE ORIPTIO OF THE NILE BEYOND KHARTOUM. THE great Nil rec ives its l ast tributary at th juncti n of the tbara; its next at Khartoum, where the Blu Nile pour in the siuian supp lies. yon~ Khartoum and as far as Lake No, the main channe l is known as the 'White Nil ; abov Lak N the natives call the main Nile stream the Bahr e l J ebel. The Whit Nile and its tributaries supply much of the fertilizing waters which form the lif -blood of Egypt. The great river Nil e traverses t be l an 1 for 2,069 rnil s from south to north, r c iving on its course the Bahr e l Ghaza l an l tb Sobat before passing Khartoum. The summer flood of the Nile is mainly cau ed by the tropica l rains It is generally believed that the fertilizing ruu l with which the Hi.;h Nile f1 l is cha.rged, comes from Abyssinia, where the Sobat as we ll a the Atbara and lue ile take their rise. The Bahr e l Ghazal bring waters from the west, the Bahr el J ebel from the Great Equatorial Lakes. The flood wh i ch we call High Nile at its height moves about 100 miles per day. Notwithstanding the amount of water used for irri gation an l the loss by evaporation on its lon g journey about half of the vo lum of its summer flood is till lost in the !fediterranean. Th e Assuan Dam, wheu full develope l will yet l eave a l arge margin of wasted water for use in the u lan, which can be irrigated by means of flood an l catchment basins, but the time is distant when the urplus-now lost-will be enti rel y devoted to thi purr ose. Wear apt to forget how recently the world knew the truth about the mysterious sources of the Nile. The old geographers, Strabo, Ptolemy and medi~ val Arabian writers spoke of its origin being in great lakes, but a ll th i1 learnin g had been forgotten. It was only in l 6:u that pek and Grant discoverecl that the Gr at Lake, now known as the Victoria yanza, was the main source of the White Nile. 1 ir arnue l Baker in 1863 discovered the Albert N yanza, but the actual ourse of the ile was not mapped till Gor lon's time, 1874. During the ens uing years this portion of the river was often block ed with sudd, and at the time of Kitchener's conquest of the D e n isbes, it had thus b n completely closed. n xpe lition, under Major (now Colonel) Peake., succeeded in clearing it in 1899-1900. Thi intrepid officer lid his work well; tl~ re is no lik lihood of the c l ear channel now existing being clo ed p rrnauently again The first s ud :I. cutting wa don under extraordinary cliinculti e I met Major P ake at Khartou111 short l y after his grea t work and was much impre sse l by the tal e of his arduous l abour of which I have heard most l au 1atory accouJ?,tS since from his chi f, 'ir William Garstin. 1 5

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0 R I DAN IT PYRAfitfID AND PROGRE s we have already voya ed by the il as fc1.r as J?a hoda, when describing the Marchand inci lent (in hapter XI.), and also when the Expedition under ir Reginald Wingate extinguis h ed the Kha1ifa and his Emir we Rhall now confine our attention to the rnmainder of the great ri er's course, as far as its origin in the Equatorial Lakes, returning afterwards to describe the lue :N ilc and its ramifications, and :finally the ahr el Ghazal and other tributaries. The ob tacle t navigation on the White Nile at any time of the year on this enormous journey, are unimportant, th ou1y great trouble i in the region of the Sudd.1 All the mo lern traffic on tl1 pper ile is carried on by steamers, and for these there always will be scarcity of fuel along the White Nile and beyond. A y t, no coal bas been found in the udan. Coal costs a ton at I hartourn, but when the railway frum uakin is at work, it will drop to one-half. Trees fit for fuel are scarce, and the native ha\ e an ug l y habit of burning down the incipient forests to promote I astur age, an l it is nearly impo sible to to this custom. Therefore, supp li s of wood for the st amers have t be brought from afar and stored up at wood stations on the banks. Th Bahr el J ebel, when it flows into Lak e No, varie in width from 100 yard to a mile But from the masthead of a steam r it is seen to be a sea of gra s and r eds on e i ther s i de of this chann l, and the rea l banks are 4, 8, or ev n 12 mi l es c rr1 G A 'I'REN H IN 'I'HE on. i r 117 G a r s tLI,.

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    OUR 1 1UDA01"; IT PYRA~lIDS .A"0i]) PROGRES.1 t the rise and fall of tbe Nile, quantities of the grass get torn away au l float lawn st,ream; these jam in the channels and form 'sn kl" blocks Tbe open channel is thns very tortuous an l the current slow, a n l at Lake No, where the Bahr 1 Ghazal comes in from the we t (should its water be low at the time, not enough to clear the channe l ) a block frequently occurs at a point wher it turns sucUeoly to the east. The huge marshe where the sudcl is troub le some have an extent of some 35,000 square mile They form a triangle, whose northern base extends 200 mil s west from the ahr el Zera, and th apex lie about Bor 250 mi l es 1.S.E. of Lake No. Through B RNING 'l'HE S DD BEFORR C 'l'TING lT. ir TV. Gar tin. all this the pas age of water is slugg i sh, and the loss by e v apo ration must be enormous 'ir William G~r tin e. timates that 65 per cent. is lost in this way. The water is very shallow, nowher more than 2 to 6 feet deep, except in the river channe ls. To the eye the effect is extraor linary. A vast extent of brilliant green papyrus, feathery wee ls, an l sword grass, 5 to 15 f et ab ove the water, Lroken by occa ion al patches of light aru bacb trees and cane, with channe l s of water, pools_. an l l agoons dotting the swamp, and here an l there a sparse tree on the horizon. Many floating islands of growing vegetable matter are met with. Patches of mud 01 solid g round are sometimes seen In some p l aces there is much bi rd and anima l lif e the ub i quitous crocodi le, and in the south every k ind of game Th re a lso l ephants, g ir affe, buffalo, and many sorts of ante l ope abound, hippopotamus bei n g es1 ecia ll y numerous The huge beasts flounder on t h e floating island and many sink to di th ir bo lies polluting the mass. Insects abound, many of them venomous. Coarse fish fill the waters ] for the first 1,., 0 miles south of Lake No t h ere are no human inhabitanti:; Thereafter inkas an l their villages are seen up to Bor, 384 miles. After that t h e ari country, a n l more popu l ation ou the east bank than on the west To Major Peak as has been said above, is due the success of first cutting a c l ear channel in 1899-1900 ,\ hen owing to t.he rvi. h occupation, there had been, for years, no traffic for st amers, and the waterway had become closed solidl y 1 )

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    0 R SUDAN). TTS PYBAMID I AND PBOGBES. }five gunboat with five British and some Egyptian officel's, 100 Sudanese, and 800 Dervish prisoners, attacl ed the sudd on 16th December, 1899. y 27th March, 1900, by means of hard and continuous labour, 14 blocks out of 29 had been deare 1, opening np 82 miles of river channel. Peake Bey (his Egyptian title), avoiding the remaining blocks by using s ide channels, arrived at Shambe, 25th April, 1890, I roceeding thence in clear water to Rejaf, 5th May, 1890. Four of the remaining five blocks were cleared by Lieut. Drury, R.N., in January, 1901, and only one 22 miles long still remains. This block it was found impossible to remove, but a "false channel" exists by which it can be avoided. It i probable no more clearing may be necessary for a long time. There i s now a monthly mail steamer, and other craft which keep the fairway open merely b their passage. Li e ut. Drury took up t.he lifficult task when Peake's health broke down under the strain, and completed the work nobly. He too lost his health from the rio-ours of the climate. It is pleasant to think that he also ha s recover ed his health and n w fill an important office at mddn. The method emp loyed by Peake Bey to clear the su ]d was to cut and burn the whole of the vegetation growing on the surface. This was done by a party of men with swords, hoes and axes. Immecliately after, the line for the first channel, abont 12 yaTds wide, was marked out ; t.his was trenche l by the soldiers and Dervish prisoners (armed with hoes picks, axes, and saws) into pieces 4 yards square. After cutting down about a foot from the surface, the water infiltrated; the men continued cutting until owing to the depth of the water, they were unable to get deeper. Holdfasts of telegraph poles were then driven as far as they would go round the edge of each piece. After this a l-inch flexible ~teel-wire hawser was sunk as deep as it would go, by means of the prolonged poles, all round the piece to be removed, the ends of it were made fast to the halliards in the bow of the gunboat, one on the s t arboard side and one on the port, leaving sufficient slack wire to allow the steamer to go astern some 20 or 30 yar
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    ....., cc ....., SUDD, BAHR. EL JEBEL S U DD BAHR EL JEBEL. S UDD FLJA.TlNG I SLA.ND BAHR EL JEBEL. SUDD, BAIIR EL JEBEL. ; U2 d t:i t:i ~ g: -:......

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    OUR YUDAN; IT PlRA~1IDS AND PROGRE 1. carry the piece with her; also with light sndcl a grapnel anchor fixed to the steamer when going astern is sufficient to t ear away the piece. ir ,iVilliam arstin supplied me with the I hotographs of these arduous operations which graphically serve to explain the process employe l. Often the sudd was found with roots growing to the bottom. In this case, a grapnel or ordinary anchor was sunk to the bottom of the river and dragged a lon g by the sleamer As soon as the leading steamer had opened up the channel a sufficient length to enable her not to interfere with a steamer working behind her, another steamer was put to work, the same way as the first, to widen the channel. All this hard work under a burning sun through water often rotten, and emitting an abominable stench from dea~ hippopotami or other animals, surrounded by poisonous insects, speak well for the men who have saved the udan. It proves how our so ldi ers wage war in times of peace, running risks equa l to those of warfare. This was literally turning their swor
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    0 R > DAN IT PYRA~fID1 A D PROGRE iJ. LORD CR 1ER'S I IT TO GONDOKOI 0. Lord and Lady Cromer, the irdar and Lady Wingate, and a s m a ll party made the entire journey from Khartoum to 1 ondokoro in January, 1903. A delightful account of the voyage was written by the 1ountess Valda Gleichen, which appeared subsequent l y in)he Pall Mall Maga ine. The trip was in many ways a record one, and shows how people in good health can vary the dulln ss of our northern climate, with perfect enjoyment and ever changing variety of cene Countess Valda l eichen ha shown us what a lady can do in such c ircumstan ces It is granted to few to have such an escort as hers, but as the direct commu ni cat ion from London to Gondokoro is open to anyone who has the will and the means, she may have many imitators on the same track. Ten y a r s ago, fuUy a thou::,and miles of the trip, from H alfa to Gondokoro and back, was the scene of rapine and misery as terrible RS the wmld has ever known. That all this region is no w peaceful, h appy, contented and perfectly safe for travel is mainly due to the efforts of the l ea lers of this little peacefu l pleasure excursion-Lord Crom r and his au l e assistants in the regeneration of Egypt and our S ndan. I take the liberty of making copious extracts from this bright account of a very rem a rkable journey, as a means of explaining the Countess Valda G l e ichen's own photographs which she has kindly entrusted to me to u se as illustrations. A magazine is at best an ephemeral publication. The pithy little narrative will now, it i s hoped, have a more p erma nent existence. leaving London on Friday night, t he 26th of last December, by the Indian mail, reaching C airo the following Wednesday afternoon, we started up-country as fast as a perfectly managed system of train and steamer could take us, stra ight to Khartoum. On the way we only stopped once for an hour, to see the coloss a l rock temple of Abu Simbel, and then that same afternoon (by way of a contrast) in spected the great engine works at ,'\ ady Halfa, with ci-clevcint dervishes contentedly earning their li ving in the workshops! That sense of contrast between the old dominion and the new became sharper still as we proce eded in a comfortab le train cle l i ixe, 'lighted with electricity and furnished with s leeping-c ars ,' through the very heart of the country which only five years ago was overrun by the savage fanatics of the Khalifa. At bu Hamed, where the ghosts of the fallen ud anese troops are reported to stand every night a sentries over the graves of their two English beys-a row of neat little bathing-houses ha 1 een erecte ], where the dusty traveller can leave hi wago'llrlit and have a refreshing morning tub, hut or cold accord ing to fancy, before continuing hi s j ourney "At Khartoum we actually came in for an agr i c ultur a l s how i Certainly in the Sudan photograph of tbi., the fir t udane agricultural how, by Lieutella nt-Colonel Penton, j s giv n in hapter VIII. 194

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    O[R SUDA~; IT PYRAMID A D PROGRES. civili ation marche. with no uncertain tep. The how was the first of its kind to be held there, and very amusing it was. The heik and notables' of the surrounding country took the deepe t interest in the proceedings, an l the exhibits were of a very varied de cription, ranging from rlhurra and cotton to emho ~ ed leather books, camels, and native bedsteads, or anghareb Another noteworthy fact wa that ev ry exhibitor won a prize, 'pour encourager le autre "That afternoon-the sixth after leaving Cairo -we embarked on the Sudan Government steamer Amkeh, that was to take us on our further journey of nearly two thousand miles beyon l Khartoum "Our party consisted of Lord and Lady Cromer, the Sirdar and Lady Wingate, my brother the udan Director of Intelligence and myself, the Sirdar's military secretary, Lord Cromer'. ecretary, the head of the R.A.M .C., and the head of the Sudan Government boats and steamer a most official company, bent on I leasure and instruction The instruction, I may say: began at once, for on turning into the vVbite Nile just above Omdurm an, the water hanged immediately in colour from the u ual blue-grey of the Blue Nile to a whiti h yellow tbe Jine where the two river j oin being so clearly defined as to give the most cur iou fleet of a dLtinct boundary The character of the country also on e ithe r side of the rivers v,tries just a. much as does the colour of the ,, ater, for while he banks of the Blue Nile are wooded and fairly fertile, those of the Vi bite Nile between whi h we steame l were for the first two or three days flat and sandy, and covered with rough crub of mimo a an l thorn. * * "A to four-footed game, the country was alive with it, and hartebeest, waterbuck, white-eared cob, and different kinds of antelope and gazelle, were often sighted at quite a short distance away. They apparently knew no fear, but would stop to cast interested glances at the steamer and then airily canter off, as if they knew quite well that shooting from st amers is strictly forbidden by law. On one occasion four large elephants stood in a row on the bank to look at us 1 Each had a white paddy-bird sitting on his heftd busily bunting for insects, and quite undisturbed when the elephants leisurely shaml led off, for the sight of the steamer speedily palled on them, to the untold woe of the photographers, who one and all had dashed for their cameras, and one and all failed ignominiously in getting a snap hot. Lamentations were loud and long,; and although later on many more elephants were seen (on one occasion fifteen of them were feeding about a mile ofl), never again did they have such an opportunity at such close quarters. Then one clay of days, as w were mo t of us lying limply and sleepily un ler the awning on the lower deck, gasping with the heat, there came an excited screech from the upper deck, and we rushed up breathless, to ee, waving above the sky-line, five long necks surmounte l by five tiny heal moving slowly along one l ehind the other Giraffes they were in truth,; an d great was our lu k, for they are hardly ever seen now, and are retreating farther an l farther 1 The ountes showed the author a sketch of the e lepbants made b y her brother, each of the monster gravely permitting bi atten
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    LORD CRO:MEH'.' I IT TO GO JDOKORO. ( Countess Valda Gleiclien.) p H z~ A 0 8 III {/'1 {/'1 {/'1 < 0 .,i III {/'1 A 0 ; III {/'1 {/'1
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    0 R SUDAN; ITS PYRAllfID I A.ND PROGRE into Central Africa. v"\ itb very trong gla se we could even make out the pot on their l acks, and after th y had passed out of siO'ht w collapsed again on the lower deck, feeling that Africa had nothing more to ffer u in the way of a sensation! By this time, of course, we had seen innumerable hippo ; but they left so much to the imagination that they were not really very satisfactory A black l ump representing a nose, and a littl e behind the lump two ears ju t showing above the water, were as a rule all that could be seen of a hippo's large carcase vVe often counted twenty or thirty in sight, for the river simply swarms with them, and they do so much damage to crops, and are so dangerous to the natives in their dug-outs, that the order has gone forth that they are to be treate l as vermin and shot down as much as possib l e. vVe constant l y saw t h eir tracks on the bank, their big bodies leaving devastation in their wake, but on l y once had the luck to see one actua ll y waddling along; the rest were genera ll y peaceful l y b lowi ng on the surface of the water, and dived as we approac h ed H ippos, h owever, do not li ke t h e s u dd, and during the three days that we teamed through it we saw none, though they reappeare l aga i n on the other side I t may not be genera ll y known how ery carefu ll y game i protected in the Sudan. The country is divided into shooting districts, and the amount and species of game "hich may be shot by ho l ders of li cences vary accord i ng to the distr i ct Ani mals and birds are divided into c l asses : those that are abso l utely forbidden to be killed or captured, such a the chimpanzee, eland, giraffe, rhinoceros, zebra, V17il l ass ground hornbill, secretary bird and Balceniceps Rex; and those, on t h e other hand, o f whom a l im i ted number on l y may be killed -i.e hartebeest, waterbuck, will sheep, ibex, bustard, and other, too numerous to mention here Besides all these restrictions, there is a l arge Officers' Game Reserve between the vVhite and Blue Niles, "hich i practica ll y a s~nctuary; so it is e ident that a much a pos ible is done to prevent indi criminat slaughter of wild bea t ; thi acc0tmt also for the want of fear shown by all those that we saw; they were leep l y interested an l curiou but obviou ly not the least afraid. 'On the fourth day after 1 aving Khartoum we reache l Fa ho la, where such preparations were be i ng made for receiving Lord Cromer that he was a. keel to g i ve an hours delay before di eml arking, as }Ve had arrived as u. ual l efore our time, and the natives were said to be pouring in from all sides. The village i s some "ay from the river, an l to get there vv<:3 had to cros two khors in rough native punts In the distance we could ee lark :figure excitedly running about, and then being marshall cl into a kind of or ler by a wil Uy-gesticulating p rson in a flowing red robe and white head-dress. This, Vie learnt, was th Mek-the heat! of the hi lluk and chief of Fasho la, and a potentate who i rather on l of gi, ing troub l Howev r, on thi oc asion he was on his be t b haviour, and, though he had an ev il countenance, nothing coul l have been more savage l y digni:fie l than hi manner when he wa presente l to Lord Cromer 1 y Ma j or Matthew the Engli h officer in command. "Behin l him towere l his bodyguar l of gigantic Shilluks, none of them un ler seven feet high arme l with formidable spear an l shields and adorne 1 chiefly with leopard skin an l bangl . Of course these were esp ciall y picked for their height, but the rest were v ry n arly as tall, and were al] ma, gnificently bui l t m n The Dinka also are just a 198

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    WAR DANCE OF SHILLUKS, FASHODA. A FTER l'HE WAR DAN CE, FASHODA co WAR DANCE OF SHILLUKS AT FASHODA. DINKAS AT LUL. t'"' 0 0 5 !.1' ttj l;d~ {/l 1-3 0 0 0 0 0 ,....._ [ .,.., R'. C)
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    0 R U DAN IT PYEAllfJD AND PROGEE >. finely p r porti ned, and thi s ight, with their l ong-b l aded sunshine. array of the warrior of both tribe wa a w n l erful pear h eir loom from father to son g l eam in g in the Headed by Lord Cromer and the ir lar, we procee l d a lon g the l ines f the warriors, received by them in ab olute s il ence : but when w came to the women 's lines it was quite a different matter, for h ere the noise o f welcome was impl y d eafen ing! The ud anese women h ave a cry of welcome a ll their own: i t i a lonO'-drawn hi g h B-flat, "hic h sounds like a s h ake but i n't, for they make it with their tongues aga inst t h e roof of their mouths, so t hat it i s a hard repeated v ibration and a mo t p e netrating sound. It i s a lso very diffi ult to do for we tried our e lv e \1 ith absolute l y no succes It was SH1LLUKS A T L UL. accompanied by thumpings on tom-tom s made of hollow d-out e l e ph a nts' feet a nd on any kind of metalli c or wooden obj ect that would make a noise: the din wa unspeakable, 1 ut most am u ing. "After the in s p ect ion came the great ,Yar-da nce rn Lord Oromer's honour round the feti h-tree in the middle of the square. Betw een four and five hundred warriors took p art, a n l though it l aste d over two hours we watched it with breathl ss intere t from b ginning to end. It wa most dramati and exc iting. A whole battle was acted 1 e f re us, from the fir t tealthy a l va nce of out ste i ping high as t hrough long g ras to the wild melee at the e nd, when the two sides met with l lo dth~rst y war-cries and piercing ye ll s an d much blo,ving of con c h s h e ll and l uff alo horn s with hooting and w hi tlings and a g n era l pand e monium. v\ e could have watched them for hour for each man fought f r him e lf, a nd a whol e ser ies of ela l orate du l s took place a ll round us, ach more interesting than the la t fany of the men had the ir bodie. mear d a ll over with a he to k ep off mo quit e and as their fac were generally p ainte l in white stripe and t h ir h air pla tered with the mu 1 and O'rea e of years into ev r kind of strange coiffu re the effect wa absolute l y demonia al. Finally came a I mn dance in which the women j oined jumpin g h eav il y up an d down, w ith the u u a l y 11 ; and then gra lnally th ir f rvour w re it e lf out, an l one a fter a noth er took hi s place again in the rank r un l the square to watch the rest o f the pro ceedings taking a well-earned rest 0n the grou nd. * * 200

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    0 >--' GRASS FIRES NEAR KHOR ATTAR, THE SUDD, PAPYRUS AND A1\fBACTJ I II I THE SUDD, SIDE CHANNEL CLOSED. BELGIAN TROOPS A'l' LAD~ t" 0 t:J 0 0 t=l :::0 ut -<1 H Ul H 8 8 0 c;:i 0 z d 0 0 :::0 p ,-._ i:: Cl) f i C') .,,.. Cl) t-

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    OUR UDA"N"; IT PYR nIIDS A"N'D PROGRESS. On our return to the teamer the Mek and several nati e grand es came down to receive pre ents in their turn and the dre sing-up that then went on was one of the funnie t sights of the da The Sirdar an l the military secretary assisted them 1 y sheer force into their gorgeous robes of honour, cramming the long black arms into sleeves as a rule several sizes too hort for them, and tying turbans with more haste tha.n ski ll. A lookin g-g l ass was then pressed into the hand of each honoured guest, and he was despatched like a hild at a schoo l-fe ast to m;ke room for the next. The sight of rows of black giants sitting gravely on the 1 ank, their turbans having generally come unrolled again, gazing at their own countenances for the first time in their li ves, was, to say the l east of it, comic. However, the whole thing came to an end at l ast, and after many polite farewells we steamed off on our way south to the country of the sudd * DINKAS. AUSTRIAN MISSION, LUL. * "At one point the river widens snddenly into the vast stretc h of marshes known as Twenty-five-mile Lake, and as we passed into it one eveni ug at about sunset the effect of abso lute desolation was something ind escribab le, though it had an uncanny picturesqueness of its own. Forest fires blazed on the horizon, throwing up great masses of smoke in front of the setting s1.m, and obscuring the li ght though not les erring the heat, which was intense. The water was like a sheet of copper ; not a cloud was in the sky, and nothing moved but ourselves and the brown, smoky vei l s which came nearer an l nearer as we turned and twisted in and out of the c lump of sudcl, following the innumerab l e windings of the stream Suddenly the un vani hed below the horizon, an l we breathed again, for wit h the larkness came a b l sed coolness ; an l then by the light of the moon we pursue l our way il ntly and at halfI eed, the motionless white figure of the 'reis' at the whee l standing ut sharply against the sky The air was a li ve with fireflie which mingled indistinguishabl y with the tream of wood sparks from the funnel; luckily our other insect torturer preferred the 1 wer leek, with it electric lights, o that here on the upper deck we were left in peac "\i\ e moved lowly on, the ilence only broken occasionally by a ru tle of reed when our bows touch l the wall of papyrus, as we turned a harp corner. Then suddenly without any warning, a wailing treble l augh pierced the stillnes In tliat mysterious blue moonlight the sound fairly made our blood run cold-it might h ave been the sp irit of all tho e who had ev r been lost in the u 11 ri ing up to bar our way With a whirr of 202

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    OUR SUDAN. wings an la parting creec h a bla ck hape pa e l between u an l the moon and only then did we know it for a long-necked glo y ibis, an uninteresting-looking bir l by daylight, but for those gifted with a taste for melodrama, a terrifying one by night. "By the afternoon of the fourth day we were practically out of the sudd, and quite glad to ee solid bank and ordinary thorn-bushes once more. At ham be we came acros human lw llings aga in, a dismal malarious place inhabited by Dinkas and Nuers. An unfortunate Egyptian was found here in one of the huts, suffering from a very bad attack of blackwater fever, and was at once removed to the steamer, altho ugh Colonel Penton, the medica,l officer, had but sma ll hopes of saving his life. However, injections of quinine had such a wonderful effect that by the time we reached Mongalla he was almost out of danger, and could be left at the hospital there to pick up strength again Egyptians as a rule have so little stamina that they go down like ninepins before this fever, and very se ldom recover. "Two days later we arrived at Kiro, the :first Belgian station of the Lado Enclave, on the left bank of the river Lord Cromer's v isit was totally unexpected, but the bank was spee lily lined with Belgian troops, a most cut-throat-looking set of West Africans and Niams-niams (canniba l s ) j and the officer commanding, w h o was a Swede, came down to receive u an l was most polite. The whole village was very spick-and-span, the hut forming a well-laid-out street with a 'place' in the centre, and the officers' quarter were urrounded 1 y leep verandahs supported by brick columns and built a coup le of feet al ove the l evel of the ground, in a futile attempt to circumvent the omnivorous white ant The men were dressed in very workmanlike blue jumpers and leggings, and looked rnady for any amount of :fighting j so, as they have free permission to loot the s urrounding country to make up to them for getting neither pay nor rations, it is hardly a matter for surpri e that the native have almost entirely deserted that ide of the river, and come aero s to the udanese side in tead * * "The morning after leaving Kiro (January 2 0th) we reached our farthermost point, Gondokoro, the first post on the Uganda frontier, where we were most hospitably entertained by the two a lmini trators, c i vilian and military * * On our way through the vi ll age we pa e l some beautiful N uer oxen browsing content Uy in an enclosure : they are about the ize of the great Campagna xen plus a hump, with magnificent horns, and are of the ame soft creamy colour ery fine spec im en has l ately been broubht clown to the Cairo Zoo. * * "On leaving Gondokoro we turned back northwards, an l after a short visit to Lado teamed steadi l y downtream, meeting a north wind, whi h wa very refreshing after the swelter in g heat of the l ast few clays. * * 203

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    0 11,:-. THE LANDING STAGE AT RENK, WHlTE NILE. .A WOOD STATION, WHITE NILE. ) _...,_ - .. ., : --,-..t::"t;,-, "". -_ .r. .c.,- -.--:,. - n.;,;,J.r.~ .~--.--' ~ ,~ ..... . '~.'"~.-,-. I ..,. .. ---:-. ....e-ttj~~~ ~,....... --.. ... I ,-_:~~~ .. ~~~--'
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    TATIO S ON TH.E ~ TILE FROM KHARTOUM TO GONDOKORO. The photographs an l narrative of Countes s Valda Gleichen taken together have given a brief but brilliant description of the principal points on the Nile from Khartoum to Gon dokoro. But we have still a quantity of admirable photo graphs of the Upper Niles and their tributaries, supplied by Sir Reginald Wingate to illustrate his Inspections as Governor General, and many from ir William Garst in hawing his recent tru vels on the Upper Nile. In order to make these engravings intelliMAJOR WATSON. SIR RUDOLF SLATlr WHITE NILE I~SPECTIO~, 1902. gible, it will bg necessary to give a list of the p1-incipal places along the ri ver where the steamers call. .A. list of the stations on the mail steamer route between Omdurman and Gondokoro is appended. STATIONS ON TIIE WHITE NILE (BE'r"EEN OMDURMAN AND L AKE NO). Geteina, di tance from Omdurman .... J ebe l Arashkol Duem Abbas Island Fashi Shoya Goz abu Guma Abu Zeid Jebelein Renk Jebel Ahmed Agha Kaka Demtemma Fashoda oba t River Bahr el Zera Lake No " " " ,, " ,, " 55 miles 109 ,, 125 ,, 163 ,, 176 ,, 192 ,, 208 ,, 238 ,, 286 ,, 340 ,, 381 ,, 444 ,, 472 ,, 526 ,, 530 ,, 561 ,, 627 ,, 1'ATI0NS ON THE BAHR. EL JEBEL. DISTANCES FROM LAKE No TO GoNDOKORO. Hellet el Nner, from Lake No 1~9 mile FalseChannel(22miles)fromLakeNo 143 ,, Bahr e l Zer a f (south nd) 249 ,, hambe ,, 256 Abu Kika ,, 293 ,, Kenisa. Bor Latitude 5 30 Kiro Mongalla Lado ( e l g i an Enclav ) 1ondokoro " " 30.J 3 1 448 ,, 460 474 495 504 ,, Frnm Omdurman to 'ondokoro 1,1:34 miles. From Khartoum to ondokoro, 1,130 miles. 205

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    0 R VD.AN; ITS PYRAMID A "AD PROGRE ~ .All along the mysterious Nile' course as laid down twenty years ago m our be t maps, there were wide listricts marked "uninhabited reoion The cenes depicted in our photo -raphs bow the crowds that turne l up almost everywhere the steamer stopped, to welcome the ovemor General's vi its. The h le region seem to teem with life, and being now at peace, an
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    0 B SUDAN; IT PYR.Al',1IDS .A 'f>.T D PROGRESS. J ebe leiu. iver here about 500 yards wid e Th e two peculiar granite peaks risin g abruptly g ive the n ame to the p l ace. (Two Mountains.) Der e l Ahamda has good flocks of cattle Reuk. This is where Kitchener's Expedition caught up the Dervishes o n his way to Fashoda., epte mb er, 189 The Dervishes were beaten, their steamers captu red. Jebel Ahmed Agha. A solitary volcanic peak, 250 feet above the plaiu, is a great I an lmark. Kaka is a colJEBELEIN : WH IT E NILE. lection of hilluk villages spread along several miles of the l e ft bank. Dern temma, Dinka and hilluk v illages. At Melut the Governor -G enera l held a n inspection. Th e t e le graph h e re crosse to the west bank. At Kodak ther was an inspection of Shilluk warriors, and I g ive sev e ral views of this important place and its bazaar. Fashod a is not much h eard of now in fact Fashoda i not marked on the l atest SHJLL U K CATTLE, EAR "'\YAU, WHITE ILE. Govern ment map. Its place i takfm by Kodak not far off, which i s h althy wh il e Fasbocla was poisonous from malar i a ince the Marchand business it h as l ost its importance. 208

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    0 R SUDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS AND PROGRES11 DER EL ARAMDA CATTL.J!;: NEAR JEBELEIN, WHITE NILE. and of the interesting natives, Shilluks aud Dinkas. During Lord Oromer's visit there were great doings at Fashoda, as shown by Ooun tess leichen 's photographs. The site of Marchand's garden is pointed out. At Lul, beyond Fasboda, there is an Austrian Outholic Mis sion with a tidy setLlement, of which Countess Gleichen gives some goo l photographs, At Wau, the irdar g i ves us a photograph of the fine flocks of cattle owned by the natives (not to be confounded with Wau iu the Bahr e l Ghazal) Taufikia, the second place in the district. There are a few troops stationed both here and at Fashoda, but Taufikia is much the more healthy place. Fashoda is one of the worst p0ssible places for a settl ement and. will be given up. The Sobat River joins the White Nile a few miles further 011. Seven miles up the Sobat is the American Mission School in a grove of Doleib palms. This is a flourishing Shi lluk neighbourhood. The American Schoo ls are a ll adm irably rnana.;ed and there cannot be too many of them; they ha ve benefited Egypt so mnch. Their pupils are always well-mannered and helpful, and proud of being ab l e to read and write and speak English. Many floating grass i slands are met with at this point of the Nile, and grass fires are constantly being seen on the horizon. It w ill be more conven ient to pursue our journey direct to the south by the maiu stream of the Nile as far as Gondokoro, devoting subsequently a separate chapter to the Bahr el Ghazal, which flows into Lake No, from the west, and gives its name to an enormous province. The o bat River, coming from the east) wiJ 1 be best described here. .After we have followe l the main course of the Nile to the Great Lakes, we shall describe separate l y the provinces to the east and west of it. GRASS FIRES : WRITE NILE. 210 ,r;r'

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    OUR, SUDAN ITS PYRAllIIDS AJ..D PROGRE> 1 THE Al\IERlCA MISSION I 'HOOL. O.N THE SOBAT. :Not very far beyond Tau6kia, at Doleib Hill, on tbe So bat, this admirab l e educationa l body ha s place l its farthest pos t on the Nile. It vvas comm need in March, 1902. Lord Cromer gave them 200 acres of government }and to start tb ir enterprise, nnd they hav e built an exce llent station, consisting of residences, schools, and a church They are Presbyterians, a Mission Society from a sma ll town in Nebraska, who have been doing good work in Egypt for well nigh half a century. I know their schools in Egypt we11, and can speak with confidence of their excellent and successful efforts. Their missionaries are like no others; they are more anxious to teach AMERICAN SCHOOL ON THE SOBAT RlVER-DOLEIB PALMS. P hi p p s B e y. and educate than to proselytize. I measure the results of their labours in Egypt as being next to Lord Crom1:.r's in the good results for the natives Therefore I bai l with joy the beginning of their good deeds to b ene fit the poor neg l ected uclan. I wrote to Dr. Alexander, of their Training College at Assiut, for particulars of this un l erta king. He tells me that the school on the obat is flouri-:>hing. They have a headmaster, an American c l ergyman, Rev. J. K. Giffen, D. ., and hi s wife, another cl ergyman, Rev. J R. Carson, and hi wife, two medical men, who also are teachers, and evera l nativ teachers In the Government chools iu the udan, strange to say, English i s not taught. In the schools of the Americau Mission, everyone speaks, and is taught to r al 212

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    OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRA111IDS AND PROGRE YS. and write, not ouly Arabic, but English. Thei1 l and is being rapidly brought under cultivation. Dr. Giffen is bringing the finest cotton seed from America, and already fruit and varied crops are re::tpe l. The natives are 1 aming to work an l to engage in agr i cultura l and other pursuits of industry. Lord Cromer in his Report for 1902 says : -" An opportunity was afforded to me, during my recent tour in the Sudan, of vis itin g the station established by the American mis ionaries on the So bat R i ver The estab li shment consists of Mr and 1rs Giffen and Dr. and Mrs. McLaughlin. I was greatl y pleased with a ll I saw The Miss i on i s manifestly conducted on those ound, practical, common sense principles which, indeed, are strong l y characteristic of Amer i can mission work in RIVER BARO OR UPPER S0l3AT, EAR IT.A.NG. 8 c. J1J ajo1 0-wynn. Egypt. No parade i s made of religion. Mr. Giffen has very wisely considered that, as a preliminary to the introduction of Christi an teaching, hi s best plan will b to gain some insight into the ideas, manners, and c ustoms of the wi ld hilluks among t whom he lives, to estab li sh in thei r minds thorough confidence in his intentions, and to inculcate some rudimentary knowledge of the Christian moral code In these endeavours he .appears to have been em inentl y s u ccessful. By kindly and considerate treatment he is a ll aying those susp i c ions which are so eas il y aroused in the minds of savages. l found considerable numbers of Shilluks, men and women, working h a ppily at the brick-kiln wh ich he ha established in the xte n i ve and well cu ltivnted gar len attac h ed to the !fission I may remark incidentally that cotton, ap parently of good quality, has a lr eady been produced The houses in which the members of the Mission live have been constructed by Shi lluk labour 214

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    THE AMERICA Jl!IL IO I addressed the men present, through an interpreter, and fully atisfied myself that they were happy and contented. They understand that they can now no longer be carried off into slavery, that they will be treated with justice and consideration, and paid for their labour. "Not only can there be no possible objection to mission work of thi rlescription, l ut I may add that, from whatever point of view the matter is considered, the creation of e ~ tablishments conducted on the principles adopted by Mr Giffen and Dr. AcLaughlin cannot fail to prove an unmixe i benefit to the population amongst whom they live. I understand that the merican mi sion;::i,ries contemplate the creation of another mi ion post higher up the !TANG VILLAGE, RIVER BARO, rrE OF POST. 8 B. Majo1 G w ynn. Sobat. It i s great l y to be hoped t hat they w ill carry out thi s intention They may rely on any reasonab l e encouragement and assistance w h ich i t i s i n the power of the Sudan overnment to afford I think these Am rican schools are one of the greatest ble sings to the country and it is pleasant to learn that the good example they have et ha arou ed similar efforts from England. Lord romer and Sir Reginald Wingate have et apart an extensive region on both sid s of the Upper Nile fur th establishment of schools un ler the Church 1iss i onary Soc j ety of Lon lon This Society is now seeking suitable young men for this work which i t le commenced immediately. Their labour ,, ill be in lustrial medical, educational, and the teaching of hristian -virtue to the e I oar heathens. Th burch Mis ionary ociety has alrea ly a number of succe ful chool in Uganda, and th se to be stabli he l on the Upper il will link with them 215

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    OUR SUD.AN ITS PYRA ~!ID .AND PROGRESS. THE SOBAT RIVER. Thi3 important adjunct to the Nile' flood rises in A.bys inia about 500 miles from its c nflu nee with th great river. Near the Ni l e it banks are hard and firm and with gra sy I l ains, an 1, further up, its banks in parts are beautifully wooded. Its water is of a reddi h-yellow colour t amers of 4 feet draught can ascend as far up stream as Itan from May to December. Different tribes, on it way from its ource, give it different names. fter the Pibor join it, it is m stl y known as the Baro Nuers and Dinkas share it banks, the Nuers overpowering the Dinkas, the latter being an inferior race, phy.:;ically. Anuak are found further east; their country has well-woo led, park-like .A..J."\'UAK GIRL AT l'r G : TRADING PORT IN PPER SOBAT. 8 A. 1Jfajo1 Gwynn. scenery, a11d it is said there are vast herd of elephants This will be in the Abys inian l and, b yond where the Pibor joins the boundary of the Sudan. The huts and villages of the uers are well built an l very populous They live in a ~ate of 1,ature, nearly all, except th old e r women, bein~ quite naked. In Major Au,tiu's int r i:;tiug report he i.,ays, '' daily a demand for c l othes is beginning to rise The nuaks inhabit a portion of Abyssinian territory which is l eas cl to the u lan ovemm nt. Major Austin ;j descripti n of tliis r gion sounds most readian The most fertile tract anywhere It i s well woode l an l free from those l arge swamp fouo.d in u e r territory lower down. Ther are numerous huts an l hamlets, elose Lo the banks O\ erlooking the river. Their huts are scrupulou l y clean and ,rell 216

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    THE UPPER SOBAT, ANUAKS, GALLAS. kept, an l a r e surrou n ded by f nces of tall reeds, g i ving ab olute priv acy to the occupants Within t h e enc losure, in addition to several huts for the family, are the granar ies, a nd other enclosures for the herding of s h eep or goats at night. The interior is care full y p l astered over with mud and free from dust, and iirt. The native of this re g ion are more advanced in civilisation than any oth rs on the obat or Baro They are a most peaceful fr i end ly, and industrious race and are great agr i cu lturist s Mi les and miles of coast a l ong th e r i ver are diligently c ul t i vated twice every year, and bear splendid c rops from the generous soil Thes e lines are very inter ting uch peop l e may be in luced to sen l em igrant s to the ri ch cotto n-l ands north of Khartoum w hi ch are now depopnlated. The Ga ll as over the border are a fine race, and Major Austin tp.inks the Anuaks learnt t h eir good habits of indusLry and c l eanliness from them. It has been suggested that Ga ll as might be in lucecl to settl e in the northern. ud an, as they are a populous and vigoro u s r ace Major Austin speaks hi gh ly of the Anuak females "The atti re of the younger women and gi rl s i s really most attr active In additio n to a numerou s ac cumulation of beads round the neck, they wear a, l arge number of s trings of beads round the waist, of m any different colours, whil t a small fringe, as it were, of genera ll y white opaqne, or light blue and white beads, de pends in front and u eh ind) some two o r three in che in l ength, round the body. the gir l s a re often very beautifully formed and possess pleasant, laug hing, and occasionally very pretty faces, a group of them together forms a mo t c harmin picture of ruo lest maidenhoo l It i s p l easau.t to happen on s u ch \.r cadian life and manners in these remote va lleys. The nati ves evidently h ave h ad, for genei ations, no reason to fear tranger Th y h ave been too remote to suffe r from t h e s l ave-ra i d in g expeditions which tmck terror into the inhabitants of th western r g i ons s much so that ven yet, in many di tri cts, the nati v s fear the Egyptian o l lier of li0hter c l our than th m e l ve mindfu l of the traditions of s l ave-hunting lay N as. er, J 6 0 miles from the junction of th obat and the hit e ile i garrisoned by half a battalion of Sudane e under a Briti sh officer a nd is po lice l ffi ct iv e l y as well. Th e N u e rs in this listrict a r e s h y of civ ili sat i on, but the i r An u ak n e i g h bours may teach them thei r virtue now that we protect both and trad will corn in time no loubt L arge q u antities of gra i n might be ent down the Sabat from th fert il well cu l tivated l ands of the Anuaks beyon l, w h o ar l ad to ell flour jn xchang for bea.d and Major Austin carefully tells the colours and ize of beads must in vogue, for those who ,voul d vi it tlies region H e says the a ll as wi ll be ab l e t sen l down gol d and i ron, ivory a n d li ve stock. 'l'he e clever Ga llas are acquainted with the use of money anJ. know the value of Maria Theresa l ollar The a llas are evi d e n t l y a people to (mlti, ate, and they 111, w bear a better n ame than form e rly 2 1 7

    PAGE 248

    OUR SUDAN; IT1 PYRAJl[[DS A 1YD PROGRESS. There are wide stretches of country along the left bank of the Sobat that are still unexplored: The natives here also genera lly wear no clothes, except the married women, who have an apron of l eat her thongs. They are mostly :N uers. The men sme!tr their bodim:; with wood ashes, which g i ves them a dirty appearance They have no guns, and when a b i g heikh got some rifles lately, he broke them up to make brace l ets for his ladies. They are arme l with spears, shie l ds of buffalo hide, a nd knob-sticks. The photograph on pages 2 14, 21n, and 216, all of which are fully de cr i bed on pages 274 and 275, are from Majo r Gwynn's coll ection NEAR :M:ONGALLA, 218

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    PAGE 252

    30" K ilom 100 50 "lolu 60 Scale s r 100 60 3 2" 200 100 -... -...... SIR WTT,LIAM GARSTIN' S NEW CANAL, FROM BOR NORTHWARD. The Sudd R e g ion is shad e d ove1. 222

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    CHAPTER XIII. SIR WILLIAM GARSTIN'S PROPO ED NILE CA AL FOR COMPLETELY A vorDiNG THE SUDD. THE material relating to a thousand miles of the Nile beyond Khartoum, is too great to compress within the bounds of one chapter, and i s therefore g iv en in two sections. A fitting place to divide the narrative will be at Taufikia. Opposite T aufikia, Sir William Garstin's proposed new channe l for the Nile, all the way from Bor, would have its outlet. This bold project would eutire ly avoid the puzzle of the ucld. It was no wonder that Sir William Garstin was worried an l perplexed for years past to find a i'emedy for this hateful impediment to all h t s proj ect s for g iving the Nile THE WHITE NILE, T.A.UFIKT.A.. Si1 W E. Ga,stin fair play for its vvaters He seems to me to have at last severed the Gordian knot of this difficulty by this bold coup. The cut through the sands of Suez, at the other end of Egypt, has revolutionised the world's commerce But it lid poor Egypt harm rather than good. The trade of the world now passes its former empo rium and give h r the go-by. Should Sir William Garstin's canal, through another 250 miles of waste, be carried out, it will save Egypt a nd the Sudan, and restore the wealth of waters which they po sessed in 223

    PAGE 254

    0 B DAN; IT PJ RAJl!lID I A "iD PROGRE). the XIIth ynasty, befoi:e 'ud l wa . an l wh 11 the Equatorial Lakes were larger than they are now, an l therefore more free to cam th ir outlets from any impedim nt. Sir William Garstin offers two plans of 01 ening free channels for the Bahr el J ebel. (1) By an enti r e ly n e w c hann e l from B r northward..;, at a co t of ,500,000 (2) To re-op n and improve the Bahr el Zeraf, at a cost of ,400,000 Lor l Cromer -in his espatch (Chapter II.) with his usual brea lth of view, at once prefel'S t he fii~ t named. I have no hesitation in expres ing an pinion, that s l 1ou l d this I roject be found capabl e of ex c ution, it sho ul d be adopted in preference to the other, in spite of the extra cost ." ut he al 1s that l eve l 3 must first be taken, and the matt r more fully examined 130R : THE BAHR EL JEBEL Si1 W. B Garstin. ir Tilli am thus modestly l aunches his great sc h eme for a new Nile Canal. It will b seen that a lin drawn through Bar, on the Bahr el J ebel, and running due north, would ut the White il8 at, or near, the point where the obat join s this river. '' Th distance is about 34 0 kilometres. V\T ere it possible to excavate an entirely new channe l f llowing this line, and to bring down the waters in this manner from Bar, direct to the Whit ile, ... the ad vantages that would be sec ur e l are so great and so obvious as to outw igh almost any objection that would be made." He adds that further lrno" l edge may prove that the scheme jR a sh er imr 03sibility, owing to the l eve ls or conformation of the in ten eniog co_untry. All this is now to be inq uirecl into. Lord Cromer has sanctioned the cost of the survey, which will be proceed.eel with at once. 224

    PAGE 255

    'IR WILLIAj)!l GARS21I ' GBEAT CA AL. u William ar::itin sununari es the ad vantage of th new cut :-the ntire avoidance f the swamp region a sav inO' of 200 kilom Lres in the transit from Bor to Tanfikia all th cost of sudcl-cntting and clearing of channels aved, an l a direct current given to the Nile He woul l put r gulators with locks on hi new canal at Boran l anot h e r point, an l so he would have full contro l of the discharge of the Upper Nile at all s asons But he doe not propose to regu l ate the entire tiood of the Nil e. He say he only propos s to cut an artificia l channe l no larg r than one of the existing cana l s of Egypt. This cut would convey, during the summer, a portion of High :Nile flood to the place where it i req nired. This would complete l y avoi l the great swamps, whic h we call the udd, yet leave them to act as they do at pr sent to absorb the floo l water, and supplement the supply in winter. They in fact would hold in reserve the surplus water lik e a 6rc-at spong From this point of view even the Sudd seems to have its uses of which m t of us were unawar uppo ing the l ve]s and nature of this unknown land, through which the :New Garstin Cana l must be made, be feasible, there is nothing to prevent a contractor lik e ir John Aird undertaking the work, an l with modern "steam navvies" executing the whole channel in a very few years. Should this new cana l be a success, it wi ll be a great benefit to the who l e Nile Valley, and be a crowning honoUl' to the life labours of Sir William Garstin VICTORIA NYA "ZA : RIPON FALLS : THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 225 ir W. E. Ga?"Stin. Q

    PAGE 256

    OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAJ l!lIDS AN"D PROGRES. In Chapter X.II. we have followed the cour e of Lhe White Nile from Khartoum to the junction of the obat. We now resume the account of the Nile's course southward till the Equatorial Lake are reached. The BAHR EL ZERAF is the next tributary received by the Nile after the Sobat. Thi was probably one a mam channel of the gr at river, all the way from ~hambe. W are now in the \1dd" r ion, an l this pest has effaced or blocked up all the anci n t chann ls, so that much of th fl.oo l i lo t, more than half by vaporntion The inhabitants hereabouts are naked N uer but Dinkas now an l then are f un l on the banks The native wear th hair l ong and dyed red. Ind e l, l ong hair for both sexes is a uni versal N uer custom The T uers ex ten l south THE BAHR EL ZERAF to Kenisa, 250 mi l es from the Sabat juncticn. The Bahr el Zeraf being still closed by sndd, is n t now u eel, and traffic has to be carried westward by Lake No. The Nile here turns a lmo t a right angle, to wh ich point it bas flowed almost lne north from hambe an l Keni a. This part of the Nile is calle l the Bahr e l J ebel by the natives, after passing Lake No. Beyond this is the worst of the udd" region. The hallow expanse of water called Lake No is the region where the floods HlLLUKS FI HI "G, KHOR ATTAR, WHITE N l LE. 226 of the Bahr el Zeraf, the Bahr el Ghazal, and the Bahr 1 J ebe l mingle the ir waters. ,lV e pass Khor Attar and its hilluk village where they seem to be always engaged in fishing, either at the shore or m their canoes. Great grass fires are often found here and

    PAGE 257

    l-::l Ls:) .!:) t,D G O V.-GEN1S INSPEC'l l ON OF l()'l'H SUDANESE AT 'l'AUFIKIA, wHlTE N TLE WHITE NILE, NEAR LAKE NO SHILLUK ~'ISHERMEN NE.AR '!'ONG.A., WHITE NILE. WHI'l'E NILE: SHILLUK FISHERMEN. 1-3 t:r: t;::j ::z:: H 1-3 t?::J H ~ i. 0

    PAGE 258

    OUR SUDAN; IT PYRAM1D AND PROGRR in the Ton ga district, the gr ass bein a burnt to pre p a r e it for grazin g purposes. Here the old ch anne l of the Nile, the B ahr el Z e raf, joins the mHin stream. It i s now only THE B A HR EL G H A Z AL. 38 yards broad and 19 feet leep, with little or no current, all blocke l up with gro~ ths of fl.oatincr vegetation. East of tbis Sir W Gar tin's great scheme for the proposed traight cutting of a new channel for the Bahr el J ebe1, from south to north, about 250 miles from Bor to Taufikia, wou l d reach the Ni l e . ... ___...-... ~-----FLOAT! 'G S U DD. Sir TV. B Ocws l in Lake No wigbt have been so ca ll ed for a joke, for it does not deserve the name of a lake by any m eans. It is a wide' expanse of shallow water, being gradua lly filled up, and impede s the free progress of the Nile a gathering receptacle for floating 22

    PAGE 259

    N) N) ,:0 S UDD AND AMBACH, BAHR E L JEBEL. A N ATlVE CANOE JN 'l'HE SUDD AND AMBACH. \ ON THE BAHR EL JEBEL. .-----__ ,._ B.A.RI VILLAGE, BAHR EL JEBEL, 1-3 ::r:; t;,:j t;j ;::.-;:Jj t::j t' c:..... t;,:j t;j t::j ~ i (b 0

    PAGE 260

    OUR DA island s of sudd. If arstiu's straight cut b fonn 1 to be possib l e (a ll w ill depend on the s ur y of the unknown lan 1 throu g h whi c h it i I ro1 osed to b e xc avate d) i t will b e a cur e for th e Nile s g r ea test s tricture. FLOATING SUDD. Si?' 1 Y .E. G'm tin The native say that th e Bahr el Z era f i s actually open to S harnbe, but we hav e no pro o f of it, and our stea m e rs h ave to go by way of the Bahr e l J bel, a the White Nile is called by n a ti ves, from L ake No southwards to o ndok6r o Th e triangular region between th ese two branches of the Nile is inhabited by a simp l e kindly rac the N u e rs, much l ess crafty t h an the Dinka Th ey wear no c loth e whatev r, and their needs ar ther efore f w. Th e onl y trade was in i vory which now has been made a Govern -ment monopoly to save the e l cphan ts from extermination Th e natives' weulth i s in cattl whi ch th y w ill wil li ng l y trad for beads For purposes of dowry or for fines ,. WHITE N IL E F L O ATING S DD. 1SLAND BREAKING OFF. or dealings of any kind, cattl e values act ually form a regular system of exc ha nge. The Bahr e l hazal pours its wat e rs into L ake No at the sa m e place where it i s jO'ined by the Bahr e l t T ebel. Th ere a r e few poiut of the Bahr e l J ebe l to be noticed until 'ham be i s r eac h ed. It i s ::tll one monotonou s w aste of s udd produ c tion. 230

    PAGE 261

    c,.:, r--' SR.A.MEE : GROUP OF DJNKAS. B.ARI VILLA.GE, BAHR EL JEBEL. BARI HUT, BAHR EL JEBEL. BAR[ nur s BAUR EL JEBEL. 1-:3 p:; t::J t;;:j > t::J t::J o;; t::J ;!
    PAGE 262

    OUR SUDAN; IT PYRAJl{IDS A "N"D PROGRE evera l pa es of photographs are given, sho\',ing every stage and every aspect of the Sudd, this vexatious impediment t o all the a ncient ways of the grand old stream N UER FISHING H U TS, BAHR EL JEBEL. W e h ave no historical record of this p es t, whether it i s D. modern g rowth, consequent on the gradual curtai lment of the Great Centra l Lake ystem of the Dark Continent; we do not know how it originated or when it began. u W. Ga rstin goes into all the sugge s ted causes of the l ate fai lu res of the ile On the whole tlrn flood. have come regularly for five or 1x tho usand yea r s. But the il e ha.s be n o ccasiona lly s u b j ect to s11c h failures of supr l y ever since the famine which gave Josep h bi s chance in governing E gy pt, a nd for thousands of years before his time, as is recorded on t h e 1nonu rnents. Egypt has now what it never possessed in antiquity, the full control of the Nile waters for 3,000 miles, and the clever a nd careful m e n who now rule the land and its water sur plie may be safely tru ted to lo everyt hin0 humanly possible to store up and manipuJate what is the very lifeb lood of this grea t riverain HERD' OF DI "KA CATTLE, B AHR EL JEBEL. Empire. The va riou s Report s of Sir W. Ga r stin during the last five years 232

    PAGE 263

    THE BAHR EL JEBEL. ( ir Reginald Wingate.) BARIS IN T]ll; BA.HR E L JE BEL, 233

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    'l'HE DD. give records of ome fift e n blocks of su ld and th cha nnel kept opeu through tb 111. At H llet el Nu r, 165 miles from Lake No, R landing place is reached and is quite n. I retty spot 1 n photograph The plains in this region are evidently n ver swamped. Then succeed a number of false" channels and the old direct bed of the Nile i lo t for a time, or at least bas not been cleared out or even reached. The water goes zigzaggin about, and thus progress is made through a succession of small lakes, till at lenoth, at 165 mile~ from Lake No, the bed of the true river is reached, and th ile again become a fine open stream of 0 to 90 yards in width, with a high fringe of papyrus at each ide The false channel leaves the river at :m angle of 90 degrees This corner wa. blocked by sudd in 1890 but the stuff was Ii ht and easily removed. To the ea t, seven or inht miles away, a belt of palms i ee n wliich not improbabl marks the ancient coast of the Bahr el Zeraf. At 22,) miles from Lake o, 1 Lieutenaut Drury in 1900. DINKA CATTLE. BAHR EL JEUEL. the place which gave such trouble to Major P eake and 234

    PAGE 265

    THE BAHR E L JEBEL. ( ir Reginald Wingate.) 235

    PAGE 266

    OUR UD !J. ITS 1 YRAMID A D PROGRESS. BOR. n II E. Ga1 sti;i hamb is reached at r6 miles from Lake J o Although hambe is the c hief Nile po t or the Bahr el .Ghazal province, it is a poor and miserab l place for the litt_l e garrison Here the road goes off to Rumbek iu the Bahr el Ghazal. Tbe Nile here twists itself through a marsh of 30 miles. Its depth is 1 feet or so~ und its w idth 50 to 60 yards. For many miles the same drear3 scene r y prevail.. At l engt h this ~ ret ched marsh is passed a.ud we arrive at Kenisa (the Church) which derives its name from been the site old Austrian having of the Mission I-Ieiligen Kreutz." The mission wa abandoned in 1865, owing to the dea~ly effects of the climat Anothe r large l agoon uccee 1s till w come to Bor, 34:4 mil es from Lake No. string of neat Dinka villages extends to this p l ace all the BARI H U T BAHR EL JEBEL. way a l ong the east bank, from Bahr e l Zera. They c l eanly kept and give a pleasant idea of Bor, a l though it is an unimportant place. The people seem comfortab l e and 236

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    PAGE 268

    OUR DAW-; IT PYRA~IID g_ D PROGRE happy and lmve l arge herds of cattl The land here i 6 to 8 feet above the water and nev r loo led South of or the hateful sudd di appears ; the marshes are corn po ed of tall, coarse gras Th Bahr el J bel is now a fine stream 80 or 90 yards wide, with a strong current. BARI HUT .A n FI HERMEN, BAHR EL JEBEL. This is why Sir W. Garst in has adopt cl the idea (whi h he very honourably states, was not his own, but uggested by Mr. Beresford) f cuttinoa straight channe l due north to avo id a ll the sudd If it be found possible when the course is surv yed there i little doubt but it w ill be made, for the sudd is the cau e of all the trouble an l outlay of late years on this reg i on, which wi ll be a l ways a plague pot, literally and metaphorically, to the Nil e' exi tence. After Bor we come into the country of another a nd inferior race, quit lifferent from the Dinka pe pl -the ari trib The e creatures are poor, own no cattle, and ke p their d wellin.;s most untidy. They live principally by :fi biog, but repair to the we t JEBEL L ADO FROM 'rHE WHl'rE KILE. bank annually to prepare ground for cultivation. The solitary mass of mountain known as J ebe l 23 Lado, now appears upon the horizon.

    PAGE 269


    PAGE 270

    OUR SUDAN; ITi 1 YRA nan AJ..D PIWGRE S The Nil twi ts about again, and tb a ll ey narrows in to 1:x. or s~ven miles; the for est line ma1ks the high ground. An island is formed at 404: mil s, by a bifurcation of th river. Th ese two channels 1eunite at mile 4...,2 the island is from 00 to 1 ,000 yard. wide. From Bor all the way to Gonclokoro, the ri, er becomes a ma s of mall islnnds, an l no direct rivercourse can b f llow ed At Kira the old Egyptian station is reached (460 miles) abandoned in 1901. The Ecenery n the east side become beautifu l luxmiant tropical vegetation. Giant euphorl.Jia are a marke l f ature of the land scape. The whole of the tnrnks of the trees an l most of the banks are covered with a vP.lvety mass of creepers A bluff, 10 to 12 feet high, jut out into the stream, but the strong current wears the brmk awa.y The face of the cliff is perforated with countless boles, made by a KIRO ;r W. E. Gant in i:;pecies of bee-eater, a beautiful little bird, with rose coloured wings and bronze -linecl bodies. These add much to the beauty of the scene. At 460 miles from Lake No, we reach the Belgian station of Kiro, on the western bank. Th river is eroding the banks so greatly that the e lgian s will have to remove their buildings ba kwar ls. Kiro station i s well l a id out and well built within a brick enc l o ur I ierc l with holes for g un It is a very pictm~ esque place, and here Lord Cromer and t h e Governor-Genera l of the udan, on recent visits, were most warmly receiv l. Ther i a ornmandant and 65 men the Commandants hou e has a fine thatched roof and v randah. The Bel0'ian soldi rs are negroes, but are not natives of this part of Africa. They have stout and squat figures, much tattooed, and are enlisted from the cannibal tribes of th Congo 'lhere is a mall steamer, which was carried from the We t Coast in ections and a number of stee l boats. Kiro is extremely unhealthy ju two ye~:irs the Belgians 1 st 9 Europeans and 300 natives. 240

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    PAGE 272

    0 'B, DDAN; ITS PYRA1 1!lID A D PROGRESS At mile 468 another bifurcation of tbe river takes place, and afterwards the stream is 200 to 00 yards wide, and so strong the current, that trees at the margins are :MONG ALLA, ii' W. E G arstin constant l y being carried away by the farnng of the bank W ootl is easily got here for steamers, as the large trees grow down to the water's edge. Mongalla, the most southern post of the Sudan Government, i s 4 7 4 miles from Lake No, on the east bank. It has a garrison of two companies, and has one good boat LADO. i1 W. E. G arstin There are about 100 tukh houses. (Tukh houses being made of dry g rass, are excellent for the climate, and healthy. They are burnt down and renewed annually.) Monga ll a is an open gras y, sandy spot it was occupied in 1901, and is quite a healthy p l ace, w ith 242

    PAGE 273

    t,::, He,., t,::, BAHR EL JEBEL : KIRO, BELGIAN STATION. BE'rWEEN LADO AND MONGALLA, BAHR E L JEBEL. LADO: BELGIAN ENCLAVE. WHl'rE NILE, NEAR KIRO. r-3 t;::j l:;;j p:,,::d t;::j t-! "-i t;::j l:;;j t;::j .., i. [ ~-Cl) 0

    PAGE 274

    OUR SUDAN) ITS PYRAMIDS AND 11WGRESS. plenty of trees and bush It is a goo l game country with many elephants, an l hippopotami; the latter are often object i onab l y oLtrus iv e Brick houses are be i ng built. L A DO, WHI'rE NILE. L t .-C ol. P enton. The Bari are the nati ms of this region, but are few in number. They are a ll l eaving the Bel gian sile and buili lin g t h eir huts on the easteru shore, under ri tish protection. The supplies for the Be l gian troops have to be brought a l ong distance from the interior Lado 495 miles from Lake No, is the chief Nile post of the Cancro ]free State, which was formerly Egyptian and the re. id e nce of Emin Pasha. The vil l age of the heikh of Lado i s on the Sudan side, wh e re he paid his re pects to the Gov mar-General a n d Lord Cromer. In front of Lado is a low i land, upon wh i ch vegetab les, bananas, and castor-oil plants are grown Presents of sp l end id bananas were brought to Lonl Crome1-'s party as g if t There seems to be no trade in this distri ct and not much cu l tivation I stream the scenery r==-----~---------------~ improv everal ra11ges of irregularlyhap d mountain peaks are seen to the east an 1 south-east J ebe l Lado st.ill dominates the w stern l andscape, and Jebel Rejaf (a p)famidal an l solitary peak, of w bich Sir William Garstin sent me a beautifu l photograph) marks the spot where reefs and rapids begin. After this, sha ll ows and a maze of ehannels are met with as we come to Gondokoro, BELGIAN '.l' ROOPS PRESENTING BAN .ANA S TO LORD CROMER Lt.-Col P enton at 504 miles from Lake No This p l ace is in the Uganda Protecto r ate, of which it is the north frontier post The station was occupi ed in 1899, and i s situat ed on a cliff about 22 feet above the water The remains of n.ker' s old lines a r e sti11 ex i sting 244

    PAGE 275

    THE BAHR EL J EBEL. ( S v r R e g i n a l d W i ng a t e.)
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    OUB UD.AN; IT PYB.A ~fIDS AND PROGBE tf. He had 1 000 men here, but in h i s day the Bari were a p owe rful and warlike tribe. There are pJenty o f trees, bananas, etc., and the statio n is, on the wl1ole, a pretty one, but large m arshes near must make it unhealthy Herds of wild elephants at times break iuto the lin es Many Bari villages are here, all on the east s id e. Th e Baris seem to be better ag ri culturists than the Dinkas, Nuers, or hilluk s Th ey g ro w dura, gr0und-nuts, beans, and some tobacco. As we have now left S udan territory I w ill m ere l y name a n y important p l aces between the frontier and the V i ctor i a Lake. Bedden Island with its rapids, i s beyond Re j af, and t h ere are no more of the ( a called) ataracts from thi s point til l those on the hab1uka Gorge beyond Khartoum, REJAF. fr JJl. E. Oar tin. ar reached. The i s l a nd i s we ll wooded, a n l the limes planted by Emin Pasha still bear fruit At the old fort of Kiro the Nile flows between two granite hill s On the tops of the se hills there are some fine trees The course of the Nile j s much imperled after this by rap ids, and the Goug i Falls a r e very fine i orne of the i s l ands are inhabited, and a ll are cove r ed w ith l a r ge an l fine tre s More rap i ds and then Labore, min's old fort, i s r eac h ed Tbc~ n th To] u rapids an l cataract extend nearly a ll the way to Dufi le, and comp l e tely prevent traffic on the n ver. ir W. arstin says they are more formidable than t~e babluka, or a n y between this and Assuan His lescription of these ra1 ids i s very graph ic, and the scenery m 'ust be magnificent as to l d in hi s great Report on t h e :Nile, 1904. 246

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    0 R SUDAN; ITS PYRAAfilJS AND PROGRE 1 Nimule i o th headquarters of the Nile Province of ganda Dufil e on the Belgian s id e h as a strong fort w ith Krupp guns. The river fac i s undefended and, .::ave the fort, a ll the bui ldin g are neat thatched cottages ,Vade l ai (Emin Pas h a's o l d quarters are near) is a British station with an En g li h collector a nd a Etuop an m edica l officer It has the r ep utation of being a health y place It is a beautifu l part of the river and in the distanc e the chain of mountains are seen t.hat bord e r the Albert N yanza. The river has wid ene d again and looks like a lake. Near the A lbert N yanz a ir W. Garstin would place a regulator for controlling the waters of th e lake, the banks being high. But there i s no s tone for the purpose, unless it be cor;i.veyed down the lake. The waters of th Victoria Nyanza r eac h La.k e Albert by the Victoria Nile, which pours in at the north-eastern corner. Gauges are to be e rected Lere and along the Bahr e l J ebel, so as t o ascertain the rainfa ll arnl the Leight of the waters VICTORIA. :NY.AXZA, R IPON FALLS : THE S OURCE OF THE NILE. ir W E Ga?'Stin f Lak e Albert and its outlet at vario us seaso n s Sir W. Garst in stat s that there. i s n o doubt but that the A 1 Lert Lak e forms an import ant reservoir for the Nil e s upply, ho w much o i s not yet known accurate l y Th e Alb rt L a k e was liscovered b y ir a mu e l Baker in 1864, and was at first supr osed to be much l arge r t h a n it i s n _ow known to be Ho wever, Sir V\T Gar. tin adv i ses t h e constructi o n of a regu l ator, a t the point where it joins the Nil should it be found possible, to u e the Albert L ake as a torage R ese rvoir Th course of t h "\ i ctoria ile, from ,the i ct r i a Nyanza, is well known, but h as not all been actu a ll y nneyed The Nil e ha s ap p a r e ntly a troublous time of it, all the way ] irst it has th great Mur ch i on Fall thr e steps of some 5 0 m etr s, through a c l eft of rock on l y six metres w ide, w hil e imm diately above. the falls the river i 7 0 metres in width. Ju t a ft e r it l eaves its ource in Lake Victoria, the :Nile e ucounte r s anot h er seri s of step known as the Ripon Falls Between these tw great waterfa lls, 24

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    THE RIPO!\ FlLL1-1'HE FICTORIA YANZA. the r i v r expa nd s into two s h a llow l akes (L ake 1h ga and Lak IC wania). Th ese are on l y xtens ive lagoons, wher" ir W. 1arsti u thinks much f the ile waters is l ost by evapo ration. \r ,lV. a rstin r ecom m e nd s that a regulator be p l ace l a t the Ripon : F a lls, sho ul d carefu l s u rvey onfi rm his v iew as to the quantity of water to be expected fr0111 the Victoria Nyanza. Meantime :N ilorueters and rain-gang s are t be placed at a ll important points. Th e Victoria :N ya nz a L the l argest sheet of fr esh water jn the ld W rld, an l it waters are singu l arly sweet, c l ea r and fresh. The ar ea of th e lake i s about the same a that of Scot l and It is in fact, an inland sea, and one side can n e v er be see n from the ot h er Many rivers flow jnto it, but jts only out l et, the Vict oria Nile, eme r ges from the lake at the Ripon Falls, at the northern end of this vast sheet of water. ,7Vith a ll the evaporat i o n from su h an enormous area, under an equatorial sunshine, it yet vents by the Ripon ]falls 575 c ubic metres p e r second, or a daily disch arge of nearly fifty m illions of c ubi c metr s of water. It js no vYonder that ir willia m arst in has h o p e of obtai nin g supplies from s uch a natural reservoir. ecords are being kept of the olume of all the riv e rs which pour into the l a k e as well of its dis charge ir, illi am Garst in tell. u s the s upp osed amount of the water whi c h ente r s the g r at lake an l how much l eaves it by the Victor i a :Nile. Ap paren tly 87 per cent. j s l o t l y evaporat ion. mat ur eng i n ers and others h ave uggest d the er cti on of a wei r and regu l ator at tlrn outlet of the Victor i a :Nyanza on the Ripon Fall o as to rf\.i e the storage l ev 1 of the l ake ir ,7Villi a m Ga rstin h owever, as an expe rt, te ll us that, first, it would take :3 years to rai r.he l ake one metre a u l sec n l, that luriug thi process the Nile wou l d be e nti re l y c u t off dnring t h who l e time THE ALBERT 'YANZA. 249

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    GYASSA O N THE B LUE NILE. P rogress on t h e Blu e and W hi te N iles i s s ho wn b y the foll o win g paragrap h in The Tim e s as we are goin g to press:" everal important change in the eat of provincia l government in the udan are officia ll y notifi d 1\Yo governor hips, termed mucliriehs and orr ponding to Engli h hire and French departments, have, with variou addition of territory been created province The Gh z~ h mudirieh thu b come the Blue Nile province, with it eat of admini tration tran erred to the I or ulou and :f:louri hing to,vn of vVad Meclani The Senaar mudiri h become the W]Jite Nile pro,ince, the capital of which will be Singa." 250

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    TAKEN O THE EXPEDITION FOR LAYIN G THE TELEG RAPH, 1898. ( Captain lwlio Donglas, R. E.) H 0 l:Q rn >4 p H 0 z t:Il >< p H p:i rn A~ E-< z <1 <1 p. >< rn Cl, C!) <1 C) C!) l:Q <1 P-< H <1 H p. C!) H 8 8 0 C) rn P-< <1 l:Q <: p C) 1:1 P-< <1 C!) H E-< 252

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    CHAPTER X l V. JUNCTION OF BL E AND WHI'rE NILES, KHARTOUM. THE BLUE NILE Ai'lD IT,' THIB TARIE THE White and Blue Niles unite near Khartoum. Khartoum it lf i on the Blue Nile The names of these two treams strike a visitor as most c h aract ristic. The river opposite Khartoum is c l ear, and, reflecting the sk y is li terally b ln e at Omdurman on the other hand, the flood is turbid, and almost milky in colour. After joining, th waters of different hue keep separate, in the centre, for l;I. l ong way t ill they gradually interming l e in one turbid flood. The source of the Blue Nile was d i scovered by Bruce, in 1770, to be in Lake Tsana in Abyssinia \r Samue l Baker roughly surveye l the Atbara, a.uother important Nile tributary rising in Abyssinia, in 1864. The expedition of Mr. C E. Dur uis, in 190:3, to both rivers, will comr let our knowledge as to the o uthern tributaries of the main stream of the il The obat was not fully exp l ore l till 1898. The western f e lers f the ile, Bahr el Ghaz a l etc., have not yet b e en accurately mapped but our knowled a e of the White Ni.le (the Bahr el J ebe l ) and its tributaries, as far as the Victoria Nyanza, is, thanks to \r William Garsti11's recent l abours, nearly perfect. The entire Nile from Halfa to Khartoum can be ascended by steamers luring High Nile At Low Nile all the cataracts are practically unnavigable. The Blue Nile is navigable for vesse l s of light draught as far as Roseires when the river is in :loo L The Blue Nile has a south easterly course from beyond Sennar, which was once a powerful kingdom and a flourishing district But one hears little of it now. Nothing is left of the old Sennar Kingdom. The Abyssinians ha l made war 253

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    OUR UDAN; IT PYRA iJ!IID Al\D PROGRl!JS, upon ennar in 1719, but wer defeated with great laughter by heikh Emin. The news of this victory spread the fame of nnar far and wile, and trav llers R INS OF OLD SENNAR. Cap t holto Dou glas, R.E. from Arabia, Egypt an i India penetrated to this remote region. But the usiial fate of all Mohammedan dynasties liefel the conquerors, and after assassinations, revolts and depositions the independence of en nar came to an end. To this succeeded an anarchy of 30 or 40 years. Mehemet Ali sent an r.xpedition to conquer t h e country in 1819 under his son Ismail. This expedition reached Khartoum without resistance and then march d on Sennar, which was ea i l y conquered for Egypt It soon revolted, and Mehemet A l i sent Ismai l again into the udan to q u ell the ri sing On h i s way u p the N i le Ismail was treach erously mur lered by native chiefs at hendi in 1822. A suc~eeding expedi tion was ent to re vengethe murder and the perpetrators were pardoned. n slight cause, however, the pardon was revoke i .and a gen ral mas sacre of the inhabitants of hendi an l elsewhere was ruth less l y carried out The Egyptian name RUI OF WSQUE, SENN AR Ca1,t. h ollo Douglas, R.B. has been hated ever since along the Upper Nile, although the whole Sudan was formally .annexed to Egypt, in 18 9, by Mehemet Ali He had gone himself to complete the 254

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    OUR UD.AN ). IT I p YR.All!ID .A "N"D PROGRES conquest of Sennar, Fazokl, an l Kor lofan, haviug heard rer arts of the gold mines and riches of i vary, gum, etc., in these regions. These were not found to exist, and the only result of many rnilitaryexpeditions was the founding of Khartoum as a central mart. for a huge lave trade, un a scale hitherto unknown. o the chivalrous ci vi1isation that had b en proclaimed to th world by Mehemet Ali only bro ught mi. ery and rapine to the Sudan. The blacks were carried off by thousands to swell the Egyptian a.rmie a state of affairs that was only terminate d in our own day. It was also necessary to keep large force all over the Sudan to collect the taxes, and the country was bled to death. The Blue Nile now comes again to the front as a factor in the irrigation of the Sudan anJ, perhap for Egypt, as a pos sible sustainer of the great Nile', flood As it rises in Abyssinia, we have con cluded a treaty with King d:enelek,giving us right over it waters. PerbapsLake Tsana may some day be sto re 1 up and made t o form a va t reservoir to impound the copious rains of this region, whose rainy season has never wholly failed. THE GOVERNOR-GE~ERAL' STEAMER ON BLUE NILE. The Blue Nile has many feeders, the Rahad, the Dinder, and other and itself bears 111any names according to the various tribes on its banks. The main stream rises 256

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    1-::i c,, -..J Ul A RAFT ON THE BLUE NTLE A NATIVE BO.A'!' C.ARRYLNG l\IERCHAXDISE, BLUE NILE. A RA.F'l' .O~ 'l'RE BLU E NILE. A RAFT ON THE BLUE NILK 1-3 P:l t:::l t;j t"-4 d t:::l H t"-4 i. R'. 0

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    OUR SUDAN,' IT I PYRAll!lID A "f:..D PROGRE11>, about 60 mi le s south of Lake Tsana, an l flows through that lake (which is 1,800 feet above the sea ) for 500 miles to Famaka in th Sudan. ::Famaka i s in a plateau 2,000 feet abov the sea. The A.byssinian s ancient l y believed the Blue Nile was the source of the Nile, and they used to threaten to divert its course when they wishecl to show their power over Egypt. This fiction found some belief in Egypt ; the Arabian historians tell us th2.t about 11 0 A.D., when the PRE 'ENTING ARMS TO GOVER OR-GE ERAL's STEAMER. BL E NILE. Nile flood failed to come, an embassy was sent to the Emperor of Ethiopia, praying him to free the Nile waters, and at once he complied, and the life-giving High Nile returned to it ordinary good behaviour. He may have cut the sudd on the White Nile. The length of the Blue Nil in the Sudan, from Famaka to Khartoum, is about 900 mil s. The Blu Nile was but a. poor stream when I saw it in March, though its wide dry banks BOA'-BUILDING ON THE BLUE NILE. shovyed what it could be in time of flood. Mr. Dupuis considers that its winter supply can be great l y aided by judicious irrigation schemes. It is a sp l en lid stream 2 5

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    o .R , DA rl IT,' PJ B :L ~IID A AW Pl o RE m the mon h of ,Jul y and August. Steamers a cen l to Ro eire 30 0 mil above Khartoum, when the 1 il is high, without :lifficult). The floo l om s between J 'CTION F BL E NILE WlTH RABA.D. hot and damp. After th rain, malarial fever is prevalent. are the worst months. The abundance of rno quitos no doubt the cau e of thi and the Governm nt mu t adopt the modern means of lessening both grievanc s. Picture in ome a cs, sr eak m r eloquent! than rl ,and I will 11 t weary my read rs with many further remarks, merely 1st July anl 1 t Nov mb r. bove Roseire there are rapid th natives carryin0 on trade on the river by meani:: of raft ingeniou ly manipulated. Th month of Dec mber, January and February are coo l and h ealthy. March, ... pril and lVIay are hot. Tbe rainy eason l gin in lVIay and la. t till October. August, eptemb r an l October are very er tember and October giving nough to explain the I ho o J NCTlON OF RIVER DINDER WlTH BLUE NILE. grapbs whi h the overnor-Gencral ( ir Reginal l '\'\ ingate) has plac d at my disp al. 260

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    I FORESHORE NEAR W \.D EL ABBAS, BLUE N I L i ~ ..-\W. \l'l'IXO 'l.'TIE S'l'l<:AM1R A1' 'YAO EL \ IJBAS, BLUE N ILE. WAD EL ABBAS, BLUE XILE. KARK.AJ, BLUE NILE. ; t;d t-< C1 t,,j t=:. o; ~t:t1 ~ !1 [;. (b 0

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    OUR SUDAN; IT PYRA~1ID1 AN"JJ PROGRES1-. THE GOVERNOR-GE, ERAL'. IN PECTIO.i: OF THE GEZIRA PROVINCE The tongue of land l y in g between the White and Blue NHes i s called the Gezira. A peuin u1a is a l ways by the natives called" an i s lan l "-gezira. It contains about 7,500 acres Many of the inhabitants are gathered in v ill ages or towus on the two il es, but. there are fl.ouri hing places inl and, such as Managil, Abuel, and others, wh ich are supplied with water by deep wells, and so saved from drought. Th e Governor-General's inspection o f the Gezira was made by means of camel and donkey tran it. That of the Blue Nile by steamer. The two trips are combine d in this chapter. Both of them were pioneer visits of the S i r lar. Kamliu, on the Blue Nile, 65 miles from Khartoum, is the Mudiria of ezira. There arc post and tel egraph offices. There is a large mixed population, in lustrious and peaceful, wh o turne l out to wel( OEZJRA WOMEN DANCING .AT .ABUD come the irdar. Managil is a collection of a number of villages in the central part of the ezira. It is 3 miles from Wal Me lani, 50 from Duem on the White Nile,. an l 107 fro m Kbar-toum The wells of Managil are 1 0 feet deep. There i a l arge m i xed population and thi rno'i on, with Abu l Merkaz, has 43,000 inhabitant. The land just south of Mauag il is adm i rab l y suited for the cultivation of cotton The Khalifa had importe l b lack for the otton culture, and a number of them have settl d there and understand this c rop. This reg i o n came within the Go ernor ener 1 insp ction, and the gen i a l Sirdar an l bis uite receivecl an ovation from the inhabitants everywhere they w nt. The expe lition ,v as by camel with eam1 ino outfit, from h h a rf;oum, round the penin ula and acro~s from the Blu e Nile to the White Nile. '\i\ a d 1edan i with a: I opu l ation of nearly 10 000 is o n t h e Blue Nile, a n l J. a a-oo l market town, the larcr st in the Sudan, next to Omdurman. It h as po -t ancl tel egraph ffice s It is the hen. lquart rs of the Sennar Mrnlir ia, a n l ha on e uattaiion for arri son It h as a ettl ed mixe l population The town i s a mil long by half a mile broad, an l ha a,n imp sing e~ et. 262

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    OUR SUDAN; IT I PYRA. Jl!IDS A.lifJ PROGRE1 1. The Gezira ha many good villa 0 es on both Niles, but wa shall find several of them lcscribed in t.he trips to the Blu a nd White Nile and th lfahad. Lor l -1romer bas recommend d the making of a rail way to El Medani from Khartoum which would facilitate communica tio11 lX, PECTIOX OF TO\Y~' A~D VILLAGE,' ALONG nm BL 'I!: ILK fter pas in.g Kamliu we corn to Rufaa, visited by the GovernorGenera l rec utly The di trict i ruletl b) its native s h eikh ; the i11f1abitant nomadic and trek north warLl. befor the rainy season with tl1 ir cattle, came l an l horse. A nucleu remain behind to c ultiv::ite otto n for local con umption. The country lyi11g betw en the Blue Nile, Rahad an l Dinder Rivers i at pres nt almo. t uninhabite l. In th day.; before the Mahdi, villao'es exten led along thes e rirnrs to the Ab s iniau l'rontier. The inhabitant are sl wly returning, bnt there are few illag to l found ov r thi on populou r egion. Much of the l an l i well ti ttecl f 01' growin0 cotton, an l when the promised sun y of thi r gion ( with regard to irriation and the tor ill of th e fin n v rs' .flood) i c a niecl out, no Joulit it importanc will h e r ali"'e l an l d velo1 e l u n l'?r t h e peacd1tl rul it non-BANKS OJ,' BL E NILE, >'E ~ \.R I~ A. 264

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    OUR s D L \ ; IT PYB OIID I ~D PRO RE''. enjoys, an l tb people will ettle lown to agri ultural work, or industrious emigrant from Abyssinia may b induce l to settle here. TIIE RAHAD AND THE INDER The a bad i often, wh n it waters are high, a very picturesque river, a the e n raving truthfully d pict it rises in Abyssinia near Lak T ana, and j ins th lue Nile opposit Wal Medani. The irnler fa ll s in higher u1, and i navigable for ,.,.0 miles when the flood is 1 igh. It a l rises in Abys inia and flows through a very mountainous country It afterwar ls flows 2 00 miles through the Sudan. Th e banks of the l ower ind r one pro luc d pl nty f cotton but there ar now no inhabitants to grow any crops. t the vi ll a 5 e of Wad el Abba on the Blue Nil there are about 1,800 J aalins and Sudane e. There i s a week l y market and the population i in creas in g ennar unfortunately has quit l ost its anc ient g lor y, but still a good town may yet arise from the ruin of the hateful Dervish occupation. At the time of the conquest of the country by the British iu 1899 th town was found quite uninhabited. It was made the h adquarter. of th listrict till, in 1900, the Mu liria was rerno, ed 1.o v\ ad e l Melani. In farch, 1903, however, the head quarters of the fodiria were remo, eel to a n w site at Kabn h, outh of 'ennar, on the riv r, where the Goverument are recting new bui ldin a in a more healthy place and hope to induc e the people to miarate to them a oon as com11 t d Th urroundino' li tri t ha fertil oi l and l and we ll cultivated by ram-water u1 plie en nar a l o has v\ lls for cultivating, which are provile d with akia iin...,a i becomiug a n important plac The soil is fertile and the di trict is well wood ]. The trade i increa ing and tbern i~ a lail market, po t office an l tel graph. Tiie turn ut of a loyal po1 ulace to welcome th Gov rnor-General is well shown in hi. phot graph Th e inhabitants are mo. of the e ver-loy a l J aalin tril Th 266

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    OUB SUDA "IV; IT1 PYRA~!lIDS A D PROGRE1 1'(. OLONEL FERG 0 T LA'rE ADJU'rA~r-GENERAL S unar Mudiria moves here from ,January to April. Karkaj has up,rnrds of 1,000 inhabitants ancl a good market. Roseires is the residence of a British inspector and Marnur (governor).' It rejoice in a telegraph and post ottice, and has a ferry acros the Blue Nile. A garrison with a gunboat and a British offic r gives the plac an air of importance. But it is as yet a poor place for snpr lies. Roseir s pas es es mern nes of the ga llant fight of the handful of Egyptian soldier unde r Colonel Lewi who brave} r attack d Ahmet Ii dil and 11i ho t of D r-vjsb s an I put them to rout, with 800 cleac1 and 2 OOO prisoners, the l a ler and a fe" humfr d only scap in0 Most of the fugitive snrrencl red ub equentl y at the "\~ bite Nile. Their obj et was to cross both Nile and join the Khalifa at Kordofan. Thi was on th 26th December, 1898, and wa. a brilliant EGYPTIAX ARMY, NOW GRENADIER G ARD. affair. Vve had only four w11ite men, 400 of th 10th u lanese, an l ome scallywa s (Fri ndlies ). The 10th udanese had 150 killed and wounde l, and lo t seven officers It was, as one of the British officer told me, quite the be t little fight he \'er saw in the 'ndan. e neral s Huuter anJ Bundle ha l left th Blue Nile country before tli i Col onel L e wi s heard that Ahmed Fe
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    OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAll1ID1 AND PROGRE'i 1 1 practical architecture w ill not, I am afra id fin l much scope in this re o 'ion. In the authors opinion the Pal ace at Khartoum is one of the most beautiful o f modem structures, and it i s sa id Gorringe Bey a lso designed m ost of the new public buildings in Khartoum, the Gordon allege amo n b the r est. If so Gorringe B ey is an architectura l g enius, quite a rare thing in these days Th ere are most in te r est ing colonies of discharged Sudanese sol liers on the Blu e Nile, which were v i s i ted by t h e o vernor-Ge n eral. These are :flourishing statio n s of respectab le, civilised men, w ho h ave see n t he pro g ress und e r the Briti s h in Egypt, a n d FETl H -TREE IN VILLAGE OF THE SUDANESE COLON! l S a r e well trained to or l r a nd discipline. The y and their wives and childr en ma y become actual pioneers of industry. As imil ar col onies h ave don e well in the districts o f the Punjab a nd other newly d eve l oped irrigation centres in India, so 5reat t hings ma y be expected from a s imil a r class of men when set tl e l a l ong th B lu e Nile espec i a ll y w h en this rich re5ion obta in s the benefits of irrigation foresha lowed in the Report of Mr. Dupuis's recent visit. One thing, however, ma y be noticed in t h e photograph of the Feti h-tree at the M ilitary 'iol ony. T hese poor soul. h ave not had th benefit of hri tian teach in g W e re the exce ll ent America n Miss ion to estab li s h its sc hool s in this region th ey wou l l soon discard f t i s hism, and in ad lition, there would be s om e cha nce of their b e in g taught tb Eng li s h l ang u age, which i s not done by the Education Department of the A n g l o-Egypt i an ud a n ; only rab ic, I am told being taught in the Government schoo l ow Arabic is not th e on l y l a n g uage of th S u lan peop les. Few of them, in remote regions lik e this, speak A rabi c Mr. Dn1 uis in his recent Report g i, es va lu ab l e s n gg sti o n s for the leve l opment of the Gezira an l Blue N il e re g i on by means of irri ga tion As a full review of this tal nte l e ngine er s recent expedition to the sources of the Blue Nile will be found hereafter, the reader i s referred to the chapter d ev oted to it for his sugges tion s on the future ben fits to be d er iv ed from irrigation Capta in holto Dou g las, R..E. kindly contr ibu tes some p hot ographs taken when h e 270

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    OUR SUDA "N"; IT PJ. R 1 !11ID A D PROURE 'C:::. wa mplo y cl on the a dventnrou task of lay ing the first t e l e graph, in 1899, along the lue ilc from Khartoum to Roseues. The ill u trat i ons of the ruins of old Sennar are a ls o from his a lbum. fajor Gwynn, D .. 0., sent me a remarkable ser ies of photographs taken m the course of MARKE'f GlDA.Ml.-'l'YPE OF GALLA . 5 c. ~fctjol' GW?mn his exped itions to settl e the frontiers of Abyssinia. He wa engaged at this arduous task for several years. They represent peoples and scenery never before illustrated. Major wynn intende l me to mix them up wit1i. those of others from similar localities but they actually form a volume of themselves, and should be kept together as far as I ossible. They range from the sources of the bysi,iniau riyer to Gedaref Kassala, and uakin on th east, Famaka on the south, to the Sabat on the west. The boundaries a l a id down by Major Gwynn have become the accepted lines of demarcation between us and our good friends the A byssunans. His J:.>hotograr hs are fittingly introduced as an appendix to hapt r XIV. It was not po sib l e to arrange t h e photographs ac cording to Major Gwynn' li st, to which the numb rs ref r owing to their liffi rent sizes GA.LLABAT FROM THE FOR'!' 272 18 A. NaJor Gwyn n

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    E 'RII TIO ~ OF l\ifaJOP G\\ YNN'S HOTO GRAPI -f. Each of lhe p holo !Jmp h b ears the 'rtW11bei's i fe,Ting lo 1 1Ia J o; G w vnn'.~ Li.~t. 1 A 1 B, 1 o 1 D. Hons e of G uni g hill dwellers on right bank of the Blue ile near th fronti r (near Ahu Ramla). The Yilla ge are near the top of rocky hills, about 1 000 feet l vation. Tbe hou s een on top of the r cks are 900 feet above the plain 1 o represents a hill about 1,000 feet above the level of the I lain an l the villa ge i.., about four-fifths way u 1 1 D. The hill on top of which are the house \. a nd B are about 900 feet above the plain. 2. tren.m near oba in the Beni han(J'ul plateau, 5,000 feet abov the plain. o A an l B. Yahus stream which flow from this plateau toward the White Nile. It is reputed to lose itself iu a marshy district on N bank of the obat, and i the only per nnia.l tr am between the Blue Nile and the obat. 4 A and B. Mahomet wa 1 Hojali (brother of Tur e l uri), the most I owerful chief in Beni hangul, who was overthrown and made pri soner by the Abyssinian he is still a prisoner. (This man with the Abyssinian title of Fitaurari, acts as W akil.) Has been a notabl s l ave railler with Wad Mahmud, who was captured by Gorringe Bey this year (1904). His followers are Arabs descended from mercha nts who hav settled in this country A N"omber" Yernbo, steward to Dejaj J oti the Galla r ul er of the frontier district at the watershed of the two Yabus streams and obat, which is a p l ateau -,OOO feet to 7,000 feet. The Italian B ttego Expedition was cut up at the spot. 5 B, 5 ', 5 D, 5 E Typ s of Ga llas. 6 Nuers, Sabat, and dead hippopotamu 7 A uruns of the plain between Fashod a imr1 the Abyssinian frontier. They are quite nak d covered with red mud an l armed with long bows Tame ostrich plu cked.

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    MAJOR GWY.i: .N'S PHOTOGRAPH, JJcich of the photO{J1'ClJ)h8 becrrs t h e numbers reJirl'ilig lo Ucijoi G wynn ~ LiM 7 R Type of Burun villages 8 A .A.nnak girls at ltang tra ling po8t on Upper I obat. ( This b eautiji1;l photograph i ll ustrates l,f ajor Ai1;stin's description of interesting p eo1 le. I t h as been borrov. eel to insert in Ghapte1 XII. w hen describi n g that r e gio n ) 8 B. Itang vill age, site of post ( will be faun l in Chapter XII.) 8 c Rirnr Bar or Upper obat, ne a r Itang, will be found in 1hapte r XII. 9 A and B Dinka boys of Sabat (Ul'yong). 10 A and B. River Dinder in flood near nnkur, Abyssinia. (Fording the stream.) 11. River Atbara near Ga ll a bat. 12. Gyassa on Blue Nile betwe e n ennar :i.nd Roseires in month of December. 13. Blue Nile where it cros ses frontier above Famaka, lookin g east. 14. J ebel Keili, south of Roseires, about 2,000 feet above the plain Type of isol ated rocky hill of the district. 15 A and B Bamboo jungle south of Kirin, A l yss inia, slopes of Beni Sbangul plateau. 16. Hamiel W ak il of Hojali wad Hassan, Mek of Assosa, who captured and gave up Wad fahmud to Gorringe Bey. The bearde l man rebelled against Hamid an l join e l Mahmud. These photos were taken in 1900. 17. N a tive bridge across Yabus stream 18 A and B. Ga llabat from th fort, looking over the battlefield. Th e hi g h er hill on the left is the spot where Kin g John of Abyssinia was kille l. 19. River Pibor. 20. Shilluks at Fashoda ( ee 1hap VIII. ) 21. Drawing water at west of uakin. 22. J ebel Ka. sala in the list ance The near hill i s J eb 1 Mokran. 23. Flocks by the River Atbara, about 20 miles above the battl efield. GlDAMl, ARYSSTNIA. TYPES OF GALL.AS. 5 B

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    ; I c.; N.. C, .,.... ~[ me., C, "l:3 N, -:ilf>. t -.J ?' \ 4. w t ~ llll.~.t,- 0:: >1 (/1 z H P> z ,=j t::o 0 z 1-3 H t;::j t;rj (/1 t;::j 1-3 9 l G) j 0 '-'

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    "' ;::! <:>" <': ;;; ..... <:> t.:) -.J Go -:r~ <:> ;;:: Ni ,r If:.. Ni --.r ~n RIVER PIBOR 19. DRAWING W A TER FROM A WELL NE1 \.R SINKAT. 21. NATIVE BRIDGE ACROSS Y ABUS RIVER. 17. THE BLUE NILE, WHERE rr CROSSES THE FRONTIER A'r FAMAKA. 13. U2 0 t;:j z t;:j Ul 0 'Z .-3 P:1 t;:j > cd >-<1 ...:. H > 1-zj ?:,:, 0 --l H t;:j ::;j t,;J H ~G::i { S)

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    "' c:,.. ....; .... c::, ~? 00 c::, ;::1 _, .,;:.. -.:r ~ GYASSA, ON BLUE NILE, BE'rWEEN ROSEIRES AND SENNAR IN DECEMBER, 12. JEBEL KEILI, SOUTH OF ROSEIRES (2,000 FEET). DINKA BOYS: LOWER SOBAT, URYO:KG. 9 B. GIDAMI: GALLA MARKET. 5 D 14. 0 tz:j z 0 z j P> U1 U1 ...., t; z 0 >-,3 ~Ul t:=1 p -~ ......... G:i c ~'!::. 0 0

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    1-:3 .:,. (b ;;:I ; C, .... C l~ f. cd (i::) t.:i -.l" II>-R.. M ..;r ?' ROUSES OF GUNIG NATIVES, FRON'l'IER, NEAR ABU R.Ai\IL A 1 A. YABUS (ROSEIRES), BETWEEN BLUE .AND WHITE NILE. 3 B lIOUSES OF GU:NIG UILL DWELLERS, BLUJ!: NILE. 1 B BURUNS OF PLAINS, NEAR FASHODA AND ABYSSINIAN FRONTIER. 7A. U) Q t;,:j z t;,:j U) 0 z t;,:j 6'.; '"<:1 en z H > r::j ;:;:J 0 z: H t;,:j H ~-Q J ~ t::, 0 -:..,.

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    THE 13YS, lNIAl FRONTIERS, ET (J1aj1,1 Gw!Jnn, D S.O.) "WOMBER" YEMBO : S'I'EWARD TO GALLA RULER. 5 A. numbers l'Pfe.r to li ts on pa, qes 2i4 ancl "L75. 2 0

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    N ;:; "' <:)"' (b ""l C "" ~[ ,..., "' 1-i:;s "' c., I>:' ,-r I!-1:-.:> -...} C:H 'i"' ,~ \'~-"'i ,, BORUN YTL LAGE. 7B. RIVER DINDER IN EARLY FLOOD, NEAR DUN KUR, ABYSSINIA. UPPER SOB.\.'!': N UERS A.ND DEAD HIPPO. 6. DINKA. BOYS : URYONG. LO\YER S013A'l 9A. 10 A. 0 t:;j t:;j w 0 j > l::;j '< ea z l:::J 0 '.7. 1-3 !:O ~U2 I-:; j '-G) j b ?:, 0 ...:...,

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    ;:,.: n, ::2 et, .., "'<:) ~r l~ 'i-l >!;:;: l-.:l T Cl\ NEAR ROSEIRES. 'l'Hl!J RIVER YABU S 3A. RIVER A'l'BA R A A'l' LOW W ATER, :!!,'EAR GALLABAT. 11 R TVER DINDER IN EARL Y FLOOD: FORDING 'J'HE STREAM. 10 B FLOCKS ON RlVER A'J'BARA. 20 MTLES FROM 'l'IIE BATTLEFIELD. 23. U1 0 t=:j z t=:j [12 0 z H l:!: t=:j I> OJ U1 z > z fzj 0 z H [;j ::0 vUl t=:j H ,-.... l b 0 0

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    ENLARGED MAP OF LA.KE T A /?IJINED \ .~CHURCI( BERBER! GURl\11 (.:::, ....... LAKE (aJ,1,rox, h,i9ht abovl! s,a '""l-17'>0 ,,,,t,.,3 ). T S A N A Christian churches rn41rked thus:0, 10 Miles THE ROUTE FOLLOWED BY MR C. E DUPUlS IS SHOWN OX THE SKETCH MAP AT 'l'llE FRO~T OF 'rHE VOLUME. 2 4

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    CHAPTER XV. THE BLUE NILE, GEDAR.EF, GALLABAT, A.ND LAKE T 'A.NA. MR. C. E. DUPUIS has recently returned from his adventurous mission to Abyssinia. He was sent by Sir William Ga.rstin to report on the possibilities for irrigation of the regions watered by the Blue Nile and Atbara. He was also deputed to visit Lake Tsana, and advise about its future as a possible Reservoir. It is pleasant to learn that this able Report and his high reputation in his profes sion have resulted in Mr. Dupuis being appointed Director of Irrigation for the Sudan. I met Mr. Dupuis after his wonderful ex pedition. I was much fascinated by the story of his travels, and delighted when I was ".FA 'TASIA,, IN OUR HONOUR, CAMP AT ABU HARAZ, BLUE ILE. permitted to use bis photographs of this hither'to unknown land. The expeditiou has hitherto only been heard of through Sir William Garstin's great heport on the Ni!e for 1904. I propose to g ive a sketch of his wonder ful tour and to bring into it other information sup plied by Count Gleichen's Sudan Handbooks, and a lso by the Governor Ge neral's recent official visits to Gedaref, Kassala, the Atbara and Suakin. The journey of Mr. Dupuis was a pioneer one, a sort of voyage of exploration, but he has brought with him trial levels and measurements of the waters, and a series MIDDAY HALT UNDER A HADY" TREE ON THE ROAD TO ABU HARAZ 2 5

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    0 R DAN; IT I PYRAn!ID 1 A~D PRO 'R E of photog r aphs of the striking seen ry of this hitherto unknown region. The tributari es of the Blne :Nil e a nd the Rabal pH-through fr eq uentl y tract of wooded scenery, pictur sq u e in a marked degree Th e for sts may prove mo!:it beneficent store of fu e l for the S u Ian, now that the Government h ave estab li s h e l an efficient Fore try Departm e nt. Wjth regard to th L ake T sana sc h eme, Mr. Dupuis', report i s so new, that it is not lik e l y to be taken in h and u ntil a ca reful survey is mad for which Lhe money ha s been already sa nctioned by Lor d Cromer. Mr. Dupuis ha. been g i ven an efficient staff DRY BED OF RIVER RAHAD ABOVE JUNCTION WITH BL E NILE. of assistants for this surve3 a nd there w ill be no time l ost In fact the work h as been a lready com menced. l\Jfr. Dupui s starte l from Khar toum on 6th ece m ber 190 2 with a full cam1 in g outfit a ud march ed along the B lu e Nile to Abu H araz, 120 miles, in s ix days. He chos e ma r ch ing, instead of goi n g by steamer in order to stu dy the country with a v iew to its ca pabilities of future irri gat i on. In passing through the Gezira he a llude in his Report, to the ado ption of a very s imple means of irrigation for that populou s re gion, by a canal taken from the Blu e Nile, near e nnar, throu0h the heart of t h e province to Khar toum, s u c h a cana l to be u sed from J 11ly to D ecember, w i thout taking a ny of the water that may be r eq uirecl for Egypt. Perennia l supp lies coul l be obt a in d later on, when a rra.ngements may THE WESTER :r SHORE, LAKE TSA :rA. 2 8 6

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    l'O Ct:J ..._. I I { .. ,,,, 1-3 .. : "; -. ' I ON 'rHE RAHAD. ON THE RAIIAD. 'l'JIE BANKS OF THE RAHAD. 'l 'HE BANKS OF 'l'HE RIVER RAHAD. !:d !;,j t ~ ; i;:i R'. ,..'! Cl) ~. 1-t:j l 0

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    OUR DAN; IT PJRAJIUD1 A D PROGRES. pogsibly be made foi Reservoirs for toring the flood-water of the Blue Nile and its tributaries. The party visited Rufaa : where great crops are raised by rain cul ture, an l there are many villages near it. The population is more scanty towards the Rahad, which joins the Blue :Nile near bu Haraz, where the expedition halted. At the time of their visit, the bed of the Rahad was dry, save for pools left by the summer torrents. It only flows for three or four months in the year, but even when there is no stream there are many very picturesque pools along its course, one of which he illustrates. Mr. Dupuis went along the ravines of the Atbara for 40 miles, and then stmck across the country to Gedaref, about 100 miles, where his party arrived on December 19t h 1903. There were few illages by the way, and on l y small areas of cul tivation near the Rabal, but plenty of "cotton soil" if there were means for irrigating the land A great waterless plain exists between tl c Atbara and Gedaref ( with outcrops of granite rock), which is entirely uninhabited. Near Gedaref tbere were many wells, now unused, but they could be opened again They only aw one good well at a place called El Fau. Formerly there were populous villages and cons i derable cultivation edaref is about 600 feet higher tban Khartoum. Mr. Dupuis states that if it were possible to make a canal through the l and between the Rahad and Abu Haraz, there would be great possibilities cf agricult u ral success, e, en though it only afforded water for a part of the year By mean s of storage reservoirs, however, the waters DRAWING w ATER BETWEE GEDAREF AND GALLA.BAT f B N 1 b h o the Dinder and the lue i e, ig er up, may be used to supplement water for perennial irrigation at a future day. If Gedaref is ever to have canals, however, they must be supplied from the Atbara, and as to supplies from this river, Mr. Dupuis is not very sanguine, as it is a torrential stream. But all will depend on tbe results of the exhaustive survey of the whole region which is about to be undertaken by Sir Willi am Garst i n's advice. This survey has been alrea
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    GEDAREF, GALLABA'l', LOCAL RESERVOZR 1 ~edar f is an accum ulation of sma ll illages in a l a r g open vall y. The o il is fertile and almost ev rything plant cl eerns to g row well Mr. Dnu i thinks that eda r f is lm t poorly upplie l with wat r from wells. The existing w lls make the place h abitab le while other p lace'3 are this tb not; small CAMP ON THE ROAD BETWEEN GAL LABAT AND LAKE TANA. measure of praise he gives Gedaref But he suggests for this rather interesting distr i ct, sma ll reservoirs of its own, by damming the khors with which the ne i ghbourhood abounds, and by s iBkin g more we ll s It is not possible to give th peop l e cana l irrigation, the land roun l Gedaref being rocky and unev en, but more and better wells ar neetled urgen tly. Tanks, such as are use l with success at Bun le lkhund and e l sewhere in India, s houl l b adopted here. These woul
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    O C R I D1.N; IT PYRAn1ID A D PRO G RE1S. sm a ll tr e s g enerally, but. a good deal of gum is pro luced from them. Coarse jungle grasses cover the country, mu c h of which are annually burnt during t h e winter months to afford grazing for their cattle. vVh r e the jungle is not burnt, it is impossible t o see th country from it great h e i ;ht and densenes and this impedes any correct descripLion being given of it, except along the road travelled. Between Gedaref and Ga11abat there are. only two or three small villages, but many traces exist of form r cu l tivation and population. The waterless forests are i11fested with bees, which gav great annoyance to the tr:1vellers, but fortunately the stings have no permanent bad effect a1though extreme l y annoying As they j ourneyed south, they came into a re ion of a great l y rainfall, but w lls are few and far between. Here again, Mr. Dupui wou ld intro duce the India.n system, of small reservoirs or tanks, and he says were this done aud more wells sunk, the region between and around Ga ll abat an l edaref i s capable of the greate t ag ri cult ural development. Cotton is grow n here, and several fi l ls of fair cotton were seen at Ga llab at, but this cotton was grown by rain only without irrigFition and was therefore stunted. A large quantity of cotton used to be grown here, and sent into Abyssinia-no doubt the district can be again developed for cotton-growing, but the varieties and culture must be DRAWIN G WATER AT GWERBE, BE'rWEEN GALLABAT improved AND GEDAREF Gallabat is a, pleasant-looking place where the udan plains terminate, and the Abyssinian mountains rise up beyond. The old fort of Gallabat i s being adapted into the headquarters of the official Resident, and is well situate l at about 150 feet above the town. Here as everywhere, the want of population is the dominant feature; this is, how ever, already beginning to right its~lf. Flocks of sheep and goats and good herds of cattl e are met with, but not any proportion to what such a region could support, if it only bad a water sup ply. The Atbara river li es to the north-east' of Ga llab at, about five miles off. They visited the river and found it to be a fine torrent.ial stream ab out 100 metres wide, 290

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    GEDAREF, GALLAB :LT-Hl 'l'CtRIOA L KETCH. THE IRDAR's PARTY EN ROUTE TO GA.LLABA..'r. an l rnnnin0 about 5 m tres l epth in flood. 'Ihere are m any deep rocky pools a n l the river is altogether hi 1 len frequ ntly by the dense brush wood and forest 0rowth, so much so, that it is an a rduou s ta k and almost imp ssib l e work to force a pro gress through the bu. h Mr. upuis's photographs give an excellent idea of this hi th rto little visite l Sfr R egin a ld 1l ingat e reg1011. Vile wm devote a page or two to a lescription an l historic a l sketch of the towns of Gedaref and Gallabat, taken from Count G l eichen's various Handbooks an d Rer orts on the Sudan Ger laref a n d the district between the Rahad and Atbara riv ers, about 4,000 square miles, is now vas tly underpopu l ate l and mueh of it is unexp lored. The g reater part of this region is f e rtile land, but it is questionab l e if it ever was proper l y developed It on l y ne eds inhabitants and water and a minimum of l abour to render it repro ductive To report on the poss i bility of providing a wa. ter s nppl y was tbe problem Mr.Dupuis has be.en sent to sol ve, t h ere being no doubt that i f FOREST OF WHITE-S'l'EMMED A CACIA. NEAR GEDAREF. 291 U 2

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    OUR SUDAN). IT1 PYRA JIUD A ~D PROGRE 'S. water ca n l e supp li ed, the peaceful mle of Briti h protection will soon attract population. In prefah li t day the town s and region of B laref un l the 011 daref ( uk abu ; in) w ere fertile an l populou ; its cornfi e ld s su pplied the udan, a nd it was ,rn loubteclly prosp rous. Th e D e rvishes d e v astat ed the place and ca r tured the garri on in 188 hrnet F dil was a1 pointed Emir. In 1898 it was seized by a sma ll column from assal a un der Colon 1 Par ons with 1,400 men, after a hazardous and success ful fight a few miles outside the town and though subsequent l y twice attacked by Ah met Feclil, it h lcl its own. Th e Dervish Emir fled southward and, after being re1 ulsed at Roseires, met his fate within a year, at Omdebreilrnt, being killed along with the Khalifa ( h apter XL). GEDAREF must be a pleasant place, although a friend of mine, whos duty compelled WATERI 'G THE CAME LS A T DORA him to liv e there, sa id that after Khartoum (whence he was promoted to Geclar f) it is deadly dull. but I hav e heard the same remark as to Khartoum ; it has its dull times too This gentl eman is a native Egyptian officer, one of the best, who h a d cl served l y l'isen to the important post of Egyptian Inspector of the Kassala Mudiria, and was station cl at Gedaref. He speaks English perfectly, and is a charming companion. He holds the rank of Major-Re mzi Tahir is his name, and he has the title of Bey. He tells me (December, 1904 ) that in two years' tim Gedaref will be ab le to produce cotton equa l to th be t Egyptian. Gedaref is a fertile place, for the r a in s begin in June and last till October. The inhabitants in the district are of every tribe and shade of black. There are p e rennial wells which emich its agriculture. When this now remote region i s connected with Khartoum b y r ai lway which Lord Cromer foreshadows in his latest Report, what a new world will be opened for trade and the development of this r ich district And for the tourist an entirely new field of travel, with an easy access to the fresh wonders of Abyssinia, and travel among an interesting, ancient Christian pear le. Sportsmen will find a wide highland country abou nding in game. 292

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    GED 1-REl!~ GALLABAT, PRO iJ!!L ED RAIL WAY. The promised railway will lev lnr thi._ Afr i can Eden in a won 1erfu l manner. Bnt after the heavy rai us the reverse of the meda l i s seen, and t he pa r a dise is o f ten swept by fever, though from Decem ber to May the c l imate i s p erfect a n d comp l ete l y h ealthy ABY INIA: BELOW THE CRES'r OF 'l'HE PLATEAU ROAD FROM GALLABAT Ge faref district has 25,000 i nhabitants. The town has on l y one street of 500 l houses ; the TO LAKE TS NA. Government houses are of brick, a ll the rest are made of grass tukh, which has to be renewed ever y year. T h e trade in gum i s cons i lerab l e a n d i mports of cotton goods and coffee from Ga ll abat, carr i d on by a few Greek merchants Water is supp li ed from deep we ll s cut in the rock. There i s a garrison of Arab sol diers frum Kassa la, an E(Typti an Mam n r, anrl, generally, a British Inspector. There are many good gardens, Towina the u s u a l udan vegetab les, a n d rn addition, fig ] imes, u tar l apples, and late of the l ast, the trees bear two crops every year otton is rown exte n si ve1 y for l oca l use, but m i g h t be great l y i mproved in quality by i r r i ga ti on. \.l3YSS1NI CAMP IN 'rHE BAMBOO FORES T BETWEEN GALLABA'I' .A.ND LAKE T ANA. 293

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    OUR SUDAN; ITS PYRAMIDS A D PROGRESS. WATERFALL ON TIIE RIVER ABAI, 20 HLE FROM L.A.KE O TLET. Cerea l s are grown for sa l e beyond their own cons umpti on, and a ve r y su pen or flour i s made from a red variety of dura. Th e differ e n ce of the scenery of the neighbour hood in the rain y and dry seasons i s r em arkable. The tukh h ouses are rebuilt every year after the rains, and m October th e whole place has the ap pe ara n ce of a wreck, before t h e rebuilding takes place. The dura her e grows 12 feet hi g h, a nd c l ose up to the houses, with passages b e tw en only 2 feet wile. Ge l are f will come within the new system of irrigatio n which not only will improv e its anitary condition but will produce a wonderful growt h o f population and wea l th. Th e G o vernor eneral on one of his recent tours of ins pection to Kassa l a and Suakin, visited Gedaref, a ll abat, and Doka, a town lying between them. There an interestin g crowd of w e ll-dre ssed n atives turned out to welcom the first vi it of the ir lar to the i r district. G A LLABAT lies between the ALbara an l th Rn.bad. The who l e rng i on is \ 'l'HE BA'l'TLEFIELD WHERE K I NG JOH ,, AS KILLED 18 :s. Gwynn. 294

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    GALLABAT, VIEW OP THE ATBARA, LAKE T 'ANA. thickly wooded, and aboun ls in game In the vicinity of Ga ll abat town there ar perennial streams of running water, aud the country was once. well cultivated Th population was dense before the ervi h and Abyssinian wars but is no only about 3,000, but will soon increase. Gallabat is a small province in comparison with edaref, only about 1,200 square miles The town is ca1led by the Abyssinians Matemma. It is pleasantly situated on the left bank of a Khor, which is here the boundary of Abyssinia. The .Atba.ra is bu t five miles off. In ancient days Gallabat was a gr at slave mart, and was suppos d to belong in its palmy days to Abyssinia The Dervishes attacke l and sacked it in ABY SI IAN GR P OF NATIVE AT O R AMP A'l' SARA, EA T OF LAKE TSA 'A. 1886. Three years later King John of Abysi:;inia, burning with fury at the sack of' his own town, Gondar, by the Mahdists, collected his warriors and fought a tremen lous battle here, with 8'0,000, or more, on eith r side, in March, 1889. The Abyssinians were victoriou but a stray shot killed King J obn after the battl e bad been won. This caused a panic among the Ahyssinians, who tum d and fled Gallabat was quite ruined by the D erv ish occupation, and is only uow begiuning to revive, but is retarded by frequent incursions of robbers from a l ong the Abyssinian frontier. The Anglo Egyptian flag were hoisted here on 7th Dec em ber, 1898, by Colli nson Pasha. The Abyssinian flag was then flying on the fort, but an amicable arrangement was come to afterwards. It i8 difficult to realise now that this I l ace wai:i once a great centre of trade, and it s ems doubtful if it may ever re ga in it. The old Dervish fort still over l ooks the town, an l there is a splendid view from it looking towards the Atbara, and on a clear day the mountains sunonndin g Lake Tsana can be s n. The c ne of the battlefield wh re King J obn was killed lies b low. Major wynn bas kindly supplied phot.ographs of this neighbourhood, taken when h e was surveying the frontier line (Cba.1 ter XIV.). Ga ll abat has a trade in xporting cotton and in imported !Ianchester goods Half the annual Customs duties, by an amicab l e arrangement with King Menelek's Gov rnment, go to Abyssinia 'l'he total is only about 0 but it will one day be a much larger amount. 295

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    0 R SUDA IT PYRA ~IID A D PROGRE 'S. Honey is collected at certain seasons in great quantitie s with much sk ill by the natives the time for seeking it being denoted by the note of a certain bird. Honey and wat r is alwa s proffered to the trave ll er There were formerly beautiful garlens s urrounding the town, but the Dervishes are said to have cut down all the trees, and the gardens disappeare 1. A small garrison i s supplie l from Gedaref ancl it has a police force, and post and tel egraph offices. Wate:.. supply is from the Khor near the town, but as this becomes foul in the dry season, there is mnch need of a water supply from the permanent streams at some d i tanc Roads le ad to Gondar, K wara, Dunkur, Roseires, Rahad, and Gedabi The Abyssinians will not take English or Egyptian money, preferring still Maria Theres a dollar so strongly do the ancient traditions cling to trade exchange. LAKE T SANA A.i~D THE BLUE NILE Ex URSION OF MR. C E DUPUIS TO ABY INIA AND THE ATBARA. The party waited at 1edaref for fr. Johannis, the interpreter, sent by Colonel HEAD PRIEST 01? THE CH RCH AT K.ARATA, EAST lDE OF LAKE TSANA. 296 Harrington, our representative at Menel k's ourt. Here 70 donkeys had to be purchased, and an escort of the Arab troops from the sma ll ganisou accompa ni ed them for their exp l oration, in Abyssinia. Their party now numbered 45 persons In nine days' marching they reached Delgi, on Lake Tsana, about 92 miles distaut from a llabat. The course of the Gund waha river was followed for two-thid. s of the way This is a part of the Atbara, flowing through the udan an l joining the Nil e near Berber The Atbara thus avoi ls the l ake, a l though so near it. The party then crossed the wat rshed, and trave ll ed by the iro ri ve.r till th y came in sight of Lake Tsana. Near th.e Giro, they found hot springs of perfectly c l ear soft water, but so warm that the hand could not be held in it. These springs are visited for h ea ling purposes by the scanty inhabitants of this part of Abyssinia

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    APPRO WH TO LARE ~f.1SANA, RAS GUA A, DELGI. A.BY INIA: AMO r GST THE REED AND PAPYR 0 THE EDGE OF LAKE TS.AN A The road wiuds down over un lulatmg plains to the l ake It passes some patches of cultiva tion, but the plains are mostly com pletely covered with high grass Much of the country near a ll abat is umnha bited, and 1s mfested with bands of robbers, so the soldiers were quit e necessary. These brigands liv e in vil lages hidden in the forest and prey upon the passing caravans. The roa l i s r ough and a mere track among l'Ocks, tones, an l trees, an~ l aden donkeys had great worry in forcing a way through these obstacles. A native petty ch i ef trie l to stop them, notwithstan ling tb King's l etters they bore, but this stoppage was surrnoLrnted and t h party descende l from the p l ateau to the edge of t h e b lue Lake Tsana. The people were rather unfriendly ancl su piciou till a man arri ved next clay with orders from Ras Guksa, and a !'ter that all went well This envoy was to accompany t h em in their jour neys. After he joined tbey had no more troub le, an l did exact l y as t h ey liked. Delgi is a village on the l ake, an l i s beantifnlly situated on a rocky prom on tory. It is a port without a harbour, to which the coffee ABYS, nnA: CROS 'ING THE RT ER ABAI NEAR 'fHE LAKE OUTLET. 297

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    OUR I DA~T IT1 PYRAllfIDS A D PROGRE grown n the south-eastern shore is bro ngbt for being transported to the Sudan. Th e view here of the lak i most beautiful. Th e mountains of the Gorgora peninsula and its islan ls in frout, and the lake extend in g to a water horizon, from east round to south. Di:,ta.nt mountains are visible to the north and n orth east an l a lso to south and west. On a clear day the faint outline only of the conical hill on Doga I s l and can be seen in the south-east. The effect of the beaut.iful sc ne on the mind is, that the lak~ seems much l arger than it lo oks on the map. The mountains rise directly out of the water, in some instances, but genera ll y they rece le from it in terrace ; and thence rise up ABYS I "IA: LYCHGA'rE ENTRA Cl!: TO THE CH RCH AT KARA'.l.'A. boldly, till they show e levations of importance and fine effect. The geological chan1 cter of the rocks resem ble8 those of the Sudan gneiss, g rani te and quartz with intrnsi, e igneous rocks inte r persed. Sand stone andlimest011e are said to be found, but Mr. Dupuis saw none of these himself. Large tracts of comparatively l e Y e l land consist almost entirely of black c r acked cotton-soil, u sua lly found associated with igneous rocks. Th ere are several l arae rivers flowing into the lake, and at the mouths of all are extensive alluvial plains composed entirely of this same black cotton-soil. This shoul l be of the greatest po sible fertility, but nine -tenths of the area grows nothing but coarse grass This is not the reedy grass of the Sudan, but a lux uriant plant, 6 or 8 feet high, of tall straight growth. It is not tb custom here to burn it, so it offer great difficulty to getting abo ut. There is an open park-like aspect of landscape with tall acacias tandiug up through the grass. This bas a pl asant appearance from a distance, bnt it is li spe lled on n ear acq uaintance by the trouble in getting through the lon g gra The rougher gro und and the hills are covered with scrub forest Tb.e lake is sha llow round its oast, with a firm sandy bottom, s h e lvin g ant a long way. The water i mn.rgined with reeds, and abov a bank of grass leading up to the high water lin 1 apyrus swamp exist only on the_ southern sid Mr. Dupuis decided to march round the lake by the north and east through Ras Guk~a's country, as with his man to guide them, the party would meet with no opposition. 29

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    PAGE 330

    OUR UD1.N) ITS PYRA ~fID AND PROGRJiJS. They left Del gi on 10th January, 190: the path is narrow and diverging, frequent l y no progres, could have been made h ad they not hacl a guile A halt was made at a bea u t iful spot name l M i traha, on the east s h ore an l a v i sit was paid to the ruin s of a hristian Church wh i ch had been destroyed by the Dervishes, and. marks the limit of t h eir inv as ion on this side Here supp li es were obtained, but wh en a move onward was macle the River Re b gave g reat tro u bl e to get th e donkey s across it. The store s were f rr iecl over by the Berthon boat. Here the party s uff ered much from the cold at night, it beiug impossible to get wood for fire or to h ave them at all in the grass l and T H E A.BA I R I YE R FRO:i\1 D ELDI BRIDG E Th e Gamara r i ver was easi l y crosse d by a. ford some way u p, a nd the volume of its waters was asce r tained H ere a flying visit was paid to Debra T abor, t h e residence of the Ras Guksa, to thank him for the help he had sent. This place is said to be 8,82 0 feet above the se. a Th ey found that t h e Ras h ad received. a letter about the m from Kin g Menel k, and he was most attentive, s howin g great interest in the mission. One of their men took ill by the way and was l e ft .in a cottage, w h ere two Abys inian women attended him kindly, but h e died next day Th e country h ere i s gran it ; e rock s above, with cotton soil in t h e l ower l eve l s A religious festival was being held a t Debra T abor, "the Bapti sm of our L or l," whic h wa atten ded by a l arge number of welldressed folk. At K o r atsa the first coffee planta tions were seen, for wh i c h thi s d istrict famou Ther was d i fficulty in di coveri n g the proper way to in vesti gate the rather invo l ve l out l e t of the l ake, a u l ve ry litt l e r e lia b l e in format i o n could be obtained from th e nativ e ome s t a y was made at a I laue call d W oreb whence surveys were made, a n l soon afte rwards they approached the River Abai, which i. the ouly outlet of the l ake, and is, in fact, w hat we know as the Blu e N ile. Th e party crosse d the riv e r successfullj an l encamped again on the. shores of L ake T sana on 31st January Here careful observations proved the discharge from t he l ake to be 42 c ubic metres per second, or ab out 3 5 00,000 c ubic metres per day. Mr. Dupuis says that this was the most important know l edge, and was, in fact, that which they were primarily sent to ascertain. 300

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    i:,-, 0 H THE RIVER ATBARA AT FA.SHER FORD, 4 0 MILES FROM RA.SSA.LA RESTHOUSE : KASSA LA, BERBER ROAD CURIOUS ROCKS : ATBARA, BERBER ROAD. WATERING S TIEEP, VALLEY OF TUE GASII, KASS .'1.LA. t,::j :.-1 -;:; 8 t:, H 1-3 0 z 1-3 0 t-< t-"1 t:=j if.) P> z > t:=j 1-:l "'l ;) t:::, Co 0

    PAGE 332

    0 R I UDA -;ir; ITi I PYRA ~iIDi A 01D PROGRE1 This mu t s m an enormous amount of water, but it a1 I ars that previous travellers had represente l the discharge as much grea.ter than tl1is, an l Mr. Dupuis was evidently rather di appointe l with the result ol tained by his investigations. H wever, h tells us that 190..:..i was a year of very light rainfall, an l the amonnt of wn.ter was, ery probably below the average; fr. Dupni ays that consi 1ering the great extent of the l a ke and the small Rrea of its powers of catchment, no doubt there must be an enormou loss by evaporation, more than was expected in fact. !I:r. Dupuis is not over sanguin about the capabilities of Lake T ana as a reservoir, altho ugh he re comme nds that a more careful survey shou l d be made of tbe who l e l ocality before we l ec ide against it. He estimates the total y arly water -iven ont by the only outl0t as 3,000,000,000 cubic metres. This to outsider seems great enough for anything, but it seems that it is not enough, be is afrnid, to warrant the making of a costly reservoir. The River Abai leaves the l ake by an exceeding l y involved and frregular series of rapids and channels, and these unite and form a good stream of 200 metres wide. It then narrows into a rnpid stream, and 20 miles off i s crosse l by an old bri lge at Agam Deldi, aid to have been built by the Portuguese. Mr. Dupuis visited this and gives photographs of the bridge, wl1ich is remarkable as being tbe only one that crosses the Blue Nile in it s who l e course He tells us that the gorge is even more picturesque than the quaint old bricfae. The river ABY INIA, SOLDIER E:NT TO T'rEND US BY '-' RAS MA GA HA. foams and roars, the rocks of the ravine approach so c l ose that a man could jump across at places Mr. Dupuis scouts the idea of making a reservoir here, as had been s u ggested at this point Indeed the control of the B lu e Nil e and the diversion of its waters here be c onsid ers quite absurd. The mountains rise up to 3,000 feet on e ith er side of the valley in which this wild foaming tol'rent rushes madly down, and to curb it or dam it he cons i lers an impossibilit,y. He wa greatly struck with the cene below the old bridge The falls are exceedingly fine, an l the river descending 150 feet or more, plunges at a single leap into a profound abyss. The p l ace is exceedingly difficult to find, and they 302

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    vJ CAMP ON TEIE ROAD BETWEEN LAID~ 'l'SANA AND DEBRA 'fABOR. c\. l3YSSINTA : ON 'l'HE ROAD F ROM LAKE '!'SANA 'l'O DEBRA 'l'ABOR. j ABYSSINTAN ITUTS, NEAR TIIE ROAD FROM~LAKE. TSANA l'O DEBRA 'l'ABOR. GANDWAITA RIVER (uPrER~A'fB.AUA) ROAD BETWEEN GALL.\ BA' A.XD L. l 'SANA. t,:j >< "d t;::J tj H 1-3 0 1-3 0 t-< ;i,-t,:j 1-3 Ul z !'" 9 ........ t::::J ~-0

    PAGE 334

    0 R I D A r IT1 PYRAllfID1 A D PROGRE1 1 n ear l y miss ed it alt get h .r. Thi s make s it eem traugc why lh e bri l W[L.. l uilt by Portugues or anyl dy ls It w as nece ary to om11 t the ci rcuit of the lake, and the r e t of it bord e rs wer in the territory of another Ras ( r prince) one Ras Manga ha : no l etters to him h a d b en provid l and o 1r. Du1 uis forwarded his er dentials from King Men l k to t h e capita l of thi potentate, at Bur Hi m s en ... er r e turned with everything necessary l etters to the l oca l chief an l a ruan spec i a ll y sent as uide a nd escort. They 1 ft Bahdur G or i on th 4th F bruary and cl l ayed two lay s at Zeg i waiting the DELDI BRIDGE AND T OLL H U E A.BO T 20 MILES return of the messenger The lo ca l ch i ef at Z egi ,ms not frien<.lly, a nd o the or d e rs from the ruling R a made a ll I l ea a n t Zegi is the c entre of th e coffee pro lucing count ry, and i the most populous and fiouri hin g port ion o f the late district The who l e of the liill y peninsula is on vas t coffee e tat the coffee bushes g rowing under the hade of t a n trees, th e best they had. een. N n merous narrow, shady paths wind about connecting the numerons v ill a a s, a nd the who l e region h~s the ai r f comfort a n d prosperity in con trast t a ll t h e re.s t of the borders o f th e l ake. L eaving Zegi on 7th of February the pa1t y comp l eted the return journey to e l g i in fou r d ays Th e chief object of the expedition wa to visit the Abai riv r-that is FR M L AKE r ANA. the main stream which s uppli s th e l a l e, and indeed, as the nam e implies, runs through it, or rather expands into the wide waters of Lak e T ana, for it ente rs on th same s id e as it flows out. It i a fine -l ooking str ea m with a c le an section of ab out 8 0 metres wide, and runs in a fiat-bottom ed va ll ey ,of some thr e m iles w ide, whic h i s said to be fully flooded in the rain y season. It reaches Lake Tsana throu gh a marshy papy rus swamp They cro sse d it by a ford some miles up th stream, w h ere there are rocky shallows, est i mated to pass 1 000,000 c ubic metres per day None of th e other streams entering the lake equal or approach to the A bai and most of them are absolute ly dry for a portion of the year The groun l on the w est si le lescends more steep ly to the l ake than e l sewhere, and 3 0-!

    PAGE 335

    V, :::> CJ"< X OLD PORTUGUESE BRIDGE ON ABAI RIVER, 20 MILES FROM LAKE TSANA. RIVEH, ABA.I, BLUE NILE, LEAVING LAKE 'I 'S.A.NA. ABYSSINIA: A SIDE CHANNEL OF THE RIVER A'l' 'l'I-IE OU'l'LE'l', LAKE TSANA. RUINED CHURCH, SIEDEVER, ABYSSINIA. l:;::j P< r-cl l:;::j tj H 1-'3 a z ...:; 0 ;i.-l:;::j '-3 Ul ;i.-z J> l:;::j 1-'3 f'.l ,-... \:::; ~-Co 0

    PAGE 336

    OUR SUDA ITS PJRAMID D PROGRES.. the sce ner y about Dengelb r, with its bays, promontories and i s l ands, is most beautiful. Dengelber was the limi t of the Dervish raids on this side of the l ake After two days spent at Del gi, the party returne l to ~allabat by the same route they had come. Cattle, sheep, and grain were every where most moderate IN TilE COFFEE PLA TATIONS OF ZEGI. SOUTH-EAST OF THE LAKE. in price. Vegetab les a lmost im possib l e to obtain, and only potatoes anrl onions, and they onl y at Zegi. Dura, teff, gram, and barley are mostly cultivated, and a litt l e cotton of poor quality Teff flour is the standard food of the people, made into fine soft cakes resembling the English "crumpet. Present::; of these cakes, m ilk flour, eggs, fowls and teja barley were brought by the headmen of the villages on arrival at any camp very frequ ntly this occurred, but not alway There was some lifficulty in payiug for these ";if~s," or knowing whom to pay, but the headman always insisted that th y were presents from his master, Ras Guksa It is possible th y were obtained under pressure from the v ill agers. But had t here been no representatives of the powerful Ras it wou l d have beeu impossible to obtain supp l ies. Great herds of cattle are found all round the lake. Mr. Dupuis sees in these A.BY SI IA: T.EIE RIVER REB, EAST OF LAKE TSANA. 306

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    PAGE 338

    0 B SUDA"'>. IT PYRAMID' A~D PROGRES.. conditions the foun lati n of a larg e and profitable market for the udan, where cattle are scarce. Donkeys aud mule ar plentiful h ere a lso anc.1 are wanted in the Sudan By cultivating peaceful r lations with Abyssinia, there should be a gr at development of tra le between t he countrie LAKR T AN A A A Rli 'ERVOIR. Mr. Dupuis devotes five c l osely printed pages of his officia l report to the matter of Lake Tsana as a possible Reservoir for the Nil e. His figures and words are too technical for or linary readers, but the essence of his advice seems to be : -1. That the Blue Nile and CANDELABRUM EUPHORBIA, TED EVER, LAKE T .AB A. its origin, L ake Tsana, should be reserveJ for the future wants of the Sudan, of which they are the natural feeders 2. That a very complete survey should, as soon as I ossible, be made of the whole region for irrigation purposes. 3. That it would be com paratively easy and inexpensive to make a Re a ulator some ten mlles from the exit of the Abai from the lake, and he believes that thi. w ill be certainly done some day, in the inter sts of the Sudan, but there will be none to spare for Egypt. It is ev i dent, however, that Mr. Dupuis i s unea y l est .A.bys inia might yet, politically gi Ye trouble about this lake ; however, that clange r might be arranged by diplomacy. Mr. Dupuis remarks incidentally that from its peculiar posiLion a tunnel could be readily constructed to draw off every drop of the waters of the J ake. MR D UPUIS S EX.1-'EDITION ( CONTINUED ).--LAKE T 'ANA TO KA. 'ALA. AND BERBER BY THE RIVER ATBA.RA. At allabat the int rpretcr and the donkey drivers and donkeys and their saddles were all 1 ft behind, and the camels were agnin employed for the northward journey down th tbara to Kas s ala nnd Berber, starting on February 23rd For 40 m iles the road sk irte l th Atbara or a couple oC mi les off the course. Its bed is 100 to 120 metres wide, granite outcrnps crossing it. 308

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    PAGE 340

    OUR UDAN IT-y PYRAMID A D PROGRE At thi. time of y~ar there is no flow of water only large standing poo l", with the marks of the flood. of the rainy seaso n, 4 to 6 metres above their ptesent l evel. Th journey was con tinued by harafa and a detour made to Goresha, a l arge and flourishing v il lag e with a goo l well, m open ground. Here Mr. Dupuis and Mr. Craw l ey ma le an exp loration along the River a la am, to try to find its junction with the Atbara, bnt were unable to get through the trackless bush and gave up the attempt. They struck the Atbara at a point below where the junction must be. Here the wild ungoYernabl e stream has forced a way through sandstone rock 20 metres wide, with c liffs rising perpendicularly over a profoundly deep pool. The y camped beside this gorge for the night, and aga in next day started afn~sh to see k the junction of the Salaam, but again failed to find it. In their ab ence one of their came l s had been ki] I d b a li on quit clo e to the camp. They re turned to 10resha, and continueu. their journey t1> Ara lib and Sofi to the j unc tion of the R iver ettit with the 'fE.E A'l'B \.RA, NEAR ET 'fl'f JU CTION 310

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    vj """" """" KORA'l'SA VILLAGE, FROM THE CHURCHYARD. ABYSSINIA : 'fIIB DOCTOR AT WORK, KORATSA, EAST OF LAKE TSANA. THE DOC'l'OR FISHING IN 'l'IIE ABAT, ABOU'l' 10 MILES FROM LAKE OU'fLE'l'. ABYSSINIA \MP A'l' WOREB, NEAR THE OU'l'LE'l' OF LAKE 'J'SANA. t::=J ;;,<; >'d t::=J d H 0 1-3 0 r t::=J 1-3 U2 ;i,,z J> t::=J 1-3 9 j t, ~ ...:.....,

    PAGE 342

    OUR SUDAN; ITS PJRAJ 1!!IDS A.ND PROGRE ;:i. THE JUNC'rION OF THE ATBARA Ai\TD RIVER SETTIT. Atbara. Through this country there were occasional vil la ges with consider able areas of crops, but traces of much more land havin g formerly been under cultivation Hereaboutt:i and towards Kassala great dis tress re i gned among the cultivat.ors from a blight on all crops, a sticky leposit having formed all over the dura J_Jlants known as "azal "-or honey which destroyed all growth. outh of Tabrakha ll a the Atbara flows in a deep raviny channel 100 feet below the l eve l of the plain, the plain its e lf bei11g broken and undulating. At the Settit j unction the valley must be 200 feet deep . Above the ravine the wide plain is covered with rich cotton soil, but all hidden with bush. Mr. Dupuis, with his engineer's ey saw sites for re ervoir tanks for irrigating this region, w h en the time comes, in the Khors, two or three of which could readily be ns ed for this purpose. At radeb and Sofi the Atbara is about 150 metres wide on the average. In the 1902 flood it ran about 6 metres of water In M arc h, 1903, there wa still a trick l e of water moving down from pool to pool. The > tti t seem d to Mr. Dupuis to be the l a rg13r and more important river of the two, the Atbara haviug the character of a wild mountain torrent with fiercer floods. The Settit had some flow of water on March 8th, wh il e the Atbara THE A'.l'BARA BETWEE KASSA.LA AND BERBER. 312

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    0 R SDD N IT PYR HIID A D PROGRE 1 ha l a mere tTickle. From this onwaTd t,he road avoids the ravines by th river and strikes away from its course two mile or so, and the river is not seen again t ill KA, ALA A.J.'
    PAGE 345

    ...... IU.L'r 0~ THE ROAD BE'rWEEN ABU HARAZ AND GEDAREF. ROCKY GORGE ON TITE ATBA RA. t,:j >-o t,:j 0 H t-3 0 z t-3 0 t-i t;:j t-3 Ul > z J> t_:,:j t-3 9 i :<: t:., { ;:;_ 0

    PAGE 346

    OUR I UDA J IT1 PYRA111.IDS AND PROGRESS. post at Mogatta. Game is fairly abundant an l lions abound along the river. Th party arrived at Kassala on 15th March, and remained four lays. Th River Gash at Kas ala is a good one for only three month in th year. It is absolutely dry for nine monthR. With a ll this Mr. Dupuis sees a possibility of d0ing great things for the River Gash, in the way of irrigation. This is a very peculiar river indeed, like nothing else in the Sudan. It is quite a large and important stream, running open for 1 5 0 miles, and yet it i ultimately entirely lost in its own silt. It nev er reaches the Atbara, at least it never does so now, although marked as a tributary of that river on C RIO S S'.l.'ONE AT GOZ REJEB, A'.l.'BARA, BETWEEN BERBER AND KA AL \.. maps. The Gash in fact di appears entirely six or seven miles below Kassala. For 80 days in the year it is a wide stream, but s hallow, with 8,000,000 to 5,000,000 cubic metres per day. There was a system of damming up the whole river hig h er up, and though done m 1 nm1t1 ve fashion about 90 years ago, it did goo l service till 30 years ago, when 1 ossibly through the troubles of the time, these dams and canals were neglected and allowed to fall out of use. Mr. Dupuis would spent a few thousands on restoring these works, rude as they were, at once, and he recommends a careful irrigation su rvey to be made as soon as possible, from which he bas every confidence that a comp lete success can be obtained for contro lling and utilizing the great possibilities of the ash At present, water is obta ined w berever well s are sunk. All this is owing to the 1ash water below. He would at once h ave many more wells s1mk, so as to extend cultivation till the new system of irrigation be devi ed and canied out. The rich soil which exists everywhere in Lhis region will well repay a lmost at once the entire cost of the s ur vey an l the temporary restoraLion of the old inigation dam and canal. We shall now return to th Atbara trip with fr. Dupuis, promising to revert to Kassala laLer; of course it w,is for irrigation affairs alone that the recent expedition 316

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    PAGE 348

    OUR SUDA IJ' PYRAJ,fID A.1' D P ROG RE1 'S. was sent, so they only remained there a few days They reLurned from Kassala on 20th March to Ras Gojeb, and proceeded to Berber by the road, which does not always follow th Atbara, as the river flows in a wide channel, almost dry in that month. DOlVI P ALlVI BANK OF LOWER ATBARA. But there are large pools at jntervals, frequently a kilometre l ong by 100 metres, full of l arge fish and croco diles The hippopotami wh ich formerly abounded in them are nearly extinct. The River Atbara is bounded by the usual fringe of ravines, but the banks do not rise above the :flood lev e l more than 100 feet anywhere. In the last 100 miles of its course the river is margined by a dense belt of
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    PAGE 350

    0 "R UDA~; IT I PJRA1 1IID A"iS!D PROGRES.. 1egarding the riv rs he vi itecl, a nd an immense amount of valuable calculations as to the volume of their waters a t different easons, too sc ientific for a book like the pn\sent. As to the Atbara, he says rhat great reservoirs would be nee led to impound the waters KA.' ALA. L ieu t.-Col P e11lon of the floods for future use. But he suggests t,hat below alaam junction would be the best place for such a dam, with secondary dam and canals below it. He evidently is not of opinion that E gypt (that is, the Nile) would be benefited by such a storage of the Atbara. But he strong l y recommends the formation of permanent villages on the fertile l and, supplied by m ans of wells and tanks to store the rain water which falls plenti fully in the wet season. This, I may remark, was undoubtedly the way in which the ruined cities of N aga, Meroe and others, now founcl in barren regions were plentifully supplied with water 2,000 years ago, and th ere must have been rich crops to feed s uch extensive populations of the well-to-do people. We part from !I:r. Dupuis an l the pictorial illustrations of his remarkable journey in lands unvi s ite l by Europeans since the days of Bruce, with every expre ion of gratitu le for his most interest ing guidance. KASSALA. Tlie opeuing of tbe rail way to Suakiu will, it i s hoped, in some way facilitate a v isit to KA 'ALA. Lord Cromer fore ha lows other rail wRy BEGINSING OF 'rHE S AKIN-BERBER RAILWAY. MARCH, ] 904. L iett t. -Col. P e nto n communication with this region by way of Gedaref, in his 1904 Report. At present they have to be visited by camel transport and with an escort. K assala and darama a re the only towns worth naming in Sudan territory ea t of ~he Atbara river Adarama 320

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    v.) N) ..... CAMP: THE FIRST BET\\7EEN GEDAREF AND GALLABAT. KHOR OTRUB, NEAR GALLABAT. RIVER .A.TBARA, NEAR GALLABAT. trj >'CJ t::J 8 f--3 8 z f--3 0 t-l t;::j f--3 U2 J> t;::j f--3 9 ,,....,. t; ~-0

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    OUR SUDA"N"; ITS PYRAMIDS A D PROGR.E 1 is about 78 miles from its junction with the Nile. It was the headquarters of Osman Digna, but is now almost desert d. The country between Adarama and Kassala is a vast I lain, part of which produces cotton, and there regions of lwarf trees and bushes with stretches of coarse grass, until the fertile oil adjoining the Khor el Gash is reache 1. Here we have dam palms, tamarisk trees and thorny scrub. The Gash is a fine water for part of the year, but its flood is ultimately lost in the extreme flatness of the country. The natives say it has an underground channel to the Atbara, at Adarama. Lord Cromer ha great hopes of the successful treatment of the my terious Ga h river, and places it in the projects in the fir t rank of necessary public works. Alway practical, be points out that for au outlay of ,000, a direct income of ,000 per annum cu.n be realized, and 100,000 acres brought under cultivation. 'Ne may soon see this good work commenced, and a o-reat river put to u eful ways to benefit the country. The valleys sur plied by the Gash are richly cultivated Kassala itself has many gardens, an l must Le a very pleasant place at certain seasons. There are two very remark able mountains, J ebels Mokram and Kassala, ::THE FIRST CUT'rING OF THE BERBER-SU.AKIN RAILWAY (GRANITE which rise abruptly from ROCK) MARCH, 1904 (Hadendo w as employed ) the plain three miles to the east and south east. The highest of the peculiar dome-shaped protu berances is 2,604 feet above the town, and is visible for 60 or 70 miles There are several p e rennial springs in the mountains. There is a strong garrison kept there with a battalion of native irregulars, reputed the be t scouts in the Sudan. The tribes are Beni Am rs, Haden lowas and Abyssinians. There are 200 of these scouts mounted on camels. They di l good service for us in the war, an l are the best and most suitable troops for peace time. Here r sides the loyal family of El Morghani, whose } outhful head we have restored to his traditiona.l supremacy was held for us by the Italians duriug the Dervish War. Its trnde 1s returning, and it has a total population in town an l country of 23,000. The townspeople are principally Halenga Arabs, who are excellent cultivators The climate i healthy for eight months in the year. There is a weekly camel-post for both letters and parcels to and from Berber, a lso a weekly mail from Kerin an l Massawa for letters 322

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    V, N) V, N) KASSA.LA : THE KADMI.A, SHEIKH MORGH.ANI TOMB. DESCEN'l' FROM ERKOWEIT, 4,000 FEET .ABOVE SEA LEVEL, TO SUAKIN. 190 4 ,VELL NEAR SU.A.KIN: H ADENDOWAS DRAWING WATER. SU.AKIN MARKET. .APRIL, 1904. !;:::: p:.,. U1 U1 p:.,. t""' Ul d ;i.. lz ,-..._ f.t, c:::, l,

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    OUR UDAN; IT P1BA1111DS A n PROGRE 1 and. parcels. Tel graph lines connect Suakin, JVIassawa, Gedaref aud Gallabat. Bi5 and small game of almost e, ery kind is plentiful from elephant to quail, in this wide region, but rhinoceros and buffalo are rare. SU.AKIN. THE OUTLET OF 'fHE UDAN ON THE RED EA. EN ROUTE BETWEE T KA "SALA .AND UAKIN. ;,R eginald Win gate In a previous chapter, we 1 ft the railway line at Berber to speak of the places to th east, by the .Atbara valley an l towar 1s the new railway leading to Suakin, which is now progressing fast towards completion It may be well, therefore, to say a few words about Suak i n itself, which is soon to become the seaport of the Sudan The pres nt town of Suakin is built, partly on land a nd partly on an island joined by a cause,Yay, still call ed after the great Gordon himself, Gor lon's Gate and Causeway." Th e Government buildings are situated on the i land, and are impm::ing structures of coral. The popu l ation is between 6,000 and 7,000 The town has strong d~fences, built against the Dervish attacks, and a chain of forts a mile outside, hut now there is no garrison In uch burning quarters, onr. of tho hottest places on earth, it is pleasant to know that Erkoweit, the summer refuge of the Gc,vernment, is 4,000 feet above the sea and i s being made happy quarters from the burning heat. It is 35 miles from Suakin an l I assesses cop iou s spings of exce llent water uakin has no water, a ll has to 324

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    0 R I DA IT PlR MID A D PROGRE be carried to it in skins, or obtained by the conu.ensing from sea -wat er The climate of the hill station i excellent, an l the place is healthy. There is a tel raph to uakin. In th winter the hill are capped with clouds, their slopes covered with grass giving ex ellent razing. The Aclmjnistrator has a wooden thatched hut, an l the taff have mud huts with plank roofs. A contrast this to the former terrible quarters of dry uakin. The dangers of the coral-reef-locked harbour are to be avoided by. a new port being ma le farther to the north, at Sheikh Barghout, which wil l b af and easily ntered in all weathers. There will at last be a I l easant sea1 ort in the "ed Sea, and the railway to the udan will have dispelle l the terrors of the de ert, waterless caravan route to the Nile The name f thi new port has been alte red to ndar Sudan. Lieut. o lon el Penton, Midwinter Bey, apta in m ry, and the Sirdar himself have kindl supp li ed many inter- sting photograph of Ka ala, uakin an l the progr ~s of the railway. The eventful m dern hi torical records of Kassala and uakin are most interesting, but this chapter has run to an inordinate l engt h an l we must deny ourselves the pleasure of reconn ting them. LT.-COL. PENTO fAJOR FRIEND. Si?' R. W i ngctte 326

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    CHAPTER XVI. THE EA iTERN UDAN. KoRDOF N THE once important state of Kordofan li s north of the Bahr el Ghazal and west of the White Nile. Darfur extends its wide borders again due west of Kordofan. It seems natural to describe this comparatively c i vi lis e l and rich province fir t in order among the eastern provinces of Lhe udan, as it stretches from the Nil far north of Omdurman, all the way to the northern boundary of the Bahr 1 Ghazal. Its western boundary is Darfur, its northern is undefinable as yet. The Governor-General has been making official inspections of Kor lofan, and his photographs have been given me by him with hi usual kindness for the illu stration of this chapter, an l I also got several from Lieut.-Col. Penton, who visits the district OMDURM.AN : DERVISH WIDO\VS SORTING GUM FROM KORDOFAN. Dav idso n in the course of his sanitary inspections. Kordofan is the great source of the trade in gum known in Europe as gum arabic. The water supply is entirely derived from local rains which form pools and even lake s and marshes. These rains seem to be stored und erg round, the surface being very porous, an l there are many wells, which are often very deep. There are various water-storing trees in some districts calle l tebeldi or "Homr" trees, peculiar to this region. These are naturally hollow, and are besides often scooped out, when used for storing water They have a hol e cut in the trunk, genera ll y just above a big branch, on which a man can stand when lrawing water. The hole is about 18 inches square. Ronnd the bottom or the trunk a small pool is formed. This catches the rain during a rain-storm and it is then put into the tree by m eans of l eathern buckets (dilwas). 'ome t.rees, huwever, in consequence of being open at the top, and having branches so formed that they act ~s gutters, fill themselve ; these are ca ll e l El Sagat, an l are uaturally very 329

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    0 R I UJJAN; IT1 PJ. BA ~iID1 A ~D PROGRE S valuable. The tree vary iu diameter out. ide from 10 to 25 feet, and the water-hol ling portion is often 20 feet high. Th bark is frequ ntly much cut about, as it is u ed for making rope and net 'Ihe l argest of these trees are not u s l for water as the trunks are gen rally cracked Water o stored remains sweet to the e n l of the hot weather, so that good are a va lu able form of pror erty, and are let or .... old, either with 01 without tlie adjacent land. ar a town they are a source of many quarr l s On the main roads acros the ar Harnar, near Ob id, the Harnars make their li ving by se llin g water to travellers The Dervi bes did much wicked work l1y cutting holes at the bottom of these tre and so d straying tbe trunk. A p ciP.s of m ]on i s the principal food of the inhabitant~, but onth of El Obeid they are able to grow millet and durra. Cotton was once mu h grown ancl i s still produced for local use in sma ll quantities. The b st o-um comes from a sr eci s of acacia between the parallels of 13 and 1-:l:0 ~ome forests are full of red gum, but are not a well worked as they might be. The i of gum exporte l from the n lan were very o-r at, previous to 1879, nearly 150,000 cwts. a nu ually. This trade was almo t topped by the Dervish troubles, but in 1901 had returned to 170,781 cwts. Ostrich feathers mostly EL OBEID : WAITING TO EE THE GOVER OR-GENERAL. come from Darfur. ostriches, which are hunted by the Northern and "'\ estern Kor lofan have many wild natives, and the flocks have been seen near Obeid. from Kordofan There is a large export of cattle E l Obeid the chief town of Kordofan is on an eminence of 1,700 to 2,00 0 feet It is supp li ed by wells 70 to 80 feet deep. It has now about 8,000 inhabit ants This town resisted the Mahdi for a long time and some of the tribes never were conquered by the Dervishes. ahud is a new town, 165 miles west of El Obeid, and has 7,000 inhabitants People who wished to avoid the Dervishes sheltered there. A ll tbe trade with D arfup passes through N ahud, and there i s a great demand for cotton and trade goods. The people, who former l y wore on l y the dirty loin-cloth, are now quite keen for tlowing ga.nnent. of Man chest r cotton. The chief t-rade of the place is in cattle, 330

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    0 R >1 DLL; IT1 PY.RAM1DS AD PRO:/-RES.. gum, feath r an l ivory it export There are 4 0 stores owned. by G r eeks, 'yrians, J aalin, etc. Durra i plentiful. N ahucl i the second town in Kordofan an l is increas ing, an l the inhabitants have b e come less lrunken since our occupation, and are improving in ev ry way. Taiara was formerly the centre of the gum trade, but wa:.i de troyed by the D e r i he It is now being r11pidly restored to prosr erity and has agents for its gum from Omdurman houses, and is rapi Uy grow ing. The recent v isit of the Governor-Genera l was a great success. Th e photographs accompanying thi chapter show the welcome he received from a very superior native class. DARFUR. Darfur (or the land of tbe Fors) lies between latitudes 9 and 16 and longitude s 22 and 28 among the central gro up of mountains called J ebe l Murra. These mountains rise 1 ,000 to 1,500 feet above the plains, which are 400 feet above the sea TherP are wells 250 feet deep, but there are r i vers in the rainy season, whose beds afterwards dry up entirely There were 1,5 00 000 inhabitants before the Mahdi's ravages. Now there are probabl y not more than half that number. Darfur was annexed to Egypt in 187 -:I:. In 1898 after the battle of Omdurman Ali Dinar, a descendant of a former 'ulta u of arfnr, seized the throne. The British Government officia ll y appointed him th ir agent in Darfur in 1899. He is at present left in charge, paying to the udan Government an annual tribute of Ther e has, so far, been no British Resident, and the ultan has hitherto behaved respectably and has abo li shed the s l ave trade in males, but gir l s and women are s till sold in the s t ate, but not a1lowe l to be exported The price of women thus traded is 10s. to 10s. and of g i rls about half those rates. In 1874 it took from 100 to 150 days to reach Fasher from airo the post now takes 30 days. El Fasher is the chief town and contains, it is said, about 10,000 inhabitants. The cotton formerly grow n in Darfur 332

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    0 B SUDAN; IT PJ BAJ 1!lIDS A N"D PROGRESS. was e xc ellent, now there is little grown. This matter sbou1d bP. l ooked after by the British 1o tton upply Associations. Tr ade is greatly on the increase, and is principally with Omdurman via El Obeid. There is a celebrated bre e d of horses which are a id to be able to g o for 60 hours without water. The Sultan is paying much attention to improving the breed, an l ha established stu l farms. Ca mel breedin g form the occupation of severa l tribes, and cattle and sheep are plentiful in the south otton goods are mnch in d e mand a nd come from the Sudan, also sugar and t ea The exports are feath rs, i vary, pepper, rhinoceros horns an l The hi tory of events for the last twenty yea rs in these distant provinces-Kor dofan, Darfur and Bahr e l Ghazal-is too involved FU, GOR, KORDOF~-HUTS ON HILL SLOPES Lt.-Col. Pento n and intricate to be entered upon h e re. The reader is referre l to the interesting ac count of Zubeir Pasha1 in Slatin's work, a nd the story of Emin Pasha ( and the Stan l ey Expe lition sent for his relief) and for more recent events, to aunt l eichen's Anglo-Eg yptian S udan, H istorica l Section. Kordofan h as been brought under the direct control of the udan Government, and the people we l come our rule, as the happy faces, in the illustrations of the Governor General' In pec tions, abundantl y prove. Darfur it will t a ke lon ger to bring under civilisation. Th e condition of Darfur, and ind cl of Kordofan, was o bad that even the intre pid furth ichweindid not CAMP ON THE ROAD TO EL OBEID 334

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    OUR SUDAN"; ITS PYRAJJ1ID A D PROGRES1. GREATER BUSTARD, HOT ON EL OBEID ROAD. attempt to enter them. In his H eart of Africa he speaks of those regions being (forty years ago) so law less as to be quite unsafe for any trave ller without a strong escort, and perhaps not even then. Petberick describes much the same condition of affairs in his time, and although he ob tained a high sounding document from the ultan of Darfur, which he engraves, he never got there When I found that a few words ha l to be said about Darfur, I thought some old pictures might exist, and I searched in vain for any illustrated work, ancient or modern, but nothing could I fin t Burckhardt managed to travel anywh re he wishe l to visit, but I doubt if h e ever was at Dar fur If he crossed the country at all, he does not tell much that is interest ing, sa, e to remark that Kordofau wa th n (1813) under the rule of the King of Darfur. Burckhardt travelled with a caravan of slave traders across the Sudan m every direction to and from hen h, which, in his day, 1813, was the most important trade mart of the country. He h;:td entered tl e southern country in the same way, starting from .Assuan, and joining the caravan under the pretext of being WOMEN AT EL OBEID 336

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    m earch for a long-lost cousin. modern Burckhardt, with a Kodak, woul l have brought home a wonderful bag" of nap-shots. He tells unpleasant in c i lent of practices of the magnates f Kordofan. Onepoten tate, a Mussulman of high degree, exerci. eel his rights over a cousin, a beautiful young girl, BURCKHAJWT. and seize l her as a LOADING uP. piece of family property, to sell t.he poor thing at an enormous prjce into the harem of a northern potentate. Of course Burckhardt travelling with slave dealer saw frightful scenes of brutality-he concludes by the remark that in all his wanderings with these merchants he never met one possessed of a single redeemiug feature of what we know as humanity. These caravans boldly made their way acrnss the desert or by the river in very direction, merchants in feathers, gum, camels, horses, cloth, drugs, ivory, cattle, but REVIEW OF TROOPS A'l' EL OBEID. 339 mainly dealers in wretched humanity .Abyssinia provided the most beautiful girls, while arfur was the source of the supply of boys, who had been speci ally brutally treated .All men and women were sol l for labour or for the northern armies ( a new trade just then springing up) The prices and all the sources of supply and d -Z 2

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    OUR Di ITS PYRAll!lIDS AND PROGRE 'S. man l of all ort of goods are g ive11. It is honil,le reading Were it not that Burckhar it's pages ar inter perserl with other matter, one would never want to see the book again. ] ut iu hi way he was the pioneer of many ort of intelli gence This intrepid traveller di covered Abu imb 1, Philae and all the temples between Philae and wadi Half'a that n,rn now tlireatt?.ned by the waters of the great Dam. He had ven time to make plans of the t mples and to copy the Greek inscriptions thereon. En passant be remarks that the people of Berber are the most depraved he ever met, exceptino those of ::3uakin. Shendi a.nd its p ople he seem to have much lik ed. But the caravan ma ters from Darfur had 11 much higher reputation for honourable dealing than tho.::ie of the eastern centres of trade. Ho,Yev e r, each province is spoken of a.s the mart for certain varieties of slaves, showing how engrained with a li traffic slave-dea lin g had become, and Burckhard t, after a long smvey of the matter of s l avery, says there is not the smallest hop e for its abolition in Africa itself as long as these countries are possess ed by Mus ulmans, who e religion gives them the excuse to make war on idolatrous negroes and who consider s l aves as a medium of exchange in li eu of money. The only chance for the unfurLuna.te b l ack will be" some wise and grand plan, tending to the civilisation of th ontinent, the education of the sons of Africa in their own country and by their own countryme u." He gives a ll credit to England for the efforts to abolish the Atl antic slave trade, which he says is trifling compared with that of the interior. How wondrously has all tha,t Burckhanlt deemerl hopeless come to pa. s-all be trdamed of anJ more. Th e whole of onr ~ udan is n JW h eld for abso lu te freedom for its natives of every hue and at last the e unfortunat e creat ur s will h ave a chaoee they never h ad before. The Moslem customs which made slavery wlnt. it was are kept in check, and they are becoming, we hope, as earnest haters of slavery as our elves, under the Briti..,h Flag But till they need watching and a preventive service a ll round the frontiers. They would be slave lealers, it is to be feared, were these precautions to be relax ed A portrait i s g iv e n of Nur Bey Angara) of whom mention is frequently made in lati11's Fire cr,nd Sword in th e Sud((,n, and in Ohrwald r's and other books describing the Gordon troubles and the efforts made to save him. This man was overnor of Darfur, an l a, cel'tain amount of tmst was I ut in him. He is still alive at Omdurman, an l pensioned for hi lo3 alty, so i. hkely to h long on the hands of the Government It i s wise policy to encourage suc h men, former leaders, such as Nur Bey Angara and Zub eir Pasha, to throw their interests into our keeping It touches the oriental mi~d of the mas es to show them that lo yalty tu the English rule i on the paying side. 340

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    CHAPTER XVII THE AH EL GHAZ L. CAPT IN BETHELL'S VI IT TO THE NIAM-NI M. A EXILED KING PROM THE BAHR EL GHAZAL. (Balrenic eps Re.r:. ) This sple ndi d specimen of a domesticate d nati ve lta s been l ong a res idant nnd friend of all visitors nt t h e Palace, Khartoum. (Ph.oto by the llev. Llewellyn G wynne .) SCHWEINFURTH'S TRAVEL Z UBEIR PASHA. 3 4 3

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    HILLET EL NUER. 344 I I I I I j I Si1 JV. aarstin

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    H PTER XVII. THE BAHR EL GHAZAL I ROVJN CE. THI' vast province was not occupied until 1901, and is not 3 et fully xplore l and mapped. It is bounde l south and we. t by the Congo water he l and northwards by the Bahr el Ghazal river which I oms into the Nile through Lake No. chweinfurth visited it upwards of thirty years ago. ince those days the land has certainly changed for th worse, roads being obliterated and entir trib s having migrated el ewhere. There are great possibilities however, from such a w 11-wat red region, with alluvial soil and fertili ing granite letritus. The great production now is ivory, which, in order to protect the elephant from xterruination by indi criminate THE BARR EL GHAZAL i JV. E. G a rstin slaughter, has been proclaimed a governrr ent mono1 oly. Elephant still abound rn the northern regions. The wide xt nt of the still un xplor d territori s of Darfur ::md Kordofan boun l the Bahr el hazal region to th north. In ovemb r, 1900, 'parkes Bey with a trong nati\'0 fame an l fiv British officers w nt by st am rt Me hra el H.ek to reconnoitre and mad xcursion throu h the country, making friends with the natives an l ex1 lainino the po ition of affairs. Th y mad a long circuit by Wau, fort Desaix, Rumbe k Tonj ancl back to the il at bamb0. The J nr river was found blocked with su ld a n l Li eutenant T 11, RN., was occupied in cutting it till June, 1902. A patrol was made to Deim Zubeir, T lgona an l 345

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    OUR SUD.AN; IT I PYR..AlilID ..A D lROGRE11S. Forga by Major Boulnois, who was appointed Mudir of the province The natives wer most friendly, the N uers alone gave trouble, and had to be chastised, with the result that now all tribes are quite loyal. Sparke ey afterwards made long tours in the south and south-west of the provinces, and found the Sultan of the iam-Niams most friendly. Unfortunately the members of our exped ition suffered severely from fevers and Major Boulnois had for a time to resign command, but n xt year returned iu good health. The headquarters are at Wau under the Mudir, Major Boulnois, and several white officern, including Captain Bethell, the present Inspector. There i a l o a garrison of native troops with posts stationed at Shambe, Rumbek, Tonj, Deim Zubeir, etc. 'rHE BAHR EL GHAZAL BLOCKED BY GRAS SUDD. Si':' W. E. Gctrsti n The resources of the great Bahr el Ghazal province ar as yet undeveloped. Many varieties of india-rubber and gutta-percha trees are plentiful, and the 11ative are e xpel'ts in collecting this valuable source of revenue. Count Gleichen's invaluable report on the Anglo-Egyptian udan g ives much spac/3 to this :ubject. The forests will som e day be exp loited for the trees that produce tannin, the bark of which fetches a good price in Omdurman market. The damage done in the forest regions by fo ~es is great, yet there are many fine trees left here and there, showing what good supplies of timber can be expected under the care of the Forestry Department. There are several varieties producing satinwood and others resembling mahogany, while the bark is good as a febrifuge, and the seed produces an oil useful to keep off flies, etc from wounds and 346

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    DINKA .NIA ~l-~IA1lli -" WHITE 1VIEN." th atta ks of I oisonous fli s Bees are pl ntiful an l large quantities of hon are collected. alt is faun l only in the west, but is in leman l ev rywhere. The Dinkas are fair cultivators, but now only raise one crop a year. Were they not too lazy to extirpate locusts, they might raise much mor crops than they do. Th y exchange ivory for cattle in the north an l are very fond of bartering their produce for bead brass wire and for cloth, in the lines where Government posts bring them in contact with civilisation. Iron mines are plentiful a.nd analysis shows in several cases 4 7 per cent. of pure iron. Copper ore is rich, the miues are at Hofrat 1 Nahas, on the borders of Darfur. The Dinkas are far behind as yet in civilisation, the men go naked, the women wear leather aprons fore and aft. It is evident that their wants are few, but as they become civilised, '.l.'HE BAHR EL GHAZAL: MOU 'rH OF THE RIVER ROHL. ir w. E. Garstin. the country being at peace, th y will settle down to industry, and are an intcllig nt race. The :Niam-Niams in th south are, how ver, far m r intellig nt, and gr at hunter They had a bad reputation as cannibal but a ert that they only ate their enemies taken in war. A war is at an encl there will Le an excuse f r abandoning this objectionalle diet. Schw infurth had no doubt of their b ing cannibals and gives an ug l y story of what he actually saw an old hag watching an abandoned infant, anxious l y waiting for it death, that he might cook the corps for the fami l y meal. How ver, we must hope that the tribe ha, e becom total ab tainers from such delicacie .All accounts repre ent the Niam-Niams as likely to benefit by civi l isation and thPestabli hment of our rule. The hairclr ing of the. men of all 34:7

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    OUR DA IT PJBAMIDS AD PROGRE the trib s of th Bahr 1 Ghazal is an elaborate affair: the women are less given to these adornments than the men. 'l.1he men cultivate their beards, which are much admired, if lono. The iam-Niams are o much lighter-coloured tban the other tribes, that th y consider them elves White Men Th y make a coarse white cloth, and a the N iam are all clot bed, they may be I urcbasers of such goods when the communications are opened up. Their land abounds \~ ith elephants, eland, rhinoceros, and buffalo. Theil' arms are bows, arrows and spears. They were converts to Islam, but they now have abandoned that faith, aud merely believe in the exi tence of a God. lVlissionarie of the right sort, would certainly be useful h0re. Thi great province must be ery populous, but no accurate census appears as yet to be po sible among such a wild people. Gessi Pasha, one of Gordon's most truste l lieutenants ail that in one year, in the Dervi h times, 100,000 slaves were torn from the Bahr 1 Ghazal alone. The newly added province cannot be expected to pay it way for a long time to come, but it ha great possiuiliti s in store. The amount charg d against it in 1903 wa ,658 while the return wa but ,050. But much of th out.lay was for p rman nt work not fairly chargeable to income account But its future is assured as it has imm nse agricultural possibilities, and is the most promisin; of all the pr vinces A memorable event in the history of the new province has just occurre l. It is p l easant to bear (November, 1904 ) that ir Reginald Wingate bas paid his first official vi it to Wau. He is al way th envoy of peace and good-will; at the same time he can show the iron hand when neces ary, and this is well known all over the Sudan. "Les uraves Belges" do not, eem to take our peaceful treatment of the natives as complimentary to their management of the adjoining ongo State. However, in time all frontier unrest will settle down, and mean while we must manage our own regions in our own way, which seems on the whole to be much appreciated by our new subjects There is a report that arms which may be used against us are very casil obtained on the border. Of course we must not ?,llow the importation of arms without our authority ir Reginald Wingate has ju t ent me ( ecember, 1\104) some photographs from remote parts of this grea t province. These were taken by Captain Beth 11 of the E0-yptian Artillery, who has receutly visited Sultan N'clorrna of the iamiam tribe in south Bahr el Ghazal. Along with th photogrnpbs I have been sent the full description of aptain .B tliell' a ]v e ntnrons expeclitiou, which will be found valuabl as the fir. t of the kind of tliis alm t unknown province. Being written on the spot, euhances it value, while 1aptain Bethell write in uch graphic tyle that his narrative is peculiar! intere. ting. 348

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    A WALK ArfD A VISIT Irf THE BAHR EL GHAZ'1L. A vv ALK A D A V !SIT I THE BAHR EL GHAZAL. This year b ing in the Bahr e l Ghazal on military duty, I ha l tb goo l fortune to be transferred temporarily to Su lan Civi l Government f r luty in the Wan di trict as an inspector, for it ende l in my making one of the most intere ting trip that can be made in this province. On arriving at Wan, the heall uarters of the Mudiria from th post where I was stationed, I foun l I had been detailed to visit Sultan Tambura, a loyal Niam-Niam chief, whose country li es about 150 miles clue south of Wau, and abo .ut 50 miles north of th Nile and Congo watershed. A year or so ago, this chief was visited by the Governor of the Bahr el Ghazal, and ever since then he has always rendered the greatest assistance to Government by supplying carriers, and ending in men as recruit It took some days gettin g together my kit and supplies for the march there and back. Tam bura. had been told ~hat an inspector was c ming to visit him, and had sent his brother Mofwi in, with ma,ny carriers for my party ; everything had to be made up into 50 lb. loa ls, and amongst the things I had to take were bales of cloth and beads, for presents to small chiefs, and for the purchase of supplies on the road; tents for myself, and the doctor, who was accompanying me, and a small Berthon boat. SULT.A. 'D RM.A.. Captain B ethe ll. Between Wau an l Tambura's country there is now an xtensive tract of uninhabited country, which in the olcl days was thickly por nlate l, but slave trading and intertribal wars have broken many of the tribes up, leavina only sma ll r mnants in what used to be populous district and the few that w re left in the centre of the Bahr e l Ghazal sought protection either with Dinkas or the Niarn-Niam and became their slaves There are two ways of getting into Tarnbura's country, oue to follow the course of the River Jur, which runs through it, or to use the nativ tracl, known as the Sika Atesh or thirsty road," in the dry weather I l eft Wau the beginning f J une with an escort of thirty men and eighty carr ier. ; the escort was more of a badge of 349

    PAGE 380

    IT I PYRA11fID A't-iD PROGRE 1 .authority than anythin el for the natives of the B ahr el Ghaza l ha, e the greatest re I ect for a man with a gun, even if it is of the ol lest I attern, b r ok n beyon l r pair, .an l la t but not lea t without ammunition In tw day.' march I had g t c l ar f th v ill a~es in the ,"Tv au li trict, and taking the ika Atesh I stru c k into the forest due outh ; for som way on this track as is the u tom in the ahr 1 Ghaza l rest hut had be n built at interva l s of J:ifteen t twenty miles c l ose to water, a n l a t ni ht in the rainy ea on, tb e huts are of the greatest ervice. I ha l to gi up marching in th aft rnoon, and do a longer one in the mornin~, as the thun lerstorms which are very SULTAN T.AMB UR.A.. Captain B ethe ll h avy at t hi t im e of year, ae nerally c a m e on at tbat time, turning everything in a few minute in to a sea of mud and water. Th track for several day lay over undulatin; countq, covered with scrub, Rnd in many places it was hardly visible, as th new g rass ha l overgrown it. I saw many tracts of e l ep h a nts, hippos and rhino ce ros, an l onc e of e l and, of which there are a few in the Bahr e l Ghaza l and whenever I wanted meat for the men, I invari ably ca me aero s giraffe, which the men beg ge d me to shoot, giraffe meat being greatly appreciated by the native on account of its sweetn s; as a ma t ter of fact, I shot v ery little ga me, most of it being inla n l. On the border o f Tambura' country a.bout 100 miles sout h of Wau, the c h aracter of t h e country cbauged, b eing broken up by small mountain ridges, extending south nearly to the watersh d. Another forty miles on, I marched into one of Tambura's most northern villag es b longin g t o a small Bil .and a Sb ikh, who h ad built huts for our use, and had prepared food for the men. The next day I moved to Gedi, a brother of Tambura, who told me when I got there h e had orders to feed me for a coup l e of days as Tarn bura wa s c ertain I was very hungry aud tir l from my lon g march through the forest. Gedi h ad prepare d food for all of us, and I was rat. her taken aback when one of his men brou ght me a tin basin full of stewed chickens and vegetables for my own consumption, for if this i s the Niam-Nia m idea of foo 1, it is not to be won lered that the Dinkas have nicknamed the .Zandeh race, iam-Niam or" great feeders." In this village I a lso got the native beer 350

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    PAGE 382

    OUR SUD.A.N; I1'. PYE.A. n!ID1 .A.ND PROGRE ( Om bilbil) of th country for the fir t time, ,, hicb is quite c l ear, an l not unlike Engli h beer in taste and col our : it i br wed from "telabun" or clusine, and i far superior to the "marissa" of the Sudan here too I aw many Bilandas, who e chi f object in lif e is to exce l one anoth r in hairdre sing many of them interweave their h air with small trips of bamboo till it stands out roun l their head like the brim of a srraw hat. Tambura' village lies ome thirt -fiv miles to t.he south of Gedi, and I reached it after two days' marching the country wa still ver y hilly, as the ridges run north anrl. south, we ha l very little up and down work _to do, the track running at the foot of th mountains. Tambura had bum bridges over the worst of th Khors and had widene l the track for some ten miles out of bis v illage three miles out of it hem t me wit.h hi chief men, with not a rifle between them. Tambura l ed the way to his own enclosure, in the outAr court of which were three lar ge cc dahr el-tor" or ox backs, so called from their lon g ~-idae roof; these hl'l gave over to me for the us e of the m en, a.nd in another court I found on for myself well built and well floored, Tambura' own hou e, and the huts of his ma~ wives being in anoth r enclosure at the back. Tambura, after giving we tea, left me, having toll me he had put his cook at my disposal, and being extreme l y hungry after the march, I sent for him, rather wondering what sort of a cook T ambura kept, and I wa s nrpri ed on bis ans we ring sou pe and "poulet" on my a king him what there was to eat I found out afterwards that Tambura had got him from the French besi les this cook, Tambura picked up many civi li cl notions from them as w 11, though his know l e lae of thA l anguage i. limited to cc Oui." They, the French, were in the Bahr e l Ghazal some years, and they built a post in Tambura's v ill age, which they ca ll l Fort Hassinger. During the time I spent in Tnmbura 's village, I had plenty to do; many days were spent in intervie.wioohis chief men, and finding out from them abo n t their villages an l people One morning I reviewed Tambura's army, which i armed with weapons of all sorts and size ancl was much amuse l witl their march I a t, when the whole lot :filed past me, heade l by a band f chums, bugles, and lon 5 horns made of eler hant tu ks. obtained many interesting I hotographs of the village and people, ancl could not helr comparing Tambura when I photograr bed him in front of hi 352

    PAGE 383

    :NOR'l'TIERN DINJU.S (TALL AND DARK, 6 F'f. 2 IN. ) RED-SKI:NNED J U RS ( 5 F'l' 2 IN.) w >-BON OF 'l'IIF. A'l'WO'l' CHIEF SPEARMEN BRO UG H '!' IN BY N 'DORMA. A'l',YO'l' ARCHERS SJTOO'l'JNG FOTI PRT.7.ES. 1-3 ;:i::: t:,:j oj >t:,:j r G) :> ('"') ;;;:::, b::I ;:::,. ...:....,

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    OUR UDA.N; IT PlRA.LllID A.'ND PROGRE chief men to" Old Kin..., ol ," for h w uld insi t n ending for hi 1 ng 1 i} e. nother very int re tiui one wa that of T mbnrn. an l hi. mother, f r thi. 11 lam i extrem ly proud of h r on, an l wou l d a l way f llow him about on important occasion with a drawn knife. Tam bura' vil l age i a very l arg ne, and c ntain some of most of the trib in the Bahr el hazal th hut" are well built of the typ common to the e countries, with cultivated rrroun :l roLm l th m. Although Tamlrnra is a :Niam-Niam him elf, he ha v ry few iam-.Niams in hi country, and among t th se cannibali m i now unknown. Th re i also in his village a l arge col ony of refugees from Khartoum and Omdurrnan, who have been ent bade by the Go,ernment the e I eople seemed very I lea eel at g tting back to their l d ountry, but comp l ained bitterly of the want of clothe the ncare t tree ufficing the women-folk for their da il y toilette Toward th encl of my tay I heard that Sultan N'dorma, .whose cou ntry lie to the south, was on hi. way to pay me a visit A f w days after, he came in with a large following of sp arm n aud rift men : it was the first time :N'dorma had paid a visit to a rer r sentativ f the Government, an l as it is a very rare thing for one 'ultan to vi it another, it ,~ as most curious to watch the formaliti s they ob erve l to one another. It was pe c ially noticeable in th messenaers that N'clorma sent in to us ; on get.ting near us they would first dive t themselves of all their weapons, and after they had heard our answer, they knelt down and brushed the ground iu front of our f et with their hantl an l cl parted running; this I afterwa r ls learnt was their ibu f atisfaction Tambura had parad d all hi riflemen in an open pace to receive N'uorma, and when his came in both l ots l ed I ast us. Many of N'dorma's men were rnry inter sting some were :Niam-Niams wearing their tribal headlres a small traw hat, surmounted by long feather plumes dyed black, other were chiefly Bilan las and Pambia the I ea rmen we r e arme l with l arge wicker-work sh1elds an l spears, insi le th hield they carri d a cunred throwing knife, which is v r y common among trib just north of th quator. N'dorma and I mutuall3 exchancred presents and during th few days he was at Tambura's I had many long tRlk with him about the polic of the ov rnment, hi country an l the people in it; at last h went off taking with l1im the English and Egyptian :flags, which he had specially asked for at first. About the beginning of ugust, I left on my backward journey, very sorry to say goo 1-bye to Tarnbura, who had proved a real good host, though a black one, but rather 0l ad at the anie time to think I had something more in front of me than th eternal chicken for breakfa _t, lun ch and d i nner, for there i s very littl e e ls e in the way of meat in this country. The r turn march was rather s vere, as the heavy rains had swollen many of the Khors to l arge streams which nece sitated usin g the Berthon boat, a lso a great deal of the track wa uuder water, and I wa not sorry to reach Wau and get my trip ended. A. B. BETHELL. (Captain Roycil Artill ery.) 354

    PAGE 385

    Z BEIR PA 1IA: HIS PE~Ld.RKABLE CAREER. When the photoo raph from the Niam-Niam country r ach
    PAGE 386

    wick dne s of the Arab an l how th y blocked the roa ls, I came to op n them and tablish trad ." Zub ir on thi occasion concluded peace in Kordofan, Darfur and ahr el Ghazal. Whatev r hi other crime. he never coul l be accus d of sympathy with th Mah li. H was xil d to ibraltar for two year and hi property in the Su I an was of cour e lost 1n the Oervjsh war. Aft r Kitch n r', conquest of Khartoum, h begg d t b allo"\\ d to r turn. He 1s now ery old. H lives on hi pat rnal tat s, G ila n ar Khartoum, and i a great a riculturi t. H ha laid asid all his old objectionable habit an l is now a tall old man, rather good-looking, and er3 fond of showing himself in his Pa ha' n11iform at all fun tion arnl n v r loses a chance of puttinO' in an appearanc at the Palace. thus in s Y ral of onr photograph H i. now quite harmless, anc1 his ympath3 with u an l an ir athy to th Mahli, joined to a unique know l edge of v ry remot provinc has mad hi frien
    PAGE 387

    ZUBEIR PA HA, SL.A VE DEALER, E ~ILE, ALLJ. -again offered the holy title of fahdi by the man who t ok it him elf, th n exiled, afterward parJoned, and now an energ tic support r of the En l isl ominati n. He j now a weak old man, re pected by some, feared even yet by others. It is a wonderful tale, one that could only have happened in this country of contrast Let us hope the old man may have a peaceful death, among the Engli. h people, whom, after all his strange career, h e really seems to love and to whom, in his old lays, he has tried to be of service in practical ci1;,ilisation As a g r at agricultnrist, hi property at Geila is an object lesson of much value in the efforts we are making to teach the importance of improving th tillage an l variety of the best-paying crops. A the first in pection of the remotest province by the Governor-General is worthy of record, I give the Official Report of the Ministry of War which reached me a fter this chapter was in t pe. The Mini try of vVar ha ju t publi h cl an official narrative de ~ ribing the irlar r ent mi ion to th remo e tation of .A.nglo-Eg:n tian juri diction in t h e uclan. Th e irdar ,vith )Jj ta:ff et out from Khartoum on Nov mber 'itl1 ra,ellin g by team r a far a W au. The journ y to that I oint occupied lighUy ov r ten days. 'l'he occa ion wa a m morable one, a it wa the first time the Governor-Gen ral of t h e udan had pen trated to th J1eart of the Bahr el Ghazal provinc .Aft r devoting a couple of clay to in pect,ion clutie the irclar convok cl an a mbly of th officer and fun tionarie of he province t lt e prin ipal 11 ikh and ruler of the urrounding tTibe a ,Yell a tl1e atholi mi ionarie of the region. .Among he native I ot ,cntate pre nt ere the ultan of Faroge and the 'ultan of the Dinka tribe. The ultan of t h e Niam-Niam tl1ough travelling northward with all lJO, ibl peecl did not reach the rendezvou in time to a tend th -itcln.r reception "The latter cl liv red an addre explain ing to the a emb l y th political int ntion of t h new Gov rnm nt. H e enjoined them to r fu e to lend their ars to r eport crediting the Gov rnment witl1 th lea t intention of authorizing s lav ery or other unlawful act H e evere l y reproved the inclol nee and di lo:alty of some of the auxiliary trib and concluded with a peroration invitinothem all to co-01 emte with th oYernment toward tlle peaceful admini tration th w elfare, and pro I erit, of the Bahr e l Ghazal. Thi s a.llocution produced a salutary iinprescion on the native chi f -an eff et further reinfor eel b y a di tribution of pre nt to tho who have hi herto shown t hem lve friencll to the udan Government. "During the tay at Wau it wa found that the River Jur i navigable for 70 mil to the soutl1 of the town, at lea t during ix mont]1 f the yea r .At Wau the irdar in pected the gutta-percha plantation now being cultivated from wl1ich favourable re ult are anticir ated. Pa ing through Me hraelR k, and in p cting the military pot at J'aufikia Kocl ok, J\fplut, R nk, Kawa, and Du im, the irdar and hi retinu finally r acl1ecl Klmrtoum on ov mb r 27th. THE END 357 2 A 2

    PAGE 388

    bai, River, 294. Abba J land, 163. Abu Hamed, 22, 73 --Haraz, 2 -Kika, 2u5. --E] a, Battle, 2 4. Ramla, 274. imbel, 3. --Z eid, 205 bu ir, Cliff, 32. Ab: ~ inia, 2 3 sqq. Ahmet Feclil, 175 sqq. 292 Aka ha, 34. mara, T emp l e 4 1 -.1,2 .Ambicrol, 34. men mhat III., 39. Am nhot p III. 4o 52 m nhotcp' carab 50 53. -Temple, Luxor, 44. m rican :\1 i i n "' hool 139, 212-215. n i nt i gypt:ian -Fort, Defufa, 41. Antiquitie of Mero .. 1 -15166 Anuak, 216. barn. Bridge, 22. --River, 2 9, 31 320. wtrian Mis ion, 226. venue of Ram 49. Bahdm Georgi 304. ahr el hazal, 2..,6 22 345-7. 1 J ebe l, 223 sqq. --1 Z era, 226 Ba.lCl'nic ep Rex," 130, 843. Bamboo Foret, 293 Ban N aga and 'I mpl 156-Bank at KbaTtoum, 124. Bari Tribe, 233 sqq. Batl1 22. Battl of the .A.Lbara 7 I EX. 35 Bayuda D Ol' Pa 2 Beclden I l and, 246. Ben llm T mple, 3 33 Beni, haucrul, 274 Berber 2..,, 2-.J., 79 'ailland', IraY 1 29 sqq. 4. ataract oond, 27 32 33 ThiJ:l 54 -Fourth 72. -Fifth, 77 --tatue 54-7. olo i a T heb 4 1. rom r, Lord, 3 5, 13, 194-2 3. Dalgo, 34. Darfur, 33..,6 Death of Khalifa, 175-1 2. Debra 'Tabor, 300. De at of Mahmoud, 0 D ldi Bridge, 304-5. Delgi, Lak 296. Demt mma, 20 Deng lb r, 30 Der l A l rnmda, 20 Dincl r, FiY r, -66.

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    Din kn. Cn,ttle, 232-4. Dinka, 131, 207 sqq. Doka, 292. Dongola, 57. Dougla apt. Sholto, 2 70. Drury, Li eut., R.N., 190, 234. Duemi c h e n 142. Dufil e l 92. Dunkur 275 Dupuis, E., 253, 2 3-320. El Da m r 24. El Dueim, 206. El Geteina 206. El Obeid 341. Ern i n Pn, lia, 246. Fmnaka 272. Fa l1e r 314. Fa l1i Sh ya, 206. Fa h oda .A-ffaire, 16 7 17 -.1,. Far.okl 256, 2 70. F erg u on, Col., lJO, 26 Feti h .free, 270. Fnngor 334 'alhtbat, 272, 21. Goll a 2 72. Gar tin , ir W. 5, 6, 8, 221-5. Gar t in N il e Canal, Sir vV., 219-225. Ga h, R ive r, 30] Gecbbi, 296. Gedar ef, 2 321. Gei la 86 357 Ge zira 262-4. Gidami 272. i nni Bn,ttle, 5 G irouar 1 ir P., 20. Gl i h e n Count, 7, 60 75. ounte Valda, 194203. Gonda1, 296. Gonclokoro, 203 sqq. Gordon 'lub, 124. M morial Service, ] 1 5, 12~. Statue, 12 Gor lon Gate, 32 4. Gore ba, 310 'orgora Penin ula, 298. Gorring Col., 12 4, 270. Goz 1i.bu Guma, 20G. IDEX 359 Goz R jeb, 314 -6. Gr nfell, Lieut., 96. --Lord, 4 5. Gunclwaha, Riv 1, 296 Gwynn B y 272 2 2. Gwynne, R v. Lle" llyn 96, 12 130 141. Harrington, 'ol., 29G. Hell t 1 u r, 205, 3 44. Heroclotu 3 6. Holy Mountai n 61 sqq. Ho kin Tra e l 29 sqq. Hunt L eig h limiter, ir A.. 4, 59 78. Int lligen c e Department, 7 sqq Hang Village, 275. Jaalin t]1e 24 6 124,266. Ja, m e Capt. the Hon. C., 133. Jebe l cl A.aha, 20 -Ara hkol 205. -Barkal T mple 62 69. -Keili, 275 --L ado, 244 -M nza, 274. M t ngwa, 27 4. --R ejaf, 244. Jeb 1 in 20 Kabu hi a 24. K aka, 20. Kand a kc, Queen, 70. Karata, 296. Karkaj, 26 7. K a ala, 320-2. Ka,rn, 206. K ni a 233 5. K I pel, 'om mancl el', 12.l. Kerma 34. 153 5 K rreri Battlefield, 91, 93 95. Klmlif a' Death, 175 sqq. --Hou e 100, 109. Khandak 57. Khartoum, 115-140. -Native ill ag 136 -P alace, 132. Kha him el Girba, 314. King John Killed 295. King' udan Pict,ure t h e 7:3, 115. Kirin, 275. Kir 240.

    PAGE 390

    Kitch n r, Lord, 4, 7 20 22, 59, 7 J, 12 Kitchener' 11001" 1 9. Kodok 20 sqq. Korclofan, 327 sqq. Kor ko 19, 22 Kol'ti, 2. Ko ha, 34. Km r, 34. K ,rnra, 296. Labore, 246. Lado 242-5. 9 91 96 99. Ma clonald, ir H. 93--:1,. M ahdi'Tomb 96, 100-1. Mahomet wa l Hojali, 27-:1,. Mar haul, 174. Maria Ther a Dollar 217 Marriage carab, 51. Meclinet H ab u, 4-. M lut, 20 !l:enelek, J ing, 800. M e r Ll of, 145 sqq. M amat and T emr 1 16-:1,. M etemma, 2. Mi h -i.nt r B y 326. M gatta, 3l6. M ngalla 241-3. 1\'.fonum 11 to rr" en -fir-Lan r 9. 1:mrat, ell22 Naga and it Temr le 160--:1,. ar ata 6 l sqq. w Don o la, 60. iam-N iarn, 343-356 T ile beyond Kl1al'toum, 1 5 sqq. --Ree rd, 30. Ohrwalcler, 4, 7 106. Omdebreika 175 sqq 292. Omdmman, 90 114. 0 man Digna, 79 0. Par l'U, 1 4. P a r on ol., 292. P ak L .ol. 1 3 192. 1 DE1.. 360 127. Piankbi, 64 Pyramid and T m11 apata 62 72. J b 1 Barkal, 65 -.f Ul'l'U, 64. -i\I ro .. 2 ,.1,, 25, H5155. --Jul'i, 66. -Tanga i 64. --Zuma, 64. Rahad, Rirnr, 266 2 7. Ra uk a, 29 -Manga ha, 304. R awlin n, 'ii H 121. R b, Riv r, 306. R ejaf, 246. R mzi Trthir 292. Renk, 20 145, 162. 66. 3 39, 40. 20, 22, 24. udd, nqu t of the, 1 3-192 -R eg i n of 1 5 s qq. ultan 'Dorma 849 50 -Tambma 351 2.

    PAGE 391

    Taharqa, 61 72. Taharqa' Que n, 7 L. Talbot, Hon. 'ol., T aufikia, 223 sqq. T 1 el Kebir 3. Thotlrnrn III., 32 Tiedemann, Baron von, 121. Tolu R apid, 246 To k.i Battle, 1, 4. T yi, Queen 43 sqq. U erte en I., 30 37. Victoria Nyanzn.: 225, 260. Wad Haba hi, 2 Medani, 266 1/'iDEX. Wad lai 24 , adi 1 ufra and T 1111 l -165-6. -Hal.fa, 19, 20, 21, 26, 29. War Dn, n of hilluk 19 -9. Wat on, Major, 177, 205. Wau, 345-9. Wbite il 1 3 sqq. Willcock ir W., 35. Wingate, Lady, 127. -'ir R 4, 10 117-122, 167, 175, 348. "\iV ol e ley, Lord, 4. W oocl, ir Evelyn 3, 4 59. Y abu Ri, r 27 4. Z egi, 304 6. Zubeir Pasha, 355-7. NILE FISH, "LA'rus NILOTI .,: L t .-Co/. P enton HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY '1' 0 HIS MAJE 'rY, s r. MAl.'1.'IN'S LANE, LONDO

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    UTHOR. N.B.-Tbis volume Is not a mere catalogue of Mr. Ward's Greek Coins, as its title seems to convey. "It is a vivid general sketch of Greek Sites and Citi e s with hundreds of Illustrations. I know no such book on the subject. I am delighted to possess it. "-D. J. HOGARTH. GREEK COINS TA~~R PARENT CITIES. By JOHN WARD, F.S.A. With upwards of 500 Illustrations, 4 Maps, many Portraits, and 1,000 Autotypes of the most beautiful Coins in the World. Crown 4to. gilt. 25s. net. plea antly written, a n d te tify to the i vid interest which fr. Ward fee ls in modern r e carch int o the past. The public is g reat l y indebted to collecto r who t hu do their best to make th e public s h a r e rs in their po sessio ns. ''-.Spectator. This is a work of o ri gina l d e ign and of ingula r fa cination The illustration of t h e coin a r e o admirably rend e r e d t hat they s h ow the minut e wo rk ma n ship almost as well as it ca n b e see n on the piec e s rherns':!lve The r e is al o an abun,iance of other illu trati on r e pr e e nt i ng scenery, statuary, bui lding, an d people." --11Ior11ing Post "The reader wi ll without doubt be c harm e d by t h e magnificent plat es w hi ch ac corn p an ) it. Mr. vVard i for t un ate in t h e tat e of bi s co i n Vie d o u bt if a nything fine r is know n than th e four yracwan [ e dallions. '-Times DEDICATED TO DR. FLINDERS PETRIE. THE SACRED -BEETLE. POP L R TRE TI E. 0 E, PTI R B IN R T N HI TOR\'.. By JOHN WARD, F.S.A., A11tlzor of P_yramids a11d P rogress, 0J"'C. With 500 Examples of Scarabs from the uthor s ollecti o n man y Royal Portraits, and ot h e r Illustr atio ns Translations by F. LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A. Demy 8vo. IOs. 6d. net. n ot on l y eve ry s tud ent of Egy pto l og y b u t all who are int e r e t e d in antiquiti e s, will b e c h armed with thi b ea utiful and in t ru c tive, yet nev e r pretentiou Y o lum e -Spectator. The volu me i one of those t hat r eally add to t h e k n ow l edge of the genera l r ea d e r -without boring him-and. L hat t h e expe rt can al so r ega r d with appr oving good will. ''-Times. "The v a lue o f Mr. \iVard' b oo k li e in th e exce ll e nt photograph of hi fine coll ec t ion, and in th e acc urate transcripts and trans l ations of the text which h e h a provid e d "-Gu ardia n. JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, LONDON. "A Practical Guide for E0 1 ,pt Fiftlz Thousand. 308 pp. 320 Illustratio11s. 7 s 6d. n e t By JOHN WARD, F.S.A. DEDICATED HY PERi\II~ IO TO EARL ROMER, G .C.B., & PYRAMIDS AND PROGRESS. SKETCHES FROM EGYPT. "The r e is not a dull page i.n the book.' -Times. "The firm p e ncil of a m a n s ur e of hi s fac t s '-SI. J a mes's Gazette. "The vo lum e i s o ne t h at o rdin a ry r ea d e r will enjoy .'' World \n indisp e n a bl e companion to all who go tu E g ypt." Graphic Just wh at is want e d Va nity Fair. 'An ex tr e m ely inte r es ting book "-Pall t /all Gazet t e "A book of sterling valu e Standa rd. "A p e r f e ct pictur e o f th e country a it is t o day fris!t Times. EYRE A. D SPOTTI \tVOOD LONDON, E.C.