Citation
Chinese emigration

Material Information

Title:
Chinese emigration The Cuba Commission : Report of the commission sent by China to ascertain the condition of Chinese coolies in Cuba
Alternate title:
Chinese emigration : the Cuba Commission
Portion of title:
Report of the Commission sent by China to ascertain the condition of Chinese coolies in Cuba.
Creator:
China Tsung li ko kuo shih wu ya men.
China. Hai guan zong shui wu si shu.
Place of Publication:
Shanghai
Publisher:
Imperial Maritime Customs Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
236 p. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chinese -- Cuba -- History ( lcsh )
Contract labor -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Cuba -- Emigration and immigration -- History ( lcsh )
China -- Emigration and immigration -- History ( lcsh )
Slavery ( LCSH )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Temporal Coverage:
1870 - 1880
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- Cuba
América del Norte -- Cuba
Amérique du Nord -- Cuba
北美 -- 古巴
北美 -- 古巴
北米 -- キューバ
Coordinates:
23.133333 x -82.383333

Notes

General Note:
VIAF Name Authority : China. Hai guan zong shui wu si shu : number 132516425
General Note:
Text in English, French, and Chinese.
General Note:
"Despatch of Commissioners ... reporting to the Tsung-li Yamên ..."--p. 2.
General Note:
Title on container: Report of the Commission sent by China to ascertain the condition of the Chinese coolies in Cuba.
Statement of Responsibility:
China. Cuba Commission

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
CC325.2 /290887 ( soas classmark )
CC325.2 /119463 ( soas classmark )

Full Text

CHINESE EMIGRATI0N.

THE CUBA COMMISSION.



REPORT
OF
THE COMMISSION SENT BY CHINA TO ASCERTAIN THE CONDITION OF


CHINESE COOLIES IN CUBA





SHANGHAI
PRINTED AT THE IMPERIAL MARITIME CUSTOMS PRESS
MDCCCLXXVI.




CHINESE EMIGRATION.
THE CUBA COMMISSION.
REPORT
OF
COMMISSION SENT BY CHINA TO ASCERTAIN THE CONDITION
CHINESE COOLIES IN CUBA.
SHANGHAI:
printed at the imperial maritime customs press.
MDCCCLXXVI.




CONTENTS.
Part I. Despatch to Yamn, Replies to Queries, English version ... Page 1
Part II. Despatch to Yamn, Replies to Queries, French version ... Page 93
Part III. Despatch to Yamn, Chinese version ... Page 199
Part IV. Memorandum, Regulations, etc. ... Page 203




THE REPORT.
I.
ENGLISH VERSION.


(2 )
Translation of Despatch of Commissioners Ch'n Lanpin, Macpherson and Huber,
reporting to the Tsung-li Yamn the results of their enquiry into the condition of
Chinese in Cuba.
The Commissioner Ch'n, and the Commissioners of Customs Macpherson and Huber,
address this memorial in reply :
> On the 10th day of the 10th moon of the 12th year of T'ungchih [29th. November 1873]
was received the communication of the Yamn to the effect that for the enquiry in regard to
Chinese emigrants to the Spanish, possession of Cuba, Ch'n Lanpin, the officer in charge of
the Educational Mission abroad, has been selected, that Mr. Macpheeson, Commissioner of
Customs at Hankow, and Mr. Huber, Commissioner of Customs at Tientsin, are likewise
appointed and are to accompany him that this arrangement has been sanctioned by an Edict
of the 30th. day of the 7th moon [21st September], that the head of the Commission is to
await in the United States the arrival of his associates, and that they are thence to proceed
together to their destination, where they are to institute an honest and complete enquiry, of
the results of which a full report is to be supplied, as a guide for subsequent action.
On the 12th day of the 10th moon [ist December], the receipt of these instructions was
in the first instance acknowledged.
On the 26th day of the 12 moon [12th. February 1874]Mr. Huber arrived in the United
States, and on the 3rd day of the ist moon of this year [19th. February], the deputed officer
Ch'n Lanpin with him departed for Cuba, Havana being reached on the 29th day of the same
moon [17th March], where apartments were hired in the hotel in which Mr. Macpherson was
already residing.
On the 2nd day of the 2nd moon [19 March], (being thus united) we visited the Captain
General the Governor of Havana, the official members of the Commission of Colonization, and
afterwards the Consular Representatives of Great Britain, France, Russia, the United States,
Germany, Sweden and Norway and Denmark, Holland, Austria, Belgium, and Italy.
On the 3rd [20th] we commenced an enquiry at the barracoon of Mr. Ibanez.
On the 4th [21st] we commenced an enquiry in the dpt.
On the 5th [22nd] we continued the enquiry in the barracoon.
From the 6th. [23rd] until the 11th [28th] inclusive we continued the enquiry in
the dpt.
During the 13th, 14th and 15th [30th, 31st and 1st April] the enquiry was prosecuted
in the jail.
During the 17th and 18th. [3rd and 4th April] the plantation Las Canas was visited.
On the 22nd [8th] we proceeded to Matanzas, where, during the following days, the
enquiry was prosecuted in the dpt, prison and in the plantations San Cayetano," Concepcion
and "Armonia.


(3 )
On the 28th [14th] we proceeded to Cardenas, where, during the following days, we
prosecuted enquiries in tlie dpt, prison and the plantations Esperanza," Recreo and San
Antonio. A visit was also paid to the adjacent town of Cimmarones.
On the 3rd day of the 3rd moon [i8tli], we proceeded to Colon, where, during tlie following
days, we prosecuted enquiries in the dpt, prison and in the plantations Espana and
Flor de Cuba.
On the 6tli [21st] we proceeded to Sagua, where, during the following days, we prosecuted
enquiries in the dpt, prison and in the plantations Santa Anna," Santa Isabella and
Capitolis."
On tlie 9th [24th] we proceeded to Cienfiiegos, where, during the following days, we
prosecuted enquiries in the dpt, prison and in the plantations Juniata and Candelaria.
On the 13th [28th] we proceeded to Guanajay, where, during the following days, we
prosecuted enquiries in the dpt and prison, returning to Havana via the town of San Antonio.
On the 17th [2nd May] we proceeded to Guanabacoa, ancl on the same day prosecuted
enquires in tlie Regla and Santa Catalina sugar-warehouses.
During these investigations, the hours of visiting the dpts and prisons were always fixed
by the local officials, and plantations also were only visited after the assent of the latter had been
obtained. Besides, however, in the places where we stayed, as well as on the road, independent
enquiries were instituted.
All investigations of Chinese were conducted verbally and in person by ourselves. The
depositions and petitions show that ths of the entire number declared that they had been
kidnapped or decoyed; that the mortality during the voyage from wounds caused by blows, suicide
ancl sickness proves to have exceeded 10 per cent. that on arrival at Havana they were sold into
slavery,a small proportion being disposed of to families and shops, whilst the large majority-
became the property of sugar planters that the cruelty displayed even towards those of the
former class is great, and that it assumes in the case of those of tlie latter, proportions that are
unendurable. The labour, too, on the plantations is shown to be excessively severe, and the food
to be insufficient the hours of labour are too long, and tlie cliastisements by rods, whips, chains,
stocks, &c.&c., productive of suffering and injury. During the past years a large number have
been killed by blows, have died from the effects of wounds and have hanged themselves, cut their
throats, poisoned themselves with opium, and thrown themselves into wells and sugar caldrons.
It was also possible to verify by personal inspection wounds inflicted upon otliers, tlie fractured
and maimed limbs, blindness, the heads full of sores, the teetli struck out, the ears mutilated, and
the skin and flesh lacerated, proofs of cruelty patent to the eyes of all.
On the termination of the contracts the employers, in most cases, witliliold the certificates
of completion, and insist on renewal of engagements, which may extend to even more tlian 10
years, and during which, the same system of cruelty is adhered to whilst if the Chinese refuse
to assent, they are taken to the dpts, whence in chains, and watched by guards, they are forced
to repair roads, receiving no compensation for their labour, undergoing a treatment exactly-
similar to tliat of criminals in jail. Afterwards they are compelled to again enter the service of
.an employer, and sign a contract, on the completion of which, they are once more taken to the


(4)
dpts and as this process is constantly repeated, a return home, and an attempt to gain a
livelihood independently, become impossible.
Moreover, since the 2nd moon of the nth year of hienfnq [March-April 1861] the
issue of Letters of Domicile and Cedulas has ceased, rendering liability to arrest universal, whilst
those possessing these papers are constantly, be it on the street or in their own houses, called
upon to produce them for inspection, or are even exposed to their being taken away, or torn up,
and to themselves being carried away to the endless misery of a dpt.
Of all these facts the depositions and petitions furnish, detailed evidence.
Our stay in Cuba, commencing on the 29th of the ist moon [17th March], ended on the
23rd of the 3rd moon [8th May]. Almost every Chinese met during this period was, or had
been, undergoing suffering, and suffering was the purport of almost every word heard and these
men were seen by us all, and these words were heard by us all.
1,176 depositions have been collected, and 85 petitions, supported by 1,665 signatures
have been received, of which copies and ( English ) translations are appended.
Replies to the Memorandum of queries sent by the Yamn in the 12th moon, and
translations of Tables of Chinese embarked for and arrived at Cuba, received from the British
Consul and the Commission of Colonization, of the Regulations now applicable to the Chinese in
Cuba, of the Instructions issued to Masters of vessels conveying Chinese to Cuba, of eight Forms
of Contracts, and of certain Tables of Chinese population prepared by the Commission of
Colonization, also accompany this Despatch.
T'ungchih, 13th year, 9th. month, nth day [20th October, 1874].
True translation.
(Signed) A. MACPHERSON
(Signed)
A. UBER,
Commissioners of Customs.



(5)

This part contains the English version of the Replies to the Queries supplied
by the Tsung-li Yamn for the guidance of the Commission during its investigation
in Cuba.
(Signed) [Chinese Signature.]
(Signed) A. MACPHERSON.
(Signed) A. HUBEK


Replies to queries contained in Enclosure I. G. of 1873. "Memo, of queries to be
-, Cuba and Coolies T
answered :^-~~ Nov. 1873.
Chinese Commission J
From what places does Cuba draw Coolies
The majority of the Chinese Coolies in Cuba sailed from Macao, Amoy, Swatow and Canton,
They were mainly decoyed abroad, not legitimately induced to emigrate.
The petition of the hsiu-ts'ai Hsien Tso-pang ()and 14 others states, that "the
foreigners of Macao sent out vicious Chinese in order to kidnap and decoy men and to place these
in barracoons and on board of ships from which they cannot escape, chastise them there without
restraint, and conveying them against their will to Havana, after removing their queues and
changing their clothing, offer them for sale in the men-market." The hsiu-ts'ai Cli'en Shao-yen
(states in his petition : I was decoyed here by wicked men." The petition of Shih
Chih-'ho (and 28 others states, we were decoyed from Macao to this Spanish island of
Cuba. Wu A-kuang (in his petition states, I was induced by the Coolie decoyers
to embark on board the vessel." The petition of Ao Ping-nan (and 22 others states,
we were conveyed on board by violence.The petition of the military official (Chang
Luan (and 30 others states, Portuguese and Spaniards, acting in concert, and aided by
vicious Chinese, make a traffic of decoying and selling men." The petition of Lin Chin (
and 15 others states, we were decoyed by the vicious of our countrymen suborned by foreigners/'
The petition of Yang Yun (and 132 others states, vicious men decoyed us into hiring
out our services." The petition of Huang Yu (and 15 others states, we were induced
by the Coolie decoyers to embark on board of the vessel." The petition of the hsiiL-ts(ai Li Cliao-
ch'un (and 165 others states, "we were at various times brought by force to, or
decoyed into the barracoons of Macao, by certain vicious men of our own nation suborned by
Portuguese." The petition of T'ang Chan-kfuei (and 8 others states,<£ we, exercising
no foresight, were decoyed by vicious men." The petition of Chien Shih-kuang (and
96 others states, we were decoyed by vicious men. The petition of Ch^u Pi-shan (
and 34 others states, the Coolie decoyers devise means for deceiving men. Whilst professing
to offer employment to labourers, they in reality convert them into victims of their snares.
The native of Fukien, Wang Chun-shng ()states in his petition, I was decoyed and
sold. The petition of Tseng Jui-t/o (and 4 others states, we were either decoyed or
kidnapped on bpard of the Coolie ship." Chng-chiu (states in his petition, I was
decoyed to Cuba, and sold to a sugar plantation. The petition of the native of Chihli, Chao-


(7 )
K'un ()and. 97 others states, Spanish vessels come to China, and suborning the vicious of
our countrymen, by their aid carry away full cargoes of men, of wliom 8 or 9 of every 10 are
"decoyed." The petition of Tiao Mu (and 3 other states, "vicious men have, at various
times, decoyed here tens and hundreds of thousands of peasants." The petition of Pan T'ai ()
and 89 others states, "misled by fair words, or decoyed, we were brought here to be sold as slaves.
The petition of Yeli Nien (and 20 others states, we were decoyed abroad by the Coolie
brokers for sale to sugar plantations." The petition of Tsai Jih-sling (and 1 other
states, "not exercising care, we were decoyed to these Spanish cities. The petition of T'ang
Lien-sling (and 106 others states, "Portuguese suborned the vicious of our countrymen
to bring us by force to, or to decoy us to, Macao, whence we were conveyed to Cuba, to be sold
as slaves to sugar plantations and other localities." The petition of Ts'ai Hng ('|g) and 79
others states, "we were decoyed into foreign houses by vicious men, where we were entrapped by
fair promises into embarking on board of vessels which conveyed us abroad for sale." The
petition of Hsieh Shuang-chiu (and 11 others states, "we were decoyed by vicious men
and compelled by force to embark." The petition of Wu A-fa (and 39 others states,
we were decoyed to Macao by vicious men." The petition of Yeh Cliiin-fu ()and 52
others states, we were the victims of fraud." The petition of Huang Fng-chi (and 11
others states, ve were decoyed to Macao by the offers of employment made by three vicious men,
Wen A-cliiao ()Lai Chi-ch'ang (and Cliung Lu-yuan ( $)and at Macao,
by the aid of their wicked associates, we were placed by force on board ship." The petition of
Lai Sheng ()and 9 others states, we were decoyed and sold as slaves by foreigners." The
petition of Liu A-sliou (and 4 others states, we were decoyed to tlie Macao barracoons,
and though not inspected by any Portuguese officials, were, after the evening meal,our queues
having been tied together, and guarded by foreign soldiers armed with firearms,forced to
embark, whilst no one lieedecl the cries for aid which we uttered on the way." The petition of
Chang Ting-chia (and 127 others states, we were decoyed to and sold at Havana,
by vicious men. The petition of Cheng A-mou (|5 and 89 others states, "we were induced
to proceed to Macao by offers of employment abroad at liigh wages, and through being told that
the eight foreign years specified in the contracts were equivalent to only four Chinese, and that at
the termination of the latter period we would be free. We observed also on the signboards of the
foreign buildings the words agencies for the engagement of labourers,' and believed that they
truthfully described tlie nature of the establishments, little expecting that having once entered
the latter, exit would be denied us and when on arrival at Havana, we were exposed for sale
and subjected to appraisement in a most ruthless manner, it became evident that we were not
to be engaged as labourers, but to be sold as slaves."
Again it is gathered from the 1,176 depositions which have been recorded that of those
who sailed from Macao Wen Chfang-tfai (and 65 others were kidnapped, that Tseng
Erh-cM (and 689 others were decoyed, that Liu A-jui (and 50 others
were entrapped into signing contracts in tlie belief that they were merely doing so in
the place of others temporarily absent, that Huang A-mu (and 93 others were
the victims of vari'ous snares tendered to them after they had gambled and lost, and that
Ch'en A-chi (and 65 others emigrated voluntarily that of those who sailed from


(8 )
Amoy, Su A-fhai ()and u others were kidnapped, that Tfang-chien ()and 22
others were decoyed, that Lin Shng (and 10 others were the victims of various snares
tendered to them after they had gambled and lost, and that 'Huang Shui-t'ou (and 5
others emigrated voluntarily that of those who sailed from Swatow, Ch/n A-kuei (
and 4 others were kidnapped, that Chang A-lin (and 27 others were decoyed, and
that Lo Fu-cli'ung (and 11 others emigrated voluntarily that of those who sailed
from Canton and Whampoa Yang Shih-fng (and 16 others were decoyed, that Ch'en
A-ch'iu (and 7 others were the victims of snares tendered to them after they had
gambled and lost, and that Liang A-shng (and 11 others emigrated voluntarily that
the 2 who sailed from Hongkong, Li San-mou (and 1 other, were decoyed that of
the 5 who sailed from Manila one, Wei Lng ()was kidnapped, whilst Wang Wei (
and the remaining 3 were decoyed and that the one man who sailed from Shanghai, Chang
Kuei-t'ing (was decoyed. Furthermore Chang Jung-chi (deposes that
foreigners decoyed to Macao from P'ingyang ( pin the prefecture of Wnchow (1) in
the province of Chlikiang more than 10 men, and Yii A-chao (also deposes that
foreigners speaking Chinese decoyed him to Macao, and there entrapped him into signing a
contract, as if it were merely on behalf of another, temporarily absent.
It thus appears that of the Chinese labourers who have proceeded to Cuba, 8 or 9 of every
10 have been conveyed there against their will. The entire number who sailed for that island
from the 27th year of aokwang to tlie 3rd moon of the 13th year of T'ungchih, is, according
to the statement prepared by the British Consul General, Havana, 142,422, of whom 43,273 sailed
from Amoy, Swatow, Hongkong, Canton, Whampoa, Annan and Manila, whilst from Macao
between the 27th. year of Taokwang and the end of the 5th year of Pungchih were shipped
63,455, and between the latter date and the 3rd moon of the 13th year of T'ungchih 35,694.
These latter shipments took place in violation of the provisions of the communication attached
to the Emigration Convention of the 5 th year of T'ungchih, by wliich Macao is excluded from
the localities at which the engagement of labourers is permitted whilst, as proved by the
depositions and petitions, the circumstances that have attended the introduction into Cuba of
the majority of the Chinese are a breach, of the iotli clause of the Spanish Treaty of the 3rd year
of T'ungchih, which is to the effect that Spain agrees not to afford shelter to Chinese criminals,
or to decoy or sell any subjects of China.
II.
do they sign agreements?
In the Emigration Convention of the 5 th year of T'ungchih, it is provided that the Emigra-
tion Agencies at the ports are to be inspected at will by officers of the two nations interested, and
that these functionaries are also to be present at the time of signing contracts and of embarkation.
The 11th clause also provides that Chinese under 20 years of age are not to be permitted to


(9 )
emigrate unless they produce a written authorization from their parents sealed by the official of
the place of residence of the latter, orin the event of it being impossible to procure such a
document,an authorization from the local official alone. In the ioth. clause of the Spanish
Royal Decree of 1860 it is likewise stated, that minors cannot sign contracts without the sanction
of their parents or guardians. Of the Chinese now in Cuba the great majority were brought
there by fraud or violence in order to be sold,- and whether of age or minors either received no
contracts, or were entrapped into accepting them, or constrained by force to sign them, or induced
to affix their names as if doing so merely on behalf of others whilst tlie documents themselves
were in some instances delivered in the barracoons and in others on board ship. None of the
indicated officers were present when contracts were signed, and none of the specified authoriza-
tions were produced, so that provisions prescribed by both China and Spain were violated.
The petition of Chu Chi-hsun ( f||) and 10 others states, we were decoyed into
foreign houses at Macao, in which we were forced to sign contracts, after which we were placed
on board ship, and conveyed to Havana." 'Ho A-ying ()in his petition states, I
was confined in an upstairs room until I consented to sign a contract." Lo A-pao (
in his petition states, I was compelled to sign the contract." Ku Ch'iao-hsiu (in
his petition states, I was beaten with great severity, and the suffering being unendurable I
could not but accept the contract, and with suppressed grief proceed on board, where were 600
others, all wronged in a like manner." The petition of Cheng A-mou (|5 )and 89 others
states, we signed no contract, ancl after the lapse of a month were compelled to go on board
ship." The petition of Yeh Fu-chiin ()and 52 others states, after entering, the
gates were closed by a foreigner, and as all exit was prevented we perceived how we had been
betrayed, but there was no remedy in the same chambers were more than 100 others, most of
whom passed tlieir days and nights in tears, whilst some were dripping with blood,the result
of chastisements inflicted on account of a suspected intention of escape, or of a declaration of
their unwillingness, when interrogated by tlie Portuguese inspector. The barracoon was of
great depth, and, at the time of punishment, as an additional precaution to prevent the cries
being overheard, gongs were beaten, and fireworks discharged, so that death even might have
ensued without detection and witnessing this violence, there was no course open to us but
assent, receiving at the moment of embarkation a document, which we were told was a contract
for eight years." Jn Shih-chn (remarks in his petition, by what right can our
bodies be disposed of, without the signed authorization of our parents The petition of Li
Chao-ch'un (and 165 others states, u though, years,in some instances more than ten,
have elapsed since we were decoyed here, our families know not whether we are alive or dead
or where we are."
Ho A-lisien (and 235 others in their depositions declare that they signed their
contracts under compulsion Huang Ch'ao-ping ()and 192 others declare that contracts
were handed to them in the barracoons Kuo Chan (and 116 others declare that the
contracts were handed to them on board ship Wen Chang-t'ai (and 231 others declare
that the contracts were given to them at the time of inspection, by a Portuguese official. Su
A-fhai ()and 42 others declare that no contracts were received by them; Li A-wu ()
and i other declare that they were induced by fraud to sign contracts. Hsien Ch'ng-ku ()


(
declares, as I was unwilling, the contract was given to me by force, and I was not allowed to
speak." Hu A-pao (declares, "at the time of inspection I declined to sign the contract
the Portuguese official then forcibly seized my hand and when it had marked the paper took
the latter away." Li A-pao (declares, "a mark was made with my hand on a contract,
and I was then given 10 cash." Lo A-erh(declares, after I had been locked up
during .half a month the contract was given to me." Chu Chieh (and 2 others declare
that tliey signed contracts without having been inspected by any official. Yang A-wang (
declares, "another man signed a contract on my behalf." Huang A-yu (declares, "when
16 years old, I was induced to sign a contract, being told that I was merely doing so for another
man.Wang A-jung (and 1 other declare that they signed contracts when 18 years
old. Chn Hua ()declares, I was decoyed wlien 11 j^ears old." Chn A-wu ([)
declares, I was decoyed when 12 years old." Ch'en A-fu (declares, "when 11 years old
I received a contract in a bamicoon. Lin A-cli'iu (declares, I signed a contract on
board sliip and was paid two strings of cash. Liu I-ling (fij declares, on embarking
I was placed in confinement, and was given by the interpreter a contract made out in the name
of Wang A-man ().Chang 'Huo-hsiu (declares, in the barracoon I saw
that those who refused to go abroad were beaten on the clieeks, and placed under privies, so that
consent was the only course open to me." Wang T'ing-kuei (declares, I was
decoyed, and declined to embark I then was placed under a privy, and was told that if I
persisted in my refusal I would never be permitted to come out, and, thus, I was constrained
to assent." Liang A-sheng (declares, I saw those who refused to go abroad confined
inside privies." Ch(en Lung (declares, when inspected by the Portuguese official, I
declared that I was unwilling to proceed abroad. The interpreter then tolcl me that if I persisted
in my refusal I would be confined under a privy for three years." Lin A-lien (declares,
as I was unwilling to proceed abroad, the head of the barracoon told mo, that unless I consented
I would certainly be placed under a privy." Chang Lin-an (declares, I ran away
from a barracoon, was captured, and placed under a privy. 'Hung A-i (declares,
after having been confined in a barracoon three clays, I was given a contract made out in the name
of a native of Sansliui ()cHo A-yu (). Clin Shao-yen (declares, on
board I was given a contract made out in the name of Cheng Tsai ()Wu Lien-shng
(declares, I was forced to accept a contract and to sign the name of Wu A-chung
)Wu Yao (declares, on board, a contract was given to memade out in the
name of ClVn A-ssu (. Mai A-kuei (declares, the contract was given to
me on board ship. It was made out in the name of Chfen A-fu ().Liang A-chang
()declares, the name on my contract was Huang Fu (). Ts(ui Lan-fang
()declares, the contract given to me was made out in tlie name of Liu Ch'i (||J ),
Yeh Tung-'ho ()declares, the contract was in the name of Yeh Tung ().Hsiao
Mng-hsing ()declares, when inspected by the Portuguese official a contract made out
in the name of Lin Fu ()was given to me." Li Ts'an ()declares, the name on
my contract was 'Huang Hsing ()Yeh. -lisi ()declares, after embarkation I
was given a contract made out in the name of Ch'en Cli'ing-yun () Li -sling
()declares, the name on my contract was Chn A-hsing () Liang A-shng


(11 ),
(declares, the name on my contract was Li A-erli ( . Chang Luan ()
declares, "the name on my contract was Ch'en Kuei ()Lin Achung ()declares,
on board a contract made out in tlie name of Liang A-fu (),a native of Yangch'un
)was given to me." Li A-pei (declares, the name on my contract was Lin Jih
a native of Yangkiang (). Li A-t (declares, the name on my
contract was Liu A-'huDg ().'Ho A-ting ( declares, on board a contract
made out in the name of Cheng A-ta (was given to me." Tan Pi (declares,
on board a contract made out in tlie name of 'Huang A-san (was given to me."
Ch'en A-te (declares, on board a contract made out in the name of Hon A-ku
was given to me. Li A-yeli (declares, on board a contract made out in the
name of Tan A-fho ()was given to me. Ch'en A-liu ()declares, the name on
my contract was Huang A-san ().fHu A-clViang ()declares, the name on
my contract was Ch'en A-wu ().Chang A-ch'ng (declares, the name on
my contract was Wu Yung-chn ( Tng A-yen (|J declares, a the name
oil my contract was Pan Ying-yuan () Liang A-wan ()declares, the
name on my contract was Hsieli Wu ().Tan A-ch'in (declares, the name
on my contract was originally Lan A-'huo ( p)but on arrival at Havana another contract
made out in the name of Li -ssu (was given to me."
III.
Is care taken to see that the agreements are understood
The petition of Li Cliao-ch'un (and 165 others states, when the contracts are
being translated much is passed oyer, only a few clauses are read out, and Annan or Singapore
is stated to be the destination, so that, as we are not deprived of all hope of return, it seems
better, to avoid immediate death, to affix our signatures, and to embark." 'Huang Ch'ao-ping
(and 192 others declare in their depositions, "we received contracts in the barracoons
and these documents were not read to us. Kuo Chan (and 116 others declare, the
contracts were given to u's on board ship and were not read to us." Wen Ch'ang-t'ai ()
and 219 others declare, the contracts were given to us in the presence of the Portuguese
Inspecting Officer but were not read to us." "Wang Hsiang (and 8 others declare, the
contracts were given to us in the presence of the Portuguese inspecting officer and were read
to us. Li A-fu ()and 2 others drclare, the contracts were given to us in the
presence of the Portuguese Inspecting Officer and were explained to us. Chn T'ung (
declares, the contract was given to me in the barracoon and was read to me. Ch'en A-kuei
(declares, a foreigner told me to affix my name to a contract, which lie held in his
hand, but which he did not read to me. Li Ming (declares, when being inspected by
the Portuguese official I declared that, as my parents were living I did not wish to proceed
abroad, and was then assured by the latter functionary that, if on arrival in Cuba I was
dissatisfied, the cost of a passage back would be supplied to me. Hsii A-fa (
2


(12 )
declares, I asked where Havana was, and was told that it was the name of a vessel. I, in
consequence, thought I was being engaged for service on board ship and signed the contract."
Hsieh A-fa ( declares, at the time of signing the contract, I was told that one foreign
year equalled six Chinese months." Fng A-k(ai Qand 6 others declare, the contract
was read to me but I did not comprehend what the nature of the document was and besides I
myself cannot read." Wu A-fang (declares, I did not understand the meaning of
the contract. Pei A-pao (declares, the contract was read to me, but I did not
understand its purport. T'ang Yii (and 6 others declare, the contracts were read to
us, but we did not know what they contained."
IV.
do the laws provide adequately for the well-being of the coolies
on the voyage
The vesselswhether steamers or sailing vesselswhich, convey Chinese labourers to Cuba
appertain to various nationalities, and in consequence are not subject to any uniform system of
regulations. The rules prepared by certain Spanish, merchants for the guidance of the masters
of vessels engaged in the traffic in question, prove to be, to a very great extent, not observed,
whilst it is difficult to comprehend the object of the 35th clause prohibiting the shaving of the
head by Chinese, and of the 20th clause which prescribes that when repairs become necessary,
the ports of China, Great Britain and the U. S. of America, are on no account to be entered, as
w such, a course would lead to the entire failure of the enterprise.
Of the more than 140,000 Chinese who sailed for Cuba, more than 16,000 died during the
voyages, a fact which is sufficient evidence of the absence of effective regulations.
The petition of Li Chao-cli'un (and 165 others states, "when, quitting Macao,
we proceeded to sea, we were confined in the hold below some were even shut up in bamboo
cages, or chained to iron posts, and a few were indiscriminately selected and flogged as a means
of intimidating all others whilst we cannot estimate the deaths that, in all, took place, from
sickness, blows, hunger, thirst, or from suicide by leaping into the sea. The petition of Ch'iu
Pi-slian (and 35 others states, If the master be a good man the sufferings are only
those produced by grave maladies, but if his disposition be cruel there is no limit to the ill-
usage, and there have been cases when more than half the number on board have died. Ten
thousand hardships have to be endured during the voyage of several months." The petition of
Tiao Mu (pj and 30 others states, many die from sickness, and many jump into the sea to
be devoured by the fish." The petition of Yeh Fu-chiin (and 52 others states, <( the
winds and waves on the ocean were great, and three months had passed away, but we had not
arrived as there was no water issued it had to be bought, and for a single cup a dollar was
paid. The hatchway only allowed one man at a time to come down or go up, and the stench
below from the crowd of men was most offensive, and the deaths thence produced were without


(3 )
number. The petition of Liu A-shou (gij and 4 others states, we cannot estimate the
number of deaths from ill-usage the bodies were thrown into the sea."
Among the depositions there are found only the following instances of good usage received
during the voyage. Ch'en A-ch'iu (and 1 other state that the masters treated those
on board well. Feng Chi ( )declares, the master treated me passably." Pan Ming
(an(i 2 others state that they were well used, and received sufficient food on board.
Yao A-ya (declares, I was well used on board and the rations of food and fresh water
were sufficient." Yii A-kou (and 1 other state that they were well treated on board
and received both water and rice. .
On the other hand the depositions of Wang Shui-t'ou ()and 4 others, state
that tlie water and rice on board were insufficient. Ch'en A-chi (deposes, two of
those on board threw themselves into the sea because they had been flogged for taking water
when suffering from extreme thirst, and for refusing to allow their queues to be cut off.Liang
A-chao (deposes, I had money with me when decoyed on board, but the master
would not even permit me to redeem myself." Ho Hsi (deposes, the fresh water on
board was insufficient.Ts'ai A-lu (deposes, the water was insucient and many
died from thirst; and besides, three men threw themselves into the sea." The deposition of Ch'en
Ch'ih (states, that rice and fresh water were not sufficient and that those who asked for
water received blows." Yii Ming-hsing ()deposes, we were badly treated on board,
and sometimes a dollar was paid for two cups of water." Li A-pao (deposes, more
than 50 died from thirst and I heard tliat one Chinese was struck dead by the master for
stealing a cup of water." Liang En ()deposes, both water and rice were insufficient,
and we were not allowed to go on deck. The depositions of Huang K'ai (and 2, others
state that one dollar would buy only a single cup of water. The depositions of Lin Ch'uan
(and 2 others state that the food was insufficient, that there was no fresh water and that
they were constantly beaten. Kao A-tai ()deposes, the treatment on board was bad
and the water was stinking. Tlio surgeon was a bad man, and the sick at the moment of death
were thrown into the sea. Liu A-san (deposes, 2o men cast themselves over-
board.Chen A-sheng (deposes, on board 300 died from thirst." Chou Ch'ng
(deposes all of us who seemed strong were placed in irons. The deposition of Li A-te
(and i other states that the space for sleep allowed to each man measured only 1
cli'ili 2 ts'un. Feng A-kfai (}deposes, the surgeon struck all who complained
of sickness, and even tied them up and flogged them, and three sick men were killed by liim."
Li Chin-ch'uan (deposes, "the master was a very bad man 12 sick men died through
his treatment." Liang Yu-te ()deposes, "water and rice were both insufficient. I also
saw tliat three or four men, who by their physical powers caused apprehension to the master,..
were severely flogged, and were placed in irons, from which they were only released on arrival at
Havana." Wu Yiieli (deposes, "the treatment on board was bad and 20 men being afraid
"of the sea voyage committed suicide. Chou Jun-shng (deposes, "one man who
complained to the mate of tlie rottenness of the fish was almost beaten to death by the sailors
by the order of the master. Wu A-'hou (deposes, suffering from sea-sickness I was
unable to work, and was ixi consequence beaten by the mate. The depositions of Li Yu (


(H)
and 23 others testify to their each, having witnessed one case of suicide by jumping overboard.
The depositions of Huang A-pei (and 4 others again testify to their severally witnessing
one case of suicide. The depositions of Lung A-clifuan (|| Jl[) and 29 others testify to their
each haying witnessed two cases of suicide by jumping overboard. The depositions of Wang
Cheng-fu (and 6 others testify to their each, having witnessed three cases of suicide by-
jumping overboard. The depositions of Huang A-ch'ang (and 4 others testify to the
water and rice having been insufficient and to tlieir each having witnessed four cases of suicide by-
jumping overboard. The depositions of Liu A-ssu. (gj )and 2 others testify to the cruelties
each experienced, and to each having witnessed five cases of suicide by jumping overboard. Tsui
An (deposes, I saw eight men tied and flogged with great severity, two of whom were also
kept in irons until arrival at Havana." Li Hui (deposes, I saw one man, a native of
Tungkwan ()tied up and shot, and other five tied up and cast into the sea. Li Yii ()
deposes, "the treatment on board was bad; two men were beaten to death." Tsui Tng-lin (
deposes, two men threw themselves overboard and two hanged themselves. Lo A-fa (
deposes, one man was beaten to death." Chao A-ling (deposes, the fresh, water was
insufficient; three men also were shot." Li Wen-ts'ai (deposes, the master intending to
arrest five men who had been decoyed, and were discontented, in error seized and chained five
others; upon this, the men whom he had desired to punish threw themselves into the sea."
Li A-cliieh.(deposes, five men who rose at night to relieve nature were shot by the
sailors." Shili A-kou ()deposes, the drinking of salt water caused much sickness,
which was incurable." Wang A-fti (deposes, eight men jumped overboard. They
did so because tliey had been decoyed and were dissatisfied." Hsieli Kuan-chieh (Hf '
deposes, one man jumped overboard because lie was constantly beaten by tlie master ancl inter-
preter moreover those who asked for water were beaten and many died of thirst." Tseng
A-tai ()deposes"the interpreter was a Portuguese, and constantly kicked us Ni
A-'huan (deposes, "the mate constantly struck us with a thick rope. Hsieli Fa (
deposes, I was chained to tlie bottom of the hold." The depositions of Kao Pao (and 1
other state that they were not allowed on deck even for air. Ch'en, A-sliun (deposes,
two men committed suicide. On board a sailor wounded me with a knife ancl the scar is still
visible. The master with a firearm wounded two men. Li Shun ( |deposes, "water and
rice were both insucient. Two men were sliot, and two jumped overboard." Li Hsin (
deposes, two men who in want of rice created an outcry, were shot with a pistol." Hsieli A-keng
(}deposes, "the master was a bad man food was insufficient ancl there was no water.
There were suicides by jumping overboard and hanging, and deaths from sickness." ClVn A-wei
(deposes, "Many leaped overboard, on account of being forced to cut their queues
if we asked for water we were struck with an iron chain. ClV.n I (deposes, the men
who had been decoyed were unwilling to go abroad, and entertained mutinous intentions. The
sailors discharged firearms from the hatchway into the hold, killed 20 and wounded 40 or 50.
The remainder were all placed in irons, and daily 30 were led on deck and there flogged.
Li Pi-'tio (deposes, five men were lashed to the mast and shot. I myself was thrice
flogged on my naked person." Ch^n Ch'in ()deposes, many died of thirst; those who
took water were beaten." Lin A-yung (deposes, I was beaten because I was sea-sick.


The food also was insufficient. Lu Chung (deposes, as the food and water were both
insufficient, we all created an uproar. The master shot the two leaders, and we were all severely
flogged. Li A-'hui (deposes, I was hungry and asked for food; four sailors then forced
me into a prostrate position and flogged me, the scars resulting from the wounds being still
visible." Wang Wei (deposes, one man being unable to eat the beef, asked that salt
should be allowed hini (in its place). He was refused and threw himself into the sea. Huang
Tso (deposes, five men were killed on account of disturbances on board. Hsieh A-tso
(deposes, we were not allowed on deck to obtain a little fresh, air, and many died
from the effects of the close confinement.'Huang A-fang (deposes, 11 men
committed suicide. The clay after I embarked we were all ordered on deck, and foot irons were
attached to 173 physically strong men, besides 160 men were stripped and flogged on their
naked persons with rattan rods." Wang 'ing-kuei ()deposes, 24 men leaped
overboard and two poisoned themselves with opium. They committed suicide because they
had been decoyed and were unwilling to go abroad." Lai A-shih (deposes, we
all were being taken away against our will, and created an uproar. The master upon this
directed the sailors to strike us with chains and 80 men were killed. Chu Ts'un-fcing
(deposes, one day suffering from extreme thirst I took a little water and for
doing so was struck by the master 2 5 blows 011 each hand. Wu Lien-sling (
deposes, I myself saw a native of the Hwa (district kicked to death, by the master for
asking for medicine when sick : 36of whom I was one, were tied up, beaten, and placed
in irons from which we Avere only released on the vessel arriving at a British colony."
Ch'n A-ch'ing (deposes, two sick men went on deck to relieve nature, and were
kicked to death by the sailors." Pang A-tung (deposes, if through not imder-
standing the language the work was not well performed, we were beaten, and one of our
number threw himself overboard. Liao A-ping ( |deposes, for drinking a small
cup of water I was dragged on deck and flogged. Lo 'Huai-cli'ang ()deposes, one
man was beaten so severely by the master, that, the suffering being unendurable, he threw
himself overboard. Lo Hsien-fa (deposes, one man was beaten to death on board
five men committed suicide and two were shot because, having nothing to eat and suffering
from hunger, tliey asked for food. Chang Chng-kao (deposes, the master was
very cruel some died from thirst, others from flogging, others on the point of death but not
dead were thrown overboard, and others, their sufferings being unendurable, cast themselves
into the sea." Hsiao To (deposes, the food and water were insucient ; flogging was
constant, and two men committed suicide, whilst two others were so severely kicked by the sailors
on account of smoking, that they died from the injuries thus caused." Li Pao (declares,
two men suspected by the master of mutinous intentions ivere hanged." Ch'n Hua (
deposes, "the master beat to death, four men. Clin Ch'i-kuang (deposes, a native of
Kiaying (who created an outcry because lie objected to his queue being cut off, was shot
by the master, whilst others were flogged until their flesh was lacerated." Chen A-lin (
deposes, the master was cruel. When thirst forced us all to go on deck in search of water, he
regarding us as mutinous, discharged firearms ancl killed 40 men. Yii Kuan (deposes,
^ the mate displayed excessive cruelty suspecting that I ancl 15 others entertained mutinous


intentions he confined, chained and constantly flogged us. The depositions of Ch'en Hsio-chou
()and i other state that more than 30 men were shot during the voyage. Chang A-chin
(deposes, the surgeon was a foreigner, and many died through his treatment many
died from confinement in the hold, and others, decoyed unwilling to go abroad, killed them-
selves." Li A-ch'iang ()deposes, two men were suspected by the master of mutinous
intentions, and were hanged by his orders." Liang A-yu ()deposes, two insane
men were struck to death by the carpenter." Lin Chin (deposes, 30 men committed
suicide. Ts'ui Lan-fang (deposes, three men made an outcry, declaring that they
would not go abroad of these two were killed by firearms, and one was hanged. Tseng
A-sheng (deposes, "the men who were decoyed did not wish, to go abroad, and in
consequence 60 were either shot by tlie master or committed suicide." Kuan A-hsiao (
deposes, on account of smoking four men were flogged until they spat blood, and died. Mo
Shuang (deposes, four men committed suicide and the master sliot three others." Liang
A-chien (deposes, I am the only child of my parents and Avas in great grief yet no one
regarded me. During the voyage one man killed himself. 'Huang ClViu-t'ai ()deposes,
two committed suicide and two were beaten to death." Liang Piao (deposes, water
and food were both insufficient yet if any complaints were made, our clothing was removed,
and perhaps one hundred, perhaps several tens of blows were inflicted with a rod of four rattans-
tied together. Ho A-fa (deposes, the master beat to death three men. Lin A-san
(deposes, on the plea of there having been disturbances on board several men were
beaten to death one man also jumped overboard." Ch'en Lung (deposes, the master
was a bad man. Many being unwilling to go abroad threw themselves overboard. When being
prohibited from going on deck and being deprived of water we created an outcry, we were
regarded as mutinous by the master, and over ten were killed. They were killed by the sailors,
blows from bludgeons and knives. Near Malacca the vessels received injuries, but though the
water was entering the hold, the hatchways were not opened and it was only when the water
reached our necks and when more than ten were already drowned that they were raised." Liu
A-lin (deposes, a one man was beaten to death on board." Su -wu (
deposes, eight men were stripped of tlieir clothing, severely flogged and then confined in
chains, which were only removed on arrival at Havana. Liu A-lisi (deposes, on
board four men were so severely- flogged that they died on the following day." 'Huang A-ch'eng
(deposes, in consequence of my talking Avitli some others, the master suspected me
of mutinous intentions and directed the sailors to tie up, strip, flog and chain me and 31
others." Tseng A-yang ()deposes, on board we were not allowed to speak." Wu
Chn-ming (deposes, six men committed suicide. Liang A-ping (deposes,
the master was apprehensive of a mutiny and tied up and flogged with great severity 30
men. Fang A-ts'ai (deposes, 200 men who were considered dangerous on
account of their physical strength were confined in chains." Wen Ssu (deposes,
one man on board committed suicide, and 50 men who were suspected of mutiny were
placed in irons." Lo A-fa ()deposes, on board two men committed suicide and two
men were beaten to death." Png A-shng (deposes, one man committed suicide
by swallowing opium." Huang A-tou ()deposes, before the vessel sailed five men


(i7 )
' who attempting to escape jumped overboard, were shot, and after departure 24 men were tied
up, severely flogged, and kept in chains in the forepart of the vessel, of whom two committed
suicide by jumping overboard."
y.
If ill-treated on the voyage, do the laws provide a means of obtaining redress
The 16th article of the Spanish Royal Decree of 1860 provides, that if on arrival of a
vessel it is ascertained from examination of the papers that the mortality during the voyage has
exceeded 6%, an enquiry into its cause shall be made, and that, if necessary, criminal proceedings
shall be instituted; and the 30th article also prescribes that in the cases in which the fines
indicated have been enforced by the Captain General, the Attorney General may in addition take,
in the name of the Chinese, legal action.
But not only on board of the vessel to which they have been decoyed are the lives of the
latter dependent on the will of the master and his officers without any means of appeal against
whatever injustice these may see fit to commit but also on arrival at Havana they are at once
confined in barracoons, from which they can only go forth to labour under guard, being unable
to move a single step with freedom whilst in any case their ignorance of the Spanish language
would render it impossible for them to put forward a statement of wrongs. Thus the right of
preferring charges is a purely nominal, practically useless privilege.
It is gathered also from the petitions that Ch'en Ming-yiian (and Yao Wn-
hsien ()both engaged as physicians, and Chang T'ai-lung ()engaged at
Batavia as linguist, with the distinct understanding tliat the cost of return passages to China
should be furnished to them, were on arrival at Havana fraudulently sold, a wrong for which
despite the number of years that have elapsed, tliey liave had no means of obtaining redress.
How much less then is any such redress possible for the general body of common labourers
VI.
On arrival what happens to the Coolie
By the 13th article of the Spanish. Royal Decree of 1860it is provided that vessels
conveying Chinese labourers to Cuba mustsave in cases of sudden exigencyland them at
Havana. Thence the common practice has been to pass to that port, after undergoing quarantine
at Mariello in the neighbourhood of Guanajay.
The petition of Hsieh Shuang-chiu (and 11 others states, on landing, four
or five foreigners on horseback, armed with whips, led us like a herd of cattle to the barracoon
to be sold. The petition of Chfiu Pi-shan (and 34 others states, Chinese (in the
Havana barracoons) are treated like pigs and dogs, all their movements, even their meals, being
watched, until, after the lapse of a few days, they are sold away." The petition of Li Chao-cli'uii


(i8 )
(and 165 others states, "at Havana, after a detention at the quarantine station our
queues were cut, and we awaited in the men-market the inspection of a buyer, and the settle-
ment of the price.The petition of Yell Fu-chun ()and 52 others states, when
offered for sale in the men-market we were divided into three classesist, 2nd and 3rdand were
forced to remove all our clothes, so that our persons might be examined and the price fixed.
This covered us with shame." The petition of Chang Ting-chia (and 127 others
states, on landing at Havana we were exposed for sale, our persons being examined by
intending purchasers, in a manner shameless and before unheard of by us."
Lin A-pang (and 1 other declare in tlieir depositions, tliat, in the men-market
in which they were placed on landing at Havana, intending purchasers insisted on removing
tlieir clothes, and on examining their persons in order to ascertain whether they possessed
strength, just as if an ox or a horse was being bought and that in this manner Chinese are
subjected not only to hardships but also' to shame. Kao A-san (and 1 other depose,
that after arrival at Havana, before they were purchased, their clothes were removed, and their
persons were thoroughly examined, in the manner practised Avhen oxen or horses are being
bought. Yen A-'huan (and 1 other likewise depose, that when being sold their
clothes were removed, and their persons examined in order to ascertain wliether they possessed
strength, in tlie manner practised when oxen or horses are being bought. Chang A-hsi (
and i other depose, that when being sold their clothes were removed and tlieir persons were felt
and examined, just as is clone in country districts when an ox is being bought. Chiang San
(deposes, in the Havana barracoon, for refusing to permit the removal of my queue, I
was beaten almost to death." Li A-ling (deposes, it is the custom when coolies are
being sold to remove their clothing to enable the buyer to effect a thorough examination of
the person."
VII.
During the Agreement term, what is his position
The petition of Li Chao-cli'un (and 165 others states, 90 per cent, are disposed
of to the sugar plantations. There the owners rely upon the administrator for the production
of a large crop of sugar, and the administrator looks to the overseers for the exaction of the
greatest possible amount of labour. They all think only of the profit to be gained and are
indifferent as to our lives. It matters not whether the workmen are miserable or contented,
wliether they starve or have enough to eat, whether they live or die. The administrator who
gives only four unripe bananas as a meal, is considered an able servant, and if lie gives only
three he is regarded as still more efficient. The administrator who forces the Chinese to work
20 hours out of the 24 is a man of capacity, if lie extorts 21 hours his qualities are of a still
higher order, but he may strike, or flog, or chain us, as his fancy suggests to him. If we
complain of sickness we are beaten and starved if we work slowly dogs are urged after us to
bite us. Those of us who are employed on farms or coffee estates, in sugar warehouses and


brick-kilns, on railways and in baker, cigar, shoe, hat and other shops, are in each of thse
places of service, ill treated, flogged, confined in stocks and in jail, and tortured in every way
"as on the plantations." The petition of Hsien Tso-pang ()and 13 others states, we
are fed worse than dogs, and are called upon to perform labour for which an ox or a horse
would not possess sufficient strength. Everywhere cells exist, and whips and rods are in
constant use, and maimed and lacerated limbs are daily to be seen. Almost daily, also, we hear
of suicides of our countrymen who have hanged themselves, jumped into wells, cut their throats
or swallowed opium." The petition of Lin Chin ()and 15 others states, "the overseer,
bludgeon in hand, drives us to labour night and day." The petition of Ch'en Ku (and
2 others states, the administrator and overseers are as wolves or tigers. In their hand is
the knife and on their shoulders the musket, and when they detect only a little slowness in
work they chastise us until the blood drips to the ground." The petition of Chang Luan
(and 30 others states, in Cuba, within its length of not 2,000 li are to be found
thousands of prisons, tens of thousands of fetters, and 'a number which cannot be counted of
human beings, ever crying out under wrong and in their pain with torn and lacerated
bodies, and seeking death by hanging, drowning, or poison, or the knife." The petition of
Shih Chili-'lio (and 28 others states, "the flogging and chaining produce fatal
effects, which the stronger may witi an effort withstand, but under which the old and weak
soon die. The petition of Chien Shih-kuang (and 96 others states, the instruments
of punisliment are in constant use, not one of us can ever feel sure of passing uninjured a
single day, nor is there ever sufficient repose." The petition of Ch'en Yu-shn (and
4 others states, whether we are disposed of as domestic slaves, or sold to sugar warehouses, or
shops, we are dealt with as dogs, horses or oxen, badly fed, and deprived of rest, so that a .single
day becomes a year." The petition of Kao Lao-hsiu (and 16 others states, Chinese
in Cuba have to labour night and day, and do not enjoy one instant's tranquillity we are in
addition constantly beaten and treated in every way like oxen, horses, sheep or clogs." The
petition of Chao K(un (and 95 others states, we suffer from insufficient nourishment,
excessive labour enforced niglit and day, flogging and chaining in the day, and imprisonment
and confinement in the stocks at night, so that many have died directly of their sufferings, or
have tried to escape and met death outside." The petition of Tiao Mu (and 3 others
states, we work night and day, allowed only a very brief repose, scantily fed, constantly beaten
and chained, considered no more than bad grass and treated like horses and oxen." The
petition of Pan T'ai (and 89 others states, in Havana the workmen are oppressed and
beaten with whips and rods, at night they cannot shut their eyes in peace, tliey have not
enough food, they are given no clothes, and it is impossible to reckon all those who have died
from ill treatment. The petition of Chang.A-yuan (and 4 others states, there
is always a foreign overseer watching us, stick in hand, and througliout the year we receive
floggings which draw out every drop of our blood, and cause some to die within two or three
days." Tlie petition of Cheng Hsing (and 5 others states, sleep and food are insufficient,
and great are the sufferings from confinement and the lasli." The petition of Ts'ai Hng
( 1and 79 others states, "we have suffered from the overseers, wto, grasping whips, or knives,
or firearms, with their voices menacing as thunder and with their tiger's claws, were ever by


(
our sides,relying on their masters' power they treated us like horses or oxen, and on their
favour our lives depended." The petition of Hsieh Shuang-chiu (and 11 others states,
the overseers are more cruel than tigers or wolves. They have 110 pity in their hearts. They
are as terrible as the thunder and beat us constantly with their whips or rods, or throw bricks
at us, or kick us, always inflicting an injury from which, sometimes death ensues." The petition
of Liu A-shou (|])and 4 others states, the overseers are cruel as tigers and wolves. If
we work a little slowly, we are flogged on our backs with, whips, or dogs are incited to tear us
to pieces. The petition of Chang Ting-chia ()and 127 others states, the overseers
rode about with cowhide whips and pistols, striking all, good and bad indifferently, inflicting
blows on those at a distance with whips, and striking with, sticks those within reach. Eibs were
broken and spitting of blood was produced in this manner; other injuries, too, were inflicted on
the head and the feet, but as they were not directly visible labour was still enforced. The
petition of Cling A-mou (and 89 others states, "we commenced labour in the middle
of the night; the savage overseers drew blood by their blows, and suicide was of constant occur-
rence. At the end of the eight years half of our number had died." The petition of Ch'en Ming-
yiian ()states, "but the sufferings of the general body of Chinese labourers are even
greater. They have to endure hunger and chains, hardships and wrongs of every class, and are
driven to suicide to the extent that no count can be made of the number of those who have
thrown themselves into wells, cut their throats, hanged themselves, and swallowed opium.
The petition of Chu Chi-hsiin (||) and of 10 others states, all in actual service, whether
in the hills or on plantations, or in families, or on railroads, or on board ship, or whether doing
forced labour in the prisons, are,besides being exposed to various wrongs at the hands of the
evil-mincled,subjected to the flogging of their overseers. These use whips the lashes of which
are made of the muscles of oxen dried in the sun, and are three or four feet long, and the blows
inflicted by which are intensely painful. Sucides are thus of constant occurrence; their number
indeed is countless." The petition of Yang Yiin (and 131 others states, "suicides by
hanging on trees, by drowning, by swallowing opium, and by leaping into the sugar caldrons
are the results of wrongs and sufferings whicli cannot be described."
Wu A-ch'iang (deposes also, I myself have seen men flogged until they
vomited blood, and death, ensued a few days afterwards." Li A-wu (deposes, if
on the sugar plantations tlie task assigned is executed at all slowly, the overseers at once inflict
several tens of blows, drawing blood, lacerating the skin, and causing inflamed swellings.
Ch'n T-chng (deposes, if the work is not performed to tlie satisfaction of the
administrator, imprisonment and working in chains are resorted to; or 202550 or an indefinite
number of blows are inflicted, causing the blood and flesh to trickle down." Chu Chia-hsien
(deposes, the overseer said it did not matter if we died, as others could be bouglit
to take our places. Cli'en Pao (deposes, I saw the legs of a Chinese broken by a
flogging. Ho A-te (deposes, on the sugar plantation I was flogged until my flesh
was lacerated, and the wounds were afterwards washed in alcoholic spirits causing intense pain."
Cheng A-chi (deposes, I have been flgged with very great severity, and the scars
on my person are st^ll visible. I was flogged with, a cowhide whip, ancl it constantly occurred
that blood was drawn from the wounds and that my clothes were torn by the blowsy^t I


(21 )
"had committed no offence. Lin A-kou ()deposes, the administrator, when
intoxicated, would strike me on the head." Chou Liu (deposes, as the adminis-
trator acted with, great cruelty, I ran away; I was pursued by hounds and on being
captured two of my fingers were cut off. Ts'ui An (deposes, I saw a man
killed for simply striking an overseer. Ch'en A-shun ('deposes, the adminis-
trator constantly inflicted floggings and incited the hounds to bite. "Wang Ching (
deposes, I found the chaining and flogging so unendurable, during the first six months
of my service, that I attempted suicide by cutting my throat, and a month, elapsed before
the wound was healed." Lu Shng-pao ()deposes, monthly, the $ 4 were not
issued, and for a service of one year and a half, only $ 51 were paid me. Wang A-jui
()deposes, I was sold to a brick-kiln, and during eighteen months received no wages.
Han Yen-p'ei (deposes, my master did not furnish me with food. He issued to me
orders for edibles to be handed to the plantation shop. These orders were regarded as money,
and their amount being placed to my debit, my earnings for the entire eight years were thus
deducted." Ts'ui F'eng-lin (deposes, on one occasion I went out to make certain
purchases. On my return I was severely flogged, and was compelled to work in irons during
three months Yang Ch'i-man (deposes, on one occassion, I was beaten with great
severity and it was not until I was so gravely injured that I vomited blood, that the blows
ceased. I also saw a flogging inflicted on another man, of such severity that finding tlie pain
unendurable, he leaped into a well. Yeh A-yao (deposes, "for refusing to eat maize
I was almost beaten to death. My entire person was lacerated on it there was not a single
spot uninjured." Li A-ta ()deposes, on one occasion I received 200 blows, and
though my body was a mass of wounds I was still forced to continue labour." Li San-mou
(deposes, on two occasions my trowsers were removed, and I was beaten with a rattan
rod on my naked person." Wu A-san (deposes, "the Chinese in chains were beaten
severely if they did not imitate the cries of sheep and dogs.
VIII.
Are the Agreement Stipulations carried out
Eight contracts issued at various dates between the 3rd year of Hienfng and the 12th.
year of T'ungchih have been examined. Of these only onethat has never been employed,
is framed in accordance witli the provisions of the Emigration Convention of the 5 th year of
T'ungchih.
The stipulations of the remainder are in most respects alike. Among these is a clause to
tile effect that labour cannot be enforced during more than 12 hours of the 24, whilst enquiries
have shown that as much as 21 hours are exacted another to the effect that Sunday sho11
be a day of rest, whilst it is ascertained that in the great majority of cases, no cessation of labour
takes place on that day; a third prescribes that the daily rations shall consist of 8 taels
weight of salt meat and 2J ibs. of miscellaneous articles of food, all to be of good quality, whilst


()
it appears, tliat the rations of meat supplied have been as small as a little more than i tael, and
that the other articles furnished have been only potatoes, bananas or maize and a fourth
providing that in all cases of sickness, it matters not how long its duration, the labourers shall
be sent to hospital by their masters to be properly cared for until cured, and that no deduction
from wages is on this account to be made,whilst investigation has proved, that in the larger
number of instances, a Chinese complaining of sickness is punished by chains and blows,
chastisements that have continually resulted in death, and that it has been but rarely that the
wages have not been withheld $ 8 are also specified as the sum to be advanced to the labourer
before his departure, and the method of refund indicated is a subsequent monthly deduction
by his employer in Cuba of $ i, until the sum in question has been recovered but though
many have not received even a single cash, the almost universal practice has been to withhold
not $8 but $ 12 during the first year of service. Again, a clause is found to the effect that
at the close of the eight years, the labourer may without restraint seek employment, and
that his original master cannot, on the plea of debt or of an agreement, retard his liberty
or exact from him the performance of new tasks; but in despite of this provision it is proved that,
in most instances, chaining and chastisement and other means are devised, in order to obtain an
additional forced labour of even several years. It is likewise provided, that on the expiration of
the contract term a period of 6o clays shall be accorded in order to enable the labourer to arrange
at the proper port for liis return to his country, and that if lie does not desire to go back he shall
be at liberty to take such steps for improving his position as are permitted to the general
labouring class in the island; yet it is ascertained that the labourers who refuse to be constrained
into renewing their contracts are delivered to dpts to work without wages, that they never
enjoy the specified term for preparing for their return home, and that, the functionaries of the
dpts into wliich they are thrust becoming their masters, they are altogether precluded from
independently seeking employment.
In these respects then the actual practice in Cuba is directly at variance with tlie various
provisions to be found in the contracts inspected, as is testified by the recorded depositions and
petitions.
IX.
If the Employees violate the Stipulations, what redress has the Coolie by Law?
The 44th article of the Spanish Royal Decree of 1860 provides, that when Chinese la-
bourers are wronged by their employers or are subjected to any breach, of the conditions of the
contract, they shall proceed to the official designated as their Protector, who shall duly investigate
the matter. But though the Chinese in cases of violation of contract thus possess tlie right of
bringing a charge before the authorities, their imperfect acquaintance with the people and the
locality, and the restraint and the confinement to which they are subjected by their unscrupulous
employers render it difficult for tliem to avail themselves of the privilege whilst even when they
succeed in preferring a complaint, redress would appear to be nearly impossible.


The petition of Ts'ai Hng ('|g) and 79 others states, "the paper without which we
could not move a single step was refused, but we had no means of complaint or protest in regard
to this injustice." The petition of Lin Chin (and 15 others states, 011 the plantations
and farms we seek refuge in death by every form of suicide. It is impossible to enumerate all
the outrages to whicli we are subjected. The authorities when sucli cases reach their ears,
accept the master's bribes and give 110 heed to tlie crime. The instances of this class are innu-
merable. The petition of Huang Fng-chi (and 11 others states, "we had to endure
every kind of suffering. When our terms of service were drawing towards their close we thought
that we could rely upon our contracts, and that we would be able to go out and reap advantage,
but these documents were held as invalid, and our freedom was witlilield." The petition of
Lai Chih-chih (and 3 others states, "foreigners are so imtrustworthy as to disregard
altogether the stipulation of the contract that we are engaged for only eight years. After these are
expired tliey desire us to work again for a similar term. The petition of Cli'iu Pi-slian (5
and 34 others states, "after eight years of these sufferings, and the completion of the term of service,
a new contract for six years must be entered into. The petition of Yang Yiin (and 130
others states, "the contracts signed at Macao were for a term of eight years, but here we find there is
no limit to our labours. Cling Sling ()declares in his petition, I and 24 others sold
with me, had each, a contract stating that at tlie expiration of eight years we would be free, but
our employer, devoid, of conscience, refused to accord to me my liberty, and coerced me into
working six more years. I could not avoid jdelding, and now that I have finished the second
engagement, he again declines to permit me to go away, and has sent us all to the foreign
authorities." Ku Ch'iao-hsiu (declares in his petition, I know of more than one
hundred who were with me, who on the completion of their contracts were forced either to
accept fresh engagements or to enter prison." The petition of Wu A-fa (and 39 others
states, "foreigners in no way consider themselves bound by the provisions of the contracts. After
the eight years are completed they refuse us the cedulas and we are forced to remain slaves in
perpetuity."
Again, Yell Yu (deposes, on the plantation we were constantly beaten. If we
complained to the officials, our employers presented them with money, and we were sent back,
and after our clothes were removed again flogged." Li T'ung (deposes, I complained to
the officials because no rice was supplied I, in consequence, was kept in chains during one
month." Wu Yiieh (deposes, "on account of the unendurable sufferings on the
plantation many committed suicide. Complaints were made to the officials, but they gave no
heed. ClVn A-shim (deposes, on the plantation was a prison, in which men were
constantly confined and chained. If we went only a few steps beyond the limits of the estate,
we were seized, flogged and chained, so that there were no means of preferring complaints.
Ho A-pa (deposes, if we went outside only a few steps, we were regarded as
attempting to escape, and were seized, chained and beaten. Thus no one dared to prefer
complaints. Yu A-shih (.deposes, according to the contract I was entitled to
clothes, which were not supplied to me I therefore declined to work and was in consequence
chained and beaten." Huang Hsing (deposes, on the plantation we are constantly
chained and beaten, but dare not complain to the officials through fear of being subjected


(24)
to even greater cruelties. I myself made an attempt to cut my throat. Huang-
A-shui (deposes, whilst employed on the plantation, a native of P'anyii ()
by name A Kuei ()was struck dead by the administrator. On the following day
we started in order to lay a complaint before the authorities, but we had proceeded only
half the distance when we were overtaken by the administrator at the head of a party of
armed men, ancl were carried back and chained.Kao A-lun (deposes, we, nine
in all, proceeded to the officials but were sent back to the plantation, tied up and flogged by an
overseera white manuntil his hand was fatigued. Lai Cli'uan-sliou ( Jl[)deposes,.
the black overseers constantly beat us. I myself have already on four occasions been flogged,
and afterwards placed in foot-irons. On my endeavouring to offer an explanation when an
overseer abused me, he became angry and struck and chained me. Thus remonstrance is
denied to us. Lin A-t'ai ()deposes, my employer owes me $ 128. I came to Havana
to complain, but the official not only gave no heed, but also confined me in the dpt, where I
have now been working without wages during two years. Lin A-cho (deposes, my
master owed me $ 108, and when I complained to the official I was brought back and again forced
to labour for five months, still receiving no monej^. As he stated that, as a punishment for my
bringing a charge against him, he would sell me to a sugar plantation, I and two others proceeded
to Havana in order to renew the complaint, and were there placed in confinement in the dpt,
where I have now worked without wages during seven or eight years. My master has never
been called upon to reply to my accusation. Cli'en A-yin (deposes, a foreigner who
hired me for work on board ship owes me $ 100. I have preferred a complaint before the
officials, but no heed has been given to it. Hsieh A-fa (deposes, I was
beaten if I worked a little slowly, and during the hours of labour was not permitted even to
relieve nature. On one occasion, having been flogged with great severity, I laid a complaint
before the officials, but my master by an outlay of money was enabled to bring me back,,
and then compelled me to labour in irons." Liu A-wen (deposes, some years since,
on account of the barbarous cruelty of the administrator, I complained to the officials. My
complaint was not accepted, and after returning, I and 39 others were forced to work in irons
for three months. Our wages for the same period were withheld." Ch'en A-mu ()
deposes, on the plantation I was treated with great cruelty, being constantly beaten. Last
year, after a flogging of even unusual severity, I proceeded to tlie officials, and preferred a
complaint. My master having presented tliem with money was enabled to Tbring me back, and
chained my feet during several months and subjected me to an ill-usage greater than that
which I liacl to endure before. Tseng Cli'ing-jung (deposes, of those with me, one
committed suicide by swallowing opium, and another by naine A-fu (was beaten to
death. The bodies were at once buried ancl no enquiry was made. Tng Kuan (B )
deposes, during the two years which. I passed on the plantation I was constantly beaten with
great severity. I made a complaint to the officials, but through my imperfect acquaintance
with Spanish, the result was that I was sent to the dpt, where, with chained ptI had to
work without wages on the roads and breaking stones. Lin A-chung (deposes
I and A-sheng (ancl A-fu (requested tlie administrator to issue to us our wages
in silver. The latter became angry and sent us to the dpt where we had to work without


\/
5
2
wages. Feng Chi deposes, after the expiration of the contract term I had to work
for seven years, during five of which I received as wages $ 17. My employer then wished to
substitute the paper currency, and as I declined to accept it I was within two or three days
removed to a dpt by Government officials. Li Cliia (deposes, at the end of the
eight years, my master denied that the contract term was completed. I therefore laid a
u complaint before tlie officials, who retained me to perform, without wages, Government work on
the roads. Lo A-erh ( deposes, on the expiration of the contract, I was set to a
dpt, where I passed four months. I was then removed by my master, who forced me to
labour in chains during three months. He daily beats me, and yesterday flogged me with great
severity. Five months have now elapsed, during which no wages have been issued to me. On
account of this and the other ill usage, I requested a fellow workman to, on my behalf, lay a
complaint before the officials. He has done so on three occasions and in each instance it has been
rejected, and I have thus to go on labouring whilst if I ask for wages tlie threat of chaining
'"is made. I in all earnestness now meditate suicide.
X.
If the Coolie breaks his Contract, what redress has the Employer by Law
By the 77th article of tlie Spanish. Royal Decree of 1860, it is provided that, in the event
of repeated offences on the part of the labourer, the employer shall report the occurrence to the
official designated as protector of Chinese, who shall, if the laws afford the necessary means,
prescribe a punishment in accordance with their provisions, or if the contrary be the case, an
augmentation of the disciplinary penalties. This clause thus enables the employers to without
limit increase penalties which in a former clause were limited, and to impose punisliments never
oontemplated by the laws, whilst in addition, in practice, they resort to whatever cruelties their
fancy may suggest.
The statements collected show that on all the plantations the owners have established
prisons, to which stocks and various implements of punishment are attached, and that the
administrator and overseers constantly at will make use of hounds, knives, bludgeons and whips,
so that the Chinese are in constant terror of death and it is likewise testified that in cases too
frequent to be enumerated, they are flogged when no offence has been committed or provocation
offered, and that even after the contracts have expired tliey are chained and beaten. It is not
likely, therefore, that they would voluntarily provoke such sufferings by any deliberate breaches
of their agreements, and in consequence such instances are of the extremest rarity.
Thus, not only do the Kegulations though prescribing reference to the protecting official
confer on the employers the right of imposing and augmenting penalties but, in reality, the
latter inflict at will cruel chastisements of every class, without any authorization from the
representatives of the Government.


(26 )
XI.
Do Employers treat Coolies kindly
Although a kind treatment of tlie labourers would be the right course it, in Cuba, is in th.ej
great majority of instances, that which is not followed. The petition of Chang Ting-chia
()and I27 others states, "the daily food consisted of only maize and bananas. Our
monthly wages, in the meantime, are only $4 in paper, not equal to $ 2 in China, and insuffi-
cient to procure us even the additional necessary supplies of food and clothing. It is thus
impossible to save money." The petition of Yang Wcin-shiig (states, I liad to
labour night and day, suffered much from cold and hunger, was flogged when seriously ill, and
was chained and imprisoned even for resting a few moments. The petition of Wang Hua
(and 16 others states, we are allowed three meals a day, composed of sweet potatoes,
maize, plantains and a piece of rotten salt beef, weighing 2 taels. The petition of Li Ying-sung
(states, I had to work night and clay, was fed on only potatoes and plantains, and
was limited to a few instants of sleep." Liang Yu-slieng (declares in his petition,
I am beaten night and day, and my sufferings are unendurable." The petition of Li Chao-clifnn
(and 166 others states, on the sugar plantations we are paid $4 (paper) worth
only a little more than $ 1 in silver, and not sufficient even for tlie additional food and clothes,.
that are indispensable. On each estate there is a shop belonging to the administrator and
others the things are of bad quality and very highly priced, but if we attempt to make a
purchase outside it is said that we are running away, and we are compelled to work with chained
feet. How is it possible, after the term of service, to have saved enough to pay for our passage
home? Pan To-li (!J) declares in his petition, if we make purchases at a shop
outside the plantation our wages suffer deduction during some months and we are forced to
work with chained feet for a similar period." The petition of Wu A-fa (and 39
others states, the monthly wages of $4 are issued in currency, $2 of which are not equal to
"$ i in silver." The petition of Lin A-cli'iiig (and 1 other states, we have not even
three meals a day, and the rations consist of only maize and rice. Our wages of $4 (paper)
do not even represent $ 2 in silver, and for the slightest cause a deduction is made." The
petition of Yeh Nien (and of 20 others states, out of our wages of $ 4 we are forced to
provide clothing and other necessaries, and whilst starvation is the compensation of our toil,
blows are accorded to us instead of repose."
Wang A-chi (also deposes, "at the commencement of my service, I was allowed
daily three meals; during the second year they were reduced to two and I was severely flogged."
Yang Chin (deposes, "the food issued consisted of rotten beef. If I did not eat, my feet
were chained." Chang Ch'ang-kuei (deposes, I was employed in a brick-kiln eight
years, during six of which no wages were issued/' Ho A-jui ( deposes, for making
cigars in a clumsy manner I was kept in irons during two months.Liang A-hsiu (
deposes, I and 23 others, driven by hunger and by a consequent weakness which disabled us for
labour, begged our employer's son to increase the allowance of food, and for so doing we were
all chained and beaten. On the plantation also there were no habitations for us, and we were


\IA
7
2
/V
told to provide them ourselves. Our monthly wages were but $ 3, and as even a grass hut for
two would cost $ 10, it was not in our power to obey. We explained this to our employer's son,
who became very wrathful, struck us indiscriminately, and together with certain negroes, seizing
knives killed one of our number, a native of Hiangshan ()ancl wounded the remainder.
Liang A-cliao ( fjf deposes, on the plantation is a shop owned by the master, at which
' all our purchases have to be effected. The prices too are very high." The depositions of
Chu Chia-hsien (and 76 others, also declare that all purchases have to be effected at
the shops on the plantations. Liu A-wn (f|]deposes, "all edibles have to be bouglit from
the steward." Liu A-yao (§1]deposes, all articles have to be bought from the clerk."
Fng Erh. Q deposes, "on this plantation, at present, two men are in prison chained ancl in
the stocks on account of making purchases outside." T'ang Ming-kwei ()deposes,
monthly, as wages, we receive four tickets, which can only be employed in payment of purchases
at the plantation shop. Elsewhere they cannot be used, nor is it possible to change tbem for
bank notes." Tseng Fu-min (deposes, "as wages the master issues an order which
can be used in payment of articles bought at his shop, but cannot be converted, into money, so
that no purchases can be made elsewhere." Gh'en A-fu (deposes, "as I was young
I was directed to watch the horses which were grazing. Constantly my trowsers were removed,
and whilst held down by four men, I was flogged witli a rattan rod. Tsfai A-fang (
deposes, owing to sickness I worked less than the others, and in consequence chains were
attached to my hands and feet, and I was flogged on my naked person witli a cowhide whip."
Chang Shui (deposes, when sick I was still compelled to labour, and as I performed less
"tlian the others I was chained and beaten." Lo A-po ()deposes, tlie proprietor of
the sugar warehouse is excessively cruel. I have constantly suffered injury from his blows.
He wounds both skin and bone, and draws blood. He is most hurtful and venomous." Ch'en
A-lien (deposes, I myself witnessed the death of an old man, whom the administrator
had directed to move a heavy implement. He was unable to do so and was at once struck dead.
Pang A-tung (deposes, the overseers all carry cowliide whips for tlie purpose of
chastising the Chinese." Liu A-lin (gi]deposes, The administrator is of exceptional
cruelty. The owner has told him to flog without restraint, that it matters not if one is beaten
to death as ten others can be bought in his place." Hsieli A-ssu (deposes, "the owner
has urged the administrator and tlie overseers to flog us. He has said that it matters not if one
is beaten to deatli as lie is rich enough to buy ten others." Liu A-jui (deposes,
tlie owner continually urges upon the overseers that a large crop of sugar is tlie only matter of
importance, and that no consideration should be shown to tlie labourers, as if one be beaten
to death ten others can be purcliased."
On the other hand, among the depositions it is found that Chang A-wen (r
declares that when working 011 a farm, belonging to a Frenchman, lie was well used ancl that
T'ang Sling (declares that his master treated him passably, that lie was sufficiently fed,
and that when sick his wages were not deducted,instances of what must be regarded as kind
treatment, but unfortunately too few in number.
Again, Wang Chiu (alleges, that the owner was kind but the administrator the
reverse. Tscai P'ei ( also alleges that the owner was kind, but that the administrator
4


(28 )
constantly flogged; Wang A-shng ()likewise declares that the owner was just but the
administrator cruel, and Ho Hsi (states that the owner was good, but the administrator
exceedingly cruel. In these cases although the cruelties were not committed by the owners in
person, yet, as the administrators are their servants, they are responsible for the acts of the latter,,
and consequently cannot be admitted to have accorded the considerate usage referred to in the
query.
XII.
Do Coolies serve Employers faithfully
Chinese after having been at the will of tlieir importers sold out of the men-market and
transferred to their purchasers, cannot be otherwise than obedient, through the terror inspired by
the administrator and overseers, by the chains at their side, and by the rods and whips which
goad them to labour.
The petition of Cheng A-mou ()and 89 others states, though, we had neither-
food nor repose, though, the rations consisted of only plantains and maize insufficient to satisfy
hunger, we commenced labour in the middle of the night.
Yang Fa-cMang (also deposesmy master was in debt, and sent me to work
on his creditor's plantation as a method of payment." Lu Chung (deposes, my wages
were all expended in the purchase of additional edibles in the plantation shop. My debt was
ever proportioned to my earnings, but I dared not raise any objection. Chung Shng ()
deposes, at the completion of the contract term, though a cedula was withheld, and I was
against my will constrained to continue labour, I had open to me no course but obedience,
Wu T-shng (deposes, at the end of the eight years my master constrained me to
remain for an additional term of two years, and I dared not do aught but obey." Ch'en A-yiian
(deposes when I had worked during seven years I gave my master $ 150 in gold,
in order to redeem myself. He nevertheless retained me for another year, at the close of which.
he did not furnish me with a cedula, so that my outlay was wasted." Ou Yuan (deposes,
on tlie expiration of the eight years I applied for a cedula, but my master put me off from
year to year. When I had thus completed other four years I handed to him $ 500 for the cost
of my passage home; and though two years have since passed away, he neither furnishes me
with a cedula, nor permits me to embark." 'Ho A-ssu (deposes, at the end of the
eight years no cedula was supplied to me, and I was forced to work for another term of four
years. A few days ago I asked my master for a cedula, and was told by him that I had to-
serve for other six years. If this be the case, suicide is the best course open to me.


(
XIII.
Does the Law authorise Employers to punish the employedhow and why
The 69th clause of the Spanish Royal Decree of 1860 is to the following effect:
Employers are empowered to exercise a disciplinary jurisdiction in virtue of which they
shall be able to inflict the following penalties
i. Arrest from one to ten days.
2. Loss of wages during the same time.
The first of these may be imposed without the second but the latter cannot be resorted
to unless the first has been enforced." The 74th clause thus specifies the offences for which
these penalties may be inflicted :
1. Insubordination towards employer or any representative of the employer.
2. Refusal to work, or want of punctuality in the execution of tlie tasks assigned.
3. The commission of an assault producing injury not rendering necessary suspension
of work by the person injured.
4. Flight.
5. Drunkenness.
6. "Violation of the Rules established by the employer,[note by translatorSuch
rules not being contrary to the conditions of the contract, or to any of the
provisions of the Decree (Art. 64)].
7. Any offence against morality, so long as it is not one of those which requires the
intervention of a prosecutor, or, as being of that class, the party injured refrains
from complaint.
8. Any other act intentionally committed and causing injury or loss to another
person, but not constituting a crime of which the law can take cognizance. ,
Thus the Spanish Government distinctly limited the penal powers conferred on employers,
:and never intended to sanction the arbitrary infliction of chastisements and fines. The action
'of the Cuban proprietors has been however totally at variance with the course thus prescribed.
The petition of Chang Ting-chia (B) and 127 others states, the prison was full
xt of instruments of punishment, the chains weighed from 50 to 20 catties, and there was no limit
to the number which one man carried and with the ankles thus burdened, labour had still
to be performed. Lo A-pao (declares in his petition, I was sold to a sugar
warehouse, where I was constantly beaten, so that the blood came out from all parts of my
body. Chang Kuan ()declares in his petition, we have to labour 21 hours out of the
24, and if we work half an hour less we are beaten severely, so that our skin and flesh become
lacerated and sore. Ch'en Te-ming ()declares in his petition, if we went outside
to make purchases, we were brought back, confined in irons for three months and fined three
monthswages. Li Ch'i ()deposes, on one occasion four Chinese killed an overseer
a negrothey were confined in the plantation prison six months, after which two men were
hanged, and the two others shot on the plantation, in the presence of all the other labourers.
Li A-te (deposes for smoking whilst at work, I was seized and held down by four men,


received 24 blows, so that skin and flesh, were lacerated yet tliis chastisement is to be regarded
as a light one. Chains are attached to our feet and we are goaded on with whips. If tlie
administrator is of a kind disposition these fetters may be removed in two months, if he is not,.
they have to be worn six months. The chain extends from the neck to tlie ankles and may
weigh 40 catties. I have myself been thus chained on three occasions. My offence was telling
the administrator that, fed only on potatoes, I did not possess strength for my work. During
the entire year we are not permitted to wash, our clothes. If, when at leisure, we do so, and are
seen by the negroes, we are chained and beaten. A mail, too, was in chains eight months for
simply effecting a purchase at a small shop in the neighbourliood." 'Ho A-pa (
deposes, on one occasion my master wlio observed me making a cigarette, ordered four negroes
to seize my hands and feet, and I was flogged with, a rattan rod so severely that my flesh was
lacerated and the bones became visible. I was besides placed in the stocks and was again
beaten with a whip by the administrator." Tan Fa (deposes, "for buying rice, the
administrator on one occasion confined me in irons during two weeks, and fined me one month's
wages. Liu A-ping (fi] jijij )deposes "I was beaten for tlie slightest slowness, even for
relieving nature." Pu A-hou (deposes, if thought to be absent too long when
relieving nature the administrator and the white overseers would incite four large dogs, ancl men's
feet have tlius been bitten so severely that they were unable to walk." Chiang A-ch'i
( P)deposes, we were constantly struck and hounds were also incited to bite us." Liu
Hsin-fa ()deposes, on 011e occasion I was flogged Avith such severity tliat my slioulder
was broken, ancl that the blood drawn out of my back dripped over my entire body." Chung
A-tai (deposes, the owner of the plantation himself broke my arm by a blow.
Ch'en Hsiang (deposes, I was transferred to a sugar plantation^ where during five years
I suffered great hardships. As I was flogged daily, I asked my employer why, as my tasks were
well performed, I was thus chastised and lie replied that lie had bought me not to labour but
to be beaten." Yuan A-ts'ung (deposes, my master was very cruel. He beat all
Avithout discriminating between those who worked well and the inefficient, and even when we
by chance met him 011 the road lie would deal us a few blows." Lo A-erli () deposes,
I wished to redeeni myself by payment of the price originally paid for me, but my employer not
only refused, but also kept me in chains during one month, and flogged me severely." Sung
Hai (deposes, at present there are here 40 Chinese who though recently arrived and
ignorant of the language work in clmins. Yang A-ch'ang (deposes, my master
acts with great cruelty. For one day's sickness he deducts a dollar." 'Ho Fei-cli£i ()
deposes, I was sick during six months and my wages during an entire year were deducted.
XIV.
Does the Law provide for an Appeal by Coolies from the Punishment authorised
to be used by employers
It is provided in the 71st Article of the Spanish Royal Decree of 1860, that tlie Chinese'
shall in every case possess the right of making complaint to the Protector, regarding any wrong;


done to them by their employers, whether such wrong consists in the infliction of punishments
without sufficient cause or the imposition of unauthorised penalties, or in the breach of any of
the provisions regulating the treatment of them." Thus, in tlie event of employers abusing the
disciplinary powers conferred on them, the right of preferring charges is accorded to the sufferers,
but numerous as the latter are, the proportion that has been enabled to obtain redress or even
make complaint is very small.
Lin Kuei-hsing (deposes, on the plantation, though wrongs of every kind have
to be endured, there are no means of preferring complaints, as all egress is prohibited." Liu
A-lien (§|J deposes, the overseer flogs with great whips until skin and flesh are lacerated
thus wounded we still are forced to labour and no one is able to go out to make an accusation."
Li Yii (deposes, as when I was at work on account of not understanding the language
I was beaten with a cowhide whip, and found the chastisement unendurable, and as I saw
that another man poisoned himself througli being unable to support the cruelties, I preferred
a charge before the officials. They gave no heed to my accusation. I afterwards was
chastised even more severely, and after tlie completion of my contract term I embodied in
a petition adclresscl to the Captain General, a statement of the wrongs endured by Chinese in
Cuba, but this also met with no notice. Chu Chia-hsien (deposes, as I saw Liu
A-ko (receive 150 lashes dealt with severity, Iin indignation, proceeded to Havana
in order to prefer a charge against the overseer. The official gave no heed to me, but sent
me back to the plantation, where an exactly similar chastisement was inflicted upon me.
The flogging continued from 8 to 10 a.m., and an hour afterwards Liu A-k'o (ithrew
himself into a sugar caldron." Liang En (deposes, one Liang Yu-sheng (
being beaten to death by the administrator, I and three others made a complaint to the officials,
but as the owner's agent presented them with $ 100, and the administrator sent them four
negroes, the charge was unheeded, and I was sent back to tlie plantation where I had to work
with chained feet during an entire year. I was afterwards transferred to another plantation
appertaining to the same proprietor, when, as I had finished my term of eiglit years, I applied
for a certificate of completion. I waited a year labouring in the customary way, and at its close
left, intending to seek redress from the authorities but tlie clerk of the plantation presented
money to the guards, and I was arrested on the plea that I was attempting to escape, ancl I was
delivered back to the plantation, where during four months I had to labour in foot irons."
Lin A-san (deposes, I was flogged without any cause. It depended on my master's
caprice, 011 his good or bad liumour. I did not dare to complain to the authorities, because
such a course only resulted in being chained and flogged with even greater severity." Wang
A-ts'ai ( |>pj deposes, I constantly received injuries from flogging,. I resolved to prefer a
charge before the officials. My intentions were detected, and I was forced to work in irons
during nine months. Li Tai ()deposes, one of us, able to speak Spanish, tolcl our
employer that rice was the customary diet of Chinese, and that, whilst at Macao it had been
distinctly understood that Sundays were to be days of rest, the existing practice was different.
Our employer gave way to anger, regarding these words as too daring ancl afterwards our
companion fell sick and was sent to the hospital where in a few days he died. Cliou Te-'hua
(deposes, they broke my finger merely because I was unable to express myself in


(32 )
Spanish." Ch'ien A-shng (deposes, "my master was not good. He constantly
inflicted floggings, and broke my left arm, so that now it is disabled for work.
The petition of Li Chao-cliiin (and 165 others states, our countrymen are
murdered, cut their throats, and drown themselves, and the occurrences are either not reported to
the authorities, or if reported there is a brief inspection, and all is over. On the same planta-
tion there may be a friend or relative of the victim, but though, he has witnessed all, he dares
not come forward to testify. If he did so his days would soon come to an end."
XV.
During Agreement-term, what time has the Coolie at his own disposal~~how can
he use itand does the Lw portect him in turning it to porfitable
account
The i oth article of the Emigration Convention of 1866 provides that of every seven days
one is to be a day of rest, and that in the 24 hours work during more than hours cannot be
enforced, and that all compulsory additional labour is prohibited. The 5th clause of the contract
used in the 10th year of Hienfng states that besides the specified times of rest, Chinese shall
riot be compelled to work on Sundays or holidays, and that on these days they shall be permitted
to work as they may see fit for their own profit and the 4th clause of the contracts used in the
3rd, 4th, iotli and 12th years of T'ungchih, prescribes that Sundays shall be days of rest. The
articlethe 52ndof the Royal Decree of 1860which refers to the same point, is however
somewhat at variance with the above provisions, as it directs the execution of the ordinary daily
tasks even 011 festival days, when, despite the celebration of the festival, work shall have been
permitted by the ecclesiastical authorities.
The contracts for these four years of T'ungchih also stipulate that only 12 hours out of the
24 shall be devoted to labour. The 53rd article of the Decree of 1860 provides that under no
circumstances whatever shall employers exact on an average more than 12 hours' work and the
54th article, that even when an employer is empowered to distribute in the manner most con-
venient for liis interests, the number of hours agreed upon, it shall be understood that no more
than 15 hours can be exacted in one day, and that the labourer shall enjoy at leat six consecutive
hours of rest and the 45th article authorises their engaging in amusement during their days or
hours of leisure. These three clauses, though not altogether in accordance with the Emigration
Convention, evince a care for the interests of the class to which they apply, and have been
disregarded by the great majority of the Cuban proprietors.
The petition of Chiu Pi-slian (and 34 others states, a plantation is a veritable
hell the Chinese are beaten the entire day, and the cruelties of the owner, administrator and
overseers are very great. Their bodies are covered with sores, their feet have no rest, and out
of the 24 hours they are granted only four for repose." The petition of Wang A-cliing (
and 22 others states, the work is very hard. We get up at 3 a.m., and labour until noon; at 1 p.m.,
we resume work until 7 p.m., when we rest half an hour and are allowed a ration of maize, after


which, work is continued up to midnight. We are struck and flogged, and out of our party of
more than 200 men, only over 80 remain. The petition of Wang Hua (and of 16
others states, we have to labour at night nearly until 1 a.m., and we have to recommence work
at 4 A.M., and our bodies and our bones cause us so much pain that we cannot work with great
activity." Chn T-ming (declares in his petition, I was sold to a sugar plantation
where I endured every hardship. I and the others got up at 4 a.m. and worked until 1 a.m.
The petition of Lin A-ch'ing ()and 1 other states, we are in the service of a railway
company and have to work night and day. The overseer is very cruel, but whatever he alleges
to the superintendent is believed by the latter. Those who have completed their eight years
are not allowed to go away. We are constantly flogged by the superintendent at the instiga-
tion of the overseer. We get up at 4 a.m., and cease work only at 1 a.m. On Sundays we do
not rest. The petition of Yeh Fu-cliun (and 52 others states, when sold to sugar
plantations, we had to work night and day, having only three hours' sleep. The petition of
Ch'en Ku (and 2 others states, on the sugar plantation we toil daily from 3 a.m. until
midnight. The petition of Pan To-li (J) and 2 others states, we have to labour 19 or
20 hours out of the 24.
The depositions of T'ang Chien ()and 170 others testify that they have laboured on
the sugar plantations from 3 A.M. until midnight, and that on Sundays similar hours were
enforced. The depositions of Chang Chao ()and 121 others testify that they have laboured
on sugar plantations from 4 a.m. until midnight, and that on Sundays similar hours were
enforced. The depositions of Wen A-chao ()and 20 others testify that they have
laboured on sugar plantations from 2 A.M. to midnight. The depositions of Ch'n Wan-shng
(and 47 others testify, that they have laboured on the sugar plantations from 3 A.M.
until 11 p.m. The depositions of ClVn Ch'ih (and 27 others testify that they have
laboured on the sugar plantations from 4 a.m. till 11 p.m. The depositions of Ch'en Ting-hsien
(and 6 others testify that they have laboured on tlie sugar plantations from 3 a.m.
until 9 p.m. The depositions of Tseng Erh-ch(i (and 7 others testify that they have
laboured on the sugar plantations from 2 a.m. until 11 p.m. The depositions of Li Ho (and 8
others testify that they have laboured on the sugar plantations from 4 a.m. until 10 p.m. The
depositions of Chang K'ai (and 6 others testify that the they have laboured on the sugar
plantations from 5 a.m. until midnight, and that the same hours were enforced on Sundays. The
depositions of Su A-Chai (and 1 other testify that they have laboured on the sugar
plantations from 4 a.m. until 9 p.m., that during the collection of the crop the same hours were
enforced on Sundays, but that at other times work ceased on that day at 9 a.m. Liu A-san
(fl]deposes, on the plantation I rested during half the day on Sunday." The
depositions of ClVn Lin (and 3 others testify that on the sugar plantations on Sundays
they ceased labour at 9 A.M., but recommenced it from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. The depositions of
Kuo Chan ()and 1 other testify that on certain sugar plantations, during the collection
of the crop, the ordinary hours were enforced on Sundays, but that at other times work ceased
at 8 a.m. Lin A-i (deposes, on the plantation in the 24 hours I rested two hours,
and a half." Wu Ch'ieh (deposes, on the plantation I got up at 6 A.M., and ended
work at midnight. Li Yu (deposes, on the plantation I commenced work at


Spanish." Ch'ien A-shng (deposes, my master was not good. He constantly
inflicted floggings, and broke my left arm, so that now it is disabled for work."
The petition of Li Chao-ch'un (and 165 others states, our countrymen are
murdered, cut their throats, and drown themselves, and the occurrences are either not reported to
the authorities, or if reported there is a brief inspection, and all is over. On the same planta-
tion there may be a friend or relative of the victim, but though, he has witnessed all, he dares
not come forward to testify. If he did so his days would soon come to an end."
XY.
During Agreement-term, what time has the Coolie at his own disposal~how can
he use itand does the law poetect him in turning it to porfitable
account
The ioth article of the Emigration Convention of 1866 provides that of every seven days
one is to be a clay of rest, and that in the 24 hours work during more than 9J hours cannot be
enforced, and that all compulsory additional labour is prohibited. The 5th clause of tlie contract
used in the ioth year of Hienfng states that besides the specified times of rest, Chinese shall
not be compelled to work on Sundays or holidays, and that on these clays they shall be permitted
to work as they may see fit for their own profit and the 4th clause of the contracts used in the
3rd, 4th, 10th and 12th years of T'ungchih, prescribes that Sundays shall be days of rest. The
articlethe 52ndof the Royal Decree of 1860which refers to the same point, is however
somewhat at variance with the above provisions, as it directs the execution of the ordinary daily
tasks even on festival clays, when, despite the celebration of the festival, work shall have been
permitted by the ecclesiastical authorities.
The contracts for these four years of T'ungchih also stipulate that only 12 hours out of the
24 shall be devoted to labour. The 53rd article of the Decree of 1860 provides that under no
circumstances whatever shall employers exact on an average more than 12 hours' work and the
54th article, that even when an employer is empowered to distribute in the manner most con-
venient for his interests, the number of hours agreed upon, it shall be understood that no more
than 15 hours can be exacted in one day, and that the labourer shall enjoy at leat six consecutive
hours of rest and the 45th article authorises their engaging in amusement during their days or
hours of leisure. These three clauses, though not altogether in accordance with the Emigration
Convention, evince a care for the interests of the class to which tliey apply, and have been
disregarded by the great majority of the Cuban proprietors.
The petition of Ch'iu Pi-shan (and 34 others states, a plantation is a veritable
hell the Chinese are beaten the entire day, and the cruelties of the owner, administrator and
overseers are very great. Their bodies are covered with sores, their feet have no rest, and out
of the 24 hours they are granted only four for repose." The petition of Wang A-ching ()
and 22 others states, the work is very hard. We get up at 3 a.m., and labour until noon; at 1 p.m.,
we resume work until 7 p.m., when we rest half an hour and are allowed a ration of maize, after


which work is continued up to midnight. We are struck and flogged, and out of our party of
more than 200 men, only over 80 remain." The petition of Wang Hua ()and of 16
others states, we have to labour at night nearly until 1 a.m., and we have to recommence work
at 4 a.m., and our bodies and our bones cause us so much pain that we cannot work with great
activity." Chn T-ming (declares in his petition, I was sold to a sugar plantation
where I endured every hardship. I and the others got up at 4 a.m. and worked until 1 A.M.
The petition of Lin A-ch'ing ()and 1 other states, we are in the service of a railway
company and have to work night and day. The overseer is very cruel, but whatever he alleges
to the superintendent is believed by the latter. Those who have completed their eight years
are not allowed to go away. We are constantly flogged by the superintendent at the instiga-
tion of the overseer. We get up at 4 a.m., and cease work only at 1 a.m. On Sundays we do
not rest." The petition of Yeh Fu-chun (and 52 others states, when sold to sugar
plantations, we had to work night and day, having only three hours' sleep. The petition of
Ch'en Ku ()and 2 others states, on the sugar plantation we toil daily from 3 a.m. until
midnight." The petition of Pan To-li (!J) and 2 others states, we have to labour 19 or
20 hours out of the 24.
The depositions of T'ang Chien (and 170 others testify that they have laboured 011
the sugar plantations from 3 a.m. until midnight, and that on Sundays similar hours were
enforced. The depositions of Chang Chao (and 121 others testify that they have laboured
on sugar plantations from 4 a.m. until midnight, and that on Sundays similar hours were
enforced. The depositions of Wen A-chao (and 20 others testify that tliey have
laboured on sugar plantations from 2 A.M. to midnight. The depositions of Ch'n Wan-shng
(and 47 others testify, that they have laboured on the sugar plantations from 3 a.m.
until 11 p.m. The depositions of Ch'en Ch'ih (and 27 others testify that they have
laboured 011 the sugar plantations from 4 A.M. till 11 P.M. The depositions of Ch'en Ting-lisien
(and 6 others testify that they have laboured on the sugar plantations from 3 a.m.
until 9 p.m. The depositions of Tseng Erh-chi (and 7 others testify that they have
laboured on the sugar plantations from 2 a.m. until 11 p.m. The depositions of Li Ho (and 8
others testify that they have laboured on the sugar plantations from 4 a.m. until 10 p.m. The
depositions of Chang K'ai (and 6 others testify that the they have laboured on the sugar
plantations from 5 a.m. until midniglit, and that the same hours were enforced on Sundays. The
depositions of Su A-(hai (and 1 other testify that they have laboured on the sugar
plantations from 4 a.m. until 9 p.m., that during the collection of the crop the same hours were
enforced on Sundays, but that at other times work ceased on that day at 9 a.m. Liu A-san
(deposes, on the plantation I rested during half the day on Sunday." The
depositions of Ch'en Lin (and 3 others testify that on the sugar plantations on Sundays
they ceased labour at 9 a.m., but recommenced it from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. The depositions of
Kuo Chan (|5 and 1 other testify that on certain sugar plantations, during the collection
of the crop, the ordinary hours were enforced on Sundays, but that at other times work ceased
at 8 a.m. Lin A-i ()deposes, on the plantation in the 24 hours I rested two hours
and a half." Wu Ch'ieb.()deposes, on the plantation I got up at 6 a.m., and ended
work at midnight." Li Yu (deposes, on the plantation I commenced work at


(34 )
midnight and continued until 7 o'clock of the following evening." Huang Chieh (
deposes, on the plantation I worked from 4 a.m. till 12 p.m. On Sundays I was allowed to rest
during two hours, in order to wash, my clothes." Huang A-lisien ()deposes, "on
account of my refusing to work on Sundays, I was kept in chains during one month." Li
A-yao (deposes, in the sugar warehouse there were no fixed limits to the working
hours." The depositions of Huang A-ts(ai ( P)and 3 others state that in a sugar ware-
house they worked from 4.30 a.m. until 6 p.m. Ch'en A-chi (deposes, in the sugar
warehouse I worked from 4 a.m. until 5 p.m. The depositions of Li She-fu (and
4 others testify that they work in sugar warehouses from 4 a.m. until 11 p.m. Liang A-ch'eng
(deposes, I am engaged in an establishment for the hiring of cargo-boats, and work
from 4 a.m. until midnight. My master had promised that on Sundays labour might cease at
noon, but when I wished to act in accordance with this assurance the overseer forbade my so
doing and struck and kicked me, and as I am ignorant of the language I could not complain."
Li Yu (deposes, when employed in laying roads, I worked from 2 a.m. until 7 p.m."
Hu A-te (deposes, when employed as a baker I commenced work at midnight and
continued it Until 3 A.^:. I rested from 3 a.m. until 5 a.m. I then resumed work until 7 a.m.
when I again rested for an hour, after which work is again continued until 2 p.m." Hsii A-fen
(deposes, when employed in a baker's shop, I worked from 10 a.m. until 6 a.m. of the
following day." Cli'en A-'huan ( Jdeposes, I am employed in a cigar shop, I work
from 5 a.m. till midnight." Yii A-ch'ang ()deposes, I serve as scavenger, and have
to work from 9 p.m. until 10 a.m. The depositions, of ClVn Mng-ming (and 5
others state that in the dpt they work from 6 a.m. until 6 p.m. The depositions of Cheng A-fu
(and 5 others state that in the Havana barracoon tliey worked from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.
XVI.
Considering the expense incurred by Employers in procuring Coolies, the rate of wages
in China, the hours and conditions of labour in Cuba, and the fact that the
Coolie, knowing the state of things in China, signs a Contract to work in
Cuba does the Employer act equitably, as well as legally, in holding the
Coolie to his Contract
The procuring Coolies signifying the engagement of voluntary labourers, is a very
different act from the sale of men, and the compulsory exaction of their assent, and the term, in
that sense, cannot therefore be applied to the Chinese in Cuba, who for the most part have been
the victims of either fraud or violence.
The depositions of every class that have been collected state that, in the most cases, the
labourer in the first instance was handed only a few dollars, and that some were even paid but
300 cash or 10 cash or received nothing. Thus the original outlay incurred is insignificant, and
the entire expense on account of a Chinese landed at Havana, may be estimated, as is observed


\/
5
3
/V
in the Westminster Heviewat $ 190so that the ultimate profits of the importer become
very considerable. To this effect is the paragraph in the petition of Jn Shih-chn (),
Tai Erh-chieh ( )and Liang Hsing-chao ()which states, each. Chinese decoyed
or kidnapped for sale here is disposed of for a sum varying from $400 or $ 500 to $ 1,000, leaving
on the average a profit to the importer of $ 200 or $ 300, so that the gain on ten thousand of
us must amount to two or three millions. In all some 200,000 have reached Cuba, representing
a profit of several tens of millions, a sum which, as it accrued from the sale of our bodies, ought,
"justly speaking, to be remitted to our families."
The second question raised in the query is of course not regarded as referring to the cases
in which men of wealthy families or of position have been decoyed ancl it is impossible to put
forward with certainty any rate of wages as that applicable in China to the men composing
the general body of labourers, as their earnings would have differed according to individual
qualities, and must have varied from year to year. A man, too, whose life is in the hands of
those who have seized him, ancl who is being sent out of his country by force, is not able to take
into account the considerations suggested, to discuss the provisions of a contract, or to weigh
and compare various rates of compensation whilst those who went of their free will were
misled by false assurances, believing the actual gain to be greater, and the term of service
shorter, and imagining that they would be treated as in their own country, exempt from tyranny
ancl cruelty, and free to go or stay and under this delusion they embarked, contract in hand,
only to realize on arrival the great contrast of the reality. The $4 wages, is observed in
the petition of P'an T'ai (and 89 others, are insufficient for support, the cost of all being
so great." Chiang A-lin (deposes, although the wages are nominally larger than in
China, the paper currency is so much depreciated, and prices are so high, that $ 8 or $ 10 clo not
represent more than $ 1 or $ 2 would there." Lo A-clii ()deposes, in China I
found 100 cask daily sufficient for the support of a family, whilst here the cost of living is so
great that $ 1 a day will hardly maintain a single individual." These statements indicate
a sufficiently grave condition of misery and that condition is aggravated by the fact that
whilst the benefits conferred by the contracts_the rest, medical attendance, food and
clothingare far from being invariably accorded, hardships of which these documents contain
Ho mentionthe stocks, the lash, the rod ancl the bite of the hounds,are inflicted without
restraint.
In the engagement of Chinese labourers in China it would be just that the provisions of
the Emigration Convention of the 5th year of T'ungchih should be adhered to; but not only is
the term of serviceeight yearsa breach of that document, but even after its completion, they
are either forced into renewal, or handed again and again to the dpts to await successive
new engagements, a fresh violation of the contract stipulations, which subjects them to endless
misery. On the completion of the eight years," remarks Chang Luan (and those
who signed with him, instead of giving the freedmen's papers prescribed by rule, the Chines
is removed to the dpt, where he has to labour in irons, in company with the murderer and
deserter. Legally free, he is made a prisoner, and is treated as a runaway, although he has not
attempted to escape. Where and at what time have similar acts of injustice been perpetrated V'
It is thus needless to discuss whether employers act equitably in holding the Coolie to his


contract as repudiation of the terms of agreement ( to the prejudice of the Chinese ) is the
habitual practice of tlie class in question.
XVII.
Some Employees are cruel by nature and harsh to the employed others are kindly
and treat coolies well what remarkable cases illustrate each side, and
what is the general state of the relations between employers and employed
When a master treats a servant well and gives no cause for complaint or accusation, there
is nothing in his action which can result in any record of instances of it being preserved. On
the other hand the cruelty and harshness of an employer aided by his administrator and
overseers, the- maiming of limbs, and the infliction of fatal injuries, though they may not generally
be noticed or punished by the officials, cannot be effectually suppressed, and force themselves
prominently before the eyes of all.
Thus Lai A-ssu (deposes, I recollect the year before last a Chinese was
murdered, and that his body was cast into the sea. It was found by the guards, and was
recognised as that of a workman in the sugar warehouse. This however was denied by our
employer, and no further action was taken by the officials. Last year also, in tlie 7th month,
a native of the Hoyuen (district, by name A Erh (was killed. The
authorities on tliis occasion sent for us to give testimony. Our master denied his guilt, and
imputed the crime to an overseer, a negro, and the latter was in consequence imprisoned. At
the same time another native of Hoyuen ()who had declared that he had witnessed
the commission of the act by the master himself, was sold away to the mountains. Our master
also continually urged the negroes to beat us he used to say, If one were killed, two others
could be bought.' Fan Ssu-'lio (deposes, tlie black overseers ever strike us,
whenever they see us, whether we are working or not and the administrator also beats us. I
saw Ch'en A-ssii (struck dead simply for pushing with a bundle of cane against
an overseer. It was then alleged that lie had hanged himself. Lii A-clien (
deposes, the overseers were negroes, and tliougb. I committed no offence I was constantly flogged.
I have seen men beaten to death, the bodies being afterwards buried, and no report being made
to the autliorities. Hsieh A-sheng ()deposes, with me were a native of Sinning
(by name Cli'en (and a native of K'aip'ing (by name Liang ( .The
administrator accused tliem of cutting grass slowly, and directing four men to hold tliem in a
prostrate position, inflicted, with a whip, a flogging which almost killed them. The first
afterwards hanged himself, and the second drowned himself. The local officials visited the
plantation but instituted no proper investigation, and I and my companions werp prevented by
our ignorance of the language from laying before them a statement of these crimes. Lo A-erh
( deposes, I and my uncle Lo Nan-shao (were both sold to a railway
company. An overseer with an iron bar wounded my uncle so severely that he died in half


(37 )
/
a month. I preferred a charge before the officials, and the overseer was arrested, but he was
released after a month's confinement and no other punishment was imposed." 'Hu A-'hua
()deposes, "I heard that when Lin A-teng ()was murdered his body was
placed in a chamber and examined by the officials, and that the overseer was imprisoned."
Hsieh A-'hou (deposes, four men out of a gang of 30 newly arrived, died in the
hospital four hours after they had enteredit, on account of alleged sickness. Upon this 20
men laid before the authorities a charge of murder, and at the request of tlie administrator an
ocial of low rank visited the estate. I, acting as interpreter, translated the evidence of two
witnesses who declared that sickness had been the cause of death. On the following day other
officials continued the enquiry. All were present, and on a question being put as to the prior
existence of sickness, the general answer was that the men had not been ill. The officer of low
rank then declared that, on the previous occasion, I had interpreted incorrectly, and I was
placed in prison. I was subsequently released on my master's bail." Liang A-kuang (
deposes, with me was a Cantonese, by name A-liu .().A little more than a month after
arrival, being unable to endure the cruelties, he hanged himself. The official visited the estate
for the purpose of making an inquiry, but our employer was rich and no further action ensued.
In Cuba the officials are at the orders of tlie rich." Wang Mu-chiu (deposes,
finding tlie labour too arduous, I made a complaint to the officials, ancl the latter recommended
my master to be less exacting, and to supply me with sufficient food. He assented,
but when lie had brought me back he forced me to work with chained feet during
seven months. 'Huang Shih-jung ()deposed, I was a witness of the sufferings
of Huang A-kuang ( ). Driven by the hardsliips he had run away. He was
captured, placed in chains, and so severely flogged that the blood and flesh dripped
down from him. He then, still in irons, was forced to labour, and being deprived of food,
in hunger ate some sugar-cane. This was observed by the administrator, who again flogged
him, and on the same evening he hanged himself. Twenty of us preferred a complaint to the
officials, declaring tllat we were unwilling to return to the plantation, but the master arranged
that 12 should be brought back under guard, the remaining 8 being, on the advice of the
authorities, sold to other plantations." Lin Ho (deposes, a native of the Sliunth
district, by name Li Te ()had worked on the plantation nine years, and
possessed 72 ounces of gold, which lie handed for safe custody to an overseer. The latter, aided
by a negro, murdered him when in the field. The body was buried, and no report was ever
made to the authorities." 'Huang A-te (deposes, last year I saw the murder of a
native of Hiangshan ().An official visited the estate in order to examine the body,
but never arrested the offender. The latter was a negro, and of tliis fact our master was aware,
but he simply inflicted on him a slight chastisement, and the matter was then considered
terminated. Negroes indeed receive better usage than the Chinese. Hu A-ssu ()
deposes, a native of Sinhwei ()by name A-feng ()was murdered by negroes. The
body was buried and no report was made to the officials. Chang Luan ()deposes, I saw
the administrator flog a native of Tungkwan ()by name Mng ()so severely that his
whole body was lacerated chains also were attached to his feet. The latter hanged himself.
The officials visited the estate, and entered into conversation with the administrator, but no


(38 )
questions were addressed to us. Yeh A-ling ()deposes, in the ioth. year of T'ung-
chih, a negro murdered a Chinese. The negro was a great favourite of our master, and the dead
body was removed and buried. Certain Chinese haying discovered the place of burial, our
master induced the authorities to chastise them. He also intimated that they had committed
the crime, and they were in consequence tried and eight men were sentenced to imprisonment."
Ch'en Lin-shan (deposes, as, after the completion of our contract term, the adminis-
trator flogged us with great severity, we all, 30 in number, became much discontented. On
information being given to liim of our having expressed indignation at his cruelty lie placed
more than 10 in irons, and having bribed the authorities, procured the presence of certain of
"the guards, who shot four. One of the four was a native of the district of Kaoming (),
by name Li A-chfi ()one was a native of the Kaoyao (district, by name
A-chao ()one was a native of the prefecture of Hweicliow ( JfJ), by naine Li Keng-yu
and the fourth was a native of the Sinhwei (district, and was named
A-hsingi)
The following instances of injuries were verified by personal inspection. Scars of old
wounds on the bodies of :
Yuan A-ts'ung... ()
Tseng Jung-cli'ing .. ()
Wen A-cliao .. (
Li A-'liou ... ()
Liu A-chi .... ()
Ch'en A-liung ... ()
Li A-k'ai .... (
Liang A-'hung ... ()
Mo A-hsiin .... ()
Ho A-hsien .... (
Liang A-kuei ... (
Yen A-yu..... (
Liang A-lin ... ()
Lo A-chi..... ()
Ho Hai .... ()
Lin Cliao-chin ... ()
Chung Shng ... ()
Kao A-lun .... ()
Han Chcing-to .. (_)
Tan Lien-cliin ... ()
Liu A-t'ing. ... ()
Chang Sliih-clin .. ()
Hung A-i .... ()
Scars on the heads of :
Chii A-ping ()
Slien Tai-kao ... ()
Miu Yang-chiao .. ()
Chcn A-shn ... ()
Scars on the head and face of Chu Ts'ai-fang (
Scars on the head and arms of : Ho A-fa.....(
Scars from wounds self-inflicted in the hope of death, on the throats of:
Huang A-ping ( Ch'u Tan-k'o ....(
Lin Lun-mei ...(
Actual wounds on the bodies of Wu A-ch'in ...(
Lan A-mu ....(


Actual wounds on the heads of
Chang Shng ...( Yu A-tien .(
Actual wounds on the face of
Wu A-fang (
Actual wounds on the chest of
Ch'n Chung-hsiu :(
Actual wounds on the legs and thighs of :
Wang Ta-ch'ng ( Clin I-yu . .(
Ts'ai A-lu .( ChU Chieh-k'ang (
Lin Tz-yu .,..( Li A-lU.....(
The loss of the left ear by Liang A-yu (deliberately cut off by his master.
The loss of a portion of one ear by Huang A-sheng (.
The loss of sight by Li A-ta ()the disease of the eyes having commenced immediately
after a flogging, during which 200 blows were administered.
The injury caused to one eye of Liang A-'hua (
The loss of two teeth of ClVen Fei-ch'ang (.
The fracture of the arm of the hsiu-ts'ai Cli'n Shao-yen ()of Li A-'hui ()
Yuan Ai-shan (and Ch'en Hai ().
The maiming of the right hand of Lo Kuan-hsiu (by a blow from a knife between
the thumb and forefinger.
The loss of four fingers by Liu A-lin (deliberately cut off.
The fracture of the fingers and toes of Li Hung ()and Li 'Ho ()
The fracture of one leg of Lu Shng-pao ().
The loss of the use of one ankle by Wu A-kuang (the result of wearing fetters.
The maimed condition of the feet of Hsii A-fen (from the same cause.
XVIII.
Some Coolies are industrious men, who emigrate willingly to better themselves, and
who wokk cheerfully and well some coolies emigrate willingly, but
being bad characters, do so to escape the results of gambling and crime,
and carry with them their bad habits some coolies are kidnapped,"
being stupid fellows, and never can work intelligently some coolies,
clever fellows, are induced to embark under false pretences, and on
finding themselves deceived and entrapped, become desperatetheir
desperation being regarded by the employer as defiance, mutiny,
disobedience, &c. allowing that among the coolies there are representa-
tives of all these classes to be found, what are their fates duking
agreement-term respectively
Industrious men who work willingly and well, can support themselves at home, and do
not emigrate voluntarily : Born in China and never in want of food or clothing, we, like our


ancestors," remarks the petition of Chang Luan ( did not dream of seeking a livelihood
across the ocean.
The depositions, on the other hand, show that men have gone abroad to escape the results
of crime and gambling, but even these did so in complete ignorance of the suffering which was
before them, whilst, tempted by lotteries, &c., they adhere to their evil habits in their new place
of residence, and are unable to lay by a single cash.
From the moment of their falling into the snare, an existence of suffering is the only one
known to both the stupid who are kidnapped and the clever who are induced to embark under
false pretences. Before embarking they are tormented by tliose who entrapped tliem, on board
by the master and all his subordinates, on landing by the employes of the men-market, after sale
by their purchaser, his administrator and overseers, and after the completion of their contracts by
the dpt and other functionaries but though they realise how tliey have been deceived
there is open to them no means of escape, and cruelty at last drives them to despair, and to seek
a means of death. The depositions show that besides those killed on the spot and those who
died from the effects of wounds, a countless number destroyed themselves by cutting their
throats, by hanging, drowning, poison, and casting themselves under wheels or into sugar-
caldrons, and that tliey are even goaded into offering up tlieir lives by murdering tlieir overseers.
Constantly, too, when but one or two have committed the crime, ten or twenty longing for death
will accuse themselves of the act. It is because they cannot help it," is observed in the
petition of Li Chao-cli'un ()that Chinese murder their administrator, for wlio is not
afraid of exposing himself to death And in the petition of Chang Luan (and others,
it is stated, the young strive for the shelter of a prison, voluntarily breaking the law in order to
reach it. Tlie depositions also of Huang A-p'ei (ancl 21 others, declare that the jail
is preferable to the plantation. The position of all classes is described in the petition of Ch'iu
Te-i ( We are now," he states, more than 100,000 Chinese in this island, whose daily-
existence is that of criminals confined in jail. Again, in the petition of Kao Lao-hsiu ()
and 16 others, it is observed, though all these wrongs are inflicted, we can only fold our arms
and submit;" and in that of Cheng Hsing ('|ancl 5 others, for these daily wrongs there is
no redress; and in that of Wu A-fa (and 39 others, our existence is so miserable
that the hours seem as days, and the days as years."
XIX.
Taking a broad view of the matter, is the condition of Coolies during Agreement-
time as good as they have a eight to expect or, if not, where does it
fail to be sowhere, how and why, and on whom does the responsibility
of the failure best
In many instances the very act of accepting the agreement was the result of compulsion,
and consequently an instance of unjustifiable treatment the deaths from thirst, blows and
suicide, are an indication of the treatment during the voyage the stripping and shameless


(4i )
examination of the person show how the Chinese are used in the men-market after landing and
hunger, want of sleep, neglected maladies and wounds of which they dare not complain, are the
characteristics of their existence in their places of service. Tlie contract and stipulations are
violated with indifference the state of things in no way fulfils the promises of the contract:
we are constantly beaten, ancl are not treated in accordance with our contracts," are statements
to be found in the petitions of Huang Yu (ancl 15 others, of Chao K'un (and 97
others, and Yeh Nien (and 20 others.
Their condition therefore is not so good as they have a right to expect, and this assertion
is applicable to those who came voluntarily, cognizant of the condition of the contract, as well as
to those who were kidnapped and decoyed, and to whom tlie purport of the agreement was
never explained.
Justly speaking, the responsibility lies on the men who, under the cloak of engaging
labourers in a legitimate manner, obtain possession of their fellow men by violence and deceit,
and on the vicious Chinese leagued with them. As to the latter, the 5 th article of the Emigra-
tion Convention of the 5 th year of T'ungchih provides that Chinese employed to collect
emigrants must obtain a permission sealed by the local officials. Such. Chinese shall be held
responsible for all violations of tlie laws, whether voluntary or otherwise, and shall in such cases
be arrested ancl punished by the proper authorities."
The numerous fraudulent devices that are resorted to, as described in the depositions,
show the character of the agents by whom the labourers now in. Cuba were entrapped. These
unscrupulous men of course lield no certificate from any official, and the traffic is a constant
violation of the law. But tliose who could prove their guilt are already inside the trap, and no
one is at hand to lieed their cries soon they have crossed the ocean, their families being ignorant
of their departure,, and all means of communication being denied, ancl in Cuba the interests of
the sellers and buyers of men being identical, every plan is devised to prevent an ultimate return
to their country. Thus the preferring of a charge becomes impossible, and tlie Chinese officials
are precluded from effecting the arrests and imposing the punisliments prescribed in the clause
which has been quoted.
XX.
The agreement-term Expired, what becomes of the Coolie?
The following extracts from depositions furnish a reply :
fHu Ju (deposes, on the expiration of the contract time, a cedula was withheld,
and I worked for other two years, under contract, on the same plantation. On tlie termination
I was* sent to the dpt, from which I was hired out for three years. These ended I was sent
back to the dpt, where I laboured for five years without wages. I then again, during nine
years, was hired out under various engagements, returning to the dpt at the close of each."
The depositions of Ch'en A-fu (ancl 63 others state that cedulas were withheld on the
completion of their contracts, and that they were delivered to dpts. The depositions of Li


(42 )
Ta-ts'ai (and 2 others state that after the expiration of the eight years they worked for
another period of twelve months and were then sent to dpts. The depositions of Ni A-'huan
(an(l 11 others state that after the expiration of the eight years, they laboured for another
period of two years, and were then sent to dpts. The depositions of Yell A-yao (and
i other state that after the expiration of the eiglit years they laboured for one year and were
then sent to dpts. Chang Hui ()deposes, I would have been beaten to death if on the
expiration of the eight years I had declined to enter into a fresh one for a period of six years."
The depositions of Lin A-hsiu (and 3 others state that after the expiration of the
eight years, they laboured for another period of six years and were then sent to dpts. The
depositions of Chang Chao (and 12 others state that on the completion of the contract a
ceclula was withheld, ancl that they were handed over to dpts by the officials. The depositions
of Hsu Chien-fa (and 2 others state that on the expiration of the eight years they
worked in brick-kilns for four and a half years, after which they were seized by the officials and
handed over to dpts. Huang A-mu (deposes, on the expiration of the eight years,
I worked for another term of six years, after which, owing to my not possessing a cedula, I was
seized by tlie officials and handed over to a dpt." Liang A-slieng (deposes, on
the expiration of the eiglit years, I worked for another period of three years. I then obtained
a cedula and laboured as a charcoal burner during one year, after which I was placed in a dpt
where I worked four years without wages.Li Ho (deposes, after the expiration of
the eight years, I worked in various ways during four years. I then was sent to a dpt."
Lin A-i (deposes, after the completion of the contract I worked for another period of
six months. I then was sent to a dpt." Lin Yiieh (deposes, on the completion of the
eight years, I worked in various ways during seven years, after whicli I was sent to a dpt."
Ts'ai Hsia (deposes, after the expiration of the eight years, as my legs were diseased, I
was sent to a dpt." Huang shih (deposes, on tlie expiration of the eight years, I
worked for two other terms, the first of two years, the second of four years, after which I was sent
to a dpt." Wang Fu (deposes, after tlie expiration of the eight years, I worked for
another period of five years, after which. I was sent to a dpt." Lu A-lising (deposes,
after tlie expiration of the eight years I received from my master a ceclula but at the end of
the 12 months I was not allowed to renew it, and was sent to a dpt. Ch'n A-ch'ing
(deposes, on the expiration of the eight years, my master asked me to renew the
contract. As I declined my feet were chained for two nights, and I was sent to a dpt." Ch'n
A-hung (deposes, after the expiration of the eight years, I worked for another term of
three months. My master still desired me to remain in his service, and on my refusing lie
struck me on the back with a stick, and dealt me blows with, bricks, and sent me to a dpt."
Lo A-yii (deposes, on the expiration of the eight years, I entered into another
contract for three years. I then was sent to a dpt where I worked during 10 years." Chn
Wan-shng (deposes, after the completion of my contract, I worked for 'another
term of 11 years, I then was sent to a dpt." Ch'n Yu (deposes, on the expiration
of the contract, my employers desired me to enter into a new engagement for six years, and
on my refusing, attached irons to my feet, and compelled me to labour." The depositions of
Wu Yu-shng ()and 2 others state that they were originally sold to a dpt, and after


the expiration of the eight years, they entered into new agreements. Ch'en Kou (
deposes, men who had completed their contracts were not allowed to go away. If they
persisted in refusing to renew tlieir engagements, tliey were sent to the dpt." Lii A-wu
(deposes, after the expiration of the contract, on my applying to my master for a'
cedula, lie desired the police to conduct me to jail. Wu A-hou (deposes, after the
expiration of the eight years, I laboured on Government work, without wages, during five
years." The depositions of Ch'en A-'liung ( |)ancl 3 others state that on the eve of
the expiration of the contract they were chastised with increased severity ancl that, of the gang of
4034 were placed in irons ancl sent to the dpt. The depositions of ClVn A-'heng ( |
and 3 others state that a few days before the completion of their contracts they were placed in
chains and severely flogged, and that tliey were told that if they consented to renew their
engagements they would be released, ancl that they would be sent to the dpt if tliey declined
they add that, when being escorted there, two were tied together, as is practised in the case of
robbers, and that they were not permitted to remove tlieir clothing from the plantation. Hu
A-ssu (deposes, at present in the prison in this plantation a man is confined whose
contract is on the eve of expiration. He is forced to labour with both feet chained."
XXI.
Can he choose between staying in and leaving Cuba?
The petition of Jn Shih-chn (and 2 others states, "we were here sold to
plantations, where we suffered from hunger and cruelty during eiglit years. As .we were forced
to purchase additional supplies of food and clothing at the plantation shop, we saved nothing,
ancl at the end of the contract term, when we thought that we would be able to procure other
and better remunerated employment, so as to be able in. a few years to amass sufficient for a
passage home, our employer delivered us to the dpt, whence on the following day we were
sent out to labour in chains, on the roads, receiving no wages, and in every way treated like
criminals of the jail. Afterwards we were forced to sign fresh contracts, and to enter tlie service
of planters, of the wages paid by whom out of $ 15 the official retained $ 10whilst out of $ 30
tliey handed to us only $6; and when these fresh engagements were terminated we again were
handed to the dpts. In these we passed several months, after which contracts were again
imposed upon us, so that by means of these successive engagements, not one day of freedom
was accorded to us." The petition of Huang Erh (and 5 others states, last year in the
3rd moon our contracts expired, but still we have been kept at work up to this date. More
than a year has thus already elapsed and the superintendent (of the Guanabacoa Railway Co.)
declares that he desires us to enter into other contracts for four years. The petition of Liang
A-te (declares, "on the completion of my contract term I imagined that I could seek
employment elsewhere, but my master chained me and flogged me and forced me to engage
myself for six years." The petition of Yii A-hsia (declares, I was sold to a railway
company with an engagement for eight years, but though that term expired seven years ago, no
4


(44)
ceclula lias as yet been issued. I sometimes want to take a walk outside, but I cannot through dread
of my master knowing of it, and of his flogging, chaining and ill-treating me. The petition of
Liu A-shou (and 4 others declares, "after we had completed our eight years, our master
refused to issue cedulas, and desired us to work six more years. If we refused we were beaten
and chained. Those who have no money to hire a padrino, who wish to go to other places of
service, are exposed to be arrested by the guards, and sent to the dpt/' The petition of Chu
Chi-lisiin (and jo others declares, to procure from the officials a Letter of Domicile
and a cedula an outlay of $ 50 or $ 60 and baptism and adoption by a foreigner were indis-
pensable, so that it was useless for a poor man to endeavour to obtain these documents. The
petition of Li Ying-sung (declares, on the termination of the agreement I was refused
the necessary papers, and my master was even wrathful at my applying for them. I was
delivered to the officials, who would not permit me to speak, and was confined in prison for six
years, labouring but receiving no wages, a helpless victim of cruelty." The petition of Yeh
Fu-chun (and 52 others declares, when tlie completion of the eight years term was.
approaching, every one was consoled at tlie prospect of speedy liberty, of saving money, and
going back to China, but our employer was so heartless as to insist on our binding ourselves for
other six years, sending those who refused to the dpt, where they had to labour on the roads the
whole day, with chained feet, receiving no wages, and not having enougli to eat, whilst the
severity of the toil was augmented by the burning sun. The petition of Ho A-ying (
declares, I purchased my liberty in the 6th year of T'ungchih, but in the 9th year I lost my
cedula, and up to this time I have been kept in jail working for the benefit of others. There
is no one to whom I can appeal." The petition of Chang Kuan (declares, after we
have toiled for so many years we ought indeed to be set free, but instead we are sent to the
dpt, where we are forced to work without wages." The petition of Chang Mng (
states, having- no papers I was seized by the guards and placed in the prison. I was employed
in it as a sweeper, receiving neither wages nor clothes, so that imprisonment like a criminal
is the termination of my seventeen years' service." The petition of Chang Sliili-lien (
declares, I was sold to a market-garclener, under whom I worked during eight years. At their
close my master desired me to stay other four years, after which lie sent me to tlie dpt..
I have now been in it five years, employed on municipal work. I am an old man and should
like to procure a document permitting me to go out and beg. I cannot obtain one, and I pray
that you will aid me in the matter." The petition of Yiian Ai-shan (declares, at
the close of the eight years I was forced to sign another engagement for two years. My contract
was detained by the overseer, and he never returned it. I subsequently was seized by foreign
guards, and I have now been over three years in the dpt. We liave to endure endless
hardships. I am now sixty-six years old, and I beg that you will procure me a mendicant's
pass, so that I may go out and beg for food. The change would revive me.
Again the 37th clause of the Kegulations published in Cuba, and dated September 1872,,
prescribes that all immigrants arrived after the 15th February 1861who shall be found
employed, without being in due form contracted, on a plantation or in an industrial or commercial
establishment or private residence, shall be conducted to the chief town of the jurisdiction.
These extracts are evidences of the extent to which a Chinese, whether he desires to go away or


\/
45
/\
remain, is deprived of freedom of choice, for as is remarked in the petition of Lin Chin (
and 16 others, the foreign authorities consider tlie Chinese as a source of wealtli for themselves.
To whom then can we apply for redress
XXII.
If he elects to stay, what follows
The ist clause of tlie Regulations, dated September 1872, prescribes that, every Chinese
immigrant arrived after the 15th February 1861is compelled to leave the island on completion
of his contract, or should he desire to remain, to re-contract himself in the capacity of
immigrant labourer or workman, according to the provisions of Article "VII. of the Royal Decree
'of 1860and of Articles 51 and 52 of the Instructions of 1868and of tlie Decree of 18th
October 1871. As, however, the smallness of thevagesaggravated by tlie necessity of
purchasing food and clothing in addition to those supplied on the place of service,
renders it impossible to lay by sufficient for the cost of passage, and as the latter is not
supplied by the employers, the rules now in force retain on the island under the control of
the dpts, all Chinese, ancl those who stay cannot be regarded as following a course suggested
by free election. Thus the petition of Tseng A-shih ( |remarks, I pray you
to aid me in escaping from a life-time slavery, by procuring for me my freedman's papers,
a boon for which I shall ever be grateful. Liang A-te (observes in his
petition, my hope is to be rescued by you, so as to find it in my power to obtain a situation
in another locality, where in two or three years I may save sufficient for the expenses of my
return." Again, the depositions of Ch'en T'ung (and 1 other state that tliey were
forced to pay monthly $ 3 to foreigners wlio acted as their godfathers or padrinos, ancl that pass-
ports for a return home were refused, to them by the officials. Hu A-jn (deposes,
though I held a certificate of completion of service, issued by my master, it was necessary to in
person hand to the officials three ounces ($51) when applying for a cedula." The depositions
of Wen Ch'ang-t'ai ()and 6 others also declare that for their cedulas they each
expended $51. The depositions of Wu Yiieh (and 1 other declare that they eacli expncled
$ 8 in the purchase of ceclulas. The depositions of Hsii Shu ()and 1 other declare that
they each expended $ 102 in the- purchase of ceclulas. Fng A-hsiu deposes,
I purchased a cedula from the secretary of tlie officials for $ 59^-." Chou Jun-feng ( )
deposes, I paid $ 17 for my cedula altliougli on it was distinctly noted that it was issued
"gratis." The depositions of Wang Cheng-fu (and 2 others declare, that they
each, purchased their ceclulas for $ 100. The depositions of Ts'ui Tng-li.n ()
and 2 others declare that they each expended $ 68 in the purchase of a ceclula. Kuan
A-neng ( g| g) deposes, Iin the first instance, purchased my cedula for $ 100,
ancl besides annually for its renewal I have to pay $ 1 or $ 2 or $ 5 or $ 10."
Fan Yo-heng (deposes, I expended $90 in the purchase of a cedula/ Li Shun#


(46 )
(deposes, I expended $ 50 in the purchase of a ceclula. Hsli A-fa (deposes,.
a cedula being refused on the completion of my contract term I had to expend $ 300 in order
to obtain its issue by the authorities. Cli'en A-fa (deposes, I expended $20 in
the purchase of a cedula. Wu A-ssu (deposes, I expended $255 in purchasing
a cedula from the officials. Chiang A-cli'i (deposes, after the expiration of the
contract term, I worked for another period of five years. I then gave the officials $ 85but did
not even by this outlay, succeed in purchasing a ceclula." Liu A-chi (deposes, I
had to expend $36 for the renewal of my cedula although properly the fee is only $0.50.
Huang Te (deposes, on applying to the officials for a cedula, I was seized and placed in
a dpt." Liang A-ying (deposes I expended $ 51 in the purchase of a cedula
from the officials, but after having worked independently for two years, the officials of another
locality, after inspecting it, took it away on the plea that it had not been issued under their
jurisdiction. Wan Ch'ang-hsiu (deposes, I expended $51 in the purchase of a
cedula, but it was torn up by the officials of another locality and I was sent to a dpt." Wu
Wn-fan (and 5 others depose that they were deprived of their cedulas by the
authorities and were placed in the dpts. Wu A-fu ()deposes, my cedula was
burnt, and I. was removed to a dpt." Li A-tou ( deposes, I expended $ 51 in
a purchasing a cedula, and after working independently during eight years, the authorities
declared that the document was fictitioustook it away and arrested me. Li A-'hung
(deposes, I expended $ 135 in purchasing a cedula, but afterwards, on the plea that
it was fictitious, I was arrested and placed in a dpt." Li Hsi-pao ()deposes, after
the expiration of the contract term, I worked for another period of six years at its close by an
outlay of $ 68 I bought a ceclula. The functionary who sold it to me assured me that I could
make use of it in any locality, but the guards of the place where I went declared that it was
not in order, and sent me to a dpt." Lin A-lung (deposes, my ceclula having
been stolen, I was arrested and taken to prison. Tcan A-hsing (deposes, as I lost
my cedula during certain disturbances caused by the insurgents, I was arrested and placed in a
dpt." Ch'n A-kuei (deposes, having lost my cedula I was placed in a dpt."
Wang Tz (deposes, my cedula having been stolen I reported the fact at the dpt and
was detained there." Kuo Chi-hsiu (deposes, one Sunday, I went out without
carrying my cedula on my person, and was arrested and placed in a dpt." Liang Lien ()
deposes, certain guards whom I met tore up my cedula but did not arrest me."
XXIII.
If he elects to leave, what follows
The 2nd clause of the Regulations of September 1872 is to the following effect: "The
immigrant who, on completion of his contract, desires to leave the island shall be removed to
the dpt of the chief town of the jurisdiction, so that his embarkation within two months
may be effected as laid down in Article VII. of the Royal Decree of 1860and in Article 54 of


(47 )
the Instructions of 1868, and if at the close of this term, he has not prepared the sum required
for the cost of passage, or if though possessing sufficient funds, he has not taken his departure,
he shall be liable to be re-contracted, so that the Municipalities may be spared the outlay
involved by a large assemblage in the dpt of such immigrants, and so that other evils arising
from such, assemblages, together with those resulting from the withdrawal from active labour
of a large number of Chinese, may be avoided." The whole purport of this rule certainly
indicates a desire rather to enforce new contracts, than to facilitate departures. The 25th clause
of the Regulations of May 1873 again is to this effect Chinese who have completed their
original and subsequent contracts, ancl who desire to quit the island, shall receive passes to
enable them to proceed to Havana in order to procure passports in the manner prescribed in
the Orders of the Colonial Goverment of the 13th July 1872and shall deliver their original
contracts and tlie certificates of completion to the Central Commission. Those residing in
Havana shall be conducted by tlieir employers before the Central Commission, to which at the
same time the above specified documents must be delivered. Failing their production or the
guarantee spoken of in the said order the passport shall be refused," ancl the order quoted
prescribes that the guarantee must be satisfactory to the Central Commission. All these forma-
litiesthe inspection of contracts and certificates of completion, or procuring guarantees that
are liable to rejection, and the obtaining of passes and passports, are obstacles causing many-
difficulties to Cliinese who may desire to leave. Thus the petition of Wu Chin-ch'eng (
and 123 others declares, it constantly happens that men who, having completed their time,
apply for a passport, not only lose the money which they have paid to tlie person to whom they
have confided the application, but also fail to recover the cedulas which had to be delivered
with it. Tseng Lin (also deposes, I had sufficient money for a passage home, and
wished to return, but my master would not furnish me with a certificate of completion,
and desired me to enter into a new engagement," ancl T'ang Chien (declares that a
passport may cost from $ 70 to $ 200.
XXIY.

do men elect to leave or to stay, as a rule?
As the majority of the Chinese have been brought to Cuba against their will, and as the
sufferings endured during the eight years of service result in the deaths of so large a proportion,
it may be assumed that the survivors long to escape from a spot "which has been to them so
perilous but the difficulties impeding their departurethe withholding of the certificates of
completion by employers, the compulsory renewal of contract and the detention in dpts~~prove
insuperable. Thus Lu A-hsing (deposes, since my contract term was completed I
have still been a victim of wrong. My discontent is great, and I desire to depart, it matters
not where. Any locality is better than this island. The injustice has become unendurable and
death is preferable." The depositions of Liang A-hsin (and 2 others declare, that
their only desire is to be away from Cuba. Chou A-tung ()deposes, I can only implore


(48 )
that I may be rescued out of this island. I will pay with my life for sucli a boon. Yiin Lin-
shan (deposes, my only desire has been to leave, but the frauds to which I have been
subjected have prevented my laying by the passage money, whilst besides the fact of a passport
costing more than $ 100 is an obstacle rendering departure impossible." Hsieh A-jui ()
and i other depose, even if my confinement in the dpt ceased, and I were permitted to engage
in profitable employment, I would go away. I would not remain here." T'ang Yii (
deposes, even if I could acquire wealth here I would not remain.
XXV.
The first period ended, do those who elect to stay receive higher pay and enter
into new contracts on more favourable conditions
In the Decree of the Colonial Government of December 1871 it is provided that all
Chineseother than those domicilednot employed on estates, or in commercial establishments
or in private residences, are immediately to be arrested ancl confined in the dpts that all
Chinese so employed, but not formally re-contracted are to remain under the temporary guardian-
ship of the individuals in whose service they may be, until the Government can ascertain
whether they are deserters or whether they have been guilty only of the fault of neglect to
re-contract themselves in a legal manner that a contract is to be entered into between their
guardians and such Chinese thus placed under them to the effect that monthly wages of $ 12 are
to be paid, $4 of which are to be handed to the workmen and $ 8 to be deposited in the hands
of tlie Government, and that Chinese who, wliilst the census is being carried out, complete their
first contracts, are to have the option of remaining under the guardianship of their masters
or of entering the nearest dpt and that during the same period no papers of any class
whatsoever are to be issued to Chinese, save passes for those serving under original contracts,
whom their masters may desire to transfer from one locality to another. Again, the 14th
article of the Regulations of May 1873 is to the following effect : Chinese arrived after the
15th February 1861who, having completed any contract, are either unwilling or unable
to procure its renewal, shall be delivered by tlieir employers to the local authorities, and
tlie expired contracts and ceclulas must be handed in at the same time." The expression
those who elect to stay is thus liardly applicable to the class in question. The petition of
Lin A-yu (also states, on the completion of the contract term not only was the
liberty to which. I ancl the others42 in numberwere entitled withheld, but we were also
placed in irons and treated as criminals." The petition of Lai Shng (and 9 others
declares, on the contracts we have signed in Chinese it is plainly stated that we are engaged
for eight years, ancl that after having completed our time, we shall be free either to work for
our own account, or to return to China, but now when our terms of service are finislied, liberty
is withheld and we have no means of obtaining it. The petition of Tseng A-shih (
declares, when my eight years were completed, my employer placed me in irons in order to
coerce me into continuing labour, and he still not only withholds my freedom, but also declines


(49)
to augment my wages, and I am forced for the moment to consent to his demands in order to
be released from my fetters. Shn A-ts'ai (deposes, on the completion of the eight
years my master forced me to remain in his service for other four years but did not increase my
wages." Ch'en Te-lin ()deposes, on the expiration of my eight years I made a fresh
contract with my master for two years at monthly wages of $ 6but lie only paid me $ 4. Ch'en
A-chi (deposes, after the expiration of the eight years I was forced to work for two
additional months, and I Avas only released on payment of $ 17. Ch'n I (deposes,
when our contracts expired nine months' wages were due to us, and we applied to the new
master for payment. Upon this, lie directed us to continue our labour and to await the return
of our former employer. We16 in allthen inquired what wages would be issued to us,
and were tolcl that we should receive only the former rate of $ 4. We replied that after our
original engagement had been completed a higher rate ought to be conceded, and that if it were
not granted we should prefer to be delivered over to the authorities. The administrator then
declared that our first contracts had not yet expired, and that it mattered not whether
willingly or reluctantly we must work on the old conditions and when we persisted in our
refusal the overseer brought cords and chains, and stood round us, as if intending to place us in
fetters. Upon this one of our number conversant with Spanish, urged upon the administrator
that our contracts had really expired, and that we refused to work on the former terms. An
overseer then struck me with a Avliip-hanclle inflicting an open wound on my head. Two of
my companions succeeded in escaping observation, and reporting the occurrence to the
authorities. The latter then sent for us and the administrator and a consultation took place
between the latter and the officials which ensued in ten being sent back to the plantation. I
and five others who refused to return were sent to the Colon dpt." Wn Ch'ang-t'ai (
deposes, when my contract expired I was locked up by my employer and compelled by him to
enter into a fresh contract. P'ang A-tung (deposes, after the expiration of the
eight years, if I had refused to enter into a fresh contract I would have been flogged and
chained." 'Huang Ch'uan-lisi (deposes, though I had been a source of profit to my
master,he hiring me out for $ 25 pei^nonth, and .paying me only $ 3 or $4oil completion
of the contract term he handed me to a Government official. The latter told me that if I
could not pay $51 for a cedula, he would contract me to another employer, and that I must
pay him $4 of my earnings." Lu Shng-pao (deposes, after the expiration of the
eight years, my employer kept me in chains during six months, {incl then handed me to
a dpt, without delivering my original contracts. The officials alleged that I was a
deserter, and I was beaten so severely that my ankle was broken. As the surgeon neglected
me and I was starved in the hospital, the injury became incurable and I was forced
to become a beggar, and now even my beggar's pass has been taken away by the guards,
and I sleep in the street." Ch'en A-shun ( Jdeposes, after the expiration of
the eight years, I worked for another term of seven years, and at their close my
cedula was detained by my master who declined to deliver it unless paid $ 68. Chfen Hsiang
()deposes, my cedula was forcibly taken away by iny second employer. I procured
another, of which I was also deprived by certain officials, who exacted money, and as I was
unable to satisfy this demand I was placed in a dpt and forced to work without wages.


Ch'n A-ho ()deposes, when on the expiration of the eight years a new contract is
entered into and wages are increased to the extent of a few dollars, the fact of payment being
made in the paper currency renders the augmentation altogether nominal. Tseng A-shih
(deposes, I and 39 others whose contracts had expired were not sent to a dpt, but
our master forced us to work in chains, and inflicted on us daily a number of blows, equal to
the number of dollars paid us monthly as wages." Lo A-chi (deposes, on the
expiration of the eight years I was forced to enter into a contract for another term of four years,
an increase of wages of $ 4 being accorded to me. I afterwards worked for an additional period of
three years." Lin Ho-clmang ()deposes, oil the expiration of the eiglit years I was
forced to enter into a new engagement for six years at monthly wages of $ 15. At their close
I was handed to a dpt. Chn Man (deposes, on the'expiration of the eiglit years
I was forced to enter into a new engagement for four years at monthly wages of $ 11. At their
close I was handed to a dpt, where I had to work without wages." Wang Shui-t'ou
(deposes, after tlie expiration of the eight years, I worked for another period of six
years at monthly wages of $ 8. I then was sent to a dpt, where I laboured during six years
without wages." Ch'en Ting-hsien (deposes, on the expiration of the contract term
I was handed by my employer to the officials. They compelled me to enter into another
engagement for two years at monthly wages of $6. I subsequently obtained a cedula, but the
year before last, having no money for its renewal, I was arrested and placed in a dpt.
XXVI. ,
What means are provided for the re-patriation, or departure, of those who
desire to leave cuba ?
By the 9th clause of the Emigration Convention of the 5 th year of T'ungchih, the term
for which engagements can be entered into is limited to five years, and on their completion the
employer is bound to furnish the sum specified in the contract for tlie cost of passage back to
China. The clause also provides that in the event of the immigrant electing to remain and of
his being permitted to do so by tlie authorities, he shall, if he re-engages with the same employer,
receive only half the amount prescribed as cost of passage, the employer however to again bind
himself in the new contract to, at the close of tlie second term of five years, provide the entire
sum specified on the other hand if the Chinese does not again enter the same service, the
employer has to at once deliver to him the amount in question. On the immigrant is also
conferred the right of demanding the same concession, in the event of his being incapacitated by
sickness, before the close of the contract term, and of, if it be refused, seeking redress from the
authorities. Among the forms of contract inspected only one is framed in accordance with,
these provisions. Its 2nd clause defines five years as the period of the contract the 6tli states
that if at tlieir completion the immigrant desires to return, he sliall receive $ 75 for the cost of
passage the 7th, that if a second contract is entered into with, the same employer, the immigrant
shall at the end of the first receive $ 35.50, and on the termination of the second, the entire


(5i )
amount of $ 75 ; and the 8th, that even if on arrival the immigrant is incapacitated by sickness,
the cost of a return passage shall be at once supplied to him. This form of contract is however
blank, whilst the others which have been used contain clauses at variance with the Emigration
Convention.
The 18th clause of tlie Spanish Royal Decree of 1860 is to tlie following effect : Two
months after the termination of his engagement, the Chinese must either have renewed his
contract, or have quitted the island this provision becomes successively applicable to him on
the completion of each engagement into which he enters, and in the event of his not fulfilling
it, he shall be employed on public works, until after deducting the cost of maintenance the sum
accumulated to liis credit is sufficient to defray the cost of passage to the locality which he may
select, or which, if lie fails to do so, tlie Captain General may designate for liim. The 55 th
clause of the Instructions of 1868 provides that Chinese desirous of quitting the island but not
possessing the necessary funds, shall, if after working one year for Government the sum to their
credit is insufficient, be sent away at the cost of the dpt and the Royal Decree of 1871 (note
by the translatorordering the expulsion of all classes of Chinese not working under contract)
directs, that the deportation of vagabonds and paupers is to be effected at the cost of Goyern-
ment. These various clauses eyincing a certain consideration for the interests of the Chinese, are
however but empty words. In practice, the Chinese, deprived of all free choice, is forced either
by his master or the dpt to sign a fresh contract, and receives no wages for the labour he
performs during the interval which, in the latter case, he passes in that establishment. The
actual gains, too, of those whose new engagements are effected by the dpts, prove to be insigni-
ficant, whilst it is as little to be hoped that their functionaries will burden themselves with the
expense of sending Chinese home, as it is that the latter can find it in tlieir power to take
counsel with the Captain General as to the destination most suitable for their interests.
Hsien Tso-pang ()and 13 others state in their petition, formerly Coolies arrived
from Canton ancl Fukien with contracts for only five years, but of these they were deprived
here ( Havana ) in the barracoons, whilst those who have embarked at Macao have all been
contracted for eight years, a rule the origin of which is unknown to us. Passports of departure
must be bought, the prices exacted being in proportion to the supposed affluence of the
applicant, varying from tens to hundreds of dollars. How then can even a few hope for a return ,
home The petition of-Lin Chin (and 16 others declares, when the time has expired
and the cedula is asked for, the master defers giving it day after day, and at last by an arrange-
ment with the officials, our countryman is seized and coerced to sell himself again for eight
years." Wu Shng (states in liis petition, on the completion of the eight years I was
delivered over to the officials. By them I was sent into the mountains to aid in the execution
of certain Government works, quarrying stones, &c.&c.and whilst thus engaged my arm was
broken. No compassion however is displayed towards me, and no steps are [taken for my
relief, and I know not where I can apply even for food." The petition of Wu Chin-ch'eng
( M )and of 124 others states, we have heard that men who have been permitted to leave
have been starved to death during the passsage, or are taken to other places and again sold."
The petition of Kao Lao-hsiu ()and 16 others states, some who have been able to think
of a return home, through, their ignorance of the movements of vessels expend all their earnings


\)/
2
5
/V
whilst waiting ancl thus lose their opportunity, or, if known to possess a little money, they are
murdered and robbed.
XXVII.
Are there Chinese in Havana and other Cuban cities To what classes do they
belong What is their condition and how are they treated What are
their views of life in cuba
Chinese who on their arrival have been disposed of for service in Havana and other Cuban
cities, are employed in sugar warehouses, and in cigar, shoe, hat, iron, charcoal, bakers',
confectionersstone-cutters' and carpenters' shops, ancl in bricklayers' ancl washing establish-
ments, in railways ancl gas works, and as municipal scavengers, in brick-kilns or on board
cargo-boats, and as domestics ancl cooks. There are some, also, who having obtained Letters of
Domicile, have engaged in atrade of small proportions. Of all these the great majority are,
according to their own statements, subjected to wrong. Besides, enquiry has shown that, in tlie
various cities, those who have been delivered to the dpts ancl who thus detained undergo
extremer hardships, form the most numerous class. These are constantly seen on tlie highways
working in gangs like convicts, digging, or carrying stones, and watched by guards who goad
them on with the whip ancl the rod.
The following extracts from depositions will indicate the treatment accorded in the various
cities. Li A-cliiu ()deposes, "after holding a ceclula during six years it was taken away
by the officials, and I was forced to labour on Government works." Yao A-ya (
deposes, my ceclula was taken away by the officials, ancl I was placed in the Colon dpt/'
Wn Ch'ang-t'ai ()deposes, seven years ago Chinese of every class, those who had
completed their contracts and those who had not, were forced to labour in the construction of
the church which stands in front of this hotel (at Sagua). A white man was in charge of every
four Chinese, ancl the slightest slowness on tlie part of the latter was punished by blows. I
myself saw within a very brief space of time, seven men commit suicide by jumping into wells,
and besides, the voluntary deaths by hanging ancl the deaths from violence were exceedingly
numerous." Ch'en A-chen ()deposes, I was robbed of my cedula, and was in conse-
quence placed in the dpt." Ch'n Shui (deposes, I have to pay yearly an ounce for
"the renewal.Ho A-erh.(deposes, I had held a cedula during seven years, when
certain disturbances having taken place, I quitted the town to convey information to the
Government officials, and subsequently falling sick lost my ceclula, and was confined, in a dpt."
Li Cho (deposes, I was hired out to labour by the authorities of the place, and if my
wages amount to $20I have at least to hand to them the half." Lo A-ch'ang (
deposes, owing to the wages being small I left a shop in Avhich I had been employed in free
service. The owner, in revenge, induced the police to deprive me of my ceclula, ancl to confine
me and force me to labour in the dpt." Ch'n A-fu (deposes, having been deprived
of the use of one arm through ail accident caused by machinery, I was expelled from the dpt


(53 )
and have now been a beggar during more than ten years." Ts'ai A-lu (deposes,
whilst in the dpt my legs became diseased. I was in consequence expelled from it and forced
to beg." Liang A-po (deposes, in the Colon dpt I have seen two men beaten for
breaking wind." Ch'en A-shun (deposes, the police on discovering a Chinese without
a cedula demand a bribe of $ 4. Sometimes, too, in order to extort money tliey seize the cedulas,
and if it is refused, tear them up and deliver the holder to the officials. Yang Chin (
deposes, seeing some Chinese and negroes fighting, I endeavoured to put a stop to the quarrel.
The police arrested me as well as the others, took away my watch, money and cedula, and
confined me in the stocks. I now serve as cook in this dpt." Pei A-pao ()deposes,
on my losing my cedula the local officials sent for me, and gave me certain work to execute,
promising wages at the rate of $ 17 monthlybut though I laboured for an entire year they paid
me nothing. Li Yen-ch'un ()deposes, men arrested for not possessing cedulas can
procure release by a payment to the police, but the release is soon followed by a fresh seizure.
Chang Erli (deposes, ceclulas can always be bought here, the price varying from $ 50 to
$ 200. If the applicant is known to possess any money, the sum asked is invariably greater.
The functionaries of the dpt detain any cedulas which Chinese may hold and after their
death, sell tliem. Chuang A-i (deposes, after the completion of my contract I kept
during seven years a shop for the sale of meat. I afterwards opened one for the sale of
miscellaneous articles. Of my four assistants one was wounded by a blow from a knife and
died. Subsequently a white soldier entered my shop and endeavoured to remove a number
of articles without payment, and on my resisting, beat me with a stick, and when my
assistants endeavoured to interfere, stabbed one in the left ribs and another on the head.
The first has been sent to the hospital, but the wounds of the other may be examined. My
own arms, too, have been so injured that I cannot move them with, any freedom. The people
here declare that the killing of a Chinese is no more than the killing of a dog. I have
complained to the officials in regard to the last assault, but though six days have elapsed, we
have not been sent for to give evidence. Yang A-t'ien (deposes, I came to Cuba in
a ship from California, on board of which I was employed, and losses by gambling compelling
me to remain, I was seized and placed in the dpt of this city (Colon). I have now been here
four months, receiving no wages and constantly beaten. Chinese are certainly treated as if
they were fowls or dogs." The petition of Wu Chin-ch'eng (and 123 others states,
when four or five Chinese converse together in the street, a policeman will accuse them of
conspiracy, and if they assemble four or five in a house, shutting the door, they will be charged
with gambling, and unless we at once offer money we are taken to jail. We may be left there
two or three years without being tried and we may petition four or five times without any reply
being youclisafed. On each occasion of petitioning we must request a friend to engage an
advocate for our protection and after the payment to him of a certain sum of money our
statement is forwarded. But if we do not afterwards fulfil tlie wishes of the 0cial addressed
(give the sum demanded) we are never released."


4
5
____
XXVIII.
Are there Chinese in the country To what classes do they belong What is
their condition, and what do they say about it?
Chinese are disposed of, but not in large numbers, to tobacco and coffee estates, to farms
and market gardens. The great majority however are employed on sugar plantations, ancl it is
there that the greatest wrongs are inflicted upon them, wrongs far graver than those endured in
the cities.
The following extracts will indicate the condition of those working in the country districts.
Ch'en T'ung (deposes, on all plantations there are jails, in the smallest of which. 12
or 15 can be confined." Ch'ii Tan-k'o (deposes, in the day-time we work in irons,
and at night are confined in the stocks. On the plantation there are three cells, one of iron
and two of wood. In the former 30 individuals are constantly placed, and in the others several
tens are as often detained." Ch'en Chin (deposes, for reporting myself sick, I
received 200 blows on the back, wliicli became lacerated. I was forced to work as usual on the
same day and at night the wounds were rubbed with salt and lime-juice." Li Yiin (
deposes, I have seen four men shot dead on the plantations. Huang Ch'ao-ping ()
deposes, on a plantation I had to work in irons during three years, and I never knew why this
chastisement was inflicted. Liang Tao-'han (deposes, on the cane fields there
are ground fleas which, penetrate and lay eggs under the skin, and eat and corrupt the flesh,
and no cure is possible and as no shoes are furnishedwe are constantly unable to move our
feet." Ko Clii (deposes, on the expiration of the eight years, I worked for another
term of two years. My savings out of my wages I hacl entrusted to my master, and as he joined
the insurgents, I lost all I had laid by. Ch'en Kou (deposes, I had saved by self-
denying economy $ 100. These were stolen from me. The thief was discovered, but he
divided with the administrator what lie had taken. Wu A-hsiang (deposes, I
was sold to a plantation belonging to one of the local officials, who for six months' service only
paid me two monthswages, and forced us to catch squirrels for food in order to save the cost
of dried beef. Wen A-neng (deposes, there were men confined in the jail of
the plantation, but they were removed in anticipation of the visit of tlie Commission. Chang
Hui (deposes, on the plantation there is at present a man who was beaten two
days ago. He is now locked up so that he may not be seen by the Commission, as it is feared
that he may be interrogated. Tsfai Hsi (deposes, Passing the gates of a plantation,
I was seized by white men, who robbed me of Avliat I had with me, and of my cedula. I
complained to the officials, ancl the result was that I was confined in the Cardenas dpt."
Ch'n -yu (deposes, passing a plantation, I was seized by certain of the overseers,
who robbed me of my cedula. Cli'en A-'ho (deposes, I gave my cedula to the
head of tlie gang for renewal, but lie ran away and took it with him, and I was seized and
placed in a dpt. The ti-pao (capitan de partido) would sell me another cedula, but I do not
possess the necessary funds." Ho A-knan ()deposes, I handed my cedula to my
master for safe custody, and going out without it, was arrested. I was then forced to work in


\/
5
5
/---X
the repairs of drains, and in all, had to labour ten years without wages. The petition of Tang
Lien-sling (ancl 106 others states, last year, for the work of the Trocha, a locality
most unliealthy and close to the insurgent districts, the Government dispatched xVth negroes
and ^tlis Chinese. Of the latter a third perished, and those who survived, instead of receiving
on their return the freedmen's papers which had been promised to tliem, are now confined in
the various dpts. It is because ocials, planters and other men of influence, think only of
using us for their own ends to augment their wealth, that they are thus so devoid of scruples
and so deficient in honour, and it is useless to protest against these violations of good faith."
Liu A-sung (deposes, at the Troclaa a shop was opened by a small official whose
opium and miscellaneous articles could be purchased. These were sold on credit, payment
being secured by deduction from the wages." Chang A-wen ()deposes, at the
Troclia all eatables were extremely clear. A cup of good water cost half a dollar, so that it was
impossible to save money. The climate was very bad, and the labour very hard." Liu A-lien
(and 3 others depose, when being conducted to the Trocha we were tied together each
in turn, and thus transported in the railway." Li A-yao ()and 127 others depose tliat
they, when proceeding to the Troclia, were promised cedulas by the officials, ancl that not only
is this pledge disregarded, but tliey are sent to tlie Havana dpt, and forced to perform unpaid
labour.
XXIX.
Are there Chinese in the prisons For what crimes How punished How treated
The jails to be found in the Cuban cities are substantially constructed, lofty, clean, and
-cool, contrasting most favourably with the low, damp and hot chambers of the dpts, and the
filthy and close quarters allotted to Chinese on the plantations. The prisoners, too, excluding
those in the chain-gang who work on the roads, and who suffer like the similar class in the
dpts, are burdened with no labour heavier than the making of cigarettes, and are but lightly
chastised so that the treatment accorded to the criminals may be regarded as considerate.
The following extracts from depositions supply information in regard to the points referred
to in the query. Wang A-fu (deposes, I left my master's service after working for
him during fourteen years. He upon this accused me of deserting and I was arrested and
sentenced to two years' imprisonment. Liang Kuei-cliung (deposes, "on one occasion,
I went out on horseback, neglecting to take with, me my ceclula, ancl was placed in prison by a
guard whom I met, and who demanded tlie production of my papers." Li Hsiang (
deposes, I was arrested and imprisoned but I ani ignorant of the cause.Wu A-chao (
deposes, my master having joined the insurgents, I proceeded to the authorities in order to
report the occurrence, and was imprisoned because I dicl not possess a cedula." Wu Ch'ieli ()
deposes, I was imprisoned on a false charge of theft, and though four months have since elapsed
I have not been examined by any official. Tang A-lung (deposes, after being
"confined for six months in a jail, in which I was placed by the official of another locality,


his freedom. In the meantime my confinement continues, ancl my money and other property
cannot even b removed from my master's premises." Lo Kuan-hsiu ()deposes, the
administrator dealt me a blow with a knife between the thumb and forefinger, and at tlie same
time wounded the head of A Kuo ( |J5), a native of Yangkiang ().Our employer
reported the occurrence to the official, and we ancl tlie administrator were all placed in jail.
The latter was released on the following day, but our imprisonment still continues." Wu Yeli-
ch'eng (deposes, -"four negroes in league with certain recently arrived Chinese killed
tlie new administrator. By an outlay of money on the part of our employer, the participation
of the negroes was not mentioned, and the crime was imputed to usten in allwhose contracts
were on the eve of expiration, and we were consequently imprisoned. Wu Shao (
deposes, "an overseer owed me $ 100, and on my asking him for payment, struck me, ancl daslied
me to the ground. I had a knife on my person, and stabbed him to death. I was arrested
and imprisoned, but have not been sentenced Liang A-lisiu (deposes, "when our
employer's son, aided by the negroes, seized knives and killed one of usa native of Hiang-
shan (and wounded all others, we seized the weapons and killed him. We, 22 in all,
were arrested and placed in prison one died there, four were sold away to Havana, sixteen
were sent back to the plantation, and there are still two in jail." Hsieli A-kou (
deposes, "we stabbed to death the administrator, on account of his cruelty. We, 24 in all,
proceeded to the jail ancl surrendered ourselves. Our master, by an outlay of $ 680induced
the officials to order 12 of our number to return to the plantation, and on our refusal, an officer
of low rank discharged fire-arms, wounding nine and killing two. There are 22 still in jail, and
we consider it preferable to the plantation." The deposition of Chang A-hsiu (and
4 others states, four of our gang of 40 having been killed by the violence of an overseer, eleven
of us murdered the latter. We find the jail preferable to the plantation." Wu Hua-ch'ang
(deposes, I prefer remaining in jail." Ch'en A-chfiu (and 22 others depose
that the jails are preferable to the plantation. Huang Shili-pao (deposes, "tlie labour
on the plantation is more severe than that enforced in jail." Wang A-ts'ai (deposes,
I bought a gold watch for 1 ounces, whicli a foreigner accused me of having stolen, and I was
in consequence placed in prison, where I have each week to manufacture 16,000 cigarettes, and
if this number is not completed I receive 12 blows."
XXX.
The contract Coolie is a man who has pledged himself to wokk according to contract
for a term of years: he is not a slave. Is he treated as a man who has
consented to be bound by a contract, or as a slave re there slaves in
Cubaor were there, and what is or was their treatment
The distinction between a hired labourer and the slave can only exist when the former
accepts, of his own free will, the conditions tendered, and performs in a like manner tlie work


(59 )
assigned to him; but the lawless method in which the Chinese were~in the great majority of
casesintroduced into Cuba, the contempt there evinced for them, the disregard of contracts,
the indifference as to the tasks enforced, and the unrestrained infliction of wrong, constitute a
treatment which is that of a slave, not of a man who has consented to be bound by a contract"
Men who are disposed of in Havana, who are afterwards constantly, like merchandise, transferred
from one establishment to another, and who, on the completion of their first agreements, are
compelled to enter into fresh ones, who are detained in dpts and delivered over to new masters,
whose successive periods of toil are endless, and to whom are open no means of escape, cannot be
regarded as occupying a position different from that of the negroes whose servitude has so long
existed in the island, and who are liable to be hired out or sold at the will of their owner.
Thus Hu Ju (deposes, I liave been here twenty-seven years. The inhabitants truly
desire to reduce the Chinese into slaves for life. ClVn A-shun (deposes, the
officials and merchants of Cuba desire to convert the Chinese into slaves for a life-time
Liu A-t'ang (gij )deposes, on the plantations, the Chinese are treated exactly like the
negro slaves." Lin A-lung (and 6 other depose that on the sugar plantations the
Chinese are treated exactly like the negroes. Li Ch'eng-hsiin ( f||) deposes, in Cuba we are
treated exactly like slaves." Liu A-jui (deposes, I am treated exactly like a negro
slave." Lin A-t'ai (deposes, on the plantation, the slaves and the Chinese are all
treated alike. Hsu Sliao-lin (deposes, the inhabitants are accustomed to employ
the negro slaves, but their treatment of us is even worse than that of the latter." The petition
of Hsien Tso-pang ()and 13 others states, a the subjects of other countries come and
depart without hindrance, and in their transactions endure no wrongs, and it is hard to
understand wliy Chinese should be subjected to such outrages, to a treatment worse than that
of the negroes." Ch'en Te-lin ( fdeposes, "at the close of three years I was disposed
of to another plantation, by which, after the lapse of a similar period, I was again sold."
Lin Yueh (and 7 others depose that they were resold by certain plantations, to
another plantation. Li A-chieli (deposes, I was resold by a farm to a
sugar plantation." Tseng Erh-clVi (deposes, "my employer disposed of me
"to a cooper." ClVn A-chi (deposes, I was resold by the local officials to
a sugar warehouse for $ 70. Li A-pao ( pj|J deposes, I was originally sold
to a railway company for $ 238 at the close of three years I was disposed of to a
jeweller for $170 and afterwards I redeemed myself by an outlay of $306. Liang Piao
()and i other depose that they were resold by their employer to bakeries. Li A-tou
(and i other depose, that they were sold to other employers by the plantation by
which they had been originally bought. Liu A-tai (deposes, I was resold to the
plantation by a bricklayer." Yu A-shili (deposes, I was resold by the plantation to
a market garden." Lin A-yung ()deposes, after I had worked for three years I was
resold to a second employer for $ 163." fHu A-pao ()and 4 others depose that they
in all were sold to six different employers. Ch'en A-liai (deposes, when my right
arm was broken, I was resold to a cigarette manufactory. Wn A-lisien (deposes,
out of the 82 who were bought with me, 77 were resold." Liao San ()deposes, three
months after arrival on the plantation, I was resold to another one." Liang A-shng (
8


deposes, after I had worked for a year I was resold to a sugar plantation." Li Jun-chu
( PI deposes, "I was resold by the plantation to a railway company." Lin Erh.(
deposes, after working nine months in the service of the Railway Company I was resold to a
plantation.Lo A-erh () deposes, after working two years for the Railway Company
I was resold, and employed as a domestic servant. I remained in this position three years
when, my master becoming impoverishedI was again disposed of to the Havana Municipality
for $ 102. Chung Sheng (deposes, after working seven years at the gold mines, I was
conducted by my master to Havana and then sold for $ 85. Wang Ts'ung-sheng (
deposes, originally I was employed in the gold mines. I afterwards was sold to charcoal-
burners." Ch'en A-wu (deposes, I was resold and became a domestic at Havana."
Chang Jung-chi (deposes, I was resold after a year's service." Lin A-p'ing (
deposes, after three yearsservice I was resold." Ch'ii Jung (deposes, I was resold to a
plantation, ancl by it again sold to a sugar warehouse." Kuan A-hsi (deposes, I
have been sold twice to employers in Havana." Liang A-yu ()deposes, I was resold
for service in a shop." ClVn Shao-chi (deposes, I was resold to a shoemaker in
Havana. Ts'ui Lan-fng (deposes, "I was resold to a shoemaker." Wang Kuei-
chieh (deposes, I was ill at the time of arrival, and was sold to an establishment at
Matanzas, which was in the habit of purchasing the sick, curing them, and then reselling them.
Liao A-ping (deposes, I was disposed of by the Havana barracoon to a similar
establishment at Matanzas (for sale)." T'ang A-lung (deposes, three years ago, the
Governor of Havana brought back to Havana all Chinese, and resold them as slaves for six
years." The petition of Su Chin-shng (ancl 11 others states, again, on the 10th of
the 9th moon of the nth year of T'ungchih, the authorities, in concert with the planters,
devised means to force us to recontract for six years. During tlie night all were arrested and
shut up in the fortress, in the dpt, or in the jail, and it was not until a month had elapsed
that tlie Consuls who had taken pity on such sufferings succeeded in obtaining the release of
those who could furnish, security. The remainder, oyer 160were sold by the 2nd military
officer of Havana to the hills at $ 102 each. The petition of Wu Chin-ch'eng ( |and
123 others states, "we were decoyed to this island, where those of us who have not completed
their eight years are subjected to much ill treatment, and the others, whose contracts have
expired, are also the victims of wrongs. For example, when travelling by rail we are not
allowed on the better cars, and in the hotels and in the shops we are kept apart in tlie same
manner as tlie black slaves." The petition of Jen Shih-chen (ancl 2 others states,
but though the officials, the merchants and the planters are all indebted to us, they, with
heartless cruelty, torment us daily and hourly, refuse to treat us as human beings, disposing of
us as slaves and acting towards us as if we were brute beasts. We learn that friendly relations
now exist between China and the greater powers of the West, and that it is by the efforts of the
latter that the traffic in negro slaves has been suppressed. Why do they not render to us a
similar service


(6i )
XXXI.
Has the Spanish Government legislated in favour of the Coolie Has it made laws
for his general welfare and protection re the laws effective If not,
to what extent and in what respects ineffective, and why?
The 31st clause of the Spanish Royal Decree of 1860directs that the Captain General
shall be the chief protector of Chinese, ancl that he shall exercise this function in the various
jurisdictions, by means of his delegates, the Governors and Lieutenant Governors, who, in turn,
shall be aided by the Captains of districts; the 10th clause provides that minors can only contract
themselves with the consent of the persons under whose charge they are; the 12th clause provides
that vessels carrying Chinese shall be supplied with a quantity of water and sound food, propor-
tioned to tlie number of individuals who have to be conveyed and the distance to be traversed
the 21 st clause provides that Chinese, the rights of the importer over whom have been forfeited
(through certain violations of Regulation), shall be at liberty to contract themselves and the
22nd that should they not desire to do so, the Captain General shall exact from the consignee a
sum sufficient to defray the cost of the re-exportation of the entire number the 32nd clause
provides that in their relations with the tribunals of justice, immigrants shall be defended in the
lower, by the Attorney of tlie Court of Justice of the Peace, and in the higher, by the Attorney
General the 33rd clause provides that under no circumstances whatever and notwithstanding
any stipulations to the contrary, shall employers exact from Chinese, on an average, more than
12 hours' work the 54th, that when a contract empowers the employer to distribute, in the
manner most convenient to his interests, tlie number of hours agreed upon, it shall be understood
that no more than 15 hours can be exacted in one day and the 69th, that the duration of an
imprisonment imposed by an employer cannot exceed 10 days.
These provisions, characterised by a care for the welfare and protection of the Chinese,
have however never been observed, and are in practice null, whilst on the otlier hand, the restric-
tions resorted to by the dpts in order to enforce renewal of contracts, and to render continuance
of labour unavoidable, are daily becoming more oppressive. Thus the petition of Chien Sliih-
kuang (and 69 others complains of the baneful laws and evil deeds of Spain and that
of Li Chao-ch'un ('ancl 165 others alleges that, within the last few years, tlie planters
have, in concert with the authorities and the Commission of Emigration, enforced very unjust
rules." These statements certainly indicate that tlie laws in favour of the Chinese have not
been effective, and the following extracts will explain the cause of this failure.
The petition of Cliang Luan (and 30 others states, again, officials here are
often merchants, others are completely under the influence of the planters, and all ignore the
outrages committed, and do not even make an inquiry into the cases of suicide or murder.
Of late years, too, the issue of cedulas has ceased, or they can only be obtained by a large
outlay. On the other hand, the dpt is enlarged, and police make raids on every side, with
the view of forcing the Chinese to enter into fresh contracts, so that the wishes of planters may
be satisfied and officials enabled to share in the labourer's earnings. Towards such officials,
and the citizens of fortune who govern the dpts, gain flows in a deep and rapid stream, as


"at tlieir will they hire out to labour or recall from it, our countrymen, whom they have
" converted into serfs, not of an individual but of the entire island, serfs deprived of all hope
of again seeing their homes." The petition of T'ang Lien-shng (and 106 others
declares, we are coerced into entering into fresh contracts, of tlie wages specified in which the
greater portion is retained by the officials. At the close of these new contracts the same course
is followed, and is afterwards successively adhered to. Thus the Government works of the
island are executed free of cost, ancl the relations between the planters and the officials are
tightened by mutual gain, whilst our sufferings, in the meantime, become more and more
oppressive."
XXXII.
Can the Captain General ordain laws without reference to Spain Or is the law
proposed in Cuba required to be confirmed by Spain Has Spain refused
to confirm any proposed laws? Or, have laws proposed in CUBA not gone
into operation
By the 56th clause of the Spanish Royal Decree of March 1854all previous legislation
on the subject of the introduction of labourers into Cuba was abrogated, and the Decree of 1854
was itself annulled by that of July 1860 which is still in force. The 31st clause of the latter,
by appointing the Captain General to be Protector of Chinese, renders the government of them
one of his normal functions, but the 81st clause reserves to the Spanish Government the right
of at any time suspending or prohibiting the introduction of Chinese labourers into Cuba.
The resolution," it proceeds to declare, it may arrive at on this question, shall be made
public in the Madrid and Havana Gazettesand the term on the expiration of which importa-
tions must cease, shall begin from the date of publication in the latter. This term shall not
be less than eight months, and all importations taking place after its termination shall be
regarded as appertaining to the category of those specified (as subjecting the importer to
forfeiture of his rights ) in Article 20. It must be understood by importers, that the fact of
tlieir engaging in this traffic is a recognition by tliem that its suspension or prohibition confers
upon them no right to any compensation."
Subsequently, in February 1868the Captain General made public other Regulations
containing 83 clauses, the objects of which, were stated to be, tlie extinction of abuses which had
arisen through a disregard of the Provisions of the 1860 Decree, and the establishment of perfect
order in all matters connected with Chinese immigration.
In July and August 1870 the Captain General urged the prompt cessation of this immi-
gration, and in June 1871 was published a Royal order acceding to the request but on the
18th. October a Decree was issued by the Captain General, declaring that the permission thus
accorded would not be availed of.


Again, on the 14th September 1872Regulationscontaining 40 articlesfor the recon-
tracting of Chinese, framed by the Central Commission of Colonization, were made public by tlie
Captain General, and though assent to them was subsequently refused by the Spanish Govern-
ment, they are still in force. The Regulations, containing 65 articles, of the 7th May 1873, were
also published on the authority of the Colonial Government, alone.
No answer can be supplied to the last paragraph in this query. No means existed for
obtaining information as to laws proposed but not gone into operation."
XXXIII.
What parts of Cuba are in rebellion
The regions extending north-west of Santiago cle Cuba, south-east of Sagua, and north-
east of Cienfuegos are infested by migratory bands of insurgents.
XXXIV.
Have Coolies aided rebels, and, if so, under what circumstanceswhere,
how, and when
The petition of Chang Luan (and 30 others states, The rebellion in Cuba is one of
Spanish subjects against the Spanish Government many instances have occurred of planters,
when joining the rebels, endeavouring to induce the Chinese labourers to do likewise, and of
the latter, even at the risk of death, refusing, or of, if constrained to go, at once returning. The
number of those who have acted thus is not considerable, as is proved by enquiry. Again,
though plantations and the Trocha are close to the districts held by the insurgents, we
have heard of no instance of a Chinese flying to the latter. A Chinese labourer can
scarcely be expected to return good for evil, but born in a country where the principles
of right are respected, lie is able to refuse to attach himself to disturbers of law and
order. The people of Cuba, however, instead of recognising and being grateful for the
display of such feelings deny their existence, and use this denial as an excuse for fresh
prohibitions and restrictions." Ho A-hsien (deposes, when my master joined
the insurgents I ran away to Havana." Wang A-jui (and 1 other depose, when my
master joined tlie insurgents, I went away to another plantation." Tseng Li-cliieh ()
deposes, my master joined the insurgents, but I attached myself to a gang of labourers and
worked under its head." Mo A-mu (deposes, my employer joined the insurgents,
but I remained, and worked for the new owner." Chang Jung-clii (^deposes, my
master joined the insurgents, but I went away and performed work for the officials. Yin
Shou-k'un (deposes, when my master joined the insurgents, I escaped to the officials,


reported what hacl occurred and worked for them. T'ang Yii ()deposes, when my
master joined tlie insurgents I proceeded to the officials in order to report the occurrence, and was
called upon by the authorities to labour for tliem without wages/' Wang T'ing-kuei (
deposes, my master became an insurgent I refused to go with him, and ran away to the
Government officials, one of whom I served as cook. Li K'ang-wen (deposes, when
my master joined the insurgents I went of my own accord to a dpt and laboured there.
Liang A-chao (and i other depose, my master joined the insurgents I declined to
go with him, and tlie administrator conducted me to the dpt. Cli'n A-hsiu ()
deposes, our master joined the insurgents but we all dispersed Ihowever, was arrested by the
authorities and placed in a dpt." Chiang A-lin (deposes, when my master joined
the insurgents I ran away, ancl was seized and confined in a dpt." Wu A-jung (
deposes, I was carried away by the insurgents, but in a few days I succeeded in escaping, and
was subsequently conducted to a dpt." Chang Shng (deposes, after I liacl served
for four years, the plantation was set on fire by the insurgents. I ran away, was arrested and
placed in jail."
Thus, the probability is tliat the Chinese are unwilling to take part in aiding tlie insurrec-
tion minute details could only be ascertained by reference to sources of information,the
camps of the insurgents,which could not be reached.
XXXY.
Has Coolie legislation in Cuba been affected by the rebellion How does it, as
thereby affected, affect contract coolies, and why? If a temporary
precaution merely, has the government had just cause to take the
precaution, or is its action simple and indefensible tyranny To what
extent is such special legislation in operation, and what do the better
classe.g., the moneyed chinese in the citiessay of it?
No changes proposed or effected in the system of Government applied to the Chinese,
have been explicitly admitted to have been the result of the insurrection, with the exception of
the cessation of the introduction,- which was recommended in 1870 011 the plea that they impeded
the pacification of the island; and in the following year tlie suggestion was withdrawn, as owing
to the progress effected in the pacification of the island, measures formerly desirable had become
needless." The Kules of September 1872devised by the Central Commission with the sole
object of retaining Chinese in Cuba ancl inducing them to renew their engagements, contain no
provision indicating any apprehension of participation by them in the insurrection, and the fact
derived from tlie Tables of tlie same Commission, that out of 1,932 labourers despatched to the
Trochathe point the closest in proximity to tlie insurgent districts1,827 were Chinese, is clear
evidence tliat no precautions in regard to them were deemed necessary. Moreover, if their
presence called for such precautions, why do the proprietors of the island still desire to bring
them to it in large numbers It is thus apparent that no such suspicions are entertained in
regard to them.


(i65 )
In Cuba there exists no better class of Chinese all receive tlie treatment of slaves, and
however much legislation may degenerate into simple and indefensible tyranny," protest is
impossible, and, deprived of every means of escape, the men who have completed the years of
service .for wliicli they contracted, as well as those who have not, have simply to submit. Avarice
induces the merchants and planters to disregard such provisions as were framed for the
protection of the Chinese, ancl a similar cause induces the guards and police not to overlook the
enforcement of a single clause of those of tlie opposite nature. Such a clause is the 16th Article
of the Rules of 1868, defining the manner of registration of domiciled Chinese. It is to the effect
that during the second fortnight of February, the deputed officers shall visit their residences, ancl
shall personally inspect ancl call for the production of their Letters of Domicile and Cedulas, ancl
tliat the former documents shall be retained by the inspecting officers, and the latter returned to
the holders, sealed ancl endorsed Registered." The Decree of the Captain General dated
December 1871 contains similar instructions the officers designated are to direct one or more
of their subordinates, accompanied by the residents in the vicinity, to visit the dwellings of, and
personally inspect the Chinese in question the Letters of Domicile ancl Cedulas of the latter are
to be examined with the most scrupulous care ancl the descriptions of personal appearance which
they contain are to be compared with the actual appearance of the holders and the adoption is
authorized ancl enjoined of every precaution that may appear necessary in order to ascertain the
genuineness of each document, &c. This system of inquisition, producing a perpetual dread, is
applied not only to those who, because tliey failed to obtain certificates of completion, or because
they arrived after February 1861never received cedulas, but to the men who years ago enjoyed
the good fortune of securing freedmen's papers.
The petition of Chien Shih-kuang (and 96 others statesthe police, knife in
hand, burst open our doors, search our chests and boxes, ancl take away whatever of value they
see. We may call in vain for any aid from our neighbours, and if we attempt resistance we are
at once charged with crime ancl conveyed to prison," and ("in the ioth j^ear of T'ungchih the
planters and corrupt officials) "marshalled troops ancl effected a general seizure of Chinese,
depriving us of our freedmens papers, ancl placing us all in jail. The petition of T'ang Lien-
shng (and 106 others states, if the applicant succeeded in obtaining a Letter of
Domicile, ancl intended to remain in the island, lie had to procure an additional document, a
cedula which cost ten dollars more or less, which has to be changed annually, and of which the
loss or delay in renewal provokes severe penalties. Again, a journey from one town to another
necessitates a pass, and a physician cannot practice, or a beggar ask for food, without a similar
documentthe issue in each case requiring the payment of a fee, whilst application for authori-
zation to open a shop of any class involves greater delay ancl larger outlay. When these
documents have been received the inspection of tliem is constantly demanded by any guard
whom we may meet, or by the police who search our houses the papers are then alleged to be
fictitious, ancl are torn up and we are dragged away to prison or to the dpt. We there are
laden with chains on the neck and feet, and compelled to labour on Government works."
The petition of Chu Chi-lisiin ((and 10 others states, tlie police ancl guards clay and
night enter our houses and accuse us of opium smoking or of possessing no papers, whilst their
real object is the robbery of our money and our property. Whether we hold papers or not we


are dragged away to officials or to a dpt to work on roads, and are subsequently fined $ 10 to
$ 20 and are not released until we can induce a foreigner to become bail." The petition of
Chao K'un (ancl 97 others states, "the police and various official underlings, constantly
in search, of gain, feed upon us more ravenously than a silkworm does on leaves they
constantly enter our apartments, search, over our beds, accuse us of a breach of law, basing
the charge on the possession of any article on which they lay tlieir hands, and then rob us of
all we have, furniture or money." Tng A-ssu (p declares in his petition, in October
last year, I was employed on a sugar plantation, when the guards visited it and accused me of
having forged my papers, and, alleging that I had not completed my term, conducted me before
the authorities. I was placed in jail, ancl was deprived of all I had on me, worth, about $ 70;
besides, $ 200 in paper, and two horses belonging to me were taken away by the officials. The
petition of Tai Jih-sling (and 1 other states, in cities, too, our countrymen are
exposed to the exactions of tlie police. Those who do not hold papers are arrested and must
yield to extortion, whilst even the possessors of them are subjected to penalties." Ho Fu-t£ang
(declares in liis petition, I find all my movements restricted, as on the railways we are
asked to produce our ceclulas ancl if unable to do so are arrested ancl punished. Yii A-hsia
( declares in his petition, tliose who formerly obtained ceclulas dare not go beyond the
limits of this city lest they be arrested by the foreign guards." Fan Tsu-hsing (JE
declares in his petition, when one of us possessing a cedula and a little money prepares to
return to China, the circumstance is soon discovered by the police ancl other small officials, and
his papers are seized ancl torn up, and he himself is accused of being a deserter. He is tied up
ancl tortured, robbed of his money and effects, and if he tries to offer any protest or explanation
is severely beaten. Many have been thus killed.
XXXYI.
What is the Health of the Coolie
It may be admitted that the greater portion of the Chinese employed as cooks and
domestic servants received sufficient food, and are comparatively physically vigorous but in the
larger number of instances the men seen on the plantations and in the dpts showed, in their
features and their spiritless demeanour, the privations and hardships which they were enduring
and not a few of those who now gain their living independently, still suffer from maladies, the
result of their years of exhausting suffering.
The petition of Chien Shili-kuang (and 96 others states, we see almost half of
our companions die, and we who survive are either mutilated or internally injured." Lin A-i
(deposes, my chest was injured by blows on the plantation, and I still suffer
constantly from the pain." Kuo A-jung ([J deposes, "the administrator and the over-
seer constantly dealt me tlirusts with sticks, or kicked me, and I now still suffer from internal
bleeding." Lli A-wu (deposes, the master directed negroes to hold me down and
dealt me more than 80 blows with a rattan rod, and inflicted injuries which, caused me to vomit


(6)
blood and from this malady I am still suffering." Ch'en A-shun (and Yang Chin
( i)depose that on the plantation they were injured by blows and that tliey still vomit
blood. Huang A-chang ()declares that he suffers from a similar malady and Ch'en
A-yang (deposes, a few clays after my arrival, I received such blows and thrusts from
sticks that I still constantly vomit blood." Chu K'ai-tzu (deposesI was allowed
no bed and compelled to sleep on the ground, ancl tlie humidity having induced a disease of
the back I am now forced to beg for food. Shn A-ts'ai (and one other depose,
when I arrive! I possessed strength, but I have been so constantly beaten that I am now
entirely debilitated. Hu Kng-hsiu (deposes, my health has been entirely
destroyed by the hardships I endured on the plantation." Wng A-i ()deposes, I suffer
from rheumatism in my feet and hands, and the malady is the result of the labour imposed
upon me. Pan Yo-'heng (deposes, my foot is diseased, the result of wounds
caused by chains. Lin A-mei (deposes, my left foot is diseased, the result of an
accident when at the Troclia. Maimed as I am, I am still compelled to labour." P'ang A-tien
(deposes, tlie wounds I received have maimed me for life. Liu Kuang-ts'ai (gj
deposes, I was decoyed here and wept every day, and to this ancl to bad treatment I attribute
the disease of my eyes." Hu A-tai (deposes, I received internal injuries from the
flogging with sticks, and I am now constantly sick
XXXVII.
How are the sick cared foe
Many of the hospitals existing in eacli Cuban city possess extensive accommodation, are
arranged not without a regard to elegance, and are surrounded by, or surround gardens and
shrubberies, are completely fitted with bedding and other appointments, and are well provided
with attendants, and although not specially constructed for Chinese, the latter enjoy in them all
the advantage that they afford.
The infirmaries on the plantations are also clean, and are, in some cases, under tlie care of
surgeons, but according to the statements collected by the Commission the proportion of Chinese
permitted to enter them is small.
The petition of Lai Chih-chih (ancl 3 others states, if we are sick and cannot
work we are beaten." Li Ying-sung (states in his petition, I was, if sick, struck with.
the closed fist, kicked, or even when greater severity was displayed stabbed or flogged almost
to death." Chn T-ming (declares in his petition, if sick, we were not allowed to
rest in the hospital, and when we applied for admission we were beaten, chains were placed on
our feet, and our wages were withheld." To the same effect are tile following extracts from
depositions. Lin Lung ()and 17 others declare that wlien ill they were not permitted to
report themselves sick; Liao Ying ()and 15 others declare that tliey were flogged for
reporting themselves sick; Yang Chin (and 9 others declare that they were not permitted
to report themselves sick, and that if they did so, their feet were chained Chou Liu (
9


and 2 others declare that, when sick, they were not allowed to enter the infirmary, that
they were chained, beaten and forced to continue labour ClVien A-jung ()
deposes, when ill I was not allowed to cease labour I was beaten and forced to resume
work." Ts'ui An (deposes, for reporting myself sick, I was twice chained
and beaten.ClVn A-jung (deposes, during three years my eyes were diseased,
but I was never permitted to report myself sick. Han Chin ( |deposes, several
times when reporting sick, I was placed in irons and beaten. Once I was flogged so severely
that I vomited blood, nd I was besides kept in chains during seven months. Li A-lai
(deposes, when I reported myself sick I was constantly beaten. I was accused of
pretending to be ill. Ch'ii Tan-kfo (deposes, labourers who reported themselves
sick on account of sores on the feet were tolcl by the master that such ailments could not be
regarded as sickness, and he also, seizing a stick, beat them indiscriminately. Ch'en A-chin
(deposes, when I was sick and reported the fact to the overseer he accused me of
speaking falsely, and ordering four men to hold me clown removed my trowsers, and flogged me
so severely that my flesh became lacerated. I then had to labour in irons, and at night, when
I returned, my wounds were rubbed with salt and lime-juice, causing a pain that almost killed
me." Li A-(liui (deposes, wlien, on the plantation, I was incapacitated for work
by sickness, four negroes were directed to hold me prostrate, whilst I was being flogged on my
naked person. Afterwards when ill in tlie Dpt my elbow was broken by an overseer. Chou
A-ting ( deposes, two men who suffered from sores on the head and were inca-
pacitated for severe labour asked to be permitted to perform a lighter class of work, and for so
doing the administrator chained their feet and beat them almost tlie deatli." Hsieh A-hsuan
(deposes, I have seen men flogged, forced to work in chains during the day and
placed in prison for reporting themselves sick others too, natives of Tungkwan (I
saw who, having been flogged for reporting themselves sick, hanged themselves tlirougli fear
of being confined in the stocks Wu Lien-shng (deposes, I saw a sick man
who was unable to go out to labour, killed by the overseer." Huang A-tou (deposes,
I saw a native of Hiangshan ()who had been severely beaten by the administrator
for reporting himself sick, hang himself on the same evening I also was the witness of
the murder of a native of Hunan (by name Li (wlio had been flogged for
reporting himself sick. I saw, too, the suicide by drowning of a man named Cheng (who
when sick had been dragged out and flogged and I know that two men, one a native of
Swatow, the other a native of Kwangtung, died in the infirmary from starvation." Wang
A-sling (deposes, when repairing a cart-road my leg was fractured, and the surgeon
found it necessary to furnish me with a wooden limb. The master relieved me from all severe
labour but the administrator on one occasion ordered me to move some lieavy stones, and as I
was unable to do so broke my wooden leg, and also, by a blow, removed a portion of my ear.
Liang A-jn (deposes, when on the plantation we reported ourselves sick, a negress
was told to make water, and if we consented to drink it our statement was admitted, but if we
refused we were compelled to continue labour." Ch'en A-fu (deposes, one of my
arms was broken by the injury. The fracture was cured, but I was punished by the deduction
of nine monthswages. Li Cho ()deposes, for reporting myself sick the administrator


(i69 )
beat me, and chained my feet during three clays, ancl witlihelcl from me wages during eight
months. Huang A-man ()deposes, when sick the, surgeon incited the dogs to bite,
and beat us with rods." Yii A-t'ien (deposes, when so seriously sick that I was
unable to move, the surgeon in the first instance beat me before admitting me into the
hospital." Liu A-yao (deposes, when sick I was locked up in the infirmary, and
sometimes during a few days received nofood whatever but the surgeon never visited me.
Yiian A-an (deposes, when so sick that I vomited blood, the surgeon would not admit
me into the hospital. Kao A-tai (deposes, when I was sick, I received no medical
care."
XXXYIII.
What is the rate of mortality?
The census effected under the supervision of the Central Commission of Colonization applies
to a period commencing in the 6tli moon of tlie 27th year of Taokwang and terminating at the
7th moon of the nth year of T'ungchih. The statistics show tliat during five years of this period
from the 28th year of Taokwang until the 2nd year of Hienfng inclusiveno vessels con-
veying Chinese reached tlie island, and that during the 20 remaining years 114,081 landed, of
whom, on the completion of the census, there remained 58,400.
Another Table prepared by the Commission shows the departure during 1872 and the first
nine months of 1873 of 235 Chinese, being an annual average of 134. Assumingto aid the
calculationthat 571tlie number arrived in the reign of Taokwang, were all enabled to leave,
and bearing in mind that the departure of any men comprehended in even the first subsequent
importationsthose of the 3rd year of Hienfngcould not commence before the nth year
of Hienfngproducing at the above average, a total of departures for that ancl the eleven
following years, of 1,608,tlie entire number departed amounts to 2,179 and a deduction of
these and of the surviving population shows that the deaths reached the aggregate of 53,502, in
wliich, also, are not comprised the deaths during the voyages, wliicli up to the same dateTung-
chih nth year 7th moonexceeded 15,000. All these, too, were young men, and their fates
certainly merit compassion.
The facts of the Tables of the Central Commission only specifying the population surviving
in the nth year, and of no information being attainable, as to that successively existing at the
end of each of the antecedent ones, and as to the augmentation effected during each, preclude
any minute reply to the query.
XXXIX.
What have been the causes of death
The excessive heat of the climate, the severity of the labour, ancl the scantiness of the
food, have been the causes of a great mortality, through sickness but the deaths from otlier
causes have likewise been numerous. Yuan Kuan (states in his petition, the new


(Jo )
administrator was cruel as a wolf or a tiger and his heart was as venomous as that of a snake.
A certain Cli'en A-tsao (not being able to endure the ill-treatment jumped into a sugar
caldron Lien A-hsing (suffering from a bad leg and unable to work, on being forced
to labour hanged himself Liu Pai-jn (gi]was flogged by the administrator till he spat
blood and died Hung A-fu ()being unable to do the work allotted to him, ran away,
was brought back and at night was killed by the administrator Chang A-ping ()being
sick and unable to work, poisoned himself Cliou Shih-lan ()15 days after arrival, was
flogged by the administrator so severely that he died. Lin A-yu (deposes, last
year, Tseng A-clai (was murdered, a crime for whicli no punishment could be
obtained. Ch'en A-chi (deposes, on the plantation I saw three men commit
suicide, on account of a severe flogging which had been inflicted on them." Ch'en Lin (
deposes, of ten men who were with me three killed themselves by hanging." Chou Liu (
deposes, on the plantation ten men hanged themselves." Wen Ch'ang-t'ai (deposes,
I saw nine men hang themselves, one man throw himself into a sugar caldron, and 12
men die from the results of woundsthese festered and l)re(l maggots." Ho Hsi ()
deposes, with me \yere 20 men of these two hanged themselves, and four cast themselves
into a well." Liang En (deposes, with me were 15 of these four hanged tliem-
selves, one named Liang Pai-sheng (after being wounded on the head and body
by the administrator, was attached by the latter to his horse's tail and dragged back to the
quarters. He proved to be then dead, ancl his body was cast upon tlie dung-hill." Ch'en
A-ying (deposes, I have seen many hang tliemselves. In tlie boiling house I
have seen two who hanged themselves by one ropeothers I saw who had. died in a similar
manner in the privies and dormitories. Jung A-ts'ai (deposes, a man who ran
away ancl was captured was beaten l)y the administrator with a thick stick so severely that lie
died." Wen A-chao (deposes, I saw a man named A-lai (killed through
u blows inflicted witli a stick and a knife when in chains I saw also another named A-san (
hang himself." Fng A-hsiu (deposes, I saw five men hang themselves." Wu
A-cli'ing (deposes, of 50 men wlio were with me, only 25 survive. There were
suicides by drowning, hanging and cutting of the tliroat." Li Hai (deposes, I saw two
Shunth(men, by name Ch/n (and Liang ()who found tlie chastisements unendur-
able, poison themselves with opium. I saw also a Hakka hang himself." Lo A-fa (
deposes, I saw the administrator strike two men dead Avitli a knife, and I also saw two men
wlio found the ill-treatment unendurable, hang themselves." Li Clio (deposes, at the
end of the eight years I had seen six or seven men killed by violence, 13 men hang themselves,
and three men poison themselves. Lin A-i (deposes, with me were 20 men, of
whom, finding the ill usage unendurable, two poisoned themselves, five hanged themselves and
four cut their throats." Lo A-ch'ang (deposes, with me were 24 men, of whom two
hanged tlieinselves. Lin A-t'ai (deposes, I saw four men hang themselves to-
gether, of whom two died. The cause was that they found the ill-treatment unendurable."
Liang A-lin (deposes, I saw three men hang themselves, ten die from wounds and
four poison themselves with opium." Wen Man (deposes, I saw on the plantation the
suicide of two men by hanging one was named A-ch'ih (and the other A-kuan ()


(6i )
Both killed themselves on account of finding the ill usage unendurable." Ch'en A-yang
(deposes, I saw a Cantonese, by name A-lu ()cut his throat in the plantation
jail, and I saw another Cantonese hang himself. Lo A-chi ()deposes, with me were
So men; within a few years four hanged themselves, three poisoned themselves with opium, and
the master reported all the deaths to the officials as the results of sickness." Ch'en Ghiin-k'ai
()deposes, I witnessed the suicide by drowning of Yell A-tsai (). Li Wn-ts'ai
(deposes, on the plantation I saw two men hang themselves, three men throw
themselves into wells, and other three poison themselves witli opium. I also saw two
others wlio were sick, and were flogged in order to force them to work, die on the spot."
Jung Chou-kuan (deposes, I saw a man hang himself, on account of inability to
endure the ill usage." Wu Chin-lmei ()and two others depose that tliey saw two men
die from thrusts with a stick, and other two from tlie effects of wounds inflicted. Ts'ai A-ping
(deposes, I saw four men hang themselves, unable to endure the ill usage, one jump
into a well, and three die whilst in chains from wounds." Chang A-lisi (deposes,
I saw a native of Shunteli ()by name Huang ()hang himself after the administrator had
beaten him with such severity that liis legs were lacerated." Li Yu (deposes, c I saw a
native of the Hwa ()district, by name A-kuei ()hang liimselfbecause lie found the
treatment unendurable, and. the food insufficient. Li Ho (deposes, I saw a native of
the Sinhwei (district, by name Ch'en A-kuang ()20 years old, hang himself on
account of finding the chastisements unendurable. I saw also two other men, natives of the
same place, Li A--\vei (and ClVn A-chn ()commit suicide in a similar
manner." Shili A-kou (deposes, I saw four men who found the usage unendurable
hang themselves. They did so on one cord. Ch'en A-sliun ())deposes, I saw three
Chinese killed by violence on the plantation. No report was made to the officials. The bodies
were buried and the matter was ended. I also saw four men hang themselves when wounded,
owing to the usage being unendurable." Lin A-pang (deposes, I have seen some
20 men commit suicide by hanging themselves ancl by jumping into wells and sugar caldrons.
Liang A-jen ( fnj deposes, I saw the suicide by hanging of one man, wlio found tlie usage
uiieiidurable. Ch'en A-yin (deposes, I saw the suicide by taking opium of Huang
A-fa ()who had been so severely wounded that he was incapacitated from labour. I
saw the death by hanging of a Tungkwan (man, named A-lio (u)wlio had been
wounded by blows." Ch'en Shui (deposes, I saw on the plantation one man jump
into a well, and one man hang himself." Yu A-sliih (deposes, with me were
16 men, of wliom eight are already (lead. Ho A-chi (deposes, I saw a man
who being sick had been refused permission to rest, attempt to hang himself, and after
being rescued jump into a well." Su A-fa (deposes, on the plantation I saw
three men flogged in such a manner that on the following day they were dead Ch'en
A-shun (deposes, on the plantation one man was killed by a blow from a knife,
dealt by the manager of the plantation shop the latter was not arrested. Other two died
from the effects of blows dealt by tlie administrator, but as the latter presented the officials
with money no proceedings were taken." Ch'en A-erh ( deposes, on the plantation
I saw eight men drown themselves and four men hang themselves, owing to their finding the


(i72 )
labour and the chastisement unendurable. ClVen A-pao (deposes, on the plantation
two Cantonese who could not endure the chastisement hanged themselves, and of 31 of my
gang, two hanged themselves, and three swallowed opium, owing to their finding the ill
treatment unendurable." Li Shun ( J)deposes, one of the men with me, a native of
Hweichow (|) killed himself 011 account of the cruelty." Han Yen-pfei (deposes,
of 50 men with me three drowned themselves and two hanged themselves, on account of finding
the cruelty unendurable, and 13 died from the effects of wounds." Ch'en Chung-hsiu (
deposes, with me were 22 othrs, of whom two hanged themselves, and two poisoned themselves
with opium, owing to finding the cruelty unendurable. Besides four died from the effects of
wounds." Yang Shih-fng (deposes, with me was a native of Polo ()by
name Hsien Shih ( lie was so wounded by blows that the pain was unendurable. The
surgeon gave him some aperient medicine, which, he vomited, ancl he afterwards hanged
himself. A native of Kweishan ()by name ClVn A-ts'ai ()after being flogged,
was ironecl on both feet ancl forced to work, and fell into a lime-pit, in which he died. The
deaths from wounds and in the hospital, of which I have been a witness, have exceeded 100
Li Hsin (deposes, I saw a native of Hweicliow (||)by name Lin A-ssti ()hang
himself, being unable to endure the pain resulting from a flogging. The 20 men of the same
gang laid a charge before the officials, but the latter gave no heed to the complaint and the
master having brought them back placed tliem in irons, so that the accusation could not be
renewed. Li A-wu (deposes, I saw three men drown themselves, ancl five hang
themselves, on account of the cruelties to which they were being subjected. Cheng A-chu
(deposes, I saw Li A-san (killed by blows because being sick lie was unable
to move certain bundles of cane. I also saw two men liang themselves, and one man jump into
a well." Huang A-yung (deposes, on the plantation, I saw Ch^n A-kou (
and Hsien Yii-tsai ()hang themselves, being unable to support the chastisement. One
hanged himself on a tree, the other in the dormitory." Chiang A-lin (deposes, I saw
one Cantonese hang himself, and four men poison themselves with opium." Yu A-ssu
(deposes, I saw one of my gang, a native of Fukien, by name Chcen A-kou (
so beaten with a stick, for weakness in the legs, that lie died in seven days. I also saw the suicide
by hanging of three natives of Nanhai (.Liu A-jui (deposes, I saw two
men hang themselves.Ch'n I (deposes, I saw three men hang themselves ancl one
drown himself." Cheng A-t'u ( ) deposes, I saw ten men so wounded by blows that
in a few days they died, and other four who were unable to endure the cruelty hang tliem-
selves. Liang A-hsin ()deposes, on the plantation, I saw three men who were
unable to endure the cruelty cut their throats." Chang Erli (deposes, of those with me,
two drowned themselves ancl three swallowed opium." T'an Yu (deposes, I saw a
native of Sinning ()by name Huang A-yang ()killed by blows dealt by the
administrator.Wu A-i (deposes, on the plantation I saw one man drown himself,
three men poison themselves with opium and one man hang himself." Liu A-ssu (
deposes, I saw the death in tlie infirmary of ten men, who had been wounded it took place
within one or two days after infliction of tlie blows. I also saw the suicide of a native of
Fukien, who was driven to the act by the cruelty." Sun Kuan-fu ()deposes, of those


(i73 )
with me, two hanged themselves ancl one poisoned himself with opium. They did so because
they found the cruelty unendurable. Yeli A-san ()deposes, "I saw Cantonese
poison himself with opium Ho A-pa (deposes, "I saw the master kick, so
that he died, a man who reported himself sick ancl whose statement was not accepted.
The matter was in no way investigated by the officials Liu A-clVang (deposes,
"I saw a Cantonese hang himself on account of tlie cruelty. No enquiry was made by
the officials. Lin A-mei ( |)deposes, I saw tliree Cantonese hang themselves.
Tang Chan-lvuei (deposes, of those with me in the bakery, one man unable to
endure tlie blows hanged himself." Lo Yung-sling (deposes, during the eight
years I saw a Cantonese tliroAv himself into a well, a Fukienese throw himself into a, sugar
caldron, and a native of Swatow cut his throat. Besides eight Cantonese hanged themselves."
Cli'en A-'liuan (deposes, with me were 100 men, of whom 50 lianged themselves.
ClVn A-fu ()deposes, with me were. 25of whom three hanged themselves." Yii
Ming-lising (deposes, I saw two men cut their tliroats. One was named A-kcai (
and tlie other Chiu Chio-chili ()but tlie wounds were afterwards healed. I also saw
three men hang themselves, ancl one man kill himself by wounds inflicted on liis private parts."
Huang A-ying (deposes, I saw one man, a native of Kaochow ()hang himself.
Lu Chung (deposes, of those with me, one threw himself into a well, and two poisoned
themselves with opium." Wang Tzl (deposes, I saw two men commit suicide. Ch'iu
Yiian (gjj deposes, of 20 men with me, three committed suicide. Cli'en Han-pin (
deposes, of those with me two committed suicide, and one was killed by the administrator by a
blow from a knife." Han Chin (deposes, witli me were 30 others, of whom, in tlie eight
years, two hinged themselves, two drowned themselves, and one poisoned himself with opium.
Li Pan-chang (deposes, I saw tAvo men commit suicide by hanging, ancl one man drown
himself." Liang A-yin ( |deposes, of those witli me, eight hanged themselves, ancl two
drowned themselves." Li A-ta (deposes, of those with me, one man after having been
wounded by blows, entered the infirmary, and died there in one day." Li Aliimg (
deposes, I myself saw one man killed by blows." Liang Tao-£han ()deposes, of 12 with
me, two poisoned themselves and one hanged himself." Li Yu ()deposes, commit suicide." Kuo Ching-fang ([5 )deposes, I saw two men poison themselves with
opium, and three hang tliemselves." Li A-fu (deposes, I saw four men hang them-
selves on account of being flogged with severity/' Tseng A-shili (deposes, I saw a
native of Nanhai ()killed by blows. He vomited blood, but the chastisement was not
stopped." Ch'n T-chng (deposes, I saw five men liang themselves." Cheng
Chiu (and 14 others depose, I saw Li A-erh ( struck, fall into the water, and
in it die by drowning.Ho Gli'iu-shih (deposes, I saw two men cut their throats
one died and the other was cured." Huang A-chang (deposes, I saw two men who
had been wounded by blows dealt by the administrator removed to the infirmary, in
which they died on the next day. I also saw six poison themselves with opium, and three
hang themselyes." Wang T'ing-kuei ()deposes, of those with, me five hanged them-
selves." Chu Ts'un-fang ()deposes, my brother, by name Chu Mei-hsiang (),
placed on a waggon a smaller than ordinary quantity of sugar-cane, and in reply to an overseer


(i74 )
explained that the oxen were tliin, and not able to move a heavier load. The overseer became
very angry, said he would not permit Chinese to argue with him, and seizing a stick, inflicted
heavy blows. This occurred about 4 p.m. and at 6 p.m. my brother was dead. I also saw six
men hang themselves. Ssu Tfu-hsing (|)deposes, of 43 with me, 29 committed
suicide." Liao A-ping (deposes, I saw four men hang themselves ancl one man
drown himself." Li Jun (deposes, I saw four men struck dead by the master, who
suspected tliem of mutiny. I also saw a Hakka, by name Lin Ch'iao ()drown himself."
Tseng A-yang (deposes, I saw a native of Hweilai ()named Li Lien-hsiu
)poison himself witli opium as lie was unable to endure the chaining and flogging."
Pai Mien (deposes, of ten men with me, one poisoned himself with, opium." Wu I
(deposes, I saw ten men hang themselves." Yell Ch'uan (deposes, I saw
a native of Tungkwan (poison himself with opium." Yu A-chli (deposes,
I saw three men poison themselves with opium, and two men hang themselves through.
being unable to endure the cruelty." Ho A-cli'iu ()deposes, of those with me
one man poisoned himself with opium." Li A-lai (deposes, two men who had
been beaten severely died from the effects. Ch'iu Mu (deposes, I saw two men
hang themselves. Li Cliia (deposes, u I saw three men hang themselves, and five
men poison themselves with opium." Liang A-kfo (deposes, I saw three men
hang themselves, and three men poison themselves witli opium. Last year, in the second
month, the administrator struck dead three men by blows from a stick." Cli'en A-ch'ing
(deposes, I saw two men cut their throats, two men die from the effects of wounds
inflicted two days before, and two men hang themselves. No official came to enquire into
the matter. We were not able to leave the plantation, and did not know where any officials
were to be found. Chang A-chao (5deposes, A man with me, a native of Ho-
ylien ()by name Weil T'ing-jang ()unable to endure the chastisements,
poisoned himself with, opium." Lin A-kuei (deposes, I saw three men hang them-
selves, tliree poison themselves with, opium, and six die from the effects of blows, one or two days
after their infliction. Yeh Ying-pao (deposes, I saw one- man poison himself with
opium and one man drown himself." Li K(un (deposes, a man with, me, by name
A-yu ()unable to endure the chastisements drowned himself." Wen A-lai (
deposes, of ten men with, me, one- drowned himself, and three hanged themselves. Liang A-lien
(deposes, of those with me, one hanged himself and three poisoned themselves with
opium. Lo A-te (deposes, I saw the master of the plantation kill one man by blows."
Chen A-'hung ()deposes, of 13 men with, me, seven were killed by blows." Tng A-mu
(S5 deposes, "of tliree men who came witli me, one, a native of Hoshan ()by name
Huang A-liu ()and another named Wu A-cliiu ()poisoned themselves with
opium." Yiian A-ts'ung (deposes, of those with me two, unable to endure the
chastisements, jumped into a well." Wang Ta-ch'eng (deposes, I saw a man killed by
blows on the plantation." Tsou A-erh () deposes, of ten men with me, one man
drowned himself, and three died from the effects of wounds caused by blows." Chung A-tai
()deposes, I saw three men hang themselves who were unable to endure the chastise-
ment. Liang A-san (deposes, "I saw a man by name Hu ()unable to endure


\/
5
7
-^s\
tlie chastisement, hang himself." Li Shun ()deposes, of those with me, I saw 11 commit
suicide. Ho Pei-chi (deposes, I saw one man hang himself, one man leap into
a well, and another, an old weak man who had allowed a certain field implement to fall into a
pool, killed by blows dealt by the administrator." Pang A-tung (deposes, of those
with, me, one hanged himself, and anotlier died from the effects of a severe flogging." Lai
Ying-lai (deposes, I saw three .poison themselves with opium, and two men drown
themselves." Chang Hui (deposes, I saw two men hang themselves, and one man
poison himself with opium." Huang A-lising (deposes, of 40 men with me, three were
so severely beaten that one died on the spot, and the two others afterwards, in the infirmary." T'ang
Shih-chu (and 1 other depose, that on the premises of the Railway by which they were
employed tliey saw two men poison themselves with opium, and one man hang himself~the suicides
being due to their inability to support the ill usage. Ho A-wei (and 1 other depose, that
they saw two men poison themselves with, opium. Liu Wu (deposes, I saw three men
hang themselves, one man poison himself with, opium, and a third, who had been beaten by an
overseer, jump into a well Li Shan (deposes, I saw three men poison themselves with
opium, and other three hang themselves." Wu A-yao ()deposes, of 20 men with me,
three poisoned themselves with opium. Chu A-fu (deposes, I saw a native of
Hiangshan ()by name Ch'en A-wang ()so severely beaten that he drowned
himself. Besides there were other seven who committed suicide." Kuang Kuan (deposes,
on the plantation three men hanged themselves, and tliree men poisoned themselves with
opium." Wang Ching (deposes, I saw tliree men drown themselves." Ch'en Yu (
deposes, I saw two men hang themselves, and three men drown themselves, on account of their
being unable to endure the cruelty." Tng Shng ((J deposes, I saw six men poison
themselves with, opium." Li Ts'ai (deposes, of those with, me one man hanged himself
on account of having been severely beaten by the overseer." Chung Lai (deposes, an
old man who could not move a heavy weight was killed by blows dealt by an overseer/' Liu
A-shih (deposes, a native of Hweichow ()by name Cliu A-mu ()was so
severely chastised by an overseer that he drowned himself.Huang Hsing (deposes,
I saw three newly arrived Chinese killed by blows from the overseer, who declared that they
could neither speak nor work." Lin Tzu-yu (deposes, I saw a native of
Yangkiang (hang himself with a handkerchief, being unable to endure the hard-
ship." Liang A-sheng ()deposes, I saw a Cantonese, by name Li ()hang himself
because he had been chained and confined in the prison though guilty of no offence." Liang
A-shng (deposes, I saw a Cantonese, by name Cli'eii A-kuang ()hang himself
when wearing chains, through inability to endure the ill treatment." Huang A-ti (
deposes, I saw three men wounded by blows and removed to the infirmary; in it they died
on the following day." Huang A-cli'ang (deposes, I saw Wang A-kuang (
hang himself after having been ironed and severely beaten." Ch'en A-hung (
and 3 others depose, I saw a man named A-chi (so severely struck on the neck
by the negro overseer that lie died in three days." Chou A-hsing (deposes, I saw a
native of Hweichow ()by name Chang ()poison himself with, opium, through inability
to endure the ill treatment." Chiang Li-shih (deposes, I saw three men hang
10


(i76 )
themselves. Lli A-liang ( g) deposes, of the men with me, a native of Kweishan
()by name A-yin (p)was killed by blows, another, a Hakka, by name Ma Tsai ()
hanged himself, and a third, A-tfou ()poisoned himself with opium. Chang Chng-kao
(deposes, I saw Wang A-chiang (hang himself in his chains, on account of
the frequency of the floggings inflicted. Of those with me seven men, who had been gravely
wounded by blows, died from disease thus produced." Lin Kuei-hsing (deposes,
I saw a native of Polo ()by name Huang ()killed by blows." Ho A-cli'eng (
deposes, I saw a man jump into a sugar caldron, two men hang themselves, and another wearing
chains throw himself into a well." Hsiao To (deposes, of those with me, one man
hanged himself, as he was chained and constantly beaten." Lo Fu ()deposes, of those
who came with me, one man hanged himself, and another died from the effects of a severe
chastisement." Liu A-sung (gi]deposes, "of those with me two hanged themselves, ancl
two poisoned themselves with opium." Wn Erh-cliang ( deposes, I saw one man
poison himself with, opium, and one man hang himself, being unable to endure the hardships."
Lai A-hsi (deposes, I saw six men hang themselves. Yeh Jui-chang (
deposes, I saw a native of Sinhwei (killed by blows dealt by the administrator.
Chiang A-t'eng (deposes, I saw 12 men hang themselves. Huang Ch'n-fu (
deposes, I saw one man killed by blows." Cli'n Hua (deposes, on the plantation I
saw a native of Sinliwei ()by name Huang A-fang ()who worked in the sugar
storehouse and who was detected asleep, beaten and bitten to cleatli by clogs incited to attack
him. Another man poisoned himself with opium. Liao Chiin (deposes, I saw a
native of Nanhai ()by name Lin ()hang himself.Huang Chien-hsing (
deposes, of those with me, three men committed suicide." Liu Chin-hsiu (f|J fdeposes,
I saw two men hang tliemselves." Ch'ien Yu (deposes, I saw 28 men hang themselves
through, inability to endure the cruelty." Wn A-an (deposes, I saw three men
drown themselves." Hung A-i (deposes, I saw the Cantonese Liang A-liua
(and 11 others poison themselves with opium.Hsieli A-hsing (deposes,
I saw a native of Hweichow ()by name Lin A-fa ()and a native of Hiangshan
|Jj), by name A-man ()killed by blows. Another man, too, wlio was placed in foot
irons, wounded on the legs by blows, ancl deprived of food, hanged himself. Chou A-chiu
(deposes, of 20 men with me, six died from blows whicli caused wounds ancl vomiting
of blood.Liang A-hua (deposes, of the 42 men with, me, two threw themselves into
the mountain ponds, two were killed by blows dealt by the administrator, ancl one by blows
inflicted by the surgeon. Tseng A-ming (ancl 3 others depose, of 13 men with me,
six died from the effects of wounds and bad medical treatment." Ch'n A-shn (deposes,
I saw one man who had been wounded by blows die on the following clay, one man who was beaten
and cruelly used drown himself, and two hang themselves." Ho A-hsien (deposes, I
saw a native of Hweichow ()named Liu A-hsiu ()so wounded by blows dealt with
a stick tliat he died on the following day." Ho A-chien (ancl Tng San (|5
declare that they each saw on plantations two men liang themselves, who were unable to endure
the cruelty. Mai A-an (deposes, I saw, on the plantation, two men 1'iang themselves.
Their terms of service had expired ancl they were not permitted to leave/ Huang-A-yu


(i77 )
(deposes, <(I saw a man struck on the neck with a stick. He was injured, and died in a
few days. I also saw other two men hang themselves." Huang Yang-shun ()deposes,
on the plantation I saw two men drown themselves, two hang themselves, and three poison
themselves with opium." Hsii Kuan (deposes, tlie overseer kicked a man and inflicted
wounds from which he died. I also saw three men commit suicide." ClVii Jung (deposes,
in the sugar warehouse eight men hanged themselves. Chang Ssu (deposes, of those
with me two men committed suicide." Ch'en Ping (deposes, I saw five men commit
suicide, of whom three poisoned themselves with opium the two others killed themselves wlien
in the stocks. Last year a native of Shuntli (was struck by an overseer with a stick on
the ribs and died on the same evening." Hsii Pai-hao (deposes, on the plantation
I saw two men commit suicide, and anbther Avas so severely wounded by lashes with a Avhip
that he died." Liu A-yao (and i other declare that two days before they made their
depositions two men hanged themselves, the cause being inability to endure the cruelty. Liang
A-chang (deposes, I saw one man hang himself and 14 men poison themselves with
opium. These were all Cantonese. Lai A-ssu ( PdeposesI saw the Cantonese
A-t'ien (hang himself on account of having been severely flogged. Two others also
poisoned themselves with opium. These were all Cantonese." Cli'en Kuan-chih (
deposes, I saw two men who were chained together leap into a sugar caldron." Chao Ch'ang
(deposes, I saw a man commit suicide." P'an Wen-tao (deposes, of those with
me two men committed suicide." Chung Liang-ch'n (and 1 other depose, I saw a
native of Fukien, by name Lin Sung-ming ()poison himself with opium in the fields,
being unable to support the cruelty." Kuan Hsien (deposes, I saw a man
"hang himself in tlie infirmary who had been placed there after being flogged." Ho
A-wn (deposes, I saw three men commit suicide." Liang A-kuan (
deposes, of those with me two hanged themselves, and one who liacl been severely flogged
died from the effects." Hsii Shao-lin (deposes, my brother, by name Hsii Sliao-jung
)drowned himself, because he was unable to endure the flogging." Huang A^mu
(deposes, of those with me more than 100 died from blows. Ch'ii Tsu-k'ang
(deposes, of those with me one man hanged himself." Shn Yao-chung (
deposes, I saw two men killed by blows and three men kill themselves voluntarily by casting
themselves under wheels." Shn Chin-kuei (deposes, of three men with me, one, a
native of Kiangsi ()by name A-man ()died from blows. Yiian A-an (
deposes, of those with me two hanged themselves, being unable to endure the cruelty. A native
of Sinhwei ()by name A-ping ()also cut his throat, but the wound was cured."
Tng A-hsing (deposes, I saw a native of Nanhai ()by name Lin ()hang
himself." Chu A-jui (deposes, I saw a man killed by blows another man committed
suicide by jumping into the furnace, and a third whose ribs had been fractured by blows, died
in the infirmary on the following day." Mo A-kang (deposes, I saw three men who
had been wounded by blows hang themselves, and other three for a similar reason poison them-
selves with, opium." Ho A-fa (deposes, I saw Chang A-wang (hang him-
self on account of the cruelty to which he was subjected, and two others, natives of Kiungchow
poison themselves with opium." Yang A-chi (deposes, a sick man who was


(i78 )
not permitted to enter the infirmary, poisoned himself with opium and died on the same day.
Mai T'ai-cli'ang (deposes, of those with me two hanged themselves, and one cut his
throat. Liu A-kuei (g|J )deposes, of those with, me six hanged themselves on account
of the severity with, which they had been flogged. Tu I (deposes, I saw an old man die
from a fracture of the ribs caused by a blow dealt by an overseer. He died at once." Li Erh
( deposes, I saw a native of Nanliai (hang himself on account of the cruelty.
Liang Man (deposes, I saw a native of Ch'aocliow ()by name Ch'en Li
)hang himseloil account of the insufficiency of the food and the constant
flogging. Ts'ai A-t'eng (deposes, I saw two men liang themselves, two men
poison themselves with opium, and another leap into the sugar caldron." Liu Ying-fa (
deposes, I saw a Cantonese, by name Lin T'ien (drown himself, being unable to endure
the flogging. Shn Yang (deposes, I saw a native of Changchow ()by name
Hsieli,(so severely beaten that, after vomiting blood, he died. A native of Ts'uanchow
HI ) also, by name Ts'ai (poisoned himself with opium." Ch'en I-yu (
deposes, I saw one man cut liis throat the wound however was healed. Other three men
hanged themselves" Hsieli A-tung ()deposes, on the plantation I saw a Fukienese,
by name ClVn A-lai ()hang himself.Hu A-ssu ()deposes, I saw one
man unable to endure the cruelty drown himself." Ko A-ch'ingdeposes, I saw
one man die from injuries caused by kicks inflicted by tlie administrator on the preceding clay."
Wu A-cli'eng (deposes, I saw the manager of tlie shop on the plantation kill by blows
with a stick a man named Cli'en A-fu (.Another, by name Yang A-l^un ()
was so severely flogged by an overseer that lie died on the following clay. Chcen Lung
(deposes, two newly arrived men, natives of Fukien, hanged themselves." Y A-p'ing
(deposes, on the plantation only a few days ago two men hanged themselves." Hu
A-t'ai ()deposes, I saw 3 men die from wounds caused by blows. Another man,
a native of Hoyiien (by name A-i ()drowned himself.Liu A-hsiu (
deposes, of 25 men with me six who were not allowed to report themselves sick and were also
severely beaten, died." Chu A-slian (deposes, "of 23 men with me two hanged
" themselves, and one man poisoned himself with opium. Ch'n Ping-an (deposes,
of 34 men with me, two hanged themselves. Liang Lien-clVing (deposes, on
the plantation there were suicides on account of the cruelty two men drowned themselves,
and two hanged themselves." Liang Ping-an ()deposes, I saw three men
hang themselves, four men poison themelves with opium, and three men throw themselves
into the sugar caldrons. Liang Piao (deposes, in the baker's sliop I saw
one man poison himself with opium." Liang A-hsiu (deposes, I saw a
Hakka poison himself with opium." Yeh A-hsi (deposes, I saw a native
of Hweichow (by name Wan A-fa (hang himself, being unable to endure
the cruelty. I saw also "Wan A-hsing (and liis brother jump together into
a well." Kuo A-jung (deposes, I saw a man who was working in irons pushed
down, and wounded by a white man. He desired to proceed to the infimarybut was observed
and beaten with great severity by the same white man, and in a few clays he died." Clifen Shou
(deposes, I saw one man killed by blows." T'an Ch/ang-hsiu (deposes, "I saw


(i79 )
a man hang himself. Fng Erli (deposes, I saw a native of Tungkwan (poison
u himself with opium." Ch'u A-cli'iu (deposes, I saw a man so severely beaten, that
he died in a few days from the effects of the blows." Liu Hsin-fa (gi]deposes, of tliose
with, me one man hanged himself." Liang Ting (deposes, "Li A-cli'iu ()a
native of Ch'aochow (being old and unable to move the refuse cane, was struck by an
overseer in the ribs, and in consequence died." Cheng A-chi ()deposes, I saw a
native of Hiangshan ()by name Cheng ()hang himself. Avman named A-fu (
poisoned himself with opium. The cause of both, suicides was inability to endure the cruelty."
Liang T'ing-po (deposes, I saw one man vomit blood, and die in consequence of
thrusts with a stick, dealt by the administrator. Two others died in the infirmary from the
effects of grave injuries inflicted by the administrators." Chi A-le (deposesI saw
seven natives of Shanghai commit suicide. Of these, two being unable to endure the chastise-
ments poisoned themselves with opium, three drowned themselves, and two lianged tliemselves.
Of six Fukienese, also, four hanged themselves together, one poisoned himself with opium, and
one threw himself into a sugar calclron. Severe injuries were the causes of all these suicides."
Chou A-tung (deposes, I saw eight Cantonese commit suicide owing to inability to
endure the cruelty. Besides four men, who after being wounded by blows, were forced to
labour, died witliin three days from the infliction of the injuries. Ho A-keng (
deposes, I saw four men hang themselves in a chamber, and three men hang themselves on
trees these had been unable to endure the cruelty.
XL.
When a man dies, how does the employer arrange his affairs Is there any
difference in the treatment of men who die during or out of
agreement term?
Chinese procuring a Letter of Domicile and a Ceclula, are in tlie enjoyment of a small
amount of independence, but the refusal of these documents during recent years, the withdrawal
of others previously issued and the successive renewal of contracts enforced by the master or the
dpt on all who through either the refusal or the withdrawal, are unprotected, causes the fact of
death taking place after the completion of the agreement, to create no difference in the arrange-
ment by the employers of the affairs of the remainder.
The following extracts from the depositions furnish information as to the manner of this
arrangement. Chou Jun-ch'ing (deposes that the unbaptisecl are not admitted into a
cemetery. Hsii Li-sheng () and 98 others depose that Chinese receive neither coffin
nor grave, and that their bodies are cast out anywhere. Ch'n T-lin (and 2 others
depose that when buried tliey are not placed in coffinsand tliat their clothing is removed. Kuo
A-mei (and 1 other depose that they made the coffins (used on the plantation where
they served) and that these were provided for negroes but not Chinese. Huang Chieli ()
and one other depose that their employers used one coffin, which, was brought back after the
bodies had been carried to the hills and buried. Li A-chiu ()deposes that Chinese are


not placed in coffins, ancl that after tlie lapse of a few years tlieir bones are burnt into lime. Lo
A-chi (deposes that the bodies are placed in a shallow hole, that in tlie course of time
the bones are turned up by the spade, ancl piled up in little heaps, dissolve under the sun and
rain he also remarks that as the charred bones of oxen are required for the refining of sugar,
the mixture of those of men would produce an even purer whiteness.
Again the petition of Jn Sliih-chn (and 2 others contains the following
statement : we have been here 17 and 18 years, and are so environed by the devices of the
Commission of Colonization and others interested that egress is hopeless. We are old and
weak and it is only uncertain whether we shall die in a dpt or in a fresh place of service, or
cast out as useless by the roadside but it is certain that for us there will be neither coffin nor
grave, and that our bones will be tossed into a pit, to be burnt with those of horses and oxen
ancl to be afterwards used to refine sugar, and that neither our sons nor our sons' sons will ever
know what we have endured."
XLL
What is the Chinese population of Cuba?
The census prepared by the Central Commission of Colonization shows that at the com-
mencement of the 7th month of the year before last tliere were in Cuba 58,410 Chinese, and the
Tables received from the British Consulate General specify 11,332 as the number which sub-
sequently quitted China up to the 3rd month of this year. From the latter figures have to be
deducted 907 deaths on board ship, reducing the number landed to 10,425 and as there is no
record of the mortality since the completion of the census the only estimate that can be offered
of the existing population is 68,825.
XLII.
How.is it distributed?
a. supporting themselves,
b. working out contracts,
c. waiting to go elsewhere,
d. in prison.
Those supporting themselves,that is, who, formerly having obtained certificates of
completion from tlieir employers, and having been baptised, procured Letters of Domicile and
Cedulas, were enabled to engage in a small trade or to gain their livelihood by free service, and
are described in the Census Table as naturalized or subjects of foreign powers,"~~may be
estimated as forming -3^-ths of the population; but it must not be forgotten that even these have
undergone hardships and have been and are subjected to extortion, and that at present the issue
of passports and a departure to their country are attended by many difficulties.


Of those working out contracts it is needless to speak; and the freedom of the men whose
agreements were completed during more recent years is so completely restricted by the enforced
renewal of contracts, that the going elsewhere is an impossibility for them, and that no
distinction can be drawn between them and those whose original engagements are still in force.
The depositions and petitions all agree that it is desired to render them prisoners for a lifetime,
and that they have to abandon all hope ofa return home, and these two classes form 7 or 8
tenths of the entire number.
The proportion in jails, consisting of those sentenced, of those who have been long detained
without trial, and of men who, on the termination of tlieir engagements, were confined without
any cause, does not exceed a few hundreds.
XLIII.
Have any Chinese become wealthy Socially, what is their status To what extent
does the Government recognize them?
The smallness of the proportion that lias ever received Letters of Domicile and Cedulas
the liability of the holders to the withdrawal of tliese documents, a measure Avliicli at once
prevents the engaging in any independent business, and the constant extortions practised by
every class of the inhabitants, preclude any hope of the acquisition of wealth being entertained
and the enquiry has sliown, that among tlie Chinese in question, there are no men of opulence.
By officials the Chinese are regarded as appertaining to a category very different to that under
which their own countrymen are recognised as falling ancl this view is shared by the people
generally. Thus the petition of Kao Lao-hsiu (ancl 16 others states, "the shops, too,
of those of us engaged in a small trade at any of tlie towns, are daily entered by the inhabitants
who take away what suits their fancy without even offering payment, ancl if we ask for it we
receive only blows. They care not if they kill us, and a single individual commencing an
assault is aided by ten others, whilst all complaints to the officials are totally unheeded. Thus
we have only to fold our arms and submit. The petition of Lin A-yiian (and
"3 others states, the foreignersblack and whitemake purchases from us on credit, or promise
payment at the end of the month, but when the time comes tliey are so unprincipled that not
only they refuse us our due, but, besides, beat us. At other times after haying sold us an
article, they induce an accomplice to come to our premises to claim it as his, and to accuse us
before the tipao (Capitan de Particlo) of theft. The officer makes enquiry, declares that we
deal in stolen goods, places us in fetters, and sends us to jail. We complain to the manager
of tlie market, but either lie is not willing to interfere or if he speaks to tlie officer, the latter
does not heed him, and we eventually have to pay a fine." The petition of Hsien Tso-pang
()and of 13 others states, that they all without reference to their abilities or positions
in their own country were treated as common labourers and slaves they add, in the streets we
are constantly exposed to insult, to being struck by stones, ancl unless we submit in silence


(82 )
we are soon assaulted by a mob and are finally dragged off to jail. If a Chinese desirous to
effect a purchase tries to bargain, he is at once abused, but a Spaniard or Cuban entering
the shop of a Chinese wounds or even kills tlie latter if he attempts to ask for payment."
The petition of Chien Sliili-kuang ()and 75 others states, though those employed in
the cities may suffer a little less, they are treated by the inhabitants worse than slaves.The
petition of Chu Chi-hsun (and 9 others states, when we go out or make any sales or
purchases, three or five of the inhabitants will together assault us with stones, rotten eggs or
some other offensive missile, wounding us on the head, face and body, and breaking whatever
we may be carrying indeed sometimes wounds so serious as to have fatal results, are thus
received. The neighbours in such, cases never interfere, and the police, if appealed to, accord
nothing but abuse. They ask why such, as we, having neither fathers, nor mothers, nor families
should throw ourselves in a tiger's path. Vicious men armed with knives or firearms
constantly rob us of whatever we may have on our persons, and wound us with their weapons,
regardless whether we live or die. The petition of Ch'iu Te-i (states, on the
streets, too, boys constantly throw stones at us, without any attempt at prevention on the part
of the Government, ancl the underlings of the officials arrest us on fictitious charges, and drag
us before the authorities, who close our mouths and impose fines.
Chou A-cliiu (in his deposition declares, I keep a shop for the sale of
sweetmeats. I am subject to wrong, as I am forced to sell on credit, and never permitted to ask
for payment if I do so I am beaten. For what passers by, too, may choose to pick up and
take away, I dare not ask any payment. Against all the acts of malice from which we suffer
here at the hands of the white men we cannot utter a remonstrance." Han A-hsing (
deposes, I carry on a small business in selling sweetmeats. I earn sufficient to support myself.
If I laid by any money the people of the country would come ancl extort it from me.
Every day men enter my shop, pick up and take away something, never enquiring tlie
price, and strike me if I ask for payment." Liang Tao-han (deposes, I
keep a small shop for the sale of spirits and rice. The white men constantly subject
me to extortion, buy on credit ancl refuse payment." Yell Yu (deposes, I sell
vegetables. The people of the island buy on credit and strike me if I ask for payment.
On the street they constantly pelt me with stones." Lin Ch'uan ()deposes, here Chinese
are treated most injuriously. Debts due to them are not paid, ancl a request for settlement is
replied to by blows. If we walk in the streets stones are cast at us, and tlie officials look on
with, indifference. Chou Ch'n-tung (and 4 others depose, that on the streets the
boyswhite and blackcast stones at tliem. Hung A-pan (deposes, the people are
bad. They constantly stone the Chinese." P'an A-pao (deposes, on tlie streets the
white people constantly pelt me witli stones. Wu A-ch'ing ()deposes, tlie white and
black men whom we meet on the streets all cast stones at us. They also rob us of our property,
and look upon us as pigs or dogs. Kuo Chan (deposes, Spaniards who meet us on
the streets constantly kick us and no one interferes." Li A-pao (deposes, on the
streets we are scoffed at and abused. This occurs perpetually." Cli'en A-fa (deposes,
it is the custom of this country that the police, who carry swords, arrest all Chinese wearing
good clothes whom they may meet. They charge them with being gamblers. The officials in


(i83 )
no way interfere, and an outlay of money is the only way of arrangement." Li Yu (
deposes, the inhabitants treat the Chinese with great injustice. The innocent are dragged away
to the dpts, and are not released until they disburse money." Pai Yung-fa ()
deposes, the Chinese here suffer greatly, and are treated worse than the negroes. Li A-tung
()deposes, my master treats the Chinese worse than tlie negroes. The Spaniards
devote themselves to the traffic of decoying and selling us, as they consider us slaves for a life-
time. Ch'eng Chang-ming ()deposes, because they look upon us as horses or dogs,
they think that we should be slaves for a lifetime." Tseng A-shih.(deposes, the
Chinese here are treated worse than fowls or dogs." Ch'en A-fa (deposes, Chinese
here are treated like fowls or dogs, and I long for death." CM A-le (deposes, the
administrator constantly says that Chinese are like fowls and dogs, and when they die others
can be bought." Ho Fu-hsing (and 9 others depose, that the sufferings of the Chinese
are matters of public notoriety, that they are treated worse than beasts. Ch'ii Shui ( 7JC) and
i other depose, Chinese are now in Cuba treated worse than formerly. The negroes also at
present strike us more violently.
XLIV.
Are Chinese found in positions of teust? Positions requiring intelligence, character
and attentiveness ake they fairly paid and properly treated, or the
reverse
The larger proportion of the Chinese in Cuba are Cantonese. With this exception natives
of Fukien, Hukwang, Kiangsu and Chhkiang are the most numerous. Besides, there are natives
of every province, and even Bannermen.
Out of these, during the course of the enquiry, were met civil and military officials and
literary graduates (hsiu-ts*ai) mixed up with the general body of common labourers. They had
been decoyed and sold like the remainder, for, as is remarked in the petition of Chang Luan
(and 30 others, the intelligent as well as the vicious are caught in these nets and fall
into these snares; and among the several tens of thousands in the island, there undoubtedly
must be men gifted with intelligence, character and attentiveness." One treatment however is
applied to all, the treatment of slaves, and to them ability is a useless possession.
Wages, also, are paid in accordance with a fixed system, usually $ 3 during the first year
and $ 4 during the remaining seven, and whatever augmentation may be granted on the com-
pletion of the term of original engagement is not a recognition of the existence of exceptional
capacity. No method of giving effect to any such recognition is included among the provisions
of the rules which govern the Chinese in Cuba.


(84)
XLY.
AS compared with their former condition in china, what is their condition in cuba ?
More comfortable, more prosperous, or the reverse Do they regret
having gone to cuba ? Do they wish to get away? can they get away?
Lin A-yung (deposes, on account of the condition of affairs at Cuba I do not
desire to remain. Fng Hui Qdeposes, "the food is insufficient and the labour arduous
my repentence is without limits." Li A-lung (deposes, in China I worked daily
during 8 hours, here I have to labour during 20. Liu A-fu ( gi]deposes, though
I hold a Letter of Domicile and Cedula, and work independently, I am constantly subjected to
outrage. Here we are regarded as appertaining to the same class as tlie negro, indeed some-
times these latter are treated better than we are. Li Hsi-pao (deposes, we are
struck without cause such, usage would not be endured in China a single day. Chao A-ling
(and 14 others depose that they think the existence of a beggar in China preferable to
theirs in Cuba. Ho A-chi ()deposes, Chinese are treated like the black slaves. I prefer
returning to China to beg, to remain here to be ground and broken." Liu Shng-lin (
deposes, although my master is good, the labour I have to perform is ten thousand times more
grievous than that of China." Chang Lin-an (deposes, the men in China who suffer
the extremest hardships, suffer less than those her." Li A-yao (and 185 others
all declare in their depositios that they desire to return to China. Ch'en Hsio-cliou ()
deposes, through, the aid of friends I was able to redeem myself ancl in two years saved sufficient
for the cost of my passage back. I then met certain officers who had been sent to arrest all
Chinese, and I was seized, placed in prison ancl there forced to labour. My paclrino or godfather
upon this, by an outlay of $ 150was permitted to bail me, and I thus avoided being again
sold to the mountains as a slave, but I lost all my property." Wang Hsiang (deposes,
I now possess $200 if the dpt would grant my release I would return to China.
XLYI.
Have the men markied What wives What is the condition of their wives and
children, and what futuee have the children before them
The 35tli clause of the Spanish Royal Decree of 1860 is to the following effect: Immi-
grants may marry with the consent of their employers.
If this consent is refused and the immigrant is of age, lie may either redeem himself in
accordance with the provisions of clause 43, or may seek another employer who will fulfil these
provisions for him.


\)/
5
8
/(\
The 43rd clause is thus worded: Every immigrant can at any time redeem himself by
paying tlie following amounts:
i. The amount originally paid for his acquisition.
2. The amount due as indemnity for tlie cessation of "work during contract hours, or
from any other cause.
3. The highest estimate passed by experts of the increased value of the services of
the immigrant since his acquisition.
Compensation for the loss that may ensue from tlie difficulty of replacing the
labourer.
The immigrant cannot make use of this right of redemption during the sugar season or
at the time of execution of any of tlie pressing labour jpermitted even on the festivals of the
church."
From tliese extracts the difficulty of effecting redemption becomes apparent.
Some years ago two Chinese having completed their term of contract, having obtained
Letters of Domicile and Cedulas, and having won prizes in a lottery, married Chinese women. They
and their wives are still in the island, being unable to pay the cost of passage home.
Cheng A-lai ()a native of Ch'aocliow ()the only man among the tens of
thousands of Chinese who have landed in Cuba who is reputed to have amassed any considerable
sum of money, married a white woman. He subsequently twice endeavoured to leave the island,
but was on each occasion arrested. He is now dead and no portion of what lie possessed was
remitted to China.
At present there is another by name Chang Ch'ang-kuei (who has married a
a white woman and who earns by his labour sufficient for his support. His deposition was taken
and in it lie states that he was disliked on account of his marriage, and speaks of the hatred
entertained towards him for other reasons, and of the injury done to him by the tipao (Capitan
de Partido ).
Besides, a few others, by name Ho Hsi ()Chuang Wn-ming ()Wu A-
ling (Ch'n Hsiu (Ho Tan-kuei (&c.&c.have married mulattoes
and negresses. But the aggregate of tliese cases is very small.
Of the children it can only be said that they are brought up by tlieir parents.
XLYII.
In certain laws said to have been proposed for temporary enforcement and conse-
quent on the rebellion, the words occur "at the expiration of their
contracts, colonists will remain under the guakdianship of their late
patrons," and in case the colonist should not desire this, he will BE
placed in the municipal deposit." what is guardianship," and WHAT IS
a Municipal Deposit
Changes in the regulations applicable to Chinese in Cuba have been of frequent occur-
rence, but no rules are stated to Have been framed in consequence of the insurrection. The


(i86 )
necessity of either a renewal of contract or of labouring on public works was laid down as long
ago as 1860in articles 7 and 18 of the Decree of that year.
(Note by translator :
The term temporary guardianship referred to in the query is used in the Decree
of the Colonial Government, a portion of the purport of which is quoted under
query 25and which is more fully described in the memorandum concerning
Legislation. The guardianship meant temporary continued use of the services of
the Chinese in question, on condition of the employer guaranteeing their appear-
ance whenever it might be called for, and tlieir retention in one locality until
the Government can ascertain whether they are deserters or whether they have
been guilty only of the fault of neglect to re-contract themselves in a regular
manner."
As shown in the memo, referred to, the guardianship ceased on the 14th. September
1872, and was replaced by the re-contracting prescribed in the Regulations of
that date.)
Guardiaiisliip by the original employer, being prolonged service for his benefit, was
not likely to be acceptable to those interested. As shown by the petition of Jn Shih-clin
(and two others, the enforcement of contracts for eight years entered into for five, is
regarded as a wrongful exaction of three years' labour, and a few other extracts will prove the
feelings of dislike in regard to any such prolongation entertained by the Chinese, and the preju-
dicial nature of such a tutelage when imposed. Thus Tsng A-shih (deposes, that 40 meil
who had completed their contracts were forced to labour in chains Fang.A-tung (fg )that
at the end of the eight years if a new contract was refused, they were beaten and chained
Lin Tz-yu ()that a native of Nanhai (who declined to renew his contract was
so injured by thrusts with, a stick in the chest inflicted by the administrator that lie died in a
few days; and Liang A-shng (that a Cantonese, by name A-chi ()who declined
to renew his contract was so injured by thrusts that lie died in a few days.
The institution known as the dpt is named in the depositions in various ways, but
these different appellations, ten in number, have reference to one establishment. This originally
was created for the detention of runaway slaves, and its jurisdiction was subsequently extended to
the similar cases of Chinese. To the latter were added, later, all not possessing Letters of Domicile
and Cedulas, whether the absence of these documents be due to refusal of them, or loss, or with-
drawal by violence and the general cessation of their issue which, has taken place of recent years
has rendered liability to such arrest universal. The Chinese who declines to renew his engage-
ment with his original employer, and wlio, despite the chains and the whip, in so many cases
resorted to, persists in his refusal, is delivered to the dpt to labour on Government work
without remuneration until througli its intervention a new contract is enforced,a process con-
stantly repeated and calculated of course to prevent any return home and any attempt to gain a
livelihood independently, and resulting in exposing to the danger of being handed over to the
cruelties of the plantation,the extremest,men who, hitherto employed in other services, have
escaped them.


(8)
The petition of Li Chao-ch'un (and 166 others states, "our countrymen who
have completed tlieir first contracts must enter the dpt, and, tliey have either to in it work
in irons and without wages, or are hired out to labour in any part of the island, a servitude
without limit and wliich. may last till death. The original employer or any other may
also make an agreement with the official, under wliich lie will pay $ 10, or over $ 10, a month,
for the services of each. Chinese he selects in the dpt, and we are bound by the conditions
of this contract, though the authorities receive the greater portion of the wages and only some
$ 4 a month, reacli our hands. The contracts issued to us at Macao are in most instances kept
by the master. If a death occur, the employer may, after agreement with the officials, visit the
dpt and point out such, or such a man as the signer of the dead man's engagement.
The dpt was formerly a house of detention for deserters, but at present many of our
countrymen who never ran away and who regularly completed their time of service are
forced to enter it, and whilst in it are compelled to carry earth and hew stones, working
in chains, some wearing even two or three, under overseers who with whip and knives
drive them to labour. The sole object of these cruelties is to oblige them to enter into
new contracts with the wealthy proprietors and to thus fetter themselves again for a certain
number of years, and when tlie new engagement is over, they are sent back to the dpt
and successively dealt with in the same manner. Is it not real, slavery for life to which.
Spaniards condemn us? All these measures are devised to retain us here till death, to prevent
our ever again seeing our country. The petition of Hsien Tso-pang ()states, these
dpts are in no way different from prisons, and many of us who years ago fulfilled our contracts
are liable to removal to either one or the other on a charge of desertion. Such are the devices
for the retention of the Chinese in this island, for the execution by them of Government work
without wages, and for tlie deriving profits from the fees payable when fresh contracts are
entered into. The petition of Cli'ii Ping-nan (and 22 others states, the dpts
established for the Chinese are filled by the acts of tlie police officers, who visit at night the
residences of the freedmen, demand tlie production of their papers, arrest on the plea of opium
smoking or gambling those who present them, and on tlie plea of desertion those who fail to do
so; and all thus seized have to work with, foot irons in the dpts." The petition of Ch'en Ku
(and two others refers to their countrymen being dragged away by the police to the
endless servitude of tlie dpts. The petition of T'ang Chan-kfuei ()and 8 others states, in
all the towns of tlie interior dpts now exist, and our countrymen when their original engagement
is at an end are placed in them whence tliey are either taken away to the mountains or are
coerced into renewing tlieir contracts; whilst in tlie dpts tliey are fed like fowls or dogs,
chastised and forced to labour like oxen or horses." The petition of Chao Kcun ()and 97
others states, when the officials have refused the papers we are at once arrested and confined in
tlie dpts where chains on neck and feet and the whip are also in use. The stronger may be
able to work again in a plantation, but the older, after toiling like oxen or horses, are allowed
to die like useless insects." The petition of Chng Hsig ()and 5 others states, at the
end of the eight years, too, we were delivered by our employer to.officials wlio forced us to
repair roads, attached chains to our feet and placed us under tlie orders of overseers who
"constantly struck us. The petition of Lai Shng ()and 9 others states, when taken to


(i88 )
the dpts we are employed in the fatiguing labour of repairing or cleaning the roads and are
given no wages. The food there toois insufficient The petition of Chiu Pi-slian (
and 34 others states, confinement, chains and hard labourthe treatment in fact of criminals
is that accorded in the dpts the cruelties whicli we there endure differ in no way from those
practised in tlie plantations. The object in view in subjecting us to these wrongs is to retain
us as slaves for life." The petition of Wu A-kuang ( pstates, "we all are confined in
chains in the dpts, compelled to execute unpaid labour and even escorted to the place of
work by an armed guard. Unless guaranteed by a Spaniard, Chinese may wear chains until
the day of their death. I myself was in irons for years and my feet are in consequence maimed,
rendering me a cripple for ever, and mutilated. The petition of Lo A-pao (states,
after my eight years, tlie master being bad refused to give me a cedula. I went away to work
elsewhere, but having no papers was found and seized by the guards and brought to this
dpt. I have now been in it four or five years, receiving no wages. The petition of Ch'en
Yu-shu ()and 4 others states, those who had the patience to complete their eight
years, thinking that their position would then be improved, were, under the system devised
by the officials, either obliged to bind themselves by a new contract or were sent to the
dptfrom which there is no outlet." The petition of T'ang Clian-k'uei (and 106
others states, originally the slaves of only one individual, we are now, through the dpts,
in the servitude of the entire population, a servitude, too, that can end only with death."
Chang Kfai (deposes, having lost my cedula, I was sent to the dpt where I laboured
for eight years without wages.Huang A-mu (deposes, the dpt hired me out
as a seller of water at monthly wages of $ 20 of which. $15 were retained by the officials of
the dpt." Liu A-t'ang (and 4 others depose, that they were hired out at monthly
wages of $ 15 of which $ 10 were retained by the officials. Liu A-lising (deposes,
I was hired out by the dpt to a plantation at monthly wages of $ 20 of which $ 10 were
retained by the officials. Li A-te (deposes, I was hired out by the dpt at
monthly wages of $ 11 of which. $ 10 were retained by the officials. I subsequently was
transferred to a manufacturer of machinery at monthly wages of $ 17 of which the officials
retained $ 12." Chang Luan (deposes, I am hired out by the dpt, leaving it in
the morning ancl returning at night. Of the wages paid, only $ 4 are delivered to me, the
balance is retained by the administrator. Lin A-te ()deposes, many are hired
out by the dpt, the wages being all retained by the latter. Nine men who were with me
are now hired out to a plantation." Li A-pao (deposes, the dpt is cramped
and filthy and we all sleep on the ground like pigs in mud, and though we number more than
a thousand have all to wash ourselves in a trough a few feet long. Li Hsi-pao (
deposes, in the dpt I saw a native of Shunteli (over 60 years old whose arm had
been fractured by blows and subsequently cured. I also saw there a native of Canton more
than 40 years old and whose back bones had been injured by blows inflicted on account of his
walking slowly. Ho A-slian ()deposes, in the dpt the negro overseer strikes
most frequently the men advanced in age. Wang Ta-cli'eng (deposes, at the
Trocha, when clearing tlie mountains, my leg was broken by a tree. I was conducted back to
the dpt where, after the fracture had partially healed, I was knocked down by the adminis-


(i89 )
trator, the fall causing the injury to resume its original proportions. ClVn A-pao (
deposes, ten old men who were cripples were sent away to tlie country two clays ago on account
of the visit of the Commission being expected. My brother wlio; holding a ceclula,
is unjustly confined in the dpt, was also sent away." Yu A-ssu (and 8
others depose, we originally slept on the ground and our feet were in consequence swollen. On
the visit of the Commission being expected, wooden beds and clothing were issued. Li -nng
(g) deposes, these new clothes were issued yesterday tlie men in chains were also
released yesterday." Lin A-kou ( 5and 21 others depose, when the visit of the
Commission was expected clothing was issued to us. Lin Erli () deposes, <£ wlien tlie
visit of the Commission was expected rations of rice and new clothing were issued." Liu A-lisi
(i deposes, when tlie visit of the Commission was expected rations of rice were issued
XL VIII.
Have the Chinese examined talked freely
The men examined in the dpts, prisons and plantations were selected by the Commission
from a number who, in the first instance, were designated by the functionaries of the respective
establishments. Besides, on the plantations, in most instances the enquiry had to be conducted
under the eyes of the administrator or overseers. Their presence tended to produce intimidation
and reticence nevertheless some did not hesitate to recapitulate tlieir sufferings, to boldly
exhibit their scars, and to hold forward the raw bananas, dried beef ancl maize which were their
food.
The purport of the several depositions, too, constitutes a reply to the point raised in the
query.
[The author of tlie Report interprets tlie query to possibly refer to the permitted attitude
of Chinese under examination by Cuban authorities, as well as to their demeanour
during the interrogation by the Commission, ancl consequently appends the following
extracts :]
Shn San-wn (deposes, a negro who liacl committed a theft having accused
me of being an accomplice, I was imprisoned and sentenced to seven years' confinement.
which I was sentenced has expired but I am still in prison." Lai A-hsi ()deposes,
a native of Polo ()by name Huang A-kuang (having been beaten and
forced to work in chains hanged himself during the night. We laid a charge before
the neighbouring officials. They, however, gave 110 heed to our complaint and the body was
buried without any enquiry being made. We, 23 in all, in view of this wrong renewed the
accusation before an officer of higher rank. The administrator followed us and reached the
office at the same time as we did. A prolonged conversation took place between him and the
official, at the conclusion of which the latter enquired who of us were willing to return to the
plantation, giving an assurance that we would not be chastised ancl lie added that those who


(9
refused would be sold to other plantations. Ten accepted the second alternative I and 12 others
went back to the plantation. Kuan A-hsi ()deposes, our master having dealt a blind
man blows with his fist and wounded his head, we laid a charge before the officials. The latter
u however refused to accept our complaint and placed us in prison." Han Yen-p'ei ()
deposes, on my asking, the administrator for eight monthswages (due me) he beat me. I
preferred a charge before the officials when the latter sent for him lie declared that I had stolen
straw from the stable, ancl I was at once imprisoned." The petition of Tseng Jui-t/o ( J
and 4 others states, after tlie 7th year of Hienfng, the officials, corrupted by the planters,
endeavoured to coerce all of us, irrespective of the date of arrival or the possession of papers, to
enter into fresh contracts, disregarding all remonstance"
XLIX.
Have the Spaniards offered all necessaey facilities
With one exception, the Commission is indebted to the instructions issued bj the late
Captain General, Lieut. General Joyellah, for its admission into the dpt, prison, hospital and
barracoon of Havana, into the dpts, prisons and hospitals of the other towns visited, and into
the plantations at which it prosecuted its enquiry. At the time of quitting Havana for the interior,
letters addressed to the Sub-Commissions of Colonization established in the chief town of each
jurisdiction, were received from Senor Zulueta, then Governor now Mayor of Havana, and
President of the Central Commission of Colonization. The exception indicated was Las Canas,
the plantation of Senor Poey, visited by the Commission on the invitation of the owner.
At the other plantations the Commission was only received after arrangements had been
entered into between the local official and the proprietor.
Whilst the interrogations were proceeding, representatives of the Government occasionally
were present, but they in no way interfered.
No other facilities were afforded by Spaniards of any class.
L.
Has there been any interference or intimidation
The proceedings of the Commission within the dpts, prisons and hospitals of Havana
and the other cities were attended by no difficulties but the depositions show that in the first
of these establishments in expectation of the visits rations of rice, new clothing and even beds,
were supplied to the occupants.
The hours of visiting the plantations were settled in advance by the local officials, and by
them the Commission was occasionally accompanied.
To the proprietors of some plantations the Commission is indebted for the providing of
carriages and hospitality, but the request that the common labourers should be produced for


(6i )
interrogation was constantly met by the excuse that they were at work in the fields, and the
cooks and other domestic servants, in all an inconsiderable number, were offered in their stead,
and when after a long delay a few of the class desired were brought forward, it was urged that
their absence was productive of harm and that the examination should in consequence be as brief
as possible. Ordinarily, too, the administrators and overseers stood t>y whip in hand; hut for-
tunately they attempted no more overt intimidation. It is right however to place on record that
on the plantation "Armonia" in the Matanzas jurisdiction tlie administrator, though lie had con-
sented to tlie examination of thirty labourers, dispersed with, blows and kicks, after ten had been
questioned, the remainder wlio were awaiting interrogation, and only after a prolonged discussion
promised to bring forward a few others on the following morning~a promise fulfilled by the pro-
duction at 4 a.m. of a small number, wlio, also, had to be questioned with the utmost haste.
The following extracts from petitions supply additional information. Liang A-te ()
in service at Matanzas, declares, I last night intended to in person lay my story before the
Commission, but I was dragged back and placed in irons by my employer, and I am in conse-
quence compelled to hand in this written statement." Pan To-li (ij) and 2 others in
service in the neighbourhood of Cardenas declare, hearing of the inquiry which you are institut-
ing we intended to in person present our statement, but our employer said he would only allow
(other) eight men to visit you, and as his severity is great we clicl not clare to disregard the
order and therefore transmit this written petition."
True translation.
MACPHEKSON,
A. HUBEE,
(Signed) A.
(Signed)
Commissioners of Customs.




II.
FRENCH VERSION


Traduction cle la dpche adresse au Yamn par les Commissaires envoys Cuba.
Locier dlgu b.(n et les Directeurs des Douanes Macpherson et Huber ayant
termin leur enqute (sur les conditions des travailleurs Chinois Cuba) adressent cette rponse
Le 10e jour de la 10e lune de la 12e anne de T'ungchih fut reue la communication
suivante : Attendu qu'une enqute doit tre faite sur les conditions des Emigrants Chinois
dans la Colonie Espagnole de Cuba, le Tsung-li Yamn vient de dsigner le mandarin Ch(n
Lanpin, officier charg de la mission d'ducation l'Etranger pour aller faire cette enqute et
a aussi dsign le Directeur des Douanes Hankow Macpherson et le Directeur des Douanes
Tientsin Huber pour l'accompagner, et cette mesure a t approuve par un Dcret Imprial
en date clu 30e jour de la 7e lune de la 12e anne (le 21 Septembre 1873) de Tungchih. En
consquence ce mandarin attendra l'arrive de MM. Macpherson et Huber aux Etats Unis et
ils se rendront ensemble la Colonie Espagnole o ils feront une enqute exacte et complte
ils adresseront ensuite un rapport minutieux qui servira de base pour traiter l'affaire, etc."
Il fut tout d'abord accus rception de cette communication le 12e jour de la 10e lune
(le Ier Dcembre).
Le Directeur des Douanes Huber arriva aux Etats Unis le 26e de la 12e lune (le 12 Fevrier
1874), et le mandarin Chn Lanpin partit avec lui pour la Colonie Espagnole de Cuba le 3e jour
de la iere lune (le 19). Ils arrivrent la Havane le 29e jour cle la ire lune (le 17 Mars) et prirent
leurs logements l'htel o tait le Directeur des Douanes Macpherson.
Le 2e jour de la 2e lune (le 19) une visite fut faite au Capitaine Gnral de Cuba, au
Gouverneur de la Havane, aux principaux membres de la Commission de Colonisation, et ensuite
aux Consuls dAngleterre, de France, des Etats Unis, d'Allemagne, de Sude et Norvge, de
Danemark, cle Hollande, d'Autriche, cle Belgique et d'Italie.
Le 3e jour (le 20) l'enqute fut commence dans le barracon de Mr. Ibanez.
Le 4e jour (le 21) elle fut commence dans le dpt.
Le 5e jour (le 22) elle fut continue dans le barracon.
Du 6e au 11e jour (du 23 au 28) elle fut continue dans le dpt.
Le 13e, le 14e et le 15e jours (le 30 et 31 Mars et le Ier Avril) elle fut continue dans la
prison.
Le 17e et le 18e jours (le 3 et 4 Avril) furent employs visiter la plantation sucre
de Las Canas.
Le 22e jour (le 8) nous nous rendmes Matanzas et pendant les jours suivants nous y
procdmes l'enqute dans le dpt et la prison et dans les plantations sucre des environs San
Cayetano, Concepcion et Armonia.
Le 28e jour (le 14) nous nous rendmes Cardenas et pendant les jours suivants nous y
procdmes l'enqute dans le dpt et la prison et dans les plantations des environs Esperanza,
Kecreo et San Antonio. La ville voisine cle Cimmarones fat aussi l'object d'une visite.