To the Right Honourable Sir West Ridgeway, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.S.I., President of the Court of Directors

Material Information

To the Right Honourable Sir West Ridgeway, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.S.I., President of the Court of Directors
[Officers of the Cadet Service] ( Author, Primary )
Malayan Civil Service ( Author, Secondary )
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
19, [10] p.


Subjects / Keywords:
British North Borneo Chartered Company ( lcnaf )
British North Borneo Chartered Company. Cadet Service
Sabah (Malaysia)
Syarikat Berpiagam Borneo Utara British
Serikat Borneo Utara Inggris
Malaya ( lcnaf )
Malayan Civil Service
Tanah Malaya. Perkhidmatan Tadbir dan Diplomatik
Tanah Malaya. Pegawai Tadbir dan Diplomatik
Temporal Coverage:
1914 - 1925
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- British North Borneo
Asia -- North Borneo
Asia -- Malaysia -- Sabah
Asia -- Borneo Utara British
Asia -- Borneo Utara
اسيا -- بورنيو اوتارا
Asia -- Malaya
Asia -- Tanah Melayu
اسيا -- تانه ملايو
5.25 x 117


42 arguments, ranging from daily and married life, pay, working conditions, leave to pensions, of concern to the North Borneo Cadet Service
General Note:
This petition can be dated to sometime after World War I by both place names and description of circumstances after 'the War' and "since July 1914".
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : British North Borneo Chartered Company : URI

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SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Special Collections
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
MS 283792, File 23 ( SOAS manuscript number )


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The Right Honourable Sir West Ridgeway, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., K.C.S.L,
President of the Court of Directors.
We have the honour to submit for favourable consideration the following representations in reference
to the future prospects and present position from a financial point of view of the officers of the Cadet
Service in this Government. We confine our arguments to the Cadet Service because, while officers who
hold Professional and Miscellaneous appointments are possessed of qualifications which will find a more or
less ready market in any part of the world, officers of the Cadet Service possess qualifications which are,
we submit, no less valuable to the State but which are acquired in the service of the Government and are
specially and solely adapted for employment in this or neighbouring countries and so are available as qualifica-
tions in practically no other sphere of employment. A Medical Officer or a Surveyor can, if he is dissatisfied with
the terms of his employment in North Borneo, resign his appointment and be reasonably certain of obtaining
other employment in his particular branch without trouble or delay. His value has been enhanced by his
experience in the country and he will start in his new appointment at approximately the point lie had
reached in this Service. The Cadet Officer who has put in five or ten years’ service in this country has
assimilated a mass of information and knowledge which makes him a useful administrative officer in North
Borneo but which is almost useless to him as a qualification for a career elsewhere, unless he is fortunate enough
to obtain an appointment under some Government where the Civil Service demands qualifications similar to
those required here. In spite of this disadvantage, not a few Cadet Officers have in past years resigned
their appointments after a service which may extend to months or years but has not been lengthy and
have taken up other employment at, as they found, considerable benefit to themselves. During the war
Officers have for the most part loyally stayed at their posts but the claims of altruistic loyalty do not
weigh now to the same extent and officers will feel themselves justified in looking round for employment
which will give them a living wage, unless their prospects are considerably bettered.
2. An argument which is often used to justify the better treatment of Professional and Miscellaneous
Officers as compared with Cadet Officers is the fact that the former have always incurred an expendi-
ture of time and money in qualifying themselves in their professions. The fact may justify a higher
commencing salary and possibly the concession of a year or two for purposes of pension. For example
a Surveyor who has recently qualified arrives in this State capable of starting at once on a survey,
handicapped of course to some extent by ignorance of the language and local conditions, while the Cadet
commences his service with no preliminary qualifications, but has to acquire the necessary ground-
work of language, law and general knowledge .during the first years of his actual service. It is therefore
quite equitable that a Cadet Officer should financially start on a lower rung than the Professional and
Miscellaneous Officer but it does not seem equitable that this handicap should continue right through his
career in the Cadet Service. A Cadet Officer before the end of his first term of service, given ordinary
intelligence and proficiency, is invariably exercising more or less responsible functions as an Assistant
District Officer or possibly an Acting District Officer but it is practically impossible for him to go Home
on his first leave on a salary equal to that on which a Professional and Miscellaneous Officer joins the
service. A Medical Officer joins the service on a salary of §350 while a Surveyor, commencing on a
■salary of §275, ends his first time of service on the maximum salary of Class II and, by his five years’
experience in the country, has enhanced his personal- value and efficiency in the open market of his
particular profession. He is so much the better prepared to accept any position which may present itself
in any part of the world. The Cadet Officer, by his experience in the country, has acquired some
knowledge of Malay, some experience of handling men and has become accustomed to a tropical life.
With these exceptions, he has gained very little knowledge or experience which will help him in the
slightest degree in any other walk of life than the Civil Service of a tropical country. Appointments
to practically all other services are conditional on age limits and qualifying examinations of a nature
which preclude the possibility of a man who has left school or university five years even competing ami
it may be taken as established that a Cadet Officer at the end of his first term of service has but one
alternative to continuing his career in the Civil Service of North Borneo. That alternative is to cut the
loss of five of the best years of his life spent in a tropical country in indigent circumstances and start
a new profession, for which he has probably few qualifications, at the age of 26 or 27. He is paying a
very high price for the chance of bettering’himself but the fact that a considerable number of officers hav*fe
done so and that others are now seriously contemplating doing so at the expense of even 8 to 10 years’
service seems to indicate that the conditions for Cadet Officers are not satisfactory.
3. We h ave admitted that the time and money spent by a Professional and Miscellaneous Officer on bis
professional qualifications justify higher emoluments at the commencement of his service but we do not w ish
that admission to be accepted as an absolute confession that the Cadet Officer commences his service unequipped
in any way. The Court of .Directors, when selecting Cadet officers for appointment, lays some
stress on public school and/or university education. We submit that this is a correct basis on which to
work but we further submit that some weight should be given to this preliminary qualification and that
financial credit shoidd be accorded to the admitted advantages which are derived from such a training, not
to the same extent at first as in the case of a fully qualified professional man but, at the same time, to
a more marked extent than is indicated by the present discrepancy. It should be borne in mind that the

Cadet officer although not qualified in any profession, is expected to acquire an elementary knowledge
of a number of professions. A District Officer is his own Medical Officer, his own Engineer, he requires an
elementary knowledge of Surveying and Accountancy. As Assistant Protector, he is expected to have
some knowledge of hygiene. He is the local representative of the Forestry and Agricultural Depart-
ments and finally his Magisterial work lias to comply with the high standard set by a qualified lawyer.
The professional heads of all these Departments expect their requirements to be met efficiently by
the local Administrative Officers, who, in the majority of cases, are the sole staff of each Department.
4. We have no wish to draw any undue distinction between the Gadet Service and the Professional
and Miscellaneous Service or to belittle the claims of the latter. We are confining ourselves to the
claims of the Cadet Service to special consideration on the ground that the nature of their training,
as a rule, precludes Cadet Officers, after a few years’ service, from taking the opportunities of betterment
which are open elsewhere to a Professional or Miscellaneous Officer. Any improvement in the scale of
emoluments of the Cadet Service must inevitably react upon those regulating the pay of Professional and
Miscellaneous appointments, and any improvement affected in the former will probably benefit the latter
to a greater or less extent. Our submissions are, in effect, on behalf of the service as a whole. At the
same time we think that the Cadet Service has in the past received inadequate recognition and we ask
that its services may receive in the future recognition on a basis approximating to that accorded to
Professional and Miscellaneous appointments.
5. The Court is, of course, aware that in all neighbouring Colonies the question of the position of the
Civil Service has recently attracted a considerable amount of attention. In the case of the Straits Settlements
and Federated Malay States the unrest among Officers led to the appointment of a strong Commission which,
after careful enquiry, formulated a report which contained radical suggestions for improvement. The facts
and reasoning which guided that Commission are, for the most part, valid as regards North Borneo. We admit
that there are circumstances .which must modify many of their suggestions before they can be applied here,
circumstances which will justify, in some cases, further alleviation financially and in others are incapable
at present of adoption. In North Borneo, for instance the high scale of Customs duties is a factor of
considerable moment in estimating a person’s budget while on the other hand we admit that the prosperity
of the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States permit expenditure which the present condition of
North Borneo might not allow. We feel, however, that the general, conclusions of the (Commission are so
relevant that we propose to adapt or adopt them in this memorial as expressing with authority the facts
which we wish to bring to the Court’s notice. As a preliminary we reproduce extracts from the report by
Mr. Bt. E. Stubbs which are quoted in the Commission’s report and which appear to express in the clearest
possible terms the principle on which remuneration of Government servants in Eastern countries should
he based.
“The one point on which no difference of opinion is possible is that the expenses of an Officer
“ of the Cadet Service in the Malay Peninsula must necessarily be much greater than those
“ of a man of similar standing in the Service at Home, hot so much because of the greater
“ cost of individual articles of consumption as on account of the more luxurious style in
“ which he must live, whether he wishes to do so or not. In England it is usually possible
“ for a Civil Servant to adjust his expenditure to suit his income by exercising economy in
“various directions, c. g., by living in a cheap house, by employing few servants, and by
“ spending little on entertaining.
“In the Malay Peninsula economies of this kind are scarcely possible, especially in the ease of
“ a married man.
“ The public position occupied by a member of the Cadet Service is such that he can only suit
“his style of living to personal tastes or to the state of his finances to a limited extent. He
“ must conform to a standard which is set for him by other people if he is not to diminish
the credit of the Service in the eyes both of unofficial Europeans and of the native coni-
“ munities.
“ He cannot, therefore, live in a cheap house even if he could find one; he cannot dispense with
“the usual number of servants; he must belong to the usual clubs and generally live as
“ other people do ; and, if he is a married man or is in charge of a district, he must do a
“ considerable amount of entertaining.
“It must be remembered that many parts of the Federated Malay States now contain, as the
“ Colony has long contained, a prosperous and wealthy population of Europeans outside the
“ Government Service, a fact which naturally leads to the setting of a high standard of living.
“ (Incidentally it may by observed that Government probably derives some benefit:from this
“state of affairs, for it appears to be generally admitted that, other things being equal,
“ a man who lives comfortably enjoys better health and is therefore a more useful officer
“ than one who leads an existence of parsimonious frugality).”
“ It cannot be denied that the cost of liviug has increased since the sterling scheme was intrbduced
“and in the last few years the increase has been very marked. After the dollar was fixed
“at 2/4 the prices in dollars of articles imported from Europe should, theoretically, have been
“reduced at once, and it was expected—or at least hoped—that the prices of articles of
“local produce would adjust themselves in time to the sterling value of the dollar. Whether
“in the normal course such an adjustment would have been effected or whether the Chinaman
“or Malay would still have continued to demand a dollar for an article which had always
“been sold for a dollar, without regard to the rate of exchange, is now a question of merely
“academic interest, as the situation has been completely changed by the introduction of
“ other factors.

“The development of the rubber industry has caused an enormous increase in the European com-
“ munity in the Peninsula; districts which a few years ago contained, at most, three or four
“ unofficial Europeans now contain scores, and the inevitable result has been that local prices
“have risen, owing to a greatly increased demand which has not been counterbalanced by
“an increased supply.
“ So far as 1 can ascertain, there is no instance in which the 2/4 dollar has for local purposes a
“greater purchasing power than the 1/8 or 2/- dollar of a few years ago, and there are many
“cases, e. g., the wages of servants, in which a considerably larger number of dollars has
“ to be paid than was necessary in those days.
“ The effect of this rise has not been confined to articles of local origin: indirectly it has reacted
“ on the prices of imported articles. The shop-keeper, equally with other people, is effected
“by the increase in local prices and, presumably, he finds it necessary to recoup himself by
“an increased profit on goods imported from Europe.
“At any rate, whatever the reason may be, it seems clear that there has been no material
“ reduction in the dollar prices of imported articles and that there is no reasonable prospect
“ of such a reduction being made.
“ After very full examination of the materials which have been supplied to me, 1 have come to
“ the conclusion that, except in the case of Class V of the Federated Malay States Service,
“the salaries provided in the sterling scheme, i. e., without the 10 per cent allowance—would
“ be adequate—and in the highest classes more than adequate—for unmarried officers.
“Marriage, however, materially alters the position, and this is a fact which cannot be ignored.
“The enforcement of a rule of celibacy would be impossible, even if it were desirable—there
“ is good deal to be said on both sides—and it seems to follow that it is necessary to pay
“ salaries sufficient for married men.
“ T do not, of course, suggest that it is necessary, or even reasonable, to pay a man when he first
“enters the Service a salary which will enable him to support a wife, but I cannot regard
“ any arrangement as fully satisfactory which does not make it possible for him to marry
“ in due course—that is, when he is between 30 and 35 years old and is approaching the time
“ when he will have completed the minimum period of service which qualifies for pension.
“Marriage in the Malay Peninsula is a costly luxury, since it entails considerable additions to
“expenditure over and above the ordinary increases which it involves in every country.
“A bachelor can, as a rule, reduce his expenses on house-rent and servants by sharing a
“ house with another man, and, in ordinary cases, not much is expected of him in the way
“of entertaining. The married man must have a house of his own: he must entertain,
“unless he is to drop out of the social life of the station—a result which for many reasons
“ is undesirable; lie must increase his staff' of servants—he will probably have to provide
“ a carriage for his wife and—perhaps the most important item of all—he must at least
“double the provision which he makes for the cost of going Home on leave.”
“This provision is a considerable item in the expenses even of a bachelor: in the case of a married
“ man it becomes a heavy burden. The cost of a first-class return passage between Singapore
“and London by an intermediate P. & 0. Steamer is, roughly, £75. Therefore, if a married
“man is to get Home once in five years he must put aside £30 a year for the purchase
“ of his passage tickets alone, without taking into account various .incidental expenses, such
“as the provision of an outfit of clothing suitable for a European climate. If the officer
“ has a family the provision for passages must, of course, be increased accordingly until the
“ time comes when it is necessary to leave the children at Home to be educated: and when
“that time arrives the situation is scarcely improved, as he must then either leave his wifi*
“at Home to look after the children, and, therefore, keep up two establishments, or must pay
“somebody else to take care of them.”
6. The Commission adopts this theory as a basis for the recommendations which it makes for the
future pay of the Cadet Service in the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States but it premises its
suggestions by certain observations which, with merely verbal alterations, apply without any modification
whatsoever to North Borneo.
These observations are:—
‘ 1. It is a complete fallacy to compare a salary of £1,000 when
(a) paid in Great Britain :
(?<) expressed in sterling and paid in Straits dollars at a dollar value of 2/4 as in Malaya :
(c) expressed in sterling and largely or altogether paid in Hongkong dollars at a dollar value of
1/9 as in Hongkong :
(rZ) expressed in sterling and paid in rupees at, say, a rupee value of L/5 or 1/6 as in India or
“ 2. A shilling in Great Britain and a rupee in India or Ceylon have very much the same purchasing
value as a dollar in Malaya.
“3. Malaya is, apart from its high monetary unit, a very expensive country for. a European to live
in, especially in the large towns: practically all European noil-edible requirements are imported.
“4. Malaya is not a suitable country for the “poor white”: unless a European can earn a wage on
which he is able to live decently as a European should, he merely brings discredit and contempt upon
the British community: this position is greatly intensified in the case of Government officers.
“ 5. Marriage necessarily entails in Malaya a very much greater proportionate increase of expenses
than it does in Great Britain. ”
On these premises, the Commission lays down a table of pay which it recommends for
adoption. This is set out in Schedule A and for purposes of comparison we have placed in
a parallel column the present pay of a Cadet Officer in the service of North Borneo whose promotion
is unimpeded by any block in the senior grades of the service. We shall revert to the question
of “blocking” later but the discrepancies between the two scales are sufficiently striking even when
no complications check the progress of an officer of this service.

7. We admit that there are certain factors which render an absolute comparison between the
pay of the two services almost impossible. The financial resources of the F. M. S., even in ratio to the
larger establishment maintained there, largely exceed those of North Borneo and we do not suggest
that the scale should be adopted as it stands. We admit that the grant of free quarters universally
in North Borneo is an asset compared with the merely partial provision in the F. M. S. We assert,
however, contra, the considerably higher expense entailed in North Borneo in the purchase of imported
goods due to the following factors:—
(а) the fact that any local purchases have to bear a double profit, that of the Singapore middleman’
.and of the local retailer.
(б) the higher import duties.
(c) the heavy cost of transport to and in the State.
We assert the expense entailed in taking leave, whether short or long, from North Borneo.
Not only is there the additional cost of passages to and from Hongkong or Singapore and the cost
of accommodation at those places while awaiting connecting steamers but there is the added disadvantage,
especially at the present time, of entire dependence on telegraphic or written communications for the
booking of passages. People resident in Singapore or Hongkong can often obtain accommodation owing
to their presence on the spot which is barred t'o a person in North Borneo.
Classification of the Cadet Service.
8. On the question of classification Mr. Stubbs wrote as follows:—
365. “ A question of even greater importance than that of the rates of salaries is that the grading of
“the Service. A classification can scarcely be regarded as satisfactory unless it makesit
“practically certain that every competent and well-conducted Officer will obtain, before he
“retires in the normal course, what may be called a “senior appointment”, and in order
“ that this may be possible the number of junior should not greatly exceed the number of senior
“posts. For this purpose, posts in and above Class 111 may be regarded as senior appoint-
“ ments.
“So far as the Straits Settlements branch of the Service is concerned, the grading is quite satisfac-
tory. The number of appointments in Classes I, Hand 111, as shown in the Civil List
“for 1910, is 24, while the number of those in Classes IV and V is 26 ; I do not therefore
“advise any readjustment of the grading of appointments in the Colony, except that I think
“ that it is desirable to add to Class lithe posts of Solicitor-General and Registrar of the
“Supreme Court, which are not at present included in the Scheme for the Cadet Service.
"There will be no lack in future of Cadet officers with legal qualifications who are competent
“to fill these posts.
“The only grievance of the Straits Settlements officers in regard to classification is the result
“ of the amalgamation of the Service of the Colony with that of the Federated Malay States.
“The latter Service is so badly graded that even in the combined Service the junior appoint-
“ ments are still far in excess of the senior. In November, 1910, the senior appointments
“in the Federated Malay States, excluding the Resident-General but including the four
“Residents, numbered 35; the junior appointments numbered 63, of which 39 were in Class V.
“ Such a state of affairs cannot be regarded as satisfactory. A considerable measure of
“ regrading is clearly required as it is especially desirable to reduce the number of Class A’
“ posts.”
The classification of this service as it stands at present in no sense carries out or is even likely
in its present form to carry out Mr. Stubbs’ postulate. It would be impossible to consider Class I b appoint-
ments, carrying a maximum salary of §425 per month and a maximum pension of £290, as senior
appointments for purposes of pay and pension, and there are thus only six senior appointments as against
31 junior appointments. Of the six senior appointments only one carries a salary that can be
termed adequate. Of the officers holding the six senior appointments one is on the eve of retirement while
of the others, in the normal course of things, one should vacate his appointment in six years, two in
eleven, one in twelve and one in seventeen. 'The result of such congestion on the holders of appointments
in Class I 5 and lower classes is of course the reverse of encouraging. It is the less encouraging when
compared with the fact in several of the Professional and Miscellaneous Classes of which at least four
carry a pensionable salary of £1,000 per annum.
Ray and Conditions of the Cadet Service.
9. The Commission sums up in the clearest possible manner the conditions on which a public servant
should be considered from the point of view of remuneration. We quote these in extenso as applicable
in every sense to North Borneo, premising that in many obvious points the arguments adduced gain
redoubled force from local circumstances.
389. “ No man is compelled to become an Official. On the other hand the Public Service is—or
ought to be—an honourable walk of life and one in which a person should (without any private means) be
able to live a decent and self-respecting existence, to marry in due course at a reasonable age, to maintain
his wife suitably, to give his children at least as good an education as that with which he himself has
been furnished and to be allowed to retire and spend his declining years with a pension sufficient to
support him in simple comfort.
It may be that the Public Service offers no more than this and to many it is not enough : but if
it doe's not proffer the conditions indicated it is not a fit career for anyone: and would only be joined
by those who are either unsuitable for any other or, from the opportunities it gives to the unscrupulous,
see in it the chance of enriching themselves by corrupt and extortionate conduct.
390. “ The reasons which induce men to join Government Service are probably numerous and
often composite.
“ To a certain type of mind it offers considerable attraction in the shape of a regular salary and a.
pension. To a young man, without means and puzzled as to how he is in the presence of so many older

and more experienced men to earn a living, the certainty of immediate employment and remuneration
presents a pleasing invitation; the elements, perhaps, of novelty and adventure in life overseas tend to
throw a glamour over the prospects: lie does not look very far into the future arid is, as a rule extremely
ignorant of the relative value of money at Home and abroad: and, from insufficient and unwittingly
misleading information with which he is often provided and to which alone lie has, as a rule, easy access
in his own country, he frequently comes out to Malaya with quite a false idea of of what a salary
expressed in sterling really means in this Peninsula.
391. “ He certainly does not realize that, debarred, as he rightly will be, from engaging on his o,vn
behalf in commercial or professional activity he is. in joining Government Service, renouncing any possibility
either of amassing one of those comparatively large fortunes which he will probably see being made
around him by persons apparently no more competent nor energetic than himself or even of attaining
any position of affluence. Such conditions are, however, the ordinary mid natural concomitants of official
life and it would save much idle and inconsequent talk and in later years a good deal of unjustifiable
self-commiseration if they were more fully appreciated by those who contemplate enlisting in the service
of the Crown.
What are the Proper Conditions or a Government Service Abroad ?
391. “ There is no lack of authoritative answers to the query.
“ Mr. Stubbs writes in his lieport (paragraph 5):—
‘The question of practical importance is: What scale of salaries is required to enable the officers
“of this Service (he is referring to the‘Cadet’ Service) to live in the manner in which it
“is desirable that they should live ?’
“ Again in paragraph 4 he writes:—
‘He must conform to a standard which is set for him by other people if he is not to diminish
“the credit of the Service in the eyes both of the unofficial Europeans and of the native
“ communities.
“ The then Secretary of State for the Colonies the flight Hon’ble Mr. Alfred Lyttleton, al p., in
■a despatch dated the 25th August, 1905, to the then Governor'of Ceylon Sir IT. A. Blake, g.c.m.g , writes: —
‘1. The members of the Government Service.............................should be well paid, as they should
be hardworked and held to their responsibilities.
‘2. The rate of pay in Ceylon must not he wholly out of proportion to that which prevails
in other Colonies with similar conditions.”
‘ 3. It must be clear the Colony can afford the expense.”
‘4. I should be glad to know that majority of the unofficial members of the Legislative Council
will agree to it (i. e., the increase).’
“ The Koval Commission on the Public Services in India in paragraph (XVII) of Chapter XII of its
Report writes—
‘Infixing the salaries of the employes Government should pay so much and so much only as
‘is necessary to obtain recruits of the right stamp, and to maintain them in such a degree
‘ o'f comfort and dignity as will shield them from temptation and keep them efficient for
‘the term of their service.’
393. “Malaya is a country exemplifying in the highest degree the necessity for the maintenance of a
proper standard of living by members of the Public Service.
“Malaya is a strange meeting place of the Eastern peoples: here, with a large Malay population,
is mingled a polyglot mass of Chinese and Indians: this is no place for men without character, principles
and determination.
:>91t. “ I’nless officers in the Public Service are placed in a position in which they can be free from
constant financial difficulties and can carry on their duties contentedly under circumstances in which they retain
their own respect and that of the public which they serve the class of man which will alone be obtainable
will not be of that category which will enhance or maintain the credit of the British name in the East.
393. “It-should here be observed with some emphasis that though there exists to some extent a com-
mon platform below which it is wrong that public servants should be permitted to descend yet the higher
the position to which an officer attains the greater is the standard which he is expected by the. local
canons of the East to maintain.
“ It is almost typical of Oriental fashion and to English ears almost ludicrous to hear that a domestic
servant will not accept from a leading official the same wage which he will without complaint take
from one in a more humble post: and that attitude is maintained in many ways.
“ But apart from internal domestic economy the conditions under which a prominent official must
live cannot be determined, as they can in England, by himself.”
0limatic Condition s.
399. “Few folk born north of 50° X. Lat. would, if they knew their conditions, choose to live in
Tropics: they run much risk of ill-health : they are cut off from very many amenities which they would or
might enjoy at Home; they must suffer for many years separation from their children and lose the joy
of seeing them grow up and of guiding them in their most impressionable years; their best hopes and
thoughts are consequently often not in the country of their adoption : their main wish is to reach the
age of retirement and they work in dreams of a future on pension which many, alas, never live to realize
or, if they do, only when broken in health and no longer capable of enjoying.
“ The War has seen here several instances of sad occasion in which men overdue for retirement or
leave held on to their posts from patriotic motives.
4CC. “ Retirement should precede decay : decay, here, is more rapid than in more temperate zones : a
prolonged period in the equatorial belt produces often permanent injury to health : there are here no
cold hill resorts: leave should not only be possible but enforced regularly as is the case in other tropical
malarial Colonies such as those of "West Africa. Death, suicide and mental derangement have been
only too noticeable features amongst the higher ranks of the Public Sen ice during the last 4 years.
307. “ One of the great drawbacks is the absence of hill stations such as can be enjoyed in Ceylon or
in India: Singapore has physically no possibilities in this direction and though Penang Hill is over 2,000
feet above sea-level and there are one or two mountains in the Federated Malay States where there

are a few bungalows the accommodation at these localities is very limited: and a real change can only
be obtained by travelling to such places as Nuwara Eliya in Ceylon, the Hill Sanatoria of Java,
Ootacamund or Coonoor in Southern India or in winter to Hongkong or Japan.
408. “ European children do not thrive in Malaya: but up to the age of 5 or thereabouts they can be
kept in fair health with care though their blanched faces show that the energy which should be expended
in their development is being devoted to battling with the climate: after the age of about 5 they show
a. tendency towards a weedy and weakly overgrowth and have to be hurried away to a more temperate zone..
“ Generally speaking women do not stand so well or so long the climate of Malaya as do men.
409. “ It is a well-known medical fact that after the age of fifty the mental and physical powers of
the large majority of Europeans who have spent a number of years in these tropics decline markedly and
rapidly : in Malaya men over the age of 50 have, as a rule, after 25 years’ local work, spent their best
powers of energy and initiative: and after this age often do not display any greater capacity than that
of a conservative adherence to their past methods.
“To burden the ship of State with dead weight of this kind must be uneconomical : and it could pro-
bably be with advantage jettisoned.
“What we wish here to emphasize is that the climate of Malaya is not one to which one resorts for
health : it is enervating in the extreme and menacing with tropical ailments: and although more healthy
no doubt •than the West Coast of Africa bears no favourable comparison with that enjoyed in Ceylon,
Hongkong, Egypt or even in many parts of India.
The Circumstance of single and married life contrasted.
410. “ It is impossible to suppose that it should be contemplated by Government that its officers
should remain unmarried.
“ In right theory and in right practice too it should be assumed that officials will take the course
of nature, marry and have children.
“ Similarly too it is only right that at a suitable age due provision should be made to allow an officer
to marry and later on to enable him to provide in every way properly for his family.
“ To do less than this is to invite Aery grave and far-reaching troubles.
“ It may be safely assumed that in modern times the ordinary healthy young man is not permanently
content to reiiiain single. That being so and the necessity for marriage being admitted it is first desirable
to enquire at what age Government may expect and allow their officers to marry.
“ We have considered this problem very carefully
411. “ We think that if the definite prospect of being able to afford to marry was proffered at a
comparatively early age the result on health, conduct and morals would be advantageous.
“And here we are anxious to emphasize not only with regard to marriage but generally that the
adventitious possession of personal private resources should be altogether eliminated as a factor for
if marriage is made under Service conditions of pay impossible at a reasonable age Government
will reap—even more fully than now—the disadvantages and embarrassments caused to its officers by
temporary liaisons with women of non-European race, by all the sordid adjuncts which attach themselves
to prostitution and by the unfortunately here only too common concomitant of venereal disease.
“ If, too, in later stages an official know that his emoluments will be insufficient to enable him to
maintain and educate children Government will—as it is now—be confronted with a pathetically meagre
child population.
“ The retardation beyond any fair limit, of the age at which marriage may he regarded as countenanced
and so to be provided for by Government must now be carefully considered.
47.7. “ It is of course commonplace to remark that in England amongst the middle classes the age
of marriage for the man has, within our own recollection, markedly become older.
“ We think that in this country this crucial ago should be about 30 : and our financial recommendations
are based on that key factor.
“We believe that the fixing of that age will be a valuable moral and actual asset to the Public Servant.
413. “ We must turn now to the more practical aspect of the marriage question.
“ If we fix 30 as the age at which Government may expect its officer to marry, what is the minimum
salary on which he can do so : and how must his pay be graded so that if he has children he may be
able to cope with the cost of their maintenance and education?
“ Now here we are confronted with a serious difficulty.
474. “Is it possible for Government to differentiate between the salaries which it gives to married
men and to bachelors of the same official status ?
“On the whole we think not: the State provides or should provide for the normal: the normal is
married: if an individual prefers to remain a bachelor the State is not concerned.
“At the same time a good deal can be done to meet the greater expenses of officials who are married
and (perhaps) have children by such means as the present temporary grant to them of free passages when
going on and returning from leave and possibly by some special annual grant towards the maintenance
and education of children.
41-~. “ We now come to the very important question as to what money a man who marries must have
here when he sets up house for himself and his wife.
“ This amount must vary a good deal within certain limits according to the position which the
official occupies.
“Mr. Stubbs is interesting on this point: we again quote what he writes in section 10 of his Ileport:
‘ Marriage in the Malay Peninsula is a costly luxury, since it entails considerable additions to
‘expenditure over and above the ordinary increase which it involves in every country. A
‘bachelor can, as a rule, reduce his expenses on house-rent and servants by sharing a house
‘with another man, and, in ordinary cases, not much is expected of him in the way of
‘entertaining. The married man must have a house of his own; he must entertain, unless
‘ he is to drop out of the social life of the station—a result which formally reasons is undesirable;
‘he must increase his staff of servants—he will probably have to provide a carriage for his
‘ wife and—perhaps the most important item of all—he must at least double the provision
‘ which he makes for the cost of going-Home on leave.’

“In very general terms one may say that a man's expenses when he marries are here about doubled.
'Die amount as we have said depends upon the officer’s status in the Service; his status again depends
much upon the manner of his recruitment: and that once more depends upon his education and academic
or professional attainments.
“ But, if we fix a figure for the Cadet Service (admittedly the most closely sieved of all in their
recruitment) it will not he difficult we think to fit to the rest.
4_76'. “The figure we fix as the minimum for the Cadet Service at 30 years of age is $500 per month
this is based upon the pratically unanimous evidence which we have received.
“Again at a later age he must be placed in a pecuniary position in which he. will be able to maintain
and educate his children: and at the age of about 40 he should be able normally to rely on about
-$800 per month.”
The conditions of Service in Malaya compared with those in
(a) Great Britain.
(5) The Dominions.
(c) India.
(d) Other Colonies.
4Z'Z. “ It seems necessary, at this stage, once and for all to try and explode the idea that sterling
salaries in one Colony can be compared with sterling salaries in another.
“ rt is, no doubt, a convenience for those unfamiliar with foreign currencies to be able to cast a
bird’s-eye view over the salaries (expressed in English money) paid to officers of analogous status in the
diffcient Colonies: and when they see that a Puisne Judge in Ceylon is paid £1,400 per annum and
a Puisne Judge in the Straits Settlements £1,200 plus £200 duty allowance they probably do not
ippreciate that there is any difference either between the rates of pay or the actual local purchasing value
of their sterling salary when converted into local currency.
“It is one of the chief and principal efforts of our Report to try and eradicate this fallacy: which has
been the bane of the Public Service ever since the Sterling Scheme was started; a scheme which became
without point after the dollar had been fixed at 2/4.
“ If the fact is once realized that a salary in Malaya expressed at £ 1,000 per annum is not the equivalent
of a salary of £1,000 per annum in India, Ceylon or Hongkong we shall go’a long way towards achieving
our object.
“ We are satisfied that £1,000 here is not worth more than about £800 in Ceylon with a 1/6 llupee.
418. “The monetary unit in each place is the principal feature which must be most seriously taken
into consideration.
“Although the comparison may not be entirely exact there is no doubt that in India and in Ceylon
lhe actual local purchasing power of the rupee is nearly the same as the actual local purchasing power of
the dollar in the Straits Settlements.
“ But the sterling value of the rupee is 16 whilst the sterling value of the dollar in the Straits
Settlements is 2/4: under present abnormal conditions the sterling value of the China dollar is about 3/4.
“The salaries of officers in these countries are expressed in the sterling but paid in rupees pr
dollars as the case may be. If then we take as an example the. ease of three officers, one serving in Ceylon,
another in the Straits Settlements and a third in Hongkong and each receiving on paper a salary of £1,200
per annum, the Ceylon officer will receive Its. 1,333 per month his sterling salary being converted into
rupees: the officer in the Straits Settlements will receive $857 per month his sterling salary being converted
into dollars at the fixed rate of 2/4 per dollar.
“ If the local purchasing power of the rupee in Ceylon is similar to the local purchasing power of the
dollar in the Straits Settlements it is obvious that the Straits Settlements officer is very much worse
off than his Ceylon confrere: on working out the figure it is found that about 36 per cent, to the bad
although, it must be remembered that on goods imported from gold countries he benefits to some extent
from the higher sterling value of the dollar.
“The sterling comparison between the salaries of the two officers is thus by itself, without taking into
consideration the local factor, misleading.
“ In the case of the Hongkong officer the rise in the value of the dollar has been so great and so rapid that
it would, no doubt, not be fair or correct to say that the increased sterling value of the dollar has not been
reflected by some fall in the dollar value of certain commodities; for the sake, however, of carrying the
comparison to a logical conclusion the Hongkong officer would only receive $500 per month assuming that,
the value of the dollar was 4 - and be would thus be in a much worse position either than the Straits
officer or the Ceylon officer.
“ But, as a matter of fact, nothing of that sort happens in Hongkong because in that Colony by the use
of an artificial exchange value the position of the officer is regulated by his salary, expressed in sterling,
being in fact, paid to him at the empirical rates of 1/9 per dollar, for four-fifths and 3/- for one-fifth
â– of his salary.
“The Hongkong officer owing to this would be therefore in receipt of $1,0-17 per month and in a far
better position than the Straits Settlements official. If the official in the Straits Settlements was paid
his salary at the fiat rate of .1 8 or even 1/9 per dollar we should never have heard so much of the presept
“The above is sufficiently clear to illustrate the fallacy of a biro comparison between flip salaries in
different Colonies expressed in sterling but paid in local currency.
“For the sake of illustration the purchasing power in Ceylon of the rupee and the purchasing power
in Malaya of the dollar has been taken as the same; this is no doubt not strictly accurate because as a
matter of fact as indicated above the purchasing power of the dollar in Malaya is greater than that of
fhe rupee in Ceylon.
“ But we .judge that the real value of $10 here is not far from Its. .121-
“ To revert to the heading of this chapter: •Conditions of Service in Malaya as compared
with those in : —
(a) Great Britain.
(If The 1 )ominions.
(c) India.
(J) Other Colonies.

In Great Britain.
421.. “ It is hardly possible to attempt any intimate comparison between the conditions of the Public-
Service in Great Britain and in the Crown Colonies. We quote again what was well pointed out by
Mr. Stubbs in paragraph 4 of his Report:—
‘In England it is usually possible for a Civil Servant to adjust his expenditure to suit his income
‘ by exercising economy in various directions, e. g., by living in a cheap house, by employing
‘few servants and by spending little on entertaining. In the Malay Peninsula economies of
‘this kind are scarcely possible, especially in the case of a married man. The public position
‘ occupied by a member of the Cadet Service is such that he can only suit his style of living
‘to his personal tastes or to the state of his finances to a limited extent. He must conform
‘ to a standard which is set for him by other people if he is not to diminish the credit of the
‘Service in the eyes of both unofficial Europeans and of the native communities.
‘He cannot, therefore, live in a cheap house even if he could find one; he cannot dispense with
‘ the usual number of servants: he must belong to the usual clubs and generally live as other
‘ people do; and, if he is a married man or is in charge of a district, he must do a considerable
‘amount of entertaining. It must be remembered that many parts of the Federated Malay
‘States now contain, as the Colony has long contained,,a prosperous and wealthy population
‘ of Europeans outside the Government Service, a fact which naturally leads to the setting
‘of a high standard of living.’
“Although the above was written only with direct reference to Malaya and its Cadet Service it may be
taken broadly as a correct and striking comment on what is a position of the great majority of European
Officers in practically all Malaya and in most Crown Colonies: and the fidelity of the picture can with
difficulty be appreciated except by those who have resided in these places.
422. “ At Home the Officials forms but an almost negligible fraction of public life : he is surrounded
by vast numbers of the non-official classes which take not the least iuterest or concern in the place or the
way in which he lives or how he earns his livelihood : he has a thousand and free choices of residencev
outside his office he is entirely at liberty to assume or not any position of private or social activity
or eminence
“In the Crown Colonies and particularly in Protectorates his status and obligations arc utterly different.
Apart from the indigenous or immigrant people of the country the often present European Professional
and Commercial Communities form a society with which he is bound to consort and in which he must
take his part: these communities demand from the'official who serves them a standard of life which shall
be in the main comparable with their own maintaining generally a state creditable to the country and
its resources.
“The attitude of the non-Europeau populations towards Government servants naturally varies in
different places and with different peoples. In localities in Asia where one is brought into contact with
the attainments of enlightened peoples of the Malay, Indian and Chinese races the European official finds
himself in touch with wealthy Asiatics who even more than his own compatriots expect him to maintain
a position of dignity.”
In Colonies other than Malaya.
“ When, however, one conies to examine different Colonies one has to perceive that the actual
value of the salaries paid must be affected by a large number of factors some of which are rather difficult to
express in money.
“Distance from Home involving where that is great the payment of large sums for travel: the effect
on health of climate and the consequent necessity where climate is bad of frequent leave; the cost of
support of families in England : the value of the local monetary unit when pay has to be husbanded for
despatch Home as well as for local needs : the self-supplying and self-contained character of the particular
locality ; the nature and mode of life of the non-official classes particularly where those form a large
European community : the prosperity and richness of the place ; all these arc of effect and vary much.
“ However, it may be taken as an axiom that, considered from a sterling point of view, a country
where the money unit is low tends to be a cheaper place in which to live than where the unit is high.
“A piastre Colony is cheaper than a rupee one: a rupee one cheaper than a dollar one ; a silver dollar
one cheaper than a gold dollar one.
“ Two other features of general importance may also be borne in mind : firstly that, quite apart from
the War, the value of money has persistently decreased and secondly that in Colonies which have achieved
marked prosperity the cost of living has as persistently increased.”
The Progressive Increase in the cost of Living in Malaya and the Causes of such Increases.
432. “ There is no very great trouble in explaining why the cost of living in Malaya has increased so
vastly within comparatively recent years. Apart altogether from the fact that there has been a very marked
upward tendency in the prices of commodities all over the world since the beginning of this century the
almost unexampled prosperity in Malaya due to the great profits derived from its rubber industry, from its.
tin and in less degree from its numerous other products has caused the whole standard of living and notice-
ably amongst the rich and large non-European classes to become very much higher. This has been parti-
cularly prominent since at auy rate the year 1910.
433. “ There rose in these years a very large class of wealthy Chinese who had amassed considerable fort-
unes directly or indirectly from the development of the Rubber and Tin industries and commerce connected
therewith; as their wealth increased their requirements increased also; fine houses built by European
architects, British made furniture, expensive jewelry, high class European food and clothing, costly' motor-
cars and often entertainment and hospitality on a lavish scale. This rich and, it may not be unduly added*
frequently’ most generous section of the community was ready to pay almost any’ price asked for what it,
wanted : it very often did not know very well the real value of what was bought: but the urgency of its
demands had the effect of setting a price for such diverse things as the wages of servants, the rental of a
house, a “ kati ” (1^ lb.) of fish or the cost of a meal for which Europeans—who could obtain such things
110 cheaper—were bound to compete if they were to live as Europeans in the tropics must.
434. “ To the non-official the matter did not present so serious an aspect as it did to the official; the-
merchant and the tradesman could glean a harvest and the professional man’s services became more greatly

in demand : in opportunities for safe and lucrative and often certainly highly profitable investment the
non-official could in many cases improve his pecuniary resources: but with a fixed salary and no permissible
means of adding to it the Government servant was hurt far more severely than most others.
“ In addition to this the highly favourable prospects of making money in this country attracted many
Europeans of, or backed by, substantial means: they too increased the standard and made it harder for
those to live who were not altogether free agents.
“Very old residents in Malaya—folk who have been here for over 30 years—agree in saying that in
the old days Malaya was in the time of the free dollar, (e.g., in 1890—1900) when compared with the
present day a fairly cheap place: but, of course, conditions of life were simpler: there was no great
demand for labour and servants were cheap in consequence ; no motor-cars; no competition with wealthy
Asiatics for European (even locally produced) articles of food, clothing or utility.
“ There is nothing further to be said usefully about the matter though much might be written in
elaboration of the subject.”
10. We have no desire to assert that the Cadet Service of North Borneo is composed of super-
men but it is composed of men who have been carefully selected by the Court and who perforce have to
live to a considerable extent in the public eye and maintain as far as in them lies the prestige of public
servants. We know of instances in this country where gentlemen who came straight to Borneo from
England, without any special qualifications, and took up employment in civilian life are now after less
than ten years drawing pay at rates exceeding the maximum which can be anticipated by air Officer of
Class 1 a_ in addition to substantial annual commissions which vary according to the prosperity or otherwise
of the employment in which they are engaged. These commissions, if judiciously invested, will far more
than balance the capitalised value of a pension and do not lapse with the death of the beneficiary.
Gentlemen in civil employment have every opportunity to employ their savings in local investments
paying good interest and so reap the advantage of their local knowledge. They live a life of comparative
seclusion which does not call for any particular expenditure on the maintenance of their position and they
have a number of privileges and concessions which are not open to Government Officers. We do not wish,
however, to base our arguments entirely on comparisons. The present rates of pay of Cadet Officers are,
we assert, utterly insufficient to allow them to comply with the conditions laid down bv the Commission
and admittedly essential if the good name of the service is to be maintained.
39 Jj. “ Unless officers in the Public Service are placed in a position in which they can be free from con-
stant financial difficulties and can carry on their duties contentedly under circumstances in which they retain
their own respect and that of the public which they serve the class of man which will alone be-
obtainable will not be of that category which will enhance or maintain the credit of the British name
in the East.”
11. We attach, in illustration of our argument, specimen budgets of several Officers holding different
positions in the service which indicate all too clearly that the financial margin, even in fair weather,
is insufficient: in exceptional circumstances, due to illness or any other cause, an Officer has the alternatives
of reducing his establishment and way of living below a decent standard or of plunging into debt.
We submit that a salary which does not allow an Officer to live in reasonable comfort and save a small
sum monthly to provide for contingencies is not a “living wage.”
12. We conclude this chapter by a further quotation from tlffi Commission’s report.
Jj99. “The other principal reason which makes the Public Service of Malaya so unpopular and so dis-
quieted is that all its officers feel most strongly that their salary has been for a long time insufficient
and for about the last three years hopelessly inadequate.
■500. “Amongst those who have been a long time in Government Service the complaint runs back to
the unexpected experiences which they underwent in the decrease of their pay after the introduction of the
Sterling Scheme owing to the rise in the value of the dollar and the subsequent fixing of its gold
value at 2/4.
■501. “The continued rise in the cost of living for some 10 years prior to the Gutbreak of the War, and
the inadequacy of the reforms occasioned by the Stubbs Report, from which they hoped so much but gained
so little, have produced a sentiment of consternation.
■502. “ The still further and unexampled advance iu expenses due to the War has brought about a deli-
berately and carefully organized combination amongst officials of all classes and grades determined to force
the attention of the local Governments to their grievances and to urge them to bring their complaints to
the knowledge of the Secretary of State.
■503. “ They realize that it is difficult for the very highest officials, who have substantial emoluments
and many privileges, to understand how hard pressed are those who man the less exalted posts: they further
think that it is even harder to impress upon the Home authorities that the purchasing value of a dollar
in Malaya is not equivalent to 2/4 in England but roughly to that of a shilling there and to that of
a rupee in India or Ceylon.
50^. “They believe themselves to have fallen through lack of adequate pay below the standard of
life demanded from them by European society of corresponding position.
â– 503. 11 Large numbers have declared that they have been for some years quite unable to exist on their
pay and have had, when lucky enough to possess them, to encroach greatly on their—often very slender—
private means and there is no doubt that this allegation is unhappily only too true.
306. “ They know also—and feel strengthened by the fact—that they have at their back the complete
and united sympathy and support of every responsible European non-official in the Peninsula ; of the un-official
members of Councils and of merchants, planters and bankers as well as of influential personages in. the
non-European community. ,

■i07. “There are few, if any, conditions of their Service with which they are content.
“They complain of the anomalies surrounding the methods by which Government attempts to offer them
housing accommodation; of the lack of prospects of promotion: of the inadequacy of allowances for
travelling and subsistence on duty; of tho present arrangements as to Pension ; of the working of the
Widows’ and Orphans' Annuity Scheme ; and of lack of co-ordination between, and the presence of inequality
of treatment in, the different Services of the Peninsula.
“In fact it would, we think, be difficult to find a body of men with such varying functions so
thoroughly displeased with their lot.
■iOS. “Tt is, of course, very easy to make complaints and not difficult to become alarmed at an outcry
if it is loud enough: hut there is no doubt that these views are not assumed without some justification or in
any insubordinate or captious spirit.
“ Indeed it is abundantly obvious to us that affairs in the Public Service are in a very unsatisfactory
state and that unless something is done materially to better the position, and that quickly, there will not
remain in it any who can possibly escape: it has already got a thoroughly bad name as an inadequately
paid body and, unless its prospects are brightened considerably, it need not be anticipated that men of
anything but indifferent calibre will join it—and then only to leave directly they obtain a chance of any-
thing better outside its circle.
■710. “There is no doubt in our minds as to the inadequacy of the Pay throughout the entire Service.
■Hl. “ The reason for this is due firstly to the high monetary unit of 2/4 : secondly to the continued
and rapid rise in the cost of living for about 10 years prior to the War: and thirdly to the immense
further advance since the outbreak of War and particularly during the last three years.
“ It is a striking commentary that at the present time even an officer in the Cadet Service is, practically
at all stages of the cadre, in receipt of less money than a Bank, Planting or Mercantile Assistant of
approximately similar age.”
Special Factors due to the Wail
13- The Commission discusses in considerable detail the effect in Malaya of the abnormal conditions
produced by the war. We cannot improve on the statement of the facts and we reproduce in full the
relevant portions of Chapter V of the report. We add in an Appendix a comparative table of prices of
commodities now and pre-war which indicates that the 50 % increase estimated by tho commission
is not exaggerated.
.Difficulties involved in the consideration of this question.
478. “ Although the main features of the economic conditions which have been markedly noticeable
in Malaya during the War stand out prominently enough there is considerable difficulty in estimating how
far the increase of the cost of living which, has been quite extraordinary during this period has been purely
due to War causes.
479. “ For several years prior to the War, as has been pointed out, there had already obtained a rapid
and continued advance in the expenses of residence in the Peninsula due to the causes which have been
sufficiently indicated in the preceding Part: and there seems no reason to assume or suppose that had times
been normal that enhancement would have been very materially checked or much retarded by any new
economic factors.
4S0. “ If we assume that since July, 1914, the general cost of living in the Peninsula has advanced
by some 50 per cent., it seems probable that some 10 per cent, may be what one might have expected had
there been no War at all and the remaining 40 due to War: most of which we believe will be permanent.
“ We can only deal with circumstances as we find them and, after all, the question is only of importance
when considering how far the possibility of reversion to pre-war prices and conditions is at all likely.
Causes of the great increase in .the cost of living due to the War,
481. “ The principal causes no doubt are:—
“ (fl) The dislocation in the production in Europe of innumerable articles and commodities usually
imported into the Peninsula.
“ These imports cover an enormous range and it is impossible to attempt to enumerate them ; but
iron and metalware, lamps, drugs, clothing, biscuits, leather-ware, boots, glass-goods, stationery
and haberdashery may be taken as examples.
“ Al any industrial and agricultural employes in Europe were engaged either as active combatants
or in direct connection with the Naval and Military Forces ; many more in munition making
or other War work ; many factories normally producing some of the articles to which, we refer
were converted into establishments for the manufacture of materials required for the Forces.
Much of almost everything was diverted from its usual trade channels to sole use in the
“ In consequence here, in common no doubt with many if not most other non-sei[‘-supporting
countries, there was first a shortage and then often a stoppage in the supply’ of these goods :
vendors put up their price as their stock dwindled: the rich bought and the poor if they were
compelled to buy suffered accordingly.
“ To some extent Australia, New Zealand, the United States of America, and Japan took up
portions of the suspended European trade but, in. the main, with products of less merit and
at a high price.
“ (6) The rise in tho price of silver and the consequent fact that the exchange between Malaya and
China was immensely in favour of the latter country affected the Peninsula very greatly.
“ The very large Chinese population here is constantly remitting to its native country sums of
money which in the aggregate form a large total.
“ From time immemorial it has been amongst many of the Chinese the custom, when emigrating,
to leave their wives and families in the old country.
“ To make clear what is meant the following simple illustration is given.
k” With a dollar in China worth 4/8 and in Malaya 2/4 a Chinese man who wished to remit from
here to his wife in China §100 would find that (apart from cost of transmission) he would have
t to pay 200 Malayan dollars to provide her with §100 Hongkong currency.

“ The result was . simple: the Chinaman felt—though probably many did not altogether under-
stand—the pinch and demanded and obtained higher wages.
The same thing though in much less degree occurred as between Malaya and India.
“ The consequence was that the cost of labour advanced greatly : and prices naturally followed suit.
“ (c) The commandeering of ships for Naval and Military duties and purposes and subsequently the
the losses of tonnage due to the German submarine outrages led to a condition in which there
were left hardly any merchant vessels to carry on ordinary commerce with this part of the world.
The result was that competition for the little space available raised the cost of freight to a dizzy
and almost incredible height: owners of free vessels asked and obtained whatever they liked
for the carriage of goods.
“ We know of a freight of £85 per ton for the consignment from here to Marseilles of a shipment
of sago flour.
“ The insurance against War risks and actual danger were also accessory in raising the cost
of transit.
“ The result was of course a rise in price of goods from oversea.
“ (4) High War wages in Great Britain were also an influence towards enhancing the price of
imported goods.
“ (c) The scarcity of ships made the transport of labourers from India and China increasingly difficult:
in the former country there was some very definite restriction on their emigration for various
“ The supply of labour for mining and plantation work in Malaya has not for years—if ever—been
equal to the demand and the shortage produced by the causes mentioned led but to competition
for what was available and to its higher pay.
“ (/“) Profiteering has undoubtedly taken place in many businesses and whenever the lack of
competition has allowed it.
482. “ It is very difficult to state confidently what is the total effect of all these causes upon the cost
of living in Malaya.
“ But speaking generally the all-round rise since the outbreak of War in the cost of living has been not
less than 50 per cent.
“ That is to say that a householder finds that in all those outgoings which he necessarily has to pay
inorder to maintain his establishment he has to disburse now about 150 dollars for every 100 which he
would have had to disburse in July, 1911.
The effect upon salaries and pensions of Officials in Malaya occasioned by the rise
483. “ It has already been pointed out how high wages in Great Britain and other causes affected the
cost of production of articles usually exported from there to Malaya. The scarcity in Great Britain itself
of food and most articles led to the retention there of nearly every kind of such article and what has drifted
out to the Peninsula has, apart from its immensely increased cost of transit, already run the gauntlet of
fierce purchase competition in the Allied countries.
“ But that is not all.
484. “ Many European Officials and certainly the majority of those of middle age have as usual been
compelled to remit to their families or dependents in Great Britain funds for maintenance or education.
These amounts have owing to the great rise in the cost of living in Great Britain, perforce had th be much
483. “ The cost of the most humble household in Great Britain has during the War increased from
GO to 80 per cent above pre-war standards. Schools have necessarily been compelled to charge more and
so have those in whose custody children have been placed.
“ The result has been naturally serious for those on fixed salary living in Malaya.
“ But, still further, on leave in Europe and deprived of his duty allowance which may be roughly
regarded as about 20 per cent, of his salary the officer at Home will find himself greatly embarrassed.
486. “ As for his position on pension it is indeed a gloomy prospect: with no chance of improving what
was even in pre-war days as a rule a very small sum and one calculated on a basis of the cost of residence
at Home in pre-war times (gone by now doubtless for ever) and with that little subject to the great taxation
now in vogue it is difficult to see hoAV & retired official is going to exist in Great Britain on a gross pension
of even £500 per annum ; a figure which as a matter of fact but few reach.
“ Of course it is appreciated that all must share rvillingly in the burden imposed upon our country by the
War : but there is no doubt, that it is the officer in Government Service on a salary or pension fixed on a-
pre-war basis and which he cannot supplement who feels the weight most heavily.
487. “ In view of our recommendations we have thought it desirable to make some short reference to
this very debatable question.
488. “ There has been, as we have stated before, in our opinion what one may call more or less
a normal rise in the cost of living during the War : this would have occurred in any normal circumstances
in Malaya which was increasing naturally in prosperity year by year. But, for reasons we have given in
Section B of this Part, the increase during the War has been quite abnormal: and how far the normal is
masked by the abnormal it is hard to say.
489. “ At any rate the cost of carriage of goods by sea should be reduced (assuming Peace is definitely
concluded) most materially in the next twelve months: the disappearance of the risk of being sunk by alien
submarine craft, the rapidly decreasing danger of hostile mines and the absence of enemy raiding vessels
must bring down the cost of freight and insurance very greatly and. in fact, have already done so.
“ With the great efforts in ship-building which are now taking place there seems no reasonable doubt but
that in the course of two or three years freight may assume something approaching a normal figure.
“ This reduction should reflect favourably on the price of imported goods here : and, perhaps, to some
extent it will: but it is common knowledge that though Stores advance retail prices on any reasonable
pretext readily enough a similar diminution is never noticeable by the public retail customer.
“ But putting aside the mere cost of transportation it Avill probably take some considerable time before
works but recently devoted to the production of munitions can be con verted into such as are capable of
turning out articles of ordinary commerce.

490. “ It also appears certain that industrial workers in Great Britain who have of late received wages
which have enabled them to realize a long desired and better standard of comfort and life are not going
to allow themselves to revert to the less favourable and more cramped conditions which existed prior to the
491. “ We venture to think that though in the face of great diminution in the cost of freight and
insurance prices of imported goods may fall somewhat before very long there is no reason to suppose that
they will under modern circumstances ever reach pre-war figures : at any rate within any period which we
can contemplate.
“ If wages arc higher no diminution in price of product is possible save by improvement in the scientific
method of manufacture : and that one can but refer to and reserve as a later possibility.
492. “ So far for imported goods: with regard to local prices there is little if any prospect of
493. c< The War has been in Malaya a great opportunity for many Commercial elements they have
obtained high prices for everything which they had foi’ sale. It is true that one or two local industries
of quite a large character, (c.g., the Pineapple canning trade) were shut down owing to the impossibility
of procuring the tin-plate or other materials which were essential to their continuance : but such misfortunes
have been rare and, when they have been encountered, have been met with characteristic adaptability by the
Chinese in charge who have converted their works into some other form of lucrative enterprise.
494. “ One of the greatest mistakes in the past has been the idea that the emoluments of Public Servants
can be fixed on a permanent and immutable scale; it is an attractive thought for an Administrator but
as sound theory is now completely exploded : it is neither possible nor practicable.
495. “ The success as a whole of British Administration and of the Public Services in the Crown Colonies
in the past has been that though salaries have been kept at a low standard there has existed a loyalty
which demanded from itself upright behaviour.
“ But when, as we find here, the local conditions are such that scarcely any of the married European
officials can live on their salaries in circumstances at all befitting their status, and that most of them feel
that they are compelled to stand on an improper financial and social footing owing to the inadequacy
of their pay, it certainly does seem that the time has arrived when it must be decided either to improve
their position or to dispense with European officials altogether.”
Conclusions and Recommendations.
14. We suggest that the revised Scheme recommended by the Commission for the Eederated Malay
States and Straits Settlements should be adopted as the basis for the pay of this service. Generally it may
be described as a time scale up to a point with certain “plum’’ appointments above the scale for which
Officers are selected by merit only.
15. The initial pay of Cadets must, it is generally acknowledged, be raised, in any event, to a point
which will afford them a decent living wage and we have adopted as our basic figure the sum of $225
per mensem.
1G. It must not be forgotten that a Cadet on his arrival in the State has at once to provide himself
with an adequate amount of suitable clothing, furniture (other than the Government allowance),
crockery, linen, etc. All these articles, normally expensive, have increased considerably in value of
recent years. The position of Cadet is migratory in nature. lie probably is attached for some months
to an Office or Department in a town and requires an outfit of white clothes etc. He is later transferred
to an Outstation where his white clothes become more or less useless to him and he has to embark on
a fresh outfit of .jungle clothes, camp equipment, a pony, saddlery etc. His town outfit is meanwhile
suffering the usual fate of clothing in a damp tropical climate and deteriorating rapidly with the
consequence that it requires frequent renewal and probably entire replacement if and when he returns
to a town appointment. It is impossible for him to make the necessary considerable disbursements from
his monthly pay and he of necessity gets into debt. An Assistant on an Estate can usually obtain an
advance against his pay or his commission and his employer is in a position to recover the amount by
reasonable instalments. A Cadet has no such privilege and perforce obtains the necessary accommodation
by owing his tradesmen who are not in a position to enforce periodical payments. For this reason we
have suggested a substantial increase in the initial pay of Cadets. We have given them three years
iu which to qualify for the position of “ Passed Cadet ” but have not provided for any increment on
passing examinations, a provision which sometimes works unfairly and is apt tooncourage a Cadet Io
neglect other duties in favour of the study of Malay.
.17. Even pay at the rate of $225 per mensem does not compare too favourably with the salaries
now being offered to young Assistants for Rubber Estates in the country who draw $250 per mensem
for their first two years’ service and $300 during the third year and there will be some risk that a Cadet,
after he has been some months in the country and learned enough of the language and local conditions
to be useful on an Estate, may be tempted ly an immediate betterment of pay to transfer his attention
to planting. We have provided a substantial increase for the Cadet when he emerges from his
probationary period and we consider it absolutely essential that this step should be retained intact.
A Cadet who during his probationary period is tempted to turn planter might be restrained by the thought
that perseverance in bis duties ns a Cadet would bring a substantial reward at the end of that time.

18. It is understood that a Cadet will draw the allowances attaching to the appointment he may
from time to time he occupying,
19. The second efficiency bar recommended for the F. M. S. and S. S. might, we consider, be placed
earlier. It should be possible to gauge the capabilities of an Officer before he has concluded 13 years’ service.
During that time he will, if inefficient, have occupied posts which others more capable than he should
have held. Their pay, it is true, will not, under the suggested scheme, have been affected but their
chances of showing their worth will have been affected, while the inefficient Officer will have spent
13 years in a position for which he is not suitable and have to start life again in some other sphere
at the age of 35 with, presumably, only an exiguous pension. We suggest that before an Officer is accepted
as a “ Passed Cadet” his probable fitness for his duties should be scrutinised and, if he is obviously unfitted
then to become an efficient Officer, he should be allowed to resign. Having passed this preliminary test,
he would be subject to a further and final scrutiny at the end of ten years’ service and would then be
considered as on the permanent staff of the Government and as qualified, unless anything unforeseen
occurs, to work his way up, at any rate, the maximum of the Time scale of pay. The Commission writes: —
drC/. “ In both the Cadet and all other branches of the Public Service we certainly favour a liberal
programme of weeding out inefficient officers. Those who after fair trial and who at any stage of their
career are considered (preferably by a properly organized Committee) not to be capable of doing useful
work should be pensioned or paid off.
“ The Public Service should not be capable of being regarded as a refuge for the stupid or a couch for
the idle and it is with this in view that we have recommended the use of efficiency bars which we are
strongly of opinion should be regarded as a real obstacle to the promotion of the inefficient. ”
20. We should propose to consider the following appointments as outside the scale
Staff. Government Secretary.
Class 1 a. Resident West Coast.
,, Sandakan.
Class I Z>. Resident Interior. ,
Commissioner of Lands.
Commissioner of Customs and Excise, (as long as the Monopolies continue).
We consider that a distinction should be made between the two sub-classes suggested above.
The appointments of Resident of the West Coast or of Sandakan carry with them a considerable amount
of responsibility and worry in dealing with the big commercial interests involved. This fact has been
realised by the selection of these two Officers as Members of the Legislative Council and we suggest that
the two appointments shall be placed on a higher financial basis.
21. We suggest the Table of Pay set out in Appendix M which, for purposes of comparison, we contrast
with the recommendations of the Commission for the Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements. We
wish however to make it clear that this suggested scale must be taken as recommended conditionally on the
grant of the allowances which should, we consider, be attached to the appointments detailed in Appendix I>.
Our intention is that every servant of the Government should receive a wage which will enable him to
live in reasonable decency and comfort but that he shall receive additional emoluments in reimbursement
of expenses entailed by the particular post held by him.
22. The figures which we have entered as available under the present scheme are, of course, only
approximate but they are interesting as showing that a Cadet who is quick in passing all his examinations
and so earning and gaining promotion to Class TIT can only just attain the maximum pay of Class I in his
thirtieth year of service if he is not blocked at any point of his career. Such blocking is, however,
inevitable unless the flow of promotion is stimulated by the elimination of senior officers at a rate
corresponding to the recruitment of juniors. We have already shown that, of the Staff and Class I officers,
there will probably be only two retiring within the next ten years while there are already officers who have
reached the maximum pay of their Class and who are now apparently irretrievably blocked. Three out
of the four Class I a officers will reach the maximum pay of the Class in 1924 but will still have 7 or
3 years to serve for pension. The most junior Class I 1> officer will reach the maximum of his Class in
1924, the senior in 1921. There are 7 appointments in this Class. One officer may look for promo-
tion in 1921, one in 1926, one in 1930, one in 193], the others 1932. The congestion in Class II is
intensifed by the fact that a number of the senior officers in the Grade have already reached the maximum
pay. The senior men may expect to rise to Class I l> successively in the years mentioned above leaving
them with about 8 years’ service to go to enable them to pass through the two senior classes. This affects
not only their present pay but means the loss of a corresponding number of years in time with the result
that in many cases they have no possible chance of attaining even the maximum pay of Class 1 a, much less
the only Staff appointment. It is for this reason that we urge the equity of the time scale suggested by
the Commission with a small number of selective posts at the top of the service. An officer’s emoluments
will then depend on seniority combined with efficiency and not on the fortuitous circumstance of the
number of people who arrived in the country before him and have survived to stand in his way.
23. We do not suggest that this proposed scale should be considered as final. It is barely adequate
at present but is, we consider, probably as high as officers can reasonably expect pending a more prosperous
condition of the State. It will, however, be an easy matter to amend the scale if aiid when circumstances

.justify a more generous recognition of the services of officers. We trust, . in any event, that whatever
remedy for the present state of affairs is adopted by the Court will be retrospective and take effect not
later than the beginning of the current year 1919. Officers bore their troubles quietly during the war
but are entitled to consider that alleviation shall approximately synchronize with the Armistice which
virtually ended it. The Commission writes in this connection : —
6'5.^. “ We are of course aware that whatever action may be taken by (Government as the result of this
Report can be effected immediately but of necessity will take some time; probably many months.
We have already drawn attention to the temporary allowances which have been granted by Govern-
ment particularly to the lower grades of the Service. We feel however that it would not be right for ns
to leave the matter thus.
“To delay action at the present time when the position lias for 2 or 3 years assumed the gravest
difficulty would we think be extremely injudicious.
“For these reasons therefore we recommend as from January 1st, 1919, an immediate allowance on
1918 salaries of 30 per cent of the 1918 salaries (including duty allowance) in lieu of the present War
allowance. When the new salary scheme is finally approved it should be retrospective as from January
1st, 1919, and underpayments should be adjusted.
“ Such a grant would at any rate relieve the tension and serve as a stop-gap until sufficient time has
elapsed to enable our recommendations to be considered and dealt with. ”
The scheme should be taken as based on the assumption that free passages for officers, their wives
and children will be provided by Government, failing which the figure adopted as rendering marriage
possible must be considerably increased.
24. The Commission adds a number of observations of an explanatory character in substantiation
of its recommendations. They are:—
■7£<9. “ 1. The table forms a plain incremental scale with one efficiency bar after 13 years’ service.”
“ 2. The column under the heading .Aye in this and other similar scales is merely inserted with a
view of giving an idea of the approximate age at which an official would normally reach a given salary.
It is not intended that officers should necessarily be paid according to their age, though we think that the
Government should reserve the right to place an officer in possession of special qualifications or experience
at any point of the scale which may seem desirable.
“ 3. Increments should not be regarded as merely formal or automatic but should, as now, be subject
to certificates of diligence, fidelity and good conduct.
“4. The efficiency bar is a far more formidable obstacle: to pass which an officer has to be certified
by Government as thoroughly competent and efficient.
“5. The division of actual appointments into grades of Classes V, IV, HI and II loses its
significance to officers from a financial point of view though for administrative convenience divisions of
posts into these or other classes will possibly be retained. ”
We particularly urge the second observation. Cadet Officers in this service who have particular
qualifications do not receive any additional emoluments in return for the use of such qualifications which
are a substantial asset to Government. We also urge the inequity of the custom, which has of necessity
obtained recently, of calling on officers to perform the duties of two or more appointments without any
additional remuneration. We admit that the duties of two appointments cannot be performed so
efficiently or so punctually by one man as by two but the extra work and responsibility involved should
be marked and rewarded by some financial betterment as is done in other services, and, in a very few
cases, in North Borneo.
25. The question of Allowances is one which calls for radical amendment, the present regulations
being our of date'and grossly unfair in their incidence. The Commission writes as follows on this
656. ‘‘ We have had a great deal of evidence relative to these subjects adduced before us and after
very careful consideration we have fully come to the conclusion that, speaking generally, all the allowances
are out of date and in present times inadequate.
“ We think that it must be accepted that, where an officer by reason of his duties is compelled to incur
on behalf of Government any expenses, it is not right that he should have to pay any portion out of
his own pocket.
“ For example if an Engineer of the Public Works Department is compelled constantly to make use
of a motor-car on Government Service it seems unfair that the allowance granted him for upkeep should
not at least cover his running expenses.
657. “ Circumstances and conditions vary in different places and we do not think that it is possible
for us to attempt to lay down any scale of allowances which wc could say with confidence would be suit-
able for adoption throughout Malaya.
658. “ We think that the Governments should appoint suitable Committees to revise the scales
and to consider the application of the systems of allowances now in force.
“ We are satisfied that they will find much which requires amendment and amplification and although
it may not be possible to lay down any hard and fust single schemes which may be utilized generally
throughout all the Service, it is quite certain that, even with the material at our disposal and certainly
with the local knowledge which the Committees will or ought to possess, they will be able to produce
something which will alleviate much of the dissatisfaction which is everywhere at present expressed."'’
26. Entertainment.—The rules regulating this allowance are to be found in the Official Regulations
and place the following limits on claims on this account:—
(ft) to meals or board only.
(5) on account of persons absent from their usual place of business.

The amount payable is laid down as $1.50 for a. dinner and less amounts for other meals. The
■combined effect of these limitations is exemplified in the following instances:—
(a) A man-of-war is in port and the officers are invited to an afternoon At Home. Ao claim
is permissible.
(5) Hospitality is shown at a Club. No claim is permissible.
(c) A man-of-war is in port and a dinner is given to which, say, three of the officers are
invited and, say, three local residents. A claim for $4.50 is allowed which will not defray
the cost of the dinner and leaves no margin for liquors or smokes.
27. We have no desire to suggest that the Government shall foot all bills for entertainment but
we consider that in cases where entertainment is an obligation due to an officer’s position, he should
Ito given a sum which will cover all legitimate expenditure under this head, including any casual
hospitality which he may be called upon to show at Clubs. For this reason we have shown in
Appendix 7>. the sums which we consider should be allotted as a regular provision attached to certain
.appointments where a certain amount of possibly minor but at the same time expensive entertaining is
forced on the incumbents. This sum should suffice to cover all the usual entertaining but the receipt
of it should not be considered an absolute bar to the presentation of an additional claim in case of any
large unforeseen expenditure of a special nature.
28. Duty Allowance.—Y)xAy Allowance in this country has, in the past, been granted on one of two
grounds. Tn some cases the exceptionally arduous nature of an officer's duties or the special circumstances
of discomfort attending the performance of them has justified the concession. In other cases the allowance
has been attached to certain offices the tenants of which are expected ex-officio to maintain a
reasonably comfortable standard of living in well appointed houses and with a decent staff of servants
in order that they may be able to entertain visitors without putting an undue strain on their resources.
The concession is, however, we submit not wide enough in its application and should be extended to
a considerable number of other officers whom we have detailed in. Appendix 13. The special responsibilities
and necessities of the positions indicated should carry a commensurate allowance.
29. Horse Allowarce.—The statutory allowance is $15 per mensem though in certain cases a double
pony allowance of $30 per mensem is admitted when one pony would theoretically not suffice for the
performance of the duties imposed on an officer. In one case, an officer draws $20 per mensem on the
plea that he had to keep a buggy. Apart from the fact that in practically no District where riding is
possible will one pony suffice, the allowance in itself is inequitable. A sais’ pay now is nowhere less than
$15 per mensem and the allowance therefore leaves no margin for upkeep of the pony or its saddlery and,
of course, nothing to go against the prime cost of or depreciation of tiher. In some cases, the use of
a carriage is almost obligatory and the deficit is pro tanto increased. If horse transport is all that is
considered necessary for the Residents of Sandakan and the West Coast, they should be allowed a monthly
sum adequate to the purpose not only of maintenance but of making allowance for depreciation. Iu the
case, however, of these two officers and of the Government Secretary wo consider that the celerity and
comfort of motor transport on the roads in. those towns should be considered adequate reason for an allowance
sufficient to maintain a motor car. The car should, we consider, be bought by the officer but the Govern-
ment should advance him a reasonable sum for its purchase. This sum would be repayable by monthly
instalments up to, say, 50 °/0 of the original loan, the balance being written off as a grant-in-aicl. In this
connection the Commission reports:
471. “ It should not be at all a difficult matter to decide what officers really require a car for their
work. The practical problem which arises is as to the way in which an officer is to be provided with it.
“Obviously there is more than one alternative. For instance Government can buy the car and
hand it over to the officer for his use giving him an allowance for chauffeur, running repairs and petrol.
“ This is a method of dealing with the matter, which, with some modifications, has been employed
locally : but the practice has lallen into disfavour.
“Apparently Government was alarmed at the possibility that the car would not be properly looked
after, that it might be diverted from its proper use and utilized for the private enjoyment of the officer
and his family or friends, and that the allowance given for its upkeep might be, to the detriment of his
work, expended for his own ends.
472. “ At any rate the present policy is different; the officer is expected to buy the car but Govern-
ment advances him up to ,000 with which to do so: the advance is repayable in full by monthly in-
stalments of $100,
“The Government grants an allowance for running expenses.
“ Presumably it is thought that in this way Government avoids the difficulties of which it was afraid
under the former scheme: but tho arrangement seems one of a most unsatisfactory nature for the officer.
“ The running allowance which is granted varies: for a two seated car it was $70 per month; for a
larger car $90 ; a few officers are said to receive as much as $100 and even $125 per mensem : and the
rates have been at times altered.
“ But be those figures what they may the fact remains that the whole purchase cost of the car is
actually borne by the official even when it is admittedly and purposely provided and almost entirely used
for Government work. The deducation of $100 per month for 20 months from the salary of an official
drawing perhaps a monthly wage of $450 is in some cases a crushing infliction.
“ For all the Government work for which the car is used and for wear and tear thereby occasioned
the officer apparently receives practically nothing. Assuming he gets $90 pur month allowance and travels
000 miles in the month on Government Service (often a modest estimate) his chauffeur and petrol wilt
alone cost him $60 and the balance would not buy him a single outer cover (which now costs at least $50).
Carbide, lubricating oils, grease, waste and the other incidentals with which every motorist is familiar make
it quite clear that for all practical purposes the Government is getting the use (/. c., the depreciation) of
the officer’s car for nothing.

It is, indeed, generally put to us that the $90 allowance covers only running expenses for a 400
monthly mileage. The present arrangements in our opinion are certainly very unsatisfactory from the
officer’s point of view.
30. We have recommended in Appendix S the rates which we consider should be allowed to officers
holding certain appointments for the upkeep of ponies in adequate numbers for the performance of their
official duties. The rates suggested, though they exceed the present dole, are in no way excessive and
would not leave an officer in pocket after making due allowance for writing off his capital expenditure.
They should be regarded as a minimum to be increased when possible.
31. We submit that some concessions in the matter of leave are urgently required.
32. Local Leave.—The Commisson writes :—
40d. “ It will be observed from this table that Malaya does not appear to compare favourably with
the other tropical places referred to. There is practically no change in the seasons ; there is no period,
however short, of cool or bracing weather such as is enjoyed in Hongkong or India ; and, although Malaya
escapes the high but dry temperatures of the summer which are experienced in the latter country, in Egypt
or even in Cyprus (35° N. lat), the constant humid heat of Malaya is extremely enervating and slowly but
surely saps the vigour and energy—corporal and mental alike—even of the most robust.
“ To those who have not resided in these tropics a proper impression can only perhaps be conveyed by
stating that the atmosphere is at sea-level somewhat similar to that of a hothouse.
“ The Medical Profession is unanimous in its view that at the end of 3 years’ stay in the country
a change to and holiday in some invigorating locality is highly desirable if lasting harm to health is be
guarded against: ideal advice of which unfortunately few can afford or are able to take advantage. ”
In North Borneo an officer is entitled under the Official Regulations to six 'weeks iocal leave annually,
subject to a right to compound the last two years’ leave, prior to his going on furlough, for two months’
full pay leave. If during those two years he uses any of his local leave, he automatically forfeits a portion
of the full pay leave although he may during the first three years of his term have taken no leave and is
therefore actually 4A months in credit. After three years’ service, officers often require a short period of
relaxation but are afraid to take it for fear of the penalty of forfeiture of some of the commuted period
prior to furlough. The restrictions on local leave are so varied and complicated and its enjoyment so
impossible that it is only in a very few cases that officers have been able to get away from their duties.
As long as this is the ease, the commutation should not be so jealously guarded and the two months full
pay composition should be granted in all cases where only short periods of rest have been en joyed during
the last two years.
33. Furlough.—The Commission recommends the adoption of the arrangement in vogue in Hongkong
under which an officer can obtain a break at the end of two years to enable him to take short leave if he
can arrange for his work to be carried on and, at the end of four years, can obtain 7 months full pay leave,
and adds : “ We certainly think that this is a matter to which serious consideration should be given :
we should like to point out that 4 years’ continuous service in Malaya -without a break is for a European
a considerable tax and the probability is that during the last year an officer’s energies Hag considerably and
he doesnot do himself or his work full credit.” We consider that a similar concession should be made
here in the case, at any rate, of officers who are proceeding on leave for the third and subsequent times.
34 The Commission reports: —
704. “ Tho other point to which we desire to draw notice is the rule that an officer on retirement
is not granted more than 3 months’ full-pay leave under any circumstances and at the end of that time
goes on pension. This seems an unnecessary and unkind restriction; for example as in the case of an
officer who has served for 4 years and would be entitled were he returning to Malaya to 8 months full-pay
leave which he has really earned and who is docked of 5 months of this full-pay life and placed on pension
at the end of three.” Mutatis Mutandis, this should equally apply to the North Borneo Service and the
prohibitory clause in the pension regulations amended accordingly.
35. Considerable dissatisfaction is felt among officers owing to the fact that officers who, owing to
the exigencies of the service, have had to postpone their furlough receive no compensation in kind when
their next opportunity for furlough is reached. An officer who goes on leave after six years service has
to serve at least four years before he can obtain his next furlough and the delay is in consequence never
compensated to him. We submit that the date of accrual of leave and the amount due should be reckoned
on an officer’s total service and not merely on his service since his last return from leave.
36. Passages.—The Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States have afforded an example which
will, we hope, be followed without delay. The only point where the leave conditions of this service
previously compared at all favourably with those of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay
States lay in the grant of £50 towards an officer’s passage each way. This allowance did not cover the
full cost of the passage even for an officer who had no dependents and no regard was paid to such
dependents. They have now been granted by the Colonial Government a full measure of recognition
and we submit that a similar concession should be made to this service and the full cost of passages.

allowed for officers, their wives and children. The necessity for providing for the extra passages is one of
the features that most darkly overshadows a married officer and we submit that this is a most important
subject for immediate concession. On this point the Commission writes : —
671. “We 1 rave already drawn attention to the recent arrangements contained in the Despatch of
the Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies [Straits Se tlemeuts No. 159, dated the 13th of May,
1918,] and to the Despatch [Straits Settlements No. 220, dated the 12th of August, 1918,] in reply
thereto relative to the above matter.
672. “ That this is a privilege which will be immensely appreciated, there is no possible doubt and
we have no hesitation in recommending in the strongest possible terms that it is one which should be
continued. We think, however, it right to draw attention to the fact that under normal conditions the
actual monetary considerations which the privilege gives to the individual officer are not upon analysis
perhaps so great and valuable as would appear to be the impression.
“ In pre-war times the cost of return first class P. & 0. Mail passage was £99 ; the price of a passage
by an Intermediate P. & 0. steamer was considerably less.
“Taking the cost of the return passage at £100 this would mean that an orficer would have to put
by each year for 4 years £25, i. e., a monthly sum of £2 lx. 8rZ. which is roughly §18 a month. Of
course if he was a married man the amount would be doubled and again increased if he had children.
“ The privilege already existed in the case of officers whose emoluments did not exceed £360 per annum
so that this expense did not actually fall on those who were in receipt of the lowest emoluments.
“ Apart from the actual difficulty of doing so the resolution requisite monthly to place aside a definite
sum fur the purpose of making a provision for a far away contingency is of a character not often met with.
“ Indeed we are led to believe that it has been long a common feature that many officials have had
either to borrow the money to pay for their passages Homewards and Outwards or to tiw and extract from
Government an advance of salary for that purpose ; with the result that their holidays have been over-
shadowed by the consequential retrenchment which their loans have necessitated.
673. “ It may, therefore, well be understood that the concession granted is one which has been
greeted with extreme gratitude.
674. “ It is difficult to say when if ever the cost of passages will return to anything approaching
pre-war figures ; the cost of travel has for a long time shown a tendency to rise.
“ When Mr. Stubbs in 1911 wrote his lieport he states that the cost of a first class return passage
by an intermediate P. & O. steamer was roughly £75. As before mentioned in pre-war times a first class
return ticket by a P. & O. Mail steamer was £99.
“ At the present moment a first class single ticket by an Intermediate P. & O. steamer costs £82 and no
return tickets are being issued.
“ A first class single fare by the French Messageries Maritimes boats to Marseilles only is $807 (£94).
675. “ The only comments which we should like to make with regard to the detailed arrangements
which have been published in connection with the carrying out of this privilege are —
“ (a) We should prefer to see the removal of the restriction with regard to age in the case of
unmarried girls.
“ (Z») We should prefer to see the removal of any conditions which necessitate the family of an officer
actually accompanying him on a voyage.”
37. The temporary’ arrangement now in force in the Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements
is contained in the following circular :
Payment of Passages of Officers proceeding on Leave and returning from Leave.
■185. “1. As a temporary’ measure of relief, pending such action as may be taken on the report of
the Commission which is about to inquire iuto the salaries of certain appointments on the Sterling Scheme,
the grant of passages to Officers proceeding on furlough to Europe will be made by' the Government
in certain cases and under the following conditions. The grant will be an act of grace and not a matter
of right, and will be confined to the cases of officers, having a domicile in Europe or the Dominions,
holding appointment in Appendices A and B to the Sterling Scheme of which the maximum salary,
excluding duty’ allowance, exceeds £360 per annum.
“ 2.—(i) When such an officer is granted furlough to Europe after four years’ resident service since
joining the Government service or since his last return from furlough, he will be given a first class
return passage from Singapore or Penang to England. This passage will be taken by’ mail steamer if
the officer’s salary’ exceeds £600 per annum (exclusive of duty’ allowance), and otherwise by intermediate
steamer, or 2nd class by mail steamer if no intermediate steamer is available.
“ (ii) When an officer is granted furlough to Europe before the completion of four years’ resident
service since his last return from furlough, a proportion of the cost of his passage, or passages, may’ be
paid byr the Government at the rate of one-quarter for. each completed year of resident service since
his last return from furlough.
“ 3. If the officer proposes to retire from the service upon the expiration of his furlough, a Home-
ward passage, or passages, only’ will be issued.
“ 4. If the officer is married, his wife will be given a similar passage by the same steamer.
Passages will also be granted in respect of such of the officer’s children as are under the age of sixteen
years and accompany’ him by’ the steamer.
“ 5. No passages will be paid for any’ relatives or dependents other than the above.
“ 6. If any7 officer to whom a passage has been granted under this Circular resigns the Government
service, or retires from the Government service otherwise than upon Medical Certificate or having reached
the age limit, within two years of his return from furlough, he shall be liable to refund to the Government
the difference between the cost of a return passage or passages and a single passage or passages.
“ 7. Free or assisted passages to England and back may be provided for the wife and children of
an officer when they’ are not accompanied on the voyage by’ the officer:—
“(«) when the officer, after having served four years since his last return from long leave, is detained
• in the Straits Settlements bv the exigencies of the Government service; or
“(&) when a Government Medical Officer certifies that it is necessary upon medical grounds that
the wife or one of the children should proceed to England without delay’.

“8. In every case where the privilege is conceded, the passage will be taken by the Government
and will be by the usual direct route. If the officer’s plans involve a departure from the usual direct
route, or preclude his making use of the passage which would ordinarily be procured by the Government,
lie may be granted such sum towards the cost of his passage or passages as the Governor, in the circum-
stances of the case, may think fit.
“ 9. The provisions of this Circlar arc applicable, mufatis wiitandis, to officers proceeding on furlough
to Australasia, Canada or the Union of South Africa, and may be extended to such other cases as may
appear to the Governor to merit similar consideration.
“10. This Circular applies to officers taking furlough on or after the 12th August, 1918. In the
case of officers who were on furlough on that date, or whose families on that date had left the Straits
Settlements and had not returned, the grant of the cost of one-half of a return passage will be made.”
Waii Bonuses.
38. In the question of war bonuses, North Borneo has; lagged far behind neighbouring States, where
increases of considerable amounts have been readily granted. The Commission calculates that, assuming
an increase of 50 per cent, in the cost of living in Malaya, 40 per cent, is due Io the War. The highest
bonus paid in North Borneo is 15 per cent. The corresponding bonus in the .Federated Malay States is
35 per cent. The lowest bonus paid in North Borneo is 5 per cent, or say £35 per annum on a pay of
§500 per mensem. The corresponding amount in the Federated Malay States is £100.
The Commission writes :—
The position during, the War and up to the present time.
A90. “ Of this period there is little to be said. In common with most other parts of the world
the cost of living rose appallingly.
“Merchants and tradespeople have been able to counter this advance by increasing the price of the
commodities in which they dealt: for the raw products of this part of the East-—tin, rubber, oil,
etc.,—there was a large demand.
“ Public officials and those on fixed salaries naturally have been most seriously affected. A graded
income-tax (amounting to 6 per cent on incomes of over 812,000 per annum) was imposed in the Straits
Settlements and additional import and export duties on various articles in the Federated Malay States.
“ Many private firms have raised the salaries of their employes and given them a bonus to enable
them to cope with the increased expenses. For many officials the war period lias been a time of increasing
pecuniary anxiety and the unavoidable incurring of serious debts.”
39. We do not tliink we are exaggerating in claiming that the actual increase in the cost of living
in North Borneo is nearer 75 per cent, than 50 per cent. While the servants of the Government are thus
bearing say GO per cent, of the increase, the shareholders are receiving an increased dividend. We submit
that a bonus, with retrospective effect from the 1st January 1918, should be paid on the same scale as that
adopted in the Federated Malay States pending the approval of the improved rates of pay suggested in this
memorial and, thereafter, until the cost of living returns to a normal figure, a bonus of not less than
10 per cent, be granted subject to such variation as may be warranted by periodical’changes of conditions.
40. The increases in pay which we have urged will automatically increase the pension benefits but we
strongly urge the adoption of the “five-sixtieths tropical allowance” for officers of the Cadet Service.
They for the most part spend the first ten years of their service in arduous travelling in Districts but
receive no allowance of service for pension which is granted fairly freely to Professional and Miscellaneous
Officers. This concession would be welcomed, we consider, by all officers even if it entailed a small addition
to the pension contributions now levied. In this connection the following extracts from the Commission’s
report are relevant:—
686. “ The first of these is the widely spread opinion of both non-official and official elements that
the age of 55 as the age for retirement should, in these enervating tropics, be reduced: the general view
is that it should be lowered to 50.
687. “The plain fact is that, as a rule a European who has spent 25 or 30 years working in Malaya
and has reached the age of 50 is worn out and has done all the best work he is ever likely to do at any
rate in the tropics.
689. “We think it is useful to reproduce here a memorandum on the matter written at the end
of 1918 by the Acting Colonial Secretary, Straits Settlements, who has been for many years in the
Malayan Service and is intimately acquainted with all parts of the Peninsula.
“ He writes:—
‘ Retirement and Decay.
‘ 1. It is strongly urged that Retirement should precede Decay.
‘2. The average age of Decay varies according to the different departments. Thus a Surveyor,
‘who has spent the best years of his life in strenuous outdoor work in unhealthy forests,
‘swamps, or mountains, quite possibly is unfit for further useful service he reaches
‘ the age of even 50 years. One may, nevertheless, sometimes see him for many years
‘afterwards filling an office chair, with content to himself and little benefit to the office.
‘ Similarly the age limit of useful service for Engineers and Police officers is probably lower
‘than that for the Civil Servant. (This principle is already recognized in the case of
‘ Police Inspectors.)

' 3. When an officer who is past useful work remains on in the Government Service there result;
‘ various evils of which the following are worthy of mention :—
(i) by virtue of his seniority, he fills unworthily an important post, which, in the public
interests, should be held by an officer in the prime of life;
’(ii) expecting no further promotion, his inclinations tend to an “ easy time ” and the
line of least resistance ;
‘ (iii) in the meantime, the man next to him for promotion, seeing that promotion
indefinitely deferred, grows dull in an appointment that oilers insufficient scope;
and he, too, when he succeeds to the post, is past the age when he could properly
fill it.
‘ 4. I am anxious to make it clear that I do not mean that this is what always happens. There
is little doubt whatever of its happening frequently.
' 5. For the good of the public service, therefore, it is urged that the retiring age limit should be
“ reduced to 50 years. An officer should be entitled to claim to retire at that age, and the
“ Government should have the right to compel him to retire. All officers at present in the
“ service should be given their option of coming under this rule.
‘ 6. The age of “ Passed Cadet” may be put at 27 years. It makes a very great difference indeed
“ whether the appointments are for officers between 27 and 50 years of age, or for officers
“ between 27 and 55. ”
41. We have made no effort to ascertain the cost of the increases which we advocate because we
arc not in a position to ask for the data on which we could base any calculations.
42. In conclusion, we feel .justified in saying that the Cadet Service feels that its interests have
not received the attention they deserve from the Court. This is largely due to the fact that its work
is not of a theatrically remunerative order and to the fact that it has so far suffered in comparative silence.
11 has seen one Department after another put on a higher basis of pay even during the strenuous days
of war and war economies but a point has now been reached when silence is no longer obligatory and
the Cadet Service feels that the time has come to make its voice heard not only on behalf of the present
members but for the future of the country. When a police constable at home is able to draw a sum n >t
far short of a Cadet’s pay, when a Second Lieutenant in His Majesty’s Army draws an initial pay of §230
per mensem if unmarried and a Colonel §850, it seems that the work of men who spend 30 years of
their life in a tropical country deserve some consideration, and should have a substantial share in the
prosperity which is foreshadowed for the future and evidenced in the present by a dividend of 41 °/0.
Lnless a radical betterment is made immediately, the Government runs the risk not only of losing the
services of some of its trained officers but of failing to attract further recruits for the Cadet Service.
We have the honour to be,
Your Obedient Servants.

i Years of Service. Salary recom- mended. Remarks.
$ i’ During these years the
23 1 275 1 Officer is a Cadet on proba-
24 9 275 N tion. He gets free furnished
25 3 275 quarters. He cannot live res- I pectably less than this.

2G — 1 4 5 400 450 ! Hero he goes on his first leave
28 6 475
29 I 500
30 v 8 525 ( Ago when ho may be thought 1 likely to marrv. 31. 32 9 10 550 575 J Probably goes on leave.
ob .1.1 GOO
34 12 G25 f Hero is a real “ elliciency
3 j 13 700 'bar”: to got beyond it he i must be certified by Govern-
( ment as an efficient officer.
3 (> 37 14 15 725 750 â–  Probablv ho goes on leave.
38 1G 775
39 17 800 , About this time if lie has children they will probably
-10 18 825 be getting too old to remain
4 1. 19 850 in Malaya and will have to
42 • 20 875 go Home fop health and education : probably goes on ' leave at age 40.
43 21. 900
44 2 925 | He can get no higher than
45 •23 950 this unless he is selected for
• i 1 a Staffer Class 1 appointment.
46 24 9 ~
4 I 48 — t- 2G
49 27
50 28
51 29
52 30
Salary. Remarks.
21 5
3 3 0
31 i 5
4G 5
) On passing Lower Malay
I Examination.
| On passing Higher Malay
| Examination.
f On passing Law Exam-
| inalion.
Probably goes on leave.
Probably goes on leave.
Probably goes on leave.
Probably goes on leave.

Sa1 ary. Remarks.
$ 225 1
225 Efficiency bar.
300 As a passed Cadet.
315 Probably goes on leave.
330 345 Class Ab
3 7 5
390 Efficiency bar.
415 Probably goes on leave.
445 4G0 4 / 5 Class IV.
490 Probablv goes on leave.
D35 550 570 590 Class III.
G10 Probably goes on leave.
(j 3 0 Class IF. £ No further increase
G50 I except on promotion to
5 Class I or Staff billet 5//
G50 G50 G50 G50 G50

Appointment. ALTERNATIVE. Motor Bicycle Allowance. Bicycle Allowance. Duty Allowance. Entertainment Allowance.
Horse Allowance. Motor Allowance.
Government Secretary $ 60 ♦ 100 | 4ft $ $ 150 $ 200
Resident Saudakan 60 100 —. 10 ion 150
„ West Coast 60 100 — 10 100 100
,, Interior 60 30* — 100 75
,, East Coast 35 30* 10 75 ♦ 75
,, Kudat 35 30 * 10 75 75-
District Officer Rundurn 35 30* — 50 — i-
,, Tambunan 35 30* — 30 -t
,, Beaufort — — 10 50 75
,, Province Clarke — 30 X
,, South Keppel — — — — 50 50
,, North Keppel 35 — 30 * — 50 30
,, Marudu 35 — 30 * — 50 30
,, Labuk — • — 30 X
„ Lahad Dato’ — 10 50 •40'
Assistant District Officer Keningau 25 — 30 * 30 X
,, Tenom 25 — 30 * — 25 20
,, North Keppel ... 25 — 30* — 30 25
„ Beaufort — — — 30 20
,, Province Clarke... — 30 X
,, Kinabatangan ... — — „ 30 — f
„ Tawau — — — 10 20 20 .
Commissioner of Lands t of $60, $40 — — — 100 50
,, Customs & Excise „ 40 — 100 7 c
Asst. Commissioner of Customs, Jesselton... 30 + 10 + 30 â– 4)
,, „ ,, „ Sandakan... — — 30 + 10 + 30 30
Protector of Labour j of $60, $40 — — 50 30
Chief District Treasurer — — 10 50 -t
* Alternative to Ho^se Allowance.
J Alternative.
T Will draw at official rates.

Unmarried Officer Class II in Jesselton.
(Taken over a period oj 3 Months.)
Total pay and allowances p.m., including war-bonus: $375.
1st Mouth. 2nd Month. 3rd Month.
Pension Contribution - $13,20 5 Pension $13.20 5 Pension $13,205
Cook pay I 20.00 Cook pay 20.00 Cook pay 20.00
,, account) 55.00 ,, (account) 58,00 ,, (account) 56.50 |
Boy pay 15.00 Boy pay 15.00 Boy pay 15.00 !
Tukang ay er 15.00 / Tukang ayer 15.00 f Tukang ayer 15.00
Syce 14.00 Syce 14.00 Allowances to servants 6.00 [
Firewood 6.00 Firewood 6.00 Firewood 6.00
Dhobi 7.00 Dhobi 7.00 Dhobi 7.00
Milk 4.50 J Milk 4.50 J Milk 4.50 J
Club a/c (part) 50.00 Club (part) 45.00 Club (part) 45.00
Ban Guan „ 80.00 Ban Guan ,, 30.00 Ban Guan 50.00
Hotel 5.50 Hotel 2.50 Hotel 3.00
Taxi 4.00 Taxi 3.00 Taxi 4.00
Train (season) 3.90 Train (season) 3.00 Train (season) 3.00
Electric light (quarter) 10.50 lee 5.00 Golf Sub. etc. 10.00
Dog licence (for year) - 3.00 Robinson & Co. 50 00 Harrisons & Crosfield 50.00
Cun „ - 2.00 Peace (subscription) 20.00 Donation (private School) 45.00
Library sub. 6.00 Singapore bills - 6.50 Tailor 18.00
Harrisons & Crosfield (part) 30.00 Train fare - 3.50 Boots 8.00
Various 20.00 Various - 20.00 Various 15.00
$-383.70 $311.20 $394.20
Average expenditure for the 3 months $366.36 p. m.
Note.—It is.admitted that one item viz. Club bill might have been reduced by, say 10%,
if the strictest economy were adhered to, but it is submitted that hardly any
other item could be considered unnecessary or extravagant.
Married Officer Class I a i n Jesselton.
Pay - $480 00
Duty Allowance - 60.00
Horse ,, - 15.00
War Bonus - 24:00
Less pension Contribution 24.00 - — 555.00
Messing (contract with cook) 115.00
Milk 8.00
Firewood 5.00
Ice - - - 10.00
Miscellaneous household stores 50.00
Liquors including aerated waters 60.00
Smokes _ _ - 15.00
Laundry (contract) 20.00
Lighting - 10.00
Servants 60.00 - 353.00
Sais 16.00
Padi or gram - - - 7.50
Siloing _ _ - 7.50
Gardener (additional) 4.00 - 35.00
Piicc allowance to Servants 7.50 - 395.50
Balance 5 G 59.50

This balance has to suffice for the following :—
Club expenses and subscriptions.
Clothing for self and wife.
Purchase and maintenance of horse and carriage.
Purchase and maintenance of linen and additional furniture.
Wife’s passage home and out again.

Unmarried Officer, Acting in Class II, in -Tesselton.
$ cis.
Pay . . . . • — $275.00
War bonus . . . . . . . . — 27.50
Cook’s pay 21 00
Boy’s „ 14 00
Water Carrier 15 00
Electric Lighting 4 50
Firewood 6 00
Dhoby 7 50
Milk 9 60
Cook’s a/c. . . . . . . . . ... 65 00
Ice and cold storage 13 00
Local Ivadai bill for Sundries, including Tobacco,
Liquors and Servants utensils 48 00
Clothing and Boots (estimated) 20 00 20.00
Clubs 47 00 47.00
Pension Contribution 11 00 11.00
281 60 8281.60
Leaving a balance of $20.90 to meet expenses for entertainment, sports accessories, insurance
policy, newspaper and other subscriptions, Railway Fares, renewals to household outfit, luxuries and to
pay (ft debts incurred while on a more inadequate salary.
Unmarried Officer Class II in an outstation of the West Coast Residency,
(taken uVEllr A PERIOD OF 10 MONTHS OF 1919.)
Heading. January. -3 1 April. June. July. August. o GJ GJ CQ October.
$ $ i Is. 8 CtS. 8 $ c‘As‘. 8 $ cis. 8 dS. $ el*. 8 cfs.
1. Household Expenses ( Wages, Marketing etc.
including Rice Bonuses ) 120 120 00 120 00 120 120 90 120 120 00 120 00 120 00 120 00
2. Lighting ( 2 tins oil per month ) i 7 00 7 CO i 7 00 7 70 7 70 7 70 7 70
• > Ban Guan, Groceries, Tobacco and Aerated
Waters. . . — — 250 00 — — — 150 00 — 300 00 100 00
4. Harrison & Crosfield’s, drinks. . . — 75 00 — — — — 180 00 — — 200 00
5. Insurance Policy . . — — 30 00 — — — — — — * —
6. Photographs . . — — 12 CO —- — —■ — — —
t . Kondo, ( Clothes, Soap etc. ) — 25 00 — 50 00 — 70 00 30 00
8. Club — — 12 00 100 — 5 — 86 90
9. Cartridges . . — — — — — — — — 48 00
0. Hotel Expenses — — .26 35 ; — — — —
I. Ah Queo ( Bran etc. ) — — — — — — 34 80 —
2 Saddlery and Padi . . 100 GO 65 00 — — —- — — 87 50 —
b. Private Subscriptions . . — — 7 00 — — — — 80 00 —
4. Boots and Shoes — — — — — — — 27 30
5. Puttees, Stockings, Socks and Shirts ( includ-
ing duty ) I 39 63 12 43i — — 66 85 23 62
Total 127 366 63 529 35 227 139 43 132 627 70 157 70 859 08 451 32
This District Officer’s wages including a pony allowance of $15 and an orderly allowance $11.50 amount to $376.50 per mensem and after
deducting $13.20 for pension contribution to $303. He has therefore earned $3,630 in the 10 Months and agaiust this has an expenditure of $3,5'37.18.
The padi 1ms been calculated on a basis of 3 ponies being kept.
Unmarried Officer, Class II, in an outstation of tiie West Coast Residency.
Cook and boy ... . . $25
Water Earner ... ... 15
Dhobi ... ... 6
Pension Fund ...... 11
Cook’s account ... ... 50
lee etc. ... ... 16
Milk ... ... 3
Groceries ... ... 60 (including Liquors and Smokes. )
Clothing ... ... 15
Clubs ... ... 40 (3 in Distiict, 1 Jcssellon.)
Sundries ... ... 1)
Total ... §256
Total salary earned §302.50 (including War bonus )
Balance §46.50 for entertainment, subsci iplions, literature, train fares etc. etc.

Comparative List of Local Prices of Articles in
Common use.
1907. 1913. 191 I. 1918. October 1919. Percentage of increase. 1919 over 1913.
Articles. Per.— S c. $ c. s c. $ c. S c. $ c. S c. $ c. $ c. $ c.
Biscuits tin • •• 00 75 00 80 1 50 1 90 1 70 112-5
Bovril large bottle 00 90 00 95 1 25 2 10 1 50 58-3
Bread lb. • • • 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 10 00 12 20'0 (Smaib1?
Io J) 111 1919.
Butter, Woods 1 lb. 00 70 oo 68 1 00 1 00 oo 95 I 39-8
Danish 1 lb. • •• 00 80 00 85 1 20 1 20 Nil.
French I lb. •. • 00 55 03 60 00 95 00 95 Nil.
Australian i Golden Churn ) H 00 65 00 90 09 90 00 95 46-1
Cake s ... tin ... 0:) 65 00 65 1 09 1 00 1 05 61-5
Candles pkt. of 6 00 20 00 25 00 65 00 60 00 65 160-)
Cigarettes, “ 3 Castles ” tin 03 44 oo 45 09 65 00 70 00 75 66-6
,, “Navy Cut ” tin 00 42 oo 43 00 60 09 60 09 66 53’5
Canvas shoes 1 50 1 60 2 00 1 75 3 00 87 5
Coat or Trousers, ... blue 2 20 2 50 4 00 6 00 Nil.
G. shirting 4 lb. piece 1 00 1 20 1 85 4 50 8 00 7 50 305-4
' 5 1b. ... ... 2 15 6 00 10 00 12 00 458-1
„ 6 lb. ... ... 1 80 , 2 09 2 60 5 59 7 00 10 00 284-6
„ 7 lb. . . ,, 2 10 2 25 3 09 3 40 7 00 10 00 10 50 216-6
„ 8 1b. ... ... 3 50 4 00 3 80 4 25 8 00 15 00 16 00 3211
T. cloths 7 lb. No. 8 ... 8 00 6 50 8 50 7 50 30 00 40 00 50 00 488-2
Unbleached Drill No. 1 „ 5 CO 4 50 5 03 6 00 20 00 24 00 26 00 420-0
h n » 2 ,, 2 50 1 80 4 00 3 50 14 50 20 00 22 09 450-0
n n n 3 „ ... 1 ) 1 50 2 00 3 00 2 50 6 00 12 00 18 09 500-0
H M H 4 „ 5 „ 2 00 5 50 2 50 2 CO 5 00 8 00 10 00 303-0
h r n 5 „ 2 30 6 09 6 00 8 00
Coffee “J. L. Co.” ... lb. tin 00 75 03 85 1 00 09 90 20-0
Eggs Fish. ... each 03 2i 00 3i 00 02 00 24 00 03 09 03 00 3| 09 4| 125-0
Fresh Other Fish (fresh).— kati ... 00 08 03 14 00 07 00 20 00 18 00 24 03 20 00 25 00 20 00 25 185'7
'Tingiri | Menangin C kati 00 18 00 24 03 20 00 25 00 20 00 25
00 10 00 1« 09 15 00 22 09 15 03 22
... 00 03 00 12 00 10 00 18 00 10 09 18
fRumahan ) Blais j 00 06 09 10 03 10 00 16 00 10 00 16
III- IV] Sumbilang ) Bakalang ,Kakas j Pari / n 00 03 00 08 00 08 00 12 00 OS 00 12
Yu J u ... co 02 00 03 00 02 00 03 00 02 00 03
Fl ou r American xxx bag of 50 lb. o 50 2 70 2 40 4 50 6 59 6 20 158-3
H Australian f per bundle / 18 03 23 20 23 20
(of 4 bags, j 5 80 5 £0
Fowls common per kati 00 30 00 69 00 30 00 60 00 55 00 60 09 80 166-6
,, capon JI 0) 69 00 65 00 90
Turkeys 00 50 1 00 1 09 1 20 1 00 2 00 2 00 1030
Ducks 00 50 03 70 00 50 03 70 09 50 1 00 1 20 140-0
Gee Pigeons jj 00 25 00 30 00 39 03 50 00 50 00 75 00 75 159-0
Bananas bunch 00 10 03 15 00 10 03 25 00 30 00 35 09 50 400-0
Oranges eich 00 01 03 02 00 01 0) 03 03 02 00 03 00 02 00 03 03 03 03 04 200-0
Pineapples jj 00 03 09 06 00 02 00 06 00 04 00 08 00 04 03 OS 00 05 03 10 150-0
Pomeloes ,, 09 04 00 05 03 03 09 05 00 03 00 12 09 06 09 12 09 08 00 15 16 3-6
Papaya ,, 00 03 00 05 00 03 09 05 00 05 00 iO
Mortons & C. & B’s. tin 00 25 00 25 09 45 00 45 00 75 203.0
Jam|;s, “ Morton & C'. & B’s” tin 00 25 00 25 00 45 00 45 09 75 2000
Lard kati 03 39 00 32 00 59 0 » 52 03 89 150-0
J. W. Whisky, quart 1 65 2 15 3 50 3 09 81-8
Brandies 3 * jj 2 50 2 50 4 00 4 75 4 25 70-0
Beer, Jeffreys pint 09 55 09 65
Gin, Gordon’s Drv ... quart 1 00 1 20 2 60 3 75 3. 09 159-0
,, Bols JJ 00 90 1 09 1 50 1 75 1 59 500
Matches per tin 12 00 22 00 23 00 22 50 87'5
Chinese ,. pkt. 0) 11 00 12 03 19 09 20 00 20 81.8
Milk —
Condensed tin 00 23 09 26 00 45 00 48 00 45 73'1
Fresh bottle 00 16 00 16 03 16 00 16 00 20
Liquid 'i Milkmaid / Bear brand tin ... 00 23 00 23 03 28 03 30 03 55 139-1
00 28 09 23 03 33 00 40
Mutton lb. 00 60 00 65 09 40 00 53 09 55 00 55 03 80 103-0
Kerosene Oil case 3 03 3 00 3 50 5 10 6 09 7 00 133.3
“ Fish ” brand 6 03 7 50 *
“Crown” n 5 05 5 60 7 09
“ L. Glass” n 5 15 6 00 7 10
I’adi Pro. Keppel pikul 4 50 6 00
Pigs, Live 17 00 20 00 22 00 30 00 36 00 1111
Pork kati 00 32 00 35 27 00 00 48 00 48 09 66 00 80 196-3
Rice, Table pikul 5 50 5 80 5 20 5 50 7 70 10 80 20 45 293-3
Salmon tin 00 40 00 45 00 50 00 70 03 75 66’6
S \lt kati 00 03 00 01 09 03 00 04 00 04 00 07 00 07 133-3
Sardines tin 00 03 09 10 00 15 00 20 03 20 109-0
Sauce Worcester ... largo 00 90 00 95 1 25 1 43 1 50 57'9
Soap bar 00 25 00 25 09 42 00 60 00 60 149-0
Hongkong, fine pikul 11 00 13 00 9 00 12 00 17 00 14 00 36 09 30)0
White No. 26 Vegetables.— kati 00 12 09 12 00 15 00 14 03 34 183-3
Best n 03 02 00 04 03 02 00 04 09 03 09 04 00 05 150'0
Potatoes Hongkong pikul 8 00 12 00 14 00 24 00
Onions Java kati 00 10 03 12 09 10 00 12 00 12 09 18 CO 24 140-0
Beans jj 00 04 00 03 00 03 00 05 00 06 100-0
Brin jab jj 03 03 00 02 00 02 00 04 00 05 150-0
Ginger 00 01 09 07 09 06 00 15 00 20 185-7
Vinegar bottle 00 10 00 12 00 16 09 22 00 22 83-3