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Maori and English dictionary

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Title:
Maori and English dictionary new and enlarged edition of "A leaf from the natural history of New Zealand, or a vocabulary of its different productions, & c, with their native names"
Creator:
Taylor, Richard
Place of Publication:
Auckland
Publisher:
George T. Chapman
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Maori
Physical Description:
120 pages. ; 19 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Maori language ( lcsh )
Maori language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Reo Māori
Genre:
Dictionaries
Spatial Coverage:
Oceania -- New Zealand
Ao-o-Kiwa -- Aotearoa
Coordinates:
-42 x 174

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General Note:
With advertisements on first page and in attached pamphlet : New Zealand publications, list of works recently published by Geo. T. Chapman ..., Auckland, [28] p.
General Note:
Publication date from British Library record.

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commerical License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge the author and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.
Resource Identifier:
884507879 ( oclc )
IE Mao 413/ 40022 ( soas classmark )

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G. T. CHAPMAN’S
NEW ZEALAND PUBLICATIONS
Captain Cook’s Discovery and Description of New Zealand
One Hundred Years Ago, with notes, anecdotes, &c., 10 charts and
37 illustrations, crown 4to., cloth, 10s. 6d.; or hf-bound morocco, 15s.
Guide to Farming in New Zealand, by Joseph May. 5s.
New Zealand Sheep Farmers’ Handy Book, by Joseph May. Is.
Gazetteer of the Province, with map. 4s.
How to Manage the Honey Bee in New Zealand. 2s.
The Kitchen Garden in New Zealand, by David Hay. Is.
The Farm and Garden, Orchard, Flower Garden and Greenhouse
Management. Is.
Maori and English Dictionary and Vocabulary of its different
productions, by Rev. R. Taylor, A.M., F.G.S. 3s. 6d.
Maori Grammar and Phrase Book, with Vocabulary, by H. T.
Kemp. 2s. 6d.
Gold Beady Beckoner and Miners’ Pocket Companion. Is.
Index to the Statute Law of New Zealand, bound. 5s.
Handy Book of the Laws of New Zealand, bound. 5s.
Index and Handy Book, two vols. in one, cheap edition. 5s.
Chart of the Colony of New Zealand, with the adjacent Islands. Is. 6d.
New Map of New Zealand, embracing all the recent Surveys, &c. 4s.
New Map of the North Island of New Zealand. 2s. 6d.
Map of the Middle Island of New Zealand. 2s. 6d.
Large Map of the Province of Auckland. 2s. 6d.
Map of the Northern Part of the Province. 2s. 6d.
Map of the Waikato District of the Province. 2s. 6d.
Registration Plan of the City of Auckland. Is.
The New Zealand Magazine, Literary and Scientific, vol. 1. 5s.
The Age of New Zealand, a Geological paper by Rev. R. Taylor. Is.
Our Bace and its Origin, an Ethnological paper, by Rev. R?5
Taylor. Is.
Hay’s Annual Garden Book, with priced Catalogue and Calendar. 6d.
The Pine Tree in New Zealand, by David Hay and Sir George
Grey, 6d.
New Zealand Ball Boom Pocket Companion. Is.
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Directory, annual publication. 2s. 6d.
The Auckland Provincial Almanac and Goldfields Directory. 6d.
The Auckland Commercial Sheet Almanac, with Signals, &c. 3d.
GEO. THOMSON CHAPMAN
BOOKSELLER AND STATIONER,
AUCKLAND, NEW Zff.AT.ANT>.




MAORI AND ENGLISH
DICTIONARY.




MAORI AND ENGLISH
NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION
OF
“A Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand, or a
of its different Productions, $c., with their Native Names.
BY
REV. RICHARD TAYLOR, M.A., F.O.S.,
AUTHOR OF “NEW ZEALAND AND ITS INHABITANTS,” PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF NEW ZEALAND,’’ ETC.
NEW ZEALAND
« E 0 K G E T. CHAPMAN, PUBLISHER
QUEEN STREET
AUCKLAND


W. ATKIN, PRINTER, HIGH STREET, AUCKLAND.


PREFACE.
As the first edition of this most valuable work has for a
long time been out of print and very high prices offered
and given for stray copies, the publisher requested per-
mission of the author to be allowed to republish a new,
enlarged, and corrected edition. Mr Taylor very kindly
made a number of corrections and additions to the only
copy in his possession, and sent it up from Whanganui in
January, 1867, with permission to republish as requested.
Since that time three gentlemen well acquainted with
the native history, &c., of New Zealand have gone care-
fully over the work, making numerous additions and im-
provements, so that the work may now be more appro-
priately called a A Maori and English Dictionary ” than
simply “ A Leaf from the Natural History.”
In the preface to the first edition Mr Taylor says, “ it is
said by a distinguished writer, that no one should present
the public with anything in such a crude and undigested
form as to need an apology. Although, as a general
rule, this may hold good, yet, fortunately for the author,
it has its exceptions. In a country so little known and so
recently colonized as New Zealand, it is a duty each
one owes to contribute his mite to the general fund of
information, and, however imperfect these contributions
may be, they are more likely to be appreciated than those
of higher pretensions at some future period, when the


PREFACE.
difficulties which the enquirer has now (1848) to contend
with will have been removed.” Mr Taylor has no reason
to be ashamed of his contribution to the literature of this
young colony, for from a number of very favorable reviews
of a second edition of his large work on “ New Zealand
and its inhabitants,” in Scientific Opinion of March 30,
1870, the editor says, “ there is not, perhaps, on the whole
face of the globe a race whose history, origin, habits and
character present a livelier interest to the anthropologist
than that of New Zealand. Whether we regard the
remarkable intelligence and high mental culture which
even the first New Zealand savages displayed when taken
on board Cook’s vessel, or the curious circumstance that
the traditions of the people show them to have been in
their pre-cannibalism period a more civilized race than
when first discovered by the great circumnavigator, the
New Zealander as a type of primitive man is of the highest
moment to Science. It is strange, therefore, that with the
exception of some communications to special journals, so
little has been done towards a complete anthropological
sketch of the New Zealand savage. The Central African
has been done to death; the American Indian has long
since passed from our literature; the races of the Eastern
Archipelago have found an eloquent and philosophical
historian in Mr Wallace ; but the New Zealander has not
had full justice done to him till the appearance of Mr
Taylor’s work, which we are happy to see before us in its
second edition, and which, coming as it does from a mis-
sionary and a man of science, is a truthful and worthy
record of the habits and traditions of the Maori.”


"contents.
1
Plants indigenous to New Zealand available for Food,
Medicine, and other Economic Purposes.............
Animals—Kararehe, Barata, and Maka 13
Reptiles—Nga/rara ... . 14
Insects—Ng ar ar a 15
Birds—Topatopa and Mann ... 17
Fish—Ngohi and Ika ... ... 23
Shells—Pipi and Pupu ... ... 28
Trees—Bakau 30
Ferns—Bakurahu ... 35
Shrubs-—Bahau (should be Bakau) 36
Flowers, Plants, &c.—Puwha , 39
Creeping, Climbing, and Parasitic Plants ... 43
Grasses—Tarutaru 45
Sea Weed—Bimu 47
Mosses, Fungi, and Lichens (dele Algee) 47
Kumara, Taro, and Potatoe 48
Stones, Earth, &c.—Kohatu and Whenua 50
Parts of Trees, &c 52
Parts of Fish, Birds, &c 53
Religion and Religious Customs—Karalda 57
Original Canoes and History 69
Parts of the Human Body 70


CONTENTS.
General Names or Nouns
74
List of the Principal Tribes
War, Murder, &c.............
Fortifications, &c...................
Tattooing, &c........................
Salutations, &c......................
Time, the Seasons, the Year, &c. ...
Heavens, Stars, &c...................
Elements, the .......................
Water, of the........................
Winds, of the .......................
Land, of the........................
Manufactured Substances, Apparel, &c.
Canoe, of a .........................
Houses, &c...........................
Maori Implements, &c.................
Games and Amusements of the Maori
Proverbs...........
Native Pharmacopeia
Native Diseases
Tradition ........
76
77
78
78
79
83
85
86
87
89
90
91
94
96
99
103
105
109
112
117


PART I.
NATURAL HISTORY.




PLANTS INDIGENOUS
TO
NEW ZEALAND,
AVAILABLE FOR FOOD, MEDICINE, AND OTHER
ECONOMIC PURPOSES.
Revised by T. Kirk, Secretary to Auckland Institute.
NAT. ORD. MAGNOLIADS.
Horopito. (JDrimys axillaris), pepper tree of the colonists.
The bark affords a substitute for quinine, the wood
makes beautiful veneers.
CRUCIFERS.
Hanea. {Nasturtium palustre), common in wet places,
leaves entire or toothed, flowers yellow. Leaves boiled,
and eaten as cabbage.
Toi. (Barbarea vulgaris), usually 1-2 feet high, erect,
with a furrowed stem, leaves much divided, with large
terminal lobes; used as the above.
Panapana. (Cardamine hirsuta), land cress. A small
cress with much divided leaves, and small white
flowers; often used as the above; abundant in cool
damp places.


2
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Scurvy Grass of Cook. {Lepidium oleraecum), an erect
plant, 1-2 feet high, often abundant near the sea;
recognised by its deeply jagged rather succulent leaves,
crowded small white flowers, and ovate flattened pods.
Somewhat pungent, but is occasionally cooked as
cabbage.
VIOLETWORTS.
Mahoe. {llelicytus ramiflorus\ a small tree, 15-20
feet high, with whitish bark; leaves greedily eaten by
cattle.
MALLOWWORTS.
Hohere. {Hoh&ria, populnea\ a small tree, 20 feet, pro-
ducing an abundance of large white flowers; bark
remarkably tough, strips of it are used for tying; also
as a demulcent.
LINDENWORTS.
Makomako. {Aristotelia fruticosa), a small tree or large
bush, with toothed leaves, and red flowers. The ber-
ries are eaten, and the bark produces a black dye.
Hinau. {Plxocarpus dentatus), a handsome tree, some-
times 30 feet high, producing an abundance of white
flowers, with a fruit J inch long. The fruit is prepared
for use by steeping in running water for several days,
when a fine olive-coloured meal is obtained, which is
kneaded into cakes and considered a great delicacy.
The bark furnishes a black dye.
CRANESBILLS AND WOODSORRELS.
Kopata. {Pelargonium clandestinum), a small herb, 1-2
feet high, with ovate, lobed, hairy leaves, on long
stalks, and finely cut flowers, small in clusters of 8-12.
A decoction of the leaves is applied to bruises.
Reti-reti, Tutaekahu. {Oxalis corniculata), a variable
plant of which all the varieties produce yellow flowers.
1-12 inches high, leaves divided with rounded leaflets;
abundant in waste places, sandhills, and near the sea
generally. A wholesome vegetable when boiled.


PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO NEW ZEALAND.
3
Kohekohe. {Dysoxylum spectabile), cedar, a tree 30-60
feet high, with striking foliage and fruit the size of a
walnut. Wood fine grained, reddish, used for cabinet
making.
SOAPWORTS.
Titoki. (Alectryon excel sum), New Zealand ash, a hand-
some tree, with foliage resembling the European ash;
wood remarkably tough, highly valued for carpenter’s
tools. Fruit used for food.
ANACARDS.
Karaka. (Corynocarpus lavigatus), & tree with handsome
glossy foliage, and large fruit 1 inch long. Exten-
sively used for fruit, after steeping it in water to
destroy the poisonous properties of the kernel.
coriariads.
Tupakihi, Tutu, Taweku. (Coriara ruscifolia), a branched
rambling shrub, with opposite, glossy, ovate leaves,
and long pendulous clusters of enticing fruit of a
pleasant flavour; but the fruit stalk and seed are
poisonous, as is the foliage in the spring. A pleasant
wine is manufactured from the fruit, but the greatest
care is necessary to prevent the seeds becoming mixed
with it. There are two other species of Coriaria, both
of which are poisonous to cattle.
LEGUMINOUS PLANTS.
Kowhai. (Sophora tetraptera), a tall handsome tree,
sometimes reduced to a small bush. Timber extremely
hard and durable, of great value for fencing, posts, &c.
Bark used as a purgative.
ROSEWORTS.
Tataramoa. (Rubus australis), Bramble, Bzishlawyer, fyc.,
a handsome climber with prickly leaves, reaching the
tops of the highest trees. Fruit small but of pleasant
flavour, red or amber coloured. A variable plant.
Taraheke. A variety of the above in which the leaves
are reduced to midribs.


4
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Piri-piri. {Acana sanguisorba), burr, a creeping prostrate
herb, smooth or hairy, producing globular heads of
spinous seeds. An infusion of the leaves is often used
as tea by natives and settlers both here and in Aus-
tralia.
SAXIFRAGEWORTS.
Tawhero. (Weinmannia silvicola), a handsome shrub or
tree often 40 feet high, the lower leaves divided, upper
leaves entire, producing handsome dower in abundance.
The bark is extensively used in tanning.
MYRTLEWORTS.
Manuka. {Leptospermum scoparium.) The leaves are a
well-known substitute for tea ; when wounded by in-
sects the tree exudes a manna-like substance called
Piamanuka, which is collected for eating.
Bawiri. {Leptospermum ericoides), a small tree producing
timber of great durability, invaluable for piles and
fencing.
Bata. {IPetrosideros robusta.)
Pohutukawa. (Jf. tomentosa)
The flowers of these trees produce a thin honey,
which was formerly collected in large quantities; the
inner bark is a valuable remedy in diarrhaoic com-
plaints, and the timber is invaluable to the ship-
builder.
Bama-rama. {Myrtus bullata), a shrub with curious
leaves, which have a swollen inflated appearance;
wood highly valued for chisel handles, &c. ; the ber-
ries are eaten as are those of the rohutu Pedun-
WILLOW HERBS.
Kotukutuku, Kohutuhutu. {Fuchsia excorticate), a shrub
producing a large quantity of purple fruit, of a rather
sweet taste, somewhat astringent, yields a purple dye,
and affords a good ink.
PASSION FLOWERS.
Popohue, Kohi, Kohia, Powhiwhi, Tawhiwhi. {Passi-


PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO NEW ZEALAND.
5
flora tetrandra), a lofty climber with dark green entire
leaves ; fruit bright orange, the pulp of which is eaten
and a fragrant oil expressed from the seeds, which is
highly valued by the armourer.
FICOIDS.
Naupiro. {Mesembryanthemum Australe), a trailing plant
with thick succulent leaves, abundant on rocks near
the sea ; the insipid fruit is eaten, and the leaf some-
times pickled.
Renga-renga. {Tetragonia expansa.) N.Z. spinach, com-
mon in wet ground near the sea ; a valuable esculent
when boiled. Used by Captain Cook as an anti-
scorbutic.
UMBELLATES.
Papai. {Aciphylla squarrosa.) Wild Spaniard.
Taramea. {A. Colensoi.) Bayonet grass.
Spinous leaved plants abundant in the interior; the
shoots and roots are eaten.
CROSSWORTS.
Karamu. {Coprosmalucida and C. robusta.)
Papa-auma. {C. grandifolia.)
Taupata. (C. Baueriana,)
Tataraheke. {C. Acerosa.)
The first and second of the above are shrubs common
on the margins of woods, and in open places producing
an abundance of red berries; the third is a similar
plant but with larger leaves, usually found in gullies ;
the fourth in rocky places by the [sea; the fifth is a
singular plant 1-2 feet high with needle-shaped leaves
and flexuous stems,—its berries are large, transparent
purplish. All the berries are eaten. An infusion of
the bark and stems of the Tataraheke is administered
as an alterative.
COMPOSITES.
Tikumu. (Celnusia coriacea), mountain daisy, the downy
under surface of the leaf is used by females to orna-
ment their hair.


6
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Puka-puka. {Brachyglottis repanda.) The leaves of this
plant are applied to old sores, &c., but do not appear
to have any particular effect.
Poronea, Puwha. (Sonchus oleraceus), sowthistle; the
green tops are eaten by the natives.
HEATHWORTS.
Koropuku. {Gaultheriaantipoda), a small bush, 1-5 feet
high, with rounded leaves, and white or red fruit,
which is eaten by the natives. A very variable plant.
Patotarara. (Leucopogen Frazeri), a small plant growing
close to the ground, with woody stems and brownish
pungent leaves, the orange coloured berries have an
agreeable flavour and are eaten by the natives.
SAPOTADS.
Pau, Tawaopau. (JSapota costata), a handsome tree only
found in the vicinity of the sea; the pulp of the fruit
was formerly eaten, and the hard horny seed worn as
necklaces by the chiefs.
LOGANIADS.
Hange-hange. (Geniostoma ligustrifolium\ generally used
for enveloping various roots, &c., during the process
of cooking.
BINDWEEDS.
Pohue, Panahi. (Convolvolus sepium), a climbing or
trailing plant usually found in thickets and waste
places. (C. Soldanella), with fleshy kidney shaped
leaves, found on sandy sea shores. Both plants have
white or rose coloured trumpet shaped flowers, and
thick fleshy roots which are cooked and eaten.
NIGHTSHADES.
Poroporo. (Solanum aviculare), a much-branched shrub,
6 feet high, with large, deeply cut leaves, and red or
orange coloured berries which are sometimes eaten.
Also used as a poultice for sores, &c.
Kaupeti. (Solanum nigrum), black nightshade. The tops
are used as an esculent.


PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO NEW ZEALAND.
7
SCROPHULARIADS.
Koromiko. {Veronica salicifolia), a much branched
common shrub with lilac or white flowers and smooth
narrow leaves. A decoction of the leaves is valuable
in all complaints.
VERB EN ADS.
Puriri. (Vitex littoralis), a striking tree with divided
dark green leaves and red flowers, fruit crimson. The
trunk is sometimes 30 feet long and from 1 to 6 feet
in diameter; in durability and hardness the wood
approaches lignum-vita, but in its early stages is
subject to the attacks of an insect which bores
tubular holes three-eighths of an inch in diameter or
more.
Ngaio. {Myoporum loetum\ a much branched shrub or
small tree, common near the sea, leaves dotted with
oil-glands, berries eaten. An infusion of the leaves is
rubbed on the skin to prevent the attacks of the sand-
fly and mosquito.
LAURELIADS.
Mangeao. {Tetr anther a calicaris), a valuable timber
tree, 40-50 feet, timber light and of remarkable tough-
ness. Largely used for ship’s blocks.
Tarairi. {Nesodaphne Tarairi), a lofty tree, with hand-
some downy foliage, wood white or reddish but not
durable. Berry large, eaten when boiled.
Tawa. {Neso daphne Tawa), a lofty tree with white wood,
and smooth lance shaped green leaves. Berry very
large, extensively collected for food.
MONIMIADS.
Pukatea. {Atherosperma Novoe-Zelandicc'p a large tree,
50-150 feet high, with a remarkably buttressed trunk.
Wood not durable, but used for boat-building as it
does not split.
PROTEADS.
Rewa-rewa. {Knightia excelsa)^ an erect strict-growing


8
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
tree, 80-100 feet high, with large clusters of showy
red flowers. Wood beautifully marked, highly valued
for veneers.
Toro. (Persoonia Toro}, a small evergreen tree with long
narrow leaves and fragrant flowers. Wood used as
the above.
BEECHWORTS.
Tawhai. {Fagus fusca}, a large tree, 80-100 feet high.
The timber valuable for wheelwright’s purposes.
PEPPERWORTS.
Kawakawa. {Piper excelsum}, a much branched shrub
6-15 feet high, with orange coloured fruit and
black seeds. A poultice of the leaves is applied to
neuralgic affections, toothache, &c«
CONIFERS.
Kauri. {Dammara Australis}, a noble tree, 80-150 feet
high, trunk 6-12 feet diam., yielding the most valuable
timber to the country. The gum is used as a masti-
catory by the natives and is largely exported for manu-
facturing purposes,
Kawaka. {Libocedrus Donaina.} N. Z. drbor-vita. A
fine tree, sometimes 100 feet high. Timber reddish,
light, used for various purposes; burns with difficulty.
Miro. {Podocarpus ferruginea,} A small timber tree
with yew-like leaves, 60 feet high; berries red, used
for food.
Matai-i.* {Podocarpus spicatus}, resembling the last, but
attains a height of 80-90 feet. Wood of greater value
than the last, especially for cabinet work ; berries
used for food.
Totara, {Podocarpus totara.} A noble forest tree attain-
ing a height of 120 foet, the trunk often 50 feet long
* Where a letter is repeated, as in the [Maori word “ Mataii,”
we have opened them with a hyphen, to prevent European readers
giving the hroad sound; in Maori each letter, though doubled,
must be separately sounded,


PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO NEW ZEALAND.
9
and upwards. Timber of great value for building
purposes, piles and canoes, &c.
Kahikatea. (Podocarpus dacrydioides), white pink. A fine
timber, often forming forests on swampy land, 80-130
feet high. Timber valuable for inside work, but will
not bear exposure; berries eaten.
Rimu. (Dacrydium cupressinum), red or black pine. A
noble timber tree, 80 feet high or more, with pendu-
lous branches ; bark scaling off in large pieces; trunk
5-7 feet in diameter; wood red, heavy, handsome. A
valuable timber for building and other purposes, and
is much used by the cabinet-maker, although it does
not take glue freely.
Manoao. (Bacrydium Colensoi}, a small tree 20-50 feet
high, the lower branches have leaves one inch in
length, but in the upper branches the leaves are like
scales, overlapping each other and closely pressed to
the stem. Wood almost indestructible, and highly
valued by the natives.
Tanekahe. (Phyldocladus trichomanoides), a handsome
tree, 30-80 feet high, producing a whitish timber of
extreme toughness and great durability, but very
heavy; fish hooks were made from the young twigs ;
the bark affords a red dye.
ORCHIDS.
Perei. (Gastrodia Cimninghamii). A curious leafless
plant of a brown colour, growing usually in forests.
Root a tuber 6 to 18 inches long; eaten by the natives.
Makaika. (Thelymitra longifolia, Microtis porrifolia,
Orthoceras solan dri.} Small orchidaceous plants found
amongst fern and low tea tree. The tubers contain
salep, and are eaten by the natives,
PANDANUTS.
Kiekie, Ureure, Tawhara. (Freycinetia Banlcsii.') A
lofty climbing plant, usually found in damp forests,
where it reaches the tops of the highest trees. Leaves
2-3 feet long, grass-like, notched on the edges. The


10
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
male and female flowers are found on separate plants,
and are larger than a breakfast cup; the inner leaves
are very thick, white, fleshy, and sweet, and the whole
flower is eaten by natives and settlers alike. The
fruit is usually borne in clusters of 3 to 5, oblong, 6
inches long, much wrinkled on the outside, and when
the rind is taken off affords delicious eating.
TYPHADS.
Raupo. {Typha latifolia), common everywhere in swamps
and by river sides, 4-8 feet high, the root yields a fine
meal which is eaten, the pollen is made into bread by
the Maori, as is the case in some parts of India, and
the long leaves are generally used in building whares,
but are highly inflammable.
LILYWORTS.
Kareao. {Rhipogonum scandens), supple jack, a woody
climber, abundant in forests, the roots form an admir-
able substitute for sarsaparilla, the flexuous stems are
used for basket work, and the crimson berries are
eaten by the natives.
Ti. ( Cordyline Australis), callage tree, a well known tree
common to moist woods and swamps, 12-40 feet high,
with entire palm-like leaves and immense heads of
flowers. The large roots are cooked and eaten.
Ti Ngahere. {Cordyline Banksii), similar to the above
but not more than 6-12 feet high, and with much
longer leaves. Root eaten.
Tikoraha. {Cordyline Pumileo), a small species 1-3 feet
high. Roots sugary, and valued by the Maori for
food.
Kowharawhara. {Astelia Banksii), on sea cliffs, leaves
linear, 3-6 feet long, silky, flowers yellow, male and
female, on different plants. Fruit deep purple, hand-
some, much eaten by the natives.
Astelia Solandri is closely allied to the above, but grows
on rocks and trees, leaves shorter and broader, fruit
crimson, of an agreeable flavour.


PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO NEW ZEALAND.
11
Rengarenga. (Arthropodium cirrhatum), a handsome
flowering plant, 1-3 feet high, common on sea cliffs
in the North Island. Root eaten, bases of the leaves
used as a poultice for ulcers.
Harakeke. (Phormiwn tenax), New Zealand flax. The
flowers of this plant are collected by the natives
for the sake of the watery honey which they yield
freely. The flower stems are used for firing where
timber is scarce. The seeds form an excellent substi-
tute for coffee. The root yields a valuable worm
medicine and purgative. And the gum is invaluable
as an application to burns, wounds, and old sores.
The fibre of the leaf is used for rope-making and
other purposes as well as the manufacture of paper.
Wharaeki. (PJiormium Colens oi.) The leaves are used
for fishing nets.
PALMS.
Nikau. (Areca sapida.) The young shoot is a favorite
article of food, whether cooked or raw.
SEDGES.
Grassy looking plants, chiefly found in wet places, used
for thatching, &c.
Ririwaka. (Scirpus maritima^ an erect plant, 3 feet
high, common in salt marshes, root tuberous, eaten by
the natives.
Pingao. (Pesmochanus spiralis), a harsh growing sedge
with a curiously twisted flower spike, common on sand-
hills near the sea; the young shoots are eaten.
FILICES.
Mamakau, Korau, Pitau. ( Cyathea medullar is), black tree
fern. A noble fern, 40 feet high or more ; the pith of
the stem is extensively eaten by the Maori, and is one
of their favourite dishes; when dried in the sun it
affords a poor substitute for sago; the undeveloped
fronds are sometimes boiled.
Aruhe. (fPteris aguilina var. esculenia), the common fern


12
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
of the country; the root is generally used for food
after being dried and beaten.
Mangemange. {Lygodium a^'ticulatum.') The wiry elastic
stems of this fern make capital beds.
Para. selicina), a handsome fern, 8 feet high,
with large swellings at the base of the stem, which are
eaten by the natives.
The young undeveloped shoots of many species of
Perns are cooked and eaten.
LICHENS.
Several species are known to afford useful dyes, but
nothing has been done in the way of utilizing them.
FUNGI.
Harori. (Ag curious adiposus and A. camp estr is.) Mush-
room,
Popoiahakeke. (Polyporus sp.)
Paruwhatitiri. (Ileodictyon cibarium.)
Pukurau. (Ly coper don Fontainesii.)
The above and many other kinds of which little is
known are used as food ; the last mentioned reduced
to a powder is also applied to burns.
SEAWEEDS.
A few of the common kinds are used as food in times
of scarcity, and occasionally to thicken the juice of the
Tupakihi.


NEW ZEALAND ANIMALS.
13
ANIMALS.
Kararehe rarata, general name for tame animals.
Kararehe maka, general name for wild animals.
*Hipi, sheep. ( Ovis ariesj
Hoiho, horsefEquus caballus)
Kaihe, ass {Asinus vulgaris}
Kararehe, dog, or simply a
quadruped, as this word
is now used to express
abhorrence only. The
native dog is now ex-
tinct; it was rather a
large kind, with a black
muzzle and long hair.
{Canis familiar is}
Kekeno, seal. {Arotocepha-
lus ur sinus)
Kiore, native rat, is not
above a third of the size
of the Norway rat. {Mus
ratus.) Remarkable on
account of its scrotum
being pendulous, like the
ram, bull, &c;
Kirehe, dog. Syn. with
Kararehe
Kuhukuhu, pig
Kuri, common name for dog;
it is also frequently used
for the horse. Syn. with
Kararehe
Maero, wild man of the
woods. Native report?
Mimiha, seal. Syn. with
Kekeno
Moimoi, a familiar name for
dog. Syn. with Kararehe
Moki, rat. Syn. with Kiore
Nane, dog. Syn. with Ka-
rarehe
Nanenane, goat. (Capra
agagrus)
Ngeru, cat. {Felis catus)
Patupaearehe, wild man of
the woods. Syn. with
Maero
Pekapeka, bat. {Vespertilis
tuberculatus). Very small
Peropero, half starved dog
Poaka, pig. There are three
varieties, the grey or
Tongataboo ; another
having lateral parallel
brown lines along its
side ; the third is a black
one. {Sus scrofa)
Poipoi, familiar name for
dog
Poti, cat. Syn. with Ngeru
* Note.—The spelling of these names of animals, &c., not
indigenous to New Zealand are given as the Maori pronounce them.
2


14
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Pouhawaiki, English rat.
In the North this is called
the Kiore Pakeha; in
the interior it is called
the rat of Hawaiki
Pukutuaro. Syn.withMaero
Punua, a little pig or dog ;
or rather a young animal
Reme, lamb
Riroi, rat. Syn. with Kiore
Tori, cat, Syn. with Ngeru
Waitoreke, otter. (Uncer-
tain, perhaps the seal)
Whakahau. Syn. with
Maero
REPTILES.
Ng ar ar a, general name for all Reptiles.
Engaio, a long white worm,
A parasite of Hinanga in
the Rotoaira lake.
Hara, large centipede; some-
times six inches long ; it
is perfectly harmless.
(Scolopendra)
Kakariki, green lizard. (Aa-
ultinus elegans)
Kaiwakaruaka. Syn. with
Moko
Kakawariki, a green lizard
with yellow spots on the
back. (Eaultinus punc-
tatus)
Mokamoka, lizard. (TiUgua
Zelandica)
Moko, a large lizard said to
be eight feet long ?
Mokomoko, lizard. Syn.
with Mokamoka
Mokonui, a large liza/rd ;
found up the Patea; their
cry is koramoko
Mokopeke, a very large li-
zard, said to bite
Pipipi, guana
Pirirewa, lizard
Piritana, glow worm
Puratoke, a centipede lumi-
nous in the dark
Ruatara, a lizard eighteen
inches long. (Guana.)
Chiefly found on small
islands
Toke, worm. Many of the
worms are luminous in
the dark; some attain
the length of two feet
Tuatara, great fringed lizard
(Hatteria punctata) now
only found on the off-
shore islets. The pigs
having eaten them on
the mainland. The word
Tu-a-tara signifies “hav-
ing spines”


NEW ZEALAND ANIMALS.
15
Tuatete, guana, Syn. with Wakatawatawa, liza/rd
Tuatara Wen, centipede
Tupua, name of a snake said Wheke, centipede
to have been seen in New
Zealand
INSECTS.
Ngarara, general name for all Insects.
Anuhe, large caterpillar
Aweto, caterpillar; feeds
on the kumara; the grub
of which vegetates
Iroiro, grub
Hataretare, slug, snail
Hawato, caterpillar
Heiro, maggot
Hotete, a caterpillar which
vegetates {SpliceriaRobt.)
Howaka, cerambyx
Huhu, a grub, which bores
into wood
Huhu, moth
Hurangi, fly
Kukaraiti, grasshopper
Kapapa, large cerambyx
Kapokapowai, dragon fly
Katipo, venomous spider.
One kind red, and one
black with a red spot on
its back
Keha, flea
Kekeriru, large black wood-
bug. (Cimex nemor alls')
Kekerewai, a little green
beetle eaten by the natives
Tatarakihi
Kekewai, dragon fly. Syn.
with Kapokapowai
Keriru. Syn. with Kekeriru
Ketoketo, maggot
Kihikihi, chrysalis also
grasshopper. Syn. with
Kikitara, dragon fly. Syn.
with Kapokapowai
Kiriwhenua, garden bug
Koeke, grasshopper
Kopi, chrysalis
Kowhitiwhiti, small grass-
hopper
Kurikuri, a grub which
makes a small hole in
the earth, and after-
wards turns into a green
bronzed beetle specked
with white
Kutikuti, fly blow
Kutu, louse
Kutukutu, maggot
Kuwharu, grub
Makokorori, caterpillar
Mamahiti, small grasshopper
Syn. with Kowhitiwhiti
Mawhitiwhiti, grasshopper
Moeone, species of grub


16
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Moko, caterpillar
Mokoroa, a large caterpillar
Mumutaua, a large brown
beetle found on the sand-
hills
Mumuwharu, large brown
beetle
Muwharu, caterpilla/r
Naenae, mosquito
Naonao, small moth
Namu, sand fig
Ngairoa, mosquito, Syn.
with Waeroa
Ngaro, fig
Ngata, slug, leech
Ngaungau, midge
Papapapa, small brown
beetle
Pepe, a grub in wood
Pepeaweto, the grub which
begets the Hotete or
caterpillar (Spharia
JRobertsea) from which
the fungus grows
Pepe, moth
Pepeatua, butterfly
Pepepe, butterfly
Pepetuna, very large green
moth
Pokorua, ant. Syn. with
Poko
Puawere, spider
Purehurehu, large butterfly
Pukupuku, caterpilla/r
Purerehua, cadis fly
Puruhi, flea
Puwerewere, spider. Syn.
with Puauwere
Pungawerewere, spider.
Syn. with Puwerewere
Pungoungou, large chry-
salis
Pango, large meat fly
Pika, nit.
Pi-ia, nit. Syn. with Pika
Piki, the eggs of the louse
Po, mantis. It is a native
saying, if a married wo-
man sees this insect she
will conceive
Tarakihi, locust
Tatarakihi, locust. Syn.
with Tarakihi
Tuiau, flea. Syn. with
Puruhi
Titiwai, a small luminous
earth worm
Toke, a worm found in old
ruas where there are per-
manent hollow pools,
said to be nearly two
yards long
Tokoriro, large red weta,
Waikato
Tunga, grub
Tungongo, chrysalis
Tungoungou, la/rge chry-
salis
Waeroa, musquito. Syn.
with Naenae
Wairaka, a mantis. Syn.
with Po
W arepungawerewere,
spiders* web
Wenewene, an insect
Weri, caterpillar. Syn.
with Hotete
Weta, large inseot
Whe, caterpillar


NEW ZEALAND BIRDS.
17
BIRDS.
Topatopa and Manu, general names for all birds.
Hakoakoa, sea bird
Ha we, a sea bird as large
as a goose; it has large
skeleton feathers, which
are highly prized as orna-
ments ; it is only found
near the Reinga, North
Cape
Hihi, a bird like the Koro-
miko
Hihipopokero, a small
brown bird with a white
head, resembling the
Canary. {Turdus albi-
frons')
Hioi, ground lark. {Ptilo-
cinctatis.) Syn. with
Kotihi
Ho-i-ho, penguin. Fam.
-Alcidce. {Fudyptes anti-
podes')
Huia, a beautiful black bird,
size of the jay; its tail
feathers tipped with
white; two little fleshy
lappets under the beak.
Fam. Upupida. {Neo-
morpha, genus, Melli-
phagus)
Hurukiwi, wild duck
Kahu, large hawk. N.Z.
Harrier. {Falco harpe)
Kaiaia, sparrow-hawk
Kaka, large brown parrot;
the first bird that cries
in a morning. {Nestor
meridionalis)
Kakapo, ground parrot,
{Strigops habroptilus); it
does not fly although it
has wings, but hops from
branch to branch; it is
quite as large as a fowl;
its color is green and
yellow, with black whis-
kers ; it is a night bird,
and extremely rare in the
Northern Island. The
natives state there are
two kinds, one of which
is larger than the Kiwi
Kakariki, green parrot.
Fam. Psittacidw. {Platy-
cerus Novae Zelandicae)
Kakatai, a bird
Kakatarepo, a bird
Kanohimowhiti, or Tau-
hau, ivhite eye or blight
bird {Zosterops lateralis)
was first observed July,
1856 in the South, and
about Auckland 1865
in flights of 50 to 80 in
the autumn, in the fol-
lowing spring it was seen
in pairs at the Thames;


18
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
it migrates from the ex-
treme south.
Kao, a sea bird seen on
shore only in the night
Karearea, hawk, N.Z. falcon
Karewarewa, quail-hawk.
{Falco brunnea.) Syn.
with Kauaua. Ka tangi
te Karewarewa hi wae-
nga te rangi pai ka ua
apopo. Ka tangi ki
waenga o te rangi ua ka
paki apopo
Karoro, sea bird. Kapaoa
te karoro
rail.
Fam.
Karuhiruhi, a bird
Katatai, a kind of
Kataitai, a bird.
Fringillidae alauda. Novce
Zelandioe
Kauau, shag or cormorant.
Fam. Pelicandce. (Gra-
culus carunoulatus)
Kauaua, sparrow-hawk
Kawekawea, a bird of pas-
sage Syn. with Koho-
peroa
Kereru, wood pigeon. {Co-
lumbus Spadicea)
Kikimutu, a bird
Kiwi, Apterix Australis.
Fam. Struthionida. Syn.
with Kiwikiki
Koekoa, a bird of passage,
the Society Cuckoo. Syn.
with Kohaperoa
Kohihi, a land bird. Fam.
Cuculidoe. {Endynamys
taitensis)
Kohaperoa, a bird of pas-
sage ; the New Zealand
cuckoo; it has a long
tail, and spotted like the
sparrow-hawk; its ap-
pearance is a token for
the kumara planting
Kokako, a black bird; the
New Zealand crow. Fam.
Corvicallaeas cinera.
{Glaucopia). Syn. with
Kakako
Koko, the mocking or parson
bird. {Arthoceros). Syn.
with Tui
Kok ok a, a bird
Kokomako, a bird. Fam.
Jtfeliphagidoe. The chief
singing bird of the New
Zealand grove. {Anthor-
nis melanura)
Kokoreke, quail. Syn. with
Koutareke
Kokoromako, the sweetest
songster of the New Zea-
land grove. Syn. with
Koromako. Genus NLel-
liphagus
Kokotai, a little land bird
Komiromiro, a little bird
Konini, a bird. Syn. with
Kataitai. {Ralus assimilis)
Kopaopao, bell bird
Koreka, quail
Koromako, the bell bird
Syn. with Kopaopao
Koromako, the chief sing-
ing bird of New Zealand.
Syn. with Kokoromako
Korora, small green and
white penguin. Fam.
Alcidoe. {Spheniscus minor)


NEW ZEALAND BIRDS.
19
Korowatito, a little bird.
Syn. with. Matata
Kotare, kingfisher. Fam.
A Icedinidoe. ( Halcyon
vagrans)
Kotaretare, the N.Z. king-
fisher. Syn. with Kotare
Kotata, a bird
Ko'ihe, a bird. (Melliphaga
cincta)
Kotihetihe, a variety of
the koromako; white on
the neck. (Philotis cincta)
Kotuku, large white crane,
(Ardea flavirostris) chiefly
found in the Middle
Island, but occasionally
in the North. Kotahi ano
te r er eng a o te Kotuhu
Koukou, an owl, small size;
easily killed with a stick
in the day. Syn. with.
Buru and Peho the More-
pork of the colonists
Koutareke, a little bird
Kuaka, a small sea bird,
frequenting the shores,
resembling the snipe;
much prized as food
Kuku, pigeon ; this word is
also used for the oil ex-
tracted from it, which is
highly prized as food
Kukupa, pigeon. Syn. with
Kereru
Kuruengo, the shoveller; a
duck of Taupo
Kurupatu, a land bird;
very tame; when he
hears the beating of fern
root he flies to the pah,
and is killed
Kuweto, a bird
Makomako, a bird. Syn.
with Koromako
Mata, reed or swamp spar-
row ; a small brown bird
with four long feathers
in its tail; it is regarded
as being sacred
Matapouri, teal
Matata, a swamp bird; its
flight short; is easily
killed with a stick. Syn.
with Mata. Fam. Zws-
cindae (Sphinacacus)
Matuku, bittern. (Botaurus
melanotus.) It makes three
hollow cries at a time;
also the slate-colored
crane (Ardea matuk)
Matukuhurepo, a bird. Syn.
with Matuku
Miromiro, small land bird;
very tame; can be caught
by the hand. (Miro albi-
frons)
Mirotoitoi. Fam. Muscica-
pidce. (Muscipeta toitoi)
Moa, large wingless birds,
now extinct. The JDinor-
nis Giganteus, height 10
feet; Robustus, 8 ft 6 in ;
jElephantopus, 6 ft 8 in;
Casuarinus, 5 ft 6 in;
Crassus, 5 ft; JDidiformus,
4 ft 8 in. (Apteryx gigan-
teus). It is also the com-
mon name for the domes-
tic fowl in all the South
Sea Islands
Moakerua, a black bird with
red bill and feet; a fresh
water bird; a water hen


20
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Moakoru, very small rail
Moeriki, rail of the Chat-
ham Isles. {Rallus Dief-
fenbachii)
Moho, rail; color black;
said to be a wingless bird
as large as a fowl, having
a long bill; it is nearly
exterminated by the cat;
its cry was keo, keo
Mohoua, canary bird. Fam.
Certhidce. (Ochrocephala)
Momohoua, a bird. Fam.
Lasindoe. }Syn. with Biro-
riro. ( Ca/rthipa/rus ma-
culecordus)
Momoroua, small bird with
a white head
Morunga, a bird
Motingitingi, a small land
bird
Ngirungiru, a bird; tom-
tit. {Petroica macroco-
phala.) Syn. with Mero-
toitoi
Okioi, a land bird
Okiuai, lark
Onge, bird
Pakura, a bird. Sjyl. with
Pukeko
Papaawa, a bird
Papanga, black widgeon
Parekareka, a social bird.
Fam. Pelecaidw. ( Gran-
cuius auritus)
Par er a, wild duck {Anas
superciliosa')
Peho, the mor epork
Pekeha, a sea bird
Pi, young birds
Pihaua, a little black and
white bird
Pihipihi, a bird
Pihoihoi, the New Zealand
ground lark
Pimirumiru, hawk
Piopio, a little red land bird
Piopio, a bird of passage
from the South. Fam.
Tur didoe. ( Turnagracras-
sirostris)
Pipiawa, a small bird
Pipipi, wren. Syn. with
Biroriro. Ka tangi te
Biroriro ko te raumati
Pipipi, turkey
Pipitori, a small land bird
Pipiwarauroa, a beautiful
bird of passage, in its mig-
ratory habits resembling
the swallow; white breast
with green and gold lines;
it lays its eggs in the nest
of a small bird (gerygone
fla/oiventris') which tends
the young cuckoo until
after the parent bird has
departed. Fam. Cuculidae
( Chrysococyx lucidus')
Pipiwawaroa, a bird. Syn.
with Pipiwarauroa. The
Pipiwarauroa and the
Kohoperoa are called
birds of Hawaiki
Pirangirangi, the smallest
New Zealand bird ; color
black and yellow. Syn.
with Miromiro. {PLusci-
ca/rpa')
Piripiri, a very small bird ;
teetotum warbler


NEW ZEALAND BIRDS.
21
Pitoitoi, a small sea bird
Pitoitoi, a small land bird
Piwakawaka, fantail fly-
catcher. Fam. Muscica-
pidae. {Rhipidura flabel-
lifera)
Piwauwau, the wren bird.
Fam. Certhidae. (Acan-
thisitta clitoris)
Poaka, pied stilt. {Lliman-
topis)
Popokatea, New Zealand
canary bird. Syn. with
Mahoua. ( Orthornyx he-
tero alytus)
Poporoihewa, a bird; bill
long like a snipe; it de-
stroys the kumara; hence
the saying, Ehaere ano te
Poporoihewa, e noho ana te
kiore
Popotai, small bird; rail
Popotai, a sea bird
Popotai, a land bird (ex-
tinct)
Poreterete, species of duck
Porihawa, a bird
Porohaua, a bird
Powaitere, green parrot.
Syn. with Kakarika
Puetoeto, a bird living in
swamps
Pukeko, swamp hen; red bill
and feet; back black;
breast bright blue; and
white under the tail.
{Porophyrio melanotus)
Pukunui, a bird. Fam.
Charidridae. (Charac-
trius obscurus)
Pututangiatama, duck with
a very short tail
Purourou, a bird. Fam.
Sturnidae
Putangitange, paradise duck
Fam. Anatidae. (Casarca
variegata)
Pututo, a bird. Syn. with
Pukunui
Puweto, a bird.
Beoreo, a sea bird
Birerire, half-grown kiwi
Biroriro, wren. Fam. Lus-
cindae. Syn. with Pipipi
and Momohoua
Boaroa (apterix maxima) is
about the size of the tur-
key and makes use of its
powerful spurs in fight-
ing and will frequently
beat off a dog. Hab.
west coast, Middle Island
Buru, oicl; a stupid bird;
easily killed with a stick.
Fam. Strigidae athene.
{Novae Zelandiae)
Taia, a bird
Taiko, a sea bird. Syn.
with Takupu
Takahikahi, a sea-shore bird
Syn. with Tuturiwatu
Takupu, a bird. Syn. with
Taiko
Takupu, white gull; nan-
keen colored head
Tara, sea swallow. Peleca-
nidae. (Sula Australis)
Tarapo, night bird as large
as a fowl; ground parrot.
Syn. with Kakapo


22
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Tarapunga, little gull, a sea
bird found at Taupo
Tataiato, a small bird. Fam.
Luscindae
Tatarih.uka, a sacred bird ;
if killed it is said to cause
rain or snow to fall
Tatariki, a small bird. Fam.
Luscindae
Tatawai, a small land bird
which cries in the night
Tauhau, blight bird
Tawaki, large brown and
white penguin. Fam. Al-
cidae
Tei, brown icidgeon
Teiwaka, teal or shoveller
Tewakawaka, black fantail
flycatcher. Fam. Rhipi-
dura fuliginosa
Tiaki, a bird. Fam. Stur-
nidae
Tieki, a bird. Fam. Stur-
nadae. (Creadion carun-
culatus)
Tierawaki, a bird. Fam.
Sturnidae
Tieutieu, a night bird
Tikaokao, barn-door fowl
Tiotio, a bird
Tirakaraka, small land bird
Titi, mutton bird; only heard
on shore at night; lays
inland in holes in the
rocks one egg, and is very
fat. Fam. Procellaria.
(Pelecanoides urinatrisc.)
Pie manu wangainga tahi
Titomako, bell-bird. Syn.
with Koromako
Titipu, a sea bird
Titoitoi, a bird
Tiutiu, a night bird
Tiwaewaka, a very small
bird
Toetoe, a bird. Fam. Lus-
cindae. (Gerthipa/rus No-
vae Zelandiae)
Toitoi, a bird. Fam. Frin-
galtidae. (fFringilla albici)
Tokitoki, small duck; wid-
geon
Torea, a sea bird, the oyster
catcher, with red legs and
beak. Fam. Chardridae.
{Haematopus picatus)
Toroa, albatross. Fam. Pro-
cellar idae. (fDiomedea exu-
lans")
Toroa-hau-nui, black alba-
tross
Totoara, a bird, the robin.
Syn. with Toutouai
Totawara, a bird. Syn. with
Tatawai
Totokipio, little grebe
Toutouai, a small black bird
Toutouwai, a smallland bird
(petroica longipes) which
cries in the night
Tui or Tuikoko,^flrs0ft bird,
also called the mocking
bird; a beautiful black
bird, size of a thrush,
with white delicate hair
feathers under the throat.
Fam. Meliphagidae. Syn.
with Koko. (Prosthema-
dera Novae Zelandiae)
Tukuraroa, a bird
Turituripourewa, a bird
Turuatu, a bird


NEW ZEALAND BIRDS.
23
Tutumata, a bird. Fam.
Scolopacidae. (Ilimanto-
pus Novae Zelandiae')
Tuturiwatu, a seabird found
inland. Fam. Chraradri-
dae. (Charadrius Xan-
thocheitus J
Warauroa, a bird of passage.
Syn. with Pipiwarauroa
Weka, rail, as large as a
hen; the wood hen.
(Ralus Australis. Ocy-
dromus Australis)
Wio, blue mountain duck
Wioi, a sacred bird given as
an offering to the gods
Wiorau, small grey duck
found on the forest
streams.
FISH.
Ngohi and Ika, general names for all fish.
Aihe, a large fish 24 feet
long; small head like a
porpoise with similar
teeth : yields a large quan-
tity of oil. Syn. with
Rarahi
Angengi, &fish
Araara, a fish like the Ka-
hawai
Atuhakona, a -fish
Ature, a se&fish
Aturere, &fish
Atutai, a se&fish
Aua, a small fish
Awa, like a roach; a sea fish
frequenting rivers. Syn.
with Takeke
Awa, a small fish found in
tidal rivers
Awapaka, &fish
Hahari, a shell fish
Hahau, &fish
Hako, a large fish ; the yel-
low tail or kingfish (la-tris
lini ata), like a salmon in
shape
Haku, like the tamure found
at Kapiti
Hapuku, a large cod fish of
excellent flavor
Hatoketoke, young eel
Hawiwi, young eel
Hekemai, large shark
Hepara, rock trout. (Gala-
xias alepidotus)
Hiwihiwi, a fish
Hopuhopu, porpoise
Huamutu, a shell fish
Hue, a fish
Ihea scaleless fish, 4 inches
long, full of oil, much
prized. Syn. with Takeke


24
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Inanga, a small fresh water
fish, found in Taupo and
most rivers, 3 to 6 inches
long; has scales. (Ela-
cotris basalis)
Kahawai, like a mackarel
Kanae, mullet. (Mugilfor-
steri)
Kara, a shoal of fish
Karahue, a shellfish
Karohi, a very small scaly
fish found in tidal rivers
Karoro, a shell fish
Kauwaitaiea, large eel
Kawari, a shell fish
Kawhia, a fish
Kehe, a fish
Kiriri, a rough skinned fish
with one or two spines,
which it can elevate at
pleasure, springing from
its back; it grunts like a
Koaro, a small fresh water
fish, 3 inches long, much
prized, found in most ri-
vers and in Rotoairo and
Taupo
Koheru, a fish
Kohihoi, a fish. (Jlaemero-
caetes acanthorhynchus)
Kohua, eel
Koinga, a species of shark
Koiro, conger eel
Kokopu, a scaly fish, found
in Taupo and most rivers,
from 5 to 9 inches long
and rather thick in pro-
portion
Kokopu, a scaleless fresh
water fish, as large as the
Kahawai
Kopakopa, a large eel
Kopaopao, an eel
Kopuatotara, a fish. Syn.
with Kopuawai
Kopuawai, round fish, co-
vered with spines. (Dio-
dona globulas') *
Kopuhuri, a fish. Syn. with
Kahawai
Koputaputa, fish bladder
Koroama, a fish
Korowawa, a fish
Kotoretore, sea anemone
Kouarea, snapper, like a
bream
Koukauka, a fish. Syn. with
Kahawai
Koura papatea, sea cray
fish; it attains a large
size. (Potomobus')
Koura, cray fish, found in
most freshwater streams;
it is about 4 inches long.
In Rotorua lake it attains
a length of nearly 8 inches
Kowaitau, a fish. Syn. with
Kahawai
Kowiti, oafish
Kuai, a fish
Kumu, a fish. (TriglaPa-
pilionaced)
Kumukumu, a red fish; it
derives its name from
grunting like a pig
(Trigla Papilionacea")
Kungongingongi, a fish. Syn
with Kahawai


NEW ZEALAND FISH.
25
fciparu, a fish. (Pagrus-
latus)
Kuruhunga, a fish
Mahoa, a fish. (Platessa
Scapha)
Makawito, a small sea fish
like the herring. Syn.
with the Auture
Mako, a shark peculiar to
this latitude, teeth prized
as ear ornaments
Manga, a long beautiful fish
with few scales ; the ba-
racoota
Mangonui, pike-headed or
black physeter whale
Mango, shark
Mangopare, hammer headed
shark
Maomao, &fish
Marari, like a mackarel
Maratea, a fish
Maroro, flying fish
Maru, a small fish found in
tidal rivers
Maru, a very small se&fish
Mata, a red fish
Matawa, a large sea fish,
larger than the shark
Mimiha, black whale
Mohi, a sea fish found at
Kapiti
Mohiaru, a fish. Fam. Dis-
coboli. (Lepadogastus pin-
nulatus)
Moki, a fine sea fish. (La-
tris ciliaris)
Nauhuri, a small fresh water
fish
Ngakoikoi, &fish
Ngaiore, a small fresh water
fish
Ngauri, a small fresh water
fish
Ngehe, rock fish; curiously
spotted white and brown
Ngehi, &fish
Ngoetoeto, species of eel
Ngoiro, conger eel. Syn.
with Koiro
Ngohengohe, a fish. Syn;
with Pangohengobe
Ngohiwe, species of eel
Ngu, a SQ& fish; the squid
Ngutukao, & fish
Oke, species of shark
Orea, species of eel
Oru, large sting-ray
Paewai, large eel
Paike, humpback whale
Pakake, black whale
Pakaurua, sting-ray; the
wound inflicted by this
fish is frequently mortal.
Puhi, a Taupo chief, was
killed by a sting-ray.(Baza
rostrata)
Pakirikiri, like a perch or a
haddock
Pakurakura, a fish
Pangarangara, &fish
Pangoengoe, a fresh water
fish, 4 to 8 inches long ;
scaleless. Syn. with Pa-
pangoko
Pangohengohe, a scaleless
fish, 6 inches long
Pangoungou, &fish
Papaka, a fish found at
Putiki; a crab
3


26
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Papaka, crab ; there are two
kinds, both very small
Papaki,kind of catfish, hav-
ing two curious projectors
like feet, and the ventral
fins united
Papana, a fish
Papangoke, a fresh water
fish, 4 to 8 inches long;
scaleless. Syn. with Pan-
goengoe
Parae, a, fish
Parake, a fish. Syn. with
Takeke
Parakoko, a fish
Paratohe, a sea fish
Paratuna, a fish. Syn. with
Kokopu
Paraua, sperm whale
Parekirikiri, a fish. (Labrus
poecilopleura')
Parera, a. fish
Parikou, species of eel
Parohea, a small fish
Parore, a. fish
Paru, a. fish
Patangatanga, a red/is7&
Patiki, a flat fish found in
the rivers. (Rhombus
plebeius)
Pawerawera, a beautiful red
fish with streaks
Pihapiharau, lamprey which
ascends the rivers from
the sea to their source; it
has no bones, but an ugly
head, which enlarges as
it recedes from the sea,
when it attains three times
its natural size; it is much
esteemed; eats like the
sardine : its mouth like a
leech, but has teeth
Piharau, lamprey. Syn. with
Pihapiharau
Pikitara, species of eel
Piokeoke, small shark
Puhaiao, small fish, spotted
white and red
Puhanga, eel
Puhi, species of eel
Puhikorokoro, species of eel
Pura, a fish
Puraruraru, redfish streaked
with spines on the back
and gills ; it is not eaten
Putaiore, small eel
Puwaiau, a, fish. Syn. with
Kumukumu
Pari, a. fish
Rarihi, a fish. Syn. with
Aihe
Raukura, a fish
Raumarie, a beautiful fish,
shaped like a mackerel
Rawaru, a>fish. Syn. with
Hapuku and Parikiriki;
also a large Kokopa
Repe repe, the squill or sea
pen
Repo, sting-ray
Reremai, shark
Rerepari, cray fish; the
crab
Ringatawaka, eel
Roh a, sting-ray
Roroai, a fresh water fish
Rota, a fish
Ruahine, large eel
Tahimaro, large eel


NEW ZEALAND FISH.
27
Taiharakeke, red eel found
at the roots of flax
Taiwaru, a fish
Takeke, a small fresh water
fish
Takeke, a fish. Syn. with
Tikiheme
Takeke, smelt; a sea fish
frequenting rivets; very
small. Syn. with Awa
Takeketonga, unicorn fish
Takiekie, eel
Tamure, snapper; like a
bream. Syn. with Kouarea
Tarao, scaleless fish as large
as the Kahawai. Syn. with
Kokopu
Tarau, a fish. Syn. with
Tarao
Tarekihi, a beautiful flat
silvery fish with a black
spot on the back
Tatera, a fish. Syn. with
Ururoa
Tauwauwau, a, fish
Tawaka, fish like a shark
Tawatawa, mackerel
Tewatewa, a fish. Syn. with
Tawatawa
Tikihemi, scaleless fish 4 in.
long ; full of oil; much
prized. Syn. with Ihe and
Takeke
Tima-ariki, small eel
Tohitohi, a sea/is7z,
Tohora, black whale
Tohoroa, black whale
Toiko, species of shark
Toke, a fish
Torewai, fresh water muscle
Torere, small kind of sting-
ray
Toruhi, a fish
Totoke, a fish
Totorongu, small fish found
in tidal rivers
Tuari, blind sea eel
Tuatina, a fish. Syn. with
Ururoa
Tuaweta, a variety of the
Inanga
Tuna, eel; found two yards
long, and as thick as a
man’s thigh; it is then
called Ruahine
Tuoro, large-headed eel; it
is said to attack man
Tupoupou, porpoise
Tutuira, small sting-ray
Uoro, eel
Upokohue, porpoise; like a
small whale
Upokororo, scaly fish; li-
ft. long; like a kahawai;
also a small fresh water
fish
Ururoa, species of shark ; 8
ft. long ; very voracious
Waerau, cray fish
Waiari, the ling
Waiaua, a fish. Syn. with
Upokohue
Waiehu, a fish
Waikeo, a fish
Waingenge, shark
Wairepo, sting-ray
Wakatupua, a fish
Wakawaiata, a fish
W apuku, a fish. Syn. with
Hapuku


28
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Warawara, black whale
Warehenga, afish found at
Kapiti
Warehou, a highly prized
sea fish, which attains a
length of 2 feet, and
breadth of 18 inches. Syn.
with Warehenga
Warepu, species of shark
Wareware, a fish
Wariwari, a fish. Syn. with
Takeke
Weke, sea fish of Taranaki
Whai, sting-ray
SHELLS.
Pipi, a cockle, general name for Bivalves.
Puru, shell fish, general name for Univales.
Anga, cockle shell
Angarite, a shell fish. Syn.
with Kokota
Eneni, largest N.Z. trochus
Hahari, a shellfish
Hauru, a shell fish
Hinangi, cockle. Syn. with
Pipi
Hanikura, a shell fish
Huai, a shell fish
Huamutu, a shell fish
Hunangi, bivalve
Hururoa, a shell fish
Huwai, white cockle
Kaeo, a shellfish
Kahitua, a shell fish
Kaikaikaroro, triangular
shaped bivalve
Kainga, cockle shell
Kaitua, small bivalve; the
Whanganui Pipi
Kakara, a shell fish
Kakahi, a shell fish. Syn.
with Karo
Karahue, a shell fish
Karangaungau, a shell fish
Karikawa, a sea shell
Karo, fresh water muscle*
(Uhio)
Karoro, a shell fish
Kawari, a shell fish
Kina, sea egg. (Echinus')
Kokota, a shell fish. (Pinna)
Kokota, a cockle
Kokuta, large flat white
shell fish ; bivalve
Koramu, helix; sea shell
Kororiwa, a shell fish
Kota, cockle shell
Kotawatawa, a shell fish
Koura, sea crag fish. (Pali-
nurus)
Kuakua, pecten
Kukuku, a shell fish


NEW ZEALAND SHELLS.
29
Kuku, large sea muscle,
sometimes 10 in. long
Kukupara, small sea muscle
Kupa, pinna
Kutai, muscle
Kuwaru, a shell fish
Maikukukarewarewa, a
shell fish
Makoi, cockle shell
Makui, cockle shell
Mangopare, a shell fish
Mitimiti, small trochus
Mokamoka, small snail
shell
Ngaingai, a shell fish
Ngakahi, limpet
Ngakihi, limpet
Ngaongao, a shell fish
Ngarahutaua, a shell fish
Ngaruru, large trochus
Ngengeti, a shell fish
Ngorongo, a shell fish
Onareroa, Pollia lincolata
fusus; the throat is
grooved
Papa, mutton fish. {Hali-
otts)
Patara, a shell fish
Patiotio, a shell fish
Pawa, mutton fish. {Hall-
Otis')
Peraro, a shell fish
Pip i, venus intermedia
Pipi, cockle; mesodesma
chemnitmi. Syn. with
Popoti
Porohe, large muscle
Poue, a shell fish
Pupuwaharoa, bulla
Pungorungoru, general
name for sponges
Pupu, helix
Pupukarikawa, a fresh
water shell
Pupurangi, a shell fish
Purewa, fresh water muscle
Purewa, small muscle
Rehoreho, a shell fish
Takai, struthio Iorio vermis
Tanitani, flat-ribbed bivalve
Tarawera, a shell fish
Tawiri, ribbed univalve
Tihi, Taranaki, beautiful
trochus
Tio, oyster; at the full and
change of the moon for
three days they are said
to be fatter and finer
than at other times.
{Patella)
Tip a, a shell fish
Titiko, a shell fish
Toheroa, a shell fish
Toimanga, large bivalve;
Amphidesma
Toretore, muscle. Syn. with
Kuku
Toriwai, muscle. Syn. with
Karo
Totokea, a shell fish
Totoreka, a shell fish
Toterere. Fam. Struthio-
la/rioe
Tuatua, a shell fish
Tungangi, a shell fish
Turionge, kind of cockle
Ururoa, a shell fish
Uwere, white cockle
Wahawaha, a shell fish.
Syn. with Ururoa


30
AIAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
TREES.
Rakau, timber, tree, or piece of wood, general name for
all trees.
Ake, hardest N.Z. wood,
called the N.Z. lignum
mice. Ord. Sapindaccce.
Syn. with Akerautangi.
(JDodoncea spathulata)
Akeake, a hard wood tree
Akepiro. Ord. Asteroidaceoe
(Hoxtonia furfur acea)
Akerautangi, a tree
Angiangi. a tree
Aute, paper mulberry. (Bro-
ussonetia papyrifera')
Aute Taranga, a tree. (fPe-
melia arenaria)
Emi emi, a tree
Hangehange, a tree; the
bark used as a black dye.
(fDicera dentata)
Hangehange, a tree. (Geni-
ostoma Ligustrifolinum)
Hohere, a tree. (Hoheria
propulnea)
Hohoeka. Syn. with Horo-
eka
Horoeka, a small tree with
a remarkable long nar-
row leaf. (Arabia crassi-
folia)
Horope, a tree having a
fragrant smell
Horopito, the pepper tree.
Aromatic and stimulant
Houkumara. Syn. with
Warangi
Houhi, a tree. Syn. with
Hohere
Hutukaua. Syn. with Po-
hutukawa
Kahika, a tree. (Podocarpus
excelsus}
Kahikaieka, a tree resem-
bling the Pohutukawa,
bearing a red flower, but
grows inland
Kahikatea, white pine; the
wood white, light, and
perishable if exposed to
weather. Syn. with Katea
and Kahika
Kahikatoa, a tree. Syn.
with Katoa and Manuka.
(Leptospermum scoparium')
Kai, pine tree
Kaikaro, turpentine tree
Kaikomako, a tree (Pinnan-
tia corymbora)
Kaiku, a tree. (Personia
Heterophylla)
Kanieri, a tree, south of
Thames. (Vitex Utt oralis)


NEW ZEALAND TREES.
31
Kaiwiri, a tree
Kapu, a variety of the Ti-
tree, having a very large
and broad leaf
Karaka, a tree ; the natives
affirm this tree was
brought by their ances-
tors from Hawaiki. Ord.
JKyrsinacea. (Corynocar-
pus loevigata}
Karamea, a tree; its fruit
the size of an orange ;
its juice being a bright
red; native of the East
Cape
Karamu, a bush. Ord.
Cinchonacoa. (Coprosma
lucida}. Berries edible
Karangu, a tree
Karo, a tree. (Pittospernum
crassifolium}
Katea, a tree.
Kahikatea
Katoa, a tree.
Kahikatoa
Kauere, a tree.
Puriri
Kauri, the monarch of the
New Zealand forest; pro-
duces much resin. (fDa-
mmara Australis or Pinus
Kauri}
Kawaka, fern plumaged
pine tree. (fDacrydiwn
plumosum)
Koaka, pine growing near
Tongariro, which is des-
cribed as being equally
durable with the Totara
Koakoa, a tree
Ko are, a tree
Syn. with
Syn. with
Syn. with
Koeka. Syn. with Hohoeka
and Horoaka
Kohekohe, a tree. (Laurus
kohekohe}
Kohekohe, a tree; leaves
bitter; used medicinally;
wood red; the New Zea-
land mahogany or cedar;
the flowers spring from
the sides of the stem ;
very fragrant; Ord. Me-
liaceoe. {Kartighsea spec-
tab ills}
Kohukohu, a tree having
a resinous smell. Syn.
with Tawiri. (Pittos-
porum Tenirifolium}
Kohutuhutu, a tree; fruit
edible; flowers, some
purple, some green
Kohutukutuku, a tree. Syn.
with Kohutuhutu
Kohokoho, a tree. (Solanum
acicular}
Koroi, a tree. Syn. with
Kahikatea
Ko tar at ar a, a tree
Kopi. Syn. with Karaka
Kopuka, small leaved
manuka
Konini, the fuchsia. Syn.
with Kotukutuku
Kotukutuku, fuchsia tree.
Syn. with Kohutuhutu
and Kohutukutuku. I
whea koe ite tahuritanga
o te rau o te Kotukutuku
Kouka, a tree. Syn. with
Ti and Wanake
Kowhai, acacia bearing a
yellow flower. fEdward-
sia microphylla}


32
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY,
Kowharawhara, a sweet
smelling leafed tree. (As-
tel ia Banks ii)
Mahoe, a tree. (Melicytus
ramiflorus.) Very nour-
ishing as food for cattle,
the wood is used for ob-
taing fire by friction
Mahoewao, a tree
Mai, pine. Syn. with Matai
Maire, a tree; sandal wood
family. (Mira salicifolid)
Mairetawhake, a tree. (Eu-
genia Maire)
Makamaka, a tree. Ord.
Cunoniacece. (Ackama
rosoefolid)
Mako, .a tree; the bark
used as a black dye
Makopiko, & cypress. (Thuja
doniana)
Makomako, a tree. (Friesia
racemosa otherwise Aris-
totelia racemosa)
Mamaku, the edible fern
tree
Manawa, white mangrove;
bark used for tanning.
Ord. Myoporinaceoe. (Ari-
cennia tormentosa.') The
mangrove swamps are
peculiar to the Northern
part of the island. One
at the mouth of the
Thames river mentioned
by Captain Cook is just
as he described it
Mangiao, a tree; the ash
of this country
Manuka. Syn. with Kahi-
katoa
Mapau, a tree. Syn. with
Tipau
Matai, pine. Syn. with
Mai. (Podocarpus spicata
otherwise Taxus matai)
Matipo, an ornamental tree
like the Takaka
Matipoa, a tree containing
turpentine
Maukoro, a tree. Ord. Le-
guminaceoe. (Carmicha-
elia Australis)
Miko, a tree. Syn. with
Nikau
Mingi, a tree. (Cyathodes
ascerosd)
Miro, pine ; the fruit is like
a plum of a spicy flavor,
and the favorite food of
the wood pigeon. (Podo-
carpus ferrugined)
Neinei, a tree. (Dracephyl-
lum latifolium)
Ngaio, a tree growing in the
vicinity of the sea. (Myo-
porum Icetum)
Nikau, a native palm tree.
(Areca sapidd)
Oheoka, a tree. Syn. with
Horoeka
Ongaonga, an elegant tree ;
(urtica ferox\ a species of
lime, said by the natives
to be a nettle when young
Panahe, see Pohue
Papa, a tree
Patate, a tree
Pate, a tree. (Arelia schlef-
flera)
Patete, a tree with a palma-
ted leaf; it bears bunches


NEW ZEALAND TREES.
33
of purple berries from
which ink is made
Pohue, Calystegia sepium
Pohutukawa, grows near
the sea; bears a beautiful
red flower, the “Christ-
mas tree’ ’ of the colonists;
wood hard and red
Ponga, a fern tree. {Cya-
theamedullara or dealbata)
Poporokaiwiri, a tree. {He-
dy car ia scabra)
Poroporo, aplant. {Solanum)
Poutakaua, a tree. {Metros)
Puka, a tree. {Polygonum
Australe.) A variety of
the Manuka
Pukapuka, a tree. {Brachy-
glottis repanda)
Pukatea, a tree. {Laurelia
Novae Zelandiae)
Pukerangiora, a tree. Syn.
with Rangiora
Puriri, a tree; the New Zea-
land teak; the most dura-
ble of all the timber trees
in this country ; it is not
found south of New Ply-
mouth. Syn.withKauere.
(Vitex Utt oralis)
Rakapika, a tree. {Metrosi-
deros florida)
Raki, a small tree bearing
a black flower
Ramarama, a tree. {Myrtus
bullata)
Rani, a tree. {Br achy glottis
Bani)
Rangiora, a tree with a large
leaf, white underneath
Rata, & tree; at first a climb-
er ; it throws out aerial
roots; clasps the tree it
clings to, and finally kills
it, becoming a large tree.
{Metrosideros robusta.) A
hard but not durable
wood
Raurekau, a tree
Rewarewa, a poplar like
tree. {Knight ia excelsa)
Rimu, drooping branched
red pine. {Dacrydium cu-
pressinum)
Rohutu, a tree
Rororo, young maire tree
Tanekaha, celery leaved
pine. Syn. withTawaiwai.
{Phyllocladus trichoma-
noides)
Tangao. {Tetranthus cali-
caris)
Tanoeo, a tree. {Laurus ca-
licaris)
Taraire, a tree. {Laurus ma-
crophylla)
Taraiti, a tree
Tarata, a ^reproducing tur-
pentine. {Pittosporum
crassifolium)
Tataka, a tree producing
turpentine; a parasite
attaches itself to the root
of this tree; it has no
leaves, stalk is covered
with brown scales, petals
tinged with brown but
general color dirty white
and transparent, stamens
white, flowers smell
strong


34
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Taua, tree. {Taurus Taw a,
otherwise nesodaphne Ta-
ro a}
Tawhai, Hack birch
Tawaiwai, a tree. Syn. with
Tanekaha
Tawapou. {Sapota costata)
Tawero, a tree ; bark used
for tanning. Syn. with
Towai. {Leiospermum ra-
cemosum)
Tawiri, a tree. Syn. with
Kohuhu
Ti, cabbage tree ; the root is
baked and eaten, is very
sweet, tastes like ginger-
bread ; it is then called
mauku. Syn. with Kouka
Ord. Asphodelaceoe. {Cor.
dyline Australis)
Tikirangi, Middle Island
Veronica speciosa
Tingahere, forest grass tree.
{Cor dyline stricta)
Tipau, tree similar to beech.
Syn. with Mapau. {Myr-
sine Urvillice)
Titoki, a beautiful tree;
bears its seed, a black
berry surrounded by a
red pulp; oil extracted
from the seed. Syn. with
Titongi. ( Alectr yon ex-
celsum )
Titongi, a tree. Syn. with
Titoki
Toatoa, pine growing in the
interior; the bark used
by the natives as a brown
dye-
Toi, a tree like the Ti, the
fibre of which is remark-
ably strong and durable ;
the root is eaten, and
when baked it is called
‘ Kauru’
Toro, a tree. (Drimys axil-
laris J
Toru, a tree. Bay of Islands.
(Personia Toru)
Totara,pine; its timber the
most durable of all the
New Zealand pines.
(Taxus)
Tot er a, a shrub. (Fuchsia
procumbens )
Towai, a tree. Syn. with
Tawhero
Tuhuhi, a tree producing a
bright berry agreeably
acid, the bark and wood
producing a blue black
dye
Tuputupu, mangrove
Wakou, a tree producing a
blue dye
Wanake, a tree. Syn. with
Ti
Warangi, a tree bearing a
large broad leaf; white.
(Itfelicope ternata)
Warangipiro, a tree. (FLeli-
cope simplex.) Syn. with
Warangi
Whau, a tree. Ord. Tiliacece.
(Enhelia arborescens)
Whauwhaupaku. (Pana-
xarboria )
Whaupaku, a beautiful
Aralia. (Panax arboreum)


NEW ZEALAND TREES.
35
Whautaka, a tree bearing
seed like the elder
Whauwhau, a tree
Whauwi, a tree
Whawhakau, a tree
Whauhe, a species of lime
tree
Whawhau, palmated leafed
tree
FERNS.
Bahurautt, general name for the Fern.
Aruhe, the root of the Pa-
rauhe, which is eaten.
(Pteris esculenta)
Hapunga, fern tree
Hiaue, creeping lycopodium
Huruhuru-whenua. (As-
plenium lucidum)
Kiokio, poly podium,
Kopakopa, epiphytical fern
bearing a beautiful round
leaf. (Tricomanes)
Korau, edible fern tree;
pulp eaten. Syn. with
Pitau and Mamaku.
(Cyathea medullaris)
Korokio, the smallest tree
fern
Kotote, a small leaved fern
tree
Kurakura, small kind of
lycopodium,
Maerere, small leafed fern.
Te matua aruhe
Mak aka, lady's hair. (Adi-
anthum)
Mamaku, fern tree. Syn.
with Korau
Mangapowhatu, a fern.
(Poly trichum cyphomaj
Mangemange, creeping fern.
(Lygodium articulatum)
Mokimoki, long leafed low
fern
Mouku, edible fern, having
a long slender leaf. Syn.
with Paratawito, &c.
Muru, a small trunked fern
tree
Ngutu-Kakariki, parrot's
b ill fern ; so called by the
natives from the resem-
blance its foot stalk bears
to the parrot; a beautiful
plume-like fern
Panaka, a fern. (Asplenium)
Para, a fern of a large kind.
(Marattia Salicina}
Paratawiti, edible fern. Syn
with Mouku
Paretau, large leafed fern.
(Asplenium obliquum)
Pehiakura, species of fern
Peka, fern


36
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Penako, edible fern. Syn.
with Mouku
Pitau, edible fern tree. Syn.
with Korau
Ponga, fern tree. ( Cyathea
dealbata)
Puaka-rimu, the tree lycopo-
dium
Pukuotuki, fern
Bahurahu, fern plant
Baorao, common edible fern
This used to be the prin-
cipal food of the Maori.
(JPteris eseulenta')
Barahu, fern
Barahue, common fern.
Syn. with Baorao
Bauaruhe, fern leaves
Baumanga, broad leafed
fern. (JPolypodium)
Takaka, a fern
Tapui-kotuku, creeping
lycopodium
Tarakupenga, creeping
lycopodium
Tar aw era rarauhe, a fern
Taropara, edible fern. Syn.
with Mouku
Tawatawa, adianthum
Ti Taranaki, fern growing
in the plains, having its
fructification on a sepa-
rate stalk; the whole is
eaten
Tote, fern tree. Syn. with
Ponga
Tuakura, fern tree. Syn.
with Tukura
Tuakura, fern tree growing
chiefly in swamps and by
the side of streams.
{Dicksonia squarrosa)
Tukura, fern tree. Syn. with
Tuakura
Tupari, fern
Uwipara, edible fern; the
root, which separates into
scales, is eaten; the leaf
is very long; it is ex-
tremely rare. Syn. with
Mouku
Waewaekoukou, a running
fern. {Lycopodiumvolubile)
Waewaekaka, a fern. {Glei-
chnia hecistophylla)
Warengarenga, fern
Wheki, fern tree. Syn. with
Tuakura. (Dicksonia
squarrosa')
Whekeponga, a tree fern.
{Dicksonia ant arctic a}
SHRUBS.
Bahau, same general name as for a Tree.
Aka, a shrub. {Metrosidcros Ake, a shrub, (JDodoncea
buxifolia) viscosa)


NEW ZEALAND SHRUBS.
37
Akepiro, a shrub. {Eurybia
furfuracea)
Amiami, a sweet smelling
shrub
Emiemi, a beautiful species
of Ar alia growing on the
Whanganui
Hangehange, a shrub. {Ge-
niostoma licjustrifoliurn)
Hohoeka, a shrub
Horoeka, a shrub with curi-
ous long narrow leaves;
. wood hard
Horopito, a shrub; a pepper.
{Drimys axillaris)
Huripo, a shrub having a
very foetid smell; grow-
ing in the interior near
Taupo
Huruhuruwhenua, a shrub.
{Aspleniwm lucidum)
Kaikomako, a small shrub
Kakariki, a shrub
Karamu, a shrub. {Copros-
ma.) The New Zealand
coffee
Kawakawa, a shrub. Cava
of the islands ; leaves and
fruit used as medicine for
the toothache. {Piper
excelsus) Proverb—Eaha
te tohu o te Ringaringa
he kawakawa
Koheuheu, a shrub. Syn.
with Poroporo
Kohoho, a shrub. {Solanum
IcLciniatumi)
Kohoihoi, a shrub. Syn.
with Poroporo
Kohuhu, a shrub
4
Kohihi, a shrub with red
berries
Kokimiki, a shrub, same as
the Kokoroiko. {Veronica
salicifolia)
Kokomuka, a shrub. {Vero-
nica)
Kokoroiko, a shrub; the dry
branches when burnt have
a greasy appearance;
hence the native saying—
Te rakau i tunua ai te moa
Kokoromiko, a shrub. Syn.
with Kokomiko
Koko taiko, a shrub bearing a
dark pink trumpet flower
Kopatu. {Pelargonium clan-
destinum)
Kopeka, a shrub; long nar-
row leaves
Koroika, a shrub. Syn. with
Kokoroiko
Korokiataranga, a shrub.
{Korokia buddloeoides)
Korokio, a shrub. Syn. with
Kokomuka and Koromiko
Koromike, a shrub. Syn.
with Kokoroiko
Koromiko. {Veronica ligus-
trifolia)
Korimiko Tongariro,a shrub
bearing a beautiful pink
flower; an Aralia
Koropuka, a prickly shrub,
bearing a white berry.
Taupo
Kowaingutukaka, parrot's
bill acacia; a beautiful
scarlet flowering shrub.
( G lianthus pi i nicei is)


38
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Kumarahou, a shrub bearing
a yellow flower. Ord.
Bhamnacece. (Pomaderris
ellipticd)
Mahimahi, a sweet scented
shrub
Makaka, a kind of broom,
bearing a small white pen-
p tilled pea flower
Makaka, a shrub
Manuka, a shrub. (Leptos-
permum ericoides)
Matata, a shrub bearing a
beautiful orange like
flower
Matuakumara, a plant. (Ge-
ranium glabratum)
Maukoro, a shrub. Syn. with
Makaka
Mawhai, a creeping plant.
(Sicyos angulatus)
Monoai, a Taupo shrub hav-
ing pink shaped leaves;
an Aralia ; flower red. Ki
te mea ka tahuna i te ahi
ka ua
Napuku, a shrub 6 feet high,
bears a blue flower. Ord.
Scrophularinaceae. (Ve-
ronica speciosa)
Nelienehe, a beautiful tree.
(Epacris)
Ngaupata, a large shrub like
the Karamu
Panapana. (Cardamine hir-
suta)
Peoi, a shrub. (Solanum)
Pia Manuka, exudations on
branches of. (Leptosper-
mun scoparium)
Poporo, a shrub. (Solarium
laciniatum)
Popopoko. (Clematis pa/rvi-
flora)
Poroporo. Syn. with Poporo
Puawhananga, a creeper.
(Clematis indivisa)
Puhou, a shrub. Syn. with
Tutu, &c.
Pukerangiora, a shrub. Syn.
with Warangi
Rakapika, a shrub. (Metro-
sideros florida)
Raorao, heath; bears a white
berry
Rawiri. (Leptospermum eri-
coides)
Reua, a shrub
Tatara, a shrub
Tataramoa, creeping plant.
(Bobus Australis)
Tauhinu, a shrub. Ord.
Bhannnaceae
Tauhinukorokiu, a shrub
Tauhinukoromiko, a shrub
Taweku. a shrub. Syn. with
Tutu
Tipore, a shrub
Toi, a shrub. (Barberi Aus-
tralis)
Toretore, a graceful shrub,
with orange flowers.
(Penstemom)
Tumatakura, a low thorny
bush
Tumingi, a Tongariro shrub
having small thick leaves,
white underneath. (Leu-
copogon fasciculatus)


NEW ZEALAND SHRUBS.
39
Tupakihi, a shrub. Syn. with
Tutu
Tutu, a fruit bearing shrub;
fruit hanging in bunches;
the juice is sweet and
harmless, but the seeds
and leaves are highly poi-
sonous to man and beast;
it produces a black dye,
also a red. (Coriaria
sarmentosa)
Upirau-ririki, a small leafed
bush bearing red berries
Waiuatua; grows in the
woods and bears an orange
colored flower. (Rhabdo-
thamnus solandri)
Wharangi, a broad leafed
shrub. (Melicope ternata)
Wharangipiro, shrub. (Eury*
bia Cimninghamii)
FLOWERS, PLANTS, &c.
Puwha, a Thistle, general name for all leaves of plants
which are used as vegetables.
Anata, 'buttercup
Aoanga, variegated flax
Ate, flax requiring to be
scraped with a shell
Emiemi, a plant growing in
the woods
Eruerueka, pig's ear or Me-
sembryanfliemum
Hanea, large cress growing
on the edge of rivers
Hangoangoa, a plant
Harakeke, nativeflax.(Phor-
mium tenax.) Ekore e
ngaro e mimimonga nui
harakeke tomai no roto no
waiwiriara
Heruna. (Polygonum ad-
pressum)
Hioi, a plant
Horokio, a plant
Huruhuruwhenua, a plant.
(Asplenium lucidium)
Hutiwai, a plant
Kahakaha, a plant growing
near the coast, and sup-
posed to be Capt. Cook’s
“ scurvy grass.” (Astelia
Cunninghamit)
Kaiarurerure, buttercup
Kaikaiarure, buttercup
Kaikaiatua, a plant. (Rab-
dothemnus solandri)
Kawariki, a plant
Kohiriki, cowitch. Ord. Se-
neciondeae. (Bidens pi-
losa)
Kohukohu, chickweed
Kohunga, fine kind of flax


40
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Kohukohu. Ord. Amaran-
thacece, (Miniarum biflo-
rum)
Kokoiko, a small plant like
Heliotrope
Kokota, minute willoiv plant
(Npilobium minuta)
Konini, the fuchsia berry
Kopakopa, ribbed grass.
(Plantain)
Kopata, fennel; growing
on the interior plains
Kopokopo, the Chatham
forget-me-not. (My-
sotites)
Korari, native flax. Syn.
with Harakeke
Korikori, species of ranun-
culus ; buttercup
Koropuku, a plant bearing
a red berry resembling a
cranberry
Koru, a beautiful blue and
white fower; salvia
Kowaikura, large buttercup
Kowarawara, epiphyte. (As-
telia Banksii)
Kowhitiwhiti, watercress
Kukuta, a fresh water weed
growing in the lake at
Horowhenua; hollow
jointed; Equisetum
Kupapa, a climber. (Paisi-
flora tetrandra)
Kutakuta, a pretty white
flower
Kutakutawai, bu/rr. Syn.
with Piripiri
Kuweo, a prickly plant. Syn.
with Papai
Alakamaka, a flowering
shrub. (Ackama rosoe-
folia)
Mahimahi, a plant
Mahua, a plant
Mairehau. (Phebalium Nu-
dum)
Maihaika, ''orchis; the ge-
neral name for the Orchis.
(Thelymytra Forsteri.
Orthoceras strictum mi-
crotis Banksii)
Makaka, a plant growing in
pools
Marowarakihi, a plant; na-
tivelily. Syn. with Renga-
renga. (Arthropodium
cirrhatum)
Maru, a plant growing in
pools
Mataroa, a straight leaved
flax
Matuakumara, & plant. (Ge-
ranium)
Maukauku, a plant
Mauku, a plant
Mingi. Ord. Fpecrideceoe.
(Cyathsdes acerosa)
Motuorui and Aongi, flax,
variegated, poor fibre
Nahinahi, a plant. Syn.
with Panahi
Nahui. Ord. Amaranthaceoe
(Alternanthera denticula-
Nakinaki, a plant [ta)
Naupiro, a plant
Neine, a beautiful flowering
shrub up the Whanganui
Nene. (Bracophyllum lati-
folium)


NEW ZEALAND FLOWERS AND PLANTS.
41
Ngau, cress: growing like
the wallflower
Ongaonga, nettle. (TTrtica)
Otea, sowthistle. Syn. with
Puwa
One, fine kind of flax for
mats, not for cordage, it
is too brittle
Ouhe, flax plant
Outatoranga. Ord. Thyrne-
laceoe. (Pimelia arenaria)
Panahi, convolvulus. (Caly-
stegia soldanella)
Panapana, small cress
Panara, Taupo primrose
Papai, a prickly plant; Ta-
ramea. Syn. with Kuweo.
(Aciphyllia squarosa)
Papataniwhaniwha, a plant
like the daisy, Ord. Aste-
roidacece. (Lagenophora
Forsteri)
Paraihia, a diminutive kind
of spinach with a very
dark leaf
Parataniwha. Ord. Ortocar-
paceae (Elatostemna ru-
gosa)
Pareke, sowthistle
Parekauaeriki, flax plant
Parerarera, a plant. (Plant-
ago)
Paritanewha,yto, fine kind
Pate. (Schefflera digitata)
Patotara, a diminutive plant
bearing a small white
flower, very fragrant; like
heath. (Gyothodes oxyd-
rus)
Pekawani, a weed
Pekepeke, Taupo daisij
Pekepeke, a white ever-
lasting
Pepepe, a plant
Piahaere, a plant
Pikopiko, a plant
Pinaihere, a native carrot.
(Taupo)
Pingau, a plant
Piraurau, a little low plant.
Syn. with Tarakupenga
Piripiri, a plant. (Gonio-
carpus tetragynibs)
Piripiriwliata, a plant or
burr. Ord. Rhamnaceos
(Garpodetus serratus)
Piupiu, a plant
Pohua, convolvulus
Poipapa. (Chenopodium tri-
andrum)
Porewarewa, crane’s bill
geraniibm
Porokaiwiri. (Hedycaria
dentata)
Poroporo, an edible night-
shade; the natives eat the
leaves both fresh and
cooked; flowers white
Pojrorua. Syn. with Pareke.
Sowthistle
Puarere, cress
Puaruoa, large groibndsell
Puatea, a white leafed weed.
Syn. with Pukatea. (Ena-
phaliibm)
Puatea, fine yellow daisy; a
common weed with a
white leaf
Pukatea, a white leafed weed.
Syn. with Puatea


42
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Puka. (Polygonum Austr ale}
Punaioro, a -plant
Punaketere, wild carrot.
Syn. with Runaruna
Putoa, a plant
Puwha, sowthistle. Syn.
with Otea. (Sonchus
oleracens)
Rahoraho, a little low plant
Syn. with Tarakupenga
Rarau, a plant
Ratawa, fine kind of flax
Raukawa, a plant
Raumoa, flax; requiring to
be scraped with a shell
Raupeti, solanum
Rengarenga, N.Z. spinach
Rengarenga,aZ^Zy. (Arthro*
podium cirrhatum)
Rerehape, fine kind of flax
Retireti, sorrel. Syn. with
Tutaikahu. (Oxalis ur-
villei)
Returetu, a water plant
Rongotainui, flax, for fish-
ing lines and cordage, the
best sort for commercial
purposes
Rimuroa, a kind of campa-
nula ; also a cress
Ririwa, flax-, bearing a
white flower of a shrubby
character; growing about
two feet high ; a linum
Ririwhaka, a plant
Roneu, pepperment
Roniu, a herb. (JBr achy come
radicata)
Runa, common name for
dock
Runaruna, wild carrot. Syn.
with Punaketere
Taihinu, a beautiful white
flower of Taupo
Takitakiroa, blue campanula
Tani w haniwh a,Taupo/e?meZ
Tarakupenga, a little low
plant bearing a blue trans-
parent berry; it grows
on the sand hills
Taramea, a prickly plant
with a palm shaped leaf;
also a prickly shrub
Tarariki, flax plant
Tarawera, a plant
Taretu, aplant like a coarse
grass, bearing blue ber-
ries
Tauwau, euphorbinm
Tawara, watercress
Tihauora, a plant
Tikapu, a fibrous plant from
which rope is made
Tikupenga, a plant. (Cor-
dyline stricta)
Ti Taranaki, a plant
Tihore, flax plant
Titirangi.( Veronica speciosa)
Toatoa, a weed. (Cereodia
erecta')
Toi, a white star flower like
a Campanula; a linum
Toitako, kind of dandelion
Totara, a diminutive plant.
Syn. with Patotaro; also
the name of a sorrel
Totaratara, a diminutive
shrub, like a heath, bear-
ing a small white flower
without scent


NEW ZEALAND FLOWERS AND PLANTS.
43
Tukorehu, a plant. (Plant-
ago)
Tupapa, native daisy. (La-
genophora Forsteri)
Turepo, a little plant grow-
ing in swamps, having a
black leaf and red fruit
Turuki, a red flag leafed
plant growing in the
grassy plains, bearing
a beatiful white three
leafed flower
Turutu, a plant. Ord. As-
phodelacoe. (Dianella in-
termedia)
Tutaikahu, sorrel. Syn.with
Retireti. ( Oxalis urvilei)
Tutaikaka, sorrel. Syn.
Tutaikaka, sorrel.
with Tutaikahu
Tutaiwioe, scarlet flowering
burr Qi the interior
Tutanahua. (Polygonum
prostratum)
Flax when cultivated each plant should have about two
square yards of ground, an
each plant lOlbs., one-sixth
into fibre.
Tutunawai, perseca/ria
Uhi, name of a yam and of
a winter potatoe
Uriuri, the fruit of the Ta-
wera or Kiekie
Uwhiroa, a bending leafed
flax
Waekahu, a plant. (Lyco-
podium)
Waewaekaka, ground ivy.
(Gleichenia hecystophylla)
Waikaua, sowthistle
Wenewene, gourd or food
W erewerekokako, buttercup
Weuwea, chickweed. Syn.
with Kohukohu
Whara, a plant
Wharanui, flax plant
Wharariki, flax plant with
ordinary fibre
Whararipi, coarse flax
with poor fibre
acre 2420 plants, from
of which, is convertible
CREEPING, CLIMBING AND PARASITIC PLANTS.
Aka, a creeper bearing a
beautiful red flower. (Me-
trosideros buxifolia)
Akakiore, a creeper
Akakongohe, a creeper
Akakura, a creeper
Akatea, a creeper
Kareao, a climbing shrub;
the supple-jack. (Ripogo-
num parviflorum)
Kareao, misletoe bearing a
white slimy berry; grow-
ing on the Tataku. Ord.
Loranthcce


44
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Kiekie, a plant producing
an edible flower and fruit.
Syn. with. Tawera, &c.
Ord. Panflanace®. {Frey-
cinetia, JBanksii)
Kohe, a climbing plant. Syn.
with Kohia
Kohia, a climbing plant.
(Passiflora tetrandra)
parasitical plant
Kotukatuka, vine ; produc-
ing a fruit full of juice
like the Tupakilii
Kowharawhara, a parasi-
tical broad leafed grass
growing in tufts on trees
bearing an edible berry
in bunches. {Astelia
Banksii)
Kowhai, passion flower;
color green and orange ;
small fragrant fruit size
of a large nut. Syn.
with Kohia and Kobe.
{Edwardsia microphilla)
Kupapa, a passion flower.
{Pas si flor a tetrandra)
Makaka, a climber
Mangemange, creeping/bna
having a woody pliant
stem; used in making
eel baskets ; very dura-
ble. {Lyg odium articula-
tum)
Mawhai, a creeping plant
resembling the cucumber
in its leaf. Ord. Cucur-
bitaceoe. (Sicyos Austra-
lis"^
Omo-omo, melon [nella)
Panahi. {Calystegia solda-
Patangatanga, flower white
or tinged with purple.
{Freycenetia, JBanksil)
Syn. with Kiekie
Pikiarero, clematis bearing
a large white flower
Pipiararo, a creeper
Pirikahu. Ord. Rosace®.
{Acoena sanguisorb®)
Piripiri. Syn. with Pirikahu
Pirita, misletoe. Syn. with
Kareao
Piripiri, & parasite. (Gonoi-
carpus tetragynus)
Pirori, a plant. Syn. with
Kiekie
Pohuehue, a creeper. {Poly-
gonum complexum)
Pohuehue, a creeper; the
convolvolus sepium of
Linnaeus. {Calystegia se-
pium)
Popohue, a climber. Syn.
Makaka
Powhenua, a climbing plant
Powhiriwhiri,a creeper with
green flowers
Powhiwhi, passion flower.
Syn. with Kowhia
Puatataua, clematis with a
small green fragrant
flower
Puawananga, a climber
Puawananga, clematis bear-
ing a white scentless
flower. (Clematis indivisa)
Puka, a parasitical plant; a
misletoe
Putawiwi, a creeper. (fPar-
kinsonia
Puwhara, pa/rasiie


NEW ZEALAND CREEPING PLANTS.
45
Taihinu, a creeping plant
with white flowers
Taraheke, a creeper
Tataramoa, a climber; the
bramble ; a rasp. Ord.
Rosacece. (Rubus Austra-
lis)
Tawhara, fruit of the Kie-
kie
Tirauriki, parasite. Ord.
Lorantheoe. (Viscum ant-
arcticum)
Torotoro, a creeper. Syn.
Aka
Torotoro, a creeper used in
tying up fencing
Ureure, & plant. Syn. with
Kiekie
Whakapiopio, creeper. Syn.
with Aka
Whakarengarenga, parasi-
tical plant
Whakatangitangi, creeper,
(ftfetrosideros)
GRASSES.
Tarutaru, general name for all Grasses.
Kakaho, tall grass or reed;
the stem used in place
of reeds in lining houses.
{Arunde Australis)
Karetu, grass smelling like
the sweet vernal. (Tor-
resia redolens)
Karito, species of flag
Katiraukawa, a fine strong
flax
Kauru, the root of the Tiko-
roho baked for food.
( Cordyline stricta)
Kopoupou, a rush. (Scripus
lacustrina)
Kowhangatara,grow-
ing near the sea side,
sending out long shoots
among the sand hills
Kopupungawha, bulrush
Kurikuri, a grass with a
rough stalk and prickly
flower head
Mata, coarse grass bearing
a thin reed; used for
thatching
Matarauriki, tussac grass;
it grows in a swamp,
sometimes with a stem 5
feet high
Mauti, & grass. Kia whenua
tou kainga tupuria ana e
te mauti
Mouku, a grass
Mouku, a kind of foxtail
grass
Ngawha, bulrush. Syn. with
Kopupungawha


46
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Oioi, a rush. {Leptocarpus
fasciculas)
Otaota, a grass. Ekore e
horo te opiopi o te Otaota
Ouwha, a kind of flax
Papa, a grass
Parakerake, a fine grass.
Taupo
Patiti, a grass
Piahaere, canary grass
Pihi, a grass
Pingao, coarse grass grow-
ing on sand banks near
the sea. (fEpacris)
Pouaka, a fine grass, grow-
ing in great abundance
at Kapiti, nearly resem-
bling the meadow fescue,
having a strong disagree-
able smell
Puapuatea, a grass; like
goose grass
Pureirei, tuft of grass grow-
ing in a swamp
Paupo, flag used in build-
ing houses. (Typha
augustifolio)
Eiriwaka, a rush. (Scirpus
Maritimus)
Tahune, the down of the
raupo seed
Taramaro, a grass
Tarutaru, a grass
Taramouka, oat shaped
grass
Tarareke, a kind of flax
Tarapuarere, summer grass,
light flower, carried away
by the wind, which breaks
the fragile stalk, hence
its name, same as that
which is the haunt of
the Katipo, a poisonous
spider; chiefly found on
the sand hills, it grows
in detatched tufts, horses
are very fond of it.
Toetoekiwi, a grass
Toekiwi, a grass
Toetoe, a coarse cutting
grass. (fEpicacris panci-
flora)
Toetoe, grass. Ord. Zy-
peraceoe. (fLepidosperma
elatior)
Toetoenatepakau, a grass
used in making kites
Toetoekakapo, another va-
riety
Toetoepainangamoho, a
grass
Toetoetahae, a grass
Toetoewatumanu, a grass
Tupari, a broad flag leafed
grass, like the flax
Turutu, a reed; used in
making baskets
Tutaikuri, a swamp grass ;
a native couch
Wharariki, a kind of flag
growing like the Korari,
with a broad leaf
Wi, fine grass. Taupo
Wiwi, rush


NEW ZEALAND SEA WEED.
47
SEA WEED.
Rimu, general name for Sea weed.
Karengo, a green sea weed,
edible
Koiri, a sea weed, like beads,
edible
Kopukoho, a sea weed
Kohukohu o to moana, a
seaweed
Koukou, a sea weed
Ngu, a gelatinous fish; the
food of the Tamure
Ongaonga, a sea weed; a
Medusa which stings
Papataura, a sponge
Poha, bottle or basket for
preserving fish and meat
formed of the bladder of
the kelp
Potipoti, Portuguese man-
of-war. Syn. with Onga-
onga
Pungoungou, a sponge
Reihia, a black shining sea
weed used as funeral
chaplets ; it is found at-
tached to rocks at Ngati-
ruanui
Rimu, a sea weed, edible;
the natives boil it with
the juice of the tutu,
which it converts into a
thick jelly. (fjhondrus
crispus'). Syn. with the
Carrigeen moss
Rimurapa, a sea weed, edi-
ble ; the largest kind
Weki, a gelatinous fish; the
food of the Tamure
MOSSES, FUNGI, LICHENS AND AL62E.
Hakekakeka, an edible fun-
gus, like brown fungus;
grows on trees
Harori, a white edible fun-
gus
Haroritui, a fungus on trees
Hawa. a lichen
Hawai, a fungus on trees
Karerarera, a slimy plant.
Syn. with Karengo


48
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
. Karen go, a slimy plant
growing on stones in the
< water
; Koukou, moss on trees
] Kokirikiriwetu, a globular
fungus, like a net which
] bursts out of shell; like
] a hen’s egg
] Kopura, a sweet scented
] moss
Kurakura, a red fungus
Maru, stagg’s horn moss
J Matukutuku, a moss
Okaoka, a fungus
Paheke, a slimy plant. Syn.
with Karengo
Pakekakeka, a plant grow-
ing on stones in the water
p Pakipakitai, slimy vegetable
matter in the sea
p Panako, a truffle
Pangu, a fine white fungus
p; growing on the Hutu
Paoke, a fungus growing on
the Taua
R:
Ts
Ta
Ta KUMARA, TARO
Ta
i Aka-aka, root of the potatoe
Ta Anurangi, a variety of the
Ta: kumara
Aotea, a native potatoe, said
to be indigenous
Harikaka, finest kind of
kumara
Horotai, potatoe ; said to be
indigenous
Papapa, moss
Papataura, a red fungus
growing on rocks
Pawa, small lichen
Piritaua, a fungus on trees
Piritaua, fungus. Syn. with
Pangu
Porotaua, a fungus on trees.
Syn. with Piritaua
Pukorukoru. Syn. with Ko-
kirikiriwetu
Pukurau, a fungus. (Lyco-
potion fontainesii.) The
dust used by the Maori
as an application for
burns
Putaua, a fungus (Boletus)
growing on the Hutu and
Tawairaunui, used as
tinder
Tikitikiwhenua, a toati stool
Tipitipi, a fungus
Waekahu. (Lycopotiium)
Wairuru, & fungus
AND POTATOE.
Hiwi, potatoe
Horuhoru, wild turnip
Hupere, a plant without
leaves, bearing a fungus-
like flower, producing
many tubers at its root,
not unlike the kumara in
their form; very sweet
and well-flavored


NEW ZEALAND ROOTS, TUBERS, ETC.
49
Huamango, potatoe
Ipurangi, large kind of taro
Kaikaheka, a variety of the
kumara
Kakatupari, a variety of the
taro
Kakaunaturi, a variety of
the kumara
Karitu, the edible root of
the bullrush
Kaunaunga, large kind of
taro; the best
Keakea, large kind of taro
Keha, turnip
Kepo, early white potatoe
Kopano o Tatairongo, apo-
tatoe; grows amongst the
Ngatiruanui only
Kumara, sweet potatoe,
(Convolvolus Batatas)
Kurawakapeki, a variety
of the kumara
Maehe, variety of the ta/ro
Mangaro, a mealy potatoe
Manuwhenua, a variety of
the taro
Monehurangi, a variety of
kumara
Naho, potatoe
Ngangarangi, potatoe
Ongaonga, light red potatoe
Orotaira, large potatoe
Pakua, a variety of the ku-
ma/ra
Papa, potatoe
Papauia, a variety of the
kuma/ra
Parareka, large white po-
tatoe
Parea, kumara, said to be
indigenous; propagated
by the strings of the root
Pau, potatoe
Perei, a plant, Syn. with
Hup ere
Piakoroa, purple potatoe
Piha, small kuma/ra
Poker ekahu, black kumara
Pongi, black taro
Poranga, purple sweet po-
tatoe
Puangana, a variety of the
kumara
Pungapunga, potatoe
Putawe, large potatoe
Pangiora, a variety of the
kumara
Paparaparuru, potatoe. Syn
with Waeruru
Pape, species of potatoe
Pepe, species of potatoe
Piwai, potatoe
Popi, potatoe
Tahore, large light red po-
tatoe
Taewa, potatoe
Tangae, a kind of ta/ro
Taore, native potatoe. Syn.
with Aotea
Tapapa, potatoe
Taputini, a variety of the
kumara
Taro, esculent plant. ( Ca-
ladium esculentum)
Tatairongo, red late potatoe
Topatopa, very small ku-
mara
Torowhenua, kuma/ra
Tutaiatara, a variety of the
kuma/ra
Uwi, winter potatoe
Waeruru, species of potatoe
5


50
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY
Whakahekerangi, kind of Whakarewa, large kind of
taro taro
STONES, EARTH, &c.
Kohath, general name for all Stones.
Whenua, general name for all Earths.
Ahurewa, heap of stones or
earth
Hamoamoa, clay
Hatea, salt efflorescence on
stones, &c.
Haupapa, ledge of rocks
Hinangakore, green stone
Hinangarewa, green stone
Hinangatuhi, green stone
Hoanga, sandstone or grind-
stone. Syn. with Onetai
Hohapa, green stone
Horete, a stone. Syn. with
Ngahu
Horua, red ochre
Ihu, swamp mud
Inanga, cloudy green stone
Kahuranga, finest kind of
green stone, having an
opaline glistening look
Kahuranga, bright green-
stone
Kamaka, a rock
Kapiti Kowatu, a stone cliff
or precipice
Kapowai, petrified wood
Karakatau, round pebbles ;
used as shot for pigeons
Kara, a basaltic stone
Kawakawa, dark green stone
Kawakawa-aumoana, green
stone
Kawakawarewa, green stone
Kawakawatongarerewa,
green stone ; very fine
Kawakawawatumu, bad
kind of green stone
Keretu, clay
Kerewhenua, yellow clay
Kerikeri, gravel
Kiripaka, fiint stone
Kokotangiwai, transparent
green stone
Kokowai, red ochre
Koma, basaltic stone
Kotiatia, a boulder
Kotore, steatite ; white clay
eaten by the natives
when much pressed by
famine
Koropungapunga, pumice
stone
Kowatukara, limestone
Kowatukura, a red stone
Kupapapapa, sulphur
Kupapahi, pyrites


NEW ZEALAND STONES, EARTH, ETC.
51
Kurutai, green whinstone
Kurutongarerewa, green
stone
Makahuri, a stone
Makowa, indurated sand
Manatuna, a whinstone
Mataratara. Syn. with Ko-
tiatia
Mata, obsidian
Moa, a layer of stone ; iron
pyrites; ironstone
Mokehu, a white stone
Nehu, dust
Ngahu, a stone. Syn. with
Horete
Nganga, a stone
Ngarahu, char coat
Ngawha, sulphur
Okehu, pipe-clay rock
Oneone, ea/rth
Oneharuru, good soil, like
Taranaki
Onekeretu, stiff clay ; same
as the soil of Kerikeri
and Kaitaia
Onekotai, a swampy soil;
subject to floods
Onekura, red earth; vol-
canic table land; Wai-
mate soil
Onemangu, black or bog
soil
Onematua. {Fatherland);
strong marly valley, al-
luvial soil
Onepu, sea sand
Onetai, sandstone or whet-
stone. Syn. with Hoanga
Onetaipu, sand soil on the
banks of rivers; light
sandy alluvial loams
Oneware, waxy soil; rich
greasy soil
Onoke, pipe-clay soil. Syn.
with Okehu
Pahutane, flint from the
West Coast, Middle Is-
land, used for boring the
green stone
Pahu, a sonorous stone; a
bell
Pakeho, limestone
Papa, a ledge of rock; also
a slab of sandstone for
grinding green stone on
Pararahi, &flat stone
Parataua, green stone; a bad
kind
Parau-umu, black soil
Paru, mud
Paruma, pipe-clay
Piaronga, iron
Piauau, iron
Pora, iron. Syn. with
Paiuau
Pounamu, green stone, is
found on the West Coast,
Middle Island, in the
Arahura, Oho, and the
source of the Wakatipu
Lake, and in the Pio-
piotahe torrent. The
following analysis is from
Phillips’ Mineralogy:—
Magnesia, 31*00; Silica,
50*50; Alumina, 10*00;
Oxide of Iron, 5*00; of
Chrome, *09; water,
2*75
Puehu, dust. Syn. with
Nehu
Pungapunga, pumice stone


52
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Pungarehu, ashes
Pungawerawera, brimstone
Pungawera, pumice stone
Rahoto, a scoriaceous stone
Rangitoto, black lava
Rino, iron. Syn. with Pora
Tahoata, pumice stone
Tangiwai, transparent
green stone
Taranui and Mai tai, sand-
stone for grinding green-
stone on
Teko, a soft red stone
Tihi, a summit of a hill
Toka, a stone; a rock in
the sea
Totoeka, green stone
Tuhua, obsidian
Tungaherehere, green stone;
bad
Whanariki, brimstone;
sulphur
Wharo, coal; charcoal
PARTS OF TREES, &c.
Auru, to break off
Eka, mouldy substance
Harakeke, flax
Heu, brushwood
Hiako, bark; rind
Hiko, the flesh of the fruit
Hua, fruit
Hua, to bear fruit
Haukakenga, harvest
lkararaua, middle fibre of a
leaf
Kakano, grain
Karo, fruit of the Ta taka
Kauru, head of a tree; the
crooked root of the Toi
Kiri, bark; rind
Kopuku, bud
Korari, flax; the stalk of
the flax
Koroi, fruit of the Kahi-
katea
Korito, hea/rt of the fem tree
Mahuri, young tree
Makowa, expanded, as a leaf
Manga, bramch
Mati, fruit of the fuchsia
Mauku, cooked fruit of the
Ti tree
Mauti, grass
Mimiha, resin; a bituminous
substance
Mingimingi, knot in timber
Muka, fineyZao?
Otaota, weeds
Pakauka, outside leaves of
the flax plant, rejected
for use
Pakiaka, root


NEW ZEALAND FISH, BIRDS, ETC.
53
Peka, branch; firewood
Peke, fork of a tree
Pia, gum of the flax plant;
and of the fern tree; also
the saccharine exudation
from the Manuka
Pokere, pulp of the Tawa
berry
Pona, joint, or knob in a
tree
Poporo, potatoe apple
Pota, prepared flax
Pua or Puawai, flower
Puaka, flower; small branch-
es of trees
Pumanga, knot in timber
Pureke, outside of the flax
leaf
Putake, root
Rahurahu, fern
Rakau, tree, timber
Rarahu, fern
Rarahue, fern
Rau, leaf
Renga, good fern root
Rito, heart of the fern tree
Take, root
Takirikau, best/Za#, scraped
with the nail
Tanikoniko, vein in timber
Tarutaru, grass
Tihore. Syn. with Takirikau
Tipoto, prepared flax
Ti-waranui, best/Za#
Tohika, manna obtained
from the Manuka
Toko, a pole to shove with
Tokotoko, walking stick
Tumu, stump
Tumutumu, stump
Tupu, bud or shoot
Turuki, sucker of a tree
Tuware, worked flax
Ururua, thicket
Wahia, firewood
Ware, resin
Whitau, common flax
PARTS OF FISH, BIRDS, &c.
He wheke, lateral fin
Hiawera, beast's tail
Hiore. Syn. with Hiawhero
Hiku, tail
Kopai, bird's nest
Kowhanga, nest with young
birds in it
Kurutu, bird's tail
Pawau, whisker bristles of
the Kakapo
Makaotaniwha, tooth of the
large shark, used as an
ear ornament
Ngutu, the beak, the lip
Pi, young of birds
Piha, gills of a fish


54 MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Pikari, young fish
Popoia, lateral fin
Papa, dorsal fin
Rau, a feather
Raurau, caudal fin
Titiko, bird’s tail
Toretore, roe offish
Unahi, scales offish
Waero, tail of an animal


PART II.
RELIGION, TRADITIONS,
AND
HABITS AND CUSTOMS




RELIGION, TRADITIONS, ETC.
57
RELIGION
Karakia, general name for Religious Service or Worship.
Aheihei, the rainboio
Aitu, in most of the islands
a spirit; here, a spirit of
revenge, satisfaction, a-
tonement
Aitua, an ill-omen; a satis-
faction for injury
Aniwaniwa, the rainbow,
Syn. with Aheihei. Ki te
koma te Aniwaniwa ka
mate te tangata
Apiti, a curse, Syn. with
Kanga
Ariki, a priest of the first
rank; the chief priest;
the first born; the head
of a family or tribe is an
Ariki by birth
Atamira, a bed; a coffin;
a tomb
Ati, ancient name for a god
Atua, a god; a demon; a
spirit. Great chiefs say
they have an atua in
them or different spirit;
any destroying cause, as
a pestilential wind, epi-
demic, or disease; a
lizard which is supposed
to gnaw the entrails of
departed men; not for-
merly known in our sense
as a self-existent eternal
Being. This term is ap-
plied to any moving sub-
tance the cause of whose
motion is not apparent,
as a clock or watch
Atuakikokiko, a spirit tak-
ing up its abode in some
one’s body, and through
him, speaking to those
who came to worship or
consult him
Aukati, the boundary of a
tapued district; a pale
Awiowio, a whirlwind; this
was the way their gods
were supposed to mani-
fest themselves to men
Awhiro, a deified ancestor
Awipapa, a god
Eiomaki, an offering
Engahu, a praying stone
Haehae, to cut, as with a
shell in crying
Haere a wawa, the father of
theweka; the native idea
is that everything had
its own creator, who is
styled its ‘ father’


58
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Hahu, to remove the bones
o f the dead
Hahunga, removal of bones;
a feast on the same oc-
casion
Hapiro, eating at a sacred
spot
Hau, wzWblowing through
the hair a token of the
presence of the deity
Hamia, Te aha haumia,
fern root worshipped as
a god
Hawepotiki, a great chief
killed by Turi
Heitiki, the greenstone image
"wqytl on the neck
Henga, a god
Hika, to perform a religious
service by which people
are supposed to be pre-
served from the evil ef-
fects of eating at a sacred
spot
Hongi, salute with the nose;
this is considered sacred
by the Maori; a chief
whose pah might be at-
tacked, would save him-
self and tribe by thus
saluting his enemy
Horohoronga, & rite to take
off the tapu from a new
born child; it consists in
cooking food in three
ovens, one portion being
for the Atua, one for the
priest, and the other for
the parents; a Karakia
(prayer) accompanied the
offering to the Atua
Horomatua, a priest of the
third rank
Horonga, sacred food
Hukere, a god
Hurianga, a god
Hurukakariki, a god
Hurukokoea, a god
Ihenga, a spirit; the god
of the Kumara
Irawaru, father of dogs, li-
zards, rats
Iri-iri, to baptize or to per-
form a native ceremony
resembling baptism
Iri-iringa, baptism
Irirangi, a voice from hea/ven,
a voice from a deity
Ka-auwa, a celebrated man
Kahukura, a deified man
Kaiakarara, a god
Kanga, a curse
Kapua, a deified ancestor
Karakia, a religious service
Karukaru, a god
Kauika,the individual who
placed the seed of fire in
the trees ; he appears to
have been the native
Adam
Kauikanui, the son of the
above
Kauikaroa, the grandson of
the above
Kehua, a ghost
Kereru, wood pigeon; ori-
ginally he came from
heaven seeking his sister.
A Rupe; when he found
her he tangi’d, and then
remained on earth; he
went on the top of the


RELIGION, TRADITIONS, ETC.
59
tawa, and after he had
fed on its fruit it gave
him a hoarseness so that
he lost his voice and now
can only say ku, ku
Ketu, removing a corpse
Korongomai, a deified man
Kotemata, a god
Kumara, in going to war
they did not eat of the
kumara because it was the
son of Tiki
Kurihetuna, an offering to
Rehua from the sick, if
not he died
Maikukumakaka, wife of
Tawaki
Maimai, a dance used at
Tangi hangas, where
those who engage in it
put their bodies in pecu-
liar postures and distort
their features; it is a slow
procession, the parties
engaged appear to be
stretching out their arms
to the spirits of the de-
ceased friends
Matutu, bewitching; witch-
craft
Mangoirkuroa, a sea god
Manu tapu ; matata; small
bird living amongst
reeds; was offered as a
propitiatory sacrifice in
the north; in the south
the Koroatiti or Wetito
were offered for the same
purpose
Marongaronga, a god
Marua, a grave
Maru, great god of WTian-
ganui; offerings of food
were made unto him ; if
these were omitted he
was angry
Mata, the natives always
offered their first fruits
to their gods; they placed
a part by itself, and when
cooked laid it on a small
altar or stage as an offer-
ing to their god, this
offering was called Mata
Mate, a spirit worshipped
at Rangitikei and Mana-
watu
Mata-ao, a man said to have
turned the world upside
down. Te hurianga i
Mata ao
Mataikaj£r«^7W or taken
captive in a fight
Mataiki, this word may be
derived from the custom
of putting a hair plucked
from the head into the
mouth of the first fish
caught in a fishing expe-
dition, and then suffering
the fish to swim away
with the prayer that it
might escape and bring
other fish to their nets
Matakiti, a seer or person
able to divine
Matamua^rstf or first-born,
derived from Mata. Syn.
with Matua
Matengaro, an unavenged
injury
Matiti, first person killed


60
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
in battle
Mauhika, the person who
placed the seeds of fire in
the Patate ; Kaikomako,
Mahohe, Totara, and
Puketea; he tried to
put them in the Kata,
Hinau, Kaikatea, Rimu,
Matai, and Miro, but
they would not take it
Mawe, father of the north
island; he fished up the
island, hence the saying,
Te hi o Mawe ; his sons
were Tangaroa, Tane,
Irawaru, Ngarangihore,
and Ru
Mere, green stone implement;
about 8 inches long; an
emblem of rank; the
sceptre of the Maori
chief; highly prized; used
as an instrument of war;
especially for cleaving
the skulls of the cap-
tured
Mititoto, a god
Moehewa, a dream. Syn.
withRekangakanohi and
Moemoea; it is by dreams
the natives suppose they
hold converse with their
deceased friends ; it is a
common expression, I
was in the Reinga last
night and saw so and so
Moiri he hau, a corpse ex-
posed to the wind
Moituturu, placing the heads
of enemies upon the pins
used in making mats
Mokaikai, dried human head
Moko, marks of tattoo on
the face or other parts of
the body
Mokoikuwaru, a lizard god
Mokomokai, dried human
head
Mokotawhiorangi, a god
Mokotiti, lizard, 6 in. long;
prayed to as a god; it
eats the liver
Mouri, a sacred place; the
open space in a pah where
strangers are received
Nahirangi, name of the
house in the sky
Natuaririki, a sea god
Nenguku, a man; he was
prayed to in war
Ngahu, a religious service.
Syn. with Tuaha
Ngana, the man upon ivhose
account the world was up-
set by Mata-ao
Ngarangihore, father of
stones; rocks; a son of
Mawe
Ngarara, lizard, the sup-
posed cause of every pain ;
the Tohunga profess to
be able to call them out
and so heal the sick
Ngatoirangi, a deified man;
a tupuna
Niu, name of sticks used in
the religious service
Tuahu
Ohoeua, the man who ate
Tur Vs dog
Orangipatiki, a god who as-
cended into heaven


RELIGION, TRADITIONS, ETC.
61
Oka, a sea god
Otuna i a rangi, god of the
fern root, of the Koho-
hiko or Koromiko, and
of the Rito of the Hara-
keke
Ouenuku, a rainbow
Owa, father of the dog
Owahieroa, a deified man
Pahaka, a god of the kumara
Paihiko, father of the kaka
Pakuha, a marriage, or the
giving up of a woman to
be another’s property
Paireti, a god
Pakoko, barrenness; if a
man was childless he cut
his shoulders with a flint
and uttered a karakia
whilst the blood was
flowing
Pananuku, the earth
Pani, god of the kuma/ra; the
first fruits were always
offered to him
Pani-ireira, a sea god
Paouru, a god
Paroro, a god
Papa, father of the kiwi;
the earth ; a female
Papapa, a sea god
Papapapakura, a sea god
Papatupuna, a board about
3 feet long notched like
a saw; used to count
their generations by
Paraoa, a high priest of the
wharekura
Parapara, a sacred place;
first fruits of fish cooked
before the rest are ashore
6
Parauri, father of the tui
Parawhenuamea, a sea god
Pareho, spirits of departed
men
Paretaua, a god
Patuanuko, a spirit; a dei-
fied man; a god of the
kumara
Patupaiarehe, fairies ? peo-
ple who live in the mist
of the mountain
Pepe, moth or butterfly; the
form often assumed by
the gods when they mani-
fest themselves to men
Pipiwharauroa, a god; the
name of a cloud extend-
ing across the sky com-
monly called Noah’s Ark;
when seen it is a sign of
the arrival of strangers
or distant friends
Pi to, expiatory offering
Po, Hades; place of de-
parted spirits; a lower
and darker region than
the Reinga
Popoarengarenga, a re-
hearsal of names of gods
and ancestors, &c., the
final burial of a chief
which is only heard by
the head chief and his
son
Potiki, infant gods; or the
spirits of infants sup-
posed to be the most
malignant of all; they
appear to be a totally
different race from the
fairies, who do not ap-


62
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
pear to have visited the
antipodes
Puhi kai ariki, water used
in native baptism
Punga, father of the lizarrd
Pungawerewere, spider; a
favorite form assumed
by the gods; it is gene-
rally in this shape they
manifest themselves
Purakau, he atua makutu,
an old man
Pure, sacred service over the
dead; sacred food
Purei, cutting of the hair;
which was considered a
very sacred operation;
when a number of per-
sons required it to be
performed on them the
the tohunga repeated a
karakia and then cut the
hair of the chief and his
children, after that the
rest acted as barbers for
each other; the act of
cutting the hair rendered
the person unclean for
some time; a portion of
the hair was cast into
the fire
Pureinga, removing of the
tapu
Putai, a god
Bahui, a mark denoting a
sacred place
Eakautapu, the Matipou,
Karamu, Mahoe, Pitoa,
Karaka, and Manoawere
sacred trees, also the
Harakeke
Eakiora, a god prayed to
for kumara
Bangi, heaven; the hus-
band of Papa
Eangiawatea, a woman
taken up into heaven
Eangimatinitini, a name of
one of the heavens
Eangimoetane, husband of
Pananaku\ the earth; the
sky
Bangitutawaki, a deified an-
cestor
Eangitawaki, owner of the
staff of life. Tokotoko o
turoa
Eangiwakanohinohi, high-
est hea/ven; there are
eleven heavens accord-
ing to the native idea
Eeheua, a deified man
Eehua, a spirit to whom
offerings of food were
made, especially by the
sick, who were thought
to be certain of dying if
they omitted doing so
Eeinga, abode of spirits ; or
more properly, the en-
trance to their abode; a
place at Cape Maria Van
Diemen where the spirits
are said to jump into the
sea from a ledge of rock;
the same custom prevails
in the island of Upolu,
where the name of the
jumping off stone is Fa-
tuasafia
Eeua, a spirit
Eita, an evil spirit


RELIGION; TRADITIONS, ETC.
63
Ririho, principal god wor-
shipped at Rangitikei
Rohe, a mark denoting a
sacred place. Syn. with
Rahui
Rokuariro, one of th/ree men
taken up to heaven
Rona, a woman who went
one night to draw water
and dip the Upaki, or
kets, and leaves used in
covering the oven, in the
stream; the moon sud-
denly becoming obscured
she struck her foot
against a stone, which
caused her to vent her
wrath against the moon,
who, to punish her, im-
mediately descended and
took both her and the
things she held in her
hands, and the spot she
was standing on as well,
and placed them in her
bosom
Rongomai, great god of
Taupo ; he presided over
war; in form like a large
eel; a star also bears his
name
Rongorongo, wife of Turi
Roparoa, a god
Ru, father of lakes, rivers :
an earthquake
Ruahine, concluding cere-
mony performed over a
recently born child
Ruawahiner priestess of the
third rank
Rupawhenuamea, &god
Rupe, father of the pigeon
Taipo, female dreamer; a
prophetess; an evil spirit
Takaka, a god
Takapotiri, father of the
Kakariki or green parrot
Takati, a sea god; like a
patiki or flat fish
Takawaenga, mediator or
peace maker
Takiura, sacredfood; cooked
at the removal of the
bones of the dead
Takitaki, one of three men
taken up to hea/ven
Tamaikuku, ^celebratedper-
son in the native mytho-
logy
Tamangemanga, a man dei-
fied by Tu\ he was prayed
to in the North the same
as Tawaki in the South,
and is perhaps the same
individual
Tamure, a sea god; also a
.fish
Tane, father of the Tui and
of birds and trees in
general
Tamatane. Syn. with Tua-
tane
Taniwha, a sea god or large
fish supposed to reside in
deep holes in rivers, or
under mountains; if a
cliff falls it is said to be
occasioned by Taniwha,
who is hid beneath and
struggles to get free
Tangaroa, father of all fish
Tangaroamatipua, a god


64
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Tangi, a cry, a wail for the
dead. Taku hei piripiri
Ta k u hei mokimoki .Taku
kati taramea. E kara
mai ai-ei rungate angai-e
Tanumanga, burial place
Tapatapa, giving the name
of a person to anything,
whereby that thing is
made sacred
Tapu, sacred, a sacred rite
Tarapakiwa, a karakia for
a child
Tarauri,nameof
lizard', tradition says it
lived on the banks of the
Whanganui; was killed
by falling down a preci-
pice ; its putrid body de-
stroyed all the fish in the
river
Tatoa, the second person
killed in battle
Taukanuku, tapu on new
potatoes for Tawaki
Tauatapu, or taua toto, fight
for blood; the party sal-
lies out and kills the first
person who is met, whe-
ther friend or foe; if not
successful, the Matata, a
small bird, is killed and
the Tohunga pulls up
some grass and throws it
into a running stream, or
ties it with the bird to
the top of a pole, and
utters a certain form of
karakia before it
Taupotiki, the god who,
when the heaven at first
laid flat on the earth,
lifted it up and propped
it in its present position,
and placed the sun, moon
and stars in it to give
light to the earth
Taungapiki, a god
Tautani, ceremony perform-
ed over a new born child
before it may be touched
by any but the parents
Tautika, a deified man *, god
of the kumara.
Tawaki, a deified man; the
grandson of Maru, and
Waitiri; the only person
in the native mythology
who did no evil; he is
said to have gone about
doing good, working mi-
racles, healing the sick,
and afterwards ascended
up into heaven, when he
prayed it thundered and
rained; he lived in the
highest heaven, and as-
cended or descended like
a spider by its thread;
the natives say he was
their Christ; he was
combing his hair and
• washing in the stream
when a Ngarara killed
him; when baskets of
food were offered to him
to heal the sick, they
counted out the tenth
basket, and lifted it up
to the god, and then they
counted out the ninth
and lifted that up, and so


RELIGION, TRADITIONS, ETC.
65
on until the entire ten
were thus counted out to
him
Tawaki, inferior god of
Taupo; he fed on human
bodies; he was a deified
man, and was taken up
alive into heaven
Tawiorangi, green stone; a
god
Tearatukutuku, mother of
Teihi; a great Taniwha
Teihi, chief of the Taniwha;
he is said to have been a
man who when rowing
with another at Taupo,
suddenly left the canoe
and took to the water
Temangoaururua, a god
Temataoterangi, a god
Tepua, a sea or lake god
Tepouatehuri, a god
Tetautari, tomb surrounded
with wicker work
Tiki, a post marking a
sacred place
Tiki, the^rs^ man; he took
clay and kneaded it with
his own blood and formed
man
Tipua, a divinity whose
place of abode is often
marked by a large stone
Tohekitewai, native baptism
Tohi a religious ceremony
performed after a battle,
and also at the baptism
of a child
Tohunga, a priest of the
second rank
Tokotoko, tongitongi, the
staff laid up in thewhare-
kura which Kauika
broke; it belonged to
Maierangi
Tokotoko-oturoa, the staff
of life laid up in the whare
kura ; it belonged to
Rangitawaki
Tote, god of sudden death
Toma, a place where the dead
are deposited
Torere. an abyss. Ke te
ara tonu ia i haere ai
toku torere
Toro a, a sea bird; a form
assumed by the gods
Toto, to perform the cere-
mony of native baptism
Toto wahine, brother of Ron-
goronge, Turfs wife
Tu, a god; he was supposed
to be the wind, or to re-
side in the wind. He
atua mo te riri. He was
the first murderer. Tu
signifies to stand up to
strike; jealousy was the
cause of the crime; be-
fore he committed it he
took some flax and girded
himself with it; hence,
in going to battle the
warrior is girded
Tua, native baptism
Tua-ahau, a sacred house or
place
Tuahu, native religious ser-
vice with sticks to ascer-
tain whether the omens
are favorable for war or
peace, answering to the


66
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
augury of the Romans ;
a praying stone , a kind
of pillar against which
the priest leaned whilst
praying; all children
were brought to it to be
prayed over, and all of-
ferings to the gods were
carried to it
Tuahau, &post or stone stuck
in the ground, to which
the priest addresses his
prayers for success in
battle ; he takes a small
piece of fern stalk, which
he pretends to throw
against the enemy and to
send against the hostile
god; he makes it appear
to be hurled back against
him, and if it be broken
in pieces it is a sign they
shall be conquered; if
only a little bit is broken
off the stalk it is a sign
that there will be a few
killed on their side, and
consequently that they
will conquer ; it is evi-
dent that all depends on
the inclination of the
priest for war
Tuawakaparuate, he atua
makutu
Tuhioterangi, a sea god
Tumutumuwhenua, father
of rats
Tupapaku, a dead body;
touching a corpse render-
ed the person unclean for
several days, was obliged
to be fed by another, as
he must not touch food
Tupana, a deified man
Tupe, a prayer used in bat-
tle by one who is pursu-
ing an enemy. Tupe
hinga, tupe takoto
Tupua, name of a god; also
of a large lizard
Turange, eldest son of Turi
Turi, first man who came to
the West Coast, and the
commander of the Kuru-
haupo
Tutangatakino, a Ivwrdgod
Tutekoronaki, a god
Tu-uatai, a god
Tuwawakiaterangi, name
of Mawtfs fish hook. Ka
hi ra taku matau tuwa-
wakia te rangi
Tuwarea, the tenth heaven
Uenguku, god of the rain-
bow ; he was chiefly wor-
shipped by the Ngatirau-
kaua; if a taua was seen
approaching under the
arch of a rainbow it was
a sure sign it would be
conquered, if on one side
that it would be victori-
ous. A star also bears
his name; with some
tribes he is the chief god;
the feathers of the hawk
are sacred to him
Uhu, a ceremony performed
over the bones of the
dead. Syn. with Hahu
Uripapa, the posts af an


RELIGION, TRADITIONS, ETC.
67
Uhunga, lamentation or
crying over the bones
of the dead
Uira, lightening
Urumanu, a god*, one of
three men taken up to
heaven
Urupa, a burial place
Uto, a ma/rked or doomed
person, or expiatory pay-
ment for a mortal injury
in contradistinction to
utu, ordinary payment
Wahitapu, a sacred grove
Wainga, a ceremony per-
formed in a new house
Wairua, a spirit; a soul
Wairua, the soul*, whilst
a canoe was making (to
convey it across the Styx)
it remained with its body;
they placed food in the
canoe for three days, with
sail, paddles, &c.
Waitiri, ancestor of Tawaki,
who cured her of her
blindness, by kneading
clay with his spittle and
anointing her eyes with it
Waiwaia, witchcraft
Waka-aiho, operation of
cutting the hair*, name
given to the shell with
which it is done
Wakahapainga, a causing
to be lifted up*, native
term for a sacrifice; food
offered in sacrifice was
cooked by the priest and
lifted up as it was car-
ried to the place where
it was offered, when it
was placed on an elevated
stage
Wakahere, sacredfood*, pro-
pitiatory to a deity; an
offering
Wakamahunga, name of
the ceremony for render-
ing sacred those who
planted or dug up the
kumara; certain persons
were set apart for this
duty, who were tapued,
and others were appoint-
ed to feed them, for they
were not allowed during
that period to touch food
themselves; these planted
the kumara, and during
that period they were
put, as it were, out of
the camp; they first dug
up a portion of the ku-
mara, part they offered
to Pani, and part they
eat themselves apart from
the rest of the people
Wakanoa, to make common*,
to take off the Tapu
Wakapakoko, an image*, an
idol; the images carved
on houses; Whatas and
other places were not ob-
j ects of worship, although
frequently emblematical
of ancestors, neither the
greenstone ornament; the
idols were about 18 inches
long, being sticks with
carved heads, pointed at
the other extremity to be


68
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY
stuck in the earth when
worshipped
Wakapakoko whare, a
household god-, an image
of a child generally car-
ved with great care and
adorned with the family
ornaments; it has the
name of the master of
the house given it, and
when any of his wives
are childless they nurse
this image that they may
prove fruitful, and ad-
dress it with endearing
expressions, such as are
used by mothers to young
children, but no other
worship is used; some
say this image was only
nursed for amusement
by the barren ladies the
same as a doll is by chil-
dren
Whakapapa, Turfs dog
Whakatau, the person who
burned down the whare Izura
with a thousand persons
in it, who all perished in
the flames
Whakatapu, malting sacred
Whakataurotiki, a god
Whakatohua, a karaltia for
a child
Whakau, a religious rite
performed by a person
who arrives at a certain
place for the first time ;
• it consists in uttering a
short prayer and then
casting a stick with a bit
of grass tied to it on the
stone, rock, or whatever
constitutes the sanctity
of the spot Piki piki
maunga a tangaengae
Kake maunga Ta hau
ariki mau e kai Te man-
awa o te tau hou
Whakaumu, a hole dug in
the ground, or a stone to
mark the spot where any
one has fallen in battle
Whangoihau, song over the
dead, or feeding of the
wind; a native expres-
sion for a sacrifice; Syn.
with Pihe
Wharau, a sepulchre; also
temporary sleeping shed
Wharekura, an ancient tem-
ple in which all the tribes
assembled to worship; in
it were placed the images
of all their gods; it had
its priests, high priest,
its adytum, &c.; it is said
to have been burned by
Wakatau, and thence to
have become the cause
of every subsequent evil
Whariwhari, a god; like a
cloud. Syn. with Pipi-
wh ar auro a
Wheke, a lizard god, or
marine reptile
Wheroiteone, a kwraltia to
the stars
Whike, a voice heard in trees
like a female crying


RELIGION, TRADITIONS, ETC.
69
I
Whiro, the evil spirit; the
god of thieving; he could
steal anything; he walked
on stilts
Whitikikaeaea, a god
ORIGINAL CANOES.
The first person to reach New Zealand was Kupe, in
the canoe Mataorua ; he came, poor fellow, seeking for
his wife, but failing to find her he returned to Hawaiki.
This hero severed the North and Middle Island, and thus
formed Cook Strait. The next canoe, Aotea, came with
Turi; he landed at Whangaparoa, where he planted
the Karaka; he sailed round to Aotea, where the canoe
was turned into stone ; he then went inland and drowned
himself at Patea. Ngahui came next to Whangaparoa,
Taurangi, and Taupo ; at the Aroha mountains he killed
a moa and took it to Hawaiki, where he related his ad-
ventures in the new country,
Aotea ; it brought the Ka-
raka, the Kakaua, and
Paratawiti; the name is
now given to an edible
fern, the former being
lost. The Pupeko Ki ore
Kakariki came in it ;
Hou was the chief; this
is said to have been the
first canoe which arrived;
some say Turi com-
manded it, and had Tu”
rangi and Tam ate in it
Arawa, shark, a double
canoe with a house upon
it, touched at the Great
Barrier, Mercury Island
and Tauranga, and was
beached at Maketu;
called Awatearoa.
these natives had a
thievish character fropi
their chief, Tama te Ka^
pura; the ancestors of the
Ngatiwhakaue and Nga-
tiporou were in it
Ko Arowa, wife of Ng at or i
i rangi transgressed with
Te Mate Kapua; this
canoe also contained Ta-
rawa and Ngapuhi at the
head; Ngatewakawua in
the middle, and Ngato-
roirangi in the stern ; it
came to Maketu, the first
settlers of Taupo came in
it, Ngatikahununui
Kuruhaupo Turi; the great
ancestor oftheNgatirua-


70
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY,
nui and Whanganui.
Ruatea was chief. Nga-
tiapa were in it
Matatua. Rua-auru was
chief; it contained the
Ngatiruanui, Ngatika-
hungunu, Ngateawa and
Whakatane; was beach-
ed at Whakatane; they
brought the taro
Matawhaoru Kupe was
chief; the Ngateruanui
came in it. Kupe went
back to Hawaiki
Tainui, full tide, Hoturoa
was chief; it contained
W aikato, Ngatiraukawa,
Ngapuhi, Ngatiawa; the
The tradition as preserved by Te Heuheu, the late
chief of Taupo, is, that their forefathers first came from
Hawaiki, Tawiti nui to Hawaiki Patata, where they re-
mained some time, and thence reached Hawaiki ki te
Moutere, from which place they finally arrived at New
Zealand, hence the proverb—I kunei mai i ha Hawaiki,
te kune kai te kune tangata. The seed of our coming is
from Hawaiki, the seed of man.
Kumara or Anurangi
came in it; it touched
first at Whangaparoa;
went up the Tamaki,
thence down the Manu-
kau; Kawhia was the
first landing place; it
contained 28 chiefs
Takitumu Tamateahua ta-
hinukuroa was chief. Ko-
pou, Ngatiruanui
Tokomaru. Manaia disco-
vered Great Barrier by
the barking of a dog on
board; sailed round
North Cape and landed
at Waitara
Awatearoa, long daylight
PARTS OF THE
Ahei and Ahi, collar bone
Anganga, head; the skull
Areare. Syn. with Haku
Arero, tongue
Aroaro, countenance, or front
of anything
Arore, lobe of the ea/r
Ate, liver
HUMAN BODY. .
Ataotemata, corner of the
eye. Syn. with Kape
Ateatenga, calf of the leg
Atewatekuhu, lungs
Au, gall
Eiho, lock of hair
Haku, name for some pa/rt of
the inside


PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY.
71
Hamu, back of the skull
Hetapa, inside of the thigh
Hiaho, shin
Hiapo, shin of a baby, also
used for calico
Hina, grey hair
Hinengaro, reins, mind or
conscience, the seat of
thought
Hoi, lobe of the ea/r
Hope, loins
Hueho, navel string
Humu, hip bone
Huruhuru, hair
Hurukaikama, eye lashes
Huwha, thigh
Hurukehu, red or sandy
hair
Iaia, cross veins
Iho, os humeri
Ihu, nose
Ihupinu, crooked nose
Io, lock of hair
Ira, mole on the skin
Iwi, a bone
Iwiroa, back
Kakaoteihu, nose betweon
the eyes
Kakaoteiwiroa, neck verte-
bra
Kaki, neck
Kamokamo, eye lash
Kamorunga, eye brow
Kanohi, eye ; the face
Kaokao, side
Kape, eyebrows; corner of
the eyes
Kapitiotewaewae, lesser leg
bone
Kapukapu, sole of the foot
Karaua, head
Karu, eye; the under eyelid
Karupango, pupil of the eye
Katau, righthand
Kauae, jaw ; the chin
Kauaeoraro, lower jaw
Kauaerorunga, upper jaw
Keha, front of the skull
Keke, arm pit
Kikokiko, flesh
Kikonni, thigh
Kiriwai, inner skin
Kohama, back of the head
Koikara, finger
Koiwi, skeleton
Komatamata, toe
Komekomengangutu, lips
Kona, lower inside of the
stomach
Konae, chin
Kopani, knee cap
Kopu, abdomen; the entrails
Koroa, fore finger or first
toe
Koraherahe, a wrinkle
Koroiti, little finger qt toe
Korokoro, throat; toes
Koromatua, thumb or great
toe ; also a name applied
to ministers and teachers
Kumikumi, beard
Kumu, anus
Kurakura, excrement voided
Kuwa, thigh] the seat; the
inside of the knee
Mahanga, twins
Mahunga, hair of the head;
the head
Maikuku, finger nails
Maitiko, toes
Makaurangi, under side of
the thumb and finger


72
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Makawe, hair. Syn. with
Mahunga
Mama, part of the inside;
perhaps Syn. with Hine-
ngaro
Manawa, belly; the breath;
seat of life; ring finger
Mangai, mouth
Manumanu, collar bone
Mapere, middle finger or toe
Mata, eye; the face; the
under eyelid
Mata-ar a, face
Matau, right hand
Matenga,7m^
Matihao, finger
Matikara, finger
Matikuku, finger or toe nail;
toes
Matimati, toe
Matu, fat
Maui, heart
Mawera, mouth
Mikau, finger or toe nails
Mona, knee cap
Monamona, knuckles; the
ancle joint; the kneecap;
the wrist joint
Murikokai, back of the
head
Mutikukuwaewae, toe nails
Mutu, joining of the skull
and neck
Mutuoteate, stomach
Nehu, lock of hair, Syn.
with Eiho
Ngaengae, heel
Ngakaokao, vertebra
Ngakau, heart
Ngako, fat
Ngakoko, kidneys
Ngamakau, toes
Ngangore, gums
Ngao, palate
Ngapewa, arch of the eye
Ngaputaoteihu, nostrils
Ngaraho, testicles
Ngarakauanganga, gall
Ngatukemata, arch of the
eye
Ngawiti, vertebra
Ngoto, head
Ngutu, lips
Nguturaro, lower lip
Nguturunga, space between
nose and lip
Niho, tooth
Ni ho kata, front teeth
Nihopu, molar teeth
Nono, excrement inside
Pae, gums
Pahau and Paihau, beard
Pakihiwi, shoulder; joint of
the os humeri
Pakiwaha, sides of the mouth
Pakoko, oss innominatum
Panepane, skull
Pani, head
Papa, thigh
Papa-ahuahua, shoulder
blade
Papanui, sole of the foot
Paparinga, cheek ; the skull
above the ear
Pareho, head
Parihirihi, head
Paro, hollow of the hand
Paroparo, skull
Patingoi, false ribs
Patito, crown of the head
Pawa, gall bladder
Pewa, eyebrows


PARTS OP TIIE HUMAN BODY.
73
Pea, upper pa/rt of the am ;
the humerus
Pi, corner of the eye or
mouth
Pikiarero, roof of the mouth
Pikikarea, palate
Piro, bowels; the entrails
Pirotoke, gall bladder
Pirotutai, entrails
Pito, navel
Pitorehu, navel string
Poanganga, skull; the lower
part of the nose
Poho, pit of the stomach
Pokowiwi, shoulder
Pona, joint of the body
Ponana, nostrils; the ex-
tremity of the nose
Ponapona, joint of the body
Pongaponga, nostrils; also
a joint
Poroiwi, os sacrum; also the
excrescences of the back
bone
Porokaki, back of the neck
Porongawe, back of the neck
Poroporo, skull
Pukapuka, spleen or smelt
Puke, lower inside of the
stomach. Syn. with Kona
Puku, stomach
Pungapunga, ancle
Puta, nostrils
Putaka, superior joint of the
os femoris
Rae, forehead
Raparapa, sole of the foot
Rara, rib
Rei, chest; the breast
Ringaringa, arm or hand
Ringaringmane, left hand
7
Ringaringamatau, right
hand
Reke, or Rekereke, heel
Rewa, eyelids
Rongoiti, little finger. Syn.
with To iti
Rongomatua, thumb
Roro, brains
Tahau, radius
Taiki, rib ; the os sacrum.
Syn. with Poroiwi
Takapu, belly
Tako, gums or tusk
Tara, papilla on the skin
Taringa, ear
Taiahau, leg ; the thin bone
of the leg
Taupa, separating cartilage
of the nostrils; fat about
the kidneys
Teketeke, elboio
Tenetene, uvula
Tenga, part of the throat;
the pomum Adami
Tepai, clear untattooed face;
a disgrace to a man and
a sign he would be made
a slave
Tinana, body
To a, anus
Tohetohe, uvula. Syn. with
Tenetene
Toiti, little finger or toe.
Syn. with Rongoiti
Toinui, fore finger
Toipoto, fourth finger
Toiroa, middle finger
Toke, uvula
Tangamimi, bladder
Torino, drum of the ear
Tuara, back


74
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Tukemata, eyebrows
Tuketuke, elbows
Tuku, pit of the stomach
Tumaki, crown of the head
Tumu, shoulder
Tumuaki, crown of the head
Tunga, decayed tooth. Syn.
with Manumanu
Tungu, shoulder
Turi, knee
Turipoto, os femoris
Turiroa, tibia
Turipona, knee joint
Tuta, windpipe; it was sup-
posed that after death
this part ascended to
heaven
TT, breast of a female
Ua, bach bone
Uaua, vein; an artery; a
sinew
TJma, breast; the chest
Upoko, head; though ex-
tremely sacred, the Maori
does not consider it the
seat of thought
Uri, penis
Utea, bea/rd
Wae, or Waewae, foot; a
leg
Waha, mouth
Whakahipi, hair of the head
Whakaraparapa, skin of the
entrails
Whanewhane, liver
Whatu, pupil of the eye
Whatukuku, kidney
Whatumanawa, kidney
Whekau, entrails
Whenua, placenta
Wheu, bone
Whitimutu, last rib
GENERAL NAMES.
Ariki, head of a tribe; a
priest; but only given to
the first born
Autane, brother-in-law
Ehika, man or boy; voc.
case
Ehine, girl; voc. case
Ehoa, man; or companion;
voc. case
Eko, girl; voc. case
Ekoro, young man; voc.
case
Ekui, old woman; a mother
Emaki, sick person
Emara, man or woman
Epa, man; voc. case
Eta, man or boy; voc. case
Etai, grown up womcun; nqc.
case
Hapu, a family
Harake, half-witted person;
a scapegrace
He bin a, aged person
Hoa, friend; a wife


GENERAL NAMES.
75
Hoahoa, wife, one of several
Hunaonga, son-in-law or
daughter-in-law
Hunarei, mother-in-law or
father-in-law. Syn. with
Hungawai
Hupeki, old woman
Ikopora, name for Euro-
peans ; a shell fish
lramutu, nephew or niece
Iwi, tribe
Kaiha, thief Syn. with
Wanako
Kara, old man
Karana, old ma/n
Kaumatua, an elder
Keha, &flea, appyling to the
European complexion, and
the colour of their hair
Kewa, bald person; term of
reproach
Kikiki, drunken or mad
slave; a name for Euro-
peans
Kohine, girl
Koroheke, old man
Kotiro, girl
Kuia, old woman
Mahanga, twins
Maki, sick person
Matua, parent
Matuakeke, uncle
Mokai, slave; a pet
Mokopuna, grandson
Pakeha, a stranger, a fo-
reigner ; Pa-ke-ha a per-
son from a far distant
place
Paora, drunken or mad slave;
name given to Europeans
Pakcke, grown up person
Peharoa, hatchet; a name
for a white man
Piauau, iron; a name given
to Europeans
Rononga, servant
Porangi. deramged person
Porewarewa, a mad person;
a European. Syn. with
Paora
Poroteke, slave
Potiki, infant: youngest
son
Punerua, a man with two
wives
Putai, a widow
Rara, a rib
Rangatira, gentleman; a
chief
Rorirori. Syn. with Po-
rangi
Ruruhi, old woman
Taha, thief
Tahu, husband
Taitamariki, young man
Tama, son; the first born
Tamaiti, son; boy
Tamahine, daughter
Tamariki, boys
Tane, man
Tangata, man
Tangatawhare, a plebeian
Taokete, brother-in-la/w
Tiwha, red; name for Euro-
peans
Tupuna, ancestor
Tutua, a poor man; a mean
person
Waea, mother
Wahine, a woman ; a wife


76
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Wakarau, captive
Wanaunga, relative
Waraki, European
Ware, slave
Weke, old man
Whanakoroa. Syn. with
Whanako
Whanako, person icho tal es
anything he fancies with-
out asking leave, a thief
Whanoke, to be Z»acZ, to be
troublesome
Whenako, a thief
LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL NEW ZEALAND TRIBES,
WITH THEIR LOCALITIES.
Rarawa and Aopouri, North
Cape to Hokianga
Ngapuhi, Bay of Islands
Ngatiwhatua and Uriohau,
Manukau, Kaipara, and
Waitemata
Ngatitai, Frith of Thames
and Auckland
Ngatipaoa, Thames from
Cape Colville to Katikati
Ngaiterangi, Katikati to
Maketu and inland
Ngatiwhaka-aue, Maketu
and the Lake country
Ngatiraukawa, Otaki Aro-
whenua
Waikato and Ngatimania-
poto, Mokau to Manukau
and inland
Ngatiawa, West Coast from
Egmont to Mount Tau-
piri, Waikanae, Wel-
lington, &c.
Te Whakatohea, Bay of
Plenty and inland
Ngatipouri. Runaway to
Table Cape and inland
Ngatituwharetoa, centre of
North Island, Taupo Dis-
trict
Ngatitama, from Mokau
inland
Taranaki, near Sugarloaves
Ngatiruanui, Waitotara and
inland
Ngarauru, Waitotara to
Whanganui and inland
Ngatihau, Whanganui and
inland
Ngatiapa, Muaupoko, Ran-
gitane, Whanganui river
and inland
Ngatitoa, near Wellington
Ngatikahungunu, Table
Cape to Palliser Bay and
inland


TRIBES AND THEIR LOCALITIES.
77
Te Urewera, Taupo to Po-
verty Bay
Whanauapanui, Cape Run-
away to Bay of Plenty
and inland
Rangitane, Admiralty Bay
and neighbourhood
Ngahitao, South and Middle
Island
The above list has been corrected from New Zealand
Institute paper by W. Colenso, Esq.
WAR, MURDER, &c.
Haupapa, ambuscade
Karapoti, to blochade a pah
by building walls against
it
Karere, herald
Kohuru, murder
Mataika, first person hilled
or taken prisoner
Maru, to plunder or strip a
man for his crime
Maroro Kairakau, the at-
taching party
Matua, the reserve
Morunga, to place the head
of an enemy on a pole
Parekura, battle field; and
then only used for a spot
where men have been
lulled
Papa, battlefield
Takaihi, to plunder
Tanatoto, an avenging war
party
Tangaika, spoil taken in war
Taua, hostile party
Tatauranga,/^^; a place
of fighting
Taunga, numbering
Tite, a scout
Torohe, a party going by
Stealth to fight
Torotoro, persons sent by the
Taua to spy out the
strength of the pah
Tukiata, a morning surprise
Tutei, spy; one who goes
before a fight
Whaitaua, a party which
goes to another's aid in war
Whakopiko, a warder com-
mitted upon persons who
are in the act of eating
food prepared by the mur-
derers
Whakariki, army ; a hostile
party
Whakarua, surprise
Whakatakoto, amibuscade
Whangaihau, to hang up the
hand of an enemy


78
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY<
FORTIFICATIONS.
Awhina, inside fence
Huahua, cross pole to which
the upright posts are tied
in the fence of the pah
Kaingatautohe, debateable
land
Kahupapa, a sap shield cap-
able of covering 12 to 20
men employed in excava-
ting the approach to a
pah
Keretehi, outer fence
Koki, sort of bastion
Maioro, ba/nk inside of the
trench
Pah, an obstruction; a fence
round a village; if a place
is thus inclosed it is a
pah or town, if not, a
kainga
Parepare toruarua, fosse
Pekerangi, shed in which
the hostile party sleeps
Taita, barricade
Taumahi, small tower Gr
elevated stage
Teawhakari, ditch
Teki, outer fence of a pah
Waharoa, entrance to a for-
tification
TATTOOING.
Erewha, upper eyelid
Hotiki, tatooing on the fore-
head of females
Hupe, at the point of the
nose; in the rima nasi
Kokoti, on the cheeks
Koroaha, on the lower max-
illa ; where the masseter
lies
Korohaha, lower spirals of
the cheeks
Moko, general name for the
tatooed lines on the face
Ngu, at the summit of the
nose
Pae’pae, on the molar bones
Pongingia, at the wings of
the nose [thighs
Puhoro, npper pa/rt of the
Putaringa, on the ears
Rapa or jRape, on the pos-
teriors


TATTOOING.
79
Rerepehi, tattooing on the
cheek
Repi, lines from the nose to
the chin
Riti, outer lines of the spi-
rals on the posteriors
Ta, to tattoo
Tipai, untattooed face; a
sign the man would be
made a slave of
Titi, four lines on the middle
of the forehead
Tiwhana, over the brows and
SALUTATIONS.
Aitimai, welcome
Ehoa, friend
Haehae, to cut the flesh for
grief or respect
Haere or Haere atu ra, go in
peace
Heikonei, farivell
Hongi, to salute by the nose
Inakoe, welcome
Momi, to kiss
Mote, to kiss
Naumai, welcome
Owha, to salute
Tangi, to cry; the most
common form of saluta-
tion
Tenakoe, I greet you




PART III.
OF TIME, THE STARS, THE ELEMENTS,
WATER, WIND, LAND,
DRESS, HOUSES, CANOES, IMPLEMENTS,
AND
AMUSEMENTS.




TIME.
83
TIME.
The Maori count time by nights, moons, and stars, and
instead of distinguishing the days by names, they confer
that honor on the nights; different tribes rather vary in
their names and order, but there is a general resemblance
between them.
NIGHTS OF THE MOON.
1. HeNonihape, invisible. 2. Ngaromuia, Ohowhata.
3. Witikiraua. 4. Heohoata. 5. Ouenuku. 6. Maweti.
7. Tutahi. 8. Otama. 9. He Pa. 10. He Ari. 11. He
Hune. 12. He Mawaru. 13. He Hua. 14. He Atua.
15. Kiokio. 16. He Rakaunui. 17. He Rakaumatohi.
18. HeTakirau. 19. He Oheke. 20. He Korekore. 21.
He Korekoretutahi. 22. He Korekorewhakou. 23. Ta-
ngaroa amua. 24. Tangaroa a roto. 25. He Kiokio.
26. HeOtane. 27. He Rongomai. 28. He Mouri. He
Mutu.
There appears also to have been a kind of division of
the nights into decades, as ten nights to the full moon, ten
to its disappearing.
The Maori year commences with the first new moon
after the star Puanga is seen in the morning, which is in
May.
THE TEAR BEGINS WITH MAY.
May—The stars Kaiwaka, Patutahi, Matariki and Puanga
are in the ascendant.
June—Matariki, Tapuapua, Waka-ah u ter a o Tainui.
July—Waka-ahunukurangi, Papa, Kerekere; Kopu and
Tautoru.
August—Takapoupoto, Mangere, Kaiwaka; the first
cuckoo arrives, spring begins, the karaka and
hou flower.


84
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
September—Takapoutawahi; it gets warm, cultivation
begins; the kowhai, kotukutuku and rangiora
flower; this is often a rainy month.
October—Kumara planting; the second cuckoo arrives;
the tawera is ripe; this is a windy month like
March in Britain.
November—Te Wakumu ; the rewarewa flowers.
December—Nga Tapuae ; the rata flowers.
January—Uruao ; the karaka is ripe.
February-—Rehua; a dry and a scarce month.
March—Ngahuru ; the kumara is ripe ; this is the harvest
month.
April—Te Kahui-rua-mahu ; the cuckoo leaves, and the
days begin to get cold.
Matariki (the Pleiades,), as above, is the sign of Winter.
Rehua (Sirius), the sign of Summer.
THE FOUR SEASONS ARE
Spring—I September and October.
Summer—Ruamata, November, December and January.
Autumn—Ngahuru, February, March and April.
Winter—Hotoke, May, June and July.
Ahiahi, evening
Ahiahitanga, time of evening
Aienei, to-day; directly
Ake, onwards, either in time
or space
Akeakeake, for ever
Akenei, henceforth
Akengokengo, to-morrow
Akenoi, until
Akuanei, this evening; pre-
sently
Amua, Amuri, or Anamata,
‘ hereafter
Ao, day; light
Aoake, next day
Aeina-ake, day after to-mor-
row
Aonga, the dawn
Aonga-ake, following day
Aotea, i.e. Awatea, after
sunrise
Apopo, to-morrow
Arohirohi, fine day; the
quivering heat of the sun
when it shines on a clear
summer’s day; mirage
Ata, morning
Atahapara, break of day
At apo, before it is light
Atarau, moonlight
Atatu, break of day [row
Atetahi ra, day after to-mor-
Awaki, day after: two days
after to-morrow


TIME.
85
Awaki nui atu, three days
after to-morrow
Awatea, daylight; noon
Haeata, dawn of day
Hawhakenga, harvest time
Hinakipouri, quite dark
Hotoke, winter
Huaki, to dawn
Hutoke, winter
Inaianei, to-day ; just now
Inakuara, a little while ago
Inamata, formerly; quickly;
immediately
Inanahi, yesterday
Inangeto, quickly
Inaoake, three days ago
Inaoakenui, four days ago
Inapo, last night
Inatahi ra, day before yes-
terday
Ina tetahi ra, three days ago
Ina waki nui atu, five days
ago
Ite awatea, at daybreak
Ka tu te ra, noon
Kua po, the day is ended
Kua riko te ra, the sun has
waned
Kua titaha te ra, the sun has
declined
Maruao, dawn of day
Maru po, midnight
Meake, soon; presently
Nomua, before; formerly
Nonaianei, to-day
Nonakuara, little while ago
Non am ata, long time ago
Nonanahi, yesterday
Nonao ake, day before yes-
terday
Nonaoakenui, three days ago
Nonapo, last night
O mua, formerly
Parawea, noon
Po, night; also a season
Po hotoke, winter season
Po raumati, summer season
Puaotanga, time of dawn
Ra, daylight: a day
Raumati, summer
Rehurehu, to decline, as the
sun
Riko, to wane, as the moon
Rikoriko, dark; twilight
Takiri, dawn of day
Takurua, winter
Taro, short time; soon
Tau, a year
Tetahi wahi, moment
Tirakiraki te hua,yW£ moon
Toene, to set; as the sun
Toenetanga, act or time of
setting
Wa, time; season
Wawe, soon; suddenly
THE HEAVENS, STARS, &c,
Aokai, star Arohirohi, radiation of the
Araitanga, eclipse sun
8


86
MAORI AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.
Haereahiahi, evening star
Haereiti, small star
He umu hau, circle round
the moon : halo; sign of
wind
Hihi, ray of the sun
Hua, full (moon)
Ka hoki pouri, no moon; he
is dead. E haere ano ki
te mate
Ka hua te marama, full
moon
Kaiwaka, star which appears
in May
Ka iti, new or little moon
Ka iti haere te marama, the
moon wanes
Ka mate, no moon; he is
dead
Ka puta atamai, increasing
(moon)
Kokopu, bright morning star
Komaru, sun
Kotiri, meteor; a falling star
Kowhiti, to appear as the
new moon
Mamaru, the sun
Marama, moon; the Maori
makes the moon a male,
the sun a female
Matariki, the Pleiades,which
continues the whole of the
winter; and disappears in
the spring
Pae, the horizon
Ra, sun, day
Rangi, the sky, day, heaven
Rangiatea, clear atmosphere
Reinga, the other world
Roke, star
Ruamahu, star
Takiara, very bright morn-
ing star
Takiriteata, dawn of day
Tawera, morning star
Whetu, general name for
a star
The above list is not complete, as the Maori has a name
for almost every star—being the name of some earthly
object or departed ancestor transferred to the skies.
THE ELEMENTS.
Ahi, fire
Aniwaniwa, rainbow
Anu, cold misty air
Aoma, white clouds
Aonga, light, the dawn
Aopanga, clear blue shy
Aorere or Aorewa, light
fleecy clouds
Ata marama, moonlight
Au or Auahi, smoke
Awhiowhio, whirlwind
Hahana, to shine as fire