Vocabulary of the Yoruba language

Material Information

Vocabulary of the Yoruba language
Alternate Title:
Part I, English and Yoruba
Alternate Title:
Part II, Yoruba and English ; to which are prefixed, the grammatical elements of the Yoruba language
Crowther, Samuel, 1806?-1891
Place of Publication:
Church Missionary Society
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
vii, 48, 196 p. ; 20 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Yoruba language -- Grammar ( LCSH )
Yoruba language -- Dictionaries -- English ( LCSH )
Yorubadè Yorùbá -- Awọn iwe itumọ-- Gẹẹsi
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Nigeria
Áfríkà -- Nàìjíríà
8 x 10


General Note:
VIAF (Name Authority) : Crowther, Samuel, 1806?-1891 URI :

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
597515 ( ALEPH )
EB84.706 /21138 ( soas clasmark )


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INTRODUCTORY REMARKS, Page i. to p. vil.



Page Page

PRONUNCIATION . .. , 1 VERBS—continued :
LETTERS . 2 Participle . .. . . 16
Vowels 3 Of Tense. . ... . 16
ConTRACTION 4 Neuter ...... 18
AccENTS 4 Conjugation of Verbs . 19—29
ARTICLE . 4 || Apverss. . . .. . . 29
SUBSTANTIVES : Of Place ...... 29
OfGender . 5 OfTime . ..... 30
Of Number . 6 Of Quantity . . . . . 30
Of Case 6 Of Manner or Quality . 30
ADJECTIVES . 7 Of Doubt. . .... 31
PRONOUNS: Of Affirmation. . . . 31
Personal . . . . .. 8 Of Negation. . . . . 31
Emphatical . . . . . 2 Of Interrogation . . . 31
Reflective. . . . .. 21 Of Comparison. . . . 31
Relative . . . . . + 11 |] Prevosrtions . . . . . 32
Interrogative and Indefinite,12 || Gonsunctions . . . . . 34
Adjective . . . . . 12]! Inverrections. . . . . 35
VERBS ...,. .. . . 13 || Numeran ADJECTIVES . . 36
Auxiliary and Defective. 14 ADVERBS . . . 4I
Moods. . ..... J5 DERIVATION . .. . . 46





Part J]. ——EnetisH AND YORUBA. . . ... . 1
Part I].——Yorusa anD EnetisH. . . .... 84
ADDITIONAL WorDS ...... . 175


The Lorp’s Prayer . . . . . . . 2... «(1277
The Ten Commandments. . ....... =. «(177
St. Luke xviii. 16,17. . 2. 2. 2. 2... O80
St. Luke xv. 18,19... . . 2... ee O81
The Intended Treaty with the Chiefs . . . . . 182

The Address to the Chiefs and People of Africa . . 191



Tue ‘Kingdom of Yoruba formerly extended
from Katanga to Ijebbu, a district on the bank of
the Lagos, about forty miles distant from the sea.
One language is still spoken by the inhabitants of
this large country, though it is distinguished by
several dialects. The Kakanda Language may
safely be called a daughter of the Yoruba. The
name Katanga is generally put down in charts;
though the Yorubas themselves call it Oyoh.
European Travellers obtained the name Katanga
from Haussa People. Yarriba, or Yaruba, is like-
wise the Haussa pronunciation: Yoruba would
be more correct.


It is said by the Yorubas, that fifteen persons
were sent from a certain region; and that a six-
teenth, whose name was Okkambih, and who was
afterward made King of Yoruba, volunteered to
accompany them. The personage who sent them

out presented Okkambih with a small piece of


black cloth, with something tied up in it; besides
a fowl, a servant, and a trumpeter. Okinkin was
the name of the trumpeter. On opening the gate
of this unknown region, they observed a large
expanse of water before them, through which
they were obliged to wade. As they went on,
Okinkin, the trumpeter, reminded Okkambih of
the small piece of cloth, by sounding the trumpet
according to the instructions he had previously
received from the personage above mentioned.
The cloth being opened, a palm-nut, which was
deposited in it with some earth, fell into the
water. The nut grew up immediately to a tree,
which had sixteen branches. As the travellers
were all fatigued from their long march in the
water, they were very glad of this unexpected
means of relief; and soon climbed up, and rested
themselves on the branches of the palm-tree.
When they had recruited their strength, they
prepared again for the journey; yet not with-
out great perplexity, not knowing in what direc-
tion they should proceed. In this situation, the
personage, Okikisi, saw them from the region
whence they set out, and reminded Okinkin, the
trumpeter, of his duty; on which he sounded
again, and thus reminded Okkambih of the small
piece of black cloth, as before. On opening it,
some earth dropped into the water, and became a
small bank; so the fowl, which was given to
Okkambih, flew upon it, and scattered it; and
wherever the earth touched the water, it 1mme-


diately dried up. Okkambih descended from the
palm-tree, allowing only his servant Tehtu, and
his trumpeter, to come down with him. The
other persons begged that they might be allowed
to come down; but he did not comply with their
request until they had promised to pay him, at
certain times, a tax of 200 cowries each person.

Thus originated the kingdom of Yoruba, which
was afterwards called Ifehh; from whence three
brothers set out for a further discovery of better
countries. At their departure, they left a slave,
named Adimuh (which signifies “Holdfast”), to
govern the country of Ifehh in their absence.

I have related this tradition with a view to
show the confused idea of the Yorubas respecting
both the Creation and the Flood. The Yorubas,
like other nations, have always considered them-
selves the first people in the world; especially as
the kingdom of Yoruba, in former time, extended
to Benin as well as to Dahomey.


The Kings of Yoruba may safely be traced
back to the time of Ajagbo, who reigned in Oyoh
(Katanga), and died at very great age. The time
of his reign cannot now be ascertained. He was
succeeded by Abioddu; who also enjoyed a long
and peaceful reign, and died an old man. The
Elders of Yoruba always referred, in their con-
versation, to this last peaceful reign as a time of
peculiar felicity, and one which cannot again be


enjoyed for a long time to come. About this.
time the Felatahs (also called Filani or Fulani)
were only known in the country as shepherds
and herdsmen. They were permitted to feed
their sheep and cattle wherever they liked; and
generally lodged outside of the towns, in tents.
After the death of Abioddu, Arogangang, his
brother, succeeded him. Arogangang’s nephew,
Afunjah, born in Illorrin, whose father was a
brave warrior, was made Ahreh-obba (king’s chief
warrior), and was placed in Illorrin; the king
thinking that Afunjah, who otherwise would
have been insubordinate, would be satisfied with
this high post of honour; but, instead of this,
Afunjah used every artifice that he could think
of to dethrone Arogangang, that he might pos-
sess the kingdom. The king, being aware of his
designs, under pretence of offence given to him
by the people of Iwe-re, the town of Abioddu’s
mother, sent Afunjah to war against it, making
sure that by this means he should remove Afun-
jah out of the way: but the matter turned out
the reverse. When Afunjah got to Iwe-re, he
told them that he was sent by Arogangang to
fight against them. They were surprised at this
unexpected declaration. Afunjah was sent back ;
and an army was sent to demand Arogangang,
and to fight against Oyoh (Katanga), in case of
refusal to deliver him up. Oyoh was besieged ;
and Arogangang, dreading the consequence of
falling into the hands of his besiegers, poisoned


himself in the city: upon which the army de-
parted from Oyoh. The beginning of his reign
may be supposed to be about the year 1800. He
reigned seven years.

Adeborh succeeded his brother Arogangang.
‘He was chosen by the Elders of Oyoh, in pre-
ference to Afunjah; who might now have been
placed on the throne of Yoruba on account of his
greatness of mind, but was refused because of his
treachery. Adeborh reigned only 120 days. It
is supposed that he was poisoned.

Mahkuh, one of the royal family, a favourite of
Afunjah, succeeded Adeborh: but it appears that
the majority of the inhabitants of Oyoh were not

well pleased with him. There was war at Igboho ;
and Mahkuh, accompanied by Okpelleh, one of
the king’s counsellors, took the command; but
being unsuccessful in the undertaking, through
pride, shame and vexation, he chose rather to
‘die than to return home; so he killed himself.
He reigned only three months.

After Mahkuh’s death, it appears there was an
‘interregnum of five years; during which period
the political affairs were conducted by one Oj6,
who was Obbashorrung (a privy-counsellor).—
Mahjotu succeeded. Mahkuh, and reigned for
some time well; but his son, being a very wicked
young man, did a great deal of mischief in the
kingdom, chiefly by kidnapping. The people com-
plained very bitterly against him; and at last
required him to be delivered up, that he might


be dealt with according to law. Mahjotu felt
very uneasy on account of his son’s behaviour ;
and life became such a misery to him, that he
preferred death to life, and poisoned himself. It
is not certain how long he reigned.

It is not uncommon among the Yorubas, under
some injury, vexation, or disappointment, to com-
mit suicide; either by taking some poisonous
draughts, sticking themselves with a poisoned
arrow, or cutting their throats or bellies with a
sword or razor. Such are generally looked upon
as acts of bravery.

Amoddo succeeded Mahjotu; about which time
the country of Yoruba was in great confusion.

Afunjah, who was made Chief Warrior in the
kingdom, took the opportunity of the unsettled
state of affairs in the capital to ingratiate himself
with the people of Illorrin. He allowed them to
make whatever use they liked of their plunder
in battle; taking nothing from them, either for

himself or for the king; and thus encouraged
them to war. By this means, such slaves as were
not satisfied with their situation deserted their
masters, and joined Afunjah at Ilorrin; on doing
which, they were declared free and independent.
The Felatahs, who had hitherto contented them-
selves with a pastoral life, began now to distin-
guish themselves as great warriors ; and as they
gained a firm footing in the country, they in-
troduced their religion—that is, Mahomedanism.
As Afunjah could not get to the throne in any


other way, he tried to make himself friendly
with the people of the capital, and to get them
into quarrel with some principal Headmen in
Illorrin; who, as it appears, began to be too
strong for him. But they of Illorrin, being aware
of his treacherous plans, caught him, and burnt
him publicly in Illorrin, and exposed his ashes for
many days. After this, the people of [llorrin,
being mostly Mahomedan, did not think it proper
to be subject to a Pagan king, but became inde-
pendent: on this account the civil war broke out,
which has almost desolated the kingdom of Yo-
ruba. Since this time, Ulorrin has become the
rendezvous of the Mahomedan army.

The surviving Princes, who have a right to the
throne of Yoruba in succession, are, Atiba, Tella,
Afunjah (younger), and Ajibekkung. Attiba is
the present King of Yoruba. He removed the
seat of government fom Oyoh to Aggoh Ojjah ;
where he is now using every means in his power
to subdue Hlorrin.






Awone the purest Yoruba speakers, there are no less
than three modes of pronouncing some words; namely,
the Capital (or Oyoh) pronunciation ; and the Provincial
(or Ibakpah, and the Ibolloh). People from all parts
of Yoruba are now together, in the Colony of Sierra
Leone ; and each party contends for the superiority of
its mode of utterance. I shall give an example of the
principal difference.

Ovon. Isaxpau. Ipouton.

‘“* To open,” shi, tshi, Si.
“ To work,” shisheh, tshitsheh, — siseh.
‘** 'To do,” she, ishe, se.

I have taken the pronunciation of the Capital as the
standard ; as it appears to me to be the medium between
the other two.


I have assigned to each word its own sound, as near
as possible. Some words will appear strange to a
native in whose hearing they may be first pronounced ;
and if any one be separately mentioned, he may be in-
clined to doubt the correctness of the pronunciation :
this arises from his not being accustomed to use each

word separately, but only in sentences. If, for instance,
you should ask him, ‘‘ What means good?” he would

give you, Oh dara, “It is good,” instead of the simple
word, Dara, “‘ Good.” Or, if you should ask, ‘“‘ What
means walk ?” he would say, Ng ngrhin, “1 am walk-
Ing,” instead of Rhin, “Walk.” It will therefore, be
well to ascertain the meaning of each word, by using the
same in several sentences.


a, b, d, e, f, g, h, 7,9, k, l, m,n, 0, p, 7, 8, t, U, Wy Y.

Double Consonants, gb, kp, ng, ts. Gb and kp give
each a sound between b and g, and and p. The two
together make one consonant. ts has the sound ofc, as
in chariot, chide.

h, at the end of a word, points out that the word or
syllable should be pronounced with an elevation of the
voice; thus, 7a, “to fight,” gah, “to break” as a rope ;
ka, “to count,” kah, “to pluck fruits from the tree” ;
feh, “to love”; boh, “to drop”; tuh, ‘to loose,” &c.
On the contrary, 2h, or rh, at the end of words, show
that those words or syllables should be pronounced with
a great depression of voice; as, tehh, “to trample on” ;

bohh, “to broil”; uhh, “to sift”; borh, “to put on


n, before or after an h, should be sounded as slightly
as possible; it being only a slight nasal sound, before or
after the aspiration of that letter; as, rvhn, “to walk”;
yanh, “to fry.”

p begins no word, and is never sounded by itself: it
is used in conjunction with / ; as itis heard in kpakporh,
“to unite,” “to mingle.”



The Vowels are, a, e, 7, 0, u. Each of them has two
sounds; viz. long and short. The long sounds are
always placed before or after a single Consonant, and
the short ones before or after Double Consonants, or an
h, ah only excepted ; thus,

a long, as in father... gba, “totake”; fa, “to draw.”
a short, asin bat ... babba, “father”; kpattakpaitta,
“all,” “the whole.”

e long, as in there ... emi, “1”; eso, “the fruit of a
e short, asin bet ...metta, “three”; kettehketteh,

“an ass.”
i long, as in ravine ... nibo, “ wide”; kiki, “ only.”
2 short, asin pin... tittong, “new” ; kinni, “a thing.”
o long, asin dome ... fo, “to fly”; jo, “to leak out.”
o short,as in not, got. . . gboddoh, “dare not,” “ shall not.”
wu long, asin flute, ‘to shoot out”; tu, “ to
w short, asin put ... kuttukuttu, “early in the morn-

e 92

( 4)


Contraction is very common in the Yoruba Language,
especially at the concurrence of two vowels: this should

be very much observed in speaking; thus, na ajah,
“beat the dog,” should be pronounced na jah. Neh

ojja, ‘to trade in the market,” should be neh’ja; tah
off, “to shoot an arrow,” should be pronounced éahfa.
It is needful to bear always in mind, that h at the end
of a word, does not interfere with the vowel, except as
stated above.


Accented Syllables are marked with the Acute Accents.
Whenever this accent is not found on a word of more
than one syllable, it is to be understood as a general
rule, that the accent is on the penultima, therefore not

The Grave Accent is used merely to distinguish some
words of the like form from others; as, oh, “he”; oh
“* him.”

The Circumflex over a Vowel shows that it should be,
pronounced long, as if it were written with double that
letter ; as, ord, “night”; dru, “heat,” &c.



No Article has yet been discovered; and probably
there is none: that which appears to resemble this Part
of Speech is a Demonstrative Pronoun, nah “that”;
kinni nah, “that thing”; okkori nah, “that man”;


ille nah, “that house,” namely, the thing, man, and
house alluded to. When a thing is spoken of indefi-
nitely, the word okkan, contracted into "kan, “one,” is
always added to the Nouns; as, okkori ’kan, “ one man,”
ie.“aman”; ille kan, “a house”; “ kinni ’kan, “a
thing,” “one thing.”



There are only Two Genders— the Masculine and
the Feminine. They are distinguished,

(1) By different words ; as,

Male ...... akkohk. Female ....abbo.
Man ...... okkori. Woman .... obiri.
Cock ...... akukoh. Hen........ agbebohh.
Bachelor .... akpongh. Maid ...... wundia.
King ...... abba. Queen...... ayabba.
Husband .. .. okkoh. Wife ......aya,orobirt.
A married \ orkohlobiri, | “* marnied adeleborh.
Father ...... babba. Mother...... tyah.
Widower .. akpongh. Widow...... okpo.

There are few, (if any) more Substantives of this class.

(2) By an Adjective or a Noun prefixed to the Sub-

stantive :
Drake. .akkoh-kpekpeiyeh.| Duck .. abbo-kpekpetyeh.
Horse . . akkoh-ehshin. Mare .. abbo-ehshin.
Bull... akkoh-malu. Cow... . abbo-malu.

Boy... . ommoh-’kori. Girl... . ommoh-’biri.



Substantives have no Plural, with one exception; viz.
“* child,” ommohde ; “ children,” majeshih. The Plurals
of Nouns are formed by adding the Demonstrative Pro-
nouns, nwhory?, “these,” and nwhorni, “those,” to the
Nouns; as, okkori nwhoryi, “these men”; kinni
nwhorni, “those things.” When Number is to be ex-
pressed, the Numeral word is put after the Noun; as;
obiri meji, “ two women”; offa metta, “ three arrows.”


There are Three Cases; the Nominative, the Pos-
sessive, and the Objective.

The Nominative is always placed before the Verb;
thus, babba de, “father returns”; awa loh, “we go”;
ehnyi ldgbara, “you are strong,’ or ‘“ you have

The Possessive Case may be known by its being
governed by the Preposition ¢i, “of,” placed between
two Nouns or Pronouns; thus, iyah ti emt, ‘‘ my
mother”; ille ti babba, “father’s house.” Or by two
Nouns, or a Noun and Pronoun, with an apostrophe be-
tween them, signifying that, ¢iis understood; thus,
okkorl’ obba, ‘‘ the king’s ship”; ashoh’ tyah, “ mother’s
clothes”; onna’ tlluh, ‘‘ the town’s road.”

The Objective Case is governed by Active Verbs; as,
Moh feh John, “I love John”; William na ajah (con-
tracted, na’jah*), ‘‘ William beat the dog”; Mary ta
shinkafa, “Mary sold rice”; Gbogbo illuh ngye’ nna
“The whole town is cleaning the road.”

( 7 )


Adjectives have Three Degrees of Comparison; as,
tobi, “big”; tobiju, “bigger”; tobijuloh, “ biggest.”
The Superlative is very frequently used when two things
are compared; as, dara, “ good”; darajuloh, “better”
or “best.” The Superlative, lof, should always be
placed after the Noun; the Comparative being always
before the Noun: thus, lle yt ga, “ This house is high ” ;
Eyini gaju, “That one is higher”; Eyi tibat gaju
mejejt loh, “That yonder is the highest,” or “ higher
than,” or “‘ passes the other two.”

There are two kinds of Adjectives, which may not
improperly be called Participial and Compound. Parti-
cipial are such as the above, partaking both of the
nature of an Adjective, and of the Verb “To be”; thus,
kere, “to be small”; gung, “to be long,” “to be tall”;
kuru, ‘to be short,” “short.” The Compounds are
formed by doubling the first syllables of the Participial
Adjectives; as, kere, kekere, “small”; gung, gugung,
“long,” “tall”; kuru, kukuru, “ short”; &c. They are
generally used to express the quality of an object; and
are always placed after the Noun; as, ommoh kekere,
‘a little child”; okkori gugung, “a tall man”; obiri

kukuru, “a short woman.” They admit of no compa-


* Pronounced so as to rhyme with the word Rajah, an Eastern


There are Personal, Relative, and Adjective Pronouns.
There is no distinction of Gender in any of them. The
Personal Pronouns are declined thus :—

Person. Case. SINGULAR.
Nom. emi, mo, moh,ng ...... “7.”
Ist. Poss. ti emi, Pemi .......... “* mine.”
Obj, Mi oe ee “me.”
Nom. iwor, or, 6 ........006- “ thou.”
2d. ) Poss. ti iwor, Ciwor, tireh, ti’eh, “ thine.”
©) 5) FR 0) “‘ thee.”
Nom. ong, 6, oh, th, yi ....... “he,” “she,” ° it.”
3d, Poss. ti ong, Vong, tirehh, ti’ehh, “his,” “ hers,” “ its.’
Obj. ah, éh, é, oh, 0, 7h, wh... “him,” “her,” “it.”
Nom. aQwa ......... 2... 005s “we.”
se} Poss. ti awa, Cawa, t?wa .... “our.”
Obj. WA «1. eee eee “us.” |
Nom. ehnyi ..... cece cece ee “ve,” “you.”
2d. Poss. ti ehnyi, Vehnyi, t?’hnyi, “ yours.”
©) 0) 7) “you.”
Nom. awong, nwong......... “they.”
3d. 4 Pess. t awong, Vawong ...... “ theirs.”
l Obj. wong ..........eeeee- “them.”

as, Emi ni, “It is I”; Emi mbeh, “Iam”; Emi she é,
**T did it.” Mo, only with verbs having the sound of e,
and o long, and the sounds ofz and wu either long or
short; as, Mo she é, “I did it”; Mo ko owo, ‘‘ I gathered
money”; Mo shi ’nna, “I missed the road”; Mo kuhh
uh, “1 sifted it.”


Moh, only with verbs having the sound of a, whether
long or short, and e and o short; as, Moh la ah, “I escaped
it”; Mohtaiggi, ‘I sold wood;” Moh feh eh, “1 loved
it”; Moh korh oh, “I refused him”; Moh sorh oh, “1
eased him of his burden.” Ng, with any verb, generally
before the Future, and in Participial phrases ; thus :—

Future, Ng oshe, “Iwill do”; Ng ota, “I willsell” ;
Ng omuh, “I will catch;” Ng ola, “I shall escape ;”
Ng oshisheh, “1 will work.”

Participial phrases: Ng ngshe, “I am domg;” Ng
ngta, ‘I am selling”; Ng ngmuh, “1 am catching ”
Ng ngla, “I am escaping”; Ng ngshisheh, “I am
working.” Mo is also sometimes used; as, Mo ngshe,
“T am doing,” &c.

Iwor is used like emi; as, Iwor ni, “It is thou.”
Iwor mbeh, “Thou art”; IIwor le mi, ‘* Thou drovest
me”; Iwor ri me, “Thou sawest me.” O is used like
mo, and or like moh. Besides which, or (contracted from
zwor) is used with the future, as is also 6, but less fre-
quently ; as, Or okoh mi, “ Thou wilt teach me”; Or oba
mi, “'Thou wilt meet me”; Or ofa mi, “‘ Thou wilt draw
me”; Or osehh éh, “ Thou wilt question him.” O ori
mi, “ Thou wilt see me’ O ole mi, “ Thou wilt
drive me”; O obi th, * Thou wilt ask him ” : O oshubu,
“Thou wilt fall down”; O obu mi, “ Thou wilt give


me”; O oto d, “ Thou wilt place it in rows.

O is more frequently used to express participial phrases
than Iwor; thus, O ngshisheh, “Thou art working ”’;
O ngshere, “Thou art doing Sood”; ”. 6 ngto wong,
“Thou art placing them inrows”; O ng tehh éh, “ Thou

art trampling on it”; O ngta ah, “ Thou art selling it ” ;
O ngforh oh, “Thou art washing it.”


Ong is used like emi; as, Ong mbeh, “ Heis”; Ong ni,
“It is he”; Ong loh, “He went”; Ong ta, “ He sold.”

Mo is used like O, and Oh like Moh. |

Yi is used with all Verbs, but only the Future: thus,
Yi owah, “ He willcome”; Yi oshisheh, ‘“ He will work”’;
Yi oduro, “ He will wait”; Yi oto wong, “ He will muster
them”; Yi obehh mi, “ He will beg me”; Yi obi or, “ He
will ask thee.” For the sake of sound, Yi is also used
after Sincular and Plural Pronouns, preceded by ki, “not”;
as, Awa ki yi oloh, “ We willnot go”; Ehnyiki yi owt,
“You will not tell”; Awong ki yi oduro, “ They will not
stay”; Emi ki yi osung, “I willnot sleep”; wor ki yi
oseh, “Thou wilt not deny”; Ong ki yi osah, “ He will

not run.”


The Possessive Case is formed by prefixing Ti, “ of ”
to the Nominative: thus, Z’emi, “ mine”; T%’wa, “ ours.”

The Objectives are governed by those Verbs whose
sound each one bears; as,

Moh sha @h, “T picked it up.”
Iwor se é, “Thou cookedst it.”
Ong behh eh, “He begged him.”
Awa ti th, “We locked it.”
Ehnyi ro 0, “You stirred it up.”

Awong forh oh, “They washed it.”
Ghogbo ’wa ru uh, “ We all carried it.”

3) ¢¢ > 66

Collective Nouns, such as, “rice, corn, yams,”
“beans,” &c. take singular pronouns, and are generally
governed by Verbs of Gathering or Collecting ; as, Shin-
kafa kporh ni ille, mashe ko o tang, “Rice is plenty in the
house, do not take it all,” Literally, “ Do not take it all
done.” Agbado danoh, sha gbogbo ’eh, ‘The corn is
spilled, gather it all up.”



Eminah, “T myself.” Awanah, “we ourselves.”
Iwornah, “ thou thyself.” Ehnyinah, “ you yourselves.”
Ongnah, “he himself.” Awongnah, “ they themselves.”


Emitikarami fel’ rami, “T love myself”
Iwortikarareh mt lu’ rareh, “thou beatest thyself.”
Ongtikararehh dv rarehh, “he binds himself.”


Awatikarawa wehl’ rawa, “we wash. ourselves.”
Ehnyitikaranyi rehl’ ranyi, “‘ve comfort yourselves.”

Awongtikarawong rahn’ rawong, ‘“ they help themselves.”


Ti, the only Relative Pronoun, is equivalent to “ Who,”
“That,” “ Which,” and “ What.” Itis used with the Per-
sonal Pronoun after it in the Nominative Case; as,
Okkori ti 6 ke iggi, “The man who cut wood,” or “ The
man who (he) cut wood”; Babba ti 6 bi mi, ‘“ The father
that begat me,” or ‘The father that (he) begat me”;
Obiri ti 6 sheung, “The woman who (she) is kind”;
Kinni ti oh boh, “The thing which (it) dropped.” But
in the Objective Case; the Personal Pronoun is omitted,
the Relative being then governed by the Verb; as, Kinni
ti moh feh, “The thing which I liked”; lle ti mo wo,
“The house which I pulled down.”

Ti is declined interrogatively ; thus:


Nom. Ewo? ‘ Which?”
Tani? Tani? “Who?”
-». Kingla? or ki? “ What?”
Poss. Ti ewo? ‘“‘ Whose?” “ of which.”
Titani? ‘“ Whose ?”

Nom. Ennikienni, Ennikienni. ‘‘ Whosoever.”
Poss. Tiennikienni, ‘‘Whosesoever.”

Enniti, “‘ The one which.”
?"Wo, contraction of Ewo.


1. There are no Possessive Pronouns, the Possessive
Case being used instead.

2. The Distributives are, olukuluku, “ each;” ennikan,
“either”; gbogbo, “every”; as, Olukuluku ni yi odaung
fu ’ra rehh ni igjoh-eqjoh, “Every one (he is) shall
answer for himself in the Day of Judgment.” Ng ko ri
ennikan nwong, “1 have not seen either of them.”
Gbogbo ’wa la’ shehh Olorung, ‘We all have offended

3. The Demonstratives are, yi, eyi, eyiy2, “this”; nah,
ni, ent, eyini, “that”; mnwhoryi, “these”; mnwhorni,
‘those ”; as, Ozbo yi, “This white person”; Enia dudu
ni, “ That black person”; Takardah nwhoryi, “ These
books”; Iwe (or) takardah nwhorni, “'Those books.”

In addition to their use as Demonstratives, eyi, eyiyi,
“this,” or “ this one,” and eni, eyini, “ that,” or “ that one,”
are used as Interrogatives; as, eyi? or eyiyi? “this?”
or “ this one?” eni? oreyini ? “that?” or “ that one ?”—
Nah is used as follows: Mu gele nah wah, “ Fetch that
(or the) handkerchief before spoken of.” Kpe ommohde
na.t kpada, “Call the (or that) child back.” Okkort nah


kwh, “ That man is dead.” Niis also frequently used in

the same manner.
4, The Indefinite Pronouns are, dieh, “some”; omieh,

“other”; ennikienni, “any”; enia, “one”; gbogbo,
“all”; iruh, such”; ararehh, “oneself.” Dieh is


Verbs are of three kinds—Active, Passive, and Neuter.
Verbs Active as, Moh kor takardah, “I wrote a book”;
O ri mi, “He saw me”; Iyah kpe wa, “ Mother called

Verbs Passive are formed simply by prefixing @ or

nwong to the Active Verbs; as, Akoh takardah, “ A book
is written”; Ari mi, “I am seen”; Akpe “wa, “ We are
called”; Nwong le wong, “They are driven”. There is
a great defect in this form of the Verbs. See page 28.

Verbs Neuter, Zile wo, “House fell”; Mo shubuh, “I
fell down”; Iyah sung, “ Mother slept.”

There is another kind of Verb, formed by the help of
a Preposition, which may not improperly be called Com-
pound Active Verb Transitive. The Nouns or Pro-
nouns which they govern: are always placed between
them; thus, Bah wi, “to rebuke,” “to scold,” or “to
blame”; from bah, “ with,” and wi, “to speak”: Babba
bah mi wi, “ Father blamed me.” Bah and sohrorh;
from bah “ with,” and sohrorh “to hold conversation” :
Oibo bah mi sohrorh, ‘“‘ The white person conversed with
me.” Fiand si; from fi “to put,” and sito”: Fi obbeh
st akkor’ rehh, ‘‘ Put the knife into its sheath.” Dah and
léjuh; from dah “to be clear,” “evident,” and ldjuh “ to the
eye”: Oh dah ’wa lojuh, “It is certain to us.” Ti and
léjuh; from ti “to push heavily,” and /d7uh “at or to the
eye”: Oti babba lojuh, ‘It made the father ashamed.”

When it expresses an instrument by which one acts



upon another, the Noun denoting the instrument is
placed in the first part of the sentence, and governed by
the Preposition, now placed immediately before the Verb,
while the Verb itself governs the object acted upon; as,
IRggi 16, fi lu wh, “He beat him with a stick.’ Idar 16 fi
sha ah,“ He cut him with a cutlass.” Ina 16 fi jo 6,
“He burnt him with fire.”

ware tr we


Bah, “had.” Tilleh, ‘“‘should even.”
Le, ‘‘ can,” “ may.” Ti, “ have,” “have been.”
O, “shall,” ‘ will,” “ must.” Bah, “should,” * would.”
Gboddoh, “ dare not,” “shall

not,” “ must not.” Jehki, Jeh, “let,” “let
Mah, Mahshe, “ do not.” that.”
Ma, “to be doing.” Bah ma, “ should or ought
Ki, and ma, “ may be doing.” to be doing.”

These Verbs, like the others, have no variation: it is
by them the principal Verbs are conjugated. These ex-
amples, as well as the Conjugation of the Verbs “ To be,”
“To have,” and ‘“ To love,” will plainly show how they
are variously constructed ; as,

O le su-re, “He can or may run.”

Yi o su-ré, ‘* He will wish a blessing upon.”
Ko oh gboddoh wah, “ He dare not, or shall not come.”
Mah behru, “ Do not fear,” ‘fear not.”

Ma sahloh, “ Be running away.”

Awa ti muh, “ We have caught.”

Ehnyi bah ti muh, ‘“ You would have caught.”
Jehki nwong muh, “ Let them catch.”

Ki oh ma wah, “He may come,” or “ be coming.”
Ih bah ma loh, ‘He should be going.” |
Tilleh, “ Should even.”

Bi 6 tilleh lu mi, “Even if he should strike me.”



There are Five Moods; the Indicative, Imperative,
Potential, Subjunctive, and the Infinitive.

The Indicative simply declares a thing; as, Oh feh,
“He loves”; -Afeh eh, ‘ He is loved.”

The Imperative is used for Commanding, Exhorting,
Entreating, or Permitting; as, Loh, “‘ Depart (thou) ”;
ER? rorra, “Mind ye”; Jehki a duro, “ Let us stay”;
Loh lalafia, “‘ Go in peace.”

The Potential implies Possibility, Power, Will, or
Oblication ; as, O le rorjo, “It may rain”; Az oh ma
loh, bt o st ma duro (ni), “He may go or stay” (which
he pleases) Mo le gu ehshin, “I can ride a horse”; O le
rhin, “ He can walk”; Awong (ni) bah ma koh takar-
dah, ‘‘ They (it is who) should be learning book.”

The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under a
Condition, Motive, Wish, Supposition; and is preceded
by the Conjunction 62, “if”; or expressed by what may
be termed a Subjunctive Phrase; as, Ng obu ohworh fu
wh, bi 6 tilleh bah mi wi, “I will respect him, though he
should (even) chide me.” Jh bah shenia, th bah siahn fu
uh, ‘ Were he good (person, namely) he would be happy,”
or, “it would be pleasant for him.”

The Infinitive Mood, which expresses a thing in a ge-
neral and unlimited manner, has very much of the sense
of “That he may”; as, ko she, “to do”; ko daung,
“to speak”; kokpe, “tocall”: as if it were, ki 6 she,
“that he may do”; kt 6 daung, “that he may speak”;
ke o kpe, “that he may call.” It appears, then, that ki 6
is contracted into ko: so also is ki @ contracted into ka,
“that we may.”

This mode of expressing the Infinitive is used only
when the second or third person is desired to act in the


name of another. But when the first person expresses his
own action, the ki, ki 0, or ko, kia, or ka, is not at all
used; as, Moh wa wo nyi, “I come see you.” A’ wah
behh nyt, “ We come beg you,” instead of “to see,” and
“ to beg.”


The only form there is to express a Participial phrase
is ng, generally prefixed to the Verb in the Present time,
and to the Auxiliary and the Verb in the Past time: as,
Present, Ng ngloh, “I am going”; O' ng-borh, “ He is
coming”; Awa ngti ngshe, “We have been doing ”;
Ehnyi ngtt ngsah, “You have been running”; Babba
ngti ng-kpe, “‘ Father has been calling.”

Ma, one of the Defective Verbs, is used instead of ng
in the second Future Tense; as, O oti ma loh, “Thou
wilt have been going”; Yz2 oti ma borh, “He will have
been coming.”


I have hitherto used the word Times instead of Tense,
because Tense is a nicer distinction of Times; the which
distinction I do not think can easily be made in the
Yoruba Language. However, a little explanation about
the use of the Tenses may be serviceable.

The Present and Imperfect Tenses are both alike; as,

Moh, loh, “I go,” “I went.”

Awa de, ‘“‘ We return,” “ We returned.”
O sung, ‘He sleeps,” ‘‘he slept.”
Ojoko, ‘Thou sittest,” thou sattest.”

From these examples it will be seen that some atten-
_ tion is required to know which Tense is used.

The Present Tense, strictly speaking, is more frequently
expressed by the sign of the Participle mg, and is then


understood that the action is not yet past; as, 4’ ng-koh
takardah, “ We are writing book”; Ongta ashoh, “ Thou
art selling clothes”; Eh’ ngshisheh, “You are working ”:
therefore, if any of those former sentences can as well be
used at the time it is spoken, by prefixing the sign of the
Participle, it is in the Present Tense.

The Imperfect Verb has generally the time mentioned
with it: as, Nigbati nwong de, ‘‘ When they returned ” ;
O sung lossang, “ He slept in the day-time”; Moh koh
takardah niyetta, ‘‘I wrote a book the day before yes-
terday”; Oh ta ashoh loni, “ He sold clothes to-day ” ;
O shisheh lannak , “He worked yesterday.” It is even
understood without mentioning the time, because the
actions were past by the time they are spoken of; as,
Oh ta ashoh, “ He sold clothes”; Moh koh takardah,
“T wrote a book”; O shisheh, ‘He worked.” The word
teng, “done,” is very often added to the Imperfect Tense ;
as, O shisheh teng, ‘‘He worked done,” or, “He done
worked,” viz. “finished working.” —

The Perfect and Pluperfect are alike, and convey an
allusion to the present time, when 7g, the sign of the

Participle is prefixed to the Verb; as,

Mo ti ri or, “I have seen thee.”
O ti ta ah, ‘He has sold it.”

EP ti sah, ‘“ You have run.”

Mo ti ngri or, “I have been seeing thee.”
O ti ngta ah, ‘He has been selling it.”
El’ ti ngsah, “You have been running (up to
this time).”
Another form, by pretixing the sign of the Participle
to the Auxiliary and the Verb; thus,
Ng ngti ngri or, “I have or had been seeing thee.”
O ngti ngta ah, ‘He has or had been selling it.”

Eh’ ngti ngsah, ‘ You have or had been running.


The lst Future describes time indefinitely; as, Orungh
ola, ‘* The sun will rise.” Ng oturh nwong ri, ‘I shall
see them again.”

The 2d Future describes the action as to be finished
before another future action or event; as, Ng oli jehung
tang koto to agogo kan, “I shall have dined before one
o’clock.” Ille mejeji oti shisheh nwong tang, nigbati obba
owah dah nwong duro, “ The two houses will have finished
their business, when the king shall come to prorogue


Mbeh, Wa, “To be,” ‘To exist,” “existing”; as,
Babba mbeh, or Babba wa, * Father is.”

Ri, “Is,” showing the state or condition of a thing ;
as, Beheh Il 6 ri, “So it is.”

Ni, “It is”; as, Eminah ni, “It is I myself”; Tewor
ai, “ It is thine.”

Ni and Jeh, Ni and She, emphatical, “ Is,” answers to ;
as, Tiemi ni th she, or Temi ni ih jeh, “ It is mine.”

Jehkpe, Shekpe, “ Been,” always preceded by Ih bah,
“Had”; thus, Ih bah jehkpe emi ni, or Ih bah shekpe
emi ni, ** Had it been 1.”

Gbe, “To be,” ‘To be in a place,” To remain.”
This Verb is used in the Imperative Mood, instead of
mbch ; as, Jehki emi gbe, ** Let me be ” or “remain.”

She, “'To be.”


Mbeh, “‘' To Be.’


emi mbeh, ‘* I am.” awa mbeh, “ we are.”
zwor mbeh, “ thou art.” ehnyi mbeh, “ye or you are.”

ong mbeh, “he, she, or it is.” | awung mbeh, “ they are.”


emi ngti mbeh, “I have awa ngti mbeh, ‘‘we have
been.” been.”

twor ngti mbeh, ‘* thou hast | ehnyt neti mbeh, “ye or you
been.” have been.”

ong ngti mbeh, ‘‘ he, she, or | awong ngti mbeh, “ they have
it has been.” been.”

emt ombeh, or ng ombeh, “I | awa ombeh, ‘‘ we shall be.”

shall be.” ehnyt ombeh, “ye or you
iwor ombeh, “thou wilt be.” will be.”
yi ombeh, or ong ombeh, | awong ombeh, “ they will
“he, she, 07 it will be.” be.”


jehki emi gbe, ‘let me be.” | gehki awa gbe, “ let us be.”

wwor gbe, “be thou.” ehnyi gbe, “be ye.”
jehki 6 gbe, “let him be.” gjehki wong gbe, “let them

CONTRACTED FORM (mostly used.) |
jehki’m’ gbe, or jeh’’m’ ghe, | jehk’ a ge, “let us be.”

“let me be.” eh’ gbe, “be ye.”
twor gbe, “ be thou.” Jeh? wong o gbe, “ let them
jgeh o gbe, “let him be.” be.”





emt le mbeh, ‘I may or can
wwor le mbeh, ‘thou mayst
or canst be.”
ong le mbeh, “he, she, or it
may or can be.”

awa le mbeh, “we may or
can be.”

ehnyt le mbeh, “‘ye or you
may or can be.”

awong le mbeh, “they may

or can be.”


emt le ti mbeh, “I might
have been.”

wor le ti mbeh, “thou
michtest have been.”

ong le tt mbeh, ‘‘ he, she, or
it might have been.”

awa le ti mbeh, “ we might
have been.”

ehnyi le ti mbeh, “ ye or you

might have been.”

awong le ti mbeh, ‘they

might have been.”



bi emi mbeh, “ if I be.”
bt zwor mbeh, “if thou be.”

bt ong mbeh, “if he, she, or

it be.” |

bi awa mbeh, “ if we be.”

bi ehnyt mbeh, “ if ye or you

bi awong mbeh, “if they be.”


bi emi ti mbeh, “if I have

bt iwor ti mbeh, “if thou
hast been.”

bi ong tt mbeh, “if he, she>
or it has been.”’

bi awa ti mbeh, “if we have

bi ehnyi ti mbeh, “ if ye or
you have been.”

bi awong ti mbeh, “if they
have been.”



bi ’m’ mbeh, or bt mo mbeh, | bi a’ mbeh, “if we be.”
‘of I be.”

bi 6 mbeh, “ if thou be.” bi eh’ mbeh, “ if ye or you be.”
bi 6 mbeh, “if he, she, or it | bi wong mbeh, ‘‘if they be.”

Ni, “To Have.”


emi ni, ‘‘I have.” awa ni, “ we have.”

iwor ni, “thou hast.” ehnyi nt, “ ye or you have.”
ong ni, “he, she, or it has.” | a@wong ni, “they have.”
emi ti ni, “I had, or have | awa ti ni, “ we had, or have
had.” hed.”
iwor ti ni, “thou hadst.” ehnyt ti ni, “ ye or you had.”
ong ti ni, “ he, she, or ithad.” | awong ti ni, “they had.”


emi oni, or ng oni, “I shall | awa oni, “ we shall or will

or will have.” have.”

iwor oni, “ thou shalt or wilt | ehnyi oni, “ye or you shall
have.” or will have.”

yi oni, or ong oni, “ he, she, | awong ont, “they shall or
or it shall or will have.” will have.”

emi (or, 7g) oli ni, “SI shall | awa oti ni, “we shall have

have had.” had.”
iwor oti ni, ‘thou wilt have | ehnyi oti ni, “ye or you will
had.” have had.”

ong oti ni, “he, she, or it | awong oti ni, “ they will have
will have had.” had.”



jehki emi ni, “let me have.” | jehki awa ni, “let us have.”

nt, or twor ni, “ have thou.” | ehnyi ni, “have ye.”

jehki 6 ni, “let him, her, or | jehki wong ni, “let them
it have.” have.”

For the Contracted Form, see under, page 19.

For the sake of sound, the Imperative generally takes
o between the Noun and the Verb; as,

jehki emi oni, “let me have.” | jehki awa oni, “ let us have.”

ki iwor oni, “have thou.” ki ehnyt oni, “ have ye.”
jehki ong oni, “let him, her, | jehki awong oni, “let them
or it have.” have.”

In the Contracted Form, except in the 3d Person Plural,
the o is rejected.


emi le ni, “I may or can | awa le ni, “ we may or can

have.” have.”

wor le ni, “thou mayst or | ehnyt le ni, ‘ye or you may
canst have.” or can have.”

ong le ni, ‘“ he, she, or it | awong le ni, “ they may or
may or can have.” can have.”


emi le ti ni, “I may or can | awa le ti ni, ““ we may or
have had.” can have had.”

iwor le ti ni, “ thou mayst | ehnyt le tt m, “ye or you
or canst have had. may or can have had.”

ong le ti ni, “he, she, or it | awong le tt mi, “ they may
may or can have had.” or can have had.”




bi emi ni, “if I have.” bi awa ni, “if we have.”
bt iwor ni, “if thou have.” bi ehnyt ni, “if ye or you
bi ong ni, “if he, she, or it have.”
have.” bi awong ni, “if they have.”
bi emi bah ni, “ if I had.” bi awa bah ni, “if we had.”
bi iwor bah ni, “if thou | bi ehnyt bah ni, “if ye or
hadst.”’ you had.”
bi ong bah ni, “if he, she, or | bt awong bah nt, “if they
it had.” had.”

bi emi bah ti ni, “if I have | bt awa bah ti ni, “if we

had.” have had.”

bi wwor bah ti ni, “if thou | bi ehyni bah ti ni, “if ye or
hast had.” you have had.”

bi ong bah ti ni, “if he, she, | 6 awong bah ti ni, “if they
or it has had.” have had.”

bi emi (or mg) ont, “if I | bi awa oni, “if we should

should have.” have.”

bi iwor oni, “if thou shouldst | bz ehnyt oni, “if ye or you
have.” should have.”

bi ong (or, yi) oni, “if he, | bi awong oni, “if they should
she, or it should have.” have.”


emt (or, ng) ngni, “I am | awa ngni, “ we are having.”
iwor ngni, “thou art having.” | ehnyi ngni, “ ye are having.”
ong ngni, “he, she, or it is | awong ngni, “ they are
having.” having.”




bt emi (or, ng) ng-bah ngni,
“if [ were having.”

bi iwor ng-bah ngni, “if
thou wert having.”

bi ong ng-bah ngni, “ if he,
she, or it were having.”



bi awa ng-bah ngni, “if we
were having.”

bi ehnyi ng-bah ngni, “if ye
or you were having.”

bi awong ng-bah ngni, “ if
they were having.”


bt emt (or, ng) ng-bah ngte
ngni, “if I have been

bi wor ng-bah ngti ngnt, “ if
thou hast been having.”

bt ong ng-bah ngti ngni, “if
he, she, ov it has been

biawang-bah ngtt ngni, * if
we have been having.”

bi ehnyit ng-bah ngti ngni,
“if ye or you have been

bi awong ng-bah ngti ngni,
“if they have



These last two Examples will shew the peculiarity of
the Yoruba Language, in the mode of expression by Par-

The Conjugation of the Verb mi is a sufficient example
for any Active Verb.

In order to give a clear example of the Pronouns, one
form has been used throughout, with the exception of a
few instances. If the rules and examples for the use of the
Pronouns, in pages 8, 9, and 10, be properly attended to,
the Learner, when he has mastered the pronunciation, will
in a very short time be able to speak the language, almost
as a Native.



The Passive Verb is formed by prefixing a, or nwong, to

the Active of the Present Time: to the Auxiliary Verb in
the Past: to o in the Future: to ng, the sign of the Par-

ticiples: and to le, in the Potential Mood, throughout, as
follows, with @ prefixed: (see page 28.)

Afeh, “To be Loved.”



afeh mi, “I am loved.” afeh wa, “ we are loved.”

afeh or, ‘thou art loved.” afeh nyi, “ ye or you are

afeh eh, ‘he, she, or it is loved.” |
loved.” afeh wong, “ they are loved.”


ati feh mi, “I have been | ati feh wa, “we have been
loved.” loved.”

ati feh or, “thou hast been | ati feh nyt, “ ye or you have
loved.” been loved.”

ati feh eh, “ he, she, or it | ati fe wong, “they have
has been loved.” been loved.”


a ofeh mi, “I shall beloved.” | a ofeh wa, “ we shall be
a ofeh or, “thou wilt be loved.” ~
loved.” a ofeh nyi, “ye or you will
a ofeh eh, “he, she, or it will be loved.”
be loved.” a ofeh wong, “ they will be




a oti feh mi, “I shall have

been loved.”

a oti feh or, “thou wilt have

been loved.”

a oti feh eh, “he, she, or it

will have been loved.

a oti feh wa, “ we shall have

been loved.”

aoti feh nyi, “ ye or you will
have been loved.”

a oti feh wong, “ they will
have been loved.”


jehki afeh mi, “let me be


ki afeh or, ““be or mayst
thou be loved.”

jehki afeh eh, “let him, her,

or it be loved.”

jehki afeh wa, “let us be

kiafeh nyi, “be, or may you
be loved.”

jehki afeh wong, “let them

be loved.”


ale feh mi, “I may or can |

be loved.”

ale feh or, ‘‘thou mayst or
canst be loved.”

ale feh eh, “he, she, or it
may or can be loved.”

ale feh wa, ‘‘ we may or can
be loved.”

ale feh nyi, “ye or you may

or can be loved.”

ale feh wong, ‘they may or

can be loved.”


ale ti feh mi, “1 might or
could have been loved.”

ale ti feh or, “thou mightest
have been loved.”

ale ti feh eh, “he, she, or it
might have been loved.”

ale ti feh wa, “we might
have been loved.”

ale ti feh nyt, “ye or you
might have been loved.”

ale ti feh wong, “ they might
have been loved.”




bi afeh mi, “if I be loved.” | bi afeh wa, “if we be loved.”
bi afeh or, “if thou be | bi afeh nyi, “if ye or you be

loved.” loved.”
bi afeh eh, ‘if he, she, or it | bi afeh wong, “if they be
be loved.” loved.”

bi abah le feh mi, “if I can | bi abah le feh wa, “if we

be loved.” can be loved.”

bi abah le feh or, “if thou | bi abah le feh nyi, “if ye or
canst be loved.” you can be loved.”

bi abah le feh eh, “ifhe, she, | bi abah le feh wong, “ if they
or it can be loved.” can be loved.”


bi ale ti feh mt, “if I can | bi ale ti feh wa, “if we can
have been loved.” have been loved.”

bi ale ti feh or,“ifthoucanst | bi ale ti feh nyi, “if ye or
have been loved.” you can have been

bi ale ti feh eh, “ if he, she, loved.”
or it can have been | bi ale ti feh wong, “if they
loved.” can have been loved.”

bi abah ti feh mi, “if Lhave | bt abah ti feh wa, “if we

been loved.” have been loved.”
bt abah ti feh or, “if thou | bi abah ti feh nyi, “if ye or
hast been loved.” you have been loved.”

bt abah ti feh eh, “if he, she, | bi abah ti feh wong, “ if they
or it has been loved.” have been loved.”




angfeh mi, “IT am being

angfeh or, “thou art being

angfeh eh, “he, she, or it is
being loved.”


bt ang-bah ngfeh mi, “if I
were being: loved.”

bi ang-bah ngfeh or, “if thou
wert being loved.”

bi ang-bah ngfeh eh, ‘if he,
she, or it were being


bi ang-bah ngti ngfeh mi,
“if I were having been

bi ang-bah ngtingfeh or, “ if
thou wert having been


| angfeh wa, “we are being


angfeh nyi, “ye or you are
being loved.”

angfeh wong, “they are
being loved.”

bi ang-bah nefeh wa, “if we
5 &
were being loved.”

bi ang-bah ngfeh nyt,‘ if ye
or you were being

bi ang-bah ngfeh wong, * if
they were being loved.”

bi ang-bah ngti ngfeh wa,
“if we were having
been loved.”

bi ang-bah ngti ngfeh nyi,
“if ye or you were
having been loved.”

bt ang-bah ngti nefeh eh, “ if | bi ang-bah ngti ng feh wong,
he, she, or it were “if they were having
having been loved.” been loved.”

It may he objected, that there is no such form as the
Passive; but when we take the sentence separately, it will
be seen that there is such a form: for example; if alu mi,
‘‘f am beaten,” be separately taken, it will be seen that,


though @ is the contraction of awong, it cannot mean
the Personal Pronoun “they”: if so, then the sentence
will be, ‘‘ they beat me,” whereas an individual is only
meant, by whom the action is performed. So awong or
nwong must have a different meaning from the Per-
sonal Pronoun awong or nwong, though the words be


ww wre


The Adverb is one of the most expressive Parts of
Speech in the Yoruba Language, and yet the most
difficult to define. Almost every Adjective and Verb
has its peculiar Adverb to express its quality.

When an Adjective is used as an Adverb, it may be
known as such, by its being placed after an Objective
case; as, Oh ka itwe re, “ He reads well,” lit. ‘‘ He reads

book well”’; O she & dara, “ He does it well.” Or
by doubling the Adjective ; as, O she é duradara, “ He
does it well”; Oh ka iwe rere, “‘ He reads well”; Awa
duro shenshen, “ We stand upright.”

An Adverb, expressing the quality of an Adjective, is
generally placed after it; as, [ggi ga fiofio, “ The tree
is exceedingly tall”; Ashok yi kpohn rokiroki, “ This
cloth is beautifully yellow”; Ododo kpukpa roro,
“The scarlet is deeply red”; Awajijin ng dang maran-
maran, “ The glass is dazzling, as it were with slipperi-
ness.” The exact idea of fiofio, rokiroki, roro, and
maranmaran, cannot easily be expressed in English.

Nihiyi, “ here,” “herein,” “ hither”; nzbeh, ‘ there,”
“thither”; mntbbo, “where,” “whither”; mnibomieh,
“elsewhere”; mnibikibi, “ anywhere,” “ whithersoever ” ;


nibikan, “somewhere”; loke, “upward”; nisalleh,

“downward”; niwajuh, “ forward’; Jlehhin, “ back-


Loni, “to-day”; niisiyi, nisisiyi, “ now,” “ imme-
diately”; na,“ already”; nishajuh, “before”; nilohloh,
“lately”; lannah, “ yesterday”; nilailai, ‘ hereto-
fore”; disisiyi, “hitherto”; tikpeh, “lone since ;”
nigbani, ‘long ago”; olla, “ to-morrow”; koito,
kotitto, “not yet,” or “not yet enough”; Jlathiyiloh,
“ hereafter,” “ henceforth,” ‘‘ henceforward”; nikehhin,
“afterwards”; nigbagbogbo, “ oft,” “ often,” “ ofttimes,”
“ oftentimes”; nigbamieh, “sometimes”; nitsiyi, nisisiyi,
“soon”; mnigboshe, ‘ by-and-bye ”; koto, ‘“ before,”
“sooner than”; lojjohjoh, “ daily ”; lossohseh, or losseh-
losseh, “weekly”; loshoshu, ‘‘monthly”; loddoddu,
“yearly”; nigbakugba, “always”; nigbagbogbo,
“every time”; mnigbati, “when”; mnjeh, “then”;
lai, ‘‘ ever,’ “never”; lailai, “ever,” ‘for ever”;
ehwehh, “ again.”


Kpukporh, “much”; dieh, “little”; to, “ suffi-
ciently,” “enough”; tikporh-to, “how much”; tifo-
bito, “how great”; kpukporhkpukporh, “ abundantly.”


Lotoh, “justly,” ‘ truly,” “in truth,” “verily”; an-
kan, “ quickly,” “ hastily ”; lohilohi, gohigohi, “ slowly.”
Adverbs of this kind are generally expressed in phrases;
as, O she é bi ashiere, “ He did it foolishly,” lit. “as a
foolish person”; Mo fi ogbuhn she é, “1 did it wisely,”
lit. “ with wisdom.”

Negation of Quality is mostly expressed by ko and


she; as, Ko she re, “He acts unkindly,” lit. “does not
do good”; Ko fi ogbuhn she é, “He did it unwisely,”
dit. “‘ not with wisdom.”

Excess of Degree is often expressed by gidigidi, joh-
joh, tele, &c., or by the Adverb peculiar to the Verb or
Adjective, whose quality it shews. The Adverb is gene-
rally doubled ; as, Affeffeh nah feh gidigidi, “ The wind
blew exceedingly”; Okkorh yi rihn johjoh, “ This
ship sails (lit. walks) very much, or very swiftly”; Om-
mohde yi su-re tete, ‘This child runs very swiftly ”;
Emi ngrhin gehjehjeh, “I am walking very slowly,” &c.

Biohyah, “ perhaps,” ‘‘ peradventure,” “ perchance ” ;
boleshe, boleshekpe, ‘‘ if possible.”


Lotoh, ‘ verily,” “truly,” ‘ undoubtedly,” ‘ doubt-
less,” “ certainly,” “yea,” “yes,” “surely,” ‘“ indeed,”
“really ”; efn, “ yes,” “ indeed,”—this is an interrupting
affirmation during the course of conversation.

3d 66

Nkoh, “not”; ng-ng, “no”; kinnijyehbeh, “ nay,”
“not at all,” “‘ by no means,” “ in no wise.”

Bawo ? “how?” eshe? “why?” tt? “how?”
ntorikinni? latorikinni? nitorikinni ? “ wherefore ? ”


Ju, “more”; ju loh, “most,” (lit. “more past, or
more than past”); san, or sahndieh, “better”; sahnju
loh, “best”; buruju, “worse”; buruju loh, “ worst”;
kereju, “less”; kereju loh, “least”; kikinni, “the
least”; feheh, “almost”; dieh, “little”; ogbohgba»
“alike”; geggeh, “ alike.”

( 32 )

As in English, Prepositions serve to connect words,
and to shew the relation between them. They are also
placed before (rarely after) Nouns and Pronouns; as the
following sentences will shew.

Bah, “ with,” denoting assistance or companionship.
John bah William she é, “ John helped William to do
it.’ Ommoh ’reh bah mi loh, “Your child went with


De, ‘‘ for,” ‘‘ ready,” “against.” Duro de ai, “ Wait
for me.” O she é de mi, “He did it ready against my

Fi, “ with,” “todo with.” Fi iggt ti 2h, “ Push it with
a stick.” Fi obbeh sha ah, “ Cut it with a knife.”

Fu, “for.” Shisheh yi fu mi, “ Do this work for me.”

Koijah, Rekojjah, “ above” (in quality). Moh kojjah
(or, Mo rekojjah) iruh nkan whorni, “I am above such

Lahrin, Lagbedemeji, “through,” ‘‘ between.” Mah
koyjah lahrin wa, “ Do not pass between us.”

Lakoko, “‘ about,” applied to time or place. Lakoko
igba nah ni, ‘It was about that time.”

Lara, “from,” “among,” applied to things. Muh
meji wah lara wong, ‘‘ Fetch two from among them.”

Lehhin, “ behind,” “after.” Torh mi lehhin, “ Follow
after me.”

Leti, “‘near,” “ by,” “at the edge of.” Leti ille babba-

jawo, “ Near the priest’s house.” Lett bode, “ By the

Loddorh, “ from,” “ with,” “ at,” applied only to per-
sons.” Loh gba takardah wah loddorh olori-ille-iwe, ‘Go,

fetch the book from the schoolmaster.” Ong mbeh
loddorh rehh, ‘It is with him.”


Lode, “‘ without,” “ outside.” Duro lode, “Stand out-
side.” Awong tt mbeh lode li Olorung obah wijjoh,
‘They who are without, God shall judge.”

Loke, Lori, “ over,” ‘* above,” “ beyond,” “ on,”
“upon,” “up.” Olorung mbeh loke orung, ‘“‘ God is
above the sky, (or, beyond the clouds).” Lori olé, “On
the roof.” Loke aja, “ Upon the attic.”

Ni, “at,” “in”? Babba mbeh ni ille, “ Father is in

the house (or at home).” For the contraction, see the
word in the Vocabulary.

Niha, “by,” “at,” “ near,” ‘ about.” Ong mbeh niha
kangah, ‘‘ He is by the well.”

Ninoh, “in,” “ within,” “ into,” “among.” Alagbara
mbeh ninoh wa, “A strong person is among us.”
Tyeffun mbeh ninoh agbah, “* Flour is in the cask.”

Nisalleh, “ under,” “ beneath,” “below.” Omi mbeh
nisalleh illeh, ‘““ Water is beneath the earth.” Wa ’ah
nisalleh, ‘* Dig: it below.”

Niwajuh, “‘ beyond,” applied to distance. Niwajuh
ille’ Ayabba, “‘ Beyond the house of the Queen.” Niwa-
juh wa, “ Beyond us.”

Si, “to,” “at,” “against.” Mah shafojudi si agba-
lagba, ‘Do not be saucy to elderly persons.”

Sinoh, “in,” “among.”? Boh sinoh wong, ‘“‘ Drop in
among them.”

Ti, “of,” “from.” Awa ti Sierra Leone loh si Niger,

‘We went from Sierra Leone to the Niger.”

( 34)


Ati, “and,” “both.” Adi emi ati iwor a’ oloh, “ Both
I and thou, (we) will go.” Or, Emi reh a’ oloh, “ You,
(and) I we will go.”

Bi, “if.’ Bi awa bah de, ehnyi oloh, “ If we return,
you will go.”

Latori, nitori, ntéri, “that,” “ because, where-
fore,” “therefore.” Nitori mi Vo she, “It is on my
account,” or “ because of me.”

Njyeh, “ then,” “if.” Nyeh bi beheh ni, oh toh, “ If it be
so, it is right.” Nyeh ki a’ ma loh, “‘ Then we may go.”’

Ong, “and.” Jesus muh Peter ong James ati Join
re ille Jairus, ‘‘ Jesus took Peter and James and John
to the house of Jairus.”

Ti, “since.” Nigba tio ti wi fu mi, mo fi ih si illeh,
““ T have left it off, since he told me.”

> gt


Adi, “notwithstanding,” “although.” Adi gbogbo
eyi tia ngwi, eyi ti yt oshe mbeh ninoh *rehh, “ Notwith-
standing all that has been said (or saying), what he will
do is in his heart.”’

Amohkpe, “ thouch,” “although,” “ notwithstanding.’

Behni, Ki, “ nor,” “neither.” Ki ih she emi, behni ki
th she twor, ** Neither was it I nor thou.”

Bi, “as.” She bi enia ngtt ngshe, “ Do as people (not
beast understood) are doing.”

Bioshebi, “unless.” Bioshebi ojo ror, trugbin ko le
huhh, “Unless rain comes, seeds cannot crow.”

Shigboh, “but,” “yet.” Shigbor Jesus kpe wong si
oddorh rehh, o wi fu wong, ‘ But Jesus calling them to
him (dié. near to him), said to them.”

Tabbi, “or.” Emi ni tabbiiwor, “ Is itI or thou?”

( 35)


An Interjection is a word used to express some passion
or emotion of the mind; as,

Of Grief: Yee/ Aa! O!

Of Surprise: da /

Of Admiration: Kpaa! Nn!

Of Contempt: Shioh! Hung! Sawo!
Of requesting Silence: Dakkeh! Simi!
Of Proclamation:



( 36 )



Dect e ee cece es one.
seen e wrens two.
Pee eee eee three
Lee eee eens four
Deere eee eee five.
vee eee eee SIX.
Lente cee ee ee seven.
Peace eee eight.
eee ee eens nine.
eo ee ee meee es ten
Okkanlah.......... eleven
UC) twelve
Lec eee eens thirteen.
Erringlah ......... fourteen.
Eddogung.......... fifteen.
Erringdilogung .... sixteen.
Ettadilogung ...... seventeen.
Ejidilogung ........ eighteen.
Okkandilogung .... nineteen.
Ogung .... ws .eee- twenty.
Okkanlelogung...... twenty-one.
Ejilelogung ........ twenty-two.
Ettalelogung ...... twenty-three.
Erringlelogung .... twenty-four.
Eddogboh .......... twenty-five.
beeen thirty.
Arrungdilogoji...... thirty-five.

Lene e eee ences forty.

Addorta ......

Oggotia ......
Addorring ....

Oggoring ...

Addorrung ....

Oggorrung ....
Addoffa ......

Oggojjoh ......
Addossang ....

Oggossang ....


tracted for Igba

.... fifty.


Cowries are generally
strung either by forty or fifty in
a string: if by forty, then five
strings make the smaller bundle
of two hundred cowries; but if
by fifty in a string, it will be
four strings.

.... Seventy.

.... eighty.

.... ninety. hundred.

.... one hundred and ten.
.... one hundred and twenty.
.... one hundred and thirty.
.... one hundred and forty.
.... one hundred and fifty.
.... one hundred and sixty.
.... One hundred and seventy.
.... one hundred and eighty.
.... one hundred and ninety—two hun-

dred less ten.

....two hundred.——A round num-

ber, by which reckonings gene-
rally are made, as one hundred
is in English.

making the smaller bundle of

Igbiwo, Igbio, con- e hundred money or cowries,

OWO ........
Ohdung ......

Irhiwo, Irhio

Eddegbetta ....
Egbetta ......

a strung cowries.
.... three hundred.
.... four hundred.

....five hundred.
....8ix hundred.

Eddegberring ......
Egbeje .........45.
Egbejjoh .
Eddegbaa, or
Egbaa, or

Egbaji ..........5.
Egbatta ..........
Eddegbarring ......
Egbarring .......

Egbajjoh ..........

two thousand.


seven hundred.
eight hundred.
nine hundred.
one thousand.

eleven hundred.

twelve hundred.

thirteen hundred.
fourteen hundred.

fifteen hundred.

sixteen hundred.
seventeen hundred.

eighteen hundred.

.. nineteen hundred.

A larger bundle
of cowries, containing ten bun-
dles of smaller ones of two hun-
dred cowries.

three thousand.

four thousand.

five thousand.

six thousand.

seven thousand.

. eight thousand.

nine thousand.

ten thousand.
eleven thousand.
twelve thousand.
thirteen thousand.
fourteen thousand.
fifteen thousand.
sixteen thousand.
seventeen thousand.


Egbassang ........ eighteen thousand.

Eddegbawah ...... nineteen thausand.
Egbawah.......... twenty thousand, or
Okkehkan.......... one bag—of cowries, containing

ten larger bundles of two thou-
sand cowries each. By the
number of bags higher numbers
are reckoned ; as,

Okkemejt .... 0.666. two bags—forty thousand.

Okkehmetta ........ three bags—sixty thousand.

Okkehmerring ...... four bags—eighty thousand.

Okkehmarrung...... five bags—one hundred thousand,
&c. &e.

As the Natives have much to do with reckoning so
many cowries, they very early begin to exercise their
children in counting. They have no other method of
teaching than by frequent exercise in counting cowries
or stones: and it is astonishing how very early little
boys and girls can reckon a large number of cowries.
They first begin by counting one by one: when they
can do that with readiness, they begin by twos, and
then by fives. A person cannot be more insulted for his
stupidity in arithmetic, than by telling him, “ Oh dahjuh
dahnu oh o? mohh essang messang,” ‘ With all your
cleverness and sagacity, you do not know nine times


Ekinnit ......0.4.4. the first.
Whejt oo. a. the second.
Ek-hetta .......... the third.

Ekkerring ........ the fourth.


Ekkarrung ........ the fifth.
Ekkeffa .......... the sixth.
Ekeje woe. cee eee the seventh.
Ekejjoh .......... the eighth.
Ekkessang ........ the ninth.
Ekkehwah ........ the tenth.
Ekkokkanlah ...... the eleventh.
Ekejiluh .. the twelfth.
Ekkettalah ........ the thirteenth.
Ekkeringlah........ the fourteenth.
Ekkeddogung ...... the fifteenth.

Ekkerringdilogung ..the sixteeth.
Ekkettadilogung ....the seventeenth.

Ekejidilogung ...... the eighteenth.
Ekkokkandilogung ..the nineteenth.
Ogung ........000 the twentieth.
Ekkokkanlelogung ..the twenty-first.
Ekejilelogung ...... the twenty-second.
Ekkettalelogung ....the twenty-third.
Ekkerringlelogung ..the twenty-fourth.
Ekkeddogboh ...... the twenty-fifth.
Ohgboh............ the thirtieth.
Ekkarringdilogajt ..the thirty-fifth.
0 | re the fortieth.


Answering to the Question, “ How many ?”

Okkan .. 00. e eee one
Meji...- cee eee ees two
Metta .....+.0.-5- three
Merring ......++-- four


Meffa ..........4.. S1X
Meje..........045. seven
Mejjoh.........-.. eight
Messang .......... nine
Mehwah .......... ten
Mokkanlah ........ eleven.
Mejtlah .......... twelve.
Mettalah .......... thirteen.
Merringlah ........ fourteen.
Meddogung ........ ‘fifteen.
Merringdilogung .... sixteen.
Mettadilogung...... seventeen.
Mejidilogung ...... eighteen.
Mokkandilogung .. .. nineteen.
Ogung .......6...- twenty.
Mokkanlelogung .... twenty-one.
Mejilelogung ...... twenty-two.
Mettalelogung ...... twenty-three.
Merringlelogung .... twenty-four.
Meddogboh ........ twenty-five.
Ohgboh.......-.0.. thirty.
Arrungdilogosi, or I thirty-five.
Ehudilogoji ....
0) forty.



* Okan, or owo’kan , . one cowry, 0” money.
Byji, or owo meji .... two cowries, or moneys.

* The vowels which are circumflexed in this column must be
pronounced very long ; as the words are contracted from owo and
okkan, instead of owo okkan, contracted 6’kan, “one money.”



A, e
ftta, or owo metia .. three cowries, or moneys.

Erring Pecan eee four ...........60.

Arrung Leen ees fiVe.. ce ee eee
EGG... SIX 2. eee eee eee

Eje See e eee ees seven ..........

1) elght ..............
Essang.... mine ............4.
Ehwah.........-.. ten... eee ee eee

Okanlah .......... eleven ............

Lijilah Dee e ee eeeee twelve .. .........
Hitalah.........0.. thirteen ............
Erringlah Lee eeee ee fourteen............
Eddogung bees fifteen..............
Erringdilogung .... Sixteen ........006.
Ettadilogung beens seventeen ..........
Ejidilogung ........ eighteen............
Okandilogung ...... nineteen............

Oko-0 0.00. ..005. twenty ............
Okanlelogung beeen twenty-one... .......
Kjilelogung eens twenty-two ........
Kttalelogung ne twenty-three ........
Erringlelogung .... twenty-four ........

Eddogboh beeen eee twenty-five..........
Cngbohve, © OY aieiy cece

gbohowo ......
Ehudilogogi bees thirty-five ..........
Ogoji oo... eee ee. forty ..........005-

Okoka ............ one, one cowry, or one money each.
| | two, two cowries..............
Ehtetta .......... three, three............ ..0.:

Errerring.......... four, four.............. 00 eee


Effeffa. oc... cc cen

Ejejeje .


Ejejilah .





Erreddogung .....
Errerringdilogung .
Ehtettaditlogung ...

Okokanlelogung ...


SIX, SIX......
seven, seven
eight, eight
nine, nine

ten, ten

eleven, eleven
.. twelve, twelve

. fifteen, fifteen

.. Dineteen, nineteen
twenty, twenty
. twenty-one, twenty-one
twenty-two, twenty-two
.. twenty-three, twenty-three



five, five cowries, or five money

thirteen, thirteen
fourteen, fourteen

. sixteen, sixteen
. seventeen, seventeen
eighteen, eighteen

ee © © © @ © © © © wo we wo we

eee @ + © © © © © © © we

.. twenty-four, twenty-four. .......

thirty, thirty

.. thirty-five, thirty-five

forty, forty

twenty-five, twenty-five

ee © © @ © © © © © ee ew eH we




Merringmerring ..

. one by one.
two by two.
three by three.
.. four by four.

Marrrungmarrung .. five by five.


. six by six.


Mejemeje ...... .... Seven by seven.
Mejjohmejjoh ...... eight by eight.
Messangmessang ....nine by nine.
Mehwahmehwah ....ten by ten. *
eleven by eleven.
lah .... cease
Mejilahmejilah ....twelve by twelve.
Metialahmettalah .. thirteen by thirteen.
Mermingralmerring ‘t fourteen by fourteen.
Meddogungmeddo- \ fifteen by fifteen.
Gung. ..s.ceeee
Merring ailogung- \ sixteen by sixteen.
Mettadilog ungmet- \ seventeen by seventeen.
tadilogung ....
Mey idilog UNMET } eighteen by eighteen.
dilogung ......
t teen.
mokkandilogung nineteen by nineteen
Ogogung .......45: twenty by twenty.
Mokkanlelogung- \ 7
- t - .
mokkanlelogung twenty-one by twenty-one
Mejilelogungmeyie- ; twenty-two by twenty-two.
logung .......-
Mettalelogungmet- \
ty- nty- .
talelogung . twenty-three by twenty-three
Merring lelogung- \ twenty-four by twenty-four.
m9 bohmeddog ‘t twenty-five by twenty-five.
Ohgbogboh ........ thirty by thirty.
Errehudilogoji...... thirty-five by thirty-five.

Ogojoji...... 40.55. forty by forty.


Emmegi ..........
Emmetta .... 6.6...
Emmerring ........
Emmarrung ......
Emmeje ..........
Emmejjoh ........
Emmejilah ....
Emmeringdilogung. .
Emmejidilogung ....
Emmokkandilogung .
Igbogung ..........
Emmokkanlelogung. .
Emmejilelogung ....
Emmerringlelogung. .
Emmeddogboh..... \

Igbohgboh ........

Emmehudilogoyt ....
Igbogojt ..........


four times.
five times.
Six times.
seven times.

eight times.

nine times.
ten times.
eleven times.

. twelve times.
. thirteen times.

fourteen times.
fifteen times. .
sixteen times.

. seventeen times.

eighteen times.
nineteen times.
twenty times.
twenty-one times.
twenty-two times.

. twenty-three times.

twenty-four times.
twenty-five times.
thirty times.
thirty-five times.
forty times.



Lekkan. 0.0... 0.00. once
Lemmeji..... 0.000 twice.
Lemmetta ......006: thrice.
Lemmerring ........ four times.
Lemmarring ........ five times.
Lekkinni .......-6. first
Lekheji... cece eee secondly.
Lekketta .. thirdly.
Lekkerring ......... fourthly.
Lekkarrung ........ fifthly.


1. By prefixing a or ah to the Verb; as, Kpeyja, ‘to
fish”; akpeya, “a fisherman.” Bo, ‘“‘to cover,” ‘to
shelter’; ahbo, “ shelter,” “ refuge.”

2. By prefixing 7; as, Bik, “to bear children”; 2bih,
“birth.” Feh, “to love,” ‘to will,” “to approve” ;
ifeh, “ love,” ‘* approbation.”

3. By prefixing ati; as, Borh, “to come back”; ati-
borh, “return.” Loh, ‘‘ to go”; atiloh, “a gomg.”
She, “to do”; atishe, “ a doing.”

4, By prefixing oni; as, Forh, “to wash”; oniforh,
‘“‘a washer.” Se, “to cook”; onise, ‘‘a cook.” Kiri,
‘““to wander”; onikiri, “ a wanderer.”

5. By doubling the Verb; as, kpejja, “ to fish”;

kpeqjakpejja, “a fisherman.” Shisheh, “to labour”;
shishehshisheh, ‘“‘ a labourer.”


6. By prefixing az to words beginning with a conso-
nant, to denote privation; as, gboh, “to hear,” “to
obey,” “to believe”; atgboh, “unbelief”; aigbohrang,
“disobedience.” Feh, “to will”; aifeh, “ unwilling-


1. By prefixing al to words beginning with a; as,
agbeddeh, “a smith’s shop”; alagbeddeh, “a smith.”

2. By prefixing el to words beginning with e; as,
ehshehh, ‘‘sin,” “ offence”; elehshehh, “a sinner,” ‘‘ an
offender.” Eri, “a head”; eleri, “ a headman.”

3. By prefixing ol to words beginning with o; as,
owo, money ”; olowo, “a rich person.”

4. By prefixing on to words beginning with 7; as,
idajoh, “judgment”; onidajoh, “a judge.”

5. By prefixing oni to words beginning with a conso-
nant; as, bode, ‘‘a custom-house ”; onibode, “a col-
lector of customs.” Gbajamorh, ‘the trade of a barber ” ;

onigbajyamorh, “ a barber.”


1. By prefixing 7; as, gbona, “warm,” “ hot”;
igbona, “‘ warmth,” “heat.” Lohra, “slow,”
tlohra, “‘ slowness,” “ tardiness.”

2. By doubling the first consonant, and inserting 2 or
u; as, ga, “high”; giga, “height.” Le, “hard” ; lile,
“hardness.” § Gbona, “hot”; gbigbona, gbugbona,
“heat.” Moh, “clean”; mimoh, or mumoh, “ clean-
ness,” “cleanliness.” Fung, “white”; jifung, “ white-

“tardy ” ;




1. By doubling the first syllable; as, Kere, ‘‘ to be
small”; kekere, “small.” Kuru, “to be short”; Au-
kuru, “ short.” Gung, “to be long” ; gugung, “ long.”

2. By prefixing az to words beginning with conso-
nants, to denote want; as, Joh, “ to be correct,” “ to be
true,’ “to be right”; aztoh, “imcorrectness,” ‘ ab-
surdity.” To, “to be enough,” “to be sufficient”; atto,


By reduplication; as, Dara, “good”; daradara,
“well.” Re, “good”; rere, ‘* well.”





wes Oe




Asunor, v. korhinra.

ABIDE, v. gbe, joko.

ABILITY, Ss. agbara.

ABJURE, Uv. gegung.

ABJURATION, s. egung.

ABLE, ad). le.

Axsoanrp, v. lokkorh.

AzopE, s. bujoko.

ABORIGINES, S. ibilleh.

AgorrTion, s. ishennoh, itshennoh.

ABOVE, prep. leri, lori, loke.

ABOVE ALL, prep. borigbogbo.

AxouT (time), prep. lakoko.

Axzout (place), prep. niha.

Asrupt, adj. lojiji.

ABSCEss, s. wiwuh.

AxsconD, v. kpa and moh, sakpamoh.

ArsEnt, v. ko oh wah, ko si nihin, ko si nibeh; lit. “ He
does not come.” “ He is not here,” “ He is not there,”

ABSOLVE, v. dariji, dari and ji.

(1) “3B


Axsors, v. mi, gbe avd mi.
ABSTEMIOUS, @dj. ronnoh.
ABSTINENCE, S. 1ronnoh.
AxsurD, adj. kohtoh, kohjanna.
ABSURDITY, Ss. aitoh.

Apuse, ». buh.

Abyss, s. ibuh.

Accert, v. gba.

ACCIDENT, Ss. eshi.

Accompany, v. bah and loh.—Oh bah mi loh, “‘ He accom-
panied me.”

AccorDING, prep. bi.

Account, Ss. iro, ishiro.
AccUMULATE, v. ko and joh, kojoh.
Accuse, v. kpe and lejjoh.

AcHE, v. ro, foh.

Acip, s. kahn.

ACKNOWLEDGE, v. jehwoh.
Acquire, v. koh.

Acquit, v. dah, yor, fi and silleh.
Act, v. she.

AcTIon, s. tshe.

Active, adj. yahra.

AcutE, adj. muh.

App, v. fi and si, fi and kong.
ADMIRE, v. ying.

ApmirT, v. gba.


Apore, bor, sihn.

Avorn, v. she and loshoh’.
ADVANCE (in Office), v. gbe and ga.

ADVANCE (money), v. sahn and telleh.



ADULT, s. agba.

ADULTERY, S. kpanshaga.

ADULTERESS, Ss. kpanshaga, ashekpanshaga.
AFFIRM, v. tennumoh.

AFRAID, v. behru.
AFTER, AFTERWARDS, adv. lehhin, nikehhin.

AFTER ALL, adv. asiwah-asiborh.
AFTERNOON, 5. ashalleh, djjohalleh.
Again, adv. ehwehh, moh.
AGAINST, prep. si, bah.
AGE, s. ojjoh, oddu.
AGENT, s. ashojuenni.
AGREE, v. reh, bah and de, feh.
AGREEMENT, s. ireh, ikpinnu.
AGrounD, adj. gunleh.
AGUE, 8. Oj0jo.
Ain, v. gba, ranh.
Arm, v. surh, wong.
Air, s. ofurufuh, ojuaiye.
ALARM, v. idagiri.
Axcoran, s. Alkuranni.
ALE, s. otti.
ALIvE, adj. ahye.
ALL, adj. gbogbo.
ALL-KNOWING, s. amohhung-g¢bogbo.
ALL-SEEING, s. arihung-gbog*bo.
Atmicuty, Olodumare, Olodumaye.
Aumost, adv. feheh.
‘ALONE, adj. nikan, shosho.
ALREADY, adj. na.
Atso, adv. kpellu, kpellukpellu.
AtTer, v. kpa and da, kpada.

(3) B2


ALTHOUGH, con). bi.

Aways, adv. nigbagbogbo.
AmMBUSCADE, S$. iba, ibamolleh, isakpamoh.
AMEN, adv. amin, kohseh, kohtsheh.
AMIABLE, adj. wu.

Amp, Aminst, prep. lahring.
AMONG, prep. ninoh.

AMOUNT, v. to.

AMPUTATE, v. ke.

AmusE, v. kpa and lerhin.

AND, conj. ong, SI, ati.

ANGEL, s. ongsheh-olorung.
ANGER, s. ibinoh.

ANGRY (to be), v. binoh.
ANIMAL, s. errhan, errhanko.
ANKLE, s. kdkoseh.
ANNIHILATE, v. soh and dassang.
ANNOY, v. toh.

ANOTHER, adj. omieh.

ANSWER, V. jeh, daung.

ANT, s. erung.

.... (black), s. erung-dudu.
.... (red), s. esa.

....+ (small wood), s. era.
ANTELOPE, S$. esuo.

ANTIDOTE, s. akporo.

ANVIL, Ss. ogun.

Any, adj. eyiti, eyitiowu.

Apg, s. obbot, eddu.

ApostLE, s. ongsheh, onisheh.
Appear, Uv. yor, la, le, hang.
APPROACH, v. su and moh, sumoh.
APPROVE, v. feh.



Apri, s. Erring-oddu.

Apron, s. ibanteh.

Arcu, s. bioshumare; lit. “as the rainbow.”

Arip, adj. gbeh.

ARISE, v. dide.

Arw, s. akpah.


Anm (lower), s. abbeyah, abbiyah.

Arm (upper), s. ejikah.

ARMY, Ss. ogung. *

AROUND, prep. kah.

Arrow, S. offa.

Art, s. ogbuhn.

As, conj. bi.

ASCEND, v. gu and oke, goke.

ASCERTAIN, v. ridih’.

ASHES, S$. eru.

AsiIpE, prep. akpakan.

Ask, v. bi, bere, bi and lere.

Ass, s. kettehketteh.

ASSASSINATION, S. ikpamolleh, amollehkpa.

ASSEMBLE, Uv. kpejoh, kpajoh.

ASSEMBLY, S. aujoh.


Associate, v. shorreh, kegbeh.

AsTONISH, v. ennuya.— Ennuya gbogho illuh, “The
whole town was astonished ;” (it. ‘“‘ The mouths of the
whole town were opened.”

AT, prep. ni, si, ti.—“ At all,” Arra.

ATONE, v. rubor.

AtTTAck, v. kollu, jallu.

ATTEMPT, s. idahnwo.

ATTEMPT, v. dahnwo.



ATTEND (to), v. fiyesi, kojjusi.
ATTIC, Ss. aja.

AVARICE, s. Okkajua.

AuaustT, s. Ejjoh-oddu.

Aunt, s. obbakan, iyekan, arrah
Avolp, v. ri, sa and kuo.
AUSTERE, @dj. roro.

Autuor, s. alakohshe. -
AuTHorITY, s. ollah.

Awalt, v. durode.

AWAKE, ¥. ji.

Away, adv. kuo.

AWHILE, adv. dieh.

Awt, s. iluh.

AXE, s. arke, eddone.

Base, s. ommoh-agbo.
Bazoon, s. irro, inakih’.
Back, s. ehhin.

Back, adj. lehhin.
BacxsiTeE, v. sohroh-lehhin.
Bacxwarp, adj. lehhin-lehhin.
Bap, adj. buruh’.

Banness, s. buburuh’.

Baa, s. akpo, akalambi.
Baa (grass), s. okkeh’.
Bart, s. ifiworh.

BakE, v. ylan, yanh.
Batance, s. og bohgba.
Baxp, s. kpari.



Ba.pness, s. ikpari.

Bate, s. okete.

Bau, v. shu.

BAL, s. ishu.

Bampsoo, kpako.

Banana, s. ogeeddeh.
BaNANaA-TREE, 8. iggi-oggeddeh.
Bar (of iron), okpah-irhin.
Bar (of a river), s. bebe.

Barser, s. onigbajamorh.

Bare, v. ihoho.

BareEnEss, ad). iho.

Baraain, s. asohtelleh, arotelleh, imolleh, awo, ajohro.

Bark, v. grbo.

Bark (of a tree), ekpéo.

Barn, s. arro, abba.

BarrEL, 8. agb2h.

Barret (of a gun), s. okpah-bong.

Barren, adj. sakpadi, sakpara (said of land).

BarrEwngss, s. akpara.

Barter, v. kparorh, shekpashikparorh.

Barter, s. kpashikparorh.

Bason, s. auwo ademoh, auwo-koto, auwo-ollohmohri.

BASTARD, s. ommobh-alle.

Bar (large), s. adeng.

....(small), s. odeh.

BaTueE, v. luweh.

Batt Le, s. ogung.

Ber (to), v. mbeh, wa, ri, ni, ni avd jeh, ni and she, gbe,
she. See Grammar, Verb “To be.”

BrEeEn, v. jehkpe, shekpe.

Beacn, s. etih-odo.

Beam, s. ekkeh-aja.



Bean, s. kpokpond6.

Bear (as fruit), v. so.

Bear (to bring forth), v. bih.
Bear (to carry), v. ru.

Beanrp, s. rongbong.

Beat, v. lu.

BEAVER-HAT, S. atte.

Beauty, s. ehwar.

BEcAUsE, con. ntori, nitori, latori.
BEckon, v. fojukpe.

BEETLE, s. obonbong¢.

Become, v. da, di.

Bep, s. akete.

BEE, Ss. oyin.

BEEHIVE, Ss. ille-oyin.

BEEs’-wax, S. 1da.

Beer, s. errhan.

Beer, Ss. otti.

Berore (place), prep. niwajuh.
wees (time). prep. koto.

Besa, v. behh, shagbe,

Bea For, v. shikpehh.

BEGET, v. bih.

Beaaar, s. shagbeshagbe, ashagbe, alagbe.
Beatin, v. berreh, kpilesheh.
BEGINNING, iberreh, ikpilesheh, akohshe.

BEHAVIOUR, S$. 1war, 1huwar.
Beueap, v. beh and lori, behri.

BEHIND, adv. & prep. lehhin:

BEHOLD, Vv. wo, sawo, shijuwo.

Beina, See Grammar, Defective Verbs.
BELIEVE, v. gboh, gbagboh.

Betcu, v. gufehh.



Beucu, s. ifehh.
BELL, s. agogo.
BELLows, s. ehwiri.
Brow, v. durh, ke.
BELLY, s. inoh, ikun.
BELLYACHE, $s. inoh-ngroh, irunoh.
BELLYFUL, S. yo. |
BELONG, v. ti.
BELow, adv. isalleh.
Bett, s. lawani.
BeEncu, s. akpoti.
BeEnp, v. tehh.
BeneaTu, prep. isalleh.
BENEFIT, Vv. ire, ere.
BeEsEEcu, v. behh.
BEsIDE, prep. masumasu, kpellukpellu.
Bersom, s. ohwor, shasha.
Best, adj. darajuloh.
BeEstow, v. bu, busi.
Better, adj. siehju, siahnju, sandieh, sandiehju.
Between, prep. lahrin, lagbedemeji.
Bewalt, v. sokkunge, kponrere-ekkung.
Bewaneg, v. kiyesara.
Beyonp, niwajuh.
Biss, s. iwé.
Bip (invite), v. kpe.
Bic, adj. tobi.
Bicamy, s. olobirimeji.
BI..-BEAK, s. ennukokkorroh.
BILL-HOOK, s. addah.
BInp, v. di.
Birp, s. ehiyeh.
(9) B3


Birp.iMe, s. atte.

Binrp’s-NEst, 8s. itteh-ehiyeh, ille-ehiyeh.

Birty, s. ibih.

BirtuH-pay, s. 0}joh-ibih.

BirTH-RIGHT, s. orung.

Biscuit, s. ekpah.

Bir (little), s. gangan.

Bir (bridle), s. ijanu.

Bitcu, s. abbo-ajah, abbojah.

Bitz, v. bu and jeh, shang.—Ajah shang mi, “Dog bit

Bitter, adj. koro.

Buack, adj. dudu.

BuiacksMitH, s. alagbeddeh.

Biavp_er, 8s. ille-atorr.

Buiame, v. bah and wi.—Babba bah mi wi, “ Father
blames me.”

BLANKET, s. kubusu.

BuaAze, v. rahn.

Beat, v. durh, ke.

Beep, v. gba and ejjch, gbejjeh; thus, Onishogung gba
mi l’ejjeh ; lid. “ The doctor takes my blood.”

Bxess (to wish a blessing upon), v. su-re.

Bess (to put or add to), v. bu-si, gbe.

BLESSING, 5S. isu-re, ire, ibusi, egbe, igbe.

Burp, v. foh, fohjuh.

Buinp Person, s. afohjuh.

Bunk, v. wakpakan.

BLIsTER, v. le.

Bock up, v. se, and moh.

Bxoop, s. ejjeh.

Bioopy, adj. kiki-ejjeh.

BLOoDsHED, Ss. tajjeh, itajjeh.



Biooptuirsty, adj. ongbeh-ejjeh.
Bossom, s. idi, ina, yettuyettu, ituh.
Bow (to strike), v. lu.

Bow (to breathe), v. mih.

Brow (fire), v. fehna, feh.

Buve (dye), adj. waijji, aro.
Biunt, adj. kuh.

Buy, s. agbong.

Bush, v. tijuh.

Buus, s. itijuh.

Boar, s. akkoh-elleddeh.

Boast, v. fuohnu, shefefe, leri.
Boat, s. okkorh-okpehreh.

Bopy, s. ara.

Boi, v. a. bohh.

Bot, v.n. ho.—Omi neho, “ Water is boiling.”
Bolt, s. owo.

Bolter, s. odu.

Boxp, adj. laiya.

Bong, s. evu, efugu.

BonpbaGeE, s. oko-ehruh.

Bonp, s. idi.

Boox, s. iwé.

Booty, s. iyeh.

Borg, v. luh.

Borrow, v. whin, shi, tshi, torroh.
Bosom, s. aiya.

Boru, adj. mejeji.

Borris, 8. iggo.

Bottom, s. isalleh, nisalleh.
Bouau, s, akpah, kpalaka.
Bounpary (of a farm), s. ala.
veces (of a country), s. ikpinleh.


Bow (respect), s. itehriba.
Bow, v. tehriba.

Bow (weapon), s. orruhn, akatankpo.
Bowes, s. ifong, ifung.

Bow1, s. okpon.

Bowman (archer), s. tafatafa..
Bowstrine, ohshan.

Box, s. akpoti.

Box (blow), s. ehsheh.

Boy, s. ommohkori.

Bra, v. fuohnu.

Brain, s. moddumoddu.
Brancy, s. akettun, kpalaka.
Branp (lighted stick), s. iggina.
Brass, s. iddeh.

Brave. See Bold.

Bray, v. durh, ke.

Breap, s. akara.

Break (as vessels), v. foh.
Break (as rope), v. jah.

Break (as sticks), v. sheh.
Break (as a boil), ». tuh.
BreEAK OPEN, Vv. runleh, fohle.
Breakfast, s. ongjeh-oror.
Breast, s. aiya, ommoh.
Breast-BONE, s. egu-ailya, egugu-alya.
Breatu, s. emmih.

BREATHE, v. mih.

Breep (race), s. ommoh.
Breen (to give birth to), v. bih.
Brerze (gentle gale), s. affeffeh.
Brew, v. kpohn.



Bruise, v. abehtelleh.

Bripg, s. iyaw6.
Bripecroom, s. okkoh-iyaw6.
BripcGe, s. afarah.

BripD.Le, s. ljanu.

Briaut, adj. dang, didang.
BRIGHTEN, v. dang.

Brim, s. etih.

Brine, v. muh, and wah.
Brink, s. ebbah, etih.
BRISTLE, S. irrong-gaugau.
Broan, adj. nibo, gboro.
Broanness, s. ibo.

Broit, v. bohh.

Brook, s. odo.

Broom. See Besom.
Brortuer (elder), s. ehgbong.
Brotuer (younger), s. aburo.
Brow (eye), s. ikpenkpejuh.
Brown, adj. kpohnrusurusu, kpukpong.
Brus, v. kpa, fi and kpa, hah.
Brutat, adj. bi-errhanko.

Bup, s. irudi, idi.

Bur Fao, s. effong.
Bua, s. idoné.

Buixp, v. koh.

Butt, s. akkoh-malu.

Buuuock, s. akkoh-malu.

Buncu (bananas), s. odidi-oggeddeh.
Bunn .e, s. idi, iddi.

Burpbev, s. ehru.

BuriA-P.ace, s. illeh-okuh.

Bury, v. fi and jona.




Burn (bush), v. kungh.

Burst, v. beh, foh.

Bury, v. sihn.

Busu, s. igbeh.

BusHEL, s. oshuwong.

Busyzopy, s. ofofo, ororo. abayejeh.
Business, s. isheh, airohwoh, airojuh.
But, conj. shigbong.

Butcuen, s. alakpata.

Burter, s. oriamoh.

Buttere y, s. labalaba.

Buy, v. ra.

By, prep. letih.

By-anv-BYE, adv. nigboshe.


CanBaGE (wild), s. yiarilin.

CapbaGE (palm), s. ishu-okpeh, ommoddu-okpeh.
CaB.E, s. idokkorhduro, idokkorhro, isokorh.
CackKLE, v. durh.

Cag, s. ille-ehiyeh.

Cake, s. akara, moimol.

CaLABASH, 8S. igbah.

CaLaBasH (not cut into halves), s. agbe.
CaLaMITY, s. ofo, lya.

CALAVANCES, s. ehweh.

CALCULATE, v. ka, shiro.

CaF, s. ommoh-malu.

Ca.F (of the lex), ehhin-esseh.

Catico, s. ashohtalla.

CaLL, v. kpe.

Caous, adj. dakpara.

Cam, 8. dakkehrorroh.



CaLumny, s. dulumoh.

CAMEL, s. ibakasieh.

CAMELEON, s. agemmoh.

Camp, s. budo.

Can, v. le.

Canpbour, Ss. inohre.

Canz, s. kpako, akparun.
CANNIBAL, S$. jeniajenia, ajenia.
Canon, s. agbabone.

Canor, s. okkorh.

Canvass, s. igbokung.

Cap, s. aramohri.

CaPABLE, @dj. le.

Capacious, adj. to, laye.
CapITAL, s. illuh-obba, tlluh-nla.
CapRIcE, s. 1warkiwar.

Captain (warrior), s. oloriogung, ibbalogung.
Captain (ship), olori-okkorh.
Captive, s. ehruh.

CapTIVATE, v. muh.

CapTurgE, s. emmuh.

CARAVAN, S. ero.

Carcass, s. okuh.

Care, v. shaniyang, rorra, mawo.
CarE, Ss. aniyang, irorra.
CanreEFuUL, adj. laniyang, rorra.
CAREFULNESS, S. essoh, irorra.
CARELESSNESS, S. aifojulleh, aifojusilleh, airorra.
Carao, s. ehru.

-Carrier, s. alaaru.

Carry (on the head), v. ru.
eas (on the back), v. kpuon.
Cas, s. orrane.



Cask, s. agbah.

Cascabg, s. ohshorroh.

Cassaba, s. o¢geggeh.

Cast, v. gu, soh.

CastTRATE, v. tehh.

Cart, s. ologbo, ologinni, yiaung.

Catcu, v. muh.

Catcu (cold), v. otutu-muh.

CaTERPILAR, s. kokoro.

CATTLE, s. atajaterrhan.

Cause, s. edih, idih.

CausE, v. she, dah.

CauTIon, s. ishohra.

Cease, v. dah, teng, duro.

CrEnsurE, s. ebuh, effeh.

CEensuRrgE, v. buh, feffeh.

CENTRE, s. ahrin.

CENTURY, s. orrung- oddu.

CEREMONY, S. oro, ishe.

Certain, adj. dah and lojuh.—Oh dah mi lojuh, “It is
certain to me.”

Cuarr, s. ekpo, afehnoh.

Cuain, s. ehwong.

Cuair, s. akpoti, agea.

CHALK, s. effung.

CHANCE, s. alabakpade, abakpade, arinko.

CHANCE, v. shalabakpade, sharinko.

CHANGE, v. kparorh, kpa and da.

CHANNEL, Ss. ibuh.

Cuaos, s. juujuu.

Cuapten, s. ila, idah.

CHARACTER, S. iwar, orukoh.

CHARCOAL, s. eduh.



CHARM, v. tia, tira, onde.

CuHAseE, v. deh.

Cuase, s. ideh, idehobeh.

Cuatter, v. sohwerewere.

Cueap, s. kporh.

Cugat, v. rehjeh, reh and jeh—Mah reh mi jeh, “Do
not cheat me.”

CHEAT, s. irehjeh.

CHECK CLOTH, S. ashoh-ettu.

Cueek, s. ekkeh.

Cuerr, v. dah and larayah.

CHEERFUL, adj. darayah.

CHEESE, S. wara.

Cuest (breast), s. okan-aiya.

Cuew, v. rung, dih.

CHICKEN, Ss. ommoh-adieh, ommoh-adireh.

Cuier, s. olori.

CHILD, s. ommoh.

CHILDLESS, s. igang (@ very reproachful term).

CHILL, Vv. Segiri.

Cuin, s. agbone.

Cup, s. ehruhn.

Cuoice, s. ifeh, iwu.

Cuoke, v. fuoh.

CHOLICc, s. awoko.

CHoosE, v. yanh.

Cuop, s. ke.

Circte, s. ikamoh, ayikah.

CISTERN, s. ammohh.

Cuap, v. shakpeh, kpapeh.

Craprine (of hands), v. akpeh.

Crasp, v. ebah and moh, gbahnioh.

Craw, s. ekan, ekanna.



CLAY, s. orror, amohh.
CLEAN, @d7. moh, mumoh.
Ciear, adj. moh, mohjuh.
CLEAVE (wood), v. la.
CLEAVE (to stick), v. moh.
Crimp, v. gu.

Coax, s. ikpojo, ashohojo.
C1og, s. kpatako.

Ciosk, adj. letih, niha.
CLosELy (applied to hiding), adv. buruburu.
Ciortu, s. ashoh, atshoh.
CLoTHE, v. worh and lashoh, worhshoh.
CLoup, s. orung, oju-orung.
Ciuster (bunch), s. idi, odidi.
Coat, s. ehyin.

Coarse, adj. haranharan.
Coast, s. etih-odo, ekkung.
Cock, s. akukoh.

Cock LE, s. okot6, igbin.
Cockroacu, s. ahyang.
Cocoa, s. koko.

Cocoa-NUT, s. agbong.
Cocoa TREE, agbong.
CoFFIn, s. kposi.

Cop, s. otutu.

CoLour, s. auwor.

Cott, s. ommoh-ehshin.
Comp, s. oya,

Come, v. wah.

CoME To Pass, v. sheh.
Comrort, v. rehh.

ComING, v. atiborh, aborh.

ComMAND, Vv. sholori; lit. “to be the head.”


CoMMENCE, v. berreh.
Commit (sin), shehh, dahran.
Common, s. kporh, kpukporh.
Companion, ehebeh.
Compare, fi and we.
CoMPLAIN, v. sorh.

CoMPLETE, v. kpari.

ComPLy, v. jeh.

CONCEIVE, v. ro.

CoNcLUDE, v. kpari.
CoNnCUBINE, 8. alle.

ConDEMN, v. shije, shi and laje.
CoNDUCT, v. lwar.

ConvuctT (a vessel), v. toh.
ConFEss, v. jehwoh.
ConFIDENCE, s. igbokkanle.

Conruseg, v. da and ruh.—Moh da wong ruh, “I con-
fuse them.”

ConGEAL, v. suhn.

ConnIvE, Vv. mojukuo.

Conquer, v. sheh; lit “to break.”

ConscIENcE, s. okkang.

Consent, v. feh.

ConsIper, v. ro, gbero, shimohrang, gbimohrang, da-

Consist, v. kiki and jeh.

CoNSPIRACY, S. imolleh.

ConsPIRE, v. molleh.

CoNSPIRATOR, S. Onimolleh.

ConsTABLE, s. olokpah.

CoNSTRAIN, W. ror.

ConsuLtT, v. bere.

ConsuUME, v. ruhn.



Contain, v. gba.—Jeh, “To hold,” “ Consist.”
ContTEMN, v. ghan.

ConTEMPT, s. egghan.

ConTINUAL, @d). titi.

ConTINUE, v. kpeh.

Contrary, adj. lodi.

Contrive, v. shogbuhn.

Convert, v. kpa and da.


Cook, s. asenjeh.

Cook, v. se.

CooL, adj. tutu.

Copper, s. iddehbaba.

CorAL, s. lyong.

Corp, s. okung.

Cork, s. edidi.

Corn (Indian), agbado.

Corn (Guinea), s. baba, okka.

Corner, s. 1kokkor.

Corpsr, s. okuh.

Correct, adj. toh, dogba.

Corrupt, v. ba and jeh.—Mah ba wa jeh, “‘ Do not cor-
rupt us.”

Cost, s. lye.

Corton, s. owuh.

Cover, v. de, bo.

Cover, s. ideri, ommohri.

Covet, v. shojukokoro.

CovETOUSNESS, s. ojukokoro.

Couay, s. ikoh.

Couauy, v. huh, hukoh.

Count, v. ka.

Country, s. illuh.


CoUNTRYMAN, s. araluh.
CouNSELLOR, s. emnmehwar, abanidamohrang.
Court (to woo), v. feh.

Court, s. ille-ejjoh.

Court-pDAY, s. ojjoh-ejjoh.
Courtsey, ikah. Which see.
Courtyarp, s. agballah.

Cow, s. abbo-malu.

CowaAnrp, 8S. Ojo.

Cowpock, s. shakpanah.
CowRIES, S. OWo.

Cras, s. akan.

Crack, v. la, sang.

Crarty, adj. atennijeh, alarekereke.
Cramp (crawl), v. rako.
CREATE, v. dah.

Creator, s. elledah.

CREATURE, s. idah.

CREEP, v. rako.

CrickET, s. irehh, angtete.
Crime, s. ehshehh.

CROCODILE, Ss. onni.

Crookep, ad). woh.

Cross (to traverse), v. rekojjah.
Cross, s. agbelebu.

Crown, s. aujoh.

CRUEL, ad). ika.

Crus, v. reameyanmeyan, foh.
Cry, v. sokkuhn.

Crumes, s. ehruhn.

CULTIVATE, UV. ro, roko, roleh.
Cunnine, adj. ogbuhn.

Cup, s. aggro.



Cure, v. teng.
Curt, v. we and kporh, kakko.
Cursg, v. fi and re.
CuRSE, s. ire.
Cut, v. ke, shah.
CurT.Lass, s. idar.

Daz, v. shan.
Daccer, s. obbeh-olojumeji.
Datty, adj. nijohgbogbo, ijohgbogbo, ojoli.
Daw, v. sedo.
Damacg, Ss. tulasin, alusin, jambah, ofo.
Damn, v. fi and re.
DamMNaTIoN, Ss. iré.
Damp, ad). tutu, rhin.
Dance, Vv. jo.
Dance, s. 1jo.
DANCER, Ss. arinjo, alarinjo.
DANGER, s. alusi, ewu.
DanaeErous, adj. lewu.
Dare, v. gboddoh.
Dark, @dj. ru, oruru.
Darxness, s. ogganjoh, ogganjoh-meje, Okun.
Dart, s. offa, okkor.
Dasu, v. shan.
Date, s. ojjoh.
Davs, v. kung.
DavueGuter, s. ommohbiri.
Daunt, v. behru.
Dawn, s. afehmohjumoh.
Day, s. ossang, ijoh, ojjoh.
Day (to), adv. oni, loni.
Dean, s. kuh, dakkeh.



Dear, adj. ditih.
DEAF PERSON, Ss. aditih.
Dear, adj. wohn.
Deanrtu, s. iyian, oddah.
Deaty, s. ikuh.
Dest, s. gbese.
Desror, s. ajig bese.
DEcEIT, s. itenjeh.
DEcEIvE, v. teng and jeh—Nwong teng wa jeh, “They
deceived us.’
Decemser, s. Eko, or Ekka-oddu ; lit. “The winding of
the year.”
DEcIDE, v. wikan.
Decrease, v. fa, fasehhin.
Deep, adj. jin.
Deer, s. agborri, agboyi, galla.
Dereat, v. shehgung.
Derenp, v. dahbobo, gbija.
DericiEent, adj. kung, koto.
DerFite, v. ba and jeh.
Detay, v. duro, kpeh.
DELIVER, v. gba.
Deny, v. seh.
Depart, v. loh, dide.
Departure, s. iloh.
Derenp, v. gbiyele, gbekkelle.
DeprH, s. ijin, jijin.
DERIVE, v. tishehh, tiwah.
DEsceEND, v. sorh, sokkalleh.
Desert, s. iju, agiju.
DEsERVE, Vv. jere, yeh.
Desire, v. feh.
Desire, s. ifeh.


DeEsoLaTE, v. soh and dahoro.
Despisg, v. ghan.

Destine, v. korrisi.

Destroy, v. ba and jeh.
Destruction, s. ibajeh.
Detain, v. dah and duro.
DEVICE, s. awo, agalamasha.
Devi, s. See Satan.
Devise, v. shawo, shagalamasha.
Devour, v. fi and rohn.
Dev, s. irri.

Diaxect, s. ohung, ede.

Dip not, v. kohah and bah, emphatical expression; lit.
‘Did not indeed.”

DirFer, s. yattor, yakpa.
DIFFERENT, adj. ottor.
DirrFicutt, adj. shoro.

Dia, v. wa.

Dim, adj. shebaibai, baibai.
DiminisH, v. fa.

Ding, v. jeh, jehung.
Dinner, s. ong-jeh-ossang.
Dip, v. fi and borh.

Direct, v. fi and hang.
Dirt, s. ering.

Disas._e, v. kole.

Disacree, v. kohreh, kogung.
Disappear, v. kohhang, woth.
DiscHarGgE, v. yor, le.

DiscHarGE (mucous), v. fuohkong.
Discover, v. ri.

DiscouracE, v. dehruba.

JDISEASE, Ss. arrong, otu.



DIsEeMBARK, Vv. sohkalleh.
DisGRACcE, s. itijuh.
DiseuiseE, v. kparada.
Disu, s. auwo-gborror.
DIsHONEST, adj. arekunda.
Disuike, v. kohfel, korhinra.
DistikE, s. irhinra, aifeh.
Dismay, v. foya.
Dismiss, v. See Discharge.
DisoBEDIENCE, 8. algbohrang.
DispatcnH, v. rahn.
DispieasE, v. ba and ninohjeh.
DisposITION, Ss. 1war.
Dispute, v. sharoyé, shofforh.
Dispute, s. offorh, aroyé, ija.
DIsTANCE, S. 1jinna, jijinna, okere.
Distress, s. isheh.
Distrisute, v. kpi, war, wari, ha.
Disturs, s. yor and lennu.
Dircu, s. iho.
Dive, v. mokung.
Dive, v. kpi, kpin.
Division, s. ikpin, iwari.
Do, v. she.
Do not, v. mah.
Doctor, s. onishogung, ongshogung, ologung.
Dog, s. ajah.
Do tiar, s. owo-nlah.
Dong, v. tang, shetang.
Door, s. illeku, lekku.
Dovste, s. ishekpo, ishekpho-meji.
Douvsr, v. shiyemeji.

(25) *¢



Dove, s. adaba, ataba.

Down (soft feather), s. iyeh.
Down, adv. isalleh, nisalleh.
Dozen, adj. méjilah.

Drag, v. woh.

Drake, s. akkoh-kpekpeiyeh.
Draw, v. fa, sumoh.

Dreay, v. la, la and allah, lallah.
Drea, s. allah.

Dress, v. worhshoh.

Dress, s. ashoh.

Drink, v. moh, muh.

Drip, v. kan, ro.

Drive, v. le.

Drop, s. iro, ikan.

Drovueut, s. oddah.

Drowy, v. rhi.

Dru, s. illu.

DrummMe_r, s. onillu.

DrunKarD, S$. imottih, mottimottih.
Dry, adj. gbeh.

Dry, v. sah.

Dry season, s. ehrung.

Duck, s. kpekpeiyeh.

Dug, adj. jeh.

Dump, adj. odi.

Duna, s. immih, igbeh, igbonseh.
DunGAHILL, s. ahteng, ahtang.
Dusk (morning), s. wiriwiri-orror.
Dusk (evening), s. wiriwiri-alleh.
Dust, s. eku, eruku, ekru.

Duty, s. isheh.

Dwarr, s. wehrehwehreh (applied to vegetables.)


DwWELL, v. gbe, joko.
DweELuina, s. bujoko.

Dye (blue), s. aré.
Dye, v. rheh:

Eacu, adj. okkorkan.
Facer, adj. wara.
E\|AGERNESS, 8S. 1wara.
Eaate, s. iddi.
Ear, s. etih.
Kary (morning), kuttukuttu.
Earn, v. kpa, jere.
EARNEST, adj. itohwo.
EAr-RING, S. oKa-etih.
Fart (soil), s. erukpeh.
EARTHQUAKE, S. imilleh.
Ear-wax, s. ida-etih.
Fasy, adj. koshor6, rorjuh, jeh, jehjeh.
East, s. Gabaz (Haussa.)
Fat, v. jeh.
EatTas_e, adj. jijeh.
Eater, s. ojehung.
Epp, v. fa, gbeh.
Ess, s. ifa, isbeh.
Ecno, s. gboungboung.
Enae (of a sword), s. ojuh, ennu.
Epc (brink), s. etih.
Kae, s. ehyin.
Eient, adj. ejjoh.
E1a@nta, adj. ekkejjoh.
E1GHTeen, adj. ejidilogung.
Eiauty, adj. oggorring.



Exastic, adj. lo.

ELBow, s. igborrong.

Exper, adj. agba, ehgbong.

ELEPHANT, S. ering, ajeinakuh.

ELEVEN, adj. okkanlah.

ELEVENTH, @d7. ekkokkanlah.

Exse (if not), adv. bioshebi.

ELSEWHERE, adv. nibomieh.

Epark, v. wokkorh.

EMBRACE, Vv. fa and mohra.

EMETIC, S. iruya.

Emptoy, v. fu and nishehshe, fishehfu.

Empty, adj. kosinkan, ofurufuh.

Encamp, v. do, doti.

ENcLosE, v. yi and kah.

E\NcourRAGE, v. deh.

Enp, s. idih, ikpinnu.

Enp, v. kpinnu, kpari.

ENpurgE, v. foriti, feriti.

Enemy, s. ottah.

EnGLisH (European), adj. oibo.

ENGLISH GOODS, S$. Ojja-oibo.

ENGLISHMAN, 8. okkori-oibo.

Ensoy, v. jifa.

ENouGH, adj. to.

EWNRAGE, Vv. toh.

EnsLAVE, v. sihnlehruh.

Enter, v. worh, bohsi.

ENTERTAIN, v. She and lalejo.

ENTICcE, ». teng.

ENTIRE, adj. kpatakpata.

Envy, s. ojuniah.

Equal, s. ehebeh, ogba; adj. geggeh.


ERE (sooner), adv. koto.
Err, v. shina, shishe.
Error, s. ishina, ishishe.
Escape, v. la, yor.
EsTEEM, Vv. yin.
Esteem, s. lyin.
Erernat, adj. lailai.
Eunucy, s. ibafin.
Eventna, s. ashalleh ; illehshu, li. “it is evening.”
Ever, adv. lai.
EVERLASTING, adj. lailai.
Every, adj. gbogbo.
Every DAY, 8. 1johgbogbo.
Evi, s. alusin, tulasin, ibi, buburuh.
Ewe, s. abbo-agutan.
EXAMINE, Vv. wadih.
EXXcEED, v. ju and loh.
ExcHance, v. kparorh.
ExxcHanas, s. kpashikparorh.
EXxERcisE, v. daiirawo, dirayah.
EXERCISE, s. idanrawo, idarayah.
Exciaim, v. ke, kohr.
Expect, v. retih.
EXPECTATION, S$. iretih.
Excuse, v. shegafara.
EXECUTE, v. she.
EXECUTIONER, S. Olojja, ota, tehtuh.
Exp.alin, v. ladih, sohdih.
EXTEND, v. nehh.
Eve, s. ojuh.
KyeE-srow, s. ikpenkpejuh.
EYE-GLASS, $s. awojijiojuh.
Eve-witness, s. ellerrih.



Fase, s. alloh.
Face, s. ojuh, wajuh.
Fact, s. otoh.
FacuLry, s. ori, lye.
Fave (as a leaf), v. rehh.
Fave (as colour), v. shah.
Fart, v. shi, boh.
Fait (memory), v. sah and lojja.
Faint, adj. dakuh.
Farr, adj. yianjuh, siahn, dara.
Farry, s. arja, 4ronni.
FalTHFUL, adj. otoh.
Fatt, v. shubuh, boh.
Fatsg, adj. eké.
F'aLsEHoop, s. eké, iroh.
FAlse-wItnEss, s. erri-eké.
FaMILy, Ss. iyekan, arah, obbakan.
F'amisu, v. débikpa, fébikpa.
Fan (to fan rice), v. atteh.

Fan (such as ladies use), s. Abbebbeh.
F'an, v. feh.

Far, adv. jina.

Farm, s. oko.

Farmer, s. agbeh.

Fasuton, s. asha, ishé.

Fast, adj. kankan.

Fasten, v. moh.

Fat, ad). orrah, sanra.
Fatuer, s. babba.
FATHERLESS, adj. konibabba.
FATIGUE, v. rehh.

FaTIGug, s. arehbh.


Fautt, s. effeh.

Favour, v. ore.

Fear, s. ehru, ifoya.

Far, v. behru.

Feantess, adj. kolehru.

Feast, s. idahna.

FEATHER, s. iyeh.

Frpruary, s. eji-oddu.

Frrsxe, adj. kolera.

Feep, v. boh.

Fret (with the hand), v. fohwohkan; ring, “to feel a
tickling sensation.”

Fret, s. esseh.

FE, v. wo, ke.

FEMALE, s. obiri, abbo.

FEncE, s. ogba.

FERMENT, v. ruh, ho.

Fester, s. gbinikon.

Fetcu, v. muh and wah.

Fever, s. iba, igbona-ara.

Few, adj. dieh.

FrE.p, s. igbeh.

Fierce, adj. roro.

FIrrEen, adj. eddogung.

Firta, adj. ekkarrung.

Firtieta, adj. ekkadorta.

Fic-TREeEE, s. okpottoh.

Fiaut, s. ija.

Ficut, v. ja.

Fit, v. kongh.

Fitts, s. ehgbin.

Fin, s. lebbeh.

FInp, v. ri.



Fine, adj. dara.

FIncer, s. ikka.

Finisu, v. kpari she and teng.
Fire, s. ina.

F1RE-Wwoop, iggi-ina.

Fire (gun), v. yinbong.
First, adj. akohkang, akohshe.
First-sorn, adj. akoh-bih.
Fis, s. ejja.

FIsHERMAN, S. akpejja, kpejjakpejja.
FisH-HOooK, $. 1wor.

Fist, s. ikuku, ehsheh.

Fit, v. yeh.

Fit (disease), s. wakpa.
Fitness, s. ehyeh.

Fac, s. okpagung, asia.
Fame, s. ohwohna.

Favour, s. addu, addong.
FLEA, s. egbon.

F LEDGE, v. huyeh.

FLEs, v. sah.

FLEsH, s. errhan.

Fieut, s. ohsah.

Fuint, s okutabong.

F oat, v. fosoke.

Fock, s. okporh.

F Loa, v. na.

Foor, s. akpako.

FLovr, s. iyeffun.

Fourisu, v. ruh.

FLow, v. shia.

F Lower, S. ina, ituh, yettuyettu.
F ure, v. fere.



F'Ly, s. eshishi.
Fy, v. fo.
Foat, s. ommoh-ehshin.
Foaw, s. ifofé.
Fog, s. kuuku, krukru.
Fo.p, v. kah.
Fo iow, v. torh.
Fo..y, s. were.
Foop, s. ongjeh.
Fooroo, s. okka, meal made from yam or cassada.
Foot, s. ashiwere, asiung.
Foor, s. esseh.
For, con]. ntori, nitori, latori.
For, prep. ti.
Forsear, ». fijin.
Forsip, v. sofin, dah and lekkung.
Force, s. ele, agbara.
ForEHEAD, s. wajuh.
Foremost, ad). tishajuh.
ForENOON, S. oror.
Forest, s. igbo.
ForeEtTooTH, s. eyin-okkankan, ehin-okkankan.
Foraet, v. gbagbé.
Foratve, v. dari and ji, fi and bu, fi and ji.
Form, v. she.
Form, s. ishe.
Forsake, v. korh.
Fortiry, v. mohdikah, sagbarakah.
FortiFicaTion (mud wall), s. odi.
FortiFIcaTIon (wood), s. agbara.
Forty, adj. oji.
Fountain, s. isong.
Four, ad). erring.
(33) *Â¥o3


Fourtu, adj. ekkerring.

Fow1, s. adieh, adireh.

Fox, s. kollohkolloh.

Free, adj. bohlohwoh, nira.
Freepom, ibohlohwoh, inira.
FResH, adj. titong.

Fret, v. a. toh.

Fret, v.n. kanra.

FRIEND, s. orreh.

FRiENDSHIP, s. irreh.

FRIGHTEN, v. derruba, da and niji.
Frog, s. okpolloh.

From (this time), prep. atisisiyiloh.
From, prep. lati, ni, loddoh, lohwoh.
Fruit, s. eso.

Fry, v. yanh.

FUGITIVE, s. isansah.

FULFIL (come to pass), v. sheh.
Fu, adj. kongh, kungh.

Fun, s. effehh.

FunERAL, s. isihnkuh, offorh.
FurTHER, adj. niwajuh.

Future, adj. ijohmieh.

GAIN, . jere.

GAIN, S. ere.

GALE, s. affeffeh.

GaoL, s. tubu.

GaPE, v. ylang.
GaRDEN, s. ogba, ikaa.
GARMENT, s. goggohwu.

GATE, s. ennu-onna, ojuh-onna.


GatuHeER, v. ko and joh.
Gay, adj. bohkinni.
GENERATION, s. atommohdommoh.
GET, v. ni.

Guost (evil), s. iwin.

Girt, s. ibu.

Girp, v. sahn.

GirDLE, s. lawani.

Gir, s. ommohberi.

Give, v. fu, bu.

.... (him), v. fu uh, bu uh.
.... (me), v. fu mi, bu mi.
GLAD, s. yor.

Gass, s. awojijin, glass of every description.
GLoRY, s. ogo.

Goss (explan.), v. iladih.
..... Ghining), s. idang.
GLUTTON, 8. ojjehung.
Gwat, s. kahntikahnti.
GNAW, 2. ti; girl.

Go, v. loh, re.

..+ (down), v. re illeh, sorh.
... (in), v. worh.

..» (out), v. jade.

..» (up), v. goke.

Goat, s. ewureh.

...« (he), s. orukoh, okoh.
Gop, s. Olorung, Olorong.
GoLp, s. wura.

Goon, adj. dara.

Goons, s. ojja.

GoopnEss, s. idara.

Gourp, s. agbe.


Govern, v. jobba, jehbaaleh.
Governor, s. baaleh.

Grace (kindness), s. ore.

GRAND, adj. niying.

GRAIN, S. woro.

GRANDCHILD, s. ommoh-ommoh.
GRANDDAUGHTER, S. ommoh-ommoh-biri.
GRANDFATHER, s. babba-nlah, babba-babba.
GRANDMOTHER, S$. iyahla, iyahnlah, iyah-iyah.
GRANDSON, s. ommoh-ommob-kori.
Grasp, v. di and moh, or muh.
Grass, s. koko.

GrassHOpPER, Ss. ellengar.
GRATEFUL, 8. more.

GRAVE, Ss. isa-okuh.

GRAVEL, s. okutawehweh.
Graven, part. fihn.

Gray, s. eruh.

GRAY HAIR, s. ewuh.

Great, s. nlah, tobi.

GREATER, adj. tobiju.

GREATEST, @dj. tobijuloh.

GREEDY, adj. awon, lawon.
GREEN, s. tutu.

Greet, v. kih.

Grier, s. ibinojeh, ibajehnoh.
GRIEVE, v. binohjeh.

GRIND, v. lorh.


Gripe, v. gbah and muh, or moh.
GRoan, v. kerora.

GROUND, Ss. illeh.

Grounp nuts, s. ehkpa.


Grow, v. dagba.
GRUMBLE, v. khong.
Guarb, v. shoh, tshoh.
GuEss, v. mamcohjah.
Gugss, s. amohjah.
Guest, s. abanijehung, alejo.
Guipg, s. afonnahang.
Guipe, v. fonnahang.
GuILty, adj. shije, jebbi.
GUINEA-FOWL, S$. ettu.
Guy, s. erigi.

Gum (sap), s. oje.

Gun, s. ibong.
GUNPOWDER, s. ehtu.
GuNSHOT, Ss. otta.

GusH, v. ror, tuh.

Guts, s. ifung, ifong.
GuTTER, 8s. ojuh-agbarah.

Hai, s. ylyin, yinyin.

Hair, s. irrong.

Harr-cioru, s. ashoh-irrong.

Harr, s. ahboh, idaji, idameji.
Harreenny, s. okan, owokan.
Hatt, v. mokkun.

Hammer (smith), s. ommoh-owuh.
Hanp, s. ohwoh.

HanbL_gp, s. eku, erruh.

Hanpsonme, adj. dara, siahn.
Hane, v. fi and koh, fi and hah, so.
Happen, v. sheh, tsheh.

Harass, v. yor and lennu, dah and laga.



Harp, adj. shoro.
Harven, v. le; lit.““To grow hard as clay or muddy
soil,” also, “To be difficult.”
Harpnzss, s. ishoro, ele; lit. “ Difficulty in accomplishing
Hare, s. aegoro, ehoro.
Hartot, s. kpanshaga.
Hank, v. fetisilleh.
Harpoon, s. okkor.
Haste, v. kankan.
HastTen, v. yahra, kankan.
Hat, s. aketteh.
Hatca, v. kpa.
Hatcuet, s. arke, gamugamu.
Hare, v. korhinra.
Have, v. ni.
Hawk, s. awodi.
He, pron. ong, oh, 6, ih, yi.
Heap, s. ori, eri.
HeEappanp, 8S, lweri, gele.
HEAL, v. jina.
Hearty, s. ilera.
Heattuy, adj. lera.
Heap, s. ebe, bebe, ikojoh.
Hear, v. eboh.
Heart, s. aiya, okkang.
Heart, s. Oru.
HEATHEN, s. keferl. _
HEAVEN, s. orung, orone.
Heavy, adj. wuwo.
HEEL, s. gigciiseh.
Hricut, s. giga.
Heir, s. arole.


HE1L, s. orung-akpadi.
Her, v. rene, gba and lohwoh, bah and she.
Hetp, s. igbalohwoh, irenglowoh.
HELPER, s. abanishe, aranilohwoh, arengni-lohwoh.
Hem, s. ishehtih.
Hem, v. shehtih.
Hen, s. azbebohh.
Hence, adv. nihiyi, nihi.
Her, pron. See Him.
Hers, s. ewekewe.
HERrsELF, pron. ongnah.
Hesitate, v. shiye-meji.
Hicxvp, v. siksik.
Hipr, v. sakpamoh, kpa and moh.
Hing, s. awor.
Hicu, s. ea.
Hiau-waTer, s. omikongh.
Him, pron. ah, éh, é, ih, oh, 0, th, “him, she, it.”
HimseE.r, pron. ongnah.
Hinp (of a stag), s. abbo-galla.
Hip, s. igbaroké.
His, pron. tong, tiehh, tirehh.
Hive, s. ille-oyin.
Hoarss, adj. kehh.
Hog, s. okkoh.
Hoa, s. elleddeh.
Hoist, v. gbe and soke, fa and soke.
Ho.p, v. muh, di and muh.
Houprast, v. di and muhshishi.
Hote, s. iho, koto.
Hottow, s. worh.
Hom, s. ille.
Honey, s. oyin.


Honour, s. iyin, ollah, ohworh.
Hoor, s. batta.

Hook, s. iworh.

Horr, v. retih.

Hoprg, s. iretih.

Horn, s. 1w6, ow.

Horn (to blow), s. ikpe.
Horse. s. ehshin.

Hot, adj. gbona.

Hour (one), s. agogo-kan.
Houss, s. ille.

How ? adv. bawo? bao?

How to, biaati.

How, v. ke.

Hum, v. khong.

Hump, s. awohhin.

Huna, pret. See Hang.
Hunprep, adj. orrung, oggorrung.
Hunaer, s. ebi.

Hunery, adj. ebinkpa; ld. “ hunger is killing.”
Hunt, v. deh.

Hunter, s. oddeh.

Hurry, v. kanjuh.

Hurt, v. du, don.

Hussanp, s. okkoh.

Husu, v. dakkeh, simi.

Hus, s. ekpo.

I, pron. emi, mo, moh, ng.
JACKET, s. ehhah.
JAIL, s. tubu.

JaNuARY, 8. Eni-oddu.