Citation
A grammar of the Telinga language

Material Information

Title:
A grammar of the Telinga language
Creator:
Carey, William, 1761-1834
Place of Publication:
Serampore
Publisher:
Printed at the Mission-Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Telugu
Physical Description:
iii, 186 p. ; 21 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Telugu language -- Grammar ( LCSH )
తెలుగు భాష -- వ్యాకరణం
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Telangana
ఆసియా -- భారతదేశం -- తెలంగాణ
एशिया -- भारत -- तेलंगाना
Coordinates:
17.366 x 78.475

Notes

General Note:
VIAF (Name Authority) : Carey, William, 1761-1834 URI : http://viaf.org/viaf/108930

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Archives and Special Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
252477 ( ALEPH )
CWML D.4 /14 ( soas classmark )
EB81.50 /2759 ( soas classmark )
EB81.51 /6160 ( soas classmark )
EM3488 /988954 ( soas classmark )

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Full Text
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| A lORIE A TAL: , | Ih
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See Spy W. GABEY,p | 4 |
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Professor of the Sunaskrit, Benearus, and MauRatt4å…¨ | |
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Languages, a the College of Fort Ve il nena 人
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AIC pe BLL oG fe 有 May ¢ FF 4? |
cy eis eat eed tee ie ; iG teuo on F |
_. APE Jangnages of India ate principally, deriyed, fram the.Sung- t
skrits which, with-the exception of those spoken by, a. few tribes i
VED AIEEE YS é Epes BP i Yee Plas: ie” 2 1 |
of Mountaineers, may, be considered as the jpayentyot. egery,-collo- i
. . es r : se | |
guial dialect from {he Indus.on the: West; to.the, borders of Arakan, i
and from Ceylon in the south to Chinese, /Fantany,i _ A idl > | |
|
Soates ‘on blbes oii doe!asg oF doris i
. The structure of most of the languages in the middle and the | |
3 Bigs! 3 iW ATES i360 PAS Sh 7B. Ase Toi 3 Fi 5 | {
North of India, is in general the same ; the chief difference in them 中
#5273 rash bre pinsIiD/ 2m OMe S i i
. lies in the terminations of the nouns. and verbs, and in those devi- i
ations from Sungskrit orthography which custom has gradually i
Pe established in the countries where they are spoken, | |
The languages. of the south of India, i. e.. The Telénga, Kurnay i
ta, Tamul, Malayala, and Cingalese, while they have the same ori- 主
gin with those of the North, differ greatly from them in other res- i
【 # 2 了 有 Z +4 ue #2 3 2a & 4 | |
pects; and especially in having a large prepertior of words, the - |
origin of which is unascertained. _ The termination of ihe words ç”±
_ also differ almost entirely from those spoken farther.south. _ |
Among these five languages, the Telinga appears to be the most i
。 7
polished; and.though confessedly a very difficult language, it must
be numbered among those which are the most worthy of cultiva- |
| : j |



{中
{|
|
|
|
| :
上
| ii PREFACE,
|
! tion; its variety of inflection being such as to give it a capacity
i of expressing ideas With a high degtée of facility, Justness, and
H elegance.
1
' The custom of joining several words together by the elision or
| change of'the last vowel, is 0ffen an Ooceasiorr PREiscGttage-
H ment, in the'stidy of Telingd, and reridetS its’ Wee liition' Very
| diffteult, as itfréqiiently so alters the appedralité of Words, tharae'is
| i Not easy for one Unadctstomed to the language recognize then.
i This, however, is’@ practi¢e so universal with the natives, that were
H a person to neglect ithe could not be understood. _—It is hoped,
| | the rules for Sundhi at the end of the present Work, will ina great :
; measure remove this difficulty, and assist the student in discerning
了 the reason of that which would otherwise operate as a formidable
| H discouragement to the study of the language. '
| | | The writer of this work is happy to acknowledge the assistance
| He lias received in writing it, from Sooba Shastri, one of the Pun-
| dits of the Sudder Dewanee Adawlut, who is dne of the: best Suxg-
skrit Scholars now living, and an excellent Grammarian. This man,
‘ Who'is‘a native of Telinga, has Kindly afforded essential assistance
LS in every part, and itis owing to his discrimination that many points
| in the formation and orthography ‘of the words, are freed from the’ -
| darkness with which they were enveloped. .
The Country where this language is spoken extends along the’
| | 過 Coast from Ganjam to the vicinity of Madras. “By the Hindoos
| it is called Andara. As the vowel oo predominates toa great de-



PREFACE, iio
gree in every part of language, its name is by many of the natives th

corruptly pronounced Teloogoo. ; i

tl

F A wish to contribute to the more extentive cultivation of the i
Indian languages, has induced the writer to undertake this work: a

should this object be in any measure accomplished hereby, he i

shall feel gratified; and still more se, should itinduce any one, who i

has opportunity and leisure, to undertake any other of these ele- ii

mentary works, which are so necessary in order to render us familiar : |

: oe t

with the languages of India, so highly deserving of cultivation, |

i
Serampore, April 9, 1814, W. CAREY, 自

i

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| tf

i

|



a eas |
ç«™
Ss 主
| pbb
bt
BEES:
上1
i +f . :
上
|
|
了| 當
ht , 1
i
eS . . |
Ht | : .
i
HH roe
Rit:
EH
HI |
Sa ~ ”
| ,
FH
i
bt = ‘ #
i
Hh | : 4
i
Hl ace
| |
HI 台 ik
i) 7 : | |
HH , |
LEH
| : |
mH
KEP
HH : 3 |
| 2 :



Terres ter] ee Stas ee rane a x 了 a Peete Fee Pee eee Terr rere aistids ‘ 和和和香和 ney c
: : : a |
| |
é |
ON _A GRAMMAR, &c. |
|
SECTION I. '
ae Of the Letters. | |
> THE Telinga alphabet contains fifty letters, of |
__ which sixteen are vowels and thirty-four consonants. |
Vowels: 2 |
Sees * oF Peas $ i
@ a, OF 4, Qi, BK ee, G 00, GF 00, WY Top; of
| aaosr roo, ed lroo, er Iroo; > @; Mi,% 0; Bow |
ego ung; e998 uh: : i
4 9 x rs e guttural: |
| ka kid ga gha gua 同 |
: 只 ¢ Ag bees K
2 = & rece) & paldtines.. . t
eh chha je jha gneea 之 自
oe 35 9 hinguals, i
ta tha dd ahd ne |
| ee Qo es 人 <3 - dentals. = fl
ta tha da ahd na en
| - 說 pl
ot. rs) a) & . © © Kabials. = |
“pa pha ba bha md |
cm : ! pe esa a
COS SG © 2 semi-vowels, ay
ya ra id 人 a |
ee ey oR © ‘ Bh
和 說 we = stbilants, &c. ; 自
pig $e sha ha Jig 4 i
; |
= | , 是
和



生 Paty ’ : 同 a
ha 7
IE :
Ht | .
Ht : : :
HE | 2 TELINGA GRAMMAR.
| 只
ib |
He. Remarks on the Letters.
則| 1. The first ten vowels are short Spe S, long Swe,
HH rr 子 仿 a TAA . : > :
i or grave OS. Exam. ©, d, 2, t G, 00, WY, Tt,
Ht = ; Sy: :
| i ! and ed, dz; are short, and GP, 4, 82, ee; G<, 00, esr,
則 ree; and exe, lee, are long. .
HP ees :
EH
FH : ? Wi « ° 0 ti Nt ; <
| | 2. The grave sound is not distinguished by any
thE ey ; ev ity
HF articular mark, but is expressed in several words, as
tibet 2
| | CP acs, alasNSs SH, O foolish monkey, ssw ssts-,
| an exclamation expressive of pain by cold. Doe, many,
1 = Gs SES wy, come hither: a
Ir |
Hi | 3. Shas two sounds, the first is that of the English
上
| ain name, orof the French’e; the other resembles |
HEE * = 5
| that of ya, pronaunced short: no examples of the first
| sound are necessary, but that of the second occurs ~
| HI in KS, a Seat, pronounced guddya, DS, anornament —
HP jor the toe, pronounced mittya, WR, a basket; pro=
: BE 3 nounced pettya, and ¥@, wood, pronounced kuttya. ©
| HH .
| 生神” has likewise two s0unds, the first 18 the |
LY same as that of ow in owl, the other isa shorter pro-
He nunciation of the same sound. © —— 3
6. o hastwosounds,the first is a nasal sound given



| OF THE LETTERS. a : 7 |
to the vowel with which it is connected; the other is 3 | |
the fv'l sound of ng, if it enda wordorpreeedealet- : |
ter of the first class, that of n if it precede a consonant - |
_ 6f the second, third, or fourth class, and that of m if it |
preeedea consonantofthe ffth class, SgivestheYvoWet a
wiich it followsan abrupt sound, |
7. The first twenty-five consonants are distributs |
ed into five regular classes, (sé) each of which is 只 |
pronounced: with the same organ, as. expressed ia the. |
alphabet. The other letters are miscellaneous. : |
8. The sounds of the first class of consonants are
-. _ expressed by the English letters placed under them,
) 9, 3§ and @ have each.two sounds, the first is that — |
ofthe English ch, andj, (as expressed/in the alpha-
bet), the other sounds are thoseof s andz. The English |
letters-expresg the sounds of the other letters of this pe |
class. ee , |
10. The letters of the third-class, though usually ac-
counted difficult of pronunciation, are no other than . ae '
the English sounds expressed by tandd, with their . coe |
aspirates. The pronunciation of the ¢e is, however | |

å—Ž 7. S :
es ao ee 2



tH =
HI
| & TEULINGA GRAMMAR.
則
則 confessedly difficult, and must be acquired by meang
| | of a living instructor. Eee
Hii me
Ht |
HE
HI 11. The letters of the fourth class; though expres-
則 sed by thesame English letters with those of the third,
則 are not pronounced like them. These require that
i : the tip of the tongue in pronouncing them should
| | be put to the rgot of the upper teeth.
it ——-
iH 12. The sounds of the letters of the fifth class are
it expressed by the English: letters placed under them.
| 5
i ? %. howeyer, has seldom the sound of the English f,
F Hi 3 ba ok BAO RA : > ‘
HN but is that of p aspirated,
at
He De
| | | 1S. os expresses the sound of the English y ; it
| admits, however, of some little variation of its power
| i under different circumstances, :
| a 14. & has two sounds the one is that of the En-
「 同 glish r, the other is formed by a slight inflection of
| | = the point of the toneue towards the palate... /Fhig |
| letter in Telzngz books, especially when final, is of- |
Po . ten written with this character @© which has thesame
) ae soundas&, Se



OK THE-LETTER §.5 + 7
15. The'sounds of ©; 8, %)%K, ~, and %, are
expressed bythe English letters placed under them. » |
16, ‘The pronunciation of ¥ can scarcely be ac- |
quired without aliving instructor; in pronouncing it |
the tongue is raised up on one side so {hat its under- |
side near the tip touches the roof of the mouth. |
ee . Of compounding Liters, 2
Cok 229 . : |
17. Every consonant is supposed to have the vowel |
@) inherent in it; that yowel therefore is pronounced : |
_ with every congonant except it be suppressed, or its as |
place occupied by another letter, ; = 3
18. “A vowel in its proper form cannot follow a 2 |
consonant in the same syllable;.but will make a dis- |
tinct syllable, Exam. 8, ke-i, 3

i

19, When a vowel therefore follows a consonant Say

in the saine syllable it assumes’ a forni differing from ae
__s'proper form, usually appearing as-a@ part of thelet-: i
ter, and always takes the place which was occupied 4 |
by the mherent e9. Hxagm. 2: ki, 33, kao. N,B, An . 3 |
initial vowel saffers. no change of form. :
|

è©­ |



HE : 3

Hi

å±±

Hi 6 TEDINGA GRAMMAR. _

rit ;

EER :

ii 20. The following table shews the form of: the
He . Ss |

則| | symbols or representative signs of the vowels, and the

HT en .

HH | manner of theirjunction with a consonant:

Hi Vowel, - ‘Symbol, Vowel united to a consonant. >> |
HH 7 Se =

BH Et oe : ; i 3

IE : 有
| | | | . 2 3 2 ma Ay 2s f i JO ’ 8 ke

Hie :

Hh c © a Bee

He Gt 8 S~ koo

和 k ese eg |

| ; 7z Eg . 4 4

EE) Ad > ? Ss Ukr

Hh are x 5° ‘kree’*’
4 , e e % |

“HH eye we Bf klee

Ht 3 vy e

| > 人

i , ene ee
| @s iis g§° . ko

| 3 EP — ete kon
a 2h. The vowel ©. being naturally inherent,in eves

a ry consonant requires no sign to express it. .. Exam. |
ae 3 22. Any censonant may be compounded with a



OF THE LETTERS, . to |
| | |
* “i ee ; |
preceding. consonant; by placing it uncerat, or by |
cdninecting it'therewith in some other way. — In this |
-case the inlertnt vowel of the first consonant is ex- |
pelled, and its place occupied by the latter consonant. |
| Exam. Sykta. 到 : 一
23. Several, consonants when they followa preced- ee |

ing consonant without an intervening vowel, assume |

。 < on ’ i

a form different from their natural-one.. The follow-

ing is a list of them: : |

) | 7
Consonant:- Representative sign. Compotinded consonant, |

aK a Hl
x | = Or ska : |
gia a : es dghe |

ae 3 , eee

2 D 3) shcha 1

oe shchha 自

| = a 3 x !

ee “人 2 byae ;

S hjha : 生

- ‘ $3 |

S @: .. go nthe |

a Ce - go nda s

e ce ga ndha i

BS ast gh |

a) 2D 5 kta
) } |
: es Se a LY



hi, i 3 5 4
i eo
: 3
i
i 3 2
'
i
i ; Ss: TELYNG# GRAMMAR.
i :
i | \ Consartant. Représentative sign. Compound consonant
ih ~~
"I | oS @ x ktha 3
iy : : 人 說 ey e
i . ef Arg 9 By i Maorsp nna —
1 aos “ital oflag 劍。 lp
i =. Sarees ~
! og dba -
i 3 2) :
i = es dbh2
ii | 2 = Pe 424 ati
i H st 吃 Qs me
i ait 4elgeerd ee oe.
間 GS 們了 85 kya
iii 1 < az
Gl 5 U © wa
| | @ oe
i SS a es A
| 和 號 x ksha 3
i a = yf
和 OO £2, 發 tsa
a * od . t
主 9G sc 人 _& . tsha ..
id | ; Nag =
| tie se @ the ..
Hl. | ee ere
中 名 3 9 mlz
ae N. B. Those marked with a star * are placed on
at ee :
中 the right side of the letter, but allthe others under it
a or nearly se. >
é‚„ 24. Inthe same manner three or more consonants |
ip. may be compounded. Exam. %,, stra, 7
1 ),
| |



OF NOUNS: 人 |
25. &§, which isa compound formed by ¥ and %,is tl
usually reckoned among the letters of the alphabet,- “和
and placed the last of them. : |
|
a SECT. U1. | |
| Of Words. | |
| = - 生
Words are of three sorts, viz. Sungskrzta words, “i
words derived from the Sungskrita, and words of un- age |
I
certain derivation which are current in the country, |
全 9 ° 金 i
1. Pure Sungskrita words, (% aGo,) used in this I
3
| language, form the first class. - Exam. Gxs%§, « |
| man, | ee 7 | 4
2. Words derived from the Sungskrita (#80) 7
but written and pronounced differently, form the se- aS
| cond class.” Exam. Ox, Vishnoo,
3. Words current in the country, (@¥§o,) of !
which the derivation is uncertain, form the third :
- Class. Exam. oo, the moon, amonth, Roe, aprice,
: B oe | |
Ses |
|
2 : : |



Hi | : | 和
WHY
| ek
WE |
WHEE =§ .
HEY |
|
| 16 TELINGA GRAMMAR, |
i =< ‘&- Words are further distinguished into; first (9°
HLF :
a | de) names of relations. _ Exam. GG, a father,
Mt 3
| | e398, a mother, of), a father, & 8, amother, O%5
| an elder sister, ® SAN, a younger sister.
He oO
la ,
iit 7
| | Secondly, (@ts), proper names. Exam. $GRG?, |
| Nursingha, (a proper name).
|
i ! Thirdly, ("aay ws Fam), genericorcommonnouns. :
! | ! Exam. @se,.a brahmun, Ow, a Sovereign, GP),
| | : a cow or bull, Oo, a bullock, BEM, a horse, Wa
| | | | —_-SOX._an elephant. |
同 See) ee
ies Fourthly, (Sioa Sa), verbals, including par-
mt x sae Sse
1 ticiples, &c. Exam. So@wsr- to, a cook, KO Dw 254:
! | _ aspeaker, By eae, awriter, S&S, fallen, Ode,
i full of-blossoms, MONG, enlarged.
| i Fifthly, (Soars Sam), adjectives.. Exam. £B_0E
i XU, blue, @L, white, WBE, red. 2
1 5... Thereare three genders, (QoGoXss) the mass
| culine,(&OoXem) the feminine, and SBoys Oona)
| " | the neuter. ge ;
1 |



OF NOUNS... Ad |
: |
6. Sungskrita words are of the same gender as in |
that language. . Exam, TE SHto, God, SID, « |
2和 發785, 20296076 eg |
7. Words derived from the Sungskreta, and current
| words of uncertain. derivation are usually, if names of
males, masculine, if names of females, feminine, andif - |
names of other things, neuter. Exam..@puw3gts, er |
BW Ht, a brahmun, GEIS OF WEG, @ brah :
muness, ¥ 8, wood. ee : ; |
- §.. Generic termsare: often neuter, and some
words. are’ of two genders particularly Sungskreta |
svords which mean clouds and seas, and a few others, |
Exam. @Fots and Bx or wey, a cloud, : |
Dm Bto and Van Wav or Wim £59,085, the sea, On, |
— BITNOGMH sand EA SOs or ORS GH, | |
Sire; SQKDD, bull or-ox, and FORM, a wife, ff
Of the Declension of Nouns, | i |
“9 There aretwo numbers, the singular (VSB
“Ssm) and the plural (Sawa iee), z os 衣
eg
=> |
: | :
; 5 a Sl Sg a ee a age : 2 By



ti eee : | a
wy : |
| : |
a
ia = |
ie ig TELINGA GRAMMAR,
| | |
| | 7 °
| 由 “40 There are seven cases of nouns, the nomi- ~
iH a “ : ‘ . e ‧
4 | ç”± native; the accusative, the instrumental, the dative,
a ES the ablative, the genitive, and the locative, which aré
| | | usually called Ga H, the first, GoS°Aa, the second,
ti | 二 aS Se
i | | 67S,thethird, So the fourth, QQSH‘s the
Hi } | ne : :
i | | fifth, GP 6°S, the sixth, and DSA, the seventh.
i f :
my
i F © ®
4 tH ~ Il. The terminations 2% and ev are affixed in
i | the first case ; 9; &, arid 35~-O¢, in the second ; 8°,
1 | ed B,in the —
Lit
i fourth ; <& 3, and x o@, in the fifth ; 3,30, and @p
We| a “rei oe ‘ eat
生 | ;-, in the sixth; @90%5, in the seventh, and 2% and
| i | 6, in the vocative. These terminations are ap-
HM g 可 。 :
i ! plied to the singular and plural numbers as follows:
re | :
1 | : : Sing. ~ Plur,
| H es Sa ees
Ti. | 2 — &, ISTHE.
| 1 | | 3. = @ > mes , - Ses — @ 3" WS »-S °S,
圖 4一5 一5生
eH | ; :
ae 3 |
i A : * Tn the vulgar language 35 is usually added to the termination Ff |
a | I : . sand not unfrequentl y the termination is written Wee wo. : instead of DES
和 ! = BoD. PES ae;
a i ) :



Msrersereceeer ety rearet tata teas sPtotecetseelsLseha eared sens knsravaccbssnekGene head le lesedecoantseo | 7 es : |
OF NOUNS. ~ 43 |
Sing, Plur. : |
5一So 8@, — SBMS. |
6 2 Bale — BHR.
7. — 0%, RSM 85 J
: 3
ee | |
12. G is substituted for the final vowel of mascu- |
ine nouns which have not a final &. |
|
13. %& is affixed to form the nominative and Boe |
“如evocative singular of maseulines which have nofa | |
final Q. Lxam. SX, O God. 2 |
) i
14. - © mustbe inserted before 8%, andthe termi- |
nations which follow it, (rule 11,) in the plural num- |
‘ber. - Exam. BDoxw, gods. te ;
: 15. __n poetical writings the final of the termina:
tion §%.is rejected, but notin conversation, Exam, 一書
@OHés god, (poetic.) SHx, god. : | |
16. ‘The final of the termination § is optional- | |
ly rejected in the plural number, Exam. Bpow oe
and QPeod, gods, 7 : |



| Ps |
it IP dé TELINGA 6RAMMAR.,
it |
Hi |
ate . |%. In'the singular number Q-must: be inserted
i i before 8$e-O¢ and all the terminations following it,
ie} ths = Soe N
1 | Cruule Hexecept fhe 說 ofthe genitive_ Sineular,
幅員 before which only ¥ isinserted, Exam. @SHO03S--Oé,
ii | K . x
| i god, GHWS by a god, BHP, a god's.
my || .
Hei. : | 。 。 到
| ! ! AS: Si1s optionally inserted before the termina-
Ff tion 0%, of the seventh case. When (ty is not in-
| 由 serted the of the inserted syllable © is rejected.
! | Nt . Exam. BOWNOD or BP Low, da a god, AP/OOWS,
| i‘ an, gods, ii. : : 了
和 i SS
| | | 19. 2 is not inserted before the terminations of
We ti ‘ ;
NI the voeative singular, nor © before. those of the
| 則 plural.. The particles % or 200 are prefixed. to
品 | ae | 當
| i words in the vocative. Exam, %00 6DKx; O god,
( | 20D BPYOU, O gods. 3
| i i _ Pattern of a masculine noun with a final Q9
i ti: Ox, a god. Shee 3
mor
a | ti Singular.
| TE CYO BR, a god. = a
| (ea “5 SQ, GHMSPHM or BHL BWHorwsroe, god.”
|



å´—

tOPr wot wee © F | 13° |

. 3. BHPS*, BHOUS, BHIT~w, by a god. |
4. BYIOS°SW, GPO, to or for a god. |

5, QWHWSLW, So @, from a god. | , |
é‚„
1. OP OALO%WS, OF AH) oes, wm a god. 3 |
Voc, 00 BOL, O god. ee ; |

: Piural, Vesey) RITS5 4 | |

I. Gpeo, gods. |

.» 2 GHOW) or Go 99o8659兮6 Polls. °° : |
3. BHOS > GHOBS, HOS’ & bygailso: 上:
- ph. QQOS* OM, QHOs, toon, for gedsecicn 3 |
5. BYOKL MG, BHOXS fram godse oo ievie3 |

6. BHOW, SHO, gods’n\ 5 |

7. BPSOKKCWS, SPH Ow, in gods. 7 |

- Vor. R00 Mery, O pods 7 poe |
Thus are declined Sa Mitt, PEG: & |
giant, Dee, a brahmun, BOC, a kshetriya,
@. tS; speakery BOY, a cook, BY, a: father,
OO, 4 son, and -all-other Symgskrita maseulines. : |
which havea final@.. 3. <5.) 25 suna



7 : | 7 : 4
wl a
ee |
A 3 ee
ES ihe . aoe :
| . 16. FELINGA GRAMMAR.
是: | |
ih |
4 H e ! ; 3 : eS
4 i Observations on the first case: |
i BI 8
Wet EI pa ;
i ç”± 20. The % of the nominative singular, thees of
i ae ; er Uy Ne 5 : . t
i | 1 the nominative plural, and the % of the vocative, are
章 | 5 . 和
自 sometimes rejected and sometimes retained in words
ii a ; : a Paes
|! i derived from the Sungskrita, and in current words
Ni 【 e . ® 8
‘ = of uncertain derivation. | . ‘
i | a ;
1 | | eo |
i‘ 21. . The pronoun 57S, he, is frequently affix-
i ih : an
4 i ed to the two kinds of words above-mentioned as the
1 | termination of the'nominative, instead of the regular
i | termination. 五X@27.- 23592255, 2 brahmun, o
Hie t F z : : ~ :
| | Sorts, akings ee ? |
i | 上 Pe :
i i : ° 。
i H 22. The final ie 「 : A S
| | ed before the % and @ of the nominative case, and
aH : a , :
1 At the % and ©7% of the vocative. 3
heey SEF .
ei : , ,
| os 23. These two kinds of words do not require the
’ 者 substitution of @ for the final vowel. Exam. axs7e_
at . — abrahmun, a sen, brahmuns, R>W to, a cow-keep-
, :
‘im er, K° 2, cow-keepers.
eo E : ‘<
eal |
| a tH
Li中
Wee 3



OF NOUNS. | rv} |
> 94.» Proper names derived from the Sungskrita |
require 2% in the nominative singular. Exam. opm, | | |
Lukshmuna. N. 8B. These words are seldom used |
in the plural. ; BP |

‘95, The pronowin 25518 afixed togenericterms |
derived from the Sungskrita, including the names of poe :
_ trades or professions, instead of the termination ted |

of the nominative singular. Exam, SBayrtn, acar- |
penter, SIRWartso, a potter, ¥ SWayrtso, a smith, : |
32 25, a shoodra. oe 3 |
"96, Generic terms of uncertain derivation, re- 7 |
quire. arts. after them when used as masculines. |
Exam. moX Oar reso, abarber, s@wrto, achun- | sae |

| dala. : å…¨ rE | ao |

| : | , |

} a ae pronoun a7 to 16 not affixed to proper :
names of uncertain derivation, nor is. % affixedto | |
make the vocative. | Exam. PBB, Pooita or Vat- |
mika, 0° @'s; Penta, wow, O Penta. ee 給 |

28." Neither % nor arts are affixed to current |

words of uncertain derivation, which express rela- Z
|
a i



加!
i :
! i 4s : TELINGA GRAMMAR.
Hee用|
4 | | tionship, except suchas mean an infant, a child, a
" | | father, a younger brother, a grandson, or a daugh-
1 由 ter’s husband. Exam. @S;, a.grant-father, sa,
| 由 a mother’s brother, 9&, an elder brother. But %
i | | is affixed in the following instances: XWe%ws, a little
| i child, awed, Nn infant, 2%, a child, CStso,. a
‘ 過 beloved child, D250, a child, Oar, a father, ?
I | | x WY to, a younger son, ss Sat, a grand-son,
Hi Peprov, a daughter’s husband. | . Go eas |
Hi å…­
1 | | 29. ato is alfixed without a previously ingert-" ;
J ç”± _ ed syllable to verbals. Exam. somata, a cook,
| | ere woking, wrdoarts, the bearer of a burden.
I 了 說 2 30. Words. derived from the Sungskrita, which
| | ~ haveainal G do not admit ie terminalen of
7 ç”± the atfusative case, nor the 36 of the genitive. Exam.
1 4 BSN, brahmua, W'SOSTrHE, brahmun, 2 S28,
| 1 | 站 2 brahmun’s, SZ HlRos-, & brahmun’s, git 2
i aL . 31. Words ending in © expressive of relationship
1 , [ or kindred, which are derived from the Sungskrita,
f i do, not.admit the © of the accusative or the. 3 of the ,
| 4 ç«™ genitive... After such words, 655. is inserted before
te all gas
; ge HH
tan | os |
igi |



\ 和

8s OF AWOUNSSED TS? 19%. i
(Br-Oe Laan. SIs, father, TPs wossene, father,
Tmtit, @ fathers: s 25956 3 Ss 3 | |
‘ : |
32. Neither % nor仿 is inserted before the ter-
-yninations of: the other cases in words ofthis kind,
Exam. wae, by a father, eH, a father’s, — |
33° Neither the 2 of the accusative, or the & ofthe |
genitive 6ase.aTe afixed after ees, a srandfather, |
or any other words of uncertain. derivation which, |
mean a father, a maternal uncle, ax elder brother, or |
S6gisteleghusband: 。) Exam. ese; grandfather, |
97 06675 a5 aaN, uncles Om, elder bro~ |
therg Ss Wo, Sister’s husbands. 48543 a |
on 9& ©! Other words of relationship, which are of un~ |
eértain derivation, do not admit q in the accusative. |
— Mixam. WSEDpboy, child; HWBWV.-granc-son, Gane, |
: daughter's haisband. = Z 5 oe
35. , When. ¥G¢s-@ child, is followed by any termix
nation except 0, ® must be inserted before the ter-
' @gitation: — Lavam. ES HE; child, ES <
和



et . | | .
fH 2 oe
Wh oS |
" i 50): TELINGA @RAMMAR,
| ee
me Th oa “4s
| Hi 36: - 31s not used to. form thie genitive case of
| | See 2 02222. 五xd erS8, css
ae 8 a :
3 過 - 說, dc222 5.
點 和 人 ie >
| . : |
| ial 20 | o Of Masculines with a final e.-
| i i 3%. The final ef of Sungskrita words becomes
M | | ©, when followed by any termination. Exam. ax §
mht ee : :
1 Hel D%o, one.who drinks.all. things, opto, he wha,
i Ht blowsa shellyiisah sieiss5as Ye shy 3 9
| Ht | 38.) FFs and -aHsrsfo, two proper names-of
ee Lt oe >
| | ! “Grandharvzkingsj are exceptions to the above rule; _
{ | i Ee the final not becoming’ short; ‘The termination 25
| 則 HT : of the nominative, @ of the accusative, & of the ge-
i ry} a ee
i NE hitive, and: of the vocative, are not used to these
ia LEI} : . .
Ay two words; nor is the syllable © inserted before the
| ! | termlinations.。。 8S, js, however, inserted: before thie
ii i i 了 5 .
| Hl | 35°-H¢€ of the accusative. Exam. 6355, Haha; $s
加 tht | Sed
Lait wo, Haha, 5 SS3SHe, Haha, 569558, Hahers,
oe ws, O Haha. "Thus also ssregss>s Haghoo.
生 ei RTs G father, and Hos, the name of an idel,
oo which are Mahratta words, are declined like Bites. |
ol : a s .
i fi There are no masculines derived from the Sungs«
| ee aes 7 | :
Mi =e: :
at as
Ray
ae == ; 7
| ar : |



全 大 ‘NOWNS* “ay 3 : oy 9 | 5
‘rita, ef current: words of uncertain derivation, with | |
a-final @?j in-thisslanguage,> of poviceh cledsay7> |
Of Masculines with a final 2} : |
89. ; The terminations to, 3s, 59, and 2, are not | |
admitted after words with a final & ; also the syllable |
%isnot inserted before S”andtheterminations which |
- follaw it, Exam. 8, a poet, Xoo, poets, ¥D2, | {i
poet, SDOSSr-DE, poet, FQS°U, by a poet, Fas, ; |
poet's, F DORON; apoet’s, to Fa, O poet, % FOU; |
‘Thus 4, a proper name, OS, the sun, &e, : : |
Thus, also, OSS B, a brahmun, Fa; a relation, se |
and other words of relationship. ©
= goes Sie = 2 2 . : : oA se : te idi 同 : er ; 5 Zz
ee ‘ There are.very few Sungskrita verbals, or adjec- ;
tives with a finalQ. : Sa eee
| st : 7 | }
: |
oO (405 = Proper-names with a final-2, derived from aS |
the Sungskrita, are declined like those which are pure |
Sungskrita. Exam. ©, fire, or the pod Ugni. |
5a, Kireetee. : |
es ; |
=



Hae AU 3
a . 3 :
同
則 |
和| 22 TELING#ULGRAMIMWA Ri
ii : |
| ' . There are no, masculine generic terms, adjectives,
oe eS ee
i i or verbals derived from the Sungskréta, “which haves
i a final @. a
aii . me |
{ I Al. The particle 772% is frequently affixed to
開 則 >. % OE ov Ae - 2 }
國陸生 eu sis oa Roa os lee tae viens F a 3 i
4 Ni words of ‘uncertath ‘origin which have a final or —
! | i — G, unless they'are used.in a honorific or respectful 3
生 sense. Exam. Ke Tees) OF X 品, a tree, Ca Teed
ie ig AERO BATS SO nag MY Ls
| ] or ‘Oe the head man of a village, (ef he be askoa~ |
Hl, : 3 ,
Fit AQ. 7% isnot affixed to $°ases, a trader, Sey,
‘ Ht : 自
| i a father, DR, a. son, and other names of relatives.
1 過 a SO OS Shes Co srw Sent! ihe
ee aS ‘ : ¢ abe
| i | |
i «Of Masculines with a finale,
4 ih : . CA ae a * CS 。 83° 2h): ee OMB Ss
i tt gidedipitiios to. cite tes Seay 8
oi 43, The final && of Sungskrita masculines, be~
| I 3 comes short, and they are declined as SQ. Exam.
a “SSO, a captain, CPO, the chief man ofavil«
| hi lage. 說 ner :
Bn ee gor et “4 ; xt peeuyes S444 ¢
ae ““Masculines of the two other classes, with a final &,
a) do not occtr, : |
zie S3i8s ig
He | -
Hu |
at : wee |
ete :
a 7 :
Bi
Wi ae : |
Sethi ‘
wate g
14 :
at 4



| 5 fi

Fa

. 3 | wh

a gan NOUNS. -> > 93 則

ga Of Masculines with afinal G2 0° : i
3 AX, , $) is optionally. inserted after Sungekrita : i |
words with a final @. - ag 2 ie : |

pe el

45. When %) is inserted, the terminations 24, i

, ©, 2 and 3, and the inserted syllable:2, are not ‘ad- i |
hl
so Example, 2. 232 ie es i
Singular, 25S tog |

1. SWWH, Wet, a teacher. : ! 2 ‘ 2 : |

ee “還
| nk } . 7 Sens [teacher. | |
3. SOSSUCNGTU, MSPS MOBS i,

as滬廬 [0087" OOS”, by ateacher.

OS WHW, WTB, WO, of ateacher, = . ||

| VOC. @5'78 US; or B) WMH, O teacher, | 9 OFT : |
Plarat. Z La oe ; "4 |

1 aS WPHeo,. WWen, teachers. — ee : |

全 說和9 ROOM, MHPOMS De, Wo |
eo : | = [588 teachers. i:
ae ; |



é‚„
ai = : !
ç”± HH : 4
ç”± i MY
ii | Hh : 、
at | :
| 同 8
和 of TELYNGA GRAMMAR,
int Saat :
HELE St | : S Rog oe : i
| i AG. a, Sodso, and other proper names, also
| | wes Sungskrita names of relations, follow the same rule. —
a) aC Na eeeiene 3 St as
| _ Exam. Reto and SD: Vishnoo, XodpMts and —
| i HOqo sy, Shumboo, Vets and HWP, a@ son, |
| iF HSM and Hoy), a relation. 4
i 則| Sungskrita masculine names of species, with a fie —
i h 則 nal @, are of rare occurrence in this language.
a 3 ahah Soe | ue Se
| i ) . T, %) is not inserted after proper names witha
ere : ie ‘ : :
j | ‘a . - final G, derived from the Sungskrita. Exam. dS,
i HE ih 'z : © . 人 -
! i I | Vishnoo, GO%, Cupid, DEP, the sentiment of
i | i _ disgust (personified), %ovD)%o; the moon.
mip : : é
ai : )
Hh | 3 3 a : Se 人
1 | - Generic terms with a final G, derived from the
1 過 Sungskrita do not occur. ~ <7 pone
he ps 48. 3) is constantly inserted after SoH; a friend.

| The terminations. %, %, 2; and 8, and theinsert-
He ed syllable Q are not admitted. Exam. 2o%S®), a —
Bis es se
i . friend. - SOS alate |

i | eT 4

4 AQ. The final of. < Sood. the self-exrstent,
i i : the only masculine with a final G&é, becomes short, |
a ROR en eee |

at | : and the word is declined like odjo. Exam. 有和cs
ane EHH and YSomwogy, the self-existent.一
ie : |
ate | 7 +
| | eg
oy a
pat ae
he 3 ie. Be Z



St

用

: i

: , i

. Hy

SAM Oe QouNSse Ia 7 oR 同

|

和 Of, Masculines with afinal 2. ee | |

©. 58 SS TS sO. sean. Dov Zz! 2h JO BiB |

- 90...,09 is substituted: for a final em, . . 2... |

cae 51. The terminations %, %, 2, and &, and the

inserted syllables © and ¥ are.not admitted_after the :

, €. which is:substituted for a final em ; o howeyer ; i
is inserted before S9-Oe..Hxam. res, a sustainer ; |

GHeo, sustainers ; GSW, sustainer ; Ds SIs ee

"BE, sustainer; GBs, by a sustainer’s Bes B |

: ‘ ie JOH SIG CE DIE ee 4 |

or BS Doky, 4 susidiner’s ; 2 Gs, O sustainer ;

2o Sseorws, O sustamers... oe ee |

人 5 354) Geet esos SSG eee 信人 £23 "oP SVG 3/25". 冤 |

52. Names of relations, as 9, a father, GSD; |

ce OU GS Peete | m4 Ta

a brother, and verbals, as % 85>, a cook’, x Se, a speak i

er, &c. follow the same rule. Exam. »%, a fa- = |

ther ; mgood, fathers je, a brother ;@7seo, bro- i

- = 1 : oh bare ; Cen s hee sett 7 Bk Ht}

thers «$B, a cook "HS B,eo; cooks’; SB, a speaker ¥ a |

Hi

& Seo, speakers. |

i

VIS AS : |

Of words with a final >. “Tl

et wisptecns® to Iswoy anol [eat oll Oe Hh
eter s in esidsiveoniom tg. )g 1 td9929 SEE |
“There are no Sungskret masculines with afinal Qo |

eilisneenmaed) 16 33 OHå…¥19151311IOHaaoIIO990

: : |

= a ee y



和 ——
Wi TE tH , å­—
4), | 3
Hi: : | ,
i i |
| 出 og TELIV.G4 GRAMMAR,
a Sse oe ‧
ri | 53. ois inserted after @, aking, before the ter-
| i minations ‘& and &%. The terminations.ss, and 30,
和 are not affixed to this word. Exam. Go2sy, 2 king ;
| 和| 8 Bors, Ohing } Go, king's; COC, O kings; 6S
7 Tt . aS ~二 Pa:
| | and OVBTH-HE, hing ; 6X8 and OLA; akwng’s. |
mi ecy pag = p: 當 PR ITENAITSS | ¢ of
和 See phe ed ey ‘ ay 丸子 Sat . !
i | a 54. SS” Go, a palankeen bearer, is declined like Gs
7 | | put does not admit the nasalin the nominative and- —
Mt vocative cases.” Exam. d3°Osste, a bedrer,
4 7 ¢ ‘ ayes vs wea 2 . oe mi ; 3
— 55. ssand Beare not allixed to Sy, a boy, in
Bt (入KA地 a OF. e ASN Boake |
| | i the singularnumber. Exam. {5° Bt, 4 boy ; OB
{ iM en, boys ; S°BR®, boy ; & Bow, boys; SF Bw
Vi DE, bay ; FT BOWSr HE, boys ; HBOS, « boy's :
各 foe Asset GOS 28 OH ee :
和 pe Ua SSR eee ig
ai i “SBeaeD ls Oo cee Wits ee EEL EIEG IS VEG SG Bee
a 7 “ JS HUTS SEE WOOT OR At
i 品如AR如史博 Dae 6 |
「 和 i | is written with a fmal Sand.declined llke So
Rhy十 5 wie ar : ee arc é e : 不
過 | - Of Feminines. :
和 | : 56. The final long vowel of Sungskrita femi-
i 3 _ Dines, except that of monosyllables, with a finale,
. ee
i | pecomesshort, Thetermination %gof thenominatiye。 。
SH
| : |
ai | | a
re om
生
| å…¨
yeas
a |
ean :
eat ll , | j



i)
, | 中
1 |
4 OF NOUNS, on Py a | |
轉
sineular, and % 0f 也e Yocatiye singular, are not af | :
fixed tosuch words, nor is c substituted for the final |
vowel, as it is in masculines. 8
57. The termination 2 of the accusative, and 8 |
| oa ° ; = eee : i
: of the possessive, are not affixed to feminine nouns, |
| except they have a final Q ; those with a final Q, | |
never receive the a of the accusative, nor the 3p of :

the possessive. ee ao 2a

58. ‘The syllables 2 and © are not inserted after |
feminine nouns, such excepted as ‘havea final Q*be« 2 |
fore the A&erimninations of the thirdarndfollowingcases, |
! $5, however, must be inserted before the terminatiz |
on §5~-He of the accusative. pay gee i
a 59. The syllabled is notinserted after feminines i
with a final 2, except before the termination, a |
. | 入人 則
HS ee i

5 |

: : |

| ae , |
4 . ant aa is - . oes i : sa i



Hi ? “a
ee
| |
A |
Mi
Tel |
| 和 了 TELINGA GRAMMAT,
a | oo ae “~~ Example. : |
| nae ae :
| HI 7 |
ms
| SY BERG mate. 6 讓
i ith | = < a ~ 3 2 3 ae an 只 1 i Se ye
和1 2. SA oF OF SMH OE mare
tl OOS SSS gay mae
Hi ee See ener
rt | Voc. % GF, Omare. ee
WEE Bi |
a cos balvolkP ion Sis Bibee | ee
| | SANS OMe Ponlared 3 Foxe 312 se din’ sister
mr ae; ee 比 ;
和 » 2. OF SOB or OFHSOMWIE-DE, mares,
mi : m6
FF BR SOS? Ge. by mares. | |
fi Gen. OF HOW, OF LOGink-. of mares :
a fi iH
和
We iid f ie zx - ‘ s
| 則 i _ « ?Ehus are declined (as, a proper name, 7s,
5 HH it . S Se
| ç”± | | aproper name, OB, a she goat, Gow, a mother,
ni — Woy-s>, an elder sister, a>-Qrsr, a female speak
al | er, S--Q-s>, a female cook, &c. But a, Lukshmee,
We UA =
\ rid a’, splendor, and other monosyllables, are long in
ai fs :
) ‘| i _ _the nominative singular. Exam. 35>, Lukshmee ;
ae aes oe
| : i ase, Lukshmees ; %°, splendor ; Yeo, splendors 3
| ee
WEE Ge |
ie |
ie tL 7 )
au |
Wee a {|
Hl |
a : | LS ;
tes i |



“前
it}
| fh OF MOUNS a segs 2B. |
| as 8; Lukshmee 3 WD do; splendor; x57; Luksh- |
gnee’s ; BD Bo, of splendor...» 2. teed |
è«‹
_ 60, 93Q, a mother, OY, a father; 906d, a fa- ; |
ther, and, O%,., a sister, are frequently, though not |
always; affixed to. feminine proper names of women; pe |
goddesses, and other beings possessed of reason. —
The compound word is then declined as: its last |
inember when separate. 人
NB. 95 and are chiefly thus affixed.in, ~ |
the western parts of the country, and @©'S), in the eas- I
tern parts ; SUd, is generally affixed to the names |
of persons of the military tribe. |
es eg ii
61. When ©, ©), Odd; or ex, are af- a |
fixed to any word, the final letter of the word is re- 1
jeeted; butin the words WBA, EAA, SOIL,
TIVE, “Doh, and 3692, and the corrupied form 5 | |
Ae, a short dis substituted for the final vowel. 4 |
Exam. oS, es eesowe, OG, or OG, A |
Lukshmee ; GBS, C858), Mord, OM, and i
@9:2), Uchchi, (the corrupted way of writing Luksh- 4
mee); DOD; WS, “DVD, WOR, and we, i
_ Pero. But PU SSS, Ke. Parvutee ; ACER, a |
|
Scie ine z Sa: oe 號



|
at :
an 4
i |
| | uh j ¢ > ~ 林
| a Ue TELINGA GRAMMAR, :
Hae | STP HE: : : ;
im iit : aes : :
FE Sl ih : : - ae
| &e. Bhagiruthee, &c. alsa. 38 Se; Parvutee, 7
| Me * e
| Hl 3 ASA, Bhagiruthee, &e. SSM
4 th Hi
I a
訓 中出
點 pet : oa. : e 全 e j {
i “62. ® isaffixed to Sungskrita generic nouns fe-
AEE: th |
iH sacs .
| | i minine, and to such as are derived from the Sungs- |
Bi 3 說 ee
1 ç”± krita. In the second%nd following cases'singular aS
ii) See ie , ae
i | HT _ Is inserted after these words. The plural number —
Hl = ae : ee :
由 則則 does not differ from the masculine. © Verbals with a
if Ha : SB ei See 6
wii final e?, derived from the Sungskrita, which are
HBS Lat
WERE A : 同 ° e °
| very few, and verbals of uncertain derivation with a
i | 上 es ° . ‘ ae
| 和 final @?, are declined according to this rule, |
Boch | ;
WET eat ' :
Wei ti 時 “-
i Uh 7 a - Example. |
ie te 六 ?》
Lites å…­cs
1 則 CID, @ brahmuness.
a ; V0 Si ee HESS ;
i i il i Bos = ; Singular,
a, : He sen v1 |
it a a ae |
i 1. G5 s3928, a brahmuness.— , a
了 i tH ; < sacks, 5 i
| : | 2, CP WRP Q' Od, brahmuness. , |
ie , ,
i ye iit Plural.
a; i =
Beart : 2 yo BA
a 器 ODRyrw ows, or BP Deowret’sy, brahmuness, |
( | 2. BMgow 0B =, brahmunesses. a
eet 3 : :
ant eo . ‘3 hy .
ae ie Zo :
i HL _ Thus also @, a female shoodra, Woe, @
et | HE . : :
pitta tie :
| å½°1 | |
ai H ,
We 人 :
吧
li = |
rile 3 |
eet | 5 |
HEH ;
ai , ‘



全條 overt e irtnrn steerestntntstatiinteradieseieereonssasscssaescaeststiasnc amen aeaeects aie ee ere ii 1

i

iH)

外|
ON a i
|

: a . ae |

brahmuness, 055 a queen, &c. which make in the. i
nominative singular I-Ca, Wess, ‘and G-~Wa, :
anid in the accusative singular Ar) GOO) Dwi a !
BB THA, he. Sven Ge |

« Heminines in..Q and Hewes

63. The final 8% of Sungskrita words, monho- | |
Sy]lables_excepted; 1s made shoit. bie |
64. & is substituted for the final 8 of Sungs- |
krita feminines, and those derived from the Sungs- | |

| krita, monosyllables “in 8% excepted, when followed s |
by the termination ofany case in theplural number, | |
Exam, ©@y; Lukshmee ; OS MCO, Likshmees; 6, |
Gouree ; K°Woo, Gourees ; Ge a brahmuness ; !

| Deen, brahmunesses 3’ DO, adaughier DBS : : |
一5, daughters ; <8), @ cook § “KS, cooks ; oD, \
Lukshmee > CAP, Lukshmees D8, : understand- |

4 mg 5 DH, understanding $; XB, a good expres- Ad |
sion > SkSeo, good expressions. — But 8, wisdom, - | |
“Forms Ge, 20782o77s, i
A 65. Words of uncertain derivation ending in 2 i
usually require the-ter mination: @ te the ‘n omiinative



eri See ne ee eee —
ne : : 3 |
和 」
和

轉站中

和 |

和 Sg TELINGA GRAMMAR,

MEH hilt

Pi : |
| | | singular. . It-ishowever omitted after proper naineg,
| | Exam: tg), Boochchee ; Ho¥,_; Venkkeess Faso;

本 if it « 3 9 2

4 i amerchant’s wife ; 62, « clown's-wifes 全 , G@ 0x
as = :

| ther ; Qog)0, a house-wife. 5% ; S
ey

We Ht

1 | te. Si Sree chase ‘ s F
hi Of feminines in & and Ge.

aL} |

Biss |

ay

i if _. 66. Sungskrita proper names of females which
| | | end in Q or 8, optionally changeit: to @,-and fol,
| | low therules for the declension of feminines with a
HEY Hi} 5 :

a final G- Exam, O&p, Lukshmee: 4 3°
| aed
4 則 : _ 67. . The final of ts, a wife, becomes short.”
Be | : |
Be A # wd
of 7 vt —

1 ni 68.. )is inserted after feminines in G when-the |
ree _termination of any case is affixed, and inthe nomi-
a SIN a eee

| | 1 native singular when the termination is suppressed,
WAL TA i : =
q Ne Exam. QMOsrD, a wife ; HS-eo, wives.
Bate : . 3 : |
NBR A He *

同加:和引

| ee oe 3 5 Cane
i ‘ 69. 9% is inserted after words of uncertain dex
at ! “rivation expressing relationship, éxcept ace, a
a | «grandmother, after which s is inserted. Exam,
1 i , soeHxs, a grand-mother ; wep sen, grand-mothers ;
mie , 。

中| HUWDOD), @ full sister. oo
qi i: 5 OE ISS ) — F
ula | Bee ee ee Te Ba oe ee
th . 40... Feminines with ‘a: final: ed are ‘declined

| :
fe
ae it | a

了 a Ny i ;
evi : |
eae |
be = |
ie itt 3 a
Hea
eal || at Z



i

I

of A MOU N OADNG: J 3 (33 | 生

asmasculines. Exam. 55<人2, 2 mother. Cores, a |

sister in law. Yo, husband's sister. Boo, a ? :

sistema Gt} bore vil: GLE O » 8 Dute-aes By |

TNE QOS is ‘optionally substituted for the final i

. of feminines ending in Qjcahd in that case the word , | |

is declined like words ending in @9. Exam. sad | |

and SQ @ daughter; Be and BA MWws/a wo- | |

Ma 22285 104105 :3 dintbe Jog Gb. 430i a1 :

Sigs pe SgoR casohe i Sep 2200 NB ne i

Sometimes; however: RES is not substituted for | |

the final asin BOs 8, a companion, 5人 2 : |

servant girl, and @XDXB, handsome. iii

8B6 stforoTont 383 9118 ovsoas| iO ei 8 SS |

“0d人JPFlie必bftheaeethfivB arid 人6Fthe eent 生
tive, arc’ not Mixed 6 words’ ending in’ 3. ° Exam. i

SP PAW, daughter. 3° 3pBs, daughter's. i
tresyepsatr ois TO: 2) Sa for SaHAedts- 3205 9) |

ois e Hii 4

73. 3S is inserted-before SS>-He, but 9 is not in= i
serted before any termination, when the word has a , |

final 9. Exam, 3° 2a WSe-OE daughter, 33d, i
人 |
There are no Sungskritafeminines with a final 37 |
| ) ‘ 7 |

3 ei 5 å­—



ee eae ee
(it Bey. | :
tae

Wa i :

i ‘| |

Bit | : .
ii HA |

mh :

Hi BR TELINGA GRAMMAR,

| ç”±

Meet) tH HTS

Hah | { He} . wa ts is Se A : : ‘

BPP the ess nt. ant tick a ees £ ce ‘ 5 Ve! J :
Wa ie WET Fe POs ete ens :
| } i _ Of the neuter Gender. se
i Ha 7A, 3% and ©0899 are optionally affixed to neuters!
ct i ;

| iH Exam. 3d5e and wYFod), a reader, BBR,
j Fell | | = a 和 同 向 ¢

| i i and Seo®),-aisaenyice, Wrysmand Dod), lime,
int Hit | a pce ‧ = ° : # * 8 !
i i : _ PorNewiand-oXoWj adions si 9 Io
a | ; oe Stee

ih ih ae MHA .C9 MH BAiDsS ebiey? SAL BH
Wee TE i. & oe SAN \ ¢

ie — ici ‘uns —
| | -o Some: words, however; spertichlarly those of ‘un
mi ae es Snr

| | | certain derivation, do not admit either of these affix-
we So ,

| He . es. Exam, Ws, a dog, B¥, a sheep, R°%, a wall,
| ll Li ashadow, Ws; a fan to-winnew corn, and&e,
Wee i} st k. AA AA 2S) oe BG ps 位31 ae
re Hie Se uee Aye ie ruse s
ii MOEN Er Ady BEB Se ns
‘t Fe ts } ° e : =

| ç”± 75. 9} is not inserted after these increments as
Beth ie ; : wade

1 4 i itis after werds witha bal es) The 2 of the no-
和 i _ minative singular is always:suppressed after neuters.
Brie: {Oe See ee:

| 則 tS Are ot See AOVAG EY 2 Soy
Vi “& en ee 2
i i HE 76. 9 is substituted for the @ of the increment

|| i om MS Yosh Te CANS oe Pie M never used da.the

ee jHi JOM ei Sb 633" 4G 、 和2 : :

; i ase. x fie. Se a
el Sat one Cony Aonshiniss Wie eI0Isd Doli58
oi i WT. ~2 isnot affixed after & m ihe accusative nor
ai : 給 ANTSSNZWHD BNO FS &
\ kt i & in the genitive of neuters,
ete :
eit ee s gare

| vi 則| .C, intl & iw 2ininimerainiaepawe on 918 9190 4 |
對 | : ;

a i) < :
pT

Ver ee 7

Wes Hey

(ere

eh | | 3 3

Pe
ae
ei | 和
ah He
a | | ;
aes Hep “



SAMIQZR WouNS. **%? g5C i

ae
. 778)” @ isnot inserted before the Aexmination of; : |
hethitd ad feewing cases. 0 0°" Jo} scars
bas wgislesteh (uote folie a'\o “guslbiwhis M.S

.) 1o Example. WIG = AGLIO Yrs å…¨

| 2 ee manatee |
S : 8 5 5 * = i Singular. 一 a oe ee |

全 和5 人So, knowledgre. * ; 3 : |
we MCS ANT OY ee ARSE Gk i y3 See ti Sit 出

2. Fr Law, FLovw, |F'e TMNT? HE, knowledge: i

3. PXGBS, by knowledge. ae i)
2-0; gdm s Bo, of knowledge. ee es )
Voc. @°Sx%, Oknowledge. ee |

3 > F Plural. a 給 i : i

1. samen, qrvoye, knowledges: 7 i!

ke gq 生 生 [ledges: ft
“19, 80,ahog, AD, a mountain, Hg, a gem, 1

and other. words with a final Q, are declined: like |

Ba, (page 21.) Fe 3 Pi on |
80. 5 is inserted after Sungskreta neuters with |

a final G, but very seldom after words derived from, |

the Sungskrita and those. of uncertain derivation. . ; i
Exam. BO, honey, SSH, honey, (plur-) Q% i

— ae ee |
eae |

EE se i iat ie Li



用
i 則
ai :
ae |
| i | 36 TELING4 GRAMMAR,
i Ed ue Hla Kee.
1 i Ds @ beast, SHGev, beasts ; but SRHey; ca eee: 4
(WERT Hh : | ay ;
Li reunion, (of men or animals), XB3ey5 yrewnions,. Le
| Sen a es on
| | S$, the dandling of a child, =%§eu, dandlings,
Bt Ss
| ul ! many other words do ndtadmit of G.
met i
oh : So å…­ dl
| i | SI. The final & of neuters of uncertain deri-
1 | vation is frequently suppressed -hefore the terming-
i Uy HH : Oe 3 $935 AQ KE '5 Ses @ 5
| | 則 tions of the plural number. Exam. BX, ati COS.
a and TREN AEN Spa Ml Ree. sve,
和 Cg, a curse, @>& curses, ames, ihe touching of
å›› | what is unlawful, S19 AD, touchings of what is unlaw-
l | Ch ful, 8B, a stone, oe. stones, 3°, a dot, a bub
me 且 :
a ble, &° dots, bubbles. ere ae
中 ee eas
qi at ~'There-are no neuters with a final a, and no
| at Sungskrita neuters with a final yo
Wai 放 - SSS ? aa
| Ml | ~ 82." “Neuters with a fitial Shave nothing pecu-
1 1 | liar in their declension. Exam. 8, a TING, 3D Bev, |
i ibe : 3 : ie
a a rings, §®&, wood, ¥ Bev, pieces of wood, & ©, jas-
eit 5105. BE: iS 3 : io 459
a K Mine, H Sexo, jasmines, wR, a palace, pBev, pa-
he port DayPPb ebicy ESissmien iss 7 sy tae人
ai i | 人 ey a leathern bolile, B Ben, leathern bot-
Bay tee OH HI Io BOR DES Divison gf
| | iles, 2 © a village, 8 Gov, villages, HS, a ring :
ih \ | Yor the toe, Rev, rings for ihe tower ~
| 生 oo
i H i
i Bi !
a | | |
ie ii |
ee a) Te
Wey 上 /
和用 |
(BEE Hi i
轉
生
Si He
(相人基|
UL



生
ie Ta
| 和
ih
LAS Bo MOUNSE |: 37 i
Hi
Of words with a final consonant. : |
_ 83. The t% of the nominative singular, and the |
% of the vocative, are suppressed after words witha |
final consonant, : : |
S和 _@ is substituted for a final $2 oro when |
followed by any termination, and ‘in the nominative 7
and vocative singular .when the termination is sup- |
pressed. Exam. MAWHO 0ee GISOMen, dees, i
DROW, @ bee, SROPev, bees, BBMWWM, a steal- :
er of Seems, OF sev, stealers of SEMS, NSS, a.
Arop, 5 OI Wen, drops. Sone | |
85. %% is substituted for the final of words end- |
2 |
jng ing; 3, or 8 and fesse, wmjuring, and ss 有
affectionate, agreeable. Exam. AaB. a pownt of the |
compass, ®§_ev, the points of the compass, & oe, an | |
eye, B*B-ew, eyes, 0s eae, touching clarified |
butter, Me Hod Kew, (they) touching clarified but- |
ter, ae, a word, ae, words, SO和 a 。 i
cloud, x Cooma HE en, clouds, HOE, a physician, |
WA F-eu, physicians, wrador sp, eating ghee, Se : |
DUE Fev, (they) eating ghee, GO, a necklace, |
\OF-m», ' necklaces, - HOW E,. mjuring. a friend, : |
|
|
|
. |
HH



和|
Wate tT : :
ae ttt :
和| |
和 He
Be : |
|
HS EH : ee Sæ­¸
| nel 38 TELEINGGRAMM AR. .
| | iit et ,
i" uM |
ih HH : Stas ft) Soe i
| el WS F-ew,: (they). injuring @ friend ce F., the
| ll name of a measure of verse, GEE, couplets of
i 則 Lf It , s3 t J net 2 ; OT Ss 3 oO} Rig od ; ’
| the measure called Ooshnih. | :
ot . me feud
Bea排骨 3 . > Srertoep Gs Lett '
a | 86. & is substituted for the final of words end-
my el : : = :
i ! : ing with the-verbal és, binding. - Exam. Garg
i Hi } Lg fee aD wok = fo Sas 主 a - Gia 4 o-
和 | ie becca
Wve | St, CRIES gids EES _—
點 i -dyeet agiteaiite) elt aoe irae; sv Dae
qi | | 87. ‘Sp is substituted for the finals of OS, water,
i Ky | ‘and SS, @ pont of the compass, but & is substi.
ll ‘tuted for “the! final of “3 Bay, the name-of a
轉 He it 人 y os "2 3 real ta ETRE G 4 3s 4 ¥ ny
4 i i particular measure of verse. Exam: Sp, water,
Be : : anos cece ee sow
| 和 YB Sp, a point of the compass, OW BS, @ measure
we
By of egrse. ee ee
a , 2 itt O87 LOT DOTY SSE) a ee
ne ae e 和和 % 3 ete SiS ; f Ser; 5 : : = i f SO ts
eh Hy < “88. SS is substituted fer the final of words which
iM cha E'S or B Beam, SOBIB, a 8
me St人 SO Sipyok Shs | BSE
Te i 8), autumn, ODsH, sacrificial wood. :
yt BIS sates Pa oo
baa | eas ee

; eh s Saves AS ea. Ore 心重
和 89. The { of eB, spirit, and of Bs} «
a i "i “priest, 18 suppressed ; G is affixed to oe, a king,
a | me ‘instead of the Tast vowel. Exam. @ &, a spirit, @
ch so IDS 2 3 sf ES. SRI Say AO 吃
ys 85, spirits, OB, a king. 二
‘i ci “90. “Sis inserted after the final of words ending
ie ii i 人 則

TG 1
at |
ee ti | |
ee 帛

li ll
1
eyeing
HEA |
林利和 3



y

ii

7 則和

|
_¢ SF ADLECTIVES.. 99 i

; 同

ain 3, Exam. Sowpwoe®, 4 month, Spe, clarifi- , i

ed butter. 人 a eae : 2: |
There are no words with a final 3 é, op, nor : !

| any words with a. final consonant. except. Sungskrita 2 |
ones, Ge @ Baa tack en GI |
\ 7 TES EE 1 ? |

: = 吧 ;,., SECT. II.
as «Of Adjectives. Ss =

1. gor, a colour, is compounded with Sungs- i

‘TY krita adjectives meaning colours, which are then de- i |
-dlined like-substantives ending in @./ Exam: RO% |
BECO客 同 ‘Krishna/ 6 5 .
So. 2 is inserted after masculine adjectives de- i
_tived from the Sungskrita, and to suchas are of un- i

- | -«ertain derivation, before the pronoun a @%o is affix- | |
ed to thems>)£xam. SQ@art, blue, SS Dares, | |
yellow, {B-Da° eso; handsome, HSHV ard, mild, |
entle, OED eo, Ted. |
5 ii

8, Sis inserted before arto, after adjectives

: ee | |

|



ie 7 | = 7
Hie CHE
a i |
| Hi |
ie!
生|
| Hi | ae
mn 2
ia A TA ‘ 、
| | ‘40 TELING AOR AM MS R. | |
We a LE :
| 和 | which mean thick or large, and dry: “Exam. QOS |
則 Sarty, thick, fat, plump, Di Sayre, dry3
1 | nag ee
和 和855 with the previously inserted syllable
te Pb - Baas y. Shae
| | | is optionally affixed'to 88, dauniless, By, stu:
j 和 | pid, aX, dumb, and a few other words, but is |
i | i constantly added to other passive participles. The
tf Slee i . ; > ° °
ç”± a hi 1s constantly inserted before the terminations of
if A黃 y Ss
Pk ç”± the other cases. Exam. O8 and ORWa~H, un-
Weert EH j
| | daunted, @s-@ and Bsr @ Vay, slupid, wwoX and —
We hy HE smc ST
1 fi MWA Vato, dumb; GE wt, fallen.
å›› Se Pee : ;
| Fok it on Oey. GF PGES. Pi C 5 =a 信訪 ae
A NEU * : ai gee yee oo oe
| i 9: 9265 is optionally affixed to ‘adjéctives $f
i. Hy il bs x 3 : ae : ‘ » =e
1 Mt ‘uncertain derivation ‘which express} excess loridefici- |
i i ency of age. When Sti isonot. affixed to.thesa
eeu 7 oS ec A
| | ie | words, the nominative is not made in 2%, nor the vo-
Hi -eative in Oo 0 Exam: DB or -DHRwress, of Small
me tea同 ) : :
| li “AGE, DB 0 To ary;, Oli, WB oor ge Boyrth,
an G4 DB @ @
| 開 | i “blind; Se or Wee WM; lame.’ ic Bubitiisicon-
i stantly affixedsto’ 20855: stoking sy Sogaystss, |(x)
和吃 和 viOE2戰CC7學的二 es5n Ges orollsy
a it g 4 Gig aes EP?
和 | POT ee RG IGE SNIZ
Sai ein 。 1 j
和 1! ‘ iq ! 6. 8) must be constantly inserted after Sungs-
i her ra lt poo se ea See eee oo j AN oS |
) 由 中 Fit2 ad中ectiveswhi6h havea na人和: 下heteripina-
和 a tion to, &, ©, and 8 are never affixed to these words,
| a i |
any i :
hel ,
ll
|
aa ve . ,
ae , |
eT HH 3 4
itil : 3



i

Ht

i}

ip

Hal

. OF) ADJECTIVES, Al |

ty i | |

nor is the syllable @ inserted before the terminati- |
) . 冊

ons. Exam. Sao; eminent, 32552), meek; OSs?
C7, desirous of going, warDD, desirous of = |
drinking. ? Hi
% . 4is inserted before the final of adjectives ih
eS . 3 ee : 人
which end in #3 or sed. Gis also inserted be-
fore the terminations. @oand % are afiixed constant- Hi
| |

ly to all such adjectives, except 人 having一 i
cheek pouches, to which they are affixed optionally: | |
Exam. 56ogo255, 5770700428, 汪入SXCeS855, 02902292
divine, Qyeo%%s O glorious (being’, oo5s8Gc8sS |
and oo8Gc05255,ZA022g 和9人 ceeA 00c5, 的555 i
ALO, çš„os8Gceeo and, in, some instances, sews |
aoe, O (thou) with high cheek bones. a
. A |
8. When e741) spirit, is the last member, of
acompound word, the { is rejected, and the word ig |
= Zs . . ° ° ii
deciined like a noun ending in e9; but if-the first eh
member of the compound be 2088, within, GBM, |
_excelicnt, or 2% SN; universal, it is optionally deelin- i
ed as the compound or as the simple word Sd. |
Exam. SPP peo tS, viriuous, PT Ponv, vw i
; I

. EF |

和)

ig

|

|

a : | |

| |

i

———— ae SS RS aa ee 9 中



To | | = a
ut
Sanat ai 3 |
at | |
| | | | 3 : |
了 Ae TELING4 GRAMMAR. .
ph coe ae so ae
| | 279%s5 (plur.) Gooe GS or Cog C&S %; pervad=—
Yi ç”± i < nis en cone am ey 5
|畫 | aig, Mos O° -Gew or Goss O° SHoo, pervading, (plur:)
| all
| i i 9. Adjectives ending with 94 lose their. final;
Be , ; 3 5
| Hh | and are declined like nouns with a final Q. Hxam.
| | 8, carrying a staff, Mor%sseo, carrying a staff, |
he
和
a nan
Hae aR : 2S ;
i ii ~ 10... G is affixed to past participles with a: final
q Hi #S; the vowel preceding the last letter is made long
Wet ey ‘ — |
| 各 and o inserted before-the final, 五%z72. Sogo2255,
Ba aay :
P aad al Cs Si
| | I learned, aor Sogsen, learned, (plur).
Mee EMH
at See oe
和 | 所 i : Of Feminine Adjectives.
mi eat
ot | 3
Be eat a ae =
| 同 i I]. eb, @ wife, is inserted after Sungskrita fe-
ae gees saat OFF :
Re : minine adjectives, ‘and such as are derived froni the |
ea et Ga: uy
i. i | Sungskrita. 人 Is prefixed to Ge ; G is substituted
ari ae | ic
| § | li i | for the final of the word when @few is inserted.
re Be. gion
i 和 i eo
oi i) 12. - The termination eo of the nominative plu-
Sn We : ees
| | _ ‘yalis suppressed after @?e, and of is inserted be-
i RT : : ; ;
Y i | fore its final eo. — Anciently % was substituted for
i | ~ the final ep of Gen. |
st Wt See 4
Ae和
| | |
on | |
ee !
(ESE | :
ee AME |
Baie 3 | fe
| gl | )
Hest ie |
ae ] 53 ; |
TOE AIH ,
Pea 2s : , 4



生
i!
@F ADFECTIVESR <, (AS ib!
i
13. Q is substituted in. the singular number. for 則
‘the final of ev@o, and eg in the plural, in all the cases it |
except the nominative. hi
Example. Hi
&, wise. |

: : ) iM

| Sing. | |

L) At Tren, wise.
ee oe 人 ae 1 Hh

2 AGTOD, HWHOWMIE DE wiser |
et / . e mes 了 | | 則

3. AMWOOVS, by a wise (woman). Best 3 Hi

B Plur. 2 i
ee ; ; *, x 5 . |

1. Atewrews, anciently. Hacky, wiser _. |

Be ey ity Sect 2 Hi 則
人 W, HWH OB WIG OE OWI OLN Hi
2 — a e it

| L&tmarogyenssr-Qe, wise. I :

ak 了 af, ce 全 Me | i}

3. AtODTOS RS, AMD OWS, by the wise, Ke. a
Thus are declined So red, young, mm B°eo, stu- |
‘pid, SecpeNya dear, Fepeu, domestic, and many |
others. aes i

: 4

14. Sis optionally affixed to form the feminine : |
Fa |

: 7 1

a hh

; |

: : Hh} |

|

sc 加 Pas2 € 中



TT ve 3 4
By i | | ; 4
a | | |
| |
月 i | s \
ee | | |
vt AA TELINGA GRAMMAR. a
Hh et
Wee th ha :
i a i adjective of Ba>, young. In, this case the x is dou.
有| 則 |
| i i . bled. Exqin. SSS2D Oresa ev, young.
MHP h ETE
i ii
q 則 i} 15. een is imserted after all compounds of
Bet) aH rs . =
Bi | which the last member.is 7&4 , ° spirit. Exam,
aH 則 i ; >
! | i | LLP LEYTON, virtuous. 7
Ba || i}
i i 4 Hh
| | | ‘ 16. ee is optionally inserted after past parti-
if 是 Ht ‘ ; ; ‘ ‘
ve i | ciples with a final <8, and to adjectives witha fi-
WG
1 nal me or Se. Exam. SSBC, learned, d
aoe VRE ne
ç”± i Tn oWa Ow, learned, (plur.) (3) Mo0RHO"eu, glo-
q Hick Hil ‧
a | i TOUS. |
Pi
it i ;
iW | iN} 71: e °
| int | 17. When @feo is not ingerted, these words
計 Pil have the form of the Sungskrita feminines, and are
Re ty ‘itl a ‘ ‧ oot
和 i | declined like nouns with adinalQ. Exam. 2%tXQ.
oe :
i | ; i | learned, (2) HB, glorious.
ei
1 ç”± 2
ak
; | i 18. In some instances neither @feo nor &, are
ea Ee
| i a affixed toadjectives and in some casés only ©. Exam.
hie ‘aie t bat! ; 人
Beit HES抽 . a . 5 : > Eee a =
| \ i | GPa, growing, prevailing, Bo, wise, OX, an
at ele ry,
和1 | ! a :
an i |
a : : ; ; 人
ri a i 19. ® isafiixed to adjectives.of uncertain deri-
a .
eee (EU
和
ee
| i
ait )
ee |
ee
「 ie | |
SESE EMH ,
[ll .
Ee bt :
veal (LH : 3 aaa



人 sesrdastscstita) hes r kiltiALAisraIkiil11 i 4LME 51 aes ri th: te ;
li

3 Fi

: |

; oe NV!

OF ADJECTIVES. 3有 同

jon which havea final. Exam. %&b, strong “表
vation which havea final Q. Exam. Sx @o, strong, 同
able, Sa, crook-backedy: 0G, (a) sucking i
(child). : | |
20. The verbal noun 9%, the being er becom- | |
ing. any thing, is inserted after SngsRKT2tz adjectlYes i
with a final G. 2% is prefixed to this inserted word, di
and © affixed in the nominative singular. Exam. i
MPwe ¥O;. mildemeek, SENG KO, eminent. But |
Kee, barren, and mmiPO, mensirugus, are excep- ew
tions. : i |
: 5 : 點 |

Of Neuter Adjectives. “segs i

: : i

。 |

9Q1 Sand 人8 andin someiparts 9f the coun- Hi)
(Ne

try é& 8, are usually affixed in the singular number, i
3 a, 《 時 Why

: “ 3 ey

and 22-and ® to.the-plural of neuter adjectives ! Hy
Hl

@ derived fromthe Sungskuita. . Exani. $20, $208, |
and $2858, blue, SQ D.and KB. G, RF So and LH-OO, slippery, RGeea and |

則

Ke, slippery, (plur.) |

: ; ‘ i)

1

\ 3 : ; bse bak te WS ih?

| |

| i

和

|

— ce SS ae 2 es一 讓 es



ae : :
I; | 4
Du : |
Hi |
| 則 AG TELYING4 GRAMAMR. |
ie fue |
me Rie I
ea 4
和 同 |
alae | .
eae SECT, IV.
aaa
前| Of Pronouns. |
fa i | : 3 3 |
i _ “I. The personal pronouns are @?, J, 8, thou, d, |
aya gs |
Hi he or. tt, and e9% or 3%, he or tt. Caos, who, what, |
Hie aa
3 Hid Me 全 . « <
Hi . < 1s Both relative and interrogative. AES:
i oe 2
He)
Hat . 2. 3s is substituted for s, I, and 27 ford, |
i FE 人 立
ia thou, in the plural number,
ait 7
7 at ° ® S s 說 9 9
i i 3. 0 is substituted for the 2 of the nominative
Bri EEA . . eae :
i vi singular, and a for the eo of the plural, in the first
看 att : 全 |
Beas personal pronoun, and ® is ‘substituted for the fi-
geal : ae . 3 = |
ae “nal @?. G is notinserted before the terminations of '
i a | 。 ptonoulins. a
i : | ; |
ud 8 EE E
ay 4.:~ Neither the © of the accusative, northe 8:
au主| : a
ail of the possessive are’affixed to the first andsecond
; ee nal : : }
Spike ev j 讓 3 e io }
ll personal pronouns. .
| Hy 4 : ! : |
Sit kan
有 1 5. The finals of the first and second personal _
aa . 2
過 pronouns become short in the accusative cases.
eet
Hi : 6. o isinserted before the terminations of the |
{ oh
te ee 3 3
1 eis ne
ae 3
Noa
ail |
則
Z i i : |
fat ir :
a)
æ—¥
aut
ll : : Se
lia ; . oak



| 有
| He
| : : Hal
| | ig és rh
| ) OF PRONOUNS: | AT H
Bil
accusative case. In the plural sm is substituted for Wi
i fie termination $9, and, according to the ancients ¥ | 同

is affixed to the 55. &S inthe singular, s, soy, and è«‹
according to some, se, in the plural, are inserted * | A
| before 35°-Oe. | . ie | | i
Ly . | 1
“nat; | iH
| 7. O& is prefixed to the termination of the loca- - | i |

Henn

tive case in the first and second personal pronouns, _. & eh,

| : | a
| ae | He
Example. Ve

: i
: 5 |

2 ® I. . 2 i | i

: | | il

Singular. - li !

| : : me
fF 8. SEY, WAG DE, me. 同
PB. SS SRS THR, by mes & | : iy
| : , Yn
: A, =°S° OW, WB, tome. i ee | |

5, TSQYM, TSCH, fromme. ; ! |

6. ONS, TB MY : : i i

7. SOM, zt Nie. s fe |
2 Ph

—— Plural, | - 2 : | | |

4 前 章 iE

1. Bx, we. Tae

: WRI
2 LD, Bo, GiQws-oe, Geos, li |

A 9 Pi
$ ees | OD ossrDe, Us. q
Ba
|

} | | i

q

|
: i : = ei
: 同



| Mt i ; Re

IM See TELLIN

By 和 és.

Hi ae S$) STU by |
自 ae BS, SH

| a = IPG, STP Se :

Bi . “全百 BM, ag, om us. Saat

ie Ran oC 5 ss 7)

ny 和58288 ate ©, fr

ia 5 haga ws !
和| 5. BSS BO Toh, ow |
Wa ha
上 tt 6. S575 : TD, 272 US. inative

和 i ik H , Co 2 ec 1 € nomim
eh 了 疝 the 8 of then te

fi! i | tituted for he plural in

ah i is subs of th :
| Ea : 8 ®) for the QB

和 ae aid Bet

i | singular, al pronoun.

fii i d personal pr

He con le

el oe Example.

Be tai

ll
he 5 【 gor:

i | , llth ye! |
Hi |

4 | il Singular.

il 說 和 | :
aie Lou. x A

ll 、 和 sree, th |
a | TAs S, by thee. :
er 2. Qo, ee. 7 |
a 3. oS"; 28, to thee. |
i | + dead 7 s

| | | 8 Ie from the

Hel Hi AL. 人 客o C0,

1 Qxoe5, & :
te | 5. CBRE Be, thy.

eu O85, CUBES, :

|「 lll | 6. OB, se tee fice:

中 | VEX 6 a :

1 =

ye te g

ie

ie | i | :

ba |

a | :
i |

!

aie |
teal |

a | :

a |

i 3

i | |

ee | |



aa)
| ee : ç«™
OF PRONOUNS. > ~ Ag. ‘i
| : : an
Plural. 和 | H

| 1. Dore, Yee, ; : Hh
2 wm, ay, wien, asOsierfe. i
[mB owron’, you. gee | I
as ~ : aia
3. aS’, BPS, OSS, by you. . | | il

A, DrGr Bw, org, to you. | i)
|B, Bra BRS, Be, fromyou Ce | i
G, ArrBS, DDB, your's. | 生

il

| T,. Qrqeoty, mm you. ; : | |
Hel

。 an

9, My and 238, are frequently substituted for | i

&, he or this, in the singular number. a | | i !

10.. According to modern usage © is optionully | | i
, inserted before 2 when it is affixed to Qe. | |
i
: 11. % is substituted for the eo of the nominative | | |
plurals after $, he, a, he, and (tes, who, who? \ |
According to modern usage % is optionally inserted by Hl

TE Hf!

some, and & by others before the en. hil |

| ee 同

12. is affixed tothe plural of , he, 07, he, and | |

cs op8og fi Hi

G | | a

. vee

Pop Le

和 : i 同
Mt

ay

2 i | |

出

in

—— ee i:

地 as eae Sa Ti



hh |
| 過 |
Het |
訓
Hii | 50 /TELINGAGRAMMAR: 4
Hi | | | a
+ | 13. In the singular number of 8, he, 27>, he, and a.
| i i - OCs, who, who 2 the increment 9, and in the plural, the | |
| | i | increment 6 is inserted before the terminations of all. _
| | | tlie casés except the nominative. It is, however, Oop-
a tional before the 2 of the accusative singular. Ac-
Hi | cording to some of the moderns, & is inserted before |
和| | @ When it is affixed to 為, Ze, and a, he, in the sin-
ae pt :
gular number, and & is optionally inserted before it
e Ha } ° 人 S
i | | in the plural of }, he, a, he, and Qos, who, whos
了
品 | 14. é and & are optionally inserted -before the
a | | ? ao of the accusative plural,
bi :
i | fase =
1 = 15." 0 is prefixed to the terminations of. the se-
Ah --wenth case. :
pi | .
if | Example, ,
en eS af

bil ES : aos sche. See He, She, th. ,

| a | | : = Singular.
Boe 和 7 ze
nl A. ated, 品8 255, PAE AD, Res O20, he.
和 ! POO HE, DEVIG OE, BWPHVMODNE, AF -
i GRE him
i i 圖

| an |
af | |
He :
| | |
a |
= :

ti sail



ni
a

i
Hal
(OF PHONOUNS. © i
> : Wa
3. 5097, SORS, SWWUL ES, SSBF, dB HI}
SU, RES, NS PBS, BICC, BST Hi
S QS WBS, BSHWGKS, by him > 同
8 AS HATTWS, SAE ASW 同
3B, NBS, BASE OB, 45 DE, to him. | 同
人二全3條和1人 同
KOS, AA DLCH, MILB, BWV, | |
from him. , es | i
6. HOE, HSB, AAW, SAB, QI, iH
QSOBoE, VHOBLH-, VSHOW, his. : i,
7 HOCL0%S, DAOKLOD, NH DONCOW, BAF DOLLOW, i i
am him. | i Ae | i
1. StS, Seve, SBov, they. — | Ze Hi
: 9. SOD, Sede, HOEW, SHTOM, SOWSHE, HE : | i)
: BOSE, HOLDS HE, HUOWIS WE, them. | I |
3. SOS, HOBS, HOS'U, SLOSH, SVOBE, 品
EWS, HOLS? HOPS. HOES"L, bythem. . | |
‘he DOS’WNH, HOS, HOOK, SHOT, DOES au
Bo, dos, to them. 3 Se i |
5. HOLL, HOV H, SKOKYW, AVOVOH,0 ih
EK QaS, BOENCT, fromihem
6. DOW, HOMWG, SHO, HYOWo.-, DOEW, |
Serta: tere = = 5 則
Gs : i
同
= |
— dq
到
He



I iW aie : |

| | | | WM AR. |

1 il 5% TELINGA GRA = |

at : ECO, in them. |

hit ! 7. SORE, SVOAKAS, Hoectsos

Bull G : substituted for a>,

第ll es and 928 are often

Hl | 16. @ |

| lI | he, in the singular num |

wet

ahh

I Example. 4

1

則 = aw, he.

i ; 3 =

Ha | : . Singular.

at es

i Kt . ¥ he.

| 298, sae BO, CHD, DOW OE,

1 Od; D&O, :

ll 的人人 PEMD OH WOH, OF

fl DVO WE, DE =

Pal He hans Dans,

nh — TAT, WRT L, TAS rue

fea — DWPAS GE, OHS HOS %, by him.

fi SIS, GSTS, 二 waz, OS?

hee 7 BS, D°AS-GVdD, sg

i OF UM, SDE, ae

7 ii 5 F7UMW, OH2B, Fs PASS, PaNoD,

Bee | < a Dy . —

i | eS oe 5°
國 11 92585885, OF

ay | —=> , from him. - : C2

4 1 i 6 Doses ore SGS his.

va . ) Boe, sos, Ges

1 | 1 do, OD

Rage i

中 oe

TENMI [H :

Hh 上 |

a ? |

ae | =

1



: i ee
iH i,
& - ia
3 Hal
~~ OF PRONOUNS. 53 |
同
1. TPDMGOW, DPS MLS, OH DOALOWS, GH Doe I
| eer 則
Plural.: ; : : | i)
Lars, wr Bew, Draue, they. | |
£2, 32D, DOD, D°DE, DTWOD, DOH, DO | i
3 See So DW DEBSPOE, D- GOW OE, | |
WeOEssrHe them. ee i
8, DPOS, D°ODS, DOT L, DOF, DCO Mi
Bs, D°WOS’h, DOES , D7OEBH, DOE | 同
© &, by them. : os i
和 | 上
OES°U Bo, DOES , to them. i 由
b. DPOSLMW, D2OYOH, DWOSLWH, DVO vi
ZS, DPOMEKLMH, DOEKO ®, from them. | | i;
| 6. DO, DVO, DPVOW, D°COMN,, T il |
obcxo255. oocwo855, Seco855,人2 them. |
OCs, who, who? 7 | 上
i
3 , Singular. | | il
1. QOS%, who, who 2 : A
2.QOSD, DONDIHP'HE, MOKGRTHE, whom, whom ? | 和
at
, i
| : |



a) : : | |
| i |
1 | 5k TELING4 GRAMMAR |
| 和 ! |
人 3. COPS", QUSIBS, CLKIS'L, OSKAS™,
ll | COSABS, CSSeG@S7 8 , by whom; by whom 2
rad = x ton
He 4. CLSOS’Bbo, HHT, MSA GW, CONSE
ti Hi to whom, to whom ? 7 |
i j : 5. CQOHWSLW, WSPVOH, OSESYW, aw
i | 人 G@Xo 高, from whom, from whom ? |
i | 6. GOSOW, SDM; CONAN, COSA,
We | whose, whose? : , eens |
hh | 7. KOSDOMOO™D, CHS ACCS, in whom, inwhom? —
a =
i Hi | : Plaral. * !
利和 1. MSH, COSBeu, who, who ?
Ve | 2 DNOd, OSE, OM SHOM, CHOW, OKO
a See OK CAVSPET AE, tS
fi i KOES°DHE, whom, whom ? |
[ll | 3. DSBS, HSOBS, OOSOS' LV, MSVOSâ„¢,
1 osGeosg.OCXKGeos 8 MSoES”, hwo

ta Bs, OOSOES &, by whom, by whom? 一

: i A. MesOS° UW, GLKO §,, COAT OS°HW, COST
1 OF, MOSOEsP UH, MoNoes, to whom, to —
i | whom ? :
oi oi a geass 4
ha 5. CSKOSLES, MKOVSH, CLACKOSYS,-OGS
ne | BICH, QSsekS8S5, COWSeeSo 0 from

| | ut | whom, from whem ? |
ne ae

ae |
tai - } |
Pe
ia
ce . :
re : |
| i 3 | a



-
= : Hal

| i
? OF PRONOUNS: ae | | i
ee | |
Move Co559, QSSe5O85s5-, whose, whose ? | | i

7. MBOMCOW, CHAT OMLOW, COMOEONows, in 7 He

Al

) whom, in whom 2 — ) | i
| | | i

i

和 This word according to the ancients is written | iH
with the x doubled, Exam. Q6x Sth, who, KSSd, | |
whom, &e. 3 | i
同

17. 8% is substituted for %&, and sm for 2, after | | it
@, self, spirit : anciently twas substituted for ey. | j i

| | al

18. Inali the cases except the nominative x < is i |

ee os Wl

_ tubstituted for @>, self, in the singular number, and | 1

~ 8% in the plural. |
Paap
; aie

: 時 Wi:

19. The final © of S¥and & % is optionally re- 中 |

jected, in which case the termination 9% of the accu- ty |
Hil

sative plural is changed to sm, and, according to some, vi |

| @ is further affixed to the a. : 和 | i
| 同

20. In the singular number <0 is inserted before | | |
Sore, and a in the plural, | ne | i

! af
| A

| : ie
. ; 1 |

: 1
| i



——
Wy | 時 |
ni : : |
Hl . 86 TELING4 GRAMMAR. : |
qi | ea | |
| | Example. |
A a |
W :
| i i | @, self, spirit. |
和 | < "Singular. |
Hil bss ah ,
吃 ee ae說
| | 9 2 BIBS, SIS G, by self, Se. |
ti 1. BM, Bro, selves. 3 :
[| 了人1
| | ee
a | 3. SSS, SBBS, FOS, by selves, Se. |
al i 21. In the feminine and neuter genders singu- |
ll | | lar nominative, 2& is substituted for , he. |
eeu | |
上 (| | ; °
wh | il - 92. In the feminine and neuter genders, & is sub-
| i | stituted for , he, in all the cases singular except the |
| | nominative. 3 |
出
a : 23. o % is prefixed to the termination gin the
| | ! a Se | plural feminine of 8, he, and a>, he. | )
i | a
Ge
a ) | |
Pan ik |
) iy | : )
te i | | )
i | | a.



: ? z Sos 4 | 和
> : \ s a | i) 和
: 前出
OF PRONOUNS. 57 : ua
} : 1 aH
“ sa
94: The increment @ is inserted before the ter- | | 1
minations of all the cases smeular of this proncun. | ) |
except the nominative ; before Q it is optional. oh | | |
Example. i i
bs oe HL
Z Singular. : i)
1. Q&, she, or thes woman >-.- 25 | i
7 2. HD, HIV» QSI°HE, HOVwW-oe, her ai
her, & a
3 95°; AVBS/AWST°S, by her, Se. | 生
: iy
3 i
Plural. | Hi i
| 1. S088, they;these women. : i |
Bee : Ra
2. HoB wn, 508 SIT DE, them. He
: ena
ae /: ° nL
, 8. 5084S", HoBIBH, DHoBIS Lo, by them. ia)
2 9 5 i | ik |
‘ 同 ° a as ‘ if Fi |
29. 98 is substituted:for a7, he, in the nomi- ih |
: Rees | i Hi }
native singular of the feminine gender. wi |
; ae oie TiAl,
26. In all the casés except the nominative @ it 有
ete ee ey
| is substituted for <>, in the feminine and neuter gen-— - wi |
- , eae |
ders, : : | i
s Nia tea iy 2
Hi i i
| | ; Wi i
* . ‘os Hh
3 7 Se rh
| Ls i
vt
ial
Wai |
ue
: 3 a



| 生
i or TELINGA GRAMMAR. : |
i
| 則 1 Example. :
wie : :
| | Singular.
hi q 1, 8, she, or that woman. |
wa 2. TP, WD, WITH DWddsrHe, her.
ve : 3. TWS”, PBS, DWH S, by them, ke.
i 生 a "08S, they, or those women: 7
| | i "2. sroBen, DreBswssr-He, them, or those women. |
il : | ; |
i 3. 3°08 °, D°OFBS, DKS SG, by these wo- |
a men, — :
He , is |
| | 1 27. © is affixed to ws,0r cs S, who, who ? in
| | | the feminline gender. . |
| ee :
realy. ? : |
ay = Example. :
i | Singular. - : ,
Bae tt
ç”± | | Ose, who, who 2 .
fa 2. KSSW, MHKSWISNE, whom. |
| | ! ee KHKSSBS, CUS STE, by whom, ke.
hi So aes Plural,
i 1.’ OS Gen, who, who?
na ‘2, CUSBOW, HS SOMITE, whom.
| 1 93, ceseeS", cowseoss, OOSGOT 2, ç´„
生 Se WHOM, Ke. : ,
) ‘Hi | ;
pat) ee ; t
ai



| | ai)
, 3 } | 0
| 1 i |
: | at
OF PRONOUNS, 59 ii |
ae an il)
-- NN. B. This word may be written oo S$, and de- 有 |
| clined in the same manner. , so: eget { ll
; ; : : nA
7 a:
| i ni |
3 ; arte ]
| a |
“能 | | ae
Of the Neuter Gender. - tel
| ee 3 oa
| 28. Qa is substituted for &, dhis, in the plural Wi
nominative of the neuter gender. ; | |
oS a
| 29. & is inserted before the terminations. of all i i
aa
the cases plural, except the nominative &, this,anda-, - 7 | |
ly that, inthe neuter gender. ee a 2 ih |
說
. oe 7 a
: 30. 2 is optionally inserted in the neuter singu- __ fii
lar of 8, before 367-¢, but not before any other —_— | | |
termination. : 1 Hi
] Se Ze i |
| 31. The & of the 9 whieh is insertedafter Sand ih
_ ‘, and the & of GP and Ag, are optionally reyect- 一 | | |
ed before the termination 2. — ii |
Vel;
; api |
? Sc : i
oS . : al
3 y HA
7 oe 7 oe ee |



| a : Ls ae — 還 : _—
if . | 7
ad 4 |
品
Bieta) |
Tig: |
| 同 只
i : 00 TEDING F GRAMMAR.
人 | se po
| 4
| ll SS - Example. ;
è«‹ iat i} : = q
| | 有 — :
a eee |
hil | 1. Rey this sat. 才
i :
i Hi | ; Ro & = CN ODN : : sc å­¸
hal 2. HS, SOO; SD, AWE ATWVGOE, AVS
i i ae, thas, it. |
me) AC «a> ao 當 ‘
| | | 3. OOO, HVOH, HOSS, by this or i, &e. |
eat : |
i t | | Prurak, -
Bem et| | ; ‘ }
| | 1 ‘1... Qa, these, 點
1 at He as = 4 |
Bou ~ & cK |
li | 2. DD; DOW" OE, HOW He, these. |
Pe . Ze
a 8. DOS, SHO BS, DOS Sy by these. ,
ei iit i |
l as .
| | . 22. © is substituted for o>, that, ia the vo-
hie | minative plural of ihe neuter gender, |
則 和 8 mm p : 13° Se
| [| a AUX GM PLE. i
| iq ree Singular. = = se ge
val | ! oe PPO, ae OL Ie : ss
ra; as oi Tete oto
ral ç”± | 2 PO, POO, PA, DWT He, DWyrpe,
Been: t .
a i | | CARP DHE, that or it. be
: er Hh | c EO OT AS pene
| | = 3. DOO » DOW, Wee vy by that, &c. oe
AeA | : —e 3 7 es
SOREN ee me :
} | 1 Fe RID, bhose; thenp. =, st eS PES :
ri | os #. BIO, BG WW? HE, Go OKSPHE,: those, them.
Oa HHT < = eee 3
| i | < 3. OS, PODS, DHS &, by those. |
aa | | 7
Agi | .
a) | | : ,
ai 6. :
ty | | 5
aa | ‘ :
By) |
a | 3 : 3 a



aH iB hy,

3 . iy

ea

Waa

: OF PRON OTNS: 61 i).

ee , Wl
| 33. > is substituted for ots, 1n the nomina- il i
tive case neuter. © is substituted for the 2% of the Wil |
TT.
nominative singular, and for the eo of the plural. | i |

34. In all the cases of the neuter gender.except 4 il

說 : ; :: BH)
_* the nominative; G2 is substituted for ogg, im the sin-> 本若
a2 f 1 ! HH i

gular number, and “@¢p5 in the plural. ie

, Example. 3 a |

( . Singular, BE | | | |
‘y 1, Gog, what, what? ZF 4 i |

+ 2. BD, GA, GWOssr OE. GAR oH, what, what? } ;
|

9, QoS , 0人9, 6 8, 22 022 by what 2 &e. ni

| Ph

‘ i) i i

六 PRinrale< A = ; i 有 i |
a 5 a

1. Ba, what, what, ? . ui
- | # Ht)

2. DED, BOOMS HE, WAGE, what ? AN
: % a |

3, DOS, OWE, DDO w, bywhat, by what? a |

|

: AM % soe 5 Wier 43 |

| : ee iil
| = Se 6 2.5 ) |

; = : a)

| 9 i i I
: : : . ‘ TGAIMET? |

= : ||

es | a

oe

ea

4

z + ead

| | ai
| : S a
x Sen | |



一 | cs : |
和 !
| ca 62 Re TELINGA GRAMMAR.
| |
fi |
ç«™ Of Numerals. .
i if i iS) : . : :
Rana | 。 。 Sas |
i | 崗] Numerals are substantives (@osS)。 adjectives |
用 (%oS2cS), or ordinals (95205576. |
Li | | 3 ;
a : | 1. 28 or @%-, one, when an adjective is declin-. |
用 ! ' edin the three genders, butin the singular number = |
i | | only. a
| | i | 2, Some insert &, and others: 8, instead of ©, as
ae | = : cae 1
ie i | an augment before the terminations of this numeral
we ae Ky | - ~ ae
1 ! in the masculine gender. !
nai
ra iS os ;
| i i Fs 3. In the feminine gender @ is affixed to this nu-
ie : j ae .
it i | meral, before which some insert G. ,
| 上 4. @ is affixed to this numeral in the neuter |
| le : sender, whether it be a substantive or an adjective. 7
ait Lt ‘ s
ons .
i 中 Example.
i | | ws Masculine. . : ;
加! 1. 28S, ett, one
ee Ht ' 2
| | 4 | | 2. WED, WFAD, WFOO, one. :
Sarde att. re $ ‘ 了 K s
i i | 3. GEOG, WEBS, WFOBS, by one, &e.
i | | : ti |
ais | : :
中 2, VON, BGS, one. = 4
ie ! ' | 3. WOW, WY OEWH, byone, ke. . | |
HEN || - |
出 | =e ? 7
a | Sees
ai ae | 3
Gt bi
iid ; 3 |
a : :
Bl. i ç”± *
| | SS a
aah |i 3 > 2



| . = a
3 oe 4 al
| : OP NUMERALS. 5 ge | ç”±
| 3 2 : anh:
| Neuter. 1 | Hi)
> . 1. Ses &%-dos One. - : | : q 則
SO... OK a525,.0ne. ie ae i
8, XB WH, by one, Ke. q |
Eye : ; HE
| if i},
mm . The x may be doubled as in the nominative, and { | :
all the usual terminations affixed, which for want of ee 1 | :
room are here omitted in the third case. - af i |

5. 8, two, is only declined inthe plural num- , | il
ber, and is the same in all genders. The same may | | |

he observed also of sm79, three, YO, four, DB, 二全 由 |

five, CHM, six, and o%sorS, seven. ce as i | |

| a

“ 6... % is substituted for eo, after all these numer- eo i | |
als, and © is inserted before the terminations of the iii
: el

+ other cases. Some also insert 2 before a5~-Qe. i | i
Exam. Q3%, two, IH ZSW, three, SOW, 327 | | i
Bowe, Jive, PIS, sex, Cootao7¥ WS, 0067 2 : ie 則
«RROD, QROwHe, ROOK DE, two, (ace) Yo | i
ROD, NOWOSTPDE, WOW HDAGME, three, (acc.) ci
SoS, AROS, AOTC, by two, Coos, ç« 
— LOMOBS, VOWOS S, by three, Ke. ; i
a

s 7. 'The increment o % is inserted after QoS A
= Se , ae a

| oe Bil

= ‘|

i |
a5 ae ; : aes rte Hi



| 和 |
an | |
| i: 3 7 3
| i I: 3 an |
ie St TELINGA @MAMMAR. |
a | |
| ! 同 eight, and ©, nine, before the terminations of the !
| it masculine and feminine genders, which are alike in
| ‘| | | these twonumerals. Hxaim. CPB OKAYS TS eight, |
ti i SS eGrsts, wine
iy 8. According to modern custom, 7p is option- i
i | | : : “ally affixed ‘to these two words after the termination.
| q ‘ _ Exam. TS BGKYWW; eight, Soe srs nine. -
eae: |
i | 1 9. When the humerals from ten to nineteen are |
i | | + adjectives, 2H is affixed to them. & is substituted for
| 【 the final of G8; ten. Exam. 82557505) 62, SHF*o
i] iS | ww, thirteen, SBeoms*s, fourteen, BOS WW,
生 Sfifteens BSW OW, sixleen; in 8 Se-
| | * ee SWSBasowy ahd. GHJWWeVGZwOwW,
i | Bs eighteen, SOS RyoKoy and .WoH Boy WH » mine-
yt ia
Yt | | S32. 2G / iss
i | 說 10. ,, sSoo 1soptionaly affixed tonumerals from
和 | 本 eight to twenty, and constantly toailabovetwen-
Wl | ty. Exam. On@Mo soo, eight, 5 BH woo, mine, — |
上 ! = eS CB Qaxmwsod, twenty, So Q) M0, thirty, SIH MOH,
h ! I : an hundred, Ronmcd, a thousand, S&5.c00, a
) lit | 4 = hundred thousand.
則 | | : | 4
a | : | =
vig , : :
Bie : | : ,
ne 3 |
aay |
ae it : =e < * 4



pes | ae | ay if
, ae ant
1 iH |
aa
| OF LNDECDINABLE WORDS. 65 a
: nit
4 11. ‘When numerals are substantives they are el- | 同
ways of the neuter gender, and have no inflection i ll
; % aah
of case whatever, @%, one, excepted. Exam. %Â¥@ Wik
| and %%-6, one, G0rs, lwo, mmo, three, Wow, | i
four, It, five, EF%S, six, Oboe, seven, Torna, i,
: | Be
* eight, 6 28, nine; and GO, ten. | | | i
| ; : oa i
| ||
= | , Tan:
Be Of indeclinable words. mee 4 |
| eet gee . te
| Indeclinable words are of two sorts, (9% Se 085) | 和
euch as cannot be made into a sentence: or used with- i | | i
out other words, viz. adverbs, conjunctions, prepo- 和 H
@ Deg
sitions, and interjections, and (W)& o@)) such as ex~ i i
press an idea of themselves, viz. aptote nouns, among ~ a
7 ; é 3 Hiei
which such are reckoned as admit one or two cases. | | |
和 中

2 ; : i
1. When two vowels come together the first is |
omitted, | i |

i 93 and. DB; even, indeed, are emphatic particles. fei
Pramcome Bt, Rama is indeed the god, bli |
US Ts At! 2,

Ome ad 6H 2%, Rama is indeed the preserver. wg
Ome a CMe, La @ the p 2 oa

| ee i

| - Ue: / ui
a | : a
se 2 fs 4 i ; i

; Ph |

= | i} |

i j : | | i |

| ae Hea
! : 3 i
| Se ; : s Wi] |
ny



ti | | | |
(ie :
a |
pen |
BW | !
ti 7 GRAMMAR. |
i #3 TELYNGA G om
| eye ‘ 1 }
i i | ; similitude.
| Mt “Baas like, as, is used to express § oo
ae | 8. a “een a" |
ae | $i ay SY S a0, like Rar
i a oS Exam. O'Dde
i: | : eo
月吧1 sloved after words
1h : ao njunction employed after \
i ft A QD is the co J fter words with a final CS; t,
al 過 oc le > alter W 只
ie 4 with a final ane ae eise. Exam. SOQ Sd
on i : nd, also, likewise.
ae é‚„ both mean and, ae
| 上 Ur i
ly 4 i Meds Hure eS ; |
ays |
anh °F ther. Exan ‧
i; | | | | Zr, with, and xSr&, with, toge i,
i | | = Ei, saoted, Lukshmuna with Rama. |
oe | SS TOW? OLA go Loo, 3 3 Sea
a DMG HFS ee ma with Secta. VEO
way | 355° wea Om, Ra re together.
Hat iN : = 2 Sts, Seeta and Rama are tog |
則 | | 1 <5 Ar Gomme, :
i | Ht i ; 1 rs used to }
| hat? yes This particle 1s v
ay $ hat? yes. ot th nl ee! |
ea 上 6. Wo, W see anor It isalso a particle ;
ha = entence interrogatory. 作詞 as :
i | i make a sentence 1ess. and of consent when
a) |} ; 、 “orULeSS, -
Be ah 上| : eration oF S = =. Os
i | an address. 右Xe772. Co Sp wee), |
ia | it - areply to an 2 os got Ose», dost thou
cmt | 3 oe) 55 PS Bh WwW Op ad ©
pa | hou speak ?—%s
Hae |i: tiou 7° Coe, O child. —yes. !
i | | speak well? BAD
al Ei eee gam
i ç”± near, these words indicate Hse :
ca Sees AO?, near, the: : the
Ht Ht | ' us x8, SAO; 5 é of BS or Sow SAS: NER? bi
D Stee He | > E IY So0G 2 ; =
a situation. Exam. ;
中 |
由 “4 9 hand, is
it l 過 %, of according to some, @¢, at hand, '
Ha 8. Ge, oF;
| ae) | |
aa | |
we | |
Su .



af
: 4 | om Hl |
ipa e
a)
Wasa
OF INDECLINABLE WORDS 8? |
a
e 同 . ® 4 H i ht)
used to indicate motion or any other circumstance as We
about to take place. Exam. O% om Ge Or OV Ws? | |
KBox, the lugna is ahout to commence. -. E | 和
| a
9. 3 2d, without, separated from. Exam. %sy 955 3 | i
了 saat ° aaa
3 Ohta Gen eto, Rama cannol stay without Sees Hy!
ta. | : | | |
10. @*<Â¥, after, afterwards. Exam. Come a
DPE OFA get ORS DaQ, Lukshmuna was borr | | H
Rote = hh |
afien Rama. | | |
a
WT
11. S&,; is a particle which indicates freedom 則 有
a ie
from any thing, italso means without, except. Exam. i i
. SSM DAD Srd0ow, sin is gone. Six OHD Ho An)
’ ; ; ; int
OX, he cannot live without wealth. : 則
: a
Hi
12. aor, on, above; upon, hereafter. Lixam. ae H i
Mod ar, on the house, a906> Bre, upon the a
ground, S-AkMHoOWs Bro, after ablution.— : 和
in front of, afler, hereafter. Exam. woe 20° Hi t
pew APS Woprgnoy dim, first ablution and — | Hl.
gots 4 a |
x g I 2 : ; nol
| | all
5 生則中
‘ 品
| | 7 |
ae | 有
S |
, an i , = a



和全中 |
| i it ) ; é‚„
| fi 65 “ TELING4 CRAMMAR. |
å–‡| | |
item | ‘ |
| 請 “坊ce e0e225 00978609. 55c8 0 5S%8 人人, Goda: |
| formerly we went io Kashee. 0SO° PQM DS
i | : % * ge
和 | DoS eras, first Iwill give my daughters inmar-
eae | ae oo . |
| TIALE. BESO? ©) Yon Gowowo, L lay the boole
| | ! before me. |
nn | 1 14. Qwev, this, hitherto, thus far. Exam. ROW, |
il | wOSsm, thus far he spake, 3 : |
| | 中 |
和 os =e
in | : 15. Co eu, how, what, how far. Wows SOSH,
放量了 |
ha 上 what, or how far had he spoken.
ae 則 16. ©3,-%, there, thither. Exam. O5-G& 83rs ex, |
! ! 1 he must go thither. ,
| 則 1 Rox, where, whither. Exam. WG BS - |
dl iN BHo|, wt will be proper for him to go somewhere, |
me. | = :
| 則 | <5 18. Q3-e, here, hither. Exam. 只 說 oss
i] | | AS5, he must come hither. - i
4 i iH , 4
itae : fl ; ;
則上 ii
| | | 19. Cao Spt, when, ©9°Spts), then, Qwptoo, now.
ba a 前 : Ce .
Hh 4 Exam. On gS wrx Ger when you please. Coy
| | ç«  tS BACH, do tt then. QBpP% BO Qod; do tt.
| eee tt
aii tl 和和人
vay i NOW. |
“ay | | |
q ‘ : 4 |
. 7
ve i 1 i} : S :
a i | =
點| ti. ee
ae oS es
ime 昌 3 ;
ay |



| coh i
: : aa
| | hi
OF INDECLINABLE WORDS. 69 : al
- 90. TRo02S 8, what, when, e020, that, then, | | |
Moroso, this, now. Exam. Goow*sss SY,0, when did ae |
youcome ? CortDdS %Â¥,o, I came then. co | i
Kd, I came now. . ee | i |
“Ql. 5505, 0 7 s20es. Exam. thén BOA, turn- Y |
ing on all sides. : Le | |
ae . 人
22. e902 &, every where. Exam. CoS & BES ! | j

RS ' Fe is | Oe
Cin GTAMW, God is every where. fi a

: , 2 |
93. Rows, Bear, near. These words mean near | i i

as it respects piace Gi relationship. Exam. Ged Does, 一 He |
eg27Z2e7:。 0558 如555 2eo7 7/24 702072.。 85 iy.
i we

; APrtoar oyopev, my near relations, _ | 和
: P|
ws 7 oe , Wad

; : : 3 和 : | Hl |

OW. Biya, ort, far, distant. These words i |

indicate distance of place or relationship. Exam. i Hy

; : ~ Heå’±

‘ cs 3 i] Mit
CoH HHS or GXoS 62 ds./27 ds, 359./7, i)
wyse BO DD WKH, a man cannot marry a li i

mt

distant relation if she be esteemed’as a mother. | | | |

25. $8, Dd, slowly. Exam. B68 S%D, £° i i)
slowly. HY 7 asrdrr%o, speak slowly. 3 «a

, hi

Â¥ . . Pe Ee oe Hl

圖

i

3 | ee i,

g . Ta 和
a ; OR



eee — 一一一一一一 es : ; |
國| a |
Ve | |
te = a
tae | N64 GRAMMAR, : |
a ‘a we
| ii { A . Sh Ka. |
Woe | re uickly, hastily.
| | | 26. BAOSS, swiftly, quickly ‘ell |
hat i jam O's Ow, he must come quickly. :
| i | DAOW O'S OW, |
i |) oc 3 Cita,
a | : t dialect ag, swiftly, |
| 27. &we, and in the vulgar dialect ag Od or
a Wyiapecily, quickly. Beam: OUSet OD oF |
th | hastily, speedily, 7 key 2 |
in é‚„é‚„ 5 ULEY.
wine | NO", come J
i + tt : On Ce ;
it ee ee
i | | , . 8 |
| 則 8 eS |
和 ome- |
HA | Hi ", this word is used to =e _ 1
| a 衝 99. 95. or. th hines
nae | | Got ee ingone of two or more things. |
i | | | thing doubtful respecting 01 block or a man 2 |
fi | wy a Kad ee is tf a ock or +
ve Exam. PSS SWAD, sie 4
a : , |
We Hi 7/7 Exam. GeO eS? GW
ey) | or, ertier. : |
i fi RR Rade, serve 4
nt i
ia tl a 2? how? Exam. One, or |
本 | “81, Goo, Mes, why ? how ? Ex :
a i 3, ee), why did youcall ? Be. |
號 tics ROO, Los |
le | oa 3
he | 加 Soe ly, heretofore, afore- |
| ee ee ee AYGowS, thou
ae | time, before: Exam. eee = ©o,Lsaid
ae it) é‚„ ly. SWS {ws BYEOH,
adi 和 * eardst it formerly. . oe LSB: |
Uae | tt aforetime. 3 |
mao | 4
wa ih 3 |
me a
ud |
| a |
| | H :
oi
ah | iy 9
ay. ae



ee : a
|
| | Be Hat
| a
: OF INDECLINABLE WORDS. 71 則 |
Wu
83.- =5-en, enough. Exam. SCE WOK, Ae
there is rain enough. y- ; | i:
3 Na
34. 3 isa syllable used euphonie gratis with- : i !
4 。 ¢ Fatt fs Lae
outany particular nreaning. Exam. ©D) B D)TeOO | |
+, Say no more, or you have said enough. 3 | |)
; ad
35. 80%, formerly, before, heretofore. Exam. i
SOO 35) Good, I spake before. Te | |
me
- 86, Mote, before, in front of. Exam. WxD@ | | i
ROO aPrdy%o, standing before me speale. , / |
5. 0G95855, Ah! alas! oh! This is an expression ye
3 (7g
‘ of sudden recollection, and also of repentance or fe- i | |
: APG
egret, Exam. @9085°} “OPjq? Gre? OOO Yow | Hit |
Box ®, Alas! O'God why dost thou not look upon ff | |
me with pity? eBsS CjY Xe, Oh! Thad writ- in
ten it before. sy) OOF ChO Bers, Alas! | i |
what have I done ? ; : ) | Hi
a | ge 2 ers | Hii
88. wierd, BrSs, Oho! very well! These ti !
es : a
words are used to express threatening or menace. ai:
Exam. S03°§ or arG" BG YOSBE®, O a
A ae AL:
Sho? or, very well—you dont look kindly at me. | i
ay
: S 4 i
: , | ail
fe . a
: | | | 1 e



和 抽 +
| Ha Ss : Sao ‘
et = )
IF TR THLINGA GRAMMAR. |. :
和 和 |
Maree {il .
| | | 39. Xo, bravely, well done, O brave, truly, in=
ie | m3 ; : ‘ ;
Tal i : deed. ‘This word is an éxpressyjon of commendation,
ia | i : : ore
| i | or affirmation. Exam. BQodrw OD) WHP Slow
Raia: : ‘ On &
Hn 8) Xo, O brave ! thou hast read, child. QB) 3 |
i | | | : i : e > e .
i | DSKXo, LT have indeed given tt to you.
Hie) 7
點1 | ee |
fi it ! 40.。 Bs" or es, certainly, indeed, even. Ex. |
1 1 關: 、 |
過 | ONAQADH®, GoD. or ~s>, I have indeed given it, |
| DOOEDF BO” or ORY, T have assuredly given tt. |
| i Da ww or HW, IX paw, even thy good fortune. — |
ine |
i i Al. @7, Se, yes. This word is used asan affirma- |
aE es : 3 =" . |
ae five reply toa question. Hxam. SmQor-d, child, &
abe | yi : P y 1 .
上 ! i ; Or DRM, Yes. : )
ale (| : : a uses) |
i | a < ne 3 |
a 則 0 word is both negative,pTi
| 則 _ ~vative;and prohibitive. Exam. SOG Wes ROS
| | | 28, do not injure others. a
mae . a
FG 則 oe
Hae | Joe : |
i | | AZ. NSW, proper, right, and XS t, wmpro-
nae i — per, wrong. Exam. S s-XSQe BOY B52
rae {Yi eS : ped ote chm
| Hf | 5, 太23.48 2 270067 0/2072,。 0T this oug let to be done.
+ ae i oe
Hi 96)
ie ij i +
é‚„| |
生 1 | . .
i | | = :
wae Hi : eS
ai
a : :
則 at



: : MMHG Hy
Se “ : ae We
ae 4 ae | ç”±
VR 則
* Ha
q OF INDECLINABLE WORDS, 73 i,
: Bs SACSem BosSjsrxvs, this is wrong, or : | | i)
ought not to be done. a Soe : | ih |
oe a Wy
At. Seba, right, proper, Ot, wrong, un- wi
proper. Exam. Sse OF SESE, this word | | |,
: | is right or proper. 0 89066009 O'S, this wordis . | | ,
_ wreng or improper. N. B..'These are verbals. | i |
還 hai彌 : a 2 ia I
Ad. @?, what! (hesitatingly). This word also indi- | | 同
cates regret, joy, and doubt. Exam. SCH Mm DOS, | | |
陸生 : ps A aes ; ee i
what ! will not the rain cease-? indicating a certainty i |
Ofits ceasing,。 So. BOWS, what! will not . | l |
是生中
the rain cease ? indicating regret at its not ceasing: —_—- mth i
SUKI DOT, Oh ! the rain is over. SHEL fi |
| Deda or DSHS, will the rain cease or not 2?’ Hii |
| | 三
_ 46. % isan expression of doubt or hesitancy. Ax. at
DOW >, gould at cease or not ? 7 re : | | | !
Bye |)
AT. %; is a vocative particle, and, also, en ex- 4 | å´—
secs : = ; oe a;
pression of contempt, Soho! *tis false. Exam. | i :
i es 同
CO 530 5, 20720227 sayest ? or what words are | | HV
: these ? (contemptuously). 2 | | i
Sy oe : | i |
| ee |
3 many
: | . : 品
和 |



生
| | |
tT 人 Th TELING# GRAMMAR,
te | . : 48. ~), Ofie! Exam. 230 SX, fie! it |
| i 3 is not fit or becoming for thee. ' |
ie AQ. eS ss", Oh! dear me ! is an expression |
前 of surprize at seeing something wonderful or uncom- |
| | | mon, orat seeing’something improper. __ It also in-
| 則 | | | dicates regret, derision, and joy. 4 wae ae |
Hi | SMa, O ho! art thou come? War DT” BY |
i | 1 §° Baye, Oh! thou hadst done wrong. teas? ae |
1 | | MOM lWPe W°BOrK or, Oh! L have written this. ees*” |
me . BP? Hoos OPHRO, Oh! how fine itis! eww
ç”± | ' : ae? Ds BEADBO, Oh! it ts excellent. |
me Se cae uae |
i : | | 50.。@x, or Yulgarly Ge an expression indl-
| i Hi 3 cating information. .£xam. OS® KPT or |
i | 則 sm, the king ws come. : |
| i ' . 51. Ors, unto, until. Exam. OGtd. as
i | i ©&, the wilderness extends to the town.
al i - 52. Sr, together with, with. Exam, ®QW-0°
生 i | BS. K°QwreBW Gm Summ, the children
ae 生 with the cow-keepers know tt. El
HH | ser
i 2
a 2 3
hil i =
nh 和 |
| | | Ss .



生
SYNTAX OF NOUNS. 75 |
we
er Ks 同
“AA ure Te
The Syntax of Nouns. | | | i
: Va |
ot, | ; Vi |
1. The nominative or first case is the agent of an | i
: 2 Ta
active verb. Exam. 0°32) HO. SOT at, Rama | | i
~ preserves. es : Run
: Es ; aT
ee | |
aa i
2. The accusative or second case is the object.of ei
anactive verb. Lxam. O'S “ren, Tserve : | HW i
Rama: , “4 i i
3 ee oi i i
8. The accusative in 36>&¢ is used when the ac- ~ a i i
: < 4 Hl , Hi
tion is done with regard to some object, such as sacri- : | ‘ |
人 ee ‘ s 7 eG Mai
ficing, praising, speaking to, worshipping, and the ae !
a i
like. © Exam. G'smD8Sr He BOB, he spoke to A
| a a
| Rama. pS | | |
= aie
&. A word which means-the instrument or means : ve
_ by which any action is accomplished, and also the a- : i; Hl
gent of a passive verb, must be in ‘the third or instru- Se | | i
ny cries 了 | | ut F |
mental case. Exam. CmdVeE OIE DRS Ors i |
VMI 5 名5, Ravuna was destroyed by Rama. 過 |
ee SPRL 1
by means of the Bruhina-weapon. : 3 上 | 則
dR — 章訂
è‹¥
: i)
點
| an
; Ha |
= we



ih ao Se |
a , :
ie So Se TELING 4 GRAMMAR.. 4
i oo :
| i | 5 and 36°, with, and other particles of
ly ae the same import, also words denoting equality or Si-
} i li milarity, require a noun in the instrumental case ter- |
| 畫 minating in G”OT et. Exam. CMWDH? VSG? |
re Gore, Seeta lived with Rama. TWIS % OBgo
ih | aD Were Gotow, Lukshmuna dwelt with Rama,’ |
| | ; weOS” Cast 7 tor, the teacher is equal to, or |
| Hi like Hurt. oan |
il = venaeets
bi | | 3 6. When athing is said to be caused by some cir- |
i | | cumstance or agent, that causative circumstance, per- |
| r = son, Of thing, must bein the instrumental case ending |
iI 4 3 | in Bo. Ex. CMVWAVS Ws. Olam, the destruc- |
! | | ! tion of sin is caused by, or arises from Rama. 3 |
a : 二
| | 由 = _ %, Words terminating in ° are also used as ac- |
ull 則 ae cusatives in 85°H¢, for the objectof verbs ofspeaking,
| 1 則 sacrificing, offering, &c. asinRule 3. Exam. O°®O
i | i @ 608, having spoken to Rama. | 2 )
i | | 8. Words ‘expressing the person or thing to |
a | i =o — mts made, must be in the fourth or dative case |
| | , H terminating in S 0說. Exam. QOHWSE VW RAH |
Ht | 和 仙鶴, Ace gwes a cow to the brakmun: |
i |
a} ial 1 3
則 2
— 4
a | Ht : . g



| | | 則
上 oe 3 a
SYNTAX OF NOUNS + 4 TT as |
9, - When an action is done, or-asthing exists, Nai
: 會 和 Tees : | | Ha ti
or somewhatis suffered, toaccomplish some purpose, | Hh
: . x a ya :
-- the word which denotes the end to be accomplished | i, !
~ must be in the fourth case terminating in 8. Exam. | | Ih
| ; : aaa
So 0°00 Sori WD Gas, a stone must be car- : | li
: oe ea:
: ried (at the other end of the yoke) for the purpose of a
° . : | HH
| (balancing) the milk. _ : oe | | |
| . Heal:
: ||
7 : an
| 10. But when any material is given for the pur- ae) |
pose of making something or other, the word which , i | 和
| . denotes that thing must terminate in §°%39. Exam. ———- MoKOmoPGrVws SVs, gold forthe purpose = ti |
of (making) rings. she 2 : E as | | |
| wa oe a
| . 7 2 : |
. 11. Verbs meaning falling from, departing from, |
or any another motion from any object require that | li} |
| ; Wi i 同
object to be in the fifth or ablative case. Lxam. % p&p | | ii,
.; 3 8 ! 則 HH!
| mx Ow PR Wass, the leaves fall from the trees. , | | i
: |
} 12. When we would express that there is no other | a
| thing of that sort except those specified, or when a_ ie |
: : . : 43 ee |
| comparison is made between two or more things, the 1 HT |
| word which expresses the thing specified or that thing, — | | | 則
__ than whichanother thing is better or worse, &c. must Le 中 | i
了 2 Cee | , i Hi
| : ; i)
ce = oe | i
| oe | |
ç”± 3 i |
| = oo : |



|
| | i a
ties |
| HA SHR :
同 73 THELING 4 GRAMMAR. :
| i] | |
Hay | Sen
和 生 be in'the fifth case terminating in ¥o@. fixam. —
| | AF LWIVOH OWS VP $e Gz, none but.
| a | God ought to be worshipped. ORD0Â¥o O Vwoew OS
rae | een; the gods are inferior to Rama. O'mod¥o*%
fi i y Sarton, mo one is greater than Rama, a
ih i Owmd¥o@ OB KMew “OBI, Lukshmuna is :
| | i younger than Rama. OQSMOFOH Cm Os
| 生 | wats, Rama is older than Lukshmuna. |
由轉 、
i i i
| 13. When a place is said to be situated in any
ai
| | direction with respect to another place, the last of |
Ree) : 3 =
用 i these places must terminate in Yo @. Exam. -3°3¥o |
Bide ull : A : |
| 上 | “SO XG BrBé, Guya ts east of Kashee.
a | |
| ! 14. The sixth case is used to express the connec-
a UUs : = oe
ae 同 tion between an owner and his property, orbetween |
| | persons related to each other. Exam. Secsosç­”- or |
| | i S08 Gwin, Huri’s servant. |
EASE Ui} i i : . ;
ae ai ee |
1 i 15. Words connected with Se, an object of
lt i respect or worship, ByO%, an object of affection, and
It : ! QR, a thing desired, must be in the genitive or sixth
i i case terminating in 3 or 0. Exam. ¢5-6@8 or Oo
! ii : 生 過 > g e
i " OP BG Hye Jaw, the object of the king’s worship. 50°
| ! | 和 ee8or 和5說 eycoromm, the object of the king’s affec-
a || ="
i} |= : 7 |
Hi ! | |
sae i
a ee Et IR : :
i { | =
iad Re a
hy | ' 3 : | |
an, 2 ae : ee al



å›› ee i}
Meals | | | å…¥
| 3 才 |||
SYNTAX OF NOUNS, eas 同
i
| tion. SS HOS OF SSW. Qiyaw, the desired object of | | i
oe . Wa
| the king. + | lt |
: ae
| . . | ae
| 16. Verbs of speaking to, shewing to, and deli- : ey
| _vering into the custody of, govern their object in the |
"sixth case terminating in 8 or 3. . 肪xd27. 62pS5 | Hi
|| or dsr SOS BY, having spoken to the king. Cs | ! |
| or ESP%Bs Msn BorHoD, having shewn my face ~
to the kingr © 2 or HerSOS WwdEoD, having | | 則
delivered tt to the king. # ; | ih |
| seen © ae A,
17... Words expressing the distance of time or ae
| ee
| place, or the relative situation of places, are connected iF i |
| 。 ‘ é ‘ > . BEE > : i 同打 ii
| with words in the sixth case terminating in 3 or So. a |
safe Ti
|. Exam. B08 PosPVow Wonwsarvamend, w is’ five i | |
days from to-day till the Sunkranti. s"OF BW BX | | | i
5 a Be eee i
SaGo ney) from Calcutta to Juguunat' ha. 3738 XOX | | |
A : Hy i i ne
Spe, Guya les east of Mashee.. ,.soisw ee | i |
er Oey oe E i ne |
‘ 18. Words expressing equality, or similarity, are. a i |
: é | He |
connected with another word in the sixth case terml- 4 | i
x : e< mea
: nating in 8 or 3. Hxam. S08 evita MWD: 則
å…¥ i i
. . = 2 gue : ‧ i] i} iB
i the preceptor 2s equal to Hurz. fe \) i
| ) |
= a a
| - |
三 so vi
i : : | 圖 j
3 el |
a5 S i |



| | 和
i | | ao
= = =. le
1 ii SSE ES FELING4 GRAMMAR. — 1
hue | ,
| { 19. Sometimes the sixth case is used for the da- =|
| ap . tive. Exam. SB'O3 A° OD RB, having given a
i} | | ;
ra : cow to the brahmun. |
i 中 PE See Ss Se eee
iI ij 20, Words meaning certainty of situation, or — |
ae i | . ee eae ) i ae
| | themiddie of any place, terminate in ee, 22多 |
i | Mt : __ whichristhen considered asa termination of the sixth
| | 說 eee 3 .
| | | = or.seventh case. Exam. BODOSTO S°OBWD,
同 | Huri is chiefest of, or among, the gods. Qo@ eS SHO
mae = = : :
ik t ; Branro’, I sat m the midst of the house.
hig | | 7
We 3 21... The seventh case expresses the being in a |
| i t _. certain situation or condition, and answers to the
ii | ti ! > 2s .
則 He English words-on, with respect to, or in. Exam. }
ae GA : Se ae aa
| 生 BF OMG? Hr-NHE0, - setting on the floor mat. |
Fi | Bor Bi Dow DAB, understanding, or an idea con- |
is | hl t 2 有 mn “pe « i
| | i cerning beatitude. BOOQ0oS @ Om, oil isin |
則 i | the sesamum. — |
ae ; = 3 : 3 |
Me —— 7 |
Wi — sale )
aoe a » i
eet | = |
i) eau EN
a a |
生| | = = ae
cme tt fi ° :
ii i <= :
aH it i :
還| 人此 =
a | ft Suns Sa 4



- : 3 , , Th

| : i iE |
i hi

a

nt +

: i i |

OF COMPOUND WORDS. esl sit ii

8 HIE i

: : 1 i

| : : a pl

| i
Bg cary ail

Of compound words. 則 E

: HA

3 加| a Ht

ede ) 3 a

) 3 eas : : Hh

Inthe Sungskrita language six kinds of com- Aa

pounds are distinguished, which are denominated, | 和

gs ite

a) aes Ore SDA ees) ee |

Ast SHHowS/ 2nd? HS~™ Gr, “Bid Veyvrk, i

hs : G ote as sn TE)

dt 6h; Sth OSw, and Oth OS SAPS. ot |

3 2 ae ee Scie ad

The first is made by collecting’ several substantivesin- Ana

: 字 寶 < a

- ~ egy che aa | ial yh

to one, the second Consists of Compound epithets, the iH

* ae

| ea

third is the substantive: compounded-with its adjec- : te

tive, the fourth consistsof words formed by com- | |

3 Bee de

pounding a word, supposed te be in any case, with il i

a verbal; 6r with another noun, the fifth by com- Ges A ]

: Pe 2 . Kaye : eA |

pounding “a word “witha numeral, “and the sixth i | i

é . naan REE P|

. ee ‧ 同 aon fy

by compounding a word with an indeclinabie parti- ee i i

4 oe 7 | eos 7 : ne
bs cle. eds | i

| ii é

ER

2 PS eens. 1 OE BOD Hert | |

1. Sungskrita “compounds are introduced into | | | |

eked) ri ; a

° 當 aS sii Crag? . us He 1) i

- this language without any change, and are declined Hy

3 : 同 ma

by the rules already laid down for the declension of oS i |

Sr} ? ., “y 有 全 2 | | | Hat

_ eSungskszta words. ~Lixam. Go a0, gear the . | Wen

; So eee eee es : : = i
Js. WHE KOK, on lie other sideof the Ganges, |
人 讓 ‧ ; 7: 1 ? 7 : Z | ii i

Do GAnonsn; whe midst of he Gages, ESSE, | | | !

ee ase eo eg ae ie
near the river; ASQ wre BS) vefueed in- Krishna, WAT

. : gos A ee ee ea

Pa oR j i
| e : q | i fh
Pea : 7 abl
ma

j : | | 1 |

| in !

i i

3 : % | | ; | 用
ee rian | |

: HOH A} ;

BS ses ini : : 9 三地 : * Hy ji



和 — '
| é‚„ |
和
Mi . 3
- ~ 82 TELING 4 GRAMMAR.
he .
| iq | TBSWK MH, one belonging lo the king, A’ST%&, |
igi茲 Roa ae saci |
| a single hero, &@ oXBt, clothed’in yellow, WHO
| 1 rat oo,
中 | | : Bh goo OU, fama and Lukskhmuna, owes a. an
|生 i : assembly of servant girls, RDF Os, ihe shadow
A a {dl} ; :
| a of the sugar-canes,仿 SEPP EC, two-headed; CP Sd.
HE 1 3
i | Na, having: the fire taken ‘away, 35S" BB Dev,
wa | a a “4
| 有 | | parents, 29 六以人 Boo. Jireand Vishnoo, S337%y |
ih 人353 liberated for a trifle, Foor evry, biack-
a | throated, 3% §os°Uwm, doing right, SOS HA,
則 | | / lord of the great, or the preceptor of the gods. }
ni | . : |
ana | | : ;
fait i | 2. . As the three sorts of words of which:the Te-
Rh en A ‘ : 3 : er
| 由 則 ie liga language is composed may indifierently be com-
ae |
i ii : _ . pounded together, the variety of words of this class |
i i . y : 2 1 和
| 則 a is great. ‘I'he terminations of the cases of the single |
| i | words which compose the compound’ are suppres- |
中 ll sed, and when the compound is formed it is déclin- |
ere | uh : ; |
| \ a ed in the Jast member only. |
5 Ra | 1 |
my Bh |
ad i . , : |
ae | ill Soe 3 g a
i | ç«™ 3. ) is inserted after Wamey,. the sea, BOOS, 4
li i | sandal-wood, and 2s, rain, when they are the
rae | ee
了 則 first members ofa compound, Exam. GHESOBO
a LEHR ~全 25 ‘
! 4a | .. 5, the water-of the sea, Xx CRED BVOM, vain water.
ee 3 = | ae
Hy i |
vee || ee
4 f | |
we la . |
Mi iF : :
at 則
和和| 則
wel = ee
Be ;
mea
met ih ‘
be is hi Hi {perm is 2 2 2 ; ‘ sare aE : aj



| ) i
: 3 Soe | Hl
OF COMPOUND WorpDs. 83 i
Hi
| : a:
; a 4 | Hi i
The following: are examples of every variety of i i i
compound: O& oO aiolin, the sovereign of. stars, | | |
Vie. the MO00n, WOO, the sea of milk, Sees SD) | | | !
Â¥B, sandal-wood, QOBwwowto, the full moon, | | |
KoXeees, the bank of the Ganges, woa Be, the sea | i
of milk, OSRGoedo, the light of the full moon, Ht
; ‘ i a
SPOXLS, a pitcher of milk, -s-oBwoSB, near the Bi |
dish, MoSMWS8, near the corn measure. ee A
e a
Of compounds which are indeclinable, it |
(S85 Kars) ne
a , |
yeh Me |
; eS : : : | al |
A When %%&%&, in, which maybe either the ; th |
— é OY
first or the last member: of a compound, is the first, 3 , til |
ts eon 當 還才 ye!
3 its final a is suppressed, and & is substituted for } | }
5 i = a Hl i
the vowelof 2%. Exam. %&KoX or XoXSBaxH, ri 和
the Ganges. . : ç«™ |
5 ED
: 5. @ is substituted for the % as of {%aG, in, when me)
_ itprecedes Qev,, a house, Jt, @ river, anda few : | 則 i
: Te |
| other words. Exam. S8&, i the house, CQn, | Hi |
上 ae
in the rever. 3 | Mm |
| i
ee | : i Hy
| 6. ° is substituted for the final syllable of Qs - i ) i
‘ Ke 4
ee : : et
; : ii
: MeHAT |
— | i |
; — | i
' eS ae
| g | i | | |



上 ll |
ae poe
ll
Sim .: Se .
ll TELINGA GRAMMARS
過 . oS :
it Mi | , , ne, soe, a |
Hae ee h, $35, Breast; XQ, the eye,
| 出 i thorn; MOY, eart b, iA) 3 ay I af :
rae is on 2 ebble, and sma, a OU,
ee Beth, a fruel; Moto, a p : eae? a
ll _and 人 for the last syllable-of @ to, a rwver, . es
iH ? we re oP, 25SEM, AN
| fi 0
Phan PE TE ae é a i os 7 心2 k
i | 和 hundred, Ger, a pillar; ond, at Ope, Cod = 2
: i i ee cemetery, Ses, lume, place; etx, ;
4 HAH 2
i ey asyrtso, three, 85°20, boiled rice; G2, a settle,
eae | 4 9 CV _ Co) :
ik : oil ~®, hun-
| | | 2%, uncultivated ground, H%, a-cily, 2s :
RA | fo Ww 1e
an : er, & FO, a pestle, and H2Â¥O, a-door, when a
Ci ane ind, andeven when |
ae are the first members ofa.compound, : a
: | 則 | be 's, ifa termination be afiix- |
til Ail they are the last members, moe’, of |
i i d... Exam. QoeS%aG,.in the house, RoWs;
ae ne ed. sX AM. as -
ll the house, So@sSBs near a tooth; Foes SG, ned |
ana | Sy : OU, 2 2
i 看 His Bape Bt ‘the: thorn, Moe SB, tear |
api 多 870人6, BHOWO HA, ned SS ee am
al i = | ihe earth, Kod s8, near the breast, Foe Ew, un-
ar ny, ve os oe
| å’Œll ior thle eye Soe S38, near the frat, Sots 8B; neai |
na er Yes DOD® Oe is ae
| Wt 1 he pebble, Pos aes, on the boil, DOSS, near the |
ab i. | the pe 和 和 i 8人當2
| 和 e lar, G8 RE ein Of hhinger, CRBS |
ne pillar, ae, ee 8
Me e pestle, D°¥OSR, nea
i It the time, or sound, of the } a :
| 1 \ | ihe door. 2
生 oe , 2
hae ay th ~ : :
i 7 a
at |
! li |
Ae | | :
ie 則 a
i ae 9
ae . is
SS 3



a

= | 人

89 ant

We oF COM POUND. WORDS. Be |

| ail

讓 da 26). ae i i i

Of the fourth class of compounds, (8 GQ) COMA Wad

nh

° : 區 ° 1. 9 i Hie ih

Y. "The variety of compounds of this class isnot : ff i !

pe > termination le

great. Those made by suppressing the termin: | ç”± |

of the sixth case are the most numerous ;,there are | | |

ee 全 ‘mination of the a

過 a few made by suppressing the “ter mination reas, | Hl

. -cely. anv. in whi he second i

fifth case, and scarcely any In which a | ly Bay

: 和 sth-cases are suppressed. xa. A

third, fourth, or seventh-cases are supp s y : Wi:

| , akine”’ O° we the king's a

POPES, aking’s son, TW OHS vee ui

Maw "Oo foer, WOK % CHM, me

palace, SOBs, fear of a tiger, Work Ro | al

f aes a0 BOSH: mn Rama HG

fear of thieves. T'RO Geter, Secure ANE” i

2 * (* 72 i] i 4 i

SER BX, the middle of the day. 同 |

= | |)

| oe | i

8 St is substituted for $% %, the midsi,when | H i

* it precedes “Goo, night, in forming the compound i |
Pee ie

| Exam. St Go, midnight. rei

| | Hi

: , i |

Fee 人2 Mien

Also KwonHO, Nall a clove of long pepper, SX å…¶ | |

% 。 =a = Men |:

mos, halfa boat. But the middle termi of WUD : a i

Se pee eee “hb curds. iS rejected a || i

SÂ¥OnS Om, rice mixed with curds, J oR ui |

to form the_compound_ 857人9祀S — 一則 i

‘ : - a te 4

3 : 7 A |

Sg a

* : | | a i

os 7 : ; ai

: | |

1 | Hi i

3 則 |

一用

| oe | 品

a nh

3 時 | | | i |

5 和久生上
中 -
as eal ea 2 一了廁明過



i) 3 , !
at .

i ie fe

Rens =

ll 3

ee 86 TELINGA GRAMMAR,

ae .

ii |

i | | Of the third class of compounds, (S€q" Sox).

和|

Hine |

AS An | j : 。 Pol eye 由

a ] 吧 9S TES wore with an ‘initial 9, meaning'a nym-

a i - pha, follow So), red, to make a compound, the

Pau :

| | last syllable of SOs Is suppressed, and @ substitu- A
| | | ted for the initial 9. EHxam. B05, Bomaes, |
| i | a redwater-lily, but S282, a blue lotos, suffers )
| 和 no alteration. ) = |
ai el . : :
hl |
a

| 1 10. When ¥&, an eye, precedes a word with an
| | 8 initial #%, meaning a nymphea, and sometimes on
Fi | | AN : ‘ ‧ ) *
| 4 i i SS other occasions also, the first © is suppressed, and oy |
: 1 ll co is substituted for the & of the latter member. Exam.

! a a FwWI®, a@ loles-luke eye, Ye worH), the pupil of.
eee 、:! the eye. :

i Bs = :

# 同 : . : ;

a :

| ( \ eee : ee oo -

了| hi, : 1]. @ is inserted after SWS), turmeric, wp,

i a esteemed, when they respectively precede @730, a

ae leaf, and GoXB, aring ; andto aoa, lightning, and

he | i | Deny), Jong, when they precede G@及, 2 mirror, to

at it | 8 y 上 oO

as : form compounds. Exam. SOd)ex°so00, turme-

aah a ; ric leaves, MDA ENON Haw, an esteemed ring, ROG

i i Wa See 3 = .

i q ae xm, a mirror bright as hghining, PWP/ OBR,
nee a long mirror. 7

vat 1 : : | :
生

eh 講 ae :

ll
a y ee

i ; | 3

A i fi

ame ie :

a : : |
ie : , 4
Of Sa ee ee s



加 Hi
| — 出
1 te i
OF COMPOUND WORDS. 87 ll
12. X is often substituted for ¥,.0 and & for %, | |
es for %, and ® for %, when they are the first letters i | I
of the last member of a compound. | i |
| - iy
13. “wo is substituted for 8, large, when it is | | i,
| : followed by 0@ or S@rd, a valuable article which . | i)
! is the property of the finder, and “OS is substituted a
: - for it when it is followed by “a%, the nimba tree,* 7 i |
or gras, a serpent. Exam. B&Q, OAD %, a ak
large foundling, wwsa%, «a large nimba tree, 5 i |
Sowa, a large serpent. | 1 {
, | i
| 14. © ts substituted for the last syllable of ase, 7 | cH i
a thorn, when it precedes a word meaning any.spe- | i |
cies of tree, toform a compound. Exam. m®X? vi |
|! Do®, the thorn of yellow barleria, mmOG-Ds, the Wy )
thorn of celastrus, OF aoe @, a rose-thorn. 4 | |
| IEE sae? alas i
| lo. Sis substituted for W% a6, the midst, when : e | ly i
| it’ pees Peo OF WHS, the forehead, and | :
| Ras is. substituted for it when it precedes Zs7Xy, i
. the face or mouth, toforma compound. “Exam. 2 | J | |
| BrQwen, SIAHWS, the middle of the forehead, | I
| ss the middle of the face, 1 | i
_* * Melig azad-dirachta: : i |
! |
a
a
Le !



ee 4 Hi
| i | ?
過 a
ne a
ie |
還和 eS TELINGA GRAMMAR.
和 Hie | i 3
I Go
中 i 16. © is inseried after :asrO®), old, ancient, and
HW aos, a god, when they,precede 5, a mother,
qa , | |
| a | to form the compound... Exam. amo®8 QD, anold |
Nae ; ;
| i mother, Bos O&, the mother of the gods, or the
i | | K dwine mother. i ES
I | |
則 | } 「 e e “* ¢ 4
| 由 | 3 17. 8, eyegg is optionally changed to 人八
| i x when it precedes. GO, a hger, to forma compound. |
Bb at é
1 | Exam. QwwO, a royal tiger. .
a. \. . 7 1D :
BV Hl : |
i WAR . : “> : v4
ay 18. “wx is substituted for “aX, great, when it
Cail” aes es to for
i | ih | precedes CPM, ricinus communis, to form acom- ©
å›› ) 1k Mt | a
4 ve eS pound. Exam. “woravoes, a large plant of rici-
Hi mus. a :
eet iit ;
i TE |
mae :
| a A9. Sy, a breast, and SX, an eye, optionally |
4 ll 2 of their ~. and sometimes their final G also, |
Be uy | ose. one or 5
Bae (TL |
fae | when they are the first member of a:compound of
i i : 4 which 5°OD or Ses, two, arethe last member. Exam.
a | ii ; 一 之 orn
iH | BS SAD, WOH, OF WOH SON, also —BWowmsrxa,
Ree es ee =.
| 和 | Wonka, and SBy_KO, (200 breasts, FSX, Fo
ome ial = Se oe ee
; | a 2 GON, or FHS, also. FM, FoNa”, or FOR
Be fe hie : a
ç”± 1 el Koy, two eyes. Sometimes also ois inserted before
Rare GIS : So
SME ta | | HAI. > :
it i 則 e the last member, Shona, two breasts, Yona,
Hi | 4 則
Ae til
中 li |
come | |
1二 Hi 生
ee ai |
ah a
‘f Hi Ii 1 it i}
ie |
ht) Eee 5
Hd i A . ;
Hi | = —
a ne 7 = Mes 2 am |



生 H|
| | I
e OF COMPOUND WORDS. » Bo, : ny
, | vi
| iwo eyes. This rule applies when eo, milk, fol- il !
a Ma
lows SQ, a breast, with the exception of the inser- | | |
tion of o before the last member. 乃g2. 8人00, | 有 !
Sday°eu, and BH Den, the milk of the breast. - ; | 和
WEE
3 , 則
© 20. When £578, a small image, or doll, iscom-, ” i
eo a) |
| pounded with $y, the eye, preceding it, one of the | ih
| nal G, One of the a6, of the last member may also be , i 則 有
i: ae a id
|" suppressed. © Exam. ¥EPa6, YOST, or SHS i i
| 3 ‘ i Hi |
fc 9900, SG i
21, The Xof OX; half, is suppressed before sms, | | |
則則 和
the body, and the vowel of @ becomes long. Exam. : Ht |
Ba
| PPS, half the bodys 5 | | i

7 : Wei
7 ~ 22, When Bred, sues precedes 2%, science, | | | |
j we Het

in the compound, the final @ is suppressed. Exam. i | |
WpoB web, ancient science, yiz.the Veda. 。 : | |

7 oe i

m9 Hh | |
23. When 2%, affection, precedes RO, a com- ie |

: | panion, the final < is suppressed, the 2 doubled, and ie ii |
the > pronounced short. Exam. emO, a beloved. 3 | i!
friend. i
My L | | |
i
. a

4H

7 7 1
= å…¨

ce iM

; - ‘I |
則 | |



| | i | GRAMMAR,
| ) reErNG

ea 只 jo |
0 上 ss

和 sic lass of compounds, 8
| 和 | cond clas when it. |
| , : Of the se = : . SS, an eye; ce
a ei . ituted fo EXAM, 22S |
中 : $ is substitut es 還
| 24. Feds ‘ofa comp d. |
則 i : last member Xod, fish-eye : i
iM i a ee d, is optin» |
1 |圖 EE ee
| | 各 aeo sd el of se, by SOQ, an

Mae Vit Oy o he it is fo sword-ey
ee “25. when 4 Kod, sw

i | an : suppréssed 的 Or ay edo

| Hi es SP or killing eye. .
a | | DOS tercimg
aha hi : Nga p : as Tes=
hi 則 = lable ofats~259; ade short,

i 自 he final syHa ‘st syllable m und,; —
| i | 6. -T wel of the fix form a compoun |
nae . 和 “YOWeG ) to for: ; Ze

| a d;and the - Ban eye three-cyed, V1 |
i i seu, : ‘ed by & - €> |
A lowed by rato oo
ay | when follo dL Exam. 7 |
My ’ i ‘he & is soles = th | |
Hl a ane TP 2 a bow, when
ai 用 hava. : 說 = » , a bow, : :

| 4 Pa pe oes

iW | =< eo is substi pound. 五 dog |
ih 上 se Kama-deva, |
i 1 | Nt last membe 人 owers, VIZ. ne) |
HH | 7 it is the la aving a bow of ft s pe
Hah Ebest, ha ap a ols Leen ce
| = sag eink bo ag
a i the x SE Se | |
i bey = é )
nT a | La
i 4 =
Mi a. = 7 z |
bh ai Nt ;

aay 自
A i | a
i: a ee



a

Fi

, | 生

ant

< oo 和 和 [位 i
| : OF DERIVATIVE WORDS. 9] 前月站
i Hi
; aii

, Re 則

Ba fi:

Of the first class of compounds, & Ao S. | | |}

: I 1 |

gel.

. Hi :

98. -One of the © of 3 人 a mother, is suppress- 上 | |

3 se ieee: | 前 和

ed when it is followed by 08,4 father... dixam. | 人

oe ae

" SOWoesyeo, parents. This, however, does not take ! i
place in compounds of any other class, or in any other nl |

; Bs we

: : - aH

compounds of this class, e.g & QD Bev, a mother | Hf

and achild ; BO 8; near the mother. | | il i |
29..-4 is prefixed to. G90 25, a son-in-law, when : iM |

Mn

preceded in the compound by xsaG, a mother-m-law. | I

| Bxam. 53°F 02H, 2 mother-in-law and @ son-tn- a)
law. : : | H /

| : ; i |
: | 3 : a
Of deriwatiwe words. | 4

| . : | . aa

Yd se is affixed to O° WY, a brahmun, SO, a | 和 ti
king, §°e6es, @ merchant, Bey, ashoodra, and K° | i

j “3% > xy . snipe r H| 4 | ki

©, acow-keeper, tn the masculine gender, without a |
making any changein the import of the words. Lxaim. : | |

= ; : . i LF |

BW Say read, a brahmun; GBD, a king ; F°H 冊 |

4 gee 1

7 | 3 , | |
Ha hi
! wa

7 : 2 fi |
| | i



ae ities ’
ea |
BCR hie .

| | ae { | Se
和 則

Sa ? '

He 92 - TELINGA GRAMMAR, |

由則同 i -

ao |
it | Coayr2, a merchant ; Aj artao, a shoodra; K°S
wae .

則 | art, a cow-keeper.

a

} He WW
ae | 3 |
I i oy 2. ayrts is also affixed to 968, blind ; See, lame, |

i he Mi) : å…­
同 | | Mees, eldest > BQ; or OB, youngest ; without occasi- |
Ob Sl 5
| 則 | oning any change in the importof the words. Exam. |
| 則 WR tH, blind; Mow, lame; “DBO,

Gah | ç”± |
| i| | eldest ; FW Coo or Wat, Youngest. |
ho 1 { ~

li I ip

fd) s Be

aay | 3. Possessive adjectives are formed by affixing

it ; By i 生 s ;

| | wrin. Exam. Sarto, mine; Vaso, thine,

ce | : .

all 。 +

4 | ll A. sth is affixed to LOS, blue ; OD ws, red ;

i | 1 Seaxrsy, white ; OOS, green, and other as Of

由 | i : colours. When o°%& 1s affixed to these words, @ and

4 4 © are optionally substituted for their final, the middle |

rae =e : |

i‘ a consonant is doubled its vowel app except —
i | a : in SH. in which & is inserted before the y. Lxam, —
a ea 7 os = |
MM Ve KO SW?D, LY OW oo, Hluc ; CHB HAV Cd, WWE

| 則 arta, red; SLOW NH, EBM, while; FBO

ee 人
1 a : Dri, DPW, grecn. epider |
u a es : | oe were
eas : =" 3
ie a : ’ 5. Nouns of agency are formed from verbal nouns _
| Re i ;

4 ke by affixing prt. Exam. Sow tao, a cook ; Se
le | , | ss

|

ti | i i : 5
MR ;
|
Be a : | A
ame =

1



a mn| paresreesesaidsasdsassgatesrertrottcerey sssritss FTE tee rere Fete ene enreeenw rere corel 時 oa tt 時 21: ] ii 生

i a i be

3 : Han)

: ee iW
i OF DERIVATIVE, WORDS. - £93 ie
| qh
| s es | |
Sarto, one who serves at table; QE Dr ta, one who 4 i |

% ex一一 2 aU !

brings water; PPOD°%o, 4 cow-heeper; Or%OD™ | | |

hg : : ia 則

| to, acalf-keeper. . | i} |
i : We
> . * . ° ° ; Hy + “ft

6. Adiectives indicating the being possessed of oa

pote 5 3 Wi |

i B))

: 1 any thing or property, are formed by inserting: 客@,7o |
i be, after any word, and affixing 029 thereto. Exam. il I i
; an)
——_PPewYoa io, possessing cows ; WE WSOMR, Ai
possessing goats ; DYIEOD Cao, rich. ah

Hb Li

; ; a

| acre: sat i

4. Adjectives which indicate the being possessed ii |

of the thing expressed by the word, are made by af- i hi |

i rf i
fixing -s*%io, to Qed, a bow; MO, a mark to« shoot i i

| at, and @s~%, the front of an.army. One of theo | | |
8 ‘| th i}
» of Nevis suppressed. Exam. Qeustto, possessing: , iti |

| cA

) a bow ; SO 7H, having a mark to shoot at; Br a ae | i
iH bt Nt

) 7©%, presenting a front. | aa 7 : | | |
8. When any of these words are feminine, & is || i

i | } Hi

affixed instead of w°%%. Exam. 0°S<8, a brah- lt

| . ; Se
muness ; GS SOFOO, having cows ; 2a, thine: Hi |
| 9. Abstract substantives are formed by affixing | |
HE a ae

HAN

和 |
| rors leh |
| ; es wie
: all
) : . | | :
| Wn
| : ii | |
a
1 = | | 0



|
qe
I ie i ec | 3
| meta Aaa ; .
ti .
aes ‘04 io PRLING4 GRAMMAR.
i =
i | Cee to any word. Exam. 7S RS SoH, blindness ; So
和 | "BS Ss, lameness’; DHS Iam, minority,
Rae ai |
ae各 | oe >
| i 10. The ~ és of ae, eldest, is suppressed op-
i hi tionally, and‘@ substituted for the first. #Hxam’ 訪
| ri BMH OHS Lx, majority. 2
ll = Ry eee eg )
ae Pe pie NOM 2 |
el eee | . 4
| hal < TL© 2 is substituted for the 2 of FOSS, exts-
i tence, and @ts, mon-entity, without occasioning any
Mi ni : - : 、 -
由 i" | difference in-the meaning ofthe words, —Exam. XO.
| 自 7 “R, existence ; GO, non-entity. 7 、
ie il : 4
ae eee | |
tt i He : . : - 3
i i ny - 32>” @ is optionally affixed ‘to aox, a male, to
i 1 Mell) - I ye
ee ee . 說
! | i : ‘form théabstractnoun, Exam. Xa, OXS Sm,
it “manhood. = . . bt
ih i Se. a ROSES Seat See 3ts ee 8 |
| <2 :
: : i 3 19. is affixed to ana, old, SO, green, Bo, |
點有|站 : ; os |
a | handsome, 35-8, fond, =, forbearing, QO, car-
aan a ee |
MW al - | Tying, and ®®, strong, to form the abstract vouns. |
Hi Sith | 3 : a - si |
ut 由 ~£xam. Ow, old age ; %Px, greenness: BOw,
Pape , 和
| 則 1 | beauty 3; SOx, fondness ; SOM, patience ; BOs,
Bae A 4 a :
i q | : the carrying of a burden ; Ox, sirength. :
ee1 : :
Hy a
Ge de ea
aay Hl 3
a
用| i : :
a |é‚„ |
ç”±
ne a |
i l — :