Citation
A grammar of the Mpongwe language, with vocabularies

Material Information

Title:
A grammar of the Mpongwe language, with vocabularies
Creator:
Wilson, J. L. 1809-1886 ( Author, Primary )
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions ( contributor )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
Snowden & Prall, printers
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Mpongwe

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mpongwe language -- Grammar ( LCSH )
Mpongwe language -- Dictionaries -- English ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Gabon
Coordinates:
-1 x 12

Notes

General Note:
by the missionaries of the A.B.C.F.M. Gaboon Mission, western Africa
General Note:
Prepared chiefly by John Leighton Wilson. cf. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Report, 1848, p. 133; Brit. Mus. Cat.
General Note:
94 p. : fold. tables ; 23 cm.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Special Collections
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
EB84.691 /20861 ( soas classmark )
EB84.809 /794392 ( soas classmark )
597509 ( aleph )
460623245 ( oclc )

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BY THE |
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MISSIONARIES OF THE A, B. 0. F. M. GABOON MISSION, WESTERN AFRICA, |
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CONTENTS OF GRAMMAR.
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BIN LRO DUC RONG 6 iiss 5 85 0 66 60 V8 ONS fake ONC a bok 000 68S CSET TROT D
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Number and Inflection of Adjectives......ccccsceccccccccecceveerely
Glassification=of Adjectives seh. 00 cia oc TE 6a 8G cece ees seccesecedO
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i Conipound: Conjuga tions .i ss cans coe eka Sena en oO i
i Affirmative and Negative forms of the Verb, Active and Passive Voices. .31 }
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, : INTRODUCTION.
%
Tur Mpongwe is a dialect of Western Africa, spoken on both
sides of the Gaboon river, at Cape Lopez, Cape St. Catherine,
and in the interior, to the distance of two or three hundred miles. ©
It belongs to one general family of languages which prevails
over the whole of the southern half of the African Continent.
It is less or more nearly allied to all the dialects along what
may be called the Western Coast of Southern Africa, to the
Bechuana, Kafir, Zulu, and other dialects of South Africa, and
to the languages of Mosambique and Zanzibar on the Eastern
Coast, but has no known affinities to any of the languages north . f
of the Mountains of the Moon. The different members of this ~ -
great family of languages vary materially as*dialects, but they
all retain enough of their original characteristics, to remove all
doubt as to their common origin. A wariety of causes have |
operated to produce difierences among the dialects of this one
| great family of languages, among which may be mentioned,
the want of written standards, the remote regions of country in |
which the different tribes reside, their diversified employments
and pursuits, the want of extensive governments, and especial- :
ly, the various foreign nations with whom they:have had com-
. mercial intercourse for a long period, and from whom they )
must necessarily have borrowed many words. |
Those along the Western Coast have borrowed largely from i
the Portuguese, those neay the Cape of Good Hope from the i
| Dutch and English, those #f Mosambique from the Portuguese ‘|
. and Madagascar, whilst those higher up the coast have drawn i
. quite as freely from the Arabic. i
: Notwithstanding these accessions of foreign words, however, i
~ the different dialects retain their original words and erie. i
FE tical principles without material modification, and show more f
; affinity for each other, than could be expected of barbarous i
tribes living so far apart and having no intercourse. F
Nothing, perhaps, has contributed.more to’ keep up these: i
| general resemblances, than the peculiar character and struc- . ;
ture of the languages themselves. i
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ag I Their general structure is marked by so much regularity, |
iS 4 by so much exactness and precision, and with so much order f, |
rae i| and philosophical arrangement, that it would require a long /Â¥ ,,/ '
a tl eriod, as well as important changes in the outward condition
a } 2
ie of the people, to effect any material change in the leading cha- i
ie : racteristics of their language.
i i Of these various dialects, none are more nearly allied than
Re i the Mpongwe on the Western Ceast and the Sowhylee or
s Swahere on the Eastern Coast, of very nearly the same parallel
[a \ of latitude. The following are a few of the verbal resem-
if blances that may be pointed out between the Mpongwe and
4 | Swahere. 4
| I ENGLisx, Mronewe, / SwWauERE.
SS i} Earth, antye, antye. 3
i Farm, kompindi, kupanda. :
Pe Face, 0zyo, 020.
a" | Tongue, olémé, olimt.
es Eyes, antya, mat yo.
S Teeth, anda, mano.
oe Shoulder, wéga, béga.
ri Dog, mboa, mbou.
a . : Pig, ngowd, nguluwe.
ae Goat, mbont, mbozi. |
ft Monkey, nkéma, kima. |
ee Bee, nyowe, nyuke. |
ge Doctor, . oganga, mganga. |
eC White beads, ozyange, oshanga. |
ie To-day, léla, led. |
ie One, mari, maja. |
fe i Two, mbant, mbiri.
. | Three, taro, tatu.
ah S| Four, nar, ne or ine.
-_ Five, tant, tant.
Me Fight, nanar, nani.
ot All, yodu, yote.
v4 Bad, mbe, bebai.
, i, mie, mie. ;
BA He, ye, yeye.
eS Who, mande, * nane.
a To roast, ko-pika, ko-pika.

To fall, kwa, kwanguka.

ene To pay, pe, nupé.

none kénda, nénda.

a | To leave, tiga, Wied. “
mC To speak, @ ‘anba, kwambie. |
ng To send, toma, tuma. |
he | sleep, == nana, lala. |

. If the comparison included other dialects on the Western |

F | Coast, in the vicinity of the Gaboon, it would appear that more |
}: i f
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F 2 . |
23
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: INTRODUCTION. vil
than one-fourth of the words of Swahere were either the same )
or very nearly the same as those of these dialects. j
| Similar afhnities may be traced, but not to the same extent, |
between the Mpongwe and the dialects of South Africa and
Mosambique, as may be seen from the following specimens. ee
.
EXGuisH, Mponcwe, Brcuuana, Karir, MosaMBIQueE. |
Salutation, — bolo, boro, bulisa. |
Antelope, nkambi, khama, :
Father, rerd, rare, yise.
Rain, moula(Bat dia’), pula, movula.
, Child, onwand, kwanage, unyana.
} Behold, vona, bona. :
Arise, nongwa, tongent.
To him, ko-yé, “+ kuyé.
Come from, vila, vela. |
All, yodu, yoke. :
With him, = n’ayé, nayé.
Hunt, buta, buze. |
My child, onwana wam, nyana wam. H
To fall, poswa, poswa. i
To teach, ney a, NENZA.
Love ye, rondant, tandant. |
To do, janja, jenjalona. i}
Thing, eza, azinto. 4
| Enter, pingina; gina. i
| Three, taro, tharro and atatu, batatu. q
| bararro, 1
Re Ten, igomt, sjume, sumi, kumi. i
Tooth, anda, meno, meno. i
Pig, ngod, NEU, gurue. ie i
| Man, mtu (Bat dial’), mtu, muntu. i
| S _ Water, majim (Panwe), MaZzt, madjt.
The grammatical structure of these various dialects show |
equaliy as much affinity as their verbal resemblance, and is }
characterized by so many striking peculiarities that no doubt i
is left of the identity of their origin.
Between this great family of languages however and those |
spoken by the the negro races north of the Mountains of the H
Moon, there are not the most distant affinities. Indeed it is
almost impossible to conceive how they could be more unlike. }
Those’ in Northern Africa, generally, are characterized by an
excessive number of harsh, inarticulate nasal and gtittural |
4 sounds, by a very limited number of inflections, by a want of |
precision in the expression of ideas, the want of arrangement |
. in their grammatical principles, and with a very limited power | iE
of expansion ; whilst those South, if the Mpongwe dialect may i
be taken as a specimen, are characterized by just the reverse. i
How an uneultivated people, like those of the Gaboon, could i
i
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f | | have come in possession of a language so beautiful and so
ae i philosophical in all of its arrangements, is a question which
4 i cannot easily be answered. ‘The tribe by whont it is spoken,
tg i| though elevated considerably above most of the tribes of Africa,
Ns li cannot at most be regarded in any other light than a semi-civil-
i yi ized people. 8
ae i | The language, until within a few years past, has never been
Ne written; the people have no idea of the power of letters, and
He P| yet all the complicated principles of their grammar have been
e i preserved with unvarying uniformity. They have no tradi-
be tionary stories from which it could be inferred, that they had :
Ss descended from a people of greater cultivation. For more
ne | ‘ than two centuries they have been engaged in commerce, act-
Be . ing as factors between intersor tribes and European vessels.
i In the prosecution of their business, they discover a great deal
ee i! of shrewdness, and cannot easily be over-reached either by
white men or their own people. They possess a great deal of 7
Fo : vivacity of disposition and are imaginative beyond any peo- |
Sa ple we have ever known; and although they have no written
< literature, they have a great deal in the form of proverbial
| sayings, fables, and traditionary stories, and it is common for
he | them to spend most of their leisure hours in rehearsing and
-. : listening to these fables and stories. They. have generally a |
| a good deal of mental activity, and some of them show an aston- |
\ ar ishing amount of correct knowledge on. all subjects, which come
| within the reach of their observation. ;
iat Whether the disposition and habits of the people have been
a moulded by the character of the language, or the language on
© the other hand, has been adjusted to suit the character of the
ee people, cannot easily be determined. At present, and for cen-
y ~ turies past, no doubt, they have exerted a reciprocal influence
. upon each other. And this is not more characteristic of this
Mh particular people than it is of all other tribes of the country.
'
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| : ORTHOGRAPHY. |
1. Tue vowel sounds which occur in this language are a
sounded asa in far, @ as a in water, e as a in hate, é as e in met,
2 as iin machine, 7 as iin pin, tin, &c., 0as o in note, d asoin |
not, uw as 00 in moon. \
2. These sounds fluctuate materially, and sometimes run i
into each other. The sound of a varies considerably, but is -
never so long as a in father, except in the word agnandz, grief,
/ and never so short as a in hat, except in the word gnand,
| jealousy ; the object of the use of these extreme sounds of i\
: the same letter in these two cases, being to make a distinc- ‘|
tion between two words, whose orthography would other- |
wise be very nearly the same. The sound of a and 6 are not
| always distinguishable, except where they occur in juxta-posi-
: tion, as in the word iléngd, country ; and so e and i frequently ‘|
run into each other; e and é final, cannot always be distin- i
| guished, except some grammatical principle is indicated by the iW
| use of the one or the other.
3. The simple vowels a and i, before the letter n or |, have |
| something of the nasal sound, and may be heard in the words,
anlaga, inle, sunginla, &c. which are not pronounced an-laga,
in-le and sungin-la, but as if a and i run into or were followed
by the mixed sound of n and I.
4, Diphthongs.—These are ai, sounded asiin pine, au as ow
in how, now, &c. and 2 as uin pure. Au occurs but seldom, | s
| and when final has an indistinct or nasal sound, as if followed 1
by an obscure n or m. It is found in the word osaun, thing,
= which is variously written by those who have studied this lan- if
guage, osaun, osau, osaunh, osaum, and even osam. U, when if
| preceded by 7 or y, as in the words njuke and yuwi, has the iH
| sound of the diphthong zu. ‘|
“ 5. Consonants.—The simple consonant sounds are 8, d, f, ¢ iy
| (always hard), h (but never except in the combination sh), j, k,
l,m, n, p, 7, 8, t, v, W, y, z; each of which has a clear, well-de- i
| fined sound of its own. The following are consonant combi- f
nations of frequent occurrence, both at the beginning and in the 1
middle of words, viz. mb, as in the word mboni, goat ; mp, as 1
in mpolu, large; mw, as in mwéra, to scratch ; nd, as in ndondoa, 7
high ; nj, as in njénga, a man’s name ; nk, as in nkala, town; ne, j
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ae i 10 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
He HH as in ntono, the breast ; nty, as iInntydna, shame ; ny,as in nydla
be fli new ; NW, as in ngwé, mother ; nw, as in onwana, or nwa, child ;
3 : | i gn, as gnandi and a-gnandi ; gw, in gwi, where ; fw, and vw, as in
Fa ' fwemi, to err; and vwela, cali ; zy, as in zyele, is not ; sh, as in the
” Pk words ishdld, care ; and shi, it ; though by the generality of per-
om. Ot sons these words are pronounced is-dld, and si. M, at the begin-
s) a ning of a word is followed only by 0 and p, and in oné single
1 ! case by w. NV is followed by d, g,), k, t, t, w, y, ty and gw, but
: H never by 0, or p. Both of these classes of words are pro-
; H nounced as if the m orn was preceded by a half vowel or
‘ | sheva. When a or 2 is prefixed to such words to form the plu-
] | ral number, the initial m or n unites with the prefix vowel and
| || forms a separate syllable ;.thus, mpogo, mouse, in the plural
Pi becomes im-pogo or sim-pogo and not i-mpogo. Nd seldom oc-
in curs at the beginning of a word, except in a few monosylla-
. bles, as ndé, nda, &c. Nk, when preceded by 7, is pronounced
pe | as if g interposed, thus inkala is not pronounced 2-nkala nor
| in-kala, but ing-kala. Nw is not separated in consequence of
-— |. being preceded by o ora; thus onwana is not pronouced on-wana
a | buto-nwana. Ngw, inthe middle of a word, usually doubles the
| g, thus ngwé isnot pronounced in-gwé, but ing-g we, and the same
a] may be said of ng in the middle of a word; thus bénga is pro-
| nounced b6ng-ga, though this and similar words are written |
i a with a single g. Ny, at the beginning of words, is common to
he | all the dialects of north and south Africa, but is not easily ex-
a plained ; before u it is pronounced (i. e. nyu) like new in news,
— and neu in neuter. Jy is pronounced like ch in chair. Nty,
"3 when preceded by 7 or a, the n unites with the prefix vowel, and
ie | forms one syllable, whilst ty forms the beginning of another.
4 | Gn, at the beginning of a word, is difficult of pronunciation, but
A | almost the only one that is really so in the language. There
oa is an intermediate sound between v and w, that is usually, but
4 : not accurately represented by fw or vw; indeed, it seems to _ 4
“ae } partake in some measure of the three letters f, v, w, but is not d
, one or the other. Ni, in the middle of a word, is designed to
| indicate a nasal sound of the vowel by which it is preceded 4
| (see See. 3). This same mixed consonant sound also occurs 4
H at the commencement of a few monosyllabic words, as in the
l prepositions ne, na, nla, &c. There is also an intermediate 4
; f sound between m and w,as in the word omanda or owanda, |
es } day time; but it is usually written with one or the other of ]
4 these letters. |
a 6. Two vowels seldom come together in the Mpongwe lan- )
| guage, except 2 and a, in such words as mbza, good, bendia, to |
= | cause to be angry, &c. and in such words as wao, sao, mao, |
Hl '
a , ,
i
|
fe
SS
Fi I Se oe bi



1
, : ,
| BTYMOLOGY. 11 }
| &c. When one word ends in, and the succeeding one com- ;
mences with a vowel, one of three things takes place, Ist, a
| consonant must be interposed, thus ayont sinyare, instead : |
| of ayoni inyare; or, 2d, one of the vowels must fall away, Ee
| thus n’ayé, by him, is used for na ayé or ne aye ; or, 3d, the two
: vowels coalesce and forma new sound, thus ké, ayé becomes
k’dyé ; and so oma ombe, bad person, becomes omd ’mbe ; onwa or
onwana ombe, a bad child, becomes onwd ’mbe : neé be ténda e, be-
comes ne be téndé. According tothe same rules of contraction
and coalescence, other changes still more remarkable occur ;
| thus, ndego yazyo, our friend, becomes, ndeg ’wazyo,* &c. &e.
i
| i]
ETYMOLOGY. | |
| |
| 7. The parts of speech in the Mpongwe are, nouns, pro- |
nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, i |
| and interjections.
| 8. Article—The Mpongwe possesses no article, definite or | 9
| indefinite. The want of an indefinite article, if supplied at all, |
| is done by the use of the numeral for one; thus, mi jena oma
; mari, | see one person, for a person. The want of a definite i
article is variously supplied, by the demonstrative adjective | a
| pronoun, by the definite pronoun, or by the copulative conjunc- i 4
| tion n’, ne or nz. Thus, they say, onomi wind, this man, or | 4
onomi wand, that man, for the man: and so, Digula yonwana |
| wt Songe, Dagula the son of Songe, though the definite pronoun |
| y’, which is here translated the, forms a connecting link be- =
| tween the two nouns, and agrees with the first noun, as an ad- }
| jective would with its proper substantive. The following sen-
tence furnishes an illustration of the use of a copulative con- | 4
' junction for the definite article, viz.: impanla mesana imbani, | 4
paths these two : \
ni mari yi kénda gwigonu, ni mari yi kénda, &c., which might i
the one it leads above, the one it -leads, &c. { i
be rendered, “of these two paths, and one leads above, and }
one leads,” &c.
NOUNS. : \
j 4
9. Mpongwe nouns have number and classification, but ‘ }
SS 0060606060680 60606068686568606050 ;
* The contractions, elisions and coalescences which occur in the Mpongwe, fre- | 1
quently change a whole clause of a sentence to a single word; thus, the phrase, 4 i]
ayé re oma ompolu, he is a great person, is reduced to arompolu. : |
e
. | | |



é ' , Bee |
a
ie
Ae 12 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
aya I | neither gender nor case. The gender is formed by suffixing
ne . the word for male or female to the noun; thus, onwana w’ono-
8 mt, a male child, for a boy; and so, onwana nyanto, a female
ie | | child, for a girl. The accusative or objective case of nouns is -
| Co always the same as the nominative.* - |
— | The possessive case is formed by interposing the definite
oae pronoun between the nouns, but in the reverse order from that |
me. i practised in the dialects of northern Africa ; wanga ny’ Anyam- {
. bia, i. e., the law it of God, for God’s law; and SO, ampanga }
- | m Anyambia, i. e., laws they of God, for God’s laws—in both of |
| which cases, the definite pronouns ny’ and m’ agree with the |
ett nouns by which they are preceded, and not with those by 1
+ which they are followed, and with which they are incorpo- Ht
| rated. i
Pe NUMBER AND CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS..
mm |
ae 10. All Mpongwe nouns may be arranged into four classes i
| (which, for the sake of convenience, will be denominated de- }
| 4 clensions, though this is not strictly a philosophical use of the |
et term), each one of which has a peculiar mode of its own of \
=| deriving the plural from the singular number. This classifica- A
1 tion of nouns, which forms a striking feature in the language,
A | is rendered still more prominent, by the manner in which the k
ee | adjectives and definite pronouns are inflected to accommodate !
— themselves to them severally.
re FIRST DECLENSION. :
zi 11. This declension embraces all those nouns which com- |
Oi mence with one or more consonants and form their plurals by
> prefixing 7 or si; thus,
yl SINGULAR. PLURAL. i
, Cow, nyare, myare or sinyare, cows.
GA Knife, swaka, wwaka or siswaka, knives.
ae | Basket, tondo, atondo or sitondo, baskets.
i Nors.—Verbal or derivative nouns, which commence with |
; the initial 7, have no singular forms, and are therefore to be a
i arranged under the head of plural nouns of the first declension.
es To this class, belong such nouns as, wnumba, hatred : ibenda,
4 anger; itdnda, love, &c. &c.
ea ee ee
| * This does not hold in relation to personal and definite pronouns (which see),
~
LE ae a ae ve



a
i);
ETYMOLOGY. 13 {=
: i
Â¥ i
SECOND DECLENSION.
12. This declension embraces only those nouns which have | ®
e for their initial letter; and they derive their plurals simply |
E by dropping this letter, thus : |
5 |
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
| Chest, egara, gara, chests. ;
Tree, erere, rere, trees.
. f
Norz.—lIf the first consonant of the word be z, in forming a
the plural, not only is the initial e dropped, but z is invariably J |
changed into y; thus, : , a
SINGULAR. PLURAL. ?
? Book, ezango, yango, books. |
Thing, ezdma, yama, things. a
: $ ezd, ya, things. ;
Broom, ezambala, yambala, brooms.
i
THIRD DECLENSION. |
13. Under this head are included all those nouns which have f
2 for their initial letter (verbal or derivative nouns excepted), ; 7
and form their plurals by changing 7 into a, thus: |
;
SINGULAR. PLURAL. H
Sheep, iddmbe, adambe, sheep. )
Duck, wage, azage, ducks. { 7.
; t
. Norr.—l1. If the second letter or first ¢onsonant be v, not
only is the initial 7 changed into a, but v is changed into mp,
thus: ; |
SINGULAR. PLURAL. f |
Law, wanga, ampanga, laws.
Wing, qwava, ampava, Wings. | }
} 4
: . j f
Notr.—2. To the plural number of this declension, belong: :
all those nouns which have but one number; they are such, 4 1
generally, as the names of liquids, as aningo, water ; alugu, } |
rum; agali, oil, &c. 1
|
FOURTH DECLENSION. ! |
14. This declension comprises all those nouns which have o | ;
for their initial letter; and they form their plurals, Ist, by | i
changing o into 2, or, 2d, by changing o into a; thus, | 1
|. 7
| 4
| 4
| y
—— a —— —____— — J



+ 14 MPONGWE GRAMMAR. :
Fe | SINGULAR, PLURAL.
he Nut, olonda, alonda, nuts. |
= River, oldvi, ilavi, rivers.
Fa re Man, onomi, anomi, men.
Ss Ol: * Child, onwana, anwana, children.
e po Arm, og, agd, arms.
i. I Norsr.—lIf the first consonant is w, in forming the plural, the
8 | w is either changed into m or into b; thus,
en SINGULAR. PLURAL.
rat Ship, owatanga, amatanga.
Sl. Canoe, owaro, amaro.
Feather, owowa, ebowa.
-—_ | 15. There are several irregularities under this declension: ~
a thus, anlaga, people, is the plural of oma, person ; anto, wo-
= | men, in the singular, is omanto or onwanto, the first of which
means a female person, and the second a female child. Owém-
: : ba or wémbd, soup, belongs to this declension, but is irregular.
oe 16. Those nouns which terminate with a, when followed by
a a word that commences with y or w, change a into 7; thus,
Ail. swaki yam, my knife, and not swaka yam; and so, ilambi wam,
ae my cloths, and not ilamba wam. Another change on the final
fei syllable takes place, when o is followed by y; thus, ndeg’
|. wazyo, our friend, instead of ndego yazyo. Both of these
— changes are made for the sake of euphony.
; oH: ¢
mi VERBAL NOUNS. :
ee |: 17. There are three kinds of nouns which may be derived
a ; from verbs. 1st. Abstract nouns, generally, are derived from
a | the present of the indicative, by simply prefixing 7; thus, from
ai tonda, to love, comes tionda, love; from benda, to be angry, |
ee | eomes ibenda, anger. ‘This class of nouns belong to the :
| plural number of the first declension, and not to the singular i
4 number of the third, or the plural of the fourth declension, as i
| may be inferred from the particular form of the adjective which ‘
it invariably takes. 2d. Nouns of agency are formed by pre- |
oat fixing o, instead of 2, tothe present of the indicative, and by chang-
eB i ing a into 7; thus, noka, to lie; onoki, liar. In some instances, |
a the noun of agency is formed. by prefixing e, and by suffixing
P m; thus, banda, to commit adultery, ebandani, an adulterer.
af ‘The first of these belongs to the fourth, and the other to the
cs i
;
Sales



sini SS SS \
\
j 7
\
|
: | 7
/
ETYMOLOGY. ik i
, i
second declension. 3d. Mreguentative nouns are formed from f }
the present of the indicative, by changing a final into 7, and by |
suffixing nz; thus, noka, to lie; mokini, much or habitual |
lying.
18. There is another species of noun derived from the verb,
but not much used, which may be denominated the Gerund.

It is derived from the radical form of the verb, by prefixing n,

by changing a@ final into i, and by suffixing nz; thus, from

tonda, to love, comes ntdndini, the pleasing, or the pleasure of.

There may be as many gerunds as there are conjugations of

the verb, but they are not frequently used.
) ADJECTIVES.

H

19. The number of adjectives in the Mpongwe, is not very |
considerable ; but somewhat more so than in most of the dia-

lects of Western Africa. They have number, inflection and

classification, but neither case, gender nor degrees of com- |

parison. }

" 20. The degrees of comparison are expressed, partly by cir- }
cumlocution, and partly by the aid of the words viaganu, ; |
or posiu, both of which have the force of something like )
“excel,” “more than,” &c. The comparative degree is formed
| : by employing one of these words when a comparison is to be }
| instituted between two, or a definite number of objects, thus:
swaki yam viaganu swaki ya; i. e., “my knife excels your

knife.” The superlative degree is expressed when an unli- :
mited or indefinite number of objects are brought together;

thus, swakt yam viaganu iswaki sodu ; i. e., “my knife is bet- }
ter than all knives,” or, is the best of knives. The idea of com-

parison is also expressed, but of course very indefinitely, by |
the emphasis that is laid upon the word; for example, when |

the word mpolu, great, is pretty strongly emphasized, it is un- |

derstood that the object is greater than usual. When the }

emphasis requires the utmost stretch of the voice, the object is 1
superlatively large. In this way, the comparative degrees of '

greatness, smallness, hardness, rapidity, and strength, &c:, i

may be conveyed with more accuracy. and precision than i
| could readily be conceived. |
21. Number and Inflection of Adjectives—Every adjective H

has not only a singular and plural number, but each one is |

inflected to correspond with, or to accommodate itself to

nouns of all the declensions; i. e. each adjective has a form, |
both singular and plural, for nouns of every declension. This |
1
} ,
, y

—~<



| ,
a 16 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
ie singular feature in the language will be better understood by :
hg the following illustration ; thus: |
a
“ ist Declension—Singular, nyare yam, my cow. t
all as Plural, tnyare sam, my cows. +
- 2d . Singular, egara zam, my chest.
: . Plural, gara yam, my chests. i
SS : 3d $ Singular, idambe nyam, my sheep. j
a “ Plural, adaémbe mam, my sheep. |
4th Singular, otondo wam, my basket. . 2
a ~ Plural, ztondo yam, my baskets.
P : ' We find here, yam, sam, zam, nyam, mam, wam, &c., as the
: different forms into which the adjective is inflected in order 7
P to accommodate itself to the different classes or declensions
— of the nouns. |
— 22. Classification of Adjectives.—Adjectives are arranged
: into two distinct classes, according to the different modes by ;
| which they are inflected through the various declensions. A
-— | third class may be formed of those that are indeclinable. 1
, 23. Hirst Class.—Under this head, may be grouped all those
Re | adjectives and adjective pronouns, which depend upon the aid
Pe of the definite pronoun, to express their various numbers and 4
| declensions ; thus, ’am is the word for “ my,” but is never used, s
= 7 TC unless it has the definite pronoun prefixed ; i. e. Y2, $1, 21, mi, |
i &c., which unites with ’am, by dropping its own vowel; thus, a
-| yt am (literally “it of me,” for, my or mine,) becomes yam, a
mot sam, zam, &¢c., according to the declension of the noun to y
ee which it belongs.
i. 24. If the adjective commences with a consonant, or if it is
a a noun that is used as an adjective, the definite pronoun is
4 simply prefixed, and the only inflection which takes place is )
mt that upon the prefix pronoun, the radical or original form of t
a the word remaining unchanged ; thus, the word ngulu, strong, E
aa becomes yingulu, zingulu, nyingulu, mingulu, &&c. The prefix
ae pronoun may have for its vowel, 7, a, or 0; but by what law
- it chooses between these, is not known. Under the first class a
ad of adjectives may be arranged all the possessive personal pro-
me nouns, as, yam, my; yd, your; yé, his; yazyo, our; yani, your ;
7 yao, their: the demonstrative adjective pronouns, as, yind,
a this; ydnd, that; and their compounds, meyind and meyanda ; q
B and various other adjectives, as, yonigi, sweet; yinoni, bitter ; ft
at yingulu, strong ; yimpyu, hot; yatenatena, red ; yapupu, white, i
ee. A &e. &e. s
oes ta Me seas



| ERT es pee Se 5 ha a ' , "7
: 3 |
: }
ETYMOLOGY. 17 |
25. Second Class.—Adjectives of this class reject the defi-
: nite pronoun altogether, and are inflected like so many nouns }
of the different declensions; that is, in the first declension, it ; |
: has the form of a noun of this declension; in the second de- |
. clension, like a noun of that declension, &c. « This will be
better understood by a table in which the changes are laid
down; thus:

. ist Declension—Singular, nyare mpolu, a big cow.

Plural, inyare simpolu, large cows.
i 2d o Singular, egara evolu, a large chest. |
. Plural, gara volu, large chests.
: 3d < Singular, adambe wvolu, a large sheep. |
e Plural, adambe ampolu, large sheep.
| Air ¢ Singular, oldvi ompolu, a large river.
= Plural, aldvi impolu, large rivers.
]
r
; 26. The changes wrought upon the incipient consonant or
: combination of consonants, varies in different words. The mb,
in the words mbia, good, and mbe, bad, undergoes the same }
changes in the second and third declensions that mp does;
i. e., they become evia, wia, eve, ive, &c. Mp, in the word mpe,
‘ short, is changed into p; thus, nyare mpe, a short cow; egara
P epe, a short chest, &c. Nd, in the word nda, long, is changed
c into 1; thus, mpdénld nda, a long path; in the second declen- |
sion, we have egara ela, a long chest, &c. Ny, in the words
Bo nyenge, many, much, and nyango, small, is changed into z in }
a > F |
a the singular number, into y of the plural of the second declen-
; sion, and into m in the plural of the third. These inflections, :
however, will be better understood by a careful examination
; of the table of nouns and adjectives; which see.
27. There are a few adjectives that are indeclinable, and of |
course, are used in connexion with nouns of all declensions, ;
without any variation of their ground form. ‘To this class be-
i long the word ndmbe, black ; naz, four, &c.; but they are not 1
numerous. These, though few, may be denominated the third 4
| class of adjectives.
’ NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
; 28. The manner of counting in this language, is strictly the |
: decimal system. They count up to ten, when there is a redu- |
plication: ten and one for eleven, ten and two for twelve, &e, |
i Twenty are two tens, thirty are three tens; one hundred, for 4
: 3
= ;
: |
;

a al



i: = 4 ‘
- |
f 18 MPONGWE GRAMMAR. ‘
e which they have a name, nkama, is ten tens. Beyond one
oh hundred, they reduplicate, and make two hundred, three hun-
a dred, &c. They use the English word thousand, having no '
i term for any higher number than one hundred.*
ee 29. The following is a list of the numerals :— ;
a 1. mari.
. 2. mbani, vani, ambani, &c. ;
i 3. tyaro, taro, araro, &c.
P| 4. nai.
7 . 5. tyani, tani, atani, &c.
6. orowa. or rowa.
i 7. oragenu and ragenu. 2
E 8. nanai.
a 9. indgomi.
mr | 10. igomi.
me | 11. igomi ni mari (ten and one). a
| 12. igomi ni mbani (ten and two).
iS 20. agomi mbani (two tens).
7 30. agomi nytaro (three tens). '
= 100. nkama. |
a 200. inkama mbani (two hundreds).
ae 1000. inkama igomi (ten hundreds).
ae 30. The numerals, according to their orthographical struc-
i | ture, belong to the first, second, or third (indeclinable) classes
ae of adjectives; orowa, ordgenu, indgomi, and igomi, commencing, /
as they do, with vowels, belong to the first class, but are not
S| generally inflected, except when they are used as ordinals, and 4
y except where the incipient vowel falls away for the sake of |
5 euphony. Mari, nai, and nanai belong, for the most part (but
My not universally), to the third or indeclinable class. Mbani, '
Ss | tyaro, and tyani are of the second class of adjectives; and hence
| we have from mbani, vani, avani, &c.; and from tyaro, taro,
4 araro, &c.; and from tyant, tant, atani, &c.
a 31. The ordinal numbers are derived from the cardinal, by |
oa simply prefixing to the latter the definite pronoun of the noun to
oe | which it belongs. If the cardinal number commences with a -
| . vowel, the definite pronoun drops its own vowel, and incorpo-
= | rates itself with the numeral; but'if it commences with a con- |
: * The mode of counting in the different dialects of Africa is very variable. The |
a \ Grebo counts to five, when there is a reduplication; to ten, when there is another;
tT these different modes of counting have arisen from the use of the fingers in enume-
a { ration.
- :
; |
mf :
xh 3



| i
é ETYMOLOGY. 19
sonant, the definite pronoun retains its vowel, and is simply i
‘prefixed, choosing, however, that vowel which will be most i
‘ consonant to the laws of euphony. Thus we have, yimdari,
first; yimbani, second; yintyaro, the third, &c. Each one of
these ordinals has as many different forms as there are declen-
r sions; thus, we have, yimdri, zimdri, nyimari, &c. For a |
4 more full illustration of these principles, see table of nouns |
. and adjectives. :
32. The distributive’ are formed simply by a repetition of
E the cardinal numbers; thus, mdri-mdri, one by one; mbani- |
i mbani, two by two, &c.
THE RELATIVE POSITION OF THE NOUN AND THE ADJECTIVE. |
* 33. When there are not more than two adjectives belonging to
the same noun, they always follow and stand in juxta-position i
to it; thus, nago mbia, a good house; wnpani yant mbe, fashions
, your bad; for, your bad fashions. If there are more than two |
' adjectives, and especially if one of them is an adjective of quan-
‘.« tity, it may be separated from its noun by several intervening
= words; hence we Sometimes find the word yodu, all, at the end |
: oe éf a clause or sentence, whilst its noun stands at the beginning.
ci. When two or more adjectives, belonging to the same noun,
= are coupled to each other by a copulative conjunction, the rela-
tive position of the noun and its adjectives, are somewhat pe- |
: ; culiar; thus, avieni go denda evia emdari na evilo evolu ; for, he y
; hecame to do good one and work great; 1
. came to do one great and good work. }
' 34. Numeral adjectives also vary from the general rule as }
-- ' to their relative position to the noun. When the numeral is
: ten, or under that, it invariably conforms to the general rule,
’ and stands next to the noun; thus, anlaga avant, two persons ;
- inago tani, five houses, &c. When the number is more than ]
; ten, and less than one hundred, the word for ten or tens, goes
> before the noun, whilst the multiplicator follows and stands |
next, and the noun may or may not be repeated before the units, ;
if there are any; if the noun is not repeated, the units are H
joined to the multiplicator by the copulative conjunction ; thus, ;
agomi mimboni ambani ni nai; for twenty-four goats; or thus i
tens of goats two and four; 5
(whichis the most common phraseology), agom m’imboni ambant H
: nimboni na. tens of goats two ]
F and goats four. ; 4
If the number exceeds one hundred, it is expressed thus: |
Nkama yimboni mari n'agomi ambant ni nar; |
Hundred of goats one and tens two and four; : |
b i
| /
| |



eer SSIS —— —_— EE Cai I
. | i]
-
, a |
aN | 20 MPONGWE GRAMMAR. |
nee |
o | for one hundred and twenty four goats. Sometimes, the multi- |
tye p'icator in the plural is used alone; thus, akanda ambani, for |
a a twenty plantains, the tens being implied by the plural form of |
Pes cH the multiplicator. In the preceding illustrations it will be per- |
— | ceived, that agomi and nkama assume the character of nouns, |
et whilst the words m’imboni and yinboni, by taking the definite
m |: pronouns which belong to agomi and nkama respectively, be-
- | come nouns of the genitive case, and are governed as such.
P| GENERAL REMARKS.
i 35. The want of adjectives in this language, is supplied by
eos: | the use of a noun and verb; sick, hungry, rich, ashamed, &e.,
are expressed by this means; thus, mi jaga njana, 1 am sick
with hunger, for, lam hungry; are ni stka, he is with money,
— |. or, there is money to him (like the Latin est mihi, there is to me, |
P| | for, [have) for, he is rich; and so, e jena ntyani; i.e., he sees |
— shame; for, he is ashamed. |
— | 36. As the number of adjectives in the language is not con- |
| siderable, it follows as a necessary consequence, that those |
which are used, have great latitude, without much precision of
7 meaning. The word mbia, good, is the only word which they
—] have to express the ideas of kind, liberal, merciful, just |
ee | disinterested, affectionate, &c.; and mbe, bad, is used for un-
| just, cruel, avaricious, offensive, wicked, &c.; and so, elénge |
| signifies a poor man, fool, stupid, &c. |
—
oe; PRONOUNS. |
yo | 37. The Mpongwe is exceeding rich in pronouns; and, in
aa this way, not only acquires great flexibility of character, but a
—s | degree of precision which but few languages possess. There !
-s are three kinds of pronouns, the Personal, Relative and Defi-
oF | nite. Possessive pronouns, indefinite and demonstrative adjec- |
me | tive pronouns, have been included under the general head of
aa adjectives; which see. f

-_ | PERSONAL PRONOUNS. :

a | 38. Personal pronouns have no gender, but they have num-

7 | ber, a variety of forms, and, so far as the objective case ‘
i) differs from the nominative, they may be said to possess case. i
J 4 They admit of no classification corresponding with what is ]
a i denominated declension, under the heads of nouns and adjec- i

| tives. There ave three of them, each of which has several i

| forms for the singular, a plural, and what may be denominated ij

P|

e |

hh lenis i



Â¥ ETYMOLOGY. 21
| an emphatic form. The following table will exhibit fully all ||
of the, personal pronouns : i
|
Vv SINGULAR. PLURAL. EMPHATIC.
P Ist person—m’, mi and mie, azuwe, mie, |
2d person—o, @ and oma, anuwe, awé or ’wé.
| 3d person—e, é, yé, wi, wu, waoand wa, aye.
Remarks.—Ist. m’ is a contracted form of mi or mie, and is |
seldom used, except when followed by 6, with which it inva- i
* riably unites itself. There is a real distinction between mz
: and mie; so much so, that the natives would feel it to be a
material violation of the laws of grammar, to use one where’ .-
. the other ought to be used; but upon what grounds the dis- |
tinction is made, unless for the sake of euphony, is not known.
4 Mi and mié are both used in the objective case; mze is never
| used as an objective case.
| 2d. O is the ordinary word for the second person singular;
when it follows the verb to which it is the nominative, and
) that verb ends in the vowel a, a coalescence takes place be- |
tween the o and final a, and forms @; thus, instead of saying,
tonda o ayé, you love him, it is invariably rendered tondé ayé.
In the same way, it is incorporated with the verb, when it is H
the objective case, and is governed by the verb. ’Wée, which
is a contraction of the emphatic form, is also used as an objec- |
tive of the second person singular. Oma or owa, which signi-
fies person, is also used for the second person singular in the 4
: nominative case, but not very frequently.
3d. There are three forms for the third person singular of
the pronoun, viz. e, é and yé ; of these, e is the ordinary form ;
, e following the verb to which it is either the object or subject, i
incorporates itself with the final syllable, as the case of the i
second person just mentioned, and becomes é or yé ; the latter,
: yé, is sometimes, though not frequently, used as a nominative ; |
| more commonly, it is used as an objective, and when thus '
used, it is to be regarded as a contraction of emphatic ayé. ;
Ei, before a verb in the historical tense, commencing with a, 4
always, in obedience to the laws of euphony, disappears ; j
thus, they never say, e avangt yama yodu, but simply avangt i
| yama, &e. 4
4th. The plural forms are the same in the nominative and 4
objective cases, except that when it follows a verb ending in a, \
the incipient a of the first and second persons disappears, and we ]
have ’zuwe and ’nuwe. Azuwe is sometimes pronounced az’wé ;
but this is a contracted form. W421, wa and wu are not properly
ti
ii
nena nt eT



ess ; SSS EIS — o i :
, aH :
| | | k
j tt
aa | ‘
a 22 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
a | CW
io : personal pronouns, but definite pronouns used as such. Wao
a i is the only form of the third person plural, and is the same in
ES iH the nominative and objective cases.
vi di 5th. The forms of mié, awé and ayé are used when some-

7 i thing emphatic is intended; awé and ayé are also used in con.
~ ll nection with verbs in the past and historical tenses, in whici: r
|| case the verb uniformly drops its prefix a. When these two

: H words occur in the objective, they are always of the contracted .
fF forms, ’wé or ’yé. |

; | 6th. The third person singular, viz. e, when it refers to some '

|| object present, and no antecedent is expressed, is applied in- ._ *
I discriminately to objects of the male, female and neuter gen- ~ ie
at ||| ders, whether those objects be of the human species, of brutes,
i or inanimate objects. If the antecedent is expressed, then the

i Hi definite pronoun (of which we shall presently speak) is used

oe. | in all cases, except when some person or the Deity is alluded

Pe | to. Wao is never used, except in connection with human .
— || beings.

| 7th. The reflective pronouns are formed by suffixing mé to

a | the emphatic forms and the plural numbers; thus, miémé, my-
ae self; awémé, yourself; ayémé, himself; azuwemé, ourselves ;
7] anuwémé, yourselves ; and waomé, themselves. a
A | 8th. The relative position of the personal pronoun and the 3
he | verb is variable. When it is the subject. of the verb, it must
me | always be in juxta-position with it; but may be before or ss
| after the verb. When it goes before the verb, it sometimes £
a disappears, for the sake of euphony (see note 8, above) ; some-
oi times it incorporates itself with the initial vowel of the verb,
A | but, in most cases, stands unconnected with the verb. When -
a | it follows the verb, it may be incorporated with it or stand
| alone, according to circumstances. |
as | If there are two pronouns in the same clause, the one of
at which is the nominative, and the other the objective of the
rf. | verb, there will be two modes of construction, according to the
aa position of the nominative; if it goes before the verb, then the
et | objective case follows, and is either incorporated with or stands |
‘| | in juxta-position to the verb by which it is governed; if, on’ i
) | - the contrary, the pronoun nominative follows the verb, it must f
=. || stand between it and the objective case ;-thus, anuwe lendi wao
| nana, ye did thus; or thus, which is the more common con- *
mt struction, ne be denda’nuwe wao nénd ; i.e. and did you them
q thus. For a more full illustration of these principles, see spe-
: eimens of Mpongwe, with an interlineation of English, at the — 7
at end of the Grammar.
|
aa
Se ose : \
| | ae
| :
NA , |
——————$————————E



| |
(>
| |
he
| ETYMOLOGY. 23
RELATIVE PRONOUNS. |
|
38. The relative pronoun for who is 0, when no question is |
asked. It can be distinguished from the second person singu- | ]
lar only by its relative position in a sentence; i.e. by coming |
r between its antecedent and the verb; thus, oma o denda ydnd, |
the person who did this. The plural of o is, wi or wa (if these i]
be not the definite pronoun) ;* thus, mdngi wi denda nand, the |
people who did so. The definite pronouns are also used as
= relative pronouns, irrespective of the character of the antece-
a dent; i. e. whether the relative refers to persons or things;
thus, rera yazyo yi re g’orowa; i. e. our Father who is in |
: heaven,t} &c.
| 39. The interogative relative pronouns are, mande, who;
omande, what person; and ande and sé, what; osaun nde, what j
for; and the compound ez’ande, what thing (compounded of '
eza, thing, and ande, what). Mande is rendered plural by
having wa prefixed; thus, anlaga wamande? what people ? i,
; Zye is sometimes used in the sense of what, in connection I
with a noun; thus, egombe zyé? what time? Oma joined to i
the word ’edu, any, which, &c., omedu becomes whosoever,
: any one, &c. The pronoun (definite) yi, in connection with i
; the auxiliary re, is often used in the sense of that, which;
? thus, ndaga yi re, the affair which, &c. &c.
40. The demonstrative pronouns are, yind, this; plural, sind,. \
. these, and ydnd, that ; plural, sand, those ; and their compounds 4
) meyind, mesind, meydnd and mesdnd ; all of which are treated |
of more fully under the head of adjectives. Ii
, DEFINITE PRONOUNS. i:
41. We come now to treat of one part of speech which belongs \
to this language, and its kindred dialects, and is perhaps entirely A
unknown to the dialects of the northern portion of the African : i
continent. It is denominated the definite pronoun, but not with i
philosophical accuracy. It is intimately interwoven with the i!
entire structure of the language, and is used for such a variety |
| of purposes, that it is difficult to assign it a place under any of
the established divisions of speech. It partakes of the nature i
| of a personal pronoun, and is often used as such ; it performs I
Sieeecs scleabanciite ee behead sieoall Du cameniaa alas |
* It is not possible to determine whether wi and wa be the plural of 0, or whe- if
E ther they be definite pronouns used as relatives. i
{| We cannot elass what we call definite pronouns, under the head of relatives ; if
for, though they are used as such, this is by no means the principal or only office i
which they perform. it
i
i
i
ie
7
neem)



ae , let
a ime mat ——— ee .

a al

: ee
= |
m 6 ?
< | |

\ I 24 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
aa |
a HH the office of a relative pronoun; and, in such cases, identifies
Ex Hh the antecedent with admirable precision; it serves as a connect-
ae i ing link between two nouns, when one of them is in the posses-.
i I) sive case; they perform the office of a demonstrative pronoun ;
Hs, i they incorporate themselves with all verbs which have a vowel
ee i for their incipient syllable ; they serve as an auxiliary in form-.

g ' ing the infinitive mood; sometimes they perform the functions

‘ i of a preposition ; they incorporate themselves with, and are
*’ i indispensable to the inflections of the great mass of adjectives:

Mt in the language,* &c. &e.
gi 42. There are four of these pronouns, corresponding with
, i the four declensions of nouns; but each one of which has

a) three forms, both for the singular and plural numbers, accord-

ing as they take the vowels a,¢ oro. This will be better un-

as | derstood by the following table:
es | SINGULAR. PLURAL, ;
| i Ist Declension, yi, Yd, Yo, Si, 8d, SO. :

2 | 2d : Zl, 2A, ZO, Yt, Yd, yo.

ai | 3d - nyt, nya, nyo, mi, Ma, Mo.

o; | 4th “ wi, Wd, Wo, yt, Yd, Yo.
| | ExpLanations.—When the definite pronoun is the nomina-
oe i | tive to a verb of the present tense, which almost invariably

7 | commences with a consonant, it takes 7 for its vowel; and -
ie |. ] So it takes the same vowel when it acts as an auxiliary I
| | to the infinitive mood. In all cases, when the word which
oo} | follows it, commences with a vowel, it is impossible to tell

i what vowel properly belongs to it, for it invariably drops

| its vowel, and incorporates itself with the following word.

os | Thus, in the phrase, mongi w'alendi yind, the people who did

rq) | this, ‘we cannot tell what vowel belonged to w’, inasmuch as it Q

&: Is rejected for the sake of Incorporation. The definite pronoun

ni | is never found in the objective case with 7. When it acts asa

im? (| connecting link between nouns, the latter of which commences

| with a consonant, it invariably takes a; thus, onwana wa 4

i + Jems, i.e. the child it of James. When it is prefixed to an |

| adjective commencing with a consonant, it sometimes takes a,

' area ire
: * The following examples will illustrate the varied use of this anomalous particle :
a ist. As a personal pronoun, nyare yi nya orove, the cow it eats grass; 2d. Asa
af ' relative pronoun, rere yazyo yi re g’orowa, our Father who is in heaven; 3d. Asa |
Rat connecting link between two nouns, onwana w’ Angila, the child it of Angila; 4th.
Ps As a demonstrative pronoun, Abambo mo denda yend, the devils who (the very ones)
a do so; 5th. Incorporated with verbs, thus, mongi wayuwi, the people who died.
= :
. |
‘ y /
4
ee li



’ . ETC.
EXHIBITING THE DECLENSION OF NOUNS, ADJECIVES, ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS, ETC
Nene
eens
i) as a
| roam atea| os 2 DING TO THEIR CLASSES. nO ia ae eee ORR 2
ae | tee} Sl el | ADJECTIVES AND ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS OF ALL CASSES; ALSO NUMERAL ADJECTIVES 40 CO een a nen ee ela was, |
! ees 5 : PR Se Srp Pe pI EOI PAL OID OI DS GRO MOE iI AP oR OAL LASS
Oo ale Bie | ad oo | SECOND C . J ee
| w NOUNS | cise (= po | ea | ADJECTIVES AND ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS OF THE FIRST CASS. be ig ae ee oe St nae.
4 & e & q 8 Le ee ee a ee" a ena. oe |
Oo ras : ; So eS |
| a OF ALL FOUR OF THE | = S28 |e aa qe z z sisi leila Pe x ga.
Po DECLENSIONS. 9 (SESiaia|s2 | Al ; 2 7. / The ordinals, ot co ia Cur Se |
1 o> | Se ester Sey | eee . ae . a wee 2s ‘yas og can be used only inthe seesas)
| & | & lore Sis] ob | 8 es B 3 ‘3 ee ES ae a8 singular number. * |
i A ia ie Meilm | > x ° pa a el Bis nm Oo a s Fi Black. |
=a see Ee | | | | | | | a | eee (a Eaves Goi Bad Short. |Long.| Many. | Small. Two. Three. ee ill
| | at | | this. this. that. that. sweet. bitter. strong. hat, | Red, Brown, §c.| White. | Second. | flare. ee |_| oe nambe |
ed am | a es acme | eee bi mbe mpe |nda | nyenge | nyango : at a
«toe : alé ‘ “ a ies sea eta Naan ak spe : : : : imbani iraro mpolu mbia x E : : . tvani nam |
| w |Singular, nyare (cow) | yi |’am | 4 | € lyam jy |yé | yazyo yani yao yinad | meyina | yana meyana | yonigi | yinonit | yingulu | yimpl | yatenatena yaPEDY 1% ? impolu | imbia | imbe impe | inda | inyenge | inyango | mbani | tyaro a : paeee |
® |Plural, sinyare (cows)| si |’am “lsam [sa | sé sazyo sani $20 sind mesina | sana mesana | sonigi sinoni singulu | simpy | satenatena sapupu ; : : 1 bit 1 mpe |nda | nyenge | nyango te eee |
he % ’ : io > ‘cc “ A ¥ is i A saa Rn as _ ‘ ‘ ‘ 1 int atenatena yapupu yimbani yiraro mpom mbia : H ! ’ serail inhveit tyaro tyani } nam |
— |Sing. swaka (kife) jyi |’am | | yam jya | ye yazyo yani yao yina meying yana meyana | yonigi yinoni yingulu | yimp) a simpolu | simbia | simbe impe | inda | sinyenge | sinyang | 4
me Plu. siswaka (mives) | si |’am *\sam | sa se sazyo sani sao sina mesina sana mesana sonigl simont singulu sinapt satenatena sapupu : }
i ! | &<
i i i | i
: fs . : i ezenge ezango : ec |
S A z s A Aaen ae ‘ ‘ ‘ : ; ziraro evolu evia eve epe ela 4 | !
| & Sing. egara (chest) ce ’am | “ | |zam |zi | zé | zazyo zani Zao zina mezina | zainad mezana | zonigi zinoni zingulu | zimpl | Zatenatena zapupu | zimbani se ites ‘as pe la | yenge yango vani Taro tani iz
i et 66 ‘ec A y : x . Para wn Rak aA sre : . . : " e UL | H
| 2 Plu. gara (chests) yi | ope “ YEE | YS ME. | YA2VO sone os vee Mean | See EE | Nome yao | yuan ea _— Paced zimbani | zirao evolu evia eve epe |ela | ezenge | ezango : eink | *
Sing. ezango (book) zi |?am *“l\zam |za | ze | zazyo zani Zao zina mezina | zana mezana | zonigi zinoni zingulu | zimpi | Zatenatena zapupu sala ie is pe la | yenge yango vani raro i t
% sé A v ane : AA 24 non ak Pin ence * . . : 7 up i
| w% |Plu. yango (books) yi -am “lyam jya | ye yazyo yani yao yina meyina | yana meyana | yonigi vinoni yingulu | yimyy | yatenatena yapup ri |
; : ; ‘ - 5 |
| ‘ 3 i z es es ipe | ila | inyenge | inyang ; é “c
} : > ; aaK Reh non i oe : : ; ; : abani| nyiraro | ivolu ivia 1 ia ni
| CG |Sing. idambe (sheep) inyi|’am | “ | “ |nyam|/nya| nyé | nyazyo nyani nyao nyina | menyina | nyana | menyira! nyonigi | nyinoni | nyingulu} nyimpu| nyatenatena | nyapupu jnyim b Y¥ ampole | ambia | ambe ape |ala | amenge | amango ambant | araro = <
¢ A y . 7 A 2 oA AA ann soe . . . . ‘ " " :
| & |Plu. adambe (sheep) Imi |’am | “* | * |mam{ma |mé | mazyo mani mao mina memina | mana memina | monigi | minoni | mingulu | minpy| matenatena mapupu ical aaiee ) Soe ivia ive ipe ila | inyenge | inyango j a “
| A y ss . | son 1A AA AA oes . + : . ‘ i
& Sing. ikinda (plantain)] nyi |’am ss | 38 ayer nya | ny€ | nyazyo nyani | nyao nyina | menyina | nyana | menyana| nyonigi | nyinoni nyingulu) nyimpe nyatenatena nyapape ny y. ampola | ambia | ambe ape |ala | amenge | amango ambani | araro |
& | Plu, akinda (plantains) mi | ’am “| © |mam}ma | mé | mazyo mani | mao mina memina | mana memana | monigi | minoni | mingulu | mimpy| matenatena mapupu i
: ge | owango
1 ji $ ie ombe ope ola oweng' y gs Beanies il «
5 a ia en m fase ge se ge j ; ni | wiraro ompolu | ombia c ows es i rena |
: Sing. olonda (nut) | wi |’am | « |wam|wa | wé | wazyo wani | wao wina mewina | wana mewana | wonigi | winoni | wingulu | wimpp —_ wapupu |wimba: ae ies cages ipe ila | imienge | imiango | imbani | taro He us
i ns E : : 6ersleee A a Hs el Seen ae aan E peas eae i i i j atenatena apupu : es
| Plu, ilonda (nuts) |yi |’am x yam jya |ye | yazyo yom, 3 8 yi. Ce |S ae meyana | yonigt | yinonl yingulu yimpy | ¥' aatee eas Le ie a \wimbani | wiraro ompolu | ombia ombe ope |ola | owenge | owango | — sa ails stant “6
Ss Sing. olavi (river) bes "am “ |wam wa | we | wazyo wani | wao wina mewina | wana mewana | wonigi | winonl wingulu | wimpy | wa eee oe “4 impolu_ | imbia imbe ipe ila | imienge | imiango | nba |
HT * “ce ¥ + see eet ACA a ese . . : G |
= Plu. ilavi (rivers) jyi oe ss j;yam j}ya | ye | yazyo yani yao yina meyina | yaaa meyana | yonigi yimoni yingulu | yimpyt yatenatena yapup | “ |
| 94 | : pa bi oxalic ope | ola | owenge | owango : mA |
; 4 » : en +A a a sass : . “2 : ¢ wimbani | wiraro ompolu | ombia . 16 atani |
= idciiy. cucial Guan) wi Cam “| | wamiwa | wé | wazyo wani wao wind mewina | wana mewana | wonigi | winoni | winguln | wimpy | Wwatenatena wapupu ae ie si ape |ala | awenge | awango | avani ara a |
A 4 . 2 on sia AA AA ae . : . ‘ Ks }
| & {| Ple. anomi (men iyi j’am | “ | |wam/wa | we | wazyo wani wao wina | mewina | wana mewana | wonigi | winoni | wingulu| wimpu| watenatena Wa ERA j 4 1 i Eiéibio ope | ola | owenge | owango : Sie ee i
a. anc melee n 2 : nok He RA ASR ie: : : aad . watenatena wapupu |wimbani | wiraro ompolu | om Sing. onwana (child) | wi |’am 6. Wan | We | WE | Wy aZyo wani wao wina | mewina | wana mewana | wonigi | winoni | wingulu | wimpu Mie ane casas ape |ala | awenge | awang |
e. A y x reORL “An im non janine : . ° ° i
Plu. anwana (children)) yi ee 66 | ee — wa | We | wazyo wani wao winat | mewina | wana mewaéana | wonigi | winoni | wingulu| wimpu| watentena wapupu cc olgat aed
i le SR AAA AAA
cS oa ere



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i three fees ERASERS OTE RE A Be Gt ae On}
tt : } See} : in Se SSS SEO a Peas PIAKTO) Vi RM pe bat
| ing 83 ee ee el ee eee MSO VE’ eo.
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i Se at iin Se Brite EAR | 22d cageeaL tl cae ~ i ext eans
i 4 Het82 OYN Sa i 98 wes Mise; os tl sacee 12 | (awoo) SLB yee Aw IEP SS (
4 i nda insyo:} > Oysey SY | BY SEB : (| es by (Stial) alta! pg vadn z's
.) i indg inseas | oysee} $2 Bay nyse | | _ je) (evirol) staweie s\Eprey | s
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Fe | Exp: ‘ Fog | =e . =
eth: | : ela inswec NS Ss Pacietlinnpw i? °° 1 was tddy | Witedo) aiwae vaveueeiy | 3
Zi tive tofle Insane): Gesmiche-$ milage) | ants | co-op ims ate)
S| comme EM] TESEP Su ine paebig 9 © | meat tna, | routes yaa ATES
es ss 2 inssag” = GySBES} Sy arte iy | EST} ds | 2° Ghood) GgABSS gw vAP Sy
i ‘ i irtR. cenneis Sy t Des 5) sai ks ‘Bae eit ated , Ol eet
ee | So it tle insyed GYSSE SY PY eres | rE PO fy | "(Blood yosnay SERS 4
Lh ae iY i { j At m }
: : to the | 4 > —
i i Tafieaaeates suc eae eae ci Wibenas henner [92° | 1-4 t : i ell call
J | follow:!!# FES CRE 4 OSB ONG PESEE jee {C0} Aria” | ane piven (qovile) sdiisht ye nvey ayo
X ; | a et as js 22 || a tRaie SS eee ry
} what ala igen es) oyssee Sret bagrertensroy tk’? | pees Spier | (qasile) odtOBR' oA Se |
Ay Ht . - LER EEL 8? -OYS BUG OY FY LT PORES YY PS} |, eres? P Peer | (artanereiey ) BHAT Ug VAY EE}
ge i 1 Vole jase) oyssidys Sct ndbern jeerssice 2? } | aes Hert | (aitieittel) DEBE NEP els
E 1 ' ! : } } ‘ |
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. F { . . eek hoe i. i3 a | o:) te i i
a i this wola inswey oynsws Sw pew easy Poh? | oresst | aig | Birt) SbiolG venvaq SO}
Ds : (| : 7. ila rosy o SEP 3Y ee wide) aaal 2 | sh-by iy { } = G Key :
Ps i) is rejeGia Seay Heyy OY ped Ci eget |, SERS TY | (atua) shalt SAP j
i E=s 2 a IGSWrap OYREW NSW) Hilw HES Wy Yat za ) SRA RE SS Croyit) ivAlo- sass ee ¥
3 ii ES | ‘ bo aeert tices ahs hy i | Gt cute ; Tih ote, fers ll ies
4 i NeVeua jnsy M) ONT 5Y | eep ATLA yy a BEE YO ero ve ev EE NEE
% fi connec | ey | 4 |
Ss it j | i } { i =
i : lactis cere odecawptaw| ipwidetnied Mh >: | mantdcs ES vad ate a
Hl with ae ee Cee re | eer = ba: | BA SOLVE (iBic1) iON Lywed YY
il Jems ro ints were} OYSB WOO W: WF PEELS Wy Bs | | geass Shape | (f5ert) THs hp REE!
il dj a ola jag jo oysew Sw} “aw Letis vay 3 mes Shae | HES) acer rHe le we, pup
“it 5 | bee j re | } 2 i IAS a Ne +3 a 1
i AGJECU ala: icy po OYSBW ips Wf ORe a 3.3 | REY Ue | dorhtido) si wiral shop eh
i ——, Locals Bae ,
E a ite iene etal mt
{ ON a0 7 SS LITA RELY ITO EL RI FLEEING MRI EER ROP TR aN RR A STEN RE ERIN A SO CTMEME ETE RCN RE |
i * -
Hi The:
Ny tst. As :
7 ' relative }
se eH connectit
i As aden
| do so; 5:
| eee fi - Pg siingâ„¢
f |
i Ps
uN eee ——— aa
——————— ————— —



I
|
|
ETYMOLOGY. 25
sometimes 7, and, more frequently, 0; we have this exempli-
fied in the three following words: yingulu, strong ; yatenatena,
red; and yonigi, sweet. When it is in the objective case, it 4
invariably takes 0; it takes o in the nominative only when. |
something very definite or special is intended; thus, mdngz, |
wo denda, the people who (i. e. the very people) did thus, &c. &e. |
43. The definite pronoun is never used without an antece-
dent. Asa nominative, it invariably stands before the verb, |
and next to it. Its antecedent may stand before it, or may be |
separated by several intervening words; the antecedent |
can always be identified by being of the same number and de-
clension of the definite pronoun. When the definite pronoun |
is in the objective case, and is governed by the verb, it ordina-
rily stands next to it.
ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS. 4
c
44. These three parts of speech are grouped under one head, Fr
because there are a large number of particles in the language, §
which are indiscriminately used in the three-fold character of |
adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions. The particles go and |
ne are examples of this. The former is not only used as a pre- 4
; position, conjunction and adverb, but as an auxiliary to the aq
infinitive—its meaning in any particular place being deter- 4
mined by its relative position in the sentence. When it pre- }
cedes a verb which commences with a, and there is a pronoun
coming between them, it not only incorporates the pronoun with
itself, but, in this compound character, it incorporates itself with li
the verb; thus, instead of the phrase, go e avieni, when he id
came, they say, gw’avient.
The particle ne, na, nz, or nle, nla, nie (it is pronounced in all :
these ways) is likewise used in this three-fold character. When
it accompanies the verb of existence (as in the Latin phrase, ;
est mihi, | have), it gives it the idea of possession; thus, are na |
swaka, literally, he is with a knife, for he has a knife. Suffixed |
to a neuter verb, it forms a distinct conjugation, and gives it
an active signification; thus, e bendina mie, he is angry at or i
with me. Used as a copulative conjunction, or as a preposi-
tion signifying with, it expresses the idea of accession in either H
case, and it matters very little whether it be called a preposi- 4
tion or conjunction ; thus, the phrase, nkombe, nogwéli, vigé- |
géni, may be translated, either the sun, and the moon, and the
stars, or the sun, with the moon, with the stars. Nor is there
t any essential difference between these two words, in the great 1
majority of cases, in the English language, though we are ac-
4



le , — ie
r|
a |
I
ie i 26 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
an
2 | customed to call one a preposition and the other a conjunction.
te tl Notwithstanding this circumstance, however, it will be
ei Hi necessary to offer a few remarks on each one of these parts of
ae. | i speech separately.
|
Ee i PREPOSITIONS.
| 45. The number of prepositions in the language is not large, :
a but those which are used have great latitude of meaning.
i Sometimes the same word, in two different places, have mean- |
aa ings directly opposite to each other. Thus, go, in one connex-
ed | ; aa neces
| ion, signifies from, as mt pua go Mbenga, Tam from Benga;
HH and in another, it has the signification of to, as mz kénda go
Be i | Mbenga, {am going to Benga. Before persons, it is changed
i into gore, aS aromi mie gore ’wé,i.e. he sent me to you. If .
8 | it goes before a noun or verb commencing with a vowel, it ;
fe < invariably incorporates itself with it, according to the gene- f
| ral principles of contraction and coalescence.
mai | The next most common preposition is ni, na or ne, which |
a also incorporates itself with the noun it governs, provided the
mi | noun commences with a vowel. It has much latitude of mean-
aa ing, and signifies in, with, by, for, &c. Va, in, in the space of,
eit | é&c. is also much used, but especially in connexion with nouns '
ee | i of time. Nd, which is used only in conjunction with the j
i. | | second and third persons singular of the personal pronoun, has
oe the meaning of by, as ndé, by him, ndé@, by you, &c. Piére and
iY j baraba, near, and a few others, are also used.
mC 46. The deficiency in the number of prepositions, is made
| up chiefly by tne use of nouns and verbs; for example, to ex-
wl | press the idea of between, a noun is used which has the force
7, of the middle or centre. They have no word for up and down,
ll but these ideas are involved in the words banda, to go up, and
ef sumina, to come down; i.e. they are equivalent to the English
a words descend and ascend.
aS || 47. Prepositions, in this language, invariably stand before, :
i and next to the nouns which are governed by them; so that they
+ | are, with special propriety, denominated prepositions. In the
Grebo, Mandingo, and perhaps all of the dialects of Northern
: Africa, the prepositions, with a few exceptions, follow the
‘ : nouns which are governed by them. : $
. f \
3 \
as) CONJUNCTIONS.
: 48. There are words that are used both as copulative and
: disjunctive conjunctions, the most common of which are, nz, na, ‘
Bd] and; ge, gend and geni, and or nor, according to circum-
4 |
RT secre iA batt -



a nce ere ee eee a aad oer Te OI OO POOR hae. ope AIM ce Say ee Se ia,
ETYMOLOGY. 27 jj
stances ; mbé, or ; kao, until, except, &c.; ja, if, when; kdnde
and kdnde ne, because; kambé and kambénle, wherefore, that is
to say ; inle, saying, to this effect, so that ; yend and ndnd, so, |
thus, after this fashion; kd, so, and ké, too, &e. &c. These
2 conjunctions are extensively used as auxiliaries to certain
| moods and tenses of the verb, without which, their meaning |
| cannot be fully developed.
ADVERBS.
i |
49. The following are the principal adverbs in use, viz: vé |
vénd, gun and gunu, here; vdvd and gogo, there ; gwi, where ; |
| goboso, ahead; of time: vate vénd, now; pelé, this moment ; {
sunge, quick ;. néganéga, quickly ; nléld, to-day; jau, yester-
day; m2lé, to-morrow ; jajangwi, presently, by and by; ja, go
| or gu’, when. Of quantity: polu, much, very much; nyenge, j
many, &c. Of doubt: vendi and venditua, perhaps, possibly ;
: vangajéné, perchance. Of negation: nyawe and nyawege, no.
To these may be added, yend, ndnd, so, likewise; vdre, kanle va i
| and fa, which participate also of the character of conjunctions. |
Some of the above words, both conjunctions and adverbs, are
used in the character of nouns, yend and ndnd particularly ; e |
i pa tinda nani, he does not like so, for he does not like that
fashion. On the other hand, some of our adverbs can be ex- :
pressed in this language, only by the use of a noun and an {
adjective; thus, frequently, is expressed by egombe ezenge,
many times: and egombe zodu, all times, for constantly.
INTERJECTIONS. |
50. The Mpongwe, like most of the dialects of Africa,
abounds in exclamations; some of the more common are, emé d
(prolonged accent on the first syllable), to be sure, did you :
ever hear the like! ngd, indeed! is it true! méngeswéni, who
ever heard the like! ngwé yam,oh,my mother! rétz, true! giligili, 3
true! tangani! oh! white man. Besides which, there is a q
common practice of calling the mother by name, a habit that 1
arose from feelings of affection in the first instance, but com- i
\ monly used in a frivolous and irreverent manner. These ex- q
clamations of wonder and surprise are generally accompanied :
by very significant gesticulation, as striking the hands together, 4
beating the thighs, and by varying the expression of the coun- 4
tenance, with a facility that civilized men can never equal. ‘
4
—————



5 '
|
. | :
2
a 28 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
ae ii ;
ae) , VERBS.
S| |
et | 51. The Mpongwe verb is the most remarkable part of the )
i language. It is almost unrivalled for the variety and extent ,
sal of its inflections, but is, nevertheless, perfectly methodical in
= || all those inflections, and may be comprehended without dif
oo if ficulty.
ee ‘ REGULAR VERB. ,
| 52. All the verbs in this language, with the exception of
s f eight or ten, are regular; i.e. they are inflected through all
the moods, tenses, voices and conjugations, with unvarying
at | uniformity. The characteristics of a regular verb are: Ist,
Pa HI that their incipient letter (in the radical or simplest form of
< Hi the verb) must be a consonant; 2d, that they must be of two
i. or more syllables ; and 3d, they must always terminate in a.
oe | The consonants with which a regular verb can commence,
.). | are, b, d, f, 9, k, m, n, p, 8, t, and sh, each one of which has its
| reciprocal consonant, into which it is invariably changed, in
he a order to form the imperative mood, and certain past tenses of
a the indicative ; thus, if the verb commences with 6, in the pre-
fe | sent of the indicative, which may be considered the root or
al | ground form, b must be changed into w to form the impera-
: tive; thus, mi binga, I take; wonga, take thou.* If the word
- | commence with d, then d is uniformly changed into /; thus,
my ii mi denda, 1 do; lenda, do thou; f is changed into v or w, 7 into
- | y, k into g, p into v, s into z, t into r, sh into zy; m and n have
a || no reciprocal letters; so that words commencing with these,
i (|) are the same in the indicative and the imperative; in all other
| | respects they are regular, and are therefore classed under the
ma Ci general head of regular verbs. The following table will illus-
= | trate these interchanges more fully; thus:
. yi
e me bonga, I take, wonga, take thou.
\ mi denda, I do, lenda, do thou.
: mi felia, 1 call, welia, call thou.
mt jona, I kill, yona, kill thou. !
> ; .mt kamba, | speak, gamba, speak thou.
t f mi panga, | make, vanga, make thou. 3
i Se er
: f * In avery few cases, b is changed into »v, instead of w; thus, from bela, to want,
: if comes aveli, he wanted; and so, baga, to bring, is changed into vaga ; but these
: i: are not frequent.
ibe
- Yh
i
|
a
—
a, :



| iy
.. q
I
7 i
ETYMOLOGY. 29 |
i 4
; mi songa, I follow, zona, follow thou.
i mi tonda, 1 love, , ronda, love thou. .
mt sheva, I play, zyevd, play thou. lf
mi mwéra, | scratch, mwéra, scratch thou. i
mi nunguna, | help, nunguna, help thou.
Yi The great mass of the regular verbs in the language, in
Kf their ground forms, are of two syllables; perhaps one-fifth of
V4 the whole are of three syllables; a still smaller number are of
rf four, and only one verb in the language is known to have five
4 syllables.
‘ CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.
| 53. Having defined a regular verb, we may proceed a step
further, and develope another feature quite as remarkable as |
the preceding. Every regular verb has a variety of deriva- j
tive forms, not unlike what are called conjugations in Hebrew |
erammars; and, for the sake of convenience, we adopt this 4
term. All of these conjugations are derived from the radical |
form of the verb, by changes on the final syllable, and by suf-
fixes, but never by prefixes as inthe Hebrew. These conjuga- |
tions, of which there are ten or twelve, are simple or com-
pound, and will be explained separately.
| SIMPLE CONJUGATIONS.
54. Of these there are five; and, for the sake of convenience,
| we denominate the simplest form of the verb the Radical Con-
jugation. This expresses the simplest idea of the verb, with-
out any contingent or accessory meaning, and corresponds with
the Kal conjugation of the Hebrew; thus, mi ténda, I love; a
mi kamba, | speak, &e. :
55. The Frequentative or Habitual Conjugation.—This is
derived from the radical, by suffixing ga; thus, ténda, to love; ;
tondaga, to love habitually, or frequently, more generally the
| latter; and it is therefore denominated the frequentative con-
| jugation. There are a few cases where it is used a little
differently: jenaga has the force of looking about or around, ’
L instead of looking frequently or habitually. These exceptions,
however, are not numerous.
: 56. The Causative Conjugation is derived from the radical, 2
by changing a final into 2, and by suffixing za; thus, ténda, to
love; tondiza, to cause to love; kamba, to speak; kambiza, to
cause to speak. In a few cases, this conjugation is made by
changing a final into za, instead of 7za; thus, bendia, to cause
Ob. ;
Z sa RUTRRUeriem ETT



igi a See Se meu et
" BF fete Ser ters ers Sa EAS ETSCHCARSPTERETS aPTREREIRTA DT pepbpcUOaNGcaapnc ouiaaenaa oe aarmedaoaa nae aE TTRENARENORENT aaa eitecnnntemn n= —
ey |
a : |
%
my | 30 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
“a to be angry, is equivalent to bendiza, and many verbs prefer |
4 | that form of the causative. The foree of this conjugation, as
| | the name implies, is to cause an action. It gives neuter verbs
ria) - an active signification; thus, from nana, to sleep, comes nani-
ae za, to. cause some one to sleep, and in this respect, corresponds 2
“te with the Azphil conjugation in Hebrew.* ta
Py 57. The Relative Conjugation, which implies the perform-
: | ance of an action for, to or in behalf of some one, is formed 1
a from the radical, by changing a final into ina, or simply by
| suffixing na to the radical; thus, kamba, to speak ; kambina or |
i kambana,,to speak to or for some one.
a) 28. The Indefinite Conjugation, is thus denominated, inas-
much as it describes general or indefinite actions. It is formed
ow) | by suffixing the imperative to the indicative, or what is sub- |
a) | stantially the same thing, by a repetition of the radical form, a
oe) || adopting the reciprocal consonant for the first letter of the :
a | second part of the word ; thus, kamba, to speak, kambagamba, :
ms) to speak at random, or without an object; and so, kénda, to
ee walk, becomes kéndagénda, to walk about or for amusement. |
ail ~ 59. These different conjugations are all exhibited at one
7. | view in the following table ; thus: f
Pe) | 1. Radical Conjugation—hkamba, to speak.
ee | | 2. Frequentative “ kambaga, to speak habitually.
mi 3. Causative “ kambiza, to cause to speak. |
| : ; 4, Relative “. kambina, to speak to or for some one.
a 5. Indefinite “ kambagamba, to speak at random.
mi it 60. There is another form of the verb, which is sometimes
mat Ct used, but as it cannot be inflected, like the above, through the
= if different moods and tenses, it is not classed with them. It is
ma if formed by prefixing re to the radical, and imparts to the verb
ma (UP the sense of violent, energetic or very thorough action; thus,
mt jena, to see, to look, &c. becomes jenare, which means to look
ma it thoroughly, to make thorough search, &c.
4 COMPOUND CONJUGATIONS.
Fe 61. By combining two or more of these simple conju gaions
: . we may form as many as six (perhaps more) compound conju- :
val | * This form of the verb in Mponewe, is not, either in form or signification, un- +
ny like toa Greek inflection, asin the word Uborigw, to cause to drink. There are afew j
4 other verbal affinities between this and the Greek language, as the following:
i i ENGLISH MPONGWE, GREEK.
E Open, Nunguna, Avoiyw.
: E Angel, Angila (man’s name), Ayysnos.
a Many, Mpolu or polu, Todds.
; : These, however, may be accidental
, : $ i
1 ee eae
rie |
hs : :



|
| i |
iV
as (a
] ETYMOLOGY. 3k | :
1
gations; thus, the frequentative and causative combined form i
. 2 ° ‘%
kambizaga, to cause to, speak frequently or habitually; the i
causative and relative united make kambinaza, to cause to |
speak in behalf of some one; the frequentative and relative (i
a combined make kambinaga, to speak to or for some one fre- |
- quently ; the frequentative and indefinite make kambagamba,
1.e. to be in the habit of speaking at random; the causative |
| and indefinite make kambagambiza, to cause to speak at ran- i
dom; by combining the relative and indefinite, we get kamba-
gambina, to speak at random with some one. The compound |
conjugations are exhibited at one view in the following table ; |
thus: |
|
: 1. kambizaga, to cause to speak habitually.
2. kambinaza, to cause to speak for some one. |
| 3. kambinaga, to speak for some one frequently. |
4, kambagambaga, to speak at random frequently. |
5. kambagambiza, to cause to speak at random. |
| 6. kambagambina, to speak at random with some one. |
} 62. Thus from this simple radical verb kamba, to speak, we |
have as many as four simple derivative, and six compound
conjugations, each one of which not only has a clear well de- |
. ° e . i
fined meaning of its own, but each one is inflected by the |
same rules and principles through all the moods, voices and
| tenses which belong to the verb. Every regular verb, there-
| fore, may be inflected into several hundred different forms;
and, if we add to these the numerous shades of meaning it ac-
quires by the aid of auxiliary particles and the negative into-
nations, the extent of its flexibility is almost incredible.*
AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS OF THE VERB, ACTIVE
AND PASSIVE VOICES.
63. The distinction between active or neuter, or transitive
and intransitive verbs does not hold in connexion with Mpong-
* Some of the above conjugations are used more than the others, and those that
are compounded less generally than those that are simple ; and whilst every regular
verb can be inflected through all these conjugations, moods, tenses, &e. it must not
be supposed that every one is actually and frequently so inflected, for this would
imply a versatility and activity of mind which uncultivated tribes are not supposed
P to possess. No native either, it is probable, would be able to trace one of these
: : verbs consecutively through all its inflections, yet he could never mistake the pre-
cise import of any part of it that might be used in his hearing, and would always
| 4 be able to use any tense or mood that the occasion might require. And it should
| be further noticed, that the people do not always adhere rigidly to the idiom of the
language ; thus, instead of saying, e pangizé gonga, he caused him to drink, they
would frequently say, e panga yé e 70nga, i. e. he made him he drank,
me Z



(i ena , : f :
‘ ath i Pas re —————EEE ee ee
m 6
: } ;
» | .
os | :
oo \ 32 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
i i
ee we verbs; the same word may be neuter in one conjugation,
fe | and active in another, as may be seen by reference to what is
a | | said under the head of conjugations of verbs.
oad | 64. Every regular verb in the language, has not only an
ak il affirmative active and passive form, but a negative active and
S44 passive also. Any verb, whether affirmative or negative, in
— | any conjugation, mood or tense, may be made passive by sim-
Al ply changing a into 0, or by suffixing o when the word ends in
Pa | 2; tonda, to love; téndo, to be loved; aréndi, he loved; arén-
i dio, he was loved; téndiza, to cause to love; tdndizo, to
a | cause to be loved, &c.
i 65. The negative form of the verb is distinguishable from
-_ 7 | the affirmative, both active and passive, by an intonation upon,
| or prolongation of, the radical vowel of the ground form ;*
—s thus, ténda, to love; tonda,t not to love; téndo, to be loved;
| | tondo, not to be loved; téndiza, to cause to love; tondiza, not
S a to cause to love, &c. This intonation accompanies the nega-
af tive verb through all the moods and tenses, but with some
+ | variations, which it will be necessary to notice in another
| _ . place.
ei | |
| MOODS.
P|
os | | 66. Mpongwe verbs have five moods, viz: the indicative,
me) | imperative, subjunctive, potential, and the infinitive. Of these,
the two first only have independent forms of their own. The
mi | parts of the other moods are made by uniting auxiliary parti-
at it cles (they may be conjunctions or auxiliary verbs) with cer-
i= - tain forms of the verbs used in the indicative or imperative
ait moods.
oy ie | 67. The indicative mood is the simplest part of the verb. It
e fF | announces actions in their simplest sense, without any contin-
a | gent or accessory meaning. All of its tenses, with the excep-
ma (tt tion of the future, are made by inflections upon the radical
a if form of the verb, and are entirely independent of the aid of
F fe any auxiliary particles.
2 67. The imperative is derived from the indicative, by chang-
E ing the incipient letter into its reciprocal consonant; thus,
me if | kamba, to speak ; gamba,-speak thou; and jona, to kill; yona,
4 : | kill thou. The sense of this mood is not confined simply to
- st
f E * When there is an auxiliary particle, the intonation is generally shifted to the
. | yowel of that. :
5 t+ We use a Roman letter in this case, to indicate the intonation; but in
; E ordinary writing an italic is used.
| | |
a | f
=
oe 5.



| ; : |
|
‘|
ke
ETYMOLOGY. 33 |
Commanding, but to exhortation, encouragement, and in this
way by the aid of an auxiliary particle ga, must, we have a
form of it for the first and third person, both singular and plu-
ral, as well as for the second,
68. The subjunctive mood has no one form of the radical verb
that is peculiar to itself; but by coupling auxiliary particles
with the different forms of the tenses of the Indicative and the
Imperative, it expresses ideas of contingency, condition, &e.
The conjunctive particles that are used in connection with the
tenses of this mood, are ja, if; when § handle, if ; hambénle, where-
fore, that is to say, &e. The first of these, ja, is used in con:
nection with the present tense, kénle with the past, and kam-
bénle with the second member of a, Sentence, where something |
contingent or dependent on the preceding part of the sentence
is implied. ' |
: 69. The Potential Mood, which implies option as well as
power, uses the particle ka (which has the force of may, can
and must), in the present tense; the particles td, ata, and a?rd,
the precise force of which are not known, in connection with
the past tenses. There is one form of the verb, viz, arondi, can- |
not, must not, and will not love, which is peculiar to this mood,
70. The Infinitive Mood is nothing but the Indicative With-
out @ nominative, and having a preposition or definite pronoan
before it ; thus, yt tonda, to love, go kénda, to go, &e. &c.* |
TENSE, NUMBER, AND PERSON OF VERBS. |
71. Mpongwe verbs undergo no changes on account of per-
sons, and with the exception of the second person of the impez
rative, they have none on account of number ; i. e., the same
form of the verb is used in all three persons and in both nvim-
bene; thus;
Ist Person—Singular, mi kamba, 1 speak.
" Plural, azuwe kamba, we speak:
2d n Singular, o kamba, you speak;
: Plural, anuwe kamba, ye speak;
ou. Singular, e kamba, he speaks,
) “Plural, wao kamba, they speak. |
ee Se a ear aa RE were esa Sea Tat i
_* There is one form of the verb, which, however, can scarcely be called a mood,
much used in the language. In a sentence or clause where two verbs would be
joined by a copulative conjunction, the conjunction is omitted, and the second veib re
takes the form of which we speak ; thus, Anyambia aweli ye awulinia yé, i.e.,God |
called him, and saidto him. The same is used also in a superfluous sense: awelt
Anyambia awelia yé, God called: and: called him: This latter mode ismuch used‘ i
in histgrical narratiem.
; 5 !
}
1
LU
a



fj 7 EERIE PRS nS MENT eer eee eee SRESTIR Sang MERE scant te eee are ee eee eee ie eee etal
|
; |
ey | 34 MPONGWE LANGUAGE.
re The second person of the imperative has a plural which is
made by affixing nz to the singular; thus, rénda, love thou,
ae | rondani, love ye; and by the same process in the negative,
ae aronda, do not love thou, aréndani, do not love ye.
fe. | 72. Tenses—There are five tenses in the Mpongwe. One
ae present, three past, and one future. The indicative alone has
a the whole of these.
a 73. The present tense refers to something as existing or
a |. | transpiring at the present time, and differs in nothing from what
aa is called the present tense in English Grammars. |
fi | 74. The immediate past tense is the next simplest form, and
3 | is derived from the present, simply by prefixing a; thus from
- toénda, to love, comes aténda, did love, or loved. This tense re-
a} fers to something that has just been done, or something that has
mii transpired some previous part of the same day. It includes
re | the idea of the completeness of the action too, but has more
ne special reference to the time of the action. In some cases where s
Fe the preceding word ends in a vowel, and which, according to
- the laws of euphony, would require the disappearance of prefix
Be) a, it would appear that a present tense was used as an imme-
ft | diate past, which may be prevented in writing, by writing the
A tense witha mark of contraction before it ; thus aténda, in such
mii circumstances, should be written ’ténda.
ee i i This same form of the verb occurs in the present of the sub-
ei} junctive, and can be distinguished from that only by wanting
Pail the conjunction ja, which always identifies the present of the
ety subjunctive: thus, mt akamba, I spoke awhile ago, ja mi akamba, ‘
mit if I speak, or when I spoke.
o 75. The perfect past tense is derived from the immediate
A | past tense, by changing a final into 7, thus aténda becomes |
> atondi. ‘This tense has special reference to the completeness |
A or incompleteness of an action, and none to time; thus when |
Â¥4 i aman says mi akambi, | have spoken, he refers to what he has |
mt done, without including the idea of the time when the thing
a, PE | was done.
a; 76. The indefinite past or historical tense, whilst it necessa-
7a rily involves the idea of the completion or perfection of an ac-
a tion, has more special reference to time, and, generally, to events
a that have transpired sometime previous to to-day: it is derived
4 from the preceding tense, by changing the first consonant into :
a its reciprocal letter; thus, mi atondi, | have loved, mi aréndi, I
4 i loved sometime ago; and mz akambi, 1 have spoken, mi agambi,
“ae I spoke sometime ago.*
: : | *It is necessary to notice here, that the future tense, in historical writing, is much
r é |: used for the past or historical tenses; thus, instead of saying, avangt Anyumbia
.
_ j
; |
4 le
%- wie SO ii ec a



. 4
te
ETYMOLOGY. 35
77. The future tense refers to future time indefinitely, and
involves the intention of the speaker at the same time. It is
formed from the present tense by receiving before it the auxi-
liary particle be ; thus, mz ténda, I love, mi be tonda, 1 will love.
The precise force of the particle be is not known; it is never
used except in connection with this tense, and might be re-
garded as an inseparable part of the verb, and be written thus,
if it were not in one or two cases separated from it by another
“particle; thus, mz be fa bia, 1 am will to come again. The
auxiliary, when preceded by mz, is frequently incorporated with
it; thus, 7m’be is used for mi be. In the negative form of the
verb, whether active or passive, the intonation which charac-
terizes it, is shifted from the first vowel of the ground form to |
| that of the auxiliary ; thus, m2 tonda, I do not love, becomes mi be
tonda, I will not love.
For the future used as a historical tense, see note under His-
torical Tense. ee
The immediate past tense of the subjunctive mood is often |
used in the sense of a future indicative, and indeed is used as a
future of the subjunctive.
78. Tenses of the Negative Verb. The negative form of the
verb is uninflected in all the tenses of the indicative, with the
exception of the future, where like the affirmative, it receives
the auxiliary particle. The same form of the negative which
is used in the present, is also used in all the past tenses, though
in a few words it receives m as a prefix; thus, mz tonda, I do
not love, mz ntdnda, I never loved, I never did love, &c.
TENSES OF THE IMPERATIVE.
79. There is only one tense in the imperative. The second
person, singular and plural, alone has an independent form of
its own—the first and third persons, in both numbers, are made |
by the aid of the auxiliary ga, must ; thus, |
‘ SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Ist, Mi ga gambe, I must speak, azuwe ga gambe, we must speak. !
2d, gamba, speak thou, _ gambant, speak ye.
3d, e ga gambe, he must speak, wi ga gambe, they must speak.
yima yodu, God made all things, they use the future, be panga Anyambia yima
; yodu. Both of these modes are used, but the latter more frequently. A future tense
may be determined to have a past or historical sense ; 1st, when it is used in histori- ie
cal writing, and 2d, generally, but not invariably, when the nominative follows the
verb, and stands between it and its object; thus, ne be jona Ken onwdngwé, i. e.
Cain killed his brother. tt
~ :
L
FS



fF RT RT Cn EER aS ELSE LEI AE LEE ORT TE Te "
: *
i
36 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
The negative forms are made by prefixing a, so that one
form of the verb is used in all the persons, singular and plural,
F.. except the second person plural, without the aid of the auxi-
liary ga; thus, A
SINGULAR. PLURAL. . BS
Ist, Mi agamba, I must not speak, Ist, azuwe agamba, we must
not speak. a :
| 2d, agamba, do not speak, 2d, agambani, ye must not :
speak.
3d, *agamba,he must not speak, 8d, w’agamba, they must not
| speak.
i
| The passive in both cases is made by changing a into o.
ii | If the particle ka, which, strictly speaking, belongs to the
| potential mood, comes before the verb, it acquires an impera-
ag tive sense without a change of the initial consonant ; thus, ka
kamba, is equivalent to gamba, and ka kambani to gambani,
1h especially in the second and dependent number of’ a sentence.
aq The phrase kd kamba may be either of the second or third per-
aa son, for either e, or o@ (i. e, the pronoun of the first and second |
11 persons,) coming between this auxiliary and the verb, would, ‘
; | according to the demands of euphony, disappear, and it must
11 be known to be of the second or third person from the context.
aS | Perhaps this is a potential verb used as an imperative.
ell TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE, POTENTIAL, ETC.
EI 80. The tenses of the Subjunctive Mood are the same as those
A) of the indicative, with the exception-of: a future, which it has
i not. The conjunctions which are used in connection with the
tenses of this mood, are jd or jd, if, when, which always pre-
ai cede the pronoun which is the nominative to the verb, and is
a sometimes incorporated with it. This auxiliary is used in con-
H nection wiih the present and immediate past tenses ; when the
a conjunction kambenle, therefore, takes the place of ja, as it does
| in a dependent member of a sentence, it gives it a future signi-
et fication ; thus, kambénle amia, therefore will know, &c. Kdnle ‘
| is the auxiliary particle most frequently used with the past |
PE tenses of the subjunctive. Other conjunctions may also be em-
EY ployed for the same purpose.
a Ka, ta, ata, and ard are the particles used as auxiliaries to
Fi the potential mood. But for a full exhibition of the tenses,
ey i
= 4
a § \
e Mi a
Lo) cas
a ,



a SS SS I eee SCREENS)
| oa INDICATIVE MOOD a
| resent Ten | : I 7 : :
se. 3
| = Imp. Past Tense.) P j , : s a :
RADICAL |< Act. kamba a Sale = =
| CONJUG |< Puss. kambo ne - : = E
ti i os ae see , -
i ATION, : a kamba ace ska sean y 7
te te if he resent T : ,
a or kab aie pe kamba o Ist Per. SincuLar a Pre : i UBJUNCTIVE.
x Act nkambo nkamba e kambo ga gambe be ee es :
|FREQUENTA Ep . kambaga k nkambo be kamba ga gambo gamba “He 7 ace eth
lege a — eer teaa agambé gambo je mi kamba : rfect Past. ; POTE
r go 5 ak i tk 7 :
‘i aa a skambagi oe bre | agambo agamba ja-kambo ieee kanle mi astorical, P 3 L. |
get ksi ee c a = aa . — Lp ja-kambo ja-nkamba kanle-akambio cer mi agambi Eka Perfect Past. : }_ INITIVE. |
aaa na ae ; ambago pee gambage amb: ja-nkambo kanle-nkamba anle-agambio ml ka kamba ae Historical.
=e - os | Hees ps fombags 8 gnmbage Seas ja-kamb kanle-nkambo kinle-nkemba mi ka kambo mi ata kamba ‘ |
r ; + kambizo é FE Rea e kamb. agambaga 5 pago ‘as aga #2 anle- agambi } mi ata ke — ; |
6 Act. kambiz: akambizo akambizi ees ex ago agambug agamba ja-kambag ees a 7 | : - . ; =
2 Pass. }, — nkamb? akambizio agambizi b 8 ago ag oe ja-kamb go ja-akamba: kanle-akambagi agambio mi nta kamba whee raat 8 kambo
kant aubizo AGamiin: e kambi | agambago -kambaga 4 ago k agi k-ag: y minta k mi nta k | go kamb
= wt ae - | : g en 5 jJa-nka' -akambagi gambagi i a kambo i nta kemba | o
gm Act. k ? kamb7zo nkambizo nkambiza be kambizo ga gambize , ja-kambago ea Konkan oes : a) : tas “
8 . a , nkambi ae | ga gambizo gambiza ago k-nkamb ° k-nkamba ka kambago ata kambaga | go kambo
3 : = — oe ee agambiza gambizo ja-kambiza ja-ak A ago k-nkamb ow agambagi ata kambago ara kambagi |
: — ae a a agambt agambziz ja-kambizo Jae ambiza. j , ago a eo nta k wale lecnilians | go kan
a : = ao ae — 2 1ZO | aga Be ja-kambz: ja-akambizo k-akambizi k gambagio x ambaga nta set oe | sok nbaga
+ KaMbDino a k . agambini be kambinx i gambt7zo Jha 1Za J ¢ k-ak oa c-agvambizi nta kambag' eines “fo hambegn
oe kab ibis ina. | va gambi . a-kambez ja-nkambiz akambizio gambizi A : Igo a ga | ze g
iE Act. ka n0 nkambino nkambina - kambino Le gambine gambi J bizo Penk inbiz0 Lege nua en ? aoe : =
Re re = sks Baie | ga gambino gambina esi: ze 0 k-nkambizo k-nkambiza ka kambizo ata kambiza si | 8° kambago |
' cae — | bekembing agambina gambino ja-kambina ja-ak . k-nkambizo agambtzi ata kambizo ara kambizi i
= ee ckamnbugainbo cela aaa agambagambi agambino agambina fo ja aaa k-akambini agam bizio nta kambiza ara kambizio | e kambiza |
: A . kambagar mbagambz mb1o Bane be ka agambin ja-kambma. se ieabaie i ene ay et A
e > akan os mbagamba 0 : in Ae ; k-akambini agambin ambizo a kambiza Cc. |
: ambagamb ambagamba agambio be karr ga gambi ja-kambino ja-nkambzna a. k i Kk : st
a ; ae sagan ye ae a Bt agambe ja-nkambi k-nkambina ~agambinio a kambina is mbizo |
iCAUS, & FREQUE < kambizaga Bie gambo nkambag be kambagamb ga gambagambo gambagamba ; bno k-nkambi k-nkambt eee st innbin 2
3 = | ee ae g a : ke mbin tna A i
ls tap : a ik g be kambagambo agambagamba gambagambo ups ambagamba ja-ak ? k-nkambino agambzni ata kambino ara kambini |
E Pas: kambizaga Oe ee aintpiees agambizagi agambagambo agambagamba ja-kambagambo eta eat aubacawhi Mts aie sts
ss. kambizugo ee rletinnaes: ores be kambizaga agambagambo io ja eae raknbagen Lapin — : =
; c « nkanh ngnebiee mbizago | izage : o ja-nke k-nkambag -agambagambi ambagamba A mo I
FREQUEN Act. kambi izago aes be k : ga gambizi gambizag ambagambo ee? . a ven uit
: : cs = se kambizago ea epabizdey iZaga ; : S k-nkax -nkamba; amba; s ambagamba peak
“si | : == == = m : come go gambia Satire ja-kambizaga va-ak ‘ mbagambo SS eee ata kambagambo ara kambagambi | |
| . Z oe eee psec anes agambinagi agambizago agambizaga ja-kambizago hes k-akambizagi a dessnill a, nag
z Pass. kambit i nkambinag ambinagio = 3 be ke . : agambiz = ja-kambizage ja-akambizago ae : : " a
| nago sa. nanan agambinagi e kambinaga 1zago ; Aa ae aes k-akambizagi -agambizagi ambagambo a kam agamba |
| 5 nkambinago mbinaga 1a glo be kambi ga gambi ja-kambizago ja-nkambizaga ee : ng tik : st
& A : 2 nkambi nkambinaga kambinago oe nbinage 5 : ZagO ia-enkambiz 5 k-nkambiz eo shanti : _

RELAT. & CAUSAT a ce kambinaza ak : inago im iiiaes | be kambinaga ga gambinago gambinaga ; ja-nkambizago To aniheee kenkambizaga ne on s ous ,
al ws ae aa . 1g | be kambinagzo agambinaga | gambinago ja-kambi naga 6a aa it) “AZO k-nkambizaga agambizagi ata kambizago ara kambizagi | i
, : can — sible ee 8 agambinugo agambinaga i ja-kambinago id ae k-akambinagi - agambizagiv nta kambizaga aed kambizagio | |

aati i a egambinaal be ecahinaen agambinago oe rubindeo ates beers k-agambinagi k nt& kambizago vr ab 8 a | \
; ambina é Ne, e kambi | ga gambinaz -bambinago y aga : k- Haas 4 kambi a kambiz i
: = co ae = . g Lea : k-nkam agambina Oe Lago |
ss - a mbinazo ide Rico be kambinaza | ga gambinazo gambinaza ; 5 ja-nkambinago ee Soci keseabsonce ka am binge ata kambinaga x | \
{ : re 3 a = ee peebie | agambinaza gambinazo jaskambinaza ja-al B° k-nkambinago agambinagi’ ati, kambinago ara kambinagi
ie ee abeubigti lore os eubari (death a | agambinazo agambinaza ja-kambinazo lone kambinaza k-ak a 8 agambinagi nta kambinaga ara kambinagio |
gi : ce aah aes a agambini ja-kambina ja-akambinazo akambinazi k : ago nta kambi 8 nta& kambi = i
a = sag eo | ie et ga gamb azo jeekambin Za ja-nkambinaza k-akambinazio cnaeeainest ka kamb mbinugo nta i { |
| seg ee | sambagamba gambagambag . ZO hee i k-nkambi <-agambinazi ambinaza ' DINag_o { |
= ae : Ave nla agambaga | be ki S ago | ga g > ge | gambage ja-nkambinaz nbIMaza ie aZ1o ka ; ata k : |
s ; ambi: nkambs 5 e kambagz ga gambagamihz agambaga j 4 . , sec sch : = }
- : oe ee é see es | be i oa gambagambago jekambagambaga | j k.-nkambinazo eins agambinaai at& kambinazo ara kambinazi |
: lana oe akanbagambizi sea ciucieayini ago |i agambagambazo agambagambaga By em paeam bade eT ie kealamhaen - agambinazio nta kambinaza ara kambinazio |
3 : mbag | ? Race g i, ls } : re kx i -aka acess A ¢ 4 |
g det. hamugnnbi nha ae rbizic fe ecu ie kambagambiza 2 agambagambaga eae ja ie emg eee. k-agambagambagi_ || ka nta kambinazo 09 ise eg
: rb | eee zio.| be kambaca zo ga gambagambi c = i "barn te eae agambizo oa oa gambize | gambag: . $ ja-nkambagamb ambagambaga | k agambagio | ka k pase ata kamb
a si oka : oe ga gambagambizo gambiza : ago | k-nkamb = -nkambaga ambagambago 2 SA agambaga A ..*
a sch geimbien | be ks oa | aaa ; gamba ‘ jekambag : : agambago | k agambaga | ag 5 8 ata kamb : ara kamb ; ‘
: : agambino | ak gambina | akambi Bee ambagambt Ss agambiza Sees - zimbiz sa 2 3 — oe oa e
| g a pres Si ore baa tne eee agambagambini izo || agambagambizo agambagambiza one aoe seine eeneon k-akambagambi ae a ae ; same
Ze ss. kamba : kambagambz mbagambini ini | bek a agambag . jJekambag : : cambagambiz i oe “tat ate
ze cn ce 4 tae g gambizo | j gambiza Bee zo | k-akamb ie -agambagambizi agambago A gambaga
ma | bag a es ina a jJekamb é ja-nkambagambz agambizio gambizi ie te § nta kamb
gambino j nk 2 ma | nka ; e kambagambi ga gambagambi nbagambizo | j gambiza | k-nk¢ k-agamb ; oes pi cles
oe — ius a os ja-nkamba . ambagambizi gambagambizio | ka agambiza ata k g |
ee at el pambacambina “alg gambizo | k-nk a |k-nkamb : kai kambagambi & kambagambi
ikagambr gambina ambino 7 4 jak 5 ambagamb?z — uh vi : : ,
ta | Bokambagebin See cube gambagambino J oe ae ja-akamb & iza | kenkambagambz: a || agambagambizi ata kambagambizo | . kambagambizi | |
3 = agambagambino agambagambina jekambagambino jaa mbagambina | k-akambag: ge izo || agambagambizio wie kambagambiza nt Eatnceetiics. | |
Sat NWS NIN = : agambagambzno eee eb ja a b alembepebi Laon ean oot : ste
isms poate mbinio | k ini | kak i nt& kambagambz
me pant © | k-akamba -agambagambi qe ~ ambagambina A gambiza
agambino | k gambina | k-nk be esate, 3 ud i |
gs roti tee -nkambagambin ak ; seni :
_ ree ae - SS 4 é i : ? :
dt je
nta kambagambino ta Re
ambagambi
ee g no
= a



: be Wa See a cece i i Soe :
= { r Te PSGAE 3
ee " PEER er ee ae
5 a — ve
ee 7
a
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ee }
a i
j ty}
>
2 ' 3
pt
oe |
Cas f
ewe een SAN ANTENNAE NSS
Rh ANAT SOLES NN SE SORA CHEFS
a | foe AY PPADICOV. i
a. | art (fk MCT é LE ‘
es om gangky tan We Pas Ie
ae lj Sas YEHuL AVE gsgNIk joes |
aaa ean . , 4
eho eile | ee | '
me nds | sdcisds' | edrtcl Ae i
a Haale | odmtsails ed if " ot at oa
Mee i fwd | dtintan CAEN ER ne ee JAOQIGAH |
} ; AUTEN aaT ESER ED? Yok « |
Ea | roan | ASE ets : * WAS ATT £ ATH TIAL
x i ] 2 | ra wilex odreasa 2nd > MOT rADULYOD i
i { * ve 5
ee } WSAs | i HA eb reel j
i J i . = BYBINISAG sesdimsa. i. wo a2 ; |
ba | Aiea > oysdorisds ovsdcred zens wm i
at i} aeons | Pat n b QBCMTEA Be & | ayy a, yt
ee | | ABSA UE | sandarsa; Ahk... 2 AVITATHAUD ell
Paid ie (SHO { oend oe eek ; " ok 2.4 be 8 eS
| JRo5 iTs7 > fecee x
a it | { {t
i reuls | X { | |
| fps | syrdrni pais swiclortieal: ¢ 33 + i
Hl fisals | Deidnnests | Se are ee i
{a | prsch NIGMIBAG | oxidarsyd enh >)
ie | Mesabcs abide teeta ; | pers inh
E i ee sxidersirr | gxsditsyes (Ob. wo! AYVITAA@UAS i
Su | ostdar toler | oxscices r-poneh I
f } we '
a MESIS | anid arse | ' : it
x. Diese: | SHC ATS AS" soidotsA. dob!
f fans a onidcredts . Aaa
| thirasics REESE S| OMG MBH 28D > >
a } (Gat | aris tina ape x ‘ xmyvyr ry
Jptisay | siete saat posdittiek Baap AVITA TGA i
eel ee OfSO HRI | onsdrasa 220 ;,5 |
bag Bak. |
i} Citests nel cekech ; ; ; il
| "7 | (CO PI BORC OTRAS | sdotsesdmied Rat eae i i
Hee P | HiAASG | odatsesc pes wigs | r, = f : ; r 2 il i
| | ghisda | cd ee rsesdmisd .22D > | i
aa] 4 ty s2it =f PIMC HEC aehy * ITV r xray Hi
if cerayl : * mvesdiisan yf win; sdmuggh. yobs S| ATIVIAOMI i
ie AYER odrangadtisan } xe f Bc i
eri, | tH badd et Sei BOM HVRGT of sanG ~ ii
rg p Stand fingsd Esa: Fa 4 = | |
ved | i} Ass sas 5 Ee 5 ; |
Ere i ee SQ HSTOTT SIS | gasxidired oh. .
De i} OE BAS oosxriddtreas i ‘ a asa} g 24
ee ! i SSSI CES AS | wesuidmrad .280 | }
BS it psa foeeidiredet ae = * | VOATIOWAY 3B BUA
PP 1 Se Bs TRG sopsidime|ad lek SONS % AU ASI
ae i fSa | oensidiuisict | oensidetad 2an = |
| } BESIGHNGR BO) 41-4 I
foe ti | fen ; i
vd f | RIBAS | suibitidarws Pa 42 - fF ‘ : acy i
Â¥ ; | a pene | HOBUIGHIBA ADE z +
| =a HMIBAB | oesnidnisds i = - Sa it
m/e FY | as | SSG REaES | OR SMI Ci SH Bank > | IMs i
J | eth Fit sho ¥} fret est 5 ' = T of HUAI OC onrul
a f i aa { SOM dT sat i pond ise roby se jek A “Et At J OAH qi
; } SSA | moet dirnshet A ae >t i
= f | ombiiidrirsdit' yencidnosd asin } {
ya Ht jd { s Ps ie |
me iiss oat ait bene? od Pe
a : | = Sa sBiitchentsats axecidnesad | tak: |
LAT 6225 Bo Tine eet eee oe |
A } ne GS. SELIG PEEGSLS | ON erridinteal 4 nt 3 : i
fil His7 | an hitdnttanict s ? TARBITATY ZA TAT |
oo) Fi} Cecisatcr | ‘= to a sxpcidrase isk; 2): AQUA D .TASAA}
“ aS = OND oti Tt ieee mf i}
4 : | a \ IN sail C HEB AST ON noidmse aap ail i
4 bt r } ‘ } }
f i [ausals sfiteunchittnare ds ytd |
‘1 rH Sst =P | sgsdipeubciiisas’| Sondrusesd os’ ajok | }
Saal fraps lovsdaacdcisAs | ef *_ ae ste ne eno ae a |
‘El Tiwaieeandas fara d densgsditsad 220 > eo
{ £65 \¢ white ob per eesP reat & : {jp ar, t }
bE f i re ahi gr3he ee. CUTES AT higseo sd scepal ap. x PAH 1% WAC Vil i
ie || Cirasdc joend arrendimsdn geet es eae Snr ers |
f ei] i , des ditisesd rasa sae Shy 4
aa all eas e , : }
EH fracas | ssi i.
| SS HTEORAT ETERS + * ¢ . :
j a fi. se 3 Sid HisgsOTtSaS ' BSidifesesd siBh Ast
4 Ei «ene osidfruseadirisls oxidensesdatsd 220% wt
ii ' f } diteda f ee Fe ; ; | SIC? > oe Sa Bw 220% ad TA BTT e ti aii
' f a 4 tt} exidiinuddtitiaan | BNeditisg sO eth e SS be oe | TAGUAD # AAGUI)
: Fe] miss | ossdareecditt hig Pt ne ee o 8 \! |
= iti te sdniish cd thtgalit ossUmisesdaral 230%. |
y =} : : }
; Be fH *- 1 1 1 }
Fi mei Beedle | eect t es ook =
: Ef Pi BAB | soidmmssdiisas | siidmsygsdatsA Seo .
€ (| Faneate, | onidmsgsdearsils | ng a Ae ee i
til) Sevasa | sos BSCMISAS | OFLC MLEgAC TAY end S| TA TS
fe | tH ane i sasdrisecdritéds | Hetdinsygedonsit oy “| TAIGA 2 IAIUI }
Fa denesta | onsdinecsdcisan | . te aria Fi 3 i
| L Sait ' sasdiieckd mi san 1 onidtusgsdrisil 20 = t
; i be Pa vege oa i } . a ; i
Fe bell & ES EB oe j
f fe, fll Se ca Feb aa RTA
ie (I) ree : i
re F .
El saesaniiainieedoen
fe fe
ie eh
nb Pd
wae
Se Ceti
a Ra aad a —



|
ETYMOLOGY. 37
affirmative and negative, active and passive, of the subjunctive
and potential moods, as. well as of all other parts of the verb,
see the paradigm of the verb.
MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS.
81. The particle pa following a verb in the present of the
indicative, gives it the force of a past tense ; thus, ya yenge yi |
re Anyambia denda pa, the things which God hath already or
completely done. The particle pé is used like the auxiliary |
verb of existence ; thus, mi pé nya, | am eating, mi pé nana, | |
am lying down or sleeping. Before a negative verb commence
ing with a, it incorporates itself with the verb and gives the |
force of never did; thus, mi pé adenda, is spoken, mi p’adenda, |
I never did it. |
|
IRREGULAR VERBS. |
|
82. These, as have already been remarked, are very few. Avoro, |
to know, and agami, to hate, are the only verbs in the lan-
guage which commence with a vowel, and these are used only in |
the present of the indicative. The word bié, to come, mié, to |
know, to serve, are irregular, inasmuch as they do not terminate |
in a, and want a middle consonant. In all other respects, or ;
rather so far as they are inflected, they are like regular verbs,
The words pé, or pa, to give, nya, to eat, are regular, so far as |
the deviation of the imperative from the indicative is con-
cerned, i. e. by the change of the initial consonant into its re-
ciprocal letter ; thus, from pa, to give, we get va, give; ny hay-
ing no reciprocal letters is of course the same in both mocds;
but in the historical tenses it is necessary for both of these
words to have an additional suffix, which regular verbs do not ;
thus, from pa we get aveni or apent in the past tenses, &c.
Besides those above mentioned, there may be a few more
irregular verbs, but they are not nu
oe :
VERB OF EXISTENCE. i
i
r 83. There is no one verb in the language that can be con- iq
sidered exactly as a verb of existence, though certain parts :
of different verbs are used, both as substantive verbs and as lj
auxiliaries to a few neuter verbs. In relation to pé, used as an
auxiliary to neuter verbs, see section 81.
Re and are are not only used like the verb to be, but when
re j
| |
i
be ep a



fe :
ee ~e
ie 38 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
Ys |
followed by the preposition na, or when this preposition comes |
_ between it and the noun, it acquires the force of possession ;
a thus, are n’aniva, literally he is with money, for he has money.
ee Zyene or azyene seems to be the negative of re, and so also
oad aranga, is not, as azyene aniva, he has not money. ;
The particle ne, which is a contraction of mle, is partly
_§ a conjunction and partly a verb, and in some few cases has the
. || force of ts. The word doana, which is regular, and has the sig-
os nification to live, is also used in the sense of the substantive
Pili verb. The word pegaga, which becomes avegagi in the his-
ee torical tense, is used precisely like re or are, that is, by itself,
| it has the force of ts, was, or had been, but when followed by the
. | preposition na, it acquires the force of possession.
me I All these different words might be arranged into moods and
| tenses, so as to correspond with all the parts of the substantive |
BS i verb in English, but this would be an arbitrary arrangement, :
Be } inasmuch as it would be made up of parts of at least six differ-
a ent words.
_ | PARTICIPLES.
Be) |
Mei | | 84. There are no participles belonging to the language. A
al preposition before the simplest form of the verb is used in a par-
i | Hl ticipial sense; mi pila go punga mbuzya, i. e. 1am come from
| | throwing the net, &c. For gerunds and verbal nouns, see head
| of nouns. ;
=| | The following paradigm of the verb kamba, to speak, will
a furnish a synoptical view of all the parts of a regular verb. |
. | Ll The radical conjugation is inflected through all the moods and
os {| tenses, and will furnish an illustration of the manner in which
me i HH all the other conjugations are to be inflected. As the verb un-
- | i dergoes no changes on account of number and person, in the
a indicative, subjunctive, and potential moods, the first person
Se alone in connection with the pronoun, is laid down in these
efi moods: |
I
1: |
ai
!
A
ai |
g E RK 5
: tl
. Be
a ,
F tl :
eI ]
Lisl
Re iO nee Bi
TR SAO a A Fee :



}
|
.
ETYMOLOGY. 39
INFLECTION OF THE RADICAL CONJUGATION.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
| a § Act. Mi kamba, I speak,
=< / Pass. mi kambo, — is spoken,
s» § Act. mi kamba, I do not speak.
z, | Pass. mi kambo, — is not spoken.
Immediate Past Tense.
é Act. Mi akamba, I spoke (just now, or to-day).
< ( Pass. mi akambo, — was spoken.
s» ( Act. minkamba, I have not spoken. |
z | Pass. mi nkambo, — was not spoken.
Perfect Past Tense. |
é Act. Mi akambi, I have spoken,
< ( Pass. mi akambio, — has been spoken. i
| «» ( Act. mi nkamba, I have not spoken.
z, | Pass. mi ukambo, — has not been spoken. i
EMstorical Tense. i
a Act. Mi agambi, I have spoken (a long time ago). I
< ( Pass. mi agambio, — has been spoken, |
s» ( Act. minkamba, I have not, or never have spoken. |
z ( Pass. mi nkambo, — never has been spoken. |
Future Tense. |
= { Act. Mi be kamba, I shall or will speak. |
= { Pass. mi be kambo, — shall or will be spoken. |
) =, ( Act. mi be kamba, I shall not speak. F
( Pass. mi be kambo, — shall not be spoken. fi
IMPERATIVE MOOD. |
+ ( 1. Mi ga gambe, I must speak, |
_ —& 4 2. gamba, speak thou. E
2a ( 3. e ga gambe, he must speak. |
. _, ( 1. azuwe ga gambe, we must speak.
OS £ <2. gambani, speak ye, or ye must speak. |
= & (3. wi ga gambe, they must speak. 4
| z + (1. miga gambo, must be spoken. |
fe 3S & 2. gambo, be spoken. iM
<-5 6 ( 3. e ga gambo, he must be spoken. ,
&_. ( 1. azuwe ga gambo, we must be spoken.
AY £ { 2. gambanio, be ye spoken. |
& ( 3. wi ga gambo, they must be spoken,
r
é acceso —



P a : : a? ‘ a Sey ees pase : Reese

a HT
si

i | 40 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
ie | = (1. mi agamba, I must not speak,
ee ; » ) 2. agamba, do not speak thou.

a Be 3. ’agamba, he must not speak.

Ld | 3 = (1. azuwe agamba, we must not speak,

re . = 4) 2. agambani, ye must not speak.

ie - â„¢ (8. wagamba, they must not Speak.

Be S a

ba =< : :

. = 4 (1. mi agambo, must not be spoken.
| * § & 9 2. agambo, you must not be spoken.

| Sy : :
me ‘$a (3. ’agambo, he must not be spoken.
a | : 3 ( 1. azuwe agambo, we must not be spoken.
| ; XQ = 4 2. agambanio, ye must not be spoken.

iil Re ( 3. w’agambo, they must not be spoken.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.:
i || |

| || Present Tense.
y ¢ § Act. Ja mi kamba, if I speak.

|) < ( Pass. ja mi kambo, if 1 am spol
ee | < ( Fass. Ja mi kambo, if I am spoken.

. s» § Act. ja mi kamba, if I do not speak. |
ei! ii 2 ( Pass. ja mi kambo, if I am not spoken.
ee tl | Immediate Past and Future Tense:

i 1 12 @ § Act. Ja mi akamba, if I have, or shall speak.
ce) | | < ( Pass. ja mi akambo, if I have been or shall, &c:

Nl a so § Act. ja mi nkamba, if I have not, &c.

mm # ( Pass. ja mi nkambo, if I have not We.

mF J ,

y | Perfect Past Tense.

“ Ell = ( Act. Kanle mi akambi, if I have spoken.

- =a a Pass. kanle mi akambio, if I have been, &c.

a {| yo { Act. kanle mi nkamba, if I had not, &c.

o i | z ( Pass. kanle mi nkambo, if I had not been, é&c.

:
|| LMistorical Tense. 4

-; # ( Act. Kanle mi agambi, if I had spoken. 7

> fi = } Pass. kanle mi agambio, if I] had been, &c.

‘ ' 4 so § Act. kanle mi nkamba, if I had not, &c.

aa % ( Pass. kanle mi nkambo, if I had not been, &c.
a 4 :
4
ia) a
SE



: |
| SYNTAX. 41
POTENTIAL MOOD.
Present Tense.
é Act. mi ka kamba, I can or must speak.
< ( Pass. mika kambo, I can be, &e.
8 Act. mi agambi, or agambe, I cannot, will not, éc.
2 ? Pass. mi agambio, I cannot be, &c. |
Perfect Past Tense.
“ Act. mi ata kamba, I could have spoken.
eh Act. mi td kamba, I could not have, &c.
Zz ( Pass. mi t@ kambo, I could not have been, é&c. |
|
Mstorical. |
# § Act. mi ara-kambi, I might have spoken. 7
< ( Pass. mi ara-kambo, I might have been, &c.
8 { Act. mi ntdé-kamba, I might not, &ce. |
z ( Pass. mi ntd-kambo, I might not, &c.
| |
INFINITIVE.
Go kamba, to speak. |
Yi kamba, to speak. |
ae tie 1
SYNTAX.
OR THE |
CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES.
86. The object of the following remarks is to exhibit
the arrangement of words in a sentence, and not to lay down
any rules in relation to the principles of government and agree-

ment.

87. Nouns and Nouns.—When two nouns come together,
one of which is in the nominative and the other in the posses- |
sive case, the nominative stands first, whilst the possessive fol-
lows, and has prefixed to it, the definite pronoun of the nomina- '
tive; thus, onwana w’ Angila, i. e. the child of Angila, or An-
gila’s child. The definite pronoun w in this phrase, agrees

6
ee __—____—__—__.,-



= a, is ae
‘ j . = RNR TRE ee
fe ; q
i. 42 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
3 I |
ee . | with, or belongs to onwana, and not to Angila. When three
ma (|| nouns come together, two of which would be in apposition and
mii | the other in the possessive case, they are separated by two de-
3 . | finite pronouns, the second receiving as prefix the definite pro-
es | noun of the first, and the third that of the second ; thus, Sonya
| yonwana w Angila, 1. e. Sonya, the son of Angila ; the definite
‘| | pronoun y’ agrees in declension with Sonya, and w’ belongs to
me fi | onwand, as mentioned in the example above.
| 83. Noun and Adjective ——The adjective, in almost all cases,
| follows the noun which it qualifies, and must correspond with
3 it both ‘in number and declension; thus, nyare mpolu, a large
cow, inyare simpolu, large cows, egard evolu, a large chest,
Se gara volu, large chests, idambe ivolu, a large sheep, adimbe
: ampolu, large sheep, &c. ; in all which cases there is a corres-
ca | | pondence both in number and declension.
= | Exceptions.—-The only exceptions to the general principle of
is | construction laid down under this general head, are y2, some,
| . which goes before the noun to which it belongs, and the nu-
he meral adjectives, which exceed ten.
ai 89. Noun, Pronoun and the Verb.—The personal pronouns,
2 P | as in English, are used to prevent the needless or too frequent
ie use of the noun. In the Grebo, and in many other dialects of
Pat ti Upper Guinea, the personal pronoun is used in many cases
fe tl where it is redundant; thus, they say, Dwé @ nede, i. e. Dwé
ne | he is there. The personal pronoun is not so used in the Mpon-
- ewe, but the definite pronoun is ; thus, they would say, Angila :
=. panga yend, 1. e. Angila is doing so, and not Angila, he is doing
a | so. If, however, the noun relates to other than a human or the
| Divine being, the definite pronoun is used as the personal pro-
mt noun in Grebo; thus, nyare yi nya orova, i. e. the cow at eats
oe tt grass. There is great variety of usage as to the relative posi- |
— |W | tion of the nominative to the verb. In the simplest phrase-
m bl ology it usually stands before, and if it has a definite pronoun,
a that comes between it and the verb, whilst the objective case |
= aS follows and stands next to the verb; thus, Anyambia avang?
Bt | yama yodu, i. e. God made all things. But in historical narra-
| Bo] tive. and also when some contingency or qualifying circum-
Bh || stance is introduced, as of time, tor example, this mode of con-
r | | struction 1s reversed, the nominative following the verb and
i [ 4 standing betwixt it and the objective case; thus, Ne be panga
- Ft Anyambia yama yodu, i. e. and made God things all; or,
a gwavangi Anyambia yama yodu, when made God things all,
4 | the first being equivalent to, “and God made all things,” and
- eC the second, “ when God made all things.”
oe In a compound sentence, it is not uncommon for one of these
Fy | forms of expression to be used in one member of the sentence,
ile |
| | |
ae ii
a ee a a



y
ne
' SYNTAX. AS
b and the other form in the other clause; thus, ndo gw’aviviagé
i 5 but when thought he
i awsaun meyind, vona Enge y’ Anyambia, yavieni gore yé go
P things these - behold angel of God he came to him in
nyilinu. In the first clause of this sentence, the nominative 3
é : dream. 2
, follows the verb and is incorporated with it, whilst in the se-
cond, both the nominative and its definite pronoun go before
the verb. In compound sentences like the above, it is not un+
common for the verb of the second clause to have a nomina-
tive both before and after it, though the one which goes before
must be a definite pronoun; thus, Gw’avieni wao go nago,
whencame they in house
wayent wao onwana ni ngi ye.
they saw they the child and mother his.
Akin to the foregoing, but just the reverse of it, is the con-
struction which makes one noun the nominative to two verbs,
or causes the verb to be repeated after the nominative. In such
sentences, the objective case and the definite pronoun which
belongs to it, both go before the verb by which they are go-
| verned; thus, yendagamba m’awuini Anyambia awuinia
so. the words which had spoken God and had spoken to
profit bia vd réti; the second verb, as in similar cases, is |
; the prophet came _ true; |
always of the conjunctive form (see note at page 38). It oc-
curs frequently, especially in historical writing, at the begin-
ning of a sentence; thus néganéga avangi Jisus avanga |
soon made Jesus and made
ongilt yé kwena g’owatanga. In some sentences, instead of re-
E disciples his enter into ship. |
peating the verb, another of similar import is used, which
leads to tedious redundancy; Ne gwavieni Pita avila
And when came Peter and came from
9 i ss . s Be
g owatanga, agénda go sumina go mbeni.
the vessel, and went to descend to thesea.
If the personal pronoun which is the nominative to the verb,
has the adjective du or waodu, all, connected with it, then it is |
repeated before the verb; thus, mdego sam anuwe du anuwe
friends my you all you
voro, Fc.
know, &e.
90. Verbs and Verbs in the same sentence.—The repetition
of the verb, or the use of two verbs nearly synonymous at the |
beginning of a sentence, has just been noticed. i
In a compound sentence, the verbs which belong to the dif
ferent clauses, whether they be two or more, are united to the i
ih
7 |
|
|
,
|



yy = sete ee
Pit
te | ?
MK :
i : | 44 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
f |
ee | first, provided that is in the indicative, by being placed in the
Os conjunctive form (for which see note page. 83), or by the use of
ce the copulative conjunction and the conjunctive form of the
hy: | verb at the same time; thus, om& mdri avieni gore yé
fee, person one came to him
os awuiané; andagain, be songa Josef anwingi yé nalénga
5 and said to him; and followed Joseph brethren his and found |
ae wao.
& them.
Ll When two verbs with an imperative sense come together in
| the same sentence, the first is found in what may be denomi-
nated the ordinary or regular form of the imperative, and the
es, | other in the irregular form; thus, rdndani Anyambia ka |
love ye God and
% penjavenjant ampangi mé. The infinitive verb follows ano-
ms keep ye commandments his.
ee | ther verb in much the same way as in English; sometimes it
tl is used with and sometimes without the auxiliary particle. It
e ig not uncommon for the conjunctive form of the verb to be
el | used in the sense of an infinitive. .
91. One of the most remarkable features in the structure of
4 the Mpongwe language, is the decided partiality which is ma-
ae nifested for the use of the passive voice. In most of the dia-
mei. tl | lects of Upper Guinea, the passive voice is unknown, and in
mer i} i those where it does exist, it is never used when it can be
Heat | avoided. But inthe Mpongwe a practice just the reverse pre- :
ba P| vails, i. e. an active verb is always avoided when a passive
my ti one can be forced into use. The following examples will il-
ee il | lustrate this peculiarity.
Ay Thus, instead of saying in direct terms, “the words which |
Hit Jeremiah spoke,” they say, agamba m’agambio ne Jerimaiah, i.
a e. the words which were spoken by Jeremiah; and so, be
= eae bulinio yz ne onwad onomi mewdnd, i. e. he was told by the
om | young man, instead of, the young man told him; and so, be |
me Fl | pugizo wao ne nkanda, i. e. they were pressed by the multitude, |
mm fi | instead of the multitude pressed them. |
ae | | It is used in cases still more remarkable; thus, ayé go nago
Bt || y'ayinginio ndé, i. e. he is in the house that was entered by |
Pt if him, ins‘ead of, the house which he entered; and so also, |
| omedu o be tindo mie, i. e. whoever shall be loved by me, in- ,
m Ft stead of, whoever I shall love. -
i | Ins'ead of saying “he was born thus,” they say, nani
a i yayanio ne y?, literally, the birth that was borned-by him. To
ET | ! say “Jesus was sorry for them,” they say, “ayentio wao ne
Petit Jisus ekéva, i. e. “they were seen (beheld) by Jesus with sor-
F | | row.”
> Bai
Pa
Fh | :
Fi i |
mii |
roe
i



wx
SYNTAX. 45
The following specimens of Mpongwe, with an interlinea-
tion of English, will give a better idea of the structure of the
language than any given number of rules.
‘
PARABLE OF. THE PRODIGAL.
|
Ne be buli yé, inle, onomi omari are n’anwana
And said he, to this effect, man one had children :
anomi avani. Ne be bulia onwa rombe, inle, __rera,
i male two. And then said child young, to this effect, father,
va mie mbéi yasika yi be _ jigo mie. Ne _ be
give me the part of money which will beinherited by me. And then
| keré sika ye gore wao awvani. Ndo va intyugu
parted he money his between them two. But in days
| yéyama viaganu, ne be bonga onwaé rombe_ siki yé
: few go by, and took child young money his \
agéndaga gwiildnga ila, ne be ménizé siki yé na
and went to country far, and when finished he money his in
| ebandanie ni jonga alugu; gw’aménizé yodu_ via,
' adultery andin drinking rum ; when finished he all quite,
ne be bia njana mpolu gwiilénga mé; nebe_ pakilia
then came famine great in country that ; and began
yé ni bela yama. Ne agéndiagé go doana n’onomi |
fi he with wanting things. And. went he to dwell with man
gwilongaé meyana; nebe tomo yé ne oma mewana
f in country that; and owassent he by person that
go ntyaga go nyezaga ingoa; ne be belé jonia iwumi
to the field to feed swine; and wantedhe to fill belly
nyé na = sipya -Si “hyo. ningoa; - né be doané
his with food which was eat by swine; and was he
alénga n’oma go pé ezainya. Ndo gw’awinio yé :
he did not find person to give him food. But whenwasrestored he
| ne ogu na, awui ye, inle, intyuri. mia - Si Te fia — .
to senses, said he, to this effect, servants how many they are with
rera si re ni mpémba nyenge ni nyéwa yi pagaga,
my father who are with bread much with some to spare,
b ndo mie piére yi juwa ni njana. Mi be kumana
- but I close to die with hunger. I will arise
agéndaga gore reri yam, awulinia yé, inle, Rera, mi
and go to father my, and tell him, saying, Father, I ie
adendi isaun imbe g’orowa nawé ké. Ndo mi |
have done _ things bad against heaven and thee too. But I il
‘ |
i
|
i
|



ag Be |
i | |
A |
nem |
aes |
a | | 46 MPONGWE GRAMMAR.
he i s
i ] | oeki % fi ii ‘ l e A ay ° ‘ 3
‘ l agekizi elio, inle, onwani wa. anga mié ga ntyuri
i 1 am notfit to becalled, saying, son your, Make me as stewards
ge / | : ae | | yi re we bonga pa mari. Ne be nodngwé agéndaga
ae | / which are you have hired — one. And arose he ‘and went
te | | gore reri yé. Ndo gw’avegagi yé bo, be jeno yé ne
ee to father his. But when was he far, was seen he by
4 | reri yé, nebe jené ayé nkéva avulia mango
{a father his, and saw he him joyfully and ran fast
|| | | azanguné go mpelé wé azambé. Ne be wulia
: ut it and fell upon neck his and kissed him. And said
| | onwana, inle, Rera! mi adendi isaun imbe g’orowa
: the child, saying, Father! I havedone things bad against heaven
Eee na gore wé ké, ndo mi agekizi fa felio, inle,
and against thee too, but I aim not fit again to be called, saying,
Re ' . A : ° 2 SSS :
onwani wa. Ndo bebuia reri yé awulinia intyure
Re child thine. But said father his and said to stewards
ma) || | | yé, inle, vagani ngai mbia k& wara yé yo; ka
a | his, saying, bring garment good and puton him it; and
| | felé omoro g’omeno wé ka _ felé ntyozyo s’atanga
el put him ring upon finger his and _ put him feet white man
gwintyozyo yé; ka vaga onwa nyare ovami ka jona
ae up feet his; and _ bring child cow. fat and ssi kill
ee : A : : A :
si | yo. Ka tiga ’zuwe nya ayena igeva. Kande onwani
ch a if, And~ = let us eat and see joy. Because child
ie Ly wam wind pé juwi, ka yé fa tongwa; aperi ka
Ps | | my this was dead, and he again alive ; he was lost. and
eit | fa déngo; be pakilia wao igeva.
A f i again is found; and began they with rejoicing.
A |
|
4 ei || ‘
ml |
ma fi |
c y a
|
y |
im Fi |
ai
oC
— ee |
C4 |
eel
a
PY



. MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS.
Although the Mpongwe language is flexible in the highest
degree, is methodical in all its grammatical arrangements, and
expansible to an almost unlimited extent, it is not to be infer-
red that it is characterized by an equal degree of copiousness in
the present uncultivated state of the people by whom it is
spoken. They live in a contracted world of their own and
know very litile about any thing beyond the reach of personal
observation ; they have no systems of ethics or metaphysics, and
are ignorant of the researches of science; they have no know-
ledge of the great truths of the Christian religion, and, of course,
have no terms that are applicable to these and_ similar topics.
The genius of the language is such, however, that. new terms
may be introduced in relation to most of these subjects, that
will be perfectly intelligible to the people, though they never
heard them before. For example, there, is a word sungina
which means to save or rescue a thing or person from
destruction; according to an established rule of grammar, a.
noun of agency may be derived from this, viz. ozunge,a Sa-
viour, and an abstract noun isungina, which is salvation.
So, likewise, there is a word used, viz. danduna, where one in-
dividual assumes the responsibilities of another who has of-
fended against the laws of the country. This word involves
the idea of substitution and from it may be derived a noun of
agency, which means a Substitute or Redeemer, and another
which involves the idea of vicarious atonement. Of course
these words, as similar terms in English, must acquire a
secondary meaning to express these Christian doctrines in their
full force; but in their simple original charactér, they approach
nearer to the ideas intended than similar terms in the English
language.
It is not pretended that all the technical terms relating to
| Christianity can be derived in the manner just described, but
the principal part of them may, and the language may be so
expanded as to embrace every thing pertaining to Christianity,
; without giving up any of its distinctive peculiarities as a lan-
guage.
i j
|
|
i



= a — ae ee ae
& SF] |
= Ft]
3 :
hi | :
ee H ||
- || | |
a | ;
} |
me ii |
Me 1 i
mii fl
aii |
3 |
a
mii |
| | | |
x | |
| I |
ay
ail |
eS |
mei i |
| | | |
mii) ||
ie |
be : | .
aii ||
ot
Pw I
A
we |
yo | | :
met
aia
a ite
Â¥
i
A |
| |
"4 ei |
Pi
Ai
Er | Tt
P|
a at
Ma Li!
>... Ses amen



SS "

| . |

: : |

;
| ‘

os |

: |

|

3 VOCABULARY |

by OF THE |

MPONGWE LANGUAGE;

| |

: ) |

IN TWO PARTS. °

3 |

|

| f



i. | | |
ie |
Pe |
‘e |
. iT
|i | |
ms || |
a. |
a i) |
ee | |
el
i it
ae | |
|
ii || ’
— | |
.| | | |
F z
Fs | |
Pi
eet tl | | |
od +] | |i :
att | |) q
a | || e
m4 P| |
A
i 4
a | Ln
mi
i '
| : 4.
Lh |
PL
be Hee Ot oo }
a }



*
ee INTRODUCTION : 7
eS
; TO THE
; MPONGWE VOCABULARIES.
Tue following vocabularies in two parts, Ist, English and |
Mpongwe, and 2d, Mpongwe and English, do not embrace all
the words in the language, but those chiefly which are in most
common use. There are a great many words in English which 3
have no exact counterpart in the Mpongwe, and so vice versa.
Certain words in the Mpongwe have great latitude of mean- |
ing, in consequence of the defective views that are entertained
by the people on the subject of morals, as well as their want of Hl
| discrimination in metaphysical science; the term mba, for ex- |
| ample, is indiscriminately used for good, handsome, kind, gene-
| rous, just, benevolent, lenient, and whatever conveys a pleas-
| ing idea to the mind; and so mbe means bad, severe, unrelent- )
| ing, vengeful, unfortunate, ugly, malignant, mischievous, and
whatever else that conveys the idea of what is unpleasant. |
Many simple. terms’in English can be expressed only by a |
phrase in Mpongwe; thus to express the idea of hungry, they i
| say, njdgd nana, i. e. sick with hunger; to say he is drunk,
the phrase e bongo nalugu is used and literally means “he is
: captured or overpowered by rum;” the term rich, must be
expressed by are n’aniva, i. e. “he is with money.” Certain ¢ |
verbs, again, have a signification in some of the derivative
| conjugations wholly different from any idea contained in the |
, radical form; thus from mie to know, comes mieza (the causa- |
tive conjugation), to make know or inform; so from kumana
| to stand up, comes kumania to erect any thing. |
In the following vocabularies only the ground form of any
one part of a word is laid down, i. e. the singular number of
, nouns, the first declension of each adjective, and the radical i
conjugation of the verb. All the derivative parts of each
word can be determined by turning to the rules laid down in
the grammar. : hE
| | |
| : )
* f
Pion. |



fe eer NCEE . ani eT oe Pe cia Y
Fs aoe |
< 3 | |
PN | =
Re itl
Pa | iF :
as ‘ | |
2 |||
Sa | :
as , | i
i =| a |
| x | : E
i ||| |
Bit |
Be | |
fe | |
| i
1
ii
= ; ’
is | |
ti | |
it
ay ii .
ei | i
{ 3 f .
al |
St ee '
a
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VOCABULARY.
PART 1. |
A. Accept, v. bénga.
Acceptable, a. mbia.
A, art. mari (one). Accomplish, v. méniza.
Abandon, v. tiga. Accompany, v. pénia and kén-
Abash, v. jena. ntyani, see| da na me. |
shame. Acknowledge, v. méma. ~ i]
Abate, v. pagwa. Acquire, v. dénga. i
Abdicate, v. tiga, the same asjAct, v. denda. |
abandon. Act, n. osaun. |
Abdomen, n. twumu. Ache, v. nkazya and zt bola. |
Abet; v. nunguna. Acid, a. ikanda. |
Abhor, v. gami, and numba, and|Active, a. ogazagaza.
bika. - Adage, n. nkogo. 4
Abide, v. doana. Add, v. kunda and fela. li
Ability, n. ngulu. Adequate, a. kwékwé. |
Able, a. jalia, and nganga and|Adhere, v. datana.
ka kekiza. Adieu, ad. ojant. h
Aboard, ad. go. Admnire, v. ténda.
Abolish, v. bundakainia and te-|Adroit, a. onémbd. |
na. Adult, n. onérd. ;
Aborigines, ni onwd wi ntye,|Advantage,n-kevaand piaganu. |
child of the soil. Adversary, n. nyembanyemba
Above, prep. gw’igonu. and ndowa, li
Abort, v. periza onwana. Advise, v. buia.
Abound, v. are yenge. _ |Advocate, n. okanla.
Abridge, v. kangia. Adaltery, n. ibanda. *
Abroad, ad. ogénda. Adulterer, n. ebandanie. Ni
f Absent, v. zyele véi, not here. |Adulteress, n. evavevove.
Abstain, v. bka. Afar, ad. bo.
Abseond, v. fanga. _|Afraid, v. tia. 118
| Abundant, a. yenge,menge, men-|Affair, n. ozdzd.
£0, GC. Affirm, v. buia and bulic.
Abuse, v. tawa, to curse. After, prep. nyuma. |
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-— |) 54 VOCABULARY. Fs
ie | Afternoon, ad. nkolu. \And, conj. nz, na, n’. i
| | Again, ad. fa and vd. Anecdote, n. nkogo.
i (fl Aggrandize, v. pendia. Anger, n. egunu. e
ee | Aggravate, v. bendia. Angle, n. ntulungu. :
. H * Agitate, v. shuga. Angry, v. benda. t
my | Agony, n. nkaza mpolu. Anguish, n. azili.
ao al | Agree, Vv. pangana. Animal, n. vugina. :
a i Aground, ad. siga. Ankle, n. mpdngé (joint).
|| Ahead, prep. goboso. Anoint, v. saga and saga ngali.
pon | I Aid, v. nunguna. Annoy, v. panga njuke. |
Lit : Air, n. ompunga. Annoyance, n. njuke, trouble.
= iI | Alcohol, n. alugu. Another, afemdarz (thing), omari
mi} | Alike, ad. egdlanit ga and ga. (person).
| | Aliment, n. anya. Answer, Vv. jivira. 4
isi | Alive, ad. bd. Antelope, n. nkambz. |
|| All, a. zodu, sodu, modu, &c.. |Anvil, n. ntyolo. : -
mii) Allegorize, v. kamba. Ant, n. nydna. -
eS i Allegory, n. egamba. Any, a. ’edu, yedu, medu, &c. Ht
me ih Alligator, n. gnando. Apart, ad. ozamba.
.- Allow, v. tiga and jivira. Apex, n. néyaz, top, end, &c.
ne | Almighty, a. ngulu-zodu. ' |Appease, v. panga egunu mana.
ot Almost, ad. piére and baraba. |Applaud, v. suminia.
it || Alone, ad. dadie. Applause, n. zsuminia.
re Hl Also, ad. ké. Approach, v. bowunia piére.
eel ty) | Alter, v. tava and puruna. Approve, v. tonda.
feet || | Altercate, v. jomana. . |Arbitrate, v. teniza.
ie AE Altercation, n. yomano. Are, v. ne, re, doana.
Be) | || Altitude, n. dondoa. Arise, v. kumana.
ju 4 tH Altogether, ad. du and zodu. |Around, prep. vingwa.
a Always, ad. egombe zodu. Arm, n. ogd.
a Am, v. ne, re, are. jArmful, n. ogd-ralie.
| Amass, v. kenja yama yenge. \Armpit, n. nyavalt. |
o By Amaze, v. mama. Arms, n. imianga (iron). |
eo ' Ambassador, n. ovdvi. Arouse, v. jéma and néngunia.
ot i Amen, ad. rééi and giligili. Arrange, v. kenja. |
| Amiable,*a. mbia. Arrest, v. simbia, kota.
+ | . Amicable, a. ogangano and. in-|Arrive, v. bonwa. |
anid dego. Arrow, n. ozdngd. r
il Among, prep. go and vd. Art, n. ekénge.
ant Ample, a. yenge, wenge, menge,|Artery, n. oganjt. a
A | &e. As, conj. yend, nand and vdvéa.
etl Amulet, n. monda. Ashore, ad. go-ntye. |
mM Eth Ancestry, n. izdmbi. Ascend, v. panda.
Sei Anchor, n. nytlu. Ashame, v. jena ntydni.
P| it Ancient, a. elungu. Ashes, n. ombu. :
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a



VOCABULARY. a
Aside, ad. ozamba. ‘Bank, n. ntomba.
Ask, v. bambia. Banquet, n. ntyago. —
| Asleep, v. nana and nana an-\Bar (of a river), n. edo.
; tyavind. Bargain, n. igolu. |
Astonish, v. mama. Bark (of a tree), n. ebanda-
Astride, ad. agolu-nja. zu rere.
| Asunder, ad. kera. Bark, v. boka.
Assassinate, v. jona. Barrel, n. oréga.
Assault, v. bola. Barren, a. nkeli (female).
| Assembly, n. nkanda. Barricade, n. komba (to, fence).
Assist, v. nunguna. Barter, v. kola and kola agolu.
At, prep. go. Base, a. mbe.
Attempt, v. kéniza. \Bashful, a. jena ntydne.
Attendant, n. onwa-penia. Basin, n. ntyénge. |
Attire, n. ngdi and linga. Basket, n. otondo.
Augment, v. dénga-polu. Bastard, n. onwd-wi-nkdngé.

» Aunt, n. onwdgwe-wi-ngwe and|Bat, n. nkdngd.
onwing we-wa-rere. Bathe, v. sd@vuna, jobuna. |
| Avaricious, a. Be, v. ne, re, doana. i I
| Averse, v. gami and agami. __|Beach, n. ozégé. © |

Awake, v. néngwa. Bead, n. dlonda. |
Awkward, a. otewu. Beak (of a bird), n. ozumbu-wi-
Axe, n. erém. nydant. |
| Bean, n. osange. |
; B. Bear (to carry), v. toana.

Beard, nelélu.
ce Babe, n. ekéikéi. - Beat, v. bola. .,
Baboon, n. ntyége. Beautiful, a. mbia, evia, &c.

Back, n. nyuma. Because, ad. kdnde and kan-
Back, ad. nyuma. dene... he
Backbite, v. maga. Beckon, v. pépia.
Backbone, n.. impundu-okanga. |Bed, n.-odo.
Backwards, ad. nyuma.> Bed-time, n. egombe zi jinginu.
Bad, a. inbe, eve, &ce. Bee, n. nyowe. ?
Bag, n. puka. Bee-hive (bee-tree), n. erere-z1-
Bald, a. ckhanga, a bald-head. nyowe and monga.
Ball, n. ompinga and imonga. |Beef, n. evéré-zi-nyari, cow’s
Ballad-singer, n. nyembi. flesh. \q
Bamboo, znimba. Before, prep. goboso. \
Bamboo-wine, n. ttutu. Beg, v. négira and kakala.

Bamboo-nut, n. ntyovi. Beget, v. jana.
Banana, n. itdtd. Beggar, n. oma-négira. .
Bane, n. nyemba and ekémbe. |Begin, v. pakilia and domania. le
Bang, v. doka and bola. Begrudge, v. bela-polu.

. Banish, v. tomba. Behind, prep. nyuma.



ag ia
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|)
CT
as | : 56 VOCABULARY. |
(|| Behold, v. pona and jena. iBlame, n. ntyémbda.
. | | Belch, v. séku. ‘Blame, v. sémba.
Bs | Believe, v. j¢vira. ‘Bleach, v. jambunia.
2s . Bell, n. ¢galinge. ‘Bleed, v. kwéra-agwera. |
way: Belong, v. niva: Blend, v. bunduna. ; }
fe. Bellows, n. aguwa. Biind, a. ipdku. e
ee al | Belly, n. zeoumu. Blind-man, n. ipdéka.
a Hi | +. Belly-ful, n. ewumu-ralie. Bloat, v. duma.
a: || | . Below, prep. zolz. Blood, n. néyina.
co | Belt, n. otumba. Bloom, v. jana-ilonda.
1 | | «Bend, v. démbia and démbiza. |Blossom, n. zlonda.
ei Beneath, n. (see below). Blow (with the mouth), v. pun- *
fe ii\ i Benefactor, n. rera, father, ben-| jina.
aa efactor. Blow (the winds), v. pévina.
. i | Benevolent, a. nkéngd and mbia./Blue, a. ndmbe. :
i. || Beseech, v. kakala. | Blunt, a. tula.
iil Beside, prep. baraba. |Boar, n. ngowa-nomt.- :
ae I Besmear, v, saga, saga ngaldBoard, n. niimbe.
me ill and kala: Boast, v. suminia okuwé.
os Besom, n. izdmbdala, broom. —_—|Boat, n. elende.
ee ! Best, a. evia-poso. - (Body, n. okuwé. ‘ |
* Bestow, v. pa. Boil, v. namba.
Bali i Bet, v. dowa-mpaga. Bold, a. are ntyondo.
ath Betray, v. sdgiza and temiza. |Bolt, v. wela-wanga. i
eat y| || Between, prep. go-gare. Bolt, n. sapamina.
met t| | | | Beware, v. bandamina. Bone, n. epa.
mat Bewitch, v. nya. . 4{Book, n. ezango.and ezangango. “
et | |) Beyond, prep. goboso. Border, n. ntyaa.
ey |) 1 | “Bid, v. bulinia. Bore, v. pizagéza.
|) Big, a. mpolu, evolu, &c. Bosom, n. ntono.
= Billow, n. ekeva. Bottle, n. mbute.
i Hd Bind, v. kora. Bottom, n. iwongo, ntye, &c. — |
4 * Bird, n. nydni. Bough, n. ivare.
ae | | |) Birdnest, n. chundu. Bounce, v. dogwa.
“aa | Biscuit, n. olega. Bow, n. isavinla. . @
| iit Bitch, n. mboa-nyanto. Bow, v. savinla.
Ee }/ Bite, v. noma. Bowels, n. iségé.
LH / Bitter, a. noni or noni. Bowl, n. ntyénge-nyango.
ti ( Black, a. ndmbe. Box, ‘n. egara.
a | Blacken, v. zlangania. Boy, n. onwd nom.
i Black-man, n. ondmbe. Boysplay, n. azeva-mi-anwand.
Hn? i me Blacksmith, noaguwaguwa. — |Brackish, a. zawuizawu-
Ba 1 Bladder, n. ewowa. Brain, n. ipungu.
ae Blade (of a knife), n. njelz. Brandy, n. dlugu. et
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Brass, n. nyémie. _ ‘Bush-country, n. g’oseke.
Brave, a. are ntyondo. ‘Bushman, n. osekant.
a Bread, n. mpémba. \Busy, a. janja.
) Break, v. bundakainia. ‘But, conj. ndo.
} Breakfast, n. inya-sibanga. ‘Button, n. rok.
- Breast, n. ntono. ‘Button-hole, n. ompongoni-w’-'
Breath, n. onwwée. |. troki. ,
Breathe, v. fela-onwét. Buy, v. kola.,
Breed, v. jana. By, prep. vd, n’, na, ni, &e.
Breeze, n. omponga nkami and
. omponga olomba. |
‘ Bridge, n. chasa. a | C.
Brig, n. watanga. |
Bright, a. jambua. Cable, n. ogali and ogulu. ,
Brighten, v. jambunia. \Cackle, v. bola-ombela.
Bring, v. baga. ~ \Cag, n. onwd-oréga and oréga.
Brink, n. ozagnha. Pee), n. ntyondo and —
: Brisk, a. ogazagaza. | mbambi.
Bristle, n. ozanja. Calf, n. onwd-nyare. |
Brittle, v. ofafa. Calieo n. nkombe. - |
Broad, a. ompozyo. iCalk, v. felia. . |
.- Brook, n. olaévi wango. Calm, n. pdnla and pana. )
Broom, n. ezambdalda. Can, v. ka, ka kekiza.
i Broth, n. onwémba. Cannibal, n. oma nya anlaga.
Brother, n. onwdngwe and onwa-Cannon, n. oduma.
rere. Canoe, n. owaro. |
Brow, n. iguni. Cap, n. ipaki and tpaki yikénjo. |
Brown, n. tenatena. Cape, n. ompomo. |
Bruise, v. sowa. . (Captain, n. ngdwe. |
Brush, v. jambuna. ~ Captive, n., mbwedi. ie
Brush, n. ezd@mbald, broom. were, v. naka. |
Brute, n. nyama and wugina. (Careful, a. are bandamina.
Bud, n. erondo. Carry, v. toana.
Bud, v. jana-erondo. Case, n. egoro. 5
Bug, n. vugina and erenardard. \Cask, n. oréga.
Buffoon, n. oma-bola-itu. ‘Cast, v. punga and fala.
Build, v. noga (house), nuga\Cat, n. pus.
(boat). Catch, v. kota. |
Bull, n. nyare-nom. Caterpillar, n. emanda.
< . Bundle, n. 7ta. Cattle, n. vugina. i
Bung-hole, n. mpogont woréga.Cause, n. tpanga. ir
5 Burn, v. peza and pia. Cause, v. panga.
Burst, v. cuwa. Cease, v. tiga. 115
Bury, v. bénla. ' . Genont v. bandiza.
Burying-place, n. abe. Censure, v. sémba.
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v VOCABULARY.
a ) |
a || Centipede, n. nkoro. \Collect, v. datiza,
mi i | Centre, n. gare. \Comb, n. ezalina:
al Chain, n. tzyungakanit. iCome, v. bie and bza.
" 3 Chair, n. epwi and epwr-sa-(Comet, n. ardwonge,
| tanga. Command, v. sombia.
es Chamber, n. nédniye. Commandment, nh. wanga. =
t | ~N 5 ° 3 : a
Re Change, v. pengakunia. \Compel, v. pangas
eo | Cheap, a. déla. _ |Competeney, a. atueni yenge.
Re, | Cheat, v. pita. \Complain, v. sdza.
| Check, n. wmuUugu. . Complete, v. méniza.
; ij Cheer, v. moanja. Compress, v. piara. 3
is | € £ é sok .
ai Cheese, n. ompege. Conceal, v. jumbuna.
i | Chest, n. egara. Confess, v. méma.
itll , Chew, v. boga. Connive, v. sdérva.
i | Chicken, h. jog dnt. Conquer, v. keva.
a || Chide, v.gsémba. Conscience, n. oréma.
| Chief, n. oma-ewonjo. Consider, v. pikilia,
ee ti 1) : Child, n. onwana. Consent, v. j2vira. |
a S38 5 S $ . .
S| Chin, n. jégélu. Console, v. tomba-agnandi.
i | Chirp, v. daga. Conspire, v. datana ewonjo and
ee ||| Choke, v. jiga. bonda ewonjo.
Choice, n.tpinja. Construct, v. noga and pania.
1) \\\) Choose, v. pinja. Contract, v. kela and kola-agolu.
1 )\|) Chop, v. tena. Converse, v. jzra-elambe. .
ee til) | Circle, n. igdma. . * Convene, v. datiza.
||| . City, n. nkala mpolu. \Cook, v. namba and pika.
Heh t\\t Claw, n. (@@f a bird or tiger,)|\Cook, n. omd-namba. :
by) : aféra. = Cool, v. panga zo nkér.
hl | Clay, n. wat. Copper, n. nkonga.
4 Clean, a. jambua and pupu. (Corn, n. mba.
al) Cleanse, v. siza. Corner, n. ntulungu.
a | Climb, v. panda. \Corpse, n. ebende. ,
al : Cloth, n. olamba. \Corpulent, a. oma-mpolu.
, i Clothes, n. nga. (Correct, v. buia-réti. j
aa | i) Cloud, n. evindi. Cost, n. dona.
By | | Coadjutor, n. oma-nunguna. Cotton, n. okdnda.
ml. Coal, n. amala. . Cough, n. eguwa.
: Bi | / Coarse, a. fago. Cough, v. kdnla.
P Cobweb, n. inydngé siboboti. .\Country, n. longa.
| Cock, n. jogdnt onomi and Count, v. tanga. é
|| kokort. Courageous, a. are-ntyondo and
Hig Cockroach, n. mpénjo. are-evémba.

Se i | =
aaa Cocoanut, n. amangatanga. Cover, v. puga.
aril Coffin, n. egard. Covet, v. jena-ngandi.

— | | Cold, a. ifwi. Cow, n. nyare. .
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VOCABULARY. 59
Coward, n. zbobo. Debtor, a. anoani.
Crab, n. ya-tkumbu. Deeay, v. banla.
| Crack, v. jona. Deceive, v. nokina. ;
Crack, n. ogéla. Deceiver, n. onoki, a liar.
Cramp, n. 7yéyé. |Deceitful, a. onoki. 3
F Crazy, a. erania. : \Deck, n. dei. (English.)
Creep, v. jaguna. Decorate, v. bara. .
Crime, n. osaun mbe. Deep, a. orénga. »
Crooked, a. régd. Deer, n. tnyamat
Cross, n. krus. (Portuguese.) |Defraud, v. pita.
Crow, v. koga. ees v. sdiza-ozdza.
Crowd, n. nkandd. Delicious, a. onigi. |
Cruel, a. sinda. , Delirious, a. periza-ewonjo.
Crush, v. jara and gla. Deliver, Vv. pa. .
Gry, v. dena. (Demand, v. bambia.
Cultivate,v. bénla. (Demon, n. ibambo and* |
Cunning, a. avonu. | onyambe. 2 |
Cup, n. ntyénga nyango. Deny, v. danda. |
Cure, v. jinga. |Depart, v. kénda. |
Current, n. eningo. — \Deride, v. sélia and j6nla.
: Curse, v. tawa. ‘Descend, Vv. sumina.
Curse, n. ordwu. Desire, v. bela. :
Custom, n. ntyali, mpani, &e. Desire n. ibela.
Cut, v. tena. Destroy, v. bundakatnia.
Cutlass, n. okwara. Despatch, toma.
‘Despise, v. agamit and numba, |
D. edad.
; Destitute, a. azyele. |
Dagger, n. impdnta. Detect, v. salia. |
Daily, ad. niyug’wedu. Devil, n. chambo, onyambe and ik
: Damp, a. nké2. nkinda.
Dance, v. jinla. Da n. ompembe.
Dance, n. oyzno. Diabolical, a. ntyalé y’ Abambo.
Dark, a. mpiri. Dialect, n. nkambine.
Darkness, n. mpiri. ‘Dialogue, n. eldmbe.
Darken, v. panga-mpiri: |\Diarhea, n. ipamba.
Dash, v. doka. Dictate, v. bulinia. ,
Daughter, n. onwana-owanto. |Die, v. juwa. |
| Dawn, a. owanga. ae v. yt re gdlani avani.
& Day, n. ntyugu and owenja. (Difficult, a. njdli. u
Daylight, n. yenja. pis v. tumba.
| Dead, a. juwa. \Diminish, v. kanjea. ‘
Dealman, n. mpoge. , |Dinner, n. enya nkombe-nyondo. i
Debauchee, n. ebandanie. (Dip, v. fela.
| Debilitate, v. dalia. Direct, v. teva.
|
| |
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a i 60 VOCABULARY.
my fill
ie i | Dirt, n. nanga. Doze, v. méga.
i‘, tT Dirty, a. nanga. _ . Dozen, n. olamband.
B | a Disagree, v. wi zyele ogangana.|Drag, v. dura-lura, _
re | Disappoint, v. tambe-devina. \Drake, n. wzdge mom.

’ my Disapprove, v. pa tonda. iDraw, v. dura. .
e | Disaster, n. isaun mbe. ‘Dream, v. pulinu. '
im Discern, v. jena and pona. Dream, n. nyilinu.

a Discover, v. ma. Dregs, n. nkizi. |
is | ff Discontented, a. e sindina. ‘Dress, n.wkémba and ngdt. |
i i) Discreet, a. are ewonjo and are Drink, v. jonga.
a | | | Ogu. rink, n. yejonga.
ay Disdain, v. agami and numba. Drip, v. twezina. »
Bi Disgrace, n. ntydni. \Drive, v. sug. '
aii Disgrace, v. jena-intyani and oe qiyenge. '
PH shat. rop, n. 7dadd. :
“= Hl Disguise v. temiza. Boe V. poswa.
ee ||| Dish, n. péle-z’owaro. ' |Drought, n. enomo evolu. , |
es | | Dishonest, a. oma-ofe. Drown, v. damina. |
ee | Dislike, v. agami and numba. Drowsy, a. méga.
a Dismiss, v. finiza. Drum, n. ngdima and ngdma~
mi _ Disobey, v. pédia. | atanga.
& Disperse, v. pazangana. \Drunk, v. béngio. !
Bi iii Displease, v. bendina. ‘Drunkard, n. eydnga. 3 !
a Disregard, v. zye-shalé and Dry, v. joma.
Seyili) | pedia. : Dry, a. kaka and wajomi kaka.
a Dissolve, v. janginia. ‘Duck, n. izage. |
ari | Distant, a-bo and la. allt a. tua.
ae | Distort, v. kalunia. ‘Dumb, a. imamu.
( | | Distress, v. jeniza mi njuke. (Dust, n. ombutu.
m4 Distress, n. njuke. Dusty, a. irdi. |
s | Distribute, V. hezira. Duty, n. evelo zam and ogonu.
_ a Distrust, v. tiena. |Dwarf, n. nkenjo.
mei Disturb, v. sdkalia. : Dwell, v. doana.
74 | iH Dive, v. ninia. ~ |Dwelling, n. nago. |
a 1 Divide, v. kera. Dye, v. singa.
mii Dizzy, a. jena isénda. Dysentery, n. ipamba. |
a i i . Dizziness, n. tsénda. E |
Bilis.) Do, v. denda. ‘ .
4 j | Doctor, n. og'anga. . Each, a. mari-mari. |
Ae | * Dog, n. mboa. Eagle, n. ngwa nyani. ’
il Dodge, v. komba. Ear, n. oro.
" Pil | ' Donation, nh. mpago. Ear-ring, n. omoro.
a elt H Door, n. wuge. Earth, n. ntye and ntyenge.
a | Down, n. sumina. East, n. mbora yt tongwa
: | { . Dowry, n. ozéndo. nkombe.
a@ .
At 7
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: H ¥ i.
I | .
| . ie?
tl i siiiliataaat Silla .
_ nom
ae o



; t
9
: VOCABULARY. 61
Vat, v. nye or nya. ‘ Except, prep. kao.
Ebb, v. poa. Exchange, v. pengakania.
Economical, a. oma obandaminc| Exhibit, v. tuminia.
yama. Exile, v. tamba.
t Eclat, n. ina via. |Lixist, v. ne, re doana and tuene. |
f Edge, n. yitua. Explain, v. tuminia.
_ Efface, v. szza. Extend, v. piagana. ;
/ Effeminate, a. ga owanto. Exterior, n. ozamba.
' Egg, n. thi. Extinguish, v. nima.
' Eight, a. nana. Extract, v. dula. |
Eighth, a. ananai. Uxalt, v. igeva volu.
Eighteen, a. igomi-ni-nanat. Kye, n. intyd.
: HKighty, n. agom¢ nanai. Hyeball, n. oténgu. |
Elastic, a. indamu.. Kyebrow, n. ogunt. |
Elbow, n. kdgazyd. Kyelash, n. sikangé. |
Elephant, n. njdgu. . , Kyelid, n. kowo. ‘
| Eleven, a. igomi-ni-mari. é |
Emancipate, v. kalua. F. é‘
I' Embark, v. kénda g’owatanga. |
E Empty, a. eroro. Fable, n. nkogo. -
i End, n. niya-i. Face, n. ozyo and ozo. |
Encourage, v. pindinia. Fade, v. kawa. Hi
Embrace, v. sanguna. Faint, v. kwena-oge.
* English, a. Ngesh. Fall, v. poswa and kwa.
. Enough, ad. yenge. False, a. noka. ;
Enter, v. jingina. Fame, n. ina ivolu. |
Entertain, v. penjavenja. Family, n. ogdi. ‘
Entire, a. yodu and modu. Famish, v. jag njana. : |
Entrails, n. iségé. Far, ad. bo.
Envious, a. e jena gnandi. Farm, n. ntyaga and mpindi. i
i Envy, n. gnandi. Fashion, n. mpani, ntyali and
Epistle, ni ezango. ‘ osaun. }
Equal, a. egdlani. Farther, ad. bo.
Err, y. fwemi. Fast, ad. nt ngulu.
Escape, v. pera. Fasten, v. kora.
| Evaporate, v. poa and ampuni- |Fat, n. yapama.
ma-panda. Fat, n. agalt. ,
Evening, n. nkolu. Father, n. rera and rere.
| Every, a. waodu. Fathom, n. eguwa. '
bs Evil, n. osaun mbe or mbe. Fatigue, v. jasa.
Evil, a. mbe. Fault, n. ozdzd.
Ewe, n. iddmbi-inyanto. , |Favor, v. nunguna. ‘
Exceed, v. posyo or poso and |Fear, n. itia. i
praganu. ear, v. tia.,
Excel, v. (see Exceed). » - Feast, n. sinya sijengé. i
# |
=



ars eee an a ee cae re ita |
eS il |
: | ‘
il ! r
re .
i || 1 | 62 FOCABULARY:
Re || | Feather, n. owowa. |Fly,.v. dogwa,
. Hh | Feeble, a. déla. |Hoam, n. ampuni.
me iil | Feed, v. pa sinya. Fog, n. ewumbu-toba. :
| Feel, v. kota. \Fold, v. pura.
Ne Feign, v. pdindia. F ollow, v. songa. \
ae | Female, v. onwanis or omanto. |Food, n. inya. -
ee “ay | Fence, n. ogomba. Fool, n. elénge.
i | | Ferment, v. benla. Foot, n. niyoxyo.
aa | Fetch, v. baga. For, prep. gore and n’sna. ‘
ie | | | Fever, n. ifwe. Horbid, v. dega.
Bil | Few, a. yé yama. Forehead, n. mbami.
4 | = Fuel, n. okoni. forenoon, n. ibanga.
a | if Fifteen, n. ¢gomi-ni-tant. Forest, n. iga.
| Fifth, a. atani. Forget, v. devana.
me iii | Fifty, a. agomi atani. Forgive, v. nyeza and méniza.: |
| i f Fight, v. noa. Fornicator, n. ebandanie.
Pe iii) | Filch, v. jufa. Forsake, v. tiga. i
ee til| | Fill, v. jo 2a. Forty, a. agomt nai.
. ee Fin, ns otaki. Four, a. naz.
te | Find, v. dénga. Fourteen, a. igomi nt nai.
ai Fine, a. mbza. Fowl, n. jogdni.
Pari) Finger, n. omeno. Frequent, a. egombe zodu.
| q | Finish, v. méniza. Freshwater, n. aningo-nkéi. |
eaii|) | Fire, n. ogoni. Friend, n. ndego. -
Pai Firm, a. jalia. - |From, prep. gore.
Pail | Fish, n. evéré and 7ityuwé. Fruit, n. zlonda.
| | Fish, v. mbuzya. Full, a. jonia.
Si | Fisherman, n. oma mbuzya. Fur, n. kumia-agumia. |
| | Fist, n. ebolt. Furl, v. pura. |
Be iii °! Five, a. tant and tyani.
= | Fix, v. panga. G.
ma tll Flank, n. tugu.
4a Flat, a. mbévé. Gale, n. nkangwé.
iil Flatten, v. panga-mbivé. Gall, n. ntyua.
oy | Flatter, v. sumznia. Gape, v. koga.
mii Flea, n. ogénlé. ‘ Garden, n. ntyaga.
: - Flee, v. dogwa. Garment, n. ngdt.
‘, y Flesh, n. ozyont. Gate, n. iguge. eS : a
Al Fling, v. fala. Gather, v. lumbina.
ii Flint, n. edo-njalt. Gaze, v. silia and pona. >
a Float, v. janginia. . * Gazelle, n. ntyerere.
ail] Flock, n. mbéi. Generous, a. ogwande.
: Bl | Flour, n. mpémba. Gentleman, n. elami and omé
zely | Flow, v. kénda. mpolu. ,
| Fly, n. ntyzna. Get, v. dénga and kova. |
*
= ! |
au
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Sy ag eee
aii ea main



. ,
a
VCCABULARY, 63
Ghost, ni ininda. H.
Gift, n. mpaga.
Gill, n. (of a fish), ¢zave. Habit, n. mpani and ntyalt.
Girl, n. onwanto. Hair, n.orue.
. Give, v. pé and pa. Half, n. érene and mbéz.
. Gizzard, n. evdva. Halfmoon, n. ogwéli-mbéi.
Glad, a. tondo. Hand, n. ntydme.
Glass, n. elas or elash. Handkerchief, n. evélésh.
Glossy, a. kawa. , Handful, n. ntydme-ralie,
Glutton, pn. myent?, onyenx. ante n. ogd (arm). |
Gnaw, Vv. noma. . Hang, v. bunda. :
Go, v. kénda and kéndagu. Handsaw, n. egwasa. |
Goat, n. mboni. . Handsome, a. mbia (good) and |
God, n. Anyambix. | _mépa-jeno. |
Gold, n. stka-yatenatena. |Happy, a. yt re mbia and pupu. |
Good, a. mbia. : lHard, a. 7004.
Goods, n. aniva. Harpoon, n. evango. ;
: Gourd, n. niyondo. Hark, v. yaga.
Grass, n. erove. Haste, v. négiza.
‘Grave, n. oronginu. Wat, n. epokolu. :
Gravel, n. ntyénge-y’antya: Hatch, v. téva.
Graze, Vv. nya-orove. Hatchet, n. menda..
Grease, n. agali. Hate, v. gamit and numba.
: Grease, V. jira-agali. ~ Haul, v. dura.
Great, a. mpolu. Have, v. are and, nivi. |
Greedy, a. inyena. * Hawk, n. eshange or esdinge.
Greegree, n. monda, mbiri. Ele, pron. €, ayé and yé.
Grieve, v. dena (cry). Head, n. ewonjo. |
Grief, n. agnandi. Fleadache, n. ewonjo-zi-bola.
Grin, Vv. vingévingé. ' Fleal, v. jinga. 1
| Grind, v. kila. Heap, n. okondo.
| Grindstone, n. gilido. Hear, v. jagd.
Groan, V. simina. Heart, ‘n. niyondo.
Groin, n. olélina. Heat, n. mpyu.
Ground, n. ntye. Fleaven, n. orowa.
Grow, v. penda and poma. Heavy, a, dra.
Grown, a. apendi. Heed, v. bundamina. ‘
| Guana, n. gndimbe. Heel, n. ntumbu.
Guest, n. ogénda. Hell, n. ogont.
: Guide, v. teva. |Helm, n. epépa.’ , ie
; Guilt, n. 7saun mbe. Help, v. nunguna.
Gum, n. nkeva. Help, n. inunguna.
Gun, n. njalt. tlem, n. ogombinu and orkorue. fi
Gunpowder, n. mpira. tlem,v. kombina. )
Gut, n. wsége. Hen, nu. obota. :
| ; z, | if
“ ° .
. oa oe



mm oi |
aa
ii .
ei a
a i 64 VOCABULARY.
‘ |
ie | Her, pron. yé, sé, &c. Husband, n. onom?.
me lll | Herd, n. olemba. Hush, v. doana dda.
sl Here, ad. vénd and gunu. Hypocrite, n. onokz.
ea € | | Hernia, n. wvango.
me i | Herself, pron. ayémé. I.
a | | | Hew, v. panla and pozya.
ea | Hide, v. fanga. I, pron. m2, mie and mia.
el High, a. dondoa. Idea, n. ipivia.
Hii) | Highwater, n. eningo-y’ajoni. |Idle, a. ogera. ~
Ss | | Hall, n. nomba. * Idol, n. ogana and monda.
| Him, pron. y2 é mé, &e. . If, conj. ja gagd and 7a.
a ii Himself, pron. ayémé. Ignite, v. fela ogont.
ta Hip, n. tra. lenorant, a. amie mpdnga.
i | His, pron. yé, sé, mé, &c. Ill, a. e Jagd. ;
P | | Hit, v. bola. [ll-nature, a. oyombo.
me ili) Hoary, a. juwi. {llustrate, v. tuminia and mieza.
ee ||) Hold, v. kota. Image, n. eg dlani.
| | Hog, n. ngowa or ngod. Imitate, v. kéniza. +
mei Hole, n. ompogonit and ivrmba. |Immediately, ad. javuria.
> | Hollow, a. ompogoni and bwi. |[mmense, a. mpolu.
ee i [ Honest, a. ombia and mbia. Immortal, a.
“ | Home, n. nkala. Impair, v. bundakania. ;
mai | Honey, n. olémbé. Implore, v. kwena-kala.
mati | Honeycomb, n. ekoka. Importunate, v. négira-polu.
ai eiih | Hoof, n. mpanda. * |Importune, v. négira.
i ae Hook (fish), n. iavd. Improve, v.
melt | ‘Hoop, n. ntyava. Impoverish, v. panga-elénge.
“ale Hop, n. ngwéentyotyo. Improper, a. zye kwé and zye
ce Horn, n. mengo. mbia.
B | Horse, n. kavala. (Portuguese).|Imprudent, a. azyele ewonjo.
Li Host, n. nkandd. Impudent, a. are sitdwa.
— | | Hostage, n. jekana. In, prep. go.
A Bill Hot, a. mpyu. Inaugurate, v. panda.
oa | House, n. nago. Incline, v. dembé and kenja.
| | il How, ad. ezande, ande. Inclose, v. fela. es
aa } | |i Hug, v. sanguna. Incompetent, a. agekizt (not
a | Hull, n. eroro. Incomplete, a. able).
: Humid, a. nkév. Inconsiderate, a. zyele-pivia (no
2 i Humotist, n. oma-bola-itu. thought). :
| | Hundred, n. nkama. Increase, v. penda and poma.
. Hunger, n. mana. — Incubate, v. puga (to cover).
| j : | Hungry, a. jagda-njana. Incubus, n. nyilinu (a dream).
ne Hunt, v. buta. Indeed, ad. rétz (true).
: F | | | Hurry, v. négiza. Indifferent, a. azyele-shala.
| = Hurt, n. suna and doka. Industrious, a. jala. ,
ay | .
1 t ;
ER
|
f *
EL



|
| |
|
VOCABULARY. 65 |
Ingenious, a. oma wa siptkilia \Jaw, n. wugU. | |
(has thought). Jealous, a. e jena gnandi (he | :
Infant, n. onwa kéikéi. feels jealousy). |
Inform, v. toana-osaun. Jealousy, n. gnandi. 3
Informer, n. eroand-isaun. Join, v. duka, korina and |
Tnjure, v. shakdalda. jong a. | |
Inquire, v. bambia. Join, v. magunia. |
Ink, n. amingo-m’azange (book ote V. Suga. |
water). Joy, n. wréma tu or iréma pupu | i
Insane, a. aperio Wozu. | (the heart quiet), i
Insincere, a. ndego-jaso. Judge, n. okambi. il
Insect, n. evugina. Judge, v. jéhélia. | |
» Instead, prep. go mbora. 4 ug, n. ntyuga. | |
Inside, n. gare. Jump, v. dogwa (jump, fly, &c.) |
Instruct, v. nénga. Just, a. mbia (good, just, merci- |
Instructor, n. onénga. ful). |
Insult, v. bendia. | if
Intellect, n. oréma and ntyondo | K. |
temperate a. eyOnga Bee! n, ohdng ald, |
CINPELate, a. CYOng a. Z Se are Ps |
Intend, v. pwia and yi re go a ee Te ee i
hivendowes Keeper, n. oma openjavenja. |
ie ae ] Key, n. shape and enunguna. |
Inter, v. bénla. ; Kick, n. duka ntyozyo. |
Intercessor, n. e kambina. Rk onsdaioe. ||
Intercede, v. kambina. Kindle res oe : .
Interdict, v. dega. as Kill ya ae Sone. |
Interpret, Vv. mieza and bulinia. Kind: A. bin. E
a ee » |Kindred, n. ngwé-mo or rere-mo ie
ne ce (the same mother or father). |
Interrogate, v. bambia. inc o |
Into, prep. go. Kise’ egos |
ae sneio-nalucu, 188, V- samba. |
seuionic, eo ee Kitten, n. onwd-pus.
Invent, v. dénga. a fice nein, i
Inventor, n. oma-odénga: Knee-pan, nm: ebdmgdmbangé. |
ee Kneel, v. Woba katala. |
BI Knife, n. swaka, bomba, olanda. ee
ae Fagg LTT, Knock, n. duka and bola. +
ee Knot, n. iliria. |
Islang, n. Se hae Know, v. mia and avoro.
Ve ee Be ee Knuckle, n. mpanga. i149
Itch, v. jowa. , iy
Ivory, n. mpunji. c 8
sl |
; Labor, n. evilo and ijanja. . |
Jam, v. bangatia. *|Labor, v. janja. it
9 | i
a |
B a



- |
ae i ee
re i ,
Pea Zz |
ite 7) 4
BN) | 66 VOCABULARY.
ie i :
a i Laborer, n. ombzalo. |Level, v. panga zo vévelé.
i | Lack, v. bela. Level, a. vévelé.
i |) Lack, n. Lewd, a. ovove.
a | Ladder, n. mpandino. Liar, n. onoke.
Ne | Lade, v. jonza. Liberal, a. mbia. '
~ a | Lake, n. mbeni nyango. Liberate, v. kalunia onwd ntye.
| a Lamb, n. onwd iddmbe. Lick, v. néra.
me i Lame, a. anéméni. . Lice, n. imbina.
« | Lament, v. e jena angandi.._|Lid, n. eponga.
a ' Lamp, n. ojo (a light of any be v. noka.
eit | kind). Lie, n. inoka.
% || | Land, n. ntye. _ {Lie, v. (to lie down), nana and
itil | Land, v. atue go niye. nana bu.
| Hi} | Language, n. ddngd, pl. alongd Life, n. oweyi. |
oe ii | and tkambani. Lift, v. kumania and nongunia.
Large, a. mpolu, volu. Light, n. ozange.
eae | (IF | Last, a. nuwunla. Light, a. (not heavy), déda. |
Pee Late, a. piagani. Light, v. nunga ozo.
Re Laugh, v. jonla, jénla tké. Light, v. (as a bird), batamina.
ee |i | Laughter, n. ztw. Lighten, v. (to reduce weight),
he | Law, n. ivanga. tombina.
el q Lay, v. dumbina. Lighten, v. njale toba.
7 i | Lazy, a. ogera. Like, a. ga ntaga and egdlani.
\ara Lead, n. sumbu. Limb, n. eva.
Rail | Lead, v. kéndia. Limber, a. déla. |
rah Leader, n. ivémba. Lime, n. ombu-wi-nkuvia.
ei Leaf, n. owavi. Link, n. olonga.
iii) Leak, v. bonwa aningo. Lip, n. olumbu.
y If Lean, a. igdnga. Listen, v. 74g. °
uh Lean, v. jéza. Little, a. ezango, nyango, &c.
a Leap, v. dogwa. Live, v. are tu and are bd.
A Learn, v. nénja. Liver, n. ininlt.
ait Least, a. zango. Lizard, n. dsesele. |
aii | Leave, v. tiga. Lo, interj. vona. |
i) Left hand, n. og d-nyantwé Load, v. jonia.
ait (woman hand). Load, n. wonza.
- || | Leg, n. ogolo. Loaf, n. amonga.
a Leisure, n. egombe. Loathe, v. agami and gami.
Py | Lend, v. Lock, n. mpdga-shape.
Py! Length, n. elavine. Lock, v. nunja and vwiza shape. |
Bey Leopard, n. mega. Log, n. erere. |
; a | Lessen, v. romba-yéwd. Loin, n. niugu.
ar Let, v. riga. Long, a. nda, la, &c. /
_— Letter, n. ezango and Look, v. pona. ¢ |
| | ezangango. Look-out, v. vandamina, |
ee |
@ : +]
ia es } '
TE | 7
=i |
oe



: eee a TS ns
“4
VOCABULARY. 67
Lose, v. pera. Mean, v. pivia.
Lord, n. Measure, n. egénizo.
| Loose, v. puruna. « Measure, v. kéniza (to try, mea-
Loud, a. soka. sure, &¢.).
Louse, n. mbina. Meat, n. evéré.
Love, v. ténda. Mechanic, n. kapinde (corrup-
} Love, n. iténda. tion of carpenter).
Lung, n. bobo. Meddle, v. bakuna.
Lurk, v. fanga. Mediate, v. dega.
Lustful, a. evove. Mediator, n. elina-og dvi. s
Medicine, n. nango.
M. Meet, v. datana. |
| | Melt, v.jagiza. |
Mad, a. benda. Mend, v. sdnga. |
Magnify, v. panga-mpolu. Merchandise, n. iniva. |
Make, v. panga. Merchant, n. matyen. |
| Maker, n. opangi yo. Mercy, n. nkéngd.
Male, a. nomz. Merry, a. bola-itu.
: Malevolence, n. ntyondo mbe. |Message, a. igende. ;
- Maltreat, v. pangé njuke. Messenger, n. eromz.
Man, n. onome. Mid-day, n. kobonyondo.
Manage, v. nénja (to learn). |Middle, a. egara.
Manifest, v. tuminia. Mid-night, n. og wera lingelinge.
: Mankind, n. oma (person), Midwife, n. oganga.
anlaga (people). Milk, n. ambé-ningo.
Many, a. nyenge, menge, &c. |Mimic, v. kéniza.
Mark, n. elingilio. Mind, v. penjavenja.
Mark, v. dingilia. Mind, n. ntyondo and oréma and
Marrow, n. ntydmbe. ogu.
Marry, v. jomba. Mingle, v. datiza. i |
Marvel, v. mama. Mirror, n. oyeno.
Marvellous, a. osaun mpolu. _|Miscall, v. fwema.
Mash, v. tua. Mischief, n. njuke.
Mast, n. ogumia. Miser, n. mbato, pl. embato.
| Master, n. rera (father, master,|Mislead, v. fwemiza. }
| We). Bee Mist, n. onyéngé. i
Masticate, v. pranguna. Mistake, v. fwema.
Mat, n. etava. Mistake, n. tfwema. |
Mate, n. até. Mistress, n. ngwé. , |
Matter, n. osaun,ndaga and |Misunderstand, v. pa kotiza.
nte. Mix, v. (see Mingle). | bi
[ Mature, v. felia. Mock, v. kénzza. '
May, v. ka venditua. Mode, n. mpani, ntyalr. |
Me, pron. mi, mie and mié. Model, n. egénizo. | i
Mean, a. mbe.. Modern, a. nydla.
*
| hel



4 i | |
go iH i ? |
|) .
ie | | | | 68 VOCABULARY. ;
| |
ai i | Moment, n. pelé and pelé vénd. |Native, n. onwd-ntye (child of |
i i Money, n: inva. the earth, free). t
. | Monkey, n. nkéma (the name of |Navel, n. irdrd. !
a ih! | one species). Nay, ad. nyawe. |
a i Mouth, n. og wana. Near, prep. piéré and baraba. |
ee |) Moon, n. og wel?. Neat, a. nkéré. i
me di | Moon-light, n. danga yog welt: |Neck, n. ompele. (
aa 1 More, a. fakunde. Needle, n. ntombo.
ih Morning, n. ibanga. Neglect, v. bandamina.
Ae Morrow, n. mélé and ménlé. Negro, n. ndmbe.
ee 1 Mortar, n. ezo. _ Neighbor, n. ogangano.
ah | Mopstify, v. benda and jena ae . og.
iat | ntyanr. Nest, n. zhundu.
iy | Mother, n. ngwe. Net, n. mbuzya.
Hy | Mountain, n. nomba. Never, ad. zyele.
fe | Mourn, v. dena. New, a. nydla, midla, &e.
. | Mourning, n. edingo. News, n. ntyango, pl. ntyango.
P| | Mouse, n. mpogo and umpogo. |Next, a. wate.
eal | Mouth, n. ogwana. Nibble, v. kégéra and duka.
. Mouthful, n.ogwana-ralie. Nice, a. mbia.
be Move, v. tomba. Nickname, n. tna-ny’itu.
i : Much, a. nyenge, wenge, &c. |Night, n. ogwéra.
ne Mud, n. ombanila. Night-mare, n. nyzlinu mbe.
he Muddy, a..mbora y’ambanla. |\Nine, a. indgom. .
alll | Multitude, n. nkandda. Nineteen, a. igomi-n’indgom “
Pa Music, n. nydngdle. _(ten and nine). ee
ill Murder, v. jona. Ninety, a. agomt indgomi (nine
Pail Murder, n. djona. tens).
iy | Murderer, n. oma-jona. . |Ninth, a. ny’indgom. |
ait | Must, v. ga. Nipple, n. olumbu. {
ei} My, a. yam, mam, &e. No, ad. nyawe. h
rt | Myself, pron. mémé. Noble, a. mbza.
ai | Nod, v: méga.
. | N. None, ad. zyele.
Li Nonsense, n. zyele-ogu.
“ff Nail, n. ntydngd. Noon, n. kobonyondo.
Naked, a. tele. North, n. nkdmi.
i Name, n. ina. Nose, n. ompombo.
ia Namesake, n. 2a. Nostril, n. ozyaguna.
Nap, n. ya ntydvind or méga. \Not, ad. zyele and zye. |
Nape, n. ewomba. Notch, n. elingilio.
i | Napkin, n. tolu. Notch, v. panga-elingilio.
Narrow, a. nyango, ezango. Nothing, ad. zyele du. q
| Nasty, a. séké. Now, ad. vdite vend and egombe |
. | Nation, n. dénga. | zind also pelé. —
a | ; * IK
a 7 fl
%



|
| |
7
| VOCABULARY. 69
| Number, n. ntangu, pl. intangu.\Owner, n. oniva.
Number, v. tanga. Oyster, n. zrandi. ‘ |
! Nurse, n. obandamina. |
\ Nurse, v. bandamina. P.
| Nut, n. olonda.
i Pack, v. kenja. « : )
t O. Paddle, n. nkavi yawaro. iI
Paddle, v. nuga. |
Oar, n. nkabi or nkavi. ‘ |Padlock, n. mpdga. |
Obey, v. jagznu (to hear). Painfn. nkazya.
Obtain, v. dénga, kova, &c. Pain, v. wt re nkazya.
Ocean, n. mbend. Paint, n. owéld. ' |
Ocra, n. néfu. Paint, v. komba owéld. |
Odor, n. nkango (good odor), |Pair, n. twara. ; |
anango (bad odor). Palaver, n. ozdza@ and mpungu.
Off, prep. go. Palm (of the hand), n. dleve. |
Offend, v. bendza or bendiza. |Palm-nut, n. amanga-mbila. |
Offer, v. pé and pa. Palm-oil, n. agals mi mbila. | |
Often, ad. egombe ezenge. Palm-juice, n. zdutu and membo.
. Oil, n. agalt.* = - Palm-tree, n. oyila. Hi
Old, a. nungu, mbolo and bolo. |Palpitate, v. ntyondo-duka. I
On, prep. go. Palsy, n. awdgd. |
Once, ad. nydngd marr. Pan, n. njanja. Wa
: One, a. mari. Panic, n. iia. :
Only, a. dadie. Pantaloons, n. ngdi y’okénda. |
Open, v. nunguna. (walking garment). |
Opinion, n. eivia. Papa, a. tata.
Oppose, v. sembia and dega. |Papaw,n. 2dld.
; Oppress, v. pitakainia. Papaw-tree, n. oldld. |
’ Or, conj. ge and gend. Paper, n. ezango.
; Origin, n. ¢epakilia. Parcel, n. agéu. | ia
| Ornament, n. kéré. Parch, v. kanga. |
Orphan, n. onwd ntigo. . Pardon, v. nyeza.
Other, pron. mdri, omdri and |Parent, n. izdmbi.
marr. Parrot, n. ngozyo. |
Ought, v. ga. Part, n. mbé2. *
Our, pron. yazyo, wazyo, &c, |Part, v. kera.
Ourselves, pron. azuwémé. Partial, a. ténda.
Outside, n. vuguvugu and Party, n. méngi yé or mbéi yé. |
, gwigard. Pass, v. pragana. ’
2 Over, prep. puga. Patch, n. elimé. :
| Overjoy, v. tonda. Patch, v. sdnga.
| Owe, Vv. nowana. Path, n. mpdanla.
| Owl, n. ekuru. Patience, n. e ménla. i
| Own, v. niva. Patriarch, n. rera or ozdmbi. .
| : , | i
| | | i
: |
bh 2
7 ||
: La



|
| | ’
|
etl | | 70 VOCABULARY. |
aN ill | |
rat |i Patron, n. rere and rera. Popular, a. omd-mbia.
sy t Patronize, v. Porcupine, n. nwomba. |
\ rel i Pauper, n. eléngéle. Possess, v. niva. |
a i | Pause, v. tigare. Pot (iron), n. depot. (English). |
if H | Pause, n. jdwa. Potato, n. mongatanga. |
eet |) Paw, n. ttambe. Pounce, v. kwandamina.
EY i | Paw, v. punga-itambe. Pound, v. tula. \
i |i | Pawn, n. punu. Pour, v. jira. |
ii | Pay, v. pa. Powder, n. mpira.
s iI Pay, n. apa. Practice, nempant, ntyali. |
Be | Pea, n. osange. Practise, v. denda ndnd (to do |
aii! | Peace, n. aménjé. SO). |
ai) | Peaceable, a. oma-w’aménje. _|Praise, v. suminia.
Se i) Peace-offering, n. Praise, n. 7suminia.
: | Peace-maker, n. Pray, v. kambina Anyambia j
i Peck, v. shdwa. (talk to God).
||| Peel, v. sanga. Prefer, v. pinja. |
lll Peeling, n. ntuke. Pregnant, a. are n’inyemi.
eel || | Peep, v. dadina. Premium, n. ipa.
> i Peg, n. ekdmina. Prepare, v. kekiza.
a) Pen, n. owowa (feather). Present, a. are vénd. oe
mail Penetrate, v. tuena. Present, n. mpaga.
ail | People, n. anlaga. Present, v. pa.
|i) Pepper, n. ntogolu. Pretty, a. mbia.
i | Perceive, v. mia. Price, n. djona.
SHE Perch, v. batamina. Pride, n. apédié.
ma || Perfidious, a. onoki (a liar). |Probably, ad. venditua, tazanga.
et | || Perhaps, ad. venditua and Prociaim, v. baga ntyango
|| tazanga. wang. |
| || Permit, v. tiga. |Promise, v. pangana. ;
ai Pepetually, a. egombe zodu. Promise, n. ompang ano. |
ye Persecute, v. panga njuke. Prop, n. idura. |
aii Person, n. oma. Prop, v. dura.
ati | Pigmy, n. nkenjo. Proper, a. mbza.
| Play, n. wyeva. Protect, v. penjavenja and piga.
a Play, v. sheva. Protector, n. rere and rera.
i Playday, n. owenja wa zyeva. |Proud, a. are pedi. |
a Pleasant, a. mbia. Proof, v. ntare.

[a Plenty, a. ’enje, nyenge, ezenge,|Provide, v. penjavenja. to keep, |

1 &e. provide.

ig Plug, n. odo. Prudent, a. oma-wa-simia. |

a | Plunge, v. pitakania. Puke, v. toba and tova.

PT | Point, v. néngénia. Pull, v. dura.

ET | Poison, n. nyemba. Pulse, n. oganjt.

E Poor, a. elénge. Pulverize, v. kala, |
| |
a *

@

| |
it | . =
i eee



|
r
| VOCABULARY. 71
|
Puncheon, n. oréga. (Redeemer, un. odanduna.
: Punish, v. siva. Reel, v. péva and timbiarimbia.
Punishment, n. ozyzvo. |Reflect, v. pivia. |
Puppy, n. mboa nyango or onwa/Retuse, v. finiza and bika. |
mboa. Regret, v. sdva. | |
{ Purchase, v. kola. Reject, v. beka. |
Push, v. pindinia. Rejoice, v. denda igeva and
Put, v. lumbina. tonda.
Putrify, v. banla. Relative, n. onwadngwé-wam.
Release, v. tiga-die.
Q. Relish, v. ténda, to love. |
Remainder, n.
. - Quarrel, v. jomana. Remember, v. jonginia. MT
| Quarrel, n. inyomano. Remind, v. jonginia. |
| Quick, ad. zunge and négiza. |Rend, v. tena and jokuna. HHI
Quit, v. tiga. Repair, v. sdnga. Hy
: Repast, n. znya sipolu, plenty ||
R. food. |
Repeat, v. fa kamba. ; |
‘Race, n. olembiano. — Reprove, v. tevuna. —
Racket, n. nydngdle. Request, v. bambia. |
Rafter, n. ntébé. Rescue, v. paruna.
Raiment, n. ng dz. Roll, v. kavaha. ; |
Rain, n. ningo. Roof, n. ogwanjagwanja.
Rain, v. ndga. Root, n. «ramba.
Rainbow, n. mbumba. Rope, n. og dla.
Raise, v. noéngunia. Rot, v. bdnla.
: Ram, n. 7ddmbe inom. Rotten, a. banla.
: Ram, y. kamina. Rough, a. | |
| Ransom, n. téomba and izdon-|Round, a. igdma. : | ie
dunla. Rouse, v. 7éma. .
Rapid, a. eg dnt. Rub, v. kala. |
Rat, n. mpogo and niort. Rudder, n. epépa.
Ratify, v. jekana. Rum, n. alugu.,
Razor, n. owanda-tena. Run, v. nt mango.
Read, v. tanguna. Rust, n. nyanga.
| Ready, a. kekiza. Rust, v. kota-nyanga, to catch
Reason, n. ozdzd. rust. 1 |i
Rebuke, v. tevuna. |
Reeal, v. felia, to call. S. | if
| Receive, v. dénga. :
Recollect, v. jonginia. Sabbath, n. shand. (English.) — | |
Red, a. tenatena. Sacred, a. ydrunda. | @
Reconcile, v. teniza-ndaga. Sad, a. kéva.
Redeem, v. danduna. « Sagacious, a. mia dava. | i
;
| ‘ |
Be scenes soni



rf | — 4
il
e Wi
eS |||
i. |
ee il | 712 VOCABULARY.
re iil |
ht | Sail, n. chuku and aombe. Second, a. nyambani, w’a’bani,
. i) | Sail, v. kénda. &e.
ao Qa a ‘ nat 997
fe |i Sake, n. nyang?. Secret, envmba.
el Salt, n. ezanga. See, v. pona and jena.
all Salute, v. bogzzye. Seed, n. onwdngd.
a | Same, a. ga and egdlani mo. Seize, v. kota.
fe I Sample, n. olénga. Select, v. pinja.
| | Sand, n. ntyenge.— Sell, y. hola. :
il cae a. are ewonyjo. ee Vv. toma. ee
| ap, n. eriga. ense, n. ogu and ewonjo.
ail Satan, n. zbambo, pl. abamboSeparate, v. pinja.
an and onyambe (spirits of the|Serpent, v. omamba.
ee dead). Servant, n. nyongo.
- I; Satisfy, v. epanga mie ténda. |Serve, v. janjina.
pe, i Saucy, a. oma ogwand. Set, v. dovia. — |
mS) ee. n. thaza. es Vv. kangua. s
Be ave, sungind. Seven, a. ordgenu.
. Savior, eae Seventeen, a. igom2 n’ordgenu.
ee ||| Saw, n. egwasd. Seventh, a. ny’ordgenu, mord-
Saw, y. kala. genu, &e.
Pail Say, v. buia, bulia and inle. |Seventy, a. agomi-ordgenu, se- _
4 Scab, n. nkowo. ven tens. :
Se ||| Scale,"n. (of a fish), nkazyo. |Sew, v. tuma.
Pe || Scar, n. ndolo. Shade, n. 2v27r2.
se Scarce, a. yeydma. Shade, v. diva. —*
am | || Scare, v. tia, tieza, to make|Shadow, n. iviri (of a tree)
. afraid. mminta (of a man).
: Scatter, v. nyénya. Shake, v. shuga.
is Scent, v. dénga anango. Shame, n. niydni.
2 Scold, v. sémba. Share, n. mbéi.
2 Scorn, v. (see hate). Shark, n. nkdnjé.
Z| | Scorpion, n. boboti nyt kaka. |Sharp,*a. tua.
| Scorn, v. gam. Sharpen, v. poria.
aii | Scowl, v. hora ogune. - |Shave, v. shéngina.
: Scrape, v. kamba. She, pron. e, ayé, yé he, she or it.
bET Scratch, v. mwéra. Sheath (of a sword) wemba.
Fl Scream, v. tonga and agozyi. |Sheath, v. wela-ivemba.
a Scuffle, v. sungakana. Sheep, n. idambe.
@ Scum, n. amponi. Shell, n. ntyuba.
Pt Sea, n. mbent mpolu. Skin, n. ebanda.
y Sea-breeze, n. ompunga. Ship, n. onwatanga and
a Sea-sick, a. egdlangd. owarotang a.
7@ Sea-water,n.aningo mi nyanga.|/Ship-master. n. ngawé.
a Search, v. buta. Shoe, n. ntyozyo y’atanga.
e Seat, n. epwt. Shoot, v. bola.
a



? ee
; |
VOCABULARY, 73
Short, a. epe, pe. Slay, v.jona.
Shoulder, n. ovega and véga. |Sleep, v. nana and nana
Shove, v. pindia. antydvind.
Show, v. twminia. Sleep, n. antydvind.
q Shut, v. nua. Sleepy, a. méga and bela nana. oe
Shutter, n. wuge. ‘Sleeve, n. ogd wi nga (the arm
Nick, v. jaga. | of the garment).
Sickly, a. obéle. slide, v. poeléla. |
Sickness, n. hana. - |Slip, v. porléla.
Side, n. owanja. Slow, a. nkéngd and jangojango.
Sign, n. mieza and pépia. Small, a. nyango, yango, mango, :
| Silence, v. loa-da and be. &e.
Silence, n. be. Smear, v. saga. |
Silent, a. kendekende. Smell, v. yz re n’anango.
Silly, a. owano. Smell, n. anango. |
, Silver, n. solove. (English). Smile, v. are véngevénge.
| Similar, a. egdlani, ga and mo.|Smith, n. ogubaguba. | |
Sin, n mpani mbe (bad fashion). |Smoke, n. otutu. I
Sin, v. denda mpani mbe (to doSmooth, a. vévéle. |
bad fashion). Smooth, v. panga vévéle.
Sinew, n.,oganji. )Snake, (see serpent). ,
Sing, v. jemba. Snare, n. mondo. ;
Single, a. mari or dadie. Snatch, v. kwandamina.
Sink, v. damina. Sneak, v. shdta. :
Sinner, n. omdmbe (a bad pep eet, V. evend sd.
son). | Sneeze, v. jazya.
Sip, v. s4mba and demba. Snore, v. kagara.
Sister, n. onwdngwé wanto (fe-Snout, n. mpombo, ogdnu (of an
male relative). | elephant).
Sit, v. are tu (irregular). Snuff, v. kogina. i
Six, a. orowa. ‘Snuff-box, n. ng dve-doshi.
Sixteen, a. igomt Worowa. So, conj. yend, nand.
Sixth, a. ny’orowa,morowa, &c. Soak, v. fela go mbent. |
Sixty, a. agomi orowa (six tens).)Soap, n. ntyavo and. ntyabo.
Skill, n. okéngekénge (a man | (Portuguese).
who has skill). Sob, v. sékuma.
Skim, v. tomba ampont. Soft a. déla.
Skin, n. ebanda. Soften, v. déliza. poe
Skim, v. tomba-ebanda. ale a. dadie.
Sky, n. orowa. Solid, a. jdla. |
Slack-water, n. anyamie and|Soliloquize, v. kamba yémé. |
eningo Zatavr. Some, a. yeyama. A
Slap, v. bola wéi and sapoga. |Somebody, n. oma, person. — i
Slaughter, v. jonu. ISémething n.ezdma.
Slave, n. oskaka. — Sometimes, ad. egombe vd’ gombe. .
10 ‘
* ;
|
3} Geos



a) :
e ||
|||
~ |
oe il | 3
a) |) 74 VOCABULARY. :
aa | ||
. i) | Somewhere, ad. »d mbora. Staff, n. ntongo and nkagu.
et || Son, n. onwana onomi (a maleStagger, v. péva and timbiarim-
|| child). | bia.
| Song, n. evanda. ‘Stammer, v. kaguna.
a il » Soon, ad. véte.and zunge. Stand, v. kumana. |
eee | Sorrow, n. isdva. Star, nh. wegen. |
Pil Sorry, a. e jena istéva (he sees|Start, v. dubua.
I SOIrow). Stay, v. doana. |
ill soul, n. zninda. steal, v. jufa.
a | Soup, n. owémbd. or n. adada and amponi.
it Sour, a. kanda. Steamboat, n. waro-tutu (a |
ji] South, n. olomba. | smoke canoe). |
at Space, n. mbora. Steer, v. kota-pépé. |
|| Span, n. péni. (English.) Stick, v. kota. ;
“al Span, v. kéniza péni. Stitch, n. tuma.
| || Spark, n. ombu (ashes, spark, Stiff, n. keta and yt dembia.
Sy &c.). Sting, n. elagali. ‘
Bey | Speak, v. kamba and buia. Sting. v. ta. |
> A Spear, n. igdvga. Stingy, a. mbato. |
he HE Speckle, a. atdnia, adadé and|Stink, v. mpuna and ebénla
= | i aboke. puna. |
ea | Spend, v. bundakainia (to break, Stir, v. bunduna.
P| spoil, spend, &c.). poe n. wumu.
eat | Spill, v. soka. Stone, n. zdo.
im Spine, n. okdngd. Stoop, v. démbiu. |
4 \ Spirit, n. enwnla (spirit, soul, |Stop, v. kumana. |
ue | shadow). Storm, n. ogula. |
si | Spit, v. tuenia. ‘ Straight, a. gore. : |
. | Spittle, n. wwana. Straighten, v. panga-gore and |
, | Spite, v. bendia. kumania. :
a Spiteful, a. ntyogo. Stranger, n. ogénda. |
ol i Split, v. jaruna. Strangle, v. kota g’ompele. * |
mei Spoon, n. ozyéve and ozyéve-\Stream, n. onwd oldvi.
aii) ' atanga. Strength, n. ngulu.
l Spread, v. siza. Stretch, v. dura.
| Spring, n. (of water) mbeni. (Strike, v. bola.
pi Sprinkle, v. nyénya. String, n. nydnge.
: * Sprout, v. fela ordnga. Strip, v. tomba.
A Spur, n. mpanga. Strong, a. are ngulu. |
Spy, n. oganga. Stutter, v. haguna.
4 | Squander, v. bundakainia. Suck, v. piva.
yi; | Square, a. n’twanja (with sides).|Suds, n. amponi mi ntyabo. '
Bi | Squat, v. are zyoge. _ Sugar, n. thoko ny’'qtanga. —
F | Squeeze, v. pita (squeeze, cheat,Summit, n. igonu and ewonjo.
é oppress, wrong, &c.). Sun, n. nkombe.
f
{ =
a ,
: | '
i | |
‘a - |
“a



-
A
VOCABULARY. 75
Sunday, n. shdnd. (English.) These, a. sind, mesind, &e. :
Sunset, n. nkombe y’akwa. Those, a. sénd, mesdnd, &c.
Sunshine, n. bonwa nkombe. —_|They, pron. wao.
Suppose, v. tanga and bété. Thief, n. ofe. ’
; Surface, n. olomba. Thigh, n. ivévéne. . |
Surround, v. ping wa. Thin, a. sangasanga.
Swallow, v. ménla okild. Thing, n. eza, pl. ya, and ezdma,
Swarm, v. ipa, pl. apa, (of pl. yama.
birds,) and igenga (bee). Think, v. pea and bété.
Sweat, v. togora. Third, a. nyararo, m’araro, &e.
Sweat, n. erogora. Thirst, n. esove.
| Sweep, v. jambuna. Thirsty, a. jena esove.
| Sweet, a. onigi. Thirteen, a. 7gomi ni raro. |
| Swell, v. duma. Thirty, a. agomi araro.
Swift, a. néea. This, a. yind and meyind.
| Swim, v. jaga. Thought, n. ipivia. |
Swinegn. ngowa. Thread, n. nydngé. mt
Swing, v. pombiavombia. Three, a. araro, ntyaro. |
Sword, n. okwara. Throat, n. ongongd. |
| Sycophant, n. onoki (a liar). |Throw, v. punga. —
| Thumb, n. omeno ompolu (big
ite finger).
| Thunder, n. njali ntova (hea-
Table, n. tavoro. ven’s artillery).
| Tail, n. okwende. Thus, ad. yend and naénd.
| Take, v. bénga. Tickle, v. kégéndia. |
| Talk, v. kamba. Tide, n. eningo.
Tall, a. dondoa, dondwiz. Tie, v. kora. |
Tame, a. nkéngd.: - Tight, a. tyut.
Taste, v. demba. Time, n. egombe. |
Teach, v. nénja. |Tire, v. jasa.
Teacher, n. onénja. iT'o, prep. go.
Tear, v. tena (tear, cut). Tobacco, n. tako. (English.)
Teeth, n. and. Toe, n. omeno wdgolu (the fin-
Tell, v. budia. ger of the feet).
Tempt, v. demba. (Together, ad. yodu, modu, &c.
Ten, a. agom. Tomb, n. oronginu.
Tenth, a. nyigomt, yigomi, &c.|Tongue, n. olémé.
Terrapin, n. ekaga, pl. kaga. |Too, ad. ké.and ta.
Thank, v. savinda and nkeva. |Tooth, n. ind.
That, a. yand, ya and meydnd.|Toothache, a. mbungu.
Their, a. wao, sao, mao, &c. Torch, n. ojo.
Them, pron. wao and wo. Tormept, n. panga njuke. i
Then, ad. gwa, go, &c. Total, n. yodu, sodu, &c. | |
There, ad. vavd. Touch, v. kota and demba. |
t
a2



itl
i
ii
i | , ‘
ay | i | 16 VOCABULARY.
. mT |
. | Tough, a. jala. Up, prep. panda.
es Il | Town, n. nkala. Uphold, v. simbza.
a | Track, n. ntyozyo. Upon, prep. go.
es || Trade, .n. igolu. Upset, v. bonla. '
a il . Trade, v. kola agolu. Urine, n. anomia. ;
i | Trail, v. dénga anango (to take 7
iii the scent). Veg |
ii) Traitor, n. onoki (a liar).
ae | Trample, v. kilikil2. Valley, n. olénga.
| Transfer, v. kalua and Valor, n. ntyondo mbia.
A kaluagalua. Value, n. gona.
ll Tree, n. erere, pl. rere. Very, ad. polu. i
a Tremble, v. tatamina. Vessel, n. onwatanga and i
| |i Tribe, n. iléngé. owatanga. |
| * Trouble, n. njuke. Vex, v. bendia. j
Pei | | True, a. giligili and rétz. Village, n. nkala. :
~ ie Truly, ad. giligili. Virtuous, a. mbia. :
|, | Trunk, n. tolongo. Visit, v. kénda go jena. f
ai | | Truth, n. réti and giligili. Visitor, n. ogénda., ;
i | | . Try, v. kéniza. Vomit, v. toba and tova. |
aH | Turn, v. pingwa. ;
ee || Twelve, a. igomi nt mbant. W.
Pail | | Twenty, a. agomi ambani. .
mai) | Twice, ad. nyanga mbani. —_*|Wad, n. tshusha. |
Pe | | Twist, v. pénla. Wages, n. 7pa.
lee Two, a. mbani, vani, &c. Waist, n. ntono.
% Wait, v. pengina. {
A Us Wake, v. néngwa.
ai | Whetstone, n. zdo, '
ra | Ugly, a. ombe, bad, ugly, &e. |Which, pron. zye sé.
. | Uleer, n. tunga. Whip, v. bola. :
a | | . Umbrella, n. igombegombe. Whisper, v. maga erungu. i
ary | Unbind, v. puruna. Whistle, v. tonga osost.
| Under, n. dolongo. Ww hite, a. pupu.
é | Understand, v. mie and mieni. |Who, pron. 0, mande.
Understanding, n. ewonjo and |Whole, a. yodu, modu, &c.
| | ogu. Whore, n. evove and evovevove,
| | : Unfold, v. puruna. Why, ad. osaun nde.
: Unhappy, a. iréma zye pupu. Wicked, a. mbe.
| Unjust, a. mbe (bad, ugly, un- Wide, a. mpuzyu, mpolu, &c.
just, &c.). Wife, n. onewanto, omanto, &c.
i Unkind, a. mbe. Wild, a. bebo. :
: | Unlock, v. nunguna. @ gm | Willing, v. jovira. |
ai | Unloose, v. puruna. Windpipe, n. nkangdnd.
fe Unpack, v. tomba. Wing, n. owowa. |
i |
|
. |
a



a
Me ,
VOCABULARY. vir
Wink, v. kwéra. Wrestle, v. siva.
Wipe, v. pala and szza. Wring, v. piza.
Wisdom, n. ogu andewonjo. |Wrinkle, n. njéha.
~ Wise, a. are ewonjo. Wrist, n. ntyamba and apulu.
Wish, v. bela. Write, v. ténda. . 3
Witch, n. inyemba. Wrong, a. zye reli. ,
Witch, v. punga inyemba.
With, prep. na, nz, &e. Y3 ‘
Woman, n. omanto and onwanto.
| Womb, n. twumu. Yawn, v. koga.
| Wood, n. 2:4. Ye, pron. anuwe, nuwe.
| Word, n. igamba. Year, n..ompuma.
Work, v. janja. Yellow, a. tenatena and weld. |
Work, n. evilo and tjanja. Yonder, n. vdnd and mevand. I
| World, n. niye and ntye yodu. |You, pron. 0, awé and wé and a. |
Worship, v. savinla. Young, a. onwdla.
Would, ‘v. td. Your, pron. yani, mani, &c. |
| Wound, v. twma. Yourself, pron. anuwémé.
| Wound, n. trenashane. Yea, ad. zh.
Wrap, v. savuga. Yesterday, n.jau.
| . Wrath, n. egunu.
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PART HX.
|
A. Atani, a. fifth. |
s Agnandi, n. grief, sorrow. |
Alugt, n. alcohol, rum. Aningo-m’azango, n. ink, book | |
Anyambia, n. God. water. . |
| Agali, n. oil. Ambé-ningo, n. milk, breast ? |
Ambala, n. hammer. water.
| Ayé, pron. he. Avoro, v. know. |
a Ayémé, pron. himself. Anéméni, a. lame. |
| Aningo, n. water. ‘ Aménji, n. peace. |
| Aniva, n. money, property. Anango, n. scent, smell. |
| Azuwemé, pron. ourselves. Agomi, a. tens. | |
Anlaga, n. people.
Akaga, n. cock-crowing. B.
: Aka, n. sap. . |
Amponi, n. foam. Buhebuhe, v. expand, grow. ; i
Améwa, a. some. Bula, v. extract, pull up.
Agolu, n. trade. Benla, v. ferment, boil.
Ampazya, n. twens. Bania, v. hang, suspend. ?
Ande, pron. what. Buta, v. hunt, seek. :
Awé, pron. you. Bangatia, v. jam. i
Awémé, pron. yourself. Bomba, n. knzfe. |
Anomia, n. urine. Bonwa, v. leak. |
Atinla, ad. aft, stern. Ba, a. alive. | |
Awaga, n. palsy. Batamina, v. alight (as a bird). a
Alenji, n. 77b halyards. Bakuna, v. meddle, interfere. | |
\ Azuwe, pron. we. Bénla, v. plant, bury. i
; Azili, n. pain. Banla, v. rot, putrify. | #
- Abe, n. burying place. Bogizye, v. salute. i
Amala, n. coal. Bobotignyiekaka, n. scorpion.
Anoani, n. debtor. Be, n. silence. }
Ananai, a. eighth. Bunduna, v. stir. | 2
s | :
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: SO ee Serge gga RRR,
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, | | &
ee ||
NS | 80 VOCABULARY.
x i »
ee i Bonwa, Vv. rise, arrive. Dura, v. haul, pull. |
Bn H | Bonga, v. take. Déla, a. soft, easy, weak.
ts : Bonla, v. upset. Donga, a. first. :
Pe |i) Bara, v. dress, wear. Dogwa, v. leap, fly. |
at | | Bobo, a. afraid, wild. Dega; v. interfere, stop. .
ay Bété, v. suppose. Devana, v. forget. . |
bil | Bogina, v. riot, disturb. Dénga, v. find. |
i il Benda, v. angry. Doka, v. knock. |
HI Bendia, v. vex. Diano, a. low.
alt) Bendiza, v. aggravate. Da, a. long.
ani Bia, Vv. come. Dadina, v. peep, watch.
||| Bandania, v. seduce. Dira, a. heavy.
{| Bandana, v. commit adultery. \Dadie, a..alone, only. |
ei Bambia,-v. ask, question. ' (Da, a. silent. :
Bala, v. awake. Dandunla, v. redeem.
| |||) Boka, v. bark. Damina, v. sink, drown.
S| | Bola, v. beat. Dembia, v. shake, wag. |
|| Bumbia, v. betroth. ~ |Dudia, v. weary.
ee Buru, n. (Port.) donkey. Dumba, v. surprise.
ea ||| Bulia, v. speak, say. Déla-déla, a. weak, faint.
ra (|i Bundakania, v. break, destroy. |Daginla, v. wish, desire.
ei) Buka, v. strangle. Datana, v. meet.
Res |) |) Bo, a. far. Doanay v. live, dwell. |
atl || Bola-ngama, v. drum. Du, a. all. ;
Pa || Baga, v. bring. Dembiza, v. bend.
lee | Bonga, v., take. Dembia, ve bend.
bd || || Baku, v. kick. Dowa-mpaga, v. bet.
ait | Bongio, v. drunk. Duma, v. bloat, swell.
F 4 Benga, v. present. Daga, v. chirp.
o | Bela, v. want, desire. Datiza, v. collect, convene. |
i | Boga, v. chew. Danda, v. crawl. |
mii) | Bika, v. dislike, abhor. Délia, a. weak, soft. ft
aft | Ba, a. alive. Déliza, v. soften, weaken.
mili Baraba, a. near. \Déki, n. (Eng.) deck.
i | s Bowunia, v- approach. Dondoa, n. altitude, height.
| . Danda, v. deny. ;
Pal | Doana-da, v. hush, be silent.
F D: Duka, v. strike, joi.
Doba-katala, v. kneel.
i Duba, v. obey, believe. Dumbina, v. lay, put. 4
‘aa Dena, v. cry, weep. Dingilia, v. mark.
| Dinga, v. lave long. Dovia, v. set, place. |
| Danga, v. lose, bewilder. » Dira, v. shade.
; Dasu, Dubua, v. start.
ai Denda, v. do. + Demba, v. taste.
a :
‘ :
a | | F
'



| |
r.
p VOCABULARY. 8ST
L-.
| E.- |Hroro, a. empty.
Kiguwa, nu. fathom.
FE, pr. he. Eboli, n. fist.
| Ebandanie, n. adulterer. Elénge, n. fool.
Evovevove,n. adulteress. Elami, n. gentleman.
| Figalani, ad. like, similar. Evava, n. gizzard.
; Egamba, n. allegory, parable. |EKlash, (Eng.) n. glass.
Egombe, n. time. Rrene, a. half.
Egombe zodu, n. always, all Evélésh, n. handkerchief.
cime. Eewasa, n. saw.
j Egunu, n. anger. Evango, n. spear, harpoon. ;
: Elungu, n. old, ancient. Epokolu, n. hat.
Kmari, a. another (thing). Ewonjo, n. head.
Edu, a. all, any. Eshange, n. hawk.
Erém, n. axe. - |Epépa, n. rudder. |
Ekéikéi, n. babe, infant. Ekoka, n. honey-comb. |
Eve, n. bad. Ezande, a. what is it? why? |
. Ekémbe, n. poison. Kroana-isaun; n. messenger. t
Ebanda, n. skin. Ebangambanga, n. knee-pan.
. Elélu, n. beard. Enunguna, n. opener, key.
Elinga, n. gown. Ezango, a. small. |
Erere, n. tree. Eponga, n. lid.
Evéré, n. meat and fish. Eva, n. limb. *
Iivéré zi nyare, n. beef. Elavini, n. length.
E M Evia, n. good. — Evove, a. lustful.
& _ Hkeva, n. wave, billow. Elingilio, n. mark.
Ewowa, n. bladder. Etava, n. mat. |
; Elende, n. boat. Egénizo, n. measure, trial. * }
Epa, n. bone. Elina, n. mediator.
Ezango and b Eromi, n. messenger. ae
5 Ezangango moe: Egare, a. middle, inside. |
. Sango, s F ’ i
> Egara, n. bow, chest. Eyeno, n. mirror.
; Ezambala, n. broom, brush: Ezo, n. mortar, mill.
; . Egoro, n. case, sheath. Edingo, n. mourning.
j . Epwi, n. chair. Ewomba, n. nape. |
Evindi, n. cloud. Ekuru, n. owl. = *
; Ezalina, n. comb. Ekamina, n. peg.
a Ebende, n. corpse. Eva, n. vial.
: EKguwa,.n. cough. Ekanla, n. phlegm. : |
, Evémba, a. brave. Epondoma, n. pillow.
. Eningo, n. water. * Eduka, n. pestol. ,
( Elambe, n. dialogue. Epélé, n. plate.
Eyonga, n. drunkard. Enge, a. plenty.
Evilo, n. work, business. Ezenge, a. plenty. i
Enanai, a. eight. Egani, a. rapid, fleet. 7
1] 5
i |



I a es SE SRS _— Se ae es
| |
hi iH ‘
ae |
Be || 82 VOCABULARY.
ee HH!
re i] Ekuku, n. saz. Gilido, n. grind-stone.

a | Ezanga, n. salt. Gnambé, n. guana.
Ke ' Eriga, n. sap. Gunu, ad. here.
ee) | Egalanga, n. sea-sickness. Ge and gena, conj. or.
‘ = : | E;nimba, n. secret. Ga, aux. v. must, ought.
eae HH Epe, a. short. Ga, a. same, like.
me i | Ezama, a. something. Gwa, ad. then.
ah Elagali, n. sting.
nit Erogora, n. sweat. 1.
a ili) Ekaga, n. terrapin.
Hi) Eza, n. thing. Iwumu, n. abdomen (first and
a | | Esove, n. tharst. _ last. syllables very slight).
TT Efizagénge, n. water-spout. l[gonu, ad. above.
i | | Eponga, n. wax. IIkanda, n. acid.
“4 | Entuntu, n. multitude. banda, n. adultery.
|) Egeza, prep. against. |
6 | | Bs Inya, n. food.
Fah ' Inyomano, n. altercation.
is . Fela, v. put. Izambi, n. parent, ancestry.
ey || Fwelia, v. call. Isuminia, n. applause, praise.
ll Felia and feia, v. call, grow, |\Imianga, n. arons.
aii) mature. Ikénge, n. art, mechanic.
aii! Fa, a. again. Ikanga, n. bald.
a | || Fanga, v. abscond. Imonga, n. ball, loaf.
4 | Fala, v. throw. Inimba, n. bamboo.
a Fwinia, v. return. Itutu, n. bamboo-wine.
bet | | Fwiniza, v. send back. ltata, n. banana.
fa | Fwemia, v. err, mistake. llonda, n. fruzt, beads.
aan Fwemiza, v. mislead, cause to \lgalinge, n. bell.
| || err. Iguwa, n.-bellows. °
a Fwema, v. mistake. Ivombo, n. bile.
ard || Fakunde, a. more. Ikundu, n. bird’s nest.
yg || Finiza, v. return. llangunia, n. blacking.
x | Ipaku, n. blind.
Fill G. Ivare, n. branch, bough. .
ali Iwongo, a. bottom.
bid || Gami, v. dislike. Isavinla, n. bow, reverence.

A || Go, prep. at, upon, to. Izawuizawu, a. brackish.

; Gwi, prep. at, in, from. Ipunju, n. brain.

7 Goboso, ad. ahead. Ikasa, n. bridge.

a || Gnando, n. alligator, multitude.lguni, n. brow.

Giligili, a. true, right. . Iségé, n. bowels.
ai Gare, prep. between, within. Ivugina, n. beast, brute.
Gnandi, n. envy. : \Ita, n. bundle.
' Gore, prep. for, to, at. Jroki, n. button.
:



r .
: VOCABULARY. 83
Ipaki, n. cap. [ido-njali, n. flint.
_ Imanda, n. caterpillar. ibanga, n. morning, forenoon.
Ipanga, n. cause. Iga. n. forest.
Iwugu, pl. ambugu, n. cheek. |[Ininla, n. shadow, spirit, soul.
Ipinja, n. choice. Inyeni, n. glution.
Igama, n. circle. Ivango, n. hernia.
frai, n. dust, clay, earth. Ira, n. hip. fi
Inyangé, n. thread. lava, n. fishhook.
Inyangé siboboti, n. speder’s __|Ipivia, n. thought, idea.
thread. [wugu, n. jaw. :
Ifwi, n. cold, fever. Ivuva, n. knee. S
Ivanga, n. law, command. Iliria, n. knot. |
[jona, n. cost. Tjanja, n. work, labor.
Ikumbu, v. claws. Idambe, n. sheep. .
lyéyé, n. cramp. — longa, n. country, language.
Iféra, n. claw of tiger. Ivanga, n. law.
Iboboti, n. sprder. ilvémba, n. leader.
flonga, n. country. Iganga, a. lean.
Ibobo, n. coward. Imbina, n. lice.
Itula, a. blunt, dull. Inoka, n. lie.
Ikweliki, n. pay for a wife. Ininli, n. liver.
Impanta, n. dagger, poignard. \ljonia, n. load, filling.
Ijenja, n. daylight, dawn. Iténda, a. love.
Ibambo, n. devil, demon. Ibobo, n. lung.
Ibela, n. desire, want. lata, n. mate.
Ipamba, n. diarrhea, dysentery.\Iniva, n. money, property. '
Tjuwa, a. dead. Igende, n. message, errand.
Intyani, n. shame, disgrace. Ipaga, n. prophecy. i
Isénda, n. dizziness. llanga yi ’gwé6li, n. moonlight.
lguge, n. door. Ijona, n. murder.
Izage, n. duck. Ina, n. name.
Izage-nomi, n. drake. Ina ny’ itu, n. nickname.
Idada, n. drop. — Ipakilia, n. oragin, beginning:
Imamu, a. dumb. ‘Trandi, n. oyster.
. Iki, n. egg. Iwara, n. pair. —
Igomi, a. ten. ~ Itutu, n. palm-wine. '
Igomi ni mari, a. eleven. Ileve, n. palm (of hand).
Indowu, a. elastic. Itia, n. fear, panic.
llanga, n. moonlight. Hala, n. pawpaw.
Itu, n. fun, sport. Igéu, n. parcel, bundle.
igeva, n. rejoicing, exultation. \Izambi, n. parent. i
Intya, n. eye. ltambe, n. paw.
Intya-tanga, n. spy-glass Ipa, n. pay.
(white man’s eye). Isava, n. pity. hi
Ido, n. stone. kanda, n. plantar,



rte ene ee “ ais : : : Pe aia
ia |
4 if
ae |
aK | 1
ei! |
Pe | | 84 VOCABULARY.
ig) Izyeva, n. play. Jogani, n. fowl, hen.
| llepot, n. iron pot. J egelu, n. chin.
ie i) Isuminia, n. praise. JOgani nomi, n. cock. |
_ | Ipédia, n. pride, haughtiness. |Jumbuna, v. conceal. |
Mi Inyomano, n. guarrel. Jira, v. converse. |
adi Itomba, n. ransom. Jiga, v. choke. \
aa | idanduna, n. redemption. Jaguna, v. creep.
ce i Idambe, n. sheep. Jara, v. crush.
Ti Ivamba, n. root.. Jinga, v. cure.
| Igama, n. circle. Jinla, v. dance.
1 Ikaza, n. red-water. Juwa, v. die.
Hel Inle, v. saying (to the effect). \JOnla, v. laugh, ridicule.
a Iviri, n. shade. Janginia, v. dissolve, melt.
| Inano, n. sp’tile. Jeniza, v. cause to see.
| Ininla, n. shadow, spirit. Jilinu, v. dream.
| | | Iganga, n. spear. Jonga, v. drink.
PF | | Igwana, n. spittle. Joma, v. dry.
eH i) Igonu, n. summit, top. Jufa, v. steal.
bi | Ipa, n. flock (of birds). Jonia, v. fill.
es ||| Igenga, n. swarm (of bees). Janginia, v. float.
ea | lvévéni, n. thigh. Jasa, v. fatigue, weary.
et Igolu, n. trade. Jira, v. pour.
ai) Ina, n. tooth. Jala, a. hard, industrious.
3 i Iwambia, n. large black snakc J ga, v. hear.
Pa ||| Igombegombe, n. umbrella. —_—|Juwi, a. hoary.
||| Ig vi, n. war. Jekana, n. hostage.
fr Inyemba, n. poison, witch. Jaga, v. sack.
mi) Igamba, n. word. Javuria, v. doat once.
iii ljanja, n. work. Ja, ad. af, suppose. |
at Irenashani, n. wound. Jaga, ad. if, suppose. |
o) Jowa, v. itch.
| || Js Jékélia, v. judge.
a Jega, v. kindle. *
Bit i Jena, v. see. Jona, v. kill. |
a Jena ntyani, v. be ashamed. Jonga, Vv. join.
all Jalia, a. able. Jésa, v. lean. |
|| Jivira, v. willing, answer. Jagiza, v. melt, dissolve.
a || Jomana, v. altercate, dispute. \Jomba, v. marry.
al Jéma, v. arouse. = Jaginu, v. hear, obey.
; r Jona, v. kill, crack, break. Jawa, v. rest.
ai Jobuna, v. wash (the face). Jomana, v. guarrel, contend. |
ial Jana, v. beget, bring forth. Jekana, v. covenant, bind, |
B Jambunia, v. bleach. ratify. |
Jambuna, a. bright. Jonginia, v. remember. |
H Janja, v. work. . Jéma, v. wake, arouse. :
st |}
> ia | eae Se YE I Ce eI ez eae Sa



{
a
h
VOCABULARY. 85
Janjina, v. serve. Kogo, n. fable.
Jemba, v. sing. Kawa, v. fade.
Jazya, v. sneeze. Kwena, v. faint. ;
| Jaruna, v. slip. Koni, n. fuel.
| Jambuna, v. sweep. Kwa, v. fall. i
t Jau, ad. yesterday. Kumia, n. fur. -—
Kova, v. get, find. 7 /
Kosa Kila, v. grind, saw.
Kwena-kala, v. beg, wnplore,
Kekiza, v. try, get ready. entreat. '
Ka kekiza, v. able. Kavala, n. horse. |
Kangia, v. a. shorten. Kambina, v. intercede, speak- —
Kénda, v. go. for.
Kwékwé, n. sufficient. Korina, v. join. |
Kena, n. advantage. Kumania, v. lift. |
Keva, v. thank. Kéniza, v. try, attempt,measure..
Kamba, v. speak in parables. |KKapende, n. (Eing.) carpenter.
Ké, a. too, also. Kégéra, v. nibble, gnaw. |
Kenja, v. gather, arrange. Kéré, n. ornament, trinket.
: Kenja yama yenge, v. a. accu-/Kanga, v. parch.
mulate. K wandamina, v. pounce, match.
Kumana, v. arise, get up. Kila, v. grind, pulverize. |
Kera, v. separate, divide. Kamina, v. ram, drive.
: Kombina, v. hem, barricade. |Kavalia, v. roll.
Kola, v. barter, buy, sell, &c. |Kamba, v. scrape.
Kande, a. because. Kanjua, v. settle.
Kandenle, a. because. Kendekende, a. silent, mute.
| Kakala, v. beg, beseech, entreat. |Kagara, v. snore.
| Kora, v. tie, bend. Kogina, v. snuff.
Kwéra, v. a. bleed. Kanda, a. sour.
| Kota, v. catch, hold. Kéniza, v. try, attempt. iB
Keva, v. conquer, master. Kamba, v. speak, talk. |
: Kanla, v. cough. Kaguna, v. stammer. i
| Krus, v. cross. (Portuguese.) |Keta, a. cold. |
Koga, v. crow. Kégéndia, v. tickle.
| Kalunia, v. change, turn. Kaluagalua, v. transform. | :
Keriza, v. distribute. Keva, v. conquer. |
Komba, v. dodge, avoid. Kwéra, v. wank.
Komba, v. fence. Kumania, v. straighten.
' Kwémi, v. double.
Kaka, a. dry. | M. tt
| Kagazya, n. elbow.
Kotiza, v. explain, cause to held.|Menge, a. many. |
Kao, prep. except, besides. Mbia, a. good. ,
e Kowo, n. eye-lid. Mbod, n. dog.
, |



. i eT
iy |
hai i
> |
| 86 VOCABULARY.
RS Mboni, n. goat. Mpandino, n. ladder.
k = i Mbolo, n. how do you do ? Mpaga-shape, n. pad-lock.
ill) Mbeni, n. fountain, sea. Mbina, n. louse. )
a | Méniza, v. finish. Matyen, n. (Eng.) merchant. |
me.) Mana, v. completed, ended. Mbato, n. miser. .
ry | Méma, v. acknowledge. MElé, n. to-morrow. t
al | Mia, mie and mi, p. I, me. Mpogo, n. mouse. |
il | Mia, v. know. Mbora, n. place.
OBE Modu, a. all. Mam, a. pron. my.
| | | ‘ Mama, v. amaze, surprise. Ma, pron. thane, thy.
Vil Monda, ‘n. amulet, charm. Miémé, pron. myself.
il Mpanga, n. jornt. Miala, a. new.
a Medu, a. all, any. Mari, a. one, other.

iM} Maga, v. backbite, slander. Mongi, n. people, party.
ee || Mbe, ad. bad, wrong. Mpanila, n. path, road.

i Mpaga, n. present. Meénla, v. patient, forbear.
ee | | - Mpolu,.ad. large, big. Menga, n. pigeon.
S| Mboa nyanto, n. female dog. |Monga-tanga, n. potato, white |
Le Mbute, n. (Eng.) bottle. man’s yam. |
ee Mpémba, n. chalk, bread, flour.|Mpagaga, n. present. |
ai) Mbwedi, n. captive. Mieza, n. sign, make known. |
Pail) Mpenjo, n. cock-roach. Mondo, n. snare.
ell) Mba, n. corn. Mpanga, n. spur.

Red || Mpiri, a. dark. Ménla, v. swallow.
ra) Mpiri, n. darkness. Mesina, a. these. |
Pail Mpoge, a. deaf. - Mesana, a. those.
et || | . Mega, v. doze, drowsy. Meyina, a. this.
ait Mapoa, v. evaporate. \Mbungu, n. tooth-ache.
ai Mbuzya, n. fish-net. Meiza, v. make known.
ay | Mbévé, a. flat. Maga, v. whisper.
ai Mpindi, n. farm, plantation. _|Mande, pron. who.
aii Mpuni, v. evaporate. Mpuzyu, ‘a. wide.
oa Mbami, n. forehead. Mani, pron. your.
aay Mbwiri, n. fetersh. .
mii Mpira, n. gun-powder. N.
| | Mbéi, n. part, half. ;

al Menda, n. hatchet. Nunguna, v. abet, help.

ia || Mpyu, n. heat. Numba, v. hate.

a || Mpanda, n. hoof. Ngulu, n. strength.

a Mengo, n. horn. Nago, n. house, home.

i r | Mpanga, n. thing. Nkala, n. town, home.

K Mieza, v. explain, cause to know.|\Nyanga, ad. able.

aC - Mpunji, n. wory. Nkazya, v. ache.

H Magunio, n. joint. Nkogo, n. adage.

} Mpanga, n. knuckle. ; Nyembanyemba, n. witch.

) : '

| eee aa ze aaa

\



Ro |
VOCABULARY. 87 | j
Ndowa, n. enemy. Njéli, n. knife-blade.
Nyuma, n. back. Ntyina, a. blood. |
Nkolu, n. evening. Ngowa, n. hog, swine. |
Negulu yodu, n. Almighty. Ntimbe, n. timber, board. (Eng.) |
Ne, v. am, art, was. Namba, v. boil, cook. |
) Nyilu, n. anchor. Ntyondo, n. heart, calabash. a
Ni, na, conj. and. Ntono, n. breast, bosom. |
Njuke, v. trouble. Nyenia, n. brass. }
Ntulungu, n. angle, corner. Nyama, n. beast, brute.
Nkambi, a. antelope. Noga, v. build (house).
Ntyolo, v. anvil. : Nuga, v. construct (boat).
Nyana, n. ant. Ndo, conj. but, i
Ntyai, v. apex, end, border. Ngawé, n. captain. |
Nyavali, n. arm-pit. Naka, v. care for, be anxious. l
Ntye, n. ground, earth, world. \Nkoro, n. centeped. 1
Ntyani, n. shame. Nantye, n. room, apartment. 1
Nongunia, v. arise. Nkombe, n. sun, calico. - |
Nongwa, v. get up. Nkonga, n. copper. ny
Nana, v. abed. Ntyali, n. custom, law. |
Ntyavina, a. asleep. Ntyug’wedu, a. daily. |
Nunguna, v. open, unlock. Nkéi, a. damp, cold. |
Ngai, n. garment. Ntyugu, n. day (of 24 hours). |
Ntyégé, n. baboon. Nokina, v. deceive. |
Nkanda, n. assembly, multitude.|Ntyali y’ abambo, ad. diabolical. }
Nyembi, n. baliad-singer. Nkambini, n. dialect.
Ntyovi, n. bamboo-nut. Nanga, n. dirt |
Nyemba, v. poison. |Nanga, a. dirty. |
Ntomba, n. bank, shallow. Ninia, v. dive. |
Ntyago, v. banquet, sacrifice. |Nyilinu, n. dream. |
Nkeli, ad. childless, barren. Nkizi, n. dregs.
Ntyénge, n. wash-bow!l. Nkémba, n. garment.
Nkanja, n. bat. Nanga, n. dry season.
Nyowe, n. bee? Ngama, n. drum. |
Nyari, n. bullock. Nkenjo, n. dwarf.
Négira, v. beg. _ |Ntyéngé, n. earth, sand. |
Niva, v. own. Njagu, n. elephant. |
Niwaga, v. bemoan, lament. Ngesh, n. Hnglish. |
Nkénga, a. kind, benevolent. |Nima, v. extinguish, quench. |
Nya, v. eat, bewitch, destroy. |Ngwanyani, n. eagle.
Nyani, n. bard. Ntyaga, n. farm, garden. |
Nyanto, n. female. Noa, v. fight. a
Nonia, v. bite. Ntyuwi, n. large fish. . i
Noni and nonli, n. bitter.’ Ntimbenio, a. even. i
Nambe, n. black. Ntyini, n. fly. -
Ntyémba, v. blame. Ntyozyo, n. foot.



Pi
en
a | |
Pe i | s
ee | | |
ees ii | |
ny | | 88 VOCABULARY.
4 | Na or nla, prep. for, with. Nyawé, ad. no, nay.
PM | Nyeza, v. forgive. : ambe, n. negro.
Ss iil Nai, a. four. Ntombo, n. needle.
wae. | | Ndego, n. friend. Ntyango, pn. news.
el i Ntyua, n. gail. Nyinagomi, a. ninth. :
a | Ntyerere, n. gazelle. Nkami, n. north. ,
ill Noma, v. bite, gnaw. Ntangu, n. number.
. | Ntyogo, n. fetters. Nkavi, n. oar, paddle. :
i Nkangwe, n. gale. Nkango, n. odor, fragrance. :
Al Njali, n. gun. \Nungu, a. old.
Hl Nkeva, n. gum. Nyénga-miri, a. once.
iii Ntyame, n. hand. Nyodnga, n. time. a
ne | Négiza, v. make haste. Nitigo, a. left, deserted.
ii) Ntumbu, n. heel. \Nowana, v. owe. .
i) Ningo, n. rain. Niva, V. own, possess.
ee Nomba, a. mountain, hill. Nuga, v. paddle, row.
al Ntyava, n. hoop. Nkazya, n. pain.
ol : Negwéntyotyo, v. hop. \Njanja, n. pan.
ed Nkama, a. one hundred. Ngozyo, n. parrot.
i | Njana, n. hunger. Ntuka, n. feeling, skin.
A Nénja, v. teach. Ntogolu, n. pepper. |
ed} Nenge, n. zsland. Ntimbe, n. plank, board.
heat) Ntyuga, n. jug. (Eng.) Noginla, v. plait hair. |
St i Ntyanga-kanio, n. kidney. Néngé€nia, v. pownt, arm.
re i | Nuwunla, a. last. Nyemba, n. porson, witch.
fet || | Nyango, a. smadl. Ntare, n. znformer.
Bt | Nénga, v. learn. Ntébé, n. rafter. .
a | Njéga, n. leopard. Ningo, n. rain.
2 | Néra, v. lick. Naga, v. rain.
ii | Noka, v. lie (false). Nongunia, v. rouse, awake.
ai | Nana, v. lie down. Ntori, n. rat.
eC Nongunia, v. lift. Nyangi, n. sake.
ii Nunga ojo, v. light candle. Nkowo, n. scab.
mili Ntaga, a. same, like. Nkazyo, n. fish scale.
| Nkuvia, n. shell. Ndolo, n. scar.
ET Nunja, v. open, unlock. Nyenya, v. séatter.
val | Ntugu, n. lozn. Nyambani, a. second.
H | Nda, a. long. Nyongo, n. servant, steward.
ia Nango, n. medicine. Ny’oragenu, a. seventh.
i | Nyala, a. new, young. Ntyani, n. shame.
cr LCi Nkéma, n. kind of monkey. Nkanjé, n. shark.
\ Negwe, n. mother. Ntyuba, n. shell.
i Nkanda, n. moving multitude. |Nunja, v. shut.
- Nyangale, n. music. Ny’orowa, a. siath.
if Ntyanga, n. nal. |
i |
i | “
a
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i |
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i
|
: :
: : |
VOCABULARY. 89
|
Nana, ad. so. |Ompembé, n. dew. |
Ntyavo, n. soap. iOnyambe, devil, demon. |
Ntyogo, n. reproof, severity. |Ogangana, n. agreement, con- |
Nyénya, v. sprinkle. cert.
Ni’wanjo,a. square (with sides)./Osaun, n. thing, affair.
, Ntongo, n. club, staff. Ogu, n. sense, wisdom. i
oe Nyange, n. twine, thread. Oganga, n. doctor. |
. Nkombe, n. sun. ‘Ozéndo, v. dowry. |
Nkombe-nyondo, n. noon. (Olambanu, a. dozen.
Néga, a. swift. (Onyéngé, n. drizzling.
Ny’igomi, a. tenth. ‘Odando, a. proud. |
: Ny’araro, a. third. Ombutu, n. dust. |
Nijali-toba, a. thunder. Oroi, n. ear. |
Nkangana, n. wind-pipe, milli-Omoro, n. ear-ring.
ped. '(Ompenli, n. handle.
Njéki, n. wrinkle. ‘Odusha, n. ignorant.
Ntyamba, n. clasping. (Ogonu, n. duty, business.
\Otongu, n. eye-ball. |
0. Oguni, n. eye-brow. if
|Ozyo, n. face.
Olonda, n. bud. ‘Ogai, n. family.
Osekani, n. bushman. lOwowa, n. feather, quill. |
Okéle, n. bushman. (Ogomba, n. fence.
Ompongoni-iroki, n. button-hole..Omeno, n. finger. |
Ompogoni, n. hole. Ogoni, n. fire. |
Ogali, n. twine. Otaki, nu. fin (agcock’s tail).
| . Ogulu, n. rope. \Ogénlé, n. flea. |
| . Oduma, n. cannon. Ozyonu, a. flexzble. |
_ Owaro, n. canoe. Owumbu-towa, n. fog. |
Ompombo, n. cape (of land). [Ogwande, a. generous. i
Ompege, n. cheese. Onwanto, n. girl. ef
Oma ewonjo, n. head-man, chief.|Orove, n. grass.
Onwana, n. child. Oronginu, n. grave. |
Okanda, n. cotton. . |Onyena, n. glutton. |
Ogéla, v. crack, split. Olélina, n. groin.
Omanga-tanga, n}cocoa-nut and|Orue, pl. shitue, n. hazr. e
white man’s nut. Okondo, n. heap, pile.
Oréma, n. heart, conscience. |Onwa wi ntye, n. native, free-
Oyino, n. dance. man, child of the soil.
Owanga, n. morning dawn. Onwana, n. child, young man. i
Onoki, n. liar. Ogénda, n. stranger, traveller. a
Onoki, a. deceitful. Osaun, a. thing. |
Oronga, a. deep. Ogazagaza, v. active. H
Onigi, a. sweet, delzcious. Ogani, n. a farewell. -
Ozyele, a. destitute. Onémba, a. cunning. i
ae |
a as — a ae ce AE ha on



AN i 90 VOCABULARY. i
aii Onera, a. aged. Ofafa, n. britile.
eo Okanla, n. advocate. Ompozyu, a. broad, wide.
Ba, | Ozyazya, n. a controversy. Olavi, n. river.
an Ompunga, n. air, wind. Olavi wango, n. brook.
wae ; i Ovavi, n. ambassador. Onwangé and
ne ; co oe brother. :
ell Ogangano, a. friendly. Onwa-rere.
a Omari, a. another (person). Omponga-nkami, n. sea-breeze.
a = Ozamba, n. aside, apart. Omponga-olomba,n. land breeze.
| | Oga, v. arm. Owatanga, n. vessel.
| | Oga-ralie, n. arm-fuil. Okwara, n. sword.
| Ozanga, n. arrow. Orowa, n. heaven.
4 | Oganji, n. artery. Oyombiny, n. hem.
= ||| Ombu, n. ashes. Obota, n. hen.
CU Ogolu, n. leg. Olimba, n. herd.
lt Ogolu nja, v. astride. Ogweéli, n. moon. |
HM | Onwangwé wi ngwé, n. aunt(Ogwéli-mbéi, n. half-moon.
Pall | (mother’s sister). Olémbé, n. honey.
a | Onwangwé wa rere, n. auntiOgera, a. idle, lazy.
a (father’s sister). Ogana, n. idol.
| Otewu, a. awkward. Oyombo, a. irritable.
a | Okanga, n. spine. Onénja, n. teacher.
a) | | Ompinga, n. cylindrical, circu-\Okangala, n. keel.
| | lar, spherical (a ball). Oga, n. king, head-man.
be | Ozowa, n. scab. Owanga, n. iron.
| Oréga, n. barrel. Olanda, n. knife.
ie = Otondo, n. basket Ombilo, n. laborer.
le ; | | Onwa wi nkangé, n. bastard.|Owavi, n. leaf.
Bal | Ozégé, n. sand, beach. Onoki, n. Liar.
A FE Osange, bean, pea. Owéyi, n. life, health.
Ozuwa, a. narrow, shallow. Ozange, n. light.
. | | Ozumbu, n. beak (of bird). Olonga, n. ring, link.
ai Odo, n. bed. Olumbu, n. lip.
ay | Oma, n. person. Osesele, n. Lizzard.
‘ Otumba, n. belt, girdle. Ovove, a. lewd.
; Eyl Ozambala, n. broom, besom. Omonga, n. loaf, bail.
a | Olega, n. biscuit. Onomi, n. man.
a || Onambe, n. negro. Oma, n. person.
ai Oguwaguwa, n. blacksmith. |Ogwéra lingelinge, n. midnight.
H | | Owémba, n. broth, soup. Ogumia, n. mast.
jaa Okuweé, n. body, self. Onyéngé, n. mist.
ai || Onwa nomi, n. boy. Ogwana, n. mouth. |
a Onwéi, n. breath, solur heat. |Ombanla, n. mud. )
a | Okeva, n. billow. Ompele, n. neck.
ai | Ozagazaga, a. brisk. Ogangano, n. friend, neighbor.
ae Ozanja, n. bristle. Ogu, n. sense, mind, intelligence.
sf t | }
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| {
| VOCABULARY. Ot ie
Ogwéra, n. night. Ompuma, n. year. :
Ompombo, n. nose. Onwila, a. young. |
Ozyaguna, n. nostril. Ombama, n. boa-constrictor. |
Olonda, n. nut, fruit. Ompenli, n. black snake. |
| Oniva, n. owner. Okenja, n. large spotted snake. ;
. Owanga-mbili, n. palm-nut. a
Oyila, n. palm-tree. Ps ‘
Olala, n. pawpaw-tree. ' t
Ozazi, n. pestle. Pagwa, v. abate.
Okondo, n. pile, heap. Periza, v. cause to lose.
Ozya, n. pipe. Pera, v. lose, escape.
Oganji, n. pulse. Periza onwana, v. abort. =
Ozyivo, n. punishment. Panga, v. make. f
Olembiano, n. race. Penia, v. accompany.
Owenda-tena, n. razor. Piagana, v. advantage, to sur-
Odanduna, n. redeemer. pass, pass by.
Ongwanjangwanja, n. roof. —_|Pendia, v. swell.
Ogali, n. rope. Pangana, v. promise.
Olénga, n. sample, same kind. |Piére, adv. near. e
Ozunge, n. savior. Puruna, v. alter, change. >
Ompunga, n. sea-breeze. Panga njuke, v. make trouble.
Onwanga, n. seed. Panda, v. ascend, climb.
Omamba, n. snake, serpent. Pépia, v. beckon. r
Oragenu, a. seven. Pakilia, v. commence, begin.
| Ovega, n. shoulder. Pona, v. see, behold.
Obéli, adv. sickly. Posho, adv. of comp. more.
Orowa, a. six. Pa, v. give, present, bestow. (
Okéngekénge, n. mechanic. Punjina, v. blow (with the
Oshaka, n. slave. mouth).
Otutu, n. smoke. Pévina, v. blow (as wind).
Olomba, n. south (up the river).|Pizagéza, v. bore. _
Okanga, n. spene. Pezya and pia, v. burn.
Ozyéve, n. spoon. Panla, n. calm.
Ompuna, n. stench. Punga, v. throw, cast. !
Ogula, n. storm. Pus, n. cat. (Eing.)
Okwenda, n. tail. Pengakania, v. change.
Ofe, n. thief. Pita, v. cheat (squeeze).
Ongonga, n. throat. Pinja, v. choose.
Oronginu, n. grave. Pupu, a. white, clean. |
Ojo, n. torch, candle. Piara, v. compress, squeeze.
] Odolongo, prep. under. Pikilia, v. consider, reflect.
Olanga, n. valley. Puga, v. cover. Be
Orove, n. grass, weed. Pago, a. coarse.
Ososi n. whistle. Pazangana, v. disperse, scatter. p
Onwanto, n. woman. Poswa, v. drop, fall.
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| | o2 VOCABULARY. eS
im
|) a Poa, v. ebb, go. down. Rania, a. insane. .
\ - | | Pindinia, v. encourage. Réga, a. crooked. |
La Piagana, v. exceed, extend. Roro, a. empty.
a ‘ | | Panda, v. evaporate. 4
cai) Pandia, v. feign. Ss.
ae - | Pangénéngé, v. grin. r
s | Penda, v. grow. Shuga, v. agitate, shake, jam. i
a Poma, v. grow. Siga, adv. aground. f
«| i Panla, v. hew. Sodu, a. all, ¥
|i Pazya, v. hew. Saga, v. anoint, smear.
il Pandia, v. inaugurate. Suminia, v. applaud, praise.
aii | Pivia, v. thank, intend. Shimbia, v. arrest, catch.
a; ii Pokwé, v. interfere. Savuna, v. bathe, wash. |
1] Penjavenja, v. keep. Séku, v. belch. |
ai | Puruna, v. loose, untie. Sagiza, v. betray, deceive. |
oa ||) | | Pera, v. lose, forfeit. Sémba, v. blame.
PF ti Pianguna, v. masticate. Sapamina, n. bolt. i
ea | Pelé, adv. soon, quick. Savinla, v. bow, reverence. i
tl Punu, n. pawn. Sowa, v. bruise. i
‘ | Pinja, v. prefer. Sombia, v. command.
a) || Pitakania, v. plunge, dive. Siza, v. rub, scour, clean.
2 | | Piga, v. protect, keep. Saza, v. complain.
! | Pédia, v. insult, despise. Saria, v. connive, intrigue.
ey | | | Pindinia, v. shove, push. _ Sinda, a. cruel. 5 }
3 . |i Péva, v. reel, stagger, adrift. |Sélia, v. deride, laugh at.
rg | || Paruna, v. rescue, delwer. Salia, v. detect.
ry | | Poria, v. sharpen. Sumina, v. descend. |
wal i) Poéléla, v. slip, slide. Sindina, v. contented. i)
aah | Paga, v. prophecy. Shakalia, v. disturb, interrupt.
a | | Piva, v. suck. Singa, v. dye.
i | | Pingwa, v. surround, compass. |Sanguna, v. embrace, salute. i
iH | Pombiavombia, v. swing, oscil-[Sikangé, n. eyedashes. |
: roi late. Songa, v. follow. |
| Pénla, v. twist. Sika, n. gold. |
oi i Polu, adv. very. Silia, v. gaze, stare. |
; rot Pengina, v. wait, tarry. Siminia, v. groan.
a Pezya, v. weigh. Shitue, n. hairs.
ait} Pala, v. wepe. ' Sinunguna, n. help.
a || | Piza, v. wring. Sé, pr. Ais, her’s, what.
a Ut Suna, v. hurt. ‘
ai R. Sitava, v. cursing.
4 | Shakala, v. enjure.
aly Réti, a. right, (Eng.) true. Suga, n. joke.
Rere, n. father, benefactor. Shape, n. key. :
. H | Rawonge, n. comet. Samba, n. kiss.
a\ |
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| i |

| \

| :

th. |

|

| YOOABULARY. 93
Swaka, n. knife. Tumba, dig. |

Sumbu, n. lead. Teva, show, direct, teach, &c.
Sungiazungia, v. shake. Tambo, v. disappoint.

[ Soka, a. loud. Tiena, v. distrust. !
Sanga, v. mend. Twezina, v. drip. Q

q Simbia, v. oppose, uphold. Tani and tyani, a. five. E

i Shawa, v. peck. Tugu, n. flank. s

i Sanga, v. peel. Téva, v. hatch. F

i Suna, v. pinch. Tele, a. naked. '

| Sa, v. piss. Tolu, n. towel, napkin. |

| Sava, v. pity. Tata, n. papa, father.

| Sheva, v. play. Tigare, v. stop. m

Shevazyeva, v. play much. Tuena, v. penetrate. "

: Siva, v. punish, whip. Togora, v. perspire.

Sungina, v. save. Toba, v. vomit, puke.

i Shana, n. Sunday. Tevuna, v. rebuke, reprove.

Shéngina, v. shave. Tenatena, a. red.

Solove, n. (Eng.) silver. Timbiarimbia, v. stagger, reel. ae

i Shata, v. waylay, steal upon. |Tieza, v. scare. f

Sékuma, v. sob, sigh. Tonga-ogazyi, v. scream.

Soka, v. spell. Toma, v. send.

Sina, a. these. Tuma, v. sew. :

Sana, a. those. Tuenia, v. spit.

} Sangasanga, a. thin, slazy. Taburu, n. (English.) table.

4 Sodu, a. all. Tyui, a. taght.

Savuga, v. wrap. Ta, ad. too.

Tako, n. tobacco. f

Ty, Tatamina, v. tremble.

Tolongo, n. trunk.

Tiga, v. leave, let. Tunga, n. ulcer.

Tena, v. cut, off. Tévia, v. wet.

i Tawa, v. abuse, insult, curse. |Ta, v. sting, bite.

| Tonda, v. love. Ténda, v. write.

| Tia, v. fear.

Tava, v. alter, change. NM

Teniza, v. arbitrate. :

Tomba, v. banish, send away, |Va, prep. among, at.

| take away. Vugina, n. animal, beast.

Toana, v. send, bear, carry. Vingwa, prep. around, to go

‘ Temiza, v. deceive, betray. about.
Tula, v. blunt, crush. V ani, two.
Tenatena, a. red, brown. Véna, ad. here.
Tuwa, v. burst. Vévélé, a. level, smooth.

: Tangani, white man. Vénditua, ad. perhaps.

Tanga, v. think, count. V éGrévéré, a. low.

mid \



: = 7 Sa , = - : = _ E = = = TASES, ;
i | |
Ev i
he ii . i
Be iat
) : i 94 VOCABULARY.
| 2 |
a V ate-véna, ad. now. Yi, pron. 2, which, who.
an | Vuguvugu, ad. outside. Yarunda, a. sacred.
ae | | A A
| . il Va, ad. some. Yeyama, a. scarce, some.

Vate, ad. soon. Yena, ad. so, thus.
Rc | \} A A LT A A A c
i fal . i Vava, ad. there. Ya and yana, a. that.
ae ; il Yind, a. this. +
| W. Yani, a. yours.
Ya, pro. and a. you, yours.
S | F | Wanga, n. nut. Yazyo, a. pron. ours.
aC Wanga-tanga, n. cocoa-nut. Yam, a. pron. mine, my. |
| Wenge, n. many.
a | Z. |
|| a .
. || =
i Zyele, not, nothing.
“ | . i Ya yenge, a. abundant. Zye véi, n. absent.
| Yenge, a. much, many. Zodu, a. all.
sl | Yodu, a. ail. Zoli, prep. below.
reg i Yama, things. Zye kweé, a. improper, not suffi-
i) Yedu, a. all, any. cient.
. . | Yejonga, n. drink. Zye mbia, a. improper, not good.
it Yitua, n. edge. Zyele-pivia, a. no thought, in-
: 1 Yeguyégu, v. grow, expand. considerate.
it Y’antya, n. gravel, dust. Zunge, ad. quick, soon. i
| Yé, pro. him, her, it. ZLyoge, a. squatted. |
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