Citation
Economic conditions in the Philippine Islands, 1927-1930

Material Information

Title:
Economic conditions in the Philippine Islands, 1927-1930
Creator:
Great Britain -- Department of Overseas Trade
Harrington, Thomas
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
H.M. Stationery office
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
38 p. : ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Economic conditions -- Philippines ( lcsh )
Commerce -- Philippines ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Philippines

Notes

General Note:
At head of title: Dept. of overseas trade.
Statement of Responsibility:
Report by Thomas Harrington.

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Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
556802 ( ALEPH )
OCM16416455 ( OCLC )
Classification:
HB330 ( ddc )

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Full Text
Crown Copyright Reserved.

DEPARTMENT OF OVERSEAS TRADE,

Economic Conditions

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

REPORT

THOMAS HARRINGTON,

His Majesty's Consul-General at Manila,

LONDON:

PUELISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.

purchased directly from H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses
\dastral House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2; 120, George Street, Edinburgh;
York Street, Manchester; 1, St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff;

15, Donegall Square West, Belfast;
or through any Bookseller.




Crown Copyright Reserved.

DEPARTMENT OF OVERSEAS TRADE.

Economic Conditions

IN THE

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

1927-1930.

REPORT

BY

THOMAS HARRINGTON,

His Majesty's Consul-General at Manila.

LONDON:

PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY’S STATIONERY OFFICE.

To be purchased directly from H M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses
Adastral House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2; 120, George Street, Edinburgh;

York Street, Manchester; 1, St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff;

15, Donegall Square West, Belfast;
or through any Bookseller.

1930.

Price Is. 6d. Netf

K

54-52-0-29,

SOAS


2

DEPARTMENT OF OVERSEAS TRADE.

COMMERCIAL REPRESENTATION ABROAD.

To foster British overseas trade, the Department has developed and
controls the following Services of Commercial Intelligence Officers :—

1. In the Empire.

The Trade Commissioner and Imperial Trade Correspondent Services.

At the present time there are 15 Trade Commissioners’ offices. These
are situated, four in Canada (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg) ;
two in Australia (Sydney, Melbourne) ; South Africa (Capetown, Johannes-
burg) ; and India (Calcutta and Bombay—to cover also Ceylon) ; and one
each in New Zealand (Wellington), Irish Free State (Dublin), British East
Africa (Nairobi), British West Indies (Trinidad) and Malaya (Singapore),

The Trade Commissioners in the Dominions have the assistance of
Imperial Trade Correspondents at a number of important centres.

In various parts of the Empire in which at present there are no com-
missioners, there are correspondents with whom the Department deals direct.

2. In Foreign Countries.

(a) The Commercial Diplomatic Service attached to the British
Diplomatic Missions.

This service consists of 36 officers who are stationed in all the more
important foreign markets of the world. The members of the Commercial
Diplomatic Service are styled “ Commercial Counsellors ” in the highest
grade, and " Commercial Secretaries ” in the two lower grades. They are
members of the staff of the British Embassy or Legation in which they serve.

The Commercial Diplomatic Officer has general supervision over the
commercial work of the consular officers in his area and, with the co-operation
of these two services, a complete network of Government commercial repre-
sentatives is thrown over foreign countries.

(b) The British Consular Service.

Particular attention has been given to the commercial side of consular
work since the re-organisation of the service. In certain countries where no
commercial Diplomatic Officer is stationed the senior Consular Officer under-
takes duties of a similar character. The British Consular Service is repre-
sented in the Philippine Islands by Mr. Thomas Harrington, His Majesty’s
Consul General, Manila.

Further information regarding the above services can be obtained on
application to the Department of Overseas Trade, 35, Old Queen Street,
London, S.W.l.

Members of British firms are urged to call upon the Department’s repre-
sentative abroad when they visit an overseas country. It is also important
that they should make a point of their representatives abroad keeping in
close touch with the Department’s officers. ,

NOTE.

It should be understood that the views expressed in annual reports are the
views of the officers themselves, and are not necessarily in all respects those of
the Department.


3

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

COMMERCIAL SUMMARY ... 4

HINTS FOR TRAVELLERS 4

INTRODUCTORY 6

I.—TRADE :—

Total Trade ... ... ...... 7

Leading Imports ... ... ... ... 7

British Imports ... ... ... ... 11

Imports from other countries ... ... 13

Exports ... ... ... ... ... 15

Exports to British Territory ... ... 16

Exports to other countries ... ... 17

II.—TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS :—

Railways ... ... ... ... ... 18

Roads and Motor Traffic... ... ... 19

Shipping ... ... ... ... ... 19

Sea Communications ... ... ... 20

Ports and Harbours ... ... ... 20

III.— INDUSTRY AND PRODUCTION :—

Agriculture—

Rice ...... 21

Sugar ...... 21

Copra ...... 21

Rubber ...... 21

Timber ...... 21

Mineral products ... 22

Finance ...... 22

Labour ...... 23

Manufactures ... 23

APPENDICES :—

I.—Value of Imports of principal articles from the United Kingdom

and certain British countries in 1928 and 1927 ... ... 24

II.—Value of Imports of principal articles from certain Foreign

Countries in 1928 and 1927 ... ................... 26

III. —Table showing the Imports of certain principal articles from the

countries indicated during the years 1928 and 1927 . 32

IV. —Principal Exports to certain countries of the British Empire

during 1928 and 1927 .................. ... ... 34

V. —Exports to certain countries during 1928 and 1927 35

VI.—Certain Shipping statistics for 1929, 1928 and 1927 36

B


4

COMMERCIAL SUMMARY.

Area.—About 114,400 square miles (almost the size of the British Isles);
there are two large islands (Luzon—40,800 square miles, which contains
Manila, the Capital, and Mindanao—36,900 square miles), nine other important
and several thousand small islands. The archipelago extends a distance of
950 miles from north to south, from about 500 miles south-east of Hongkong
to the vicinity of British North Borneo.

Population—10,314,310 at the census of 1918, now estimated to be about
12,800,000. An estimate of the non-Filipino population at the end of 1928
was 2,000 British, 8,100 Americans, 4,200 Spaniards, 79,000 Chinese, 17,500
Japanese and 3,800 other foreign nationals.

Languages.—For Government and commercial purposes English and
Spanish are generally used. At the census of 1918 it was computed that over
850,000 had some knowledge of English, and 660,000 of Spanish, the latter
being better known to the older people. The knowledge of English is steadily
growing (probably a million and a half having some knowledge of it), but where
practicable it would still be useful to have price lists, catalogues, etc., bi-lingual
—English and Spanish.

Currency.—The unit of coinage is the theoretical gold peso, equivalent to
50 cents United States gold and having a par value of 24*66d. This peso is
12-9 grains of gold, 9/10 fine. Parity is maintained by deposits of Govern-
ment funds in banks in the United States, against which the Insular Treasurer
sells exchange, usually at a small premium or discount. Notes in circulation
are Treasury Certificates and banknotes of the Philippine National Bank and
of the Bank of the Philippine Islands (the latter also known as the Spanish
Bank, which has had an extension of its former right of issuing banknotes).

Exchange.—On account of its relation with the United States dollar, the
peso usually fluctuates as that coin, less minor premiums or discounts in the
Insular Treasurer’s rates. Only when the gold reserves in the United States
are depleted, as they were in 1921, is there a considerable variation.

Weights and Measures.—Both the metric system and United States weights
and measures are in general use for foreign trade and commerce. Occasionally
other measures are used, principally the “ catty ”—variable but normally
equivalent to 1*3227 lbs.—and the “ ganta,” equal to 3 litres.

HINTS FOR TRAVELLERS.

1. The best time of the year to visit the Philippines is between October and
May when the weather is dry, especially in the Manila district, and, until
towards the end of March, not excessively hot. Heavy rains from June to
September may check activities somewhat, particularly in the case of tourists ;
but climatic conditions are not uniform throughout the archipelago, and in
practice visits are made at all periods of the year. The islands lie entirely in
the tropics, and the climate is very hot but not unduly so in winter. The
lightest of tropical clothes are worn, though something warmer should be
available for winter evenings or visits to the mountains. White or other light
coloured clothing is nearly always worn by day, and white mess jackets are
usual for formal evening wear.

2. From Europe the most general route to Manila is via Suez by any of the
many lines to the Far East transhipping at Hong Kong or Singapore. Some
shipping companies, such as the Blue Funnel, Glen and Ben lines, and several
non-British lines, run direct boats from British and other European ports to
Manila carrying passengers. In point of time the route via Siberia, Shanghai


5

(or Japan) and Hong Kong usually gives the quickest access from Great
Britain to Manila. Another route is across Canada or the United States, and
then by any of the trans-Pacific lines, usually via Japan, Shanghai and Hong
Kong. There is also regular passenger communication with Australia
(Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne) .

3. Fares via Suez vary according to the line and exact route, from ^80 to
^108 first class and £55 to £78 second class, the return fares being either double
or one-and-three-quarters the single fare. Fares via Canada or United States
are higher, ^116 or ^120 first class, with additional expenses when travelling
across the continent of America. Manila to Melbourne—£51.

4. In the main Island of Luzon communication north and south of Manila
for a considerable distance can be made by rail at moderate fares. Good motor
roads are available to many districts, but as motor buses or char-a-bancs are
often not convenient for visitors, the hiring of special cars for a considerable
distance is generally quite expensive. The principal business towns outside
Manila, however, are Cebu and Iloilo on other islands of the group which can
be reached only by inter-island steamers. Fares—from Manila to Cebu,
about £4 first class ; from Manila to Iloilo, about £3 9s. first class.

5. Manila has a number of fairly good hotels and boarding houses. The
best known is the Manila Hotel. Rates vary from 12s. 6d. to ^1 4s. 6d. per
day for room and board for one person according to the hotel. Tipping for
personal service is common but variable ; in many cases 10 per cent, of one’s
bill may be taken as a maximum, but often less may be quite adequate.

6. There is no special registration of commercial travellers. Commercial
samples not exceeding ^500 in value are eligible for free importation provided
a bond for double the value is filed that the samples will be re-exported within
6 months; failure to re-export will lead to the collection of the usual duty.
In the case of samples over ^500 in value, only ^500 worth can enter under the
above regulations ; the balance must either pay the duty or be kept in bond.

7. The usual public holidays are :—

January 1st
February 22nd
Easter week

New Year’s day.
Washington's birthday.
Holy Thursday.

Good Friday.

Labour day.

Memorial day.
Independence day.
Occupation day.
Thanksgiving day.
Bonifacio day.
Christmas day.

Rizal day.

May 1st ...

„ 30th ...

J uly 4th
August 13th
November 27th
„ 30th
December 25th
„ 30th


6

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

IN THE

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
1927-30.

INTRODUCTORY.

Some differences of opinion appear to exist as to the exact
condition of trade and industry in the Philippine Islands during
the years 1928 and 1929. Some consider the position to have been
on the whole satisfactory though quiet, others take a rather gloomy
view especially of the outlook at the beginning of 1930. There
have existed certain adverse conditions prejudicing an otherwise
stable position, producing considerable fluctuations and making
the future doubtful.

The possibility of a change in the tariff position of the Philip-
pine Islands vis-a-vis the United States is considered by some
people to be responsible for reluctance to make investments in
the Islands and for consequent lack of development of many pro-
jects. The efforts of those desiring to stop the free entry of
Philippine goods to the United States have recently been so
vigorous that, though thus far they have had no success, fears
are expressed lest they should ultimately get their way to some
extent. Suggestions have even been made in Manila that some
voluntary restriction of production in the case of sugar should be
adopted to prevent aggravation of the situation, and no doubt the
possibility of a United States tariff against Philippine products
is hampering schemes of expansion of industries which would go
ahead were there an assurance of the continuance of a free market
in the United States.

Another factor depressing trade has been the continuous low
prices prevailing for several of the Islands’ leading staples,
notably sugar, hemp and copra, together with coconut oil, which
between them accounted for 72 per cent, of the exports. The
decrease of prices, which is part of the general decline in world
prices of these commodities, has been accentuated during the
period under review despite some fluctuations upwards for a time.

The fall in the price of silver and the consequent reduction of
the buying power of China and other countries have also affected
the position adversely. Further, several severe storms have
damaged large areas of the countryside, where much loss has
been sustained by crops, coconut trees, &c.; while unusual damage
has latterly been inflicted by insect pests.


7

Many comments have therefore been made that trade conditions
have not really been satisfactory. Certainly those concerns particu-
larly affected by the adverse conditions have had considerable
difficulties and anxieties during the two years, while the continu-
ance of low prices for staples early in 1930 does not promise an
immediate improvement.

On the other hand, imports and exports have actually increased
steadily during the period under review, and there have been
indications of a considerable amount of prosperity in the country.
Building, especially in Manila, has been very brisk; new office
structures are continually going up and new concerns starting.
Motor car business and the luxury trades seem to be flourishing,
while certain extensions in various directions show that some con-
cerns have confidence in the future of the Islands. Reports seem
to agree that the Filipino people themselves have appeared
generally prosperous.

In general it may be concluded that the Philippine Islands
during 1928 and 1929 were set for a considerable advance in trade
and prosperity, which was not properly attained through the
influence of unfavourable circumstances, but that on the whole the
position was fair. Unfortunately the adverse factors are still in
evidence, and the opening months of 1930 failed to show any
marked improvement in trade and industry.

I. TRADE.

Total Trade.—The table below gives the figures for the total
overseas trade of the Philippine Islands during the years 1929 and
1928 (1927 being added for the purpose of comparison). Exchange
has been taken at 2s. 0\d. per peso.

1929 1928 1927
Exports Re-exports ... £ 33,364,286 210,278 £ 31,476,197 180,773 £ 31,579,760 183,280
Total exports Imports ... ... ... 33,574,564 30,045,225 31,656,970 27,492,450 31,763,040 23,653,010
Total trade 63,619,789 59,149,420 55,416,050

The imports of 1929 ,were within P.4,500,000 of the largest year,
1920, while the exports were by more than P.17,500,000 the greatest
on record. In sterling equivalent, however, 1920 still is the leading
year owing to the decline in exchange value of sterling that year.

Leading Imports.—The position of the leading commodities
imported during the years 1929-27 is shown in the table below :—*


8

Values of Principal Imports during 1929, 1928 and 1927.

Aluminium ware ...

Cattle (not carabao)

Asbestos goods
Brass goods
Rice

Wheat flour
Other breadstuffs
Automobiles

Automobiles, parts (not tyres) ...

Other cars, carriages, cycles and parts ...
Cement

Chemicals, drugs, dyes, medicines
Clocks, watches and parts
Coal...

Cocoa or cacao

Coffee, raw and manufactured ...

Combs

Confectionery
Copper goods
Cotton goods, cloths
,, ,, other

Diamonds and other precious stones
Earthen, stone and china ware
Electrical machinery and appliances ...
Explosives

Fertilisers, chemical and natural
Fibre (vegetable) goods ...

Fish and fish products
Fruits and nuts
Furniture, metal ...

Glass and glassware

Gold, platinum and silver ware ...

Hats and caps and material therefor ...
Automobile tyres ...

Rubber goods, other

Instruments and apparatus, not electric

Machinery, engines, etc., and parts

Other iron and steel goods

Lamps and parts, non-electric ...

Lead goods

Leather goods, boots, etc.

Matches
Meat products
Dairy ,,

Musical instruments and parts ...

Oil-

Crude

Petrol, naphthas, etc. ...

Illuminating

Lubricating

Vegetable

Paints, pigments and varnishes

1929 1928 1927
£ £ £
34,993 29,779 27,425
41,094 40,743 63,454
— 21,474 15,937
99,971 87,186 89,422
1,186,211 498,241 219,455
1,033,099 1,087,249 993,453
300,282 212,934 183,383
992,539 877,591 691,181
231,203 169,146 169,085
279,493 280,443 186,233
95,062 101,531 79,212
519,486 485,218 431,408
108,916 87,862 79,380
524,561 529,114 470,291
153,867 180,789 122,972
208,832 181,193 175,032
— 41,165 47,234
109,708 92,365 71,398
54,579 42,028 62,237
3,852,932 4,107,265 3,240,545
1,654,855 1,637,200 1,464,009
143,352 150,123 152,065
160,356 157,314 145,761
761,547 446,110 501,412
62,136 69,683 50,693
588,332 376,317 390,082
660,341 492,603 465,341
477,129 449,443 465,128
347,573 335,778 254,862
— 48,374 41,270
196,705 203,476 168,283
62,005 54,369 31,814
96,237 120,186 95,478
335,221 310,229 413,687
223,890 164,258 146,508
212,567 169,517 —
1,825,789 1,741,587 1,181,232
2,646,720 2,373,020 1,968,615
60,268 69,641 64,691
35,363 31,962 31,908
3655,924 358,368 305,688
76,250 104,413 96,168
625,084 606,693 595,731
782,359 758,559 671,960
75,798 67,343 67,191
288,736 281,075 227,411
900,078 793,747 642,907
604,171 466,416 572,183
204,671 228,390 113,514
— 114,970 125,201
202,881 184,624 166,558


9

1929 I 1928 1927
£ £ £
Books and printed matter 297,422 330,640 —
Paper goods, other 565,615 512,316 478,591
Pencils — 32,361 32,098
Perfumery, cosmetics, toilet preparations 182,593 178,154 153,796
Photographic goods 106,128 87,751 60,016
Plated ware 54,936 42,216 51,304
Sanitary appliances — 37,810 31,490
Silk goods, including artificial ... 952,278 869,009 812,658
Soap 199,585 215,133 207,870
Spirits, wines and malt liquors ... 165,911 142,566 117,603
Sporting goods 49,165 43,923 34,700
Starch 45,025 51,947 51,961
Sugar and molasses 66,757 94,858 66,417
Tea ... 24,019 33,187 28,542
Tin goods ... 26,068 21,235 14,050
Tobacco, cigarettes, etc. ... 667,774 633,128 560,615
Toys 47,558 42,327 42,514
Trunks, travelling bags, etc. — 26,247 24,222
Umbrellas and parts — 25,112 24,200
Vegetables 441,678 416,678 369,474
Wax 80,623 71,519 51,694
Wooden goods 178,171 125,267 108,184
Woollen goods i 193,914 158,035 167,804

Cotton Goods.—The leading items in cotton goods during
1927 and 1928 were: —

1928 19 27
sq. metres £ sq. metres £
Cotton cloths—
Unbleached 10,809,384 241,500 10,642,857 223,172
Bleached ... 44,537,225 1,344,411 32,763,695 994,333
Dyed 44,600,203 1,712,216 37,629,768 1,347,984
Printed 25,016,783 809,138 21,895,833 675,056
Total cloths 4,107,265 3,240,545
Undershirts and drawers ... â–  459,378 420,788
Pairs Pairs
Shoes ... 1,393,957 197,429 942,375 129,492
Thread ... ... ... — 198,726 — 202,590
Yarns — 200,125 — 180,553
Other cottons ..." — 581,542 — 530,586

In 1929 the total value of cotton cloths was £3,852,932, of
canvas shoes £177,542, and of other cottons £1,477,313. The
above figures include knit goods (£83,334 in 1928), other clothing
(£79,654), handkerchiefs (£39,723), laces (£36,470), towels
(£34,691), counterpanes arid quilts (£32,558), embroideries
(£31,836), twines (£30,381), plushes, trimmings, tulles, &c.

Iron and Steel.—The principal items of iron and steel imported
in 1928-27 were: —


10

1928 1927
Sheets and plates— Tons. £ Tons. £
Corrugated roofing 23,998 397,203 15,459 342,983
Plain, galvanised ... 6,729 134,729 6,090 140,948
Tinplates ... 3,809 83,277 3,673 87,422
Other sheets and plates ... 5,407 57,623 5,494 58,037
Structural iron and steel ... 11,474 169,994 12,494 95,696
Railway track material 20,688 176,494 15,832 116,952
Steel bars and rods ... 16,316 109,269 16,162 104,989
Wire—
Barbed 5,842 70,537 5,976 74,384
Cables 1,037 50,375 1,028 46,271
Other wire — 59,142 — 43,466
Chains 483 20,237 588 20,742
Agricultural implements and
parts — 22,120 — 19,635
Cutlery — 52,892 — 43,178
Enamelled utensils ... — 86,115 — 52,443
Firearms — 23,213 — 25,161
Machinery, motors, engines
and parts— No. No.
Locomotives 47 78,919 14 35,148
,, parts — 10,623 — 19,584
Stationary and marine
engines 1,616 126,310 938 90,797
,, ,, ,, parts — 18,495 — 8,639
Motors, except electric ... 229 15,683 318 20,496
Tractors 235 45,542 146 19,466
Boilers and tubes — 32,555 — 39,385
Pumps and pumping ma-
chinery ... — 39,330 — 46,852
Refrigerating machinery — 32,177 — 41,620
Rice threshers, hullers, etc. — 34,838 — 33,324
Sewing machines ... 32,363 183,013 27,397 152,984
Sugar machinery ... — 578,041 — 258,482
Typewriters 4,281 49,967 4,639 55,224
Woodworking (including
sawmill) machinery — 61,307 — 17,407
Other machinery (adding,
cigarette, baling, hoisting,
laundry, metal-working,
mining, printing, etc.) — 434,787 — 341,824
Total machinery ... Tons. 1,741,587 Tons. 1,181,232
Nails, wire ... 4,970 58,666 4,355 52,370
Nails and spikes, other 1,790 28,125 978 21,084
Nuts, bolts, washers, rivets,
etc. 2,488 45,178 1,915 40,750
Pipes and fittings ... 16,157 301,861 8,857 167,553
Tools — 140,969 — 129,288
Locks and hinges — 36,841 — 28,706
Other iron and steel — 247,160 — 266,556
(Including bar iron, cast-
ings, needles, safes, fish-
hooks, scales, stoves, bottle
caps, etc.)
Total iron and steel 4,113,607 3,159,846


11

In .1929 total machinery imports were valued at £1,825,789 and
iron and steel products at £4,472,500.

Other Classes of Goods.—Among the leading items under other
classes of goods were included the following : —

19 28 1927 i
Chemicals, drugs, etc.— £ £
Medicinal preparations ... — 196,141 — 138,671
Electrical machinery, appara-
tus, etc.—
Batteries ... — 27,785 — 143,150
Machinery and motors ... — 76,290 — 54,358
Flashlights and parts — 57,692 — 48,120
Fertilisers— Tons. Tons.
Sulphate of ammonia 22,394 238,062 22,970 247,020
Vegetable fibres and textile
grasses—
Gunny bags 7,279,346 169,718 7,499,901 170,944
Burlaps and bagging 12,314,611 243,662 12,398,686 231,693
sq. metres. sq. metres
Cloths 390,504 50,416 250,138 34,538
Rubber and rubber goods— Pairs Pairs
Boots and shoes ... 104,098 19,856 14,205 1,441
Leather goods— cwt. cwt.
Sole and harness leather ... 6,434 70,437 6,206 44,677
Upper leather 4,385 179,601 4,150 142,136
Belting 333 12,715 538 20,378
Boots and shoes with Pairs Pairs
leather soles 95,665 49,053 100,850 52,566
Other leather, harness and
saddles, handbags, pocket
books, etc. — 46,562 — 45,931
Books and paper goods—
Books 243,933 230,960
Tons. Tons.
Printing paper 9,350 198,447 8,199 175,896
Wrapping paper ... 1,901 45,575 2,012 46,807
Writing paper and enve-
lopes 29,251 41,110
Silk goods— sq. metres sq. metres
Agricultural silk cloths ... 2,599,257 188,520 2,903,954 233,065
Dozen Dozen
Socks and stockings s 48,142 37,199 31,709 23,342

British Imports.—The total imports from British territory,
with the percentages of the total imports, for the years 1927-29
were as follows : —


12

1929 1928 1927
Great £ % £ % £ %
Britain 1,169,437 3-89 1,153,272 4-19 1,058,330 4-48
Ireland 47,141 0-16 50,729 0-18 41,060 017
Australia ... 437,800 1-46 496,897 1-80 460,310 1*95
New Zealand — — 10,273 0-03 10,863 0-05
British East 733,674 2-44 612,977 2-23 482,400 2-04
Indies
Hong Kong 37,279 0*12 71,096 0-26 57,070 0-24
Canada 56,943 0-19 81,447 0-29 47,050 0-20
British
Africa — • — 15,191 0-05 — —
Total ... 2,482,274 8-26 2,491,882 9-03 2,157,083 9-13

Though in total figures both Great Britain and the Empire as
a whole have just held their own, relatively to the imports of the
Philippine Islands as a whole a serious decline has taken place
resulting in considerably lower percentages for most sections of
the Empire. The recovery in 1928 from 1927 was small and did
not regain the figures for 1925—£2,590,410 (Great Britain
£1,332,310)—when the total imports of the Philippine Islands
were considerably less than in 1929 and 1928. In recent years
British percentages of imports have been : —

British Great
Empire 0/ Britain 0/
1929 ... /o 8-26 /o 3-89
1928 ... 903 4-19
1927 ... 9-13 4-48
1926 ... 9*64 4-51
1925 ... 10-60 5-94 United Kingdom
1924 9-50 5-15
1923 10-49 4-76
1922 9-59 4-08
1921 8-29 3-71

In the case of Great Britain cotton goods showed a fair increase
of nearly £90,000 in 1928 over 1927, but even so our percentage of
all cotton imports was only a little over 11 per cent. Other fibre
cloths and artificial silk goods showed an advance, as did also
linseed oil. The largest decrease was in iron and steel goods
which declined over £40,000, mostly in railway track material,
roofing and structural steel, wire, &c. Woollen goods also de-
clined. A list of the principal articles of import from Great Britain
and certain British countries will be found in Appendix I (page
24).

The principal Australian import that increased was coal, while
a considerable increase in dairy products was more than offset by


13

a decline in meat products. Flour also declined, though not to as
great an extent as in 1927 from the figures for 1926. (See
Appendix I.)

The increased imports from India and British East Indies were
due to three items mainly, cocoa, coal and gunny bags and
bagging, though there were a number of quite minor increases in
other goods. (See Appendix I.)

Imports from various Countries.—The general position of
countries sending goods to the Philippine Islands during the three
years 1927-29, together with their respective percentages of the
total import trade, is shown in the following table : —

1929 1928 1927
£ % £ % £ %
United Kingdom 1,216,578 405 1,204,001 4-37 1,099,390 4-65
Other British Territory ... 1,265,696 4-21 1,287,881 4-66 1,057,693 4-48
United States 19,038,208 63-36 17,223,194 62-62 14,740,140 62-32
Japan 2,437,658 8-11 2,640,054 9-60 2,264,760 9-58
China 1,448,112 4-82 1,339,281 4-88 1,318,790 5-53
French East Indies 1,178,210 3-92 490,275 1-79 249,220 1-06
Germany 992,873 3-34 944,261 3-44 726,570 3-07
Netherlands East Indies 647,468 2-15 619,673 2-25 569,250 2-41
Switzerland 343,166 1-14 338,463 1-23 250,300 1-06
France 333,604 111 319,478 1 -17 335,630 1-42
Belgium ... 256,168 0-85 297,679 1-09 233,180 0-99
Japanese China ... 187,978 0-62 135,348 0-49 184,050 0-78
Spain 186,615 0-62 189,375 0-68 178,810 0-76
Netherlands 118,485 0-39 109,068 0-39 120,900 0-52
Sweden ... 68,973 0-23 63,710 0-24 50,446 0-21
Italy 66,365 0-22 78,248 0-29 91,360 0-39
Other countries ... 259,068 0-86 212,461 0-81 193,384 0-82
Total 30,045,225 100-00 27,492,450 100-00 23,653,010 100-00

United States Imports.—The percentage of the imports of the
Philippine Islands supplied by the United States continues to grow
slowly, as may be seen from the following list : —

%

1929 63-36
1928 62-62
1927 62-32
1926 60-54
1925 58-58
1924 56-77
1923 57-88

The average import duty collected on non-American goods was
19*2 per cent, in 1928 and 18*3 per cent, in 1927; the handicap on
British and other foreign goods is evident, but the weakness of
British imports seems due not entirely to the incidence of the import
duties.

Details of the leading imports from the United States and
various other countries in 1928 and 1927 will be found in Appendix
II (p. 26).


14

Japanese Imports.—These had a small setback in 1927 from the
figures for 1926, more than recovered the lost ground in 1928, but
declined again slightly in 1929. In both 1928 and 1927 more than
half the total imports were cotton goods. Silk, which comes next
on the list, is gaining ground considerably, especially in (real) silk
cloths. Over a period of several years cement, glassware, iron and
steel goods, gunny bags, hats and caps and paper goods show
fairly steady increases in spite of some fluctuations.

German Imports.—These show year after year a steady increase
maintained in the majority of the lines. Iron and steel, especially
machinery, motors, &c., show a remarkable increase when the
difficulties of the market are considered. Sulphate of ammonia in
particular shows a very exceptional increase during the years since
1926. Aluminium and brassware, drugs and medicines, paper
goods, instruments and apparatus show some of the other principal
increases.

Chinese Imports.—Imports from China have remained steady
for several years, with a slight increase in 1929. Various food-
stuffs, meat products, eggs, vegetables, &c., constitute nearly half
of the total, but cotton goods constitute about 15 per cent, and silk
goods nearly 10 per cent, of the whole.

French East Indies Imports.—These fluctuate greatly year by
year, and were unusually large in 1929; rice is usually 90 per cent,
or more of the total, and the volume of the import depends on the
crop and demand from the Philippines.

Netherlands East Indies Imports.—These remain fairly steady
over a number of years. The largest imports are mineral oils
(gasoline, fuel oil, kerosene, &c.), and coffee, with a certain amount
of starch and cocoa.

Swiss Imports.—These had a small setback in 1927, but had
a great recovery and increase in 1928 which they maintained in
1929. The increase was almost entirely in cotton goods, which
constitute nearly 75 per cent, of the total imports.

French Imports.—Over a period of years these show a fair
increase, though individual years fluctuate. Since 1925 the
largest increase has been in cotton goods. Toilet preparations,
perfumery, &c., and precious stones come next in order of
importance.

Belgian Imports.—Imports from Belgium, though not yet very
large, show a very remarkable and steady increase every year since
the war. In 1920 the total was only about £3,000, which by 1928
had grown to £297,000, though there was a decline in 1929 to
£256,000. The largest imports are iron and steel goods amounting
to over 60 per cent, of the total, followed by precious stones, glass
and glassware, and paper goods.

Japanese China Imports.—As usual these are practically all
(95 to 96 per cent.) coal.


15

Spanish Imports.—After several years’ slow increase these
showed a small decline in 1929. Paper goods and wines and spirits
remain the leading items, together with various foodstuffs.

Netherlands Imports.—These show little change over a period
of years, being little more than in 1925. Meat and dairy products,
precious stones and paper goods constitute the bulk of them.

Swedish Imports — These are mostly iron and steel goods and
matches, which are entirely responsible for the increase since 1925.

Italian Imports.—These have shown a steady decline during
the last three years, mainly in hats and caps. Cotton goods show
a small increase in recent years.

Exports. —The leading exports from the Philippine Islands
during 1929-27 were as follows : —

1929 1928 1927
Sugar— Tons. £ Tons. £ Tons. £
Centrifugal 653,553 10,481,306 517,948 9,134,958 498,507 9,732,525
Raw muscavado 24,457 221,075 35,097 376,596 44,294 491,483
Refined 6,900 168,299 7,917 195,129 1,809 44,750
Total sugar ... 684,910 10,870,680 560,962 9,706,683 544,610 10,268,758
Hemp (all grades) 186,441 5,802,529 172,043 5,429,528 146,482 6,061,122
Coconut oil 187,519 5,958,592 140,003 4,795,706 142,522 5,071,638
Copra 170,839 3,178,022 230,725 4,602,395 196,180 3,910,964
Copra meal Tobacco— 112,000 774,361 80,367 589,253 89,333 507,260
Leaf 27,145 Hundreds 896,789 19,899 Hundreds 618,550 23,217 Hundreds 800,078
Cigars 1,883,330 780,866 2,208,844 972,883 2,075,780 949,836
Cigarettes 1,598,650 30,360 2,302,592 45,613 684,690 15,208
Other ... — 86,599 — 112,956 — 53,731
Total tobacco... 1,794,614 1,750,002 1,818,853
Embroideries Tons. 1,176,887 Tons. 897,565 Tons. 791,998
Maguey ... 15,786 332,702 16,902 359,808 17,302 419,861
Cordage ... Other fibres— 6,996 388,789 6,471 362,485 5,484 340,286
Unmanufactured Manufactured, mostly knotted 283,744 260,856 254,364
hemp Cub. met. 324,953 Cub. met. 102,856 Cub. met. 204,526
Lumber ... Coconut, dessi- 246,962 Tons 738,871 202,547 Tons 638,327 170,752 Tons 570,402
cated Hats— 21,935 No. s 722,725 20,044 No. 760,232 14,944 No. 581,887
Buntal fibre ... Shells— 871,844 Gross 411,613 1,239,629 Gross 663,481 658,984 Gross 312,949
Pearl buttons Other shells and 750,098 78,175 843,231 78,779 790,788 74,899
shell goods ... Gums and resins— Tons 24,513 Tons 30,230 Tons 33,585
Rubber Other gums and 312 24,898 309 40,831 292 41,822
resins Silk goods, mostly — 53,706 — 51,237 42,500
embroideries ... 50,467 26,114 25,381


16

Though total exports increased considerably during 1929 over
1928, the latter year was itself very slightly below 1927. Actually
1928 was not considered a bad year in spite of low prices, and the
export business during the first half of 1929 was quite brisk, only
to find a decreased demand later in the year which, with the low
prices prevailing for produce in most cases, made the year end
rather gloomily. Increased output in some instances counter-
balanced to some extent low prices and individual concerns did
fairly well, but at the end of 1929 the outlook was not good.

Exports to British Territory.—The total exports to British
territory, with percentages of the total export for the years 1927-29,
were as follows : —

1929 1928 1927
£ % £ % £ %
Great Britain 1,437,201 4-31 1,612,114 5-09 1,748,330 5-50
Australia 115,457 0-35 127,939 0-41 184,110 0'58
New Zealand — — 24,205 0-08 30,823 0*10
British East Indies 226,251 0-68 240,663 0-76 285,620 0-90
Hong Kong 237,417 0-71 275,326 0-87 280,830 0-89
Canada > > < ... ... 60,350 0-18 44,751 014 33,570 Oil
British Africa — — 19,402 0-06 16,293 0-05
Other British territory ... — — 952 — 1,750 —
2,076,729 6-23 2,345,356 7-41 2,581,326 8*13

The exports to British territory from the Philippine Islands have
been declining on the whole in recent years, both in total and still
more in percentages; the latter may be seen in the following
table : —

British Great
Empire 0/ Britain 0/
1929 ... /o 6* 23 /o 4-31
1928 ... 7-41 5-09
1927 ... 8-13 5-50
1926 ... 7-68 4-98
1925 ... 10-33 7-54 United Kingdom
1924 ... 10-01 6-97
1923 ... 9-39 6-20
1922 ... 11-03 5-36
1921 ... 13-05 5-28

In the case of Great Britain the decline in 1928 was due mainly
to a considerable reduction in the value of hemp, notwithstanding
an increase over 1927 in the quantity shipped ; a considerable quan-
tity of coconut oil exported to Great Britain in 1927 and previous
years ceased entirely in 1928, while maguey also declined. As a
partial offset there were large increases in the export of copra and
copra meal.


17

In the case of Australia hemp also was the principal cause of
the decreased exports, to which lumber also contributed.

The decreased exports to the British East Indies in 1928 over
1927 were spread over a large number of items, the largest reduc-
tion being in cordage.

In the case of Hongkong both 1927 and 1928 figures showed a
considerable decline from previous years, mainly in cordage,
hemp and sugar.

Appendix IV (p. 34) gives statistical details of exports to
different British territories.

Exports to other Countries.—The position of various
countries in the export trade of the Philippine Islands during
1929-27, with their respective percentages, is as follows : —

1929 1928 1927
£ % £ % £ %
Great Britain 1,437,201 4-31 1,612,114 5-09 1,748,330 5-50
Other British territory ... 639,528 1-92 733,242 2-32 832,996 2-63
United States 25,517,419 76-00 23,725,727 74-95 23,784,730 74-88
Japan 1,455,615 4-33 1,423,525 4-49 1,576,950 4-96
Spain 1,270,378 3-79 1,039,608 3-29 1,162,060 3-66
Germany... 725,934 2-16 643,871 2-03 642,880 2-03
China 651,184 1-94 715,430 2-26 534,490 1-68
France 460,336 1-37 551,950 1-74 323,750 1-02
Italy 431,722 1-28 312,106 0-99 378,150 1-19
Netherlands 303,831 0-90 299,298 0-94 337,950 1-07
Belgium ... 210,980 0-63 285,505 0-90 185,660 0-58
Sweden ... 86,388 0-23 49,234 0-15 14,924 0-05
Netherlands East Indies 65,106 0-19 68,301 0-21 50,210 0-16
Denmark 63,025 0-19 26,035 0-09 22,636 0-07
Norway ... 62,019 0-18 59,237 0-19 17,345 0-06
Siam 29,884 0-09 26,574 0-08 28,999 0-09
Other countries ... 164,014 0 49 85,213 0-28 120,980 0-37
Total 33,574,564 100-00 31,656,970 100-00 31,763,040 100-00

Exports to United States.—The United States has again
improved its position as the principal purchaser of Philippine
products, both in actual volume of trade and in percentages of the
whole. In recent years the percentages going to the United States
have been : —

%

1929 ... 76-00
1928 ... 74-95
1927 ... 74-88
1926 ... 73-44
1925 ... 73-61
1924 ... 72-29
1923 70-80
1922 67-50
1921 ... 57-65

Exports to other Countries.—Details of these as well as of
those to the United States are given in. Appendix V.


18

Exports to Japan, which continued increasing slightly in 1927,
fell off considerably in 1928, and made only a small recovery in
1929. In 1928 the decline was mainly in sugar, which went down
over 90 per cent, from the 1926 figures; maguey also decreased
considerably.

Exports to Germany continue to increase, though in 1928 only
to a very small extent, the advance being resumed in 1929. Over
two-thirds of the total is copra meal, while about half the remainder
is hemp.

Exports to Spain made a big jump forward in 1927, and though
1928 saw a part of the gain lost the loss was more than made good
in 1929. In 1928 about 60 per cent, of the total was for copra and
32 per cent, tobacco, the balance being mostly hemp.

Exports to China have fluctuated considerably in recent years.
The spurt in 1928 was due mostly to increased exports of Buntal
fibre and timber; these and other small increases are offset by a
continuous decline in sugar, which in 1928 was only about 50 per
cent, of the 1925 export.

Exports to France suffered a great decline in 1927 which was
partly recovered in 1928, only for ground to be lost again in 1929.
Fluctuations in the export of copra, hemp and leaf tobacco are
responsible for these variations.

Exports to Italy had a considerable reduction in 1928 replaced
by a great gain in 1929, for which fluctuations in hemp and leaf
tobacco were responsible.

Exports to the Netherlands declined in 1928, and made only
a small recovery in 1929; the decrease was mainly in the export of
copra.

Exports to Belgium saw a considerable advance in 1928, due
mainty to increased exports of hemp, but 1929 saw the loss of much
of the ground gained.

II. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS.

Railways. —An extension of 7} miles to San Fernando, on the
west coast, at the northern end of the Manila Railroad Company’s
track, brought the mileage to 666.} in the main Island of Luzon ;
that of the Philippine Railway Company in the Islands of Cebu
and Panay remains at 132 miles. The work of connecting the main
line of the former company with the detached section in south-
eastern Luzon is still far from completion. Be}^ond the latter
work no further extension appears to be at present contemplated.
In 1928 and 1927 traffic figures were : —

Manila Railroad Company.

Passengers Freight
carried. tons.

8,466,363 1,840,589

8,339,469 1,573,301

1928

1927


19

Philippine Railway Company.

1928 ................... 2,306,643 329,492

1927 ................... 1,568,412 319,308

Roads and Motor Traffic.—By the end of 1928 a total of
7,373 miles of road were in use throughout the Islands, including
3,956 miles of first-class, 2,071 miles of second-class and 1,346
miles of third-class roads. The total is steadily increasing and
plans are under way to open up some of the more difficult moun-
tain areas, especially in the southern island of Mindanao, in which
communications are still very primitive.

By the end of 1928 there were 19,778 motor cars and 9,070
motor trucks registered. A steady expansion is proceeding of
motor transportation companies, both passenger and freight.
Filipinos are developing the practice of travelling about the country
considerably, and with the opening up of roads across difficult
mountainous country and the provision of access to remote valleys,
it is hoped that much benefit will result, both by facilitating settle-
ment from crowded areas and by permitting transportation of
produce for sale.

Shipping.—The following were the entrances of direct foreign-
going shipping at Philippine ports in the years 1927-29; tonnage
of cargo discharged is given in brackets : —

1929 1928 1927
Net Net Net
No. tonnage. No. tonnage. No. tonnage.
Manila 1,068 4,190,099 894 3,587,806 864 3,506,434
(1,604,315) (1,434,114) (1,439,902)
Cebu 223 722,676 119 427,539 77 266,333
(204,859) (179,446) (125,160)
Iloilo 109 376,173 55 184,200 67 231,656
(137,064) (119,122) (116,003)
Zamboanga 39 122,945 15 36,593 13 28,812
(11,720) (12,677) (8,225)
Davao 37 125,239 19 76,204 27 99,968
(9,234) (5,050) (1,285)
Legaspi 6 22,671 3 8,315 4 8,897
(16,136) ? (14,535) ? (14,477)
Jolo 28 7,345 41 4,568 43 8,052
(1,137) (1,130) (987)
Total 1,510 5,617,148 1,146 4,325,243 1,095 4,150,152
(1,984,465) (1,766,083) (1,706,069)

Among the above vessels 336 of 2,413,997 net tons entered Philip-
pine ports coastwise (from another Philippine port) during 1928,
and 586 of 2,185,058 tons during 1927. Entrance of Philippine
vessels in the coastwise trade were 20,763 vessels of 2,891,270 net
tons during 1928 and 21,125 vessels of 2,802,042 tons during 1927.

As shown by the tables in Appendix VI (pp. 36-37) the position
of British shipping remains fairly satisfactory, though there was
some decline in the volume of goods carried in British vessels in


20

1929. At the end of that year shipping* conditions were not good,
the general dullness of trade and the position in China causing a
decline in cargo volume. At the same time Manila seems over-
supplied with shipping space so that the outlook for 1930 was not
encouraging.

Sea Communications.—The Philippines are visited by vessels
of some 30 regular lines with occasional calls from several others;
these give regular and direct connection with neighbouring
Asiatic countries, Europe, North America and Australia. United
States lines are the most numerous with considerable trans-Pacific
development, though some seven or eight British lines give regular
service in every direction. A feature of early 1930 was the experi-
mental extension of the trans-Pacific run of some of the Dollar
Line vessels from Manila to Singapore, making the latter port
virtually the Asiatic terminus of the run from the United States.
If successful the route will bring* the United States into closer
direct touch with Malaya. German shipping shows a steady
increase, a mark of their growing trade. Their lines pay special
attention to direct passenger trade with Europe, involving* no
transhipment at Hongkong or Singapore. Japanese shipping has
shown no great fluctuations, but the recent re-establishment by the
Nippon Yusen Kaisha of Manila as a port of call in their trans-
Pacific run should lead to an increase in Japanese shipping*.
Norwegian shipping also is showing a steady growth.

Ports and Harbours.—No material change has occurred in
ports and harbours during* the years under review. The Manila
breakwater extension is still proceeding, but work has ceased for
a long interval. Manila Piers Nos. 3 and 5 have been improved,
and with the modern Pier No. 7 seem sufficient to handle the pre-
sent trade. During 1928, 739,000 tons of cargo were discharged
at Manila, compared with 680,000 tons in 1927.

III. INDUSTRY AND PRODUCTION.

Agriculture. —The production and value of the principal crops
in 1928 and 1927 were as follows : —

1928 1927
Tons. . £ Tons. £
Rice 2,112,810 18,711,174 2,113,870 20,515,761
Hemp 175,950 5,549,499 170,050 6,047,498
Sugar cane ... 721,300 11,651,456 648,770 11,595,757
Coconut products (copra, nuts, etc.) 8,718,777 8,369,401
Tobacco 45,450 952,924 49,420 1,345,544
Corn 422,760 2,658,975 482,780 3,542,034
Maguey 19,210 335,663 19,640 391,846
Cacao 1,150 120,836 1,070 115,110
Coffee 1,220 88,670 1,190 85,831
Total 48,787,974 52,008,782


21

Rice.—Despite the gradual increase in recent years to 1928 in
the production of rice, imports are also growing, pointing to a
shortage of grain in the Islands. In 1929 the importation rose to
103,670 tons against 43,068 tons in 1928, so that nearly 5 per cent,
of the requirements of the Islands were imported.

Sugar.—There are now 41 sugar centrals, besides two not
operating, with a daily cane capacity of 50,810 tons. Their pro-
duction in recent years has been : —

Metric tons.

1926- 27 534,808

1927- 28 574,715

1928- 29 699,699

Much uneasiness exists over the frequent efforts made in
Washington to increase the duty on Philippine sugar entering
the United States so as to protect American beet sugar producers.
If brought to the level of the duty on Cuban and other sugars it
is believed that Philippine sugar could not compete in view of the
relatively high cost of production. There have even been sugges-
tions of voluntary cessation of expansion in production so as not
to aggravate the position in the United States, but nothing has
been decided.

Copra.—The production of copra for 1929 reached 483,442
metric tons, while 191,054 tons of coconut oil were manufactured
during the same year.

Rubber.—There is little change in the position beyond a
gradual growth in the production, as shown in the following-
figures of exportation : —

1929 ... 312 tons valued at 24,898
1928 ... 309 40,831
1927 ... 292 41,820
1926 ... 224 34,330
1925 ... 138 17,850

Timber.—The steady growth of this industry is continuing-
year by year. The quantity cut in recent years is as follows : —

1928

1927

1926

1925

Board feet.
611,946,056
489,935,816
408,964,536
371,093,704

Exports in 1929 were 76,359,008 and in 1928 were 70,899,160
board feet. As there are stated to be over 39,000,000 acres of com-
mercial forests, averaging at least 10,000 board feet stand per acre,
there is room for considerable expansion in this business. There
are 17 large modern mills operating long-term licence areas and
many small yearly licence concerns.


22

Mineral Products.—The mineral output for 1927 (latest year of
detailed figures) and 1926 were as follows : —

192’ 7 1926
Metric Metric
tons £ tons £
Iron ... 200 4,560 306 8,223
Grams Grams
Platinum 95 47 248 123
Gold 2,537,154 344,272 2,896,697 393,059
Silver 884,345 3,611 1,382,148 5,880
Tons. Tons.
Coal ... 23,040 28,442 28,126 38,297

It is known that production of gold since 1927 has been increasing
largely, all coming from existing mines and neighbouring exten-
sions in the mountains 100 miles north of Manila. The production
in 1928 is stated to have been 2,864,910 grams valued at £388,746,
while press reports give the production of two leading mines for
1929 as £549,753.

Finance.—The budget of the Philippine Islands for 1929 gave
the estimated insular income as £8,031,185 and the expenditure as
£7,709,420, against £7,395,249 and £7,384,601 respectively for
1928. Actual insular Government receipts in 1928 from all sources,
however, were £9,784,745 after deducting grants in aid, and expen-
diture £9,219,280.

The bonded indebtedness of the Philippines at the end of 1928
amounted to £19,340,096, including provincial and municipal
bonds, against which there was a reserve fund of £4,442,484.

Currency in circulation in December, 1929, was £12,639,006,
and the currency reserve fund maintained to preserve the gold
standard exchange with United States currency amounted to
£2,889,835.

An estimate of the national wealth of the Philippine Islands in
1927 was about £602,800,000.

The following are figures for export of treasure not included in
the export tables : —

1929 1928 1927
Gold ore to United Ounces. £ Ounces. £ Ounces. £
States Gold bullion prac- tically all to 3,915 153 2,355
United States ... United States gold coin to Hong 281,893 669,826 153,223 380,806 141,134 324,339
Kong ... 40,833


23

Labour.—Nearly 87 per cent, of Philippine labour is agricul-
tural and 10 per cent, is devoted to public works of various kinds.
Fishing, forestry, mines, commerce and industry between them
total only 100,000 of the 3,000,000 labourers of the Islands.

Seasonal character of crops is one cause of unemployment
during part of the year, and it is not easy to move surplus labour
from one province to another, though extension of roads and motor
transportation is lessening that difficulty. Taking the country all
round there is considered to be possible work for all part of the
time. Manila is calculated to have a floating population of 15,000,
many of whom, however, have occasional work.

Unemployment is not so great an evil as in many other
countries. Use of the shift system whereby some work three days
in the week and others the remaining three days helps matters in
some trades, such as the cigar and shoe industries. Other unem-
ployed often need only return to their provinces to be able to get
agricultural work, while the tropical climate precludes some of the
severer hardships of colder countries.

Full figures for unemployment are not available. For 1928
figures from 40 labour unions showed that of 32,000 members some
8,000 were unemployed, 25 per cent, of the whole.

There have been no great changes in wages of labour during
the period under review, but full details are lacking; there have
been increases but now efforts are being made to decrease, due to
the lower prices for produce. During 1927 there were 53 strikes
involving 8,567 persons, 33 of which were for higher wages and 20
for other reasons; 39 were settled favourably to the strikers and 14
against them. In 1928 there were 38 strikes involving 4,729
persons, 21 for higher wages and 17 for other reasons; 21 were
settled in favour of the strikers and 17 against them. During 1927
there were 10,074 emigrants to Hawaii (whence many go on to the
United States); during 1928 the number was 9,322.

Manufactures.—Except that there has been a growth of
existing manufactures there has been little change in the manu-
factures of the Philippine Islands. The country remains an
agricultural one, and the largest industries are those connected
with Philippine produce, sugar, copra, hemp, timber, tobacco;
many of these are on "a large scale. So, too, public services and
utilities—railways, tramways, power stations, gas, water—are large
and generally growing larger. Manufactures for export, however,
are also growing, notably embroideries, buntal hats, pearl buttons
and smaller items.


24

APPENDIX I.

Value of Imports of Principal Articles from the United Kingdom and certain
British Countries in 1928 and 1927.

1928 1927
A. From Great Britain— £ £
Cotton goods 620,452 531,573
Principally—
Cotton cloths— sq. metres. £ sq. metres. £
Dyed 3,994,883 213,754 3,828,361 200,607
Bleached 3,697,720 153,141 3,910,854 152,290
Printed 2,301,237 103,522 1,177,117 53,442
Thread ... 57,215 54,187
Yarns 41,553 25,844
Handkerchiefs ... 21,680 22,294
Laces 9,615 8,462
Tulles 6,204 5,160
Iron and steel 140,931 182,644
Principally—
Sugar machinery 40,850 57,508
Stationary and marine No. No.
engines 142 14,151 53 9,118
Motors, except electric... 23 3,886 4 820
Roadmaking machinery 5,635 677
Pumps and pumping
machinery 1,019 8,776
Other machinery 15,917 25,036
Total machinery 81,458 101,935
Sheets and plates corru-
gated and plain gal- Tons Tons
vanised 466 7,073 495 8,939
Structural iron and steel 2,234 13,550
Wire, including cables ... 2,978 10,943
Castings 172 7,320 231 10,321
Chains ... 194 4,571 94 2,409
Enamel ware ... 2,124 740
Pipes and fittings 166 4,162 70 2,154
Tools 9,338 7,125
Silk and manufactures, in-
cluding artificial silk 50,935 41,722
Spirits, wines, etc. 40,050 35,278
Fibres, vegetable (mostly
cloths) 36,207 20,543
Diamonds, etc. 36,128 14,725
Paints and pigments 36,046 33,275
Of which—
Zinc oxide 478 23,633 472 23,870
Woollen goods 35,144 42,995
Oils 33,025 18,126
Of which—
Linseed oil 602 23,909 369 16,164
Coal and coke 26,212 21,605
Of which—
Coal 32,065 23,644 15,485 18,829
Electrical machinery and ap-
pliances 10,876 12,561
Earthenware, etc. 9,272 12,704
Copper, mainly sheet 9,028 13,434
Meat and dairy products ... 6,939 4,528
Paper and paper goods 6,208 7,482


25

APPENDIX I—continued.

Cars, railway and motor, and parts
Breadstuffs (not flour)

Brassware
Sporting goods

Chemicals, dyes, medicines ...
Rubber and rubber goods
Instruments and apparatus ...

B. From Australia—

Beef ...

Other meats

Coal................

Wheat flour...

Butter

Cattle

C. From British East Indies—

Gunny bagging ............

Gunny bags...

Cocoa
Coal ...

Cotton goods

D. From Hong Kong—

Sugar, refined

Gunny bags...

E. From Canada—

Wheat flour...

Meat and dairy products ...

F. From Ireland—

Bread and biscuits...

Malt liquors

Fibre goods, mainly linen

1928 1927
£ £
4,988 11,690
4,393 4,881
3,912 3,679
3,265 2,610
3,103 4,478
2,975 3,748
2,808 2,040
Tons £ Tons £
3,609 143,273 4,143 167,872
— 31,911 — 33,660
79,547 98,191 44,037 53,917
6,501 89,812 6,801 96,342
376 60,680 266 39,859
Head Head
8,597 39,712 7,635 35,250
— 240,789 — 231,192
No. No.
4,186,050 97,044 4,413,406 91,348
Tons Tons
1,598 125,617 1,188 79,377
79,083 63,600 33,519 22,303
— 15,659 — 16,606
3,321 52,314 1,334 26,463
No. No.
232,000 7,448 462,870 20,709
Tons Tons
3,493 52,730 2,218 34,854
— 3,439 — 2,472
Cwt. Cwt.
6,204 31,887 5,072 27,970
Litres Litres
128,419 12,284 95,329 9,260
— 6,260 — 3,015


26

APPENDIX II.

Value of Imports of Principal Articles from Certain Foreign Countries in

1928 and 1927.

A. From United States—

Cotton goods—

Cloths, unbleached
,, bleached
,, dyed
,, printed

Knit goods
Thread ...

Shoes (rubber soled)

Other cottons ...

Total cottons

Iron and steel manufactures—
Railway track material
Sheets and plates—

Corrugated roofing
Galvanised, plain
Other

Structural iron and steel
Nails, spikes, etc. ...

Wire cables, etc. ...

Pipes and fittings
Tools

Machinery—

Locomotives

Stationary and marine engines
Tractors

Boilers, including tubes
Mining machinery
Pumps and pumping machinery
Refrigerating machinery
Rice threshers, hullers, etc.
Sewing machines
Sugar machinery
Typewriters

Sawmill and other woodworking
machinery
Other machinery

Total machinery

Other iron and steel

Total, iron and steel...

Mineral oil...

Wheat flour

Meat and meat products
Dairy products—

Milk, condensed, natural, etc....
Other dairy produce

Automobiles, passenger and truck

1928 1927
sq. metres £ sq. metres £
4,619,816 110,657 4,227,550 101,584
36,018,291 1,050,844 24,731,980 734,163
18,927,096 766,604 16,301,606 576,647
19,518,675 592,130 17,816,153 521,278
80,498 — 104,913
— 106,830 — 112,861
Pairs 1,117,476 184,772 Pairs 743,578 117,562
— 251,430 — 212,756
— 3,143,765 — 2,481,764
Tons 9,726 112,037 Tons 8,161 68,665
23,677 392,113 15,022 335,332
5,463 117,404 5,915 137,553
— 123,275 — 118,577
10,742 164,236 il,206 75,323
5,254 68,735 2,208 39,530
5,074 116,387 4,492 101,605
12,439 249,313 5,917 129,468
— 97,344 — 85,883
No. 33 61,351 No. 10 32,228
1,230 60,772 694 38,663
230 44,370 145 19,132
— 29,468 — 32,132
— 36,967 — 2,477
— 37,542 — 36,680
— 32,045 — 36,466
— 26,701 — 29,339
31,069 179,771 26,415 149,966
— 497,520 — 114,035
4,241 49,644 4,624 55,072
59,765 16,010
— 383,425 — 405,200
— 1,499,341 — 967,400
— 317,048 — 305,255
— 3,257,242 — 2,364,591
1,467,507 1,314,261
Tons 64,667 944,297 Tons 57,377 861,431
— 146,757 — 116,339
568,672 522,166
— 48,028 — 31,787
No. 5,937 866,247 No. 5,125 671,458


27

APPENDIX II—continued.

1928 1927
Paper goods— £ £
Books — 221,299 — 210,010
Tons Tons
Printing paper ... 4,228 112,542 4,912 116,214
Other paper goods — 238,344 — 219,351
Total paper goods ... — 572,185 — 545,575
Electrical apparatus and appli-
ances—
Machinery and motors — 72,649 — 48,362
Radio apparatus — 26,599 — 32,381
Telephones and accessories — 33,582 — 18,745
Insulated wire ... — 64,114 — 43,778
Flashlights and parts ... — 57,079 — 47,769
Batteries — 27,224 — 142,435
Other electrical goods ... — 109,846 — 109,400
Total electrical goods — 391,093 — 442,570
Fertilisers—
Sulphate of ammonia ... 8,980 105,226 20,069 214,923
Other — 109,287 — 116,942
Fish products (mostly tinned
sardines, salmon, etc.) ... — 345,697 — 373,163
Tobacco, (mostly leaf and cigar-
ette) — 613,614 — 503,129
Chemicals, dyes, drugs and medi-
cines — 339,432 — 315,368
Soap — 209,542 — 200,853
Perfumery, cosmetics and toilet
preparations — 103,497 — 90,951
Rubber goods— Tons Tons
Automobile tyres — pneumatic 1,390 281,216 1,650 357,352
Solid 153 13,591 420 40,545
Other rubber goods — 151,043 — 130,878
Total rubber goods ... — 445,850 — 522,775
Leather—
Boot and harness leather — 248,758 — 184,819
Other leather goods — 89,817 — 101,808
Silk goods— sq. metres sq. metres
Cloths 310,230 60,553 732,298 88,795
Doz. Doz.
Socks and stockings 48,734 59,663 42,524 53,034
Other clothing ... — 35,798 — 40,572
Other silk goods — 67,233 — 50,612
Artificial silk— sq. metres sq. metres
Cloths 2,174,609 153,899 2,530,535 192,943
Doz. Doz.
Socks and stockings :.. 43,630 35,707 30,700 22,703
Other artificial silk — 15,956 — 12,243
Total—real and artificial silk — 428,809 — 461,902
Instruments, apparatus, etc.-— Metres Metres
Motion picture films ... 1,805,592 30,232 1,624,285 33,186
No. No.
Phonographs 5,187 47,686 4,786 45,595
Phonograph records — 26,567 — 18,050
Scientific instruments — 20,731 — 19,429
Other instruments, etc. — 32,087 — 31,128
Total, instruments, etc. — 157,303 — 147,388


28

APPENDIX II—continued.

1928 1927
£ £
Vegetables — 139,777 — 109,538
Brassware — 56,324 — 62,421
Confectionery — 83,438 — 63,024
Explosives — 60,475 — 44,225
Glass and glassware —. 71,142 — 55,714
Hats and caps, and parts — 73,709 — 62,027
Photographic equipment and sup-
plies — 80,020 — 54,294
Woollen goods — 92,429 — 92,825
B. From Japan 2,640,054 2,264,765
Of which— sq. metres sq. metres
Cotton goods 1,352,045 1,153,003
Mainly—
Cloths, unbleached 2,311,055 49,223 2,033,959 41,092
,, bleached 3,098,865 86,318 2,730,005 71,482
,, dyed 16,642,076 531,274 13,906,574 438,456
,, printed ... 2,340,803 69,959 2,290,658 62,713
Undershirts and drawers — 372,880 — 323,135
Counterpanes and quilts — 29,978 — 29,491
Yams, mercerised and other ... — 103,627 — 92,204
Yams, knitted in piece — 23,803 — 16,822
Silk goods ... — 214,289 — 129,705
Mainly—
Cloths 1,650,386 168,218 865,240 102,488
Shawls and scarves — 15,856 — 10,934
Tons Tons
Coal 148,454 158,566 136,819 144,901
Vegetables, largely potatoes — 118,719 —" 122,499
Cement 54,124 90,050 32,396 74,049
Iron and steel goods, mainly enamel
ware ... — 88,304 — 55,753
Glass and glassware — 85,905 — 73,160
Of which—
Bottles and jars — 44,355 — 40,414
Tableware ... — 17,937 — 15,381
Matches 1,355 - 77,914 1,542 89,391
Porcelain and other earthenware — 69,112 — 60,428
Fish and fish products — 45,861 — 48,877
No. No.
Paper goods — 36,353 — 38,503
Gunny bags 1,541,000 32,004 1,410,534 30,941
Combs — 26,222 — 38,479
Chemicals, drugs, dyes ... — 21,745 — 20,564
Toys — 21,560 — 20,735
Lamps, not electric — 18,989 -— 18,857
Hats and caps — 14,810 — 7,376
Leather goods — 12,156 — 10,839
Umbrellas and parts — 11,085 — 11,060
Fans, not electric ... — 10,363 — 8,290
C. From China — 1,339,281 — 1,318,790
Cotton goods — 213,308 — 198,738
Of which— sq. metres sq. metres
Cloths, unbleached 3,872,526 81,263 4,378,745 80,154
,, bleached 724,290 16,472 892,499 16,243
,, dyed 1,853,047 52,456 1,629,871 38,593
Knitted goods ... — 17,320 — 15,737
Undershirts and drawers — 8,461 — 6,415
Towels ... — 6,170 — 5,879
Yams — 21,689 — 29,394


29

APPENDIX II—continued.

Eggs ......................

Meat products

Silk goods

Vegetables

Breadstuffs

Fruits and nuts

Oils (principally peanut oil)

Trunks and travelling bags

Gunny bags

Tea ...

Earthenware
Paper goods, books
Matches

Chemicals, drugs, herbs, dyes ...

D. From Germany ...

Iron and steel goods
Of which—

Bars and rods ...

Railway track material
Wire, cables, netting, etc.
Cutlery ...

Enamel ware
Locks and hinges
Nails, spikes, etc.

Pipes and fittings
Tools

Smoothing irons, not electric ...
Machinery, motor engines, etc. ...
Including—

Locomotives

Motors, non-electric and parts
Stationary and marine
Rice threshers, etc.

Fertilisers (mostly sulphate of
ammonia)

Cotton goods
Of which—

Undershirts and drawers
Paper goods, mainly advertising
matter, lithographs, etc.
Chemicals, drugs, dyes, medicines
Musical instruments
Instruments and apparatus, non-
electric (surgical, scientific,
phonographs) ...

Spirits, wines, malt liquors
Lamps, etc., non-electric
Glass and glassware
Cars, vehicles, etc.

Aluminium ware ...

Electrical machinery and apparatus
Brassware

1928 1927
Doz. £ Doz. £
,002,825 213,179 5,718,599 200,401
— 193,521 — 203,516
— 127,257 — 134,238
— 109,612 — 99,848
— 78,867 — 92,397
— 63,495 — 62,408
— 59,127 — 61,590
— 18,850 — 16,682
No. No.
,295,826 32,445 1,199,317 27,534
Cwt. Cwt.
6,438 17,346 6,404 16,831
— 16,121 — 17,882
— 15,605 _ — 13,796
— 11,431 — 572
— 11,407 — 10,880
— 944,261 — 726,568
Tons 212,063 Tons 216,996

2,231 13,336 3,612 22,650
2,311 14,874 4,059 26,091
— 27,012 — 19,675
— 34,037 — 25,810
— 6,674 — 3,699
157 11,460 142 9,791
— 9,041 — 11,001
2,198 31,222 1,752 27,878
— 28,597 — 20,241
— 6,112 — 12,025
No. 101,000 No. 69,230

12 15,077 3 2,090
— 7,398 — 4,363
109 32,321 115 28,005
— 7,240 — 3,495
148,306 39,830
— 71,862 — 67,836
— 62,129 — 62,218
63,037 42,253
— 41,142 — 26,429
— 38,682 — 33,923
31,217 21,229
— 14,919 — 12,129
— 14,719 — 12,001
— 14,383 — 8,284
— 14,140 — 13,418
— 13,932 — 12,258
— 13,490 — 11,966
— 12,507 — 10,763

(Besides clocks and watches, toys, wool goods, umbrellas, silk goods, plated
ware, earthenware, gold and silver ware, etc.).


30

APPENDIX II—continued.

1928 1927
£ £
E. Netherlands East Indies ... — 619,673 — 569,250
Mineral oils — 321,237 256,168
Coffee — 104,037 — 95,596
Tons Tons
Starch 3,620 42,825 3,128 44,881
Wax, mineral 1,466 37,155 882 19,621
Coal 33,178 29,888 35,862 36,923
F. French East Indies — 490,275 — 249,217
Rice 41,911 480,149 10,701 190,934
G. Switzerland — 338,462 — 250,299
Cotton goods — 250,947 — 169,930
Including— sq. metres sq. metres
Cloth, bleached 968,759 36,212 473,247 18,645
,, dyed 2,769,790 119,697 1,536,272 62,055
,, printed ... 793,597 40,475 598,877 36,989
Embroideries — 24,632 — 26,645
Yams — 22,722 — 18,590
Clocks, watches and parts — 33,700 — 31,255
Dairy produce — 26,959 — 24,291
Of which—
Milk, preserved —. 25,247 — 23,284
Silk goods — 10,814 — 6,226
H. From France — 319,478 — 335,421
Perfumery and toilet preparations — 58,281 — 48,284
Precious stones — 56,189 — 71,610
Cotton goods (mainly thread and
lace) — 43,541 — 48,039
Paper goods (mostly cigarette
paper) — 22,968 — 37,641
Chemicals, drugs, medicines — 21,720 — 20,999
Silk goods — 19,673 — 15,528
Iron and steel goods — 15,430 — 10,621
Rubber goods — 13,789 — 14,707
Wines, spirits, etc. — 13,213 — 9,704
No. No.
Motor cars and trucks 61 10,628 34 5,283
I. From Belgium — 297,678 — 233,182
Iron and steel goods 186,780 143,951
Including— Tons Tons
Bars and rods ... 9,100 50,264 8,056 44,847
Railway track material 7,597 44,443 1,518 9,784
Sheets and plates, galvanised ... 8,811 10,837 25 476
Sheets and plates, other 1,960 16,094 1,362 10,989
Wire and cables (mostly barbed
wire) — 30,061 — 31,665
Nuts, bolts, washers, rivets 868 11,567 547 7,064
Precious stones — 28,097 — 32,866
Glass and glassware — 24,087 — 21,193
Paper goods — 23,991 — 9,797
Cars, cycles, etc. (mainly railway
carriages) — 10,570 — 1,000


31

APPENDIX II—continued.

J. From Spain

Paper goods
Wines and spirits
Drugs, medicines, etc.

K. From Japanese China ...

Coal

L. From the Netherlands ...

Dairy produce (mostly margarine
and cheese)

Precious stones

Paper goods (mostly printing
paper)

M. From Italy
Hats and caps

Cotton goods (mostly cloths, dyed)
Wool goods (mostly cloths)
Vegetable fibre goods (mostly
cloths)

1928 1927
Tons. £ Tons. £
— 189,375 — 178,873
— 43,426 — 37,005
— 37,374 — 32,139
— 14,476 — 11,818
— 135,348 — 184,050
141,869 127,797 193,701 180,013
— 109,068 — 120,899
— 55,951 — 46,042
— 17,329 — 29,000
— 10,713 — 13,067
— 78,248 — 91,361
— 26,356 — 21,553
— 22,306 — 22,456
7,065 — 8,061
— 4,647 — 6,353


32

APPENDIX III.

Table showing the Imports of certain Principal Articles from the
Countries indicated during the Years 1928 and 1927.

1928 1927
Cotton cloths— sq. met. £ sq. met. £
Great Britain 9,999,247 470,724 7,923,886 406,679
United States 79,083,878 2,520,234 63,077,289 1,933,690
J apan 24,388,799 736,773 20,961,196 613,743
China 6,459,264 150,574 6,900,588 135,121
Switzerland ... 4,532,239 196,406 2,608,396 117,669
Other 500,168 32,553 1,460,798 33,643
Total 124,963,595 4,107,264 102,932,153 3,240,545
Cotton yarns— cwt. £ cwt. £
Great Britain 3,996 41,553 2,690 25,844
Japan 14,330 103,627 12,610 92,204
China 4,423 21,689 6,274 29,394
Switzerland ... 2,135 22,722 2,002 18,590
British East Indies 1,246 9,027 1,674 10,668
Other 96 1,507 588 3,853
Total 26,226 200,125 25,838 180,553
Cotton knitted goods—
Great Britain — 827 — 141
United States — 80,497 — 104,913
Japan — 381,884 — 327,710
Germany — 63,290 — 63,416
China — 26,470 — 22,721
Other — 4,242 — 5,758
Total 557,210 524,659
Cotton thread—
Great Britain — 57,215 — 54,187
United States — 106,830 — 112,861
France — 26,508 — 29,798
Japan — 5,098 — 4,230
Other — 3,075 — 1,514
Total 918,726 202,590
Iron and steel: sheets and
plates— Great Britain Tons 513 7,682 Tons. 580 9,713
United States 36,146 631,793 26,954 591,462
Belgium 2,841 26,931 1,413 11,974
Other 443 6,427 1,760 16,142
Total 39,943 672,833 30,707 629,291
Iron and steel: bars and rods— Great Britain 228 3,202 134 2,438
United States 1,886 23,039 1,563 18,844
Belgium 9,100 50,264 8,056 44,847
Luxembourg... 2,614 14,190 2,181 11,507
Germany 2,231 13,336 3,612 22,650
Other 257 5,238 616 4,703
Total ... 16,316 109,269 16,162 104,989


33

APPENDIX III—continued.

1928 1927
Iron and steel: wire goods— Tons £ Tons £
Great Britain 872 2,978 405 10,943
United States 5,074 116,396 4,493 101,605
Belgium 2,860 31,069 2,866 31,665
Germany 1,753 27,012 1,266 19,675
Other 101 2,599 6 234
Total 10,660 180,054 9,036 164,122
Iron and steel: pipes and
fittings—
Great Britain 167 4,162 70 2,154
United States 12,439 249,313 5,917 129,468
Germany 2,197 31,222 1,851 27,878
Poland 748 9,248 — —
Other 609 7,916 1,019 8,053
Total 16,160 301,861 8,857 167,553
Iron and steel: machinery, motors, etc.—
Great Britain — 9,808 — 8,205
United States — 180,657 — 142,955
Germany — 11,951 — 14,406
Sweden — 11,006 — 6,862
Other — 12,002 — 5,398
Total 225,424 177,826
Meat and dairy products—
Great Britain — 6,939 — 4,412
Australia (largely meat) — 239,446 — 242,247
New Zealand (dairy) — 10,237 — 10,445
United States (largely dairy) — 759,455 — 670,292
China (mostly meat) — 193,816 — 203,554
Netherlands... — 56,201 — 46,042
Argentine (meat) — 32,427 — 27,661
Other — 66,731 — 63,039
Total 1,365,252 1,267,692
Wheat flour—
United States — 944,297 — 856,377
Australia — 89,259 — 95,698
Canada ... ... ... — 52,730 — 34,854
Other... — 804 — 6,523
Total 1,087,090 993,452


34

APPENDIX IV.

Principal Exports to certain Countries of the British Empire during

1928 and 1927.

1928 1927
Great Britain— Tons £ Tons £
Hemp 44,807 1,273,916 41,305 1,454,586
Maguey 2,207 46,804 2,715 67,440
Copra 6,473 125,445 496 9,929
Copra cake ... 1,882 14,134 492 3,710
Coconut oil ... Nil. 2,402 85,099
No. No.
Hats 116,133 44,623 43,015 18,509
Timber — 58,696 — 40,032
Tobacco products ... — 5,193 — 6,047
Australia— Tons Tons
Hemp 1,453 64,256 1,900 103,947
Timber — 29,880 — 33,856
Tobacco products ... — 9,108 — 11,199
No. No.
Hats 85,292 22,848 103,666 27,563
British East Indies— Tons Tons
Hemp 1,758 60,312 1,629 59,117
Cordage 1,569 84,450 1,605 96,634
Tobacco products ... — 27,513 — 31,425
Gums and resins — 18,467 — 26,220
Shells — 14,231 — 17,042
Hong Kong—
Sugar 12,519 131,235 12,527 136,720
Hemp 829 25,723 914 33,588
Tobacco products ... — 25,143 — 24,685
Copper, scrap 256 12,468 276 12,695
Cordage 332 16,256 340 18,443
Canada—
Hemp 1,229 41,354 688 31,957
New Zealand
Hemp 514 21,852 600 28,433
British A frica—
Hemp 472 17,261 381 15,097


35

APPENDIX V.

Exports to certain Countries during 1928 and 1927.

United States ... Including— 1928 £ 23,598,783 1927 £ 23,691,143


Sugar 9,328,627 9,776,926
Coconut oil 4,744,735 4,958,057
Copra 3,594,115 3,111,121
Hemp 1,945,105 2,503,486
Embroideries 915,383 811,792
Tobacco ... 895,096 822,596
Coconut, dessicated and shredded 759,146 579,891
Hats ... 465,330 181,136
Timber ... 334,362 351,857
Cordage ... 147,228 130,818
Pearl buttons ... 78,610 74,896
Copra cake 73,261 123,896
Maguey ... 41,730 45,327
Gums and resins 30,215 19,810
Rubber ... 27,703 22,586
Kapok ... 12,324 32,818
Japan Including— 1,423,524 1,576,952

Hemp 1,086,861 1,100,254
Timber ... 108,475 105,525
Maguey ... 79,286 123,955
Tobacco ... 56,159 70,029
Canton fibre 45,564 52,791
Sugar 15,291 94,461
Spain ... Including— 1,039,608 1,159,980

Copra 614,780 602,187
Tobacco ... 327,498 462,360
Hemp 92,211 91,056
China Including— 715,429 534,493

Sugar 229,847 259,722
Tobacco ... 122,016 76,722
Timber ... 92,442 33,322
Coconut oil 42,225 20,818
Spirits, distilled... 32,228 37,161
Cordage 20,695 14,832
Germany ... ... - Including— 643,870 642,885

Copra cake 441,396 363,413
Hemp 109,953 126,917
Copra 30,142 69,100
Maguey ... 20,344 29,105
France... Including— 551,950 323,734

Copra 222,632 58,576
Hemp 189,010 101,210
Hats 96,598 69,646
Maguey ... 20,575 21,283
Tobacco ... 2,915 44,718


36

APPENDIX V—continued.

Italy ...
Including—
Tobacco .
Hemp
Hats

Netherlands .
Including—
Hemp
Maguey .
Tobacco .
Copra

Belgium

Including—
Hemp
Maguey .

1928 1927

£ £

312,105 378,146

118,929 116,627

54,384 57,749

45,444 20,170

299,298 337,950

170,500 172,500

66,581 56,267

50,804 36,399

4,956 44,795

285,504 185,663

170,623 100,855

69,317 60,368

APPENDIX VI.

Total Shipping entered at all Philippine Ports during the Years

1928 and 1927.

Nationality of Vessels. 1928 1927
No. Tons. No. Tons
British 412 1,493,001 375 1,369,056
United States 232 1,212,791 269 1,391,252
Philippine 50 128,954 59 139,672
German 144 589,026 106 451,431
Japanese 137 438,218 157 509,296
Dutch ... 76 261,900 68 210,756
Norwegian 66 143,579 34 35,637
Swedish 7 21,765 2 5,814
Chinese 11 16,311 19 27,371
Spanish 3 7,185 3 7,185
Danish 3 6,877 2 1,617
French 3 3,396 — —
Czechoslovak ... 2 2,240 — —
1,146 4,325,243 1,095 4,150,152


37

APPENDIX VI —continued.

The Carrying Trade, Year 1929.

Nationality of vessels. Imports. Exports. Total.
British £ 8,951,174 £ 8,916,411 £ 17,867,585
United States 13,236,639 15,235,807 28,472,446
Philippine ... 89,646 124,540 214,186
J apanese 1,571,667 3,591,748 5,163,415
German 1,935,902 1,084,640 3,020,542
Norwegian ... 1,714,858 1,296,249 3,011,107
Dutch 960,670 677,433 1,638,103
Danish 454,353 1,115,443 1,569,796
Swedish 24,274 381,401 405,675
Spanish 186,673 124,990 311,663
Chinese 144,954 54,055 199,009
French 25,281 — 25,281
Panamanian 6,391 771 7,162
Italian 4,152 — 4,152
Belgian 424 — 424
Mail 731,896 971,368 1,703,264
£ 30,038,954 33,574,856 63,613,810


38

Reports by H.M. Trade Commissioners, Commercial Diplomatic and
Consular Officers on commercial and financial conditions in the following
countries, issued, or in course of preparation, by the Department of Overseas
Trade :—

A.—During the year 1929.

Angola Is. Od. (Is. Id.) Germany 3s. Od. (3s. Od.)
Argentina 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.) Italy ... 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.)
Belgium 4s. Od. (4s. 9d.) J apan 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.)
Bolivia Is. Od. (Is. rid.) Latvia Od. (lOd.)
Brazil 3s. Od. (3s. 8d.) • Netherlands East
British Malaya 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.) Indies 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.)
British West Indies... 2s. Od. (2s. 8d.) Nicaragua and
Canada ... ... 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.) Guatemala Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Czechoslovakia Is. Od. (Is. Id.) Norway 2s. Od. (2s. 2d.)
Denmark Is. Od. (Is. Id.) ! Persian Gulf Is. 3d. (Is. 4d.)
Dominican Republic Phillippine Islands ... Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
and Hayti... Is. Od. (Is. Id.) Poland Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
East Africa ... 2s Od. (2s. Id.) Roumania ... Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Egypt 2s. Od. (2s. 8d.) Siam ... Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Estonia 9d. (10 Finland Is. Od. (Is. Id.) United States Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
B.—During the year 1930.
Argentina 3s. Od. (3s. Od.) Lithuania Od. (lOd.)
Australia 4s. Od. (4s. Od.) Morocco 2s. Od. (2s. Od.)
Austria 2s. Od. (2s. 2d.) Netherlands 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.)
Belgium 3s. Od. (3s. Od.) New Zealand 2s. Od. (2s. 0d.)
Brazil 2s. Od. (2s. Od.) Panama and Costa
Bulgaria 2s. Od. (2s. 2d.) Rica 2s. Od. (2s. Id.)
Canada ... ... 3s. Od. (3s. Od.) Persia Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Chile 3s. Od. (3s. 2d.) Philippine Islands ... (See cover)
China 2s. Od. (2s. Od.) Poland Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Colombia 4s. 3d. (4s. Od.) Portugal 2s. Od. (2s. 2d.)
Cuba ... Is. 9d. (Is. 10d.) Portuguese E. Africa 2s. 3d. (2s. 0d.)
East Africa ... 2s. Od. (2s. lid.) Roumania ... Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Ecuador (In preparation) South Africa 2s. Od. (2s. 2d.)
El Salvador ... Od. (lOd.) Spain ... 2s. Od. (2s. 2d.)
French West Africa (In preparation) Sweden Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Germany (In preparation) j Syria... Is. Od. (Is. Id.)
Hungary Is. Od. (Is. Id.) Turkey Is. Od. (Is. 10d.)
India ... 3s. Od. (3s. lOd.) Uruguay (In preparation)
Italy ... 3s. Od. (3s. Od.) Venezuela Od. (lOd.)
J apan 2s. Od. (2s. 0d.) ! Yugoslavia ... Is. Od. (Is. Id.)

Annual subscription for the above reports, including postage to any
part of the world, £3.

(The above publications can be obtained from the addresses given on the
title-page of this Report. All prices are net, and those in parentheses include
postage).

Printed under the authority of His Majesty’s Stationery Office,
By the South Essex Recorders, Ltd., High Road, Ilford.

(17/10/30) (91) Wt. 24620/2124 125 2/31 S.E.R. Ltd. Gp. 9.




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Full Text

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