Mohammedan saints and sanctuaries in Palestine

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Mohammedan saints and sanctuaries in Palestine
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Luzac's oriental religions series, volume 5
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Journal of the Palestine Oriental society
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Muslim saints
Saints -- Worship
Muslim shrines -- Palestine
Journal of the Palestine oriental society
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Asia -- Palestine
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Luzac's Oriental Religions Series.

VOL. I.: Indian Mythology, according to the

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VOL. III.: Semitic Magic : its Origins and Develop-
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10s. 6d. net.

VOL. IV. : The Religion of the Samurai. A Study of
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Oriental Religions Series










Physician to the German Deaconesses Hospital, Jerusalem, and to the International Moravian
Leper Home, Jerusalem; President (1927) of the Palestine Oriental Society; Author of Aberglaube
und Volksmedizin im Lande der Bibel

LUZAC & CO. / LONDON / 1927




The primitive features of Palestine are disappearing so quickly
that before long most of them will be forgotten. Thus it has become the
duty of every student of Palestine and the Near East, of Archaeology
and of the Bible, to lose no time in collecting as fully and accurately
as possible all available material concerning the folklore, customs
and superstitions current in the Holy Land. Such material is, as we
have begun to learn, of the greatest importance for the study of
ancient oriental civilization and for the study of primitive religion.
I, as a son of the country, have felt it my special duty to help
in this scientific work; but, since I do not claim to be a trained
archaeological student, I am not attempting to do more than place
on record the bare material which I have collected, leaving the task
of comparison with other data to the professional archaeological and
biblical student.

This change in local conditions is due to the great influences
which the West is exerting upon the East, owing to the introduction
of European methods of education, the migration of Europeans to
Palestine, of Palestinians to Europe and especially to America, and,
above all, to the influence of the Mandatory Power. The simple,
crude, but uncontaminated patriarchal Palestinian atmosphere is
fading away and European civilization, more sophisticated but more
unnatural, is taking its place.

Our subject of study leads us into the most holy and mysterious
shrines of the life of the inhabitants. It is not always easy to examine
the structure of a sanctuary and the objects found in it; but it is
still less easy to gain the confidence of the fellah to such a degree
that he will speak freely and with detail about his religious practices
and rites and about the nature and character of the saints, the
knowledge of which is of the greatest scientific interest. Thus,
even for me, it was not always possible to get at the root of many



The present work is based on a study of 235 shrines which I
have examined personally, 348 shrines about which exact material
was available, attendance at Mohammedan festivals, dikers, molads
and other ceremonies, a large assortment of stories told about the
saints, a large collection of verses sung by the people in honour of
the awlia, and a very extensive collection of amulets. My voluminous
collection of Palestinian proverbs and idioms has helped me in the
explanation of some customs and practices connected with saints
and shrines. Every superstition which might help in the explanation
or comparison of the text has been cited and analysed. Yet the
subject is so vast and complicated that I cannot claim to have gathered
more than a handful of grain from the large heap of corn. I hope
that soon more of this unexplored material will receive attention.

I have made as much use as possible of the Arabic literature
touching on the subject since only a small part of this has hitherto
been systematically employed for comparative purposes. The resem-
blances which can be found in such Arabic literary sources show
that much of the existing folklore of Palestine is not peculiar to
this country but common to the Arabic world. Of European literature
I have made use only of such works as deal directly with Palestine.

A study of Saints and Sanctuaries brings the reader into direct
contact with the daily life and customs of the inhabitants of Palestine.
It explains much that would be otherwise obscure in popular belief
and superstition: it affords a glimpse into the mysterious regions of
local ceremonies and throws light on much that is dark in the working
of the popular mind. What is still more interesting, it makes possible
a comparison with customs, practices and rites of primitive times.
It is remarkable how many ideas have remained virtually unchanged
for thousands of years; and the study of many current beliefs may
disclose the clue to much that has hitherto remained unexplained
in the religious usages of the ancient east.

The various ideas described in the following pages are common
to both Mohammedans and Christians among the Palestinian peasantry;
where the two groups differ the differences are only superficial.

I take this opportunity to thank Dr. W. F. Albright, the Director
of the American School of Oriental Research, for his valuable advice
and continued encouragement; and Dr. H. Danby for his help in the
completion of the book.

Jerusalem, May 15th, 1927



PREFACE................................................................. V

A. SITES AND TYPES OF SANCTUARIES..................................... 1

1. Sites.............................................................. 1

a) Their relation to human habitations........................... 2

b) High places............................ ................... 3

c) Relation of shrines to cemeteries ......................... 7

d) Relation of shrines to ruins........................... 9

2. Structure of the sanctuaries...................................... 10

a) The building................................................... 11

b) The tomb....................................................... 22

c) Trees.......................................................... 30

d) Water courses................................................ 38

e) Caves.......................................................... 42

3. Types of sanctuaries................................... . 46

, I. Sanctuaries with a shrine (maqam) and a tomb................. 47

II. Maqams without a tomb.....................................50

III. A tomb without a building................................... 53

IV. A cave with or without a tomb............................. 56

V. A simple stone enclosure..................................... 60

VI. A watercourse (spring or cistern)............................ 63

VII. A solitary tree............................................. 69

VIII. Heaps of stones............................................ . 73

IX. A single large stone or a rock.......................... . 77

B. RITES AND PRACTICES ................................................ 85

1. Religious acts................................................... 86

I. Utterance of simple protective words .................... 86

H. Repetition of prayers......................................... 91

III. Reverence.................................................. 92

IV. Religious services in a shrine as in a mosque .......... 98

V. The barakeh................................................... 99

2. Placing private property under the protection of a well...........102

3. Tying of rags..................................... ..... 103

4. Healing......................................................... 106

5. Oaths...........................................................125

6. Vows..............................................................130

I. Things which serve for the upkeep of the maqam.............142

a) Offerings used to maintain and beautify the shrine .... 142

b) Material for the repair of the maqam...................i51

c) Personal work............................................153



II. Food vows....................................................154

a) Animal sacrifices..........................................154

b) Qurban (offering to God), or walimeh lil-lah (banquet for God) 174

c) Meatless food..............................................175

III. Offerings given to needy persons in the name of the Saint 177

IV. Religious vows...............................................179

V. Bodily chastisement and vows to be fulfilled on the body of the

vower or person for whom the vow is taken..................184

VI. Vows not connected with any holy person or shrine.............185

VII. Vows for the dead and the djinn..............................186

a) Offerings to demons ..................................... 186

b) Offerings to the dead......................................188

7. Celebration of feasts...............................................193

8. Processions 217

I. Circumcision processions......................................218

II. Rain processions........................................... 219

C. NATURE AND CHARACTER OF THE SAINTS....................................234

1. Characteristics of the awlia........................................235

I. Bodily characteristics.........................................235

a) Sex and age of the Saints..................................235

b) Mode of life...............................................238

c) Imprints of hands, feet, etc............................ 241

d) Appearance in the form of animals ...................... 243

II. Religious and moral characteristics............................246

a) Irritability and forbearance...............................246

b) Supernatural phenomena.....................................248

c) The two antagonistic classes of Saints.....................251

2. Miracles............................................................255

3. Relation of the Saints to men.......................................263

a) Saints as neighbours.............................................264

b) Saints as leaders............................................... 265

c) Saints as judges.................................................270

d) Saints as supernatural beings....................................270

4. Relation of the Saints to God and popular religion.................271

a) Relation to God...............................................271

b) Position of the Saints in popular religion.......................278

5. Origin of the Saints................................................280

I. Historical Saints..............................................292

a) Biblical characters........................................292

b) Qoranic personages.........................................295

c) Saints from Mohammadan history.............................297

II. Saint9 whose descendants are living.......................... 302

III. Darawis......................................................310






A traveller in Palestine is struck by the baldness of the hill country.

Here and there some gardens, orchards or vineyards are to be
met with, generally grouped in the vicinity of a village. During the
spring and the first part of the summer some patches of land are
sown with various cereals. Scattered here and there on the barren
mountains or in the plains a solitary large green tree or a small
group of trees beautify the surrounding region, giving it a fresh and
an animated aspect. They are a welcome shelter for the wayfarer;
protecting him from the burning rays of the summer sun. These
trees are sacred to Mohammedans since they indicate the presence
of some nab% well or sdh. This sacredness was and is still the only
reason why they escape the destruction which has been the fate of
the forests of Palestine. It is a pity that we have not countless
sacred trees commemorating holy persons, for Palestine would then
be more wooded and consequently more healthy, fertile and beautiful.
If such a treeand most of them can look back on centuries of
lifecould tell us all its experiences, we should know much more
about the history and folklore of this country. I shall try to analyse
the nature of Mohammedan sanctuaries in Palestine of which trees
are only one feature, and I hope thus to be able to explain some
religious problems.

By sanctuaries I do not mean only those places where a well-known
Prophet or well was buried, but every placeshrine, tomb, tree,

shrub, cave, spring, well, rock or stonewhich is invested with some



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

religious reverence, even if such reverence be based on superstition,
and thus non-religious in the sense of the Qoranic teaching and
creed. Only such a widening of the field of research will enable
us to approach many very important questions of comparative religion
and primitive belief.

a) Their Relation to Human Habitations

Sacred shrines are innumerable in Palestine. Nearly everywhere
in the .villages, on the mountains, in valleys, in the fieldsdo we
meet with them. There is hardly a village, however small it may be,
which does not honour at least one local saint. But generally every
settlement boasts of many. Thus, for example, 'Awartah possesses
fourteen, eleven being in the village* itself and three outside at some
distance from it; cAn&ta seven1 (one is not accepted by all inhabitants1 2);
Jericho six; the Mount of Olives six;3 Kolonia five. Such local saints
are honoured not only by the inhabitants of the village to which
they belong, but in many cases their renown is widespread and
pilgrimages of individuals or companies are made in their honour.
Some of these shrines are situated in or close to the village. In such
a case one of them serves as a mosque where the inhabitants perform
their prayers.4 But the greater number of them lie outside, and
some even at a considerable distance from the area occupied by the
town or village. Thus we meet with a large number of holy places
in the fields far from any habitation. As every village possesses lands
which stretch for miles beyond the settlement itself, every shrine

1 The names of the different saints will be given at the end of this study.

2 The sullah (pi. of saleh, pious man) inhabiting the ruins, at the entrance of
the village from the west side, are not accepted by all as authentic. My guide,
Mohammed of this village, related that some people had heard at different
occasions *iddeh (religious music) at this place. A fellah who passed water at
this spot was at once afflicted with eye-trouble. These sulldh inhabit the ruins
of a church. The son of es-seji *Abd es-Salam, es-selj Slim an, is also a less
important welt

3 A seventh holy place on the Mount of Olive was Ilarrubet el-Asara, a tree
which grew on the western slope, in a piece of ground which belongs at present
to a Latin Mission. The tree has been cut down.

4 Such djawamv especially those of villages situated in the direct neighbour-
hood of the large cities are not much used. Many of the peasants come on
Friday to the city to perform their mid-day prayer (salat ed-djum'ah)t and to
transact their business.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


situated in such land belongs to that village, and is also honoured
primarly by its inhabitants. There are exceptions to this rule.
ES-seh es-Sidri in the lands of cAnata is honoured mostly by the
semi-Bedouin living to the east of the village.

The following is an analysis of the sites of shrines taken from'a
few villages around Jerusalem:

Name of the village Number of sanctuaries Those inside the village Those outside the house area

Anata 7 3 4
'Esawiyeh 3 1 2
Kolonia 5 1 4
'Awartah 14 11 3

Some villages have their awlia (pi. of well) only in the house area
itself or in the immediate vicinity of it. This is the case in Bet
Hanina, Sftrbahir and §a*fat, each with four such saints.

b) High Places

The shrines are mostly situated on an elevated placethe top of
a mountain, a hill or a small elevation in the plainthus commanding
all the neighbouring country. Even such shrines as are built on the
sloping side of a mountain, or just above the bed of a valley are so
placed that they more or less dominate the surrounding area and
are visible from afar. Comparatively few welis are situated in valleys;
but if one should be, it is generally found to be in the neighbourhood
of the junction of two wadis or in a place where the wadi has
widened its bed, so that they are seen at a distance from different
directions. Many a sacred place, although situated on an elevated
spot, is not easily seen owing to the character of the well, in that
it has no building and no large tree. This is true of all such
sanctuaries as are found near caves, enclosures, springs, cisterns, rocks
or heaps of stones. Some shrines on the tops of mountains are:

en-nabi Samwil Mizpah of Samuel,

es-seh el-Qatrawani between Bir Zet and Atarah

es-seh Ahmad el-Karaki et-Taiyar Qastal

Abu Hurerah Wadi es-Sari'ah

el-'Uzer near 'Awartah

es-seh el-TJmari ed-Djbe'eh near Bet 'Anan

el-Mas'ad Mount of Olives.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

The shrine of e§-§eh el-'Umari ed-Djbe'eh is built on the top of
a high mountain. The view from this spot to the west is magnificent.
The plain, Ramleh, Lydda, Jaffa and the sea are easily seen,
especially when the weather is clear. Around the maqam is a ruin1
and many natural caves. No tomb is to be seen, and the room
shows nothing but a mihrab. The two large carob trees withered
away owing to the severe winter of 19211922. Everybody who
takes refuge in this welt is absolutely protected.

By elevated places I do not mean only the very summit of a
mountain, but any spot which is high and to some extent dominates
the surrounding area, such as:

E§-seh Abd es-Salam Anata

Salman el-Farsi
En-nabi Liqia
Sifth ed-Dawacri
en-nabi Mftsa
en-nabi Yusif
es-§eh Yasin
e§-seh Ahmad
eS-Selj I'mar

Mount of Olives
Bet Liqia
near Jericho
Bet Idjza
Der Yasin
Hirbet Is'ideh
Bet Duqqu.

This peculiarity is very characteristic, not only of Palestinian
Mohammedan shrines, but also of sanctuaries elsewhere in the
Mohammedan world. Patons statement on this pointalthough not
absolutely correctis more exact than that of McCown. The first
writer says:2 wThe majority of the alleged tombs of saints in modern
Palestine are situated on the summits of high mountains. McCowns1 2 3
statements in this respect are hard to understand. I shall, later on,
discuss his first idea, namely: A very considerable number of shrines
are on hilltops because the cities or villages to which they belong
sought such sites, not because the hill is sacred. In reviewing
systematically the villages of the Jerusalem district which I have
visited for the purpose of this study, and noting exactly the position
of the shrines, I found thatfin 26 villages 70 /o of the shrines occupied
the top of a hill or mountain, 24/o were on the sloping side of the

1 The ruin is called Iprbet ed-Djbe'eh.

2 Annual of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem I, p. 62.

3 Annual of the American 8chool of Oriental Research in Jerusalem II and III, p. 63.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


mountain below its summit, and only 5% were in a valley or a plain.
Of these shrines 45% belong to the built maqan, 18% are tombs,
and 37% are sacred springs, trees, enclosures and caves. In other
words, only 52% (45% built shrines and 7% holy trees) would be
more or less easily seen, while the character of the other 48% lessens
the possibility of their being seen from a distance.

Nor do I agree with McGowns statement about Jerusalem. He
writes: There are vast numbers of shrines, several to every good
sized town, which are not easily seen, because they are not on hill
tops. Such is Jerusalem He does not appear to have considered
the following very important facts, wich make most of the shrines of
Jerusalem not easily seen:

1. The built shrines of most of the wells, inside the city, are low
in structure, and on their roofs houses have been erected. Examples
are: BairamSawiS, es-seh Bihan, es-seh Hasan el-Qerami.

2. The crowded houses in the city proper hide from sight shrines
which have no building above them.

3. Most of the important sacred places in the haram area are enclosed
in the Omar and Aqsa mosques, and naturally cannot easily be seen.

On the other hand the greater part of the shrines situated outside
the city-wall are easily seen; e.g. es-seh Ahmad et-Tori, Sacd u Sid,
es-seh Djarrah, es-9eh 'OkaSeh etc.

This choice of situation is not a new custom, for we read that
the people of the ancient Orient used to choose such places for the
erection of their temples and the worship of their gods. In Ezek. 62
we read: And say, Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord
God; Thus saith the Lord God to .the mountains and to the hills,
to the watercourses and to the valleys: Behold I, even I, will bring a
sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places. It is interesting
to see how these two verses1 refer to mountains, watercourses, valleys
and green treesin other words high places combined with water
and trees, a feature still characterizing the present shrines. L

Mountains and hills seem always to have played a great role in
human religion.1 2 It is interesting to note that all the great divine

1 Other verses are Lev. 26 so; Num. 33 62; 1 Kings 12 31, 1332; 2 Kings 17 29,
21 3, 23 5-19; Jer. 3 2; etc.

2 See Curtiss.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

works have, traditionally, been performed on mountains: Ararat and
the ark of Noah, Moriah and Abrahams sacrifice, Sinai and the
Law, Ebal and Gerizim with the blessing and the cursing. It is the
same also with Jesus: on a mountain he was tempted, was transfigured,
preached, prayed, was crucified, and from a mountain he ascended to
heaven. The prophets and kings also preferred these lofty places for
many of their important actions. Elijah received the word of the
Lord on Mount Horeb;1 the schools of the prophets were on hills
and mountains;1 2 on Mount Carmel Elijah won the victory over the
priests of Baal who worshisped their idols on this mountain;3 Moses
died on Mount Nebo, from whence he saw the Land of Promise;
Aaron died on the top of Mount Hor; on this mountain Eliezer was
ordained as his fathers successor. I need not multiply these
instances, which illustrate the fact that mountains were, in olden
times, regarded as in some degree sacred.4 This idea was adopted
from their predecessors by the Israelites and by them transmitted
to following generations.

A traveller through Palestine is struck by the many mountain
tops which are covered with a prominent weli\ still greater is the
number of summits which bear shrines undistinguishable from a
distance. Does this not indicate that the present inhabitants still
believe in the peculiar sanctity of mountains? McCown minimizes the
importance of this supposition; Curtiss5 and Paton stress it. Which
view is correct?

Many primitive ideas have unquestionably persisted through thousands
of years and can still be traced to the present day in one form or
another among the inhabitants of the ifnmovable east. The sacred
character of mountains seems to have been a widespread conception
in the ancient Orient. The modern Palestinian places most of his
shrines on mountains and hills, irrespective of the fact whether or
not these places serve for human habitation. Although most awlia

1 1 Kings 19 &-9.

2 1 Sam. 10 6.

3 H. Zeller, Biblisches Worterbuch, pp. 146, 147.

* Yahweh appeared on high places, 1 Kings 3 4-5. It was forbidden for the
Israelites to partake in the worship on high places like the heathen, Deut. 12 2;
Jer. 2 20; Ezek. 20 28-29; etc.

5 Curtiss, p. 134.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


are situated in the immediate vicinity of villages, it is striking that
so many uninhabited mountains have shrines. This fact proves that the
old idea of the sacredness of mountains has probably been transmitted
to the inhabitants of modern Palestine. They do not accept it
explicitly as such, but the old practice continues nevertheless.

c) Relation of Shrines to Cemeteries

Very important is the fact that the shrines or graves of many
wholy men are situated in the midst of cemeteries or adjacent to
them. The following list is a rough comparison between holy places
(shrines, graves, etc.) found in connection with cemeteries and those
having nothing to do with cemeteries: I

Name of the village Number of sanctuaries In cemetery Not in cemetery
et-Thr 6 3 3
Jericho 6 2 4
sa fat 4 3 1
Surbahir 4 1 3
CA nata 7 1 6

I should add the following facts. In Surbahir the five tombs
of ed-Dawari are counted as one shrine. The three tombs of
ed-Djarahid which represent in reality three holy places I have
also considered as one. The same is true of the two graves of
ed-Dawa'ri of sa*fat, which are to be seen in the cemetery.

The above list shows that 63% of the shrines are situated in a
cemetery; but the sanctuaries of some villages are in no way connected
with burial places, so that the general percentage of such a combination
amounts only to 30%. In some cases a cemetery surrounds the shrine,
while in other cases only a few tombs are found near by. The question
arises whether the burial place was formed around the shrine, or
whether the tomb of some distinguished man was built in an already
existing cemetery. In most cases the cemetery is the more recent,
the holy place leading to the choice of that place for public burial.
This is always the case where the shrine is an old one. But in
connection with awlia, of recent origin we nearly always find that
those men who were looked upon during their lifetime as blessed
men of God, were buried in the common cemetery, and became
welts after their death. Their tombs began to enjoy private and


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society:

finally general reverence. The following shrines are probably older
than the cemeteries in which they are found:

es-seh Nfiran1 Between Sallaleh and Han Yiinis


eS-Seh Badr Jerusalem

en-nabi Mfisa near Jericho

Rdjal el-'Amtid (Pig. 2, Plate III) Nablus.

The contrary is the case with:

es-seh Abu Halawi Jerusalem

es-£eh ez-Zu'beh 'Awartah.

Sanctuaries or sacred tombs situated in a large public cemetery
are met with in nearly every village and city. Some prominent
examples are:

es-seh 'Abd el-Fattah ed-Dawacri sacfat


eS-Seh Abft Sef
eS-Seh Zed
es-seh Abft Yamin
eS-Seh Ghanim
eMeh Sad
es-seh (i)Mbarak

Bet Anan

Bet Likia (Liqia)
Bet Iksa

The top of the highest point of the mountain on which Awartah
is built is crowned with the maqam of el-'Azerat. This contains
two rooms, the eastern one with two domes, the western with one.
The maqdm is surrounded by the cemetery. No cistern or tree
belongs to it. Not far from the shrine there is a pool hewn in
the rock. In the eastern room there is a prayer-niche, opposite
to which an entrance to a cave is seen. Many match boxes, oil
bottles and oil lamps are scattered here and there. The women
of the village assemble every feast-day in this place to perform
their prayers. The western room is large, lies higher and is i

i It is interesting to note that in the neighbourhood of this saint, as well as
around es-seh Ahmad es-Sarrisi of Abu Ghos, and es-seh Abdallah ofSa'fat only
young children are buried; In the case of e£-Seh Nuran I noticed, while the
Turks were digging trenches around the shrine, that the bodies of dead children
were always placed in large broken jars (cf. the Canaanite practice of burying
children in jars).

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 9

much less used. The dead are ritually washed here before they

are buried.

Shrines in whose neighbourhood only one or few tombs are
found are:

es-seh Ahmad et-Tori Jerusalem

eS-seh Badr Jerusalem

Sittna el-Hadrah Nablus.

There are two reasons why some prefer to bury their dead in the
vicinity of the grave of some welt1

1. The nearer the person is buried to a well or sehs tomb or
maqam, the greater is the blessing which he may receive in the world
to come. This is why so many Bedouin carry their important dead
from a great distance to be buried near a saints tomb. Thus the
Bedouin of er-Rasaydiyeh inter some of their dead around siuh
ed-Djarahid of the Mount of Olives, and the Tdwan carry their dead
to Nebi MfisS,.

2. The protection exercised by the saint, because of the general
respect he enjoys, is another cause for burying the dead close to the
wells tomb. This used to be practised especially by important
political families who were continually on bad terms with other
families. When a leader died they buried him near a sacred spot to
protect his body from being exhumed by his enemies and thus dis-
honoured. The man of God is sure to protect every thing put
under his care; nobody dares to molest the sanctity of a man so
buried. Such reasons led the family of fAbd el-Hadi of Nablus to
bury three members of their familyMohammad el-Husen, Yhsif
Sliman and fAbd el-Karimnear the maqam of el-Hadrah.

d) Relation of Shrines to Ruins

Another fact not without interst is that a great number of sacred
sites lie in or near a ruin. It is not to be expected that one will
always find remains of a large ruin; there may be only a few old
rock-hewn tombs, remains of a few houses, several old cisterns, or
some ancient pillars. Such a ruin in itself must have been a striking i

i A custom which is also prevalent among some Bedouin tribes, according to
Jaussen, Coutumes des Arabes, p. 99.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

object to the simple mind of the Palestinian, and the ruin certainly
existed long before the present shrine. A ruin, an artificial cave,
a solitary tree, or some old cisterns in a lonely deserted spot, would
stimulate the imagination of the fellah. Some night vision, or the
hallucination of seeing lights and hearing prayers or religious music,
enforce the idea of the sacredness of the spot. About 32% of all
the sanctuaries which I visited were in the vicinity of some ruin.

Some welts situated in or near a ruin are:

el-Qatrawani es-seh -el-'Umari N. of Bir Zet the ruins of a church.
ed-Djbe'eh near Bet 'Anan the ruins of several buildings.
Du-l-Kafl near Qatanneh Hirbet el-Kfereh.
Ahmad et-Taiyar Qastal ruins of a fortress.
*Abd el-'Aziz between Qastal
and Bet Stirik a ruin with a water reservoir, hewn in the rock.
Sittna es-samiyeh Kolonia a tomb hewn in the rock, and the canal of the spring is ancient.
es-Seh Husen Kolonia tombs hewn in the rock.
Abu Lemun W. N. W. of Bet Iksa a small ruin with two cisterns.
el-Mufaddel 'Awartah a rock-hewn tomb.


Let us approach a common type of well and examine it more
thoroughly. What do we find here? Of course the same objects are
not found in every case. We shall try to investigate every object
separately, leaving the classification till later. For our purpose we
will take note of the following: A building, a tomb, a tree (or a
group of trees), a water reservoir (cistern, well, spring, basin, etc.)
and a cave. It will be rather difficult to give an absolute description
of each one since they vary so much in the different parts of Palestine
that we rarely meet with two completely alike.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


a) The Building

The building itselfthe shrine, maqam, qubbeh, or, as it was
called in Biblical times, house of high places1is in most cases,
and in all the simpler cases, a quadrangular building. We will
consider at present only this form. The doorand there is only
one is low. There is generally one small window, but sometimes
there may be more (taqah, taqat or sarrdqah, sarraqat), though
occasionally there is none at all. The roof is a simple vaulted dome1 2
with a long perpendicular stone in the centre, which is raised above
the vault itself. This stone is in some cases cut in the form,of a
half-moon. Instead of such a stone an iron bar with three balls
the lowest the largestand a half-moon at the top may sometimes
be found.3 This dome-form (qubbeh) is a very characteristic feature
in Mohammedan shrines. It is not found only in the simple well,
but also in the large and important shrines of the prophets as well
as in common mosques. The qubbeh is, as Me Gown says,4 a
characteristic feature of the Palestinian landscape. Very often the
word qubbeh is used as a synonym of shrine, although originally
it stands for a vaulted building.5 The inside is always plastered and
whitewashed, but as the buildings are very often very old, everything
may consequently be defective. A great many of the maqdms are in
a pitiful state of disrepair, mainly due to neglect, winter storms and
old age. The war was another cause of their ruin; as in the case
of es-seh Ahmad el-Karaki et-Taiyar (Qastal), en-nabi Samwil (Mizpah
Samuel), es-seh Hasan (Bet Iksa), el-Qatrawani (N. of Bir Zet),
Abil-l-'On (Biddti), es-seh Abd el-Aziz (near Bet Surik), etc. During
the war some had to be levelled to the ground, in order to deprive
the enemy of a mark for his guns (es-seh Nhran, between Sallaleh
and Han Yftnis). Doors and other wooden parts were nearly always
taken away by the soldiers and used as fire wood (es-seh Anbar,
Abd es-Salam, el-fUmari ed-Djbeceh etc.). In some cases the villagers
have replaced the lost doors by others and repaired the shrines in

1 1 Kings 12 31; 1332.

2 The qubbeh of the Bedouin is an imitation of the text, Jaussen, 102.

3 Such a decoration is a sign of the building being of recent construction.

4 Annual II and III, 50.

6 See Muhit el-muhit, and Hava, s. v.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

a more or less primitive way, as in the case of el-Qatrawani, eS-Seh
Hasan and en-nabi Samwil.

An inspection of the interior of a shrine proper will show that
one or more niches (also called taqah) are situated in the wall, a
feature common to all. Actually they look like elongated cupboards.
Occasionally there may be only a single niche, though generally more
are to be met with. In the simple, small one roomed shrine of
es-Seh Badr, which lies on the top of a hill in the north-west part
of Jerusalem, I counted eight. In el-fUzer (Awartah) there are
some dozens of them. They are built at different heights and are
irregularly distributed in the four walls, without any regard for
symmetry. With few exceptions they are dirty, even the wall around
and especially the part below being badly smeared with oil. This
unsightly effect is due to the fact that it is here that oil lamps, oil
bottles, matches and other small objects are deposited.

The inside generally shows signs of having once been decorated
with hinnd or ntteh or both. The decoration consists of simple lines
running more or less parallel to each other, around the inside making
a sort of frieze. Often the frieze is more complicated. Some typical
designs are represented in Plate I.

But in addition to the frieze we find two other very important
decorations, viz. representations of the hand and imitations of palm
branches (sometimes twigs or trees), both of which are explained by
superstitious beliefs. In Mohammedan superstition the hands represent
the hand of Fatimeh (the daughter of the Prophet), in Christian the
hand of the Holy Virgin, and in Jewish the hand of God.1 This
superstitious decoration is said to bring blessing. We encounter it
very distinctly and often on the two outer sides of the door (sddghdt)
on the top stone (sdSiyeh), and on the inner walls of the shrine*
especially around the mihrab. It is generally an imprint of a human
hand dipped in blood, hinnd, or nileh. A dozen such impressions
may be seen in such shrines.

Not only in shrines but also on the doors of houses may such
impressions be seen. They are intended to protect the inhabitants
against the bad effects of the evil eye. Small imitations of the hand,
made of glass, mother-of-pearl, silver, gold or some other metal, are

1 Canaan, Aberglaube, pp. 64 ff., Doutte, Magic et Religion, pp. 325 ff.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


carried by small children for the same reason.1 Blood impressions
of the hand are rarely found. I have seen them on newly-built houses
when a sheep was sacrificed before the house was inhabited, as well
as at the feast of Bairam ('id ed-Dhiyeh): Once only have I observed
blood impressions of the hand on the door of a shrine. This mark
was made by a man who offered a sheep which was vowed to the welt

The imitation of the palm tree (Plate I, Fig. 8) is mostly used as
an inside decoration. It is made up of a perpendicular line with
shorter side lines, which unite, making an acute angle, opening
upwards. The total number of the side branches is never constant;
but in most cases there is an equal number on either side. I examined
carefully to see whether the number on one side coincided with the
sacred numbers 3, 5, 7 or some multiple of them,1 2 but in most cases
they did not. In some, especially in el-Badriyeh (Sarafat) and el-
Qatrawani (N. of Bir Zet) they all coincided with the numbers three
and five in the first and five and seven in the Qatrawani. This feature
is always explained as standing for palm branches or palm trees
(nalil). We know that palm branches are carried in most funeral
processions of well-to-dQ people or of^important men, as a symbol of
life. Mohammedan superstition holds that palm-trees were created
from the same earth from which God made Adam.3 This is why
this tree is said to have many resemblances to man.4 The Qoran
mentions it very often, as it is one of the chosen trees.5

Nevertheless I would raise the question: Is it not possible that
these figures were formerly rude imitations of the hand and that
gradually the distinct number five was lost and thus also the original

Other decorations which one may find, are seen on plate I, and
Fig. 5 of Plate IL The representation of the serpent points to long
life.6 Haiyeh (Figs. 1, 7; Plate I) serpent, and nhaya life, have

1 Canaan, L c.; Doutte, l. c. pp. 317 ff.; L. Einsler, Moscdk.

2 Very few examples offered the number four.

3 JJaridatu-l- Adjayb, p. 102.

4 Alerglaube, p. 87.

* Kahle, PJ VIII, 141, explains the palm branches as a prophylactic measure
against the evil eye. I have never heard such an explanation. Neither palm
branches nor their representations are ever used as an amulet against the evil eye.

Kahle, PJ VIII, 140.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

a similar sounding root.1 I could not explain the squares with the
dots (Plate I, Pig. 6). It is improbable that the dots (PI. I, Fig. 4
and 5) represent visiting cards of the pilgrims, as Kahle thinks.
In some shrines I have seen rudimentary representations of a mosque,
a minaret, a ship, flowers, etc. The only purpose of these figures is
to beautify the maqam. Sometimes Qoranic verses or the names of
God, the Prophet, and some of the sahtdbeh are written on the walls.
The shrine of eS-seh Yasin is the best example, where beside the
words alldh and Muhammad, which are surrounded by wreaths of
leaves, we find the Mohammedan creed There *is no god but God,
and Mohammed is the apostle of God, two flags (the Turkish and
that of the Prophet), a half moon and many five-pointed stars. In
the mihrab censer and chain are painted.

These decorations are made with hinna, nileh or siraqun. Some
peasants think nileh should never be used in holy places, ihinna being
the only suitable material. When hinna (Lawsonia inermis)2 is used
as a red dye, it is kneaded into a paste and then daubed on the
wall. Very often samneh (butter) is mixed with it,1 2 3 but not necessarily
always, as Curtiss thinks.4 5 It#is with this paste that the impression
of the hand is so often made. While adhering to the wall the paste
has a dirty greenish-brown appearance, but when it falls off it leaves
a brownish-red colour. The mihrab5 and the immediate surroundings
are decorated first of all. Most of the other decorations are made
with nileh (methylene blue) and siraqun (minium).

In many of these simple shrines, but not in all, there is a mihrab,
which has the usual form and points southwards. There is at least
one in each of the larger sanctuaries. In some there are several.
Thus qabr er-Ral near Nebi Musa has three.6 In some awlia the
mihrab is only indicated on the southern wall either with colour, or
with a ridge-like frame of projecting plaster. In the Christian church
of el-Hadr (between Bet Djala and the Pools of Solomon), which is

1 Canaan, Aberglaube, p. 85.

2 Hava, 188.

3 Kahle, l. c.

* Curtiss, 209.

5 That of es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami of Sa'fat and the shrine of el-Imam
'All on the carriage-road near Bab el-Wad, showed dozens of these imprints.

6 In the sa^rah (The Dome of the Rock) there are several prayer niches
which will be described later.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


honoured and visited also by the Mohammedans, the prayer direction
is marked by a large picture of St. George. I have seen Mohammedans
go in and perform their prayers turning their faces towards the
picture and so to the south. All mihrdbs are marked in the southern
wall of the sanctuaries. The following three are the only exceptions
I know of. A mihrab in the building below el-Aqsa, a mihrajLjn
aabi Dahud and one in the shrine of el-Mufaddil ('Awartah).1 In the
first it is said that the Prophet prayed during his night-visit to
Jerusalem, and when he had finished the angel Gabriel ordered him
in future to perform his prayers with the face turned to Mecca.
Thereupon the Prophet turned his face in this direction and per-
formed his second prayer.1 2 3

The floor of the poorer maqdms is mostly bare, but sometimes
mats are present. The larger and more important shrines have mats
and often costly carpets.

While the last description holds true for all simple maqdms, we
have still to consider those which are larger, more important, and
more elaborate. I shall try to describe them according to the various
complications of their structure. But before proceeding to this part
of our subject something should be said about the qubbeh or cupola.
This is one of the most important features of the awlid and belongs
to almost every typical shrine. In examining a qubbeh3 we find two
different types:

1. The simple one, where the qubbeh is built directly over the four
walls of the shrine. It looks like a hemisphere superimposed upon
the walls.

2. The square space formed by the four walls is converted into
an octagon near the roof by filling in the corners with pendentives.
The octagon is raised a little, and the hemispherical qubbeh rests on
it. A perpendicular section of such a building (cut diagonally) is
shown in Fig. 4, Plate II.

The maqdms which possess two instead of one vaulted dome, are as
simple in character as those just described. In reality such a building

1 The last two are mentioned in PJ VII, 86.

2 It is curious that Abraham and Lot are thought to have performed their
prayers with the face turned to Mecca (southwards), although they are pre-
Islamic characters.

3 For a short description of it see PJ VII, 92.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

represents two rooms which, by dispensing with the separating wall, are
united to form one elongated whole. A high strongly built arch, which
helps to support the roof, takes the place of the missing wall.

In the next class are sanctuaries which have a rawaq (open arched
hall) built in front or at the side. This may be composed of one
arch, but more often of two. The people assemble here before and
after their visits to the shrine. Sometimes meals are taken and
festivals are held in this place. In Bet Hanina the inhabitants have
recently built to the south-east of djami' es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami
a three vaulted hall, opening to the north, and with a mihrdb. ES-seh
Salman el-Farsi (Mount of Olives) has such an open rawaq in front
of the sanctuary itself. In el-cUzer (el-Qariyeh) and es-Seh Hamad
(Kolonia) the rawaq is at one side of the sanctuary.

Still more complicated are those shrines where one or more additional
rooms are built beside or around the sanctuaries opening into the
vaults. These serve as kitchen, dwelling-place for the servant (haddam,
qaiym) and store rooms. Sometimes, only of course when the sanctuary
is situated in or quite near a village, one of these rooms may be
used as a school room (kuttdb or maktab), and occasionally another
one is occupied by the seh or hatib, who may act as the teacher.
Some cases in point are:

es-seh Hamad
es-seh Icmar

Bet Duqquh
Abft GhoS

In a few cases one room is used for the ritual washing of the
dead before burial, as in el-'Azer&t (Awartah) and djami el-'Uzer
(Abu GhoS).

At times the madafeh (guest-chamber) is connected with the shrine,
as in en-nabi Su'ah1 (in the village Sti'ah)1 2 where it is a room built
over the shrine. In es-Seh Abu Ismail (Bet Liqia) and es-selj Hsen
(Bet fAnan) the front room serves as a madafeh. In both these cases
we find in the centre of the room the hearth (el-wdjaq) on which
coffee is prepared for those present. The guest-house of es-seh Yasin
(Der Yasin) is situated opposite the maqam and separated from it

1 Although the name lookes as if it were feminine it stands for Yu8ac.

2 South of Bab el-Wad. '

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


by an open place.1 It is only in the cold months of the year that
these guest-houses are used; in the summer months the people prefer
to sit outside under a tree or in a rawaq.1 2 A rough sketch of eS-Seh
Hamad (Kolonia) well illustrates the class described above. See
Fig*. 1, Plate II.

Another class is formed by holy places where the real sanctuary
is surrounded by many rooms. The rooms serve for pilgrims who
make a visit once a year and generally spend several days in the
place. In such cases the building is mostly composed of two, at
times of three, stories. The lower story is used for store rooms,
kitchen and stables, and the upper for the use of visitors. A servant
lives all the year around in such a sanctuary to guard it. These
larger shrines are not generally dedicated to awlicL but to prophets
(ianbid, pi. of naM). En-nabi Musa is the best known example of
this class. But only a few prophets have such large shrines. En-nabi
Saleh (Ramleh), el-Anbia (Nablus), en-nabi Yftsif (Bet Idjza) and many
others have fairly simple buildings, while el-Uzer, el-Mansuri and
el-Mufaddil (all in 'Awartah) who are also counted as prophets, have
no building at all.

Some djawami and awlia are certainly ancient churches or old
houses. Thus I think that djdmi' 'Omar ibn el-Hattab (Surbahir)
and djamic el-cUzer (el-Qaryeh) were once churches.3 4 The shrines of
es-seh Abdallah (Bet Sftrik), es-Seh Saleh (Der Yasin), es-seh Srur
(Awartah) and eS-sel} en-Nftbani (Nablus) are simple rooms, which
were once used as dwellings. They have no mihrab or vault and have
no signs of any tomb. They are at present in very bad state of

Many a built maqam is an open sanctuary, where the walls of the
roof rest on pillars. The best example of such a shrine is that of
Hasan er-RaV who was supposed to have been the shepherd of the
prophet Moses. Inside of a rectangular enclosure, built of stones

1 The school-room of eS-seh Iteyim (Bet Iksa) is used according to Kahle (PJ
VI, 71) as a tnadafeh. Every kuttab may be used at times as a guest house, but
this occasional use does not give such a place the special characteristics which
are found in a maddfeh and which were mentioned above.

2 For maddfeh see Haddad, JPOS II, pp. 279 ff.

3 The best book on this subject is Mader, Altchristliche Basiliken und LokaU
tradition in Siidpaldstina, 1918.

4 Kahle, PJ VH, 91.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

and mortar, we see an elongated and vaulted roof which rests on
six pillars, three to the north and three to the south. Between these
pillars is the large tomb. El-Mas*ad (Mount of Olives) is an octagonal
sanctuary with the sides closed up. Mas&djid sittna *Aiseh has a vault
resting on four corner pillars, where the south side has been completely
closed, and the eastern and western only partly built. The western
and the southern walls of the shrine of Ahmad es-Sarrisi i are closed,
while the two other sides are open.

I do not propose to give an exhaustive architectural description
of all types of shrines. My only aim has been to give simple examples
of the different classes. Descriptions of beautiful mosques like es-
Sahrah, el-Aqs&, etc., need not be given here, since they may be
found in convenient form elsewhere.1 2 Many of the sanctuaries which
are situated in a village serve at the same time as the djamic of
that place, where the people assemble for prayer. Many a djami: was
built in the immediate neighbourhood of a well, as in the case of
es-Seh Djarrah, Sa'd u S'id (both in Jerusalem), Salmon el-Farsi
(Mount of Olives) etc. Some sacred sites which are situated out in
the fields, and which contain no tomb, serve for the passer-by as a
place in which to perform his prayers, e. g. el-Imam cAli, on the
carriage-road from Jerusalem to Jaffa.

We often find in front of the sanctuary an elevated place, well
covered with large, smooth stone flags, called msallaydt They are
generally in close contact with the sanctuary and serve for prayer.
It is not necessary that a ritually clean cover be spread on them
since they are always kept clean. Such prayer platforms are met
with in eS-Seh Saleli ('Anata), Irdjal Sufah (W. of Der Ghassaneh),
eS-seh Damrah and es-Seh en-Nfibani (both in Mazarf en-Nfibani.3

Before passing on, it may be well to note that in some shrines
there are inscriptions. They are generally found just above the
door of the sanctuary or above that of the court, though occasionally

1 On the top of a mountain in Abu Ghos.

2 Short descriptions are found in Baedeker, Meistermann and other guide-
books; scientific descriptions are: Gressmann, Der Felsendom in Jerusalemt PJ
IV, 54 ff.; R. Hartmann, Der Felsendom und seine Qeschichte, 1909; De Vogue,
La Mosque d'Omar a Jerusalem, 1905.

8 I am indebted for information regarding the last three places to Omar Efiendi

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


they may be found above the window (es-seh Djarrah). or above
one of the pillars of the vault (eS-seh Hasan er-Bal). Some such
inscriptions are:

1. Above the central door of the shrine el-Hadrah1 (Nablus):

aJJI £JL*aJ\ L-<>%**) dJJol ^b\ \Sjb

'f ^ ^b*JI ^UJL\ 0lkUJ\

This prayer house was built during the (reign) days of the sultan,
the king Seif ed-Din Qalawan, the pious. God make him powerful;
and his father es-sultan the pious king 'Aid ed-Din. His victories
be glorious.

2. Inside maqam el-Hadr (Nablus):1 2


0 Ddsiiqi 0 Badawi The maqam of elrHadr Ahmad elrBadawi3 *
cAbd-el-Qddir edrDjildni.

3. An inscription on velvet laid on the cenotaph of el-Anbia

L^AJO >^1 aJJ\ .pLcO\ U^Uaj\

k'^boJI film (A*$ ^rf****'}

This is the tomb of the prophets of God, the Glorious: the sons of
our master Jacoby and they are BayalUn, Jasadjar and Asar. On
behalf of our Prophet, these, and all other prophets may there be the
most efficacious prayers, and the most complete peace.

4. In the rawaq adjacent to the shrine of el-Anbia:

6 bj; \jb by^ U&

Whenever Zacharias went into the chamber to her (his wife Mary)
he found provisions with her.7

1 On a marble stone.

2 The writing is in five sections, side by side.

3 El-Badawi is repeated twice. The second time should be er-Rifa'i.

* Obviously a scribal error for Zebulon.

ft Stands for Issachar.

ft A verse of the Qoran, Surah III, 37.

7 Sales translation. The commentators say that none went into Marys
apartment but Zacharias himself, and that he locked seven doors upon her, yet
he found she had always winter fruits in the summer, and summer fruits in
the winter. I cannot find the connection between the above verse of the
Qoran and the shrine of el-Anbia, which has nothing to do with Zacharias
and Mary.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

5. On a marble stone above the entrance to the shrine of es-sultan
Ibrahim el-Adhami (Bet Hanina):

^LuXili 1
JJLJl A+j>j ^.U^.

In the name of the most merciful God. The hadj Sweid the son
f Hamayd, God be merciful to him, has ordered the building of this
place of worship ... in the year 637. [A. H.]

6. Above the door ot maqam el-Yaqin, Beni Nem (on a marble

... *J}\ \Sa L£J L jJ rsa.rJl

. jJLo £yO Ijjb ^JLoJl ^S>

In the name of the most merciful God. Mohammed Abdallah ...
Alt es-Saleh ... has ordered the building of this prayer house, from
his own money ...2

7. Between the two northern vaults of the shrine of Hasan er-Rai
(near the Nebi Musa) we read:

i-JLJi sjjb tLiJ\

^ JbiL^l \ trZ*. Lib

l^\ cr* LL\ JJu ^bo JJJ1 JckiA. slo

\ d^X^uj (^.,>1^x11 ^

Mohammed Pdsd, the doer of good, has erected this blessed qubbeh
on Hasan er-Ra%, God sanctify his secret, as he (the Pdsd) was
returning from welcoming the Mohammedan pilgrims. He proceeded
in building but found no water. But because of his high zeal, God
protect him, the water was brought to the place3 from the village of
Jericho. Thus he deserved the heavenly reward. The 1 RaM' 1110

8. On the tomb of eg-geh Abh-l-Halaweh (Jerusalem):

g5Jl <*JJI ^5 ^ IjJk .£U\ y,

-------- jr.o .is^UJl

t Dots represent words which are indecipherable.

2 A~^e ^v. ilcr*P]tion on the tomb of Patimeh the daughter of IJasan the

grandson of the Prophet is: ^

7^^ ^ yb Ml g ^ CU^iLol

'3* ^ bXLi AM3 ^1 dL*J>U dbj^l

See Mudjir ed-Din I, 67. 8

8 Lit. to the village.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanotuaries in Palestine


He is the everlasting living one. This is the tomb of the friend of
Oodf] es-seh Hasan Abu el-Halaweh. For his soul (rea,d). al-fatihaJi.
1305,. [A. H.]

9. A golden embroidered writing on a red silk cloth placed on
the tomb of en-nabi Lilt (Beni Nem), runs:

. i^baJ I 1 j** 1 Js.A

This is the tomb of the prophet Lut, peace and blessings be on him.

10. On another cloth in the same shrine.

^ \ aJI AJJ b \ bj ^aaXuj Aj^ j)\ f \ aJJ 1 ^aa3b

J^J AJJl be Alii ^U1 aJU\

AJUb y\ ^ jyj* ajui

In the name of the most merciful God. In him we find help. My
sitccess (good luck) is only in God. There is no god but God. Our
lord1 2 Mohammed is the apostle3 of God. In the name of God; what
God wishes, My lord Lut is an apostle of God. There is neither
might nor strength but in God.

11. The writing on a banner, presented to en-nabi Lut by soldiers
coming from Aleppo and proceeding to the Suez Canal front during
the last war (19151916), was as follows:

a) 1 wX^a.1 b

Oh excellency,4 my Lord Ahmad er-Rifai
(written in the upper right corner of the banner);

b) ^ybyi laftj \ b

Oh excellency, the divine pole,, my lord Abd elrQ&dir ed-Djilani
(in the left upper corner);

c) 5^vXaJ1 ^JaiUl kyoa. b

Oh excellency, the supreme pole, my lord Ahmad el-Adawi
(left, lower corner);

d) ^^44d\w)J\ b

Oh excellency, the true pole, my lord Ibrahim ed-Dasuqi
(right lower corner);

1 Hava, p. 887.

2 Lit. Master.

3 More than a prophet.

4 hadrat is a title of honour. With Hava I render excellency.
6 el-'Adawi is used here instead of el-Badawi.

Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

e) JJUI -JJI ^11 AJI

There is no god hut God and Mohammed is the apostle of God

(in the centre);

f) JlJlp aJJ\

Our Lord the Friend of God, peace he upon him
(between a and.e);

g) The Turkish crescent, between h and e.

h) The Tomb

Inside the shrine and generally in the centre of the room we find
the tomb of the holy person whose name it bears. Before giving
any description of the tomb itself one point should be made clear
the connection of the tomb with the building. The tomb is often
not in the shrine, but outside of it: on the mastabah, in the rawaq
or in the garden adjacent to the maqdm. But it is not at all necessary
that there should be a tomb directly or indirectly connected with
the place to make it a shrine, and there are many tombs which
have no qubbeh. Both these features will be discussed at length in
another part of this work. We may classify tombs according to their
position as follows:

1. Those connected with a maqdm, may be situated

a) in the shrine itself; as el-Badriyeh (Sarafat), BiSr el-Hafi
(Nablus) etc.;

b) in the rawaq; es-sayid Ahmad 'et-Taiyar (Sar&fat);

c) in the garden adjacent to the sanctuary; en-nabi Annir (Der
Ammar), es-seh Ytisif (Harbata).

2. Those which have no shrine built, but are situated

a) in a cave; eg-Seh es-Sidri (Anata), es-sitt er-Rab'ah (Mount of

b) outside in the fields or in a cemetery; es-seh Muhammad el-
Baqq&ni (Nablus), eg-Seh Ramadan, eS-Seh 'Bed (both in Qatanneh),
el-Uzer (Awartah) ^etc.;

c) inside the village, among the houses and not attached to any
maqdm or cemetery; eS-seh Suwan and es-seh Ismail (both in

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


It often happens that in addition to the main tomb or tombs,
which are situated inside the shrine, there are one or more outside
which are intimately connected with the life history of the main welt
These may be situated at various distances and still retain their
association. Some illustrations are:

In the neighbourhood of es-Seh cAbd es-Salam and outside the
maqam is to be seen the tomb of his son Salman. El-Badriyeh has
outside her shrine and in the adjacent hall the tomb of her husband
es-sayid Ahmad et-Taiyar. E3-seh Ahmad ebBustami and his brother
es-seh Murad (Nablus) have their negro servant buried outside of
the maqam. El-Qatrawanis shepherd lies buried near the sanctuary
of his master.

The number of tombs in one sanctuary varies. In the majority
of cases there is only one, but some have two, others even more.
One of the tombs, generally the largest, is of more importance than
the others. It contains the important well, and therefore the
sanctuary takes his name. The other graves are those of his near
relatives: his wife, his brother, his male descendants and sometimes
his servant. The shrines of e£-seh Anbar and es-seh Badr comprise
two tombs each, that of the well and that of his wife. In the case
of es-geh Badr both tombs are in the same room, while in that of
es-seh Anbar the tomb of the well's wife is in a small room adjacent.
In el-Badrlyeh one tomb in the shrine itself is said to be hers, the
other to the north that of her children, while the tomb outside her
shrine is believed to be that of her husband. More interesting are
those cases where we meet with more than two tombs. In es-seh
Hamad (Kolonia) there are five, the tomb of the well, two for his
two wives, one for his son and the fifth that of his servant (really
black slave rabd). The tomb of the servant is shown partly in and
partly outside the shrine. But the two halves do not correspond to
each other. We often meet with tombs which are arranged side by
side and which belong to one of the following classes:

1. The graves of members of the same family, like the Dawari in
Surbahir and the Yamin family in Bet Anan. All are regarded as
mllah, righteous men (pi. of sdleh). In Sa'fat- there are also two tombs
of the family of ed-Dawafri. In Irdjal el-Amud (Nablus) we find
many tombs outside the maqam which are supposed to be the graves
of the servants of the awlid buried here.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

2. The tombs of mudjahdin and suhada. Both words mean
martyrs. The first denotes those who have fallen in a holy war.
In Hebron we are shown the tombs of es-Suhada. After decapitation,
it is said, the heads rolled down shouting na&hadu, naShadu, nashadu
(We witness, we witness, we witness). In Ramleh the tombs of
el-Mudjahidin are arranged in several rows, not far from en-nabi
Saleh. Some large tombs are said to contain the remains of more
than one saint, as in al-Anbia (Nablus). The darth is supposed to
be built over the remains of the prophets Raiyalftn, YaSdjar and
ASar the sons of Jacob. An inscription on silk hanging over the
tomb reads: This is the tomb of the prophets of God, the Glorious,
the sons of our master Jacob, and they are Raiyalun, Yasadjar and
Asar. On behalf of our Prophet, these, and all other prophets may
there be the most efficacious prayers and the most complete peace.1
In Abft Ghos we find that the tomb of es-8eh Ismail el-Tnbawi,
which lies by the north wall of the shrine, has a structure connecting
it with the wall. This structure is said to be the tomb of his son
es-seh Nasir.

The following list illustrates the number of the tombs at some
maqdmSy and their connection with the leading welt himself:

Name of the well


Graves of Graves of Wife or
the well brothers wives

Sons Servant

eS-Hamad2 Kolonia 1 2 1 1
eS-Badr2 J erusalem 1 1
es-lAnbar 'Esawiyeh 1 1
es-Isma il2 el-Qaryeh 1 1
es-Icmar Bet Duqquh 1 1 33
Zawieted-Darwisiyeh Nablus4 1 1 1
el-Qatrawani near Bir Zet 1 1
el-Anbia2 Nablus 3
el-Badriyeh5 Sarafat 1 1 1
es-'Abd es-Salam 'An at a 1 1

1 The tradition that Zebulon, Issachar and Asher are buried in Nablus may
go back to the Samaritans.

2 Already described.

3 ES-seh I'mar is the son of e8*seh Saleh. His son Dahud had one son,
Marrar, whose sons name was Qasim. I*mar and the last three are buried in
this sanctuary.

4 The two brothers Ahmad and Mrad el-Bustami are of equal importance.

5 The more important grave of the two is that of el-Badriyeh.

CANAAN: Mohammedan 8aints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


The tombs are built of stone. In most cases the whole is simply
plastered ever and whitewashed. Even if they are situated out in the
open air (cemetery, fields, etc.), and have no protection at all from
the storms, they are no better treated. Other tombs are constructed
of good hewn stones, which is usually the mark of a tomb of recent
origin.1 The tombs of el-rUzer, el-Mufaddil and of el-Mansfiri are
very well kept. In the case of the first (Fig. 2, Plate II) I could
recognize three layers of well wrought plaster (qsara). The general
structure of these tombs and of the cenotaphs of many important
welis consists of an upper gable section superimposed upon a lower
oblong base. Fig. 3 of Plate II shows a transverse section of such
a cenotaph.

The orientation of the tomb is in general from E. to W., i. e. the
orthodox orientation of all Mohammedan tombs in this part of the
Mohammedan world. The dead are laid on their right sides with
their heads to the west and their feet to the east, thus turning their
faces to the qibleh (direction of Mecca).1 2 There are a few exceptions
to this rule. E8-8eh Grhanim of Jericho, situated in the western
cemetery, is the best case of such an exception since his tomb is
built from N. to S. This saint is of the holy family ed-Dawacri. We
have already seen that some of them are buried in Sfirbahir and
others in Sa'fat. In the case of es-seh Zed (fAnata) it is somewhat
difficult to decide how the tomb is supposed to lie. The wall runs
from N. to S. and in the midst of it there is a Mhid, but only one,
and no signs of any enclosure running from east to west, defining
the direction of the tomb.^ It is generally said that graves showing
this direction belong to the pre-Islamic prophets, but this explanation,
although true of some, does not hold in the two cases alluded to.
The graves ot en-nabi Samwil, el-'Uzer, el-Mufaddil3 and el-Anbia4
run approximately north to south, that of Lot5 (Beni N'em) has a
N. to S. direction.

1 With regard to the general construction of modem Mohammedan tombs I
may refer to Boehmers article, Auf den muslimischen Friedhofen Jerusalems,
ZDPV, 190910.

2 PJ VII, 86 j Jaussen, Coutumes, p. 99.

3 Both in Awartah.

* In Nablus.

s It is curious that while the direction of the tomb is N. S., this prophet is
reported to have turned his face, while praying, to the south.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

In shape the cenotaphs are elongated with top rounded, flat or
with a triangular section rising to a single edge. The tomb of el-
Badriyeh (Fig. 1, Plate III) has a line from end to end of the top,
running parallel to the axis, and thus dividing the cenotaph into
two parts. It looks as though two tombs were indicated, but popular
tradition allows only for one. At both ends we find perpendicular
stones, nasb1 or sahid, marking the head (west) and the feet (east).
Very often only the head nasb, sometimes carved in the form of a
turban, is found (eg-seh Abfi Halaweh, Jerusalem); in others neither
head nor feet are marked at all (es-seh Saddad and e£-seh Saleh).
Female saints (el-Badriyeh, Rab'ah etc.) and gigantic tombs (el-cUzer
and el-Mufaddil) have no sawahid. In many cases, where we do not
find any such stones, a careful investigation shows that the cenotaphs
once had them, but have lost them (e8-£eh 'Neni in Surbahir). Where
more than one saint is supposed to be buried in one and the same
grave, we may find more, than one sdhid, as in el-Anbia (Nablus),
where there are three Sawahid, one standing for each of the three
sons of Jacob, who are supposed to be buried here. According to
Jaussen these two perpendicular stones are symbolic, representing
the two angels who visit the dead.2 I could not verify this

The tomb may be as high as 11.50 meters, but some are very
low. The tombs of eg-Seh Badr, of his wife, and that of es-Seh Rih&n
are not raised at all above the surrounding floor. Those built outside
a maqam are generally elevated, while the lower ones are always inside
of buildings. The sizes of tombs differ enormously. The greater number
are of normal size, though some have exceptionally large dimensions.
The following are the largest that I have seen:

Name of saint Location Length Breadth Height
El-cUzer 'Awartah 564 362 385 cms.
el-Mansuri Awartah 440 235 cms.
el-Mufaddil 'Awartah 468 264 cms.
es-sulfan Halil Qalawani Nablus 458 cms.

1 Muhit el-muhit and Hava do not give this special meaning, but a stone
set up.

2 I have been unable to find such an explanation in the Arabic books.

3 Coutumes, 337.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Name of saint Location Length Breadth Height
el-Anbia Nablus 410 cms.
Hasan er-Ra/i near. Jericho 590 225 140 cms.
en-nabi Musa near Jericho cms.
es-8eh Djarrah Jerusalem 195 137 185 cms.

Many cenotaphs have in one of their walls a small niche (itaqah), in
which oil lamps (sradj, pi. surdj), matchboxes Cilbit habrit, tsahhateh) *,
etc. are placed. These niches may be found in the northern side of
the tomb, as at es-seh Suwan,1 2 eS-seh Imbarak;3 in the southern side,
as at ed-Dawa'ri,2 ed-Djarahid,4 es-£eh Zed,5 e&-8eh Isma'il,2 or in the
western side, as in the case of eS-seh Hamdallah6 and es-seh cAnbar.7 *
Some tombs possess more than one, as in the case of the sifth ed-
Djarahid on the Mount of Olives, where there are three tombs in
one line.s The one in the centre has two niches, a western and a
southern. The last niche is supplied with a wooden door. In one
taqah I found a lamp and tins of oil and in others water, matches,
and burned incense.9 ES-Seh ez-Zughbeh (near the tomb of el-Mansuri
in fAwartah) has such taqat (pi. of taqah), a southern, a western and
an eastern one.

While in tombs situated in a shrine, with such a taqah the incense
is generally burnt in one of the wall niches,10 in all tombs found in
the fields or in a cemetery and having no building, light and incense
are placed in these cenotaph niches.

Some have on top a circular, shallow or deep cup-like cavity, in
which water, but more often flowers are placed. It is believed by
some that the soul of the dead visits the tomb once a week, on
Friday and expects to find some water to quench its thirst. These

1 Really kahhateh, the uk is pronounced in some dialects ts.

2 In Surbahir.

3 Bet Iksa.

4 Mount of Olives.

3 *Anata. The taqah is made in this case by removing a stone from the wall
running from north to south.

6 Biddu.

i Esawiyeh.

3 Kahle mentions only two tombs, but there are three; PJ VII, 90.

3 The middle and the southern tombs are connected at their head-ends with
a small wall. Whosoever lies between them will be cured from his disease. See
also Kahle, PJ VII, 91.

13 In es-seh Hamad the oil lamps were placed on the tomb. *


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

cup-like holes are to be found more frequently in the tombs of common
people than in those of sullah (pi. of sdleh, pious man).

From what I could gather from different people these cups are
used for one of the following purposes:1

1. Water and flowers are placed in them. The purpose of the
water is to keep the flowers living for a long time. This is the
explanation given by the better class of people.

2. The water in the cup is for the birds, to drink 'ann rtih el-maiyet,
for the (benefit) of the soul of the dead. The idea behind this
explanation is that the birds will thank the soul of the dead for
this benevolent act, and will in case of necessity testify to this good
action. Such an explanation is given by people of the middle class.1 2

3. The water in the cup3 serves to quench the thirst of the soul
of the dead. This idea I have heard from peasants and some simple
Mohammedans of Jerusalem.

Flowers, water, etc. are generally brought on Thursday afternoon,
the day when the cemeteries are usually visited.

Another custom, which points to the belief mentioned under
No. 3, is the fact that very often the relations of the dead read
the fatihdh for his soul in case his widow becomes engaged to
another man. At the same time an egg and a small jar full of
water are buried at the head of the tomb. The water is supposed
to quench his thirst and wet his mouth, while the egg will burst
asunder, in place of the dead man, when the behaviour of his wife
becomes known to him.4

Up to now only complete tombs have been mentioned, but parts
of tombs are also found. A short description of one of them will
suffice. In Surbahir5 just behind the guest-house there is a rectangular
depression in the rock about 4x2 metres in extent, with a depth
of 5060 cm. Two steps lead down. In the midst of the western

1 It is curious that Kahle gives only one explanation of these cups, PJ VII, 90.

2 For the same reason, as Kahle thinks, about 450 kg of corn and a zir of
water are placed on the feast-day of el-imam es-safii on the roof of his maqdm

3 At times there are two such cups. EvSn on common tombs one may find them.

4 This custom is dying out.

* I have heard both Surbahir and Surbahil.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


wall there protrudes a small, very simple building resembling one half
of a common Mohammedan tomb. Enquiring about the significance
of this I was told that es-seh Ismail was buried in a small cave in
in the rock, and that this building is intended to cover his feet,
which protruded since the cave was not long enough for the whole
body. In the east side of this half tomb there is a tdqah which
serves light and incense.

Very often tombs are decorated. Hinnd, siraqun and nileh are
used. Palm branches, hands, lines and dots are frequently met
with. Siraqun produces a beautiful red colour. It is curious that all
representations of palm branches made on the graves of ed-Dawari
(Surbahir) had five or seven branches. Sometimes verses from the
Qoran or the names of God are written with these colours. In the
case of the three tombs of syuh ecl-Djarahid (Mount of Olives) I
noticed a red line running across every tomb, commencing with the
lower and middle part of the northern side and terminating at the
lower and middle part of the southern side. In many cases an
inscription may be found connected with the tomb. The inscribed
stone is on the sides or on the top of the cenotaph.

Lastly it should be noted, that a great number of the tombs
situated inside a maqdm are covered with one or more starat1 (pi. of
stdrah, cover). Generally it is a greenish cloth, often with a border
or embroidery in other colours. Sometimes the covers are decorated
with verses from the Qoran. On the rdsiyeh (headstone) a turban
and sometimes a masbahah (rosary) are placed. This last may, as
in the case of Beiram Sawis (Jerusalem), be placed around the whole
tomb. In many cases the stdrah itself is not put directly on the
tomb, but on a wooden cage, which is made in the form of the tomb
and encloses the grave. Such are especially used where the tombs are
very low, as in al-Badriyeh and the already mentioned Beiram sawis.
In many cases an inscription laid on the stdrah, and embroidered on
a piece of velveteen, informs us of the name or names of those interred
in the grave, as on the tombs of Irdjal el-cAmud, el-Anbia, es-Seh
Ahmad el-Bistami and es-sultan Badr el-Ghafir (all in Nablus).
Sometimes the tomb is encircled with an iron frame (es-Seh Salman
el-Farsi). 1

1 Also sitrdt, pi. of sitreh. This expression is not used much for these covers.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

All tombs so far described have been tombs built of masonry.
But there are others made of an elongated heap of stones, surrounded
by a stone enclosure.1 Such graves very much resemble the present
simple tombs of the peasants. We meet with tfiem especially among
the Bedouins (es-Seh Zughbeh,1 2 Jericho). In some cases there is no
surrounding enclosure, and this points to the most primitive type of
tomb cult. The only example of this kind which I have seen is that
of es-8eh Hues3 of Biddft. No tdqah is connected with it.4 In others
we do not find a heap of stones, but only a perpendicular stone at the
head and another at the foot to mark the position of the grave (qdJbr),
as in es-seh Sabbah at Jericho. This supposed tomb is surrounded
by a huwetah (enclosure).5

c) Trees

Trees constitute a very important element of most shrines. This is
not a new custom, for many of the high places of the Old Testament
were associated with green trees. I have no doubt that with few
exceptions every Mohammedan sanctuary is, or was once, characterised
by one or mo^ trees. Welts of recent origin, however, are generally
treeless, like eS-Seh Abft Halawi. A large number of these trees were
cut down during the war, while many have died of old age or been
uprooted by storms (el-Butmeh in Bet Safafa). These are doubtless
the main causes why so many shrines are at present treeless. I have
very often heard the following statement: The welt has no tree at
present, but I remember very well that during my childhood there
stood a large tree there. In many cases, where the old tree was cut
down, the inhabitants of the village, to whom that particular saint
belongs, have planted a new one of the same species, as was done,
for example, in es-Seh 'Anbar. The huge fig tree which once grew
there was cut down and burned by the soldiers, whose camp was in
the neighbourhood. The people of 'Esawiyeh have planted another

1 Doutte, Magie et Religion, p. 432.

2 Not Zu'beh, as given by Kahle, PJ, 1911, p. 88.

2 In 1922 the inhabitants of the village had heaped stones together to build
the tomb.

* Kahle describes another example of this category, namely es-Seh Mohammed
Darir el-Qadri (PJ, 1911, p. 87).

* In the vicinity there is a zaqqfim tree (a kind of myrobalm).

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


in its place. At times it so happens that at some distance from the
well a tree grows up, and a statement by some one from the adjacent
village, that it was revealed to him in a dream that this tree belongs
to the same well, is sufficient to protect the tree completely. A mes
tree (celtis australis L.) growing quite near es-Seh Abdallah (Sa'faj),
and a fig tree growing above the cave of eS-seh Abd es-Salam (Anata)
are regarded at present as belonging to the saints.

According to my data from all the shrines where I was able to
obtain definite information as to the presence or absence of trees,
they were found in 60% of the cases. From an analysis of the
different species of trees growing near* these places we find that
sanctity is not attributed to one more than to others. This fact
indicates that it is not the tree itself which makes the place holy
but that the tree derives its sanctity from the welt to whom it is
dedicated. In some cases it would appear that there is proof to the
contrary, but see below. The following analysis may not be without
interest. Out of 128 cases where trees were found near sanctuaries,
in 30 cases the trees were oaks (ballut1), in 25 figs (tin1 2), in 21 carobs
(Ijarrub3), in 16 olives4 (zetiin5 6 7), in 14 Mulberries (tut% in 12 lote
trees (sidr1) and in 10 terebinths (butum8). Other trees occasionally
found are:

1 Quercus coccifera L. In this connection I wish to express my thanks to
Mr. DinsmOre for his kindness in giving the exact botanical names.

2 Ficus carica L.

2 Ceratonia siliqua L.

4 Olea europea L.

5 A few words about the role played by the olive tree in the Palestinian
folklore may be of interest. The olive tree is called in the different commentaries
on the Qoran, eS-iadjarah el-mubarakeh, the blessed tree. It comes from Paradise,
and is the most noble among all the plants (Fahr er-Razi VI, 264; VIII, 458).
A common proverb compares the olive tree with the bedouin (who can live
anywhere in the desert and requires very little for his living) and the fig tree
with the fellah (who has more necessities) and the vine with a sirriyeh (who
requires a great deal of attention). Christians belive that olive trees kneel down
in the night of the feast of Holy Cross.

6 Morus nigra L.

7 Zizyphus Spina Christi L.

8 Pistacia palestina Boiss.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society


Fig. 1. A frieze representing two serpents.

Fig. 2. The number 810170 inscribed over the entrance to the
sanctuary of en-nab! Lut.

Fig. 3. A frieze (es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami, Sa'fat).

Fig. 4. Dots of hinna, or nileh.

Fig. 5. Dots of the five fingers.

Fig. 6. Decorations seen in the shrine of es-seh Hamed in ed-Djib.
I could not elicit their meaning.

Fig. 7. Representations of two serpents.

Fig. 8. Representations of different sorts of palm twigs, some have 5,
others 7 leaves, while most of them have more.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

sndbar Pinus pinea L.
sard Cupressus sempervirens L.
qres Pinus haleppensis Mill.
naljl Phoenix dactylifera L.
mallul Quercus aegilops L.
sabr Opuntia ficus indica L. Mill,
dalyeh Vitis vinifera
rummdn Punica granatum L.
mes Celtis australis L.
djumrriez Ficus sycomorus L.
ghdr Laurus nobilis

stone pine,

Aleppo pine,
palm tree,

Greek oak,



hackberry, nettle tree,

Trees which naturally predominate on the plainssuch as
mulberries, palms and sycomoresare naturally more common in
connection with shrines found in the plains.

In some cases a solitary tree serves to beautify the shrine, in
others a small or a large grove is assigned to the holy pefson. It is
my opinion that in the neighbourhood of many of these holy trees
there used to be woods, from which one or more trees now survive,
testifying to the former forest glory of Palestine. Es-seh el-Qatrawani,
Irdjal Abft Tuh,1 eS-seh Ahmad,2 es-seh Abu Lemun,3 etc. illustrate
this view.

It is not necessary that a group of trees assigned to a welt should
be all of the same species. The following shows that different trees
may be connected with the same welt:

Abti Lemftn Bet Iksa

el-Mansfiri 'Awartah

el-'Uzer 'Awartah

Sadj&r&t el-Arbcin Qubebeh
el-'Uzer 'Ezariyeh

Salman el-Farsi

terebinth and oak trees;
mulberry and vine trees;
terebinths, a palm and a caGxub;
figs, oak and terebinths;
pomegranate, cypress and a lemon;
Mount of Olives Aleppo pine, cypress, olive and

Abft Ttih Bet Likia olive, oak, terebinth, carob and

several other sorts.

The trees are generally in close proximity with the sanctuaries.
In very exceptional cases the building encloses the tree, or rather *

1 Bet Liki&.

* Hirbet Qariet S'ideh.
9 Bet Iksa.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


part of the trunk. But it is not infrequent for the tree to be found
at some distance from the well. In cases where the holy man has
several trees dedicated to him, one may grow near the maqam, while
others are at .considerable distance from it. The best example of
this is al-Badriyeh, who has in her sanctuary an oak, two olive trees
and a lemon tree, another large oak tree to the east of the maq&m,
a third oak in the valley, one on the way to el-Malha and a fifth
which stood once east of er-Ram. This last was cut down during
the war. Es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami (Bet Hanina) has a mulberry
and at some distance two oaks and a meseh. The last died recently
and was cut down.1

Holy trees, not connected with any qvbbeh or tomb will be
described later. All holy trees, whether they be near to or far from
the shrine are revered and respected; even those that are not
connected at all with any shrine enjoy the same reverence. If the
holy tree is a fruit-tree such as mulberry, fig, vine, cactus, etc. it
is regarded as a sabil,1 2 i. e. everybody who passes that way is
permitted to eat as much as he chooses, but nothing must be
carried away. One who breaks this rule is said to be severely
punished by the saint of that particular tree. Nearly all who avail
themselves of this privilege will recite the f&tihah before plucking
the fruit. In other cases the qayim or haddam (the responsible
servant of the shrine) reserves for himself only the right to gather
the fruit of such trees, as well as those of the waqf gardens

belonging to the shrine, as in the case of sittna el-Hadra in

Nablus. In the case of el-Mansfiri ('Awartah) the large vine is
rented to some inhabitant of the village, who has the sole right to

cut the grapes. The income from the fruits is used to repair the


How severely the saint will punish anyone who steals from his
property is shown in the following story about el-Mansuri.
A gendarme happened to pass through 'Awartah. He rested under
the mulberry tree beside the sanctuary. Seeing the beautiful

1 Other examples are eS-seb JJamad (Kolonia) with a mulberry in the sanctuary
and an oak at a distance; eS-selj. Abdallah (el-Qubebeh) also has a mulberry and,
on the hill opposite on the south, a carob (el-harrubeh ed-djdideh).

2 Sabil is used also for a water reservoir, as will be explained elsewhere.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

grapes in the maqam, he cut a few bunches, despite the repeated
warnings of the people of the village. Before long the gendarme
began to vomit blood incessantly. Nothing helped or relieved him
until he bought a sheep and offered it to el-Mansftri, thus appeasing
his wrath and atoning for his fault.

Another well-observed rule is that no one dares to cut any branch,
however small it may be, from any of these trees. Furthermore, the
saint will not allow anyone to gather and take away the broken or
withered branches. They may only be used for cooking such meals
as are offered in fulfilment of a vow, or meals prepared in festivals
of that particular welt. Es-Seh Brek (pronounced by some Brets)
south of Yalo had many trees which were cut down by some of the
inhabitants of that village and converted into charcoal. According
to local belief he revenged this infamous act by slaying every one
of the trespassers. The people always believe that locusts cannot
injure the holy trees. Most of those I asked about this subject
assured me that while all other trees of the village in the year 1915
were completely eaten up by this frightful curse, the holy trees
remained untouched. This can be taken as an excellent illustration
of the childlike belief of the peasants, for only such trees which
were in general not attacked elsewhere by the locusts, were spared
in the case of the welis.

One additional point should be mentioned in connection with
trees. The sacredness of the trees and the respect shown to every
welt is the reason why peasants of the neighbouring fields deposit
their grain and wood, their ploughs and other agricultural implements,
and the like, under these trees for one night or longer, feeling sure
that the welt will protect them. More will be said later about this

Not to be confused with holy trees which are associated with
saints, are those which are inhabited by demons. It is very difficult
to give any definite rule by means of which a stranger can differen-
tiate between the one and the other. The following points appear
to be characteristic:

1. I have never heard that a tree supposed to be inhabited by
demons was hung with pieces of cloth. Every person whom I asked
about this answered in the above sense; and so I can not verify the

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


statement of Mills, quoted by Goldziher1 in his Mohammedanische

2. While any tree can be sanctified by a welt the djinn seem
only to inhabit certain kinds of trees, especially the harrub. Several
stories illustrating this belief may be found in my Aberglaube.2 This
is why an Arabic proverb says, Sleeping below a carob tree is not
recommended,1 2 3 since it is thought that these trees are not only
preferred by the demons as a home, but that they assemble here
from time to time. Therefore a simple felldh will not bind his donkey
to a carob tree without asking the djinn first for permission. Super-
stition tells us that this tree was the cause of the ruin of king
Solomons kingdom. The misfortunes attached to it may arise from
the idea that the harrub4 belongs to the misfortune-bringing planet
Saturn.6 Black fig-trees are also thought to be preferred by the

When a tree is inhabited by a demon it cannot belong at the
same time to a welt This is different with springs, where a good
and a bad spirit may dwell in one and the same water course.7

The story of the harrub tree and the ruin of king Solomons
kingdom runs as follows: One day in the temple courts king Solo-
mon noticed a young plant unknown to him. He asked this plant
for it name. Harrfib was the answer. Of what use art thou?
continued the king. To destroy thy works, replied the plant.
The king then asked God that his death whenever it should occur,
might be hidden from the demons till all mankind should be aware

1 II, 350.

2 p. 8 ff.

3 en-ndm taht el-harrub gher mamdfih.

* El-Madjriti, ghaiatu-l-haJdm.

6 The word fyarr&b (carob) comes from the same root as harraba, Mto ruin,
and so it is a very bad omen to dream about this tree; cf. 'Abd el-Ghani en-
Nabulsi, td tir el-andm fita bir el-mandm and ZD MO.

The following story may illustrate this point. M. I. from Artas went with
his wife S., daughter of M. Z., to the vineyards. He approached her under a
fig tree and forgot to say: biami-llah er-rahman er-rahim to drive away the
djinn who live in such a tree. Soon afterwards his wife was attacked with
epilepsy which, as we know, is thought to be caused by a djinn. In this case
he was told by a se(it to whom he went for advice, that the inhabiting demon
was a teyr taiydry ua flying bird, which could not be caught.

7 JPOS, I, pp. 153170, and Aberglaube.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

of it. Having prayed thus, Solomon dug up the carob and planted
it in his garden where, to prevent as far as possible any harm
coming from it, he watched it closely until it had grown into a
strong sapling. He then cut it down and made it into a walking

Now, many years before, Balqis, Queen of Sheba, had come to
prove the king with hard questions, one of which was how to pass
a silk thread through a bead, with a screw-like perforation. He
asked all animals, birds, reptiles, insects and worms for help.
Only a small white worm undertook the task, which it performed
by taking the end of the thread in its mouth, then crawled in at
one end, and out of the other. Solomon granted its request that
it might lodge in any plant it chose, and feed thereon. Unknown
to him it had found a home under the bark of the fyarrtib tree,
which had become his staff, and had penetrated to the very centre
of the trunk. The time arrived for the king to die, and he
happened to be sitting as usual, leaning on his stick, when the
angel of death came and took away his soul; unknown to the
demons who continued their work according to the kings instruc-
tions for full forty years. At last, however, the worm hollowed
the whole staff, which suddenly broke and the body of the king
rolled to the ground; and thus the evil spirits knew that their
tyrant was dead.1

d) Water Courses

Another feature of most of the holy places is the presence of
water. This is either rain-water stored in cisterns (Ur, pi. Mar) or
hrabat (pi. of hrabeh, a cistern-like hole, which is not plastered), or
living water of wells and baiyarat (pi. of baiyarah, which are
especially found in the plain), and lastly running water from springs
and brooks. Of course not all shrines have water near them, but it
is to be found in the greater number. Such a spring or cistern is
more or less sacred to the holy man near whose shrine it is, and
from him it may derive supernatural power, which if known is made

1 The story is found in Dairatu-l-ma arif VII; a part of it is mentioned in
al-uns ed-djalil etc. I, 121; Hanauer, Folklore of the Holy Land pp. 49.50. The
text is taken mostly from the last source.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and'Sanctuaries in Palestine


use of by the felldhm. This subject will be dealt with later in greater

In many cases the cistern or the well is in a ruined condition
and thus does not hold water.1 At shrines situated on or near the
tops of high mountains, cisterns are more usual; in the western plains
wells, cisterns, baiyarat and hrabat are generally found; while in the
hill country, where the holy places are situated on the sloping side
of the mountain, springs are more common.

In a few cases a sabil is attached to the sanctuary. Sabil means
in this case a reservoir, built by the public road and filled at re-
gular periods with water, so that every thirsty passerby benefits by
it. A cup is always left in these places. Among welts with sabils
may be mentioned: al-imam All and eS-seh Djarrah. The latter is
surrounded by a zawiyeh (a sort of a convent). Outside the maqdm
a new mosque was built, on the inner walls of which hang tbul (pi.
of tabl, drum), snMj (pi. of sindj, brass castanets), spears (harbeh,
pi. harbdt* 2), long sharp spits or siak (pi. of sih) and hid$ (pi. of 4J5)
spits of another sort.3

The word misqay is used in some places for sabil. Some shrines,
like sayidna Sa'd el-Ansar and es-seh Hamdallah, have one or more
big earthernware jars (zir, pi. ziar), which are kept full of water.
The pious pilgrim and the passerby find water for their ritual puri-
fication and refreshment.

The wdi Hamdallah4 is situated in the immediate neighbour-
hood of the western cemetery of Biddu. It is composed of a quad-
rangular enclosure, built of stone and mortar. The door is in the
northern side. Around the tomb an oak-tree and a rose-bush
grow, and another rose-shrub is to be seen outside the enclosure.
A similar jar to that mentioned above was placed in the outer
south-west corner, but was broken when I visited the shrine in 1922.
A mihrab, indicated on the southern wall, marks the direction for
prayers. Some rags were fastened on the tree. To the north of
this shrine there is a large water basin, hewn in the rock.

* As is the case in Abu Lemun, el-Qatrawani, es-Sidri, etc.

2 The correct plural is hir&b.

3 The use of these weapons and musical instruments will be described else-

* McCown, 1. c., mentiones only the name, not having seen the actual place.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society


Fig. 1. A rough sketch of es-seh Hamad in Kolonia.






Outer Court. a = Cistern
Maqam b = A mulberry tree
School Room c = Mihrab
Rawaq d = The tomb of the servant,. partly inside
the shrine and partly in the court
Room for the teacher e = The tombs of the seh, his two wives and
that of his son.

Fig. 2. A rough sketch of the sanctuary of el-'Uzer (Awartah).

A c*s Elevated place
B =* The huge tomb

0 B=a A room with a Samaritan inscription on the western
wall. Below the inscription there are three niches
a, b, c = Three rooms, in b there is an inscription (Samaritan),
in c food is cooked by the visitors
1, 2 = Two butum trees

3 = Several carob trees

4 = A palm tree

5 = A quadrangular opening leading to a cave.

Fig. 3. A transverse section of the tomb of el-TJzer. The other
tombs of Awartah have the same form.

Fig. 4. A perpendicular section of a complicated qubbeh. Section
running through two opposite corners.

Fig. 5. Decorations around the mihrab of the sanctuary of es-seh
Yasin (Der Yasin).

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Tut, I


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Sometimes the running water and the tree are the only indications
of the sacredness of the place, and at other times we find only
water courses, which although not connected with any shrine, grave
or holy tree are considered to be sacred and are assigned to some
holy person. In one case, el-Matba'ah, there is a swamp connected
with a welt This marsh has a widespread reputation for relieving
rheumatic pains and is at the same time supposed to cure sterility.

65% of all sanctuaries recorded in this connection possessed a
source of water (flowing or standing) in the neighbourhood.

e) Caves

The last feature to be noted is the presence of a cave in or about
the shrine. We must consider three quite different kinds of caves;

1. Sacred caves connected with a sanctuary, either tomb or maqam.

2. Sacred caves, which have no connection with any shrine.

3. Simple caves, having no apparent connection with the sacredness
of a shrine, though situated near one.

It is interesting to note how many holy places are directly or
indirectly connected with one or other kind of cave.

Sacred caves sometimes lie inside the maqam itself and appear
rather like a shallow cistern with a wide opening.1 In such cases
we seldom find a tomb in the shrine, and the people believe that
the tomb is inside the cave itself.2 Of course no one has ever dared
to descend into the cave to look for the grave. The mouth of such a
cave is generally closed.

The following story illustrates this belief. The qaiym of es-Seli
Mohammad, whose shrine lies in wadi ed-Damm, to the south of
ed-Djorah, once ventured to decend into the cave (el-gh&r) of the
shrine. There he saw the iveli with a bloody sword in his hand.
This sword was that of the Mohammedan leader who fell here
while leading the troops who finally conquered Askalon. As soon
as the qaiym climbed out he fell sick, and died in a few days.

More often the caves are outside the building, either near by or
some distance away. Occasionally people relate that the holy man

1 As is the case, for example, in the sanctuary of en-nebi Lut (Bani N*em)

* S. Kahle, PJ\ 1911. p.92.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 43

has been seen leaving his shrine and walking to the cave, whence,
after staying some time, he returns to his maqdm. Caves connected
with holy persons are always respected. Some have never been
entered; others are approached only during the daytime, as their
wahrah (condition of inspiring awe) is very strong. In many cases
oil lamps are lighted and incense is burnt in the cave itself. No
animals are allowed to enter such a cave, for it is believed that the
spirit of the holy man will sooner or later inflict severe punishment
upon such an animal. Many peasants say that they have seen in
such a cave a greenish light, which is extinguished as soon as a
human being approaches the place.

In most respects the above description also applies to sacred
caves not connected with any shrine. Fuller details regarding this
type of holy places will be given later. Among such caves we may
mention: One on the left side of the carriage-road leading from
Jerusalem to Kolonia, just opposite the last house of Lifta, which is
situated on the right side of the road.1 A cave in the garden of
the Leper Hospital in Jerusalem.1 2

In addition to these two groups of caves there are many instan-
ces where caves are not far distant from sanctuaries but have no
direct connection with them. Often they lie in a ruin. Shepherds
may keep their flocks there during the night. Instances are the
caves found around the shrines of es-Seh \Abd es-Salam, es-Seh es-
Sidri and es-seh 'Anbar. The caves of the first are in the ruins of
hirbet fAlmit, those of the second in hirbet Der es-Sidd, and those
of the third in hirbet Ibqil* ed-Dan. The caves below the shrine of
es-sitt el-Badriyeh (Sarafat) are used for storing straw (tibn).

These caves are of two types either natural or hewn in the
rock. Most of the latter are ancient rock tombs, the entrances to
which have been enlarged. It is sometimes observed that old, damaged
and partly buried vaults are counted as caves. This I have especi-
ally noticed in 'Awartah.

The three caves belonging to this class are to my mind the
crudest type of sanctuaries. They were ruined, dark, dirty and
unattended. Es-8eh Srur is situated inside the village and is made

1 The terrain where this cave is found is known by the name el-IJomeh.

2 The story of this cave is given on another page.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

of a low, dirty, dark and half ruined room which was at the time
of my visit full of lime. El-'Adjami is a very low, narrow and
dirty opening in the habitation of a peasant. The maqdm was
filled with firewood. A second cAdjami has as shrine a roomlike
cave, situated below a building and vaulted over.

Although these sanctuaries are of so crude a type, they are
honoured and respected by the peasants. Oil-lamps are lighted
in them, oaths and vows are made in their name.

Among sanctuaries having a sacred cave in their vicinity are:
El-cUzer near 'Awartah, es-Sahrah in the mosque of Omar (Jerusa-
lem), eS-Seh Ahmad el-Hwes in Biddu, and e^-Seh es-Sidri near

The first two will be described more fully later. The tomb of
es-Sek Ahmad el-Hwes1 lies in the common cemetery, while the
cave, which is more highly honoured, lies at the very edge of the
village. It is an ancient tomb hewn in the rock which, becomes
partly filled with water during the winter time. All vows and
lights are offered to this saint in this place. He has been also
seen to walk out of the cave.

The es-Sidri has been already described.

Sacred caves which are not connected at all with a tomb or a
masonry maqdm will be discussed below. Among caves which, although
found in the neighbourhood of holy places, have no connection with
the sacredness of the maqdm are:1 2

es-Seh Yusif between el-Bireh and Surdah,

es-Seh Ammar in Der Duwan,

es-seh Abft Ytisif north of Kafr Nimeh,3
es-selj eAbd es-Salam in *Anata.

The shrine of eS-seh 'Abd es-Salam lies east of An&ta in the
vicinity of the ruin. It has one room enclosing the tomb, which
is covered with a green cloth. The head stone is dressed with a
greenish laffeh (the head dress of the peasant). I found in the
shrine a straw mat, many oil-lamps, oil-bottles which were mostly

1 McCown, op. cit. p. 50, seems to know nothing about the tomb of this
welt He describes only the cave.

* These caves need not be always close to the welt

3 Reported to the writer by Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


empty, straw brooms, an earthern oil-jar and a copy of the Qoran.
Outside of this room there are several caves, small and large, which
do not share the sacredness of the well To the northeast we see
the tomb of his son, e8-Seh Sliman. A fig-tree grows in the rock
adjacent to the shrine. It is related by some that the father
planted it; according to others, God made it grow in the rock to
prove the authenticity of the well

We have hitherto dealt only with those caves whose nature as
such is apparent. Very often people tell us that beneath or beside
a well there is a hidden cave, inside of which the tomb of the holy
person is situated. This feature is met with in es-Seh Ahmad tbI-
Karaki et-Taiyar (in Qastal), sittna el-Hadra (in Nablus), eS-8eh el-
Qatrawani (between Bir Zet and Atarah) en-nabi Samwil (Mizpah
of Samuel), es-Seh-cAbdallah (in Qubebeh), etc.

Sittna el-Hadra illustrates this class. Three doors, the middle
one being the main one, lead to an elongated room which is spread
with carpets. The walls, especially the southern one, are decorated
with rough paintings, Qoranic verses, and hung with musical in-
struments and weapons of the dervishes. The mihrab is beautifully
decorated. A door in the western wall leads to a small and dark
room, which is known by the name huzn Ja'qfib (Jacob's sorrow),
since it is believed that Jacob wept here for the supposed death
of his beloved son Joseph. The 8eh relates that this room is built
on a cave which was once opened. Fifty two steps used to lead
down to it. This cave is thought to be the actual place where
Jacob spent his days of mourning.1 The sanctuary is surrounded
by beautiful gardens.

It is a mistake to confuse the caves described above with those
inhabited by djinn, who appear in different shapes, mostly during
the night, and always try to injure the passerby. Such caves are
Mgharit Abti Farh and Mgharit Mardj el-Badd (both in Abft Dis).
In the first one the djinn appear sometimes in the form of animals
and sometimes in the shape of human beings. At the second men-
tioned cave the demons assume the appearance of a cock.

Places and caves regarded as holy by Christians and Jews may,
at the same time, be considered by the Mohammedans to be the i.

i. There is no tomb in this cave.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

abiding place of djinn. Although this is rare, the following episode
illustrates the point. Sliman Mustafa, a peasant of Malha, was
returning one evening from Jerusalem. As he was overtaken by
heavy rain, he sought shelter in a cave which lies near Bir el-Balat,
and not far from the convent of the Holy Cross. The monks of this
convent are said to have buried their dead here in former years.
No sooner had he sat down on a stone than a he-goat came close
to him. The peasant, joyful at this unexpected gift, struck a match
but could see nothing. As soon as the light of the match went out,
he saw the goat again. Frightened by the repeated appearance and
disappearance of this animal, he rushed out of the cave with the
words in the name of the Gracious, Merciful God. This freed him
from the demon, which was following him in the shape of the he-goat.


We have now considered all the characteristic elements of these
sanctuarieswith the exception of stone circles, stone heaps and
rocks, which may also be found. We now proceed to deal with the
various combined features which may make up a welt Attention
must first be drawn to a constant factor affecting the importance of
the different features of a shrine. The two most important parts of
a sanctuary are without doubt the maqam and the tomb; trees and
water-courses rank second, other features being generally of minor
significance. I hope, however, in the following pages to make it clear
that even to these unimportant features is sometimes granted a high
degree of sanctity. No place can be considered holy, i. e. inhabited
by a holy person, unless two conditions are fulfilled: (1.) The
performance there of religious acts, such as oaths, vows, lighting lamps,
burning incense, etc.; (2.) the occurrence there of unnatural phenomena,
as, for example, hearing religious music, seeing a light lit by itself,
or a severe punishment befalling a trespasser. These points will be
considered in a subsequent chapter. Let us now study the different
features which may constitute a shrine in the wide sense of the word.
They may be divided into nine classes:

I. Sanctuaries consisting of a maqam and a tomb, with all or
most of the other features;

II. A maqam but no tomb;

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


III. A tomb without a maqam\

IV. A cave with or without a tomb;

V. A simple circular enclosure of stone, without a tomb;

VI. A spring or a well;

VII. A solitary tree or a group of trees;

VIII. A heap of stones;

IX. A simple large stone or a rock.

I to VI may, or may not be combined with one or more of the
following features: a tree, water, a ruin or a cave.

I. Sanctuaries with a shrine (maqam) and a tomb.

These are the most complete and highly developed forms. Usually
we find them whenever we have to do with an important, well-
established and highly honoured saint. In such cases the tomb of
the holy person was the primary part of the shrine, and in the
course of time an individual or village built the sanctuary. The more
important the holy man, the greater the complexity of the building.
Prophets (anbid) enjoy the largest maqams. But even many of the
simple syuh have shrines falling within this group, as, for example,
es-£eh et-Tori, e£-seh cAnbar, etc. Some of them are elaborate
structures, as eS-seh I'mar (Bet Duqqfi), es-seh Hamad (Kolonia)
andlrdjal el-fAmfid (Nablus). Good examples of large and complicated
buildings are those of en-nabi Mfisa and All ibn '(-Ejlem.1

The shrine of es-Seh I'mar2 the son of e£-seh Saleh is situated
on the mountain on which Bet Duqqti is built. The sanctuary
consists of three rooms, a cistern and an open place to the north
of the rooms. The open place is surrounded by a massive wall
and has a palm-tree on its east side. The two western rooms
communicate with each other. In the southern one there are the
tombs3 of the well and his wife, while in the northern one his son
eS*s6h Dahftd is buried. On each side of the door which leads
from this room to the open place we see a tomb, the eastern one
of which covers the remains of es-seh Qasim, the son of "All the
son of Marar, while the western one belongs to this Marar the

* North of Jaffa.

2 Corruption of Omar.

3 The tombs were decorated with hinnti and maghri.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society


Fig. 1. Plan of el-Badriyeh.

A = Outer Court
B = Inner Court
C = Back Court
D =* Small Garden
E = Cemetery
F = Sanctuary

G = Ruaq, serving as a djami*

a = door to outer court
b = door to inner court
c = entrance to the maqam
d = cistern

e = tomb of el-Badriyeh
f = tombs of her children
g = tomb of her husband
h = prayer niche
i = two olive trees
k = an oak tree
1 = entrance to a cave.

Fig. 2. Plan of Irdjal el-'Amud.

a = entrance to court
b = cistern

c = private tombs (those of the servants and relatives of the Saints)
d = qubbeh

e = a djami* with a mihrab

f = under thevwindow is the opening to a cave, where 40 martyrs
are said to be buried. It is called ghar seydna All ibn Abi Talib
g = the tombs of the Siuh.

On the sasiyeh of the main entrance (a) a fragment of a pillar is built.

Fig. 3. A part of the wall of the enclosure of el-Maushri in Awartah.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Tuti ///

Tlct e4t*n&


El -J?/iixiyei4


'Xiri&i C^/y^-v' vr^
TET h/ti n-
TrO Tfl l 1 1 ) 1
LJ > t-r7rrT
IPTl 111 i)i

^ *J EEc.
etie lejf+y
<*J i/- J7lsyn4un,l



El a. n 0)

Ju;*l 4



Journal of this Palestine Oriental Society

son of Dahud. The eastern room used to serve as a maktdb
(school room), but its ruined state at present makes it useless.
In the two western rooms there were oil-lamps, oil-bottles, two
long wooden sticks for banners, a pot with sweet-basil1 and a
heap of carob fruits.1 2 3 4 The last is the well's portion of the
carob tree, which belongs to him and grows at some distance
from the maqam.

Since every point in connection with maqams of this group has
already been described, we may pass on to the next class.

II. Maqams without a tomb

They are sanctuaries built in a village and bearing the name of


a djami'* (a mosque), like djami* el-Arbln ("Esawiyeh), djami" 'Omar
ibn el-Hattab4 (Surbahir5), djami" el-'Uzer4 (el-Qaryeh), etc.

Djami* el-"Uzer lies to the east of the French Benedictine church
and convent. The shrine consists of an open place, to the south
of which there is a rawftq with two arches and a prayer room,
which has two beautifully decorated mihrabs. To the west of the
open court is a small room, in which the dead are ritually washed
before they are buried. A spring and a palm-tree are found in
the open courtyard. Around the two mihrabs of the prayer room
and around that of the rawdq there are impressions of hands, and
representations of palm branches, some of which have nine, others
seven leaves.

The people are well aware that the holy man whose name the
mosque bears was not buried here. They explain the connection of
his name with the place by the fact that during his lifetime he was
very pious and therefore so honoured that in every place where he
is supposed to have offered prayerand he never missed one of the
five daily prayersa mihrab was erected and later a djami' was
built. This explanation, told me by the muhtar (the village chief) of

1 Rihan, ocymon basilicum.

2 garrtib, carob.

3 This, of course, is not an absolute rule, for there are mosques containing
tombs, like djami* el-'Amari (Der Aban).

4 Probably a church which was changed into a mosque.

5 Pronounced at times also Surbahil.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Surbahir, and by people of Soba, is commonly given in connection with
the Caliph 'Omar ibn el-Hattab and es-sultan Ibrahim el-Adhami.1
Many mosques bearing the name of the Caliph are called 'Umaru
This may account for some, but, of course, it cannot explain all the
djawami (pi. of djami) of this category. In many cases it is believed
that the holy man lived, taught, or appeared after his death in this
spot and that therefore a mosque was built in his memory. A third
explanation was given me by the muhtar of 'Anata. He said that
every time a new mosque is built it is dedicated to some saint, who
is not necessarily chosen from among the most important. But the
present writer is of the belief that the basis of such a dedication is
a legend connecting the man of God in question with the locality.

The following stories will serve as illustrations.

In the room known by the name of huzn Ya'qub and situated in
sittna el-Hadra (Nablus), Jacob is supposed to have mourned for the
death of his beloved son Joseph.

El-'Uzer came to el-Qaryeh to adore Almighty God. He fastened
his ass to a pillar beside the spring and prayed. His devotion was
performed with such intensity that it lasted one hundred years, and
he thought it was only a few minutes. As he turned to the place
where he had fastened his animal he found that only the skeleton
of the ass was left.1 2

Es-seh el-Qatrawani lived in the village of Qatrah north of Gaza.
According to one version of the story he left his villagesince he
could not fulfill his religious duties thereand came to the lonely

1 In safat, Bet IJanina and Soba. In the first two there is a mosque, while
in the third we find only a square place with a mihrab, a large fig tree (not an
oak-tree as McCown says) and a small enclosure (huwetiyeh) in the north-west
corner. In the tdqah situated in the west wall are found various pits of broken
pottery, in which incense was burned. Most of the people gave me the name
es-sultan Ibrahim, not es-Beh Ibrahim (Me Oown).

2 Cf. Qoran, Surah II, 258ff. The text (Sales translation) runs: And God
caused him (cUzer or Ezra) to die for a hundred years, and afterwards raised him
to life. And God said, How long hast thou tarried here? He answered, A day
or part of day. God said, Nay, thou hast tarried here an hundred years. Now
look on thy food and thy drink, they are not yet corrupted, and look on thine
ass: and this we have done that we might make thee a aign unto men. And
look on the bones of thine ass, how we raise them and afterwards clothe them
with flesh.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

spot of Dahrit Hammfideh,1 a high hill between Bir Zet and Atarah.
Here he lived in prayer and self-mortification. According to another
version when his dead body was being carried for burial, he flew up
off their shoulders and descended on the hill, where his shrine stands
at present.1 2

In the room leading to the so called Stables of Solomon, the crib
of Christ (srir saiydna cIsa) is shown. It is related that St. Mary
used to put her child here.

Below the Holy Rock of the Mosque of Omar visitors are
shown places where David, Solomon, Abraham, Elijah and Mohammed
are thought to have prayed. Each of these spots is holy.

Near some shrines of the first group there has been built recently
a mosque, which bears the name of the holy person honoured near
by. But such a djamic serves only for prayer, while all honours
continue to be given to the old shrine. Examples of this are es-Seh
Djarrah and Sacd u S'id3 (both in Jerusalem).

Hitherto we have only dealt with shrines of this class, where it
is absolutely certain (according to general belief and to external
appearance) that no tomb exists. But there is a subdivision of this
class forming a connecting link between this and the previous group,
and comprising those sanctuaries where no tomb exists and where
there is not the slightest external sign pointing even to the possibility
of a tomb, though local tradition asserts that the saint was buried
there, either beneath the building or in a cave which was afterwards
closed. Such sanctuaries are el-Qatrawani, es-seh Ahmad el-Karaki
(Qastal), es-Seh Husen (Bet Stirik), es-Seh Abu Ismail (Bet Likia),
es-Seh Abdallah (Qubebeh), etc.

Es-Seh Abu Isma ll, which lies in the midst of the village, consists
of two rooms. The front one serves as a guest-house (mad&feh),
while the second is the shrine of the saint. No tomb is anywhere
to be seen. But it is said that the well is buried in a cave which
lies beneath the shrine. In the middle of the guest-house is the
fire-place (udjdq) where coffee is prepared. In the outer coiyrtyard

1 The shrine is surrounded by the remains of a church.

2 I heard these two versions from people of Atarah, the second seemed to
be the prevailing one.

2 The shrine of the latter ieh is in ruins.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


is a sidreh (lote tree) which furnishes a protecting shadow, so that
the guests assemble under it in the summer months.

Another subdivision is the group to which Qubbet el-Arb in1 (the
dome of the Forty) belongs. Every Mohammedan knows that the
Forty were not buried in this sanctuary; nevertheless an elongated,
rectangular frame of stones in the midst of the floor running east
and west, stands for a tomb.

III. A tomb without a building

There is scarcely a village which does not possess at least one such
welt In some places as in Sflrbahir and Jerichothis type is by
far the most common. Such holy places may be composed of one or
of a whole set of tombs. Where several tombs are found side by side
the persons buried generally belong to the same holy family. Such
cases are Syfih ed-Djaabri1 2 (Hebron), hadj I'bed (St. John), Irdjal
Sflfeh (Der Ghassaneh3), e6-Seh Abfl Yamin (Bet 'Anan), e8-suhada
(the martyrs of Hebron) and el-Mudjahdin (the fighters in the holy
warof Ramleh). In many cases the descendants of these saints
are still living.

The shrine of es-seh Abfi Yamin is surrounded by an enclosing
wall. The tombs of es-seh and of his son are in the maqam, while
the graves of his descendants are in the open court around the
building, enclosed by the wall. A pomegranate, a palm and a fig
tree belong to the saint. It is said that he is often seen flying
while his band of musicians is playing. According to local belief
he and all his descendants were chosen men of God.

With the exception of a few such placeslike those of eS-^uhada
and el-Mudjahdinmost representatives of this class belong to recent
times. They generally come within one of the following categories:

1. A living Seh of a holy family dies. His tomb receives more or
less the same honours as those of his ancestors. Examples are es-
Seh Bhet, es-seh Hilfi and eS-Seh Saleli of the family of ed-Dawa'ri

1 Situated on the Mount of Olives, in the midst of the cemetery. It is a square
building with a small dome. A small fig garden is connected with it.

2 Their ancestor was the renowned scholar (*alim) ed-Dja'bari.

3 Information derived from Omar Effendi El-Barghufci.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Sooiety

These syuh ed-Dawacri are interred in the common western
cemetery of the village. Their tombs are enclosed by a rectangular
wall which is in many places defective. The most important of
them are es-Seh el-'Neni and Abu Mita. Although their tombs are
smaller than the three mentioned above, they enjoy greater respect
and honour. All except the tomb of el-cNeni have stones at head
and foot and a niche in which oil is lighted. The newer tombs are
decorated with hinna and straqtin. Broken oil-jars and oil-bottles
are scattered around the tombs.

2. If there dies a famous holy man or a derwis who had founded or
was a prominent member of a tariqah, or used to heal the sick during
his life, his tomb tends to become sacred and himself a welt The
best example of this is es-seh Abft Halawi.

He is buried in the cemetery which runs along the east wall
of Jerusalem. The tomb is situated on rising ground to the north
of St. Stephens gate. The qandil, described by Kahle1 and shewn
in the photograph which he took of the place, was stolen during
the war. Flowers are very often deposited on the tomb. This seh
was very much honoured during his life. Sick people and those in
trouble used to obtain healing and help from him. While his dead
body was being carried to the place of burial, it flew away and
descended on the spot where the soul of the welt chose to have
his remains interred. His tomb is honoured and the sick very
often tear a piece from their garments and bind it around the
head stone.

3. A night vision of some villager shows him that this or that
place, in or near his own neighbourhood, is sacred as the burial
place of a ivelt The people of the village will then probably build
there a tomb, as was done in the case of es-3eh Suwan.

A peasant of Sflrbahir, who lived in a small cave, lost one
member of his family after the other through death. No one could
explain his misfortune. One night a reverend seh appeared to him
in a night vision and reproaching him severely said: Why do you
not respect my habitation? If you will not atone for your past
forgetfulness I will cause the remainder of your family to die.

1 PJ VI. p. 67.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctnaries in Palestine


The frightened man asked: Who are you, my Lord? The reply
was: I am Seh Suwan and am buried here. Early in the morning
a tomb was built, the cave cleaned and the family moved elsewhere.

In many cases a low circular enclosure, huivetiyeh, surrounds the
tomb. Even in high structures it is never vaulted. Generally it is
constructed of simple, unhewn stones, as in the following cases:

ES-Seh Sabbah
es-seh Zughbeh
es-seh Hamdallah
es-seh Imbarak
es-seh 'Teri
es-Seh el-Habil1

in Jericho,
in Jericho,
in Biddh,
in Bet Iksa,
in Der Ghassaneh,1
in Der Ghassaneh.

Sometimes this enclosure is built more solidly, hewn stones and
mortar being used. The walls may be high and surround the entire
group of objects: tomb, trees, mihrab and open court This open space
surrounding the tomb is often paved with stone slabs, especially in
the case of important welts like el-Uzer (Fig. 2, Plate II), el-Mufaddil
and al-Manshri (all in Awartah). In the case of al-Man$firi the wall
surrounding the tomb is constructed on three sides of beautiful small
vaults (Fig. 3, Plate III).

In the case of simple enclosures an opening like a door is some-
times left on one side. This door is often made of two large side
stones set upright with another on top, and is rather low. Although
visitors are supposed to enter through this door, this is seldom done.

Many Bedouin welts are of this type.

E3-seh Sabbah and ez-Zughbeh* 2both in Jerichoare good
illustrations of the foregoing type. The former has a very low
door, while in the second a breach in the low wall serves the
purpose. A visitor must creep if he wishes to enter through the
door of the enclosure of Sabbah in orthodox fashion,3 so every
one prefers to jump over the wall.

In most cases of a tomb with an enclosure it is said that at
different times the people proposed to erect a maqam, but the saint

* Information from Omar Effendi el-Barghu£i.

2 Kahle, PJ, 1911, pp. 88. Not Zu'beh but Zughbeh.

3 Creeping through the door, and thus humiliating oneself is regarded with
more favour by the iej, than jumping over the wall.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

himself refused to have one and pulled down in the night what was
built during the day, throwing the stones far away.

The tomb of e8-seh DarwiS of Bet Shrik is surrounded by a
high enclosing wall. Every time the peasants of the village tried
to build him a suitable tomb and to put a roof on the four walls,
the saint showed his dissatisfaction by pulling down their work,
until they were obliged to give up their idea. The same is said
of el-Manshri, el-Mufaddil and others.

In some cases we are shown a tomb, but exact investigation will
fail to disclose any thing, even a heap of stones, which might mark
the existence of a tomb. Under the terebinth tree of es-seh Mustafa
($oba) irregularly scattered stones were said to represent the tomb
of the welt But I could not distinguish any characteristic of a tomb.
The scattered stones were shaped like ordinary field stones.1

IV. A cave with or without a tomb

There are two types of sacred caves: those with and those without
a tomb. The first type is rare and its best representative is es-seh
es-Sidri.1 2 A careful description of this sanctuary may suffice to explain
this point more exactly. The well is situated in the ruin Der es-Sidd,
south of eS-Seh fAbd es-Salam, on the top of a low hill. In the ruin
there are many caves3 hewn in the rock, with stairs leading down
to them. Many cisterns, mostly defective, are scattered here and
there. Bir ez-Zqaq provides water for shepherds. The saints tomb
is situated in a rather large, natural cave with a low roof. The
entrance is built of good hewn stones and surrounded by a square
outer court, which lies lower than the western part There is no door
to close the cave. At the N. N. E. extremity we find the tomb erected
on an elevated square platform with two pillar fragments on the
front corners. On both of them, as well as around the tomb, we find
oil-lamps, candle-stumps, matches, broken jars, bottles, etc. Besides
this tomb there is no other buildiDg. At present no tree is connected
with this sanctuary, but formerly a large terebinth adorned the
empty space.

1 McCown, op. citj p. 56.

2 According to some his first name is Muhammed, according to others

3 These are used at present for cattle.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Other examples of this type are: Es-seh Ahmad el-Gharib (N. of
el-Mdjedil near Nazareth); eS-seh Salman el-Farsi (Mount of Olives):
who used to have his tomb in a cave, and es-sayidi er-Rab'ah.

By the cave of es-seh Salman el-Farsi a beautiful qubbeh1 was built.

Formerly a narrow canal (dahliz) used to lead to the cave. In
front of the pretty shrine several trees were planted: a cypress, a
pine, two pomegranates and an olive tree. A cistern is also
connected with the place*.

Es-sayidi er-R&bah1 2 3 (not Rahba, as stated by Meistermann,3
nor R&hibet as stated in Baedeker4 5) who has her sanctuary near
el-Mas'ad (the place of ascension) and below ZAwiet el-Asfadiyeh, is
honoured by the Mohammedans, Christians and Jews. The Christians
and Jews do not reverence here er-Rab ah,6 but Pelagia6 and the
prophetes Hulda,7 respectively. Twelve steps lead from the upper
room to the cave in which the tomb is shown, all hewn in the solid
rock. A small room near the grave is said to be the place where
she used to perform her daily devotions. Er-Rabcah, it is said, used
to kneel a thousand times daily saying: ttI ask for no recompense,
but to satisfy the Almighty God. In the upper room there is a
cistern whose water is said to have a specially pleasant taste.

There are some caves, in front of which tombs are found and
both these two features are intimately connected with each other.
It is said that the well has been seen occasionally walking from his
tomb to the cave. As illustrations we may cite es-Seh Ahmad el-
Huwes, which has already been described, and es-£eh Asffir8 to
the south of Der Ghassaneh.9 In the first case, all honours are paid
to the cave, where it is supposed that the soul of the saint lives.

1 liable, PJ, vol. VI, 1910, p. 79. The ruined qubbeh has been restored.

2 The full name is er-Rab'ah el-'Adawiyeh el-Basriyeh of the descendants of
A1 Aqil.

3 Guide de la Terre Sainte, p. 278.

4 Palastina und Syrien, p. 94.

5 She is said to have died in the year 135 A. H.

She was formerly called Margarita, and died 457 A. C. Here it is supposed
that she atoned for her sins (Meistermann).

7 The inhabitants of the Mount of Olives pronounce it Huldah.

8 I owe this information to the kindness of Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

9 In reality this shrine does not belong to this but to the rirst class. It is
said that the saint used to sit in the cave during his lifetime.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

The second categorya cave without a tomb, and supposed to be
inhabited by a sainthas many representatives in Palestine. The
caves are either natural or rock-hewn tombs. They are situated on
the edge of a village, or outside in the fields. We seldom find them
among human habitations. Among caves which are considered to
be the habitation of saints are:1


es-seh 'All Qaitun
es-seh G-hreyib
Mgharet es-Seh
Irdjal el-Arbin
el-Arb*in Mghazi
es-8eh lcsa
Irdjal Abu Tub
es-Seh Yfisif
eS-seh 'Abdallah

Mount Carmel,1 2

el-Hadr, near Bet Djala,
Kufr 'Aqab,


Bet Likia,

Bet Likia,

Bet Likia,

Bet Hanina,

Mizpah of Samuel.

Six3 steps lead down to Mgharit Irdjal4 5 el-Arb*in of Biddii.
The cave is small, somewhat round, with a low roof. During the
winter months part of it is full of water. In front of this cave
two oaks, an olive and a terebinth grow one beside the other. In
their shade the hatib (religious head of the village) teaches the
children. No tomb is anywhere attached to this Porty.

The Irdjal Abti Tfth, whose number is unknown, inhabit a small
cave, situated in a rather large grove.6 The entrance to the
mghdrah is so small that no one can enter. Broken jars, oil-
bottles, oil-lamps and burned incense are scattered around the
opening. These saints are very much respected, no one daring to
cut off a twig from their groves.

The different names used for caves, irrespective of whether they
belong to this group or not, are mgharahy ghdr, sqdf, and hikf.
These different expressions do not mean the same thing. The ex-
pression glfidr is used only for cave-like cisterns, which are situated

1 Jaussen, Coutumes des Arabes, p. 302, mentions also a cave called Mgharet
Imm Djde\

2 Curtiss, Kahle and Miillinen.

3 Not eight: Annual of American School of Archaeology IIIII, p. 58.

4 Very often Irdjal is abbreviated and we hear only Djar Arbcin.

5 It is one of the largest groves connected with welts*

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


in the maqam. They are always treated as the most holy places
and nobody dares to enter. A hadit says: ma minn nabiyn ilia
walahu ghdr: Every prophet has a cave assigned to him. In many
cases (e. g. en-nabi Samwil) the visible tomb found in the shrine is
said not to be the true one but to surmount the actual tomb, which
is in the ghdr and cannot be seen nor visited. Ilikf1 stands mostly
for a small cave covered by a large stone slab, like es-seh el-TTmari
east of Hizma. The other expressions generally denote ordinary
caves. As has been already observed small, low, vaulted rooms are
sometimes called caves mghdrah). I met this peculiarity in 'Awartah.
In Sbba the ArV in Mghazi are represented by a small shallow hole
in the old masonary. This was also called mghdrah. Here lights
and incense are burnt.1 2

Of course all honours are paid to such a cave just as to any
shrine. It is lit up, offerings and even sheep may be vowed, a pious
woman will never enter any of them while impure, and no animals
are allowed to defile the holy place by their entrance.3 Not in-
frequently the cave is connected with a tree, a grove or a well as in
the case of:

es-Seh Ahmad Ghreyib in el-Mdjedil near Nazareth,4

eg-seh Mftsa in Harbata5

Irdjal Abu Tflh in Bet Likia,

Irdjal el-Arb'in in Biddfi.

The following story illustrates how a simple cave may eventually
come to receive the honours of a shrine.

The Mohammedan leper Djum'ah,6 from Abu Dis, while in the
leper asylum Jesus-Hilf, Jerusalem, used to live during the

1 Hikf is not known in Muhit el- Muhit. It may be derived from kahf, where
the first and second letters have been interchanged, and h pronounced instead
of h.

2 See description and plate in McCowns article, p. 56. He does not describe
the place as a mghdrah. When counting the wells of this village, McCown was
not shown the tomb situated in the village cemetery and which is dedicated to
es-seh Shadeh and es-sehah Mas'udeh. This place is not highly honoured.

3 This rule is not kept so strictly as it used to be.

* I owe this information to a student of the English College, Jerusalem, who
comes from Nazareth.

3 Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

Heard from this leper himself.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

summer months in a tent out in the large garden of the institution,
to guard it from thieves. While, one Thursday evening, he was
saying his prayers, he distinctly heard prayers and religious music
of dervishes. Djum'ah at once left his tent and walked slowly
towards the place whence the madih, (religious song) came, a cave,
in which a greenish light was burning. Djum'ah dared notenter.
Remaining outside the cave he waited until these mysterious
visitors had finished their prayers. Afterwards he noticed the
same every Thursday evening (lelatu-Mjurri ah). Since that time
he kept the cave and its surroundings clean, since sulldh1 (pious
men) lived or gathered every Thursday evening in this cave to
perform their prayers. Djum'ah was too poor to offer a light
every week, as he should have done according to common belief.i 2

The foregoing story illustrates also the fact that many places are
held sacred only by a few private persons. Their renown has not
yet spread.

We must not overlook the most important sacred cave of the
Mohammedans of Palestine below the Holy Rock in the Mosque of
Omar. The different parts of this cave, which are highly honoured
by every Moslem, will be described in the section dealing with sacred
stones. Even Christians believe in some holy caves, e. g. the Milk
Grotto3 of Bethlehem in which, tradition alleges, some drops of the
milk of St. Mary happened to fall while she was suckling her Child.
The curative powers of this place will be described later.

V. A simple stone enclosure

Such an enclosure may be very small, having a diametre of not
more than 3040 cm., though sometimes much more. The circular
enclosure (huwttiyeh or huwttah4 5sometimes also called hodh or

i When no special saint can be nominated, vague expressions like sulldht
awlid, darawis, ad jam, etc. are used.

J The sacredness of this cave has been forgotten siuce Djum*ah left the in-
stitution long ago.

3 This grotto will be described later.

* The common expression, hauioatak ballah, I(beg) God to be a wall around
you (e. g. may God protect you), comes from the same root hauwata. See
Muhit el-Muhit, vol. I, p. 477.

5 Hod means really a watering-trough.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


sireh1) was in every instance known to me made of simple, unhewn
stones, set irregularly side by side, and with no attempt at symmetry.
Often a gap is left in the circle to act as a doorway. In the case
of e£-8ehah Imbarakeh (Kalandia) the female saint is said to gather
clean pieces of broken pottery and arrange them as a fyuwMah,
leaving a small gap for the entrance. Since the war it is observed
that she does not replace the old pieces with new ones as she used
always to do. Somewhere in the inner wall of these circles there is
usually a tdqah, in which oil-lamps and matches are placed, and
where incense is burnd.

In Biddh we find the western cemetery on a small elevation.
At its north-eastern corner is a small crudely built enclosure in
which eS-Seh'Ali et-Tall&l1 2 is honoured. Near this holy spot grow
an olive and a fig tree, and a cistern was lately discovered there.
All these belong to the saint Two sides of the elevation are
made of old masonry. This place is a good example of a sacred
enclosure combined with trees, a cistern and ruins.

In the case of eS-Seh Fredj (Bet Hanin&) an old petroleum tin
partly covers the sacred enclosure, and thus protects the light from
being blown out. The fact that awlid belonging to this class are
not kept clean and are not much cared for, points to the conclusion
that they are not so highly honoured as others. We hear of cases
where villages have tried to erect a maqam for one or other Seh of
this group, but where the holy men prevented the completion of the
work in the same way as we have seen in the case of eS-seh Huwes.
Some of the sanctuaries belonging to this group have been trans-
fered to the category mentioned under II by the erection of a
building in place of the stone enclosure. Masadjid sittna 'AiSeh in
the neighbourhood of nabl Mfisa illustrates this point. A simple,
square handsome building with the northern side completely opened,
and the east and west sides partly open, stands on the site of the
old enclosure. No tomb, cistern nor tree is connected with this place.

1 Sireh means really an enclosure for cattle. The Arabic dictionaries give
neither to this word nor to hod the meaning used in the text, i. e. a sacred

2 Not et/falali as in McCown, p. 59. The depressed spot is the enclosure
and not the grave of the welt Es-Seh IJasan Abu-1-CA1 amen of Biddu is not
mentioned in the list given by McCown.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

A few metres to the north of el-Mansuri (Awartah) one is shown
a very badly made enclosure said to mark the tomb of Hftsa\ the
son of el-Mansuri. A large wind-proof kerosene lantern is placed
in the centre. Of this and the other important worthies of Awartah
it is said that they do not wish any building to be erected over their

It is interesting to note that even Christians have similar en-
closures, which they respect and honour. On the left side of the
stony road leading from Bet Djala to el-Hadr, passing el-Marah
and going through es-Sarafeh, just before the latter is reached, there
is a small enclosure into which a passer-by may throw bread, figs
or grapes. It used always to be kept clean. The peasants of Bet
Djala tell how that when St. George (el-Hadr) came from the north
to the village el-Hadr (where a church is built for him) he walked
with gigantic strides, one of which happened to fall in this spot.1

A few enclosures sacred to Mohammedans which have not yet
been mentioned in the text are:

es-seh Ghreyib1 2
en-nabi Danial
es-seh Said3 4
es-seh Mrad
es-seh Abu-l-Kferl
es-seh Abd el-Muhsin

in Yalo,
near el-Hadr,
in Idna,
in Yalo,

in Hirbet el-Kfereh,5
in Djibiah.

En-nabi Danial (also pronounced Danilin) has his huwetah in
a vineyard, situated between Artas and el-Hadr, in Marah ed-
Djami*. The prophet, passing this way, performed a prayer at this
spot. Some oak trees, to which rags and hair are fastened, grow
near the enclosure. He is supposed to appear occasionally walking
in the vineyard and wearing a green crown. With him is his horse
which he ties to one of the trees. Formerly he always refused to

1 This is the only enclosure which I know of honoured by Christians.

2 Near the enclosure there is a gharah (laurel) tree, on which no rags are

3 The stones of the enclosure are painted with hinna. A man with fever
is said to be cured if he lies for a while in the enclosure.

4 In the enclosure there is a heap of stones (tomb?). A carob and an oak
tree are near by.

5 This ruin is surrounded by the remains of a deep trench and a walk

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


have a building, but lately he changed his mind and, appearing
to Husen Musa (from Art&s), asked him to build him a shrine.

VI. A watercourse (spring or cistern)

We know that nearly all the springs of Palestine are thought to
be haunted by spirits. These spirits are supposed to belong to the
class of demons.1 But at the same time there are watercourses
definitely assigned to some holy man. Their number is much less
than that of those inhabited by demons. Kahle5 1 2 thinks that two
conditions must be fulfilled to make a spring holy1) that the
source should be more or less mysterious, a dark canal, or a large
cavity; and 2) that the spring play an important role in the water-
supply of the adjacent village. Although many springs fulfil both
conditions the greater number fulfil one only, whereas many springs
inhabited by demons satisfy the same two conditions.

For our purpose it is necessary to study especially the differences
between sacred springs and those haunted by djinn. The following
is a comparative table of the differences:

Springs inhabited by

Holy Men Djinn (demons)

1. May be situated in the neigh- 1. Never,
bourhood of a well.

2. Prayer and religious music may 2. Never,
be heard especially on Thurs-
day evening.

3. A light with a greenish flame 3. Never,
may be observed appearing and

4. The water may be used for 4. In exceptional cases,
different ailments.

5. The inhabiting saint appears
as a reverend ssh (with white,
red, or green head dress) or a
pious sehah.

5. The djinn take the shape of an
animal, a negro, a monster or
a bride.

1 Canaan, Haunted Springs and Water Demons, JPOS, vol. I, p. 153 etc. and

2 PJ} vol. VI, p. 98 f.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Holy Men

6. People falling accidentally into
a cistern or well inhabited by
a holy man are generally pro-
tected from any injury, especially
if they call for the help of the

7. The saint likes to hear the name 7. The demon trembles before

of God and prayers. these powerful words, and is

usually driven away by them.
He may in revenge injure the
person who has uttered them.

8. A wondrous sign may appear. 8. Never.

Although these statements are true of all watercourses which are
directly or indirectly connected with a shrine, they also apply to
those which, while having no connection at all with sanctuaries or
tombs of the saints, are nevertheless believed to be inhabited by the
spirit of a holy person. I shall deal only with the latter category.
Often such sources of water have a tree growing near by, and since
both may be holy it is sometimes difficult to know which is the more
important: the watercourse or the tree.

El-Matba* ah1 is a marshy pool said to cure all sorts of rheumatic
ailments. No unclean women (nidjsih) may approach the holy spot.
Once a barren women made a pilgrimage to this place, hoping to
find help. It so happened that at the moment of her arrival she
was overtaken by her period (itwassah raska). Being pious she waited
far from el-Matba'ah until she became pure (tihrat), then took some
mud and rubbed her body with it. Scarcely a year had passed
before she conceived and bore a child.

*En es-Sarif just above 'Sn es-samiyeh (Kolonia) is a newly dis-
covered spring and a newly found welt. A few weeks after the dis-
covery of the spring, a with a green turban appeared in a night
vision to Muhammed 'All and ordered him to tell the inhabitants
of the village that they should not defile his shrine, the newly

Djinn (demons)

6. On the contrary the djinn may
even injure the victim.

1 It is situated between ei-seh Ibrek (from whom it draws its power) and
Tell es-sammam. I owe this information to cOmar Effendi el-Barghuti.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 65

discovered spring. What is your name, my seh?" asked Muhammed.
Eg-Sarif was the answer.

Some waters derive their power from the fact that they mix once
a year with the water of the holy well Zamzam in Mecca.1 At such
a period the water is curative. Wells of this type with a special
reputation are: 'En Itnm ed-Daradj in Siloam,1 2

Hammam es-sifa3 in Jerusalem,4 5
the cistern in the shrine of en-Nhbani in Nablus.

This overflow of the water of Zamzam takes place generally on
the tenth of Moharram, which is also known by the name fAsurti,
and is thought to be the anniversary of the death of Husen, the son
of Fatimeh, Mohammed's daughter. The connection of the over-
flowing of the spring and the memory of Husen is not without interest.
According to some the water of this holy well at Mecca mixes on
this day with all springs in Mohammedan countries, thus giving
every Moslem the opportunity of drinking from Zamzam*

The sanctity, as well as the curative action of other waters, is
said to be derived from various holy men: Job, Jesus, el-Hadr,
Sitti Mariam, etc. Springs connected with Job will be described later
on. Since it is believed that Jesus sent the blind man, whom he
healed by earth moistened with spittle,6 to fen Imm el-Lozeh6 to
wash his eyes there,7 some Christian womens believe that this water

1 JPOSi vol. I, pp. 153-170.

2 According to TJm ed-DjalU II, 407, ^alid bin Ma'dan thinks that this
spring gets its water from ed-Djanneh (paradise).

2 Also called IJammam Asura, from *aiarah, the tenth day of the month

4 I have to call attention to the widespread belief that most of the Turkish
baths are thought to be inhabited by djinn. The following story may illustrate
this idea. The wife of an effendi lost all her jewels in the bath. All enquiries
failed to find them. At last a wizard woman (sdhreh) assured her that the in-
habiting djinn had taken her jewels. She gave her a written talisman and
ordered that for three days every day one third of the talisman should be bur-
ned in the bath. This was done and, behold, on the third day the wife of the
effendi found her lost jewels in the place where she had left them. In Aber*
glaube I give another similar story.

5 John 9 iff.

4 Just below Bir Ayub.

7 The Gospel of St. John relates that Christ sent him to Siloam. This spring,
Imm el-Lozeh, is not far from Siloam.

8 Heard from several Armenian women of Jerusalem* JPOS, I, 163179.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

has still the power to cure inflamed eyes. The Mohammedans of
Nablus believe that el-Hadr takes a bath every Thursday evening
in the basin found in Hammam ed-Daradjeh. This is the reason
that it is thought to be inhabited or visited by this holy man. The
sick go there at this time to take a bath, burn incense and light
candles. In Hammam Sitti Mariam1 (near St. Stephens Gate,
Jerusalem) barren women bathe in the hope of becoming fruitful.
It is believed that St. Mary once took a bath in this place; so
candles, oil and flowers are vowed.1 2

A connecting link between waters haunted by demons and those
inhabited by saints is formed by cases where the people believe that
a good and a bad spirit haunt the same spring. This is a special
characteristic of periodical springs. Thus 'en Fauwar3 is thought to
be inhabited by a hurr, free man (master) and an 'dbd, servant
(slave born). The first is a white person, the other a negro, as the
words themselves indicate. The following are the springs4 which
may be grouped in this class:5

'En ed-Djoz (Ramallah) inhabited by a white and a black sheep,

cEn Artas (Artas) inhabited by a white and a black sheep,

Bir '6nah (Bet Djal&) by St. Mary and sometimes an 'abd,

'En el-Hadjar (Der Ghassaneh) inhabited by es-sitt Mumineh
and sometimes by a marid.

I have never heard of a spring that was inhabited by a being
which might at times be a wd% and at other times change into a
djinn as Curtiss was told about Zerqa Ma'in. In all probability this
spring belongs to the foregoing group and is supposed to be in-
habited by two spirits a good and a bad one. Both are separate
beings, and one never changes into the other.

It is often reported that these two classes of powerful antagonistic
spirits are continually fighting each other. In the case of cen Fauwar

1 According to Uns ed-Djalil, Balqis the daughter of king Sarahil of Ya*rib
(Qahtan) took a bath in this place to remove the hair growing on her legs and
thighs. This goat hair was an inheritance from her mother, who was a
djinniyeh (JPOS).

2 This custom is dying out.

3 See Aberglaube.

. They have been described in JPOS I, 153.

*|jn Fauwar is thought by some to be inhabited by a white and a black

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 67

we are told when the hurr gains the victory he allows the water to
How for the benefit of thirsty mankind. But it is not long before
the 'abd recovers and resumes the battle. As soon as he overpowers
the hurr he shuts off this blessing of God and thus avenges himself
on the human race. This antithesis of
good against evil,
white against black,
light against darkness,
angels against devils,
upper against lower world,

God against Satan

is a very old idea in Semitic religions, and we could not have it
better reproduced than in the present simple imagination of a
Palestinian felldh.1

The following is a list of holy springs with the names of the saints
inhabiting them, modified from my article uHaunted Springs and
Water Demons/ JPOS I, p. 153170:

Hammam ed-Daradjeh Nablus el-Hader,2
Hammam sitti Mariam Jerusalem St. Mary,
Hammam es-&ifa3 Jerusalem Job,4
Bir en-Nftbani5 Nablus mixes with Zamzam,
'en Imm ed-Daradj Siloam mixes with Zamzam,6
Bir es-Sahar Dir Tarif elweli Su'eb,7
Bir Ayftb Siloam Job,
Bir Sindjil Sindjil Joseph,
*ltln Qina Qina el-welt Abd el-'Enen,

* JPOS I, 153-170.

2 Many a woman, together with her newly born child, takes a bath in the
djurn of el-Hader on the seventh day of her confinement.

3 Also called 1J. Asura. The water is said to mix once a year with that of

4 There is a basin in which it is supposed that Job took his bath and was

5 The cistern is found in an elongated room whose walls are hung with dervish
musical instruments and weapons, a banner and Qoranic verses. No tomb is to
be seen. It is supposed that many aqtdb gather here to perform their prayers.

* This spring used to be inhabited by a camel. A hen with her chickens took
the place of this djinn after his death.

7 Aberglaube.

8 JPOS, 1. c.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

En el-Hadjar Der Ghassaneh es-sitt Muminah,
'En ed-Djaktik 1 feast of Mizpahli [ a well,
En el-Amir }[ of Samuel j | [sullah and awlid,
En Masitin Ramallah an angel,
Bir ed-Djabbarah Yalo es.-seh Ahmad ed-Djabbarah,
Bir in Hizmah sullah,
Bir Imm Djde' Bet Djibrin salhat,
En el-Qubbeh Kobar es-sitt Zenab,
En es-sarqiyeh Kobar es-sitt Fatthmeh,
'En es-Samiyeh Kolonia es-sitt es-Samiyeh,
cEn es-sarif Kolonia es-Seh es-sarif,
El-Matba'ah Tell es-Sammam e8*3eh Ibrek,
En ed-Djoz Kolonia eS-seh Husen,1
*En Rafidiah Rafidiah eS-Seh Nafi',2
Bir el-Waraqah Jerusalem leads to paradise,1 2 3
*En er-Rahib Nablus monk,4
'En Karim En Karim the Virgin Mary,
Bir 'Ona Bst Djala the Virgin Mary,
'En Kibrian W. of Bst Djala St. Gabrianus,
En Imm el-Lozeh below Bir Ayflb cures eye troubles.5

Mohammedans as well as Christians believe that these saints try
to save those who happen to fall into the well The following story
will illustrate this. A child of 'Esawiyeh happened to fall into a
ruined cistern. Soon afterwards his parents got him out. The boy
said that two men came to his help, while he was falling, and carried
him softly to the bottom. One of them was a reverend old man;
the other wore clothes similar to those of the villagers of the
surrounding district, and two old fashioned pistols in his belt.6 The

1 To this saint a tree is also dedicated.

2 An oil-lamp used to be lighted here.

2 The story of this cistern is told in Urn ed-DjalU II, 368.

4 This spring stops its flow once a week od Sundays, as the monk is said to
fulfil his duties on this day.

5 Curtiss and Kahle give few examples of holy springs.

6 Other stories are given JPOS, 1. c.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


old people of the village remembered that a dervish of this description
had fallen into the cistern many years before.1

The belief in sacred springs, inhabited springs and curative waters
can be traced back to the Old and New Testaments. Naaraan was
cured of his leprosy by washing himself seven times in the Jordan.1 2
The blind man sent by Jesus to Siloam came back after he had
washed his eyes, with his sight restored.3 The pool Bethesda cured
every disease, for an angel went down at a certain season into the
pool and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling
of the water stepped in was cured of whatever disease he had.4
Names like *En Shemesh, Spring of the Sun,5 etc. point to the
fact that these springs were dedicated to gods.6

VII. A solitary tree

I do not propose to include under this head any tree which, though
situated in absolute solitude, far from any shrine or grave, belongs
nevertheless to a well, who has a sanctuary somewhere in the vicinity.
Thus, for example, es-seh Hamad, situated in the midst of the village
Kolonia, has a tree on the opposite mountain to the S. E. of the
village, on the old road leading to Jerusalem. Another case is
el-Badriyeh.7 I have already mentioned the different trees belonging
to this holy woman.

1 I will not describe here 'itin (pi. of en) el-hasr (springs ot retention of
urine), since they are generally not connected with any shrine or name of a well.
They are not revered religiously. I think that what Curtiss says about the stones
which cure backache, is truer of these springs, i. e., that their therapeutic use is
based on the belief in a magic power, the supernatural powers of good spirits.
For these springs cf. Aberglaube and JPOS, 1. c.Minute questioning of the people
of Soba during my last visit resulted in their saying that *en el-hasr of this
village was called also *en Musa, and that they have seen sometimes two beautiful
young ladies, sitting beside the water and combing their hair. They disappeared
as soon as they knew that they were seen. Some peasants referred the name
Moses to that of the Prophet Moses. If this is true then the spring belongs
to the category already mentioned, where good and bad spirits haunt one and
the same spring.

2 2 Kings 5 iff.

3 John 9 s-7.

* John 5 i-B.

5 Jos. IB 7.

L. B. Paton, Annual of Amer. School, vol. I, pp. 51 ff.

i Kahle mentions some of these trees, PJ VI, 98.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Only those trees will be described which, although considered as
being the habitation of some .saint, have nevertheless absolutely no
connection with any maqarn. Jaussen1 seems to include in this group
trees which are connected with a holy spring and a holy rudjm\ such
cases I have tried to avoid since it is very difficult to say which of
these features was primarily sacred. There are several cases belonging
to this group, and it is at times difficult to explain the reason which
gave such trees their sanctity. This question, which often arises,
will be dealt with below in another connection. Among sacred trees
of this type, which receive honours like other welts, are:1 2

Name of saint
Es-8eh Barn
Es-Seh Abdallah
Es-seh Abdallah


Der Grhassaneh

ES-3eh Abfi Ris
Sadjrat Abfi Nar
Sadjrat es-Saradeh

Harrftbet el-A8arah6
Zettinit en-Nabi7
Es*seh Hasan
En-nabi Abfi Lemfin10

Bet Anan
between Yamfin
and Djinin
Haram es-serif

between Bet Iksa
and Biddfi

Kind of tree

Oak,3 4


Olive and, at a distance,

Greek oak (Quercus

[Aegilops L),





Oak and terebinth trees.

1 Coutumes des Arabes, p. 331.

* Curtiss seems to have seen or heard of only a few examples. He describes
briefly one tree in Northern Syria.

3 Heard from Omar Effendi el-Barghuii.

4 Kahle, PJ VI, 98, 99.

6 There is a small cave beside it, in which lights and incense are offered.
I think that the tree is the more important feature.

ft Another Harrubet el-fAsarah used to grow on the western slope of the
Mount of Olives.

7 See Canaan, Aberglavbe, and Kahle, PJ VI, 97.

8 In its place it is said a palm once grew. When the Prophet visited Jerusalem
in his miraculous journey, he sat under this palm; the palm soon withered and
the olive tree grew in its place.

9 Around the oak tree there is a ruin. The lamps are placed in a small cave.
To the S. S. E. of this sacred tree there is a spring now bearing the name of
the welt Formerly it was known by the name *en ed-Djoz.

io Also mentioned by Kahle, PJ VI, 98; 99. A ruin with a newly discovered
cistern surrounds the trees.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Other trees will be mentioned below. A few observations must
still be made regarding some peculiarities of these trees. Sadjarat
Abd Nar has a menstrual period (bithid) every time she is irritated
by a trespasser. A viscous fluid is excreted.1

Under Sadjaret es-Saadeh the Seh Hasan el-*Arftri was ordained
to a qutub (a pole in religion, i. e. a leader) by several saints.
This is of course sufficient cause for making a tree sacred.1 2 It
derives virtue from the man with whom it came in contact, and is
able to help the needy with this power.3

ES-Seh Mustafa and es-sultan Ibrahim of Soba belong to this
category. The first has a terebinth, an almond and a quddeb tree.
The stones scattered irregularly under these trees and supposed to
represent the tomb, have no connection with a grave. Es-sultan
Ibrahims shrine is made of a square open enclosure with a taqah,
a prayer niche, a small huwetah and a fig tree. I think that this
sort of sanctuary is the connecting link between the class of shrines
under discussion and the large enclosures.

In reviewing critically the names of the welts belonging to this
group, we observe that some have; as their own holy name, the simple
name of the tree. We never find any name of a person assigned to
such trees. Thus, for example,4 Sittna el-Grharah 5 (Laurel Lady) is
situated to the E. of Bet Nflba. There are two holy terebinths,,
each of which bear the name el-waliyeh el-Butmeh (Holy Terebinth
Lady). One is north of Bet Ntiba and the other in Qubebeh. It
is said that the Laurel Lady appeared during the attack of the
British (1917) standing on the top of the tree, with a greenish
garment, a light head-shawl and a sword in her hand, which dripped
with blood. Every time the English troops advanced she threw
them back.

1 This is the only case I have been able to collect of a tree having a menstrual
flow. For this condition with demons see JPOS. 1153, etc. I owe this information
to the kindness of (Omar Eflendi el-Barghuti.

2 Related by 'Omar Eflendi el-Barghuti.

3 Curtiss mentions another such case.

4 The following holy trees were not included in the foregoing list.

5 Fumigating a sick person with the leaves of this tree will eflect a cure.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

In Bet Safafa a djdmi was erected on the site of the holy Butmeh,1
whose sacred tree had been uprooted by a violent storm. The ruins
of this djdmi are still known as djami1 el-Butmeh. This sacred tree
was supposed to be inhabited by svlldh* 2

Fastened to most of these trees are rags of all possible colours.
Even stones, as will be mentioned later, are placed at times on the

Should a tree and an enclosure be found, as in the case of e3-ssh
Fredj in Bet Hanina, I think the tree is the more important. But
when a tree and a spring represent the sacred place, it is most difficult
to know which of them has priority.3

We generally find a tdqah connected with these sacred trees. It
may be represented by a crack in an adjoining rock, a low enclosure
covered with tin or with a stone slab, a hollow in the tree itself, or
it may be a built structure. In this tdqah oil-lamps are lighted and
incense burned. An excellent example of a built niche beside a sacred
tree is that of Harrubet el-cAsarah near el-'Esawiyeh. Just beside
the tree a low, roomlike niche has recently been built. I should not
reckon this one cubic metre building a qvhbeh, as does Kahle.4 In
eS-seh Abdallah (Sa'fat), a petroleum tin serves as a tdqah

Even some Christians of Palestine believe more or less in the
sacredness of certain trees, but they do not burn lights or incense
to them. Among trees of this type are:

* Near the Mamilla pool there used to be a terebinth tree. The common
belief was that when it was cut down or withered away the rule of the Turks
would depart from Palestine. It so happened that during the last year of the
war it dried up, and soon afterwards Jerusalem was taken by the British troops.
This tree used to be known also by the name el-Butmeh.

2 A Bethlehemite was allowed to take the wood of this tree for use in an oil
press (badd). He had to build in its place a djdmi with a rawdq and a cistern.
But since he did the work so badly that it collapsed a few years later, the saint
living in the tree punished him very severely, and one by one all his family died.
Under el-Butmeh the people of the village used to assemble for gossip and
entertainment of their guests, as in a madafah (related by the imam of Bet

3 In the case of es-Seh Qusen we have a tree and a spring dedicated to him.
I think that the tree is the more important feature, although the saint is seen at
times sittiug hear the spring. The spring used to be called cen ed-Djoz.

4 PJ. 1. c.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Butmet el^Adra1
A mes tree

Palm tree
Olive trees4 *
Olive tree

Djifnfi, Terebinth,

near St. Elias, Celtis,1 2

between Bethlehem
and Jerusalem
Mar Saba,3

in the Shepherds field (Bet Sahur).6

We also find parallels to such trees in the Bible, especially in
the case of the Burning Bush.6 This was not connected with any
shrine, being itself holy, since the Lord spoke from it. The same
may be said to be the case with the mulberry trees of David. Their
sanctity showed itself through the sound of a going in the tops of
the trees. 7 This was a sign from God. Abraham builds his first
altar, and receives the first revelation which God makes to him,
under the terebinth of Moreh (Gen. 12 6-7). The next altar he built,
is under the terebinth of Mamre. In Beer sheba he plants a tamarisk
and calls on the name of Jehovah (Gen. 21 33). Under an oak tree
the angel appeared to Gideon (Judg. 6 11; 24S. Curtiss).

VIII. Heaps of stones

When one stands at such a spot it is a cause for wonder to look
round in every direction and find nothing to suggest the idea of
sanctity except mere heaps of stones which, of course, differ in size
and form in different places. It is to be noted that (i)rdjumeh (pi.
of rudjm) may also be inhabited by djinn. Thus, for example, one
of the stony tumuli in el-Baqcah (the Plain of Rephaim) is thought
to be inhabited by a hen with her chicken.

1 A man who cut it down was punished with death.

2 Cf. Canaan, Aberglaube, p. 63.

3 Aberglaube, p. 87.

4 The oil of these trees is sold for a high price. From the olive-stones rosaries

are made.

& It is said that the angel appeared to the shepherds at the spot where this
tree is growing. Some peasants who tried once to burn the tree noticed, to their
great astonishment, that fire had no action on it. This proved to all the
sacredness of this olive (related to me by L. Baldensberger).

<* Ex. 3 2 ff.

i 2 Sam. 5 24.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Such heaps of stones or tumuli are of the following types: 1. quite
isolated with no other feature, except that at times a few stones are
set up to form a small taqah for the oil lamps; 2. the rudjm, or its
summit only, is surrounded completely by an enclosure of stones;

3. very rarely the rudjm may be placed in a care. As examples of
these forms we may cite:

1. es-seh I'bed in Sataf,

es-Seh Sa'd in wadi Hadr east of Abu Dis,

es-seh Ahmad Hirbet el-Qsfir, opp. to ed-Djorah;

2. eS-seh 'Abd el-Muhsin Djibiah,1

es-seh El-Birdaq1 2 Bet Rim&;

3. es-seh Murdjan3 Djorah (near cEn Karim).

Naturally one asks what the rudjm represents, and what is its
purpose. We often hear expressions which indicate that there is a
tomb under the rudjm. We also know that the ancient Palestinians4 5
used to pile large heaps of stones on the tombs of their important
dead, and up to the present day most fellah tombs are either marked
by a small enclosure of stones or an elongated low stone heap. Jaussen6
reports that the Bedouins still mark the places where some one has
been killed, be it in war or treacherously, by a heap of stones. In
the case of some of the rdjitmeh which I am now describing, this
explanation may be true, but certainly not in every case*

A special class of stone heaps must still be mentionedel-masahid^
(pi. of mashad), These are recent heaps of stones placed irregularly
and at different places. The word maShad may express one of the
following meanings;

1. The place from which something is seen.7

2. Since at such places the pilgrim always utters first of all, alhadu
anna Vi ilahan ilia allah, thus testifying to the unity of God, the places
may be named mashad after this testimony (Shadeh).8

1 The leh appears as a negro, with a sword in his hand.

2 Inhabited by Adjam. Only the top of the large hill is surrounded by an

3 A negro saint.

4 Jos. 7 26; 829.

5 Coutumes des Arabes, p. 836.

6 Not often used in the singular.

7 From the root idhada to behold.

3 From the root Sahida, Uhddeh, to give testimony.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


S. Stones which are believed to be witnesses before God that the
person who erected them visited that sanctuary and said a prayer.
It is belived that in the day of judgment men may ask animals,
plants or stones to testify for them. Thus these stones piled up by
the pilgrim while uttering a prayer and saying the fdtihah, may bear
witness1 both to his piety and to his visit to the holy place. They
will at the same time remind the holy man, in whose honour the
zidrah (visit) was made, to help and to intercede for the pilgrim.1 2
Eveln in the Old Testament we have a heap of stones set as a witness,
as in the story of Laban and Jacob.3

Travelling from Jerusalem to Jericho there is a road branching
to the right, a few kilometres after passing el-Hod. This road leads
to Nabi Mfisa. The hills where the shrine is seen for the first time,
are covered whith these stone heaps. Every Mohammedan who passes
bywhether during the festival or at any other time throws one
or more stones on such a heap or makes a new one. As he does so
he utters the above mentioned sihddeh and recites the fdtihah. Few
heaps are large, most of them consiisting of a few stones only. The
lowest stone is the largest and the top one the smallest. These small
heaps may be made up of 2, 3, 4 or five stones.*

Generally, on every road leading to the sanctuary from whatever
direction, nawdsib4 (pi of nasb, another name for these stone-heaps)
are erected. Thus I observed such heaps on the four roads leading
to Nab! Mfisa, on three roads to el-Hadr (Bet DjUla) and on two

1 Cf. Luke 19 40; Heb. Bn.

2 Such a belief is not recent. In et-tuhfatu-l-mardiyah fil-ahbar el-qudsiyah
(by Abd ehMadjid cAli) we read on page 62 that a man, while on Arafat, took
seven stones and said: uOh stones, witness that I believe and say, there is no
god but God, and Mohammed is his prophet. That night he dreamt that in
the judgment day he was tried and found to be a sinner and sent to hell. As
he approached the first gate of hell one of the stones blocked the entrance. All
the angels of the lower world were unable to remove this obstacle. The same
thing happened at every one of the seven gates of hell. He was in consequence
brought back to the heavenly judge who allowed him to enter heaven since the
stones had borne witness in his favour.

3 Gen. 8146 if.

4 Not nasib as McCown has. Nasib means lot, luck; while nasb (pi. nawdsib)
stones set up as a sign, comes from the same root from which nusb or nusub
(pi. ansab) idols is derived. Cf. Muhit d-Muhit.

76 Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

leading to es-seh el-fUmari ed-Djbe'i, and also on the two roads to
Hasan er-Ral.1

This custom of making small piles of stones applies only to
comparatively few sanctuaries. Christians are also acquainted with
these qandtir (pi. qantarah, a third name) and they pile stones when
reaching es-sarafeh, on their way from Bet Djalfi, to el-Hadr, since
from this point they can see on one side Mar Elias and on the other
side the convent of St. George.

These sawahid do not closely resemble the stones that mark the
boundaries of fields, as McCown1 2 thinks. Landmarks are generally
made of large stones placed separately at a distance from each other,
running more or less in a straight line, usually between fields. When
they are made of stones they differ from qandtir in using far larger
and fewer stones.

Qandtir may also stand for quite different purposes. Among these
minor purposes we may mention:

1. Heaps which are raised in a place where a holy man is supposed
to have rested, as in the neighbourhood of the sqif eS-seh Asfftr.3 4

2. Sometimes a traveller after climbing a high mountain raises a
heap of stones or throws a stone on an existing heap, saying at
the same time a prayer as a mark of thanks to God that he has
overcome a difficulty. Heaps of this sort are generally known by
the name el-MafazehA At the top of the ascent of Farhah near Salfit
such mafazat may be seen. Similar cases are described in Joshua,
where the Israelites erected stones at Gilgal as a memorial after
crossing the Jordan and thus overcoming the difficulties of long
wandering.5 Samuel also, after subduing the Philistines, took a stone
and set it between Mizpah and Shen and called it Ebenezer, saying,
Hitherto hath the Lord helped us.6

1 Other sanctuaries where such stone heaps are set up are: en-nabi Lut,
cn-nabi Yaqin, *Ali bin Lem, el-Uzer, etc.

2 Annual of the Amer. School II and III, p. 66.

3 Heard from Omar Effendi el-JBarghuii.

4 Mafdzeh means in reality desert. Here it denotes success in overcoming a
dangerous difficulty. Muhit el-Muhit.

5 Joshua, ch. 4.

6 1 Sam. 712.

CANA AN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


3. Where prominent chiefs of a village or a district are killed,
heaps of stones1 are raised by passers-by and prayers are said for
their souls. Such qandtir are smaller and much less numerous than
those near a sanctuary. In Maqtal el-Masaih1 2 on the way to Bet
Rima we find such heaps. The qandtir of this class are the connecting
link between prominent persons and holy men, a point on which I
shall dwell later.

In concluding the treatment of this group I must observe that while
the rdjumeh are regarded as holy places and the dwellings of holy
men, the sawdhid, qandtir and mafazat do not enjoy this dignity.

On the southern road leading from Qastal to Soba we find a
large heap of stones, built in a circular form. It is about 1.50 metres
high and 2 metres in diameter. In the centre of the upper part a
perpendicular stone projects. No tdqah, tree nor cistern is connected
with it. The people whom I asked for explanation said that a well
had appeared (aShar nafsuh) at this spot which belonged to him.
In piety the peasants erected this heap.

IX. A single large stone or a rock.

We have only few representatives of this category. With the
exception of the Holy Rock, as-Sahrah, of the Mosque of Omar,
which is highly honoured not alone by the Mohammedans of Palestine
but by the whole Moslem world, the other holy stones and rocks of
Palestine receive far less respect and religious reverence than the
other kinds of shrines and maqdmdt. The sanctity assigned to them
is in every way slight. A description of the Holy Rock is of prime
importance and will be given at the end of this chapter.

Some holy places of this category are the following:

*Araq el-Adjami3 in Bet Idjza is a natural rock, in no way
prominent, nor is it connected with any maqjdm, tree, cave, or
cistern. In the middle of it is a small, artificial depression, in which,
I was told, offerings are put.

1 These resemble in some respects the heaps of stones mentioned in Jos. 7 26;
829 and 2 Sam. 1817.

2 When I saw this place in 1921 there were but few heaps.

3 I found no tdqah connected with this place.


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

In the neighbourhood of Der Ghassaneh there are some rocks
called Nuqqar el-*Adjam.1 They are situated between two hills, and
are assigned to el-'Adjam. In passing, the fdlah will recite the
fatihah to these awlid, just as he would at any other shrine. No
vows, offerings, or oaths are made to or by them.

In the village &eh Sa'd (in the Hauran) there is a stone called
Sahret Ayub, on which it is said that the prophet Job used te lean
during the days of his affliction. The stone is an ancient stela with
hieroglyphics of the time of Rameses II.1 2

On the height of the mountain el-Martum,3 near the ruins of
Beni Dar,4 and to the south of the village Barn N'em, a maq&m is
built for the supposed prophet Yaqin.5 In the room we notice a
rock encircled with an iron frame. This rock shows the impressions
of two feet and of two hands. It is related that Abraham was
ordered by God to come to this place, where he could observe the
destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. It is curious that although
Abraham is known to be a pre-Jslamic prophet the impressions show
that he performed his prayer with the face turned to Mecca.

Outside this maq&m there is another rock showing also the im-
pressions of two feet. They are said to be those of Lot. This rock
is surrounded by a huwetiyeh.

Hadjar el-Arflri6 to the south of Salfit is a large piece of rock,
beside which e£-seh el-Arftri is said to have rested. Qal'at er-Rifa'i
to the west of Der Ghassaneh is supposed to be the place where
er-Rifai used to rest. In the cemetery of Bab er-Rahmeh situated
along the western wall of Jerusalem to the south of St. Stephens

1 The nuqqar are composed of several large stones raised from the ground.
The mffiyeh darawiS are afraid to pass in their neighbourhood, especially during
the night. The night between Thursday and Friday is the most dangerous
('Omar Effendi el-Barghuti). These features are true of many other holy places.
A complete description of them will be given in another chapter.

2 ZDPV XIV, 147. I have not seen this place.

3 The view from this high mountain, especially to the east, is excellent. The
Dead Sea and the mountains of Moab are distinctly seen.

4 The ruins are at present also called hirbet nabi Yaqin.

5 Mudjir ed-Din says the shrine was called masdjad el-Yaqin, because Abra-
ham said, when Sodom and the other cities were destroyed: Haja hua-1- haqqu-
1-yaqin, This is the sure truth, (el-uns ed-djalU p. 85).

6 'Omar Effendi el-Barghuti.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


Gate, there is a broken pillar,1 beside the tomb of es-seh Saddad.
It is believed that by rubbing ones back on this pillar one will be
cured of any backache.1 2

El-Hadjar el-Mansi, the forgotten stone, is supposed to be the
grave of a Christian who joined the Mohammedan faith just before
his death. Some inhabitants of the Mohammedan quarter on Mount
Zion3 observed on various occasions a light shining from this spot.
This proved to them the sanctity of the place.4 A light used to
be burned every Thursday evening to this forgotten man.5

In el-Aqsa Mosque there are two pillars, between which it is be-
lieved that no bastard child can pass.6 This is one of the many so
called ordeals of God.7

Inside el-Mas'ad, the Chapel of the Ascension (on the Mount of
Olives) we are shown on a stone the impression of the right foot of
Jesus. This place belongs to the Mohammedans but it is also held
sacred by the Christians, who celebrate mass here on certain days.
The sacred stone is surrounded by a beautiful octagonal building
with a vaulted roof.8

Christians honour also other stones and rocks. I need not mention
Golgotha, and the pillar where Christ was bound and scourged, but
will limit myself to a description of the sacred stones of St. George,
the Milk Grotto, and the rock on which Elijah is supposed to
have rested.

The holy stone of St. George (el-Ha the Pools of Solomon) still plays an important role. The story as
it is recorded in the authors Aberglauhe is as follows. While a
Greek priest was officiating at the Holy Communion in the Church

1 Kahle, 1. c.

* It is to be presumed that this pillar draws its curative power from the
Seh near whose grave is is found.

11 3 The quarter is known as Qaret en-Nabi Dahud.

11 4 It is in the Armenian cemetery.

11 5 Heard from the Armenian Victoria.

* It is also believed that only those who will enter Paradise can pass between
the pillars.

7 For parallels see Goldziher II, pp. 408, 409; and Curtiss, 1. c.

8 In the Aqsa mosque we are shown qadam seyidnd Isa, the foot impression
of Christ, and in the room leading to the so-called Solomons Stables, srir
seyidnd Isa, the cradle of Christ,


Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

of Mar Djirius, a few drops of the sacred wine were spilled. They
penetrated through his foot and burst the stone on which they fell.
The wound of the priest never, healed and he died as a punishment
for his carelessness in handling the Blood of the Saviour. The stone
received a supernatural curative power from the sacred wine, which
benefited every sick person who happened to kneel on it. Its repu-
tation soon spread all over Palestine, and great numbers of sick
flocked thither. Even the Czar of Russia heard of the wonderful
virtues of this stone and sent a man-of-war to Jaffa to bring it
away. In solemn procession the stone is said to have been brought
to Jaffa. But St. George did not allow it to be transported further.
Every time the boat carrying this precious treasure removed some
distance from the shore el-Hadr brought it back with his spear. All
recognized the folly of disobeying the wishes of the saint and so the
stone was brought back to its place.1

The white stones of the Milk Grotto are used by Christians and
Moslems of Bethlehem and the surrounding district as amulets to
increase the flow of mothers milk. It is supposed that a few drops
of the Virgins milk dropped on the floor.

Opposite to Mar Elias on the western side of the carriage road
there is a depression in the rock. It is related that St. Elijah slept
in this place while escaping from his persecutors.1 2

But the most important rock is es-Sahrah which measures 17.7X13.5
metres and is situated in the midst of the Mosque of Omar. The
rough surface of the rock stands in great contrast to the beauty and
harmony of the interior of the most beautiful mosque of the Orient.
The rock is in itself sacred, and is protected from visitors by a
railing. Its sanctity is due to its connection with so many prophets,

1 See Hanauer, Folklore of the Holy Land, p. 52.

2 From between Mar Elias and Tantur a piece of rock was carried to Bet
Djala. It is said that while Mary was coming from Bethlehem to Jerusalem
carrying her child, she passed Jews threshing beans on the rock east of Tantur.
Christ cried for some, and she asked the people to give her a handful. They
refused and said that they were not beans but only stones. And forthwith they
turned into small stones. The workers at once followed her and accused her of
being a witch. She hastened to escape and when she was on the point of falling
into their hands she asked a rock to hide her. At once the stone opened and
sheltered her. In vain did her pursuers search for her. This stone carries the
name of srir ts-Saiydeh*

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 81

especially Mohammed. When the Prophet ascended to heaven the
rock would have followed him, were it not that the angel Gabriel
held it down. On two occasions the rock spoke, once to Mohammed
and again to 'Omar. I shall not describe all the beliefs connected
with this stone since they can be found elsewhere. On, around and
below it we find the following sacred places:

I. On the rock itself:1

1. The impressions of the fingers of the angel Gabriel, who kept
the rock from following the prophet while he ascended to
heaven (western part).

2. The footsteps of Idris (east).

3. The footsteps of Mohammed, twelve in number. The prophet
is said to have walked over that part of the rock. The stone
yielded and so the impressions remained.

II. Below the rock:

4. Before entering the cave below the Sacred Rock one is shown
the tongue of the rock.7 It is said that in the night visit
(ilelatu-l-Mi'rddj) of the prophet he saluted the rock: as-salamu
'aleiki yd sahrati-l-ldh (peace be with you, 0 Rock of God),
and it answered at once: labbeik uaaleik as-saldm yd rasul
allah (at your service, and peace be with you, O Apostle of

5. Fifteen steps lead to the cave below the sahrah. To the right
of it we have the niche of king Solomon.

6. Still further to the right the place where Mohammed prayed;
since he was tall and the roof low, he would have struck
his head, but

7. The rock gave way in that place, and we are shown tadjit
es-sahrah (the impression of his head).

8. The praying place of al-Hadr, at an elevated point.

9. Masnad Djvibrdil is the place where the angel waited until
the prophet finished his prayer.

10. Mihrab Ibrahim el-Halil, and to the left of the staircase*

11. Mihrab Dahfid.

12. The rock is perforated in the middle and it is said that the
prophet ascended directly through it to heaven.

1 Kahle, PJ VI, 93, mentions only 20 places (under 19 heads).



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

13. Just below the centre of the cave is believed to be the Bir
el-Arwah, which is covered with a marble plate. The souls come
together twice a week in the cistern and perform their prayers.

III. Directly around the sacred Bock:

14. The impression of the foot of the prophet, which is shown
on a separate stone, placed on small pillars to the S. W. corner.

15. The hairs from the beard of the prophet are kept in a silver
case just above No. 14.1

16. The banners of the prophet and of Omar are kept in a box,
which is near No. 15.

17. Two niches connected with Hamzeh.

18. A mihrab in the northern side of the sahrah, where some
of the prophets used to pray (mihrab el-Anbia).1 2

IV. At a distance from es-Sahrah:

20. Bab ed-Djanneh (the northern door).3

21. El-Balatah es-Sodah4 (which was removed by Djamal Pasa)
is also known by the name of Balatit ed-Djanneh. It is said
that Mohammed drove nineteen golden nails into this stone.
From time to time God was to send an angel to remove a
nail, and when all have been removed the last day will be at
hand. One day the devil succeeded in removing some of them.
While he was taking them out he was driven away by the angel
Gabriel who found that only three and a half nails remained.

22. Near the southern door we see mihrab Abi Hanifatu-n-Nucman.5

23. In one side of the eastern door we find a mihrab bearing the
name of Hiluet All5 (the secluded place of prayer of All).

In el-mursid liz-zair wad-dalil we find an enumeration of these
places. A special prayer for every place is given, and the number

1 They are shown on the 27th of Ramadan, which is thought to be lelatu-l-Qadr.

2 It is said that the Prophet Mohammed prayed here with other prophets
in lelatu-l- Mi' rddj.

3 The four doors of the mosque are the western (Bab el-Gharb, or Bab en-
Nisa), the northern (Bab ed-Djanneh), the eastern (Bab Dahud, or Bab es-Sinsleh)
and the southern (Bab el-Qibleh). Uns ed-Djalil gives to the eastern door the
name Bab Israfil.

4 Under it is said to be the tomb of Solomon.

5 It is not regarded as so important as the others.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


of kneelings to be performed is indicated. Mudjir ed-Din 1 mentions
only Nos, 1, 4, 11, 14, 21, and the cave ( bin el-Arabi3 pretends to have seen the rock floating in the air,
without any support. A modern belief which has its parallel in al-uns
ed-djalil4 is that from under this rock four Streams flow,5 to the south
Hammam es-sifa, to the east Siloam (cen sitti Mariam), to the north
en Hadjdji and en el-Qasleh, and to the west Hammam es-Sultan.6

Before closing this chapter I may further mention Abu ed-Dhur
a rock situated on the left side of the carriage road from Jerusalem
to Jericho, after passing en el-Hod.7 This rock has a widespread
reputation for the cure of backache. After a patient has rubbed his
back against the rock, he places a stone on it. When last I saw
this father of backs he was loaded with a large heap of stones.
He is not assigned at present to any well, and I cannot explain its
widespread therapeutic use, except by assuming that it must have
been once connected in some way with a holy man or object of
worship.8 I do not think that Curtiss is right in saying that such
stones act by their own magic power. Neither the colour nor the
substance of which our last example is composed differ in any way
from the rocks in the neighbourhood as to attract special attention.9

We note also in this connection that this idea of honouring stones
is not a characteristic of the present inhabitants of Palestine, but
was well known in the ancient Orient. In Gen. 18 isff. we read:

1 El-uns ed-djalil fi tarih el-quds wal-halil, p. 371 ff.

2 In an appeal by the Supreme Moslem Council of Palestine, which contains
a short guide to the Temple Area, only Nos. 5,8,10,11 are mentioned.

3 Referred to by Mudjir ed-Din, p. 371.

* Mudjir, p. 205.

* JPOS I, 153170.

* Mudjir ed-Din says that all water that is drunk comes from under the
Sahrah. Everybody who drinks water at night time should say: 0 water of the
Holy City you are saluted (p. 206).

2 Called also the Spring of the Apostles It is probably the Spring of the
Sun, mentioned in Jos. 157.

3 It is curious that in the continuation of Wadi el-Hod and not far from
this rock we have Icraq es-sams and Mgheiyr es-sams which correspond to the
Biblical name of fen ha-semes.

3 This rock is not mentioned in the guide books. No religious honours are
paid to it.



Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he
had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil
upon it. And he called the name of the place Beth-el.1 In Is. 57 6
we read about the smooth stones of the stream/ to which the Israelites
had poured a drink offering and offered a meat offering.2

Before leaving this section of our subject we may call attention
to those rare sacred places that are not characterized by any of the
aforementioned features, i. e. those that exhibit no tomb, maqamy
tree, cave, enclosure nor rock. It is hardly possible to believe that
such dirty and unasuming places have ever attracted the attention
of the peasants. We find generally no clue to explain why they have
been assigned to a well. Among places of this nature I may mention:
Es-seh Salman (Bet Surik), a small cupboard-like hollow in the
wall of a garden. The pomegranate trees near by do not belong to
the well. In this opening I saw oil-lamps.

El-'Adjami ('Awartah), an open place having on two sides the
remains of two old and strongly built walls. No tomb, cistern nor
tree belongs to the well. In the western wall there is a taqah,
where oil is burned and incense offered.

El-'Adjami (a second saint of the same name in Awartah), a ruined
building with no remains or signs of a mihrab or tomb. The inhabitants
of the village say that the place used to be the house of a peasant.

It seems that a ruin is connected with most examples of this class.
Thus the place bought by the Russians in Anata shows a ruin of
a building with some pillars, probably the remains of a church. The
fellahln of this village believe that it is haunted by sullah, but no
body knows who they are.

Not all of these places are well cared for. They are often dirty
and unattended. Thistles and other weeds flourish. Old tins, stones
and rubbish fill them. This was especially true of the two sacred
places of 'Awartah, also of Banat eS-£eh Salah3 and of el-cUmari
(both in Jericho). Of the last two4 the former shows an outline of *

* See also Curtiss, 1. c.

2 S. Bevan, in Hastings Dictionary of the Bible III, 1881.

3 Some call them Banat es-seh Sabbah.

4 They were three and were honoured in two places in Jericho. When their
habitations were ruined they left Jericho and went to llasban. They used to
appear in the form of Bedouin women.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine 85

a small square building1 which was very poorly constructed. Near
the second1 2 there is a ruined cistern.


In our study of the different forms and categories of Moham-
medan shrines in Palestine we have laid the foundation for our
further investigations. Without a thorough knowledge of the former
the study of the latter will be difficult and incomplete. I intend in
the present chapter to take up the question: What is done in the
holy places?

Acts connected with a shrine may be performed in the maqam
itself, outside of it, or at a distance from the sanctuary. They
comprise simple acts as well as complicated ones. The following
classification includes the most important acts performed in a holy
place, arranged according to their degree of complexity:

1. Religious acts

I. Utterance of simple protective words

II. Repetition of prayers

III. Reverence

IV. Religious service as in a mosque

V. The barakeh

2. Placing private property under the protection of the welt

3. Tying of rags

4. Healing

5. Making oaths


6. Paying vows

7. Celebration of feasts, mawasim

8. Processions.

Some less important acts will be mentioned under the above

1 I found tin oil-lamps in the so-called shrine.

2 A djami* is said to have once been situated here, bearing the name ofOmar.

86 Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

I. Utterance of simple protective words

No pious peasant ever approaches or enters a maqdm without
first asking the permission of the welt The general expression is
dastur1 (yd sidna1 2 3 Abd es-Saldmz), with your permission (0 our
lord A .. ). It is a common Arabicespecially Mohammedan
custom never to enter a harem without asking permission to enter,
or more correctly notifying the liarim4 (women) that a man is coming.5
Dastir qdbl ma tudhul, get permission before you enter, used to
be a rule enforced on every male servant.6 It is customary to use
the word dastur alone or combined with hadur, as well as with
different appellatives of God.7 Even when somebody intends to
contradict or criticize the statements of another he begins with
dastur8 (el-mas alih mis hek), with your permission (that is not the

Much more significant and therefore more frequent is this custom
when a person approaches the abode of some supernatural being,
as a demon, a spirit, or a saint. Nobody used to approach an

1 This is a Persian word coming from dast CU-mO rule, order, and uicr £
owner (cf. Muhit el-Muhit I, 650). The direct meaning of permission does
not occur in literary Arabic, but in the common language it is so understood.

2 Sidi means my master, my lord. In Palestinian Arabic it also means
my grandfather (djiddi).

3 Abd es-Salam el-Asmar came from Morocco to Palestine, and lived in the
village of Hirbet Almit, now a ruin. Owing to a conflict between the government
and the inhabitants of this village, the former destroyed the houses of the rebels.
Abd es-Salam went to Anata, bought the site and lived there. His descendants
are the peasants of this village. The Seh had six children, one of whom, Qasim
died without leaving children. The other five were Alawi, Ibrahim, All,
Abdallah and Abd el-Latif. Alawi begot Ham dan, father of Mohammed, father
of Ahmad who is still living. To this Ahmad I owe this story and the chronology.
seh Abd es-Salam belonged to the order of the Rifai.

4 Harim means also wife, harimt Mmy wife (as well as my wives). Many
use 'elti, which really stands for my family, ip the same way.

Even when a man entered his own house, he used to notify his entrance
without fail, as there might be women guests.

6 This custom prevails more in cities than in the villages. The inhabitants
of Hebron, Nablus and Gaza used to be very strict.

7 Yd sattdr, 0 Concealer; yd haft?, 0 Keeper; yd amin, 0 Faithful, etc.

8 The above-mentioned hadtir comes from haddara and means be ready, be
on your guard. When rocks are blasted this word is also used.

CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine


inhabited cave, spring, or tree, or to draw water from such a spring
without asking permission.1 The irritated djinn may otherwise injure
the person. For the same reason one should never put out burning
coals with water without a direct and loud request for^ permission:1 2
dastur hadur yd sukkan en-nar,3 with your permission, take care,
0 inhabitants of the fire. In other parts the expression is: yd aM
el-ard ihna fil-ard, M0, inhabitants of the earth, we are under
your protection.

Cemeteries are the abiding places of the souls of the dead and
they were formerly never entered without asking permission.4 So
also holy places are only approached or entered after dast&r.5 This
act not only expresses respect for the welt, but also reverence. In
the case of djinn respect and fear are the reasons for asking per-
mission. Through such a behaviour one both gains the favour and
the help of the men of God, and avoids the danger which may befall
him from the evil spirits.

Not only are such precautions taken in approaching a maqdm, but
also whenever the name of an important saint is mentioned; one is
afraid to trouble a well.* The following example will illustrate this
custom. When I asked a peasant of 'Anata about es-Seh Abd es-
Salam, he told me a story to convince me of the importance and
power of this seh. He began: marrah rikib walad 'old qabr es-sbh
'Abd es-Salamdastur yd sidnd 'Abd es-Salam ..., Once a boy rode
on the tomb of es-seh 'Abd..., with your permission 0 our lord CA...7

1 Aberglaube, p. 8 If.

2 A custom wide-spread in Palestine and proving that demons are supposed
to abide in fire. For still other proofs see Aberglaube* p. 11.

3 Another sentence is dastur hadvLr itfarraqu la tihtirqii with your per-
mission, take care, disperse, else you will he burned.

* This custom is now dying out.

3 The Kurds say at such occasions: quddds subbuh rabbund wa rabb el-mala-
ikah war-rdhj Holy and praise to our lord the lord of the angels and the spirit
(heard from Mr. St. H. Stephan).

Saints are always at work praying or helping others; therefore they should
never be troubled. Asking permission to call upon them assures their consent.

7 No sooner was the boy on the tomb, than it began to rise and rise, while
the ceiling of the maqdm grew higher and higher. The frightened boy promised
the ffli a present if he brought him down, and at once the tomb began to descend
until it was down again. Trembling, the boy got down and hastened to fulfill
his promise (related by Mohammed of *Anata).

Full Text




?Lu3ac'slReIfgions Series.VOL.V .




MOHAMMEDANS AINTSANDSANCTUARIESI NPALESTINEB YTAUFIKC ANAANM D ( BEYRUTANDO ONSTANTINOPLE)/ Ph yfli cia n t o th e Ger manDea e o n e se es 'H ospital,J arnBalem, andt o t he Int ernational : Mora v ianLeper H ome,Jeruealem; P r e eident (1 927) ofthePaleetlneO riental So ciety ;Autheref"AberglaubeundV olkBm e diz i nimLandederBiliel". 174 0'\, ILUZ A C & CO. / L0NDON/1927




PREFACETheprimitive features of Palestine are disappearing soquicklythatbeforelongmostofthemwillbeforgotten.Thusithasbecomethe dutyofevery student of Palestine andtheNearEast, of Archaeology andoftheBible,tolosenotimeincollectingasfullyand accurately aspossibleallavailable material concerningthefolklore, customs andsuperstitions current intheHolyLand.Such material is,aswe havebegunto learn, ofthe greatest importance forthestudyof ancient oriental civilizationandforthestudyofprimitivereligion.I,asasonofthecountry,havefeltitmyspecialdutytohelp inthisscientificwork;but,sinceIdonotclaimtobea trained archae ological student,Iamnot attempting todomore than place onrecordthe bare material whichIhavecollected,leavingthetask ofcomparisonwith otherdatatotheprofessional archaeological and biblical student. Thischangeinlocalcondition s isduetothe great influences whichthe West is exerting uponthe East, owingtothe introduction of European methodsof education, the migratisn of Europeans Palestine,of Palestinians to Europe andespeciallytoAmerica, aboveall,totheinfluenceofthe Mandatory Power.Thesimple, crude, but uncontaminated patriarchal Palestinian atmosphere is fadingawayand European civilization,more sophisticated butmore unnatural, istakingitsplace. Oursubjectofstudyleadsusintothemostholyandmysterious shrinesofthelifeofthe inhabitants.Itisnotalwayseasytoexamine the structure ofa sanctuary andtheobjectsfoundinit;butitis stilllesseasytogaintheconfidenceofthe Jelld1J, tosuchadegree that hewillspeakfreelyandwith detail abouthisreligious practices andritesand about the nature and character ofthesaints,the knowledgeofwhichisofthe greatest scientific interest. Thus, evenforme,itwasnotalwayspossibletogetatthe root ofmany beliefs.


VI' P refaceThepresentworkisbased ona s tudyof2 35 shrine s which I h ave examin edpersonally,348s hrines about whiche xactmaterial wa s av ailable,attendan cea t Mohammedan festival s, rJikers, m6 lads a ndoth erce remonies,alargea s sortmento f stori es told a boutth esaints,a large collection ofv ersess ungbythepeopl ei nh onourofthe a wliil, a nd a v ery ext ensive collecti on o f amul ets. Myvoluminou s coll ection ofP alestinian pro v erbsandidiom s hash elped meintheex planationof s omecu stomsa ndpractices conn ected with saint sands hrines. Every sup er stitio n whichmighth elp inth e explanation o r comparison o f th e te xt ha s been c ited a nd a nalysed.Y et th e s ubjectis so v asta ndcompli catedthatIcannot claimt o have gather ed mor ethanah andful ofg rain fromth e large he apo fcorn.Ih ope thats oonmoreof this un e xplor edmaterialw illr eceiveattention. Ihavem ade a s muchu se a s po ssibleo fth eArabiclit er atur e touching onth es ubjectsinc e onlya s mallp arto fth is h as hith erto b een syst emati cally employedforcomp arativ e purp oses. Th e re sem blance s whichcanbefoundin s uch A rabic literary so urces s howthatmuchofthee xisting f olklore ofP alestine i s notpeculiartothisc ountrybutcommontotheArabic world.OfEuropean literatureIh avemadeuseonlyof s uchwork sas deal dire ctlywi thP alestine. A study of"SaintsandSanctuaries" br ingsthe r eader int o dire ct contact withthedailylifeandcu stoms ofth e inhabitants ofP alestine.Ite xplains mu ch thatwouldbeoth erwise ob s cure inpopularbeli efands uperstition:itaff ordsag limpsein to th e m ysterious r egions of local c eremoni esandthrow slightonmuchthati sdarkinthew orking ofthepopularmind.Whati ss tillmor einteresting, itm akes po ssible a co mparisonwithtcu stoms,practicesandrites of primit ive tim es.Itis remarkable howm any id eas have r emaine d virtually un changed forthousands ofyearsja ndthe s tudyo f many c urrentb eliefs m ay di sclosethecluetomuchthath ashitherto remai ned unexplain ed inther eligious u sages ofthean cienteast.The v arious ideas : de scrib ed inthefoll owing p agesareco mmon to bo th Mohamm edansandChri stiansa mongth ePalestinian pe asantry; wherethetw og roupsdifferth e diff erence sa reonl y sup erficial. Itakethis opportunity toth ankDr.W.F.Albright, th eDire ctor oftheAmerican S chool ofOriental R esearch, forhi sva luablead vice a nd continued e ncouragement ; andDr.H.Danbyf orhis helpinthe c ompletion oft hebook. JEUUSALEM,May 1 5th ,19 27IT.CANAAN


,I CONTENTS22 3038424647505 3566063697 377858686 9 192 98 991021031061 25] 301 42 1 42i5 ] ] 53 1 .' .V112 37 r r9 r1 011. ( l '."o .' \ "0 -. '" .1. 0 .r,PREFACE...,A.SITESAND'l'YPESOFSANCTUARIES.1.Sites. ... .. ... .. ... a)Theirrelation to human habitations b)Highp laces .... . c) Relation of shrines to c emeteries d) Relation ofshr .in es to ru,in s J 2 .Structureofthe sanctuaries a)Th e b uilding b)'I'hetomb c) Trees .....d)Watercourses e )Caves.... .. 3. Types of s anctuaries .I.Sa nctuarieswith as hrine (maqan i) andatombn Maqams without atomh .Ill.Atomb without abui ldin g .IV.Acav e with orwithoutatomb V Asimp le stone enclosur e ....VI.A watercourse (spring or cistern)VII.A s olitary tree .VIII.Heapsof stones ,. .IX.A.single l arg es toneora rock B. RUES ANDPRACTICES : .. .. .. r 1.Rel igious n ets ...... .. I .Utterance of protective wordsII. Repetition ofprayers .. .. Ill.Rev erence ... : .. ., .IV. Re ligious serv icesi na shrine asina mosque V Thebarakeh ... .. ... ...2 .Placingprivatepropertyunder the protection ofa weli 3.Tyin go f rags J : 4. Healing 5 Oaths 6.Vows.I.Things whi ch serveforthe upkeep ofthe maqam a) Offering s u sed toma intain and beautify the s hrine b) Material forth e repair ofthe maqam .c)P ersona l w ork ... .. ... .. .


v mCo ntents 11.Foodvows . .. .. .. . ... .1 54 a) Animal sacrifices.... .. ... .. 154 b) Qurbiin (off ering t o G od), or walimelllilllill (banquet forGod)174 c)Meatl ess f o od ... .. .. ....... 175Ill.Offer ings giv en ton eedy p ersons inthenameofth e Saint .. 177IV.R eligiou svows.. . ..... . ... .179 V Bodily cha stisementandv ows tob e fulfi lled o nthebodyofth e vow el'o rp ersonfo rwhomth e vowi s tak en .. 184VI.Vowsnotconne cted with a n yho ly person or s hrine 185VII. Vowsforth e d ead andthedj inn 186a)Offeringstod emo ns 186 b)Off e ring s toth e dead 1 88 7 .C elebration off easts .... .. 1 93 8.Processions .. .. 2 17 I Cir cumcisionprocessions 218 11.Rainpro cessions .. 219 C NATUREAN D C HA. RACTE R OF THESA.IN'fS 2341.Characteristicso ftheaioliti, .235I.Bodily chara cteristic s . 235 a)S ex andageofthe Saints 235 b ) Mod e oflife .. 2 38 c )Imprintsof hand s, feet ,e tc. 2 41 d) Appearanc e intheformofanimals.243 11. R eli giousandmora lcharacteristics 246 a)Irritabilitya nd f o rb e aran c e 246 b ) Supernatural ph enomena ... 248 c )Thetwo anta gonistic cl asseso f Saint s 2512. 'Mira c le s .. ... .2553 R elation oftheSaints tomen 263 a )Sa ints asn eighbours.264 b)Saints aslead ers .. 265 c) Saints a sjudges .... 270 d) Saints assupernatural bein gs.270 4. Relation ofth e Saints toG od andpopu lar r eligion 271 a)Re lation toGod ... ..'. 271 b)Position ofthe Saint s in popular religion.278 5. Origin oftheS aints ... 280I.H i s t o ri c alS aint s 292 a)Biblic a l char acters 292 b) Qoranic p ersonages 295 c ) Saints fr om M ohammadanhi story 29 7 11. Saints whos e de s cendants ar e livin g 30 2 Ill. Dariiwi8 .... . ... ..310


" MOHAMMEDANSAINTSAND SANCTUARIESINPALESTINET. CANAAN A.SITESANDTYPESOFSANCTUARIES;,"1.SITES A traveller in Palestine is struck bythe baldness ofthehill country .1:\.. Hereand there some gardens, orchards or vineyardsaretobe metwith, generally groupedinthevicinityofavillage.Duringthe springandthefirstpartofthesummersome patches of landaresownwithvariouscereals.Scatteredhere and there onthebarren mountain s orintheplainsa solitary large green tree orasmall groupoftreesbeautifythe surrounding region, givingitafreshandan animated aspect. Theyare a welcome shelter forthewayfarer; protecting himfromthe burning raysofthesummersun. These trees are sacred to Mohammedanssincethey indicate the presence ofsomenabi,weli 'or s eb. This sacredness wasandisstilltheonly reasonwhytheyescapethe destruction whichhasbeenthefateof theforestsof Palestine.Itisapitythatwehavenot countless sacred trees commemorating holy persons,for Palestin e would then bemorewoodedandconsequently morehealthy, fertile and beautifulIfsuchatree-andmost ofthemcanlook back on centuries of life-couldtellus all its experiences, we shouldknowmuchmore aboutthehistoryandfolkloreofthis I shalltryto analyse the nature of Mohammedan sanctuaries in Palestine of which trees areonlyonefeature,andIhopethustobeableto explain some religiousproblems. By sanctuaries Idonotmeanonlythoseplaces awell-known Prophet or w eli was buried, 'but place-shrine,tomb, tree, shrub, cave, spring, well, rock or stone-c-whichia invested withsome' 1


2 Journal ofthePale stine OrientalSo cietyreligiousreverence,evenifsuch reverence bebasedon superstition,andthus non-religious inthesenseofthe Qoranic teaching and creed. Onlysuchawideningofthefieldof researcch will enable usto approach manyvery important questionsof comparative religion and primitive b"elief.a)TheirRelationto .' Sacred shrine s are innumerable in Palestine. Nearly everywher e-inthevillages,onthe mountains, invalley s, inthefields-dowe ., meetwiththem, There is hardly avillage,however s mallitmaybe, whichdoesnot honour at least onelocalsaint.Butgenerallyevery boastsofmany.Thus for example, 'Awartah possesses fourteen,elevenb eing inthe village itself and thre e outsideatsome distance fromit; 'Anata seven1(oneisnot accepted byall inhabitants2)jJerichosixitheMount of. Olives s ix j3Koloniafive.Suchlocal s aintsarehonoured notonlybythe inhabitants ofthevillagetowhich they belong,but" inmanycases their renowniswidespreadand pilgrimag es of individuals orcompanies 'aremad e intheirhonour. Someof these shrinesaresituated inorclosetothevilla ge.Insuch acaseoneofthemserves as amosquewhereth e inhabitants perform their prayers. 4 Butthegreaternumber ofthemlieoutside, and someevenata considerable fromthe area occupi ed bythe townorvillage.'I'huswe meetwitha large numberofholyplace s inthefieldsfarfromany habitation. As everyvillagepo ssesses lands whichstretchformilesbeyondthe settlement itself everyshrine1Th e namesofth e diff erent saint s willb e giv ena tth ee nd o fthi s stud y. 2 Th e (pI.of piousman)inhabi ting theruin s,at th eentranceo f thevillag e fromth e westsid e,a reno t a ccepted b ya lla sa uthentic,M yg uide, lVlohamm ed o fthisvilla ge, relatedthatsomep eople h ad h earda tdi fferent oc casions 'idd eh (r eligious musi c) atthi s pl ace. A whopa ssed w ater at this s pot w as atonce afflicted with eye-trouble. Th ese inhabi t th er uins ofa chur ch. Thesonof es-se!} 'Abd e a-Salam, es-se!} Slim a n i s a lsoaless importantwelt 3A seventh holypl ace onthe Mount ofOli ve w as Jj:arri'ibet e l-'Asara, atr ee which grew onthewe sterns lope,in a pieceof groundwhichbel ongsa t present toaLatinMi ssion. Th e treehasbe enc utdown. ( Such djawami'.-especiaIly tho se ofvillage s situ atedi nthedir ect n eighbour hoodofth e large cities-arenotmuch u sed,Many o fthepea sants comeonFridaytothecityto performtheirmid-day pray er (alat ed-djum'ah), andto transact their business ,


Tho se inside th e T h o seoutsid e vilJa go th e hous e" area3 4, I 21 41 1 3 CANAA N: 1I'Iohammed an Sai ntsan dSa nct uaries in P alestine 3situ atedin s u c h l and b elongstot hatv illage, an di sa lsohon oured pr imarly b y i ts in habitants.T here a ree xceptionstothi sr ule. E s-seU es -Sidriin t hel ands of An um i s h onoured m ostly b y th e semi -Bedouin livingt o the east oft he v illage. T hefo llowing isa n a nalysiso ft he s iteso fs hrines takenfrom a fe w village s ar oundJ eru s alem:Name o fth e Numb erofvill age sanctuari e s An a tf t 7 '}bsawi y eh 3 Ko loni ft 5 Awar t ah 1 4 So me v illageshav e th eir awM ( pI. o f w eli) only in t hehou se ar ea it selfo rin t heimmediatevi cinity of i t.Thi s i s th ecaseIII B et Haninft, So.r bahir a nd Sa'fat, eachwithfoursuch saint s. b) High PlacesT hes hrines aremostlys ituated o n a nel evated pl ace-the top o f amountain,ahillorasma lle levation i nt he pla in-thuscomm anding a ll theneighbo uringc ountry. E vens uch s hrines asa rebuilt o n t h e s loping s ideofa mo untain, o rj ustabov e th e b edofavalleyar e so p laced t hat theymoreorl es s d ominateth es urrounding a rea an d arevisiblefromafa r. Comparativelyfew w elis a re sit uated i nva lleysjbutifone s hou ld be itisgen erally f ound tobe in t he ne ighbourhood o fthej unction oft wo wadis o ri n a pl acewh ere t he wa di h as widen ed itsbed,so tha t the y areseenatadistan ce f romdi fferent direct ions. Ma ny asa cred p lace, a lthoughsitu ated o n ane levated s pot,is n oteas ily s een owingtot he characterofthe w eli, i nt hat i tha s no bu ildingan dn o l arge tre e. Thi s is true of all s uch sa nctuaries asa re fo undn ear c aves,e nclosures, s prings, c isterns,ro cks orIieapsofst ones : Someshr ines on t hetop s o f mount ainsare: e n-nabi $amwil MizpahofSamu el, es-se!}e l -Q a t r a w a n i b etweenBir Z et and Atarah es-se!}AJ;1mad el-Karaki eVraiyar Qa stal AbO. Hure rah W adi es-Sari 'ah e l-Tlze r n ear Awartah e s-seg el -Tlmari ed -Djb e 'ehn ear B et Anan el -Ma s 'ad MountofOli ves :


4JournalofthePalestine'Oriental Socie ty The shrin e of e s-seg e l-Tlmari i s builtonth e t op o f ahighmountain.Theviewfromthisspottothewesti s magnifi cent. : 'I'heplain,Ramleh, Lydda Jaffaand theseaaree asilyse en, especiallywhenthe weather isclear.Around th e maqam isaruin! andmany natural cave s. Notombi s tobeseen andtheroom showsnothingbuta mibrtib. Thetwolar gec arob treeswith ered aw ay owingtothes evere winterof1921-1922. Everybodywho tak es refug e inthis w eli isabsolutelyprot ected. By elevated placesIdonotmeanonlythev erys ummitofa mountain,but any s potwhichishighandtosomeextentdominat es the s urrounding area, suchas: E s-seg 'Abdes-S alam 'An at:] Salm an el-Far si MountofOliv es En-n abi Liqi u B et Liqi a s iug ed-Dawa 'ri Surb ahir en-nabi Mus ft near Jericho en-nabi Yusif B et .Idjz a e s-seg Y asin D el' Y asin es -seg Ahmad J;irbet I s'ideh I'mar. B et Duqqu. This peculiarity isvery characteristic, notonlyofP alestinian Moh ammedan shrines,butalsoofs anctuaries e lsewhereinthe Mohammedanw orld. Paton's statement onthispoint-althoughnot absolutelycorrect-ismore exact than ofMcOown.Thefirst writer says:2"The majority oftheallegedtombsofsaintsinmodern Pale stine are situated onthesummitsofhigh m?untains ". McOown's3statements inthis respect are hard to understand. Ish all, later on, di scuss hisfirstidea,namely: Averyconsiderablenumberof s hrines areonhilltopsbecausetheIcitiesorvillages t o whichtheybelong soughtsuchsites, notbecausethe hilli s sacred."Inreviewingsystematically the villagesoftheJerusalem district whichIhave vi sited forthepurposeofthisstudy,andnotingexactlytheposition theshrines,Ifound tha in26villages70%ofthe s hrinesoccupied thetopofahill ; ormountain,24% were ontheslopin gs ideoftheITheruini sca lled ij:irbet e d-Djb6'eh. 2AnnualoftheAmericanSc hoolofOr iental R es e arch itl J erusalemI p.62 .3 AnnualoftheAmericanSCh ool ofOrientalR esearchi nJerus alemIIa .ndIll,p.63.


OANAA.N: 'Mohammedail S aints and S anctuaries iiiPalestine5mountain belo w itssummit,and only 50/0werein a v alley orapl ain ; O ft hese s hrines4 5%belongtothebuilt m aqam, 18%aretomb s, a nd 3 7%. a res acred spring s, trees,enclosures and c aves.Ino ther w ords,o nly5 20/0 (450/0built sh rinesand7 0/0hol y trees ) would be m ore orle ss e asilys een,whilethe ch a r a cterofthe other48 0/0les sens thep ossibility of their bein gs een f rom a di stance. N or doI a greewithM cCown'ss tatement about .I erusalem,Hew rites: There a re va stnumber s o f's hrinea ; : seve ral' toever yg ood s izedtown, which a renote asilyseen, be cause the ya re no to nhill top s. Suchi s J erusalem." H e doesnot ap pear tohav e considered the fo llowing v ery i mportantf acts, wichmake most ofthe s hrinesofJerusalem n oteas ily se m i:r ,,,1.Thebuilt of of th e w e lis,in side th e !l ity, are low : in s tructure" a ndon their ro ofs house s ha ve be en erected.E xamples are : Bairam 'S awis, es se g Ril,, esoMb Hasan e l-Q e rami...' ,'2 .Thecrowd ed hous es inthecity proper hidefrom s ightshrines havenobu ilding abovethem. ,3.Mo s t oft heimp ortant sa credplacesintheh arosn.a reaareencl osed inth e O mara nd Aqs amo sques, and natur a ll yca nnoteasilybeseen. O nt heotherhandthe greater p artofth e s hrines s ituatedoutside < th ec ity-wall are e asily see n; e .g. Al,J.made t-rrori, Sa 'd uS 'id, es -s eg Djarr ah, es -seg. Okaseh etc '.' Thi s choiceofsi tuation isnotanewcustom forwer eadthatth e peopl e o f th ea ncientOr ient used to c hoose suc h pl aces for th e erec tion of their t emplesa ndthewor ship of their go ds.In:Ezek..62wer ead: "And say Y em ountains ofI srael, hear the word ofthe Lord Go d; 'I 'huss aitht he Lord God to them ountains andt o th e hill s, t ot he w atercoursesand to t he va lleys: .Behold 1 e ven I willbringa swordupony ou,a ndIwilld estroy y our hi gh plac es." Itis interestin g tosee howthe se two ver ses1 refer tomount ains, waterc ourses, v alleys a ndgr een tree s -in o ther w ords" highpla ces" combinedwithwaterandtree s ,a f e atur es tillch aracterizing th ep resent s hrine s [ M ountainsa ndhill ssee m a lwayst o hav e pla yeda"great in hum an r eligion.2Iti s int erest ing t o not eth at the gre at di ri ne '. .n ..IOtherve rses ar c L ev. 2 630;Nu m, 3 3 62; 1K in gs1 231, i a 3 2; 229: 2 13,23 6 -19; J er. 32;e t c .: '. ," ,. 2See O ur tiss ,I1


6J ,Qurnal ofthePalestineOrientalSo cietyworks ha ve, traditionall y, beenperformedonmountain s: Arm'at and the a rkofN o ah,Moriahand Abrah am's sacrific e, Sin aia ndthe Ebal a ndGerizimwithth e blessingandthecur sing,Itis the sa mealso w ith Jesus :o n a mountainhewastempted,w ast ransfigured pre acbed, pray ed, wasc rucified,and f romam ountain h easc endedt o he aven. Tb e proph et s a ndkings a lsopreferred t hese l ofty pl acesforIman yof the ir imp ortantactions. Elij ah recei ved th e w ordo ftheIL ord onM ount H oreb;'the" schoolso fthepr ophets" w ereo nhill s andmou ntains;2on Moun t \ C armel Elijah w on th ev ictory ove rth e prie sts of Baal whoworshi sped th eir id ols onthi s mount ain;3M oses died o n Mount N e bo,fromwhenc e h e sawtheL andofPromise ;Aaron di edo nthetopof M ount Hor; onthi s m ountain Eli ezer w as ordained ashisf ather' ss uccessor.In eed n otm ultiplythe se instan ces ,' whichillustrate the f act tha t mount ains i n o lden times,r ega rded a sinsomedegrees acred Thi s id ea w as ado pted fr om their pr edecessors byth e Israelites a ndbyth emtransmitted tofoll owing generations. Atraveller throu gh P alestine i s struck b yt he ma ny mo untain t opswhi cha reco vered wit h a promin entw eli;st ill g reater i s tbe num b er of s ummits whi ch Ii e ars hrinesun distingui s bablefr om a di stance. Doe s thi s not in dicatethatthepr esent in habitantsst ill be lievein .the pe culiar s anctity ofmountain s? M cCownm inimizesth e imp ortance of t his s upposition; C urtiss 5 an dPaton s tre s s i t. W hich v iew is correct ? Man y primitiveid eas h aveu nquestionably p ersisted t hrougb t housands o fyea rsandc ans tillbe t racedt o th e presen t d ay In o neformor ano ther amongthei nhabitants o ft he "im ovable eas t."T he s acred c haracterofmount ainss eems to h a ve be en aw idespread c onception inthean cient Orien t. The m odern P alestinian pla ces m ost o f hi s s hrineson mountainsandhills,irrespectiveof the fac twh ethero r notth ese places s ervef or hum an h abitation. Alth o u g h m ostawlia liKing s 19 8 9.f. 2 1,Sam,105,3 lViirterbuclt, pp 1 46 I p. Ya hweh appeare d on h ighp la ces, 1Ki ngs 3 4-5. I t w asf orbiddenforth e I sr aelite s to in the worship onhigbplaceali k e th e heathen ,Dent.1 22 ;J e r,220;Ez ek .2028 -29;et c. 5 C urtiss,p .1 34.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandS anctuariesillPalestine7are situated intheimmediate vicinityof' 'villagea, i t is striking ,'thatsomany uninhabited mountains have shrine s; Thi s fact prove 'sthattheoldidea. ofth esacrednessof mountains has probably beentransmittedtothe inhabitants of modernPalestine.'I'he ydonotacceptite xplicitly assuch ,buttheold 'practicecontinu esneverbheles s ..'c )R elationo f S hrinest o C emeteries Veryimportantisthefactthat,the shJ.;ine s or graves ofmany" holym en"are situated in ,themidsto fc emeteries oradjacentto th em. Th e f ollowing li st i s ar ough comparison between h oly places (shrines,grave s, etc.)foundin connection with cemet eriesandthose lia ving n othing to do with c emeteries:Na meo ft h e vill age Nu mberofsa nctuaries et-r.j.'Ur 6. Iericho 6 Sa' fat 4 Surbahir4 Anllta 7Inc emetery3 231 1 N ot in c emetery3 4 13 6I s hould a ddthe f ollowing f acts.InSurbaliirthe' five tombs o f e d-Dawa'riarec ountedasone shrine, T lie 'three tombs of' e d-Djarahidwhichrepresentin realitythree holypl aces Ihave a lso co nsidereda s one. Thesamei strue ofthetwo graves of' e d-Dawa'riof S a'fat, whichare tobeseeninth e cemetery.. 'I'he a boveli sts howsthat63%ofth es hrinesares ituatedina c emetery;butthe s anctuariesofsome village sareinnow ayc onnected.'withburi al pl aces,s othatth e general percentag e ofsuchacombin ation amounts onlyto3 00 / 0.Inso mecase s a c emetery surrounds th es hrine, whilein o therc aseso nly a fewtomb sare foundnearby.. The question aris es wheth er the burial place w as form ed aroundthe, s hrine or wheth erthetomb ofs ome distinguished ,manw as built inan already e xisting ce metery.Inmo st ca sesthecemetery is ,themore recent,,.theh oly pl ace leading tothechoic e ofthatplace for public burial.'l'hi sis a lways t hecase whe rethe, shrin e i s anoldon e.Butin c onnection with aw lia o frecentor igin w e nearl ya lwaysfindthatth ose viiie n who we re lo oked upon during lifetime as "blessed menof God';" w ere buri ed th eco mmon ce metery" and bec ame w ells a fterth eir d eath. Th eir tombs b egan toenjoy private and


8 JournalofthePalestine Oriental So c iety : Jerusalem Awartah. finally gener al re verence.The, following shrines areprobabl y old erthanthe' cemeterie s inwhiclitheyarefound: essee.Nflr1l.n I B etween Sall:1leh a nd {l an Yflni s es -seg BadrJerusalem en-nabi Mil sa nearJericho Rdja'!el -'Amfid (Fig. 2,PlateIll) 'I'hecontrary isthe, ca se with : essehv ,es -see. ez -Zu 'beh S an c tuari es or sacred tomb s situated i n a large public cemeter yaremetwithIIIn early e veryvilla geandc ity Someprominent e xamples a rer es -seu 'Abd el-Fattal) ed-Dawfr'rl e s-se e. A M S ef' es -s e e.Zede s.seuAM Yamin e s seu Ghanim e s -see. Sa:a e s see. (i)Mbarak e l'AzeratSa'f at S a'fat A na ta B et An iin Jericho B et LikifL(Liqirt) BetIksii 'Awartah ,Thetop of thehighest point of the mountain onwhich Awartah isbuiltis c rownedwith the mCUjo/m of e l'Az erat. Thi s contain s twor ooms,theeasternonewith two domes,thewe stern withone.T he maqam is surround ed bythecemet ery. N o cistern or tree belongs toit.Notfarfromthe' s hrine there i sa poolhewnin t he In' t he east ern roomtherei sa prayer-niche, oppo site to which"anentrance t oa caveisseen Many match boxe s, oil bottlesandoil lamp s are-scattered-hereandthere.Thewom en .. ofthevil lage as semble e very fea stday i nthis place toperform : theirprayers. 'The' western r oom islarge,lie s hi gher andis I 1 ., ,,' I :Iti sinteresting tonoteth at in t he ne ighbourhoodof t his saint,asw ella s arou nd .Al).mad e s-Sarrisi o f .A bu : GhOii, a nd es -iieg '.A bdallah,of S a'rat o nlyyo ung jchildrenare burie4 Inthe c ase o f Nur an In oticed, whil e th e Turks w ere di gging tr enchesa round theshrin e,thatt he bo dies o fd eadc hildren w e re "alw ays pl aced i nl arge brok en j ars(c e C anaanite pr acticeo f buryin g c hildren inij a ,r s) .. "


C ANAAN: Mohammedan Sa intsandSanctuaries in Palestine 9muchle ss used.Th e deadare ritually washed h ere bef o re the, a reburied. Shrines in whosenei ghbourhood onl y oneorfewtomb s arefoundare: e s.seg Ahm ad et-'r 8ri BadrSittn a el-H adrahJe rusalerriJerusalem N ablus. Ther ea ret wo re asons wh ys ome prefer toburyth eir d ead i nt he vi cinity ofthegr aveof so me welt 11.Th e nearer th e p erson i s burie d t o awelior se b's t omborI maqtim, theg reater i st he blessing whichhe ma y r eceive inth ewo rld toc ome. Thi s iswhysoman y Bed ouinca rry their importantd ead fromagr eat distance to b e buried n ear a s aint 's tomb.Thu s the Bedouinof e r-Rasaydiyeh inter s omeof thei r d ead ar ound s iflg e d-Djarfthidofth e Mount of Olive s, andthe Idwan ca rry their de ad toN e bi Mfls a. 2.The p rotect ionex ercised b y th esa int,becau se of t he ge neral r especthe enjoys, i san other ca use fo rbu rying thede adc loset ot heweli'st omb.T hisused to be pra ctisede specially byi mportant p olitical f amilies who we rec ontinually onb adterms wi th oth er f amilies. When ale ader di ed they buried himnear a sacred spott o prote ct hi s bod y fromb eing exhumedb y hi s enemies and thusdi s honoured. The man o fG od" i ss uret o p rotect e verythingpu t underhisca re; nobod y d ares tomole st th esa nctityofaman s o buri ed. Suchr easons led t hef amily of Abd e l-Hadto f N ablus to bur yt hree membe rso f the ir fa mily-J\Io1).ammad e l-Hus en ,Yns if Slimii n a nd 'A bd e lKari m-e-nearth emaqtimof e lHadrah .d ) R elation o f ShrinestoRuins' A n other f actn ot with out inter st isth at a gre at num ber o f s acred s ites lieinor n ear a ruin Itis nottobeexp ected thaton e will alw ays findrem ains o f. a lar ge ruin; there m ay b e only af ewold r ock-hewn t ombs, remain s o fa fe wh ouses,se veralo ld o r so mean cientpilla rs.Su cha ruininitself mu st h ave b e e nastr ikingI A. custom which i s al so prevalentamongsom eB edouin tribes, accordingto' Jau s sen, Coutumes desArabes,p.99.;'.


10 Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Society 'object tothe simple mind pfthe Palestinian, and theruin c ertainly existed long beforethepresentshrine. Aruin,an artificial cav e, a solitary tree, orsomeold cisterns inalonely deserted ', spot,would stimulat etheimagination o f the feUab. Somenightvision,orth e hallucination ofseeing lightsandhearing prayers orreligiou s musi c, enforce the ideaofthesacredness ofthespot.About320 { 0ofall the sanctuarieswhichIvisited wereinthevicinityofs ome ruin. Some welis situated inorneararuin are: _. 1N.of HirZet.' el-Qa trawani es-s 'eg -el-Tlmari ed-Djbe'ehnear Bet'Anan :Qu-l-Kafl near Qatannehi 'Ahmad et-Taiy ftr Qastal 'Abdel' Aziz betweenQastaland Bet Snrik the ruin s ofa church. theruinsof building s, :ijirbet el-Kfereh.-,ruins ofa fortre ss. a ruin witha water reservoir hewninthe, rock. Sittna esSamiy'ehW. N.W.of B8t.Iksft asmallruinwithtwo cisterns.." e s-seg Husen Abu Lemfmel-Mufaddel" Kol6nift I K'olonia Awartahatombh ewn intherock, < and' the c analofthe.'. spring is ancient. tombshewninth e rock... arock-hewntomb. 2.STRUOTURE oi THESANOTUARIESL et us approach acommontyp e o('weli and e xamineitmor e thoroughly.Whatdowefindhere?Of course thesameobjectsarenotfoundineverycase. 'Ye shalltrytoinve stigate ever y object separately, leaving the classification tilllater:Forourpurpos e we will take note of following: building, a tomb, atre e.( or a group of trees) a .. water res ervoir (cistern well sprin g; hasin, etc. ) andacave. it wilib eratherdifficulttogivean description ofeachone s ince they varysomuchinthedifferentpartso fPalestine .thatwe rarely meetwithtwo completely alike '


CANAAN : Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries inP alestin e11a)T he B uilding, The buildin g itself-thes hrine, 'IJlaqam, qu bbeh, 91', asitw as c alledin Biblical times ," house of high pl aces"1 i s inmostcas es, and inall the s implerc ases, a ,quadrangular building.Wewill con sideratpresent only -form,Thedoor-s-and th ere is o nly one-is l o w :Thereisgen er ally o ne small window,butso metimestherema y bemo re ( tdqah, t aqat o r arr aqah,arraqat);though occas ionally t herei s noneatall.Ther oof i sas imple va ultedd ometwit hal ongperpendiculars tone inthec entre,whichisraised a bove t he v aultit self. T hiss tone i s ins omec asescu t inthe f orm of a 'half-moon.Insteadof s ucha s toneanironbarwiththree b alls thelowestthelargest-anda half-moon a t th e t op may s ometimes b efound .sThis dome-form(qubbeh)i s averycharacteristicfeaturein Mohammedan shrin es.Itisnotfoundonly inthesimple we li, buta lsointhelarge a ndimportantshrines oftheprophets a s well asinc ommon mosques."Thequbbehis, as McOown say s.!" a c haracteristicfeatureofth ePalestinianlandscap e." V ery o ftenthe wo rdqubbehisu seda s asy nonym o f" shrine ," although o riginally itst andsfo ravaultedbuildin g.sThein side i s al ways pl astereda ndfwhi tewashed,butasthebuildin gsarever yo ftenv eryo ld,e ver ythin gI"m ay c onsequ ently bedefective.Agreatmany ofthemaqiunea rein a pitiful s tate ofdisrepair, maInl y dueto n e glect, winter s tormsandoldage.Thewarwa sanothercause ofth eir ruin; a s inthe ca se o f es -MQ Ahmadel-Karaki eVraiyar(Qastal), e n-nabi S amwil (Mizp ah S amuel), e s-Mg J;ra sa n (B et Iksa), el:Qairawftni (N of Ell' Z et), Abfi-l-' On ( Biddu), esMb 'Abd e l-'Aziz(near B et Su rik), et c.During t he wa rsomeh ad tobele velled t othe ground inorder t o d eprive t heenem y ofamarkf or hi 's gun s (es -seg b etween SalHi.lehandllan Y fmis),Doorsando ther w ood 'e n parts wer e nearly a lways t aken awayb ythes oldiers ,andused as firewood (e s seO Anbar, Abd es-Salam, e l-Tlmari ed-Djb e'ehetc.),In' some ca ses th e villag ers havereplaced th e lostdoor s b y oth ers a nd r epairedtheshrin esIII...lIKings12 3 1;1 332.2Th e qubbell ofth eB edouinis an imitat ion o f the text, J au ssen,102 .3Such a dec oratio nis a signo f theb u ilding being o f recentconstruction 4Allnua l IIan dIll,5 0. 5 S ee M uM? a ndR ava,s v.


12 ofthePalestineOriental Societ yamor e orless primitive way asinthecaseof el -Qatraw ani, e s-seg Hasanand e n nabi eamwil. Anin spection ofthein teriorof a shrine proper willshow that on e ormoreniches(a lso called taqah) aresitua ted inthew all,a featur e commontoa ll. Actually theylook l ike elongated cupboard s. Oc casionallythere maybe only: a s inglenich e, th ough gen erally m ore A are tobemetwith .Inthe simple, smalloneroom ed shrin eo f AJ) ./J-J.L=-fe s-seg Badr, whichliesonthetop o f ahill in th e. north-we stpartofJ erusalem, I c ountedeight.Ine l-Tlz er ('Awartah) th ere ar e s omedozen so f them.Theyarebuiltatdiffer ent heigh tsa ndare irregularl y distr ibuted in thefourwall s: withoutan y r egardf or : symm etry.Withfew exceptions theyaredirty, even th e w a ll a round ande sp ecially thepartbelowbeing badly s mearedwith o il.'l'hi s unsightly effectisd ue t o the factthatiti s h erethato illamp s,o il bottle s, m atches a ndoth e r small objects ar e deposited. Th e insid e genera ll y s hows signso f havingonc e been decorated with or nUeh or b oth.The decoration consi stso fsimpleline s running moreor le ss parallel toeachoth er, aroundtheinsid e m aking!j. s ortoffrieze. thefri eze ismo rec omplicated,Som e t ypical designsarerepre sented inP late I B ut in a dditio n tothefriezewefindtwo <>.ther, ver y imp ortantdecoration s, viz r epre sentation s ofthehandand imitations ofpalm branches ( sometimes twigs01'trees ), bothofwhich a re explained by s uperstitiousb eliefs.InMohammedan s uperstition theh ands repre sent the hand of Fatimeh (the daught er ofthe Prophet), inChri stian the hand ofth e Holy Virgin, andin Jewish thehandofGod .! This s uperstitious d ecoration is said tobrin g blessin g. W e encounter it ver y di stinctly andoftenonthetwoout ers ides thedo or onthetopston e (s a*iyeh) a nd ontheinn er w alls oftheshrine e specially around the mibrab. I tis generally an imprint ofa huma n: hand dipped in b lood, b inna, or nUeh. A dozen such impres sions maybes een i n such shrines.Notonl y in s hrinesbuta l so onthedoor s ofh ou s esmays uch. iinpr essions be s een.Theyareintended toprotect th e inhabitant s against th ebadeffectsoftheevil e y e. Small ofthehand, m ade ofgla ss, mother-of-p earl, silver,gold, 01'so meoth er m etal,areIC anaan,Aberglaube,pp.64If.,Doutte,Magi ce t R eligiun pp .3 25n'.


CANAAN: !Iohammedan Saints and Sanctaaries in Palestine13carried bysmall children forthe s ame reason.IBlood impressions ofthehandarerarelyfound. Ihaveseenthemon newly-built houses whenasheepwas s acrificedbeforethe house was inhabited, aswell asatthe feast of.Bairam ('id ed-Dhiyeh):OnceonlyhaveIob served blood impressions of thehandonthedoor ofa shrine.Thismarkwas made byamanwhooffereda sheep whichwasvowedtothe well. ..Theimitation ofthepalmtree (Plate I, Fig. 8)is mostly used as an inside decoration.Itismadeupofaperpendicularlinewith shorter sid e lines, whichunite,making an acute angle, opening upwards.Thetotalnumberof the sidebranchesis neverconstant;butin mostcasesthereis an equalnumberoneitherside.I examined carefully tosee whetherthenumberon one side coincided withthesacrednumbers 3,5,7orsome multiple of them,sbutin most cases they didnot.Insome, especiall y in el-Badriyeh (Sarafat) andel\ Qatrawani (N.ofBir Zet)'they all coincided withthenumbersthree

14Journ al ofthe Palestine Orien tal S ocietya similar soundingroot.! Icouldnot e xplainthe square s withth e dots(PlateI ,Fig.6 ) .I t is improbablethatth e dots ( PI.I, Fig. 4and5 )represent"visiting card s" ofthe pilgrim s, asKahle think s.Insome shrinesIhavese en rudimentary r epresentations Of amosqu e, a minaret, a s hip, flowers,et c. 'Theonly purpose ofthesefigure s i s tob eautify the rnaqam. Sometimes Qoranic versesorthenameso f G od, theProphet,andsomeofthe aMbeh are written onthewall s.Theshrine of Y asin isth e best ex ample, wherebesideth e wordsallahand Mul;tammad, whicharesurrounded bywreathsof leaves,wefindthe Mohammedan creed"There'isnogodbutGod, 'andMohammed isthe apostle ofGod", twoflags(the Turkishandthatofthe Prophet), ahalfmoonandmanyfive-pointed stars.Inthe miJ:trab censer andchainare' painted. These de coration saremadewith J:tinna,nile(i or si raqun. Some peasant s thinknileh.shouldneverbeusedinholyplace s, binna being theonly suitable material. When J:tinna' (Laws onia inermis)2isused a s areddye,it is kneaded intoa paste andthendaubed onthe wall. Very oftensamn el(butter) is mixedwithit ,3butn ot n ecessarily a lways,as Curtiss thinks.sIt,iswiththis pastethattheimpre ssion ofth eh andis s ooftenmade. While adhering tothewallthepaste hasadirtygreenish-brown appearance,butwhenitfallsoffitl eaves abrowni sh-red colour.The' mihrab 6 andthe immediatesurroundings are decorated firstofall.Mostofthe other decorationsaremade withnUeh (methylene blue)and s'iraqun (minium),In many of thes e simpleshrines,butnotinall, there isa whichhasthe usual formandpoints southwards. Thereisatl east ine ach o f thelarger sanctuarie s.In there a re s everal. Thu sq abr er-R a'i nearNebiMusahasthree.sInsome atplia th e mil1rab i s only indicat ed onthe southern walleith er withcolour,or witha ridge-like frameof projectin g plaster.Inthe Christian chur ch of el-Hadr (between B et DjiH a andthePoolsofSolomon),whi ch is1C anaan,Aberql aube, p.85. 2H ava, 13 8.3K ahle l.c 4 Curtiss,2 09. ,5 Thato f es -sultanIbrahim el-Adh amiof S a'fat a ndth e s hrine o f e l-Imam 'Al io n t hecarriage-road n ear B ab e l,W ad; showedd ozenso fth ese imprint s .-, 6Inth e l;!agrah (TheDome of .the -Rock ): there a re se veral pray er ni ches whichwillbe described later.


CANAAN :M o hammedanSa int sa ndSa nctuariesin Pa le sti n e 1 5honour e dan dv isit ed a lsob y th e Moh ammedans,t heprayer directi on ism a r k e dby alarge pi cture o f St.Ge orge. Ih ave seenM ohamm ed ans goina ndperform their praye rsturning th eir fa c e stowa rdsth e p ictur ea ndso t ot he so uth.All aremarkedintheso uthern wall 0' t h e sa n c tuaries.Thefollowingthreea reth e o nly e xcept i o n s Ikn ow of in t he buildin g b elowe l-Aq sn, a i n )'?I>,ua,.!JiD a hlid a n d onei nt heshrineof e l-Mufaddil (' A w arta h).l I n t he fi r st i ti s sai d t hat t h eProphetprayed dur ing h i s ni ghtvisitt oJeru sa lem a ndwhenh e h ad fi ni sh edt hean g elGabri el o rd e redh im inf uturet ope rformhi s prayersw ith th efacet urnedtoM ecca. Th er eupon th eP rophetturnedhi sfaceinthi s direction a ndp erf ormed his se condpr ayer.sTheflo or ofthe p oorer m aq ams ismo stly bare" but som etime s mat sa re pres ent. 'I'he larg er andmoreimportantshrin es have mats a nd of tenco stlycarpets. Whil e thel ast description holds true forall s imple m aqams, w e ha ve s till.t o c on sider thosewhicharelarger, more important, a nd m ore e laborat e. Ish allt ryt o d e scr ibe them according t oth ev a riou s c omplic a tion s of th eir s t ru c ture. Butbefor e pro ceeding tothi s partofo u r s u b j e ct s ometh in g shoul dbesaida boutth equbbehor c upol a ." 'I 'hisi s o neo ft h e mo st impor tantfeature s of th e awlia andb elong s toa lmo ste v eryt ypical s hrin e .Inexaminin gaqubbe h3we fi nd t w o diff ere nt ty pes : 1.Th e si mple o ne, whereth eq ubbehis b uilt directl yo ver t h e f our w allsoftheshrine.Itlooksli kea h e misphere s uperimpo se d u pon t hewall s. 2 .Th e s q u arespa ceformedb ythefourw alls i sc onverted i nto a no c tagon ne ar t he roof by fillinginth e c ornerswith p end e ntiv e s. T h e o ctagon i s r aised a little, a ndthe hemi spheric;tl ,qubbeh res tson it .Ap erpendiculars ectionof s ucha building (cu t dia gonally) s hown inF ig.4 ,Platen,The maqams whichpos sess two inst ead ofone vault ed dome ,a re a s s i m plei nc haracterasthosejustde scribed. In reality s uch a building.'.ITh e l asttw o a r e me nti o ned i nPJVII,86. 2 Itiscuriou st ha t A braham a ndLota ret houghtto h a v e pe rfor medtheirprayer s wi th thef ace t urnedt oM ecca( southwards), alth oughthe y a re p re I slami cc haracters .3FQra s hort d e scriptionofit s ee 'PJVII,9 2.


16J ournalof th e Pal estine Orien tal S ociety KoloniaBet Duqquh AMGhM Nablusrepresents tworoom s which,bydisp ensing with th eseparatingwall,ar e united toformone elongated whole. A high strongly built a rch,wh ich h elps to s upporttheroof,takestheplace ofthemis sing wall.Inthenextclassares anctuarieswhi ch havea rawaq (openarched hall)built. in front oratthe s ide. This maybecomposedofon e arch,butmo re oftenoftwo.Thepeople a ssemble beforeandafter th eir vi sitstothes hrine. Sometimes meal saret akenandf estivals a re held in. thi splace. I n B et J;Ian ina t he inhabitants have r ecently built to t he so uth-ea s t o fdjam i'es-sult anIbrahim el-Adhamiathree vaultedhall,op ening toth e north a nd with a mi hrab.Es-seh S almane l-Farsi (Mount o f Oli ves) ha ss uchanopen r awaq in front ofthesanctuaryi tself.InelTlzer(e l-Qariyeh) a nd es -seb Ham a d (Kol onia) therasosqisatone side o fth esa nctuary. Still morecompli cated are those shrine s whereon e ormore additional rooms a re built be side or aroundthes anctuaries openinginto th e vaults.Theseserve a s kit chen, dwelling-place fortheservant q aiym) a nd s toreroom s. Sometim es, onl y of course wh en th es anctuary i s s ituatedinor quite nearavill age, one o f thes e room s m ay b e u sedasa s chool ro om (kutttib o r' maktab),a nd occasionally an other onei so ccupiedbythe sebor1.Jatib, whom aya ctasthet eacher. Somecas es i n pointare: e s-seg J;Iamad e s-Mg I'marel-'Uzer el-Anbi aInaf ew c ases o ner oom isused f orth er itualwa shing o fth edeadbefor e bu rial, asinel'AzeratC A wartah)a nd dj ami' c l'Uzer (AMGhOs ).At t imesthe maij,ajeh ( guest-chamber)is connected withth es hrine, a s in e n-nabi SfJ.'ah 1(inthevillage SU 'ah)' 2 wh ereitisaroombuilt overth e shrine.In e s-MgAbu Isma'll (B et L iqia)and e s-Mb J;Ise n(Bet' Anan) thefront roomservesasa m ai!ajeh. In' boththesec ases 'Ye findinthe:centre ofthe roomthehearth(el-wdjaq)onwhich coffe e i spreparedfor those present. gue st-houseo f es -seg Y asin (D el' Y asin) issituated oppo site the maqama nd se paratedfromitI t hen ame l ookes as ifitwe re fem inineitsta nds fo r Yula '. 2Sout hof B ab el -Wad.


CA NAAN: Moh ammedan Saintsand S anctuariesinP alestine a 7by a nop enp lace.'Itisonly inthecoldmonth s ofth e yearthatthe seg uest-houses a reu sed; inthe s ummermonth s thep eopleprefer to s itou tside under a tre eor.ina r awdq.2A r ough sketch of essab Ham ad (Kol onia) wellillu strates theclass described above.See Fio 1,Platen .An otherclassisformed by holyplaceswherethe real sanctu ary is s urroundedbymany rooms.'I'heroom s servefor pillrims who mak e avi sit oncea year and generally spend s everal day s inthe pl ace.Insuch the buildin g ismostlycom posed oftwo at timesofthree,st ories. The low e r isused for store rooms, k itchen and stabl es, andth e upper fortheuse ofvi sitors. A s ervant liv es allthe ye ar around in s ucha sanctu ary to guard it.Theselarger a !e not g enerallyd edic ated to awl ia but t o pr ophets '" (anbi a,pl,of n abi). En-nabi Mu sa isth e bestknownexampleof thi sc lass.Butonlyafew prophet s havesuch larg e shrines.En-n abi ( Ramleh),el-Anbia -(Nablu s),e n-nabi Yu sif(Bet Idjz a)a ndmany oth ers havef airly simplebuilding s, whil ee l-Tlzer,el-Mau surt -and o l-Mufaddil (a llin Awartah)who a real so countedas prophets, have n o buildin gata ll. Some dj awami' and aw lia arecertainly ancient churches orold hou ses. 'I'husI think th at djami' Omaribn el-.J,;Iattab (Surbahir) and d jilmi' el-Tlz er ( el-Qaryeh) wereonce chur ches.tThes hrines o f e ssag 'Abd allah (B et Sur ik), e s-sab(D el' Y a"in), e s-seg Srur(' Awartah) a nd en-Nubani (Nablu s)areIs implero oms, which wer e onceuseda sdwelling s.They haveno mi brilb orvaultandh ave no s ignsof a nytomb.Th eyareatpre sent in v erybadst ate of disrepair. Many a built maq ilm i s anopen sanctuar y, wh ere th e w alls ofth e ro of r est o n pill ars. Th e b est ex ample ofsucha s hrineisthat of H asan er-R a'i.! whowa s supposedtohavebeenthe shepherd ofthe proph et Mo ses. Inside ofa rectangular e nclosure, built of s tonesI'I'hesc hool-roomo f Iteyim ( Bet Ik sa) i s u seda ccordingtoKahle(PJV I,71)asa maq,fit"elt. E verykuttfi b maj" beuse d att imes asag uesthou se,b ut t his occas ionalu se d oes n otgive su cha pl ace th e sp ecialcharacteristicswhi ch ar e f ound in a m ai!fifeh an d whi c hw ere m ention ed abov e.2F or maq,8,f"elt s ee.Haddad,JPOSII,pp .2 79If.3Th ebestboo kon t hissubje ct i s Mad er,Altchrisil iche B asilikenu ndL okalt radition in S iidpaliistina, 1918. 4 K ahle,PJVII,91.2


18Journal o fth e Pal estine Ori ental S ocietya nd mortar, weseean elongat ed andvaultedro of wh ichr estson SL""< pillars ,three tothe northandthree tothesou th. B etween the se pillarsisthelargetomb. (Mounto f Oli ves) i sa n oc tagonal sa nctuarywiththesid es clo sed up.Ma s adjid s ittna Aiseh has ava ultre sting onfourc orner pill ars, wher e th es outh s ideh as b een co mpletely closed andthe eastern and western onlypartly built.Thewe stern andthe southern wallsofthe shrine ofAhmade s-Sarri siIa reclo sed, whilethetwoothersidesareop en.Idonotpropo se togive a n exhau stive archi tectur al d escription ofantype s of s hrines.Myonly a imha s beentogivesimpleex amples ofthedifferent c lasses.De scriptions ofbe autiful mo sques l ike e s $agrah, e l-Aq!?a, etc ., neednotbegivenhere sincethe y m ay b e foundin convenient formel sewhere.sManyofth e sanctuarie s which .ares ituatedina v illageserveat thesametim e a s the ofthat place whereth e people assemble for prayer. Manya djami was built inthe immediate neighbourhood of a we li, a sinthecas e o f Djarrab, Sa 'd uS'id(bothinJerusalem), Salm ane l-Fars! (Mount ofOli ves)e tc. Som e sa cred s iteswhich a re si tuated o uti n thefield s, andwh ich cont ain notomb s erve fo r thep asser-byas a plac e inwhich t o perform hi sprayers,e .g .elIrnam' Ali, o n t he ca rriage-roadfrom Jerusalem toJaffa. Weoft en findin front ofth es anctuaryan elevat ed pl ace,w ell cov ered withlarge smooth stone flag s, call ed nt$allayat. Theya re gener ally inclosecontactwiththes anctuarya ndse rvef orprayer.Iti s not necessary thataritu allycleancov erbes preadonthem sinc e th eya re a lwayskeptclean. Such prayerplatforms"a remet with i n e s-seg $ale}.1C Anata), IrdjalS ufah( W.of D el' Gh assaneh), esseg Damraha nd es -seg en-Nnb ant(both in M azari ; e n-Nfibani.3 Befor e passin g on,itmaybewelltonotethatin s ome s hrines thereareins criptions. Theyaregenerally foundju st ab ove th e doorofthesanctu ary orabov ethatofthe court, thoughocc asionally1Onthetopof a mountain in Abfr G hos. 2Short de scripti ons ar ef oundinBaed eker, M eistermannan dotherguid e b ooks;s cientificde scriptions ar e:G ressmann,DerF elsendom itl PJIV, 54ff.;R. H artmann,D er Felsen domu nd sein eGes ehichie,1 909jD e V ogue,La M osque d'O mar a Jerusal enl, 1 905. 3 Iamind ebted for informati on r e gardin g th e las tth reepla cest oO mar E ffendi Barghuli.


C ANAAN: Moh ammedanS aints andSanctu aries inP alestine 19the y mayb e found abovethewindow ( es-segDjarraJ).): orabove oneo ft hepill ars of thevault ( es -se g H asan er-R a't), Somesuch inscript ionsa re:1.Abo ve the ce ntraldoorofth e shrine el-Hadrah1 ( N a blus) : cUllll?dL.:J'cr. ..>J\cllJ.\vLW......JI\J-.a,if r ..>JIdL.:J\cllJ.\vLW......JIll..>JI" T his p rayerhous e w asbu ilt d uring th e ( reign) d aysofth e sultan, t hek ingSelfed-Din Qal awan, t he p ious.Go d m ake h im p owerful; a nd h is fath er e ssultan t hep ious k ing 'Ala e d-Din.His v ictories beg lorious.2.Inside maq am e l-Hadr(Nablu s):2. 1?".>..:J1. #'....1>4 o D asuqi 0B adawi Th e m aqam o f el-Bada wi 3 'Abd-el-Qa dir e d-Djilani. 3 .Anin s cription onvelvet laid onthe cenotaph of e l-Anbia (Na blus): 0'"

20Jo urnal o ft he Pa lestine Or i enta l So ciety 5 :O n a m arble s toneabovethe e ntrancetoth es hrine o fea -su ltanIbrahim el -Adhami ( Bet Hanina): .>..?,...... .....l.1IJ.A,;L.,;;.. .i4.r"1A..llI("""""'4J...;......,JA..ll\.>..?L..:.. Int he n am e ofth e m ost m erciful God .Th e b adj S weidt heson o f ]fa'f!layd, Go dbe mercifu l t o h im, h asorderedthe bu ildingof this placeofworship .. int he year637 .[A H.]6 Abo ve th e do or0 1m aqame l -Yaqin, Beni N 'e m ( on a m arble st on e)": ... AJJI..>-....:s""IJ.A,W;.j.4r"i I AJJI ... oJLA(.Y"IJ.A, Int he name ofthe most m erciful God M ohammed Abda llah ... Alih as o rderedthe b uilding o ft his prayer house f rom h isown money 27. B etweenthetwon orthern v aultsofth e s hrin e ofHasan e r-Ra 't (neart heN ebi Mu sa) w e r ead: \J"i9I,/' I}I<:W;;-UI' ..i.L\ ls"'-JL....i.:.:.....1 .... I. L1;,lJu .. c-. er[ Co'dO":':""-. 1 cY' 1 l.l.1J.A.iuJl.sU.i 1 1Dotsr epresent w o rd s w hicharein deciph e rable.2Th e qufici nsc riptio n o n thetomb o f Fatime h th e g ra nd so n oft heProphet i s: -.-11 ... 1 \., ,JG'r-yl Se e Mudji r e d-DinI t67 .3L it."t oth ev illage." d aughter of Hasan the


cl)CANA AN:Moham medanS aintsa nd Sa nctuariesi n P alestine21H eisth e everla sting l i v ingone T hisis the"t omb o f t hef ri e ndo f Go d,l e-selj Hasan AMel-ijalaweh. F or h issou l ( re a d ) ,lI al -j atiba h. "1 305.[A .H. ]9. A g olden e mbroidered w ritingon ared' silk c lothpl aced on th e t omb of e n-nabi Lut (B eni N em), runs:. \ 0byy::; Thisi s th e tom b o f the p roph et Lut, peaceandb l e s s ings b eon hi m. 10. O n a notherclothinth esa me s hrine. dJ \.uJ4.uJ\<-,4J,.....,)b ,J.uJ\s l1;,lAe-.lJ\e-.lJ\J,...,).;...".s-;e-.lJ\ .uJ 4.uJ\In th e name o fth e most merciful G od.Inh im.w e fin d h e lp. M y success ( good luck) is onlyinGod Ther e is 110 godbutGod .Our lorti? M uhammed isthea postle3o f God. I n name ofGod;whatG odwis hes,Myl ord L ilt isana postle o f God .There isne ither mig ht nor st rength butinG od.11. The wr iting o n aban ner, presented toen-n abi L ut b ys oldiers c oming fromA leppo and p roceedingtoth e Su"'ez Cana lfr ontdurin g t hel astwar( 1915 1916),wa s as foll ows: a) 4 Ohexc ellenc y,4 my L ord ( writteninth e upp errightcorn erof theb anner);b) y \ W\,-?J-.::-..J4. O h ex cellency,the divin e pol e, my l ord A b d el-Qadir ( inthel eft u pper c orner);c ) 5 ,-?,.>.sJ\,-?,.J..aJI 4 O h ex cellency,the suprem e pol e, myl ord e l -' Adawi. (le ft,low er corner)j '.. \.>J\",\ \ ,. .ii b('":::r.,-?.. ..Ohexce llency t h e t ru e pole, my l ord I brahim ed-Dasuqi (r ight l owerc orner)j ,1H ava,p.88 7.2Lit.Maste r.3More than a prophet. 4!lac!rat i s at itle ofho nour.WithHavaI rende r "exce llency." & e l Adawii s usedhere in stea d ofe l-Badawi .


22J ournal ofthePalestine Oriental S ocietye ) .uJ \Jr')..JJ\cJJ\ Ther eisn ogodb ut GodandMohammedistheapo stleofGod(int he centre) ; ,f) .uJ\ Ou rLord theFriendofGod,pea ce beupo n h im( betweenaand ,e )jg)The'I' urkish crescent, betweenbande .b) The Tomb, Insidetheshrineandgenerally inthec entre oftheroomwefindthetombofthe hol y pers on whosenameitbe ars. Befo re g iving anyd e scription of t hetomb itself o ne point sh ould bem adec leart heconnection ofthetombwiththeb uilding.Thetombisoften notinthe shrine,buto utside ofit:onth e inthe 1'awaq orinthe garden adjacent tothe maqam Butiti s notata llnece ssarythatthere should b e atomb directly or indirectly connectedwiththep lace tomakeita shrine,andthere ar e manyt ombs which..havenoqubb eh.Boththese featu res willbedi scussedatlength in anotherparto f thiswork.Wema y cla ssify tomb s acc ording to their positi on a s follows:1.Thos e c onnected witha maqam maybe situated a)inthe s hrine itself; asel-Badriyeh (Saraiat), B isr e l-F.lftfi (Na bIu s)et c .; b ) in therauxiq;es-s ayidAhmad et-Taiya r (Sa rafat); c)inthe gardenadjacenttothe sanctuar y;e n-nabi Annir (D el' Ammar), es-seg. Y flsif(lJarbata). 2.Th o s e whichhaveno shrine built,buta re situated a)inacav e; e s-Mg. e s-Sidri C Anata), es-sitte r-Rab ah(Mountof Olives); b)outsi de in t hefi elds orina c emetery; es-Silg. el Baqqani ( Nablus) e s -s ,eg. Ramadan, 'B ed (bothin Qatanneh), el'Uzer CAwartah):etc. ; c) inside thevillage,amo ngthehous es andnot attached toany maqiim or cemetery; es-Sill]euw an and e ssab Ism a 'il (bothinSurbahir),


" ICANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine23 "Itoften happensthatin addition tothe" main tomb ortombs, whichare situated insidetheshrine thereareoneormo re outside whichareintimately connected withthelifehi story ofthemain welt. The se maybe situatedatvarious distancesands till retairi theirassociation.Some illustrations are: "Inthe n eighbourhood of e s-seh Abdes-Sal ama nd outsidethe maq am i s tob ese en thetombof hi s sonSalm an. EI.Badriyeh has)' out side her s hrineandintheadjacenthallthetombofherhusband e s-sayid Ahm ade tTaiy ar. E!}Al;1mad el-Bu stamiandhisbrother es -se!}Murad (Nablus ) have their ne gros ervant buried outside of the maq am.El-Qatrawani's shepherd lies buriednearthe sanctuary ofhis mast er. Th e number oftomb s inone sanctuary varie s.Inthemajority I ofcase s there isonl y one,but s OIJ?e havetwo oth ers evenmore. Oneofth e tombs, generally the largest, isofmore importancethanthe others.Itcontainstheimportant weli andthereforethes anctuary takes hisname.The other gravesarethose ofhisnearrelatives: hiswif e, hi sbrother, hismale descendants and sometimes his se rvant.Theshrines of e s-se!} Anbarand es -se!} Badrcomprise two to mbs ea ch, that. ofthe we li andthat o f hiswife.Inthecase of e s-se!} Badr b dth tombsareinthesameroom whileinthatof es -se!} An bar thetombofthewe li'swifeisina small roomadj acent.IInel-Ba drijehonetombintheshrine itself is said tobeh ers,theothertothenorththatofherchildren, whileth e tomb outside her s hrinei s b elieved tobethatofherhusband Mor eintere stingarethosecas es wh ere weme et withmor ethantwotomb s.In e s-se!} Hamad (Koi oniai th erearefive,thetombofth e weli twoforhis twowives,on e forhi s sonand" th e fifth that ofhis servant (r eally black s lave' abd).Thetombofth e ser vant isshownpartlyinandpartly outside th e shrine .Butthetwohalve s donotcorrespond to e ach other Weoften meet withtomb s which a rearrangedsideb y s ideandwhichbelongtooneofthefollowing classes:" 1.Thegraves ofm embers ofthes amefamil y, lik e the in Surbahir a ndthe Y amin f amily in B et'An an. Allare re gardedas men(pl.o f In Sa'fat therear ea lsotwotomb s ofthefamilyofed-Daw a 'ri.InIrdjal el-'Amftd ( Nablus)wefind man y tomb s outsidethe maqam whicharesuppos ed tobetheg raves ofthes ervantsofth e a wlia buried here.


24 ': Jo urnal ofthe P al estine Oriental Societ y1 1 1 1331111131111' 1 2. .Thetombsof tnu djiilzdin and s uhada. Both w ords me an martyrs ." Thefirstdenotesthose whohav e f allen inahol y w ar.In.Hebron we a re sho w nthetomb s of e sSuhad a. Aft er d ecapitation,iti ss aid,th e he ads rolled down s houting nasluuiu..( Wewitn ess wewitne ss, w e witness" ).InRaml eh thet ombsof e l -Mudjahidta are arranged in several rows,notfarfromen-nab i l;3alel,l: S ome -l arget ombsares aid t o contain theremainsofmor ethanon esa int, as in al-Anbi ft(Nablu s).The issupposedto be built over the' remain s ofthe prophets Raiy iillln, YaSdj ar and Asar, the s onsofJacob.An inscription on s ilkh anging ov er the t omb reads: Thisisthetombofth e proph ets ofGod theGlorious, thesonsofourm a ster J a cob,andth eya reRai yalun, Y as adjar an d A sar. Onb ehalf of o urProphet, thes e, anda ll oth er proph ets maytherebethemost-efficaci ouspray ers andthemost c ompletepeac e ."1In A bii GhO s wefindthatthetombof e s-seg Ism a'il e l Tnbawl, which lie s b y the north wallofthesh rine hasa structure connecting itwiththewa ll T hisstructure' issaidtobethe tombofhisson e s seg Nasir ,Thefollowin g li st illustrat es thenumb er ofth e tombsa t s omemaqnrns, and their connecti on withthe leadin g .weli hims elf:N ame oft he :We li Loc ationG raves o. r G raves ofWi feo r SonsServantt he welt b rothers W Ives 1 2111 11 1 e s J;Iamad2Koloni a e s -Badr 2 Jerusa lem Esa wiyeh e s-Isma'il2' el-Qal yehB et Duqquh Z awiet ed-Darwi siyeh Nablu s 4e l Qatrawani nearBir Z et el -Anbi a 2 N ablus elBadriy eli 5 es -'Abde s -Sal am A uatl1 1\,. ITh e tradi tionth atZ ebulon. j I ssachara nd As herar e buri ed i nNabhi s m ay go b ack totheSamaritans .2Already d escribed 3 L 'rnari st hes onof e llseg Hi sso n Da hftd h adODeso n, M a,rar, wh oses on'sn ame wa s Q asim I'mar th e l astth reear e buried i n t hiss anc tuary. 4 Thetw o b r o th e r sA bmad an d l\Ir ad e l-B ustarnia re ofeq ualimp ortance. s 'I 'hem oreim portantg rave o fth et woi sthato f e l-Badriyeh.


CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints a nd Sanctu aries -in P alestin e 25 Toe tomb sa rebuiltof stone. In most ca sesthewholeis s imply plast r ed ev er and whitewashed.Even' if they 'aresituatedoutintheopen a ir ( cemetery,fi elds, etc.) ,andha ve noprotectiona t a llfrom the s torms, theyareno be ttertreated.Othertombsareconstructedof g oodhewn stone s, which is usuall ythemarkofat omb -ofr ecent ori gin.IThetombs ofel-Tlz er,e l-Mufaddil a ndof e l-Mansuri a re verywell kept.Inthecase ofth e first ( Fig.2,PlateII) I c ould reco gnizethreelay ers of well wroughtplaster( qsara)."I'he ge neralstructure of these tombsandofthece notaphsofman yimportant weUs consists ofanuppergable section s uperimposedup ona lower oblon g b ase. Fig.3ofPlateIIs howsatransverse section o f s uch a cenotaph.0Th e orientation ofth e tomb isin :generalfromE.toW. ,i .e .the\ orthodox orientation ofall Mohammedan tombs in this parto ftheMohammedan world :Thedeadar e laid ontheirrights ideswith their heads tothewe standtheirfeetto j he east, thus turningtheir I f aces totheq ibleh(direction of Thereare a few exceptions!tothi s rul e. Ell-se!} Gh animo fJ ericho, s ituatedinthew esternc emetery, isth e b est cas e of such an e xception since hi s t omb is built fr om S .Thiss aintis ofthehol y familye d-Dawa'ri,Wehave alre ady se enthatsomeof them a re buried in S urbfthirandother s in Sa'fat. Inthe case of es -se!}Z ed ('Anata) itis s ome what difficultto decide howthetomb i ss upposedtolie.Thew all runsIfromN.toS.andinthemid sto fitthereisa Siihid, buto nly on e, andnosignsofany e nclosure running fromea st towest definin g the direction ofthetomb;Itis generall ysaidthatgrav ess howing this direction belong tothepre-Islamicprophets,butthis e xplanation, although true ofIso me,do esnothold inthe twoc asesa lludedt o.Thegraves ot en-nabi eamwil, el-Tlz er, el-Mufaddil s a nd e l-Anbift runapproximatelynorthto south,thatof Lot; (Beni N 'em)hasa N.0toS.direction.1Withr egardtotheg eneralc onstructionofmodern M ohammedan t ombs I may r efer toBo ehmer's articl e, Aut denmuslimis cheu Er iedhofenJer usalems,ZDPV, 19 09-10. 2 PJVII,86; J aussen,C outumes,p .99.3B oth in Awartah. InN ahlus. Iti sc uriousthatwhil e t hedirectionoft het omb isN.So,th ispropheti s r eportedto ha veturned hi sfac e,whil ep ra ying ,t ot he so uth. .


Inshapethecenotaphsaree longatedwithtoprounded' flator with atriangularsection rising toa single edge.Thetomb o fel ': Badriyeh( Fig.1,PlateIll)hasa line from 'endtoendofth e t op,runningparalleltotheaxis,andthusdividingthecenotaphinto twop arts.Itlook s asthoughtwo tombs wereindicated,but popular traditionallowsonl y for on e. At bothend s wefindp erpendicularstone s, nab 1or s ahid, markingthe' h ead( west)and.thef eet (e ast).Very often o nlythehead nab, sometim es c arved intheformof a turban,i s found (e s-Mg Abo. H alaweh, Jerusalem); inothers n eith erheadnorfeetaremarkedatall (e s-segSaddfid a nd e s-seg $3 Je1;l). F emale s aints(el-Badriyeh, R ab'ahetc. )andg igantic tomb s( el-Tlz e r a ndel-Mufad dil) have no sawiihid. Inm anycas es; w herewedon ot find a n ys uch stone s, a ca reful investigation s howsthatth e c enotaphs o ncehadthem ,buthave lo stthem ( es .se g Neni inSurbahir).Where m oret hanonesaintis supposed tob eburied in o neandthes ame g rave ,wem ay findmore.thanone s ahid, a s in el-Anbi a(Nablus), wheretherearethree sa wtihid, onestandingfor ea chofthethree s onsofJacob, whoaresupposed t o b eburiedhere.According to J aussenthese two perpendicularstone sa re sy mbolic,representing t he twoa ngels who visitthe' d ead. 2 Icould n ot ve rify th is statement.3\The t omb m ay beas hi gh a s1-1.50meters,buts ome are v ery \ l ow.Thet ombsof B adr, of hiswife ,andt hatof es -s e gRi1;lan a renotr aisedata ll a boveth esurroundingflo or. Thosebuilto utside amaqiim.areg en erally el evated, whilethel ower one sa re a lwaysin side of build ings.Thes izes oftombsdifferenormou sly,Thegreaternumber a re of norm alsi ze,thoughso meha vee xceptionallyl arge dimen sion s .Thef ollowing a rethelargestthatIh aves een:Name (of saint L ocationL e ngth B r e adthH eightl26Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Society EI'Uzer' Awartah el-M ansurl Awart a h e l-MufaQ,q,il Awartahe s-sul ta n :galil Qalaw aniNablus56 4440468 4 58 36238 5em s.235em s.264em s. ems .1 a ndH ava d o not give thi ss pecial meanin g, bu t"a s tone setup" 2 Ih avebee nu nabletofi nd s uch anex p lanat ion i n t heA rabicbooks .3C outumes ,337 :


CAN AAN: MohammedanSaintsandS anctuaries inP alestine27 N ame ofsai nt L ocation L ength Br eadth H eightel-Anbi a Nablu s 41 0em s. Has an er-R a'i .. ., n ear,Jericho5902 251 40e ms. en-n abi M usa nearJerich o e ms. e s-segDjana1,l Jerusalem1 95 1371 85e m s M anyce notaphshaveinoneo f their wallsa smallni che (tiiqa h), in w hichoillamps( sradj,pl.surdj),m a tchboxe sCil bit k obrii, tsaMat eh) 1,et c. areplaced.The se nich es maybefoundinthe northern sid e o f thet omb, asat e1loMge1l-segImbarakj3 in thes outhern side asat e d-Dawa'ri,2ed-Dj arahid.! e s-seg Z ed,:>e1l-Mg I sma'il,2 o rinth e w estern side, as inthecaseof e s-seg Hamdallah6and es'.Mg Anb a r ? Sometombs posses s morethanone asintheca se o f the sif lg e d Djar ahld ontheM ount ofOlives,wh ere there are three tomb s in onelin e.s The on e in the centre ha s twoniches aw e stern anda s outhern.Thelastnichei s supplied with awooden d oor. Inon e t aqah Ifoundalampandtin s ofoilandinoth ers wat er, m atches, a ndburn edin cense.s E s-seg ez-Zu ghbeh (nearthet ombo fe l-Mansur!" i n A wa r ta h ) h ass uch tii qiU ( pI.o f ta qah), a southern awestern a nd a n ea sternon e. Whil e int ombs situated in ashrine,wi ths uch a tiiqah th e incen se i s generall y burn t in o neofth e wallniches.tvin a ll tom bs fo undin thefi elds orina cemeter y andhavin g no b uilding,lightan dinc ense arepl aced inth ese cen otaph nich es. Somehaveontop ac ircular, shalloword eep cu p-likecavity,i n whichwater,butm ore oftenfl owers arepl aced.Iti s b elievedby somethatth es oul of th edea d v isitsth e t ombo nceaw eek, o nFridaya ndexpectstofindsom e water toqu ench it s thir st.These1Re ally t he" k"i s pro nounced in som e d ialects ts" .2 I n S urbahir. 3 B e tIksa.4 M ounto fOli ves. s 'Anata. Th e lfiqah i s m ad e in t his case byr emoving a ston e f romth e w all runni ng f romno rthtosouth '6BiddU .7 Esawiy eh 8Kahl eme ntions o nlytwotomb s,butthere are t hree;PJVII, 90 9 T he mid dle an d t he s outhern tom bs a re co nnected att heirh e ad-ends with asma llw all. Wh oso e ver li esbe tween t hemw illbec ured fro m hi s disea se. S ee al so R ahle,PJVII,9 1.\ 0Tn c s-sey I, Iamadt he o ill amps w er e pl acedo n i het omb.


, 28Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSocietycup-like holesaretobefound more frequently inthetombs ofcommon peoplethanin those (pl,of piou s man).FromwhatIcouldgatherfrom different people these cupsar e usedforoneofthefollowing purposes:t1.Waterandflowersareplaced in them.Thepurpose ofthewateri s tokeeptheflower s livingforalongtime.Thisi s the explanation givenbythebetterclass of people. 2.Thewaterinthecupisforth e birds, to drink'a nn e l-maiyet,"for the(benefit)ofthesoulofthedead."Theid ea behind this explanation ,is thatthe birds will thankthes oul ofthed eadfo r thi s benevolentact,andwillinca se of necessit y t estify tothis g ood action. Such an explanationisgivenb y people ofthemiddlecl ass.? 3 .Thewaterinthecup3s ervesto quench thethirstofthes oul ofthedead. This idea Ihaveheardfrompeasants and s ome s imple Mohammedans ofJerusalem.Flowers, water, etc.aregenerallybroughtonThursday afternoon, thedaywhenthecemet eriesareu suall y vi sited.Anotherc ustom,which points tothe belief mention ed und er No.3 i sthefactthatv eryoftenth e r el ations ofthed ead r eadthe f atibah f o rhi s soulincase hiswidowbecome se ngagedto an other man.Atthe s ame time a n egg a nda s malljarfullofwaterareburiedattheh ead ofthe tomb.Thewat er is s upposed to quench histhirstandwethismouth,whiletheeggwillburst asunder, in plac e ofthedeadman whenthe behaviour o f hiswif e becomes knowntohim.! U ptonowonly complete tombs h ave been mentioned ,butparts oftomb sareals o found.Ashortde scription ofoneofthemwill s uffice.In SiIrbfihir 5justbehind the guesthou sethereisa rectan gular d epression intherockabout4x2 metres inextent, withad epth of5 0-60cm. Two stepsleaddown.Inthemid st ofthew esternIItis c urious t hatK ahlegi ves o nlyo ne e xplanation o f t hese c ups,PJVII,90 .2F ort he s amer eason,as K ahle thin ks,a bout45 0 k go f cornan d aztr of w atera re p lacedon t hefea st-day of e l-imfim es -8afi'i on t he roofo fhi s ma qam (Ca iro).3A t tim esthereare t wos uch c ups. oncomm on one m ay fi ndt hem. 4 Thi sc ustomi s d ying out. Ih ave h eard b oth "S urbahir" a nd "S urbilhil".


C ANAAN :MohammedanSaints and Sanc tuarie s in Palestine 29wall ther e protrudes asmall,verysimple building re sembling onehalfofacommon Mohammedan tomb. Enquiring thesignificance ofthi s Iwastoldthat es-seh Ism a 'il was buried inasmall cavein intherock and tJrat this building is intended tocoverhisfeet, which protruded sincethecavewasnotlongenoughforthewhole body.Inthe east s ideofthishalftombthereisa taqah which s erves lightandincense.Very oftentomb s aredecor ated. I;linna siraq un andnileh.areu sed. P alm branches, hands, linesanddotsare frequently met with. S iraqftn produces a beautifulred. colour.Iti s curiousthatall repre sentation s ofpalm branche s madeonthegravesofed-Daw a 'ri (Surb ahir)hadfiveorseven branches. Sometime s vers es fromtheQoranorthe namesofGodarewritten with these colours.Inthe c aseofthe three tombsof s yug ed-Djar ahid (Mount ofOlive s) I noticedaredline running across everytomb commencing withthe lowerand middlepartofthe northern sideand terminating a tthe lowerandmiddlepartofthe southern side.Inmanycase sa n inscription mayb e found connected withthetomb.Theinscribed stoneisontheside s oronthetop o f thecenot aph. I L as tlyit s houldb e noted ,thatagreatnumber ofthetombs situated in side a maqam are covered withoneormore s tarat I(pl.of s tarah, cover ). Generallyitisa greenish cloth oftenwitha border o r embroider y in other colour s Sometimes thecover sared ecorated withverses from the Qoran. Onthe rasiyeh (headstone) aturbanandsom etimes a m asbabah (rosary)areplaced. Thisla stmay,asintheca se ofB eiram Sawi s (Jerusalem), be placed around th e whole tomb.Inmanycasesthe starah itself isnotputdirectly onthetomb,butonawoodencage,whichismadeintheformofthetomb and e nclosesthegrave. Sucharees peciallyused where thetomb s are verylow,asin al-Badriyeh andthe already mentionedBeiram Sawis. Inmanycasesan inscription Il;Lid onthestarah ,and embroidered on apieceofvelveteen,informsusofthenameornamesof thoseinterredinth e gr ave, asonthetomb s ofIrdjal el'Amud, el-Anbi a, e s-seg Al).mad el-Bist amiandss-sultanBadrel-Ghafir (allin Nablus ). Som etimesthetombis encircled withanironframe (e s-seg Salm an el-F arsi).1Al so sitr iit, pI.o fs iireh.Thise xpressionisnotusedmuch. forth eseco vers .


3 0J ournalo fth e Pal estine Or iental S ocietyAlltomb s sofarde scribed have been tomb s built of masonry .Butth ereare oth ers made ofan elongated heapof stone s,s urrounded b y a s toneen closur e.! Su chg ravesver y muchre semblethep resent si mpletomb s of t hep easants.Wemeetwithtfieme specially amongtheB edouins ( es-see Zughb eh,2 Jericho ).Insomecase s th ereis n o surroundin g enclosur e, andthis po ints tothemo st primitive t ype of t omb c ult.The o nlye xampleo fthis kind w hichIh avese eni s th at o f es -see H ues3o fBiddu .No t aqah isconnec ted withi t.4Inoth ers w e donotfi nd aheapof s tones,butonlyap erpendiculars tone a tthe he ada nd a nother a tth ef oot to markthep ositiono fthegr ave ( qabr), as in e sseg $ abbal) atJ ericho. This s upposedt omb i ssurroundedIby a (enclosure). c ) Tr eesTrees c onstitute a v eryimportantelement of most shrine s. Thisis notan ew cu stom, formanyofth e" high place s" oftheOldTe stament w ereass ociatedwith green trees". Ihav e no doubt th at wi thfe w e xceptionsev ery Moham medansa nctuaryis,orw as onc e, ch a racteri sed b yone or mOJ;f trees. Welis ofrecento rigin,ho wever,a reg enerally t reeless,like e s-seg A MI;I:alawi. A large number ofthe setreeswe re c utdownduringt hewar,w hileman y h ave diedo f oldageor been up rooted b y s torms(e l-Butmehin B et $ afilfil). Th ese a re doubtlessthem ain c auseswh y soma nys hrines a rea t pr esenttreeless. Ihave v ery oftenheardthefollowingst a tement: The weli h as notreeatpresent, bu t Iremember v ery wellthatduring m yc hildhood there s tood alarget reethere."Inman y c ases, wh eret heoldtreewas cut d own, th einhabitants ofthevillage,towhomth at particularsa int b elongs,ha veplanteda newoneofthe sa me s pecies, as wasdon e, f or e xample, in e s-Mg Anbar. Thehug e figtreewhichon ceg rewthere wa s cutdown and burned b ythes oldiers,who se c amp w as in th e n eighbourhood.Thepeople of 'Esawiyeh havepl anted anotherID outt e, M agic e tRe ligion,p .4 82.2Not Zu 'beh,a s g ivenb yKa hle,PJ,1 911,P :8 8. 3I n 1 922thei nhab itants ofthev illageh ad h eapedstones together tobu ild thet omb. 4 Kahle desc ribes anot h er examp le ofth is ca tegor y, namely es se g Mo hammed D arlr el -Qadri ( PJ,1 911, p. 8 7). I nt he vicin ity the r e isa z aqqfl m tr ee ( aki nd o fmyrobalm),


CANAAN: Moh ammedan S aints a ndSan ctuari es inP alestine3 1 III it s pla ce.Attime sits o happensthatats ome distance from t he ,weliat ree g rowsup ,a nda statementb ys ome o nefromtheadj acent vill age, t hat i t w as r evealedtohiminadr eam thatth istree b elongs t oth e sa meweli,issu fficient toprotectth etreec ompletely.A mes t ree ( celtis a ustralisL. )gr owing q uitenear e sseg A b d a ll a h (Sa'fftt), an d a fi gtreeg rowing a bovetheca ve o f es -sag Abd es -Salam ('Anata) are rega rd e datpresentas b elonging tothesa ints. A ccording tom y data from a llthe shrines wh ere Iw asa ble to obt ain d efinite in form ationas. toth e presence or absence oftrees, th ey wer efo undin 60%of theca ses.Froma nanalysis ofthe diff erent sp ecies of trees growing \ near, these places wefindthatsa nctityi s notattributedtoonemorethanto others. 'I'hi s fa ct indic atesthatitisnotthetreeitself which makesthe place hol ybutthat the tree derivesits s anctityfromthewel itowhomiti s d edicated. In some casesitwouldappearthat there is proof to th e contrary,butse ebelow.Thefollowing analysi s maynotbe without int erest. Outof128ca ses wher etrees werefoundnears anctuaries, i n3 0 c ases t hetrees w ere o aks (b allittl ) in2 5 fi gs( tin 2),in21carobs (7.Jarrub 3 ),in ] 6o lives4 (zetun 5),i n 14Mul berries (tfd 6),in12l ote t rees (sidr 7)a nd i n1 0 t er ebinth s (butum 8) .Othertrees oc casionally fo undare:IQuercuscocciferaL .I nthis connection Iwish to express my thanks to Mr. Dinsmore forhisk indnessi n giving the exact botan icaln ames. 2Ficus caricaL.3Ceratonia siliqua L. 4 Ol eae uropeaL. 5 Afe ww ordsabo ut t he r ole p layed bytheo live tree inthePalestinian fo lklore maybeof i nterest. Th e oli vet reei sca lledin t hed ifferentcommen taries ontheQo ran. e ssadjarah e l-mubiirakeh,t he b lessed t ree. Itco mes from Paradise andisthemost n oblea mong a ll t he plant s (Fagr e r-Rdzi V I, 264; VIII,45 8).IA commo npr overbc omparesth eo livetree withthebedou in ( whoca nli ve anyw herei nt hed esert andr equire s v ery littl e forhislivin g)a nd t hefi gt ree w iththe ( who ha s mor e neces sities)a ndth e vine with a sirriye h ( who r equiresagreatd ealo fa ttention).C hristiansb elivethato live t rees knee ld own in the ni ghto f the f easto fHol yC ross. .6 lt lorus nigraL.7ZiZ1JphusSpina Ch ristiL .8Pis tacia palestin a B oiss.


3 2Journaloft hePalestineO riental Society. .EXPLANATIONOFTHEFIGURESINPLATEfFig.1.Afriez e r epresenting two se rpents .Fig. 2 Thenumber81017 0 inscribed o verthe entrance tothe sanctuar y ofen-n abiL ut,Fig. 3 .Afrieze(e s-sultan Ibrahim e l-Adhami, S a'fat). Fig. 4 Dotsofhinn a, orn lleh,Fig.5.D ots ofthe fi ve fin gers.Fig. 6.Deco rationss eeninth e shrineof e s seh H amed in e d-Djib. Icouldnotelicit their m eaning Fi g. 7.R epre sentation s oftwo serpents. Fig.8.R epres entation s ofdiffer ent sort s ofpalmtwig s, someh ave 5 o thers7le aves, whil e m ostofthemh ave more .


3 4Juurnalo ftheP alestineO rientalS oci et y snoba rP inus pi n e a L. stonep ine, s ari:C upressuss emperuirensL. cy press, qr e s P inus h aleppensis Mill. Al eppo pi ne, na7.Jl Ph oenix d actylij e m L p alm tr ee, m allfll Q uer c us ae gilops L. Gree k oa k, $a br Op untia ficusindica L. Mill. p rickly-pear, da lyehVif is v iniferav ine, ru mmiin Punica g ranatum L .pomeg rana te, mes Ce ltis austra lis L. hackbe rry,n ettle tre e, djummez F icus s ycomorus L syco more, g har L aurusno bilis l aurel.Trees whi ch natu rally pred ominateon th e pl ains-such a s mulb erries, p alms and syc omores-arenat urallym orec ommonin connect ion with s hrinesfoundinthepl ains. .Ins omec asesas olitarytrees ervest o b eautifyt he s hrine, i n other s asmallor alargeg roveisa ssigned toth e h oly pe s on.Itis m y opini onthatinth e neighbourh ood of ma ny oft hesehol y tr ees there u sed tob e w oods,f rom w hichon eo r moretreesnow sur vive, te stifying tothef ormer" forest g lory" of P alestine. elQatrawar,Irdjal AMT ug, 1 e s-MgAl;tmad,2 es -egAM Lemfm,3e tc. illu strate thisview.Iti s n ot nece ssary thata g roupoftr eesass ignedto a welZ s hould beallofthe s ame s pecies.Thefoll owings howsth at differe nt tre es maybe connected withthe s ame we l i :AbuL emun B etIksa tere binth a ndoaktree s; el-Mansfrrt Awartahmulb erry andvin e tr ees; elTlzer Awartaht erebinths,a p alma nd a C

C ANAAN:M ohamm e dan S aints and S anctuaries inPal estine 35partofth e trunk.Butitisnot infrequent forthetreetobefoundatsom e di stan ce fromthew e li.Inca ses wheretheholymanhas s everaltre es d edicat e d tohim,onemaygrownearthe maqam, while oth ers ar eatc onsiderabledistance fromit.'I'h e b est example of thi s i s a l-B a driyeh,whohasinhers anctuaryanoak,twoolivetreesa ndalemon tree, another large oak tree totheeastofthe maqam, a third o akinth e v all e y, oneonthewayto el-Mall).a andafifth whichsto od o nce eastofer-Ram. Thislastwascutdown duringthew ar.Ea -sultanLbrahlm el-Adh ami (Bet J;[anin a) hasa mulberry a nd a t s ome distan ce two o aksanda m eseh. Thelastdied recently and wa scutdown.' Holytr e e s, n ot c onnect ed withanyqubbehortombwillbe de scribedlater.Allholy trees, whether they beneartoorfarfrom th e shrinearerev eredandr espected; even thosethatarenot conn ectedatallwithany s hrineenjoythesame reverence.Ifthe holytree isa fruit-tree su ch asmulb erry, fig,vine,cactus, etc.itis reg arded as a sab il,2 i.e .everybodywho passesthatwayi s permittedtoeata s mu chas hechooses,butnothing must be ca r ried a way.One w ho. bre a kathis rule i s said tob e severely p unishedbyth e s aintofthatparticulartree. N e arly allwhoavail th em sel ves ofthis privil ege will recitethe jat*ah b efore plucking t hefruit.Ino ther c ases theq ayimor baddam (ther esponsible ./ s e rv a ntofth es hrine) reserv es for himself onlytherighttogathert he fr uitofsu ch trees, a s wellastho se ofthewagjgardens belongingtothe s hrine,a s inth e ca se of sittna inNablu s.Inthec aseo fel-Man snrl('Awartah)thel arge vineisrented to s omeinhabitantofthev illage,whohasthe s olerightt o c utthegr apes. 'I 'he incomefromthe f ruitsisusedtorepairthem aq tim .How s everelythesaint will p":nish a nyonewhost eals fromhispropertyi ss howninth e following storyaboutelManfjuri. A g endarmeh appened topa ss throu gh' Awartah.Herestedunder th e mulberryt ree besidethes anctuary. SeeingthebeautifulIOt her e xamplesa re ea -se\} H amad (K oloni a) withamulb erryinthesanctuary an d a n oaka tadi s tancej e a se U .Abd allah (el-Qub ebeh) al so ha s amulb erry and onth ehillopposite onthe s outh, a carob ( el-\}arrubeh ed-djdideh), 1 S abU isu sed also fo r a w ater re servoir,aswillb e explained els ewhere.3


3 6IJournal ofthePalestineOrien tal S ocietygrapes in themaqtim,hecutafewbunches de spite th e repeated warning s ofthepeopleofthevillage.Before lon g the gendarme be gan tovomitblood incessantly. Nothin g helpedorr elieved him untilheboughta sheepandofferedittoel-M ansnri, thu sa ppeasing his wrath a nd atoning forhi s fault. A notherwell-observedrulei sthatno o ned ares tocutanyb ranch, however s mallitmayb e, fromanyofthe se trees. Furthermore, th e sa intwillnot a llowanyoneto gather and tak e aw ay th e brokenor withered bran ches. Theyma y onlyheu sed for c ookingsuch mea ls asareofferedinfulfilm ent ofavow,orm eals pr epar ed inf estivals ofthatparticular we ll.Es-seg Brek( pronouncedb ys omeBrets) s outhof Ya.lo hadm anytrees whichwer e cutdownb ys omeo ft he inh abitants ofthatvillag ea ndc onverted intoch arcoal. Acc ording tolocalb elief her evenged thisinf amousac tb ys laying eve ryone ofthetrespassers. Th e p eoplea lwaysbeli eve th at lo custsca nnot injure thehuly trees. Mostoftho se Iasked a bout thi ss ubject a ssur ed methatwhilealloth ertreesof th e villa geint hey ear 19i5 werecompl etelye atenupb y this f rightfulcur se, th e hol yt rees r emained untouch ed. Thi sca nbet aken a s an ex c e llentillu stration of t he childlik e b eliefof t hep easants,for o nly s ucht reesw hich w ere in general notattackede lsewherebyth e l ocusts, w eres pare d inthec ase ofth e weli s. On e add itional point shouldbem entioned in c onnectionwithtrees.The sacredne ss of thetrees andth e r espectshownt oeve ry w eli is th e re ason whype asants ofth e n eighbouring fi elds d eposit t h e ir g rainandwood,th eir plou ghs a nd other a gricultu ral implemen ts, a ndthelike und er thesetrees forone night orlonger,feeli ngs ure thatthe w eli will protect them.Morewillbe s aidlaterab outt his subject.Notto be confused withh oly tr ees which a reas sociated with s aints,areth ose which a re in habitedbydemon s.Itis v eryd ifficult togiveanyd efinite rul e byme ans ofwhicha stranger ca ndi fferen tiate between the oneand the other. The followin g point sa ppeal' tob e char acteri stic:1.Ih ave n ever heardthatatreesuppo sed to b einhabited b y demon s washungwithpiec es ofcloth Ev ery per son whom I asked a boutthisan swered inthe a bovesen se; and s oIc an not ve rifyth e/


OANAAN:Moh ammedan Saints a nd Sanctuari es inP alestine 37statementofMill s, quoted by Goldziher1inhi sMohammedanischeStudien. 2. Whil e an ytreecanbes anctified b y a we li. thedjinnseem onl yt oinh abitce rtain kinds oftre e s, e sp eciallythe l t a rr u b Several sto riesillustratingthi s b elief maybefoundinmyAberglaube.2Thisiswh ya nArabicproverbs ays, "Sleepin g bel ow acarobtree i snotreco mmended,"3s inceiti s thoughtthat'thesetreesa renotonly pr eferred b yt he demons a s ahom e,butthatth ey a ss embl eherefr omt imetotim e.Therefore a simple fellii)t willnotbind hisdonk ey t o ac arobtree without a skingthedjinnfirst forpermission.Supers titiont ells u s thatthistreew asthe. cau se oftheruinof king Solomon 's kin gdom.Themi sfortune sattached toitma ya risefrom th eideathatth e l wrrftb b elongs toth e mi sfortune-brin gingplanetS aturn.sBlackfig-treesarealsothoughttobepreferredbythe demon s.6Whenatree isinhabited b y ad emon it ca nnotb elongatthe s a me time toa welt This i sdiff erentwith springs, where agood a nd a b ads piritm ay dw ell inon ea ndth esa mewatercour se.7Thestory ofthe ) arriib t reeandth e ruin o fki ngSo lomon's kin gdomr unsa s f ollows: On e d ay inthet emplecourts king Solo m on notic ed ayoun g plantunknown tohim.Hea sked this plantfo ritname, "IJarrfib" wa sthe answ er." Ofwhatu sea rtthou?"c ontinuedthekin g." Tod estro y thywork s," r epliedtheplant.Th e ki ngthena sked G od thath is d eathwh eneveritshould oc cur, mightb e hid den from t hed emons till a ll mankind should be awareIIl,350.2p .8if.3 enn ome laarrtib g Mr E l-Madjrit], gltiJ.iatull,!aHm. Th e w ord a arrub (ca rob) comes f romt he s a meroota s a arraba, "toruin,"and soiti s a v eryba d ome nt o dr eamabo ut t his t ree; cf .' Abd e lG h anie n Nabul si, ta '!ir e laruim fita bir e l'manaman dZbMG.6Thefo llowing s torym ay illu stratethispo int. 1\1:. 1.f rom A rtas we nt ;with hiswifeS.,daught e r of1\1.Z .,to t hev in e yards. Heapproac hed h e r u nd er a figtree andfor got tos ay:11b iemi -llah er -rabmtin. e r-rakim;"todr iveawayt hedjinnwhol ive ins ucha t r ee Soo n afte rwards h i s wife w asattackedwithe pilepsyw hi c h, a s weknow, i s t houghtt obeca used byad jinn.I nthiscase h e w as t oldby ase!!, t ow hom h e wentf ora dvice, thatth e inh abiting d emon w asa !l1/r! aiyiJ.r, "a flying b ird,"whi ch co uldn ot b ecaught.7.T POS ,I,pp .1 5 3-170,nndAb e rglaube.


38Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSociety. ofit. Having prayed thus,Solomondugupthecarob and planteditinhis garden where, to prevent asfaraspossibleany harm comingfromit,he watched itclosely until ithadgrowninto a strong sapling.Hethencutitdownandmadeitinto a walking stick. Now,many years before, Balqis, QueenofSheba,hadcometo provethekingwithhardquestions,oneofwhichwashowtopa ss asilkthreadthrough abead,withascrew-like perforation. He asked all animals, birds, reptiles, insectsandwormsforhelp. Onlyasmallwhiteworm undertook thetask,whichit performed by takingtheendofthethreadinitsmouth,then crawled inatoneend,andoutofthe other.Solomon granted its requestthatit might lodgeinanyplantitchose,andfeed thereon. Unknown tohimithadfoundahome underthebarkofthe lwrrftb tree whichhadbecomehisstaff,and had penetratedtothevery centre ofthetrunk.Thetime arrived forthekingtodie,andhe happened tobe sitting asusual, leaning onhi s stick, wh en the angel of death cameandtookawayhis s oul;unknowntothe demonswho continuedtheirwork according totheking' s instruc tionsforfullforty years.Atlast,however,th e wormhollowedthewholestaff,which suddenly broke andthebodyoftheking rolled totheground; and thus theevil spirits knewthattheirtyrant' wasdead.Id)Wat erCoursesAnotherfeature ofmostoftheholyplace s i s thepresence of water. This is either rain-water stored in cisterns (Mr, pl.biar)or ht 'aMt (pl,of hrabeh, a cistern-like hole,whichi s not plastered), or livingwaterofwell sand baiyarat (pl.ofbaiyarah ,whichar e especially foundintheplain),andla stly running water fromsprin gsandbrooks. Of course notall shrines have waternearthem ,butit istobefoundinthegreaternumber. Such a spring or cistern i s moreorless sacred totheholymannearwhoseshrin e iti s, and fromhimitmay derive supernatural pow er, whichifknownismadeI'I'he story i s foundin Dairatu-l-rna'arir VII;apartofiti s m entioned inal-unaed-djalUetc.I,121; Hanauer,Folkl ore of' th e HolyLandpp. 49 50.Th etextistaken mostly fromthe last s ource.


C ANAAN:M ohammedanSa intsandB anctu ariesinP alestine 39useofb y th e f elliWin. Thi ss ubjectwillbedealtwithlateringreaterdetailInma nyc ases th e cisternorthewelli s ina ruined condition andthu s do es nothold water.IAts hrinessituated onornearthetopsof high m ountains, ci stern saremoreu sual; inthewest ern plains we lls,ci sterns, b aiyii1'at a nd h rabCit a re generally found;whileinthe hill c ountry,wh ere th e holy placesares ituatedontheslopingside ofth e mountain, s prings a remorecommon.Ina fe wc asesa sabU isattached tothe sanctu ary. S abU means inthiscas e a r eservoir, built bythe public ro adandfilledatre gularp eriods withw ater, sothateverythirsty pa sserby benefitsby it.A c upi sa lwaysl eft inthese plac es. Amongwe liswithsabilsm aybe m entioned:al -imam AHand e ss eg Djarrah.Thelatteris s urroundedbya zaw iyeh (asortofacon vent). Outsid ethe maqama n ew mo sque w as built,ontheinn er w alls ofwhichh ang tbul (pl. o fio bl,drum), (pl.of brass ca stan ets),s pears (barbeh, pl. b-arbaP), lon gs harp s pitsor (pl,of s iM and !;ias (pl,of sw) s pitsof a nother s ort.3Thew ord m isqay i s u sed in s ome p laces f or sa bil. Some shrines, like s ayidnftS a'de l-Ansurand H amdall ah, h ave on e ormore big e arthernwarej ars ( zir, pl. ziar ) ,which a rek ept fullof water. Th e piou s pil grima ndth e p asserby find water forth eirritualpuri fication a ndr efreshment. Th e weli Harndallah 4 i ss ituatedintheimm ediate neighbour hoodo f th e w esternc emeteryof Biddu,Itiscompo sed ofa quad rangular e nclo s u re,builtofston ea nd mortar. I'hedoorisinthenorth ern sid e.A roundth e tombano ak-tr ee andaro se-bush grow and a notherroseshrub i s tobe s eenout sidetheenclosure. A s imilarj ar tothatme ntioned a bovewaspl aced intheout er s outh-westcorner,but w as broken whenI v isitedth e shrine in1922. A indic ated onthe s outhernwall, mark sthedir ection for pr ayer s. S ome rags w ere fa stened onthetree. Tothenorthof t his s hrineth ere i s alarge wat erbasin, hewnintherock.IAsist he cas e in A M L e mun, e l-Q.atrawani es-Si dri,e tc.2T he co r rect p lura l i s lt il"ilb. 3Th e u seoft h ese w eaponsa nd m u s ical in strumentsw ill b ed escribedelsewh ere. I l\l cCown,1.c ., mentio nes on ly t henam e, noth avingsee nth e actual pl ace.


40J ourn alo fthePalestine OrientalSoci etyEXPLANATIONOFTHEFIGURESINPLATE11Fig .1.Aro ugh sketch o f es -Mu Hamad inK olonia. A =Ou terCo urt. a=C ist ern B= M aqam b=Amulberryt ree C=S chool R oomc=1\1 iJ.1rab D=R awflq d = I'he t omb oft h e s e rvant,. p artlyin side th e sh rine a ndp artlyint he co urtE=Room f or th e t eachere=Th e t ombs of t he s6 h, hi s twowives a nd th ato fhi sso n .Fig.2 A r oughsk etch oft h es a n ct u aryofe lTlzer ('Awartah).A=El evate d pla ce B=Th e hu ge t ombo=Aro om wi th aS am arit an in scriptiono nt he w estern w all. B elow th e in s cription th erea rethree ni chesR ,b ,c=Three r o oms, inbth ere i sa ni nscription(Sama ritan), in c f ood i s coo ked byt h e v is itorsI,2=Tw obu tum t rees II =Se veral ca robtrees 4=Apalmt ree 5=A q uadrangularo peningl eading t o a c ave.. Fig. 3. A transve r se section ofthetombofelTlz er. Theoth er tomb s of Awarta h haveth e sameform,Fig.4 .A perpendiculars ectionofac omplic atedqubbeh.Section running through twoopp o site corners F ig.5 .Decoration s a round themihrfi bofthesan ctuary of e s-sebYasin (Del' Yain) .


OANAAN:Mohammedan a nd Sanctuaries in Palestine 41 lij/.l?4->1iJiW1'rVa-d( }f,l,...: ; .arI("fel, j.z rr.r-'i/C-Di ,11 If \ IIr ,\-,\:,-"" I t\..:-:0 ..2 :;J,cl-Il' C"7-1r. ,W#lilllllfl({ur0;,;% =l'-' !


42 /. JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietySom etimes the running waterandthetree aretheonly indications ofthes acrednessoftheplace andatother timeswefindonly water cour ses, which although not connected withany s hrine,grave orhol y tree a reconsid ered tobe sacredandareassignedtosome holyp erson.Inoneca se, el -Matba'ah, there isaswamp connected witha weli. Thi s m arsh hasa widespread reputation forrelieving rheumatic painsandi satthesametimesupposedtocuresterility. 65%ofall sanctuaries recorded inthi s connectionpossesseda source of water (flowingor s tanding)inthe neighbourhood.e )C a ve sThela st f eature tobe noted isthepr esence ofacaveinor about the shrin e. ,Ve must consider three quitediffer ent kind s ofcaves;1.Sacred ca ves connected witha sanctuary, either tombormaqam.2.Sacred cave s, whi ch havenoc onnection withanyshrine. 3 .Simpl e cave s, havingno apparent connectionwiththe sacredn ess ofa shrine, though situated near one.Iti s int ere sting tonotehowmanyholyplacesaredirectlyor indirectly conn ected withoneor other kindofcave. S acredc avessometimeslieinsidethe maqfim itselfand appearratherlikeash allow cistern withawideopening.tInsuchcases we s eldomfindatombinthe shrine andthepeoplebelievethatthet omb i s in side th e caveit self.2Ofcoursenoonehasever dared tode scendinto th ec avetolookforthegrave.Themouthofsucha ca veisg enerally clos ed. Thefollowin gstory illu s tratesthisbelief.The qaiym of es seg M ohammad whose shrine liesin w adi ed-Damm,tothesouthof ed-Dj erah, onc e v entured to decend intothecave ( el-ghfir) oftheshrine. Th ere h e sawthe weli witha bloodyswordinhishand. Thi s swordwas tha'to f the Mohammedan leader whofellhere whil e leadingthetroops whofinally conquered Askalon.Ass oon a s th e "']ai ym climbed outh e fellsick,anddiedin a f ew days. More o ften th e c avesareoutside thebuilding, either near byor somedi stance away.O ccasionally people relatethattheholyman1A s i st he c ase,f or ex ample, inthesanctuaryof en-nebiLu](Ban i N' em)2 S.K ahle,PJ,1 911.p.92.


C ANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand P alestine43 hasbeense en le aving his shrineandwalking to thecave,whence, after sta yings ometime,hereturnstohismaqam.Caves connected withholy person sare always respected. Somehave never been ent ered; other s a re appro ached only during .thedaytime, astheirsuohrali( c onditi on ofin spiring awe ) i s very strong.Inmany cases o ill ampsa reli ghtedandincense i sburntinthec ave itself.No a nimalsar ea llowedtoentersuchacave,foritisbeli evedthatthes pirito f th e holymanwill s oonerorlater inflict s evere punishment upon s uchan anim al. Many peasants s aythatthey have s een in sucha ca veagre enish li ght, whichise xtinguished a s soona s a hum an being a pproachestheplac e.Inmo st respe cts theabov e description also applies t o c avesnotconn ected withany s hrine.Fullerdetail sregardingthis t ype ofholyplaceswillbegivenlater. Amon g suchca ves wemay me ntion:Oneonth e left sideofthecarriage-road leading fromJerusalem to Koloni a, ju st oppositethelasthouseofLiftft,whichis situ ated ontherights ideofthe road.1 A caveinthegardenof theL eperHospitalinJerusalem.2Inaddition toth ese two g roups o fca vestherearem any instan ceswh ere cav esarenotfardistantfrom s anctuariesbuthaveno direc t connecti onw iththem. Oftentheylieinaruin. Shepherds m ay ke ep th eir flock sthere duringthenight.Instances a re the cave s found around th e shrines of esseg Abdes-Salam, e s-seg es Sidr i and e s-s eg 'Anbar,Thecavesofthefirstare intheruins of g irbet 'Almit th ose ofthes econdin girbetD el' es-Sidd,andthose ofthethirdin uirbet Ibqu'e d-Dan.Thecave s belowtheshrine of ,.. \ es-sitt e l-Badriyeh (Sarafat) areu sed for s toring straw(t ibn). I Th ese ca ves .areoftw o t ypes eithernaturalor h ewn inth e r ock. M ost ofthelatterareancient rocktombs,the. entrance s to wh ich h ave be en enlarged .Itis sometimes observedthatold, damag ed an dpartlyburied vault sarecount ed ascaves. This Ihav e especi allyno ticed in'Awartah. Th ethreec avesbelon ging tothiscl assaretomymindthecrud est t ype of s anctuaries.Th ey wereruined,dark,dirtyandunattended. Srfir is situated insidethevill age andis madeIT het e rrainw h er eth is ca vei s f ound i s known b y t hen amee l-Homeh.2Th e story of t his ca vei s g iven o n anoth er p age.


44JournalofthePalestineOriental S ocietyo fa low dirty .darkand half ruin ed r oom whi chwasa tth e t ime o fm y v isitfullo f lim e.El-'Adj ami isav ery low ,narrowa nddirtyop ening inthehabitation o f ape asant.T he ma qam w as fill ed withfirewo od. A s econd Adjamih asass hrine a r oomlike cave situated b elowa buildin gandv aulted o ver. A lthoughth ese sanctuari esa reof s o cr ude a type, th e ya re ho noured a ndr esp ected b ythep easa nts. Oi l lampsarel ighted i nth em, oathsa ndvows a rem ade inth eirna me. Amon gs anctuarieshavin ga sacredcave in t h eir v i cinity are: E l-'Uzer n ear'Awartah, el;l-I;jagrah in t hem osqueo f Omar (Jerusa l em), es-s egA1)mad e l-Hwesin Biddu ,a nd e s -seg es -Sidrinear An a t a Thefirsttw o willbed e scribed mor e fullyl ater. 'I'hetomb of es .Mh A1)mad e l-Hwesrlie s inthecommoncem etery, whileth e ca ve,whichi s moreh ighly h onoured, liesatth e v erye dgeofth e vill age.Iti s anancienttombh ewn in ther ock whi ch b ecome s p artlyfill ed withwaterdurin g thewint er ti me.Allvo ws a nd l ightsa re off eredtothi s s aint in t hispl ac e. H e h a s b ee nal so see n towa lk o uto ft he cave T hees -Sidrih as b eena lreadyd escribed. Sacred c ave s whi cha renotcon necte d a t a ll w ith atombora m asonrymaq amwillb e discu s sed b elow. Amon gc aves whic h, althou gh fou nd in t hen eighb ourhood o f holypl aces, h ave noconn ect ionwith t he sa credness o f t he maqam a re:2 e s -Mg Yusifb etweenel -Bireh a nd Su rdah, e s-Mb 'Ammarin D el' Duw an, A M Y fisif northofK afr Ni 'm e h,e e s-M!J. Abdes-S alam in 'Anata. Th e shrine of es -s e g 'Abdes -Salamlie s e ast o f 'Anata i n t he vicinit y oftheruin.Ithas on e ro om enclo sing thet omb, w hich isco vered wi thag reen c loth.Thehe ads tonei s dr essed witha gr eenishlaffeh(the he ad dr ess ofth e p easant).If oundinth e s hrine as trawmat, many oil-l amps, oil.b ottl e s w hich we re mo stlyIM cCown ,op ci i.p.5 0, s eems to kn o w nothing ab out thetombofthis welt Hedescribeson ly th e cav e .2Th ese c aves ne ed notb e al way sc lose t o t he ueli. 3R eported toth ewriter byOmarE ffe ndi el-Barghuj].


C A N A AN: M ohammedanS a int s and Sanctuaries inPalestine45empty,strawbrooms,anearthernoil-jar andacopyofthe Qoran. Outsid e ofthisroom there are several caves,smallandlarge, which donot shar e the s acrednessofthe weli. Tothe northeast we s ee thetombofhi s son, Sl iman, Afig-treegrowsinthe rock adjacent tothe s hrine.Itisr elated bysomethatthefather planted it; according toothers,Godmadeitgrowinthe rock to provethe authenticity ofthe weli.'Ve h ave hitherto dealt onlywiththosecave s who se natureas s uchis apparent. Veryoftenpeopletellusthatb en eath orbeside aw eli th er e i s a hidden cave insideofwhichth e tomb o fth e hol yperson is situated. This feature is met within e s-sebA}.1mad"61 K araki (in Qast al), sittn a el-Hadra( in Nablu s), es -seg e lQatrawani(b etweenBir Z et and 'Atarah) en-n abiS amwil ( Mizpah o fS amuel), ( inQub ebeh),e tc. Sittna e l-.lJaqrft. illustrate s thisclass.Three doors the middle on e bein g themainon e, lead toan elongated roomwhichis spread with carp ets. Th e walls e specially thesouth ern on e,a red ecorated with r ou gh p ainting s Qoranic vers es,a ndhungwithmu sical in s trum e ntsandweapons o fthedervishes.Th e m ibrab i s b eautifull y d ecorated.Ad oorinthe western walll eads toasmallanddarkroom,whichisknownbythenamehuznJa' qub("Jacob's so rrow"), s inceit i s b elieved th atJacobwepthereforth e s upposed death ofhisbelo veds onJoseph.The s el; relatesthatthisro om is built on a cave w hichwasonceopened.Fiftytwo step s u sed tolead downtoit.This c ave is thought tobethe actu al plac e wh ere 'Jacob spent hi s d ays ofmourning.tTh esanctuary is surrounded by beautiful gardens.IItisami stake tocon fusethecaves described abovewiththo s e i nh abited bydjinn,whoappearin different shapes, mo stly durin g th e night, andalway stryto injure th e p asserby. Such cavesare M gh ari t AM Far]; a ndMgharitMardj el-B add (bothin AM Dis).Inthefir st oneth edjinnappe ars ometimesinth e formof a nimals and so metimesinthe shape ofhumanbeings.Atthe s econdmen tioned cav et hed emons as sume the appearance ofacock. Places andc aves regarded asholyby Chri stians a ndJews may ,atth es ametime, be considered bythe Mohammedans tobeth eI .There isnoto mbi nthi sc ave.


46JournalofthePalestine Oriental Soci etyabiding placeofdjinn.Although thi s i s rare,th e followin ge pisode illu strates thepoint.Sliman apea sant of M alga, w as returning oneeveningfrom Jerusalem. Ashewasovert aken by heavyrain,hesought shelter inacavewhichliesn ear Bir el-Balat, andnotfarfromtheconventoftheHoly C ross.'I'hemonksofth is conventaresaidtohave buried their dead her e informerye ars. Nosoonerhadhe s atdownonastone than ah e-goat cameclo se tohim.Thep easant joyfulatthisunexpectedgift, s truckamat chbutcouldseenothing.Assoonasthelightofthematchwentout hesawthegoatagain. Frightened bytherepe ated appearance and disappearance ofthi s animal,herushedout o f thecavewithth e words in thenameoftheGracious MercifulGod ." Thisfreedhim fromthedemon,whichwasfollowinghimintheshapeofthehe-go at. 3.TYPESOFSANCTUARIESWehavenow considered allthe charact eristic e lementso f th ese s anctuaries withthe exception of s tonecircle s, st one he apsa nd rocks,whichmayalsobefound.Wenowpro ceed t o dealwithth e variouscombined features whichmaymakeupa w eli. Attention mustfirstbedrawntoa constant factor affectingth e importance o f thedifferent features ofashrine.Thetwomost important parts of a sanctuary arewithout doubt the maqam andth e tomb;treesand water-courses rank second other features beinggenerallyofminor significance.Ihope,however,inthefollowingpagestomakeit clearthateventothe se unimportantfeature s i s sometim es granted a hi gh degreeof sanctity. Noplacecanb e consideredhol y,i.e .inhabited by aholy person, unlesstwoconditions a refulfill ed:(1.)The perform ance there ofrelig ious acts,suchasoath s,vows,lightinglamps, burning inc ense, etc.;(2. ) the occurrence there of unnatural phenom ena, a s, forexample hearing religiousmusic se eing alightlitb y itself, oraseverepuni shment befallinga trespa sser. The se point s willbe considered ina subsequent chapter.Letusnow s tudythedifferent featureswhichmay constitute a shrine inthewidesen se oftheword Theymaybedividedintonineclasses:I.Sanctuaries consistingofa maqam andatomb,withallor mostofthe other features;n .A maqam butnotomb;


CAN AAN:M ohammedanSa intsan d S anctuariesin P alestine47Ill.A tomb without amaqtun,IV.A cav ewithor without atomb ; V A s implecir cular e nclosure of ston e, wi thout a to mb;VI.A spring oraw ell; VII. Asolitarytreeor ag roupo ftrees;VIII.Ahe ap of s tones;IX.Asimplelarges toneora r ock. ItoVIm ay, orma y n ot becombin edw ith oneor mo re ofth e f ollowing f eature s: atree, wat er, a ruin or acave .1.S anctuarie s with as hrine ( maqam) a nd a t omb. The se ar et he most comple teandh ighly d evelopedfo rms.U sually wefindthemwh enever w e h ave tod o with a nimp ortant,we ll es tablishedandhighl y honoured sa int.Ins uchca ses th e t ombo f theholyp erson w as the primar y partofth esh rine, an dinth e c ourseoftime a nindividu al orvillag e built t he sa nctuary.T hemo re i mportantth e holym an, th eg reaterthe c omplexityof t hebuil ding.Prophets( anbia)enjoyth e largestma qiime.B ut eve n manyofthes imple s yul] h aves hrinesf alling withi n thi sg roup, as, f orexam ple, e s-seb eFrori, es -seg A nb a r ,e tc.S omeo fth emaree laborate stru cture s,as e s-seb Tmar (B et D uqqu), es -seb Hamad (KolOnia ) a nd I rdjal e l' Amfld ( Nablus),Good exa mplesofl argean d comp licated buildi ngsa retho se of en-nabi Mfls a an dAliibn ( E ) lem .1The s hrineof e s-seb I 'm ar 2 th es ono f es -segf3alel). i s s it u a t e d onth e mount ain onwhi ch B et Du qqu isbuilt.T hesanctuary consi sts ofthree room s,a c isterna nd a n o penpl ace to t he no rth oftherooms.The openplac e i ssurroundedb y a m assivewa ll a ndha sa palm-tre e onits eas t s ide.T he tw o w e sternr ooms commun icate withe ach other.Int he s outhern on e t here a ret hetombs s oftheweliandhiswife,while i nthe north erno ne hi ss on es -seb D iihfld i s bur ied, One achs ideofth e d oorw hichl eads fromthi s r oom totheopenpl ace w ese e ato mh, t he eastern one of whi chc oversth e r emains of es -seg Qasi m, th es on of 'Alit he s onof Marar, whil e the western on e b elongs t ot his Marar t h eIN orthofJa fla.2C orruptionof' Omar.3Thetombs were d ecorated with[tinna an d magltri .


48J ournal of til e P alestin eO rientalS ocietyEX.PLA.NA.TiON OFTHEFIGURESIN PLATE 111F ig.1.Plan ofel -Badriyeh .A.=Ou terCo urt B=I nnerCo urtC=B ack C ourt D=SmallG arden E =C emetery F=Sanctuary G=R uaq, s erving a s ad j fimi'Fig. 2 .Planof Irdjil.l el A mud.a=d oor t oo ut e rc ourt b= -d oorto inn er court (J =entran cetot hemaq am d=c istern e=tombof e l Badriyeh f=t ombsofherchil dren g=t ombofherh usband h=pray er ni che i= two olivetrees k=a noak t reeI=e ntran ce to aca ve a=e ntrancet oc ourt b=cist ern c=private tomb s (thoseofth ea ervantsandr elatives ofth e Saint s) d=q ubb eh e=a djami' with a mihrab f=underth e windowis t heop ening toacave where40martyrs a re s aid beburied.Iti sca lled ghar s eydnd AliibnAbi Talib g=th e tombs o fthe /liiig. O n the /lasiyeh ofth em ainent rance ( a) a f ragmentof a pill ar i s bu iit.Fig.3 Apartoft he wa ll of-the encl osure ofe l-Man euri in A wartah.u,


lI [ohammedan Sai ntsand S anctuariesinPal estine49 7; / ) a/ "",LOtt!; "J'1:1, ,r,r.!/"li/ /J7I?H"'!"n;('l/(t4/) .J 1 1 '1 ''I ,Ir ,I4


50 J ournal of th e P alestine Oriental So ci etys onofD ahud.Theeasternroomusedt os ervea s am akiob. (school"room),butits ruinedstateatpresentmakesitu seless.Inthe "two western roomstherewereoil-lamp s,o il-bottles,two longwooden sticks for banners, a potwithsw eet-basil.' a nd aheapofcarobfruits.2Thelast isthe well 's portion ofth ecarobtree, which belongs tohimandgrowsatsome dist ance fro in the maqam. Sinceeverypointinconn ection with m aqa11ls of thi s group ha sia lreadybeen described, wemayp ass ontoth enextcla ss.n. Maqams without atombTheyaresanctuariesbuiltinavill ageandb earing th e name of a d jiimi' 3( a mosque), likedj ami' el-Arb' in ('E sft.wiyeh ), djami Om ar ibn e l-lJattii b4 (Surbahir5),dj ami el-Tlz er 4 (el-Qary eh), etc. Dj ami' el'Uzer liestotheeastoftheFrenchBenedictin ec hurchandconvent.Theshrine consist s ofanopenpla ce, toth es outh ofwhichthereisa rawaqwith two a rchesandaprayer room whichhastwo beautifully decorated miZnabs. T o th e west ofth e op encourtisa s mallroom,inwh ich th e de adare ritually w ashed beforetheyareburied. A springandapalm. t ree a refoundintheopencourtyard.Aroundthetwo ofthe prayer ro omandaroundthatofthe rawaq thereareimpressions of hands,andrepresentations ofpalmbranches,s omeofwhichhavenine, others sevenle aves.Thepeoplearewell awarethattheholymanwhosen amethemosquebearswasnotburiedhere.Theyexplaintheconn ectionof hisnamewiththeplac e bythefactthatduring hi s lif etime hew as very piousandtherefore so honouredthatin e verypla ce whereh e is supposed tohave offeredprayer-andhen ever mi ssed on eo fth e five dailyprayers-a mi briib was e rectedandl atera d jam i' w as built.Thisexplanation, t old mebythe mul.Jtiir (the vill age ch ief) o fI R i{i8,n, o cymon ba silicum,2 Qarrllb c arob.3Thi s,ofco urse,i s no ta nab soluter ule, fort here aremosquesc ontainingI .to mbs,lik e dj ami' el-' Amari ( Der A ban). Probably ac hurchwh ich w asc h anged i nto a m o s que.5 P ronoun ced at t imes als oSurbahil.)


C ANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries inPal estine 51Surb ahir, andbypeopleof /SoM, iscommonlygiveninconnectionwith theOaliph Omaribn el-IJattab andea -sultanIbrahim el-Adhamt.! Man y mosques bearing the name oftheOaliphare called Umari, Thismay a ccountforsome,but ofcourse,it cannot explainallthed jawami '( pl,of djami') ofthiscategory.Inmanycase s itisbelievedthattheholymanlived,taught,or appeared after his death inthis spotandthattherefore amosquewasbuiltinhismemory, A third explan ation wasgivenmebyth e mub(ii'" of An a ta. Hes aidthateverytimeanewmo sque isbuiltitis dedicated tosomesaint,who isnotnecessarilychosenfromamongthemost important.Butthe presentwriterisofthebeliefthatthebasisofsu ch a dedication i s alegendconnectingthemanofGodinquestionwiththelocality. The following storieswillserveas illustrations.Intheroomknownbythenameofhuzn Ya'ql1b and situated inaittn a el-.fJa(Jra (NabIus),Jacobissupposedtohavemournedforthe death ofhisbelov ed son J oseph. El'Uzerc ametoel-Qaryehto adoreAlmightyGod.Hefastened hisa sst oa pillar be side the spring andprayed.Hisdevotionwas perform ed withsuch intensitythatit lasted one hundred years,and he thought itwasonlyafewminutes.Ashe turned to theplace whereheh ad fastenedhisanimalhefoundthat only theskeleton of t he asswasl eft.2 Ea-segel-Qatr awani livedinthevillageofQatrahnorth ofGaza. Accordingtoonever sion of the s toryhelefthisvillage-sincehe couldnotfulfillhisreligiousdutiesthere-andcametothelonelyIIn Sa 'fat,B etl;[an inil. and Inthefirsttw othere is a mo sque, while in t he t hirdw e find o nly a s quarepl ace with a m0riib alargefigtree( notan oak -tree as M cCownsa ys) a nd as mallencl osure (!fuwet'iyeh) inthen orth-w est co rner.Int he taq ah s ituatedinth e w est w all ar e found v arious pits o fbroken p ottery,i n whi ch incen se w asburned. ,Mostofth e peopleg ave methe na me es -sultsnI brahim, not eS'Bcg Ibrahim(McCown).2C f.Q oran, S ura/;II, .2 53fi'. Th e t ext( Sale'stranslation)runs:"And God him ('Uzer o rEzra)to diefor a hundred years, a nd a fterwardsrais edhimto life.An dGodsa id,H ow longh astt hou t arriedh ere? He a nswered, .A. d ay orpartof d ay. G od s aid, Nay, thou h astt arriedh ere an hundred ye ars. Now look on t hyfo oda ndthy drink, th eya renotyet corrupted, and lookon thine a ss:andthisw e h ave d onethatwe mightmakethee .. s ign unto men.And look on thebone s ofthine a ss, howwe raise themand afterward s clothe them with fles h."4


52J ournal o ftheP alestineOr iental Societys potof pahrit H ammudeh,tahi gh hillbetweenBi r Z et and Ata r a h. Here h e livedinpray era ndse lf-mortification.According t o an other v ersion whenhisd ead bodywa s beingc arried f orb urial, hefle wu p off their shoulder s andd escended onthehill,wher e hisshrin e s tand satpresent,sIntheroom leading t othe s o ca lled Stables ofSolomon the c rib of Christ" (srir s aiydna 'Isa)i ss hown.Iti s related th at St.M ary usedtoputherchildhere. BelowtheHolyRocko f the Mosque o f O mar" v isitors a re s hownplaceswher e David,Solomon,Abraham,E lijahandM ohammed are thought toh ave pray ed.Eacho f th eses potsi s holy.Nearsome s hrinesofthefir st group there ha s beenbuiltr ec ently amo sque, whichbearsthenam e oftheholyp erson hon oured n ear by.Butsucha dja mi' servesonlyfor prayer whileallhonour s continuetobegiventotheoldshrin e. E xamples ofthis a re e s-seb Djarr ah andSa 'd uS'id3(both inJerusalem).Hitherto w:e haveonl y de alt wi ths hrinesof t his c lass, w herei t i s ab solutely ce rtain ( according to g eneralbeli efan dto ext ernal appearance)thatn o t omb e xists. Bu tt herei sas ubdivisiono ft his cla ss formingaconn ecting linkbetween t bis an dth ep revious gro up, andcompri sing thos es anctuarieswheren o to mbexis ts a nd w here ther e i s n ott hesl ightest e x ternal sign poi ntingev en tot hep ossibility of a tomb thoughlo caltraditiona sserts tha tthes aintwasb uried there ,e ither beneath thebuildin g orin a c ave w hich w asafte rwards closed.Such sanctuarie sa re el. Qatrawani, e sse b Ahma d e lKaraki ( Qastal), e s-seb Hu sen (B et S urik), e sseb Ab u I small(B et L ikia), e s-s eh 'Abdallah (Qubeb eh), e tc. .., E a-sebAM I sma'tl, whichliesinthemidstofthe v illage, consis ts o ft woroom s. Thefrontone se rvesasa g uest-house (marJ,ajeh), while secondi s th e shrin e ofth e saint.No t ombis anywhere tobe seen. Butiti ss aidthatth e w eli isburiedin a c ave wh ich lies beneath theshrine. I nthemiddleo ft he g uest-housei s the fir e-place(udjaq)wherecoffeeisprepared.Intheout erc ourtyard < IThe shrin ei s s urroundedb y th ere mains o f achu rch.2Ih eard t hese t wo versi onsfrom peop leof 'A tarah, the seco n dse emed to bethe prevailing one. 3 The shrine o f t helatter sel! i s i nr uins.


CANAAN : Mohammedan Saints a nd Sanctuaries inPalestine5 3 a sidreli(lot etree) which fu rnish e s a protect ing s hadow, so t hat the g uestsasse mbleund eri t i n thes ummermonth s. Another s ubdivision isth e gro up towhic h Q ubbetel-Arb 'inI( "the domeofthe F orty )be longs. Eve ry Mohamm edan knows t hat"the F orty" were n otbu ried i nt hissan ctuary;n everthelessa n elo ngate d rectan gular fram e ofstonesinthemid st of t h e floorrunnin g east andwe st,standsfor a to mb.Ill.Atombwitho ut a. b uilding T here is scarcel y avi llage w hich d oes n otp ossessa tl east on es uch w eli. Ins omeplaces as i n Surb ahir an dJ ericho-thist ype is b y fa rt hemo st c ommon. S uch ho lyp laces m ay b ec omposedo f on e or ofawho le setof t ombs. Wh ere s everal to mbsa refou ndsi deb y sid e thepe rson s bu ried g enerally be longt o th esa me holyfa mily."Such casesa re syflh e d-Dja'a brl ( Hebron), h adjI 'bed (St John) I rdjal Sufeh (D el' G haesaneh3 ), esseg Ab fl Y amin (B et Anan), e sSuhad a (the martyrs of Hebron) an d el -Mudjahdin(th e figh tersint heh olywar-of R a ml e h).I n m an y casesthe d escendantsof t hesesai nts arestilll iving. Th es hrineof e s-seg A M Yaminiss urrounded by a nenclosi ng wall.Thetombsof e s seg andofhisson areinth e maqam, while t hegrave s ofhisde scendants areint he open court a roundt he building,enclosedbythewal l. Apomegranate, a p almandafig treebelongto t hesaint.Itissaidthatheisoft en seenflying whilehis band ofmu sicians i s playing According to l ocal b elief heandallhi s descendants werechos en menofG od. W iththeexce ption ofafews uch plac eslikethoseof es -Suhad a an d e l-M udjahdln-c-most r epresentatives o ft hiscl assbel ong to r ecent times.Theyge nera lly comewi thin one o ft hef ollowing categories:1.A li ving se U of a h oly familyd ies. His to mbre ceivesmoreor l e s sthe s ameh onour s as tho se o fh is a ncestors.E xamples a re e s se g Bg et, e s seg ij:i lll an d es-s eg$alel}. oft hef amily ofed-D awa'ri (Sflrbahir). ISi tuatedont he Mount ofOli ves, inthemid st ofthe c emetery.Iti s a squar e buildin g wi thas malldome. A s mallfi g garden isconn ected withit.2Th eir anc estor w as th e renown eds cholar (' Blim) ed -Dj a'bari,3Jnformatio nder ived fr om OmarEffendi ElBargh u!i.


Journal" ofthePalestine Oriental S ooiety .! ,These s yug e d-Dawlt

CANAAN :MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine55.The frightened mana sked:"Whoarey ou, myLord?"The'replywas: "I am M g andamburiedhere,"Earlyinthe morning atombwasbuilt,thecave cleanedandthef amily movedelsewhere .In man y casesalow circular enclosure, J),utpWiyeh, surrounds the tomb.Ev en inhigh structuresitisnevervaulted. Generallyitis c onstructedofsimpl e, unhewn stone s, a s inthefollowingcases: E s.seg inJericho, e s.seg Zughbeh in Iericho, esseh l.Iamdallah in Biddu, e s.seg ImbarakIII Bet Ikaa, e sseg III D el' Ghass aneh.! es. seg e l-Habil!III Del' Gh assaneh. Sometimesthisenclosur e i s built moresolidl y, hewnstonesandmort ar beingused.Th e wallsm ay behighand surround the entire g roup of object s: tomb,trees, mibraband opencourt.Thisopen s pace s urroundingth e tombisoftenpav ed withstone slabs, especiallyin theca se of important w ells likeelTlzer (Fig 2 ,PlateII),el-Mufaddil and a l-Mansurt(allin Awartah).Inth e caseofal -Mansnrl thewall surroundin g th e tombiscon stru cted on three sidesof beautiful small v aults ( Fig.3 ,PlateIll).Inthecas e of s imple enclosures anopeninglike adoorissome time s leftononeside.This door isoftenmadeoftwo large side s tonessetupri ght withan other ontop andisratherlow. Although ar e suppos ed toent er through thisdoor,thi s isseldomdone. Man y B edouin w elis areofthistype E s-seh a nd e z-Zughbeh 2 -both inJericho-are g ood illu stration s ofthe foregoing type.Theformerha s averylow door,whileinth e seconda breach inthelowwallservesthe purpo se. Avi sitor mu st cr eep' ifhewi shes toent er through the dooroftheen closure o f in o rthodoxfashion,"so every o neprefers tojumpoverthewall.Inm ostcas esof a tombwithanen closure itis s aidthatatdiff erent time s thep eople propo sed to erect amaqam,butthe saintII nformationf romO rnar Eff endie lBarg hfrfi. 2 Ka hle, 'PJ,1 911, pp .8 8.NotZu 'behbutZu ghbeh.3C reepingthrough thedo or,a ndthus humiliating on eself i s re gard ed with m ore f avour b y th e Be!!, th anjumpingo verth e wall .


5 6 Jo urnaloftheP alestine Ori ental S ociety himselfrefu sed toha ve oneandpulleddownintheni ght whatw as built during theday,throwing thestonesfarawa y : Thetomb o f e s-Mg D arwis of B et S urik i ss urroundedb ya hi gh enclos ing w all. Ev ery tim e thepe asants o f the v illage trie d tobuildhi m a s uitablet omba ndto p ut a ro of on t hefou r w alls the sa int s howedhi s di ssatisfaction bypullin g d own their w ork nntil th ey w ere obli ged to g iveu pt heir idea .Th esa me is s aid of e l-Man s urt,el-Mufad dil an d oth ers. I n so meca ses w eareshown a t omb, but e xactin vestigation will f ail todisclose any thin g, e vena h eapo f s tone s, whichmi ghtm ark th ee xistenceo fato mb, U nderth ete rebinthtr ee of es seb(f;lOba) irregul arlys catteredston es w ere said to repr esentt he tomb ofth ew eli .ButI co uldn ot d istinguisha nych ar acteri sticofa t omb. The scatt ereds toneswer es hapedl ike ordinary fi elds tones.tI V. A cavewithorwithoutatomb Th ere aret wo t ypes of sacred c aves: tho se with an d t ho s ew ithout atomb.Th e fir st t ype is rare and i t s b est'r epresentative is e s se h es-Sidr i.t A careful de scription o ft his s anctuary maysufficet oexp lain thi s poin t m oreexa ctly.'l'h e welt iss ituatedi n ther uin D el' e s-S idd, s outhof es -seb Abdes-Sal am, onthetopofal ow hill. I n t heru in th ere arem any c aves3hewninthero ck, with stai rsl eading dow n toth em. M any ci sterns, mo stly def ective, ar es catteredh erea nd there.Birez-Zq aq pr ovides w ater forsh epherds.'I' he s ain t' st omb i s situ ated inaratherl arge, n atur alc avewit h alo w roof Th e entran ce i s built of g oodhewn st onesand s urround edb ya squa re oute rc ourt,w hich lie s l ower th an thew esternpa rt.There i sn odo or toclo se thec ave. A t theN.N.E. e x t remityw efin dth e tom ber e cted onanelevated squareplatform witht wo pillarf ragments o n the f ront corners. Onb oth o f them ,as w e ll a s a ronndthet omb, w e fi nd oil-l amps, c andle -stumps, mat ches, bro kenjars, bottl es, e tc. Be sides thi s tombth ere i s n o oth er buildin g.Atpr esent no tree i s co nnected w iththi s s an ctuar y, bu t form erlya t erebinthado rnedthe e mpty s pace.I :Mc Cown ,op.cit.,p.56 .2Acco rding tosomehisfir stn am e isM uhamme dIac cordingto o thers Abdallah .'3'I' he s e ar c u sed at pr esent f or c attle.


CANAAN: lII olll imm edan Saints a ndSanc tuaries i n P alestine 57Otherexampl es ofthistypeare: Al;1mad el-Gh arib ( N.of el-Mdj edil near Nazareth); Salm ftn elFarsi (MountofOlives): whousedt o havehistombin a cave,and e s-sayidi er-R ab ah B y th e caveof Sal mftn el-F ars! ab eautifulq ubbeh1wasbuilt. Fo rmerly anarrow can al (d ahliz) u sed t o lead t othe ca ve.Infrontof t he pretty s hrine s everaltr ees w erep lanted: a cypres s, a pin e, twopom egranatesa ndan o livetree. A. ci stern i sa lso co nnectedwiththepla ce : E s-sayidi er-Rab 'ah2(notR ahba,ass tatedbyMeisterm ann.s norR ahibet as s tatedinBa edekert)whoh as her s anctuary near el-M as 'ad ( the pla ce ofascen sion) andbelowZ awietel-As 'adiyeh, i s honouredb y theMohammedans,Chri stians andJews. The Christian s andJewsdonotreverence here er-R ab'ah, but Pelagia G a ndthe prophetesHulda.?respectively.Tw elve stepsleadfr om the upper roomtothecaveinwhichthetombi ss hown,allhewninthesolid rock. Asmallroomn ear the g raveissaidtobethe place where sheu sed toperformherdailydevotion s.Er-Rab'ah, itis s aid,used tokne el athou sand tim es d aily s aying: I a skf ornorecomp ense, butto s atisfy t heAlmi ghty G od." In t heupp er room there is a c isternwho se wateri s saidto h ave as pecially pl easanttaste. There a re s ome c aves,infront o fwhichtom bsa refoundand boththesetwo f eatures a re intimatel y connected witheach o ther.Iti s said t hatthe weli h as beense en occ asionally walkin g fr om hi s t ombt oth e ca ve.A sillustrations w e ma y cit e e s-sag Ahm ad el l;Iuw es, whichh as alre ady be en de scribed, and e s-seg 'A sfilr8 to t hesouth o f D el' Gh asaaneh.sInthefirstcase allhonoursarep aid tothecave,wher e itissuppos edt hatthe s oul o fthe s aintliv es.IK ahle,PJ,v ol.V I,1910,p 79.Theru ined qubbelt ha s bee n r estored. 2 Th ef ullna me i se r-Rab'ah e l.'Adawiyehel-Ba sriyeho f t hed escend ants of A l Aqil. 3G uide de l a Tel'l"e Sai n ie,p .278. Palii stina uncZSyl'i en,p.94. Sh eissa idt o h ave diedint he ye ar 1 35 A.H. 8 S hewas fo rmerlycalledM ar garit a,a ndd ied457A. C .H ere it issu pposed t hat s he at onedf or h er s ins ( Meistermann).7T h e in habitants o f t heM ountof Oli vesp ronounc eit :ijul dah.8 I o wethi sinformation tothekindne ss of 'Om ar E ff endi e l-Barghfrti.9I nr ea lity th is s hrined oesno t be long to th isbutto t heri rstclass.Iti s s aidthatthesa intu sed t osit inth e c ave during hi s li fetim e.


58JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyThe se condcategory-acavewithoutatomb,and s upposedtobe inhabited bya saint -hasmany representative s in Palestine; The c avesar e either natural orrock-h ewn tombs.Theyaresitu ated on theedgeofavillag e, orout side inthefield s. Weseldomfindthem a monghum an h abitation s. Amongcaveswhichare co nsideredto b e the habitati on of saints are:tel-HadrMountOarm el," es se g AB Qaitun Hebron, es -seg Ghreyib el-:tradr, near, Mghftr et e s-Seg Kufr'Aqab, I rdja.l el-Arb'in Biddu, el-Arb 'ln l\fghfizi B et L ikiil, e s-Mgl'sa.. B et Liki a, IrdjillAbu,+,flgB et Likia., e s-seg Yusif B et Haninfl, e s-seb 'Abdallah MizpahofSamuel. Six3stepsleaddowntoMgharitIrdjal e l-Arb'inofBiddu, Th e caveis small somewhatround,withalowroof. During the wint er monthspartofitisfullofwater.Infront ofthi s cav e twooaks, a nolive a nd a terebinth growonebesidetheother.Intheir shade the 7]atib ( religiousheadofthevillag e) teaches th e children,Notombisanywh ere attached tothis Forty." TheIrdjal AM,+,flg, whos e numb er isunknown, inhabit asmall cav e,s ituatedinaratherlarge grove.5Th e e ntrance to the m gharah i ss o s mallthatnoonecan e nter. Brok en jars, oil bottle s, oil-la mps and burned incen se ar e scatter ed around th e op ening. Th e se s aintsarev ery muchre spected, noone daring to cutoff a tw igf romth eir groves. Th e diff erent namesusedforcaves,irrespective ofwhether t hey b elong tothis group ornot,ar e mgharah,gMr,sqaj, and Z tikj. Th ese differ entex pressionsdonotmeanth es amething.The e x pr ession g har i s usedonlyforcave-likecist erns, whichar es ituatedtJ an s s e n,C Ol d u m e s de s A,"abes,p .3 02,m entionsa lso II c aveca lled l\1 gharet ImmDjdC'.2O urtiss, K ahl e a nd :i\IiilIin en.3 Not e i g h t : A nnual o rAm ericanSc hool o f A rcha eo l o gy IT-Ill,p. ii8 .4 V ery of tenIrdjfil isabbreviateda ndw e hearo nly Dj ar Arb'in. 5 Iti s o ne of th e l argestg roves co nnectedwith w elis.


CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuarie s inPalestine5 9IIIthemaqii m.Theyarealway streateda sth e m ost hol y pl aces andnobody dares to enter. says: ma m inn n abiyn ill a walahu gh ar: "Ever.yprophethasacave a ssignedtohim."Inm any cases(e.g.en-nabi Samwil)thevisibl e tomb foundin th e s hrine i s saidnottob ethetrue on ebut. tosu rmount th e actu al t omb, whi ch isin t he g hat' and cannotbeseennor v isited.J) ikf'st ands m ostly ( forasmall ca ve covered by a larges toneslab lik e es -seh e l-TlmarieastofHizm s,Theotherexpressi onsg enerally denot eordinary caves.Ashas been already obser ved sm all, low vaulted roomsare som etimes called caves ( mgharah). Imetthis pe culiarity in A w a r t a h.In $oba theArb' in Mghazi arerepresent ed b y a sm all shallow hole intheoldma sonary. This wasal so c alledm gJuirah.iHere l ights andincens eareburnt. 2 Ofcour se all honour sa repaidto s uch a cav ejustast oan y s hrine.Itislitup,offering sande ven s heep ma y b ev owed, a pi ous womanwillnever e nteranyofth em while impure ,a ndn oa nimalsare allowedto defiletheholy place b ytheirentrance.3N ot in frequentlythecaveisconn ected withatree;ag rove o r awe llas.inthecas e o f: Naz a reth, in e l-Mdjedilnearin lj.arbata 5in B et Liki a, in Biddn. e s.Mh AhmadGhreyib es -seh M lls a Irdj alAbu IrdjiU el-Arb'in IThefollowing storyillustrates h ow asimpl e c ave m ay ev entu ally com e to receivethehonour s ofa s hrine. The' Mohammed anleperDjum 'ah;v from AM D is, whileint he leper a sylum"Je sus-Hilf" ,Jerusalem, usedtoliveduring t heI 1 Ifikf i s n ot knowni n MuM { e l-MuM{. Itmay b e d erivedfrom 'kahf,where t hefir sta nd sec ondl etters h ave b eeninterchanged,an d !l .pronounced i nstead o f h. 2 Seedes cription a nd plat e inM cCown's ar ticle,P :56. H e d oesnot describe t he p lace a s a mgM/'alt. Wh enco unting th eweli so fthi sv illage, w as no t s hownth eto mb s ituated i nthe v illage ce metery an dw hich i s d edicated t o es .segSl;1adeh a nd es -segah M as'udeh. Thi s p lace is n oth ighlyh onoured.3Thi s rul eis n otkeptso stri ctly a s itus ed t obe Iowethi s in f ormati on t oas tudentofth e En glishCo llege,Jerusalem, w ho com es fr om N azareth. OmarE ffendie l-Barghfiti,6H eard fr om thislep er him self.


60J ournal ofth e Palestin e Ori ental So cietys ummermon ths ina tent outinthelargegardenofthe institution, to g uarditfr om thiev es. While oneThursdayev ening,hewas sayinghi sprayers, hedi stinctly h eardprayers andr eligious mu sic o fder vishes.Djurn ahatoncelefthiste nt andw alkedslo wly t owards thepl ace whence th e madiJ; (relig iouss ong) came acave, i n w hich a gr eenish li ght wa s burning Djum 'a hdared noten ter. Rem ainingout side the cave hewaiteduntilth ese my sterious visito rsha d finis hedth eir pr ayers. A fterwards h e noticed t he s ame e very Thursd ay evenin g(l elatu-d-djum a h).S inceth at tim e h e keptt hecave andit ss urroundingscl ean,s ince ( pious m en) li ved or ga thered ev eryTh ursdayev ening i nthi s cave to p erf orm t heirprayers. Djum'ahwas to o poort o off era light e v er y we ek, a s h es houldh ave d one a ccording t oco mmonbel ief. 2 The fore going st ory illu s trates a lsoth e factthatman yp laces a re held sa credonlyby a f ew pri vate persons Their r enown ha s not ye t spread. \ Vem ustnotov erlook th e mostimpor tants acredca ve o ft he M ohammedans ofP alestine belowtheH oly Rockinth e "Mos que of Om ar," The di fferent partso fthi s c ave, w hich a re hi ghly honour ed b yev eryMosl em, willbede s cribed i n t he sect ion d ealingwit h s acred st ones.EvenChri stians b elieve insomeholyca ves,e .g .t he Milk Grotto"3ofB ethl ehem inwhich, t raditionall eges,some drop sof the m ilk ofSt.Ma ry happened tofallwhil e sh e was s ucklingherChild Th ecurativep owers ofthi sp lacewillb e d escribed later. V .As implestone e nclosure S uchan enc losurema y b ev erysmall,ha ving adi ametre ofnot mor e th an30-40cm ., thou ghs ometimesmuch m ore.Th e c ircular e nclosure < buwe( iy eh or b uwe(ah 4 _sometime sa lsocalled bf;rJ5 .o rIWh en nosp ecials aintca n benom inated, vague exp r ess i o n slike a wli ii dariiwis, a'djii m, e tc.are u sed.2Th e sa cred ness oft his cave h as b een forgottensiuceDjum 'ah l e ftthe i n stitutionl ongag o.3T his gro tto w illbe described l ater. T hec ommone xpr essi on,l uunoaiakba lliih," I( b e g) G odtob e awallar ound y ou "(e .g .ma y Go d p rotectyo u), c omes f rom the s ame r ooth auioata.S ee MU!lit e lMultit, v ol. I,p .4 77. IJoiJ, meansrea lly awatering-trough.


CAN AAN:MohammedanS aints and Sanctu aries inP alestine6 1 f?lreh I)w as ineveryin stance knowntomemad e ofsimple,unhewn stones,set irregularly s ide by side, andwithno attemptats ymmetry. Often a gapi s leftinthecircletoactasado orway.Inthe case of e s-segah Imbarakeh (Kalandia) thefemale saint issaidto gather c leanpiece s ofbroken pottery and arrange themas a leavingasmallgapforthe entrance. Since th e waritisobserved that shedoesnot replace the oldpieceswithnewonesa ss heu sed alwaystodo.Somewhereintheinnerwallofthesecircles there i s usuallya tdqah, inwhichoil-lampsandmatchesareplaced and whereincen se isburnd.InBidduwefindthe western cemeteryonasmallelevation. Atits north-eastern cornerisasmallcrudely built enclo sure in which es-seg' All et-'.ralla12 ishonoured.Nearthi s holy s potgrow anoliveand figtree,andacist ern waslatelydiscover ed there. Allthesebelongtothesaint.Twosidesoftheel evation are .' made ofoldmasonry.Thisplaceisagoodexampleofa sacred enclosurecombinedwithtrees,acisternandruin s.Inth e cas e of essegFredj(B et ij:anina) anold petroleum tin partly coversthe sacred e nclosure,andthus protect s the light from beingblownout.Thefactthat a wlia belongingtothisclassare notkeptcleanandar e notmuchcar ed for,poin ts totheconclu sion that they arenotsohighlyhonouredasothers.Weh ear ofc ases wherevillag es have tried to erect a maqam foroneor other se!] of thisgroup,butwhereth e holymen prevented thecompl etion ofthe workinthe s amewayaswehaveseeninthecaseof esseg Huw es, Someofth e sanctuari es belongingtothisgrouph ave been trans feredtothecategorymentioned underIIbythe erection ofa building inplaceofthestoneenclosure. Mas adjid sittna Aiseh in theneighbourhoodofnabi Mfls a illustrates thispoint,Asimple squ are handsomebuildingwiththe northern sidecompletel y opened, andtheeastandwestsides partly open, stands onthesiteof the oldenclosure,Notomb, cistern nortreeisconnectedwiththisplace.1 flireh meansreallyanenclosureforc attle. TheA.rabi c dic tionaries gi ve neith er tothisword t o themeaningusedinth e te xt,i: e .asa cred e nclosure. .2Not et-Talali asinMcCown,p.59. u The depr essed sp ot"i sth e enclosur e andnotth e grav e ofthe weli. E sseg:I;asanA.bftl'A.lamen of Biddu isn ot m entioned inthelistgivenby McCown .


62J ournalof thePale stine OrientalSo ciety A f ew metres tothenorthof e l-Mansuri(Awartah)oneisshown aver ybadly mad e enclosure said tomarkthetombof Hfi sa', theso nofe l-Mansuri, A l arge wind-proof kerosenelanternis p laced inthece ntre. O f thisandthe other important worthies of Awartahiti ss aid i th a tthe y donotwi sh any building tobe erected o ver th eir to mbs.Iti s in teresting to notethateven Ohristians have similar en cl osures, whi ch they re spectandhonour. Onthel eft sideofthe s tonyroadl e ading fr om B et Dja,la to e l-Hadr,pas sing el-Maral.t a nd go ing t hrough es -Sarafeh, justb efore th elatterisr eached, there i sas mallenclo sure intowhich a pas ser-by may throwbread,:figs orgrapes.Itu sed al ways tobekeptclean.Th e pe asants of B et Dja,la t ell how t hatwhenSt. {j-eorge (e l-Hadr)camefromth enorthtoth e vill ageo l-Hadr(where a church is built forhim)h e w alked withg igantic s trides, o neofwhi ch happened tofallinthisspot.I A fe w e nclosuressacredt o Mohamm edans whichha venoty et b een m ention ed inthetextare: e s-seg Ghreyib2in Ya16, e n-nabi D anial nearel-Hadr, e s-seg Sa Id3in Idna, e s-seg Mrad in Y a16, e s-seg Abu-l-Kfer f in lJirbet el-Kf ereh.! e s-s eg Abd el-Muhsin in Djibiah, En-nab! D anial (al so pronounced D anian) ha s his in a vine yard, situated between Artas andel-H adr, in Maral.t" ed Dj ami',The pr ophet, pas sing this wa y, performed aprayeratthis s pot.S omeo aktrees, towhi ch r agsandhairaref astened, grow n earthee nclosure.Hei ss upposedto a ppear occasionally walking inthev ineyard a nd w earinga green crown.Withhimishi s horse whichh et iestoon e ofthe trees.Formerlyh e alwaysrefu sed toIT hisistheon ly enc losurewhi ch I k now of honour ed b yC hristians.2N ea rt h e e nclo s ure t herei sa g harah (laurel) tr ee, o nw hichnor agsa re fast ened.3T he s ton es oft he e nclosure a re p ainted with A.manwith feve r i ss a i dtob e cu redi fh elie s fo ra whil e in t heen closure. ..' Int he e nclosur e th ere isaheap of s tones(tom b?).A.c aroba nd a n o ak t ree are n ear b y. 5 T hisr uin issu rroundedby t heremai ns ofadeep t rencha nd awall.


Thedj inntakethes hape o fan anim al, an egro,a monsteror abride.C ANAAN :M oh ammed anSa ints an d S a n ct u a ri es i nPalestine6 3have a building ,butl ately h e changedhis mindand,appearingtoHu s e n Mfts a (from Artas), askedhimto build him as hrine .VI.Awatercourse (spring or cistern) W e knowthatnearlya llthes pringsofPale stineare thoughtto b e hauntedb ys pirits .Theses piritsares upposedtob el o ngt o t he c lasso f dem ons.1Butatthesametim ethereare watercourse s definit ely a ssi gned tosome hol y m an.Theirnumberi s much l essthanthatofthos einhabitedb y demon s.Kahle2thinksthat. t wo condition s must befulfilledtomakeas pringhol y 1)thatthe sourceshouldb e more or l ess myst eriou s, adarkc anal, or a large cavit y; and thatthespringplayanimportant role inthe watersuppl y oftheadjacentvillage.Althoughman ys pringsfulfilbothc onditionsthegr eaternumberfulfi l one o nly, whereas many s prings inhabited byd emons satisfythesame two conditions.Forour purposeiti s necessary tostudy especiall y th e differ ences b etween sacred spring sandthosehauntedbydj inn.The following i s a c omparativet able o fthedifferences : Springsi nhabitedb y H ?l y M en Dj inn (d emon s )1. M ay b e situatedinth e neigh-1.Never. bourhood ofa well,. 2.Prayer and religious music m ay 2. N ever. beheardespeciall y onThursda y ev ening. 3.A light with a greeni sh flame 3 .Nev er. maybe o bservedappearinganddis appearing. 4.The watermaybe used for4.Ine xceptional cases. different ailments 5 .Theinhabitin g saintappears5. asareverend s el], (with white, red, or g reen head dres s) ora pi ous s e ljah. 1C anaan ,Hau nt ed Spri ngs an d W ater D emons,JPOS,vo I.I ,p.1 53 etc andAberql aube.2PJ,v oI.VI,p .93f.


64J ournal ofthePalestine OrientalS ociety Djinn (dem ons)6.Onthecontrary the dJitin may e ven injure th e victim .HolyM en6. People falling accidentally into a cistern orwell inhabited by aholymanaregenerally pro tected fromanyinjury, especially iftheycallforth e helpofthe seb 7.Thes aintlik es tohearthename7.Thedemon trembles before ofGodandprayers. these powerfulword s, andis u sually drivenawa y by th em.Hemayinrevenge injure theperson whohasutteredthem. 8 A w ondr ous si gn ma y appear. 8. Never. Although these statementsaretrueofall watercourses whicharedirectly or indirectly connected witha shrine, theyalsoapplyto those which,whilehavingno connectionatallwithsan ctuarie so r tomb s ofthes aints"ar e neverthele ss b elieved tobe inhabited bythe spir it of a hol y p erson.I ,s halldealonl y withthelattercategory. Often such s ourcesof water h ave a treegrowingnearb y, and s ince both maybehol y iti s sometimes difficulttoknowwhichi s th e more important:th e wat ercours e orthetree.El-M atba'ahIisa marshy pool s aidtocur e alls orts ofrh eumatic ailmen ts. Noun clean women( nidjsih)may approach theholy s pot. Onceabarren womenmad e apil grimage tothi s place,hopingto findh elp.Itso happ enedthata tthemom ent of her arrival she wasovertaken byherperiod (itwassalj r asha). B eing pious s hewait ed farfrom el-Matba'ahuntil shebecam epure (tihrat), thentooksom e mudandrubbedherbod y withit. Scarcely a year hadpa ssed b efores he conceived a nd bore .a child. 'Ene s-Sarif ju st a bove 'en e s. Samiyeh (Kol onia) i s anewlydis covered s pringandan ewly found we li. Afewweeks after thedi s s overy o fthes pring,a with a greenturbanappeared ina night visionto Muhammed'Aliandordered himtot ell the inhabitant s ofthevilla gethatthey should notdefil e hi s shrin e, thenewlyIIti ss ituated b etwe e n es -seg Ibrek(fro m whomi t draw s i tspo wer) a nd T ell e s-Samm am. Iow et hisin f ormati on to Omar Effe ndi e l-Barghflji,


C ANAAN: Mohammedan Sai ntsand Sanctuarie s inPale stine65di scovereds pring."Whatis y ourname,my se-1.J?" askedMuh ammed, "Es-Sarif" wa s theanswer. Somew aters deriv e theirpowerfromthefactthattheymix once ayearwiththewat er oftheholyw ell ZamzaminMecca,t ,Atsuch a per iod th e water is curati ve. Well s ofthist ype withaspecial repu tation are: En Imm e d-DaradjinSilo am.sHamm am e s-Sif' 3in.Jerusalem, 4 th e ci stern intheshrine o f e n-NubanlinNablus. Thi s o verflow ofthewaterofZamzamtakesplaceg enerally on thet enthof ll[obar r a m, whichisalsoknownbythenam e 'As ura, andi s thoughttobeth e anniversary ofthe death ofHus en, theson of Fatim eh, Mohammed's daughter. Theconnectionoftheover-..flowingofth e springandthememoryofHus en isnotwithout interest. Accordingtosomethe water ofthisholywellatMeccamixeson thi s daywithall s pringsin Mohammedan countries, thusgiving everyMo slem the opportunity ofdrinkingfromZamzam, The s anctity,aswellasthe curative actionof other waters,is saidt o b e deriv edf rom .v ariousholymen:Job,Jesus,el-Hadr, Sitti Mariam etc.SpringsconnectedwithJobwillbe described lateron.Sinceit is beli evedthatJesuss enttheblindman,whomhe he aled b y earth moistened w ith 5 to 'e n Immel-L ozeh6 'to w ash hi sey esthere,7some Christian women8believethatthis watertJ POS,vol.I,p p.1 53-170. 2 Accor dingto U n s ed -D jalilIl,4 07, :ij alid b in Ma' danth inksthatt his spring getsit s water fromed-Djanneh (paradise),3Als o calle d :ij ammam Asum, f rom'alarah,t he te nthd ayof th em onth M oharram. I hav e tocall attentiontot he wi despread belieft hatm ostoft he l'urkish bathsar e thoughttobe in habited b yd jinn.Th e f ollowingsto ry ma yillustrate th is idea .Th ew ife o f a n eff endi l ost a llh er j ewelsi n t he bath All enq uiries fa iled tofin d th em. At la st aw izard woman (sfl!irell) a ssured he rth at t he in h abitingdjin nh ad t aken h erje wels. S heg ave h er aw r itten t alismana nd or dered t hatforthr ee day se veryday o ne third ofthetali sman sh ould be bur n ed in theb ath,Thisw as d onea nd,b ehold, o nt he t hirdday t hewife o f t he e ffendi f ound h er los t j ewels inthe p lacewh eres hehad left the m.InAber gl aubeIgivea nothersi milars tory. J ohn91If.6Justbe lowBi r A yub. .7Th eG ospel ofSt .Johnrelat esthatC hristsenth im toSiloam.This s pring,!mm e l-Lozeh, isnotfa rfromSiloam, 1 8H eard f rom s everal Arm enian wo menofJerusalem.JPOS,I ,153-170.5


66J ou rnal oft heP alestineO rienta l p as s till the : p ower. tocure inflamed eyes.Th e Mohammed ans of N ablus b elieve that el -Jiaqr tak es abathe very Thursd ayeve ning inth e basinfoundinHamm am ed-D aradjeh. Thisi s th e rea sonthatit i s t hought tobein habited or v is it e d,b y th is holym an. '.I;he sickgo there a tthi st imetot ake a b ath, burnincen sea ndli ght InH ammamSitt! ariam I (near St.Stephen 'sG ate,Jerusalem) b arren women bathe : inthehop e o f becomi ng fruitful,Iti s believedthatSt. Mar y o nce tooka bath inthisplace ;so c andles, o il andflowers are v owed.2Aconnectin g linkb etween waters by d e mo n sand t hose i n h abited by s aints i sf ormedb y case s wher e t hepe ople belie vet hat a goodanda b ads pirit haunt thesamesprin g. Thi ; i s s p ec i a l ch aractelistic ofper iodical spring s, Thus'e n Fauwar3isthought to be inhabited bya "freeman"(m aster) andan' abd, (sl ave born ) : Thefirsti s awhiteperson,th eo ther a negro ,ast he words t hemselves indicat e, Th e f ollowingare the s prings 4 w hich b e grouped inthiscla ss: : s _. En ed-Dj 6; (Ramall ah) inhabited b y a white an dablack s heep, I:' En( Art-a s) inhabited by a s heep, B i r 'Onah ( Bet Djf1la) bySt. Mar y andsometim es an'a bd, 'En el-H adjar (D el' Ghaes aneh) i nhabit ed byessitt a;nd sometimesbya marid. Iha ve neverheardof a spr ingthatw as inhabit ed b y abein g whichm ightat ti ?les beaweli,and .a t o ther t imescha nge intoad jinnas C urtiss wa s toldabout Zerq a, Ma 'in '. I n all probabili ty t his s pringbelongsto I theforegoinggroupandi s suppo sed tob e in habited bytwo spirits-ago od and a b ad on e. Both are s eparate b eings"andoneneTerchang esi ntotheother. .Iti s of ten reportedthat. t h e setwoclas ses ofpowerful a ntagonisticIspirit sarecontinu ally fight ingea choth er.Inthecaseo f 'enFauwar IA cc ording toU ns e d -D jali l, B alqis t hed aughter of k ing Saral;til of Ya'rib tooka b athinth is p lace to r e mov e t h e h airgro wingo nh er l egsandthighs. T hisgo at : hair w as a ninheritance f rom h e r mot her, who w asa d jinni yeh (JPO S).2T his c ustomisd yingo ut.3Se e A berglaube .", They ,hav e b een d escribed i nJPO SI,' l n3.'EnFauwar i sthoughtb ys ometo ,' be ) : inhabitedby a wh ite an d ab lack s heep c, .. .


.}CANAAN:' .Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine 67wearetoldwhenthe 1:J,urr gainsthevictoryheallowsthewatertoHowforthebenefitofthirstymankind. Butitisnotlongbefore the 'a1Jd recoversandresumesthe battle. Assoonasheoverpowers the 1:J,urr heshutsoffthisblessingofGodandthusavengeshimself onthehumanrace.This.antithesisof goodagainstevil, whiteagainstblack, light against darkness, angels against devils, upper against lowerworld, God against Satan isaveryoldideainSemiticreligions,andwecouldnot haveit better reproducedthaninthe present simpleimaginationof a Pale stinian fellab.1 Thefollowingisalistofholyspringswiththenamesofthesaints inhabitingthem,modifiedfrommy article "Haunted Springsand Water Demons,"JPOSI,p.153-170:H ammam ed-DaradjehNablus,2 Hamm am sitUMariam Jerusalem St.Mary, Hamm am e s-Sifa 3Jerusalem Job,4Biren-Nubani 5 NablusmixeswithZamzam, en Imm ed-Daradj Silo am mixeswithZamzam," Bires-Sahar Derel-weliSu'eb,7 Bir Ayub SiloamJob" BirSindjil SindjilJoseph, 'En Qina'Enen,8 :1JPOSI,153-170. Many a woman, together withhernewlybornchild takesabathin the dju r'll o f o nth e seventh dayofherconfin ement,3 Al so calledH. Aiiura. Th e wat er i s saidtomixonc e ayear withthatof Z amzam. 4 There isabasininwhichitis supposedthatJobtookhisbath, andwas cur ed. 5 Th e cistern is f oundinanelongatedroom whose wallsar e l iung with d ervish musi cal in s trum ents andweap ons, a banner andQoranicverses : No tomb i s t o b e s een.Iti s supp osedthatmany aq!ab gatherhereto perform 'their' pray ers.6This s pringusedtobe inhabited byacamel.Ahenwithher chickenstook theplaceofthis djinn after hisdeath.1 .A bergla ube. '8JPOS,1.c. 6*


68J ournal ofthePalestine ', OrientalS ociety 'En el-Hadjar 'En ed-Djakuk En el-Amir 'En Ma sifmBired-Djabbarah inBirImmDjde' 'En el-Qubbeh En e s-Sarqiyeh En e s-S amiyeh'Enes-Sarif EI-Matba'ah En ed-Djoz 'En Rafidiah Bir el-Waraqah 'En er-Rahib 'En KarimBir 'On a En Kibrian En Immel-LozehDerGhass nneh es-sitt Mu'minah }{ eastofMiZpah}{a we li, of Samuel and a wlia, Ramallahanang el, Yfi.lo e s,seg Ahmad ed-Djabbarah, Hizmah $ ulltib,B et Djibrin Kobar es-siit 'Z enab,K obares -siit FaWlmeh, Koloniaes -siii eS-Samiyeh, Koloni a es-seg e s-Sarif Tell e s-Sammam es-seh Ibrek, Kolonia e s-seg Hussn;'Rafidiah e s-segNafi ',2 Jerusalein leads to paradise, sNablusmonk.s KarimtheVirgin Mary, BetDj1Lla the Virgin l\Iary, W.of BetDja.l a St.Gabrianus;belowBir Ayub cures eye troubles. s Mohammedans aswellas Christians believethatthe se saintstrytosavethosewho happen tofallintothewell.Thefollowing story willillustratethis.Achild of 'Esawiyeh happened tofall into a ruined cist ern. Soonafterwards hisparentsgothimout .Theboysaidthattwomen came tohishelp,whilehewasfalling,and carried himsoftlytothebottom. Oneof them wasa reverend oldmanjtheotherwore clothes similar tothoseofthe villager s ofthe surrounding district,andtwooldfa shioned pistols inhisbelt, TheITothi s saint a tree i s alsodedi cated.2 An oil-lamp usedtobe lighted here.3The story of this c isterni s told inU'Il8 ed-DjalU Il, 368. ( Thi ss pring stops itsflowonc ea weekODSund ays,ast he mo nki ss aid to fulfilh is duties onthi s d ay. 5 Curtiss andKahl e givefew exampl es ofholy s prings.6Oth er stories aregivenJPOS,1.c.


CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints andSanctuluies in Palestine6 9o ld peopleofthevillage remembered tha t a der vishofthisdes criptionhadfallenint o the cistern many -years befor e.! Thebeliefinsacredsprings, inhabite d springsandc urative waters canhe traced backtotheOld and New Testame nts. N aaman was cur ed ofhisleprosybywashinghimselfseventimes inthe Jordan. ? Theblindmansentby Jesus toSiloam c ame back after hehad washedhiseyes,withhi s sigh t restored.>Thepool Bethesda cu red everydi sease, "foranangelwentdownata certain seasonintothe pooland troubled thewater:whosoeverthe n first after thetr oubling ofthewat er steppedinwas cured ofwhateverdi s ea s ehehad "! Nameslike 'En Shemesh, "Spring ofth e Sun," 5 etc.pointtothe fact that thesespringswere dedicatedtogods."VII.A solitary tree Idonot toincludeunderthisheadany tree which,tho ugh situated inabsolutesolitude,farfromanyshrineorgrave,belongs neverthelesstoa w eli, whoha s a sanctuary somewhereinthevicinity for e xample, essee. Hamad situat ed inthe ofthevillage Kol onia, hasatr,eeontheoppositemountain to theS.E.ofthe village ontheoldroadleadingto Jerusalem. Another caseis el-Badriyeh. Ihave already m entioned thediffer ent treesbelonging tothisholywoman. ," t. .: < .. 'IIwillno t d es cribe here ioO,n (pl of 'e n) (springs ofretention of uri ne), sin ce th ey a rege nerallynotc onnectedwithan ys hrineorn ame ofa w eli. Th ey ar enotr evered r eligiously. IthinkthatwhatOurtiss say sabout0the st ones which c ureb ackach e,i struero fth ese springs, i, e .thattheirtherap euticus eis ba sedo nth e b elief in a magi cpo wer,th e supernaturalpowe rs ofgood spirits, F or these s pringscf.A berglaubeandJPOS,l.c Minute qu estioning of the pe ople of during my last vi sit re sulted intheirsa yingthat 'e n e l-hasrof .this v illagew asca lled a lso 'e n Mu su, a ndthatth ey h ave seenso metimestwo beautiful young ladi es, sittin gb esideth e waterand c ombing t heirliair.Th ey di sapp eared asso on as theyknewthatth ey w ere s een. Somepeasants r eferred M oses t othato ftheProphet Ifthis is .true th en the s pring bel ongs t oth e c ategory already mentioned ,where good a ndbadspiritshaunton e a nd th esa me s pring. 2 2Kin gs51If.3John'9 John51-S.5J os. 157 .6L.n.Paton,Annualof Amer. School ,vo!.I, pp: 51If.7Kahl e m entions som e ofthe setrees,PJVI, 98 :


70Journal or. ,the Palestine OrientalSocie ty :O ak andt erebinth trees. Zardeh Carob ,Oliv e,sOak ,9 B et Anan e s-Sa'rilwiyeh between Y amiln an d Djinin el' Esawiyeh J;Iaram e sSerif Kolonif,between B etIksa and Biddil Onlythosetreeswillbe described which, although consideredas beingthe habitation of haveneverthele ssa bsolutelyn o connectionwithany-maqdm.Jaussen1s eemstoincludeinthi s group trees whichareconnectedwitha holyspringandaholyr udjmjsuch casesIhave tried toavoidsinceitisverydifficulttosaywhichof these featureswas primarily s acred.'I'herearesev eral casesbel onging tothisgroup,and itisattimesdifficulttoexplainthereasonwhich gavesuch trees their sanctity.Thi s que stion, whichoftenarises ,willbe dealt withbelowin anotherconnection. Among s acredtr ees of. thi s type,whichreceivehonourslikeother w elis, are:2 N ame of saint Lo cation K indoft re e E s.seg BarnDerGhassanehOak, E s-seg 'Abdallah Qatanneh Oak, Es-sel;! Abdallah Sa'fat 4Oliveand,atadistance, celtis, 'I'erbebinth,s Greekoak (Q uer cus .r [ AegilopsL), Es.segAMRi S adjrat AMN ar Sadjrates-Sa 'adeh,. :ijarrftbet el-'Asa rab 6 Zetftnit en-Nabi? EIl.seg Hasan En-nabi AM L emun10IC outumes des A rabes, p. 331.2 Curti ss seemst o haveseenor heard of o nly af ewe xamples. Hedescrib es bri efly on etree inNorthernSyria. '.3Heardfr om 'OmarEffendi el-Barghfrti, c Kahle,PJ, VI,98,99. 5 There is as mallca ve bes ideit,inwhich light s andinc ensea re o ffered. Ithinkth at the tree i s themoreimportantf eature 6 Another e l.'Asarl1:h usedtogr owo nth e west erns lope of th e Moun t ofOliv es.7Se e Canaan,Aberglaube,andKahle,PJVI, 97.8Inits pla c eitis s aidapalmoncegr ew.Whenth eProphetvi sited inhi smiraculousjourney, hesat under this palm; th ep alm w itheredandtheoliv e tree gr ew initsplace.9Around th e oak tree there isa ruin. Th e lampsarepl aced inasmall c ave. Toth e S.S E.of this sacred treethereisa spring n ow b earing thenam e of th e w eli. Formerl y itwasknown b ythenam e en e d-Djoz, 10 Al so mentioned by Kahle, PJ VI; 98 ; A ruin wit h anewl y cistern surrounds thetrees. .


OANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuariea .InPalestine71'Other tree s will be mentioned below. A fejv o bservatious must stillb e made regarding some peculiarities of these trees. 8adjara fAbo.N ar ha sa men strual period (b#II#) eve ry timesheis 'jrritatedby atres passer Aviscous -fluid i s e xcret ed.' Und erS adjaretes S a adeh the se g Haaan el'Arfiri wa s ordained to a q utub ( a pole"in r eligion,' i .e .a leader) by several saint s. Thi s i s ofcour se sufficientcauseformakin g a tree sacred.tItd erivesvi rtuefromthe withwhomit pa me } n and is abl e toh elp th e ne edy wit? thi s. p ower.! a ndes-sul tanIbrahim of /;laM belongto this categor y. Thefir st ha s a terebinth analmondanda q u4eJeb tree. Thestone s scatter ed irregularly und er thesetrees and s upposedto repr esent thetomb"hare noconnectio n witha grave. E s-sultanIbruhim'ss hrineismadeof 3: squar e open e nclo;ure ",:'jth' a taqah, a prayer ni che,as mall and afigtree. I that, th iS so rt o fs an ctuary i s theconnectinglinkbetweenthe shrines under d iscussion a pd the enclos pres. '" I nre viewing criticall y the nam es ofthe we lis b elonging .to -this gr oup, weob serve th at somehave ; as their o wnhol y name thesimple na meo f thetree. Wen ever findany nam e ?f aperson assigned to s uchtree s,Thus, forexample.s Sittn a el-Gharah5( Laurel Lady) i s s ituatedtoth e E : of B et .There. aretw p holy terebinths eac h o fwhichb ear thename e l-waliyeh el-Butm eh (Hol y Terebinth L ady).O nei s north o f B et Nfiba and theoth er inQub ebeh.Itis sa idth at theLaurelLady app eared during the attack ofthe Britiah(1 917) onth e toP ofthe tree, with a: greenish garm ent,a light he ad-shawl andaswordinherh and, which dripped withblood. Every tim e th e English troop s advanc ed shethrew th em back. "ti., .., .." .IT hi s i s t he o nly cas e I ho:ve b een t o o a tree h avingamenstrual fl ow.Forthi s conditi onwi th d emons se e .J POS.I1 53,e tc. I o wet hisin formation to thek indness of'O marE ffendi el-Bar ghfijl.i2Re l ate d by'Oma r Effe ndi el -Barghuji,. 1 :. C urtissmentio nsa nother .su ch ... .Ir J Th efo llowing' h ol ytrees w ere not includ ed i n th ef oregoingli st. s F umigating a s i ck pe rson w ith t hele avesofthistreew ill e ffect a c ure:


72Journa l oftheP al e stine O rie ntal Societ y In B et$afafa a dja mi' was e rectedonthe si teo f theholy Butm eh ,I whos e sacr ed treehadbeenuproo ted by a violent sto rm.Th e ru ins ofthis djami'.a re stillknown as dj ami' el-Butmeh.Thi s s acred tr ee was s upposedtobeinhabited by $ ullab.2 Fastened t omo st o f th ese trees ar e rags o fa llpos siblec olours. Eve n s tones,a s willbemention ed later,a re pl ac ed a t ti mes ont he twi gs. Shouldatreea ndan e nclosurebe f ound, a s i nthe c ase o f e sse h vFredj in B et Hanina, I th ink th et ree isth e m orei mportant.But w hen a t ree a nda s pring r epresent t hes acredp lace it i s m ost difficult t okn ow whicho f them h as priorit y.3 ,IWeg enerallyfind a taqah co nnectedw ith th es e s acred tree s.It may be re presented by ac rack ina nadj oining r ock,a low en closure co veredwithti n orwitha stone s lab,ahollo w i n thet ree it self,or it m ay bea b uilt s tructure.In' thi s t aqah oil-lam ps ar e li ghtedand incenseburned.An ex cellent exa mpleof a buil t ni chebes ide as acred tree i s thatof lJarrflbet el' A s arah ne ar el-':Esawiyeh. J ustb e si de the treea low, n iche h as re cently be en bu ilt.I not reckonthi s onecub icm etrebuilding aq ubbe h,as d oesKa hle, In e s-seb cAbdallah (Sa' fai), a p etroleum tin ser v esas a taqah .;" < Ev enso me C hristiansofP alestine belie ve m ore o r l ess in t he s acredness certaintrees, bu t theydo burnli ghtsorin cense to th em. Am ong of thi st ypea re:f _. ':, 1N ear the Mamilla p oolthe reu se dtobeat ere binth tree.Th eco mmon be lie 'f was t hat ,when itw a sc utd ownorwith ered awa y th e r ul eo fth e Turk s depart. Pal esti ne.Itsohappe nedthatdu rin gt he l a s t yea r ofth e wa rit -d riedup a nd soo n a fterwardsJ erusalemw as tak en byth e Bri tisht roops. Thist reeu s ed tob e kno wn alsobyth e namee l-Bu tmeh,2ABe thlehemitewasall owed totaketh e wo od ofthi s tr eef oru se inan o il p ress ( badd). H e h adto bu ild in itsp lace a djami' w i t h a raw aq andaci stern B ut s i ncehe di d th e worksoba dly itco llaps ed afewy e ars later the s aint living in th e t r ee p unish e dh im veryseverely,and o nebyon ea llhi s f amily di ed Un dere l -Butrn ehthepeop le o fth e villag e u sed to a s s emble f or g ossip and e ntertainm en tof thei r g u es ts, as i na m atJf1fali ( relat e d bytheim am o f B et!?afiifa ) : .3 .In, thecas e of e 8 -Mb J;I us 8n we h a v e atr e e andasp ring d edi cated t o him. I t hinkth at the t ree ist he mo r eimportantfe atur e ,a lthough the saint i s seen a t t imes sitti ng n earfhe s pring.'I'he 'spriugu sedtobecalled cn e d-Djoz. c. ...


CAN AAN: M ohammedan Sai nts and Sanctuari esi n P alestine73Terebinth,O eltis,Butm et el-'Adr a Djifna A. m estree near,St. Elias betwe en Bethleh em andJerusalem Ma r S aba,3 G ethseman e, intheSheph erd's field (B et Sab ur).sPalmtree Oliv e tree s4 Oli ve tree W e alsofind parallels t o.s uch tree s inth e B ible,es peciallyin thec ase of t he Burning Bush ? Thisw as n ot connected with a ny s hrine,being itself holy ,s ince : the fjord spokefro m i t. Th e s ame ma ybesaidtob e th ecase withth e mulberr y tr eesof D avid. Th eir s anctity s howedit self through thesoundofagoinginthet ops of thetre es."7Thi s w as a si gn from Go d.Abraham build sh is fir s t alt ar, andreceive s th e fir st revelation which G odm akes tohim u nder thet erebinth ofMor eh( Gen.126 -7). Th e next a ltarh e built, isund er thet erebinth ofM amre.I nB eer shebahe p lantsat amar isk andcallsonthenam e ofJehov ah (Gen.213 3).Und er anoaktre e t hean gel app earedt oGide on (Jud g.611;24-8.Curt iss). VIII.Heaps of s ton es Whenone s tand s a t s ucha s potiti s acausef orwo ndertolook roundin direction a nd fi nd n othingtosu ggest t he id eaofI 'sanctit y e xcept merehe aps ofstoneswhich,ofcourse differin s i z e andf orm indifferentplace s.Iti s t o ben oted th at ( i)rdj u m e h (pl, of r udjm) may a lsob e inhabit ed b ydj inn.Thus for example,one ofthe s tonytumuliinel-B aq'ah (thePlaino f R ephaim)I Sth ought tobe inhabitedb yahenwith herchicken.IAma n w ho c utitd o wnw aspun ished w ith d eath.2Cf.Oa naan,Ab erglaube,p.6 3.3Aber gl a ube,p .87. Th e o il o f t heset rees is so ld f or a h ighprice F rom th e o li ve sto n es r o s aries aremad e Iti s sai dt hattheang el appe ar ed tot he s hep her dsa t th e s potw here thi s t ree i s growing Somepeasa ntswh otriedo nc e t o b urn th e tr ee n oticed,toth ei r g reat aston is hment ,thatfire h ad n oactiono ni t.T his p rov edtoa ll th e s acredne ss o ft hiso live (re latedt omebyL. B aldensberg er ). G Ex. 32if. 72Sa m, 5


74Journal ofthePalestine Oriental S ocietyS uchheap s of s tonesortumuliareofthefo llowingtype s: 1. q uite is olatedwit h nootherf eature, ex ceptthatattime s a f ew stonesare s etu ptof orm a s mall t aqah f or theoillamp s; 2. t herudjm ,ori ts s ummit on ly, iss urroundedcompletely bya n e nclosureo fs tones; 3.very r arelyt herudjmm ay b e placed i nac ave.As e xamplesof t hese f orms we m ay ci te: 1 e s-se u III $ ataf, e S-BeU S a'd i n w adi H adr e ast o f AbO. D is, e s Mu Abm ad e l-Qsnr,opp. t oed-Dj orah; 2. es Mu Abd e l-MuhsinDj ibiah.! e sse u El-Bird aq2 B et R ima; 3 e s-se u Murdj an3Djorah (ne ar 'E n K arim),Naturallyon e a sks whatther udjmrepresent s, andwhati s it s pur po se,Weoften hear expressionswhi ch indicatethatthere i sa t omb under theru djm. "Weal so knowth at the a ncientP alestinians4us ed t o pilelarge heaps o f s tonesonthetomb s o f. thei r important d ead a nduptothe present da y most f ellal;t tomb s are either. m ar k e db yasma lle nclosure o fs tonesor an e longatedlow s toneh eap. 'Jau ssen S r eports thatt heBedoui ns stillmarkt hepl acesw here s omeo ne h a s beenkilled, be it inw ar ortreacherously, by a h eap o fston e s.Int hec a se of s o meof t he 1 'djume h whichIamn ow d escribing" th is explana tionm ay be t rue,butc ert ainly n ot in e ver y case. A spe cial class o fs tonehe aps mu st s t illbem entionede l-1iu1.9 ah id6 ( pl.of ma shqd ). The sea rere cent he aps st ones p laced irregul ar l y an d a td iff erent p laces.Theword ?naShad' k a y e xpress o neo fthe fo llowing m eanings; '' i "i.Thep lace fr omwhichsom ething is 72 .Si ncea tsuchpl aces the p ilgrim a lways utters firs t of a ll,ashaduann ala i lahan il la a llah, thu s t estifying totheunityofGod ; the p laces m ay b e n amed ?naSnad a fterthi s testimony ( fihiideh).8 'IThe el! appe ars a s an egro w ith as wordi n hi s h and. 2 Inhabited b y 'A djam Onl yt he top ofth e lar ge hilli ssu rrounded bya n e nclos ure.3An egros ai n t 4 Jos.7 26;829. 5 Coutumesdes Arabes P 3 3 6. 'GN ot oft en usedinth e singu lar. '7From ther oot {i hada tobehold ." S Fromth e root s ahida, Sihfideh, togive t es timon y. "/


OA.NAAN: Saints and Sanctuar ies inPal estine 753.Stoneswhicharebelievedtobewitness es bef ore G od ,thatt he personwho erected them v isitedthats anctuary a nd sai daprayer.Itisb elivedthatinthe da y of judgment menm ay a sk anim als pl ants or s tonestote stify forth em : Thusth ese st ones piledupb y thepilgrimwhileutteringa prayer and s ayingthe m a y b ear witne ssIbothtohis pi e ty a ndtohi sv isittotheh oly pl ace.T hey willatthes ame timer emind th e holym an, inwh o se h onour t he ziara h (visit)wasmade t o helpand t o interced e f or th e pil grim.t Even intheOld Test ament weha vea heapofs toness et a s a w itness, asinthestoryofL aban andJacob.3 Travelling f romJ erusalem to Jericho there i sa r oadbranching totheright,afewkilometres after pa ssinge l-Hod.'I 'hisr oad le ads toN ab! Mus a. 'I'he -hillswhereth e shrinei s s eenfo rth e firsttim e, arecoveredwhiththe se stoneheaps.Ever y Moh ammedanw hop asses b y -whetherduringth e festivaloratan y other time -t hrowson e o rmor e stone s onsu ch aheapormakesan ew on e. A s h e d oesso he utter s th e abovementioned Si Mdeh and recit es th e fat ibah. F ew hea ps a relarge, m ost o f t hemc onsiisting ofaf ews tones on ly. T he low ests tonei s thelarge st andthetopon e th es mallest.The ses mall h eaps m ay bemadeupo f 2, 3 ,4orfi ves tones: Generally,on ev ery road l eading toth e sanctuary f rom what ever direction, ?lawa$ib4 ( plof nfl$ b, another n a m e forth ese s tone-heap s ) areer ected. ThusIob serveds uchh eaps onthef ourr oadsl eading toNab :Mfisa, onthreeroadsto el-Hadr (B et Dj ala) and on t woIC f. L uke 19 40 jHeb. 31 1. 2S uch ab elief i s n ot r e c en t. I n e t-tu[ifat u-l-ma rqiyah fjl a&bfir eZ-qudsiyall ( by'A bde l-Madjid Ali) w e r eado n p age6 2 t hatama n,w hil e o n 'ArafRt, took se ven sto nes andsa id: Ohs tones,w itne sst hat Ib elieveand s ay,th er e isn o godbu t Go d, a ndM ohammedis h i sprophet." Th at n ighthe dreamt tha t in thej udgmentd ay he wa strie d and fo undt o b e asi nneran d se nt tohe ll. As h e ap proached t hefirs tgateo fh ello ne o f thestonesb lockedt heent rance All theang els ofthe l ower w orldwe re u nable to r emoveth is ob stacle. The same thi ngh appeneda t eve ryo neof th e s evengat es o fh ell. H e wasinconseq uence b rought b ack to t he h eavenlyj udgewhoall owedhim t o enter heav en sincet he s tones h ad bo rnewitness inhis f avour.3Gen. 31 46 ff 4 No t n a,ib as M cCown h as. m eans !' lot, lu ck"; w hilenasb(pl nawu ,!ib), "s tones set u pasas ign,"c omesfromt hes ame ro otf rom wh ichnusbo r nus ub (pl. aW!ub) idol s" isd erived.Cf. ..


76 : j' Journalofthe PalestiIi eOrientalSocietyleadingto es-seg el-Tlmari ed-Djbe'i,andalso on thetworoadstoHasaner-Ra '1,1 Thiscustomofmakingsmall piles ofstones applies onlyto comparativelyfew sanctuaries. Christians arealso acquainted With. these qanatir (pl,qaniarah,a third name)and they pilestoneswhen reaching es-Sarafeh, on their wayfrom BetDjaJa toel-Hadr,since fromthispointtheycanseeononeside M ar Elias andontheother sidetheconventofSt.George, These s awahid donotcloselyresemblethestonesthatmark the boundaries offields,asMcCown2thinks. Landmarksaregenerally madeoflargestonesplaced separatelyatadistancefromeachother, runningmoreorlessina straight line,usuallybetweenfields.When theyaremadeofstonestheydifferfrom qanatir inusingfar larger andfewerstones. Qanatir mayalso stand forquitedifferentpurposes.Amongthese minor purposes wemaymention:1.Heaps whichare raised inaplacewhereaholymanissupposed tohave rested, asintheneighbourhoodofthe sqif es-sel,!.' Asffir.3 ,.2.Sometimesa traveller after climbingahighmountainrai ses a heapofstonesorthrowsastoneonanexistingheap, sayingat thesametime a prayer asa mark of thanks toGod that hehas overcomea difficulty. Heaps ofthissort aregenerallyknownby thename el-.1l1a!aze1t.4 Atthetopofthe ascent of Fargah near Salfit such maj{tZlit maybeseen. Similar casesare de scribed in Joshua, wherethe Israelites erected stones .atGilgalasamemorial after crossingtheJordanandthusovercomingthedifficultiesoflong wandering."Samuelalso, after subduingthe Philistines, "tookastone andsetitbetweenMizpahandShenandcalled. itEbenezer, saying; Hitherto hath the Lord helpedus,"61Other sanctuari es where suchstoneheap s ares et tip a re:en-nabiLat, c n-n'abi Yaqin, Alibin 'LeIn,el'UZel :, etc. 2Annual ofthe A1 iler. SchoolIIandIll"p.66,3Heardfrom OmurEffendiel-Barghfifi, 4 MafiJ.zehmeansin reality de sert.Hereitd enotes s ucc es s. inovercomin g a dangerous difficulty. 5 Joshua, c h. 4, 6 1Sam,712,


o C ANAAN: 1\Iohammedan S aintsandSanc tuaries i nP al e st in e773.Wh ere pr ominent chief s of. a villag e ora district arekilled he apso f s tonestareraised bypassers-by and prayers a re s aidfor their s ouls. Such q aniitir ar e small er andmuchles s numerousthanth os e n ear as anctuary.InMaqtal el-M a s ai];2onthewayt o B et R ima. w e findsuchheap s. Th e q aniitir ofthisclassaretheconn ecting l ink between prominent per sons andholymen apoint o nwhichI sh all dwelllater. Inc oncluding the treatm ent ofthi s groupImustob serve thatwhile therdjftme ha re regarded a sh oly pl aces a nd thedwelling s ofholy m en, th e s a w iih id qan ii#r and mafa zat don ot enjo y this dignit y. Onthes outhern road leading fr om Q astal to lSobil wefind a larg e heapofston es, builtinacircul ar form.Itisab out 1.50metres highand2metresindiameter.Inthec entre ofthe upperparta perp endicular stoneprojects No tilqah, tree nor cistern isconn ected with it. Thepeoplewhom 1 askedfor explanation saidthataw elihad appear ed (a'har nafsuh)atthisspotwhichb elonged tohim.Inpiet y th e peasants er ected thi s heap.IX.A s ingle larg e s toneoraro ck.\Weha ve onlyf ew repre sentativ es ofthi s c ategory. Withth e ex ceptionofth e H oly Rock, ofthe"Mosque o f O mar, whi ch ishighlyhonoured not alo ne b y theMohammedansofP alestine butbythewhole M oslem world,the other holystone s androcksof P alestine rec eive f ar l ess respe ct andreligiousreverence than th e otherkind so f s hrinesand ma qamat. The sa nctityas signed tothem isinev ery way s light.Ade s cription o ftheHol y Ro ck isofprim e import ance andwillb eg ivenatt heendo f thischapter. Someholyplac es ofthiscategory arethe following: 'Araq el-'Adjami3in B et Idjza. isa natural ro ck, innoway prominent norisit connected withan ymaq iun,tree, cav e, or ci st ern.Inthemiddleofitisasmall artificial depre ssion, inwhi ch, Iwastold offering s areput. .I1Thes e r es emble in s ome respect s t heh eapso f s tonesm ention ed inJos.7 26j8 2 9a nd 2 S am,1 81 7 2 W hen I s awt his p lacein19 21t h e rew erebutf ew h eaps. 3 Ifou ndn o c onnected wi tht his p lace.


7 8Journal ofth e Pale stine OrientalSo cietyIntheneighbourhoodof D el' Gha ssaneh th ere aresomerocks calledNuqq are l.'Adjam.1Theyare situated betweentwohill s, and arer a ss ignedtoel'Adjam. Inpassing,the willrecitethe j atiba!t tothese awlia, just ashewouldat anyothershrine.Novows, offerings, oroathsare made toorbythem. Inthevill age S eg Sa'd(inthe Haur an) thereisastonecalled A yub, onwhichitissaidth at theproph etJobusedtelean duringthedays ofhi s affliction.Thestoneisanancient s telawith hiero glyphics ofthetimeofRamese sn.2 ,O n ,.. t he heightofthemountainel-Martnm ,neartheruinsof Ben i D ar,4 andtothesouthofthevillageBan i N' em, a m aqarn is builtforthesupposed prophet Yaqin. 5 Intheroomw e noticea rockencircl ed withan. ironframe.This. rockshow s theimpr essions oftwofeetandoftwohands.Iti s relatedthatAbraham was ord ered b y G od t o cometothisplace,wher e he c ouldobservethe d estruction ofSod om andGomorrah.Itiscuriou s that although A brahamisknowntobeapr e-Jslamic prophet theimpressions s how th at heperformedhis prayer withtheface turned toMecca. Outsid e thi smaq iunther e is another rock ,showingalsotheim pre ssions oftwofeet.Theyare s aidtobethose ofLot.Thisrock is s urroundedbya Hadjarel' Arflri 6tothe southofSalfitisalargepieceofrock, be side which e s-seg el' Arflri i ss aidtohaverested. Qal'at er-Rif a'i tothew est of D el' Ghasa anehi s supposedtobetheplac e where e r-Rifaius ed torest.InthecemeteryofBab e r-Rahmeh situated alongthewest ern wallof Jerusalem tothesouthofSt.Stephen'sIThen uqqar are c omposed o f s everall arge stone s r aised fromth egr ound. T he Iluffiyeh dariiw is a re a fraid top ass i n t heirn eighbourhood,e speciallydurin g t he n ight .T hen ightb etweenThursdaya ndFriday isth e m ost d angerous ( 'Omar Effe ndi el-Barghuti),The se featur esa retrueofmany ot herhol yp laces. Ac ompleted escription ofthemWill,beg ivenin a nother c hapter. 2 ZDPVXIV,1 47. Ih ave n otB eent hispl ace.3Th e vie w fr om t hish igh moun tain,e specially t oth e e ast, is exc ellent.T hc Dead S eaan d t he m ountainsofMo ab ar e d istinctly s een. T he r uinsa re a t p resent a lso ca lled b irbet nab iYaqi n. 5 Mudj ire d-Dinaaysthe shrine w as calledmasdj ade l-Yaqin,b ecause A bra h amsa id,whenSodomandtheoth erc itieswer e destroyed: Hatja hua-lJ.1aqqulyaqin", Thi s is t he s ure t ruth, ( el-una, e d-djalU p. 35 ). '6 O mar Effendiel -Barghuj],


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsand Sanctuaries inPales tine 79Gate,th ere isabrok en pillar,I .besidethe tombof e s-Mu S addad. Itisbelievedthat byrubbing one'sbackonthi s pillar onewillb e curedofany backache.2El-Hadjar el-Maa si, "theforgottenston e," issupposedtobethe grave ofa Christian who.joinedthe Mohammedan faithjustbefore hi s death.Some inhabitants oftheMohammedan quarter on Mount Zion "3observedonvariousoccasion s alightshiningfromthi s spot. Thisprovedtothemthe sanctity oftheplace.4Alightus edtobeburnedeveryThursdayeveningtothis"forgottenman." 5 In el-Aqs3. Mosquetherearetwopillars,betw een whichitisbe lieved that no bastard childcanpas s.6Thisisoneofth e m any so called"ordealsofGod".7 Insideel-Mas'ad, theChapeloftheAscension(ontheMountofOlives)weareshownonastone theimpressionofthe right footof Jesus.ThisplacebelongstotheMohammedansbutitisalsoheld sacredbytheChristians,who celebrate mas s hereon certain day s. Thesacredstoneis surrounded byabeautifuloctagonalbuilding withavaultedroof.8Christianshonouralsootherstonesandrocks.Ineednotmention Golgotha,andthepillar where Christ wasbound andsc ourged, but willlimitmyselftoadescriptionofthe sacredstonesofSt.George, the"MilkGrotto,"andther ock on which Elijah issupposedto harerested. TheholystoneofSt. < George (el-Hadr between BetDj aJa and thePoolsof Solomon) stillplaysan important role. Thestoryas itisrecordedinthe author's Aberglaube isasfollows.Whilea Greekpriestwasofficiating at theHoly CommunionintheChurchIKahle,I.c.2Iti s tobepresumedthatthi s pillar draw s itscur ative pow er fr omthe se!! nearwhosegraveisisfound.Ii3The quarter isknownas J;lnret en-Nab! n ahitd. 11 4 Iti s inthe cemet ery.1 1 5 Heard fromtheArmenian Victoria, a Itisal so believedthatonlythosewhowille nter ; Paradi se canpassb etween thepillars. 7F or parallels se e Goldziberil,pp.408,409;andC urtiss, I.c .8Inthe AqS R mosqueweareshownqadam seyidna' Isa, thefoot impr ession ofChrist,and .in th e room 'leadingtoth e so-called"Solomon'sStabl es,"sri,' seyUlnaIs a, th e cradl e ofChrist.


80 ofthePal estine Ori entalSoc ietyof M fLr Djiriu s, afewdropsofthe sacred winewerespilled. Th ey penetrated through his and burst thestoneonwhichtheyfell.Thewoundofthe priest never healedandhediedasapuni shment forhis carelessness in handling theBloodofth e Saviour.The s tone received asup ernatural curative powerfromthe s acred wine, which b enefited ever y sick person who happened t o kneelonit.Itsreputation soon spread allover Palestine, and great numbers ofsick flock ed thith er. Even the OzarofRussia heard o fthewonderful virtue s ofthis s toneand sent aman-of-wartoJaffato bring it away.Insolemnprocessionthestoneissaidtohavebeenbr ought t o Jaffa.ButSt.G eorge didnotallowittobe transported further. E very tim e theb oat carrying thisprecious treasure removedsome di stance fr om the shoreel-Hadrbrought it back withhis spear. All re cognized thefoll y of disobe ying thewishes o"r the s aintand s othe s tonewasbr ought ba ck toitspla ce.tTh e white s tonesoftheMilk Grotto areusedby Ohristians and Mo slems of Bethlehem andth e surrounding di strict asamuletsto increa se th eflowof mother's milk.Itissupposedthatafew drops Iof'the Virg in's milkdr oppedo nth o fl oor. Oppo site t o M ar Eli as onthewesternsideotthe carria ge roadthereisad epression in the rock.Itisr elatedthatSt. Elijah s lept inthis place whileesc aping fromhis persecutor s.2Butthemo st importantrockis whichmea sures 17.7><13.5metres andi s situ ated inthemidstofthe"MosqueofOmar."The rough s urfaceof the rock stand s ingr eat contrast t o the beauty and h armony o f thein terior of the most beautiful m osque oftheOrient.Therockisinit selfs acred, a ndis protected f romvisitorsbya r ailing.Its s an ctit y isduetoits c onnectionwithsom any prophets,ISeeHanaue r,Fo lklore o f' th e H oly L and, p 5 2.2 Fro m b e tw e en M ar E lias a nd T antur ap i ece o f r ock w a sc ar r iedto B e t DjaHL Iti ssa i d thatwhileM ar y wa sco ming f romB ethl eh em toJ erusalem carrying h e r child sh e p assedJews t hre s hin g bea nson t he ro ckc asto f T antur. Ch ris t cr iedf or s o me an dshe a sked t hep eopl e t o gi veher ah andful. Th ey r efu se d a nd sa id that t h ey w ere no t b e an sbutonl yst ones. And forthwith t h ey t urne d int os ma ll s t o ne s .Thew orker s a ton cefo llow e dh era nd acc usedhe rof b eing awi tch.Sh e h astenedtoesca pe a nd w hen s he wa s o nth ep ointo f falli ng i nto t heir hands s h'e a sked ar ock tohide he r.Ato nceth es toneopen eda nd she lt e r e dh er.Inva indidherpursuers s earchf or her.Thi ss tone c arries t he n ameof s rir es-S aiydeh.


CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine81especiallyMohammed.WhentheProphetascended to heaventherockwouldhavefollowedhim,w ereitnotthattheangelGabrielhelditdown Ontwooccasions 'the rock spoke,onceto Mohammed and againto'0mar.I shall not describe allthebeliefs connected withthis stone since they canbefound elsewher e. On, aroundandbelowitwefindthefollowing sacred places:I.Ontherockitself:11 The impressions ofthefingersoftheangel Gabriel, whokepttherock f romfollowingth e prophet whilehe ascended to h eaven (western part). 2 Thefoot steps ofIdris (ea st).3 .Thefoot steps ofMoh ammed, twelvein number Theprophetissaidtohavewalk ed overthatpartoftherock.The stone yieldedandsoth e impre ssions r emained.n.B elow therock:4.Before entering th e cav e belowthe SacredRock oneisshown the "ton gue oftherock. "Iti ss aidthatinthenight visit( lelatu-l-M i' radj )ofth e prophet he salutedtherock : as-sal(21nu' a l e ik i y a $a1.Jrati-l-lah( "peace bewithyou,0Rock o f G od"), anditansw eredatonce:labbeik ua 'al eik as-s alam ya rasid. a llah ("at your se rvice,andpeace bewithyou,0Apostl e of G od"). 5 .Fifteens teps lead tothe c avebelow th e$a1.Jrah. Totherightofitw ehavethenich e ofkingSolomon 6. Still further totherighttheplac e whereMohamm ed prayed; sincehew as tallandtherooflow,hewouldhave struck hishead ,but7.Therockgav e w ay inthatplace,andweareshownta 'djit B$$a1.Jrah (the impression ofhishead).8.The praying place ofal-Hadr ,atan elevated point .9 .' Ma s nad Djubrail isth e place wherethe angel waited until th e prophet finishedhisprayer. 10. Mil)r ab Ibruhim el -Halil andtotheleftofthestaircase. 11. Mil)r ab Dahlid 12.Therock ,i s p erforated inthe middleanditis saidthattheprophet ascended directly throughittoheaven.IK ahle,PJVI, 93, m entions o nly20pla ces( under19h eads ). 6


82Journal ofth e Palestin e Ori ental So ciety1 3.Justbe lowt hecentreofthecaveis believed tob e theBire l-Arwah, whichis covered witha marble plate .Theso uls come tog ethertwic e aweekinthe' c i st e rnandpe rformtheirprayers.IlLDirectlyaround thesa cred Rock: 14 .Theimpression ofthefooto ftheprophet, whichis sho wn onaseparatest one, placed on s mall pillar s t o th e S.W c orner. 1 5.Thehairsfromthebeardofthe proph eta rekeptin a s ilver c asejustaboveNo 14 .116.Th ebannersofth e proph etandofOmarare keptIIIab ox, whi ch isnearNo.15 1 7.Two niches c onnected withHamz eh,18 A m ib rtib inthenortherns ideofth e wh ere some o fthe prophets u sed topray( mihrab e l Anbia). "IV. At a distance frome s -Sahrah: 20.B ab ed -Djanneh(the n orth e rndoor j.! 21.El-Balatahes-S6dah4(whichwasr emoved b y Dj amal P asa) isa lso knownbythename of Balatit ed-Djann eh It i ss aid th at Mohammed drovenin eteeng oldennails into thisst one 'Fromtimeto timeGodwasto "send anan gel torem ove a nail, and whenallhave been removed thelastda y willb ea thand. Onedaythedevil succeeded inremoving s omeofthem.While hewastakingthemouth e was driven a way QY the a ngelGabrielwhof oundt haton lythreeandaha lf nails remain ed. 22.Neart h es out h erndoo r we s ee mihrabAbiHanifatu-n-N u 'man. > 23 .Inones ide oftheeasterndoor w e find a bearing the name of Hiluet 'All 5 ( the secl uded place ofprayerof 'All ) .Inel-mu riid li z zairw ad-dalil wefindanenumerationo f these places A sp ecia lprayerfo r ev e ryp lace is g iven,andt henumb erITh eya re s hownonthe27thof Ram a q. lm whi ch i s th oughtt o belelatll-l-Qadr. 2Itissaidth at th eProphetM ohammedprayed h ere withot her p rophet s in telat u -[Mi' rtid j. ,3T hefour door s ofthem osque ar e th e w estern( BabelGharb,o r B ab en Nis a), thenorthern( Bab ed-Djanneh), the e astern(B ab D dhfid, orB db es -Sinsl eh)andthes o u thern ( Bsb el-Qibl eh). Uns ed-Djalil : giv es to th e eastern door t he name B abIsrafll.4 Underit i ssaidtobethe tomb ofSo lom on 5 Itis n otregarded asso.importantasth e others.


CANAAN: MohammedanSaints and Sanctuaries i nPa lestin e83of k neelin gs tobep erformed isi ndicate d. Mudji r ed -Din1mention s\onl y N os. 1,4,11 14,21,andth e cave (al-glIl11).2Al-im am AbO. Bakrbin e l -' Arabi3 pretends t o have s eenther ock floating inth ea ir, withoutany s upport A modern b elief whichha sits parallel ina l-uns ed -djali P is thatfrom underthisrockfours treamsflow ,stothesou th H ammam es -B ifa, totheeas tS iloam (en s ittiMariam), toth enorth e n Hadjdjia nd en e l Qasleh,andt o th e w estH ammames Sultan. v B eforec losing t hischapterIma y fur ther menti onAbue d Dhur a rock si tuated on t he left sid e ofthecarriag e ro ad from.Ierusalem to .Iericho ,a fterp assing e l-Hod, i This rock ha s a widespread r eputation forthe c ureof backache .After apatienth asrubbed hi sback again sttherock,h e p lac esa stone onit When l as tI sa w this fatherofb acks" hewas l oad e dwith alargeh eap of stone s. H e isnotassign ed a t p resenttoanywe li,andI canno t exp lain its wide spreadtherapeuticu se,exceptbyass umingth at i tm u st have b een once connected insomewaywitha h olymano r o bject of wor ship .8Idonotth ink thatCurtiss isrightin sayingthatsu ch s tonesa ct by theirown m agic pow er. N eitherthecolour north e s ubstance of whichourl ast e xampleiscompo sed differinan y way fr om th e rock s inthenei ghbourh ood astoattract spe ciala ttention.9 W enot ea lsointhis connectionthatthi s ide a of honouring ston es isnot ac haracteristico fthepresentinhabitants ofPalestine, bu t wa s w ell kn own inth e an cientOrient .InGen.1 818ff w e r ead:IEluns ed -djaliltitiil-i{J el -ql,ds wa l-{Jalil, p .3 71ff,2Ina n appealbytheSupreme M os l emCo uncil of P alestine, whi ch contains asho rt g uide to t heTempl eArea o nl y N os. 5 8,10, 11 a re me ntioned .3R ef erred to b y M u djir ed -Din, p .3 71. Mudjir, p. 205. JPOSI ,153-170.6Mudjire d Dinsay s th ata llwat ert hat i sdrunkco mesfr om und er t h e Everybody whodr inks w ate r atni ght tim e s ay: 0wa ter ofth e H olyC ityyouar es a l uted"(p ,206).7C alledal so t he "Spring o f th e Ap ostles"Itis probab ly the Spr i ng o fth e Sun, m entioned i nJos.1 57. .8Iti sc urious -thatinthecont inuation o f Wad i el-Hoda nd n otfarfrom thisro ck wehav e I'raqe s.Sams andMgheiyr e s-Sams which correspond toth e Bib li ca l nam e of en ha-semes.9Thisrockisnotmention ed illthe g uidebook s. N o r eligious honours are paidtoit .


84Journal ofthePale stine O riental Soci ety J acobroseupearlyinthem orning,andtookthe stone thathehadputfo r hi s pillow ,ands etitupforapill ar,a ndpoured oil up on it .Andhe c alledthename ofthep lace Beth-el ".IInIs.5 76w ereada bout"thes mooth ston es ofthe stream," towhichth e I sra elite shad" poureda drink offer ing"and" offeredameatoff ering."2Before leavi ng this section ofour subject wemayca llattentionto thos erares acredplacesthata renotcharacteriz ed b y anyofth e a f orem entioned feat ures ,i.e .tho sethate xhibitnotomb, maqam tree, cave ,e nc l osurenorrock.Iti shardly po ssible tobeli evethats uch dirtyandunasumin g places h avee verattracted th eattention ofthepeasants. Wefind genera lly noc lue toexp l ain w hy th ey h ave be en a ssigned /to a we li Amon g ofthi snatureI may mention: E s-se):} Salm an (Bet Surik), a s mall c upboard likehollowinthe w allo fagarden .Thepomegranatetreesnearbydonot belong to th e w eli. Inthi s opening Isawoil -lamps E l -'Aujami ('Awartah), anopen place having o ntwo s idesthe remain s oftwoo ldands trong l ybuiltwa lls. Notomb,ci sternnortree belong s tothe w ell Inthe western wallthereisata qoh,wh ere oilisburnedandincen se off ered EI-'Adjami ( a secondsaintofthes amenamein a rui ned building with n o rem ains orsi gns ofa ort omb. Th e inh abitantso fthevillage saythattheplace u sed tobethehou seo fap ea sant.Itseem sthatar uini s connect ed withmo ste xamplesofthi s cl ass.Thusth e place bo ughtbyth e Ru ssians i n 'Anata s hows a r u in o f a building withsome pillar s, pr obablyther emainsofa church.Thefellali inofthi s villa ge belie ve thatiti s haunted b y $UlWI, butn o bodykn ows who t heyare.Nota ll of these p lace sarewe ll c a r edfor. Theyareoft endirtyandunattended. Thistles a ndotherweedsflouri sh O ld tin s, stonesandrubbi sh fillthem. T hiswas e speciallytrueofthetwosa cred places o f'Awartah, al so of B an a t e s -se):} 3andofel'Ilmari ( bothinJ ericho) Ofthelastt wo 4 theform ers howsan outline ofIS ee al soC urtiss,I.c. 2 S.Bev an, inBasting's Dictionary o fth e BibleIH,l aB\.3Somec allt h e m Ba nat esseg S abbah Th ey w erethreea ndw ere h onoured intw o pl acesi nJ ericho.Whentheirha bitationswer eruined they l eftJerichoa ndwentto l;I asban. Th ey us edto a ppearinth e form o fB edouin wom en .


CANAAN:M ohammedan Sain ts a nd S anctua ries i n Pa l estine85asmall s qua r eb uildingI ,w hichwa s ve ry po orly const ructed.Nearth e s econd2there i s a ci stern.B.R ITESANDPRACTISESInourstudyofthedifferentformsandcategories ofMoham medan s hrinesi nPalestine weh ave laid thefoundationf or our further inv e stigati ons .W ithoutathoroughknowledgeoftheform er the s tudy o fth elatterwillbedifficultandincompl ete I intend in thepre sent chapt er tot ake upth e q ue stion: Whatis doneinthe ho ly places? Actsconnectedwith a shrine ma y bep erfo rmed inth e maqam itse lf, o ut s ideo fit oratadi stance from t hesa nctuary.T hey compr ise si mple ac ts aswe ll ascomp licate d o nes.Th efo llowing cla ssificat ioni ncludes the mo st importantacts pe rf o rmed ina h oly place arranged ac cording to their degreeofcomp lexity:1.R eligio u s acts 1. U tteranceof s impleprotectivew ordsn.Rep etition of prayersIll.Re verence IV. R eligious s erviceasin a mosque V Theb arakeli2 .P la cing privat e prop erty und er thepr otecti on oftheweli 3 Tyingof rag s 4 Healing 5 Ma king oat hs 6 .Payingvows 7 Ce leb ration offeasts, mawasim 8.Processions. Some l e s s i mportanta ctswill be m entioned u ndertheabove h eadings.IIfoundtinoil -lamp s intheso called shrine ; 2 A dj fimi' issaidtohaveoncebeen situated h ere, b earin g th e nameof Omar.


86Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental Society1.R ELIGIOUSACTSI.Utteranceofsimple protective words Nopiouspeasantever approaches or enters a maqiim without firsta sking thep ermission ofthe weli Thegeneralexpr ession isda stftr1 (yfis idnii 2' Abd e s-Saliim 3 ),"with yourpermi ssion(0o ur lord A ... ). "Iti sa commonArabic-especially Mohammedan n ever to e ntera harem without a sking permis sion toent er, ormore correctly notifyin g the barim 4(women)thatamaniscoming. 5 qabl mii tudljul, "getp ermission beforeyouenter,"u sed to be a rule enforcedon e verymal es ervant. 6 Iti s customary touse th e wordd astiiraloneorcombinedwith bacJ,flr, aswella s with different a ppellativesofG od.7Evenwhen s omebodyintends to c ontradictor criti cize the s tatementsof another hebegin s withdastftrS( el-mas 'alih m iB h ik],"with y ourpermi ssion(thati s notth e q uestion)." Much moresi gnificant and therefore morefr equent is this custom when a person a pproachestheabod e ofsome supernatural being, a demon, a spirit,01'a s aint...Nobod y usedto appr oach an,Thi s i saPe rsianw ordco ming f rom dast...:;.........> rule, o rder." a nd U 1C"), owne r "(c f. MuM?I'lMuM? I 6 50) I'hedir ectmea ning o f permission"do es notocc urin li t erary Ar abic, bu t inth eco mmonl anguag e i t i ss o und erstood.2 Sid i me ans" myma ster,my lord." InPal estinianArabic i ta lsomean s "m y g randfather"( djiddi) .3 'Abd es -Salam e l-Asmar ca mefromM orocco t oPalestine, a ndlivedinth e v ill ageo f :ij:irb et Almit,now a ruin. Owin g to aco nflictb etween th ego vernment a ndth einhabitants ofthi s villa ge, th e f ormer d e stroy edt hehou ses ofth e r ebels.'Abdes-Sal ftm went to 'Anata. boughtth es iteandliv ed there.Hi s d esc endant s a re t hep ea sant s ofthisvilla ge. The sel! h ad six c hildren,on e ofwhom Q asim d ied without l eaving c hildren.Th eo therfiv e w ere cAlawi ,Ibrflhim .' Ali A b d a llflhand '.ibd e l-Latif,'Al awi b egot H amdfln,father ofM ohammed, fath er o f A!,lmad whoi s stilllivin g. Tothis I o wethis story andth e chron ology. Sel! 'Abd e s-Salam b elonged toth e ord er ofth e Rifil'i 4J.lar im meansalso "wif e," llar imi. "mywif e"( aswell as" mywiv es"). M any use elti, whichr eally st ands for myf amily," ill th e sameway. Evenwh en aman enter ed hisown house, h e us ed tonotifyhi s entran ce withou t fail,a s theremightb e wom en guests.6This customprevails mor e inci ties thaninth e villa ges. Th e inhabitantso f Hebron, N ablus andGazaus ed tobev ery s tri c t. 1Yii saitiir," 0Conc ea l er;" ya 0Keeper;" y aamin 0Faithful, etc.STh e ab ove-mentioned l;aq,ur comesfrom liaqif,ara a ndmeans be ready. b e o nyourguard. Wh en ro cks ar e blast ed thisw ord i s alsous ed.

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CA NAAN: M ohammedan Saint s an dS anctuariesinP a l estine8 7 'i nhabited c ave,s pring,or tree, o rto drawwaterfrom s ucha spring without as kingp ermission.!Theirritateddjin n .mayotherwise injure th epe rson. F orthes amer eason one should ne ver p ut o u t burning co alswith water without adirecta nd l oudr equest for ; permi ssion:2dastur ba(!?lrya 8 ukkan e n nar;3 "with yourpermis sion,take c are, i nhabitantsofth e fir e "Inoth erpartsthee xpressioni s: y a ahl e l a r (l ibnafil' ard ,"0, inh abitants o ftheea rth,w ea reund er y o urprotection." Cem eteri esa reth e abidin gplaces ofth es ouls o fth ed ead a nd t heywer e f ormerlyn eve r e nteredwi thoutas kingp ermission.! So a lsoh oly pl acesa re o nly a pproached o r entered a fterdastur .5This ac t no tonly res pect fo rth ew eli,buta lsor everence.Int heca se ofdj innre spectandfear are th e r easons f or a skingp er mISSlOn. Through s ucha beha viouro ne both gai ns fa vour a nd t hehe lp ofthem en of G od,andav oids th e d anger which m ay b efall him fromth ee vil s pirits N oto nlyares uchpr ec aution staken in appro achin ga ma qam, buta lsowh enev er th e n ameofa nimportantsainti s m enti oned; oneisafraidto t roubleawel i G Th e foll owing example willillu strate this c ustom.Wh en I as ked a p easanto f An i H a a bout eS-seh Abd e s S al a m, h e t old m eas toryto c onvincem e o f th e importanceandp owero fthi s se h H eb egan:m arrah ? 'i kib w alad al a qa ureSselJ'..dbd es S a liim-dastftr y a sidna 'Aud es -So liim ..," Once a b oy rodeO Ilth e t ombof A b d...,withy our permi ssion 0ourl ord c A i !A berglaub e,p SIf.2 A c u stom w id espread i nPalesti ne an d p rovingthatd em onsar es upposed to a bidei nfi r e .F orst ill ot h e r p roofs see A berglaube p. 11.3An otherse ntence i s dastill' [larJul'itfarraqu la t i{ ltirq fi with yourp er m ission, tak e ca re,di sperse, el seyo uwillh eburned." 4 Thi sc u stom i s n ow d yingo ut. 5 TheKurdssayatsuc ho c c asions: qudd usr ablnma io a rabb e l-mala' i kal: wa r-rii[l, H o l ya ndpraisetoour l ord th el ordo ftheange lsand t hespirit" ( h ear d f rom1\11'.S t.H.St ephan),6Saints a re a lways a t workpraying orhelping. oth ers; therefore th eys hould ne verb etroubled A sking p e rmission t oc alluponth emass urestheirc onsent .7No so onerw ast heb oyo n t hetom b, th anitbe gan t o ri seandris e, whil e thece iling o fth e m aqam g rewhighera ndhi gher. Th e frightened boy .promised th e ile!! a pr e s ent ifh ebroughthimdown,andaton ce the tomb began tod es cend untilitw as d own a gain.Trembling th e b oygotdownandhastenedtofulfill hisprom i se( relatedb yMohammedo f Aniltit) .

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88Journalo f theP alestine Ori entalSoc ietyAswehave s eeninthis e xamplethenam eo fth esa inti s added tothewordd astftr.Sometim es inst eado fthen ame it self th ee xpression"0' fri e ndofGod"is placed afterd asiur : das tur y a weliy all ah V eryrarelyda stftralo ne isused.Inth e case of nem.M flsa Ih eardfromawomanofJerusalem the following e xpression:dastftr yabn Im ran 1i lli na rtth min bdjaruh, "d asto.r, 0 s ono f" Imr a n ,who se fir ec omes fr om his s tones ." !On e nteringn ebi das tftr y a nebi 3y a ra 'i en -niiqah," dastur,0Prophet os hepherdofth es he-camel ," 4 i s u sed. With All ibn Al e m,da st f a ya All: i bn Alem5y a ladjim dast ur,0 A.ibn A .ot houwhobridJ est the s eawitha h air"6i s he ard. This c ustomi s no to nlyfound a mong theM ohammedans,butt he O h r istiansalsouseit.St. George e njoys ag reat r eputationm P alestine anditi s e specially in c onnectionwithhimthatdastaro r es salam 'a leh i s u sed byth e Chri stians. Onrare o ccasions on e who e ntersthe e nclosureofashrine ( the ruaq orarc ade infrontofther ealm aqam)an d s ays da st u r m ay r eceive fromp ersons sitting there th ea nswe rdas tftrakm a 'ak ,"yo u hav ey our o wnperm ission,"i.e ., yo uc an not e nterth es hrine,Su ch a nan swer isgivenwhen women a reinthe sa nctuary a ndth epresence of a mani s not a llowed.Thi ssa me expression mea ns j ust theoppo site,"yo umayen ter," wheniti s s aid to a m anas kingper mis sion to e nterahou se. B eside th e a sking permi ssion ,. w e m eet co ntinuallyw ithc ase s wher e thewe liisinvoked,in e verypha se o f d aily lif e.N op easantIAcco rding to theK oran.2The s tonesar ound N ebi l\1 usa a rebl ack and co ntain so me b itumen,s ot heyburn wh enp ut o n a fir e .3N ebi $ ale h asse veralmaq ams .Th e a boveexp ressioni s u sedby t hep eop l e o fth ev illage o f Ne bi $ iil e. Th es anctuaryi ss ituated o nth e t opo f amo untain a nd e ncircles h is to mb. Un der t he k itchen the r e i sa n O livepress( badd)w h e r e th es oulofth eprophet's se rvant dwell s. 4 S ee th eKoran,S urehVII,fo r t hestory o ft he s he -c a m e l se nt byGo d t o th e t ribe o f ,!,amud His s anctuaryi s situa tedo nth e s ea-shore n ortho f J afl'a H eiss aid to b e th e d esce ndan to f'Om ar ibn e l-:I;aHiib. Int henei ghb ourh oodo f t he m aqam w esee the ruins o f C ommontraditi on r el at es th at it s inh abitantss inned profus ely,s o t hatthe ho lyma n p unished th embyth rowing a s h e rdfr om a brokenjar(q arqum i briq) o nth e villa ge, 'thus d estroying it ( heard f rom O S ..Barguti) 6Itis b elievedthatass oon a sthi s h air br eaks th es ea willfl ood th e c ountry.

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CANAAN:M ohammedanS aints and Sanctuari es inP al estine 8 9willb egina nywork without askingthehelpoftheAlmightyo rthatofas aint.Theu sua lphrasesare:b ism all ah, i n th e n ameo f God ;"bis m e l'.Arjra, "inthenam e oftheVirgin;" y a n ab'iy a lldh, "0 prophet of G od;" e l-AJJ4ar, "0gr een Jjaq.r ;"y a n abi R ubin, "0 prophetR. ,"e tc .Themo st comm onexpression amo ng theMoh ammedans i sthefir st one Nom ea l i staken, workb eg un foodh andl ed, flourkne aded, wheatme as ur ed,e tc., without th esay ing o fthi ss hortp rayer.Iti sbe lievedthatthedjinnwillt ake p ossession of e verythingup on whi chthe name ofGodh asnotb eenuttered.\Accordin gtoe t-Tarmadtth eProphetordered: irja a ka la falyarjkur a llah, i 'when o neof y oueats hemu st m ention ( remember) G od."2Such aprec aution w ill notonl y assure abl essingbutwill a lsob anisha lldem ons, whicharea lw aysready tohurthum an b eings. When e ver a p erson p asses a s hrine, a ndeveni f h e is s ome di stance fromit ,a ndm eets with a difficulty orinc onvenience, he b egs thea ssist ance o fthatsa int, biynlja1t 3o r b istadjir f'ih "h e ur ges himb y hi s honour ." Usu allythen earest we li i sca lledup on f or h elp. M anyprefer th eir l ocal one s, who se power th ey h ave t ested.Allb elieve inth eProphetsAbraham (J2:alil a llah4 ), Mo ses (K alim a llah D avid( N a biyall ah6),Mohamm ed(Rasul a llah7)a nd F es us, '1sft (R ul) a llah8 ).Theu suale xpressions a re: da ljil9 'aWeyd1' asul a llah," 1impl ore you ,0a postleo f G od;" a natanib a l eki1 o' ya sitti y a B adriyeh,"I am y o u rn ei ghbour, \\0m y l a dy ,0 Badriyeh."\ L E insler,Mo saik,p 2fr ;A berqlaube,p 11. 2E s.s eb 'Abde lMadji d 'AIi ,atl-Marif Jyalle l-Qud,qiyah, etc ,p .4,3Th e 11 i s to bep ronounced. :ij alil ="friend," t he su rnameo fAbraham s K alim=Interlocutor,t he s urname o fM oses.6N abiy=Prophet, th es urname o fD avid.7Rasfil=Apo stle, th e s urnameofMoh ammed .8 =Spir it th es urname o fChrist: 'I'hi s na me i s b asedo nS fireh XXI, w here w ere ad: Andr emember h er( i,e th eVirgin Mary) w ho .preserved h er virginity, un d i ntowh om w ebreathedo fours pirit." 9D aa U alek, daaildallil 'a r4ak an d d allilak a re e xpressions u sed wh en one be seechesa notherf or help.10 'f'u nttb is tentr ope, ten t p eg;" { anibi, "myn eighbourw hose ten tropes a ren earmine" el-MuM{ Il,1 297;JPOSIl, 4 3); {an ib 'ate k, I bes eech y ou t oacceptm e asyourn eighbour( andthusto g ivem eYO)lr h elp)." \ \ A m an i s obliged a c cording toArabicrules toh elp,protectjmdsa feguard hi sneighbour;ed-dj ar lad -djar u -las djar, aneighbouris ( responsible) fo rhis n eighbour,e ven i fheactswr onglytowardh im." '

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90J ourn alo f t heP alestineO riental Soc ietyOft en thesimpleinvo cation y a su ltan Ib rahim ( i-Vi i bni)," 0s ultanlb. (c ure my so n); y a Ab ft lanbia,"0father of t he Proph ets(i,e A braham)"areu sed Ev ery b elieves firml y th at th e sa int willre spondat s m c e toa ca llf or help.Inth e L ebanon Ih ave h eardth e f ollowingex pressionus ed b ya mul eteer,Iw hose an imal ha dfallend own und er i ts l oad: ya ma rElyas ilokn us s uli wala "0S t .Elias,y ouwill g etth e h alf o f i t-ifo nlyi t i s n ot inj ured."3I shallcit eso me case swher e th eir h elp i s implor ed t o illustrate t his" b e li e fAc amelb elonging toapoo r ca mel driver s lips ove r a r ocka nd t herei s d angeroffractur e ofa l egan dt he l ossoft hepreciousca mel .! An ass l oaded w ithah eavy flo ur sack fa lls u nder itslo ad. A t ravellerl ose s hispa th du rin g t he n ight and a ll hiseffortstofi nd t heri ght dir ectionaref utile.T hefo llowing s toryillu stratest his po int.Dr. Dj adf rom :aaifa was i nvited t o a ttendth e w edding o f afriendinYa' bad. W hile th ere h e h adan a tta c k offeve r. Asaco achmanwh o w as l eavingfor Baifn,r efused to t akeh im a long,h e b egged th e Mesa r6t opu ni s h t he coac hman,w ho s e wh eel w as br okeno n theway Th is phys ici an a l so im ploredth esamesa inttobrin g b ackhisb rother w howasd eported by th eTurks,an d the br other w as br oughtbac ki na m iraculous wa y No to nly in sim ple in conveniences bu t in g reat diffic ultiesth e ass istance oft he sa intsi sas kedf or .Inexa miningvowswes hallIl\lul et e ers ( alsoc oachmen,portersand boatmen) a r e notoriously profane t he r efo r etheA rabicproverb mitt e l mkiiri milbiyllqkw 'all iih ill ii taltt il -himl ," lik ethemuletee r,h edoesnotc a ll o nG od,e xceptwhenindiffi culty( undera load ).2Pronouncethe It in and 3 was e xp l ai n e d tomea s "injuredj "It ried tofindoutwhetheritisnot iausslt beco mel ess," bu titw asa lway s prono unced ,withacl ear e 4 A came lu sed t obea ndi ss till someti mes(butm uch mo r erarely t han befo re)theon ly supporto f t hef amily. Su chanan imal ofte n f ormedth e only c ap i ta l o f apea sa nt.5A ma n who dr ives do nkeyscar rying w heattoa mill (o r fl ourfromit)is c a ll edi arriis.Inc lassi calArabicth is meaningisn otkn own ( see H avagi vesitt he mea ning "Hirer o f do nk eys ," an d saysthatiti s" onlyus ed in E gypt I n Jerusalemithasth e a bove-mentioned mea ning. I n the di strict of B eni Z ed the !i0 ot me ans t o l oad h eavily":dj arnalrnitri s," avery he avily loa ded ca mel; fuliin a trasb aqhluh," N.l oadedh is m ulev er yheavi ly." G M esarahb in M asruq e l'Absi.Hiss hrine, s ituatedonthe t opofa mountaina ndn eararuin, li es b e tweenDjiffina ndB aqah. (0. S.B .)

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CANAA N: M ohammedan S aints andSanctu aries inPale stine 91seethattheyarereally nothing bu t invocations combined with pro mi ses. Iwill relate here another story1to illustr ate morefullythe pointinqu estion. Th e B edouins ofthe Tayiiha tribeattacked BetDj:Ul1 o nenight.Thefri ghtened inhabitant s, whow ere much less in numb er th an the Bedouin s, b es ought :nIflr Inqnla ( istandjadfl)t o h elp th em. Sudd enly th e B edouins b egan torunindi sorder s houting: a 'uqubil lith min b alad sdja1'ha i ursuk :'1fl y f or re fuge t o Godfr om a v illage wh ose trees throw s tones."Thep easants o fthevillageas s embled inth e c hurch ofthis sa inttothankhim forh aving d elivered thems o wond erfullyf romth eir fi ercee nnemies, Theyobs erved, t o their g reat s urprise,thatthe qftneh w as dripping s weat.?whichwas a nother s ignofhi s pow er.>n.R epetition ofpr ayersIne nteringa maq am apious willr ecite th e or fi rstsiireh.oftheQor an .Therecitation of this p r ayer i s b elieved to be followed byth e bl essing ofthe s aint a ndGod.Noto nlywhen as implep easant e ntersthe shrine ,butev ery timeh e pa sses beside amaqam-especially durin g night time-he r ecites this pray er.Whena pilgrimi so nth e wa y tovi sit a proph et'ss hrine,and whenh e r eaches ahi gh place fromwhichthe sanctum')' i s visibl e, h e st ands still a nds ays anna l ti i ltihan ill a-Utih, Iwitne ssthatth ere i s noG od be sideGod." 'I'h e samei s d one v ery oft en wh en a traveller-withoutint ending to visit a s hrine-beholdsthe maq am f rom afar .Inb othc ases thep ass er-by li fts uphishand s andpasse s th em down hi s fac e ( ei-tobarruk 4). Inthefir st ca se s everalstone s m ay be thrown ina heap, whichis calledma shadInthecaseofa prophetthe visitor sa ysU$-$alatu w assaliimu aleka yti nab iy all ah, : Iprayerandpeac e beupony ou, 0 prophet of God."Sucha prayer isneverusedfora c ommon weli., A pilgrim.I H eard fromdiff erent p eopleo fthis villa ge.2Oth er inst ances wherethepicture ofa s aint s howsamiraculouss ignwillbe d iscussede lsewhere.3S incethistim e Mar1noUla isr egarded a s th eprote ctor o fth e vill age. 4 El-K awakibi t hinks(in ,!,abai'u l-IstibdtirI) th at thisp erformance isa vestige o fth e Chri stian c ustomof" crossing." sIhave never heard the e xpressionskarkiirand rakabeli (or raqQbeli?) mentioned byDoutte in .Magie etReliqion,P: 420ff. in c onnectionwithhe aps o fston es.. '

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92J o urn a lofthePa l estine Orient al S ociety 's aysIIIvi siting Ahm ad er -Rf a i:1 y a Ahm ad. yaRfa'i i bmina minkullsz sa i,"0 Ahm ad ,0R. ,pr otect u s fromever y cr eeping (following)thing (reptil es) "2Prayers saidinashrineare generally madefortheb enefit o f th esa int;iti s suppo sedthatGodwillreckon t hemtoth e cr edit ofthe well. Thisiswh y wehearins ome plac es : iqra l-fatibah an ...( iqra l-fatibah la8 sel}. ),"Recite th e f orthe soul o fth e s el } ...( reciteth ef f or the s el} ... ) ." Manyvi sitors perpetuat e their name s b y writing s omev erseo f th e Q oran onth e w all o f th e ma qtun, o ron t he c enotaph.As a t ypical s entence w e m ay quote : auddt f i Mr]a l -nuupim s i Md a ti anna l a il ahan i lla-llah,"I e ntrusttothis m aqtim m y confe ssion (w itness),thatth ere i s noG od butAllah."After finishinghisvi sit t he pi l grim oft en make s th e req ue st itqabbal zy arti y a ," accept myvisit,0... "3Ill.Reverenc e Therev erence showninconnecti on w ith holyplacesi s general andmanif ests i t se lfindifferentway s ,Itisatpr esent n ot nearl y so strictly o bservedasitu sed tobe Apious p easantwillnot e nter the s hrineofany important w elt withoutt aking offhi ss hoes. T he se he either le aveso utsideor carrie s wi thhim. sInsomec ases (cl-sel}et -T o ri Abd es -Salam,etc. ) Ih ave notbe ena llowed to e nte r ex ceptbarefoot, whil e inmost o fthem Abdall a hin Qubeb eh, S almane l-FarsiontheMount o fOliv es,Hasan er R i1'i nearNebi Mfr sa, cl -se[t Ham ad inKol onia,e tc.)noobjection s at allweremade .,1Ahmad e r-Rfil'i w asreno wnedf orcur ingpa tients b itten b y ser pents H i s foll owersa re s till se rpent-charmers.2 AJ.1made r Rfa'i w asa qlltub Hi ss hr i neinPalestinei sinB eni Z ed, a bout one "hourt o th e ea st ofD er Gha esflneh.'Itisb elieved th at und ert he maqam th ere isa g har ( cave)in which li es hi s t omb .3Chr i stian swrite fullrllrya rabb a bd a k ,"remember,0Lord, yourservant.'.." Asthe sh oes ar e made unclean by walkingont he st reet.wh ich i s full o f impurities (in cluding human andanim ale xcretions), th ey hav eto be taken off. ,.. Inth e-case ofthe Omar "l\Io sque, Nebi'l\!usa and other shrin es all those whodonotde siretotake o fftheirsh oesputo n s lippersor s andals, inwhi ch th ey ma y v isit t he s hrines.

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CANAA N: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuari es in Palestine9 3Manywillnot enter a shrine except ina ritually clean condition .Forthis reason many peasants wou ld notenterwithmeintothemaq am,butw aited outside Even whenI enquired a boutoneth ing or a nother, th ey an swered withou t stepping in .! 'l'hese customsofthemodern Palestinian remind u s ofoldentimes, whentheLordcalled untoMosesoutofthemidst oftheBurning Bush:"Putoffthyshoesfromoffthyfeat,forth e place whereon thou stande st i s holy ground "2Thea ncientHebreww or shippers w ere al so notallowedto approach th es anctuary without firstpurify ingthemselv es, foronlytheceremoniall y clean w ereac cepted.tNoun clean woman 4 ever a pproachesorenters a shrin e, touches a holy tree draw s water out o f a sacred w ell orcome s neara consecrated s pring. Thereis nothing whichwillirritate aman01Godasmuchas s uchan imprudentact.s '.Inthemid st ofthevin eyards of Blto.nin. isthesource of lJ:irb etNo.tfL, whi ch i s guarded bythesoulof eS-el} Fromtim e totimethewat er get s scantyandmay even s topflowin g. Thisisalways thought tores ult wh ena nuncl ean woman approach es theop ening. Oncethewater s toppedflowing,andasth einhabitants of B eto.nin. s earchedinvain fortheimpure w oman, ashe ep wa s off ered to eS -sel}SfLle1:l, thes ourcewaswellcl eared out ,andth e water flowed again ,e venmore abundantlythanb efore .6Norare sprin gs inh abited b y demon s to b ea pproachedb y any menstruatin g women,orawom an witha bloodyi ssue. The s pringofDjifn a, inhabited bya"bride," i s anIOnc ea p ersonasce ndedth eroofofth es hrineof es -sellAbfr I sma'Il ( Bet L ikid)with out t akingoff hi ss hoes.Thi s impi ous a ctirritatedthema n o f Go d so muchthath e puni shed th eev ildoer withparalysis, whi ch didn ot di sappear u ntil th e lVeli w as re conciledb yth e offerin go ftw os heep .2Exo d.35.3G en.352 ;Ex.191 0; 1Sam.16 5. 4 Itu sedto beb elieved b y theAr abst hatwh en E ve plu cke dth e fru ito f t hetree, itbl ed. A s apuni shmentf or h er di sobediencet hef emale rac e mustbleede very mo nth(Diiiratu l-!lIa'arif, vol.I ,p.48). Unse d-Djalil,v ol. I,p.3i,t ellsu st hatwh en th e inh abit ants o fB eersheba dr ove th e patriarch Abraham away,theiro nlyw ell dri ed up .Thusth ey w ere ob ligedto go andb eg them ano f Go dt o h elpt hem.H e g avet hem so me o fhi s she ep andsaid: A.s s oona s th ese anim alsapproach th e well, t he water willri se tothe brim a ndwillr emain so.Butass oonas anun clean w omanco mesnearto th e water itwilldryupf or ev er."6S eeC anaan,JPOSn .1 59 and Aberglaube, p .3i.

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CANAAK:)Iohammedan Sain tsa nd S anctualies i nP alestine 9 5Thi s isn ot th e plac e todi scuss theexacteffects-good and e vilwhich a re s upposedtobecaus ed amen struou s woman.tTh ose who enter animportants hrine remain s ilent,devou t and humbl e. Wh ens omeone t alks the voice iskeptlow;no s moking, lau ghingo r a nyotherirreverenta ction is a llowed. B efore proc eeding Imu stemp hasizeth e fact thatr everencens a bove de scribed i s paid r e gularl y onl y totheprophetsandthe importantaw lia.It i s practised muchl ess inthee a e ofth e o ther s hrines.Whenvi siting the dj ami e l.Ar b 'i nin Es a wi y eh If ounda t ax-gathererof J erusalem sleeping eatin gandtrans acting hisbusin ess inth e h oly pl ace. W e wereofferedcoff ee whichwas brewed inthi s pla ce, and a ll s moked t heircigarettesc ompletely unmolest ed. 'I'h e holymenaree xceedinglyirritated wh en anybod y commits adu ltery whileinorinth e neighbourhood ofthe shrine.Iti s beli eved th at thewhole mountain onwhichtheshrine of Nebi Mft sa i s built ,s hakes s everelywhensuchan impiousa ct isp erformed, No animal sareeverallowedto e ntera shrine Somepeasants obj ect m ost vi gorously to fastenin ga horse intheimmediate neigh bourh ood o fama qiim.This l astcustom howev er, i s v anishin g s lowly. M anys tories a re told toillustratehow aw lia h ave puni shed intrudin ga nimalswithd eath. Th e foll owing i s anex ampl e: 2 Som e inhabitant s of 'Esawiyeh, while g oingtotheirdaily workinth e field s,on ed ay,f oundade adjackalwithanoil lamp i nhi s m outh. H e lay dire ctly in front ofth e shrin e of Anbar.Thiss howed cl earl yt hatthe had e nteredth es hrineandcarried a way th e oil -lamp f or whichitwa s puni shedatonce. Sometimesthesaintsareforbearin ga nd g ive a nimals sufficient time to s top profanin g th e sanctuary .Buta tlast,esp ecially when human beings begintodoubtth eir pow er, theytake rev enge. En Qin ft i sinhabitedbythe 'weli IISo me e ffectshav e b een m ention ed inA berqlaube,p 3 6 ff .Othersa re :Ifa m enstruating w oman walk sthrougha g reenfi eld, the grass will wither. Som e f oodss houldn ot be prepared by aw oman inthi ss tate, s inceth ey mayspoil ; milk,for e xample,willsour.Any O Dewho s leepswi th am enstruau s woman willb ecome al eper.2O thers tories a re: AM(B et'An an) kill s e very gaze llewhich ea ts leav eso fhisoliv etrees. Every animalwhi ch climbsonth e building of d se!!Ya sin f alls d own de ad. Wh e neve rah erd of g oats o r s heep approaches e l-Qubbeh { to thee astof D el' Djrir)th e '!llllU!1 driv e th ema way.S eea lsoJaussell, p. 308.

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9 6Journalofthe P alestineOr i e ntal SocietyAbul' Enen. Th e pe asants u sed to light inhi s honour ,ev e ry Thursday ni ght,a noill amp, th e oil of whichw as re gularly drunk b yjackals.Thisirritated th e own er o f th e g roundju staro undth esp ring ( Mohammed Abdallah ), somu ch, that. h e l ighted a n o ill ampfo r h im withtheword s:"Ifyo uc an n otprotectyo urpr opert y, w es hall n everligh t y our l amp a gain." Th e n ext mornin g thej ackal w a s fo undd ead, withthe o ill amp inhis mo uth.Thi s o fco ursepr oved the p ower o f t he w elt co nclu s ively. A w oman u sedto pl acfa ( oz (p ronouncedr e ally t8s), b owlof b utter, und er theprotection ofth eweliA bO.Ndj e m, Th e n ext day s heob servedt hatap art o f itw as s to l e n I mploringt he s aint t oparalyze t he ha ndof t heth i e f,s heputd owna noth er ( oz, an d t he n e xt d ays he fo und a j ackal(wawi ) wi th a p aralyzed for eleg still dipp edin th e b owl. AbfJ. Ndj em i s situa tedo nth e t op of a hill oneho ur so utho f A rtas. H e w as th e na ddjab ofth ep rophet. NadiJjab m eans one who goe s b efore th eprophet ( or th e o fa ta r iqa h) i np roces s iont ot he n ext vill agea nd anno uncesh i s com ing w iththi s f ollowers." A b ed ( near $ataf) i ss aid t o kill a ny goa t o r s h e e pwhi ch e ntershi s c ave. Th ereareexc e ptions,wher e an imalsarei ntentionallya llowed toe nter t hed oorof th es hrine, b ut nofurther. I'hese cases willb eme ntionedl at e r. T hes hrine a ndi tss urroundingsares upposed a lways to b e k ept clea n.Bu t t hisis rarely a ctually th ecase .W e s hould,h owever, s pecifywhatth e p ea sant s under stand by c leanliness.Nadjasehm eans w hate veris r ituallyuncl ean," a s hum anan d(l ess)an imal ex cretions.t dea dbod ie s un cleanf ood a nddrink.!Et tadjm ir,th ecl eaningof t hep eniso nth e w allsa fteruri nation,is s trictl y f o rbidd en. In t his sense t heh oly pl acesa rekeptmore o rl ess cl ean,butn ot i n th e sa nitarym eaningofc leanliness, fo r q uant itieso frubbish ar e f ound i n a nd a round so me s u c hpl aces B anat es -seh$alal.1 a ndel'ITm ariIH eard f r o m Mi s s B alden s b er ger.2Ur ine.f aecalmatter, p us, menst rual b lood, exp ect o ration et c A'I' urki s h office r e vacuatedonc e un derth e tree o f e s -seaA.bfJ.RiB(B et 'A.n a n ) 'I 'h e p uni s hmentfo llow ed i mm e diat el y,th eo f ficer being beaten v eryse ve re ly b y a b ranch oftheholy t erebinth. Astrang er w hospen t th e ni ght in djiimi 'AbfJ. I-' On( Biddfi) b rok e w ind durin g h iss leep. Th e ir rit ated w eli threw himato n ceouts ideth eholyp lac e .3Pork a nd a ll a lcoholicd rinks.

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98J ournalo fth e Pal estineO rientalS ociety s e l] N l ll'lW, 1andcu t d own atreeo f es-sel] A bii.J;Iur eri.2 F A ., an influential ofJerusal em, asked somepe a sants of S arafat t ocutoffady in gbranchoftheholyoaktree of el-Badri yeh whi ch grewinhi sg rounds.Allrefus ed t o do s uchaninfamou sa ct and advised himstrongly nottoto uch thetree.Hehir edaC hristian f romJ erusalem who sawed d own the branch.Butbeholdth e v erynextdayF A fell s ickwithanacute attack of articul a r rh eumatism .Thepeasants knewthatthi s wasthe expect ed puni shment of e lBadriyeh s I V. R eligious s e rvicesIIIa s hrine asIIIamo squeIns ome s hrines da ily prayers a re performed,i,e ., they s erve as a mo sque.Allsu ch shrines havea mibrab, andtheyarelocat ed inthevi llages orn ot farfro m them 'I'he inhabita nts ofvillage s n earJerusalem donot h ave many s u ch djawarni' owing t othefactth atthepeasants come t othecityo nFriday 4 to perform thenoo n prayers e d djum'ah)int heM osque o fOmar.Invillagesata distance fromJ erusalem s uch djaw ami arecommon Th ese mosqu esarevisi ted especially in l elat e d-djum ah and onFriday.Ins ome lelat e Hnen 5a lso enjoys this honour. T hesa me ma y be s a i do f th e feast days T hevisit s inthe maw asim willbede scribed be low.Inthisconn ecti on Iwishtoo bserve t hatsomeC hristian chur chesarer e s pectedandv isited bytheMohammed ans, Oh urches dedicate d t oSt.G eorge-especiallyinthev illage e l-HadernearBethlehem freq uently enjoy this privi le ge Sitti Mar yam comes next Th eChapel oftheAscension, t heOh ur ch ofthe Nativity theMilkGrottoand M ar Elyas6 comea fter.T hela st t woenjo y on lytherespe ct oft he neighbo uring. Mohamm edan village s .7Ac cording toMud jirIB etween SaIIal eh a ndT ell e s -S eri
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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine 9 9 ed-D initisn ot advisable toperformany prayer in the Ohurch o f St.M ary, a s iti s built in wad i Djhannam (th e valle y ofh ell).IV Thebarake hThepe asantdo es notvisita s hrineonl y to f ulfilavow t o m ake an oa thort o be cured fromadis ease, butheg oesver yo ftent o the se places.tog et a"blessing." B arokeli2meansevenmoreth an asimpleble ssing; itdenote s,a sK ahles ays,"abenevolentpowerwhich radiates fromthehol y plac e toeveryonewhocomesin contact withit.Inorder tog et suchables sing, th e vi sitor touche s thetomb,itscoverings,thero sary, etc.,andthenpa sses hishand s ov er hisfaceanddownhisbody,thus distributing thebles sing transmitted through hishandstothewholebody.! Other s willkissoneof these objects, oreven take apartofthe starah andwrapapartof their bodywith i t. F romtheoilofth e lamps, whichmaybeusedtor ub thehan ds andtheface,one receives amore lastingbarok eh.Water from sacred cisterns may b e drunk asablessing,andatthesametimethedevoutpeasant b elievesthatitha s anespeciall y goodeffecton the body. Many a Z ladj bring s back withhimoneormore bottle s fill ed with water from Zamzam, a nd distributes small quantities o fittohisfriends. Ihave a lso been honoured withsuchwater. Man y visitor s will take some s ouvenir o f the shrine a s ab arakeh.Onewillcarry itonhisbodyor hang itinhishou se, believin g th at itwillbrin g f ortune. Th e most important object belon ging t o this categoryis en -ndja-$all, "thepear, ">s aidtobemadeo fearthofthe mosque el-Kabeh, dipped inthebloodofthesacrifices,andhasthe theshapeofapear." Nearly allpilgrims bring s everalanddi stribute themto their fri ends, who hang themin theirhou ses."IS eerr.411.2Id o n otthinkthatbarak elimeans th ec ontraryo f the e vil e ye,a sD outtes tatesinJ[agie,p.440 .3PJVII,pp.104fl'. 4 Th e sam ec ustom exists i nsomeEasternChurchesafterthe offertory (Stephan ), s Cana an,Aberglaube,p.86 .6 Mr Stephancall s myattentiontothef actthatsu chearthbarakeh.ares old fromthe shrines o f Karbela,NadjafandKadimen.7Thesam e beli ef exists among Christians whotakewith themJordanwater, leavesoftheolivetrees ofGeths emane orkeepthe pictures whichhaveb een s anctifiedbytheirbeingplaced ontheHolySepulchre orinthechurchoftheNativity.7

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10 0J ourn aloft heP alestine O riental S ociety As a ll a bove-mentionedexampleshave s hown,iti s n ot onl y the u nseen s ouls of th e h oly m en whi ch p ossess thi sp ower,bu teve ry t hin g whichb elongs t o th e maq/itn-the a bidingpl ace o f th eso ul-h as i ta ndi sab le toradiateit to hum anb eings.tD oubtl essapart of th e b ody ofth esa inthims elf.? or a n o bject con nected directly w ithhi s li fe -h istory p ossesses m oreof t his mir aculous virtu e.T husthehairsf rom t heb eard' of th eProphet3whi cha rek ept i nt heOmar mosqu e,a revisitedeve ry yea r ont he27thof R amadan A p iece o fthe"truec ross" 5 o fC hristi sca rried byma ny C hr istia ns fo r t he sa mereason. B esidesthese w ays of deriving a bl essingf rom a weli, ma ny p easantstry t og etthis p rofit by v i sitin g differ ent importants hrines .Thus man yo fthepil grims toN e bi Mil sl1, afterthe m8s am is o ver, p ayv isitst oHarame l-Halil,N e bi $amw Sl, N e bi $111el.l, e tc M any a pil grim m akes hi s 1Vay backoverPalestinea ndEgyp t m erely to obtaineitab arru kf romthedifferentaw liya.Arepentant. s inn e r believ es that such visit sandprayers h e willr eceive abl essing whichwilltakeoffallhi s bu rden s.eThe soulofthesa int,which is pleased with s uch action s, is alwa ysreadytohelp. 7 I ne veryimportants hrine,the visit or i s guid ed b y th e socalled l] uddam e l-maqam, whoareattachedtothe differentholypl aces,anda dvisehimwhatprayer i s tobe sa idine ach spot.Butth erea re n ow al sos mallguid e-books for th e h oly pl aceso fJ erusalema nd H ebron.Thebestknowni s al -mursid l iz-zair wa d-dalil f t mas uieik. wa z yara t a m a kin e l-Quds w al-!!alil,S a largero neth an thatmention edIThissympathetic po w er i sknowni nsorc e ry (es si[ir) as"contactmagic. andwes hall often m eetwith' it i nou r discuss ions. Seea lsoD outt e ,M agie,pp.439fr.,an d Canaan,Ab erqtaube,p,2 4.2D outte,1.c.3 :ij iHid ib ne l-W alid i ssa id to h avecarried a h airof Prophetasabara keh. 4 On th is d ay i t i sbe lieved thatseawat e r becomessweet,' Abde l-Madjid A Ii i n at-Tubfatlll-Marq.iyah, p .61. Al soca lled IId etec]-qMreh. 6G oldziher,Moha m. Si udienIl,3 09.' 7Th esame i deap revailed i nt heoiaa ndN ew 'I' estament,Everyone wh o to uched somethingh oly r eceived a bl es sin g:2 Kings 2 8, Hj 2K ings1321;M ath:92021,1 486; M ark. 5 2 6-29; Luk e 619, 843. '8 : B y e l-!taclj 1\1 .,

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C ANAAN :lIIohammedan Sa intsandSa nctuari es inP alestine 1 01b y K ahle (m anasik e l-Quds eSSarlf1). T hese guide books 2 s tate ex actly whatsureh.andwhatprayer istobesaid in everyholy place. Th e s i y u l] r eturnin g withtheiradherentsfromnuuotisimofNeb i MfI sa N e biRubin, N e bi e tc.,toth eir village stryt o visita s m anyo fthel ocals hrineswhi ch they may pass ontheirw ay a s they c an.Ifany we ll liesata distance fromtheroadth e proce ssion s tops,thesaiy arahp lay sandthe sel] re citesthe jatiZwh. Theba rakehisn ot onlyd erived fromdeadsaints,butlivin g h oly sel]s ma y al soradiateit E s sel].Abo.:aalawJ hadduringhi s li fe tim e wider enown inthis respe ct P eople ki sstheband, tou chtheg arments, eatsom e ofthe sel]'s f ood,ord os ome si milar a ctiont o getthi s bl essing.Thefo llowing s toryillustratestheide a: 3 A.tbe busband o fImmF wa sabsentinConstantinople .His wif e, b aving r eceived non ews fromhim went withb el' d augbter, whowa s eightye ars old, to eS-el].AM H alawy. Befor ee nteringhis room, th ey h eardhim c alling, ''' Welcome thou d aughtero f elquiuh, the desc endant ofe l Ghos."'I'h eyw ere astoni shedt hath e h ad r ecognizedthem b eforetheye ntered. S eatingImm F a thi ss ide,heto okso mebr eadan d s ugarfromhi swa ist-coatpocket a nd o fferedthemto h er,a nd s heateth em as ab orakeh. Ab fl.I;ralawJ proc eededatonc e tot ellf ollowing s tory:"Whilew e w ere j ourn ey in g onthese a,we l ost ourw ayandr each edanunknownandu ninh a bit e di sland Duringtheni ghtthes torm droveourboata shor e.In v ain didw e labour to ge tthes hipafloat.Whilea llwere mourning a boutourde speratecondition yo ur ancestorq utbel-Ghesappeared H e floatedthes hip, s howedusthedirection ofo urjourney,assuredusof a safe arriva l,andd i s app ea reda s miracu lously asheappeared .'I 'his a ll happened l astWednesday." Severa l da yslater A. arrived.H e told th em how q u(b hads avedtheir life .He,be lieving now inthepowerofthe se7.J.5 visited himforei tabarruk.IB y Y usif :Qi a e d-Din e d-Danaf 2Dalil e l Haram e s. Sarif whichf orms apartofth e appeal ofthe S upreme Mohammedan' Court o f Palestin e forallth e Mo hamm edan wor ld tohelpin repairing the Mosque(Jer usalem ) contains averyshorta nd incomplete guidetoth e holyplacesofthe Omar Mosque.3The s torywa s t old mebyImmF herself andwas repeated byherd augher Imm R The A rabicwo rd i sribb. 5 The s e r va n ts of this holy sel! a re o f thefamilyofes -Su'un.

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1 02J ournalo f t hePalestine Or ientalSocietyIs halln ot d e scribe in this chapter th e h ealing p owerso fthesai nt s ,whi ch i sattributedb ys ome1toth eirbara keh,butw hich,a s 1sh alls how,i s due t ootherp owers.2.PL ACINGPRIVATEPROPERTYUNDER TH E PR O'l'ECTION OF AWEL lM anyo fthesa ints a re s ituated o uti n th efie ldsfarfr omv illages. S incethepe asant's workismo stlyi n t hefi elds,c ultivatinghis land, r e aping hi sharvest,q uarrying sto nes g atheringthorns toburnlime et c., he i sundert heprotection ofthese h oly me n. B e m ay h imself ne ed th eir h elp e specially whenh e h as t o l eaveso me o fhi s p roperty i nthe fi elds. I ns uch a cas eh eputsallthathe ca nnot carryh omeunderth eirg uard, being ab solutelys urethatn obody willda re to t ouchthem. 'I'h esa intsare v eryparticularinth is r e spect ,se verely pu nishingIan yone whost ealsa nyof t heir propertyorwhatisputundert heir c are. Differentstories a rerelated todemonstrate thi s. The m U] Jtar of S u f at told methef ollowing in cidentwhi ch h appened tohim during hi s childhood. Someinhabitants ofth ev illage h a d sp readtheirolive s onthe r oof ofth es hrineofe e suua. I br a him elt Adhami,in ordert o m aket hemrip en quickly inth e he at ofth e s un.Heclimbed upduringthenighta ndfill ed hi s po cketsandb osom ('i bb) with o lives.Thesaintdidnotinterfere th e first a nd t he se cond t ime ,butwh enthebo yclimbedupth ethirdtim e, ano ldandr everend m an,cladin white wi tha whitebearda nd a sp earinhi s h and,a ppearedt o him a nd sa id:"By Go d, I shall c ut yo urlifes hort a nd c ripple yo u,if y oudaresteal anotherti me. Th ef righ tene db oya nswered: walla h iu bt yaselj,"By God Ir epent, 0 sel]." Anothersto ryillustratesthepoin t i n a differentway O nce s ome t hieves brok e intothe ( enclo sureof ca ttle) o f t he ne ighbours of e-sel] Z akaria ndst olet hecattle. Sc a rcelyhadth eyg oneafewm eters fr om th e pl ace, wh en th e we li s truckth em with blindness. No t s eeingtheirw ay, a ndreco gnizing th esev ere puni shmentinflictedupon them b ythismano f God ,t hey re storedth eco wsto t heir place.Atonc e th eirs ightreturnedandthey esc apedfurtherpunishment by runnin ga way.IK ahl eandD outt e .

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C ANAA N:lIIohammedan Saintsa ndS anctuariesinP alestine103The o bjectswhichare deposited a revariou s.In eS-se7.J Abdallnh ( S u' ffi,t), es .' Ubed (Del' Y asin) and e s. Ramadan Is aw largeheaps oft horns.'Inthecav eo f 'Isa(Bet Li qia) andinthe m aqam of eS-se7.J A hmad e t-'raiyar ( Qasta l)s traw(tih n)w as stored, whenI vis itedthe m. If oundt hreel aban( sour m ilk) pitch ers placed in f ront o fthe c aveof Rdj alAM'rflg (B et Li qia), A peasanto f ed Dj ib d eposited hisli mei nDj ami e l-Arb 'I n.In eS-sel]J;l amid, of t he sa me v illage,twodonkeyload s of potter y were placed under the p rotection o fthe s aint:In e-sel]A1].mad(J2:irbet Qaryet S Ideh) I sa w cultivatin g implem ents.At e -el] Abdallah es-Sidri (J2:irbet es -Sidd)theB edouin despo sitpartofth eir stuff,Butnot o nlythatwhichi s deposit ed inthe actual hol yareais guard ed by t hesehol y menofGOd;even the property of the neighbours ofa s anctuaryis protected, asis clearl y seen fromthelastrelated story. Theabove description andexamplesshowclearlyhow strictly the aw lia k eep the oldrulesoftheArabswhicharestill practised by thei nhabitants o fPalestine.23.TYING O:E' RAGST ying r ags toholy o bjectsi s a ver yo ld customwhi chisst illt o befo und a ll o vertheOri ent.Ragsa refa s tened ontrees,o nth e iro nbars ofwindowsof sa nctuaries, o n thedo or-handles, on the a swell as onthe riisi yeh ofth e tomb.The mil,ldjan 3is thes tick(wi th a c urvedhandl e) o f the well Th e t ying o frags on thes tick a nd t hetomb a remu ch m ore rarely m et withth an the o thers.Thesevi siting card sa re s ometimes s onum erous thatev ery i ncho f theironbars ofthewindow s,a nde very twigofa s acredtree whichc an e asily be reached a refilledwithth em. Th eya re g enerallyf asten ed byvi s itor s withon e ofth e following inte ntions:1.Asasignofh aving vi sited the m aqam andfulfilled the religious dutie s. 2 .Th e pi ece ofra g actsasa reminder tothe well notto forget th e visitor a ndhiswishes.IGat heredbyt hewo men an d sto red as wi nter fu el. 2 S eea lsoGo ldziher, Moh. S tudienIl,3 01.3S ee MuMtel-Mu M! I ,353 .

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10 4J ournal ofth e P alestineOrie ntal So ciety3 .Ver y often a sickperson t earsa s mallpi ece fr om his cloth esandt iesitwithth e words Iha ve thrown m y burd en( i.e my s ick ness" ) onthee, 0m an ofGod ."IIti s firml y b elieved th att he sa intwill bani sht hedi se ase.tIn BettT nia the r el atives of a p er s on suff ering fromf ever puttwob askets of s toneson a c ertaintree b elieving thatthedi sease will s oondi sappear.3The fundamental principl ea ttheb ase of th ese three id eas i s what w ec all "c ontactma gic." Thati st osay eve ry thin g which h as be en in c ontactw ithso mebody or h as b elongedto himwill n everc omplet ely lo se it s r elationtothis p erson.Thus th ese piec es ofcloth. a lways k eep th eirco nnectionwithth e personf romwho mtheyca me.Theyrepresenthim a nd a nythingd one tothem will h appen t otheir own er.They representt he v isitor, r emindingth e h olym an ofthevi sit performed impl oring h elpa ndb eggingf or c ure.Through theird irectcontactfor a lon g peri od with t heholy p lac e t heyge tsom eo fth ep owero fthewe l i,whi ch i stransmitted t o t he personfromwh om th ey co mea ndtoth eonewho a nd ca rries t hem.Th i s s uperstitiou s b elief i s w ellestablishedinPale st inian fo lklore an dw es hallh ave occa sionagaint o spea k a boutit.Int he s anctuaryofel-M ansnri('Awartah) I sa w five pi e c e sof cloth o f th es izeof l arge h andkerchiefs h angingdow n fromv in es a nd m ulberry t rees th ere, Tw oofthem w er eg reen, oner ed on e blui sha nd t he fif th ye llowish. I w as t old thatt heyw ere sit ar (pL Ofsi b'eh) or "c overings"o f th e t omb.Itw asa rgued t hat asi t i s impo s sibl e for a mantovo w a r eal co verfo r t he h uget omb( 440x23 5cm. ) t hese sm all pi eces wer e promi sed.Theproph et i ssatisfied a ndaccepts th em as thou gh th ey w ere r eal large co verings. 4 .The s ame ideais e xp resse dby placin g small orlarges tonesonthe' grav e of a saintoronah olytree.Thiscu stom ismuchl ess c ommonth an binding r ags. Ihaves een ston es onth e t ombofHasaner-Ra't, eS-e'IJ Gh anim, AM Hurerah, ma sadjid si ttna' A is e h ,eS-se'IJ 'Abdallah, e tc.Insuchca sesthes tones a re g enerally as ign f,' 2Cf.Ab erqlaube,p .2 5.3C f. the c ustomofpla cing st ones onthero ck Ab u a fter r ubbin g th e ba ck, p. 83

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Jerusalem J erusalem A q!?a mosque a n ho ur from B etfrni.Sa rafat h angingare:N.of R amallil.h Yanun of J;l irbet e l-Loz E sawiye h N. of D el' GhassanehW.of D el'Ballflt S .o fYa brudQubebeh Jl,as ibnS amhano ntheironbars ofth eC ANAAN:M oh amrn edan Saintsa ndSanctuaries inP alestine 1 0il ofh avingv isitedthesanctuary.Inthecase ofen -nobiY aqinn earBeni T 'e m thedoor-handl e, a s w ell a sther ailingsurrounding t he h olyr ock, s howingth e footprint sofAbraham,are fullo fthese r ags. B racelets,beadsa nd small neckl aces werealso tobe found amon g therags.IM anytakes omeoftheseragsa ndcarryth em, b elieving thatth eythus r eceive abarak ehfr omthe wel'i.2 This i s esp eciall ypracticedb ys ickp erson s.Ineverys uchc aseanotherragmu st b e s ubtituted forth e onewhi ch is remov ed.Doubtless thi s custom r es embl esthatr ecordedActs1912: "So thatfromhi s bod y w erebroughtunto th es ickhandkerchiefs orapronsandth e di seasedeparted fromthemandth e e vil s piritwentou t of them. "TheBedouinandhalfBedouino fte n fatentheir 'wjlzl o n t he hol ytree.Theybelie vethatthis i smosteffica cious, sinc e iti sa compl etearticleofdressandrepresentst heownerbetter.Inv ery rare ca ses a is bound onaholyobje ct .Theideaisthati tthuscontracts m ore p ower, which i sadded tothe powerof'th e m agico rQoranicf ormul a .This cu stom Ikn ow onl y i nco n nectio n wi then -nabiD aniftn,Sometrees o n wh ichr ags m ay b esee n Es-sel]Yftsi f en -nabiNun(o ak) eS sclje l-Bugtiil.ri (oa k a nd car o b ) {farrubet e l'Asarah e8-elj Barri(oa k)Abu er-Ril.yat (oa k) eS.clj Abdallah ( oak)el-Butm ehe n nobi' AnnirAmong shrin es wher eragsa reti ed windowsare: AM MadianBeram Dj awg S ilwanen-nabiM usaA MZetun e l-Ba driyehITh es ameI o bservedin AM Hurerah.2Curti ss, chapterVII.

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1 06Journal ofth e P alestineO rientalS ocietyE veno nthe g rave the se remind ers m ay beplaced :en-nobiN frl.l Kerak Slim an D el' A ban Ahm ad el -'Amari n ear D el' AbanAM H urerah T ell Abfr Hurerah es.s e l z N tir an n ear Sallfileh Ont he door so f Abder -Rah man( Rammun),en -nobiLu t a nden -nabiY aqin ( bothinB eni N em), andonth e of Ahmad el-Gharib (N.ofMdj edil en-N asrah) rag s m ay b e found. Ihavenev er f ound the practice of a ttachingmeatt o tree sasJa ussen1a ndD oughty (re f erred toby C urtiss) h ave o bserved.Thi s c u s tom s eemstobechara cteristic o f th e B edouin. 4 .HEALINGItiswond erful whataprofoundbeliefinthepowerofth e saint s stillexistsintheOri ent.'Vehaveseenh ow thepe asantcom es in e very p hase ofhislif e tothesedemigod s .Hecomesforhelp,bu t hecome sa lsoto thank them.Whenachildi s sev erely illthemother implor es a s aint:" Ibeg y ou,0 prophet D avid, t o myson. O rinamorehumblewa y ,"Ia my ourse rvant,0FriendofGod s av em yo nly c hild!"2 W e h avea lreadynot ed th at thepresent inh abitants o f P alestinetry to obtain t he s pecialfa vour andhelpo f the saintsb y promisin g t hemo fferings iftheyansw er thep rayer andcur e the s ick.Rutthe y arenot s atisfiedwiththesem eans. Thu s weobs ervethati ti s s tillad eep-rooted b eliefa mong t hem, as i t w asa mongth eira ncestors, t hat e verythingwhi ch belon gs toor co me s ind irectco ntactw itha s aint o rhi ss hriner eceivess omeofhi s p ower, whichm ay b etrans m ittedt o other s.3Thu s th etrees, gra ss,s tones,w ater, eartho f t het omb, thet ombc overings,oil a ndeven s weepings,p ossess sUi>er naturalp owerb yvirtu e o f th e wel1, t o wh om th ey b elong. Th is b elief l eads theOri ental t o u ses uch ob jects,h opingth us to g et s ome o f th esa int'spow er to g uardhim f rom m isfortune ease hisIJ aussen,p 3 34. 2 O nlyc hild" i se xpre ssedby wa llid. When o nehasason(ora d aughter), afte r a l ongpe riod,h eca llshim (o rh er) (o r waMd elt). 3The peop le of B et Dj ala b eli evet hatth eywillse ll th eir goo dsbetterif theyputs om e ea rth ofsri re t-Saiydehonthem.

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OANAAN:Mohamm edanSa ints an dS anctuaries inP alestine107p ains andh a sten hi s r ecovery.Ine xamining t hesecurative tl medicines we area stonishedb ytheirg reatnumberandvariety. W e m ay divide this material into t hefollowin g cla sses:1.Object s taken fromthesan ctuaryandusedin a protective or c urativew ay 2 .Acts p erformed in l! sa nctuary toc ureadi sease.Ad1.Thematerialu sed m ay be of v egetable,mineral, or o f li quid ori gin.Theg rass whi chg rows a roundthe s hrineisgathered a nddri ed ifnec essary andu sed t of umigate a p erson whohas fe ver.tThecommonw ord for "fumigate" i sdaa q.L eaves of t rees a reu sed i nth e sam e w ay. Occasionall y ad ecoction of plantsi s m ade a sa drau ght. Sm all piec es ofwoodarec utfromh olytreesandca rried as amulets. The mes trees( Celtis A u s tralisL ) whi chg rowinthe M osque ofOmararea2a rethe most importantsourc e of s uch amyl e t w ood. Th eyarecarried as a. pr otection a gainsttheevil e ffectof t heb ad e ye.Ones eesman ychildren-ands ometimes animalsw earingthisamulet. Th e mosta ctive 'fld ( twig) m es isthatwhich i sc utonth e27thofRamadan3afters un-set a ndbefore day-break, 4 s inceth eQoran s ays:"Iti s p eace un tiltheri singofthe' (last verse ofSureh9 7). This night6i s cho sen,s inceallbeli eve t hattheh eavens th en open ,t he angel s d escend ,a ndGod. g rant s ev ery wi sha ndhearsa llprayers. 7 The Mohammed ans beli evethatth e di vine d ecre es f orthee nsuingyearareanu ally fixedands ettled o nthisni ght.sThe mes trees w ere planteda ccordingto popularl egend b y thedjinnas apresentt o kingS olomon fortheprot ectiontStill be tteri ss traw tak en froma nant-hill s itu ate dn eara s h ri ne 2 SeeA berglaube,p p.62 ,63.3'I'he 27 thofR arnad d ni s l el atu 1Qadrmentionedi nth e 97thS urah,A ccor ding tomo s tM ohammedansitiso n e o f the l a s tt en nig ht s of t hi s mont h.InPalestine the27thi s fixed as th e night. Thisisdu e( accordingtoat -Tuhfal l -Martl/iyahf'il-AlJbar e l-Q"dsiyah w alAltdaft an-NaMwfyalt wa l'Aqd 'i d et T ow!lidiyoh by'A bd e l-Madjid Ali) tothe w ord lel atu lQadrcom ing t hree timesi n this S firah. A s this w ord conta ins n inel etters ( )..>-iJ\ thenum ber o f l ettersoft hisw ord inthis S firahindi cates whi ch ni ghto fR amadfin. M ost p eoplec ut t hetw igsj ust a fter midni ght. Sa le'st ranslation.6Onthi s ni ght th e a ngel G abriel g aveh is fir st revelation t ot heP rophet.7All s ins arefo rgivenif r equ este d .8A ccording toe i Tuhfah. e l-Marf!iyoh, t hebattleofB adr to okp lace o n t he mo rningofth e n ext d ay.

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108JournaloftheP alestine Orienta l Society, ofhistemp le.!T hesma ll tw igs have nearly alwa ystheshap e ofa forkwithtwospikes .s Christians, who a lso believeintheaction ofthistree,buttoaless extentthantheMohamm edan s, cutsmall twigsfromthe m es treenearthew ell ofth e threeKings.!Itis be liev edthatthepresenttree i s theoffshootofthatund er whichMaryre ste d whenshewasp ursued by ,theJews.4Ifpo ssible a t wigwiththeformofthecrossiscarried D atesar e brought fromM ecca a s abarak elia ndasa special meansof making children sp eaks ooner.B ut th ey havealsoan other b enefit; ifyoung childrenare all owed tos uck such a date, th eywillb ecome g ood s peakerswi thas weetv oice.! 'I'he C hristian s b elieve thata datef romthed ate-palm of M fLrS fiM 6i s th e be stcuretfor s terility.sOu t-up p alm-leave sareu sed in q i8ret el-H amls tobe describ ed b elow .Leaves ofth eProphet's olivetreegathered onthefeastofthe fl ags (djum 'e t e l a lemat9), whi ch corre sponds toth e GoodFriday of theGreek Church, h elp to c ure fev erands tomach trouble Thi streeli es b etweenthe andtheOmarM osque, j u st toth e w est ofth e wat er-ba s in( el-Kas) .Everyyea rthePropheta ndhi s $abii,beh inhabitthi streeatth ea bovem entioned tim e. Thi ss upernatural fact manif estsitself by a quiv ering vibration o ft hetwi g s O live trees enjoy spe cial honour inP ale stine .I0 'Christi ans11take s mallIC f.A berplaube,p 62 .2Ibid.3Th e w ell isc alledBirQadi sma .Cf.A berqlaub e,p .63 Th eProphet i ss upposedt o h aves aid "k eep youraunts,th e d ate-palm s inh onour,"c f.Aberqlaubep 87 e Itis r eally c uriousthatasain t wh oduring all his l if e r ana way fro mw omen a nde ven l ongafter hi s deathguardshi sco nventfromfem alei ntruders sho uld help women again sts terility .7Heardfroms ev eral personsand a priestofthe co nvent. lfaridatul'AdjO,ib saysthat date-palms w e re c reated f romth e sam eearthfrom whi chAdamwasmade( Aberg l altbe,p.87) 0 P I. o f' elim,t h e deminutive f rom' alam ... 10Aberglaube,I.c .1 1 AbUSukri Mu staklim.

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C ANAAN:M ohammedanSa intsa nd Sa nctuariesi n P alestine10 9o livetwi gs carried durin gt heF oot-wa shingprocessionandmixitwithqisret e l-!!amis.1 N extw eturntoapureOhristi anpractic e whichr esembles th e c ustomsalready d e scribed in many r espects .The Q iSret e l-!Jamzs ha s b een d e scrib eda lread yinm y Ab erglaube, a ndthi s acco u ntm ay be repeated h ere with so me a dditions e lI!amis, wh ich m eans l iterally thep eelingsofThursday," i sc omposed ofthecaps u lesofmahlabtPrunus mahale b,2 a na romaticg rain) with c ut-upl eavesof pa lms, o livetrees,an d s ome c ut flo wers.Themahlabc apsulesare dipp ed inth e wate ri n whi chthePatriarchoftheGreekOrthodox Ohur ch wa shes th e feetofth e Bi shops inth e c eremonyof M aundyThursday Th ew a t eri s perfum ed withro s e-water et c .Thissacki s driedandputth atv ery ev ening onthep ulpitfromw hich t h e g ospelsarere ad.T he o livel eavesa retake n from t heolivebranches whichareu sedintheceremony ofthe F oot-washing .Theflower s co mefrom t he e n-n'U$$ 3o r from' id e$$alib, t heFeastoftheC ross ,"On th ese tw o da ysthe cro ss islaidon a largeplate (sini yeh) c overed withflow ers.Prayersares aiduponitan d th e fl owersareth en di s trib ut ed toth e congregation Th e p alm -le aves a re f romp almS unday V ery oft en on e findss altanda lummix ed with Q iSret e l-l!a.m'is. This c ompositioni s u sed to fumigat e a s ick c hild,as i tis thebestm eans toobviatethebadr esults ofthee vi l e y e.When n o sa ltanda lum a re m ixedi n,t heyareadd ed b e fore t hefumigationt alees p lace .s M eramiyeh(SalviaTriloba)h as it s n ame fromM ariam(St. Ma r y).Itis sa id that whi leMary w as walkin g on ce in a h ots ummerd ay s he perspir ed pr ofusely,sos heplu cked a pl ant t o wi peh erfac e. H ence thisplantcarriesh erna me, a nd is u sedtoc ure many di seases .Ine xaminingtho seo bjects wh ichb elong t o th e minera lkin gdom w efindthat q$arah ( plaster),s tones a nd s weepingso f m anys hrines a reused medicina lly.Thestonesa re c arried,orw ater inwh ichIItisawid e -s pread c ustomt o p l acebe lowt het hreshold a green o live o r other t wig with a s ilver co in, asiti s b elieved th ats uch a nactsym bolizes perpetu ity a nd prospe rity F orthesa mer easona l argeg reen t wig (a n o live one isal ways p referred) isp lacedwh erea t iled r oof i s b eing er ected .2B elot.3T heS unday which li es in themi ddle of th e Easter f ast-days. 4 He ardf romMi ss B aldensberger.

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110Journalo fth ePalestine Ori e ntal S ocietythey have beenplacedi s drunk.Theblack stone s ofNebi Musft arec onsidereda s avery a ctiveli irs(protective amulet).Theys howtheirs pecial power in being burned They contain a bitumin ous s ubstanceandareth erefore black Veryoftentheyarecut -insq uare ortriangularform s, a protectiv e tali sman is inscribed a ndarethuscarriedasa ( talisman).Christians aswellas Mohammedans u sethesoft whitish s tonesofthe, mi lk-grottoinBethlehem toincrease mother's milk.Thestone sarerubbedinwaterandgiven tothenursing women.Iti 's supposedthattheHolyFamilytook refuge tothiscave, wher e a drop of Mary's milk dropped o nth e floor.Inmany ca ses acertainnumberof stone s fromasp ecial holyplace hav e tob e worninord er tob ee fficacious.1h ave alwa ys foundthenumbers eveninuse. Seven stonestakenfrom es-se!J Ghreiyb, s iyfl!J el Masalmeh, e s-seh Abu Yamin etc. cure fever.Theswe epings of e-se!JSn et (Hebron)cure sterility,Iandtho se ofe n-nobi se!J Qaittm(Hebron), e-se!J Ramadan.! etc., heal f ever Some oftheearth (frabeh) of es-se!J ez-Zughbeh (1\Ial};lah) preparedwithoilinapastecure so resoftheh ead.Earthgathered fromqabr er-Rft'i 3dissolved in wat er andgiv en tocattlewill g uard th em from disease.Thewaterof many holy places is used forcurative purposes. Cure is effected e itherbyabathorbyinternalu se.Inmo st ca sesthewateri susedeither to heal feverorto preventsterility.People suffering fevertakeabathin En' En e s-Samiyeh,4 Enen-nebz Aiynb orthewellof es-se!JIbi'ahim,5 ortheydrinkfromthecisternof e sSuhadfl.6 Intheca se ofSiloamiti snota s implebathwhich cures fev er.Thebathmu st betakenonFridayduringthemidd ay prayer,after which water i s poured overth epatientITh es amei strueo fN ebi l? alel,1 ( inth ev illageb earing hisnam e) whi chi s s ituatedonthet op of a m ount ain. The se rvant (' a bd,al so" neg ro") oft heProphetisthoughtt o b e living inth ebadd(o ilpresa)ofthe maq iim. 2In Qatann eh. Hei ss upposedt o be a r el ative oftheProphet,a ndasth e inhabitantso fthevillag e con sider them selves hi s d e scendant s, th ey c all th emselves asraf, orm ember softheProphet's family.3Ne ar th e sanctu aryo fN abi l\lflsa In Koloni:1.Bet Djibrin. 5 H ebron.

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C AN A AN:M ohamm edan Saint s and Sanctu aries inP ale s tine111s evenconsecutivetime s.Whena s t e rilew omans eeks a cur eof h er barrenn ess, she take s w ith h er to t his s pring se ven m a sa7.Ji$ ( p I. o f s even k e ys ofdoor s whi ch opent o th e s outh ,andse ven c ups of water, eachfr om diff erentc isternsup on who seo penings t he(ra y s o f th e sunn ever shin e.? Shepl ac e s th e key s a ndth e lllaSa7.Ji $ inth e w ater, w ashes h erself withi ta ndp our s th e waterof th es even c i s terns ove rherselfa fterwards. ar e ol dg oldc oins whi ch be aronon es idetwohum an figures ( salj$ =p erson ). El-Ma tba ah,a sw ampi nth e plain ofEsdraelon b etween e-s ell Ibrek and Tell e s-Sammam i s r enown ed f or the c ureo f rheum atism, nerv ous pain sands terility.Iti s beli evedthat e s -s e7.J Ibrekg iv es thi s pl aceits he aling power s.Afterabarrenw oman h astaken a bathin e l-Matba'ahshewa shes h erself in En I shaqandgo est hen t o e se lj Ibrek to off er apre sent. Aiyub eas tof J;arbata h elps al so tocure sterility. Many inhabitantsofJerusalem beli evethatsitting inth edjurn(ba sin) ofsi ttiM ariam3banishe s barrennes s.Iti s suppo sedthattheVirgin Mary oncetookabathinthi s ba sin' Barren womenb elievethatth ey m ay r eceivec hildren throu gh th e ble ssin go fthes e d emigods,theaw li a .TheHebrews ofth e Old T e st ament 4 u sed t o cheri shthes amebelie f. W ashing infl amed ey e s withth e watero f En Imme l-Loz ( belowSilw an) i s supp osed to c urethem. C hri s tianwomen think as a lreadym entioned thatC hrist s enttheblindmantow ash hi s e yes withit s wat er.6S everalspringswheretheP alestinians b elievet hatJ ob b athed a nd w as thus cured of hi s di sea se ,ares till 'u se df ora ll sort s of s kin aff ection s. S om e o f th ese pl acesa re: H amman es S ifa 7J erusalemBirAi yflbSnearSiloam en-nabiAiy flb R as ibnSinih an en-nab i Aiyub lfarbat f l IC f. Abe;,'glaltbe, p.6 9.2Ca n aa n,JPOSvo !.I p.155.3N earS t. Steph en'sga te. 4 1S am.17-11j2K g .412'17jG en.2 931, 302 ,22 ,181 0.sC urtiss, c hapt erX. & JPOSv o!.I.pp .153If.1Nea rth e Mo sque o f Omar. S B elowS ilwan.

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112JournalofthePa lestin e Ori ental S ocietyen-nabi AiyubDsrAiyfl b (near B nb el-Wnd) Ai yub D er Aiyub (nea r B ab el-W ad) EnAiyubE.of lJarbata ITo this listIma yaddthatthepeople of Gaza andth e vill ages north ands outhofitbel ievethatJobwascured fromhi s s evere s kin eruptio n b y taking abathi n th e seaontheWednesday whichprecedes th e G r eekEaster.Therefore this dayi s kn own bythename ofa rba' at Aiyftb, o ribriyetAiyftb.All anima l s aff licted wit h askin disease a re b roughtTuesda y evening( i ,e the b eginning ofWednesday2 )to t heseaa ndbathed.'I 'he b est plac e wher e acu r ecanbeobtainedin n ear s ittnft el -lJaq.r a (nearthes iteofA sca lon),Inthevic inity of t h e spring AbuZed an d 'En abuFakkah ( Bet Zakariyft) someherb sgrow whichc urethebadeffe cts of e l-ljojeh fear. T he c urative ac tioni sd ue tothe nab13za kariyfl.! T hewaterof iyftn (s prings o f retention of u rine)a re re nowned a ll ove rP alestineast heb estcurefor supp ressio n of u rine. Am onga llspringsb elongingtot his gro up Ihavef ound on ly o ne whic hi s s upposed to b e in habitedbyaw eli,n amel yBires-Saharin D el' Tarif, in habitedby cl-w eliS u e b. T he question howthe sesprings go t t heir curativeacti on r e mains u nsettled. 5 Noton lya reth ing s whicharep hys ically connec ted witha s hrine use d me dicinally, b ut eve no fferingsde posit ed t here a re a l so employed toc ure di sease. T huswefindthatw ick s ( ofoil lamps) incense,ragsfastened onatreeo r awin dow,t omb-coverings,etc.,pu ssess ac urative action .Rhe umatico r neuralgic6patientsrubtheirfore -ISo meofth ese wer e men tioned inJ POS,v oJ. I p 168 ., 2Th e m odeo fr e ckonin gti meinP alestinee x ists t o dayjust a s i t w as i n d ays ofC hrist.Th e d ayo f t wenty-four hour s be gins with s unsetand e ndswith s unset. Thi s i sa lluded to in a lmostth e op ening w ordso ftheBib l e(Ge n.1 5;seea lsovv ,8, 1 3, 1 9, 2 3a nd 3 1).Inkeepingwiththi s,t hepriests inth e Tab ernacle w ereto ord er it (t hati s, th eir d aily s ervice) from e veningtill morning .' I'herea rev ery manyreferences inth e Bibl e p ointing t o thi s m odeo fr eckoning. Cf .Ja mesN e il, Palestin e Life,pp 1if.3S ee alsoGoldzih er Moltam Studien ,pp 34.'5, 346.Inth e v i cinity o fel l\lbarakeh (Qa landiah )g rowsaplantca ll ed en n a/1rali whi ch i s c arried aga instth ee vile ye. 4 H eardfroml\IissBa ldensberger s These sp rin 'gs havebe en d escrib e dJ POS ,voJ.I, pp. 146--;-153. 6The word isusedfals ely for rheumatic and neuralgicpains,aswell asfor nervou s andm ental disea ses .

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CANAAN: Mohammedan S aints and Sanctuaries in Palestine113head s andjoints withoilfrom shrine s. Sometimes iti s mixed with dried herbs,a s inthecase of Suet and Kanfus (both in Hebron), oritis mixed withsomeearthoftheshrine (ez-Zughbeh in Thispasteis used forskin troubles.Wheneveroilistaken fromany shrineotheroilisgiveninits place; if this is ne glected, theholyoilmay produce aresultopposite tothatintended.ThewicksofNebi Mu sa ( sometime sNebi DahO.d ortheHaramin Hebron) s wallowedb y st erile womenarebelieved to curetheircondition. Others carrythese wicksasa Zlidjab (amulet)against thesame trouble. A patientwithfeveris supposed togetwellif heis fumigated with incen setakenfrom sittnael-!!.a4ra (neared Dj ora h)orwiththestraw ofthemats (qa ss of Shab edDin(nearJaffa),If.s mall children wear a rag,takenfromaholytreeoraholy shrine, theyareprotectedagainstthebadeffectsof evil spirits.Fumigationwith such aragis believed tocureall diseases caused bythedj inn.Wheneveraragistaken,anothermu st bef a stened inits place.RagsfromSadjaretes-Sa'adeh (b etween Yfimfi.n andDjenin)arerenowned fortheiraction. Womentrytocuta pi ece off o f t lle tomb-covering of. Nebi Mus a a nd makeit" into acupfora s ickly child orfora child whosemotherhaslo st mostofhermale children. AthreadwhichhasbeenpassedaroundthetombofMoses (and whichhas thusthelength ofits circum ference)wornaroundthewai st ofawoman suffering from continuous miscarriages, prevents suchanevilinthefuture. '1'he rosaries of manysaintshelptoha sten a difficult labour. No sooner doesa w oman hangsucha rosaryaroundherneckanddowntheabdomen overherwombthannormalcontraction s beginandalltroublesandpains are soonover.Thesewonderful rosarie sarecalled (pl.of yW;U1 1 Among such rosaries a rethatof el-Bakri, 2 inthepossessionofHasanof D el' Ghass aneh ;thatof eS-seJj.Abo. Yamin (Bet' All an) in possession of eS-se7.JYusif andthatof e l-Arami,Thesame' wonderful helpcanalsobe obtained bythetombcoverings of IS omemeanbyth isn ame a s pecia ls orto frosary.2O. S e l-Burghfijl,8

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114 Journal oft heP al e stin e O riental SocietyMoh ammedel. .lJalili.t Thebread of si dnacS-sel}A M M adian.>whichi spreparedf rom c ornofthewa qfofthi s hol y m an dur ing t hem onth o fR amadan i sab arakeh,asw ellas a remed y.I n t he latterc ase itishun ga boveth e head of thesi ck orputund er hi s pillow.Duringthebread-makin gt heQ oran isr ecited.G enerally t hef ollowing partsa rere ad while t hed ough i s kneaded:The wh ole Q orano nceAl-Futihahs eventim es Siirah 112tentim esSurah 113three time s Snrah11 4three tim es Asitwouldt ake a ver y longtimeforone person tor ead the whol eQoranalone,w e seea s m anypersons asth e Q oran ha s parts (b izb) ass istinginr e citingtheH oly Book.Some of thisbreadi s sometim espreparedinthemonth Sa'ban. Butonl y th at whichis mad e durin g R amad an p ossessestheabove-m entioned virtue. v Holybread ( the qud daseh) is used a lsoby O hristians.Its houldb eea ten o nlywhileoneisrituallyc lean. 'Thesli ppers (babudj, pI. ba wabtdj) o fel-Madj dub! (Del' Gh assnnehcurefa cialparalysis b y b eing u s edt obe atthe a ffected s ide.Thato f e l-Bakri (Djamma'in), ifwornb yst erilew omen, cur es their' c onditio n.For (iisit er-radjf ehI m ay r efer tom ya rticleJPOSIll,122.Ad2 .Wes hallnowd eal withac tionsc onne cted w ithaholy pl acea ndperformed b ythes ickp erson to obtainr elief. Such action sareconnected st rictlywiththemo st h oly partofthe shri ne, g enerallythetomb.Thefollowin g e xamples will illustr ate. Am an withfe vert riestog etrido f hi s di sease byw alkin g s ev entimes a roundthetomb of s ell.lJr es. Aftereachturnh e pick s up a stone a nd place sitonthetomb.Whilethesickp erson isw alking a roundIM ohammed bin S araf e d-Din es -Safi'i e l-Halili,wh owas b ornin H ebr on, s tudied in Ca iroanddi ed inJ eru s alem( 1147 A.. H. ). 2AM M adian i s 8u'ebAM M adian ofM orocco. H e buil t i n J eru s alemt hezawiet e l-Maghiirbeh, whe reh ec hose tobeb uried. B ut h e die di n M orocco a nd on lyhi s h and i sb uriedin t he zawie h ( Lawiiqi[t e l-Anwar,by"A bde lW ahh9.bes .8a'rani I 1 53).3Cf .Ab erglaube,p 88 Th e r e i s atp re sento nlyone.

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CANAAN: "Moh ammeuan Saint sa nd Sanctuarie s inPalestin e115thegravehi s relatives say prayer s.Others thinkthattaking ston es andplacingthemonthetomb1withthewords"carrythefeverin myplace 0 sel].S net" sufficetoremovethe ,InJericho afever patient is carried byhis relativ es and laid on th e tombof eS-sel]. Gh anim.Therelative s retire, leavingthesick person al one, fortheyb elievethatthesoulofthismanofGod converseswiththesickoneandatlast healshim. sInN ablus the verysickare carri ed tothe shrine of e l Anbin. They ,areplaced near thetombandleftalon e .Ifthey perspire itisb elievedthatthediseasegets better.Intheca se of es-sel]. Sa 'id (Idnah) those attacked withfever lieintheenclosure. Backache is cured b y rubbing theback onAM and placing a s ton e ontherock. Th e samepower i sattributed tothe brok en c olumn placedatthe head ofa s mall tombbeside es-sel}Sadd ild inth e cemetery ofB ab e r-Rahmeh.!InHebron mothers induce their children torunover theto'mbof eS-el}S net togetover their ailment s.sAnimpotent manmustwashhimselfina we li oronthe thresh oldofel Ateri ( Del' Ghassfmeh). A 7;tidjab written bythe sel].: of el-:ijaqra (N ablus) andw orn bythe impotent after hehas prayed inth e roomknowna s HuznYa'qub, willcurehi sco ndition. A child suff ering fromfeveris taken byhis mother to el-Kas6(also Djurn) awat er basin between and The/ 1I'Abde l-Ghanist atest hatth esic kandtroubled ofhi s timeu sed topl ace st oneso n t het omb of Al;1mad e d-Dadjani, hopin gt o ge tridof t heirdiffi culties (Kahl e,PJBVI,74 ). : .2While thi s ide a i strue in co nnectionwithplacin g st oneso nahol yspot, itc annotb eacce pteda tlea st forP ale stinian co nditions-inc onne ctionwiththrowin ga ston e on amafi izeh,asDoutte d escribe s forMorocco( p.42 8). MafO,zeh is a s w e h aveseeno np age 76, a h eapofs tonesfound o n t hetop o f amountain. Atravellerwill ,afte r c limbing t he mountain,throw as tone o n a n ex istingheapandthankth e Almightythat heh as ov ercome adiffi culty,butd oes no tintendbythis ac t totransferhi s w earin ess, palpitation ,thirstand breathl essness to th e he apo f s tones.3 A patientwh o w as curedin this w ayt oldmethatthe se!! a sked hi m abouthis a ilments, a dvisedhimtoke ep hisr eligiouso bligations a nd c uredhim. Di fferentcases h ave b een m enti oned wh ere p a tients pl aces tones o ntheholy pl ace. B y d oings o t he pe asantb elievesthath e tak esa wayhisburden-diseaseandpla cesit. on t he we li. Hege tsrido f it ,a nd t hem an of G od,whom this burden cannot injure, a ssumesit. Seea lsoD outte,p p.435,4 36. 6 'I 'his b asin i sho ly, si ncei t li es b etweent he t womo sques,andis q uite n ear Mohammed'soli vetree." 8*

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11 6Journal of t hePalestin e O rientalSoci etychildwalks three times around theba sin, durin g themiddaypr ayer on Friday. During thisproces s hi s motherthrow s sweet s continu ally o n t he g round,andth e childis taken homewith outt urning o r lookingback. Talismans1a real so m ade in a san ctuary a ndwornbypeopl ea s ap rotectionag ainst dis ease, or a reu sed to f umigateasickchild Th ese aloftheM osque o f Hebron wi th th e n ames ofthePatriarchs andthoseof their wifswhower e bu ried there i s u sed a gainst fever (cf. AberglaUbe, p. 13 0). Thef ollowing i s atranslation of s ucha tali sman: His w ife c hosenby GodHiswi fe Ri fqah cho sen b y God Hiswi fe Lai qah c hosenby GodHis wif e Zl ibah cho sen by God TheProphet of G od 8 Ab raham sea l Peac e be h im ATh eProphet ofGodIsaac Peac e bewithhim ....... .... .. .. .. ..... .' B TheP rophet ofGod 8 Jacob s eal Pe ace bew ith hi m. .. .. .... .. . .. .... . .. ... ... CThe Prophet ofGodJoseph Peace bewithh im........... .. ....... .. .. ... .. .. .. ... D Thefoot print of the Proph et TheHol y Ca veIT heb est c ure ofah orse s uffering fromco lic i s tori de t he anima l ata ga llop an d a fter ti ring it,to ma keitj umpoveron e, bette r t hreet ombss even t imes ( MusaAMN ada).

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CANAAN: Mohammedan S aints andS anctuaries inP alestin e117Thispap er is c utatthe dott ed line s A B,CandD. The child i sfumigated ev ery daywithonepie ce.Inreading the amulet read fromri ght tol eft. Simil arsea lsarealsoi ssued b y someofthe se1]s of t heMos que ofOm ar. Suchapap er1cont ains cir cular sealswithdiff erent writing sa ndtherepresentation s ofh ands, swordsand balanc es. Charact eristici nscriptions o fth ese ljaw{Uim (pl,of lj atim, s eal)a re:1.Inther epresen tation ofthesword:3 li.iJ\\:>')ll')l,.)s')l\')l ) .., ..(Therei s) noyoun g m an except' ABandno s word except !Jo. l-Piq ar.! 2.Ina lj atim witha balance: JI0'":i...UUJIvI>1;10'"0Jt9slf'.>-.i.LIb\.,...-JI He(Mohammed),p eace beuponhim,saidthatwhoeverdesires tobehold a p atch (little piece)ofP aradis e shouldseeJ erusalem. Es-s aiyd Ahmad e sSarif. Th e w ay. Sl,ladeh. 3 .Ina nother ljatim w itha balance: \.M\.M Thi s is a bal ance. Thi si s a w ay.4.In a circul ars eal(thato f Mo ses): .uJ I U"""Y" Mos est he Interlocu tor o f God.IIhaves uch talisman s o n whit e, r ed,an d gr eenpaper. 2 Iha ve alw ays f ound it written in t h ese sea lswi thIi nstea do f 3Ont he[lirzo f Murdj aneh(c f.Aberglaube ,p.48 )w e fi nd al sot he s word with the f ollowingin scription: J...-.JS .. Ui.i.J\:>')l\')l')l\ ., ')l0'".) ",) .' ".' """ s: 0'"dL:...o\vls'\.M( .I)u l-Fi qflr i s th e byna me oftheswordo f'Allb inAbi T alib. Itiss aid t o h ave beenm adef rom t hepi eceo fir on wh ich w as f ound buri ed in a l-Ka'bah (D tiiratu Z-M a'tirif,vo l. VIII,p.41O ). 5 A [lCtdft. 6Probably n am es ofthe s iyatJ inw hose possessio n th is sea lw as. T hefirsti st he o lder o ne.

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11 8Journal o f theP alestineOrienta lSoc iety5 Abraham' s seal(cir cular): iirlo+="-}'&.1-1 f')WIf,.yJIJY") Th e Ap ostle of t heKi ng,t heBelo ved,t heAllknowin g,A braha m, theFriendof t heM erciful On e, onh im b e p rayer s a ndp eace. 6. Onaround s ealwer ead ayatulkursi (S urahH,25 0). 7.Inthe repre sentation o ft heha nd: t?,.ill 1 0-"4 ..ill 1 J,.....,).ill 1 )1\4JI)1)li.iJI\))1\)1,)11.ill 1 4 .vL.:.-)4.vl.M4 .vL:.:...4 .JAl U;J\ B ear goodtidin gs toth e tru e b elievers,0' Moh a mmed ,ass istance fromGod, a nd as peedy victory'! There isno G od,butGod,andM ohammed i s the a postleofGod. There is no youthbut Ali, a ndn os wordbut !>fl l-Fiq ar,oSymp athetic ,0Benevolent,0Merci ful,0God. TheE xternal, theInternal, theF irst, th e L ast. O nel arge s ealencl oses tw elve circle s an o ther seve n.T h e sec ircles con taine fficacious ve rses. W he n s uchp aper s are i ssuedw e no tice th atea chone contain ssev e ral oft he ab ove-mentioned fig ure s O ft en w hen ac hildi ss ick a ndth e m other b elieves th ato nly a b idjab willh elp t oc ureh im, an ds he canno t ge ton e w ritte n at thatm oment,s he p uts as mallb ag o f salt in a h oleo f t he eas tern w allan d sa ys 'ala!aser -Eta'i, for t he sa ke ofe r-R.'"V erye arly int he m ornings hegoe s t oa of th e Ri f a' i o rdera nd asks him to writ e h era forth e sick chil d.Herpious i ntention-shown bythea ct d e scribed-ensures th e f avouro f t hism an o fGo d, ev en b efore sh e rec eive s ata lisman f romon eo fh isrepres entat ive s. sIna nalyzingthedi seases whi cha recuredbyr emedies t aken from awe liwefindthattwoaremost repre sented n am el y, fev era nd st erility. Thefollowingdis eases comene xt: m entaltroubles, sup pres sion of urine, andskindi seases. Ther eason s w hy fe verand st erility predominate a re th e followin g. B y feverth e Or iental und er stands e verya ilmentwhi ch i s acc ompanied b yfever, a nd w heren oITakenf rom S urah 6 1.2 A cu s tomin D el' G hassfineh,h eard fr om O S. B arghiW.

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CANAAN:lIIohammedanSaints and Sanctuarie s inPal estine .119other symptoms-like bleeding(fromthelungs,or gastrointestinal tract),diarrhea,coughing etc.-predominate. Thus malaria, typhoid, typhus, recurrent fever,etc.,arecalledsimply or bumma (fever).Weknowalsothatmalaria i s averywidespr ead disease, metwithallover Palestine.Inthisway"fever maybeconsider ed the greatest Palestinian plague. Sterility, orin other words, marriage withoutchildren,especiallymaleones,isaseverepunishment,cau sing astronglyfeltdisgrace.Aman 's honouris best expressedby callinghimnotbyhi s n ame butbythatofhisoldest s on, preceded b y "f ather of." AM Ali,1 "the father of Ali,"isthehonorificname ofX,whoi s nevercalled "X," but Abu Ali.Inorder todisguise thetrueconditionofachildle ss man heiscalled "father" ofhi s ownfather 's namej2f or exampleHas an hasnochildren whilehis father'snameisMohammed,heiscalled AM Mohammed,or AM Ibrahim ifLbrahiniisthenameofhisfather.Thisisthereason wh y every barren womanseeksforhelp ever ywhere toescapeher d espised condition.Very interesting i s thefactthatsome awl ia haveaspecialpower o ver certain di seasesji. e. theyarespecialistsforone s ortof ailments.Followingisali st gi ving th e disea ses andthe saint s which curethem:Formentaltroubles e l-Hader,3 Rdj al(D el' Gh assaneh), en-Nnb anl, e s-seg Djabr (R afat) and s ittna el-lIaqr it are sought.El-Hader enjoysthegreatest reputation ofall.Everypla ce whereitissuppo sedthatthe prophetJobtooka bath isr enowned forcuringskin-troubl es( see a bove). S iyug eleArnri (D el' Ghas saneh) havethe power ofcuringaspe cial eruptionoftheheadcalled s awwatah (al sord' a yeh). Theycaut erize itwithfire,whil e an ointmentmadeof so meherb s whichgrow near the s hrinei s given tothepatient. 'Er-Rfa'! h ad whileon earth thepowerofh ealing thebiteof ve nomousserpents.Hebeggedth e Almight y togiveq arn e l-baltit IIti s awides preadcus tomof M ohammedansa ndChri stians inPalestinet o give t heir fir stsont hen ameo fhi sgra ndfat her ( fat her's fa ther). .2A [lad i! says bairu l -asmui mu [l ammada au' abbad," the b est n amesa re th oseo fM ohammedo r' Abd ( "ser vant" )."T helatter i s alwa ysfo llowedb y a n ameo r a ttr ibut e ofGo d. 3 I h avetranscribed bot h HaiJ,r a nd HaiJ,er, as bo thpronounciations areh eard F orse verem enstrualb leedingthe i nhabi tants ofth e Sam aria di strictg o t o Ban at Ya 'qubf or hel p.

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1 20Jo urnal o fthe P alestine Or iental S o c iety(c alled insomeplaces qarn e l-'talbit) a n antivenom ous po wer. Since his d eath themilkinwhich t he qa rn h as been rubbed i s b elieved tocur e eve ry poi sonedperson. The i yul} o f er-Rf a pret end t o be pr oof ag ainst ever y serpent bit e. V erywid espread i s thebeliefthatcert ain cure sa re s urer a t speci al times.Thu s bathin g in H ammam e VEn and s pringsdedic ated toJobinthe night of 'Asfl.rah 1(thetenthofM oharr am2)i s m ore eff ectivethan 'b athin g atan yo ther pe riod.Th esea ismo st cur ative intheda y of ibr1.yet Aiyu b.Th e be st 'ft dm e s i s th at whi chwa s cutin L el atu l-Q adr (the27th o fRamadan). A ctsp erformed a bout n oon time e?-!fuhr) are m ore e fficacious th an oth ers, e tc. I s hall cl ose thi sse ctionwitha s tudy o f t he s hrines o f e lHade r (St. Geor ge), the m ostr enowneds aintph ysician f or ner vousa nd ment al troubles. Thism an of G od,wh o ishon oured b y allcr eeds in Palestine, pos sesses man ys anctuaries.T o e veryone o fth em c omes uppliants,butsom ea rem ore p opularth ano thers.Ih ave b eena blet o g athe r f ollowinglist ofs hrinesconnected w ith this s aint: P lace Q uarterJerusalemA rmenian quarter J erusalem be side th eFrancis c an Con ventJerusalem insideth e J aff a Ga teJerusalemo utsideth eJ 'a ffa G ateD es cri ptionbe longst o theGre ekO hurch belong s t o theGree k Chur ch b elongs t o th e Co pts3b elongs toth e Q urtf amily,a ndi s h onoured byM ohammedansan d O hristian s41Iti ssai dthate l-Husendiedt his d ay whil e v ery thi rsty. T her ef ore man y w illdrinkwaterwit h eye ss hu t a ndfr om an opaque vesse l in ord er n ot t osee t h e water.2N otthen inth, a sHavastates i nhi sArab ic-EnglishD iotionary .3These t hr e e c hurches a renotus e db y M ohamm eda n s. 4 GeorgeQurtto ld m e th e story o ft hisp lace asfo llow s : Hi s father an d gran dfath er w er e oncep lo ughing t hel and w h e r e the s anctua ry li es O ne d ay t h ey re sted a t midday, stretch in g themse lv es u nderan o liv e tre e, wh ich wa s k nowna fterwards a s Z et12nit e l-Hadr,B oth f ell a s leep. S t.Ge orgea ppea re d tothegrandfathera nd o rd e red him : "G et u pa nd b uild my s anctua r y,yo u will fi ndth e d oorat s u cha s pot. I nstead ofg ettin g e grandfather wrapped h ims e lfb et t er in h iscl oak, t hinkin g th at itwa so n ly a dream.Butthes aint

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C ANAAN:Moh ammedanS aintsandSanc tu aries in Palestin e121Jerusalem 'el-Aq saJerusalem MosqueofOmar1Jerusal em Mo sque of Omar area, N W. corner J erusalem Same,NE.corn erPlaceB etween Nablu s Nablu s NablusQ uarter B etDj ala a ndthePools of S uetra l;Iaret el -'Aqabeh nearthelarge d jami' D escription Maq amel-:J;aqr belowthe Holy Rock2 Qubbet el-:J;aqr near B ab es-Bbat( notso popularatpresent) B ab el-Hadr ( the east do or, whichis notinuseat present ) honoured by' Chri stians andMoh am. medans amos que roomwitha 3darkroom 4 N ablus Hamm amed-Dar adjeh Tai ybeh B et'Anan abasininwhichhe takes abathevery FridayS Christian church a andafewfigtrees.Theplace is completely neglectedr epeated h is r equestandat l astsa id: You b oth s hall re maindum b, un til m y sa nctuaryi sb uilt."F rightened, th e man g otu p,a rousedhi sson a nd-behold b othwe red umb. Nex t dayt hew orkwasbe gun a ndth ey, ind eed,f ounda t thed escribedspo tth eope ning o f acave .T o th eir astonishm enta ndthato f a ll sp ectatorst he ca lf whic h th ey h ad l ostayea r ago while p loughing t his p lacew as foundinth eca ve,w ell-g rownandf ed.S traw,barl ey and water w erebroughtto himin am iraculousw aybyS t. George. Th eyfo undal so thef ollowing inscrip tion .>JiJ\J='"Lo.iS.r:.:'(l..;-J,;..\t}.>". : ...L\;ill \ \ Themir acles of el-l]a!J.r a re m any,n ot f ew. H ere ist he pl ace of th egreatsa int a mongth emartyrs, Geo rge c lad w ithvi ctories,t hem artyrinth e w ars." Ther enowno f th is p lace sp read.E ven th eS ultan g rantedi ta F arrnan. P atientsbegan t o fl ock hi ther, t he last o ne i n t he y ear1 923.No so onerwas th e wo rk o fr estoring th e ma qiim atanend,t henthepow erofs peech o f t he gran dfather a ndf athero f Geo rgc wasr estored.A nab breviated version of t he story i sg iven byRabic,PJVI, 88 .ITh efo urn extp laces a re men tionedb y Mudjire d-Din,2K ahle n otesthate l-baltual:essodal:i s d edicated t oe l-Hadr(PJV I, pp 8 8,91 ).3T he saint usedtoasse mbleh erew ith othe r awlifi.4 M entallyd iseasedp ersons u sed to befaste nedherewi thi ron c hains.Ih ave seenoneofthese chains st illin p lace. Th e illt ake a bath i nthis b asino nFriday, beli evingt hat t hiswill c ureth em.

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12 2Journal ofth e P alestine O riental So ciety P laceQu arter D escriptionDjifnah C armela c ave B et R ima L ydd in side th e villagenear B et Dj ala onthewa y toer -RasKarakChri stianIhonouredb y alldenominati ons2honoured bytheMohammed ans a chur ch, honouredb y Mohamm edans andChri stians a called l.Jatwet (ltabtet) el lJarJr ho noured byChr istiansa ndMoha m medans. Thereares ome aw lia bearin g th e n ame e Uel]J;IaeJr (likethatW of Rammfin) whichprob ably h ave nothin g todowi th St. G eorge.Therea rem any other s hrinesdedi catedto thi swaliy allah, wh ich a renot included i n thisli st. Themo st im port anto f t hesepl aces a rethaton Carmel s a ndthe shrine n ear B et Dj aJa. 'I'helatter iss ituatedonanel evated pl ace betw een t he vill agea ndthePo ols ofSolomon Theb eautifulc hurch,wh ich i ss urroundedb ya con vent lie s in av illage, bearing th e n ame o fe l-Hader,Th e inhabit ants of the se ttlementare allMohamm edans. Th e whole a rea ar ound the s anctuaryusedtob elongto th e c onvent, whi ch i s d irectly d ependent ontheGr eek P atri ar chate inJerusalem. Al arge partoft he sa nctuaryw as r ebuiltaf ew ye arsb efore th ew ar.Thi s ch ange i s of g reat importance, a s goodroom s w ere c onstructed f ortheinsane. a ndthusa larg e partofth e oldpr actice incu ringt he a fflicted w as chan ged.Wes halld escribe th eway in w hich t hepati entsu sed tob e tr ea ted befor e thi s ch ange to ok pl ace. A sth e r eputati on ofthewonderfulcu reso fthi ss aint s pread a ll over t hec ountr y, s i ckof a ll c reeds w erebr oughttoit f roma ll dir ections. No so onerd id the y a rrive th en thepri estc hainedth em inth e narthex infr ont of t he c hurch.Th e heav y ir on ch ainwas fa stenedt o anironrin ga roundth e n eck of t heunfor tunatec reature, th e othere nd o fthechai n b eing d rawn through on eofthetwowind ows,o n ea ch s ide of them ain port al,a ndf asten e din s ide t heITh er e i s a cha inf orthe madjilntn. 2Cf .K ahl e,PJBVI,89;Gra f Miilin enZD PVXXX, 88 .3Ca ll ed by s ome M ar EliRs 4 Thepresentg overnmenthasforb idd en th e ac ceptan ce o f i nsane inth i s pl ace.

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C ANAAN: Moh ammedan Saints and Sanctuari es inPal estine123church.Inc asethreepatients were sentatth e sametimethethirdonewas placed ina small room builtjustwesto fthedome.Thechaininthis ca se went through a small windowofthedome thus connectingthepatientwiththechurch.Duringthecold winter monthsthe. p atient s wer e keptinsidethechurch.Thefollowing s tory, taken fromthewritt en notes ofmy father beautifully illustrates th e strong belief inthemiracles ofSt.George, andshowshow s uchide asarepropagatedbythepriests them selves.TheGreek Orthodox priestIbrfthim el-'Awwa 1wenta s usual on Saturday afternoon accompanied byIshaq Tfun a 2t otheconvent ofSt. George toreadthe night andthe Sunday morning masses. Theyfound there a furiou s andm entally abnormal Bedouin sel} of the Tayaha tribe ch ained inth e church.Hiscondition was s obadthathe tore allhi s clothes.Whateverthera iys(director) oftheconv entputonhimwassoontorntopiece s. A sthepriestwithhi s as sistantIshaqg otup duringthenight top erformtheirduty, theybeh eldthesh adow ofa human bein g mo ving cauti ously ontheroofofthe church.Frightened, theyawok ethemonk.A thorough inv estigation sh owedthatthenaked sel] wa s crou ching inonecorn er, shi vering withc olda nd extre mely exhausted.Atonceth e superior ofthec onvent gav ehimcloth es,a nd,t aking himinto a r oom made a fir e andbe gan torubhimuntilhef eltbetter.The ra iys a sked the s el} howhe go toutofthechurch, whilethedoorswere still lock ed. H e an swered:age ntle looking man,with aspearin his hand, riding o nahor se,a ppearedtomeandordered m e:"Get rip andgoto y ourtribe."Hetou chedthech ain withhi s spearandit fellofm y : neck .Ic limbedupth ec hainfromwhichth e chur ch lamphun g. Swin ging m yself t oandfroIr eached awindowinthedom e ofth e chur ch fromwhichIgotout.The sel} w asa bsolutely normal fromthatmom ent.Hepledged him self tooffer y earlyseven g oatst o hi s h ealer,e l-Hadr. whi ch pr omise h e is sa idt o h ave kept.3The p atients r eceived n o m edicaltreatmentata ll,buthadtob e c uredb y th e mira culousintervention ofSt.George. Th erai ysof the c h urch f ound it ve ry o ftenn ecessary t o h asten th ec ureb yIF rom Bet Dju l a.2 From Bet Dja la. H e wa sor dained laterasapriest .3'! 'oldmyfatherbytheabove-men tion edpriest Is1.laq'l'flma.

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12 4Jo urnalof t he P alestineO rientalS ocietydrivingout the devil.Thi s w as doneb y thorough b eatingsa nd pray ers. Now onderthatthesepoor c reaturesw ere furi ous when the priest fellinto their clutches. Whene ver a patient' sc ondition gotsomewhat normal the priest s ecretlyunfa stened thech ainf rom thechurch,andtoldth epatientthatthe saint d eclared himcur ed. Onl y asimple s traw mattress w as giventhem.Thet wowh o were bound in f rontofthechu rch hadnottheleastprotecti on from the frightful summerhea t orthec old o ft hewinter. Their foodcon sisted o f b read-sometimesv eryhard-andw ater; Both weregiventoa v erylimit ede xtent.Th e od or of t heire vacuations usedtom ake the place unsuppor tabl e.Atpr esent thes an atorium i s built a short di stances outh of the church.Iti s compo sed oftwelverooms in e acho f which there i s ach ain, firmlyf astened tothewall.Thehygieniccondition s ofthis placeareine very re spectbetterth an in the old sy stem.Thisnew hospit al w as conne cted whenIsawitlastby a wiretothechurch. Thus th e h ealing powerofth esa intis transm itted toth es ick. 4-n an alysis of th e a bove-describedtreatmenti s o f greatin terest.Thes ick a repla ced inth e dir ect neighb ourhood o ft he s aint, t o b e nearhi s blessing a ndhi s fi eld of ac tion; t he c hainstransmitt he curing pow er. A s s oon a stheho spital w as r emoved to a d istance aconne ctingw irew as runbetw eeni tandthe church t o carryth e saint 's miraculous power.Prayers and beating sare theb est wa y of drivin ga way a de vil. Thispractice i s still common a mongthe Whenev er a s ickper sons hows a nyn ervoussy mptomslike h ysterical fit s,a poplexy,epil epsya nd eve n con vulsionsr esultingf rom fever a selj iscalledfortreatment.Hewr ites ata lisman, r ecites pr ayers, s pi ts on t he pa tient a nd massages th e bo dy.' Th is m assage isalw ays doneinsu chaway th att hehandoft he s ell m ove s f rom the upp er p arts o f t he b ody d ownwards. Th e reason f ort his dir ection. of -mo vement isthatt hed evil shouldbemas saged outf romt hei mportantorg ans totheles s important on esa ndeventu ally bethrownIA n i ns a n e gir l, whore ceived n o h elp f rom a ll th e consul ted phy sic ians, wentto a Chald ean priest. H e, after fa stingthr ee da ys andthreeni ghts, made th es i ckchildkn eel down a ndp ray withhim, a ndb ehold a c loudofsmokecameoutofhermouth w hile s helo st con sciousness Th e pri est put he r inabatha ndbe gan toma ssag e h er. Them omen t sh e a wokeshew as c ured.

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C ANAAN:M ohammedanSaints andSanctnarlesinPalestiue125outof thebod y throu gh th e low er extremities.'Themas sage develop es inmo st ca ses toviolentb eating s, whichmaybe carried outwith thehand,witha stick ,s hoe 2 or ev en withahol y object likethewood en shoe o fth e M adjdflb.Iti se asiert o driveoutd evils whenthebodily condition ofthepo ssessed person i sa tth e lowest. tItisacommonbeli efthatthedj innpreferw ell-built corpulent p atients. Thise xplains wh y 'thep atientsa refedsobadly .Neglectof cleanliness lead s tothe s ame r esult. 4 5.OATHSIti s awide spread cu stom t o c all onGodor a sainttowitn ess a nd a ttestone 'saf firmation,ort oass ertone 's innoc ence. This assuranc e isgiv en bym eanso fanoathinthename o faholyman, ge nerallyinhi s shrine orinthen ame ofGod a ndina shrine of s ome we li. Simple oathsinwhichthename o fGodaloneisu sed, a nd w hichma y be uttered o na nyo ccasion,areinnumer able and w ill 'n ot b e di scussed. Simpl eoat hsaresocommonthatthey -areapartofthedailylifeof a p easant.sIfheis telling a s mon in a n i mportantorgancau ses m uchm ore h armt hanin a n u nimportant o ne. M assaginga d emon up wardsmay c ausea nirreparable w eakness in t hehe art, e yes,to ngue,bra in,etc .2S ee th ecasede scribedin A berglaube, pp .11 7 f.3Thi sisano lder be lief; see a tTt!J,lfatulMarif,lyah, p .4 See o n t hissu bjecta lso Step han,"Lunacy inP alestinian F olklore,"JPOSV p p. 1-16,o n w hich th ef ollowingr e marks may b emade:-Itwouldhav e be en m orehelpfulifth eo riginal me aningsandu ses of a llth esy nonymsonpp. 2 and 3 h ad b eeng iven.-Idonotth ink t hat lunacyis c onsidered a s s omethingd ivine" (p.2).Onthec ontrary i t i satp resentr i t u sed t obe i n Bibli calt imes, asthe w orkofSatan Alt hough m adj4ub i s u sedatp resent for abegi nninglun acy, itsrealmea ningi sq uitediff erent fr om madjnun. T he rea l c auseso f lun acy f ollowingt he writin g ofa siMr ( ands uch so rceryi sca lled s i{lir a swad), drinkin g ofsp irits (p 6, fo o tnot es 3, 4) ,o r c oitus nudus (p .7 )a reno thin gb ut t he djinn a nd sho uldnotbep utin a notherc ategory. 5 I will mentio ns omeo f th e m osti mportants imple a qsam ( pI.of q asam) whicha re m uchu sedi n t hed ailylifeofthepea sant .Th ey b elongtoone o ft he f ollowing t wo ca tego ries: a )Then ame or a n a d jective o f G od, t hat of it lce li ora s anctuarya re c onnected wi th t he o ath b )T heyamin mentions somenaturalp henomena. Thef ollowingexa mplesw illillus trateb oth kind s:

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126Journal ofthePalestine Ori ental Societyadventure andfindsit n ecessarytoemphasizeapoint because som e o ne may doubt his statement, hesaysu-liaqq e l -lfw.1r e l Al.Jr!aril1llZ ruhi. udjU "By the truth (oftheexistence)ofSt. GeorgeIwent an d came ( back)."Or "Bythe truth andhonorofthe P rophetAd a) cUll0-""")cUll, cUI I 0""j"\L.,cUll,L..&I ..,I...i.>." 1 \ 1\. or--U-.s.....-a.L', ......,ByGodand Mohammed God 's apostle ByG od, andthe rcis noonemorepowerfulthanGod Byth e lifeofthis branch ( stick) andthewor shipped GodandtheProphet David Bythe living c ro ss B ythetrutho f the Mohammedan di rection ofprayerByt hetruth oft his c hurch andt ho se( i,e sa ints) nbidinginit B ythedoorofth isEast(Le bythe direct ion o f thesunrise) wh ich isth e pray er direction oftheCh ristians (the direction of burying Chri stian d ead). BytheKa beh Byth e honourable church ofthe Nativity Bythe Qoran Byth e beard oftheProphet Adb) .. ., "IlA, '.I...:r---- '"'-' :} ,-;-,)W:JlA,1l;-bh.l.101.".......JI,:sll l"4W II-)cod',1lA, .1 Ur:--.. "t,;-:'"rer"L,.lJ I ;...:.::.:)J\bL-.:JlA,' u;';1..f') I er" Bythetruthof this sun 's di sk (lit s mall e ye) whichis going downinthewestinobedience toherLordBythelife(h ere: exi stence) ofthis moustache Byth e existence ofthe water which purifies the living andthedead Bythee xistence oftheflowingwate r andth ehighh eavens Bytheexist ence ofthis tree which drinks with itsroot, and w hichpraises itsLordB ytheex istence oft his gree n carpet w hich grew d umb anddeaf(Le. quietly) fromthe .earthBythetruthoftheOnewhoknowshow many leaves there areo n thi s tree, andhow many hairs onthis a nimal.(Th e person whileutteringthisoathpoints toatreeandtoana nimal) Someof these fo rmu1: s wer e taken fromthe written notesofmy father .

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C ANAAN:M ohammedanSai nts a nd S anctuaries inP al estin e127MosesI..." 1These oathsaremad e inany placeandneed n ot b e restricted toa sanctuary.Itis customary to use thename of a lo cal oran important out sidew eli.Alloaths made ina mosam of a saint orinthe neighbourho od ofasanctuaryareperformed inthe nameofthere spective we li orprophet. M ore importantare oaths made intheshrine it self.'I'hecauses forsuchanactareeither major or minor ones. When amanis accused ofhaving stolen s omething,butno direct proofs can be brought h e i s a sked bytheaccuser togoto aw eli andswear his innocence.Theaccus ed, followedbythe enterstheshrine.Theformerliftsuphis handsandsays: ByGod,theGreat(Almight y)2On e wh o hasnogr eaterPower aboveHim I havenots tolen,norevenseen this s he-mule,nordoIknowwhohastaken h er."3Theaccuser must content himself withtheoathandis r egardedashavin g lo st thecase.Theaccuser maynottrouble him self andthe accu sedtogoinsuchacasetoa sanctuary.Theaccused maybeallowedtoturnhisfaceinthedirection ofthe appointed we li andswear s tohis innocencewithuplifted hands. Th e principle e l-yamin ala n iye .t e l-mZtall ij, theoathis(tobe fulfill ed) according totheintention (resolution ) oftheonewho re quires the oath ( fromthe other)", hastwo meanings.Firstthattheaccuserha s therightto appointthesanctuary,thetim eandsometime sthepartofthesanctuary onwhichtheaccusedmustplacehi shandwhile swearing ( thetomb,the mibrab theQor an,etc.),Inthes econd placetheoathgivenbythea ccused i s e xplained inthesense intended bytheaccuser.Wordingwhichmay express thetruthonl y extern ally,butbe essentially untrue i s afalseoath.Forexample A is accused byBofh aving st olen hismarefromtheclo sed stable whereitwas fastened. A was actuallythethief, having s tolenthemarein company withC ,B'sservant.C openedthes table, untiedthemareandledit outsidethepremises ofBwhere Aw asa waiting. him,A then galloped offwithit,andafters elling themarega ve Chisshare.B suspects A andaskshimtoswear.1 Udj tih en nabiMusa ..2Thi s is sometime s repeatedthreetim es.3 ')I')Ill.Wl..Il>j\.t:...,yW lA..>.:;..\')I,4;.)'>'::"\ ." .t:. e: \ Lo "Ill.. t:.ell .uJ\r,

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128JournalofthePalestineOriental SocietyThelattersays:"ByGod,theAlmighty,Inever entered thepremises, unlockedthe stable, untied themareortookitaway."His oath is literally true,andBisobligedto accept it,butsincehe tried to cheat through thewordingoftheoath,Godandthe saint will punishhimmostseverely.Whentheaccusedisrituallycleanhe enters theshrine,orifnothe stands outsidethedoorofthesanct uary,facingtheinterior, andperformshisoath.In thecaseofa holycaveone stands onthedoor.ManyBedouinof Transjordania stepoverthetombofthe weli (yufsuq) and thenswear.Theythinkthatthesaint,whojs already irritated bythecontemptuous act of stepping overhistomb,will act the faster inpunishingtheaccusedifhehas given. afalseoath.Iftheaccusedisguilty, but doesnotdaretoacknowledgehis faultopenly, and isatthesametime afraid of perjur y, hemayget outofhisdifficultyinthe following way,toldmeby $ofiya of'I'urmus'aiya,Theaccusedwearshis garment turned insideout, fasteninginitsevenneedlesand carrying three silver bracelets in hispocket.Allthisisdonesecretly. With this protection he believesthat. no harm willbefallhim,evenifheswearsafalse oath.Heintends bysuchan act toacknowledgesecretlytothe manof"Godthathehas committed thefault,butpromiseshim to return thestolenthingssecretlyorbysome intermediary. When an accuser loses his, casebyafalseoathoftheaccused, hetriestoprovokethe anger ofthe saint, believingthathecan thus hasten thepunishmentofhisguiltyopponent. There aredif ferent modesofprovocation.Hemayholdwithbothhandsthe twoendsofamatofthe sanctuary andswayingitupanddown,thusshakingitsdustontheaccused,say:,,0my Lord, sec ed Din,getmemy right fromthislyingscoundrel."Sometimesthe matsoftheshrineare turned over withthewords:"Iturn the matsof el-:ijauwa!;>?ver onyou,scoundrel."1Thematsremain upsidedown until a passer-by orthe qaiym turns themback. Generally, however,theyarenot touched, untilthepersonwhoin thisway besought the saint for justice turns themoveragainhimself. Thisisdonewhenthe relatives ofthepersonwhomadeafalse oath begforit. Turning thematsupsidedownissupposedtoIQalabt alk !tur el.f!auwtilfyfiiiUiin.

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C ANAAN: Mohamme danS aints an d San ctuaries i n P alestine129transf er thean gerof th es ainttothe g uiltyper son. The se twoacts, which a rekn ownasqalbe l-lnuurm ay be performed n ot onlywh en a p erson h as perjured him self, bu t alsowhen ever ap erson i s unju stly o ppressed Allbelieveth at the se acts will s tim u latethe saint to r eactatonceinf avoro fth e oppre ssed person.!I n somepartsthe o ppressed p erson goestothe sa nctuary, a ndlyingonthefl oor cover s himselfwitha m at, o rheplace s theswe epings ofthe s hrineonthe t omb Both t hese ac tsare bel ieved t o irri tate the sa int, whowill a ton ce prote cttheo newhoh as beenm al treated. > When a n i nnocentp erson i sa ccusedandi s thus for ced to s wear h e feel s him s elf injur ed b yt hesu spicion directedathim, a ndtri es inon e of t he fo llowingw ays tom ake the s aint ave ngehim H e throw sa smallhandful(ha lf or a quarterofafullh and) of 3 .onhi s opponen t and s ays: Yam znak yiql ib a We, (th e re sult o f)the oat h ( which y ouhaveforcedmetom ake)s hall return uponyou. Th ea ccuseranswer s 4 itwillr eturn o nth e liar." 5 O thers take s tones o r e arth a nd t hrowthemonthegraveor o nthemaqiim,Ithus a rousingth e s piritofth e holym an tokeep h is maq am holy a ndclearo ff alsea ccusations.s E xceedingly r areis th ec ustomofgoin g to asanctuary a nd binding o ntheh eadstone api eceo fcloth b elonging tothe oppressed p erson withth ewor ds fur y a M adjdflb f Z f ulanillZ? alamnz, "AttackS o a ndS6,whoh as oppres sed m e, 0M. Thiscu stom is practiced asfa rasIkn ow,o nlybywomenof D e l' Gh assaneh." A last r esort t oshow on e's i nn oc encea nddem and re vengef rom G odi s toturna ( Qoran)up side down ,say ingto t he ac cuser:ha iy qalbeta l e k, B e hold a Qor an is turn ed on y ou." Whileth es imple o aths (ym an 'uriJah) for s mallcrimeswhichwe ha ve treated m ay b e m adea tan y we l z more so lemmon es ( yman IDerGhassa neh.2Both t hesecu stomsI hea rd fr om peopleof A bO.GhOs. 3 ist hepl astercoat ing oft hew allsofthe r ooms 4A.rab. yiqlib allll kdrjib.5 Th e accuser andaccus ed, whocam e th e same w ay,r et urn separately by diff ere nt roads.6Ift he acc us ed i s adesc endantofa saint andi s inn ocent, hetries to i rritate the saint by putting filth onth e tomborby shout ing thatth e s aintisas leep, po werless o rind iff e rent( c f.1Kings1 827) .7H eardfromO el Barghfiji.9

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13 0J ournalof the Pa lestine Orienta l Society mughalla?} f orm ajor crim es likemurde r,' r ape2a ndh adjseh3h ave tobe perf ormed inthe s hrineof a nimportantsa int. of Lift fi ass uredm e th at awe li Zdsr (orni zq), a nervous,irritablewe li"s houldbechos en,s inceh e willpuni sha li ar at o nce.sIns uch important c ases i ti snotth ea ccuser, but th e j udge wh o ord ers thats uch a n oa thb e inc ase no a bsolutepr oofs c an b e br ought of thed efendant' s guilt. Thejud ge-if h e i s un able togohim self s ends re presentativesto report there sult. Th eo athoftheaccus ed mu st b e s econded by a not ablea nd sa nctionedb y three others.sW e havese enthata lloath s; t akeni n a .s anctuary, a remadein thenam e o f God aJ.1d n ot inthatof a pr ophet. Th e nameo fthe latter m ay bem entionedi n so mec asesa fterthatof God, but no i mportant o ath i s e verm adeinthename of asa int a lone Friday s a ndM ondaysa regen erally cho sen f or an importan t oath. Th e l atter d ay is se lectedbecau se iti ss aidthatthe Prophet w as b orn ona Mond ay. Themat erial giv en inth e for egoingse ction s howsth e g re a th onour and fear o f th es aints.F ew ind eed da re tomake a fa lseo ath ina s hrine, f orth e v engeance ofth esai nts ism ost s evere. Thi s rev enge sh ow its elf inhim,hi s f amily, hi spro perty,or hi s a nimals. Story a fter stor y i s toldtoillustrate thi s point.Ins ome c ases-as with 'e l-weli Sha b ad-D inof /Safffithe m an ofGodm arks .th e hou ses o f tho se whomak e af alse o ath. E arly inthemornin g th ey m ay findthe c orpseo fso me a nimalinfront o fthed oor.Ifno s ucha i s found e verybody know s th at th e o ath wa sa trueon e.6.VOWSThe practi ce of incurrin gv oluntaryobli gations to a d eity on fulfilm ent of c ertain c onditions, s uch as d eliverance fromdi sease, d eath, ord anger s uccessin e nterprises,be stowal of a nh eir,a nd thelike,isofextremely ancient d ate and c ommoninalls ystems of reli gion. There a rem any refer ences intheBibled ealingw ith vo ws,IAr. d amm. 2Ar. 'arif,. 3Ar ll adjsell isthe e ntrance ofa r espectablehous e byast ranger,e itherfo r r obberyor fora du ltery. 4 All t ho se Iask ed cor robo rated thi ss tatement. s S ee a lso O .e lBarghuji's paper,J POSn ,5 1. '

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestin e131which fact shows u s how widespread thi s practice was.'I'he prophet Mohammed gave somerulesconcerningitinthe Qor an, as wellas in th eF,I:a.dit. Vowsas the y performedatpre sent have kept mostof their ancient features.IThi s customisstillfoundamong the peasants aswellasamongthetown-dwellers,amongMoham medan s and(lhri stians, rich and poor.Allbelieveinitsnecessity ; itsefficacyandit s sureblessing Everydifficultyormisfortunein th e dailylifeofthe Oriental bringshim near er tohisGodaridto thesaints.Andholdingthattheseholymenare nearer God than himself and nearer him than Godis,hebelievesthattheyareable tohelphim.Hetriestoget their prote ction, favourandhelp; andbelievesthathewillbemoresuccessfulifthe saint sare reward ed byhim.Thereforeliepromises one or more s aintsan offering,to b e giveninhi s or their namesandin their honour. Opportunities formakingvowsare innumerable: insickne ss, in theca se ofthe journey ofafriend,whenbadnews about a n absent memberofthefamilyisreceived,whenawomanis barren, during abadagricultural year,inthefac e ofimpendingdanger, repeat ed lossof children, difficult labour, infectiousdiseaseof cattle, etc. Amongallthes e causes sickne ss i s themost important andmo stvowsarepaidinconnectionwithit.Many saints arecalledupon forhelp.Thefather,mother,wife brother s, sisters, children, other relations orevenfriendsofthesickmakethevows.Usuall y e ach ofthemcall s onadifferent saint, thus ensuring the p elp ofallthe most important s aints.Incasetheconditionof.thesickmenallow s, hehimselfwillpromi se anoffering Thevalueoftheofferingvaries moreorless according tothe importance ofthesickpersoninthe family Thefather, husband ortheonlysonare generally themost privilegedinthisrespect.Thewife,daughters, oroldwomenof thefamilycome last Iwitnessedthefollowing occurrence which illustrates theaboveexcellently asdescribedinAberglaube,p.70. AM Amin e l-Betuni,theeldestmemberofhi s 2f ell sick withpneumonia.Hehadsuchasevere relap sethatth e cour se of thedi sease was greatly prolonged WhenonedayhisconditiongotIKahl e,PJBVIII,pp.148ft'.;Oanaan,Abergl aube,p p 701 l'.; Jauss en,Doutt e ,C urtiss, p as sim.2 H amiUehi s th e family inth e wide se nse, a lmost "c lan,"whil et he narrower m eaning i sex pressed by' e leh. 9 1'

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13 2J ournal o f th e P alestine Ori ental Societyv ery cri tical a ndI ex plainedth ematter t o hi s broth ersan dr elatives,on eofhisbrothers v owedthath e wo uldg ivethirty fr ancsIw orth of c andlest o th e s an ctuary of (Hebron),toth e Mo sque o f -Om ar -(Jerusalem),a ndtoMo ses.Atth es ametim e h e be gged the Almighty G od toh eal hisbrother andt o inflictth e di sease inste ad uponhi s ownyoun gs on,wh owas eightm onths0 1d.2H e w as e ven r eady t o l ose his c hild,iftheAlm ighty w ould sav e hi sbrother. > : A s econd brother vow eda ijb:zbahf or t he wel1.Zeto.n(B etuni a), andas econds heepa sa s at(lah ( picnic)forhisfri endsandr elatives.Thewifepromis ed N ebi a s heep, w hilethe s ickm an himself p romisedt o offer a she epa nd a "b asket o fr ice4to Abraham.T he oth er r elatives mad es maller v ows.A ccording toPalestinianArabic beli ef Godi stheAlmi ghty On e, who s tands higherthanalls aints.IfH e choos esHei sa bletodo e verythin g, po ssiblea ndimpos sible.This i stheQor anic t eaching.Butth e s aint sa repreferred.They ar e ea siero f a ccess a nd s tand nea rer t omen-asthey a llwereonce human beings. Atthe sa met ime the y know human need s,a ilments a ndwe aknesses v ery w ell. Th ereforethebeli ef inth emandthef earofthemh ass pread s owid elya mongItheP ale stini ansthat gradu ally theyh ave t akent he p laceo f God. People look a t them as min or d eities, nordoIdoub t th at inman y plac ess uperstitionh as el evatedthe m t o ar ank equ al tothatof God.This i s th ereason wh y n early a llvow sa remadet o s aints a ndnott o God.Thenumber of s aints to whom v ows a re brou ght i s innumerabl e.Generally thelo cal we lis a repreferred. but ve ry oft en other sarethoughtof, e itherb ecause th eyar epro phet sa nd t hus favourites o ft heAlmi ghty, or be causeth ey h aveg radually g ainedthrough th eir mir aclesthec omplete con fidence ofthep easants. Even inoneandth esa me v illage ,whe re th erea resev eral a wliy u, on eof them en joystheg reatestp opularity, sin ce hei s b elieved t oITwenty f rancs o r onepou nd ar e ca lled ner all or l crah. Thedifferenc e b etween a French, a nEnglish, anEgyptian oraTu rkish pound is expres sed byadding t he na me o f the na tion,f ransawiyeh, in gliziyeh. 2Th ebabyfe ll sicka f ew d ayslate r.-The moth er said Mbes-satlla kan the gate of heaven w aso pen, "i.c ,w h en th e fa t h ere xpressedhiswis h God h eard itatonc e.T hisid iom is al way s use d w h en ade si r e i s q ui ck ly f ulfilled.3S uch adesire is no t ca lled a nitjr, b ut ada 'ue l (a c u rse). 4 Quffet ru zz=1 00kg(33

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C ANAAN:Moh ammedanS aints a ndSan ctuaries inPal estine133 be mor e powerful than the others.Thisiswhy inspecting s everal shrin es oft hesamelocality,weob servethatsom e areclean er, bett er kept a nd than other s. Besidesthe great prophets likeMo ses, Abraham,David,Christ, Rub in (Reuben),Samu el, /;jal eh,etc.,who a remorehighly thought of than the rest there aresome we lts like theB adr iyeh, S alman el-F arsi, el-Qairftwani, Iet c., whoenjoyawide r eputation Somesaintsdonotliketo s eeawoman entering their s anctuaries evento f ulfilavowmadein their name Thisisespeciallytrueof M ar SiLba. Somewomenofthe Greek Church therefore nevermake offeringstohim sinceh e willnotallow a nyofthemtoent er hi s sanctuary. The following storywillillu strate thisbeli ef.? ARussi an lady whohadofferedhim a goldenlamp,wishedto bring itherself. Sheworem ale clothes, entered thechurchoftheconventunrecog nizedandplacedthelampinfrontofhis picture : Someunseen powerthrewthelampawayandspilledtheoil. Every timethe lamp w as replaced, itwasthrownstill further away.Theastonished raiys (headofthecon vent) whoob served allwhatwas happening searched forthereason,anda s soona s hefoundoutthattheofferer wa s adi stinguished woman,hebeggedhertoleav e th ec onvent, assur ing h erthat M ftr doe s notacc ept an y offering s from w omen, but e venpr ohibit s f emalesfrom entering th econvent. eVowsare \ notonlymadeto sanctuaries where a maqam anda tombarefound,but e veryoth er shrin e combinationwhichwehave studiedenjoysthisprivilege. Naturall y whatisvowedtothe se s hrines-stones,c aves, tree s, s prings, e tc.-isasarulemuchinf erior towhati s off ered tothe a nbiya. Offering s to s upposedholystone s, trees w aters, etc. are another c onnectinglinkwithprimitivereligion s.I i ss ituat e d ont he to p ofamo u ntai n am idst asm a ll gro up o foakt ree s, whi ch g rowbe twe en t he rema in s o fa ruin with seve ralci sterns.' I'hes h r i nei s com po se d o f o n e ro o m w itht w o d omes. Th e shrin e i s co mposed of oner o om wit ht wo d omes.'I'h et ombi ss u p pos e dt ob ein aca veb elowt he bu ildin g A h eap of si d ( s e e b e lo w) w as p lac ed inth e N.E. c o rn e r o ft her oom. T o t he w esto fth e sanct uary on e fi nd sthe t ombof his s er v a nt.2R el a t e d tomeby Im m E lius of J eru sal em. 3 Ther e for e th e w omen of t h eG r eekO rth odo x c o ngr egatio n workon hi s f ea st d ay ,say ing tha t s in ce hedo esnot li ke t h em th eyw illn ot ho nour h im 'u mruh l a t' aiyad.

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134Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyVowsmayevenbemadetolivingpersons.Generallythese priviligedmenbelongtooneofthefollowingcla sses:1.The descendants ofaholyman.Athorough of.thepr esent awliya showsthat. someofthemare recent andthattheir desce ndants are s tillliving.Case s inpointare badj Obeid,I'Abdallah2and irdjalf;lUfah.3 To thelivingsonsofthe awliy a simplethingsarepromised (tunbak,4 djadjih,S !8b,6 etc.),2. ofaiariqoh.orwhoareconsideredasespeciallypiou s, as cl-selJAMl;Ial awJ. 3. Servant s ofashrineorapriest.Vowsofthi s classare especiallymadebyOhristians.Thefollowingca se illustrates this type.AmanofDjifn a whosesonwassickvowed:"0St.Georg e, ifmychildgetswellIshalloffer curtains7(lit.cloths)foryour cj1weh "and a vestment forthe priest."s 4.Tomentally abnormal men.In' En Arikthereu sed tolive aninsane9manwhowas silent mostofthetimeandwalkedonly backwards. Not ,onlythe inhabitants ofthisvillagebutals o thos e ofthe surrounding placesconsideredhima 'Weli. Theythou ght thatbyhisbehaviouronecouldforetellthefutureofthevillage.Ifhe shouted during thenight,rainfell,andifheranaimlesslytoandIIn 'EnK arim. Th e m aqam, whi ch i s at t he s ame t imeadj ami'with a m edaneh,isinsid e th e vill age. Adj acent toth e shrin et herei s a fruit g arden. Anyb ody wh o tak esa cuttin g fr omt hesetreesa ndpl antsit,find s th at i t willnotgrow. ,2 W est of e s-sel!G het (nearD erG hassflneh),His ma qam wa s ori ginally a cavewhichwas c hangedinto a s mallroomw ithc loistersinfront.Th e t ombo f hi s wife isb eside his.His fa mily a llbelon g t o D ftr l\1u staf'a S aniur ( 0.S.B ar ghfij i),3The m aqam is s ituatedonth e topof a hillt ot hewest o f D cr G haasftneh, and contain s three t ombsforthem ale(el-M adjdfrb,Ibrfihim and AIi)andtw o femal e( daughtersof e l.l\!adjdub) des cendants Out side the maq am th ere ar e f our oth er t ombs.o nef or essel!ah a nd th e ot h er f or he rma id Hanfl r. I o wethis infor mationt oO. S B arghUti. Tob acco us ed inthear giI eh 5A hen.G A c loth.7The"curtain" i s a thin (if possible a s ilky)clothwhi ch i s hungoverthe pictures. sItis t he o fficialsui t c arried b y thepriest inth ec hurch. 9 Eightye arsa go h e wa s livi ng; Idon otk nowwh eth er heiss tilla live.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsan 'd Sanctuaries inPal estine 135 froth ey knewthat lJaiy'aleh I" gendarmerie"were approachingthevillageto collectthetaxes.Womenusedtovowhimahenin caseoneoftheir' familywas sick. A few hairs of this saint'sheadwerealways taken when th e henwas -presented andwith these hairs thepatientwas fumigated. t Sometimes vows aremade to objects or places whicharenot connected withaknownsaint.Assoonasa spontaneous, miraculous signis supposed tohave been observed bysomeone,theplace isregardedas inhabited bysome s upernaturalpower,probablypious menofunknown origin towhomvowsmaythenbe made.Thefollowingexample isagood illustration of this. Totheleftof the carriage road3leading fromJerusalem to Kolonia and oppo site thelasthouseof IJift a (situated some distance fromthemain village and directly belowthecarriage road) there isa cave inwhichsome peasants of Liftf.4 u sed tolive duringthesummer months.Duringits stay inthi s cavethefamily lost one memberaftertheother. Oncethe father ofthefamily noticed a mysterious light inthecav e; whichmad e clear tohimthat' thi s place wasinhabitedbysome s uperhuman power whohadpunished himfor having defileditshabitation.Atoncehe moved fromthespotandvowedtooffera sheepandtolightanoil lamp oncea week. s Thereisanothersetofvowswhichhaveno connectionwiththetypesde scribed hitherto, inwhich offeringsaremade to objects whicharenot associated withanyholyman,holyplaceorsacredobject.Thebestillustration isthefollowing custom:Sterilewomen whogotothe mosam of el-Husen,nearAscalon,take a bathinth e seaandpromi se:"IfIb ecomepregnant, 0sea I shall killasheepinyourhonour, "!Inthemosam'ofthenextyearawom an whohadr eceived the blessing of motherhood killsthe sheep on the shore in.,IP eople w ere v ery mu ch frightened wh enge ndarmerie ca meto a vill age, s ince t hesold iers gath ered th e t axes he a rtle ssly, imp osing man y unne cessary ex penses u pon t he v illagers. 2 C f.Ab erglaube,p.72 ,n.5 .3Th e pl ace i sc alled e l-Hfnneh. Th es amef amily whi ch live s n ow inth e h ouseo ppositethe c ave. The sa mem ay b e s aidabo ut e Uel! Husen (n eare d-Dahriyeh)wh ereo ne night alightwa sob served und er th esidrtre e.Atonc e th etree w as r eg arded a s g rowinginthesiteof a we ti a nd as mall m aqilm w as built. .6In ya!Jarar.

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136Journaloft he P alestine Ori ental S ocietys uch a w aythatthebloodflowsintothe s ea, a nd throwing th e s aqat Iofth e she ep intothesea s he exclaimst" Takey our v ow, 0 sea ."3Although suchcustom sarereall yv ery rare, the y carry u s ba ck top ast ageswhentheseawas honoured a ndworshipp ed a sa divinit y. A connecting linkb etween thetwo l ast a ntagonisticgroups,i.e ., between objects and plac es whichhavenoreligiou st ingeatall, andthosewhichare d ire c tly connected with saint s, arepl aces whe re, according tolo cal belief, dervish mu sic or prayer s h ave b een heard, agre enish light s een or burning inc ense smelled.Th e di scoverer o fsuchap l ace makesthefirstvow.Ago od illustrati on ofthis be lief {s givenbyt he story ofDjum'ah(abovepp.59f).Inc lo sing this sectio n wemaydrawattention tothetw o fo llowing po ints:1.Inmanycase s vow s ar e madetoGod without m entionin g a ny saint.!"Ifmychildgetsw ell, 0 God Is hall slayashe ep foryou. "Ins uchacas ethesheepmaybes lain inany place andthemeat. begiventothepoor.Vow s to G odarebecomingles sandle ss fr equent. 2 Mostofthe Mohammedan sra sked, a ssur ed methatiti s an irreligiousacttomakeavowinthen ame of asa int .Every thing comesfromth e Almight y and must b e offer ed th erefore inhi s n ame. illi lfiync]irlit -wali m in d im gi kr all ilh$ilratflWltu fti$e h, "Whoever makesavowto aw eliwithout men tioning God,hissheepbe comes a carc ass." Adead beast is,ofcourse,not ac ceptede ither b y God orbya s aint,ands ho u ldnotbe eaten bymen Th eo nly correct fo rmulasareofthe followingtype :in ta b i bni y il al lith ilak y il [Jauwii.$ ,"Ifmychildgets well 0 God, y ouwillhav e, 0 lJauW fl!;l This principle i s follow ed m ore rigid ly byth e Bedouinthanbythep easants, a s iswellill ustratedintheformul a r ecited whe n aflWlah is killedbya B edouin.Hesay s:minnaku i la7c y il I me an s th e h ead,intestines,ex tremities,lu ngsa nd ot h er in t e rn al o rgans .Itwill be d escribed m ore fullyl atero n .2 !fOrJ,nirJ,raky a b ah,3C f. Abergl aube, p p .75,7 6. 4 In i {miya. a lliih l a-adba?tlak !Jarat.$Q,or an.

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C ANAAN: M ohammedan Sa ints a nd San ctuariesi nP al e stin e137 allah, a djru tawab tla-saiydna M f'tsa all ah okbar,"Iti s fromThe e a ndto The e, 0God ; r ewarda nd re compenseforourl ord Mo ses; G odisg reat."2Th is isa r eligious rule ,butp opular reli gion i s in m any w ays ho stile t o the r eligionofthe Qor an a ndthe Bibl e. Th e formul as u sed inm akinga v oware different. U sually theword ni{1r, vow," isused: nidmn alaiy ya n abzMftsa in ta b i bni la-aqaddimlak A vow (is)uponme 0 prophet Moses;i f my s onge tsw ell I shalloff er you asheep."Th e word ni{1r m ay be omitt ed :"0myl adyBadriyeh, Ioweyou ajaro foil i f m y son return s h ealth yf rom Americ a." A third formis:i n tab l a arf,wilaksa m ah tu luh y a!!at.I1'el-AJjltar, "Ifmybrotheriscur ed I willli ghty ou,0 .lJaqr e l-Ahdar,acandleo f hi s length ."3 Allthe sev owsare knownoffici ally as n dftr m uqaiyadeh,4"bound vow s,"i,e.,vow s boundbyacondition,which mustbe executed. There arevowsbelongingto another class namely nudftrmutlaqah, "free (ge neral)vow s," inwhichnocondition binds the fulfilmentof thevow:ilak 'a laiy yd rasu l a llah ana..<;um sah ren,"I imposeupon my self for thys ake,0 Apostl e o f God ,t heoblig ation offa sting two mon ths."Inso mep artsofP alestin es pecial e xpressionsareus ed when v owing a n a nimal;th ey willbed e scribed below Ab eautiful fo rmulai se xpressedin the follo wing ver se, whichi s r ecited bya mo ther vi siting S t.George 'sc hurchwithhertwo children anda sking himtoke ep themal ive: Y a lla4r e l-AMar a'lek elyam tereni ioaluul u w abadel-'eni nidrun 'al aiya in aMt halitn e ni uaq addim lal [farJ,r de nt.a o lJagr Ev er Gre en,t wobi rds c ome toyou ; Th e onewithf eathers( i. e .,w ell-grown),t heo ther withdarkened eyes( i,e., s till v ery y oung).1' l'hesetwo w ords w ell ex pre ss a very im portant f acti n qabiiY!I, na mely, thatthey are mad e fo r t heb enefito f t he sa intt o wh omt hey a re offe red. 2 H eardfrom a Bedo uin ofthe .Id w an tribe.3Attim es a veryi ndefinitep romiseismade :ilak 'ala iy yll mllr Mil.1a'fJl i ll lIIi slibniilli bi y(la'min nafsi 1 vowtoyou,0St.1\1.,ifmysonwalk s, what ,Iw ill giveyo u." 4 I bn R u s d B idllyatu l-Mudjtahid ua voI. 1 ,pp 3 U, etc 5B e t Djlilli .

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138Journ alo ftheP alestine Ori ental SocietyI take a s avowuponmyself if.thes e tworemainalive, Ishalloffersa crifices an d pay m yd ue s to lJaq.r .1 Another verseofthis sort usedalsoby Christians is: Y a Adra Mariamharir e{;-Sam zunn arik nidrun alaiyain adj u Z-ghuyab l aabtadjik .2 oVirg in Mary,thesi lk of Damasc us (Iwillgiveas)yourb elt; Ivowthatif th ose absent comeback,I s hallneedyou(Le. Ishall fulfilmypromise).Attimesthe p ersonwhoi s in great difficultygoestoa s anctuary, prays withdevotion,begsforhelp makesavow a n d write s it o n thewalloftheshrine.Inthiswayhebindshimselfdo ubly while the w eli i s remind edc ontin u allybythewriting.Inthe ma qam of Okaseh Ifoundthefo llowingw riting,whichisan excellent i llustrati on ofthisc u stom:" 1 intrust tothisplac e mytestimon y,that there isnoGodbut Allah andMohamm ed isG od' s apo stle.omy lord Okaseh, if Al.J.mad the s onof lJadidjeh th e son or"Z ak a ria go es out o fthejail wit"God' s h elp andyo ur h elp, Iwill bring t oyou 0my l ord' 0 three oqiyeh(ea ,750g m )ofoil and Isha ll c ome tovisityou.Praytoyo ur God(to hear myprayer) ,omyl ord' 0..."Inoffering thepr omised vow o neofthe f ollowingexpres sions may b e used: adj ak n iilrak y a .,"Your vow ha sc ometo y ou,0. '..j I})ltbtak y a ..,"take y oursacrifice,0 .; "haiy {;am'tak y a .. .,"Here i s yourcandle,0 .. Vowsmaybemad e at a nytime .Ins omepartsthenightis chosen ( Ben i Zed). 3 Thusaw oman, who se chi ld i s dang erously ill, a ndwhoi s ther efore i n gr e at anxiety, c hoosesthenight,ifpo ssibleIAn other v erse whi ch i s more a p rayer tha n a vo w i s :, y a allah y a s aiyd wi l-walad tin sil l na wa ladna z aiy m a n asalt e l1faiJ,ru miny ade llcutfdr.oG od,0IJ ord, The boy i st he o nly s onjD eliver u so ur so n, Asy ou d elivered fr om th e h ands ofth ein fidels.2 B etDj iWl. 3Thi sb e lief i ssometimesa lso fo und inot her parts ofPa lestine.

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CANAAN:M ohammedan S aints and S anctuariesinP alestine139shortlyaftermidnight Sheg oes outofthehousetos peak directly withherGod. U ncoveringherche st,' andliftingupherarmsshe mak es avow.Sometime s she go es e ntirelyn aked2andimploresthe Almightyor s ome saint f or help promisinghimanoffering.Iti s b elievedthatatsuchatime-when allh uman beingsareat resP":"" theangelsfi ll theatm osphere and hear h umanwish es bett er than inthedaytime.!They carry themtoheavenatonceandbring th em tothedesired s aint.! Whoever m akes a v0'Y mustkeepit:kull u niq1"injartj, "e veryvowisanob ligation." BothBib le6and Qoran 7givespecia l rules fort he fulfilment. Thesoonerapromisei s ca rried ou tth e b etter Thesaintssome times r emin d amanwhohasnot kepthi s promi se. A p easant promi sed Ibrahim8anoffering,A s alon g period pas sed with out an attempt onthepartofthemantocarry outhis oblig ation, th e saint appeared tohiminadreamandw arned: Pay y ourvowatonce ; ifyouar e unabletodoallthaty ouhavepromis ed, brin g partofit."G enerally the a wlia arenot s ogracio us, butaregre atl y irritated b ys uchc onducta ndwillpuni sh th e culprit severely. Awomanv owedtogive Hus en9anoffering anddidnot keepherword Th e angr y we li threwa bann ay 1 0onhe r andshe hadam i scarriage Somethinkthatsai nts t ry torem ind aman whoha s notfulfi lled hi s p romise in a gentle butsometimesa l soIIIas evere wa y Thuswh en the ofap erson ar e c aughtIII1 A s ignofhumili ation. 2 Th e stron gests ign o fhumili ation.'3Ev en natureand -so mes pirits a re t hought tos le e pd uringt henight; th er e f ore a p ersons houldn e ver dri nkf rom s tandingw ater wi thout fir stsay ing: i tnabbaM yan10iym a wi rdik i llaZ-'a !san, Wak e u p,0wate r, on ly t he thirstyo neh asa pproached yo u t odr ink. 4 Itis sa idth at t he no iseof hu manbe ingsdi sturbstheang e ls, t hereforeth e nig ht-prayeri s theon ebe sth eard. 5 S ome d aysa re a lwaysp referredtoot hersf or p rayers,v ows e tc.A mong t hem are ZeZatu I-Q adr, ZeZat' Araf5.t, Z. 'Asurah, etc. (eUel! 'Ab d e l-Madjid 'All ,A t-Tullfatu l -Marc}iyah fil-AlJbal' e Z-Maqdisiyah,p.50). Nu m.812 -16,306;D eut,2 52 2;P s.222 6,50 H 6613, 11 614 an dI S.7Surah V, 1 ; I X, 7 6.s Th i s wel'i isthe b rothero f e ssel!Su' eb. Bo th hav e their shrin esnear B e t Djibr in. I brfihim i ssi tuatedin a ruin b ea ringhi s n ame. Quit e n ear tohimi s lJirb et Sap taJ;anno..9 I n 'En'Arik, th esp ringn ear h iss hrineb ears hi s n am e.10 A l arge u nhewnsto n e (lit.a nunh ewns tone whi chcanbe u sed in b uilding).

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140Journal o fthe Pal estine Orient al Soci etythistles orifhegetssick,hemaybeaskedbyhi s fri ends,1"Have youboundyourselfbyapromise,whichyouhavenotyetfulfilled ?"2Itisoftenpos ssible-incaseamanisunabletofulfilhispromi seexactly-tochangesomepartofitortosub stitute another forit.Ifforexample,somebodyvowsa sheep,itisofcourse preferable to sacrificeitatthe saint's shrin e, butifheisunabl e togohimself hemaysendmoneytotheqaiymortoafriend whowillbuythe animal andofferitinhisname,Thesheepmayevenbeslainin thevillagein the nameofthe prophet. Orincaseawomanpromisestowalk bar efoot toa sanctuary and tries todoitbuti s unabletocontinueth e journey f or some physical reason,shemaybe released o fherpromisebydoingsom e thing else,orbyoff ering a s umofmon ey inthenameofthesaint, givingittothepooror depositing itattheshrine.The prophet Mohammedis reported tohave said:3 ""\Vhoever promi ses towalk to a: placeand cannot doit,isnot permitted tofulfilhisVOW." 4Whenever apersoncannotfulfilhi s vows,hegoestoa se1J and asksforadvice;heis generally toldhowtochangehisvowand whattoofferasa substitute.Itisa wide-spread belief. amongpeople of Palestinethat, whileevery ni dr maybe replaced by another, a vowof fasting a certain numberofdaysorweeks(besides Ramad an) cannot bechanged.Thisvowcannotbe "bought "5in a nyway. According tothe regulations of theOld Testament everyvowcould be changed to payment ofmoney except a s acrificialanimal.sItveryoften happensthatduringthefulfilmentofapromi se one bindshimselfto continual off erings '. A father promised th e prophet Mosesoncethatifhisonlyson whowas badly sick shouldgetwell1An acc identi s b elievedto b ea particularlystrongre minder.2Everyone whoi s r eminded inon e of t heab ove m entioned w ays will a t onc e s ay:l iizim nil},raky il ...," Yourv ow, 0. : w ill s urelyr eachyo u."3Th e Moh ammedan the ologians h ave di scussed th es ubjectof vows very minutely inth eirb ooks.Ishall mention onl y th e followin gq uestionwh ichma y h appen o ften inthed aily life.Isap ersona llowed t o b indhi mself t oa bstain from a llowed thin gs Ye s, i s the a nswer, exc eptth atthemat rimonialduties shouldne verbe n eglected. 4 M an nal},ara an yams i lim ahallin w alan ya sta{i' an ya quma biM f ala ya djuzu an yukm ila nil},nehll ma syan. 5 O ften th ee xpression bought," istam, i s us edj' is tar a nirl,ruliibmitqi1'S, he bo ughthi s v ow with100p iast res,"i.e .,h eo fferedthis s um i nsteadofhisv ow.6S ee Zell er,Bibli scltes W orterbuclt I 45 3.

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U ANAAN: Moh ammedan Saints a nd Sanctuari es inPal estine141hewo uld givehimasheep. W hilethefathe r-aftert he recovery o f th echild-was o ff e ringthe sheepatthe,shrine oft he prophet, hee xclaimed,I"Hereisy our vow 0Interlocutor of G od,andifyou keepm ys on wellIvow y oua sheep ev eryyear, "NotonlyM oh am meda n sbutalso Christians ma y bindth emselves in s uchaway, Most o fthev ows a re not expensive ,butsomearer e a ll y c ostly. A m an of AMD is whofell s ick during his stay inAmericaa nd b ecame badly ill,vowed :2 "If I r eturntom y f amily i nperfect health ,oGod,I shall buildaminaretfor t hemosqueofmy v illage."Hegotwe ll a nd a ss oo n as h ere turned tohisco untryhe the minaret in q uestion .sAnothermore expen sivepromise wasthatof a e!j o f thefamilyel-Imam(Jerusalem).4Duringhis l a s tsick ness h e p romised:"IfIgetwell, 0Prophetof G od( M ohammed), Iwill bu ilda djami' withaminaret. Bu t in cas eIdie Ibegy ou,0 my re latives, t oclo thefortyo rp hans i n mynam e. "Thet hings w hi c hm ay bevow eda re s o n umerousth atitappearsimpracticabl e togive them inonelist.T heymay b ed ivided a ccord ingtothesor to fvow s i nto1.m aterialo fferings.sand2 workpromised.Butabetterclassificati oni sth e foll owing, whicharranges them according totheirp urpose s:1.Thin gs which s erve directl y f ortheupkeep of ,the maqam a) O fferingswhichservetopr eserveandtob ea utifythesanctuary b)Material forrepairs c)Per sona l w ork 2.Vow s offoodma de inthename of a s aintandoffered( mostly) inhi s shrine .T he shrine derives nodirectbe n efit fromtheo ffering,butthepoorreceive apartin most cases a) A nimal sacrificesb) Qurban w alimeh J il-lah c)M eatlessfo odIH aiy nidrak y ti K alim Allahu ilak a laiykullsa neh IJarur in IJalletli ibni 2I ni 1'dji'tb is-saliimel, l a.'yfili yaAllah la abni m edaneh ladj timi' Ib aladt3The stor ywa s t old m e b y his co usin. S ee Ab erglaube, p 74 Its hould benote d thatal though mo st ofth e things f ound i n a s hrine a re don ationshav ing t heir o riginin v ows, t herear e still o ther t hingswhi ch w ere t he p ropertyo f t he l ea hi mself. Thero sary a ndt he s pearbelon gt o t his c ategory.

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142 J ournalof -the P alestineO riental Socie ty3.Off eringsg ivento need y person s inth e nam e of t he we li a ) Po or,s ick, rarely forhospital s b) Orphan s andwidows c ) Prisoner s R eligiousv ows 5 .Bodily c hastisements a ndvows tob efulfilled onth e bodyof thev ow er o rth e p erson vow ed for 6.V ows ha ving noconnection a t a llwithanyholyper son or shrine,andnotm ade f ort hepoor 7.Off erings forthedead I.Thin gs whi ch s erve fortheupk eepo fthemaqtisn.'I'hing svowed andofferedtoas aint which se rvedire ctly forthe upkeep, decoration or repair oftheshrine m ake byfarth eg reatest number o f a llvows.Mos t oftheofferin gs whichbelongtothis groupareso s impleandche ap that even thepoor est pea sant isable tooffer s om e thing Thisisthereasonfor their popularity.a )Offerings which a reu sed tomaint ain andtobe autif y the s hrine Thetwom ost important elementsofthisc ategory-oiland incense-enjoy now,a s amongthe a ncient Orientals, a spe cial favour. Oliveoilisvowedandoff ered moreth an a nything el se. Pe asants andtown smen, Christians andMoh ammedans, richand p oorvowoil a nditmaybeoff ered toany s ortof s anctuary.Theolivetree en-n ftr,l"the tree oflight ," a s itiscalledintheQoran isr egarde d asholy.Itshow s it s supernatural powerb y itsanimation T he best exampleofthisi s the z Uunet en-nabi2withtheMoham medans,andthef ollowing beli efa mong C hristians.Theolivetrees kn eel downinthe n ightofthefeas t ofth e Holy C ross,becau se i t is thoughtthattheheaven s openon t hisver y ni ght." Ap easanto f Bethlehem t old methe followin g story.Onenighthelosthi s mul e.Helooked through thed ark nightinvainforhi sa nimal,bu ta sh e was searching inanolive g rove,heobservedthat the g roundwa s1S omed atare lating to t his s ubject h ave already b een noted 2 Cf Abergl aube. p .8 7. .3M ohammedansbe lieveth at h eavenopensonce e ve r yyea r in lClatt' l -Qadr,

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C ANAAN: M ollammedan Saints a nd San ctuari es inP alestine 143 coveredwithbr anches oftrees.Hedidnot trust hisowneyes,and a s hecouldnotfindany explanati on, hetoreoffIapieceofhis garmentandfastened It toa branch marking theplaceatthesame timeinordertofindit early thenextdayandto investigate this myster y inbroadday-light. Returning homehere lated theoccur rencetohisrelativ es. Nobodycouldaccountforthisfact.An old man sitting i nthe corner shookhisheadplou sly andr eminded all that thisnightwasthe night ofthefeastoftheHolyCross,Iin which a llthetre es kneelreverentlydownbefore their master The peasant wentnextdaytothesceneofhisnightly adventure and sawallthetree ss tanding erect whilethepieceofcloth,whichhe hadf astened onabranch floatedhighupintheaironthe topof thetree .2The Qoran 3andtheBiblementionoiland the olive tree very often.Accordingto S ftrahXCV, 1,Godsw ears 4 bythis tree and thereforeiti s called el-mubarak eh, "thebles sed tree."Itwasgivento Adam and Ev e after their e xpulsion from Paradise, anditwasthefirst plant which appeared after theflood.! TheArabs s aythatAdam hadav ery badskintrouble.Hebegged the Almighty forhelp,andGodsenttheangel Gabriel withanolive s prig.Th e angel ordered A dam: "take this sprig, plantitand prepare fromit s fruitanoilwhichwillcurealldisease s exceptpoisoning t '"Th e pea santso f P alestineswearsometimesbytheolive treesaying: w ibyat e n-nur, "BythelifeoftheTree of Light."1Oilisstillu sed tolight private houses a s wellaschurches,mosques a nd sanctuarie s.Itstillenjoy s thesame popularity in popular medicine,religiou s c eremonya ndmagic procedure, asitusedtoin theancientOrient. sIA ccordingt olocal s uperstition somep lants C Mm es) h ave abe tter pr o p hylactic a ndcur ativeac tionifc uton as peciald ay. The27tho f R aina<;lan e njoys t hisr enown.2O n the A scension da yof th e V irgin th e tr eesa real sos upposedt o kn eel down.3Sfira hXVI, 11;XXIV, 3 5;LXXX,29 ;XC V, 1;VI,99a nd141. 4Sur ah XC V 1 ;XXIV, 3 5. 5Fayr e r R azl VI,17 4;Ge n.811.G Da iratu IMa' ari f, IX, 3 38. 7A nother f orm i s u -!lIIqq m an d arez zet fi z-zetf1n, Byt hat On e (God) wh o put t he o il i nth eo lives."8Oili s us ed in t heBibl eve ry oftent o expr essp ower, j oy,light,lifean d w isdom .

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14 4J o urualo f t heP alestineO riental Soc ietyThis o il-whichisalways z et z etim I( oliveoil) a ndne versfjr idj( sesameoil)-isusedforthe s malloillamps whichwillb e d escribed be low. Ac cording totheability oftheperson .vowing,adj arrah,'t.half adjarrah,artul,ora qaz azeh (alsocalledaqannineh,abottle of80 0-1000 c cm.) a repromised.V ery oftenth e quantit y isnot specifiedandmany onlyapartly filledbottle .Invillagesfarfrom ci Fes an Wriq (ju g) ofoili s giv en i nsteadofaqannineh:T hevesse ls inwhichtheoi13istakenareleftinthe sa nctuary Thisisthere ason whywefinddo zens ofsuchbottles orjugss cattered about at ypical shrine.Go od ex amples o f this practice arequbbete l-Arb 'in, Anbar, el'Azerat, es -Sidri,etc.Inel -Badriyeh ( Saraf at) there a retwol argejarsqui te fullofoil. 4 Emptybottles, brok enjarsandjugsarenotremovedfromthe s hrine, a ndth us wemeetwithalotof potsherds s catteredintheplace. I n l arge lIlaqams theonewhovowsgive s theoiltothe hadd am of the shrine andtells h implain ly th at itb elongs tothe s aint and thatitshou ld beusedexclusive ly in t heshrin e.Qimt en -nul rm in raqbati ubatt ett(h f i raqbatak," Ihaveremovedthevowfrommyneck ( Le I r emoveallob ligat ions frommyself ) andplaceitonyourne ck (andimposeitonyou ) ," Everyb od y believesthatif s uch an offering is n otus ed inth e shrineofthe saint th e w ell willpunishthe s ervantoftheshrinea nd n ot theonewhopaysthevow.Expres sionsliketheabove a reespecially c ommonamon g Ohristianswho havevow ed anoff ering toa prophet or w eli whoseshrinei s in Mo h ammedan hands: N ebi, Nebi D ahlid, Ibrahim e l-Ha lil, etc.I Also c alled z etMW. is z et k az, a ndn ot zet murr,as K ahlesta tes inPJBVIII,1 39.2Adjarr ahco ntainsfrom57 r atl, a ccordingt ot hediff erent di stri cts ofPal estine.3The following story willillustrate th e beliefth at oliveoilstren gthen st he bo dy m orethanm elted bu tter( samneh) ,.A.wifeh adas onofh ero wn a nd a step so n.Bothw eres hepherds E very d ay bef ore th ey dr ove th e a nimals in to t hefi eldss hega ve herown so n-whow asa lwayspr eferred-breadandsa mneh,whil e th eo ther received no thingbu tb read dipped in o il,A fter finishin gt heir m ealsbothu sedt o wip e th eir hands by rubbin gt hem o ntheirsti cks. The st ick o fth eso nw as soonhollow edo utb y w eevils, whil e thatofhis s t e pbroth er b ecameg raduallyh arder an d s t ronger. (T akenf rom the wri tt en note s o f my fath er, R ev.B.Ca naan.) 4Not all t heoilfound i na s hrine c om e s f romo fferings.Inlar ge maq ams so meofit c omesfrom t hewaqfofth e we ll orfr om th ed ep artme nt o fr eligious end owments(d airat elauqaf).5 Heardfr oma wo man of l'aiybeh andf rom Imm El yas .

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VAN AAN: f\Iohanuueuan Sain ts and Sanctuaries in Palestine145 Two' cu stoms mu st stillbementionedinthis connection.Very often a person takes a vowtooffera quantity ofoilevery year to awili,"I willgiveyou,0 {;el} Salm ane l-Fflrsi ara(l ofoliveoileveryye ar ifyoucure m y son." Although thiscustommaybefollowed with anyoffering,. i t i s morecommonwithoil.Many peasants takesomeoilwiththemasa present everytimetheygo to visittheshrine,even iftheyarenot bound byavow.Insuch caseshalfa bottle onlyispr esented.Itisbeliev ed 'thatthis act pleasesthesaint,whofavoursthegiver.WhenTvisited Esawiyeh Ia sked the {;e!:J IMohammed to s end s omebody toguidemeto sel} Anbar,They oung lad brought a bottle half filledwithoiland placed itinth e. maq a m.On my" question whether heoroneofhis relativeshadmade a vowtoofferoil,heanswered:"No,butevery timewecometotheneighbourhoodofthe w eli, we bring som e oil withus."Mostofthosewhoofferoil take withthema match box (ilbit k aorit or kaMateh) andleaveitthere.Thus opportunity isgivento e veryvisitortolighttheoillamps.A great number offulland emptyboxe s aref ound inthe ( aqat of s ome shrines.Iti s expectedthate veryonefulfilshispromi see xactly, sincethe s aintt akes everyvowat its exactwording.Thusa larger offering than wa s mentionedinavowmaynotbe accepted by the we li. Averypoorwidow,who se onl y childwasbadlyillpromised inher excitedstateandwithoutknowingwhatshewas uttering: yal1a4red-Djerid in (ab ibn i la-aqaddimlak z et f i qi{;retbeif,ah," 0 St.George, ifmysongets well Ishallofferyouoilinan egg-shell." Assoon asherchildrecovered she hastened witha pitcher ofoiltofulfil hervow.ShefilledtheoillampwhichhunginfrontofSt.Georges picture, butanunseenpowertiltedthelampandtheoilwasspill ed. Thesamethinghappenedeverytimethelampwa s filled.The priest whoobs erved thisunexplicablehappeningaskedthewoman,"Whatw as yourpromise?"Andwhenshetoldhim,heansweredvery earnestly: "The saint accepts onlywhati s duehim,andnota grain2m ore."3I Sea h ere do es n ot m ean w elt bu t oldm an." 1 InAr abic t hey u set he wo:dqU III! lah, g ra i n o fwh eat a lsoi nthi sse nse.3R elated b y A bfr E lyas,Jerusalem.10

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146J ournal ofth e P alestine Ori entalSo cietyTheoil pres ented is used only tolightth e oill amps.Indicationsregardingtheuseofoiltakenf romthelampsofs an ctuarie s willb e givenlater. Since oli ve oilisnotsoabundantinTransjordania, melt edbutter(s amneh)1take s it s place in v ows a ndforli ghtin g lamp s in s hrines. Oa ndles( sami',pl.of sam'a h) andkeros eneo il (l diz or ze t k az) areal so vowed.Int he cas eof c andlesnot o nlythe numb erbutve ryoftenthe quality a ndthe length ar e specifled .? 0N ebi Mfts a ifIfindmyboyin g oodhe alth Iwill light you a candl e ofwax o fhis length. "3 Sa mi' n ahla refinerthantallow c andles a nd a remor e fittingasoffering s.The l ength of c andlesis specified onl y inc ases where c hildren a re s ick.Whenno s pecification is made thefollowin g e xpre ssion i s used, y a...l a-awilak sa m' a ll, 0. ." Is hallli g htyoua c andle."Som etimes th e w eight o fth e ca ndles iss pecified.In. e l-Badriyehhe aps ofsuchc andl es ma y b e se en,"mo stly offeredby Ohristi ans of B etDj aJfi. a ndB ethl ehem.s Iha ve r arely foundcandl es inl ess imp ortantsanctu aries. .Inthe cas e ofthechurch ofSt.MarynearGe thsemanethe v ow m ays pecifyth e numb erof c andle sa ndth e w ay th e vow must b e fulfilled: 0m y l ady Mary, i f my s on Elyas wa lks,I s halllightyour s taircaseonb oths ides."? F or e very s tept wo c andles are li ghted. Afew minut es laterthepri est puts the light out ,ga thers th e c andlesandkeep s th em inthesa nctuaryf or furthe r u se.SAvow of thissortmu st be paid onthefir st dayofM ary' s f east. A s till more compreh ensivev owisthefollowing:"Ifm ys onIbrfthim w alks I shall light a candle inev ery shrine whi ch h e enters."Them ost common lamps u sed in s hrines a re s mall, crudelypreparedpottery lamps which resemble ancient O ana anite l amps in m any r e spects. Theses urdj(pI.of sr adj) m ay b es pecifiedi nvows.IA s t heB edonindo n ot h avem uch o il,w e find th ata nimalsacri fices a re very a bund ant. O ftena n an imal sacr ificet akest hepl aceof oil 2yaN abi M ilsa in l aqet i bni l a acJ,wUak sam 'all min na !ll u 3Promised by afathe rw ho r eceives durin g h isa bsencen ewso f the ill ness o fhi sc hild. Th ee xpression mea ns p roper ly beeswax. S omeo fth em Is aw h angingfro m t he ce iling a ndo therslayont he so c alled t ombsoflier chil dren .6C hristianst rust gre atlytot heh elpo f t his fe male we li. 7 yasitti M aryamin mmi lmi E lyas l a acJ,wi d aradjik ala e d-djiMen. 8H eard fro m I mm El yas ( Jerusalem).

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C ANAAN: M ohammedanS aints a nd Sanc tuariesi nP alestine147They a repl aced inoneofthecupboardsofthetomb,inanicheinthewall,onthe tomb' or ar ound it (eS-se'lj Hamad, Qubbet el-Arb 'iii), ona l edge inthewall ( s. Anb a r) awoodenbracketfa stened on th e w all' ( Sultan Ibrahime l-'Adhami, el-Badriyeh), in acave (A1}.mad e l-Hwes), under a tree ( s. Abdallah),inastonyenclo sure ( s. F redj2 )orin a nopenpl ace (el-Tlmart-) Sometimes wefindtinsc rudely s haped,by bendingtheirsides upwards, intoa lamp-like vessel,whichserv es toholdi theo il.!A l amp ofthis inferior t ype i s not presented, .butmadeat the s pot. forth e lack o f a p otterylam p. v .Thewick6i s madeintw o ways:1.a pie ce of cottonthread, o r e vena thinstrip,ofcl oth i s well dipped intotheoil ,o neend protruding ab ovethesurface o ftheliquid ; 2.athinstick ofwood a bout t wice aslong a samatchiswellwr apped in c otton.The. upp ere nd o fthecotton isallowedtoproje ct ov erthewood.Afterdi pping thewholeinoiliti splacedperpendi cularly inthelamp a nd li ghted. Som e people v ow a g lass lampwithor without an outside silver c asing. A qandU min fi44a h, "silv er l amp," m ay be s uspendedb y a s ilverch ain infr onto fth e saint 's picture, ab ovethetomb S. o rin front ofthe Rich p eople vowbrasso rsilver c andlesticks, ore venan expen sive lustre for candle so rglasslamp s.sITh ese ho ld er smaybe a littlemo re co mplicated,soth att heyl ook lik ea sm all,e lo ngat e d, na rrow boxw ithout t het opan dfron ts ide.Th e to p may a t t imes beprese nt.2 B et l;I anin il.. 3J ericho. 4 I n s om epl ace s empty sard ine o ro thertinswe r e u seda s l amps. 5 I n en -nab'iD anitlll I fo und a n o ld panu se d asano ill amp.Iwa nt to correctat thi s pl ace th es tatement m adeo n pa ge 62abo ut th e s ituation of th is s anct ua ry.Itli es t o th e SWo fe l-H a d e r ,andnotb e tweenthisv illag e a nd Ar tas. Iti s situat e d ona hi gh mounta in, co mmanding amagn ificent v iew.Th es hrin e i s sur r o undedb ya rui na ndt hes imple n iche i s b uiltinth e mid sto f t he oa k t rees.6 FtUeh. 7 } Iohammedans ne v er h ave human o r a nim a l p ictur es i n t heir m osques o r s hrine s. .8I n c hur che s t hey a rev eryofte n me twith. I n Mo hammedan s h rinest hey arera rely fo und ex cept in impo rtantsanctua ries.9I h av e no tf oundpotteryl amps in ch ur c h es .Forillu str a tionso f pottery l ampsseel\ lcCown, An nualoft he American Sc hool, vo l.II-III,p.28. 10*

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148. Jou r na.lofthePalestineO rientalSo ciety" Incense (baJjhitr) i s ver y oftenvowed :" 0 S ab ba l.l ifmyb oy comesoutof ; jail Ishallburnin cense f or you. Much more .. o ften the phra sead 'aq1 baJ..iI}'ur f i "!,aqame k, "Ish all burnincen se in y our shrine,"isu sed. Thi s incense m ay b e burn ed inth es hrineatonc e oritmay b e giv en tothe or p riest.Inunimp ortants hrines th e ba[zl}'ur is burn ed inanold dish ,a p j ece oft in or o nap otsherd. Th ese o bject s remain aft erwards inthesh rine. Su ch i s th e casein a ll t he s hrinesofJericho, es-sebI;lu s en Qubb et el-Arb in, ed Daw a'ri, etc.Sometime s thequ antity ofincen se i ss pecifiedinthe nUJr. Incen se m ay b e offered in a ll s orts o f s hriues.t Burnin g in cense i s a v e r y old c ustom,foundin a llr eligions an d c onnected : withm anycer emonies.sIti s notonl y don e in s hrines,butal so inpl aces inhabit ed bydemon s.Inth e firstca se iti s thought oneple ases th e holymenbythis ac t, whil e inthe s econd inst ance itdri ves a way theevil s pirits.Itissuppo sedthatwhat pleasesholymenandGodi s -di sliked b y devils,demon sa ndevil s pirits.Forthisr eason iti s empl oyed b yso rcerers to exp ele vil s pirits f rom s upposeddemonia cs. Other votive objectsbelon ging tothisc ategory a re:mats pI. carpets ( siddjadeh-'-siddjad), broom s 4(mukuns eh-maleaneS), jars pails ( $aW-stitleh), ti ns tanak 5 ), rop es 6,water s kins7(qirbeh-qirab,sm allo nes arec alled wood et c.Withthe exce ptiono f the carpet s allobject s : ar e vowed to a ll s orts ofshrin es, es pecially thesimple one s. C arpetsand (pl.of woollen /' ID daqai nt h es enseo f b ur n" is no t i nBe lot, Wa hrrnund, K assi'tb andHammflmo rin ,2If'ame nstruatingw omengo es d ownto 'Enes Seh Hus en( in Ko loni a a lso ca lled ':E n ed -Djoz) s h e h asto p urify t he p lace ato n ce by bu rningincense.If' s h e f ails t o d o i t t he s e rv antoft h e we li ( an 'aM) w ill a pp ear a nd inflictso me d i seas e upo n h e r."'.'.'. 3Inth e Ol d T estament burning in c ens e waso ne of th e offi cialre ligious rite s,E x.30 7,8,L e v.1 612,e tc. T here a ret wo kin ds ofbr ooms,t heu sualon e withabroadsw eepingsu rface a nd t h e r ound,s horton e, whichen dsin a s mall ,'. 5 F ors toring o rd rawing w at er;some times specifiedas 'ianake t kO.z, as th ey w ere o riginally u s ed fo r p etroleum. ., ... ,' 6F ordr awing w ater. '7Forthe t ransport. a nd sto rage of w at e r '

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CANAAN:M ohammedan Saintsand Sanctuari es in .Palestine149carpetswo ven b y women-arepresentedtothe'moreimportantsanctuaries. De corative objects aresometimes also vo wedandfastened tothe wall ofthe 'I1ldqam ortothetomb. Qoran verses ;. kaffqamil),or jewelsaremetwith, Besides verses oftheholy book sometimesthegen ealogicaltree'' oftheProphet,andrepresentationsoftheKa'behandthesanctuary of Medinahare found. Akaff i s made of ears of grain withlong s temswovenin such a w ay as t o have e ars onthreesides-the' twolateralandthelower-whilethe upper is earless, This"hand"of corn is generally offered as asignofthanksforagood harve st.In B et Dj ala everyownerofa vineyardI ,used to bring o n i d e t-tadjalli(TransfiguratioIi Feast2 )a small basketof grapes(sallit3i nab) sanctifying the grapes,tbe-priestusedtodistribute -someofthefruits among those present.sThelasttwo customs 5 were mentioned because they pointto vestiges" ofthanksgiving offerings.7 ., Jewels, orratherornaments likethe z naq (necklace),halaq(ear ring s); (broach ), lj ati'l1l (ring) as awir (bracelets), (headdress of Bethlehem, B et Dj aHi., and women)and, $ affeh (the headdress ofthe. wom en ofRamallah:andthesurrounding:village s)area lsovowed. Theyare-eitherhung on ,the s tarah ofthetomb (el-Badriyeh) aroundoron theq ftnelt(picture) ofaChristiansaint, o raresoldandtheproceedsspent. forthebenefitofthe maq am. .A s asa Chri stian womanof B et DjiHa 8makes such avowsh e hang sthepromis ed jewel onthepictureof tpe saint.Incasethe person forwhomthe nitl r wasmadedies,theobjectsaretakenback,butif he recovers they remainthepropertyofthe" IOfth e Gre ek Orth odox Chur ch.2A ugust6th,Jul.Oal ender(19thGr eg.).3Asm allb asket i s c alled qirl alleh.4 T akenf rom th e not es ofm y f ather. 5 M anyoft hep easantso f t he v illages a round 1ja zar e th lt ut as ide,a s s o on astheyfin ishh arvesting;so mebarl eyan dwh eatf or e Uel!Sh ah e dD i n,Thi s will beso ld a ndwi tht he mo ney a pi cnic isgi ven inth e n amea ndth e h onour ofthe w elt .'6Th e o f B et D jaH\ se nd so meoil ,a fterpr essing their oliv es, t o the chur ch o f M arInquHl. asas ignofth anks, 'J 7Seealso Curti ss, ch a pterXVII.IOft heGr eek Orth odoxC hurch.

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1 50J o urnal o fth e P alestineO rienta lSo cietys hrine.' Most of these orn aments, e specially th eendq ,th e s a(we h andthe :;affeh a reco stly piecesanda re o fferedbyw omen who t hink thatb y d epriving th emselves of s uchvalu able thing s, th eyw illm ake s ureof t he s aint'sf avourands ympathy.Ade scription of t he s a(weh i simportanttoshowthev alue ofsuchahe ad-dress.Iti s c ylindri cal, s olid a ndc overed on t heout sidew ithred, s ometimesg reencloth.The topofitha s a rigid proje ction cov ered w iththe s amecloth .The front is lined wi th sever al r ows of g oldands ilverc oins, whil e t he b ack hasonl ys ilveron es.The sa(weh i sfas tenedonth e he ad b yaba nd runnin g b elowthechin.Fromb oth e ars ofthe s a(we h the znii q h angsdo wn.tV ows whicharepaidonl y tothetom ba re: stiirah (or gha(ii ), a cov ering ; ande aq iil o rl affeh(he ad-dre ss). Th e stiirah 3isa l arge pi ece of cloth cov ering the wholecenot aph.Inles simportants hrines i t is madeofasi ngle col oured cloth whil e in t heimpor tantone sathick, woollen cloth of goodqu alit y (djuIJ4) i sp resented.Th e r edandthegr een colour spredominate;wh ite and ye llow a rele ss fa voured. Som etimes thecl oth i s borderedore ven emb roidered withQor anicv erses. Ve ryoftena c ombinationof these coloursi s foundinthes ame stiirah. Thisis m ade b yse wing s trips o fclo th of different c olours onthemainco ver.Notin frequently o netomb iscov eredwithse veral stiirat, theupp ero neb eingt hel astv owed (neb i Mfrsa, B adriyeh,e tc.)."Occasionallyab e raq( banner)i sv owed,g enerally bea utifully embr oid ered.Then ameo fthes aint ,t hoseo fthef our aq(iib (se e bel ow)andavers e o f th e Qor an arege nerally e mbroidered o nit.6Thecol ouro ftheturban ('aq iil) a ndthato f thel affeh7(t he d ervish he ad-dress) mu st corre spond to t he o rdertowhi cht he IFromt he wr ittennote s ofmyfather.2Aber glaube,p.7 4,n .6 .3Among w eus whoposs es s a s tfiral! a re Sa lmflnelFarsi, Anbar, Abd es Sa lflm, Ba dr, s ittna e l-B e driy e h, e l-H a l i l i,etc., 4 I n Sarafa t Ih eardt h e e xpressionh irmzeb.f ortheclothoft he s tarak5 Th e st iira ll do esnota lways lied irectly onthecenotaph s ometimesitis s upported bya w ooden f ramewhi c h enclosesthetom b (B eyram Sawis e lBadriyeh).6S u chpresents m ay b es eeni nthe shrines of Lilt,Mitsa, D flhfid, et c.7T heh e addressof s omevillage s around J er us alemi s alsoal afTe h,whi ch diff ers slightlyfromtheo ned escribed in t he te xt.

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CANAAN:Moh ammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine151belonged.IThe starah andthehead-dressarevowedonlytosaint swhosetombsareinsideabuildingandnevertotombslocatedin theopen.InthecaseofsomeBedouinsaint s, however,a head-dre ss isfoundonanexposedtomb.Seyidn fl el-Hus en, S.E.of e d-Djorah (nearAscalon), has notomb,butinsidethe maqam afragmentofa pillarshowstheplacewheretheheadofel-Hu sen wasburied.The t op ofthepillar bear s agreenlaffehandbelowit there isared cloth. 2 Som e peasants (especiall y Ohristians) vowoneorseveral trees to asaint.Th e fruitofthe tree s belongtotheholyman.Ifthe treesarecutdownthewood goestotheshrine,buttheholy !Dan loses allfurtherrightstotheplaceofland sincethe trees andnotthe groundwerevowed.The latter returns totheformerownerorto hisdescendants Ofcourseapieceoflandwithits trees orevena hou se mayalso be donated toashrine.Suchpr operty remainsw aqf, "re ligiou s property."3Vowingto decorate ashrineistheconnectinglinkbetweenvotive off erings andvowstoperformwork.Thecommonest material i s b inna butwefindal so nileh and sir aqun, whichhave a lreadybe en described.Commonexpressions are: ana' aleld ya sittiesSamiyeh in ar zaqtini ? abi la-al]bablikwa-abam iiki," l begfor h elp, 0m y lad y S ...,ifyougrantmeaboyIwillslayyou a sheepandd ye youwith binna." Inthecaseofthetwo other colour s thewordazau wiq( embellish) is Chsed. Suchvowsaremade exclusively bywomen.!b)Vowing material forth e repair ofthe maqam Vowspromising materi al forthe repair ofthemaqiim.orits complete reconstruction arealsoverycommon.Ifsuch did note xist, a great numberof sanctu aries wouldbeinaconditionof ruin,andthesit e ofsomewouldhavebeenlo st completel y. The. I Ea .se!!es .eV!-,orI, e s. 'Anb ar, d 'Abdes -Saldm,e tc. 2 Th e l arge maq am i s on t het op of a hill a bout20 30 m inutes fr omt he sea Th erea re no tomb s orc aves ini ts neighb ourhood. Tw o mulb errytre es and avin eyarda rehi sp roperty. .3Thi s i s th e r eason why so me c hurcheshav eex tensive properti es. ,, )4 Ev en th e s toneso f a h oly !lIIlOe!iyeh-as inth e ca se of essell S a'id in I gnam ay b epa intedwith ltinna.

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152Journal oftheP alestine OrientalS ocietyfollowing arethemostimportantmaterials whichmaybevow ed: bdjarah (pl. badjar, hewn stones), dabS or djabS (unhewn, irregularstones), uqq a d (stones for vaulting), si d (lime) nMiteh (fine broken stones left overfrom stone-cutting operations), water for makingthe 1IladjbUliyeh,1badid (iron)and e lbab (the woodenorsometimes iron door). Gen e rally several persons while assembled inthe mar.1ajeh agreethateach onewill bring s omething.'I'he selj ofthevillage, discus singthecondition ofthe shrine, make sthefir st promise.Oneaftertheotherfollowssa ying ana alaiyi...; L willoffer,.,"Such astatementisalreadyavowandit must befulfilled exactly,Even, whenthewelii s notinaruinedcondition, many vow lim e which is deposited intheimm ediat e neighbourhood oftheshrine or even inside it.Such, vows are made,inthefirst place,byperson s whoareburning lime. Inthis wa y they hopetogetthea ssistance ofthew elifora successful completion ofthejob.s Avisit or to Mohammedan welis willoft en findinthemheaps oflinie'3gen erally covered with a coating ofearth (e8-sel] Anbar; : es-sultan Ibrahim, es-sel] Hamad, A1,lmad el-Karaki,etc.),Anotheroccasion when vows of thissortare made i s, when a ri ch peasantbuilds a houseandpromises s ome building materialfor th e same-reason:in ljallU-$tibnaitMa bis-salameh laannilak'!la .: : 4Md, "IfIfinishmyhou se ingood health, Iwillbringyou,o..,threeloads oflime," Such vow s 'arealso made by Palestinians who becomebadlyill whil@absent ina foreign country, as weh ave seeninthecase ofthemanof AM Dis. Sometim es a weJi withno shrine, orwhosesanctuaryi s defective, appearsinavisiontosome oneinthevillageandorders himtoerector to repairthe m Thismanwill thentell' his visiontohisfellow villagersand soon th' e necessarymaterial i sgathered, ', .. i) I A'mixture o flim e (one-third ) and ea rth mo rtar, 2 InCAwartahm any ofthos e wh oburnlim e will o ffe r to el'Azeri H oll e [urtleh.of s td :One .{ardeli--.:. 30-50'k g.In thi s v illageI i ieard th e w ord" mubfirf or a small'latton ', .. l 3Thelim e ma yb e o utsid e th e shrin e, in a c avenea r-by,in th e s hrineit self, or o nit s r oof. .i 4 l'heloadsm ayb e s pecified: Mmldj amal,[I.uaglii, o r { I.{mil l", i.e.
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CANAAN: 'lIIohammedan Saints a nd San ctuaries153 c)Personal work N0s ooneris ,thematerialreadyth'anthepeople o t the'villagemenandwomen, grown-upsand children-offer the i r help for 'the' This' onegivestwo days' t oeother vows tohewsonie ofthe' ston e, a 'thirdpromise s t o carr ythewater, e tc. ,andin a shorttime workis done: Even t ne richand iHe old it a; s pecialh onourandble ssing toh elperects ucha building. Combined help by a llth einhabitants: o fthe' vi llage is offered whenthe c eiling is ( el -'aqd).Allmov e verybu sily ,infini shingtheshrine .Butonl y in e xceptionalca ses doe s a s anctuaryne ed complete e rection; gen erall yitne eds onl y t o berepair ed;The. roof isdefective :the q ?arah h as fallen ,thedoor h as b eenburnt,the, tombhas lost'its white-wash ,e tc.Ins uch circumstances on!" a tom ake some repair.In b alla?till1. e l-latton min i l7baraby a 'y asel]'A bdes -Salam la-ormiiak u ; qabrok. you s ave ourl ime-kiln f rom d e struction, '9 my lord, C)sel].'A Iwill brin g youtwo load s of a ndwill whitewashthe andtheshrin e."This vowwastaken by Mohammed of Anata, wh ohadbuilta lime-kiln w ithsom e rel atives.Hehadalreadybeenheatingitforfour f ?uleh1 (pI.oifosl,se ason,herehalfaday),when suddenlypartofthekiln be gan to c ollapse.The o wner; a fraid of losing all his work madetheabove vow, whereup onthehol y manappearedin themid st ofthefl ame a nd began to: e xtinguish 'the: fire. Theyrepaired th e lim e-kiln,litth e fireanewandthe' w o rkwa s saved. Some s hrinesthusrepairedare: 'A:: s tone casing w as buil t fortheentrance of es-seh es-Sidri; Anbar r eceived an iron door; : for es.I;luwan atombw as built; thedjami'.inAbh Dis. received aminaret;thetombs Of ed-D awa'ri' wer e whit ewa shedj 'adjacentt o ea-SultanIbrahim's mosque (B et Hanina)" a hallwa s e rected, etc ,t.. I B es idesthe se expensive v ows wemeetwith others much simpler a ndl esse xpensive. Awomanmaybindherselfto s 'yeep a severald ays, we eks orev en more.Inthe'lastca se shrineisI Fa lll hasthef ollowingmea nings: ..'I (aIJI es-saneh," a seas on of th eyear"; fUIJ/.maiyelt, "twelve lio ursofw ater," Thi s i s u sed .when th e w aterof aspringi s d ivideda mong ma ny g ardens;.' o fa d ays tands for tw elve da y a nd t welvenighthours.Thus adayha s two (ll i'Ueh.

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154Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societys weptonceweekly.Another p erson ma y promisetoli ght the lampsfors ome time.Thisisdone e very Thursda y evenin g. Still another willbindhimselftofillthesabilwithwater.. Bomeoffer towork three days(ormore)inthe w ag! ( sanctuary property) of thesaint. Manywomenof B et-Djf\hl vowtohelpinh arvesting the olive s of Mar Elyas, others toploughthevine yards ofel-Hadr, IT.FoodvowsTheyare generally offeredina s hrine.Th e shrinehasnodir ect benefitfromthisoffering but thepoorreceiv epartinmostcases. Thi s classmaybedividedinto: a) Animal sacrifices (rlWtah, pl, tJabayb) b) Qurban (offeringtoGod),orwalimehlit-l ah(banquetforGod) c)Meatlessfood Allthese three categorieswereverywellknownintheancient Orient,andin describing eachclassweshallrefertothecorres ponding Hebrew practice. a) Animal sacrifices By d,Wlah a s acrificeofsomeanimalisalwaysunder stood. Dab ibah isthefeminineof andmeans "wha t everi s slainas anoffering," and reallystands-aswas already notedby Jaussen2 forafemaleanimal.Atpresent thewordhaslostit s specific character andisusedforanyanimal.Fromthe s ameroot (tJababa) wehave 3"altar," originall y theplac e wherethe s acrificial animal waskilled.Itiscuriousthattheword sma t-I isu sed in some parts of Palestine exclusivelyfora d,bibah (B eni Z ed,6 Beni Mfi1ik 6),whilein other parts-asforexamplein Jerusalem andthe surrounding villages-this samewordisusedfora tabljah, andnotI It70 8. 2Page 338.3M eans alsotheneck. 4 means acco rdingt o Mult i! (I,994) a tabl e o ral arge r oundtray onwhi ch foodi s presented. Id o notdoubtth at th e pr es en t meanin go f food o ffering"o riginatedfromth e ide ao f o ffering a t abl e w ithf ood( u w alimeh) f ort h e i celi. 5 Wi th D el' G hassimeha s the ma in an d fo rmer cap ital.GWi th AMG h os a s th e ce nt re .

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries inP ale stine165forananimal sacrifice. Whenev ertheword smat Iisusedin section(of animal s acrifices)it means a ilWlah, andtheformula s us ed originate in D el' Ghas saneh or AbfrGhos. Idonot intend togi ve inthis study allthedifferent s ortsof knowninPalestine.Jaus sen hasgiveninhis boo" CoutumesdesArabes,alistof29 sortspractised inMoab.? maybe divided intothreeg roups,anditisa mistake to mixoneofthe se withth e other:1.Sa crifices connect ed directly with s ome religiousidea2.Tho se conn ected withthedjinn3.Thoseconn ected withfamily circum stance s, suchas invitation s, familyfea sts, etc. Onlysuch animal offerin gs asbelongtothefirst group willbe described here.Someof those belonging tothesecond category will be mentioned onlyfor completeness. Occasions which belong to thethirdcategoryare:theinstallation ofa muljtr ir,3 thearrival of an honouredguest ," .familyevent s suchas circumcision, betrothal, marriage,thededic ation ofahou se.Importantagreementsareoften not completed, until sealed witha a acrifice.sButthe most fruitful occ asionf orm aking sacrific es isthedi scharging ofayow.6These sacrifice s belon g tothefirstgroup.Thec ustomofv owing an animal i snotata ll All religion s ofthean cient Ori ent practiced it. Kindsofanim als whichma y be usedforthi s purp oseareayoung camel(djam .al djazUr), ayoun g she-camel(n iiqah djazftr) a yearling ox (1f;rbOli 1) ,acow,ash eep (lJarftJ8), ayounggoat ( saljl9), o ra goat( djidi).Indiff erent parts ofPalestine different anim alsarepreferred: thusthe Bedouin oft enY OWa camel,whilethe j ellabin prefer aIA ccordingto MU!I'i!, B elot,Kassfib and H ammflm, sma! m eansa lso" the t ablec lotho nwhi ch the mea l is o ffered." 2Pp.33 7-363.31 Sam ,111 5. 4 Ge n.1 81 -9.sGe n.31 5 4. S.I acob(Gen 2820.22),J ephthah( Jud.11 3 0-40). 7F rom M l, "o ne yea r,"butv ery often old era nimals a re vowe d.8Th e e we is ca lled na 'djeli, th er am kab8; bo th may b e off ered.9Thefema lei sca lled'anze h,t he ma le t es; bothmay b eoffere d.A tt ime sitisspec ifiedw hetheroneorth e o theri stob e sa crificed. /

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156 ,Journal ofthePal estine Ori ental S ociety 'sheep.!No unclean anim al (pig)willever lie vowed A v owed animal mustpossessspecial characteristi cs whichwillbe described later. Yer y oftenit happens thatonlyapartofan animal i s offered. This isonlythecase when the sacrificevowisa camel oxor a&w. Half, athird: orafourth Of a c ow mayb e vow ed.Ins uchacasehalf,athirdora fourth ofth e price ofthecowis giventothe sanctuary. Thi s moneyis as soon asthecowis sold A M 'ralib, amanof B et Haninn, toldme,thatnotonly should one-half of the price oftheanimal be given ,butaslon g asitisnotsoldhalfthework; half themilkandhalf ofallcalves whichthe : cowgets after thevowis made ( andbefor e iti sso ld) belongtothe we li. Fromthemoment,AbO. 'ralib ex plained,thatthe v ow isspokenhalfthecowandthus one-half itsworkand products belongtotheownerandthe other half tothemanofGod.Atpresent only half the price ofthe animal is g ivenandall other rights of.thes aintarewithdrawn. AM'ralib continued: e d-djaml : byaklfte l-awlia, i.e. ,noteverythingthatbelong s toaweli;andthatshouldbe givento him is actually given. Yery conscientious persons expressl y vow, therefore, onl y half the pric e ofananimal:i n adj ani !1Jab a r Si jah2y a n abiy all ah ya Mu banulwd l a-astr!ibnus taman e Hor kis weh3 lal-juqar a, ifIreceivethe newsof his recovery I bu y,ProphetofGod,Mohammed,for half of tile price oftheox, clothes for ,'thepoor. 4 A Christian of 'raiybeh informedmethatitis cu stomary inthe vicinityofhis ': vill age, whenthecalves of acowdie,one after tne other, tovowapartofthe next one born toel-Hadr. "Accept my vow, 0 Green :J;aeJrj aquarterof what she(thecow)brings,is yours ," Byfarthemo st common animal vowedisasheep.sAlwayswhentheanimal i s notspe cified, i.e., when onlytheword s @Jil}ah orIShe e p a re c all e d b ay8,q ( whi te) ,whil eg oatsar ekno wn a lso by th e n am e of sa milr (b lack). T he me a t of bayil q. i smuc h p referr e d to th a to f goa ts, 2 Th e 11 is to b epronounced, "3See ','"4 Su c h a v ow i s when a n abse nt re lative ill.5The s heepi s th efirstd omestica nimal m entioned int heBibl e.

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Sai nts a ndSanctuaries i nPalestine157 sm4 t ( inBen i Z ed a ndBeni M ftlik) ar e used,ashe ep1i s meant to be offered. An a bsolutelyh ealthy and fa ultless a nimalh as tobeoff ered.No l ame, blindor s ickone s houldb e p romised.r An a nimalwhichh as acci dentallybr okena limborh as be en woundedbya g un -s hotisnot s uitable f ort hefulfilment o fa vow.3TheOld Testa mentg ivest he sa mer egulations .4Thew ord dWlah b ears th ese nseof "s laughtering." 'I'here fore onewh ich ha s l ostso meof its bloodin anyo therw ay th an b y b eing butcher ed doe s n otf u l filth e re al p urpo se ofth evow.' Animal s acrificesar e drawninmany ca ses f rom on e's ownh erd. S tolenanim alsare n ot ac ceptedby a ny weli I ca n n ot v erify for Pale stine Dou tte's ob servation inN orth Africa, name l ythata d bibah mu st b e ama le animal. T h ee xpressions u sed in takin gav owfora are very n um erous. 1sha ll on ly mentiont he mos t importa nt o ne s: Sm ataky a H auwa., in r tiqi bni,"Yo ur anima l off ering, 0 J;: (willbe s ent toyou)ifmy s onreco vers;" 6nif1run ala iy ya n abi Mz 1sa in r idji'd joz i b is-salfim e h la aqaddimlak f1Wwh,"1 take u ponm yselfav ow,op rophet Moses, i f m y hu sband r eturnssaf ely,1 s hall offer yo u a n a nimal; "iin adjani $abi ya!lalil Allah la arlbablak k ullsaneh if. Ige t a bo y, 0Friendo fGod ( Abraham) I s hall sa crificeto yo u as heep ye arly ." s All t he a bove expr essionscont ain th e a ssumptionthatt heanim al w hich i s bein g promis ed willb es lain,Buti ti s notata llnec essaryIThe s heepwa s pre eminently theanima l forsa crifice t hough mo stly rams wer e appoint ed tob e offeredup,firstbecau se their meati s th oughtbetterthanthato f e w e s,andals o b ecauseitwas more importantt o spare th e e we s for b reeding p urpo ses Themilkofth e ew es wa s (inBib lical times, a ndisst ill) a mostim porta nt a rticle ofd i et; th u 's M osesinhissong speaks of Bu tte r o 'f t he herd an d m ilk ofthe flo ck, Wi thf at of l ambsa ndr am-lambs, s onso fB ashan," D eut. 3 2H (JamesNe il) '2D outte,p .464.3S ee a lsoJ auss en ,p.338. M al. 1 u .5 Page4 64:"e lled oit e trc d esex m ale."6Int hisformu la as well as i nthefollow ing t he a nimali snotspecifie d, a nd genera lly a s heepisoffere d. 7 W hile the l a s t f ormulaIs u sedinB eni Z ed a ndB eni M a li k, th is onemay b ehea rd every where .8C ont rary toth e la st twoform ul as thiso n e specifi es th e animal.

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158Journal o fthePalestine Oriental S ocietyto slaughter the animal; some promise tosendalivin g animalto the sanctuary: ya mar Djirius ilak alaiyin tau i bni l]ariifwaqij, "0St.George,ifmychild recovers Ioweyouasoundsheep(i,e. a living one)."Aftersuchavowthe s heepwillbe sent tothe conventofSt. Georgein el-Hader, andther aiys(director ofthe convent)hastheright to dowithitash e please s.Animalsacrificesaremademostlyon important -occasions: disease or absence of a member ofthe' family; g reatimpendin g danger; whenamanhasnomale children; whenadise ase attackes aflock ofsheep.Theexpression usedinthela st caseis:i n r afa t I min ghanami2 i kbirha smatak yaRja i, ifyoutake thediseasefrom myflock"thebiggest of them isyour offering 0R. "Inthecase of Anbar3aflockattackedbyanepidemicisall brought to visitthe maqam,4 who se dooriskeptopen.Whilethesheeppa ss thewel i,thefirston e which tries to enter the shrine isvowedto the sel]. Itissaid,ihtarha," hehaschosenit."Inthisca se, as well aswhenthesheepis pointed out,thetopoftheeariscutwiththewords f.1anuh,5 "Ihave c ut hisear." Suchasheep remains withthe other s andiswell cared for until iti s sacrificed biybqa ala ismuh,"itremain s onhisname"(thatofthe weli to whomitbelongs).Sometim es amanpromisesthe firstborn she ep 6 ofhisflock7toa saint, hopingthatthismanofGodwillblessthe flockandkeep 'itsafe. Others vowone ofthefirsttwins.Inboth these cases,aswell as whena.lambis broughtforthefulfilment o f thevow,theyoung animals arewellfedandcared for, until they growupandthe' timeof their sacrifice comes.Theyare calledrbibeh,8an expression whichisalsousedforanywell-fedsheepIThiswordmeans a lso plagu e e pidemic."2 Gh miam s tandsf or aflo ck irrespective o fwhethert hey a re s heepor go ats.3'Anbar'ss hrinei ssituatedo nth ddle o fth e e astwardc ontinuati on ofth eMount or" Olives,notfarfrom :Esi1wiyeh. Itisa maqam o f sea 'Anbar' stombinth e m ain shrine andth at o f hiswifei nth e s mallnorthernroom.Iti s saidthat'Anbarw as th es laveofanEgyptianmaster. Th e mi raculou s s tory o f th e journey of'Anbarwill b emen tionedlater. Bizauwrilhii. s Qafas isalsoused .6S eeCurtiss.7Ac cording tothel awo f Mosesitwa s forbidd ento v owt h e fir stborn o f anybe ast, which wasalre ady d evoted to G od ( L ev ,272 6) .8Kahle,PJBVIII, 156

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CANAAN: Mohamm edan S aints and Sanctuaries inPalestine159broughtupunder s peciallyfavorableconditions. Incaseananimal diesof a disease, somepeople replace itby another, whileothersIbelievethat astheAlmightyG od permitted such aloss thewelihasno right to another one ; andtheyfeelreleased.In. casean animalwhichhasb een .vowedgetssick itmaybesoldandwithits price another (butyoungeranimal)maybebought. Others slayit and distribute themeatamongthepoor.Itisforbidd en tochange ananimalonce dedicated toaweli.'I'h e manofGodwillsurely-c-thusthepeas antsbelieve-not accept suchasacrificeandwillpunishthedoer.Itisn ot atallnece ssary tobreedeveryanimalvowedforthe d bibahj itmayb e boughtatthe sanctuary01'in the market.Insom es hrines there is a large marketatthetime of themosasn,givingeveryone opportunity tobuyanynumberofanimalshewishes.iIte venmayhappen that thepersonwhohas bound himself bya vowcannotgotothe sanctuary, thusbeingunabletofulfilhis promiseinperson.H e then entrusts thefulfilmentofhisobligation to somefriend,bygivinghimth e animalormon ey tobuyone. Som etimes, butnotoften,asummaybesenttothe qaiym ofthe holyplace inordertobuyash eep whichheslaysinthenameof thedonor.Wewillsee later whyiti s very important evenobligatorythateveryone shouldbepr esent inper son orbe represented by adele gatedfriendorrelative while his dWwh i s sacrificed.Offeringan animalforsomebod y el se withoutan authority takesawayth e de sired connectionbetweenthe per son andhisholyintercesaor.tGenerallytheonewhoha s madethevowandheforwhomit wa s taken,withsome relatives and friends, g otothe sanctuary tofulfilit .Incasethe nider wasmadeforawomanwhobecomes impureby menstruation a tthetimeofthefulfilment shedoesnot accompanytheprocessionandcannot attend thesac rifice. Young children andbabi es maynotjoinsuchafea st asarule,especially whenth ewe liisfaraway, A ilbiZtah is usually slaughtered inthe maqam ofthe s ainttowhomitwaspromi sed, butthi s isnotabindingrule,A ilbibah forIN ebi Mus a, R ubin,f;lalelI, et c .. 2Se e a lsoDoutte,p .46 6.

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16 0J ournalof til e P al e stineOriental Sooi ety i br a h i m e l-Halil(in H e b i o n) ma y b e offeredi nJ erusal e m,a ndon e foren-nabi D ahiid (Jerusalem ) inN ublus.Ins uch a c ase 'ala ismu h,.." itis s laininhi s na me( i.e .,thato f t he saint)."This m ay happen when n obody ,cang ot otheshrin e in q uest ion.A B e doui n o f th etribee l-Tdwan t oldmethatmosto f the sa crific es m ade f or M osesarekill ed in th eir camp ( Transjordania) a nd no tatthes hrine.Buti ti sc onsideredmorec orrect tooff er th ean imalinthe sa nctuary, for a visitto such a placeis init selfabara keh,, ble s sin g ."Whena s heepi staken.toas hrineiti ss ometimesde corated with flowers a nd .t0loured ribbon s. A s mallrou nd mirror (mray ) so me tim es i s s uspendedfromits f orehead a ndtheh ornsa redy ed with Inthe mOs"am ofN e bi Mii sft on e find s many s heepwh ose fore h eads, backsand tailsared yed with si raqim a nd maijhab.1 Anyone who knows howto s laughtera s heepma y d o it. G enerally itisdoneby thep eople who 'tak e th eo ffering. I n ex ceptionalca sesiti s done by t he 1.Jaddam o fthes hrine. I nimportant pl aces of p ilgrim agewithw ell-known 'mawasimthere a re butchers, w ho usu ally slaughter th e il Wwh, rec eivingaquarterorhalfamadjidifo rth eir work. Butn obody i s obli ged toh and o ver hi ss heep tos ucha p erson.Women n ever perfor mth isac t.D outte's2o bservation t hat amuqaddisn.(offerer) sl ays th e ijbibah' i n m osts hrine s h a sits -p arallel onl yo nce in .Palestine t heMaghr ebineeiuoieh.of Ab ii M adian.s. Tna l argem aqiun,likeNebi Mii sa"j there i sas pecialpl acefor slaughtering.sInsm aller o nes wi thakitchenthea nimali ss lainin o rinfront. o ft hisr oom (en-N abi $ ale1).,in thev illage ofe n-N a bi $ alel .l ). There' a re s anctuaries,whichh ave n o re al ki tchen bu t ha ve adjacenttoth e w all ofthe 1naqam a n op en e nclosure or rwUq w hich se rves as a kitchenand where the ares lain an dth ef oodi s cooked ( er-Rfa 'I ,Rdjal S ufeh),Notinfrequentl yes peciallyin'I'r ansjordania. the animal sare slain ontheroo f of t hemaqam ,sothats omeofthe' bloodruns over the front wall.Ina ll -oth er shrine s th e<,I Thi s wo rd' c omes f rom ma ( wate r )an d rJahab (go ld) an d means"g o ld leaf t insel." 2 P age 46 2.3Rahle,PJBVIII 1 55. 4 Itlieso n e ort wominutes fromth es hrine a ndn ear aci stern sKahle,I.c. ,and Curtiss ,chapterXXV.

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.. C AN A AN: Mohamme d anSain ts a ndS anctuaries i n P alestine 1 61animalm ay b e killedin a nypl ace whi ch i s inthe direct nei ghbour hoodofthe m aqiim: u ndera tre e; on alarge flatroc k, infr ont of the s hrineitself.Ift hepl ace of s laughteringi s de signated inthenider,t hen s uch aco nditionmustbefulfill ed: e. g. smiit ak y ii' a l ii 'a tbatak," your sh eep-offering, 0 ij: ...,Ish all s layon t hethresholdof yourdoor."Th e anim al ismor e oft en k illedonthe thre sholdof thedoor of th e c ourt yardth ano n th at o fthedooroftheshrine D"Qi1J,taky iiI;Iiitimar]babhii a l ii iobidak;" Your ilbibah, 0 I,I ., Ish all slayony our c offin."Inthel ast c ase th e anim al i ss lain i nsideth es hrine,be side thetombandnotonit. \ \ Gr eat c are i s takenth atne itherthefloornorthetombb epo lluted withblood. A p ail(la kan)issoplac edt hatallth e blo od flo ws int oit. !Like Kahl e2Ih ave not see nnorhe ard ofan y c ase wh ere anim als ar e slainin s uchaw aythatth eir bloodflowsintoth e w ater of a holy s pringorinto a hol y cave,a s Ourti ss3mentions. N o pre gnanta nimal-ifthiscondition happen s tob e known-is e versl ain.Buts uch a n a nimalmaybe vo wed, andit a swe ll as it s o ffspring, b elongsa fterwardstoth e s aint. Onewait s until after d elivery. I ncases uch a n a nimali s( withoutkno wledge o f th e c ondition)offered thefo etus i s th rowna way. 4 'I'heanim al isthrownonth eg roundwithit s he ad turn ede ast--,ward an dth e f aceso uthward.Itisn ot withoutint erest tonote that d ead pers onsa nd sacr ificedanimal sar elai ds othatth efa ce look s to wards Mecc a5(inP alestines outhward).Thedi fference between thein i s theformerl ies onhisri ght sid e wi th thehead tothewe st, whilethelatterisl aid onthel eft sid e with t hehe ad pointin g e astward. Theonewhokill s the a nimal s ays:b ism a lliiha lliih akbar,"in t henam eo f G od,Godis gr eat;"6orbism ill i qad dar 'a leki a kbar," inthenameofth e Onewhode creed yo ur sa crifice-Godis g reat."InB ir S abi I h e ard thefoll owing expression:bi sm a lliih-a lliih ak bar ball 'alekieil-dabiJ,lra bbi innahii mink wa i lek fi dii, In t hen ame ofGod-Godi s great -,y ou ( theIIo w e t hi s in formationtot hekindne ss of O .S B arghuti. 2P JBVIII,1 55. 3 Chap tersXXIIan dXX V. On lyt heve rypoor( according t oawomanof e Vraiybeh) e atthe f oetus. 5 C hri stians laythe ird eadonthe bac k fromwes t t o east, th e h eadon th e eastsid e a ndl ookin g totheea st.6PJBVIII, 1 57. '11

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1 62 J ournaloft heP alestineO r ientalS ociety ,she ep) arelawfull y slain.M y Lord iti sf rom y ou a nd isa ran som foryou. Then ame o f thewe litowhomth e animalw as v owed ma y b ea ddedtothatof G od. ThusIh eard th e peopleo f J ericho s ay,"Inthenam e o fG od a ndthatof /Sal:1I.1:' Th eor dinary f ormula o f th e fil tibah, whi ch i s u sed inall ot hercase s,bism allil h er -rahim,"inthenameofth emos tm erciful G od,"Ii s n ever usedin s laughtering, as th ead jective "m ostm erciful," i s contradi ctory t o the ac t o fkillin g. S omee ven t hinkthatan a nimal whichwa s kill ed withthe se words s houldno t be ea ten.Althou gh t he fo llowingpr actice d oes notc ome dir ectly un der thesub jecto f vows, itpossessesa nillu strativev alueinth isc onnection.A fr igh te ned ma n (mardjfi,f or maJJr!fuJ, 2 )mu st u ndergos pecialtr eatmentt o c ounte rac t t he ev ilre sultsof f ri g ht. "O neo f t he m anywayst o a ttainthi se ndisto ea t t hen eck ( mqabeh) of a s heep, w hi cli i s c ooked wi thsaddi t(o r bawil yidj) ei -iarb e hI nkilli ngs ucha n anim al thefoll owing f ormula i s p ronounced:bism a llilh u b ism rauwil{t er -radifeh," in thename o fGod an dinthen ameo ft he On ew ho re movesthe fright."4Whenap erson i sattackedwith ni gh t-blindn ess,w hichi s k nown b y th e n ameof hidbfid, 5 h e w illISa le'stranslation. 2 From !JacJ4ah wh i c h is another name for e l-!Jof eh (a lsora dj(eh).SeeCanaan ,Tasiter -radjfeh,J POSIll,p .1 30.InA berqlaube,p 35 oth e rl ess u sualnames m entio ned.3 A yellow powder madeo f sev eral s trong spi ces 4A very famo us p rophylactic m easure against el-!JaeJeJah inth e following, whi ch Is hall d escrib e ina s tory Myf riend and neighb our Ibrfihim Djiri us w a sv erymuchi rritatedand frightened bybadnewswhichh ad beenrec eived. A relative ofh is fearingthatth is !lo reh mightr esu lt ba dly, cookedab la ck hen with various sp ices Shekeptt h e vesselwellcover ed, sothatt he v apour c ou ldnotescape .W hen s hethou gh tthatt h e h enw as w e llcooked, sh e threw her sel f onth e grou ndin a r oomadjacenttoh is andbegantoc ry an dl ament i namostheart-rend ing way .Ina larmhegotup, w e nt t o h eran d as k ed f ortherea son ofherdistress .S hew ept l ouder, "my son, myd ear son,whyd idst th ou di e my 'joy, my fortune ha s an e nd-my s on,my dear s on."Myfri endb ecame s tillmor e anxious about h ert rouble When shethoughtth at his a larmwas sufficient to counteract th e fir sto nesh e to ld himth etruthandf orced himto p ut hisfac e ov er the o p e nedv essel,s othatth e v apourc loudedhisface.H e hadtoeatthewholeh en alon e( Canaan,A berglaube ,pp.68,69) A w hit e h en i s u sedwhenth e frighttookp lac e duringthe d ay, a b la ck one i fduri ng t henight. 5 I n P 2 163 andHava8 11 th is wordmean s on ly weakness o f th e s ight."

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CANA..A.N: Mohamm edan Saints and S an ctuaries inPal estine163onlybecuredifheeats the z awilyid.1 The havetobe prepared withoutsalt.Inkillingsuchananimal,biem allilh1. is m il-h idbild, "inthenameofGodandthenameofe l-hidbild,"mustbe pr onounced, el se thecurewillhav e noeffect. Notonlyinslayinga niqrqb1,l,tah isthenameofGodinvocated, butwhenevertheMohammedanskillananimalforfood -the y alway s saybism allah. Ifthisis neglected they thinkitunlawfultoeatof suchananimal. Thi s isdoneb ecause iti s ordered intheHoly Book, Surah V verse4:4" Yeareforbiddentoeatthatwhichdieth ofit self, andblood a nd s wine'sfle sh andthatonwhichthename of a ny besides Godhasbeeninvoked. S Thiswas ordered b ecause th e idolatrous Arabs wereaccustomedinkillinganyanim al for foodtocon secrate itto their idolsbysaying:"Inthenameof AllM oral'Uzza." Doutt e's6observationintheMaghribthata s pecialknifeisused inkilling li s acrifice,isunknownin Palestine. TheTarabin 'i Bedouinwillnotkillananimalwith a knifewhose sheath has three nail s.Withthewordsb ism all ilh a llilh akb artheonewhokill s th e an imal sa ysitqabb al y il ... niqr ...,"Accept, 0...,thevowof..." Thosewhohavefulfilledthevowfeelfreedfrom their obli gation. Thisi s wellexpress ed inwhatissaidwhile theanimalisbeing slain: w afenil sll iatak y a se l] Yusif,"Wehavep aid yoursheep 0 sel} Y...i "ha iy ni q1'ak y a n abi R ftbin, Hereisyourvow,0 ProphetR." .Insomeplac es wefindthe following c ustomwhichshowsthe relationofthep erson (inthiscaseachild)forwhom the qb il,tah wasslainandthe s acrificeoffered.Ifthechildisveryyounghe is carried threetimes(rarelyfourtimes)around theanimal.The circlingiscalled twa f: bitauwfu l-uialad Ml e l-l]arfiJ, "thechildi s c arried aroundthesheep." When thechildi s somewhatolderheIS eebe low.2I ntheA rabic te xtth e w ord m u'liiq i s used.Thish as t he literary mea ning of"v italo rgans (Ha va 48) :s pleen,liv er,heartand lungs."Int hedi alectit, s tands fo rth e lun gs(a ndm any include also t heliv er).3Th isc ustomIh ave f ound d escribed inthewritten note so f m y f ather. 4 S eea lsoS firahIl,16 8;VI,146 :XVI,11 5. Th et ranslations areta kenfromS ale.6P age4 63.7SinaiP eninsula.11 *

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164 Journal ofthePalestine Oriental Societyrides onthesheep.Thislattercustom isnotnearly so wide-spread as 'theother. one. Both these two customsarepracticedwh enthechildcanriot accompanytheprocession ofofferingthe ni rlr"at" theshrine,audalways beforethe animal is slain.Whenthechild is able togotothe maqam andattend the ceremony he steps ov erthe ljar uf" afteritis slain, orovertheflowin g blood.! According to .others' hewalksfir st three times aroundthesheepandthen steps overtheblood.Whilehe encirclestheanimalthe jatibah is readthree' times .EvenOhristians ofsome villagespracticethis custom (of stepping overtheblood)whena sheep i s offeredto lJaq.r el Thiscrossing overtheblood is calledfosaq.In thesheep is drawnthreetimesaroundthesanctuaryofSt. George, a ndineveryroundtheLord'sPrayerisrecitedonce.Thiscustom ofst epping overavowed sheep orover 'itsblood ispractisedalsowith e l-fadwaandrarelywiththatof Afewwordsaboutthese twolastsacrificesarenecessary toillustratethediff erence betweenthemandthatofavow sacrifice.Thebestanimalfor erJ-i!Myeh isasheep,althoughthepoor mayoffera g oat. Bedouinprefera camel oranox,asinthe case ofa vow. Aman' ofer-Ramassuredmethat ei!-i!hiyeh mustbeacow (rasbaqa:) threeyears of age (klekeh) 3or more. A poor manmayoffer seven goatsinsteadofacow.!Thisbeliefseemstobelocal, s ince I couldnotverifyitin g ther villages.Thesheep islaidonitsleft side withtheheadturnedtotheeastandthefac e tothesouth. !Themanwho slaysitturnshi s facetowardMecca."Theperson forwhom itisoffer ed says : allahumma itqabbalham inni, "0 God,acceptItfromme." Such an animal is slain onthe Qurban Beyramfeast.7On thisdayrichpeople mayslayfor e ach member of their familyoneshe ep, whichmustbe well-developed, faultlessandwhichIInN abi M usa ( accordingt o Ab u Otm an); inIbrabim el-H alil (Abul'alib).2 Ac cording to Mil adi ofB ir Z et. 3 'lleteh c omesfrom ta/atelt, three." ( This m an assured methatnosh eep c an b e off ered f or eif,ifJ,liyeh, which b elief iswr ong. 5 Exactlya sisdon e with the s heepofav ow.6Th e immolation ofth e victim s inth e H ebrew c ultt ook pl aceonthenorthIs ideofthea ltar.L ev. 111 6 2 5. 710th o fMoh arram.I

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CANAAN: MohammedanSairitsandSan ctuaries in Palestin e165 has p assed theageofoneyear.1Every memberofthefamilyth en stepsover the bloodofhissacrifice whichcountsinhisfavoron thedayof judgement. tThepborofferoneanimalforthe whol e family.Somewomen3attribute miraculous curative action tothe blood ofsuchasacrifice.Ifawomanwashes herself with the blood ofa dbi1:tah mixedwithwatersh e will g et children .4One third of the ilbibah iseatenbytheoffererandbyhisfamily,one third is giventothe relati ves, andthela st third i s distributed amon g thepoor.sSome-butnotmany-willnot accept thisdivision.Thus the Silj of Imwasas sured methatth e above s tatementi s not correct andthatnobodyshouldeatofhi s own Asmany inhabitants of on e villa ge offerasheepeach,onewill share the meatofthesacrificeofferedby another and distribute allhisown sheep. The Palestinians believethata sacrificial sheepwill appear in thedayof -jud gement well-dressed well decorated andwith penciled ey es ( imkaMaleh) andwill carry thepersonfor whom itwasoffered ov er the s urat to Paradise. Therefore thecommonsayin g mat ayana,6 "our s acrificialanimalsareourridin g beasts. "Inslau ghtering thevictimof eiJ,-ifbiyeh the utmost care is taken riot to break anybon es,s othatthe animalma y appear whole a nd faultlessonJjud gement day foritisthoughtthatthesesheep render to their offererthe g reat s erviceonthe last dayofjoininghis g ood deed s inthe balance andthusoutwei ghing hisfaultsandsina.? Db'ibet e l-fadwaisa"sheepofransom offeredonspecialIoccasions. Whenpla gue attackspartofthe country it s inhabitants aswellasthoseofthe s urroundingar ea, may mak e useof suchITh e a nimal must h e abso lutelyf aultless,i .e .,n otb lind, ha lf b lind,la meor w eak. Eve nth e bl eatingm ust be l ouda nd c lear. Some,b utnotma ny, p rohibit event he sac rifice ofan an imal w hich h asbee n bra nded ( i1Ikawat, o rm ukwiyeh)asac u rative me asure.Thi s m ethodoftreatment i sve rywid e-s p read i n t he Or ient .2H eard in Li fta. 3ImmM ohammado f Imwits. 4 Ifth e bl oodis t aken f rom ash eepsa crificedon 'ArSfat i t willb e m ore effe ctive. 5A. a llows eati ng fro mon e 'so wn e iJ-iJMyeh. 6O urtiss, c hapte rXIX. 7 H eard i s B et 1;Ia nlna and v erifiede lsewhere.

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166 Journal ofthePalestine Oriental Societyofferings. Thepeopleoftheinf ectedpartexpectthatGodwill accept theseofferingsandfreethemfrom thescourge.Theothers hope that the gbZbah will prevent the spread ofthediseaseto their country.A fadwa mayalsobemadeforasingleperson.!M.,the only malechildof afamilywell-knowntome,camebackfroma longjourney. His parents slewasheepinfrontofthehouseand theson had tostepovertheflowingbloodbeforeheenteredthehouse.sEvenwhena flockofsheepis attacked bya mortal plague,one ofthesheep-generallythebest-isofferedasransomfor the whole flock.Allsheepof the infectedflockare marked withthebloodof thekilledone.3Sometimesthe following expressionisusedwhile killinga fadwa: fida (or fadwa) an e l-'ial w il-mal,"ransom forthe familyandthe property." The meat ofthis @JfJ;ah is generally all distributed tothepoor.WhatJaussen states about theNegebis true alsoin some localities in Palestine, namelythat ( ptiyeh and fa.dwa areusedattimesto denote oneandthesamething. 'Incontinuing ourexaminationofthe nii1r wenoticethat' the bloodofthesacrificeflowsontheground.Insomeshrineswhere aspecial place insidethemainenclosure surrounding the maqam is designated for slaughtering, thebloodisledthroughaspecial channel to the outside.Thebloodmaybeusedto decorate the shrine. Large maqams likeen-nabi Musa areexempt.The (the lintel ofthedoor)andthe ? daghat (the jambs ofthedoor)are firstofall smeared withblood. Generally theimpressionofthe hand ismade.The Christians of Taiybeh smearthe' atabah4ofthe lJaeJr sanctuary withblood,makingthefi gure ofthecross.Theytakesomebloodina kekarah-a smalle arthernvessel-andsprinkle the lintel andthe jambs ofthedoor.!Thesamecustomprevailed in early Biblical timeswhen Aaron's sons sprinkled thebloodof theoffering "upon thealtarroundabout. "6 Instead ofbloodthe1Su cha qbU,lah isalsokn own as'iqq ah. 2L .3C omparet hes tory told inEx.XII. 4 atabahm eans in reality th ethresholdo fthed oor,b uti s f alsely u sed as 8iisiyeh.5 TheArabicex pr essi onis bU att!Ju. 6L ev.1 5,32.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuari es inP alestine167Christian s of veryoftenwhitewash1thestoneswith a preparation oflime.?soon a fterthe animal isslain.Thewhitecolour isthoughtto bring goodluck. Most ofthedoorframesofnewly builthou ses are smeared withthebloodof sheep killedwhilethe vaultingis g oingon.3Thesameistruewith @i1J,ite l-jidfi. Theforeheadofthechild,lessoftenthatofan adult forwhose sakethe niilr wasmade,arealso smeared 4 withthebloodofthe
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168J ournal oftheP alestine Ori ental S ocietys kinora quarter o fa m edjidi,l lessoftenhalf am edji di. The otherparts oftheanim alarecoo kedande aten. Suchah oly iftbibah s hould notbeprep ared a s a ea rb .2Ve ry o ften ricei sa lso c ooked andservedwiththemeat.Br eada ndthe o thermateri als n ecessary f or t he preparation ofthemeal a rebrou ght b y theparty. A ll pr esent takepartinthemeal, a nd o ftenmanyb ystanders jointheparty, forassoonaspeoplear e s eeng oingwithoneormoresheep toas anctuary e verybody know sthata niiftr willb e fulfilled. In largemawdsimapartofth e rawmeat( lahm. al.JiJar orl ahmn aiy)isdivided a mongthos e present Oft en vowed a nimalsar eg ivenas awhol e tothekitch en ofNabi Mils a orsomeoth er saint,wh ere it iscookedwiththeotherf ood and i s distribut ed to th e v isitors. S uch a na ct isthou ght tob ring additional bles sing. The preparation ofthefoodtakesplaceinthekitchen,ifthere isone,otherwise near th emaqtim.inaplace protected fromthe wind s. Oftenthefoodiscookedunderatree. Thecopp er pots (t anadjir, pl. o ft andjarah)o rth e copper trough s ( dsut, pl.ofdist)withthefoodareplacedonthe mawaqi d (pl.ofmoqadelt,hearth, fireplace).Theseareeith er well-builtston e hearths orimprovi sed ones.Thelattera re c onstructedb y placin g twoelongat ed ston es of th e s ame height parall el t oea chother,with as pace of3 0-60c m. betweenthem wher e the fi rei s m ade. Man ys hrinespo ssess a numberofc opper po ts whi cha re a lwaysus ed i n s uchoc casions.Inweliswhere ther e are n one th e p eople w ho cometoofferth eir niiftr b ring th em alo ng. Thewoodi s taken from theprop erty of th ewell,ori s brought withth ev isitors.I n c ooking aniiftra ll th e dr y wo od whichh as fallenfromth e h olyt rees m ay b e u sed butn o twig s m ay becut ,eve ni f th eya red ead.Il'his f allen brush wood i s n ever us ed on a nyoth er occasi on. All joi n in e atingth es acredm eal. Everyone s ays th e f aMalt f or thesoul o f thewe lif or wh om th e offering h as b een brou ght.Iti s c on sidered th at all present ar e gue sts ofth ewe li,forth e I On e Turki sh m edjfdi =2 0 p iasters (a nd 2 3pi asters 8ur k), nor mally on e -fifth of a Tu rkish p ound.2Z arbi s a r oasted s heep,whe re thew hol e ( when theanimalisyo ung) o r a partofa s hee pi s p lacedi nasma ll f re shly -prepared cav e likeoven .'I 'hisov en ish eated ve ry s trongly the meat i s s altedandp l aced i n it a fterwhichtheoven i s her m e ti c ally c losed.

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C ANAAN: M ohammedanS aintsand Sanctuar ies inP alestine169ishis,andthefoodis c ooked inhishonour. Therefore ever ybody whoattendsthesacrific e, orhappenstopa ss thi s wayat' this occa sion i s welcometo partake of th e sacrificialmeal. The we lt receivesth e mo s t importantpartofthevictim-thesoul,which lodge s inthe blood.' asw e shallsee later on The s ame practice wasknownintheOldTe stament.2A sa crificial meal tli e sacrifice.Thefle sh ofthevictimwaseaten a tthe s anctuary byth e sacrificer andhisf amily( 1S am 13 7)or b y representatives ofth e community(1Sam.922 .25).Th e underl ying ide a wa s "thatof sharing acommonme alw iththedeit y. Theworshipp ers werethegue sts ( Zeph,17 )ofG odatHi s sanctuary." Happil y theyrisefromthe fea sta ndjoininging ames th ey pas s thetimeine njoyment.O ontented withtheiracttheylea ve thesh ri ne,s urethatthewe lihasblessed themforthef ulfilment ofth eir oblig ation Thesesacrific es f ollowed byfea stsa reknownintheBible(1S am.2 04,e tc ),W e knowfrom1 Kings 33and other passag es! th at the se s acrifices tookp lace inth e hi gh pl aces.Inthe s earchfor his father' s a ssesS aulcamet o S amuel andw as t aken bythe Prophet to a sacrifi cial me al. Beforewelea ve the s ubjectof wema y mention s omeirre gular o ran omalous cust oms practiced in s ome p arts o fPalestine Very rarely ith appens tha t thesh eep whichha s beenslau ghtered inorn ear asan ctuary is ca rriedba ck toth e villag e,a ndc ooked inthehouse o f th e vo wel'. S o metim es th e conditiono r the s ituation oftheshri ne pr event o ffering the s heepino r n ear it.Insucha casetheanimalmayb es oldandthepro ceeds are either g ivenas suchtothe m aqam, or s omej ewelry isbou ght withthemand this isofferedtoth e sh rine a ndhungonthe pictur eo fthesaint. vowed toSt M aryon O alvarya ren ot offereda s s uch. Th es heep iss old,j ewelry i s bou ghtw ithth e money, a ndisoff ered t o the q une h. Som e vow s ofthi s gr oup formth e connectin g linkwiththem eat le ssf ood vo ws.El -msarwal ehi s adi sh madeofmilkandrice ,11 Sam 1 43 234.2W. S mith, Di c tionary oft he Bi ble, vo l.Il, p.1 079 .3Seea lso1 Cor.1 0 2 021. 4 H a s tingsandS cl bie ,Di ctionaryof th e Bibl e,1 914 ,p .8 12.D outte,p .4 72 .s A m os 52 1.23 ,e tc.

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1 70Journa lo fth e Palestin e Ori e ntal S ocietymixedwith a nothero f m eata nd r ice. S uch a n o f feri ng-like a ll m eatless ones-isc ooked inthehou se andth encar riedt o the shrin e wh ere iti s partly di stribut ed andp artlyea ten. Am ong theBedouin a nd s om e p easants thecookin g don e in connectionwitha molad v ow ( seeaf terwards)ismoreimportantth an the m olad i tself. Thi sfes tival ma yb e withorwithoutm eat. There ar es tillanumbero fs ubsidiary practices connect ed with s acrifices t o beconsid ered. Sinc e the y t ouch thefundamental principl eso fmakin g v ows, w e ma y b ea bleb yst udying th em to explainthe co nceptionc onnecting th esa crificial a nimalwithth e per son for itis v owed. I shallfir stg ivetw oexa mples,which a lthoughth ey donotb elong toth e abo ve-describ ed anim alsa crifices, n e vertheless illustrat ev ividlytheid ea und erlying them. W hen a deadper son is carried f romthepl ace wher e h e d ied t o hisownvill age theBedou ina ndth e pe asants l oad himo na c amel. Th e pea sant s ha ve the s uperstition'thatthecam el m ay die from t hek absehtex ercised bythed ead.Inorde r tos afe guard a gainst s uch a he avy lo ss, th ey sl aya cocko n th e c amel's back,befor e the corp se i s l oaded. Thebl ood ofthecock,whichfl owso ver t he camel'sb ody,is thou ght tor emove theimp ending d anger. Thu s t he cockin g ivinghislifeh as s aved thatofthemor e pr eciou s c amel. Anoth er illustr ation d emonstrates th esame id eafroma nother point o f v iew Wh ena childis attacked withcon vulsions, iti s believedthatasp ecially malignantd jinnha sattacked him,and that the e vil spirit willprob ably notdepartwithouthavi ngta kenthe ... child 's li fe.Inord er to s avethepr ecious li fe o f thechildthedemon mu st b e sati sfied withs ome oth er lif e. Th erefore theheadof a pi geon i s intr oducedas d eeplyas p os s ible i nto ther ectumof the patie nt,a nditi s h eld th ere untilth e anim al die s. Al ife i s g ivenIIti sno tdiffi cultt o expla in how t hek abseha cts inth iscase .Ad ead b ody i s a lw ays surro unded b y t h e e vil s pi ri tswhi chc a use dhisdeath andi st herefore u nclean 'I' h e s es pir i ts prefer t o l eav e th i s environm ent a ndinh abits o m e li ving o bj ec t .Ind oing s ot heym ayc auseth e sam e bad e ffects to th ci r n ew h o st. 'I'he same e xp lanatio ni strueo fthekabs e bwhi ch ma y a cto n as ickp erson, i f anoth er s ick p erson i s c a rr iedinto theroom Th e evilspi rit s c ausing theillnesso f th c s eco nd ( and most dis eases are c ausedb y dem ons) ma y l ea v e t heir ho st andattackt hefir stperson, th us incre a sing hi s di s order F oro ther e xamples s eeA berg la llbe,pp.3 7, 3 9 .

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CANAAN: Moh amm edan Saints andSanctuaries inP ale stine171tosave another, andthedjinnissatisfiedbytheofferingithas / received ,a ndleavesthechild. The se twoexamplesshow three pointsclearl y:1. sav e thelifeofan important being,thatof another less important onemu st bes acrificed. 2.Thesacrificei s mad e toplease-that' s upernaturalpowerwhich isthoughttobethecauseofthedanger,orwhichhasinitshands thepower ofpreventin g it 3.Theanimalsacrificedmustcomesom ehow into direct external contact withth e b eing forwhomorforwhichithasgiv en itslife. AI examinationofthepractices connected withvowingarid s acrificing a s wehavefollowedthem,show sthatthe same idea s underlythem,withsomemodification. Ad1.Th e Palestinian think sthateverythin g, especiall y di sease, afflictionandmisfortunecomes fromallah "(min all ah)., Heh as permitted theiroccurrence,exactl y asHeallowed Satan h i temptJobanda fflict himwith a llsortsofvi sitations.! Therefore when everthepea sant is attacked withafflictions he tries to es capethem b y dire cting thewrathofthe superior power a gainst s ome other being.Ananimalisoffer ed inhis place, tor edeem thehuman b eing withitslife.Thu s thepe a sant stillwalksinthe path s ofhi s ancestors,believingthat life shallgoforli fe"> andthat" blood makethatonement,"3andthatthelifeof a n animali sa cceptedby theDivinePowerin stead ofthatoftheoffend er, whohimselfdeserve s death.4Thi s istheonly ex planationforthewides pread custom of sacrificialvows;andwhile other v owsarenotso strictly executed,.apromi se ofananimalofferingi s muchmoreseriously treated. Thi s ideaofr edemption iswellfoundedinallSemiti c religion s. Ad 2 .Th e AlmightyGodisdifficultofaccess.Thi s is another fund am ental ideain Pale stinian f olk reli gion.! Thisi s whyth ePalestinian prefersto ons aints andw elts fo r help.Th ey w ere o nc e hum an b eingsa ndthus understand humandifficultiesand tempt ations. A weli i s alway s r eady toa ssist, mor es o,ifoneshow sIJ ob16-12. 2 D eut.1 921.3L ev.17n., 4 Compare tilE; s in o fferin gs o f t h eMo saicl aw.eE xod.1 9,e tc.

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1 72Journal oft h e Pa lestine O riental Soc i ety.hi s humilit y III some way Justasrio one wo uld ap proach a d eity w ithoutagi ft inhi s hand s, or a promi seo fone, s o ap ea sa ntwould n otas kawe l if orhelp ,w ithout t he sa me t ime vo wing asac rifice.'This c on ception alre ady p revailed in Biblic alt imes:" Nones hall appearb efore me e mpt y "2The o bjectof a s acrifice, r educedt o its simpl est terms isthreefold: to s ecure a ndre tain thef avour of t he saint; to r emovehi s di spleasure; and thirdly toe xpress gratitude f or b enefits rec eived. Although th ese thing s m ay be sa id a boutany offering, noth ing pl eases the se hol y menasmuch as a n a nimal s acrifice: fir stly, becau seso m any ofthep oorc an b e fedin t heir n ame andon their table s; s econdly, becaus eeve ry one whopartakes o f thefeast a prayer inthenameofthe w eli Th ese twoacts a repl aced byth e Almi ghty tothea ccount ofth eweli..Ad3.Thestud y ofthe connections betwe en theanim al tob e offeredandthep erson whomitwasoffered a re v ery inter esting.Forthe purpo se o fan alysis the followin g re sume o f th e customs d e scribed above m ay be g iven: A y oungchild-forwhomth e nUJr wa sm ade-isc arriedthree tim es aroundthean imal.When th ec hild i s older h er ides on thesh eep. >Hema y s tepov er t he s acrificeor ov er t he fl owingblo od. Th e foreh eadoft he p e rsoni ss o m et ime s s m ea red w ithth e blood oft he rlWta h. .Theflock o rh erd i st ouched w ith t he bloo d oft he a nimalkilled for th eirsafe ty. A llthe sea ctions s howcl earlythatthe s acr i ficem usth ave a d i r e ct c ontactwithth epersonfo rwhom i ti soffere d.Th erefore th epe rsonf or whoman a nimali ss lain t o sa feguardh is li feis marked withth e blood of th e vi ctim.Thes hrine of th esa int to whom t he a nimalh as b eenpromised, i ssmearedors prinkledin m anyc ase s withth e blo od of t he iJbf /;ah.4 T hisisd onetoass ure t hema n ofG odthath is nirl r h as been fulfilled,forth e m ere d edic ation o fthea nimalduri ng th ea ctof s laying w ithth e wordsIG en. 4sf .2Exod. 34 s o .3I ntheO ldT es tamentthesa crifice r hadtoputo neh an d, in later p eri o d s b oth h ands, up on theh e ado fth e victim ( 1 Sam 21 4 ) .I Exactlya s inL ev .15 ,1 711 ,et c.

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CANAAN: .1II o hamm e danSaints and S anctuariesinP alestin e173" Takeyourpromise, 0..."doesnotsuffice.One asks why blood plays su ch a n important role in these religiousrites?Aninvestig ationo f this q uestiondisclo sesthatbloodplays aver yinterestin gandcomplicated partinP alestinian superstition. Since Ibelieve thatthes tudyofth ese practis eswillbringusto a clearerconc eption ofthe underlying ideas, I s hall describe someof them. Blood is believed b y th ePale stinian tob etheabode ofthe"s ou1."Thes ameid ea exi sted intheearliest period s of Biblical hi story:"Forthebloodi st helif e,"!Therefore wh erever human blood is shed orlo st, ap art ofhum an life a ndsoulislost.Thism akes bloodahighlyre sp ected,butatthesame timea highly dangerous thing.Thefollow ings uperstitious custom s will throw light onthis idea:1.When two children desire to e nter intofraternal relation to eac hoth er (yitb awu), i. e .,bec ome intimatefriend s,e ach pricks o ne ofbi s fing ers with a needleandsuck s alittle oftheblood oftheoth er.Thuse achtakes s ome ofthesoul of hisfri endandtheyenterinto blood relation to each other. 2.Ineverypl ace where aperson i s killed(andonlywh en his blood i ss hed)thes oulap pearsa t night-tim ea sar asad 2 a nd crie s outthelastwords s pokenbythedead;3cf.G en. 41 0,"Thevoiceof theybrother's bloodcriethtomefromtheearth." 3.Inc ase awif e i s not much belov ed byherhusband'shetries toinflamehi s affecti on byg iving himafew drops ofh er blood, mixed withsomeoth er liquid, to drink. 4 Shei ss urethatthepartofthesoul drunk withtheblood b yherhusband knits him more s tronglytoher. 4.Supernatural h over over everyplaceandperson wher e blood i s found. They m ay evenbe injurious.Thisi sthecause of th e fear ofthemenstrual blood cherished bytheinhabitantsof Palestine. 6 ID ent. 1 21 3. 2 Al soca lled m f'nwil. 3 Ab erglattbe, p.17. 4Blo od alw ays us edto b et he s ign ofac ovenant,E xod. 1 27,1 3. Thi s i s no t th e p l acetodw e ll onthis ph aseofs uperstition whi ch i s disc ussed f ullyin Ab erglaube.

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174Journalof t he PalestineOri ental Inofferingan animal weareofferingalif e, a so ulf or,a notherone-thehum an life.Themeatofthe i s notthei mportantpartof thes acrifice.Its erves onlyto s atisfythehuman v isitors.The god s ( saint s practicall y = l ower d eities) donoteata nddrink; they a reonl y satisfied b y th e s acrifice ofth es oul.!A C hristian womanofDjifn ah in describin ga rJWwh sa id li l-lJa4rj el!et ed-dam: 1t l an-ntie "For :tIae}r t he pourin g ofth e blood(i,e .,the s oul)andf or th e people t he sac rificial animal. Bloodpl ays animportant r ole a s th e s ymbol oflif e.Thiss heddingofbloodistheesse ntialparto f an a nimal sac rifice.rNo animal whi ch h as b eenpreviously killed willb eacce ptedb y an y w eli asasa crifice.Th e bl ood mustbe s hedin h is s hrine,oratl east inhi s n ame.Iti s the a toning ac t.b) Qu rban o rwa li mehuua.A qu rban a lsoin volves the This sortofvo wb elongs partly t othiscategorya ndpartly to alatero ne.Itm ay b e d es crib edf ullyh ere,a sith as todowith a nimalo fferings.Thevo w ism ade inth ese c asest oGodonl y,and n ot t oa ny sa int o rwe li.Thusiti sc lear t hat a qu rban isar ealsa crificeinth e n ame of t he Almi ghty, in caseo fsi ckness. A s soon ast he s ickm an re covers, th ea nimal must giveitslif e forth e m anw hois sa ved.Theanimal belon gse ntirelyto God.ButGo ddoe s notn eeda nyfo od,t here foreitisdistributed entirely a mongth e poor,thevow el' r eceiving nothing ofit-contrarytothepracticei n t he c aseof a ll a nimal o fferingsde scrib ed uptonow.Such a nanim al m ay be s lain i n a ny pl acea ndit s m eati s distribut ed a1:J1Jar, 3 "in a r aw (unco oked) condition ," o ritma y b e co okeda ndth en gi ven toth ep oor.From thi s cu stom th e n ame wa limeh l illahi s d erived. Qu rbiin(f rom qaruba, q arraba)denot es ev erythin g off ered t o G od which brin gs th e o fferer nearer toth e D eity. 4 W alimehlillah, "3. feas tf orGo d," w e ll ex pressesth e idea se tforthin an other place a ndshow s thatth e sacrific e i s inr eality nothingbutafeastg iven toth e n eedy inth ename of 9-0 d. .I1Sa m.1 432-34;D eut.1216;Lev.7r off. ,7 2 7. .2N Sod erblom,Da s W esendes Gotter glaubc'lls, p .81jC urti ss;Kahle,3 Also ca llednai y. ,el-MuM! Il,1 6 81. .

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CANAAN: Moha mmedan Saints and Sanctuaries i nPal esti ne175Inm any c ases when s ucha vo wi s made,th e mo ther or til e fa ther t ake an o penk nife (mus ,bft$ah)' and s ticksitinthedoor o rinthe o uter wa ll oft he si ckroom. Whil e doin gs othe fo llowingw ordsa re u tter e d: qU?'b{ln l a widj h allah in tab ibni, A sa crificeforG od s f ace, i e ., Go d's sa ke, ifm y c hild ge tsw ell Suc h a kn ifem ay re main ini tspl ace un tilt hesh e ep iskill ed.t lik e th ea bove c ustomi sv owing aca ndle fo r G od: "If my ch ilds peaks,Iwilll ight a cand le fo r yo u,0G od."3Accor dingto C hristianb eliefs uch a c andlem ustbe l i g htedi n th e o pen a ir a nd no t in a s hrine. Imm El yiis o f J erusalem too ks uch a v ow a nd l i gh t e d theca ndleont hero of.S hepas se d t he nig ht guardingi t, so tha t itshouldn ot be s tolen. Asth e ca ndle w as n ota llb urned, it h adtobe li ghtedon th ese cond nig ht A ccording toMoh am meda n c ustom, a lightof thi s k ind m ay b e brou g h tt o t h e n earest we lian d burn ed th ere inth ena me ofG od.! B efore l eavingt his s ubjecto fa nimal s acrificesw e m ay notea c ustom whi ch h asnot hingt o d o withv ows.I n c asea sa int h as b een i rritatedbyso me morta l,h emayp unish t he evi l doer a nd p erhapsa llthe i nhabi tants oft he v illage inave ry s e ve rewa y A sh eep isgene rally offe redt o reconcil e thesa int. .Ih avea lready to ld th e st ory of $ilel.l, wh oinh abits J2:irbet N frt i a nd w hich illu stratest hisp ointe xcellently.c )M eatless fo odInJerusalema nd t heimmed iat e ne ighbourhood t hese vow s a re ca lled smat, wh ileinBeni Z ed an d Beni M iUik t he w ord smat isused onlyfo r a 4Wtah, asw e haveseen Ih ave b een u nableto fi nd f or thi s wor dth eexp lanation g ivenb yJa ussen, a ndwhi chhe h as d educedfr om the u seo f theexp ression i n'I'ransjo rdania. s. E veryw h e r evo wso f thissorta re a lsok nown b yt he nametabhoh,anexp ressionn otv ery much u sed. Mo st oft heinh abitants o fJerusalem a nd t he a djacent C hr istia n v illagesun derstand b y smat 6o nly as pecialdish n amelyIAl soka zlak, sikkineh 2 Acu stomprevalentinB eni Z e d. 3Thi s ty pe ofv ow is made w h e nt h e ehild grow s upwithoutbeing ableto sp eak I Ac cordin g to a manofBettir(BeniHaaan) .ePa ge3 65 .6Abe,'glallbe,p.75.I

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C ANAAN:l\Iohammedan S aintsandSan ctuaries in Palestin e177prayers overthemand. asksGod 's blessing forall thememb ers of thefamilywhichha s offer ed them.Hethen keepsfourloavesfor him self andoneis taken bytheofferer.Thelastisdividedamong themember s ofhisfamilyasaborakeh,Somekeep a piec e of this blessedbreadforillness,b elievingthateatingitwillcure disea se. W henoncesuch a vowis taken ithastobe co ntinuedevery year untilthemanforwhomitwa s-takendies.Such a g hirbnlyeh Ii s a lwaysmadeoneda y b efore th e feastofthe sa intt o whomitwas vowed.'l'he priest bles ses the ?read afterthe a fternoonpr ayer ($aUU el-'a$r).Su ch avowis a mater ial helptotheprie st.tMan y vow bread forthep oor andneedyinthenameof t he s aint.Thi spractice I s halldescribemorefull y inthefoll owing se ction.Ill.Offerin gs giventoneedyperson s inthenam eo fth esa intInthel ast s ection wehave o ftenm entioned vowsfulfilledf or the b enefitofthepoor.The s mat ct ab7.Jah) andspe ciallythe walZmeh lillah ( qurban) come under t his headi ng. All v ows of fo odp romised to Go dmu st he g iven t othe poo r, ev enth ough notsospecifi ed i n th e w ording of' th e vow.Ina llothervowsiti ss pecified;e.g. 0 N abi fSaJeb, ifyoubringm es afely through this matter, Ishalldis tribut ea b asket ofri ce toth e poor. "Eitherf ood o rclo th ma y bevowed. Th e food m ay beofferedinaco oked orunco oked s tate. The needy" ma yb eg roupedund er th ef ollowing heading s:1.Poor(fuq ara)2. Orphan s andwidow s3 ( aytam u a ramil) 3. Prisoner s 4.Sick,esp ecially the mentall y disturbed ( madjanln). The f ollowingare illustration s:"IfI g etup, a nd a m a bletowalk I s hall,0 Prophet ofGod,cloth e thirty orphans ;"" 0friendofGod ass oon a sIamr eleased fromjail,I s hallgivetwo hundred loave s ofbread t o the prisoner s;"" 0St.G eorge, ifmyson return s to n ormalm ental condi tion, I s hall s laya s heepforth e m adjanln o f y our s hrine."IAl soca lled fju ddaseh.2 Thisc ustomi sonlyfo llowed bytheG reek O rthodox ch urch.3C alled bythe c ollectivename (thos ew hohavenobod y tohe lp them).1 2

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1 78J ournal o fthe Pal estine Orien talSociet yInmakingavowofkis weh lone must accordingt o mo st of t hose whomIh ave a sked,s upplyall g armentsnece ssary todr essa p erson, i. e. shirt shoes ba g-trousers(i)lbas3 ) qttlllbii z4 {gown a ) anda head-dres s (t a?'bft,6 o r b attah a nd 'uqap). M any d o n otg iveallthese butonly a shirt anda q ttmbiiz, orthecloth for both. Gener ally thefulfilment o f s uchavowispostponedtooneo f theMohammedanfeasts idell-clb1.yeh ('id el -kbir) or i deNghir (' idR amaif,an). Theconditionoftheprisonersusedtobepiti ful. Veryoftenit h appened thatanaccusedor s uspectedpersonrem ained for m onths inthepri son befor e his t rialtookplace Most s uch vi ctimsused t o implor e Godand a llthe sa intsforhelp promi sing toofferasheep o r bre adfor theo ther pri soners, i f the y sh ould berel eased from their mi sery. Evenprison ers whowere alread y con victed u sedtotake v owsthata ss oon a sthe ys houldb e rel eased theywouldoff er thi s or t hatfor t heotherinm ates o f th e j ail. Ev en ifth ese v owsarem ade in t hen ame of a welt the y do n otre ach hi s sanc tuary.Iti s advis ed bymanyinJerusalem s th at theb est wa y tofulfilaf oodvo wf orth e poo r, is t o g ivei t to th e d} dyeh kitch en wh er e f ood i sc ookeddailyand distributed t oth e p oor. G enerally the one w hovow s a s heepwillrem ain inthekitchenuntilth e m eat is c ooked and distributed.Bread may a lso be br oughtt oth e ki tchen. Orph anages andh ospitals are s ometimesbutnoto ften rem embered.Flour, rice melted b utter,be ans, l entils, etc. ,are g enerallypre sented. Thel epera sylum JesusHil f" re ceivess uchv owsatl ong inte rvals. MyLord i f Ilivetose e myson ( returning)in g ood health Iwill b equ ea th m y lowerhou se to t he D kiyeh." Th ey early rental ofthe hou s e goest o t he g eneralin comeo f t he 4k1.yeh waq fas r eligious1From k a sa, "to c lothe. " o c alled m arkiib,massiii. 3 M ade mos tly of whi teorblueclo th,w ithwid eparts abovetheku ees (som e ca lli t sirl!Jiil). Als o calle dk ibir. Iti sputonov er th eshirtandth etro u sers. The qumbiiz i smadeofco loured li nen,cotto n ors ilk c loth .Itis o pen i n front r each es t oj ust a bove th e ank le sandi s f asten e dbyazunniir(belt ) 6 Fez.1B edouin head -dre ss. 8 H eard fr om A.bU, 'Osma n (Jeru salem) .

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries inPal estine179endowmentIknowofamanwho transferred all his property toa relativeasui aq],makinginthewagfiyehtheconditionthataSUllofmoneyshouldbegiventothepoorbytheheirinthenameof thedonor. i[tmay happenthatsomebodyhasnomoneytovowto thepoor.He. thenpromisestodevotethewagesof three ormore days'worktothepurchaseoffoodforthepoor.! IV.ReligiousvowsBy"religiousvows"Imeanthatapersontakes uponhimselfthe fulfilmentofsomereligiousactorobligation other than whathe would naturally perform.Religiousvowsare practiced byMoham medans and Christians.Very interesting isthefactthatan adherent ofon e communityassumesobligationsof another. Perhaps themost popular exampleofthis category isthepromise ofrecitingthestory of. the Prophet's nativity, grayetrnolad. "Ifmy daughter recoversIshallrecitea molad, 0 Prophet ofGod."The molad isthelegendarystoryofthe Prophet's birth andisapoem whichdescribesnotonlythe birth of the Prophet, but nameshis ancestor s, allthe prophets, andhisownacts.A greatpartofthe molad isdevotedto praise ofMohammed. There aredifferent moladsand oneofthemost important isthatofel-Irnam Abdallah binMohammadel-Manawi. According toWafiyatel-A 'ya .nbyIbn IJallikan, vol.I,thefirstoneto attach a great importance tothe mOlad wasMuzzaffared-Din (Prince ofIrbil),During histime,in theyear 604A.H.el-Hafiz Omar AM wrotethe best mOlad poem. Thefulfilmentmaybesimpleormore elaborate.Inthefirstcase thevowel'givesasumofmoney(onetooneandahalf medjid i in thevillages,halfapoundtotwopoundsinthecities)toa s e1.J. who mustrecitethe m olad froma minaret, in amosqueor weli, inthe nameofthegiver.Amongtheseplacestheminaret istheone usuallychosen,andoftenitisspecified: 'ala el-medaneli el-l)amra,2' ala m ed aneien-nabi Milsa.3 The muaqq in ofthatminaret maydoIH eard fromImm Bliarah Tledjeh .2Insid e th e cit y inth e northea st quarter.3A. m olad isn ot g enerally r ecited in s mall sanctuarie s, norfro m th e minar et o f unimportant welis. Ibrahim en-naM1\Ius a, e n-nabi 'A.1iibn 'El em, en-nabiRub in, e tc.are preferred places.12 *

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180Journal ofth e Palestine Ori ental Societythejob.The muac!4in or other who readsthemsladtakes several others withhim,tohelphim in singingor recitingpartsofthemoltul ,Itisalwaysdoneintheevening, generallythatofthe night of Thursday toFriday,orthatof Sunday to Monday. Moreimportantisthereading ofamoladinthehouse. : Many friendsareinvited.Alargemeal -is prepared.After allhadtheir supper they assemble in alargeroom,where ,theceremony isheld.Oneor more arechosento recite thisprayer,while refrains mayb e repeated in chorus bythe audience.Ittakes about twototwoand a 'halfhour s, during whichnosmokingor conversation takes place. Onemay e nterorleavetheroomatanytime.Aftertheceremony isov er sweetsarepresented. Thus weseethatthereligious is preced edandfollowedbya festivity. When a womanha s m ade avowto recitethe rnolad shefulfilsitby invitin gherfemale relative sandfriends andaskin g a sel]ah ora sel]l farir Ito recite it.Insomevillagesone t p twortuleof barley with three raw e ggs ( somebringonlyone)areplaced in front o fthe sel] who recites the story of "Mohammed's Nativity."Theeggs a re eaten bythe sel], tokeep hisvoice olear.t whilethe. barley iskept by thepeople asablessingand a s a curative medicine incaseof sicknes s.Itissuppos edthatthebarley receivesa supernaturalpower through thisr eligious ceremony.Incasea child fallssick,heisfumi gated withthisbarley. s AnoldwomanofJerusalemtold methatadishofflouranda glassof waterareplaced befor ethe sett, who recites this prayer. A s soonashefinishes,thecontents ofthedishare distributed among those present.Iti skeptasa for small children. They eithercarryitinasmall bundle around the neck asa prophylactic measureagainsttheevil spirits ortheyar e fumi gated withitincase of disease.Thewater is drunk bytho sepresent, believingthatitcures shortness of breath.Although thiscustomis purely Moh ammedan itsometimeshappens (but very rarely)thata C hristianwomanvowsthatshewillreciteIBlind seas ar e all owed t o ent erc hamberso .f th e h arem t ot eachth e Q oran, o rtosay p rayers.2I co uldnotfindany ot her exp lanationfor t he eggs .T he sea ha sno ri ght t o t ake themwithhim.3Ih eardt his c ustom f rom o f Li fta..

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C ANAAN:Mo hammedanS aints a ndS anctuariesinPa lestine181 amOlad Thewi fe ofel-Q ari1promi sed:"Ifm y child g ets well,I sh all reci teamnlad"In f ulfilment s he h eld the ceremony inherh ouse. Generall y Ohristians prefer g ivinga e lj asumof mon ey a nd as kinghimtor ecite the molad in their name Be sides the 1 nolad, fastin g i s ver y oftenvowed.Iti s areli gious l awthateveryMohammed an sh all fastinthemonthof RamacJfm.2 N othing is e aten, drunk or s moked during thed ay-time, whil e .ata c ertain hourinthelateevenin gthe first meal(jtitr),andafew hours after midni ght a s econdone (sbur) i s taken. Nobody may vowtofastinthi s mon th, sincethisi s hisduty.Butfastin g on other day s orweeks thanRamadan areoftenvowed ,g enerallyby w omen. Th e numberofdaysorw eeks which aretobekepti s s pecifiedinthevow.These fasts are kept in the.s ame wa yas th at ofthemonth Ramadan.Radjaband Sa ban arethe preferred month s f orf a sting, a ndMondayandThursday preferred d ays ofthew eek. Thi ss ortofvow cannot be bought as others may(seeabove),i.e. itc annot b e chan ged to another o bligation.A person whoha s v owed tofast a monthmustk eep hispromise exactl y, while anoth er w ho h as b ound him self t o off er a s heep,oil ,e tc.,m ayg ive a sum of money i n their pl ace. No unclean w omani sa llowedtof ast. C hri stian s m ay vo w tofa st day s orweek s more than requir ed b y th ec hurch.Ins uchc ases they a bstain c ompletelyfrom a nimal food ,s ometimesincludin g,s ometimes e xcludingfi sh. Mor e unu sual isth e pr omise of aO hristiantok eepthemonthRamadan or a parto f it.SometimesMoh ammedan wom en bind them selves tok eep thefastofSt.M ary's feast ('i d o rpartofit. Oft en aM ohammedan mother wholo ses on e child after another vow s t o baptizethen ext on e, believin gthatputtin g him under the protection of C hristwill guard himag ainst death sincetheevil s pirit e l-Qariniisdrivenaway.TheQarini isthe evil demonwhich a ttacks children and pregnant women causing allthediseas es of th efirs t, a nd producing abortion inthelatter.3W atfeh th e wifeof I. A ql ( from Lift a) losta llh ers ons during their infancy. While pr egnantshewa s advis ed by a noldnei ghbour tovowtohaveherIGreekO rthodo x Ch urch. 2 Unc lean women,sickandthoseonaj o urney a r e e xcus ed fr omthisru l e. The y m ustdo th eird uty i n t hesa meyea r.3S eeA berglaube,t heret r anscrib ed

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JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societyoffspring baptized bya Christian priest. Shediditwiththewords: ya rabbi in razaqtni $abi niqrun alay la-a 'mmduh ind en-na$a rau la-asammih. alaism en-nastirii,"0myLord,ifThou grantest mea boy,IvowtohavehimbaptizedbytheChristiansandtogivehim a Christian name."Sheboretwosons after thisvowandbothw ere baptized.OnewasnamedHannftandtheotherDjirius.A selj of Su'fat toldmethata barren womanvows:"ByGod,ifIgetaboy I shallcallhim Elias," Bythisexpressionshemeans that she willgivehima Christian name, thus dedicating himtoa Christian saint.Shemust therefore baptizehim,since baptism putshimunder Christ's protection andgivinghim thenameof a Christian saint helpstokeephimsafe. Therefore onlynamesof popular Christian saintsare' chosen,likeHanna(John), Djirius (George),etc.St. George'snameis preferred sinceit is aconnectinglinkbetween Christians andMohammedans.Itissaidthatthe priest conducts theceremonyof baptism asinthecaseofa Christian child.Only m eron isnotused. There areafew Christian womenwhovowtocircumciseachild andtogivehima Mohammedan name likeDarwis, Hasan, etc. Suchvowsare taken inthesamecasesasthepreviouslymentioned ones,i.e.,when a motherlosesallhermalechildren.Whensuch awomanmakesa.vowshemayfixtheplacewherethechildisto becircumcised. Baptism of Mohammedan childrenismuchmore commonthancircumcisionof Christian ones.The latter isonly foundamongsomefewvillagers. Circumcision isarule for every Mohammedan andthereforeit cannotbevowed.ButaMoslemmaybindhimselftodothisactataspecialshrine:"1 entreat you,0 Prophet Moses,ifyoucure mychild, 1willcircumcisehimin your sanctuary}' Suchavowis thought tobegoodforboth parties. Thechildis protectedbythe saint,andtheconfidenceshowninthemanofGodincreaseshis reputation. Veryoftenaspecialand additionalvowismade,namely: "1willtakeuponmetocircumcisesoandsomanypoorchildren together withmyownboy."Thismeansthatthevowel'hastopay fortheexpensesofthe operation, andalsogiveseachchildsome clothingasa present. Somevowtheserviceofapersonina sanctuary:"If. you,0 manofGod,grantmeachild1shalll et himserveyouonemonth

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CANAAN:Moha mmedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine183('Stim e)." Suchacustom-althoughfoundalsoamongtheMohammedans-is more wide-spread betw een th e Christians. Such a vow o fdirectservicefora certain period ina sanctuary isfulfilledby helpingtheqandalaft(sexton)inhiswork.'Insuchca ses Moham medanssweep theshrineand light thelamps.This sort ofvows resemblesthevowof Hannah, the mother ofSamuel(ISam.111ff.). Na4artuh la-mar An(on, "Ihavevowed(offered)himtoSt. Antonius," meansthattheboymustwearthe garb ofthatorder foroneyear. The priest putsthe garments onandinone year's timethe priest musttakethemoff.The parents offeracandleateachofthese ceremonies.Theconvent presents the girdle-rope, therosary(el masballalz) andthecap (e(-(aql,yeh), whilethe parents provideforthe cloth,whichiscutbythe priest (orintheconvent).This priest praysoverthedressaswellasoverthechild.Thusthechildwears priestly clothesforoneyear.MembersoftheLatinchurch,aswell a softhe Greek orthodoxfollowthis practice. Thelatteraska priest oftheformerforthe performance ofthisact. Sometimesthewhol e orapartofthesickpersonisvowedtoa holyman:"0manofGod,0 :ijauwa $,2 ifmychildrecovers,you will g ethalfofhim. Thismeans that half the "price" oftheperson isoffered.Thepriceofapersonisonlydiscussedwh en heis murdered.'I'h ediyeh."blood price, mustbepaidbythe murderer s tothefamilyofthe murdered, anditamountsto33,000pi asters. Vowing half ora quarter ofapersonmeanstopay half oraquarterof33,000piasters ," i.e.,16,500,respective8250.Thissumisgiven totheqaiymofthe sanctuary withthe understandingthatiti s for V the w elt Incasesucha vow ismadeforagirlherpriceisnotreckonedonthebasisofthed iyehbut ofth emohr(marriage-price). Theweddingceremonyofthegirl cannot takeplace, untilhervow isfulfilled 4 EvenintheOldT estament theNazaritecouldbe1V ows o fthi s type a re a lsoknownin t heOld and N ew Testam ent, wherep ersons w er e vowedor c hosenas Nazarit es f ort heirlif eo rfora s hortperiod. J ud g, 18 6, 1Sam 111, Luke 116, Jer.85 6ft'., 1Ma c. 8 49 A cts 18I S,et c. 2 T o thi s w eli morep ersonsa r e v owed than to ot h e r sa ints(h eard fr om O S. e l-Barghfrji), .3S ee O.B arghfiji, u Judic ialCo urts am ongt heB edouino f P alestine,"JPOSII, N o. 1 19 22. 4 Ihaveh eard of th iscustom o nlyin C entral Palestin e.Iti s unknown to t hevillag es around J erus alem.

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18 4J ournalof th e P alestineO riental Soci etyr edeemedata valu ation acco rdin g to age and se x, onas pecialsca le.'Finally we must m ention acustomwhi ch, alth ough notbelon ging directl y tothi s groupofvow s,see ms .to memor e clo sely as so ciated withitth an to other s. Thew ife cif F (GreekOrthodox),who se s on wa s b adlys ick,f astened asilken h andk erchief onthe Nabi l \Hlsa fla g. This wasdoneonth e firstday o fthe fe ast, whiletheproces s ionmovedfromtheMo sque of O mar, Whiledoin gs o s heex cl aimed:"Ifmy s on ge tswell 0prophet Mo ses, Ishallfasten anotherh andkerchi ef onthe d ay ofth ereturnof y ourfl ag." 2 Thi s ex ampleshow s u sag ainthehonour paid toMoh amm edan s aint sb ynon-M oslems. Such avowis ex ceedingly rare.Ine xplanation o f thi sc ustomwem ay pointt o theMohamm edanc ustom:i n tab i bni laarbutlak y a!!auwa$ dr a b aft r ayeh b e(!ah, "Ifm yso nrecov ers,oH., I s hallf asten fory oua n e ll(pie)ofwhite a sa whit e fla g." To hoist awhit e fl ag forsomebodyme ans topro claim hi s a bility,h is exc ellent character, hi s charity,e tc.V.B odily c hasti sement andvow s tobe f ulfilled o nth e b odyofthevowel'orp erson f or w homthe v ow w as t aken"Ifm y child g ets w ell,0 myLady, 0St. M ary, I s hall v isit y ou( i,e ., y our s hrine)b arefoot." W alking barefoot t oasa nctuaryi s v owed b y M ohammedansa nd Chri stians Chri stian s ofJerusalemprefer th es anctuariesofSt. M aryand Mar Eli as, T o sitti M aryam M ohammedans a lsobindthem selves bya s imilarvow Thi sv isit must bep erform ed, if a t a llp ossible, onth esa int'sd ay. G ener ally th e wom en ri se upvery e arly-long b efore d aybre ak-and whil ea llares leeping,w alk b arefoot tothes anctuary ,sayaprayera nd co me b ack b efore th e vi sitor s b egin their pil grimages tothe s hrine.rTh e says if aman vo wstow alk t oa pl acea nd hecanno t d o i t hem ayn otfulfilhi s voww alking."3ILe v 271 -7 .Itr angedw ithma les from5t o 5 0 s hekel s,withfema les fr om 3to 30 s hek e ls 2 F romImmE ly as .3 M an narrara an .1Jams'i l i-mah ul lir;lea lam yasiaW an y aq!lm a bihi {atayadjrml an y ukm i lan-nirrm ma s yan.

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C ANAAN:MohammedanS aintsandSa nctuaries inPalestine185Another vow of humiliation isthesweepingofa sanctuary with theh ead-dress."ItakeavowtosweepS ef ed-Din1with my head cloth ,i fmybrothergets well. "2Tothrow,orto placethehead dre ss onthe ground is a lwayslookedatasadi shonouring action. / Veryoft enitisvowedthatthehairs of thesickchildwillbe cutina sanctuary. The hair isallowedtogrowfromthemoment ofthevow until thepromiseisfulfilled.Intheca se ofa Chri stian th e childis taken toth e church. wher e thefulfilmentofthevow must take place.Inc asethe Holy Sepulchre (Qabr el-:ijalfL$ 3)is chosen,theacti s performed behindthetombof Christ. Th e priest, after s aying s ome prayers, cut s alockofhairfromthe forehead, a notherfromthe occipital regionandon e fromeachlateralside, thusmarkingthesign o fthecross.Thebarbercutstherestof th e hair.Inother churches thechild approachesthealtar4andtheceremonytakes place.Somefriendsand relatives are invited t o attend the. ceremony.Returning home,alljoininafeast.Inthec ase ofMoh ammedans thechildent ers the sanctuaryandthe hairiscutinthe mibrab ornearthetomb.AtN ebi Musa iti s d one out side there als hrine.Inth e distri ct o f Djenin Iwa s told (l th at avowtocutthehairm ay be performed inmo st ofthe' we lls. Thi s practice of s havingthehead,or cutting thehairatthe expirati ono f' avotiv e period i s av ery oldcu stom.Inthe Bible wehav e reference to it. '; In a llcase s thew e ight ofthehaircutoff,in g old, s ilver o rmon ey, ispre sented tothe sanctuary. Th e moneyisgiventothepriest or totheqaiym.VI.Vowsnot c onnectedwith a nyholy person or s hrine Such vowsmay bevestigesor remnants of primitive r eligiouspractices."Ifmy brother returns safely I s hallmak e you az arb,whichwewill e atinthe vineyards. Thi s vowismadeforfriend s.Atoth er time s itis a thank-offering to a p erson. Thus wem eetIIn Li fta. 2H eardf rom a w oman0f Lift a ,3Lit. theT omb o fS alvation." sActs 181 8,212 4.

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186J ournalofth ePalestine O riental S ocietywi th many 114firah o f thiscate gory made f or p hysicians, nur ses, teach ers, etc.Mo st ofth esev ows a ren everfulfilled.Inc onnectionwiththe s ubjecto f vowsIwisht o dr aw attention toth e followin g id ea. Th erea resomeexpre ssions which seemt o indicate quit e adifferentidea,bu t whichori ginate inthe sa me cy cle o f co nceptions a sth e vows.The Palestini anb elievesth at th e d eath ofa child o r an imal,th e br eaking o fa n o bjector t he s pillingo fa flu id m ay a tone forth e los s ofsom ebody or s omethingmoreimport ant.Ink asar cl-sar r, "th ee vili s brok en," iss aidw hen ag lasso f water, a t ea cup o racoffe ec upf allf rom a visi tor's h andan dbr eaks. I nkabbessar r ,"the ev ilha sbe enpoure d ou t, i s u sed o nsi milarocc asions.Whena horsed ies.a h ouse coll apses,e tc.,p eoplee xpress t heir feelin gs bys aying: ji dak1ji da iyalak ," it i s a r ansomf or y ou a nd yourf amily." Theide a underl ying th esee xpressionsi s thatso me evilhadtobefallthel oser, butth eA lmightyProviden ce h as dir ected ittoaless i mportant o bject a ndthu ss aved a g r ea t e rl oss.VII.Vowsforthe deada nd t hedjinn,. .I clo se thedi scussion o fv owsw ithout c allinga ttention to v owsoff ered t o thedjinna nd t hed ead. Althou ght his ca tegory of off eringsdiffer s from t hato f off erings brou ght t o thes aints, it sh o w s manypoint s ofre semblances and ser vestoillu strateso mep ointsof i nterest.Iti s hardt o find s uchch aracteristic e xamples o f sacr ifices brou ght todjinna nddead a s of tho s e o fferedt o s aints.N evertheless ac areful inve sti gation showsm any cu stoms whichb elong here .A comparisionbetween s acrificesofferedto s aints a nd t hosebrou ght tothedead a ndd jinnexh ibits thesam e id ea indifferentst agesof d evelopment. I s hallde scribeso mecu stomsa nd s uperstitionsbelie f s, which s uggesta )O fferingst o dem ons 1)b'ibet ed -dar(among t he p easants)whi ch corr espondstodbihe t bet Io f theBedouinisthemo st ch aracte risticexa mpleofthi s so rt.Be sides d Wlet el l!alil2wem eet with an other s ort of ani mal ,IJausse n, p .3 39.2A s h e epmustb eo fferedto Ab raham whenev er aho use is n ewlyb uilt.

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C ANAAN: M ohammedan Sa ints a nd Sa nctuariesinP al estine187s acrifice, pr acticed bymanype asants in connection withth e compl e ti on ofah ouse. Somewillnotevenoccup y anewly built dwellin g until as heepi s immolated, topl easethedj innwhoh ave already ta ken their a bodeinit.Withthebloodthesidesofthedoorarep ainted a s an external si gn oftheofferin g. Other s mayeven s lay a s heepinthe foundation trench es. Whenever aB edouin tribe c hangesthel ocalit yof itscampthe sel} andothers immolate a sheep t ot hedemon s o fthats potwiththeword s (las tftr ya e l-maholl," By yo urp ermission,0 owner o fthe plac e."IAc cording t o an o ld belief whichisatpresent dyin g out, s ome buildings es pecially ba ths a ndhouses erect ed neara spriug will n ot be fortunat ea ndpr osperous unles s th e found ation ston e h as b eener ected up on shedblood.Intheca se o fa Turki sh bathiti s ev enthou ght, th at a humanbein g-andcuriously en ough aSud anesemu st beofferedbefore t hefir st stone i s laid.Som e oldwomen as suredmethattheheadofanegrosuffice s, if buried belowth ethreshold. Th e followin g e xpre ssions p oint t o thi s human s acrifice: e l-bamma m ma bidu r i lla ala abd, The bathdoesnotwork e xcept o n a negro ; qaym a la 'abd it iser ected onanegro;" m abni ala 'abd," itis b uiltonane gro."2Excavations showthatthes e foundati on sa crificeswerever y wid e-spread intheancientOrient.In1Kg.1 6 3 4 were ad: In hi s da ys did Hiel the Bethelit e buildJericho: he laid the f oundationth ereof inAbiramhis firstborn andsetupth eg ates th ereofinhi s younge st sonSe gub," Whenev er a hou se i s thought tobe inhabited by demons, becau se ev eryf amily which oc cupiesitlo ses oneormore o fit s member s by d eath, nobod ye lsewillmoveintoitb efore sacr ificing oneormore s heep,forth e h ouse is thought t o be maskun, haunted,"lit., inhabited ( byevil spirits)." Th e sprin go fDji fna is s upposedtobe inhabit ed by a d emon which a ppearsintheformofach arming brid e. Onceawomanofthe v illage a pproachedthe s pring during menstruation .This c arele ssactpr ovokedt he anger of t hedjinni yeh andt he spring w8:s dried up Ap riesth adtog o totheplaceandburnin cense, thusre conciling thedjinniye h.3IJ aussen ,I.c .2A berqlaube,P2 0.3" Ha u ntedSpring s andWaterD em ons ," .JP OS I ;pp .15 3-170 .

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18 8Journal ofthePale stine O rienta l Society T othis category b elongs a lsothecu stom kn ownas t iblay s ugaring."Superstition h olds thatth edji nna repl easeda nd q uieted bysw eets a nd s ugar o fferings'!The followin gex amplewillillustrateth eprocedure.A mother oncebeath er child onthe t hreshold('atabeh).'I 'his c arelessactr esulted ina s evere puni shmentof th e childandmoth er, the fi rst g ettingfe vera ndth ese condhavin ga sli ghta ttack offaci al paralysi s. These inflictions w erecaused b y thedjin nlivin g inthis pla ce. T oa ppeaseth em thewomanwa s a dvisedt os trew s weetsonth ethreshold. M ore complicated i s thef ollowing belief.A c hildh ad f ever,a nd the mother wa s toldthatthi s wascau sed b ya fright. Sh e t ook th e s ick boy to el-H adjarel-M ansi, wh eres hewa shed hishandsa nd feet, a fterwhich s hestrewed sweetsandreturned home.The expl anation o fthi sacti s asfollow s: Th e fev er excit ed b y th e frighti sca used bydemons. Takin gthechildtothegrave o f a holymanandw ashin g hi s e xtremitiestheredrivesthed evilsont b y thepoweroftheman of God.The sweetsa re an o fferingto a ppeasethedemon s, wh oareirritated be c ause they havet o leavetheirprey. ,Inanal yzing all t hese c ustomsw e find t hattheide a ofoff erin g something toth es piritsis represented ineveryone.I hav eon I )" mentioned a fewexample s of each s ort.Theunderl ying i dea i s t o g etthefavourof t he spirits through these s acrifices,tople aset hem andtoatone f or mi stakes whi ch m ay haveprov okedt hem.A ccordin g top opular beli ef the spirits a lwaysreactfa vourably tosuchoffering s.Many re ferenc 'e s in t heB ible point t ooffering s t o spirit sanddem ons.tb)Off eringsto t heDeadWithregardto s acrificestothedeadI s hallonly mention practice s whichbeara s pecialconnec tion toour subject. Whil et he co rps e is being ritually w ashed, the relatives distribu te som e mon ey' an rub e l-maiyet," forthesoulofthed ead."This i sca lled s qftt8$-fj alay. Int he a ndwhentheburiali sov er,moneyi sagai ndistributed,this time tothe whohavebe en repeatin gd uring th e whole proc ession,a lliihu.a kbar,asaprayer for t hede ad.Int heISeeAberqlaub e 2 L ev. 1 6e 177j2Chr .111 5j2 K ings 23 s.Inth e l at t e r spirit s s h o uldb e r eadin stead of gates" (L e., s e'il"'im in stead of8e'arim), as hasbe en sug gested .

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CANAAN : Moh ammedan Sa ints and Sa nctuariesinP alestine189graveyard, bread and dried figsaregiventothepoor('an nV. e l mai yt).Thosewhocanafforditmayevenhaveanewwoodencoffin (tab1it,s abliyeh) made, onwhichthedeceased is carried tohis burialplace. This coffinisth en lefttoserv e forpoor dead, and thisactofhelpingthepoor,even after their death i s believedto bringaspecial reward,"forth e soulofth e departed Allwhogotothehous e o f the mourners tocondolerec eive coffe e withor without apiec e ofcake.After drinking thecoffee,and s ometimesonent ering aswellasonleaving,they s ay:a llah y erbamu MayGodbem erciful tohim."1Inthe third night ai ahlileh :is made Sweets a re distributed toall invited, whoare c hosenfrom t heb etter clas s a s w ell asfromth e poor. Afterwards laila han ill a alla hi s recit ed bytho se pres ent, all repeating thisphrase o ver and ov er againuntilth es umofallthe prayer s reaches one thousand inthecitie s, and75 000 in s omevillages.2Thereupon al-Hitmeh( al -Q oran)i s read a ndthoser eading it s ayattheend: wa habna iawa baha l inV.jitlan,"We havepres ented its recompens e (merit), i. e .,thatofr eading theHolyBook forthe s oulofN.N."Th e m e eting end s witham eal.Everyonere cites th e j atibah forthe s oulofthedead.Th e mealthi s night isal so call eduni sali ( el-J.lIalbalt). Onthefirst Thur sday the relatives distribute asortofacake friedinoiltothosewho happen tocometothe cemetery.Iti s calledfakk etlumak.3Onthesecond Thursday a ljm esiyeh ismade insomevillages.Allfriendsgotothe cemetery tovis itthetomb. Therelatives distribute dried figs, s weets,raisins,etc.,among those present,especiallyto c hildren,also' a n e l-maiyet.Ason other occasions,everyoneasksthemercyofGodforthesoulof t he departed one.Atthe e ndofthefortydays another supper ismade. On lJamisel-Amwat the peasants s end fruit tothe 1lUY,lafeh, while inacitytherelativesofthedeadgotothecemet eryanddistribute s weets,dyedeggs,andvery rarely cookedfoodamongthepoora saIO therex pressionsar e: s alamet ru skllnl, e l-btiqiyelt(i ulIlrak, all ali ya alli w lddak.2Heardin e l-Qubebeh,3Fakket e l-wihdeli i s th e expressi on u sed for t hefirs t vi sit madeOnth e d ay a fterth ec orpse is b uried. 4 Onewh odoes n otp reparethis s upperf or hi s d ead f atheri sde spisedby hisfe llow-villagers, who s ay: ma i lak ac r(i a bak m a a m i ltil os asaya k alb.

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190J ournal of th e Pale stine Ori ental S ociety an el -maiyet.Food maybe sentatanytim e byth e peasant s tothe guest-house andisknownbythenamese s sadaqah, el-fiqd e h, er -rahmeh,k affarah .Cit y-dwellers generally givefood t othepo oro n everyf east (New Year, R amadan, 'Id el-Kbir). Whil e any s orto f food, ev en fruit.maybe sent on a nyoccasiontothe m azlafeh. i ti scustomary inthevillagestoslaya s heeponth e ta hlileh, sometim es on .[f amis el -AmwiU.\ Fromth e abovewese ethatthepea sant s prefer tosendthes adaqah .tothegue st-house, forallvisitors travellers and s trangers s topth ere forre st andr ecreation Every timethe rela tives ofthedeadbring f oodt o the ma l!afeh theysay: h agaannibfulan, this i s forthe : s oul ofN.N. "Everyonewhoe ats ofitmust s ay a pray er forth e deceas ed. Thus many prayer s as cend totheAlmig hty, imploring the s alvationoftheonewhohasdied. Som e relative s ofa dead person willgivea s umofmon ey t oa poorperson obligating thelatterto journey toMeccaandpe rform th e b adj forthe s oulofthed ead.When heha s finish ed th e o fficial cer emony th ere hemusts ay:it qabbal y a a llah !awab h al-badj 'an [u ltin," Reckon,0God,ther ecompense (merit)o f thispilgrima ge forthe s oulof... "No canbegi ven in t hename ofthe decea sed.tThe Bedouin o f e l-Qibleh(th e Peninsula ofSin ai)o nce a year brin g all their cattl e t o vi sit their cemet ery, Whil e th e sh eep pa ss thebu rial place ev eryanimal entering th e cem etery orr emaining s tandingnearitis thought t o ha ve been cho sen b y thedead a ndi s sacrificed there.Ihavebe en toldthatverym anys heeparesl ain onsuchanoccasion a s allBedouin,eventhepoor, bring th eir she ep tovisitthedeadin orderthatt helattermaychooseanofferin g. Th ere ares ome whoengagea toreade l.{f itmeh 3f orthe benefit ofthedeadonceorseveraltimesayear. A sinthecase ofthe ba dj, her e als o he s ays,a s soona s hefini shest here ading, wahab tu tawab uha l a-rUbf ulan. Th ereareo thersomewhat similar c ustomswhichma y b e p assed over .Iwish howev er, toemph asize what hasbeen me ntionedIInth e v illagesth is day i s a lso kn ownan Qamise lBeg (Thursday of E ggs).2Heard f rom se veral women o f Jerusalem w hogavem e several example s 3S ome b elievethatR adjab, Sa'ban andR amad a nar e themost suitab le m onths f or readin g t he H oly B ook -

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CA NAAN: Mob ammedan Sain tsa ndS anc tuaries inP alestine191repeatedly ,thateveryonewhoreceivesmon ey orfoodinthenam e ofthe deceased recites a pray erandgenerallythe j atiZtalz forhi s soul andadds ineverycasetheword srahm eialla li 'ale h ora llah yirZtamuh. Wh ile allthecustoms described abovearepractised bytheMohammedans, the Christians have others whi ch are based onthe same conceptions. Idonotwishto describethevariou s massesandprayers forthe dead, astheyareaccept ed religious institutions of the different churche s,butwillrestrictmyselfto folkloristic practice s, mentioning onlytho sethatdifferfromthecustoms de scrib ed above. Onthe third, ninthandforti eth da y, six monthsandone year a fterth e deathIa andawi djiharemadeb y thefamilyofthedeceasedand distributed inthecemetery By s uniyeh adish ofboil ed wheatwith sugar, decorat ed with almonds, candy,etc. is meant whileawi djihisalargedisk-like loaf ofbreadofabout40-60cmin diameter, coated with sesame seeds.Thepriest says s ome prayer s andth en th e foodi s di stributed to those present. Many o fferthesething s onlyonceortwic e.? S omeC hristiansdi stribute cak es ( eitherk a'k ibsimsim,biqsmat or m?l1lleh) 3o nth e first 'id el-Amw at, Member s oftheGreekO rthodox c hurch m ayal sotake wineon s ucho ccasions.Thepriestblesses t he w ine a ndgi vese veryon e acup :Thedeadperson al so r eceives hi s portion forthepri est pours a little wine, marking a circle with iton t hetomb. A s withtheMohammedans so a lso with theChristians, ev ery on e whorec eives someth ing implore s th e m ercy ofGodforthedeceased Ananaly sis of t hesecu stoms show st hefollowingmain point s:1.Food andoth er offeringsaremad e inthenam e ofth e d eadandfortheben efit ofth e dead 2. These offeringsareaccompanied bya multitude of prayers and go od wi shes, whichar e intended forthebenefit ofthedead.ISomeC hristians g ive t hosewh ocometoco ndole a cup o f coffe e w ith a ha rdcake .Inso me cas es s imple k a'k i bsililsim ( cakes with s esame see ds)ar e distributed i nsteado f ( the a bove mentio ned ha rd c akes), 2 T hisc ustom p revailsa mongtheG reekO rthodoxcong r egation 3 sta nds fo rr oundscak esmadeo f sm id ( semolina)b utte ra nd se sames eeds,

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192J ournal o fth e P alestine Oriental S ociety, Whenwequestionthe peasants ab out the purpose ofth ese cu stoms;we.findthattheyreasonasfollows. Whenhelp(food,money etc.) isgiventothe poor, strangers and children inthenameof t he,deceased ,andprayers aresaidforhissoul,Godwillreckon a ll the se acts inhisfavourinthedayof judgement. Themore a s oul canrelyuponsuchacts, thebetteroffiti s, sinceallofthemwill be added tokajf et e lmzzan, inwhich hi s good a ctionsare placed andthelikelihood of outweighing hi s evil actions will increas e.Inother words,weseethatthese actions a re sacri fices m ade bythe livingforthebenefit of thedead.This thoughti s beauti fully expressed inthe sentence l a-hilkat e l amwat Wereit not for (th e actions of)th e living,thede ad wouldhav e perished. Thisisthe fundamental idea inall s acrificestothede ad,a swe shall seelateron. A close examination ofthegoalatwhichthe se offering s andprayers aim,removesevery doubt oftheirsacrifici al character.Thelatterbecomesstill c learerifwe remember theword s saidev ery timethe jatibah a nd gitmeh areread,namely:i tqabbal y a allah t aw(ibha'anj ulan, "Accep t, 0God,it s recomp ense for th e s oulof.. ." These custom sareillustratedbyth e factt hat the Hebrew wordfor pray (,nv)" isco gnate withthe Arabicroot ? whichmeans sacrifice(sheep )."1Prayerand sa crificewereso intermingledthatevery prayer was anoffering andevery s acrifice a prayer. Even thesimple st phrases ,all ah y irbamuh or allah ol e h,seemtohavebeenorigin allyad 'iya,"prayer s," offeredforthebenefit ofthedead, a ndnotonlypolit e expressions. tThereis a nothermotiveforthiscustomtowhichIwi sh todraw attention, asithasnotusuallybeen c onnectedwithsa crifices for thedead.Theunderlying idea of all these s acrifices, including tho se offeredto saints, isthesame. Neither s aintsnor other deadeatthemselv es, although meals a reofferedin their n ames. Tothe ir t ables manyareinvitedandwhen satisfied sayaprayerf ortheISee MuM? e l-MuM? and B elot.2Wh enever on e i sonthe p ointo fb e ginninga j ourn e yhea skshi s fri ends: id 'a l i, prayf or m e." Th ey at o ncer ecitep hraseslik e"Go d be withyou ," God p rotectyou, ""Go d ma ke yo upro sper," e tc .All the se s imple e xp r ess i o ns a re c o n s i de red a s p ray e rs ( d u 'a) .

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M ohammedanS aints a nd S anctuariesi n P alestine193s oulofthe who i s thentheirr ealhost.Thusa person is endowed e ven a fter hi sdeathwiththehigh est virtu e inth e eyesof t he Or iental. nam ely hospitality. I I n t heBiblewefindparallels tothecustom of sa crificeforthed ead,cf.D ent,2614 ,Sir.30, 18. 1TheImostintere stingpassageis 2 M aca b. 124 sff.:" And making ag athering, he senttwelve thou sanddrachmas of silver toJerusalem for sacrifice tobe offered forthes insofthed ead, thinkin g well a ndr eligiously concernin g 'theresurrection.Fori fh ehadnothopedthattheythatwer es lain should ris ea gain.itwouldha ve s eemed sup erfluousandvaintopray fo rthed ead."! ,J'( II7. O ELEBRATION 'OFFEASTS ( mawasim)". The word mosa m2 ( pl, mawasim) me ans "sea son,m art,fairor t ime ofass embly ofpil grims."3Ino urc ase iti s th e season o f v i sitin g\ asa nctuary;"thu s, for exampl e, e mta m os am en -nobiR ftbinm eans W heni sthes eason (th e time)of v isiting(c elebratin gthe ,f east of) th eP rophetRub in?"Whenever on espeakso fe l-mosomiinJ erus alem and t h es urroundingvill agesiti s und erstood by a llt o m ean mosam en-na biuo., M any sa nctuariesh ave r egularn uuotisim.Th e i s ver y el aboratel yce lebratedin s ome a ndextendsov ers everalda ys, whil e. Jin others it i s v ery s impleandl asts onlyon e d ay.Atsuch a tim e p eople flockfrom e verydirection to v isitthehol y pl aceandtot ake partinthefestiv aljo ys.A tthese tim es th eya lsofulfilltheirvow s, p erform th eir r eligious du ties, circum cisetheirc hildren, e tc. A de s cription of th eN e bi l\1 flsa feas t 4 willg ivean excellent picture of am osasn:All o ther m awasim r esemble itinm osto ftheirc haracteristics.TheProphet M osesis hi ghly honoured b y all M o hamm edanso fP alestine. P eoplec omet ot hefe astfroma ll v illages o f s outhernP alestinea ndS amaria,Man ya lso c omef romthen orth.l.ID ouaytranslation.12Cauaan,Kalenderdes]Jal.Fell ,ZDPVX XXVI,p .2 74,not e 2 .3Used o riginally fo r il lecca,M lt[t'i{ e !-.\{lI!li{ H 2'250. D escriptions have beengiven by: H ansSpoe r,D as Nem M iis a Eest ,Z DPVXXXII, pp.207-221; R. Hartrnann, Nem l\[ usa,M NDPV 1 910, pp .65-75;P .Kah le, Gebriiuclle beidellmoslemiechen Heiligtiimeml in P alestina,PJB,1 65etc. 1 3

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/1 94J ournalofthePalesti ne Ori ental Society ,,Theshrine is 'situatedsevenkilom eters S.S .W o fJ ericho,j ust south o f the road le ading fromJerusalem t o J ericho.Iti sc omposed of an ex tensive co mplexof buildin gs /with large g ates.Itm aybe di videdi nto tw o parts:thesa nctuaryit selfa nd t her ooms surrou nding it.Thelatterarese paratedfromthefir st threes idesb y ano pen s pace,the c ourtyard.!Thes anctuary itselfis surrounded on t he north an d e a st by porch es,a ndco vers th es upposedtombo f th e pro phet. Aqu antity ofr agsa retiedtoth eba rs o fthewindo ws. Abo vethed oor anin scripti ons tatesthat'Abdallah Pasa rebuilt the p lacein12 35 A; H .The maqam it self -i s o pened o nlyonspe cial occas ions an ddurin g th efest ivald ays. T heg reaterparto f t he co mplex s urroundingth es hrin e i sco mpo sed of r ooms whic hse rvetol odget hevisit ors. Th e m inaretis f oundin th eN. ,V. cornerof thi s partan di snotc onnected directl ywithr ,/'111'1the s anctuary.Tw o m osqu e s 11.1:e a ttachedtothi sco mplex, o neof whi ch (cljami' t he m os clue of th e women ) h asa -\ vhil J t heother, whi chs eems tona vebe encha nged f rom a 2 ,I'I.'I' I'I II !I i nto a pray er-room h as n o nich e. Th ese cond s tory o pens nea rlyI Jh iI 1khItd' II eve rywi ereo nto aterrace w ic h o ver0 0st eco ur tya r.nt he 'I .} JfJl Il owers torytw olarge ki tchens,as w ell as s t ab l e s ,sto re-rooms, a n d w ood-roomsa re to be fo und,b esidet he manyroo msf ort h e pi lgrims. Although thisbu ilding i se rected o n t opo f 11. hill t hetwof I.'" oth er shrin es(Hasane r-Rs'!a nd M asadjid s ittnf t 'Aist: h) c ommand better v i dws b eing f ound o ns tillhi gherpo sitions.rE astoft he whole bu ildin g i s a c emetery, wher et hose a re b uried wh odied uring f es tival d ays.N otables wh o dieinJeric 'ho a re ve ry d f ten brou ght h er e and th e' Idwan tribes m en o fTransjordaniabury SOn!.E lo f t h eir dea d a l so i n th isce met ery.Th eyco unt ita s l ecial bl es s ingItobe n ear this m an o f G od. '_ I I .I T h e courtyard ispaved wi thston e s lab s. n 2 Thi s may s tillbe se e n s in cethed oor leadingt ot he o utsideh as be enc losed, a nd th e p lace s f ort ying h ea n i mals l f r e s till visible. ''3B esidet hethree shrines mentioned onpa ge 8 where c hi l drenareburi ed intheirn e i ghbou rho o d, Ihav e tw oot hers anc tuaries with t he s ame c haracterist ic, m akingfive i na ll: II,(e s -seh Ah madat N e biS amwil, es-se! t a t H izmah.Th e t hr ee al ready m entioneds hrinesar e Nuraon n ear S aHalah,esoseh A hmad es -Sa rrisi a tAMGhoe, a nd, 'Abdallah at Su' f at

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JI C ANAAN: M ohamm edan S aints a nd Sa nctuariesi n P alestine195Nota single : tree istobeseenan ywhere near, th e building, but large c isterns1gatherther ain-waterforuseinthefeas t-days, These ci sterns a pparentlybelongt o an older agethanthepre sent building.Ith as beensuppo sedthattheywerethecisterns o f th e c onventof S t. Euthymius. s. 1'fhe rid ge onwhichth e sanctuaryis erected i s c omposedo fa bituminous stone whichburn sea silyandgivesanoffensiv e a sphaltitic odor.Thepeopl erthinkthat thi s natural sig n, which. P i sn ot found intheca seo f a ny _o ther s aint,i s a de cisive proofofthegreatness ofthe prophet. Nuru h min bdj uruh, 3 hisfir e i s( comes) f romhis s tones, h as becom e proverbial. Ih ave never 'heard. t h e saying s, g iven b y Spoer 4 a boutthisbi tuminouss tone,whi ch look s whit e o utside(lik e t he a ngelof light5 )andinsid e bl ack (liketh e an g el of d eath6) r' b oo-v Thef eastit self b egins onth eFriday preceding G oodFriday oft heGreekOrthodox Ohurchja nd e nds o n 'I'hursday. T hisFriday i s call eddjum eten -naei eh," theFriday ofDe scent," whi le t heFridayp recedingiti skn own as djum' et e l-mnuaut, t he Frid ay o f O alling, si nceitisonthi s d ayo fficiallym ade known thatt he m8sam o f th eProphet b eginso nth e nex t Friday.Thursday e vening a ndthe night o fThursday t oFriday i s named l elatu lwaqfeh,S the Nigh t o f Standin g," inoth er words, the n ightpreceding th e fe ast.E veryonew hoint ends t o t akep arti n th e feastprep aresf or th ec omingday s. Diff erent f riendsor fa milies c ome t ogether a nd t alkove r their pl ans. T,his timer esembles inIs ome ,res pec t s the p reparationf or P assoveron th e parto f the J ew s. Thenighto fthe1 A s m uchd ep e ndsont h e am ountof w atert hese ciste rns ho ld atth e t im e ofth e f east, thepeopl e beli evethat they areoft en fi lled inam iraculou s way W e ar e to ldthatw hen the r ainfalld uringthewinteri ss canty and th e c isterns a renotfi ll e dw ith w ater it alway s h appen sthatt he prophe t' l\l oses sendsa heavydo wnpour ofrain, w hichfallsonly o verhi ss acredarea,shortly b efo re th e b eginning o f th e feast.2ZDPVXXXII,2 18. 3Kah le,PJBV III,l i4 .IZ DPV XXXII,2 12. l\I o se s ismeanthe re.6 Uz r a'yI. 7Not onGoodFriday a s state d by Spoer. .H' s T hi s expression i s usedforthe e veningb efore every feast day ,1 3-

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196Journal ofthePalestineOr iental So ciety .nextWednesday toThursday i s called le lat e s-sel, sinc e mostof the pilgrims arrange tolea ve. Before describing the beginning ofthefestivalprocessions we mu st call attention tothe factthats ixFridaysofthisp erioda re consider ed asmore orle ssimportant ,s incethey a re connected with s pecialcel ebrations 'andprivileges. The Nebi Mus a fea st formsthe nucleus.Thefollowingisthe list1 .as known intheenvironsof .J erusal em, SomeFridays bear other names in other places:'11"1 ,,, 11 l]amis e l-amwat,ord j. e l-beg J!N ames amo n g th e peas ants a nd B ed="'.hal ms, or d;:e n-nabat I1d j. e l-ba zana.' ,f djum' e t e l-mnadat d j. e l-gh w'aba, r N ameso fFridays inJerusalema nd e nvironsdj .e ll-nazleh,dj. e l-beraq, ord j. es -siddiiri 2 'J d j. er -raglzayb, dj. e l-' or'ea d j. e Hawili1 1/SecondOrd er ofICo mparedwi th 'th eFridays h G reekE aster I "14da ys b eforeFirstI'GoodFriday IISome whatmodi fied fr om Canaan,F olkloreo fth eSeasons, jP 08' IIII p.23 2 So me say si ndari. '-I 11/le : 3Th eC hristians o fB ethlehem, B etD jala a nd Betc a ll Dec .2 4yo m. e l! t al aw i, a ndfl ocko n t hisda ytoBet hlehem t oa tt endth e offi cial process ion of t heP atriar ch u sing t heo pportunity t ob uy sweet s T his c u s to m is d yingo ut { fr o m thewritten n ot e s o fm y fa th er). ,. ".'.I

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints i md Sanctnaries in Palestine197 The processionbeginsby bringingtheNebi Musil bannerj from theplace where itis kept all theyearthrough, calleded-Darel-Kbireh, belonging tothe I;lusepi family,andsituated westof ,theHaramareainthestreetconnecting ,Bahel-Habs with {t helIanez-Zet street.tThe' notablesas wellasmanyofficials assemble here.Thebanneri shanded over :to the Mufti ona plate.Afterreciting aprayerheunfoldsthe banner ) andit is fastened onitastick/Thebanneris made ofgreenvel vet,e mbroidered alongthe!border. with goldenthreads,and measures 20 0x140 cm.A piece of black silk issewnatthe centre of each side bearing inscriptions ,'! tobe described below,fThi s black cloth isalso artistically embroidered onitsedges.Theflagis fastened to" along staff', called ztin eh, endingabovein a golden crescent (hliil)' J The 'Procession whichinthetime oftheTurks)used jtoJbe accompanied bya militarybandanda guard of [ honour-moves slowlytothe Mosque ofDrnan, entering bythegateBabel-Habs (alsoknownasB ab 'Ala ed-Din el-Bu seiry),Afterthe midday prayer isoverthe procession leavesthemosqueareabythesame gate andnotbyBftb I:Iutta as s tatedbySpoer.tItistruethatagreatpartofthe multitude whichattendsthe ceremony inthemo sque leavesby other gates.TheGrandMufti,thebanner-bearerandtheother s ervants oftheprophetgo ahead. Assoonas ,theyar e outoftheholyareathey mount horsesandmoveslowly through the prolongation oftheViaDolorosa, St. '.J .... gate ( BabSitttMaryam).Thespectators fillthestreet,thebalconies andwindows,the cemetery,andtliegardens { onboth 6 f the way. Duetothegreat-numberof umbrellas whicharecarried, by themembersof.the processionandthe spectators this hasbeen called'id eJ-8amfisi,"the feast oftheumbrellas."The 8 abab (young men), assemble ill parties,andr eachone plays, dancesandsings jon itsway.Inthecrowdmanyflagsarecarried, comingfrom different awliaof thecityandthe surrounding villages.Every. flaghasitsadherents Thusweseethefl ags tof 'Atif3, eSM1.J.Qazziiz4, .:I' I (, '/IThe writing is a lsowork ed in g oldthread. 2 ZDPVXXXII, 214.. 3Th e qaiym of e BB e l!Djarra!;J Thisand t hepre cedingc omefromJ eru salem. b'ltl -.

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]98 Journal o fth e Pal estiue -Oriental S ociety ,I All fr om NabiSam w yl, etc Thebann er of en-nabi D ahfld a ndthatof th e Mosqu e of Omararealwayss een inthi sprocession. They a ccompanythatofthe prophet Moses unt il the proces sion rea ches IDIS el Amfld. Slowlytheproce ssion advancesanda fter twoor ( threehours reaches R as el-r.Amud ,wherethe Mayor ofJerusale m and the oth er members of the Municipality welcomeit.TheMunicipality invites many guests forthisoccasion After re freshm entsareservethebanneri s carefully foldeda nd r tbedignitarie s c ontinue their journe y in automobiles or carriages.Partofthecrowd follow ss lowly,butthegreaterpartreturn t o Jerusalem. J9E"ery da y oftl ie feastthe number of t hevisitorsin creases. The y c ome g enerallyinthef ollowing order t:" A rrivalThursday fFriday,G roupC offee-house keepers andsome merchantsThese rvant s oftheProphetMose s and s omemerchantsD epartureFridayaft er eight da ysIIThursday '" (\IfI ( Mo pday 01' Th ur sdayJ ,,rSaturdayThe 'ldwn}! tribe Sund ay .IffThedifferentflagsof Jerusalem ( : .!.tif, Qazzflz, etc.)Monda y t, The' H e bronites the b a nnerofthe Wedne sday,U" sabab o fJerusalemandthatofN a blusTue s:day,J Th e Bedouinofed-Diuk ) '" ednesda j ( I.JI'J .W ednesdayTheinhabitants o fJerichoWednesdayIJ l1. manwhocomesfo r onerd ayi s called $ abMbz, whileonewho sp endsIonlyonen ight inthes anctuary iskn own b y the n ameb aiylUi.i'he former com es inthe morning and r eturnshomeintheafternoon whilethe f latterarri ves generally intheaft ernoon, spendsthe ni ght andleav es d uring! th e next day -.., If,TheHebronites -leaveHebronSaturdayand e ncampintheBa q'ah, just south-west of/a erusalem.Thenextdaythey enter ... Jeru sa lem b y theJ a ffaGatein a l ong proc ession,s inging, dancing a ndpl aying s e!utun A multit ude of s pectatorsas semble towitn ess theev ent.1Th eqa iymo f e l-IJaQ.ra(N ablus).2 Thisorde rw a s givenm e by s everalperso ns wh ogoe very yea rt othe sanc tuary, s ince theyarese rvants of the Prophet.

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C ANAAN : M ohammedan S aints an dSa nctuariesi n P alestine199Through theold cit y they continue 'theirmarchuntil th eyenterel-H aramrby el -Mahkameh, They.pass the night inthemosque are aa nd earl y th enextdayleaveforthe s hrine ; I t is customar ythat' b efore suchapr ocession re aches : avillagethe y j s e nda m d jdj iid to th e Ji y.illage to announ ce their co ming.Atonc e ) a s ma py oftheinhabitantsas .areable gooutt o me et the processi o n taking alon g th eirbannerand'idde h.Often new comers.arei nvited to t ake s omefood) 'J I ,.( .All s aiyarat leaveJerusalemforNeb ir Mfisa wit bgreatpomp a nd monotonoumusic ;theproc ession isheadedib ythebanuer. > A s soonasth ey pas s Gethseman e th ey furltheb anne r-ia ndmarchs lowlyandquietly.Assoon a sth ey i arein sight [' ofthes hrine o f th e Prophet the yrearrange,their ugroup, unfurl -thebannera nd i beginthe formal procession again.Firstthey raise s mall heaps of stones as qana tir I ,and recitethe 'j'aMah. 'Ph e dervish whoheadsth e proc ession sendsoneofhisfoll owers to announce theircomingto the other dervishe s whoarei alr e ad yin N ebi M fisa. This mes senger is ca lled 1 ladjdjab. Hismasterbind samandi !a roundhis neck t o be untied o nlybythe selj who welcomes him a tthesanctuary.This nadjdjab runs directly tothe maq am allthetime beatin g his n aqqarah ( asortofasm all drum).Asso on ashe reache s the building a il thed ervishes, towh ateveria riqah.they -may belong go o utt o wel come bim andtheolde st dervi sh unti esthe m andil fr om hi s n eck, reciting the atthes ame time. selj ordersall, saiya,-a t and J 'idadtow elcome th e n ew-comers.I'. j" Firstthemaetiro f r r.Ra'i i s visited a ndthenthec rowd proc eeds t o theNeb i. As so on astheoutercourtis reached, t heprocession a dvances slowly. whiletheirenthu siasm increase s.Allnth e way t o er-Ra'!andtothe N ebi gun shotsarefiredinord er t o incre ase t he ] enthusiasm a ndto procl aim th eir coming.This custom i s n o l ongera' I Irt Processionsareg enerally arranged Iin tliefollowing n wa y:The b anner-bearergo esa head,follow edby j themu sicians ..Then follow s ome yo ung m en o f th e party, encirclin gtheirleaderandd ancin g a ccordingtothetempo g iven b y him. :E very dan ce i sa ccompanied b y singing .Thel eader recites a strophe a ndtheothersrepeatit.!IW efind s u ch heaps o f ston es setup ( by o f wit ness inpatriarchal-day s : Gen.3 1 U -53 ; J oshu a 41-3 and 9-11 .

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200 J ournal ofthePal estine Oriental Society I.l He swings a i'sword, ai stick 'C)r ahandkerchiefin the' airand. dances withthem,thusgivingthetempo. Sometimes allorpartof'themusiciansareseen inthecircle.Whilesinginganddancingthepartyclaptheirhands in arhythmical-way. This Clapping ofthehandsmay, bemetwithinall seasons ofgreatmirthandrejoicingI,andboth iperformersand audienceneverseem to weary of thissimple, but universalamusement.sTheyproceedslowly until they :reachthemaq am :Some ofthewomenspectatorswelcomethe p arty with z agharU, orshort' songs ending witha shrill tongue-rattling.IItis veryinterestingt o Dote that'' the above description ( of this procession r esemble s inmanyawaythejoyful procession s described intheBible. Singing,dancingaridclappingofthehands.rthe u se of'.musicalinstrumentsandtheparticipationof all classes a i'e th esametoday a s theywerethousandsofyearsago;cf 2 Sam. (; eIf.,2Kings1112,etc.Thedescription, inEzek.256and7resemblesverymuchthe Idancetobedescribed1
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C ANAAN: Mohammed im Saints and Sanctuaries inP al estine' 2 0 1IIII II-I1-I 1..1 __-I1-,I'lfh,' J I 1" 1r Int heca se of a llaha }one thetab!a re a llowed 1 ibrate. I while on eis turn eds lowly o nthe o ther, a ndth e lasts yllable isgi ven b y as trongb eat. The a re o f g reen, whit e orr ed cloth, with I JI Q oranicv erses, thenameofthes ainttowhomthe y belong orn amesIIITo fGodin scribed onthem.The in scription ismadeb y s ewingc loth b ands ofdifferentcoloursonthefl ag 'itself:I,I ?, .eThemusical instruments whichareusedare-t hefollowing:t obl.drum p lois (ka sat) kettl e -drum 'fLJ [mi z har 'Ikind of : lute ( s a bbflb e h flute ar ghitlJ l ong fluter Z lt1ll1lla r a hfif e 1 ,m idjwi z I t wo r"(I,', 'I1{' Jdirbakkeh, kind of drum ,IIIf (l '\ Ilobeh verylargedrumTherhy thm pl ayed by theia bland ktl sa t n as I ne a rly a m ea nin g : S ome ex amplesa re: a llah allti h a lllih ba il!da -ym daymqai-yuI qa i-yiirn So meof t he writing s 9 n banner s J are:1. cUllJ,,-w)'>'..,s:"cUlldJ\ Th ere i s n o GodbutAllahjMoh ammed i'!,. God 'sa postle. 2.Onthe ba nnerof N eb i I)r. '{ a)ononeside:th ea bovemention ed Moh ammedan creedIIb) o nth e other side: It-.1$"""".ill \ f 1) ,Il' ,I,G od s pakewithMo ses di scoursing withhim130 93 .Th e b annero f B et Surik "-.ill I cUll0'".>...,.:...,1

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20 2J ournalofthe Palest ine O r iental S o ciet y ,.Inth e n ame o f th e mo st merciful G od! Assis tance f rom God a nda s ure v ictory! Y our help 0m yl ord Ahmad el -Badaw y l4 .Onth e b annerof Dj abir e n-Na na ': .3";("",r0""05'\d I h ave m astersw hosepow er (a nd)who se br averya resup ernatural. Al though I a mn ot oneo f them ( Ideriv e fr om) th eir lo ve p ower anddi gnity. 5 O n a seco n4 banner o f r the samesc7..n.0J\6..JI,J,,-w).>-S:<_.JJ\6..JI r-: ...;:1\6..JJI 6..JJ\.>-:..\r:rJ111;""ilil?.>-i Th ere i s n o G odbut A llah. InJt h d n adJe o fthe m ostmhci f ul Go d, there i s noG od butr All ah a ndMoh ammed i s Go d s A p os tle. Ou i L ord Ahm ade r-Rifa'ii s th eFriendof G od. G od h as p r o cl ai med hisw onderful M ystery. r6 .S eena tN ebiR ubin f estival s: r""6..JJ\6..JI6..JJ\ J, ..... ) I)Abo. Bakr. There isno' Ali'O mar Godbut All ah, a ndMoh ammedI 1 i s God 's Ap ostle.r' O t m an7.B anner of essehAhm ad el F aleh: \ lieILf I 11llb.>-... 1 11).>,...aJl.i.l\ sL .I JL I

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lIIohammedanSaints a ndSanctuariesi u P al estin e2 03 Ah fi T all.lah ) \0G:J Sa'd r, 0,) .,ZubeirItw asrenewed nby th e poor(f or. 9 )God'shelp ) AI.lmadl eloFftlil;tthejJ s u c c e s so r o fM ohammed' s excell encyI IIVlJ. Sa i dI / I / ", I. 8.Anotherba nnero fth es ame SelJ:......t...,'v 1J ;,.' 1'1' .:ljl, eJJ\ J I)r0 T I 1.>.1 I J,JIeUJh: r: "n '.1o;'t""I!:IuJ ,0.1.;t U'J0.1 ,I fo. lJ Of'JfI/' JfII J.. Inth e n ame of most l merciful f Go d till.r lI!j!u III ('Jd And s ay, Praisebe untoGod,Iwhohathnotbegotten' an y,IJchildjwhohath ,no ,partnerinthekingdom ,nor,hath a ny t oprotect 'him(Surah17 ,l ast -ver se).rIII'I:I 11j IIt SI, I. 0 11 If / I 11 .. JJ urII f 1 La' ,.I "*! IIJI }IeUJI 11) Jcill\eUJI0.11 ,j HI:>',.dJ..Q.iLIb,(0(II' ,l()J .. i;!j' 11f fj 11 9 .S eenJinR nbin(1 924 ) :r Abil BakrtII.Inth e ,name th e m ost merci ful G od!J III rtThere i s no Go dbut Allah: 11Ill!/J..IfIre solve (todo s omething)Itruston l OurLord el-lJadr, peacebeuponhim .fI O t m f tn I'\ iH{ (.'11 O,jrJJHIIfU Thes taff ( e z-dt11eh); on which1th ebanner' i s fastened ,often h as oni tsupperendametalpiece which i s worked inoneoftheform s s howninthea coompan yingplate. Atudyofth e differentf orms-whicha re ge nerally ca lled ltzal ( cr es ce nt )-indictesthefo llowing g rouping:

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204J ournal oftheP alestin e Orient al S ociety1. Th e representationofa weapon(spear). Nos '. 1, 2 a nd 3 2.Therepresentationio f, thehand/ (Nos.6,7).Number8m ay a lsob ec ountedto l thi s g roup, l \ vhile numb er 15 s howsth e holynumber' sev e n.f)_ J'3. Diff erentformsrepresentingthe dev elopment th e m oon. N os. 4, 5 ,9 10 1 6, 17,1 8,2 0.N o.21hasth e inscripti on t:lJJ\J.,...,),)o...,.:s:",t:lJJ\ inthem oon. Nos.11 ,12 ; 13 ,14,which look like ll: sphereor acircle, m ay be c lassifiedunderthis head, althou gh th ey may also b e expl ainedas th e ,. I I.representation oftheterrestial g lobe. These s igns ; re in popular" s uper s tition,w e meetwiththeminma gic formulas ,andpopular. medicin e,t 1 '1JS omeofthe. villa ges havin g an iddeh,which 'is generallybroughttovisit th e INeb i a r e :Bet Iksa, En-Nabi $amw SI, Biddn, B et'Anan B et Duqquh.rBst Stlrik, AbUGhM, fel-'Esawiyeh, S ilwan,e d-Diuk,Jericho,etc.Iwas toldthatth eBedouintribesel-Tdwan el K a' abneh,etc., donotbringan'i ddehora fl ag th em. f" IThes ervants ofthe'Prophet, en -Nobi ,i, e ., th ose w ho havethe positions in this place,are:TheH useini, Y nnis, Ql ebi'i a ndtheBazbazehfamilie s.These familie sarenot, a s Ourti ss s ays," priestly:"2They hav ea bsolutelyno reli gious tin ge. E ach o f th e first tw o h asaki tchen in which anen ormous quantity offoodi sco okedand/ distributed to th 'e visitor s twic e daily .Thebannerbearersaremembers ofthe Ql ebi'i, whilethe mu a44in c omes fromtheBazbazahfamily.The la st haveal sotherightt o lightthe maqam. 'Themufti o fJerusalemmustleadtheprocession.IAllofthese"servants" aie l' proud ofthe' h o nour b es towedontheirfamilie s in serving K altm AlI a ,h.I.IIEveryday a bout one quntar (3001kg ) ofmeatiscook ed bytheHuseinifamily a ndIabout! th e same bytheY I mis,IThis meati s cooke a'inlarge vessel s belongin g tothe maqam. Atth e'same tim e a g reatquantityofriceisprepared as ruzz mfolfol. Yaljane h (pl : of yabneh) u are. t also j Ya ljne tf itl (bro ad be ans), y' l. ba$al91111 ni l)'IA" rf1/ 9'1 IJJ'1 1 .!r 5 8, 6 4,84 ; 1 94 a nd 95.J' I1 .:l,lli2/ C ur t i ss, chapterX iVI. ( !':J \II I :3 N otlIIufi lfil, asKahle says i nP JBiVIII, 172. 1 ",l

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C A lIIobammedan Saints andS anctuaries inP alestine2 05. t I ./J (oni ons),y. m lulJzyeh ( gardenmall owI),y.. b f!Cf,indjan ( egg plant), e tc. ,. J .. ,.. (J1 u lui.} rI. arethe m!:>st importantdi shes. By ya7.Jneh c ooked vegetables with. It..,. .. I meatandsamne hi s und erstood. Ev ery d ay tw o public me als,dinner f r 11 ,.andsup per,a reprepared. Wh en t h efoo dISr eadyt hevi sitors c ome II I b'I )j.'If "'-----ICorcborus o litorius (HiiVa). '. .I ,

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206Journal ofthePalestineOrientalS ociety r. a ndt ak,etheirshare. Gen e rallythey unite insmall group a nd a r ep' 'e setl a tive : o feachgroupreceivthefood.Breadisa lso di stributed.Itis a d ensel / crowd ed ma ssthata waitsth e tim e o f di stribution ,Everyone carrie s a v essel andties tobeone of th e / fir st, pu shing, elbowing a nd s houting.I anyv isitorswhopr efer t o cook themselves receivetheirshare a sijardjnl1si 1. i.e. rawm eatandunco oked rice.Well-kn own famili es cookin g th eiro wnfood m ay receiv e th e cookingve ssels fr om the ma (baij, whil e other s must give surety( ra1tn).Th e anim als, mo stlys heep,arekilledill a sp ecial pla ce, out side th e sanctuary, o nthewaytothe carriage road E vena n r son who has vowed a l] blba h for Ne bi Mus a g enerally kill s itillthisp lace. I n d oings o as pecialformulai s used namel:minnaku ilkk a dj1 Hla-s eiydna l lIiisa,U From Thee andtoTh ee( 0G od) m ay itbecouhteda s recomp ence and reward For o ur lord : Mo e s." V e ry often t lle following s entenceis added : i tqabbalnigrak y a iKal i m Alla htuAc cep yo urvow 0Interlocutoro f G od."The meati se itherdistribjited tutho se present ,a tt oe tim eo f s laughtering, o riti s se rlt t oo ne o fthetwo kitchen s ofth esa nctuary,t o b ecoo kedw ith the ot her f ooda nd then distribut ed toth e z UUiar 'I 'heoff erer a lways k eepsag ood portion o utforhim self andhi s fri ends. Th ee normous expen ses of thl;Jse s evend ays a rem et with by: th ein comeo ftheProphet 'swa qf: ..... Theroom s, courtyarda ndagreatar ea s' urrouf.ldiug th e buildingarec rowdedwithvi sitors.Iti sa very picture sque, interestingandinstructiv ,e sigot t o ob serve toediff erent f aces,c ostumes,mann ers, g amesa ndo ther characteri stics o f thi s ma ss. PeaSl:!.llts, ha lf-Bedouin andBedouinmIXwithpeople o fJ erusalem, N ablusa nd Hebron, A ./ cl ose s tuden oftbe c ountrye asily di stinguishes onet ype from t he other I i\ Vithth eexc eptiono fth e citywomen wh o k eepli eroom s m osto f th e orst and on the op e!! v erandaofth ese cond s tory, a ll fe male visitor stakepartinth ea ctivitiesofthemen, with whomtlie y mix continually.Alla redres sed in th ei rbe st cloth es, whichexhibit J "er yd ;e rainb ow. 6 f thep ilgrim s i s a t ti mes JI g rmou s, : it"r eaches it s clim ax on Mond ay Tu esday. Aftert liis -di any b egin tol eave.During a ll t liis tim e,exc eptingtheI' 1 fir st da y (wh en n obodyg oesh ome)a nd t helas td ay ( whennobody c omes a nym ore t ot he sa nctuary)th ereis co nstant g oing a nd

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208 ".c Journalofthe Palestine Oriental. SocietybeadsIearthenware pitchers, Ijarsand. pots booklets,tractsand tobacco.anatch-boxes, candles,andmany other things ; While manyhave their placed on improvizedwoodenshelves others spread strip ofcloth theground (imb assit, pl. imbas stin). Alldayandfarintothenightthey stand tireles sly, each tryingItoIoutshout his neighbour in praisinghis articles. Outside the courtyard herdsofsheepareIbrought forsale.Any onewhohastooffera maybuytheanimalhere. Many bring their offeringswiththem.I,. .. Outside the building therearealwayscoffee-houses madeofrough tentcloth. Low Arabic stoolswelcome thecustomers.Coffee,lemonade and argUeh may be ordered, anditis notwithout interest to sit here,especiallyin theevening,andobservethe.lifeandtheactivities ofthecrowd,whilea phonograph playsmonotonousmelodies. Ashadow theatre(qaraqoz )1attractsthe attention of-passers-byandentices themto enter $andfrq el-'adjamisalsomuchvisited,especiallyby children, peasants and Bedouin,Itisanoblong pox decorated outsidewithsmallbells, mirrors, glassballs, pictures and flowers, and resting onasmallchair.Infrontithas smallholes through whichthe spectators lookataroll .of pictures hiddeninthecenter, and turned .sOJthatthe observer mayfollowthestory,whichis recited inaquickmonotonous manner bythe operator. Onemay also spend histimeplaying cards ( saddeh orioaraq;and tfucleh (tric-trac, backgammon). Outside inthefields parties come together andspend their time with horse-racing (sbaq),djw'id (mockfight,withlong straight .branches, wherethebest player ia -theone ,who throws hisstick farthe st), etc. The last game r mayalsobe played onhorse-back. Peasants and citizenstryto .compete withthe Bedouin,but rarely showtheskill ofthe latter, whoguide their gracefulArabmares withmucheae.In a other g ame thep r layers dividethemselvesintotwo parties r J I,ABedouinof thefirst party, holdingthereinsofhismareinone hand,and hi s rifleinthe other,gallopsatfullspeedandtriesto overthr bw his Of the party ortocutoffhisr etreat .Ifhesucceedshi 's opponentis captured,butifhe caught,oronly touchedbytheman of the second party, he mustgowithhim.The rest ofthe captured man 'spartytrytoreleasehimby rushing andhihi. !I'IuItoucmgnn ,

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CANAANddohammedan Saints and Sanctuari es in Palestin e209Norshouldwepassoverthereligiousobservances of'thesedays. Assoona s the mua.@1in callsto prayer most of thepeopleanswer thecall.Itisallthe same wherethey pray: inthe maqam,djami' aroom,or outsideinatent.Fromtimetotimea cjikr isheld. A elj withagoodvoice recitespartoftheQoranin a melodious ch ant. All present keepabsolutelyquiet;noItalking smokingor coffee-drinkingisallowed.Ionce attended sucha cjikr at Neb i'l\ffisa andfounditquiteedifyingtoseehowdevotionallyalllistened. Circumcisionisverycommoninthesedaysandatthisholy place andonema y observedailyseveralsuch performances. Thechildis dressedinnewsilkclothes '[ andisdecoratedwithgolden chains, buttons,et c. tothe extent allowedbyhis father 's purse.Ofcourse abluebead bidjab,malja?, alumor other amulet are neverforg otten, inorder that hemaybe protected ag ainst the"evil effects ofthe eye" ('en), or"soul"(nafs).Achildismore subject ontheocca sion of circumcisiontotheactionofthese supernatural powers th an atother times'! The parents, relatives friends and neighbours present accompanythechildinhisprocession,whichbeginsina turn around thebuilding.Abandoragroupof dancer s arehired.All s ingas loudastheycan.Th e womenr elatives m ays how their jo y by trilling z agharit.2 Th e bo y, whosu spects nothingofthepainsto come enjo ys thewhole performance hugely.As s oonasthis party reachesthedoorleadingtothe courtyard theboydismountsandis carried byhis father orhis nearest malerelative.Themusicplays louderandthesingingi s moreenthu siastic.Atthewindowofthe m aqam thedrumspl ay fortissimoandtheshouting increases. Amidst an e xcitedcrowdth ebarber-whoistheprofe ssionals urgeon performsthesmall operation withthe utmost skill.Nolocal anaesthetic isused,norareasepticoranti septic measurestaken, anddozensofchildrenarecircumcisedwiththe s ameknife .Forthisreasonmanywoundsbecomeseptic andcausemuch trouble. H adj Ahmad el-Hallaqandhissonsenjoythe reputation ofgreatskillinthespecialityofcircumcision.Thecryof the patien t during the operation isdrownedbythemusi c. Thebarber receiveshisfee ,I A berglaube, p.31. 2 Iha ve ne ver heardt h e exp ression"o looleh"u sedby J : N eilon pages 8 1 an d 14 3 ofhisPal estine L ife. T ahlil,za qhiirit an d wo lwal a re n o t i dentical,as h e w rites. 14

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210Journal o fth e Pal estine Ori ental S ocietywhichdependsuponthe ability and generosity ofthe father ofthe child and ranges betweenone medjidl, andonepound.Itisnot c alled fee(udjrah)but ikraml,yeh (signofhonour).Somepoor personsarecircumcised gratis bythebarberasanadjr(recompence). B ecause ofsucha charitableacthebelievesthatthe Prophet will blesshim hereandintheworldtocome. After thewhole party returns thewoundisdressedwith dried plants powderedandsome time s mixedwithoil taken fromthe lamps ofthemaqiim .l\Iany believethatthelatteraloneis best cure.Atpresent th e barb er s ometimesusesa drying antiseptic powder. Mostofthesongs repeated during theceremonyof circumcision, aswellasduring dancing and s e!u iur shavenothingtodowith theProphetMoses ,butarecommonsongsusedonanyoccasion Many songswhi ch are really in praise ofMohammedaresung during these days. Here I shall giveafewsongs connected directly with I. 'ua z uwar .Mi'isa 1 s irf 2bii-iahl il3I z urna n-nab i .1lli'isa' uqbiil e l-galil5ya z uwar M iisazftrf ui.' iddeh z urnan-nab1.. illusa uqbiil e l-badjdjeh ovi sitors ofMoses, March with exultati on. ",Ve havevisitedtheProph et MosesM ayitsoonbe (granted tovi sit) Abraham.ovisitorsofMoses Visit (the shrine) withmusical instruments. ",Ve havevisitedtheProph et Moses May it s oonbe( granted toperform the) IVariantofKahl e,PJBVIII,p.1 69. Dalman ,P al. D iwan,g ives o nlythree v erses of this s ong(p.158) .2S ome u se s'irU instea do f zu rii. 3K ahle omitsthe article. 4 Kahlenotes kaliimak y alIla ktub bil-man 'iil. "y our w ords.0 M oses are written ( andkep t) inth eve il."Th e ab ovetextismor e u sed. 5 S tilla nothervarianto f t hisv erse i s: Zurnan -nab'iMii sa W e hav e visitedtheProphet M oses 'uq Ml ( [.rJalil M ayits oon b egranted t o v i sit Abraham usa'rak y aMl1sa Andy our hair,0M oses qay il 'alqandil I sflo wing ove r t h e l amp.

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C A.AAN: Sai ntsandS anct uari esi nPa lestine211 y dzltwar M ilsa z i tru b id-daraqehI Itsa' rakyd1 1fflsa harir l i wa raqah y aZ UWar ,0. 2 zfirftb il-'aldm zur nd ..... u'ale h es -salam y dzuu ;ar ... tilt tftsl'Uminy dzuwa r .... trlt ddu sa lmin 'ala bi r Zam zam i twa44a e n na bi3bi briq jilJ(lah u sam i' y int/-awi'alabt r Zam zam itwa#d er -rasidbi briq fii!4ah u s ami 'uba7jJltryalli bnabitak y d nob i fi l ljanbbetak 'as'a s e l M ll$tald 3kicni lj uwdnuh ya n djfl11les -sama k"linihan iyeh ya tari q en n abiz ibde h t ariyehidj ren e e euuid: m assikbil-ljer ya MltSayu i bn '.A.m r dn ovisi torso f Mos es, Vi sit withtheshield s. your hair 0 Mo ses, (is lik e) silk(wrapped ) inpaper.ovisitors .0'Vi sit withtheflag s. Ye h ave.....Pe ace b e uponhim.ovi sitors .....Youwent d ownpea cefully (s afely),ov isitors...." Ma y y ou return inpeace ( safely).2.AtthewellofZamzamtheProphetwa shed himself(rituall y)Witha silver pitcher a ndlight edc andles. A tt hew ell ofZamz am theApos tle w ashed himself ( ritually) .Withasilver pitcher andcandlesand incens e. Through (thepow er of)yourprophecy,oProphet The mad e hisn est near your hou se. B e h is br others( i,e c ompanions),0 s tars ofhe aven! Bejoy ful, 0w ay (leadingtothesane ofth e Prophet. ( B e asso ft as) f resh .butter under th e feetofthevi sitors! Goodevening 0Moses,0 s onof' Amran,IN otb ider ekeasKahle not es it ,butwithe landq(inst ead o fk ).Itmeans "shield" andnot" slowly;" s ee Jlub i!el .l!llliit I 645 2T hetwo n ext verses arenotmentionedbyK ahle,3T heProphetM ohammedi s meant 1 4'"

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212Journal ofth e Palestin e Ori ental So ciety yalli iq ftm m in mam imak 0thou wh o d ost arise fromthysleep tiJbihe l-ghuzlan Iresem blinggaze lles. "3.u blad Thou wholive s t inthe Jordanva lley andinHauran.t vel 'urs mahf i farhoh wa la t hftre$-$u byan m ajarbah ill a 3 z iya1'et M fisa4' al e h e $-$alahwis-saUtmlOlak, ya Mftsa mawal a 6 t' annena w ala dahas na e l-bi$a wal a er ramil biidj r ena j .ma ssiks bil-l]erya Mftsa ya ibn '.Amran ya sakin e l-GhfJr!foran.9 Thema rriagefestival i sn ota ( real) jo y,Nor( isthatof)theci rcumcision ofboys; Th ere isn o (real) joyex cept visit ing Moses Peacea nd prayerbeup on h im. !Ifi t wasnotyou,O M oses, wewou ld no t ha ve com eandtaken t his t rouble ,Andwew ouldnoth avetreadedthesmall stonesandthesandwith ourfeet G oodev ening,0 M oses, 0sono f A mran Some shortsaying s connected with Moses are: ya i bn Amr a ni l ; mizan 1 10 s onof Am r a n movet he balan ce. halawit en -nab i12 MUsa] ba -Thesweets oftheP rophet Moses 1. a reaiama "" ra "dates" "" "J bl. kI1 essmge mun e t "emons""""Somebeggerss hout ana ill i 'ab'idi e l kolimka 'keh uma muZten continually:Myl ord th eInterlocutorowesme A cakeandtwoalmondcake sIHeardfr om aw oman of Mnl);1n.2 Th e firstpart ofthi ss ongissun g byth e pil grimsg oingtoMe cca. Ihave he ardt hewhol eso ngu sed byN M ilsn vi sit ors.3 lIfa-illa i s m oreco rrectthan lOalil alone,a s m entioned byKahle ( M anys ubstitutefor Milsn ennaM,whi ch .p oints t o Mohammed K ahle,PJBVIII,168. 6Ma-walai s mor eco rrectthan wal a al one.7Many g obaref ooted to the sa nctuary, thinking t hat s uch a n act br ingsa greaterbles sing. sN ot mii sik, whichmean s" holding,"asKahleha s; 9 1.e. "the on e whoi s fo und e verywhere."10Kahle,VIII, 169 .11Kahle ,I.c 1 2 Th ese swe ets are v ery popul ar .

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L,..(.!"\J2 Really "s mallflag s." C ANAAN: M ohammedan S aints an d Sanctuari es inP alestine21 3Withg ames,songsandc eremonies theweekispassedinth e most agreeabl e way. ",Ve mayconsiderita s oneofthemost important family feasts oftheMohammedansofthe Jerusalem district pl aying the pa rth erethatNebiRubin, N e bi (D er Ghas s aneh and / al so inRamleh ), 'Aliibn EIem, H asan andHus en take in their re spe ctive di stricts. Menandwom en,o ldandyoun g, richandpoor enjoyitandeverycla ss findsamu sements to s atisfyitsta ste The student ofcustomsandfolklorefind s inthi s feastan excellent opportunityto s tudyth e tribal differ ences, cu stoms, dress ,s uper stitions, e tc.Ihav e vi sited Neb i Mus a three timesduringthe m osam, s pendingtheni ght there twic e, andvisitingthe building and s urroundingstwiceoutsidethef estival. OnThur sday (M aundy Thursday ) theofficial return wi th th e banner o fthe Prophet tak es pl ace. Mostof the visitorsha ve alre ady l eft the s anctuaryandgonehome.IA s soonasthe si ddari ofthe Proph et reaches R as el' Amud theproc ession beginsagain Th e bannersand' idadwhichhadaccompaniedtheb anner in it s departure fromJerusalem goouttowelcome itback.The bay ariq andmu sical bandsofthe Sift l] el-Qazzaz,' Atif, AMM iidjid, Hasan, Ezari y eh, andothervill ages together withthe banners ofen-Nabi ) )'JcJ l { ,,D ahud, el-Haram, and eSsa bab ofJ erusalem,Nablusand Hebron aretobe se en.Astheprocessionmovestowardthecityon e observesth e samenumberof spectator s ofallcla sses andgroupsas watcheditl eave thecity Music,dance s, se! u i urs,singin g, etc. formthemost important featureoftheprocession.The banner s of Nebi andNebi DaMd are carried backtotheplaceswhere the y arekeptth e rest ofth e year.Buttheendofthisdaydoesnot mark theendofNeb i Mu sa. On Friday the Haram enclosureiscrowdedwithpeople celebratingz ajfe t e l-' al emat,2 ; 'theprocessionoftheH ags." The banners of the IM any ofth e vi sitor sc ommemo rate t heirvi sitt o as hrine b ywri ting so me v e rseor p rayeronth e wall o f t hes anctuary. Th es imple formulas h aveb een d escribed. A c omplicated o ne,whichIha ve foundin Okaseh i s IJ-A,J4JjlJr)vItill I ':lJIAJI':lJ_vi.1'Li.l.1rv4JoLItAll.,WI0till I JrJ

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214J ournal ofth e P alestine Ori ental S ociety Sahrah andthos e ofMohammedarecarried aft er themidday prayer inagreatpro cession from toes-S aljrah. The fa mily tJV a rein charg e ofthis honourable duty.Midway near e l-Kas,they halt. Theolive treejustbesidethis basin knownas Z etfmit e n-Nobi,'i s believedtobecome animated atthistim e, whenMohammed a nd his $ aM,beh visitthemosque area and liveinthe tree.t Under thi s tree the bannersareh eld anditisbelievedthatthebranchesbend downtohonourthem.Arepresentative ofthefamilyel-Qutbascend sthemanbar(marble pulpit)justabovethe s tairsleadingfromel-Kas tothe platform oftheMosqueof Omar andr eceives theflag s, which hewrap s inasilkencloth(buqdjeh)and c arriesb ack to their re sting plac e inthe Sahrah The participients intheprocessi on ofth e fl agsa rewildly enthusia stic, butnodancin g or s e j u iurst ake place. Onthisandthenextdaymostofth e Nebi Milsn, pilgrimsle ave J erusalem. One'i ddehafter the other leavesth e cityandgoe s hom e.Ineverycas e asmall procession withthe eJj the bannerbearer, themusiciansand somefollowersi s formed.Whilethe sa iytir(U ofth e villagesgohometheystop a toreven march around every important wel'i whose sanctuary th ey pas s. Ev ery time a saiytirah appro achesa w el'i the j atibah is recit ed, thebandplays the i s lower ed inhonour o fthe w el'i a ndth e proce ssion stops They believ ethathonourshowntoth ese menofGodwillbecounted toth em asanadjr.3Theshrin es ofthenativevillageare a lsovisitedon e byone whilethe inhabitants ofthevillagegoouttowelcomethepilgrims home andmaketh e d ay afea st. WhiletheNebi Mus a feastisthe largestmosam,thereareoth ers ofequ alrankandstill others oflessimp ortance. Th e f actthat' makesNebi Mils a so important isthats everal shrineshave their m osam or zi ytirah atthesametimeorawe ek later. Thefollowing list g ivessomeofthemore important ma wtisim: II'L'he o ldtree h as n early dri ed u p. Three n ew on es hav e b eenplantedar ound i ts r em ains. '2Cf .Ab erglaube,p.8 7.3On cet h e' iddehof p assedD er Y asin, as i t wa sgo ing to N ebi Mu s a. A s itdidnot pay th e u sual h onours t o essel!Y asin, i.e ., i tdidnot st opto p laythe mu sic, n ord id t he attendantsre adthe r.iiti!lah, th e lVeli ob lig ed th em in amiraculous w a ytogobac kand tope rformt his du ty.

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CANAAN:Mohamme dan Saint s a ndS anctuaries inPa lestine215N am e o f weli L ocationNabi D el' GhassanehN abi RamlehNabiAiyub (called neared-DjorahIbriyetAiyub) el-I:Iusen neared-Djorahr'en-Nabi 'Annir Beni I:Iarit' AB ibn Al e m N.ofJaffae n-N a bi Rubin e n-NabiAiyflb en-Na biKafl e l-J2:agrel-J2:a4r ez-ZarqaDate o ffe stivalDjum'ei e l' Alemat FridaynexttoDjum 'ei e l Al e mat TuesdayafternoonandWednesdayofNebi Musa we ek W edne sday ofNebi Mus a fea stDjum'ete l' Alemat Duringth e m elon s ea s on (the fea st iscalled M 8s am e l-IJa ram)Nahr Rubin, S.ofInth elunarmonth falling Jaffa inAugust.SeptemberR as ibn Siml;1an WednesdayoftheNebi MUS[L feast Between D el'Tarf 14thof S a bfm andWilhelmaLydda(knownas-tLidd)Haifa( Oarmel)Springbetween D el' With-taL idd1Ghassaneha nd 'AhUde s-sel] I 'mar B et DuqquhIbrahim el-Hauwas Del' Ghass aneh el J2:a(Jr:1N ablus Djum'et el-'AlematJ2:amis et-rral'ah 2 Asurah Duringthefestival ofNebi Rubin thepeoplegatherin g reat numbersattheriver whichbearsthis name.Thefestivalextends over \ one month beginning withthenewmoonofAugust.Duringthefull1S omeC hristian s aint s h ave als o amosam .Mar Djirius a nd marEli as enj oy onl y on e d ay, whil e in thecaseofSt.Marys everal daysar es pentin a musement. 2 Inthi s d ay the an imal s a r e dy ed.

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216J ournalofthePa lestine Orienta l Societym oon ni ghts th e pl acei smo st p opular.Then umber ofv isitors to en-NabiRubil!exceeds thato f en -Nabi Mu sa. Morec offee-houses and s hopsar e ere cted.Thep lainaround,e specially thatt ot heN .W.o f t he sa nctuary, i s f ullo f te nts.Thepil grims c ome pr incipally fromJ affa, R amleha ndt hes urrounding v illages.Itis a pi ctur esques ightt o se eas mallcaravan o f c amels c arrying awho le fa milywi tht henece ssaryhou sehold equipmentfor s pending s everal da yso r a fewwe eksa tthis p lace.Thesa nctuaryi tself i s a s mall buildi ngc omposedof t he s hrinepro per with t het omb(1 ,75m.l ong by1m.bro ad), as mall ro ome ast ofita nd a ruwaq withthree a rches o pentothenorth, w itha mib rab.A m inaret i sc onnected w ithit.T he whole c omplexi ss urroundedbya wa ll,wh iche ncloses a f ewt rees. N ebiRubina nd Allibn 'AJem a rethesumm er fe astsoft he inhabitants ofth e pl ain -somu ch so t hati t is relat edt hatth e'; (]V.J;" JaffaMoh ammedan w omens ayt o th eir hu sbands: y a b itrobinni ya bi ttalliqni," Eitheryout akeme to Rubin ory ou divor ce m e,"o r ya .bit 1'obinni ya b obrik," Eitheryout ake me t o R ubin or I g ive y ou yo ur freedom (divorce you )." M any loc al feast sa re connect ed with smaller s hrines.OnF riday th e l ast day o ftheNeb i Mu sa fe ast( dj. e l-'Alemat) m ost o ft he importantshrines ofthevillag esa revi sited bytheinh abitants. Th eafternoon is s pentinthefield sa round t hesanctuaries a ndm any unpaid v ows 'arefulfilled. .Ins ome districts likeN ablus, m osto fthegreat s aints, e specially e lij:a gra, arevisit ed inL elat Asurah a nd t he n ext afternoon w hilethe z yarah ofthelessimportantshrine s is p erformed o nSaturday.This la st istrueo f: e s-seb Mohammad es-SabtiI '""e s-Safario! all s ituatedinth eel-Baqqani" I b easternc emetery "" e -Agm a m "" cl-Bubiri IB oth R ubin a nd Ru MI a re p ronounced. Ont he t ombthere isawr iting wh ichreads: oJ.J\t'""""4cIJJ \ Onmanys hops wemayfindt he fo llowing sentence heading theanno unc ement: ;I,j

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CANAAN :MohammenanSaintsandSanctuaries inPalestine217Anothercustomprevailingin Palestine amongtheMohammedans maybedescribedinthisconnection.Ihavenod oubtthatitis foundwhereverMoslemslive.Itisof importance fortworeasons:1.iti s a popular feastofthewomen;2.itshow s the relation ofthe li ving tothedead.Eventhe Mohammedan booksoftheologyadvise o netovisitthedead. According t o Rfiq i 1thedeadareaw areo fthesevisit s, e specially ona Thursday, andthedays preceding a ndsucceedingit.E veryThursday afternoonther elative s ofthe dead,especi ally of t hosewhohavedi ed duringtheyear,gototh e cemet ery, s it.a round t hegrav e andreadsome parts ofthe Qor an. Butofall Thur sdays, J;lami s el-Amw at, lith e Thursday ofth e Dead" ( alsoknown asdj. e l-Amwat), isthemo st important .Itliesfourte en daysbeforeGood Friday ofthe Eastern Church. O nthis Thursday s ometakewiththemdyedegg s, sweets,cakesandevencookedfood andm eat. The peasants prefer t akingdriedraisinsandfigs.The g reaterpartis distributed tothepoor,asanadjr(recompence).Thati s, just ashelpisgiventotheneedyinthenameofthe dec eased, Godwillreckonsuchanactinhi s f avour.Insome v illagesthewomengobeforesunrisetothecemetery,believing that. avi sit after thistimeisnotsogo od. Soon after s unrisetheycome home.Th e childrenofthe peasants goon Thur sday afternoon to theh ouses oftheirneighboursandbeg a 't fmibe4ah 'a na mwatkuln,IIg ive meaneggforthe (sake)ofthesoulof y our dead. Thoseinthehousegiveanegg,driedfigs,rai sins or a piece ofbr ead Thechildrenexpress their thankswiththewords: al lfih yirbamhwtn,IIGod b e untothem. Thisday therefore bears alsothenam e lJamis el-B ed (Thur sday ofEggs). J;lamis el-Amw at isaf east dayofthewomen.Thevisitingof thedeadisinmostcasesverysuperficial,andthetimeis actually spentingoodcompanyoutinthefreshair. Nomenmixwith thewomen,exceptinHeb ron, wheretheyoung unmarried and betrothed girlsgotothecemeteryof e s -Suhada anddan ce. Unmarried men ar e allowedtolook o nfr om arespectful distan ce. 8.PROCESSIONSTheword"processions"isnotusedhereinthesenseofpilgrimage s toaweli,a s already describedabove,butonly t waf performed inI AJ:1mad et -Tahtaw],p .608 .

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218J ournalof the Pa lestineOrient al Socie ty oraround a holy placeandonlyon special occ asions. App arentlytherea reonlytwo types belongingunderthi s h eading ,circumcisionandrainproce ssions.1.CircumcisionProcessions Ih ave abov e describ ed thecu stom oft akin g th e childtob e circumcised aroundthewhole building ofN ebi Mfl sa. The same thingisdonein most villages .Thus th e people of 'Anata t ake th e childouttothes anctuaryof'Abdes -Salam.Allfriend s and relativ es, ofbothsex es, accomp any th e child, whoi s dres sed inhi s bes t clothe s. H esitseithera lone,orin front o fhi s fatheron It b eautifully d ec orated h orse .The s abab joininsinging, dancingandp laying s e}u t urs,whi lethel ocalband of music p lay s.The child i s a lwaysadorned ont his occasion wi th se veral am ulets, whichare s u ppose d toprotecthimfromtheevil e ye. T hep roc essiona dvances verys lowly.Aftergoing a rou ndth emaq iunof Abde s -Sal am wherea llre citethe jatibfi,h, t hewhole crowd go es b ack to eS-seJj Thesmalloperation i s performed inth e courtyardoft he m aqam. The proces sion i snotc alled twafbut zatJete i thur, ,!,waj' i sthen ameg ivent o th eprocessiona roundth e maqam .Suchproc essionsa re fo undi n mostvill ages, bu tt heyd o n ot ne ces sarilyaccompany every circumci sion .Themost important lVeli ischose n .Iti s believedthatt he s aintwilll ook f avour ablya tthi s a ctandwill certainly bles sthec hild.Weh ave seenel sewherethatman y mothers vowtohavetheirchildren circumcis ed in as pecialmaqtun.Insuch c asesazaff eha lsotakesplace S ometime s the bridegroom mustvisitthe aw litl ofhis villag e .1Such a v isiti sa lso a ccompanied with mostofthec eremonie sjust d escrib ed Aprocession mayalsobe made inthe case ofth edeatho f a person whoisth e descend e ntofafamilyof s if/lj, who a re connect ed witha w ell.Ifthedeadperson l ived i n 'anothervillagethanth at in w hic h' t h e principal ofh is fami lyli ves,t hi s procession willIIn B etD ja la w e hear the f ollowingv erse, whi ch p ointstoth e c u s tom o f t akingt he brid egroom toa s hrine : ylimar Djirius e l yom zu wlimk djina i nzaiyn el -'ursan f i ma qalllak. oSt .G eorge, w e ar e to day yo ur vi sitor s a ndh ave come t osh av e (and thu st o beau tify) t h e b ridegro oms i n y our s hrin e.

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C ANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand SanctuariesinPalestine2]9takeplace.Iti s aquietone Thecompany, headed bythe movesslowlytothevillage ofthedefun ct. Theyare preceded by apersonwho announces theircoming,who carries a bazeh (asmall drum)onwhichheplaysalltheway, abstaining completelyfrom conversation.Assoonashe reaches thehouseofthe dead person allthose assembled st andupand s ay la i lah ill a all ah. Somegoatonc e tomeettheprocession whose ,'iddehplaysthe sametuneall th e way.Suchaprocessionisnev er call edzaff'eh. / n.Rainprocessions Processionsofthis category1are practiced e verywherein Palestine byMohammedan s, Christian s andJews,eachinhisownway.Only thoseoftheMoslems interest ushere andthecustomsofthe Christians willonlybe mentioned tocompletethestudy,aswella s forthesakeofcomparision. Thesucc ess ofthewholey ear's workofth e p easant" his entire agricultural life ev en hisexistencedependup on th ea mountof rain whichfallsduringthewint er months.The s tudiestheclouds andth e si gns ofthe s ky;heexaminesthe direction fromwhichthe windcomes in order tobeabletoforetelltherain.His o bservations haveledhimtofixmany weather rules.Butwhenheavenholds backitsblessing,he tries togetthehelpofthe saints to interced e forhimwithGod forhebeliev esthatmen's transgressions have causedthe wrath ofthe Almighty: ."...' \ minqillit hidana $ ar $ efna si ta n a 2 V.JlrfJ":J)CJ.,, ( Fromthelackofour true religion,oursummerhas be come ourwinter." Oldandyoung gather ina procession which marches around the vill age," comestothe weli regarded asmo st important,andgoe s around it.They enter themaqam-insomecases stand onl yatthedoor-recite the and s ometimeseven ascend totheroofoftCa naan ,ZDPVXXXVI,266-800;Bau er,ZDPVXXXVIII, M-57; B auer,V olksleben i m Lande derBibel ,pp.112-118,with w eather rule staken fro mBliittera us Bethl ehem;Ca naan,JPOSIll,21-85. 2 Cf.ZDPVXXXVI.Thi s mean sthatthes easons hav ec hanged an dh ave thusc aused anuph eaval inallourwork andlife.3H eard fr om AM D is, SurM.hir andN ebiS amwil,

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220.'J ournal o fthe P alestineO riental Soc ietyth esanctuaryItobenearer t o God.Theyraiset heirhandsto h eavenand pray f orr ain.Immel-Ghe], "theMother o fRain,"2 whichma y b ecarrieda llthrough thi sp rocession,i s a large,primitively madedoll. s Twop iecesofw oodarefastened to eac hotherin t he form of acrossa nd a redressed in f emaleattire.I ts eemst ome..that origin allythis expression referred to t heVirgin M ary,butatpresentitis us edvag uely.sTheprocessionends in front o ftheheadoft he villa ge ( se-I] e l -ba lad ).Thewomen ca rryo ne o r more g hm'abil (pl.o f g hurbal, gr a in s ieve"), ( pl.of "fl our s ieve") a nd a j(handmill) a ll t hew ay.The s eareth em ostimportantut ensils fo rpreparingbread.Alla re carried e mptyt o showhowpoorth eyare,s incetheydonote ven po ssess th e mo stvitalne ce ssitie s oflife.Thes tatementofCurtiss S thatImmel-Ghet9is sometimes called arCts a llah,"the brideof God,"hasbeenalreadyshownbyJaus sen10t obegroundless. Nor have I everheardthi sexpression, eitherfromthepeasantsorfromtheBedouin. I a m a lsounableto ve rifytheexpressionmentionedb y J a ussen, 'ants ,"half bride," wh ich h eheardintheN e geb.Thiscu stomofcarrying a large dollinrainprocession s is commonera mongtheBedouinofTran sjor daniathanamongtheinhabitants ofPalestineProper.The form er d ressthewooden framework withb ettercl othesandm oreo rnamentsth anthepeasantso ft his side oftheJordan.Christian sas wellasMohammedansusetheex pression,althoughtheyh ave noclearid eaabouti tsm eaning.IH eardf romS' fld A bft Sa'id f rom A bft D ls. 2 K ahle,PJBVIII,164.3Thi sc ustomi s m orec ommon a mong the Be douin t han amo ngt he peasants 'The h oodedc row (c orvus co rnix)is a lso c alledi n Ar abicUmm e l G he t (a lsoZ agh), cf.A.G ustavs,PJBVIII,88.Bu tth is e x pressionhasap parent ly n o thin gto d o withImmelGhe], s N o peasant couldtellm e exactl y wh o ism eant by U mm ( Imm) e l-Ghe]. G No t lII o{!ul withKahle,PJBV III,1 62. 7 N ot {l luneh with K ahle,SCurtis s,I.c.,c hapterXI. g In M orocco th eyc arry a wellde corated d ollt hrough thefi el ds a ndi n a greatproc ession.T heyth inkthats uch a n act will g ive th em ago odharve s t; s ee G oldziher .M aterial zur K enntnisder A llllo!ladenbeu:egung,ZD.llG 1 887, 42.1 0Ja ussen,p.82 8.

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CANAAN: } fo hammeda n S aintsa nd S anctuaries i n Pa lestin e221During a llthe se pro cessionstheys ing o neofth e foll owings ongs:I ya rabbi ya rabman ya1'abbi billya rabbi bill e8-r;arMlb 3 ya rabbi b ill eS-amba1 4 ya rabbisft,hal-gherJ,ah ya rabbi itbill il-ma1ldil is qi ear ak el-glwrb P is qi e ar'ak e l -' a( an 'ob idok fuqara ukaiyale71i Zma'abidal.wen inrflbb adj e t.tudjdja1't itqambar dju 'n a u aka lnaiZl1la fuqa rt: wen inil (S end)th era in 9 Lo rd an d wa terTh y we stern g rainl (S end) t her ain, 0 Me rcifulOn e,a ndw ater Th y thir styg rain!oLord wett hem antle, Th yse rvants a repoor an dgr ain-measures (ob ligedt o m easuret heir g rain)!oL ord, w ett hera gs (w ith which so m anya re d ressedb ecause o f pov erty), we a reTh ys ervantswher ever wo g o!oL ord, w ett heh ead-cloak pu ta n e ndtoth e s truttin g ofthem erc hant s!o Lord, wha t isthi s( Thy) ange r, w ehun gera ndeatthewoodsorrel!oL ord, wetth eve il, a repo or,w heresh all w e g o!In B et D jflla I heard: yarabbil e s hal-ghebehakaln a 'unlqya1'abbi b ill i bna 'abidak biddna n mftt yarabbi tbill e iqasr w illa bnirhol a -Ma$?"5yarabbi el-maiawis -s el ta -n isqi wil-l]el oLord wh yt hisTh ya bsence, we h aveea ten the ro ots o f the s purge!oLord w ett he spa dix (o ft he pl ants) weTh yse rvants, 11'e onth e ve rgeo fdying!IMostofthesevers es havebeen giv en inZ DPVXXXVI,290,29 1 ,while twolin es w erenoteda lsob yKahle ,P JB,1.c Thever ses give n he re mayb e s ung s eparatelyo r together .2Av ariation ofth is i s foundin Dalman,P al e st. D iwan,p.56.3N either sarlllu[l (Ka hl e)no r sarsu[l a re knowntothe l exi c ograph e r,A variant oft he secondlin e is: i[maf'llqara we ll inril!I, wearepoo r; w here sha ll w e g o? Salllb ar (al so sanbar not sUlllbar asnot ed by F r. U lmer,Siidpa liist. Kopf hedeckung, ZD PVX LI,11 3, 11 4 ) isablack h e ad-drees with l ongtass els hangi ng downfr omthe. two s ides.Iti s wo rn bypea sant wom en infestivals Soalsothesons o fJa cob, hadtogoto E gyptfort he s amer eason.

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222J ournal o fthePal estineO rientalSoci etyoLord"w et thehut.!orwesh all (be o bligedto)gotoE gypt!oLord,(wea sk for)ther aina ndth est reamto g ive o urhor ses a ndcowsto drink!2 Th ef ollowingversei s put i nthem outho fthe s hepherd: imlniimbft y ti ra bbi Ij ubzi f i ubb i im bft i mbft y ti sa mti lju bzi q abmaS ar -r a md. im bli i mbUa nti .rtimi ir bamni a nti u b aWl?,. W ater, w ater, 0Lord, Mybr ead hasdriedinmybo som! Water, water,0heav en,:Mybread hasdriedupon t he(garden)w alls! Water, water,Iam thirst y Havemercyuponmeandm y cattle!InNebiSamwiltheysin g,a longwithp artsofth ea bove,a lso the following: y ti r abb i le s hal-kann eh w akalnti 'urft q e l-kirsenn eh y a rabbize u l e w akalnti urftq e l-lwrf e y amtihtt m innti k ulluhmin ma stiyljna n assaft el -qatr a n na oLord,whythiscalmness(indifference)wh ile w e h avee aten th e ro ots ofchick-pe as!oLord why,why and w e h aveea tentheroo ts ofthi stles!oLord iti s notduetoourfault s;a llis t hef ault o f oureld ers, Th ou hast dried (withheld)ther ainf romus! Av ariant from B et Iks a is: y u r abbi les h al-qa de h wakalna'urfu] ed-dja 'de h y a ra bbi y u m bb e n-nits t isqi z ar'na e l-yabbas yu r abbZ"tbill e zzarde h wibnaw1"idna aYarde h.I mea ns cas tl e"o r "pa l ace ."H er e itst andsf or t hesum m er l odgeso f t he p easants, b uilti n th ev ineyards a ndm adeof r ough s tonesandb rush-wood. 2 Ot herv erses m ay b e f oundi n D alman,Pale st.Diioan,p .56-58.B aldens pergerg ives t wo ve rsesinhis boo k,Th eImmova ble E ast,p 25 6.Th etran s c ription i s s of aulty t hat t h e f ourthli neofth e fi rstve r se inunintelligible.

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C ANAAN: M ohammedan SaintsandSa nctuariesinPalestine223oLo rd why this n eglect,w hilewehav e eatenthero otsofth e l upine!oL ord,0Lordo fmen,w aterou r drying c ropsloL ord,wettheth orny b ush,a nd we ha ve gop.e todrinkf rom ('En) Y erdeh! Othe r ve rses a re: yu rabbi,lelzat-tlilelt oou rLord,wh y th is d elaya ndz uleh 'allllUyuMbeh Goawayfro mu s, 0 he at-this wakal1Ut t Zlftn e t i n1}fileh wehaveeatendou ghofbran! ZlQmqtnu ha s -s obeh hea th asburntu s. yu rabbi yu 'auwad (i) a kalnu$a1'ur e l uuul: yu rabbiyu gltaiyf tr(i) aka lnu $arar el -bur i wilbetmflf ihawala ia lmel, wa lu11ut$rftr{'i) om y Lord, 0 Accustomer (Thou whoha st accustomed u s t oThy g ifts),wehaveeatenth e pebbles ofthes tream-bed!omyLord, 0Z ealous One, w e h avee atenthe pebbles o f t he u ncul tivated land!Andt he h ousedoes no tcontain eve n a me sso fflourorawr appe d-up p iaster. F romtheB edouin of t he Idwa n Ih eardth e t wo fo llowing verses : buU el -q amZt bidj -dja rrah y u alliih Iianniak yaallliltbuU e l-moiyehbil ibriq yu allfih yu bliil i r -riqP ut th e co rnin t he jug, 0Go d, (sho w) Th yme rcy,0Go d! P ut the water in t hepit cher,0 G od (webegTheefo r)th e wetti ng oft he spittle. Th e follo wingv erses a re in tended to s howt he b adr esults oft he lac k o frainon hea lth, es pecially t hatof c hildren an d women : im bft i mbft yu q adir min e l 'atas m Ulli qfidir i mbi: im bft ya r aZthn i nsifna bz az e l-barhn i mbilimbUyu glzaiyftr djuwu e d-dftr im bit im bft y a Q atrawy m in el -'atM d jita k ?ami Water, w ater, 0 A lmighty. Iamweakwith .thirst! Wa ter,water,0M erciful One,th eb reastsof t he w omenh ave d ried u p! Vater,wate r, 0 Z ealous O ne, weare d ryw ithin t heh ouses!Water, water,0 Qairawy, I a m com ing t o yo udrivenby th irst!

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224J ournal ofth e Pale stine Ori ental S ocietyAnotherI S: y a mbM e l-ghef yo,m bim ti rham k ull e lbw i m wa Hiffil el -murdi aty a r obb: nisif e n-nobtiiIoLord,(s end) therain 0MercifulOne,hav e pityonallwomen!Andsucklingbabes,0 Lord, ( for)the plant s h ave dri ed up. The children often gather alone and march throughthestreets, going around oneormor e awlio', reciting continuall y and monotonously afewlinesofasonginwhichGodi s a sked topi ty their condition. Theoldpeopl e ofthevillageareaccu sedo fh aving donewrong, but notthechildren.Theytakeoff their head-dr ess a s a s ignof humiliation. Generally a great noisei s madeby beating withsticks onemptypetroltins.Songsusedbychildrenatth eseo ccasionsare:2 ya mbM ma kulluh .min hal.(i)kM1yo,r abbi tib?'iqhurnb in-no'r. oLord. donot blame us,all(evil)isfromour e lders; Ourelder s, ouroldones-0Lord, burn them i nhell-fire. yo,rabbiyo,rabbuno' tib 'at3 Wo, l aear'unt: hunn(i) kMr 4 Sft omy Lord, 0our Lord sendThou rain forourcrops ,Iti s theoldpeoplewhohavesinned:we y oungpeople-whatis oursin?m in ?ulm ma so''n iSif m a yano'bi'no' Forthe injustice ofourelders thewaterofour s pringsha s driedup. 'm in u lurn kull dj ismi m in eS-sams Forthe injustice of a lltheelders,mybod y is baked byth e sun. yarabbiya ,ghaiyur( i)irl6ifna nsO,f e l-hUrila bil-( i)kMr(i) walo'(i)b sfihdini iz -zflri oLord, sendth e rain,0ZealousOne;weh ave becomea s dryas uncultiv ated l and! Donotblameusforthe(sinsofthe)oldones neither forthebe arers offalse witness!1Thisv ersea ndtheon e m enti oned b efore areuse d in '.A.tarah. 2Cf.Jer.141 3. BNott ib'a,as Kahle offer s. 4 Abbreviat edfromill i adnabU.

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CANAAN: Mohamm edan Saints and Sanctuari es inPalestine225s oraboanna s orobbanna ma binr ub ill a ib -balleh ha iya ya rabbel'ibiidhaiya eii rok lil-adj wad latwtl1Jirjnabi?-?ullam wibna fuqara ma bninl/un.What! 0 Lord, what!0Lord,'we shall notgo without a wetting! Give,0Lordofmen,giveThy concealment 2 forthegenerous men! Do n ot blame usfor(thea cts of)theunju st, sincewearepooranti cannotbe bl a m e d! ya rabbi baraqnaeS-s8b ram ena e l ghatawiH8bla t wa!.JifJnabil-rnu!.Jtar 'an af'aluh m a bit ftb.3omyLord, theh eathas burned u s; w e haveth rowna wayth e cover andthegarment. Donotblam e usfor(thefaultsof)the headman ofthevillageihe willnotrepentfromhis evildoing s, y arabbuna y arabbuna i bna e Nighar8ftga nbunu talabnii. !.Jubeeh 4m in u mminac!arabcitna oourLord,0our Lord, weyoungpeople-whatisour s in? W e a sked apieceof bread fromourmoth ershe s trucku s onour mouth.Attim es even s pecificfamiliesareaccus ed ofbeingthec ause of God 's ang er: ya rabbitbill el-ghurbal kull uh m in Abd e d.Djabba r5 omy Lord wetthesieve;all(themischief)i s from' Abd. .. y arabbitbill i l-hnweh kulluh mi n AMIJababelt omyLord,w et th e wooden plate; all(themischief)isfrom Abfr ... yambbi tbill eS-suleh kulluh m in eS-se!.J/,'badeh6 omyLord,wetthe cloak; all(the mischi ef) isfrom eH-segEl ..I'I 'hee xpression sor abbanna m ay b eacontractio n f rom B U!l ado'yurabbna 2That i s,c oncealment o fth e p overty o f th os e whoh ave b eenve ry g enerous u pto n ow,hutwho ca nn ot h elp anym ore, sin cet heyha ve noth ingo f t heir ow n.3 Al l th ese fiv e v erses com e from 'Atarah. Ih earda lso[atteh; Ua pie ceof br ead." 5 A f amilyi nNe biSamwll,wh ere Ih eardth e s ong.Then ameHasau .J;Iamdari i s u sedb y som e inste ado f Abd e d-Dj a b ba r G An other v erse i s: yo,r abbi t bill el -k ondet kulluli min ahl $ amwel om y L ord, w et the ca lycotomevill osa ; AIl (th e mi schief)comesfrom th ei nhabitantso f N ebi S arnwil.. 1 5

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226JournalofthePalestine Oriental Societ yIshall describe nowmorefullyarainprocessionin 'En Karim. AnoldwomanmountedonadonkeyheldacockIinherhands. A great processionofmen,womenandchildren followed. Some women carried emptyjarsontheirhead,asasignoflackof water other s gr ound asmallhand-mill,inwhichnograinwasput.Still others carried grainandflourmills,todenote as already mentioned povertyandmi sery. Thewholecrowdshouts rather thansingsa "rain song. During thewholeprocessiontheoldwomansqueezed thecockfromtimetotime thusforcingth e pooranimaltocrow or s quawk.Inthiswaytheythinkthattheanimal s joinintheir requ est and implor e theAlmightyGodforhelp.Theco ck ischosen becaus e heis c onsideredasa muad,d,in. Theprocessionwentto th e maq am of Hadj 'Abed andthentothehouseoftheheadman o fthevillage.Assoonasthey reached thisplaceonecouldhear thembegging: bilUtna ya da 1' es -seb yfi rabbi ta 'ti1/a elgltet y il (Innm e l-GMt gh Wina ubill i b set ril' ina1l1'a'ina Fara djallah byutlub min'i ndak y a allahWetu s, 0houseofthe se ij, 0my Lord, giveustherain!oImmel-Gh e], helpusandwetthemantleofourshepherd. Oursheph erd is Faradjallah: hebegsofThee,0God(therain). The cameout, sprinkled thecrowd,saying:allah yisqikf t min r abbkum," MayGodgiveyou water fromthebountyof y our Lord! The sprinkling withwateri s a s ymboloftherain (raincharm). After thisthe cr owd dispersed. Th e P alestinian believesthatGodsends drought asapunishment tocha stise humanbeingsfor their continuous transgression butHe willno t inHismercypunishthepoordumbanimals.Inthesame way little children areguiltlessandthusarenottheobjectofth e Divinewrath .Forthis reason ahen,acock,orbotharecarried inthepr ocession, and little children are s entbythemselves, not ed above.In their rain songsthe peasants veryoftenalludetothi s: y a r abbi1'sase h1'sase h ta-nisq i lIadj-djb aseh 2oLord, g iveus a sprinklin g rain, asprinkling rain, th at wemay water the sey oungdonke ys!IK ahle h asse en ab lackh enanda white c ock.I h ea rdth ats ometimes s eve r a lh en s an d coc ks a re ca rriedinth e p rocession. 2 H eardin N ebi $ amwil.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsan d Sanctuaries inPal estine227 yarabbi nuqtoh.n uqtah. ta-niStfi hal-qu tiahloLord giveusadrop(ofrain),adrop(ofrain),thatwemaywater thiscat! y a rabbi e l-nuua w isse l tanisq i e l-baqar wi l-1.Jel IoLord,giveus rain andarunning stream,thatwemay water the cowsandthehor ses! The following, mentionedbyKahle.tis another: sft b iddak yaquqi 3 e l-l e l biddimaiarbiddi s e l biddijatteh lal-yatam a. Whatdoyouwant,0crowerofthe night?"Iwantrain,Iwant stream,Iwantapieceof bread fortheorphans." A variant is: d iknabyiz' aquae-u:biddftmaiarbiddft s el biddu r ahmelim inrabbuhOurcockcrowsallthe night through Hewantsrainanda stream,Hew ants merc y ofhisLord. Thereares omeshrineswhichar e moreefficaciou s ingivingthis bles sing than others,especiallyth e following(amongtheMoslems ):es-sittel-Badriyeh eS-seJjGMt,eS-se1.J Matar, eSse1.JL emfln 4eSs e1.lel-Qatrawani, etc.Itisbelievedthatthe se holymenorwomenaremostpowerfulandwill hear prayer mostquickly being able to influencetheAlmightyinaspecialway.Butitmustb e emphazisedthatevery weli mayhelpifasked.A manof Abfl Dis assured methataprocession whichwent around the djami' of /;laIn.!). ed-Din wasansweredthenextdaybyaheavyrain,whichfilledallthe ci sterns. Thepeoplewaiteduntiltwomonthsofthewinterwere1Known n earlye verywhere. 2 PJBl ocoei t.Th e lasttwolinesdon otproperly b elong her e hu tc ome undertheg eneral h eading ofrainsongs.Theyhavebeen gi venel sewhere.3 Qiiqa isreall y usedfotth eca ckleoftheh en (qtiqat eddjtidjeli, "th e hen ca ckles"), mean s" the( cock)c rows; q Bqie l-l e l i s, h owever, known as a nam e ofthecock. 4 Kahl e ,PJBVIII.

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228J ournal ofthe Palestine Oriental S ocietyg one,afterwhich they decided to maketheprocession wh ereupon a bundantrainfell.Insomevillagesthepeoplegofrom o newe lit oanother, hoping thatifone c annotorwilln ot h elp, th e ot her will a nswerth eprayers.IAm ong th e r ains ongsIIIwhi ch a s pecialwe liiscalledup onfor h elpa reth e followin g: y a si tti y aBadriyeh i sqiear'e l-barriyeh2omyLady, 0B adriy eh,w aterthegraininthefi elds.! ya rabbi t isqina e l-maiarib-barket eS-seJ}Mat ar 4oLord,giv eu s r ain t o drink, f or th e s ake (bl es s ing)of mymast er, se1.J M atar, y anwbi t isqina e l-ghe_ i b-barkai sidi e-e1JG Mf 4om y L ord,g iveu s rainto drink f or th esa ke(bl essing) ofmym aster eS-se1.JG Mt.y a (I) mm e l-GMp gh Uina b illi b set6r a'ina ra 'ina Has anel -Aqr t il l e l-l e l u -hft y izra' y izra f i q amib q arri ia-n malli b awabina oM other ofR ain, helpu sandw et the mantle o four s hepherd,Oursh epherd i sHasane l-Aqra',?whoha s b een so wing alltheni ght S owing q art'is g raint ofi1l9ourgr anary .to[ through ,IHeardfr om B et Dj ihrin .2C a n aan ,ZDPVXXXVI,292 .3B arriq el,m ea ns wild e rn ess, d e sert. Th ePalest inians u seito ften i n t he s enseof"fie ld s," as h ere. 4 T hew ords matar a nd 911et m ean" rain," a ndfrom t hem t hen amesof th e s a in tsa retaken. 5 T he im am of 'Atarah sa id thatt h er ei s a lso a n Abil e l.Ghet t he Fa th er ofR a in," astatementwh ichIh aveb eenun abletover ifyi no therp lace s.G B set, dim .of biSt, i sa l ong wi dew oollen mantle. E l-aqra'm eans"ba ld-head e d." sA s pec i a ll ygood vari ety o fwh eat,n ot m entioned in mya rticle inZDMG LXX ( 1916),1 66.9T he &abi yeh i smadeofs u n-drie d cl ay. N earlyeve ry v illage househas s uch a g r anary madebyth e wo men. .1 0A v ariationtot his ve rsew asmentionedinZDPVXXXVI,292 Wh e n theprayers ar e a n swered a ndr ainfa ll s down ,t heys ay: "' rheMo therof Ra i n w en tto b ringthunder;sc arcelyh ad sh ec omeb ack-the c ornw asa s h igh a s a ca mel, Th e M oth er ofR ainwenttob ringr ain; scarc e lyh ads he co meb ack-the corn wasashi g h a s the trees."

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuarie s inPale stine229 y a (I)mm e l-GMt ghit ina qat(a'na law afina 1oMotherofRain,helpus;wehave cutoffthecoinsonourhead-dre ss. Fromthe 'Idwan BedouinI heard: y ammel-Ghet yafaq'dh 2qataln a l-bardtois-eaq'ohoMother of Rain,0-,coldhaskilledus. Jaussen4mentionsasong aboutImm elGh et whichi s a variant tothe combination oftwoverses,citedabove. yadjami'na nistardjik rU8q e l-maiar yudl.Julf ik oourmosqu e, weimplorethee,mayafloodofrain enter the e! y aSelj(nabi or mar) ... ruSq el-maia yudlJul fik1o S elj(lIe!?i or m ar) ...weimplorethee,mayafloodofrainent er the e! ya sidi ana11aljikrU8q el-maiar yu'bur f ik l elit e d-cljum'ah la-arJwik omy Lord, IextolThee! May afloodofrain enter Thee! (Then)IshallindeedlightThy maq am Fridaynight! y a nob i $amwil tisq ina y a rabb es-sama tisq ina oProphetSamuel,giveu s to drink; 0 Lord of Heaven, giveustodrink!. .I'I'h emor e el egant sor t ofthisd ecoration isc alled t!affell.2 Ihav e not s ecureda ny explanation for t aq'all.It maypointt o t he p ealin g of the thunder.3Bardand s aq'all aresynonym s G outumes,pp. 32/i, 327. 'I'he translation o f.Iaus senin th e fir st v ers es houldb ec han ge d. Y b11II 1lIe lGhetyfi di'iiym 0Moth er of Rain ,0Imm ortal (app ellationo f Go d a nd not o fI mme l-Ghej)."Theverb hilli go es ba ck t o Imme l-Gh e ]. G Ihe ard: yi'i 'Abdallah yfinabiy finabi L emfm y fi M i'irEli as y iiMarMus a To th e la s tex pre ss ionmy att ention wa s drawn byMr.S H: S t e phan.Any o therwelimaybeinvoked .-Thes econd lineof the v erse giv en hyK nhle ,PJBVIII1 65, is notmitwat!t!lin bir -rabbe dinak ,hut IlIitwasslin (with sand nott!) bi rabb(e)d inak,i,e .,"\Veentreat the Lordofyour religion." .

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23 0J ournal of t heP alestine Ori ental So ciety y a r abbitb ille l-kondel w ridna a $amw e l oyLord, we t the c alycotomevillo sa,forwehavecome t oS amuel toask(his mediation) forwater!III n'Atarahandthe s urroundingvill ages th eys ing: ya ra bbi elghet sa mawi ib-dj ahe l-Qatrawi i b-djah eS -selJA M V Enen ya rabbi niSfat e l' en y a ra bbitb ill k arttmeh. lAM S ftseh ya ra bbi e l-g he t d qiqahi b-djah e n-nabi u i b-djahuh t irbam e l(a)wladb ii-maia'imm e l-blad y a ra bbi e l-ghet y anu t.ub minna k d jarret wa d ib -djah eS-8e1.J, e l Q atrawi y a ra bbi wa d S ilwad oL ord (send)theheavenly rain (Ibeg Thee), bythehighr ank (andinflu ence) of el-Qatrawi. Bythehighrankof e s-senAM 0Lordthefount ain has dried up.oLord, wetth e lockofth e scalp in honour o f AbuSuse h! oLord, (s end) th er ainoneminut e, bytherankoftheProphet, andhisfri end! Byhi s r ank(I' beg Thee) t o h ave mercyuponth e children a ndcover thelandwith rain !' O Lord, (w e begfor)th er ain;0 Generous One we as kThe e fora flo wing stream-bed!Inr e spect of el-Qatrawi 0myL ord,thevall ey ofSilw ad! 'I'heChri stians call on mar Inqula (St. Nich olas) and marEli as. In BetDjala Iheardthefollowingsong:2 marInq flla djinalek s ul] b elmatar daJ]il l e k ibna e l-yfnn 'a bidak ess anui f i i dak hai y imMy a h aiy i mbu 1'I' h eexa ct w ording ofthe tr anslationisc orrectly givenbyKah l e,PJBVIII,1 03,b ut th e inte ntionof theversei sn ottogotot he villag e a nd b ring w ater f rom i t,buttoask th eProphet f orhe lp.Ih eardt his ve rse fr om a wo mano f N ebi $ amwil, sot hetr anslationofKa hlewould ha rdlyfi tt he cas e., 2Given i npartinm y pa per,DerK alender, t oe. c it.

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'.CANAAN :lII ohammedanSaintsand Sanctuaries i n Palestin e231 Zltttte l-jftl jidj-dja1rah wistannft rahmi: "allah.mar Inqftla ya djarn a ya Zlabibzgharna w ikbarna titajfa la -ilahnaya rabb 'ala bladna ya ra bbunayarabbuna'alena ya rabbuna min qillit el-maiar ala bladn a mar Inqftlfl it{;affa'la -ilfllm a mar I nqftla djina lek na lmu. zgha ru[ uuJa'na lek u -nohnu. e l-yfym f i Z limaytak twntur 'al ena ya r abbuna. W e havecometoyou,St.Nich olas!ostreamo f rain, I implore y ou! We a ret oday yourserv ants; H eaven's k ey i s in yo urhand Bring water,IOhb ring w ater,Putthebr oad-beans in t hej ar,2Andw ait f or God 's m ercy, St. Nichol as, 0 o ur ne ighbour!ofr iendo fo ur yo ung an d o ld, I ntercede ( foru s)wi th o urGo d, Sendra in, 0ourL ord, onou r l and!oou r Lord 0our Lord, L et i t r ain onus,0our Lord. Be cause ofthesc arcety ofr ain on o url and (Weimplore y ou) 0 St.Nich olas t o in tercede ( for u s) w ith W ea recomin g t oy ou, St N icholas: [o urG od.'Vear e young a ndwe s ubmitto y ou; Wear e t o dayundery ourp rotection; S end us(th erefore) r ain, 0ou rLo rd.ITh ee xclamation h ayimbft. (attime s pronoun ced himbft.) pe rhapsmean s "bring water ." Irnbft. isbabytalkallov erPale stin e fo r"water."2A variant is !1t4?el-'ud fidj -djarrah,"Putthesti ck inth ejar."Ir eally c annot s ay what these two express ions mean.

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, 232Jo urnal o f t heP alestine Oriental S ocietyW es eethat marInqul a i sca lled s uJ}b e l-maiarI "a stre amo f r ain," andi s b elieved toposs ess theke ys ofh eaven (for s ending r ain). D alman n otes inhi sDiunm,2 q a?adna l -
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C ANAAN:M ohammedanSaintsandSanctuaries inPale stin e233oourLord,0our Lord, 0LivingOne,0Self -existing, havemercy uponourweakne ss '!oourLord,0our Lord,ForthesakeofThyfriend,Icontinually sighing mak e our intents good!oourLord,0ourLord,For th e sakeofthezealous lord 2make ourcrop s grow!oour Lord, 0our L ord, Forthesake o fThy prophetIsrael3make our udder sflow(withmilk )!oourLord,0ourLord,ForthesakeofthetruefriendJos eph includeusall in g oodendeavour and mend, 0Watcher, ourbr oken hearts! An other rain proce ssion 4 d e scribed tomeby th eima m of 'Atarah h as man y biblical parallel s. H es aidthatwhentheAlmightyholds b ack therainforalong tim e5 the ima m 6ofthevillagea sks all the inhabitant s tofast and a ppoints, together withthechiefofthe village adayinwhich a llthepeopl e, menwomenand children leav e their housesandgot os omedi stantv alley ormountain.Inthi s proces sion everyoneputs offhi s go od cloth es anddres ses in thewor st rag s heha s. B abies aren ot allow ed tosuckle.All a nimalsofthatvillage a re a lso taken o ut ,butnofoodor water is giventhem .Outinthefieldsonth eir w ay of emigration" from their h abitations theyimplorethe Almighty Godtohavepityon them, their c hildren a nd their animals.Before the y leavethevillag eeveryone forgive s th e f aults ofth e oth ers,a ndinthiswa y they hopetodes erve thef orgiveness of their God.In' nearly the s ame w ay the a ncientIsraelites7tried togainthefavour o fth eir god s.l'hey u sed tofast a ndpr ay removing their cloth es and putting on coarsesackcloth. Their proph ets and highpriests promi sed themIThati s,A br aham ,2Thatis,I saac ,3T hat i s, J"acob. 4 Itw asc alledby th eill/ am, elisti sq 8.5Ev en i n t he Bibl e w e o bse r ve t hat p ubli c f asts w ere procl a im e d t o e xp res s n atio nal h umilia tionon ac co unto f s in a ndm isfortune, an d t o s u pp lic a t e divin e fav our int h e faceo fthreatening d anger.6I nt h e ti m e of t h e I sra el it e sthec hi ef u sed t op r oc laim a f a st:Samuel ( 1S am. 79 ),J e hoshaph e t ( 2Chr. 2 0 s), J eremiah a nd Ba ru ch( J er, 6 10),etc .7J oel212jE s th er 4 s ,1 6jB ar. 1 s ;Judith4 7 ,l ijJ onah 3 5, 7 .

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234JournalofthePalestineOrientalSocietyalwaysthattheir Godwould hear their prayer andhelpthem, just astoday. Stories of ancient andmoderntimes illustrate this practi se.InconclusionIwillquoteseveralversesof Jeremiah, chapterXIV,whichshowmanypointsofresemblancebetweenrainprocessionsof biblical timesandofto day. This chapter seemstometo describe customs connected withrainprocessions:"Judahmournetli,andthe gates thereof languish; theyareblackuntotheground;andthecry of Jerusalem isgoneup.Andtheir nobleshavesenttheir little onestothe waters: theycametothepits,andfoundnowater;they returned with their vesselsempty;theywereashamedand confounded, andcovered their heads.Becausethegroundischapt,forthere wasno rain inthe earth, theplowmen wereashamed,theycovered their heads.Yea,the hindalsocalvedinthefield,andforsookit,' because there wasnograss.0 Lord, throughouriniquitiest estify against us,dothouitforthyname'ssake,forourbackslidingsare manywehavesinned against thee." C.NATUREANDCHARACTEROF rt,'HE In thecourseofourstudywe approach themost important part,namely"the saints themselves,This subject isaverycomplicated one,butitis undoubtedly ofthe greatest possible interest tothe student of comparative religion.Onthewhole,theconceptionsof thepeopleof Palestine havebeensurprisingly little changed,con sidering the extraordinary vicissitudestowhichthislandhasbeen subject. Invasions,conquestsandoccupationbynewraceshave J?lodified their beliefsbygiving themdifferentcolour,buttheywere yey unableto extirpate thementirely.Eventhe great revolutions producedbythe three great monotheisticreligions,whosecradlelay inor near Palestine, werenotabletosuppress all primitivebeliefs. Thisconditionwillsurelynotcontinueunaffectedbythepresent socialandpolitical transformations. In the past twentyyearscon ditionshave already changed somuch,thatitisatpr esent d ecidedly moredifficultto gather genuinefolklore material than itwas about1900.Itbecomesthedutyofeveryfriendof Palestinian folkloretoworkasintensivelyas possible,ifwhatremainsisnotto belost. 'I'he subject ofthesaintswillbe described under the following heads:

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries ill Palestine235 1.Characteristics ofthe Awlia. 2.Miracles. 3.Relationofthe Saints toMen. 4. Relation oftheSaintstoGodand Popular Religion. 5.OriginoftheSaints. Ishall restrict myselfentirelytomodern Palestine andshallleave the task; ofcomparisontospecialists.1.CHARACTERISTICSOFTHE Awlia Thefollowingtwopointsdemand particular consideration:I.Bodily Characteristics. / H.Religiousandmoral characteristics I.Bodily Characteristics Allsaintswereoncehumanbeings,andtheyhavekeptmany human characteristics evenafter their transformation into awlia. Itis important tonotefromthebeginningthatalthoughthe statements onereceivesaboutthesame weli varyindifferentplaces,wefind thesedifferencestobeonlysuperficialwhilethe fundamental ideas remainthesame.Letus approach the subject fromthe following pointsofview: a)Sexandage, b)Modeoflife, c) Imprints of their hands,feet,etc., d) Appearance intheformsofanimals.a)SexandAgeofthe Saints Awlia belongtobothsexes1thoughmale saints are ) byfarthe morenumerous.tThisfactdoesnotjustifythe statementof'Kobelt that the Arabs havenofemalesaints.3Noris Perron 4 right when hewritesthatthe waytoholinessistoodifficultforwomen,there forewe rarely findawomaninIslam taking it.5Onewho critically. IThePreislamic Arabs hadmale as wellasfemalegods. WeIlhausen,Reste Arab. Heidentums.2Jauss en,Coutumesdes Arabes, pp.302and303, mentions somefemale saints.3Globus,1885,nO3,p.40(after Goldziher). ,Femmes arabesavant e tdepuis l'Tslamism,p.350 (Goldzih er), Er-R il zi thinks-inexplaining Sfireh12109 1645 and217-thatGod never sentafemaleprophet.

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236J ournalo fthePale stine Ori ental S ocietyre views thepositionofwomeninth eea rliestperiod s ofI slam, and ca refully s tudiesthe teachings ofitsfounderwillfindnor eal o bstaclestothe religious dev elopment ofthefemale.t' Whenever m ale awl ia aros e, w e find referenc e tof emale awli a also.Am ong the s hrineswhichIhavevi sited13 .2perc entarededicated to f emale saints. ?Inreviewingthelistoffem ale saints on e observes that th e greaterpartofth ema re o f s ome importanc e, 6 0 percentofthe f emale saint s enjoyin g awide reputati on, ascomp ared withonly3 1perc ento fth e m ale li st.Itiscuriousthatsomevillag es have no w aliyat pI.(of w aliyeh, fem.of e g., Anata, Sa fat, e n-NabiSamw yl, B et Anan; e tc.F emalesa ints enjoythesame r eputation asth e maleonesofthe s amelocalityoran e vengr eaterone. El-Badriyeh isthemost important saint o f S arftfat andthe s urroundingvillages.EI' Azerat i s heldbythe inhabitants of 'Awartah innearlythesamer espect as al-Mufaddil or alMani3uri.AI -lJaq.ra of Nfl,blus a nd AI-lJaq.ra ofDjerah-i-two diff er ent sa ints aremore honouredand more vi sited than a lloth er a wlia of their loc alities.Butthere are a lsofemale saint s ofminor importan ce. Such a re B anftt eS-selj (Jericho), Iraq el-Badawiyeh (, el I.Iadjdjat (Miill}a), e s-Samiyeh (Koloni a), B anate r-Rfa 'i (' Awartah),etc.Iti sc urious t hatpr acticallya llholy tree s whichhav ea sth eir o wnn ame th e simplename ofatree,3arethou ghttob e in h abit ed b yfemal esa ints.!B elow I ga veali st of s uchtrees. Anexpl anati ono fthisbeli ef isth efa ctthata llt ree n amesa re fe minineinthe Arabic langu age. Inon e sen se itistrue,as J a ussen says, thata llsuch treesarethem selves reg ardedassa ints,Bu t inve s tigation will s howthateverysuchtree i s b elieved t o b e th e h abit ation ofa spirit ofas aint who a ppearsondif f erent o ccasions to different people.Inmanycasesthee xpre ssions si ttna (ourlady),IGo ldziher, Moh ammedanische SiudienIl,29 9.2Of 2 55 saint s (n ot in cluding th e 1 63v isitedby m e) fo rw hom materia l was gathered, on ly8,6p ercentweref e mal e.Inm ostcas es t h e peasants di d n ot g iveme a com pleteli st of' t he awJiR oftheirvill age.3S e e page 71. 4 A n e xceptioni s c s -s el!AbiJ.ij:arrllbeh, s outhw estof c( }-l,)ahriyeb, w hoisa ma le sa int. 5 Cf. a lsot h e fac tth att hetree d e itiesofanc ientPal estine andEgyptwe re gen erally co nsidered as f emale; e. g ., Asirat(A se rah) andth e S ycamore God dess( nb.t nh. t) [W F Alb right].

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CAN AAN: M ohammedan Saintsand S anctuariesinP alestine237and es-seljah (f ern. of es-selj) areused i?stead ofwaliyeh.Thefemal e saint s areb elieved in popular Palestinian religion topossessthe s amepowersa sthemal e a wlia. They healthesick,h elptheoppressed guard thepropertyof their neighbours,protectthevillagefromits enemi es,etc.! Few female saintsare of Biblical origin.Iner-Ram oneisshownthetombofSamu el's mother.InNablus a shrine isdedicatedto whois s upposedtobethedaughter ofJa cob.Herhi story isasfollows:Th eso n o ftheleaderofa trib'e a skedJacob togive himhis daught eras wife.Thepatriarchrefu sing his request, as h e w as anidolator, th e y oung man brib ed the 4 0follo wers ofJacob who w ereall m u mimln (b eliever s),g ivingea ch oneasacko f gold.t 'I'he se per suaded theirmasterto accepttheoff er. -Ia cob answered,"Youmayacceptsuch a bargain,butIwill They neverthele ss se nt their wiv es toprepare forthemarriage.Herfather, ass uringh er thattheGod o fhi s father s w ouldnotallow s uchan a ct, as kedhert os houtthree time s,justasherbridegroomentered h erroo m:ogrand father (h elp m e)!oProphet s( helpme)!oGod(helpm e)! Shefollowedthi s advic ea ndherbridegroom felldeadatthe momentofhis entrance intotheroom.Thus shekepthervirginity andwas called "the Green. "ITh e male saint s, who predominate, formingabout86.8 per centof a ll awli a, areg enerallyregardedas Bedouin, Soudane se Maghrebine o r peasant s. The s aints a ppearmostlyin night visions. Sometime s theyareseenintheduskofevening. Whilesomeloveto v isitandc onversewithhum an beings oth ersareseenonlyr arely. Most of them ale awlia havebeen observed tober ev erend seljs, witha white b earda ndwhitehair. ll]tiy ar, s aiyb and sel]are theusual e xpressions usedto denote this appearance. Very few have beenfoundtobe middleaged,like eS-sel} Ahmadof QaryetS'id eh.IInt hec aseof F atmeh e l-Barri(Z akariyah) nom ale visitorsa r e all owed to enter thes hrine .Q S,191 5, 175.2F rom tha t timeit i sbe lieved th atb riberyb egan ) Pe rhapst hisstoryisa n echoo f t hest oryto ld i n Ge n. 34 .4 'I' he st oryw as t oldtom e byth e ea o f t he shri ne ;

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238JournalofthePalestine Oriental I:locietylJirbet Q.S'idih Su'fat 'Esawiyeh BetIksa'LikiaSataf Female saints appear mostlyasmaidens,sometimesas middle agedwomen,but-veryrarely asanoldwoman (adjuz). Saints may be recognized ontheirappearance byamajesticwalk,a penetrating eye,a serene lookandan erect stature. While mostofthemareofthewhiteracesomearenegroes,while someare described asqamhior sudani, "darky," -Nubian." Among negro saintsare: e8-se1.J Ahmad .es-se1.J 'Abdallah es-se1.J 'Anbar e{;-sebMbarakeS-sel.JAbo.IsmfL'ileS-sel}'UbM Ihavenotseena sanctuary ofa negress.b) Mode ofLifeThedres s ofthe awlia generally conformswiththetwofollowing conditions:1.Thenative costumeof their land oforigin.2.Thelocality ofthesanctuary. If the saint issupposedtohavebeen during hislifeaBadawi, Mughrahi, peasant, madaneh (ci ,ty dweller),'abd,(slave,negro)rich orpoor, hewearsthecorresponding dress.Eachofthesehas his owncostume,whichheis thought tokeepeven after death.Atthe sametimemostofthe saints ofalocalityaresupposedtoweartheclothes ofthatlocality,even if their nativehomemayhavebeenin someforeign country.Ingeneral,thefollowing description isgiven:a laffeh,saseh sarafor 'amameh coversthe head : Onthebodytheyweara tBb, djibbeh, aMy anda zunnar. TheBedouin s aintswear an 'uqal. Itis interesting tonotethecoloursofthevariousgarments.1 have noticedthattheyalways belong tooneofthe three coloursred, \ green andwhite.Whitepredominates, whilegreenistheholycolour.I ,v:y Often wehearthe expression labisabyaeJ, fi abyaif" "heis clad inpurewhite." Several saints haveawhite headgear andagreen

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine239djubbeh,orIared la;jfeh and white tob: Allthose saints {Yho aresuppos ed tobe descendants ofth eProphet (suraja) wear a green h eaddress ;Thecolour ofthisarticleofdressi s alwaysde cisive, whilethatofotherpi eces isless important. ,IThe dress ofthewaliy atissaidtobe madani,badaw1, or jallabi.E s-S amiyeh (Koloni a) h as been s een wearingtheclothes ofa city woman with awhite izar (an ample veil).Banat es-seljI;)alal) dress themselves like Bedouin. EI -B adriyehand sittna el-Gharah (BetNuM) each wear a green veilanda white 'i zar .Thelatterlady h as agr eenish bandonherforeh ead. Bi sr el-H flfi!(N ablus) i ss aidtoappearwalking barefoot, ashe usedtododurin g hi slifetime.Thischaracteristicgav e himhis s urnamee lSaji, "the barefooted."Weoftenhearthats om eare se enw e aring ac rown, t adj, whichis described in e very case asof g reencolour. ? Su chare en -nab't. D anian e l-HadI' V esse7J4-I.lmade s-selj H usen e s-selj i Husen near e l-J;la4r inallofhi s shrine s .lJirbet Q.S 'ideh B et S urtk B et Anan Inth e c aseo fen -nobi Mu sa man y assured methatthey have s eenhimwith ag reenishhalo surrounding hisface.A staff (mibdjilneh), a spear (rumb) a ndaswordhavebeen observed tobe c arriedby s omehol y m en. E s-selj 'Abdes-Salftm,e asult an Ebr ahlme l-Adhami ( Sa'fat), Barraq (B et Djibrin) ande n-nabi Aiyub(Ras ibn Sim1)an) a ppearmo stly witha s pear; es-Mohammad (Wftdi en-N aml ),en -nobi and s ittna e l-Gharah ( bothin Bet-NuM) carryatti mes a s word drippin g withblood. E s-stljS arH and, manyotherscarrya I nm ostoftheca sesthe aw lia appearwalking or sitting, oc cas i o na ll ya lsoth eyarese en riding on a horse This isa s pecial pr ivilegeof'e l-Hadr,St. George D anian hasalsobeen s een ridin g tohism aqam.A s so on ash e reach es it,hetie s th ehorse tooneofIHei ssai d t ohavebeent he b anner-bearer oftheProphet.2Seea lsoQS,1 916,66.

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240JournalofthePalestineOriental Societytheoak trees and proceeds walkingtotheholyspot. J;[usen1 hasa green horse.tInexamining further details we learnthatsomestill continue performing the habitual actsoftheirlifetime.ThusBanat haveoftenbeen seen boilingcoffeeandsinging.Es-sultanTbrahimel-Adhami (BetJ;[anina) was observed sitting infrontofhis shrine andsmokinghispipe(ghalyun). Ahmad el-Hwes(Biddu) oftenwalksfromhistombtothecave bearing hisname,where heused spend agreatpartofhistimewhilealive.El-Hadris supposedto take abathe very Thursday night in Hammam edDaradjeh(inNablus). Es-sel]lalid3 spendsthesummermonths under hisoaktree,andlivesinthewinterinhis taqah :4 Abmad ed-Djabbarah (Y alo) spread s hisbedonthe surface ofhiswell.The bedismadeofafarweh(asheepskincoat)withlongwhitewool.Sadjaret Abu has,whenever irritated, a menstrualflow.! The word wasu sed andth e fluidwas described asviscous.Inthe caseofBlr 'Quah (B et Djala) thestonesonthebrimofthewellaredyedredonceevery year onSt. Mary's feast.Theyarethe onlycasesI have heared wherefemale saint s stillposses s theproperty of menstruation.sThesaintsareattached to their habitation, wherea s arulethey appearandwheremostofthe miracles take place.Buttheymay change their shrine, s ettlinginsome other villageorev en in another country.Thisis established i n th e caseoftheBanfit e8-sel] of Jericho.Whentheir habitation was ruined during th e w ar, being1 B et Sfrrlk.2E ven th ehorsesared escribed in verses as bein g ofgre en c olour: swdirakbinaiU,l aucNm ; lahum z en el-mabttsim mat!Jaif,if,m'' alii'Ara{iitwada'uniilIitl!aif,if,ar1qlftbs ilkiehkitre Nadil My lords ar eridinggr een horses Th ey haveb eautifulfeatures (lit .mouths)withth e e arlyg rowth o fm oustaches.Theyca lledusto ArMat topraya ndb ecome s anctified.Ourhearts complainofla cko f a ttention.3D er Gha ssaneh. 4 Bythis {iiqah ism eanta smallc avesitu ated neart he t ree.5 S eeJPOSIV, 71.6Cf. .JPOSI 16 3.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine241 changed bytheTurksinto a stable, they punishedthem' by lielping theEn 'glish to occupyalltheJordanvalley.Atthesame time they movedto Hisbtin.!"c)ImprintsofHands,Feet,etc. -:. Oneofthegreatcharacteristics ofawlia'isthatthey may leavetheimprints Of theirhands,feet.rknees,etc.,inthesolid rock. Suchasignisfoundonlyinthe' case of veryimportantprophets.In50 pet: cent ofthecasesIwe find impressions oftliefeet,insome thoseofthe hands and in very few those ofthe head, kn ees, orthe' wholebody.At timesthe impressions oftwo different" parts ofthebody ofthesame saint 'canbe seen inthesame rock.Thefollowing isalistofallsuch impressions which1 have seen: I 1.The12 footsteps oftheProphetMohammed, onthe f;3ahrah (1,3),22.12 footsteps ofIdris, onthe f;3agrah (1,2), 3.One footstepoftheProphet Mohammed nell,rthef;3agrah(III,14), 4.Th.e right footofChristj :4 5.Thefeetof ChristMountofOlives,,' .. 6.Two feetandtwohands of-Abraham'Masdjadel-Yaqin,, J Twofeetandtwo hands ofLot4 masdjad el-Yaqin. ', ,".1' 8. Kneesandhands ofSt:Mary," Bir 1 '<;lnaDjala), 9.Knees of ChristBir 'Ona(BetDjaJrt), I'..',; 10.Thehead oftheProphetMohammed, I (Il,7),,11.ThehandofGabrielI'. (1,1), 12.Thebodyof.St. Elias6 opposite > theconvent ( e,.Mar Ilyss, .'. .. f ISeeIV,84 .2Th e numbers inparenthesiarefertoth e gi venOI ipages81 ,. invol.IV.,,3S eeIV,79. Se e I V, 78. sSome !Iuw e{at arenot af all religious,butaremadeforcat ching .bird s and a rc generally situ ated n ear a s pring.Ihaveseen a of thissortnear' :ijirbet Zif. Anothersort, of enclo s ure(knownas kit'r eh) ismad e by highway r obbers. B etween Hebrona nd Yatta I s aw a cir cle ofthiskind. .6SeeIV,80.16

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242J ournal o f theP alestine O ri ental S ociety13 .Srir'lsa.114 .Srir es -Saiydi2 in t he e ntrancetothe St ables ofSolomon B et Dj ala.3 Thepe ople of BetDjal a tellusthefollowingaboutnumbers8 a nd9:WhiletheVirgin w ascarrying h erc hildonahot s ummer da y,s he passed the va lleybeside B et Dj ala. Sheandherb aby be came thir sty, butonre achinga wellshediscovered that itwas dr y. The Virgin bento ver thebrimandsaid: i ntliy a b ir e l-waladef}-$gMr, "becomefull,0well,sothatth ey oungchildmay drink! Thewaterbeg an imm ediatly toflowfr om as ubterranean sourceunt il ithadfill ed thepituptothe .brim. St.M arya ndOhri st b ent d ownandquench ed their thir st. Theimpre ssions oftheknees of b oth,a ndtho se ofthehandsofM ary remain edintherockFromthattim e onitwas a lsoob servedthatthe brimbecamedyedred onth e feastoftheVirgin.4Th e w ell receivedthen ameBir. O nah "the wellof Help,175 sin ce itr esponded tothe ca llof'theVirgin. EI-M asbfitah 6isa larg e fieldofrocksof a llsiz es, whi cha res aid t o be petrified men a ndw omen. Thispl ace lie s t o theNWo f B et Dj a la, andits s toryrun sasfollows:The peasants o f av illage celebra ted a weddin g. Th e a r fts (br ide) wasb roughtf romh erfa ther's hou seo nac amel ; as thecus tom u sed tob ea ndi s s tillins ome v illages.Shewasfollo wed b y a gr eat c rowd off riends,w ho s inned s o g laringlythatth e Al mighty God p unished t hem bycha nging t he wh oleo fth eprocession intoa fi eld of r ocks. O nce t heir sh apes could becle arly r ecognized, bu t th rough th e d isintegrationca usedb y wea thering only a few ca n s tillb e identified. Thu s onei ss till s hown th e bride rid ing onthecamel, a ndm any r ocksa re ex plained as rep resentingawo man, ama n o r a child .7Th isaw ful p unishment,IT h e re a l impress ion ofth e body i snot se en. 2 SeeIV, 80 ,D ot e2 3 O neimpression o f afooti s shownb etween Del' G hassflnehand E n e d-Der,Iti s t hought t ob ethato f t h e P rophet. Can aan,H auntedS prings andW aterD e mon s, J POSI 164 s W h e n e verapea sant-espec ially11woman is ca lled, sheansw ers,'Ima h;" ( w ha t ) h elp(ca n Igiveyo u?)"6Mudj ir,I, 80,says th atGo dh adc hange d a t thet ime ofPharaohmanyEgyptians into ston es .7Jaussen, Cou tumes, P 33 7, m entions as imi l arbutsi mp le rcase.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine243whichsomewhatresemblesthestoryofSodom, Gomorrah and Lot's wif e,'s ervedasawarningtoallthe surrounding villag es, who repent eda ndbegantoserveAllah. Su ch petrifiedstonesar e theoppositeofthe imprints of saint 's bodi es. Whilethe latter arethesignsofthe greatn essa ndthe miraculouspoweroftheirowne rs, theformer represent oneformof the. punishmentofthe s innersb y God.Theformer a rehonoured th elatter causehorror.d)Appe arance intheFormofAnim als A v ery curiousand intere sting f eature i sthatw elismay appear inanimalforms.2Thisidea certainly go es backtoprimitivereligion. s Es-se'lj 'Abdall ah of Bet Surik eventakestheformofthe awful ghftl whileonotheroccasionshehas appeared asa serpent a nda s ahyena.Ihaveinmycollectionfifteensuchcases.The a nimalsr epresented are:IG e n.XIX.2 A !l adil s aysth atGo dpu ts th e soul so f th em artyrs i ntogre en bi rds w hich liveinp ara dise. l'aqiy-d-Din e s -Sabki, ifli-l-asqam/ i ziyiir at bere l-'anlim 1 43.3In Chr istianf olksongsweo bserv e th e s ame id ea : uinzilna aqabr e l-masi{! l aqenli miirq a'id f a raelna bsiilu lt u qalna uq' udtlin djil/lll u qalnii is ma'u ismt'naqr ayell ismi' nil!IsUsismt
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.\244 j JournalofthePal estine Ori ental Societ y :inseven casesbirds,IIIthreecase sserpents ,IIIone cas earabbit,IIIonecasea goat,ID'oneca se alion inone case awhite sheep and inonecase different form s.11Inanalyzingthese animals wefindthattheybelongtotwo categories:1.Animals whos e formsarepreferred byd emons.Theseare thegoat(djidi) ,hyena (ilabi') arbid. ghftl. Thecolour or' these animals isblackor dark, which points, asweknow demonology, toabad djinn.l 'Arbld,baiyeh, isusedin these cases to denote a serpent.' Arbid means primarily "trouble some,petulant.squarrelsome, ill-natured." 3InclassicalArabic means "a badand poisonous serpent," aswellaslithemaleofevery se rpent." 4 Popularusehascombined these form sandcharacteristics sothat 'armd nowmeans"anillnatured, poison ous male serpent." Common belief alway s givesita d a rk colour. A g oat standaas was s howninHaunt ed Spr ings andWater Demons, for a badd emon. The ghftl isoneof t he worst demons, whilethehyenai s r eckoned a sthemost insidiousandill-natured of animals.s 2. Animals whose shape is generally taken b y good spirits.Inmy collection wehavethedove (bamameh), the bird
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CA NAAN: Moh ammedan S aints a nd Sanctuari es in Palestine245the s ymbolof good tiding s andpiety.!The' s amem ay besaid ab out th e gre en bird. ? while spirits inth e formofsh eepareal ways go od na tured."AllIknow a bouttherabbit is. thatIneverheardthata bad d emon takes th e shape ofthi s anim al.Itis further s aid thatthe saint s wh o tak e th es hapesofthela st d e scribed animals ha ve alway s been s eeninthis formwhile'"theywerehelp ing human being s, savingavilla ge fr om en emies, caring forpeopleingreatdang er, etc.Onth e other hand,all sa ints who ares upposedto take th es hapesoftheanim als mentioned under numb er1arerepresented aspuni shing peopl e, injuring a ndfr i ghtenin g th em. Th is curi ous ph enomenon of transformation isveryinteresting since itc an beh ardly e xplained ex cept a s asurvi valf rom ancient religion. Onl y inthi s w ay w e canseehow saint s-e-chosen men ofGod-cant ake the s hapesoffurious maliciousanimals. ', Inthi s connection itmayb e noted .thatthereare animal s. which guardthe s anctuaryfromb eing defil ed. Th 'e se protecting g eniiarea lways described as ( serpent), a nd as 'a rUd. Th e, ,I..f ollowing story ist old a bout e n-nabiMi1s1L During th e War a heathenIndian(Sikh)tro op e ncamp e dinth e building.Sinc e they d efiled the p lacealarge s erpent a ppeared a nddrove th em out :In these ca sesI'I .."w ea ren ever toldthatthe prophe t or we li t akes the f orm ofthe a nimal, bu tt hathe se ndsthelatter topuni sht het resspassers. Thefoll owingist he listofth e s aints whohave a ppearedin animalform s: 'Na meo ft he saintA hmad eFJ-'aiyar Mo ses EI' Az eratAbu el 'O E sSuhad a4 L ocati o n Sa rafatf nearJ ericho Awartah Sindjii J erusalemA nimallarge bird,rgr een bird, three doves, dove white s heep,s s IGen.8 1lj 'Ca nt.11 5, 214 52 j Ps. 68 14j M ath 316 j M arc 1,10; .I ohuvL sa;Luc 3'22; etc. \ "2According to Moh ammedans uperstition t heAlmighty G odma de atth e c reation a peacock i n whi ch th eso ul o fthe P rophetw asp laced, ed d urar e l[iisan ( onthe m argino f d agaiq .el'a!J bar), p .2,I.3S eeJPO SI, 1 53-171.r l Out side B ab es Z dhir ah (e s.Sahirah)=Herod'sGat e 5 R elated b y I mm Q).

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246J ournal of t hePalestine Orient al S ociety Nameofthe sainter-Rifa 'iel-Badawi ed-Daauqied-Djil ani Lot" AMS ftseh Hamdallah,'Anbar el-Brediy eh Abdallah J;Iasan e l-BaqariLocationBani N 'emBet'Ur .el-F o qah Biddft 'Esawiyeh ed-Djib Bet Surik :J;Iirbit en-nabi Tad 1A nimalpeac ock, g reen bird, a s mall bird call edg hreiyb, lion,rabbit, 'm'bid ,' arbzd, a rb i d ;goat, gh ul, hyena o r' arbid ;gazelle,Thefollowing stories illustratetheforegoing descriptions.Theinhabitants ofthevillages surrounding'Awartahreinforced by s ome Bedouintribesattacked the inhabitants ofthisvillag e, whoseein gthattheywerelost, implored th e 'Azerat forhelp,andbeholdthree green dovesflewfromthe' shrineandhovered overth e villag e. The enemy as they confessed later, saw everything g reen,andcouldno longer recognize the situationofthevillag e.Alltheir effort s to locatethe, houseswere frustrated, andtheyh ad togobackwith disappointed hopes. Abft. el-'Of app ears a s adovetoeveryonewhoa sks hisaidwhen indifficulty, es peciallyto o newhoi s indangerofbein g drowned.n.Religiou sandMoralCharacteristicsa )IrritabilityandForbearance Ev eryODewhoha s t akenthetroubl e toin vestigatethecultof th e saints willbestruckbythesimpledivisionmadebythepeasants of Palestine, ba sed onavery interesting a spectoftheir ch aracter.Thesa intsare tawUin er-rid)(forbearing) or nizqzn, (irrit able, temperam entalj.a-s'I'he firstgrouptreathuman faiiur e with patience.1Buried inth e courto ftheprophet Tart2 Man yo fthesaints ofthi s g roupdonotall owab uildingt o b eerec ted o n th eir t omb. This sup erstiti on exist sa lso among t heJ ews. .G oldziher, Moli.Trqd itirmU QCTden Grab esort desJon as,ZDPVH,13 ,etc .

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C AN A AN: M ohammedanSai nts an d S anctuaries inP alestine 2 47They g ivemort als timetor epent, andwaitp atiently forthefulfilment ofv ows.'l'h eym ay remindthemgently o f their obligati ons. This forb earance m ay goeven s ofarthatp eople begintodoubtth eir pow er. But as s oonas s uchadoubtaris es theyatoncer espond a nd s howth eir pow er andabilityclearly.Thestoryof eS-SeJ.J,AMe VEnen in 'e nQ ina illustrates thispoint. The irritabl es aints, o nth e other h and, d o notshowanypityto transgressors Theydem and their ri ghtsa ndsometimesu se verysevere methodsofpuni shing tho se whotrespass on their ri ghts andmak e afal se oath,di shonour th eir maq am 01'speak irreverently about th em Thi sg roup ofsa intsi s, ther efore, moref eared andresp ected thantheformer g roup.Whenam an is suspected ofhavin gc om mitted a maj or crime,thejud ge mayaskth e defendant to tak e a noathatthe s hrineofawellknownsaint,whoisalwayscho sen f romthi s class. Whenapersonis maltreat ed andoppre ssed by a n influ ential man,fromwhomhe ca nnotgethisrights,he hurrie s to s uch a neasil y irritated w eli a ndask s foraid.Generallythe s aint istreated in s uchawa yas t o irrit ate himstillfurth er, asalre ady d e scribed abo ve in treatin g the s ubject o foath s. Th e followin g sto ries a rechar acteristic. Am ano f Liftii. cu tas tickfromon e o f the trees of eS-sel]. Hu sen (B et S urik)inord er todrivehi s mul e whilehewa s threshing corn N os oonerdidh es triketheanimalwiththi s sti ck than adi seaseattacked it a ndthe a nimalwa s unabletomov e. The frightened pea sant returned t he s tickatonc e, madeavowandbeggedth e toforgiv e hi m. T he mulew as curedasmiraculou sly asitf ell ill. Apoorman o fG aza w ent to Qattan eh to g leanoliv es fromtrees whichh ada lreadyb een h arvested.!Heplaced allthatheh ad ga theredinthehou se of a p ea sant ofth e village whod enied the n ext d ay that a nythingh ad been entrusted tohim.Th e manof G aza th en wentto es-seTj R amadan, whereheapsofthi stles ( qass)2 were d eposited, andb egged him :"Ib eseech you,0 AMQ ass3 ( behold)Ih avee nteredyourvill age (a s a g uest)andthe inhabitantsISuc h a work i sca lled b it{laiyaf. 2Suc ht histlesa r e u sed f or f uel in stead ofw ood.3He didn otkn ow t hena me ofth e S eeing th e he al'S oft histles, he ca lledhim "Father of Thi stles,"

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248Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Bocietyhavestolenmy hardly gathered olives."Nosoonerhadhefinished his exclamation thana. fire attacked thehouse of thethief ; whocame runningv tothe saint acknowledginghis sin,promisingtorepaywhat hehad taken tenfold,andbegginghimtoextinguishthefireand savehishouse. Muchsevererwasthe punishment inflicted-by es-eJJ Abdes Salam,An inhabitant of 'Anata-a descendant ofthe sea-had a quarrel witha person ofHizma,whocursedhimandhis s eTJ. The insulted person wenttotheshrineofthelatter and ; reproachingtheweli,said "Thus, 0 se lj,they cursemeandyou, and youwillnot protect meandyourselfl' '! ThesamenightthemanofGodappeared tothe J;lizma man.Hefellsickwith general paralysi s anddieda fewdays later. Asarule allnegro saints are thought tobe nizqi'll. The Maghrebine comenext.b) 'Supernatural Phenomena \, Wemeetwith four differentI which havebeen observedinconnectionwithallsaints,namely, a greenlight,burning ofincense,religiousmusicandprayers.Itiscuriousthatthesesigns are perceived by the most important senses,since a light is seen, whileincenseissmelledandmusicand prayers are .heard, WithI thesenseoftouch mortals canvery rarely perceiveasaint.When aperson a darwis, he beginstofeelthe with .' Ihands.Buteventhenthismethodof identification remainsincomplete.. andthusfarbehindthe other three.Itwasthesameinthe ancient times,whendeitiescouldbeseenandheard,bntnottouched.s ', Thegreenlight is seen intheduskoftheeveningoratnight, and appearsanddisappearsatintervals.The lightisdescribed alwaysasgreenish.Everytimea person approaches the sanctuary wheresuchaphenomenonis observed, thelight disappears com pletely,butno tempest canputitout.3SuchasignisacceptedbyI ,.'. _IInQS.(1916,131and132)a story with the s ameideai sg iven.2MosessawG od but didnot touch him. In Christianl egends Chri st and th es aintsmaytouchthe person towhomtheyapp ear." 3Thisi s of el-Mbarak eh (Kalandiah).

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C ANAAN:M ohammedan Sain tsa ndS anctuaries inPal estine249alltheArabsofPalestine!asasureindication thatth eplace i s inhabit ed bysome good-natured s uperhuman power. Iri many cases ithasbeentheonly means of recognizing holy sites .Wehavehadalready several examples.Theincen se smelledatth es anctuariesissaidto have asweetero dourthantheusual one.No who visits aplacewhere hehass melled incense willfind a ny 'indications pointing totheburningofincense,since s upernaturalph enomen a never lea:ve any physical trace.Insomeimportantshrines one smellsburned baJJbflr! everyFriday.Often religiou s mu sic, coming from a shrine, i s h eard.It' iseitherthesingin g orratherthemelodiousrecitationof (pl ,of madi1J) oritis dm'wl s music,producedbythecombination of several mu sical instrument s. Such an'iddehsomet imes plays soloudlythatallthepeasants in the neighbourhood ofthe maqa11t. have leavetheirhous es, asintheca se of eS-seJjFredj (B et Hanina),Loudmu sic isane xception.The' iddehof eS-stl]' A bfr Yamin (B et Anan) play s whiletho s aintflies overanda roundthevillage.Itis interestingtonotethefollowingin connection withthehearingofprayers.The'. we li h as beenheardtos ayhisprayers alone ,butmoreoftenmany awl ia or $u lla};p erform theirdevotions together. ?ItisoftenrelatedthattheProphet Mohamm edandhis $ababeh attend s uch meeting s.InNablus el-Haderholds a meetingwiththe $ababeh inhis shrine. 'Inthesanctuary' of enNliban}3 the aqtab assemble.Thes aints a rerarelyseenw alking in meditation a round theirshrine.!IItis s lowly va ni shing .2 E Uea e s-Sidri ('A.nata) g oes e very ]'riday toth e l\1 osqu e ofOma r toper form e d-djuI'a/i. 3N ablus. I'hef ollowing vers es throw 'lightonth e subj ect : e l{fauwaIJI in qadduli ho,sUiu'an ii a bd u h ynd ahni t i'ana aru 'dluh V ii d ara ,da bid duh ta niq,uUuh e l-qanadU qudd am e s-sala?in Wh o i s som ighty H eca llsm ea nd Ia nswer. (Hea sks) toli ght hisla mps h e i s, myl ord,a ndIamhi s servant; Whokno ws what h e wi shes? before(wedo for)th e sult ans.

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25 0Journ al ofthePal estine Or iental Soci etyB efore pa ssing ontothed escription of o ther fea tures w e m ay summarizethepreceding.Th e f our phenom ena de scribeda re manife sted a s follows: 1. Durin g th e night ortheduskofth e eveningonl y;2.Morer egularly Thur sday night ;3 .Until a hum an b einga pproaches,wh en th ey v anish; 4 .Twoormoreofth em m ay t ake pla ce to gether.Fromtheforegoingdiscu ssion wenotethatthe g reencol our pre domin ates: thecov erings ofthetomb a ndtheclothe so f t he awliii aremainlyof a greencolour. The hea dgear,s ometimestheho rse, th e dove s, the birds a ndthelightaregreenish.I n onec ase theh alo around thefaceofMoseswasgreenish.Greeni s th e col our oflight a ndcommoninmodern Oriental superstition.' Asas upplementtothis s ectionwem ay describesomeofthecon v ersation of the sa ints.Iti s interestin g toan alyzes peecheswhich a reh eard innightvisions.Whileinmostca ses the awlia e xpress their wi sh ina gentle but imperative way ,a ttimestheyu se c oarse l anguage, un worthy ofthem.Thusen -nobi Aiy ub app earedon ceto Abder-R ahtm of {,Iarba ta a nds ai d :"Why do yo un otv isitm e?Ify oudonotdos os oon,Ishallcut off yourlife. "2 E s sultan Ibrabtme l-Adhami threatened ab oy wh o hadstolen so meoli ves, withthewords:"ByGod,I s hallkill y ouormak e youl ame i f yo uste ala nothertime ." Es-s e!j A hmad a ppearing t o H amdan Mol)amm adf;lalel.l o rderedhimtotell ama nwho w as Y ayabUn aMelifaJ.tat' as-sala?in y adjina-el-yom inzurak nicJwi l am'itaku nid'aq b a!!!JurakfaJ.latri{ltak as-salil?in o 0o wner( fath e r) ofata ll pa lm tree! H is perfu mei s diffu sedove rth e sul? ans. o t t, wecome t odaytov isit you to light your cand le a nd tob urn your i nc e n s e. Yo ur pe rfumei sdi ffused over th e su l?ans. "sul!ans," stan dsh eref or saints ."IA gr ee n coa t s eemst o b ec haracteristic ofsa ints. See l\I udjir I,42 .2 'um rak.3Eastof Be t MalJ.sir.

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Der.Ghnsaaneh, Bet Idjza, Awartah, 'Awartah, B et Djibrin, el-Mdjedel. CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuari es inPal estine251buildingawallinthe property ofthe weli: "i.n ma ridji anturquh la'aqta' e-sursen." 1"Ifhe does notturnback fromhiscourse, Ishallcutoffhis posterity."c )TheTwo Antagonistic Classesof SaintsEveryonewhohasvisited several shrines orwhohas investigat ed th e a wlia willhavenoticedthedistinction madebythepeoplebe tween Adjamiand derwis or sel]. Theword 'adjami denotes originally a Persian,butitisusedatpresent forforeignorexotic things or personsingeneral.Itis, therefore a mistake to thinkthatthese saints are Persians; onthe contrary,notasingle w eli inmy list o .f a 'djam camefromthatcountry andallmy enquiries inthis respect wereansweredinthenegative.Mostofthembearthesimple appellatione l-'adjamiorthe plurale l-a'djam.Fewareknownby personal names, like cS-sel] Salm an (B et Surik), cS-sel]AMI Rill(B et 'Anan), AI.lmad e l-'Adjami tBet Mah sir),irdj alel-Arb 'in (Biddn), Ism a'il(Bet Duqquh),Manenr (Hizmah),Other awli a ofthisgroup, bearing the name ofel'adjamior ela dj a m are: e l-A'djam'Iraqel-A 'djam2 fourdifferent Adjamis e l-A'djamel-A 'djamel-'Adjami The se holymenare respected insomevillage sandneglected in o thers.Thehonours paid totheminthefirstarelessthanthose totheother saint s. All o f them belongtothe irritable class.AllIcouldl earn about themisthefollowing,relatedtomebya sel] of D el' Ghassaneh. Ahmad el-Badawihadacleverwoman, F il'tmeh thedau ghter of el-Barr i.s asoneofhisdisciples.Assoonasshe elevatedbythe master totherankof sainthood, she left him, andb egan tobehonouredmoreandmorebythepeople manyof whombec ame herdevotedfollow ers. SheandherdiscipleshadmanyI aUraell, "twor oots," m eans the d escendant s ofboth a manandofhiss on." 2 Th eya real soca lled Irdjiil e l-Mal,J.sitmiyeh. 3A ccording tos ome sh e isth e daughter of Sarifeh th e daught er of el-.ijagr ii.

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2 52J ournal ofth e Pale stine O riental So cietyr eligious quarrels withel-Badaw i fromthe v eryb eginning. Therefor ehergroupwa s calledbythe aq tab by the d espised name o f foreigners," a'djam. Thefollowingvers e refer s to h er: es saiyd iWi maq amuh madjma el -aqtablOla m a sa labb int e lBarr'i '1.Jatruh ma ( aby a m ridi uitqallab' ala 'tab uircmassok ( lem ybq alak 'al ena (i) t ab. The mast er whose s hrine i s theassemblin g pl ace o f the aq(a b hadhen ot captured the daught er of e l-Barri,hewouldnothave b een s atisfied, Go,0 t houwholove st me,and turn y ourself( as a s ign of humi, liation) onthethreshholds, a ndshoulddiffi culties befally ou, thenhaveyouth e right to beangry withu s. I This F lltmehl issupposed to haveh ershrine in Z akarill. Nom ale v isitorsareadmitted intheshrine.Sh eiSI suppo sed,a ccordingto whatw as t old Masterman a ndM acalister, tohave comefr omPersia ,"butcomparewhati ssa idab ove. Thegr eatest importance ofthe' adjamisaints li es inth eir hostil it y to a ll dar aw'i s saints wh o belongtothe Iha ve n ever foundthatth ey opposeth e prophets. A s th ey cann ot hurtthede ad awlia the y p ersecute their descendants andf ollowers. Thefoll owing e tories .sa ree xc ellent illustration s.Ifamanof AniWl-and allin habit ants ofthisvill age claimtob e de scendants of eS-se[t Abde s Salam-shouldspend t he nightin J;Iizma, heisboundt o r emain all t heni ght i nside a house forthe momenth eg oesout el : A djami him.Stonesarethrowncontinu ally athim.Inp ro tectin g hims elf hewillalsofighta gainst hi sa ttacker.Nobodybe side him i s a ble t o s ee the e nemy;andIev en h e' can only p erceivehim v aguely,In case hei s obligedtoleave thevilla ge during th e night,, rh e mustwear' a n abayeh(cloak)' of itJ;Iizma m an, t urnedinsideou t, s o that' the willnotr ecognize him.' {".'IQS1 915, 17 5.2 T he sto ry not edin Q S 191 6, 1 26, th eo rigin ofthe ad j a ml, i s n ot know n tome a ndits eems t om e i mprobable, f orth e' welis areno t th ed escendantsof e s-sul/an Badr,

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CANAAN: Mohammed an Saints and Sanctuar ies in Palestin e253 When a memb er ofthefamilyof el-Mahd i (Bet Djibrin) die sa ndiscarriedtobe buried, the A'djam try topreventtheburi al by shootingsharparrowsathim, aswellasatthosecarryingthe beraq andatJ the musicians. 'I'hebestwayto neutralizetheira ctionisto sprinklepurewaterintheair, e lsethebody ofthedeadwill bebadlyinjured "Notonlythedescendants Of aholyperson,buteve ry dar wisis afraid oftheire nmity.tFromthemany stories Iheardandtheexplanations givent o me,I concludethat:1.The a 'dja1n areho stile tothe $ujiyeh ; tryi ng alwa ys toattack dar wis saints ; 2. This canb e accomplished only. byattacking.their' d e scend a nts andfollower s; 3. Such explosions ofwrathtake. place especiallyduring-th enight;4.Nonebutthe' onesattacked-s-andtheseonlyva guely-cansee th e a 'djarn; 5 .Thedangerof s uch 'attackscanbe .prevented b y simple measure s; '6.Ino therways thes e a wl f a rese mble the o ther but(they a re generally less honoured. Es-se7:JMbarak(Bet Iksa) is theonl j; l negr02: Adjami. He is renowned forhishatredtonegroes,-who neverdare_ to ,enterthevillage forfearofb eingstrangledbyhim.Ihave neverheardof female saints belonging to.thisgroup,andhave-neverheardof arJjam i inhabiting a spring, whileallother' sanctuaries may be hauntedby them. :r" 1..WheneverIwasshownashrine-andthepeopl e begantotellme s omething .aboutthe I enquiredwhether h e wa san 'adja mi. \l La" usedtobethe when hedid not belon g to class "hft (or This wasalw ays usedfor thenon'adjami saints, Whysuchan appellation, derived fromthe nam e o .th e i s giv en Icannot W erarelyhearthatanAhmadl weli be comes j ealous Es-se7:J, el Bakri3w ent a s usual topayhisvi sits tothesaintsof D el' Ghassaneh. -IFrom th e s e t woe xamplesw enote h owe asyi ti s t om isleadth esa ints., ID emonscana lso bem isled.',-". 2 T h e f orty 'adjam1, of B lddfiar e sa id toco m e f rom M orocco -3H e i s r e gard edatpresentasasa int.

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254JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyHisfirstvisitwas directed toIrdjal SMa. ThisirritatedIbrahim somuchthathe inflicted general stiffnessuponhim.EIBakriwhowasa darwz, knewatoncethecauseofhisaffliction, begged forforgiveness,andwent directly tohis shrine it This leads toavery important distinction whichthe present Pales tinian has certainly inherited fromhis forefathers, namely,thatone groupofdemigodsisin continual conflictwiththe others. The'Adjamiareonalower grade of sanctityandhaveperhaps inherited some characteristics ofthe heathen localdivinitiesof antiquity. Wemaynowgoone step further andseehowsome shrines of saintsareinhabitedatthesametimebyevil spirits whichdonot dwellintheholy place itselfbutintheimmediate vicinity.Wehave already seeninthe beginning of this workthatfive springs be longto this group. Other shrines ofthischaracterare:Thecave situated below es-Sadjarah el-Mubarakah (Del' Djrir) is inhabited bydemons, appearing asahenwithitschickens.Thecave Qattarah, whichliesnear en-nabiNun (Yanun) is haunted bysevenyoung brides.In e-selj Ibrjlhim's shrine (el-Hader) awomancombingherhair hasbeenseen.In Mgharetez-Zutt neartheshrine ofHasan Ghreiyb? a bride wasobserved.sThesedjinn keep theirattributes as illustrated bythe story.A Turkish soldier was ordered byhis commander tocutsome woodfromthegroveofMgharat el-Qattarah. Onthepointofbe ginninghiswork,adjinnwarned himnotto intrude onthedemons' property. 'I'he spirit showedhimthatthewhole adjacent plainwas fullofdjinnsoldiers, whowere ready toattackhis regiment The frightened soldier hurried back and reported thecase.Thecomman del', laughing athis superstition, ordered the exact execution ofhis instructions.Thesoldier returned andwhile cutting off thefirst branch felldead.Thespirits ofthelowerworldthenunit ed with the Engli sh troops and crushed the Turkish army. I Related byO S. el-BarghUti. 2Heisan 'adjam'i. 3In essel! Sarradj's maqam awomanha s b eens ee n c ombingherhair.

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CANAAN :Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuariesinP alestine -2552.MIRACLESBesidethe well-known beliefastomiraculous cureofdiseases bythe s aints"wemeetwithmany other marvel s. Allareillustrated a ndsupportedbywid ely reported facts,whichare s aidto have happenedwithinthela st two generations. Mir acles areknownby th e namesmu'dji zeh; 'a djibeh andka rameh.Thefirstandlastarethe best knownexpression s.Amu 'djizeh(liketh e resurrection of acorp se) isa s ure s ignofItprophet, while the kar amat a re c haracteristic o fthe a wlia. The latter expression denotes c ommon b elief ofthehonourand regard inwhichthe saintsareh eld b y Godwh og ivesthemthi s thaumaturgical power. A favouritemotifof s uchmiraclesistheway as aintpunishes peoplewhostealfromhis property, orfrom material put under hi s prot ection.A per son, whostolehorse-beans (j11l) from wa s punished with askindisease o fwhichthe eruption lookedlike b eans. Th e cucumb ers (jaqq fts) s tolenbyaboyfroma garden a djacentto R amadan (Q a ttaneh) were a llchangedinto c entipedes Mus a).AMZabari a (Bet S a"ar) chang ed thestolen peasintosm alls erpents,scorpionsandcentip edes, which s quirmed a ndcr awled inthepocket s ofthethieve s. Somepoorwayfarertook o iltofry eggs f rom theshrineof S net ( Hebron)wi thout as kingda stflr.Them oment hepoureditintothepanit turned into blo od. He return ed th e oil a t onceand,behold,itwasnothin g but s impleoil!A g irlwh oa nointedh er hair withoil,stolenfromth e sanctuar y of Abde s-Salam, was attacked immediately with s tiffnes s theneck.Ab oy wentwithhi s moth er tovisit eS-seb Ibrahim (B et Djibrin ). Whil e the mother entered th e shrine, hebeganto ga therolivesfromth e tre es o f the s aint.A fter fillin g hispock ets, thebo y al so enter ed them aqtun,wh ereupona loud thundering li ghtning andth e beatin g ofman y drumstookpl ace,s oth at th e w holemountainbeganto s hake.B oth moth er andchildwer e f rightenedt o de ath" andleftthe s hrine,theboythrowingawa y the stol enoli ves.Thewrathofthe sa intw as appea sed. andthe q uaking s topped.Th e motheratoncevoweda g ift. Thef ollowings toryh eard inBiddu i stoldinmanyvillage s, with sli ght m odifications. S ome thieves intendin g tostealgoats,ent ered t hec ave (situ ated n ear es-seb Ahm ad wheretheykn ew

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256J ournal o ftheP alestin e Ori ental Society" for surethatthe animals werekept. They s aw a ndf elt nothingbut rock s of different sizes.But as soonasthey l eft thecave,the bleating ofthe. goatswas again distinctly h 'eard. Every timethey reentered o r wentouttheyhadthe same Discouraged, they left the spot w ithout attaining th eir aim. 'I 'I' Other miracles tosuperhumanmuscularpower,Thus itis s aid t hat sever al saints can liftoneoreventwolarges tone pillar s with han 'd. Thi s characteristic is especiall y in Nablus : es -sultan Abd el-Gliafir, Irdjftl el'Amud and e-elj AbdelQader posses s it. \ I.Whenev er eSseb Danirah' e n-Nubani) went on a journey, ahyena" assigned toservehim3' appearedand the saint onit.4St. Nicholas(Bet Dj ala) u;ed tofilloil jars, placed inhis church,in a miraculous wayso the alwayshadt o takeout oilin o 'rd er thatthejars s hould not overflow.5 I I ',. Thecommon beliefthattheRifa 'iyeh ehs walkonfireandthat\ I .., e l-Badawiwalksonthesea,isalsoknownamon g the Paleetinian s.s Many' or't p ; the facult y : of Th ey m ay use s omemeansoftransport, (likerocks), o r m ay flywithout Some enjoyed ;; dvantage during their l ifetime, but mo st did manife st the until .death. iThebe st ex amples of. l ) thefirst categoryare of their: camelsdied during ,theirstay in Meccafor the !:taddj .Whenthey asked arich manto help them to procure o ther mockingl y ,., ,"Go, ride onthoserocks!" They went,did as theyweretold' and thatthe'roc'ks began to ,' and to moveinaNWdirectio 'n. One in the saint ridingI ,r ,, IHeissaidtoh ave b een the oftheProphet. ". 2 This story m ayse rvet o illustrate th e belief t hatth e Almightym ayass ign s pirit s 'to s erve sa ints: ..', ., 3Q S 1917, 7 2gives anoth er cas e. thi s f aculty t oso me awliii lik e A M T or. ., t 4 a lso e l : 'anwal'lI, 144 ., 5 From thewrittennotesofmyfather.r.. : 6 Mudjir 9 3, relat es th at a sev erete mpestaros e wh en e veran un cl e anw oman e nteredthe shrine o f ,' Nebi Musa. ""',1I7See Jaussen,1. .c .295;Curti ss,c hapterX V ; Q S191 6, 1 76. 8N ot Duw a'er ll wi th R ahle,PJBV I,9 2. Ea st o f Surbilhir : ",. .

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C ANAAN: Mohamm edan Saints andSan ctuaries inPalestine257onithaddied.Inthisspot,inthe Sawal}.ri territory, hewas buried.Theothers r eached Surbahir. This wond erful journey whichwas s een inallofthe passed o ver,e stablishedtheirsanctity for ever Similar s toriesaretoldabout Ahmadel-Ghm ari! ( edDa hriyeh)andhi ss on 'All. In. the case of el-Qatraw ant, A bu I;fal awi, es-sittSl emiyeh?aud J2:alid 3w ehearoneandthes ame s tory.Afterdeath, while being c arried for burial th e coffin flewoffthes houldersofthe.bearersandmovedintheairuntilit. reached thepl ace ch osen byth e saint forhi s tomb. sTheArabicexpression i s f ar an ldaflmnu h adda ...,"Itflewofftheirshoulder s a nd cam e down... "ob Th erearemany awli a whoare seen duringthenightho vering overtheirvillage AbuYamin(Bet' Anan) mayserveasanillustration. v Beside this miraculous modeoftravel, s ome saints belong toahl 7i.e theycango from anyplace toan yotheroneinan instant. EI-lJaqerS isthebestrepres entative ofthi s class.Acommon proverb wellstatesJthis power:"Like saint George wherever we g owemeethim ."This faculty maybesoe xten sivethatthesaint' isregarded asall p ervasive. Onl ya few s aintsbe sides St.George belon g tothi s category,butthe others donotenjo y a wide reputation. El-b adjS l.ladeh 9may s ervea s an example.TheArabicex pression usedfor such sa ints, bt intwz el -art] "the earth i s folded (moves rapidl y)I'I'h e r ockw hich ca rriedh im fro \n M oro c coto s tillli e s hi s s h r ine..rni ,.2N ablu s. S ee a lsoJaussen,JPO SV,78.-3 D el' G has sfi n e h. 4 Thi si s a n o ldb eli ef i nth e M ohammedanwo rld S ee e s -S a ra n i Il,146. 5 Iti sto b e n otedt hati n many casest he firstmiraclep erform ed bya lVelt afterhi s d eath i s i n th eway h isbo dy b e haveswhil ec arried forburial.Itm ay ge t so h eavy th at th osecarryingth eco ffin ( su?lliyelt) h avetos top a nd p ut do wn t h eir load O n o thero ccasions itb ecom e s v eri lighto r eve n, a si s me ntionedin t h e t ext, may fl y fr omt heir s houlders. 6 S ee a l soQ S191 5o nfl ying d e rwi s b e s.7'l'hi s exp ressioni s unknown t o H ava, Bell ota nd Wa hrmund. s Christians p ut o n t heh eado f c hildren with hi ghf eve r a p lat e o fm etalo n w hicht hepictur e o fSt G eorge i se n grav e d.Peasantswh o u sed t o v isit the sa nctuary o f S t.G e or g e in e l-Hadru sedtoputo ne o f the c hains s everaltim es a round t heir n eck in o rderto s a f eg u a rd th e mselves aga instfuturementaltrouble.9 D e l' G ha s san e h.17

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258Jonrnalofth ePalestine Oriental Soci ety B et Surik 'Esawiyeh D el' G hassnriehand",Jeru salem.Iunder them, denotesthatthe earth moveswhil e the y rem ain wh ere they are.! ; The s tory2toldbelowisals o related with s lightm odification about t he following s aints: eS-sel:JTela!}eS-eh 'Anbar J-se-I]D ahlid E -el] Moh ammed of B et Surikw ent toM ecca top erform the dutiesofthe Onth egreatf east ('id e l-kblt') hi s mother prepar ed s omecake s back ed inoil (mljammariU). Shewi shed th at h er ab sent s oncouldalso e njoythem. Tela!} h er oth ers on,whoob served how sorry shewas, asked hert o givehimsometo distribut ea mongth e poor, H e went ba c ktohisflockof sheep, a ndfindingaw olf n ear b y, entru sted t o hisc are thesheep a ndwentin a nin stantt o Mec ca.Hefoundhi s broth er onthemount ain of Arafa t, h anded himth e cak es ina:warmandfre sh condition andcam e back as mir aculously a shewent.The sheepw ere w ell car ed for b yth e w olf,a nd asa si gn of g ratitude T elag gav eth e wolfon e. Nobod y kn ew anythin g ab out the a ffair until hi s ,brothercam e b ack fromhi s pil grimage. 'I'he t inhabitants w ent outtowelc ome him : H e, t elling th ew hole s tory,said"Iamnotworthy ofth ese hon ours, m y b rother T ela!} i s a r eal manofGod a we li." Fromthattim e 'fela!} w asreg arded as a s aint. Thefollowingversesde scribe thi s andoth er po wers in abea uti fulway:. t aru auwa ll e l-lel b alluS'urhum ba llft ,Il araft sa'djadi dhum al-modj mu ( i)nvallft t ara l i'aljirel-let .h 'i en -nabi $all1'i$ allfi$ala h fjikk e l-karb uin ball1l. 1InQ S1 915, 17 4, 17 5, on es uchis me nt ioned .I nQS1 917, 1 22 th estoryo f e r-Rfib'ah( not sel! w hichIs mase. ,bu t s ittnil) i sgive n. S h e i ssaidto h ave flo wnafterd eath, 11. 2Ins omecas es ) t hep owero ffl ying isinherited,T hus es-scfJ 'A li ofe dD awaymi,aswe ll as hi sfather Ahmade l-Ghmari,cameinthism irac ulous way fr om M orocco.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine259Behold,atnight-fall,theyloosened their hair, Theyspread their carpets onthewavesandbecamenot wet;IBehold attheendofthenight,theyprayed at, the sanctuary of the Prophet, Th ey prayeda prayer which r emovesall th en disappeared. dB abeS' 'ar-rdj al y am e l-barb ma wallfi j araSft sadjudidhum a lal-madj ma (i)nbaUu f i auwal ellelfaU u 8 'fwhumfaUu; u' wJit e l-lel j1.baram en-nabi ? allt'l. Recitea 8 0Ms forthemenwhointhedayofwardonotflee!. II'( Behold)they(thewel is)spread their carpets onthewavesandbecam e notwet;Atthebeginningof night theyloosened their hair, Andatits e ndthey prayedatthe sanctuary ofthe Prophet. sari/ ma' er -ril) q alftbaHali :J.,1.J.aWt mdel -barq q a lu ha ija sir r-el-' abtiUi J'J: y urib sall im 'al ehum u int m irsali rJ.' s udi1tlayjrabel-ljult{O', d! Theyspedwiththewind, butsaid "thewindi s too slow, ;" ,I ,' n ",: Theytooktoth emselves theli ghtning andsaid "there i s th e s ecret oftheheroes."').!' )I.I""'jowind,salutethem a ndb e my 'messenger! 1I't; I)!r 'Fortheselordsvi e with the stars inspeed tHat their m ay' rejoice!I "dY,.'J f( tsa r/t mder ..r il) ha zzu qawaym e l-'ars er-ra 'd iq ul uil-mubtala insihir u Djubr ayl i dillibhiin .' min u.?[ms atua.thim allah i sa.'idhim f i Sflj si fr.ilhim .".ll!'l'hey sped withthewindwhil eGabrielledthem UTlie f eeto ftheThrone(ofGod)trembled fro nt their g; 'eatmight. The thunder praised (their power / saying: Ihelpthem!'"jAndtheafflicted(with devotion) willbehold-ifhewatche s secrets.IUnknown t o m llMt e !-muMt, Bell ot, Hava,Wahrmund,Kassaba ndHammarn.17 *

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260JournalofthePalestine Oriental SocietyAnother important feature isthe abilit y ofthe aw lia toforetell thefuture.I alread y mentioned the storyof e-sel]AM Halawl,The grandson of e-sel]AMY amin (B et An a n ) i s e-selj M ohammad Abfi K askfil, who spent a llhi s tim e i n the fi elds li vingo nherbs hadawidespread reputation fortellingthe f uture.Thef ollowing s toriesillu strate mir acles oftype s thathaven oty etbe en men tioned. AMM itrt had aq uarrelwith a peasantofhi sv illage.H is o pponent s eeingthat H wa s impo ssible forhimto subdue th e sea, sa id"You tire m e, 0 Abfi M ita." Theanswerwas: Forgetnotth at I a ma m an of God ," a ndpre ssing withhisthumbonhi s pip e a gr eenish flamecameout, rising toth e sky.Theastoni shed p easant, a ssuredthathehadtodowith a w eli,s preadthenew s ofthemira cle. Ed-Dahi! wentonedaywithacamel driver toTransjordania to buytwo sack s ('id len)of corn.Onthewayhelo st th e money and un able tobu y wheat hefilledthetwosackswith e arth. Reaching home the 'i dlen werefoundtobefullofcorn. When eS-selj Dj aber wa s el evated to the rank o f darwis, All ah s ents ome mentoprovehi sa bilities.H e notknowin gt heirmi ssion, w elcomed themas guest sa ndkill eda tJMbah inth eir h onour. Wh en th e foodw as r eady. th evi sitor s said: 0 sel.!, how ca nw e e at y our f oodw ithout lemons ?" N ow D jaberkn ew thath e w asbei ngtried, fo r i tw as n ot these asonf or t his f ruit.L ifting hi s h andst owards h eaven, he e xclaimed: 0m y lordBadawl, g ive me a. l emon!"a nd beh old alarger ipel emon fellfrom t he r oof.Them ent hen c on g ratulatedhimon t he st ageo fsa nctitywh ichhe h adattained.While t he s elj M. AM K askul w as r oaming inth e fi elds, h e m eta shepherdandb eing thir styas ked fo r a drink.Th eshepherd hid ing th e w a terskin, d enied thatheh ad water. Moh ammad,irritated b y th e lie, pierced th e bellyofthe s hepherdwithhis fi nger, a nd a c lear s t rea m o ffre sh water pour ed out. After drink ing, th e w aters topped B owing, andthe shepherd, uninjured followedthe se7j andbec ame hi s disciple.Such s tories a ret old bythepea sant s to prov e th e s uperhuman ofthe saint s.Iti ss till consider ed asn atural as ev er th at a saintwhop erforms no miracle s,a ndthusd oes n ot pro ve hi sgo dlycharacter, cann ote xpectto b e honour edo rre spected.IOn a mountainbearingthesam e nam e.

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C ANAAN: : MohammedanS aintsa nd Sanctuaries inPal e stin e261Thi s mir aculous powerm anifests it self also,thoughles ss trik in gly, inlivin g d erwishes, who handle firewithoutbeingburn ed, pierc e th emselves withsword s withoutbeing hurt, andpassathinand s harp silj (i ron spit) through th eir cheekswithoutbleedin g orsufferin g p ain. Th eystand a ndd ance ondrum s withoutbr eaking th es kin.Such m ysteriousactsarer egarded bythepeoplea s a s uresi gn of s anctity.Inhi s imagin ation th e p easantseesthe se se1.Js e ven a fterth eir death.Th ey r emind him o funp aidv ows,threaten thethi ef, ord er theer ection ofth eirs hrines,1e tc.Ins uch way s thevill agers are k ept und er th eco ntinuousdominati ono fthe a wlia. A criti cal r eview ofallth ese mir acles-s hows that th ey clos ely r esemble thest ories toldinthe Arabian Night s. Theonly(and,of co urse,fund amental) differenceisthatthefirstare a scribedtoth e power ofGod,thelattertothepowerofthedjinn.Hereagainn amelyinthe a pparent result of theirwork-wehav e a point where t hep owers ofth e upp er andlowerworlds .coincide. aInclo sing thi s p art w e may quote s omev erses whichde scribe s upernatural q ualitieso th er than th ose mentioned:es -saiyed illimin e8su b ba k madd'idsdi d jab e l' asirmin b !ad e l-kuJurjibba,diduh fi auwal e l-lel bi qra e l-wirdi u bi iduh u alj ir e lle l sa llam a n-na bi 'ibld uh Th e wh os tretchedouthi s handf rom the w indow, a ndb rought th e pri soner, still fe ttered,from th e land o f th e un b elievers,Inth e fir st parto ft he ni ght he read s andr epeats asectionofth e Qora,ra ndinth e la st partofth e ni ght he s alutedth e Proph et (M ohammed) withahand clasp.ISevera l examp l es w e rementioned i n th e c o urs e o f o ur s tud y.Another c haracte r ist ic o ne is es-sel! 'A nbar wh o appeare dt oe veryonew ho spentth e n ight inac a ve bes ideth es hrine a nd o rderedhimt ote llHasan t o r epairth es hr i ne .2Sa ints ofot her countries a nd o th e rtim esperformed th e s a m esorto f m i racles See'Abde l W ah h fi b e s -S a'rani, e l-anuar.3M anystori es ab o ut mi raclesp erform ed bytheM ohammedan l e aders a r e to ldin A bd a ll ah'A l awi l; asan e l' A Ha s ,z uhur el{!agi'iig(1,b ayan 239 ft',

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262J ournal ofth e Pale stine Orien tal Societ yf i bfi,let el-btidi rfl bi kuni u' arsilha tq'abbele l-orda 'a nnt uh i na 'ybati jahCiiji d alat e l-asbCilJi'qad luuiora; f amdud yaminakk ai hihCisi fati, h ave b een r ecited byth e Ri fa,'j whil e vi sitingt heProphet's hi s p rayeran d a llowed t heP rophet to s ,t rctch h ish ando utWhileIwas farfromthee(0Prophet Mohamm ed) Iu sed tosend myspirit Tokissth e ground(aroundyourgrav e) inmyplace-foritismy repre sentative. Beholdth e d ominion ofthe spirits ha s com e; o ut t hy right hand,thatm y lip s houldbeble ssed (byki ssing it)!t ., q al-er-Rifa'ie l'awadjiz2d om uill i f i ha wana m a ales lam wallah l 'aramridi f i djhannam y om l arjit$ djhannam wala t i 'ma r dam The Rif a'i s aid:"1am the se ll ofthewe ak,I ... IIH e who e njoys ourlov e isbl ameless, ByGod ifIeverseemyfollowerinh ell Ish all smitehellandneverletitflou rish more ." q al e dDj ilani a na lat a rifff,ab wali1.JlI(lt({jami' e lbMcr m adjat l a[tilbali I uill ilal :j itqarajil)laleh I m a'isef e i-aeal e l-i'mari Ed-Djilani s aid: ".If youonlyknewmy state, Ihavewaded through the e ncirclingoc ean, butthew ater ne ver,I ,Irea ched my' a nkles. Ev ery bodywho o pposesth e dar awls whiletheyareinthest ate (of ex altation) (mu st remember)thatIposse ss theswordof e ternity:whichc uts t. ,",s hortlife. "ISupposed to to mb.Godh eard o fth e grave 2One o fth e n ames ofth e Rifl1'i, as w e sh allsee l ater. i n v erna cular A rabic m ea ns tom akeap icnic."

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine263 q al e d-Dasuqi ana law ti'rifu es sauw et sab' e l-j'alafis-saqi 'alqet malckeh uzamzam uil-bet II ma'i sef el'azal lal-mu'tari(tqa??et 'J, II .3 REJ.JATION OFTHESAIN'rSTOMEN f Ed-Dasaqi said, "If youonlyknewwhat1 performed,JThelionofthedesertIslew an 'd threwintotheditch. Bythe truth ofMeccaandZamzam,theharamof Medina (and theKa'beh), Ipossessth e swordof eternity withwhichIcut sh ort tHelifeofmy ,hi opponent." .,} ". q al el-MlaUamluana e l-M,u?hir lal-'urba it s auwart alaladjU turbit sayid walad Adnan barfu djhannam bridjU .e l-mizall El-Mulattam said,"1amhewho appears tothe Arabs; u 1walkedonthesea.Formysakethegreatfishescameswimming (to salute me). Bythe truth of tombofthelord,thesonof Adna n Iwillsmitehellwithmyfoot and stopthebalance(ifthey s tand inthewayofmyfollower)."r ;;I rHumanbein gs feelthegreatnecessityof 'remaining inc onstant go odrelationwithth e s aints,fortheyarethehelpers,phy sicians, a nd comfort ers ofmenaswellthe intermediaries betweenthem and God.'I'hemoreone s tudiesthi s phaseof Palestinian folklore,the moreoneisstruckbytheins eparable bondwhichunite s menwith sa ints.Asthe great erpartofthefactsbelongingto s e 6tion h ave already beendescribedinprecedin g chapters, 1shallbe brief andtreatthe s ubjectuuderthe following heading s ':I ,' a ) S aints asNeighbour s; b)Sain tsas L eaders; c)Saints as Judge s; d) Saint s as Superhuman beings.l Oneofthenam esofth eadawi, seel ater.I I "

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264J ournaloft heP alestineO rientalS ocietya) S aints a sN ei ghbours W e have a lready see nthatmo sto fth es hrinesliein sid e t h e v illages o rin their immedi ate nei ghbourhood. Thi s m akesaw elithe n eighbour of m en,be aring a llther esponsibilities incu mbent up o na nei ghbour. A nArabicproverb sa ys: A neighbour i s resp onsible f or h is n eighbour,e ven i fhea cts wr ongfully." Th esa intsk eep these rul esve ryexactly.Every sa intpr otect s th e property o f hi s n eighbour, g uards whatever i sputund er his p rotection a ndh elps inc ase o fI,n eed. Ev en anim als whoh ave t aken r efuge inhi ssa nctuary a re sa fe. Apregnant w oman p assing eseljMl1sa di scovered und er his ca rob t ree a n estf ullofpartridge'seggs S het ook th ema way, a n a ctwhich i' r l itated th e we li .Soon af terwards s he birth t o a dau ghter, who se one hand wa s malformed,lo oking li ke th e h ead of a partridg e andshowingthe b eakc learly.tW el iswilln ota ccept a ny brib e (b ar(il, An o ldm an of Hizm ah s t o l eso me cereals (q a(ani) o nenigh t fr om th e fi eld adj acent to e8 e ljManl?l1r. Befor e goingt o workh e th ought tog ainthe fav ourof th eweliandthu s e scape hi s wr ath, b y r ecitingfo rhimthe Butas s oon as h e cut t hefirstplantaw hirlwindaro seandt hrewhim ', over thew all. H e brok e hi s l ega ndl aya lo ng ti m e i n bed.2 ,Somet imesthes ain t empl oys w ayso f prot ection whi ch willpr event f oreve r a ny furth er vi olation ofth e" neighbour 's ri ghts."A n inhabi tantofKufr' A q u bh ads tored hi s fi gsu nderth eoak t ree o f Mgh eiri F es-Se!}. Som e thi evestried during theni ght to getpo ssessio n o t 'th e fruit s,butno s oonerhad th ey putthefig s i nto s ack the na ( whole a rmy s ur rop.nded them. Th ey c ould n ot e sca p e,for s o ldier s dr ew nearera ndth e cir cle b ecame c ontinually clo ser.At 1I I.',o nceth ey threw th e figsaw ay an d begged t he e h f or pardon, If)' .) wheruponth e arm y di sapp eared.I I .[j-J ofth e f afllily. AMGMt f rom BetFaddj ar cli mbed th e r oofo fth e chur cho fSt. N i cholas (B et DJ a la) tost eal ol iv s ,I "whichw ere spr ead there to ripen .After th eir cl oaks th e yI.I a us s en ,1.c. ,33 1. 2Rasid th e sonofMuhamm ed 'Agha of J eru s alemon ce l o s t hiswayb etween e n-Ilab'i l\fusa andt heD e ad Sea A t th is t imeagreatpart o f th is ar ea wasst ill covere d by d am (sid r)t rees.'l 'hep rophet Moses se n ttwo l a r ge b ird s ev ery nightto g u a rd h im. O n e s ata t hi s h eadand o th er a t his f e et.

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. CANAAN: Mohammedan SaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine265triedtod escend butsawthatthe sanctuary was surrounded bya stormysea.Atoncethey replaced whattheyhadstolenandbehold therewa s noseaanywher e,' Persons,whohavecommitted somefaultorevenacrime,coming toa s hrineandaskingthe we li tohidethemfrom their pursuers, willb e protected, astheyhavebecomehis tan ib (suppliant client), a relation even stronger thanthatof neighbour E s-se1] el'Umari ed-Djbeiprot ected all deserters fromthe Turkish armywhofledto him.Thesoldierswhocameto catch them s earchedinvain,forthew elistruck themwithblindnes s. Thesamestoryistold about e s-sel.J. Ahmadel-Hw es of Biddu and many oth er saints. For thesamer eason, some notables buried their r d e adinthe direct vicinityofsomeshrine. "I j( Jb ) Saint s as Leaders ... ManyofthesaintsofPalestine werehi storical characters and e njoyedduring their lifetheprivilegesbestowedonthevillag e eld ers. Meeting s tookplac e in their hous es todi scuss question s of g eneral interest. Th ey gave o rdersands uperintended their exact execution,especiallywhen e nemies attacked thevillage.They pr dvented quarr els,s ettledmisund erstanding, andwere iri this v {ay thelocal judges. Their reputation didnotfadewithdeath.This explain s why manyvillageshav e local protectors, whowere inhabitants of thefu. Incidents aJ:e related top rove the marvelloushelpgivenby when ever enemies attacked the villag e .Ihave already mentioned the s toryof M al' Inqula andthat' of el-'Azerat ('A wartah). But a s botli ofthemare regarded asforeign saint s Imentionthe s toryof esseg of 'Hizmahwho protected thevillageagain st the attacking Bedouinbymakingthem se e a strong andhigh w all surroundingit.SometimesawholearmyisBentbyth e w eli to s urroundthevillage s othatthe approaching enemy willfacewell a rmeds oldierswhereverhegoes O ften whenadisputearisesbetween th e inhabitants ofavillage, and th e diff erence cannot be settled by thelivingelders,theholy p atr on ofthatplace anactiv epartin bringing pe a t e. OnceIFrom th ewrittenno tes o fmyf ather. 2Fo r oth er exampl essecQS 1916, pp 17,64 .1 29, etc.Cf.JPOSIV, 9.

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266 Joumal ofthePalestineOrientalSocietythewomenof B et Haninfuhada quarrel.Inth ee veningwhenthe mencamebackfromworkthedi spute became acuteanda regular fighttook place. Arev erend elj-who wasnobodylessth anes sult an Ibrabtm -i-appear ed and separated th e two parties.Heev en preventedthestones, thrown byeachpartyattheother from hurt in g anybody.Whenthepeasants forsaketheiroldcustom s ofho spitality orabstainfrom their religious dutiesthepatron elj mayappear, r equestandadvisethem toreturntothe righteous oldpaths. Ami sunder standing dividedthe' inhabitants of Su'fat intotwo parties. They stopped givingalmstothepoor during Ramad anandnolongerattendedprayers, for having onlyone place o f vpray er they didnot wishtomeeteach other there. Es -sult an Ibrahim ofthevillage a ppearedtothe muJ]tar ina dream and reproaching him s aid I a dviseyouto reuniteandto resume youroldcustom s ofhelping thepoorandpraying in my shrine ,e lseIsh all punisheveryone most The mulJtar called allth e p eople t ogether next morning, and telling themth e visionbeggedthatallhatreds houldb eputaside.Aftersucceeding inhismissionh e wentt othem osque.Themoment he enteredtheriuiq,th e dooroftlie sa nctuaryw a s clo sed bysome unse en po wer. Forawhol e hourhesatinfro ntofI ,.theclo sed door,praying, w eeping andIbeggingthe s ultan forforgiven ess.Thedoorop ened a s mysteriousl ya sitwa s clos ed. H e I Ientered,prayeda ndwas reconciled withth e man o f G od.Notonlyin s uch s mall a ffairsandvillagedi sput es doth e s aint s lendtheira s sistan ce,butalsowhen ever the Mohammed ans, as'a whol e,a reattacked bythe kujf ar (infid els) On s uchoc casions aw lia havebeens een coming b ack fromthefightwithswordsdrippin g1blood .They m aye venbecomewound edands ome of th eir blood appe ars intheshr ine,The picture of M ar Inqula (BetDj ilJa) w as f s eento s weat profuselyafterthesainthaddeliv eredthevill age fromth eattack oftheBedouin. Eselj Ibrahim (D el' Gh assaneh) help ed the Mohammed an inhabitants of Tripoli aga insttheItalian inva sion.Hewa s se en leading a wholearm yofa wlia,a ll ,armedwith spearsandcarryingtheir flags. En-nab i I;lfiJil.l, of th e vill age bearing hi s name dislikes a ll m usrilcin. Whil e r eturning fromsuch abattleer-Rif a't, whowaswounded bledintheplace where afterwards his maq am waser ected (oneh our tothewestof D el'

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C ANAAN: Mohammed anS aints a nd Sanctuaries inP alestine267Gh aesnneh).!Thestory of s ittna e l-Gharah (B etNuM)h as b een menti oned.Eu-nobi Tarafini (BetNuM) wasseen duringthewars tandingonhi s h orse with a s word dripping blo od. Th erearesomeverse s whichwillillustratehowthesaintsareas kedfor help: a h b il-wiidi n adalt na dhah sara t ma er -ril; b il-wiidi simi'1.Ja Ali q al h issak. a kbal e l' e n bin adiqi'tmf(, ifea'f(, y a e d-d in k ulluku1n haq a n-n:har i lli tban j ilt e l adjwadi.Ah,I criedoutint he valley-Itwascarriedwiththewindintheva ll ey. AlP heard itandsaid Yo urvoice c allsthe blacked-ey ed one (the pr ophet)jGetup help( all ofyou),0(menofthe)l eagu e of religion! This istheda y inwhichtheg enerou s willappear. bana t s awt'iderrJahab u mqaHabeh ljeri3ulIlqaHabeh birJ-f]ahab uil-qalb i lha im e l i in ta lnie 4 (.le m b andah h e y a Atennad e t y aheuad jf(, m i!l e l-maiar uis -selt ni lba'(l raki b h idjin uil-ba'(! r akibl].eli uamuui er -Rifa'1, idarri djf inasil) e l-MU, Go ldent ents d ecorated. with golden pieces app eared, D ec orated withgold a ndtheheartin clines toit. Should difficult y b efall meIwillc all "He, 0 Ateri!" I ca lled "yahe andbeho ld th ey came (rushing) lik e ther aina ndthetorrent, S ome riding dromedaries,otherhor ses, B ut e r-Rfa'i(atonce ) began he lpin g th e w eak.w e h eara lso and Ateri IS omeofthea bove s torieswer e toldm ebyO.S.B arghfiji. 2 -sn i on A bi +, lilib. 3I nsteadof aen,' ime l i a nd bi nur, b idjriis, djalli2s,

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268JournalofthePalestine Ori ental So ci ety nad ethe m ine l-Basrok si m 'i i'l11,qo,lit n'iddak mtaiyam qult i ddftn i s ar t alekummi n babr e l-1JBf i t addfmi. Icalled "he" andthey heard mefromBa srah;' Th ey asked, "Shall wecountyouen slaved bylove?"I s aid ( ye s) countm e,Butonconditionyoushallg et me( safely) fromth e oc ean offear.ya-( i)bn er-Rj-a:i y alliji/Naja gha rqttni djid dak Mob ammadel -bur hani ma hma dja ra lar-r 'iyeh ylzam er -ri'yaniosonofer -Rf a'i. 0onesubmergedinpurity! Byth e lifeofyour grandfather Mohammad,heofth e Proof (of r eligion), The s hepherds(i.e thou )a rere sponsible forwh atever maybefall theflock. sa datna b si/ja n ade t nadh et adjizSfifa' a leha e lMbeh? alla j iha e l-gh e b e h Sitja'ale M e l-qallriimin?a llafihab adri Sftja ml ihal: 1 tZen uiSyf/TJnajiha( iHnenSft/a' alelut hall a: Ui'qild uer y a' y a.R aMras e l-J ra n dj dj iibi I sidi ya M I;l amadi j az'ah uTJiH djyad i O urlordsarein SM a Icried cryofaweakon e, SOf a i s investedwithdignity ui lhwn dark u (i )siitja y a.1'adde l -ma lh it j a mi n i n dr abb e l-Mb e hnalhan a uis 'itjawin i n drabbe i-qadr! n al h ana ui sruja' ma miti lha fi e-zen z adu s araf ma 'ruJa b arakat 1 'abbi : a lehabil wramathim' alal-l.Jerji'l uh r ab i i b' aza ymuh u ikfitjah y a s aki'n ji Mb e l-wadi y a sa kninibszVa. Theyhave s hieldsand s words. "0 thouwho a nswerestth e brok en-he arted!" Radiatin g fromtheLordof Dignity.Ie d-Djlanii sburied i nM esopotamia,

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine269Obtains happiness andhelp. ComingfromtheLordof Might.Obtains happinessandhonour. On SuffL th ere haved es cended awayoour seh, 0 Rabi,2 w 'I'h ere isnotherequal amongthe fair ones. 'I whohave increased in honour renowned Ble ssings o f myLordonherhave descended.Anddifficultieshavebe en cleared Byth eir good deeds they were cancelled His(good) deeds outnumber all good things .Withhis( superhuman) resolution and(mighty)blows.othouwh o livestattheentranceofthevalley, (1begtheefor)helpand horse s 0thouwholiv est in Sufft. ofnoble breedOur th ereinaretw o1Hewho s aysthe e veningprayerth erein SM a is g irtwith mightHewh o pr aysthereea rly(inth e morning ) SM a is fair andcomelyTheheadofth eFrank(th e in fidels)h e hasbroughtomyLord 0 AM H amadi Nor s houldonef orget th e genero sity ofthes aints,as a quality which belongs toever yleaderof e veryvillageor Bedouintribe. Whenever a dblbah i s off ered itbelon gs inr ealit y tothesaint, thus allwhopartake' inthemealarehis guest s. As during. lifesoalsoafterdeath a true s ainthasan open hous e forall visitors and needy p ersons.Hes till sa tisfiesth e hungryandwel comesthewayfarer. A manonc e hadadi spute withhiswife,sothatheranawayfrom homeandlivedinthe s hrineof el-Qatraw ani. The w eli s uppliedhim withhisdailyfood commanding himtokeepthewayhe wa s fed a s ecret. A s longashekeptthe secr et hewas never inneed.Butth e mom ent hespok e about it the weli withdrew hi s help.sI E l-Madjgub a nd sellI brahlm.2 H e i s th egrandfather ofa llth es aints i ll sura. His n amewasMa hmfid e r-Rabi a ndh e wast he fa therofel-M adjdfib.3Iti so ften sai d t hat m adj{ir]ib receivet heirf ood ina miracrllous way. See 1 Kg. 17 .

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270Journalofthe Palestine OrientalSoci etyc)Saints as JudgesInthe chapter onoathswegotaglimpseofthis important feature ofthe saint'soffice.There aremanyphasesoflifewherea misunderetanding, acrimeoranactofoppressioncannot besolved, settled orrevenged.Inmostofthesecasesrecourseishadtoa saint.1ItisIfirmlybelievedthat awliii whoknowallthehidden secrets,arealso able topronounceatrue judgement, todisclosethe guilty party andto take just revenge.Ifapersoni ss uspectedof amurd er and theBedouinjudgesaswellastheaccusersare unableto findproofs of hisguilt,heisaskedto take anoathwhich mu st besec onded byanotableman1chosenbytheaccusers.'I'hrees haveto sanction theoathofthetwo.Thefourpersonswhoswear with theaccusedgotoawellknown saint or prophet. Thejudge either goeswith themhimselforsendssomebodytoact. ashis representative They take off their shoesand enter withrev .erence. 'I'heaccused man couches (&iqarifi$)in theniche, stretches outhis handandswears.Thedjaiyed comesnext.The three othersfollow-to sanction theoathofthetwo.Ifoneis absent a riffleheldbyoneofthemueakintakeshisplace. Theoath,which mustnotbe interrupted, runsasfollows:"Bythe great God (repeated three times),the creator of night andday,theonlyOn e, the victorious,whodeprives children of their fathers andmake s women widows, whovanquisheskings,whosubduesoppressors,Ihavenot acted, norkillednorseen,nor heard, nor knownnoraccomplished e vil, norhelpedtodo it:"3 Ifsuchapersonisguiltyandheswears falselythe saint willsurely,sooneror later-s-in manycasesnot later than insevendays-punishhimveryseverely.Hishand,whichhe has stretched out whiie sw earing, willwither;hemay"whileleaving theshrine,falland break alimb,oradiseasemayassailhim. 'I'hisparthasbeen treated morefully under theheadofoaths.d)Saints asSup erhuman beings Allacts hitherto described compriseonlythingswhichcould b edone-inamoreorless imperfectway-byanychief. ,Ve nowcome toactionswhichcannotbeaccomplishedbyany mort al, andthusICalleddjaiy ed el-'amanah, 2 Calledmu sakkin.I 3 JPOSIl, 51.

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CANAAN : Moham medan S aintsandSanctnaries inPalestine271s how clearl y the s uperhumanpower s ofthes aints. Disease i s an inflicti onse ntbyGod ,m ina lldh,"fromGod,"No human being can cro ss thew ay oftheDi vine.Thesainti s afriendofGod,hei s c hosenbyh im, tow ork inhi s nameandforhi s honour.Through thi s di s tinction h eca n a ccomplishmir acles which reall yareonl y a pr operty of G od,Th e r eputati on o f the s aintsfor curing dis ease is w idespreadande very pea santb elieves init. cl"'. Thes ameide a hold struein ascribin g tothe a wlia the. pow e r o fpr eventing orrem oving the scour ges whi ch maybefall hum an bein gs.Inth e fir st pl acetherei s lack ofrain. Q nrai n' 'dep endsthew holeagri cultur alye arofthePalestini an,andev en hi s whol e exi stenc e, Thi ss ubjectha s / a lready been treated a bove,so wen eed n otdw ell onitlon gerhere.Ins omepl aces saintsa re r egarded a s the g iversofgoodcrops,thedonors o f s uccessfulrh arvests, the protectors of undertaking s,a ndthelike .! Thi s ide a c an be tracedbackto Biblical time s.t 4 .RELATIONOFTHESAINTS' TOGODANDPOBULARRELIGIONa )R el ation toGodIIAll s aintswereonc e hum an beings andb ecame more lik eG od through th eir piet y.Iti s thei r degree o fnearness toGodwhich putsthemindifferentcl asses. But, t o whatever clas stheymay b elong,thesa ints st and higherthenmenandnearertoth e deity ; Therea renopreci sely kn own methods b y means ofwhi ch aperson may becom e awe lt When di scussing th eir ori gin we s hallcome. Tones tep f urtherto wardthe solution ofthis problem.The honour s wh ich the sa intsreceivefr omtheirCreatordifferac cording toth eir r ank. 'I'heir power depends inmost case s al so onthispoint.Butt here a rem any a wliii b elonging tothemiddle oreventoone o fth e lo werc lasses,whoenjoyintheeye s ofth e p ea sants asgreat a repu tation a s tho se ofthehi gher classes.Inwhat f ollowsI s hallgi vethecla sses ofthesa ints a ccording to t heir import ance, without go ing in d etail, for s uch a c l ass ifi c ati onIO urtiss,ChapterXVII.2H osea23, 7 12 .I

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272 Journal ofth e Palestine Oriental SocietyISnolongerspecificallyPalestinian, butbelongstothewhole Mohamm edan world. Nor doIclaimthattheli st isab solutely completeorsafefromcriticism.Ithasbeencompiled after a critical study ofmylistof saints anda thorough examinationofthestories anddefinitionsgiv en tomebydifferentpeopleof Palestine.This studymaythrow s omenewlightonv ery important pointsof comparative religion. 'rhe Pale stinian distinguishe s the followin o f saints:Il1.Al-anbi ft(pl,ofnabi), prophet s. \ Althou gh th e Qoranknowsonlyof25 propbets. ? the Pale stinian ha s givenman y oth ers this title.'I'husen -nabi Danian ZetflJ.l, Raiyalun etc.EvenSamuelwhois greatly honoured byall Palestinians isnotmentionedinthe Qoraniclist. There aremany so-call ed prophets whoseshrinesare wellknownin Palestine, butwhosep ersonalitie s arenotatall known.Oneexampleisen -nabiHanzal nearTell Bet ImmMir sim. Heissupposedtobeth e sonofthe prophet eafwftnj neither of themisknown.sIhavebeen toldthe following differ ence b etween a prophet andasimple weli. Ennabi baiyu n yu rzaq y ankab, "the prophet isliving, mayhav e childrenandcoitu s;" whil e a we ll i s livingandmayhave children. Although thi s di stinction isnotknown e verywherein Pale stine, wefindthatithassom e parallels inth e Qoran.!Th e martyrs whoarerai sed tothedegreeof s anctityafter death, saidtolive,eat,drink marry andbeg etc hildren.Whil e theb elief extends the se abilities toall saints the present s uper s titionres erves the s exualpowertoth e prophet s alone.1wa s toldIISomeP ales tinian s mak e th e distin ction betwe enaprophet, wh o i s atth e sa me t imemursal( senttoatrib e)and a s impleproph et. G onerally c ount e dasAd am,Idris, N oah, Hfid, Ibrflhim, I sma'il, Y a'qlib, Ylis ef, 'Aiylib,8u'eb, Elyfla, Harun, Al ysa', Mu sa, L ot, :QUIRaft D flhfid, Sul eiman, Yfmi s, Za karyfl, Chri sta ndMoham mad,So meb elie vethatAl exander theGr eat wasa proph et,o th e rsth at h e w as a pi ou s kin g, wh il e s tilloth erss aytbathi s motherwa sa djinniyeh (dail'at" l mu'arif,VIII,4l1.)3H andal m eansC olocynth plan ta nd. S a fufm=stone.The shrin e i s a buil t c ave,aparto f a Byzantine c hurch. A'aijqall ( anoth er namefor sm 'rl's=pistacia l entiscu s) growsth ere. Som ebrokenco lumns a nd a r ow ofh ewn s to n es ar e s tillvi sible ab oveg round. SuraIII,166.Seea lso'Abdalldh e l-'Attas,Z Ultfll'el!wqal'q 2 31 e tc.;'I' aqiy e d-Din es -Sabki (lJira t' usqam ( i z itiret aere t-'anam) g ive s m anysay ings of th e wdit toprove t histh e ory( pp. Ul4 1 35, 1 36 14 2, 14 3, 14 5 147 154 ).

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine273that appearsattimes during nocturnal dreams to womenwhofeelthattheyhavehad sexual intercourse withhim.sAlthoughtheprophets belongtothehighest class, they donot take offencewhen-peoplevisit others of their class,orevenofa lowerone.Thusa badit saysthatthe prophet Mohammed exclaimed once, man zara'a1.Jz Yunika'annahu zaranz, "Ifone visits mybrotherYfinis,itisasthoughhehad visited me."3Awomanofel Bireh assured methatMoses said once: illi ma bitiqs 'aziattiizfirSi ban ibn ljalti, "Letonewho cannot visitmevisit Siban thesonof my maternal aunt." 2.The arethecompanions oftheProphet.3. Awlia4 (friend,companionofGod)isthecollective namefor several subdivisions.The peasants compare them withthestars, whiletheylikentheprophets tothemoon, because whenthelatterappears, itdimsthelight oftheformer.Itis easier to recognize the Almighty God than to recognize a well, forthelatteryatasattar min al-kartunen kamiitatasattarel-hurmah. minelberj, "Heconceals himself from(beingknownasthe doer of)a miracle, asthe' woman concealshermenstruation."Inpractice this rule isnot true, aswe shall see later.Anotherslight difference betweenthedifferent classes of saints must still benoted.'l'he sanctuary ofa prophet is generally called thatof a commonsaint rnaqarn,while those of especially honoured andrecognized wells areknownas rnalihad.7 Thesub divisionof awlia includes:1Heard fromO.S. Barghuti. 2SeealsoGen.6 1-4. Anotherdifferenceiswell expressed inthesentencean-nabilahuel-mu'djizah ualwali lahulkaramah,"Theprophethas(really,shows himself through) a miracle(liketheresurrection ofthedead)andthe weli shows thaumaturgical powers(asthe healing ofthesick)."3Another sayingisla tufaqi!iluni 'ala aai Yil,nis, "Donotprefer metomybrotheryunis."Forother sayings seeMudjirI,53. '4 According to AM BakrFurikthe weli doesnotknowwhileheIslivingthatheischosenbytheAlmighty, while according to Abu 'Alied-Daqqaq he doesknow, er-Razi V,465. ZuhUr elhaqaiq, 235.6Theplaceofhis presence, hisabode.7Thisistrueofthe shrines of J;[asan, Husen,Dja'far etc.The Sagiliyeh callthe sanctuary of'Alla mashad, 18

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27:4 J ournalo fthe Pa lestineOri ental S ocietya ) a l-aqtab ( pl,of q utb1 ) "Poles ," th e fourwho f ounded theirfourorders b earingtheirname s: Abdel-Q ader ed-Dj llani,A hmad e l-Badawi,Ibrahim ed Dasuqi, a nd Al;1mad er-Rif a'l, Th e fir st whoi st hedes c endant of th eProphet's family, isca lled qu tb e laqttib (th e mainp ole).Itisg enerally beli evedthatth e Almighty. vha sg iventh ese f our th e control o fthisworld. "T he greatest number of siulj and d arawis follow o neofth e a qtab.The f ollowing v erse expr essesthedev otiono fa f ollower o f e r Ri ca 'ito th e four a qta b a nde specially tohi s o wn m aster: zai y an?am uis yadi Zmmat e lbaiy ar ba' s alatin h um l absin ez -zaiy ua llah l aw s an' ab u l altmi tl safth s aiy ma 'ajfdl aselji bi iaufiq e Hlai y. H owca nIbe oppre ssed w hile m ymas tersar e th e p rotectors o fthequarter, F ourking ss w earingc rowns a rethey. ByGod,ev eni fmy fl esh sh ould b ecuta ndr oasted,Ish all no t lea ve, byth e h elpof theM erciful, Livin g ( God), my se lj. Iti srelated, that e veryoneofthe se l eaders received hi s in spir ationf rom a prophet wh ose instructions (lj i(tah =pa thway) hefollowed.These m en ofGodarea lsoknownbydiff erent a ppellationswhicharederived from s omeofth eir char acteri stics o r f rom a mir acle perform ed. EI-Badaw i i s al soc alledal Mul attam,4" the Muffled ( of mouth )." Er-Rica) i s knownb y th enames Abil. el-'Aw adjiz 4 (theFatherofth e Ne edy),e l I sa w i ,AbuHammadiand Se!}e l-'Eredjah. Thel ast nam e i sderivedf romhi s curing al ame woman ('a1'djah) by touchi ng her wi ththesea mofhi s mantle. V erses m entioning the se name sa re:I gives as a sy nonym ghOl.2 According to AJi t he A lmighty Go d favo urs on ly on e at a time wit h h is so lititude. W hen hedie s another isc hos en. Lauwaqi !! e l anwar, rr ,1 57.3They are of ten ca lled as be ing themona rchs of th eir o rder. Lane, Customs a nd Manners oft he Moder nEgypt.Il, 1 55,notel. 4 Inthetextth ere i save rsewi tht hi sappellation.

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C ANAAN:Mohammedan Saint s a ndS anctu aries inP alestine2 75 siida t lenal ena si di y a-AbUIfammadi Our m aster (t wic e r epeated).o mymaster,0 AbO. H ammadi, tal e l -mata leh'alena d ir a n?amk a lena O urwa iting (for h e lp) ha s be cometoo lon g C ast th yga zeup on us. minsughu?' sinni u'anufittallazanu1.?ia tani t urbit n abisarluh ed -dalilbi ddi min el-'A?'edjahla/hah f ihil 'nadja)/l r :Sin ce my y outhh ave Ibeenapil grim inyourlo ve, Y outhh asflownan d whit e hair (o ldag e) has c omeandg one( i.e.evenmywhi te hair has fa llenout) .Bythelife(=t ruth)o f th e tombofthatProphet( = Mq' hamm ed) towhomth eg uideledand we nt a way, I as k s el.! e l-'Aredjah fo rabl ast o fs uccess(cur e). a l a b ohr en Nilel -'Isawyill?mas uMerJ,-rJem aiyanuh nuda l -mnadifiuil-masa ii ldae en na b i y n ala His tentispitch ed ontheb ank oftheNil e, El-T sawy wh ose p atients h ave n ever com plained ofopp ression (w ant).It is t he heraldwhocri es (h is power) inthemorningand e vening : ,, \ Ev ent hechainof prophet s trembl e inhi s honour!",I'.'I' r'Ed-Dj ilani is a lsocall ede l-Bas,asheis s upposedt o hav e be en t hefir st on e tou se thiskindofdrumin r eligious mu sic. Often th e na me i s w ritten e l-Kilani,a nd i s thenc onnected with ka la 'I'( fromka yala,"tome asureg rain").Thi s nam e i s explainedbyf I thefollowing st ory. The s aint o ncew ent t oBaghdad tobuy whea t.Th em erchant tried toch eat himinmeasurin g th e c orn.Irritatedb y this me an behavioured-Dj ilani sn atched th e mea sure f rom t he ha nds ofthem erchant a ndthrewi to nth e he ap of wh eat, wh ereupon itbegantobefilledb y an un seenp owerIThisve rse i s thoughttohav e be en sai d by'Abd e l'A !. 1 8*

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276Jo urnal ofthePal est ine Oriental Societywhichemptieditintothesackofthesaint.Ed-Dasuqi isknown byhisfirstnameIbrahim ,Each qu tb hada devot ed disciple whowas endued withthe' supernatural power s ofhi s master.Theyares tillknown and greatlyhonoured. Some families inPalestineboastthatthey a redirectdescendantsofth ese m eno fGod.Theyfollowth eirtenetsands tillproduce ma8riylj and da rilwl s o f thetariqoh.Ashasalready, be en mentioned each qut ub hasthepowertoappear III theformofan a nimal.Thefollo wing t able givesasummaryof characteristics:N a m e o fIA ppellatio nInspir ed by F amily f ollowing N ameo ff aA ppear s i qU!b hi s v ourit e dis c iplet h e f orm0Ie l-MulattamI' I s aIe z-Zu'biyehIagreen e l-Badawi HA' cl1 ih' I1(Je su s)I(Hauran) e l-JuzdjtIbird e l-'Isawi Ie r-Rifa 'i AM l -'Awadjiz Gabriel el-'Aruri 'Abd el-'AI p eacock AM' Bammadt Se u e l.'AredjahI elKilani 'Abde se d-DjllftnlAbu $ alel,ll Mohamm ed e nNuMni lion e lBaz I Sa mad. IjIthebirded-DasuqiIbrahimA braham esSa'di e l-Bahlul namedAbul.'Alamen1 ,CAcco) I IG hreiyb b) El" A bcMl (pl ofbadal),saintswhochangetheirs hapesarewhenev er th ey lik e, accordingto common P ale stinian beli ef." c ) e l-lfa t m i lt or e l-lfatwelt a re those s aintswhoarea ble to g oinanin stant fromoneendoftheworldtotheo ther.Thus ,.\they mayheseeninthe sa me d ay inwidely s eparated c itie s.IT he s enameswe re given tom e b y s e b 'Ali S araf (N ablus).2A ccording t o m lt!IU I 7 3, a bdiil isth e p I. of b ad'il. T hey a re p ious m en,70 innumb er o fw hom40 a reinD amaacusa nd t h e 8 0ot her s a redistrib u te d e ls ewher e. Wh enev er o n e di es th eAlmightyGo d chosesanot heri n hi s p la ce T hise xplanationis b ased e v identl yo n ad iff erent i nt er pr e tationo fb adal ,"toc hange." .

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CANAAN : Mohammed anSaintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine277d) Ma sdiylJ arethose whohave withdrawn fromallworldly affairs andlivea purely religious life. e) !Jalifeh, pl, ijulafa arethe founders ofa zawiyeh (pl. zawaya) asortofaconvent,aswellasthe heads ofsuchplaces.Thehead ofallthe z'awaya ofoneandthesametariqahis called el-ijalif eh e l-'a;am.This nameisnottobe confounded with the title conferred onthe religiousheadofall Mohammedans. f)TheMudjahidin(pl,of mudjahid), "warriors" (inreli gious wars), mghazin (p.of mgluizi), also "fighters,"and s uhadCt (pl.of sa hid) ,1"martyrs"arevery numerous,InJerusalemwehavethefollow ingplaces,whicharesaid tobe dedicated tomartyrs:aa)In el-Qemarriyeh2five umara (pl.of'amir) ,3princes, namely: Husam ed-Din Abul-Hasanel-Qemart, Diyau'd-Din, Husam e d-Din, Nasired-Din el-QeramiandNasir ed-Din Mohammad Djabir. Beside these princes manyothermar tyrsare' said tobe buried here. bb)In DjarrabwefindthetombofthismanofGodaswellasof mudjahidin. cc)Irdjalel-Badriyeh or Suhada el-Badriyeh.HereBadered-Din MohammadAbi Qasim el-Hakkari!whodiedin the J ordan valleywas buried. dd) EsSuhada5 outsideBabes-Sahirah, Afew tombsareshown. ee) El-Mudjahdin inthe cemetery of Ma'man AlHih .6 Theheads of70000 martyrsaresaid tohavebeeninterredhere.ff')Inside theJaffaGatetherearetwo tombsdedicatedto suchsaints.INearQalansRwiyeh(S.of Till Karm) wear e sh own el-mgllii zill. 'I'h e M oham m edan hi storians t ell u sthattheB eni c1-'AbbR s defeat ed th e B eni Um aiyah here (Y aqilt). 2 Situated nearth e English Mi ssion Ho spit al. Th emaq iim is a b e autiful l arge ro om.Infront ofthe entran ce isa {ustqiyeh (r oom-like tomb)inwhichth e d ead memb ers ofthe buddRm are buried. Th e fiv e tomb s inth e shrine li e parall el to e ach other. Everyonehasah eads tonecover ed withagre enlaffehandth e ce notaphshavegr een stiirat.The placeisn eglect ed.3Mudjir,p.3 99. Mudjir, p 39 8. l\ludjir, p. 411$,Th ey a ppeared on ce toth e moth er ofImm Mol,tammad KI. a s a great fl oak ofsh eep. 8They a re supposed tobeth e roostimportantm ar tyrs ofJ erusalem,butth e placeiscompl etely neglected.

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27 8J ournalo f t hePalestine Oriental S ocietyg g)Inth enorthofth e HaramAreaon e i ss hownseveral tomb s belon ging tothes amecategory.Ihh)Ma sdjad e l-Mudjahdin,"situated w as built bythe s ultan' Isa, s urnamed a l-Mu'azzam. ii )Thet ombs of e l-Mudjahdinin the' court ofthe .l} aldiyeh ., library. kk)El-Ghawanmi (near B ftb e l-GhawanmioftheT emple Area,NWcorner)areby s ome consideredmartyrs; byothers piou s men ll )Irdjal' el-Arb'ininth e w e stern co mplexof th e Templ eArea,a re s aidtob emartyrs. mm ) e l-Mansi.sontheMount ofZion. s g) Th e B ahalil (pl.of bahlftl) area cla ss ofh ermit s wh oa bjure allworldly riches, live alone inthefi eldsandb ehavea bnorm allyinmany respect s. El-m adjadib (pI.o f madj dtlb) b elong to this cla ss. 5More willbes aid latera boutthi sc lass." 4. A 'djamarethee nemiesofthe a s d es cribed a bove.There isonew eliinmy list whois s upposedtohaveb een aChristian converted to Islam ,Y ukannu el-Halaby. Allfem ales aintsare reckon e dinthe aw liag rol,lp. b)Position oftheSaints in 'PopularR eligionThe folk-reli gion o f to-d ay differ s greatlyf rom o rthodoxIslam, thoughthes ame mayperhaps be saidaboutpopularreligionsIO pposite B ab e l-Ttim.A ccordingtosome t herearet het ombsof s cholars at tache dto t heMu 'aaaamiyehsc hool.2Mu djir,p 355 .3K ahlementions onl ys ix o ft hese tw elvep laces. The re a rem anyot her p lacesd edicated t omartyrs scattered a ll overPales.tine. Some w ere mentionedonp .2 4. sT herei sa slig ht distin ctionbe tween b ahiilil a nd madjiUib, whi chw ill be d isregardedi nthiswo rk.6T here a re st ill ot her m inor c lasses ,su chas: z uhldid (p l.of zti hid) "asce tics ." Al though th eymay p ossesssome m aterial ri ch e s th eyabs tainfr omt heu seo fth em,a nd spen d the irli fe i n d e vo tion a ndprayer, a s inth eca se o fIbrfihime l-Adhami, n ussak ( pI. of n asik) a ret hose wh o l eave t heir h omes, witha ll th eircom forts, a ndli veas pious h ermi ts in ca ves. Essel! Sa'i d o f Lyd da,w ho i ss till li ving illustr ates th is cl ass. I s halln ote nterintof urtherd escriptionsof th esec lasses,whi ch d ono t p lay anyg reatrol eatp resent.

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C ANAAN:Mohammed an Saint s a nd S anctuarie s inP alestine279e verywhere.The orthodox Mohammedan religion knowsonlyon e God .'Everyonewhobelievesinmore than o neGodissaidto g ive God "associates" (surakii) andi stherefore a mu ,srik, or polytheist. Ev en the prophets, asw ereadclearly inth e Q oran,arenothing butrusl all iih (God' s apostles) cho sen b yHimtofulfilHis divin e work M anyofth em were s imple, illiterate p ersons, s ome e ven with bodil y afflictions.Itne eds no further discu ssion toprovethatth e hol y book, e l-Qoran,doesnotallowan ycreated being tob e wo rshipped.t Evenmor e, according tothet enets ofI slam, the Mohammed ans houldb e a fatali st, wherelif e cann ot beprolon ged by a nypr ayers, te ars, vowsandsacrifice s.s No proph et can c hange th eq adr.Ne v erthele ss human nature tries toovercom e alldiffi cultie s.Asnobodyknows"his hour" (s ii 'atuh) dutyobligeshimtodoallh e c an to es capemisfortune.Humanbeingshavealways felt thegre at di stance betweenthemandGod.Theyknowthatitisimp os sible for th e sinner t o approach theHoly O n e! directly, s ohen eeds a r econc ilin g m ediator. L olah-l-wastah ladaltab e l-mawsut. "Wereitnotf orthe mediator thepersonf orwhomm ediation i s madewould p erish." Thi s feelingis charact eristic ofallpeople s, a ges and reli gions. Th ePalestinian ha s inh eriteditfrom hi s ancestors,Heathen s, Jews and Christian s. Many conc eptions ofthe se anc estor s c an b e still traced inth e folkloreofthemod ernPalestinian Thusm edi ator s arosewhoweresl owlyrais ed toth es uperhuman rank. sandgradually their n umber increased andthe condition s f or b ecoming aw elib ecame easier. Once having l eft theri gid paths o f or thodoxypopul ar worship drifted into superstition.Atpresent weITh e m anyexc lamations c onnectedwithth enam e ofGo d a ndu sed in t h e da ilylif e of t he Pa lestinian po int clea rlyt oh is be liefi llt he a lmightiness o f Go d. Da lman,Derp alest. I slam,PJBXIII, 2 1If.jO anaan ,Ab erglaube un d V olks medizi n, p p.8 106.2' I'hefi rst head s ofth e M ohammedans w ereve rystrictink e eping t heir r e ligion pu re.'I 'huswea ret old th at Abu Bakrs aidt o th ose w howe re inc lined towo rshipM ohammed," Letth ose wh o w ish t o w or ship M oh,kno wth at M oh. d ied, b ut those wh o w orship G od kn owt hatHei s li vingan d s hall neve rd ie." 'O marc utd own th e tr ee und er whi ch th eP rophetw as d eclared l eaderb eca use ma nyb elieved i n i ts bl essing.3S eea lso Curtiss, c hapters V and V I. 4 Lev. 11 H,45 ; IPeter116;E x.1 910-13. Thi s i st rue alsoofo therr eligions.

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280Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societyfindthatpopularreligion is completely different fromthe inspired one.Thisfolk-religioninterestsus,foras Condor says:"Itisin worshipattheseshrinesthatthereligion ofthepeasantary consists. Moslems by profession, they often spendtheirlifes withoutenteringa mosque,andattachmore importance tothefavourand protection of tlie villagesaint1thantoAllahhimself,ortoMohammed,his prophet." Nor will this surprise those who realizethatthesesamePalestine Iellain areheirsandto someextentdescendants oftheheatheninhabitantsofprebiblicaltimes,whobuiltthe first high places.All awlia were oncehumanbeings, wholivedaswelive,and experienced intheirownflesh all miseries, difficulties, diseases and woes ofourlife.Theyalsoknowhumanfalsehoodsandintrigues.Thusthey feel with usinourafflictionsandunderstandusbetterthanGoddoes.tAtthesame timetheirangercanbe more easily soothedandthus one always hopes,by takingthenecessary precaution, to escape ortomoderatetheirpunishment. This explainspartlyhow they havegraduallytakentheplaceofGod.Morevowsaremadeintheirnames,moreofferingsarebroughttothemandmore help is asked from themthanisthecasewithGod.Inreviewingtheformulae usedin oaths, vows, etc., this point becomes clear.Thefirstrecourseis always to them, whiletheAlmighty isthoughtofonlyonespecial -occasions. 5.ORIGINOFTHESAINTSIn studying closelypopularsuperstition withregardto supernaturalpowers, wefindthattherearethreeclasses:Spirits.sSaintsandtheSoulsoftheDead.s.Spiritsmaybegood (heavenly, upper, godlyor believing spirits)!01'bad(earthly, hellish, lower or unbelieving).6ThesoulorspiritofIIntheoriginal maqam stands for saint. 2 Hosea 119.3Canaan Aberglaube, etc.pp.7ff.;ibid. Haunted springs.etc.,JPOSJ,153ff.;Doutte,Magie,etc.,pp.119,120,160,222;JaU8Sen, Coutumes, etc.,pp.218ff.:Einsler, Mosaik 4 Canaan,Aberqlaube,p .11.sThe respectiveArabic word sare sarnawlyeli,' alawlyeli, ralyYllanlyeh, mu'minun. 6 'arc}iyeli and turabiyeli, djaliannamlyeli, Bujllyeh,kaferun.

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CANAAN:Mohamm edan Saint sa ndS anctuar ies in Palestin e281the de ad maybecomeagoodorabad s pirit, according toitsgood orbad actions on earth. Thesoulsofthosewhohavemetanun natural endalways hauntthatspotwherethebloodoftheslainflowed.Such a spiritisknownas mfawil (orra sady,Gen.41 0.The g oodsoulsofthedeadareinmanya case elevated to sainthood.Wethusseethatall supernatural power saredividedintogood andbadones.Thefirst group contain sthesaints, good spiritsands oulsoftherighteous dead .sThesecond category isformedbythebadspirits andthesouls ofwickedmen. These twopowersarecontinuallyatwarwitheach other,butnevertheless theypossess manypointsofresemblance. Theyappear' in different forms,areable tofly,performmiracles,etc.Thedegre e of supernatural power whichtheycan exercise depends upontheirrank. The saintsarethemostpowerfulofthegood,andthedjinnofthebadgroup.Thealmighty God reigns overallandtheyallhavetoobeyhis orders. The modern Palestinian believesjustashis biblical predecessorsthateverything-goodandbad comesfromGod.TheArabicexpres sions usedwhenevil befalls a person express thiside a well:m in al lah (fromGod), b i ii!:nallah, (with God's permi ssion),taqdir al lah (God' s irreversible decree). Both g oodande vil powersareGod 's me s sengers whofulfilhisd ecrees. sInsomecasesitise asy tofindtheorigin ofthesaints, whil e in others itismostdifficult.I shall tryto catalogue the saints inthefollowing categories:1Such a spirit is a lwaysdre aded. C emeteriesa realw ays a voided duringth e night. Any c hildwh o isbeat en in ace metery ge tssi ck.2Itus ed tob ea wid espreadc ustom,whi chs till e xistsbut1 0as om ewhat l essex tent,toplac e withthed ead inhis g raveth e things towhi ch hewasm ost a ttached,his g un, argileh, coffeepotor e venhismo st b eloved di sh, This,a s wellasth e heli efthatthesoulmay,appear tothe living (e specially onth e eve o fFriday,s ecAberglallbe ),showsthatthep ea sants b elievethatth es pirit c o ntinue s toliv e andremain sattached t o theobj ects whichitpref erred durin g its life o n earth(JPOSIV,28).ButI c annotv erify f orPale stin e th es tate m entofC urtiss(in chapt er 11)thatad ead mancan approach hiswif e aft er hi s d eath. .3J ob.210;Am os36 E x. 19;1S am 16H-16,1 810,216 V ery int er esting i s thebelie f th at wh ere t herear ema nya wliiJ.,m anydj innt.ry a lso tobepresent. Thus s ome sa inlstryt o driv e awayth esedjinn.El'Adjami in B et Dj ibrin ask ed tob e buri eda tthe e ntranceofth e vill age I Qprev entt hedj innfr omente ring( sec alsoQS1915,172 ).

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282J ournal of t hePal estine Orient alSocietyI.Historicals aints, a) Bibli calcharacters,b)Qoraniccharacters, c)CharactersfromMoh ammed an histor y.n.Saints whose descendant sa re s tillli ving.Ill. Darauns ofsom eiariqah.a ndsaints o f unknow no rigm. Before de scribingthedifferentitems inthe l ist, itwillb e impor tant to g ivesome details which may throw somelightup ont heori gin oftheawlia.The examination o fthename s o fwelisoft en i s o fv.alue, thou ghtheexplanationsg ivenbythepeasantsa reo ften ba sed onpopularetym ologies.tHereisa list tod emonstrate thi s point: Abft S a'r (Fatherof M all.lah Hair)Ibrahim (1. Del' Gh assfmehthework er in palml eaves) Bisrel-Hafi ( theBare-Na blus foot ed)Ahmad AM S a1l2(the' Ir a kFather ofthebasket) e l-MansiyehN ameofsa inten-nabi Husan Asfflr (thebird) Nftfftb (the blower) A M Arqnb! (the father oftheleg)L ocation IJ irbet Hftsah, SWo f S afa AmI' D el' Ghass anehE .ofKifr3edDikDurahOri gino f a ppe llat ionBecause ofth e thickhairon hi s ba ck.Fromhi scraftof making b a skets fromp alm-leaves.Hea lwaysw alkedbarefoot.Saidto h avec arried a b as ketf ull ofwater,w ithout itsle aking .Hefrightensandconfu ses r obbers who approachhi s shrine.HeflewtoMecca.Heblow s up e verytrans g ressor s othath e sw ells.Hefoughttheinfidelswith a cam el's legbone (cf.Sam son) IS uch ety mological ex planations a rcn ot n ew.SeeGo ldziher,ZDMG,vo l.XX IV,pp. 2 07 if.2 QS1915,p.17 4.3Kifr=k afr, 4 QS1916 1 5.

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C ANAAN:Mohammed an Saintsand Sanctuarie s in Palestine283 Lillu (Pearls) JerusalemIrdjal e l-'Amud (the Nablu s menofthe c olumn) Allel-Bakka '(theHebronWeeper)e n-nabi Nul). (Weeper) Atab e l-KiHini (theM easurer) ij:alilAll ah3(the friendHebronofGod) AMT or (father of Jerusalem theOX)4Hemourn ed greatly inhis lifetime.Rechang edka skasun2into pearls.Remea sured out g rain.Ori gin of appellationResent a flametodevour hi s enemies(cf. Elijah).ITh ey flew during their life. A carob tree grewbesidehis grave.Bewaschosen,byGod, as a friend. Heus ed torid e onan : ox.5 The Almighty sa ved : hervir ginity. They used to carry a c olumnin one hand (originally pillar saints). H e usedto we ep mu ch.L ocation N ame of sainte n-nobi S a'leh (fatherSebasti noftheflame) et-Taiy ar (theflyin g) inmanyplace s AMij:arrubeh (the SW of fath er of thecarob e d-Dahriyeh tree) el-ij:aq.ra (theGreen)Nablus While forsomeofthe shrines certaindatacanb e secured from thesource s wehave,formanywemust resort to c onjecture.Many sanctuaries honouredby the modernP ale stinianaredoubtless older than Islamand even than the Chri stian period, as Renan writes:IMudj ire d-DinIl,49 2.2kaskasun(C lassicalAr abick uskus)=g ruel ofco arse s emolina(H ava64 5),QS1 917, 1 20. .3He i sca lledinth e Bibletwiceth e" Friendof Go d",I s.4 1,S jJ ames2,23. 4 Mudjirr r,4 88. So mesa intsg overnther ain ( es-seg Ghat, es -seg Matar),t hed ew (Abu en Nad a, S chumacher,Del'Djolan,ZDPVIX,350),vapoUl' (AMI)a babeh, Curtiss, c hapter IV), etc .

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284Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSociety"Men havesince their beginnings worshippedatthe s ameplace s,Iwhichwereoftenon mountain tops,wheremenofremot e a ges felt themselves nearer totheDivine,withwhomtheysoughttohold converse,">Ps.121,I.The Palestinian hasoftenkepttheplaceas a shrine,buthas changed thenameofthebeingworshipped there.'I'hus, for example,thecave situated onthe Mount ofOlives,honoured bythe Mohammedans astheshrineofer-R ab'ahs wasreveredby the Christians astheplacewhere Pelagia atoned forhersins,while the Jews cherish the still older beliefthatthisplacei s theshrine ofthe prophetess .IJ uldah,4Notonlyweremany Christian churches changed tomosques,butmany Christian sanctuaries becameMo slem awlia. Oneofthebe st examplesofthisis Mohammad Sacleh in S ebastia.! The following storyistold about him.Onceafighttook placebetweenthebelievers (Mohammedans) andtheunbelievers. ThemenofGodhelpingtheformersentfirefromheavenwhich devoured their enemies. Hence thisname Sa 'leh (flame).Inthe ruins adjacent tothe shrine Prof.Altfounda Greek inscription dedicating the church to Elijah the Tishbite inmemoryofthemiracle ofsendingfiredownfromheaventoconsumemen sent byAhaziah kingof Israel. Tradition haspreserv.edthe Biblical storywith slight modification; Sa 'leh takestheplaceof Elijah.Itisvery interesting to investigate differentshrines,getthestories connected withthemand note allthe superstitious beliefs attached tothem. Suchdatawilloftenbeofgreattopographical andeven historical value. Another very important factwhichistobenotedisthatmany villages bear thenameof their most important saint Thequestion arises whether thevillageis called after thenameofthesaint,or viceversa Asinmostofsuchcases, either principle mayapply.InmycollectionIhavethefollowingsuchcases:I Missioll de Pliellicie (afterGoldziher) 2 A.R.S K ennedy inBasting'sDictionarpo f th e B ible.3Mentioned alreadyJPOSIV ,57.Not R ab'ah el.'Alawiyeh asme ntionedinQS1917,121,butel.Adawiyeh The story mention ed inQSi s unknownt oa ll whomIhave questioned. Mudjir, 238, thinks wron gly that e r-Rab'ahwas buried h ere.GAit, Einvergessenes Heiligtum desPropheten E lias,ZDPVXLVIII,393.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints an d Sanctuaries in Palestin e 285Village D el' Yas1n Qaryetel-'Inab Bet Lahim( Galilee)' Arnrah Del'SaraflJirbetDel' es -Sid
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286JournalofthePalest 'ine Oriental SocietyEvensome quartersofcities,small uninhabited places,mountains, etc.,bearatpresent thename ofashrine, situated inor near them: J ;Iareten-nabiDahud Haret es-se1] DjarrahHaretSa 'd uS'idBab Sitti Mariam (Lion's Gate) Djabal et-,!,ori t(Jerusalem) es-seh Badr(NWJerusalem) 'reIl Bal'ameh 2ij'ariqet el-Liqani'Nahr Rubin Tell Yunis (S.of Jaffa)e n-nabiDahnd eS-se1]Djarral.l Sa'duS 'id The Virgin Mary e s-see Ahmad et-1'ori (alsopronounced et-Tori) es-seb BadrBal'ameh e n-nabiLiqi a e n-nabiRubinen-nabiYunis.Ishalltryto analyses afewoftheabovenamestoshowhowin somecasesthe saints receivethenameofthevillages,whilein othersvillagesarecalled after thenameof their most importantawlia.Itis unquestionably an important fieldfor further inveatigations, forthe results will clear awaymany obscurities inthetopography andlocalhi story. Thetwofollowingcases, although notmentionedintheabove list,well illustrate how saints perpetuate thenamesofruined villages.NearBlsan is themoundofTell oncethe Canaanite cityofRehob(anamemeaningwideplac e), destroyed about theeleventh century B.C.InByzantine andearly Arabic timesitwas represented byavillageofthesamename,mentioned by Eusebius, now :ijirbet er-RhabjusttothesouthofTell Hereinthe later ruinisaweliwhohas taken thenameofthe ancient city,andis called, er-Rhab. The s ameis true ofthe Canaanite royalcityEglon, probably Tellel-Hesi,A sel] AdjlunIAccording to Il,488,themountain usedtobecalled Del' :Mar Morqus (from a convent whichhadth e sam e name),Thenam e D el'AM wa sg iventotheplac eafter th e kin g AM-I-FatJ.!'Otmfm, th e sonof e d-Din,presentedthewholevilla ge (onthemountain) to cs-se!!AJ.!madAMi 1'01' :2BetweenDjeninand 3 BetLikia.4 Mader, Altcltri8tliclte Basiliken,ha sg ivenu smuchimportantinformationaboutthissubject.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine287inthe immediate vicinityofthemound,ona Byzantine or earlyArabic' ruincalled lJirbet 'Adjlrm, commemorate s the place and perpetuates in hisnamethato f thelong destroyed city. 1owe theselast two ca ses tothe kindness ofProfAlbright. E-sel] YasinIin Del' Yasin isalsotheoriginal Christian St : Yason.2En-nabi Husan in lJirbetlJ.useh perpetuatesthename ofthe 'I'almudic Osheh.Nabiel-Yaqin(IV,78)may perpetuate the cityofCain(Qayin) mentioned inJoshua 15117.3Es-stljAM'ror (originally the father oftheox)is built onthesiteofthe 'Ohristian conventofSt.Luke.s whos e emblemwasanox.SSoalso probably e l-'Uzer of AbuGhOs isthe originally Eleazar,thesonof Abinadab,Iwhowassetapartbyhis father "tokeepthearkoftheLord"during itsstayin Kirjathjearim (1Sam.71ff.),Thesanctuary wa s probably onthe neighbouring hill.6 Bet'fir isthe ancientBethRoronandhasnowasitsmost importantsaintanobtbearingthenameofthevillage-en-nabi 'fir. Nosuch prophet is known.'In B et Djibriu, theancient Bet' Gabraor Bet Gubrin,sen-nabiDjibrin ( or Djibril, Gabriel ) ishonoured.Thereisnoprophet(butan an gel) ofthisname,andthe saint' s nameis clearly derived fromthatofthevillage. 9 Ed-Djazairi, commemorates the ancient nameof-' -' _-I T here isno nabi in Del' Ya sin asAb el saysinRevue Biblique, 1924, 62 0, b utonl y a se!J1;liUel.J. 'I'he s hrine i sa v ery neglect ed, undecorated room, witho ut a mi( wilb t omb,matresses,o ill ampso r votiv eo fferings.Ther oom fo rms a partofa buildin gca lled ed-Der, The s pearofth e i s planted onth e ro of o fthes hrine. 2 H .Gou ssen, Obe" geo"gisclteDrucke Imd Hanil schrifl en(afterAb el in R ev. Bibl .).3See forbiblio graphy Mader,J.c .,166 U:4 M eist ermann,1923. C f. o nthe o ther hand th e traditiontransmitted b yl\ludjir, andalre ady referredto.G D el' e l-Azhar exhibi tsruinso faByzantinec hurchprobably d edic ated to t he "stayofth earkofth e L ord." S eePierrel e Di acre(1137)..'7Itm ay b ethatth e t own wa se onneetedinJewishtimes with theAaronical I;Iur (p robably I;I or), by a popul are tymology,andthat B et' U r stands for B et I;I or [W.F. AlbrightJ. ,8It,isnotm ention ed intheBible.J osephus callsitB egabris,theTalmud B etGubrin,Th eC rusadersbuilth erea fortress which they ca lledGib elin (M eistermann).9A bout t hen ew ma qam se eQ S1 915, 171.

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288 Journal ofthe Palestine Oriental SocietyGezer, AMSOseh beingthenewname.OnTellel'AsOrthe seg el'Asflr perpetuates thenameof Baal Hazor ofIISam,1323.'I do not doubtthat es-se1.J2 el-Tnbawyhasthesameoriginas that of ed-Djazairt. AbflKferperpetuates thenameoftheoldOanaanite citywhoseruinisstillknownas el-Kefirah. QabrHabruns(near Hebron) perpetuates theHittiteEphran4ofGen.23 Itis to benotedthatthese ancient citynamesareoftencertainly notderivedfrom personal names,butthe Palestinian haspersonified themwitheponymoussaints.In another setofcasesthesainthas givenhisnametothevillageinwhichheishonoured:Oldnam e ofthel o calityHebron BethanyMizpehofBenjamin no village ahillNameofth esaint :tralil Allah Lazarus (el-Tlzer) Samuel St.George (el-l} JonasPresentname ofthe localityelHalil el':fuzariyehNeb'i el-Hader. TellYunis.Kafl .in KaflHarisisoriginally Kafr.Thechangeofconsonants isdueto dissimilation ofthe asin Surbahil for Surbahir, etc., andisquite regular in Palestinian Arabic. After Kafrhadbeen changedintokafithe latter was connected withtheQoranicprophet Dul-Kafl,anda sanctuary ofthis prophetarose.IThe treesarecalled sadjat'at el-'Aw asir. In oaths Irdjfll el-'Awasir isused.Bothpoint totheplural. Ontheoth erhandthe mi!lrlib andthecaveare connected withthesing. 'Asur. The mi{lrlib doesnot exist anymore Robinson,BiblicalBesearoheeinPalestine,Il,264,not eI,mentions a weli onthetopof the mountain.2See alsoRev. Bib!'1907,445.3MudjirI, 40 calls him'Afrun. Mader,Alichristliche Basiliken,146,not e 3. sNear arethe ruins ofa Byzantine c hurch.Some Christians ofBir Zet cherishthetraditionthattherewasa Christian conventbe aring the nam e of "St. Katharina."The etymology of corresponds morewith Katrina thanwith Qatrah (avillage nearGasa). 6Abel, Rev. Bib\.1912,167,Theidentification with Mizp ah is disputed. Alt makesit=l\lizpeh, but not MizpahjAlbrightmake sit = both(withG.A.Smith andBuhl).

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestin e2 89Before leaving t hispartIventuretodrawthefollowingcom parision. Ihavebeentoldthate n-nabi Zetun 1( near Bet-0ni a) \ s tandsfor Zebulon.?Raiy alnn intheshrineofel-' Anbia (N ablus) stands alsoforthe. s amepatriarch. Iwould suggestthat is the source ofboth and andthatanearlyArabicor evenaQufic inscription withtheworld w ould bethenwritten o,JJ)-was misreadandc hangedbysometo andbyotherto 4 Inman y case s w earetoldthatmany saints liveinoneandthe" s ame shrine. Ihavefoundth enumbers 10 40, 60and70topredominate, fort y bein g th e mostimportantandthemost c ommon.Inanalysing th e shrin esdedicatedtothe"forty wefindthatthis number isalways combined with somedes criptive appellation, s uch a sweli, nabi mu'min mghaz1,rdjal l aMd mabsftmiYc.h andinone ca se' adjami.Leavingthelastexpression aside forthepresent, we observethatthese appellation s maybe group ed into twocategories:1.'I'hose pointing tosanctityoflif e, lik e we li, nab i,mu'min.2.'I'hos e pointin g to martyrdom, l aMd and mgh azi. Iti s a most difficult problem toknowwho th e forty wer e.IntheOriental Christian church weh ave sevenocc asions on which fortypersonsa recelebrated.!Sixtimes theyaremartyrs"a ndonces aints. One g roupof these s evenwere killed in Palestine.7Themost im -"1'I'h e p opular tr aditiona boutth e ori ginofthiss aintrnnsa s f ollows:I mm esSel! ( thed aughter o f AJ.1mad e d-Dadjdjfini)wh oses hrinelie s ne ar, be heldon e d ay a co lumn o ffir ere achingfr om he aven t oea rth.Th es amenighta rev erend sel! ap pearedt o h era nd sa idthathi s pl ace lay atth epointwh ere t hefi re t ouched th eea rth.E arly ne xt m orni ng sh ehurried tothe s ite,wh ich was known t o b ea bsolutelytreelessa ndt o h erg reat a stonis hmen t f ounda largeo livetr eeg rowing t here. S he ca lledth ep lace eSse!l ,A M Z etfm. I ca n n otve rifyDrake's st atementinQS1 872, 179 ,that Ab u Z etun w as th eso n of I mm es-Se h. 2 Heard fr omseve ralp eopleo f B et U nilL 3Sc humacher,ZDPVIX, 35 3 m enti ons an A bu Zetun ( inDj fllan),w hose n ameca me a lsofr oma n o livetree. 4 S ome h ave e ven mi sread the)as a .> andreadD abbilfm, S e c G reek SY NAXARY. G Inon e c ase forty vir gins, in a notherfortyc hildren s ufferedmartyrdom.7Iti s to fie n oted t hat o ut of 108 occas ions on wh ichC hristians s uffered p ersecutiona ndd eath w e fin do nly seve ntim es thatt he numb ero f t hemartyrs w as f orty (Synaxary), 1 9

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290J ournal ofth e Palestine Oriental Society.,numberinma gic formula e,s uperstition itc annot comp etew ithth e holy n umbersportantgroup,theforty martyrs of Sebaste (AsiaMin or),' peri shed fromcoldinafrozenlake,duetothepersecutionofLiciniu s. Probably the C hristianlegendshavegiventheimpulsetothe Mohammedan idea. Thisisdoubtlessthe c ase with maq am e l-Arb'inin Nazareth, whichw as erected onthesiteofth e church ofthe martyrs. 2 Thesam e maybes aid ofthema sliad.el-Arb'in3onthedj abal Rum edeh (nearH ebronj.!andwith prob abilit y ofthe s anctuaryofthefortyontheMountofOlives,. where accordin g toJerome there werethirty b asiltcas a ndmany convents.Itiscuriou s that. th e Moh ammedans, wh osesa credbo ok m akes very littl e u se ofthi s number,have s omany s hrinesdedi cated t o th e "f ort y," whileth e Ohri stians andJews, inwho se lit er ature w e m eet withsom any refer ences tothis number, hav e farf ewer.eI s upposethatinmany theori ginal idea wa s" many" o r" several"sa ints whow ere thought tohavebeen s een praying in o neplac e. Sooner orlater a personclaimed tohave s eenasmany as fort y, wh ere uponhis statement was a tonce accept ed andth e definitenumb er replaced thevagueone.Fortyisamuchu sed andreligiousbelief s, but three, fiv e andse ven.Tne xamining the s hrines dedicated tot en,s ixty a nd s eventy saint s wefindth at theyarele ss commonth an th ose mentioned. I h ave onl y oneex ample repre sentingeac hcla ss:IOnthe10tho f M archtheOrthodox.C h urch h asafeasti n t heir memory .2' I'his c hurchw as m enti oned b yBurckhardt( 1283) a nd Corsenus ( 1628 ), see T art!! 1 924, p.1 88.He w ritest hatwh ile 1;jaleh D jabbur w asd igginginhi spro pe rty, w hichli es t ot heSEo f t he m aqam fo ur pillarsof g ranitew ere f ound. Tw o w erebo ught byt he Francisca ns a nd twohytheGreekpriestNifon.3M enti onedb yMudjirIl,4 27.4l\I ader,o p. ci i.,1 48/1'.,gi ves th ep roofsf ort histh eory. '5Itis sa idth at wh en theProph et had f ortyf ollowers h eor dered his m uaddint oca llf orprayer.

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C ANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine291 lJarrubet el-'AsarahMghnretes-sittinnabi sab'in 'Azerilt3 Esawiyeh,l ;IBaniN'em.2rand. Awartah. .I ; InregardtothelastIobs erved SOIpe contradiction.Ontheonehandtheirnames denotethattheyarethoughttobe femalesaints,and theyappearedasfemaledov es: ontheotherhand people of Awart a htoldmethatthey weremale, prophet s .4The followingi s thelistofthe uJi'orty" whichI havevisited.'I'herearemany othersscatteredalloverPalestine:'tForty w ells inthecave of Rdj ill el'Amfid (Nablus) madjma el-Arb'tn inoneoftherooms ofR. el-'Amfid (Nablus) 'Arb'in M ghftzi B et Likiil Rdjill el-Arb'InBidduDjami'el-Arb'in 'Esawiyeharb'in Mghilzi el-Arbin el-Qubebeh el-Arb'In between and En HablsQubbetel-Arb 'inMountofOlives. Rajal el-Arb'inTemplearea.Beforecontinuing,its houldbestatedthatmanyshrines have completely disappeared, whilethelocalnameofthequarter,cistern, rock,hill,etc., still point s totheold Thefollowingaresome e xamples.In B et Djfila thereused tobeasanctuaryforMftr 'AiyM,5 St.George,s Gideon 'andforhissonAbimelech. sItwas believed thatth e double miracle ofthe' fl eece placedonthethreshingI,1Anoth er J;arrubet el-' A sarah u sed tob eo nth eMountof Ofive s. MudjirIl,411,m entions Ma sdjad e l-'Asarah whichwasconn ected with a ca robtree. l\Iudjir I,6 ijo fth e60prophets,20w ere ap os!les. 3Int he Christian Chur ch weh ave60occ asions wh ereiOmartyrsal id th ree wher e ls evenmartyrsa re c elebrated ( Synaxary). 4 Th e inhabit ants of this villa ge beli eve th at th eseprophetsprophesi ed d uring t he t imeof Mos es. A G r ee k Catholi c sanctuary. eAtthepla ce wh ere atpr esentth eGer manMissi on h as its build ings. Th e wh olequarteri s st illkn own a s J;laret c d-Der,7' Wh ere th e L atinP atriarchath as it s building.SInth e northernpa rt o fth e v illage 19 *

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.J ournal o r the Palestine Oriental Societ yfloorandgivento GideonIasa signthathewouldsmitethe Medianites tookplacein BetDjalfi. Theplace was knownup tothirtyyears agoas Iraq ed-Djizzeh,"therock ofthefl eece."?IntoHiI'ed-Damm (the cistern ofblood)itis supposedthatAbimel ech threw hisbrethrenwhomhehadkilled. sAfewotherforgotten places ha-ve already been mentioned inthe text. I. HistoricalSaintsa)BiblicalCharactersPalestine asthelandofthe Biblenaturallypos sesses th e sites where different persons ofbothTestamentslived,actedandw ere buried. Many prophets enjoy several sanctuaries, one c ommemoratingtheplace ofhis nativity, a secondthespotofoneofhismostim-.\portantactions, thethirdhistomb,andstillanotherthe place where heis supposed tohaveappearedafterdeath, e tc.Itgoe s beyondthescope of this worktogivea list ofall Biblical characte\s whoare honouredatdifferent spots ofP alestine.Theirnumber isvery great. Someoftheprophets have changedtheirname s compl etely, as wehaveseeninthecase of S 'aleh andAbO. Z etfm. Theshrine of e n-nabiYaqinonthemountain al-Martum ,nearBeni N 'em, ha s beenalreadydescribed ( IV,78).St.Je rome statesthata sa nctuary ofAbrahamwas founded i nthevillageofB entN'em, th en c alled Ca pharBarucha,Themoderninhabitants pl ace thetombof Lo there.His sanctuary i s certainly e rectedontheruin s of a chur ch.!Otherbiblical p ersons whohave changed theirnam es are: Raiy alun (Nablus)stands for Zebulon. El-'Uzer ('Awartah)standsfor Ezra, ori ginallyEleazar, sonof Aaron, El-Tlz er (AMGho s)5 standsfor Ezra, originally El eazar the s onof Abinad ab, El-Tlz er ( el-'Ezariyeh) s tandsforEzra, originallyLazarus, el-Man surt ('Awartah)stands forPhineassonof Eleazar.1Th einhabitants ofthi s villa ge b elieve th at Gid eon li veda tthi ss pot. 2 Judges 6 .3From th ewritten n otes ofmyf ather. 4 S t.Jeromes aysthat th is wasth esp ottowhi ch Abr aham a ccompanied th e an gels, wh o wentdownt o Sod om, wh ich b elief i s,as w e h avesee n s till c herished byt heinh abitantsofB eni N 'em ( and b y l\Iudjir). 5 Iti sc uriousthatMudjir( 138)t hink sit w as. rerem iah a nd no tE zraw hose s tory i s m enti oneda bov e ( I V,5 1).

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CANAAN: l'llohammedan Saints and Sanctnaries inPalestine 293 There aremany other exampl es. C ases likethe classical Y forYohannf;(John) andIdrisfor Enoch havebeen omitted. The follow inglist illustrates howoneandthesame biblical prophet maybe honouredin several shrines: Abraham north of Hebron in Hebron BeniN 'emJerusalem (belowthe .JesusBethl ehem North of Bethlehem Jerusalem (Holy Sepulchr e)Jerusalem ( Mount ofOlives BetDj aJa (Bir < 6na) Jordan Mount of Quarantin e Mount Tabor Betel-J;lalil,1 BirelJ;lalil, histombandBallutet el-J;lalil ,2 theplacefromwhichhebeh eld the destruction ofSodom. a 1Ilibrab whereh e issuppo sed to have prayed nativityand Mgharet e s-Saiydi (the milk-grotto) thefieldoftheGrey Peas.! Beside thetombofChri st, therearemanyspots connect ed with hislife history F oot imprint, belowthe Sr ir Isa ; imprints of both feetinth e A scensionchapel. Imprints oftheknee s Baptism. a grotto whereJesus sp ent hi s fast. 'I'ransfiguration.1, :M e ntion e dbyl\Iudjired -Din'Il,4 24, a s theplae e wh ere Abraharn h ad hi s t ents.Itistobe noted th atse veralpla c e s inth e n eighbourhoodst ill indi cate bibli cal places: en -Namreh ( as ummitofamountain) ,e r-Ram e h ( another s ummit), dj abal el-Batrak (the highest mountain in s onthernPale stin e) En Sarah, IJall et e l-Bujmeh, e tc.2Really B alll1tet Sebt tt. 3InB erzeh, n ear D amascus, i ss upposedt o behisbirthpla ce. 4 'I'h eArabicl egend tell s u s that"on e day amanwa s s owing dwarf p eas inthatfi eld, wh en J esus p as sing by a sked him:'Whatar e you sowing there, my friend?' 'Stone s' wa s t he answ er.'Very w ell, youwillreap ston es.' And truly when t hes owerca meto ga therthem,he foundnothingbutp etrifi ed pea s' (Meistermann), Secanotherv ersion ofthestory given inIV, note ll .

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294Journal ofthePale stine Ori ental S ocietyDavid .Bethlehem ,JerusalemJerusal em (belowthe f;labrah) Jerusalem (outsi de of e lAqsa)Inthe"Tower ofDavid"lInQu bbet e s-SirislehDavid' s ci stern s e tc.) hi s tomb Dfthfid a m ibrab a (2S am. 2 314 Thedifferent s hrinesofth eprophetJ ob2a ndtho se of e l-Hader! have b een alreadyenumerated.Insomeca sesse veraltomb s ofon e andthesam eprophetareshown.Theinhabitants of each vill agearecertainthattheirsanc tuary isthecorrectone Af ew examples a re: Jonahh as atombin J;[ an Yfm is, anoth er in J;[all.lo.I4 and athird 5 in Me shed.6 Thereare s tillotherplace s commemo rating J onah: NebiYo.n i s atNahrSukrer? (6kmt o th enortho fMinetel -Qal 'ah) ,aTell Yitni s s ix a ndha lf km s outhofJaffa,sand :ij un en nabi Yuni s b etween SidonandB eirut.Inthis placetradition tell s u sthatth e fi shc astup J onah uponthedry lund. ? Jo seph h as hi s m ains hrine nearN a blus,Thisi s honoured byMohamm edans, Chri stian s, S amaritansandJews, whileth es hrine ( alsowitht h e tomb)in B et Idjza.'I L e Strange, P alestin e u ndel"th e i lfoslellls, I'-2 13.2'EnAiy ilbso uth o f J:Ial!).ul w as n otye tm entioned. 3 H e isconfu sed wit h S t. Geor ge, Elij ah, El eazara ndPh iu e ua H anauer,Fo lklore o f th e H o(y L and, p.51.Th e l a st t wona mes m ustb e except ionally ra re, as In ever h eardt hem. 4 ]\IudjirI 14 2. Th em inaretw as bu ilt i n th ey ear 62 3 A H .( 1226).Th eJewsp lacedh ere thesan ctuary ofGad(1\1.V .Gu erin,Des cr. G eoqr.e t Arcll eol. d e l a Palestine, Jt ulee Ill, 284 ff .). 5 Gu ldziher,Moh. Tra d iiber den Grab esort d es Jona s,ZDPVIl,1 3,e tc.; Abel ,Le C ultede J o n a s en Palestine,JPOSrr,17 6;G uerin,csuuI, 16 5; Thi s p la ce i s theoldGath -H epher a ssociated withaprophetJonas i n 2 K g.142 5.I'6 Me shed (pl aceo f martyrdom) owesit s nam e tothe story ofth e prophet .7Abel ,1.c 179 .,8Schick,QS1888,p 7ff 9 l\fudji r's account -about theplac e wh ereJonah w as castupisunc ertain.

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C ANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine295WofKafl Haris.Kafr S abaYanun Yahudiy ehD anian S.ofJaffa Ras el.'En Banat Ya'qub Y amin Binyainin YahUdfi. D anian (Dan) Rubin Tari (Ashar) enjoysonlylocalhonourandwas neglected when Ivisitedtheplace .IA third shrine isshownin Hebron inHaram el-ij:alil.2 Itiscurioustonotethatformostofthes ons ofJacobthere are s hrines situated indiffer ent villagesonthe western mountain s ofMiddle Palestin e. There are:Raiy alfm(Zebulon)NablusYasadjar(Isachar)Nablu s Asar N ablus Yusif N ablus Yu sif B et IdjzfLSimon Qalqiliyah el-ij:aq.r a ( Jacob's daughter) Nablusb)Qoranic PersonagesInthi s groupw ec ounttheper sonages who a refir st mentioned intheQ oran,a nd a renotbiblic al.Thereareonlyfew repre sent : ative s, themost important ofwhomi s Mohammed himself whose mainshrin e i s n ot in Pale stine.InP alestine wehave several places connect ed withhi s lifehi story, namely, th?se ofthe miraculous night-journey (l elatul-mi'radj). Thefollowingaretheplace s Iknowof:1.Histwelvefoot imprints ontheHolyRock, 2.Thetongu e ofthe lSagr ah whichspokewithhim 3 .Theplacewher e hepr ayed, belowth e Rock 4 'fa djet 5.Theholei n th e Rockthrou gh whichh e ascended toheaven 6 .Theimpr ession ofhi s footona separat e pieceofston e 7.The Prophet 's h air, 8.Und er the two 9.Theplacewhere Braq wastied, 10. Z etunit en-Nabl ,,IW hil e t hepreceding andth e n extp lacesar e m entionedb y Mudj ir, h e kn ows n othingabo ut t his sa nctuary. .2S e eMan asik ual-Halil,p.3 4,a nd Mur sid la z-zayr,p .40.Som e M ohammedansbe lieveth atJose phw asthrown b y hisbrethren' in apit(birS indjil); o thersthinkth at t his welli s inh a bited by f;lttleJ;1, C anaan, Haunted Spr ings,e tc.JPO SI NI'.4 .

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296 J ournalofthe Pal estine Ori ental S ociety,11 .Qubbetel -Mi'radj, 12 Aqubbehinwhichitis said thattheprophet prayed withthe an gelsandth eprophets, 13 Afoot i mprintnear D el' Ghassaneh 14.Another inHaramelHalil.1. TheprophetI Sbynomea ns conn ectedo nlywith these s pots,buth e me ets everyFriday wit h som e a wliaIn theirs hrines,wherehe h as been observedpraying ? Beside th eprophetMohammedtherearef ourprophets peculiar toth e Qoran: Hud,3S u 'e b6 a ndDul -Kafl ,Hudw assentt othetribeof Ad, S aJeh to 'I'amud, S u 'e b t o th e M edi anite sandDul-,. .. Kafl6 s ucceeded Al isa' O fthese fo ur and Du l-Kaflare the moreimportantforPalestine I have collectedthen ames offiveplaces wher e i s honoured. Two(inQariyete n nabi and in Malitl) showt ombs ofth eprophet, a lthou gh i t i s knownthathe died inMecca.s Th e fea st inRaml eh-wherehisthirds hrinei s found i s callede ddjum'ahel-Hamiyeh a nddj. e d -dj a m i' e l-Abiad.? Th es hrinebe twe en Ldnahand'I'alqumeh h as n o c enot aph. '}'heIS ee th e a bovementioned Arabi cg uidebo oks.2 This sa me p ropertyi se venm ore p e culiar t o e l Hadr .Ifa p er son m ee t s an otherse veral time s a d ay,at differ ent pla ces, he says ; "Yo uar e lik e e l-Hadr, wh erev er one go es o nefind s hi m." .3S omethinkt hath e wa s :!J ebar, ot hersgivehi sge nealogy asH fidso n of Abrlallah, s .o f Rab ah,s ,o f J;;llud, s o f 'A d, s,o f ( bibli ca lUz) ,s of Ar am s o fS am s,ofNoah. S onof O be d, s o f s of M asq" s, o f l;IMir, a, o f ,!,a mud. (Th i s g enealogy, as w ellas U {at o fHfid i st aken f romS ale). 5 M anythinkthath e isid entical with t hef ath er-in-l awo fM oses(Ex.21 8 ) .MudjirI 68 know s hi s t ombi n l;IiHin ( nearSafad) Th e pl ace i s n owca ll e d :!Jirb e t Madin, whi ch p erpetuat e s th e n ameo fth c Can aanite r oyalci ty o f M adon, b ut w as identifi ed withM adyan Midian [W F .Albright.]6MudjirI 6 8 ,thinkswith o therwriter sthath e wa s Bi sa th eso n of J ob. See a lsoD iiiraiu lm a'B,if IX, 232. 7A iJe l! of D el' Ghas sdnehjustified th e tomb o f n ebi. o fhi s d istrictb y s ayingthattradition t e aches usthathist omb l i e s o nan e levationn ear whi ch s ev e n wad l.S a rise; a nd this i s t ru e o fth e villag eo fN ebi sS ale, p 6.9JPOSIl,165 .

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CANAAN: Mohammedan S aints and Sanctuarie s in Palestine297fifthshrineisinAcre. .Qu l-Kafl!hasa shrine inKafl J;lari s2'which bearshisname(cf.above).Thetomblies outside the maqam. Iti s saidthatacavelies belowthe maqam. Another shrine ofthis prophet istobefoundin Kafr 'Attiyeh.Herewefind again atomb. En-nabi Su 'eb hasa sanctuary in Adjurwhichisverymuch neglected.3Weobservehereagainhow uncertain these locations are,andwe may agree withMudjired-Dinwho writes: "The siteof the tomb ofnoprophet,exceptthoseofthe prophet Mohammed, Abraham and hissons,canbe located with certainity ."!c)Saint s fromMohammedanHistory Alargenumberofthese saints were commanders or warriors of distinctioninthearmieswhich conquered Palestine.Itiscurious tonotethatmanywhomweknowtohavediedandtohavebeen buried insome other country, S nev ertheless possessoneor several shrinesin Palestine. Manyofthe stories toldtoexplainthe origin ofthe se shrinesar e leg endary. A s exampleswemaygiveth e following: Ed-Dasuqi hasashrine north of Del' Ghassaneh, thoughhistomb liesinEgypt,andnoneofhis important deedswer e performed in Palestine. The shrine of er-Rifa'i comm emorates someof the blood ofth e qtttb which dripped here after his .returnfromafightwith the kuffar. Salm ane l-Fursi,whohasa beautiful shrine onthe ll ama ta'lamu maqabiruliumbiar1}itlyaq illatl qh eiru m a sakan a er-rasUluuafi1!ibrfitla aiiJ an(illilglidrun f ilii rllslut l kiramun tlaZ-lfaluu N oo neknow s with ce rtaintytheplac es oftheirtomb s,e xceptwher e th eProphet lived, A s well as inHebron wh ere there is aca ve s helteringthe honour ableProphets and Abrah am.1Heissaidtoh ave be en ca lledbythisn ame b ecause h c madehim self responsibl e t o th e pr ophet EJlsa' tofollowhi s st eps in worshipping the Almighty F or further d etails se e (l air atu-l-ma'arif VIII,413 .2Mudjir I,68, think sthatthi s isth e r eal tomb. 3A cc ording to Mudjir. t MudjirIl,4 24. Anoldmanof D el' Ghassan eh,a d esc endant o f e s-s c l! Abd a llah a ssured m et hatthctombsofmo st ofthe awli a c annotbe located withcertainty. H e qu oted:

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298Journ al ofthePal estine OrientalSociety B ftb er-Rahmeh.w T emplearea, S.of.Ierusalem.!IHebron.!3Mountof Olives, showing his s upposed tomb, wasactually buriedIIIel-Madayin.!Althoughiti s knownthat Okaseh2 (oneofthe didnotdieinJerusalem, hisshrinehere'has atomb. sItissaidthatheappearedtoa personprayingatthisspotandorderedhim toerecta maqam for him.!'Obadahbines-Samethashistombinthecemetery, known asTurbet Bab er-Rahmeh. Mudjlr ed-D in (pp.231,232) says that" nobodythenknewwhetherhi s tomblayinJerusalemorRamleh."! AM. Hureirahdied in el-Medinah andwasburiedthere,sbutashrinewithacenotaphdedicatedtohimisfoundatTell Abft HureirahbetweenGazaandBeersheba(onthe Wadie s .Sallaleh). Mudjir thinksthatthistombbelongs tooneofhis children.Someother.saintshaving shrines with tomb s, wherethesaintsareknownnotto have died inPalestine,are. ,Damrahin Muzari' en Nubani,Ibrahimel-Hauwas in D el' Ghassaneh ,7ed-DjunedIII trirbet ed-Djuned. s Abft 1-' OfIIISindjil. ?Shrineswhicharehistoricall yc orrectandwhich belon g t o thi s c ategoryare: S addftd binAus eS-sel]el-lJalilieS-selj Ahmad AM'rOl' Aliel-Bakka i ? \MudjirI,2 32;Rahle,PJBVI 79 .2' Okaseh b in l\Iul,1sin(n ot Mihainwi th K ahle)b in J;l artan bin Katir, bin l\1urrahbinGhunmbin Dudan bin'A sad bin :ijuzeim ah e l'Asadi C usditl gMb ah).3 Onth e tombwefindth e followin g writin g: Jr")...L.:.oJJ\Jr")->-s.---,
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CAN AA N:M ohammedan Saint s an d Sanctuari es in P alestine299AftertheCrusaders there wa s aMo slem r eaction whichledto the foundation ofsome s anctuariesandtothereconstruction of other s.'Fearof futureattacks causedtheMohammedanrulersto bendtheire ffortstokeep alargeMoslem population a tthemo st importantpoints,andto ensurethepresence of numerou s wellarmed Mo slems atthemost dangerous period s ofthey ear,This goalwas a ttainedbyf oundingsa nctuariesofv arious r enowned saint sandassigning s uitabletimesfortheirf easts .Theruler s were s upported byth e religiou s le aders,i nterestedratherinth e d evelopment o f reli gious lif e th an inthe politi cala spectsofthenew foundation s. 'I'h e auth enticity ofthen ew h oly place s w as easily established,andthenati on w as en couraged to revere these we lisandtoattend th eir fea sts. Thepil grims camewiththeirhorsesandweapons ;Forev ery importantwe lilargetractsof land weresetaside asw aqf,sothatallexpenses w'th the celebration s werewell c overedwith out imposing anyob ligation s on t he pilgrims Th ese pl aces weregen er a lly c hosennearthemo sts trategic centres: J e rusal em,Ramleh,Gaza a ndAcre. N ota ll s uchmaqiunewerenewly created,butmanyun importantandf org otten onesw eree levatedt o new position s of honour. Th erepairofth eroads andthere storation o fthecaravansariesmade i tp ossible f or th e people tob e : directed in time ofneedeasilyt o a nyspot.Thi s strategic policywasinauguratedb ythe s ultan e dDahirBebarsa ndnotb y $ alal,l ed-Din a s usedtobe s upposed.Thus wer e founded e ast o fJerusaleme n-Nab! Mft sa,2 toth e west(in R amleh) en-Nab! $ale1,l, andtothe north (inthev illage ofe n-Nab! $ft le1,l) a se cond sa nctuaryforthelatter. Asth e mostdan gerous p eriod ofth eyea rtoI slam wa stheGreekEaster when thousands of Chri stian pilgrim s flockedtothe Holy City,theweekpr ecedi ng this Chri stian f east was a ppointedforth e festival s of t heses aints s ot hata s tilllarger numb ero f Mohamm edans wa sga theredaroundJeru sa lem.InG aza twomawasi mw ere found ed, ed-D arumandel Mu ntar.3 Ne arAcreathirds hrinefore n-nabi $&le1,1 andn earSidon o lJef ore n -nob iY unisweree stablished K ingB ebar s's trategic plan re quir ed th e destruction o f th e c onventof Euthymos situateda t ij: an e s-Sahl( also call ed ij:f m e l-1I owesom e of t heseco nsiderationst otheki ndness o fAh mad Z akiPash a.2Da lman s tat e s,PJB,I V, 9 8, f ootnote, th at B ebarsb uilt j i nly t h e d ome. 3 Pop ular e tymo lo g i e s. Darfm=Arama ic D ftroma ; l\fu ntar = Aram.l\Ialltftra .

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300Journal ofthe Palestin e Oriental Boc iety AM-ar!) whichhousedmanymonk s.? sothatthewayfromN ebi Milsa toJerusalemwouldbefreeincasethepilgrimshadto march onJerusalem.Atthose times onlymenattended thefeastswhichweree ven more fanaticalthannow.Butgradually they became true popular feasts,andm en, womenand children Ho .cked to them; 3Inthis connection wemaygiveabriefaccount ofthe z awaya inJerusalem. Thesearebuilding s erected tohouse either th e da rawis ofa ta riqah orthepilgrims of aparticularnation.Thefounderof s uchanorder or s ome important d arwis connected withthis plac e i s buried initandis s tillmoreorless honoured.1.Z awiyet el-Hnud alsoknownas FaridSakrakandj,w as originallybuiltforthe fuqara ofthe Rifa'i order.LatertheHinduMoslemstookholdofit.Thepresenthead'is eS-selj H asan el 'Anl?ari.4 Thetombintheza wiyehhasno special importanc e.2.Ezzawiyehe l-Buljariyehhousesthepilgrims ofBulj arah. Mohammed el-Buh ar! was buri ed here, a ndhi s tombenjoy s so mehonour.'I'hepresenthead i s e8-se1.J Y a'qube l-Buljar).3 .E z-zawiyehel-Mauwlawiy eh, headed by Adil,ha s th ree t ombs, tw o ofwhichlieinthecourtandoneinaroom.'I'h elatter enj oys somehonour. 4. Zawiyet el-Magharbicontains atomb dedicated to AM Madian.Iti s the riche st Mohammedan c onventandha s many a wqafAbil Madian wasoneofthegreatMoh ammedan the ologians, who erected hi s buildingandbuilt atombforhims elf,s inceh e wish ed tobe buriedhere,buthediedin Morocco ,afterall and wa s buried inThelmecen. Tradition h asitthathis hand lie s inth eJerusalemtomb. !Thepresenthead i s Mohamm ade l-Mahdi,1N ot :ijim e l-Ahmar w hichi s Hadrfir. ljan es -Sahlw ass ituatedt o th eso uth oft he J e ru sa lem-Jer ichor oad, a ndWSWo f :ija u H adrfrr.2Who liv ed in t he co nventand as hermits in ca ves.3Theprecedingv iewi ss upportedbyM udjir I, 93 ,who w rites tha t Beba rsbuiltth e m aqiim in663 A. H.;a ndbyt hein scriptionfo undo nt h e mi n aret. Mudj irIl,39 9. Abd e l-Wahhab es Sarani ,e l-anwar I,153;Ca naan,Ab erglaube,8 6,not e 7.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries inPalestine3015. Ez-Zawiyey el-Bust amihehIis said to enclosethetomb of AM Yazid ?s l-Bustami.Accordingtoanotherbelief hewasburiediu hisgreatzawiy ehin Ramleh.Thepresentplacewhich contains two tombs(oneforthe w eli andtheotherforhiswife)isverymuch neglected.Intheroomsabovetheshrine livesthe qaiY1neS-sebMli sa el-Ghu sen,swithhisfamily. 6. Zawiyet el-Q adriyeh (knownatpresentas DarAM es-S 'ud) liesin the swcorner oftheHaramarea.Itisthecentreofthe Saf'iyeh s ect, whosemuftibelon gs tothefamil y AMs-S'lid.r 7. Zawiyet en-N abi D ahlid, ontheMountof Zion, contains supposed tombofKingDavid,andused tobeaveryimportant .vJVI r:convent.Th epresent balifeh i s eS-se!J Mahmuded-Dadjani. 8.Z awiyet el.ijanqah ( es-Salahiyeh)attheSWcorneroftheHoly Sepulchre was founded by e d-Din.Thepresent 1nutawalli is es-seb Aminel' 9. Ez.zawiy ehel-As' adiyeh,onthe Mount ofOliv es, usedtoenjoy agreatreputation.Itcontains th e tomb ofthefounder ofthe' AIamifamilywhoare a sraj (pl,of s arij, descendantoftheProphetMohammed)throughHasanthesonof Ffi,timeh (therefore called a lso Hasaniyeh).Thefound er, Mohammed el-'Alami, came fromthemountainel-Alam(therefore el-'Alami) in Morocco,andisthedescendant ofes saiyd' Abd es-Salam Massis.4 Thepresenthead ofthez awiyeh i s e s-seg 'l'ahir el-'Alami.10.Ez-z awiyeh el-Afgh aniyeh liesinthe N\V corneroftheTempleArea.Thea cting superior is calledBeyram.!Itusedtobe customary,andis still inmo st ofthese places toreada rjikm'6 ev eryThursday evening.To this invocation ofGod, w hichma y be c ombinedwithreli gious musicand da1'uwls dances,1F ounded b y essel! Abdallahel-Bu stllmi, Mudj irIl, 399.2Abu Yazi ddi ed in lJorastm. A cc ordin gt oMudjirth e m embers of this f amilywe re b uriedinth ec emeteryofM a'mdn All ah.3Th efa mily o f e l-Ghusun (Raml eh and .Jeru salem) aresaidt o b e th e desc endants o f e l-Busjflmi. 4 The ge nealogicaltreeo fthe'Alam i f amily mayb e f oundin F e!Jy e ].'Alamy erra?t1niln'ayat e l'Qoran ,p. y.5 Th erea re afe w o ther z awaya whi cha ren ot im port ant. G Th e exp lains etJtJikt a s t awMd.

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302 Journal ofthe Palestine Ori ental Societya w i?'d1may be added.Thelast e xpression denotes a s ectionoftheQoranrecitedatintervals,butiti s also us e dforhymns praisingGodand th e Prophet.Oneoftheimportantunr dei sWirdel-Mahyawhichis employed in a special ceremony durin gthelast ten da ys of Ramadan.The mUft i withsomemembers ofth eHusein y,Yuni s, An!)ari, andotherf amiliesgoina procession fromthe mUfti' s old house,in side .the city,totheshrine ofthe Q erami andaft er r eadingthe jatibah they proceed tothe Dome of theRock.Duringallof this procession theyrepeatthe wi?d.2 Theprimaryainofth e z awaia-to f eedandtohou sethepoor a ndthepil grims-isg enerally forgott en.Inetuoiei e n-nabi D ahlid s ome poor a re still fed.Thefoodcom es from t hefamili es ofedDadjani, whichtaketurnsin providingthefood.Inthe zawi yeh oftheMaghrebines M awlawiyeh, Bub ariyeh andHindus th ee xpensesare covered bytheincom e ofthewa qfFromthe'I' ekiyeh ijaskehSultan 3thepoor r eceive foodtwice dail whoseDescendantsareLivin gIn. many villages wearetoldthatthede scend ants of a UJeU a re still living Althou gh in s omepl aces thi s r elation m ay bel egendaryanddoubtful inmo stith as somehi storical fo undation.Thedes cendant sa repr oud oftheirforefather s,andin many casesth e e ldestofth e li ving f amily enjoysthehonour s o f a Iti s c ustomarytointertheprinciple de scendants aroundthegrave o f th esa int,orinits immediate nei ghbourhood. s An e xceptiontothi s rul e mayb e noticed inthecaseofthe (Ism ft 'il ,R amadan, Abder -R ahim, et c.)e l-Masalmeh (Yalo), whohave never allow ed a nyoftheir. de scendantstobe buried intheir n eighbourhood.Wheneversomebodytried t o digagrave b eside th eirs, itw as a lwaysfoundthattheirons ofthepick sbent.IN ot bltl 'da wit h Kahl e,PJBV I,7 6, note1.2Th e l astt wod ayso fR am adan ar e kn ownas l ayilli e lma!liii, w hile li1latul-ma!liil is tel atlllqadr, th e2 7 t h o fR amaddn, .3A cco rding t o 1\Iudj irII, 41 3,s hew as '!.'un suq t he d aughterof' Abdallah e l-Muzaffariyeh. Sh e di ed80 0A. H. (See al so K ahle,PJBVI,84.) Th ee ntire "Ol dSerai" be longed tot he'l' ekiyeh,which w asb uilt as a z awiyelt. Seea lsoK ahle,PJB V I, 72 o n !I adj Obed.

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C ANAAN: Mohammed an Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestin e303Inafew casesneitherthesainthimselfnorhi sdescendantsaremuchre spected.Thisistrue of es-sc7.J,Abu 1'Alam en (ofBiddu) A Jwhosefamilyis knownas'Elet Sarn arah, '"v:'""'"v The' followinglistgive s those s aints of' thisgroupwho se shrines Ihave visited:N ame! L ocation Or igin Livin g f amily. AM Yamiu B et Anftn Yaman EletAM Y amined-Dawa'ri Surbfthir M ecca? es-sc7.J, IbneiyaAhmad el-Huw es Biddu' El e t S/,ladeh 3 .I;I:amdall fthBidduBiddil Dares.SelJ..I;I:asan A M l'AlamenBiddu E l a t Samarah' Abd es -Salam 'AnfttftlJirbet Almittheinhabitants of An f tt a Darwis B et Surik B et SurikSe e b elow 1'elalJ.B et Surikr B et Surik Se e below AllIRamadan'All'Ob M Qattaneh Me cca Theinhabitants of'Abdel-Mahdithevillage Abdel-Hftdi I sma'ile l-Tnbawy AMGhos Qariete l-'Inab apartofth e in-habitantsI 'mar B et DuqquhHauran-apart of thein-.habitantsOtherso fthi sca tegorywho se'ehrinesIhavenotvisited,are:N ame !-, aldjeh Quddameh SMa DjabrMuhammade n-Nuhi. Lo cation Qabfttiah Djildjiliah D el' Ghassftneh RaffltDerAbftn Livin g f amily jAM e r-Rabb t ',:, \ en-N ftbulsi (Nablus) e l-Madjdub in Rafftt andinD anyfm e n-Nuhi II haveo mittedthe titl es se!!, e tc.inthis li st.2Butth ey d id n oto riginate i nM ecca.3Im et Mal,1mfld Sl,1adch as w ella s o ncm ember o f eac hon eof th esefa mili es .IHe i s su pposed t o h aveco mefr oma vill ageca lledImmW alad.

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304' J o urnalofthe Palestin e Ori ental S ociety Livi ng f amilyBarghnttFamily D ftr Kafar'ini D ftr N fll,lir naeH el.!Gh et L ocation D el' Ghasaaneh D el' Ghassaneh D el' Ghassaneh D el' Ghass anehN am e lJftlid Matarel-Habil Ghet MadjgflbI Ibrfthim D el' Ghass ftneh D ftr erR abi All 'Al,lfflr D el' Ghae saneh D ftr Abfl I-Auras! S1).adeh D el' Ghassaneh D ftrAM HarfillD ib D el' Ghassfmeh D ftr Abfr Di ab \ el.1;lilft D el' Ghass fineh D ftr e l.J;[ilfl\ Muhammad' B et Djibrin D ftr el-M ahdts. \pS ) J ."fr\.5' Thefamil y of ed-D adjanlhasalso produced many awlia inp ast\times.Imm e s -B el.!(Bet'O'nia) isbeliev ed tob etheirgr eatg rand m other.Iti scustomaryfor so meofthede scendants ofthe weli to tourthevillage saroundthe maqam once ay ear a ndcollectvowsmadetothe weli oftheirfamil y. E venChristianpriests ofSt.George used togoaroundtothedifferent v illagesto collectthe m ade forel-Had er,Theytookwithth emo neo f th e ch ains ofth esa nctu a ry,andmany used toputitaroundtheirneck s to p revent futur e in sanity. I nthis connectionitmaybeofinterest notethege nealogy of s omeue lie.Thatof Abd ee -Salamha salready been g iven ( IV, 86 ).Thegen ealogy of es-sel.! Darwis of B et S urikis sa idtobethe, foll o win g : Es-sel.! Darwis, sonofhadjMoh ammed ,s onof ba djZ ftiyd, s onof badj Ahmad, sonof badj Mohamm ad, D arwis b egot Abder-Rahim, whob egot eS-sel] Mohammad4whoi ss tillli vinga nd i sthe imam ofthevillage.Theuncle of Darw is i s als or egarded a s a weli. -Es-sel.! Imar' s (Bet Duqquh) famil ytree is: begotI'mar, whob egot D ahud, whobegot Marrftr, w ho begot Ali, w ho b egot Q asim wh o begot'Abdallah,wh oseso nI sma il i sst illliv ingIThe se f our famili esa red esc endant so f D ar e rRabl .2Q S1 915, 17 2.3 F rom t hewritt e n n otesofmyfa ther. T his M ohamm ed gave meth e i nformation .

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine305andisthe mul.Jtiir ofthevillage.IItis saidthat eS-seb' Abdall1ih of Qubebeh and es-selj Itaymof Bet Iksaarebrothersof es-sel] I'mar,This belief seemsnottobebasedon historical fact, since manyoftheinhabitants ofBetIksa and Qubebeh knewnothingabout this relationship.Th esam euncertainityexistsabouten-nobi Abii Lemun,whois said tocomefromthefamilyof Abii Yamin. Another examplearetheDawa'ri.Oneof them isburiedinJericho (es-selj Ghanim),'Abde l-Fattahin Su'fat, athirdin Qriin e l-Hadjar (intheterritoryofthe Sawal,lri Bedouin )andtheothersin Siirbahir. 'I'he most important ofth eseare AMM!tfi.,Bget,l;Iilfi and !;laIel.l. Bneiyaand es-selj Aydarestill living inSurbahir.Iti s saidthatthetribeof en-N s erat areth e de scendants of ed-Dawa'rl. s \Veryinteresting isthetraditionof es-sultan Badr,who is said to havehadthreedaughters, all honoured as wa liyat. El-Badriyeh. s th e mostimportantis buried in S arafl\t, el-Hm ediyehin B et FaghurandN adjlah in Djorif. t .Thetraditions connected withes-euluu:Badrandhis descendantsa revery instructive asillustrationsofthetransformations of ideas. 'I'he familyofBadrhas produced several awlia. Thetitle si tltan is givenoftenbythe people toimportantmen,whowere never rulers.Badrwasaqutb,nota princ e.Hisfamilytreeis supposed to g obackasfaras'AliibnAbi 'r1ilib. According to Mudjir ed-Din s allthesaints ofhistimefollowedhis teachings.Thesaintsandeventheanimals cametovi sit histomb,erectedina zawiyeh builtby himinWadien-Nu sur.eMostofhissons becameawlia.Mohammeddied (663A.H.)andwasburiednearhis fath er. Mohammed 's son Abd el-Hafiz (died696A.H.) left W adi en-Nusfrrandsettled inaIThi s p erson' gav o m e th ei nformation.2Ev ery tim e on e ofthistribedi es, th e' iddel:ofthed ead we li of S urbfihir i s h eard t o play.3Onth e do oro fth es anctuaryIread: J:.;,JYI\.Mo4 .?:'.uJI0";oj There i s n ot ombinth es hrine QS,1916,pp.1,et c. s ays tha tBadrh ado nlyt wo d aughters. Nadjl ah i s no t m ention edata ll.5pp.4891[6N ot N as firawithK ahle, / .20

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306Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societ yvillagecalled Safarftt,1a namesaidtohavebeenchangedto Saraf at, fromthe title surafa, asurnameof Badr's f amily. Hisson D ahfld's (died 701. A.H.)firstmiraclewa s thechangingofthewine,made bythe Christian inhabitants ofthisvillag e; intovinegar.Thi s he didb ecause the muSrik in continuallysoldthisalcoholicdrinkt o th e true believers,thush elping themtodisobeytheholyrules.The Christian believingthathewasa sorcerer, lefttheplace.Dahnd \built azawiyeh wherehe andhis children wereafterwardsburied. J8JI..-J /Ahmad whosehistory .will be described b elow wasthe cousin of Dahfld andlivedin'histime.Inthewrittenversionofthis storywe hearthatthecauseofthe destruction ofthequbbehby ..-/ Ahmad wassolelyjealousy.ThesonofD ahud,a lsocalledAhmad J vI ("..All was s urnamed el-Kabrit el-Ahmar ("Red Sulphur,"died723A.H.) andissaidtohavebeena great theologian.Ahmadhadfivesons <..,..0 11' a nd three daughters. Twoofhissons-' All ( died754A.H.)and C. Mohammad el-Bah a-were greatl y beloved,andeventhewild Ct a nimals respected them. All's son Tadj ed-Din AM1-1Vafa liv ed in Jerusalem (died803A. ,H.)andwasburiedinthecemeteryof Ma 'man All ah. H e left tW9 sons,'ABand AM: Bakr, whowere al so greatly honoured.Oneoftherel ativeso fthisBadrfamily, e*-sel.J el-Kam ali, was buried inthe sanctuary knownat present a s es-S eh BadronthewaytoLifta.3; The preceding details hfl.!e beenexc erpted fromUnsed-Djalil. 4 Nom ention ismade o fa femal e memb er withthenameel-Badriyeh; in Sarafftt onlymalede sc endants arementionedashavingbeen buried, Ahmad eVL'aiyar beingth e first.On e ofthese,Badr A,syad, (pl,ofSaiyd, "Lord, Master")had three daughters aswehaveseen, butnonamesaregiventhem.The circumstancethattheyarethe o nlyfemalesmentionedmaypointto their relativeimportance,and theymaybethe three saidbythepopular tradition tobethe d aughters of es-sul(an Badr, assaidabove.Thewhol e familywas1K ahle r eading the t ex tofMudjir"Qari et Sa farat" om itted t her eal nam e of th e villa ge,a ndn otedo nlyQ arieh.2N ot e t-f e r with K ahl e.3M udjirIl,489-492.K ahl e ha s m ention ed thi s partinPJBVI ,72-73. 4 InQS 1 915 and1916 Ma st erman andM acalisterg ive anacco unto f e s-slIl!an Bad r t oldt hemby a P al e stinian wh ose n ame andp osition ar e nott old. Th es toryr e s e mblesours in ma ny resp ec ts.I mportantdi ffer e nce s a re g ive nin th efoo tnot es.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine307knownas ed-Diriyeh el-Badriyeh (el-':EJleh el-Badriyeh) fromwhence 41t....JI;/) Ithename el-Badriyeh.Itis interesting toseehowafemalesainthastakentheplaceofseveral awlia, a result ofa verbal mis understanding.Itwillbe interesting to compare the story ofelBadriyeh asI heard itfromthe ljatzbofBetl;lafMa. The grandfather of el-Badriyeh wasakingin lJarasan. HissonBadr'camewithhisfamilyandhiscousinAhmad et-raiyar to J erusalems wherehedevotedhimselftoa religious life, spending mostofthetime meditating inthefields. Liking Km'Mat (the former nameof Sarafil ,t), he bought arocky place withseveralcaves.s Being disturbed inhissolitudebytheJews,whowere pressing wineInearby,heaskedthe Almighty forhelp.Allthewinemadein three years then turned intovinegar.They, thinkingthathewasa sorcerer, andirritatedby their loss,lefttheplace.Thedaughter ofthe sultan, Badriyeh, was married to 'hercousin Ahmad.!butdiedshortly afterwards .Ahmadbeggedthatshe might be enbalmed ,butthe father,refusing, builtaqubbehoverhertomb,whichwas destroyed twiceby Al),mad, whohadbeen expelled byhisuncle.Eachtime Ahmad cameHyinglike a large bird; sbutthe third time essultfin struck thebirdwithhis stick anditfelldowndead,afterwhichitwasrecognizedtobethe unhappy Ahmad, andwas buriednearhiswife.6Badriyeh's father couldnolongerlivein SarMat. Walking aimlesslywestwardshe reached the spring oftheweli el-Wa1).8i,7 wheretwoSdaughters ofthelatterwere sitting. WhileBadrwas washinghisdirtyclothes,"oneofthetwoyoungladies, Fll,tmeh,lo 1Badrwasborn, according toQS,inth e I;lidjaz andb ecamelaterakin g in P ersia. Aft er seveny ears' r eign hewas order ed byGodtob ecome a darwls. 2QS:Atthistim e th e king wasb esi eging J erusal em.Badrcam e e very daytohelphim.3Th ese cavesar es tillshown. 4 Nom ention ofthis ismad e inQS,first s tory.Inth e s econd h e i serroneouslyc alled instead of e t-,!,aiyar. QSr efers this story toDer e s-Sell, butitisn ota cceptedb y the inhabitants of Sar3.fat,Betl;laf3.fa and Waladjeh.6Its eemsthatKahl e wasn ever toldthis s tory.7Notfarfrom H us Ibn 'Amm ar. s According t oQSel-W had s ixd aughters. 9 Theword mraqqa'allwas usedbyth es toryt eller.10QScall s her :ijadidj eh. 20*

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308Journalofthe Palestine Oriental Societythrew a stoneathimandwoundedhim.The sultan remained calmandhanged his clothes onadead pomegranatettree,whichato nce cametolife, sprouted green leaves,blossomedand y ieldedfruit.Soon afterwards he lefttheplace.Es-saiydelWa1)si, who happened to pass this waysoon afterwards, sawthatthe pomegranate was -loaded withfruit, althoughitwasnottheseason. Knowingthatonlyafew h ours beforeithadbeenadead tree, he enquired what happened, andhis daughters toldhimthestory.AtoncehefollowedBadrandovertook himin Wadien-Nusflr, whichisnowcalled Wadi --Isma:il EIWal) si beggedBadrtoforgivetheactofhis daughter,persuaded himto return,andgav e him Fatmeh towife.?Badrlivedinacave wherehewa s afterwards buried,the place receivingthename Dftr e s-SeU, latercorrupted into D el' es -Seg.3 The ljatib, who told methestory, assured methatBadrhadason, Ibrahim el-Hadami whowas buried in es-Siyub, E.of I,Ial1)fll. 4IIQSs aysthath e b ecame v eryangry, l eft th e pla ce andwentto D el' es -Seb wh ere h espread hi s clothes o nacarobtree. 2 Badr' sc onditionw asthath e w ould returnonlyifhemad e herbl eed as sh e didhim.3Wh en ever a v illageha s a s it s nam e awordd erived fr om thest em lIuri!; "n obl e" (lik e S ari'ifat), orth ee lement lie!! ( as D el' es -Seb and es -Syub), th einhabitants claimt o b e d escendants ofth e Hol y Mohamm edan F amily o ro fa nimportant se!! 4 Q S(1916,13ff.)men tions th e foll owinge pisodewhichi s v eryinteresting. On e dayth e sa w thatt herew ereso ldiersinth eva lley,in number lik e t he sand ofth e s ea,a ndh e kn ewthatth ese w ere th e s oldiers o fkin g J;)ahir H e de scended fr om th e m ountain andin vited th e kin g:" 1 invit e yout o b e my g uests,youand y our s oldiers,andtopa ss th e nighth ere." Th e kin g wond ered atth e lie!!, a ndinstruct ed hissoldi ers to as ktheirhostforwat er forth eir hor ses, thinkin g itwasimpo ssiblethatth e se!! c ouldhav ewater andfoodenou ghf or a ll.Sult dnBadrs aidt o his s ervant Marzfrq: "Take thisjugandgowithth e so ldierst o w atert heh orses, climbwi th them toth e summit ofth e mountain a nd e xclaimth ere' 0 Badr' ."Reaching thet op ofth e m ounta in the se rvant c riedout, a s h e wast old, andb ehold th e sul{iin app eared and order ed his se rvant:"Stand o nthis r ocka ndthrowth ejugwith allyourmight." Th e ju g br okeinto si x pie ces, andat ea chplacewh ere a sherd f ellthereburst a s pringof w ater. Th e soldi ers,a fterwateringtheirhorses,returnedtoth e king andnarrated wha t had occ urred.H e wa s a stoni shed atth e mightypower ofthe slu{iin. Th e s oldiersth en a sked th e se!! togiv e th em barl ey forthehorses. H e broughta ( =5r otl)o fb arley and spread itonhis 'abiih ( cloak) andtoldth em toh elp th emselves E veryonet ook th e n ecessaryquantityforhi s hor se,andther e w as lefto ver a tth ee nda s mu ch a s there hadbe en atfir st. With on e kid a nd o ne "o{l ( 3 k g) ofri e e h e fe d a llth e s oldiers andth e i nhabita nts ofth e .

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C ANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries iu Palestine 309 Thestoryof el-Badriyeh illustrates onewayinwhicha saint may bedevelopedby tradition.Butinmanycasesth e developmentmay have beenevenmorecomplicated.Manyofthew eliswereoriginally influentialeldersoftheirvillage,whomayhavepo ssessedatthe s ametime certain exceptionalqualities.Aftertheir deaththeywere firsthonouredbytheirrelativesonly, but gradually their reputation s pread.Whilethe peasants of Palestine will recite the fatibah, whenevertheypa ss atombof their r elatives, inth e caseof s ucha dead leader mostofthe inhabitants ofthevillageandevenofthe district willperform this duty.'I'hepersonality powerand reputation ofsuchaper son donot disappearatdeath,but,onthe contrary, arebelievedtobecomeintensified,sincethe s oul,whichisthesou rce ofallgr eatness, i s freedfrombodily trammel s.tThe s oulcontinue s toliveandcanseeallthathappens aroundit.Thusmany peasants andBedouincom .e tothetombsof their dead toswearfidelityto theclan,innocence whenfal sely accu sed andtotell their difficultie s andaskforhelp. Thiswassurely,inprinciple,theoriginof ancestor worship which isstillfoundallover Palestin e. Aper son doe s notneedtobea politicalleaderto attain therankofa wel i after hisdeath. Therearesomereligious teachers whohavegainedth e confidenceofthe inhabitants andhaveobtainedthe ascendancy overtheirsimplemind s. Thesonsofpersons who were thuselevatedtothe rank of {:lJ or we li may attain thisdistinctionmuchmor e e asily thantheirf athers. Mostofthe awlia ofthisgroup andsomeofthe other categorie s areconsidered practically aslocaldeities.Theyarenotonlythe ownersofthesmallpieceofground surrounding their tomband shrine,butarethe protectors ofthe properties of their descendants andthe patrons ofthe wholevillage. Palestine has inherited fromISo meM ohnmmednuso fAl eppo b elievet hatth e d ead m aya ppearindiff erent f orms durin g th e ni ght. On ce amanwentt o hi s work a f ewhoursa ftermid night.Passing a longth e M ohammedance meteryh e found as h e-go at,whi ch h ea t o n ce took h ome. Hi s wif e f astenedt he a nimalandw entbackt os leep. Wh ens h e aros e s he fo und a d cad w oman inpla ceo fth es he-goat.F righten ed s h eca lledh er hu sband. 'l'h ey keptthematter a sec ret.Inth ee veningth e d ead w oman ch angedagai n i ntoa s he-goat, a ndwa sa toncetak en t othece meterywh eres hewasl eft. 2 S ee J aussen, p. BIBfr.; O urtiss, chapterXI,bringso nlytwo e xamples.

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310Journal ofthe Palestine OrientalSociety\its heathen ancesto rs theideathatthewholecountryisnotgoverned asawholebyanyoned eity,butthateachlocalityhasitsown divinity. Although there maybe several saints inoneandthesam e village,onlyoneof them isthe real patron ofthevillage.The resemblance ofthis belief withbiblical statements is striking.tIll. Darawis Many shrines belongtoa darwz ofsome tar1.qah. Itisnotan easy thing tobecomeafollowerofa darwz. Aperson musthave a predisposition toitoran inner call.Sometimesitisveryea sy to getsuchacall.Ifa saint appears toa mortal andgiveshim somethingwhichhetakes, the conditionisfulfilledandthe latter mustfollowthesaint.A man passed oneeveninginfrontofthe sanctuary of es-sultan Jbrahim (B et J;Ianina) andsawthe saint smokinghispipe.'l'hew eliofferedittotheman,butthe latter, frightened bythe apparition,ranaway.Hadhesmokedthepipe onlyonce,hewouldhavebecome a dar wis.3 .Aboy s pentthe night onaheapof barley whichwasputunder the protection of e-el.!AM Hasan (Del' Aban). Atmidnight he wa s awakened bya band ofreligiousmusicwhichcameoutofthe shrine and passedbesidehim.Oneoftheholypersons, approaching the child,gavehimsomedrink,explainingthatassoonashe drank it hewouldbecomeafollowerofel-Badawi.Nextmorninga member ofan -Nuhi family, hearing thestory,tookawaythisprecious drink.Theboy related hismisfortuneto AM Hasan, who appeared totheoppressor, threatened him, tookbackthemiraculousdrink and returned itto the boy,whoafterdrinking l itbecamea darwi. Thecallmaybe s osudden and thepersonmayfollow s oquickly,thatheis thought tohavebecome mentally deranged. This state whichis thought tobethe normal beginning withmany darawzs, makes the person called madjrJftb, "drawn".4A madjrJub \ whosespirit forg ets all earthly things andfollowsonlythe internal call,lives,s oICf.Ruth115;JUd ges 112'; 2Kg.1727 ; 1K g. 117. '2 Darw'i i s commonly e xplainedasd erived fr om theP ersian,a ndasm eaning "s eeking doors," i. e .m ediant ,3S ee al sos torytoldinQS1916 pp.66ft'. Gold ziher, 1 c .il,287ft'.

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CANAAN: Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries illPal estine311tospeak,withhis "caller".Heis thought to communicate withhim, receivinghisordersand instructions.1Heis s oabsorbedbyhis supposed inner lifethathe neglects allelse.>Hetalksdiscon n ectedly. s repeating oneandthesame sentence, roams aimlessly inthe 'streetsorinthefieldsandlivesattimes onlyonherbs-or e ven,asinthecaseof eS-se ljDfihlid,:; on carcasses. ?InLawaqih el Anwar we read: "'A drawn (inspired) person adhere s totheoutercondition inwhi ch hewasfoundwhen thisstatebefellhim.Ihave seen rim el -Badja'i repeating continually oneandthesame sentence, whichhe happened tobe reading whenhewas overtaken bytheinspiration."7Inthe course of this workIhavegiven several examples of these madjaf1ib.s In1924Isawamanwith uncovered head, barefootandvery poorlyclad running violentlydownthe s teep mountain of e:;;-lSall)iyeh (Dama scus). Onmy asking whathadhappenedtohim,Iwastoldthathewasa dar wi s who behaved abnormally in everything. Whenever he acted abnormally in such amannerthepeople o fDamascus knewthatsomething extraordinary wouldtakeplace.vIMod ernC hristian s aints s howthe s ame s ymptoms ,naf!lU ly iisminfinii dimt F ilis{in. 2Dalm an ,Der pal iistinisclteIslam PJB,XIII,27 28.3Thisdi sconnected s p eec hi s thoughtt oco m e fr om p rai sm gG o d.Th e y m ays houtattimessoloudlythatpregnantw omen mi s carry. ( es .Saritni, IT,151.) 'In Mudjir,Il,5 10,w e r ead tbat e s-sel! M ohammad u sed t o e a t s erpents a ndb eetl es pr et endin g th at they w ere cucumb ers and raisins. Essel!D ahlid used t o r oam aimles sl y inthe s t re e ts o fJ erus alem. Wh e nev e r h e pas sed a re st aurant ('a ssi) h e picked up s omeofth e c ook ed f ood andputitinto hispo ck ets. Nob ody ever reproached him o rprevent ed himfr om d oingso Reaching hom e or a lon ely pla ce, heb e gan t oe mptyhi s p o ck ets, wherup on e a ch a rticleoffo odcam e o utbyit s elf, cl e an warm and a pp e tising.On c e he wa s ob servede ating f rom a car c ass. Ap a s s e r-b yc ri ed : 0 s e a, a rey ou n ot a shamedt o eatfr om a c arcass?"Without an swerin g th e sea thrust hisarm i nto t heop en abdome n ofth e c arc as s,tookou t a handful a nd att hem an. Toth eg r ea t a stonishment o fthelatteritproved t o h e warm an dw ell m ades w ee ts.6 EIl-Sa'rani g ive s m anys uch e xa mplesin l awiiqi[le l a n wii,, H p p.1 44, 1 45,151e tc. S e c a l soE.\V. Lane,Manners and Cust oms oftheMod ern E g.,Il, 16 8ff.7Il,1 28.B E sse!J1 \'1. b in '.A.nan t each es thatt her epulsi ve app earanc e o f a darw is or l ow a cts p erform ed byhimoft en onlyapp ear toth e public a slow a ndr epulsive, whileinr eality th eya rethe contrary, ( cS.Sa'rani, Il,151 ). .9Seealsothe s tory to ldinQS1915,p, 173.

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CANAAN:Mohammedan Saintsand Sanctuaries in Palestine3 13Thisversede scribes figurativelytheway in which the saints act. Th ey enter the houselikethievesand take peopleawaytobecome their followers, acting withsuch suddennessthatnobodyperceivesthem.. .Itisnot necessarythat ever ydar wis mustgo through the above de scribed phases ofed-dj adb. Manyofthem,afterdecidingtofollow a t ariqah visita of repute and learn his teachings, assisting in his prayers a ndcer emonies,a ndinpla ying th e'i ddeh,accomp anying himonth e different z iariU, learning hi s methods of cures etc ., and a s s oonasthe master judgesthathi s disciple isworthyof practisin g, hegiveshim a nidj azeh:Thiscertifi cate isalongscrollofpaper',certifyingthatN.N.(givinghisgenealogy)who h as taken' (alja 4a) andhasrec eived the initiation fromthe 7:Jalifeh (thewholech ain of seljs i s given,untilth e reached) h as found thathi sa dept.... (withthe entire genealogyof thelatter) isa w orthy followeroftheorder.Hei stherefore empoweredto a ct a ccording totherulesofthe order, asallth es ecrets thereof have beendisclosedtohim.Praises ofGodandthe prophet a nd ver ses oftheQoranaren ever omitted. Th e mak er of the c ertificatemu st a ffixhis sea lt o thedocument.Onb oth mar gins ofthe scroll one findsthes eals ofvarious seljs, c ertifying the a uthenticityofth e "diploma."1Sometime sa personmayr eceive the permission tobecomea darw is withouthaving undergone suchaperiodof s tudy.Theactofgivingthep ermission i s call ed a 'talL e l-'a hd:2Thereare different d egrees orstages o fthese 'uh iul. Thisscroll,plac ed inanelongated tubul arcase,is carried by itsown er onhisside.Sucha d arwis willb egin often, under pr etence of praising thepow er ofGod tob oast ofhis miracles and to discant onth e power s whichhederiv es from th e Almighty.Inthiswayhetrie s t o e xtend hisown reputation whichisma gnified s tillmor e bythesimpl e Thi smethodof on eself1A n irljiizeh m ay beoft wok inds: a)As imple o ne w hich a llow s i t s ow n er t o J r actice th e fu nctionsofa rlarwis, .L)a hi gherone w hich all ows its o wn er t oappoi nt ot h er p er sonsas rlariiwis. A ma nw ithth is ce rtificatei sc alled IJaliteh.2 Th egi ving oftheoat h .

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314JournalofthePalestine Ori ental S ocietyunder the pretence of exaltingthegloryofGodISnot peculiar to Palestine.IInmanycaseswe remain in entire ignoranc e oftheori gin ofa saint.The doesnot bind him self tofacts,but often ba ses his faith upon supposedly observed unexplained s igns. Asan appendix tothis chapter Iwill describe a q,iker asperformed bythe darawi. The darawi s assemble inth e houseofthe ballfeh orinthe maqam whichhe guards. Allmustb e ritually cleanandhaveper formedtheireveningprayers. .The balif eh ordersthen aqib(his religious servant) to distribute themu sical instruments,Thedisciples forma semicircle oracircle.Thenaqibholdinga s tandsbefor e his master,andwhileheswingshis arms toandfro,say s:auioal qauli s araf lilltlh el-fatibah (repeated three times), qidwat i ua'ustaq,1.el-bae 'Abdel-Qader ed-Djil ani. "MyfirstwordHonourtoGod, (recite) the Myexample,andmymasteristhefalcon 'Abdel-Qiid er ed-Djll nni," ;" Thenfollowsome praises tohimandtheother aqttlb. Henow placesthedrum in front ofthemaster, who beats it.Every darwi s stands upanddoesthesame.Thesmalldrum ( el -Me) leading the other instruments whichfollowits rhythm. Th e music continues10-15minutesandisfollowedbyth e recitation ofhymns of praise (na sid). Thedrumsarenowwarm ed overthefirein order toadjustthem better. Afterr epeating themus icandthe three timesthereal q,iker begins.The appoints onewho rosse sses agoodvoice to lead th ese rvice.'Phisp erson beginsall fih, all ah all a h haiy,haiy,haiy,qaiyum,q aiyfun, qaiyum, allahhaiy(three times),or allah qaiyum (three time s).Allr epeatitandslowlyswingtheir' bodiesfromsidet o side,or backward s,andforwards. Generallytherhythmical swingingsb ecome more energeticandrapidandtherecitations wilder andlouder.Thisstate (balelel-gheibUbelt) maybecomesowildthatthehead-dr ess fallsdownandthefoamcomesoutofthemouth.Sometimes s everal persons unite tolaysuchan excited 'darw iS onthe ground toquieten him callsinhisearstheprayer of the m lt'a44in which is believed tosoothhim.The q,iker isrepeatedoft en three time s.ITh e b ook of eB-Sa'rani isfullofsu chs elf-prai se s.

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CANA AN:Mohammedan S a'ints andS anctuariesinPalestine315Atlastapartofthe Qoran is read andtheleader calls,"Iclosethis meetingwiththeDameofthe preacher, warning and lighted lamp." 'I'he jatibah is recited. Allkissthehandofthe se1.J andleave. We append somesongsorversesnot mentioned inthe textbutwhichwell describe the characters and miracles ofthe saint s, as wellasthedevotionof their followers: y a sid i y a bft S11ewar Ob ed Allah a'Vtleall ah uilay eh naeroh. lillah an a e l-mrid i lekumjarbamu bil-l ah ma atrukel-'ahd l a wall ah l a wallahomymaster,0 AMSnewar 'Obed All ah, Thy Lord hathgiventhee supremacy (inreligiousaffairs).Iimplore theeforGod'ssake,throwa glance (ofhelp)upon me! Iamyourservant,havepityuponme,I implore theebyGod! Ishallnever break myvow(tothe order), neverbyGod,neverbyGod! ya s idi ya w ell y ae l-hilwahjasqi muridak b idaks arbehhihuah. in kunt'an a z allet 'a n uhdokum ljatwah i llaiya minel-bal wahomy master 0we li,0thouwholivestina hermit age, Givethy adherent asweetdraughtby thine ownhand!IfIhave strayed astepfrommyvowtoyou, Forgive meandsavemefrommisfortune. y a si di in tIbrtih im y aj asqini m in s arab la 'allhum yktbftn i 'indlua min djumlit mabasibhum ya hall tar a omyLord,thouartIbrahim, 0 Givemetodrinkfromthe special drink ofthepious,Thattheymayhappilywritemedownasoneof their own, Belonging tothebandof their servants. 0whoknowsifitwillend succe ssfully? yaBidi ya waliy allah y aseljGMt i nnani b ikummin kull m a bih i ghetman 'anzal e l-am t ar j ihal-g hetd ir an?arBidi Ibrahim ya se ljGMt.

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316J ourn al ofthePalestin e Ori ental So cietyomy Lord, 0weliofGod,0 se ljGMt Iaskyoutosavemefromall trouble ,Forthesake ofthe One whosends rainin pouring s treamso s el]GMt, turntheattentionofmylord. Ibrahimt toward me. sid i sakin f i u ismuh. usirruh f i bilad e l-baddj ma shftrb1J,aqqsldn a e l-Halil uil-Ghaiy ftr tismal)la btitri ztitruddn i madjbftr:My Lordlivesinhis tombandhis name is Hissecret(power)is renowned inthelandofthepil grimage (Mecca andMedina) BythetruthofourmasterAbraham,IsaacandtheZe alous one(Jacob),I imploretheetohearkentome ,andto bringme pack restored! yii sidna ya batal y aRaMal uilok karama t lca'amuadj ar u id-djibal mabs ubkum bil'ahd ma y am ankum mallatiqta'11uiddkum 'anhu bit ib e l-bal omyLord,0 hero, 0our Ral)l)5J Thyactsof benevolencearelikethewavesoftheseaandthemountains ,Yourservanthasnotdeviated from hisvowtoyou,Withdrawnot' yourlovefromhim(butlethim continue) ingood circumstances. Seb-HabU ui:ahd iluh ta 'y' usirruh. fiq alam el-lel liJmi' ad' 'Ilkrabbi uitkun ladll a yeh sa mi'riM uahl e l-gharjid:dj arni' 1 (My) sel] (is)HabilandIam obedient to thevow;Hissecret(miracle) shines eveninthedarkness ofthenight I imploreThee0myLord, tohearmyprayer, Bytheexistence of andthepeople ofthecave( situatedin themosque )!tIbrahimel-Hauwas i s m e ant.2 Medinah is

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CANAAN:MohammedanSaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine317 yas'id'iya walliy allah ya 'Ater'iras'i uint e l-qutbfid-d'ir'idal]il' alababkumutalib lad-djirih minlmUuma qadd balla alaiyamin qe1''i omyLord,0God 's weli, 0 'Ateri Help thy adherent forthouartthe Pillar ofthe district I e nteryourdoor,askingforaneighbour'srights, 'l'hat 1maybesavedfromallharm which.jnay befallme! 'ana il i sid. ma sh ur bism Ifalid ui lul, k aramiit mash ftrat lal-warid n asrah. alamanyaridkumdjalklt1nl a tiqta 'ftluh radjah s'idi !lalid Ihaveafamous master named lJalid, Hi s actsofbenev olence arefamoustothe suppliant; O ast a(helpful ) glanceonthe suppliant whocomesseekingyou; Donotcutoff his hope,0myIJord ijalidlmabsub'aW es'idiya se lj Matar u ilak km'amat t itwiirad al e na mtua ma '1mr'i e allet /'i olulok kic]b1 baianaeral: tnaddj'i min el.7.Jatar IamthyservantmyLord,0 se1.JMatar. 'I'hyactsofbenevolencedescenduponmelikerain. Ihavenever s trayedfrommyvowtoyou(by)liesoridlegossip. ( Oastonm e) aglancetosavethyfollowerfromthedangerousway. dir e n-nasar 'amridak s'idi sel} Dib'tilem allam/'i s ilk dib i n aiyuriini uqal ft si rr s e1.Jak dj ib landah 1taqul fae 'ahu s e7.JiDib Turnthy attention tothy follower, 0my se1.J Dib,Forthouartwise,passingwise;intheart[path]ofbeinga we li, awolf[playofwords]thouart.Ifth ey reproach meandsay, "'rell usthe secret of thy se7.J," Iwillcryoutandsay: Help me 0 sel] Dib!

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318JournalofthePalestin e Ori ental Societ y ya iee e l .Ba$rahuyase1.Jilnar a'i ballajtill i djur1J,dju wa m uhdjati ra 'i in (alall1ei!.i!em bandol i he ydRja'1sel]. ei -iariqoh. bidjina al-qadam sin opride ofel-Ba srah, and,0 selj, ourshepherd Thou hast leftmewitha lasting woundinmy s oul. I f. difficultiesb efall me,Icry, Hither, 0 Rf li'i! (Aridb ehold) the se1.J ofthe order comesrunningonhisfeet. ya s idi ya w all yii MU$(aja' el -Bakriuilak karil1niit t it?iihiir kam a ljadjrin aerah. l/ en er -1"iq,iib iM u sr i qad d 'atak um y(l ub e l-yusri 'omyLord,0 we li, 0chosenone, e l-Bakri! Th y miraclesshinelikethe breaking d ay! (Castonme)agl ance from a f avourablee ye,d elivering mefr om my troubl es; Y ourse rvanth as cometo y ou, a skingfor ea sing o fhiscir cumstances. yii, sidi yii, w alliy altah yii,N iibulsi 'A bd e l G7/ani st di el-mabs ubtf i Z labst j arridj h umumi uz U e l-yam 'in d al tah d u'ak m aqbul b il-'unsiomy Lord 0 w eli o fGod,0 Nlibulsi. Abdel-Ghaniism y lord,Iamhis s ervantinm y bondage. Driveawaymy s orrowsandcausemyill-luckto cea se to-d ay,Fory our petition i s ac cepted kindlyb y God ..\' s1ildi ma 5in alliih md ak um sa labti'tr-rft7j ui l-muhdjahm d al mm d a'etunanrftZIma'ii,kum asa min ya mmkum Y $ lab s a 1 iib .,IIti s tobe und erstood, u s ana a lell. 2Th isve r se is a Uiba h 1\11oth e r sarecal led ta lllwlq.

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,,CANAAN: Mobarnmedan SaintsandSanctuariesinPalestine319Mylordsaregoing,Godbewithtliem, Youhavestolenthesoulandtheheartis (wandering) withyou Youhavecalledustogowithyou; Wehopethatfromyourocean(ofpiety) there willcomeadraughtforthe righteous. ,yfl s fldati in nasetftni anfl ed-I]akir uil-bamdu lil-lahi 'ana min jarJ,lakum Siikir uhaqqman 'an zolal-quriina umin jihijatir in ghibtum an el-' en m a tghtbft 'an el-ljati1' omylords,ifyouhappentohaveforgottenme,theevercalling, Thanks betoGodIamtoyourkindnessever grateful. By Himwho sent downtheQoran, including Ffttir (SurahXXXV),Ifyouareoutofsight,youareneveroutofmind. yu urbZillinadahtftnzhe' ana djU waqif' alababkumtat'twwuriMu Zamzam uil-Bet1.Jallft12a?arlmm allaiya u en ma oArabs whocalled,beholdIhavecome, Standing atyourdoor awaiting you;' order to enter. Bytheexistenceof [Medinah], Zamzam and the Ka'beh,(I you) to keepyoureyesonmewhereverIgo! ya sadatifihawakumdldataSwflqi uil-bubb lil-lah baiyun w{Hlidun bfiq i ardjftllu yaglifi" dunflbijahualjallflqi yomaHtisubi uanafiHlasribirJ,iqi omylords,inloveofyoumylongingshave increased,AndintheloveofGod theLiving, the One,the Enduring. Iprayhimtoforgivemysins-forHe ismy .creator-OntheDayof J udgement,whenIamin distress inmy trouble!

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320JournalofthePalestine Oriental S ociety y a s iiditti ,"djal alliih zi di'tni antum "djalfJ$-$afabiHmbbi zid itniya hall tar a m inmaliobbt;hall tridun i uakun ljadiman binafs i tummil bi'yfm i omy Lords 0menofGod, increa se inme(theloveofGod), Youarethechosenmen increase inmethelov e (ofGod)!ocanitbethatyouwillacc ept mef or m y love ,ThatImaybe( your)se rvant,(first ) withmy so ul a ndth en with m y e yes. y a sa datili1tb i'fl m an b ikuni watiq u qalbuh. b ilhawa f i' asi q uallah y a 'lam bibaluh fil-qa $di $a diq bil-bubbi uarham mutaiyam anta ya ljaltq omylords donotb etray theon e whotrusts you, Whilehi sheartinlovecleave s toyou. G od knowshisstate (ofmind)thathei ss incereinhi s aim O f l ove; havemerc y, 0 C reator,ona s lave ( to y ourlo ve ).nad alii hey a Yaman qa lat a na i sminV I ui n ka n tihua dj amiili lal-11Iasadjid rfl b uhaqq man omeala l-Qo1"llna ua st fi,"qit s iadiafl'abmill(1ft er-rid )I called He, 0Yem ,en [ Ka'beh].Sheanswered : "My nam ? is'Go'! "Ifyoulovem y beauty 'go tothemo sques. ByHimwho sent theQoran, thet ablet, Th e separation fr om my lords i s moredifficultth an the departure ofm y life. sabeS I'al a-,"-rdjal i qallqfl biiJ,-lJubab2u iit-nas ghajl dnin lauw s lijt7tumyaljaliy b il-lel ma djmflin djawa 1"a qabren-nab i b iHlllbb maSghflf in.3 I iibaUba t oc hant a s ong aloud andin c ompany.2Dubal:=lip s. 1230,d oes no tg ivei t, th oughitgiv es a s on e o f themea nings oftheverb"to s p ea kaloud. 3 ; r his li n e isal so rec it e di nt he fo llowi .n g way: es -siililtu: iqim a-tubit-tahlil fi d jannet ytmaatar amii l u y amill .

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. C ANAAN : M ohammedan S aintsa ndS an ctuarie s in P a lestine321Call o ut a for thosewhoarethieve s androbb ers;' Who s tammer(pray er) with their lipswhilepeopl e areunconscious,omyfriend,ifthousee st th em gatheredatnight Inthe n eighbourhoodof t he pr ophet's tomb,seizedwithpa ssion for hislove.IT he sa ints ar ec omparedto a ndthieves, a s has a lready bee n m en tioned an dex plain ed.".. (, .'j' ,.21

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INDEXOFPLACESAND"SAINTS" (awlU i) Sinceth e"ListofContents"attheb eginning ofth e bookissufficiently detailed asa guide tothesubj ect matter, onlythepropername s ofplacesand saints are here indexed. The order oftheEuropeanalphabet isfollowed,and under eachletterwillbe foundthe Arabicletter conc erned andit s manner of transcription. Nam es beginning with' ayin, to aregivenattheendthe alphabet. Under eachletternam es ofplacesarefirstgiven,and then those oftheawlid.Adottedline marksthedivision between thetwo. Aand\ Abu Dis45 GhOii (s ee Qariyeh el-) Suseh 288 Aqsa., e l-15,79Ararat6 Artas 66,96 Aaron6Abraham 6,152 ,78,81,89,90,93,186, 276,283,293 imprints of241 Abu'Arqub 282 -el-" Alam en Ibrahim276 -el-'Awadjiz274,276Dabflbeh283 96,230,247 eg-I2hur 83,115 Ghet -Hurcrah3,98,104,106,298 :ij:arrubeh 2364 283 Halaweh20,26,30,54,101,257 -Hammadi274,276 J;[anif eh 82 -Hasan310 -Isma'il 16,52,931 ,238 KasklIl 260 I-Kfer 62,285,288 Lemun 10, 34, 70,227 Madian 105,113 AMMita 260 Nada Nar, sadjar et 70 Ndj em 96 -I:Of245,246,298-I'On 11, !!62 Qass 247 er-Rayat 105 RiB 70,962 Sail 282sec 8276 9528a'r 282 Sluieh 230,2461'01'5, 9,283,287,298. Tub 34,58,59.Yamin 8,53,110,113,249 257,303 Yu sif 44Zabariyah 255 Zed 112 Z etun 105 Adam13 (ij. 74,103(e:. Q. S'ideh) 4,34,103,237,238,239 AMTor (see AM',ror) AM Sail282 c l'Adjami 250 -el-Bu staml 23 29 el-Dadjdjdni 2 89I

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Index323Ahmadel-Faludj i 285el-Gharib57 el-Ghmari 257,2582e l-Ghreiyb59,106 -e l-Huwes30,44, 57,240,255 265,303e l-Kabrit e l-Ahmar306 -el-Karaki et-1'aiyar 3 10,11 45 103 245, 283 -er-Rifa'i,se e er-Rica'i e s-Sarr'isi18 eV!,aiy ar 22,23,245, 3 06f. et-Tori (see AM1'01') Ahrnadi wells 253 Aiyub, 7 8(E.of ij"arbata) 11l,250 (Ras ibn Sim1,lan) 111,215,2 39 '-(Del' Aiyub) 112,285 -bir(Silwan)111 -( Del' Aiyub) 112 'e n (E.of ij"arb ata) 11 2 ibriy et 112,215 Anbia e l-16,17,19 2 5, 27,29,115,272 Arami, e l-11 3ArbIn,el-(gen eral) 290f. (Qu bebeh) 34,291 -(Jerusalem) 291 -el-(Nablu s) 291 --djami' ('Esawiy eh) 50,95, 2 91 --(Djib) 103 madjma' (Nablus) 291 -mashad (H ebron) 290--rnag am(Nazar eth) 290 mghRzi(B et L iqia) 58 291 -59,291 -qubbet(Mt. of Oliv es) 53,291 --irdjfll (Biddu) 251,291 -tell285 -($atif) 2 91 Asar se e el-Anbi a 295 e l gatmeh 276 II and I.-)B ab Ala e d-Din el-Bu seirl 197 ed-Djann eh 280 e l-Habs197 J;[UWI 197 -e r-Rahrneh78,298 -sitti Mariam 197 ,2 86e l-Wad 145 Balatah, e l-, es-Sod ah 82 Beni Dar 78 N'ern 20,21 25,78,105,292 B et'Anan 3,8,16,23. -Djala 13,62,66,149 221,291 -Djibrin 239,287 -Duqquh4,16,24 304 J;[anina 16,35 58 e l-Halil293 Idjza 4,17,294,295 -Iksa 8,11,17127,222-Lahim285 -Liqia 4,8,16,58 SafRf a 30 a"ar 255 Sflrik 11,258 -Unia 104,304 -'Ur 287Bethany55(s ee'Ezariyeh)Bethel 84BethHeron287 Bethesda 69 Biddft 11,27,58BirelB alat 46 Aijub (Silwan) 67,111 -(Del' Aiyftb) 112 el-Arwag 82 -ed-Damm292 e d-Djabbarah68 -e l-Halil293 e n-NftbRni 65,67immDjde'68'('>na 66,68,240.,Qadism a 108 -es-Sahar67 112 -Sindjil67, 2952 -el-Waraqah 68 Zamzam 65 Z et 11,13 24 e z-Zqaq56 B aalRazor288 abd al 276 Badwi, e l-246,251,256,274f.,276Badr, sultan(S arRfat) 285,305If.e l-Ghafir29 s eg 8,9,23,24,26Badriyeh, el-13,20,23,24 26,35,43 ti9 98 105,227 236 2 39, 307f. 2P.

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324 Index: '! '"Dj= rl i' .. DaI,Ii e d-260,285 Da hud, ti e!! (Be t D uqquh) ,4 7 -J erusalem2 58, 3 11 Sarafat 30 6 -K ing( see D avid) Da nian 6 2, 1 05, 1 475 ,23 9, 285Darun, e d 2 99 Da rwis, darflwis 310ff .Darwij ( se!! ) 5 6, 304 D asuqi, e d-2 46, 2 76, 2 97 "David1 5 8 1,89 ,2 13, 28f:\, 294 mu lberry o f7 3 .Dawa'ri,e d-4 7 ,23 25,2 7, 29 54,256, 305 Djdilde h 9 7 D jibiah62 D jfirif30 5 Dib 304 12u IKail10,28 5 (Kaf! J;aris) 29 7 ( Kafr 'AH iy e h) 29 7 Darnrah1 8,256,298.,, I .., I," 1 c.. ..--_. .. ..._.. ,Ca in287 Cave,seemg haraho f Qatta wah 25 4 -be low e s-tia djarah e l-Mubarakah254 C hapel o f Ascens ion79 ,98,293 N ativity 9 97 .": Ho ly Sep ulchre 99 7 Ba hl!'l, e l2 76 : ; : Del',!stia 2 85 Ba hlul b ahfllil2 78.', I ;I -es-S idd4 3,56 B airam Sa wIs 5, 29, .1 05 ,' : Saraf 285 { Ba kri, e l-11 3, n 4, ,25 3 : ; : ." es -S eQ 2 85,3 08 B alqis38 66' ,Yasin 4,16,17,' 287. Ba llfitet e lHa l i l (Sebta), 293I '"Dome oft he R oc k( s e e B anat e rR fft I 2 36 es $ ala!! 84 9 6,236,23 9, 2 40-Ya'qub 11 94 2 95 B arraq2 39 Barrl7 0, 10 5 B h, e l2 701'. B ebars2 99 f. Bg et 53 B ingamin 295 B irdaq ,e l7 4 B isr e l-HafI 2 0, 239 2 82 B r e k 3 6 B r edi yeh, e l2 46 BUQW'lrI, e l-105 'Burning bu sh 73 9 3 But me h, e l(Bet$afafa) 3 0,7 2 --(NuM) 71 ( Q ubebe h) 71 1 05 e l'Agra 7 3 Christ7 9,2 41, 242 c rib o f 5 2 -i mpressions2 41, 293 D a n d> Dani an 285 Dar es .SeQ 3 08 D el' e d28 7' Ai yflb 11 2,2 85 j ';:.
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Ebal6Egl ou286Ephron288EIndex Habil, el-55, 304Hiid 296 Husan 282,285,287 Hue a' 62325Eb enezer76 Elias Mar 73,76,80,98,215',232,2 41Eleazar287,292Eli ezer 6 Elijah6,284Ezra292Ev e 93 Fand u Farhah76 Fi eld ofth e Gr ey Pe as29 3 Fatmeh, daughter of'AIi20e l-Barri273I,251f. 307f. Fattiim eh6 8 61,72,249Forty,th e2 89f. G Gerizi m6Geths emane73, 997G ezer288Gil gal76G olgatha79Gomorr ah78 24 3, 2 924 Gabriauus68Gahriel8 1 5,24', 27 6, 2 87Gideon2 91, 292Gh= tG har, e l-83 Ghan im 8, 25, 104,ll5 Gha rah, e l-71,239Gh awflnm!278 Gh et 22 7,2 28, 304G hreiyb (Ya d6) 62(ijadr) 68,11 0H= Hebron 24 53, 58 ,'us, :288H olyRoc k( see $ agrah)iil 305 1;Iamm am 'ASiir ah 65 -ed-Daradjeh66,67 -el.'En 120-sittiMariam66 67 e s.Sifa 65, 67, 83ea-Sultan83 l;laram el-:ijalil 94 l;lauran 97 l;lisban241l;ladjar el-'Ariiri71e l-,el-Mansi79 l;T adjdj at, el-236Hamad 16, 17 23,24,2710,47, 6 9 iramdallah 27, 39,55 246 30 3 l;lamid 103 l;lamz eh 82 l;l as8n ( BetIksa) 11AM I-'Alum en30 3e l-'Ariiri71e l-Baqari 246..:... elGerami5 e r-Ra'i 14 ,17,19,20,27,75 104 11 0, 1 99 2 75nue53 ,3 04Hmediyeh3 05 J;ls en 16 239J;lus en, el-65( Bet-Sfrrik)52 239,240,247 -( Kolonia)10,68 (eQ.-pahriyeh) 135 5-('En 'Arik)139 (Askalon) 135, 161,215 J;lue, 30,61Huzun Ya'qiib 61 H=c:ij anel-AMar 3 00e l-Ahmar300I:ijltQ.rllr 3 00I

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326Index :ij im esSahl 299 -Y iinis 11, 2 94 :ija9r, e l58, 7 9, 94 :ij arbata 22 :ijilw et sn82 :ijir bet Adjlun2 87 Almit 43 Azzuni 285 -D eres -Sidd 4 3, 56 -I bqfr ed-Damm 4 3 -Id jdiir285 ( I)s'ideh 4 34 10 3,238 H useh 2 85, 2 87 -e l-Kfere h62, 28 5 -er-Rhab28 6 T elle l-Arb'in2 85 Zif241 :ij aiY9 e l Bi};tar 276 :ij a9r, el (gen eral)81 119 12 0f., 1 37, 232,239,240,25 7 (B e t Djala) 13,62 ,7 4, 7 !l, 1 22r: -( Nablu s) 1 9,66, 121 (Lydda) 2 15 -(Mt. Carme l) 58 210 (Jeru salem) 1 20, 1 21 (l'aiybeh) 1 21 ( B et Anan) 121 .:..(Djifna) 1 22 --(B et Rima) 1 22 -(Ka rak) 1 22 b lltw e t1 22 sell 122 :ijadra, e l ( NabIu s) 9 1 9, 35 45 11 2, 2 16, 2 36,237, 283 -( Djo r a h ) 11 3,2 36 :ij alid 2 40.2 57, 304 :ij alifeh 22 7 :ij alil A llah (se eAbraham) -Q alawani 26 J.}alil i, e l114, 298 :ijarrii b t ree37 :ijarrubet e l-'Aiiarah23,70 72,105 291 :ij auI b rithim el -249. 254 255,266 282 2 98 :ijr es 114 ijuldah 57 284Ja nd\e:J ericho4, 7 .8 25 ,30, 51i Jerusalem 5 8 9,24Jordan6 9,9 91 J acob2 4, 4ii, 115,2 32 ( see Anbi a) J azdji 2 76 Ibrahim (s ell. B et Djibrin) 110 1 39 -(-D er Ghas sdu eh) 3 04 ( e l-Hadr) 254 el-Hadami 308 e l-Halil(seeAb raham) -el-A dhami ( Su'ra t ) 51,1 02,23 9, 250 266 -(Bet Hanina) 20, 1 6, 35, 51, 24D, 2 66,3 10-51,71 Abu l-'Alamen 276 I'bed 5 3. 74 Ibrek68 ,' IllI dris8 1, 242 I djdfir28 5 J esus 6 5 69,89 2 76,293L 'mar4 2 4,47 ,2 15, 304f. I mm el -GhH 220,228 c s Sell28!J I, 304 (I)mharak8 ,27 5 5 Irn bflrakeh6 1 I nqiila, m ar 9 1,149,230 ,2 56,264 26 6 J ob 6 5, 67 119 (see Aiyiib) J ona(seeY unis) Irdjal el -'Amiid 8.23,29,47 256 283 A M 'rUll 34 58 5 9 103 -e l-Arb'in (Bi ddfi) 58 ,5 9 (Jerusalem)2 91 Azziini 285 e l-Badriy-h2 77 Siira 18, 53 -Is a c har1 9,295 (se e An bia) 285 I sma'it 2 2,2 7, 2 9 el-, 'Inbitwy 24,303 l'sa 5 8 l teyim 174 K an d Kaft :J;laris 968 ,297,2 88Ka'beh 9 91 KafrNi 'meh44

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Index327Kafr 'Attiyeh 297 Sa ba 295 K oloni a 2 16,24 Kufr'Agab 58 K all 215 288 K arnali ,e l301;Ka nfUs 11 3 Katharinfl2885 K ilanl, e l2 71), 2 83IJan d I..!Lal;1l;1arn 285 Laurel L ady71L emfm ( see Ab u L.) L iqia ( Prophet)4, 2 85 L ot( s ee L ut) Luke,S t. 28 7 L filu 283 Lut 1 52 ,2 1,25 7 8, 1 06,2 41,24 6, 28 5M a nd M al\la 35 110 M aqtal e l-masaiy\} 77 Mar turn, el -7 8 Matba'ah e l42 ,64, 68 ,111 M aztLr i e n-N fi b fi n i18 ,2 98 Md jedil 5 7, 59 M ecca6 5,10 8, 1 61. Mgharet Abu F arg 4f) -Mard j e l B ad d 4 5 es-ti eg 58 ,2 64ea-sitt in n abi29 1 -ez -zutt 254 MilkGrotto 60,80,9 8, 110 MizpahSamuelH,5 8 (se eNabiSomwil)Moriah6Mosque ofOmar, see ,agrah MountC armel 6, li 8 -Hor6H oreb 6-N e bo6 ofOli ves 2,3.4,7, 16,18 22, 2 7,293, -ofQuarantine 293 -ofTab or 293 Madjgub, el-,114,125,304 265 17,25,26, 34 ; 35 56,104 ; 292 Mariam-Mary(t h e Vi rgin)65-68,98, 109,111 13 8 232 ,241,2 86 Marrar 4 7 M asadjid sittntL'A iseh 18, 6 1,104 Ma sftlmeh, el-110, 302 3,18 7 9 1\1 as'udeh 6 9 M a tar 3 04 9 0 M oh amm ad( =Muhammad) (W adi ed-Damm) 42 ,23 9 (B et-Sfnik)2 68 (Bet Djibrin)30 4 (theProphet)1 6 89 1 00, 276 291; t hei mpre ssionso f, 8 1,82,241,296f. e l-'Aqrabani 2 16 -e l-Baqqani 2 2 e l-Buhar! 2 16 -Ab fl Kaskul 2 60 e l-Halili ( se e e l-Halili ) e n -Nu h i30 3 es -Sabti2 16 e s-Saf arini 2 16 Sa'l eh 2 84 MrtLd 62 Mufaq.q.el, el-10 15,17 ,2 5, 26, 51>Mulattam, e l-2 74, 27 6MUll t ar, e l2 !l9Murad 2 3 M udjfihdin,e l-, ge nerald escription o f2 77 (Hebron)24 (Raml e h) 6 3 -(oTe rusalem)277Murdjan 74Murdjaneh, th e t alismanof 1173Mu'minah66,6 8 Musa ( theProphet) 4 ,6,8, 9 17 ,27,76,8 8, 89 110,11 3, 184, 193ff ., 2 39,2 45, 246,299 ( se\}) 59,264 56,71Nand .:.> Nablus8,9,16,17,22 23,24 .. .':... .. .. ... Naaman69Nadjlah306sae-6 8 NafUg 282

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328I ndex 24 N icola ( see Inqula) Noah (Null) 6,106,283 Nub!lni, en 17 18, 65, 11 9,249,285 Nun 94 6, 105,285 Nuran 8,11,97 ., 106 Nus sdk 2786pP lain ofR ephaim 73 P e lagia 5 7,2 84 Q a nd ..32862 Qariyeh ,e l 16, 1 8, 24, 29 2 Qustal 3 1 0,11, 40, 77 QaHa neh 10, 22,247 Qrun e l-Hadjar2 56 Qubb eh,e l -95 2 Qubebeh 45 QabrHabrfm 28 8 Qaitun110 Q al'et erRra'i 78 Qarini,e l-181 Q asim 47 el-3,10 11 13,24, 34,45 51,1 331 ,2 27,2 30, 257 269 2885-th e ch eph erdo f,2 3 Q emariyeh 277 Qudd ameh 303 aqtab274ft ', R and) Rica'!, e r 78,92, 11 9,246 256, 26 6, 274f.,2 97 Rock th e Holy 8 0f(see Rubin 213,2 15 295 Sand ..f S ebastia 01 Sheba 3 8 Sinai 6 Sodom 7 8,243,29 2 4 SpringoftheAp o stles 83' --Sun 83' St ablesofS olomon 52 Surbahi r 4,7 17, 2 2, 23, 27,28 Sab!l(Mar) 73,94 108 133 S a 'd 39 uS'id5 18 5 2, 28 6 ( Abu Dis) 74 ( Be t Liqia) 8S a 'id 62 115 Salm an (B et Sflrik) 84 el -F firsl4,16,1 8, 29,34 57, 145, 2 97 Samu el 7 6, 229(s ee l;lamwil) -mothero f2 37Sidri22,43,44,56,10 3, 2 49', 2 85 SlimanC'Anata)45(D er Ab an) 10 6Sl emiyeh(sit t)2 57 So lomon(Ring) 37f"81 Soul o fthe dead 2 80f .Sri r I sa 5 2, 2 42 -e s-Saiydih 8 0', 1 063 ,24 2 Srur17, 43 Sura Rojal 119,134,3 03 S ukeinah 94 Ram, e r35 Ramallah 66 R as e 1 'Amud198,213 -ibn S imllan 111 215 23 9 Rehob 2 86 Rab 'ah e r-22 26,57,25 81 ,284 Ram adan22 ,103 110,247,254, 3 03 Ray alun (see Z e bulon) Rdjal (seeIrdgal) Rhab 286 R illan 5 26s = l;labrah, 146 ,44, 5 2, 60 7 6, 80f ., 1 07, 2 41 f;Jatar 96 l;lafIa 131 f;Joba 5 6,59 f;Jabball 30 55f;Jafuan 272 l;la1,labeh 273 .l;la g ret Aiyub 78

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,!,ari 295 Taldjeh 30 3 l'ahit A bd e l-Q.adir256 Tarafini 239,267 ( = 1' ori) 47,283 287,298 I ndex 1;lale!?( en-nabi,Ramleh) 17,110 215 'fell Yuni s 287,288,294 296 299 .Turkishbath 654 -( en-nabi,Ramleh, en -n abi 1;lale!?-) 110 215 266,273,296 299 'l' elaO 25 8, 30 3 -( -Ma'lftl) 296 -(-Ignl1) 2 96 -(--A cre) 297,299 se o(]JirbetNu m) 9 3, 17 5 -(Del' Jl1sin) 2871 (Sindjil) 2952 1;lamwil 3 ,11 ,2 5,45(se e Samuel) 251f ., 3 12 1;luwan 22,27,543 29 "s = J:. 7 18, 145 23 Salliil eh 11 298 Sararat 13 20,24 Sarafeh,es -7 5 SiuO, es 3 08 S ft'ah 16 Saddl1d 26 53,79 115 298 Sadjaret AbuNar 70,71 e l-Mubarakeh 31en-Nfir142 143 e a -Sa'adeh70,71,113 Sarniy eh,e1i1 0 64 68, 2 36,239 Sa l eh 297 S araf 285 Sarif 64.68 2 39 Shab e d-Din1 30 s!?-adeh (D el' G ha ssaneh) 25 7,304 -(1;loba) 59 S iball 27 3 110,1 13, 115,225 SU 'eb n ebi 297 se h 67,112 S U'ahv 16 Suhada, e s(Jerusalem) 2 45,277 -(Hebron) 24,110T a nd-::.>, T ell B et IrnmMirsirn 272 -Bal 'ameh 2 86 -el-'Azur28 6 -el-Hesi2 86 111 286 W aud,Wadie dDamm42 -Djhannam99 e n-Nusfir305f.3 Wabii i e l-301. W eli, awlia 273Ya nd -.? Y ahudiyeh285,295vn e36,62,240 YahUda 285,295Yamiu23(s ee a lso Abu Y amin) -Kafr S l1ba 295Yaqin20,78,105,106,287 Ya'qub( seeYacob)Y asadjar (se e Isachar) Yl1sin 4,1 6,952 ,287 Yusif (nabi) Nab lus294 295, (nabi) B et Idjza4,17, 295 (nab i)Hebron 295 (nabi )bir-(Sindjil) 67 (s eo) B et J;[aninl1 58 ( seo) N.ofBireh44 105 (s el!)]Jarbatl1 22Yunis, g eneral description 273 29 4 ]Jan285 29 4 (J;[a l!?-ul) 294 -(Me shed ) 294-(NahrSukrer)294 (N .ofSidon) 294 299 -Te ll287 294

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330Index Z an d) Z amzano 65 ,6 7, 99 ez-Z a r qa 2 1llZarqa M a'in 6 6 Zacharias 19 Z ak ari ya (N a blus) 19 ( B e t Z akariya) 11 2 za wiet e l-As'adiyeh 3 01 e l-Afghaniyeh 30 1 e l-Bugariyeh 3 00el-Bustam i3 01 -en -nabi D ahlHl 3 01, 3 02 ad-Dnrwisiyeh 2 4 e l-:ijankah 30 1 e l-Hnud300 e l-Magharbl300 -e l-Mauwlawiyeh300 el -Qadriyeh3 01 30 1 Zebulon 19 ,289,292 Z ed 8, 2 5,2 7 Z en ab 6 8 Z etim 289 Z et un e t e l-Hadr 12 04 e nNa lii7 0, 142 Zu ghbeh ( MallJ.a) 11 0, 11 3-( Awartah) 27 ,30 ll5 Zu 'heh8 z uhadfi2 786 =c' Ad ju r 29 7 A l il t 28 5 Anata 2,3 ; 7 ,8, 1 8, 22,24,27 'Atarah (s ee Qa trawani)'Awartah 2, R 8 ,11 ,1.6, 22 ,2 7,43 ,59, 24 6, 292 'EnAbu F akkah 11 2 -e l-Amir H 8 -' Arik134 A rtas 6 6 A iyub 11 2 ed Djakuk68 -D jifnfl 9 3 e d-Dj oz 6 6, 68, 7 0 g -Fauwar6 6f.-H adjar 6 6, 68 'EnI;Iadjdji 83 cl -I;I o g 8 3 -im m ed -Daradj 65, 6 6 IslJ. aq 111 Karim5 3,68 226 -Kihridn 6 8 -el-Lozeh6 5,68,111 s ittiM ariam83 6 8 Q illa 6 7, 95, 247 -e l-Qubbeh 6 8 e l-Qasleh83 R afidiah68 er-Rfihib 68 -Sheme sh 69 Sllw an 11 0,IIIe s-Samiyeh 6 4,6 8, 110 es Saril' 64 ,6 8 es-Sa rqiy e h 68 'Esawiyeh 24,2 7,3 0 Eza r iyeh 285,288 292 I raq e d Dji z zeh 29 2 -el -Badawiyeh 2 36 IUn e l-h as r69',11 2 AbM 9 6'A bdallah ( B et Sfirik) 17,24 3,246 ( D e l' (I ha s sdneh) 1 34 -(Qatanneh) 7 0 ( Qub eb eh) 45 ,5 2 (n.S amwil) li8 ( Su 'fa t) 3 1 70,1 03, 104, 2 38 ( S .ofYabrud)1 05 ed-Sidri 22,43,44 56,103,249 2 Abd e l-'A I 2 74 e l' Aziz10,11 el-Fattal,J 8 e l-Ghflfir2 56 e l-Had i3 0 3 305 -e l-l\Iahdi30 3 e l-l\Iuhsin 6 2,74 el. Gildir e d-Djilflni( see D jiliini) er-Rahmfiu 10 6 e s-Salflm4 11, 2 4, 3 1 43 ,44 1 33 239,248,252, 2 55 e s-Sa m a d 2 76 Adj ami a'djiim 2 5lf. ('Awartah di ff e r e nt) 44 ,8 4 25 1 -(Idjza, iraq 77 25 1

PAGE 339

Index. 331' Adjami ( D e r Gha ssa neh)251 ( Bet D jibrin) 251, 253 250,25 1 AbuRiB 251,70,962lam a'i\ 251 251Salmfin251 Adjam,Nuqq iire l-7 8 Adjlun 2 86f. AiyM, m ar 292su 207 25 82 3 03 (D el' G ha ssd neh) 30 4 Bakk a 2 8.3, 2 98 i bn '( Ejlim4 7, 8 9, 2 15 2 16 l\larrar 47im am 1 8, :l O,005 -'abed 303 58'fallal 61 'Amari ,dj ami 'e l -5 03 Am mar 44 Anbar11, 2 3, 2 4,27 30,4 3,4 7,144, 15 83 ,238 Annit 20,105, 2 1fi Ar u r i 71 7 8 119, 285 5 7,75 76 258, 28 2 3 04 28 1 A ze r a t, e l-8,16,144 2 3li 245 E redjeh ( see Rifa'i)' iaa ( se eJes us)lieU 103 'Illbaw i 2 85, 2 88 Okaseh 5 ,298 ab e d 1 34 Ob a d a h bin 298' O ma ribn 17,50 5 1 'U1JM 103 Ur 28 7 'Uz e r (Bethanien) 29 2 (c l-Qariyeh) 16 34 ,50 2 87,292 _(,A.wartah)3,17,22,24 26,34 44, 5 1,55 292 Um a r i(Jericho) 97 ( Hizmah)59 e l, e d Djb e'i3"4,10 11, 2 65 B e d 22 'N eni 26 ''fe ri (' Ateri) 55,11 5