Citation
A colloquial grammar of the Bhutanese language

Material Information

Title:
A colloquial grammar of the Bhutanese language
Creator:
Byrne, St. Quintin
Place of Publication:
Allahabad
Publisher:
Pioneer Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 72p : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Dzongkha language ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Bhutan
एशिया -- भूटान
Coordinates:
27.417 x 90.435 ( Bhutan )

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
264321 ( aleph )
X180301526 ( oclc )
GPE Bhu 415 /6477 ( soas classmark )

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A COLLOQUIAL GRAMMAR

OF THE

BHUTANESE LANGUAGE

by

St. QUINTIN BYRNE,

india polick.

SCHOOL OF

ORIENTAL
STUDIES

FINSBURY CIRCUS

PRINTED AT THE PIONEER PRESS
ALLAHABAD

1909




PREFACE.

An attempt has been here made to describe the
phonology, etymology and syntax of the language spoken
by the people whose habitat is Bhutan, i.e., the country
lying between 89£ and 91 east longitude. It is
spoken along the frontier of the Jalpaiguri district ana
at Buxa, Paro, Andhophonung and Tongso. 4 Hlo is
he native name of this region and Hlo-pa' and 4 Duk-
pa are the names of the inhabitants, the former terri-
torial, the latter religious.

Their religion approximates the Buddhistic religion
of Tibet and the country is now under an independent
Sovereign the Tongsa Penlo.

As one travels further east the Changlo dialect is
met with while still further east, and to the north of
Assam, we have the Towang Bhutiabobh of these
dialects having a distinct vocabulary of their own.

The Hlo' dialect, an exposition of which is now
given, belongs to the great Tibeto-Burman family and
to the Trans-Himalayan group of which Tibetan is the
standard language. The written language has the same
characters as the Tibetan and capitals are used for
religious books besides the ordinary cursive.


ii

2. For purposes of Government the country is divided
into the three provinces of Tongso, Paro and Tahga
and ruled by Penlos or governors and the people are
divided into priests, chiefs and the cultivating class.
The gyelongs, besides belonging to the priesthood,
teach gymnastics and dancing. The head of the eccle-
siastics being the Lamkhen, a person of importance well
up in politics, meteorology and other sciences. There
are also convents in which nuns reside. They shave
the head and wear yellow clothing. Tbe form of worship
in the temples resembles the rites of the Romish church;
incense, holy water, bells and candles are freely used.

3 The towns have no washermen or barber; the other
employments followed are
Cultivators
Herdsmen
Shopkeepers ...
Potters

Blacksmith ...
Carpenter
Goldsmith
Fisherman
Shoemaker ...
Public executioner

of animals.

The Bhutanese generally are good farmers and clever
carpenters, their houses and bridges specially testifying

minap.
byop.

tsori chhapmi.

jam khep, chiefly women.

gau.

ZO.

tuko.
nyarop.
kotebpu.
p'apsemi


iii

their skill in wood-work. In appearance the men are
tall and robust-looking but not so stalwart as the
Tibetans. They do not wear their hair in a plait as
the Sikkim Bhutias and are also distinguished from
them by the wearing of one ring in the ear, while the
women use hardly any jewellery at all. The male dress
consists of a loose woollen coat reaching to the knees
with a full front which acts as a pocket. The women
have their hair cut after the male fashion

4. In the scale of precedence the Deb Raja comes
first followed by

The Penlo.

Jungpon or governor of a castle.

Zimpe.

Nichen or officer in charge of commissariat.

Donie, a kind of A.-D.-C.

Japon or master of the horse.

Zinkaff, sepoy officer.

Pii, sepoy.

5. I have consulted Jaschke's Tibetan grammar and
the grammar of the Denjong language by the Rev. J. F.
Sandberry and my special acknowledgment is due to
the kind assistance given me by Mr. David Macdonald
of Darjeeling.

Darjeeling : 1

I St. Q. BYRNE.

August 1907. }










CONTENTS.

part i.phonology.

Page/

1. Transliteration ... ... 1

2. Consonants ... ... 1-2

3. Vowels and Diphthongs ... 3

4. Remarks ... ... 3-4

PART II.Etymology.

5. The Article ... ... ... ... 5

6. Substantiveits Declension ... ... ... 5-6

7. Peculiarities in connection with Nouns ... ... 6-7

8. Abstract Nouns ... ... ... ... 7-8

9. Adjectivescomparison ... ... 8

10. List of important adjectives ... ... ... 9-10.

11. Pronouns ... ... ... ... 10-11

12. Possessive ... ... ... ... 11

13. Demonstrative ... ... ... ... ib.

14. Relative ... ... ... ... 12

15. Interrogative ... ... ... ib.

16. Indefinite ... ... ... ib.

17. Reflexive ... ... ... ... 13

18. Distributive Pronoun ... ... ib.
1923. Verbs Indicative and Infinitive Moods and Irre-
gular ... ... ... ... 13-14

2428. Imperial, Potential, Desiderative, Causative and

Subjunctive Moods ... ... ... 14-15
2933. Passive Voice and Auxiliary, Substantive and

Negative Verbs ... ... ... ... 15-16


vi

Page.

34. Adverbs ... ... ... ... 17-18

35. Postpositions ... ... ... ... 1S-19

36. Conjunctions ... ... ... ... 19-20

37. Interjections ... ... ... ... 20
38- NumeralsCardinals and Ordinals ... ... 21-22

39. Adverbial Numeralsmultiplicative and fractional

(currency and measurement) ... 22-23

PART III.Vocabulary.

40. Animate life ... ... ... ... 24-25

41. Colour ... ... ... ... ... 25

42. Diseases and Drugs... ... ... ... ib.

43. Dress ... ... ... ... ... 26

44. Food, drink and utensils ... ... ... 26-28

45. Functions of the body and mind ... ... 28-29

46. Fruit, flowers and vegetables ... ... ... 29

47. Human body ... ... ... ... 30-31

48. House and appurtenances ... ... ... 32

49. Insects and reptiles... ... ... ... 33

50. Mankind and relations ... ... ... 33-34

51. Minerals and metals ... 35

52. Manufactures ... ... ... ... ib.

53. Musical instruments and games ... ... 36

54. Miscellaneous ... ... ... ... 36-39

55. Nature ... ... ... ... ... 39-40

56. Nationalities and countries ... ... ... 41

57. "Rites and Religion ... ... ... ib.

58. Superstitions ... ... ... 42

59. Trade ... ... ... ... ... 42-43

60. Trees ... ... ... ... ... 43

61. Timfes and seasons ... ... ... ... 43-46
G2. A list of the principal verbs ... ... ... 46-52


vii

PART IV.Syntax and Sentences.

Page.

63. Arrangement of words in simple and compound senten

ces ... ... ... ... ... 52-53

64. Conversation and phrases ... ... ... 54-62

Appendix ... ... ... ... 62-64

Reading exercise ... ... ... ... 65-71

Example of Letter writing ... ... ... 71-72


J


PART I.

PHONOLOGY
The Alphabet.

1. The system of phonetic transliteration used is
given below. The Bhutanese do not pronounce cor-
rectly, in many instances, the Tibetan spelling of words
and it is not possible to give any well-defined rules for
such departures.

Tibetan character. Consonants.

2. ttj' k: pronounced as the English k in i( kind."
pq-*; kh : as in the Hindustani khansam£."

zj]" g: hard as in give."

ng : is nasal and is represented by N.
ch : as in u chain."
& chh : as in Churchill where the ch and

' h' are sounded together.
E/j : as in English.

5)*ny : as 4 n and y pronounced together in
" neyim."

: as our talso {t' will represent the same
sound aspirated.
^~th : as in the Hindi thanna "
: as in English.

B


Tibetan character. Consonants.

T^dh : as 4 d aspirated. When these last four
^'letters are to be pronounced as cerebrals a
dot is placed underneath them,
a : as in English,
p : as in English.

like 4p' and 4h' combined in 14top-
heavy"this sjund is represented by ,4 p."
£j"b : as in English,
m : as in English.
l ts i as iii 44 bets."
^ s : same aspirated,
g^dz : as in 44 adze."

w : as in English.
G^zh or sh :

not romanized.
tCJV:

'Vi:

^j's : ^as in English.
vS'sh :

yh: ,

J

Note also the following :

( ky': pronounced with something of the ch in it.
6 hi': the 61' aspirated as in the Welsh Llewellyn.
< gy : pronounced hard as 44 gee "


3

Voivels and Dip'hflioiigs.

1 Jj^ a : as in mast.

a : as u' in ban.

2 ^ e : as ay in May.

3 C\ i : as e in me. When short this letter will

be represented by placed above the letter.

4 o i usually long as in stone.

5 u : as 1 oo in food.

au : as in fraught this is a frecjuent'sound.

ai : to be pronounced separately as in Italian
only short.

o: as in the German i( schon."

ii : as the u' in French feu."

ow : as in the ou in proud.

4. It should be observed that two separate sounds must
not be made of Ng" and considerable practice is re-
quired to give it its proper sound. Ungava repeated
several times will assist in rendering this correcily.

The student is advised to pronounce aloud each
word so as to accustom the ear to the peculiar staccato
sound of the language, and special note must be made to
give the correct stress on the letters accentuated.

Like most Eastern languages there is an honorific
form of speech and the vocabulary has been arranged
in two columns showing this peculiarity.


4

When speaking to the highest personage the form of
address is <( Kusho = Sir and "Tasho'; is similarly
used for any person of note.

e.g. Tasho kale chhom = Where have you come from
Sir ? Here chhom is the honorific verb used instead of
"ongni" to come. When calling the attention of a
superior one would say :

T&sho nyen se^=listen please Sir.


PART II.

ETYMOLOGY.

The Article.

5. The Article is placed after the substantive and has
no gender and number is rarely expressed.

The Definite Article is Di = the.
e.g.Bring the box
dom di ba sho.

The Indefinite Article is expressed by chi.'
e g.a house
chim chi

and is always placed after its noun.

The plural is expressed by dichu.'
e.g.the houses
chim dichu.

The Noun.

6. There is only one genderthe masculine, the
feminine gender being expressed by different words.
e.g.mi = man.

amchu = woman.


6

There are some exceptions to this general rule a a
in the case of ra = he-goat.

o

ram = she-goat,
p'yap = cock,
p'yam = hen.

When the vowel root of the word is shortened and
' m added

The plural is formed by adding 4 chu.5
e.g.memmia Lepcha.
memmichuLepchas.
The Noun is declined by annexing to it certain
postpositions

e.g.Chim chi a house.
Norn. Chim chia house.
Gen. Chim giof a house.
Dat. Chim lu to a house.
Acc. Chim or chimlua house.
Loc. Chim nain or at a house.
Abl. Chim lefrom a house.
Agentive. Chim giby a house.
It should be noted that of one house would be
chim chi gi.

7. The points to be observed in connection with
substantives is that such words as upon and with "
are translated where we would consider these adjuncts
superfluous.

e.g.Shin di gu dze, would be
climb the tree


7

the syllable gu" being used in accordance with
Tibetan idiom.

The particle lu must be used when a Dative sense
is implied.

Mi di lu lam di ten :
Show (to) the man the road

When both subject and object occur the subject is
put in the Agentive case.

e.g.Chhi di p'illi lu so tapdoo
the dog is biting the cat-

But in ordinary conversation of the lower classes this
peculiarity is not observed.

The only exception to the regular declension appears
to be in the following expression

Oh ho hekha jo do ga ? = Are you going to market ?
Chho semkha tu be ga ? = Do you like.

where the particle kha represents the in' or to'
instead of the regular particles na or lu.

8. Abstract nouns are seldom used; they are however
formed from adjectives.

e g.The cold is intense
sitonto kam bom me.

Here we have the unaltered adjective sitoiito "
used as a noun-


8

In the case of antithetical ideas existing in ordinary
conversation the compound of both is used

e.g.What is the height of this wall ?
tsipo degi t'ome kazu be.

"T'ome" here represents two words "t'o" = high
and me = low.

So also bomchhuii = (lit. large and small) i.e., size.

Diminutives are formed by adding the termination-
" chhu" e.g.,mi = man ; michhu = dwarf.

ta = horse ; tachhu = little horse.

Adjective.

9. The Adjective is always placed after the noun
e.g.a bad boy

puchu sob chi,
and it can be rendered more intense by prefixing the
word £ kam = very

e.g.Ta di kam lezhim me
the horse is very good.

Adjectives are compared by using 44 we for the com-
parative and zlien ka we for the superlative
e.g.Chhab di p'idi we lezhim me
this thing is better than that.
Chhab di zhen ka we lezhim me
this thing is the best.
Lam di zhen ka we tuiisho me.
this road is the shortest.


9

10. A list of the more imj
below :

Bravenyeta.
Badsob.
Bluntpodu.
Broad jiajhe.
Cheapkhyetoto or kheye
Cleantanthiithti.
Clearhotanto.
Clever rrib.
Cunningchiichen.
Cowarddo mi.
Dearkiibe.
Deeptin.
Dirtytepa.
Drunken razizu.
Drykam.
Difficultlakha.
Easylakha min du.
Equaldanda.
Falseshop.
Fatjyariri.
Fierce -- dosisi.
Flatleptete.
Foolishrribmi.
Freshsap.
Fulltembe.

Drtant adjectives is given

Goodlezhim.
Greatbom.
Handsome-sarrim.
Hardsatakta.
Happygani.
Heavyji.
Hight'oyo.
Hollowhauka.
Importantthontoto.
Innocentziimmeb.
Largebom.
Longrim.
Lightyathuthii.
Narrow-jiajhe chhungko.
Newsap.
Oldnyip.
Poor iip.
Quietkhachum.
Richp'y11?-
Ripechochhob.
Roughparoshishi.
Soundthegogo.
Sad -du.
Sharpnii.
Shortt'ungku


10

Slowkole. Tallzurim.

Smoothjamtonto. Thickthup'apa.

Soft, supplenyentoibgto. Thinsapthiithii.

Soundke. Truetontoto.

Sour kyup. Warmchhep.

Strongkhyeko. Weakkliyeko mi.

Sweet shimtoto.

Wetpari pum.

Pronouns.

11. Pronouns are used in place of nouns. There are
eight kinds :

The Personal.

NgaI. Chhoyou.

Nigiof me, my. Chhogiof you, your.

Ngaluto me, me. Chho luto you, you.

Ngaleby me. Chho leby you.

Kho he. Moshe.

Khogi of him, his. Mogiof her, her.

Kholuto him, him. Moluto her, her.

Kholeby him. Moleby her.

Diit.

Digiof it.
Diluto it.


11

The plural forms are ngachawe.

khongthey,
dichuthem,
ngacheour.
e.g.Chhogi chim kate im
where is your house.
e.g.Ngalu na
give me.

Mogi kiya rim me
her hair is long.

The genitive affix is sometimes omitted
e.g.Chho lab chaiitokto mindu
your hands are not clean,
where chho is used instead of the fuller chhogi

12. The Possessive Pronoun as described above.

It should be carefully noted that the noun may be
accompanied by both the possessive pronoun and the
definite article.

e g.Nigi dom di ba sho

bring my box.
i.e., literally my box the bring.

13. Demonstrative Pronouns.

' This ? is expressed by di' and that' by p'idi.
e.g.Chim di kagi im ?

whose house is this ?
e.g.chho kachibe di be do ?
why are you doing this ?


12

14. Relative Pronouns.

These are denoted by participial clauses.

e.gChim di na domi mi di khacha shisoi

the man who lived in that house died yesterday.

e.g.Chho tari toba nyomi om di ngalu n£

give me the milk which you bought this morning.

Here the particle mi is affixed to the root of the
verb and signifies the agent.

15. The Interrogative Pronouns are:

Kawho. Kagiwhose.

Kachewhat, which. Kalefrom whom.

Kaehibewhy. Kaluto whom.

e.g. Chho ka im ?
who are you ?

e.g.Ta di kagi im?
whose horse is this ?
Chho kalu lapp im ?
to whom are you speaking ?

16. Indefinite Pronouns denote persons and things
in a vague and general manner and are expressed thus:

Thamchhethe whole. Kham, momseveral.

K&iiraall.

Di ya p'ieither.

Achichisome.
Zhenchianother.
Nichharraboth.

Karaberuwhoever.
Andebbein this manner.
P'idebbe in that manner.


13

17. Reflexive Pronouns are used when the emphatic
sense is desired:

e.g.Di ngar&gi zozo imI did it myself
and are formed by adding''ra" to pronoun which
is put in the instrumental case.

18. The Distributive Pronouns are

Eachrere. Each other chigichi.

Everyrere. One anotherchigichi.

e.g.Give each cooly one rupee,
lab rerelu tiru chi chi p'in.

e.g.Love each other
chigichi lu cham.

The Verb.

19. The Infinitive is formed by adding ni to the
root of the verbe.g. She-ni, to catch where she is
the root.

20. The future has the same ending as the infinitive
e.g. Ng& t'un-ni = I will drink.

21. The present Indicative is formed by adding 'do'
to the roote.g. Nga t'un-do = I am drinking, I drink.

22. The perfect tense is formed by adding chi or
" i to the roote.g. Kho yigo chi ti'i while the past
indefinite affixes chaie.g. Kho cha t'un chai.


14

23. Some verbs form their past tense irregularly
e.g. Benito do.

Shi-nito die. Be-idid.

Shi-soindied. Be-chaihas done.

Tanito see. Ori-nito come.

T'on chisaw. Ori-chi-came.

T'oii chaihas seen. Sho !come !

Jonito go. Oilwill be.

Soniwent. On ta ?will be ?

24. The Imperative is the simple root-

le/.sa = eafc, the polite form of which is
sa da = please eat.
jhii da = please sit down.
Jhii is used when speaidng to an equal or a superior.

25. The Potential mood is formed by adding chhu "
to the root

e.g. Nga pajochhu
I can run.

Chho yigo hlapchhu-ga ?
can you read ?
Here the interrogative form is expressed by the addi-
tion of the particle ga

" Mo" (pronounced 6 maw' abruptly) is another
particle and signifies is it not."

26. The Desiderative is denoted thus :

Nga jo gobe = I want to go.

Kho di nyo gobe = He wishes to buy this.

Nga jo ge = I must go, is Intensive.


29

27. The Causative is formed by the particle ta 11
placed between the root and tense ending.

Thim-ta-ni=to cause punishment to be administered.

28. The Subjunctive is expressed by the particle Unu"
Nga chho inu nga chhimlo joni=if I were you I would
go home.

29. The Passive Voice is not clearly distinguished
and is generally expressed by son du."

30. The Substantive verb is expressed by in and
"me," i( ime and go and when used interrogatively
it takes the form of yoda, ga and na

e.g.Chho tari chim na joni na ?

are you going home to-day ?
Tari sitorito ime
it is cold to-day.
Chho Pasaka le on chi na ?
have you come from Buxa ?
Chho semkha cha di chhube ga ?
do you like this tea ?

31. The Auxiliary verb to have is translated like the
Hindi, i.e., Ng&lu sham chi yo=X have a hat Chho da
hi am tsonni yo ga ?have you boots to sell ? i.e., by
you as in 1 tumhara pas.'

Nga inI am.
Chho inthou art.
Kho inhe is.

Ngacha inwe are.
Chiminyou are.
Khoii inthey are.


16

32. The Present Participle 'having' is rendered thus:

Son di tago and see, i.e.y having gone, see when the
particle di stands for 4 having which is added to the
verbal root.

33. The Negative is expressed by mi or min for
the present and future and by ma for the perfect
and imperative

e.g.Nga jo miI am not going.

Nga min joI will not go.

Ng& m& sonI did not go.

Ma sondo not go.

Kho t&to jo do mihe is not going now.

Kho m& sonhe has not gone.

Kho lappni mihe has nothing to say.

Note that in the past tense the negative is placed
immediately before the verb and after the infinitive.
The following should also be noticed :

Nga popda kho p?yolosei = On my calling he ran
iway. Here the particle da represents 66 on."

Nga kha lappegan Ion dii = While I am talking, stand
up.

Chho nam s& shimda sho= When you have finished
eating, come. Here the word shimda denotes com-
pletion.

"At the time of" is translated by t'omda; gan;
chowda.


17

Adverbs.

34. There appears to be no distinction between the
adjective and its corresponding adverb.

The following is a list of the chief adverbs:

Adverbs of time :

Job&soon.
Tar uagain.
Tatoraimmediately.
Tirileafterwards.
Hassa early.
Yiirrunglate.
Ataraalways.
Namyenever.
Tarito-day.
N&bat o -mo rro w.

Khackayesterday.

N&chheday after to-
morrow.

Tari tobathis morning-

Tari p'iruto-night.

N&ba p'irutorn orro w
night.

Naba tobato-m o r r o w
morning.

Adverbs of place:

Nahere.
P'athere.
P'&p?ayonder.
Thandi straight on.
Ie khathuright.
Yom khathuleft.

Kh&thudirection.
M& below.

above.
Nan&within.
Pi'llewithout.

c


18

Other9 being :

P'ashasometimes.
Katerrehow many.
Th&chhobechhocertain-

Kolein order to.
Hantom£suddenly.
Ehalso.

Chhachibualtogether.
Buamong.
Kaas much.
Demchiso much.
Bi tonlebecause.
Tinlebehind.
Malehbut.
Tube enough.
Chhunkolittle.
Tarrumore.

Dongkoopposite.
Chi buonly.
Manyenchinperhaps.
Pi tonletherefore.
Yochhemichhee v e r y-
thing.

S^thumcheeverywhere
Debbein this manner.
Namwhen.
K£tewhere.
Kalewhence.
Kademhow.
Kadechihow much.
Namlehow long.
Laiyes.
Menlano.

Postpositions.

35. Simple postpositions as we have seen are used in
forming the declension of cases of substantives : we have
now to consider compound postpositions which are
expressi ve of the general relations of things and persons
such are :


19

Tonluon account of.

Bollonear.
Zumbe like.
Hembefore.

P'ana between.

Le tondi round by.
Guupon.

Nyumwith, along with.
Padu up to

Buna in the middle of. Gegohion all sides.

" Until" is expressed by padu combined with the
negative

e.g.Nga on mi padu, gudo.
until I come, wait.
Nga Dorling le tondi sorii
I went round by Darjeeling.

Conjunction.

36. When one verb is coupled to another the conjunc-
tion 4 and is not used but the sentence is translated
thus :

Jodi t& = go and see, the gerandial affix di being
employed.

The word for and in coupling nouns is however
used.

Chente da khanti
table and bed.

" Or" is expressed by u ya."

Gorido y& om ba sho
Bring either eggs or milk.

But noteChhogi appa do yo shisoin ?


20

Is your father dead or alive ?

When the cor' is not translated, the alternative being
arranged so as to immediately follow the thing con-
trasted.

The subordinate conjunction "if" is expressed by
" achin or wachin according to euphony
e.g.Ohho sob bewachin nga chholu tini
If you are bad I will beat you.

" Neither and 16 nor are expressed by e and

ye."-

e.g.Nga zane shi sa chho lu ye mi jo
I will neither eat my breakfast nor go to school.

Interjections.

37. The most common in use are

Oinga which means 4 dear me' and is pronounced in a
long and drawling fashion, also expresses an emotion
of mind akin to horror.

Oeh similarly pronounced signifies an immediate
apprehension of fear.

" Alala is oh and when repeated becomes an ex-
clamation of pain.

" Labdunni" expresses joy when the hands are
clapped together.

u Joge is an invitation to 4 oome on.'

Oie 1 ime iine, with emphasis on the i=0h yes
I see.

Tubfl=;very well' corresponding to the Hindi "accha"#


21

The Numerals.

38. Cardinals:

1 ^ Chi.

2 ^ Nyi.

3 ^ Sum.

4 ^ Zhi.

5 V" Nga.

6 >S Tu.

7 V Dun.

8 L Gye.

9 ^ Gu.

10 7 0 Chutam.

11 ? 7 Chuchi.
15 7VCteriga.

17 7 Chabduin

18 9 L Chabgye.

20 ^ O Rhechi, nisu.

21 ^ 7 Nisusa chi,

30 \ 0 Khephedangni.

40 O Kheni.

50 VO Khephed^ngsum.

60 ^S O Khesum.

70 V 0 Khephed&ngzhi.

80 L> Khezhi.

90 ^ 0 Khephedangnga.

100 .700 Khenga or

1,000 poo oTongt^

1 lakh 0 0 0 0 Bum chi.


22

The Ordinals show in what order things are arranged
and are expressed by adding po to the cardinals ex-
cepting the first" which is denoted by "taripo'
instead of 'chipo the second letter would be transla-
ted by yigo nyipo.

Adverbial Numerals.

39. The multiplicative adverbs 4 once,' 'twice,' etc.y
are expressed by putting chM, times' before the
cardinal.

e.g.Chha chi=once.

Chh£ nyi=twice.

Fractional numerals are formed thus.
p'yehalf.

p'ye gi p'yequarter, i.e., half of half,
but dum"a third.

The words used for the Indian money currency
are ?

Tirurupee.

Ko12 annas.

Th&la8 annas.

Shiki4 annas

Anna nyi2 annas.

Peshapice.

Money is counted thus :

Tiru p'ye ta nyi=one rupee eight annas, i*e.t i less 2
rupees, when particle ta' is equivalent to minus so
tiru ko t& sum=two rupees twelve annas.


23

Khechia score.
Par khana handful.
Sana seer.
P'iitai seer.
Tsarikhubig bag for

rich, flour.
Ngiiky£ncash.

Measurement is usually made by so many tins full;
a bamboo measure is also used holding the same quan-
tity as the tin and this is the only method of computa-
tion.

Ghiia maund.
PhetangBhutan rupee
Khechurismall bag for

pice.
Jiweight.
Kbuchhaload.


PART III.

VOCABULARY.
40. Animals, birds and fishes.

Animal (wild)r i g a g i Dog (big)chhi.
semchhe. Dog (small)rochhi.
Animal (tame)semchhe. Dog (watch)gochhi.
Batp'omake. Dog (sporting)sbachhi.
Beartorn. Dog (wild)p'au.
Birdpichu. Donkeyp'om.
Buffalom&hhe. Dovetithigem
Bulllarig. Duck damja.
Calfpoehu. Elephant lamchhe-
Camellam ghyep. Fowlchim p?ya.
Cattlegno. Featherdau.
Catp'illi. Fishny&.
Clawdemu. Fowl (Jungle)nankarra.
Crowola. Goat (he)ra.
Cockp'yap. Goat (she)ram.
Cow gno. Henp'yam.
Cuckookaku. Horseta.
Deershau Hoofta kam.
Deer (musk)lau. Horn10.
Deer (barking)kashi. Harerigon.


25

Jackalam.
Kiteyii.
Leopardzi
Maregom.
Monkeypy&.
Neulete.
Owlt'ingpura.
Partridgekachirri.
Pigp'ap.
Pig (wild)rip'l
Parrotbatha.
Peacockmabj a.

41.

Blacknap.
Bluehiim.
Colourkya.
Greenchangka
Ornamentationdebri.

42. Diseases

BoilSiintii.
Cholerashaneh.
Coughlocham.
Dysentery chhuneh.
Diseaseneh.
Fevertseneh.
Headachegoneh.

Pheasantbapp.
Pigeonp'udon.
Eatp'ichi.
Rhinocerossiki.
Sheeplu.
Squi rrel
ScalesHop.
TigertS,
Vulturechhagii
Wingsshopthi.
Woolpeh.
Yaky&.

Colour.

Paintchhon.
Printpa.
Redmap.
Whitekap.
Yellow sep.

and drugs.
Goitrebouki.
Leprosydze neh.
Medicinemen.
Ophthalmiami neh.
Rheumatism^tsa neh.
Small-poxdum neh.
Skin diseasepakko neh.


26

43 Dress.

Belt (leather)tb£lem.
Belt (silver)Kochhab.
Belt (knife worn in) do-
jum.

Braceletdobchu.
Boothlam.
Blanketp'y£ru.
Cloakchhakab.
Coatko.

Coat (inside fold of)ham-

p'ye-

' Chaddar' (worn over

shoulder) k&pni.
Charm (worn round neck)

sunkhu.
Comb (made of bamboo)

gushe.
Cottonkiip.
Ear-ring (men only)
sechu.

Hatsham.

Hat (cane or bamboo)
belo.

Handkerchieftorra.
Haversackdaufe.
Looking-glassmillon.
Needlekhup.
Necklace (coral )~shyekh o.
Ornamentsgenchh£.
Pockethlamchhe.
Ringjuko.
Shirt (lama's) txigo.
Stockingomsu.
Scissors kimchhi.
Trouserstorn.
Tasslet&p ii.
U n iformm£go.
Umbrellanindu.

44 Food, drink and utensils.
Common form. Honorific.

Beer (rice)chh&n. \

Beer (murwa)mimj& chh£n. J

Breadkhule.

Jhetu.


27

Common form.

Honorific.

Butterm£.
Brotht'up.
Beanssemchhom.
Bowl (wooden)p'op.

Siima.

Jhechha,

Bucket (Iron, for fetching water)Som.
Baskettseo.

Basket (big, covered with leather)tochhu.

Chilly (green)imftliim.

Cookedchhop.

Cupk&yo.

Dinner sanni.

Dhallsem.

Dish (bamboo)p£nchu Jheba.

Dekchis£ri.
Egggondo.
Eatablesego.

Eatables (an offering of)ch£nje.

Fishnya.

Flourp'i.

Knifekichhun.

Knife (small)katall£.

Milkom.

MuttonIush&.

Meat fdry)sh£kum.

Meat (gravy)khoa.

Mustardj an&pechu.


28

Common form

Honorific,

Gilmakhu.

Porkp'apsha.

Plate (mud)-jam.

Pot (earth)p'um.

Teapot (mud)chumbi.

Plate-t'ali.

Pestleclihasum.

Rice (cooked)to.

Rice (uncorked)chhum

Rawliim.

Soupkhoa.

Sugarchimkoram.

Saltts'a.

Spoonthum

Sieveshosisim.

Teachha.

Tea (brick)-chha paga.
Vegetableschhom.
Waterchhu.

Siichhum

Siits'a.
Jhethum.

45. Functions

Angertsip.
Brainleppo.
Bloodkliya.
Digestionshua.
Griefkiduk.

the body and mind.

Heart tony eh.
Honestt'onpu.
Hearing hyen.
Hungertopu.
Jealousymissi.


29

Kidneyskheri.
Liverchhimpo.
Masticationmil.
Perspiration tseppo.
Patiencejiipo.
{Smelltim.
Salivatsima.

Shamengauhsa.7
Truthfuldem be.
Thoughtsem.
Tasteshimpo.
Urineship.
Veintaktsa.

46. Fruit, flowers

AppleAmde.
" Betel"doma.
Beanssem.
Barleyna.
" Began "dolom.
Castor-oil
Canechhah.
Cucumberkon.
Cinnamonshirina.
Ginger sakka.
Guava p'yepsyu.
Gram ch&.
Indian corngeza.
Jackdamsi.
Lemonlrampa.
Lekchago.
Mangoamchukli.
Mushroomsoke shdmo.

and vegetables.

Mustard oilnum.
Nettle socha.
Orange chhelu.
Oniongopmap.
u P^n "panne.
Peassem.
Pearlli.
Peachkham.
PI an t ai nn gala.
Pomegranatesindu.
Potatokewa.
Pineapplekunchha.
Radishlapp'u.
Sugar-canepamcha.
Turnipyundo.
Walnuttago.
Wheatkhy^u.


30
47. Human body.
Common. Honorific.
Armlab. cha.
Armpitiachi.
Backgyap ugyap.
Beardgy&ru ngjhe.
Bloodtha.
Bodyzu kuzu.
Bonerito.
Breastp'yano.
Cheekjamta ujam.
Chinmanki.
Corpsero kup'um.
Earnamcho nyen.
Elbowkilli chapo.
Eyemido chhen-mi.
Eyebrowmicham.
Eyelashmipu.
Facedon shyeh.
Fingersdziimmo chandzu.
Footkam shab.
Foreheadpyow ut'o.
Gumssosha chhemsha
Hairkya uta.
Handlap chha.
Headgoto u.


31

Common. Honorific.

Heartsem thu.
Heeltirn shapti,
Jawmdmyu.
Kneepumu shappo.
Leg (upper)ledu.
Leg (lower)p'yemta.
Liverchhem.
Lip (upper)yamchhu.
Lip (lower)mamchhu.
Mouthkha shyeh.
Moustache gyau.
Nosenapp£ shan.
Neckiiko dembo.
Nailssemu chhasi.
Shoulderp'yepta.
Skin (human)pako.
Skin (animal)ko.
Sidechhent'&.
Stomachp'o kop'o.
Thumb thepurn cMndzu.
Tongueche ja.
Toes k&mme dziimmo shabzu.
Throatbattum.
Wouudmah.
Waistkyep ukyep.


32

48. House and appurtences.

Bed- kanthi. Limechiinye.
Building (4 storiedjtho Ladder yakhu.
zhi. Lock gocha.
Box dom. Lanterngarij hu.
Bellowsblip. Lampmipshi.
Brickzappa. Matchesmitte.
Ceiling thoka Papershogu,
Cushionbedan. Penniku.
Carpetden. Pillown ghan.
Curtain gorre. Pestle chhasum.
Cour ty ar dgok h a. Room (sitting)zimchu.
Doorgo. Room {bed)yona.
Downstairswolu. Room (cook)thapcha.
Fireplace miza. Roofchimto.
Fan lunyapp. Rentthe.
Firemi. Smokethupa.
FloorentSr. Staircasepehkya.
Gardenshin. Seal thiu.
House chim. Upstairsyalu.
House (bamboo)pashi- Verandahtengu.
gi chim. Walltsip.
Hutshirii chim. Windowgochu.
Inknako. W. C (only in the houses
" Kalsi jazi. of superiors) sanchhii.
Key dimi


33

49. Insects and Reptiles.

Antchhoma.
Beepotum.
Butterflyp'yiml&p.
Bugdeshi.
Frogbep.
Fleakisshi.
FlyBi&m.
Insectbup.

Louseshi.
Mosquitoch&p'i.
Snakebii.
SpiderBopshem.
Stingdung.
Wormdaribyu.
Waxp'yachi.

50. Mankind and Relations.

Common. Honorific.

Aunt ani.

Boypuchu.

Brother nochu.

Brother (elder)p'ogem.

Bearer (servant)chhangab.

Beggarpyario.

Childpuchu.

Casteri.

Coolylab.

Clerkthui.

Cook thuppchhQp.

Characterbeliichh&ji.

Carrier and cutter (of wood)shin thu mi.

D


34

Common.

Daughterpum.
Father&pp&
Friendthauchh&n.
Familyp'ujhi.
Girlpum
Grandfather
Grandmotherange.
Gentleman kusho

Honorific.

yap-

sem.

tasho

Husbandp'oge.
Lieutenant-GovernorPenlo.
Manmi.

Neighbourchimch&.

Relationspinch&.

Sistersim.

Sister (elder)£jun.

Sahib"sheb.

Slavekho.

" Sadhu "gomchhe.

Servantbyaro.

Servant (head)byaro gubda.

Uncleakhu.

WomanAmchu.

Wifenem.

Watermanchhuomi.

Youthjhiim.

Motherai

yum.


35

51. Minerals and Metals.

Amberp'iishe. Gluep'yin.

Brasssarisep. Glassmillo.

Coppers£nmap. Iron-cha.

Cementcbiine. Leadshachi.

Chaliiindok£. Mica domillo

Claysaiiyem. Silverngii.

Coaldoziimu. Saltpetre gyatsa.

Charcoalsiimu. Sodapiido.

Coral p'euru Stonedo.

Diamonddojip'allam Sulphurdotnuze.

Goldse. Tinchaka.
Gold dustse p'i.

52. Manufactures.
Blankets (coarse)nambu Helmet (iron)chamu.
Bowls (circular, wooden) (Heads arrow)da.

p'op ; jhechha. Knifekichhung.

"Rowjhu. Knife (small)katalla.

Cannonpodum. Leatherko.

Catapultjyok. Mail (coats of)chathap.

Cauldron (copper)san- Papershogu.

chhen. Shielddhali.

Cloth (cotton)tar re. Spears (iron)dun.

Fire (instrument for strik- Swordpatta.

ing)chama. (Net.) Sword (large) kiri.
Gunpowderze. Whips (hide)techa.
Gunminda.


36

53. Musical Instruments and Games.

Archery (to perform)da
chhapni.

Belltib.

Concht'uiika.

Clarionetjyali.

Cymbalrrhiim.

Crown (paper, worn by
masquerader)ringa.

Drumbonga.

Drum (small, with long
string) tan ti.

Flutelim.
Fiddlep'yan.
Gong--tinti.

Horn (made from a human

thigh)kandu.
MaskbQp.
Quoitsdiigo.
Trumpettun.
Targetbah.
Weight (putting the)
pundo.

54. Miscellaneous.

Accused khamchubami.
Accountohhidu.
Agreementtadi.
Barrel (gun)minde cha
Bridge (wooden) shingi
sam.

Blacksmithgau.
Boat tu

Breach-loaderm inda

shondi cliem.
Ball (shot) diu.
Buck shot)dirru.
Barrelminde ch&.

Book-peuhu.
Bribegyisu.
Badmashtamiiship.
Boulders d obom po.
Country (hilly)sa yaze

md, p'ap.
Cropslotho.
Chowkidar-chimsu
Cartridgeshoridi.
Cultivatorminap.
Countryiikha.
Copydashu.
Charge (accusation)rin.


37

Cashngiikyari.
Customliisse.
Compen sation tori.
Complaina n tk h a m -

chuts'ow.
Casekhamchu.
Conversationkhalapp.
Cutch er ry thi m sa.
Cavepyaku.
Cluelense.
Cheatgod un gmi.
Doctorturiso.
Dead bodyrho.
Damp

Dacoitzarichom.
Drunkrazizu.
Diceshau

Examinationchho ju.
Evil spiritcjeh.
Field (terraced)ari.
Fron ti ersac h hti m.
Fort jorig.

Foot-pathlamchhung-
ko.

Festivalcli hoka.
Falseshop.
Footprint kamje.
Grasstsa.

Gunmind£.

Guest giim.

4 Grain ?chha.

" Goolmal" p'yow.

Gamets'yim.

Haybyasop.

Horse raceta (b) gyu.

Holetori.

Hi ghroad1 ambom.

Investigating officer

chizipmi.
Impression (on ground by

a body)shiikha.
Insurrectionnangtham*
Jungleri.
Judgmentthim.
Juicekhoa.
Kindzonde.
Khudkyori.
Length and breadth

p'a d& tsu.
Lunaticlengo.
Lazyshelocliichi.
Loan piileri.
Letter (when sent by
superior to inferior)
kasho.
Letteryigo.


38

Letter (when sent by infe-
rior to superior)shui.
Market placehe.
4 Mandal'gab.
Mandal's subordinate

p'ipon.
Meadowtafi.
Manure111.
Millraiitha.
Merchanttson pon.
Messengeryigokerai.
c Machante.
Milkmanpazib.
Muzzle-loaderm i n d a

p'ochu chem.
Muddam.
Meani ngtenchi.
Masterlobon.
Noiseke.
Owneraaku.
Officert&sho.
Orderkasse.
Oppressionbaiichhe.
Plain (level)t£n.
Palacejongjhi.
Prisontson.
Pickettazori.
Policemanp'o.

Precipice

Petitionshui.

Profitkhye.

Pupillotu.

Pricerin.

Poisontil.

Roadlam.

Ropet'ap.

Rewardsora.

Resurrectiondehlu.

RajahPon.

Riottham.

Rainbow

Rusttsa.

Rategon.

Readydih.

Ripechhochhup.

Rest-house (stone)don

khan.
Stockademaga.
Sentry gorab.
Streamlum.
Shepherdluzib.
Shoemakerhlamchemi.
Soldiermami.
Shielddh£li.
Sportsha.
Saddle ga.


39

Sheathshuko.
Shelteripsa.
Silkmenchi.
Smelltim.
Sentencelots'i.
Subsidy&athe.
Substitutetsama.
Slipperygyeda.
Spleen chhip
Stickybyadippu.
Shop (liqucr)c hang

khan.
Townthorn.

Toweruehhio
Thief&u.
Treatythonchhen.
Truncheon tet£.
Top and bottomy£ da
ma.

Tamashatem.
Travellerdhiip.
Upside downp'yu.
Villageii.
Winnergyemi.
Workyo.
Witnessjomp£n.

55. Nature.

Ascent (steep)kyu.
Cloudtimpo.
Cold (of things)khiim.
Cold (of weather)siton-
to

Climatenam.
Climate (moist)n a m -

bonpo.
Climate (dry) namk&m.

Darknessnatonto.
Dusttheow.
Dewsip.
Descentthu.
Earths£.

Earthquakesaiyom.
Eclipse (sun)nyimzin.
Eclipse (moon)dunzin.
Fungusfihamo.


40

Forest (dense)nachhe-

bompo.
Gorgep'yasip.
Glacierkhanchhen.
GodKonchho.
Heattiim.
Hottii.
Hailseyo.
Icekhe.
Lightkyatonto.
Lightningto.
Lakets'au.
Landslipsaru.
Mountain (snowy)

kanchhen.
Moondau.

Moon (full)d&u karikam.
Moou (new)dau sap.
Moonlightdauwo.
Mistsamu.
Rainbowjha.
Rainchhab.

Rivertsaiichhu.
Rock p'ya.
Starkam.
Skynamkha.
Sunnyim.
Snow kh&u.
Shadekimma.
Springchhambur.
Stormluhchha.
Streamchhuluii.
Snowslip khanrii.
Sand^p'yim.
Spur (hill)gan.
Torrentlum.
Thunderdhu.
Volcanomichu.
Valleykyon.
Waterchhu.
Waterfallbathu.
Water (pipe)chhuza.
Windlun.

Zig-zag (road;(lam) kya
kyo.


41

56. Nationalities and Countries.

BhutanHlolum or Dhu. Englishmanpolling.
Bhutanese Hlopa. Gyadojeaen.

Brahmaputrachh am- Hindu acharra.

chhuturi.
Benareswaran asi.
Cooch Behargathika.

Indiagyaga.
lndi angy agi mi.
Leppchamemin mi.

British Government Mahomedanmutep.

Nepalikorkap mi.
Tibetp'op u.
Tibetansp'op.

polling jhung.
Buddhistsangye.
Chinagyana.
Chinamangyami.
6 Chunabhatti 'gyeshirig
lum.

57. Rites and Religion.

Astrologertsipo. Marriage ceremony

Burial custombani liisse. nyen chhapni ltisse.
Folklorep'yetam. Nunani.

Flag (used in religious Offerings (food)chanje.

procession)tha.
Holyrithiip.
Historysun.
Imagekunda.
Incantation nglia.
Incensetsan.
Lama chhob.
Monasteryhlag&.

Pictures (sacred in mon-
astery)kuthan.
Prayer (cylinder)m£ne.
Priestgyelori.
BeJigion tempo.
Treatythonchhen.
Templegyompa.


42

58. Superstitions.

In Bhutan innumerable spirits are worshipped, the

chief of which are enmuerated below:

Hla deha good spirit.

Dii dehthe spirit of those who have died by violence.

Gantsehthe mountain spirit.

Lengo cjehthe mad spirit, one that journeys in a
straight line neither turning to the left
nor right and its presence is not perceived
till it comes in contact with the human
body.

Michha dehthe spirit which appears on land formed
by the meeting of two rivers when it
appears as dancing fire.

Shin dehthe spirit of the oppressed; has the power
of mimicry and infests houses imitating
the voice of man and other animal. This
spirit can be destroyed if attacked soon
after leaving the human body.

59. Trade.

Basketsp£nchhung.
Beads (amber)peudu.
Cloth (erandi) burra.
Chowriesyaj u.
Coralp'euru.
Durries (striped)hotha.

Dust (gold)se p'i.
Fish (dried)nya kam.
Goorchhimkorom.
Horn (rhinoceros)silli
ro.

Indigoram.


43

Joss sticktsendeh.
Laclacha.
Musklame(n).
Pearls muti.
Salt (rock)tsarid.

60.

Birchtakoshiri.
Barkpakho.
B lossombopchu.
Bran chs h in ga.
Bamboopas h in.
Cypress pasashiri.
Firthaurishiri.
Fruitshiride.
Flowermito.
Grasstsa.

India-rubbergyeshiri.
Jungle chhem£.

61

Silksichheri.

Tusk (elephant) lamche

chhiu.
Wax p'yachi.
Woolpe.

Trees.

Juniper shup.
Mapley^H.
Oakbyoridapshiri.
Pine thaurishiri.
Rhododendroneto.
Eootratto.
Seedsiin.
Stemmashiri.
Strawp'um^.
Shrubhnodum.
Treeshiri.
Willowchomshiri.

Times and Seasons.
The year is divided into 12 months and the following
are the names of the months:

Januarydau taripo.
Februaryd£u nyipo.
Marchd£u sumpo.
Aprild&u zhipo.
Maydau ngapo.
Junedau tupo.

Julydau dumpo.
Augustdau gyepo.
Septemberd£u gupo.
Octoberdau chupo.
Novemberd&u chuchi.
Decemberd£u chuni.


44

The month is divided into 30 days and the following
names are given to the days of the week :

Sundayza nyim. Thursday za p'urbo.

Mondayza dau. Friday-- za pasari.

Tuesdayza mima. Saturdayza p'embo.

Wednesdayza hlabo.

The day again is divided into 6 divisions of time:
The morningnyim chi- Afternoonnyim khaiyo.

sha. Sunsetnyim jajo.

Forenoonnyim do. Twilightnyim gep.

Noonnyim khun.

Distance is expressed by so many days' journey.
e.g.Thirty miles would be a two days journey = sha
nyi lam.

And we also hear the following expressions used in
this connection :

The morning journeytho lam.
The journey till noon -nyim p'ye lam.
A day and night journey sha chi lam.
A full day's journeynyim chi lam.
At cock crowp'yatam p'opda.

The seasons are

Cold weathergun. Northchan.

Hot weatherchepchi. Southhlo.

Rainy weatherbya. Eastsha.

Direction is expressed Westnup.

by Beginninggan.


45

Daynyim.
Birthday -kichhe.
All day nyimkyan.
Day by daynyimrimch&.
Daybreaknamnarn.
Now-a- days- thare.
Every day nyirn ma-

chhep.
Night and day sha.
How many days sha.

kadachi
Datechhe or tse.
The endju.
Hourchimtsii.

How longnamle.
Last monthdausongmi.
Morningtoba.
Noon nyirria.
Night.p'iru.
Sometimesp'asha.
Sunrisenyimshaudari.
Sunsetnyimnupdan.
Timegang.
New yearnyimlau.
Last yearlau son mi.
Yearlan.
Weekdiintra.


46

62. A list of the more important verbs is now given
in alphabetical order.

To Arrivehlcjni.

be Afraid doni

Asktini.

Assemblejomni.

Assistchharobeni.

Attackcheda chapp-
ni.

,, Answerlen lapni.

Ascendya joni.

Awakehlorini.

Arrestzurini.

Assaultzinni.

be Angrychipsani.

B

To Bark hapni.
Beattini.
Bellowmahhe ke

chappni.
Begingochuni.
Believedenjtinrini.
Boilkhiini.
Braypomke chapp-
ni.

To Bringbaoni.
Buildzoni.
Buynyoni.
Bornkini.
Breathebu kamni.
Bleatluke chappni.
Burnmitani.
Burytona chuni.
Borrowkini.
Breakchani.
Bitesotapni.
Break (as a bridge or
house)rliamni.
Burn jungleri mi
bani.

Blow (breath)p'uni.

To Carrybani.
Callponi.
,, Chatkhalapni.
Cooktsoni.
have compassiondi-
chheni.


47

To Coughlaub&ni.

Coverkapni.

Catchsheni.

Chokekhyoma tho-
ni.

Choosed a m k h a
chappni.

Chew the cuddhe
chappni.

Circle roundnam
p'achheni.

Cleanp'yini.

Comeoni.

Crawlgop joni.

Cuttoni.

Choptodani.

Climbzeni.

Crushlepni.

Cryngurii.

,, Changesode chappni

Conversekha lapni.

Confesskhasini.

D

To Dance (for men)
Chhumni.

Dance (for women)
chen£ juni.

To Delayyurinbehi.
Dieshini.
,, Descendmajoni.
Dresskonrii.
Drinkt'unrii.
Dismissgomtani.

Dividegoni.
Do. beni.
,, Dragthenrii.
Dig koni.
Destroymeb zoni.
Dwelldoni.
To be Disgustedkham-
luni.

E

To Eatsani.

Exchangesoni.

,, Explainsheni.

Escapethani.

Enternana joni.

Enter surreptitiously
or creepinglynana
juni.

Enquire sh i b c h e
(beni) (chappni).


48

P

To Fall (from above)
p'iini.

Fall (from the
ground;geni.

Findnhyeni.

Finish bechhani.

,, Followtinle joni.

Forget-jeni.

Fastendamni.

Fightzinni.

Freeze khe chani.

,, Frightendoni.

,, Forgivekuchhe suri-
chheni.

Flyp'uni.

,, Fixthithizoni.

G

To Gett'opni.

Give (to superior)
p'lilni.

Give (to another)
p'ini.

Give (to yourself)
nani.

To Gojoni.
Grantp'ap ke chhap-
pni.

Take up (?)t'uni.
Go innana joni.
,, Go out p'ille joni.
Growkini.
Grazetsa sanhi.
,, Get up from sleep
lonni.

H

To Hateshetheni.
Hoperiche beni.
Hearkoni.
,, Hidebazhani.
be Hungrytokini.
Holdsheni.
,, Hurtmatoni.
Hang up pyaii ni.
Hastenjoba beni.
Hiccupikiloni.
Howlngarni.

I

To be Informedn a w a
keni.

Insultjujetani.


49

To Insult by words

shachhapni.
become illnani.
feel itchyyaiini.
Investigate--chhe tsii

chhapni.
Incarceratetsonchu-
ni.

J

To Jointliupni.
5, Jumpohhori chhap-
ni.

Jokegedolappni.
K

To Knowsheni.
Keepjhani.
,, Kickdothudurini.
Killseni.

L

To Laughg£ni.
,, Livedoni.
Lovechamni.
Listen nyenni.
Leakchhu dzani.
Learnhlapni.

To Lend;nyani.
,, Lie downnyeni.
Losebyani.
Look forchhoni.
Lean hnyeni.
Leadkhini.
M

To Meet p'yeni.
,, do or Makechhapni.
Measurejeni.
Move- shiini.

Mendzoni.
Make a holeton

peni.
Milkjhoni.

hold a Markethe
chho ni.

N

To Neighta ke chhapni.
O

To Offernani.
Openp'ini.
Obeykasse nyeni.
Objectmacliuni
OrderKasse nani.

K


f.o

F

To Pantkhamni.
Paint chhontani.
Promisekhatsi jini.
Playtsimtsini.
Plucktoni.

Ploughlarimo-ni.
Prove rachhini.
j, Pass overgeni.
Placezhaui.
Practisechhan ni.

Punishthimtani.
,, Pourluni.
Passthani.
Put onkonni.
Put intotabni.
Pluck out hairgerob
beni.

To Quarrelthapni.
To be Quietkha chori
doni.

R

To Raisethuni.
Readhi an i,
Receiveleni.
,, Returnlokoni.
Runpanjoni.
Reachhliini.
Reap (cut down

reloni.
Rideshonni.
Run awayp'yoni.
9/ Remembersem kha

jhani.
Repeat gyani.
Recognisengaushe-
ni.

Restngyasoni.
,, Rub againstreni.
Roar ta ke chappni.
Ring bell-tinti duri-
ni.

Rainchhab chhabni,
S

To Saylapni.
Saveth&ni,
j, Seetani.


51

To Selltsonrii,
Sendkeni.
Shineshani,
Swallow mikni,
Shootminda chhap-
ni,

Showtenni.
Shutcheni*
,, Singlu -chappni.

Sinkbyimni,
Slipgeta chappni.
Smellnhumni*
,, Spitchhema toni.
Spreadtirini.
Staydoni.
Send outtonni,
,, Sweepp'yam chapp-
ni.

SleepnyenL
,f Scratchp'ekni.
Speaklappni.
,, Seizezirini.
Suckjipni.
Sharpendani.
Squeeze-tsini.
Sewclihemni.
Swimtse chappni.

To Starttfomi.
Stopgozh&ni.
Sit downma doni,
Sneezeaktsi chhap-
ni.

Spoilsob joni.
,, Stealau chhapni.
Snorehumtonni,
Sprinklechhu toni.
Scratchtheni.
,, Shave jhuni.
Satisfytsiini.
Sowsiinchu-ni.
Shootminda chap-
pni.

T

To Take upthuni.
Take fromsinni.
Throwkoni.
Throw awaykodani.
Tiedamni.
Take awayba joni.
Tearpeni.
Turn roundgoni.
Tasteshimnghatani.
Thinknoni.


52

To be Thirstykha kom-
ni.

Touchlabdorii.

j, be Tiredwuduni.

,, Threatenjujetani.

,, Thread a needle
khap chuni.

Take by violence
p'yokni.

U

To Understandhakoni.

Unfastenkhoni.

w

To Washchhuni.

Whistlebisi chhap-
ni.

Worklabeni.

Worshipchhacheni.

,, Writetini.

Wantgoni.

Walkkamma joni
or shedijoni.

Wipep'yini.

Weavetha thani.

pull up Water from a
wellchhu oni.

Syntax.

63. In the arrangement of words the rule is that in

() a simple sentence all other words must precede
the verb;

() in a compound sentence the subordinate verb in
the form of a gerund precedes the governing verb;

(o) adverbs or adverbial phrases are usually put at
the head of a sentence.


53

(d) The article and adjective follow substantive.
e.g.I went to the jangle and saw a man =
I to the jungle having gone man a saw.
My house is on a high hill =
My house hill high a on is.
The river is wide liere =
Here river the wide is.

Bhutanese is a monosyllabic language. Compound
words are seldom found and when used have no syntac-
tical formation but are juxta positional.

E>g." Foot print" would be translated by "kamje,"
the two nouns kam = foot and je "=impression,
are made into one word and placed side by side.


PART IV.

64. SENTENCES
Salaam

Are you well?
Sit down

Shall we have a chat ? ...

What is your name ?

Where do you live ?

Why have you come here?

When did you come here ?

What is the name of your
village ?

How far is it from here?...

What kind of road is it?...

Which is the way ?

Are you married ?

How many children have
you?

Can you speak English ?
Can you read and write ?
How much land do you own?

^ND SYNTAX.

Ya la.

Tasho kuzu zanni yo d£

(Honoroficj. Chho kadem

yo ? (Common).

Sa zhu (big men) S& do
(common men).

Ngacha kha lapni mft ?

Chhogi miri kachi im ?

Chho kate dob im ?

Chho na kachibe om ?

Chho n&lu nam om ?

Chho yugi miri kache im ?

Nale t'arin t'uri kadechi
yo ?

Lam k&dem yo ?

Lam ka. im ?

Chho gi nyen chhap chi na?
Chho gi p'uchu kadechi yd?

Chho Ingrezi lap she ga ?
Chho hlani da tini she ga ?
Chho da s^jhi kadechi yo ?


55

Are you'a Sikkim or Paro Chho Dejop im Parop im ?
man ?

I do not understand you... Nga chho gi kha mi ha

What do you do all day ? Chho nyim kan kache be'o ?
What crops do you grow? Chho lotho kache kache ki

What do you eat and drink ? Chho kache sau kache t'uri?

Do you prefer tea to beer ? Chho cha t'un gonim

ehhari t'uri gcnim ?

Do you like chong ? ... Chho chhari gobepa ?

What is the price of beer ? Chhari gi rin k&dechi im ?

Is there mueh drunkenness Lholu chhari kam t'un mi

in Bhutan? na ?

What are your burial customs Mi tona bani gi liisse kd-

che im ?

What is the marriage cer- Khori gi nyen chapni lusse

remony ? kache im ?

Have you a gun?, ... Chho da minda yo g£ ?

Can you shoot? ... Chho minda chhap chhu

ga ?

What kind of sport is there Nalu rige sha kade yo ?
here ?

Have you ever seen a Chho namye t& chi t'orichi

kh(5e.

Say it again please
Speak slowly
Go down carefully

Taru lapnari.
Koliibe lap.
Koliibe pap.

do ?

tiger ?

n4 ?


56

Are peacocks plentiful ?

How long have you been
learning Bhutia ?

I have been learning for 7
months.

How many monasteries are
there in Paro?

How many priests are there
in Punakha ?

What is the climate of the
place.

Have you been to Puna-
kha?

What are the principal
towns in Bhutan ?

What is the chief trade ?

Mabja kham yo ga ?

Tasho Lho ke hlapdi sha
kadeohi sorii.

Nga Lho ke hlapdi dau
dun sorii.

Paro lu blaga kadechi yo ?

Punakha lu gyelori kadechi
yo?

Yagi si tii kadem yo ?

Chho Punakha Iu hlochi
na ?

Lholu thom bom kadekade
im ?

Dukpa dichu gi tsori bom
k&che im ? C h o t a
(horses), hotha (durrie,
striped), pe (wool), p'ya
chi (wax), lachi, (lac),
p'yaru (blanket), 1am-
chhe chhiu (Elephant
tusk), silli ro (rhino
horn), parichhung vbas-
ket), da jha sorre (woven
basket), korom (goor),
tsendeh (Joss stick).


57

I hope you are in good healtl

I think

Do you consider his judg-
ment wise ?

How is justice administer-
ed ? -

How is crime investigat-
ed?

Don't speak to me in the
honorific form of speech
but the common form.

' Are the Excise laws there ?

Is there any check on illicit
distillation ?

When a murder or dacoity
has been committed
what punishment is
awarded ?

Into how may sects are the
Bhutias divided ?

Are the Bhutias in friendly
intercourse with their
neighbours ?

From Darjeeling to Punak-
ha.

Don't do that

Ni rewa lu t£sho kuzu zang
bu ong.

Nigi sem lu.

Khogi lapmi di chhogi
sem kha chhiibe ga ?

Tliim kadebe chheb im ?

Jhiim gi chhachhii kadebe
chhap im ?

Sheso lapni nga lap ma n&
lo shing kyan lap na.

P'ina lu chang kan gi lussii
kache im ?

Lholu chhan badi toni gi

k&yo g^ ?

Mise da aubom bemi dichu
lu thim kache tam ?

Dukpa dichu le chhen
kadechi yo ?

Dukpa dichu ra rani, chun-
cha dichu nyem, chham
zumbe yob me ga ?

Dorjeeling le Pun&kha thu.

Debbe ma be,


58

Is it true that the Govern-
ment of Bhutan is cor-
rupt and oppressive ?

What do you mint ?

Never mind !

A hurricane is coming ...

Shut the door quick

Where are your relations ?

How many brothers have
you?

Did you see the footprint
in the snow ?

This man has no ability

He is a lunatic

W hat is the reason of this ?

What is the difference
between this and that ?

What do you call this ? ...

I believe he has not told
the truth.

Some time ago

Why are they quarreling ?

What does this salt weigh?

Pure Bhutias

What do you call this in
Bhutanese ?

Lholu pongi jongjhi nariglu
gyisuleni d£ barichhi
chong mi yo ga ?

Chho kache goni ?

Deon !

Lun bon chi on do.

JoM go chhe.

Chhogi pinch& kate im ?

Chhoda nochu kadechi yo ?

Kh&u na kamje t'onchi na ?

Mi digi rib mindu.

Kho lengo me.

Di kachibe dem ime ?

Di da p'idi yersan kache
im ?

Chho dilu kache lap.

Nigi semkha khogi kha
tonda ma lap.

Khacha khangim chi ka

Khon kachibe sha chhap
im ?

Tsa di ji kha kadechi yo ?

Dak pa gnau.

Dukpa khale dilu kache
lap.


59

I gave him a slap on the
cheek.

I gave him a blow (fist)...
How do you dye cloth ? ...

Please sharpen this sword
Squeeze the juice of this
orange.

This stick is crooked
The road is quite straight
The house is empty
Put my hat in the corner
What is the reason of this ?
What do you mean ?
There is poison on that
arrow.

Give me a palmful of rice
I will take care of you ...
There is nobody here ...
Don't tell anybody
Don't touch anything ...
I will do it myself
What is the custom of this

place.
How many kinds

Nga khogi jamta na denja

chi chhapchi.
Nga khogi jamta na jo chi

chhapchi.
Ohho kadembe kola chho
chhap im ?

Kiri di da nan.
Chhelu digi Ichod tsi.

Khan di yeyo me
Lam di thantonto me.
Chim di torn me.
Nigi sham Iciku na jha.
Di kachibe dem im.
Chhogi tonda kache im ?
Da p'idi gu thu yo.

Ngalu labkhan chhum na.
Nga chhole nathe be ong.
Nalu kaye mi.
Kaluye ma lap
Chhiib kainra ma do
Nga ngard p'idi beni.
Di iigi liisse ka im r

Chhen kadechi.


60

How much will each coolv

get?
Answer me ...
He is on this side
How many times
Your brother is on the

other side.
How do you make tea ...
It comes to the same thing
Nothing certain
They say ...
The house is full of smoke
What else ...
Take away that jack fruit
Collect some firewood ...
About sixty..,
Kneel down and pray
Don't lean on the table ...
I have a headache
Sprinkle water on the floor
This pepper is very hot ...
What can I do ?
If you eat this you will
be ill.

I have eaten a bellyfwll

of rice.
My luck is bad

Lab rerelu kadechi t'op ?

Ngalu lo p'in.
Kho tsukha yo.
Chha kadechi.
Chhogi nochu p'akha yo.

Chho ch& kadebe zo im ?
Kha di chokthe be.
Nyeti.
Lap khoi.

Chim di thup&gi khan sorii.
Tarru kache yo.
Damsi p'idi M son.
Achichi mitanigi shin jom.
Khesum demchi.
Pumu chhukdi chha chhe.
Chente gu ma hriye.
Nigi go nao me.
Entar na chhu to.
Ima di khacha kam du.
Nga k&che beni ?
Chho di sa wd cheh nd on.

Nga d^mbe to sai.

Ni sonam sob me.


61

Tarn round!

This woman is weaving...

Round about

Do you recognise him ...

Under British territory ...

I must go to the marriage
feast.

Who is your son in-law? ..

I will go anyhow

Is there cholera and goitre
in your village ?

Important news

I have heard

What medicine do you
take for cholera ?

Who milks the cow ?

By violence...

Put it on the shelf

Blow out the fire

Make the fire

I recorded his statement

I think the case is false...

Oh how beautiful it is !

Has the British Govern-
ment paid the Bhutan
Government the yearly
subsidy ?

Jyap go !

Amchu di tha thab do.
P'a tsu.

Chhokholugnau shechi ga.

Zhung sai ngawo.

Nga nyen chhapshalu

jogo.

Chhogi map ka yo.
Nga kadeberu joni.
Chhogi una shaneh da bou

ki mi yo ga ?
Thontoto net'su.
Nga khoi.

Shaneh gi tonle chho men

kache km im ?
Gno ka jho im ?
P'yokdi.
Te gu jha.
Mi se.
Mi p'u.

Nga khogi shutsi tii.

Ni sem kha lu khamchu di

shop me.
Oie kadem sarritoto mo!
Filling Jhungi Dhu Jhung
lu lotargi sathe tab chai
ga ?


62

Are you satisfied with my

examination ?
You are responsible for this
When is the Kalimpong

fair held ?
Without his knowledge ...
He took away ornaments ...
He sent the thief for trial

Ni chhoju di sem kha tsu-

chi n& ?
Chho di kole kh&the in.
Kalimpongli6 nam chhob.

Kho ma she ba.
Kho genchha ba orii.
Kho di thimsa shibche
lu tam me.

Further sentences and words.

The moon is bright
The sun has set
This silk is nice
The quality is good
Drive away this dirty man
Bring a horse for me
The butt of your gun is

bad.
Ring the bell
Is that so ? ...
There is a lame man at the

door.
His shop is damp

The sun rises in the East
and sets in the West.

Dau di wo du.

Nyim di nup ch&i.

Tha di lezhim me.

Pu lem me.

Mi tepakliokho di da

Ta chi ni tonlu khi sho.

Minde khunshin sob me.

Tib si.

Ime da ?

Go di tsa mi kamshau chi
du.

Khogi (khu) tsorig chim
di panpiim me.

Nyim di sh& lu shan me
da nup lu nup me.


63

You are a fool

Left hand ...

Right hand...

A hare

The tiger is wild

The cat is tame

Where is the fort ?

What is the time ?

He is in the camp

Please teach me to count

Pain

Unless you practise you
cannot speak.

He is the Government in-
terpreter.

High caste ...

Low caste ...

Was there an earthquake
last Saturday here ?

Yes, there was

WThatis the cause of earth-
quakes ?

Are vou frightened of
earthquakes, lightning
and thunder ?

Have you had much rain
here ?

Chho khyokhyo clii me.

Lab yom.

Lab yeb.

Rigori chi.

Ta di dosissi me.

P'illi di soso me.

Maga di kate im ?

Tsumtso kadechi ina ?

Kho kursa na yo.

Ngalu chanka chappni

hlop na.
Su (g).

Hlapchan mi wache kha

lap mi chu.
Kho jhunggi lochhap me.

Rhu z-Auta,.
Rhu shenta.

Na jeme zap'empo lu sai-

yom chi chapp du ga ?
L&i, chappchi. .
Saiyom chhapni di tonda

kache ina ?
Chho saiyom da lo da
dhuke ta dochi na ?

Chho na chhab kham
chhapp yo da ?


64

Sin

Intelligent people
Ignorant people
Have you been to Calcutta ?
What sort of place is it ?
Living animal
I do not know whether the
fire was intentional or
accidental.
Countless

Layo.

Chho she michu.
Mi ma she (b.)
Chho Calcutta son ina ?
Sa kadem du ?
Semchbe asiim.
Nga mi she be iii di gnaw-
sitmdi tsip ina der^,
tsip ina.
Chanka michhobe.


PART V.

READING EXERCISES.

I

Nigi shui p'iiloi tenshi di in la :

Dau nyibe chhe chutam be tsi Chhapchalu piiloin
tabni gi tonle kole tham chhapdi. Mi nga tu dechi
rupdi mi chi se tan du.

Digi chhache chhapdi.
joba ngalu kari chari.

Translation

The petition which I have put up to your honour is
as follows:

I^ast month on the 10th at Chhapcha at the time of
settling a loan there was a dispute in which 5 or 6 men
joined together and killed one man.

Regarding this please enquire quickly and do me a
kindness.

II

Khacha nyim£ he ka lu chhum sei kole madiba. Mi
nyi ku thamchhap jingdi. Mi chi gi ma tonda du khon
nyi ku thabegan he gi mi dichugi chhfib thamchhe mep
zo-dadu. Di tonle ngacha kaira gi tashocha la shui
piilyo digi chhe tsii di joba dzedi kari clian.

F


6

Translation

v Yesterday at noon at the market as the price of rice
was not agreed upon there was a row between two men.

One man was hurt at the time of the quarrel and the
property of others in the market place was destroyed.

For this reason we all have put in a petition to your
honor requesting that an investigation may be quickly
held for which we shall be grateful.

Ill

Jhenim nyim thobeg&n ngacha chhimcha dichu
chhu se tonle m&cchama: sliachhapdi ngalu kh& sob
thamchhe lapdi ngalu tiw& mi chi lab yabalu pashi khan
chi shedi tiwa ong me di kole thanna lu nyen se p'iiloi.

Te joba chizhip mi chi taii kari chan.

Translation

Three days ago at noon our neighbours quarrelled
regarding the taking of water. They insulted me and
used bad words and one man holding a bamboo in his
right hand came to beat me: for this reason I have
come to give information at the police station.

Please send an investigating officer sharp and oblige.
IV.

Nigi shui p'iiloe tonda di khacha p'iru baza sum gi
naiigla mi thamchhe nye chhawe gan lu mi nga da tu


07

dechi oridi gbclm nale jtidi chhub -thamche da tirn
genchha thamche p'uyokdi ngacha lu ti di p'yulo sei.

Di tonle di joba p'yu chhedi kari ch&n.

Translation

My petition is that last night at 3 o'clock, when all
men are sleeping, 5 or 6 men entered in a surreptitious
manner through the window and took away by force
all my things, rupees and jewellery and after beating
us escaped. Enquire quickly into this and oblige.

V.

Dau sumgi tse chobge gi p'iru chutts i chuni lu nigi
ghari gu le patta chi da sungkhu chi au shoseyiri.

Au gi lense kachie ma ko.

Lam kadam chbaba zingab gua tu demchie tan
kari chari naii.

Translation

On the 3rd month on the 18th at midnight the
sword and charm on my pillow were stolen. No trace of
the thief has been discovered. Please have the kindness
to depute 5 or 6 officers to hold up the roads.

VI.

Pun&kha le mi sum nglia hlapba gy&n& lu son son
me. Lojhigi n&rigla mi sum charra nhga hlapdi
lobeg&n rig& gi semchhe rito chi lamka lu t'opdi. Khori
sum charra tiincha chhapdi gi mi chi gi rito di kachegi
imo sidi la lap me. Dille mi chi gi ngha chhapdi rito


68

thamchhe jomsedu. Tdru mi chi gi nliga chliapdi, ko*
pu, sh&, tsa, kaira diche du. Dille ta ime nodi mi sum
charra gi gnanshi da du t£rn chi gi bun chudadu. Dille
ta oridi kho mi sum charrd se da du.

Translation

Three men from Punakha went to China to teach in-
cantation. Within 4 years the three men having finished
teaching were returning when they found the bone of
a wild beast on the road.

These three then consulted together and one man
asked to what beast the bones belonged.

Another man performed incantations when all the
bones came together.

Then another again performed incantations when
the skin, hair, flesh and veins came together.

The three man then thinking that the animal was a
tiger, one man blew life into it whereupon the tiger
rose and ate up the three men.

VII.

Pogyeb jhii sa lu Lbassa lap midi ka lu amchu kitoto
sum yob me. Kitoto kadem sen amchu chi gi labile
mito chi p'iidi kama rebda. K£m ch&soridu. Taru
chi p'iru dauend chim n& le thtimda daugi thligi zu
ihamchhe parro thond& du. T£ru chi gi chim na le
thiimda ts'anchu p'ak£ lu hlu dunme ke kodi yonto lo
soil du. T§sho gi tliu lo kadi kitote im.


09

Translation

In LtiMssa, the residence of the Tibet Lama, there
were three fortunate women. From one of the hands
of the women a flower dropped in a miraculous manner
and fell on her feet, whereupon her foot broke. Another
woman, when the moon was out, came out of her house
and on this a rash appeared on her body through the
heat of the moon. The third woman, on coming out of
her house, heard the noise of rice being trodden across
the water and at once became deaf.

Who does your honour consider was the most fortu-
nate ?

VIII.

Di g&ri jhiten digi n&nglu n&chha nyi yob me.
Khong nyi le pum chi kiu me. Pumdi lu chenga gi
lamda dille sha katu le pochi pum di lu nghaba ton
omle. Pum di qi eppa da aigi dau gyebe na nyen
chhap sho se lalapme. Di tinle tarru nuple mi zhenchi
pum nghaba t'ori on me. Dillu e dau gyebe khacchi
jetti tan da du.

Dau gye lamda sha da nuple pum di nyen chhappd
khong nicharra ton om me. P'iru lu duchi ong di
pum di khi lori son du.

Dille khong nyi ku hltipda pum ma t'onba di tonle
pum gi appa da ailu tidi dille mapchigi dudida pumdi
shiiledadi son dti.


70

Khor.g neyi da p'yep p'yep me mapdi gi dudi
se pumdi chhim n&lu khi di on chhe. Chhim na hlobe
p'iru ra pum dishi son du. Dille khyi di oiun map di gi
pum di ro tuthil lo bakdi mi t&n mi shukh& chhimchi
zodi khmoshyu deh shini i lapdi tiitiina dli deb me.
Map zhen digi yu zhen kbalu ngha hlaba song duhdille
nyim tak p'e chika ngha chan di the oh du.

Dille khogi pumshi mi digi thu sa lu ngha tabdi.
Pum di dehul bedi Ion chi du.

Dille map nyi ku pum gonigi kole ma di ba tham
chhap me. Pum di kagi t'opni im.

Translation

In the beginning there was a man and a woman.
From these two a girl was born. When the girl arrived
at the age of 16 a swain from the east came to woo her.

The parents of the girl said that after 8 months she
might be married.

Subsequently, another youth from the west came also
to ask her hand in marriage and he also was told to
wait till the expiration of 8 months.

When 8 months had ended the youths from the
east and west both presented themselves.

That evening however an evil spirit came and
beckoned the girl away.


71

When the youths arrived they did not find the girl
and were told that a spirit had wafted her away and
one followed the phantom.

He met the girl and the demon, and the youth killed
the devil and brought the girl back to (her parents')
house.

On arrival at the house that night the girl died.
Then the youth (son-in-law) took the girl's body to the
burning place and having burnt the body built a house
on that spot and said that as the girl is dead so shall I
die.

The other suitor went to another country to study
religion, and after a fe;v days returned. He went to
the place where the girl had been burnt and performed
holy ceremonies on which the corpse came to life and
stood up.

The two suitors then quarrelled over the possession
of the girl.

To whom should the girl be given ?

Example of Letter writing.

Sri (written 5 times) THOKU DUK OEBA RAJA.
Shi (ditto) THOKU COMMISSIONED SHEB.

Yigo gogyin shule.

Thoku la Khacha khanyim chika lu mi chi gi
Zhung sai nga wo Rintsam gi cliha shin kaman na le
zari chom chhapbe Dukpe ngawo lu p'yo son du.


72

Nigi na wa lu kho tharre : Chhapclia do yo kojhi
Chhap ch& Penlo ki nga wo lu.

Nga lu kari chieba. y& le mi di zung thapbe nge da
thimlu gi thim chet ba lu tang chin na nge gi shudon
p'hu nigi di.

Sinchulei thonchhen khatsi jini nigi le shu yui.

Translation

FromCOMMISSIONER,

ToDEB RAJ£ OF BHUTAN.

After compliment.

My friend,Some time ago a Bhutia committed
a dacoity in a tea garden in the Dooars within the
jurisdiction of British territory and absconded to
Bhutan.

I am informed that the absconder is at present
living in Chhapcha in the jurisdiction of the Penlo-

I shall be obliged if you will have the man arrested
and sent to me to be tried by law.

I request this in accordance with the Treaty of
Sinchula.

Printed at the Pioneer Press, by Geo. Sim, No. 175212-4-09.










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PAGE 5

A COLLOQUIAL GRAMMAR (lf THE BHUTANESE LANGUAGE BY ST. QUINTIN BYRNE, INDIA POLICK. SCHOOLOF OI~IENTAL S'flIDIES FINSBURY CIRCUS PRINTED AT THE PIONEER PRESS ALLAHABAD 1909

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.,; .I' .. ~ 1-; _.,

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PREFACE. An attempt has been here made to deMcribe the phonology, etymology and syntax of the language ~po1'en by the people whose habitat is Bhutan, i.e., the country lying between 890 and 91 east longitude. It is spolrnn along the frontier of the Jalpaiguri district an
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ii 2. For purposes of Government the country is divided into the three provinces of Tongso, Paro and Tii.hgii. and ruled by Penlos or governors and the people are divided into priests, chiefs and the cultivating class. The gyelongs, besides belonging to tne priesthood, teach gymnastics and dancing. The head of the eccle siastics being the Lamkhen, a person of importance well up in politics, meteorology and other sciences. There are also convents in which nuns reside. They shave the head and wear yellow clothing. The form of worship in the temples resembles the rites of the Romish church; incense, holy water, bells and candles are freely used. 3 The towns have no washermen or barber; the other employments followed are-Cultivators Herdsmen Shopkeepers Potters Blacksmith Carpenter Goldsmith Fisherman Shoemaker Public executioner of animals. minap. byop. tHmi chhapmi. jam khep, chiefly women. gau. zo. tnko. nyarop. kotebpu. p'apsemi The Bhutanese generally are good farmers and clever carpentE>rs, their houses and bridges specially testifying

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ll l their skill ~n woorl-work. In al:JpPara.ncfl the men arp tall and robust-looking but not so stalwart as the Tibetans. They rlo not wear their hair in a plait as the Sikkim Bhutias and are also distinguished from them by the wearing of one ring in the ear, while the women use hardly any jewellery at all. The male dress consists of a loose woollen coat reaching to the knees with a full front which acts as a pocket. The women have their hair cut after the male fashion 4. In the scale of precedence the Deb Raja comes first followed byThe Penlo. Jungpon or governor of a castle. Zimpe. Nichen or officer in charge of commissariat. Donie, a kind of A.-D.-C. J apon or master of the horse. Zinkaff, sepoy officer. Pii, sepoy. 5. I have consulted Jaschi.e's Tibetan grammar and the grammar of the Denjong language by the Rev. J. F. Sandberry and my special acknowledgment is due to the kind assistance given me by Mr. David Macdonald of Darjeeling. DARJEELING:} A.ng11,st 1907. St. Q, BYRNE.

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. ,'., '~.

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CONTENTS. PAl{'f I.-PHUNOLOOY. 1. Trirn slitnation 2. Consonants 3. Vowels and Diphthongs 4. Remarks PART 11.-ETYMULOGY. 5. The Article 6. Substantive-its Declension 7. Peculiarities in connection with Noun, 8. Abstract Nouns 11. Adjectives-comparison 10. List of impOt"tant adjectives 11. Pronouns 12. l'ossessi ve 13. Demonstrat.ive 14. Relative 15. Interrogative 16. Indefinite l 7. Reflexive 18 Distribut.ive Pronoun 19-23. Verbs --IndicAt. ive and Infinitive Moods and Irregular 24-28. Imperial, Potential, i.Jesiderative, Causat i ve and Subjunctive Moods 29-33. Passivl' Voi<,e and Auxiliary, Substantive and Negative Verba ... Page: 1 1-2 3 3-4 5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8 9-10 10-11 11 ib. 12 ib. ib. 13 ib. 13-14 14-15 15-16

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vi 34. Arl verbs .. 35. Postpositions 36. Conjunctions 37. Interjections 38, Nnmerals-Cardinals a nd Or,iinals 39. A
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Vil PAR'.l' IV.-SYNTAX ANU SENTll:NCES, fi3. Arrangement of words in simple and compound senten cei,:. 64. Con versatiou and phrases Appendix Reading ex~ rci~e ... Exa m p l e of Letter writ.iu g Page. ii2,53 ii4-62 62-64 65 -71 71-72

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___ _)

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PART I. PHONOLOGY The Alphabet. 1. The system of phonetic transliteration used is given below. The Bhutanese do not pronounce correctly, in many instances, the Tibetan spelling of words and it is not possible to give any well-defined rules for snch departures. Tib etan character. Consonants 2. "l' k: pronounced as the English kin '' kind." rz:.; kh: as in the Hindustani khansama." z:1r g: hard as in ,, give." C.' ng : is nasal and is represented by N. -o eh: as in "chain." c3l'chh: as in "Churchill" where the 'eh' and 'h' are sounded together. E,"j : as in English. ~:i ny: as n' and 'y' pronounced together in "neyim." )~: as our t ', also 't' will represent the same sound as]Jirat e d. ~th: as in the Hindi "thanna z;.d: as in English. B

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2 'l'i Letan character. Consonants. Z:.,, dh : as d aspirated. When these last four ~letters are to be pronounced as cerebrals a dot is placed underneath them. q'II n: as in English. q p : as in English. q: ph: like 'p' and 'h' combined in '' top-heavy"-this sJund is represented by '' p.'' z:r b: as in English. &-T"m: as in English. ts: as in '' bets." 'J; s: rnme aspirated. E:dz : as in adze." ~w: as in English. tzh or sh: ,3 z: not romanizad. w: ::r.: .; : ,"),fl: ~s: VCf 'sh: ~'.h: ~a: i \ I ),as in English. I j Note also the following : ky': pronounced with something of the 'eh' in it. bl': the 'l' aspirated as in the Welsh Llewellyn. dh d " gy : pronounce ar as gee

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3 3. Vowels ancl Dip!d7101igs. 1 '[}.J' a : as in mast. a: as 'u' in bun 2 e: as' ay' in l\1ay. :3 i : as 'e' in me. When short this letter will be represented byv placed above the letter. 4 --i-o: usually long as in stone. 5 \, u : as oo in food an : as in fraught this is a frequent som1d. ai : to be pronounced separately as in Italian only short. o: as in the German "schon." ii: as the 'u' in French "feu." ow : as in the ou in proud. 4. It should be observed that two separate sounds must not be made of Ng" anrl considerable practice is required to give it its proper sound. '' Ungava" repeated severnJ times will assist in rendering this correctly. The student is advised to pronounce aloud each word so as to accustom the ear to tlie p e uuli a r stac cato sound of the language, and s pecial note must b e made to give the correct stress on the letters accentuated. Like most Eastern languages there is an honorific form of speech and the vocabulary has been arranged in two columns showing this peculiarity.

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4 When speaking to the highest personage the form of address is Kusho "= Sir and "Tasho is s imilarly ui,ed for any person of note. e.g. Tasho kale eh horn= Where have you come from Sir? Here chhom is the honorific verb used instead of "ongni'' to come. When calling the attention of a superior one would say:Tasho nyen se=listen please Sir.

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PART II. ETYMOLOGY. The A rticl!!. 5. The Article is placed after the substantive and has no gender and number is rarely expressed. The Definite Article is Di= the. e.g.-Bring the box dom di ba sbo The Indefinite Article is expressed by 'chi.' e g.-a house chi'.m chi and is always placed after its noun. The plural is express e d by dichu.' e.g.-the houses cbi:m dichu. The Noun. 6. There is only on e g ender-the m a s c ul i ne, the feminine gender being expressed by different words. e.g.-mi = man. amchu = woman.

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6 There are some exceptions to this general rule m: in the case of ra = he-goat. mm= she-goat. p'yap = cock. p'yam=hen. When the vowel root of the word is shortened and 'm' added-The plural is formed by adding 'elm.' e.g.-memmi-a Lepcha. memmichu-Lepchas. The Noun is declined by annexing to it certain postpositious-e g.-Chim chi a house. Norn. ChYm chi-a house. Gen. Chim gi---of a house. Dat. Chim lu-to a house Acc Chrm or chim lu-a house. Loe. Chim na--in or at a house Abl. Chi'.m le-from a house. Agentive. Ch'im gi-by a house. It should be noted that of one house wonld be chl'.m chi gi. 7. The points to be observed in connection with substantives is that such words as "upon" and '' with'' are translated where we would consider these adjuncts superfluous. e.g.-Shii1 di gu dze, would be-climb the tree

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7 the syllable "gu" being used in accordance with Tibetan idiom. 'l'he particle "lu" must he used when a Dative sense is implied. Mi di lu lam di ten : Show (to) the man the road When both subject and object occm the subject 1s put in the Agentive case. e.g.-Chhi di p'illi lu S(l tapdoo the dog is biting the cat. But in ordinary converrntion of the lower classes this peculiarity is not observed. The only exception to the regular declension appears to be in the following expressionOhho hekha jo do ga ? = Are you going to market? Chho semkha tu be ga? = Do you like. where the particle kha. represents the 'in' or to' instead of the regular particles na or lu. 8 Abstract nom~s are seldom used; they are however formed from adjectives. e g.-The cold is intense sito1ito kam born me. Here we have the unaltered adjective sitol'lto used as a noun.

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8 In the case of antithetical ideas existing in ordinary conver5ation the compound of both is used-e.g.-What is the height of this wall? tsipo degi t'ome kazu be. '' T 'ome" here represents two words "t'o "= high and "mp.''=low. So also bomchbun = (lit. large and small) i.e.., size. Diminutives are formed by adding tbe termination" chhu" e.g.,-mi =man; michhu = dwarf. ta= horse; tacbhu = little horse. Adjective. 9. The Adjective is always placed after the noune.g.-a bad boy puchu sob chi, and it can be rendered more intense by prefixing the word 'kam = verye.g.-Ta di kam lezhim me the horse is very good. Adjectives are compared by using we" for the com parative and ' zhen kit we" for the superlative-e .g.-Chhab di p'i di we lezhim me this thing is better than that. Chhab di zhen ka we l e zhim me this thing is the best. Lam di zheu ka w e tu11sho me. this road is the shortest.

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9 10. A list of the more important adjectives is given below:Brave-nyeta. Bad-sob. Blunt-podu. Broad -j ia j he. Cheav-kbyetoto or kheye Clean-ta1itl:iiit);i.ti. Clear-hotanto. Cleverrrib. Cunning-eh lichen. Cow(lrd-do mi. Dear-kii.be. Deep-tin. Dirty-tepa. Drunken -razizu. Dry I.am. Difficult-lakha. Easy-lakha min du. Equal-danda. False-shop. Fat-jyariri. Fierce dosisi. Flat-leptete. Foolisb-rribmi. Fresh-sap. Full-tembe. Good-lezhim. Great-born. Haudsome-sarrim. Hard-satakta. Happy-gani. Heavy--ji. High--t'oyo. Hollow-hauka. Important-thi:intoto. Innocent-ziimmeb. Large-born. Long-rim. Light-yattutti.i. Narrow-jiajhe chhungko N ew-sap. Old-nyip. Poor-iip. Quiet-k:hachum. Rich-p'yup. Ripe-chochhob. Rough-paroshishi. Sound-thegogo. Sad -du. ::iharp-nii. Short-t'ungku

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Slow-kole. Smooth-jamtonto. Soft, supple-nyento1igto. Sound-ke. Sourkyup. Strong-khyeko. Sweet-shimtoto. 10 Tall-zurim. Thick-t,hup'apa. Thin-saptl_1i.it\1ii. True-ton toto. Warm-eh h e p. Weak-khyeko mi. Wet-pai'1pum. Pronoims. 11. Pronouns are used in place of nouns. There are eight kinds:The Personal. Nga-I. Nigi-of mA, my. Ngalu-to me, me. Ngaleby me. Kho-he. Khogi-of him, his. Kholu-to him, him. Khole-by him. Chho-you. Chhogi-of you, your. Cbho lu--to you, you. Chho le-by you. Mo-she. Mogi-of her, her. Molu--to her, her. Mole-by her Di-it. Digi-of it. Dilu-to it.

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11 The plural forms are ngacha-we. khong-they. dichu-them. ngache--our. e.g.-Chhogi chim kate im where is your house. e.g.-Ngalu na give me. l\fogi kiya rim me her hair is long. Tbe genitive affix is sometimes omitted e.g.-Chho lab chai1tokto mindu your hands are not clean, where "chho "is used instead of the fuller" chbogi ". 12. The Possessive Pronoun as described above. It should be carefully noted that the noun may be accompanied by both the possessive pronoun and the definite article. e g.-Nigi dom di ba sho bring my box. i.e., literally my box the bring 13. Demonstrative Pronouns. This is expressed by di and that by p'idi. e.g.-Chim di kagi im? whose house is this? e.g.-chho kacbibe di be do? why are you doing this?

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12 14. Relative Pronouns. These are denoted by participial clauses. e.g.-Chim di na domi mi di khacba shisoi the man who lived in that house died yesterday. e.g.-
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13 17. Reflexive Pronouns are used when the emphatic sense is desired: -e.,q.-Di ngaragi zozo im-I did it myself and are formed by adding ra" to pronoun which is put in the instrumental case I 8. The Distributive Pronouns are-Each-rere. Each otber-chigichi. Every-rere. One another-chigichi. e .g.-Give each cooly one rupee. lab rerelu tiru chi chi p'in. e.g.-Love each other chigichi lu cham. The Verb. 19, The Infinitive is formed by adding ni to the root of the verb-e.g. She-ni, to catch where ''she" iii the root. 20. The future has the same ending as the infinitive e.g. Nga t'un-ni = I will drink. :n. The pres ent Indicative is formed by adding' do' to the root-e.g. N gii. t'un-do = I am drinking, I drink, 22, The perfect tense is formed by adding" chi" or "i" to the root-e.g. Kho yigo chi ti'i while the past indefinite affixes "chai ".-e.g, Kho cha t'uri cha.i,

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14 :?3. Some verbs form their past tense irregularlye.,g.Beni-to do. Shi-ni-to die. Be-i-did. Shi-soin-died. Tani-to see. T'o11 chi-saw. T'on ch{ti-bas seen. Joni-to go. Be-chai-has done. 01i-ni-to come. 011-chicame. Sho !--come O!'i-will be. S01ii-went. Oil t{i ?-will be? 24. 1'he Imperative is the simple roote.g.-sa = eat, the polite form of which is sa buy this. Ngajo ge=I must go, is Int~us ive.

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16 27. The Causative is formed by the particle "ta" placed between the root and tense ending. Thim-ta-ni=to cause punishme11t to be administered. 28. The Si;bjunctive is expressed by the particle ''nu" Nga chhi:i inu nga chhirnlo joni=if I were you I would go home. 29. The Passive Voice is not clearly distinguished and is generally expressed by "son du." 30. The SubRtantive verb is expressed by "in and "me,"'' ime" and go and when used interrogati\ely it takes the form of yoda, ga and na-e.g.-Chhi:i tari chim na joni na '? are you going home to-day ? Tari sito1ito ime it is cold to-day. Chhi:i Pasaka le on chi na ? have you come from Buxa? Chho semkha cha di chhube ga? do you like this tea ? Nga in-I am. Ngacha in-we are. Cbho in-thou art. Chh(tin-you are. Kho in-he is. Kho1i in-the y are. :n. The Auxiliary verb to have is translated like the Hindi, i e., Ngalu sham chi yi:i=I have a hat Chhi:i dr. blam tsoimi yi:i gt'i. ?-have you boots to se11 ? i,e., by you as in tumhara pas.'

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16 32. The Present Participle 'having' is rendered thus: -S011 di ta-go and see, i.e., having gone, see when the particle "di" stands for 'having' which is added to the verbal root. 33. The Negative is expressed by "mi" or "min" for the presen~ and future and by ma" for the perfect and imperativee.g.-Nga jo mi-I am not going. Nga min jo-I will not go. Nga ma son-I did not go. Ma son-do not go. Kho tato jo do mi-he is not going now. Kho ma son-he has not gone. Kho lappni mi-he has nothing to say. Note that in the past tense the negative is placed i mmed i ately before the verb and after the infinitive. fhe following should also be noticed :Nga popda kho p'yolosei=On my calling he ran \way. Here the particle 'da' represents on." Nga kha lappegan Ion dii = While I am talking, stand "lp. Chho nam sa sbimda sho = When you have finished eating, come. Here the word 'shimda' denotes com pletion. At the time of'' is translated by t'omda ; gan; chowda.

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17 Adverb8. 34. There appears to be no distinction between the adjedive and its corresponding adverb. The following is a list of the chief adverbs:Adverbs of time :-Joba-soon. Tarn-again. Tatora.-imme
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18 Others being : -P'asha-sometimes. Katerre-how many. Tbachhi:ibechhi:i-certainly. Kole-in order to. Ha11toma-suddenly. Eh-also. Ch hacbibu-altogether. Bu-among. Ka-as much. Demchi-!.o much. Di ti:inle-because. Ti11le-behind. Maleh--but. Tube--enough. Chhunko-little. Tarru-more. Dongko-opposite. Chibu-only. Manyenchin-perhaps, Di tonle-tberefore. Yochhemichhe-e verything. Sathumche-everywhere Debbe-in this manner. Nam-when. Kate-where. Kale-whence. Kadem-how. Kadechi-how much. Namle-how long Lai-yes. Menla-no. Postposit ions. 35. Simple postpositions as we have seen are used m forming the declension of cases of substantives: we have now to consider compound postpositions which are expressive of the general relations of things and persons such are:-

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Tonlu-on account of. Bolio-near. Zumbe --like. Hem-before. P'anabetween 19 Bunain the middle of. Ulu-beneath. Le ton di round by. Gu-upon. Nyum-with, along with. Padu-up to. Gegohi-on all sides. Until" is expressed by padu combined with the neg..1tive-e.g.-Nga on mi padu, gudo. until I come, wait. Nga Dorling l e tondi soni I went round by Darjeeling. Conjiinction. 36. When one verb is coupled to another the conjunc t ion and is not used but the sentence is translated thus:-J odi ta= go and see, the gerandial affix di being employed. The word for 'and in coupling nouns is however used. Chent e d a khanti t a bl e a nd b e d. Or" i !'l expressed b,y ya." Gondo ya om bii sho Bring either eggs or millr. But note-Chliogi appa do yo shisoin?

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20 Is your father dead or alive ? When the 'or' is not translated, the alternative being arranged so as to immediately follow the thing con trasted. The sub ordinate conjunction ''if" is expres,;ed by "achin" or wachin" according to euphonye. g.-Ohho sob bew[~chin ngii chholu tini If you are bacl I will beat you. "Neither" and ''nor" are expressed by "e" and ye."e.g.-Nga z ane shi s a cbho lu ye mi jo I will neither eat my brPakfast nor go to school. Interjectioa.s. 37. The most common in use areOinga which mean, d ear me' and is pronounced in a long and drawling fa~hion, also expresses an e motion of mind akin to horror. '' Oeh" similarly pronounced ~ignifies au immediate apprehension of fear. "Ala.la" is oh! and whe n repeated becomes an ex clamation of pain, L abdmini" expresseti j oy whPn the hands are clapped together. '' Joge" is an invitation to oo!lle on.' Oie ime irne, with emphasis on the i=Oh yes I see. 'l'nbn.=:very well' corresponding to tbe J{indi "accha",

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21 'l'he Numerals. 38. Cardinals: 1 7 Chi. 2 "Nyi. 3 '3_ Sum. 4 Zhi. 5 V Nga .. 6 '5 Tu. 7 1J Dun. 8 1-Gye. 9 Gu. 10 ') 0 Chutam. 11 J J Chuchi. 15 7 v Ctenga. 17 7 V Cbabduin 18 'J ( Chabgye. 20 0 Khechi, nisu. 21 J Nisusa chi. ::10 \ 0 Khephedangni. 40 0 Kheni. 50 V O Khephedangsum. fiO ''S O Khesum. 70 V O Khephedangzhi. 80 I.., 0 Khezhi. 90 Q O Khephedangnga. )0(1 ? o O Khenga or gya. 1,000 7 O O Tongta. 1 lakh ,2 0 0 O O O Bum chi.

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22 The Ordinals show in what order thiogs are arranged and are expressed by adding po to the cardinals excepting "the first" which is denoted by "tan po,' instead of 'chi po '' the second letter" would be translated by yigo nyipo. Adverbial Numeral.<:. 39. The multiplicative adverbs 'once,' 'twice,' etc., are expressed by putting '' cbha," times' before the cardinal. e.g.-Chha chi=once. CbM nyi=twice. Fractional numerals are formed thus.p'ye--half. p'ye gi p'ye--quarter, i.e., half of half. but" dum "-a third. The words used for the Indian money currency are:-Tiru-rupee. Ko-12 annas. Thala-8 annas. Shiki-4 annas Anna nyi-2 annas. Pesha-pice. Money is counted thus :-Tiru p'ye ta nyi=one rupee eight annas, i.e., less 2 rupees, when particle "ta' is equivalent to minus rn tiru ko ta sum=two rupees twelve annas;

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Khechi-a score. Parkbai:t-a handful. San-a seer. 23 P'iitaseer. Tsankhu-big bag for rich, flour. N giikyan-cash Ghii--a maund. Phetang-Bhutan rupee Khechun-small bag for pice. Ji-weight. Kbuchha-load. .Measurement is usually made by so many tins full; a bamboo measure is also used holding the same quan tity as the tin and this is the only method of computation.

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PART III. VOCABULARY. 40. Animals, birds and fishes. Animal (wild)-r i g a g i semchhe. Animal (tame)-semchhe. Bat-p' orna.ke. Bear-tom. Eird-picbu. Buffalo-mahbe. Bull-lang. Calf-poehu. Camel-lam gh yep. Cattle-gno. Cat-p'illi. Claw-demu. Crow-ola. Cock-p'yap. Cow-gno Cuc k oo-kaku. Deer-shii.u Deer (rnusk)-lan. Deer (barking)kasbi. Dog (big)-chhi. Dog (smallJ-rochhi. Dog (watch)-gochhi. Dog (sporting)-sbachhi. Dog (wild)-p'au. Donkey-p'om. Dove-tithigem Duck-damja. Elephantlamchhe. Fowl-chim p'ya. Feather-dau. Fish-uya. Fowl (Jnngle)-nankarra. Goat (he)-ra. Goat (she)--ram. Hen-p'yam. Horse-ta. Hoof-ta kam. Horn-ro. Hare-rigon.

PAGE 39

Jackal-am. Kite-yi.i. Leopard-zi Mare-gom. Monkey-pya. Neule-te. Owl-t'ingpum. Partridge-kachirri. Pig-p'ap. Pig (wild)-rip'a. Parrot-batha. Peacock-mabja. 25 Pheasant-ha pp. Pigeon--p'udon. Rat-p'ichi. Rhinoceros-siki. Sheep-lu. SquirrelScales-llop. Tiger-ta. V ulture-chhagi.i Wings-shopthi. Wool-peh. Yak-ya. 41. Colour. Black-nap. Blue-hi.im. Colour--kya. Green-changka Ornamentation-debri. Paint--chhon. Print-pa. Red-map. White--kap, Yellow-sep. 42. Disectsgs cind drugs. Boil-Si.inti.i. Goitre-bouki. Cholera-shaneh. Leprosy-dze neh. Cough-locham. Dysentery-chhuneh, Disease-neh. Fever-tseneh. Headache-goneh. .Medicine-men. Ophthahnia-mi neh. Rheumatism~tsa neh. Small-pox-dum neh. 8kin disease-pakko neh.

PAGE 40

26 43 Dre8s. Belt (leather)-tbalem. Belt (silver)-Kochhab. Belt (knife worn in)-dojum. Bracelet-dobchu. Boot--hlam. Blanket-p'yaru. Cloak-c hbakab. Coat-ko. Coat (inside fold of)-bamp'ye. Chaddar' (worn over shoulder)kapni. Charm (worn round neck) -surikhu. Comb (made of bamboo) -gushe. Cotton-kiip. Ear-ring (men only)sechu Hat-sham. Hat (cane or bamboo)-belo. Handkerchief-torra. Haversack-daufe. Looking-glass-millori. Needle-khup. N ecldace ( coral )--shyekbo. Ornaments-genchha. Pocket-hlamchhe. Ring-juko. Shirt (lama's)-tiigo. Stocking-omsu. Scissors-kimchhi. Trousers-tom. 'l'assle-tap ii. U niform-mago. Umbrella-nindu. 44 Food, drinlc and 11,tensils. Common form. Honorific. Beer (rice)-chhari.. } Jh Beer (murwa)-mimja chbari., etu. Bread-khule.

PAGE 41

27 nommon form. Butter-ma. Broth-t'up. Beans-semchhom. Bowl (wooden)-p'op. Honorifio. Suma. Jhechha.. Bucket (fron, for fetching water)-Som. Basket-tseo. Basket (big, covered with leather)-tocbhu. Chilly (green)-imaliim. Cooked-chhop. Cup-kayo. Dinner -sanni. Dhall-sem. Dish (bamboo)-panchu Jheba. Dekcbi-san. Egg-gondo. Eatable-sego. Eatables (an offering of)-chanje. Fish-nya. Flour-p'i. Knife--,,kichhun. Knife (small)-katalla. Milk-om. Mutton-lusha. Meat ( dry )-sbakum. Meat (gravy)-khoa. M ustard-janapechu.

PAGE 42

Common form Oil-makhu. Pork-p'apsha. 28 Plate (mud)-jam. Pot (earth)-p'um. Teapot (mud)-chumbi. Platet'ali. Pestle-chhasum. Rice (cooked)-to, Rice (uncorked)--chhum Raw-li.im. Soup-khoa. Sugar-chimkoram. Salt-ts'a. Spoon--thum Sieve-shosisim. Tea-chha. Tea (brick:J-chha p'aga. Vegetables-chhom. W ater-chhu. Honorific, Si.ichhum Si.its'a. Jhethum. 45. Functions of the body and niind. Anger-tsip. Brain-leppo. Blood-khya. Digestion-shua. Grief-kiduk. Heart-tonyeh. Honest-t'onpu. Hearing-hyen. Hunger-topu. J ealousy-missi.

PAGE 43

Kidneys-kheri. Liver-chhimpo. Mastication-mu. Perspiration-tseppo. Patieuce-ji.ipo. Smell-tim. Sali va-ts'ima. 29 Shame-ngauhsa." Truthful-dem be. Thought-sem. Taste-shim po. Urine-ship. Veiu-taktsa. 46. Fruit, flowers and vegetahles. Apple-Amde. Mustard oil-num. "Betel ''-doma. Nettlesocha. Beans-sem. Barley-na. Began "-do lorn. Castor-oil -Cane-eh bah. Cucurn ber-kon. Cinuamon-shiima. Gingersakka. Guavap'yepsyu. Gram--cha. Indian c orn-geza. Jack-damsi. Lemon-hum pa.. Lek-eh ago. Mango-amchukli. Mushroom-sake shamo. Orange-chhelu. Onion-gopmap. '' Pan "-panne. Peas-sem. Pear-lli. Peach-kham. Plantain-ngala. Pomegranate-sindu. Potato-kewa. PineaplJle-lrniichha. Hadish-lapp'n. Sugar-cane-pamcha. 'l'urni p -yundo. Walnut-tago. Wheat-khyau,

PAGE 44

30 47. Human body. Common. Arm-lab. Armpit-iachi. Back-gyap Beard-gyaru Blood-tha. Body-zu Bone-rito. Breast-p'yano. Cheek-jamta Chin-rnanld. Corpse-ro Ear-namcho Elbow-killi Eye-mido Eyebrow-micham. Eyelash-mipu. Face-don Fin gers-dzummo Foot-kam Forehead--pyow Gums-sosha Hair-kya Hand-lap Head-goto Honorific. cha. ugyap. ngjhe. kuzu. ujam. kup'um. nyen. chapo. chhen-mi. shyeh. cba11dzu. shab. ut'i:i. cbhemsha uta. cbba. u.

PAGE 45

Common. Heart-sem Heel-tirn Jaw-marnyu. Knee-pumu 31 Leg (upper)-ledu. Leg (lower)-p'yemta. Liver-eh hem. Lip (upper)-yamchhu. Lip (lower)-mamchhu. lVlouth-kha Moustache -gyau. Nose-nappa Neck--iiko Nails-semu Shoulder-p'yepta. Skin (human)-pako, Skin (animal)-ko. Side~chhent'a. Stomach-p'o Thumb -thepurn Tongue-che Toeskamme dziimmo Throat-battum. Wouud-mah. Waist-kyep Honorific. thu. shapti. shappo. shyeh. shan. dembo. chhasi. kop'o. chandzu. ja. shabzu. u1'yep.

PAGE 46

32 48. Hoiise and ctppurtences. Bed--kanthi. Building ( 4 storiedJ-tho zhi. Box-dom. Bellows--biip. Brick-zappa. Ceiling--thoka Cushionbed an. Carpet-den. Curtain gorre. Courtyard-gokha. Door-go. Downstairs-wolu. Fireplace miza. Fan lm'iyapp. Fire-mi. Floor-en tar. Garden-shin. House-chim. House (bamboo)-pashi-gi chim. Hut-shini chim. lnk-nalrn. "Kalsi "-jazi. Key-dimi Lime-chiinye. Ladder-yakhu. Lock-gocha. Lantern-ganjhu. Lamp-mipshi. Matches-mitte. Paper-shogu. Pen-niku. Pillow-nghan. Pestle-chhasum. Room (sitting)--zimchu. Room (hed1-yiJna. Room ( coo i.)-thapcha. Roof-chimto. Rent-the. Srnoke-thupa. Staircai:e-pehkya. Seal-thiu. Upstairs-yalu. Veraudah-tengu. Walltsip. Window-gochu. W. C (ouly in the houses of superi:>rs) sanchhii.

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33 49. Insects and Reptiles. Ant-chhoma. Bee-potum. Butterfly-p'yimlap. Bug-deshi. Frog-hep. Flea-kiss hi. Fly-Biam. Insect-bup. Louse-shi. Mosquito~chap'i. Snake-bi.i. Spider-Bupshem. Sting-dung. W orm-daribyu. Wax-p'yachi. 50. Mankind and Relations. Common Aunt-ani. Boy-puchu. Brother-no chu. Rrother (elder)-p'ogem. Bearer ( servant )-chhangab. Beggar-pyano. Child-puchu, Caste-ri. Cooly lab. Clerk-thui. Cook thuppchhl1p. Character-beli.ichhaji, Honorific. Carrier and cutter (of wood)-shin thu mi. D

PAGE 48

34 Common. Daughter-pum. Father-appa Friend-thauchhan. Family-p'ujhi. Girl-pum Grandfather-aja. Grandmotherange. Gentleman-kusho Husband-p'oge. Lieutenant-Governor-Pen lo Man-mi. Motber-ai Neigbbour--ch'fmcba. Relations-pincba. Sister-sim. Sister ( elder )-ajun. "Sahib "-sheb. Slave-kho. "Sadhu "-gomchhe. Servant-byaro. Servant (head)-byaro gubda.. Uncle-akhu. Womau-Amc:bu. Wife-nem. Waterman-eh buomi. Youth-jhum. Honorific. yap. sem. tiisho yum.

PAGE 49

35 51. Minerals and Metals. Amber--p'iisbe. Brass-san sep. Copper-sanmii.p. Cement-chi.iue. Chalnin-doka. Clay-sa11yem. Coal-dozi.imu. Cbarcoal-siimu. Coral -p'euru Diamond-dojip'allam Gold-se. Gold clust-se p'i. Glue-p'yin. Glass-millo. Iron--cha. Lead-shachi. Mica-dornillo Silver-ngi.J. Saltpetre-gyatsa. Soda-piido. Stone-do. Sulphur-domuze. Tin-chaka. 52 .Maniifa,cfores. Blankets(coarse)-nambu Helmet (iron)-chamu. Bowls ( c ircular, wooden)-(Heads arrow)-da. p'op ; jhechhii.. Knife-kichhung. Bow-jhu. Knife (small)-katalla. Cannon-pod um. Catapult-jyok. Cauldron ( copper)-sanchh e n. Cloth (cotton) -tarre. Fire (instrument for strik ing)-cbama. (Net.) Guupowder-ze. Gun-minda. Leather-ko. Mail ( coats of)-chathap. Paper-shogu. Shield-dhali. Spears (iron)-dun. Sword-patta. Sword (large) kiri. Whips (hide)-techa.

PAGE 50

36 53. .Musical Instrunients and Ganies. Archery (to perform)-da Flute-Jim. chbapni. Bell-Fb. Conch-t'u1JLca. Clarionet:.__jy{di. Cym bal-rrhiim. Crown (paper, worn by masquerader)-ringa. Drum-bonga. Drum ( small, with long string)-tailti. Fiddle-p'yan. Gong--ti11ti. Horn (made from a human tbigh)-kandu. Mask-bi'.lp. Quoits-diigo. Trumpet-t,m'i. Target-bah. weight (putting the) pundo. 54. Miseellaneons. Accused--khamchubami. Account--o b hidu. Agreement-~adi. Harrel (gun)-minde cha Bridge ( wooden )-shingi sam. Blacksinith-gau. Hoat tu Breach-lodder-m i n d a shondi chem. Ball (shot) diu. Buel.: shot)--dirru. Barrel -minde cha. Book-JJeuhu. Bribe-gyisu. Badmash-tamriship. Boulders-dobumpo. Count.ry (hilly)-sa yaze map'ap. Crops-lot ho. Chowkidar-ohimsu CarLridge-sho1Jdi. Cultivat.or-minap. Country-ukha. Copy-dashu. Charge ( accusation )-ri n.

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37 Cash-ngiikyan. Custom-liisse. Compensation-ton. Complaina n t-k h a m chuts'ow. Case-khamchu. Conversation-khalapp. Cutcherry-thirnsa. Cave-pyaku. Clue-lense. Cheat-godungmi. Poctor-tui1so. Dead. body-;ho. Damp Dacoit-zM1chom. Drunk-razizu. Dice-shau Examination-chho ju. Evil spirit-qeh. Field ( terraced )-ari. Frontier-sachhnm. Fort -jong. Foot-path-lamchhunglrn. Festival-cl! hi:ika. False-shop. Footprint -kamje. Grass-tsa. Gun-minda. Guest-gi.im. 'Grain '-chha. Goolrnal --p'yow. Game-ts'yi m. Hay-byasop. Horse race-ta (b) gyu, Hole-ton. Highroad-lambom. Investigating officerchizipmi. Impression 10n ground by a body)-shi.ikha. Insurrection-nangtham Jungle-ri. Judgment-thim. Juice-khoa. Kind-zonde. Khud-kyon. Length and breadth-p'a da tsu. Lunatic-lengo. Lazy-shelochichi. Loan-pi.ileli. Letter (when sent by superior to inferior) kasho Letter-yigo.

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38 Letter (when sent by inferior to superior )--shui. :Market place-he. 'Mandal '-gab. Mandal's subordinatep'ipi:in. Meadow-tan. Ma11ure-lti. Mill-rai1tha. Merchant-tsonpon. Messenger-yigokemi. .Machan' -te. Milkman-pazib. Mnzzle-loader-m i n d a p'ochu chem. Mud-dam. Meaning-tPnchi. Master--li:ibi:in. Noise-ke. Owner-dakn. Officer--tasho. Order-kasse. Oppression-bane hhe. Plain (level)--tai:J. Palace--jangjhi. Prison-tsi:in. Pie kettazon. Policeman-p'o. Preci pice-p'ya. Petition-shui. Profit-khye. Pupil-lotu. Price-rin. Poison-tu. Road-lam. Rope-fap. Reward-sora. Resurrection-qehlu. Rajah-Pon. Riot-tham. Rainbow-ja. Rust.-tsa. Rate-goti, Ready-di h. Ripe-chbochhup. Rest-house (stone)-di::in khan. Stockade-maga. Sen try-gorab. Stream-lum. Sbepherd-luzib. Shoemaker-hlamchemi. Soldier-ma.mi. Sbield-dhali. Sport-sha. Saddle-ga.

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39 Sheath-shuko. Tower-uchhi, Shelter-ipsa. Thief-au. Silk-menchi. Treaty-thonchhen. Smell--tim. Truncheon -teta. Sentence-lots'i. Top and bottom-ya da Subsidy-sat he. ma. Substitutetsama. Tamasba-tem. Slippery-gyeda. Traveller-dhiip. Spleen-chhip Upside down-p'yu. Sticky-byadi ppu. Village-0. Shop (liqucr)-c hang Winner-gyemi. khai'.1. Work-yo. Tow,n-thom. Witness--jompan. 55. Nature. Ascent ( steep )-kyu. Cloud-timpo. Cold (of things)-khUm. Cold (of w eather)-siton-to. Climate-Dam. Climate (moist)-n am bonpo. Climate (dry)-namkam. Darkuess-natonto. Dust-theow. Dew-sip. D escent-thu. Earth-sa. Earthquake-saiyom. Eclipse (sun)-nyimzii:J. Eclipse (moon)-dunzii:J. Fungus-shamo.

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40 Forest (dense)-nachhe-bompo. Gorge-p'yasi p. Glacier-khai1chhen. God-Konchho. Heat-tum. Hot-tu. Hail-seyo. foe-khe. Light-kyatonto. Lightning-to. Lake-ts'au. LandsJi p-saru Mountain (snowy)-kan chhe n. River-tsa1ichhu. Rock-p'ya. Star-kam. Sky-namkha. Sun--nyim. Snow-khau. Shade-kimma. Spring-eh ham bur. Storm-lui1chba. Stream-chhulun. Snowslipkbanrii. Sand-p'yirn. Spur (hill)-ga.11. Torrent-lam. Tbunder-tjhu. Moon-dau. Volcauo-mfohu. Moon (full)-
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41 56. Nationalities and Countries. Bhutan-Hlolum or J?bu. Bhutanese Hlol--'a. Brahmaputra-eh h a m cbhutui.J. Benares-waranasi. Cooch Behar-gathika. British Government-p'illing jbung. Buddhist-sangye. Cbina-gyana. Cbinaman-gyami. Chunabbatti '-gyeshing lum. Englishman-p'illing. Gya-dojeden. Hindu -acharra. India-gyaga. lndian-gyagimi. Leppcha-memm mi. Mahomedan-mutep. Nepali-korkap mi. Tibet-p'op u. Tibetans-p'op. 51. Rites and Religion. Astrologer tsi po. Burial custom-bani liisse. Folklore-p'yetam. Flag (used in religious procession )-tha. Holy-ritbup. History-sm'J. lmage-kunda. Incantationngha. Incense-tsa11. Lama -chhob. Monastery-hlaga. Marriage ceremony-nyen chhapni ltisse. Nun-ani. Offerings (food)-chanje. Pictures < sacred in monastery)--kuthan. Prayer (cylinderi-mane. Priest-gyelo11. Religion -tempo. Treaty-thonch hei.t. Temple-gyompa.

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42 58. S11,perstitions. In Bhutan innumerable spirits are worshipped, the chief of which are enmuerated below:Hla deh-a good spirit. Dii deh-the spirit of those who have died by violence. Gantseh-the mountain spirit. Lengo q.eh-the mad spirit, one that journeys in a straight line neither turning to the left nor right and its presence is not perceived till it comes in contact with the human body. Michha deh-the spirit which appears on land formed by the meeting of two rivers when it appears as dancing fire. Shin deh-the spirit of the oppressed ; has the power of mimicry and infests houses imitating the voice of man and other animal. This spirit can be destroyed if attacked soon after leaving the human body. 59. Trade. Baskets-panchhung. Beads (amber)-peudu. Cloth ( erandi)-burra. Chowries-yaju. Coral-p'euru. Durries (striped)-hot~a. Dust (gold)-se p'i. Fish (dried)-nya kam. Goor-chhimkorom. Horn (rhinoceros)-silli ro. Indigo-ram.

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Joss stick-tsendeh. Lac -lac ha. Musk-lame(n). Pearls -muti. Salt (rock)-tsana. 43 Silk-sichhen. Tusk ( elephant)-lamche chhiu. wax p'yachi. Wool-pe. 60. Trees. Birch-fa1.lrnshi11 Bark-pakho. B lossom-bopchu. Branch-shinga. Bamboo-pa.shin. Cypress-pasas hin. Fir..:_thamishiil. Fruit-shinde. Flower-mito. Grass-tsa. lndia-ru bber-gyeshi n J ungle-chhema. Juniper-shup. Maple-yali. Oak-byonrlapshin. Pinethaunshin. Rhododendron-eto. Root-rat to. Seed-siin. Stem-mashiil. Straw-p'uma, Shrub-hnodum. Tree-shin. Willow-chomshin. 61. Times and Seasons. The year is divided into 12 months and the following are the names of the months: -.Tanuary-da u tanpo. July-dau duinpo. February-dau nyipo. August-dau gyepo. :March-dau sumpo. September-dau gupo. April-dau zhipo. October-dau chupo. May-dau ngap:>. November-dau chuchi. June-dau ~upo. December-dau chuni.

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44 The month is divided into 30 days and the following names are given to the days of the week:-Sunday-za nyim. Thursday-za p'urbo. l\fonday-za dau. Fridayza pasa1i. Tuesday-za mima. Saturday-za p'embo. Wednesciay-za hlabo. The day again is divided into 6 divisions of time:The morning-nyim chi-Afternoon-nyim kbaiyo. sha. Sunset-nyim jajo. Fonmoon-nyim do. Twilight-nyim gep. Noon-nyim khun. Distance is expresfled by so many days' journey. e.g.-Thirty miles would be a two days journey= shii. nyi lam. And we also hear the following expressions used in this connection :-The morning journey-tho lam. The journey till noon -nyim p'yfl laiii. A day and night journey-sha chi lam. A full day's journey-nyim chi lam. At cock crow-p'yatam p'opda. The seasons are-Cold weather-gun. Hot weather-chepchi. Rainy weather-bya. Direction is expressed by-North-chan. :::louth-hlo. East-sha. West-nup. Beginuing-gan.

PAGE 59

Day-nyim. Birthday kichhe. All day-nyimkya11. 45 Vay by day-nyimrimcba. Day break-narnn{un. Now-a-days-thare. Every day-nyirn machhep. Night and day--shii. How mi,.ny dfl.ys -sha. kadacbi Date-chhe or tse. The end-ju. Hour-clilrntsii. How long--namle. Last month-dausongmi. Morning-tob,i,. Noon nyima. Night.-p'iru. Sometimes-pa~ha. Snnrise-n yi mshaudan. Sunset-nyirnnupdan. Time-gang. New year-nyimlau. Last year-lau sonmi. Year-Ian. Week-diintra.

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46 62. A list of the more important verbs is now given in alphabetical order. A To Arrive-hloni. ,, be Afraiddoni ,, Ask-tini. ,, Assemble-jomni. ,, Assist-chharobeni. ,, Attack-cheda chappni. ,, Answer-]en fapni. ,, Ascend-ya joni. ,, Awake-hloi:mi. ,, Arrest-zuimi. ,, Assault-ziimi. ,, be Angry-chipsani. B To Bark hapni. ,, Beat-tini. ,, Bellow-mahhe ke chappni ,, Begingochuni. ,, Believe-dcnjtinrini. ,, Boil-khuni. ,, Bray-pomke chapp ni. To Bring-baoni. ,, Build-zoni. ,, Buy-nyoni. ,, Born-kini. ,, Breathe-bu kamni. ,, Bleat-luke chappni. ,, Burn-mrtaui. ,, Bury-tona chuni. ,, Borrow-kini. ,, Break-chani. ,, Bite-sotapni. ,, Break (as a bridge or house)-rhamni. ,, Burn jungle-ri mi biini. ,, Blow (breath)-p'uni. C To Carry-bani. ,, Call-poni. ,, Chat-khalapni. ,, Cook-tsoni. ,, have cornpassion-dichheui.

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To Cough-laubani. ,, Cover-kapni. ,, Catch-sheni. 47 ,, Choke-khyomi tho ni. ,, Choose-d a m k h a chappni. ,, Chew the cud-dhe chappni. ,, Circle rouud-nam p'achheni. ,, Clean-p'yini. ,, Come-oni. ,, Crawl-gop joni. ,, Cut-toni. ,, Chop--todani. ,, Climb-zeni. ,, Crush-lepni. ,, Cry-nguni. ,, Change-sode chappni ,, Converse-kha lapni. ,, Confess-khasini. D To Dance (for men)Chhumni. ,, Dance (for women) chena juni. To Delay-yiirinbeni. ,, Die-shini. ,, Descend-majoni. ,, Dress-konni. L>rink-t'unni. ,, Dismiss-gomtani. ,, Divide-goni. ,, Do. -beni. ,, Drag-thenni. ,, Dig-koni. ,, Destroy-meb zoni. ,, Dwell-doni. To be Disgusted-khamluni. E To Eatsani. ,, Exchange-soni. ,, Explain-sheni. ,, Escape-thani. ,, Enter-nana joni. ,, Enter surreptitiously or creepingly-nana juni. ,, Enquire-sh i b c h e (beni) (chappni).

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48 F To Fall (from above) p'ilni. ,, Fall tf r o m t h e groundJ-geni. ,, Fiud-nhyPni. ,, Finish-bechhani. ,, Follow-tinle joni. ,, Forget -jeni. ,, Fasten--damni. ,, Fight-zi1ini. ,, Freeze--khe chani. ,, Frighten-doni. ,, Forgive-kuchhe sun chheni. ,i Fly-p'uni. ,, Fix-thithizoni. G To Get-t'opni. ,, Give (to superior)p'i.ilni. ,, Give (to another)p'ini, ,, Give (to yourself) nani. To Go-joni. ,, Grnnt-p'ap ke chhappni. ,, Take up (?)-t'uni. ,, Go in-nana joni. ,, Go out p'ille joni. ,, Grow---,-kini. ,, Grsze-tsa sanni. ,, Get up from sleepl01ini. H To Hate-shetheni. ,, Hope-ricbe beni. ,, Hear-koni. ,, Hide-bazhani. ,, be Hungry-tokini. ,, Hold-sbfcni. Hurt-matoni. ,, Hang up pyan ni. ,, Hasten-joba beni. ,, Hiccup-ikiloni. ,, Howl-ngarni. I To be Informed-n a w a keni. ,, lnsult-jujetani.

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49 To Insult by wordsshachbapni. ,, become ill-n:ini. ,, feel itchy-yaimi. ,, Investigate---chhe tsii chhapni. ,, Incarcerate-tsonchuni. J To Join-thl\pni. i, Jump-chhon chhap ni. , .Joke-gedolappni. K To Know-sheni. ,, Ke e p -jhani. , Kick-dothuduimi. ,, Kill-seni. L To Laugh-gani. ,, Live-doni. ,, Love-chamni. ,, Listen-nyenni. ,, Leal..-cbhu dzani. ,, Learn-blapni. To Lend-nyani. ,, Lie down-nyeni. ,, Lose-byani. ,, Look for-chboni. ,, Lean hnyeni. ,, Lead-khini. M To i\foet--p'yeni. ,, do or MakP-chhapni. ,, Measure-jeni. ,, Move~hiir. i ,, .Mend-zoni. ,, Make a hole-ton peni. ,, ;\iilk-j honi. ,, h0ld a Market-he chho ni N To Neigh-take chhapni. 0 To Offer n ani. ,, Open-p"ini. ,, Obey-lrnsse nyeni. ,, Object-machuni ,, Order-Ka~se m'ini. E

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f.O p To Pant-khanrni. ,, Paint -chhontiiui. Promise-khatsi Jini. ,, Play-tsimtsini. ,, Pluck-toni. ,, -Plough-la1'nno-:ni. ,, Prove -rachhini. ,, Pass over-geni. ,, Place-zbani. ,, Practise-eh ban ni. ,, Punish-thimtani. ,, Pour--lnni. ,, Pass-thani. ,, Put on-koniii. ,, Put into-tabni. ,, Pluck out hair-gerob beni. Q To Quarrel--thapni. To be Quiet-kha chon doni. R To Raise-thuni. ,, Read-hlani. ,, Receive-Jeni. ,, Return-lolrnni. ,, Hun-pa1ijoni. ,, Reachhliini. ,, Reap (cut down -!et oni. ,, Ride-shonni. ,, Run away-p'yoni. ,, Remember-sem kha jhani. ,, Repeat-gyani. ,, Hecogni;,e-ngaushem. ,, Rest-ngyasoni. ,, Rub against-reni. ,, Roarta ke cbappni. ,, Ring bell-fo1ti dunni. ,, Raincbbab chbabni. s To Say-lapni. ,, Save-bani. ,, See-tani.

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To Sell-tsonni. ,, Send-keni. ,, Shine-:,hani. ,, Swallow mikni. 51 ,, Shoot~minda chbapni. ,, Show-tenni. ,, Sbut-cheni. ,, Sing-lu chappni. i, Sink-byimni. ,, Slip-geta chappni. ,, Smell-nhmnni. ,, St1it-chhema toni. ,, Spread-tinni. ,, Stay--doni. ,, Send out-tonni. ,, Swee p -p'yam cbappni. ,, Sleep--nyeni. ,, Scratch-p'ekni. ,, Speak-lappni. ,, Seize-z i1ini ,, Suc k-jipni. ,, Sbarpen--d{u1i. ,, Squeeze -tsini. ,, Sew-chhemni. ,, Swim-tse cbappni. To Start-tanni. ,, Stopgozhani. ,, Sit down-ma doni. ,, Sneeze-aktsi cbbapni. ,, Spoil-sob joni. ,, Steal-au chhapni. ,, Snore-humtonni. ,, Sprinkle-chhu toni. ,, Scratch-theni. ,, Shave-jbuni. ,, Satisfy-tslini. ,, Sow-slinchu-ni. ,, Shoot-minda chappni. T 1'o Take up-thuni. ,, Take from-sinni. ,, Throw-lrnni. ,, Throw away--kodani. ,, Tie-damni. ,, Tak e away-ba joni. ,, Tear-peni. ,, Turn roundg,:oni. ,, Taste-shimnghatani. ,, Think-noni.

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52 To be 'I'hii:sty~kha komni. ,, Touch-labdoni. ,, be Tired-wuduni. ,, Threaten-jujetani. 'l'hread a needlekhap chuni. ,, Take by violencep'yokni. u To Understandhalrnni. ,, Unfasten-khoni. w To W ash-chhuni. ,, \Vhistle-bisi chhap-ni. ,, Work:-labeni. ,, Worship-ch-hacheni ,, Write-tini. ,, Want-goni. ,, W alk-kamma joni or shedi joni. ,, Wipe-p'yini. w eave-tha thani. ,, pull up Vl ater from a well-chhu oni. Syntax. 63. In the arrangement of words the rule is that in(a) a simple sentence all other words must precede the verb; (b) in a compound sentence the subordinate verb in the form of a gerund precedes the governing verb; (c) adverbs or adverbial phrases are usually pqt at the head of a sentence.

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53 (d) The article and adjective follow substantive. e.g.-I went to the jangle and saw a man= I to the jungle having gone roan a saw. My house is on a high hill= My house hill high a on is. The river is wide here= Here river the wide is. Bhutanese is a monosyllabic language. Compound words are seldom found and when u~ed have no syntactical formation but are juxta positional. E.g.-" Foot print" would be translated by "kamje/' the two nouns kam =" foot and "je "=impression; are made into one word and placed side by side;

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PART IV. 64, SENTENCES AND SYNTAX. Salaam Are you well ? Sit down Shall we have a chat? \Vhat is your name r Where do you live ? Why have you come here? When did you come here ? What is the name of your village? How far is it from here? ... What kind of roari is it? ... Which is the way ? Are you married ? How many children have you? Can you speak English ? Can you read and write? How much land do you own? Ya la. Tasho kuzu zanni yo da (HonoroficJ. Chhd kadem yo? (Common). Sa zhu (big men) Sa do (common men). N gacha kha lapni ma ? Chhogi min kachi im? Chho kate dob im? Cbho na kachibe om ? Chhd nalu nam om ? Chbo yugi min kache im? Na.le t'arin t'un kadecbi yo? Lam kadem yo ? Lam ka im? Chho gi nyen chhap chi na? Cbho gi p'uchu kadechi yo? Chho Ingrezi lap she ga ? Chho hlani da tini she ga? Chho da sajhi kadechi yo ?

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55 Are you'a Sikkim or Paro Chho Dejop im Parop im? man? I do not understand you ... Say it again please Speak slowly Go down carefully What do you do all day? What crops do you grow? Nga chho gi kha mi ha kb6e. Taru lapnan. Koliibe lap. Koliibe pap. Chho nyim ldn kache be'o? Chho lotho k:ache kache ki do? What do you eat and drink? Chbo kache sau k a che t'un? Do you prefer tea to beer? Chho cha t'un gonim Do you like" chong"? ... What is the price of beer? Is there much drunkenness chhan t'ui1 gcnim ? Chho chhan gobepa ? Chhan gi rin kadechi im? Lholu chhan kam t'un mi' in Blrntl!.n t na ? What are your burial customs Mi tona b,'i.ni gi liisse ka che im? ,v1rnt is the marriage cerremony? Have you a gun?. Can you shoot ? What kind of sport is there here? Have you ever seen a tiger? Kho11 gi nyen chapni li.isse kache im? Chho da minda yo ga ? Chho minda chhap chhu ga? Nalu rige sha kade yo ? Chbo namye ta chi t'oncbi na?

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56 Are peacocks plentiful? How long have you been learning Bhutia? I have been learning for 7 months. How many monasteries are there in Paro? How many priests are there in Punakha? What is the climate of the place Have you beeu to Punakha? What are the principal towns in Bhutan? What is the chief trade? Mabja kham yo ga ? Tasha Lho Im blapdi sha kadeuhi soni. Ng{t Lho ke hlapdi dau dun soJii. Paro lu blaga kadechi yo ? Pun{tkba lu gyel011 kadechi yo? Yagi si tii kadem yo ? Chho Punakha lu hlochi na? Lholu thorn born kadekade ',) lill Dukpa dichu gi tso11 born kache im? C h o t a (horses), hotha (durrie, striped), pe (wool), p'ya. chi (wax), lachi, (lac), p'yaru (blanket), lamchhe chhiu (Elephant tusk), silli ro (rhino horn), panchhung \basket), da jha sorre (woven basket), korom ( goor ), tsendeh (Joss stick),

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57 I hope you are in good health Ni rewa lu tasho kuzu za1ig bu ong. I think Nigi sem lu. Do you consider his judg-Khogi lapmi di chbogi ment wise? sem kha chhi.ibe ga ? How is justice administerThini kadebe chheb im ? ed? How is crime investigated? Don't speak to me in the honorific form of speech but the common form. Are the Excise laws there? Is there ,my check on illicit distillation ? When a murder or dacoity has been committed what punishment 1s awarded? Into how may sects are the Bhutias divided? Are the Bhutias in friendly intercourse with their neighbours? From Darjeeling to Punak ha. Don't do that Jhiim gi chhachhii kadebe chhap im? Sheso lapni nga lap ma na lo shing kyan lap na. P'ina lu chang kan gi liissii kache im? Lholu chban badi toni gi kayo ga? Mise da. aubom bemi dichu lu thim kache tarn ? Dukpa dichu le chhen kadechi yo ? Dukpa dichu ra rani, cbuncha dichu nyem, chham zumbe yob mega? Dorjeeling le Punakha thu. Debbe ma be,

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58 IR it true that the Government of Bhutan is cor r1.ipt anrl oppressive ? What do you mint ? Never mind! A hurricane is coming Shut the door quick Where are your relations ? How many brothers have you? Did you see the footprint in the snow? This man has no ability He is a lunatic What is the reason of this? What is the difference between this and that? What do you call this ? ... I believe he has not told the truth. Some time ago Why are they quarreling ? What does this salt weigh? Pure Bhutias What do you call this rn Bhutanese? Lholu pongiJongjhi nanglu gyisuleni da. banchhi chong mi yo ga ? Chbo kache goni ? Deon! Lun boil chi on do. Joba go chhe. Chbogi pincha kate im ? Chhoda nochu kadecbi yo ? Khan na kamje t'onchi na? Mi digi rib mii:tdu. Kho lengo me. J>i kachibe dem ime ? Di da p'idi yersail kache im? Chho dilu kache lap. Nigi semk.ba k:hogi kha ti:inda ma lap. Khacba khangim chi ka Khoti kachibe sba chhap im? Tsa di ji kha kadechi yo ? Dukpa gnau. Dukpa khale dilu kache lap.

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I gave him a slap on the cheek. I gave him a blow (fist) ... How do you dye cloth? ... Please sharpen this sword Squeeze the jiiice of this orange. This stick is croolced The road is quite &traight The house is empty Put my hat in the corner What is the reason of this ? What do you mean ? There is poison on that arrow. Give me a palmful of rice I will ta!ce cr1,re of you There is nobody here Don't tell anybody Don't touch anything I will '.lo it myself What is the custom, of this place. How many kinds 59 Nga khogi jamta na denja chi chhapchi. Nga khogi jamta na jo chi chhapchi. Ghho kadembe kola chbo chhap im? Kiri di cl.a nan. Chhelu digi lchoa tsi. Khan di yeyo 1 _ne Lam di thantonto me. Chim di tom, me. Nigi sham lei/en na jha. Di kachibe dem im. q~_hogi Wnrla kache im ? Da p'idi gu thu yo. Ngalu lahkhan chhum na. Nga chhole nathe be ong. Nalu kaye mi. Kaluye ma lap Chhiib kaii1ra ma do Nga ngara p'idi beni. Di iigi liisse ka im ? Chhen kadechr.

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60 How much will each cooly Lab rerelu kadechi t'op? get? Answer me .. He is on this side How many times Your brother is on the other side. How do you make tea It comes to the same thing Nothing certain They say The house is full of smoke What else ... Take away that jack fruit Collect some fiTewood About sixty ... Kneel down and pray Don't lean on the table ... I have a headache Sprinkle water on the floor This pepper is very hot ... What can I do ? If you eat this you will be ill. I have eaten a bellyfull of rice. My luck is bad N galu lo p'in. Kho tsukha. yo. Chha kadechi. Chhogi nochu p'akhli yo. Chho cha kadebe zo im? Kha di chokthe be. Nyeti. Lap khoi. Chim di thupagi khan soni. Tarru kache yo. Damsi p'idi ba son. A.chichi mrtauigi shin jom. Khesum dernchi. Pumu chhukdi chha chhe, Chente gu ma hnye. Nigi go nao me. Entar na chhu to. Ima di khacha kam du. Nga k.1.che beni? Chho di sa wa chen na on. Nga dambe to sai. Ni si:inam sob me.

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61 Turn round! This woman is weaving ... Round about Do you recognise him .. Under British territory .. I must go to the marriage foast. Who is your son in-law? .. I will go anyhow lr, there cholera and goitre in your village? Important news I have heard What medicine do you take for cholera? Who milks the cow ? By viol e n c e ... Put it on the slie~f Blow out the fire Mak~ the fire I recorded his statement I think the case is false ... Oh how beautiful it is Has the British Govern-ment paid the Bhutan Government the yearly subsidy? Jyap go! Amchu di tha thab do. P'a tsu. Chhokholugnau shechi ga. Zhung s:.i.i ngawo. Ng_a nyen chhapshalu .iogo. Chhogi map kayo. Nga k11.deberu joni. Chhogi i.in{i shane.h da bou ki mi yoga? '.l'hiint.oto net'si.i. Nga khoi. Slianeh gi tiinle chho men kiiuhe It rn im ? Gno ka jho im ? P'yokdi. Te gu jha. .Mi se. Mi p'u. Nga khogi shutsi tli. Ni sem kha lu khamchu di shop me. Oie. kadem sarritoto mo P'illing Jlmngi Dhu Jhung lu lotargi sathe tab cha.j ga?

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62 Are you satisfied with my Ni chhoju di sem kba tsi.iexamination ? You are responsible for this When is the Kalimpong fair held? Without his knowledge .. He took away ornaments .. He sent the thief for trial chi na? Chho di kole khathe in. Kalimponghe nam chhob. Kho ma she ba. Kho genchha ba oiJi, Kho au di thimsa shibche lu tarn me. F1.wther sentences and words. The moon is bright The sun has set This silk is nice The quality is good Drive away this dirty man Bring a horse for me The butt of your gun is bad. Ring the bell Is that so? ... '!'here is a lame mrm at the door. His shop is damp The sun rises in the East and sets in the West. Dau di wo du. Nyim di nup cliai. Tha di lezhim me. Pu lemme. Mi tepakhokho di da Ta chi ni tonlu khi sho Minde khuushin sob me. Tib si. Irne da? Go di tsa mi l.:{nnshau chi du. Khogi (khu) tso1ig chim di panpum me. Nyim di sha lu shan me da nup lu uup me,

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You are a fool Left hand .. Right hand .. A hare The tiger is wild The cat is tame Where is the fort ? What is the time? He is in the camp 63 Please teach me to count Pain Ifnless you practise you cannot speak. He is the Government mterpreter. High caste ... Low caste Was there an earthquake last Saturday here ? Yes, there was What is the cause of earthquakes? Are you frightene d of earLliqnake~, lightning and thunder ? Chho khyokhyo chi me. Lab yom. Lab yeb. R.igo1i chi. Ta di dosisf"i me. P'illi di soso me. Maga di kate im ? Ti:d:imtso kadechi ina ? Kho kursa na yo. Ngalu chanka chappni hlop na. Su (gJ. Hlai,chan mi wache kha lap mi chu. Kho jhunggi lochhap me. Rbu zauta. Rhu shenta. Na jeme zap'empo lu sai yom chi chapp du ga ? Lai, chappchi. Saiyom chhapni di Wnda kache ina? Cblio saiyom da lo da dhukP. ta dochi na ? Have you had much rain Chho na. chhah kham here ? chhapp yo da ?

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64 Sin .Intelligent people Ignorant people Have you been to Calcutta ? What sort of place is it ?_ Living animal I do not know whether tbe fire was inte,,tionctl or accidental. Countless Layo. Chho she michu Mi ma she (b.) Chho Calcutta son ina ? Sa kadem du? Semchhe asiim. Nga mishe be tii di qnansumdi, tsip iua dera tsip jna. Chai11rn michhobe.

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PART V. HEADING EXERL'ISES. I Nigi slrni p'i.iloi tenshi di in la :Dau nyibe chbe chutam be tsi Chhapchalu pi.iloin tabni gi tonle kole tqam chhapdi. Mi nga tu dechi rupdi mi chi i;e ta1i du. I>igi chhuche chhapdi. joba ngalu kari chan. Translation-Tlie petition which I have put up to your honour 1s as follows:-Last month on the 10th at Chhapcha at the time of settling a loan there was a dispute in which 5 or 6 men joined together and ldlled one man. Regarding this please enquire quickly and do mt a kindness. II Khacha nyima he ka Ju chhum sei kole madiba. Mi nyi Im thti.mchLap jingdi. Mi chi gi ma tonda du k:ho, nyi ku thabegan he gi mi dichugi clihnb thamchhe mep zo-dadu. Di tonle ngach:1 kaira gi tashocha la shm pulyi-i digi chhe tsii di joba dzedi kari chan. F

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66 Translation-Yesterday at noon at the market as the price of rice was not agreed upon there was a row between two men. One man was hurt at the time of the quarrel and the property of others in the market place was dest.royed. For this reason we all have put in a petition to your honor requesting that an investigation may be quickly held for which we shall be grateful. III Jhenim nyim thobegan ngacha chhimcha dichu chhu se tonle maccbama: sl1<1chbapdi ngalu kba sob thamchhe lapdi ngalu tiwa mi chi lab yabalu pashi kha.n chi shedi tiwa ong me di kole thanna lu nyen se p'iiloi Te joba chizbip mi chi tan ka.ri chai1. J'ni n8l cdion -Three days ago at noon our neighbours quarrelled regarding the taking of water. They insulted me and used had words and one man holding a bamboo in his right hand carnf: to beat me: for tltis reason I have come to give information at tl1e police station. Please send an investigating officer ~harp and oblige. IV. Nigi shui p'tiloe tonda di kbacha p'iru baza sum gi na1igla mi thamchhe nyc chhawe g,1.ri lu mi ng,1, da tu

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(i 7 dechi 011di gochu mile jlidi chhubtharnche rla tirn genchha thamche p'uyokdi ngacha lu ti di p'yulo sei. Di tonle di joba p'yu clihedi kari cha.ii. 1'ru,nsfotion My petition is that last night at 3 o'clock, when all men are sleeping, 5 or 6 men entered in a surreptitious manner through the window and took away by force all my thiugs, rupees and jewellery and after beating us escaped. Enquire quickly into this and oblige. V Dau snmgi tse chohge gi p'iru chutts i eh uni lu nigi ghai1 gu le patt{t chi da sungkhn chi au shoseyi11. Au gi leuse kachie mii. ko. Lam kadam chl,aba ziugab gua tu demchie tan kari cbfo na1i. Tranf l n tionOn the 3rd month on the 18th at midnight the sword and charm on my pillow were stolen. No trace of the thief has been discovered. Please have the kindness to depute 5 or 6 officers to hold up the roads. VI. Punakha le mi sum ngha hlapba gyana lu son son me. Lo jhi gi nangla mi sum charra nhga hlapdi lobegan riga gi semcbhe rito chi lamka lu t'opdi. Khori snrn charra tiincha chhapdi gi mi chi gi rito di kachegi imo sidi la lap me, Dille mi chi gi ngha chhapdi rito

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68 thamchhe jomsedu. Titru mi chi gi nhga chhapdi, ko1 pu, sha, tsa, kaira diche du. Dille ta ime nodi mi sum charra gi gnanshi da du tarn 1,bi gi buii chuda du. Dille ~a ondi kho mi sum charra se da du. 1.'nmslationThree men from Punakha went to China to teach incantation. Within 4 years the three men having finished teaching were returning when they found the bone of a wild beast on the road. These three then consulted together and one man asked to what beast the bones belonged. Another man performed incantations when all the bones came together. Then another again performed incantations when the skin, hair, flesh and veins came together. The three man then thinking that the animal was a tiger, one man blew life into it whereupon the tiger rose and ate up the three men. VII. Pogyeh jhu sa Ju Lbassa lap midi ka Ju amchu ldtoto sum y o b me. Kitoto kadem sen amchu chi gi lahale mito chi p'iidi kama rebda Kam chasondu. Tarn chi p'iru dauena chim na le thi.imda daugi thligi zu tharnchhe parro thonda du. 'Iaru chi gi chim na le thtimda ts'anchu p'aka Ju hli.i dunme ke kodi yi:into Jo son du. T6sho gi thu lo kadi kitote im.

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li9 Trrm.~lation-In Lh,,ssa, the residence of the Tibet Lama, there were three fortunate women. From one of the hands of the women a flower dropped in a miraculous manner and fell on her feet, whereupon her foot broke. Another woman, when the moon was out, came out of her house and on this a rash appeared on her body through the heat of the moon, The third woman, on coming out of her house, heard the noise of rice being trodden across the water and at once became deaf. Who does your honour consider was the most fortunate? VIII. Di gan jhiten digi nanglu nachba nyi yob me. Khong nyi le pum chi ldu me Pumdi lu chenga gi lamda dille sha katu le pochi pum di lu nghaba ton omle. Pum di qi eppa da aigi dau gyebe na nyen eh hap sho se lalapme. Di tinle tarru nuple mi zhenchi pum nghaba t'on on me. Dillu e dau gyebe khacchi jetti tan da du. Dau g y e lamd a sha da nupl e pum di nyen chhappa khong nicharra ton om me. P'iru lu duchi ong di pum di khi lon son du. Dille khong nyi ku hli.ipda pum ma t'onba di tonle pum gi appa da ailu tidi dille mapchigi diidida pumdi shUledadi sori du.

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70 Khong neyi da p'yep p'yep me mapdi gi dtidi se pumdi chhim nalu khi di oi1 chhe. Chhim na hlobe p'irn ra pum dishi son du. Dille khyi di oiun map di gi pum di ro tuthil lo bakdi mi tai1 mi shi.ikha chhimchi zodi khmoshyu deh shini i lapdi tutiina du deb me. :\fap zhen digi yu zhen k ha.In ngha hlab,\ song duhdille nyim tak p'e chika ngh:i chan di the 011 du. Dille khogi pumshi mi digi thu sa In ngha tabdi. Pnrn di
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71 When the youths arrived they did not find the girl and were t.old that a spirit had wafted her away and one followed the phantom. He met the girl and the demon. and the youth ki lleci the devil and brought the girl back to (her parents') housP., On arrival at the house that night the girl died. Then the youth (son-in-law) took t he girl's body to the burning place and having bnrnt the body built a house on that srot and said that as the girl is dead so shall I die. The other suitor went to another country to study religion, and after a fe;v days returned. He went to the place where the girl had been hnrnt and performed holy ceremonies on which the eorpse came to life and stood up. The twt) suitors then quarrelled over the possession of the girl. To whom should the girl be givPn? E.w1nple of Letter writing. SRI (written 5 times) THOKU DUK DEBA RAJA. Sttr {ditto) THOKU CO;\L\'111:iSIONER SHEB. Yigo gogyin shule. THuKU LA-Khacha khanyim child lu m1 chi gi Zhung sai ngawo Rintsarn gi eh ha shin kamau na le z,'ii1 chom chhapbe Dukpengawo Ju p'yo soi1 du.

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72 Nigi na wa Ju kho tharre : .Chhapch[t do yo kojhi Chhap cha Penlo ki nga WO lu. Nga Ju kari chieba, ya le mi di zung thapbe nge da thimlu gi thirn chet ba lu ta11g chin nft uge gi shudon p'hu nigi di. Sinclmlei thonchheri khatsi jini nigi le shu yui. Translatio11-F1wM-COMMISSI0NER, To-DEB RAJ~ OF BHUTAN. After compliment. MY FlUEND,-Sorne time ago a Bhutia committed a dacoity in a tea garden in the Dooars within the jurisdiction of British territory and absconded to Bhutan. I am informed that the absconder is at present living in Chhapcha in the jurisdiction of the Penlo I shall be obliged if you will have the man arrested and sent to me to be tried by law. I request this in accordance with the Treaty of Sinchula. Print~ d at u,~ Pionee r Press by Gso. Sut,. No 1752-12+09

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. Bound by :'ll!1'!i!lil :11lr''m111.' 'll.i~_,._1ll'i.'ll'1ll1l l''.ll1l1. r i.:ll' . 'II Holl 1ngwor th & Moss .!, , .I: 1,. 1 ';' ~r:t::sLon~~ n~l}~77409G HJS M(a) l '11/10/2016