First lessons in Maori

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First lessons in Maori
Williams, W. L ( William Leonard ), 1829-1916
Place of Publication:
Whitcombe and Tombs
Publication Date:
Seventh Edition
Physical Description:
137 pages ; 19cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Maori language -- English -- Textbooks for foreign speakers ( lcsh )
Maori language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Maori language -- Vocabulary ( lcsh )
Reo Māori
Textbooks for foreign speakers ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Oceania -- New Zealand
Ao-o-Kiwa -- Aotearoa
-42 x 174


General Note:
VIAF (Name Auhtority) : Williams, W. L ( William Leonard ), 1829-1916 : URI
In English, with Māori words and phrases.
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.L. Williams. D. D

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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First Lessons in Maori
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin and Wellington, N.Z.
Melbourne and Londor.

First Edition
Second Edition
Third Edition
Fourth Edition
Fifth Edition
Sixth Edition
Seventh Edition
Trubner, London, 1862.
Upton, Auckland, 1872.
Williams & Norgate, London, 1882.
Upton, Auckland, 1894.
Upton, Auckland, 1904.
Upton, Auckland, 1910.
Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd., 1923.

This work was first published in London in 1862, and
has since then passed through six editions.
In the second and third editions a fair amount -of
new matter was incorporated, while a very thorough
revision was made in the fifth, when many of the
paragraphs were entirely re-written.
The English-Maori vocabulary formed part of the
work from the first, but the Maori-English portion was
added in the fifth edition, and contained only such words
as were necessary for the exercises which were introduced
at that time.
The conversations first appeared in the second edition,
and have been reprinted with little or no alteration.
In the present edition the body of the work has, once
more, been subjected to a thorough revision. The
vocabularies have been materially enlarged by the in-
clusion of a number of words which may be expected to
occur in ordinary conversation with Maoris. It will be
noticed that many of the words in the vocabularies are
of recent adoption into the language, but in every case
it is believed that these forms are the ones likely now to
be used by a Maori, even though there was, in some cases,
already a genuine Maori word which would have served
the purpose. In the majority of cases, however, the
Maori has been forced to adopt some word to represent
an idea with which he had had in the past no
An Index of Subjects has been added in order to assist
the student in referring to the work.
December 1st, 1923.

I. On Reading 5
II. Nouns and Personal Pronouns 7
III. Prepositions 13
IV. Definitives 1G
V. Adjectives 20
VI. Numerals 22
VII. Sentences without Verbs... 24
VIII. Verbs 29
IX. Neuter Verbs ... 42
X. Relative Clauses 44
XI. Miscellaneous
Progressive Exercises ...
Key to Exercises
Conversations 83
Vocabulary—English-Maori ... 92
Maori-English ... 117
Index ... ... ••• 139

Part I.
§ 1. The Alphabet consists of the following fifteen
A a a papa
E e e send, fete,
H h ha
I i i hit, machine,
K k ka
M m ma
N n na
Ng ng nga sinking
0 0 0 obey, pole
P P pa
R r ra
T t ta
U u u put, ruby
W w wa
Wh wh 1 i wha
The vowels in the names of the letters are sounded as
shown above.
§ 2. Note.—The Maori alphabet is very restricted. It
will be noticed that the voiced consonants b, d, g, are
wanting, also the voiced and voiceless pairs, v, f, and 0, s,

and the liquid, I. The only consonants are the voiceless
p, t, kf the voiced and voiceless pair, w, wh, the three
nasals, m, n, ng, the liquid r and the aspirate h. These
ten consonants with the five vowels permit the formation
of fifty-five open syllables, but four of these, wo, wuf
who, whu, do not occur in any genuine Maori word,
leaving only fifty-one possible syllables in the language.
§ 3. Pronunciation.—In pronouncing the vowels great
care should be taken that in each case the long
vowel be formed by a simple prolongation of the pure
sound of the short vowel without any gliding, as in
English, into another vowel. Thus d must not have any
trace of u introduced into it, nor e any trace of i.
Wh is not a compound of w and h, but represents the
single voiceless consonant corresponding with w, and is
pronounced by emitting the breath sharply between the
lips. It is a mistake to assimilate the sound to that of
f in English, though this has become fashionable in recent
years with some of the younger Maoris.
Ng (also a single consonant), as used in Maori to
begin a syllable, is found difficult by some people; but
the difficulty may soon be overcome by bearing in mind
that the position of the organs of speech is the same for
this letter as for g and k, to which it stands in the same
relation that m does to b and p, and n to d and t. Pro-
nounce the three letters successively with the Maori
vowel a, thus: ka, ga, nga, and practise this till the letter
is mastered.
Each vowel has but one sound, but may vary in length.
When two stand together in a word they do not, strictly
speaking, form a diphthong, but each should be pro-
nounced, the first of the two generally more strongly
than the other. The doubling of a vowel amounts simply
to a lengthening of it.

The consonants always stand singly, and every syllable
is open, that is ends with a vowel, and every letter in
word is pronounced.
Accent.—As a general rule, accentuate the first
syllable; but in words beginning with whaka accentuate
the third. When a word is formed by doubling the last
two syllables of a three-syllable word, the first syllable
will invariably be long, and there will be a secondary
accent on the second and fourth syllables: as dni'wani'wa.
Caution—Be careful always to give each vowel its
own sound, and so to avoid confusion between ae and ai,
as in the words waeivae and wai; between e and ei, as in
the words he and hei; between ao and au, as in the words
tao and tau; between o and ou, as in the words koukou
and koko; between ou and u, as in the words koutou and
§ 4. The nouns have no Inflections, nor any dis-
tinctions of Gender.
Obs. The common interrogative pronoun aha, what,
is treated as a common noun.
The Number of a common noun is denoted generally
by the number of the definitive in connexion with it.
(§§ 17, 18.) The following words have one vowel
lengthened in the plural, thus:
Matua, parent,
Tupuna, ancestor,
Tangata, man,
Wahine, woman,
Tuahine, sister (of a man).
Tuakana, elder brother,
Teina, younger brother.
Tamahine, daughter.
Matua, parents,
Tupuna, ancestors,
Tangata, men.
Wahine, women.
Tuahine, sisters.
Tuakana, elder brothers.
Teina, yoiunger brothers.
Tamahine, daughters.

The word tamaiti, child, is used in the singular only,
tamariki being always used for the plural.
§ 5. The personal pronouns have three numbers,
Singular, Dual and Plural, as shown by the following
Table of Personal Pronouns.
Ahau or au, I. Koe, thou. Ia, he, she taua, thou and I. maua, he and I. korua, you two. raua, they two. tatou, you and I. matou, they and I. koutou, you (more than two). ratou, they (more than two).-
The interrogative wai, who, and the indefinite mea,
so and so, have no inflexions, but are used with the
particle, ma, when referring to more than one person.
(§ 10).
The personal pronouns are not used in speaking of
inanimate things.
§ 6. The Singular Personal Pronouns ahau, koe, ia, are
replaced respectively by -ku, -u, -na, when they follow
any of the possessive prepositions, a, o, na, no, ma, mo;
or the possessive particles, la and to (which are equiva-.
lent to the article te, with the prepositions a and o).
Owing to this irregularity the preposition and pronoun in
each case are generally written as one word. (Compare
§§ 18 and 22.)
Ahau, I; aku, or oku, of me; naku, or noku, belonging to
me, mine; maku or moku, for me; taku, or toku, my
(literally, te a ku., the. .of me).
Koe, thou; au, or ou, of thee; nau, or nou, belonging to
thee, thine; mau, or mou, for thee; tau, or tou, thy.
(To and d are sometimes used for tau and au.)

la, he or she; ana, or ona, of him or her; nana, or nona,
belonging to him or her, his or hers-, mana, or mona,
for him or for her; tana, or tona, his or her.
§ 7. Self is expressed by the addition to the pronoun
of either of the adverbs, ake or ano, which may also be
used with a possessive, (§ 18), to express own. In the
latter case ake may be placed after either the possessive
or the noun, ano only after the noun.
Ki a raua ake, to themselves.
Toku ake whare, or toku whare ake, my own house.
Ana tama ano, his own sons.
§ 8. Local nouns.—There are certain nouns which are
invariably used without a definitive, (§ 18), though the
force of a definitive must be expressed in translation.
The majority of these have a place signification, hence
the designation, local nouns; but there are others also
with a time signification, which belong to the same gram-
matical category, and are subject to the same rules.
The following is a list of the most important of these:—
Runga, the top, the upper
Raro, the bottom, the under
Roto, the inside, the midst.
Waho, the outside, the
Mua, the front, the fore
Muri, the rear, the hind
Waenga, waenganui, wae-
ngarahi, the middle,
the midst.
Hea, whea, what place,
what time (future).
Ko, yonder place, the dis-
tant time.
Konei, this place (near
Kona, that place (near
Reira, that place (before-
mentioned) .
Tawahi, tarawahi, the
other side (of a river
or valley).

Tua, the other side (of a
hill, house, etc.).
Tatahi, the sea shore (as
opposed to places in-
Uta, the inland (as op-
posed to tatahi}.
Uta, the dry land, the shore
(as opposed to the
Tai, the sea (as opposed to
the dry land).
Tahaki, the shore (as op-
posed to the water),
one side.
Aianei, naianei, the present
Aoake, the day before, the
day after.
Kareha, the day before
yesterday, the day
after to-morrow.
Nahea, what time (past),
Nanahi, yesterday.
Napo, last night.
Namata, the past time,
long ago.
Nehe, nehera, the ancient
Pahaki, the near distance.
Raurangi, another time,
another day (past or
Tahira, the day after to-
morrow, the day before
Taitua, the further side (of
a solid body).
Tawhiti, the distance, a
§ 9. Nominal prefix.—i. The particle a is used before
the names of persons or months* and the pronouns wai
and mea.
(a) When they stand as subject in a sentence.
He rangatira a Tareha, Tar eha is a chief.
E mahi ana a Turi, Turi is working.
(b^ When they follow any of the prepositions ki, i,
hei, kei', but not when they follow ko (§§12, 37), or any
of the prepositions a, o, ma, mo, na, no, e, me.
(§§ 15,16.) •
♦The names of the days of the week are treated like common nouns ; but always take
the definite article te.

Ki a Titore, to Titore.
Kei a Wahanui, in Wahanui’s possession.
No Paikea, belonging to Paikea.
Ma Ruatapu, for Ruatapu.
ii. It is used with personal pronouns (except ahau,
though au follows the rule) only when they follow the
prepositions ki, i, hei, kei; or when they are repeated by
way of explanation; not ordinarily when they stand as
subject in a sentence.
He kupu na Rangi ki a koe, a tvord from Rangi to you.
Haere mai ki ahau, come to me.
Awai? Who? A koe. Thou.
Obs. When any of the singular personal pronouns, au
(not ahau'), koe, ia, thus follows one of the prepositions,
ki, i, hei, kei, the pronoun is unaccented, but the accent is
thrown back on a, thus Kei a ia. I a koe.
iii. It is also used with names of places and local
nouns (§ 8) only when they stand as subject in a
sentence, or are repeated by way of explanation.
He mania a Kaingaroa, Kaingaroa is a plain.
A hea? A Kaingaroa. What place? Kaingaroa.
Ka wera a waho, the outside is burnt.
§ 10. Ma. When any person is spoken of in connexion
with others whom it is not necessary to specify put ma
after the name, thus:
Kahutia ma, Kahutia and his companions, or Kahutia
and the others.

Also when addressing more persons than one it may
be used with the different forms of address, thus:
E hoa ma! Friends!
With the pronouns wai? and mea (§ 6) it makes a
dual or plural.
A wai ma? Who? (pl.).
A mea ma, such and such persons.
§ 11. When a number of persons or things are
enumerated severally, the particle or preposition that
is used with the first should be repeated with each of
those that follow.
Nga rangatira o Rotorua, o Rotoiti, o Tarawera; the
chiefs of Rotorua, Rotoiti, and Tarawera.
§ 12. When speaking of a number of persons col-
lectively, use the dual or plural pronouns, as the case
may be, followed by the name or names of the additional
persons, introducing each name with the specific
particle, ko; but if the names are preceded by a prepo-
sition, the preposition will not be repeated.
Maua ko Ripi, Ripi and I.
Koutou ko Ripi, ko Maui, You and Ripi, and Maui.
When names are enumerated in the third person, one
of the names must precede the pronoun unless one of
them has been previously mentioned.
A Ripi raua ko Haokai, Ripi and Haokai.
Ki a Haokai ratou ko Ripi ma, to Hoakai, Ripi and the
Ko wai ma era? Ko Ripi ratou ko Pau, ko Maui. Who
are those? Ripi and Pau and Maui.

§ 13. When nouns are in apposition (i.e., when a
second noun is added to explain the first), repeat the
preposition, etc., of the first noun with the second, and
place the most general noun first, the most particular
Ma tona tupuna, ma Pau, for his grandfather Pau.
In this example, tona tupuna is a more general term
than Pau, and it therefore stands first: and the preposi-
tion ma is repeated with the particular name, Pau,
§ 14. Common Nouns as Adjectives.—Any common
noun may be used as an adjective, indicating material,
purpose, etc. (§ 23).
He whare kowhatu, a stone house.
He rua kumara, a pit for kumara.
He tunga whare, a site for a house.
§ 15. Simple Prepositions.
A, belonging to. (§ 22).
at, of future time: a hea? at what timel
after the manner of,
o, 2i, belonging to, passive of a. (§ 22).
from, of place or time, denoting the starting point.
Na, of, belonging to. (§ 22).
by means of, on account of, Oiving to.
b}L through, by way of, of direction.
by, expressing emphasis on the agent. (§ 55).
♦These are placed here for convenience of reference, and may be learned as occasion

14 *
No, of9 'belonging to, passive of na. (§ 22).
from, of place, but not after verbs of motion.
from,, at, of time past.
Ma, t°r. (§22).
by, by means of, on account of.
by, through, by way of, of direction.
by, expressing emphasis on the agent. (§ 55).
Mo, for, passive of ma. (§ 22).
at, on, of time future.
about, concerning, with a view to.
Ba, by way of, through, of direction.
E, by, of agent, only after passive verbs. (§ 53).
I, by, with; of agent or instrument, after participles,
adjectives, and neuter verbs. (§ 69).
by reason of.
from, after verbs implying motion.
at^e time of,
possession of, having in possession, past,
or, in a negative clause, present. (§ 40, /.).
witK, in company with.
at, in, on, of time, generally past.
in comparison of.
at, in, on, °f place, mostly in time past, but in some
cases, present. (§ 40 /.).
in state of, in act of, in time past, or, in a negative
clause, present (§ 40 /.), governing adjectives
or verbs.
connecting a transitive verb with its object^ no
English equivalent. (§ 53).
Kei, at, on^ of place, in time present; not used after
with, in possession of, in time present.
in state of, in act of, with adjectives or verbs in time
Hei, at, on, like, as, of place, or time, future; not used
*** after verbs.
with, in possession of, in time future.

Ipr^Jo^seryeasl to be, without any definitive; used
with nouns, or with the infinitive of verbs.
Ki, to^ of place or action; into, towards.
a^orjn,, place in which a thing is done, etc.,
after verbs.
at, after arrive, etc.
with, of instrument.
according to, concerning.
for, in quest of.
connecting a^transitiyg^^ygj’.b. with its. object.; no
^Englishequivalent. (§ 53).
Me, with, in addition, and—too.
Ko, to, going to, with nouns of place and infinitives of
active verbs.
at, of future time, or denoting intention.
To, up to.
Whaka, towards.
§ 16. Complex Prepositions.—These are irregular
modes of using some of the local nouns enumerated
in § 8.
Series 1.
â– upon, on the top of.
Ki runga ki,
I runga i,
Kei runga kei,
Hei runga hei,
No runga no, from upon, i.e., belonging to the top of.
I runga i, from upon, with special idea of motion from.
Mo runga mo, for the top of.
Ma runga ma, over, by the top of (direction).
Ko runga ko, to the top of.
Series 2.

-above, over.
Ki runga i,
I runga i,
Kei runga i,
Hei runga i,
No runga i. from above, i.e., belonging to that situation.

I runga i, from above, implying motion from.
Mo runga i, for above, i.e., to be above.
Ma runga i, by above, over (of direction).
Ko runga i, to above, over.
In the second of these series o may be substituted
for i after the local noun, in which case the construction
will be regular.
Similar combinations may be made with raro, to
signify under, beneath, below, etc.; with roto, to signify
in, into, inside, etc.; with waho, to signify without,
outside, from without, etc.
Mua and muri are only used in Series 2.
§ 17. Definitives are those words which shew how far,
or in what way the signification of a noun is defined
or limited. The name therefore will comprehend what
are commonly known as articles, possessive pronouns,
possessive cases of nouns, and demonstrative pronouns.
All these, with one exception, have two numbers, singular
and plural; and all stand before the nouns with which
they are connected.
A common noun is always preceded by a definitive,
except after hei (§ 15).
§ 18. Table of Definitives.
He, a or an.
He, some, or merely indi-
cating the plural indefi-
Te, the.
Tetahi, a, one, some.
Tenei, this (§ 21).
Tena, that (§ 21).
Nga, the.
Etahi, some.
Enei, these (§ 21).
Ena, those (§ 21).

Tera, that (§ 21) ; the
other (opposed to this or
Taua, that (before men-
Ia, that.
Tehea? which?
Taku, my.
Toku, my.
Tau or To, thy.
Toil, thy.
Tana, his or her.
Tona, his or her.
Ta taua, our.
To taua, our.
Ta tatou, our.
To tatou, our.
Era, those (§ 21) ; the
Aua, those (before men-
tioned) .
(No plural).
Ehea? which?
Aku, my.
Oku, my.
Au or 0, thy.
Ou, thy.
Ana,, his or her.
Ona, his or her.
A taua, our.
0 taua, our.
A tatou, our.
0 tatou, our.
and so with all the other personal pronouns, with names
of persons, or places, with local nouns (§8), and with
any common noun following any definitive except he, by
prefixing one of the possessive particles ta, or to, for
the singular, and a, or o, for the plural. The difference
between the variant forms, taku, toku, etc., is explained
in § 22.
Toku whare, my hozise.
Enei kowhatu, these stones.
He whare, a house, or houses.
Ta Hamo kuri, Hamo’s dog.
To tenei tangata kainga, this man’s dwelling place.
The possessive particles ta and to may be resolved
into the article and preposition, thus Te kuri a Hamo is
equivalent to Ta Hamo kuri, and Te kainga o tend
tangata is equivalent to To tenei tangata kainga.
Similarly in the plural, we may say either,
A Hamo kuri or Nga kuri a Hamo,

§ 19. Peculiarities of he and te.
(a) Never use he after a preposition, but substitute
tetahi, thus:
He tangata, a man.
Ki tetahi tangata, to a man.
(&) When a common noun is used to denote a class,
as the simple plural is often used in English, use te in
the singular, and not he, thus:
He pai te ktiku hei kai, pigeons are good for food.
Te kuku, the pigeon, i.e., pigeons in general.
§ 20. Possessive Prepositions following Definitives.
(a) When a possessive follows he, always use one of
the prepositions na or no, never a or o.
He mara kumara naku, a kumara field of mine, or
belonging to me.
He whare no tenei tangata, a* house belonging to this
man, or of this man’s.
(b) When a possessive follows any other definitive
except he, always use one of the prepositions a or o,
never na or no.
Te toki a Rita, Rita’s axe.
Tenei taha oku, this side of me.
Taua whare o Hamo, that house of Hamo’s.
§21. The demonstratives tenei, tena, tera, are
equivalent to the article te and the adverbs nei, na, ra,
respectively; and we may say indifferently Tenei
tangata, or Te tangata nei. So also in the plural; Era
whare, may be replaced by Nga whare ra. Tenei denotes

that the thing spoken of is near or in some way con-
nected with the speaker; tena, that it is near, or in some
way connected with the person spoken to; tera, that it
is at a distance from, or unconnected with either the
speaker or the person spoken to; taua, that it has been
already mentioned; and similarly with their respective
plurals. la is generally used distributively for each,
both it and the noun being repeated. Tenei, tena, and
tera may also be used in the same way.
Ia tangata, ia tangata, each man,
Tenei ropu, tenei ropu o ratou, each company of them.
Tera is often used in an emphatic way for the personal
pronoun of the third person singular.
Kua tae tera ki Mokoia, he has arrived at Mokoia.
Tenei, tena, and tera often stand alone, the noun
being understood, but tana is never used in this way.
Naku tenei, nau tena, this is mine, that is yours.
He rangatira taua tangata, that man is a chief.
§ 22. The difference between a and o, which applies
also to na, no, ma, mo, ta, to, taku, toku, etc., is this: a
is used in speaking of (a) transitive actions including
ivorks accomplished or in progress, (b) movable property,
instruments, (c) food, (d) husband, wife, children,
slaves, etc.; o in speaking of (e) intransitive actions,
(/) parts of anything, names, qualities, (g) feelings,
(h) houses, land, canoes, (?) inhabitants, (J) water for
drinking, medicine, clothes, (&) parents, and other rela-
tives (except husband tane, wife wahine, and children
or grandchildren with their collaterals; but uri takes

superiors, companions (including hoa when applied to
husband or wife), also (Z) with derivative nouns (§§ 58
and 68) of adjectives, participles, and intransitive verbs
and with those of transitive verbs when they are used
in a passive sense.
(a) Te tahunga a Raumati i a Te Arawa, Raumati’s
burning of the Arawa (canoe).
(&) Nga tao a Manaia, Manaia’s spears.
(c) He kai mau, food for you.
(d) Te wahine a Rua me ana tamariki, Rua’s wife and
his children.
(e) To raua totohe ki a raua, their contending with one
(/) Te pakitara o te whare, the wall of the house.
(g) Te aroha o Kuiwai ki a Manaia, Kuiwai’s love for
(ft) Te whare o Tinirau, Tinirau’s house.
(i) Nga tangata o tenei motu, the men of this island.
(/) He wai mo Te Ponga, some water for Te Ponga.
(k) Nga tungane me nga teina o to raua whaea, the
brothers and younger sisters of their mother.
(Z) Te hokinga o Kupe ki Hawaiki, Kupe’s return to
Te tahunga o Te Arawa e Raumati, the burning of
the Arawa (canoe) by Raumati.
(m) Taku ingoa (f) mou, my name for you (i.e., the
name which I have given you).
§23. Position. An adjective always stands after the
noun which it qualifies.
He whare pai, a good house.
Tana kuri nui. his large dog.

§ 24. By doubling the di-syllabic root of an adjective,
the intensity of its signification is diminished, thus:
Wera, hot,
Werawera, somewhat hot, warm.
Maroke, dry.
Marokeroke, somewhat dry.
In the case of a few adjectives a plural is formed by
doubling the first syllable of the root, thus:
He rakau nui, a large tree.
He rakau nunui, large trees.
He tangata roa, a tall man.
He tangata roroa, tall men.
The simple form is, however, often used for the plural
as well as the singular.
§ 25. Degrees of Comparison are expressed by the
adverbs atu, or ake, for the comparative degree, tino, or
rawa, with the definite article te, for the superlative
degree. Tino or rawa, with the indefinite article he,
forms an intense comparative.
Obs. Tino always stands before the adjective, and
rawa after it.
He mea pai atu i tena, a better thing than that.
Te mea pai rawa, the best thing.
He mea tino pai, a very good thing.
Te mea tino pai rawa, the very best thing.
He mea pai rawa i tena, a far better thing than that.
§ 26. When two or more adjectives are used to qualify
the same noun, repeat the noun with each, or substitute
mea for the noun after the first time.
He whare kowhatu, he whare pai, a good stone house.
He kowhatu nui, he mea taimaha, a large heavy stone.

§ 27. Abstract Quality is expressed by the adjective
treated as a noun, thus:
Pai, good. Te pai, the goodness.
Roa, Icmg. Te roa3 the length.
§ 28. Table of Cardinal Numbers.
Hia? How many?
1 Tahi, or Kotahi. 6
2 Rua. 7
3 Toru 8
4 Wha. 9
5 Rima. 10
11 Tekau ma tahi.
12 Tekau ma rua.
13 Tekau ma toru.
14 Tekau ma wha.
20 Rua tekau.
21 Rua tekau ma tahi.
30 Toru tekau.
40 Wha tekau.
Tekau, or Ngahuru.
100 Kotahi rau.
101 Kotahi rau ma tahi.
123 Kotahi rau e rua tekau ma toru.
1000 Kotahi mano.
2001 E rua mano ma tahi.
2384 E rua mano e toru rau e waru tekau ma wha.
It is to be noted that, for the numbers from 10 to 19,
11 kotahi” is often expressed with 11 tekau” and that
from 100 to 199 it is generally required with “rau.”'
(See examples under §§29 and 30.)

§ 29. In Counting use ka before the numerals, thus:
Ka hia ? how many ?
Ka tahi, one; ka rua, two; ka toru. three, etc.;
ka tekau, ten; ka tekau ma tahi, eleven; ka rua
tekau, twenty; ka kotahi rau ka rua tekau ma
rima, one hundred and hventy-five.
In asking for any number of things use kia in the
same way before the numeral, thus:
Mauria mai etahi toki, kia rua, bring two axes.
Kia hia ? how many ? Kia rua, two.
§ 30. With Nouns, i. When used in immediate con-
nexion with nouns, let kotahi stand for one, not tahi,
and put e before the others, from two to nine.
He tangata kotahi, one man.
Nga whare e toru, the three houses.
Nga tao e wha tekau, the forty spears.
He waka kotahi tekau ma rua, twelve canoes.
Mo etahi waka kotahi tekau ma rua, for twelve canoes.
ii. In speaking of persons the numerals from rua to
iwa inclusive, the interrogative hia, and the adjective
maha, have toko- prefixed instead of e.
Tokohia? how many? (i.e., persons).
Nga tangata tokoiwa, the nine men.
§ 31. In using the numerals distributively prefix taki-
to the simple numeral, thus:
Takirua, by twos, two and two.
Takitahi, singly, or by ones.
§ 32. Ordinals used absolutely, i.e. not in immediate
connexion with nouns, are expressed by the simple
numerals with te, thus:
Te tahi, the first.
Te rua, the second.
Te hia? which in order?

§ 33. When using ordinals as adjectives in immediate
connexion with nouns prefix tua-* to the simple numeral
from one to nine, thus:
Te tangata tuatahi, the first man.
Above nine, without tua-, thus:
Te tekau o nga manu, the tenth of the birds, or
the tenth bird.
Te rua tekau ma toru o nga whare, the twenty-third
of the houses, or the twenty-third house.
§ 34. Subject and Predicate.—The Subject in a sen-
tence is that of which anything is said.
The Predicate is that which is said of the Subject.
John is a boy. John runs. In both these “John” is the
Subject: “a boy” and “runs” are Predicates.
The Subject and Predicate do not always occupy the
same relative positions in English, for though the Subject
is generally placed first, it is sometimes placed last. It
will be sufficiently accurate for the purposes of this
chapter to consider the Predicate identical with the most
emphatic member of the sentence.
§ 35. Substantive Verb.—In English, when the
predicate is not a verb, the verb “to be,” commonly
called the substantive verb, is used to connect the predi-
cate with its subject. This verb has no equivalent in
Maori, but its place is supplied by the relative position
of the different words in the sentence.
♦This prefix may also be used with the interrogative hia?

§ 36. In affirmative Sentences the predicate stands
first, and the subject after it; and two nouns, or an
adjective and a noun, placed in these relative positions,
form a sentence although without a verb. In negative
sentences, this relative position is apparently (§ 39)
Sentences of this kind are made either with or without
the specific particle ko.
§ 37. Use the specific particle ko when the predi-
cate is either
i. A proper name, or personal pronoun, a local
noun (§ 8), or either of the interrogatives wai,
or hea; or
ii. A common noun with any of the definitives (§18)
except he.
Ko ia tenei, this is he.
Ko wai tona ingoa? what is his name*!
Ko Hamo tona ingoa, his name is Hamo.
Ko toku whare tera, that is my house.
Ko hea tera maunga? What is {the name of} that
mountain $
§ 38. Make a sentence without ko when the predicate
is either
i. (a) A common noun, (&) an adjective, or (c) a
verb in the infinitive, with the indefinite article
ii (d) A noun, pronoun, verb, or adjective following
a preposition.
In both these cases, the verb or adjective is treated as
a noun.
(a) He whare pai tera, that is a good house.
(b) He pirau enei kumara, these kumara are rotten.

(c) He hanga i te whare te mahi a Horo, Horo’s work
is to build the house.
(d) Kei Tauranga a Turi, Turi is at Tauranga.
Mo ratou tena whare, that house is for them.
Hei runga i te puke te whare, let the house be on the
§ 39. When the predicate consists of many words,
the most emphatic word generally stands alone in the
place of the predicate, the rest being placed after the
subject. This is the ease when the predicate contains
an explanatory or a relative clause, or a clause in any
other way dependent on the principal word. This also
accounts for the apparent reversing of the positions of
subject and predicate in negative sentences, the negation
being the most prominent thing in such sentences.
He tangata tenei no Akaroa, this is a man from Akaroa.
Ko te tama tera a Turi, that is the son of Turi.
He kai kei reira ma te tamaiti a Kuiwai, there is some
food, there for Kuiwai’s child.
Ko te tangata tera i kitea e ahau, that is the man who
was seen by me.
§40. Negative Sentences.— (a) The negative of a
sentence with ko (§ 37), is always made with ehara. .i,
ko being dropped.
Aff. Ko ia tenei, this is he.
Neg. Ehara tenei i a ia, this is not he.
Aff. Ko te whare tera, that is the house.
Neg. Ehara tera i te whare, that is not the house.
(&) When the predicate in the corresponding affirma-
tive sentence is a common noun, an adjective, or a verb
with the indefinite article he, (§ 38, a, b, c), the negative
is made with ehara. .i, and te is substituted for he.

Aff. He whare pai tera, that is a good house.
Neg. Ehara tera i te whare pai, that is not a good house.
Aff. He pirau enei riwai, these potatoes are rotten.
Neg. Ehara enei riwai i te pirau, these potatoes are not
Aff. He tuakana ia noku, he is an elder brother of mine.
Neg. Ehara ia i te tuakana noku, he is not an elder
brother of mine.
When the predicate in the corresponding affirmative
sentence is a noun, adjective, or verb, following a prepo-
sition (§ 38, d), the following constructions are used:—
(c) If the preposition is na or no, the negative is made
with ehara. .i, and the preposition is dropped.
Aff. No Turi tera whare, that house belongs to Turi.
Neg. Ehara i a Turi tera whare, that house does not
belong to Turi.
(d) If the preposition is ma or mo signifying for, use
ehara i te mea, retaining the preposition.
Aff. Mo Turi te whare, the house is for Turi.
Neg. Ehara i te mea mo Turi te whare, the house is not
for Turi.
(e) If the preposition is hei signifying at, or in
possession of (§ 15), use kauaka, retaining the
Aff. Hei te taha o te huaralii te taiepa, let the fence be
at the side of the road.
Neg. Kauaka hei te taha, etc., let not the fence be, etc.
(/) If the preposition is kei or i (§ 15), signifying at,
or in possession of, use kahore for the negative, with the
preposition i only, and never kei.

Kei hea te taha? Kahore i konei. Where is the calabash?
It is not here.
Aff. Kei a Turi te taura, the rope is in Turi’s possession.
Neg. Kahore i a Turi te taura, the rope is not in Turi’s
Aff. I a wai tera kainga? Whose was that place?
Neg. Kahore i a Waitaha. It ivas not Waitaha’s.
§ 41. Interrogative Sentences do not differ in form
from those which are not interrogative. Those which are
not essentially such from the meaning of the words, are
shewn to be so by the tone with which they are uttered.
Those which are essentially interrogative are those which
contain an interrogative pronoun, as wai, hea, tehea; an
interrogative adjective, as pehea, hia; or an interroga-
tive adverb, as ianei, koia, oti, ranei. (See §§ 82 and 84).
Nou tena potae, that hat is yours.
Nou tena potae? is that hat yours?
Kahore au toki maku, you have no axe for me.
Kahore au toki maku? have you no axe for me.
Na wai tenei mara? whose is this cultivation?
He kai ranei kei roto i te whare? Is there any food in
the house?
Obs. In asking a person’s name wai is always used,
never aha. Similarly, hea is used in asking the name of
a place.
Ko wai te ingoa o te tamaiti? What is the child’s
name ?
Ko hea tera maunga? What is that mountain?
§42. The Time of these “sentences without verbs”
may, as far as the form of the sentence is concerned, be
past, present, or future. When it is not shewn by the
essential meaning of any of the words it must be

gathered from the context. If no clue to the time is
given, what is said will be understood in present time.
For the indications of time in the case of the prepositions
hei, i, and kei refer to § 15.
§ 43. Voice.—The only inflection of the original form
of the verb is in the formation of the Passive Voice,
and consists in the addition of a Passive termination to
the Active form. (§ 51).
§ 44. Differences of Tense are denoted by auxiliary
particles, e, ana, kua, i, ka, the same form in each case
serving for all persons and numbers. Particular atten-
tion must be given to the use of the negative adverbs,
which cannot be used indiscriminately, and also to the
fact that, in the negative form of the Perfect, kua is
changed into kia.
The Inceptive denotes a change from one state or
action to another; or the commencement of a new action
or condition, and may be either Past, Present, or Future;
the actual time to be determined by the context. With a
negative it may often be translated by “cease to.”
§ 45. It must be understood that the tenses of a Maori
verb indicate the condition of the action, but do not,
except in the case of the Past Indefinite and Future,
connote a time relationship. The Imperfect and Perfect
may have a past, present, or future reference according
to the context.
E huihui ana nga tangata, the men are assembling.
Kua huihui nga tangata, the men have assembled.
E huihui ana nga tangata inanahi, the men were
assembling yesterday.

Kua huihui nga tangata inanahi, the men had
assembled yesterday,
Apopo e huihui ana ratou, to-morrow they will be
Apopo kua huihui ratou, to-morrow they will have
Ka huihui ratou inanahi, they assembled (or began
to assemble) yesterday,
Ka huihui ratou apopo, they will assemble (or begin
to assemble) to-morrow,
Ka kore ahau e pupuri, I cease to hold.
§ 46. Active Voice.
i. Indicative.
1. Inceptive (Past, present, or future).
Ka karanga ahau, I began (begin or shall begin) calling,
or I became, etc.
Ka kore ahau e karanga, I became (become or shall
become) not calling, or I ceased (cease or shall cease)
2. Imperfect (Continuous; past, present, or future.
E karanga ana ahau, J ivas, am, or will be calling.
Kahore ahau e karanga ana, I was not, am not, or will
not be calling.
2. Imperfect (Continuous; past, present, or future).
Kua karanga ahau, I had, have, or will have called.
Kahore ahau kia karanga, 7 had not, have not, or
will not have called.
4. Past (Indefinite).
I karanga ahau, J called.
Kihai ahau i karanga, I did not call.
5. Future (Indefinite).
E karanga ahau, I shall call.
E kore ahau e karanga, I shall not call.
6. Future (Emphatic).
Tera ahau e karanga, I shall (or will) call.
Tera ahau e kore e karanga, I shall (or will) not call.

7. Narrative form,
Karanga ana ahau, I called.
(Not used in the negative).
ii. Imperative.
1. Strong (Mandatory or Precatory).
Karanga! call! E noho! sit!
Kaua e karanga! Do not call!
2. Weak (Hortatory or Deliberative).
Me karanga ahau, I had better call or let me call.
iii. Subjunctive.
1. Inceptive (Future).
Ki te mea ka karanga ahau, If I should begin calling.
Ki te mea ka kore ahau e karanga, If I should not begin
calling, or If I should cease calling.
2. Imperfect (Continuous).
Mehemea (or me) e karanga ana ahau, If I were calling.
Mehemea (or me) kahore ahau e pupuri ana, If I ivere
not calling.
3. Perfect (Completed).
Mehemea kua karanga ahau, If I had called.
Mehemea kahore ahau kia karanga, If I had not called.
4. Past (Indefinite).
Mehemea (or me) i karanga ahau, If I called.
Mehemea kihai (or me i kahore) ahau i karanga, If I did
not call.
5. Future (Contingent).
Ki te karanga ahau, If I should call.
Ki te kore ahau e karanga, If I should not call
6. Future (Consequential).
Kia karanga ahau, That I may call, or Let me call.
Kia kaua ahau e karanga, Thai I may not call.

7. Future (Deprecatory or Precautionary).
Kei karanga ahau, Lest I should call, or Let me not call.
Kei kore ahau e karanga, Lest 1 should not call. (This
negative is used only in dependent sentences).
iv. Infinitive.
Karanga, call, preceded by an article or definitive pro-
noun, thus: he karanga, te karanga, tana karanga,
§ 47. The Imperative is generally used in the second
person, but in speaking of parts of the human body it
will be used in the third person. (§62). If the verb is
a word of one syllable or two, or if the command is
negative, the particle e is used in the Imperative; other-
wise it is not.
The translation of the Future Consequential Subjunc-
tive with kia will depend upon whether it is used in a
dependent sentence or as an entreaty.
The Future Deprecatory, with kei, used in the second
person is equivalent to an Imperative.
§ 48. Mehemea and me with the Subjunctive imply
that the contrary to the alternative expressed is the fact:
ki te mea and ki te imply simple uncertainty.
§ 49. The Infinitive Active is merely the verb treated
as a noun, and is always, as stated, attended by one or
other of the definitives. It may be used with the pre-
position kei, making a present imperfect indicative, and
with the preposition i a past imperfect indicative.
He aha tana? He pupuri i tou hoiho, What is his
(object) ? To hold your horse.
E haere ana ia ki te mahi, he is going to work.
Kei te pupuri ahau, I am holding.

I te pupuri ahau, 1 was holding.
Kei te aha ia? What is he doing? (What is he at?).
Kei te mahi ia, He is at work.
§ 50. Uses of Subjunctive and Infinitive.—After
words expressing (a) eagerness, desire, intention to do
anything, and (h) after words signifying go, come, stay,
etc., and (c) after teach, use the infinitive with the pre-
position ki-, (d) after learn, use the infinitive with the
preposition i; but (e) after words expressing request,
command, advice, consent, or permission to another
person to do anything, use the subjunctive. (/) In a
clause expressing the object in view, use the subjunctive
followed by the particle ai.
(a) E hiahia ana ratou ki te haere, they desire to go.
(b) E noho ana ia ki te hanga i te taiepa, he is staying
to make the fence.
(c) Na wa koe i whakaako ki te whakairo rakau? Who
taught you to carve wood?
(d) E ako ana taku tamaiti i te tuhituhi, my child is
learning to write.
(e) I ki mai ia kia haere ahau, he told me to go, or he
said that I should go.
I tuku ahau i a ia kia haere, I allowed him to go.
(f) I haere mai ia inanahi kia kite ai ia i a Te Hau, he
came yesterday in order that he might see
Te Hau.
§ 51. Passive Voice.—The passive voice is formed
generally by the addition of one of the following ter-
minations to the active: -a, -ia, -hia, -kia, -mia, -ngia, -ria,
-tia, -whia, -na, -nga, -ina, -hina, -kina, -rina, -whina,
-hanga. Thus:—

poro forms poroa tiki forms tikina
ki kiia aroha arohaina
waru waruhia roko rokohina
moto motokia or rokohanga
aru arumia tata V tatakina
rere rerengia whakaatu whaka-
mau n mauria aturia or
awhi awhitia. whakaaturina
whawhao „ whaowhia hapai hapainga
or whaowhina
Of these terminations nga appears to be used only
with verbs ending in ai, mia, only with those ending in
o or u, and ina only with those ending in a; but in all
these cases other terminations also are used. For the rest
it is questionable whether any rule can be formulated.
Usage varies so much in different parts of the country
that it appears to be a mere matter of custom, some
regard being had to euphony. It will be advisable then,
to learn the passive in each case with the active.
Those verbs which have the first syllable doubled in
the active generally drop the repetition in the passive;
thus pupuri becomes (not pupiiritia, but) puritia,
§ 52. The Tenses of the different moods in the Passive
voice are formed in the same way as in the Active, the
passive form of the verb being substituted for the active
—puritia for pupuri; except that in the Imperative the
particle e is used only in the negative form.
The Imperative Passive, unlike the Imperative Active,
seldom refers to the second person, but more commonly
to the first or third person, the command at the same
time being addressed to the second person.
Kaua ahau e whakarerea, let me not be left (by thee);
i.e., do not leave me!
Puritia tenei taura! be this rope held (by!), i.e.,
hold this rope!

§ 53. Transitive Prepositions, etc.—Every active verb
is connected with its object, or the thing acted upon, by
either of the prepositions i or ki; some verbs requiring
one, some the other, and some again taking either. These
prepositions in some cases may be translated by an
English preposition; but in most cases they merely
represent the connexion between the verb and its object,
and may therefore be called transitive prepositions.
Every passive verb is connected with the agent by the
preposition es by.
The instrument requires the preposition ki, with.
E tiki ana ia i tetahi kai mana, he is fetching some
food for himself,
E matau ana ahau ki tana tangata, I knoiv that man,
I mahia e wai? by whom was it done?
Kua topea te rakau ki te toki, the tree has been felled
with an axe.
§ 54. Uses of Active and Passive.—The Passive Voice
is generally used when the action is emphatic rather than
the agent, and therefore in the case of transitive verbs
it is more frequently required than the Active Voice.
But when a transitive follows an intransitive verb
expressing an action consequent upon it, both verbs will
be in the active voice.
I mauria e ia te kaheru, the spade was taken by him,
i.e., he took the spade,
Ka haere ahau ka mau i taku toki, I will go and take
my axe.
Obs. The Maori language allows of the use of an
intransitive verb in the passive, but in such a case a
preposition will generally have to be added in English
to make the sense complete.

Noho, sit. Nohoia, be sat upon,
Kihai tera wahi i whitingia e te ra, that place was not
shone upon by the sun.
§ 55. Agent Emphatic.—When special emphasis is to
be laid on the agent an irregular construction ife used,
the preposition na being placed before the subject for
past time, and ma for future. In sentences of this kind
the subject, being the most emphatic member of the
sentence, stands first, and the object either before or
after the verb, but without any transitive preposition,
the verb being in the active. This construction is not
properly used with neuter verbs.
Naku i pupuri tena tangata, or Naku tena tangata i
pupuri, I detained that man, i.e., it was I who
detained him.
Ma Horo e hanga he whare mou, or Ma Horo he whare
mou e hanga, Horo shall build a house for you,
§ 56. Imperative Future.—Another irregular con-
struction is the formation of what may be called the
Imperative Future with me, in which the verb is active
in form but passive in sense. This construction is never
used with a negative.
Me kawe e koe taku toki, you shall carry my axe (or, my
axe must be carried by you).
I mahara ahau me patu tenei manu, I thought that this
bird was to be killed.
§ 57. The Causative Prefix, whaka-, may be used:—
i. With a verb, adjective or participle, (§ 66), to form
an intransitive verb signifying the attempt at, beginning
of, or approach to the action or condition indicated by
the root word.

Na ka whakawhiti a Kupe i te moana o Raukawa, a,
ka whiti. Then Kupe set about crossing the straits
of Raukawa, and crossed over.
Po rua a Tukutuku e whakatata ana ki a Paoa, kihai i
tata, For two nights Tukutuku tried to get near to
Paoa, but did not succeed.
ii. With a noun to form an intransitive verb signi-
fying the assumption of the character or form appro-
priate to the noun.
Kua whakatangata taua kukupa, The pigeon had as-
sumed the form of a man.
Ka mea a Wairaka, Kia whakatane ake ahau, Wairaka
said I must play the part of a man.
iii. With a verb, adjective, participle (§ 66), or noun
to form a causative verb, generally transitive.
Ka mea nga hoa kia whakarerea nga kahu, His com-
panions told him to discard his clothes.
Kia nunui nga tao, kaua e whakaririkitia, Let the spears
be large, don’t make them small.
Whakamau te titiro ki te kapua rere mai, Fix your gaze
on the cloud flying hither.
Hei konei au whakamau ai, I will remain established
Katahi ano a Rupe ka whakakukupa i a ia, Then Rupe
made himself into a pigeon.
Of course these compounds with whaka- may, like
other words, be used otherwise than as verbs.
Ka puta whakarere mai te hau, The wind sprang up
Ka nui rawa te whakama o Paoa, Paoa’s shame was very

§ 58. Derivative Nouns are formed—
i. From transitive verbs, by prefixing kai, to denote
the agent, thus:
Hanga, make. Kaihanga, maker.
ii. From verbs generally, by adding as a suffix one of
the terminations, -ng a, -anga, -hanga, -kanga, -manga,
-ranga, -tanga, -inga, as:—
mahinga from mahi ngaromanga from ngaro
nohoanga ,, noho turanga „ tu
tirohanga „ tiro puritanga „ pupuri
tomokanga „ tomo k a inga ,, ka
The termination suitable to any particular verb will,
as in the case of the passive, have to be learned; but
it will be noticed that in many cases it bears some
relation to the passive termination (§ 51), thus:—
titiro tirohia tirohanga
motu motukia motukanga
tanu tanumia tanumanga
mau mauria mauranga
pupuri puritia puritanga
A few verbs preserve an ancient verbal suffix, hi or ki ;
and these form the verbal noun direct from the root; as,
arahi, arahanga, rumaki, rumakanga. For the rest -nga,
-na, or -anga will usually be the termination.
The noun thus formed denotes the (a) circumstance,
(&) time, (c) place, or (d) matter of the action expressed
by the verb. In the case of a transitive verb the noun
may be used in either the active or the passive sense.
(§ 22 a, 6).
(a) Mo taku patunga i tana tamaiti, on account of my
striking his Child.
(&) I tona taenga atu, at the time of his arrival, or,
when he arrived.

(c) Ko te turanga tena o Horo, that is the place where
Horo stood,
(d) Tena etahi purapura hei whakatokanga mau, there
is some seed, for you to plant.
§ 59. An Intransitive Compound Verb may be
formed by treating a transitive verb and its object
grammatically as one word, thus:
E tope rakau ana a Turi, Turi is felling trees (or
tree felling).
§ 60. Interrogative Verbs.—The interrogatives aha,
what, and pehea, of what nature, are used as verbs; aha,
to ask what a person is doing, or what is being done;
and pehea, to ask how a person is acting, or in what way
a thing is being done.
E aha ana ia? what is he doing?
I ahatia te kuri? what was done to the dog?
I peheatia e ia te waka i manu ai? How was the canoe
[treated] by him that it floated? or, How did he
get the canoe afloat?
Ka pehea koe a tona taenga mai? How shall you [acf]
on his arrival?
I pehea mai ia ki tau ki? How did he [answer] what
you said?
Me pehea tenei? How is this to be [treated] ?
§ 61. Verbal clauses.—A verb, active in form but
active or passive in sense, may be usedA with or without
an object or indirect object, to form a clause qualifying
a noun.
He kararehe kai tangata, a beast that devours men.
He mea tahu te matamata ki te ahi, the point was burnt
with fire (literally, was a thing burnt).

First lessons in maori
§ 62. In speaking of movements of different parts of
the body, the member spoken of in each case is regarded
as the agent, and is spoken of, or addressed, as if it were
capable of independent action, the verb being, of course,
Hamama tou mangai, open your mouth.
Kua totoro tona ringaringa, he has stretched out his
§ 63. Doubling the di-syllabic root of a verb gives it
a frequentative force. Doubling the first syllable only
often gives intensity; but sometimes it denotes reciprocal
Kimo, tvink the eyes.
Kimokimo, wink frequently.
Kikimo, keep the eyes firmly closed.
Patu, strike. Papatu, strike against one another: clash.
§ 64. The Verb ai, “there is,” “it is,” etc.
1. Imperfect.
E ai ki tana, or E ai tana, according to his (saying) it
is, i.e., he says.
E ai ta wai? Who says so?
2. Inceptive.
Ka ai he toki mana, there is an axe for him, i.e., he has
an axe.
1. Imperfect.
Me e ai ana he toki, if there were an axe.
2. Future (contingent).
Ki te ai he toki, if there should be an axe.

3. Future {consequential).
Kia ai he toki, let there be an axe, i.e., when, or, as soon
as there is an axe.
4. Future {deprecatory).
Kei ai he toki, lest there should be an axe.
§65. The Verb 4‘to have” having no equivalent in
Maori its place is supplied by the following expedients:
i. By the use of one of the possessive particles, to, ta,
o, a, with a pronoun, noun, or proper name (§§ 6, 18) ;
the time (past, present, or future), being gathered from
the context.
He patu tana, he has a weapon, or, he had a weapon.
Kahore a Ripi patu, Ripi has, or, had no weapon.
ii. By the use of the prepositions kei, i, hei, respec-
tively for present, past, and future. (§ 40, /.).
Kei ahau tau kaheru, I have your spade, or, your spade
is in my possession.
Kahore i ahau tau kaheru, I have not your spade.
I a ia toku waka, he had my canoe.
Kahore i a ia te waka, he had not the canoe.
Hei a Ripi te kuri, Ripi shall have the dog, or, let Ripi
have the dog.
Kauaka hei a Ripi te kuri, let not Ripi have the dog.
Mehemea i a ia te taura, kua mauria e ahau, if he had
had the rope I should have taken it.
iii. By using the verb ai (§ 64) followed by the pre-
position ma or mo; but this use is permissible only when
the noun is preceded by the definitive he.
Ka ai he toki mana, he has an axe, or there is an axe
for him.
Me e ai ana be whare mou, if you had a house, or, if
there were a house for you.

iv. By using the adjective whai, which signifies pos-
sessing f the thing possessed being used as another adjec-
tive qualifying whai.
Kua whai whare ranei koe? have you a house?
(literally have you become house-possessing?)
§ 66. There is a class of words which, for convenience,
may be called participles. These are not regularly
derived from verbs, as in European languages, but are
of independent origin, though participial in meaning.
The most important of the participles are the
ea, avenged, paid for,
hemo, consumed.
mahiti, spent, exhausted,
mahu, cicatrized.
mahue, left behind.
makona, satisfied.
marara, scattered, separ-
maru, bruised, crushed.
matara, untied.
mau, fixed, caught.
mauru, quieted.
motu, severed, broken (as
mutu, ended, cut short.
oti, finished, completed.
pa, struck.
pakaru, broken, shattered.
pau, consumed.
peto, consumed.
poro, cut short, truncated.
poto, all dealt with.
rate, provided, served.
riro, happened, obtained,
rupeke, all dealt with, com-
pleted, assembled.
takoki, sprained.
taui, sprained.
t. u, wounded.
u, established, fixed.
whara, struck.
whati, broken (as a stick).
These Participles are treated as neuter verbs, as also
are adjectives, when they do not express the intrinsic or
essential quality of a thing. It will be seen by the fol-
lowing example of the adjective ora, well, in health,

that the notion of becoming, which is peculiarly charac-
teristic of the inceptive, appears also in some of the
other tenses.
The imperfect tense with e..ana is not used with
participles, all of which imply a completed condition.
§ 67. The tenses of the Indicative are as follows:—
1. Imperfect.
E ora ana ahau, 1 am well.
Kahore ahau e ora ana, I am not well.
2. Perfect.
Kua ora ahau, I have become well.
Kahore ahau kia ora, I have not become well.
3. Past Indefinite.
I ora ahau, I was well, or became well.
Kihai ahau i ora, I was not well.
4. Future.
E ora ahau, I shall be (or become) well.
E kore ahau e ora, I shall not be (or become) well.
5. Inceptive.
Ka ora ahau, I became, or shall become well.
Ka kore ahau e ora, I became, or shall become not well.
For the Subjunctive refer to § 46.
§ 68. Derivative Nouns are formed from adjectives
and participles by adding as a suffix, -nga, or -tanga, to
denote the circumstance, time, or place of the condition
§ 69. Construction with Adjectives and Participles.
—Adjectives and Participles, and their derivative
nouns are followed by the preposition iy by (not e, which
belongs only to passive verbs), to denote the agency or
instrumentality by which the effect has been or is to be

Kua ora ahau i tau rongoa, 1 have become well by means
of your medicine.
Ka pau tana kai i te kuri, his food is consumed by the
Tona mahuetanga i a ratou [the circumstance of] his
being left by them.
§ 70. Explanatory Verb.—Sometimes a verb in the
infinitive mood is added to a participle, adjective, or
verb by way of explanation. If the explanatory verb is
active the preposition indicating the agent will be
different according as the agent is placed after the
participle, or after the verb. If after the participle, it
will be i; if after the verb, it will be e.
Ka pau te paraoa i te kuri te kai, or, Ka pau te paraoa
te kai e te kuri, the bread is eaten up by the dog
(is consumed by eating).
Kia hohoro taua te haere, let us travel quickly (lit., let
us be quick in travelling).
§ 71. There are no Relative Pronouns in Maori.
Their place is supplied either by the position of the
words forming the relative clause; or by the personal
pronoun of the third person singular; or, again, by the
use of certain particles.
§ 72. Who, Which.—When the relative pronoun in
English is the subject of the relative clause:
i. The praedicate of the relative clause may be placed
immediately after the antecedent without any expressed
subject, and may be followed by one of the adverbs,
(a) nei3 (b) na7 or (c) ra; according as the thing spoken

of is near, or connected with, (a) the speaker, (&) the
person spoken to, or (c) neither; but if one of these
adverbs is used, and the verb is imperfect, ana must be
Te tangata e hanga whare ana, the man who is house-
Te waka i kitea e taua, the canoe which was seen by you
and me.
Te tamaiti i korero mai ra ki a taua, the boy who spoke
to us.
Te rakau e tu ra i runga i te puke, the tree which stands
on the hill.
ii. If the relative clause is past or future, the con-
struction mentioned in § 55 may be used; the pronoun
of the third person singular serving for all persons and
Te tangata nana nei i patu toku* matua, the man who
killed my father.
Ko nga tangata enei nana i tahu te ngahere, these are
the men who set on fire the forest.
Ko te tohunga koe mana e hanga te whare, you are the
skilled man who shall build the house.
iii. If the relative pronoun has a common noun joined
to it, the definitive taua (pl. aua} is used to represent it.
I noho ra ratou ki aua wahi, ivhich places they occupied.
§ 73. Whom, or which.—When the relative in English
is governed by a verb or by one of these prepositions:
by, on, at, in, with, by-means-of, on-account-of, by-
reason-of, the verb in the relative clause is followed by
nei, na, ra or ai, without a preposition; and in the im-
perfect tense ana after the verb is omitted. Use ai with

the past and future only; and with the present use nei,
na, or ra, according to the position of the thing spoken
of; nei, if it is near or connected with the speaker; na,
if it is near or connected with the person spoken to; and
ra, if it is not near or connected with either.
Te wliare e hanga na koe, the house which you are
Te wahi e noho nei a Pomare, the place at which Pomare
is now living.
Te mea e raru ai ahau, the thing by means of zvhich I
shall be perplexed.
Te wai i tineia ai te ahi, the water with which the fire
was quenched.
§ 74. When the relative is governed by the verb in the
relative clause, the subject of that verb, without being
expressed directly, may be implied in a possessive
definitive (§18) placed before the antecedent.
Tau tangata i karanga ai, the man whom you called {for
Te tangata i karanga ai koe).
Taku whare e hanga nei, the house which I am building.
§ 75. Inverted Construction.—In those cases in which
the relative is governed by the verb in the relative clause
the construction may be inverted by making the verb
passive (§ 54), with the relative as its subject, as in § 72.
Te whare e hangaa na e koe, the house which is being
built by you (or, the house which you are building).
Te kakahu e whatua na e koe, the garment which is being
woven by you (or, the garment which you are
I nohoia ra taua wahi e Te Ratu, which place was occu-
pied by Te Ratu (or, the place which Te Ratu

§ 76. Whose, for whom, etc.—When the subject of
the relative clause in English is a noun, preceded by the
possessive form of the relative, use the possessive defini-
tives tana (pl. ana), tona (pl. ona), or simply the definite
article te. In other cases in which the relative in English
is possessive, or when it is governed by any other prepo-
sition than those enumerated in § 73, use the personal
pronouns of the third person with the requisite preposi-
tion ; but when that preposition is na, or no, or ma, or mo,
use the singular pronoun for all persons and numbers.
He tangata kua whati nei tona waewae, a man whose leg
is broken.
Te wahine i kahakina ra te tamaiti, the woman whose
child ivas carried off.
Te iwi nona te whenua, the people whose the land is.
Te tangata i hoatu nei e ahau ki a ia te pukapuka, the
man to whom I gave the book.
§ 77. Whosoever.—There is no equivalent in Maori
for the word “ whosoever”; it must therefore always be
resolved into “the man who,” “the persons who,” “if
any man,” etc., but not into “he who,” or “those who.”
Te tangata he patu tana, whoever has a weapon (the man
who, etc.).
Nga tangata e matau ana ki te whakairo rakau, whoso-
ever knows how to carve wood (the men who, etc.).
§ 78. Whatever in a negative sentence, is often ex-
pressed by repeating the clause with the interrogative
pronoun, aha, in place of the noun, thus:—
Kahore he kai, kahore he aha, there is no food
Hore he iwi, hore he aha, there was no strength

§ 79. Position of adverbs.—With the exceptions men-
tioned below, an adverb will always follow the word it is
qualifying. If the word qualified be a verb in the Im-
perfect or Narrative Form the adverb mai may stand
before or after the particle ana, but any other adverb
must be placed before ana.
The following:—ata, gently, quite• mdtua, first; and
tino, very; are exceptions to the general rule, and always
stand before the qualified words. A clause containing
the adverb mdtua is followed by the inceptive with ai.
He tangata tino pai, a very good man.
Kia matua kitea te toki, ka haere ai koe ki te ngahere,
first let the axe he found, and then go to the wood.
He kino rawa tena, that is very had.
§ 80. Added Termination.—Adverbs other than those
specified in § 79, or adjectives used adverbially, which
have reference to the manner, intensity, etc., of an action
which they qualify, have the passive termination -tia
added to them when used with passive verbs, and the
termination -tanga when used with derivative nouns,
which denote the time, place, qt circumstance of an
action or condition. (§§ 51, 58).
I kainga otatia nga kumara, the kumara were eaten raw.
Mo tana patunga pukutanga i a au, on account of his
secretly striking me.
§ 81. Adverbs indicating direction.—The words atu
and mai are correlative. Atu generally denotes direction
or motion away from the speaker (a) ; and mai, direction
or motion towards the speaker (&). They may also
denote the relative position of persons or objects,

regarded as being opposite to, or over against one
another (c). Ake denotes direction or motion towards
some place connected with the speaker, but not where he
is at the time of speaking (d). Ake and iho are also
correlative, ake meaning “from below7' or “upwards”;
and iho meaning “from above” or “downwards.”
When persons or objects are thus relatively situated, ake
always qualifies the action or condition of that which is
in the inferior position in respect of that which is in the
superior position (e) ; and iho qualifies the action or
condition of the superior in respect of the inferior (/).
(a) I hoki atu a Kupe i konei ki Hawaiki, Kupe returned
hence to Hawaiki.
(b) Ka rere mai a Tainui, ka u ki Kawhia, Tainui (the
canoe') sailed hither and arrived at Kawhia.
I a ia e haere atu ana, ka kitea mai e ona tungane,
as she was going she was seen by her brothers.
(c) Noho atu ana tetahi, noho mai ana tetahi, i tetahi
taha, i tetahi taha o ta raua ahi, They sat oppo-
site one another on either side of their fire.
Tikina atu te kowhatu e takoto mai ra, Fetch the
stone which lies yonder.
(d) I tutaki maua ki a Rua e haere ake ana ki Maketu,
We met Rua going towards Maketu.
'(d) and (/) When Whakaturia was captured by
Uenuka’s people and fastened under the
ridgepole of their house, the conversation
between them is thus described:—
Ka mea iho a Whakaturia, Whakaturia said, E
koutou e haka ake nei, whakarongo ake koutou
katoa, You who are dancing down there, listen
dll of you.
Ka mea ake ratou o te whare, Those of the house
replied, E koe e iri iho nei, korero iho ra. You
ivho hang up there, speak on.

Ka mea iho taua maia ra. Then our hero replied. Ina
koa ko tau tu haka te kino e rongo iho nei au.
Really, the poorness of that haka of yours which
I hear.
§ 82. When, as an interrogative, is commonly ex-
pressed by no nahea for past time, and a hea for future.
To mark the time of occurrence, the prepositions no and
i are used for past time, and a and hei for future. (§ 15.)
No nahea ia i tae mai ai? When did he arrive?
A hea koe haere ai? When shall you go?
No toku kitenga i a ia ka homai e ia te toki ki ahau,
When I saw {At. the time of my seeing) him, he
gave the axe to me.
I taku korerotanga atu ki a ia inanahi kihai i ki mai tona
waha, When I spoke to him yesterday he said
Ka rokohanga ano a Heke ki reira a tou taenga atu, Heke
will be found there when you arrive there.
Hei te hokinga atu o Tareha ka haere mai ai koe, When
Tareha returns you shall come.
§ 83. As soon as is expressed by an elliptical use of
the verb with one of the adverbs tonu or kau for past
time, and by the subjunctive with kia for future.
Tae tonu atu matou ki reira ka timata te korero, As soon
as we arrived there the speaking began.
Rangona kautia mai ahau e karanga ana, ka oma katoa
ratou, As soon as I was heard calling they all ran
Kia oti te whare ka noho ai ia ki roto, As soon as the
house is finished he shall live in it.
§ 84. Why, as an interrogative, is expressed by he aha
or by na te aha, the verb being followed by ai. He aha

is generally used as in reference to a purpose or object in
view (a); na te aha in reference to an antecedent cause
(&). The construction with he aha may be varied by
using an infinitive with a possessive pronoun, in this
case the reference is usually to the cause not to the
purpose (c). To express the reason take is used fol-
lowed by a relative clause with ai, (§73) (d).
Why is also frequently rendered by paraphrase, by
the use of the expression he aha te take, with a relative
clause as above (e).
(a) He aha a Turi i haere ai ki Taupo? He tiki i tana
tamaiti. Why did Turi go to Taupo? To fetch
his child.
(&) Na te aha ia i kore ai e tutuki ki Waiapu? Na te
waipuke. Why did he not reach Waiapu?
Because of the flood.
(c) Ko te take tena i kore ai ia e haere, That is the reason
why he did not go.
(d) He aha tau e kata, or He aha to kata? Why are you
laughing ?
(e) He aha te take i haere ai ia? Why did he go?
§ 85. Because is generally expressed by ta te mea or
no te mea, but if the reference is to an antecedent
moving cause the preposition na may be used followed
by a relative clause (§ 73).
E kore ahau e riri ki a koe, ta te mea e aroha ana ahau
ki a koe, I will not be angry with you, because I love
Ka riri a Huakatoa, no te mea i rukea e ratou nga kai,
Tluakatoa was angry because they threw away the
Na te kino hoki i mahue ai te whenua, Because of its bad-
ness the land was abandoned.
Na reira i tika ai ta ratou heke mai, On that account they
departed forthwith.

§ 86. The purpose of an action may be rendered by
he mea.
He kai makutu ana kai, koia i karangatia ai a Tamure ki
te kai he mea kia mate. His food was bewitched;
therefore Tamure was called to eat in order that he
might die.
§ 87. And is expressed by the following different
i. a, used to connect consecutive actions or circum-
stances, with the notion of the lapse of time.
Hoe ana mai ratou, a ka u ki Mokau, They rowed
hither, and landed at Mokau.
a may often be translated by “and at length,” or
I kainga nga ika a pau noa, The fish were eaten
until they were quite consumed.
ii. me, properly a preposition signifying “with,” and
denoting concomitancy. (§ 15).
Kei reira te waka me te hoe, The canoe is there and
the paddle.
iii. ma, used only with numerals. (§ 28).
E rua tekau ma waru, Twenty-eight.
iv. hoki, introducing something additional, often to
be rendered by “also,” or “too,” and placed always
after the first important word in the sentence.
I patua nga tangata, i tahuna hoki nga whare ki te
ahi, The men were killed, and the houses were
burnt with fire.
v. To connect the names of persons the personal pro-
nouns are used with ko. (§ 12).

vi. When, however, two or more immediately consecu-
tive actions are expressed by verbs in the same tense, or
when two or more nouns are governed by the same pre-
position, they should follow one another in Maori with-
out any conjunction, the preposition in the latter case
being repeated before each noun.
Ka haere ia, ka kite i te tamaiti, ka arahi mai ki roto ki
te whare, He went and found the child and led it
into the house.
I whakatokia te mara ki te uwhi, ki te taro, ki te kumara,
The field was planted with uwhi, and taro, and
§ 88. Descriptive details are frequently introduced
by the use of he mea followed by a verb active in form
but passive in meaning.
Ko te matamata he mea tahu ki te ahi, The point having
been set on fire.
He mea heru te mahunga, The head having been dressed
with a comb.

Part II.
The following exercises are arranged progressively to
illustrate the sections in Part I. "When any new matter
is introduced into an exercise, the section bearing upon
the same will, as a rule, be indicated in the heading.
The student is recommended to study the first five
chapters, at least, before attempting any of the exercises,
and each of the remaining chapters before doing any of
the exercises upon it.
§§ 4, 5, 6, 17, 18.
1. He ika. 2. Tana kuri. 3. Ehea whare? 4. Ta raua
pukapuka. 5. Nga tamariki a wai ? 6. A wai kupenga ?
7. Etahi kuri. 8. Tona waewae. 9. To wai kanohi?
10. Nga taringa o Turi. 11. Ona ringaringa. 12. Taua
whare. 13. To taua papa. 14. A raua tamariki. 15. Ona
matua. 16. Taua wahine. 17. Ona tuahine. 18. Nga teina
o Kuiwai.
1. A bird. 2. This bird. 3. My dog. 4. That fish.
5. Which house? 6. Their house. 7. Whose house?
8. Kurei’s house. 9. The houses. 10. Those fishes.
11. Some men. 12. Their feet. 13. His ears. 14. Your
eyes. 15. The dogs. 16. Their sisters. 17. Our children.
18. Her elder sister.
§§ 6, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16.
1. Nga tangata i roto i te whare. 2. He kai ma Heke
ma. 3. Te kuwaha o te whare o Rupe. 4. He hua no ngh

rakau o reira. 5. Nga tamariki a Turi ma. 6. Mo tona
tungane. 7. Ki te tuakana o Manaia. 8. Na te teina o
taua wahine, 9. Tenei o o raua whare. 10. He pukapuka
ma Pomare ma. 11. A runga o te whare o wai ma?
12. Ki to maua kainga. 13. He wai no roto i te ipu.
14. No to taua kainga. 15. Te whare o Paikea i tatahi.
1. For him and me. 2. To you and me. 3. Belonging
to them. 4. From whose house ? 5. On the other side of
the river. 6. A man from that place. 7. Children on
the top of the hill. 8. Some fish for Tit ore. 9. Men from
Rupe’s village. 10. Your letter to Ruatapu. 11. A
house for Turi and his companions. 12. Whose (pl.)
hats? 13. The village on the other side of the hill.
14. A man from inland. 15. The name of the sister of
that man.
§§ 10 to 13, 19 to 22.
1. He kai ma tana tama, ma Kurei. 2. Etahi puka-
puka ma tona tuakana ma te wahine a Turi. 3. Taua
toki a te tama a Tuau. 4. Taua mara a to taua papa.
5. He tangata no hea? 6. He kakahu no roto i (out of)
te whare o Turi ratou ko Rupe ma. 7. He potae mo
tenei, mo tenei o nga tamariki o te kura. 8. He kowhatu
no roto i te awa. 9. He kakahu no te wahine a Manaia,
no Kuiwai. 10. He kupu ki a Te Hati raua ko Hongi.
1. A house belonging to me. 2. Houses for you and
Turi and Rupe. 3. To his father and his mother.
4. Canoes from Tauranga, Maketu, and Whakatane.
5. Those dogs of yours. 6. A house for Turi and his
father, Rewa. 7. A letter to one of you. . 8. The men and
the dogs within yonder fence. 9. That house on the side
of the hill. 10. These potatoes as (to be, § 15) food for
your pigs. 11. The door of a house belonging to me.
12. Food for pigeons. 13. Clothes for this child of mine.
§§ 23 to 27.
1. Nga rau o te mea roa rawa o aua rakau. 2. Te nui o
to Maui whare hou. 3. He tangata roroa no te kainga o

Tane. 4. Te koi o te mata o te toki hou a Tiki. 5. Te
mataaho o tera whare raupo. 6. He wai maori mo tona
tungane, mo Ware. 7. Nga kowhatu nunui i raro i to
taua waka. 8. Te tunga o te whare o Toi i tawahi o te
awa. 9. Kei runga i te tuanui o to korua whare ko te
tama a Te Horo. 10. Te mataaho o ia whare, o ia whare.
11. He kai ma tetahi o raua. 12. He waka rahi rawa i to
1. The name of that good man. 2. The best of those
raupo houses. 3. These tall trees in the forest. 4. The
strong men of the canoes of Turi and Kupe. 5. Ngata’s
strong new rope. 6. A heavier stone than that [near
you]. 7. The largest mat in my stone house. 8. The
fence between the gardens of Taiwhanga and Rangi.
9. The swiftness of the canoes of Ripi and his com-
panions. 10. The length of each of those canoes.
§§ 28 to 33.
1. Nga rakau roroa e rua tekau ma wha. 2. Te rima o
era toki nunui i nga kakau roroa. 3. Nga whare pai e
toru mo koutou ko Turi, ko Ripi. 4. Etahi pukapuka e
rima ma maua ko Kupe. 5. Te mea roa rawa o aua
rakau e rima. 6. Nga tangata tokorima i roto i te whare
nui o Turu. 7. Te nui o enei whare e wha tekau ma rua.
8. I te toru o nga haora o to ratou haerenga ki Te Kao.
9. He pukapuka ma ana tamariki tokowha, takirua ma
tenei, ma tenei. 10. Te ra tuatahi o tona nohoanga ki
tenei kainga.
1. Those three small canoes for Turi, Kupe and you.
2. The five large books in your new house. 3. Six new
books out of his stone house. 4. The best of those sixteen
sharp axes. 5. In the open gateway of their old pa.
6. The depth of this well. 7. The height of those twenty-
seven trees in yonder forest. 8. On Tuesday, the
fifteenth day of December. 9. Fifteen windows in those
five houses, three in each. 10. The three tall men in the
fifth house.

§§ 34 to 39.
1. He rakau nunui era. 2. Ma tana tamaiti enei
pukapuka. 3. Na Tuau te toki i te kakau poto. 4. Kei
ko nga pukapuka e wha ma maua. 5. Kei roto i te whare
te toki nui. 6. He nui te whare o Taha. 7. He whare
nui to korua. 8. No raua ko Turi tena whare kowhatu.
9. Ko te ara tena ki Rotorua. 10. No taua ngahere era
rakau. 11. Kei a Turi to taua waka. 12. Ko wai te
tangata i te potae ma? 13. No konei a Paku. 14. No
Tauranga a Tupaea. 15. Ma koutou ko Turi, ko Heke
ma, ena toki kotahi tekau ma tahi. 16. Ma Tuau ratoii
ko Ripi, ko Kupe era. 17. Hei runga i te moenga nga
1. This is a stone. 2. That is my dog. 3. Those are
tall trees. 4. That house is- yours. 5. Theirs is a good
eanoe. 6. The name of his child is Rangi. 7. Those
children are Turi’s. 8. Those three new houses are
Turi’s, Rewa’s, and mine. 9. The best of those five axes
is for him. 10. The large house is mine. 11. Mine is a
large house. 12. My house is large.
§ 40.
1. Ko te whare tera o to matou rangatira nui rawa.
2. He whare tera no to matou matua. 3. Ehara i a Turi
tena whare. 4. Kahore i reira te whare o tou matua.
5. Ehara tena i te huarahi ki Tauranga. 6. Kei a Titore
ta korua kuri. 7. He pukapuka pai tena nau. 8. Ehara
i te ma taku kuri. 9. Kahore i a Piri nga kakahu hou o
te tamaiti a Kuiwai. 10. Na tana tama, na Paerau ena
manu. 11. Ma to raua tuahine, ma Paku nga parera
nunui. 12. Hei roto tatou i te whare, kauaka hei waho.
13. Ehara to Turi i te waka tere. 14. Ehara i te mea
mau te kuri i te waero roa.
1. Te Kani was a great chief. 2. There are many
chiefs (the chiefs are many, § 30) in this country.
3. Turi was a friend of Kupe’s. 4. This is not the house.

5. Your house is not inside my fence. 6. Which of these
is your house? 7. Which of those three houses is yours?
8. Mine is not an old canoe. 9. This fence is good.
10. That house is not large. 11. Your hooks are not here.
12. This letter is not for you. 13. Your books are in the
possession of Hata’s brother. 14. Your birds were in
the house yesterday. 15. This gun is not his.
§§ 41, 42.
1. Na wai ena pukapuka e rua? 2. Ehara ranei i a
Tara tera kuri? 3. Kahore ranei he whare i te taha o
taua awa? 4. Kei hea te taura o tenei waka? 5. Ko wai
te ingoa o te tamaiti a Iloro? 6. Ko tehea te whare o
Kaihau? 7. Ko tehea o enei whare to Kupe? 8. He
tungane ranei a Turi no Hineko? 9. Ma te tuakana
ranei o Hineko, ma Hera ena manu? 10. He tuakana
a Paerau noku. 11. Ehara a Paerau i te tuakana noku.
12. Ehara i te mea ko Paerau toku tuakana. 13. Ehara
ranei a Paerau i te tuakana nona? 14. Ko hea tera
kainga ? 15. Ko wai te ingoa o ta raua tamahine ?
1. For whom are those two canoes? 2. Are those two
canoes for Kuiwai and her son Horo? 3. Whose is that
dog? 4. Does that dog belong to Paerau’s brother?
5. Where is the paddle of your new canoe? 6. Was not
the paddle of your new canoe here yesterday? 7. Who
is that? 8. What is his name? 9. Is that Kuiwai’s
father? 10. Is his name Titore? 11. Which of these is
your house? 12. Which of these three houses is yours?
13. Where was Heke yesterday? 14. Will he be at
Tauranga to-morrow? 15. Was he not here yesterday?
16. Is he not at Maketu now? 17. Are there no children
in that house? 18. What is [the name of] that mountain ?
§ 42.
1. Tokohia nga tangata kei roto i to korua whare?
2. I hea a Tara raua ko Rua i te Manei ? 3. Hei konei
ranei raua apopo? 4. Hei Turanga raua a te Turei.

5. Kahore ranei tau kuri i konei inanahi? 6. Kahore
ranei a Tara i roto i tona whare inapo? 7. Ehara tena i
te hua no tenei rakau. 8. Ehara ranei tera i to Tara
whare? 9. Ehara ranei i te mea mo Hon tenei whare?
10. I Te Puke te hoa o Paikea i te ata. 11. Ehara i te
pango nga kuri a te tuahine o Kupe. 12. He manu tere
ranei te hahu? 13. He kaha ranei te hau inanahi?
14. Nau ranei tena pukapuka? 15. He pukapuka tenei
1. Where are Turi and Kupe ? 2. Turi was here yester-
day. 3. Kupe will be here to-morrow. 4. Where was
Turi on Saturday? 5. Kupe is there [by you]. 6. How
many men are there with you? 7. Here (Tenei) are the
nine men. 8. Were they there [near you] on Wednesday?
9. Those men were not sick last night. 10. There were
many men (The men were many) on that ship. 11. The
fish in the net are few. 12. There is much water in the
river (The water of the river is much) to-day. 13. Who
will be a guide for me to Taupo? 14. Was there no man
to be a companion for Tuau ? 15. Where is the man with
the greenstone mere?
1. I konei ranei tou teina i te ata nei? 2. Kahore ia i
konei i te Manei. 3. Kei raro i te whare ta korua kuri.
4. He rahi atu ta raua kuri i ta korua. 5. He kaha rawa
atu taku i tau. 6. No hea era tangata i te kiri whero?
7. Ehara i te roa nga rau o taua rakau. 8. He waka ranei
tena no te tama a tou tuahine? 9. Kei ko tau pukapuka,
kei roto i te whare. 10. He kawa te wai o tenei awa,
ehara i te wai maori. 11. Ehara ranei te waka a Tuau i
te mea roa atu i to Kupe? 12. Kahore i konei te tamaiti
a tou taokete. 13. Ehara tenei i te kuri a Tara. 14. He
kuri ranei tenei na Tara? 15. He pango taua kuri a
1. My book was in your possession yesterday. 2. Let
there be food for us two at Turi’s house. 3. Are not
those fifteen books in the comer of the house? 4. There
is no water for you here. 5. Was there no house on the

bank of the river? 6. There is a great crop of kumara
(he nui te kumara) in Titore’s garden. 7. Were there
many children in the forest this morning? 8. The
stones in the bed of this river are very large. 9. Are
there not some large trees in the bed of that river?
10. Tara’s dog is not much larger than a large rat.
11. This dog is heavier (the weight is greater) than
twelve rats.
§§ 43 to 45.
1. E noho ana te tamaiti a Kuiwai i te taha o te ahi.
2. I tu a Paerau ki te taha o te roto. 3. Kua tae a Paikea
ma runga i te waka ki Hawaiki. 4. Akuanei ka totohu te
waka; he taimaha rawa te utanga. 5. Kua piki ake a
Tawhaki ki te tihi o te maunga. 6. Kihai a Pahiko i tae
ki Hawaiki. 7. Tera e rere te waka o Turi ki Aotea.
8. E whakato ana a Kupe ma i a ratou kumara inanahi.
9. He u tena pou; e kore e hinga. 10. Kahore ano (not
yet) ranei kia tupu nga rau o tena rakau? 11. E moe
ranei koutou ki Whangara ? 12. Ka haere tonu matou;
e kore e moe ki reira. 13. Ka haere matou a te raumati
ki Paroa.
1. Turi is looking for his dog. 2. Those four men were
resting on the hill. 3. Kupe and Tara did not go to
Taupo this morning. 4. Turi has arrived at Aotea.
5. Kumara will not grow at Otakou; there is too much
(nui raiva) frost there. 6. Titore and his companions
will return to-morrow. 7. Kae did not fall off the ladder.
8. You will fall presently in that slippery place. 9. Will
Tara’s son go to Otaki on Thursday? 10. The tide is
flowing now; our canoe will float at noon. 11. The fuel
is very wet; the fire will not burn. 12. We will go to
Taupo the day after to-morrow.
§§ 46 to 50.
1. Ki te haere ahau ki Rotorua, ka tohe ahau kia haere
mai a Turu. 2. Mehemea ktia hinga taua rakau, kua kati
te huarahi. 3. Kaua e tomo ki roto ki te whare kei riri

a Tara. 4. Mehemea kihai ia i hoki mai kua wareware
ahau. 5. Ki te kore koe e whakaatu ki ahau, e kore ahau
e matau. 6. E kite koia te tauhou i te huarahi ki te kore
(if there should not he) he kai-arahi? 7. Mehemea
kahore ahau e noho ana i konei, kahore he tangata hei
hoa mou. 8. Kaua e haere i te wahi mania kei hinga koe.
9. Kia tupato kei pakaru te taha. 10. Kei te huihui nga
tangata ki roto ki te whare.
1. If Rua should come to-morrow I shall go to Kawhia.
2. He is very urgent (he- nui tana tohe) that you should
go to him. 3. If he had not been there, the thieves would
have entered his house. 4. Go into my garden to work.
5. He consented to go lest I should not go. 6. If he were
staying here his father would have come to fetch him.
7. Pou is eager to go to the other side of the river. 8. If
his sister should cease to live here he will not stay.
9. Paerau is at work on his house.
§§ 51, 52, 53.
1. I kitea e wai tenei motu? 2. E hanga ana a Turi
i te whare mo Tara ma. 3. I tikina e wai a Titore kia
haere ki Paroa? 4. Tikina etahi hoa mo taua hei hapai
i tenei rakau. 5. Ki te kore e kitea he waka moku ka
haere ahau ma uta. 6. Kua timu ranei te tai inaianei?
7. Kihai ranei a Turu i kitea e Pomare? 8. I topea e aua
tangata ki te toki nga rakau katoa o tenei ngahere.
9. Kahore ano renei kia taona he kai ma a tatou manu-
hiri? 10. Kei te tahutahu a Paikea i tana waerenga.
11. I te mea e tahu ana koe i tau waerenga, kia tupato
kei tahuna e koe te whare.
1. Turi wishes to stay at Rotorua to finish his house.
2. This house was not built by Turi for Horo last year.
3. If Paerau should not come to-morrow I will go to
Taupo in order that I may see him. 4. Turi will not go
to Te Kaha to-day lest he should not see you to-morrow.
5. If the tide were flowing now we should not reach
Ohiwa. 6. If you should go to Pakihi to-day, is there

any one (he tangata) there to give you food? 7. Is
there any one here who knows the name of this tree?
8. Did you see that bird sitting on the tree? 9. Who
taught you to read?
§§ 54 to 63.
1. Tokorua nga wahine kei roto i te whare e whatu ana
i te kakahu. 2. I tahuna e Tara te whare o Hou ki te ahi.
3. Ma Turi e whakaatu te huarahi ki a korua. 4. I
kauhoetia tena awa e Titore. 5. Na Nope i tiki a Porou
i Waiapu. 6. Kua tae mai a Turu hei kaiwhakaako mo
nga tamariki o tenei kainga. 7. Me tuku e koe akuanei
he karere ki a Tareha. 8. He tohunga a Te Keteiwi ki te
whakairo waka. 9. I te mutunga o tana korero ka paki-
paki nga ringaringa o nga kaiwhakarongo (§ 58). 10.1
peheatia e Rua te whakaoranga o tana kotiro i te tahuri-
tanga o te waka? 11. I ahatia e Rata nga kaikohuru
(§ 58) o tona matua? 12. Totoro mai tou ringaringa.
miria hoki toku rae. 13. Ki te haere mai a Turi a te
Turei, ma Pare koe e tiki, kei kore koe e kite i a ia.
1. Those two men are in the garden planting trees.
2. That tree was split with an axe. 3. Pare shall lead
you to Turi’s village. 4. That dog was brought by Turi
from Aotea. 5. Tareha built a pa for himself at Waiohiki
6. Who was the builder of those houses of yours ? 7. In
which part of the garden must these seeds be sown?
8. Who taught you to catch fish in a net? 9. When he
stretched out his hand all his companions stood up.
10. How shall Turi return to his island? 11. What will
you do when Tara arrives? 12. Open your mouth and
put out your tongue. 13. Pull up the anchor of our
canoe. 14. If Turi had been here yesterday Pare would
have fetched you that you might see him.
§§ 64, 65.
1. Ka tae mai nei koe (now that you are come) ka ai
he kaiarahi mo maua ki Omahu. 2. Me e ai ana, he waka

mona kua eke atu a Tara, kua rere ki Motiti. 3. Kahore
he kaheru a Tiki hei ngaki i nga taru o tana mara.
4. Kihai raua i whai wahi hei tunga whare. 5. Kei a wai
te waka o Ripi inaianei? 6. Me tatari koe kia tae mai
a Turi kia ai ai he hoa mou mo tou haere ki Opou.
7. Mehemea kua whai kupenga raua kihai raua i mate
i te kai-kore. 8. Ki te mate a Titore hei a wai ona
whenua ? 9. Kahore ranei i a Turi te taura o te punga o
tona waka?
1. When you come to-morrow I shall have a companion
for my journey to Taupo. 2. Should there be a canoe
for us we shall cross to the other side. 3. Let not Hou
have your axe lest the handle should be broken. 4. If
Pare had not had a companion on Tuesday he would
not have come. 5. Had not Turi your books the day
before yesterday? 6. Had he no books when he came
last week? 7. When I go to Raratonga Pare shall have
my house. 8. If they had not had a net they would have
had no food.
§§ 66 to 70.
1. Kua mahue a Pare i ona hoa ki Taupo. 2. Kua oti
ranei i a Ripi ma te whare o Pare? 3. Na wai i korero ki
a koe te weranga o te whare o Rupe? 4. Ka pau i te
manu nga hua o au rakau. 5. I te taenga atu o Turi ki
tona whare kua poto nga taonga i a Pare te kawe ki
waho. 6. Apopo ka oti te taurapa o te waka te whakairo
e Whata. 7. Meake ka rupeke nga tangata ki roto ki te
whare. 8. He nui te riri o Turi mo te pakarutanga o ana
taha i a Ripi ma. 9. Ka tae a Turi i ahau apopo te arahi
ki Maketu.
1. Turi was not overtaken by Pare at Taupo. 2. The
rope was cut in two (severed by cutting) by Kupe with
an axe. 3. The fruit of those trees was not eaten up by
birds. 4. Some of Turi’s property has been taken by
thieves. 5. Ripi will finish thatching Turi’s house
(Turi’s house will be finished thatching by Ripi)

to-morrow. 6. When Turi’s house at Motiti is finished
(let it be finished) he will live in it. 7. When Turi’s
house was finished he did not live in it. 8. If Pare’s
canoe had not been taken away by the flood he would
have put you across [the river].
§§ 71, 72.
1. He tangata tenei e haere ana ki Taupo apopo. 2. Ka
tae ki hea te waka i rere mai nei i Tauranga i te Turei ?
3. He nui te riri o Turi ki te tangata e hanga ra i tona
whare. 4. No wai te whare ka oti ra te tapatu ? 5. Ko te
whare tera o Turi e tu mai ra i tawahi o te awa. 6. Ko
Tara te tangata nana nei i hua nga ingoa o enei whenua.
7. Ehara i a Titore nana i tahu te waka. 8. I peke matou
ki Opoutama, i ungia ra taua wahi i mua e Tupaea. 9. Ko
Hineko te wahine mana e raranga he takapau mou.
10. Ko Ripi raua ko Pou nga tangata nana i to te waka
ki tatahi.
1. Kupe, who met me on the beach yesterday, went to
Wairoa this morning. 2. Which is the canoe which is
sailing to Motiti? 3. Who is the woman who is sitting
at the front of the house? 4. Taeo has left off reading
the book which you gave him. 5. That tree which has
been sawn up is from the other side of the river. 6. Was
Tara the man who built the pa on that island ? 7. Tuau
is not the boy who fetched your canoe. 8. They came by
(upon) the Arawa [canoe], which canoe was burnt by
Raumati. 9. Who are the men who are to drag the canoe
to the water ?
§§ 73, 74, 75.
1. Mo wai te kakahu e whatu nei te wahine a Turi?
2. Ko Horouta te waka i kawea mai ai te kumara i
Hawaiki. 3. Ko Rotorua te moana i kauhoe ra a
Hinemoa. 4. Ko te ara ranei tera e haere mai ai a Turi ?
5. Ko tehea o enei taitama tau e whiriwhiri ai hei hoa
mou ? 6. Ma Rewa ranei au ika e kawe na ? 7. Ko a Tara

tangata enei i arahi mai ai i Taupo inanahi. 8. Ko to
Kupe waka tera i rere mai ai i Hawaiki. 9. Ko te take
tera i kore ai a Titore e haere ki Taupo.
1. The ’ canoe which Kurei is carving is from Te
Whakaki. 2. Turi has the spear with which Paikea was
wounded. 3. The house in which Pare slept last night
belongs to Ripi. 4. What is the place at which we shall
meet Titore to-morrow? 5. That is not the matter on
account of which I came to see you. 6. These are the
words which I came to say to you. 7. This is not the
hill from which we saw Turi’s canoe sailing away. 8. The
ship was not a large one in which Tupaea came to
Aotearoa. 9. Kura is from Opou, from the place in
which Turangi lived formerly.
§§ 76, 77, 78.
1. Kua u ki uta i a Paikea te tangata i kawea mai nei
e Ripi he waka mona. 2. He nunui nga kaipuke i eke ai
ratou kia rere ai ratou ki Ingarani. 3. Kei Kereru a
Tareha ma, he mahinga kai a reira i mua na Tara. 4. Te
tangata e mataku ana, me hoki ki te kainga. 5. Ko wai
te tangata i maru ra tona waewae inanahi i te poro
rakau? 6. Kua mate a Ripi, he whare nei nona i wera i
te ahi i te Turei. 7. Ko wai te tangata i hurihia ra tana
mara e te waipuke i te mea kahore ano kia hauhakea nga
kai? 8. Kei Taupo te wahine i ki mai ra koe kia hoatu
ki a ia te pukapuka. 9. I to ratou taenga ki te ngahere,
kahore he manu i kitea e ratou, kahore he aha.
1. The man whose father died on Friday went to
Wairoa yesterday. 2. Turi is going to Taupo to see the
boy whose ankle was sprained. 3. The man for whom
Horo made the canoe will come to-morrow. 4. Rua met
Maru at Reporua, from which place Pahiko’s canoe
sailed long ago. 5. Tell the man to come to-morrow to
whom you and I gave the canoe. 6. The tree by which
your foot was crushed was cut down by Rata. 7. Who-
ever is not willing to work must go away. 8. Who is the

man for whom the house was built by Tua? 9. When
they entered the pa there were no men whatever in it.
§§ 79, 80.
1. Kotahi tekau ma rima nga tangata i hopukia oratia
e ratou. 2. I tahuna matatia tana waerenga, kihai nga
rakau i pau i te ahi. 3. Kia ata haere tatou kei tae wawe
i te mea kahore ano kia rupeke nga tangata o te kainga.
4. Kihai a Ruku ma i whakahokia ki uta, i kahakina
ketia ki Tokerau. 5. I mauria wawetia mai ranei e Horo
nga taro me nga kumara mo te hakari? 6. I patua
katoatia e Tu ona tuakana. 7. I mauria matetia atu te
matua o Tawhaki. 8. I te aonga kautanga o te ra ka
haere ia. 9. Kia tino mimiti te waipuke ka haere ai taua.
1. The man who lifted that stone was very strong.
2. The house was well built by Maui. 3. First catch the
pig, then kill it, then cook it. 4. The men of Mokoia
suffered greatly owing to their food being quite con-
sumed. 5. Heuheu and his people were buried alive by
a landslip. 6. He told Pou privately of the death of Tiki.
7. He will not go away until your debts are all paid.
8. My child was beaten by him without cause. 9. Kupe
did not see his enemy at once.
§ 81.
1. I rere atu te kaipuke o Tupaea i konei, kihai i hoki
mai. 2 E hoki ana ahau aianei ki Tokomaru, me haere
ake koe ki reira apopo. 3. I te ngahorotanga iho o nga
hua o te rakau ka titiro ake raua, ka kite i te kukupa e
noho iho ana. 4. Hei kona korua noho mai ai; kia tae
mai a Kae me haere tahi mai koutou; hei konei ahau
tatari atu ai ki a koutou. 5. Ko te mea tenei i haere mai
ai ahau, he korero ki a Paerau kia kaua ia e haere ake
apopo. 6. Me i haere ake koe inanahi ki te tiki i nga
pukapuka, kua whai pukapuka katoa nga tamariki

1. Tama said to Ngatoro, “Come on board my canoe.”
2. It was Tuau and I who told Turi of Manaia’s arrival.
3. Who is that who is shouting to us from the top of the
house? 4. Kuiwai was looking up at the man who was
sitting on the hill. 5. I am going to Oringi to-day, and
I wish you to write me a letter next week. 6. Did you
meet Rua going to Maketu on Wednesday? 7. Paerau
was looking from above at the children playing on the
beach. 8. Who called Putu that he came to-day?
§§ 82, 83.
1. No toku taenga ki Turanga i kite ai ahau i a Kere.
2. He mate ia i toku taenga mai, otira kihai i maha nga
ra kua ora. 3. Kia hoki mai ia i Tapui ka matau ai ahau
ki tona haere i a koe, ki tona kore ranei e haere. 4. A hea
timataia ai e Turi te hanga i te whare mo Peta? 5. Kite
kau raua i a Paoa, kua mohio raua he rangatira ia. 6. Hei
te mutunga o ta korua mahi me haere korua ki Omaha.
7. Kia whiti ahau ki tawahi o te awa ka kite ai ahau i a
1. When shall you return to Waipu? 2. I shall return
as soon as Hata has brought my letters. 3. When I came
from Taupo Paka was living here. 4. Heke met Turi on
the road as he was returning from Te Wairoa. 5. While
he was speaking to Paerau Tara came to fetch him. 6. As
soon as Ripi arrives Tara will go to Te Wairoa. 7. When
did Heke return from Titirangi? 8. When Tuau comes
you had better return home. 9. When the rain ceased
we went to Waimate. 10. As soon as Titore saw Ripi he
gave him your letter.
§§ 84, 85.
1. He aha to koutou waka i rere ai ki Motiti inanahi?
2. Na te aha nga tupuna o te tangata Maori i heke mai
ai i Hawaiki? 3. Na te pakanga ratou i heke mai ai.
4. He aha koe i kore ai e haere ake ki to matou kainga i te
Ratapu? 5. No te Turei matou i whakatika mai ai i

Taupo, a moe ana ki Rangitaiki. 6. I te aonga ake ka
haere mai ano, a ka moe ki Tarawera. 7. He aha te take
i noho ai a Ripi ratou ko Tuau ma ki Tarawera? 8. I
mahue i a ratou ki runga ki te waka te kupenga, me nga
aho, me nga matau. 9. Ka haere a Tara, ka kau i te awa,
ka oma ki roto ki te ngahere.
1. Why did Titore send Horo to Omaha? 2. What
was the reason why Tuau was left at Taupo? 3. The
houses and the canoes were burnt with fire. 4. Why
were Paerau and Kupe [so] long coming from Wairoa?
5. It was because of the flood that they did not come.
6. As Reko and Tupe went to Wahi they turned aside to
Papakura and Tuakau and Rangiriri, and the third day
they arrived at Wahi. 7. It was owing to Ripi that we
arrived [so] soon. 8. He came as our guide and did not
leave us until we arrived (a tae noa mai matou) here.

1. A fish. 2. His dog. 3. Which houses? 4. Their
book. 5. Whose children? 6. Whose nets? 7. Some
dogs. 8. His foot. 9. Whose face? 10. Turi’s ears.
11. Her hands. 12. That house. 13. Yours and my
father. 14. Their children. 15. His parents. 16. That
woman. 17. His sisters. 18. Kuiwai’s younger sisters.
1. He manu. 2. Tenei manu. 3. Taku kuri. 4. Taua
ika. 5. Tehea whare? 6. To ratou whare. 7. To wai
whare? 8. Te whare o Kurei. 9. Nga whare. 10. Era
ika. 11. Etahi tangata. 12. 0 ratou waewae. 13. Ona
taringa. 14. Ou kanohi. 15. Nga kuri. 16. 0 ratou
tuahine. 17. A taua tamariki. 18. Tona tuakana.
1. The men in the house. 2. Some food for Heke and
his companions. 3. The doorway of Rupe’s house.
4. Fruit of the trees of that place. 5. The children of
Turi and his companions. 6. For her brother. 7. To
Manaia’s elder brother. 8. Belonging to that woman’s
younger sister. 9. This one of their houses. 10. Some
books for Pomare and his companions. 11. The top of
whose (pl.) house? 12. To his and my dwelling-place.
13. Water out of the bottle. 14. From yours and my
dwelling-place. 15. Paikea’s house by the seaside.
1. Ma maua. 2. Ki a taua. 3. No ratou. 4. No to wai
whare? 5. Kei tawahi o te awa. 6. He tangata no reira.
7. He tamariki i runga i te puke. 8. He ika ma Titore.
9. He tangata no te kainga o Rupe. 10. Tau pukapuka
ki a Ruatapu. 11. He whare mo Turi ma. 12. Nga
potae o wai ma? 13. Te kainga i tua o te puke. 14. He
tangata no uta. 15. Te ingoa o te tuahine o tera

1. Some food for his son Kurei. 2. Some books for her
elder sister, Turi’s wife. 3. That axe of Tuau’s son’s.
4. That garden of yours and my father’s. 5. A man
from what place? 6. A garment out of the house of Turi
and Rupe and their companions. 7. A hat for each of
the children of the school. 8. A stone out of the river.
9. Garments (or, a garment) belonging to Manaia’s wife,
Kuiwai. 10. A word (message) to Te Hati and Hongi.
1. He whare noku. 2. He whare mo koutou ko Turi,
ko Rupe. 3. Ki tona papa raua ko tona whaea. 4. He
waka no Tauranga, no Maketu, no Whakatane. 5. Aua
kuri a koutou. 6. He whare mo Turi raua ko tona papa,
ko Rewa. 7. He pukapuka ki tetahi o koutou. 8. Nga
tangata me nga kuri i roto i tera taiepa. 9. Taua whare
i te taha o te puke. 10. Enei riwai hei kai ma au poaka.
11. Te tatau o tetahi whare oku. 12. He kai ma te
kukupa. 13. Te kakahu mo tenei tamaiti aku.
1. The leaves of the tallest of those trees. 2. The size
of Maui’s new house. 3. Tall men from Tane’s village.
4. The sharpness of the edge of Tiki’s new axe. 5. The
window of that raupo house. 6. Some fresh water for
her brother, Ware. 7. The large stones under our canoe.
8. The site of Toi’s house on the other side of the river.
9. On the roof of the house belonging to you and Te
Horo’s son. 10. The window of each house. 11. Some
food for one of those two. 12. A much larger canoe
than Paikea’s.
1. Te ingoa o taua tangata pai. 2. Te mea pai rawa
o era whare raupo. 3. Enei rakau roroa i te ngahere.
4. Nga tangata kaha o nga waka o Turi raua ko Kupe.
5. Te taura kaha, te taura hou a Ngata. 6. He kowhatu
taimaha atu i tena. 7. Te takapau nui rawa i roto i toku
whare kowhatu. 8. Te taiepa i waenganui i nga mara
a Taiwhanga raua ko Rangi. 9. Te tere o nga waka o
Ripi ma. 10. Te roa o tenei, o tenei o ena waka.

1. The twenty-four tall trees. 2. The fifth of those
large axes with the long handles. 3. The three good
houses for you and Turi and Ripi. 4. Five books for
Kupe and me. 5. The tallest of those five trees. 6. The
five men in Turu’s large house. 7. The size of these
forty-two houses. 8. At the third hour from their going
to Te Kao. 9. Some books for his four children, two for
each. 10. The first day of his dwelling at this village.
1. Aua waka ririki e toru mo koutou ko Turi, ko Kupe.
2. Nga pukapuka nunui e rima i roto i tou whare hou.
3. Etahi pukapuka hou e ono i roto o tona whare
kowhatu. 4. Te mea pai rawa o aua toki koi kotahi
tekau ma ono. 5. I te kuwaha tuwhera o to ratou pa
tawhito. 6. Te hohonu o tenei poka. 7. Te roa o aua
rakau e rua tekau ma whitu i tera ngahere. 9. I te
Turei, i te tekau ma rima o nga ra o Tihema. 9. Etahi
mataaho kotahi tekau ma rima i aua whare e rima,
takitoru i tenei, i tenei. 10. Nga tangata roroa tokotoru
i te rima o nga whare.
1. Those are large trees. 2. These books are for his
child. 3. The axe with the short handle belongs to Tuau.
4. The four books for him and me are yonder. 5. The
large axe is in the house. 6. Taha’s house is large.
7. Yours is a large house. 8. That stone house belongs
to him and Turi. 9. That is the way to Rotorua.
10. Those trees are from that forest. 11. Yours and my
canoe is in Tim’s possession. 12. Who is the man with
the white hat? 13. Paku belongs to this place.
14. Tupaea belongs to Tauranga. 15. Those eleven axes
are for you and Turi and Heke and the rest. 16. Those
are for Turi, Ripi, and Kupe. 17. The garments are to
be on the bed.
1. He kowhatu tenei. 2. Ko taku kuri tera. 3. He
rakau roroa era. 4. No koutou tera whare. 5. He waka
pai to ratou. 6. Ko Rangi te ingoa o tana tamaiti.

7. No Turi ena tamariki. 8. No matou ko Turi, ko Rewa
era whare hou e toru. 9. Mona te mea pai rawa o aua
toki e rima. 10. Noku te whare nui. 11. He whare nui
toku. 12. He nui toku whare.
1. That is the house of our greatest chief. 2. That is
a house belonging to our father. 3. That house does not
belong to Turi. 4. Your father’s house is not there.
5. That is not the road to Tauranga. 6. Your dog is in
Titore’s possession. 7. That is a good book of yours.
8. My dog is not white. 9. Kuiwai’s child’s new gar-
ments are not in Piri’s possession. 10. Those birds
belong to his son, Paerau. 11. The large ducks are
for their sister, Paku. 12. Let us be inside the house,
let [us] not be outside. 13. Turi’s is not a swift canoe.
14. The dog with the long tail is not for you.
1. He rangatira nui a Te Kani. 2. He tokomaha nga
rangatira i tenei whenua. 3. He hoa a Turi no Kupe.
4. Ehara tenei i te whare. 5. Kahore i roto i toku
taiepa tou whare. 6. Ko tehea o enei tou whare ? 7. Ko
tehea to korua o era whare e toru? 8. Ehara toku i te
waka tawhito. 9. He pai tenei taiepa. 10. Ehara i te
nui tera whare. 11. Kahore i konei au pukapuka.
12. Ehara i te mea mau tenei pukapuka. 13. Kei te
teina o Hata au pukapuka. 14. I roto au manu i te
whare inanahi. 15. Ehara i a ia tenei pu.
1. Whose are those two books? 2. Does not that dog
belong to Tara? 3. Is there not a house by the side of
that river? 4. Where is the rope of this canoe? 5. What
is the name of Horo’s child? 6. Which is Kaihau’s
house? 7. Which of these houses is Kupe’s? 8. Is Turi
a brother of Hineko’s? 9. Are those birds for Hineko’s
elder sister, Hera? 10. Paerau is an elder brother of
mine. 11. Paerau is not an elder brother of mine.
12. Paerau is not my elder brother. 13. Is not Paerau

an elder brother of his? 14. What is [the name of] that
village? 15. What is the name of their daughter?
1. Mo wai ena waka e rua? 2. Mo Kuiwai ranei raua
ko tana tama, ko Horo aua waka e rua? 3. Na wai tena
kuri? 4. Na te teina ranei o Paerau taua kuri? 5. Kei
hea te hoe o tou waka hou? 6. Kahore ranei i konei
inanahi te hoe o tou waka hou? 7. Ko wai tera? 8. Ko
wai tona ingoa? 9. Ko te papa ranei tera o Kuiwai?
10. Ko Titore ranei tona ingoa? 11. Ko tehea o enei
tou whare ? 12. Ko tehea tou o enei whare e toru? 13. I
hea a Heke inanahi? 14. Hei Tauranga ranei ia apopo?
15. Kahore ranei ia i konei inanahi? 16. Kahore ranei ia i
Maketu inaianei? 17. Kahore ranei he tamariki i roto i
tera whare? 18. Ko hea tera maunga?
1. How many men are there in your house ? 2. Where
were Tara and Rua on Monday? 3. Will they two be
here to-morrow? 4. They two will be at Turanga on
Tuesday. 5. Was not your dog here yesterday? 6. Was
not Tara in his house last night? 7. That is not fruit
of this tree. 8. Is not that Tara’s house? 9. Is not this
house for Hou? 10. Paikea’s companion was at Te
Puke in the morning. 11. Kupe’s sister’s dogs are not
black. 12. Is the hawk a swift bird? 13. Was the wind
strong yesterday? 14. Is that book yours? 15. This is
a book of mine.
1. Kei hea a Turi raua ko Kupe? 2. I konei a Turi
inanahi. 3. Hei konei a Kupe apopo. 4. I hea a Turi i
te Hatarei? 5. Kei kona a Kupe. 6. Tokohia nga
tangata kei a koe? 7. Tenei nga tangata tokoiwa.
8. I kona ranei ratou i te Wenerei? 9. Ehara
aua tangata i te matemate inapo. 10. He toko-
maha nga tangata i runga i tera kaipuke. 11. He
ruarua nga ika i roto i te kupenga. 12. He nui te wai
o te awa inaianei. 13. Ko wai hei kaiarahi moku ki
Taupo? 14. Kahore ranei he tangata hei hoa mo Tuau?
15. Kei hea te tangata i te mere pounamu?

1. Was your younger brother here this morning?
2. He was not here on Monday. 3. Your dog is under
the house. 4. Their dog is larger than yours. 5. Mine
is much stronger than yours. 6. From whence are those
men with the red skin? 7. The leaves of that tree are
not long. 8. Is that a canoe belonging to your sister’s
son? 9. Your book is yonder, in the house. 10. The
water of this river is bitter, it is not fresh water. 11. Is
not Tuau’s canoe longer than Kupe’s? 12. Your
brother-in-law’s child is not here. 13. This is not Tara's
dog. 14. Is this a dog belonging to Tara ? 15. That dog
of Tara’s is black.
1. I a koe taku pukapuka inanahi. 2. Hei te whare o
Turi he kai ma taua. 3. Kahore ranei i te kopa o te
whare aua pukapuka kotahi tekau ma rima? 4. Kahore
he wai mou i konei. 5. Kahore ranei he whare i te
tahataha o te awa? 6. He nui te kumara i te mara a
Titore. 7. He tokomaha ranei nga tamariki i te ngahere
i te ata nei? 8. He nui rawa nga kowhatu i te riu o
tenei awa. 9. Kahore ranei he rakau nunui i te riu o
taua awa? 10. Kahore i nui rawa ake te kuri a Tara
i te kiore nui. 11. He nui atu te taimaha o tenei kuri
i to nga kiore kotahi tekau ma rua.
1. Kuiwai’s child is sitting by the side of the fire.
2. Paerau stood at the side of the lake. 3. Paikea has
arrived by canoe at Hawaiki. 4. The canoe will sink
presently; the load is very heavy. 5. Tawhaki has
climbed up to the top of the mountain. 6. Pahiko did
not reach Hawaiki. 7. Turi’s canoe will sail to Aotea.
8. Kupe and his companions were planting their kumara
yesterday. 9. That post is firm, it will not fall. 10. Have
not the leaves of that tree grown yet? 11. Shall you
sleep at Whangara? 12. We shall go on, we shall not
sleep there. 13. We shall go in the summer to Paroa.

1. E rapu ana a Turi i tana kuri. 2. E okioki ana aua
tangata tokowha i runga i te puke. 3. Kihai a Kupe
raua ko Tara i haere ki Taupo i te ata nei. 4. Kua tae
a Turi ki Aotea. 5. E kore te kumara e tupu ki
Otakou; he nui rawa te huka i reira. 6. Ka hoki a
Titore ma apopo. 7. Kihai a Kae i taka i runga i te
arawhata. 8. Ka hinga koe akuanei i tena wahi mania.
9. Ka haere ranei te tama a Tara ki Otaki a te Taitei?
10. E pari ana te tai inaianei; ka manu to tatou waka
i te poupoutanga o te ra. 11. He maku rawa te wahie;
e kore te ahi e ka. 12. Ka haere matou ki Taupo a tetahi
1. If I go to Rotorua, I will urge Turu to come. 2. If
that tree had fallen the road would have been ob-
structed. 3. Do not enter inside the house lest Tara
should be angry. 4. If he had not come back I should
have forgotten. 5. If you should not show me I shall
not know. 6. Will a stranger find the road if there
should not be a guide? 7. If I had not been staying
here there would have been no one as a companion for
you. 8. Do not walk in the slippery place lest you
should fall. 9. Be careful lest the calabash should be
broken. 10. The men are assembling within the house.
1. Ki te haere mai a Rua apopo ka haere ahau ki
Kawhia. 2. He nui tana tohe kia haere koe ki -a ia.
3. Mehemea kahore ia i reira kua tomokia tona whare
e nga tahae. 4. Haere ki taku mara ki te mahi. 5. I
whakaae ia ki te haere kei kore ahau e haere.
6. Mehemea e noho ana ia ki konei kua haere mai tona
papa ki te tiki i a ia. 7. E kaika ana a Pou ki te haere
ki tawahi o te awa. 8. Ki te mea ka kore tona tuahine
e noho ki konei e kore ia e noho. 9. Kei te mahi a
Paerau i tona whare.
1. By whom was this island discovered? 2. Turi is
building a house for Tara and his companions. 3. By
whom was Titore fetched to go to Paroa? 4. Fetch

some companions for us to lift this tree. 5. If no canoe
is found for me I shall go by land. 6. Is it low tide
(literally, Has the tide ebbed) now? 7. Did not Pomare
find Turu ? 8. All the trees of this forest were felled by
those men with axes. 9. Has no food been cooked yet
for our guests? 10. Paikea is setting his clearing on
fire. 11. When you are setting your clearing on fire be
careful lest you set the house on fire.
1. E hiahia ana a Turi ki te noho ki Rotorua ki te
whakaoti i tona whare. 2. Kihai tenei whare i hangaa
e Turi mo Horo i tera tau. 3. Ki te kore a Paerau e
haere mai apopo ka haere ahau ki Taupo kia kite ai
ahau i a ia. 4. E kore a Turi e haere ki Te Kaha aianei
kei kore ia e kite i a koe apopo. 5. Mehemea e pari ana
te tai inaianei e kore tatou e tae ki Ohiwa. 6. Ki te
haere koe ki Pakihi aianei, he tangata ranei kei reira
hei homai kai ki a koe? 7. He tangata ranei kei konei
e matau ana ki te ingoa o tenei rakau? 8. I kite ranei
koe i taua manu e noho ana i runga i te rakau ? 9. Na
wai koe i whakaako ki te korero pukapuka?
1. There are two women in the house weaving a
garment. 2. Hou’s house was burnt with fire by Tara.
3. Turi shall show you two the road. 4. Titore swam
over that river. 5. Nope fetched Porou from Waiapu.
6. Turu has arrived as a teacher for the children of this
village. 7. You had better send a messenger presently
to Tareha. 8. Te Keteiwi is skilful at carving canoes.
9. At the end of his speech the hearers clapped their
hands. 10. How did Rua save his daughter when the
canoe upset? 11. What did Rata do to the murderers
of his father? 12. Reach out your hand and rub my
forehead. 13. If Turi should come on Tuesday, Pare
shall fetch you lest you should not see him.
1. Kei te mara aua tangata tokorua e whakato rakau
ana. 2. I titorea tena rakau ki te toki. 3. Ma Pare koe
e arahi ki te kainga o Turi. 4. I mauria mai e Turi i

Aotea tena kuri. 5. I hangaa e Tareha he pa mona ki
Waiohiki. 6. Ko wai te kaihanga o ena whare ou?
7. Me rui ki tehea wahi o te mara enei purapura? 8. Na
wai koe i whakaako ki te hao ika ? 9. I te toronga o tona
ringaringa i whakatika katoa ona hoa. 10. Me pehea
lie hokinga mo Turi ki tona motu ? 11. Ka aha koe a te
taenga mai o Tara? 12. Hamama tou waha, whatero
hoki tou arero. 13. Hutia te punga o to tatou waka.
14. Mehemea i konei a Turi inanahi kua tikina koe e
Pare kia kite ai koe i a ia.
1. Now that you are come we have a guide to Omahu.
2. If he had had a canoe Tara would have embarked and
sailed to Motiti. 3. Tiki has no spade wherewith to dig
up the weeds of his garden. 4. They two had no place
as a site for a house. 5. Who has Ripi’s canoe now?
6. You must wait till Turi arrives that you may have a
companion for your journey to Opou. 7. If they had
had a net they would not have suffered from want of
food. 8. If Titore should die, who will have his lands?
9. Has not Turi the rope of the anchor of his canoe?
1. Kia tae mai koe apopo ka whai hoa ahau mo toku
haere ki Taupo. 2. Ki te ai he waka mo taua ka whaka-
whiti taua ki tawahi. 3. Kauaka hei a Hou tau toki kei
whati te kakau. 4. Mehemea kihai a Pare i whai hoa i
te Turei kihai ia i haere mai. 5. Kahore ranei i a Turi
au pukapuka i tetahi ra ? 6. Kahore ranei ana pukapuka
i tona taenga mai i tera wiki? 7. Kia haere ahau ki
Rarotonga, hei a Pare toku whare. 8. Mehemea kahore
a ratou kupenga kihai ratou i whai kai.
1. Pare has been left by his companions at Taupo.
2. Have Ripi and his companions finished Pare’s house?
3. Who told you that Rupe’s house was,burnt? 4. The
fruit of your trees is consumed by birds. 5. When Turi
reached his house the goods had all been carried out by

Pare. 6. Whata will have finished carving the sternpost
of the canoe to-morrow. 7. The men will soon be
assembled inside the house. 8. Turi was very angry
because his calabashes had been broken by Ripi and
others. 9. I shall guide Turi to-morrow all the way to
1. Kihai a Turi i mau i a Pare ki Taupo. 2. I motu
te taura i a Turi te tapahi ki te toki. 3. Kihai nga hua
o aua rakau i.pau i te manu te kai. 4. Kua riro i te
tahae etahi o nga taonga a Turi. 5. Ka oti te whare o
Turi te tapatu e Ripi apopo. 6. Kia oti te whare o Turi
i Motiti ka noho ia ki roto. 7. I te otinga o te whare o
Turi kihai ia i noho ki roto. 8. Mehemea kihai te waka
o Pare i riro i te waipuke kua whakawhitia koe e ia.
1. Here is a man who is going to Taupo to-morrow.
2. What place has the canoe reached which sailed
hither from Tauranga on Tuesday? 3. Turi was very
angry with the man who was building his house.
4. Whose is the house which is finished thatching?
5. That is Turi’s house which stands on the other side of
the river. 6. Tara is the man who gave names to these
lands. 7. It was not Titore who set the canoe on fire.
8. We turned aside to Opoutama, at which place Tupaea
landed long ago. 9. Hineko is the woman who shall
weave a mat for you. 10. It was Ripi and Pou who
dragged the canoe to the seaside.
1. I haere ki Wairoa i te ata nei a Kupe i tutaki ra
ki ahau i te one inanahi. 2. Ko tehea te waka e rere ana
ki Motiti? 3. Ko wai te wahine e noho ra i te roro o te
whare ? 4. Kua mutu i a Taeo te korero te pukapuka
i hoatu ra e koe ki a ia. 5. No tawahi o te awa te rakau
kua oti ra te kani. 6. Ko Tara ranei te tangata nana
i hanga te pa ki taua motu? 7. Ehara a Tuau i te
tam^iti nana nei i tiki tou waka. 8. I haere mai ratou
i runga i a Te Arawa, i wera ra taua waka i a Raumati.
9. Ko wai ma nga tangata mana e to te waka ki te wai?

1. For whom is the garment which Turi’s wife is
weaving? 2. The canoe by which the kumara was
brought from Hawaiki was Horouta. 3. The sea over
which Hinemoa swam was Rotorua. 4. Is that the path
by which Turi will come ? 5. Which of these young men
will you choose as a companion for yourself? 6. Are
those fish which you are carrying for Rewa? 7. These
are the men whom Tara led from Taupo yesterday.
8. That is the canoe in which Kupe sailed hither from
Hawaiki. 9. That is the reason why Titore did not go
to Taupo.
1. No Te Whakaki te waka e whakairo ra a Kurei.
2. Kei a Turi te tao i tu ai a Paikea. 3. No Ripi te whare
i moe ai a Pare inapo. 4. Ko hea te wahi e tutaki ai
taua ki a Titore apopo ? 5. Ehara tena i te take i haere
mai ai ahau kia kite i a koe. 6. Ko nga kupu enei i
haere mai ai ahau ki te korero ki a koe. 7 Ehara tenei
i te puke i kitea ai e tatou te waka o Kupe e rere atu ana.
8. Ehara i te mea rahi te kaipuke i haere mai ai a
Tupaea ki Aotearoa. 9. No Opou a Kura, no te wahi
i noho ai a Turangi i mua (or, i nohoia ra taua wahi
e Turangi i mua).
1. The man for whom Ripi brought a canoe has been
brought to land by Paikea. 2. The ships were large in
which they embarked that they might sail to England.
3. Tareha and others are at Kereru, which place was
formerly a cultivation of Tara’s. 4. Whoever is afraid
had better go home. 5. Who is the man whose foot was
crushed yesterday by a log of wood? 6. Ripi, a house
of whose was burnt with fire on Tuesday, is dead.
7. Who is the man whose field was overflowed by the
flood before the crop was dug up ? 8. The woman to whom
you said that the letter was to be given is at Taupo.
9. When they reached the forest they saw no birds

1. I haere ki Te Wairoa inanahi te tangata i mate ra
tona papa i te Parairei. 2. E haere ana a Turi ki Taupo
kia kite i te tamaiti i takoki ra te pona. 3. Ka haere
mai apopo te tangata i hangaa nei e Horo te waka mona.
4. I tutaki a Rua ki a Maru ki Reporua, i rere atu ra i
reira i mua te waka o Pahiko. 5. Ki atu kia haere mai
apopo te tangata i hoatu ra e taua te waka ki a ia. 6. I
topea e Rata te rakau i marfi ai tou waewae. 7. Me
haere atu te tangata kahore e pai ki te mahi. 8. Ko wai
te tangata i hangaa nei e Tua te whare mona ?
9. I to ratou tomokanga ki te pa kahore he tangata i
roto, kahore he aha.
1. There were fifteen men who were taken alive by
them. 2. His clearing was set fire to in a green state;
the trees were not consumed by the fire. 3. Let us go
slowly lest we should arrive before the men of the
village have assembled. 4. Ruku and his companions
were not returned to the shore, they were carried off
in a different direction to Tokerau. 5. Did Horo bring
the taro and the kumara in time for the feast?
6. Tu killed all his elder brothers. 7. The father of
Tawhaki was taken away dead. 8. He went when the
day had only just dawned. 9. You and I will go
when the flood has quite subsided.
1. He kaha rawa te tangata liana i hapai tena
kowhatu. 2. I hangaa paitia te whare e Maui.
3. Matua hopu i te poaka, ka patu ai, ka tao ai.
4. He nui te mate o nga tangata o Mokoia i te paunga
rawatanga o a ratou kai. 5. I tanumia oratia a
Heuheu ratou ko tona iwi e te horo whenua.
6. I korerotia pukutia e ia ki a Pou te matenga o Tiki.
7. E kore ia e haere atu kia utua katoatia ra ano a
koutou nama. 8. I patua take-koretia e ia taku tamaiti.
9. Kihai a Kupe i kite wawe i tona hoariri.

1. Tupaea’s ship sailed away from hence. It did not
return. 2. I am returning to-day to Tokomaru; you
had better come thither to-morrow. 3. When the fruit
of the tree dropped they two looked up and saw the
pigeon sitting above [them]. 4. Stay you two where
you are; when Kae arrives you must [all] come together;
I will wait here for you. 5. This is the thing for which
I came [namely], to tell Paerau not to come [to me]
to-morrow. 6. If you had come [to me] yesterday to
fetch the books the children would all have had books
1. I ki a Tama ki a Ngatoro, “Haere mai ki runga
ki toku waka.” 2. Na maua ko Tuau i korero ki a
Turi te taenga mai o Manaia. 3. Ko wai tera e hamama
iho ra ki a taua i runga i te whare? 4. E titiro ake
ana a Kuiwai ki te tangata e noho iho ana i runga
i te puke. 5. E haere ana ahau ki Oringi aianei, e
hiahia ana hoki ahau kia tuhituhi pukapuka ake koe
ki ahau a tera wiki. 6. I tutaki ranei koe ki a Rua
e haere atu ana ki Maketu i te Wenerei? 7. B titiro
iho ana a Paerau ki nga tamariki e takaro ake ana
i te one. 8. Na wai a Putu i karanga i haere mai ai ia
inaianei ?
1. It was when I reached Turanga that I saw Kere.
2. He was sick when I arrived, but before many days
he was well again. 3. When he returns from Tapui
I shall know whether he will go with you or whether
he will not go. 4. When will Turi begin to build the
house for Peta? 5. As soon as they two saw Paoa they
knew that he was a chief. 6. When you two leave
off work you must go to Omaha. 7. When I shall have
crossed to the other side of the river I shall see Heke.
1. A hea koe hoki ai ki Waipu? 2. Kia mauria mai
aku pukapuka e Hata ka hoki ahau. 3. I toku haerenga
mai i Taupo, i konei a Paka e noho ana. 4. I tutaki
a Heke ki a Turi i te huarahi, i a ia e hoki mai ana

i Te Wairoa. 5. I a ia e korero ana ki a Paerau ka
haere mai a Tara ki te tiki i a ia. 6. Kia tae mai
a Ripi ka haere a Tara ki Te Wairoa. 7. Nonahea
a Heke i hoki mai ai i Titirangi? 8. Kia tae mai
a Tuau me hoki koe ki te kainga. 9. I te mutunga
o te ua ka haere matou ki Waimate. 10. Kite kau
a Titore i a Ripi ka hoatu e ia ki a ia tau pukapuka.
1. Why did your canoe sail to Motiti yesterday?
2. Why did the ancestors of the Maori people migrate
hither from Hawaiki? 3. It was because of quarrels
that they migrated hither. 4. Why did you not come
to our village on Sunday? 5. It was on Tuesday that
we started from Taupo, and we slept at Rangitaiki.
6. The next morning we came on and slept at Tarawera.
7. Why (what is the reason why) did Ripi, Tuau, and
others stay at Tarawera? 8. They left the net and
the lines and the fishhooks in the canoe. 9. Tara went
and forded the river and ran into the forest.
1. He aha a Titore i tono ai i a Horo ki Omaha? 2. He
aha te take i mahue ai a Tuau ki Taupo? 3. I wera i te
ahi nga whare me nga waka. 4. He aha i roa ai a
Paerau raua ko Kupe te haere mai i Wairoa? 5. Na te
waipuke i kore ai raua e haere mai. 6. I te haerenga
o Reko raua ko Kupe ki Wahi ka peka raua ki Papakura,
ki Tuakau, ki Rangiriri, a i te torn o nga ra ka tae raua
ki Wahi. 7. Na Ripi matou i tae wawe mai ai. 8. I
haere mai ia hei kaiarahi mo matou, kihai hoki i
whakarere i a matou a tae noa mai ki konei.

Part III.
Come here.
Open your eyes.
Open your mouth.
Stretch out your hand.
Bend your leg.
Sit down.
Lie down.
Stand up.
Give me your hand.
Turn round.
Go back again.
Stand there.
Go away.
Haere mai.
Titiro ou kanohi.
Hamama tou waha.
Totoro tou ringaringa.
ITupeke tou waewae.
E noho.
Takoto ki raro.
Homai tou ringaringa.
Haere, e hoki.
Tu mai i kona.
Haere atu.
What is that?
A letter to you.
From whom?
From Turi.
Who brought it?
This man who sits here.
When will he return?
I do not know.
You had better ask him.
Friend! when shall you
return ?
Early to-morrow morning.
Will you take my letter?
Give it to me this evening.
Why are you in such a
hurry to go?
He aha tena ?
He pukapuka. ki a koe.
Na wai?
Na Turi.
Na wai i mau mai?
Na te tangata e noho nei.
A hea ia hoki ai ?
Me ui atu ki a ia.
E hoa! a hea koe hoki ai ?
Apopo, i te ata.
Mau e mau taku puka-
puka; ne?
Me homai akuanei i te
He aha koe i porangi ai ki
te haere?

Lest I should be prevented
by the tide.
I shall not be long writing.
Where is the gun?
What for?
Did you not bring it?
Here is my letter.
Kei araia ahau e te tai.
E kore e roa taku tuhituhi.
Kei hea te pu?
Hei aha?
Kihai i mauria mai e koe?
Tenei taku pukapuka.
Haere ra!
Hei kona!
How do you do?
Will you not go as a com-
panion for me?
To what place?
To Te Wairoa.
When shall you go?
How long shall you remain
there ?
I shall return after three
I will go with you.
Are there no horses here ?
There are horses; strong
ones to travel.
Whose is the white horse?
Where is he ?
Call him.
Here he comes.
Turi! will you not let me
have your white horse?
E hoa!
Tena koe?
E kore koe e haere hei hoa
Ki hea?
Ki Te Wairoa.
A hea koe haere ai?
Pehea te roa o tou noho ki
reira ?
Kia toru nga ra ka hoki
mai ahau.
Ko taua e haere.
Kahore he hoiho i konei?
He hoiho ano; he mea kaha
ki te haere.
Na wai te hoiho ma?
Na Turi.
Kei hea ia?
Kei ko.
Tenei te haere mai nei.
E Turi! E kore koe e pai
ki to hoiho ma nei ki a

This other one is the
Where is the saddle?
It is in the house. Hori
will fetch it.
You may bring it to me
in the morning.
Have you had anything to
You can carry this.
Give it to me then.
Where is the ford of this
river ?
The ford is higher up.
Is it shallow?
We had better go by canoe.
Is there a canoe here ?
The canoe is a little lower
Let us get something to
eat, and then cross over.
Tie up our horses.
Fetch me some water.
This canoe is very small.
Put the horses across and
then fetch me.
It is going to rain.
Let us stay here till the
rain is over.
It is fair now. Let us go
What place is this?
It is getting late. We had
better stay here.
Where is the tether rope
for my horse?
Ko tenei ke te mea kaha.
Kei hea te nohoanga?
Kei te whare. Ma Hori e
Mau e arahi ake i te ata.
Kua kai ranei koe?
Mau tenei e mau.
Homai ra.
Kei hea te kauanga o tenei
Kei roto te kauanga.
He papaku ranei?
Me na runga taua i te
He waka ano tenei?
Kei waho tata atu ra te
Kia kai taua ka whaka-
whiti ai ki tawahi.
Herea a taua hoiho.
Tikina he wai moku.
He nohinohi rawa tenei
Whakawhitia nga hoiho ka
tiki mai ai i ahau.
Meake ka ua.
Kia noho taua ki konei kia
mutu te ua.
Ka mao. Kia haere taua.
Ko hea tenei?
Ka po te ra. Me noho
taua ki konei.
Kei hea te taura hei here i
taku hoiho?

It has been left at home. Kua mahue ki te kainga.
Here is another. Tenei ano tetahi.
Let us go to Waiheke.
Call Hemi and Hori to go
with us.
Launch the boat.
The boat is afloat.
Fetch the oars.
Leave the sail: there is too
much wind.
There is too much sea for
us to get over.
The boat will be full of
water presently.
Bale out the water.
We will land here.
This is a fair wind to go
back with.
Set the sail.
It is low water.
Keep outside lest we
should get aground on
the sandbank.
Take down the sail.
Drag up the boat on shore.
Tatou ka haere ki Waiheke.
Karangatia a Hemi raua
ko Hori hei hoa mo taua.
Toia te poti.
Ka manu te poti.
Tikinga nga hoe.
Waiho atu te ra: he nui no
te hau.
E kore tatou e whiti i te
Akuanei ka ki te poti i te
Taia te wai.
Me whakau te poti ki konei.
E tika ana te hau mo te
hokinga atu.
Whakaarahia te ra.
Kua timu te tai.
Waiho i waho, kei eke
tatou ki te tahuna.
Turakina te ra.
Toia ake te poti ki uta.
What have you got?
Haven’t you a pig?
Is it for sale?
What is the price?
That is too much.
Have you any maize for
He aha tau?
Kahore au poaka?
Mo te hoko ranei?
He aha te utu ?
He nui rawa tena.
He kaanga tau mo te hoko ?

Bring it to-morrow.
What do you want for it?
What about your debt?
Bring some potatoes to
settle it.
Have you no more maize?
You had better bring some
Bring it here to be
Your debt is not quite
paid off.
Will you not come here to
You can come to-morrow.
What work am I to do?
When the fencing is done
you can dig a ditch.
Me mau mai apopo.
He aha tau i pai ai hei
Me aha to nama ?
Mauria mai he riwai hei
Heoi ano au kaanga?
Me mau mai ano etahi.
Homai ki konei kia
Kahore ano kia ata rite to
E kore koe e haere mai ki
konei ki te mahi?
Me haere mai apopo.
He aha te mahi maku?
He hanga taiepa.
Kia oti te taiepa ka keri ai
i te awakeri.
What is your name?
Do you live here?
When did you come to live
Are you married?
Have you any children ?
How many?
Where are they?
Are they at school?
Where is the school?
How many years has there
been a school here?
Do your children know
how to read?
Ko wai tou ingoa?
Ko tou kainga tenei?
Nonahea koe i tae mai ai
ki konei noho ai?
He wahine tau?
He tamariki au?
Tokohia ?
Kei hea?
Kei te kura ranei?
Kei hea te kura?
Ka hia nga tau o te kura
ki konei?
Ka mohio ranei au tama-
riki ki te korero puka-

Do they understand Eng-
Who is the teacher?
Did you build the school-
house yourselves?
Where is the church?
Is there a clergyman living
What is his name ?
How many children are
there in the school ?
Ka mohio ranei ki te reo
Ingarihi ?
Ko wai te kaiwhakaako ?
Na koutou ano i hanga te
whare kura?
Kei hea te whare-karakia?
He minita ano kei konei
e noho ana?
Ko wai tona ingoa?
Tokohia nga tamariki i te
kura ?
What do you want?
I am come for some medi-
cine for my child.
Where is he lying?
At my house.
How old is he?
When was he taken ill?
On Sunday. Four days
What is the matter with
He has headache, and is
very feverish.
Has he much pain?
Why did you not come the
day before yesterday?
I did not know that he
was sick.
It was last night that I
was told of it.
Where do you live?
Is it far away?
I had better come and see
He aha tau?
I haere mai ahau ki tetahi
rongoa mo taku tamaiti.
Kei hea ia e takoto ana?
Kei toku whare.
Ka hia ona tau?
Nonahea ia i pangia ai?
No te Ratapu. Ka wha
enei ra.
He aha tona mate?
He anini, he nui hoki te
kiri ka.
He nui ranei tona mamae ?
He aha koe i kore ai e
haere mai i tetahi ra?
Kihai ahau i mohio kei te
mate ia.
No te po nei i korerotia
mai ai ki ahau.
Kei hea tou kainga?
Kei tawhiti ranei ?
Me haere ahau kia kite i
a ia.

You must wait for me as
I do not know the way.
Here is the medicine for
Give one table-spoonful at
a time, three times a day.
You can come again to-
morrow to fetch some
more medicine.
I will come again and see
him the day after to-
How is the sick person for
whom medicine was
fetched on Wednesday?
He is well. He is gone to
How is your son to-day?
He is better.
Has he a good appetite?
You may leave off giving
him the medicine.
I shall not come to see him
any more.
Me tatari koe ki a au;
kahore hoki au e mohio
ki te ara.
Tenei te rongoa mona.
Me takikotahi te punu
nui, kia toru whangai-
tanga i te ra.
Me haere ake ano koe
apopo ki te tiki i tetahi
atu rongoa.
Ka hoki mai ano ahau kia
kite i a ia a tetahi ra.
Kei te pehea te turoro i
tikina ai he rongoa i te
Wenerei ?
Ka ora. Kua riro ki te
Kei te pehea tau tamaiti
inaianei ?
Kua ngawari tona mate.
He nui ranei tona hiahia
ki te kai?
Me whakamutu te wha-
ngai i a ia ki te rongoa.
Ka mutu toku haere mai
kia kite i a ia.
When did you arrive?
Where did you come from
yesterday ?
When did you start from
Taupo ?
No nahea koe i tae mai ai ?
No nanahi.
I haere mai koe i hea i
nanahi ?
No nahea koe i whakatika
mai ai i Taupo?

How long have you been
on the road?
Three days.
At whose house did you
sleep last night?
Have you no companions?
I have two companions,
whom I left at Tara-
Will they be here to-day ?
They will probably not be
here soon, because one is
You must be hungry.
The food will soon be
Do you not eat mutton?
I prefer the fish.
Is there no bread?
Here is the bread.
Give me some salt.
Here it is.
Pour me out some water.
I am very thirsty.
Would you not like some
peaches ?
What is that on the dish ?
It is taro.
I have never eaten taro.
Give me some.
Does this grow here?
It is very nice.
You will sleep . here to-
Po hia koe ki te huarahi?
Po toru.
I moe koe ki te whare o
wai inapo?
Kahore ou hoa?
Tokorua oku hoa i mahue
i a au ki Tarawera.
Akuanei ranei raua tae
mai ai?
E kore pea raua e tae
wawe mai, no te mea he
mate tetahi.
Kei te hemo-kai pea koe.
Meake ka maoa te kai.
Kahore koe e kai i te hipi ?
Engari te ika.
Kahore ranei he paraoa?
Tenei te paraoa.
Homai he tote maku.
Ringihia mai he wai moku.
He nui toku mate-wai.
Kahore ranei koe e pai ki
te pititi?
He aha tena i runga i te
He taro.
Kahore ano ahau kia kai
noa i te taro.
Homai etahi maku.
E tupu ana ano tenei ki
konei ?
Ka nui te reka.
Me moe koe ki konei i
tenei po.

Do not keep me: I want to
get home.
The road to Takapau is
Which is the bad part?
It is very muddy, and the
bridge is broken.
Never mind, I must go.
When shall you get home?
Kauaka ahau e puritia:
he hiahia noku kia tae ki
te kainga.
He kino te huarahi ki
Ko tehea te wahi kino?
He nui te paruparu, kua
pakaru hoki te pereti.
Aua atu. Me haere tonu
Ahea koe tae ai ki te
kainga ?

Part IV.
As a general rule, accentuate the first syllable of a
Maori word; but in words beginning with whaka,
accentuate the third.
a, art. he; pl. he.
able, to be, v. i. ahei.
abode, n. kainga.
above, prep, ki runga i;
kei runga i; i runga i;
hei runga i. (See § 16.)
absent, a. ngaro.
abundant, a. nui; huhua.
account (bill), n. kaute.
achieve, v. t. tae.
acre, n. eka.
across (of motion), prep.
ki tawahi o. (§ 16.)
add together, v. t. huihui;
pass, huihuia.
adult, n. kaumatua.
afloat, a. manu.
afraid, a. mataku.
after, prep, ki muri i; kei
muri i; i muri i; hei
muri i. (§ 16.)
afterwards, adv. muri iho.
again, adv. ano.
agree to, v. t. whakaae.
agreement, n. kirimini.
alive, a. ora.
all, a. katoa {see poto).
allow, v. t. tuku; pass.
ammunition, n. haniauu.
ancestor, n. tupuna, pl,
anchor, n. punga.
and, (§ 87).
angry, a. riri.
ankle, n. pona.
another, a. tetahi atu.
answer, v. t. whakahoki
kupu (followed by prep.
ki), pass, whakahokia.
answer a call, v. i. whakao.
any, def. tetahi; pl. etahi.
appeal, n. piira.
appear (come in sight),
v. i. puta.
appearance, n. ahua.
apple, n. aporo.
April, n. Aperira.
arise, v. i. ara, whakatika.
arithmetic, n. whika.
arm, n. takakau; ringa-
army, n. taua.

arouse, v. t. whakaara;
pass, whakaarahia.
arrive, v. i. tae; pass, taea,
be arrived at.
ashes, n. pungarehu.
as if, as it were, conj.
ask, v. t. (put a question),
ui; pass, uia (followed
by prep. ki).
ask (one to do anything),
v. t. ki, pass. kiia.
ask for, v. t. tono; pass.
assemble, v. t. whakamine;
pass, whakaminea.
assemble, v. i. huihui.
assembled, part, rupeke.
assessor, n. ateha.
at once, adv. wawe.
attack, v. t. whakaeke;
pass, whakaekea.
auction, n. makete.
auger, n. wiri.
August, n. Akuhata.
aunt, n. whaea.
authority, n. mana,
autumn, n. ngahuru.
avenged, part. ea. (§ 66).
awake, v. i. ara.
away, adv. atu (§ 81).
axe, n. toki.
back, n. tuara.
back of the head, n.
bad, a. kino,
bag, n. peeke.
bald, a. pakira.
bank of a river, n. taha-
bank (money), n. peeke.
bark, n. hiako; kiri.
bark, v. i. tau.
barter, v. t. hoko;
basin, n. peihana.
bathe, v. i. kaukau.
battle, n. pakanga.
bay, n. kokoru.
beach, n. one.
beak, n. ngutu.
bear fruit, v. i. hua.
beard, n. pahau.
beast, n. kararehe.
beat, v. t. patu;
beautiful, a. ataahua.
because, conj. no te
ta te mea (§ 85).
bed, n. moenga; peti.
bed of a river, n. riu.
bee, n. pi.
beer, n. pia.
before, prep, ki mua r;
kei mua i; i mua i; hei
mua i. (§ 16.)
beg, v. t. inoi; pass, inoia.
begin, v. t. timata; pass.
behind, prep, ki muri i;
kei muri i; i muri i; hei
muri i. (§ 16).
behind, on the further
side of, ki tua o; kei
tua o; etc. (§• 16).

believe, v. t. whakapono
(.followed by prep, ki) ;
pass, whakaponohia.
bell, n. pere.
belly, n. kopu.
below, prep, ki raro i; kei
raro i; i raro i; hei
raro i. (§ 16.)
belt, n. whitiki; tatua.
bend, v. t. whakapiko,
pass, whakapikoa.
bend leg or arm, hupeke.
(§ 62.)
bend, v. i. piko.
beneath, prep. (§ 16).
bent, a. piko.
better, had, v. a. me. (§ 56.)
between, prep, i waenga-
nui o..o.
bewitch, v. t. makutu; pass.
beyond, prep, (see tua,
tawahi) (§§ 8, 16).
bill, n. kaute.
bird, n. manu.
birth, n. whanautanga.
biscuit, n. pikiti.
bite, v. t. ngauj pass.
bitter, a. kawa.
black, a. mangu; pango.
blade, n. rapa.
blanket, n. paraikete.
blind, a. matapo.
block, n. poroka.
blood, n. toto, (generally
in pl.)
blunt, a. puhuki.
board, n. papa.
board (of persons), n.
boat, n. poti.
body, n. tinana.
bog, n. hu.
boggy, a. tapokopoko.
boil, v. i. koropupu.
v. t. kohua; pass.
boiler, n. paera.
bone, n. wheua, iwi.
book, n. pukapuka.
bore, v. t. poka; pass.
pokaia; wiri; pass, wiria.
bom, be, v. i. whanau.
bottle, n. ipu.
bottom, the, n. raro (§8.)
boundary, n. rohe; raina.
bow, of a canoe, etc., n.
box, n. pouaka.
boy, n. tamaite tane; pl.
tamariki tane.
brain, n. roro.
branch, n. manga; peka.
brand, n. and v. parani.
brass, n. parahi.
brave, a. toa.
bread, n. paraoa.
break, v. t. (a stick, etc.),
whawhati; pass, wha-
tiia: (a cord, etc.),
momotu; pass, motuhia:
(in pieces), pakaru;
pass, pakarua.
breakfast, n. parakuhi.
breast, n. uma; poho.
breast of a female, n. u.
breath, n. manawa.

breathe, v. i. ta te mana-
wa. (Ex. Ka ta toku
manawa, I breathe).
brick, n. pereki.
bridge, n. piriti.
bridle, n. paraire.
bring, v. t. mau mai; pass.
mauria mai.
bring to land, v. t. wha-
kau; pass, whakauria.
broad, a. whanui.
broken, part, whati; motu;
pakaru. (See break).
brook, n. manga,
broom, n. puruma.
brother, n. (a man’s elder)
tuakana; (younger),
teina; (a woman’s),
brother-in-law, n. (a
man's), taokete; (a
woman’s), autane.
brown, a. pakaka.
bruised, part. maru.
(§ 66.)
build, v. t. hanga; pass.
bullet, n. mata.
bullock, n. okiha.
bulrush, n. raupo.
burden, n. pikaunga.
bum, v. i. ka.
bum, v. t. tahu; pass.
burnt, part, wera; burnt
up, pau i te ahi.
bury, v. t. tanu; pass.
bush, n. uru rakau. (See
but, conj. otira; after a
negative, engari.
butt (of a tree), n. putake.
butter, n. pata.
button, n. patene.
buy, v. t. hoko; pass.
by, prep. 1, of agent,
after passive verbs, e.
2, of agent or instru-
ment, after neuter verbs,
adjectives, etc., i; 3. of
direction, ma.
by and by, adv. taihoa.
cabbage, n. kapeti.
calabash, n. taha.
call, call out, v. t. karanga;
pass, karangatia.
call, (name), v. t. hua;
pass, huaina.
calm, a. marino.
can, v. i. ahei (not fol-
lowed by a preposition),
candle, n. kanara.
canoe, n. waka.
careful, a. tupato.
carpenter, n. kamura.
carry, v. t. kawe; pass.
carry off, v. t. kahaki;
pass, kahakina.
carry (on the shoulders),
pikau; pass, pikaua;
amo; pass, amohia.
carve, v. t. whakairo; pass.
case (court), n. kehi.
cask, n. kaho.

catch, v. t. hopu; pass.
catch (in a net), v. t. hao;
pass. haoa.
caught, part. mau. (§ 66.)
cause, n. take.
cause, without, adv. take-
cautious, a. tupato.
cease! kati! v. t. whaka-
cement, n. raima.
certificate, n. tiwhikete.
chain, n. mekameka.
chain (measure), n. tini.
chair, n. turu.
chairman, n. tiamana.
channel, n. awa.
charcoal, n. waro.
chase, v. t. whaiwhai; pass.
cheek, n. paparinga.
chest, n. poho.
chicken, n. pi.
chief, n. rangatira.
child, n. tamaiti; pl. tama-
chimney, n. tumere.
chin, n. kauwae.
choose, v. t. whiriwhiri;
pass, whiriwhiria.
Christmas, n. Kirihimete.
church, n. Hahi.
church (building), n.
whare karakia.
clap (hands), v. i. papaki;
pakipaki. (§ 63.)
claw, n. matikuku, mai-
clean, a. ma.
cleanse, v. t. horoi; pass.
clear, v. t. (land by cutting
timber, etc.) para; pass.
clearing, n. waerenga.
cliff, n. pari.
climb, v. i. piki; pass.
pikitia, be climbed up,
or over.
clod, n. paioneone.
clothes, n. kakahu.
cloud, n. kapua.
clump (of trees), n. motu.
coast, n. tahatai.
coat, n. koti
cobweb, n. tukutuku pu-
cock, n. tikaokao.
coil, v. t. pokai; pass.
coil, n. pokai.
cold, u. huka.
cold, a. matao.
college, n. kareti.
come, v. i. haere mai.
command, v. t. whakahau;
pass, whakahaua.
companion, n. hoa.
company, n. ropu; ope.
compass, n. kapehu.
completed, part. oti.
concrete, n. raima.
consent, v. i. whakaae (fol-
lowed by prep, ki) ; pass.
whakaaetia, be agreed to.
constable, n. katipa.

consumed, part, pau, peto,
hemo. (§ 66).
cook, v. t. tao; pass, taona.
cooked, a. maoa.
cool, a. mataotao.
copper, n. and a. kapa.
cord, n. taura.
comer, n. kopa.
corpse, n. tupapaku.
council, n. kaunihera.
court, n. kooti.
courtyard, n. marae.
cousin, n. (a man’s male)
tuakana; teina; (a man’s
female ) tuahine; (a
woman’s male) tungane;
(a woman’s female) tua-
kana; teina.
cover, n. (lid, etc.), tau-
poki; (cloth, etc.) hipoki.
cover, v. t. taupoki; pass.
taupokina; hipoki; pass.
cow, n. kau.
creep, v. i. ngoki.
crooked, a. piko.
crop, n. hua (pl.),
cross, n. ripeka.
cross, a. pukuriri.
cross over, v. t. and i.
whakawhiti; pass, whaka-
crowd, v. t. popo; n. ropu.
crush, v. t. tuki; pass.
crushed, part. maru.
cry, v. i. tangi (followed
lyy prep, ki) ; pass.
tangihia, cried for.
cultivation n. mahingakai.
cupboard, n. kapata.
cure, v. t. whakaora;
current, n. au.
cut, v. t. tapahi;
cut down, v. t. tope;
cut in two, v. t.
sever) ; momotu;
cut short, part, mutu,
damp, a. maku.
dance, v. i. kanikani.
dark, a. pouri.
dash, v. t. aki; pass, akina.
daughter, n. tamahine.
daughter-in-law, n. huna-
dawn, n. puaotanga.
dawn, v. i. ao.
day, n. ra, rangi.
daylight, n. awatea.
dead, a. mate.
deaf, a. turi.
deal out, v. t. tuari.
death, n. matenga.
debt, n. nama.
deceive, v. t. maminga;
pass, mamingatia.
December, n. Tihema.
deep, a. hohonu.
demand, v. t. tono; pass.
descend, v. i. heke.

desire, v. t. .hiahia; (fol-
lowed by ki); pass.
destroy, v. t. whakangaro;
pass, whakangaromia.
die, v. i. marere.
different, a. ke.
dig, v. t. keri; pass, keria.
dig up (a crop), v. t. hau-
hake; pass, hauhakea.
dig up (weeds), v. t.
ngaki; pass, ngakia.
dirty, a. poke.
disappear, v. i. whaka-
disappear behind, v. i.
disbelieve, v. t. whakateka
(followed by prep, ki) ;
pass, whakatekaia.
discover, v. t. kite.
dish, n. rihi.
distant, a. tawhiti.
ditch, n. awakeri.
dive for, v. t. ruku; pass.
do, v. t. me a; pass, meatia.
do what? v. t. aha?; pass.
ahatia ?
doctor, n. takuta; rata,
dog, n. kuri.
door, n. tatau.
doorway, n. kuwaha.
down, adv. iho.
drag, v. t. to; pass. toia.
dream, n. moemoea.
drink, v. t. inu; pass.
drive, v. t. a; pass. aia.
drop, v. i. (as water)
maturuturu; (as any-
thing solid) marere.
drunken, a. haurangi,
dry, a. maroke.
duck, n. parera.
dumb, a. wahangu.
dust, n. puehu.
dwell, v. i. noho; pass.
nohoia, be dwelt in.
dwelling place, n. kainga.
each, a. (§ 21.)
eager, be, v. i. takare,
ear, n. taringa.
earth, n. oneone.
east, n. rawhiti.
easy, a. ngawari.
eat, v. t. kai; pass, kainga.
ebb, v. i. timu.
edge, n. mata.
eel, n. tuna,
eighth, a. tuawaru.
either—or, ranei—ranei.
elbow, n. tuke.
embark, v. i. eke; pass.
embrace, v. t. awhi; pass.
empty, a. takoto kau.
ended, part. mutu. (§ 66.)
enemy, n. hoa-riri.
England, n. Ingarani.
enlarge, v. t. whakanui;
pass, whakanuia.
enter, v. t. tomo; pass.