Citation
Preliminary list of Chinese woodblock prints in the SOAS Library

Material Information

Title:
Preliminary list of Chinese woodblock prints in the SOAS Library
Creator:
D'Ortona, Michel
Place of Publication:
London
伦敦
Publisher:
SOAS, University of London
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Chinese
Materials:
Paper ( medium )
Measurements:
14 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Prints, Chinese -- Catalogs ( lcsh )
版画,中国
Wood-engraving, Chinese -- Catalogs ( lcsh )
木版画,中国
Genre:
Catalogue
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
亚洲 -- 中国
Coordinates:
35 x 103

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
Copyright 2001, SOAS, University of London. All rights reserved. May be used in accord with Creative Commons license: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)

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Full Text
PRELIMINARY LIST OF
CHINESE WOODBLOCK PRINTS
IN THE SOAS LIBRARY
By Michel D'Ortona
2001


Contents
I) Popular Prints

II) Printed Books
A. Council for World Mission Library
B. Methodist Missionary Society
C. Illustrated Books
D. Other (under construction)


I. POPULAR PRINTS
Introduction
The exquisite art form of Chinese New Year pictures surely reflects the importance of
the Chinese New Year celebration, which is indeed the main festival on the Chinese
calendar. Fortune-tellers have a busy time, and the temples are thronged with people
praying for success in the coming year, and seeking advice on love, health and
business. It is traditional to hang up posters or pictures and paste verses on strips of
red paper to express all those urging wishes. Some of these pictures are surely
exquisite works of art, especially those that were produced in the specialised print
shops of Yangliuqing in Tianjin, Taohuawu in Suzhou and Yangjiabu in Shandong.
The SOAS collection of popular prints holds many prints that were designed and
engraved in these shops, such as calendars, door posters, and horizontal and vertical
prints for wall decoration. One especially outstanding print is One circle of harmony
(print number 105), probably executed in Suzhou or Yangzhou during the early Qing
dynasty.
This compilation is based on the provisional list including items put together by Peter
Lam (items 2-49 and 51-60) in the late 1970s as well as on the more detailed
descriptions of thirty-six prints by Yin Huang (items 4, 6, 7, 9, 22, 23, 39-44, 49, 53,
54, 59, 70, 73-77, 90-102, 106) in 1996. Their solid research on these certain parts of
the SOAS popular prints surely facilitated my task in compiling the following outline.
I have tried to complete their findings and describe the SOAS prints creating a
standard framework (title in English-Chinese; basic data; print description and/or
symbolism) that may be used by future researchers. Please note that I am responsible
for all the mistakes left in this list and that the many gaps remaining still need to be
filled.


2. Unicorn, giver of sons No.z
麒麟送子)
Artist: none
Place: Suzhou (Taohuawu district)
Date: none
Appearance: five colours (blue, green, pink, purple and black)
Paper size: 52.7 x 30 cm
As a creature of good omen, the unicorn {qilin) symbolises longevity, grandeur,
felicity, illustrious offspring and wise administration. The legend has it that the last
time a unicorn appeared was before the death of Confucius. It is usually described as
resembling a deer but larger, with an ox's tail and hoofs of a horse, and it is endowed
with perfect goodwill, gentleness and benevolence to all living creatures. Its body is
clad in fish scales, the hair on its back is multicoloured, and its belly is brown. The
male animal is said to have a single horn protruding out of the forehead, the tip of
which is fleshy, making it unfit for war. Some Chinese writers claim that the mother
of Confucius became pregnant of him when she walked in the footsteps of a unicorn
while going to the hills to worship. Consequently the symbol of this picture alludes to
the fact that when a son has been sent by the unicorn, he will do well in his studies
and achieve fame and distinction. The person sitting on the unicorn holds a sceptre in
one hand and the son in the other. The son holds a branch in one hand and a reed
organ in the other. Both sceptre and reed organ are symbols of good omen.
3. Inscriptions in Tibetan with the four quadrants and eight trigrams
(Si ling ba gua zangwenjingwen E9 靈八圭卜藏文經文)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 44.8 x 28.5 cm
The upper part of this print shows the four quadrants or celestial emblems, namely the
dragon (east), phoenix (south), tiger (west), and tortoise (north). These four cardinal
points are surrounded by the eight trigrams, which correspond with the eight divisions
of the compass, adding to the above four points the directions of north-east, south-
east, north-west, and south-west. This image is usually carved into plaques of copper,
silver or jade, and supposed to function as a kind of talisman to preserve the owner
from misfortune, and assuring his future prosperity. When nailed on a house door or
hung on a wall it becomes an emblem of felicity. The lower part of the print contains
the inscriptions in Tibetan.


4. (a-b) Pair of military door gods
(Wu menshen胃尸,早串)
Artist: Chen Maoji 陳茂記(//)
Place: Shanghai
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: five colours (red, yellow, purple, blue-green and black)
Paper size: 70 x 35 cm
The origin of the door god custom goes back to the Tang dynasty emperor Taizong (r.
627-650). Once the emperor fell sick and was troubled by nightmares imagining that
ghosts or demons were in his bedchamber. After summoning palace attendants and
the ministers of state, two loyal generals Qin Shubao and Yuchi Jingde agreed to stay
the night to keep watch. Finally the emperor slept peacefully and recovered. Although
he could now dispense with their services he still had their portraits painted to be
posted up in their place. In later years many other figures were used as door gods but
usually Qin Shubao can be recognised by his white-pinkish face and Yuchi Jingde by
his red face. (See prints numbers 99 and 100) According to yet another story going
back to remote antiquity two brothers Shentu and Yulei had the power to bind evil
spirits and feed them to the tigers. Thus they were also used as guardians of
doorways. When hung on the main front doors facing the street these pictures turned
into a powerful talisman against evil spirits. This print in particular shows the door
gods standing in majestic benevolence dressed in a military outfit while also
accompanied by an entourage of five attendants bearing auspicious gifts as well as a
unicorn bearing a son.
6. Spring ox calendar - Gods of wealth from the five directions
(Wulu caishen, chtmniu tu 五路財神春牛圖)
Artist: Chen Maoji 陳茂記(//)
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1923
Appearance: four colours (blue, red, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 46 x 28 cm
The print depicts five gods of wealth flanked by two civil and military door gods. In
Chinese tradition the five gods of wealth guard the five directions (four cardinal plus
centre) and they are also the keepers of gold and silver, their attribute being a treasure
chest that is mounted on the back of an ox. The image of the spring ox goes back to
the Song dynasty (960-1279) where it is attested in the Recollections of the Eastern
capital that an ox would be driven with whips into the capital and the imperial city on
the day before spring. Whipping the spring ox thus became symbolic for welcoming
the new spring season. This type of print often incorporated a table showing the
twenty-four seasonal changes in the weather throughout the year, as a guide for
farmers when ploughing and harvesting. The purpose of the print is to ensure plentiful
harvests. The border of the print also shows the names of each the sixty years
comprised in the Chinese calendar cycle.


7. Spring ox calendar - Great blessings reaching the sky
('Hongfu qitian' chunniu tu 卞畐齊天春牛圖)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: after 1911
Appearance: four colours (blue, red, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 46.3 x 28 cm
This is another type of spring ox calendar similar to print number 6. Here figures of
the scholar and farmer represent the universal qualities of success and plenty, and the
images of the loom and spinning wheel may suggest that the calendar was printed for
textile workers. The idea behind it is to praise their hard work and it expresses the
hope that they may enjoy good fortune, actually so much that it would reach the sky.
8. Spring ox calendar - May gold be innumerable
(^Huangjinwanliang, chunniu tu 黃金萬兩春牛圖)
Artist: Chen Maoji 陳茂言己(//)
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1923
Appearance: five colours (blue, red, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 46.4 x 28.5 cm
The idea conveyed by this print is obvious. It expresses the wish that people become
wealthy and accumulate fortune.
9. The Qing dynasty^s Living god of wealth opens the Company of Beauties Hall
(Qingchao huo caishen da kai Jumeiting、清朝活貝才神大開聚美廳)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: six colours (red, blue, pink, purple, green and black)
Woodblock: 48.8 x28 cm
This print depicts the living god of wealth Hu Xuedu accompanied by his male
assistant Wei Aduo in a luxurious environment being surrounded by a group of eight
beauties that personify the regions of the Western countries, Japan, Canton, Shanghai,
Yangzhou, Suzhou, Hangzhou and Qihua. It appears to be an allegory for the wealth
of China brought about by trade since the ladies all bear valuable gifts, and the two
gentlemen may well have been prominent businessmen or heads of guilds.


11. Sun’s wife and Miss Liu jointly manifest the great victory in Taiwan
{Sun furen huitong Liu xiaojie Taizhong zhang hua dasheng 孫矢入 # [W| Ml /」、
姐台中彰化A木勝)
If
Artist: Wu WeiTyi、吳文藝(//)
Place: Shanghai
Date: none p f^f
Appearance: five colours (red,green, blue, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 57.9x33.5
The battle scene depicted here refers to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95. Although
China was defeated this print nevertheless acknowledges one of their few victorious
battles against the Japanese aggressor. In 1894 the Cantonese general Liu Yongfu
(1837-1917), whose reputation was legendary for his resistance against the Taiping
rebels in 1864 and his assistance in the Franco-Vietnamese war against the French in
1873, had now been appointed to help defending Taiwan. Under his command the
Black Flag Army carried on a tenacious struggle against the Japanese army. In this
scene he is watching the battle of the 27th of the seventh lunar month in which several
thousand Chinese soldiers died. The print was commissioned by Commander-in-chief
Sun, whose heroic wife Madam Zhang died in battle, to cherish her memory. Both
Madam Zhang and Miss Liu, who is probably affiliated to general Liu, were
appointed commander of their troops and they are seen here recapturing a Taiwanese
city from the Japanese.
12. Triumph at Nanjing
{Nanjing desheng 南京得勝)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none 卞考 % © ? ^
Appearance: six colours (pink,blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
4 ^ ..
This print shows a battle scene at Tongxi city gate during the Taiping rebellion, in
which the rebels were finally crushed by the Manchu imperial army in July 1864.
Urged by their leader Hong Xiuquan, who believed he was on a divine mission from
God to exterminate the Manchus, the Christian rebels wanted to overthrow the Qing
government and had named their new dynasty 'Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace'
{Taiping tianguo). The inscription clarifies that the thieves were totally eradicated and
the longhaired rebels were completely wiped out. They were terrified and afraid to
move. The courier brought the goods new that the imperial army had used a really
clever scheme, and communicated that they were victorious. They earnestly pitied the
people, who departed their villages and ran away without even turning around for
their wives, when they saw the army approach they escaped the calamity by taking
refuge deep in the mountains and waited for glory to shine.


13, Triumph at Nanjing
{Nanjing desheng 南京得勝)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai 、
Date: none 方,夭 IS
Appearance: six colours (pink, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
This print is related to print number 12 and shows a battle scene taking place at
Huyang city gate. The inscription informs that the imperial ambassador facing the
high-ranking mandarins saw the rebels being exterminated. The competent
commander from Jiangxi ensured a bright victory. The rebel leader Yang Xiuqing
(1823-1856), the self-styled Eastern King of the Heavenly Kingdom whose power
rested on his ability to be in contact with the Holy Ghost, was captured. The high
official Tong imposingly drove away the rebels who had entered the city, one by one
they were ordered to retreat. Official Yin was victorious, maintaining his courage
without being beaten. He captured the rebel leader and handed him over to be sent to
the capital.
14. Triumph at Nanjing
{Nanjing desheng 南京得勝)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none 方举天 ®
Appearance: four colours (black, grey, brown and light brown)
Woodblock: 45.8x31 cm
今T^Uv .. ... .
This print shows a battle scene near the Fengyi city gate. The inscription explains that
the Taiping rebels were fleeing like rats into Nanjing. An urgent message had been
received reporting that the mandarins and imperial ambassadors had witnessed how
the good spirits had devised an ingenious plan to scare the bad spirits with flaming
reeds tied to the tails of oxen. The imperial army was deployed to break into the city.
The Taiping rebels were killed and the traitors exterminated. Peace was completely
restored and the reign of ten thousand years was once again pure. The Taiping rebels
were entirely eradicated. The people were touched by the imperial favours and
kindness bestowed on them.
15. Extermination of the Taiping rebels
(Jiaomie Yuefei 剿滅粵匪)C LL、Me約 f^tl^j 揭裁)也
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai


Date: none
Appearance: four colours (black, grey, brown and light brown)
Woodblock: 45.8x31 cm
This print shows a battle scene at the city gates of Yangzhou and Zhenjiang. The
inscription informs that the Taiping rebels are running for their lives and escaping in
the direction of the Jinshan mountains west of Zhenjiang city. The officials hear about
the rebels who burn everything down, and are time and time again angered by the
atrocities. They immediately set up an army that moves forth to the cities and suburbs.
The liberating army consisting of all possible recruits fights with extraordinary skills.
While the rebels flee they are killed by the swords of the liberating army. The print
shows how they drive away and resist the enemy as they hold their heads and skulk
away in shame towards Yangzhou city. A note on the left of the print explains that the
captured Taiping rebels from Jiangxi province are ordered to be skinned alive.
16. Recapture of Yangzhou engraving
刻覆揚州)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai 一 F、
Date: none 卜.T 卜
Appearance: six colours (pink-red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
The inscription accompanying this battle scene explains that the evil rebels in a
sudden upsurge were ravishing women and seizing people's personal property. It was
difficult to come up with a plan to be able to move away the people. The officials
raised their troops to capture and kill the rebels. Finally the long-haired rebels were
driven away and the city god appeared to offer the cities of Yangzhou and Zhenjiang
everlasting peace.
17. Destruction of the rebels at Shanghai
(Shangyang mie fei 上洋滅匪)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none 卞孓 _
Appearance: six colours (pink-red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
The inscription informs the viewer that the redheaded thieves arranged in this scene
are really numerous. All of them infatuated with vain hopes they rush southward
holding their swords. Their leaders do not know that the imperial army has sent troops
to capture the rebels who are hiding there. It is really like pigs and sheep meeting
tigers and leopards.


18. Triumph at Shanghai
(Shanghai desheng 上海得勝)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 45.8x31 cm
The record inscribed on the print says that during that upsurge the rebels counted
numerous criminals harbouring evil intentions. The Imperial Court blames them for
the suffering families. The people who were injured how the wish to break away from
hardships. They had to bear seeing the women being dragged out of the city and
suburbs. The defeated rebels are captured alive and executed. This print shows the
heads of the decapitated criminals put up for exhibition in the city of Shanghai.
19. The Imperial Court is victorious
{Tianchao desheng 天朝得勝)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none % ^ % (S\ M
Appearance: six colours (pink-red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
This print shows the execution in 1855 of members belonging to the Small Sword
Society, which had grown out of the more famous secret societies known as the
Society of Heaven (or the Triad) and Earth and the White Lotus Sect. The Small
Sword Society mainly operated along the Chinese south-eastern coastline and in the
province of Shandong. The inscription informs that the rebel leader Zhou Lichun
(1814-1853) from Jiading county, north-west of Shanghai, is being brought away in
chains. Out of earnest compassion the people have been allotted land. The troops the
officials raised have arrived. While killing off rebels they enter the city to save
numerous lives and captured the rebel leader. Moreover the despicable traitors are
being killed by removing their entrails, and the secret society members ordered to be
beheaded. Their decapitated heads hung up at the city gate.
20. The Imperial Court destroys the rebels
{Tianchao mie fei 天朝滅匪)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none 末 3 天 I如
Appearance: six colours (red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)


Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
This print depicts the Triumph at Nanjing of 1864. The inscription explains that the
longhaired rebels are advancing in swarms. Everywhere the people looked terrified,
many dragging with them their belongings while others have abandoned property.
Their relatives and wives are really to be pitied. Young and old will mourn for the rest
of their lives. Women who happen to run in the street are ravished. Monks from the
Shaolin monastery in Henan kill the rebels. There is nowhere to hide the corpses. The
ground is covered in blood.
21. Rebelling against the Imperial Court
(Nifan tianchao逆多已天朝)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 45.8 x 31 cm
This print shows the execution in 1855 of members belonging to the Small Sword
Society. (See print number 19) According to the record on the print the rebel leader
Liu Lichuan (1820-c. 1855) deceived the people of Jiading county by appropriating the
imperial grain provisions. The imperial troops come from all directions to arrest the
criminals. In the drilling arena they beg for imperial pardon. Zhou Lichun's stomach is
cut open and his heart removed. This order is executed at the city gate.
22. At the mouth of the Dagu forts in Tianjin
{Tianjin Dagu kou 天津大沽 口 )
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai or Suzhou (Taohuawu district)
Date: 1900
Appearance: five colours (red, blue, yellow, green and black)
Woodblock: 59.3 x 33 cm
This battle scene shows the outdated ships of the Chinese navy attacking the heavily
armoured Japanese ships. Cannons are fired from the Dagu forts where Qing military
officials view the ongoing battle. The inscription reads:
The 20th of the fifth lunar month. News has been received. Our navy is protecting the seas.
There was a sudden appearance of ten boats belonging to the Allies. It was fortunate that China
could defend herself with a tight blockade and to immediately open fire. The Japanese suffered
great losses and retreated.
This particular print recounts an incident from the Boxer Rebellion. Tianjin and
Peking were the strongholds of the Boxers. During the early part of 1900 the Boxers
inflicted heavy losses on the Allied troops. In retaliation the Allies attacked the Dagu


forts. The successful defending by the Chinese Imperial navy was short-lived and by
mid-June the fort had fallen into Allied hands. This event marked a turning point in
the Boxer Rebellion and brought the Qing dynasty yet another step closer to its
downfall.
23. The envoys of the Allies at the Imperial Court discussing the peace treaty
(Geguo qinshi jinchao jianghe Hi! |欠 f吏 草月 _ 禾口 )
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1900/1901
Appearance: six colours (red-pink, blue, green, yellow, purple and black)
Woodblock: 57.5 x 33.5 cm
This scene shows the meeting of the key figures involved in the negotiations for peace
during august 1900 following the defeat of the Boxers. The peace treaty itself was
only signed on 17 September 1901 imposing upon China a heavy financial burden of
450 million dollars to indemnify the Allied Force. The Chinese negotiators present in
this scene are the court official Ru Lu (1836-1903), Prince Duan (1861-1911), the
associate Grand Secretary Gang Yi (//), the Grand Secretary Xu Tong (1819-1900),
Prince Qing (//), and the official Li Hongzhang (1823-1901). According to Yin Huang
the latter is wrongly identified in the print as His Excellency Wang. Li Hongzhang
was well known for his ideas on reform. Yin Huang noticed that this print is
stylistically related to the photolithographic method popular in Shanghai during the
late 19th century. The only Allied Force envoy identified by name is the German
Commander-in-chief, Field Marshal Count von Waldersee (1832-1904), while the
other delegates are simply referred to as American, British and French envoys.
24. Scene from the Three Roads Junction play
('Sanchakou'xiju 三岔 口戲劇)
Artist: Sun Wenya 孫文雅(〃)
Place: Suzhou (Taohuawu district)
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black) with hand-painted
details in gold
Paper size: 30 x 25 cm
The scene comes from a story called the Romance of Patriarch Yang, which is a
fictional adaptation of an account related in the annals of the Northern Song dynasty
(960-1127). The Three Roads Junction episode contains the following plot. Jiao Zan
has killed Xie Jinwu, Wang Qinruo's son-in-law, and is sentenced to forced labour in
exile on Shamen Island. Yang Tingzhao orders Ren Tanghui to secretly protect Jiao
Zan. When Jiao arrives at the Three Roads Junction she seeks lodging for the night in
a sinister inn. The innkeeper Liu Lihua and his wife intend to harm Jiao Zan, Ren


Tanghui hurries to get there. Liu then intends to assasinate Ren. While they struggle
in the dark, Liu is finally killed by Ren.
25. (a-b) Scenes from the adapted Travellins eastward play
(Gailiang 'Zhengdongzhuanrxiju 改良征東傳戲劇)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, green, purple, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: (a) 46.2 x 28.5 cm; (b) 47.3 x 29 cm
26. (a-b) Xueding mountains scenes from the Travellins westward play
{Xuedingshan 'Zhengxi zhuan'xiju 丁山征西傳戲劇)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: seven colours (pink,red, green, purple, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: (a) 47.5 x 28.5 cm; (b) 48 x 28.5 cm
27. (a-b) Scenes from the Pearl Pasoda play
(rZhemhutafxiju 珍珠塔戲劇)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, green, purple, grey, yellow and black) note that
print (b) also has blue but no grey
Woodblock: (a) 48.2 x 26.8 cm; (b) 48.5 x 28.5 cm
This romantic tale originated during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). It tells the story
of a poor man called Fang Qing. One day Fang Qing pays a visit to his aunt Madam
Chen, who gives him a cold reception. Fang Qing is furious and takes his leave. Her
virtuous daughter Cui E, however, orders her servant girl Huan Caiping to place a
food casket for Fang Qing in the Pearl Pagoda. His uncle Chen Lian also knows about
the arrangement and pursues the matter. He advises his nephew to go back but Fang
Qing is not willing to retreat. Chen Lian then marries off Cui E so that they have to
part with each other. Fang Qing travels around and ends up being robbed by the
illustrious thief Qiu Liuqiao. Fortunately an official named Bi Yunxian saves him and
gives him shelter. Later Fang Qing marries his daughter Xiujin. Cui E longs for Fang
Qing and becomes seriously ill. Her father sends out his servant Wang Ben to find
Fang's mother but he cannot find her. Chen Lian then forges a letter to console his
daughter and she recovers from her illness. When thanking the gods at the White


Lotus Monastery for her recovery Cui E meets Fang's mother, who is tyrannised by a
Buddhist nun. Cui E and Caiping decide to set up a scheme to punish the nun. Fang
Qing observes everything and finds that it is as it should be. He then disguises himself
as a street singer to make secret inquiries. Finally mother and son meet again and Cui
E is reunited with Fang Qing.
28. The Five Rats spirit creates havoc in the eastern capital
(Wushu nao xiju五鼠鬧東京戲劇)
Artist: Shen Wenya 沈文雅(//)
Place: Suzhou (Taohuawu district)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: seven colours (red, pink, grey, green, blue, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 51.8x29 cm
The Strange case of Mister Bao originated during the Song dynasty (960-1279). The
story has it that Bao Zheng meets the Five Rats spirit, the latter transforms his body
into different manifestations such as the false Bao Zheng, Wang Chao, Ma Han, in
order to make trouble. When the false Shi Xin brings a lawsuit against him, the false
Bao Zheng flogs the real Shi Xin on purpose. Enters the real Mister Bao who explains
the matter, but it is difficult to distinguish between real and false people. Mister Bao
then begs the Western Cat spirit to capture the evil spirits.
29. (a-b) Meng Jiang meets Wan Shanliang by chance
('Meng Jiang nii qiaoyu Wan Shanliang' qianping xiju ^ 姜女遇萬善良 ftf
平戲劇)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, green, grey, blue, yellow and black)
Woodblock: (a-b) 49.5 x 26.8 cm
This print refers to an ancient story, which probably originated in the Spring and
Autumn period (770-476 BC). During the construction of the Great Wall, the First
Emperor (221-209 BC) ordered her husband Wan Shanliang to help build the wall.
Meng Jiang travelled ten thousand li to bring her husband winter clothes. However,
when she arrived Shanliang had already died. When Meng Jiang burst out in tears at
the foot of the wall, it collapsed, whereupon her husband's skeleton appeared. Later
Meng Jiang threw herself in the sea and drowned. It is also said that the emperor
forced her to become his concubine. Meng Jiang feigned to consent but after the
funeral of her husband she committed suicide by throwing herself of the wall.


30. Xue Rengui inflicts a crushing defeat on Mo Tianling
CZhengdong zhuan Xue Rengui dapo Mo Tianling,xiju'便東傳薛仁眚大破磨
天嶺戲劇) .......
Artist: Caiyunge 彩雲閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, green, grey, yellow and black) note that print (b)
also has blue
Woodblock: 48 x 25.5 cm
31. (a-b) Scenes from the play Tie Gonsii walking with a lantern
CTiegongji zott madeng quart benrxiju 鐵公雞走馬燈全本戲劇)
Artist: Jiuhezhai 久禾口齋 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none 太 f 承顯 ^
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, green, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: (a-b) 52 x 28.5 cm
The story alluded to in this print is based on the events that occurred during the last
days of the Taiping rebellion, but the real facts have been distorted to fit in with the
drama. (See print number 12) The main character is the imperial military hero Xiang
Rong, whose name also appears in one of the titles of the play, namely Xiang Rong in
the blaze. The title of this print refers to the plot of the assassination of a courageous
Taiping general named Tie Gongji by general Zhang Jiaxiang. The following
summary gives an idea of how the whole story develops. The Manchu imperial court
orders Xiang Rong to lead the troops and resist the enemy. Once Hong Xiuquan's
troops are defeated he commands Zhang Jiaxiang and Wu Zhan'ao feign to surrender
to Xiang Rong. The latter sees through their pretence and using a general disguised as
Zhang he takes advantage of the night to counterattack the Heavenly Kingdom. At
daybreak he again commands Zhang to send a punitive battle. The Heavenly
Kingdom falls into the trap and they kill Zhang's wife. Zhang thinks this is absolutely
normal and returns to his palace. Wu Zhan'ao then persuades the Zhang look-alike to
assassinate Xiang Rong, whereupon Zhang Jiaxiang in return kills Wu and surrenders
to Xiang Rong. Xiang Rong then changes his name to Guo Liang and demands the
general's eldest daughter to be married off to him. She refuses and commits suicide.
Xiang then makes another claim for his second daughter, whereupon Zhang out of his
own will yields to Xiang. The Manchu military official Tie Jinchi does not get along
well with Xiang Rong. He hands over funds to the Heavenly Kingdom. He then
organises a banquet and invites Xiang Rong while he secretly has his troops ready in
ambush. Zhang Jiaxiang, who is disguised as groom, follows Xiang Rong to the
banquet. While they are drinking they the room is set on fire and they are surrounded
by a blaze. Zhang Jiaxiang dashes forward into the fire and does everything he can to
save Xiang Rong. But Tie Jinchi's troops make it difficult for him. Chen Guorui
arrives, rescues Xiang Rong and seizes Tie Jinchi. Xiang Rong maintains his guard
over the Taiping city. A brave general from the Heavenly Kingdom named Lin


Fengxiang disguises himself as a woodcutter and tries to spy on the military
movements. Then Xiang Rong leads his troops to attack the city. Xiang Rong's
subordinates Zhang Jiaxiang and Zhang Yuliang both ride out and the city is damaged
under the attack. The two Zhangs are rewarded for their services. Later they again,
this time joined by Xiang Rong, lead their troops to counterattack and they recapture
the Taiping city.
32. Taking Chengdu
HQu cheng du'xiju 取城都戲劇)
Artist: Jiuhezhai 久禾口齋 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: five colours (red,green, grey, purple and black)
Woodblock: 48 x 29 cm
This print refers to a scene from the Ming dynasty novel the Romance of the Three
Kingdoms, written by Luo Guanzhong (c. 1330-1400). When the troops of Shu under
Liu Bei's (161-223 AD) command were heading for western Sichuan to press on
Chengdu, Liu Zhang asked Zhang Lu for help. But Ma Chao and Ma Dai, the two
generals sent by Zhang Lu to supress Liu Bei, were tricked into turning against their
own side to take Chengdu. Finally Liu Zhang surrendered to Liu Bei.
33. The stratagem of the empty city
(fKong chengji'xiju 空城計戲劇)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, green, grey, purple and black)
Woodblock: 47.5 x 29.5 cm
This scene appears in the novel The romance of the three kingdoms. After taking
Jieting city, general Sima Yi (179-251 AD) leads his troops to press on to Xicheng
city, where only the famous statesman and strategist Zhuge Liang (181-234 AD) and a
few soldiers have stayed behind. In despair Zhuge Liang decides to trick Sima Yi by
leaving the four gates wide open and standing on top of the city walls calmly playing
the lute. Fearing an ambush Sima Yi orders the retreat of his troops and Xicheng city
is saved.
34. Wu Song wrestles with the tiger on Jingyang Ridge
(rJingyanggang Wu Song da hu,xiju 景陽崗武松打虎戲劇)
Artist: none


Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: five colours (pink, red, green, purple and black)
Woodblock: 48 x 26.5 cm
This story is taken from the famous Ming dynasty novel the Water margin, written by
Shi Naian. The warrior hero Wu Song is seen subduing a troublesome tiger with his
bare fists. His bravery in quelling the tiger heedless of the risks sets an impressive
example of selfless altruism.
35. Song Jiang from Dongping prefecture recaptures the two guns
('Dongpingfu Song Jiang shoufu shuang cartgjiang' xijn 東年府松江收服雙
槍將戲劇)
Artist: Feiyunge 飛雲閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, green, pink, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 48 x 28.2 cm
This story is taken from the famous Ming dynasty novel the Water margin, written by
Shi Naian.
36. ? , Returning to Xing county, ?
(Hu ? guan,hui Xingzhou,gexu qipao 虎關,回荆州,割鬚棄袍)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, green, grey, purple, yellow and black)
Paper size: 52 x 30 cm
These scenes appear in the novel the Romance of the three kingdoms.
37. Wang He Jin Wushu ? at Golden Bridge
{'Jingzhong zhuan Wang He da Jin Wushu Beihai xian Jinqiao1 xiju 精 ^ f專王
大金兀術北海獻金橋) .......
Artist: Caiyunge 采乡雲閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, green, grey, blue, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 47.5 x 28.2 cm


38. Ma Wang, Ma Yongzhen, ?, Rainbow Pass
{Ma Wang,Ma Yongzhen, diao pangzi,hongni guankou 馬王,馬永自,吊膀
子,紅霓關口)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: four colours (pink, green, yellow and black)
Paper size: 54 x 24.5 cm
39. Golden wishes are granted by a circle of eight beauties
{Jin ruyi bamei tuanyuan $ 如胃 乂\ 美 Hi HI )
Artist: Shen Wenya 沈文雅(//)
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: eight colours (pink, red, green, blue, grey, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 49.1 x 29 cm
This print refers to an episode from a popular Ming dynasty play that is known under
the following various titles: Flower boat destiny. Three smiles felicity or A drop of
autumn fragrance. The protagonist Tang Bohu stands in a garden and is surrounded
by eight beauties. On a visit to Suzhou Bohu sees the beautiful maiden Qiu Xiang for
the first time and it is love at first sight. Despite two subsequent encounters in a
temple and on a pleasure boat, he still cannot bring himself to speak to her. So
desperate is Bohu's love for her that he changes his name and enters her master's
household as a tutor. Eventually he succeeds in buying her freedom and marries her.
According to Yin Huang this story is a fictitious account of the life of the famous
Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1524),who was notorious for his cavalier lifestyle. As a
native of Suzhou he enjoyed a reputation not only with the dramatists but also with
the printers, thus making prints pertaining to this play especially popular. The printers
of Taohuawu district also felt a special attachment to Tang Yin because he had built
himself a quiet retreat there, which he named Taohua hut. (See print number 107)
40. Chaos in the bridal chamber
(Nao xinfang 鬧新房)
Artist: Meng Jiao 夢焦(active after 1853) in the Feiyingge 飛影閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: 8th lunar month of 1900
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red,green, blue, grey, purple and black)
Woodblock: 49.5 x 28 cm


The demure bride sits quietly on her bed while around her chaos ensues in the form of
rampaging boys encouraged by their mothers. Traditionally before the bridal couple
was left alone for the night, the custom had it that little boys were allowed to enter the
bridal chamber to turn it topsy turvy. This apparently ensured that the couple would
be blessed with many sons. The name Meng Jiao is the pseudonym of female artist Li
Chihong. She is thought to have lived in Jiangsu during the latter part of the 19th
century, and she was also known as a poet and musician. During the 1890s when the
Taohuawu print shops were in decline, many Suzhou craftsmen left to work for
Shanghai, where the Suzhou artist Wu Youru (7-1893) had set up his Feiyingge print
shop.
41. Ten famous courtesan beauties of Shanghai
{Shanghai mingji shi mei上海名妓十美圖)
Artist: Meng Jiao 夢焦(active after 1853) in the Feiyingge 飛景多閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: winter of 1900
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, green, blue, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 49.5 x 28 cm
Ten fashionably dressed women accompanied by their attendants are shown in a
garden setting. They are engaged in leisurely activities such as playing music,
reading, boating on the lake. Their names alluding to flowers, treasures and fragrances
are typical of those adopted by many courtesans, and in this print some names are
rendered as Golden Little Treasure, Blessing Like Spring, Peaceful Fragrant Orchid,
etc. In those days the courtesan community of Shanghai provided men of the upper
classes with entertainment. These courtesans were cultivated in poetry, painting,
music and calligraphy. Although usually separated from respectable society, some of
them did gain certain notoriety. It goes without saying that the most notorious
courtesans would appear in publications displaying their talents. An early example of
this practice is the Hundred beauties of Nanjing published by Li Yunxiang in 1618.
Graphic representation of famous beauties, however, only became popular during the
middle of the eighteenth century. As can be expected the city of Suzhou counted
many printers who engraved pictures of local beauties. After Suzhou declined as a
printing centre and many of them left for Shanghai, the Suzhou printers naturally
continued this tradition once settled in their new environment.
42. Gods of wealth duel for treasures and riches
(Caishen tou bao da fu gui 財神鬥寶大富貴)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, green-blue, grey, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 47.5 x 48 cm


The print shows an episode from the Yuan dynasty play entitled Shen Wansan. Shen,
a native from Suzhou, was betrothed as a child to a daughter of the Liu family, called
Wei wen. Because Shen was addicted to gambling the family would soon be living in
poverty if Shen were not to mend his ways. The Liu patriarch had already pleaded
with Shen but to no avail. Therefore he buried what remained of his family's wealth
and only told his wife about it. She in turn persuaded her daughter Wei wen to disguise
herself as a man in order to dissuade her husband from getting into further debts. She
follows him to a gambling den and challenges him to a game of dice. Weiwen wins
the bargain and thus saves Shen Wansan from ruin. When she reveals herself to him
he is filled with remorse and vows never to gamble again. Other characters from the
play are also depicted as well as deities associated with wealth. As if to emphasise the
bets at stake, the gambling table is literally filled with gold ingots. Symbols of luck,
prosperity and wealth are scattered throughout the print.
43. Newly engraved complete illustrations of the Classic of mountains and seas
(Xinke Sanhaijing quantu亲斤亥丨J山海糸至全圖)
Artist: a mark reads Tongxing 同興
Place: Shanghai
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: eight colours (pink, red, green, blue, grey, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 47 x 41.5 cm
The Classic of mountains and seas is a mythogeography on the wonders of the world.
It is traditionally considered to have been written by the legendary emperor Yu of the
Xia dynasty (c. 21-16th century BC), however, parts of it were written during the
Warring States period (475-221 BC) and part in the Han (202 BC-220 AD) and Jin
(265-420 AD) dynasties. Its fantastic content was popular with both scholars, who
studied its geographical and cultural features, and masses, who marvelled at its stories
filled with fantasy. In the words of Ann Birrell the Classic of mountains and seas
"constitutes a fabulous bestiary, a botanical thesaurus, a dictionary of natural science,
a catalogue of geological substances and rare jewels, a guide to portents and omens, a
register of medical ailments, an apothecary's handbook, and a medley of folkloric and
ethnological material." This print, which only shows nineteen mythical creatures,is
probably one of series forming the complete illustrations. Suffice it to mention here
three of them. The xingyao is a being who is said to have fought against the Supreme,
who cut off his head, making eyes in his breasts and a mouth in his navel. It dances
while grasping a shield and battleaxe. The lei is a creature from the Cui mountain, like
the magpie, red and black, with two heads and four feet. It can be used to stop fires.
The bifang is a creature from the Zhangyi mountain, like the crane, but it has only one
leg, red markings, green feathers, and white beak. When it is appears there will be a
supernatural fire.


44. Spring Ox calendar entitled ’Foreign countries presenting treasures'
('Yangguo jinbaor chunniu tu、洋國進寶舂牛圖)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: 1843
Appearance: four colours (black, grey, brown and light brown)
Woodblock: 48.8 x 32.7 cm
寺M f氣
This print shows a 19th century Chinese coastal town with the Chinese government
offices and European factories. The temple of the Dragon King occupies a prominent
position in this scene, referring to the importance of this deity that was said to control
the oceans of the world. Unlike most calendars of this genre, this one depicts the
spring ox being whipped and led across a bridge, and it also includes additional
auspicious dates as well as the eight trigrams inscribed on pagodas. According to Yin
Huang the print shows influence of European colouring and use of perspective. The
year 1843 is a pivotal point in Chinese history because China was defeated by the
British during the Opium War. The resulting Treaty of Nanjing opened Chinese ports
to foreign trade. While China believed that riches would flow in from the trade. The
title of the print would actually prove to be ironical since what happened in the end
was a devastating import of opium against a continuing drain of silver.
一5二)Fasting dates for Moslems
{Qingzhenzhai bairi qibiao、?青眞齋拜日期表)
Artist: Xuanjiaotang 宣孝夂堂 print shop
Place: Peking
Date: 1801
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 54.3 x 32 cm
Islam means ’submission’ and Muslims are ’those who submit themselves to the One
God as revealed in the Qu'ran. From the Tang dynasty onwards the religion of the
Islam was introduced in China by Muslim merchants settling mainly in the area of
Yunnan and Gansu provinces. China has had Muslim rulers, most notably under the
Yuan dynasty (1271-1368), when many Muslims occupied official positions at court.
Fasting (sawin) is one of the five pillars of Islam, symbolising obedience to God but it
is also meant to strengthen the unity of the Muslim community. The Ramadan takes
place during the ninth month of the Muslim year when during all daylight hours rigid
fasting is observed. In the upper part of this print on yellow paper there are three
emblems in Arabic calligraphy, done in one of the cursive styles,probably the Riqa,
which is often used for making public announcements, while the lower part shows the
fasting dates. Apart from the Chinese date the print also reveals a Western date,
referring to the Muslim calendar, namely the year 1207 AH (Anno Hijra).


46. Daoist charm entitled TMan from the Dragon and Tiger mountains in Jiangxi,
('Jiangxi Longhushanrenf Daofu ^C 西 f 董虎山人道符)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none
Appearance: five colours (red,green, purple, yellow and black)
Paper size: 57 x 27 cm
The Dragon and Tiger mountains are the site of a famous Daoist scenic spot located in
Guixi county north-east of Jiangxi province, close to Fujian province. It is one of the
places where the founder of magical or religious Daoism Zhang Daoling (35-156 AD)
spent some time cultivating his Daoist alchemist principles. Zhang Daoling is credited
with having perfected the pill of immortality. At the age of sixty upon swallowing it
he is said to have become young again, his face being as fresh and rosy as that of a
young boy. He worked as a healer to finance his expensive alchemical experiments
and attracted a great number of followers. He cured the sick by reciting magical
formulae and by serving them sacred water. His fee for such treatment consisted of
five pecks of rice, so that the school founded by him also came to be known as Five-
Pecks-of-Rice Daoism. Since the reign of emperor Taiwu (424-452 AD) his followers
venerated him as a celestial master (tianshi), a title borne by his descendants to this
day. The descendants established their headquarters on the Dragon and Tiger
mountains, and have since been the undisputed heads of the Daoist religion, in a
similar role to that of the Pope. Zhang Daoling is pictured as an old, bearded man
riding a tiger. The charm is definitely supposed to protect the owner from illness and
evil spirits, and to increase the hope of being able to live a long and healthy life.
47. With Jiang Tai Gong residing in the north one disregards offending taboos
('Jiang Tai Gong zai bei, mu wu jinji' Daofu 姜太公在;| 匕目無禁忌、道符)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, green, purple, yellow, and black)
Paper size: 57 x 25.5 cm
Jiang Tai Gong (1210-1120 BC), also known as Jiang Ziya or Jiang Lushang, is said
to be descended from the Yellow Emperor. He was one of the central figures in the
historical and mythological Battle of Mu between the tyrant King Zhou of the Shang
dynasty and King Wu, usually said to be the founder of the Zhou dynasty. A brave
and fearless general he slaughtered his enemies mercilessly, but afterwards raised
them to the status of gods. (See print number 89) Formerly in the service of King
Zhou, he became disillusioned with the tyrant, and entered the service of Xi Bai
(1231-1135 BC) or King Wen as his counsellor, and later became the most able
minister of King Wen's son King Wu. In gratitude King Wu honoured him with a
princedom in perpetuity. His picture is pasted up in houses in order to ward off evil
words and render them harmless.


48. Zhong Kui
、,ZhongKuVDaofu 靈馗道符)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: none
Appearance: five colours (pink, red, green, purple and black)
Paper size: 58 x 24 cm
The legendary figure of Zhong Kui the demon-queller was originally credited with
curing the Tang emperor Minghuang from his sickness and driving away the demons
haunting him. Afterwards the emperor asked the painter Wu Daozi to paint Zhong
Kui's portrait, and he instructed that every family was to display his picture at New
Year as a talisman against evil spirits. Usually Zhong Kui is shown dressed in green,
with a half-closed eye, and only one shoe, in the act of slaying a demon with his left
hand, and tearing out its eye with its right.
49. Zhang Xian the purveyor of children
('Zhang Xian song zi ‘ tu gg 仙送子圖)
Artist: Jiuhezhai 久禾口齋 print shop
Place: Shanghai
Date: early 20th century
Appearance: six colours (blue, green, red, yellow, grey and black)
Paper size: 51 x 30 cm
This deity is often depicted as a bearded, white-faced man dressed in the robes of a
nobleman surrounded by a group of children. The bow and arrow he is holding are for
the purpose of shooting the Dog Star, since it was believed that a family born under
the Dog star would not be blessed with a son, and even if a son was born, he would
only live for a short while. Zhang Xian was thus worshipped by women who were
desirous of offspring, and as a kind of patron saint of children, his portrait was mostly
hung in the sleeping quarters of a family home to watch over the young. It is said that
originally Zhang Xian was an enlightened Daoist who was given a bow with the
power to dispel epidemics,and his connection with the birth of sons is based upon
several accounts. One possible romantic explanation behind this story is that when
Lady Fei, concubine of Meng Chang (935-965 AD) prince of Shu, was taken captive
by Taizu, founder of the Song dynasty in 960 AD, she secretly kept a picture of her
former lover close to her. When discovered she said that it was only a picture of
Zhang Xian. It has also been argued that Zhang Xian, as the bringer of children, may
be a play on the words Zhang gongjia dan, which could mean either Zhang the archer
draws the bow, or Zhang the archer increases birth.


50. (a-b) Early birth of noble male offspring, five sons attain the first degree
{Zao sheng guizi,wuzi duokui 早生貴子五子奪魁)
Artist: Jiuhezhai 久禾口齋 print shop
Place: Shanghai
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, green, blue, purple, yellow and black)
Paper size: (a-b) 50 x 30 cm
Depicted here is Xi Wangmu or Queen Mother of the West, patroness of the bride,
with her attendants.
52. Military door god
(Wu menshen 胃 P,宇串)
Artist: Jiuhezhai 久禾口齋 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: none
Appearance: seven colours (red, green, grey, blue, purple, yellow and black)
Paper size: 54 x 29 cm
This print is likely one of a pair of door gods, the other one probably being a civil
door god. (See print number 4)
53. The Chinese Republic recaptures Mongolia in a sea and land war
{rZhonghua Minguo guangfu Menggu shuilu jiaozhan1 如中華民國光復蒙古
水陸交戰圖) 、
Artist: Jiuhezhai 久禾口齋 print shop
Place: Shanghai
Date: after 1919
Appearance: five colours (red, green, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 48.2 x 28 cm
This scene depicts the powerful Chinese army subduing the hapless Mongolian forces.
In the background Russian gunboats are looming. In 1911 Mongolia had proclaimed
her independence from China and established a monarchy with King Jebtsundamba
Khutuktu here referred to as a royal prince. Since these Mongolian leaders were quite
inexperienced in governing their newly established country, it easily became a pawn
in the diplomatic game played by her two neighbours, Russia and China. The Sino-
Russian accord of 1913 had weakened the Mongolian independence and by the time
of the Treaty of Khiakta of 1915 Mongolia had become just another territory under
Chinese suzerainty. Due to the Russian revolution of 1917, and under the pretext of
protecting Mongolia from the Russians, China assumed her control over Mongolia by
a military intervention,of which a scene is shown in this print.


54. The capital、new production of the Story of South Mansion
(Jingdu xinpai Nanlou zhuan ^ 者亲斤扫洋南樓傳)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, blue, green, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 48 x 29 cm
The print shows five women gathered in and around a garden pavilion. They appear to
be entreating with a rogue who is trying to climb over the wall into their garden. The
Story of the South Mansion appears to have been a rather obscure play of which little
is known.
55, (a-b) Scenes from the play Fate of a mother who kills her son
{Quanben xinzeng 'Shazi bao1 xiju ^ 本亲斤增殺子幸艮戲劇)
Artist: Sun Wenya 孫文雅(//)
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, blue, green, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: (a-b) 51.7 x 27.2 cm
The story happened at the beginning of the Guangxu reign (1875-1908), when the
death occurred of a certain Wang Shicheng of Tong county, located to the east of
Peking. He left behind his wife Madam Xu and two children, a son and a daughter.
His wife had an illicit relation with a monk from the Heavenly Order Temple called
Na Yun. Her son Guanbao, although still young, thoroughly investigated the matter
and in his anger he pursued Na Yun. Thereupon his mother became furious and one
night while Guanbao was fast asleep she killed him. She even smashed his corpse into
pieces and forced her daughter Jinding to hide it in an oil jar. Guanbao's private tutor
Zeng Wei, who had heard Guanbao speak about the matter, noticed he was not
coming to class any longer and suspecting something he interrogated Madam Xu.
Later he ascertained his suspicion by talking to Jinding. He then set out to the yamen
of the prefecture but the magistrate did not believe him and instead he detained him in
custody. At night the tutor dreamed that Baoguan would help him to escape. When he
awoke he struck the drum at the magistrate's door to present another complaint. The
magistrate then disguised himself as a diviner and went to make a personal call at the
scene of the crime, whereupon he investigated the matter and obtained the true facts.
He arrested Madam Xu and Na Yun, and both were declared guilty.


56. (a-b) Scene of a drama
{Xinhui丨Malcmg dcmgfxiju新繪馬郎蕩戲劇)
Artist: Caiyunge 采多雲閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: seven colours (pink,red, blue, green, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: (a) 48.8 x 28.5 cm; (b) 49.2 x 27.5 cm
57. In the Gossamer Cave the spider spirit is seized
(Tansidongzhuo na zhizhujing丨xiju盤絲、洞捉拿蜘蛛精戲劇)
Artist: Wenyizhai 文儀齋 print shop
Place: Suzhou (Taohuawu district)
Date: none
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, green, blue, grey, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 47.8 x 28 cm
This scene refers to a story from the famous Ming dynasty novel Journey to the West
written by Wu Cheng'en (1500-1582). The print shows the seven emotions struggling
with Pig, one of the three disciples of the Tang dynasty priest Sanzang.
58. Scene of a drama
--...、‘.‘
{fLiuXuande san gu dan lurxiju 玄德
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: 1908
Appearance: two colours (grey and black)
Woodblock: 45 x 30 cm
These scenes appear in the novel the Romance of the three kingdoms. According to
Peter Lam this print was probably produced in 1908 when the Qing dynasty emperor
Guangxu (r. 1875-1908) During this period of state mourning the use of bright
colours on New Year pictures was forbidden.
59. Celebrating the New Year festival
{Qin^x xinnian如慶賀新年圖)
Artist: Gao Tongxian 高桐軒(1835-1906)
Place: Tianjin (Yangliuqing district)
Date: 1905
Appearance: eight colours (//) with hand-painted details


Paper size: 55 x 33 cm
This is a domestic scene on the eve of the New Year. While one lady is lighting up the
candles at the altar the other ladies are seated on the warmed brick-bed making
dumplings. Two young boys are playing a game called 'Win promotion' (Jiaguan),
alluding to the hope of success in their future careers. The colophon reads: "The
women of the household see the old year out,the brothers compete to be promoted."
According to Yin Huang this print can be identified as the work of a specific artist,
namely Gao Tongxian, who was one of the most famous artists working at the
Yangliuqing print shops. Although this particular print has been dated to 1905, the
subject is a reproduction from his earlier work. The original blocks for this design
were cut at the beginning of the reign of the Guangxu emperor (r. 1875-1908), and
continued to be reproduced in the studios until 1906.
61. (a-b) Scenes from the play Fate of a mother who kills her son
{Quanben xinzeng ’Shazi baofxiju 全本新增殺子幸g 戲劇)
Artist: Yunxiangzhai 箱香齋 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: six colours (//)
Woodblock: (a-b) 51.5 x 31.5 cm
(See print number 55)
62. Military Governor Li Qincha and Song Lubao crushing the foreign forces
(Li Qincha dujun Song Lubao dapo waiting 李欽差督,敢大〜.破之f 兵)
63. The Russian Army enduring hardships in Liaoning province
(Tengtian sheng Ejun shoukun ‘ tu ^ 天省俄軍受困圖)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: three colours (red, blue and black)
Paper size: 56 x 33 cm
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: two colours (black and red)
Paper size: 56 x 33 cm

中铤紙


64. Great battle at Yangcun
{Yangcun dazhan % 才寸力.)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none l^^o (O
Appearance: three colours (grey, black and red)
Paper size: 56 x 33 cm
65. The gods and commoners aid General Yin Zengda vowing to destroy the
Russian Army
{Fengtian shenmin xiezhu xiang Yin Zengda yuanshi shi mie Ebing 奉天便民協
助嚮銀增大元師滅俄兵) /5$、
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: two colours (grey, black and red)
Paper size: 56 x ^cm
中H所、
66. In Tianjin Commander-in-chief Dong and Grand Secretary Gang inspect the
drilling of their forces in sea and land exercises
{fTianjin Dong junmen huitong Gang zhongtang xiaoxi sanjun shuilu caoyan' tu 天
津董軍門會同剛中堂校習三軍操演圖)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: two colours (blue, black and red)
Paper size: 56 x 33 cm
-fk机
67. The captured Japanese and Russian traitors being tried and executed
(Zhuo na Wo-E jian shenwen zhengfa 捉拿 f委俄女干審 f^ 正法)
Artist: Songshan daoren 嵩山道人(//)
Place: none
Date: seventh lunar month of 1900
Appearance: four colours (red, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: 52.5 x 31 cm
1:


68. Bodhisattva sitting on a lotus surrounded by officials
(No Chinese title or inscriptions)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 34.7 x 17.2 cm
69. Noisy classroom
{Nao xuetang 學堂)
Artist: San Loh He (Sanliu he 三六禾口)print shop
Place: Shanghai
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, brown, blue, grey, yellow and green)
Woodblock: 31.5 x 21 cm
This print shows nine sons playing around in school. The symbol of the nine sons
appears in one of the great early anthologies of Chinese poetry, namely the Songs of
the South where it is said the goddess Nu Qi, who was without a husband, gave birth
to nine sons. In portraying this theme it seems likely that the wish for a large male
offspring is alluded to.
70. Notification of the creation of Gods
{Feng shen bang圭才卞申胃)
Artist: Caiyunge 彩雲閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: eight colours (red, green, pink, blue, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 47.9 x 28.2 cm
This scene is from the play entitled Offering the concubine Daji. The plot of the play
is as follows: the dissolute King Zhou has the desire to make the beautiful Daji his
wife. But her father the Marquis of Ji district is unwilling to accede to this request
from the King and he is therefore banished from the court. Consequently King Zhou
attacks Ji district and obtains Daji, who will be offered to him as tribute. However, on
her way to the court Daji is turned into an evil spirit by the nine-tailed fox. As a spirit
she then poisons the King's mind and leads him on the road to ruin. This print depicts
a duel that appears in the play while the text explains: "The flying sword of Lu Bi cuts
Daji."


71. Unidentified as vet
(Da shou guan sheng 大收關勝)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, blue, green, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 47.4 x 27.5 cm
72, Unidentified as vet
(Zhao Yao jin zhang liao da bai Sun Quart 趙遙津張遼大敗孫權)
Artist: Caiyunge 彩雲閣 print shop
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: eight colours (green, red, pink, blue, purple, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 48.5 x 28 cm
73. Yue family village
(Yue jia zhuang 岳家庄)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: eight colours (red, green, pink, blue, grey, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 49 x 27.7 cm
The print shows most of the key characters of this play. The inscriptions reads:
"Master Yue uses a mallet to hit general Pan." The Master Yue here referred to is the
Song dynasty general Yue Yun (1119-1142), the alleged son of the legendary general
Yue Fei (1103-1142). The story goes that Yue Yun obtains a silver mallet and uses it
to practise martial arts without informing his mother. When she finds out he is
severely punished. However, when some time later the Yue estate is attacked, it is
Yue Yun who is able to defend it.
74. Chinese victory over Western troops at the northern warehouses in Tianjin
QTianjin bei cang Zhong-Xi luzhan dasheng 天津;(匕倉中西陸戰大月券)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1900
Appearance: four colours (red, blue, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 59 x33.8 cm
O-…热/


This panoramic view shows a land battle in progress. Both the Chinese imperial army
and the Boxers are defending Tianjin from the advancing Allied Forces. There the
inscription reads:
On the 15th day of this month we received a telegram: "The Boxers together with the Chinese
army were defending the road leading to the northern warehouses. On meeting the Western
forces numbering more than ten thousand, the two sides engaged in battle. Our troops obtained
great victories and regained Tianjin, and the Western forces suffered great losses. The Western
forces had hoped for reinforcements to come from the Dagu forts but these were also soundly
defeated by our troops. It can be said that even though our troops are limited, their strength is
inexhaustible."
75. Master Dong ambushes and bombards Western forces from land and sea
{Dong dashi shuilu maifu hong Xibing 董大動 7}K 陸埋伏囊西兵)
Artist: none 售印必
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1900
Appearance: five colours (red, blue, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 56.7 x 33.8 cm
In this portrayal of a vivid battle several scenes are shown together. The sea battle
rages near the Dagu forts, while the battle of Tianjin happens on land. Tianjin was one
of the Boxer strongholds and the place where they obtained early successes against
the Allies. The inscription here reads:
On the 10th day of this month, we received a telegram: "The Allied Forces launched an attack on
Tianjin. Prior to this our generals had already ordered mines to be buried on land and put in the
sea. The Chinese troops disguised as fishermen lured the Western forces into entering the mouth
of the river. When they came ashore, our cannons sounded and mines and bombs exploded. The
Allied Forces fell into the trap. We suffered casualties with ten of our boats destroyed but the
Allied Forces were completely subjugated."
76. Republican troops subdue Central and Outer Tibet
('Minjun gefu neiwai Xizang' quantu ^;軍克復内夕f 西藏全圖)
Artist: none
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1912-1913
Appearance: four colours (red, blue, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 49.3 x 27.3 cm
Q — ib
This print commemorates the subjugation of the outer provinces of Tibet. From the
inscriptions scattered throughout the print we learn that the Tibetans welcome the
Chinese army and that the Tibetan government gladly surrendered. The Tibetan inner
heartland is depicted in the far distance and shows the intention of the Chinese army.
When the Qing dynasty fell in 1911 Tibet had declared her independence. The


following year the Chinese Republican government decided that steps should be taken
to regain control of Tibet. In a series of military campaigns led by the Chinese
military governor Yin Changheng (//) the outer provinces were quickly subdued and
the Chinese would march on to Central Tibet.
77. Capture of the Lushun fort
{Duoqu Lushun paotai 奪取旅順炮台)
Artist: none
Place: Suzhou
Date: 1904?
Appearance: eight colours (red, blue, orange, pink, green, purple, yellow and black)
Woodblock: 51.3x27.7 cm
The naval assault on a fort shown in this print is a well-known incident during the
Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. It recaptures the attack on the Lushun fort in
November 1894. The inscription explains: "The Japanese attacked the Russsian fort at
Lushun. The fort was taken by the Japanese and the Russians were surprisingly
defeated."
78. Pair of Celestial Officials ? wishing good fortune
(凡福)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, pink, green, purple, yellow and black) with hand-
painted details in gold
Paper size: 26.5 x 17 cm
In Chinese folklore the Celestial Officials dressed in imperial robes usually symbolise
good fortune and official promotion. The character fu meaning good fortune expresses
the wish that the owner may receive both wealth and the blessings of good fortune.
These were two of the most common aims in the life of the ordinary folk and so prints
of this design were particularly popular.
79. Door god
(No Chinese title or inscription)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: six colours (red, blue, green, grey, yellow and black)
Paper size: 55 x 30 cm


80. God of wealth bestows good fortune
(Zengfu caishen if'福貝才神)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: 20th century
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 23.4 x 9.4 cm
The mythical god of wealth is considered to be the deified spirit of Bi Gan, a sage of
the 12l century BC, who was the chief minister of the tyrant King Zhou, the last ruler
of the Shang dynasty. Bi Gan was the King's uncle and he reproved him for his evil
conduct, whereupon the King ordered that the sage's heart and liver be cut out.
Posthumously deified as god of wealth, Bi Gan quickly became an object of folk
worship, usually worshipped by poor people, but also by gamblers. Because Bi Gan
dared to speak up to the emperor he came to epitomise the official of integrity. In
addition to wishing the family the prospect of amassing great material wealth, this
print also wishes good fortune and felicity. (See print number 85)
81. Jade Emperor or Supreme deity
f^、
(Ju Huang Shangdi 玉黃上帝)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: 20th century
Appearance: five colours (red, pink, blue, green and black) with hand-painted details
in silver
Woodblock: 33.1 x 15.9 cm
The cult of the Jade Emperor began when the Song dynasty emperor Zhenzong, who
when he was forced to conclude a peace treaty in 1005 AD with a foreign power came
close to losing the support of his people. In order to pacify them he posed as a
visionary and claimed to be in direct communication with heaven saying that an
immortal had revealed himself to him in a dream handing him a letter from the Jade
Emperor. According to the legend, however, the Jade Emperor was born after his
parents, the king Jing De and queen Bao Yue, who had no son, had asked the priests
to pray for them. Thereupon the queen dreamed of Laozi handing her a child and
when she woke the next day she discovered she was pregnant. The child was
handsome and wise, and succeeded his father to the throne, but relinquished it only
after a few days in order to withdraw to the mountains and pursue Daoist meditation.
Upon attaining perfection, he devoted the remainder of his life to the sick and the
poor, instructing them in the Dao. The Jade Emperor is the most important deity in
Chinese folk religion and religious Daoism. He personally determines all that happens
in heaven and on earth. For this purpose he has at his disposal an enormous celestial


administration, which is a faithful replica of the terrestrial administration of the
Chinese empire. At the beginning of each year all the deities report to the Jade
Emperor after ascending to his palace, which is situated in the highest of all heavens.
It is thus not surprising that these kinds of prints are related to the practice of making
offerings to all the gods in heaven and on earth on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New
Year. The inscription explains: "The Emperor bestows good fortune on the celestial
officials and the universal rulers of the three realms and ten directions."
82. Eighteen Buddhas and various deities of the three realms of heaven and earth
{Tiandi sanjie shiba fo zhushen ^ i也三界 f弗言者神)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: 20th century
Appearance: three colours (red, blue and green) with hand-painted details in sliver
Woodblock: 80.5 x 68 cm
This print was left unfinished and it was printed on yellow paper. (See print number
81)
83. Immortal addicted to wine
{Jiuxian、酒仙)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: 20th century
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 24.4 x 24 cm
This print depicts an official sitting at an altar flanked by two attendants. Is this a
reference to Li Bai?
84. Unidentified as yet
(Yueshigtmngfo 樂師光佛)?
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 30.5 x 23.5 cm


85. Planet Venus
(Taibaijiwcing 太白金星)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 23.4 x 9.2 cm
Venus represents gold,and is deemed a complacent planet. Many of its phases foretell
peace and plenty. This print is identical to print number 80, only the title differs.
86. Unidentified as yet
(Pei gu niangniang 培姑娘娘)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 30.4 x 23.3 cm
87. God of war
(Guansheng dadi 關聖大帝)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 25.5 x 23.3 cm
The Chinese military hero Guan Yu (162-220 AD), originally a seller of bean curd,
pursued his studies and later became a supporter of Liu Bei (161-223 AD), the first
ruler of the Lesser Han dynasty. He was executed on the orders of a hostile ruler. His
life story forms the theme of one of the most popular Chinese novels, namely the
Brothers of the peach orchard. The cult around Guandi as a deity was strongly
influenced by Buddhist ideas and during the 7th century he was one of the protectors
of Buddhist temples. In 1594 he was elevated to the rank of God of war, and accorded
the title 'Great just emperor who assist heaven and protects the state,. In the 19th
century he was bestowed the title of 'Military Emperor' and he was also elevated to
the level of Confucius. Thus it is clear that he became one of the most popular deities
of China. His worship is not confined to the military, he is also invoked by anyone
needing assistance. Because of his early calling he is the patron of bean curd sellers,
but he has also been accepted as patron saint of various trades and professions. As
such he is regarded as a tutelary deity of moneymaking enterprises in general, and has
gradually developed into a kind of god of wealth. Curiously, he is also one of the


patrons of literature, because it is said that as a student he could recite the whole of
the commentary on the Spring and autumn annals by heart.
88, Prosperous trade
CL/’M/‘ 利市)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 25.2 x 23.4 cm
89. God of prosperity
{Xuantan 玄壇)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 25 x 23.4 cm
According to the Daoist classification of supernatural bureaucracy the Minister of
finance is identified with Zhao Gongming, a famous hero who died in 229 AD. In
Daoism he is venerated as the god of wealth alias General Zhao of the Dark Terrace
{Xuantan yuanshuai). Legend made him a hermit living on Mount Emei where he
attained enlightenment. He is also depicted as fighting wars alongside King Zhou.
Riding a black tiger he throws pearls which burst like grenades. Zhao Gongming was
a dangerous force and seemed invincible, so the general of the opposing side, Jiang
Ziya resorted to witchcraft. Making a straw figure, writing Zhao's name on it, offering
incense before it, he finally shot peachwood arrows into the figure's eyes and heart.
Simultaneously, Zhao Gongming fainted and died. After the war Jiang Ziya praised
Zhao's bravery, and regretting the unmanly means used to bring about his defeat, he
installed him as god of wealth. (See print number 47) Zhao Gongming holds a central
position in popular faith and he is venerated by most families. He is usually regarded
as the patron deity of merchants. Furthermore he has the power to ward off thunder
and lightning, to fight illnesses and to ensure profit from commercial transactions.
Poorer families content themselves with writing the two signs of his name (Xuantan)
on a piece of paper, which they affix to the door of the most important room in their
house.
90. Might that makes the mountain forests quake
(Wei zhen shanlin 震山林)
Artist: Yangjiabu print shop (printed by Yang Xiuyi 楊 f|爹義 from Weifang city)


Place: Shandong
Date: 20th century
Appearance: four colours (red, green, yellow-orange and black)
Paper size: 55.2 x 42 cm
Depicted here is a prowling tiger. The intended meaning of this kind of New Year's
picture is to be found in the Comprehensive meaning of customs (Fengsu tongyi)
compiled by Ying Shao {£. 140-206 AD). There it is explained: "The tiger is a virile
animal, the leader of the-hundred beasts. He is able to seize and push down sharp
weapons, bite and eat demons and bogies. When people today suddenly meet with
evil, they cook its skin and drink it. Striking its claws also enables them to ward off
evil. They verified this." Thus it becomes clear that this print functions as a talisman
that gives them supernatural power and protects them against evil spirits.
91. Cowherd and weaving maid
(Niulangzhinii 牛郎織女)
Artist: Yangjiabu print shop
Place: Shandong
Date: 20th century
Appearance: five colours (red,pink, green, yellow and purple)
Woodblock: 61 x 13.6 cm
Both the cowherd, herdsman to the gods, and the weaving maid, celestial seamstress,
refer to constellations. The former is represented by the star Altair and the latter by
the star Vega. The following legend has been told about these two personified stars. It
happened one day that the cowherd and the weaving maid fell in love, and they were
so taken up with each other that both cattle and loom were neglected. The gods were
so displeased that the Queen of Heaven took her hairpin, and with one sweep across
the sky, rent a boundary between them. Since that time the cowherd and the weaving
maid have been separated by the River Han, known to us as the Milky Way. Happily,
once a year they are able to meet, for magpies build them a temporary bridge across
the river on the seventh day of the seventh moon. The day of their reunion has
become a joyous festival. The two stars were primarily worshipped by women in
order to gain proficiency in the arts of needlework and the arranging of flowers.
92. Pair of door gods
{Menshen ^ 神)
Artist: Yangjiabu print shop
Place: Shandong
Date: 1979
Appearance: five colours (red, green, yellow, purple and black)
Paper frame: 68 x 43 cm


Depicted are two door gods in military outfit. They are both holding a fan and a vase
filled with chrysanthemums. (See print number 4) Their attributes could possibly
symbolise immortality (fan) and life of ease (chrysanthemum).
93. Blooming plums bring forth the five blessings
{Meihua kai wufu梅花開五卞畐)
Artist: Yangjiabu print shop
Place: Shandong
Date: 20th century
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, green, blue, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
This print is related to the prints numbered 94 and 95,forming a series of four prints
that make up the four seasons. However, the SOAS series lack a print referring to
autumn. This print, symbolising winter, depicts magpies and blooming plums, both
harbingers of the impending arrival of happy events, in this case the five blessings,
which are long life, wealth, peace, virtue and fame.
94. In bright sunlight lotus flowers are exceptionally red
(Yingri hehua bieyang hong映曰胃花另丨J牛素糸I )
Artist: Yangjiabu print shop
Place: Shandong
Date: 20th century
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, green, blue, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
This print refers to summer, showing lotus flowers in full bloom, swimming fish and
singing birds. The lotus is the symbol of summer and fruitfulness because its fruits are
said to be ripe when the flower blooms. Thus it stands for the fruition of a person's
endeavours.
95. May you both prosper in wealth and fame and live to a ripe old age
(Fugui shuangshuang dao baitou 富貴雙雙到白頭)
Artist: Yangjiabu print shop
Place: Shandong
Date: 20th century
Appearance: six colours (pink, red, green, blue, yellow and black)
Paper size: 46 x 35 cm
This print alludes to spring, showing peonies and magnolias with a songbird. They
symbolise riches and honour.


96. Fierce tiger of the mountain forests
{Shanlin menghu 山林猛虎)
Artist: Yangjiabu print shop
Place: Shandong
Date: 20th century
Appearance: four colours (red, blue-green, yellow and black)
Paper size: 84 x 55.5 cm
Depicted are a tiger with its cub. This larger print was usually hung in scroll format as
a centrepiece in the main halls of homes to drive away evil spirits. (See print number
90)
97, Military god of wealth
{Wu caishen 武財神)
Artist: Yangliuqing print shop
Place: Tianjin
Date: early 19th - 20th century
Appearance: six colours (red, blue, green, pink, purple and black) with hand-painted
details in gold
Paper size: 57.2 x 35 cm
This print forms a pair with print number 98. This official in purple robes faces right.
In his left hand he carries a tray on which are placed a deer and the immortal fungus,
and in his right hand he holds an ivory sceptre. His attendant lifts a banner inscribed
with the words 'Raising emoluments' {Jin lu). The deer {Ju in Chinese) is a pun on the
word emolument. But at the same time it is an emblem of long life, for the deer is
believed by the Chinese to live to a very great age. It is also said to be the only animal
that is able to find the sacred fungus of immortality. The fungus is said to have stood
as a model for the S-shaped ornamented sceptre, which is a symbol of good luck. For
this reason the sceptre is also regarded as an emblem of longevity. Thus this god of
wealth, who resembles Zhao Gongming, expresses several wishes. It not only voices
the urge for prosperity or guards against the unexpected, but also clearly represents
the hope to attain eternal life. (See print number 89)
98, Civil god of wealth
{Wen caishen )C 貝才神)
Artist: Yangliuqing print shop
Place: Tianjin
Date: early 19th - 20th century
Appearance: six colours (red, blue,green and pink) with hand-painted details in gold


Paper size: 57.2 x 35 cm
This official in red robes faces left. The tray in his right hand contains a crown. In his
left hand he holds a sceptre. His attendant lifts a banner inscribed with the words
'Increasing rank’ {jia guan). This god of wealth is associated with Bi Gan. (See print
number 80) [for introduction: According to Yin Huang prints number 97 and 98 were
formerly in the Berthold Laufer collection, and acquired by him between 1908-1910.]
99. Door god Qin Qiong
(Qin Qiong menshen 秦瓊門神)
Artist: Yangliuqing print shop
Place: Tianjin
Date: early 19th - 20th century
Appearance: seven colours (pink, red, orange, blue, green, yellow and black)
Paper size: 57.2 x 35 cm
This print, forming a pair with print number 100, shows an elaborately dressed
warrior facing left. In his right hand he holds a staff festooned with tassels and beads.
Qin Qiong is another name for general Qin Shubao, who guarded the emperor
Taizong. According to the official history of the Tang dynasty Qin Shubao was born
in Shandong province, served as General-in-chief of the left flank of Taizong's army,
created a Duke, and died in 638 AD. (See print number 4) After the emperor had
summoned the ministers of state, general Qin Shubao stepped forward and he is
reported to have said: "Your servant has during his whole life killed men as he would
split open a gourd and piled up carcasses as he would heap up ants. Why should he be
afraid of ghosts? Let your servant, in company with Yuchi Jingde, arm ourselves, and
keep watch standing." Thereupon the emperor granted his request.
100, Door god Yuchi Gong
{Yuchi Gong menshen尉遲恭門牛申)
Artist: Yangliuqing print shop
Place: Tianjin
Date: early 19th - 20th century
Appearance: seven colours (red, orange, yellow, blue, green, purple and black)
Paper size: 57.2 x 35 cm
This print also shows a warrior in an elaborate costume holding a staff, only now
facing right. Yuchi Gong is another name for Yuchi Jingde. (See print number 4) As
his surname Yuchi suggests, he may have had Central Asian forefathers. He was born
in Shanxi province, became a brave general, was bestowed a Dukedom, and died in
659 AD.


101. Ten thousand gods and universal rulers of the heaven and earth, the three
realms and ten directions
{Tiandi sanjie shifang wanling zhenxing ^ 地三界十方萬靈眞宰)
Artist: Yangliuqing print shop
Place: Tianjin
Date: early 19th - 20th century
Appearance: five colours (red, orange, yellow, blue and green)
Paper size: 35 x 25 cm
This print shows the celestial administration of the Jade Emperor. On the eve of the
Chinese New Year offerings were made to all the gods of heaven and earth. (See print
number 81) Traditionally the gods were represented by an inscribed tablet that was
placed on a table in the courtyard of a Chinese house. In this print the tablet has
actually become an integral part of scene alongside the gods already depicted.
102. Kitchen god
(Zaojunfu 灶君府)
Artist: Yangliuqing print shop
Place: Tianjin
Date: 1936
Appearance: seven colours (red, orange, yellow, blue, green, pink and black)
Paper size: 51 x 30 cm
The kitchen god, also known as the stove god or lord of the hearth, is probably the
most popular god in Chinese folk religion. A picture of him is fixed above the stove
or hearth and venerated by the whole family on the days of the new and full moon.
From this position the kitchen god is able to notice everything that happens in the
house and reports on this to the Jade Emperor on each New Year's Day. For that
reason it is customary to smear honey around the mouth of the deity on New Year's
Eve, hoping that this will prompt him to submit a favourable report to the Jade
Emperor. Some even go as far as presenting some alcohol to make the spirit a little
tipsy. During the ceremony the table is laid with cakes, preserved and fresh fruits,
meats and snacks. Incense is burned and offered to the shrine and children light
firecrackers to frighten off all evil disposed spirits. To be able to make his journey to
heaven his portrait is burned, together with the paper money presented to the god, and
the toy horse that is provided to carry him heavenwards. On colours prints he is
usually surrounded by a host of children, because he also acts as protector of the
family. The lower part of this print only shows the kitchen god and his wife seated at
an altar table flanked by attendants, while the upper part of the print is a record of the
relevant festival dates for the new year.


103. Dragon and phoenix designed coin?
{Longfengqian ma f| 鳳錢馬)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: monochrome
Woodblock: 64 x 40 cm
This print shows two dragons in the upper part, and in the lower part a coin
surrounded by the auspicious signs of one dragon (north), two phoenixes (east-west)
and one horse (south). The Chinese cash, being the symbol of prosperity, is very
popular, both as an amulet and an ornament. Traditional copper coins were square
within (referring to the hole to string the coin) and round without. This represents the
internal rectitude of the persons who constitute the government and their external
suavity and accommodation. They present no rugged corners to annoy those they
come into contact with. As an amulet coins have the power to protect the owner
against the attempts of the evil spirits to gain possession of them. Coins are also hung
over shop doors to attract wealth to the establishment. The auspicious symbol of the
dragon here functions as the bringer of good fortune and wealth, and the phoenix adds
to this idea since it only appears in times of peace and prosperity, while the image of
the horse may symbolise speed and perseverance. All in all this print thus expresses
the hope to become prosperous without too many setbacks.
104. Scene from a drama
(No Chinese title or inscription)
Artist: none
Place: none
Date: none
Appearance: nine colours (red, purple,grey, orange, yellow,blue, green, pink and
black)
Paper size: 113 x 63.5 cm
105. One circle of harmony
{Yituan heqi —團禾口氣)
Artist: none
Place: Suzhou
Date: early Qing (first half of 17th century)
Appearance: colours faded (red and black noticeable)
Paper size: 77 x 55 cm
This typical Suzhou print shows a chil(^ crouched into a ball.; The phrase wishes
success on all families that live in harmony. One explanation for the phrase links it to


the Song dynasty Confucianist Cheng Hao (1032-1085), who would spend all day in
meditation only to receive his guests with great geniality. The phrase also appears in
the Water margin, where it is synonymous with benevolence, generosity, and the idea
of properly treating people. On top of the print two characters convey the wish 'to
bring good luck' {zhixiang). It has been argued that this theme first appeared during
the first year of the Chenghua reign (1465) while the Xianzong emperor painted the
legendary story entitled Three bursts of laughter near the Hu stream (Hivci san xiao).
The story refers to the Buddhist monk Hui Yuan (334-416) who lived in the East
Forest Temple on Mount Lu, situated in north Jiangxi province and just south of the
Yangzi River. Tradition has it that Hui Yuan never crossed the Hu stream when
seeing visitors off. Then one day the Daoist scholar Tao Yuanming (c.365-427) and
the Confucian scholar Lu Xiujing (406-477) paid him a visit. The three scholars got
along so well that when Tao and Lu took their leave, Hui Yuan did not notice he had
actually crossed the Hu stream. Just then a tiger roared whereupon the friends burst
out in laughter and parted company. In his painting the Xianzong emperor used one
facial appearance for the three faces and one body that embraced the three persons.
The colophon he wrote on top of the painting read:
How extraordinary these knowledgeable people. Their distant gazes look up at lofty places.
While chatting and laughing they display correct manners and while looking up and down their
deportment is not shameful. Uniting three people into one is expressing one mind and not two.
Unmindful of each other's right and wrong, how amiable this circle of harmony.
Therefore this painting has come to symbolise the perfect harmony of the three main
philosophical Chinese doctrines, namely Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism, and
by extent universal harmony. Later painters took this idea one step further and made
the body into that of a child carrying the slogan of harmony in both hands.
106. Travellers in a winter landscape
(No Chinese title or inscription)
Artist: Gaomi 高密 print shop
Place: Shandong
Date: 19th century
Appearance: seven colours (red, orange, yellow, blue, green, grey and black)
Paper size: 70 x 53 cm
According to Yin Huang this print may be attributed the Gaomi print shop because of
its subtle use of colour, the overall use of black ink outlines and the use of hatched
lines in the background. Depicted is a travelling scholar accompanied by his
manservant. He rides on a donkey and the manservant carries his books and other
personal effects. It is quite likely that the scholar is a famous Chinese poet.
107. Golden wishes are granted by a circle of eight beauties
(Jin ruyi bamei tuanyuan g 女口 胃八美 H H )
Artist: Shen Wenya 沈文雅(//)


Place: Shanghai (Suzhou style)
Date: late 19th - early 20th century
Appearance: eight colours (pink, red, green, blue, yellow, orange and black)
Paper size: 50.5 x 30 cm
(See print number 39)


II. PRINTED BOOKS
Introduction
The SOAS collection of printed books contains many woodblock prints, dating mostly
from the late Qing period.
(under construction)


A. COUNCIL FOR WORLD MISSIONARY LIBRARY
1. Outline of scenic spots in the imperial capital
(Dijingjingwu lue 帝京景物略)
Compiler: Liu Tong 劉侗(//)
Place: Nanjing
Date: 1635
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 26 x 18 cm
f^:~“ 、麵*^
This book comments on locations in and outside the capital that were popular for their
scenery and fashionable for the travelling elite. It is bound in one volume and counts
eight juan. It was reprinted under the chief editorship of Ji Yun 紀日与(1724-1805) in
the thirty-first year of the Qianlong reign (1766).
2. This ausust dynasty's illustrated designs for ceremonial dress and utensils
{Huangchao liqi tushi皇草月禮器圖式)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: none
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 32 x 20 cm
This print shows refined illustrations dealing with the outward appearance of a person
involved in sacrificial rites, funerals, tribute presents, military campaigns, banquets,
weddings, etc. This edition is bound in one volume and counts fifteen juan, of which
sections one to five are lacking, and probably even more juan beyond the fifteenth.
3. Catalogue of Jinsdezhen kilns
{Jingdezhen taolu 景德鎮陶錄)
Compiler: Mister Nan 南
Place: Fuliang county
Date: 1797
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 26 x 18.2 cm
This work describes the technical processes related to the kilns in Jingdezhen, located
in the north-east of Jiangxi province, not far from Anhui province. The few
illustrations inserted are area maps of Jingdezhen and depictions of the different
stages of the porcelain manufacture. Mister Nan's disciple Zheng Tinggui 奠廷


æ¡‚(//) did the revision and editing. This single volume counts ten juan plus a preface,
dated to the twentieth year of the Jiaqing reign (1820).
4. Comprehensive treatise on agricultural administration
(Nongzheng quanshu 農政全書)
Compiler: Xu Guangqi 徐光啓(1562-1633)
Place: none
Date: 1639
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 29 x 20 cm
This is an illustrated book on agricultural development that describes farming
techniques, fields, utensils, plants, etc. It also "includes excerpts from European
works on hydraulics." This edition is bound in three volumes and counts sixty juan.
This edition was prefaced by Pan Zengyi 潘曾折(//) and reprinted in Suzhou during
the twenty-third year of the Daoguang reign (1843).
5. (a) Catalogue of coins by imperial command
{Qinding qianlu 欽定錢錄)
Compiler: Liang Shizheng 梁詩正(//)
Place: none
Date: 1750
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 28 x 19.5 cm
This is an illustrated work on Chinese traditional coins bound in one volume and
counting 16 juan. It was reprinted by Ji Yun 紀日与(1724-1805) in the fifty-second
year of the Qianlong reign (1787).
5. (b) Newly published records of coins
{Xinbian qianzhi 新編錢志)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: 1826
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 27 x 18 cm
This work, in 20 juan, presents a historical overview of coins up to the late Ming
(1620) and also includes some additional sections on foreign coins. The preface is
signed by Tang Lu 湯絡(//).


6. Sacred edict with illustrated explanations
{Shengyuxiangjie 聖諭像解)
Compiler: none
Place: Anhui
Date: 1681
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 32 x 24 cm
This book contains exquisitely illustrated moralising stories of the sixteen maxims
issued by the Kangxi emperor (r. 1662-1722). The four volumes count altogether
twenty juari. The second preface is signed Liang Yannian 梁延年(//) and also
dated to 1681. (See Printed Books, B. Methodist Mission Society, book number 18;
C. Illustrated Books, book number 2)
7. Mustard seed sarden
{Jieziyuan huazhuan 芥子圜畫傳)
Compiler: Wang Gai 王概(//)
Place: none
Date: 1701
Illustrations: five colours (red, green, brown, grey and red)
Woodblock: 29 x 22.5 cm
In 1679 the early Qing scholar Wang Gai reprinted a multiple block coloured edition
of the painting manual by the Ming dynasty painter Li Liufang 李?荒芳(1575-1629).
He added more material to it in a reprint of 1701. Throughout this edition appear red
seals.
8. Gazetteer of the unified Great Qins
(DaQingyitongzhi 大、凊一統志)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: none
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 31 x21.5 cm
This incomplete edition includes area maps and counts 18 juan. According to
Wilkinson three of these gazetteers were ever compiled and only the first two editions
bear this title. It is thus likely that this edition is either the edition compiled by Xu
Qianxue 徐卓乞學(1631-1694) and completed in 1746, or the one compiled by He
Shen 禾[]珅(1750-1799) in 1784 and only printed in 1790.


9. Collection of materia medica
(Bencao gangmu 帛 目)
Compiler: Li Shizhen 李時珍(1518-1593)
Place: none
Date: 1603
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 31 x22.5
This edition is bound in eight volumes and contains 52 juan. The author's preface
marks the year 1596, and the preface by his friend Zhang Dingsi 張鼎思(//) dated
1603, suggests that it was published that year. This edition, however, was reprinted
during the fifteenth year of the Shunzhi reign (1658) judging from the latest preface
signed by Li Yuankuan 黎元寬(//). There are red seals to be found throughout the
work.
、10. Illustrated historical traces of the God of war
(Guansheng dijun shengji 關聖帝君聖績圖)
Compiler: Liu Dianbang 劉殿邦(//)
Place: Jiangnan
Date: 1693
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 32 x 22.7 cm
This incomplete edition only includes juan five, which may or may not have been the
last juan of the work. It was reprinted by Shi Yunyu 石章显玉(//) from Suzhou. (See
Popular Prints, print number 87)


o^A
B. METHODIST MISSION SOCIETY
Holy Bible
{Shentian shengshu 神天聖書)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: 19th century
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 19 x 12.8 cm
This collection possibly counts altogether twenty-one volumes. Volumes 1, 2, 10, 12,
and 18 are lacking. The last volume number 21 contains the Revelations, which is the
last book of the New Testament.
2. New Testament
{Shentian Xinyi zhaoshu卞申天串斤遺言召書)
Compiler: Morrison and Milne (from the London Missionary Society)
Place: none
Date: 1823
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 20 x 12.6 cm
The work counts eight volumes and it was issued by the Anglo-Chinese College.
3. New Testament
(Xinyue quanshu新糸勺全書)
Compiler: Committee of Delegates of the London Missionary Society Press
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1850-1851
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 25.4 x 22.6 cm
This one volume work counts five separate books, namely the four gospels according
to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, all published in 1850, plus the Acts of the apostles
published in 1851.


4. New Testament
{Xinyue quanshu fjf ^ ^ ^ )
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: 1877
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 22.6 x 15.5 cm
According to the label inserted in this one volume work it was printed "in the Canton
dialect."
5. New Testament
{Xinyue quanshu 新約全書)
Compiler: none
Place: Xianggang
Date: 1872-1873
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 23 x 16.3 cm
This one volume work counts five books, the Four gospels and the Acts. Only the
Gospel according to Mark was published in 1873, and also carries the inscription that
it was translated into Cantonese (Yangcheng tuhua 羊城 土貢舌).
6. Gospel accordins to Mark
{Makefuyin馬克福音)
Compiler: none
Place: Hankou
Date: 1893
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 23 x 17.5 cm
This one volume work includes a complete area map of Judea. It was translated into
Chinese by Yang Gefei 楊格非(//).
7. The Acts of the apostles in rhyme
{Xingchuan yunyu f亍傳音員言吾)
Compiler: none
Place: Hankou
Date: 1895


Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 24.2 x 19 cm
8. Harmony of the sosvels
{Sifuyin mulu hebian四福音目錄合編)
Compiler: Yin Desheng 殷德生(//)
Place: none
Date: 1894
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 23 x 17
The work counts two volumes.
9. Hymn book
(Gesong shizhang 歌頌詩章)
Compiler: Wesleyan Mission
Place: Canton
Date: 1863
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 21 x 15 cm
The work counts one volume.
10. Children ,s sonsbook
(gimeng咖ge啓蒙詩歌)
Compiler: George Piercy (//)
Place: Canton
Date: 1863
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 23 x 16 cm
This book includes 116 songs and shows empty staves.
11. Selected sermons by Wesley discussed in detail
{Shengjing zeyao xianglun 聖經擇要詳論)
Compiler: George Piercy (//)
Place: Canton
Date: 1863


Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 24 x 18.5 cm
This one volume work contains the following six sermons in Chinese:
1. The Way of the Kingdom
2. Justification of the Faith
3. The Spirit of Bondage and Adoption
4. Monks of the Rebirth
5. Family Religion
6. The Way of Filial Piety
12. The pilsrim ,s progress
(Tianlu licheng 天路歷程)
Compiler: J. Christian (//)
Place: Canton
Date: 1871
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 23 x 15.5 cm
This two-volume work shows exquisite illustrations that accompany the story. There
also appear English titles above some of the illustrations.
13. Dialogue between two old friends
{Changyuan liangyou xianglun ^ 遠兩友相論)
Compiler: none
Place: Hankou
Date: 1880
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 21 x 17 cm
14. Rules for Holy livins
{Chengsheng zhi fa 成聖之法)
Compiler: none
Place: Macau
Date: 1857
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 14 x 11 cm
According to the label in this one volume treaty the rules are those exemplified by R.
Newstead (//).


15. The Holy relision of Jesus Three Character Classic
{Yesu shengjiao sanzijing M 穌聖教三字經)
Compiler: Yang Gefei 楊格非(//)
Place: Hankou
Date: 1880
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 24 x 17 cm
This one volume work was written in imitation of the Chinese primer entitled Three
Character Classic, containing 356 alternating rhyming lines of three characters each.
This Classical Chinese primer was probably written by the Southern Song scholar
Wang Yinglin 王應麟(1223-1296). An inscription in English written on the cover
reads: ’,A rhyming manual for school use in imitation of a book just put into a Chinese
scholar's hands. Intended to be learnt by heart."
16. Wamins asainst opium smokins illustrated with startling pictures
{Quanjie yapianyan xingshitu勸戒鸦片煙酉星世圖)
Compiler: none
Place: Hankou
Date: 1880
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 25 x 17.5 cm
The work counts one volume and includes full-page illustrations concerning the
afflictions of opium smoking.
17, Brief outline of Sino-Western relations
(Zhong-Xi guanxi luelun 中西關繫略論)
Compiler: Zheng Changzhan 鄭昌棧(//)
Place: Shanghai
Date: 1877
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 26 x 19 cm
This one volume work counts two juan. It includes several geographical maps. It was
reprinted by the Hankou Fuyintang 宇畐音堂 print shop in 1881.


18. Sacred edict with illustrated explanations
{Shengyuxiangjie 聖諭像解)
Compiler: none
Place: Guangzhou
Date: 1681
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 32 x 24
These sixteen maxims of the Kangxi emperor (r. 1662-1722) are incomplete and only
consist of one single juan. This section dealing with acts of filial piety and fraternal
duties represents 24 illustrations. The preface is signed Ye Zhishen 葉志誅(//) and
it was reprinted in 1856. (See Printed Books, Council for World Missionary Library,
book number 6; C. Illustrated Books, book number 2)
19. (a) Doctrines of the will of Heaven
(Tianqing daoli 天情道理)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: 1854
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 23x18.7 cm
This one volume work focuses on the Christian teaching as given by the Taiping
leaders. It was revised in 1859. The book was presented to the collection by Searle
Bates (//).
19. (b) Veritable records of the army by imperial command
(Qindingjunci shilu H 軍次實錄)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: 1861
Illustrations: none
Woodblock: 25 x 20.5 cm
The book was presented to the collection by Searle Bates (//).
20. Primer for the articulation of characters
(Daozi yixue道字易學)
Compiler: none


Place: Hankou
? Date: 1899
illustrations: none
Woodblock: 31 x 20.5 cm
This one volume work counts forty lessons. According to the inscription on the label
this is the second primer by Iris Foster (//) for teaching women how to read Chinese.
21. One thousand three hundred eyed Guanyin one word mantra confessional
{Qiansanyan dabei xinzhou chanfa 子三目良大悲,已、咒 tic 法)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: 1411
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: not measurable
This mantra appears in sutra bookbinding. When chanting these characters, which are
considered being divine or magic incantations, one is supposed to free oneself from
certain spells. It was probably reprinted when Lin Daishu æž—é»› Y/)t (//) wrote his
preface to the work in the eight year of the Jiaqing reign (1803).
22. Mercy for the blood pool confessional
(Cibei xuepen chanfa 慈悲血盆懺法)
Compiler: none
Place: Zhejiang
Date: 1741
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: not measurable
This work appears in sutra bookbinding and counts three juan. The large illustration
shows a blood tank, described as one of the Buddhist hells. From this hell no release
is possible.


C. ILLUSTRATED BOOKS
1. Records of the Mencius ancestral temple
(Jashengmiao ji亞聖廟言己)
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: none
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 54 x 33.5 cm
This work consists of loose sheets and it shows only illustrations.
2. Sacred edict with illustrated explanations
{Shengyu xiangjie 聖諭像解)
Compiler: none
Place: Guangzhou
Date: 1681
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 32 x 24
These sixteen maxims of the Kangxi emperor (r. 1662-1722) are kept in one case and
count ten volumes including twenty juan. It was paraphrased by Liang Yannian and
the preface is signed by Ye Zhishen 葉;志誅(//) when it was probably reprinted in
Library, book number 6; B.
3. Guide to auspicious coins I have seen
(Jijin suojian lu ^ 金所見錄)
Compiler: Ye Yangchu 葉陽初(//)
Place: none
Date: 1827
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 28x19.8
This work counts four volumes including sixteen juan.


4. Illustrated poems of the Dream of Red Mansions
(Hongloumeng fuyong 紅樓夢圖詠)
Compiler: Gai Ji
Place: Zhejiang
Date: 1801 or 1861
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 30x21.5
This counts four volumes including four juan. It was reprinted in 1879.
5. Inquiry into bronzes and steles
{Jinshi suo 金石索)
Compiler: Feng Yunpeng 馮雲鵬(//)
Place: none
Date: 1822
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 43 x 26 cm
This work consists of six cases and counts twenty-four volumes. It was reprinted
during the fifteenth year of the Daguang reign (1835).
6. Illustrations of antiquities
(Bogutulu傅古圖錄)
Compiler: Wang Fu 干雞(fl. 1123-1126)
Place: none
Date: 1125
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 24.4 x 15 cm
This contains thirty volumes and as many juan. It was cut by Huang Sheng 黃晟(//)
and prefaced by Cheng Shizhuang 程士莊(c. 1560-1620). It was reprinted in 1752.
7. Supplement to the inquiry of antiquities of Shandons
{Xu Shandong kaogu /w 續山東考古錄)
Compiler: Ye Guishou 葉圭綬(//)
Place: Cang county
Date: 1848
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 28 x 18.4 cm


The scholar Gu Yanwu's 雇貝炎武(1613-1683) interest in topographical matters is
well known. This work, showing many area maps of different regions in Shandong,
seems to be a continuation of Gu Yanwu's edition. This edition counts six volumes
including thirty-two juan. It was reprinted in 1882.
8. Illustrated historical traces of the Sase
、Stwngjitu 聖蹟圖)
r^c v Q
r"' “ »■-‘▲-、•f' I f (Ji
Compiler: none
Place: none
Date: 1445,:
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 76 x 20.5 cm
This work shows illustrations from^the^ life of Confucius and inscriptions from his
temple in Qufu. It was reprinted in 1874./,
9. Illustrated sounds of the Examples of refined usase \t
{EryayintuM 雅音圖)
Compiler: Guo Pu 郭璞(276-324)
Place: none
Date: 3rd century
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 46 x 28 cm
The Examples of refined usage is the earliest Chinese lexicographical work and made
one of the Chinese classics during the Tang dynasty. In late imperial China many
classics were illustrated, such as this edition counting three volumes, and published in
1741.
10. Illustrated explanations to nourishing the correct path
(Yangzheng tujie 養正圖解)
Compiler: Jiao Hong 焦竑(1541-1620)
Place: Nanjing
Date: 1597
Illustrations: monochrome
Woodblock: 35 x 14.5
This work counts four volumes and shows about sixty illustrations executed by the
painter Ding Yunpeng 丁 雲鵬(1547-C.1621). These pictures are the most complex
woodblock illustrations for the late Ming up to that time. Jiao Hong, who was tutor of


the crown prince at that time, used this work as a textbook in ethics. This edition was
presented to Reginald F. Johnston by the last Chinese emperor Puyi 溥儀(1906-
1967).


Full Text

PAGE 8

1 1

PAGE 15

Tie Gongii walking with a lantern

PAGE 27

Fate o(a mother who kills her son

PAGE 47

Comprehensive treatise on agricultural administration Catalogue of coins by imperial command Newly published records of coins

PAGE 49

Collection o(materia medica G Illustrated historical traces o(the God o(war

PAGE 50

1. Holy Bible New Testament New Testament

PAGE 55

Sacred edict with illustrated explanations Doctrines of the will o[Heaven Veritable records o(the army by imperial command Primer (or the articulation of characters