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First lessons in the Maori language of New Zealand

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Title:
First lessons in the Maori language of New Zealand with a short vocabulary
Spine title:
Lessons in Maori
Creator:
Williams, W. L ( William Leonard ), 1829-1916
Place of Publication:
London
Auckland
Publisher:
Williams & Norgate
Upton & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Maori
Physical Description:
[2], 97, [1], xii pages : ; 16 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Maori language -- English -- Textbooks for foreign speakers ( lcsh )
Maori language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Maori language -- Vocabulary ( lcsh )
Reo Māori
Genre:
Textbooks for foreign speakers ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Oceania -- New Zealand
Ao-o-Kiwa -- Aotearoa
Coordinates:
-42 x 174

Notes

Language:
In English, with Māori words and phrases.
General Note:
Previous edition: 1871.
General Note:
"G. Norman and Son, Printers"--Title page verso.
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.L. Williams.

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Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commerical License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge the author and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.
Resource Identifier:
10303547 ( aleph )
11008763 ( oclc )
IE Mao 415 ( soas classmark )

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Full Text
FIRST LESSONS
IN THE
MAORI LANGUAGE
OF NEW ZEALAND;
WITH A
SHORT VOCABULARY
BY
W. L. WILLIAMS, B.A.
WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,
14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON;
and 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.
UPTON & Co., AUCKLAND, N. Z.
1882.


LONDON :
G. NORMAN AND SON, PRINTERS, HART STREET,
COVENT GARDEN.


PART I.
ON READING.
§ 1. The Alphabet consists of the
following fifteen letters:
FORM. NAME. SOUND.
A a a father.
E e e send.
H li ha
I i i hit, feet.
K k ka
M m ma
N n na
Ng ng nga sinking.
0 o o obey, without the tv sound
P P pa generally connected with
R r ra o in English.
T t ta
U u u boot.
W w wa
Wh wh wha
1


2
I. On Heading.
§ 2. Pronunciation. Those letters
which have not the pronunciation marked
in the above table may be pronounced as
in English: t and r, however are articulated
farther forward in the mouth in Maori than
they are in English; and wh is not, as it is
written, a compound of w and h, but a
simple consonant, the effect of breath
emitted smartly between the lips ; the same
sound, in short, as is made in blowing from
the mouth.
Ng, as used in Maori to begin a syllable,
is found difficult by some people; but
the difficulty may soon be overcome by
bearing in mind that the position of the
organs of speech is the same for this letter
as for g and 7c, to which it stands in the
same relation that m does to b and ji, and
n to cl and t. Pronounce the three letters
successively with the Maori vowel a, thus:
ka, ga, nga, and practise this till the letter
is mastered.


I. Ou Heading. 3
The vowels have each but one sound,
though they may all vary in length in
different words. When two stand together
in a word, the first of the two is generally
pronounced more strongly than the other.
The doubling of a vowel amounts simply to
a lengthening of it.
The consonants always stand singly, and
every syllable ends with a vowel.
§ 3. Caution. Be careful always to
give each vowel its own sound, and so to
avoid confusion between ae and ai, as in the
words waewae and wai; between ao and au,
as in the words tao and tau; between ou
and u, as in the words koutou and mutu.
II. NOUNS & PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
§ 4. The nouns have no Inflections,
1 *


4
II. Nouns and Personal Pronouns.
nor any distinctions of Gender which affect
grammatical construction.
Obs. The common interrogative pro-
noun, aha, what, is treated as a common
noun.
§ 4. The Number of a common noun
is denoted generally by the number of the
definitive in connexion with it. See §§ 17,
18. The following words have one vowel
lengthened in the plural, thus:
SINGULAR.
Matua, parent.
Tupuna, ancestor.
Tangata, man.
Wahine, woman.
Tuahine, sister (of a man)
Tuakana, elder brother.
Teina, younger brother.
PLURAL.
Matua, parents.
Tupuna, ancestors.
Tangata, men.
Wahine, women.
Tuahine, sisters.
Tuakana, elder brothers.
Teina, younger brothers.
The word tamaiti, child, is used in the
singular only, tamariki being always used
for the plural.


II. Nouns and Personal Pronouns. 5
§ 6. The personal pronouns have three
numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural, as
shewn by the following table.
TABLE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
SINGULAR. DUAL. PLURAL.
1st Person Ahau, or an Maua Matou
1st includ. 2nd Taua Tatou
2nd Person Koe Korua Koutou
3rd Person la Raua | Ratou
Interrog. Wai ? Wai ma? j Wai ma?
Indef. Mea Mea ma ' Mea ma
Of the dual and plural pronouns of the
first person, taua and tatou include the
person or persons spoken to, while maua
and matou exclude them. The personal
pronouns are not used in speaking of inani-
mate things.
§ 7. Local Nouns, which are treated
like proper names.
Hea, what place.
Ko, that place (at a distance), yonder.
Konei, this place (near the speaker).


6
II. Nouns and Personal Pronouns.
Kona, that place (near the person spoken to).
Reira, that place (before mentioned).
Runga, the top.
Raro, the bottom.
Roto, the inside.
Waho, the outside.
Tawahi, the other side (of a river, valley, &c.).
Tua, the other side (of a hill, house, &c.).
Tatahi, the sea shore (as opposed to places inland).
Tahaki, the shore (as opposed to the water).
Uta, the dry land (as opposed to the water).
— inland places (opposed to tatahi).
Mua, the front, or fore part.
Muri, the rear, or hinder part.
Waenganui, the midst.
§ 8. Use the nominal prefix a with
names of persons, with the pronouns wai and
mea, and with the names of the months*
1. when they stand as subject in a
sentence;
2. when they follow any of the preposi-
* The names of the days of the week are treated
like common nouns; but always take the definite
article te.


II. Nouns and Personal Pronouns.
7
tions 7a, /, luf kei; but not when they
follow ko or any of the prepositions u, o,
ona^ono^ na, no, e, me. See §§ 15, 16.
Use it with personal pronouns (except
ahau, though au follows the rule) only when
they follow the prepositions 7a, z, lieij kei;
or when they are repeated by way of
explanation: not ordinarily when they
stand as subject in a sentence.
Use it with names of places and local
nouns (§7) only when they stand as subject
in a sentence, or are repeated by way of
explanation.
Examples.
Ka ora a Hoam, Hoani is well.
Kei a Tamati to hoiho, Your horse is in the possession
of Tainatl.
Ma Pita tenei, This is for Pita.
He taone a Akarana, Auckland is a town.
Homai ki a au, Give it to me.
Ka wera a waho, the outside is burnt.
§ 9. Ma. When any person is spoken


8
IL Nouns and Personal Pronouns.
of in connexion with others whom it is not
necessary to specify put ma after the name,
thus :
Kahutia ma, Kahutia and, his companions.
Also when addressing more persons than
one it may be used with the different forms
of address, thus:
E hoa ma ! Friends I
With the pronouns wai? and mea (§6)
it makes a plural.
A wai ma ? Who ? (pl.)
A mea ma, such and such persons.
§ 10. The singular Personal Pro-
nouns ahau, 7, koe, thou, ia, he, become
respectively -ku, -u, -na, when they follow
the possessive prepositions a, o, of, na, no,
belonging to, ma, mo, for, and the compounds
ta, and to (which consist of the article te
and the prepositions a and o). Owing
to this irregularity the preposition and


II. Nouns and Personal Pronouns. 9
pronoun in each case are generally written
as one word.
Ahau, I; aku, or oku, of me; naku, or nokur
belonging to me, mine; maku, or moku, for me;
taku, or toku, my (literally te a ku, the...of me).
Koe, thou; au, or on, of thee; nau, or nou,
belonging to thee, thine; mau or mon, for thee;
tan, or tou, thy.
Ia, he or she; ana, or ona, of him; nana, or
nona, belonging to him, his; mana, or mona, for
him ; tana, or tona, his.
§ 11. When a number of persons or
things are enumerated, the particle or
preposition that is used with the first
should be repeated with each of those that
follow.
Example.
Nga rangatira o Rotorua, o Rotoiti, o Tarawera;
the chiefs of Rotorua, Rotoiti and Tarawera.
§ 12. When speaking of a number of
persons collectively, use the dual or plural
pronouns followed by the name, or names,


10
II. Nouns and Personal Pronouns.
of the additional persons, introducing each
name with ko; but if the names are preceded
by a preposition, the preposition will not be
repeated.
When names are enumerated in the third
person, one of the names must precede the
pronoun unless one of them has been pre-
viously mentioned.
Examples.
Mana ko Hemi, Semi and I.
Kontou ko Hemi, ko Holiepa, You and Semi and
Ilohepa.
A. Hemi raua ko Hoani, Semi and Soani.
Ki a Hoani ratou ko Hemi ma, to Soani, Semi, &c.
Ko wai ma era ? Ko Hemi ratou ko Pita, ko
Holiepa. Who are those ? Semi and Pita and Sohepa.
§ 13. When nouns are in Apposition
{i.e., when a second noun is added to
explain the first), repeat the preposition,
&c., of the first noun with the second, and
place the most general noun first, the most
particular afterwards.


IL Nouns and Personal Pronouns.
11
Example.
Ma tona tupuna ma Paora, for his grandfather
Paora.
In this example, tona tupuna is a more
general term than Paora, and it therefore
stands first; and the preposition ma is re-
peated with the particular name, Paora.
§ 14. Common Nouns as Adjectives.
All common nouns may be used as
adjectives.
Examples.
He whare papa, a hoarded house.
He kakahu rinena, a linen garment.
III. PREPOSITIONS.
§ 15. Simple Prepositions.
A, of belonging to. (See § 22.)
at, of future time : a hea ? at what time ?
until.
O, of, belonging to, passive of a. (§ 22.)
from, of place or time, denoting the starting point.


12
III. Prepositions.
Na, of, belonging to. (§ 22.)
by, by means of, on account of.
by way of.
No, of, belonging to (§ 22), passive of na.
from, of place, but not after verbs of motion.
from, at, of time past.
Ma,>. (§22.)
by, of means.
by, through, by way of, of direction.
Mo, for, passive of ma. (§ 22.)
at, on, of time future.
about, concerning.
Ra, by way of, through.
E, by, of agent, only after passive verbs. (§ 53.)
I. by, with, of agent or instrument, after participles,
adjectives, and neuter verbs. (§ 69.)
by reason of.
from, after verbs of motion.
with, in possession of, or having in possession,
generally past.
with, in company zvith.
at, of time, generally past.
in comparison of.
beyond.
at, in, on, of place, generally in time past.
at the time of, at the time that.


III. Prepositions.
13
in state of, in act of, in time past, govern adjectives
or verbs.
simply transitive, no English, equivalent. (§ 53.)
Kei, at, on, of place, in time present; not used
after verbs.
with, in possession of, in time present.
in state of, in act of, with adjectives or verbs in
time present.
Hei, at, on, of place, or time, future; not used after
verbs.
with, in possession of, in time future.
for, to serve as, to he, without any definitive; used
with nouns, or with the infinitive of verbs.
Ki, to, of place or action ; into, toivards.
at, or in, of place in which a thing is done, &c.,
after verbs.
at, after arrive, &c.
with, of instrument.
against.
according to, concerning.
for, in guest of.
after verbs without any English equivalent.
(§ 53.)
Me, ivith, in addition, and—too.
Ko, to, going to, with nouns of place and infinitives
of active verbs.
at, of future time, or denoting intention.


14
III. Prepositions.
To, tip to.
Whaka, tozuards.
§ 16. Complex Prepositions. These
are irregular modes of using some of the
local nouns enumerated in § 7.
Series 1.
Ki runga ki,
I runga i,
. > upon, on the top of.
Kei runga kei, |
Hei runga hei, J
No runga no, from upon, i.e., belonging to the top of.
I runga, i, from upon, with, special idea of motion
from.
Mo runga mo, for the top of.
Ma runga ma, over, by the top of (direction).
Ko runga ko, to the top of.
Series 2.
Ki runga i,
I runga i,
Kei runga i,
Hei runga i,
1
J


III. Prepositions. 15-
No runga i, from above, i.e., "belonging to that situa-
tion.
I runga i, from above, implying motion from.
Mo runga i, for above, i.e., to be above.
Ma runga i, by above, over (of direction).
Ko runga i, to above, over.
In the second of these series o may be
substituted for i, in which case the con-
struction will be regular.
The simple prepositions may be com-
bined in the same way with raro, to signify
under, beneath, &c.; with roto, to signify in,
into, inside, &c.; with waho, to signify with-
out, outside, from- without, &c.
Mua and Muri are only used in Series 2.
IV. DEFINITIVES.
§ 17. Definitives are those words which
shew how far, or in what way the signifi-
cation of a noun is limited. The name


16
IV. Definitives.
therefore will comprehend what are com-
monly known as articles, possessive pronouns,
possessive cases of nouns, and demonstrative
pronouns. All these, with one exception,
have two numbers, singular and plural;
and all stand before the nouns with which
they are connected.
A common noun is always preceded by a
definitive.
§ 18. TABLE OF DEFINITIVES.
SINGULAR.
PLURAL.
He, a or an.
Te, the.
Tetahi, a, one, some.
Tenei, this.
Tena, that (near the person
spoken to).
Tera, that (at a distance);
the other (opposed to
this or that').
He,------
Nga, the.
Etahi, some.
Enei, these.
Ena, those (near the person
spoken to).
Era, those' (at a distance);
the others.


IV. Definitives.
17
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Taua, that (before men- Aua, those (before men-
tioned). tioned) .
Ia, that. (No plural).
Tehea ? which ? Eliea ? which ?
Taku, my. Aku, my.
Toku, my. Oku, my.
Tau, thy. Au, thy.
Ton, thy. Ou, thy.
To, thy. O, tluj.
Tana, his, or her. Ana, his, or her.
Tona, his or her. Ona, his, or her.
Ta taua, our. A taua, our.
To tana, our. 0 taua, our.
Ta tatou, our. A tatou, our.
To tatou, our. 0 tatou, our.
And so on with all the other personal
pronouns, with names of persons, or places,
with local nouns (§7), and with all common
nouns when they follow any definitive
except he, by prefixing ta, or to, for the
singular, and a, or o, for the plural.


18
IV. Definitives.
Examples.
Toku whare, my house.
Enei hoiho, these horses.
He whare, a hoibse, or houses.
Ta Hemi pnkapuka, Hemi's book.
To tenei tangata kainga, this man's dwelling place.
The possessive particle to is often, resolved
into the article and preposition, thus Te
whare o Hemi is equivalent to To Hemi
whare.
§ 19. Peculiarities of he and te. («)
Never use he after a preposition, but
substitute tetahi, thus :
He tangata, a man.
Ki tetahi tangata, to a man.
(6) When a common noun is used to
denote a class, as the simple plural is often
used in English, use te in the singular, and
not he, thus :
Te kaha o te hoiho, the strength of the horse.
Te hoiho, the horse; i.e., horses in general.


IV. Definitives.
19
§ 20. Possessive Prepositions following
Definitives, (a) When a possessive follows
he, always use either of the prepositions
na or no, never a, or o.
Examples.
He pukapnka naku, a booh of mine, or belonging
to me.
He whare no tenei tangata, a house belonging to this
man, or of this man's.
(6) When a possessive follows any other
definitive, except lie, always use either of
the prepositions a or o, never na or no.
Examples.
Te pnkapuka a Pita, Pita's booh.
Tenei taha oku, this side of me.
Taua whare o Hemi, that house of Hemi's.
§ 21. The demonstratives tenei, tena,
tera are compounded of the article te and
the adverbs nei, na, ra. Tenei denotes that
the thing spoken of is near or connected
with the speaker; tena that it is near, or
2 *


20 IV. Definitives.
in some way connected with the person
spoken to ; tera, that it is at a distance
from, or unconnected with either the
speaker or the person spoken to ; taua, that
it has been already mentioned. Ia is
generally used distributively for each, both
it and the noun being repeated. Tenei,
tena, and tera may also be used in the
same way.
Examples.
Ia tangata ia tangata, each man.
Tenei ropu tenei ropu o ratou, each company of them.
Tera is often used in an emphatic way
for the personal pronoun of the third
person singular.
Tenei, tena, and tera often stand alone,
the noun being understood, but taua is
never used in this way.
Examples.
Naku tenei, nan tena, this is mine, that is yours.
He rangatira taua tangata, that man is a chief.


IV. Definitives. 21
§ 22. The difference between a and o,
which, applies also to na, ??o, wza, mo, ta, to,
taku, toku, &c., is this : a is used in speaking
of transitive actions, instruments, works accom-
plished or in progress, food, children, slaves,
&c.; o in speaking of parts of a whole, names,
qualities, peculiarities, feelings, houses, land,
inhabitants, water for drinking, medicine,
clothes, parents, superiors, also with derivative
nouns of adjectives, participles, and intransi-
tive verbs, and with those of transitive verbs
when they are used in a passive sense.
Examples.
Toku papa, my father.
Tana tamaiti, his child.
Tona rangatira, his master.
He pononga nana, a servant of his.
Tona kakahu, his garment.
Ou. waewae, your feet.
He kai man, food for you.
Tetahi wai moku, some water for me.
Tou. ingoa, your name.


22 IV. Definitions,
Taku ingoa mou, my name for you (i.e., which I have
given you).
Taku patunga i a koe, my striking you.
Toku patunga e koe, my being struck by you.
Obs. To, thy, plural o, resembles tau
and not tou.
V. ADJECTIVES.
§ 23. Position. Adjectives always stand
after the nouns which they qualify.
Examples.
He whare pai, a good house.
Tana hoilio nui, his large horse.
§ 24. By doubling the di-syllabic root
of an adjective, the intensity of its signifi-
cation is diminished thus:
Wera, hot.
Werawera, somewhat hot, warm.


V. Adjectives.
23
Maroke, dry.
jVIarokeroke, somewhat dry.
In the case of a few adjectives a plural
is formed by doubling the first syllable of
the root, thus:
He rakau nui, a large tree.
He rakau nunui, large trees.
He tangata roa, a tall man.
He tangata roroa, tall men.
§ 25. Degrees of Comparison are
expressed by the adverbs atu, or ake for
the comparative degree, Tino, or rawa, with
the definite article te for the superlative
degree. Tino or rawa, with the indefinite
article he forms an intense comparative.
Obs. Tino always stands before the
adjective and rawa after it.
Examples.’
He mea pai atu i tena, a better thing than that.


24
P. Adjectives,
Te mea pai rawa, the best thing.
He mea tino pai, a very good thing.
Te mea tino pai rawa, the very best thing.
He mea pai rawa i tena, a far better thing than
that.
§ 26. When two or more adjectives are
used to qualify the same noun, repeat the
noun with each, or substitute mea for the
noun after the first time.
Examples.
He whare kowhatu, he whare pai, a good stone
house.
He pukapuka nui, he mea taimaha, a large heavy
booh.
§ 27. Abstract Quality is expressed by
the adjective treated as a noun, thus:
Pai, good.
Roa, long.
Te pai, the goodness.
Te roa, the length.


VI. Numerals.
25
VI. NUMERALS
I. CARDINAL NUMBERS.
§ 28. TABLE OF CARDINAL NUMBERS.
Hia ? h ow many ?
1 Tahi, or Kotahi.
2 Rua.
3 Toru.
4 Wha.
5 Rima.
6 Ono.
7 Whitu.
8 Waru.
9 Iwa.
10 Tekau, or Ngahuru.
11 Tekau ma tahi.
12 Tekau ma rua.
13 Tekau ma toru.
14 Tekau ma wha.
20 Rua tekau.
21 Rua tekau ma tahi.
30 Toru tekau.
40 Wha tekau.
100 Kotahi rau.
101 Kotahi rau ma tahi.
123 Kotahi rau e rua tekau ma toru.
1000 Kotahi mano.
2001 E rua mano ma tahi.
2384 E rua mano e toru rau e waru tekau ma wha.


, 26
VI. Numerals.
§ 29. In Counting use ka before the
numerals, thus :
Ka hia ? how many ?
Ka tahi, one; ka rua, two; ka torn, three, &c. ; ka
tekau, ten; ka tekau ma tahi, eleven; ka rua tekau,
twenty; ka kotaki ran ka rua tekau ma rima, one
hundred and twenty-five.
In asking for any number of things use
Ida in the same way before the numeral,
thus:
Mauria mai etahi toki kia rua, bring tivo axes.
Kia hia ? how many ? Kia rua, two.
§ 30. With Nouns. When used in
immediate connexion with nouns, let
kotahi stand for one, not talii, and put e
before the others, from two to nine.
Examples.
He tangata kotahi, one man.


VI. Numerals.
27
Ng& whare e torn, the three houses.
He pukapuka kotahi tekan ma rua, twelve books.
Nga whare e wha tekan, the forty houses.
In speaking of persons, the numerals
from rua to iwa inclusive, and the interro-
gative Jtia, have toko- prefixed instead of e.
Examples.
Tokohia ? how many ?
Nga tangata tokoiwa, the nine men.
§ 31. In using the numerals distribu-
tively prefix taki- to the simple numeral,
thus:
Taikrua, by twos, two and two.
Takitahi, singly, or by ones.
II. ORDINALS.
§ 32. Ordinals used absolutely, i.e.,
not in immediate connexion with nouns, are


28
.VI. Numerals.
expressed by the simple numeral with te,
thus:
Te tahi, the first,
Te ma, the second,
Te hia ? Which in order ?
§ 33. When using ordinals as adjec-
tives in immediate connexion with nouns
prefix tua- to the simple numeral from one
to nine, thus:
Te tangata tnatahi, the first man.
Above nine, without tua-, thus:
Te tekau o nga hoiho, the tenth of the horses, or the
tenth horse,
Te ma tekau ma torn o nga whare, the twenty-third
of the houses, or the twenty-third house.


VII. Sentences without Verbs.
29
VII. SENTENCES WITHOUT VERBS.
§ 34. Subject and P«aedicate. The
Subject in a sentence is that of which any-
thing is said.
The Praedicate is that which is said of
the Subject.
Examples.
John is a boy. John runs. In both these “ John ”
is the Subject: “ a boy,” and “ runs” are Predicates.
The Subject and Praedicate do not al-
ways occupy the same relative positions in
English, for though the Subject is generally
placed first, it is sometimes placed last. It
will be sufficiently accurate for the purposes
of this chapter to consider the Praedicate
identical with the most emphatic member
of the sentence.
§ 35. Substantive Verb. In English,
when the praedicate is not a verb, the verb
“to be,” commonly called the substantive


30
VII. Sentences without Verbs.
verb, is used to connect the predicate with
its subject. This verb has no equivalent
in Maori, but its place is supplied by the
relative position of the different words in
the sentence.
§ 36. In affirmative Sentences, the
predicate stands first, and the subject after
it ; and two nouns, or an adjective and
noun, placed in these relative positions
form a sentence although without a verb.
In negative sentences, this relative position
is apparently (§ 39) reversed.
Sentences of this kind are made either
with, or without the particle ko.
§ 37. Use “ ko,” when the prasdicate is
either
1. A proper name, or personal pronoun,
a local noun (§ 7), or either of the
interrogatives wai, or kea.


VII. Sentences without Verbs.
31
2. A common noun with any of the
definitives except he.
Examples.
Ko ia tenei, this is he.
Ko wai tona ingoa ? u'hat is his name ?
Ko Henri tona ingoa, his name is Hemi.
> Ko toku whare tera, that is my house.
§ 38. Make a sentence without ko when
the predicate is either
1. (a) A common noun, (6) an adjective,
or (c) a verb in the infinitive, with the
indefinite article he.
2. (cZ) A noun, pronoun, verb, or adjec-
tive following a preposition.
In both these cases, the verb or adjective
is treated as a noun.
Examples.
(a) He whare pai tera, that is a good house.
(&) He pirau enei kumara, these kumara are rotten.


32 VII. Sentences ivithout Verbs,
(c) He hanga i te wliare te malii a Hori, Eori's
work is to build the house,
(tZ) Kei Tauranga a Turi, Tnri is at Tauranga,
Mo ratou tena wliare, that hoibse is for them,
§ 39. When the predicate consists
of many words, the most emphatic word
generally stands alone in the place of the
predicate, the rest being placed after the
subject. This is the case when the predi-
cate contains an explanatory or a relative
clause ; or a clause in any other way
dependent on the principal word. This
also accounts for the apparent reversing of
the positions of subject and predicate in
negative sentences, the negation being the
most prominent thing in such sentences.
Examples.
He tangata tenei no Akarana, this is a man from
Auckland.
Ko te tama tera a Turi, that is the son of Turi.


VII. Sentences without Verbs.
33
§ 40. (a) The negatives of sentences
with Ico are always made with ehara..'. ...i,
ko being dropped.
Examples.
Aff. Ko ia tenei, this is he.
Neg. Ehara tenei i a ia, this is not he.
Aff. Ko te whare tera, that is the house.
Neg. Ehara tera i te whare, that is not the house.
(J) When the predicate in the corre-
sponding affirmative sentence is a common
noun, an adjective, oi’ a verb with the
indefinite article he, the negative is made
with ehara...i, and te is substituted for he.
Examples.
Aff. He whare pai tera, that is a good house.
Neg. Ehara tera i te whare pai, that is not a good
house.
Aff. He piran enei. riwai, these potatoes are rotten.
Neg. Ehara enei riwai i te pirau, these potatoes are
.not rotten.
3


34
VII. Sentences without Verbs.
(c) When the predicate in the corre-
sponding affirmative sentence is a noun,
adjective, or verb, following a preposition;
—if the preposition is na or wo, the negative
is made with ehara...i, and the preposition
is dropped.
Examples.
Aff. No Turi tera whare, that house belongs to Turi.
Neg. Ehara i a Turi tera whare, that house does not
belong to Turi.
(d) If the preposition is ma or mo signi-
fying ybr, use ehara i te mea, retaining the
preposition.
Aff. Mo Turi te whare, the house is for Turi.
Neg. Ehara i te mea mo Turi te whare, the house is
not for Turi.
(e) If the preposition is hei signifying at,
or in possession of, use kanaka, retaining
the preposition.


VII. Sentences withoibt Verbs. 35
Examples.
Aff. Hei te taha o te huarahi te taiepa, let the fence
be at the side of the road.
Neg. Kauaka hei te taha, &c., let not the fence be,
fyc.
(f) If the preposition is kei, or z’, signi-
fying at, or in possession of, use kahore for
the negative, with the preposition i only,
and never kei.
Examples.
Kei hea te hoiho ? Kahore i konei. Where is the
horse ? It is not here.
Aff. Kei a Turi to taura, your rope is in Turi's
possession.
Neg. Kahore i a Turi to taura, your rope is not in
Tibri's possession.
§ 41. Interrogative Sentences do
not differ in form from those which are not
interrogative. Those which are not essen-
tially such from the meaning of the words,
3 *


36
VII. Sentences without Verbs.
are shewn to be so by the tone with which
they are uttered. Those which are
essentially interrogative are those which
contain an interrogative pronoun, as wai,
liea, tehea; an interrogative adjective, as
pehea, Ilia, or an interrogative adverb, as
ianei, Icoia, oli, ranei.
Examples.
Nou tena potae, That hat is yours.
Nou tena potae ? Is that hat yours ?
Kahore o pukapuka maku, You have no book for
me.
Kahore o pukapuka maku ? Have you no book for
me ?
Na wai tenei mara ? Whose is this cultivation ?
He kai ranei kei roto i te whare ? Is there any food
in the house ?
§ 42. The Time of these “ sentences
without verbs ” may, as far as the form of
the sentence is concerned, be past, present,
or future. When it is not shewn by the
essential meaning of any of the words it


VII. Sentences without Verbs.
37
must be gathered from the context. If no
clue to the time is given, what is said will
be understood in present time.
VIII. VERBS.
§ 43. Voice and Tense. The only
inflexion of the original form of the verb
is in the formation of the Passive Voice,
and consists in the addition of a Passive
termination to the Active form. (See § 51.)
Differences of Tense are denoted by
certain auxiliary particles, e, ana, kua, i,
ka, the same form in each case serving
for all persons and numbers. Particulai*
attention must be given to the use of the
negative adverbs, which cannot be used
indiscriminately, and also to the fact that,
in the negative form of the Perfect, kua, is
changed into Ida.


38
VIII. Verbs.
ACTIVE VOICE.
§ 44. Indicative Mood.
1. Imperfect.
E-pupuri-ana ahau, I am holding.
Kahore ahau e-pupuri-ana, I am not holding.
2. Perfect.
Kua-pupuri ahau, I have held^
Kahore ahau kia-pupuri, I have not held.
3. Past indefinite.
I-pupuri ahau, I held.
Kihai ahau i-pupuri, I did not hold.
4. Future.
E-pupuri ahau, I shall hold.
E-kore ahau e-pupuri, I shall not hold.
Tera ahau e-pupuri, I shall hold.
Tera ahau e-kore e-pupuri, I shall not hold.
5. Inceptive.
Ka-pupuri ahau, I became (or shall become') holding.
Ka-hore ahau e-pupuri, I became (or shall become)
not holding.
6. Indef. Narrative form.
Pupuri-ana ahau, I held.


VIII. Verbs.
39
§ 45. Remarks on the Tenses. The
Imperfect and Perfect will always be
Present imperfect and Present perfect
unless the time should be otherwise
indicated by the context. If they should
be used in past time, they will become (a)
Past imperfect and (6) Past perfect ; if in
future time, they will become (c) Future
imperfect and (J) Future perfect.
In the Future the addition of tera gives
emphasis.
The Inceptive denotes a change from
one state or action to another ; or the
commencement of a new action or condition,
and may be either (e) Past or (/*) Future ;
the actual time to be determined by the
context. ( be translated by “ cease to.”
Examples.
(a) E-huihui-ana nga tangata inanahi, the men were
•coming together yesterday.


40
VIII. Verbs.
(&) Kua-huihui nga tangata inanahi, the men had
come together yesterday.
(c) Apopo e-huihui-ana ratou, to-morrow they will
be coming together.
(cZ) Apopo kua-huihui ratou, to-morrow they will
have come together.
(e) Ka-huihui ratou inanahi, they came (or began to
come) together yesterday.
(/) Ka-huihui ratou apopo, they will come (or begin
to come) together to-morrow.
(g) Ka kore ahau e pupuri, I cease to hold.
§ 46. Subjunctive Mood.
1. Imperfect.
Me-he-mea e-pupuri-ana aliau, or Me e-pupuri-ana
ahau, if I were holding.
Me-he-mea kahore ahau e-pupuri-ana, or Me kahore
ahau e-pupuri-ana, if I were not holding.
2. Perfect.
Me-he-mea kua-pupuri ahau, if I had held.
Me-he-mea kahore ahau kia-pupuri, If I had not
held.
3. Past indefinite.
Me-he-mea i-pupuri ahau, or Me i-pupuri ahau, if I
had held.


VIII. Verbs.
41
Me-he-mea kihai ahau i-pupuri, or Me i-kahore ahau
i-pupuri, if I hacl not held,
4. Future.
Ki te pupuri ahau, if I should hold.
Ki te kore ahau e-pupuri, if I should not hold.
5. Future inceptive.
Ki-te-mea ka-pupuri ahau, if I should hold.
Ki-te-mea ka-kore ahau e-pupuri, if I'should not hold,
Me-he-mea, and me, if, imply that the
contrary to the alternative expressed is the
fact : ki-te-mea, and ki-te, if, imply simple
uncertainty.
§ 47. Optative Mood.
1. With “ kia,” that.
Kia pupuri ahau, let me hold, or, in a dependent
sentence, that I may hold.
Kaua ahau e pupuri, let me not hold.
Kia kaua ahau e pupuri, that 1 may not hold.
2. With “kei,” lest.
Kei pupuri ahau, let me not hold, or, lest I should
hold.


42
VIII. Verbs.
Kei kore ahau e pupuri, lest I should not hold.
(This negative is only used in dependent sentences.)
§ 48. Imperative Mood.
Pupuri! or E pupuri ! hold!
Kaua e pupuri! do not hold !
§ 49. Infinitive Mood. This is merely
the verb treated as a noun, always attended
by one or other of the definitives.*
Examples.
He aha tana ? He pupuri i to hoiho. What is his
[object] ? To hold yoibr horse.
E haere ana ia ki te mahi, he is going to work.
§ 50. Uses of Optative and Infinitive.
* The infinitive with the preposition Icei makes a
present imperfect indicative, and with the preposition
i a past imperfect indicative. Kei te pupuri ahau,
I cm holding : I te pupuri ahau, I was holding.


VIII. Verbs.
43
After words expressing eagerness, desire,
intention to do anything, and after words
signifying go, come, stay, &c., and after teach,
use the infinitive with the preposition Id:
after learn, use the infinitive with the
preposition i: but after words expressing
Q'equest, command, advice, consent, or per-
mission to another person to do anything,
use the optative.
Examples.
E-hiahia-ana ratou ki te haere, they desire to go.
I-ki mai ia kia haere ahau, he told me to go, or he
â– said that I should go.
I-tuku ahau i a ia kia haere, I allowed him to go.
§ 51. Passive Voice. The passive voice
is formed generally by the addition of one
of the following terminations to the active:
-a, -ia, -hia, -kia, -mia, -ngia, ria, -tia, -whia,
-na, ~ina. No rule can be laid down which
termination is to be used with any given


44
VIII. Verbs.
verb: some form the passive with one
only, others again with several; the passive
termination, therefore, of each verb must
be learnt with the active.
Those verbs which have the first syllable
doubled in the active drop the repetition
in the passive ; thus pupuri becomes (not
pupuritia, but) puritia.
§ 52. The Tenses of the different moods
in the Passive voice are formed in the same
way as in the Active, the passive form of
the verb being substituted for the active,—
puritia forpupuri.
The Imperative Passive is not, like the
Imperative Active, confined to the second
person, but is more commonly used in the
first or third person, the command at the
same time being addressed to the second
person.


VIII. Verbs.
45
Example.
Puritia tenei pukapuka! be this booh held \by thee /]
i.e., hold this booh !
§ 53. Transitive Prepositions, &c.
Every active verb is connected with its
object, or the thing acted upon, by either
of the prepositions i, or ki; some verbs
requiring one, some the other, and some
again taking either. These prepositions in
some cases may be translated by an English
preposition but in most cases they merely
represent the connexion between the verb
and its object, and may therefore be called
transitive prepositions.
Every passive verb is connected with the
â– agent by the preposition e, by.
Examples.
E matau ana ahau ki taua tangata, I know that
man.


46
VIII. Verbs.
E tiki ana ia i tana hoiho, he is fetching his horse.
1 mahia e wai ? by zvhoni was it done ?
§ 54. Uses of Active and Passive.
The Passive Voice is generally used
when the action is emphatic rather than
the agent, and therefore in the case of
transitive verbs it is more frequently
required than the Active Voice. But when
a transitive follows an intransitive verb
expressing an action consequent upon it,
both verbs will be in the active voice.
Examples.
I mauria e ia te pukapuka, the letter was taken by
him, i.e., he took the letter.
Ka haere ahau ka man i taku. pukapuka, I will go
and take my letter.
§ 55. Agent Emphatic. When special
emphasis is to be laid on the agent an
irregular construction is used, the preposi-
tion na being placed before the subject in


VIII. Verbs.
47
the past tense, and ma in the future. In
sentences of this kind the subject, being
the most emphatic member of the sentence,
stands first, and the object either before or
after the verb, but without any transitive
preposition. This construction is not
properly used with neuter verbs.
Examples.
Naku i pupuri tena tangata, or Naku tena tangata
i pupuri, I detained that man, i.e., it was I who
detained him.
Ma Hone e hanga he whare mou, or Ma Hone he
whare mou e hanga, Hone shall build a house for
you.
§ 56. Imperative Future. Another
irregular construction is that of the Im-
perative Future with me, in which the verb
is active in form but passive in sense.
Examples.
Me kawe e koe taku pukapuka, you shall carry my
letter (or, my letter must be carried by you).


48
VIII. Verbs.
I mahara ahan me patu tenei mann, I thought that
this bird was to be hilled.
This is not used with a negative.
§ 57. Causative Verbs are formed by
prefixing whaka- to verbs, adjectives and
nouns, thus:
Hoki, return.
Whaka-hoki, cause to return.
Tika, straight.
Wliaka-tika, straighten.
Tangata, man.
Whaka-tangata, make into a man.
§ 58. Derivative Nouns are formed—
1 from transitive verbs, by adding a
prefix, kai, to denote the agent, thus:
Hanga, make. Kai-hanga, maker.
2 from verbs or adjectives, by adding as
a suffix one of the terminations, -nga,-anga,


VIII. Verbs.
49
-inga, -hanga, -kang a, -manga, -ranga,-tanga,
to denote the (a) circumstance, (5) time, (c)
place or (d) matter of the action or condition
expressed by the verb or adjective. (See
^22.)
Examples.
(a) Mo takn patunga i tana tamaiti, On account of
-my striking his child.
(&) I tona taenga atu, At the time of his arrival.
(c) Ko te turanga tena o Hone, That is the place
where Hone stood.
(fT) Tena etahi pnrapnra liei whaka-tokanga niau,
There is some seed for yozo to plant.
§ 59. Intransitive Compound Verbs
are formed by joining together a transitive
verb and its object, and treating them as
one word, thus:
E tope-rakan ana a Turi, Turi is felling trees.
§ 60. Interrogative Verb. The in-
4


50
VIII. Verbs.
terrogative aha is used as a verb to ask
what a person is doing, or what is being
done.
Examples.
E-aha-ana ia ? What is he doing ?
I-aliatia te kuri ? What tvas done to the dog ?
§ 61; Verbs, active in form, are often
used as adjectives in either an active or a
passive sense.
Examples.
He kararehe kai tangata, a beast that devours
men.
He mea tabu te matamata ki te ahi, the point ivas
burnt in the fire (literally was a thing burnt).
§ 62. In speaking of movements of
different parts of the body, the member
spoken of in each case is regarded as the
agent, and is spoken of or addressed as if it
were capable of independent action.


VIII. Verbs.
51
Examples.
Hamama tou mangai, open your mouth.
Kua totoro tona ringa, he has stretched out his
hand.
§ 63. Doubling the di-syllabic root
of a verb gives it a frequentative force.
Doubling the first syllable only often gives
intensity; but sometimes it denotes reci-
procal action.
Examples.
Kimo, wink the eyes.
Kimokimo, wink frequently.
Kikimo, keep the eyes firmly closed.
Patu, strike. Papatu, strike against one another;
clash.
§ 64. The Verb ai, “there is” 1 it
is” &c.
4 *


VIII. Verbs.
Indicative Mood.
52
1. Imperfect.
E-ai Id tana, or E-ai tana according to his [saying}
it is, i.e., he says.
E-ai ta wai ? who says so ?
2. Inceptive.
Ka-aihe toki mana, there is an axe for him, i.e., he
has an axe.
Subjunctive Mood.
1. Imperfect.
Me e-ai-ana he toki, if there were an axe.
2. Future.
Ki te ai he toki, if there should be an axe.
Optative Mood.
1. With “kia.”
Kia ai he toki, let there be an axe, i.e., when, or, as
soon as there is an axe.


VIII. Verbs.
2. With “ ke:.”
53
Kei ai he toki, lest there should be an axe.
§ 65. The Verb “ to have ” having no
equivalent in Maori, its place is supplied by
the following expedients.
1. By the use of the possessive definitives
(§ 18) the time (present or past) being
gathered from the context.
Examples.
He hoiho tana, he has a horse, or, he had a horse.
Kahore a Hemi hoiho, Hemi has, or, had no horse.
2. By the use of the prepositions kei\
i, het) respectively for present, past and
future.
Examples.
Kei a an to pukapuka, I have your book, or, your
book is in my possession.
Kahore i a an to pnkapuka, I have not your book.


54
VIII. Verbs.
1 a ia tokn waka, lie had my canoe.
Kahore i a ia te waka, he had not the canoe.
Hei a Hemi te knri, Eemi shall have the dog, or,
let Hemi have the dog.
Kanaka hei a Hemi te knri, let not Hemi have the
dog.
3. By using the verb ai (§ 64) followed
by the preposition ma or mo.
Examples.
Ka ai he toki mana, he has an axe.
Me e ai ana he hoiho man, if you had a horse.
4. By using the adjective whai, which
signifies possessing, the thing possessed
being used as another adjective qualifying
'whai:
Knawhaipnkapukakoe ? have you a booh? (literally
have you become book-possessing ?)


IX. Adjectives and Participles♦
55
IX. ADJECTIVES & PARTICIPLES*
WITH THE VERB SUBSTANTIVE.
§ 66. The place of the Substantive
Verb in connexion with Adjectives and
Participles, is supplied by treating the
adjective or participle as though it were a
verb. It will be seen by the following
example of the adjective ora, well, in health,
that the notion of becoming, which is
peculiarly characteristic of the inceptive
runs more or less through almost all the
tenses.
The imperfect tense, with e—ana is not
required with participles^
* By participles here are meant, not participles
derived from verbs, as in the European languages, but
a class of words of independent origin which can only
be rendered into English by participles. Such are oti,
completed; makona, satisfied; pau, consumed; &c.


56
IX. Adjectives and Participles.
§ 67. Indicative Mood.
1. Imperfect.
E-ora-ana ahau, I am well.
Kahore ahau e-ora-ana, I am not well.
2. Perfect.
Kua-ora ahau, I have become well.
Kahore ahau kia-ora, I have not become well.
3. Past indefinite.
I-ora ahau, I was well, or became well.
Kihai ahau i-ora, I was not well.
4. Future.
E-ora ahau, I shall be (or become') ivell.
E-kore ahau e-ora, I shall not be (or become) well.
5. Inceptive.
Ka-ora ahau, I become, became, qt shall become well.
Ka-kore ahau e-ora, I become not icell.
§ 68. For the Subjunctive and Opta-
tive moods refer to §§ 46 and 47.


IX. Adjectives and Participles.
57
§ 69. Preposition i. Adjectives and
participles are followed by the preposition
i, by (not e, which belongs only to passive
verbs), to denote the agency or instru-
mentality by which the effect has been or
is to be produced.
Examples.
Kua ora ahau i to rongoa, I have become iveU by
means of your medicine.
Ka pan tana kai i te kuri, his food is consumed by
the dog.
§ 70. Explanatory Verb. Sometimes
a verb in the infinitive mood is added to a
participle or adjective by way of explana-
tion, and in that case the preposition will
be different according as the agent is placed
after the participle, or after the verb. If
after the participle, it will be i: if after the
verb, it will be e.


58
IX. Adjectives and Participles.
• Examples.
Ka pan te paraoa i te knri te kai, or, Ka pau to
paraoa te kai e te knri, the bread is eaten up by the
dog (is consumed by eating).
Nana ahau i holioro ai te haere, it was oiving to him
that I travelled quickly (lit. that I was quick in
travelling).
X. RELATIVE CLAUSES.
§ 71. There are no Relative Pronouns
in Maori. Their place is supplied either
by the position of the words forming the
relative clause ; or by the personal pranoun
of the third person singular; or again, by
the use of certain particles.
§72. Who, Which. When the relative
pronoun in English is the subject of the
relative clause:


X. Relative Clauses.
59
(a) The predicate of the relative clause
may be placed immediately after the ante-
cedent without any expressed subject, and.
may be followed by one of the adverbs—(1)
nei. (2) or (3) ra, according as the thing
spoken of is connected with—(1) the speaker,
(2) the person spoken to, or (3) neither; but
if one of these adverbs is used, and the
verb is imperfect, “ana” must be omitted.
Examples.
Te tangata e hanga-whare ana, the man who is
housebibildincj.
Te hoiho i kitea e taua, the horse which was seen by
you and me.
Te tamaiti i korero mai ra ki a tana, the boy who
spohe to us.
(Z>) If the relative clause is past or future,
the construction mentioned in § 55 may be
used; the pronoun of the third person
singular serving for all persons and numbers.


60
X. Relative Clauses.
Examples.
Te tangata nana i patu taku witi, the man who
threshed my wheat.
Ko nga tangata enei nana i tabu te ngahere, these
are the men who set on fire the forest.
(c) If the relative pronoun has a common
noun joined with it, the definitive taua (pl.
aua) is used to represent it.
Example.
I nolioia ra aua wahi e ratou, which places were
occupied by them.
§ 73. Whom, or which. When the
relative in English is governed by a verb
or by one of these prepositions : hy, on, at,
in, with, ly-means-of on-account-of, loy-
reason-of; the verb in the relative clause
is followed by nei, na, ra, or ai, without a
preposition ; and in the imperfect tense ana
after the verb is omitted. Use ai only with
the past and future ; and with the present


X. Relative Clauses,
61
use 736?*, na, or ra, according to the position
of the thing spoken of; nei, if it is near the
speaker; na if it is near the person spoken
to ; and ra, if it is not near either.
Examples.
Te whare e hanga na koe, the house which you are
Imilding.
Te mea e raru ai ahan, the thing hy means of ivhich
I shall he perplexed.
Te wai i tineia ai te ahi, the water with which the
fire was quenched.
Te kainga e noho nei a Rapata, the place at which,
Rapata is now living.
§ 74. When the relative is governed by
the verb in the relative clause, the subject
of that verb, without being expressed
directly, may be implied in a possessive
definitive (§ 18) placed before the ante-
cedent.


62
X. Relative Clauses.
Example.
Tail tangata i karanga ai, the man whom you called
(for Te tangata i karanga ai koe).
§75. Inverted Construction. In those
cases in which the relative is governed by
the verb in the relative clause the construc-
tion may be inverted, by making the verb
passive (§ 54), with the relative as its
subject.
Examples.
Te whare e hangaana e koe, the house which is being
built by you, (for Te wliare e hangana koe).
Te pukapuka e korerotia na e koe, the booh which is
being read brj you, (for Te pukapuka e korerona koe).
I nolioia ra tana kainga e Rapata, which place was
occupied by Rapata.
§ 76. Whose, for whom, &c. When
the subject of the relative clause is a noun
preceded by the possessive form of the
relative, use the possessive definitives tana
(pl. ana'), tona (pl. ona),or simply the definite


X. Relative Claibses.
63
article te. In other cases in which the
relative in English is possessive, or when it
is governed by any other preposition than
those enumerated in § 73, use the personal
pronouns of the third person with the
requisite preposition : but when that pre-
position is 72a, or 720, or 772a, or 7720, use the
singular pronoun^’ all persons and numbers.
Examples.
He tangata kua whati nei tona waewae, a man
whose leg is broken.
Te wahine i kahakina ra te tamaiti, the woman
whose child was carried off.
Te iwi nona te whenna, the people ichose the land is.
Te tangata i hoatu nei e alian ki a ia te pukapnkar
the man to idiom I gave the book.
§ 77. Whosoever. There is no equiva-
lent in Maori for the word whosoever: it
must therefore always be resolved into “ the
man whof “ the persons whof 11 if any man^
&c., but not into “ he who,” or “ those who.”


64
X. Relative Clauses.
Examples.
Te tangata lie pukapuka tana, whoever has a booh
(the man who, fyc.).
Nga tangata e.matau ana ki te korero pukapuka,
ivhosoever knows how to read (the men who, ^c.).
§ 78. Whatever is often expressed by
the interrogative pronoun, aha, thus :
Kaliore he kai, kahore lie aha; there is no food
whatever.
XL ADVERBS, &c.
§ 79. Position. The following adverbs,
tino, very; matua, first; and ata, gently,
quite, always stand before the words which
they qualify ; other adverbs after the
qualified words.
Examples.
He tangata tino pai, a very good man.
Kia matua rapua te toki, first let the axe be looked
for.
He kino rawa tena, that is very bad.


XI. Adverbs, fyc. 65
§ 80. Added Terminations. Other
adverbs, which have reference to the
manner, intensity, &c. of an action which
they qualify, have the passive termination
-tia added to them when used with passive
verbs, and the termination -tanga when
used with derivative nouns, which denote
the time, place or circumstance of an action
or condition.
Examples.
I kainga ota-tia nga kumai’a, the kumara were eaten
raw.
Mo tana patunga puku-tanga i a au, on account of
his secretly striking me.
§ 81. How in connexion with an adjective
is expressed by pehea, the adjective being
treated as a noun (§27). In other cases it
is expressed by pehea used as a verb.
Examples.
Pehea te roa o te -whare ? Hpw long is the house ?
I peheatia e ia te waka i manu ai ? How was the
5


06 XI. Adverbs, fyc.
•canoe [treated] by him that it floated ? or, How did he
•yet the canoe afloat ?
Ka pehea koe a tona taenga mai? How shall you
[ac£] on his arrival ?
I pehea mai ia ki to ki ? How did he [answer]
what you said ?
Me pehea tenei ? Hoiv is this to be [treated] ?
§ 82. When, as an interrogative, is
commonly expressed by no nahea for past
time, and a liea for future. To mark the
time of an occurrence, it is expressed by the
prepositions no and i for past time, and by
a and hei for future.
Examples.
No nahea ia i tae mai ai ? When did he arrive ?
A hea koe haere ai ? When shall you go ?
No toku kitenga i a ia ka homai e ia te pukapuka
ki a au. When I saw (At the time of my seeing) him,
he gave the booh to me.
I taku korerotanga ata ki a ia i nanahi kihai i ki
mai tona waha. When I spoke to him yesterday he
said nothing.
Ka rokohanga ano a Hemi ki reira a tou taenga
atu. Hemi will be found there when. you arrive there.


XI, Adverbs, fyc. 67
Hei te hokinga atu o Tarelia ka haere mai ai koe.
When Tarelia returns you shall come.
§ 83. As soon as is expressed by an.
elliptical use of the verb with one of the
adverbs tome or kau for past time, and the
optative with kia for future.
Examples.
Tae tonu atu matou ki reira ka timata te korero.
soon as we arrived the speaking began.
Rangona kautia mai ahau e karanga ana ka oma
katoa ratou. As soon as I ivas heard calling they all
ran aivay.
Kia oti te whare ka noho ai ia ki roto. soon as
the house is finished he shall live in it.
§ 84. Why is expressed by he aka,
or by na te aka, the verb being followed by
ai. If referring to an object in view, use
he aha; if to an antecedent moving cause,
use na te aha.
Examples.
He aha a Turi i haere ai ki Taupo ? He tiki i tana
tamaiti. Why did Turi go to Taupo ? To fetch his
chid.
5 *


€8
XI. Adverbs, fyc.
Na te aha ia i kore ai e tntuki ki Waiapu ? Na
te waipuke. Why did he not reach Waiapu ? Because
of the flood.
§ 85. And is expressed by the following
different words :
1. a, used to connect consecutive actions
or circumstances, with the notion of the
lapse of time.
Hoe ana mai ratou, a ka u ki Mokau. They rowed
hither and landed at Mohan.
It may often be translated by “ and at length,” or
“ until.”
I kainga te paraoa, a pau noa. The bread was eaten,
until it was quite consumed.
2. me, properly signifying “with,” and
denoting concomitancy.
Kei reira te mangumangii me te pene. There is
the ink and the pen.
3. ma, used only with numerals (see
§28).
E rua tekau ma waru. Twenty-eight.


XI. Adverbs, fyc. 69
4. hola\ introducing something addi-
tional, often to be rendered by “ also,” or
“too,” and placed always after the first
important word in the sentence.
I patua nga tangata, i tahuna hoki nga whare ki
te ahi. The men were hilled, and the houses were
bzirnt zoith fire.
5. To connect the names of persons the
personal pronouns are used (see § 12).


PART II.
VOCABULARY.
As a general rule, accentuate the first syllable: but
in words beginning with 'whaka, accentuate the third.
A.^-Answer.
A, art. he; pl. he.
Able, to be, i*. i. ahei.
Abode, n. kainga.
Above, prep, ki runga i ;
kei runga i ; i runga
i; hei runga i. (See §
16.)
Absent, a. ngaro.
Abundant, a. nui ;
lnihua.
Across, prep, ki tawahi
o.
Add together, v. t. hui-
hui; pass. huihuia.
Adult, n. kaumatua.
Afloat, a. manu.
After, prep, ki muri i ;
kei muri i ; i muri i;
hei muri i. (See Pt. I,
§ 16.)
Afterwards, adv. muri
iho.
Again, adv. ano.
All, a. katoa.
Allow, v. t. tuku; pass.
tukua.
Ancle, n. pona.
Angry, a. riri.
Another, a. tetahi atu.
Answer, v. t. whakahoki


Answer—Barter.
71
kupu (follozved by
prep. ki).
Answer a call, v. i. wha-
kao.
Any, def. tetahi; pl.
etahi.
Appear (come in sight),
v. i. puta.
Appearance, n. ahua.
Apple, n. aporo.
April, n, Aperira.
Arise, v. i. ara.
Arm, n. takakau; ringa-
ringa.
Army, n. taua.
Arouse, v. t. wbakaara:
pass, whakaarahia.
Arrive, v. i. tae; pass.
taea, be arrived at.
Ashes, n. pungarehu.
Ask, v. t. (put a ques-
tion), ui; pass, uia
(follcnved by prep.
ki).
Ask (one to do any-
thing) ki, pass. kiia.
Ask for, v. t. tono; pass.
tonoa.
Assemble, v. t. whaka-
mine; pass, whaka-
minea.
Assemble, v. i. huihui.
Attack, v. t. whakaehe?
pass, whakaekea.
August, n. Akuhata.
Aunt, n. whaea.
Autumn, n. ngahuru.
Away, adv. atu.
Axe, n. toki.
Back, n. tuara.
Back of the head, n.
kopako.
Bad, a. kino.
Bag, n. peeke.
Bald, a. pakira.
Bank of a river, n. taha-
taha.
Bark, n. hiako.
Bark, v. i. tau.
Barter, v. t. hoko ; pass.
hokoa.


PAET II.
VOCABULARY.
As a general rule, accentuate the first syllable: but
in words beginning with whaha, accentuate the third.
A.^-Answer.
A, art. he; pl. he.
Able, to be, i. ahei.
Abode, n. kainga.
Above, prep, ki runga i;
kei runga i ; i runga
i; hei runga i. (See §
16.)
Absent, a. ngaro.
Abundant, a. nui ;
huhua.
Across, prep, ki tawahi
o.
Add together, v. t. hui-
hui; pass, huihuia.
Adult, n. kaumatua.
Afloat, a. manu.
After, prep, ki muri i ;
kei muri i ; i muri i;
hei muri i. (See Pt. I,
§16.)
Afterwards, adv. muri
iho.
Again, adv. ano.
All, a. katoa.
Allow, v. t. tuku; pass.
tukua.
Ancle, n. pona.
Angry, a. riri.
Another, a. tctahi atu.
Answer, v. t. whakahoki


Answer—Barter.
71
kupu (followed by
prep. ki).
Answer a call, v. i. wha-
kao.
Any, def. tetahi; pl.
etahi.
Appear (come in sight),
v. i. puta.
Appearance, n. ahua.
Apple, n. aporo.
April, n, Aperira.
Arise, v. i. ara.
Arm, n. takakau; ringa-
ringa.
Army, n. taua.
Arouse, v. t. wbakaara:
pass, whakaarahia.
Arrive, v. i. tae; pass.
taea, be arrived at.
Ashes, n. pungarehu.
Ask, v. t. (put a ques-
tion), ui; pass, uia
(follotved by prep.
ki).
Ask (one to do any-
thing) ki, pass. kiia.
Ask for, v. t. tono; pass.
tonoa.
Assemble, v. t. whaka-
mine; pass, whaka-
minea.
Assemble, v. i. huihui.
Attack, v. t. whakaehe*
pass, whakaekea.
August, n. Akuhata.
Aunt, n. whaea.
Autumn, n. ngahuru.
Away, adv. atu.
Axe, n. toki.
Back, n. tuara.
Back of the head, n.
kopako.
Bad, a. kino.
Bag, n. peeke.
Bald, a. pakira.
Bank of a river, n. taha-
taha.
Bark, n. hiako.
Bark, v. i. tau.
Barter, v. t. hoko ; pass.
hokoa.


72
Bathe.—Bog.
Bathe, v. i. kaukau.
Battle, n. pakanga.
Bay, n. kokoru.
Beak, n. ngutu.
Beard, n. pahau.
Beast, nt kararehe.
Beat, v. t. patu; pass*
patua.
Beautiful, a. ataahua.
Because, conj. no te mea.
Bed, n. moenga.
Before, prep, ki mua i ;
kei muai; i mua i; hei
muai. (See Pt. I, §16.)
Beg, v. t. inoi; pass.
inoia.
Begin, r. t. timata; pass.
timataia.
Behind, prep, ki muri
i; kei muri i ; i muri
i; hei muri i. (See
Pt. I, § 16.)
Behind, on the further
side of, ki tua o, kei
tua o, j&c.
Believe, v. t. whakapono
(followed by prep, ki);
pass, whakaponohia.
Belly, n. kopu.
Belt, n. whitiki.
Below, prep., ki raro i’
kei raro i; i raro i ;
hei raro i. (See § 16.)
Bend, v. t. whakapiko,
pass, whakapikoa.
Bend leg or arms, hu-
peke. (§ 62.)
Bend, v. i. piko.
Bent, a. piko.
Bird, n. manu.
Birth, n. whanautanga.
Bite, v. t. ngau ; pass.
ngaua.
Bitter, a. kawa.
Black, a. mangu.
Blind, a. matapo.
Blood, n. toto.
Blunt, a. puhuki.
Board, n. papa.
Boat, n. poti.
Body, n. tinana.
Bog, n. hu.


Boggy—Bush.
73
Boggy, a. tapokopoko.
Boil, v. i. koropupu :
v. t. kohua; pass.
kohuatia.
Bone, n. wheua.
Book, n. pukapuka.
Bore, v. t. poka; pass.
Bottom, the, n. raro.
(See Pt. I, § 7.)
Bow of a canoe, &c., n.
ihu.
Box, n. pouaka.
Boy, n. tamaiti tane; pl.
tamariki tane.
Brain, n. roro.
Branch, n. manga.
Bread, n. paraoa.
Break, v. t. (a stick
&c.), whawhati; pass.
whatiia (a cord, &c.),
momotu; pass, motu-
hia (in pieces) pakaru;
pass, pakarua.
Breast, n. uma.
Breast of a female, n. u.
Breath, n. manawa.
Breathe, v. i. ta te
manawa. (Ex. ka ta
toku manawa, I
'breathe.')
Bridle, n. paraire.
Bring, v. t. man mai;
pass, mauria mai.
Broad, a. whanui.
Broken, a. wliati: motn:
pakaru. (See Break.)
Brook, n. manga.
Brown, a. pakaka.
Build, v.t. hanga; pass.
hangaa.
Bullet, n. mata.
Bullock, n. okiha.
Burden, n. pikaunga.
Burn, v. i. ka.
Burn, v. t. tahu; pass.
tahuna.
Burnt, part, wera; Burnt
up, pau i te ahi.
Bury, v. t. tanu; pass.
tanumia.
Bush, n. uru rakau.


74
But— Clearing.
But, conj. otira ; after a
negative, engari.
Butt of a tree,n.putake.
Buy, v. t. hoko ; pass,
hokoa.
By, prep. 1. of agent,
after passive verbs, e :
2. of agent or instru-
ment, after neuter
verbs, adjectives, fyc.,
i: 3. of direction, ma.
By and bye, adv. taihoa.
Call, v. t. karanga; pass.
karangatia.
Calm, a. marino.
Can, v. i. ahei (not fol-
lowed by a preposi-
tion).
Candle, n. kanara.
Canoe, n. waka.
Carry, v. t. kawe; pass.
kawea.
Carry, on the shoulders,
pikau; pass, pikaua.
Carve, v. t. whakairo.
Cask, n. kaho.
Catch, v. t. hopu ; pass.
hopukia.
Cause, n. take.
Cautious, a. tupato.
Cease! Kati.
Chain, n. mekameka.
Chair, n. turu.
Charcoal, n. waro.
Chase, v. t. whaiwhai;
pass, whaiwhaitia.
Cheek, n. paparinga.
Chest, n. poho.
Chicken, n. pi.
Chief, n. rangatira.
Child, n. tamaiti; pl.
tamariki.
Chin, n. kauwae.
Choose, v. t. whiriwhiri;
pass, whiriwhiria.
Claw, n. matikuku.
Clean, a. ma. .
Clear, v. t. (land by
cutting timber, &c.),
para ; pass, paraia.
Clearing, n. waerenga.


Climb—Gross.
75
Climb, v. i. piki; pass.
pikit-ia, be climbed up,
or over.
Clod, n. pai oneone.
Clothes, n. kakahu.
Cloud, n. kapua.
Clump (of trees) n.
motu.
Coast, n. tahatai.
Coat, n. koti.
Cobweb, n. tukutuku
pungawerewere.
Coil, v. t. pokai; pass.
pokaia.
Coil, n. pokai.
Cold, n. huka.
Cold, a. matao.
Come, v. i. haere mai.
Command, v. t. whaka-
hau; pass, whakahaua.
Companion, n. hoa.
Company, n. ropu.
Consent, v. i. whakaae
{followed by prep, ki) ;
pass, whakaaetia, be
agreed to.
Consumed, part. pau.
Cook, v. t. tao; pass.
taona.
Cooked, a. maoa.
Cool, a. mataotao.
Cord, n. taura.
Corpse, n. tupapaku.
Courtyard, n. marae.
Cousin, n. (a man’s
male) tuakana; teina;
(a man’s female) tua-
liine; (a woman’s
male) tungane; (a
woman’s female) tua-
kana ; teina.
Cover, n. (lid, &c.) tau-
poki; (cloth, &c.) hi-
poki.
Cover, v. t. taupoki; pass.
taupokina: hipoki;
pass, hipokina.
Cow, n. kau.
Creep, v. i. ngoki.
Cross, n. ripeka.
Cross, a. pukuriri.
Cross over, v. t. and i.
whakawhiti; pass.
whakawhitia.


76
Crossing—Doorway.
Crossing, n. kauanga.
Cry, v.i. tangi (followed
by prep, ki) ; pass,
tangihia, be cried for.
Cultivation, n. mahinga-
kai.
Cure, v. t. whakaora ;
pass, whakaorangia.
Current, u. au.
Cut, v. t. tapahi; pass.
tapahia.
Cut short, a. mutu.
Dark, a. pouri.
Dash, v. t. aki; pass.
akina.
Daughter, n. tamahine.
Daughter-in-law, n. hu-
naonga.
Dawn, n. puaotanga.
Day, n. ra, rangi.
Daylight, n. awatea.
Dead, a. mate.
Deaf, a. turi.
Debt, n, nama.
Deceive, v. t. maminga;
pass, mamingatia.
• Deep, a. hohonu.
Demand, v. t. tono; pas6.
tonoa.
Desire, v, t. hiahia, fol-
lowed by ki; pass.
hiahiatia.
Different, a. ke.
Dig, v. t. keri; pass,
keria.
Dirty, a. poke.
Disappear, v. i. whaka-
ngaro.
Disappear behind, v. i,
nunumi.
Disbelieve, v. t. whaka-
teka {followed by
prep. ki).
Distant, a. tawhiti.
Dive for, v. t. ruku;
pass, rukuhia.
Do, v. t. mea; pass.
meatia.
Do what ? v, t. aha ?
pass, ahatia.
Dog, n. kuri.
Door, n. tatau.
Doorway, n. kuwaha.


Down—Fast.
77
Down, adv. iho.
Drag, v. t. to ; pass. toia.
Dream, n. moemoea.
Drink, v. t. inn; pass.
inumia.
Drive, v. t. a; pass. aia.
Drop, v. i. (as water)
maturuturu; (as any-
thing solid) marere.
Drunken, a. haurangi.
Dry, a. maroke.
Duck, n. parera.
Dust, n. puehu.
Dwell, v. i. noho; pass.
nohoia, Z>e dwelt in.
Dwelling-place, n. kai-
nga.
Ear, n. taringa.
Earth, n. oneone.
East, n. rawhiti.
Eat,v.i.kai-; pass.kainga.
Eel, n. tuna.
Ebb, v. i. timu.
Elbow, n. tuke.
Embrace, v. t. awhi;
pass, awhitia.
Empty, a. takoto kau.
Enemy, n. hoariri.
Enlarge, v. t. whakanui;
pass, whakanuia.
Enter, v. t. tomo; pass.
tomokia.
Equal, a. rite.
Evening, n. ahiahia.
Eye, n. kanohi.
Eyebrow, n. tukemata.
Face, n. mata.
Faint, a. hemo.
Fair, without rain, a.
paki.
Fair, become, v. i. mao.
Fall, v.i. (from an up-
right position) hinga;
pass, hingaia, be fallen
upon.
Fall (as water), rere.
Fall (as a landslip, &c.),
horo.
Fall off, taka.
False, a. teka.
Fast, a. tere.
Fast be (fixed), v.i. man.


78
Farewell—Flo ur.
Farewell! (if the person
addressed is going) ;
Haere ra! (if remain-
ing), Hei kona !
Tat, n. ngako.
Fat, a. momona.
Father, n. papa.
Father-in-law, n. hunga-
wai.
Fear,i;.t. wehi (folloived
by prep, ki) ; pass.
wehingia.
February, n. Pepuere.
Feed, -y.t.whangai; pass.
whangaia.
Female, a. wahine ; (of
animals) uha.
Fence, n. taiepa.
Fern, n. rau-arulie.
Fern-root, n. aruhe.
Fetch, v. t. tiki; pass.
tikina.
Few, gl torutoru.
Fight, r. t. whawhai
(followed by prep.
ki) ; pass, whawhai-
iia.
Find, v. t. kite ; pass, ki-
tea.
Finger, n. maikara.
Finger-nail, n. maikuku.
Finish, v. t. whakaoti.
Finished, part. oti.
Finished (as a meal),
mutu.
Fire, n. ahi.
Firewood, n. wahie.
Firm, a. u.
Fish, n. ika.
Fish, v. t. hi; pass. hiia.
Fish-hook, n. matau.
Flame, n. mura.
Flash, as lightning, v. i.
kowha.
Flat, a. pararahi.
Flax, dressed, n. muka;
whitau.
Flax-plant, n. harakeke.
Flesh, n. kiko.
Flexible, a. ngawari.
Float, v. i. manu.
Flock, n. kahui.
Flood, n. waipuke.
Flour, n. paraoa.


Flower—Glad.
79
Flower, n. puawai.
Fly, n. rango.
Fly, v. i. rere.
Foam, n. huka.
Fog, n. kohu.
Fold, v. t. whakakopa-
kopa; pass, whaka-
kopakopaia.
Follow, v. t. wliai; pass.
wliaia.
Food, n. kai.
Foot, n. waewae.
For, prep, mo ; ma.
Ford, n. kauanga.
Forehead, n. rae.
Forest, n. ngahere.
Forget, v. t. ware ware
ki.
Forgotten, part, ware-
ware.
Form, n. ahua.
Former, a. to mua.
Fortified place, n. pa.
Fowl, n. manu.
Fresli, as water, n.maori.
Friday, n. Parairei.
Friend, n. hoa.
Frighten, v. t. whaka-
wehi; pass, whaka-
wehia.
Frightened, a. mataku.
Frost, n. huka.
Fruit, n. hua.
Fuel, n. wahie.
Full, a. ki.
Garment, n. kakahu.
Gateway, n. kuwaha.
Gather (fruit), v. t. ta-
horo ; pass, tahoroa.
whawhaki; pass, wha-
kiia.
Gather together, v. t. hui-
hui; pass, huihuia.
Gently, adv. ata.
Girl, 11. kotiro.
Girth, n. whitiki.
Give, v. t. homai; hoatu ;
pass. homai ; hoatu ;
(mai denoting direc-
tion toivards, ataaway
from the speaker).
Glad, a. koa.


80
Go—Heat.
Go, v. i. haere ; pass.
- haerea, be travelled
over.
Go away, v. i. haere atu.
Go to and fro, v. i. kopi-
kopiko.
God, n. atua.
Gone, part. riro.
Good, a. pai.
Grandfather, or grand-
mother, n. tnpuna; p I.
tupuna.
Grandson, n. mokopnna.
Granddaughter, n. mo-
kopuna.
Grass, n. patitL
Gravel, n. kirikiri.
Grease, n. hinu.
Grey hairs, n. hina.
Grind, v. t. huri ; pass.
hurihia.
Groan, v. i. aue.
Ground, n. oneone.
Guide, v. t. arahi; pass.
arahina.
Guide, n.kai arahi.
Gun, n. pu..
Gunpowder, n. paura.
Hair of the head, n.
makawe.
Hairs, n. huruhuru.
Hand, n. ringaringa.
Handkerchief, ?i.aikiha.
Handle, n. puritanga.
Handle of an axe, &c.r
kakau.
Hang, v. i. iri.
Hang, v. t. whakairi;
pass, whakairia.
Hard, a. pakeke.
Hat, n. potae.
Hatchet, n. patiti.
Have, v. t. see Part I, § 64.
Head, n. upoko.
Headache, n. anini.
Headland, n. rae.
Hear, v. rongo; pass.
rangona.
Heart, n. manawa.
Heart, seat of affections,
ngakau.
Heart of a tree, iho.
Heat, n. wera.


Heaven—In.
81
Heaven, n. rangi.
Heavy, a. taimaha.
Heel, n. rekereke.
Height, n. tiketike.
Hence, adv. i konei.
Henceforth, adv. a mua
ake nei.
Her, pron. tana, pl. ana ;
tona, pl. ona.
Herd, n. kahui.
Here, advlki konei ; kei
konei ; i konei; hei
konei; tenei.
Hereafter, adv. a muri
nei.
Hide, v. t. hnna; pass.
hnnaa.
High, a. tiketike.
Hill, n. puke.
Hindrance, n. mea hei
arai.
His, 3mm. tana, pl. ana;
tona, pl. ona.
Hither, adv. ki konei.
Hoarse, a. whan go.
Hold, v. t. pupuri; pass.
puritia.
Hole, n. rua.
Hollow, a. puare.
Holy, a. tapu.
Hook, n. matau.
Hoop, n. whiti.
Hope for, v. t. tumanako
(followed by prep.Yi);
pass, tumanakohia.
Horse, n. hoiho.
Hot, a. wera.
House, n. whare.
How, adv. peliea.
Hunger, n. hemokai.
Hungry, a. hemokai.
Husband, n. tane.
I, pron. ahau.
Idle, a. mangere.
If, conj. ki te mea; me
he mea. (See Pt. I,
§46.)
Ignorant, a. kuware.
Impatient, a. whawhai.
In, prep, ki roto i; kei
roto i; i roto i; hei
roto i. (See Part I,
§16.)
6


Ink—Last.
Ink, n. mangumangu.
Inside, the, n.ro to. (See
Parti, §7.)
Intend, v. t. whakaaro.
Intention, n. whakaaro.
Into, prep, ki roto ki.
Interpret, v. t. whaka-
maori; pass, whaka-
maoritia.
Interval, n. takiwa.
Iron, n. rino.
January, n. Hanuere.
Jaw, n. kanwae.
Join, v. t. hono ; pass.
lionoa.
Joint, n. pona.
Judge, n. kai whakawa.
July, n. Hurae.
June, n. Hune.
Just, a. tika.
Keep, v. t. (retain), pu-
puri ; pass, puritia ;
(take care of), tiaki;
pass, tiakina.
Kettle, n. tikera.
Kill, v. t. patu; pass.
patua.
Kind, a. atawkaL
Kind, of that, a. pena;
pera.
Kind, of this, a. penei.
Kind, of what, a. pehea.
Knee, n. turi.
Kneel, v. i. tuturi.
Knife, n. maripi.
Knot, n. pona.
Knot of a tree, n. puku.
Know, v. t. matau {fol-
lowed ly prep, ki) ;
pass, matauria.
Lace, v. t. tuitui; pass.
tuituia.
Lame, a. kopa.
Land, n. whenua.
Land, v. i. u ki uta.
Landing-place, n. unga.
Language, n. yqq.
Large, a. nui.
Last, a. whakamutu-
nga.


Last—Long.
83
Last niglit, adv. inapo,
nonapo.
Last year, tera tan.
Last week, tera wiki.
Latter, a. to muri.
Laugh, v. i. kata; pass.
kataina, be laughed
at.
Law, n. ture.
Lay, v. t. whakatakoto ;
pass, whakatakotoria.
Leaf, n. rau.
Leap, v. i. tupeke.
Learn, v. t. ako; pass.
akona.
Leave, v. t. whakarere ;
p>ass. whakarerea.
Leave off, v. t. whaka-
mutu; pass, whaka-
mutua.
Left, part, mahue.
Left hand, ringa maui.
Leg, n. waewae.
Length, n. roa.
Letter, n. pukapuka.
Lest, conj. kei.
Lie, v. i. takoto.
Lie, n. korero teka.
Life, n. oranga.
Lift, v. t. hapai; pass.
hapainga.
Light, a. (not heavy).,
mama.
Light, a. (not dark),
marama.
Light (a fire),-y. t. tahu;
pass, tahuna.
Lightning, n. uira.
Like, a. rite.
Like, v. t. pai, followed
by ki ; pass, paingia.
Line, n. (cord), aho.
Lip, n. ngutu.
Listen, w. i. whakarongo
(followed by prep.
ki).
Little, a. iti; pI. ririki.
Liver, n. ate.
Living, a. ora.
Load (a canoe, &c.), v.t.
uta; pass, utaina.
Load, n. utanga.
Lock, n. raka..
Long, a. roa.
6 *


84
Look—Mother-in-laiv.
Look at, v. t. titiro (fol-
lowed ly prep, ki);
pass, tirohia.
Loose, a. korokoro.
Loosen, v. t. wewete;
pass, wetckia.
Lost, a. ngaro.
Love, n. arolia.
Low, a. hakahaka.
Lower, a. to raro.
Mad, a. porangi.
Maize, n. kaanga.
Make, v. t. hanga; pass.
hangaa.
Male, a. (human), tana;
(of animals), toa.
Man, n. tangata.
Manner, n. ritenga.
Manure, n. wairakau.
Many, a. maha.
March, n. Maehe.
Marry, v. t. marena;
pass, marenatia.
Mat, for clothing, n.
kakahu.
Mat, to lie on, n. takapau.
May, n. Mei.
Mealy, a. mangaro.
Meaning, n. tikanga.
Medicine, n. rongoa.
Meet, v. t. tutaki (fol-
lowed by prep. ki).
Melon, n. kakariki.
Melon, water, merengi.
Melt, v. t. whakarewa;
pass, whakarewaina.
Middle, the, n. waenga-
nui.
Midnight, n. waenganui
po.
Milk, n. waiu.
Mill, n. mira.
Mine, pron. naku.
Mind, n. hinengaro.
Mix, v. t. whakananu ;
pass, whakananua.
Monday, n. Manei.
Month, n. marama.
Moon, n. marama.
Mosquito, n. waeroa.
Mother, n. whaea.
Mother-in-law, n. hu-
ngawai-waliine.


Tooth—Vein,
95
Tooth, n. niho.
Top, the, n. runga. (See
Pt. I, § 7.)
Torch, n. rama.
Torn, a. pakaru.
Tough, a. uaua.
Town, n. taone.
Trample on, v.t. takahi;
pass, takahia.
Translate into Maori,
v. t. whakamaori ;
pass, whakamaoritia.
Travellers, company of,
n. ope.
Tree, n. rakau.
Tremble, v. i. wiri.
Trench, n. manga.
Trouble, n. raruraru.
Trousers, n. rautete.
True, a. pono.
Try, v. t. whakama-
tau; pass.' whakama-
tauria.
Tuesday, n. Turei.
Turn, v. t. huri; pass.
hurihia.
Turn aside, v. i. peka.
Twilight, n. kakarauri-
tanga.
Twins, n. mahanga.
Twist, v. t. whiri; pass.
whiria.
Udder, n. u.
Uncle, n. matua keke.
Under, prep, ki raro ki;
ki raro i ; kei raro i ;
i raro i; hei raro i.
(See Pt. I, § 16.)
Understand, v. t. kite ;
pass, kitea: niohio ;
pass, mohiotia.
Untie, z;.^:wewete; pass.
wetekia.
Utter, v. t. whakapuaki;
pass, whakapuakina.
Upper, a. to runga.
(See Pt. I, § 7.)
Upset, v. i. tahuri.
Valley, n. awaawa.
Value, equivalent, n.
ritenga.
Vein, n. uaua.


96
Very—Which.
Very, adv. tino; rawa.
(See § 79.)
Village, n. kainga.
Voice, n. reo.
Vomit, v.t. ruaki; pass.
ruakina.
Wade, v. i. kau.
Wait for, v. t. tatari (fol-
lowed hy prep, ki) ;
pass, taria.
Walk, v. i. haere.
Walk about, v. i. hae-
reere.
War, n. riri.
Warm, a. mahana.
Wash, v. t. horoi : pass.
horoia.
Water, n. wai.
Wave, n. ngaru
Way, n. ara.
Weak, a. ngoikore.
Weary, a. ngenge.
Weather, fine, rangi
paki.
Weather, bad, rangi
kino.
Weave, v.f.whatu; pass.
whatua.
Wedge, n. ora.
Wednesday, n. Wenerei.
Weed, n. otaota.
Week, n. wiki.
Weep, v. i. tangi; pass.
tangihia, he wept for.
Weigh, v.t. pauna; pass.
paunatia.
Well (in health), a. ora.
West, n. uru.
West wind, hauauru.
Wet, a. maku.
Whale, n. tohora.
What, pron. aha.
Wheel, n. wiira.
When? adv. (past), no-
nahea; inahea ; (fu-
ture) ahea. (See Pt.
I, § 82.)
Whence ? adv. i hea ?
Where ? adv. ki hea ?
kei hea ? hei hea ? i
hea ?
Which? def. tehea? pl.
ehea ?


Whip—Young,
97
Whip, n. wepu.
Whistle, v. i. whio.
Whither ? adv. ki hea ?
ko hea ?
Why ? adv. he aha ? na
te aha ? (See Pt. I,
§84.)
Wife, n. wahine.
Wild, a. maka.
Wind, n. hau.
Winding, a. awhiowhio.
Wing, n. parirau.
Wink, v. i. kimo.
Winter, n. hotoke.
Wipe, v. t. ukui; pass.
ukuia.
Wish for, v. t. hiahia
(follozued Inj prep.
ki) ; pass, hiahiatia.
With, prep. ki.
Woman, n. wahine.
Wood, n. rakau. (See
Forest.)
Word, n. knpu.
Work, v. t. mahi; pass.
mahia.
Worth, see value.
Wounded, a. tu.
Wrap, v. t. takai; pass.
takaia.
Write, v. t. tuhituhi;
pass, tuhituhia.
Wrong, a. he.
Yawn, v. i. tuwaharoa.
Year, n. tau.
Yes, adv. ae.
Yesterday, adv. inanalii;
no nanahi.
Young, a. tamariki.
Young of animals, n.
kuao.
7




APPENDIX.
I.
Come here.
Open your eyes.
Open your mouth.
Stretch out your^hand.
Bend your leg.
Sit down.
Lie down.
Stand up.
Give me your hand.
Turn round.
Go back again.
Stand there.
Go away.
Ha ere mai.
Titiro on kanohi.
Hamama tou waha.
Totoro tou ringaringa.
Hupeke tou waewae.
E noho.
Takoto ki raro.
Whakatika.
Homai tou ringaringa.
Tahuri.
Haere, e hoki.
Tu mai i kona.
Haere atu.
What is that ?
A letter to you.
II.
He aha tena ?
He pukapuka ki a koe.


ii
From whom ?
From Turi.
Who brought it ?
This man who sits here.
When will he return ?
I do not know.
You had better ask him.
Friend! when shall you
return ?
Na wai ?
Na Turi.
Na wai i mau mai ?
Na te tangata e noho nei.
A hea ia hoki ai ?
Aua.
Me ui atu ki a ia.
E hoa! a hea koe hoki
ai?
Early to-morrow morning. Apopo, i te ata.
Will you take my letter ? Mau e. mau taku puka-
puka; ne ?
Give it to me this evening. Me homai akuanei i te
ahiahi.
Why are you in such a
hurry to go ?
Lest I should be prevented
by the tide.
I shall not be long writing.
Where is the gun ?
What for ?
Lid you not bring it ?
No.
He aha koe i porangi ai ki
te haere ?
Kei araia ahau e te tai.
E koreeroa taku tuhituhi.
Kei hea te pu ?
Hei aha ?
Kihai i mauria mai e koe ?
Kahore.
Here is my letter.
Good bye !
Good bye!
Tenei taku pukapuka.
Haere ra!
Hei kona!


iii
III.
E hoa !
Tena koe !
E kore koeehaere hei hoa
mokn?
Ki hea ?
Ki te Wairoa.
A hea koe haere ai ?
Apopo.
Pehea te roa o ton noho ki
reira ?
Kia torn nga ra ka hoki
mai ahan.
Ko tana e haere.
Kahore he hoiho o konei ?
He hoiho ano; he mea
kaha ki te haere.
Na wai te hoiho ma ?
Na Tnri. ,
Kei hea ia ?
Kei ko.
Karangatia.
Tenei te haere mai nei.
E Tnri! E kore koe e pai ki
to hoiho ma nei ki a an ?
Ko tenei ke te mea kaha.
Friend !
How do yon do ?
Will yon not go as a com-
panion for me ?
To wliat place ?
To the Wairoa.
When shall yon go ?
To-morrow.
How long shall yon remain
there.
I shall retnrn after three
days.
I will go with yon.
Are there no horses here ?
There are horses ; strong
ones to travel.
Whose is the white hoarse ?
Tnri’s.
Where is he ?
Yonder.
Call him.
Here he comes.
Tnri! will yon not let me
have yonr white horse ?
This other one is the
strongest.


iv
Where is the saddle ?
It is in the house. Hori
will fetch it.
You may bring it to me in
the morning.
Have you had anything to
eat ?
Yes.
You can carry this.
Give it to me then.
Where is the ford of this
river ?
The ford is higher up.
Is it shallow ?
We had better go by canoe.
Is there a canoe here ?
The canoe is a little lower
down.
Let us get something to
eat, and then cross over.
Tie up our horses.
Fetch me some water.
This canoe is very small.
Put the horses across and
then fetch me.
It is going to rain.
Kei hea te nohoanga ?
Kei te whare. Ma Hori e
tiki.
Mau e arahi ake i te ata.
Kua kai koe ?
Ae.
Mau tenei e mau.
Homai ra.
Kei hea te kauangao tenei
awa ?
Kei roto te kauanga.
He papaku ranei ?
Me na runga taua i te waka.
He waka ano tenei ?
Kei waho tat a atu ra te
waka.
Kia kai taua ka whaka-
whiti ai ki tawahi.
Herea a taua hoiho.
Tikina he wai moku.
He nohinohi rawa tenei
waka.
Whakawhitia nga hoiho
ka tiki mai ai i au.
Meake ka ua.


V
Let us stay here till the Kia noho taua ki konei
rain is over. kia mutu te ua.
It is fair now. Let us go Ka mao. Kia haere taua.
on.
What place is this ? Ko hea tenei ?
It is getting late. We had Ka po te ra. Me noho
better stay here. taua ki konei.
Where is the tether rope Kei hea te taura hei here
for my horse ? i taku hoiho ?
It has been left at home. Kua mahue ki te kainga.
Here is another. Tenei ano tetahi.
IV.
Let us go to Waiheke.
Call Henii and Hori to go
with us.
Launch the boat.
The boat is afloat.
Fetch the oars.
Leave the sail: there is
too much wind.
There is too much sea for
us to get over.
The boat will be full of
water presently.
Tatou ka haere ki W aiheke.
Karangatia a Hemiraua ko
Hori hei hoa mo taua.
Toia te poti.
Ka manu te poti.
Tikina nga hoe.
Waiho atu te ra: he nui
no te hau.
E kore tatou e whiti i te
ngaru.
Akuanei ka ki te poti i te
wai.


vi
Bale out the water. Taia te wai.
We will land here. Me whakaute poti ki konei.
There is a fair wind to go E tika ana te hau mo te
back with. hokinga atu.
Set the sail. Whakaarahia te ra.
It is low water. Kua timu te tai.
Keep outside lest we Waiho i walio, kei eke
should get aground on tatou ki te taliuna.
the sandbank.
Take down the sail. Turakina te ra.
Drag up the boaton shore. Toia ake te poti ki uta.
What have ycu got ?
Haven’t you a pig ?
Is it fcr sale ?
What is the price ?
That is too much.
Have you any maize for
sale ?
Bring it to-morrow.
What do you want for
it ?
What about your debt ?
Bring some potatoes to
settle it.
He aha tau ?
Kahore o poaka ?
Mo te hoko ?
He aha te utu ?
He nui rawa tena.
He kaanga tau mo te
hoko ?
Me mau mai apopo.
He aha tau i pai ai hei
utu ?
Me aha to nama ?
Mauria mai he riwai hei
whakarite.


vii
Have you no more maize ?
You had better bring
some more.
Bring it here to be
weighed.
Your debt is not quite
paid off.
Will you not come here
to work ?
You can come to-morrow.
What work am I to do ?
Fencing.
When the fencing is done,
you can dig a ditch.
Heoi ano o kaanga ?
Me mau mai ano etahi.
Homai ki konei kia pauna-
tia.
Kahore ano kia ata rite to
nama.
E kore koe e haere mai ki
konei ki te mahi ?
Me haere mai apopo.
He aha te mahi maku ?
He hanga taiepa.
Kia oti te taiepa ka keri
ai i te awakeri.
VI.
Ko wai tou ingoa ?
Ko tou kainga tenei
to Nonahea koe i tae :
ki konei noho ai ?
He wahine tau ?
? He tamariki au ?
Tokohia ?
Kei hea ?
Kei te kura ?
What is your name ?
Do you live here ?
When did you come
live here ?
Are you married ?
Have you any children
How many ?
Where are they ?
Are they at school ?
8


viii
Where is the school ?
How many years has there
been a school here ?
Do your children know
how to read ?
Do they understand Eng-
lish ?
Who is the teacher ?
Did you build the school-
house yourselves ?
Where is the church ?
Is there a clergyman
living here ?
What is his name ?
How many children are
there in the school ?
Kei hea te kura ?
Ka hia nga tau o te kura
ki konei ?
Ka mohio ranei au tama-
riki ki te korero puka-
puka ?
Ka mohio ranei ki te reo
pakeha ?
Ko wai te kai-whakaako ?
Na koutou ano i hanga te
whare kura ?
Kei hea te whare-kara-
kia ?
He minita ano kei konei e
noho ana ?
Ko wai tona ingoa ?
Tokohia nga tamariki i te
kura ?
VII.
What do you want ?
I am come for some medi-
cine for my child.
Where is he lying ?
At my house.
How old is he ?
He aha tau?
I haere mai ahau ki tetahi
rongoa mo taku tamaiti.
Kei hea ia e takoto ana ?
Kei toku whare.
Ka hia ona tau ?