Citation
A grammar of the Assamese language

Material Information

Title:
A grammar of the Assamese language
Cover title:
Asamese grammar by W. Robinson, 1839
Cover title:
Assamese grammar by W. Robinson, 1839
Creator:
Robinson, William, 1784-1853
Place of Publication:
Serampore
Publisher:
Serampore Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ii, 78 p. : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Assamese language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
অসমীয়া ভাষা -- ব্যাকৰণ
অসমীয়া ভাষা -- ব্যাকরণ
असमिया भाषा -- व्याकरण
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Temporal Coverage:
- 1839
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Assam
Asia -- India -- West Bengal -- Hooghly district -- Serampore
এশিয়া -- ভারত -- আসাম
এশিয়া -- ভারত -- পশ্চিমবঙ্গ -- হুগলি জেলা -- শ্রীরামপুর
এছিয়া -- ভাৰত -- অসম
এছিয়া -- ভাৰত -- পশ্চিমবংগ
एशिया -- इंडिया -- असम
एशिया -- इंडिया -- पश्चिम बंगाल -- हुगली जिला -- श्रीरामपुर
Coordinates:
22.75 x 88.34 ( Serampore )

Notes

General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Robinson, William, 1784-1853 : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/220999428
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Dedication gives the date as November 1st, 1839
Statement of Responsibility:
By W. Robinson, Government Seminary, Gowhatti

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
700491 ( aleph )
EB83.106 /310086 ( soas classmark )
70192781 ( oclc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

ASAMESE
GRAMMAR
BY
W. ROBINSON
1839.



A



A


GRAMMAR



OF THE



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.


By W. ROBINSON,

GOVERNMENT SEMINARY, GOWHATTI.






SERAMPORE PRESS.

1839.





TO


THE GENERAL COMMITTEE


OF

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION

OF THE

PRESIDENCY OF FORT WILLIAM

IN

BENGAL,

THIS ATTEMPT TO FACILITATE AN ACQUAINTANCE WITH THE
LANGUAGE OF A PROVINCE IN WHICH HE HAS THE
HONOUR OF HOLDING AN APPOINTMENT UN-
DER THEIR SUPERINTENDENCE,

IS
WITH GREAT DEFERENCE AND RESPECT

DEDICATED BY

THEIR MOST OBEDIENT SERVANT,

THE AUTHOR,


Gowhatti, November 1st. 1839.





INTRODUCTION.




It is in general with some degree of reluctance that the
mind enters on the examination of philological subjects. Na-
turally dry and uninviting, they are scarcely capable of being
rendered interesting, even when the subject of them happens
to be a familiar language. But when the attention is request-
ed to a language so little known as the Asamese, there is rea-
son to fear that the reader will scarcely meet with any thing
in the following pages, that will so far excite his interest as to
- catty him through them with any degree of pleasure. It is
"therefore with much diffidence that the writer ventures to
. present the following remarks to the public.

Yet there are circumstances which seem to render the
Asamese language in some measure worthy of notice. It is
the language usually spoken throughout that interesting coun-
try known as Asam, and by a population somewhat exceed-
ing seven hundred thousand.

The country itself is now fast rising in importance. The
extraordinary fertility of its soil—its varied productions,
among which the tea plant ranks as the most important,—its
extensive and hitherto unexplored mineral treasures, all tend
greatly to augment its value and to render it a highly valua-
ble acquisition to the British Government.

An acquaintance therefore with the language of the country
must be acknowledged to be important, especially to those
who may enter it on mercantile speculations, for besides af-
fording an intelligible medium of negociation with the peo-
ple, it will likewise furnish facilities for friendly intercourse



ii

INTRODUCTION.

with them whereby extensive information may be gleaned
respecting the commercial advantages which the country af-
fords.


The chief aim in the following sheets is to exhibit the out-
lines of grammar on a reduced scale, yet so, that no material
object may be passed unnoticed or ill defined: The Compiler
has therefore endeavoured to introduce nothing but what ap-
peared important; whilst much has been omitted which was
deemed to be of comparatively little value to the learner.


No separate section has been devoted to the Syntax of the
language as nearly every thing of consequence relating to that
subject has been incorporated in the body of the work. This
was done from a conviction that such unconnected rules are
seldom studied, and still less frequently remembered.


The rules of Prosody have been altogether omitted, because
they seem an object of but little moment to European stu-
dents, and are rather a matter of curiosity than of real utility
in a language like the Asamese.


In the Appendix will be found a few specimens of Asamese
composition, which it is hoped, will help to give the learner
some insight into the grammatical structure of the language
and enable him more fully to comprehend the rules and ex-
planations given in the grammar.



A GRAMMAR, &c.

OF LETTERS AND THEIR SEVERAL DISTINCTIONS.

The Characters of the Asamese language demand our first
attention. They are for the most part the same as the cha-
racters used in Bengal, and were probably introduced by the
Brahmins.
•
• The Alphabet is composed of fifty letters, four and thirty
of which are consonants, and sixteen vowels. Their forms,
together with their respective names expressed by Roman
characters, may be represented in the following manner:—

VOWELS.

CONSONANTS.

ka kha $1 ga *T gha <5 nga
F tsa tsha dsa 4T dsha nya
T? ta tha \F da F dha na
ta St tha if da 5f dha na
‘5’f pa pha ST za ra la "TJi'a ha ha ha khya
'El a 'etI a < Dr i i
u $ u ri ri
li & li \ oi
e
0 au 0 ang 0 ah
0



2

GRAMMAR OF THE


In expressing the sounds of the vowels as they are given
above, let

a be sounded as in agreeable.
a ...............as in father.
i .............. as in sin.
i ...............as in profile.
u .............. as yo. pudding.
u ...............as in cupid.
e .............. as in prey.
o ...............as in most.



Of Vowels.
The vowels may be thus represented in a classified form :

Short 'Si a or i u ri li
Long 'STl a f § h ri & K
Dipthongs e oi ''S o xg’ au

Most of the vowels, when placed in composition with con-
sonants, assume a very different shape from that exhibited
above, which the following arrangement may serve to explain;


'STl a is represented by f as in sil ma.
or i ......... f* as in f$T mi.
f .... 1 as in sft mi.
u ................... . as in sr mu.
§ u .......... , as in ST mu.
n ........... as in st mn.
$ ri .......... as in si mri.
e .......... < as in £SI me.
oi ..................... as in tsi moi.
o ..................£ J as in ^511 mo.
au ............... Cf as in f sit mau.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

3

It will be observed that the vowels i, d) e and J? oi, are
placed before the consonants with which they are associated,
though sounded after them; thus, fit is not pronounced im,
but mi, while the vowels o and au, enclose the conso-
nants between them. <

For the vowels ri and ri, fx ri and ri are often sub-
stituted, and li and cfi If, for li, and li.

Since no consonant can be uttered by itself, the sound of
the vowel a, is inherent in them all; but on many occasions
it is removed, which is generally signified by the mark suf-
fixed to the consonant, thus Ram.


. Of Consonants.
” Consonants are divided into five classes called Bargas, in-
. dicated by the first letter of each class which are respectively
denominated, Ka-barga, Tsa-barga, &c. These classes are so
arranged that every letter in the same class is pronounced
with the same organ. ¹

Unaspirated. Aspirated. Unaspirated. Aspirated. Nasal.

35 ka-barga. 3? ka kha ga
£ tsa- „ tsa 15 tsha x dsa
ta- „ I? ta * tha t da
ta- „. ta < tha if da
pa- „ pa pha 3- ba


?T gha nga Gutturals.
4T dsha d[3 nya Palatals.
F dha na Linguals.
X" dha na Dentals.
bha ■£[ ma Labials.

The other nine letters of the alphabet are not classified,
nor are they distinguished into either aspirated, unaspirated
or nasal letters. They are called the Abargiya or miscellane-
ous letters.


Of Compound Consonants.
When two or more consonants come together without an
B



4

GRAMMAR OF THE

intervening vowel it is customary that they should be com?
pounded together. ' ' ,

The following are examples of some of the most common
forms of compound consonants.

The letter 7T ya, coming immediately after another con-
sonant, is generally expressed by this character j and is
sounded like the English y. Exam. Kya, Khya.


X ra, when compounded with a preceding consonant is of-
ten -expressed by the mark^ subjoined. Exam. 71? kra, <
khra. The mark x when used instead of ra, is placed over
the consonant with which it is compounded. In this state
the ra must be sounded first, as in the word, purbha. ,


The letters na, s’f la, wa, and 31 ma, lose only their ma- .
tra or the stroke over them, when subjoined to other conso-
nants. Exam. 7F kna, kwa. ,
•I


The nasals may be compounded with all the letters of their
own individual classes. nga, may likewise be placed in
composition with all the Abargfya or unclassified letters.


The letters h'a, and h'a, and 7[ ha, may be compound-
ed with other letters of the same organ.


All the letters in the Alphabet may be doubled. Exam.
kaka, tsatsa, &c.

The following are certain compounds contracted into a
form peculiar to themselves.


kta
ku

kra
gra

'ST kri
gu



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

5

<3

rcga

•a

h'u

hri

35 ganya
ttra
buw
sta
hra

co


£



tta
tya
& ru
stha



t/ is a contraction for Iswara, God.


The figure seven q frequently stands for the name of Ga-
nesh, one of the gods in the Hindu pantheon who is reported
to have had the head of an elephant and the body of a man.
This figure from its having a fancied resemblance to the trunk
of an elephant, conveys an allusion to that supposed deity.


Zj This figure is often used instead of ta, at the end of
â– words, it then loses its inherent vowel, and is therefore: called
,'51^5 ardhata, i. e. half a ta.

This mark ) called Tsandra-bindu, when placed over a
letter gives it a strong nasal sound. Exam, banh'.


The figure (2) when placed after any word, implies that
the word is to be repeated; thus din, din.'



OF PRONUNCIATION.

0/ the sounds of the vowels.

'SI a. This vowel sounds much like awe at the beginning of
a word, but most generally approaches to the sound of a in
the words agreeable and abundant.

'ST1 a. This is the corresponding long sound of the preced-
ing vowel. It has the sound of the long Italian d, as in far
and art.


B 2



6

GRAMMAR OF THE

or i, i. The two first have the sound of the short
simple i in pin, the last that of the long i in pique and police.

u, § Of these letters the former has the sound of the
middle or obtuse u, as in bull and. pull, the latter the long sound
of u as in rule and cube.

ri, and n, are respectively sounded as ri in rich, and
ri in marine. ;

ii, If. The first of these is pronounced like li in
lily, the other has the sound of li in police.

Of the Sounds of the Compound Vowels or Dipthongs.
<*] e, has a broad sound like e in grey and they. It is a’
compound of 'si a and i.

oi, resembles very much the sound of oi in coin. It is a
compound of a and e.

\3 o has the long sound of o as in cold, and vote. It is re-
presented as a compound of a, and u.

au, resembles much the sound of ow in owl. It is said
to be a compound of a, and \g o.

Of Anuswara and Bisarga.
o ang, called anuswara, is an exceedingly strong nasal
sound.
g ah, or bisarga, is pronounced like ah, ending very abrupt-
ly. It is employed only as a final.

Note. Both the above marks are ranked among the vowels,
on account of their being invariably used only after vowels.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

1

Of the Sounds of the Consonants^

Of Gutturals.
Guttural letters are such as are pronounced in the throat.
The following rank under this class.

35 ka. This letter has the sound of the English k.

•af kha, is the same letter aspirated; it is pronounced like
k-h in blac/t-Aorse.

ga, has the sound of g hard as in gun.

if gha. This is the same letter aspirated; it has the sound
of g-h in dog-house.

\§ nga, is the nasal ng as heard in the word singing. This
letter is seldom used in its simple state, but is cominonly
compounded with another letter, when it may be represented
by n, thus ngha.

Of Palatals.
The palatals, uttered chiefly by means of the palate are,

F tsa. This letter, as pronounced by the Asamese, resembles
very much the sound of the German z or cz in Czar.

tsha, is the same letter aspirated.

dsa, dsha. The first of these letters is sounded like thc-
Italian z in mezzotinto. is the same letter aspirated.

dp nya, has a nasal sound. It is seldom used except in
composition with another letter.





8 GRAMMAR OF THE

Of Linguals.
The following letters, pronounced chiefly by the aid of the
tongue, are termed linguals.

ta, tha. The first of these sounds exactly as the Eng-
lish t; the latter, its corresponding aspirate has the sound of
t-h in fat-hen. They may be represented by t and th with a
dot under each.

W da, answers exactly to the English d in deer ; it may be
rendered by d with a dot placed beneath it.

â– p dha is the same letter aspirated, it has the sound of d-h
in cold-heart.
) r
vj- na. This letter has much the same sound as the English'
n in none. It may be represented thus, n.

Of Dentals.
Dental letters or such as are sounded chiefly by the aid of
the teeth are the following:

ta. This letter is sounded with the tongue more advanc-
ed between the teeth, than the English t. It is exactly ex-
pressed in the provincial pronunciation of the wTord letter in
Yorkshire. \

tha, is the same letter aspirated.

if da, may be represented by the letter d and pronounced
accordingly.

dha, .is the same letter aspirated.

na, has exactly the same sound as «.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

9

Of Labials.
The following letters are articulated chiefly by means of
the lips:

pa, answers exactly to the English p in paper.

pha, is the same letter aspirated, and is pronounced as
p-h in up-hill., In some instances however it takes the sound
off, or ph in phantom.

ba, bha; the first letter has the sound of b in but, the
second its corresponding aspirate is sounded like b-h in hob-
horse.

ma, has the sound of m in man.

Of the Miscellaneous Letters.
5T za. In the Asamese pronunciation of this letter it corres-
ponds precisely with the English z in ze'al, or s in his. With
a dot beneath it, thus, be represented accordingly. When the letter 7T ya follows a
long a as in it drops the inherent vowel and has
the sound of an i. Exam, pitai.

This letter is, by native grammarians classed with the pa-?
latals.

ra, la. These have respectively the sounds of r in rain,
and I in lamb. The former is a lingual the latter a dental.

wa, answers exactly to the English w in walk.

*1, yr. In Sangskrit, these three letters are described as
belonging to three different organs ; the first a palatal, the se-
cond a lingual, and the third a dental. In Bangali, with cer-
tain exceptions, they are indiscriminately written.



10

gjrammar of the

The Asamese give the two first the harsh sound of li; they
correspond precisely with the Hebrew and may be repre-
sented by h' with an acute accent.

The last letter has generally the sound of a simple li, and
may be rendered accordingly.

In some few instances, however, when placed in composition
with another consonant, the two former of these letters are
sounded like sh, and the last has the sound of a simple s.

ha, is a softly aspirated h and is reckoned a guttural
letter.

khya. Native grammarians assert this letter to be a
compound of 35 ka and sha but it is pronounced as if form-
ed of the letters kha, and ?r ya.

General remark. In reading, the same stress should be laid
on a final syllable as upon one of a similar length, which is
either incipient or medial. The syllable's must be divided by
pronouncing together the consonant with the vowel which
immediately follows it; and when a double consonant occurs,
its first letter is to be joined to the preceding syllable. A short
example will serve to make this easy:
‘Sfc’T, manuhabilake hei kara karam
dekhibaloi gal.

If a word commences with a vowel, the latter must he con-
sidered to constitute the first syllable. Exam.
tai, and not at-ai,

N. B. In studying a language, it is a point of the utmost
importance to obtain a clear, distinct, and accurate knowledge
both of its orthography and orthoepy, a timely and judicious
attention to which will tend considerably to smooth the few



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

11

difficulties that may naturally be expected in the acquisition
of a foreign tongue.

Should the reader, therefore, be induced to undertake the
study of this language, his attention is particularly directed to
the foregoing remarks, which though concise, it is presumed
' will be sufficient to give him a correct knowledge of the Asa-
mese characters and their powers.


PARTS OF SPEECH.
The most simple and compi’ehensive, as well as the most
ancient, division of speech is into substantiveSj attributives
and connectives. But the most common grammatical terms,
namely, articles, nouns including substantives and adjectives,
pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and in-
terjections, being those to which we have been most famili-
arized, it may, perhaps, be more advisable to make use of
these known terms than any others.

Of Articles,
The use of articles is to limit, or determine the meaning
of the nouns to which they are' prefixed.

The definite and indefinite articles of the English languao-e.
have not in every case, corresponding representatives in this
language.

When a noun is employed for the first time and denotes
some one thing which forms the specific object of discourse, it
takes the numeral eta, one, before it, which has then pre-
cisely the sense of an indefinite article, when in a similar situa-
tion. But on the same noun being again alluded to, the
pronouns hei, and oi, that, are employed with very
much the same signification as our definite article.
c



12

GRAMMAR OF TILE

Of Substantives.
Nouns substantive, are divided by native Grammarians into
nam-batsak, proper names ; dsatibatsak,
generic names, and \»|<4 lb'4? bhababatsak, abstract nouns;
these latter are of two sorts; namely, bhababatsak,
names of abstract ideas, and kriya-batsak, verbal
nouns.

Substantives are also further distinguished into
pranibatsak, names of animals, and apr^nibatsak,
names of inanimate things.

Of Gender.
Nouns are of two genders, masculine and feminine.

The names of male animals are masculine, those of females,
feminine ; and all inanimate things, as well as nouns expressive
of abstract qualities, are neuter ; but should these be employed
in a personified sense they regain their original feminine gen-
der, common to them in Sangskrit; and, in that case, their
adjectives must agree with them according to the analogy of
feminine nouns.

Masculines and neuters, terminate indiscriminately in vow-
els and consonants,

When a noun of the masculine gender terminates in a con-
sonant, or in the vowel -5J a, the feminine is generally formed
by adding 'Sj| a or i to the masculine ; and in those cases
where the masculine ends in qt i, the feminine is formed by
adding ini to the original form of the masculine.

The following examples may serve to point out the analogy
by which nouns feminine are regularly formed from mascu-
lines.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE,

13

Examples.

MASCULINE.
3Ftf% hati, an elephant.
■’5'f^yt harin, a deer.
^"I^T bagh, a tiger.
faWt hiyal, ajackall.
bandar, a monkeg.
5tt$f gadha, an ass.

FEMININE.
irtfljjf) hatinf.
iufTUt harini.
baghi and baghinu
f*|7Ttcf| hiydli.
Tt-faf^bdndari.
gadhi.


In this language, as in most others, the names of some of
the most common male and female objects in nature, are ap-
plied quite absolutely and without any relation to one an-
other.


Examples,,

MASCULINE.
a man.
a man.

manuh,
H’fxir manih,
pitri, a father.
3"tC*T3» b^pek, a father.
\jj|73T3» bhayek, a brother.
swami, a husband.
radsd, a king.
lara, a bog.

FEMININE.
tiri,
fcrfal tirota,
matri, a mother.
mak, a mother.
’oift bhanf, a sister.
fa ghoiniyek, a wife,
â– 5e tshowili, a girl.

a woman.
i, a zooman.

When it is necessary to distinguish the sex of any animal*
to which these feminine terminations have not been applied
by the idiom of the language, it is usual to effect by prefixing
the term if®! mata, male, or m&k^ymaZe.



Of Number,
There arc in this language but two numbers, the singular



14

GRAMMAR OF THE

and the plural, which apply only to nouns masculine and femi-
nine.

Neuter nouns have no plural termination ; the state of the
noun is generally defined by a numeral, or certain indeclinable
particles, expressive of quantity, which are compounded with
the nouns. The few following examples may serve to show in
what instances they may be used.

The indeclinable particle gota, is often introduced
at the beginning of a sentence, when one asks for a number of
articles, without mentioning the precise number. Example;
1X$T| gota tsarek diya, give me about four.

But if the article wanted be mentioned, the name is gene-
rally placed first, as in the following example ; j y <4
tamul gota tsarek diyd, give me about four be-
tienuts.


The particles bor, and bhaleman, are often
prefixed to nouns as expressive of quantity. In some instan-
ces they are placed before the names of animated objects
thus, CSTht bor moh', many buffaloes.


etupd, signifying a little, is prefixed to nouns convey-
ing the idea of fluid or pulverized substances. Example:



drink a little milk.

ViTSFk etupa gdkhir piya,

ega-lb some, is added to words signifying grass, straw,
&c. and also to crumbled substances and grain. Example:
tsdul egali diya, give me some rice.


Of Case.
Those various relations of nouns, usually termed cases, arc



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

15

discriminated by certain terminations affixed to the original
form of the noun ; they are seven in number.

Native Grammarians arrange them in the following order:

1st Nominative.
2nd Accusative.
3rd Instrumental.
4th Dative.
5th Ablative.
6th Genitive.
7 th Locative.,


When merely enumerated they are called pratham>
the first; dwitiya, the second; tritfya, the third;
F^f tsaturth, thefourth; pantsam, the fifth ; tsastlia,
• the sixth, and TfsgTl haptam, the seventh.


When considered as in construction with verbs,

The Nominative is called 3^51 karta, the Agent.
Accusative „ karma, the Object.
Instrumental „ karan, the Instrument.
Dative ,, hampradan, the Giving
/ form.
Ablative „ apadan, the Withdrawing
form.
Genitive ,, hambandha, the Connecting
> form.
Locative ,, adhikaran, the Possessing

form.

The following inflective terminations are added to all nouns
masculine and feminine; a neuter noun, as has already been
remarked, is declined only in the singular number.


16 GRAMMAR OF THE
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Nom. â– 5^ hat bilak.
Acc. 3? k >r5^hatak j4>3i bilakak.
Inst. are ^775^ hatere bilakere.
Dat. loi hataloi f4 bildkaloi.
Abl. arpara hatarpara bilakar-
para.
Gen. r hatar bilakar.
Loc. t hatat bilakat.

The oblique cases of the plural are formed by adding
hat or bilak to the nominative singular, and subjoin-
ing to it the various terminations employed for the oblique
cases singular.

Examples of the Declension of Nouns.
All nouns terminating in a consonant, or in the vowel 'Sj a,
may be declined after the following paradigm.


SlfTst m£nuh, a man.

SINGULAR.

Nom. manuh, a man.
Acc. srj’^’F^manuhak, man.
Inst. mdnuhere, by or with a man.
Dat. 3T|rf manuhaloi, to a man.
Abl. 3^^^ manuharpara, from a man.
Gen. 3lt?I^5 mcinuhar, of a man, or a man's.
Loc. 3||<1^£> manuhat, in a man.
PLURAL.
Nom. manuhhak, men.
Acc. 311 «1 b manuhhatak, men.
Inst. manuhhatere, by or icitJi men.
Dat. 3lf5^'5;5't«5T manuhliataloi, to men.
Abl. manuhhatarpar&j/rom men.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

17

Gen. manuhhatar, of men or men's.
Loc. manuhhatat, in men.

Masculine and feminine nouns that end in i, or any other
vowel, except the inherent, are declined in the following
manner:

tiri, a woman.

SINGULAR.
Nom. tiri, a. woman.
Acc. tirik, woman.
Inst. tirire, by or with a woman.
Dat. tiriloi, to a woman.
AbL* tirirpara,yrom a woman.
Gen. tirir, of a woman or woman’s.
Loc. tirit, in a woman.

PLURAL.
Nom. tirihat, women.
Acc. tirihatak, women.
Inst. tirihatere, by or with women.
Dat. tirihataloi, to women.
Abl. flrXttirihatarpara,yrom women.
Gen. tirihatar, of women or women's.
Loc. tirihatat, in women.

To both t|iese nouns, the plural termination bilak,
may be affixed, instead of hat, as given above.

Examples. '
Nom. manuhbilak, men.
Acc. manuhbilakak, men, fyc.
Nom. tiribilak, women.
Acc. tiribilakak, women, fye.



18

GRAMMAR OF THE

They may be thus declined through all the cases.
/
Neuter nouns maybe declined after the following example:

dsui, fire.
Nom. dsui,7?re.
Acc. dsuik, fire.
Inst. dsuire, or dsuie, by fire.
Dat. dsuiloi, to fire.
Abl. dsuirpard, from fire.
Gen. dsuir, of fire.
Loc. dsuit, in fire.

REMARKS ON THE CASES.

Of the Nominative Case.
The original form of the noun is used only in denoting the
nominative case.

It is often found with the letter dj e, subjoined;, as dsan,
a man, Nom. dsane, the man or individual.

In forming sentences, the nominative, being the agent is
placed first; but if a long sentence or several sentences toge-
ther, describe the object of a verb, these are introduced first,
after which the thing described by the sentence is put in the
accusative case, and followed by the agent, which immediate-
ly precedes the verb.

Examples.
oixl
deka mdnuh mok eko bola nai.
The young man said nothing to me.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

19

fzT 'ET^

zi manuli bilak- swarap bat
'ETt3» E’uir^
liantashta aru dwashtahatar

erota dru kukarma

dwashtatat harhit

karibaloi

enekuwa



uist'Ep H^fsr gt ^t

manuh-bilakar otsaraloi tumi ne dsawa.

Go not near such men as leave the paths of integrity, and de-
light in doing evil and take pleasure in the wickedness of the
wicked.




Of the Accusative Case.
The sign of the Accusative case is not unfrequently omit-
ted, but it should always be supplied when there may be the
least doubt to which noun the action of the verb tends: that
is, between the accusative and the nominative; as in this in-
stance, kukurak baghe khale, the tiger has
devoured the dog ; but in the following example it is omitted,
because there could be no confusion, as the pronominal adjec-
tive 'ETi^lTr apon, must ever be preceded by a nominative ex-
pressed or understood ; and consequently the word it qualifies
is by implication in an oblique case; and the transitive
verb ^ftf^ dsani, marks that this oblique case is the accusa-
tive.
Example.

Tetiya apon bandu dsani kale.
Then recognizing his friend, he said..

When an action passes from one object to another, the Ac-
cusative termination is usually added to the object which is
second in view.


D



20

GRAMMAR OF THE

Example.




fw -




teon bhalekhdnion dhan bdmnunak ditshe.
He gave much money to the Brahmin.

In some instances the Accusative termination is also added
to the object which is first in view, provided that object be ra-
tional and definite.
Example.


MW csrU f^t


teon dssanar dsiekak mor larare hahite biya karibaloidile-
He gave his daughter in marriage to my son.



Of the Instrumental Case.-
The instrument employed in effecting an accident is gene-
rally put in this case.

The proper sign of the Instrumental case, when it does not
imply association is ere.

The Instrumental noun is however more frequently indicat-
ed by certain indeclinable particles, than by its own proper
termination.

When the means of accomplishing any thing is intended to
be expressed the particles frf di or f^r^Fl diya, are often placed
after the Instrumental noun in the Nominative case.

Example.


Vs fol


hat diyd karibaloi dharitshe.
He has began to do it with or by means of his hand.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

21

Where with implies association, it is commonly expressed by
the particle lagat, governing the Genitive case.
i . . .
Example.

mor lagat dsabaUge.
( You J must go ivith me.

Of the Dative Case.
A noun in the Dative case is rarely used except in connec-
tion with verbs expressive of motion or donation.

Example.

mai gharaloi dsaba khudsozz.
„ I wish to go home.

It frequently occurs, that a particle signifying near or next
to placed in the Dative case, and governing the noun in the
Genitive, is employed instead of the regular Dative form.

Example.

hei lardto mor ekheloi dn.
Bring the boy to me.


Of the Ablative Case.
The Ablative case is formed by adding the indeclinable par-
ticle pard, signify i ng from, or out of, to the noun in the
Genitive case.
Example.

mai teozzrpara paitshozz.
I obtained it from him.



22

GRAMMAR OF THE

There are other adjuncts which serve to express the Abla-
tive case, in addition to that already mentioned, and for which
they may be optionally substituted. They are thani, in
a place, lagat, and or from the vicinity.
These particles generally govern the Genitive case.

Of the Genitive Case..
The Genitive case is used to denote the relation which one
noun bears to another ; it is made by adding ra to the Nomi-
native or original form of the noun.

Example.


fa ^fa 'srrfa afa


hi tsarair ba?zh to tshur kari ani pelai tsarai bor betshi.

pelale.
Having stolen the bird’s nest, he sold all the birds.

This case admits of no adjuncts whereby it may be oc-
casionally expressed.


Of the Locative Case.
This case, used to denote the location of an accident, is
formed by affixing t to the original form of the noun.

Example.
fa 'sitcF
hi gharat atshe.
He is at home or in the house.

The Locative case is frequently expressed by the particle
mads, the midst, which must then itself be placed in the
Locative case, governing the noun in the Genitive.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

23

Example.

aponar manar madsat dlotsana karile.
He considered in his own mind.

Of the Vocative Case.
The Vocative being merely a particular modification of the
Nominative, it appears unnecessary it should be reckoned as
a distinct case.

It may be expressed by prefixing or subjoining certain in-
terjections, such as re, go, d] e, &c. to the original
form of the noun.

The instances in which these Vocative particles may be used,
will be shown when treating of Interjections.



OF ADJECTIVES.

Of Number and Case.
. Adjectives admit of no distinction of Number and Case,
unless they are used in an absolute form, and answer the pur-
pose of Substantives, in which case they may be declined ac-
cording to the rules applicable to Substantives.

Of Gender.
Asamese Adjectives, have no distinction of Gender. Those
that are of Sungskrit origin admit of this distinction, and are
used as they are found in Sungskrit.

Most Adjectives that claim such an origin, and especially
those ending in a, take 'Si] a as the sign of the feminine
gender.



24

GRAMMAR OF THE

Example.
51 uttama, excellent; Feminine, .uttamd.


A few others take i to form the feminine.


, Example.
hundar, beautiful; Feminine,



Of Possessives.

Such Adjectives as are derived from nouns, and imply the
possession of what the noun expresses, frequently drop their
attributive quality as Adjectives, and assume the force of con-
crete nouns.

To form such Adjectives the masculine termination 1,
and its feminine *ⁿb are added to some nouns.

Example.
patak, sin; patakf, sinful; Fem.
pdtakini.

Other nouns take after them the terminations and
YTtW man, which become respectively in the feminine
bati and spsf mati.

Examples.

dhan, wealth, dhanaban, wealthy, Fem.
dhanabatf.

buddhi, wisdom, buddhiman, wise; Fem.

buddhimati.

These terminations, let it be observed, cannot be applied
to nouns indiscriminately; the application of them must be
determined by the custom of the language alone.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

25"

Of Comparison.
The degrees of comparison may be expressed in two ways.

The form used by the learned, and which may be termed
the classical form, is made by adding tar, to the Positive
to form the Comparative, and tam, to express the Super-
lative degree.

Example.
kala, black, kaUtar, blacker, kala tam,
blackest.

The other, which is the more common mode, is made by pre-
fixing 'Sjf^dru, more, to the Positive, to form the Comparative,
and ati, or atyanta, very, exceedingly, to form the
Superlative degree.

Example.
baga, white, aru baga, whiter, ati
baga, whitest.

The Comparative particle, “ than” in English, is in this
language expressed by affixing the particle koi, to the
Locative case of the noun, which is the subject of comparison.

Example.

dsonat koi teozzr mukh kdnti mati.
Her face is brighter than the moon.


OF PRONOUNS.
Pronouns are used as substitutes for nouns, so as to render
the repetition of a noun unnecessary.



26

GRAMMAR OF THE

Example.
fir ^ larar yabalaga zi Mt tat tak hikowa hikale hi bunr£
T^ri orfe-
huyo tak neriba.
“ Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old,
he will not departfrom it.”
' *
Of Gender.
Pronouns are either masculine, feminine or neuter ; there
are no particular terminations thereby to distinguish the gen-
der. The person speaking and spoken to being at the same
time the subjects of the discourse are supposed to be present;
from which and other circumstances, their sex is commonly
known, and consequently does not need to be marked 'by a
distinction of gender in the pronouns of the first and second
person. The gender of pronouns in the third person must
generally be inferred by a reference to their antecedents.

tdi, is the only pronoun used as a feminine of the
third person, and when employed denotes contempt of the
person spoken of.

Declension of Pronouns.
Pronouns are declined in the same manner as nouns, ad-
mitting the same terminations, with this difference that the
terminations are not always joined to the Nominative case
itself, but to a modified form of that case.

Personal Pronouns.
First Person.
may, I.
In declining this pronoun in the singular number fsf| mo,
is substituted for may, in all the cases except the Nomi-



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

27

native. In the plural it is changed for £mi, which in the
oblique cases becomes 'SitSTl am£

SINGULAR.
Nom. may, I.
Acc. mok, me.
Inst. more or moye, by me.
Dat. Csrt^T moloi, to me.
Abl. morpar£, jfrom me.
Gen. fsrt^ mor, mine.
Loc. (fSTt^ mot, in me.

x PLURAL.
Nom. -sitfsr ami, we.
Acq. '5jfSI|>t> amak, us.
Inst. 'Sutilam^re, by us.
Dat, 'STfathT £mdloi, to us.
Abl. 'Sltsrt’^^Tl amdrpar£,/rom us.
Gen. am^r, our.
Loc. 'STtilt^ &mat, in us.

Second Person.

tumi, Thou.
In the oblique cases of the singular, (XfSFl toma, is substitut-
ed for tumi; and 6JtGTl tomo, in the plural number.

SINGULAR.
Nom. yjfst tumi, thou.
Acc. tomak, thee.
Inst. tomare or C5tf$M tomie, by thee.
Dat. 65t5Tt^«I tomaloi, to thee.
Abl. tomarpara, from thee.
Gen. C\5f5lt^r tom^r, thine.
Loc. tomat, in thee,

E



28

GRAMMAR OF THE

by you.

PLURAL.
Nom. tomolak, ye or you.
Acc. tomolakak, ye or you.
Inst. tomolakere, 1
or tomolake, f

Eat. tomolakaloi, to you.
Abl. tomolakarpara,y?om you.
Gen. CS’fcsit tomolakar, your.
Loc. tomolakat, in you.

The plural termination used above is a mere contraction of
fauTt^ bilak.

Third Person.
teo, he, she.
This is one of the pronouns that undergoes no modification
in the oblique cases of either the singular or the plural num-
ber. In the plural it is changed for far hi, to which the plu-
ral terminations fa'c’r^ bil&k, &c. are added.

SINGULAR.
Nom. teo, he, she.
Acc. teok, him, her.
Inst. teore or ClK Dat. teoloi, to him, or her.
Abl. teorpara, from him, or her.
Gen. teor, her-
Loc. teot, in him, or her.
PLURAL.
Nom. farfa’cTf^? hibildk, they.
Acc. fa fa cTt^F hibilakak, them.
Inst, fafasj hibilakere,
or fafacfT^ hibilake,

Dat. fa'fa'cTl'^tc? hibilakaloi, to them.
Abl. fa fa ct'll4yfTl hibilakarpar£,yrom them.
Gen. fafaclt'^ hibildkar, their’s.
Loc. fafa«Tt’<»^ hibilakat, in them.

by them.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

29

This pronoun is employed when the person it represents
is absent, and is applicable only to rational beings.

i, he, she, or it.
i, takes «Tj ya, after it, in the oblique cases of the singu-
lar number. The plural is regularly formed, by affixing the
plural terminations hant, &c. to the original form of the
pronoun. It is used to designate a person or thing present,
and the object of discourse.

SINGULAR. I
Nom. igj i, he, she*, it.
Acc. iyak, him, her, it.
Insi. iyare or iye, by him, her, or it.
Dat. iyaloi, to him, her, or it.
Abl. iydrpara,j6’om him, her, or it.
Gen. iyar, his, hers, its. \,
Loc. iyat, in him, her, or it.

PLURAL.
Nom. ihant, or ihante, they.
Acc. ihantak, them.
Inst, ihantere or iharete, by them.
Dat. ihantaloi, to them.
Abl, ihawtarpard, from them.
Gen. ihantar, theirs.
Loc. ihantat, in them.


Of Pronouns as used to express Respect or Contempt.
The Asamese, as well as most of the Asiatic lanffua^es, is
furnished with two kinds of personal pronouns, one expressive
of respect or superiority, and another, used when an indivi-
dual wishes to speak of, or address another, contemptuously.
E 2



30

GRAMMAR OF THE

This distinction is probably in a great measure attributable to
the degrading consequences of aristocracy, formerly so preva-
lent in Asia.

In this language the pronoun of the first person has no cor-
responding one to express inferiority; this deficiency is how-
ever frequently supplied by the word bandi, or some such
like expression, signifying a slave or menial.
Example.

bandi-e aru nakaro.
The slave will not do it again, that is, I will do so no more.

The verb in these cases must be placed in the first person.
r
*
The pronoun 'sri’-pffir apani, self, is commonly used to ad-
dress a superior, and, when so employed, will mean your honor,
or your ladyship ; thus, apani karitsha, your
honor, or your ladyship has done it.

tay, thou, is used when contempt is meant to be express-
ed towards the person spoken to.

tay, becomes to, in the oblique cases of the singu-
lar number; in the plural, it is changed for tahant. It
is thus declined:

SINGULAR.
f
Nom, tay, £/W.
Acc. tok, thee.
Inst. tore, by thee.
Dat. CSlhl toloi, to thee.
Abl. torpara,yrom thee.
Gen. tor, thine.
Loc. tot, thee'



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

31

PLURAL.
Nom. taharc-t, ye or you.
Acc. tahantak, ye or you.
Inst. taharctere, by you.
Dat. tahantaloi, to you.
Abl. \5iy54X4l tahantarpara, from you.
Gen. tahantar, your.
Loc. tahazztat, in you.

When the third person is spoken of respectfully, the pro-
noun Cs'O teo, is used with a nasal sound accompanying the
first syllable. It is written thus, teno.

When the third person masculine is spoken of contemptu-
ously the pronoun fjf hi, is used.

It is thus declined; substituting ta, for hi, in all the
oblique cases of the singular number.

SINGULAR.
Nom. fyf hi, he.
Acc. ^[4? tak, him.
Inst. tare, or hie, by him.
Dat. taloi, to him.
Abl. tarpar a, from him.
Gen. tar, his.
Loc. \§T
PLURAL.
Nom. hihazzt, or hihawtc, they.
Acc. hihawtak, them.
Inst. hihazztere, or liihawte, by them.
Dat. hihazztaloi, to them,
Abl. hihazztarpara,/ro?/z them.
Gen. hihazztar, theirs.
Loc. hihazztat, in them.



32

GRAMMAR OF THE

The pronoun tai, is used when any individual of the
female sex, is spoken of with indifference or contempt. This
pronoun undergoes no modification in the oblique cases of ei-
ther the singular or the plural number. It is thus declined:
SINGULAR.
Nom. tai, s^le-
Acc. taik, her.
Inst. taire, by her.
Dat. tailoi, to her.
Abl. tairpard,./rom her.
Gen. .tair, hers.
Loc. VSjjE tait, in her.
PLURAL.
Nom. taihant, they.
Acc. t^ihantak, them.
Inst. taihantere, by them.
Dat. taihantaloi, to them.
Abl. taihantarpara, from them.
Gen. taihantar, theirs.
Loe; taihantat, zn them..

Of Possessive Pronouns.
The Possessives are the same as the genitives of the person-
al pronouns. They are always put before their substantives,
and remain unchanged in all the cases of both numbers.
' Examples.
SINGULAR.
Nom. f5rf<[ mor bhari, my foot.
Acc. tomar bhari, thy foot.
Inst. tor bhari, thy foot.
Dat. C5''3< VX teor bhari, his, or her foot.
Abl. \yar bhari, his, or her foot.
Gen. tar bhari, his foot.
Loc. '©ft tair bhari, her foot.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

33

PLURAL.
Nom. 'ETtSltX ^f<4mar bhari, our feet.
Acc. tomolakar bhari, your feet.
Inst. tahantar bhari, your feet.
Dat. fJrfireTt^ hibildkar bhari, their feet.
Abl. ihantar bhari, their feet.
Gen. fTTihsc hihantar bhari, their feet.
Loc. taihatar bhari, their feet.



Of the Reciprocal Pronouns.
The reciprocal pronouns, own and self are expressed in
Asamese by the words 'ETlT^f’iTr apon, and apuni, which
are applicable to all persons and sexes. ₍

" When apon, own, is employed to qualify a noun, it
is indeclinable ; thus ^“£'5'4? apon putek, may be ren-
dered, my, thy, his, her, our, your, or their, own son, according
to the circumstances in which it may be placed.
Examples.


fir


hi apon poekak tseneha kare.
He loves his own son. «


x

may dpon pok tseneha karo.
I love my own son.


'ETt’ifx &puni, self, is the equivalent of the English myself


the Latin ipse may be joined to every person of a verb.

Example.

apuni bunlitshon, ipse dixi.
apuni bunlitshd, ipse dixisti.
apuni bunlitshe, ipse dixit.



34

GRAMMAR OF THE

When apuni, immediately follows any of the per-
sonal pronouns, it answers the purpose of giving a particular
emphasis to that pronoun by which.it is preceded; as, spsr
'SrMfX may apuni, I myself; '’STi’s^fir tumi apuni, thou
thyself:

apuni, when used in the oblique cases may be thus

declined:
SINGULAR.
Nom. Apuni.
Acc. AponAk.
Inst. aponare.
Dat. AponAloi.
Abl. '5llT'!TWU?i'^1 AponAr-
parA.
Gen. Aponar.
Loc. £ponAt.

PLURAL.
'5rtC^U1<^ Aponaha?xt.
AponAhantak.
AponAhantere.
AponAhantaloi.
Aponahantar-
parA.
Aponahantar. r
Aponahantat.

Of Relatives.
The relative pronouns are fir zi and zeze, signifying
who, which, and what.
. Example.


csrfa fsr csru


zi mok harhit kare hi mor bandu.
He who pleases me is my friend; or literally, who pleases me,
he. is my friend.

The pronoun fir zi, takes ha after it in the oblique cases
of the singular number; it may be declined after the follow-
ing manner:
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Nom. fi[ zi. firfir^tTP zibilak.'
Acc. fir^> zihak, &c. zibilakak, &c.
And so on through all the other cases.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

35

fTHTT zeye, takes zd, for its oblique substitute in the
singular number; the plural is formed by prefixing ze₃ to
the regular plural terminations.

Example.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Nom. (Tinr zeye, or zibildk, or
fafa ziyi, fafafa'cTt-S* ziyibilak.
Acc. zdk, &c. fa fa <41'4? 4» zibildkak, or
fafafasit^F ziyibilakak.

Thus through all the cases.

0/* Demonstratives.
The Demonstrative Pronouns are ei, or i, this, and
hei, and dj> oi, that. The former shows the person or thing
present, or near at hand, and may be termed the proximate
demonstrative. The two latter or the pronouns remote, repre-
sent an object as distant from the speaker.

The pronoun proximate is declined like the personal pro-
noun i. The pronouns remote may be declined like any
other pronoun.

Of Interrogatives.
The Interrogative Pronouns are, kon, who? which? and
fa ki, what ? which ?
kon, who ? oblique substitute kd.


Masculine and Feminine.


SINGULAR AND PLURAL.
Nom. kon, who ?
Acc. kak, whom ?
Inst. kare, by whom ?
Dat. kdloi, to whom ?

F



36

GRAMMAR OF TIIE

Abl. karpar£, from whom ?
â– Gen. kdr, whose ?
Loc. tdt, in whom ?

ki, what? oblique modification kiha ?

Neuter.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL.
Nom. ki, or kihe, what ?
Acc. fxV kihe, what ?
Inst. kihere, by what ?
Dat. kihaloi, to what ?
Abl. kiharpard,yrom what ?
Gen. kihar, of what ?
Loc. kihat, in what ?

Pronouns Indefinite.
The indefinite pronouns or such as convey a vague, or in-
determinate meaning, are,
(XiWlTX konoye, any one.
amuk amuk, such and such a one.
zikono, whosoever.
f^T fyf zi-zi, whatsoever, every.
'5UTJ anya, other.

When repeated '5RJ 'SFTT anya, anya, it signifies, one another.


OF VERBS.
Verbs, from their importance and necessity in speech, must,
it is to be supposed, have been coeval with man’s first attempts
towards the formation of language ; since there can be no sen-
tence without a verb either expressed or understood. When-
ever we speak we always mean t;o assert that something is, or



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

37

is not; and the word that bears this assertion or affirmation
is a verb.

A verb has by many writers been defined to be that word
which expresses the attributes of nouns. So far then a verb
is of the same nature with an adjective, that it expresses like
it, an-attribute or property of some person or thing; but it
does more than this; for in all verbs in every language there
are no. less than three things implied at once ; the attribute
of some substantive—an affirmation concerning that attribute
—and time.

If a verb expresses any sort of motion or attribute as going
on independent of the wilt of the agent, or as having no ef-
fect upon any thing beyond the agent himself, such a verb is
termed Neuter or Intransitive, as “ the fruit ripens“ I write?

When a verb, denoting any particular kind of action or mo.
tion, has both an agent and "an object, it is termed an Active
Verb.

Verbs Active may be either Transitive or Causal.

When an action passes from an agent to an object, tl*e verb
which denotes it is then Transitive; as, “ the Pandit instructs
me.”

When action is communicated from one object to another,
with a view to put it in motion, the verb that expresses that
action is termed Causal: “ he made him run?

Passive Verbs are such as express not action but suffering,
or the receiving of an action ; as “ the man was slain and de-
voured?



38

GRAMMAR OF THE

Impersonal Verbs imply the occurrence of any thing result-
ing either from the operations of nature, or from the necessi-
ty of an act; as, “ it rains f e⁽ it is necessary for me to stay.”

The Verb, though it be the very life, as it were, of lan-
guage, yet is of all parts of speech the most complex, that
wherein chiefly, “ the subtile and profound metaphysic of lan-
guage appears.” It is with the view of helping to place the
subject in a clear and consistent light, that the above remarks
have been hazarded.

Of Voices.

Of the Active Voice.
Transitive and Causal Verbs are of the Active Voice.

Passive Voice.
In this language, as in its kindred the Bangali, verbs have
no regular passive form. This deficiency is remedied by con-
jugating the verb 3Tl zd, to go, with the verbal noun in '?i| d.

Of Moods.
Verbs admit also the distinction of moods, which are de-
signed to express the affirmation, whether active or passive,
under different forms.

The Indicative mood, simply declares a proposition; as,
â– *r
The Imperative mood, requires, commands, threatens; as,
454 tay kar, do thou.

Besides these there are other moods which may also be
used, such as, the Potential, the Optative, &c.; these will
however be more fully explained while treating of Compound
Verbs.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

39

Of Tenses.
The various relations of time, as past, present, and future
in which any action or circumstance occurs in connection
with a verb, are called Tenses.

In this, as in most languages of the East, they are express-
ed along with the verb. Examples : uyr srTdfl may maron,
I strike, n marim, I shall strike.

The Indicative mood has eight tenses, of which two are
present, viz. the present indefinite, and the present definite ;
five are past, viz. the aorist, the imperfect, the preter-im-
perfect, the perfect, and the preter-pluperfect; and one is fu-
ture?

The present indefinite, marks no time, but merely describes
the performance of an action ; as ee he reads but in order to
define the time intended, it is necessary to join with it an
adverb signifying, now, then, &c.

The present definite denotes that the agent is at that instant
employed in the act; as, “ he is writing."

The aorist tense denotes an action accustomed to be done,
at any time past; as, accustomed to do so every morning.

The imperfect expresses an action as past, and generally,
though not always, expresses the time when it was perform-
ed ; as, “ I heard it yesterday.”

The preter-imperfect indicates that the action was doing at
a particular time expressed or understood; as, “ she was rid-
ing when I saw her."



40

GRAMMAR OF THE

The perfect indicates that the action has been completed or
finished ; as,“ I have spoken to him.”

The preter-pluperfect implies that the action was finished
before.the occurrence of something else, which is also past;
as, “ he had left before he heard from me.”

The future tense; has reference to an action not yet under-
taken ; as, “ we shall go.”



Of Participles and Gerunds.
A participle is an inflexion of the verb, possessing the pro<-
perties both of the verb and the noun.

The present participle active is formed by affixing 'STf'a,
or ibaloi, to the root of the verb or its substitute ; as,
karibaloi, doing ; mata, calling.


This language has no past and passive participles, formed
after the analogy of its own grammar; it has therefore been
obliged to remedy the deficiency by borrowing freely those
of the Sungskrit.


The past participle is made by affixing ta, to the root of
the verb ; thus, dhrita, seized ; ^5 krita, done.


The passive participle is usually made by adding STfa man, to
the root, before which termination 7T ya, must be inserted;
thus, kriyaman, being done.


The adverbial participle is made by affixing i, to the root
or its modification, or by adding ta, and sometimes d] e, to
the imperfect tense of the verb ; thus 'STtfa mari, md-
rilat, marile. These participles are either present or



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

41

past, according to the circumstances in which they are
placed.

Gerunds are also verbals, and may be formed by adding
ibaloi, to the root of the verb, or its substitute; thus,
'5Jtfl/4£cfr dhibaloi, to come, or for the purpose of coming.

Another gerund may be made by adding iba, to the
root of the verb ; as, ahiba, coming. This word may
be regularly declined after the form of a noun.


Of Conjugation.
The manner of expressing all these varieties of moods,
tenses, &c., in the Verb, constitutes its conjugation.

a
There is but one conjugation of Asamese verbs, and it is re-
markably simple and regular in all its inflections.

The following is a scheme of the verbal terminations :


Indicative Mood.



Honorific.
1 O7i.
2 a.
3 e.


Indefinite.

Inferior.

Present Definite.
Hon. Inf.
1 itsho??.
2 «^| itsha.
3 itshe.

itsha.



42

GRAMMAR OF THE

Aorist,
Inf.

ilihenten.

Imperfect.
Inf.

ili.

Preter-imperfect.
Inf.

itshili.

Perfect.
Inf.

itsha.

Preter-pluperfect,
Inf.

itshili.

Future.
Inf
\
ibi.


Hon.
1 ilohenten.
2 ilahewten.
A ilehenten.

Hon.
1 ^C«f1 ilon.
2 ila.
3 ile, or il.

Hon.
1 itshilon.
2 itshila.
A itshile.

Hon.
1 itshon.
2 $Tjr1 itsha.
fl STT itshe.

Hon.
1 itshilon.
2 itshild.
A itshile.

Hon.
1 im.
2 ^1 iM.
3 iba.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

43

Imperative Mood.

1 ''Q on.
2 m 4. --------
3 ok.

Participles.
Present, ibaloi, a.
. Past, ta.
Adverbial, b $57^ Hat, ile.

Gerunds.
ibaloi, iba.

N. B. If a verb ends with a vowel, the initial qJ; of the ter-
minations is usually omitted.

Here it may be remarked, there is no change of termi-
nation in Asamese verbs expressive of number, nor do the
verbs undergo any modification indicative of gender; thus,
â– 5TtC4 mdre, signifies he or she strikes, or they strike ; accord-
ing as the singular or plural, the masculine or feminine, pro-
noun is expressed or implied.


Of the Verb atshon, I am.
atshon, as an auxiliary, is the first verb which is ne-
cessary to be conjugated.

Like the auxiliary verb in Bengali it is defective, being form-
ed only in the present and past tenses of the Indicative mGod,
each of which takes the terminations already laid down for
those tenses.



• 44

GRAMMAR OF TI1E.

Indicative Mood.


Present.
Hon.
1 atshon, I am.
2 'STt^l dtsha, thou art.
3 dtshe, he is.


Past.
Hon.
1 atshilon, I was.
2 'Sifsgy’il dtshila, thou wash
3 ^rife^T dtshile, orK _
atshil, J


Inf.

dtsha.

'STtfCf^r ^tshili.

Of the Verb Karon, I do.
A regular verb is conjugated after the following manner:

Root kri, to do, make, perform.

Indicative Mood.
„—Indefinite.
Hon. Inf
1 karon, I do.
2 4^41 kard, thou dost. 3R kar.
3 45^4 kare, he does.

Present Def nite.
Hon. Inf.
1 karitshon, I am doing.
2 karitshd, thou art doing. karitsha.
3 karitshe, he is doing.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

45

Aorist.
Hon. '
1 karilorahenten, I did
or would do.
2 karilahcnten, thou
didst or wouldst do.
3 karilehenten, he did
or would do.

Imperfect.
Hon.
1 karilon, I did.
2 karila, thou didst.
3 <^karile,or-| d{ ^f^kanl, J

Preter-imperfect.
Hon.
1 1 karitshilon, I was doing.
2 karitshila, thou wast doing.
3 karitshile, he was doing.

Perfect.
Hon.
1 karitshon, I have done.
2 karitshA, thou hast done.
3 karitshe, he has done.

Preter-pluperfect.
Hon.
1 karitshilon, I had done.
2 karitshila, thou hadst done.

or ^jxf^cTkaritshil, )
G2

In/



rilihenten.



1/

karili.



7/

karitshili.



Inf.

karitsha.



Inf

karitshili.



46

GRAMMAR OF THE



Future.

Hon.
1 karim, I shall do.
2 kariba, thou shalt do.
3 kariba, he shall do.

Imperative Mood.

Hon.
1 XX1 k ar on, let me do.
2 ^41 kara, do thou.
3 karok, let him do.

Participles,

„ Present.
karibaloi, kara, doing.

Past.

Inf

karibi.

Inf.

kar.

^5 krita, done.

Continuative.
< karonte karowte, doing or continuing to do.

Adverbial.
45ft kari, ^fXcT^ karilat, karile, oil doing or being done.

Gerunds.
^[44 karibaloi, for the purpose of doing.

kariba, doing, karibar, of doing, karat, in
doing.

The gerund in ibaloi, is often used as an Infinitive
mood.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

47

OF CAUSAL VERBS.
Causal verbs, as we have already noticed, are regularly con-
jugated in the Active voice.

They are generally formed from simple verbs, by the inser-
tion of & between the original root and the verbal termina-
tion; as, dhar, hold, dharaon, I cause to hold.

If the root end in a originally, it is made causal by pre-
fixing < wa, to the verbal termination, and changing the fi-
nal vowel to u; thus, ) kha, eat ; <^<3 khuwaozz, I cause
to eat.

The verb M da, give, is an exception to the above rule;
its final vowel is changed to i; thus, diwale, he
caused to give.

kara, Cause to do.

Indicative Mood.
Indefinite.
Hon.
1 karaon, I cause to do.
2 karowa, thou causest to
,do.
3 karay, he causes to do.

Present Definite.
Hon. Inf.
1 karaitshon, I am causing
to do.
2 karaitsha, thou art causing karaitsha.
to do.
3 karaitshe, he is causing to do.

Inf.

kardwa.





48

• GRAMMAR OF THE

’■
1

Aomf.
Hon.
1 kardlonhenten, I
caused or would cause to do.
2 karalahenten, thou
causedst or wouldst cause to do.
3 karalehewten, he
caused or would cause to do.

Imperfect.
Hon.
1 karalow, I caused to do.
2 karala, thozi causedst to do.
3 kardle, he caused to do.



Preter-imperfect.
Hon.
1 karaitshilon, I was
causing to do.
2 karaitshila, thou
roast causing to do.
3 karaitshile, he zoas
causing to do.

Perfect.
Hon.
1 karaitshow, I have caused
to do.
2 3»TTs?^>1 karaitshd, thou hast caused
to do.
3 karaitshe, he has caused
to do.

Inf


karaleherzten.




Inf

k arAli.




Inf.


ka-
raitshili.




Inf


karaitsha,



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

49

Preter-pluperfect.
Hon.
1 karditshilon, I had
caused to do.
2 tSjfapTl karaitshila, thou hadst
caused to do.
3 karditshile, he had
caused to do.
Puture.
Hon.
1 kar&m, I shall cause to do.
2 karaba, thou shalt cause to do.
3 karaba, he shall cause to do.


Imperative Mood.
Hon.
1 karaow, let me cause to do.
2 karowa, do thou cause to do.
3 karaok, let him cause to do.

karaitshili.



Z?2/.

karabi.

kara.

Participles.

Present.

Continuative.



. Adverbial.
kardi, or karay; karale, causing or hav-
ing caused to do.


Gerunds.
kardbaloi, to cause to do.
karaiba, causing to do.



50

GRAMMAR OF THE

OF COMPOUND VERBS.
A great humber of the verbs in this language, may, in some
of their forms, be placed in composition with certain other
verbs, used as auxiliaries or helping verbs.

The verb para, to be able, is often compounded with
the gerund in iba, and in this form may be called

The Potential Mood.
Indefinite.
Hon. Inf.
1 kariba paron, I can do.
2 kariba para, thou canst karibapara.

3 kariba pare, he can do.
It may be conjugated in this manner through all the tenses,
each of which takes the terminations already laid down.

khods, to wish, to desire, is also frequently compound-
ed with the gerund in iba, and gives the idea of a desire
or wish to perform an action. It may in this form be termed




The Optative Mood.
Indefinite.

1

2

Hon.
kariba khodsozi, I
wish to do.
37^3- kariba khodsa, thou
wishest to do.
C-ailTSi kariba khodse, he
wishes to do.

Inf


ka-
riba khodsa.

It may be conjugated thus through all the tenses.

The verb dhar, to seize, to hold, is sometimes placed in

3



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

51

composition with the gerund in ibaloi, and thus con-
structed, gives the idea of the commencement of an action.
This form may be called


The- Inceptive Mood.


Indefinite.
Hon.
1 karibaloi dharon,
I begin to do.
2 karibaloi dhara,
thou beginnest to do.
3 karibaloi dhare,
he begins to do.

*F4 ka-
ribaloi dhara.

In this manner through all the tenses.


The verb pela, to throw, is often compounded with
the adverbial participle in i; so constructed, the verb con-
veys the idea of the action being done completely or effectu-
ally. This form may be styled


The Completive Mood.


Indefinite.
Hon.
1 kari pelaon, I do (it)
effectually.
2 karipelowa, thou
dost (it) ^effectually.
3 kari pelok, he does
(it) effectually.
Thus ^through all the tenses.


In/


kari pela.

The Subjunctive Mood.
The Subjunctive mood expresses the proposition under the
H



52

GRAMMAR OF THE

form of a condition, or in subordination to some other thing
to which a reference is made. It is formed by constructing
the tenses of the Indicative mood, with the Subjunctive par-
ticle csrfif zedi, if.


Indefinite.

1 (XR '5TV XXl zedi may karon, If I do.
2 (Trftf X4l zedi tumi kara, Tjf thou do.
3 (XfK CX3 XX zedi teon kare, If he do.

It may be conjugated thus through the other tenses.




OF THE IMPERSONAL VERB.

When it is necessary to describe the occurrence of any-
thing natural and spontaneous, the neuter or passive verb is
often employed as an Impersonal; but only in the third per-
son.

When the necessity of an act is to be described, the third
person of the verb cTiX laga, to need, to want, is constructed
with the gerund in iba,



THE IMPERSONAL VERB.


Indefinite.

1 VX xfXT may kariba Iage, it is necessary for me to do

3 tcow kariba lifge, it is necessary for him to
do (itf



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

53

Imperfect.
1 5TX cTtfvpT may kariba lagil, it was necessary, fyc.
2 ^fs[ tumi kariba lagil, it was necessary, fyc.
3 teon kariba lagil, it was necessary, fyc.

Preter-pluperfect.
1 W may kariba lagitshile, it had been, fyc.
2 W cTtfstf^T^ tumi kariba lagitshile, it had been, fyc.
3 65'3 xflx «TTfstf^U«T teon kariba lagitshile, it had been, fyc.

Future.
1 STU VXX may kariba lagiba, it will be necessary, fyc.
2 VXX tumi kariba lagiba, it will be necessary, fyc.
3 3?fxx Xt'fciX tcow kariba lagiba, it will be necessary, fyc.

*>
The inferior form is the same as the honorific ; the pronoun
only must be changed.

OF THE NEGATIVE VERB.
In Asamese any verb may be made to express negation
by prefixing the negative particle Yf na, to it.

Indefinite.
1 X’XTXl nakaron, I do not.
2 nakara, thou dost not.
3 nakare, he does not.
Thus through all the tenses.
In some instances fjf ni, is substituted for na.
Example.


orT< Tftf fxfkxl


mok dukh nidiba.
do not trouble me.

GTtXlX nowara, is generally, if not always substituted for
H 2 /



54

GRAMMAR OF THE

the verb para, to be able, when it follows the negative
particle x ⁿa-
Example.


xx cxtxTdl


may kariba now^rozz.
I cannot do it.

OF THE PASSIVE VOICE.
Asamese verbs have no regular passive form. The mode
of remedying the deficiency as already alluded to, is here giv-
en in the present tense of the Indicative mood.

1 4X1 X<§ kard zozz, I am done.
2 X4l 3 x>x1 xiX kara zay, he is done.

It may be conjugated after the same analogy through all the
moods and tenses.

The verbs XX1 karan, to do, X3X haon, to be, and a few
others, are often constructed with substantives and adjectives,
thus, fy[ XX XX hi ban kare, he does work, i. e. he works;
4X1 XX baya kare, he makes bad, i. e. he spoils it.

OF INTERROGATION.
Interrogation is generally implied by inserting the interro-
gative particle fx ki, as close before the verb as possible,
which is itself immediately followed by the particle ex ne,
thus, fx xlXl (x> tumi ki z£b£ ne ? wilt thou go ?

_ The interrogative fx> ki, is frequently omitted as in the fol-
lowing Examples.
^fx XlXl CX tumi zabd ne, wilt thou not go ?
X4>4 CX teozz nakaba ne, will he not speak ?



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

55

Another mode of asking a question, is merely by prolong-
ing the sound of the first vowel of the verb or its affix; as, fa
hi goitshon, is he gone ?


OF IND ECLIN ABLES.

Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, may
all be included under the general head of Indeclinable words.


OF ADVERBS.

Adverbs are those particles which serve either to modify, or
to denote some circumstance of an action, or quality, relative
to its time, place, or other properties belonging to it. An
adverb is generally the most concise form of expressing by
> one word, what might otherwise be resolved into two or
mors words.
*

The following list contains some of the most common words
of this description, divided, as they usually are, into Adverbs
of time, place, and circumstance.


Adverbs of Time.

ketiya, when ?
etiya, now. <•
zetiy£, when:
CjfazTl tetiya, then.
heikalat, at that time.
agei, before.
patse, after.
hadai, always.
nitow, constantly. ¹
'gj'lT? aru, again.
konokalat, at any time.
'UTlfa 4dsi, to-day.
kali, yesterday, or to-morrow.

the day before yesterday, or after to-morrow.



56

GRAMMAR OF THE

tarhi, two days lienee, or two days ago.
yp^pep^ hakdlat, in the morning.
aparanhat, in the evening.
ratipuwa, early in the morning.
godhuli, late in the evening.
ofcfsppalam, late.
<4^ khar-kai, quickly.


Adverbs of Place.

konkhanat, where ?
eikhanat, here.
zikhanat, where.
hikhanat, there.
Cypt-fttp^ houkhanat, there, (at a distance.)
^pjptat, there, (in sight.)
yjXfspz; hamfpat, near.
nilagat,/ar off.
majat, in the midst.

agat, before, or opposite to.
yfVj^Tz: sammukhat, in the presence of.


Miscellaneous Adverbs.
f^[ kiya, why ? wherefore ?
C&CH kene^ how ?
djpyp ene, thus.
zene, as.
CSCJi tene, so.
ketek, how many ?
^(75^ etek, so many.
zetek, as many.
tetek, so many.
ypp^T ndy, 7p| nd, na, fzr not.
hoi, ho, truly, indeed.
hwarupkoi, really.
^pep bhdl, well.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE,

57

akal, only.
alap, little. r
bhdleman, much, very.
lahe, gently, slowly.
faffal nitsina, like unto.
nirarta, in vain, to no purpose.
fa
There are in this language certain adverbs, which are oc-
casionally used as nouns substantive, and are then generally
put in the locative case, governing the nouns with which
they are constructed in the genitive, thus, (7Tt4
mor patsat aha, come after me.

Adverbs, when used emphatically, admit of the vowels
orQ this very place, etiyao, even to this time. These vow-
els are often for the same purpose added to nouns and other
parts of speech, thus, C5TR4? ffarl mold diya, give it to me
( only.)

Of Post-positions.
In this language there are no such particles as may pro-
perly be styled Prepositions. The prepositions ustd in Eng-
lish and other Western languages, are in Asamese render-
ed by post-positive particles, or as they may be termed Post-
positions.

These particles are generally employed for connecting
words, by shewing the relation which one word bears to an-
other ; as guti gatshar para parile, the
fruit fellfrom the tree. Thus expressing the relation between
the act of falling and the tree.

Post-positions may be divided into two 'classes; insignifi-



58

GRAMMAR OF THE

cant particles, or such as convey no meaning s and those that
always have a significant meaning attached to them.

To the first ^class belong those particles that are generally
placed after the nominative to form the several cases of a de-
clension.
Such post-positions are;

ere, the sign of the instrumental case; signifying by,
with, by means of.

br loi, the sign of the dative case; signifying to, for, mo-
tion or progression to, on, fyc.

para, the sign of the ablative case; signifying from,
out of. This particle, unlike the others of the same class, is
placed after the genitive case.

r, the sign of the genitive case, signifying of, 's, pertain-
ing, relating, belonging to.
i
t, the sign of the locative case; signifying in, at, on.

The second class is composed of such post-positive parti-
cles as have certain significant meanings attached to them.
These generally govern the nouns, or pronouns with which
they are connected in the genitive, and are themselves placed
in the locative case.

Here follow a few of them with examples of their appli-
cation.
lagat> with, along with ; Offa mor lagat
cihem, come with me.





ASAMESE LANGUAGE. 59

bhitarat, within, into ; gharar bhitarat,
within the house.

oparat, on, upon; parbbatar oparat,
upon the hill.

talat, under, beneath ; tshalar tai at, beneath
the roof.

â– STt'Sizr madsat, among, in the midst of; hibi-
lakar madsat, amongst them.

otsarat, kakharat, near, next to ;
or dsuir otsarat or kakharat, nrar the fire.


o
OF CONJUNCTIONS.
Conjunctions are those particles which connect sentences,
or members of sentences in form, whether combining or dis-
joining them in meaning.


Almost all conjunctions are occasionally adverbs; the
name of conjunction, however, is applied to the following
words, only when they are employed as connecting parti-
cles.


Here follows a collection of such as are in most common
use.
Aru, and.
\g o, also, moreover.
zedi, /
kiyano, because, for.
zihetuk, because.
einikone, on this account.
fip'-g’ kintu, but,



60 GRAMMAR OF THE

f^j kib£, or.
■^1 b£, or — indicates doubt,
tewc, then, notwithstanding.


OF INTERJECTIONS.
Interjections or exclamations, are such words as are used
to indicate some sudden passion or emotion of the speaker.
They have frequently no connection with, or influence over
other words.

Interjections, implying various emotions, are of different
sorts.

Those indicative of Distress, are such as
bapare, O father I
dohai, Save !
< hay hay, Alas I Alas I

Those expressive of Pity are ;
^ha, Oh how distressing I
uhh, What shall I do !

° Of Pain.
g ih 2 uh, Oh I

Of Admiration.
baru, bhdl, well done ! excellent!

Of Approbation.
â– ^tt hay.

Of Surprise.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

61

Of Contempt.
f§F3F tshih.

Of sudden Prohibition.
Xf hare han.

Such particles as C4 re, lo, he, e$11 go, and 'O o, are
frequently used for drawing attention, and may be termed
Vocative particles.

X re, is applicable to males, and lo, to females; both
implying disrespect, he, is a familiar term, and is applied
only to males. go, is common to both the sexes, and is
also a very familiar term. \3 o, is used indiscriminately; it
generally precedes the name of the object addressed, while
the others are most commonly placed after it.

re, and the other particles, when placed in composition
with \3 o, are often employed to call the attention of an indi-
vidual actually present; as, o-re, o-go, &c’

OF EXPLETIVES.
. The following particles are frequently employed in con-
nection with nouns, or numerals attached to them; but prac-
tice alone, can give any certain rule for their correct appli-
cation.

td, when attached to the name of an animate object,
conveys thei dea of contempt or indifference ; as
Xt'5’ hei manuhta mat, call that fellow. When connected with
names of inanimate objects, it conveys the idea of exactness
or limitation ; as, '5l|xytsakita an, bring the lamp.

is attached to names of animate objects when affec-
12



62

GRAMMAR OF TIIE

tion or pity is intended to be expressed towards them; as,
'5rfX«I larati maril, the poor boy is dead.

When applied to inanimate objects it gives the idea of di-
minutiveness or insignificance; as eti taka, one
rupi, meaning, the trifling sum of one rupi.

VX khan is often connected with the names of objects that
are flat, or nearly so ; to the names of most weapons and
working instruments; and to the names of certain members
of the body, without adding at all to the original force of the
word; as, VMfx katari khan, a knife.

dsan, a man, is sometimes put before nouns signifying
men, without in the least affecting z their signification ; as A)
e dsan manuh, a man. *


OF NUMERALS.
The Asamese Cardinal numbers, from one to a hundred,
together with the numerical figures by which they are repre-
» sented, are contained in the following pages.


Figures. Denomination.
European, Asamese.

1 ek.
2 dui.
3 O tini.
4 8 Ftfx tsari.
5 (T -’'TtF pazzts.
6 F?F tsay.
7 n 3Tt<£ hat.
8 & Ms
9 na.





ASAMESE LANGUAGE. 63

Figures. Denomination.
European. AsamesS. vf*? dah.
10 b 0 'srlP'R aghera.
11 b b 374 bara.
12 bk
13 bO f$4 tera.
14 b 8 tsoidhya.
15 b 16 b * holla.
17 b (717^54 hotera.
18 bh' ^^4 athera.
19 b unoits.
20 k 0 ^fa kuri.
21 kb ekoits.
22 kk 4t$V baits.
23 ko teits.
'24 k8 yfay tsabits.
25 k 26 k'h TjTtfay tshdbits.
27 k^ hataits.
28 k^ '’EjtsToTb athaits.
29 kX> ^ffafr untits.
30 0 0 fay tits.
31 Ob drfal> ektit$.
32 ok 4fay batits.
33 00 6$fay tetits.
34 08 €FlfaF tsautits.
35 O 36 O'J* tsfay tshatits.
37 0*1 Tft^fay hattits.
38 ob- '^TtTffay ath-tits.
39 oa untsalits.
40 8 0 yfay tsallits.
41 8b ektsallits.
42 8k faVTfay biyallits,



64

GRAMMAR OF THE

Figures. Denomination,
European. Asamese.
43 80 fWtfaF tetallits.
44 88 faTS’lfafr tsauyallits.
45 • 8 a payntallits.
46 8 b TjTbfaF tshatsallits.
47 8°) *Tt^FfaF hattsallits.
48 8 b- 'STtSjfaj ath-tsallits.
49 8S> ^T5WtF unapantshats.
50 a o pantshdts.
51 e^ ekanna.
52 bauydnna.
53 eo teppanna.
54 e8 falUtsT tsauyanna.
55 ee ^TSFtsF pantshanna.
56 eb tshappanna.
57 eff ^TtW hatdnna.
58 eb- athanna.
59 e^> unhaith.
60 o haith.
61 b^ ekhasti.
62 b< 4bahasti.
63 bO CjTffa tehasti.
64 • n> b 8 CFbSTffa tsauohasti.
65 be pantsahasti.
66 bb tshaihasti.
67 b^ hdthasti.
68 . bb- athhasti.
69 b unhatari.
70 Tpjfa hatari.
71 c£|4>>|,<54 ekhatar.
72 4’|7T5'4 bahatar.
73 ffO tehatar.
74 ff8 CbbSTFS^ tsauohatar.
75 ^e parctshahatar.



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

65

Figures.

European.
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Asamese'.

K
W)
1^8
W

It'S)
O

Denomination.

tshaihatar.
hdthatar.
'5Tp57T^4 athhatar.
undhi.
£hf.
ekdhi.
f*r terahi.
tsauorahi.
pantshdhi.
tshaiahl.
7[p5l^ft hdtdhi.
EltacMt &hdhf.
unanai.
nai.
ekannai.
birannai.
6541'^jT^ terannai.
tsaurannai.
pantshdnnai.
F ha dthannai.
nirannai.
*[ ha.

The following Sangskrit Ordinal numbers are in use amongst
the Asamese.

pratham.
f^st^T dwitiya.

tritiya.
F^raf tsaturth.

first,
second,
third,
fourth.



G6

GRAMMAR OF THE

pantsam.

tsastha.
haptam,
'SJirsr astham.
iTTST nabam.
Tf*J"5l daham.

seventh,
eighth.

ninth,
tenth.

The other ordinals are the same as the cardinal numbers.



APPENDIX.




PETITION IN COURT.


mahamahima shridsut medsestar haheb ogaeraha
barAbareshu.
*rtf^ TOTO WtfW
darkhast Shri Raman Ath Patgiri hakin pargane BadsAli
estaf $ifro omfa cW
moudse kathial kutsi garibar harah-harah selam mor arads
ei ukta moudsar Shri Harimohan kalita aru Shri Tsaul
TsobowA ei duita bar dakAit hehete dui-tini beli tsur-kari
phatakat bandi atsil hei-bilAk apuni dsAne pAtsat ei hakar
< i o
tsatmaha mukali hai pelai e haman dakait mili 2 | 3 thAit
sftro to
ghatakobaloi Akao gao?ir madsat bar-bar lokak tehete
to toto crrfro
radsar dare balere bhaleman dukh diba lagitse Aru dAngar



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

67

XTtxfx 4*fx 'SI’TXtX 4XlX *flf®
lok haliite mara^mari kari apamdn karaba ldgitse patsot
\5^t^fx3Ttr^ ^r^x wjX cxtx
dakait bilake tdngan taroal ei bildk lai tsat mahd mor
XX'S ^1 fxTXT 'STlX <^1 ^000
gharat ahi pelai dakd dile dru pera bh^ngi 7000
ThFi hr 8 T>1 T>1 XK^ xf4Xt$: Xtfx
Mt heds^r taka loi goitse 4 ta 5 td manuhak mariai mdri-
CX 4W? 4^4 ^CX^'SlI 'srtSal ^1
le Hargadeo Iswar cnekuwa agya hok ei bor daka-
cxrsf
itak dhari pelai shodh karok iti hak 1761 tarikh

7 Kartik.


<9
To the Honourable A B .........
Magistrate, fyc. 8fc.
The petition of Shri Ramandth Pdtgiri, of Parganna
Badsdli, Moudsa Kathidl-kutsi,
Humbly Sheweth,
That Harimahan Kalitd and Tsdul Tsobowa are both great
Dacoits.* Having been twice or thrice found guilty of theft
they had been incarcerated in the jail; of this circumstance,
your honour is no doubt aware. In the month of Tsat, of the
current year, after having been liberated, they, together with
a band of a hundred others, committed depredations in two
or three places. In our village also, like kings, they testified
their strength, and troubled the people; and beating the res-
pectable men of the village, insulted and dishonoured them.
In the same month (Tsat), armed with sticks and swords, they
came to my house, and robbed me ; and breaking open my
box they run off with seven thousand rupees. At the same
time they also murdered four or five men. Harga Deo Iswar,.
* Plunderers, Robbers.



68

GRAMMAR OF THE

let such be your orders, that these men be seized and the case
investigated.

Kartik 7th. Sak 1761.



A Petition as presented to the Asamese Court.

Of Shri Shri Jut Debar tsaranaloi.
ttvrox ^rl
Harga de war bandi Hibardm bara Thakure prarthand kari dsa-

naitshe purbbe Iswar Gourinath Singa Hargadebe bandir-
f^Nj1
pita Harindth bara Thdkurak barkala patharat pube dhat
44
gatsh pastsime maranoi uttare bar himalu dakhine hidal gatsh
Ftf^r 8 © c ei tsari had kari 40 pura roya-ti mati Harga debar punydrthe
Wrcwil 'srrfeb’rc^ o i 8
brahmattar kariditshil hei kalarepara ddsiloike 3 or 4
^3(1 ’T'ilbttT SRfas
dsana Hargadebar dinat ekodsay dsandsal nohoyd-koi dhanbi^
51'34.1^ "srrfe *417^ $. nabhardkoi mdti khdi dtsilon hak etiyd Hiddhirdm Hadsari-
W Wtfcra ’UFl ’Ttv fVTU /
kdy hei mdtire balkoi pakd dhanako dai nile bandi-
Gt*1^
ko marile enehale bandiye kenekoy dehat thdkim Ddtiye
duydre ephalaloi bhagi dsdbalaga he halo dsedi Hargadebar
dukhani tsarane hudhi putsi nerakhilerakhyanapara halon eteke



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

69

xtfbtxx fx^ ettW x1x xqbnrx
Harga debar tsaranat prarthana kari dsan^itshora Harga debar

XlfteT
tsarane rakhile rakhya paon iti hak 1761

tarik 9 Kartik.

To the presence of I sic ar Deb.

The slave of Harga deo, Hibardm Bar-Thdkur,

Humbly She we th,
That some time ago, Harga deo, Gourinath Sing, gave my¹
father Harindth Bar-Thakur forty pur as of cultivated Brahmat-
tar (rent free) land, situated near the field of Bar Kala, and
bounded on the east by an Ahat tree,* on the west by the
Maranoi River, on the north by a large Himalu tree, f and on
the south by a Hidal tree.f From that time to the present,
in the course of four or five reigns, no disputes have occur-
red; and without paying any rent, we have hitherto enjoyed
our lands unmolested. But now Hidhiram Hddsarika has
violently taken away the ripe corn from the lands and has
beaten your slave. Under such circumstances how can (I)
your slave continue at this place; I must therefore remove to
the Datiye duyar. If the Harga Deo enters into no enquiries
with both his feet, I have no help for it. I have therefore
made these things known to the Harga Deo that from him
I might obtain redress.
Kartik 9th. Sak 1761.

Ah Extract from a Barunji, or Asamese Chronicle.

Purbbe haptadipeswar Hagar radsae mletstsharradsd haka-

* Ficus religiosa. f Bombax heptapbyllum. | Barringtonia acutangula.
J 2



70

GRAMMAR OF THE

4< srfafaq fa^⁻ fa 7^fa74 74^
lak ndnd barnna tsihna di parbbat paharaloi khedile hei
4tf74 441 4^T74l vfar ^Tfa <4t$: 44t^4l 4fa 741^74
lagare nara radsako tsuli dari khurai lara mura kari khedile
^7474^ ^n^firi 441 4^1 74774 74*1741 441 744 74774
etekelie adyapiyo Nara radsd bole dehako Nara deh bole
^<7444 ^741fa^4 441^4 4<^4 43i1 V4
tenrei purbba dehat Shri Lohitar hamipat parbbatar radsd hal
fafa *ftfa4 44145714 1 ^fapT ^4 45?Ti
tini pirir patsat Nardradsdr putra eti dsanmil putrar lakhyan
fafa l? I IC'6'Srfal 477’14' 4^7 §51^ 4357) V4^
tinitatsakhyu mahatedsasmi bdpek mrityu halat teon rddsd hal
'477^1414 474474 W41 4F7fa
pdtshe aponar bahu Mie Mdngtard Katsdre, Dsayantd, Tshuti-
3744 4*1 4ft 474 faf44774'<3
ya ei hakal radsak mitrabhabe bah kari lale hi bilakeo
4tf4^tfa 74141 741741 44$^ faTV ^M4^14^174l
pritit thaki hati ghord kono hamait die Swarga maharadsdo
5l7fa? 44143114 4T>1 fafa4 441 441741 74141
pritit thaki Nararadsak hati dutd ditsil. Nararadsao ghord
faWI ^7< ^44^1441 441^141 414*1 'STfc^lre
tupi die purbbe swarga maharadsa narar para nami ahote
'5714^41’5 4?t4 4fa 'Sllfa^T *14C5 47fa 414747 41^ 7fff<
dyatanat nagar kari dtsil parbbat da/zti hdmdnya tliai dekhi
*4741 ^^4 47411*1 H ^7^47*741 414*1
dadangariya dsatud eko gharar ekotd thoi tdropara nami
'STfVt *77^ 441457174 fatfa 44^ M414 b/4§i1 bl -ajfaj
dhil patse Nararadsare priti halat amar Iswarrajdloi khudsi
’T4174 74774 '4T?T541 41474 ^<14 7414 fa741^ *T17F fc/4
pathdie bole Ayatand gdn keikhan mok diyok patshe Iswarra-
3714 ^^Mfi44>"4£ M474 74174 44l 4W 74 *414^41
jdy patramantri hakalut hudhile bole nararadsdy dse Ayatand
•^[474 fair] ^4 74 444 ’TTTF ^1M$>£| 74174 441 43714
khudsitse diya huba ne nuhuba patse etaie bole Nardradsay



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

71

Xtfcrx -ajfcF cxfx srtfx^ xtnr c&3 Vxt xr-tfk
pritit thakihe khudsitse dsedi mariei nie teo ami rakliiba
afatcxl xx xlxhrcxi c#Tx fx
noaro ithair parao dur dsabaloiko durghat koth tsaki di
VfxxT^cxt xrrxn x-oFt Xtfxx'S cxlxTfx n
thakibaloiko atsal rakhi thakibao noyari eteke
xxxi xt-uh xtf^ facTOt ^t^cxf^r 4^4
marzada rakhi pritit tliaki dilehe bhal dekhi eirupe etaie
fc/XSfttXl xxt^ fxcx II
bulilat Is warraj ayo Ayatana narakdile.


In former times, Hagar Rajd, the king of the seven worlds,
or the seven ancient divisions of the world, marking all foreign
kings with some distinguishing mark, used to drive them into
the hills. Amongst those thus treated was the Nard. Raj5,
his^head and beard shaven, and made perfectly bare he was
sent away. He was thenceforth called the Nard. Rajd, and
his descendants bare that name to this day. His country like-
wise is styled the Nara country. This individual became king
of a hill to the eastward, or in the eastern country, in the
vicinity of the Brahmaputra (Lohit) river. After three gene-
rations the then king begat a son. He was distinguished by
having three eyes and being in every way active and high
spirited. On the death of his father he inherited the throne.
Soon after, by the strength of his arms (or by his activity)
feigning an alliance to them, he brought the several kings of
Mangtara Katsar, (Kachar) Dsayantd (Jainta) and Tshutiy£
(Chutiya) under subjection to his authority. These kings as a
token of their allegiance used occasionally to send him presents
of elephants and horses. The Swarga Maha Raja (the great
king) himself also gave him two elephants; and the Nara
Raj£ in return presented him with horses and caps. Some
time previous, when the Swarga Maha Raja came down from
Nara, he put up at a place called Ayatana, where he built a
city, and seeing an ordinary place in the vicinity of the hill,



72

GRAMMAR OF THE

he left there one individual from each of the families of the
noblemen then with him.
Afterwards the Nara Raja being on friendly terms with the
Swarga Deo sent to him to give him the city of Ayatana. The
Swarga Deo then summoning a council of his ministers, spake
thus to them. The Ndra Raja has asked for Ayatana, shall it
be given him or not ? The Ministers replied, he has asked for
it in a friendly manner; but should he invade it, we have no
means of protecting it It is at a great distance from us, and
would be impracticable for us to protect it; therefore we
see no objection to your giving it, whilst your honour is pre-
served and your friendship will thereby be continued. Thus
spake the Ministers, and the King gave Ayatana to the Nara
Raja.
•s
An Extract from the Ramayan. A poem translated into Asamese.
fa ^fa sits sr fa sfafal sits ii srt^R^ st^ i pp*Is
cs stw RtfarsRssw ii rats rz^ss sits stfa sw stir¹
fass⁻ fass afa sfara ssts n stsRs sfa
I Sltfazs JfazRl ^fa ZSS 3RS ^RT I fa rats fass i sfasts vrtfa ^fa fa^rs ii fazsl
RRt fas z%ra Rfaz^l ctl srtfa i nfasts zFfa ^fa srzii
ZZltS Stfa II (faRSSra ZSR? faZR C5tS fast StR I ZSZSfaZRl
z^ts 'safafa ^tR n zstsRs zst^tzs tftfa RRs
^efa sfa ii fazs^ fa^fali stssRH s>$s1
Jfa ss^ ^ts i zsRrs ZFfa ^fz^ sir ii eRts
fast^RRtf ^SZR sfap=T I gffrs ^S^fatS faR ^S tfZ*l Il
SRfa ZSt^ ZSt^ ZSS CStS I St'S ^T<5f1 faz^T zwts
szw ii zsw sts^ ziw ^tfa i zsts szstss
s^s fafaz^r ssz^ ii $fa z^Rs sirts i srl
Ftfasl Z st^ i Z'srs rafaRts W n sz⁴^
4R3S ffaRl fas FlZSl fas I ratS StZ^J ^tfa Stfa



ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

73

x'brtx xt5: n cstx ^rxx fx^rfc'i 'sjMx
ret* xfo if xx°'f*l ^r xtx csrel cslx
x^ I ^TX Cff^S ^Ixlw 4t^su II

Tables of Weights and Measures, used in Asam. *


Gold and Silver Weight.

8 «wrt^£ cx^c
8 fx^l
8 fx^T^ > â– *1X5
< XXX^ XX
8 XX^ > xf%
o xf%^ 'snx^txl
< 'srlx^lxt^ FXf%Xl
< Fxf^XT^ * 'SJTffXl’1
x^l
'sitxR
< 'eitxbr^ > csr^ri
4 Paramanu, = 1 Renu,---an atom.
4 Renu, = 1 Nistha.
4 Nistha, = 1 Sarsab,---mustard seed.
2 Sarsab, => 1 Jab,---barley corn.
4 Jab, = 1 Rati---nearly 2| grains.
3 Rati, = 1 Adand---f* and.
2 Addna, = 1 Tsaratiya, an ana or
1-16 th of a rupee.
2 Tsaratiya, = 1 Admaha.
2 Admaha, = 1 Maha, a sikhi’s or | rupi
2 Mahd, = 1 weight.
Adhali, | a rupi weight.
2 Adhali, = 1 Tola, a rupi weight.
Liquid Measure.
xf%l£ 1) 65t*Tl Xi ^sfx 1
o CStXTX > ^rwtxi 1



74

GRAMMAR OF THE
c

<


96 Rati,

10 Tola,
2 Adpoya,
2 Poya,
2 Adser,

emu i
< i
CX41

1 Tola or Bhari—a com-
plete measure—a rupi’s
weight.
1 Adpoya—half a poya.
1 Poya—| of a ser.
1 Adser—| a ser.
1 Ser. .

k

k
8 XN
k
8 Xi O sjXl
a e^T^r

Dry Measure.
\ cmvi
*
> GT4
> XtX
> md
* ortx

* fxfv

2 Muthi closed hands, = 1 Pohd or handful, equal to 13 told,
— 5 dnds, 2 rati, Bangal measure.

3 Poha, =
2 Katha, ==
5 Ser, =
4 Don, in Ramrup, or 3 don,
in Upper Assam, —
2 Puras of 4 dons each, —■
4 or 3 Purds of 4 dons each, =
5 Dhols or 20 purds, =

1 Katha.
1 Ser.
1 Don.

1 Pura.
1 Mon of Bangal,
1 Dhol or barrel.
1 Bihi or score.

Land Measure.
>k XVV
k * xtx



75

ASAMESE

LAN^U,AGE.

6 TOTS
> a-roxi fxg
< aTO
TO C4TO 8

TO TO TO
4. o ^f\5 TfjVT
G TOtX
-*-.. 8 CTO^

12 Keh (hairs) =
2 Trina, —
6 Dhan, =
12 Anguli, =
2 Begat, =
7 Hat, 1 Begat, and
4 Anguli, =
1 Ta'r square, —
20 Letsa or 1 tar in width
and 20 in length, =
5 Katha or 1 tar in width
and 100 in length, —
4 Don or 1 tar in width
and 400 in length, =
20 or 24 Pura, —

\ CTO




> TO




CTO
* TO
cTO

1 Trina, (blade of grass.)
1 Dhan, a grain of corn.
1 Anguli, or finger’s breadth.
1 Begat or Bista, span.
1 Hat, cubit.

1 Tar, a measuring rod.
1 Letsa.

1 Katha.

1 Don.

1 Purd.
1 Behi.

The Behi of twenty puras is called a Kacha or inferior
Behi; and the Behi of twenty-four puras is called a Paka or
complete Behi.

A Lower Asam Pura contains 52,900 square feet or about
3| Bigas of Bangal, and is somewhat less than 1| English acre.

>V

K





76 g^lmmar of tele

Cowries or small shells used-in the bazars are fhus divided
and valued.
i

8 C43:
8
e s yys
b 3^ 31 3$
3^1 31 3^
8 3^^ vr^i
e 3^7^ i yfr
8 5P" c*rpr
l)b C*Hg7 37^3
4 Renu, --- 1 Dhuli, grain of dust.
4 Dhuli, --- 1 Bali, grain of sand.
5 Bali, = 1 Khudra, or small portion.
4 Khudra, = 1 Danta, or tooth of a cowrie.
6 Danta, = 1 Kranti, or Kranta.
3 Kranti, = 1 Cowrie or Bat.
4 Bat, = 1 Ganda'/
5 Ganda, = 1 Buri.
4 Buri, = 1 Pon.
16 Pon, ® = 1 Kahan, about a quarter of
- a rupi in value.
Time Table.
O o \ 3731
> f3^(W
o f3«T*T
b etr^t
o s’fc’FS 31 O o
b
< ^L*ki'\g
^11 3C<3



X ASAMESE lASol&E.

77.

o <1 'b o
k RX TO ufTOft
111 \
k
k \ xtx
'b TO TO
k W

30 Anupal, =

2 Matra, =
10 Bipal, —
6 Pran, =
10 Pal or 30 Kala, =
6>Khyan or 60 Pal, =

2 Danda, =
71 Danda, or properly the
| part of a day and £
part of a night, =
30 Maharta or 60 Danda, =
2 days and 1 night, beginning
from the morning of a day
to the evening of the next,
comprising 90 danda, —
71 Ahoratra, =
2 Haptah, —
2 Pakhy a, _ —.
6 Mah, ==
2 Ayan, =

1 Matra, a twinkling of the
eye-
1 Bipal.
1 Pran, time of taking breath.
1 Pal,—21 pal= one minute,
1 Khyan.
1 Danda,—2| Danda = one
hour.
1 Muhharta, = 48 minutes.


1 Prahar, or watch.
1 Ahoratra, a day and a night.


1 \Pakhyini or winged night.
1 Haptah, week.
1 Pakhya.
1 Mah.
1 Ayan.
1 Batshar or year.

Days of the Week.

X'SXtX Deobar,
(TffXtX Hozzba'r,

Sunday.
Monday.



78

GRAMMAF^.?' T3S ASAMESE LANGUAGE.

XX'XXtX Mangalbar,
^5fXtX Budhbar,
Brihapatibar,
Hukurbar,
’’ifXXtX Hanibar,

Tuesday.
"V I ednesday.
Thursday.
Friday.
y Saturday.

The Names of,he Months

The Asamese months are solar, and take their names from
the constellations, which the sun is conceived to pass through
in his annual course. In consequence, each month commen-
ces at the moment of the sun’s actual entrance into any sign.
There is usually a little annual variation arising from the
precession of the Equinoxes, as well as an uncertainty in the
commencement of the month, from the sun’s longer or short-
er stay in any particular sign. The commencement of their

months is from the ninth to the thirteenth of ours.

1 'April.
bahag kati
May. Wxtx
dseth 05 aghan
Wx -5 o June.
ahar r-< pub
Vsx July. xtx
haon â–  .^S1*^**r magh
8 o
^tx a August.
bh£da to phagun
CO
'xrtfxx September.
ahin tsat

â– 5
05
J
-5 ©
8 £
o CO
43
tD 2
.8
’8 o
8
‘to
pq

'October.

November.

December.

January.

February.


March.

' Each month is divided into two parts. The bright half of
the Lunar month is called “ Hukla pakhya,” and the dark
halfw Krishta pakhya,”



FINIS.