A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature

Material Information

A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature being Johnson and Richardson's Persian, Arabic, and English dictionary revised, enlarged, and entirely reconstructed
Added title page title:
A dictionary, Persian, Arabic and English
Added title page title:
Persian-English dictionary
Steingass, F. J ( Francis Joseph ), 1825-1903
Johnson, Francis, 1796?-1876
Richardson, John, 1741-1811?
Place of Publication:
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
Publication Date:
Multiple languages
2nd impression.
Physical Description:
viii, 1593 p. : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Persian language -- Dictionaries -- English ( lcsh )
dictionary ( marcgt )
فرهنگ لغت
Temporal Coverage:
- 1930
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Iran
آسیا -- ایران
32 x 53


Statement of Responsibility:
by F. Steinglass.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
x180092 ( notis )
460996 ( aleph )
FG ( ddc )


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KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO. Ltd. Broadway House, 68-74, Carter Lane, E.C.

First Edition 1892. Second Impression 1930.

THE lines originally laid down for this Dictionary were, to prepare a revised edition of Johnsons enlargement of Wilkins-Richardsons Persian, Arabic, and English Dictionary, by reducing the Arabic element and increasing the Persian, so as to produce a volume of moderate dimensions and price, specially adapted to the wants of the English Student. While the work was progressing, however, it was found that the mere reduction of the Arabic portion would not suffice to answer the purpose intended. It became evident not only that much that was superfluous had to be eliminated, but that, on the other hand, many additions were urgently required, and furthermore that the material had to be re-arranged on new and distinct principles. At the same time it was soou felt that the fresh matter to be introduced in the Persian part exceeded the limits contemplated, and necessitated in this respect a considerable extension <>f the primary plan. A few remarks on these points will here be useful, and may also convey some idea of the amount of extra labour spent on the compilation of the work beyond that which was originally anticipated.
I. Persian is so deeply imbued with Arabic, and the two languages have, in the course of time, become so intimately connected in the literature of the former, that sooner or later the student of Persian must become a student of Arabic also, if he aspires to take rank as a Persian scholar of real eminence. When this moment has arrived, he will naturally have need of an Arabic dictionary, constructed on a plan most conducive to the acquirement of that language, and based on the knowledge of its grammar. But what he will want until then is a copious Arabic vocabulary, chiefly in relation (to quote Johnsons words) to the indefinite extent to which the best Persian writers avail themselves of the Arabic language, either to enrich their style or to display their erudition. While fully acknowledging the legitimacy of this object it has nevertheless been thought that the accomplished and conscientious scholar who formulated it, in carrying out his task, has partly gone beyond and partly fallen short of his own standard. He himself admits that he retained in his work not only a large number of Arabic words of very questionable usefulness, merely because they had found a place in the former editions, but also added many others which may possibly be foreign to Persian literature, but which may also be found in it, aud of an explanation of which the student may occasionally stand in heed. To justify this somewhat haphazard mode of proceeding, the plea that superfluity appeared preferable to deficiency, would only hold good if this very indictment of deficiency in some essential points could not be urged against his compilation.
It seemed more advisable to restrict the selection to such words as may either reasonably be supposed to occur in Persian authors, or which are actually found in the prescribed text-books, and in those productions of Persian literature, the perusal of which will be most beneficial to the student. In the former direction it appeared to the present author that a collection made by a learned Persian for the use of Persians had a paramount claim to serve as a groundwork for this part of the undertaking. Abdu r-Rashid al-Husaini, the author of a highly-valued Peisian dictionary called the Farhangi Rashidi, has made a collection of this kind under the title of Muntakhabu 1-lughat, dedicated by him to Shah Jahau of Dehli. The following reasons have induced the author to embody the whole of this compilation in the present dictionary :
Abdu r-Rashid professes in the introduction to his work to have made from the Qamus, the Surah, the Sihah, and other sources, a selection of those Arabic words which are necessary (zaruriyah) aud of frequent use (Jcasiratu 1-istimdl), and to have explained them in Persian equally comprehensible to the popular understanding (am-fahm) and approved by the educated (khas-pasandWhat he means by necessary and of frequent use becomes evident from the passages which he quotes in support of his explanations, and which are exclusively taken either from the chief Persian poets,

as Firdausi, An wan, Khaqani. Nizami, Sa'di, Hafiz, &c., or from the Quran and Hadis. This implies that the words selected by him are indispensable to a Persian of a studious turn of mind who is anxious to understand thoroughly the poetry of his own language, or who aspires to an initiation into the knowledge most highly prized by Muhammadans, namely, that of matters theological, moral, and metaphysical, which abounds in quotations from and allusions to the book and the traditions. If, therefore, an acquaintance with such words is considered indispensable to the Persian student, it must be so d fortiori to the student of Persian.
The Muntakhab, however, takes no notice of a large number of Arabic words which have become naturalized in Persian, to such a degree that a Persian of average education needed no explanation on their account. Foremost among these are many current technical and scientific terms. A discreet choice of vocables of this category was considered indispensable, especially in reference to grammatical and metrical terminology, with which a student must make himself acquainted if he wishes to understand the native commentaries on the great Persian poets.
Still greater importance has been placed on including in this dictionary Arabic words in daily use, such as in reality are met with in the best Persian authors from the days of the Shahnamah 99 to the Ruznamahs (Diaries) of the reigning Shah. For this purpose their principal works, especially those read for examination, have been carefully gone through, with the result that the information given by Johnson under many of his Arabic headings has been largely supplemented by instances where the Arabic words enter into Persian phrases of a highly idiomatical character.
There is yet one other point to be noticed with regard to the Arabic element in Persian. Not only isolated words have to be explained, but in numerous cases combinations of words, that is to say, sentences or parts of sentences, either in quoting verbatim, or more frequently in merely alluding to, passages of the Quran, the Traditions, and even of celebrated Arabic poems. To give a rather striking example, the Persian poet Minuchihri introduces in one of his odes the beginning of the Mu'allaqah of Imru 1-Qais : qifd nabki, stay ye two (friends or travelling companions) so that we may weep (in remembrance of the beloved, &c.). The reader who would try to puzzle this out with the aid of Johnsons dictionary would find for qafd (we must remember that in the printed texts the short vowels are not indicated) the equivalent neck, and for nabk or nabak (here again the final short i does not count) the rendering hills. Arabic plurals being frequently used as singular in Persian, he therefore might translate the neck of the hill, and thus, speaking figuratively, find himself fairly landed in the wilderness. Only an intimate knowledge of Arabic grammar, which he must either possess himself, or which his dictionary must supply instead, can teach him that, in the first word, the initial and, in the second, the final of the root is suppressed, and that they belong respectively to the radicals w-q-f standing, stopping, staying, and b-k-y weeping, while the a at the end of qifd and the n at the beginning of nabki are extraneous signs of inflection.
It may be objected that this is an extreme case, and that Minuchihri, although a distinguished Persian poet, is not likely to be read by a student. Granted! But in the Sikandarnfima of Nizami, in the Gulistan and Bostan of Sadi, in the Diwan of Hafiz, in the Anwari Suhaili, II. As for the Persian part, great obligations are primarily due and gratefully acknowledged to the excellent Persian-Latin Dictionary, published by Yullers in about 2,500 quarto pages. With infinite diligence the learned author has overhauled the Persian lexicographical sources from which his predecessors, Johnson included, had worked before him, giving their explanations in the original, and adducing numerous supporting passages from them and his own collectanea. It lay, of course, outside the scope of the present work to follow him in this latter respect, but his results, as far as they

contained additional matter, were adopted, after Raving been in all cases verified, in some cases rectified, and supplemented with the necessary translation in other instances,, where he omits to give the Latin equivalent for a Persian word or phrase, but contents himself with quoting the Persian text. By no means the least important feature of his work is the extensive use he has made of the Bahari Ajam, one of the more recent Persian Dictionaries compiled in India, and including many modern phrases, metaphors, &c. not to be found in any other lexicon. Owing, however, to the circumstance that that book did not reach Vullers hand until the greater part of his first volume had been printed, he could not avail himself of the contents of its first 457 pages, and the very copious extracts given from this source in our Dictionary form not only an essential complement to Vullers, but an entirely new contribution to Persian lexicography on European soil. Other recent publications, consulted with advantage, are the Persian Dictionary Farhangi Nasirl, and Schlimmers Termiuologie medico-pharmaceutique Franfaise-Persane, both lithographed in Teheran, the former in 1871, the latter in 1874.
It need scarcely be mentioned that the course of reading undertaken to define the Arabic portion of this dictionary was equally productive in augmenting the Persian part, and it can be stated without exaggeration that thousands of words have been added from this source alone. Many of these are taken from Mirza Jafars translation of modern Plays, originally written in Turkish, a translation which, on account of its thoroughly idiomatic phraseology, has, in successive instalments within the last ten years, been re-edited, with notes and vocabularies, in England, France, and Germany. A larger and more important amount, however, has been gleaned from the Shahs Diaries of his first two journeys to Europe in 1873 and 1878. Here we see Persia, in the person of its Sovereign, brought into immediate contact with the advanced civilization of the West; and as this Sovereign happens to be an exceptional!} keen observer, who turned the immense opportunities afforded to him by his exalted position to the best account, his impressions, penned down on the spur of the moment, could not fail to enrich and fertilise the language of his country, which he uses with such unpretending ease and forcible directness.
III. There are a few more words to be said about the general arrangement of the book, in order to facilitate its use. It would have been impossible to introduce so much additional matter if all the entries under the principal headings had been given in the Oriental character as well as in transliteration. The latter had, therefore, to be framed not with a view to the exact pronunciation of the words, which in any language can only be acquired to perfection by oral teaching, but to give accurate equivalents for the graphical form of the consonants and vowels peculiar to the language in question.
To render the consonants of the Arabic-Persian alphabet in the Roman character, as employed in English, five compounds had to be need, namely ch for g, gh for kh for if eh for J5*, and zh (pronounced like s in vision) for Eight letters are distinguished by diacritical points, namely h for c, ? for s for v>, t for b, z for 5, z for and z for h. The Greek spiritus lenis (*) and spiritus asper (c) very appropriately represent *1 ([alif-hamzah) and £ respectively, and m has been chosen to express the letter o before a labial. In the comparatively few cases where sh and zh are to be pronounced as separate letters, a mark is placed between (sfh or zfi), showing that the 8 or z terminates one syllable, and the aspirated h begins another.
The original Persian vowel-system is that of Sanskrit, with exclusion of the semivowel fif which is peculiar to the latter. It consists of the three elementary vowels a, if ut as pronounced in pat, pit, put respectively (in the Arabic-Persian character fathah , kasrah zammah ); their long forms a, i, u, as in father, police, prude (V.1, f ))t and their combination to mixed vowels and diphthongs, c (a + i) as in where, o (a + u) as lu more, both in Persian writing not distinguished from i and u; ai (d *f i) as in aisle, and au (a 4- it) as in German, i.e. like ou in stout and *1). This etymological groundwork of the system, and it alone, determines our transliteration, leaving, as said before, the question of the actual pronunciation at the present day, especially of the short vowels, to the grammar and the instruction of a competent teacher whose proper domain it is. As for the representation of ^ and j, when used as consonants, the transliteration of the latter by w instead of v has been preferred on account of the analogy with y, except at the end of a Persian syllable or word, where v is written to indicate the somewhat stronger articulation of the letter in this case.
The same need of compactness made it further necessary to unite all the different Words of the same consonantal outline, which are distinguished merely by their vocalisation, under one heading. Many articles assumed thereby an almost inordinate length; but

in order to furnish the reader with a thread leading him safely through the apparent labyrinth, any shorter or longer string of constructions and phrases belonging to one word has been included in crotchets, thus [ ], so that, whenever the student meets with this sign, before the explanations given have satisfied his want, he has only to run dowu the column to the conclusion of the crotchet, when he will find another interpretation of the same outline with a different spelling and meaning, perhaps more in accordance with the exigencies of his text, and so on until the end of the article is reached. A similar use has been made of parentheses, thus (), where the same phrase may be expressed in various ways, by substituting one noun or verb for another, in which case any of the words thus bracketed may take the place of the word immediately preceding the parenthesis.
Throughout the book a strictly alphabetical order has been observed, in accordance with the following simple rules:
1. Compounds have been given as much as possible in their proper order, unless
they serve as examples under one or the other of their components.
2. Any single noun forming part of a beading is first followed by such izdfat
constructions and phrases as begin with this noun in the order of the initial of the succeeding word; then by those in which the noun has a preposition or another noun in front, in the order of this preceding element.
o. With regard to the izdfat constructions of Arabic words, those in which the governed noun has the definite article al are given in their alphabetical order in the place assigned to the article, that is to say, at or near the beginning, while in absence of the article the initial of the noun itself determines the order. This has been done not only for the sake of maintaining the
alphabetical principle in all its strictness, but also in order to show the
student at. one glance in which combinations the Arabic or Persian construction is more usual. Neither in this nor in other respects was a uniform principle of arrangement consistently adhered to by Johnson, whence arose the necessity of reconstruction, as mentioned on the title-page, and entailing an amount of labour which only one well versed in these matters can appreciate.
Words of foreign origin are indicated by capital initials in front of the article, as A. for Arabic, G. for Greek, H. for Hindi, M. for Mongolian, T. for Turkish, R. for Russian. Where merely an Arabic element, either as member of a compound or as a formative, combines with the Persian, or where a word is common to both languages
without proof positive to which it belongs originally, a small a has been prefixed, and
so, mutatit* mutandis, in the same case with regard to other languages. The indication (m.c.) for modern colloquialism after a phrase, shows that it has been taken from recent writings, and does not necessarily imply that it is of modem make, but simply that it is in actual conversational use, while for all that it may be a Persian idiom already employed by Firdausi, or an Arabic importation as old as Islam itself.
It is hoped that this Dictionary will justify its claim to comprehensiveness. It is not and cannot be complete. The complete dictionary of any language has yet to be written. It far exceeds the powers of any single individual, and depends for its realisation on the modest, although imperial, motto, viribus unitis. The authors only ambition was to advance the work close to the point at which the practical adoption of this motto, with regard to Persian, becomes a necessity, and should be seriously contemplated by Oriental societies and congresses.
In conclusion, I have to express my warmest thanks to Mr. Frederic Pincott for his careful revision of the proofs, as well as for many a valuable hint on various important points, of which I have gladly availed myself; and to his well-trained printers, for their intelligent and patient industry in setting up the copy, which I am afraid must frequently have proved a most trying task.

\ alify the first letter of the Arabic and Persian alphabets, in arithmetic represents the number one, and in almanacks and astronomical books, Sunday and Taurus. It also denotes an unmarried man. In writing it serves as a prop for the vowel-signs: \ a, \ i, \ ut )\ u, o, auf ly By ai;\ af at the beginning of some Persian words, denotes privation, as ajum-bany Motionless. Prefixed to an Arabic sentence, it serves as a particle of interrogation, as in the Coranic phrase alastu bi-rabbi-kunty ** Am I not your Lord ? whence the Persian jm rozi alast, q.v.
At the end of Persian words it marks the vocative, as in shdhdy O Shah, or it serves as a prosodial expletive in poetry, notably in the oldest parts of Firdausis great poem.
] df (S. a) Preposition inseparably joined to verbs; (Imperative and contracted participle of dmadan} aidan) Come.
vd aby (S. ap) Water; river ; largesse, gift, price; (S. abhd) lustre, splendour; honour, degree, dignity; power, glory, prosperity; grace, elegance ; mercy, pity ; custom, habit, fashion, mode, rule ; quicksilver ; (met.) Pearl, jewel, gem; brilliant sword ; bashful, abashed ; fellow-traveller ; perfect soul, universal intellect. This word is much used in forming compounds, and metaphorical expressions ; abi dbistan (pregnant water), Tears of a lover, wine, blood (abi dbistani diidan, To fertilize ground) ;abi dtish-rang or abi dtish-zay, Wine ; tears of grief or anger ;abi dtieh zadah, Tears;db atish shud, The water
boiled; a tumult was raised;abi dtish-mizajy Bed wine;abi atish-numay, Wine; tears of grief;abi atishnaky Red wine ; abi dtishiny Wine ; tears of blood;abi djdm, Water stagnating in a reed-bank; moor, marsh;abi ajimary Wine from dates -or grapes; the Red Sea;Tibi azar, Red wine ; tears;abi azarsa, Wine ; tears of grief;abi arghawdni, Red wine ; tears of sorrow;db az jigar bakhshidan, Give, bestow ; db) az dahani gal chidant To make love;db az dlda pak kardant To wipe away ones tears, to dismiss uneasiness of mind;abi istaddy A pool, ditch, stagnant water;abi afsurddy Cold or congealed water, ice, jelly of meat, fish, 1

S->T ( 2 ) C,r>T
root of decayed walnut-treesbi-lijam khwurdan. or dbi bl-ligam khwurdan, To be independent, and subject to no control ; abi blni, Water running from the nose, snivel;abi pukhtah, Broth, jelly ; boiled water; a&i pusht, Water of the back, spinal marrow, semen genitale;db takhtan, To urine ;abi talc, Wine ;abi talkh. Wine; the tears of a disconsolate lover;abi tang, A shallow ;abi jawidan, Water of life; abi jigar-khun. Tears of grief ;abi josh, Soda-water (m.c.) ;abi chashm, Tears ; abi haram, Wine; love abi hasrat, Water
of desire : wish, appetite, longing; tears of desperation ;abi haya (khajlat, khijdlat, sharm), Tears of shame, regret, or confusion ;dbi hay at, or abi haiwan, Water of life, immortality ; pure, spiritual discourse ; divine love ; the conversation of a friend ;dbi haiwan guwar (guhar), Water which has the wholesomeness or nature of the water of life;dbi khdtir. Purity of thought; brilliancy of imagination ;dbi kharabat, Wine;dbi khasaq. Juice of safflower (see ;abikhazan, Autumnal
rains;dbi khushk, Glass, crystal, a decanter ;dbi khizr, Water of Khizr (Elias), the fountain of which he is said to have drunk and obtained immortality ; inspired wisdom; dbi khufta, Congealed water; snow, ice; glass, crystal; a sword in the sheath ;ab khwurdan, To relent, to subside (anger) ; to make haste ;dbi khwurshedT The water of life; dbi khwush khwurdan. To live at ease; ab dadan, To give water, to steep; to sharpen, make brilliant, harden steel; to enliven; ab dar jigar, Intoxication; greatness, opulence;ab dar jigar ddshtan, To become intoxicated, to be opulent; db dar jigar na-darad, He is poor ;db dar juy, Water in the river; prosperity, victory, honour, authority; freedom from care; db dar juy amadan, To become opulent and prosperous; to regain prosperity ; to be invested with authority ; db dar juy na-mdnad, Fortune departs; db dar chashm ddshtan, To be modest, shame-faced ; db dar chize kardan, To adulterate, to cheat;db dar dil shudan, To experience heartfelt joy ;db dar dahdnash amad, His mouth watered; he desired ardently ;db dar dlda ddshtan, To possess a delicate sense of honour; db dar ziri kdh ddshtan, To work in the dark; db dar sar ddshtan, db dar shakar dash-tan, To be in a weak and declining state ;db dar hdwan Sudan (koftan), To bray water in a mortar, (met.) to act foolishly; to be uselessly employed ; dbi damaah, Snivel;dbi danddn, Water of the teeth, spittle, whiteness or cleanness of teeth ; (met.) peoples talk ;dbi danddni harlfe awardan, To make ones enemys mouth to water ; needlessly to excite hos-
tility against ones self;dbi dandan-shi-kan, Exceedingly cold water;dbi dahan, dbi dahan, Water of the mouth, saliva; a longing desire;dbi dldah, Water of the eyes, tears;dbi dida'ijam, A draught of wine;dbi rukh, Water of the cheek, i.e. honour;dbi raz (razan), Wine from grapes;db raftan, To lose ones dignity ; abi ruknabad, or dbi rukni, Name of a fountain near Shiraz ;dbi rang, Water-colour, coloured water, paint; a sketch or outline of a picture ;dbi rangin, Red wine ; tears of blood;dbi ru, Freshness of countenance (see dbi ruy below);dbi rawdn, Running water; a spring; ether; a sort of very fine muslin ;dbi rosh, Beauty, elegance, splendour; usage, custom; dbi raughan, Oil, butter, fat of broth, liquid grease ;dbi ruy, Water of the face, sweat; lustre, brightness of countenance, gracefulness, dignity of mien; reputation, renown, glory, honour, estimation; rank, office, station ;dbi ruy dadan (kardan), To honour;dbi ruy rekhtan, To disgrace; to lose ones honour;db rekhtan, To dishonour ; to be ashamed or disgraced;db zadan, To extinguish, to quell, to appease; to sprinkle the house in honour of guests ; dbi zar, Liquid gold ; white wine ; saffron ;dbi zuldl, Pure, limpid water;dbi zindarud, The river Zindarud ;dbi zinda-gdni (zindagl), Living water, the water of eternity or youth, a fabulous fountain so called ;abi zahra, Wine; morning light, heat, splendour; dbi subha, The splendour of Gods glory ;dbi sabuk, Digestive water ;dbi surkh, Red wine; dbi sard, A gelatine of fish or meat; dbi siyah (dbi siyah), Black water; a disease of the eye producing blindness; the waters of the Deluge;db shudan, To melt; to become ashamed or divested of honour ; to grow obsolete ;abash roshan ast, He possesses splendour, power, honour, opulence;dbi thaqaiq, Wine; blood; abi shangarfl, Red wine ; tears of grief; dbi shor, Brackish water, tears of grief; dbi tabaristan, Name of a fountain on a mountain in Tabaristan, which, it is said, ceases to flow when a noise is made, and flows immediately again when it is over; dbi tabariyah, Name of a fountain which flows and becomes dry alternately for the space of seven years;dbi tarab, Wine; dbi t[inat, The watered clay from which the human body was formed ;dbi araq, Rosewater ; dbi ishrat, dbi (asir, dbi linab, Wine ;dbi iaisawi kesh, Water which has the power of Isa, i.e. which vivifies, revives ; dbi ghurbat (safar), Tears shed in foreign lands, in exile, in travelling ;dbi ghamdm, Rain-water; dbi ghurah, The juice of sour grapes, or other unripe fruit; dbi fitna, Tumult, commotion;dbi fltna tira

( 3
sbawad, The tumult subsides ;abi fusur-dah, Glass, crystal; a sword, or dagger;
abi kdr, Beauty, elegance, splendour, dignity; usage, custom;abi kabud (blue water), The Persian Sea, the sea of China; a damasked sword ;-^abi kurd, Water whose colour, smell, and taste have not undergone any change ;db kardan, To track, to find a track (m.c.) ;ab kusbddan, To let out the water formed about a horses foot; abi kusbada, Weak, poor wine ;abi kuma, a dark-coloured and fetid water found in a certain fish, and applied in cases of fracture;abi kausar, The river Kausar in Paradise, said to flow with milk or nectar ;
abi gardanda, The revolving heavens; abi garm, Warm water; a hot bath; abi girya, Tears of grief ;ab gashtan, To become water, to be dissolved;abi gul-zar-rang, Red wine ; abi gosht, Gravy, broth ;abi lutf, Bounty, liberality ;abi lall, Wine ; tears of blood ;abi murabdnf Name of a place of recreation in the environs of Shiraz, frequented every Tuesday during the month of Rajab ; name of a fountain in Kohistan, the waters of which, wherever carried, are followed by a kind of starling that devours locusts ; abi mnrwarld, The purity of a pearl; a pearl, or white speck in the eye;abi mar yam, Probity, honour, chastity; new wine;abi ma'dani, Mineral water (ra.c.) ;abi mu-gban, Wine ;abi munjamid, or abi mun-*aqid, Snow, ice, sleet; crystal, glass ; a scimitar, a poniard ;abi mai-gun, Tears of grief;abi nar, Red wine ; abi narwdn,
A lovers tears; wine; blood ;abi naf, Sperm;abi nafi*, Red wine;abi nabat, The juice or sap of any vegetable; db na-khwurdan. To allow of no delay, to lose no time; abi nashdt, Semen genitale ; db nosbidan, To drink water ; to be stupefied, astonished, benumbed;
db u dtish, Mildness and irascibility;
db u dtish shudan, To have a mild and irascible temper;db u dana<, Means of subsistence; db u rang, Freshness and moisture; wine ; tears of grief;db u gil, Water and clay, i.e. the human frame; db u bawd, Water and air; climate, atmosphere ;abi bind, The Indus;abi yaqut, Red wine ;abi yakh, Iced water ;ba db anddkhtan, To launch (a ship) ; (met.) to remove, to put away;bar db amadan, To become manifest, to be divulged ;bar db guftan, To speak readily, to answer ;bar rui db amadan, To be divulged;ba-kari db budan, To indulge in wine-drinking;dar db faru shudan, (met.) To be annihilated, to perish ; to vanish.
db (in Zand and Pazand), Father.
a db, The Syro-Macedonian month of August.
a s-d ab, A father;abb, Grass, pas-
) ^
turage (answering the same purpose for cattle as fruit for man).
a dbaJ (pi. of ab), Fathers, ancestors;dbdi-'ulwi, Sublime fathers, i.e. the nine heavens,or seven planets;abd' iu?tsuri, Bodily fathers ;dbdi ma?iawl, Intellectual or spiritual fathers, i.e. preceptors; abd, ibd, 6 ibdat, Refusing, rejecting, abominating; with kardan or nnmudan, To refuse ;abd (pi, of abdat), Reed or reeds ; cane of which sacking or matting is made.
\i\ abd, Strange, wonderful;(for 1) bd) With;abd or ibd, Spoon meat, soup, bread ;abdi gulu-gir (throat-tickling or choking soup), Worldly joy or sorrow ; joy at the death of an enemy ;ibd, A pair; two oxen in a yoke.
a abab (v.n. of Preparing for
a journey ; getting in readiness.
a ababil, A kind of bird, an owl,
bustard, swallow ;abablli siydh, Swifts.
fWI s-T dbajdm, A place abounding in reeds.
a ibdhat (v.n. 4 of Permitting, giving liberty ; rendering lawful.
a ababiyat, Name of a certain sect. abad, A city, building, habitation; cultivated, peopled, full of buildings and inhabitants; replenished, well filled (treasury) ; an open plain; good, elegant, fair, beautiful, convenient; the Kaba or square temple at Mecca; salutation, congratulation ; praise, eulogium, well done! bravo!
(abad amadi, you are welcome) ; name of the first prophet sent to Persia; when added to a noun it denotes a city or place of abode, as allahabad, &c. q.v. ;abad kardan, To cultivate, render delightful, improve, recreate, refresh.
dbaddn, Nearly synonymous with but more emphatic than abad, and never used in forming compounds; name of a, city at the mouth of the Tigris ;dbaddn shudan, To be inhabited; abound;abadan kardan, To build, cultivate, make habitable ; ihya u abadan kardan, To revive, refresh, exhilarate.
abadani, Cultivated, populous, pleasant; population, cultivation.
abadanidan, To cause to inhabit, to cultivate; to praise.
abadaldan, To praise. a ibadat (v.n. 4 of Ju?), Putting to death, exterminating.
^5**^ abad-kisbti, One whose bark is over-freighted.
_ dbadi, Pleasantness ; a follower of
Abad or Mahdbdd, the first prophet sent to Persia, and alleged author of the Dasatir.
abadiyan (pi. of the previous), sect of the Abadians; fit to be inhabited ; flourishing communities.
dbadi kdghiz, Silk paper. dbdr, also abar, Burnt lead (good for

V (
wounds and bruises) ;(for awar, awarah), A register, an account of daily expenses.
a abdriq (pi. of ibrlq), Ewers;
bright swords.
a ibdrat (v.n. 4 of Destroying, ruining.
dbar-glr, An accountant, a clerk.
A j>^\ abdzlr (pi. of abzar), Aromatics, spices, sweet herbs or roots for seasoning meat.
L-Jj ol db-asyd, A water-mill.
ubdsh, ubdsha (=aubdsh, q.v.),
Mob, &c.
a ^b^ ibdz, A rope with which the foot of a camel is tied up to his arm.
ibdziyat, A sect of Muhammadan schismatics, named after its founder Ibaz.
a ^e\i\ abatih (pi. of abtah, q.v.), Low-lying, gravelly grounds, A abatll (pi. of bdtil), Trifles,
vanities, follies.
£bl ahdah. A mark by burning; name of a place.
aihdghulusT Name of a medicinal
abdghurus, Name of a Greek philosopher, perhaps corrupted from Anaxagoras.
abaft, A kind of coarse soft cloth.
a jb^ ibdq (v.n. of Running away (as a slave) ; withdrawing, absconding ; ubbdq, Runaway slaves (pi. of dbiq, q.v.).
A ubdl, Camels (pi. of ibil, q.v.).
a Sb^ ibbdlat, A bundle of grass or hay ; a herd or flock of camels, sheep, oxen, horses, or birds; a string of them following each other.
ibdlah, A privy, urinal.
rW ubam, A tower, fortress; a pigeon-house ; a sign of the Zodiac;(for dwarn or warn), Debt, loan.
, t>b^[ dbdn (pi. of db, water), Name.of the
eighth month of the Persian year, during which the sun continues in Scorpio; name of the tenth day of any Persian month ; name of a certain angel, whom the Pagan Persians supposed to preside over iron, and over the actions performed during the month or on the day above mentioned ;ibdn, A pair, a brace.
a 0bt ibbdn, A convenient time, a proper season ; the beginning or first of anything; 6, ibanat (v.n. 4 of <&*), Making clear, known, manifest; clearness, distinctness in speaking.
db-anddz, A planner or measurer of the dimensions of aqueducts.
dcb-anddm, Of a fair complexion and a graceful form ; splendour, brightness, neatness.
s^bbl dbdn-gdh, Name of the tenth day of the month Farwardln; name of an angel said to preside over water.
ibdni, Broth ; a large dish.
) I&aJ)
dbanldan, To praise.
^ db-award, Carried away by a torrent ; froth, foam.
<^\ abay, A horse-cloth, obbl dbdydn, Name of a mountain whose height is said to be forty parasangs.
(^b ab-bdrdn, Name of an agreeable
place in Kabul, near to Khwaja sih varan, jb sA db-bazy A swimmer.
^5jb db-bdziy Water-sporting, swim-
yijl -rA db-baririy The bank of a river constantly being undermined by its current.
(jjUb db-pashdn, Name of a Persian festival, on which occasion each one sprinkles rose-water on his neighbour.
^b ^ db-pashi, A sprinkling of water ; irrigation.
q\j£-s> db-paikardny The stars, constel-
lations ; the brightness of the thirty-six stars called wujuh by the astronomers. s-bb\ dbtdby Splendour.
dbtabahy A ewer, water-pot, or
cuba! ibtdt (v.n. 4 of cU>), Divorcing irrevocably.
db-takht. Urine ; forcing of water. A ibtidd (v.n. 8 of Beginning, commencing ; originating ; an exordium ; ibtidd'ariy In the beginning, first place; ibtidd kardan, To begin.
a ibtidd1 (v.n. 8 of £*M), Producing
something new; inventing, contriving, altering, innovating (in matters of religion).
a ibtizal (v.n. 8 of JA>), Being care-
less in the preservation of anything; employing (a garment, &c.) for daily or common use.
a f*\ abtar, Docked ; one who has no offspring to survive him ; a loser ; poor, destitute ; devoid of all good qualities, full of defects, worthless; a deadly serpent with a short train ; a basket or bucket without a handle; a kind of verse.
A ibtisdm (v.n. 8 of ^>), Being
cheerful, smiling.
a ibtighd' (v.n. 8 of ^>), Seeking, wishing, coveting ; behoving.
a ibtikdr (v.n. 8 of yb), Rising,
coming, going, or doing a thing in the morning; receiving or producing the first-fruits; ripening, come to maturity; bearing a male at the first birth ; deflowering a virgin.
abtagan, Master of a family ; a
ibtild* (v.n. 8 of jb), Trying, proving, ascertaining the truth ; being affected with misfortune, becoming indisposed or vexed.
a ibtild* (v.n. 8oS^?), Swallowing;

a ibtilul (v.n. 8 of j*), Being
a ibtina (v.n. 8 of ^), Constructing an edifice.
a ibtiha (v.n. 8 of *^), Being ac-
customed, familiar.
a iblihaj (v.n. 8of gtf), Being glad; gladness, joy, exultation.
a ibtihul (v.n. 8 of J^>), Lament-
ing, deprecating, being sincere in prayer; ibtihdlana, Humbly, submissively, in a supplicating manner, imploringly.
a ibtiyd (v.n. 8 of Purchas-
ing, buying.
abitin, abtin, Name of the father of Farldun, the seventh king of Persia of the Peshdadian dynasty.
db-jdmah, A washing-tub, bathing vessel, wash-hand bason ; a bowl, water-glass, or drinking-cup.
a abjad, Arrangement of the Arabic
alphabet, according to the numeral value of the letters from one to a thousand, as follows :
kalaman huttl hawwaz abjad
O O O O 0 05 00 lO ^ CO (M 11 is. so ^ CO CM H
jo:* zazigh sakhiz qarashat fjailJU 8afas
o o o o o o O 05 00 H o o o o o o NCO o o o o o o o o -f W(NH o o o o 05 00 to
abjadi tajrld nawishtan, To abandon the world, to devote ones self wholly to God ; abjad-khwdn, One learning his alphabet. /?db-jar, Ebb-tide. fr.'S ab-ju, A rivulet.
ab-josh, Gravy; name of a fruit. aback, A butt for archers ; an agricultural implement.
lysr.l ab-chard, A light repast taken before making a regular meal, a whet; food of genii, fairies, wild beasts and birds.
^5^0- ab-chashl, Giving drink to a
child, when about six months old, preparatory to weaning him.
ab-chin, A towel or cloth, with which they wipe the bodies of the dead ; or which is used in the bath.
a abhar, f*.\ ab\ur (pi. of bahr),
Jck'.I abhul, Name of a king of Jfibulsa. j^.\ abkhdz, Name of a country in Turk-istan, the inhabitants of which are said to be very ferocious.
db-khdna, A water-closet, cess-pool, or gutter ; an aqueduct; a place for keeping water.
a abkhirat (pi. of bukhdir), Va-
pours, exhalations; raviug, delirium. fijdcOj dbkhara^f^ q.v. ov-db-kha8tr A water-melon, a cucumber ; fruit acid and washy; evil-
5 )
hearted, wicked; an island uninhabitable on account of its putrid water.
abkhal. More, most, or very avaricious, or miserly.
ab-kho, An uninhabited islet in a
Cy=0 abkhukh, Wry-faced ; spittle; name of a country.
db-khtvur. ab-khwar. A drinker of water; a late, pool, or ditch ; a fountain head ; a watering-place on a rivers bank ; a cucumber (as being a watery vegetable); lot, destiny, good fortune ; splendour; subsistence ;db-khwuri dtishi, A drinker of wine; bloodthirsty ; the eye of one stricken with grief.
db-khwurd. Good fortune; fate, lot; a dwelling, residence, settlement; delay, bait.
ab-khwura q.v.
db- khwurl. A watering-place on a rivers hank.
abkhwusd. Melilot, bugloss.
ab-khtvust. ab-khwast, A cucumber, a water-melon ; an island, an uninhabited and uninhabitable isle; a rivulet; any hollow channel excavated by the water.
^ ab-khun, An islet uninhabited and uninhabitable.
db-khez, A spring, an issue of water ; springy ground, where water is found after digging a little depth ; flow of the tide ; a wave ; a canal, aqueduct, conduit.
a J*\ abad (v.n.), Eternity without end (opposed to azal, eternity without beginning), perpetuity ; of one years age or growth ; abadan, Eternally ; never.
a ibddy (v.n. 4 of *laj), Beginning, inventing, innovating, producing, creating, solo ab-dada, Tempered (steel).
db-dar, Watery, moist, juicy; of a good water (as a diamond or a sword) ; a keeper of water, a servant whose office is to keep water cool; keen, sharp; glancing, dazzling, resplendent; flowing (verse) ; a sociable and convivial man; a man of understanding, reflection or wealth ; a species of plant resembling the fibres of a palm-tree.
&U- ab-dar-khana. A repository of
ab-dari, Freshness, brilliancy. a ibdd (v.n. 4 of £**?), Producing,
bringing out, publishing something new, halting, limping (as cattle from fatigue) ; dragging heavily (a vehicle).
a Jlajl abddl (pi. of badal or bidl), Substitutes ; certain persons by whom God continues the world in existence (their number is seventy, of whom forty reside in Syria and thirty elsewhere; when any one of them dies his place is filled up by some one selected from among the rest of man-

J* ( 6
kind); subsequently the word has been employed to signify a hermit, a monk or (religious) novice, a saint, enthusiast, pretender to inspiration; a vagabond ;ibddl (v.n. 4 of J*^), Changing, exchanging, substituting one thing for another.
J^a*\ abdali, Of or relating to an abddl or devotee.
abdam (for andam), The body.
<^a*\ abdan, A vessel for holding water; a cistern, or any reservoir of water, as a lake, ditch, or bath; the urine-bladder; a melon, a cucumber, as being full of juice;
abdan, A family, a great tribe ; worthy ;
abadan, Cultivated, populous, inhabited.
A qIa^ abdan (pi. of badan), Bodies.
^ajT abadani, Population, cultivation.
a*j-oa>^ abad-paiwand, Eternal, connected with eternity.
pjA>^ ibdaram (S. abhidharma), Name of the book of Sakyamuni or Buddha.
ab-duzdak, A syringe, a squirt. ab-dast, The ablution or washing of the hands, face, and other parts, with certain ceremonies used by the Muhammadans before prayer; devotion ; a devout man; dexterous, clever-handed, skilful; prosperous.
ab-dastan or ab-dasdan
(for (^a c^~a ab-dast-dan), A ewer, any vessel from which water is. poured upon the hands ; a wash-hand bason; purification ; custom ; fraud.
^AibwA^ ab-dastan-ddr, A ewer-holder. abdasi-jay, A privy. a*\ abad-shahr, The eternal city, the future world; name of a river; name of a city.
CjaA abdan (for <^a>T[ abdan), A pond, lake, conflux of water; a drinking-vessel; a cucumber, a water-melon.
abdandan, Weak; strong, firm; fit, congruous; base, mean ; rude, raw, ignorant, inexperienced ; a gambler who is always unsuccessful; a species of pomegranate and pear ; any fruit that soon dissolves in the mouth; a tree, herbage; a kind of sweetmeat.
S$a*\ ubduj, A saddle-cloth, a felt cloth.
#a^ abda (probably from Ar. &a^ vagaries of a poet), Silly talk, delirium, dotage ; lie.
8a sA ab-dih, Splendour-giving;abdihi dast, One who graces the chief seat, Muhammad.
a abadl, Eternal; for ever and ever.
a a>a>\ abadlyat, Eternity.
fW- a>a ab-dldi jam, Wine, or a draught.
8a>a>^ ab-dlda, In tears, weeping.
abzdn, Worthy; a household,
abr (S. abhra), A cloud; a man, as opposed to woman;abr budan, To be
) j
cloudy ;abri dzur, November clouds ; abri rugdll, A swift-flying cloud; abri sa-harJ, Morning clouds ;abri ser or abri 8er db, A cloud full of water;abri sumbul-gun, A black cloud;abri turwash (a Sinai-resembling cloud), A strong and largebodied horse;abri kuhan, or abri murda, A sponge ; abri naisan, Vernal clouds ; cold rain ;ba abr girifta, Cloudy ;abar (for j) bar), On, upon, above; according to ; the bosom; a kind of lute; confections, preserved fruits ; the curved part of a bow; an artery ; (in Zand and Pazand) penis.
a abr (v.n.), Pricking with the point of the tail (a scorpion) ; giving (a dog) a needle in (his) food ; fructifying the female palm-tree by the sprinkling of the flowers of the male; ibar (pi. of ibrat, q.v.), Needles, \y.\ abr a, The outside of a garment or cap, see abra.
a ibrd (v.n. 4 of *fy) Liberating, dis-
charging, delivering from danger ; healing, restoring to health ;ibrd'i zimmah, Release from responsibility, quittance from obligation; a safe conduct.
a ibrdh (v.n. 4 of c^)> Honourable, magnifying ; causing surprise ; giving pleasure; injuring.
a a\j>V ibrad (v.n. 4 of a^), Bringing (any thing) cold; presenting cooled liquor; experiencing cold weather; sending a Berid or courier.
abr dr (pi. of barr), Just, holy, pious, dutiful;ibrdr (v.n. 4 of }?), Accepting, justifying; swearing an oath according to truth; travelling in the desert; overcoming, conquering.
A jV' abraz (for abzar, pi. of bazr), Spices;ibrdz (v.n. 4 of rf), Producing, publishing, bringing out;ihtijdj u ibrdz awardan, To adduce proofs and documents.
a ibras (v.n. 4 of a ibrdz (pi. of barz), Few ;ibrdz
(v.n. 4 of ufy), Producing young grass, just sprouting above ground.
a s3^\ ibraq (v.n. 4 of jy), Casting forth lightning (the sky) ; giving false signs of pregnancy (a camel); pouring water on oil.
A fV' ibram (v.n. 4 of tf), Twisting tight; wearying, disgusting ; urgency, importunity ; making a garment of doubly-twisted threads ;ibram numudan, To molest, to importune.
a\f[\ db-rana, Travelling by water.
ab-rah, A canal, conduit, pipe, aqueduct, water-course, channel of a river; any place through which water flows.
a ibraham, Abraham.

( 7 ) J
A ibrdhim, ibrahum, or ibrdham,
A. ibrahum, Abraham.
ab-raha, A water-course; a lachrymal auct.
a ibrdhim, The patriarch Abraham;
Zoroaster; name of a mountain in Kara-mania.
j>\ abr-bakhshish. Liberal, generous. abr poshan, A clouded sky.
A ibrat, A needle; the sting of a
scorpion; the point of anything; tip of the elbow, or of the hough of a horse.
a abraj, One who has fine handsome eyes.
abrajan, A bracelet; an anklet.
a abr ad, Colder, coldest, very cold
(du. abraddn, The two colds, i.e. the morning and the evening) ; a cloud showering hailstones; speckled white and black (a bull) ; a male leopard;abu *l-abrad, Name of a follower of Muhammad;humma abrad, The cold fit of an ague;abrud (pi. of burd), Striped stuffs; upper garments.
j)\ abr-dast, Liberal, open-handed.
A abrash, Dapple-gray, pie-bald
(horse) ; spotted red and whiteabrashi khwurshed. The sky.
abrasham, Silk, sewing silk. abrashaml, A silk merchant; a silkworm ; silken.
abar-shahr (high town, or abr-shahr, town of clouds?), The old name for Nisha-bur.
a abras, Leprous.
ab-ruft, A stone worn smooth by water flowing over it ; wiping off spilled water with a sponge.
a abraq, A coarse, stony, sandy soil;
lapis specularis, talc.
oLS abar-qubad, Name of a city between Fars and Ahwaz, said to be founded by King Qubad.
a fiyyl abarquh, for P. abar-koh, q.v.
abrak, A little cloud ; a sponge.
ac4j)\ abrak, More or most blessed. abarkabishd, A cobweb. abrkdr, Astonished, confounded, stupefied, amazed.
abarkakiyd, abarkakiydb,
A cobweb.
abarkubdd, for P. abarqubad,
abar-koh, Name of a town in the Persian Iraq, situated on the summit of a mouutain, whence its name.
abr-girdish, Circling round the clouds (lightning).
abarmadaran, A kind of sweetmeat .
oabrtidk, Cloudy.
abraujan, abranjlu, A brace-
let or anklet (of gold or silver).
db-rang, Freshness, vigour. ab-ru, ab-ruy, Honoured, held in estimation by the great; chief (in an army or city) ;ab-ru da dan, To pay respect; ab-ru rekhtan. To disgrace ;db-ru Tcardan, To honour; ab-ru'i shahr, The chief magistrate of a city ;ab-ru'i askar, The commander of an army.
abru (S. bhrii), The eye-brow;abru'i paiwasta (paiwast, tang), Contracted or forbidding brows ; superciliousness ;abru'i tursh (talkh), A frown;abru'i sham (zdl-zar, falak), The new moon;abru'i kashtda (baland), Long eye-brows;abru'i mar-dana, A brow that indicates bravery; abru tang (nazik) kardan, To look supercilious or proud;abru jumbanidan ([za-dan) To move the eye-brows, to wink, nod, approve by the motion of the eye;abru jahad, The eye-brow throbs (which is considered as a kind of augury) ;abru chldan (ba-ham dar kashldan, tursh kardan), gosha'i abru tursh kardan, abru kaj kardan, To knit the eve-brows, to frown;abru kushadan, To cheer up; to wink,
a abrawaz, abrawaiz (for P. )>yyi parwiz), Name of a Persian king.
abruwan (pi. of the preceding), The eye-brows ; (met.) morning and evening. ab-rud, A hyacinth, a water-lily. abru-sanam, yft dbru-sanam (corrupted from Ar. ^-11 yabruhu 's-sanam), The mandrake.
a <^1/ abru-firdkhi, Cheerfulness; liberality, generosity.
dbru-kaman, With eye-brows shaped like a bow.
^abru-kan, Tweezers.
dbrun, Houseleek, sempervivum.
abru-hilal, Whose eye-brows form a crescent.
db-rawi, A going through water ; an
abrah, The outside of a garment or cap;ibarah, First-fruits; early fruit; ubarah, A bustard.
abarhdm, Nature, essence; name of an angel supposed to govern the world; Abraham.
abrahah, A kind of bird ; name of an Abyssinian prince, who built a Christian church in Sana* of al-Yaman, and made an unsuccessful attack on Mecca.
ibrahimiyah, A kind of broth.
<37*\ abrl, Clouded, variegated ; abrl kdghiz, A kind of thick and shining paper (from Kashmir).
a ibrlj, A churn. yj} ab-rez, A vessel used in baths for pouring water over the head and body; a bucket; a water-pipe, a spout; a drain, a ditch ; a water-closet, privy; a spade. ibrlz, Pure gold or silver.
'r*] ab-rezan, Name of the 13th of

( 8 )
the month Tir, in remembrance of a sudden rain falling, after many years of drought, at the prayer of the assembled people, who in their joy besprinkled each other with water.
dbrezgan, A festival celebrated on the above-mentioned day, during which the people in their visits sprinkle one another with orange-flower, rose, or pure water.
rV abrisham, abrishum, Silk ; the string of a musical instrument; a silk-weaver ;abrishami sitabr, The bass string of a musical instrument.
<-5^ obrishim-kashi, Silk-winding.
abrishami, abrishamin,
a ibrik (for P. ab-rez), A ewer, a water-pot with a spout, a jug; a brilliant sword.
A abzdr (pi. of bazr), Pot-herbs, spiceries for seasoning.
a abzdr dan, A spice-box, a pepper-
abzar, Name of a mountain near Hamadan in Persia, about one hundred and fifty leagues west of Ispahan.
db-zuruft, said to stand for db-pizruft, A cucumber, watermelon ; an isle (?).
0yi\ ab-zan, A particular kind of bathing-vessel made of copper or iron, the full length of the human body, filled with warm water medicinally prepared, in which the patient sits or lies down; the basin of a fountain; imparting tranquillity of mind, consoling, consolatory; console, appease (Imperative).
a abzan, ibzan, ubzan (for the P. gyA
dbzan), A bath, a laver, sometimes made of brass.
ab-zind-rud, Name of the river Zindarud.
db-zih, Water flowing from a fountain, or a corner of the eye ; liquid pressed through a cullender or strainer; pincers. gAayjl abzidan, To fill. aV£ ah-zir-kah (water under straw), A splinter, thorn in the flesh ; a hypocrite, dissembler, a secret fomenter of mischief ; one whose merit lies coucealed.
abash, Sparks of fire ; a kind of grass.
dbas, Name of a city. a (jwl abs (v.n.), Rebuking, reproving, reproaching ; being low, abject.
A ab8dr, A whetstone. a ibsds (v.n. 4 of a absat (pi. of hist, bust, or busut), She-camek left at liberty with their colts; ibsdt (v.n. of k*), Leaving (a camel) at liberty with her colt.
abseil, dbsaldn, A garden.
a ibsdl (v.n. 4 of J*), Forbidding,
making unlawful; betraying, abandoning, consigning to destruction ; exposing; pledging, pawning.
absdn, A bracelet.
absabuk, Easy of digestion.
A dbast abist, ibast), Orange
pulp ;abist, Pregnant; syn. with dbasht, Concealment; hidden, covered up.
abist a, Name of a book which the Magi of Persia attribute to the Patriarch Abraham (whom they suppose to be the same with Zaradasht or Zoroaster), and containing the religious system of the Magi or adorers of fire.
abistan, Pregnant.
abistanah, A cauldron, pot, kettle,
abistagi, Pregnancy. abistan, Pregnant, concealed; abistan shudan, To be with young;abistani fary ad, or abistani faryad-khwan, A kind of harp or lute.
abistan-gdh, A lying-in chamber;
a privy.
abistani, Pregnancy, conception; pregnant; a kind of lute ;abistani dadan, To render pregnant.
abastah, Ground prepared for sowing ; a spy; a flatterer;abistah, Pregnant ; an animal with young ; the womb. abistah, A spy; a flatterer.
*y*A db-sard, Jelly.
ab-sardan, A gonorrhoea.
^^y-A absardi, Water cooled by the wind.
ab-safed, A pearl on the eye. dbisgun (or abisgun), The
Caspian Sea; place where the river Abgun joins the Caspian Sea; name of an island formerly existing, in the Caspian Sea; name of a village near Astarabad.
ab-suwar, A bubble ; a wave.
C)W~A abisydn, Tears.
sW~A db-siydh, '-tA dbi siyah, Tears.
j*~A ab-sair, Easy-paced (horse).
ab-shdr, A waterfall, a cataract. absharan (pi. of the preceding), Absharau, name of the promontory of Baku.
dbasht, Concealment; hidden, covered up.
dbashta-gdh, dbishta-gdh (a cealment; a back yard where rubbish is thrown; a privy.
abishtan, dbashtan, To hide, cover. abishtan, To conceal.
jj^&A dhish-khwur. A cistern, a watering-place, reservoir; the bed of a river; a fountain-head; a drinking-vessel; lot, portion ; a halt, stay.

dbishkhward. A watering-place. absharriy The cone of silk in which the worm encloses itself, the cocoon; a coarse kind, or refuse, of silk.
0-^ dbishan, A bridegrooms shirt.
db-shindSy Skilful in discovering springs, or conveying water by aqueducts; a pilot; the man who keeps a look out for shoals from the mast-head;also
dbshinaei kdr, Intelligent, expert, familiar with fundamental truths.
abshang, The bathing vessel described under yytS ab-zan.
abshorahy Water cooled with saltpetre.
s dbsheby A channel for water flowing from high grounds.
dbshem, Raw silk. absar (pi. of basar), Eyes, looks; perceptions by the eye ;ibsar (v.n. of Looking at, seeing; causing to see ; being evident
a absary More or most clear-sighted. ^ ab-sifat, Humble ; useful;db-sifat budan, To be humble ; to promote the interests of others.
a (abz (v.n.), Binding the fore-foot of a camel with a rope to the shoulder.
a ibza (v.n. 4 of £-**), Sorting goods for sale ; sending a lot or sample; answering categorically; quenching ones thirst (water).
a la*! ibty ibity The arm-pit.
a M ibtd* (v.n. 4 of *£*), Delaying, proceeding slowly, tarrying, lingering.
a tW ibtdkh (v.n. 4 of ^hj), Having melons in abundance.
a abtdl (pi. of batal)y Brave war-
riors, heroes; ibtdl (v.n. 4 of a abtahy Low-lying, gravelly ground; wide, level plain.
a abtaly More or most vain, or fruitless.
a ab'dd (pi. of bu'd). Distances;,
dimensions ; ab*ddi saldsahy The three distances, i.e. length, depth, and breadth ; ib'dd (v.n. 4 of ***>), Placing at or drawing to a distance, alienating.
a a**! abady Very remote; more or most distant; a traitor.
a ibghdz (v.n. 4 of u^t), Bearing
hatred, hating; provoking, making hate. abaft, A kind of coarse cloth. abfarah, A stallion.
a juT dbaq (for P. dbak). Quicksilver; dbiq, Runaway (slave).
a ibqa (v.n. of ^a*), Rendering permanent, establishing; keeping, preserving, hoarding, laving by ; sparing. a abqar, Nitre, saltpetre.
9 )
I a abqa( (a pye), Variegated, black and white.
a abqd. More or most lasting.
dbak, Quicksilver ; measles, pimples, blotches ;dbuk, Anything watery or full of water ; a full basin.
db-kdry A water-carrier, a cupbearer ; a wine-merchant; a drinker of wine ; a jeweller, polisher of gems; a distiller.
abkar, Agriculture.
A jW abkar (pi. of bikr), Virgins, maiden; ibkar (v.n. 4 of ;£?), Performing anything in the morning; making haste, taking time by the forelock ; causing (one) to rise betimes ; the morning.
db-hdri, Being a water-carrier, &c. (see ; a tax on the manufacture and sale of spirituous liquors, and intoxicating drugs; a distillery.
db-kamah, A kind of sour and bitter gruel or drink, prepared in different ways, for creating appetite or aiding digestion ; sauce, condiment.
db-ka8h, A water-carrier or drawer. db-kashl, The drawing of water ; db-kashl kardan, To draw water;gavri db-kashl, An ox for drawing water. dbkashln, A bracelet. dbkam, A kind of serpent.
A ^ abkam, Dumb.
aa£A db-kandy Any hollow channel excavated by the rushing of a torrent; a place where water collects and stagnates ; a pond ; name of a city.
db-kur, Miserly, churlish. abag, Name of a town near Shiraz. dbgana, An abortion. ab-gdh, The back and sides under the short ribs ; a pond, a cistern.
ab-guzar, A ford, a ferry ; an express.
ab-guzar, A canal, a channel for
ab-gardan, A ladle. ab-gardish, A whirlpool, an eddy ; a fleet horse ; vertigo ; crop sickness.
ab-gur, A horse-trough; an aqueduct. db-giir-kash, A worthless fellow. db-gun, Water-coloured, azure, liquid blue; the heavens; glass; ice; a bright sword; starch mixed with blue; name of a river flowing from Khwarazm, and falling into the Caspian Sea;db-gun-taram (qafas), the heavens;ab-gun sadaf, the heavens ; the sun ; the moon.
db'-gah, A watering-place, cistern, reservoir.
dbagi, Watery.
db-glr, Any hollow place where water collects and stagnates ; a pool, pond, ditch ; a weavers brush for sprinkling yarn in the loom.

( 10 ) ejM
dbgirndk, Full of pools and
dbgin-khdna, A bees nest; a
db-glna, Glass; a drinking-glass; a foil set under gems; a diamond ; wine ; a lovers tears;abgina'i shami, A name for the most transparent glass;abgina'i ta-ram, The heavens.
diW. dbgma-khdna. A glazed house; a room hung with mirrors ; the first and second heavens.
y> abginagar, A glass-maker.
a ibl, ibil, Camels, the camel species.
J*' abil, The lesser cardamom ;abul. Name of a stringent medicinal plant.
a ibid* (v.n. 4 of {J*), Wearing out a garment; trying, proving ; having enough, being content.
a ibld8 (v.n 4 of u~h), Being desperate, dumbfounded, grieved.
a ibid (v.n. 4 of aW. Causing, al-
lowing, or giving time to swallow.
a ibid ah (v.n. 4 of £l>), Causing to arrive, conveying, sending.
a ablat, abalat, Heaviness, indiges-
tion ; sin, crime ;abilat, Anything wanted, need, necessity ; prolificness ;iblat, Hostility ; enmity ;'ibillat, Progeny, tribe ; ublat, A murrain, sickness, blight;ubullat, Dates bruised between two stones, and then milked upon ; tribe, companions;. name of very pleasant place near Basra.
a ablaj, One whose eye-brows are wide apart; clear, bright, resplendent, evident.
a ablagh, More or most perfect, most effectual; more or most emphatic; eloquent.
a ablaq, Black and white, particoloured, pie-bald ; name of a fortress ; ablaqi aiyum, The world; ablaqi charkh (falak), Night and day ; time; the world ; ablaqi mutlaqv 'l-indn, The world ; fortune.
a abl/xq-chashm, Having eyes in-
tensely black and white.
a ablag, Pie-bald ;abalag, abilg, A spark of fire.
abluj, ejh! abluj (also abluch),
White sugar-candy ; powdered sugar ; the sugar-plant.
abliik, A double-faced man, a hypocrite, a flatterer.
dbila, A blister, pimple; small-pox ; a bubble floating on the water ;abila'i pislan, The nipple of the breast;dbila'i chashm, A pearl or white speck upon the eye ;abila'i rukhi falak, The stars ; the sun;dbila'i roz, The sun ;abila'i farang, The French or European pox, venereal disease; abila az ham gusastan {Inrun
dadan), To break a blister;abila bar pd rekhtan. To put to flight, to weaken, to render helpless;abila bastan (damidan, kardan), To raise blisters; to rise in blisters ;abila dar sukhun paidast, A man is known bv his speech ; dbila'i dil shikastan, To set the heart at rest;abila zadan, To bubble.
a ablah, Foolish, simple, ignorant, stupid, bashful.
a &W ablahanah, Foolishly.
*1*1 abila-parwar, Blistered.
dbila-rasida, )ij dbila rez, Blistered (hand).
abila-zar, Full of blisters fijj aV'f abila-zada, Pock-marked, measled. L-ji abila-farsa, dbila farsud,
a s-J ablah-lab, With a foolish
tongue, a prating fool.
a ablahi, Silliness, simpleness, ig-
axJLA abilita, A sower, husbandman. a iblis, The devil;iblisi pur talbis,
The deceitful devil.
a iblisdnah, Diabolically, like the
dblisa, A sower, a husbandman. dbmand, Powerful, prosperous, fortunate.
ibmiq, A coulter ; a yoke of oxen.
A abn (v.n.), Suspecting, rendering suspected ; ibn, A son;ibn arz, A (son of the earth) stranger ;ibnu 'l-amir, Of noble blood, high-born;ibnu 's-sabil, A traveller; ibnu sirin,Name of aninterpreter of dreams unequalled in his age ;ibnu 'l-gharaz, A selfish person, a schemer;ibnu l-ghaib, A G od knows who, a nobody, an upstart; ibnu 'l-waqt, A time-server, a sycophant.
A abna' (pi. of ibn), Sons;abnd'i a'mam, Cousins ;abnd'i ins u jan, Men and genii;abnd'i jins, Persons of the same rank, condition, or kind; companions, comrades, equals ;abnd'i jahdn, Men, animals, or plants ;abnd'i darzah, Mean, ignoble men; abnd'i dahr (roz-gar, zaman, asr), Sons of the age, contemporaries;ibna' (v.n. 4 of ^), Ordering a building to be erected.
dbndkhon, A fortress. abnak, Moist, watery, succulent,
a ibnat, A daughter;ubnat, A vice, blemish ; a knot in wood, a gnur; a spur; an itching disease in the fundament. a ubnat-zadah = ubna-zadah,
q-v* r
a 6^1 ab-nuqrah, Quicksilver, liquid silver.
dbnue, Ebony ; a kind of fish. abnusi, Made of ebony ;dbnusi-

^ (
ehajch, An ebony pipe ; a pipe played on any festivity.
clb noshidan, To drink water; to be stupefied, benumbed.
a ubnah-zadah, Suspected of in-
famous practices, branded with infamy. abu, water-lily.
A abu, A father ;abii l-armak, Quicksilver;abii l bashary Adam, the father of man ;abii l-jaml, Chieftain ; abu l-husain, Father of the little fortress, i.e. a fox;abii l-haydy Name of OthmaD, the third Khalif ;abii l-hayya (-abbas, mitrdq), Penis; abii l-fazl, Name of the accomplished secretary to Sultan Akbar, and author of the Akbar-ndmah ; abu l-kunjah, Anything new, rare, or agreeable ; a facetious, witty, or well-bred man ; a buffoon, jester, mimic ;abii bara-qish, Name of a speckled bird ;abu bakr, The father-in-law and first Khalif, or successor to Muhammad ;abii turab, Name of Ali, son-in-law to Muhammad ;abu jahly Name of an uncle of Muhammad;abii harisy A lion ;abu hanifa, Name of the first great Muhammadan lawyer ;abii khalsd, Melilot, bugloss-plant;abii dardd\ Name of one of Muhammads Companions ;
abii zaid, Name of the hero of Hariris Assemblies; a man famous for his skill in chess ;abii saify A name of Nadir Shah ; abii tdliby Name of the father of Ali;abii tdmuriy Jews pitch;abii als, A species of violet;abii qabus, Name of Numan, king of Arabia;abii qubais, Name of a mountain near Meccah ; a fortress in the province of Aleppo ;abii qulmun, A kind of shot silk, a variegated cloth ; chameleon ; a certain bird ; (met.) the changing world ; a fickle person, a turn-coat;abu hurairah, Father of the kitten, name of one of Muhammads Companions.
a abwab (pi. of bab), Gates, doors ; chapters, sections; conjugations; points, principles ; dues, fees, heads or subjects of taxation ;abwdbi thanaddri, Taxes on retailers of liquors, &c.;abwdbi shadi, An imposition levied to defray the marriage expenses of a great personage ;ba hamqh abwdby By all means, in every way. abubdriy Repentance. a ubuwaty Paternity; fathers, jtfrt b-warZy A swimmer. ijjj) db-warziy Swimming, natation. a )f\ ubuz (v.n. of y\)y Springing, bounding, leaping.
abu-zarjmihr, Name of Nushir-wans great wazir.
a ab'us (pi. of bu's)y Misfortunes.
a (joy! abiis, Swift, fleet (horse). a abu?. Very swift (horse). a s}yt\ abuq, Runaway (slave).
* j*' ubfil (v.n. of J*t), Supplying by |
11 > ^
green herbage the place of water (cattle) ; abstaining from venery.
abiimdn, Repentance. abun, Elecampane, ginger. dbwandy A vessel in which water is
fcjhy! dbuydny Repentance.
&A dbahy Name of a village ; clear, limpid. a abhy abah (v.n.), Recollecting, remembering, recalling to mind a thing forgotten.
ibhdm (v.n. 4 of ^#), Shutting, closing; ambiguity, doubt; uncertainty; the thumb, the great toe.
a ubbahaty Magnificence, grandeur, glory.
yir>\ abhar, A water-mill. a abhar, A vein in the back, the
jugular vein; the back of a bow;abahr, Name of a city.
ubhuly Seed of the mountain cypress, or juniper; juniper berries; mountain cypress.
ubkuly Liquorice-root. abihiy Name of the river yfcf dhii. abiy Watery ; cultivated by irrigation (opp. daimiy watered by rain, m.c.) ; blue; a quince ; a kind of grape.
ably ablyy A refuser, rejecter, loather;abi shudan, To stand still, to become congealed (water).
<^>1 obey abi (forte, bti), Without;abi dn kihy Over and above that which.
a abydt (pi. of bait), Verses, di-
abydr, A waterer, sprinkler, irrigator; irrigation.
ab-yariy Irrigation ;db-ydri kar-dariy To irrigate, to water (fields).
abyari, A kind of stuff of a thin texture ; a species of dove. abyan, Penitent. dbidy A spark of fire.
abidad (for bidad), Tyranny, injustice.
abir, A bucket; a spark; tears ; a
abiZy abizh, A spark of fire; an
abestan, To adorn, embellish, decorate.
abisham, Flue of raw silk; the
ahi- shumdr (for bi-shumdr), Innumerable.
a abyaz, White ; a sword (as being bright).
a uo'Arf! ibyizdz (v.n. 9 of ^Arf), Being white ; whiteness.
a abyazdriy du., Milk and water;
two veins in a camels udder.
<3*^ abiq, A bright colour ; a depilatory drug.
aJh' ibbily A herd or flock of horses,

camels, or birds; a string of them following each other.
abin, Name of a village near which bitumen is dug.
ablw (abew), Blue-coloured. abiward, Name of a city in Khurasan. abyun, Opium, poppy-juice; treacle. G abl yahmiyd, A cramp, a
jbl ipdr, Thyme, sweet marjoram.
apdra (S. prithu), Extended, level;
apidar (misreading for Jdar ?), Here, behold!
\ji\ apra (in Zand and Pazand), Soil, earth, mould.
iprdhdm (in Zand and Pazand), Abraham.
aparkhlda, Clear, pure, without
apurndk (in Zand and Pazand), A youth; Turks.
apranddkh. Goats skin dressed. aparwdz, Flight.
aparwiz (aparwez), Victorious, glorious ; name of a king ; a sieve ; a guide; a sugar-refinery.
apsdn, A whetstone. apshak, Dew.
ipghada, Vain, foolish, light-headed. apkdna, An abortion. apkarar, A runner, express messenger (see of which it is perhaps a misreading).
ipmidy A plough-share; a yoke of
iipuk, Making a noise by filling the mouth with air, and then striking it.
apirash, A stadium, a race-ground. vsJj-ol ipairak, Of a lead-colour; name of an island.
e apildnt, Appellant.
apirandakh. Goats skin dressed. apiz, apiza, An urn, a pitcher;
a crooked billet with which they draw water.
apyun, Opium, poppy-juice; treacle. at, The affix pronoun of the second person singular to a word ending in mute ^ he; as vsA khana-at. Thy house.
t aid, itd, A father. t atdbak (from \5\ atd, a father,
and fcafc, a lord), The lord father (a title given to the governors of Shiraz) ; a guardian, preceptor, teacher; the prime minister, or vizir; honorary title of an amir; name of a Persian dynasty originating from Sad bin Zangl. a t atut, Pomp, grandeur.
6j\s\ itd-dih, Tributary ; a briber.
atdzunl, The United States (m.c. from Fr. fitats Unis).
&i\s\ atdqa, An egrette.
atala, A kind of porridge.
12 )
afi/ mdzhor, Staff (m.c. from Fr. Etat-major).
a 0^1 atari, utdn, A she-ass.
W! (in Zand and Pazand), An arrow. a (pi. of taba), Followers, de-
pendents, servants;(v.n. 4 of £**), Following, overtaking ; causing to follow, joining one to another; two alliterative words following each other, to emphasize an idea, similar to the English hurly-burly, as hasan basan, Handsome, etc.;ittibdi (v.n. 8 of £*?), Following, pursuing ; obedience.
a itbdl (v.n. 4 of J*>), Making weak, sick or insane (love) ; ruining, destroying (misfortune).
0**^ dtbin, Eloquent; a skilful performer ; most felicitous; name of Fari-duns father.
a ittijdh (v.n. 8 of A*j), Entering (a thought into the mind); attention, assiduity.
a oVssfl ittihdd' (v.n. 8 of Being
single, being one; union, concord, intimate friendship.
ittihdd-manzil, Abode of sincerity or concord.
A it-hdf (v.n. 4 of <-^), Giving,
making a present.
ittikhdz (v.n. 8 of *aa1), Taking to ones self.
A y\* atrab (Pi. of tirb), Companions, equals in age, peers, cotemporaries;itrdb (v.n. 4 of 't>/), Having wealth; being dust-soiled ; strewing with earth, jlyl atrdr, Barberries.
A itrdr (v.n. 4 of y), Throwing away ; banishing, driving into exile; playing at bandy ;utrdr, Name of a town in Turk-istan.
a jlyl itras (v.n. 4 of Making firm, strong, even, straight, just, or equal. a £\y\ itrdi (v.n. 4 of £y), Filling. a wilyl itrdf (v.n. 4 of <~*y), Bestowing the luxuries of life ; seducing, corrupting; rendering effeminate and dissolute (affluence).
a d\f\ atrak (pi. of turlc^, Turks; Tartar, Turcoman.
^>yl utrut, Name of a certain king. a gyl utruj, utrujj, An orange.
^yl atrub, A kind of disease which renders the skin loose and flabby.
A^>! utrdr, The servant of a magistrate, a bailiff, a catchpoll; a lad.
A y\y\ ittizdn (v.n. 8 of y)y), Being weighed ; being accurate in measure (poem).
A ittisdkh (v.n. 8 of £~^), Being
dirty; filthiness, nastiness.
a ittisd* (v.n. 8 of £~j), Being wide, ample, extended, diffused.
a jU-Jl ittisdq (v.n. 8 of <5~j), Being joined, connected, arranged, complete; setting in order.

a f\~3\ ittisdm (v.n. 8 of ^), Placing mark upon oneself; being marked.
& utsat, A plant (Boerhavia diffusa).
t j>\ atsiz, atsiz, Name of a king of
dtish, Fire ; light, splendour; rage; levity, fickleness; valour, value, dignity ; dearness, scarceness; (met.) the Devil; a courageous man, bold, brave; a lover ; fire of love; desire, appetite, greed; digestive heat; sulphur ;atishi db-parwar, A sword of good temper;dtish az db bar dwardan (afrokhtan), To do something extraordinary or wonderful;dtish az chasmi lease girif-tan, To frighten;dtish az chandr dyad, It happens unexpectedly ;a tishi azhdaha, The seven planets ;atishi dsmdn, A thunderbolt;dtish dshamidan (khwurdan. noshi-dan), To grieve violently;dtish uftddan (giriftan, rajtan), To catch fire;dtish afgandan (andakhtan. rekhtan, zadan), To set on fire;dtish ba jdn, Sorrow, grief; desire, love ;atishi basta, Red gold ;dtish ba-dastar bastan (bar ziri pahlw gustardan), To suffer wrong, to be oppressed ;atishi barzJn, Name of the sixth fire-temple; dtish bar kardan (kardan, kashiclan), To set a fire ablaze;atishi bahdr, A rose, a tulip ; the beauty of spring; atishi hi bad, Wine; the bustle of a market; injustice, oppression;atishi bi dad, Wine; injustice, oppression (atishi bi dad afriikh-tan, Glorify injustice) ;atishi bi dud, The sun ; rage, fury ; wine ; a ruby ;atishi bi zabana, Wine; a precious stone, as a ruby, a cornelian ;atishi parsi, The Persian fire, the disease called St. Anthony's fire; pustules breaking out On the lips after a fever; dtish pdshidan, To be hasty, or unsteady ; to oppress ;atishi pur db, Wine ; tears of grief; a goblet of wine ;atishi paimana (jam), Wine;atishi tabanda, The burning sun; human nature ;atishi tdk, Wine; atishi tar, Wine; the lip of a mistress; a ruby, a sapphire ;atishi tazwir, Soup for the sick ;atishi toba-soz, Wine ; atishi jami zibaqi, Red wine in a goblet of crystal or silver;atishi hajar, Fire struck from a flint; a ruby, a cornelian ;atishi khd-mosh, A fire that throws out no sparks; an extinguished fire ;dtish khamosh kardan (sard kardan, kushtan nishandan), To extinguish a fire (khuftan, mardan, nishastan are construed with dtish, in the sense of being extinguished j;atishi khas-posh, A lip on which mustachios are sprouting ; atishi khwurshed, The light of the sun; love; grief ; atish dadan, To fire ; to shoot; to provoke ; to unsettle the mind ; to abandon ;atishi dihqdn, A burning up of stubble, to fertilize the land ;atishi raz, Wine made from grapes ;atishi ruhdniydn, Angelic bodies; atishi roz, The sun ; light and heat; dtish zadan, To set on fire;atishi zar,
13 ) jfcjT
i Lustre, elegance, beauty;atishi zamzam, The sun ; dtish ziri pd dashtan, To be restless ; atishi sard, Red wine ; the lip of a mistress ; gold ;atishi sag, The dog-violet ;atishi sum, Fire struck from a stone by the hoof of a horse ;atishi sauda, Love ; pensiveness, melancholy ; atishi saiydl, Red wine;atishi simabsdn, The sun;atishi shajar, Wine; a pomegranate ; atishi subh (salib), The sun ;atishi tab1, Moroseness, harshness; atishi tier, The fire that appeared to Moses at Mount Sinai; dlishi fdrsiatishi parsi above;atishi fusurda, Congealed fire, i.e. gold ;atishi qdfila (karwdn, manzil, wadi), A fire lighted by the caravans at night, to direct those who have remained behind ;atishi kibrit, A fire kindled with brimstone; atishi gul, The splendour of a rose, a flower;atishi qandil, The ardour of the heart, of love;atishi lutf, Bounty, liberality ;atishi mujassam, A well-tempered sword;atishi mi1 da (fire of the stomach), Hunger; atishi musa, The fiery pillar which served as a guide to the Israelites ; dtish nishandan, To extinguish a fire ; to appease anger; to quell a riot;atishi namrud, The fire into which Abraham was cast by Nimrod ;atishi naistan (ndyistan), The beauty of the spring;atish u db, A sword; a goblet of wine ; atishi wadii iman, The sacred valley in which God conversed with Moses; atishi haft mij-marah, The seven planets;atishi hindi, An Indian sword;bar atish nishastan, To become ruined.
(ji-A dtish afrdza, A rocket.
dlish-afroz, Who or what kindles a fire ; anything for lighting a fire ; tinder ; an eolipile; a phoenix ; the eleventh month of the era of Yazdagird.
atish-afrozana, Chips, shavings; a tinder-box.
)U\ atish-andaz, Casting out fire.
dtish-alud, dtish andud.
Suffused with fire.
\ dtish-angez, Kindling of fire ; an incendiary.
atish-bar, Raining fire, flaming; a tire-lock ; a tinder-box.
jk dtish-bdz, Playing with fire; a
maker of fire-works; pyrotechnical; an engineer; lightning.
dtish-bdzl, Fire-works, pyrotechnics ; a bonfire.
dtishban, A devil, a demon. dtish-barg, A tinder-box.
Sjb atish-para, A spark of fire,
lighted coal, match, a candle; the moon ; a glow-worm; litigious, quarrelsome, choleric.
dtish-pay, Restless; mettlesome. atish-parast, A fire-worshipper; a physician; a moth.

. (
atish parastanda, A fire-
tr*>^ atish-parasti, Fire-worship. dtish-parwar, A shining sword; war engines.
atish-paikar, The sun; a spirit, a
dtish-tdb, A furnace, stove, grate ; one who superintends a furnace.
dtish-tdbciy A furnace, stove,
dtish-tav, y dtish-tav, Warmth,
heat; a furnace.
a atish-hajar, A flint-stone; a
ruby ; a sapphire; a physician.
a atish-khatir, In love ; one of a
quick understanding, or of an enlightened mind.
dtish-khana. A fire-temple ; a park of artillery.
j\yi* dtish-khwdr. ;y£- (j^T dtish-khwar.
atish-khwarar An eater of unlawful food; a receiver of bribes; a phoenix ; a salamander ; a tyrant.
a Jdtish-Jchayaly Of fiery imagination ; inflaming the imagination.
diish-ddak, A burn, a scar. dtishdan, A hearth, a fire-place; a chafing-dish, or portable grate for coals.
dtish-dast, Dexterous, clever. dtish-dam, Eloquent. u£Jl dtish-dav, dawanda,
Moving in fire, fire-traveller.
y) (jS*^ atish-ru, With glowing face.
uajl dtish-rez, Pouring out fire, incen-dious.
jlj atish-zar, A place abounding in
fire; a hearth.
dtish-zabdnf Eloquent, rhetorical.
^5X3 atish-zadagl, Conflagration,
03 dtish-zanf atish-zana, A
fire-steel, a tinder-box; a flint; tinder, touch-wood; combustibles.
dtishistdriy A region of fire (hence applied to a hot fire of cannon or small-arms in battle) ; a funeral-pile.
\ j*\dtish-sukhun, A reviler, rebuker, who uses inflammatory language; a usurper.
a ut****b Fiery-tempered.
atish-taVat, dtishin-
taVaty With glowing countenance.
a jj&Jl dtish-Hndriy A fleet horse;
swift, fleet.
j*\J dtish-farriy Of the colour of fire ; fire-like.
jlji dtish-fardZy A rocket.
jjji atish-furoz, An eolipile; a phoe-
nix ; the eleventh month of the era of ifazdagird.
£jVaJ atish-fishany Scattering fire; a volcano.
14 )
a atish-fikry Of quick understand-
ing ; of an enlightened mind.
a J** dtish-fi'l, Fiery, fleet, mettle-
dtishaky A small fire ; lightning; a fire-fly ; the venereal disease.
^ dtishka atish-kdn, q.v.
dtish-kdry A stoker in a bath; a blacksmith; a fire-place, kitchen; angry, hasty, tyrannical; quick, swift.
dtish-kdri, The craft of a stoker, of a blacksmith.
A tire-shovel. dtish-kdn, A fire-temple. dtish-kav, A poker. dtish-kada, A fire-temple;a&s/i kadai bahram, The sign Aries. f LT^l dtish-gar, A blacksmith.
<4^ dtish-gari, The craft of a black-
aXsJl dtish-gdhy A fire-temple; a furnace, grate, chimney.
a ^ dtish-guhary Fiery, mettled.
atish-gun, Fiery-coloured; a kind
of flower.
2*5 jx] atish-gir, W hatever catches fire.
dtish-gira, A fire-shovel ; fuel,
atishldkh, A place abounding in fire; a hearth.
(jiJl dtish-libdSy Clothed in scarlet. a dtish-mizaj, Fiery-tempered.
atishnak, Fiery, hot.
a dtish-nisdrf Weeping, sad, sor-
a dtish-nasab, Born of fire; fiery-
atish-nishiriy Placed on fire ; enwrapped in fire.
a (j~*> atish-nafas, Breathing fire;
oty ,^3} atisk-nihddy Fiery-tempered, inflammable.
dtish-nihalj A fire of faggots. a dtish-ivddi'i aiman, Divine
glory, or the pillar of fire.
dtishwd-hindly An Indian
^5**^ atishly Belonging to fire, fiery, burning hot; fired with rage, irascible, choleric; dtislil shudany To be enraged; to be headstrong.
^mS£S\ atishly A porcupine.
dtishiydn, Demons, genii, infidels;
atishlza, A glow-worm. dtishin, Fiery ;dtiskin ydftany To produce splendour.
'-r*l dtishin ab} Bed wine ; hot tears.
UbJjt dtishin azhdahdy A planet.
dtishin-ahangt Quick of
a dtishin-biydnj Eloquent.
dtishin-pdy Swift of motion, fleet.

o*^ (
t+H dtishin-panja, Skilful, adroit.
(Jess'S atishin-paikar, The sun; genii,
J*> O**4^ dtishin yU, The sun.
&W atishin-jan, Able to live in the
fire (having fire-proof life).
(£*** c^**4^ dtishin-jabin, With glowing brow.
a atishin-jilwa, Resplendent
like fire.
(£f^ dtishin-jawalan, Moving
swiftly, turning about quickly.
0-j£3} dtishin dagh, A burnt mark, a brand.
atishin-dast, Dexterous, clever. atishin-dawaj, The sun; a ruddiness in the sky; red wine.
dlishin-rukhsdra. With glowing countenance.
£j\*j atishin-zabdn, A fluent speaker.
dtishin-sukhun. Eloquent; an impressive speaker.
U-w* dtishin-simd, With glowing
a *-i^> atishin sadaf,
dtishin salib, The sun
dtishin-'izdr, With glowing
a dtishin-kasa, The sun.
a atishin-libds, Clothed in
scarlet; scarlet clothing.
dtishin mar, A heart-burning sigh; a flame ; a rocket.
dtishin haft azhdahdy The
seven plauets.
ittisdf (v.n. 8 of Being de-
scribed, praised; describing, praising together ; description, qualification.
a ittisal (v.n. *8 of J*/), Being
closely united; conjunction, contiguity, communication.
a ittizah (v.n. 8 of g-^), Being clear, evident, manifest.
a jU\ ittifaq (v.n. 8 of <5ij), Agreeing, consenting; approaching one another; happening, coming to pass; concord, consent, harmony, league; chance, accident; ittifaqi hasanah, Unexpected good fortune ; agreeable accidents.
a ittifdqan (adverbial acc. of the
preceding), Unanimously, in concert, with one accord; perchance, accidentally ; successfully.
a ittifaqdt (pi. of ittifaq), Ac-
cidents; successes.
a ittifaqi, ittifaqiyahy Casual,
fortuitous; consenting, agreeing.
a to! ittiqa (v.n. 8 of ^j), Being timid and wary; heed, caution.
cjUsl ittiqaf (v.n. 8 of y\£>\ itqdn (v.n. 4 of u*), Making strong; establishing.
) dll
A Wd atqiya (pi. of taqiy), Religious, god-fearing, devout (men).
atak, Attock, a town on the Indus. a V£>\ ittika' (v.n. 8 of *1&), Leaning against; reclining upon one side.
a ittikal (v.n. 8 of J^), Trusting,
relying upon, confiding in God ; reliance. JV atily Name of a river, now the Volga. a itldd (v.n. 4 of *d>), Possessing hereditary wealth.
a &*\ itla (v.n. 4 of £l>), Stretching the neck to see or hear.
a itlaf (v.n. 4 of *-Ab), Consuming, ruining, destroying.
a atamm, More or most perfect or complete.
a fUrt itmam (v.n. 4 of p), Completing, bringing to perfection ',itmdmi maflahat kardan, To conclude any business;ba-itmam rasidany To come to an end, to terminate, to be carried out.
itmid, A plough-share; a yoke of oxen (see
atany Athens.
a atn (v.n.), Standing, stopping, tarrying.
a tMl itndkh (v.n. 4 of £-tf), Oppressing with indigestion.
a atndmi8y Wild camomile.
a atndn (pi. of tinn), Alike, re-
sembling; peers, equals;itndn (v.n. 4 of (Jj), Being distant; weakening a boy, and preventing bis growth (disease) ; atandny Contraction of step, a shortening of pace.
atnogrdfiy Ethnographic (m.c.). h f\ uttdy util, A braid;uttu (utu) ka-shidany To braid or plait a garment; to yawn, stretch ones self; to run away pant-ing (dog).
a f \ atw (v.n.), An inveterate distemper, calamity, death; right way, straight path; a gift.
a \f\ itwa (v.n. 4 of \ atut (in Zand and Paz.), Roughness, sharpness, pungency.
at Urban (S. atharvan), A monk, a
atusha, Name of King Shapings aunt (the classical Atossa).
uttu-kash, ££\ uttii-gar, One who braids a garment, makes ornamental folds in cloth.
dtuny A schoolmistress who teaches reading, writing, and embroidery; the se-cundine or membrane which encloses the foetus, womb.
a atun, attun, An oven, furnace; a lime kiln.
ittihady m.c. for oUM q.y. a fVI it-hdm (v.n. 4 of rf), Travelling to Tihamah; discovering a country to be unhealthy ;itiihdm (v.n. 8 of Sus-

^ ( 1
pecting something bad; charge, imputation.
A ityan (v.n. of ^), ComiDg;
arrival, accession, meeting.
a. ass, Plentiful, luxuriant, involved, entangled (hair or shrubs).
a isabat (v.n. 4 of vy), Rewarding; recovering health.
a asas (v.n. of **l), Growing luxuriantly (herbage); being plentiful, entangled, involved (shrubs or hair) ; household furniture, chattels, property in general; land or slaves; isds (pi. of asls), Luxuriant.
a asdsah, A piece of furniture, &c.;
any one particular species of wealth.
a dsar (pi. of asar), Impressions, indications, signs, vestiges ; relics, monuments ; traditions, annals of memorable sayings or events ;al-asar, The traditions of Muhammad ;asdri sanawiyah, Chronicles;asdri sharlf (asdri mubarak), The traditions or sacred relics of Muhammad; his first four successors ;asdri *vlwiyah, Sublime impressions, i.e. meteors.
a SjVJl asdrat, The remains of anything; isdrat (v.n. 4 of jf), Raising dust, whirling it about; ploughing ; bringing clouds (wind).
a asdfly, asafl (pi. of usflyat or
isfiyat), Trivets.
a dsdm (pi. of ism), Sins, crimes; asdm (v.n. of ^), Name of an infernal river, the Styx ;also isam, A mulct, fine, punishment for crimes.
a cyLJA asbdt (pi. oisabt), Trusty friends; persevering;isbdt (v.n. 4 of >-?>), Confirming, corroborating; fixing, recording, registering; knowing for a certainty; affirmation, proof.
A iskhan (v.n. 4 of &**), Enfeebling (a wound); inflicting woundsconquering.
a asr (v.n.), Relating, alleging, handing down by tradition; the temper of a sword ;asar, A footprint, sign, mark ; result, consequence; tradition, Sunnah; commencing; purposing;asari pa, asaru 9Uqadam, Footprint;asar kardan, To make an impression; to understand (m.c. syn. fahmldan) ;isr, The best part of butter;
usr, usur, The scar of a healed wound ; gracefulness of countenance;S (y) asa-rat, Remainder of anything.
;V' asrdr, Barberries (see aud jtyd). a f \ asar-pazir, Taking effect, effica-
a asar-ddr, Informed, conversant
a (jU- f \ asarsitdn, Receiving an impression.
a asar-tiraz, A historian, a writer ;
asar-tirdzdni ijtihdd, Sacred writers.
a Jo\ usjiyat or isfiyat, A stone used to prop a pot, a trivet.
6 ) 1*1
A JUtfl asqdl (pi. of siql), Burdens, loads, incumbrances, impediments, baggage, equipage, train, suite ;asqalu l-arz, The treasures of the earth, men buried therein ; isqal (v.n. 4 of Ja), Making heavy, bearing heavily (a load) ; loading heavily.
a asqal, More or most heavy, heavier.
a asl, A tamarisk shrub, a A asmdir te1.* f samar), Fruits; ismar (v.n. 4 of y)', Bearing fruit.
a gun asm an (pi. of saman), Prices ; isman (v.n.4 of Completing the number eight; being rich in camels which are watered on the eighth day ; paying a just price.
a ismid, usmud, A stone from which
antimony is prepared.
a asna9 (pi. of siny), Middle, interval, included space ; whilst, during;dar asnd9i hal, In the midst of a state or condition ; in a certain state or condition; dar asna'i rah, In the middle of the road, whilst travelling;dar In (an) asnd, Meanwhile, in the meantime (m.c.).
a *\f\ iswa (v.n, 4 of ^$y), Continuing in any abode ; causing to tarry, to stay.
A V-V' aswdb (pi. of saub), Vestments, clothes, garments.
A usul (v.n. of J>1), Being firmly rooted;(pi. of asl), Tamarisk-trees.
aslr, The sphere of fire; the sun ;
aslr (v.a. of^l), Marking ; marked, chosen, selected;(from G. aWrjp) Sky, ether; fire as an element.
asizh, Southernwood; a spark of
a asim, A sinner, criminal; habitual liar.
dj, Desire, avidity.
gl aj, A little; a tamarisk; a gourd; uj, a wager, a stake at play.
a ijd'at (v.n. 4 of frW), Bringing; giving shelter.
a ajM ijdbat (v.n. 4 of ^r*fr), Answering, consenting, admitting, complying with, humouring, listening to; an answer; evacuation, stool;ijdbat kardan, To respond.
a ijaj, Heats; ujaj, Brackish water; bitter.
a ijadat (v.n. 4 of ty*), Saying or doing anything good; proclaiming anything good.
a ijdrat, ijdra, and in compounds
occasionally ijdr (from fA ajr, recompense), Letting on rent or hire; price ; hire, wages, rent, profit, emolument; a privilege, or in-

1*1 (
come of variable amount, sold or let for a fixed sum ; a farm ;ijarah kardan, To let to a tenant;(v.n. 4 of jy*), Granting protection, rescuing, coming to help.
A. ijarah-dar, A farmer or renter
of land or of revenue ; a leaseholder; a monopolist.
A ijdzat (v.n. 4 of jy*), Giving leave ; permission, dispensation; sanction, approval ; discharge, dismissal; license ; passport ;ijdzat dadan, To give leave;ijdzat giriftan, To take leave.
a ijazat-khwah. Asking leave,
applicant, petitioner.
ijds, A species of Damask plum, a
a ijjds (a foreign word introduced
into Arabic), A plum; an apricot; a pear.
t £M ujdah. jM ujaq, A trivet; a fireplace, hearth; a family, race. djaJc, Earth, dust.
a AlWl ijalat (v.n. 4 of Jy*), Turning round, circulating, causing to turn round ; rounding.
a ajdmirat, Turbulent fellows.
a ijbdr (v.n. 4 of Compelling, constraining ; forcing against ones will.
a aM ajbah, One who has a large or prominent forehead ; a lion.
a ijtiba (v.n. 8 of ^5^), Choice, se-
lection ; collecting money from different places.
a olyM ijtird (v.n. 8 of ^), Being bold, brave, intrepid.
a e\r^ ijtirah (v.n. 8 of c/), Purchasing ; acquiring.
a ijlirar (v.n. 8 of fA), Drawing,
dragging, pulling; ruminating, chewing the cud, grazing.
a olyM ijtiza (v.n. 8 of e^), Being satisfied ; to satisfy.
a jlyM ijtizdz (v.n. 8 of Reaping, cutting, mowing; shearing sheep.
a ijtimd1 (v.n. 8 of £**), As-
sembling, flocking together; agreeing together in opinion, combining, conspiring ; assembly, concourse, congregation; afflux, accumulation; conjunction; arriving at manhood.
a oUM ijtina (v.n. 8 of 4.5^), Gathering, plucking.
a ijtinab (v.n. 8 of Shun-
ning, avoiding, declining, flying, abstaining from, retiring ; removing to a distance; self-denial, temperance, austerity, self-mortification.
a oM*! ijtihad (v.n. 8 of Waging a religious war; striving to accomplish anything; care, effort, study, diligence; legal or theological decision; office or authority of a mujtahid, q.v.
a jUM ijtiydz (v.n. 8 of jj*), Passing by or along.
a ijhdf (v.n. 4 of Injuring;
oppressing, pinching (poverty or want) ; annoyance, molestation.
a ijhdf at (pi. of the preceding),
Oppressions, molestations.
a fUM ijham (v.n. 4 of ^>), Forbearing, drawing back; being near destroying. a ajdds (pi. oijadas), Tombs.
a ajdad (pi. of jadd), Grandsires,
ancestors, forefathers.
a ajdadi, Ancestral.
ajudan, Aide-de-camp (m.c. from Fr. adjutant).
ajdar, A dragon.
a yjM ajdar, More or most worthy. a ajda1, Mutilated (in the hand,
nose, ear, or lips).
djada, Coloured, dyed; stitched,
a ajzam, Having the hand cut off. a yA\ ajar, Hagar the mother of Ishmael; ajir, djur, ajurr (from P. dgur, q.v.), A brick, a tile;ajr (v.n. of yA), Letting out on hire ; recompense, reward, hire, pay, price, fee; marriage-portion; restoring (a broken or dislocated joint or bone).
\yA ijrd, Sufficiency of cloth to make a dress (?).
a AyA ijrd (v.n. 4 of ^yA), Giving effect or currency; putting in force, executing; issuing ; execution, performance, practice ; ijrdi hudud kardan, To punish legally, to put in execution the penal laws ;ijrai hag (haqq) kardan, ijrai shar kardan, To administer or to do justice, promote equity, put the laws into execution ;ijrdi far-mdni kirdigar kardan, To obey the commands of God;ijrdi kdr, Executing a business.
a yAyA ajr as (pi. of jar as), Bells ; ijrd* (v.n. 4 of Making a gentle
noise (the wing of a bird in flying, its beak in feeding); noise of a hornet singing aloud (a camel-driver).
a flyjd ajr am (pi. of jirm), Bodies; ajrdmi charkh. ajrdmi samd, ajrdmi falak, The heavenly bodies; the seven planets; the fixed stars;ajrdmi lunsuri, Elemental bodies;ijrdm (v.n. 4 of py*-), Committing a crime.
a *-r*yA ajrab, Scabby, mangy.
a ujrat, Recompense, hire, rent,
jAy djur-tarash, A bricklayer.
a JyA ajrad, Bald, hairless (man) ; bare, barren, yielding no herbage.
a ^yA ijridd, ijrid, A certain plant which indicates the existence of mushrooms.
a ajradani (dual of ajrad), Two
branches of a palm-tree ; two trees stripped of their bark; two months or two days. a jyA ajraz, Bow-legged. a ajras, Who fears nothing, bold,

A ajrash, Half-pounded, coarse.
ujra-khwar. ^ ujra-khwar,
A pensioner.
ajurlj Built 6f brick (m.c.). a *\yA ajza* (pi. of juz*), Parts, portions; divisions, sections; elements, members of an institution or establishment (m.c.) ; ingredients; i]za' (v.n. 4 of ^y*-), Paying tribute; being able or enabling to do with out; compensating, requiting.
a jlyjd ijzdr (v.n. 4 of jys-), Having fruit ready for gathering (a palm-tree) ; giving a sheep to be slaughtered; being fit for the butcher (a young camel) ; growing old and approaching the period of dissolution.
A ijzdz (v.n. 4 of yj), Being fit for reaping (wheat); for shearing (sheep).
A ijza (v.n. 4 of Rendering
impatient and querulous.
a ijzal (v.n. 4 of JyO, Exercising
a ajzal, More or most copious or eloquent.
a pyA ajzam, One whose nose has been cut off.
A ajsad (pi. of jasad), Bodies,
trunks, carcases.
a ajsam (pi. of jism), Solid bodies,
material substances.
djaatan, djistan, To plant a tree; to fix a pale or fence, erect a stone.
a ajashsh, A harsh and sonorous
voice (man* horse, thunder).
a ijshash (v.n. 4 of lts*)> Break-
ing, pounding ; causing to do so.
A ijsham (v.n. 4 of ^s-), Causing
one to toil hard at drudgery<
A ijfdl (v.n. 4 of J6^), Running or causing to run very fast (an ostrich) ; to flee hurriedly; to hasten; blowing hard and raising the dust (wind).
A ajfan (pi. of jafn), Eye-lids.
ajuft (alpha priv. and ^^), Single,
djul, ajal, Eructation; flatulency. a djil (v.a.), One who procrastinates, delays ; future, belonging to the next world; ajal (v.n.), Delaying; an appointed time, the hour of death, doom ; (met.) a troublesome creditor, dun ; ajal-rasida, ajal-girifta, Overtaken by fate, on the point of death, doomed ;ajal-giya, Name of a poisonous root.
a ajall, Greater, more excellent, more
or most glorious.
a djilan, In regard to the next life.
A ijlu (v.n. 4 of jW), Going into exile; banishing, compelling to migrate.
a ijlds (v.n. 4 of u~W), Causing,
requesting, desiring, or ordering one to sit.
A ajldf (pi. of jilf), Mean, ignoble ; wretches, tyrants.
a ijlcd (v.n. 4 of J*), Honouring,
18 )
magnifying, exalting, magnificence, glory, honour.
a ajillat, ajilla (pi. of jalil),. Great, illustrious; great men ; the great, the illustrious.
a ajlah, Bald on the temples.
a aM ajlad, Hard (ground). a 31^1 ijliwwdz (v.n. 13 of &), Travelling rapidly (a camel).
a ajld, More splendid, bright, or resplendent.
a ijlild* (v.n. 12 of jW), Migrating from country to country.
A djim, Tired, loathing, disgusted,
sated (with the same food).
a ajam (v.n.), Loathing, nauseating,
being tired of one sort of food ; (s.) reed-beds, brakes ; a thicket, wood ; ajam kardan, To loathe;ujum, A fort, castle. a ajamm, Dodded (ram).
t (?) eWl ujmaj, Paradise. a ijma1 (v.n. 4 of £*), Collecting, assembling, convoking; consenting, agreeing ; a senate, council, court, crowd; amount; whole;ijmai ummat, General assembly of the people; unanimous consent ; ijmdi sahabat, The unanimous authority of the companions of Muhammad on a point of law.
a ajmdl (pi. of J** jamal), Full-
grown camels;ijmdl (v.n. 4 of J*^), Casting up an account; collecting, bringing together; doing anything well; abstract, abridgment, summary, compendium, synopsis ; joint occupancy or possession.
a ijmalan, Briefly, compendiously,
a ijmdli, Brief, summary, com-
a fW! ijmam (v.n. 4 of ^), Giving rest; approaching.
a ajma\ ajma'in, All, the
whole, universal.
a ajmal, More or most beautiful,
ajmud, ajmuda (S. ajamoda).
ajmir, Name of a province of Hindustan.
a djin,ajin (v.a.), Altered, corrupted, fetid (water) ;ajn (v.n.), Becoming fetid ; beating cloths, fulling.
a ajnab (pi. of jamb), Sides, parts ;
ijndb (v.n. 4 of s-^), Being in a state of ceremonial uncleanness; being exposed to the south wind.
ajndSy Name of a champion in Afrasiabs army.
a ajnds (pi. of jins), Kinds, sorts,
genera ; goods, wares ; ajnasi amwdl, Various kinds of riches ;ajnasi la'b-bdzl, Playthings.

( 19 )
A ^ ajnab, Foreign, a foreigner, a stranger.
ajumban, Motionless, fixed.
^ ajnably, A foreigner, a stranger ;
5 ajnabryat, State of a stranger or alien.
A ajinnat (pi. of janln), Embrios.
A ajnihat (pi. of jandh), Wings;
hands; fins.
ujand, Obsequious, obedient.
0^**d[ ajangan} Name of a fort in Khurasan.
A ujuj (v.n. of gl),Being salt, bitter, or brackish (water). a ajwad, Better, best.
0^y^ ajudanf Aide-de-camp (see 0W\). a ajurah, A reward, hire, fare,
a ajura-ddr, A labourer for hire.
a ijyA ajura-dariy Wages, hire;
payment by the job or piece.
a sJyA ajwafy Hollow; a concave verb, one whose medial radical is a weak letter.
a ajwafan (dual of the preceding),
(the two hollows) The belly and the matrix.
a ijhaz (v.n. 4 of >v^)> Despatching a wounded person.
a ijhd8h (v.n. 4 of cAv^), Being
about to cry, preparing to weep; complaint.
a *J>WA ijhaz (v.n. 4 of a ajhary One that cannot bear the glare of the sun, day-blind. ijifA ajharat A kind of prickly shrub. a ajhaly More or most ignorant. a ajlj (v.n. of gl), Burning, flaming. ajidany To stitch, to sew; to sharpen
a file.
ajidahy A particular kind of ornamental sewing, counter-point, embroidery.
a rt*A ajiry A mercenary, hired labourer, hireling.
a ajirana, In a mercenary manner.
a ajiriy Servitude, labour, hire.
0-!^ ujaint Name of a city in Hindustan.
dchdTy Powdered or salted meats, pickles, or fruits, preserved in salt, vinegar, honey, or syrup; particularly onions preserved in vinegar; also the pickle or liquor in which these meats or fruits are preserved ; mixed, collected, assembled together; uneven rugged ground, full of risings and hollows ;(S. achara) Immemorial custom, conformity to religious institutions.
t uchacjy A frying-pan. dchdky Earth, dust.
h uchakka (S. ud + chal + ka), A
^\ ichi, A kind of hawk ; a vizir.
a cl ahh (v.n.), Coughing; repeating often ah ah in coughing.
a dhad (pi. of ahad), Units ; cardinal numbers.
a ahadis (pi. of uhdusat)y Stories,
tales ;(pi. of hadis) News, things which have recently happened ; sayings or traditions of Muhammad handed down by the Musulman doctors;ahadisi qurany The tenets of the Kuran.
a iharat (v.n. 4 of jf*)y Answering, replying.
a ihatat, ihdta (v.n. 4 of Iy=*), Surrounding, enclosing; fence; enclosed space, enclosure, premises, precincts; understanding, comprehension ; ihdta kardan, To surround, to besiege.
a ihalat (v.n. 4 of Jy=-), Transfer of a debt; using stratagem ; relating anything incredible, impossible, or absurd; leaping on horseback ; being one year old.
a ahabby More or most lovely,
a ahbab (pi. of hibb)y Lovers,
friends ;(pi. of hubb) Jars ;ihbdb (v.n. 4 of *4^), Loving, liking, choosing, preferring; coming into grain (corn); receiving a hurt, and not stirring from the place until killed or cured; kneeling down (a camel) ; being stubborn and refractory (a camel) ; recovering from sickness.
a ahbar (pi. of hibr or habr)f Learned men; different kinds of ink.
a ihbas (v.n. 4 of Dedicating
to pious uses ; keep in prison.
a ihbaz (v.n. 4 of u^), Letting an
arrow fall carelessly without reaching the mark ; exhausting a well; excluding (anyone) from (his) rights.
a ihbat (v.n. 4 of W^), Rendering void, frustrating, marring.
a ahbal (pi. of habl), Ropes, cords; ihbal (v.n. 4 of J*=*), Impregnating, getting with child.
A W ahibbat (pi. of habib)t Beloved ones, friends, lovers.
a \J*j**A uhbushy A mixed multitude. a ihtibas (v.n. 8 of u*^), Retain-
ing, keeping back; being kept back, shut up, imprisoned;ihtibasi haul, Suppression of urine.
a ihtibak (v.n. 8 of csL^),- Drawing
the back and the legs together with a bandage; ty ing a scarf or wrapper round the waist; making firm.
a ihtibal (v.n. 8 of J-*-), Taking
game with a net, or setting a net for game.
a ihtijar (v.n. 8 of y%=*), Construct-
ing for ones self a cell.
a ihtijaz (v.n. 8 of y^), Girding
ones breeches round ones waist; going to Hijaz.
A ihtijdf (v.n. 8 of -A^-), Calling

off ones attention, renouncing ; claiming and taking entire possession of ; collecting, accumulating, acquiring ; overcoming ; restraining, checking.
A ihtijdm (v.n. 8 of Cupping,
A ihtidam (v.n. 8of Burning;
burning with rage ; being red.
a ihtizdr, Being cautious of, avoid-
ing ; being wary.
a ihtiraz (v n. 8 of )f?), Guarding against, being cautious ; avoiding; abstaining from, abstinence; regimen ; forbearance ; controlling the passions and appetites.
a ihtirds (v.n. of vV0*) Guarding
ones self, watching; stealing sheep in the night.
ihtirds (v.n. 8 of Coveting,
a ihtirdf (v.n. 8 of Being
skilful in any art, trade, or craft.
a ihtirdq (v.n. 8 of Jf*), Being
burnt, burning, conflagration; strong desire, vehemence, ardour ; the disappearance or immersion of a planet on account of its nearness to the sun.
a ihtirdm (v.n. 8 of Honour-
ing, revering; veneration, honour, reverence, respect;ihtirdmi nizdmi, Military honours (m.c.).
a ihtizdz (v.n; 8 of y=*), Cutting,
a ihtizam (v.n. 8 of fj*), Girding
ones self.
a w>\xod ihtisdb (v.n. 8 of ^-~-=), Computing, calculating; making up accounts, estimating; superintendence of weights and measures in the markets ; the police ; forbidding disorderly conduct.
a ihtisdbi (= v, muhtasib,
q.v.), Clerk of the markets, &c.; the office of such.
a ihtishdsh (v.n. 8 of ), Seek-
ing forage ; stacking hay.
A ihtishdm (v.n. 8 of ^), Being
ashamed; bashfulness ; having many dependants, followers, or domestics; pomp, retinue, magnificence, grandeur, state.
a ihtizdr (v.n. 8 of ^), Coming into
ones presence; approaching (death) ; becoming the inhabitant of a town, a citizen ; running fast.
a ihtizdn (v.n. 8 of Taking in
ones arms, embracing.
a oUaAs^ ihtiza (v.n. 8 of Being
highly honoured, and amply provided for (as a wife by her lord) ; acquiring authority and influence.
A ihtifdz (v.n. 8 of )^), Sitting down
on the point of the foot and preparing to rise ; drawing ones self together in sitting; to assemble.
a iktifdn (v.n. 8 of priating to ones self; extirpating, uprooting.
a ihtiqdr (v.n. 8 of ^=-), Being de-
spised ; despising.
a ihtiqdn (v.n. 8 of o-5*-), Giving
or taking a clyster.
a ihtikdr (v.n. 8 of j£-), Accumu-
lating, or hoarding up grain against a scarcity ; monopoly.
a ihtikdk (v.n. 8 of d-), Rubbing
the body against anything; wrestling; contending with anyone.
a ihtildm (v.n. 8 of ^), Dreaming ;
nocturnal pollution (as sign of puberty) ; puberty.
a oUiad ihtimai (v.u. 8 of is***)> To guai*d ones self against, abstaining, shunning.
a jaU-xsd ihtimdsh (v.n. 8 of cr^), Being fired with rage, rushing "to battle (fighting cocks).
a ihtimdl (v.n. 8 of J*-), Taking
up a load; bearing, carrying, sustaining; bearing patiently; patience, endurance ; supposition, hypothesis, probability ; uncertainty, doubt; imputation.
a ihtimdlan, Hypothetically, pro-
bably, &c.
a JUx\ ihtimdlij Hypothetical, problematical, conjectural; presumable ; probable, likely ; doubtful, questionable, uncertain ; suspicious.
a c*JUx^ ihtindk (v.n. 8 of Aie), Putting barnacles or a twitch (on a horse) ; devouring every green herb (locusts) ; subduing, overcoming; being firm, steady, tried, and experienced ; strength, firmness.
a ihtiwa! (v.n. 8 of ^y-), Compre-
hending, containing, collecting; taking profit, advantage, interest.
a ihtiwdsh (v.n. 8 of U*y=^), Start-
ing game; intercepting, surrounding (anyone).
a sWsed ihtiydj (v.n. 8 of gy-), Being in need or want of; necessity, want, need; occasion, exigence ; urgency ;ashdbi ihtiydj, The necessitous, the poor;ihtiydjdt, Wants, necessities, things requisite.
a ihtiyaz (v.n. 8 of jy^), Being col-
lected ; collecting together.
A hUxe^ ihtiydt (v.n. 8 of kj-), Surrounding, encompassing; caution, care, circumspection, scrupulousness ; attention, heed ; ihtiydt dashtan, To give cause for fear or caution, to threaten (m.c.) ;az in jihat-hd ihtiydt na-kuni (ma-kuni\ Do not mind these things (m.c.).
a ihtiydl (v.n. 8 of Jy^), Empower-
ing one to receive a debt; using fraud and cunning; fraud, deceit, magical illusion, machination.
a ahjdr (pi. of hijr), Mares ;(pi.
of hajar) Stones.
A ihjdz (v.n. 4 of >^), Travelling
to or reaching Hijaz.

A ihjdm (v.n. 4 of To bold
back; to retire, desist from a purpose.
a ahad, One, any one, sole, alone, separated ; a unit; an individual;uhud, Name of a mountain near Madina ;ahadd, More or most acute, sharp, or fierce.
A ahdds (pi. ot hadas), Youths ;
novelties;ihdds (v.n. 4 of ^^), Producing, inventing ; invention, novelty, innovation.
a ahddsi, Producing, bringing
into existence ; novelty, invention.
A ahddq (pi. of hadaqat), The
pupils of the eyes ;ihddq (v.n. 4 of ,jp^), Encompassing. a ahdab, Gibbous.
a uhdusat, A parable, narrative,
story, tale.
ahadl, A kind of Indian military
a ahadiyat, Unity; singularity;
concord, alliance.
A ihzdr (v.n. 4 of j*^), Care, caution. a ahrdr (pi. of hurr), Free, freeborn, noble, free men; the ingenuous, the liberal.
a j\jcA ihrdz (v.n. 4 of)^), Obtaining a reward; hoarding;ihrdz kardan, To defend.
A ihrds (v.n. 4 of o^), Remain-
ing in a place for a long time.
a ihrdz (v.n. 4 of Emaciat-
ing (as love or sickness); begetting bad stock.
a j\^\ ihraf (v.n. 4 of Making
lean; being prosperous, increasing in wealth; great wealth.
a ihrdq (v.n. 4 of ,3^), Setting on fire, burning.
a ihram (v.n. 4 of f*^), Being unlawful ; making illegal, prohibiting; depriving of hope, disappointing; entering the sacred precincts of Mecca, or into an inviolable sanctuary; donning the garb of a pilgrim; entering the holy month called Muharram; a pilgrims cloak ;ihram has-tan, To don the garb of a pilgrim.
a aa* ihram-band, Clad in a pilgrims cloak.
a ahrd, Better, best, more or most
ihriz (S. karata), Safflower. a ahzdb (pi. of hizb), Troops,
bands, cohorts.
a ahzdn (pi. of huzn and hazan),
Griefs, sorrows, grievances ;ihzdn (v.n. 4 of 0)e-), Being or making sorrowful, vexing, grieving.
a ihsd* (v.n. 4 of y~^), Giving (one)
to sip.
A ihsd8 (v.n. 4 of cr^)> Feeling,
perceiving, understanding, perception.
A y ihsdn (v.n. 4 of Doiug
good, conferring an obligation; benevolent
action, benefit, favour; beneficence, courtesy, kindness;ihsdni bihisht, Full and complete beneficence.
ahsdndt (pi. of the preceding), Benefits, &c.
ihsan-dida, Benefited, served, obliged; auyone who receives favours.
a ihsdn-mand, Grateful.
a ahsan, More or most beautiful,
excellent, or agreeable.
A ahsant (ahsanta, thou hast done
well), Well done! bravo!
ahsanta, Inheritance, possession ; ahsanta kardan, To possess.
ahsand (a corruption of A UT ** ~ir ~ j Well done! bravo!
a ahshd (pi. of hasha), The con-
tents of the belly, bowels, intestines; the contents of the chest, the heart, liver, lunge.
a J*ihshdsh (v.n. 4 of A ahshdm (pi. of hasham), Ser-
vants, domestics, followers, attendants, retainers ; a kind of militia or armed police (ahshd m-daftar, Muster-roll of such; ahshdm-daftar-dar, Keeper of that roll) ; ihshdm (v.n. 4 of Provoking, annoy-
ing ; making ashamed.
a ahass, Unfortunate, unlucky; thin
of hair.
a ihsd' (v.n. 4 of ^5-**), Numbering, reckoning, computing; comprehending, knowing; describing.
a ihsdr (v.n. 4 of y=*), Restraining, prohibiting, hindering, preventing; keeping one back from the pilgrimage (disease) ; remaining behind.
a ihsas (v.n. 4 of <>*=*), Giving any-
one his share.
a ihsdf (v.n. 4 of <-Aa&.), Conduct-
ing (business) in a steady and judicious manner ; twisting (a rope) tight; running with short steps.
a ihsdn (v.n. 4 of Taking a
wife; being married, having a husband; being chaste and virtuous; continence, chastity ; being pregnant; fortifying, defending ; restraining; besieging.
a ihzdr (v.n. 4 of /=*), Causing to be present, making appear, bringing, summoning, citing, calling before, causing or ordering to bring or be brought into ones presence ; running (a horse).
a ahzdn (pi. of hizn), Sides, parts,
a ahatt, Smooth on either side of the back.
a ihfd' (v.n. 4 of ^), Causing to go unshod ; shaving or trimming ones whiskers; being very inquisitive and disagreeably importunate.

( 22
a ahfad (pi. of hafid), Friends, companions ; families, grandchildren, sons-in-law, relations.
A (jM ahaqq, More or most worthy, deserving ; a horse that places his hind-foot in the footstep of the fore-foot (which is considered a blemish).
a ahqab (pi. of kuqub), Periods
of eighty years, ages.
a ahqad (pi. of hiqd), Hatreds,
animosities ;ihqad (v.n. 4 of as^), Stirring up hatred.
A ahqaf (pi. of hiqf), Hills of
sand extending a great way ; name of a large district in Arabia formerly.inhabited by the people of Ad.
a ihqaq (v.n. 4 of Proving or establishing the truth of a doctrine ; knowing for certain; rendering necessary; restoring to rights ;ihqaqi haqq kardan, To administer justice.
A ahqar, More or most vile or con-
temptible (used in self-depreciation for I or me).
a ahkam (pi. of hukm), Orders,
commands ; decrees, injunctions, ordinances, statutes; judicial decisions ; a summons or injunction; letters patent; ihkdm (v.n. 4 of (*&*), Doing (anything) well, firmly, and effectually; restraining from mischief.
a ahkamaty pi. of and 5=
ahkam, q.v.
ihkdm-kar, Whose occupation is
a ahkam-ndma, Written orders,
authority in writing.
a ahkami, One who is ordered by
the ruling powers, one appointed by authority.
a ahkam, Stronger, strongest; very
firm; more, most, or very stable; most able to decide.
a ihld (v.n. 4 of ^-), Sweetening.
a ahldf (pi. of hilf), Confederates, companions swearing mutual fidelity; treaties, compacts ;ihldf (v.n. 4 of
Taking or administering an oath.
a ihldl (v.n. 4 of J=*), Causing one to alight and sojourn (in a place) ; having passed the sacred months; doffing the pilgrims garb ; deserving punishment; having milk in the udder previous to yeaning (a sheep).
A pkA ahlam (pi. of hilm), Intellects ; meeknesses ;(pi. of hulm) Dreams.
bj ihlabdiya, s-W ihlab
diyd'i rumi, A kind of spurge.
a ahld, More or most sweet, sweeter. a J-W ihlilj The orifice of the teat or penis.
a ihmdd (v.n. 4 of a*^), Receiving, or deserving to receive praise; being
praiseworthy; approving of anyone s opinions without divulging them.
a ahmal (pi. of himl), Burdens,
lo&ds j ihmal 4 of j^) Assisting in taking up a load.
a ihmdm (v.n. 4 of ^-), Throwing
into a fever ; being feverish and love-sick ; being hot; warming water ; washing with hot and cold water; keeping in anxious suspense; blackening; approaching, becoming present.
a a*^1 ahmad, More or most laudable; one of the names of Muhammad ;ahmad-dbdd (city of Ahmad), The capital of Gu-zerat;ahmadi hasan, Name of Mahmud Sabaktagins vizier ;ahmadi zamchi, Name of a hero ;ahmadi sahl, Name of a prince in the reign of Mahmud.
ahmadak (little Ahmad), A handsome youth who has become pock-marked.
Hj&a+s*! ahmad-nagar (city of Ahmad), Name of a city of the Dakhan, where Aurangzib died.
A ahmadiy, ahmadi, Belonging to
Ahmad ; a Muhammadan ; name of a gold coin.
a ahmar, Red; barbarous (not Arabian) ;mauti ahmar, A violent death.
a ihmirdr (v.n. 9 of Being red ; redness.
a ahmas, Hard (place) ; bold,
strong, unwavering.
a ahmaz, Bitter of taste.
a ahmaq, Foolish, stupid, awkward ;
a greater or the greatest fool.
a AiWawl ahmaqdnah, Foolishly, like a fool. a ^3*=^ ahmaqi, Folly, stupidity. a ^\ ihan (pi. of ihnat), Hatreds, angers. a ahna (pi. of hinw), Sides.
A ahnash (pi. of hanash), Rep-
tiles, serpents, vipers; birds or animals which are hunted.
a ihnat (v.n. of c^A), Bearing extreme hatred, holding in utter aversion; hatred, anger.
a ahnaf, Bow-legged; name of a
great Tdbi.
a ihwdj (v.n. 4 of Making to want, necessitating, constraining.
A JV' ahwal (pi. of hdl), States, conditions, situations, affairs, accidents, circumstances, accounts, relations, events (either past or present) ; changes, vicissitudes; ahwdli jangi, Military affairs; ahwdli khair-ma1 dlr Prosperity, good circumstances ;ahwdli shuma chih taur ast, How are you ? (m.c.) ;ahwalam baham khwurd. I became quite unwell, i.e. sea-sick (m.c.) ; ahwdli kase (kasi) giriftan, To inquire after ones health and to attend on him in sickness.
ahwaldt (pi. of the preceding), State of health or affairs ;ahwalati khubi, A nice state of affairs (m.c.);ahwalat

uu5> 1
purtidan, To inquire after ones health (m.c,).
a ahwal-pursi, Inquiry after
state, health, or affairs.
a ahwaj, More or most needed or necessitous.
a ahwar, One who has beautiful eyes (whose black and white are equally intense); the planet Jupiter.
a ahwas, One who has the outer
angle of the eye very acute.
a ahwat, Most comprehensive. a ahwal, Squinting, squint-eyed
(man) ; crafty, sly ; more or most crafty.
a ahwdy Black, dusky (in the lips) ; black inclined to green.
a ahya (pi. of hayy), The living; tribes, families; ihyci (v.n. 4 of J^), Recalling to life, reviving, animating ; vivi-fication; resuscitating, restoring the dead to life.
a preceding), Sometimes, from time to time, now and then, ever and anon ; in the event, in case.
cl dkhy Vestige ; sign ;akhf Ah bravo! courage well done !dkh u okh numudan, To complain; to put on airs, to be affected (m.c.).
a c> aih, A brother, friend, or eompa-nion.
a cl akhkh} Fye ah! alas,!akhkh or ikhkh, Dirt, tilth.
a 1^1 dkhd (pi. of akh). Brothers;ikha\ To fraternise, establish a bond of brotherhood between one another.
fc! cl dkh akh. Good! good ah alas ukh ukh. Excellent!
a ikhazy Stagnant water; a pool, ditch, or place where water stagnates ; land taken possession of.
akhary Anything thrown away for its insignificance.
jkOf dkhaz, Things of small value. a ikhdzat (v.n. 4 of (j*ja), Making one ford (a river).
akhdl. Any kind of rubbish (as husks, fruit-parings, wood-shavings); name of a city.
dkhdriidan (caus. of dkhtan and dkhidan). To make come forth; to cause to draw (a sword).
a ikhhat (v.n. 4 of o~a), Abasing oneself ; enjoying quiet and peace.
a jWs-1 akhbdr (pi. of khabar). Histories, tales, annals, gazettes, news, relations, advices, chronicles, traditions ; a newspaper ; akhJbari durar-bdr, Precious advices, happy news, agreeable intelligence;akh-bdri wahshat-maddr, Dreadful news, unfortunate advices;ikhbdr (v.n. 4 of Advising, informing, relating, certifying, giving intelligence, telling.
23 )
a akhbdr nawis, A news-writer,
correspondent (of a paper), editor.
a akhbasy More or most impure,
noxious, or unwholesome ;akJjJbasdn (the two impurities), Excrement and urine.
akhbun, Snakes head (a plant, see
a akhbiyat (pi. of khibd')t Tents,
£$a! akhpakh. Understanding, wisdom, intelligence.
a ukhty A sister.
t ckaJ akjitdj, A feudatory vassal to another sovereign.
t akhtajly An equerry, groom
A cjUa! akhtdn (pi. of ^sa khatan)f Sons-in-law.
a ikhtibar (v.n 8. of ^a), Trying,
proving ; experience, skill, conversancy.
a jC*Al ikhtibdz (v.n. 8 of )*a), Baking bread.
a ikhiibdt (v.n. 8 of 1*a), Importunately asking a favour without claim or previous acquaintance ; begging at night time.
a JlfJSAl ikjitibdl (v.n. 8 of J a fU*A\ ikhtitam (v.n. 8 of ^a), Finishing, completing; end, conclusion, fulfilment.
a (jjUsa! ikhtitdn (v.n. 8 of (j^), Circumcising.
T akhtajl. An equerry, groom
Aj-^aI akhtajiyat. akhtajiya (pi. of the preceding), Equerries, grooms.
a £\jua! ikhtida' (v.n. 8 of £**a), Deceiving, cheating, circumventing, insidiously injuring; being deceived, &c.
akhtar. a star; horoscope, predominant star at anyones nativity ; an omen, augury; an ensign, standard; name of an angel; name of a lunar station ;akhtari panjum, The fifth constellation, i.e. the planet Mars ;akhtari danish, The planets of wisdom, i.e. Jupiter and Mercury ; akhtari dumbala-dar, A comet;akhtari sar sabz, A happy constellation;akhtar 8humurdan, To count the stars, i.e. to keep awake ; akhtari kawiydn (Icdwdn), The standard of Kav or of Farldun;akhtardni tab-zada, Stars appearing in the water.
a ikhtird8h (v.n. 8 of Scratching.
a Uj*a! ikhtirat (v.n. 8 of !>/*), Unsheathing (a sword).
a ikhtira (v.n. 8 of Cleaving; commencing; inventing, producing something new, contriving ; invention, contrivance ; making up a false story.
a jI/a! ikhtirdq (v.n. 8 of oy^) Blowing with violence (as the wind) ; making up a false story ; to be torn.

ur *T> I
A f\rf^ ikhtiram (y.n. 8 of Tearing; destroying, extirpating; cutting off, carrying off.
jz&.\ akhtar-sipah. A sovereign whose army is numerous as the stars.
akhtaristan. Name of a treatise on astronomy.
j*a\ akhtarshumdr. f*A akhtar-ehumur, akhtarshinas, An astro-
a jt^y^A akhtar-zamir, Of an enlightened mind ; of a bright intellect.
f&A akhtar-giray. Who examines the stars, investigates their course, astrologer.
akhtar-go (gu), An astrologer, augur. sSfA akhtari. A diviner, soothsayer. a ikhtiza (v.n. 8 of £y), Tearing
away, alienating (one) from his kindred.
a ikhtizal (v.n. 8 of Jjy*-), Tearing
away, alienating from kindred; being alone.
a ikhtizan (v.n. 8 of Hoard-
a £Ia*xa! ikhtisha* (v.n. 8 of Being
humble; humbling ones self.
a A*&A ikhtisd (v.n. 8 of Castrating.
A jUsa! ikhtisdr (v.n. 8 of Abridging, abbreviating, contracting; abridgement, epitome, summary, abstract, compendium ; brevity, conciseness ;hi l-ikhtisdrf In short, briefly ;ikhtisdr kardan, To cut short (a story), to sum up briefly.
a ikhtisas (v.n. 8 of t/^), Dis-
tinguishing ; peculiarity, speciality; appropriation.
a i*Uxa! ikhtisam (v.n. 8 of ^-), Disputing, litigating, being at variance; enmitv, altercation, dispute.
a ikhtiza1 (v.n. 8 of £-*), Hum-
bling ones self.
a ikhtitdf (v.n. 8 of <-*1oa), Seizing,
carrying off bv force, catching, snatching rapidly.
a \Axa1 ikhtifa (v.n. 8 of <^-), Hiding, covering, concealment).
y fc! akh tufu, Hawking and spitting. a ikhtilaj (v.n. 8 of gl^), Dragging
away ; being weaned ; beating, throbbing (the eye or limbs).
a ikhtilaf (v.n. 8 of 1=1a), Being
mixed, mixture, amalgamation ; confusion, perplexity, insanity; intercourse, conversation, commerce, association, friendship; ikhtilaf i chusp (chaspan, sarish), A very close or coherent mixture.
a £k&A ikhtild* (v.n. 8 of £1a), Sueing for, and taking a divorce.
a sjb&A ikhtilaf (v.n. 8 of ofclA), Disagreeing, differing; variance, discord, dissension ; opposition, contradiction, contrariety ; incompatibility, incongruity ;ikh-tildfi dr a, Diversity of opinions; dissidences
24 ) J^l
(in.c.) ;ikhtilaf kardan, To contradict; to disagree.
a ikhtilaf at (pi. of the preceding),
a jJ^a! ikhtildq (v.n. 8 of <3^0* Inventing a lie; adopting foreign habits; being fragrant.
a Jk*A (v.n. 8 of Ja), Being lean, emaciated ; standing in need; sewing, stitching ;ikhtilali half A state of confusion; disorder, tumult;ikhtilali mizdj, An alteration of health or constitution (for the worse), illness, indisposition.
dkhtan, akhtan, To draw out, unsheath (a sword); to castrate, geld ; to hang, suspend; to lead, bring; to go forth ; to overtake, reach; to play ; to accustom ; to weave, knit; to fear.
A jU*a! ikhtindq (v.n. 8 of Axa! akhtaf akhta> Drawn; castrated ; a gelding; exhilarating.
t aja! akhta-begi, Grand equerry, master of the horse.
a aUjUsa! ikhtiyar-nama, Credentials (of an ambassador).
a ^L^a! ikhtiydrif Choice, approbation; in ones own power or disposal; optional; voluntary.
a a.Lua! ikhtiydriya. Old men. a Jusa! ikhtiydl (v.n. 8 of Ja), Strutting, walking with dignity; pride, pomp.
a £>!***-! ikhtiyan (v.n. 8 of akhjasta. The" threshold of a door arghawdn, q.v.
t akhcha. Gold, silver; a die for
coining ; a copper seal.
a £!aa! ikhdd (v.n. 4 of £^), Concealing; laying by, hoarding.
a j*!aa\ ikhdam (v.n. 4 of ^aa), Giving a servant; taking one into service.
a akhdan (pi. of khidn). Friends;
lovers ; beloved objects.
akhdar, A brothers or a sisters
a £aa\ akhda, More or most fallacious, crafty, artful, wily, cunning.
a JjAa! ukhdudj An oblong fissure in the ground, a furrow.
a mA akhz (v.n.), Taking, seizing, apprehending, procuring ; intercepting; seizure, exaction; akhzi intiqamt Taking ven-

geance ; akhz u jarr, Taking and seizing; fraudulent dealing ;akhz kardan, To take, receive; to examine.
/A dkhar y A bason, bathing-tub; dkhur, A stall for horses; the collar-bone (see akhwur) ; name of a city in Dah-
istan;akhuri charb (a fat stall), Plenty, abundance ;akhuri sangin (an empty, or rather, stony cratch), An unprofitable situation.
a yiA dkhar t Another, different, second; samti dkhar. Another way, otherwise ; shakli dkhar shudany To be altered;dkhir. Last, posterior, ultimate, final; the end, issue, extremity; finally, at last,afterwards; yes, surely, forsooth, but, yet, lest;akhiru yl~amry At length, finally ;dkhiri zaman, The end of time, the last day;dkhiri shab, The latter part of the night;dkhir 8hudan, To be finished ;dkhiri kdr, A catastrophe ; at length ;dkhir kardan, To finish.
a &\fsA ikhraj (v.n. 4 of /*), Producing, drawing forth, bringing out; expulsion, ejection, eviction; exclusion; extraction, derivation; expenditure, expenses, disbursement ;ikhraj shudany To be banished ; ikhraj kardan, To expel, banish; to bring out.
a ikhrdjat (pi. of the preceding),
Expenses; tribute ; revenue.
a ikhrds (v.n. 4 of Making
a ikhraj (v.n. 4 of JjA), Astonishing, confounding, discouraging, deterring.
a 0** yM akhir-binf Far-sighted; prudent.
a SjaI dkhir at r The invisible world; adv. In the end, at last.
dkhir-dosty The occupant of the lower seat; the last throw of the dice; the end of an affair ; a shoemaker.
a akhras. Dumb; having no echo
(mountain) ; thick (milk).
y*^ dkhur-8dlart Master of the horse.
a Jfcys^ dkhiraehy At last, finally, after all.
a jys-l akhraqT Dull, unskilful; with torn clothes.
dkhurak. A small stable; collarbone.
a fy*d akhram, Pierced in the ear, nose, 0)**/ jyU akh-ru kardan, To make a grimace (from pain) ; to exclaim akh l (m.c.).
v>ysl afchrosh, A clamour, noise.
h \ akhrut', A walnut.
A ukhrawiy. Relating to the other
a dkhiri, Last, ultimate; of or be-
longing to the end; latter;dkhiri chahdr 8hambah, The last Wednesday of the month §afar, observed as a great festival by the Muhammadans of India.
25 ) lac* I
akhriydn. akhriydn. Household furniture, goods and chattels, wearing apparel; wardrobe;dkhiriydn. The moderns.
t a akhirin, Last, latest comers ; pos-
terity ;akhirin harf, Decree of fate; termination of an affair;akhirin dam, The last breath.
a oVja\ akhzd' (v.n. 4 of ^)a), Exposing to shame or infamy.
a tfA akhzam, A male serpent; name of the grandfather of Hatim Taiy.
a akhass, More or most base, avari-
a jL-a! ikhsar (v.n. 4 of y~A), Diminishing ; causing or suffering loss; damage, loss.
a ^L-a^ ikhsds (v.n. 4 of J*a), Making or discovering one to be vile and contemptible.
dkhasta. The lower lintel, threshold.
akhsi, Name of a town in Transox-
*JL, \ akhsisak, akhsikat. Other
forms of the preceding name.
dkhsh. Name of a certain Persian Mubid;akhashy akhshy Price, worth, value; akhash dadan, To give a price.
dkhshuma, Barley or rice-water. dkhshanj, Adverse, contrary.
6AUU&.1 akhshanda. A childs rattle.
akhshej, akhshej, Opposite, contrary ; any of the four elements.
akhshej any akhshej an (pi. of the previous), The (four) opposites, i.e. the elements.
akhshejistan. What is beneath the sphere of the moon, the place of the elements.
tisX~A*.\ dkhshek. akhshek. Opposite, contrary.
akhsheg, akhsheg, Opposite, contrary.
yVCuLd.'i dkhshegdn, The elements. a yaAl akhas. More or most peculiar, special, particular; more or most excellent.
a ikhzal (v.n. 4 of J^a), Moistening.
a yAA\ akhzar. Green; dusky brown; black.
A jV4a' ikhzirdr (v.n. 9 of ;-sa), Being green.
A akhza*. Humble, submissive, con-
tented in a lowly station.
a oUbaI ikhta (v.n. 4 of a), Erring, sinning involuntarily, committing a blunder, making a mistake ; imputing sin.
a )Uba! akhtdr (pi. of khatar), Calamities, dangers, risks ;ikhtar (v.n. 4 of ^oa), Exposing to danger ; risk ones life.

( 26 ) yb.1
a akhtab. One who repeats best the
prayer called khutbah ; a colocyDth marked with green stripes.
a akhtal, Flap-eared; nick-name of
several poets.
a Ated ikhfaJ (v.n. 4 of Concealing,
hiding, rendering invisible.
A akhfaf (pi. of khuf). Boots; the
hoofs of a camel;ikhfdf (v.n. 4 of <-^), Loading lightly; being ineasy circumstances.
A akhfash. One who has small
weak eyes, seeing better at night than in the day time ; name of three grammarians.
akhkakand. akhkaland. or
ajchkalandu, A childs rattle. akhkul. Long-headed; chaff. caaKc5-1 akhkalanda, A curry-comb.
^£1 akhkam. Rim of a drum or sieve ; a fillet.
y£*d akhkamar. The crupper of a horse.
akhkandu. A childs rattle.
&*3&*d akhkuba, A button-hole, a loop. akhkur, A wild pear; unripe, sour fruit; a button-hole.
akhkuza. 8jj&d akhkuzha. A button ; a weavers loom ; unripe date.
akhkuzhna. A button. v>y^d akhkush, Unripe fruit, osly^d akhkuk. An unripe apricot.
akhkun, akhkuna. A button-
hole ; a button.
y&sd akhgar, A fire-brand, burning coal; ashes.
y^d akhgar. Charcoal; a live coal;aM-gari tafta, Live embers;akhgari kushta, Extinguished charcoal.
akhgaristdn. A hearth, a fire-place. J&M akhgul. A beard of corn, a pile of barley.
a pW ikhla' (v.n. 4 of Vacating,
a oJUA ikhlad (v.n. 4 of aLs-), Leaning, inclining ; clinging to, continuing ; rendering eternal.
a ikhlas (v.n. 4 of u^), Purifying, rendering sincere; purity, sincerity, candour ; affection, pure friendship, sincere attachment; loyalty, fidelity ; intimacy ; show or pretence of friendship. a xu^ikd ikhlasmandj Sincere, friendly. a ^Au-oliUd ikhldsmandi, Sincerity, friendliness, affection.
a IdUA akhldt (pi. of khilt), Mixtures, miscellanies; ingredients ; sweet scented drugs, perfumes; the four humours of the human body, viz. blood, phlegm, yellow bile (choler). and black bile (melancholy) ; akhlOti arba'ah, Idem ;akhldti radiyah, Corrupted humours ;ikhldt (v.n. 4 of ^), Mixing.
a jW akhldq (pi. of khalaq), Worn-out clothes ;(pi. of khtilq. khuluq) Natures, dispositions, habits, manners ; virtues, good qualities; morals, ethics ; akhldqi jaldli, akhldqi muhsini, Names of two celebrated books on ethics;ikhlaq (v.n. 4 of Wearing out, or being worn out (a garment) ; making one wear old clothes.
a ikhldl (v.n. 4 of J^), Causing to want; necessitating, constraining; being in want, need.
a akhlakandu. A childs rattle. akhlur, The fruit of the carob-tree. a *>Uikhmad (v.n. 4 of a*a.), Extinguishing a fire.
a JUaA ikhmdl (v.n. 4 of Render-
ing obscure or mean.
dkhmusa, akhmusa, Barley, millet, or rice-water.
a % a (j-Utsd ikhnds (v.n. 4 of Keeping
back, hindering ; hiding behind anything. akhangalj A sword.
cy^d akhnukh. ukhnukh. Enoch ; Noah. a uwlyd akhawdt (pi. of ukht). Sisters, ^y-dyd akhwasti, Unwillingness.
Ajy-t akhwdl (pi. of khdl), Maternal uncles.
a ^lyd ikhwan, ukhwan (pi. of akh). Brethren, friends, companions ;ikhwdnu 9z-zamdn, Cotemporaries; people of the same religion.
tflyd akhwdnd. Tutor, master, preacher, ^adyd akhwandl, Office of a tutor, master, preacher (see a*yd ^ytfyd).
a $yd ikhwat (pi. of akh), Brothers; ukhuwat (v.n. of y-1), Fraternity.
cl akh wa tuf, Spitting (see y> £l).
^yd dkhwurj akhwar, A stable, stall ; litter or straw laid under cattle ; the collarbone ; akhwuri charb, Plenty of victuals ; a pleasurable life ;akhwuri khushk (sangin), An empty cratch ; a place devoid of anything useful;amir(i) dkhwur, The Master of the horse.
jSL^ydf dkhwursdlar, Master of the horse.
akhwurak, A small stable; the collar-bone.
dkhtin, dkhwundT A theologian,
preacher; orator; a tutor.
akhwundi, The office of a preacher
or tutor.
a akhawiy, Brotherly, sisterly.

akbi, A good work; manly, generous.
a. akhl. My brother. a akhyar (pi. of khaiyir), Good,
religious men;guzlda'i akhyar, Chosen from the best; most excellent.
a akhydf. Different kinds of men ;
brothers by the same mother, but different fathers.
a akhydfi, By the same mother,
but a different father.
t akhld, Royal title, given by Kha-
li f ah Muqtadi bi-llah to an Amir.
a akhlz, Taken ; a captive.
akhir, fory*^ akhlz, q.v. a yt^\ akhyar, Better, best;akhir, Posterior, last;akhir zamanah, akhir waqt, The last time, period, age ; the last moment, the moment of death.
a akhir an. At length, in fine.
a akhir os, akhir osah, Wild
akhlrldan. To draw a sword. akhlz. Cement, plaster of a wall. dkhlzgar, A plasterer.
A~sakhUa. akhlsa, A ram leading the flock; a march-stone, a landmark; defective, imperfect.
a <-***.! akhyaf, Who has one eye black, the other blue (man or horse).
a akhyal. One who has many moles (on the face) ; a spotted bird.
akhlnos (G. ept^os), Wild wheat. akhyun (G. e\Lv), Snakes head (a .
dkhya. A ram, the leader of the flock; praise; spittle; limit, boundary, hedge, inclosure.
a add, idd, Misfortune, sorrow; any great and momentous business ; a marvellous thing; a profane or unlawful action ; power, strength, vigour, victory.
\j\ add, Grace, beauty, elegance ; blandishment, graceful manner, coquetry ; eloquence, voice, pronunciation, expression, song, music, odes;hasan-ada, Just pronunciation or expression ; khwush-ada, nazik-ada, Melodious ;sanjlda-ada, Well-weighed, judicious;ada kardan, To pronounce, express, sing, warble.
a add', Payment, satisfaction, performance, fulfilment, accomplishment; acquittance ; ada'i dain kardan, To make payment of debts ;ada'i safar kardan, To perform military duty, to make a campaign, to discharge that vassalage which a military tenant owes to his lord;ada'i shahadat kardan, To give evidence, to depose;ada kardan, To pay, discharge, execute; to assist; to prepare for a journey ; to lie in wait.
a SpW! ida'ai (v.n. 4 of )> Falling sick;
) Ivil
afflicting with sickness ; suspecting, doubt-ing.
a s-Ul adab (pi. of adab), Civilities, good manners, devoirs, ceremonies, politeness ; forms of address in writing and speaking, salutations, respects; title of many books;ddabi fuzala fl lug hat, Name of a Persian Dictionary, explained in Arabic and Hindi, by KazI Mahmud Dahlawi, a native of Delhi, who died a.d. 1420; ddabi sunnat, The minor duties of life.
A adab-ga, The place of obeisance in the palace of a chief.
ada-band, A describer of blandishments.
ada-bandl, Description of blandishments ; the fixing a period for the performance of a contract, or payment of instalments.
a adabhd (P. pl. of the Ar. pi.
adab), Good manners, refinement, &c. (see
a SU! adat, An instrument, tool, utensil, apparatus; whatever is necessary in the forming or completing of anything; (in gram.) a particle, as, adatu 't-ta'rif, The definite article (J\ al) ;addti jam1, A particle added to form the plural from the singular number;addti fa'il, A particle supplementary to nouns or participles in forming names of agents, similar to -er in English, as kdrgar, A labourer, from kar, Labour ; addti nis-bat, A particle of relation or possession, which, when added to a substantive, implies the being endowed with any quality, as arzumand, Desirous, from arzu, Desire. \*\*\ adada, A species of mezereum. a idardt (pl. of the preceding),
Turns, &c.;idarati daulatl, Governmental administrations (m.c.).
o adaraql, A kind of Indian
medicine, of an acrid and poisonous quality, dogs-bane.
a idarat, idara (v.n. 4 of yj*>), Turning round, going in a circle ; causing to revolve ; idara'i jami himam, A handing round of the deadly cup.
adarln (in Zand and Pazand), Hideous; wicked, bad.
t adash, Of the same name as
\**\ ada-fahm, Understanding by signs, skilled in the arts of blandishment.
\j\ ada-fahml, Skill in the arts of blandishment, understanding of signs and gestures, coquetry.
a iddqat (v.n. 4 of JjJ), Surrounding, enclosing.
adak, adak, An island; a ford.
adam, The celestial globe. a fWl adam (pl.), idam (sing.), Whatever is eaten with bread.
a adama'lldh, May God prolong
(a mans life, etc.).

Ijl (
a idamat (v.n. 4 of ($*>), Per-
a &U1 iddnat (v.n. 4 of &*), Lending, giving credit to a fixed period; buying or selling on credit; compensating.
adanosh, Name of a messenger whose eyes were tom out by Azra.
A adanl (pi. of adnd), Nearer,
nearest; the lowest, vilest, most ignoble or contemptible.
a adawat (pi. of adat), Instru-
ments, implements, utensils.
a idawat (pi. of adawa), A ewer or vessel, from which the Muhammadans pour water, for washing the hands, &c.
a adab (v.n.), Being courteous,
polite, well-bred; making a feast; courtesy, politeness, urbanity, good-breeding, respect, reverence ; propriety of conduct; discipline, chastisement; learning, morality, sound doctrine; the science of polite learning ;adab dadan, To correct, civilize, teach; to chastise, correct;adab kardan, To behave modestly, properly, or honestly.
a udaba (pi. of adib), Polite, learned,
high-bred men.
a adbar (pi. of dubr), The hinder or latter parts of anything, of the back, neck, &c. ;idbar (v.n. 4 of y*>), Turning back, going back, committing sodomy ; falling off from allegiance, defection, disloyalty; reverse of fortune, ill-luck, adversity ; calamity, defeat.
a s-ot adab-amokhta. adab-
amoz, A master, teacher; a pupil, learner ; exalted, illustrious ;adab-amoz kardan, To exalt to high rank; to render illustrious.
a adabana, With reverence, with re-
spect ; civilly, politely, courteously; wisely, learnedly.
adab-awazah, Loud, clear-voiced; adab-awazah kardan, To exalt to high rank, to render illustrious.
a adab-parwarda, An instructor,
master, tutor ; a student, pupil.
adab-khana, A water-closet; a
a cjUadabistan (shortened dabistan), A school; a seat of learning.
a adab-sanj, A master, tutor; a
disciple, pupil.
a adab-taraz, A master, tutor,
a adab-kar, An instructor, teacher,
tutor; a pupil, student.
a adab-kada, A seat of polite
manners ; a kingly court.
t\S adab-gah, The place of obeisance
in the palace of a chief; a seat of refinement ; a court.
a adabi, Polite, learned; a scholar.
a idbir, by Imalah for idbar, q.v.
A idhaz (v.n. 4 of Dismiss-
ing a suit; abolishing.
28 ) gjl
tA adakh, Handsome, fine, good ; height; the highest degree.
a iddikhar (v.n. 8 of Hoard-
a idkhdl (v.n. 4 of Ja^), Causing
to enter ; introducing, inserting, thrusting or putting in;iddikhal (v.n. 8 of J*6*0) Entering.
adar, Fire ;adir, A lancet, a fleam. a ^1 idraj (v n. 4 of Folding (a letter).
A idrdr (v.n. 4 of j>), Agitating,
moving, whirling round (a spindle), giving it a rotatory motion so rapid that it appears stationary ; causing urine, milk, a idrarat (pi. of the preceding),
a idrdri, A pension; a dishful.
idrafis (from G. ap6 the sea.
a idrak (v.n. 4 of csJ;o), Attaining, reaching ; arriving at manhood, coming to maturity ; comprehension, apprehension, understanding, perception, intelligence, intellect, capacity, genius.
a Aioto idrakdti sadiqah, True,
just conceptions.
adram, A packing-needle. a adarat, udrat, Rupture, swelled
adrakhsh, Lightning, thunder;
adarshdkh, A pickle. adarfan, Itch, scab, ringworm. adark, A swingiug cot; swing for children;adrak (S. ardraka), Fresh ginger; idrak, A small plum.
pyti adram, A saddle-cloth (also adram) ; arms, such as swords, daggers, bows and arrows ; a large needle.
adram-kash, A packing-needle. adrama, A saddle-cloth of coarse
adrang, adrang, Grief, sorrow, distress, ennui; a heavy calamity, ruin, perdition.
t adranah, Adriano pie.
8)^1 udra, The crest of a helmet.
A idris, The Arabian name for
tyi\ akhnukh. Enoch.
idris-khana, Heaven. adas, Name of a grain. adish, Fire.
A iddi*a (v.n. 8 of y^), Claiming,
demanding as a right; claim, pretension; arrogating; iddild dashtan, To have a claim against (m.c.).
a adlaj, Black-eyed (man).
a adHyat (pi. of du'a), Saluta-

£*> (
tions, congratulations, compliments, wishes, prayers, blessings.
A idgjidm (v.n. 4 of Inserting
one letter into another; doubling it by tashdld; coalescence.
ddghar, A summer-house;adghar, A vent-hole.
a f*A adgham, Black about the face; black-nosed; one who speaks through his nose.
a idfdb (v.n. 4 of \y*>), Warming; clothing in warm raiment.
adfar, A nephew; an uncle (see yil).
a &A adaqq, More or most subtile, minute, slender, thin; abstruse, recondite, obscure.
a idqaq (v.n. 4 of jo), Pounding,
pulverizing; attenuating, making thin, slender and tine ; speaking abstrusely. adaqcha, A cover, wrapper.
^A aduk, The female parts (of a woman or animal).
a iddikar (v.n. 8 of j&), To recall to mind ; to accept advice.
jSA adgar, Measure, comparison, conjecture.
a idled (v.u. 4 of jlo), Throwing, sending, or letting down, dropping ; speaking evil of another.
a q^A idldj (v.n. 4 of gta), A departing at nightfall; iddilaj (v.n. 8 of the same), Travelling during the last watch of the night.
a J!M idled (v.n. 4 of j^), Being arrogant, provoking, coquettish; coming down (on an enemy), pouncing on his prey (a hawk).
a adillat, adilla (pi. of dalil), Arguments, reasons, proofs, evidences, indications ; road-guides.
. A r* (idam, Brown, dusky, tawny, mulatto ; Adam, the father of the human race ; adami abi, A fabulous animal, resembling man, that rises from the sea, a merman; adam ba-adam mi-rasad, Adam (man) comes to Adam (man), a phrase addressed by the poor to the rich, reminding the latter that similar distress may befall him.
a adm, Eating anything with bread ; uniting in love and friendship ;adam, A tomb; a kind of date. adam, A ruby.
a Jto! idmal (v.n. 4 of J-*^), Cicatrizing.
a idmdn (v.n. 4 of (^*)), Con-
stantly drinking wine.
a tjag pA adam-pera, Creator of man, i.e. God ; a holy man.
a adamat, The inner skin ; a chief, a general, model, pattern;udmat (v.n. of [*>!), Being of a brown colour, brownness, duskiness; a clear shining white (in camels).
29 ) 6^1
a o- pA adam-chashm, Having eyes like those of a man.
a fA adam-khwur, A man-eater, a cannibal.
a pA adam-sar, Bald. a adamistan, A place abounding
in men; the world.
a (j-Ua *A ddam-shinas, Knowing mankind.
a adamgari, Humanity, valour.
(yA adman, Pure, fragrant (musk). a ^A adami, Human, a man, brown. a adamiyan (pi. of the preceding),
Men, mortals.
a adamiydna, Humanly, like a
a ^A adami-bacha, An infant. a &**A adamiyat, Humanity. a ddami-khwara. A man-eater,
Aj ^fA adami-zad, 6^3 adami-zada,
A son of man, man.
a 0 A idna* (v.n. 4 of y*>), Bringing near. a &A adandy How ?idind, An unknown number ; half a load (see the following).
*A>A adank, How ? at what rate ? an uncertain, unknown number, conjectural computation; one truss, hamper, &c.; one half of a horses load, as much as a beast carries upon one side; one side of a piece of money.
^jA adni, adne (?), Error, mistake. a A adnd, Lower, lowest; smaller, smallest; least, most trifling; nearer, nearest.
a adawat (pi. of adat), Instru-
ments, tools, utensils; particles;adawati jang, Arms, war-like apparatus, weapons of war, artillery.
a adwar (pi. of dar), Houses, mansions;(pi. of daur) Orbs, orbits, revolutions, circles ; periods, ages ;adwari mala-kut. The harmony of the heavenly bodies, the music of the spheres, the intelligence which moves them.
a J)A adud, Name of one of Muhammads ancestors.
a qjA adwan, More or most mean, or base.
adwe, Sweet-scented flag ; aloes.
A adwiyat, adwiya (pi. of dawa),
Medicines ; adwiya'i garm, Hot condiments, as pepper, cloves, cinnamon, &c. fioT dda, A hen-roost, a perch for pigeons. a idhdsh (v.n. 4 of Astound-
I ing, striking with amazement, terrifying.

( 30
a idhaq (y.n. 4 of ^5*^), Filling a cup, emptying a vessel.
a adhan (pi. of duhn), Oils, oint-
ments, unguents;idhan (v.n. 4 of &**), Anointing, concealing, deceiving, dissembling ; imposture, deceit, falsehood;iddi-hdn (v.n. 8 of The anointing of ones
adhaja, adhajdrah, A kind
of thorn.
adhali, Half a gold mohur, in value eight rupees.
a fadham, (A horse) of a black colour, inclining to a dusky green ; black; old; a fetter.
a adhd, More or most subtle or
adydn, Cattle (in motion) ; a rapacious animal.
a adydn (pi. of din), Religions.
a sadib, Courteous, polite, well-bred; learned ; a professor, tutor.
adlchdra, The inverted thorn.
Jkjol adid, Consequence; strictly and implicitly followed (a command) ; a spring of water.
adish, Fire.
a adlm, Goats leather, perfumed,
which they bring from Arabia Felix ; Morocco leather; bread when eaten or baked with meat; the surface of the earth ; name of a horse ;adimu 's-samd\ The expanse of heaven ;advmu z-zuha, Half-way between sunrise and mid-day ;adlmu n-nahdr, The diffusion of light or day.
a adyanda, The rainbow.
<5-4 adincLy Friday.
adyun = adydn, q.v.
a iza, When (in the present or future sense) ; behold lo !
a aza (v.n. of c5^)> Being injured, receiving damage, annoyance, molestation, vexation.
a izdbat (v.n. 4 of s^), Dissolving, causing to melt.
A azar, The Syrian month of March. dzdr-afyun, Foam of the sea.
g azdrdqi, A plant called dogs
didrtus, A proper name (see
azari, Relating to the (Syrian) month Azar.
a izdat (v.n. 4 of £>**), Publishing, divulging, blazing; squandering, lavishing; to sprinkle urine.
a &i\S\ izaqat (v.n. 4 of jjb) Giving one to drink or taste.
a azdn,azdn(y.n.oi(^>1), Announcing, giving notice ; the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Muazzin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques ; listening to.
) >$
a izbal (v.n. 4 of J?b), Causing to wither, debilitating, emaciating. t £X>o\ uzbaJc, Usback Tartar.
Aj^l izzikhdr (v.n. 8 of y^^), Storing up.
a izkhir, The bog-rush.
azar, azur, Fire ; nau^e of the angel presiding over fire, and the day azar ; affairs of the month and day azar, the former being the ninth solar month, the latter being the ninth day of any month, but particularly of the fourth month, iir-mdh; name of seven celebrated fire-temples dedicated to the seveD planets, and called in their respective order: azari mihry nosh, bahrdm, a'in (dyin), khurin, barzin (burzin), zardahusht; name of Abrahams father; (met.) love.
a izrd* (v.n. 4 of e\)^), Causing tears
to flow, shedding tears;(v.n. 4 of ^*>) Sowing; throwing off (a rider) ; sweeping away (wind).
oWf azar-abad, dzar-abad-
gan, Name of a fire-temple in Tabriz ; also the ancient name of Tabriz itself.
azar-abad-gun, A stove, a forge. azar-afroz, An eolipile ; a phoenix ; name of a son of Isfandiyar. lyl azar-afzd, An eolipile. rV' azram, A packing-needle (see
azar-a in, azari a'in, Name of the fourth temple of the seven called after the planets.
oV) azar-bad. Name of a priest of the
azar-bad-gdn, A fire-temple; name of a fire-temple in Tabriz, and of Tabriz itself.
azar-bayigan the preceding; name of the Persian province Azarbaijan.
dzar-barzin, azari barzin, Name of the sixth fire-temple of those named after the seven planets.
azar-bo, dzar-boyd, Name of a
yellow flowering shrub, from whose root pearl-ashes are made.
atari bahrdm, Name of the third fire-temple, called after the seven planets. azrabi, A native of Azarbaijan. a oWrfjbTj azar-baijan, for P. azar-bayigan, q.v.
dzar-parast, A fire-worshipper. azar-per a, azar-pair a, One who attends on a fire-temple.
azartush, A salamander.
azar-khurdar. dzar-
khwurdad. Name of a priest of the Magi; also of the angel who presides over fire; also of the fire-temple at Sluraz; also of the fifth fire-temple.
IfljL azar-khurin. azari khurin, Name
of the fifth fire-temple, called after the seven planets by the ancient Persians.

( 31
dzarkhush (azraJehsh, azarakhsh). Name of the ninth day of the month Azar.
azrakhshd, Intense cold fatal to man and beast; lightning, with loud thunder.
azar-rang, Bright, shining, red, flame-coloured ? confused, dispersed; difficult ; trouble, misfortune, calamity, ruin, slaughter.
azar-zarduhusht, azari zardu-husht, Name of the seventh fire-temple named after the seven planets.
azar as (probably for azar-ras, going into the fire), A salamander.
azarshap, ^azarshasp, Name of the angel or demon of fire; fire, flame, lightning; name of one of the temples in the city of Balkh ; a salamander.
azar-skin (for azar-niskin, sitting in the fire), A salamander.
azartu8, Name of the father-in-law of Azra.
jV.)^ azar-fardz,*Kindling fire.
to* ^ azar-furoz, dzar-faza, An
8*^ azar-kada, A fire-temple.
azar-ku, The leaves of the camomile.
azar-keek, A fire-worshipper. azar-gashp, azar-
guekasp, Lightning ; fire ; fire-worshipper ; name of a fire-temple erected by Gushtasp in Balkh, in which he kept his treasures; the angel presiding over, and living in, fire ; name of a hero.
JS' y] dzar-gul, A flower like the anemone.
^ dzar-gun, Flame-coloured, fiery-red, bright; the anemone, marigold, marshmallows ; a salamander; a horse.
dzram,K saddle-cloth; a saddle whose cloth is in two pieces.
fib* azar-mak, Name of the ninth
month of the solar year.
dzar-mihr, azari mihr, Name of the first fire-temple called after the planets. azarmi-dokht (=
q.v.), Name of the daughter and successor of Khosrau Parwez, and of a city founded by her.
vi&yl dzarang (for azar-rang), azrang, Light, luminous, bright, dazzling; fire; distress, misery, ruin (see and
jol azar-humayun, Name of a
£&iya> dzar hoshang, Name of the earliest prophet sent to Persia.
jol dzar-hoskangl, A follower of Azar Hoshang.
dzari, A native of Azarbaijfui; name of a poet; a follower of Azar Hoshang.
azaryds, azar yds, Gum of wild rue.
G dzrltu8, Name of a medicine.
azariyan (pi. of dzari), Followers of Azar Hoshang.
azarin, Camomile-flower; ox-eye ; = q.v.
C# dzar-ydn ( = azar-gun),
Red, flame-coloured; any flower of such a colour; anemone ; the sun-flower.
a iz(dn (v.n. 4 of (^>), Obedience, submission; confidence, belief.
a azfar, Fragrant, pungent, strong-
scented; most fragrant.
azqan (pi. of zaqan), Chins, beards. azuqa, azuqa HyA azuqa, q.v. a azkdr (pi. of zikr), Praises of God, continual prayers or repetitions of the names and attributes of the Supreme Being;izkar (v.n. 4 of /o), Bringing forth a male child; reminding ;izzikdr (v.n. 8 of the same), Remembering. a d/ol azkd, More or most pungent. a oUft! azkiya9 (pi. of zakiy), People of discernment, penetration, or understanding; acute, witty.
a azall, More or most vile, abject, or submissive.
a izldl (v.n. 4 of Jo), Holding in contempt, rendering contemptible; contempt, dishonour.
a dzan, Long-eared ;azin, A porter,
a (jol izn (v.n.), Permitting; leave, licence ;izn dadan, To give leave, to allow, to permit;uzn, The ear, a handle;uzun, The ear; attentive to what is spoken.
a aznab (pi. of zanab), Tails, rumps,
posteriors;aznabu 'l-khail, Horse-tails (a plant) ;aznabu n-nas, Men of low degree; servants ;iznab (v.n. 4 of s-^o), Committing: a crime or trespass.
utUo! uznak (dim. of A. uzn), An ear-trumpet.
azuqa (for azuqa, q.v.), Provisions.
azun, Thus, in that manner. a (jjbkol azkan (pi. of zihn),. Geniuses, intellects, capacities; memories.
a Jbol azydl (pi. of zail), Skirts, tails,ends, borders of a garment; the long tails of animals; the meanest of men.
a aziyat (v.n. of ^\), Injuring, hurting ; injury, harm, damage, nuisance, hurt, wrong, loss; molestation, annoyance; suffering, distress ;aziyat kardan, To torment (m.c.).
a aziyat-karan, Oppressors,
dzish, A door-sill; chips, rubbish. azin, Custom, common usage, institution, rite, ceremony ; decoration ; a churn, churning-stick.
A azin (v.n. of o*^), Summons to prayer; the place to which such summons extends (as a street, or a parish) ; the pub-

( 32
lie crier, who summons to prayer ; a sponsor, surety.
dzin-band, Ornamented, decorated (with flags, etc.).
jl dr (for agar), If;(Imperative of awar-dan) Bring thou; (in comp.) Bringing; a bringer; Imperative of arastan, To be able ; A suffix added to the 3rd pers. sing, pret. of verbs, to form abstract nouns, as raftar, Going, gait, from raft, he went; also nouns of agency or adjectives, as kharidar. A purchaser; padidar, Manifest;
ar (for agar), If ;(for 5;1 arrah) Saw ; dregs of oil.
ly ara (in comp, from arastan), Embellishing, adorning; ornament (as majlis-ara, Gracing the banquet, &c.).
a ljl ara' (pi. of ra'y), Opinions, counsels, doctrines, views.
a ira'dt (v.n. 4 of ^j), Showing, exhibiting, making known;ird'ati ruy kardan, To show the face.
a &iy irabat (v.n. 4 of '-^^), Causing to doubt and suspect; becoming doubtful; doubt, suspicion.
ardbehl, A carter, a waggoner. ardba, A waggon, a cart; a wheel.
&?\)1 araba-kash, A carter, waggoner. giy araj (contraction of g*y q.v.), The elbow ; name of a bird.
a ardjif (pi. of arjaf), False
a Wj! irahat (v.n. 4 of g^), Giving rest; bringing cattle home in the evening; grazing at night-time; breathing ; dying; discovering a smell.
arakhldan. To rest.
oiy arad, The twenty-fifth day of each month; name of the angel presiding over that day.
a iradat (v.n. 4 of ^f), Wishing, willing, purposing; desire, will, inclination, intention, purpose, design; discipleship ; iradati khuda. The will of God;iradat kardan, To wish, desire, will, intend.
a A*t?*>iy iradat ana, Voluntarily, cheerfully.
a iradat-bandah, A free ser-
a ^iy iradat-guzin, Devotee, devoted ; a scholar.
a Joiy arazil (pi. of arzal), Low, mean; the vulgar.
J*jiy drdzish, Bounty, charity, alms.
*sU-*l)l drdstak, A swallow.
drdstagi, Ornament, embellishment, decoration; order, arrangement.
^^ly arastan, To adorn, decorate, embellish ; to set in order.
drdsta, Adorned, decorated, embellished ; arranged ; an idol temple.
a irdz, A carpet of coarse wool or hair.
A arazi (pi. of arz), Lands, estates.
a ardziydt, pi. of and = the pre-
A iraqat (v.n. 4 of ^ or Ji>). Spill-ing, shedding, pouring forth.
yfyl araqu (from G. apaKos), A species of wild pulse.
*sliy drdk, An island. a *sliy arak, A kind of salt and bitter tree, with the roots and branches of which they make dentifrices ; a piece of ground.
a ^iy ardkd, A kind of nut, which, when chewed with betel-leaves and fine lime, strengthens the stomach, and gives an agreeable flavour to the breath.
ply dr dm, Rest, tranquillity, peace, quiet, repose, cessation, inaction; power, obedience, subjection; (adverbially) while motionless; (in compos.) tranquillizing, as diU dram, Heart-easing;(S. drama) A garden (especially in a city), a dwelling-place; drdmi khdk, The repose of the earth ; a clod; dram budan (shudan), To be at rest, to be calm;dram giriftan, To take rest; to be patient.
a ply dram (pi. of iram, arim), Stones erected in the desert for the direction of travellers;(pi. of ri'm) White deer.
^xjUiy aramanidem, To cause to be quiet.
yW drdm-banu, A name.
(^piy aramban, A garden within a city. ^a*iy dramidan, To rest, repose. o~*j*>piy aram-dost, Loving ease; indolent.
aramish, Quiet, repose, rest; dramishi bad, A calm ;drdmishi dad, Due proportion, equality, symmetry.
sCa. ply dr dm-shah (peace-king), Name of a Mogul emperor.
a w-H ply dram-talab, Seeking ease; idle, indolent.
dram-kar, A lazy person, one who does not work unless ordered; one who does a thing slowly; tedious, patient; sedate ; a sluggard.
a aram-kursl, An easy chair.
6l&*iy ardm-gah, *&*iy drdmgah, The time or place of rest; a calm, peaceable, secure dwelling; a bed-chamber.
ply aram-gir, Who takes his rest; quiet, tranquil.
a j-y aramil, &iy ardmilat (pi. of armed), Widows, distressed and needy women.
ardmuni (from G. arcpuovrj), The anemone.
^s-iy drdmi, Peace, calmness, repose. a~*iy dr amid, He rested, you rest, rest ye; thanksgiving.
dramidan (S. ram), To rest, to be

bT ( 3a )
at peace or ease ; to repose, sleep; to cause to be at rest, to be quiet.
ardmlda, Quieted, calmed, rested. drdn, Name of a province of Azarbai-jan; name of a village of Kashan, noted for its asses being big and fat like mules ; the elbow.
arrdn, ardnthe preceding; privet. ardwand, Grief, regret; desire, wish ; the Tigris ; splendour, pomp, grandeur ; name of a mountain in Hamadan. ardh, Mastic.
dray, Adorn (imper. of drdstan) ; (in comp.) adorning, ornament.
^juSb^y arayanldan, To cause to adorn. arayish, Ornament, embellishment; custom, law, institute; name of a note in music;drdyishi khwurshed, Name of a note in music; the down on the face ; drdyishi rum, Name of a fortified place; arayish Tear dan, To adorn ;drdyishi majlis, The ornament of the assembly.
a ard'ik (pi. of arlkat), Thrones,
sjudy ardyanda, Ornamenting ; a decorator.
dratdan, To adorn, decorate. dra'ida, Ornamented, adorned.
A *r>^ arab (v.n.), Being in want or need ; being skilled ; drooping, being languid and useless (the limbs); being hard upon (fortune) ; need, necessity, wish ;irb, A member, limb ; membrum genitale ; intellect; religion ; want; need ; wickedness.
a arbdb (pi. of rabb), Lords, masters, possessors ;arbdbi baslrat, The intelligent, clear-sighted, circumspect ;arbdbi taghallub, Superiors, conquerors ;arbdbi tamyiz, Judicious, discerning, prudent; arbdbi tJmdr, Pensioners arbdbi jdh u tamkln, Possessed of dignity and power; arbdbi khirad, arbdbi ddnish, Sage, intelligent ;arbdbi duwal, Governors, chiefs ; (taken in the sing.) proprietor, possessor of fiefs or villages ;arbdbi dih, A village chief ; arbdbi dlwdn, Counsellors ; arbdbi sukhan, Eloquent orators ; poets ; arbdbi suluk, Devout, observers of religious precepts; arbdbi shar\ Law officers;arbdbi safiVt bdtin, Endowed with purity, of a contemplative and holy life; arbdbi sanat, Artificers, artisans;arbdbi fazl u afzdl wa ashdbi iilni u kamdl, Persons of merit and learning ;arbdbi qalam, Civil functionaries (m.c.);arbdbi nidi, Officers of the treasury ;arbdbi ma'dli, Grandees, eminent men;--arbdbi lua'nu, Spiritual persons ;arbdbi makrtnnai, Most clement lords ; arbdbi na a gbby arbaban (P. pi. of the preceding), Lords, grandees.
a arbd (pi. of rab), Houses, mansions ;(pi. of rub1) Fourth parts ;irbdi (v.n. of £>j), Entering upon the vernal season ; turning cattle out to spring pasture ; dwelling in a spring habitation; being four in number; suffering from a quartan fever; breeding the teeth called rabd Hydt; begetting children in old age.
A arba (fern.), arba'at (masc.), Four ;arba mutandsib, Simple rule of three ;arba andsir, The four elements; arbu (pi. of rab), Houses, vernal mansions.
a jAc j\ arba1 at *ashara (masc.), Fourteen.
a arbaluna, arbaina, Forty.
A Jj* irbal, Arbela in Mesopotamia, famous for the defeat of Darius by Alexander the Great, y^ arbd, A pear.
arbujina (in Zand and Pazand), A water-melon; an island, j^y^ arbu-dar, A pear-trde. o arbiyasiyus, Name of a
Greek physician.
arbaydn, A sea-locust; arbydin, The camomile flower.
arbita (in Zand and Pazand), A
drat (S. aratni), A cubit; the elbow, by artd (in Zand and Pazand), A country.
a £by artd1, A multitude;irtd* (v.n. 4 of £;), Turning cattle into a good pasture; producing abundance of grass. t urtdq, A merchant. a pby irtdm (v.n. 4 of ^b), Tying a thread round the finger, in order to be reminded by it of something.
a JAjjy irtibdt (v.n. 8 of Wj), Binding, being tied ; connection, affinity, familiarity, close friendship;irtibdt lcardan, A connection or alliauce.
a gLiy irtibd1 (v.n. 8 of £?j), Passing the vernal season; to graze spring grass ; to be square-built or sit four-square; lifting up a stone to trv ones strength.
a eWy irtijdj (v.n. 8 of £;), Shaking, dashing of the waves; agitation, tremor.
A jW)! irtijdz (v.n. 8 ofy?-;), Composing or reciting a poem in the metre Knjaz.
a vj-Wy irtijds (v.n. 8 of Thun-
a irtijd* (v.n. 8 of £=-;), Selling a camel and buying something else with the price received ; taking a gift back ; carrying back.
a jwy irtijdl (v.n. 8 of J*;), Speaking extempore, improvisation.
sWy irtajak, irtajik, Lightning.
Jbs?y irtihdl (v.n. 8 of J=^;), Departure, travelling, migration; death.

a ^^1 irtikhas (v.n. 8 of Buying
a o\^Sj\ irtidci (v.n. 8 of <^y), Putting on a cloak or mantle.
a irtiddd (v.n. 8 of 3j), Returning,
rejecting, refusing; opposing; rejection, apostasy, recantation.
A £\SSj\ irtida (v.n. 8 of £*>)), Being defiled, tinged, stained; abstaining.
a irtiddf (v.n. 8 of *-^), Biding
behind another ; following, pursuing.
A irtizdz (v.n. 8 of jy), Sticking (as an arrow in the mark) ; being close-fisted, stinginess.
a irtisam (v.n. 8 of A distin-
guishing mark; distinguished by (in compos.) ; plan, painting, writing; being proud ; prayer* invocation.
a olkSj\ irtishd1 (v.n. 8 of Receiving a bribe ; bribery, corruption.
a irtishdf (v.n. 8 of A sip-
ping, sucking.
a irtizd' (v.n. 8 of ^j), Approving, consenting, accepting, being contented.
A gUr,\ irtizd1 (v.n. 8 of &>j)y Sucking, taking the suck.
A irtildd (v.n. 8 of ^j), and a irti'dsh (v.n. of u^), Trembling,
A irtifdt (v.n. 8 of gi,), Elevation,
exaltation, altitude ; height; ascent, grandeur, prosperity ;irtifa*i jarr u shaukat, The height of glory and magnificence ; irtifdi giriftan, To take the altitude (of the sun, a irtifdq (v.n. 8 of Leaning
on the elbow or ou a cushion.
a *\SSj\ irtiqd (v.n. 8 of Ascending ; promotion.
a irtiqdb (v.n. 8 of s-^), Expect-
ing, waiting, hopiug for.
A irtikdb (v.n. 8 of s-^), Embark-
ing in an enterprise; perpetration, commission (of sins); riding.
a irtikaz (v.n. 8 of y£>), Leaning on a bow.
a irtikds (v.n. 8 of Re-
lapsing, backsliding.
a f&y! irtikam (v.n. 8 of ^), Being closely packed, heaped, accumulated; a crowd, throng, press.
a irtimdz (v.n. 8 ofy*y), Trembling from a severe blow, palpitating, throbbing; agitation, perturbation.
a irtimas (v.n. 8 of A
plunging, diving.
a irtimdz (v.n. 8 of j*g), Burn-
ing with pain or grief; to be spoiled or ruined.
artang, The house of the famous Persian painter and religious impostor Mam; also his book of drawings which he showed to his followers as a work given to him by angels; Man! himself; a Chinese

(Other forms are: arjang,

arghang, and arhang.)
a irtihash (v.n. 8 of ijr&j), Cutting
one foot with the other (horse, camel) ; getting sore in running.
a irtihdn (v.n. 8 of ^j), Takiug or
receiving a thing as a pledge ; pledge, hostage.
a irtiydb (v.n. 8 of ^lg)j Doubt-
ing, suspecting; doubt, uncertainty.
a irtiyabdna, Doubtfully, in a
doubtful or suspicious manner.
a irtiyah (v.n. 8 of eyj), Rejoicing; being glad; contentment, gaiety.
a irtiyad (v.n. 8 of *>jy), Seeking,
searching for.
a irtiydsh (v.n. 8 of Being
in easy circumstances; feathering a nest.
a irtiyaz (v.n. 8 of Being
broken in (a colt).
arteshddr (S. astradharin), Soldier ; a company of horsemen; name of a large riv^r.
artlman, A district of Hamadan. a ars (v.n.), Exciting, stirring up (strife); kindling (a fire) ; irs (v.n. of vi>jy), Inheriting; heritage, heirloom; ashes ; remains ;urs, A kind of thorn.
a irsdnahf Hereditary, by heredi-
tary right.
arsad, Root of the wild pepper-tree.
arsang=*&Sj\ artang, q.v. drag, araj, A kind of bird; the elbow ; arj (Z. areja, arega), Price, worth, value; esteem, rank, honour, dignity; limit, bound, measure ; separation, extraction; a bird with soft plumage, a swan ; a rhinoceros.
a araj (v.n.), Sending forth an agreeable perfume; a sweet smell; sweet-scented spices.
a arja (pi. of raja'), Sides, margins, coasts;irjd (v.n. 4 of *W;), Deferring, putting off.
arjasp, The grandson of Afra-siyab; name of a Turanian champion.
a irja (v.n. 4 of £^j), Causing to return; returning,bringing back; changing; substituting; instituting (a suit).
a arjafy An uncertain or false
rumour, a fiction ;irjdf (v.n. 4 of -**>), Spreading false rumours; engaging in business.
arjdlun, A wild vine. arjdn, A kind of fir; a kind of mountain almond.
a irjdh (v.n. 4 of a arjaz, A camel whose legs or head are trembling when rising
arjasp = w~-Wyi q.v. a arjal, Marked with white on one foot (horse, cattle, a blemish); largefooted (man).

SL?1 ( '35
arjmand, Rare, excellent', worthy of great price, valuable, exquisite, beloved, dear, brave, generous, noble, distinguished ; wise;arjmand-bdnu (noble princess), A proper name.
arjmandi, Excellence; preciousness ;arjmandl bur dan, To acquire, to reap, to gain.
arjan, The bitter almond-tree. arjand, Name of a town.
arjang=<&Jj\ artang, q.v. arjanah, Name of a desert in Persia ; name of a note in music.
arjawan, urjuwan, Purple, deep red; a purple dye; a purple robe or carpet ; redness; starch.
arjawani, Purple, deep red. a urjuhat, A swing, a see-saw.
archih, archand, Although.
archin, A ladder; a staircase. archini, Name of a mountain. a pW)! arhdm (pi. of riAra or rahim), Wombs, matrices ; relations by the mother, uterine kindred.
a arham, More or most merciful; arhamu W-rahimin, The most merciful of the merciful (God).
arhiqina, A herb used for dyeing. a irkha* (v.n. 4 of ^), Slackening,
loosening, relaxing;irkha i indn, Letting loose the reins, riding at full speed ; unruliness.
a irk has (v.n. 4 of u^j), Finding
or purchasing cheap ; making cheap.
ajuAjl arkhanda. A tincture-powder, with which they tinge the nails and other parts of the body of a beautiful red ; some nations, mixing it with vinegar, dye the manes and tails of their horses; a kind of tree from which they make a fine oil. arakhang, Arracan.
a yyAjl arkhun (ap\v), A prince, chief, archon; a high-priest, patriarch (among Eastern Christians). '
a arkhd, Softer, softest; more or most flabby.
arad, The twenty-fifth day of every month ; name of the angel presiding over that day ;drd, A defect, blemish, imperfection ; flour, meal;drd kardan, To grind;drdi jaw, Barley-meal;drdi gan-dnm, Wheaten flour;drdi kunjud, A dish of fresh dates and syrup ;drd u ravghan,
A kind of sweetmeat.
Ojl ard, Anger; (S. arati) flour-meal;
ird, The twenty-fifth day of every month, and name of the angel presiding over it; urd, Like, similar; name of a city in Persia.
\^\ ardd, Name of a priest of the Magi. a irda (v.n. 4 of ^;) Assisting;
(v.n. 4 of ^j) Destroying.
drd-aba, Pottage, porridge. j\ardad, ardad, A deceiver; a satyr ; |
) ^
ardad, Name of a priest of the Magi (=m ardd).
arddla, Flour-meal.
a 0^1 ardan (pi. of rudn), Sleeves; irddn (v.n. 4 of Putting sleeves to a garment.
u***!o^ ardanish (probably misreading for u***!)^), Good works, alms, charity.
0)1 ardana, A species of violet.
dr daw, A demon, evil genius, magician.
ardawiraf, Name of a Persian legislator who flourished about the year 200 of the Christian era.
ardab, War, quarrel, altercation.
a irdabb, An Egyptian measure
equ^lto 24 sa*.
^yTdrd-ba, A kind of pottage or gruel, lyfc oyi drd-bukhrak, A confection of mountain almonds.
ardabur, A beautiful green colour. ard-bez, ard-bez, A sieve, boulter. ardabil, Name of a city in Media.
AiyOjT ard-tula, Pottage, stir-about, gruel.
5^1 ardij, Juniper.
5^1 ardij-db, Gin.
a yWojl ardajan, Certain figures and mysteries in astrology.
drdahala, A kind of milk-pottage. drd-dula, Gruel; a fine green
ard-raughan, A kind of sweetmeat (see ard u raughan, under
jyjjl ard-zada, A sieve ; a fine green colour.
ardisian, ardistan, irdisian (Z. eredhva, high-\-stdna, place), Name of a district in Persia.
aradush (Z. aredhus), A certain number of crimes.
ardshir (S. rita + kshatra), Milk and flour pottage ; ardsher, Intrepid, courageous ; name of Bahman son of Isfan-diyar and father of Darab; also of Sasan, and of the son of Sheroyah bin Parwez ; ardsheri diraz-dast, Artaxerxes Longi-mauus, name of King Bahman.
ardshiran, Name of a bitter
8jA ardsher-khurra. Name of a
country in Persia.
ardsher-daru, A bitter medicine.
g aridfanani, Wild cucumber.
urdak, An aquatic bird;urdak az kiln bar-amad, A practical joke has been played.
ardakan, Name of a town in the district of Shiraz; also of a village near Yazd.
(Irdam, The anemone ;ardam, A section of the book of Zardusht; dexterity; skill; the anemone.

*>' ( 36 ) A, I
ardami, Name of an animal. ardan, ardan, urdan, A colander, a strainer;ardan, Name of a country ; the river Jordan;irdan, The oxycanth fruit; a species of eagle.
t urdu, A camp, an army ; a name for the Hindustani language, made up of Hindi, Persian, and Arabic; urdu'i hu-mdyun, urdu'i mualld, The royal camp.
ardawan, ardbdn (strong
guard), Name of several princes of ancient Persia, Media, and India, supposed to be the Artabanus of the Greeks; name of a country.
urdu-zada, Encamped. ardush, The body of the lunar
ardukind, The ancient name of the city of Kashghar or Turan (Scythia).
ardula, Milk-pottage, pap, gruel. ardun, Name of a king of Persia. arda, arda, Flour, meal, flour-bread ; a kind of porridge; a handmill;arda'i khurma. A dish made of dates with hot bread, butter, &c.;arda'i (arda'i) kunjud, A dish of fresh dates and syrup.
drdhdla, A kind of pottage or
arda-bukhrak='^j&. q.y. ardahi, Name of an animal, wrdi, The second month of the solar
O'-Ht <.5^ urdi (avdi) bihisht, The second Persian month, mid-spring, April; the third day of every month, which the old Persians' celebrated by a festival; the angel who presides over the mountains ; fire.
<5ai drdina, A kind of gruel or pottage.
A arzal (pi. of razl)> Vile, ignoble ;
the vulgar, the rabble ;irzal (v.n. 4> of Jo;), Despising, treating with scorn; associating with the base.
a arzaly Mean, base; more or most mean, base, ignoble or vile;arzalu 7-*umr, The end of life, when memory and faculties fail.
arz, Price, value ; quantity ; esteem, veneration ;arzi bazar, Market price.
a jjl arzy urz, The pine, cedar, pitch, juniper, or any cone-bearing tree;araz, uruZy urzy Pice.
a arza' (pi. of ruz')y Afflictions, calamities, disasters.
A jljjl arzdq (pi. of rizq), Riches, possessions, provisions.
arzdn, Of small value, cheap, low-priced ; worthy ;(for agar zi-dn) If
lrom that ;arzdn shudan, To be cheap ; to be worthy ;arzdn kardan, To make cheap. arzdnish, Charity, good works. aizdnly Cheapness; abundance; anything safe and sure; anything given in charge; a worthy object of charity;
arzdni dashtan, arzdni farmudan, arzdni kardan, To give, bestow, confer.
cLrzanidany To be esteemed; to be bought cheap.
arzdydnidan, To render valuable ; to make cheap.
arztiyun=q.v. arzrudy Name of a country in Tur-
arzish, Price, value, worth. a arzaq (for azraq), Azure, cerulean. arzan, Millet;arzani zarrin, Stars ; sparks of fire; a draught of wine ; bubbles.
a cjjj! arzan, A hard kind of tree from which they make walking-sticks; a city in Armenia called Erzeroom (arzanu r-rum).
&jij arzan-reza, Small grains; small rain-drops ; sips, drinking by sips.
arzangdn, Name of a city in Armenia.
arzanin, Bread made of millet. arzuy Desire, wish, will, resolution, intention, inclination, affection, love, appetite, concupiscence, hope, want; arzu'i nafs, Sensuality;arzu bar bastany arzu dar kanar kashidan (guzdshtan), To obtain ones wish ;arzu dar dil {dar jigar) shikastany arzu sokhtan {faru shikastan), To be disappointed, frustrated in ones wish;arzu pukhtan (khwasiany ddshtany kardan), To nourish a wish, to desire ardently.
arzuwdna, Any object of desire; wistfully;arzuwdna'i zani bar-ddr, The longing of a pregnant woman.
arzu-khwah. Wishing for, desirous.
drzudan, To desire, wish, hanker. yj) arzusanjy Desirous, longing for.
drzushikasty The breach of a resolution, change of mind.
drzushikan, Breaking a resolution, preventing the execution of any design.
arzu-kada, drzu-gah, &S ^
drzu-gah, A place where everything wished for is at hand.
arzumand, Desirous, eager, fond, wishful, covetous, avaricious, greedy; drzumandi ihsdnam, I am desirous, solicitous, or ambitious of favour ;drzumandi 'atiya, Greedy of gifts.
*S***j)SS drzumandi, Desire, wish, appetite.
drzun, Amiable qualities, virtues.
arzundk, Desirous, wishful, eager. drza, arza, Clay mixed with straw for plaster ;arza, Liquid pitch; the cypress; the piue; the first of the seven climates.
f drzagar, arzagar, A plasterer.
OpSj;! arzetun, Name of a certain princess.
arzidan, To suit, become; to be

arm, Lead.
arzish, Price, value ; dignity.
<$j)\ arzhan, A species of bitter almond. arzhang, The house of the painter Mam, Ac. (see artang); a demon of
Mazandaran, killed by Rustam ; a Turanian champion, killed by Tus.
arzhana, Name of a desert in Persia. aras, Name of a river near Tiflis, the Araxes of the ancients;aris, dm, The juniper-tree;ar (S. a/ra), A tear;am buzdn, A rheum issuing from the eyes of the mountain-goat from which they prepare an antidote against poison ;urs, The larch, plane, or cypress tree.
a irst A noble race or stock. a irscb (v.n. 4 of y~j), Making firm, immovable.
A arsdgn (pi. of rusgh), The wrists or ankles (in man), pasterns (in animals).
a irsdl (v.n. 4 of J~;), Sending, despatching ; remittance ; despatch ; monthly collection of rents.
irsal-nama, A list of remittances, invoice of goods, rent-roll.
a ar8dn (pi. of rasan), Halters ; irsan (v.n. 4 of (^-;), Binding fast with a halter, haltering.
a arsanlqun, Yellow orpiment.
argst, Ability, power; decoration; arast, arast, The upper or higher part of pack-saddles; plumpness in the hips (of animals).
arastdan, To adorn ; to be able.
drastan, arastan, To adorn; to be able.
arastu, A swallow ; swallow-wort. arasta, Adorned.
g 1arast, arasta, Aristotle.
arista, Henbane.
g yJleUa-.jl arast at alis, arastata-
lis, Aristotle.
g LajIL.^ aristulukhiya, Long birth-wort.
g aristo1 Aristotle ; the herb birth-wort.
drslan, arslan, A lion ; surname adopted by several kings of Persia.
(j)-i)\ arsan, An assembly, meeting, congress.
JU-^1 arsanal, Arsenal (m.c.). e&u-^ arsang, Man! the impostors shop (see artang).
arash, Name of a celebrated archer; name of the seeond son of Kai Qubad ; arash, A cubit, a fathom; name of a city ; arishy Signification, meaning; arish (S. fiehi), Wise, prudent; an assembly ; arsh, a cubit; an assembly.
a drishy Name of a mountain ;arshf Disagreement, quarrel, altercation; stimulation to discord ; a mulct or fine paid for the shedding of blood.
a eUiA irshad (v.n. 4 of Directing,
37 )
showing the right way; direction, order, command;irshad-angez, Producing safety.
a irshdsh (v.n. 4 of ^>j), Gentle
rain ; dropping of blood or tears. arshad, The marcasite stone.
arshasangy The 25th of the
are\aky A poppy ; fault; arashk (Z. ara^lca), Envy.
g arshimldus, Archimedes.
arshan (in Kipjak), A cloud. arishly True, real, significant.
LajI arshy a (in Zand and Pazand), A throne.
a arsad (pi. of rasad), Observations of the stars, or of roads (through deserts) ; irsad (v.n. 4 of aoj), Observing, watching.
a irsan (v.n. 4 of Making
a arZy The earth, ground, soil ; land, country, region ; a portion of laud ;arzi khali, Uncultivated ground; arzi rum (country of the Romans), Name of a city on the confines of Armenia and Cappadocia ;arzi mamalik, A prime minister; arzi nuhy The land of Noah, a place so called in Eastern Arabia.
a irzd (v.n. 4 of_^>), Giving suck. a te>j\ arazaty A worm which eats into ships, the white ant, weevil.
a ar%iy Terrestrial, earthly, earthy. a artal (pi. of rati or ritl), Certain measures of weight, pounds (of twelve ounces).
g artdmdsxyd, Artemisia, mug-
artdmiduSy Name of a prophet. g artamls, Artemisia ; Diana.
g artamisd, Southernwood.
g artanlsdy Sow-bread,
ob' arte, artly A willow; a poplar.
artayun, Intelligent, acute, cun-
a irldsh (v.n. 4 of u^j), Trembling ; causing to tremble.
a ird/ (v.n. 4 of c-tej), Causing
(the nose) to bleed, producing hemorrhage ; causing to make haste ; filling a bottle. a acj! arlad, Thunder-struck.
A(^ ar(an, Foolish, ignorant; lax, flabby, weak, languid.
a Afy\ ir(iwa} (v.n. 9 of ^), Abstaining (from evil) ; repenting.
drugh, A belch, ructation;urgh: Hot and bitter (walnut or almond).
^ arghdy arghdby A river.
arghaj, argjidch, Yarn; the
drghdda, Name of a river. urghdjy A stream of water. arghdliy Argali, the wild sheep of Siberia and Central Asia (see

t>] ( 38
A irgham (v.n. 4 of Rubbing (a mans nose) in the dirt; lowering, debasing.
o arghdmun, A. web in the eye,
which in the extreme parts of the iris looks red, in the interior white.
G arghdmunl, Wild tansy.
arghdv, A river. arghich, Ivy.
arghackl, A long rope or thread. drughda, araghda, Angry, passionate, enraged; agitated (opp. to quiet) ; quarrelsome ; araghda, arghuda, Covetous, greedy.
arghizk, Ivy.
arahushtak, A kind of childs
arghaky Ivy.
argAal, Easy, agreeable (life); uncircumcised.
arghamj, A long thread. arghamchl, A long robe; a thread twenty cubits long, fit for weaving.
g arghan, An organ.
27^ arahanj. A long thread.
arghand, arghand, arghanda,
arghanda, Covetous, desirous, wishful; iu-trepid ; passionate, angry, testy ; a tippler.
s^t arghand-ab, Name of a river.
arghang, The shop of the painter Man! (see 0-^ arghanun (G-. opyavov), An organ. arghanun, An organ.
t)3 oy^ arghanun-zan, Who plays on the organ.
arghawdn, Name of a tree whose fruit and flower are of a beautiful red.
arghawdn-tan (red-bodied), Name of the planet Mars.
acL* 0ly£jl arghawan-sd(idy With rosy fore-arms.
arghawanly Red, purple.
A' arahiin, An organ; (S. arvan) a wild horse.
ij ghaydn, A village near Nishabur. arghidan, To quarrel, dispute, scold, brawl, contend ; to become hard, to wax dry.
arghida, Angry, passionate. drgheshy The bark of the box-
A irfdh (v.n. 4 of &*;), Bestowing affluence; comforting, cherishing; enjoyment of ample means and tranquillity.
arfakhshad. Name of a prophet. arfashy A caravan.
a arfaz, A refuser; an obstinate heretic, particularly a fanatic Shiah.
a arfa\ Higher, highest. arfand^^ q.v. arq, A canal.
a ara^ (v.n.), Being watchful, sleepless ;araqq, More or most slender, or transparent; thinner, thinnest.
(v.n. 4 of yeij), Making (a
camel) dance, caper, or trot; dandling (an infant).
a arqdq, Privet;irqaq (v.n. 4 of Jbb Making thin or slender; reducing into a state of servitude; speaking in refined language.
A irqdl (v.n. 4 of J5y), Making
arqall (see ^^), Argali, the wild sheep of Siberia and Central Asia.
a arqam (pi. of (+>) raqam), Figures, numbers; writings, notations; arqdmi hindl. Arithmetic, numbers, properly Indian tables, arithmetic being generally supposed to be borrowed from them.
g arqan, Privet; mountain almond. arqish, Intelligent, skilful; an
a hy arqat. Variegated with black and white spots.
a arqam, (A serpent) speckled with black and white (of a very dangerous species) ; name of an Arabian tribe.
arqand, Name of a mountain in the
dj\ ark (m.c. for <^), A small citadel; ark-Hmarat, Citadel-palace.
a ark (v.n. of A camels feeding on the tree arak; abiding in one place.
a 3^ irkdz (v.n. 4 of fi), Discovering minerals or hidden treasures.
Irkas (v.n. 4 of Driving
back. .
irkdz (v.n. 4 of Becoming
large and stirring in the womb (a foetus). irkak, Dew, misling rain.
a arkdn (pi. of rukn), Columns, pillars, supports, props; component parts; fundamentals, essentials; (prosodic) feet; arkani daulai, Nobles (pillars of the State).
g 0yJ^ arkun, A chief, a governor.
arkunitan (in Zand and Pazand), To give, to bestow ; a gift.
arkiya (in Zand and Pazand), A
arg, A small citadel within a larger one ; name of a fortress in Sistan; (S. drka) the sun ;arag, A swing; arag, urug, A tether ;org, An organ (m.c. from Fr. orgue).
h argaja, A kind of perfume.
argali, A wild sheep (see and
urganjy Name of a city in Khurasan.
g argus, Name of one of Alexan-
ders successors, Lagos (?)
arldSy The spirit or soul of sphere of Mercury.
a drim, Name of a town in Mazan-daran; also of a village near Dahistiin.
arm, The arm from the elbow to the

shoulder; iram, Name of the inventor of warlike instruments; =.A- rA iram, q.v. j
a ^ arm (v.n.), Seizing Avith the teeth, biting; twisting hard (a rope) ; eating up all on the table ;iram, The fabulous gardens, said to have been devised bv Shaddad bin Ad in emulation of the gardens of Paradise.
a irmaz (v.n. 4 of lA*;), Heating anything (hot sand) ; hurting with heat, scorching the feet; grieving, afflicting, paining.
armdt, A kind of date-tree with a fragrant blossom.
armdk, armdl, A substance
like cinnamon.
arman, armdn, Desire; a sigh; grief, sorrow; remorse (armdn khwurdan,
To sigh) ;armdn, A kind of drug which hardens the gums;irman, Anything borrowed ; name of a city.
armdn-khwdr. Wishful4; vexed. armdn-khwur, Grieved, vexed. arman-saray, The house of mourning, i.e. the present world.
armanldan, To sigh ; to be afflicted; to repent, to feel the anguish of repentance.
irmail, Name of one of Zahhaks
a armad, Of an ash colour ; suffering from ophthalmia.
dramidan, = q.y.
dramda, Vexation, grief, sorrow; repentance, remorse ;dramida, Reposed, rested.
yj\ urmuz, urmuzd (Z. ahura-mazda), The first day of the month; name of the angel who presides over the first day of the month; the planet Jupiter; name of the son of Isfandiyars son Bahman; name of the son of Anoshirwan.
urmus, The prophet Enoch; !
Hermes. |
armish (for drdmish), Quiet, repose. armaghdn, armughan, ar-
maghdni,A present brought from a journey, an offering ; a piece of money.
urmak, A woollen garment. irmagdn, A tutor; happiness, felicity.
dram-gdh, dram-gah, A phue of rest; delight.
AvW armal, Widowed, in a state of celibacy ; poor, indigent, helpless, wanting victuals ; barren, without rain or produce J (year) ; with black feet (sheep) ;armul (pi. of rami), Sands.
arman (for agar man), If I;arman, irman, Name of a part of the mountainous district of Azarbaijan, and the birth-place of Shirln, famous for the production of silk. armand, At rest, reposed. dramanda, Tranquil, quiet; render- I
ing quiet, calming;armanda, Tranquil.-quiet.
\ armansa, Name of the body of the lunar sphere (see cr*";' armani, irmanl, Armenian, o armanin, The wild pomegranate.
armaniya, Armenia ;irmaniya, Name of a city where formerly stood a fire-temple called durukhsh.
armud (for amrud), A pear.
a urmulat, The stump left on the
trunk of the plant arfaj after lopping off a branch; widowed; poor, indigent (youth).
armun, armun (for A. arbun,
from G. appa/ftov), Earnest, pledge, stipulation, anything by which a promise or bargain is confirmed.
armiyd, urmiya, irmiya, Jeremiah; Khizr; Ali; Jerusalem.
dramldagl, Rest, quiet; modesty. dramidan, To rest, repose. dramida, armlda, Rested, reposed, quiescent.
armls, A kind of thorn. armln, The fourth son of King Kai Qubad.
armlniya, Armenia. armaydn, Name of a Greek philosopher; iugenious, intelligent; a sort of stone which breaks in a pentangular shape.
dran, aran (for dranj), The elbow, the arm;aran, Congregation, assembly (?).
Q)\ arran (in Zand and Pazand), A ewe. A arnab, A hare, a rabbit;arnabi
bahri, A kind of poisonous fish. jti <^1 aran blzh, Brazilian wood.
dranj, aranj, The elbow ; the arm from the shoulder to the elbow.
d arand (S. eranda), The castor-oil plant. arandan, Denial, refusal, prohibition ; Heaven forbid let it not be !
dranda, A bringer, a porter, carrier. <£&j\ arang, Colour, mode, form, manner; thought, doubt, suspicion; grief, trouble, affliction; craft, deceit, stratagem ; a kind of fruit; a viceroy, a governor ; (for dranj) the elbow; (in compos, at the end of compounds) like, resembling, in form of; apparently ; never;arang arang,Parti-coloured, variegated.
arnawdz, Name of a sister of Jam-
ar na (for agar na), If not. aranyabizh, Brazilian wood. h dru, A peach (Prunus domestiea, comp. }\).
A irwa (v.n. 4 of ^j), Giving to drink, quenching the thirst.
a arwdh (pi. of ruh), Spirits, souls, minds ;ba-arwdhi pidaram, By my fathers soul (m.c.).

( 40 ) ;!
"V arwdna, A wild violet; a kind of camel.
arubak, Remote, distant; old. w>^\ urii'p, Europe (m.c.). gjyl aroy, The juniper-tree (perhaps misreading for 5^)1).
^ urwar (in Zand and Paz.), Vegetables. a. uruz (v.n. of j^l), Contracting oneself, drawing back through avarice ; being firm, steady, rooted, fixed; being cold (night).
at us, Furniture; clothes. arusd, Name of an Indian plant. arwa\ Handsome, winning, engaging (either bv comeliness or courage).
aruali. A belch (drugh dadan, to belch) ;arugh, A stem, stalk ; family ; nr ugh, An ox-hide ; a large owl; a day ; a fabulous mountain; uruali kardan, To dress leather; to clean, to wipe. drughldan, To belch, jjyjl drug, A belch.
a uruk (v.n. of o*3j\), Going down (a swelling).
arum a, A plant whence potash is
arun, arun, Amiable, attractive, winning qualities ;irun, A medlar ; an eagle ; arwan, Bilious, choleric.
ar unitan (in Zand and Paz ), To
drwand, Majesty, grandeur, pomp ; arwand, Experience, proof; the best part of anything ; majesty, grandeur, pomp; elegance, beauty, gracefulness; wish, desire; a sigh of regret ; the ocean; the Tigris ; name of a mountain in Hamadan ; name of the father of Lohrasb; name of a fountain in Sistan.
arwanddb, Name of Zahhaks
arondldan, arondldan, To be lazy;
to louse.
g arunis, Valerian.
arwls, arwlsh, A board whereon the Parsis place tbe vessels used in their religious ceremonies ; a hair rope.
arwln, arwln, Experiment, trial.
<5^1 arwiya, A mountain said to be forty parasangs high.
dra, Root or lower part of the teeth, gums.
fijl arra (S. ara), A saw ;arra nimudan, arra kashidan, To saw ;arrcCi mar-dan-dan, A saw of serpents teeth,
a irhaf (v.n. 4 of <-**;), Whetting, sharpening (a sword).
a irhdq (v.n. 4 of ^j), Bringing near; being dilatory in saying prayers; causing one to hasten away; oppressing, being hard upon.
arrajdn (called also arra-
ghdn), Name of a city sixty leagues from Shiraz.
arhad, A species of grain.
arra-zabdn, A backbiter, slanderer. *&*a*j\ arhaft, Name of a Hindu prophet. arra-kash, A sawyer. arhang, Name of a town in Badakh-shan, and a place of pilgrimage, called also arhangi husain, because the head of Ali s son Husain was buried there; the shop of Manx (see artang).
are, Root or lower part of the teeth, gums (see fijl);arl, Yes, very well, indeed, truly; no.
a ary (v.n.), Making honey (a bee) ; honey; pouring forth ran (a cloud); copious rain ; bearing malice.
h arl. The root of Arum colocasia. a arydh (pi. of rlh), Winds.
a arlb, Sagacious, cunning, shrewd,
urlb (ureb), Crooked, inverted. a arlj, <£=^1 arijat (v.n. of 5;1), Sending forth an agreeable smell; a perfume ; a sweet smell.
a arlha, Jericho in Palestine.
a aryahlyat, Cheerfulness, alacrity
in bestowing a gift.
arid barld, irld birld, A kind of medicine brought from Sijistan, resembling in shape an onion cut through the middle. 0^5)1 arldan, To adorn. jij\ arlr, Sagacious, shrewd; sober, chaste.
arls (ares), Quick-sighted, acute. a arls, A husbandman; name of a well in Madlnab.
urlsa, The district of Orissa (in
arlsh, Ingenious, clever. a arlz, Broad, wide, large; worthy,
suitable; pure ; humble, modest; fat (animal).
arlgh, Aversion, abhorrence, hatred. arlk (in Zand aud Paz.), Distant,
a arlk, Name of a valley. a arikat, An ornamented sofa or couch in a state apartment; a throne.
arlka-nishln, Sitting on a
arm, A cubit.
az, Desire, love, passion, lust; avidity, avarice, covetousness ; (at the end of compounds) greedy ; name of a city.
)\ az, From ; of ; for ; by ; out of ; with ; belonging to; by means of ; in exchange; on ; than ; through ; off ; after;az ab bar amadan, To attain from a lower to a higher degree either in dignity or in abasement; az atish-ha dfide na-dlda, Inexperienced in the vicissitudes of fortune ;az alifi adam ta mlmi maslh, From Adam to Christ; az dni o, az ano, His, her, or hers;az dni eshan, Their, theirs;az an bdz, From thence, from that time ;az dni tu, Thy, thine; az an jd, Thence, from that place;az dni

( 41 ) >\
shuma, Your, yours ;az ani bih, Whose? az ani md, Our, ours ;az dni man, My, mine ;az o azadi hard, He declared him free ;az In ja, Hence, from this place ; az in ja, az in dast, az in spibab, On this account;az in jdnib, From this side or part;az in jumla, From all this;az in sipas, Henceforth ;az bald, From above ; az bala'i fuldn, Before, in front of a person ; az birdy, For, because of;az bird'i anhi, On account that;az bari war shir doshi-dan, To draw milk from the breast of a male, i.e. to accomplish some wonderful feat;az buni dandan, az buni 8i u du, az buni gosh, az buni ndkhun, Obedience, hearty service; cheerful; accumulated, treasured up ;az baha (qimat) uftadan, To lose in value ;az bahri eshdn, On their account; az bahri tutiya {dawa) na-manad, Nothing remains even for tutty or medicine (to express the utmost want of a thing) ;az bahri chih, On what account ?az bahri khuda, For Gods sake ;az bahri didan, In order to see ;az bahri sud, On account of gain ; az bahri namaz, For the sake of prayer; az pay uftadan (dar uftadan, dar amadan), To fall into disgrace, misery, want; to slip, to fall; to die; to retain no trace of former splendour;azpd afgandan (dar andakhtan. dar awardan), To throw down, enfeeble, destroy ;az par da birun shudan, To exceed bounds ;az pargdr uftadan, To be bewildered and helpless ;az pargdr raftan (shudan), To be in an ecstasy, beside oneself ;az pas, From behind ; az pas sar safir kashidan, To become abject, to humble oneself before another ;az post bar dma-dan, To disclose ones secrets ; to renounce the world, ones selfishness, or carnality; to laugh ; to attain ones object;az post birun amadan (uftadan, shudan), To be beside oneself, to rejoice exceedingly ;az post birun awardan (kashidan), To skin, to flay ;az pahliii base chize didan, To derive advantage from anyone;az pahlici base bare bardan, To accomplish a thing by anothers help ;az pesh, From before ;az tahi dil, From the bottom of the heartaz ja bar dashtan hase-ra, To promote, give advancement, increase ones power ;az jan sar amadan, To be weary of life ; to be wide awake;az jihat, On account of, because; az chashm afgandan (andakhtan), To depreciate, disparage, despise, render contemptible ;az chashm (nazar) uftadan, To be depreciated, disparaged, rendered contemptible; az chashmi kharidari didan, To look at a thing from all sides, attentively ;az chand roz, How long since ? how many days ? az chob (sang) chize ta/rashidan, To produce a thing from where it was not found before ;az chize kharidan (bdz kharidan), To rescue, liberate from ; az chize gul chidan, To obtain a favour,
to enjoy a sight ;az khab bar dashta'i (bar girifta'i) o, (He is) his client and dependant; az khab sitandan, To abase, to destroy ; az khar uftadan, To fall from the ass ; (met.) to die;az khar figandan, To deceive, to cheat;az khatt birun shudan, To disobey a command ;az khwud, Voluntarily ;az khwud gkd'ib shudan, To be absent, inattentive ;az da'ira uftadan, To lose caste ;az dast, Weak; a subject, a vassal;azdast bar giriftan, To exterminate, to destroy ;az dasti dahr jastan, To escape from the world; to die;az dast rafta, az dast shuda, In an ecstasy, beside ones self;az dil amad, It came into his mind, it occurred to him; he recollected; he did not succeed ;az dur, From afar;az du taraf, Mutual, reciprocal, from both sides;az rah burdan, To lead out of the road, to seduce, deceive, ruin;az ragi andesha khun chabidan, To consider attentively ;az zabdn (sadd) ufta-dan, To become speechless ; az zabdn afgandan (andakhtan), To render speechless ;az zabdn jastan, To commit a blunder in speaking";az zabdn dar amadan, To be guilty, of a slip of the tongue ;az zabani base chize awardan (bastan, sakhtan), Relate on the authority of another;az ziri sang birun amadan, To escape a great danger; az sar afgandan, To dethrone ; az sculr guzashtan, To desist, withdraw ones hand; to resign ones life ;az sar-angusht, Rashly, inconsiderately ;az sari pa rawan shudan, To go quickly;az sar bhwdstan, To risk ones life ;az sar-dast, Off-hand, without reflection;az sar kardan, To seduce; to contradict, to give the lie ;az sar nihadan, To turn upside down;az sar wa bard, It dropped from his memory, he neglected;az sang chize birun awardan (paida bardan) = az chob chize tarashidan, q.v. above ;azash, From that time; from him ; from them ;az shakh post bardan, To graft ; az shah khub ittifaq ast, Is he on good terms with the king ?az shibam uftadan, To die;az sahib yak sukhan mi-daram, Sir, I want to have a word with you;az sahrd awardan (justan, yaftan), To get a thing gratuitously, without payment; az tdqi dil uftadan, To fail in ones schemes;az firod, From below ;az qaht murdan, To perish by famine ; az qafd jabin bardan, To turn the face back towards;az qalam uftadan, To slip from the pen (a word, from forgetfulness in writing) ;az bar dast kashidan, To give over an enterprise;az bujd, Whence ?az bujast. Whence is it ?az girih raftan, To be squandered, lavished away;az gil-ha chi gil, From what stock (art thou) ?az libdsi nafs uryan shudan, To become sinless, beside oneself, enraptured ;az misamir dokhtan, To fasten strongly, to guard closely ;az md, From us ;az man dar

>\ ( 42
guzar, Pardon my fault;az miydn, Prom among;az narma'i gosh, syn. with az buni gosh, q.v. above;az nasaq uftadan, To be disarranged, dispersed, scattered ; az nafas andakhtan, To silence;az namadi lease kulah kardan, To adopt the manners, fashions, of style of another ;az namad birun raftan, To be strained (wine);az nan, anew, afresh, again ;az o bar khwurd. He is offended at him;az o bar bast, He reaped the fruit of it;az o pahlu, hard, az o pahlu tihi kard, az o kanara hard, He retired far from him ;az o digar kard, He turned from him ;az o dil bar dasht, He was enraged at him ;az o dandan bar kan, az o danddni umed bar kan, Draw out the tooth of hope, i.e. give up all hopes of it; az o zagh girift, He took the crow from him, i.e. he over-reached him ;az o guy burd, az o burd, He wrested the victory from him ;
az o gha'ib ma-shav, Be not absent from that, i.e. Neglect it not;az way, From him ;az way daman afshandan, To give a thing up ;az ham bar amadan, To be disturbed, sad, and melancholy ;az ham shndan, To be separated; to expand, opeu, blossom ;az hawa giriftan, To speak without foundation, to produce a thing from where it cannot be% got;az yad bur dan, To forget;az-in besh, Henceforth ;az yak-chashm didan, To look at with an impartial eye.
dzd, aza, Mastic ; over against, opposite.
a oljl izd\ Whatever is opposite to and corresponding with a thing.
azab, An unmarried man; a recruit. azabistan, New levies, in which none but unmarried men are enrolled.
a izdhat (v.n. 4 of £>3), Removing.
p A\j\ azad, Free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted; faultless ; solitary, lonely ; a kind of faqir, or devotee ; a lily ; a cypress ; a fresh date ; an evergreen4 a delicious kind of fish; the upas-tree ; the mountain Alwand; name of a hamlet in the district of Nakhchuwan ;
azad az hare, Free from care, disengaged from business ;azad firukhtan, To sell out and out, unconditionally ;azadkardan', To set at liberty, absolve, dismiss, allow to go away;azad shudan, To be liberated, dismissed, permitted to depart.
V dzad-awa (free voice), A manner of reciting the praises of God.
ijks* olji azad-khalq. Mankind at large; azad-khulq. Free (men), unblemished in body or mind.
azad-daru, A species of beetroot.
azad-dirakht (the free tree), A kind of tree which abounds in Georgia, where it is called zahri zamin, Poison of
) b>
the earth. In Persia it is called jU* tdq or taghaq.
jy 0I3T azad-rav, Who walks or travels along freely.
0I3) azad-sarv, The free (i.e. tall) cypress ; name of a man from whom Firdausi borrowed the tale of Rustams death.
a A\j\ dzad-tab(, Free, of a lofty disposition.
t azad-kaghizi, A letter of
liberty, a charter.
azadagan (pi. of azada), Free, high-born, generous men, especially applied to the Iranians in opposition to the Turanians.
aVT uljl azad-gahi jamah = fi^ fiolyl azdda-gahi jamah, q.v.
dzadagi, Freedom, independence ; over-boldness, recklessness.
dzad-nama, A deed of manumission.
Ay azad-mard, Free, high-minded, ambitious.
^jAy azad-mardi, Liberty, freedom.
fiy 0I3I dzad-mewa, A confection made of sugar-candy and almonds.
j\)A\jfr dzad-war, Name of a note in music ; name of a village in Khorasan famous for fruit, especially grapes.
60I3) dzada, Free; perfect, intact, pure; excellent, noble; venerable; (met.) the lily ; the cypress ;azada'i qaidi Hshq, Free from the fetters of love.
fiolj) azada-khirdm. Graceful in walking.
y fiolj) dzada-kho, ^$y fioljl dzadcu-khoy. Of liberal disposition, noble-minded ; name of the wife of Tur.
)\a azada-dar, Keeping free, rendering free, liberating ; a boaster.
Ja fiolj) azada-dil, Free from care ; pious, upright; noble.
6tS &a\j\ azdda-gahi jama, The place where a piece of cloth is cut from the loom.
fiolj) dzada-war, Worthy of the free or noble.
dzadi, Liberty; freedom from worldly cares; praise, thanksgiving; dzadi kardan, To praise.
azar, Imp. of azardan ; trouble, disorder, affliction, sickness, disease, grief-, vexation, molestation, injury, outrage; importunity; (in comp.) tormenting, reproaching, teasing, affronting, as jdn-azar, Tormenting the soul; cruel, brutal; azari talkha, The jaundice ;azar dadan (kardan), To molest, vex, rebuke, revile, censure, quarrel, plague, torment, importune ;azar yaftan, To be in trouble, to be sick.
;!)! azar, Money, a dirham;izdr, The bottom of the water.
izdr, A veil of fine linen or mus-

lin, covering the body to the middle of the leg; trousers, breeches, drawers ; the skirts of a tent; a woman; izari khargah. A tent-flap ; izari kishtiban, Sailors* breeches.
a j\)\ izar-band, The string of the
a <4**^izar-bandi rishta, Connexion
through a wife ; petticoat interest.
izar-pa, ^_gV> izar-pay, Breeches ;
inner breeches, drawers reaching to the feet.
a Sjljl izdrai, Breeches, trousers.
ajzardam, A kind of pulse, French
azardan, To injure, oppress, revile.
80 d>zar~dih, Troublesome, injurious.
8 azar-cUda, One who has seen
azar-rasan, Troublesome, riotous; hurtful, injurious ; an incendiary.
8V*j azar-rasida, Vexed, distressed.
azarish, Molestation, trouble, annoyance, uneasiness.
dzdrmand, Sick, infirm, afflicted. azaranda, Troublesome, injurious, seditious; a hurter, a tormentor.
izarud, azariid, Transoxania.
&/3I izdra, A low wall in front of a house. azdri, Trouble, affliction; sick; a patient; insolent.
dzarldan, To molest, afflict, harass,
dzdah. Anything whose inside is black and clammy.
a isaZotf (v.n. 4 of Jjj), Removing, causing to cease.
dzdmand (perhaps misreading for dzmand), A miser, a covetous person.
az an, From him, it, thence, or that, j! az anjd hi, Since, by reason that, on the ground that.
V' j! az ira, Because.
y j! az bar, ?y 3I az barm, Bv heart;az bar khwandan, To recite by heart;az bar danistan, To know by heart;az bar kar-dan, To learn by heart.
3! az bas, Much, many.
i 3^ az ba8kih, Inasmuch as.
yti fraz bir, By heart, by rote, by memory.
^5^ 3! az pay, On account of ; down.
az pay past, Decayed, undermined.
c5*/3^ az Vay> 0 account of; down.
dz-pesha, Of friendly disposition, with good intentions (opp. to ldna-sdz).
a 53^ azajj, (A man) whose eve-brows are long and narrow ; long-striding (ostrich).
A izhdf (v.n. 4 of ^3), Being
fatigued (a boast, of burden); fatiguing, jading.
dzakh, azakh, A wart; a twig, a vine ; azukh, A rotten and empty nut; a led horse.
43 ) \
azkhash, Lightning ; a thunder-
j bolt.
azdab, Beware seize lay hold !
azdup, Take! seize lay hold a izdijar (v.n. 8 of /)), Driving
away, frightening; refraining; holding back.
a izdihdm (v.n. 8 of ^3), Throng-
ing, crowding, pushing on one another; a concourse, press, throng, pressure of a crowd or mob.
azdar, Worthy, proper, suitable ; beautiful.
a izdira (v.n. 8 of <4j)), Despising, 8cornmg; scorn, contempt, disdain.
a izdirdd (v.n. 8 of ^3), Swallow-ing.
)\ az dast, Obedient; a subject.
\y> 3I az dast pazd, I3* 3! az dast
fqza/, Unleavened bread, baked in thin cakes on lamina of iron or earth, placed in a frying-pan ; letters patent conferring immunity from taxation.
azdaf, izdaf, A species of small medlar-tree and fruit.
a izdifaf (v.u. 8 of C*j), Conduct-
ing or sending a bride to the house of her husband.
azadagi, A stitching, a sewing up. a 4-^3! izdildf (v.n. 8 of ^3), Approaching, advancing; nearness.
azdami, Name of a doubtful animal.
azadan, azadan, To sew; to prick with a needle ; to dye ;izdan, A medlar (fruit and tree).
uzdu, The sweet gum of a tree, of a reddish colour, with which confections are made ;uzdu'i taxi, Gum arabic.
a eW izdiwaj (v.n. 8 of 5^3), Coupling, marrying; marriage, wedding.
azdudan, To polish, to free from
azada, azada, Pierced, full of holes ; dyed, coloured ; written in letters of gold; empty ; (met.) the furrows of a file; azda, Dim, blear.
a izdihaf (v.n. 8 of -**3), Hasten-
ing, despatching ; incurring enmity; changing, turning away.
a izdiyad (v.n. 8 of *^3), Increasing; increase, accession, profit.
yj\ azar, Cross-tempered ; trouble, grief, vexation; (in comp.) troubling, grieving, vexing; value, price.
a yy azar, Name of Abrahams father, or, according to others, his uncles, that of his father being Tarikh ;azr, Assisting, befriending; strength, power ; debility, weakness ; the back ; encompassing ;izr, Root, origin ;uzr, The middle, waist.
A W izra (v.n. 4 of <4)3), Accusing, reproaching, disparaging, misrepresenting. a j\jj\ azr dr (pi. of zirr), Buttons ;izr at

Cv*n* 4 of Putting buttons to a garment).
a izrdf (v.n. 4 of -Jjj), Going fast; driving, urging forward.
azarbad, Name of a philosopher (see
azrakhsh, Thunder, lightning,
azard, Colour ; paint, dye. yt dzard-aluy An apricot.
azardanidan, To make one injure. dzardagdn (pi. of azardah), Injured.
azardagi, Grief, pain, uneasiness.
azardan,To injure, molest, harass, disturb, vex, trouble, afflict; to rebuke, reprove, reproach; to disgust, offend, aggravate.
azarda, Afflicted, vexed ; displeased, dispirited, rebuked ; sad, sorrowful, weary; azarda kardan, To injure.
aza/rda-pusht, Galled in the back; decrepit.
jLIa dzarda-Jchatir. Yexed, disgusted.
a azragr, Blue; blue-eyed; heaven, the sky ; the fourth line on Jamsheds cup. azraq-posh, Clothed in blue.
azarik, A goat.
$ dzar-gun, Flame-coloured, yellow, bright, shining, ruddy; the leaves of the myrtle.
dzarm, azarm, Pain, sorrow, grief; anger, wrath ; giving up to contempt and disgrace; defect, error, vice; greatness, honour, reverence ; power, dignity ; shame, modesty, bashfulness ; commiseration, pity, kindness; equity, justice; concord, unanimity ; ease, tranquillity; attention, toleration, patience; evident, clear, manifest; conversion to the Muhammadan faith; name of the daughter of Khusrau Parvez; azram, A kind of saddle-cloth.
sU )j\ dzar-mdh, The last winter month.
azarm-juy, Seeking honour and glory, ambitious ; who seeks for peace.
azarm-dukht. azarmi-
dukhtt azarmidukht. Name of the daughter of Khusrau Parvez, who reigned four months; name of her city.
jh. dzarmsaz, Who exercises pity and
pjft dzarm-gdh, Place of rest.
dzarmidan, To honour, respect,
azrang, Adversity, misery; destruction ;also azrang, A cucumber.
az-ash (for £ j\), From him, her, or it; from them (see ).
a itfdj (v.n. 4 of g*j), Disturbing, moving from (its) place; causing to rise; leading into sin.
azugh, azgh. A thing lopped (as vine-prunings) ; a slip, cutting, scion; azaghy The same ; rust; an owl.
44 ) |OT
izghar, Miserly, mean. azg&ich, Ivy, convolvulus.
a azaf (v.n.), Approaching, drawing near (time of departure) ; hastening, coming suddenly upon.
vaJljuip azfandak, azfandak, The rainbow (see tflljotel).
vsly dy uzak tuzak, Pomp, splendour; glitter; the habits or fashions of kings ; the kings seal.
f az kdr (Mr, An idle vagabond. j\ az-kdra kardan, To recall to mind ; to write a history (az-kdrah, either from kdr, Fact, or more probably a misspelling for A. noun of unity of izkdr or izzikdr, q.v.).
a izkdm (v.n. of ^j), Giving of a cold in the head.
a J3S3! azkd, More or most pious or pure.
a azkiya (pi. of zakly), Good, just,
virtuous, ingenuous.
JAj\ izkil, A medlar.
azgat, Wicked, villainous, depraved.
a Jjl azal, Eternity (without beginning, opp. to abad, eternity without end) ;aal (v.n.), Being in distress ; falling into siraits or scarcity ; keeping back ; reproaching, reviling ;izl, A lie, falsehood; calamity, misfortune.
azlad, Never, by no means.
a izldf (v.n. 4 of AJj), Bringing near; collecting.
a izldq (v.n. 4 of Jpj), Causing to slide or fall; shaving the head ; casting her young (a camel).
a izlal (v.n. 4 of Jj), Causing to slide ; conferring a favour.
A azlam (pi. of zalam, zulam), Arrows without heads made use of in drawing lots.
a azali, Existing from all eternity ;
eternal; God.
A azaliyat, Life everlasting, eternity.
pj! azm, Progeny, offspring.
a azm (v.n.), Adhering (to a chief or friend) ; abstaining from, containing or commanding oneself; twisting (a rope or thread); being unfavourable and severe (fortune, or a barren season); biting; cutting with the teeth or a knife.
azm a, Imp. of azmudan; (in comp.) skilled, experienced, tried;azmd, Examining ; an experimenter.
a izmd (v.n. 4 of £*j), Applying diligently to, and persevering in, any business; running (a hare).
azman, Repentance, regret, sorrow, grief, anguish ;azman khwurdan, To devour grief, to repent.
A dzmanl, An experiment, proof, trial.

azmanida/n, To regret, grieve. azmdyish, Experiment, assay,
dzmay (=azma), Imp. of azmudan. A azimmat (pi. of zimdm), Reins, bridles, halters.
dzmurda, Covetous ; lazy ; left. a azmal, Much, many; all; voice, echo.
dzmand, Desirous, covetous, greedy. iS***)^ dzmandl, Desire, lust, greediness. azmina (pi. of zaman), Times; seasons; ages.
dzmudagi, Experience. azmudan (imp. azma), To try, prove, experiment.
dzmuda, Tried, proved, experienced; azmudaha, Experiments.
dzmun, A proof, trial, experiment; dzmun-ra gardanldan, To put to the test, to try one in battle.
izmil, A shoe-makers paring knife; a kind of pike with which they hunt wild oxen ; a mallet; strong; weak. azan, Elbow. aznak, Desirous, greedy. dznakl, Avidity, cupidity. aznav, aznawa, Name of a dis-
trict in Hamadan. jM\ aznawur, A great lord.
aznaby Displeasure, disgust. azunjy azinjy dzunchy Blearedness. azcmkh, A streamer, bandrol.
dzandanidan, azandan =
cuzank, A wrinkle; a frown; azank afqandan miydni du abru, To knit the brows.
t iznikmld, Nicomedia, in By-
usJU azanknak, Wrinkled, frowning. te)} azana, Arranged in proper order. t $ dzu, Molar tooth. yf azOy azuy From him. a azwdj (pi. ofzauj). Pairs, couples; partners, spouses, wives.
azudy Intelligent, clear-sighted,
dzwar, azur, Avaricious, greedy;
azward, Trefoil; Lotus agrestis. azwaiiy Name of a medicinal thorn. tyf\ azughy azogh, A lopping, a trimming; the prunings or loppings of trees ; rust.
azuqa, dzuga, Provisions, contributions in kind.
A iz-had (v.n. 4 of ^j), Having no wish or desire ; possessing little.
az-har (pi. zahrat, zahra), Flowers ; -iz-har (v.n. 4 of ^*j), Lighting a lamp ; making (a fire) blaze ; flowering, blossom-ing.
&U.O fjb\\ az-hdr-dasfa, A nosegay, a bunch of flowers.
) &
A iz-hdf (v.n. 4 of -te>j), Telling a
lie, varnishing with falsehood; bringing near; throwiug (a rider).
a az-haq (v.n. 4 of ijAj), Destroying. az-har, White, bright, brilliant; more or most bright, etc.; the moon ; a wild bull.
az-harak, Name of the tyrant Zahhak.
jW j ci j\ az haft u char, From the seven planets and the four elements.
azldan, To injure, grieve, molest; to prick ; to dye. t-A dzlr, Intelligent; trouble. w. azlra (for az In-rd), Because.
. azlra, A mattock, beetle, smiths
azlrldan, To afflict; to draw.
. * azlz (v.n. of jl), Bubbling (a boil-
ing cauldron) ; a thundering noise; coition.
azish (for From him.
dzlah, Aversion, indignation ;aziah. Perception, recollection.
yif azln, Such as this; from this.
azh. Rest, ease ; ingenious; abstinent.
C;! azhakh, azhakh. azhukh, A wart, a mole; azhukh, Blearedness ; anything solved, disentangled, extricated.
azhakhnak, Full of warts, warty. azhdar, A dragon; the top of a standard.
f&k azhdar-shikar, A dragon-hunter.
azhdarhd, A dragon; a strong, brave man; a tyrant; passionate, testy ; a standard; armorial bearings; the tyrant i Zahhak.
azhdaf, A medlar.
dzhadan, To sew, pierce, prick, punc-! lure; to shave; to notch a mill-stone ; closely ; to tinge, dye ;azhdan, A medlar, an eagle.
azhdank, Name of a demon. azhada, Pricked, punctured, sewed. azhda, A drinking cup in shape of l au animal.
ouzhdaha, A dragon; brave, intre-i pid; a tyrant; Zahhak ; a standard;
| azhdahai falak, The constellation of the I dragon ;kase-rd dami azhda-ha sakhtan, j To make one the mouth of the (constel-, iatiou) dragon, i.e. to cause him to eclipse i others.
Ujjl azhdahd-pdra, Of dragon race. azhdaha-paikar, Having the face or shape of a dragon.
azhdaha-khoy, Of the disposition | of a dragon.
azhdaha-dosh, From whose shoulders dragons (serpents) spring.
a azhdalia-rayat, Who has the
| image of a dragon on his fl ;g.

a f)* azhdaha-alam, On whose flag
a dragon is pictured.
oV* azhdaha-saran (pi.), Dragon-
lt* azhdahd-fash, Resembling a
azhdahak, The tyrant Zahhak.
a dragon.
fVfcojA azhdaham, A parti-coloured eagle.
azhdahd-yara, Of the strength (or form) of a dragon.
azhrang, Name of a demon. dzhugh, The prunings of a vine. azhah. Prunings, loppings. azhfanddJc, The rainbow. dzhgdn, azhgan, Indolent, idle, lazy, slothful; grief, anxiety.
azhgan, A latticed door, lattices, blinds ; dissimulation.
azhgahan, azhgahan, Indolent,
idle, negligent, lazy, slothful ; vain, false. azhgln, Slothful, &c. (see ^ dzhan, A tool for notching millstones ; anything perforated.
azhand, azhand, Plaster, mortar, parget, cement; clay, mud at the bottom of a cistern.
dzhandanldan, To make sew, or
azhandan, To prick, pierce; to
azhanda, Sewed ; bored, pierced. azhandidan, To lay mortar between two bricks.
azhank, A wrinkle ; knitting of the
csJU azhankndk, Frowning.
azhang, azhang, A wrinkle; a frown. dzhana, .A tool for notching millstones ; dzhana kardan, To spread a table.
azhnayan, Camomile. azhwar, Covetous.
dzhugh, Slips, loppings ; palm-tree
fijl azha, azha, Quick lime, plaster, cement. azhhan, Idle, lazy, useless. azhan, Lazy, indolent ; a trifling
azhyana, A pavement of flags or
azhlkh. Gummy exudations from the <*ves ; dirt
azhldan, To prick ; to stitch, sew. jlii azhir, Intelligent, learned, ingenious; pious, devout; chaste, modest; a lake, pool, ditch ; a cistern wherein rain-water is collected ; victory, conquest; a. cry, a shout; abundance, surplus ; preparation, arrangement.
azhir, Intelligent, prudent; pious, abstinent; hidden.
) u
dzhirdk, A shout, a cry; name of a
<&*&$ azhiridan, To cry aloud ; to appear wise and intelligent; to prepare, to arrange.
dzhina, A tool for notching millstones ; a small file.
as, A mill-stone; ground com; a grinding of wheat, barley, A as, The myrtle; cinders or ashes remaining in a fire-place; honey remaining in the hive ; the ruins or remains of a dwelling ;asi barri, The wild myrtle.
us, A slap on the face, a box on the ear ; name of a planet.
Uf asd, Manner, rule; embellishment, decoration; reverence, sternness, rigour; authority, majesty, gravity; quiet, tranquillity, repose; gaping, yawning, stretching; (in compos, imp. of asudan) pacifying, soothing, as ruh-asa, Soothing the mind, &c.; (an affix denoting) Like, resembling, as mar d-asd, Manly, like a man,mushk-asd, Like musk, odoriferous; asd zadan (kardan, kashldan), To yawn.
U asd, Yawning; like. a isaat, An offeuce, crime, siu. a asdbi* (pi. of usbu), Weeks,
a 8&L.I asatizat, asatiza (pi. of ustaz), Masters;asatiza*i *ajam, Persian doctors, or wise men.
a asdtlr (pi. of istar), Weights of
4a miskals or drams.
asatin (A. plur. of situn), Pillars. AjU is dr, A stirrup leather.
asdrun (G. ao-apov), Wild spikenard,
asdrd, Computation, calculation. a a8drlr (pi. of sirr), The lines,
lineaments, wrinkles, or creases in the palms of the hand or on the forehead. a asds, A foundation, basis, pe-
| destal;asdsu 'l-lughdt (foundation of speech), An Arabic grammar so called ; asdsu s-siydsat (foundation of rule), A treatise on political government.
A-L*! asdsa, is asa, A glance from a corner of the eye ; understanding, intellect; revision, retrospect; a great assembly.
A asdtlr (pi. of istdrat, us tier at),
Stories, fables, tales, romances.
A asatin (pi. of ustuwdnat),
Columns, pillars.
a isdf, asaf, Name of an idol.
ds afzun, An iron instrument for notching a mill-stone.
a asdfil (pi. of asfaV), Inferiors,
lower classes, mob ;asdfili nas, The lowest of mankind.

( 47
a asdkifat, asakifah (pi. of iskdf),
Shoemakers; handicraftsmen.
asal, A foundation, basis.
a aib-l isalat (v.n. 4 of J<), Causing to flow or run.
a asaUb (pi. of uslub), Modes,
manners, ways ;makatlbi tanhiyat-asalib, Letters in the way of congratulation, congratulatory letters.
o asalilus, A kind of black
clay which they rub on vines to destroy insects.
asaliyun (G. creXivov), Parsley.
a \ iedmat (v.n. 4 of py-), Sending to graze;usamat, A lion ; name of one of Muhammads companions.
a asdml (pi. of ism), Names;
souls, people ; community, population ; office, place, appointment; woman of ill fame; harlot, person, individual; party, defendant in a law-suit; tenant renter; substitute, servant; friend, lover ; customer, purchaser ; debtor ; culprit; witness ;
asdml'i shikmi, Sub-tenant; subordinate cultivator;asdml'i ahair mustaqil, Tenant at will; a8dml'i ahair maurusl, Non-hereditary tenant ; asdml'i mustaqil, Tenant with right of occupancy ;asdml'i maurasi, Hereditary cultivator;asdmlwar, According to or including all the names ; singly, separately, in detail.
o a8dml8, Wild camomile.
d8dn, Easy, convenient, commodious; threads, strings;asdn ddshtan, To make an abatement, to lower the price.
dsan-kdr, Skilful, active, expeditious.
(jjL.i dsdn-kusha, ^^A asdn-
kushdy, Easy to solve or loosen (a knot, &c.).
qL-I asdn-guzdr, Who passes life in ease, without care, easy-going.
dsan-guzari, Carelessness, taking things easily.
yS d8dn-glr, Easy of access, cour-
dsan-niyosh, An idle or careless listener.
JLI asdnl, Facility, ease ; repose, sleep; easy; leave.
gjuiUl asanldan, To facilitate, to expedite.
a asawirat, Bracelets; riders; a
company of strangers who settled in Basra. asay, (in comp.) Resting; ceasing. d8dydnldan, To give rest; to praise; to lift.
dsayish, Ease, quiet, rest, repose.
dsdyish-kada, A place of rest. dsa'ldan, To rest, to cease.
*-r~A dsab, dsib, Endeavour, effort; nail, claw, hoof.
s1 asb (S. a$va), A horse; the knight at chess ;asbi dbi, The hippopotamus ;
asbi barut (kaghizi). A kind of fire-work in the shape of a horse ;asbi palanl, A slowpaced horse; a sumpter;asbi tezrav, A swift horse;asbi jang, A war-horse ;asbi chubln (a wooden horse), A bier; asbi chaugani, A horse trained for polo;asbi khards, A horse used in a treadmill; asbi khil'atl, A horse with trappings as a gift of honour ;asbi surkh. A bay horse ;asbi sar-kash, A restive horse ;asbi lasha, A horse bred from an Arabian sire and an Anatolian dam ;asbi magasi, A horse with small black specks like flies ;asbi naubatl, A post-horse;asb u asbab, A horse and his furniture or baggage ;asb u farzln nihadan, To win (at chess) ;asbi yam, A relay horse.
a asbab (pi. of sabab), Causes,
motives ; means ; resources ; implements, utensils, apparatus, materials, appliances, machinery ; cloths, apparel, effects, moveables, goods, chattels, furniture; luggage, baggage ; stores, provisions, funds, necessaries ;asbabi peshah, Implements of trade, tools;asbab bar-sakhtan (bastan, dar ham chldan), To gather ones belongings, collect ones chattels;asbab ba-ham uftad, Ones things are scattered about, dispersed, in disorder;asbabi bukhar.Steam engines (m.c.); asbabi jarri asqal, Appliances for lifting heavy weights, a crane (m.c.) ;asbabi jang (harb), Military stores ;asbabi chay (chay-khwurl), Tea service (m.c.);asbabi da-raugar, A reaping apparatus or machine (m.c.) ;asbabi zahmat, Matter of annoyance (m.c.) ;asbabi safar, Luggage, necessaries, provisions, preparations for travelling;asbabi zira*at, Agricultural implements (m.c.) ;asbabi jizlk, Physical instruments (m.c.) ;asbabi kukl, A clockwork apparatus (m.c.).
a bL-.! asbat (pi. of sibt), Tribes, especially of Israel.
a isbai (v.n. 4 of ), Completing the number seven ; feeding upon, or serving up, the flesh of wild beasts; giving a child to nurse; dismissing, setting at liberty.
a ^-1 asb-afgan, One who urges his horse against the enemy, bold, brave.
a isbdl (v.n. 4 of ), Letting~down (drawers), untying the knot of the drawers; raining copiously; weeping profusely; coming into ear (corn). dsban, A miller. asbdnbur, Name of a city.
'y£S\ s1 asb-angez, A spur.
&W-1 isbah, A large army ; a dog.
asb-bazl, Equestrian feat (m.c.)
a horseman.
asb-taz, Level ground ; the 18th of the mouth according to the era of Jalalu d-dln.
1 asbatdn, Seed of the wild rue.

( 48 )

ojo d asb-duzd, A horse-stealer, sasb-dawani, Horse-racing.
\ isbirkha. Red orpiment (see ^-j^-d). a j*~'\ asbaq, More or most excellent; surpassing; previous; past times, days of yore.
soU w~d asb-madah, A mare.
w~d), The trappings of a war-horse; anything which dries up the sweat of a horse.
w'\ asb-naubati, A horse belonging to and ridden alternately by several persons (see asbi naubatl, uuder <-r*-d). usbor, Stupid. a \ usbu, A week.
asbunitan (in Zand and Pazand), To see; to cause to run.
\ isbahan, Ispahan.
\ isbahbad, isbahbud, A general; a title assumed by the kings of Tabaristan.
isbahbad khwura (khwara). The rational soul i(see nuri isbahbad under
v_v-d asp, A horse; the knight at chess; aspi tazi, An Arabian horse; -isp, The hair about the privities. ispa, Spa.
u~2)L-d asp ares = q.v.
jlju,Cd ispasdar, Grateful, thankful (see j'*1 LT'V*-)*
glJL^d ispanaj (G. (navaKLov), Spinage.
ispaniyd, Spain.
Jj*>Ud ispaniyol, Spaniard. sCd isp ah, A large army ; (S. sva) a dog. ^CaUd ispahdn (now Isfahan), That part of Persia where the troops were generally quartered.
Jj^~d ispikhul. Birds dung; according to others = j\ju-d ispidar, A general, a commander.
asp-dawani, Horse-race; racecourse (m.c.).
\ ispar, A shield.
(^Iwd ispar a in, Isfarayin, in Khurasan, y-i 1 isparad, ispirid, Coagulated, curdled; jelly.
asp-raz, isp-raz, ~d asp-ras,
isp-ras, A race-course, an open space for exercise.
j^.1 uspurz, Spleen, milt; lingula pu-dendi.
asparsab, isparsab, t-ft-jyd aspar-saf, isparsaf, A race-ground, an open space.
j*j~d ispirish, Completion ; perfection ; a race-ground.
ispar gham, asparaghm, Name of an odoriferous herb; any green herb; verdure ; any fragrant herb.
isparag, A kind of yellow wood used in dyeing stuffs; turmeric; the watermelon.
isparlus, isparlos, A palace; a hall of justice.
isparam, Any flower or fragrant herb, s-d isparam-ab, Warm water medi-
cinally prepared for washing the bodies of sick persons ; an embrocation or medicated bath.
isparang, A city near Samarcand. ispariid, A species of aquatic bird. ispuroz, aspuroz, Name of a very high mountain.
ispra, The river Spree. isparham, Any fragrant herb. t^~d ispari, Complete, perfect, entire, whole; finished, exhausted, annihilated, destroyed ;ispari shudan, To be complete, to be finished, exhausted, or annihilated ; ispari kardan, To destroy.
isp-rez, asp-res, isp-res,
asp-resh, isp-resh, A course, a running-place for horses; complete, entire.
~d aspist, Trefoil, clover. j\) o~~~d aspist-zar, A clover-field.
J+* v_~d asp-lumr, Life fleeting along as a horse.
Jj*5~d ispaghol, aspaghol, ispaghon,
Seed of flea-wort.
£L~d aspalc, A little horse; the bridge of a musical instrument.
*_~d asp-hurra, A colt, a foal.
^yiwd ispaknuy q.v.
gd*d asp-lung, Goats-beard (a plant). uaU w*d asp-mada, A mare. g ^L^d ispanaj, c^*d ispanakh, giU^d ispandnj, Spinage.
u*d ispand, Wild rue, which they burn at marriages to drive away evil spirits; holy.
ispandar, A wax-light; ( = ^bjuad) name of Ifandiyar, the son of Gushtasp; the stay of the sun in Pisces.
ispandarmuz, The earth ; name of the twelfth month of the Persian year; also the fifth day of each month ; name of the angel who presides over the month and day Ispandarmuz.
£)I.u*d ispandan, Mustard-seed. jb.Uwd ispand,yar, Name of Gushtasps son; the angel presiding over the month and day Isfandar ; the power and clemency of God.
^jA^-d ispanuy, Name of a beautiful slave-girl of Tawaj, the son-in-law of Afrasiyab. uspor, Stupid (see jy*~d).
uspust, uspush, Name of
the last month of autumn.
<*w-d aspa, A cold, a horse rising two years old ;ispa, A troop of horse; a dog.
ispahan, The capital of Persian
ispahbad, ispahbud, A general, commander-in-chief.
ispahbadi, The dignity of a commander-in-chief (m.c.).

s ( 49 )
ispahbad khwura, Speech. ispichdb, A town in Turkistan.
***$r4 isped (S. sweta), White, colourless.
ispcddr, A sort of willow, the
isped-bd, A kind of broth made of the juice and small pieces of meat, together with spinage, flour, and vinegar.
isped-rud, A river in Azarbaijan.
isped-lcar, A worker in tin, a tinman ; (met.) an upright, sincere, generous man.
aspil, A horse-ste j ler by profession.
ispayosh, Seed of flea-wort. d8t (for Pr use, commendation. ast, Is (from qJ# budan, to be) ; he willeth, he seeketh; (abbreviation of attar) a mule; a bone; a seed, a kernel;ast, ust, A commentary on the Zand and Pazand; the buttocks; throwing, flinging ; ist (imp. of istddan), Stand thou; (imp. of istudan), Praise thou ; ust, Throwing, flinging.
a ast, ist, ust, The fundament, the
U-l astdt ustd, A commentary on the Zand or holy scriptures of the Magi or worshippers of fire;astd, Name of a fort; ista, Praising ; an encomiast; a town in Samarkand; ustd (for ustdd), Master, teacher.
fcbud istdkh, A green branch;nstdkh. Impudent, audacious, unblushing, insolent, bold.
ustdd, A master, teacher, tutor; an artificer, manufacturer, artisan; a barber ; ingenious, excellent, celebrated, famed for any art or work of ingenuity; enters into the composition of proper names, as ustdd rahman, Ostad Rahman, Ac.;ustddi khi-ydt, A tailor ;ustddi haft daman, Master of the seven heavens, the planet Jupiter.
ustdiddr, ustaddar (for
ustdd ad-dar), A major-domo, steward.
istctdaiudan, istaddn-
dan, To make to stand, constitute, establish, fix.
istddagJ, Stability ; a stop, a stay ; istadagii bdrdn, A failure or want of rain ;ustddagl, A trade, a craft; mastery of an art.
istddan, To stind, stop, dwell,
fiVf istddan-gdh (vulg. istangdh),
Station (m.c.).
istdda, Standing ; set up, erected ; a pole ; an ensign-staff; the prop of a tent-door.
ustddi, 1 ustdzl, An art, trade, craft; workmanship ; excellence, skill in any art or profession ;ustddi kardan, To work, to exercise any art or trade.
a iU-\ ustdz, A teacher. astdi', Lining.
Ajbul astar (pi. of sitr), Veils.
istar (from G. o-rar^p ?), Four; a weight of 4£ miskiils, or drams.
istdrabad, [star-bad, The
city of Astarabad.
istdrcha (dim. of the following),
A spark.
istdra, A star; a canopy ; a geometrical rule by which right lines are drawn ; a kind of guitar with three strings; name of a country, and of a fortress in the Dakhan.
yy.istdsiyony Station (m.c. from Fr. or E.).
istdfll (G. crTa crab.
istakf A cutting, a slip of a vine. ustdkar, ustdgar, A skilful
pLu*! ustdm, Saddle ornaments of gold and silver; anything to which one can trust; a confidant; a prop, a column; a patron.
dsitdnf The place where the shoes or slippers are pulled off; a threshold; lying supine; a kings court, royal palace; the Ottoman Porte; the tombs of prophets and other holy men;dstdu bar khastan, To be exalted, elevated ; to be ruined ;dstdni sa'ddatj The palace of felicity ;dstdnildll-shdn, The Sublime Porte, the court of hi gh dignity ;dstdni adam, dstani fand (the threshold of annihilation), The world; time; death;dstdni gardan, The first heaven, sphere of the moon;dsitdn, Taking a persons horoscope.
ustdn, A place of rest, a sleeping-
dstdn-bos, Who kisses the
dstdn-bos), Threshold-kissing. t istdmbut, Constantinople.
istdndan, To constitute, set up ; to bring forth ; to take, receive.
dstdn-rob, Who sweeps the threshold, rubs his brow against it.
dstdn-nishln, Who sits on the
AiU-1 dsitdna, A saints tomb; a threshold ;dsitdna'i gardan {gardan), The first heaven, the sphere of the moon; astdnah, A place of rest or sleepiug.
dsitdnl, Belonging to a hall, or
yjuJU-d istdnidan, To keep back, to prevent going.
istdy (imp. of istddan), Stand
a islibdq (v.n. 8 of v>f~), Contend-
ing for superiority in a race; vying with each other.
yWs-J istabdH, Seed of the wild rue.

a Aa-juA istibdad (v.n. *.0 of j*), Absolute dominion, despotism, usurpation of absolute authority, insisting upon a thing being done; obstinacy.
a istibda' (v.n. 10 of £>*), Esteem-
ing as new or strange; producing something new.
a istibdal (v.n. 10 of Ja>),
Changing ;istibdal kardan, To change, exchange.
istabr^ Great, thick, big, gross. a istibra (v.n. 10 of *!;}) Cleansing; washing ones hands from a business ; abstaining (of a divorced woman) from sexual intercourse for three months of probation.
a istibraz (v.n. 10 of rf), Causing
to come forth;istibraz kardan, To produce ; to challenge; to provoke.
a istabraq (P. <£y*x~Mstabrak), Thick
silk brocade interwoven with gold ; a kind of shot silk.
a istibshar (v.n. 10 of j**), Re-
joicing at, or announcing good news ; istibshdr numudan, To rejoice, to express
istibshd (v.n. 10 of £**)), Considering as nauseous, unwholesome, or unsuitable.
a istibsar (v.n. 10 of Consider-
ing with attention, examining, scrutinizing.
a gkijjud istibza (v.n. 10 of £-*>), Sorting out goods for sale.
a istib'ad (v.n. 10 of a*0, Think-
ing one to be at a distance ; retiring, withdrawing.
a istibhdm (v.n. 10 of f**>), Being
obscure, ambiguous ; being dumb, or scarcely able to speak intelligibly.
a jULd istitdr (v.n. 8 of Being hid ; concealing oneself; concealment.
a istitbiV (v.n. 10 of £*>), Wish-
ing or asking to follow ; succession.
a jUisA istisqdl (v.n. 10 of J*). op* pression ; heaviness ; trouble ; importunity.
a UixA istisna (v.n. 10 of ^), Exception, exclusion, setting aside, distinction; rejection; saying, If God will.
a ^Ua^A istisna 1, Exclusive, exceptive; exceptional.
a a*V^xA istijdbat (v.n. 10 of An-
swering, accepting ; hearing or answering prayer, receiving a petition.
a a^V^x-A istijdrat (v.n. 10 of jfr), Imploring aid or protection.
a istijuzat (v.n. 10 ofjy^), Asking
leave, soliciting permission.
a 3!)^*! istijzdz (v.n. 10 of 3^), Being fit for reaping or gathering (coni or dates).
a istijldb (v.n. 10 of *^W), Beg-
ging that anything might be brought or driven to one.
a istijhdl (v.n. 10 of Jv^), Con-
sidering as ignorant and illiterate.
50 ) UUmw)
a istihazat (v.n. 10 of u*^)
Emitting blood (a woman) after the usual time of the monthly discharge has elapsed, or at an undue time.
a dlV^uA istihalat (v.n. 10 of Undergoing a change, change of state ; becoming, or considering as, absurd, impossible, inconsistent, unreal.
A istihbab (v.n. 10 of sr^-),
Taking a liking to, regarding, loving, choosing, preferring; contracting friendship ; an action the performance of which is meritorious and the omission not criminal, work of supererogation.
a vsAa^zA istihdas (v.n. 10 of *>^0.), Bringing out or doing something new.
a Aj^xA islihdad (v.n. 10 of 3^), Shaving about the pubes; sharpening.
a jL*^xA istihsdr (v.n. 10 of Being exhausted with fatigue.
a istihsan (v.n. 10 of =-), Ap-
proving; praising; taking ol* considering as a favour; approbation, esteem.
a jU^xA istihsaf (v.n. 10 of *-**=-), Being confirmed, established; being adverse and untoward (fortune).
a ,U*^A istihzdr (v.n. 10 of Calling, citiug to appear, summoning before.
a kto^xA istihfdz (v.n. 10 of 1^), Desiring one to remember, or to take care of, anything.
a istihqar (v.11. 10 of ;&-), De-
spising, treating with contempt. ^
a jU^A istihqaq (v.n. 10 of &), Claiming ones right; deserving, being worthy ; claim, due, title ; merit, desert;istihqdqi iada'i wirasat, Reversionary title;istih-qdqi infikdki rahn, Equity of redemption of a mortgage ;istihqdqi tankat Right of inheritance or succession;istihqdqi tarika bild waslya, Title to intestate property ; istihqdqi tashkhislii jam\ Right of assessment ;istihqdqi taqdimi khanddrl, Right of pre-emption ;istihqdqi hifdzati khwud ikhtiydrl. Right of self-defence ; istihqdqi da'wd, Preferential claim;istihqdqi da'wdii ibtidaly Original right of action ;istihqdqi zditiy Personal title or privilege ; istihqdqi qd'imah, Vested interest;istihqdqi qab?ah, Bight of possession istihqdqi qaddmat, Prescriptive right or title ;istihqdqi nifdiz, Right of way; exercise or use of a right; istihqdqi vnrdsati d'indah, Reversionary title.
a istihkdm (v.n. 10 of Firm-
I ness, strength ; confirmation, corroboration, i ratification ; hardness, tightness, firmness. a istihld (v.n. 10 of Esteem-
ing, deeming to be sweet.
a *-*Xa*^A istihldf (v.n. 10 of Ad-
juring, Causing to swear, commanding to be sworn.
a A istihldl (v.n. 10 of ^a), Considering or wishing a thing lawful,

UUwtl ( 51
A istihmdm (v.n. 10 of jJU),
Washing in warm water; taking a warm bath.
a istihwdz (v.n. 10 of *^), Pre-
vailing against, overcoming.
a istihya (v.n. 10 of Blush-
ing, being ashame 1; leaving alive, preserving alive.
istakh. A he-goat.
a SjUju,! istikhdrat (v.n. 10 of Conciliating the divine favour; looking in the Quran, or any favourite book (as the poems of Hafiz) for a good augury ; sticho-mancy ; bibliomancy ; wishing or asking for the best;istikhdrai zdti 'r-riqd, Taking omen by writing on a slip of paper do it, on another do it not, and drawing after prayer one of them blindfolded from under the prayer-carpet where they had been hidden.
AjWae~~l istikhbdr (v.n. 10 of Interrogating, exploring, investigating, informing ones self, asking news, desiring advice.
A istikhddm (v.n. 10 of Seek-
ing or getting employment; taking into ones service.
jab*-! istakhr. A lake, pool, ditch ; the ancient Persepolis.
a istikhrdj (v.n. 10 of &/), Caus-
ing to go or come out, expulsion, banishment ; extracting, drawing out, making come forth; deriving, selecting, choosing.
A istikhfdf (v.n. 10 of <-J^),
Holding in slight esteem, making light of, despising; indignity.
a istikhlas (v.n. 10 of siring liberation, seeking liberty; seeking to save ; liberation, release ; freedom ; appropriating to oneself.
a istikhldf (v.n. 10 of *-A1a), Ap-
pointing successors; leaving posterity; drawing water.
ustukhwan (S. asthi), A bone; a kernel, stone of fruit; a skeleton; the foundation of an edifice ; a race, nation; the text of a book ; an instrument of war ; noble ;ustukhwan afshandan, To sow date-stones ; to be scattered ;ustukhwan dar gam shikastan, ustukhwan dar gulu {dar ndf) giriftan, ustukhwan ziri gulu ddshtan (to get a bone in the throat), To suffer distress;ustxikhwdni chize bastanf To set things straight, to arrange well, to bring in good order; ustukhwan shikastan, (met.)
To suffer the utmost distress.
ustukhwdn-buzurg, Noblv born.
A-} ustukhwdn-band, A splint,
ustiikhwdn-bandi, The mending matters, setting things aright, bringing in order.
ustukhwan-tardshi, lJivina-tion by the shoulder-blade of a sheep.
jljA ustukhwdn-khwar. (^J3***-
ustukhwan-duzd, ustukhwan-ruba,
aJj ustukhwdn-rand.
ustukhwan rang, A kind of large eagle, which feeds upon, or carries off, bones; the Huma, whose shadow is considered auspicious; a dog.
ustukhwansangin, Highborn, noble, honoured.
ustukhwdn-faroshis Roguery. ustukhwdnak. A small bone. ustukhwdn-kdrl, Inlaid work,
a istiddmat (v.n. 10 of f^), Seek-
ing, wishing permanence; permanency; acting with deliberation, assiduity; soaring in a circle.
a istiddnat (v.n. IQ of (^3), Bor-
rowing, contracting debts, getting in debt.
a istidbar (v.n. 10 of y*>), Follow-
ing, coming at the back or rear; thinking of the consequences.
a istidraj (v.n. 10 of j*>), With-
drawing or advancing gradually ; seeking to remove by degrees; consigning to punishment ; an obstinate sinner on whom numerous benefits had been conferred.
a istidrdk (v.n. 10 of ^o), Wish-
ing, endeavouring to comprehend or obtain; reaching, overtaking, obtaining; comprehending, understanding; (in gram.) restriction, antithesis, emendation.
a olcxU istid'a' (v.n. 10 of y*>), Asking, calling upon, supplication, prayer.
a istidqaq (v.n. 10 of J*>), Being,
minute, fine, thin, slender.
a istidlal (v.n. 10 of J*>), De-
ducing arguments, getting a clue; asking reason or proof ; demonstration, proof, argument.
istadan, To rise, stand, or work
f~\ astar, astar, A kind of coarse thin stuff fit for lining garments ; the inside of anything, the lining of a garment; a star ; astar (S. asvatara), A mule.
astarabad, Name of a city in Ma-zaudaran on the shore of the Caspian.
a istirdhat (v.n. 10 of t)j)f Quiet,
rest, tranquillity.
istarar, A lentil.
a istiraq (v.n. 8 of J/-*), Stealing,
carrying off by stealth; listening surreptitiously, overhearing, playing the eavesdropper.
astarba, astarbdn, A muleteer.
a istirjd1 (v.n. 10 of £^;), Having
recourse to God; uttering the ejaculation \i\j \j\ innd liUdhi wa innd ilaihi rdjiliiu, Verily we belong to, God, and verily we shall return to him ; asking or taking back the whole or part of anything once given.

a JWy~J istirjdl (v.n. 10 of J>j), Asking to dismount; to walk on foot.
istirJckd (from G. a istirJckd* (v.n. 10 of y^j), Hang-
ing down } being relaxed and flaccid.
a yeUjX-A istirkhds (v.n. 10 of Buying cheap; regarding as cheap; leaving, asking leave.
a \8tirddd (v.n. 10 of ^), Demand-
ing restitution of anything, whether given, deposited in trust, or taken without consent ; revoking, retracting, reversing, repealing; rejecting, refusing; giving back, restitution.
AJI 4jzJ\ istirdaf (v.n. 10 of -**>)), Asking to be taken up behind another on horseback.
usturdan, To shave ; to erase. g bcyud istiridiya, An oyster. a istirzdq (v.n. 10 of si))), Asking
for ones daily bread, ones sustenance.
a jL.yu.1 istirsdl (v.n. 10 J~j), Being allowed to hang loose, or letting hang loose (hair) ; acquiring a habit.
usturash, A ploughshare ; a hoe. a oU.jx-1 islirza (v.n. 10 of Endea-
vouring, seeking or wishing to please and satisfy ; asking or seeking the consent; willingness, alacrity ; assent; acquiescence.
A istirzd\ (v.n. 10 of &>j), Inquir-
ing, and looking out for a wet-nurse.
a istxrqdq (v.n. 10 of ji;), Reducing
to slavery ; being thin.
xstarak (from G. arvpa$), Storax. g U8turldbt An astrolabe.
istaranj, dstarang, astarang,
The mandrake.
a xstxrwdh (v.n. 10 of c$;), Seeking
or finding rest.
astarwan (mule-like), Barren female.
astar unitan (in Zand and Pazand), To shut, to close.
xtftura, A razor ;ustura llsldan (to lick a razor), To risk ones life, to evince daring and temerity.
a islirhdb (v.n. 10 of '-*;), Ter-
rifying, alarming.
a (jjUyu-l istirhan (v.n. 10 of De-
manding a pledge or hostage.
a xstizarat (v.n. 10 of ;yj), Requesting a visit.
a xstizldl (v.n. 10 of Jj), Causing or
wishing one to stumble.
istisrdr (v.n. 10 of J-), Being concealed.
a islisWd (v.n. 10 of ***-), Con-
sidering as happy, regarding as fortunate ; desiring happiness ; asking assistance.
A oU-Jwl xstieqa (v.n. 10 of Asking
for water, offering up public prayers for rain ; asking for drink ; dropsy ;istisqdi
ziqql, The anasarca ;istisqai tabli, Tympany ;ietisqa giriftan. To be afflicted with dropsy.
a teijZ istisqd-girifta, Dropsical.
a istisldm (v.n. 10 of #*h*) Sub-
mitting to the authority of anotner, giving way to his judgment.
a istisman (v.n. 10 of (y*~),
Judging, or discovering to be fat; asking for butter or something fat.
a juJ istis-hdl (v.n. 10 of J-ir*), Being or considering easy ; rendering easy.
a SjUuu.1 istishdrat (v.n. 10 of jp*), Consulting, asking advice ; deliberating; consultation.
a istishrdf (v.n. 10 of ^/*), Rais-
ing the head to look at some object; screening the eyes (with the hand) from the glare of the sun; testifying to anything noble and perfect.
a istisJi'ar (v.n. 10 of ^*a), Put-
ting on the garment shi'ar ; being apprehensive and concealing ones fears.
a jIaajuJ istishfdr, Intercepting the menstrual discharge.
a istishfa* (v.n. 10 of £**), Im-
ploring (one) to intercede, begging (his) intercession.
a ishtishmdm (v.n. 10 of ^a),
Wishing to smell, smelling.
a istishhdd (v.n. 10 of *HA), Tak-
ing evidence, summoning witnesses ; bringing testimony or proof; falling a martyr or witness for religion.
a istisbdh (v.n. 10 of £**>), Trim-
ming a lamp ; asking for a lamp.
a istishdb (v.n. 10 of *r-^*>), As-
sociating with, becoming sociable ; wishing for or inviting the company of any person.
A istisraf (v.u. 10 of *jy), Pray-
ing (God) may avert.
a istismdgh (v.n. 10 of £>*), Ex-
tracting gum.
a xstisnd1 (v.n. 10 of £*-), Requisi-
tion of workmanship, forced labour, pressing into service.
a istxswab (v.n. 10 of sjyc) Ap-
proving, thinking well of, esteeming right; asking or requiring what is right; consultation, reference; inquiry; taking the opinion of;isli§wdb kardan, To approve ; to consult; to refer to.
a istiz'df (v.n. 10 of JUa), Find-
ing weak; oppressing.
a istxtdr (v.n. 8 of Delineating, writing.
a istitdrat (v.n. 10 of j*l), Dif-
fusing itself abroad (the dawn) ; spreading abroad (news) ; giving flight (to a bird).
a istitd'ai (v.n. 10 of Being
able, capable; submitting, yielding, obeying, complying with; power, ability. a istitdlat (v.n. 10 of Jjk), Power,

( 63
ability ; possibility ; compliance; submission, obedience; dependence.
a istitrad (v.n. 10 of OjL), Aiming
at one thing and getting another; feigning a retreat before the enemy ; incident.
a istitrdf (v.n. 10 of Con-
sidering a thing as new ; producing something new, original, singular, or striking.
A istitla* (v.n. 10 of glk), Seeking j
information, inquiring.
a istitlaq (v.n. 10 of <3&), Diar-
rhoea, looseness, flux.
o uJku.\ ietatlus, Jews pitch.
A JfcU istizldl (v.n. 10 of Jt), Longing I for or sitting in the shade, shaving ones self; hanging over, impending.
a istizhdr (v.n. 10 of ^), Seeking
assistance, asking for help; help, support; power; remembering; repeating by heart, reciting ;istizhdr ddshtan ba-chizi, Being supported by anything, being backed up by it.
a isti'ddat (v.n. 10 of oy*), Re-
peating; comiug back ; begging one to repeat, or do anything over again, or to come back; wishing to make a habit; being accustomed to, having the habit of.
a isti'dzat (v.n. 10 of o^c), Fleeing
from evil to good, from the devil to God ; seeking refuge.
A i8ti*dr (v.n. 8 of y*~), Being
lighted, blazing (a fire) ; spreading, being diffused (war or mischief).
A SjUa-A isti*drat (v.n. 10 of yy), Borrowing; using a word metaphorically; a metaphor, a trope.
A isti'anat (v.n. 10 of (yy), Asking
assistance, imploring help, seeking aid ; removing the hair from the pubes (*anat).
a isti'bad (v.n. 10 of Redu-
cing to slavery, treating as a servant or slave.
a isti'jdb (v.n. 10 of As-
tonishment, wonder.
a isti'jal (v.n. 10 of J*e), Has-
tening, accelerating, ordering one to make haste, stimulating, despatching any business soon; wishing or endeavouring to make haste.
a isti^dm (v.n. 10 of f**), Keep-
ing silence, not responding, being unable to speak distinctly.
a jIjucuJ isti'dad (v.n. 10 of ac), Preparing, making preparation, getting ready for; skill, aptness, aptitude, merit; means; mental powers, talent, parts.
A fUicuJ isti'sdm (v.n. 10 of ^-), Clasping; puttiug a strap to the water-bag.
a wJUbjc^ i8ti*tuf (v.n. 10 of -Akc), Begging one to become favourably iuclined, courting ones favour.
A isti'Z'Cim fv.n. 10 of /a),
Thinking highly of, admiring; rendering great; taking the larger pari.
) i
a istifia' (v.n. 10 of yAc), Seeking
to be excused ; asking forgiveness, deprecating ; resignation ;isti'fd kardan, To resign, to abdicate.
a isti'faf (v.n. 10 of <-A*), Ab-
staining from what is forbidden, restraining oneself.
a isti'la (v.n. 10 of yle), Superio-
rity, exaltation; seeking promotion.
a isti'ldj (v.n. 10 of gl), Be-
coming hard (the skin) ; seeking a cure, a remedy.
a fSiu-J isti'ldm (v.n. 10 of ^), Asking for information or news.
a isti'ldn, Making known, adver-
A jwjcuj isti'mdr (v.n. 10 of y*>), Causing people to inhabit and colonize.
a ittVmdl (v.n. 10 of J**), Caus-
ing to work ; work, employment; use ; practice, usage, custom, observance ; fashion.
a JUju-J isti'mdli, Used; worn, secondhand ; usual, customary ; fit for use, practical.
A istvjhdsat (v.n. 10 of *>y£), Call-
ing for help, imploring assistance; demanding justice, seeking redress; complaint, suit.
a ietighrdb (v.n. 10 of s-y*),
Wondering; amazement, wonder.
a istighrdq (v.n. 10 of Jy*),
Drowning, overwhelming ; being immersed, absorbed, wholly engaged in; lien, mortgage.
A istighshash (v.n. 10 of cM),
Considering as false and insincere.
a istighfar (v.n. 10 ofyAfc), Asking
forgiveness, begging pardon; deprecation ; mercy ; deliverance ;istighfar kfiwdstan {kardan), To ask forgiveness, beg pardon, pray for mercy.
a ll ah (I ask par-
do u of God), God forgive me! God forbid (m.c.) not at all; on the contrary.
a istighldz (v.n. 10 of kl£), Find-
ing (cloth, a istighldl (v.n. 10 of J*), Order-
ing (ones servants) to carry home grain {gfiallah) ; receiving grain from those who bring it.
A pLax-J istiahna (v.n. 10 of ^*), Being independent, and able to do without; wealth, opulence ; contentment; showing contempt (m.c.) ;istighnd balidan (khwur-dan, zadan, kardan), To be independent of, to be able or obliged to do without a thing; to hold in contempt.
a fUAxA istiahndm. Seeking or possessing booty.
a SjUx-J istifadat (v.n. 10 of *M), Seeking profit or advantage; gain, profit, advantage; attainment, result.

( 54 )
a istifdzdna, Profusely, abun-
a istifdzat (v.n. 10 of ing abundance or profusion; superabundance ; being spread abroad, divulged. !
a aSUs-,1 istifaqat (v.u. 10 of oj*), Re- | covering from indisposition, ebriety, passion, or madness.
istifan, A river; (from G. o-Tavos) a kind of diadem studded with jewels.
a istiftd (v.u. 10 of yxi), Consult-
ing a lawyer or mufti, asking for his fatwa; taking a legal opinion.
A istiftdh (v.n. 10 of £**), Asking j
assistance ; opeuing; conquering.
a istifrdz, Making one active;
causing to slip.
a istifraah (v.n. 10 of £jP), Vomit-
ing, evacuating, rejecting, .clearing out the stomach; belching; straining every nerve, exerting every endeavour.
a istifsar (v.n. 10 of i), Asking
an explanation, seeking information; inquiry, question, interrogation; investigation, search, reference;istifsar hardan,
To interrogate, etc.
a istifsari, Statement of a pro-
secutor subject to investigation. istifndn, A nettle. istafa, A pregnant woman; any animal big with young.
a istifham (v.n. 10 of De-
siring to know or to be taught, informing oneself by asking questions; interrogation.
a istifhdmi, Interrogative; in-
A istiqamat (v.n. 10 of fyi), Stand-
ing erect; acting uprightly; rectitude, integrity; stability, durability; firmness, constancy.
a istiqbdl (v.n. 10 of J**), Going
forth to meet, encountering; meeting and receiving a visitor; reception, welcome; futurity; future tense ;istiqbdl hardan, To go or come to meet.
a istiqdam (v.n. 10 of (**), Pre-
ceding ; wishing to get before.
a istiqra (v.n. 10 of ^f), Follow-
ing ; making diligent search.
a istiqrar (v.n. 10 of y>), Settling,
fixing a residence; establishment; requiring or calling for a settlement or affirmation ; confirmation, ratification, recognition.
a jb\jusJ\ istiqrdz (v.n. 10 of Borrowing.
a istiqsa (v.n. 10 of y**), Using
every effort to get to the knowledge of anything ; curiosity ; the utmost limit of any^ ~ thing.
A istiqsas (v.n. 10 of De-
siring one to retaliate.
A istiqlal (v.n. 10 of Ji), Taking
up ones baggage; esteeming little, considering as small; absolute authority, sovereignty, despotism; firmness, resolution,
constancy ; persistence.
a istiqlalana, Absolutely.
a istiqldll, Invested with authority ; confirming in possession.
a istiqwds (v.n. 10 of Bend-
ing through age.
ustuqild, Name of an ancient hero. r istahdn, Glass, tumbler.
a istikdnat (v.n. 10 of Hum-
bling oneself, submitting.
a istihbar (v.n. 10 of Being
proud; pride, conceit, presumption, arrogance.
a istihtab (v.n. 10 of
Asking or ordering one to write; dictating (a letter).
a istihsdr (v.n. 10 of Wish-
ing or asking for much ; finding or considering much.
a istihrah (v.n. 10 of Abhor-
rence, aversion, loathing ; reluctance.
a wAaXx-.! istihshdf (v.n. 10 of Requesting anything to be made manifest, or laid open; discovery, exploration; istihshdf numudan, To try to investigate, to inquire into.
a JU&u-l istihmal (v.n. 10 of J-*£), Completing, perfecting; wishing anything finished, perfected, completed.
istal, A fish-pond, a lake, a pool.
a istilal (v.n. 8 of j~), Drawing
(a sword, &c.).
a istilam (v.n. 8 of ^JL*), Touching the black stone of the Kabah with hand or mouth ; prostration, kissing the hand.
a istilhaq (v.n. 10 of
Adopting, claiming as a son.
istalhh. Lake, pond (in the dialect of Karabagh for ancient Ar. ; see
a istilzaz (v.n. 10 of al), Tasting,
a fSyM istilzam (v.n. 10 of rf), Requiring, rendering necessary ; necessity.
a istilqa (v.n. 10 of ^), Falling
on ones back.
ista/m (for Oppression, injus-
A istima (v.n. 8 of £-), Listen-
ing, hearing, giving ear; tiding, report, rumour.
a istimalat (v.n. 10 of J***), Ca-
ressing, conciliating, giving good words, soothing, gaining the favour of anyone ; solace, consolation, comforting ; encouragement.
a istimtd1 (v.n. 10 of £x*), Reap-
ing the fruits, or receiving the usufruct enjoyment (of a woman).
a istimkhdr (v.n. 10 of ^*)

( 55
Facing the wind and snuffing it up (a horse).
a istimdad (v.n. 10 of >**), Ask-
ing supplies, subsidies, help; istimdad farmudan (kardan), To ask for help or j assistance. |
a istimrd* (v.n. 10 of *!/), Digest- |
ing ones food, finding it very digestible. a istimrar (v.n. 10 of y*), Conti- ;
nuation, continuance, perseverance; per- | petuity, permanence ; fixed rent, not liable to alteration.
a istimrar-dar, Holder of a
farm or lease in perpetuity.
a istimrdri, Perpetual, continua-
a istimzaj, Sounding ones temper
or intention ; asking an opinion ; asking after ones health.
a istimsdk (v.n. 10 of
Holding; refraining.
a istimldh (v.n. 10 of Find-
ing or esteemiug good, agreeable, beautiful.
a istimldl (v.n. 10 of j*), Being
wearied, bored, annoyed; finding (a thing or person) annoying or troublesome.
Ui istam-numd (for Ui ^s~), Op-
a istimhdl (v.n. 10 of Jv*) Peti-
tioning for a delay, begging respite, asking for time.
dstin, The sleeve of a garment. ustun, A column, a prop. a *>Ux-d istindd (v.n. 8 of ax-), Leaning against, supporting oneself by, or depending on.
a ijLx-1 istindrat (v.n. 10 of jy), Shining, glistening.
a hLxx-d istimbdt (v.n. 10 of W>), Causing (a spring) to flow; drawing out, extraction ; deduction ; drawing a conclusion.
istambfil, Constantinople.
istinsur (v.n. 10 of />), Drawing up water through the nostrils and discharging it again.
a istinjd (v.n. 10 of fr), Wash-
ing or cleaning oneself after easing nature ; making water ; the private parts.
a istinjdz (v.n. 10 of Asking
for the fulfilment of a promise.
istandan, To take, to receive. t istindll, Tenedos, in the Archi-
a Jistinzdl (v.n. 10 of Jy), Sending down ; descending from ones station.
istinsakh (v.n. 10 of £~~>),
Making to transcribe, to copy.
a istinshdq (v.n. 10 of JP*A),
Drawing up water through the nostrils; snuffing up the air, or odours.
a y a jUax-I i stint dq (v.n. 10 of vj^), Endowing with speech ; trying to make one speak.
a istinzdf (v.n. 10 of <-^),
Taking all; deeming clean or neat.
a >V5ax-1 istinqdz (v.n. 10 of a&), Liberating, emancipating, rescuing; putting to a distance.
a £Uxx-\ istinqd* (v.n. 10 of £a>), Flowing into a place and stagnating (water) ; steeping in water; quenching the thirst.
a t-A&u-d istinkdf (v.n. 10 of *-&&), Disdaining, refusing, rejecting.
a oljxd istiwd (v.n. 8 of C?r*) Being straight and even; equality ; uniformity ; parallelism; what is level, plain, even; coming to maturity; tending towards, ascending.
jlyud ustuwar (S. sthdvara), Firm, strong, solid ; faithful, true, worthy to be relied on ; faith, truthfulness ; perfection, completion; equality, evenness ;ustuwar dashtan, To rely on, to believe;ustuwar shudan, To stick fast and firmly ;ustuwar kardan, To fix, to confirm, to make sirong.
jly-d ustuwar-band, Binding, tying,
usluwdri, Strength, firmness, constancy, resolution; corroboration;ustuwdrl d ^ ast u bast, Particulars.
ustuddn, A mausoleum of the Guebres ; a tomb, a sepulchre, a cemetery.
ustur, A horse, mule, beast of burden.
usturban, A horse-keeper ; barren. p*xd U8tfim, A bulrush.
ustun, A column, beam, mast; a kinsman (son-in-law, father-in-law) ; odoriferous grass.
istuh, ustuh, Wearied, dispirited, sorrowful, afflicted, overwhelmed with ennui; weariness, lassitude, sadness ; affliction.
ustuwl, The backbone.
Ax-1 dsta, asta, A kernel; a bone;dsta'i khurmd, A date-stone;istih, Contention, altercation;istuh, Dejected, dispirited, tired ;usta, The buttocks.
a istihdm (v.n. 8 of Casting
a dJHr**-! istihda (v.n. 10 of ^aa), Asking a gift, or guidance.
a istihddf (v.n. 10 of -Ja*>), Being
a mark or butt; setting oneself as a mark or butt (for criticism, &c.) ; being straight. istihdan, istihidan, To squabble. istahrush, A kind of eagle. a istihza (v.n. 10 of fclyfc), Deriding,
joking, sneering ; jest, joke; scorn, scoff.

a istihzdna, Scornfully, deridingly.
a istihlak (v.n. 10 of eUa), Ruin-
ing, destroying, consuming, expending; seeking the death or ruin of anyone.
A istihlal (v.n. 10 of Ja>), Appear-
ing of or seeing the new moon; giving the first cry (infant) ; falling of the first rain ; being drawn (sword).
a oistihwa (v.n. 10 of Be-
witching, seducing, bewildering, stupefy-ing.
istihldan, To quarrel, litigate,
dstl, The sleeve of a garment.
istiyd, A mountain between Herat and Ghazna.
a istiydq (v.n. 8 of Jy), Driving,
urging forward.
a istlsdq (v.n. 10 of Wishing
anything to be firm ; making firm.
a istljdb (v.n. 10 of Being
worthy, fit.
a vjSA^x-1 istlhdsh (v.n. 10 of Ex-
periencing care, sadness, or terror; being hungry.
istlkh, Tall and slraight. (column). a Uiulaf (v.n. 10 of £*^), Request-
ing anyone to keep a deposit; depositing ; deposit.
istldan, To stand; to begin. ix+a~.\ istlda,^Standing.
astir, A weight of dirhems (see
istlzah, Controversy, quarrel, anger. a istlsd1 (v.n. 10 of £~j), Being
wide, roomy, capacious, large enough.
a istlsdq (v.n. 10 of Being
collected, complete, right.
a isti'sdl (v.n. 10 of J^l), Eradi-
cating, erasing, exterminating, ruining.
a istildb (v.n. 10 of s-**^), Taking
(the whole) ; extirpation; calling in a customary present.
a s>uLs~d istlfd* (v.n. 10 of ^j), Demanding and receiving the whole of what is due; performance of a promise; renouncing, relinquishing, resigning (an appointment).
a istlfaz (v.n. 10 of ft), Squatting
on the tips of ones toes.
a istlfaz (v.n. 10 of Run-
ning fast; making haste ; causing to make haste, driving.
a istlfdq (v.n. 10 of &f), Im-
ploring or seeking divine guidance and grace.
A istlqdd (v.n. 10 of a*j), Kindling,
a istlqdz (v.n. 10 of Uj), Being
awake; awakening
istlhln, Glass, tumbler (m.c. from R., see ^^£-1).
a oili~~\ istlld (v.n. 10 of Having entire power or authority ; predominance,
56 ) £-1
conquest; authority, ascendency, domination ;istlla dadan, To give authority, power over.
astlni, A sleeve; blood from a wound ; a healed wound; a poultice; the orifice of a bottle ;astlm, A sleeve; the mouth of a bottle;istlm, A wound affected by the cold and swollen ; cold which causes a wound to swells a wound healed on the surface and full of matter within ; pus, matter.
a isti'man (v.n. 10 of (^), Beg-
ging protection, taking refuge.
dstln, A sleeve;dstln az chashm (az dlda, az muzha) bar dashtan, To weep openly ;dstln az dur bar dashtan, To call out to, to inform ;dstln az dahan bar dashtan, To burst out laughing ;dstln afshandan, To dance; to confer favours ;
1 to abandon, refuse, shake off; dstln bald zadan (kardan), To prepare for work, to make ready;astan bald shudan, To be | prepared or ready for work;dstln ba bln1 giriftan, To cover the nose so as not to smell a thing ;dstln bartar kardan, To draw | ones hand in, to abstain from injuring;
1 dstln bar jabln (bar chashm, bar dlda) kashldan, To soothe, to show sympathy; dstln bar chashm (bar dlda) guzdshtan, To weep secretly, to hide ones tears;dstln ; bar chi dan (bar zadan, bar shikastan, bish-kastan, pichldan, malldan), To tuck up ones sleeve, i.e. to prepare for business;dstln bar dahan dashtan, To cover ones mouth ; to laugh in ones sleeves ;dstln bar rukh kashldan, To cover ones face;dstln bar sham1 {chiragh)zadan,To extinguish a candle, a light; dstln bar gunah kashldan, To pass by a fault;astlni postin, Fault, blemish ; dstln tar dashtan, To shed tears;dstln terlz kardan, To draw ones hand in; dstln shushtan, To weep profusely ;astlni kutdh, A garment without ornaments; dstln giriftan, To compel one to work for i nothing;astlni gal, A sleeveful of roses,
! a nosegay ;dstln na-ddshtan, To be utterly destitute.
a istVnds (v.n. 10 of u~*l), Being
intimate, familiar; familiarity, intimacy, sympathy.
a istiUndf (v.n. 10 of Com-
mencing ; an exordium, beginning, commencement.
dstlna, istlna, A birds egg.
istlhldan \ q.v.
A asja (pi. of saj), Rhymes, com-
positions in rhythm; cooings of turtles.
a isjdl (v.n. 4 of Filling (a
cistern) ; giving; making lawful, allowing. g ashdra, Mallows.
a ishdq, Isaac;(v.n. 4 of (J^~)
Becoming threadbare; shrinking after milking (the teats) ; drying up. a asham, Black.

iskhara rumif A thorny grass. A itfchdt (y.n. 4 of Enraging, infuriating; annoying.
a asad, A lion ; the sign Leo; surname of the Khalifah Ali.
a isda* (v.n. 4 of ^ju.), Conferring a favour, doing a kindness.
asad-dbdd, A city near Hamad an. a -*!**! isddf (v.n. 4 of Letting
fall a veil; showing light (as the dawn) ; lighting (a candle or lamp) ; growing dark (night).
a asddl (pi. of sidl), Veils; curtains
and coverings of a litter; (v.n. 4 of Ja~) Letting down a veil or curtain.
rA near, A thriving field (of corn); a low fellow; mean.
a y-l d8T (v.n.), Creating; taking captive ; (s.) a chain ;asar, Glass.
a *\j~\ isra' (v.n. 4 of ^/-), Travelling by night; usard* (pi. of asir), Captives.
a air dr (pi. of sirr), Secrets, myste-
ries, confidential concerns;(pi. of sarart snrar) Lines, creases, lineaments on the face or palms of the hands ;asrdri zamTn, Plants;isrnr (v.n. 4 of J~), Concealing, keeping secret; concealment, suppression; secrecy, secret, mystery ; influence of an evil spirit; revealing or divulging a secret, disclosure.
A asrdri, Mysterious (m.c.) ;
ajzdi asrdrlyah, Mysterious ingredients (m.c.).
a isrdi (v.n. 4 of £y~), Making
haste, being quick ; causing or ordering to make haste, hastening, quickening; having swift-paced camels.
A u\j~\ isrdf (v.n. 4 of Wasting,
lavishing; excess, extravagance ; prodigality, lavish expenditure ; abuse of wealth; dissipation, ruin.
sy isrdf, A slave.
a isrdjll, The angel of death, who
is to blow the last trumpet; a seraph.
a isrdyil, isrally is-
rdyin, israin, Israel.
a v*y~l usrub, usrubb, Lead ;usrubi gu-dakhtah, Molten lead. a ^y-l u8rubi, Leaden. usrup, Lead. isirkhd U.yu-1 istirkhd. a asm', More or most swift, swifter,
swiftest, fleeter, fleetest, quicker, quickest; sooner, soonest. a usruf Lead.
isrinj, Cinnabar, vermilliou, red lead, saudyx, burnt ceruse (of which they make an ointment for wounds) ; cymbals.
usrosh, An angel; an agreeable voice ; name of the 17th day of the month.
\ isrosha/nah, nsrushanah, Name of a city in Turkistan.
a usrid, A line traced on a bow ; a kind of worm (found among pot-herbs).
57 ) JU
dsns, A u~~'\ asas, A foundation ;usus (pi. of asas), Foundations.
a istdrat, A fable, fiction; any-
thing trifling.
utabr, Thick.
istabl (G. ardfiXtov), A stable, o istakhdur. Rosemary,
yafcta-d istakhr, Persepolis.
ustur (G. (TTarr/p), A balance; name of a king.
a istardghilu8, A die, dice.
istarakh, A lake ; Persepolis.
\LfaA astirkhd, Red orpiment.
usturldb (G. darpoXafSov), An astrolabe mturldbi chahdrum, The sun.
ustumuna (G. dcrrpovopia), Astronomy.
a asfa, Long-necked (ostrich).
istaflUn (G. oTa<£vX?vos), A carrot. g istajin or ustafln, A carrot.
ustnqus (G. o-toi^ciov), An element.; a heavenly body; nature, temper; principle, rudiment; geometry ; ustuqasdti (ustaqdfi, ustati) uql'tdas, Euclids Elements.
a ustuwdn, AilyWV us]tuwdnat, A
column, pillar; the leg of a quadruped; veretrum; a portico supported by pillars ; ustuwdni mustadlr, A round column, a cylinder.
G ustukhudus. French la-
yyla-A ustur (G. icrropta), A fable, story. g (jjyh-l ustun, A carrot. a oUd iVad (v.n. 4 of aju.), Making happy or prosperous, blessing, favouring, assisting, seconding, supporting, aiding.
a ybud asar (pi. of ir), Prices ;?Var (v.n. 4 of y*~), Fixing the price, assizing.
a thud is'dt (v.n. 4 of h*~), Injecting medicine into the nostrils ; piercing with a spear.
a ie'df (v.n. 4 of Promoting
or finishing auy business.
a a*ud asad, More or most happy; fortunate, auspicious.
a isahdb (v.n. 4 of s-*-), En-
during hunger and penury.
5Jdsaghda, asaghdar Prepared, ready ; asuahda. A fire-brand, half-burnt wood.
a8a JLd usahur. usahurna. usghura,
A porcupine.
a asa/ (v.n.), Grieving exceedingly ; being angry with ; sadness, grief, anguish ; a^i/, aw/, Grieved, indignant, angry.
a8fabur, A city founded by Nushir-
a yVA-1 as/Jr (pi. of sa/ar), Journeys, voyages, travels, adventures ; (pi. of sifr) Books, volumes;ts/dr (v.n. 4 of y^-), Breaking (dawn) ; shining, becoming light, bright, splendid.

( 58
asfar, Name of a country said to be | crossed by a river that flows during six months and is dry during the other six months ;isf dr, Myrtle.
a. isfd vainly, A native of Isfa-
a gUU-d isf find], or
isfdndkh, Spinage. ytj\L+\ asfdmbur, Name of a city. b&A asufta, A fire-brand, quenched brand.
dsufda, Prompt, ready. asfadlh, Port-charges. isfirdj (G. axnrdpayos), Asparagus. isfardyin, Name of a city in Khurasan.
)*A asfrasb, or uuyu\ asfrasf, A race-course.
isfaram, Myrtle; any odoriferous
isfaranj, or
isfarang, Name of a district in Saraarcand.
isfavud, The bird called qatd in Arabic, the sand-grouse.
asfura, Prompt, ready.
isfist, usfust, A medicinal plaut isfisti, Abounding in
A jA-d asfal, Lower, lowest; inferior; asfalu *8-8dfilin, The lowest hell; the lowest of the low.
a isfindj, Spinageisfinaji ruml,
isfanan, The sides of the vulva. isfantaman, Excellent, choice; name of one of Zardushts ancestors.
j-aA-A isfanj (G. cnroyyos), A sponge ; a kind of dumpling.
isfanja, A sponge.
juJLd isf and, A species of rue; name of a province of NIshabur ; uame of the twelfth month ;isfandi isfed, White mustard-seed.
isfanddr=the following.
isfanddrmuz, Name of the twelth month of the solar year; name of the fifth day of every month ; name of the angel who presides over the twelfth month ; the earth.
isfandmuz, Name of the third of the five intercalary days used in olden time.
jbxJLd isfandyar, The son of Gushtasp, of the first dynasty of Persian kings ; name of the genius who presides over the day and the month isfanddr ; divine power and goodness.
isfahbud, isfahbad, A general, a commauder-in-chief; a title of the kings of Persia..
tjfL Juyut isfahbud khwava, Speech.
__( array.
) caU
isfljdb, Name of a city in Turk-
isfed, White, bright, splendid. isfeddb, or
glxJLd isfeddj, White water, ceruse, a paint used by women.
a. (jsUy\ isfedddu r-rasas, Whit-
yjuAd isfedar, The white poplar; the aspen.
isfed-ba, 5^ aju! isfed-baj, A kind of dish made of meat, onions, butter, cheese, &c., or of bread and milk.
isfed dasht, Name of a village. g isfayush, Seed of flea-wort.
a bUd asqat (pi. of saqat), Goods, furniture of little value;isqdt (v.n. 4 of ha-), Causing to fall, dropping, letting fall ; casting her young (a camel) ; miscarrying, miscarriage ; producing an abortion; isqati hamal, Miscarriage, abortion ; producing an abortion.
g JIM isqal, A squill; a wild onion, a scallion.
A fVa-d asqdm (pi. of saqam), Diseases, infirmities;isqdm (v.n. 4 of **S~), Making sick.
A *-Aa~d asqaf, Tall, large-boned (man) ; usquf, usqujf, A bishop; a chief of the dlwdn, head clerk. g JM asqal, Squills. g a8qalbiya8, The plant asclepias.
g (jJohLd isqaltus, Jews pitch. g isqillnus, Galen ns, the Greek
physician ; sclopendrium, harts tongue. isqimba, Satan.
isqanqur (G. crKiyKo?), The skink (a kind of lizard).
dsqur, The water used for religious ablutions; a porcupine.
g usqurdiyun, Germander (a
g usqurun, Dross of metal, iron
g uskulu, The sea-cow.
g y+ylyul usqulus, Glue, starch.
isqulufandaviyun (G. crKoXwrtv-Spiov), Sclopendrium, halts tongue. a isqll, A wild onion, a scallion. sLd| asak, A place near Arrajan. cfcl-d isk or ask, A courier, a post-horse. a iskat (v.n. 4 of *a-£~), Pacifying,
soothing, silencing ; assuaging, allaying. a iskar (v.n. 4 of ^£~), Intoxicating
a iskaf (v.n. 4 of -A£~), Being a
shoemaker or a mechanic in general; (s.) A shoemaker; a workman, mechanic.
,iskalish, Thought, reflection ; thoughtful, imaginative.
a1 g&J iskan (v.n. 4 of Giving
repose; stilling, quieting; making (a letter) quiescent, depriving it of a vowel. 6i\£j\ iskana, The calf of the leg.
askawand, A mountain in Sistan,

<^L.I (
askudar, uskuddr, iskudar, A courier, a postman ; a relay of post-horses or letter-carriers; a postmans bag; name of a king; Scutari.
askardam, To bruise, to grind. iskirky The hiccough. uskara, uskarra, A saucer, platter,
a uskuffat, A threshold.
iskala, Landing-place (m.c., from It. scala, Fr. echelle).
iskanan, The sides of the vulva (see (jjUa-1).
askanj, Fetid breath. askand, A rope-dancer; ropedancing.
askanddn, A lock ; a tomb-stone. G iskandar, askandar, Alexander,
said to be the son of Dara, who married Nahid, daughter of Filqiis (Philippus). On account of her fetid breath, her husband seut her back to her father, who cured her by the use of iskandarus, Garlic, whence her sons naifre.
iskandar-abad, N.ame of a town founded by Alexander in Eastern Persia.
G iskandarus, Garlic ; name of
the mother or son of Alexander. a iskandari, Alexandrian.
a iskandarlyai, Alexandria in
Egypt (sixteen cities of this name are ascribed to Alexander).
iskinak, A wimble, an auger.
^ ds-kunanda, Revolving millwheel.
iskana, Au auger ; the thigh. ij£J\ islcana-rdn, The sides of the
t a8kwdr, Scutari (in Turkey).
CjSLA uskukh, Buying; separation. ys^-A iskiz, i)*£-A iskizahy A kick, caper, bound.
T <^r* aski sardy, The old palace (in Constantinople).
;£-A usgur, A porcupine.
asgun, The Caspian; name of a
a J~A asal, A tree having long prickles; a spear ; any long prickle or thorn.
a oSuA isldy (v.n. 4 of jl~), Comfort, consolation.
a _*)LA a8ldf (pi. of salaf)y Those who have gone before; ancestors;isldf (v.n. 4 of uL), Sending in advance; paying before due, or in advance.
a islak (v.n. 4 of £&-), Inserting one thing into another. ^
a JUut islal (v.n. 4 of J~), Theft; visiting with consumption ; drawing the sword.
A fDut i8ldm (v.n. 4 of Yielding
obedience to the will of God. resigning oneself to the divine disposal; embracing the religion of Muhammad, conversion
59 )
to the Muhammadan faith; Islamism, Mu-hammadism; orthodoxy.
t islambul, islambol, Constanti-
t i8ldmbully islamboli, Of or be-
longing to Constantinople.
a islami, Faithful, orthodox; a
Muhammadan; an Ottoman;ahkami is-IdmiycLy Precepts of religion;mamdliki islamlyah, The Ottoman Empire.
a asalaty The point of a spear; the tip (of the tongue or elbow).
A £^LA aslihat, asliha (pi. of sildh), Military arms, weapons, implements of war, armour.
a a^JLA asliha-khana. Armouries,
arsenal (m.c.).
a aslakh. Bald-headed; very red.
A aslam, Safer, safest; aslami
shuquq, The best course to pursue.
aslanj, Horse-tail (a plant).
,^>y~A uslub, A kind of food; name of a sage and a king ; name of a philosopher.
a uslub, Order, arrangement, way,
mode, means, measure, manner, method ; form, figure, shape ; a lions neck ; a prominence of nose.
a ^jLA usluban, Methodically. a jlajjLA uslub-ddr, Methodical, well-arranged, well-proportioned, symmetrical; elegant.
g isliqun, Vermillion, red lead.
i8limiy A species of painting. a f+~*\ ism or usrriy Name, appellation, attribute (ismi agam, isnti iazlm, The name most high, the great name, the name of God;ismi bd musammd, Worthy of the name it bears, whose name is expressive of its qualities ;ismi jaldli, Name indicative of the divine power;ismi jamdliy Name indicative of the divine goodness or beauty ;ismi zdt, Name indicative of the divine essence;ismi sdmi, A noble or exalted name ;ismi sifat, Name indicative of a divine quality, attribute) ; noun (ismi istifhdm, Interrogative pronoun ; ismi isharat, Demonstrative pronoun;ismi dlaty Noun of instrument;ismitdmmy A perfect noun ;ismi iasahlr. A diminutive noun ; ismi tanldry Indefinite pronoun;ismi tafzil, A comparative or a superlative noun ;ismi jamidy A primitive noun ;ismi jam1, The plural number;ismi jins, A generic or appellative noun ;ismi zamdn, Adverb of time ismi zamir, A pronoun;ismi zarjr, Adverb of time and place ;ismi *adad, Numeral;ismi fdil, Noun of agency ; ismi* fiH, Verbal noun, infinitive;ismi kasraty Noun of multitude ;ismi mubd-lagka, Noun of excess, or intensity ;ismi marra, Noun of unity ;ismi mushtaqq, A derivative noun;ismi masdar, Noun of action, infinitive ;ismi musaghghar, A diminutive noun ;ismi muzdf, A noun in

construction;ismi ma'drify A determinate noun ;ismi mana, An abstract noun; ismi maf'ul, The passive participle ; ismi makdn, Noun of place ;ismi mansub, A relative noun ;ismi mausul, A relative pronoun; ismi nakra, An indeterminate noun ;ismi naw\ A specific noun ;ismi wasf, An adjective;ismi widy Noun of the vessel) ;ism bur dan (dar kardan), To pronounce ones name with praise; to win a name(m.c.).
dsma (for ^U-A), Heaven ; a high place ; name of a place.
A oU1 asmai (pi. of ism), Names, nouns; asmtiiafaly Verbal nouns;asmaihusna, asma'i *uzmd, The ninety-nine names or attributes of God;ismd (v.n. 4 of y*~), Naming, calling.
asmar y jU1 ismar, The myrtle-tree.
a 1 asmar (pi. of samar), Nocturnal conversations, evening entertainments, stories.
a tU1 asmat, Single or thin breeches, not stuffed or lined with cotton, a asmd (pi. of s a JggU-A ismd'ily Ishmael, son of Abraham.
oVfl isma'il-dbad, Name of a vil-
lage near Khar ran.
a ismdIliyat, Name of a sect.
A JU\ asmdl, Old, worn-out garments; ismal (v.n. 4 of J*~), Making peace, composing differences ; being old and worn out (a garment) ; cleaning a cistern.
dsmdn (S. asman)t Heaven, the celestial orb; the ceiling of a house; name of a genius who presides over the 27 th day of every Persian solar month; name of the angel of death; dsmdni akhshekh. dsmdni dunyd, The orb of the moon ;dsmdni barin, The ninth or uppermost heaven;dsmdn az kujd wa rismdn az kujd, Where is heaven and where is the rope ? a proverbial saying employed when falsehood is opposed to truth (hence: dsmdn az riswan na-danistan, To be entirely wanting in discrimination) ; dsmdn-rd. ba-abru ma-poshy Do not try to conceal what is beyond concealment ; dsmdn-rd ba zamin dokhtan. To stitch the sky to the earth (met. used to express the highest skill in archery) ;dsmdn-rd zamin kardan, To raise dust;dsmdn-rd surdkh kardan (to perforate heaven), To bring about something momentous ; dsmdn surakh na-khwahad shud, Nothing extraordinary is going to happen ; dsmdni ghirew, The thunder ;asmdn u resman, An evasive, incongruous, or impertinent answer.
; cr4'
A isman (v.n. 4 of (^)> Possess-
ing fat cattle, being fat.
asmdn-pdya, Of heavenly rank
or dignity.
(;)U'\ dsman-paimdyy Measuring the heavens; travelling through the heavens.
asm dn-paiwandt Sky-reaching, fit*. asman-jahy Of heaven-like
dignity or power.
s-t4- dsmdn-janaby Majestic as
dsmdnjuniy A sapphire, hyacinth.
\ dsmdn-kheZy Rising up to heaven. fiytfU'\ d8mdn-daray The galaxy, milky way.
dsman-raf'aty High or exalted
as heaven.
0U-A asman-sair, Travelling in the heavens.
v>Ua dsmdn-shitaby Swift as heaven.
o*Ao dsmdn-sifaty Heaven-like.
dsman-qadar (qadr), Powerful
as heaven.
jtS dsmdn-gir (catching or inter-
cepting the skv), A projecting roof, an arbour, a bower.
dsmdn-manzar, Of heavenly
^\i (jjU'\ dsman-ndby Pure as the sky; heaven-like.
1 dsmdn-wash. Heaven-like.
1\ dsmdnay A ceiling, roof.
dsmdni, Heavenly, azure, hya-
yfS dismdni-tvry A meteor, a falling
\ dsmdnl-zabdUy The language of angels; angel-tongued, eloquent.
asmary Brown, tawny, dusky. a \ asmar an (dual, the two browns), Wheat and water.
a isma'ily Ishmael, son of Abra-
a \ asmany More or most fat.
dsmandy Lying; bewildered, frightened, confounded.
asmandy A Village near Samarcand. asmandary A salamander. a 1\ ism-wdry (Entry in statements)
according to the order of individual names.
a \ asmusdy Sort of marjoram ; wild carrot.
dsmogh (Z. ashemaogha)y Name of a demon sent out by Ahriman to propagate discords in families, law-suits among neighbours, and wars between princes. dsima '\ q.v.
a '\ ismiy Nominal (as opposed to ver-
bal) ; by name, named.
asan, A garment turned ; an unripe
a dsin, asitiy Corrupted, stinking water.

cT V
\ isndpul q.y.
oU\ isnad, Name of the 26th day of every month.
a olud asnad (pi. of sanad), Credentials, vouchers, warrants; grants, charters, deeds, documents ;isnad (v.n. 4 of ), Alleging on the authority of another; attributing to.
a \ iennm (v.n. 4 of ^-), Rising (smoke) ; blazing (fire).
A amdn (pi. of sinn), Teeth; the
points of spears;imdn (v.n. of (j), Being advanced in years.
^5^1 isnapui q.v.
asinistan, asnistdn, asinisittdn, Wamiqs father-in-law.
dsni q.v.
a Jyu.1 ownd, More or most high, or sublime ; more or most brilliant.
dsn, The ermine; a boot;asu, A part, side ;usu, Rol)bery, seizure.
j\y~\ aswar (C. agpbar), A horseman; a soldier who fights with the hatchet or mace ; name of a mountain from which the Nile is said to spring.
a aswar (pi. of sur), Wails of a city ; uswar, A bracelet.
aswari, A mode of warfare with hatchets and maces.
aUj-1 aswdt (pi. of saut), Scourges, whips.
asubar (in Zand and Piizand), A horseman.
a iswat, uswat, A chief, leader, distinguished man, paragon.
a aswad, Black; blacker, blackest; more or most illustrious or powerful; a sparrow ; a large kind of black serpent.
a aswadan, The two blacks, as
dates and water; a serpent and a scorpion.
asudagl,Quiet, repose, tranquillity. dsudan, To rest; to be satisfied, refreshed, regaled ; to die ; to quiet, pacify, silence; to lose moisture, to dry.
asuda, Peaceable, quiet, at rest, asleep ;asuda u dzada, Quiet and free.
usuda, Fooling, handling, touching. dsuda-hal, Tranquil; full, replete.
aswar (in Zand and Piizaud), The day before yesterday.
a usun (v.n. of (;y-!), Changiug taste and colour; delaying; seeking a pretext ; taking after the father.
dsa, Tdlage, sowing; a field ready for sowing; liquorice root; bone of a tish; mill-stone.
a vrl(r.\ is-hdb (v.n. 4 of v), Talking much, babbling; losiug ones senses (from a venomous bite) ; travelling in the desert; taking the lead (horse).
a JW**' ie-hdl (v.n. 4 of J*-), Purging, producing a diarrhoea ; dysentery ; an ape-
rient;is-hali khun, is-hali damam, A bloody flux.
a is-ham (v.n. 4 of Casting lots.
a as-hal, More easy, easier, easiest.
asl, The wife of a man who has another wife, a rival wife.
a asl, Melancholy, solicitous, sorrow-
ful ; a physician, surgeon.
dsiyd, A mill-stone; a mill (dsiydi bad or badl, a wind-mill;aeiyd'i dast or dasti, A hand-mill) ;dsiyd az yard uftad. The mill has ceased to turn, things go wrong;dsiyd ba-dbi khizr (az dbi tiJd, az abi gauhar) mi-gardad, Things are in a flourishing condition, one is powerful, wealthy, honoured, V*-! asydy Black; (in Zand and Pazand) a breast.
Wl asiya-dzhan, An iron instrument for notching a mill-stone.
dsiydb, dsyav, A water-mill; asydbi badly A windmill (m.c.) ;asydbi be dbt A mill without water.
(jbW-d dsiyabdn, A miller.
6i\&. Ud8iyd-khdnaf A water-mill.
0) Wl dsiya-zan, A millwright; the funnel of a mill.
Aij dsiyd-zana, An iron instrument for notching a mill-stone.
dsiyd-sang, A mill-stone.
a asydf (pi. of saif), Swords;(pi. of sif ) Shores.
asydgar, A mill-wright; a miller. dsyagarly The business of a miller, or of a mill-wright.
AiUJ! dsiydna, dsydnay A whet-stone.
dslb, Trouble, molestation, perturbation, misery, calamity, wretchedness, affliction, hurt, injury, damage, loss; dissension, discord, sedition; the shock or concussion of a body of men, pressing upon, struggling, or fighting with one another ; (dsibi jaib, Connection) ;dsib uftad (dmad, rasid), Pain has been inflicted, a calamity has befallen ;dslb khymrdan (kashldan, ydftan), To be afflicted, pained, injured ; to suffer calamity ;dsib rasdn-idan (zadan, kardan), To inflict pain or injury.
ja \ dsibi na%r, asib-najsr, A fatal accident in consequence of witchcraft.
dsib-kar, Inflicting paiu or injury, cruel, tyrannical.
a8lrf Name of a fortress.
a j*! asir-jdyy asir-khdua.
a ashy Bound; prisoner, captive, bondman;asiri tab*, A sensualist;asir kardan. To make prisoner.

aslrakj A slice of melon.
a 1 asir-gir, Taking prisoners; a
a tS7*~d asm, Captivity, slavery, bondage.
a servant, a hired labourer, a mercenary; naturally lean and weak.
A usailim, The vein running be-
tween the little and ring lingers, salvatella.
aMm (in Zand and Pazand), A man of rank.
A**\ dsima, Astonished, amazed, stupefied, confused; dark.
dsima-dim dah. Crack-brained ; drunk, intoxicated.
jL. dsima-sdr, y~* A*wJ( dslma-sar
(comp. Giddy; astounded, con-
1 used.
1 asyus (G. a asyCaiy Stupefied, astonished; dark; intoxicated.
A*J\ dsiyay Name of Pharaohs wife who educated Moses.
ash (S. asa), Meat, victuals, viands, soup, broth, gruel, pottage; drinking, a drinker ;dshi badardi, A dish called after Badard, a place in Khurasan;dshi bacha-gan, Castor (a medicine given to infants) ; dsh pukhtan, To stir up one against another; ashitatmdj, A kind of vermicelli dish;dshi tazwir (parhez)y Gruel for the sick ;dshi ta'ziya, A dish distributed to the neighbours and poor on a day of mourning (as on that for the death of Husain) ; dshi tu dar kasai tust, Your food is in your bowl, i.e. your living or lot is provided for;
dshi jav, Barley-water, water-gruel; dshi khalili (khalili llah), Pottage of lentils ; dshi khumdr, A pick-me-up from seediness after drinking;dshi khair. Food bestowed on the pour by way of a pious foundation;dshi daqiq, Rice-gruel;
dshi dam-pukht. A kind of pottage ; dshi *ashurd, A dish distributed to neighbours and the poor on the 10th of Muhar-ram (in remembrance of the death of Husain (see dshi ta'ziya above and Ad j <-s-Afc) ;
dsh kardan, To cook ;dsh kashidan, To prepare a banquet ;dshi mazur, Rice-broth given to one convalescent ; dshi mawiz, A decoction of raisins.
ash (added to a noun ending in soft a he, i.e. not sounded), His, her, as khana ash, His or her house.
ashd, Like (= q.v.).
A ishah, ushah, A sword-belt; a
a ishddat (v.n. 4 of M)> Flevating a roof or building; raising the voice, calling with a loud voice ; giving information.
a ishdraty ishdra (v.n. 4 of ;jA), l
Pointing, nodding, beckoning with the j
6*2 ) uuofal
hand or eye; a sign, token, mark, signal, wink, nod, or wave with the hand ; allusion, hint, clue; insinuation, innuendo; love-glances, ogling; dumb-show, pantomime; ishdra shudany To be mentioned, pointed out, hinted at \~r~ishdrat farmudy He made a signal;isharat kardany To point out, make a sign, hint, intimate.
a ashash, Rejoicing; mirth, exultation.
a AcUd ishd'at (v.n. 4of £**), Publishing, divulging, diffusing, spreading about or abroad.
t jIa! ashdqy ushaq, A boy, a slave.
d8hdmy Potation ; victuals; water in which rice has been boiled ; spare diet; the country of Assam ; (in comp.) a drinker, as 8hardb-dshdmy A drinker of wine; dshdmi muzawwar, A thin broth for the sick, water-gruel.
ashdmy Food sufficient to support
dshdminday A drinker, a sipper. dshamidan (S. cham with prep. d)y To drink, to sip.
ashamidani, Anythiug drinkable, tit to be drunk or sipped, a beverage. dshabf dshby Name of a place. a ashb (v.n.), Reprehending, abusing, reviling; mixing, mingling.
a ashbdh (pi. of shabah or shabh),
Bodies ; persons, objects.
a ashbdr (pi. of shibr)y Spans. a £W*d ishbd* (v.n. 4 of &*), Satiating, satisfying, filling up; dyeing (cloth), impregnating (it) with a sufficient quantity of colour.
a JWa! ashbdl (pi. of shibl)y Whelps of a lion or other wild beast;ishbal (v.n. 4 of J*a), Showing favour or fondness; dropping young ones (lioness); declining a second marriage that she may attend to the education of the children of her deceased husband.
a *WAd ashbdh (pi. of shibh or shdbah)y Likes, equals ; resemblances ;ishbah (v.n. 4 of a*a), Being or making like.
(jishbkhun. A kind of dock (plant). J*Ad ushbul, Caviar.
ashbu, A chafing-dish.
JyjAl ushbuly Caviar. dsh-pazy A cook. ushpus, A louse.
A-*~Ad ishpishaf A moth, a weevil.
ashpaahdr. Seed of the herb flea-
d^Ad ashpaky or
J$Ad ushpuly Roe of the sturgeon, caviar. g u*/^a^ ashpaldtus) A prickly shrub.
ishpdkhtan, (jj^a^Ad ishpekhtan (S. spris), To sprinkle, scatter.
A*a£*-Ad ishpekhta, Spriukled, scattered; aspergula (Ladies bed-straw). ushtci or ishtdy and

m .&! ( 63 ) ut *.£)
ashtdb, ishtdb, Haste, despatch. a ashtdt (pi. of shatt), Dispersed;
ishtdt (v.n. 4 of ^), Dispersing.
ashtdd (Z. arstaf), Name of the 26th day of the month, and of its presiding angel; a section of the book of Zardusht. (Zoroaster).
yktfd U8htdr, ishtar, Haste.
iektaftan, To hasten. ishtdlang, The ankle ; dice. jUfcl tishtav, ishtavt Haste, despatch. a wsJWsM ishtibdk (v.n. 8 of Being
iutermiugled and ravelled.
a ishtibdh (v.n 8 of *-*), Being
obscure, doubtful, and ambiguous ; doubt, suspicion ; ambiguity, obscurity ; scruple; likening, similitude, comparison; (in comp.) like, resembling, as falak-ishti-bdht Resembling heaven, high as the firmament.
a ishtibdhl, Suspicious, doubtful,
A ishtiddd (v.n. 8 of &*), Being or
making strong, firm ; confirming, strengthening, increasing in violence ; vehemence, force, impetuosity ; intensity; obstinacy.
a yad ashtar, One who has inverted and relaxed eyelids.
yM ushtur (S. ushtra), A camel. a ishtird' (v.n. 8 of ^y*), Buying;
selling; trade, barter; commerce.
ushturdba, A kind of woollen garment.
a Uyad ishtird t (v.n. 8 of by.), Imposing conditions, stipulating.
a ishtirdk (v.n. 8 of o*Jy), Partner-
ship, fellowship, participation, communion ; homonymy ;bar wajhi ishtirdk, In a partnership wav, by division.
fiylyad ushtur awa, A kind of woollen garment.
ushturbdn, A camel-driver or
ushtur-bin, Quick-sighted.
^sbyad ushtur-pdy, Penny-royal.
yad ushtur-kh dr. A thorn eaten by camels.
jly-y&l ushtur-khwdr, A serpent; a tick, camel-louse ; a thorn of which camels are fond.
jX6\ ushtur-ddr, A camel-keeper or owner, one who has the charge or management of camels.
jya\ ushtur-ddrly The keeping of camels.
Ja yad nshtur-dil, Camel-hearted ; timid, pusillanimous ; malicious, revengeful, spiteful.
&yffcjy^d itshtnr-zahra, Timid, slow, languid.
jUyftd ushtur-ghdz, Root of the assafcetida. cslyad ushturak, A small camel; a wave. UyAl ashtar-kd, A griffin. y*y*\ ushtur-jdv, or
S yM ashtar-gav-palang, The ca-meleopard, or giraffe.
yM ushtur-giyd, A thorn eaten by camels.
£y yad ushtur-murgh, The ostrich.
yad ushtur-mur (camel-ant), An animal in form like an ant, in size equal to a sheep.
ushtvr-wdy A covering of camels
ushtnrwdr, A camels burden; camels hair.
£yyad ushtur ugh, A herb eaten by camels. a Jbead isliti'dl (v.n. 8 of J*^), Burning, blazing; conflagration; lighting a fire oi' candle; fomenting, instigating a quarrel;ishti'dl ydftan, To kindle (intr.), to blaze up.
a *UU*d ishti'dlak, A small flame; a quarrel.
a jUaid ishtiyhdl (v.n. 8 of J**), Occupying, employing oneself; occupation, employment, business, study ; distraction.
a ishtigdg (v.n. 8 of <3*), Deriva-
tion, etymology.
a ishtiqaqi, Derivative.
ysLad ishtak, Swaddling clothes. a *A£xed (v.n. 8 of y^4*), Lamenting, complaining, bewailing.
o ^yJJu-ad ishtildbus, ishtildyus,
b^Jbad ishtalhund, A sceptre.
ushtulurrij Severity, violence, oppression ; a forcible seizure;ushtvlum awar-dan (kardany kashldan), To force, oblige, conquer, overcome; to rule, regulate, to reign despotically; to fight.
^4*1 dshtim, ashtim, The pus of a wound. a JUjaI ishtimdl (v.n. 8 of J*-6*), Consisting of, comprising, comprehending, containing.
dshtan-gdh, A necessary, a privy. y*d ushtu, A finger; charcoal;ushtu, Herbage ; a finger.
lyad ashluwd, A live coal; a chafing-dish ;ushtuwd, Herbage.
ttlyad ushtuirdna, A finger-ring, yyad ashtau-ad, Name of the second of the five intercalary days added to the Persian year; the day on which the sun enters the sign of the Scorpion.
^yed' ushtu in, Pease-haulm or straw; a besom of the same.
ay*d ash tali, fiyad ashtfih, Bjy^d ashtura, A bitter, thorny plant, of which camels are fond.
a ishtihd* (v.n. 8 of jv*), Wishing
for, longing for; appetite, desire, wish ; hunger.

m (
A ishtihdr (v.n. 8 of /^), Publish-
ing, divulging, blazoning abroad ; publicity, public notice; notification, proclamation ; advertisement, placard, poster ; fame, report, rumour, renown ;ishtihdr dashtan, ishtihdr shy dan, To be famous, conspicuous, known, noted, notorious, clear, evident; ishtihdr hardan, To publish, proclaim; khwurshed ishtihdr, Clear as the sun.
j 1^6.1 ishtihdr-ndma, A proclamation. a ishtihdri, A person who has
dshti, Peace, concord, reconciliation. a ishtiydf (v.n. 8 of Look-
ing with out-stretched neck; watching (the lightning) to discover whether it will rain.
a ,jW**d ishiiyaq (v.n. 8 of Wish-
ing, longing, desiring, craving, yearning; ishiiyaq tear dan, To desire ;W ishtiydq u mahabbat hardan, To express love and affection (at the beginning of letters).
^Lx&d ishtiyaq-ndma, Letters expressive of desire or affection.
Cjlyly*- dshti-khwaran, dshti-
khwara, dshti-khwara (khwura).
Sweetmeats sent from one to another on a reconciliation.
ashtJm, ishiim, Pus, matter ;ishtJm, Drawers.
dshtinah, An egg. a g*d ashajj, Broken-headed. a jV^ad ashy dr (pi. of shajar), Trees; ishjar (v.n. 4 of ^*), Abounding in or producing trees.
a ashja, More or most brave; intrepid, brave, warlike.
a ishham (v.n. 4 of ^A), Giv ng
fat to eat.
a8hkh_dr, Potash ; sal ammoniac.
A ashkhas (pi. of shakhs), Per-
sons, bodies; individuals; people \-ish-khds (v.u. 4 of <,/&*), Sending; disturbing ; speaking evil of one absent; passing above the mark (an arrow) ; being arrived (the hour for setting out on a journey).
a ishkham (v.n. 4 of ^a*A), Turn-
ing sour (milk).
AiW jsd ash-khdna. A kitchen, a cooks shop.
ashkhuwdn. A sort of dock (plant) ;ishkhiicdn. uslikhuwdn, A bud, a blossom.
ishkhiin. A sort of dock. ishkhis (G. l£ia)t The tree called alak bv the Arabs.
a ashadd, More or most vehement; very violent or severe ; excessive.
dsh-dar, Holding food (a platter,
a jaad ashd'iq, Eloquent (orator).
ashar (v.n.), Exulting, rejoicing; being proud and insolentashir, Exulting, rejoicing, sprightly ; proud, insolent.
A yftd asharr, Worse, worst; more or
64 )
most wicked, vicious; more or most malignant, atrocious.
a ishrdb (v.n. 4 of s-*^*), Mixing ;
causing to imbibe, imbuing; making deep (a colour); (one colour) being mixed with another ; imputing, ascribing, telling a lie against, chargiug falsely.
a uw^lyd ashrdbdt (for sliardbdt), Drinks prohibited by the Muhammadan law.
A,y.\ ashrdr (pi. of sharir), Wicked, criminal, sinful, seditious.
jidyftd ishrds, A plant of which shoemakers or binders paste is made.
a U/d ashrat (pi. of shart), Mean, low, base, vile; (pi. of sharaf,) Signs or marks (by which men or cattlo are distinguished) ;ishrdt (v.n. 4 of bya), Marking cattle and sending them to Le sold; preparing, making ready.
a ishrd (v n. 4 of £;*), Opening (a
door) upon a road; pointing (a spear at one).
a ashraf (pi. of sharlf), Nobles,
grandees, gentlemen, men of high extraction ; refined, courteous, urbane;ishrdf (v.n. 4 of w*jA), Being high, exalted; standing on the top of anything ; looking down from an eminence ; beiug close upon.
a ishrdq (v.n. 4of jy**), Rising (the
sun); sun-rise, morning ; splendour, lustre, beauty.
a a ishrdqiyan (pi. of the prece-
ding), A sect of philosophers, illumiuati.
a csdyd ashrdk (pi. of sharik), Companions, partners, associates in trade; ishrak (v.n. 4 of csljfc), Taking a partner; giving companions to God.
a g/d ashraj, A horse which has one testicle larger than another, or only one testicle.
dshurdan, To bruise ; to knead; to bake; to wash.
a -Jyftd ashraj', More or most noble; eminent; a person of noble birth, nobleman ; gentleman ; a town in Mazandaran.
ashrafl, ashrafi, Name of a gold coin, a gold mohar (its value in Calcutta about 16 rupees; by the Regulations of 1793, it should weigh 190,894 grains troy), d dshuzdan = q.v.
a f*A\ ash'dr (pi. of shaW), Hairs (of a man or of a beast) ;(pi. of shiW) Poesy, poems, verses;ish'dr (v.n. 4 of Making known, informing, acquainting; causing to fear, frightening ; putting on a 8hildr or inner garment; marking a camel to be sacrificed at Mecca.
a £Uid ishidt (v.n. 4 of £*), Scattering urine from side to side (a camel) ; darting forth rays (the sun); coming into ear

e* (
(grain); having the grains compact (an ear of corn).
A ash*ab, (A goat) having the
horns distant from each other; name of a proverbial miser.
a ash'as, One whose hair is di-
shevelled and soiled with dust.
a ash1 at,, A better poet; very hairy.
A a*a! ashiat, ashiah (pi. of shu and shu'a), Rays, sunbeams. ashghdr, A badger.
A JIaaI ashgjidl (pi. of shuahl), Affairs, employments, occupations, businesses.
ashghar (for /aI), Ruddy; chesnut (horse) ;ushghur, A porcupine ; a badger.
a Jaa! ashgjial, More or most employed, busy.
ashahur. ushghur, A badger. a Aaa\ ishfd' (v.n. 4 of ^jAA), Being on the brink of anything, at the point of (death) ; administering a medicine by which health may be restored ; freeing from disease, imparting health, healing, curing..
a ashfaq (pi. of shafaq), Kind-
nesses, favours ;ishfaq (v.n. 4 of ,jAa), Compassionating, pitying; tenderness; compassion ; fearing, being cautious of each other.
ishfaq-angez, Inspiring pity or
ashuftanidan, To confound, disturb, make mad, or crazy.
ashuftagi, Perturbation, consternation, confusion, contention, disquietude, disturbance, tumult, commotion, disorder.
dshuftan (S. kshub), To agitate, to disturb, or be disturbed; to become foolish, distracted, confounded, enamoured, insane, amazed, astonished, thunderstruck, wretched, miserable; to change, alter.
axAa\ ashufta, Enamoured, mad, confounded ; illegible (writing) ;ashufta shu-dan, To be distracted ;ashufta bar dan, To distract, to disturb.
ashufta-ahwdl, and
JU ashufta-hdl, In distressed cir-
cumstances, in a doleful state.
AsAAf ashufta-khatir. Disturbed in mind, distressed, distracted.
Jj Asdshufta-dil, Troubled in heart. jjj dshufta-roz, jSfa a*6a^ dsKufta-
rozgar, Whose days or fortunes are blasted. &saa^ dshufta-rumiydn, A live coal. Jac asAa^ ashufta-* aql, Disturbed in mind. Axaa^ dshuftah-kdkul, With dishevelled locks.
yu asaa^ ashufta-maghz, Brain-sick.
asaa^ ashufta-muy (moy), Having dishevelled hair.
juAa! ashfand, Name of a district of Ni-shabur.
a ashfd, More or most powerful to
heal, efficacious, salutary;ishfd, A cobbler's awl; a large needle.
65 )
a ashaqq, More or most troublesome or difficult;ushshaq, ushaq (for P. aa! q.v.), Gum ammoniac.
a bUa! ishqa (v.n. 4 of jAa), Rendering miserable, grieving.
a ^aaI ashqar, A chesnut horse, especially with black mane and tail; ruddy of complexion ; the horse of Bahrain Gur. g (jjyJjAAl ashqardiyun, Wild garlic. fi^Al ashqar a, An extinguished fire-brand. a JsAAl ashqd, More or most unfortunate. a oLsa\ ashqiya (pi. of shakly), Poor, miserable; robbers, thieves, felons, criminals.
ashk (S. vdshpa), A tear ; a drop ; (related to S. rishi) devout, pious ; name of the first king of the Ashkaniyan dynasty of Persian monarchs, supposed by some to be a grandson of that Darius who was defeated by Alexander. He is by others called Arshak, from whence, according to them, the Arsacides took their family surname; ashki abr ($ahdb, nisan), Raindrops ;ashki atishndk (atishin, jigar-soz, garni), Hot tears ; ashki afsos (hasrat, masibat), Tears of grief, of affliction ; ashki al (piyazi, jigar-gun, hinna'i, khun-dluda, khuni baqqam, khunln). Red tears, tears of blood ;ashki barldan (chakidan, rekhtan, fishandan), To shed tears ;ashki 'pashimdni (nadamat), Tears of repentance: ashki tdk (dukhtari tak), Wine ;ashki talkh, Bitter tears; wine ;ashk chidan, To wipe off tears;ashki khunuk (durogh), Feigned tears ;ashki khwush-namak (shor, nim-shor), Tears shed by parting friends, tears of grief;ashki ddwudl (daudi), Tears of repentance (like Davids) ;ashk dar dida shikastan, To stop tears from flowing ;ashk rustan, To start tears ;ashki shddi (tarab), Tears of joy ;ashki shakarl (shakarin, shirin), Tears of gladness ;ashki surahi, Wine;ashki *aqiqi (gul-giin, lala-fdm, lala-giin, la*li), Red tears, tears of blood;ashk faru khwurdan. To suppress tears;ashki kabab, Juice of roast meat trickling into the fire ;ashki koh, Rubies, sapphires, and other precious stones. t **Xa1 ashak (eshek), Ass, donkey. jStk} ashkdr, \\&\ ashkard, ftash-kara (S. avishkara), Clear, evident, manifest, open, public;sukhuni ashikar zadan, To speak plainly, frankly (m.c.).
ishkdr, Prey, game; hunting, the
^jV£a^ ashkaragi, Publicity.
6^15^ ash-kara, A cook.
^\Xa1 ishkari, A hunter, sportsman, fowler.
aJ^I ashkdl (pi. of shakl), Forms, figures, shapes, semblances ;ishkal (v.n. 4 of J**), Being difficult, obscure, intricate; ambiguity, doubts, perplexity;ish-

<3^1 (
kdl b ft dan, To he perplexed ;ishkdl dash-tan, To be difficult (a question).
odad ashk-dlrid, Tear-stained. a JV&d ashkdli, One who excites doubts
or difficulties.
^LA£ad ashkdniydn, The family name of 1he third dynasty of Persian kings, who reigned after Alexander the Great for about 1G0 years.
A>^£sd ashhlwand, A mountain in Sistfin. ;L£ad ashk-brir, Shedding tears; tears falling;ashk-brir sliudan, To melt into tears.
^;L£ad ashk-bdri, Weeping, jb edad ashk-bdz, Shedding tears; playing off tears.
ashkbris, A hero killed by Rustam.
ishkardan ( = (j shikar dan,
q.v.), To hunt, ishkira, A hunting-hawk.
ashk-rrz'n, csLd ashk-rez, Shedding tears (the former also pi. of the latter).
dshkaza, A hunting-bird of any
ishkastan, To break, bruise,
jo> &;u~£ad ishkasta-band (for shikasta-hand), Who sets broken bones.
vji-^ad ashkash, Name of an ancient hero. u^£ad ashklft, Surprise ; ishkaft, A cave.
(jUui ed&d ashk-fishan, Shedding tears. Aa£=d Ishhtfa, A blossom, bud ; vomiting. a J£ad ashkal, ishkal, Reddish-eyed (man) ; anything which has red and white mixed ; more or most difficult.
ashkal, Fetters ;ishkil, (A horse) whose right fore-foot and left hind-foot are white; fraud, craft, imposture.
ishkam ( = ^^ shikam), The belly. A~. gy£=d isltkanj, A wrinkle, fold, curls; ixhkunj, A nip, a pinch.
ishkanja, Torment, torture, rack. ^.u£ad ishkandan={jz~~£*\ ishkastan, q.v. ushku, dshkri, ishkri, A roof; a layer or row in the covering of a house.
rishkub, ashkrib, A ceiling, a stage, a storey ; a row of bricks in a wall ; a row or layer in the roofing of a house; heaven ; nshkrib, The elbow; a cubit.
ishkokh, A trip, stumble, slip, blunder; imp. of the following.
Ishkokhidan. To slip, slide, fall. ushkufa, Vomiting; a flower,
nshkoh, Majesty, authority, greatness.
66 )
i ifiq&d ushkriha, A$£ad nshkvha, A belch, I hiccup.
J-£ad ishkil, A horse right forefoot and left hind-foot are white ; fraud, i craft, imposture.
p-zx* ^J^Xad ishkil chashum, A kind of bramble.
^y^^ad ishkewdn, Name of a place.
ashkyud, Compounded, mixed. *Jj£ad ashgarf, Agreeable, excellent; ishgarf, Large, coarse, thick; dignity, pomp.
ishguft, The expanding of a
ashganish, ishganish, The building of a wall.
(J^\ rishgun, Name of a country.
dshgtina, ushgftna, Inverted, upside down ; perverted ; sinister; unfortunate.
dshguy, A palace; an upper room; an elevated place.
a ashall, One who has a disjointed,
I withered, or paralytic hand, j ishm (for ishtim), Breeches.
a asliamm, High-nosed ; grave, dig-I nified, respectable.
a ^Lad islands (v.n. 4 of ^*4.), Being bright and sunshiny (day).
a £Lad ishmril (v.n. 4 of £*^), Giving good light (a candle).
JLa\ dshmdli, The flattery of sycophants ; cuckoldom ; panderism.
a fl*d ishmrim (v.n. 4 of ^A), Diffusing odour, shedding perfume; giving to a quiescent consonant a slight sound (or scent) of zamma or kasra, but not so as to lengthen the syllable, or make one syllable more.
a ^l^a^ad ishmikhrdr (v.n. 4 of ;as^), Being tall and lofty.
a J*d ashmal, More or most perfe.t, j complete, universal, comprehensive, surpassing, transcendent; larger, largest. g L,^*ad ashmusd, A species of merow. dshamid, A draught. ashamidan = (jjJ^ksdf q.v. a j!y£*ad ishmVzdz (v.n. 4 of j*UA), Being affrighted ; creeping (as the skin does with terror).
ashan, A turned vest; an unripe
dshnd, A friend, companion, comrade, acquaintance ; swimming, floating ; a swimmer;dshnd u begdna, Known and unknown, friends and strangers, i Lad ashnd, A gem, precious stone; a swimmer; swimming.
dshndb, ishnab, Swimming, natation.
jb Lad dshna-bdz, A swimmer.
Lad dshnd-bdzi, Swimming, natation, jly*? ashnd-bezar, Who does no longer care for his acquaintances, j kad[ dshnd-parast, Friendly.

( 67
dshnO.d, The 25th day of the month.
^Sp) ashnd-ruy, Known by sight, a
a slight acquaintance.
La^ ashnd-zada, Tired of ones acquaintances and turning to strangers.
ishndftan, To understand, perceive.
dshndgar, A swimmer. ushndn, ishndn, The herb alkali, and the ashes which are made from it, with which they wash clothes and the hands after eating,ushnanddrd, Hyssop. i
dshnav, Swimming, natation.
jjLa^ dshndwar, A swimmer.
dshndh, The art of swimming, natation ; a swimmer.
dshnaydn, Acquaintances. dshnd'T, Friendship, acquaintance ;
ashnal dadan (shindsdndan), To give signs of recognition, to make oneself known to each other as acquaintances, after intercourse having been interrupted.
a &\ ashna, More or most hideous ; filthy, foul, odious, disagreeable.
ashnaivad, Name of the second of the five days added to the last month of the Persian year, in order to make their twelve months, of 30 days each, equal to a solar year.
ushniidan ( = shunudan, q.v.),
To hear, SAyju] ishnusha, Sneezing.
dishna = sLaT q.v. ;ashna, Immature ;ushna, Alkali; moss which grows on trees.
£)Juja! ishntdan ( = (^j^a shinldan, q.v.),
To hear, &c.
dshu (for ashub), Calamity, hurt, trouble.
ashu (in Zand and Pazand), Heavenly.
a Mja! ashwdt (pi. of shaut), Turns, rounds.
a csJljM askwdk (pi. of shank), Thorns ; ishwdk (v.n. 4 of ), Abounding in thorns.
dshob, Terror, dread, fear; grief, affliction, misfortune; confusion, discord, disturbance, tumult, riot, sedition; (in comp.) disturbing; a poker, a coal-rake.
dshob-angez, An exciter of discord.
ashobtar, More grievous. dshob-gah, A place of terror, disturbance, confusion.
dshob-gustar, Spreading terror, an instigator of sedition, &c.
d8hobndk, Terrified, confused, who brings about confusion.
dshobldan, To be confused ; disturbed.
dshor, Imper. of the following.
dshordan, To mix, mingle, inter-
) U1
mix, join, associate, couple, conjoin; to ferment.
a ash was, One who contracts his
eyes and knits his brow from pride ; bold, brave.
£yAd dshogh, ushogh. Of unknown family or country.
dshoftagl, Disquietude, uneasiness.
dshoftan, To be disturbed.
Axiyfid Oshofta, Disturbed in mind
Aad usha, Gum ammoniac (see a ot^A\ ashhad (pi. of shahid), Witnesses, eye-witnesses ;is Jihad (v.n. 4 of *V), Citing, summoning; taking to witness ; adducing as evidence; bringing proof.
a ashhab, Whitish or ash-coloured,
dun-coloured, grey ; cold, frosty (dry).
a a$a! ashhadu, I bear witness, I testify,
I declare ;ashhad dmadan, To testify, to bear witness to.
a ashliar, More or most celebrated,
known, notorious ;ashhur (pi. of shahr), Months.
a JifAd ashhal, Grey-eyed.
a ashhd, More desirous, or desir-
dshiyd (for dshiydn\ Nest, <&c. ; (for dsha) Like.
a bLa\ ashydy (pi. of shay), Things, clothes, effects, chattels.
a £La1 ashyd* (pi. of shay1), Parts, quantities ;(pi. of shVat) Companions, equals, peers; followers, dependants.
ashydfi mdm'isd, Poppy-juice. ashy an (S. dsana), ashy ana,
A nest; a ceiling, roof;ashy an bastan (sdkhtan. kardan, girijtau, nihddan), To build a nest.
dshib, Terror; affliction; confusion. dshej, Opposite, adverse, contrary. dshlgdh, A privy. dshin, A cook ; a baker. dshlna, An egg.
dshiha, ashtha, The neighing of a horse ; echo.
a isabat (v.n. 4 of s-j-), Overtaking, reaching, arriving at, finding, discovering, meeting with, obtaining; speaking properly, conceiving well, hitting the mark.
A g)Ul asabi (pi. of asba), asdb'd
(pi. of usbid), Fingers asdbiH zainab, A kind of sweetmeats;asdbi snfr, Turmeric ;asdbi firlavn, Name of a kind of pearl, or stone like a finger, found in the Red Sea.
a asdghir, asdghirat (pi. of
asghar), Smaller, less; little, mean, contemptible, poor.
a asdlat (v.n. of J-cl), Being firmly rooted, steady, immovable; firmness, constancy, solidity of judgment; genuineness, integrity ; essentiality, nobleness.

Ul ( 68 ) ~,l
a asdlatan, Originally ; radically ;
firmly ; entirely ; absolutely ; in ones own right; personally.
a asbah (pi. of subh), Dawns, daybreaks, mornings;isbdh (v.n 4 of £<-), Coming, doing anything, early in the morning; changing from one state into another.
a asbdfjh (pi. of sibgh), Colours,
tinctures, dyes.
a isbahan = q.v.
a asbah, Of a handsome face ; a tear-
ing lion ; red-coloured ; name of a king of Yam an.
a asbahi, Referring to King Asbah
(see above aud taziyana).
a asba, isba\ A finger; a good sign.
a asbagh, White-tailed ; having a
white forehead (horse); name of an intimate companion of All.
isbahan = q.v.
a go\ asahh, More or most true or authentic ; more or most accurate, correct, sound, or healthy.
a ashab (pi. of sahib), Lords,
possessors, masters; grandees, disciples, apostles ;ashdbi ddab, Well-bred, learned men ; scholars ;ashdbi akhbiyah u khiydm. Dwellers in pavilions and tents;ashdbi iUibdr, Esteemed, confidential, honourable men ;ashdbi bidai u zalalat, Innovators, deviating from the right path;ashdbi tadbir, Sage ministers, prudent counsellors ; ashdbi iawdrlkh. Historians, writers of chronicles ; ashdbi jdh, Emiuent, possessed of dignity ;ashdbi jahim, Inhabitants of hell; ashdbi daulat, Grandees, nobles, great men, ministers ;ashdbi ri-wdyat, Historians ;ashdbi suyuf, (Soldiers) possessed of swords, swordsmen ; ashdbi ilm, Learned men, scholars, literary men ; ashdbi fuhum, Intelligent, sagacious, endowed with understanding ; ashdbi qisas, Historians, masters of history ; ashdbi kibar, The great companions, the four immediate successors of Muhammad ; ashdbi kahf, The companions of the cave, l.e. the seven sleepers ;ashdbi guzin, The chosen friends, the companions of Muham mad ;ashdbi minqal, Friends assembled by the fireside; ashdbi nifaq, Impious liars, hypocrites, infidels.
a^a*1 isdar (v.n. 4 of Producing, issuing, causing to emanate; publishiug; appearing.
A asddgh (pi. of sudgh)T The
temples, that part of the face from the eyes to the ears; the hair that flows around the temples.
a asddf (pi. of sadaf), Shells,
shell-fish, pearls.
a jla-! isddq (v.n. 4 of ja^), Giving (a woman) her dowry.
a jjxol asdaq, More or most true or veracious, truer, truest.
a ASju>! asdiqd' (pi. of sadiq), True friends.
a yo\ asr (v.n.), Breaking ; inclining ; binding; keeping back, detaining ;isr, A compact, convention, treaty, agreement; a burden, load, weight.
isrdr (V.n. 4 of }-), Persevering, persisting in ; perseverance, persistency ; obstinacy, stubbornness ;israr kardan, To insist, persist, to be obstinate.
a isrdf (v.n. 4of ^/), Expenditure; vaste, extravagance; prodigality.
A asram (pi. of sarm, for P. charm). Leathers, skins ;isram (v.n. 4 of f/), Being poor, destitute ; being the season for gathering dates.
a cLL! istibah (v.n. 8 of ^), Taking a morning draught.
a i§tibar (v.n. 8 of ;**>), Being patient; patience.
a istibagh (v.n. 8 of £*-), Dyeing,
staining; dipping, immersion ; baptism.
g IfLel ustubbat, Hemp, tow, bards, oakum.
g istabl, A stable, stall;i§tabli
dawdbb, A stable; a cow-house.
yiistakhr. The ancient name of Per-sepoli^; a lake, pool.
g y\ustur, A pound troy, a troy balance.
istarakhf A lake, a pool; Persepolis. tilj**\ astarak (G. g fijLed ustur a, A troy balance. a istifa* (v.n 8 of **-), Choosing,
electing, s?lecting.
a cjUhcl istifaf (v.n. 8 of -*-), Being drawn up in a row, set in array.
a istifaq (v.n. 8 of <3*-), Being
struck and sounded (chords of a lyre) ; being shaken by the wind (tree). g istaflin, A carrot.
g astafi, Liquid storax.
g astafin, A carrot.
a istikdk (v.n. 8 of Striking;
clashing, tossing to and fro ;istikdlfi. zand kardan, To strike fire by friction.
a eSd&ol istilah (v.n. 8 of Being re-
conciled ; phraseology, phrase, idiom ; technical term, terminology ; cant, slang.
a istildhat (pi. of the preceding),
Forms of speech ; idioms; technicalities.
a istildhif Technical, conven-
A istildm (v.n. 8 of ^h), Eradicating.
a istinai (v.n. 8 of £*-), Receiving or bestowin g a favour ; choosing, selecting for any special purpose ; favour; selection. g u§tur, A troy balance. a istiy&d (v.n. 8 of a*), Hunting. a vjU#! isdq (v.n. 4 of (J**), Casting fire

fvom heaven; causing to die; causing to swoon.
a isyha9 (v.n. 4 of j**), Hearing,
listening to, lending an ear.
a asghar, Less, least, smaller, small-
est ; little, small, contemptible. a asaf, The caper-tree or root. a i?foh (v.n 4 of £*-), Refusing a petitioner; making broad ; inclining.
aoU^I asfad (pi. of safad), Chains, fetters, bonds; presents;isfad (v.n. 4 of Jju>)) Binding; making a present, giving, bestowing.
asfar (pi. of sifr), Ciphers ;isfdr (v.n. of *a), Being poor, empty-handed.
a isfdq (v.n. 4 of &*>), Shutting the door; milking cattle only once a day ; progressing, proceeding.
p c*bU>\Al isfahdnak, One of the twelve modes of music.
a asaf bin barkhiya. Name of
a sage supposed by the Arabians to have been Solomons grand wazlr, hence proverbially used for any wise counsellor. a 6W- asaf-jah, Dignified as Asaf. ajAol asfar, Yellow, pale, livid; saffron-coloured ; black; more or most empty; with a shrill note (bird).
a asaf-ray, A wise counsellor
like Asaf; distinguished by prudence or wisdom.
Isfahan, A capital of Persia. isfahsalar, A general. a J5M asfd, More or most pure; clear, serene.
a oLAo) a$fiya (pi. of safiy), The pure, the j ust, the holy ; saints.
g isqil, A shrimp, a prawn; a
A asl, Root, stock, origin, principle, foundation, element, source, cause ; lineage, race, line, birth, family ; nobility, honour ; capital, principal, sum, stock in trade; an original, archetype, prototype, exemplar; an original copy (of a work or document) ; a radical letter;asli harf, The bottom of the question, the main point;asli kitdb, The original of a book, the first copy ;asl ma'i sud, Principal and interest;asli manzu'a, A postulate ;asl u far1, Root and branch; cause and effect.
a Xol aslan, Not at all, by no means, never, in no shape (used with negative).
a isldh (v.n. 4 of ^), Fitting, adapting ; amending, correcting, restoring, adjusting, improving; dressing or trimming (hair, beard); preparing, dressing (meat) ; tuning (a musical instrument) ; isldh kardan, To repair, to mend ;islah ydftan, To be or become repaired, mended, improved ; ba-isldh dwardan, To improve, to reform (in.c.).
£%e\ ifldh-pagir, Capable of correction or remedy ; corrigible, remediable*
69 )
t which the lands (in India) were first charged in the books of the Emperor Ak-bar, exclusive of all additions and impositions made since by'the Government.
a aslah, Better, best; more or most
correct, fine; most advisable.
a asl-darani pak, Holy men,
saints; prophets.
a asl-sada, Nobly-born, high-bred.
a asla\ Bald.
asl-qimat, Prime cost. a J-sl asl-nam, Real name (opp. to *uff9 alias).
a J-cl asl-naf, Net profit. a asli, Radical, original, essential,
principal; intrinsic, inherent, innate ; real, true, genuine; pure, unalloyed; of good stock, noble, full-bred ;asli zamin, Original land (not alluvial) ;asli qimat, Original value or price; cost price.
a asliyan (P. pi.), Nobles, gentle-
a asliyat, Originality ; genuineness ;
a p+\ asamm, Deaf ; surd (in arithmetic); a snake that will not be charmed; a hard stone.
A Wol isma (v.n. 4 of <^c)i Knocking down and killing (game) on the spot; champing the bit (a horse).
a fU-A ismdm (v.n. 4 of /**), Becoming, making, or discovering one to be deaf.
a isma1, Small-eared; sharp (sword); brisk, keen, acute, active (mind) ; high, elevated ; astonished, bewildered.
a asnaf (pi. of sinf), Forms, kinds,
sorts, species, varieties ; subjects, peasants; guilds, corporations ;asnafi khalq, All sorts of people (m.c.);asnafi qabail, Various tribes ;asnafi mukhtalifa. Different sorts, varieties.
A asnam (pi. of sanam), Images,
idols; statues ;asndmi chin, The images of China (metaphorically implying the handsome of either sex).
A isndn (v.n. 4 of &*), Tossing the nose, looking proud, disdainful; smelling, emitting a stench under the arm-pits.
a aswat (pi. of saut), Voices,
sounds, noises; interjections.
a aswab, Better, best, straighter,
A Jy-1 usul (pi. of asl), Roots, origins, fundamentals; essentials ; elements, first principles ; causes, general laws ; doctrines, tenets; breeding, manner; a musical mode or tone ;usuli fdkhtah. Name of a musical note ;usuli asharat, The ten primary intelligences first created by God;usul u furii*, Root6 and branches; first principles and deductions therefrom ; causes and

&* I ( 70
effects ; ascent and descent in kindred, ancestors and posterity.
A ashar (pi. of sihr), Relations by marriage (within the prohibited degrees) ;
ishar (v.n. 4 of Being thus related.
A asll, Well-born, thorough-bred;
of good stock, high pedigree, noble family ; game (cock) ; gentle, free from vice ; high-spirited; well-founded, solid (glory).
a (jol azz (v.n.), Causing difficulty and trouble (a-thing) ; compelling (poverty) ; breaking ; longing for, seeking her nest (an ostrich) ;izz, Root, origin.
a izciat (v.n. 4 of *Ay), Shining, lightening, flashing; kindling, illuminating, causing to shine.'
a i:dzt A sanctuary, asylum, place
of refuge.
a izdat (v.n. 4 of £~*), Ruining,
destroying, wasting, squandering; having a number of farms or fields (zai'at).
a izafat, izdfa (v.n. 4 of <-&**>), Adding, joining, annexation; increase, augmentation, increment; surplus, excess; stipend, scholarship; (in gram.) construction of one noun with another, the relation of the genitive case or the addition of an adjective, expressed by joining Kas-rah to the governing noun.
a izdjt, Constructive, relative.
a izjdi (v.n. 4 of £^>), Making one
recline upon his side ; giving to fatkah a sound inclining to kasrah.
a csJUsAl izhdk (v.n. 4 of d^), Making to laugh.
a uzhukat, A ridiculous thing, jest,
joke, laughable affair.
a uzhiyat, A sheep offered on the
festival called uli azhd.
a azdcld (pi. of zidd), Contraries,
opposites, opponents.
A azarr, More or most hurtful, injurious.
a azrdb (pi. of zarb), Similars ;
izrdb (v.n. 4 of w^>), Leading (a camel) to cover; staying, stopping; hanging down the head ; turning away from anyone.
a azrdr (pi. of zara/r), Hurts, harms, injuries \izr0.r (v.n. 4 of '?*), Harming, hurting, injuring; taking a second wife over the head of the first (thus injuring her) ; approaching very near; taking the bit between his teeth and biting it (a horse) ; showing speed, running.
A £V' izrd* (v.n. 4 of Zj*), Giving milk a little while before the birth ; humbling, distressing.
A rV' izrdm (v.n. 4 of fj*), Inflaming, burning, setting on fire.
A (v.n. 4 of y)} Champing the
a irfJb'V (v.n. 8 of £*-b), Passing a
cloak, robe, or scarf under the right arm and over the left shoulder, thus leaving
) U1
bare the right and covering the left shoulder.
a iztijd (v.n. 8 of £^), Bying on
ones side.
a iztirdb (v.n. 8 of *r^)> Agita-
tion, perturbation, commotion; anxiety, anguish, trouble; perplexity, restlessness, distraction ; precipitation ; flurry ; construed with the verbs afgandan, baridan, dadan, ddshtan, rekhtan, kardan and kashl-dan ;iztirdbu l-habl, Discordance and diversity of opinions.
a iztirdbl, Agitation, hurry, impa-
tience ; precipitation.
k iztirdr (v.n. 8 of ^>), and
iztirdri, Violence, necessity, compulsion ; restraint.
a iztirdm (v.n. 8 of Blazing. a iztildBeing strong, powerful. a azldf (pi. of zi/), Similars,
equals; double, as much more, double the quantity, the same thing over again ;izaf (v.n. 4 of '-A*-*), Doubling, duplication; receiving twice as much, a double share ; weakening, rendering infirm.
a az'af, More or most weak, help-
less, impotent.
a Cizahds (pi. of zighs), Handfuls
(of herbs, part green and part dry);az-ghdsu l-ahldm, Confused dreams which cannot be interpreted.
a azghan (pi. of ziahn). Hatreds.
a azall, More or most astray ; more
or most tending to lead astray.
a azld1 (pi. of zil, zila), Ribs ;izla1 (v.n. 4 of Causing to incline and preponderate ; bearing a heavy load.
a izldl (v.n. 4 of J-*), Causing to err, leading astray ; leaving in error; concealing, burying;izldli hdl, A ruined situation ;izldl kardan, To ruin, disgrace.
a azam (v.n.), Being angry and hating; anger, hatred;izam, Name of a mountain and valley near Madinah.
a izmdr (v.n. of Hiding, con-
cealing in ones heart; thinking, planning, hatching in the mind; feeding sparingly for training purposes ; silencing the second letter of a metrical foot.
a izmihldl (v.n. 4 of J^*-£>),
Vanishing, disappearing.
a azwd1 (pi. of zau')f Lights, splendours.
a <-*W*A azydf (pi. of zaif), Guests. a ,3*-^ a?yaq, Narrower, straiter.
U=A at a (G. Irta), The white poplar. a &VU itdbat (v.n. 4 of s-*k), Making beautiful, fragrant, soft, sweet, or delicate; cleaning or shaving the body Musulman fashion.
a ifdhat (v.n. 4 of Cjk), Destroying (property), ruining ; throwing about. a itdat [(v.n. 4 of £jh), Obeying;

obedience, submission, surrender, subjection ; subordination, fealty, loyalty, allegiance ; observance, reverence, worship, homage; obsequiousness; izhtiri itd'at Jcardan, To offer obedience, to surrender, to submit.
a itiVaUqari, Obedience to a com-
mand, submission.
t jtU utdq, Room, chamber, cabin; chamber furniture (m.c.) ;utaqi pazird, Reception saloon (m.c.) ;utaqi khalwat, A private apartment, cabinet (m.c.) ;utaqi sufra, Dining-room (m.c.). (See jU^b) a itdlat (v.n. 4 of Jyb), Prolonging, extending, lengthening out; extension; prolixity.
atdliq, A master, guardian, governor.
a it am, utdm, A strangury. a itibba (pi. of tabib), Physicians. a gLU atbd1 (pi.of taba*), Seals; natures, dispositions ;(pi. of fib*) Rivers.
a itra (v.n. 4 of ^), Praising immoderately ; hyperbole, exaggeration.
a s-djM it rob (v.n. 4 of s-^), Exhilara- I ting, producing joy.
a atrdbnlus, Tripoli in Syria.
a ittirah (v.n. 8 of tf), Throwing away, putting to a distance.
a ittirdd (v.n. 8 of o^L), Being in good train (business).
a itrdr (v.n. 4 of Jk), Irritating, instigating ; sprouting, coming forth.
a at rdf (pi. of taraf), Sides, dis-
tricts, tracts, coasts, shores, environs, confines, skirts, extreme parts; ends, tips ; limits, boundaries; the nearest kinsmen (as fathers, brothers, uncles, a atrafl, Extreme, outer, outlying,
a jfljU itrdq (v.n. 4 of 3^), Lending or hiring out (a male animal to cover a female); keeping silence; hanging the head; following each others footsteps, going one after another. a utrush, Deaf.
otrisJi, Austria (m.c. from Fr. Autriche).
A itrifal (S. triphalld), A myro-
a JAjjU dtrildl, atnldl, Crow-foot. a fUU it;dm (v.n. 4 of ,**b), Feeding, giving victuals.
a ut'imat, aVima (pi. of fa* dm),
Meats, victuals, viands;at'ima'i naflsah, Exquisite meats, dainties.
a oUU itgha (v.n. 4 of ^>), Seducing, leading into error; making exorbitant or
apUU iff a (v.n. 4 of ^), Extinguish-
ing, quenching; extinction;iff a Jcardan,
| To extinguish.
j a JbkU atfdl (pi. of tid), Infants, children, boys, offspring, family; (in P. also used for wife, being considered more j respectful than a itld* (v.n. 4 of £&), Manifesting, informing, putting in possession of a secret;
I vomiting; putting forth buds or the spathes (a palm-tree) ; shooting or throwing beyond the mark ;ittild* (v.n. 8 of £^), Being aware, knowing; inspecting viewing exa-filming ; notice, information ;ittild* bit dun, ittild* ddshtan, To be informed ;ittild* Jcardan {dadan), To inform;ittild* u shu*ur Jcardan, To examine and animadvert upon.
a ittild* an, For the purpose of in-
a ittild*at (pi. of ittild*), Know-
ledge acquired by study and inquiry (m.c.).
a ittild* l, That gives intimation or
information; for the purpose of announcing, apprising, or giving notice.
a itldq (v.n 4 of a atldl (pi. of talal), Bodies, substances ; ruins of a house;itldl (v.n. 4 of
Jb), Being at the point of, impending; permitting blood to be shed unrevenged.
a atlas, Red tending to black, dun-colour ; satin.
a atlas!, A eunuch (black).
A atm (v.n.), Being enraged ;utum, A fortress of stone; any square edifice, with a flat roof.
bUU at mat, An Indian filbert-nut; an Indian bean.
a itmd* (v.n. 4 of £!>), Exciting a
strong desire, incitement; longing, covetousness.
at mat = bUU q.v.
g atmJsd, Southernwood; mug-
a uLiuU itmVndn (v.n. 4 of gjUb), Reposing, resting; rest, tranquillity, repose, content, quiet, security, peace ; confidence, reliance, trust, surety, guarantee;itmV-ndni kbdtir. Peace of mind itmVnun dadan, To give an assurance ;itmVndn ydftan, To be set at ease.
a w>UU atndb (pi. of tv nub), Tent-ropes ; ifndb (v.n. 4 of '"b), Lengthening ones speech, amplifying a discourse; sublimity of style; prolixity, bombast, hyperbole. g at an ah, Athens.
aj'jM at war (pi- of taur), Times, turns, ways ; manners, modes, fashions ; dealings,

mode of business; atwari hamlda, Praiseworthy actions ;atwari siyah, Black or wicked actions ; atwari nd-hamwdr, Unworthy actions. I
a at war an, Occasionally.
atwarin, A mountainous island in the ocean inhabited by the Jinn. a £yU atwa*, More or most obedient. a JjU atwal, Longer, longest. a 'SjM atwalan, Prolixly, tediously. a athiir (pi. of tuhr), Purities ;(pi. j of tdhir) Clear, pure, chaste, unsullied, clean ;ithdr (v.n. 4 of y&), Purifying ; purification.
A at liar y More or most pure.
a atyab, Better, best, more or most sweet, fragrant, delicate, pleasant, delightful ;(du.) atyabdn, The two delights, j Ceres and Venus, or youth and gay spirits, i
a atit (v.n. of td), Making a creak- i ing noise (the saddle of a camel); the j rattling of the belly (from hunger); the murmuring of a camel from fatigue; the rustling of a palm-tree. atytit. = q.v.
A izrdf (v.n. 4 of -Jjh), Bringing
forth ingenious, witty children.
a jVaM azfar (pi. of zufr), Nails, claws, hoofs; certain small stars in front of the constellation of the eagle;izfar (v.n. 4 of y&), Making conqueror, enabling one to triumph, or to attain his object.
a y&\ azfar, Possessed of long and broad nails.
A J*U azlal (pi- of zill), Shadows ;
izldl (v.n. 4 of Jk), Shading, casting a shadow; approaching.
a izlam (v.n. 4 of Growing
dark ; walking in darkness ; being bright (the front teeth) ; meeting with oppression.
a azlam, More or most unjust, tyrannical, oppressive ; la'ana *llah azjami iva azlamak, May God curse the more unjust of me and thee !
a izhdr (v.n. 4 of ^k), Revealing, discovering ; manifestation, disclosure, publication ; declaration, statement; police information; examination of a witness, deposition, evidence, written testimony ; izhari tahriri, Deposition in writing, written testimony (opp. to izhari zabaniy Oral deposition or testimony;izhari khusumat kar-dan, To show enmity, become an open enemy ;izhari fir dr kardan, To make a feigned retreat, to appear to fly ;izhdr nu-mudan, To show off, to display (m.c.).
a izharsaldmi, A complimen-
tary (but illegal) fee paid to the writer of a deposition.
a izhdr-namah, Notification, an-
nouncement ; manifesto,
a court who takes down depositions.
a azhar, More or most clear, bright, evident; azhar mina sh-shams, Clearer than the sun.
a a'djim (pi. of ajam), Barbarians (those who cannot speak Arabic, or speak it incorrectly; but more particularly the Persians).
a a*ajib (pi. of u'jubat), Miracles,
wonders, prodigies.
A i'adat, ildda (v.n. 4 of *Jyfc),
Causing to return, bringing back; repetition, reiteration, revision; reversion ; visiting the sick;i'adat kardany To repeat, to relate.
a a(adi (pi. of iaduw)i Enemies,
a idzat (v.n. of Taking 'under ones protection ; saving, defending. a ildrat (v.n. 4 of j^), Lending. a aazim (pi. of alzam), Great, chief, principal; the highest, the lofty ;alazimi salatini muslimdni, The greatest of Muslim princes.
a i'ulat (v.n. 4 of JyO, Being or becoming poor; lessening the shares in dividing an inheritance ;(v.n. 4 of J*c) Having a numerous family ; keeping a large establishment or household.
a s-A* JUd a1 ali-ma*ab, Of exalted deeds. a i'dnat (v.n. 4 of oy*), Aiding, assisting; assistance, help, aid, succour; favour, countenance, patronage.
a aba (pi. of lib'), Burdens, loads, bales (of merchandise).
a itaq (v.n. 4 of <3^), Setting at liberty, bestowing freedom, giving leave ; liberation, manumission, emancipation.
a fAxfc! i(tam (v.n. 4 of (***), Entering on the first division of the night, commencing after sunset; doing anything during that time; being slow and tardy ; desisting or causing one to desist from an undertaking.
a oLjtfd i'tibad (v.n. 8 of a-jc), Reducing to slavery or servitude; receiving as a servant.
a itibar (v.n. 8 of j**), Taking
counsel; taking an example or warning, and profiting by it; confidence, faith, belief; esteem, honour, reverence, veneration, respect ; credit, authority, credibility; weight, importance-;i'tibdr dashtan, To have confidence in (m.c.) ;i'tibar giriftan, To take an example or warning ;az itibar uftddan, To lose credit, to lose ones character (m.c.) ; az itibar andakhtan, To throw out of circulation (coin, m.c.) ;ba 1aini i(tibdr, With the eye of esteem, respectfully.
i'tibar-nama, Credentials. a iltibdri, Of credit, creditable,
trustworthy, worthy of confidence, credible; reputable; confidential, trusty.

uuC 1
( 78 )
a 1W^ itibdt (y.n. 8 of W*), slaughtering an unblemished (camel).
a Vtida' (v.n. 8 of )**), Tr ans-
gressing, being iniquitous, unjust; injustice.
a S\x&\ itidad (v.n. 8 of ac), Counting, numbering; being in the state of probation Qiddat) of a divorced woman or widow.
a i'tidal (v.n. 8 of J*^), Being
middling, moderate, just, or even; temperateness, moderation; evenness, equality, equilibrium, symmetry ; the happy mean ; frugality, temperance, sobriety; a state (of health, &c.) in which the four humours are well balanced, sound health ;i'tidali hawd, The temperature or salubrity of the air; i'tidal kardan, To temperate, moderate ; bar tidal, Of middle height (stature).
a iHiddli = the preceding; also
adjective formed from it, as moderate, symmetrical, &c.
a iHizar (v.n. 8 of ;**), Apology,
excuse ;i'tizar kardan, To excuse, make an apology.
a i'tizdr-nama, A letter of apo-
a iHizari, One who apologizes;
A i(tira (v.n. 8 of )f), Coming
upon, down upon, over one; desiring, seeking.
a <>1^ i'tiraz (v.n. 8 of Opposi-
tion ; refusing assent, objection ; criticism, animadversion, strictures, fault-finding, cavilling; displeasure;i'tirdzi zdbit,ah, A technical objection.
a wwUljSc! iHirazat (pi. of the preceding), Oppositions.
a iHirdzi, Objectingf one who
objects, a i'tiraf (v.n. 8 of Confess-
ing, acknowledging, avowing ; iHiraf awardan, i'tirdf dashtan, To avow, to acknowledge.
a sslljxc! i'tirdk (v.n. 8 of df), Pressing one upon another, gathering, assembling.
a *\y&\ iHiza* (v.n. 8 of ), Claiming relationship.
mV*' iHizaz (v.n. 8 of y*), Priding oneself upon, esteeming oneself ennobled by ; prevalence, excellence.
a JUset i'tizal (v.n. 8 of J>*), Separating oneself from the rest, secession, dissent, schism ; withdrawing from office, abdication, resignation.
a iHisar (v.n. 8 of j*), Compel-
ling, forcing, using violence.
A cr*\i'tisds (v.n. 8 of ijr*), Going the nightly round, patrolling.
a i'tisdf (v.n. 8 of -*-*), Stray-
ing, deviating from the right way; oppression, injury.
a iHuhash (v.n. 8 of <>*), Laying
in a small quantity of provisions.
a jhaxa\ i'tisar (v.n. 8 of j-*e), Squeezing, expressing (juice), withholding property; extorting money ; taking refuge.
a fUasc! iHisam (v.n. 8 of ^-*c), Preserving oneself from sin, abstaining from what is sinful or unlawful; laying firm hold of ;i'tisdm kardan, To grip, to seize and hold fast.
a i'tizad (v.n. 8 of *x-ic), Begging
assistance; taking or putting under the arm.
a itiqdd (v.n. 8 of Jtfc), Being very hard, firm, and strong ; believing; confidence, faith, belief, trust; dependence ; i'tiqad dashtan, i'tiqad kardan, To place confidence in, to believe.
a iHiqadat (pi. of the preceding),
Beliefs, &c.
a iHiqadi, Confidence, faith, trust;
one in whom faith is placed, trustworthy.
a i'tiqal (v.n. 8 of J*e), Being
bound, imprisoned; binding, imprisoning; carrying a spear between leg and saddle; twisting the legs between those of a sheep to steady it while milking or slaughtering it.
a iHikaf (v.n. 8 of <-*£*), Con-
tinuing in prayer, remaining constantly in the mosque; retirement, seclusion (in a place of worship); restraining ones passions from religious motives; constant devotions.
a Mila' (v.n. 8 of jl*), Raising,
elevating; height, elevation.
a i'tildf, The eating of provender.
a i*tildq (v.n. 8 of <3!*), Being attached, devoted to, loving ; being tied to.
a Jlscl i'tilal (v.n. 8 of Jc), Being weak, sickly, ailing; seeking for or adducing a pretext; turning (a man from a resolution), diverting (him) from (his) design.
a oU-xl i'timdd (v.n. 8 of *<*), Leaning, depending, relying upon, trusting or committing oneself (to anything) ; faith, confidence, trust; dependence, reliance; a support, prop;i'timdd kardan, To rely. a i'timad-ndma, Credentials.
a i'timddi, Worthy of confidence ;
reliable, trustworthy.
a jUicl itimdr (v.n. 8 of ;*), Visiting, frequenting; performing the umrah or lesser pilgrimage; putting on a turban (Hmdrat).
a i'timaJ, (v.n. 8 of J**), Doing
anything oneself; being constantly at work.
a iHimam (v.n. 8 of j**), Putting
on a turban (imdmod).
a iHimid (by Imalah for i'timad),
a oUact i'tind? (v.n. 8 of Taking
pains, looking after, managing; anxiety, care ; attention, study, labour.
a jUxel iHinaz (v.n. 8 Declining,

( 74 )
turning to one side; travelling far, from j place to place.
a i'lindq (v.n. 8 of <3-^0, Throwing
the arms round one anothers neck (in j friendship or in combat).
a jlycl i'tiwur (v.n. 8 of ;y*), Borrowing 1 from one another.
a i'tiyad (v.n. 8 of Ojc), Coming
back; making a habit or custom ; (in \ comp.) accustomed or addicted to, as dad-i'tiydd, Accustomed to justice ;masarrat-i'tiydd, Prone to joy.
a i'tiyds (v.n. 8 of yey), Being
difficult, intricate ; not holding to the male.
a i'tiydz (v.n. 8 of y^y), Accept-
ing a substitute, receiving an equivalent.
a i'tiydq (v.n. 8 of 3jc), Hindering,
preventing; holding back.
a {jab (v.n. 4 of '-^'^c), Causing
surprise ; giving pleasure; being pleased, infatuation.
a a'jdz (pi. of ajuz, &c.), The
hinder parts, the buttocks ;i'jdz (v.n. 4 of >^c), Rendering or finding weak ; disappointment ; wonder, astonishment, amazement, surprise ; a miracle ;djdzi masihi, A miraculous cure, equalling those wrought by the Messiah.
i'jdz-war, Who performs miracles, does wonderful things.
a i*j(il (v.n. 4 of j*). Accelera-
ting, stimulating, urging, investigating.
a i'jdm (v.n. 4 of f^c), Marking a
consonant with diacritical points ; speaking or writing Arabic incorrectly.
a y+t\ a'jaz, More or "most impotent; large about the buttocks.
a a'Ja/, Thin, lean, meagre.
a a'jam, One who speaks Arabic
without elegance.
a a*jamb,, A barbarian, one who
does not speak Arabic.
a u'jubat, u'jdbah, A miracle, a
prodigy, a wonderful thing.
a u'jubayi, Playfulness, frolic-
a oWl a'du' (pi. of 'aduw), Enemies ; a'du'i daulat, Enemies of the State ;a'du'i din, Enemies of the faith.
a jUI a'ddd (pi. of adad), Numbers (a'dadi mutabd'in, Incommensurable numbers, prime numbers ;a'dadi mutaddkhil. Concordant numbers ;a'dddi jnutamdsil, Like or equal numbers;a'dddi mutawdfiq, Composite numbers) ;i'ddd (v.n. 4 of ac), Preparing, making ready ;i'dddi saman kardan, To count out money.
a fWl i'ddm (v.n. 4 of p^), Annihilating, destroying ; being wanting and not to be had; preventing.
a Jac\ a'dal, More or most just, equal, temperate;a'dali ashdb,. Most just of the companions ;a'dali said tin, Most equitable of kings.
a aldd, More or most hostile. a ^r>Ucl i(zdb (v.n. 4 of Torment-
A jlSel adz dr (pi. of *uzr), Excuses ; i(zdr (v.n. 4 of ;Sc), Excusing, making apologies, inventing excuses ; circumcising ; providing a feast on circumcising a child or finishing a house ; being very sinful, criminal, vicious; bridling (a horse) ; putting on the head-stall (izdr).
arab, Wild wandering Arabs; i'rab (v.n. 4 of vy), Speaking, reasoning i in Arabic; using shameful, indecent, and obscene language; inflecting, declining an an Arabic noun or verb; the vowels and diacritical points in Arabic.
a a.'rabi, An Arab of the desert.
a glyl irdj (v.n. 4 of ey), Making lame, crippling.
a a'ras (pi. of irs), Spouses, brides;
j dr as (v.n. 4 of y*y), Being a bridegroom, a bride; preparing a (marriage) feast; conjugal intercourse.
a y=>\yl a'rdz, Illness ; events, accidents; accidentals; bodies (a'rdzi jismaniyah, Corporeal faculties ;a'rdzi zdtiyah, Essential properties;a'rdzi ruhdniyah, Spiritual endowments) ;i'rdz (v.n. 4 of 1Sf), Turn, ing away the face, declining, shunning, avoiding, flying from, opposing; aversion, dislike ; appearing, being manifest; making broad; standing erect and presenting a good mark (a deer) ; bearing a child of a broad squat form ; castrating.
a a'rdf, The boundary between
Paradise and Hell, a kind of Purgatory which, according to Sadi, appears a hell to the blessed, and a heaven to the damned ; a sort of palm-tree; (pi. of 'urf) Crests, manes, combs of birds;i'rdf (v.n. 4 of <*-*y), Having a long mane.
a irdk (v.n. 4 of jy), Diluting wine with a little water; being rooted; shooting its roots in all directions (a tree) ; going into Irak.
a gyl a'raj, Lame by nature, lame, cripple from the birth ;tlmuri a'raj, Lame Timur (Tamerlane).
a a'raf, Thick-maned (horse) ; more
or most knowing or intelligent; more or most known, better or best known.
a'azz. More or most glorious; dearer, dearest.
i'zdz (v.n. 4 of y), Strengthening, | invigorating ; honouring ; magnifying ; i honour, esteem, respect, attention ; having the orifice of the teat very small (a camel or a sheep) ; having a painful conception and gestation (a cow) ; lighting upon hard ground ; being grieved and uneasy;i'zdz kardan, To honour, respect, revere.
a a'izzat, a'izza (pi. of azlz), Excellent, rare, incomparable, dear, precious, glorious, powerful,

j*1 (
A J>^ A man unarmed; a cloud
without rain; detached, separate (a star, also called sirnahi azal, in the constellation Virgo); (a horse) whose tail habitually inclines to one side.
A isdr (v.n. 4 of^c), Being poor, cl asar, More or most difficult.
a ashdr (pi. of ushr), Tenths ; de-cadi 8 of verses into which the Kuran is divided ; portions of slaughtered camels; the outside feathers in a birds wing; (a pot) broken in ten pieces; (met.) a broken heart (ashdri shardya, The ten commandments) ; ishdr (v.n. 4 of ?**), Being owner of tenths; being ten iu number (men).
a ashdsh (pi. of ushsh), Birds
nests built in trees ;ishush (v.n. 4 of
tj**c), Molesting auyone so as to oblige him to quit his habitation.
A ashd, Purblind; blind at night.
a asdb (pi. of asab), Nerves, ten-
dons, sinews.
a asar (pi. of asr), Ages, times
(saldtini asar, The monarchs of the times) ; isar (v.n. 4 or^ac), Becoming marriageable (a girl) ; entering upon the afternoon ; being near raining (a cloud) ; hurricanes, tornadoes.
A isam (v.n. 4 of ft**), Fastening a belt called isam round the mouth of a leathern bottle, by which it is closed or carried or hung up; fixing a loop or anything similar to a saddle, for the rider to lay hold of, and thus save himself when in danger of falling.
A asam, (A crow) with white feathers in the wings; (a stag) having white on either or both the fore-feet, ther rest of the body being black or red.
a o\-6cl azd (pi. of izw, uzw), Members, limbs;aza'i tandsul, Organs of generation; azd'i ra*isah, The principal members, the vital parts (the heart, brain, liver, testicles).
a izaz (v.n. 4 of ^ac), Striking
one (with a sword) ; feeding upon the prickly shrub uzz (camels) ; being possessed of such camels.
a \Lct %td* (v.n. 4 of jhfc), Giving, offering, bestowing, presenting.
a i'tdsh (v.n. 4 of u*^), Making
a atdf (pi. of atf), Favours, boun-
A (jjUacl a1 tan (pi. of atan), Places near wells where (camels) recline after drinking.
a f&c! i*zdm (v.n. 4 of (M), Magnifying, honouring, praising.
A fhc! azam, Greater, larger, bigger, greatest; superior, supreme; azami said-tini ifrim u akrami khawuqini kiram, The greatest of sovereign princes, and the most
75 ) ffr1
noble of noble kings ;waziri azam, The grand vazir.
a azamtar, Greater, bigger.
a i*fa* (v.n. 4 of y^), Granting im-1 munity or pardon.
a ijdf (v.n. 4 of Making one
to abstain (from things forbidden).
A aqab (pi. of aqib), Heels ; off-
springs, descendants, succeeding children ; iqdb (v.n. 4 of ^2*), Succeeding (as a son to his father) ; requiting.
a Joc\ aqaly More or most wise, prudent, or intelligent; bow-legged, distorted-legged.
a iZ (v.n. 4 of Exalting, elevating ; ascending ;ild kardan, To elevate.
a ildq (v.n. 4 of v3^), Suspending, hanging up; fixing the claws, Ac. into anything, attaching.
a didl (v.n. 4 of J*), Afflicting with any ailment or distemper (illat).
A ahnn (pi. of alam), Flags, standards, ensigns, colours, banderols, streamers, pennants; mountains ;ildm (v.n. 4 of Announcing, proclaiming, indicating, informing, teaching ; distinguishing oneself (in battle) ; distinction ; notification, proclamation, notice, citation, warrant; ildmi janq, Declaration of war ;ildni da dan, To give information ;didm kardan, To make proclamation, to announce ; marking cloth (as weavers, fullers, or bleachers) *
a ildm numah, A proclamation.
a ildn (v.n. 4 of gj^), Publishing, divulging,manifesting; publication,declaration, proclamation.
a alam, More or most learned; one who has a fissure in the upper lip;alldh a'lani, God knows best, God knows.
a add, Higher, highest, upper; of higher authority ; most exalted, supreme, paramount, pre-eminent; chief, principal ; ald'i illiijin, The summit of the seventh heaven.
ald-hazrat, His most exalted majesty (m.c.).
a aamm, More or most common, general, universal, concerning all.
a ima (v.n. 4 of ^*^)^ Making
a jUxl amdr (pi. of umr), Lives, lifetimes ;imdr (v.n. 4 of ^), Giving to one during life (a horse or an estate).
A JUrl amdl (pi. of \imal), Works, acts, labours (amdli pasandida, Approved works); imal (v.n. 4 of J^t), Causing or teaching to act or operate ; applying.
a amdl-ndniah, Register of ones
! actions, the book in which the deeds of men are supposed to be recorded.
A amdm (pi. of amm), Paternal
uncles ;imdm (v.n. 4 of fc), Having many paternal uncles.
a amash, Having watering eyes,
I dim-sighted.

t*' (
a ama, Blind ; a desert; ignorant. A o'-ad a'naq (pi. of unq, unuq), Necks ; princes, chiefs ;a'naqu r-rih, Particles of dust raised by the wind;indq (v.n. 4 of Ornamenting with a collar (a dogs neck) ; making a collar.
a <3-^1 anaq, Long-necked ; having anything suspended at the neck.
a 3^ iwdz (v.n. 4 of jyfc), Being indigent; impoverishing,reducing to poverty; being difficult.
A iWas (v.n. 4 of uof), Embarrassing, reducing (an opponent) to a nonplus, dumfounding.
A JV' iwal (v.n. 4 of JyO, Weeping aloud, wailing.
a ,.y\ a-wdm (pi. of am), Years ; times. a a1 wan (pi. of laun), Helpers,
allies, assistants, aiders.
a sjc! a'waj, Crooked, wry, distorted. a gW/d i'wijaj (v.n. 9 of gj*), Being crooked; crookedness, curvature, obliquity.
a jyz\ awar, One-eyed; a bad guide ; a road without sign-post ; a crow ; weak, timorous, pusillanimous; corrupt, bad (word or action) ; stupid; illegible (book) ; (a horseman) destitute of whip or switch ; one who has no brother germain ; disappointed and frustrated in the attainment of ones object.
a Vyd' (v.n. 4 of ^), Being wearied with travelling; fatiguing, tiring ; being or making difficult (business).
a a'yan (pi. of am), Eyes ; great
men ; grandees, nobles ; aydni daulat, (eyes of the State) Ministers ;a'ydnimum-kinat, The most excellent of creatures; a'ydni sdbitah, Figures emblematic of the names of God.
a a'ydni, Princely, grand; any-
thing in an emphatical manner, /car as barddari a(ydni, A uterine brother.
a alyan, One who has large or black
eyes ;a'yun (pi. under ten of am), Eyes.
agha, A great lord, nobleman, head, chief master, commander; a eunuch (as having the principal charge of the seraglio).
t a dahd-daldla (for dallala), A
woman who serves as a professional procuress to other women.
a ighdsat (v.n 4 of ^^), Bringing help, succouring; giving rain.
dgh dr, aghar, A sinking of mois-
ture into the ground; instigation, setting agaiust, inciting to fight; (imp. of aghdr-dan or agharldan. used in comp.) mixed, kneaded, moistened ; mixing, &c. ; excited, instigated ; (= ^\T) a vessel.
aghardnldan, To throw down; to
A SjVa! ighdrat (v.n. 4 of Coming into a low-lying hollow country (called ghaur) ; having the eyes deep sunk in their sockets; making a hostile incursion into an enemys
76 ) tel
country ; making haste ; twisting (a rope) firmly.
aghar ad, Bruising, crushing; exciting.
dgh dr dan, aghardan, To
moisten, macerate ; to mix, to knead ; to cause to move, to rouse, to excite ; to sink, or to cause (water) to sink into the ground. dgharoz, Beginning, commencement. aghar a. The latchet of a shoe; under-leather.
<4^1 daharl, A vessel.
agharldan, To moisten, wet, macerate, bring almost to a solution; to excite, instigate.
agharlqun (G. ayapiKov), Common agarick, Boletus igniarius.
aghaz, Beginning, commencement; design, wish ; echo, call;aghaz kardan, aghaz numudan, To commence, make a beginning; to design, will.
aghaz, Will, intention, design; a voice, noise, echo ; a beginning, commencement.
dghdz-kar, Beginning.
i\S3^ dghaz-gdh, God, as from whom all things take their beginning; the crystal sphere, the empyrean.
dghazanda, The beginner, originator, i.e. God.
ughgh-ughgh. The noise made in the throat in gurgling.
83^ aghaza, The beginning of a work ; also
83VAI aghaza, A cobblers tool; the sole of a shoe.
dghdzldan, To begin; to design; to will; to engage in combat.
dghash, aghdsh, Recorded ; accumulated .
dghashtan, To accumulate, throw one above another; place one thing before another.
dghal, Instigation, excitement; a setting in motion; the swallowing of food not masticated; seizing, capturing; a sheep-cote; a hive ; a beginning, commencement ; a moistening, macerating; aghali pashaht and
aghdl pashah, The lote-tree ; the gnat-tree, with large smooth stem and thick foliage.
dghdlish, aghdlish. Instiga-
tion, incitement to crime.
aghdlishtan. To accumulate, heap.
g gghdlukhl. Aloes.
dghdlldan, aghalldan. To
excite, rouse, animate (to battle) ; to be hot, fiery, and contentious; to confine, reduce to straits.
a aghallt (pi. of ughlutat). Ques-
tions, doubts, or whatever matters are liable to error or reprehension; thiDgs which mislead.

A agjtdrvi (pi. of ughniyat),
c5\r* ugkdni saray, Songs.
dgkayan (pi. of agha), Great lords ; a kings daughter.
a aghbar, Soiled with dust.
ighbirar (v.n. 9 of y*£), Being very dusty, soiled.
A ightibdt (v.n. 8 of Being in happy circumstances; being jealous of anothers happiness.
a s->V^ ightirdb (v.n. 8 of s-^), Travelling into foreign parts ; marrying a foreigner.
a ightirdr (v.n. 8 of Being deceived ; coming upon one suddenly.
a ightirdf (v.n. 8 of -*y£), Drinking
water (out of the hand).
A igktisdl (v.n. 8 of Wash-
ing oneself; ablution.
A ightishash (v.n. 8 of
Rebellion, riot.
a ightisas (v.n. 8 of Ja*), Being
choked, suffocated; grieving sorely, being in great anxiety.
AjWxM igktimdz (v.n. 8 of )*), Censuring, condemning, reviling, reproaching, disgracing.
A yrfUaid ightimds (v.n. 8 of
a yiUxil igktimdz (v.n. 8 of Wink-
ing, dozing.
a ighiimam (v.n. 8 of ^A), Being
sad and gloomy ; sadness, gloom.
A ightinam (v.n. 8 of Getting
spoil or plunder; seizing, carrying off; seizing an opportunity.
A kluit ightiyaz (v.n. 8 of h*A)> Being angry, enraged.
a ightiyal (v.n. 8 of JyA), As-
saulting, rushing upon, or killing suddenly; (v.n. 8 of J*A) Growing fat and plump (a boy).
a gghziyat (pi. of gkizd;), Aliments.
y*! aghir. The dry bed of a river with a little water left here and there.
A agkarrT White, bright; with a white spot on the forehead (a horse); noble, illustrious.
a elyAl ighrd;f (v.n. 4 of yy^), Instigating, exciting, stirring up ; setting one against another.
a ighrdb (v.n. 4 of s-y*), Bring-
ing, performing or relating anything new, foreign, strange, or wonderful; being new, strange, &c.; filling (a water-bag).
a vaghrdz (pi. of gkaraz), Designs, aims, intentions, ends, views, objects, purposes, wishes, motives ; interests ;ighraz (v.n. 4 of u*/), Tiring, fatiguing, vexing; girthing (a camel).
a jlyM ighrdq (v.n. 4 of j/), Causing to sink or drown, drowning, submersion; exaggeration in praise or blame.
a igfrrdm (v.n. 4 of Mulcting,
77 ) >1
fining'; destroying; causing to become obnoxious, injurious.
a agkrab, More or most strange,
a dgkarda (A garment) thin and
dgjicirsatis (G. ay/owcm?), Couch-grass, agrostis.
ughrugh, Tent; camp, encampment. 6y^ dgkra, Lichen (skin-disease) ;agkra
! A mote of kings, nobles, or judges; an airy, windy place ;ughrar A wen, a kernel. T <^yAl ugkri, A thief.
aghriyd (G. ax/oia, aKpa), A mountain. jif\ agkrir, or
^yiy^l ighriras, The brother of Afriisiyab. G aghriyus, A desert.
^ agl&stan, To fill, to cram. aghasta, Filled, crammed.
aghastiiSf agktus, The Em-
peror Augustus.
dgkush, An embrace.
dghashtdnidan. To cause to mix or macerate.
dghashtagl, Alloy, mixture, j dahashtan (dghishtan. dgliustan). To moisten; to be moist; to cut, hash, or mince ; to defile, or be defiled.
dahashta. agkashtaf Mixed,
moistened, smeared; watered (ground). cAi-fcy aghashak, Turpentine.
A jghsds (v.n. 4 of JaA), Choking,
causing suffocation.
a aghsdn (pi. of ghusn)r Branches. a ightdsh (v.n. 4 of u4^afc)> Being
dark ; making dark ; dimming the eye. a (jilaal aghtash, Weak-sighted. a JUA^ jghfdl (v.n. 4 of J**), Neglecting, overlooking.
Ja\ dghil, aghil. A sheep-cote in a mountain.
G aghldjun. The aromatic aloe.
A k)\A\ aghldt (pi. of ghalat). Errors; ighlat (v.n. 4 of kfA), Leading into error.
a hifcAl ighldz (v.n. 4 of hlA), Using coarse or opprobrious language; buying coarse (cloth), discovering (it) to be so.
a ighldf (v.n. 4 of -_alA), Sheathing, putting up in a scabbard or sheath (ghi-Idf).
a j^Al aghldq (pi. of ghglq), Locks, bars, bolts;igiddq (v.n. 4 of A J&Al aghldl (pi. of ghull). Yokes or chains for the neck (of iron, or of leather with part of the hair adhering) ;(pi. of ghalal) Waters flowing amongst trees ; aghldli salasily Bolts, links, or rings of
chains ;ighlal (v.n. 4 of J*), Defrauding, acting perfidiously; becoming excessive (thirst) ; bringing home food; for the sustenance of ones family; producing the

J*' ( 78
herbs called ghall) ; looking sharp at; ighlal kardan, To yoke ; to pillory.
a iahlam, The act of provoking to
venery ; sodomy.
a iahlamlT A sodomite.
a aghlab, Superior, stronger,
strongest; prevalent; most, the greater part; mostly ; more or most likely; probably.
A aghlaz, Grosser, fatter, thicker,
a c-ftlcl aghlaf. Uncircumcised ; sheathed (sword) ; affluent, comfortable (life) ; one who heeds nothing.
ughlumish, Name of a king of
^1*1 aghlan. Instigation, incitement; name of a prince of the race of Timur.
a ughldtat. A doubtful question,
anything that may mislead a person; anything liable to error or misapprehension. dahlia tin. The rainbow. aghliqi (G. yXvKv), Lambs flesh boiled in spiced wine (see and
a ighmCi (v.n. 4 of ^s**), Causing to faint, throwing into a fit.
a oUxl aghmad (pi. of ghimd), Sheaths;
ighmcid (v.n. 4 of a*£), Sheathing (a sword).
a jWcl ighmdz (v.n. 4 of y*£), Disparaging, detracting from, railing against, blaming, reviling; abating (the heat of the sun) ; feeling cattle, to ascertain if they are fat or lean.
a ighmdz (v.n. 4 of (j*^), Look-
ing with half-shut eyes; winking at, connivance ; ogling, coquetry; superciliousness ; neglect; dissimulation ; sharpening (the edge of a sword) ;ighmdz kardan, To connive at, &c.
a ighmdzi. Supercilious, fasti-
dious ; proud, arrogant; a coxcomb.
A fUc! ighmam (v.n. 4 of ^), Being overcast with clouds (the sky). a aghmas. Blear-eyed.
a aghann. One who speaks through
the nose, or with a nasal twang.
a jghna (v.n. 4 of ^^), Enriching,
rendering independent, enabling to do without.
aghand. Stuffed, crammed. aghandan. To fill, stuff, cram. dghanda. Filled, stuffed; cramming ; a stuffer ;dghunda, Ball of cotton; sort of spider.
A aghnd. Richer, richest; more or most independent.
a aghniya (pi. of aghniy). The rich ; independent people ;aghniy a' i rozgar, The rich men of the world ;aghniya? u fuqard, The rich and poor.
a >ly* ighwd (v.n. 4 of ^y), Seducing, leading astray, deceiving ; seduction, temp-
tation, evil suggestion; solicitation, temptation, instigation.
dghawdt (Ar. pi. of dghd), Lords. jyM dghiiz, The biestings of a sheep.
dghosh, An embrace; the bosom; as much as the arms can embrace or contain, an armful; a servant, slave ;dghosh kardan, dar dghosh kardan, To embrace, hold, comprehend, contain.
0****y! dghoshidan, To embrace.
aghol, jyl aghol, Side-glance, angry
AjW^l aghydr, Unknown persons, strangers, foreigners ; rivals, enemies.
a aghydrl. The state of being a
stranger, &c., strangeness ; rivalry.
A aghyaz (pi. of ghizat). Forests,
places abounding in trees, but having little water; haunts, dens.
dghtras. A walnut.
dghlshtan, To embrace; to be embraced ; to cut, mince, hash, macerate ; to hang, to be suspended.
dghlshldan. To fear, to dread ; to embrace ; to cut.
Jdahil. A squint, oblique look, turning the corner of the eye, looking askance with anger ; a sheep-cote.
u!\ df, The sun (S. dbhd) ; the musk-deer.
+j\ of, Prefixed to verbs, corresponds with
S. abhi and ava.
a *-*1 uff (P. 7(f), A particle expressive of loathing and disgust, fie! for shame! uf guftan, To detest, to say Fie !
a dfat (pi. of afai), Misfortunes,
losses, evils, troubles, calamities.
a 'i^\ ifadat, ifada (v.n. 4 of A*i), Giving or allowing profit, emolument, or advantage, benefiting ; teaching, instructing ; tenour, purport, explanation, instruction ;ifadah kardan, To convey a meaning or signification, to denote ;ifadah u tasrih kardan, To teach and demonstrate;ifada'i mardm kardan, To explain ones intentions.
a SjUl ifdzat (v.n. 4 of jy), Rendering victorious, prosperous, successful.
a ifdzat (v.n. 4 of Filling
(a vessel) till (it) overflows ; overflowing; pouring out water, shedding tears ; rushing with impetuosity, springing; becoming diffuse in a narrative, enlarging upon.
a afdzil (pi. of afzal),-Learned, virtuous, excellent ; philosophers, doctors ; dar nazdi afdzil, Amongst the learned.
a gfdghinat, afaghina (pi. of a/-
ghdn), The Afghans.
a dfaq (pi. of ufq, ufuq), Horizons, quarters of the heavens, of the world, or universe; regions, tracts.
a affdq, One who travels much in
search of knowledge.
a afaq-band, dfdqsitan,

UT (
jS ufaq-gir, Who conquers the universe, subdues the world.
a dfdq-girifta, Celebrated, fa-
a ifdqat, ifdqalt (v.n. 4 of op)> Re-
covering (from a distemper, swoon, insanity, or ebriety) ; convalescence, recovery.
UiUl afdqiyd, A kind of liquid flowing from minerals, or expressed from acid substances.
a affak, Addicted to lying.
afdm (for fdm), Colour ; (for awdm)
a afdnln (pi. of afndn pi. of faun),
Paths, ways ; branches.
a afdiik (pi. of afikat), Lies, false-
afpunitan (in Zand and Pazand),
To cook ; to ripen.
a £*1 dfat, A misfortune, calamity ; bane, pest, plague ; mortal sin ; misery ; wretchedness, hardship, difficulty ;dfati dew, Pustules breaking out on the lips, from terror, whilst asleep; a ringworm ;dfaii sarndwJ, j A year of scarcity arising from too much or too little rain, locusts, &c.
uftd (part, of uftddan), Falling.
a pUil iftdl* (v.n. 4 of ^ya), Resolving a question of law, or a case of conscience, giving a fatwa or legal decision.
dftab (sunshine), The sun ; a day ; wine ; the soul;aftdb uftddan (pashidan, tdbidan, tdftan, jahidan, damldan) bar chize, The sun shines upon a thing;aftdb ba-bdm amadan (rasidan), The sun reaches the zenith ;aftdb ba-dlwar amadan, aftab bar diwar raftan, dftab bar sari dlwdr budan (did an, shudan), The end of life, power, prosperity, is approaching ;dftab bar koh (firod koh) raftan, dftab ba-koh firo raftan (khwdstan). The same ; aftdb bar lab budan {rasidan), The same;aftdib hazard rasld an, The sun sets;dftab ba-gil andndan, To try to conceal what is manifest;dftab pasi diwar {pasi koh), The time or approach of death or downfall; dftab khwurdan, To be troubled by the sun ; to suffer pain or hardship;aftab dddan, To expose to the sun ;aftdbi zard, The setting sun ; a melon ;dftabi zard-rii (the yellow-faced sun), A melon; yellow wine;
aftdbi sada, The pure sun (an epithet of Solomon) ;aftab nishastan {bar zamin ni-shastan), The sun is setting.
dftab alftd, Sun-stained, coloured by the sun, freckled.
* dftdb-parast, A worshipper of
the sun ; sun-flower; a chameleon; a water-lily ; in India, any blue flower.
dftab-parasti, Sun-worship. dftd b-posh, Clad in sunny
a dftdb-jabJn, With a sun-like
79 ) I
1 a SyW aftab-jalwa, Brilliant as the
' sun.
t dftdbchi, A ewer-holder.
t dftdbchi-klidna, Place where
the ewer is kept.
a v-jUi) dftdb-khd fir. Of a bright intcl-| lect.
AiU. dffdb-khdna, The suns house
(in an astronomical sense); a summer-house. a dftab-daulat, Whose fortune
| is resplendent like the sun.
! uftab-duzdak (intercepting the
! sun), A kind of parasol made of reeds.
t) dfidb-rukh, With cheeks of a
j bright hue.
2 dftdb-ru, Exposed to the sun
(spot) ; with a face bright as the sun.
dftab-zdr, A place where suns are growing, i.e. a garden full of flowers.
uftdb-zada, Sun-stricken, afflicted with a sun-stroke, mad.
jyj w>V^ aftdb-zard, The time of sun-set. a a. dftdb-shrdsha'a, The radi-
ance of the sun.
aftdb-suwdr, An early riser. dftab-gdh, A sunny place; a sunshiny day ; the equinox.
ytjjS'sdftab-gar dan, Sun-shade tent (ra.c.).
js_>U\ aftdb-gar dish, The surface of the earth ; the chameleon.
df tab-gar dak (turning to the sun), The chameleon ; the sun-flower. yS^\sji\ dftdbgir (sun-catching), A parasol. dftdbndk, Sunny.
AjUif djtdba, A wrater-pot; travellers bottle.
aftdbi, A kind of parasol ; an embossed shield (in shape like the sun) ; intensely red ; yellowish ;dftdbi shudan, To become clear, visible, manifest.
Azi\ uftad, State of helplessness; beginning of life, childhood.
(pi. of uftada), The fallen. uftadagl, Humility ; vileness; a
(joUit uftddan (S. pat), To fall; to be-fal, to happen ; to submit; to perish, be ruined; to be distant;uftddan az, To renounce ;az pd uftddan, To slip ; to fall from weakness or languor; to be infirm; az khar uftddan, To die ;az sari kdr uftad, He perished ;az shikam uftddan, To die;az kdr uftddan, To leave a thing unfinished, to desist (az kdr uftada, abject, useless, vile) ;ba-mazaq muwafiq uftddan, To be acceptable, to please; paiwasii {dar-paiwasti) kase uftddan, To calumniate, to slander;dar afwah uftddan, To be recorded, to be related ;dar pay uftddan. To follow ;mabzul uftddan, To be acceptable.
uftada, Fallen; weakened; op-| pressed ;uftddan az dasti uftadagan, To

( 80 ) %i I
perish through the imprecations of the oppressed.
aftdflydy A kind of liquid flowing from minerals, or expressed from acid substances.
Jbit iftdl (imp. of the following), Dispersed, scattered; rent, torn.
iftalidan, To scatter, spread, disperse; to tear; to destroy, spoil; to cleave, break.
uftdn, Falling; he who falls; uftdn u khezdn, uftdn khezan, Sometimes falling and sometimes rising, walking with difficulty, creeping along slowly, limping.
uftanldan, To let fall, throw
1V^ aft aw a, aftdiwa ( aftaba), A
^juibtxil uftayanidan, To cause or let fall; to throw down.
a fcbuil iftitdh (v.n. 8 of £-**), Opening; beginning, commencement.
a ^Wsil iftihas (v.n. 8 of u^^), Investigating, inquiring; investigation, inquiry.
AjVatsi! iftikhar (v.n. 8 of^asi), Glorying, boasting; glory, honour, grace; elegance, gracefulness;iftikhar kardan, To glory (in anything), to boast of.
Axil aftid, Strange! a wonderful thing; admiration ; praising ; an encomiast.
1a- Axil aftid-sita, Eulogy ; praise, laud. ^Axil uftadan, To fall; to happen. a iftira* (v.n. 8 of ^y), Inventing a
lie ; calumny, falsehood, imposition, unjust imputation; iftira kardan, To defame, invent lies, traduce.
a u-djs*! iftira8 (v.n. 8 of Tearing
(his) prey (a lion) ; finding out by a sign; riding on horse-back.
a iftirash (v.n. 8 of J^^), Spread-
ing (the arms) on the ground; being spread ; treading upon, trampling.
a A a jlyftl iftirdq (v.n. 8 of jy), Being divided, separated; removal, absence, distance, separation ;ba-halati iftirdq, In a state of separation.
iftira-kar, A slanderer.
^Cflyil iftira-kari, The habit of lying, slander.
a 5Juj oil afat-rasida, and a oil dfat zadahy Afflicted, unlucky ; stricken by calamity.
a iftisds (v.n. 8 of Joi), Separa-
ting, dividing; drawing one thing out of another.
a iftizah (v.n. 8 of £-*), Being ex-
posed ; disgrace, dishonour, ignominy.
Vihuii aftafdydy Amoglossa, Plantago major (plantain), of whose acid leaves the juice ia extracted*
a oUxil iftiqad (v.n. 8 of Afii), Losing, not being able to find ; investigation, search.
a ;0uil iftiqdr (v.n. 8 of y*)> Becoming poor, needy ; poverty, want.
iftikdr (v.n. 8 of V) Thinking.
a csl\£xM iftikak (v.n. 8 of *&), Redeeming, releasing (a pledge or pawn) ; being separated.
a e^[ afat-gariy Infliction of calamity. ^Ail uftan (contraction of (jAlxil), To fall.
jlAilj il uft-u-andaz, Moving with ease, graceful motions.
uft-u-khez. A middle course between haste and slowness.
dfta, Understood, comprehended. uftidan, To fall; to happen. aftimun (G. 7tl6v/jlov), Dodder of
a ifj dr (v n. 4 of y^i), Reaching, attaining the hour of day-break.
Aasil afcha, ufcha, A scare-crow. a \yUsil ifhash (v.n. 4 of er^i), Speaking obscenely.
a fl^il if ham (v n. 4 of ^^), Silencing^ (in an argument) ; fiuding one so silenced. a ^pj^sil ufhiiSy The qata's nest. a fliil ifkham (v.n. 4 of ^at*), Honouring.
a afkhar, Finer, finest, braver,
bravest, more or most sumptuous.
a afkham, Greater, greatest, more
or most grand.
a Ailf afady A nephew by the brother or sister.
Ail afidy Strange! anything wonderful; admiration ; praising ; a praiser.
a ifdam (v.n. 4 of fAi), Dyeing
red ; saturating the red colour of a stuff ; filtering water.
jJil afdary SjAil afdara (S. pitrivya), A nephew; an uncle.
1a-Ail afdistdy Admiration, praise, laud (see lA-Aiil).
sail ufda, Open, full-blown; wonderful, admirable.
CjAiAil afdidany To wonder, to admire, yl afr, Bravo!afar, Name of a place in Persia.
VI afra, Bravo! well done! praise applause.
^c^V^ afrakht-pdy, Aas-lyl afrakhta-pay, Trodden under foot, trodden upon; fugitive, poor, indigent.
afrakhtagi. Elevation, exaltation. (^*V1 afrdkhtan, To exalt, raise, elevate. A^Al-il afrakhta. Raised, elevated. a SVI afr ad (pi. of fard), Individuals, singular numbers, single ones; persons; sheets (of paper); separate sheets ;ifraa (v.n. 4 of a^), Being or making single, solitary, alone ; withdrawing from society. a VI ifrar (v.n. 4 of J*), Putting to

y (
flight; cleaving with a sword (the head of another).
afrdz, Exalted, elevated, erect, high ; refractory, contumacious; open and, by opposition, closed, bound ; ample, wide ; a shoe, slipper; all (opp. to single individual) ; height, summit, protuberance ; pulpit ; membrum virile; under, beneath; before, in front; afterwards, henceforth ; (in comp, representing the pres. part, of afrakhtan) raising, exalting, as sar-afrdz), Exalting the head, &c.;afrazi past gosh, A protuberance, or protruding bone behind the ear ;afrazi rukh. The most prominent part of the cheek.
a ifrdz (v.n. 4 of jy), Separating, distinguishing.
cMV' afraz-dan (for ^lo^y!), ^ spicery-box.
afrdzistdn, The upper world.
(^^yy! afrazanidan, To exalt.
to!y! afraz-rukh. Having large cheeks. afraza, A flame.
afrazi, Elevation, extension, exaltation.
afrdzldan, To exalt; to adorn. ifrds, A tent; the walls of a tent.
A o-V' afrds (pi. of faras), Horses; afrdsi ah (water-horses), Bubbles ; the hippopotamus.
^U^ly! afrdsiydh (Z. frahuharashya), Name of an ancient king celebrated in Persian poetry, sovereign of Turan, and a Scythian or Turk by birth ; one who moves leisurely on the road ; a travelling companion.
afrasiyahi, Descending from
a if rash (v.n. 4 of ^>y), Spreading
carpets and the like, making beds, laying anything under a person ; traducing or reviling another whilst absent; remaining behind, desisting.
afrashdnidan, To cause to exalt.
afrashtagi, Exaltation.
(1^ady\ afrashtan, To exalt, extol, raise.
AsAly! afrdshta, Exalted, elevated, erect.
a aiAxAly! afrashta-qad (qadd), Tall, of high stature.
a ifrds (v.n. 4 of Finding
time for a thing; beiug favourable (opportunity).
a ifrdz (v.n. 4 of Giving;
amounting to such a number as to be subject to decimation or tithes (cattle or corn).
a Uji! ifrdt (v.n. 4 of by), Exceeding bounds; excess, superfluity, abundance, plenty ; accelerating, hastening; moving with rapidity; filling (a bag); sending before ; if rati akhlat, ifrati khun, Plethora.
a ifrdgh (v.n. 4 of &), Emptying,
81 ) y!
pouring out; shedding; casting metal into a form ; removing.
afrdh, Victuals distributed amongst prisoners in jail.
ifrdhdm, Abraham. afrdy (in comp.), Creating. afavhiyun (G. evcfroppLov), Gum of the euphorbium.
afartak, Young, full of juice, y! afardastd, A spears point; a summit.
if rash, A beam, a roof-beam.
A a/ra, (A man) having a fine head of hair.
A £y! afragh, More or most unemployed, more or most free, more or most at leisure.
afranj, The Franks, French; the crusaders ; all Europeans.
afranj-mushk (the musk of the Franks), A kind of sweet basil.
ifranjat, afranja, Name of a city in Egypt; Eastern Africa ; Europe ; a bugbear to frighten children.
<^*y! afranji, A Frank.
g afrinjiyun, (in astr.) The lower
Ay! afrand, Splendour; beauty ; dignity ; if rind, A sword ; the lustre of a polished sword, afrandidan, To decorate, embellish.
i&y! afrang, Elegance, dignity, grace; magnificence, grandeur, power ; magnitude; a throne ; a crown ; provisions, necessaries ; afrang, if ring, A European, a Frank.
afiringdn, A chapter of Zand-
afrokhtagi. Combustion, blaze. afrokhtan (S. ruck), To inflame, set on fire ; to kindle ; to blaze, to flame ; to polish.
afrokhta, Inflamed, lighted ; shining, radiant; polished, furbished ;cha-rdghi afrokhta, A blazing lamp; a dependant.
yy! afroz (imp. of afrokhtan with the signification of the pres. part, in comp.), Burning ; illuminating, dazzling, animating, as hostan-afroz, Dazzling the garden (the anemone), &c.
!jy! afrozdi, Burning ; polishing.
afrozanidan, To make burn,
afrozandan, To be burnt, consumed.
afrozanda, A polisher; one who sets on fire ; bright, shining, radiant. afroza, The wick of a lamp.
afrozidan, To kindle ; to polish, to make bright; to shine, to be very bright.
afrusdliyin (G. apo 6

yl ( 82
ofrosa, afrosha, A dish made
of butter, honey and flour; bruised wheat or barley, and victuals dressed with it; a confection made of almonds; a dish made of yolk of egg, milk and syrup.
afrogh, The rays of the sun ; the beams of the moon ; the light of a candle. afra, Retribution, punishment (see
iyi\ ob ) .
afrahanj, Dodder. afrl, afarl, Well done !
dfrldgdr, afridagar, The
afrldan, To create ; creating ; creation.
05^/1 afrldun, afrldun, see .
ufrlda, Created; man, as created
g yyl ifrlz, The coping of a wall; a projection or slab over a door ; a brick house ; a botcher.
g (j*ykafrlsmiiSy Priapism.
afrisham, Silk; the string of a musical instrument.
a ifriqlya, Africa.
ufirln, dfrln, Praise, glory, applause, encomium, benediction, blessing; blessed; well done bravo! name of the first of the five intercalary days of the Persian year;
(in comp.) creating, as jan-afirin. Creating the soul, &c. ;afirm khwandan, To applaud ;dfirln kardan, To praise, applaud ; to bless ; to describe ; to cieate.
dfirind, dfirinandaf The
dfirln-khana, An oratory. dfirin-khwdn. Who praises,
blesses, &c.
(afirlnish, Creation ; created thing ; creature.
djirlnagdn, Feasts held in honour of the memory of departed friends.
f djirln-gar, (^2/1 dfirin-guy.
Who utters praise, confers a blessing.
\ji\ afzdy More; greater; yawning; increase, augmentation ; (in comp.) increasing, promoting, causing, as : bahjat-afzd, Promoting or increasing cheerfulness, &c.
jlyil afzdr, A shoe ; a weavers comb; an artificers tool; the sail of a ship ; (for A. jljd) any herbs or hot seasonings with which victuals are dressed.
b afzdr-})a, A shoe, a slipper. a afzarddn, A vessel wherein they
keep seasonings for meat, a spicery-box.
a j\j*\ ifzdz (v.n. 4 of yi), Frightening, terrifying ; causing to jump ; making light of.
a ifzd (v.n. 4 of £y*), Frightening, terrifying, confounding, distracting; assisting, aiding, succouring, redressing wrongs.
afzdnldun, To multiply ; to grpw.
blyil afzayd, Adding.
afzdydnldan, To cause to increase.
afzdy idan, afza'ldan, To
add; to exalt; to be exalted, to be high ; to fall;afzdyidan dar qlmati chize, To offer higher for anything, to raise the price.
afzdyishy Abundance, increase, increment, augmentation ;afzdyish kardan, To increase; to grow ;afzdyish numudan, To augment; to be augmented.
afzudy Increase, addition ; more. afzudan, To add, to increase; to be increased; multiply, abound, overflow, remain over; to prosper (m.c.). afzuda, Increased.
jil gfzuntar, More, greater, more excellent.
afzuni, Increase, enlargement, abundance, excess, superfluity; afzilni kardan, To ask more than enough, to exceed bounds, to be unreasonable ;afzuni i ndn, The fermentation or raising of bread ; tamai afzuni kardan, gardi afzuni gardi-dan, To wish for more, to be greedy.
afzhudan, To throw away, cast down ; to grasp, tie, or hold fast; to press, squeeze.
afzhuly Incitement, impulse; urgency, exaction ; scattered, dissipated.
afzhuldnldan, To cause to drink and quench thirst; to cause to excite.
afzhulanda, Exciting; expelling. afzhulidan, To instigate, rouse, stir up; to render bold ; to bring to a head ; to importune, dun ; to scatter; to shake off dust settled on a garment; to quench thirst.
afzhidan q.v.
'afsdy Fascinating; a wizard, an enchanter.
a uL~i\ if&dd (v.n. 4 of a-*J), Corrupting, vitiating, destroying, adulterating ; spoiling, laying waste, damaging, injuring.
afsdr, Fascinating ; a headstall; afsari dum, A crupper ; afsdr kashidan, To put on the headstall.
afsdrdan, To press, squeeze, strain, constrain; to speak idly, obscenely, profanely.
afsdn, Fascinating ; a magician ; a fable, story ; 'an event, accident; a whetstone.
(jxJbL-il afsdndnidan, To cause to relate. g ifsdnus, The ocean.
dfsdna, afsana, A charm, in-
cantation ; a fiction, tale, lable, romance, parable ; a narrative, a story of past events;

( 88 ) JU)
public, notorious, noted ;afsana bastan, To arrange or compose a tale; afsana guftan, To speak parables, tell stories; afsana u afsun, Fictions and deceitful tales.
A>U*il afsana-pardaz, A coucocter of stories.
jL- fiiL-il afsdna-sdz, afsana-
gA- afsana-sanj, A story-teller,
a composer of tales.
£ afsdna-go, A romancer.
^xjUj! afsdnxdan, To tell stories; to extend, grow; to make straight; to tame, make obedient; to rub, to smoothe.
^b~il afsdy, An enchanter.
afsdy dnldan, To make tell
afsdyxdan, To subdue, especially
by magic.
A afsah, More and most spacious,
a J~-il afsad, More or most corrupt, mischievous.
j~il afsar, A crown, diadem ; a bridle, halter;afsari dairi a'zam, The sun ; afsari sar, The crown of the head ;afsari sigzl, A kind of musical instrument; melody ;afsar shudan, To he crowned.
afsar-drd (gracing the diadem), Title of a princess.
afsurdnidan, To cause to freeze ; to cause to become languid, dull, melancholy.
^/Jjil afsurdagl, Congelation; dejection.
afsurdan, To freeze, congeal; to grow faint, feeble,, dejected ; to flag, wither.
fijjil afsurda, Congealed ; melancholy.
af sur da-bay dn, A dull or insipid speaker, a silly talker.
fijj*~i! afsurda-pistdn, A barren woman ; a woman who has miscarried.
fijj~i! afsurda-jdn, f ^ fijjil af sur da-dam = qWj fiJj~il q.v.
jkU fijj-i! afsurda-khatir, Dispirited.
Jj fijj-Jl afsurda-dil, Faint-hearted, low-spirited, dull, lifeless.
fioy~il afsur da-raw dn = J** fiJjil
fiJjil afsurda-mihr, Lukewarm in one's affections.
y£il afsar gar, Crested; a bird of paradise.
v t^-il afsintin (G. aif/ivOiov), Wormwood, o/sa, A fork; (in Zand and Paznnd) Come then.
)rJ\ ufsur, Shame; a kind of wild beast.
^jii! a/sos, Irritation, vexation, sorrow, concern; wit, bumour, jest; tyranny, oppression ; error; ridicule, derision ; reluc-
tance (m.c.) ; ah alas !afsos khwurdan, To be grieved ; to regret ( ;afsos ddshtan, To ridicule, to banter, to play upon, mock, deride, despise, affront; afsos kardan, To complain, to groan ; to lament; to play, divert oneself.
afsus (G. c^cVos), Ephesus. afsari, An incantation, a fascination, verses used in spells ; fraud, deceit; afsuni judd'l, A spell to bring about the separation of two persons;afsun khwdn-dan, To utter spells or incantations ;-afsun ddshtan, To charm, to do wonders (m.c.) ; afsuni gurgl, A spell which secures against defeat ; afsuni masiha, The miraculous power of reviving the dead. j!jj> af sun-par ddz, and
afsdn-pizhuh, An enchanter,
oV* afsun-khwdn. A conjurer,
enchanter, sorcerer.
fijj afsun-zada, Enchanted, deceived
by magical arts.
jL. afsun-sdz, A worker of spells,
afsun-kun, A conjurer, wizard.
*1 afsun-knshdy (gushdy), Expert in magic.
afsungar, A magician, an enchanter.
afsungarl, Magic, incantation. a ifshd' (v.n. 4 of j-£*i), Divulging, revealing, disclosing, publishing ; publication. af shudan (probably error for ^jjjUJl), To strain, squeeze, press ; to speak obscenely, profanely, boorishly. afshdr, (in comp.) Speaking idly or obscenely ; fixing, inserting ; pressiug, squeezing out (water) ; a weavers treadle, that which he moves with his feet; an assistant, associate, companion, partner, or abettor ; a tribe of Turkomans.
£jjjU*l afshdrdan, To speak idly or obscenely ; to press; to fix, insert, immerse. afshdr da, Pressed, squeezed.
(jjUil afshdn, (in comp.) Dispersing, scattering, diffusing, as khun-afshdn.
Shedding blood, &c.
^jjui^Uil afshananidan, To cause to scatter.
QjjUi! afshdndan, To disperse, scatter, strew; to diffuse, sprinkle, shed.
ajiUil afshdndah, Dispersed, scattered, shed.
^juiUil afshdnidan, To scatter, shed ; dast afshdnidan. To applaud, clap hands.
ufshurdagi, A squeeze, pressure, (jjjii! afshurdan, To press, squeeze, strain, compress, exp^ss (juice); to make

firm, solid;dar ham afshurdan, To compress.
\J*y2**\ afshurish, Compression, squeezing. afshurgar, A press ; au oil-presser. afshura, Juice expressed from pomegranates, quinces, and other fruits or plants; a kind of sherbet often mixed with ice (m.c.).
f lyLi] afshura-gar, An oil-maker. afshak (S. avasyaya), afshang, Dew. afshana, Name of a village near Bukhara.
afshii (in Zand and Pazand), Come. afshun, A kind of winnowing machine.
Aiil afsha, Barley or wheat coarsely ground.
afshln, Name of a person proverbial for his liberality.
a sdh (t.n. 4 of £**), Speaking
clearly, distinctly, eloquently ; speaking Arabic.
a ifsds (v.n. 4 of u*), Producing,
drawing out.
a afsah, More or most eloquent;
speaking very elegantly and correctly.
A oU\ ij'zdb (v.n. 4 of f*), Going out, abroad, into the fields; causing to arrive, bringing ; communicating a secret; bursting (a woman) ; laying the palms of both hands upon the ground (in prayer) ; going in unto (a wife).
a Jl-il afzdl (pi. of fazl), Favours ; increases ; virtues, graces, accomplishments ;
ifzdl (v.n. 4 of J-i), Causing to excel or increase; benefiting.
A afzal, More or most excellent, i
virtuous, distinguished, eminent, learned, noble ; surname of the poet Khaqnni. a afzaltar, Better, best. a afzaliyat, Pre-excellence, pre-
eminence, superiority, transcendency.
a iftar (v.n. 4 of f^), Breaking a fast; slight repast with which a fast is broken; a light breakfast.
iff. dri, Things proper to be eaten
in breaking a fast.
a aft ah, Broad-headed. a aftas, Flat-nosed. a gUai\ ifzd (v.n. 4 of £ki), Being difficult, troublesome, or shameful.
a afdi (pi. of Actions, offices, functions ; conduct; verbs.
a if dm (v.n. 4 of ^"), Filling. a afd, A large venomous serpent; !
viper ; asp ; basilisk; afai zard-fdm, 1 afdi zar-fdm, A pen; a flame; afcd qirbiln, A bow ; Sagittarius ;afdi kdh- j rubd paikar, afdi marjan-'asab, A flame.
a afd-dam, Breathing poison
like a snake.
afdnalc, Swarming with vipers. afghdn, Name of a race inhabiting ;
the mountains between Kandahar and the river Indus; lamentation, groaning, cries for help ; alas !afalign kardan, To lament, to complain.
afahanistan, Afghanistan.
^Vxit afahdni, Of or relating to the Afghans ; the Afghan language (Pushtu).
a afq (v.n.), Dressing (leather) by tanning or thickening it; travelling over the world; excelling in liberality; ufq, ufuq, The horizon ; a tract or region of the earth.
a edit afk (v.n.), Inverting, overturning; diverting from any purpose ; being frustrated;ifk (v.n.), Lying; deceiving; a lie, deceit.
a afkdr (pi. of fikr), Thoughts,
meditations, opinions, advices ;ifkdr (v.n. 4 of ;&), Thinking, considering attentively.
a J£it afkal, ifkil, Trembling, consternation. tremor.
afgdr, A wound ; soreness of back of a beast of burden; lame, crippled, wounded ; fatigued, jaded ;afgdr shudan, To be fatigued;afgdri-may, Intoxicated, overloaded with wine ; dili afgdr pur afkdr, A fatigued mind full of cares. dfgana, afgdna, An abortion.
^^A^it afgdnidan, To cause to throw.
afgan, (in comp.) Throwing, throwing down, casting, casting forth, as bekh-afgan, Throwing down trees, &c.
afgandagi, A falling off, decay, abjectness ; servitude ; excrement.
afgandan, To throw, to cast away, up, off, or down; to contend for equality; to subtract ; a carpet ;az sar afgandan, To prostrate, upset, overthrow ;az shumdr afgandan, To subtract;ba-khdk afgandan, To throw to the ground, to injure, to afflict; to give over to contempt; pas afgandan, To put by, collect, hoard; to renounce or neglect an inheritance;sar afgandan, To bend or bow the head ;kdkh afgandan, To build a palace (lit. lay its foundations) ;mihr afgandan, To bestow ones love upon ;bar daftar afgandan, To write.
afgandani, Fit only to be thrown away, refuse ; the subtracter.
afganda, Thrown away ; subtracted; vile, abject; a slave.
afganda-par, With abated wing. ^ fiju&t afganda-sum, Weak, impotent.
a t^it ifldh (v.n. of £**), Prospering, obtaining a victory ; prosperity, success. a if as (v.n. 4 of a, ifldsi, Becoming bankrupt;
penury, want; insolvency, bankruptcy.
aflatnn (G. IXAdrcov), Plato;afld-fftni asr, The Plato of the age, the sage of the world.

( 85
A ifldq (y.n. 4 of Bringing out something wonderful (a poet).
v3^ afldq-bughddn, Wallachia and Moldavia.
A aflak (pi. of falak), Heavens;
celestial orbits, heavenly bodies, spheres.
a (jjLiUa ciJ&il aflak-shinasan, Astronomers.
* aflak-zill (the shadow of
heaven), Powerful protection.
a aflakiyan, Worshippers of the
heavenly bodies; stars and planets ; celestials.
A gM aflaj, One who has wide-set teeth ; I palsied.
A ^1*1 aflah, Chapped, cut on the under lip.
a aflas, Poorer, poorest.
ifluvja, Name of a seed resembling mustard-seed, but of a fragrant smell.
A afn (v.n.), Exhausting the milk in the udder (a camels colt) ; milking a camel at an unusual hour; spoiling food ; weakening the intellect.
a o\j^\ ifna (v.n. 4 of Ruining, destroying, annihilating;ifnai kujfar kar-dan, To destroy the infidels.
a afnan (pi. of farm), Ways, manners, kinds ; branches ;ifnan (v.n. 4 of &), Producing different kinds, sorts, colours.
G Qy****^ afanjiyun, Apogeon. afand, War, strife., The rainbow. t afandi (pronounced effendi), A
lord, master, gentleman.
a afandidan, afandi dan,
To stir up strife, enmity, or war.
a elji! afwaj (pi. of fauj), Armies, | troops, forces ; crowds ;afwdji bahri (tari, jihdzi), Naval forces, the navy; afwdji khnshki, Land forces, the army ; afwdji shay d. tin, A host of children ; afwdji qahira, A victorious army.
a afwdh (pi. of fuh), Mouths; report, rumour, hearsay ; notoriety, fame.
a afwahi, Famed, reported, noised
ufur, An owl; a belch, eructation. a Jji! uful (v.n. of Jil), Setting of the stars, the sun.
A ft**! afhdrn (pi. of fahm), Intellects, understandings; ifham (v.n. 4 of ^-v*), Giving to understand, making comprehend, teaching.
a <5*^ afiq, Leather not quite dressed by the tanner.
ajilun, The wormwood of Pontus. a fin, Barren of genius, void of prudence ; a young camel.
afyds, A wild radish. afyun (S. aplu'na), Opium, poppy-juice; black;afyun khwurdan (zadan),
To eat opium and undergo its influence;
afyun dar bada (sharab) kardan (rekhtan), To drug wine with opium.
afyiini, An opium-eater;afyuni'i chize shudan, To adopt a custom, habit.
t aq, White.
m bl aqd, The elder brother (opp. to ini, ini, the younger brother) ; the eldest, the chief of a tribe or family.
bb aqa-baba, Aqababa, name of a place in the neighbourhood of Qazwin.
A aqarib (pi of qarib), The nearest
.kindred, kinsmen, relations ; aqarib u khweshan, Kindred and allies, or relations.
Cjjybft aqdrun (G. a/copov), Sweet flag; wild myrtle.
aqdsi (pi. of aqsd), The extremes; the remotest parts.
Librt aqaqiya (G. d/ccua'a), The acacia; all kinds of juices expressed from anything of a styptic quality, but particularly juice of the pods of an Egyptian thorn.
aqdil, Anything useless or worthless ; any kind of parings or husks, &c. (see
a &\j\ iqdlaf (v.n. 4 of J-b>), Cancelling a bargain ; passing over a sin, forgiving slips and falls.
A aqalim (pi. of iqlim), Climates,
climes, countries, regions, kingdoms;aqd-limi saba, The seven climates, the whole world.
a iqdmat (v.n. 4 of fyi), Stopping,
resting, staying, standing still, causing to stand; being intent (upon anything); abode, residence, dwelling ; iqamati\hudfid kardan, To put the laws in execution ; iqdmati khiyani kardan, To pitch tents ; iqamati shuhud awardan, To bring or set up witnesses.
a brt aqdnim (pi. of aqndrn), Fersons (of holy Trinity).
m dqdwaini (Vi^ + ^1), Relations;
princes of the royal family ; shard*iti dqdwaini nigdh dashtan, To observe scrupulously the duties of consanguinity.
m Jijbrt aqdtnil (pi. of aqivdl, which is pi. of qaul), Sayings, speeches, words.
m dqd*i, The dignity of the eldest brother or a royal prince; princedom, dominion.
a jl3\ iqbar (v.n. 4 of ^i), Ordering or causing to be buried ; giving over the dead for interment.
a (j-bi! iqbas (v.n. 4 of Giving
(fire) ; teaching, imparting knowledge, making clever and learned.
a iqbaz (v.n. 4 of {j**), Making or
fitting a handle (qabzat) to anything.
a Jbi\ iqbal (v.n. 4 of J*i), Advancing, coming; turning the face towards anything; accepting a bond, admitting a claim ; confession, acknowledgment; acquiescence, assent; prosperity, good fortune; felicity, auspices, prestige , iqbdli

H-Jl (
dawd, Admission of a claim;iqbal numu-dan, To promise, agree, engage ,iqbdli yak hafta, Short-lived prosperity.
a JUi\ iqbalu l-mulk, Gentleman
of the Chamber, Chief Groom-in-waiting (m.c.).
a AA+JLjrt iqbalmand, Prosperous, fortunate.
a iqbahnandi, Prosperity, good
fortune, auspiciousness.
t aqluji, An equery, groom (see
a jburt igtar (v.n. 4 of y), Being reduced to poverty; keeping domestics on short, commons.
a iqtibds (v.n. 8 of Borrow-
ing, taking (tire from another) ; acquiring knowledge ; obtaining, acquiring, procuring, gaining ; asking, begging ; quotation.
a JUxi^ iqtitdl (v.n. 8 of Ja5), Dying (from love or insanity) ; fighting, slaying one another.
A iqtihdm (v.n. 8 of ^S), Rushing
headlong ; engaging in an enterprise rashly; holding in contempt; setting (a star).
a iqtidd (v.n. 8 of ^aS), Following
as an exanqde, imitating, imitation;iqtidd kardan, To take example, to imitate.
a iqtiddr (v.n. 8 of jAi), Being-
powerful or able; power, authority, control ; might, ability, excellence, dignity, rank; boiling or dressing in a pot (qidr) ; (in comp.) powerful, potent, as gardun-iqtiddr, Powerful as heaven, &c.
a iqtirdh (v.n. 8 of cy), Pro-
nouncing an unpremeditated spee h or extempore verses ; impiovisation.
a iqiirdz (v.n. 8 of uy), Borrow-
ing, taking on credit.
a iqtird* (v.n. 8 of £/), Choosing,
selecting; casting lots (qur'at).
a iqtirdf (v.n. 8 of *-*y), Commit-
ting a crime ; acquiring.
A a iqtisdr (v.n. 8 of ;~4), Forcing,
compelling, obliging.
a iqtisdm (v.n. 8 of (+~~*), Dividing
among themselves ; swearing ; iqtisdmi mirds, Division of inheritance.
a iqtisdr (v.n. 8 of yi), Abbrevia-
tion, abridgment; determining or fixing the bounds of anything ; failing, wasting ; iqii§dr kardan, To abridge.
a iqt sds (v.n. 8 of Jai), Follow-
ing, pursuing, tracking; reciting, relating.
A k£), Demanding, insisting upon, requiring, exacting (a debt) ; claim, requisition, exigency -,iqtizai mahally The exigency of the thing, time, or
86 ) jS\
| place, the requirements of the case;iqtizd j kardan, To demand, exact, require.
a £Uaxj\ iqtita (v.n. 8 of Cutting off a part.
a iqti'dt (v.n. 8 of h), Wrapping
the sash round the turban without passing it under the chin.
a iqtifd! (v.n. 8 of Following,
walking in the steps; being turned, inverted ; receding.
a iqtild (v n. 8 of Pulling up, tearing out, extracting.
A iqtind (v.n. 8 of yi), Acquiring,
possessing, gaining, storing, receiving; iqtind kardan, To acquire.
a iqtinds (v.n. 8 of u*), Hunting.
g aqtinaluqiy White thorn.
A y*b**l iqtiyds (v.n. 8 of Mea-
suring, comparing ; following after, takiug after (ones father).
a oU'i\ iqsd (v.n. 4 of j**), Collecting (wealth, &c.).
aqajnosh, Rust of iron.
Uy aqchan karma, Name of a Bul-
garian town.
t AiteJrt aqcha, Money. a iqhdt (v.n. 4 of h^i), Suffering from drought and consequent scarcity; withholding rain.
a aqhdt.i, A descendant of Qah-
A iqhdm (v.n. 4 of y^S), Throwing
one thing into another.
a aqhavmn, uqhuwan, Camomile.
t dq-ddsh, White rock, another
name of Arish, a dependency of the district Shaki.
A aqddh (pi. of qadah), Cups,
a aqddm (pi. of qadam), Feet,
steps, paces ;iqddm (v.n. 4 of fA5), Sending on before, causing to go before ; pushing forward; boldness, intrepidity, audacity ; resolution, firmness, spirit; endea-
vour, effort, diligence, attention ;iqddm nuniudan, To be forward and eager; iqddm u ihjdm, Impulse and repulsion,
boldness and timidity, being stimulated to anything daring, yet shrinking from it; iqddm u ihtimdm, Care and diligence..
a ^Aid aqdasy More or most pure, most holy ; more or most sacred.
a f a*\ aqdam, Former, first, more ancient; aqdami mvduki kuffar, The foremost of the infidel kings.
a e\ji\ aqrd* (pi. of qar)f The menses of women ; the state of purity between two menses ;iqrd (v.n. 4 of *\y), Being men-struous; becoming pure from menstruation ; reading the Quran, reading or causing to read.
a iqrdr (v.n. 4 of y>), Establishing, fixing (in a place) ; promise, agreement, assurance, pledge; consent, acquiescence,

y (
acceptance; confirmation, rati6cation, affirmation, attestation, declaration ; settlement, compact, bargain; confession, acknowledgment, admission, avowal; iqrdr dwardan, To confess, to make confession (of sins);iqrdri shikasta, Anuntruth-lul statement;iqrdriidm, A general acknowledgment, a public declaration;iqrdr kardan, To promise; to acknowledge.
a jtyrt iqrar-ndma, A written agreement, an indenture, a bond, a contract; iqrar-ndma7i band u bast, Administration paper; settlement, compact.
a iqrdri, Assenting; promissory ;
one who assents or confesses.
a iqrash (v.n. 4 of Speaking
ill of anyone ; rushing against.
a yplyrt aqrds (pi. of qurs), Disks; pastils, lozenges;aqrasi rdsan, Elecampane lozenges ;aqrasi kundur, Frankincense lozenges ; aqrasi mord, Myrtle lozenges.
a iqrdz (v.n. 4 of Lending,
giving credit.
a iqrd* (v.n. 4 of £y>), Casting or drawing lots ; giving away the best parts of ones estate (whether in cattle or other effects) ; lending a male animal for copulation ; returning to that which is ri tfht; checking a horse; abstaining, hanging back; refusing advice.
a wilyrt iqrdf (v.n. 4 of Li^i), Being of a bad stock; accusing, exposing to suspicion ; being near.
a aqrdn (pi. of qarln), Peers, pairs, equals; contemporaries ;iqrdn (v.n. 4 of Elevating a spear ; being near bursting (a boil) ; abounding in the veins (blood) ; giving power or wealth, o Li\yi\ iqrdniyd, The cornel-tree. a s-yl aqrab, Nearer, nearest; a near relative.
a b^j\ aqribd, Kindred, near relations, friends ; allies.
A aqra\ Bald (from disease); bald-headed (serpent) by reason of the quantity of its venom.
ctL/l aqra'ak, A little rose, a dog-rose.
A aqran, One whose eye-brows meet.
aqrltus, iqritus, Crete. a iqsa (v.n. 4 of y~5), Hardening (the heart).
a iqsdt (v.n. 4 of h~i), Being just, equitable; distributing justice (qist).
a ft-i! aqsdm (pi. of qism), Portions, divisions, classes; sorts, kinds; ways, manners ; (pi. of qasam) Oaths ;iqsam (v.n. 4 of ), Swearing, taking an oath.
t tjil aqsard (for dq, white + sard, palace), Name of a Greek (Roumelian) town.
a k-Jl aqsat, More or most just. t >1 aqsunqnr, A certain bird of prey ; an emperor of the Turks ; a day ; the sun.
87 ) cJUl
I aqsus (G. i£os), Barberries.
g it aqsiydqantd, The oxyacinth-
t dqshdr, ,31 dq shahr (white
town), Name of a place on the Black Sea.
aqishta, A pantry, cupboard, buttery. a iqshVrdr (v.n. 4 of ;*-***), Creep-
ing (the skin with terror), a aqshun, A medicine.
aqsha (for T. aqcha), Money, coin. a Aait aqsd7 (pi. of quswd), Sides (of a valley, &c.j ;iqsa (v.n. 4 of y^), Removing f ir off) ; reaching, extending to. AjUil iqsdr (v.n. 4 of Bearing short. | children (a woman) ; shortening, especially prayers ; falling short, becoming deficient.
a ycboil iqsas (v.n. 4 of (jaS), Killing the killer, retaliating ; being at the point of death ; bringing to deaths door. a aqsar, Shorter, shortest.
a aqsam, Who has half of his teeth broken ; who has one leg broken.
a Jj-il aqsd, Far off, more or most remote, farther, farthest; extreme; the extreme, extremely ;masjidi aqsd, The most remote temple, i.e. the temple at Jerusalem.
a ciqzd, More or most judicious,
better or best judge (qdzl).
A loil aqt (v.n.), Coagulating, causing to curdle (milk);iqt, iqit, Sour milk dried (cream-) cheese.
A;Uait aqtdr (pi. of qutr), Tracks (of the heavens), districts.
a aqUV (pi. of qit), Assignments of land; short arrows;iqtd1 (v.n. 4 of Cutting, dividing, severing ; assigning land to a subject (on the part of a prince); a tract of land thus assigned.
a jlyA gUait iqtiV-khwdr, The holder of an assignment of land (=jl
a iqtdf (v.n. 4 of '-qW), Being near the harvest season.
a aqta\ One who has the hand amputated.
a aqtin, A sort of pulse ( = v>h q.v.). a ^iylLkid aqtindluql, White thorn.
aqtd (G. olktij), The bel fruit (S. vilva) ; the elder-tree.
a iq'a (v.n. 4 of Li for j*5), Kneeling with the buttocks resting on the heels ; sitting upon the hams (as a dog or other animal), having the fore-feet perpendicular.
a iq'as, Opulence, abundance,
plenty; being talkative.
v ueLit iqlas (v.n. 4 of a (j-nil aq'as (A horse) having a low place for the saddle, and high behind; with a protuberance in the 1 reast; a sort of palm ; (a camel) whose head, neck, and lack are bent; hollow-backed (a man;; long (night).
A^Lil iqfdr (v.n. 4 of y>>), Being ruined,

oUl (
desolate, desert (liouse or country) ; travelling through a desert; wanting victuals.
a JUil aqfdl (pi. of qufi), Locks, bolts, bars;iqfal (v.n. 4 of Jtf), Locking or bolting (a door) ; causing (a caravan) to return; not allowing (an army) to proceed ; drying.
a aqall, Less, least; very little ;
aqalli darja, The least degree or quantity; the lowest computation, a minimum; aqalli ibdan, Least or meanest of servants ; aqalli qalll, At least;aqall u aqsar, Least and most; every particular. a aqallan, At least (m.c.). a iqlds (v.n. 4 of u0^), Having a
small bunch appearing (a camel); becoming fat in summer (a she-camel), when she gives no milk.
A iqla (v.n 4 of £li), Hoisting sail, going with full sail; intermitting, going off (a fever) ; ceasing, giving over.
a iqlaq (v.n. 4 of c^5), Disturbing, disquieting.
a iqldl (v.n. 4 of ji), Diminishing; being without, being poor; seizing.
A f&>\ aqldvn (pi. of qalam), Reeds of which they make pens, pens ; aqldmi bad-arqdm, Malignant writings, satires, libels. a oils! aqlaf\ Uncircumciscd. a aqld, A key.
A iqlld (for P. kalid), A key. g u-Adil uklldisy Euclid.
iqllm (G. fcXt/xa), A clime, climate, or country ;haft iqllm, The seven climates, the whole world.
aqllmd, iqllmd, Name of Adams daughter.
iqlimlyd, Name of Adams daughter; the ore, scum, or dross of gold or silver; a kind of white earth litharge.
a aqmar, Moons; (met.) beloved
ones ;iqmdr (v.n. 4 of Being bright; being in moonlight; being struck by an untimely frost.
A iqmds, Dipping one in water.
a £Uil iqmai (v.n. 4 of £>*), Subduing, hurnbliug, bringing into subjection ; break -ing.
a iqnd (v.n. 4 of ^), Satisfying,
rendering content; turning the face towards, fixing the eyes at, stretching the neck in order to look at anything ; holding the head erect; inclining a vessel so as to pour out of it; sending to pasture.
g aqantalauqi, A kind of white
g aqantiyun, A kind, of thorn.
a fyi! aqnum, uqnum, A substance or principle; a person of the sacred Trinity.
a *\fi\ iqwd (v.n. 4 of ^y), Being empty, deserted, uninhabited; alighting at deserted dwellings; lacking provisions ; being empty-bellied ; being or making poor, re ducing to poverty ; composing verses end-
88 )
ing with different vowels or an unequal number of consonauts; verses so composed.
aqwaq, The white Indian poplar.
AJV\ aqwnl (pi. of qanl), Words, sayings, opinions; agreements, promises; aqivdli sadaqat-ma' dl, Words full of sincerity.
a aqwdm (pi. of qaum), Peoples, nations ; castes.
Ciqush, A lion ; a tiger; a leopard.
a aqwam, More or most straight, upright, just.
g aqumdrisun, Wild fennel.
g aqumdll, Honey-water.
a aqwiyd (pi. of qawi), Strong,
g aquyildsamun, Oil of balsam.
a aqhar, More or most oppressive, stronger.
a aqydd (pi. of qaid), Fetters, chains, shackles.
g iqydnos, The ocean.
^ ah, ak, Calamity, misfortune ; vice, defect, blemish.
a akdbir, The rich, powerful, gran-
d *es, nobles ;akdbir u as da hi r. Great and small, grandees and plebeians .
a ukdr, A vine-dresser; a tiller of ground.
a akkdr, A farmer, husbandman, tiller of the ground.
akdri8, A mushroom, a fungus, a
a I*;Vs! akdrim (pi. of akram). Most noble ; nobles, grandees.
a akasirat, akasira (Ar. pi. of P.
kisra). The Khosroes, kings of Persia, a family title, like the Caesars or the Ptolemies.
a akdlll (pi. of iklll), Crowns, dia-
dems, #c.
p dkdm, A mushroom, a fungus.
akdma, ukdma, Stuffed chitterlings.
a ikbab (v.n. 4 of <4^), Falling
prostrate ; throwing prostrate.
akbar, Greater, greatest; the Emperor Akbar, who reigned in India from 1555 to 1605. obi akbar-abdd, Agra.
^$7^! akbarl, Name of a gold coin (in India).
akbiyd (in Zand and Pazand), A
dkup, The inside of the mouth. akt, Act (of a play, m.c. from Fr.
or E.).
a aktdf (pi. of katif, kitf), Shoul-
ders ;zu l-aktdf, Name of Shapur, a king of Persia.
a iktihal (v.n. 8 of ), Anoint-
ing or rubbing the eye with a collyrium or black powder.

uu^l ( 89
a *\y£\ ildird* (y.n. 8 of ), Hiring, renting.
a oLixSA iktisa* (y.n. 8 of y-X), Dressing oneself.
a iktisab (v.n. 8 of ), Gain-
ing, acquiring; striving, endeavouring to gain.
a UxS! iktifa* (v.n. 8 of PUS), Inverting (a vessel); being content and satisfied; being sufficient.
a aktam, Gor-bellied, satiated. st akit makit, A grain, to which
many wonderful properties are ascribed.
a jUxS! iktinaz (v.n. 8 of yX), Being closely packed or set; being filled; being collected.
a iktinaf (v.n. 8 of ), En-
a fiUxS! iktinah (v.n. 8 of Ax£), Scrutinizing, getting to the bottom of, endeavouring to become thoroughly acquainted with ; iktinahi sabab kardan, To penetrate into the true cause.
a iktiwa> (v.n. 8 of Searing,
cauterizing, or branding oneself.
a iktiyal (v.n. 8 of Mea-
suring (corn) ; measuring for another; receiving by measure.
iksar (v.n. 4 of j&), Being very talkative ; increasing, multiplying; being abundant (wealth) ; flowering, blossoming (the palm-tree).
aksar, More or most numerous, copious, plentiful; the greater number, the majority ; generally, mostly, chiefly ; often, frequently; commonly, usually aksar auqat, Often, generally, frequently.
a aksara, a>j&A aksariya (=
aksar), Generally, etc. f
a aksam, Large-bellied; full, replete,
saturated ; fat, fleshy ; wide, broad.
akaj,, A species of wild apple; a medlar ; a long pole with an iron hook, used by ice-house people in breaking and pulling to the banks ice from rivers and other pieces of water; grappling-irons.
akaj, A sort of wild apple, a medlar.
& akah, akahj, akakh. A de-
a akhal, One who has black eye-
lashes; black-eyed ; having the eyes anointed with collyrium; the middle vein of the arm.
a akhalhd (P. pi. of the preceding), The middle veins of arms.
akahwan, ukuhwdn, Camomile. a ^aS! akdar, Dark-coloured.
ikdish, akdish, Of a mixed breed ; a bastard, a mongrel; mixture, union; beloved, sought; sentient soul.
a ukar (pi. of ukrat), Globes, spheres, balls.
akar, Wood of aloes.
A ikrdm (v.n. 4 of f/), Honouring,
) ejtfl
respecting, venerating; treating with attention and ceremony; honour, respect; favours.
akardni, Anything that has no consistence or permanency, as clouds, wind, snow, &c.
a *!/! ikrdh (v.n. 4 of /), Forcing against ones will; dislike, abhorrence, aversion, detestation.
akarsad, Bellitory ; Dracunculus. akrafs, Parsley.
a akram, More or most noble, great,
generous, most merciful, bountiful.
# akrufis A walnut-tree.
akruhak, A kind of Persian gum or balsam, excellent for the closing of wounds.
t ikrit, The island of Crete or
akus, A masons chisel; a hooked
a aksas (pi. of kuss), Vulvae.
a Jliksdl (v.n. 4 of J~£), Covering without consummating (beasts or men).
AxZ) akasta, Bound, tied. a £~a! aksah, Lame, unable to move. a aS! aksad, Dull, flat (market). g yfWby*aksuldyatun, An aquatic plant.
aksun, iksun, Satin, particularly a black kind (worn by princes); a species of brocade.
a-S^ akasa, Suspended, hanging, adhering.
a ikslr, An elixir, the philosophers stone ; alchemy ;iksiri daulat, The elixir of life or prosperity (a book so called); iksiri rang (the elixir of complexion), Wine;iksiri mardumi, The same. a ^ iksir-gar, An alchemist. a ijj**iksiri, An alchemist.
Aj£\ aksiya, A general name for malt liquor.
axa^I akashta, Strong; fastened ; full. a akshafy Destitute of a helmet or
shield in battle ; bald on the temples, bald.
a aksham, One who labours under a defect of the body, or blemish in his pedigree.
a iA>yAS! akshus, Dodder. a akfa (pi. of kaf ), Equal, resembling ; equals ;ikfa (v.n. 4 of US), Inclining the upper part of a bow, so as not to make it perpendicular, when shooting ; composing verses which end with different vowels or consonants (a poet) ;akiffa (pi. of kaff), Persons who prevent or hinder, rivals.
ajU£! ikfdr (v.n. 4 of yZ), Causing one to become an infidel; calling one such.
a JUS! ikfdl (v.n. 4 of Ja£), Entrusting (to another) the administration of ones affairs ; making another ones surety. akfuda, The Caspian Sea.

JKI ( 90 )
akak (?), A townlet or village in Khurasan.
akakra, akalkara, Pellitory; I
a jn dkil, akil, An eater, a devourer ; a i (tyrannical) ruler;akl (v.n.), Eating, food ;akl u shurb, Eating and drinking; meat and drink.
a iklal (v.n. 4 of J*'), Fatiguing, jading; having jaded camels; having a needy family or needy relations.
m ukulkd (also spelt and A gift, a present.
a iklil, A crown, diadem, chaplet,
wreath, or garland; name of the seventeenth lunar mansion; iklilu l-jabal (the crown of the mountain), A herb smelling like frankincense, rosemary;iklilu'l-malik (the royal crown), The herb melilot.
akalyun, A kind of stuff made entirely of silk or of velvet, worked with flowers and other figures ; the Gospel. a akam (pi. of akamat), High hills. csJUSA akmak, akmal, A vomiting ; a
a ikmal (v.n. 4 of J*£), Perfecting, completing, accompli>hing; perfectiou, completion, fulfilment, consummation.
a akwam (pi. of kimm), Buds, follicles ; (pi. of kumm) sleeves ; ikmam (v.n. 4 of ££), Producing buds or follicles; making sleeves.
a akamat, akamah, A high hill.
a akmal; More or most perfect, complete.
akmun bazan, The herb vervain.
a akmah, Blind from the birth;
a akndf (pi. of kanaf). Parts,
sides, environs, borders, confines;ikndf (v.n. 4 of -^), Receiving under protection ; preserving; assisting.
A^ akndn (pi. of kinn), Veils, umbrellas, shades, or coverings, under which anything is kept, sheltered, or preserved ; iknan (v.n. 4 of &), Concealing in ones mind.
a akinnat (pi. of kinn), Veils.
2^1 dkanj, A hook used by ice-house people in drawing ice from pools.
akanda, akunda, A stable, a manger. aknun, Now, at this time; already ; therefore; for, still; but, however. f \ aku, An owl; a bird of ill omen. a akwab (pi. of kub), Cups, goblets
(such as have neither handles nor spouts).
akwdriyum, Aquarium (m.c. from
Ajiyi akwdz (pi. of kuz), Cups, tankards, jugs.
akwdn, Name of a demon destroyed by Rustam;akawan, Flower of the argha-wan.
8^1 akuch, A medlar.
a jyi akdl, A great eater, devourer, glutton.
a akyds (pi. of kis), Purses;(pi. of
kayyis), Sagacious, ingenious, prudent.
akikh, A sausage; the intestines, guts ; a tendon; cat-gut; lute, harp, fiddle-strings.
a akyad, More or most decided or
a J-sS'\ akil, An eater, a glutton ; eaten, devoured; a cup-companion, mess-mate, boarder.
dg, Name of a poisonous milky tree which grows in India ; (in Zand and Pa-zand) wheat.
dgdhdar, Watchful, attentive. ugal (S. udgdra), The remainders of chewed betel-leaf.
dgdh, Aware, wary; intelligent, knowing, acquainted with; prudent; vigilant, attentive; notice, news, indication, information ;dgdh budan, To be aware or informed;dgdh shudan, gardidan (bar gar-didan), yaftan, To become informed, aware of;dgdh kar dan, garddnidan, To inform, advise, certify.
agahanidan, To indicate, inform, signify, announce, certify ; to warn.
agdhi, Notice, intelligence, news, information ; attention, vigilance ;agahi numiidan, To be careful, provident;agahi yaftan, To become certified, aware of.
agahidan, To inform, advise, certify.
agada, Filled, stuffed, crammed. agar, agir, agar, The buttocks.
agar, If; although; sweet-scented flag ; (S. agura) aloes-wood. ugra, Gruel, pottage.
agar-chand, Although, nevertheless.
agar-chi, Although, notwithstanding.
agar-na, If not, otherwise, else. agirift, A certain number of
dgra, Agra, once the capital of Hindustan.
ssf\ agri, A native of Agra.
agaryun, The itch, the scab.
$\ agast, The star Canopus.
dgasta, Wetted ; smeared ; mixed; agist a, Firmly bound.
Js-Sl dgush, An embrace; the bosom. te&ZS agashta, Wetted ; smeared ; mixed ; agishta, Firmly bound.
dgaft, dgift, Grief, sorrow, affliction ; murrain or blight.
agilyun, A seven-coloured silk stuff, flowered silk of Damascus (see ejW).
dgan, The stuffing of a pillow; a stuffer.


agnan, A cave, cavern.
dgam-bdlin, Flocks of wool, or other stuff with which they fill cushions, pillows, or saddles.
dganj, A sausage ; a sheeps pudding stuffed; filled, full.
^ dgand, He filled; filled; stuffing. dgandagl, Plumpness, fulness.
0*^1 dgandan, To fill, stuff, cram.
dganda, Filled; anything stuffed or crammed ; a sausage ; large, fat; flourishing, cultivated ;dganda kardan, To fill idganda, dgunda, A stable, stall, or manger.
aganda-par, Stuffed with feathers ; having a rich plumage.
f* aganda-khav, With full buttocks
Jitf aganda-gosh-, One whose ears
are stopped ; deaf; hardened in wickedness.
s.u^ aganda-ydl, With a rich, flowing
dganish, Stuffing (of cotton or
dganidan, To stuff, to fill, to cram. dganida, Stuffed, crammed. dguch, A hook, harpoon, grappling-
)f \ dgur, A burnt brick.
dgosh, An embrace; the bosom ; as much as the arms can contain ; a servant, a slave.
dgoshidan, To embrace ; to beget, bring forth, give birth to ; to deliver, hand over, send.
dgun, Inverted, reversed ; contrary.
AS]\ dgah, Intelligent, consciSus, wary.
t aS\ aga, A file.
^\ dgahi, Knowledge, wisdom ; wariness.
dgij = q.v.
dgish, Suspended; drawn out. dgilun, Flowered silk of Damascus. agin, Fat; (in comp.) full;am-bar-dgin, Filled with amber.
dl, A sort of fish; a whale; a fatal disorder to which women are liable till the seventh day after their confinement; reddish yellow, shining, carnation; a tree whose roots are used for dyeing and medicinal purposes; reddish; fraud, treachery, deceit, plot, snare; a high place ; swift walk; a stab with a lance ;dli shiraz, Wine;ddi muasfar, Fiery, ruddy; a kind of fish.
A dl (rt. J*t), Offspring, posterity, progeny, descendants; family, house, race, dynasty ; mirage, especially at the beginning of the day ;dli sultdni, Royal family, dynasty;dli 'usman, The posterity of Osman or Othman, the first king of the
) m
Turks, the royal family of Constantinople ; dli imrdn, The family of Imran ;dli ghadr, Perfidious.
t dl, Royal seal, mark, or signature (seeU*Jj\).
a al, The Arabic article answering to the.
J! il, Name of a city and country ;ul, He.
SY J! il, God.
a J! ill, God; a treaty; an oath ; security ; relationship; complaint; hatred, enmity ; a mine.
W did, Reddish colour; contamination (in comp.) contaminating ; contaminated. a did, Benefits, favours, kindnesses.
N aid, Ho! halloa! have a care!aid td, Beware! that . .
a a-ld, Is it not ? holloa ho! well done pry thee verily, indeed, forsooth ; ilia, But, unless, except.
t ^ dld-bdliq (spotted fish), Trout. a dldt (pi. of dlat), Instruments, utensils, apparatus, tools, arms, harness; tackling;dldti bait, Household furniture; dldti shikam, The bowels.
<3^ alachiq, 3**-^ aldchiq (3*^), Felt tents (pi. of q.v.).
alachi (S. eliku), Small cardamoms. ^ dldr, Name of the founder of a sect. dldriydn, Disciples, followers of Alar. alarum, Alarum (m.c. from E.). alas, A live coal.
Aldsdndard (G. AXe^avSpos), Alexander.
aldtini (G. cAaTtioy), Ivy; bindweed.
uldgh, uldq, A forcing of one to
work gratis; a relay of post horses; a courier; a small horse, ass. a dlaf (pi. of alf), Thousands. a jSt ilaq (v.n. of 3^)> Falsehood; false lightning (i.e. when no rain follows) ; alldq, A liar.
a alaql (pi. of alqiyat), Questions,
problems; misfortunes, adversities.
a al-alif, A solitary person, a single individual; one.
alula, aldla, A tulip.
a fP\ dldm (pi. of alam), Cares; griefs, pains; misfortunes.
ulam, A message; a courier, messenger.
a al-amdn, Calling for quarter or
mercy in battle.
alamdn, A German.
a (jT\ dldn, ($\ alan, Name of a country, a town, or a fortress in Turkistan.
al-an, Now, presently, at this time, now-a-days.
jj aldndti-dizh, Name of a fortress in Turan
a ildnat (v.n. 4 of ^), Softening, a smoothing.

*T (
M^aldna, A falcon; a falcons nest; a shadow; the ring of a door, by which it is shut; a crow.
a alanlf Belonging to the present time.
alaniyun (G. cAeviov), Elecampane, helenium.
j^aldv, aldv, A flaming fire.
alawa, A trivet, pot-hook, fire-place ; two sticks for playing at hockey.
a ilahi, Referring or belonging to God, divine.
dlay, (in comp.) Defiling ; a defiler. ilaychx, Cardamoms. alayish, Contamination, defilement, corruption, pollution, impurity ;alayishi dunyawlya, The corruptions of the world.
(j***f^ alaidan, To contaminate ; to confound, to mix; to be contaminated.
a alb (v.n.), Drawing together, assembling ; instigating, impelling, driving (camels) ; = T. s-Jl q.v.
W31 alba (in Zand and Pazand), Milk; mallows.
W31 ulba, Sheeps heart and liver hashed and fried in oil.
a W31 alibba* (pi. of labib), Wise, prudent, intelligent, ingenious, industrious, assiduous.
a srWW albab (pi. of lubb), Minds, understandings, intellects;ilbdb (v.n. 4 of C-J), Stopping, remaining in a place. a^33 ilbad, A carder or cleaner of cotton. a ilbas (v.n. 4 of Clothing,
J&W33 ulbaq, A kind of winter garment. a &*31 ulbat, A congregation, assembly, crowd ; hunger; alabat, A cuirass of leather.
a *a*3\ al-batta, Certainly, necessarily, in every manner, altogether ;al-batta khwd-ham dad, I will certainly give (it).
alburz, Name of a celebrated mountain near Hamadan in Persia, famous for a number of temples of the Magi; an athletic, courageous man.
a*!! ulba, A kind of food (see WN). t aZp, A strong man, athlete, hero.
The Alps (m.c. from F. Alpes). t s_J! alp arslan, Name of king
and hero.
alpitagin, pr.n. Alpitagin. a <*3^[ diai, ala, An instrument, utensil, tool, apparatus ; tackle, rigging; a bier; the penis ;alati harb, Machines of war, military apparatus, arms;dlai hirfat, Implements of trade or craft;alati mardi, The penis.
oil dluty Plump buttocks ; the chine. a iltibas (v.n. 8 of tj*~3), Being
obscure, intricate, confused, mixed, doubtful, perplexing ; confusion, intricacy, doubt, perplexity; double-entendre, equivocalness, ambiguity.
92 ) JT
a iltisam (v.n. 8 of Covering
(the mouth) with a veil; kissing.
a iltijd' (v.n. 8 of *W*), Fleeing for refuge (to a man or place) ; refuge, protection ; entreaty, petition, solicitation, supplication ;iltijd awardan (bar awardan), iltijd kardan, To take refuge with, to resort for protection to.
a'oW^I iltihd (v.n. 8 of ^), Becoming bearded, getting a beard.
a iltihdd (v.n. 8 of a^I), Inclin-
ing; taking refuge; departing from the faith, becoming impious and unbelieving.
a iltihds (v.n. 8 of u*J), Hinder-
ing, keeping back, rendering helpless.
a iltihaf (v.n. 8 of <-A^3), Clothing
oneself with any kind of upper garment (lihdf).
a fUrd! iltihdm (v.n. 8 of ^), Being filled up with flesh (lahm), healing (a wound) ; waxing hot and bloody (a battle).
a olJuJl iltizaz (v.n. 8 of ^3), Savouring, relishing.
a iltizdq (v.n. 8 of jyi), Adhering,
a fdysN iltizdm (v.n. 8 of £)3), Being necessary or expedient; necessity, expediency ; being assiduous, sticking firm to; taking upon oneself ; hire, rent, lease ;iltizdman, =the following.
a (j-Ua alat-shinaSj Skilled in arms. a iltilab (v.n. 4. of '-^), Playing,
a iltifdt (v.n. 8 of ct>6J), Turning
towards another; respect, courtesy, reverence ; attention, regard; favour; (in rhetoric) an apostrophe ;iltifdt budan, To turn toward ;iltifdti mulukana, Royal favour ;iltifdt kardan, To make a present (to an inferior).
a iltifdf (v.n. 8 of *-AJ), Growing
luxuriantly, being entangled; wrapping oneself up in a garment.
a iltiqd\ Meeting, coming together, seeing one another, interview.
a U&xH iltiqat (v.n. 8 of bsJ), Collecting, gathering, picking up; stumbling unexpectedly (upon one).
a f*Ux31 iltiqam (v.n. 8 of ^), Taking a morsel (luqma) ; devouring, swallowing.
a iltimas (v.n. 8 of ing, supplicating, petitioning, beseeching; prayer, request, entreaty ; supplication, petition iltimas kardan (guftan), To petition, to beg, to solicit (m.c.).
a iltimd1 (v.n. 8 of £*3), Shining,
flashing, being resplendent; carrying away, snatching; being changed (colour).
t Va*x3^ dl-tamghdy al-tamgha (red
stamp), Royal seal; a grant of land under the royal seal in perpetuity; royal insignia;

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