Citation
Maori-English tutor and vade mecum

Material Information

Title:
Maori-English tutor and vade mecum
Creator:
Stowell, Henry Matthew, 1859-1944
Hongi, Hare, 1859-1944
Place of Publication:
Christchurch, N.Z
Publisher:
Whitcombe and Tombs
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 248 p. : ; 20 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Maori language ( lcsh )
Maori language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Reo Māori
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Oceania -- New Zealand
Ao-o-Kiwa -- Aotearoa
Coordinates:
-42 x 174

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
General Note:
Preface dated 1911; Bagnall no.S1818 dates 1913, as does H. Fildes.
General Note:
VIAF (name Authority) : Stowell, Henry M. (Henry Matthew), 1859-1944 : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/58763518
General Note:
VIAF (Name Authority) : Hongi, Hare, 1859-1944 : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/51371183

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commerical License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge the author and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.
Resource Identifier:
734432 ( aleph )
OCN232361420 ( oclc )
232361420 ( oclc )
IE Mao 415 ( soas classmark )

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Full Text
c'hststohctok, whlmn&t&s &
Mbuboubnb And London :
WHITCOMBE AND TOMBS LIMITED
B/*




MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
AND
V ADE MECUM
BY
HENRY M. STOWELL (Hare Hongi)
Christchurch, Wellington and Dunedin, N.Z.;
Melbourne and London :
WHITCOMBE AND TOMBS LIMITED




AUTHOR’S PREFACE.
As there are already available several hand-books on
the Maori language, including grammars and
vocabularies, it may seem surprising to some that
another should now be added to the list. It cannot
however be denied by scholars, that the efforts of
previous writers are not altogether adequate to the
scientific study of the subject. This remark is not
intended to depreciate the merits of other works, but
is assigned as a reason for the present production. The
mischievous effect due to the exclusion from the Maori
alphabet of wh, has now been rectified. Its omission in
the past has been entirely due to a capricious estimate
of the sounds of Maori. The evils resulting therefrom
are abundantly evident in the mutilated forms of such
place-names as Whanganui, Whangaehu, Whakatu,
Whakatipu, and many others. The same capricious
estimate has induced more than one writer to declare
that: “A has a slender sound as in cab,—kapiti,—and
a broad sound as in tall,—mama. ” Neither of these
sounds being proper to Maori, both examples are wrong
and their teaching pernicious.
To the writer who urges that the tense of Maori is
unsatisfactory, the mode of comparison freaky, and the
want of a verb substantive very marked, this work gives
a complete answer.
The classification of the pronoun into singular and
plural, as hitherto obtaining, has been set aside; and the
more regular form of singular, dual and triplial
iii
A2


IV
author’s preface
substituted in accordance with the requirements of the
tongue.
The aim of the Author has been to present a succession
of genuine examples of Maori, beginning with the
simplest expressions and passing along by gradual
stages to the most complex; to show the real simplicity
of the tongue, its scope, and at the same time its purity;
which can be better illustrated by one example than by
many words.
In English we would say:—Having mused awhile with
the object of stirring up the fountain of speech, the
speaker rises, and with his honeyed tongue and well
modulated voice begins an oration. Then is heard the
expressive whisper, the full tones of animated vigour,
and those more tender and pathetic, the apt quotation,
pointed illustration and old-time proverb. From the
nature of his discourse it would almost seem that he had
conversed with the gods of the sky, and that they had
revealed to him the original plan of the creation of the
world, and its evolution from darkness to light, when
the history of man begins. The rapt attention of the
listeners gives silent testimony to their appreciation of
his eloquence.
Here, it will be observed, the noun “speech” is not
repeated in the subsequent clauses, but is represented
by various substitutes—the English language being so
largely made up from borrowed sources.
In Maori we would say:—Kua rapupuku ra ngd
mahara o te Kai-korero ki a ko, d, kua, tu (ike. Tviku
tonu mai ai ko td te arero parekareka, o te reo mdeneene,
papardnaki, a, kua timata rawa taana whai-korero. Ka
rangona i konei te mahi a te kdrero-kdmuhumuku, a te
kdrero-ioakauui, a te korero-whakamihi. WKakahuahua


author’s preface
V
noa ki td terd kiipu-whakarite, ko toona aronga o te
hanga nei o to kupu-korero, o te korero-whakatani-d-ki
d mua mai. And i nd te dhuatanga o taana tdtai-
korero kua korerorero-tahi tonu rdtou ko ngd atua o te
rangi, a, i kauwhaiitia tonutia mai e end ki d ia
te ritenga o te oroko-whaihangangatanga o te Ao-turoa
nei, ara, te kd-toi-nukuf te ko-toi-rangi, mai and o te
kunengatanga mai i te hinapouritanga tde noa ki te
Ao-mdrama nei, a, timata iho ki kond te korero mo te
hanga nei md te tangata. Ata whakarongo marine ai te
taring a tangata, ko taau tohu e te korero-wahakore, te
whakamate atu ki tend hanga ki te tino-korero, me ka
rangona atu.
Here, it will be observed, the noun is repeated in all
of the subsequent clauses or phrases relating to the
particular idea ; which, while exhibiting the structural
simplicity of the tongue, demonstrates its purity. Here
you have no borrowing from fortuitous sources, but a
tongue at once comprehensive, ample in all required
processes, and proudly self-reliant.
No special reference is made to sub-dialectic variation.
Throughout the length and breadth of New Zealand the
differences are so very slight, never of the least difficulty
to the ordinary native, that they may by courtesy alone
be referred to as sub-dialects. A few examples may be
shown of the most noticeable:—
Mao, rdo, tdo; for, maua, rdua, tdua.
Whenei, for penei. Teneki, for tenei. Tipuna for
tupuna.
Mdtau for mdtou. Tatau for tdtou. Batau for rdtou.
Hai for hei. Kai for kei. Hoi for hei. Taina for
teina.


VI
AUTHOR’S preface
Mdhau and mohou for mdau and moou. Awau for
ahau.
Kiahore, kdore and kukore, for kdhore, ekore and kua
kore.
The South Island natives consistently substitute a k
for ng, as raki, for rangi-, takata for tangata, etc.; whilst
those of the Bay of Plenty use n for ng, as: tanata, for
tangata, hana for hanga, etc. There are very feeble
indications of pronouncing whenua as fenua-, and also
the substitution of a peculiar click for the letter h, as
a’i for ahi. However trivial, those are the most pro-
nounced forms of difference and cannot be classed as
dialects.
For dialects of the Maori tongue we must pass to the
consideration of the speech in use at the different island-
centres of Polynesia. These occur within a triangle
running from New Zealand and the Chatham Islands in
a straight line to Easter Island, thence in a straight line
to the Sandwich Islands, thence straight back to New
Zealand. In this triangle we find the Chatham Island
dialect, the Tongan dialect, the Niuean dialect, the
Rarotongan dialect, the Samoan, Tahitian, Marquesan,
Mangarevan, Easter Island (nearly pure Maori), and
Hawaikian.
The islanders in the above-defined region all speak
a dialect of Maori, and an examination will demonstrate
(with the leave of etymologists) that the Maori is the
most pure, the least affected by corruption or phonetic
decay.
It is hoped that the present work will be found to
facilitate the appreciation of this view. By adopting
Maori as a standard and by discussing those of proved
philological affinity as so many dialects, much sound


author’s preface
vii
progress may be made along the lines of enquiry as to
the original forms of speech.
For the rest, whatever shortcomings may be found
either in the matter or manner of the present work, it
has at least the distinct merit of teaching what it is
proper to learn. Nothing is herein laid down which
will require to be unlearned. If a thorough grounding
in the sounds, elements, and principles of a tongue can
be gained without the assistance of an oral teacher,
those of Maori should be acquired by a proper and
painstaking study of what is here presented.
The work contains, in a very large degree, the know-
ledge proceeding from life-long and assiduous study
under the most favourable conditions. It is the result
of three years close labour, and it is now placed before
an indulgent public with all the confidence to which
the genuineness of its mission may entitle it.
HENRY M. STOWELL,
(Hare Hongi),
Wellington, New Zealand, 1911.


ERRATA.
Page 8—Fourth line from bottom, for Kai pai ai a la read
Kia pai ai a la.
Page 89—Fifth line from bottom, for Whakamalcia read “Not
used.9 ’


CONTENTS
PAGE
Author’s Preface .... iii
Diagram ..... xii
CHAPTER I.
Alphabetical Tables and Vowel Sounds 1
On Diphthongs .. . . . . 6
CHAPTER II.
On Wliaka; Kia—ai; Ahei; Pu, Tonu; Raica, Whaka-
harahara, Tino; Ke; Me; E; Tu; Kaua—kei; Kai;
Ano and Hoki; A; Koa . . . . 6
On the Prepositions . . . . 14
CHAPTER III.
On Direction and Directive Particles 17
On the Mode of Comparison . . 19
On the Senses .. 19
On Voice and Speech 20
On Enumeration . . . . 22
On Measurements .... 30
CHAPTER IV.
On the Articles .. . . 31
On the Noun and Gender .... 33
CHAPTER V.
On the Pronouns . . • • 36
Personal Pronouns . . 36
Possessive Pronouns . . 37
Relative Pronouns . . 43
Interrogative Pronouns 43
Demonstrative Pronouns . . 45
Distributive Pronouns . . 46
Indefinite Pronouns .... 47
On Adjectives and Adverbs . . 48
On the Verb Substantive ko .. 49
CHAPTER VI.
On the Verb, Mood and Tense .. 51
Present tense .... 52


X
CONTENTS
PAGE
Past tense .. 53
Perfect tense .. 55
Past perfect tense 55
Future tense .. 56
Dual tense .. 57
Emphatic forms . . * 58
Passive and jussive forms .... 60
CHAPTER VII.
On the regular use of tense-signs in sentence construction 61
Ka not a tense-sign .. 64
On the Negative .. . . .. 65
On Antonyms . . . . . . 67
CHAPTER VIII.
On the Grammar .. .. . . .. 75
On I was, I had been, I have been, I have become 77
CHAPTER IX.
On Verbs and' their Terminals . . 78
On Verbal Prefixes .... 81
List of Verbs .. 83
CHAPTER X.
On colour .. . . 105
On insects and reptiles .. 109
On fish . . .. . . 110
On trees and plants .. Ill
On birds . . . . . • • . 116
CHAPTER XI.
On proper names . . . . . . • • 118
On place names .. • • • • 120
On Maori aphorisms . . . • 126
On selected phrases . - • - 132
On fables .. .. • • • • 135
CHAPTER XII.
On the Tohunga .. .. .. 137
Parts of the human body 138
On the bone system . . 140
Ailments and diseases . . 141
On sport, pastime, drill . . 143
Law of tapu .. . . 144
On the Koropatu . . 146


CONTENTS xi
PAGE
On A rihi . . 147
On mantles and garments 149
On weapons, axes. etc. 150
On Maori houses . . 151
CHAPTER XI IT.
On the term Kura 153
Philosophic lament 154
Maori Ante music . . . . 157
Names of Maori songs, chants, etc.. 158
Maori love ditties 159
'Epic poem (Turaukawa) 161
/ Epic poem, translation . . 165
CHAPTER XIV.
On marriage customs and land rights 172
Fixity of land tenure 174
Hereditary tenure .. .. . . . . 181
Land tenure in its relation to marriage customs 182
Kinship and marriage connexions . . 187
Plural marriages . . . . 190
* CHAPTER XV.
On time . . . . . . . . 193
Sun, Moon, Stars, Planets, Constellations 195
Maori lunar Calendar 195
Stars ruling Months 196
Months by numbers 196
Seasons 197
Winds . . 197
The Planets . . 198
Milky Way, constellations 200
Sun, summer.- the sky 206
Moon, night, star-groups . . 208
CHAPTER XVI.
Whang a, I atari, Taihoa . . 212
Tabloid Translations . . . . 213
CHAPTER XVII.
Verbalised phrases, childhood, manhood, old age 222
Rhyming slang . . . . . . . • 228
Maori hymn to Creator 229
Appendix 232


DIAGRAM
Illustrating a fundamental principle of Maori.
BY THE AUTHOR.


ALPHABETICAL TABLES.
The first principles or elements of pronunciation are letters. The letters and signs of the Maori
language are in number fifteen, consisting of five vowels, eight consonants, the compound ng which bears the
guttural-nasal sound of the word ring, and the voiceless compound wh which is merely breath instead of
voice. Each letter is a word in itself, in Maori neither consonants nor compounds are used without an
attendant vowel, and no word ends with a consonant. The most convenient arrangement of the alphabet
is that in which the vowels precede the consonants. In the Tables following the student will observe that
tiiere is a long and a short sound attached to each vowel; and the proper study and practice of these sounds
is of the utmost importance.
TABLE A., as in After and Arise; or, as English Papa and Mama.
Letter. Long sound. Ex. Short sound. Ex. Numbers.
J After A, and Arise A, prefix to proper names Ka-tahi, that makes one
E Erin E, sign of vocative 0 Epsom Ete,to press forw'd Kd-rua, that makes two
I Marine I, a sign of past tense It Iti, little Ka-toru, that makes three
1 0 Oasis 0, of Obey Oti, finish Ka-whd that makes four
u Ruth V, firm, secure Put Puta, an opening Kd-rima, that makes five Ka-ono, that makes six
Ha Hark Ha, breath Harangue Ha, the idea!
Ha (Kars) (Turk) Ka, that is, then Katoomba Kata, to laugh Ka-whitu, that makes seven
Ma Martyr Ma, for Majority Mai, hitherward Kd-waru, that makes eight
Na Narcotic Na, belonging to Natal (Col.) Na, that one Kd-iwa, that makes nine
Ha Path Pa, to touch Pacific Pai, good ra, yonder Ka-tekau, that makes ten
};a Rather Ea, the sun Ravine Ka-tekau-ma-tahi, that makes ten and one
Ta Tarnish Ta, to print Tadorna Tata, near Ka-tekau-ma-rua, that makes ten and two
Wa Waag (Hung.) IVa, time, space Wapping Wai, water Ka-tekau-ma-toru, that makes ten and three
Nga Ring jaf ter Nga, (pl. of def. art.) Sing arise Ngaro, lost Ka-tekau-md-whd, that makes ten and four
Wha Wh’y Wha, four Wh ’ite Whai, to follow Ka-tekau-md-rima, making ten
and five
Ka, as a numeral prefix answers the question: How many does that make?
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR.
Chapter I.


TABLE E.
The student is enjoined to persevere in acquiring an accurate knowledge of the vowel sounds in order
to ensure facility in their use and a correct pronunciation. No real progress can be made in the study of
a language until the ear is taught to measure and determine the value of certain given sounds. The true
sounds of the vowels in this tongue are subject to no change, and their relative duration is absolutely
fixed. Care must be taken to avoid giving to the letter e the diphthongal termination of the English a.
There are no silent letters in Maori, and the h is always aspirated.
K)
Letter. Long sound. TABLE E, as in Erin, Epsom. Numbers.
Ex. Short sound. Ex.
A Ah A, to drive off Arise Ara, to arise He-tahi, it is one
E Erin E, sign of future tense Etch Epa, to pelt, throw E-rua, there are two
I Marine Inoi, to entreat In Ina, certainly E-toru, there are three
0 Oasis 0 ona, (pl, of toona) his Oat Ora, life E-wha, there are four
U R?zth U, teat Pwt Uta, ashore E-rima, there are five E-ono, there are six
He Heroic He, wrong Hem He, indef. article
Ke Ker. (Aust.) Ke, different Kent Kei, at E-whitu, there are seven
Me Merrily Ne’er Me, must Met Mei, if E-waru, there are eight
Ne He, is it so? Net Nei, here, this Pei, to push E-iwa, there are nine He-tekau, there are ten
Pe Pear Pea, perhaps Pet
Re Reign Rerere, to fly about Rent Here, to fly He tekau-ma-tahi, there are ten and one
Te Tear (rip) Tenei, this Tent Te (def. art.) the He tekau-md-rua, there are ten and two
We Wear Weta, N.Z. tree cricket Wet Wera, hot He tekau-ma-toru, there are ten and three
Nge SangErin Nge, noise, uproar Sang^etch Ngenge, fatigue He tekau-md-whd, there are ten and four
Whe Where Wliewlie, abscess, boil When Whero, coloured He tekau-ma-rima, there are
ten and five.
E, as a numeral prefix answers the question: How many are there?
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR


TABLE I.
The student is advised to practise these exercises regularly and aloud. Indeed, in order to acquire the
sounds perfectly it is absolutely necessary to compare them carefully with those of the English and
foreign equivalents set out here, until there is no perceptible variation of sound. Accustom the mouth to
pronounce the key-word until the vowel can be sounded alone with fulness, clearness, and precision. The
full tones of Maori are gained by the more opened mouth and throat, the greater use of breath, and the
free play of the tongue and lower jaw.
TABLE I., as in Marine and Irritate.
Letter. Long sound. Ex. Short sound. Ex. Numbers.
A Ah A.e, yes Arose Aroaro, front Kia-tahi, let there be one
E Erin Era, the others Empty Eke, to mount, em- bark Kia-rua, let there be two
I Marine I, sour Irritate Iri, to hang, sus- pend Kia-toru, let there be three
0 Oasis Oru, boggy Only Ono, six Kia-wha, let there be four
U Tntth K, to land ashore Pull Puru, to pad Kia-rima, let there be five
Hi Hie ’lander Hi, to fish Hint Hinu, fat, grease Kia-ono, let there be six Kia-wlritu, let there be seven
Ki Kiel (Ger.) Ki, saying Kit Kite, to see
Mi Mien Miharo, surprise Nikau, N.Z. Palm Mitigate Miti, to lick Kia-waru, let there be eight Kia-iwa, let there be nine Kia-telcau, let there be ten
Ni Niece Nick Niko, to fix
Pi Piece Pi, young of birds Pit Pito, navel, end Ripo, to ripple
Pi Rieve (naut.) Eiwai, potato Rip Kia-tekau-ma-tahi, let there ten and one be
Ti Tier Ti, N.Z. Cabbage free Tin Tino, superlative Kia-tekau-ma-rua, let there ten and two be
Wi Wield Wiwi, common rush Win Wini, to shudder Kia-tekau-ma-toru, let there ten and three be
Ngi Sang^bach Ngi, shrivelled Rangoit Ngiha, to spark Kia-tekau-ma-wha, let there ten and four be
Whi As wheel Whitiki, girdle, belt Whit-Sunday Whitu, seven Kia-tekau-ma-rima, let there be
ten and five
A3 a numeral prefix, Kia answers the question: How many are there to be?
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR


TABLE O.
In this exercise the student is enjoined to be careful not to mingle, as in the English, the u sound with
the letter o. If the mouth and tongue be kept perfectly still during the continuance of the sound, there
will be no perceptible corruption. In regard to the long-sounding vowels it is to be observed that the
English equivalents should receive the longest sound? which they are capable of sustaining, c?mpatible
with good speech, thus ensuring to the Maori letters their full complement of sound. It will be found
during the course of these exercises that this iong sound is really the accent, and as its average occurrence
i>» once only in an average sentence, it may be overlined thus----.
TABLE O, as in Oasis: Obey.
Letter. Long sound. Ex. Short sound. Ex. Numbers.
A Ark Amai, sea-swell Account Akaaka, a vine Ko te tahi, ’tis the one
E Erin E-hea, which ones? (pl.) Enter Ene, to cajole Ko te rua, are the two
J Marine I a na, that is it In Inu, to drink Ko te torn, are the three
0 Oasis 0 oku (pl.) mi no Oar Onepu, sand Ko te whd, are the four
U Gruel Ung a, landing Pull Pura, mote in eye Ko te rima, are the five
llo Hosanna Ho, to pout Hoar Hoa, companion Ko te ono, are the six
Ko Koran Ko, verb, to be Koh (Per.) Koi, sharp edge Ko te whitu, are the seven
Mo Moet Mo, for Mote Moe, sleep Ko te warn, are the eight
Ko November Ko, from Note Koa, nothing Ko te iwa, are the nine
Po Poetic Po, night Pope Popo, decay, dry-rot Ko te tekau, are the ten
Ro Romantic Ro, jackstraw Rope Roa, long Ko te tekau-ma-tahi, are the ten and one
To Wo Tore (Not used) To, to haul Toast Tope, to hew down Ko te tekau-ma-rua, are the ten and two Ko te tekau-ma-toru, are the ten and three
Kgo Who Ringco ’er (Not used) Kgoiro, conger eel Singcobey Kgote, to suck Ko te tekau-ma-wha, are the ten and four Ko te tekau-ma-rima, are the
ten and five.
Ko speaks of persons, and as a numeral prefix Ko answers the question as to how many times a person
has been to a certain place, done a certain thing, etc.
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR


TABLE U.
With this Table the student will have exhausted in a very thorough manner the whole of the elementary
sounds of the Maori tongue, for no others remain. Assuming that their practice and study has been diligently
pursued, he should now be fairly well equipped with the means for proceeding to more ambitious work.
These exercises, however, should not be entirely set aside, but should constantly be referred to in all future
efforts as the unerring guide to the cultivation of the ear, and the acquirement and maintenance of that
important essential,—a correct pronunciation. As to consonantal sounds no direction is necessary, for these
are entirely regulated by the attendant vowels. Proncunce the vowels correctly and the consonants will
take good care of themselves.
TABLE U, as in Ruth: Put.
better. Long sound. Ex. Short sound. Ex.
A Arm Apopo, to-morrow Amuse Amo, to shoulder
E Erin E hara, not it Empty Emi, to assemble
T Marine I a nei, this is it If Iwi, bone, race
0 Oasis O-whanga, nest Oar Oka, to pierce
u Ruth Vira, lightning Push Puhi, to blow
Hu as Who Hu, suppressed boom Huy (Belg) Hui, gather together
Ku Kuma (Circ.) Kuene, to urge Kur (Turk) Kua, sign of per-
fect tense
Mu Muy (Spain) Muanga, predecessor Mush (Trk) Mutu, to cease
Nu Nube (Spn.) ftuminga, vanishing Nura (Ttn.) Nui, great
Pu as Pooh Fu, exactness Put Putaputa, having
holes
Ru Rue 7iu, earthquake Rook Piua, pit, hole
Tu as Tooth Tu, to stand Took Tui, lace, sew
Wu (Not used)
N^u Sing^ooze Ngu, a squid Ngutu, lip, rim
Whu (not used)
Ordinals.
Tua-tahi, once, firstly
Tua-rua, twice, secondly
Tua-toru, thrice, thirdly
Tua-wha, fourthly
Tua-rima, fifthly
Tua-ono, sixthly
Tua-whitu, seventhly
Tua-waru, eighthly
Tua-iwa, ninthly
Tua-tekau, tenthly
Tua-rua-tekau, twentieth
Tua-toru-tekau, thirtieth
Tua-wha-tekau, fortieth
Tua-rima-tekau, fiftieth
MAORI-ENGLISH TUT
pa
As a numerical prefix Tua answers the question as to the order in which a thing stands.


6
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
ON DIPHTHONGS.
As it is imperative to give to each vowel, no matter
what its position in a word may be, its one true measure
of sound, there are no diphthongs or digraphs in this
tongue. A few examples are here given of those vowel-
combinations wdrich are sometimes wrongly regarded
as diphthongs.
AJcj.
This combination is correctly sounded in speaking the
English Ah else. Each of these letters receives the long
sound in every case in which the two appear together in
the above order. . T
AI.
The long sound is fully heard in the English word
eye, also in ay of the sailors: Ay, ay, Sir. The short
sound is heard in igh of such words as right, might, etc.
AO.
The long sound is heard in the English Ah oasis.
When occurring in the order here given the short sound
never applies.
The long sound is heard in the English word rowdy,
the short sound in the English word oat.
EL
The long sound is heard in such words as neigh,
reign, and the short sound in the word eight.
OU.
The long sound is distinctly heard in the English
word foe.
Such words as the following are compound:—
Mata-ara, wakeful. Iri-iri, to christen.
Hdere -ere, to ramble about Onia-onia, to run to and fro.
Unu-unu; to undo, untie. Utu-utu, to dip up water.
Ako-ako, to instruct. Ihi-ihi, to twitch (as
nerves).


Chapter II.
ON WHAKA.
Whaka is a word of two syllables and one of the most
important in the language. In many instances it
corresponds to the English prefix be-, thus:—before,
whakamua: behind, whakamuri; besmudge, whakapoke,
etc. Whaka, which always has the short vowel-sounds,
is a causative prefix, causatives being formed by
prefixing it to verbs, adjectives, and nouns, thus:—
Tika, straight, correct, whakatika, to straighten, to
correct.
Hoki, return; ivhakahoki, to send back.
Kata, laugh; ivhakakata, to cause laughter.
Taka, fall; ivhakataka, to cause to fall.
Pai, good; whakapai, to make good.
Tangata, man; whakatangata, to make a man of, to
act as a man.
ON KIA—AL
These are particles of very extensive use, kia being
used to denote a wish or proposition:— o
Kia atawhai ki tou tamaiti, be kind to thy child.
Ko taaku 'hiahia tenei, kia whakadkona koe; my desire
is this, that you be taught.
Kia haere tdua ki te one*! Shall you-and-I go to the
sands ?
Kia is a sign of the jussive tense let-it-be:—
Kia mdrama, let it be light.
Ki a has the meaning of unto:—
Hdere mai ki a au, come hither unto me.
Hdere atu ki a ia, go thither unto him.
7


8
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Including as it does the negative prefix un- ki a is
largely infinitive:—
Taihoa e hoe, ki a tde mai era, defer the paddling until
the others arrive.
Ki a kite ra and an i a ia, until I actually see him.
Ai (verb auxiliary), may, possible to be, contingent:—
Ko wai i hua ai, ko wai i tohu ai? Who would deem
it possible, who prepare for such a contingency?
Ma tend anake ka whakade ai au, upon that (under-
standing) alone will I consent.
He wehi noona i oma atu ai, it was probably fear
which caused him to run off.
Na toona mate i kore ai a ia e kai, it is probably his
illness which causes him to abstain from food.
He papai nd ngd kai i reka ai, it is probably due to
its excellence, that the food is so relished.
He koakoanga ngdkau i kata ai a ia, it is probably a
rejoicing heart which causes him to laugh.
Ai, then, propounds a cause or advances a reason.
Ai is perhaps an abbreviation of Ahei:—
E ahei, it is possible: e kore e ahei, it is impossible.
When associated in a sentence the words Kia—ai
convey the meaning: in order to effect the desired
object:—
Omakia, kia pahure ai tdtou; run, in order that
we may escape.
Hohorotia, kia wawe ai tdtou te tde; hasten, in order
that we may the sooner arrive.
Kai pai ai a Ia; in order that he may approve.
Utaina he wahie, kia kd tonu ai te ahi; put on some
firewood, so that the fire may continue to burn.
Me Hahde te whiu o te patu, kia mate ai to tangata;


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
9
you must use the weapon with a drawing stroke, in
order that you may kill your man.
Kia tdea ai te hdpai; in order to make the lifting
practicable.
ON PU.
Pu connotes the essence or core of a thing, and is used
to denote exactitude:—
Rite pu, precisely similar: Tika pu, absolutely
straight or correct.
Pokc^pu. jstraight, or direcfly towards.
~Wdenga pu, the exact centre.
Ko te waka pu tenei, this is the actual canoe.
Ko ia pu tend, that is it undoubtedly.
Ka mamde pu koe i a Au, I shall most assuredly hurt
you.
Erangi pu a Ia i a koe, of you two he is certainly the
best-informed, cleverest or strongest (as the case may
be).
ON TONE.
Tonu connotes precision, intensity, continuancy:—
Ko ia tonu, certainly, exactly so, the very person or
thing.
Ko taana mahi tonu tend, that is his constant
occupation.
He karanga tonu td tend, that one is continually
calling.
He tangi tonu td tenei, this one is incessantly crying.
He pai tonu tdau ki a Ahau, thou art ever good unto
me.
Kaati tonu to korero, cease thy speaking instantly.


10
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
E kore tonu Au e whakade, I positively will not
consent.
Mdro tonu, perfectly rigid.
ON EAWA, WHAKAHARAHARA, AND TINO.
These terms are largely used in expressing degrees
of size, quality, quantity, intensity, etc.:—
Raw a, very.
Whakaharahara, unusually, exceedingly, excessively.
Tino, intensely, superlatively.
Pai rawa, very good. Tika rawa, very just.
Pai whakaharahara, exceedingly good.
Tino pai, most superior.
He waka pai rawa tenei, this is a very good canoe.
He waka pai whakaharahara tend, that is an exceed-
ingly good canoe.
Ko tdau and i a te waka tino pai, but yours is the
most superior canoe.
Ko te rdkau nui rawa nei tenei, this then is the
very large tree.
Ko te rdkau nui whakaharahara na tend, that then is
the exceedingly large tree.
Ko te rdkau tino nui ra terd, yonder then is the largest
of large trees.
ON KE.
Ke connotes variation, difference, contrariety:—
He tangata ke tenei, this is quite a different person.
He mea ke tend, that is quite another matter.
Pai ke, better. Kino ke, worse.
Poto ke, shorter. Roa ke, longer.
Pai ke tenei i tena, this is much better than that.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
11
Nui ke tend i terd, that is much larger than the other.
Mohio ke a la i d Au, he knows much more than I do.
E ha ke tend, that is not it.
Ke sets apart, tu ke, tu ke; and separates, taka ke.
Ke refers to a point of time already past:—
Kua oti ke, previously finished.
Kua riro ke, had already gone.
It also refers to the future, a ke nei, and ‘ ‘ Onward for
ever” would be expressed by “A ke, A ke, A ke tonu
atu.”
ON ME.
At the head of a sentence me is used as an imperative
and has the sense of the word must:—
Me mahi koe, you must work. Me hdere koe, you
must go.
Me tatari koe, you must wait. Me korero koe, you
must speak.
It is also a copulative conjunction, as: Te waka me
nga hoe, the canoe and the paddles.
ON E.
E Tai, E; hdere mai ki dhan, 0 Tai, do come unto
me. In that brief sentence we have the aggregated
functions of the term E, which are:—
1. The sign of the vocative case, 0.
2. The sign of the future indicative.
3. The verb auxiliary, to do; imp., did, past part.,
done; pres., doi/ng.
We may here consider it under this latter head:—
Me pend E Au, I must do so.
Me pend E koe, you must do so.
Me pend E la, he must do so.


12
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
I pendtia E Au, I did it so.
I pendtia E koe, you did it so.
Te pendtanga E ahau, my doing so, my having done so.
Te pendtanga E koe, your doing so, your having done
so.
E pend ana Au, I am doing so.
Negatively:—
Kaua E pend, do not so.
E kore Au E pend, I shall not do so.
For other examples in E, see E—ANA.
ON TU.
Tu connotes anything strange, singular, peculiar,
extraordinary:—
Tenei tu tangata, this extraordinary man.
Tend, tu tikanga, that peculiar method, rule, or style.
ON KAUA—KEI.
These terms are frequently associated in a sentence
and belong to the dehortative-imperative class, con-
veying the sense of do not—lest:—
Kaua e piki rdkau, kei taka iho koe, do not climb
trees, lest you fall down.
Kaua koe e taliu ahi, kei wera te w'hare, do not you
light a fire, lest the house burn.
Kaua e tolie, kei raru ko koe, do not persist, lest you
yourself suffer.
ON KAI.
Kai is a term used as a prefix, to indicate the agent:—
Kai-Ta, practitioner. KAi-torotoro, scout.
Kjai-whakadko, one who teaches. Kai-inoi, one who
entreats.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
13
'K&i-pupuru, one who holds. Kai-hJcu, one who
liberates.
K&i-whakawd, a judge. Kai-whakaora, a preserver
(of life).
Kai4 laid, a caretaker, guardian. Kai-Hfa’ro, an
inspector.
ON ANO AND HOKI.
These terms have reference to some other person,
place, or matter, as:—Yet again: once more still: still
another: too: again, also:—
Ko koe ano hoki tetahi i reira, you, too, were also
there.
Ko koe ano tetahi, still, you were one (of them).
Ko koe hoki tetalii, you were also one (of themk
A e noho mai nei ano a la, and he still dwells there.
Kdhore ano Au nei i parangia, I have not yet
slumbered.
Korerotia mai ano e koe, you .relate it once again.
He tangata ano a aku i kite ai, I saw some people too.
He tangata ano tenei, this is yet another individual.
E tika ana ano tend, that is yet another correct (view).
Mdana ake ano, for himself and none other.
Maaku ano tdaku, mine is for myself (and none
other).
Mdana atu ano, for himself absolutely and for no other.
Kdhore ano Au i rongo noa, I have not yet heard.
ON A.
A speaks of the manner, means, process:—
Mahi-k-ringa, by means of hand, handicraft.
Haere-k-iodewae, proceed by means of feet, walk.
Kite-&-kanolii, by means of the eye, actual observation.
'Whakaaro-d^-tangato, thoughts altogether human.


14
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Korero-ft-ngutu, spoken by lip.
Mahi-&-rangatira, act as a nobleman.
Tu-^-rangatira, appearance, manners, speech, of a
nobleman.
Tu-&-rangi, of heavenly form. Tu-&-ware, of base
form.
Toro-&-waka, visit by means of a canoe.
Toro-ft-nuku. Toro-&-rangi.
ON KO A.
Koa implies entreaty:—
Hoatu koa ki d la, give it to him, do.
Tukua atu koa ahau ki uta, do suffer me to get ashore.
Tend koa, kia kite ahau, do permit me to see it.
Kimihia mai koa taaku tamaiti, do search for my
child (I implore you).
Ki d Aib koa to ivaka, grant me (the use of) thy
canoe, do.
E hara koa i tenet, this is not it, surely (if I may be
allowed to express an opinion).
ON THE PREPOSITIONS.
Runga, up, upon, the top :—
Ki runga ki te puke, up on to the hill.
Ko runga ko te puke, to be upon the hill.
Kei runga kei te puke, is upon the hill.
Hei runga hei te puke, for to be upon the hill.
I runga i te pibke, was upon the hill.
To ribnga o te puke, that of the hill-top.
0 runga o te puke, those of the hill-top.
Nd runga nd te puke, from upon the hill.
Mo runga mo te puke, for upon the hill.
Ko runga o te puke, the top of the hill is.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
15
A runga o te puke, the top of the hill.
Md runga md te puke, go, pass along over the hill.
Raro, beneath, the bottom, down:—
Ki raro ki te rdkau, to the bottom of the tree.
Ko raro ko te rdkau, to be below the tree.
Kei raro kei te rdkau, is beneath the tree.
Hei raro hei te rdkau, for beneath the tree.
1 raro i te rdkau, was under the tree.
To raro o te rdkau, that of the bottom of the tree.
0 raro o te rdkau, those of the bottom of the tree.
Nd raro nd te rdkau, from beneath the tree.
Md raro md te rdkau, for beneath the tree.
Ko raro o te rdkau, the bottom of the tree is.
A raro o te rdkau, the bottom of the tree.
Md raro md te rdkau, go (pass along) under the tree.
Roto, in, into, within:—
Ki roto ki te Whare, into the house.
Ko roto ko te Whare, to be within the house.
Kei roto kei te Whare, is within the house.
Hei roto hei te Whare, for within the house.
I roto i te Whare, was within the house.
To roto o te Whare, that of within the house.
0 roto o te Whare, those of within the house.
Nd roto nd te Whare, from within the house.
Md roto mo te Whare, for within the house.
Ko roto o te Whare, the inside of the house is.
A roto o te Whare, the inside of the house.
Md roto md te Whare, go (pass along) through the
house.
Wai-io, out, outside, without:—
Ki waho ki te Marde, out to the courtyard.
Ko waho ko te Marde, to be outside on the courtyard..


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
16
Kei waho kei te Marae, is out at the courtyard.
Eei waho hei te Marde, for to be out at the courtyard.
I waho i te Marde, was out at the courtyard.
To waho o te Marde, that of out at the courtyard.
0 waho o te Marde, those of out at the courtyard.
Nd ivaho nd te Marde, from out of the courtyard.
Mo ivaho mo te Marde, for out at the courtyard.
Ko waho o te Marde, outside the courtyard is.
A waho o te Marde, outside the courtyard.
Ma waho md te Marde, pass along out by way of the
courtyard.


Chapter III.
ON DIRECTION AND DIRECTIVE PARTICLES.
{Hdere is a verb of motion, meaning to proceed.)
Runga, up, South.
Hdere mai, come hither.
Mai, hitherward.
Nau mai- \
Ahu mai- | come towards,
Anga mai- i approach.
Wh ano mai-)
Koke mai, stride hither.
Hdere mai ki a ahau, come
unto me.
Raro, down, North.
Hdere atu, go hence.
Atu, thitherward.
Nau atu-
Ahu atu- go towards,
Anga atu- approach.
Whano atu- )
Koke atu, stride hence.
Hdere atu ki a ia, go unto
him.
Neke mai, move hither.
Ho-mai, give hither.
Tahuri mai, turn hither.
Mauria mai, bring hither.
Akiria mai-
Epaina mai-
-cast hither.
Neke atu, move hence.
Hd-atu, give hence.
Tahuri atu, turn hence.
Mauria atu, convey hence.
Akiria atu-
â– cast hence.
Opehia mai
Tikina mai, come fetch.
Karanga mai, call (us) to
Epaina atu-
Opehia atu-
Tikina atu, go fetch.
Karanga atu, call (them)
you.
to us.
Hoki mai, return hither.
Heke mai, descend hither.
Kake mai, ascend hither.
Kau mai, wade hither.
Tomo mai, enter hither.
Ko mai-
Hoki atu, return hence.
Tahaki mai-
â–ºnear side.
Heke atu, descend hence.
Kake atu, ascend hence.
Kau atu, wade hence.
Tomo atu, enter hence.
Ko atu-
Tua mai
Td-wdahi mai, this side
Tahaki atu-
â–ºfar side.
(river).
Ko ke noa mai, much nearer
Whiti mai, cross hither.
Tua atu-
Td-ivdahi atu, the other
side (river).
Ko ke noa afu,much farther
Whiti atu, cross hence.
17
c


18
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Tde mai, arrive hither.
Poka pu mai lcome direct
Heipu mai- hither.
Poka tata mai-
'Whakangau mai, impel
hither.
Tikei mai, step up hither.
Puta mai, appear hither.
Anganui mai, j
Aronui mai- | to face
Hdngai mai- I hither.
Taurite mai- /
Hohoro mai, hasten hither.
Kokiri mai, dash hither.
Moiri mai, hanging towards
(us).
Ake, upwards.
Hdere ake- \ come
Ahu ake- \ upwards.
Neke ake, move upwards.
Hoki ake, return upwards.
Piki ake, mount, climb up.
Kake ake, ascend.
Tu ake, stand up.
Totoro ake, reach upward.
Pehia ake, press upward.
Whdia ake,follow upwards.
Ringihia ake, pour upward.
Tikina ake, fetch upward.
Opehia ake, cast upward.
Toia ake, haul upward
(canoe).
Kumea ake, pull upward
(rope).
Tirohia ake, seek upward.
Ahua ake, incline (it) up.
to face
hence.
Tde atu, arrive thither.
Poka pu atu )go direct
Heipu atu thither.
Poka tata atu
Whakangau atu, impel
hence.
Hikei atu, step down
thither.
Puta atu, appear hence.
Anganui atu-
Aronui afru-
Hangai atu-
Taurite atu-
Hohoro atu, hasten hence.
Tdkiri atu, dash hence.
Tdiri atu, hanging away
(from us).
Iho-, downwards.
Haere iho \ come
Ahu iho- Jdownwards.
Neke iho, move downwards.
Hoki iho, return down-
wards.
Heke iho, dismount, descend
Heke iho, descend.
Tu iho, stand down.
Totoro iho,TQ&ch downward
Pehia iho, press downward.
Whdia iho, follow down-
ward.
Rangihia iho, empty down-
ward.
Tikina iho, fetch downward.
Opehia iho, cast downward.
Toia iho, haul downward
(canoe).
Kumea iho, pull downward
(rope).
Tirohia iho,seek downward.
Ahua iho,incline (it's down.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
19
Werohia iho, thrust down
(at it).
whaka has the sense of
Whakararo, downwards.
Whakamuri, backwards.
Whaka te kei, towards the
stern.
cart.
THE MODE OF
COMPARATIVE.
Pai ake, better.
Kino ke, worse.
Iti iho, less.
COMPARISON.
SUPERLATIVE.
Tvno pai, best.
Tino kino, worst.
Tino iti, least.
To raro, lowest.
To mua, foremost.
To muri, hindmost.
To runga, highest.
Tino poto, shortest.
Tino roa, longest.-
better.
C(
to express the sense of “too long
Raro iho, lower.
Mua atu, former.
Muri atu, hinder.
Werohia ake, thrust up (at
it).
As a directive particle
towards:
Whakarunga, upwards.
Whakamua, forwards.
Whaka te ihu, towards the
bow.
Tahuri, capsize, as a canoe.
Hurirapa, upside down, as a
Whakahurapa, to tip, as a tip-dray.
Note the sense of these directive particles in the next
exercise.
ON
POSITIVE.
Pai, good.
Kino, bad.
Iti, little.
Tawhiti, far. Taivhiti atu, farther. Tino tawhiti, farthest.
Raro, low.
Mua, fore.
Muri, hind.
Runga, high. R unga ake, higher.
Poto, short. Poto iho, shorter.
Roa, long. Roa ke, longer.
Ahua pai kau ake, very little
It is quite proper to use the terms “tino roa” or
“tino poto” to express the sense of “too long” or “too
short. ’ ’ '
Under the superlative, it may be that “To” is an
abbreviated form of “Tino.”
ON THE SENSES.
Rongo, to hear. Whakarongo, to listen. Rongo
hirearea, to hear indistinctly.
Kite, to see. Tvtiro, to look. Kimi, to seek. Hure, to
search for (under something). Matakitaki, to gaze,


20
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
view. Matadra, to be wakeful. Tirotiro, to examine.
Titiro matatau, to stare. WVteiro, to perceive indis-
tinctly.
Hongi, to smell. AVhakamono, to scent. ~Whengu-
whengu, to sniff. Ngongoro, to snore.
Pa, to touch. Whdwha, to feel.
Whakamotaic to taste. (Note,—kahore he ha o te kai
nei, this food has no flavour.)
ON VOICE AND SPEECH.
(Arero, the tongue: Keo, the voice (also dialect) ;
Korero, to speak. Ko is the verb substantive. To speak,
is equivalent to “to be.” Kd-rero is evidently composed
of the verb, Ko, and the name for the tongue, arero.}
Kd, silent speech (as a prayer). Korero, to speak.
Kopana, to speak (as an oracle). Korerorero, to discuss.
Ki, to state. Kauivhau, to recite. Whakahua, pronounce.
Tatau, to count. 'Whai-korero, to orate. 'Whakaae, to
assent. Whakapai, to approve. 'Whakahe, to dissent, dis-
count. ~Whakatika, to endorse, justify. 'Whakakdhore, to
deny, reject. Whakarite, to compare. ~Whakakino, dis-
parage. Whang o, hoarse. Koroki, to advise. ~Whakarlroi,
to distort. "Whakapau korero, exhaustively discuss.
Whakapuaki, to utter. Whakamarama, enlighten,
explain. Pdnui, announce. Waiata, sing. Amimu,
grumble. Hamumu. murmur. Harvata, mutter.
llautete, jabber. Atete, oppose. Komibhxbmuhu,
revile secretly. Tohe, persist. 'Whakamohio, inform.
Wiakamahara, remind. Tautohe, argue. Hamama,
bawl. Ui, enquire. Patai, ask. Tono, demand. Inoi,
entreat. Karakia, recitation of religious ritual.
Whakadko, teach, instruct. Tohutohu, show, direct.
Whakahau, order. Whakatupato, caution. 'Whakawd,


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
21
cajole. Whakapono, believe.
Hlanga, pretend. Korero
Whakapeka, doubt. Whaka-
Poroporo-d-ki, make dying
Whakatakoto tikanga,
Whakatakariri, express
serve him right.” Whakaiti,
Ngangare, to quarrel. Taumi, to revile,
accuse.
arraign. Parare, yell. Moenanu, talk asleep. Korerd
hanihani, offensive personal remarks about an absent
one. Kohete, strongly disapproving. Whakateka, the
lie direct. Whakapeau, divert at an angle. Tautoko,
support, endorse. "Whakapehapeha, brag. Whakapuia,
boast. 'Wliakakihi, incite. Wkakamoemiti, praise. 'Whaka-
mdrie, pacify. Whakatoi, impudent. Wana, beg. Nuka,
deceive. Whakapdhehe, confuse, bewilder. Whiriwhiri,
choose. Iriiri, christen. Toki, baptise, anoint. Miki, greet
affectionately. ~Wkakawai, to tempt, beguile. 'Wkakapati-
pati, entice. Wkakaene,
Wkakakiki, vain pride.
tipoka, speak irregularly.
manamana, extol, exalt,
speech. Kotanvutamm, whisper,
lay down rules or proposals,
annoyance. Wkakakaitoa, ‘ ‘
belittle. Ngangare, to quarrel. Taunu,
Whakapae, to blame, accuse. Aro, incline towards.
Ilori, beside the truth. Wkakawaki, anoint. Wkakapde-
teka, falsely accuse. Wkakaiveti, threaten. Taki,
challenge. Papepape, stammer. Kang a, curse. Wliaka-
atu, tell. Tito, compose, invent. Wkakakoki kupu,
reply. Karanga, call. "Wkaka-o, “halloo.” Tdtai, to
recount methodically (such as genealogy). Hangareka,
jest. Korero wkakangdoko, to tickle, amuse. Karanga-
td, remain silent when called. Whakakdkd, express
weariness of discussion. Korero tar a, speak fables.
Korero tokunga, speak wisely. Wkakakorero, induce to
speak. Wkahawkditi, narrowing (the discussion).
Wkakanui, enlarge, amplify. Wkakawkiti, transfer.
IJapare, divert from one’s self. Kapetau, express
resolution. Kohau, indicate future fame, for one’s self.


22
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Whakamdtau, hazard. Whakataihoa, defer. Wahangu,
wahakuku, silent, dumb, (as a squid or mussel).
ON ENUMERATION.
The student already (see alphabetical tables) under-
stands the mode of enumeration in the lower numbers.
He may now proceed in the higher numbers (using the
prefix the sense requires) as follows:—
Ka tekau md-iwa, that makes ten and nine 19
Kd rua ngd tekau, that makes the two tens . . 20
Kd rua tekau md iwa, that makes two tens and nine 29
Kd toru ngd tekaib, that makes the three tens . . 30
Kd toru tekau md iwa, that makes three tens and
nine . . . . .. 39
Kd wild ngd tekau, that makes the four tens .. 40
Kd wild tekau md iwa, that makes four tens and
nine . . . . . . 49
Kd rima ngd tekau, that makes the five tens . . 50
Kd. rima tekau md iwa, that makes five tens and nine 59
Kd ono ngd tekau, that makes the six tens u . 60
Kd ono tekau md iwa, that makes six tens and nine 69
Kd wliit-u ngd tekau, that makes the seven tens . . 70
Kd whitu tekau md iwa, that makes seven tens
and nine . . . . . . 79
Kd waru ngd tekau, that makes the eight tens . . 80
Kd warib tekau md iwa, that makes eight tens and
nine . . . . . . . . 89
Kd iwa ngd tekau, that makes the nine tens . . 90
Kd iwa tekau md iwa, that makes nine tens and nine 99
Kd kotahi te rau, that makes the one hundred . . 100
Ka kotahi te rau md talii, makes the one hundred
and one . . . . .. . . 101
Ka kotahi te rau, ka kotahi tekau, makes the one
hundred and ten . . . . . . 110


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
23
Ka hot ahi te ran, ka iwa tekau md iwa, that makes
the one hundred, the nine tens and nine 199
Kd rua ngd rau, that makes the two hundreds . . 200
With the difference of the new number only, the same
process is repeated and we reach:—
Kd iwa ngd rau, ka iiva ngd tekau md iwa, that
makes the nine hundreds, the nine tens and
nine . . . . . . 999
Ka kotahi te mano, that makes the one thousand . . 1000
He Mano, a thousand.
Ka kotahi te Mano, kd rima ng a rau, makes the one
thousand and the five hundreds . . . . 1500
Ka kotahi te mano, kd iwa ngd rau, kd iwa tekau
md iwa, that makes the one thousand, the nine
hundreds, the nine tens and nine . . . . 1999
Kd rua ngd Mano, that makes the two thousands 2000
So we may go on to ten thousand, fifty thousand, one
hundred thousand, nine hundred thousand, and so reach
the,—
He Mano tuarea—a thousand thousands.
Tua-rea, has the force of multiplying a large number
by itself.
Here we pause, because it is not certain that the
Maori had a term to indicate a million; if he had, in all
probability it was the term “Ngea” the exact meaning
of which is now lost.
When the earlier Maori dealt with large numbers, he
invariably concluded with:—“Kd Ngea, kd Ngea, kd
Ngea.” This in all probability meant millions, and
millions, and millions’ There we must leave it.
The following are common expressions:—
Ka Mano tini, making many thousands.
Ka tua Mano Uni, beyond many thousands.
Ka Mano tini whdioio, making innumerable thousands.


24
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
ON TEKAV.
Tekau, ten, or te-kau, the ten. This ancient and
common term for ten is interesting, because it is not
definitely known whether tekau exactly expresses ten,
or, whether te is merely the definite article singular
making the true meaning of te-kau the ten. It may be
that this is so because a reference to the foregoing Table
shows that the Maori was very careful to use an article
before any round number:—
Kd rua nga tekau, that makes the two tens.
Ka kotahi te rau, that makes the one hundred.
Ka kotahi te mano, that makes the one thousand.
He mano, a thousand. {He, indefinite article.)
Kd rua nga mano, that makes the two thousands.
{Nga, pl. of def. art).
But, although it is quite proper to say kotahi tekau,
one ten, or, the one ten perhaps, it is equally proper
to say Kd rua nga tekau, that makes the two tens.
It is so again in the question Kd hia nga tekau, how
many are the tens ? In these cases ngd the plural article
apparently ignores the presence of te as the definite
article. There we may now leave it.
ON NGAHURU.
The Maori had a distinct name for each month of the
year. What is of present interest is the fact that the
universal names for the seasons are:—
Hdtoke, or, Makariri, Winter.
Mahuru, or, K dang a. Spring.
Raumati, Summer.
Ngahuru, (lit. the tenth month) Autumn, harvest
time.
Now, nga-huru is known to mean “the fullness of
harvest”; so that, unlike our apparently doubtful te


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
25
in te-kau, we know that the nga of nga-huru is really the
plural of the definite article. In treating of the number
(not names) of the months, nga-huru is the tenth,
because it was in the tenth month (March,—the Maori
year commences in June)—that the main harvest was
stored; hence the saying: Ngahuru kai pdenga, or, the
storing of the food-crops (for winter use). Now, Kongo
is the recognised Lord of the abundance of Harvest, and
when food-crops were planted, and again when the crops
were harvested, appropriate rituals were used in honour
of Rongo. In these rituals whenever the number ten,
or tenth occurred, the term nga-huru was used, and not
te-kau, this latter being, very properly, considered too
common. The same thing occurs in the ritualistic
observances to Tdivhaki, because Tdwhaki is a Sun-god.
So that in his count of the months the Maori referred
to the tenth as ngahuru, to the eleventh as ngahuru-
taitahi, and to the twelfth as ngahuru-tairua.
In this way. during the course of time, ngahuru came
to be associated generally with the number ten, and
its use becoming freer it was frequently (wrongly) sub-
stituted for the commoner term te-kau. Here we have
what appears to be the true origin and meaning of the
term ngahuru, and also in a particular sense, its wrong
application in ordinary enumeration: E kore e kiia te
kai tuku ki a, Tdwhaki, ki te kupu nei “Tekau,” engari
“Ngahuru”; (a tenth portion of) food offered up to
Tdwhaki is not spoken of by the ordinary term “tekau,”
but (in the special term) “ngahuru.’’ (A.H.M. Vol..
I. P. 49.)
ON TOKO AND HOKO.
These terms are allied in their use, the one apparently
being an outcome of the other. As numeral prefixes.


26
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
they apply to persons only, answering the question:
How many persons are there. The difference is that
Toko is prefixed to the lesser numbers including nine,
after which Hoko, which
introduced, thus:—
Toko-tahi, one person.
Toko-toru, three persons
Toko-rima, five persons
Toko-whitu, seven persons
Toko-hva, nine persons.
multiplies by ten times, is
Toko-rua two persons.
Toko-wha, four persons.
Toko-ono, six persons
Toko-waru, eight persons.
Hoko-tahi, ten- times one person 10
Hoko-rua, ten times two persons 20
Hoko-toru, ten times three persons 30
Hoko-wlia, ten times four persons 40
Iloko-rima, ten times five persons 50
Hoko-ono, ten times six persons 60
Hoko-whitxb, ten times seven persons . . 70
Ilokowliitu, or, seventy was, for many excellent
reasons, the favourite number forming a raiding, or
surprise party, or ope-taua. In the first place any
fighting tribe could raise this number, all of whom would
naturally obey the instructions of their one leader, or
chief. (For it was with the Maori as with the Scottish
tribes, any combined movement requiring the united
strength of several tribes was apt to be spoiled by the
presence of too many proud chiefs.) In the next place
a. company of seventy could embark in a single canoe
and proceed quickly up or down a river, or by sea, as
the case might be. Proceeding by canoe was preferable
to proceeding by land, if only for the fact that, with
an alert and active people such as the Maori, no party
of men could pass over the country without making the
fact prematurely known.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
27
The true war-party or taua consisted of not less than
one hundred and forty men, expressed in the term
“ Hoko-rvhihi topu,” or, seven times ten, doubled—
xchakatopu, to add two such numbers together. Such
a number could proceed, fully equipped, in two canoes,
and their two leaders usually worked together in
harmony. But we are treating of numeration.
As we have seen, toko does duty only up to nine and
hoko accounts for even tens. Any number occurring
between the tens might be either particularly expressed
as: Hokorua ma-toru, equal to twice ten and an added
three; or Hokorua me te tuma, equal to twice ten and a
few over, a form which conveys that there are over
twenty but not nearly thirty.
ON TAKI.
Taki indicates numeration one by one, or section after
section, with the peculiar distinction that there is a
marked interval between :—
Taki-tahi, one after one, one after the
Taki-rua, two after two Taki-toru,
other.
three after three
Taki-wha, four after four
Taki-ono, six after six
Taki-rima, five after five.
Taki-whitu, seven after
seven.
Taki-waru, eight after eight Taki-iwa, nine after nine.
Tdtaki tekau, ten after ten. (Note the change in
this.)
As topu indicates uniting, taki indicates disuniting.
Although taki-toru means three after three, it by no
means implies regularity or order. Taki may be used
for instance, in reference either to persons or to things,
but it would be quite wrong to speak of a company
marching along in fours, as marching taki-wha. It is
wrong only because there is order and regularity in,


28
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
and very little space between, each party of four so
marching. When a Maori says: I haere takiwha atu,
he means that they went off four after four (with quite
an interval between each). Again, when a Maori says:
Kd hore he tangata o te kainga nei, kua t&ki-hdere
katoa; he means, there is nobody left in this village,
they have all gone off, in various parties, and at different
times. This is the sense in which the term taki is to be
understood.
ON TOPE.
Whereas taki as a numeral prefix indicates distribu-
tion at irregular intervals, topu, as a numeral affix,
indicates doubling, or putting together. In the lesser
numbers pu is used, topu being understood:—
Tahi-pu, one-doubled.
Toru-pu, three-doubled.
Rima-pu, five-doubled.
Whitu-pu, seven-doubled.
Iwa-pu, nine-doubled.
Rua-pu, two-doubled.
Whd-pu, four-doubled
Ono-pu, six-doubled.
Waru-pu, eight-doubled
TWsaiz-topu, ten-doubled. (Note the change.)
Perhaps, twice one are two, twice two are four, etc.,
expresses this form of numeration.
E rua tekau topu, twenty-doubled: twice twenty.
E torn tekau topu, thirty doubled: twice thirty.
Kotahi rau topu, one hundred doubled: twice one
hundred; one hundred twice told.
The true meaning of all this is that there are two
equal but separate lots put together; for instance, one
hundred men from one tribe and one hundred men from
another tribe, join forces. If one tribe raised two
hundred of a war-party, that number would not be
termed, kotahi rau topu, because it could not be classed
as two separate lots brought together. A Maori would


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
29
say of that, simply: E rua o mdua rau, there were two
hundred of us (of ourselves). If he wished to express
it in another form, he would say: E rua o mdua rau taki-
tahi, there were two hundred of us counting them one
by one (selected from among ourselves).
Topic is frequently associated with hoko in a mode of
very briefly denoting higher numbers. Hoko-whitu
topu, or, seven-tens doubled, is a very handy form of
expressing one hundred and forty, which would other-
wise demand: Kotahi rau e whd ngd tekau, or worse
still: Kotahi te rau e w\hd atu ngd tekau.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Tanga, the noun of circumstance is used as a numeral
prefix to indicate how many times a thing is, or has
been, done:—
Tanga-tfa/w, once done: tanga-nza, twice done, etc.
In counting the points of a game, the prefix papa is
used, perhaps because the win itself is termed papa:—
Papa-ta/w, one point: papa-nza, two points, etc. Kai,
too, signifies point.
The deuce and trey of playing cards are termed the
ro-rua, and ro-toru.
A peculiar form of abbreviation is found in md-tahi
and md-rua. In enumeration ma means and, the plain
meaning of md-tahi therefore is and-one. It is known
that something should precede “and,” and that some-
thing is understood to be ten. Md-tahi thus represents
ten and-one, or, eleven. A Maori in speaking of the
eleventh month says: Te Ma-tahi o te tau, i.e., the (ten)
and-one (month) of the year.
Tatau, to count, numerate.
Whakdhui, or, huihui, to add; addition.
Hui-rua, to pair, to put two together.


30
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Tango, or, patu, to take away; subtract.
Although poro expresses one-half of anything, there
does not now appear to be a term for indicating one-
sixth, one-third, or, one-tenth. It would require to be
put in so many words:—
E ono katoa ngd wehewehenga, kotahi te wehenga i
a Au; there were six (equal) divisions made, of which I
received one division; equal to one-sixth. Kotahi o roto
o te ono, one out of the six: one-sixth.
Whaka-kotahi, to unify, combine, make into one.
Whaka-tekau, to make into ten. To pile in tens.
Te-whaka-tekau, the tenth one, the made-up ten.
Ngd whaka-tekau, the made-up tens.
“la Po, i te Po Tuatahi, tde noa ki te Po tua-Ngahuru,
ki te Pau, ki te Mano” (Ancient Maori.)
ON MEASUREMENTS.
Tdtai, to measure.
Kotahi whdnuitanga ringa, one hand width including
thumb, six-inches approximately.
He whatianga ringa te whanui, an arm-bend in width,
from elbow to finger-tip, equal to eighteen inches.
E rua whatianga ringa te whdnui, two arm-bends,
equal to three feet.
Kotahi Mdaro te roa, one extension (both arms) the
length, one fathom, or, equal to six feet.
Kotahi kumi te roa, one ten-fathoms the length, equal
to sixty feet.
Poro-whd, four-sided, full square.
Taha-toru, three-sided, triangular.
'W ehenga-rua, an equal division into halves.
Taha-rua, two-sided.
Porowhita, circle, round.
'Wewehe, to separate.
'Wdwdahi, to cut or divide off.


Chapter IV.
ON THE ARTICLES.
(Note, in Maori it is the article which is pluralised and
not the noun.)
The indefinite article is he; as, he ivhare, a house.
The definite article is te; as, te ivhare, the house.
The plural article is ngd; as, nga whare, the houses.
In Maori the words tenei and tend, or, this and that,
are certainly made up by means of prefixing the definite
article. Note how the plural occurs in such words as:—
Te-nei 'tangata, this man
Te-nd tangata, that man.
Te-ra tangata, the other
man.
Taua the man re-
ferred to.
Te-tahi tangata; the one
individual.
E-tahi tdngata, some
individuals.
Ko ivai Ma end, who are
E-nei tdngata, these men.
E-nd tdngata, those men.
E-rd tangata, the other
men.
A.ua tang ata, the men
referred to
(particular) man: a certain
particular men: certain
those persons?
The following are the principal uses of the indefinite
article :—
He tangata, a man.
He tdngata some men.
He tangata end, those are men.
He ivahine nei etahi, some were women.
He tangata pokanoa koe, you are an interfering man.
31


32
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
He ngdrara pea, it is an insect, perhaps.
He rongo hou tenei, this is new tidings.
1 rongo Au he hake taua tangata, I heard that the
man referred to was a hunchback.
He kiore pea te mea e korerotia na e koe, that of
which you speak may have been a rat.
He mea kite i reira, the things were found there.
He tahi, it is one: there is one.
Te, as the definite article singular is unaccented. A
curious use of it occurs when used in negation; here it
is highly accented:—
Te kitea e Au, I could not find (it).
Heaha koe te haere ai, why did you not go?
Ko te take tend te whakaae ai Au, that is the reason
why I would not assent.
The articles are used with each substantive in a sen-
tence :—
Te whenua me nga tangata, the land and the men.
Nd te ua i pai ai te tupu, the rain improves the
growth.
He mahi atawhai, he mahi tika hoki, it is a kind act, it
is also a just act.
With few exceptions, such as “Waikato,” the articles
are prefixed to tribal names:—
Nga-puhi: Nga-rauru: Nga-I-tawake: Nga-ti-maru :
Te Rarawa: Te Uri-6-hua, Te-tini 6 Toi, etc.
The common form, conventionally written, Ngdti, is
merely an abbreviation of Ngd-tini, or the numbers of:
it is a courteous way of referring to a tribe, that is,
it speaks of them as being numerous, whether they are
so or not.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
33
ON THE NOUN AND GENDER.
MALE.
Tdne, masculine.
Hanga tangata, mankind.
Tama-tdne, male child.
Tangata, man.
Tdne, male, husband.
Tabu, husbnnd, spouse.
Matua, Papa, Hdkoro,
father.
Matua-keke, uncle.
Tupuna, heinga, grand-
father.
Tupuna, ancestors.
Hungau'ai,hungarei, father-
in-law.
Hunaonga, son-in-law.
Tama, tama-tdne, son.
Tdokete, brother-in-law;
sister.
Tdokete, sister-in-law; c
brother.
FEMALE.
Hine, feminine.
Hang a wdhine, womankind.
Tama-wahine, female child.
Wahine, woman.
Wahine, female, wife.
Makau, wife.
Whdea, Hdkui, mother.
Whdea-keke, aunt.
Tupuna-wahine, grand-
mother.
Tupuna, ancestresses.
Hungawai-wahine, mother-
in-law.
Hundonga-wahine, daugh-
ter-in-la v.
Tamdhine, tama-wahine,
daughter.
one married to a man’s
Le married to a woman’s
Hoa-hoa-tdne, men married to sisters. Hoa-hoa-
wahine, women married to brothers.
Au-tdne, brother of a woman’s husband.
Au-wdhine, sister of a man’s wife.
Iramutu, nephew, or, niece; the children of a man’s
sister.
Iramutu, nephew, or niece; the children of a woman’s
brother.
(Note.—Brothers referring to their brothers’ children,
call them tamariki, not irdmutu; sisters speaking of
their sisters’ children, call them tamariki, and not
irdmutu.)


34
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
MALE.
Mokopuna, grandson.
Tungdne, brother of a
female.
Tuakana, elder brother of
a male.
Teina, younger brother of
a male.
Tuakana keke, cousin senior
Teina keke, cousin junior.
Kau-mdtua, elders.
Jiatua-whangai, foster
father.
Tamaiti whang ai (adopted
Tamaiti taurima \ son.
FEMALE.
Mokopuna-wahine, grand-
daughter.
Tuahine, sister of a male.
Tuakana, elder sister of a
female.
Teina, younger sister of a
female.
Tuakana keke, cousin senior
Teina keke, cousin junior.
Kuia, elders.
Whaea-whangai, foster
mother.
Tamdhine whang ailad’ptd.
Tamdhine taurima Jd’ghter
Miscellaneous.
Muanga, first-born.
Potiki, pet.
Whaeereere, wife, bearing
children.
Whare-tangata, connexions
by marriage.
Pouaru, widower, or widow
Manene, one who does not
belong to the tribe or
country.
Tau-iwi, foreigner.
Tai-tama, a youth.
Tai-ohinga, youthful vigour
Puhi, a virgin.
Moe-wahine, married to a
wife.
Rang at ira, a nobleman.
Ware, tutud pononga,
herehere, taurekareka,
servant, slave.
Muring a, last born.
Poriro, bastard.
Pakoko, pukupd, childless
wife.
Huatahi, first conceived.
Pani, an orphan.
Tangata whenua, abo-
riginals.
Tai-tamahine, a maid.
Tai-kaumdtua, verging to
old age.
Taka-kau, unmarried, free.
Moe-tane, married to a
husband.
Tamariki, children.
Tamaiti, child.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
35
Kai-pdoe, a vagrant, one
who eats at one place
and another.
Tira mdtakitaki liaere,
pleasure party, tourists.
Mdhanga, twins.
~Whdnau, a family.
Ariki, supreme tribal head.
Tohunga, one skilled;
adept, initiate, philo-
sopher, sage.
TVairua, a spirit of a rela-
tive.
Kahurangi, turehu, patu-
paiarehe, a fairy-like
people.
Taufwhai-a-ipof ipo, a loved
one of either sex: te
tau o te ate.
Kahuhura, one treasured
(male).
Korakorako, an albino.
Whdnau, family,
kindred tribes.
soul.
Tau-tahi, an only child.
Whanaunga, a relative.
Uri, descendants.
Kehua, ghost, spirit of an
unknown person.
HapUy tribe.
Tinana, body.
Mdreikura, a cherished
female.
Iwi, aggregation of
~Wairua, spirit. Mauri_


Chapter V.
ON THE PRONOUNS.
TABLE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
(In three specific numbers there are four persons in
Maori.)
Singular.
Au, I. Koe, thou. Ia, he or she. Ia, it.
Ahau, myself, thyself. A koe, A Ia, himself, herself. A ia, itself.
Ko Au, I am, it is I Ko koe, thou art, it is
thou, etc.
DUAL.
Tdua, thou and I: first and second persons.
Mdua, he (or she) and I: first and third persons.
Korua, you two: second and third persons.
Rdua, they two: third and fourth persons.
(Based on the term for the number two, that is rua.)
Triplial.
Tdtou, you and I: first second and third persons.
Matou, they and I: first, third and fourth persons.
Koutou, you three: second, third and fourth persons.
Bdtou, they three: third, fourth and one other person.
Multitudinous,—matou katoa, all of us. Bdtou katoa,
all of them. (Based on the term for the number three
that is, torn.)
The student’s attention is directed to the similarity
of terms in the relative dual and triplial; the triplial
includes the consonant t.
36


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
37
Nd or nd*.—
Td, or to
Mode of Salutation.
Singular,—(to the male) Tend koe e hoa, e mara, e pa,
e td, e koro, etc.
Singular,—(to the female) Tend koe e kui, e whde, e
ko, e hine, etc.
Dual,—Tend korua e hoa md, e mara md, e pa md, e
koro md, etc.
Dual,— (to females) Tend korua e kui md, e whde md
e ko md, e hine md.
Triplial,—Tend koutou e hoa md, e mara md, e pd md.
e koro md.
Triplial,— (to females) Tend koutou e kui md, e whde
md, e hine md.
Kia ora koe, health unto thee, life unto thee, etc.
“Koutou” is pronounced as the English words
“coat-toe,” without repeating the letter t.
TABLE OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
Singular.
Ndaku, nooku; tdaku, tooku: of, or, from me, my,
mine.
Ndau, noou; taau, toou: of, or, from thee, thy, thine.
Naana, noona-, tdana, toona: of, or, from his, or hers.
Ndana, noona; tdana, toona: of, or, from its.
Examples :—
(Singular),—tdaku waka, my canoe. Taau waka, thy
canoe.
(Plural),—Aku waka, my canoes. A Au waka, thy
canoes.
Dual.
tdua, jointly belonging to us-two: first and
second.


38
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Ta, or to mdua, jointly belonging to us-two: first and
third.
Td, or td korua, jointly belonging to you-two: second
and third.
Td, or to rdua, jointly belonging to those-two: third
and fourth.
Examples :—
(Singular),—td tdua waka, our joint canoe, the canoe
of us two.
(Plural),—a tdua waka, our joint canoes, the canoes
of us two.
(As before (see Articles) by the omission of the
initial letter t, the plural sense is given.)
Nd or no:—) Triplial.
Td, or to j tdtou; (lit: that of) of or belonging to
us-three (including person addressed).
Td, or to mdtou; of or belonging to us-three
(excluding person addressed).
Td or to koutou: of or belonging to you-three.
Td, or to rdtou; of or belonging to the-three of them.
Examples :—
(Singular),—td tdtou waka, our canoe.
(Plural),—A tdtou waka, our canoes.
(If more than three are intended the number should
be stated, thus,—td tdtou tokorima, of or belonging to
the five of us. If there is a large number, then the word
katoa should be used,—td tdtou katoa, of or belonging
to all of us.)
Particular attention is directed to the different sense
conveyed by using the vowel 6, in the place of the vowel
a. 0.has an exclusive, a a general sense:—Nooku tenei
kdinga, this home is my own.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
39
Naaku tenei kdinga, this is my home (that is to say,
I have a personal interest in it).
So that speaking in a general sense we use the form
d, speaking in an exclusive sense we use the form o.
There are other modifications which, while not inter-
fering with the rule just laid down, go to show that a is
largely used in the active sense, and o in the passive
sense:—
Te hinganga a Ngdpuhi, the felling of Ngapuhi,
(Ngapuhi slew).
Te hinganga o Ngdpuhi, the falling of Ngapuhi,
(Ngapuhi were slain).
He ki mdaku, a statement for me (to make).
He ki nooku, a statement for me (t.e., about me),
(affecting me personally).
Md taaku waha, for my vocal-organs (to declare).
Md tooku waha, for my palate (for my own food).
Naana ake tdana he, his difficulty is of liis own
seeking (yet it affects others).
Noona ake toona he, his difficulty is a matter entirely
of his own.
He patu mdaku, a weapon for me (to use against
others).
He patu mooku, a weapon for me, (to be used against
me).
He aha a Au, what have you got generally?
He aha o Au, what do you actually possess?
Past Possessive.
(Note.—i, sign of past tense.)
Singular.
I a Au, I had
I a koe, thou hadst
I a la, he (or she) had
I a la, it had
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes


40
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
1 a
1 a
1 a
1 a
Dual.
tdua, you and I had
maua, he (or she) and I had
korua, you two had
rdua, they two had
I a
I a
1 a
1 a
Triplial.
tatou, we three (including
you) had
matou, we three (excluding
you) had
koutou, you three had
ratou, they three had
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
I a wai te waka, who had the canoe?
Present Possessive.
(Kei, at, literally signifies contact.)
Singular:—
Singular.
Kei d Au, I have
Kei a koe, thou hast
Kei d la, he (or she) has
Kei a la, it has
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
Dual.
Kei a tdua, you and I have
Kei a maua, he (or she) and
have
Kei a korua, you two have
Kei a rdua, they two have
I
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
Triplial.
Kei a tdtau,NW three (including
you) have
Kei a mdtou, we three (exclud-
ing you) have
Kei a koutou, you three have
Kei a rdtou, they three have
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
Kei d wai te waka, who has the canoe?


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
41
Future Prospective Possessive.
(To add to what one already possesses, is the idea.)
Singular.
Mdaku, mooku, for me, for mine
Mdau, moou, for thee, for thine
Maana, moona, for his, for hers
Maana, moona, for its
Md
Md
Md
Md
Dual.
or md tdua, for you and me
or md maua, for him (or
her) and me
or md korua, for you two
or md raua, for the two of
them
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
te waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
Md
Md
Md
Md
Triplial.
or md tdtou, for us three
(including you)
or md matou, for us three
(excluding you)
or md koutou, for you three
or md ratou, for the three
of them.
Je waka, the canoe,
or
ngd waka, the canoes
Md wai te waka, for whom is the canoe?
We see that possessive pronouns have as prefix, nd or
mo: td or to; md or md. It follows then, as a matter
of course, that the balance of the term, na-aku, to-oku, or
md-ana, is largely the pronoun itself. This fact is
apparently overlooked by the majority of writers, gram-
marians and dictionary-makers, for they invariably write
these terms in the following way, naku, toku, mana, etc.
This should not be, for it completely alters the sense, as
the following examples clearly show:—
INCORRECT FORMS.
Kia mana mai.
Ke kai man.
Ko au i taka iho.
Keihea au?
CORRECT FORMS.
Kia mdana mai.
He kai mdau.
Ko d Au i taka iho.
Keihea a Au?


42
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
INCORRECT FORMS.
He Pu maku
Kia mau ai te tikanga.
Hei mahi maku tamariki
Hoatu ana.
Kei au te wai.
Ko au anake.
CORRECT FORMS.
He Pu mdaku.
Kia mdau ai te tikanga.
Hei mahi mdaku tamariki.
Hoatu o ana.
Kei a au te wai.
Ko o Au anake.
Now, each of the examples in the first column is what
the French term a clause of 4‘squinting construction,”
i.e., looking two ways at once. I translate the first two
literally:—
Kia mana mai, let it be confirmed: which is not the
meaning that the writer intends to convey.
He kai mau, some carried food: again, not the writer’s
meaning.
On the other hand, each of the examples given in the
second column conveys but the one definite meaning:—
Kia mdana mai, let it be for him (to decide) :—He kai
mdau, some food for you:—meanings which the
examples in first column are intended to but do not
explicitly convey.
All of which impresses the fact that combinations of
certain letters and sounds, have certain well-defined
meanings, which teachers and students alike should
accurately master. If a vowel be deleted from “do not,”
it becomes “don’t”; it is merely a question of grammar
and orthography.
KI, to.
(To grant or allow; to solicit as a loan.)
Ki Ahau to waka, let me have (the loan of) your canoe.
Ki a mdua to waka, let us-two have (the loan of)
your canoe.
Ki a mdtou to waka, let us-three have (the loan of)
your canoe.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
43
Ki a wai te waka, to whom is the canoe to be taken
{lent) ?
A person asking for anything right out will use the
full sign of the possessive case thus:—Mdaku to waka,
give me your canoe (absolutely).
Some Forms of the Relative Pronoun.
Te turoro moona nei te rongoa, the invalid for whom
the medicine is intended.
Te tamaiti i taka iho nei i te rdkau, the boy who fell
down from the tree.
Ko koe te tangata i he ai Au, thou art the man who
caused me to err.
Te tangata noona nei te whare, the man who owns the
house.
Ko tehea rdnei te tangata, am doubtful which is the
man.
Te tangata i a la nei taaku waka, the man who had my
canoe.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
(Uses of Ko, the verb substantive.)
The interrogative pronouns are wai, aha, and whea or
hea.
Ko wai Au, who am I?
Ko wai koe, who art thou?
Ko wai la, who is he (she, or it) ?
Ko wai md end, who are those persons?
Nd wai tend, whose is that ?
Md wai tend, for whom is that?
I d wai tenei, who had this ?
Ko wai tdau e ki na, of whom do you speak?
Hei d wai tenei, who is to have this?
Ko wai hei hua, who is to know positively?


44
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Ko wai hei maharatanga mdau, whom have you to
consider ?
Ko wai rd tenei, who ever is this?
Ko wai kei konei, who is here?
Ko wai toon ingoa, what (literally, who) is your name?
Ko zvai hei tohutohu i a koe, who is to dictate to you?
Aha, what.
He aha tdau, what have you got (there) ?
I ahatia koe, what happened to you ?
He aha i rere-ke ai tenei, what has caused the
alteration in this?
I aha a la ki a koe, what did he unto you?
Ma tend kd aha ai, what difference will that make ?
I aha koe, what did you? Kd aha koe, what will you
do?
He aha oti, what else is it? He aha tend, what is that?
He aha taana mate, what is his ailment?
He aha koe i hdere ai, what induced you to go?
E aha ana koe, what are you doing?
Kd aha ko ia, what about it?
He aha tenei tang at a, what is this man?
Kei aha, lest what: equal to why 1
He aha ia, what is it ?
Whea, where.
E haere ana koe ko-zvhed )
/cite-/c- umw aw /vv-tv/tcw , • , *
E ahu ana koe ko-whea where are you to ?
I whea koe, where were you?
I md-whea mai koe, by which way did you come ?
ai


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
45
A whea koe lioki ai, when will you go back ?
Kd tika koe md-whea, by which way will you go?
Ko te-whea, toou kdinga, which is your home? (where
do you live) ?
Kei whea to hoa, where is your companion?
Nd whea mai to hoa, where is your companion from?
Hei whea te Hui e korerotia nei, where is the proposed
meeting to be held?
Pe whea te roa e noho huihui ai rdtou, how long will
they remain assembled?
Ko e-whea kdinga i pahure i te waipuke, which
villages escaped the flood?
1-na-whea, when (past) ? A-whea, when (future) ?
Mo-whea, wherefor? Te-hea, which? Pe-whea, how?
No-whea, where of? (Nd-whea is also used in the sense
of, what authority have you for saying so?)
(Note—te-ivhea which? (singular) e-whea, which?
(plural)
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
These have been already indicated in the “Articles,”
but a knowledge of elegant Maori requires some further
consideration of them (see diagram p. x.) :—
Simple. Fuller. Exhaustive.
Au nei Ko Au nei Ko Au nei tenei: I: it is I; this is I.
Koe na Ko koe na Ko koe na tend: thou: ’tis thou; etc.
la ra Ko la ra Ko la ra terd: he (or she),etc.
Konei nei Kona na Kora rd: here, there, yonder.
I a nei I a na 1 a ra: it is this. It is that.
It is the other.
Penei, such as this. Pend, such as that. Pera, such as
the other.


46
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
A close study of the foregoing enables a just apprecia-
tion of such nice sentences as:
Ngd manu e rerere nei.
Ngd mea kua kitea nei.
Te tamaiti i taka iho nei.
Te tangata i hdere atu nei.
Keiwhea rd te kuri e kimihia kautia nei?
Ngd rdkau e tu mai na.
Tend pea Te Parana te kori mai na.
Te tangata i riri mai ra.
He mahi kino terd e mahia mai ra.
Terd te tangata ra te hdere mai ra; etc.
A change of position of the article te and its fellow
nei materially alters the sense in such phrases as:—
Nd matou tenei kdinga, this home is our own.
Nd mdtou te kdinga nei, this home is (one of) our own.
Nd mdtou nei te kdinga, the home is ours (and not
theirs).
A phrase is amplified from simple to elegant in this
way:—
Pororere te kaki, snapped the neck.
Pororere iho te kaki.
Pororere tonu iho te kaki.
Pororere tonu iho nei te kaki.
DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.
The pronoun of the neuter gender, ia, also signifies
each:—
la hapu, each tribe. Ia rangi, each day. la tangata,
each man. Tahi, each one.
1 kite tahi Au i a ratou, I saw each one of them.
Nd rauartahi tenei, this belongs to each one of those
two.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
47
Rd-tahi ka hdere ano a la, each alternate day he again
goes.
I kite taki-tahi Au i a korua, I saw each of you two
separately.
Rdtou taki-tahi, each one of them.
Rdtou tahi, every one of them.
Te-tahi, literally the one, is used in speaking of either—
Te-tahi o korua, either of you-two.
E kore Au e whiwhi ki te-tahi o end, I shall not secure
either of those.
The addition of the negative, kahore, conveys the sense
of neither-.—
Kahore tetahi o mdua i noho, neither of us two stayed.
In making a distribution the word rato is used:—
Kua rato katoa rdtou, each and every one of them has
been served.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
Kotahi anake i hdere, only one went.
Kaua tetahi e tohungia, let none be spared.
A wai tang ata, any man.
Ko etahi o rdtou i pahure, some of them escaped.
He torutoru nei mdtou, there are but a few of us.
He tokomaha rdtou, there are many of them.
Tatakitahi nei and koutou, there are few of you,
individually.
Ko mdtou katoa tenei, this is all of us.
Tenei tu tangata, such a man as this.
He tangata pena koe, such a man art thou.
Kua mate ngatahi rdua, they-two have both died.
Ko tetahi tangata tau-hou i reira, a certain stranger
was there.
Ko terd te mea i mate, the other is the one who died.


48
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Rd and tetahi o rdtou, there is still another of them.
He tang ata noa-iho tend, that man is nothing (a
nobody).
He tangata whai-tikanga tenei, this man is something
(a somebody).
Aha koa ko wai, no matter whom, anybody.
Kahore kau he tangata o konei, there are none (no
men) here.
Kotahi kau te tangata i kite ai Au, I saw but one man,
alone.
ON ADJECTIVES.
An adjective is a word used with a noun to limit the
application. Adjectives are of three kinds:—
1. Of quality, as: he tangata pai, a good man.
2. Of quantity, as: tekau ngd kurl, ten dogs.
3. Of distribution, as: Te tangata nei, this man. Te
awa na, that river. Te puke ra, yonder hill.
ON ADVERBS.
An adverb is a word used to modify the meaning of
a verb:—
M drama ana taana kerero, he speaks distinctly: his
speaking is clear.
He whare nui raw a tenei, this is a very large house.
Pai whakaharahara nei taana tuhituhi, his writing is
exceedingly good.
Of time:—Nei, now. I reira, thereupon, then. I mua
ake nei, lately. Kotahi ra, once. Taro ake, soon.
Tatakitahi, seldom. Ahea, when.
Of place:—Nei, here. Reira, there. Whea, where.
Nowhea, whence. Tu-ke, apart. Ngdtahi, together.
Runga ake, above.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
49
Of manner:—Nanahu, wisely. Pai, well. Atahanga.
gently. Whai-whakdaronga, prudently.
Of degree:—Nui, much, little. Ano, only. Pend,
so. Tini, abundant. Erangi, rather. Kawa, very.
Hedi, enough. Kdati, that will do. Ehia, how many?
Maha, ample.
Cause and effect:—Kei aha, why? Mo te aha, where-
for? Nd reira, therefore.
Certainty and uncertainty:—Pono tonu, truly. Koia
tonu, certainly. Pea, perhaps. Rdpea, presumably.
Rdnei, or not. Aua, doubtful. Hore, no, not.
ON *KO, To be, state of being, (ko-re, not to be).
(See reo, voice. Arero, tongue. Ko-rero, to speak.
To speak is synonymous with To be.)
Ko, am art, is; first, second and third person of the
verb substantive.
Ko, 3ltq ; plural of the verb substantive.
Ko (past tense) was, e.g., ko ivai i reira, who was
there? Ko Au, I was. Ko Au taua tamaiti, I was the
said boy.
Ia, fourth person.
Ai, verb auxiliary; may, possible to be.
Kia, to let be, let there be.
Kua, been.
Ko ia, so be it; be it so; so it is: largely used in
expressing reality, in assenting to actual facts.
The following shows the usages and the literal sense
of Ko:—
Ko wai tend, who is that? Ko Au, it is I.
Ko koe, d, ko wai koe, *tis thou, and whom art thou?
*See Appendix, p. 244.
E


50
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Ko Au ra, ko Rangi, I am Rangi, to be sure.
Ko wai rawa rd la, who ever can it be {sotto voce) 1
Ko Rangi aha koe, what Rangi are you ?
Ko Rangikwra, tama a Te Tai, I am Rangikura, son of
Te Tai.
Ko whea koe, where are you going to? Ko te Tdheke
Au, I am going to the Taheke.
Ko wai he hoa mdou, who is to be your companion ?
Ko koe, you are, etc.
We have already seen that it is proper to use ko as a
prefix to the numeration of persons; ko is so used also as
a prefix to proper names and pronouns:—
Ko Rangi, ko Rongo, ko Tane, etc.
Ko mdtou tahi i \hdere, we went together.


CHAPTER VI.
ON THE VERB, MOOD AND TENSE.
A verb is a word that asserts something about a subject.
Verbs are of two classes—(a) transitive, and (&)
intransitive:—
(а) Patua ana e Tai te Kurt, Tai struck the dog. Here
Tai is the subject, Patua the action, and Kurt the object.
(б) Kei te moe a Hine, Hine sleeps. Kei te kaukau
rdtou, they bathe.
Tenses.
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary hitherto
advanced (see Maunsell’s grammar), the tenses in
Maori are absolutely clear, and their signs unmis-
takable.
E is the sign of the future, Ana is the sign of the past;
united, they represent the connecting link between the
past and the future by becoming the sign of present-
progressive action:—
Taka ana Au, I fell. Mamde ana Au, I was hurt.
Tangi ana Au, I wept.
E taka ana Au, I am falling. E tangi ana Au, I am
weeping.
E taka Au, I shall fall. E tangi Au, I shall weep.
The sign of the perfect tense, kua, is equally clear:—
Kua riro rdtou, they have now gone.
Kua hoki mai rdtou, they have now returned.
Kua ivhakade Au, I have now consented.
Kua oti, it is now finished.
Kua mate a la, he is now dead.
51


52
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Indicative Mood.
(Ko, the verb substantive, is the universal indicator
of persons, places, and things.)
Singular.
Ko Au, I am Ko koe, thou art
Ko la, he (or she) is Ko la, it is.
Dual.
Ko tdua, thou and I are. Ko mdua, he (or she) and
I are.
Ko korua, you two are. Ko rdua, they two are.
Triplial.
Ko tdtou, you and I are. Ko matau, they and I are.
Ko koutou, you are. Ko rdtou, they are.
Examples :—
Ko te whare tenei o Nuku, this is the house of Nuku.
Ko taana tamaiti tend, that is his child.
Ko o ona whanaunga ena, those are his relatives.
Ko taana kupu tenei, this is his word.
A Maori does not say: I am blind. He says: I am a
blind man; or, Ko Au he tangata matapo.
Actual Form op Present Tense.
Riri—Anger.
E riri ana a Pou, Pou is angering.
E rlria ana a Pou, Pou is being angered at.
E riria ana e Pou, being angered at by Pou.
Singular.
E riri ana Au, I am angering.
E riri ana koe, thou art angering.
E riri ana a la, he (or she) is angering.
E riri ana la, it is angering.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
53
Dual.
E riri ana taua, you and I are angering.
E riri ana maua, he or she and I are angering.
E riri ana korua, you two are angering.
E riri ana raua, they two are angering.
Triplial.
E riri ana tat on, you and I (3) are angering.
E riri ana matou, they and 1(3) are angering.
E riri ana koutou, you (3) are angering.
E riri ana rdtou, they (3) are angering.
The multitudinous is expressed by the word katoa,
which signifies all. Thus, E riri ana koutou katoa, ye are
all angering.
In the foregoing examples of present progressive action
it will be noticed that the verb, riri—to anger, is situated
between the twin signs E—ana. It will be further
noticed that those twin-signs correspond to the English
terminal, ing, as in angerwg. That is a rule.
On the Past Tense.
Riri ana, angered; did anger.
Singular.
Riri ana a Au, I angered.
Riri ana a koe, thou didst anger.
Riri ana a la, he (or she) angered.
Riri ana a la, it did anger.
Dual.
Riri ana taua, thou and I angered.
Riri ana mdua, he (or she) and I angered.
Riri ana korua, you two angered.
Riri ana rdua, they two angered.


54
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Triplial.
Riri ana tdtou, you and I angered.
Riri ana Indtou, they and I angered.
Riri ana koutou, you three angered.
Riri ana rdtou, they three angered.
Multitudinous,—Riri ana koutou katoa, ye all angered.
Ana thus corresponds to the English word did, or the
terminal ed.
I, a sign of Past Tense.
There is a strong tendency in Maori to give the time of
an action at the beginning of the sentence. In the fore-
going examples of past tense it is necessary to place the
verb and not the tense sign at the head of the sentence.
By using the letter i as a tense sign, the Maori is able to
give the time of the action first:—
Singular.
I riri Au, I angered.
I riri koe, you angered.
I riri a la, he (or she) angered.
I riri a la, it angered.
Dual.
I riri tdua, you and I angered.
I riri mdua, he (or she) and I angered.
I riri korua, you two angered.
I riri rdua, they two angered.
Triplial.
I riri tdtou, you and I angered.
I riri mdtou, they and I angered.
I riri kduto.u, you three angered.
I riri rdtou, they three angered.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
55
On the Perfect Tense.
Kua, the sign of the perfect tense, denotes an action
that has just been completed: Kua tuhituhi Au, I have
now written.
Singular.
Kua riri Au, I have now angered.
Kua riri koe, you have now angered.
Kua riri a la, he (or she) has now angered.
Kua riri la, it has now angered.
Dual.
Kua riri tdua, you and I have now angered.
Kua riri mdua, he (or she) and I have now angered.
Kua riri korua, you two have now angered.
Kua riri raua, they two have now angered.
Triplial.
Kua riri tatou, you and I have now angered.
Kua riri mdtou, they and I have now angered.
Kua riri koutou, you three have now angered.
Kua riri rdtou, they three have now angered.
Multitudinous: Kua riri koutou katoa, you have now
all angered.
On the Past Perfect Tense.
The past perfect tense denotes an action that was.
completed at a specified time now past. It is indicated
by ke associated with kua, the sign of perfect tense.
Singular.
Kua riri ke Au, I had already angered.
Kua riri ke koe, thou hadst already angered.
Kua riri ke a la, he (or she) had already angered.
Kua riri ke ia, it had already angered.


56
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Dual.
Kua riri ke taua, you and I had already angered.
Kua riri ke maua, he (or she) and I had already
angered.
Kua riri ke korua, you two had already angered.
Kua riri ke raua, they two had already angered.
Triplial.
Kua riri ke tdtou, you and I had already angered.
Kua riri ke mdtou, they and I had already angered.
Kua riri ke koutou, you three had already angered.
Kua riri ke ratou, they three had already angered.
Multitudinous: Kua riri ke koutou katoa, ye had all'
previously angered.
Kua riria ketia e ahau, had already been angered
at by me.
Note :—Riri, expressed anger.
Puku-riri, unexpressed anger.
Ririri, to quarrel.
On the Future Tense.
E is the sign of future tense:—E tuhituhi Au, I shall
write.
Singular.
E riri Au, I shall anger.
E riri koe, thou wilt anger.
E riri a la, he (or she) will anger.
E riri a la, it will anger.
(F kore koe e riri, thou wilt not anger.)
Dual.
E riri tdua, you and I shall anger.
E riri mdua, he (or she) and I shall anger.
E riri korua, you two will anger.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
57
E riri rdua, they two will anger.
(E* kore kdrua e riri ki d la, you two will not anger
unto him.)
Triplial.
E riri tdtou, we three (including you) will anger.
E riri mdtou, we three (excluding you) will anger.
E riri koutou, you three shall anger.
E riri ratou, they three shall anger.
(E kore koutou e riri ki a Au, you three will not anger
unto me.)
When intended to refer to personal action or intention
the future sense is very commonly expressed by 11 Ko te,”
being the verb substantive and definite article singular:—
Ko te riri pu kdrua ki a Au, you two will certainly
anger unto me.
Ko te wliakade pu a la, he will most assuredly consent.
Ko te hdere atu mdua ki reira, we two intend to go
there.
Ko te para Au i taaku wderenga, I intend to clear my
(new) cultivation-ground.
Ko te aha koe?, what are you about to do?
Ko te hdere mai pea raua kia kite i a koe, they two
will probably come along to see you.
Dual Tense.
In compound sentences, two tense signs frequently
occur. The second is sometimes merely a repetition of
the first, as:—
I kite Au i a lai taana t denga mai: I saw him on his
arrival.
Korero mai ana a la, a, hdere atu ana: he spoke to us
and then went away.


58
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Sometimes the second presents a complete change of
tense, as:—
I kite Au i a la e noho ana i te taha o te ara: I saw
him, (he is) sitting (relatively present tense) at the side
of the road.
Or:—
I a Au i hdere atu nei e noho ana alaite taha o te ara:
When I went along, he (is) sitting at the side of the
road.
The time of the action is past (i), but the speaker
makes it relatively present by introducing e-ana, the
twin-signs of present progressive action. In such cases it
serves the purposes of clarity to place the true time of the
action (i) at the head of the sentence, as shown here. The
following form is to be avoided: —
E noho ana a la i te taha o te ara, i a Au i hdere atu
nei: he (is) sitting at the side of the road, when I went
along.
Again:—
I a Au ka tde atu nei, kua riro katoa atu rdtou ki
tat ahi: when I arrived (past) there, they had already
(literally have now, perfect) all gone to the coast. Here
the use of kua (the sign of the perfect tense), diverts the
action from past to the relatively perfect.
With these examples before him, the student may
intelligently proceed to work out similar forms of dual
tense.
EMPHATIC FORM OF THE ACTIVE VOICE.
Singular.
E riri ana and Au, koe, or, la :
I do anger, thou dost, he, she, or it doth anger.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
59
Dual.
E riri ana and Taua, Mdua, Korua, or, Rdua:
You and I, he (or, she) and I, you two, they two—do
anger.
Triplial.
E riri ana and Tdtou, Mdtou, Koutou, Baton:
We three, us three, you three, they three—do anger.
Subjunctive Mood.
Mehemea e riri ana and Au: If I do anger.
Ahakoa i riri and Au: Although I did anger.
Imperative Mood.
Me riri koe, korua, koutou: you, you-two, you-three,
must anger.
Negative Forms.
Kd hore kau o dku nei riri: I have no anger: I do not
anger.
Klhai Au nei i riri: I did not anger.
Prohibitive Forms.
Kaua koe na e riri: do not you anger.
Kei riri koe na: (I advise) you not to anger.
Interrogative Forms.
E riri ana koia koe: do you truly anger?
E riri ana rdnei koe: do you actually anger or not ?
I riri koia koe: did you truly anger ?
I riri rdnei koe: did you anger or not ?
Miscellaneous Forms.
And ki dhau e riri ana koe: it seems to me, thou art
angering.
I te mea e riri ana koe: as thou art angering.
I mea Au i riri koe: I felt that thou didst anger.
Nd te mea i riri koe: because thou didst anger.


60
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
1 a koe e riri ana: whilst thou wert angering.
I te mea kua riri koe: as you have now angered.
Ki te mea e riri a la; should he anger.
Tend and pea i riri a la: perchance he did anger.
Kd hore nei and koe i riri noa: why, you have not yet.
angered.
Nd reira ahau i riri ai: therefore did I anger.
Ko te take tonu tend o taaku riri: that is the precise
cause of my anger.
Nd wai, a, kd riri Au: and eventually I became angry.
Kd kawe nei, a, riri ana a au: and it continued until at
last I angered.
E tde mai Au, kd riri koe: whene ’er I arrive, you anger.
1 hua Au e, e kore koe e riri: I had the impression that
you would not anger.
Ko Au kia tde wawe mai, kd riri ai koe: I am to arrive
before you may anger.
I pohehe Au e, e kore a la e riri: I was under the mis-
conception that he would not anger.
Ko Au kia mate, ka kiia ai koe “he tang ata”: I am to
be dead, then you may be declared to be “ a man. ’ ’
Passive Forms.
Past:—I riria ahau e rdua: I was rebuked by those two
(by the two of them).
Perfect:—Kua riria ahau e rdua: they-two have now
rebuked me.
Present:—E riria ana Au e rdua: I am being rebuked
by the-two of them.
Future:—Ko te riria au e la: I shall be rebuked by
him.
Jussive Tense.
Kia M drama: let it be light.
Kia tika: let it be just.


Chapter VII.
REGULAR USE OF TENSE-SIGNS IN SENTENCE
CONSTRUCTION.
Assuming that sufficient examples have now been
•given as aids to the formation of simple sentences,
examples in compound sentences may now be considered.
In speaking, naturally enough, different modes are
employed in the arrangement of the parts of a compound
sentence. The method here presented is, owing to its
clearness, that usually adopted by the best Native
speakers.
In order to admit a full, if rapid, employment of the
various tenses, we may assume that some person (or
persons) has been, is, or, will be—asked, to go to some
place to fetch some article.
Having assumed this it is further necessary to premise
that the consent of such person is an essential. That
consent (or, refusal) is made to rule the sentence, the
several parts of which proceed in the following order:—
(a) The Tense.
(fr) Declaration and person concerned.
(c) Locality of the object to be brought.
(d) The verb, as, Tiki—to fetch.
(e) The object itself, as, Waka—canoe.
The exercise is set out in the first person singular. By
the substitution in its place of any other person (or,
number of persons), the whole of the personal pronouns
may be used; or, any noun or proper name, as required.
It is to be observed that the concluding clause may be
61


62
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
used with any one of the introductory clauses. In
speaking the rising inflection is used prior to the close
of a long sentence:—
Past Perfect.
Kua whakade ke Au—kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te
tiki i te waka.
I have long since consented—to go along to the lake to
fetch the canoe.
Past.
I whakade pea Au—kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te tiki i
te waka.
I perhaps did consent—to go along to the lake, to fetch
the canoe.
I whakade Au—kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te tiki i te
waka.
I did consent—to go along to the lake, to fetch the
canoe.
Perfect.
Kua whakade pea Au—kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te
tiki i te waka.
I perhaps have now consented—to go to the lake, to
fetch the canoe.
Kua whakade Au—kia haere ki te Roto ki te tiki i te
waka.
I have now consented—to go to the lake, to fetch the
canoe.
Present.
E pai ana Au ki te whakade—kia haere ki te Roto, ki te
tiki i te waka.
I am willing to consent—to go to the lake, to fetch the
canoe.
E whakade ana Au—kia haere ki te Roto, ki te tiki i te
waka.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
63
I am consenting—to go to the lake, to fetch the canoe.
Future:—
E whakade pea Au—kia haere atu ki te Roto, ki te
whakahoki i te waka.
I may consent—to go along to the lake, to return the
canoe.
E whakade Au—kia, etc. (add concluding clause as
before).
I will consent—to, etc.
E whakadro ana Au ki te whakade—kia,——
I am inclining to consent—to,-
Terd ake pea Au e whakade—kia,---
I will probably eventually consent—to,-
Tera ake Au e whakade—kia,----
I will eventually consent—to,-
Terd pea e kore Au e whakade—kia,----
It may be that I will decline to consent—to,-
E kore Au e whakade—kia,------
I will not consent—to,——
E kore rawa nei Au e whakade—kia,----
Verily, I will absolutely decline to consent—to,-
Imperative:—
Me whakade koe—kia,-----
You must consent—to,----
Kaua koe e whakade—kia,----
Do not you consent—to,—
Kei whakade koe—kia,----
(I warn) you not to consent—to,--
Optative:—
Kia whakade ahau—ki te,----
To make me consent—to,-----
Kia whakade ai ahau—ki te,----
In order to induce me to consent—to,-


64
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Subjunctive:—
Mehemea ka whakade Au—kia,----
If I then consent—to,--
Mehemea e kore Au e whakade—kia,---
Should I not consent—to,--
Narrative forms:—
Whakade ana Au—kia,----
I agreed—to,——
Kihai Au i whakade kia hdere atu ki te Awa, ki te
kaukau i te wai.
I did not consent to go along to the river, to bathe in
the water.
The incident may be commented on, thus:—
Whakade ana hoki rdua—kia——
So they-two consented—to,——
He aha rawa te take i whakade at a la—kia,-
Whatever cause induced him to consent—to,——
He aha rd te take i kore ai korua e whakade—kia,-
What possible reason is there that you-two did not
consent—to,——
He aha koia te take e whakade ai mdua—kia,-
What is the reason that can be offered to induce us-two
to consent—to,——
Ka, not a tense sign.
So extensive is the use of the particle ka, that scholars,
such as Williams and Maunsell, have been deceived into
regarding it as a true tense sign. That it is not so may be
demonstrated in a momentary consideration of the
simplest sentence, such as:—
Ka kite Au.
Here no amount of erudition is equal to a discovery of
the tense, therefore, time of the action; because ka does


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
65
riot indicate that. Observe the change with the introduc
tion of a true tense-sign:—-
Kite ana Au
1 kite an
E kite ana Au, I see.
I saw
Kua kite Au, I have now seen.
E kite Au
Ko te kite Au
I shall see.
Ka can be intelligibly used only:—
(a) When the tense is clearly set out in the same
sentence—
Kd kite Au apopo, I shall see to-morrow.
(&) When the time is clearly understood,—
E haere ana koe ki Kaikohe ? are you going to
Kaikohe ?
Ae, yes.
Ka haere hold Au, then I will go too.
In those forms it is used merely as a colloquial substi-
tute for tense, the tense being otherwise made clear; and
it may be rendered by then, or, now.
(c) Where tense is unnecessary it may be rendered by
this is, or, that is:—
Kd pai, that is good; kd kino, that is bad; kd tika, that
is right; kd he, that is wrong; kd reka, that is sweet;
kd kaiva, that is bitter; kd hore, that is not so, etc.
ON THE NEGATIVE.
We have just been considering various uses of the
particle kd. It is usually prefixed to hore and kore,
common expressions of negation and dissent—kd hore.
In the Waikato and along the greater part of the East
Coast (North Island) kd hore has come to be used to
express almost every conceivable form of negative; so
F


66
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
much so that the aspirate has been entirely worn off, and
kaore is now heard most painfully free. It is, therefore,
necessary to place before the student such other forms as
are proper to the language:—
Kd hore: no, not so. Ka hore noa iho: nothing of the
kind.
Hore rawa: verily no. Kore rawa: not so, verily.
Hore kau he tangata i reira: there was nobody there.
Ka kore i tend, hei tetahi: if not that, try some other.
Ka kore nei a la i ki mat: he did not tell me.
Kihai i roa : ’twas not long.
Klliai Au i whakade: I did not assent.
Kihai ano (“kiano”) i whakade noa: has not yet
assented.
Kd kore a la e ki mat: if he does not tell (you).
E kore Au e whakade: I will not assent.
He mea noa tend; that is a matter of no consequence.
Kaua koe e whakade: do not you assent.
Kd hori tend: that (statement) is incorrect.
Ka tito tend: that (statement) is an invention.
Kd teka tend: that (statement) is false.
Kd lie tend: that (statement) is wrong.
Kei whakade koe: you had better not assent.
E hara i tena: that is not it.
E hara i a Au: it is not mine.
These examples suffice to show that kihai largely
indicates the past; ka hore, the present; and e kore the
future.
A peculiar use in negation is given to the definite
article, te; here it is strongly accented:—
Te rongo te tamaiti nei: this child will not obey.
No reira Au te haere atn ai: therefore I would not go.
He aha koe i te korero ai: why did von not speak, or,
say so ?


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
67
ON ANTONYMS OR EXTREMES.
A.
Ad, light of day.
Ata, morning.
Ara, road, path, way.
A, to drive.
Ahuahua, to resemble.
Aitud, unfortunate, bad
omen.
Anewa, weak, listless.
Apiti, side by side.
Apiapi, close together.
Apo, mean, grasping.
Apuapu, crammed, stuffed.
Arai, to screen, block.
Arita, eager, keen.
Aroha, pity, love, sorrow.
Aru, to chase.
Atadhua, pretty.
Aiva, river, channel.
Angi-hau, gentle zephyr.
Awhitu, regret.
Auk ati, to prevent.
Po, darkness of night.
Ahiahi, evening.
Ara-kore, roadless, pathless.
Arahi, arataki, to lead.
Rereke, not to resemble.
Waimarie, fortunate, good
omen.
Vaua, strenuous.
Tirara, scattered.
Wdhewehe, separated.
Mar ere, free, generous,
liberal.
Korokoro, loose.
yVhakawdtea, to free of
obstruction.
Akuto, slow, backward.
Tukino, show resentment.
'Whakataki, to meet.
Kinokino, ugly, ill-favoured
Awakeri, a dug ditch or
drain.
Awhd, gale, storm.
Koa, rejoice over.
Awhina, to assist.
E.
Eke, to get upon, mount. Heke, get down from, dis-
mount.
Ene, to flatter. Haniliani, to disparage,
speak ill of.
Eti, shrink, show timidity. Maia, fearless, bold.
Ewa, extol, exalt. Taunu, to revile.
I.
Ikeike, high. Pdpaku, low.
Inaki, press, crowd to- Taiwehe, separate and free,
gether.


68
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Inoi, to entreat.
Ioio, hard, stiff.
Iro, submissive.
Iti, little.
Iwi, bone, tribe.
Tono, to demand.
Ngdwari, soft, yielding.
Turi, unsubmissive.
Nui, rahi, large.
Kikokiko, flesh.
0, provision for journey.
Okooko, carry in arms.
Omaki, move swiftly.
Onge, scarce.
Ora, alive and well.
0reore, very dry.
Oru, boggy.
Ota, green, uncooked.
Whakaoti, to finish.
Ouou, torutoru, few.
0.
O-kore, without provision.
Pikau,waha, carry on back.
Ata-haere, go slowly.
Tini, plentiful.
Mate, dead.
Tere, very watery.
Mdro, firm.
Maoa, ripe, cooked.
Timata, to begin.
Maha, many.
U.
Tungangd, loose (as a post)
Paid, rainless, fine after
rain.
Tutaki, shut (as a door).
Taitea, sap (of a tree).
Pirau, rotted.
Tdenga, residue (undealt
with).
'Whditi, in narrow compass.
Poka-pu, go direct, short
line.
Here, to tie.
Mand-hara, object of
hatred.
A, to drive away.
Tupuna, ancestor.
Puta-ki-waho, disassociate
one’s self.
Uru-pango, dark-haired.
Utu-kore, paymentless.
U, firm (as a post).
Ua, rain.
Uaki, open (as a door).
U'ho, heart (of a tree).
Ukauka, preserved, sound.
Ukupapa, all dealt with.
Umar aha, widely extended.
Undid, awhio, go around.
Unu, undo, untie.
Unuora, dearest in life.
Ung a, to invite.
Uri, descendant.
Urn, to associate one’s self.
Uru-kehu, light-haired.
Utu, payment, price.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
69
Uwlia, female (of animals).
Uwhi, to cover over.
I
27a, tasty.
Hahu, disinter.
Haka, song and dance.
Hakahaka, short in height.
Hdkari, a feast.
Hdkerekere, downcast.
Hakiki, unkind, overbear-
ing.
Hakune, careful, deliberate.
Hanga, make, build up.
Hapai, lift up.
Hara, guilt.
Haumaruru, languid.
Haunga, odour, smell.
Hauora, revived.
Haupu, place in a heap.
He, wrong.
'Whakahe, mislead, put
wrong.
Hika, to inflame.
Hiwi, ridge of a hill.
Hohonu, deep.
Hohoni, graze surface.
Hono, to join.
Huna, to conceal.
Ka
Kaitoa, expressing pleasure
Kakama, nimble, sprightly.
Kapi, covered.
Kakara, scent.
Karanga, to call.
Karaiva, mother (other
than human).
Tourawhi, male (of
animals).
Huke, uncover, expose.
Hd-kore, tasteless.
Nehu, inter, bury.
Tangi, song of lament.
Teitei, tall in height.
Kai-kore, without food.
Harihari, elevated, glad.
Atawhai, kind, gentle.
Hikaka, careless, rash.
Tukituki, break down.
Tuku-iho, let down.
Hara-kore, guiltless.
Whai-ngoi, energetic.
Haunga-kore, odourless.
Hemo, faint.
Akirikiri, to scatter.
Tika, right.
Whakatika, put right.
Tinei, extinguish.
Hdpua, depression.
Pdpaku, shallow.
Ngoto, enter deeply.
TJnu, disjoin.
Whakakite, to disclose.
Pouri, dejection, gloom.
Puhoi, sluggish.
Tuwhera, uncovered.
Piro, stench.
Noho-puku, remain silent.


70
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Katit shut, closed.
Kata, to laugh.
Katau, right (side).
Kdteatea, not close.
Kdweka, ridge of a hill.
Kawiu, shrunk.
Ke, unlike.
Keokeo, peak of a hill.
Keukeu, motionless.
Kewha, irresolute.
Ki, full.
Whakakiki, to instigate.
Kikini, to pinch, nip.
Kino, bad.
Koangiangi, cool.
Rae, forehead.
Kohi, to collect.
Kohure, to dig up.
Kok eke, winding (as river)
Kokiri, dart forward.
Komd, pale.
Kokomo, thrust in (as peg)
Konene, outcast.
Konewa, dream-song.
Konewha, drowsiness.
Konihi, avoiding observa-
tion.
Kongelie, feeble.
Kopiko, backwards and
forwards.
Kokopi, double-in.
Kopuke, make hillocks.
Kora, particle.
Koraha, open country.
Korapa, alarm.
Korara, disperse.
Puare, open.
Tangi, to cry.
Maui, left (side).
Pipiri, close.
Raorao, valley.
Kowhera, open extended.
A-riterite, to resemble, alike
Horua, steep circular de-
pression.
Koni, to move.
Kaikd, eager.
Takoto-kau, empty.
Peehi, to suppress (bad-
ness) .
Mirimiri, to smooth, fondle.
Pai, good.
W er aw er a, warm.
Kohamo, back of head.
Rui, to scatter.
Tanu, to bury down.
Kotika, straight (as river).
Tdkiri, dart backward.
Pupango, darkish.
Vnuhi, pull out (as peg).
Tangata-whenua, man of
the soil.
yVaiata, conscious song.
Mata-dra, wakefulness.
Aro-nui, courting observa-
tion.
Ngoi, strength.
Titika, straight on.
W'hakatika, straighten.
Koruarua, make holes.
Kauika, heap.
Ngahere, bush country.
Nolio-mdrie, at ease.
Huihui, assemble.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
71
Kolia, promise.
Korou, having purpose.
Kotua, respect.
Kowde, to divide.
Koivhane, to bend.
Kuene, to urge on.
Kuiki, to desire.
Kurutete, to exchange.
Ma, white.
Mdeneene, smooth.
Maha, many.
Mahar a, to remember.
Mahi, to work.
Mahuru, contented ease.
Makariri, cold, winter.
Makona, food-satisfied.
Mama, not heavy.
Mamao, distant.
Whakahau, to animate.
Manawareka, pleasing.
Matareka, fondness.
Mate, death.
Matika, rise up.
Matoro, woo, court.
Maunga, mountain.
Mamde, pain.
Meko, to withhold.
Moana, ocean.
Moe, to sleep.
Mohio, to know.
Mohu, to smoulder.
Mua, before.
Mur ere, clever, knowing.
Mdkd, wild.
K or o ng at a, unfulfilled
promise.
Korou-kore, having no pur-
pose.
Taunu, revile.
Kopiri, to stick together.
Whakatika, to straighten.
Whakaware, to delay.
Whakaparahako, desireless.
Hoatu-noa, give without
return.
Ma.
Mangu, pango, black.
Mdtaratara, rough, prickly.
Torutoru, few.
Wareware, to forget.
Mdngere, to idle.
Mdihi, uneasy.
Baumati. summer.
Tlidkai, food-hunger.
Taimaha, heavy.
Tata, near.
Mdrohirolii, dispirited.
M at ahar ehare. offensive.
Matakawa, dislike.
Ora, life.
Takoto, lie down.
Whakarere, desert.
Mania, plain.
Mauru, eased of pain.
Hoatu, to give.
Tuawhenua, land, country
Ara-ake, to wake.
Mohio-kore, not to know.
Kd, to be afire.
Muri, behind.
Kuware, unknowing.
Barata, tame.


72
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Na
Nanea, copious.
Whakanano, discredit.
Noa, free of restriction.
Haiti, scarce.
Whakatika, credit.
Tapu, ceremonially re-
stricted.
Pa
Pdkani, quarrelsome.
Pana, expel.
Pakaru, to break, smash.
Papatahi, flat (of land).
M drama, clear (as speech).
Pariratanga, intermittent.
Pudd, dawn.
Puea, emerge from water.
Puhi, a virgin free.
Puwaha, mouth of river.
Ra
Bd, the sun, day.
Bangi, the sky.
Bopi, to close.
Bukaruka, indefinite.
Burn, sheltered from wind.
Biri, to express anger.
Ta
Tdawhitaawhi,to hang back
Tdepa, to hang down.
Tdhapa, an acute angle.
Whakatahe, clear from ob-
struction
Tahitahi, to scrape.
Tdhoata, pumice stone.
Tdhoro, cause to collapse.
Tahora, open country.
Tai-u, high tide.
Mahaki, good tempered.
Unga, invite.
Whai-hanga, to mend.
Pukepuke, hilly (of land).
Papipapi, confused (as
speech).
Pumau, continuous.
Ahiahi-po, dusk.
Toremi, sink into water.
Taumau, one betrothed.
Matdpuna, fount, or source
Po, the night.
Papa, the earth.
IJaki, to open.
Tonu, definite.
JIau, windy.
Biri-puku, unexpressed anger.
Bere-mua, to dash forward.
Whakatare, to hang up.
Tdpou, perfectly straight.
Kati, to obstruct.
Tlhore, to peel off.
One-papa, sandstone.
Ilanga, to upbuild.
Ngahere, bush country.
Tai-pdkoa, low tide.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Tai-whanake, half-tide
(rising)
Tai-heke, descent.
Taihoa, by and bye.
Tam, sun at eve.
Taitama, youth.
Taitea, whitewood, sap.
Takare, eager to get on.
Takatu, quite ready.
Takaiviri, twisted (as a
tree).
Take, root, cause.
Takuhe, contented, secure.
Takutai, sea-coast.
Tdmuimui, to crowd upon.
Tapiri, add to.
Tapore, bend, sag, faint.
Tarapi, delicate, fastidious.
Tararau, loud confused
noise.
Taraweti, hostile.
Tarehu, unaware.
Taruna, marriage connec-
tions.
Tatahi, wide apart.
Total, to measure, enu-
merate.
Tdtere, unsettled.
Tau, year.
Tatau, door.
Taumua, be in front.
Taumdro, obstinate.
Tauhou, stranger.
Taupuru, cloudy sky.
Taurangi, incomplete.
Tauwliena, dwarfish.
Tdwlilri, wave good-bye.
T%oro, jar on the ear.
73
Tai-pd, half-tide (falling).
Tai-piki, ascent.
A-kua-nei, presently.
Mom, sun at morn.
Taitamahine, maiden.
Taiiho, hardwood, heart.
Takaware, languid indif-
ference.
Takaware, delaying.
Akoako, straight grained.
Take-kore, without cause.
Hhva, alert, apprehensive.
Tua-zvhenua, inland.
Papahoro, to scatter from.
Tango, take from.
Tawharu, curved.
Kai-horo, coarse, gluttonous.
Tangi, sound.
Mahaki, friendly.
Mohio, aware.
Whanaunga, blood rela-
tions.
Pipiri, close together.
"Wliakarite, to compare.
Pumau, settled.
Marama, moon, month.
Kuwaha, an opening (as
doorway).
Tanhiku, be in the rear.
Taungdwari, yielding.
Taibnga, intimate.
Ao-rangi, clear sky.
Taurite, complete.
Tokoroa, tall and slight.
Powhlri, wave welcome.
Paparonaki, please the ear.


74
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Tipatipa, ill-founded.
Tip oka, dig and expose.
Tlwliana, curved.
Tohatoha, to distribute.
Tomo, to enter.
Au-ripo, noisy current.
Tduwha, swell.
Tudd, transient.
Tohunga, wise.
Tuakangata, hero of a t;
Tultea, overgrown w
scrub.
Tuwkiti, to banish.
Tuku, to let go.
Tuoi, without fat.
Tupere, to ejaculate.
Tupono, by chance.
Turuki, to supplement.
Tutanga, a portion.
Tiltoku, to favour.
Tuivakaroa, yawn.
W aingakia, easy.
Warea, busy.
W aw at a, secret longing.
Wekerua, of two minds.
Wetiweti, disgusting.
Taketake, well-founded.
Tdpuke, dig and cover.
Pvpiko, bent.
Kokikoki, to collect.
Puta, to withdraw.
An-torino, flowing smoothly
Kokoku, sink in.
Tuturu, fixed.
Hauwarea, foolish.
Tua-wakine, heroine of a
tale.
Watea, clear.
Ung a, to invite.
Hopu, to seize.
Momona, fatty.
Wakangu, remain silent.
Rokokanga, by design.
Tinana, without addition.
Tinana, the whole.
Wkakaparakako, to reject
with scorn.
Kokopi, compress lips.
Wa,
Uaua, difficult.
Takakau, at leisure.
Hiakia, expressed desire.
'Wkakaaro, fixed opinion.
Pdrekareka, delightful.


Chapter VIII.
ON THE GRAMMAR.
The grammatical or idiomatical structure largely
illustrates that:—
1. Noun and substantive precede the adjective—
He tangata pai, a man good.
He tikanga kino rawa, a rule bad very.
2. Number is indicated by a change of article—
Te Moana, the ocean.
Nga Tai, the tides.
3. The possessive pronoun precedes the noun—
Taaku mokopuna, my grandchild.
Taana whakaaro ki a Te Hau, his consideration
towards Te Hau.
4. The verb follows the article or tense-sign and
precedes the noun or substantive—
Te korero d tenei tangata, the talk of this man.
I tangi te tamaiti, did cry the child.
5. The time is indicated by a tense-sign, which, e—ana
excepted, invariably precedes the verb.
Kiliai au i rongo, not I did hear.
Kua taka iho te tamaiti, has now fallen down the
child.
6. The passive (see list of verbs) is formed by a verbal
suffix—
Kata, to laugh.
Kataina, laughed over.
75


76
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
7. Continuity or repetition of action is indicated by
partial or whole re-duplication—
Oma, to run.
Omaoma, a sequence of runs.
8. The whole of the vowels are used in enumeration
and each as a numerical prefix has its peculiar value.
(See alphabetical tables.)
9. There are four persons and three numbers (table
of personal pronouns).
10. The mode of comparison (see page 16) is clear
and precise.
11. In tense, the jussive, “let it be,” is included—
Kia mdrama, let it be clear.
Kia tika, let it be just.
12. Causation is effected by a prefix, whaka—
Taka, to fall.
Whakataka, to cause to fall.
13. The letter a is commonly used as a personal article
or prefix to proper names and pronouns—
A Titore, namely Titore.
Kia tae mai a ia, when he arrives.
14. An article precedes each substantive in a sentence—
Te waka me nga hoe, the canoe and the paddles.
15. The imperative mood is indicated by me, must,
preceding the simple form of the verb—
Me ui e koe, you must enquire;
or by using the verb at the head of the sentence—
Haere atu ki a ia, go unto him.
Tikina atu he wahie, go fetch some firewood.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
77
On “I was,” “I had been.”
Was—
Ko au taua tamaiti, I was the boy referred to.
Ko au tetahi i 'hdere, I was one of those who went.
Ko au i reira, I was there.
Ko au te mea i whara, it was I who was hurt.
I had been—
1 tae ano au ki reira i mua ] I had been there
I reira au i mua ai [ formerly.
Kua roa au e takoto mate ana, ka tae mai ra a ia,
I had been long lying ill when he arrived.
I have been—
Kua tae ke mai au ki konei, I have been here for
some time.
Kua tde au ki reira, I have been there.
Kua mamingatia au, I have been duped.
Kua patua au, I have been beaten.
I have become—
Kua turorotia au, I have become an invalid.
I shall be—
Ko reira au, I shall be there.


Chapter IX.
ON VERBS AND TERMINALS.
A verb has four clearly defined forms or gradations.
First the simple form as tuku, to let go; next the passive
form with the terminal syllable a, as tukua, a form which
is usually used before the fact,thus :“Kaua e tukua e koe
te Kurt na”; or, “do not you let that dog go”; next the
passive form with the terminal syllable na, a form which
is usually used after the fact, as: He aha i tukuYfo ai e
koe te Kuri nal or “what did you let that dog go for?”
and finally the verb with its verbal-noun terminal nga, as
tukunga, a form which indicates the act or fact of the
letting go; for this terminal, nga, corresponds to the
English terminal, ing (as go, going) : “I kite Au i taana
tukunga i te Kuri”; or, “I saw his letting go of the
dog. ’’ Examples.
Verb. Future. Past. Perfect.
Koko, to scoop. Kokoa. Kokona. Kokonga.
Kuru, to pommel, bruise^Turua. Kuruna. Kurunga.
Toro, to visit. Toroa. T orona. Toronga.
Hoko, to exchange. Hokoa. Hokona. Hokonga.
Puru, to stop, plug. Puma. Puruna. Purunga.
Toko, to pole. Tokoa, Tokona. Tokonga.
Akoako, to instruct. Akoakoa. Akoakona. Akoakonga
T atari, to await. Taria. Tdrina. Tdringa.
Tapa, to name. Tapaia, Tapaina. Tapanga.
Kuku, to nip. Kukua. Kukuna. Kukunga.
Heke, to descend. Hekea. Hekena. Hekenga.
Heru, to comb. Herua. Heruna. Herunga.
Here, to tie. Herea. 7S Herena. Her eng a.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
79
Verb. Future. Past. Perfect.
Wete, to untie. Wetea. Wetena. Wetenga.
Horo, to swallow. Horoa. Horona. Horonga.
Tdtaku, to repeat. Tdtakua. Tdtakuna. Tdtakunga
Taltu, to kindle. Tahua. Tahuna. Taliunga.
Tomo, to enter. Tomoa. Tomona. Tomonga.
Hopu, to catch. Hopua. Ho puna. Hopunga.
Kata, to laugh. Kataia. Kataina. Katanga.
Taki, to recount. Takia. Tokina. Takinga.
~Whdo, to stow. Whdda. Whdona. Whdonga.
Tiki, to fetch. Tikia. Tikina. Tikinga.
Titari, to smash. Titaria. Titarina. Titaringa.
Hitoko, to hop. Hitokoa. Hitokona. Hit oho ng a.
There is, however, a particular class of verbs to which
this terminal na does not appear to apply; other terminal
forms being substituted. These are verbs in which the
consonant n finds a place. Tanu, to bury, for instance,
becomes tanuTal'b, not tfcmuna; similarly, tono, to send,
does not become tonona; neither does whana, to kick,
become whanan^. This fact appears to have led to the
introduction of a variety of terminal forms, as we shall
presently see. This again appears to have led to a
reduction to three of the four clearly defined verbal
gradations shown in the foregoing list. These forms
apparently govern (in addition to the class of verbs in
which n occurs) adverbs, adjectives, and a number of
causative verbs.
Of the variety of terminals under notice, the following
are the principal:—
Verb.
Ahuru, warm.
Aua, I know not.
a,
Ahurua.
tia
Auatia.
First Final
Terminal Terminal
becomes nga
Ahurunga.
„ tanga
Auatanga.


80
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Verb. First terminal. Final terminal.
Matau, learn. na Matauria. ranga Mdtauranga.
Wehi, fear. ngia ., Wehingia. nga. W ehinga.
Tanu, to bury, inter. mia „ Tanumia. manga Tanumanga
Tangi, to weep. hia „ Tangihia. hanga Tangihanga.
Moto, a punch. Ida „ Motokia. kanga Motokanga.
Tua, to fell (as a tree). kina ,, Tuakina. kanga Tuakanga.
A, to drive. ia „ Aia. nga Anga.
Whawhdd, to cram. whia „ Whaowhia. tvhang a, Whdoivhanga,
With such a variety of terminals at hand, the speaker
has a wide choice; but, having chosen the form of his
first terminal he is bound to use its corresponding final
terminal. As we have just seen the equations are:
a—nga; ngia—nga; ria—ranga; tia—tanga; and Ida—
kang a. A speaker, then, in using for example the causa-
tive verb whakaatu, (or, to cause to know) having, as he
proceeds, used a first terminal, must use its corresponding
final terminal, as follows:—
Whakadtu.
Whakadtu.
Whakadtu.
Whakadtu.
Whakadtu.
'Whakadtu.
Whakadtua.
Whakadtungia.
Whakadturia.
Whakadtutia.
Whakadtukia.
Whakadtuhia.
Whakadtunga.
Whakadtunga.
W hakad turan g a.
Whakaatutanga.
Whakadtukanga.
Whakadtuhanga.
To that rule there is no exception unless that made by
the proverbial slip of the tongue.


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
81
By the process of gradation portions are omitted from
such verbs and so on as are partially or wholly redupli-
cated. Thus:—
Tatari, to await, becomes Taria and Tdringa.
Whawhdd, to cram, becomes Whdowhia and
Whdotvhanga.
Katakata, to laugh, becomes Kataina and Katanga.
Whanawhana, . to kick, becomes Whanaia and
Whananga.
Tatau, to count, becomes tdua and Tauanga.
Titiro, to look, becomes Tirohia and Tirohanga,
Kaukau, to bathe, becomes Kauria and Kauranga',
and so on.
The verb and its accompanying adjective must always
agree in terminal form, as:
Korero pai, good talk.
Korerotia paitia.
Korerotanga paitanga.
Although the final sound of a in the above forms
invariably indicates the passive, the sound of e is
occasionally used instead of it:—
Ho, to pout, becomes Hoine and Hoinenga.
Ad, to dawn, becomes Aoinp and Aoin&nga.
Pad, to crush, becomes Padikz and Padik&nga.
Koru, to sink dying, becomes Korue and Koruznga.
Having so far dealt with verbal suffixes, two verbal
prefixes, Kau and Tai, may now be noticed. The chief
function of these appears to be to modify the sense; the
same may be said of taka when used as a verbal prefix:—
Amo, to shoulder (as a heavy piece of wood).
Kau-amo, to shoulder (as four persons shouldering
along an invalid between two poles; the load, being
distributed, is comparatively light.


82
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Tuku, to let go.
Kau-tuku, to let go gradually (as to “pay-out” a line,
nautically).
Heke, to descend.
Tai-heke, to descend slowly or gradually.
Mdro, hard.
Tai-mdro, moderately hard.
Kalia, strong.
Tai-kaha, moderately strong.
Tang at a, man.
Tai-tang at a, a young man scarcely matured.
Horo, swift, speedy.
Taka-horo, hurriedly (a stout person or an invalid
may hurry along without attaining much speed).
Ware, delay.
Taka-ware, to hesitate.
Tdpui, a collection.
Taka-tdpui, inseparable (“koa taka-tapui,” an in-
separable friend).
There are other interesting prefixes, the functions of
which the student may ascertain for himself; for
instance the prefix au—as:—
Miki, to greet (as one person greeting another).
Aii-miki, to greet (the united greetings of a number
of persons to a distinguished visitor or visitors).
Tdia, to injure, cast down, or destroy a person.
Au-taia, to injure, cast down, or destroy many persons.
(Said of a criminal, or an evil such as drinking, gambling
and so on.)


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
83
LIST OF VERBS.
Passive or
Verb active. Imperative. A. Aia Verbal noun.
A, to drive off Aug a
Ahu, to mould Ahua Ahunga
Whakaahua, to form Whakadhucl ia Whakadhuatanga
Ai, (possible to be), act Aitia Aitanga
of coition
Aki, to dash against Akina Akinga
Ako, to instruct Akona Akonga
Amo, to shoulder Amohia Amohanga
Anau, sway to and fro Anaua Anaunga
Anga, move towards Whakaangi, fly, as a kite An g aia A ng anga
Whakaangia Whakaanginga
Apiti, to place together Apitia Apitinga
Apo, appropriate, grab ApoIlia Apohang a
Arahi, to conduct Arakina Arahanga
Aroha, to love, compas- Aroha tia Arohatanga
sionate
Aral, prevent Ar aia A rainga
Arau, entangle Whakaari, to display Arautia Arautanga
Whakadria Whakadringa
Aro, confront Arolii, inspect Aroa Aronga
Arohirohia Arohiroliinga
Aropiri, attached Aropiria Aropiringa
Aru, to chase Arumia Arum a ng a
Ataiuhai, tend kindly Atawhaitia Atawhaitanga
Whakadtu, to inform Whakadturia Whakadtu ra ng a
Auru, to free Aurutia Aurutanga
Aweke, misrepresent Awekea Awekenga
Awlvi, embrace Awhitia Awhitanga
Awhina, support A whinatia Awhinatanga
E, to do E. Engia Eanga
Whakaea, repay, avenge Whakaeaina Whakaeanga
Eho, to clarify Ehoa Ehonga
Ehu, make turbid Ehua Ehu ng a.
Eke, mount, embark Ekoa, to append Ekea Ekenga
Ekoaia Ekoan g a
Ene, to cajole Enea Enenga
Whakaeo, to disable Wliakaeoa Whakaeo nga
Epa, pelt, cast Epaina Epang a
Ete, urge along Etea Etenga
Ewa, enlarge, exalt Ewain a Ewanga


84
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Verb active.
Passive or
Imperative.
Verbal noun.
Ihiihi, nerve twitch
Tki, consume wholesale
Inoi, entreat
Inu, to drink
Whakairi, hang up
Iriiri, to christen
Iro, cause pain
Whakairo, to carve
Whakaita, to restrain,
repress
Ihiihia
Ikia
Inola
Inumia
Whakairia
Iriiria
Iroa
Wliakairoa
TVhakaitaia
Tliiilvinga
Iking a
Inoinga
Inumanga
Whakairinga
I riiringa
Tronga
Whakaironga
Whakaitanga
O.
Whakao, call upon loudly Whakaoria
Oha, affectionately greet Ohaina
Owhiti, caution Owhitia
Omoomo, tend sick Omoomoa
Oni, act of coition Onia
Ore, to bore into Orea
Or eta, exterminate Oretaia
Oka, to stab Okaina
Oke, struggle Okea
IVliakadranga
Ohan g a
0 whiting a
Omoomonga
Oninga
Orenga
Oretdnga
Gkanga
Okenga
U.
'PVhakau, make firm Whakauria
Uhu, to wail Uhua
Vmere, to chant together Umerea
Una, to bless, sanctify Unaia
Vnahi, scale fish Unahia
Ukui, wipe clean Vkupara, smudge Ukuia
Ukuparaia
Umiki, completely tra- Umikia
verse
Vnga, invite Ungatia
Unu, undo, untie L'pane, place in ranks Unuliia
Vpanea
IJru, to unite Urua
Urungi, to steer Urungitia
Uta, to place as cargo Utaina
Utu, to pay Utua
Whakautu, repay, as a Whakautua
loan
TItuutu, draw up, as Utuhia
water
IFhakauranga
Vhunga
Umerenga
Unanga
U nahing a
Vkuinga
Okuparanga
V miking a
Ungatanga
Unuhanga
Upanenga
U rung a
TJrungitanga
V tanga
IJtunga
Whakautunga
Utuhanga


MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
S-
Verb active.
Haha, seek for
Wtiakaha, breathe, inhale
Haehae, slash, cut into
strips
Haere, to proceed
Hahau, cut down
Hahn, to disinter
Haka, sing and dance
Haku, find fault with
Hakune, profoundly study
Hamama, bawl
Ramu, gather leavings
Hanga, make, build
Hanihani, disparage
Hangarau, befool
Hangareka, jest with
Hao, enclose as in a net
Whakahapa, deprive
Hdpai, to lift up
Haparu, inconsiderate
Hara, crime, guilt
Uarau, grope for
Hari, to carry along
Hard, dress flax fibre
Hdtepe, cut off, exter-
minate
Hauhake, dig up root
crops
Haukoti, interrupt, in-
tercept
Whakahau, inspirit, ani-
mate
Whakahauora^ to reprieve
Whakahawea, despise
W hakahe, to wrong,
mislead
Hei, to wear on neck
Here, tie, fasten
Whakahere, to sacrifice
Heru, comb hair
Hihi, to hiss
Hialiia, long for, wish for
Hiakai, food-desire
Hiainu, drink-desire
Hiamoe, sleep-desire
Hlanga, impose upon
Passive or
Imperative.
HA.
Haharia
Whakahdngia
Haehdea
Haerea
Hahauria
Hahua
Hakaina
Hakua
Hakunea
Hamamatia
Hamua
Hang aia
Hanihania
Hangarautia
Hangarekatia
Hdoa
Whakahapaina
Hdpaia
Hdparua
Harangia
Haraua
Haria
Haroa
Hdtepea
Hauhakea
Haukotia
Whakahaua
Whakahauoratia
Whakahaweatia
Whakahengia
Heia
Herea
Whakaherea
Herua
Hihitia
Hiahiatia
Hiakaitia
Hiainutia
Hiamoetia
Hiangatia
Verbal noun
Haharanga
Whakahanga
Haehaenga
Haerenga
Hahauranga
llahunga
Hakanga
Hakunga
Hakunenga
Hamamatanga
Hamunga
Han gang a
B anihaninga
Hangarautcinga
Hangarekatanga
Hdong a
Whakahapanga
Hapainga
Raparunga
lfaranga
Haraunga
Haring a
Hdronga
Hat ep eng a
Hauhakenga
Haukotinga
Whakahaunga
Whakahauoranga
Whakahaweatanga
Whakahenga
Heinga
Her eng a
Whakaherenga
Berung a
Hihitanga
Hiahiatanga
Hialcaitanga
Tt iainutanga
Hiamoetanga
Riangatanga


86
MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR
Verb active.
Hiangongo, pine for
Hika, to rub together
Hikaikai, to writhe
HiJci, carry about (as a
baby)
Hlnana, to glare at
King a, to fall prone
Hipa, to interspace
Hipoki, cover over
Hiwi, heave up a great
weight
Hirihiri, reliable
Hoe, to paddle
Hoka, to spread apart
Hokehoke, lose patience
Hoko, exchange, barter
Hono, join, unite, splice
Hopu, detect, capture
Hora, spread out
Hori, slit, slip aside
WliaJcahoro, demolish
Hohoro, to hasten
Horomi, to swallow
Horoi, to wash
Hotu, to sigh
Hoh ou, bind make peace
Huhu, value
Whakahou, renew
Hua, to lever
Huaranga, transplant
Huke, dig, or grub up
Hume, to taper off
Humene, fold, or tuck
together
Iluna, to conceal
Huhunu, singe, char
Hura, uncover, expose
Hure, search underneath
Huri, turn around, roll
Hurl- kd-aro, turn inside
out
Huri kd-tua, turn back
to front
Huri-poki, turn upside
down
Huti, pluck, or tug off
Passive or
Imperative.
Hiangongotia
Hikaina
Hikaikaitia
Hikitia
Hinanatia
Hingaia
Hipaia
Hipokina
Hiwia
Hirihiria
Hoea
Hokaia
Hokehokea
Hokona
Honoa
Hopukia
Horahia
Horia
Whakahoroa
Hohorotia
Horomia
Horoia
Hotua
Hohoutia
Huhua
Whakalioutia
Huakina
Huarangatia
Hukea
Humea
Humenea
Hunaia
Huhunua
Hurahia
Hurea
Hurihia
Huri koarotia
Huri kotuatia
Tturipokina
Hutia
Verbal noun.
Hiangongotanga
Hikanga
Hikaikaitanga
Hikitanga
Hinanatanga
Hinganga
Ripanga
Hipokinga
Hiwinga
Hiriliiringa
Hoenga
Hokanga
Hokehokenga
Hokonga
Bononga
Hopukanga
Horahanga
Boring a
IVJiakahoronga
Hohoutanga
Horomanga
Horoinga
Hotunga
Hohoutanga
Hiihuanga
Wh alcahoutanga
Huakanga
Uuarangatanga
Hukenga
Humenga
Hitmen eng a
Hunang a
Huhununga
Hurahanga
Hurenga
Hurihanga
Huri koarotanga
Ilurikotuatanga
Huripokin ga
Hutinga