A Pilgrimage to Mecca

Material Information

A Pilgrimage to Mecca
Alternate Title:
Pilgrimage to Mecca, &c., &c.
Alternate title:
Historical sketch of the reigning family of Bhopal
Translated Title:
تاریخ سفر مکّہ ( Urdu )
Sikandar Begum, Nawab of Bhopal, 1816-1868 ( Author, Primary )
Wilkinson, William, active 1820 ( Translator )
Willoughby-Osborne, E. L.
Willoughby-Osborne, John William, -1883
نواب سکندر بیگم
Northbrook Society
Place of Publication:
W. H. Allen
W. H. Allen
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
XII, 241 p.,[13] leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
نواب سکندر بیگم
Muslim pilgrims and pilgrimages -- Saudi Arabia -- Mecca ( lcsh )
Bhopal (Princely State) -- History ( lcsh )
Muslim pilgrims and pilgrimages ( lcsh )
Sikandar Begum, Nawab of Bhopal, 1816-1868 ( lcnaf )
نواب بھوپال
Nawabs of Bhopal
بھوپال (شاہی ریاست)
حج -- سعودی عرب -- مکہ
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Temporal Coverage:
1860 - 1870
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Saudi Arabia -- Mecca
Asia -- India -- Madhya Pradesh -- Bhopal District -- Bhopal
Asia -- Mogul Empire -- Bhopal (Princely State)
ایشیا -- مغل سلطنت -- بھوپال, شاہی ریاست -- بھوپال
ایشیا -- سعودی عرب -- مکہ -- مکہ
آسيا -- المملكة العربية السعودية -- مكة -- مكة
آسيا -- الهند -- ماديا براديش -- بھوپال -- بھوپال
23.25 x 77.416667
21.4225 x 39.826111


General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Sikandar Begum, Nawab of Bhopal, 1816-1868 : URI
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Wilkinson, William, active 1820 : URI
Previously owned by the Northbrook Indian Club library, presented by Sir Juland Danvers, a British administrator in British India
Previously owned by the Sir Dinshaw Petit Library and deposited in the SOAS University of London library by the Northbrook Society (previously known as the Northbrook Indian Club).
General Note:
VIAF (name authortiy) : Danvers, Juland : URI
General Note:
The Northbrook Society, also known as the Northbrook Indian Club, sprang from an idea that was formed in 1879, founded in February 1880, as a sub-committee of the National Indian Association, the Northbrook Society was originally designed as a reading room and club providing Indian and other newspapers for Indian visitors to London and British members. Named after Lord Northbrook, former Viceroy of India, who was their president, the Society became a separate entity to the NIA in September 1881. In 1910, the Northbrook Society was housed along with the NIA and Bureau for Information for Indian Students at 21 Cromwell Road, South Kensington. The Society was then able to provide a small number of rooms as temporary lodgings for Indian visitors and students. -- "Making Britain". The Open University. ( -- last reviewed on 03.03.2020)
General Note:
Willoughby-Osborne, John William, -1883. Biographical reference: (last reviewed on 03.03.2020)
General Note:
"Dedicated by gracious permission to Her Majesty Queen Victoria."
Statement of Responsibility:
by the Nawab Sikandar, Begum of Bhopal ; translated from the original Urdu, and edited by Mrs. Willoughby-Osborne ; followed by a historical sketch of the reigning family of Bhopal, by Willoughby-Osborne ; and an appendix translated by William Wilkinson

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
Special Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
192251 ( aleph )
OC00753178 ( oclc )
565033208 ( oclc )
EB87.175 ( ddc )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text
&c., &c.


Translated from the Original Urdu, and edited by
Political Agent in Bhopal.
And an Appendix
Chaplain of Sehore.


her Majesty Queen Victoria.

To face p. vii.

Letter from H. II. Shah Jehdn Begum, present
Ruler of Bhopal, to Mrs. Willoughby-Osborne-,
on hearing of Her Majesty's most gracious
acceptance of the Dedication of the following
After the usual compliments, — “ My dear
Friend, I have, indeed, occasion to express
my gratitude on learning that Her Gracious
Majesty has been pleased to accept the
Dedication to herself of the book of travels
in Arabia, written by the Nawab Sikandar
Begum, who is now in Paradise. The intelli-
gence has given me, your friend, infinite
pleasure, and had the late Nawab Begum in
her lifetime heard the good news, she would
assuredly have testified her extreme gratifi-
cation by declaring that she considered this
honour one of the highest she had ever re-

viii. LETTER.
The Great Creator of Heaven and Earth
has called Her Majesty to be Empress of
Hindustan, and for this act of His good provi-
dence I render to Him my heartfelt thanks.
Under Her Majesty’s equitable rule, crime
has been repressed, more especially that of
infanticide ; the ruler, in common •with his
subjects, enjoys peace and comfort; and the
Empire at large flourishes in undisturbed
tranquillity. My earnest prayer to Almighty
God is that I may be enabled to show my
unswerving allegiance to Her Majesty, who
is a great appreciator of merit, and the
Fountain of Honour; and that my descen-
dants may merit, as their ancestors did, the
favour of the British Government, and be
considered the most faithful servants of the
“ Your sincere Friend,
(Signed) “ Shah Jehan,
“ Begum.”

To face p. viii.

The following Narrative of her Pilgrimage to
Mecca, was written in 1867 by the Nawab
Sikandar Begum, of Bhopal, in compliance
with a request from Lady Durand, whose
husband, Sir H. M. Durand, K.C.S.I., had
formerly been Political Agent at the Begum’s
Court. Only two copies were made :—one
for Lady Durand, the other for my husband,
Lieut.-Col. Willoughby-Osborne, the present
Political Agent in Bhopal. On perusing the
narrative, it occurred to me that the story of a

• X
translator’s preface.
Pilgrimage written by a Mahomedan Princess,
would not be without interest for the general
reader, for the following reasons:—
lstly. Because no work written by an
Eastern - lady has, that I am aware of, ever
been published.
2ndly. Because only one or two European
travellers have visited Mecca.
3rdly. Because the opportunity of viewing
things from an Oriental point of view is a
novel one. And
4thly. Because the Begum of Bhopal has
earned for herself in India no inconsiderable
reputation for sagacity, shrewdness, and en-
lightenment, and in England for her loyal
attachment to the British Government during
the troublous times of the Sepoy War.
I therefore solicited the Begum’s permission
to present her notes to the public in an Eng-
lish form.
The permission was readily granted, and in

translator’s preface. xi
availing myself of it, I endeavoured to adhere
to the literal meaning of the Urdu as closely
as possible. The only license I have allowed
myself has been the occasional transposition of
a paragraph, for the narrative being compiled
from rough notes made during the Begum’s
journey, was wholly unstudied.
The Begum died in November, 1868, while
I was completing the last page of my transla-
tion; and as I was prevented by severe illness
from translating the Appendix, I handed over
this interesting portion of the work to the
Rev. Wm. Wilkinson, Chaplain of Sehore,
whose kind and cordial assistance I desire
gratefully to record.
I am indebted to F. Fitzjames, Esq., Exe-
cutive Engineer of Hoshungabad, for the
greater number of the Photographs from
which the illustrations are taken, and for the
remainder to Captain Waterhouse, R.A.
In the translation of proper names, &c

xii translator’s preface.
from the original, I have followed Sir Wm.
Jones’ system, except in the case of well-
known words—such as “ Mecca,” “ Begum,”
&c., &c.
Bhopal Political Agency, Sehore,
January, 1869.

To face p.T.


In the Name of God, the Merciful and
Compassionate !
In the year of the Hejra, 1284, on the first
day of Moharram,1 corresponding to the 6th of
May, 1864 of Christ, I received a letter from
the wife of Colonel Durand,2 Foreign Secretary,
from Simla, dated the 5th of the month of June,
in the year of Christ 1863, in which she said :
“ If ever your Highness writes a description of
1 Name of the first Mahomedan month, held sacred on account
of the death of Husain, son of ’All, who was killed a.h. 61.
2 Now Major-General Sir II. M. Durand, C.B., K.C.S.I. lie
was formerly Political Agent in Bhopal.

your pilgrimage, I shall be delighted to see
it.” And Colonel Durand also wrote, that
“ he was anxious to hear what my impressions
of Arabia generally, and of Mecca in particular,
might be.” I replied that when I returned to
Bhopal from the pilgrimage, I would comply
with their request, and the present narrative
is the result of that promise.
1 Before leaving Bhopal for the pilgrimage, I
performed the following religious exercises
under the direction of Molvi" Abdul Kaium.
On the day appointed for me to leave my palace
(the “ Moti Mahal”), and to start on the pilgrim-
age, I first of all went through the prescribed
ablutions (Wazu) ;3 then I said two prayers
(called Nafal, which are not enjoined but volun-
1 This account of the preparatory religious observances on com-
mencing the pilgrimage forms the concluding paragraph in the
Begum’s MS., but I have placed it here as a more appropriate
position for it.
2 Molvi—A learned man. In this case the Begum’s religious
3 Wazu—Ablution performed before prayer, consisting of cleaning
the teeth, washing, first the hands, then the mouth inside, then
throwing water on the forehead, washing the whole face, the arms,
and lastly the feet.

tary), and read some verses and invocations ap-
propriate to the occasion, from the venerable
Koran. I then left the house, and proceeded
to the mosque of Mamola Sahibeh, which is
near the palace, and went through the same
ceremonies of ablutions, praying and reading.
I then went to the Garden of Fajhat Afza,1
and remained there two days, receiving fare-
well visits, and transacting such state busmess
as was pressing, and making final arrangements
for my journey. After that, the day having
arrived for me to leave that place, I went at
the hour of evening prayer into the mosque in
the Garden of Fazhat Afza, and performed the
same ablutions and religious exercises. From
the mosque I proceeded to the hill of Futteh-
garh,2 and remained there the night, after
having received more farewell visits. Next
day, after ablutions, I drove to the tomb of
the late Nawfib Nazir-ud-Daulah Nazar Ma-
1 The Begum’s own garden.
• The fort at Bhopal, built by Dost Mahomed, founder of the
Bhopal family, about A.D. 1721.

honied Khan (the Begum’s father), and offered
a prayer for the repose of his spirit. After this
I went to the tomb of my paternal grandfather,
Nawab Wazir Mahomed Khfin, and then to
that of Nawdb Ghos Mahomed Khan, my ma-
ternal grandfather, and invoked a blessing on
their departed spirits.
I then prayed for my own relations, and for
all professing the Musalman Faith, and I asked
that a blessing might rest upon them from my
act, that their absolution and mine might be
secured, and that I might be permitted to
return to Bhopal from the pilgrimage.
I now finally started on my journey to the
exalted Mecca, and arriving at Bombay I em-
barked for Jeddah. At the time of the ship
weighing anchor. I read the prayers enjoined
by Molvi Abdul Kaium, and continued the pre-
scribed religious exercises until the day of my
arrival at Jeddah.


To face p. 6.

On the 13th of the month Sh’ab&n, in the year
of the Hejra 1280, corresponding to the 23rd
January, 1864 of Christ, having made in com-
pany with my fellow pilgrims a prosperous
voyage from Bombay, I arrived at Jeddah.
Immediately after my arrival the Port Admiral
of the Sultan of Turkey came on board, and
.said : “ You cannot land to-day. After your
arrival has been reported to the Sharif and the
Pashd, of Mecca, you may be able to disem-
bark to-morrow at about eight or nine o’clock
and enter the city.”
Accordingly, on the 24th January, at nine
o’clock in the morning, the unlading of my
luggage commenced ; and accompanied by the
Nawab Kudsiah Begum,1 Nawdb Mian Faujddr
1 Dowager Begum, mother of the Sikandar Begum.

Mahomed Khan,1 and Dr. Thomson," I pro-
ceeded to the house of Ahmed ’Arab, where
the caravan of pilgrims was staying. Here
Dr. Thomson left me, and went to call on the
Consul of Jeddah. Ahmed ’Arab received me
very hospitably, giving a dinner in my honour,
at which all the ladies of his family were pre-
sent. We remained there, however, only
until six o’clock in the evening, Ahmed ’Arab
having informed me that a princess had arrived
from Egypt, and would lodge at his house, and
that therefore I must vacate it for her. I had
no alternative but to do this; and I was con-
sequently obliged to seek an asylum elsewhere y.
this I found at a house called Khush Shamiyan
(Happy Dwelling).
Abdul Rahim, the head of the caravan, went
and asked Ahmed ’Arab to tell him what the
charge would be for the three or four hours
we had spent in his house ; and the latter re-
1 Uncle of the Sikandar Begum.
2 Charles Thomson, Esq., M.D., Surgeon to the Bhopal Political
Agency, who had been deputed by II. M.’s Indian Government to
escort the Begum as far as Jeddah.

plied, that “As we had done him the honour
to remain but a short time, he would receive
no payment.” Whereupon I made him a pre-
sent of some bales of cloth, some coins, &c.
After all, the Egyptian princess never came,
having found quarters elsewhere ; and not
only had we been put to much inconvenience,
but Ahmed ’Arab was in no way benefited.
While the goods were being taken out of the
ship, Nawab Faujdar Mahomed Khan, who
was present with the Kudsiah Begum, told her
that her money chest had the cover broken,
and that the rupees were scattered about.
“ Those Bedouin thieves,” he added, “ are
scrambling for them.”
The Kudsiah Begum replied, “ If the box is
broken the rupees are probably stolen. What
is the use of your troubling yourself ? ”
On hearing this I became anxious about my
luggage, and asked the people, “ Why they
were opening the boxes?” They replied,
“ that the custom dues might be paid.”
I then wrote to Mahomed Baksh, Deputy

Harbour Master of Jeddah, to tell him that
“ I had received a letter from the Governor
of Bombay (Sir Bartie Frere, G.C.B.), inform-
ing me that ‘the same dues which were ex-
acted from British subjects would be demanded
from me;’ but that this letter was in Dr.
Thomson’s possession, and he would make it
over to the Consul. Meantime I must inform
him that the goods I had brought from Bhopdl
were not articles of commerce, but merely a
.year’s supply of grain and clothes, also cooking
vessels, and bales of cloth for the poor at the
shrines of the exalted city of Mecca and august
Medina; and that the jewellery consisted of
offerings brought to bestow in charity. There-
fore, having made an inventory of my un-
opened boxes, he should let me have them, and
I would give him a list of what they contained.
On my arrival at Mecca, the Sherff of that
place would compare the contents with the list
I had given, and should there be any discre-
pancy the responsibility would rest with me.
If the Sherff would give me a statement of the

dues, I would pay them, and if he would re-
ceive the money I should give it to him; or
whatever the custom might be for British sub-
jects, on being informed, I would act accord-
I also wrote to the same effect to Paslffi
’Izzat Ahmed of Jeddah, and Sherif Abdulla of
Mecca, adding: “ That I wished to be in-
formed of the arrangements they would make
for the dues to be levied on my baggage.”
A letter came in answer from Shams-ud-din,
Custom House Officer, saying : “ Inasmuch as
I am a servant of the Turkish Government,
and there are fixed custom dues for this port, I
have no power to take less than the prescribed
rates ; but in consideration of your Highness
having honoured this empire with a visit, and
of the letter you refer to from the Governor of
Bombay, and of his friendship towards you,
also out of regard for our common faith, I will
only examine one of your ten cases ; be pleased,
however, to send a list of the .whole of your
Highness’ goods, that I may certify to its

correctness, and receive the customs according
to the above-mentioned regulations. And
father, inform me of the name of your agent
Upon receipt of this I ordered Abdiil Karim
“ to make out copies of the lists I had given
him, and hand them over to Haji Hiisen, agent
to Haji Ismael-Bin-Habib (of Bombay), in
order that he might furnish copies to Mahomed
Shams-ud-din Effendi (Custom House Officer),
and to Dr. Thomson ; but should the latter
have sailed, his copy could be given to the
Consul of Jeddah.”
Abdullah, Sherif of Mecca, replied as follows:
“ The Custom House Officer is the person ap-
pointed by the Sultan of Turkey to attend to
these matters. You must therefore ascertain
from him the regulations that are laid down.”
But wishing to take farther advice from that
high dignitary the Pasha of Jeddah, I caused a
letter to be written to him on this wise :—
“ Your Excellency, whose disposition is full of
kindness, only wishes to act justly, and I am

persuaded, therefore, that you will spare me
any unnecessary trouble, and devise the easiest
plan of passing my goods.”
To this Pasha Tzzat Ahmed replied : “ Al-
though it is really the duty of the Custom
House Officer to attend to these matters, and
although on your arrival he sent you a letter
stating the regulations laid down by this
Government, yet with the view of explaining
the purport of his letter more fully to your
Highness, I send to-day my son, Nurchasham-
Suliman-Asaf-Beg, with this reply ; and I feel
confident that, from the clearness of his expla-
nation, your Highness will acquiesce in what
has been already written, and that any cause of
annoyance will be removed.”
After this I again wrote to the Custom
House Officer, saying: “ With regard to what
you state of your Government regulations, viz.,
‘ That all the luggage must be examined, but
that out of consideration of your friendship and
regard for me, only one box out of the ten
should be opened,’ the fact of the matter is

this—that they have taken away the list of all
my goods which were on board the steamship
‘ Indore,’ after leaving everything in confusion.
How, then, can I send the list to you ? Of the
remaining baggage which is coming on board
the sailing vessel ‘ Abushir Marjan,’ my agent,
Haji Husen, will send you an inventory.
Whatever dutiable things there may be, send
me an account, and I will pay accordingly.
As to opening the boxes, beyond creating con-
fusion, I do not see what object is to be gained.
In accordance with your letter I have appointed
Haji Husen, agent of Seth Ismael-Bin-Habib,
to settle the payment of dues ; but should he
have left Jeddah, I can appoint another
To this Shams-ud-din replied : “ Send me
the list of your goods (that are coming by the
sailing vessel ‘ Abushir Marjan,’ ) in order that
when the ship arrives I may take the packages
out and compare them accordingly, thereby
preventing injury to any of your Highness’
property, which otherwise I should not be able

to distinguish from that of others. The
reason I wish for the list is that I may identify
each package separately on landing; and I
solemnly declare that I will carry out my
promise, and beyond your personal property
levy dues only on such things as may be liable
to duty. As soon as your Highness arrived in
the harbour of Jeddah, the goods (you had
with you) were liable to duty, and you paid it
voluntarily. I did not exact it unjustly. I
told you then that at the unlading of the cargo
I would only examine one box of the ten. I
shall be much obliged, therefore, if you will
furnish me with the list, and by the favour of
Almighty God I will take every care, and place
a guard over the luggage when it is landed.
The prescribed dues will be exacted, and you
need not trouble yourself further in the
I had caused a similar letter to that sent to
the Custom House officer to be written to Dr.
Thomson, but as he took his departure very
hurriedly, he did not return any answer, and

simply made over the case to the Consul of
Haji Abdul Karim wrote to tell me that
“ he had given copies of the inventories to Dr.
Thomson, and that he, in consequence of the
absence of the English Consul at Jeddah, had
taken them to the French Consul; and that
after some preliminary conversation, they had
entered into the following arrangement on my
behalf: ‘ my luggage was not to be exammed
in the Custom House, but only the list was to
be looked at; if there should be any doubt
about the contents of the boxes, they were to
be searched at the house I should be in. The
French Consul agreed to make arrangements
for me, and Dr. Thomson introduced to him
Haji Hiisen and Haji Ibrahim (Agents of the
banker, Ismael Bin Habib), and said that in
his opinion it would be best for these two
Hajis to transact all my busmess in Jeddah.’ ”
1 This hurried departure was unavoidable on Dr. Thomson’s
part. As the ship “Indore,” which had been chartered by the
Begum for the voyage to Jeddah, only remained there two days,
and he had to return to Bombay in it.

I ordered a letter to be written to Haji
Hiisen, telling him that, “with regard to
declaring the value of the goods as advised by
Dr. Thomson, the fact of the matter was this
—that of the things I was taking to the holy
cities, there were no new ones; that my
clothes had been in my possession ten or
twelve years (how then could I declare their
value?) that my jewels and plate might be
forty or fifty years old, and their price was
recorded in the Treasury at Bhopal. If I had
the inventory with me, I would declare their
value—that as I had not brought them as
articles of merchandise, I could only say of
what description they were.”
I heard afterwards that it was the custom in
this part of the world to make some sort of
present to the Custom House people, if one
wanted one’s goods passed quickly. I there-
fore gave a shawl to Shams-ud-din, but not-
withstanding this, he and his subordinates did
not act up to their engagements; for before
communicating with me in the first instance,

they had on the arrival of the “ Indore,” pro-
ceeded with the unlading of my boxes, and had
exacted the dues. And besides this, they had
completely upset and spoiled the luggage of the
Kudsiah Begum and of the Nawab Faujdar
Mahomed Khan; in short, I concluded that
my letter had arrived too late, but that on the
arrival of the sailing ship “ Abushlr Marjan,”
they would do as they had promised by letter.
But being anxious in the matter, I caused a
letter to be written to Mr. Antonio de Silva
(of Bombay), in which I complained : “ That
the Custom House people had not attended to
the directions contained in the letter of the
Governor of Bombay, and in fact would not
listen to reason; for as soon as the goods
reached the shore, they were tossed about in
all directions, and nothing would satisfy these
people but opening the boxes, searching, and
exacting the dues.” I added : “ I write to
you for this reason : that you may make ar-
rangements, so that as soon as the ship ‘ Abu-
shir Maijan’ casts anchor in the Harbour of

Jeclclah, the box containing the jewels brought
for charitable purposes (i. e., for distribution
among the poor at the holy cities of Mecca
and Medina), may be opened, and the contents
be distributed among the ladies of my suite J
they will put them into their pandans,1 and the
empty box, which is in the shape of a writing-
case, can be passed as such, and as soon as the
ladies reach the house, the jewels can be col-
lected again and put into the box. The details
of the matter will be explained to you verbally
by Haji Abdiil Karim, the third agent. I
have left him at Jeddah, and have not brought
him on in my suite. He is well acquainted
with the manners and customs of Arabia, and,
whatever circumstances may arise, continue to
act. in concert with him. With respect to the
boxes of clothes—in the first instance refuse to
show them, but if they will not not listen to
this, then let the boxes be opened and shown.
1 “ Pandans ” are small bags carried by the natives of India,
containing the spices and betel nut which they are in the habit of
constantly eating.

First, having conveyed the ladies to land in
boats, accompany them to the house which I
have engaged for them, and remain there. I
have heard that it is not customary in Arabia
to levy tolls on what ladies carry on then-
persons. Mittu Ivhan (Senior Officer of
Cavalry), and Haji Abdul Karim will attend to
the unlading of the goods.”
At last the ship arrived, and Abdul Karim
and Mr. Antonio de Silva carried out my in-
structions regarding the box of jewels, so that
box escaped the dues. But as to the bales of
cloth, and the provisions, I received the follow-
ing account from Mittu Khan and Abdul
Karim : “ To-day, being the 8th February,
1864, we disembarked the whole of your
Highness’ property with every care, under the
direction of a person named Antonio de Silva.
But the Custom House Officer would not hear
anything that was said, and insisted upon open-
ing all the bales and arbitrarily exacting the
dues upon every article. The amount of
trouble and annoyance we experienced is

beyond description. He scattered all the
things about; if a box chanced to be unlocked,
well and good, if not he broke it open. In
short, he spoilt all the cases and their contents.
As yet we have been unable to discover what
the particular tax levied upon each article
may have been ; apparently not a single’thing
has been exempted from dues. When we are
informed on the subject we shall communicate
with your Highness.”
On hearing this I passed an order directing
a copy of this letter to be sent through Hafiz
Mahomed Khan to the Sherif and Pasha.
Haji Abdul Karim informed me, that “ he
had heard the duty on my bales of cloth and
wearing apparel would amount to 150 or 200
Rials (between £35 and £45), and that when
he knew the particulars he would report
The Pasha and Sherif wrote that they were
aware of Captain Mittu Khan being appointed to
the charge of my property, and that any repre-
sentation made by him to them, they would

willingly attend to. They expressed regret
at the conduct of the Custom House Officer,
and said they had written to him on the
subject, and that his reply should be for-
warded to me.
Shams-ud-din Effendi’s letter to the Pasha
was as follows : “I was ordered by you to
show every respect and courtesy, consistent
with Imperial regulations, to her Highness
the Sikandar Begum in the exammation of her
property, and I am much astonished at hearing
the complaint of her Highness’ Agent, which
was forwarded to me with your orders of the
7th Ramzan. I beg to state, with reference to
to these complaints, that I have already re-
ported the course I adopted to insure her High-
ness receiving all due honour and respect.
With the knowledge and concurrence of the
Consul at Jeddah, and in the presence of the
Begum’s agent, I caused her Highness’ property
to be removed to a place of safety before ex-
amining it; out of eight boxes I only opened
one, the remaining seven containing similar

goods. The fact of the matter with regard to
the box of shawls was this : I valued a box
of shawls worth 5000 kurush (£45) at one-
third of that sum, some of the shawls having
been eaten in places by insects. I only opened
one of the many boxes, said by the Begum’s
servants to contain jewelled trappings of her
Highness’ private horses ; I did this to pre-
vent the articles being thrown into confusion.
I charged about 3000 kurush on certain things
of value not required for daily use, and then
permitted her Highness’ servants, with all due
courtesy, to remove the property ; and no one
seemed in the least annoyed. I now learn
with great astonishment from Abdul Karim
that, the Begum was much displeased. Why,
I cannot conceive. I feel certain, if you will
enquire of the Consul and of her Highness’
agent (who was present at the examination),
that you will be satisfied of the truth of what
I have written.”
This is the account of what befell my own
private property; I will now relate what hap-

pened in the case of that belonging to some of
my suite. My personal servant, the mother of
Adil Khan, wrote to inform me, that when
her luggage was landed from the ship at
Jeddah, the Custom House Officers seized a
pair of bracelets she wore on her arms, and
demanded a duty of seventy kurush (i. e., seven
rupees) on them. The bracelets were made of
silver gilt, and had only cost seven rupees.
The Custom House Officials kept the bracelets
for some time in their possession, and Adil
Khan’s mother consequently (on recovering
the trinkets) sent them to me, requesting me
to forward them to the Pasha, that he might
see them and show them to some goldsmith ;
if they should prove to be of silver, the duty
on silver should be exacted, but if of gold, the
bracelets might be kept in lieu of duty.
On receiving this letter, I ordered a copy of
the petition to be sent through Mahomed
Husen, the Interpreter, and Captain Mittii
Khan, to the Pasha, requesting him kindly to
settle the case and to inform me of his decision.

After that I heard from Adil Khan’s mother
that the bracelets had been returned to her,
through my prime minister, and that the duty
had been refunded.
Regarding some boxes I sent from Mecca
to Jeddah,1 Haji Abdiil Karim wrote as fol-
lows :—“ Sheikh Mahomed, Agent of the T urk-
ish steamer, and Abdul Rahiman, Agent of
Ibrahim Abdu Satar, will not take the box of
State papers which is to be sent to Rajah
Kishen Ram, the second Minister at Bhopal;
they say it is too heavy, and that according to
the tariff, they require on every ‘ diram ’ of
paper, the sum of two kurush. At this rate,
the box will cost fifty or sixty Rials. I went
myself to Sheikh Mahomed, and said to him: —
‘ These are merely papers and records to be
sent to the State Paper Office at Bhopal. They
are neither letters nor newspapers subject to
the tariff you wish to enforce, contrary to
Imperial regulations.’ He replied—‘ If what
1 The Begum is here referring to what happened at a subsequent

you say be true, open the box; for unless I see
the papers, I will not believe you.’ Being
helpless, I opened the box and showed them to
him, and when he found I had spoken the
truth he was ashamed of his conduct, and
levied the proper duty of one Rial, To-day
I put the box on board the steamer, after
having carefully packed it and covered it with
tarpaulin. Some boxes which arrived in charge
of Mahomed (a head servant) to-day, were
ordered by the Custom-house officer to be put
near the door, awaiting examination. The
Sepoy in charge of the property reported this
to me, and I went myself and enquired the
reason of this unnecessary trouble in the ex-
amination of the property. I said—‘ The
boxes contain clothes and several jars of water
from the well of Zamzam1 at Mecca ; but
examine them.’ He then began to abuse me,
and said—‘You sent a false report to Her
Highness of what happened when the boxes
were landed from the Abushir Marjan, and
Hagar’s well at Mecca.

said I had broken the locks and spoiled the
things in opening them. What did I spoil? 1
examined everything with the greatest care.’
I replied—‘ I am no fool ; as you treat Her
Highness’ property, so I will report of you.’
He laughed and took my hand, saying,—‘ I am
not in the least annoyed—I merely said you
told a lie, as a sort of brotherly joke. The
Pasha wrote and asked me why I had behaved
so improperly when examining the Begum’s
property, and why I had not observed all due
care and respect in the search? Now, what
violence or want of courtesy did I show ? ’ I
replied—‘ Let bygones be bygones. Do what
you consider necessary in the case of the goods
now before you.’ Upon this he seemed pleased,
and told me to take away the boxes to my
own house, for he did not want to examine
them. I consequently took them away, and
made them over to Mr. Antonio.”
On receiving this letter, I caused one to be
written to the Custom-house officer, telling
him with my “salam,” that fifteen days before

I went on board, I would show him the boxes
one by one previous to their being shipped.
That I had merely come on a pilgrimage and
not for trade, but that I should buy things to
take away with me. That the boxes I might
send from Mecca to Jeddah to the care of Mr.
Antonio de Silva, the Custom-house officials
would be pleased not to open, and that they
would abstain from giving my servants trouble
—moreover that by constantly opening and
closing the boxes the contents would be
Shams-ud-dm replied,—“ I have received
your Highness’ letter, and according to your
wishes, the things you are sending from Mecca
to Jeddah shall be made over to your agent
without any examination, because you are a
guest of the Pasha. It is right, therefore,
that I should comply with your wishes. When
your Highness leaves Mecca for Jeddah, I shall
be delighted to obey any orders you may send
to me.”
Mr. Antonio de Silva also wrote to inform

me, that he, accompanied by Hafiz Mahomed
Karim, had paid a visit to the Custom-house
officer, and had spoken about my property
being exammed, and that the latter had pro-
mised, whenever he was sent for, to go to him
and examine my boxes.
I ordered that before the Custom-house
officer examined the luggage, notice should be
sent to the Consul at Jeddah, but that if no
examination were required, the Consul should
not be troubled.
To the Consul himself I wrote,—“ I have
sent my property on various occasions, by
camels, from Mecca to Jeddah ; and the Cus-
tom-house officer has declared that he must
examine the boxes. I wrote and informed
him that when I arrived at Jeddah I would
allow him to see them before they were put on
board. At that time I had engaged no ship,
but now, thanks be to God! a vessel has ar-
rived. I have therefore written to the Custom-
house officer, and requested him to go to Mr.
Antonio de Silva’s and inspect my property

beforehand. But I can get no definite answer
from him. I send, therefore, his letter here-
with for your perusal, and I shall feel exces-
sively obliged by your kindly sending one
of your subordinates with the Custom-house
officer to Mr. de Silva’s, and by your ordering
him to examine such boxes as he may wish to
see, before my arrival ; also by your kindly
ordering all my boxes, and the grain, &c., now
lying at Jeddah, to be put on board at once, so
that there may be no delay on my arrival. If
the Custom-house officer does not wish to
examine the things, make him distinctly say
so. I bought nothing of value at Mecca, ex-
cept some relics, &c. I hope you will do as I
request, and send me a reply.”
It appears that Shams-ud-din, the Custom-
house officer, did open my boxes, but finding
in them only Zamzam water, antimony for the
eyes, and relics, he allowed them to pass free
of duty.
This is the account of all that happened
in the matter of Custom dues, and of what

befell the things I took in the steamer “ In-
dore,” and the ship Abushir Marjan.
All that the Pasha, the Sherif, Shams-ud-
din, and his deputy wrote to me about the
dues was merely flattery and deceit. They
did nothing for me, as •will be seen from what
I have written of the treatment I expe-

Jeddah' is a town on the sea shore. The
buildings are distinctly visible from the sea ;
and in consequence of the houses being six or
seven stories high, the town from a distance
has an imposing appearance. On entering the
city, however, one is struck by the dirty aspect
of the streets and their total want of drainage,
as well as by their irregular arrangement and
the bad construction of the houses.
The day on which I landed in Jeddah was
the 14th of the month Sh’aban, a.h. 1280,
corresponding to the 24th of January, 1864,
of Christ. The evening of that day was the
Shab-i-Barat (or Night of Record),1 and that.
1 The 14th day of the month Sh’aban, when the Mussalmans
make offerings and oblations in the names of deceased relations
and ancestors.

is an occasion of rejoicing among the Mussal-
mans. Every house was illuminated, either
by hanging lanterns or wall-lights, and there
was a considerable firing of guns. When I
asked the people the reason of this demon-
stration, some of them replied that it was in
honour of the birthday of the Sultan of
Turkey; others asserted that it was merely on
account of the festival of Shab-i-Barat.
The foundations and walls of the buildings
in Mecca are very strong, being composed of
either bricks and mortar or stone ; but the
roofs and floorings are roughly constructed
after this fashion :—branches of the date palm
are laid cross-wise over the beams and rafters,
and over them is spread a layer of earth, so
that, if any porous vessel, containing water
be placed on the floor, the drippings percolate
through into the rooms below ; or should
there be a pan of fire for cooking placed on
the floor, the house is in danger of being set
on fire. After rain it is common to see grass
growing on the roofs. Every house has a

kitchen,1 bath room and other offices of ma-
sonry, the remainder of the building being
composed of mud.
I am speaking now of what I observed
myself, but I learned the following particulars
(i.e. of the manners and customs of the inhabi-
tants) from an old attendant of mine, by name
Husen Khan, who accompanied me on the
pilgrimage:—every native of India who lands
at Jeddah has a dollar or half dollar, according
to his condition in life, extorted from him.
There is no kindness of disposition among the
inhabitants, but they are characterized by a
large amount of cruelty and oppression. They
consider it a meritorious act to oppress the
natives of India—just as a heretic considers it
a meritorious act to persecute the true believer.
To steal their property or to maltreat them is
looked upon as no offence at all.
The manner of buying and selling is after
this fashion :—whenever anyone looks at an
1 In India the kitchen and other servants’ offices are detached
from the house—often several hundred yards off.

article admiringly, or asks any question about
it, it is immediately handed to him by the
seller, and the price demanded; however
much he may protest that he was only looking
at it, he is not heeded, and if he dispute any
further, they spit in his face and insult him.
In transactions of this nature the tradesmen
are all in collusion, one supporting the other.
In short the manners of these people resemble
those of the Gonds in India of former days, who
were rough mountaineers that lived by rapine
and deeds of violence.
The lower orders of Arabs live chiefly on
camels’ milk, but wine and other intoxicating
liquors are commonly drunk in Jeddah, the
Turks and others partaking of them.1 The
well-to-do people among the Arabs are fond of
good living, and as regards personal appear-
ance are well-looking.
1 Mahomed at first permitted to his followers the use of wine in
moderation, but afterwards perceiving that total abstinence was the
only safeguard against intoxication, he strictly prohibited them from
touching what he pronounced to be an “abomination.”—(Vide
“ Muir’s Life of Mahomed,” vol. iii. p. 300.) Hence the Begum’s
surprise at the unholy practice.

The magistrates and judges are greedy after
Beyond the city walls, there are some
twenty or twenty-five windmills erected ; they
look like bastions or towers, and have openings
in the side, into which are fixed wooden fans;
these are turned by the wind, which is con-
stantly blowing off the sea, so that by this
means com can be ground. At the present
time, however, the windmills are not at work,
and the residents of Jeddah use camels and
horses for grinding their com.1
There are about four or five thousand
inhabited houses in Jeddah, and the population
consists of Arabs, Turks, and Africans. The
latter are employed as bargemen and porters ;
and the traffic on the sea shore consequent on
the arrival and departure of ships is very con-
siderable. The Turks arid Arabs find occupa-
tion as shopkeepers, brokers and soldiers.
1 There are, I believe, no windmills in India (at all events the
Beg>im had never seen one), for their corn and all other kinds of
grain are chiefly ground in hand-mills by women.

Good water is extremely scarce in Jeddah: the
inhabitants have to bring it from a place about
a mile and a half from the city, where between
500 and 1000 pits are dug, in which rain
water is collected, and this they use for drink-
ing. After a year or two, the water begins to
be brackish, and then the pits are filled up and
fresh ones dug.
Confectionery of different sorts is well made
in Jeddah, both in the form of sweetmeats and
of cakes filled with fruit.

I now proceed with the account of my march
from Jeddah : Sherff Abdulla (of Mecca)
wrote to me as follows:—“ It is a long time
since we first heard of your intended visit to
the holy shrines. Praise be 'to God that you
are on your way I The news has given me
much pleasure, and as you will shortly reach
Mecca, I have, with reference to the arrange-
ments to be made for your reception, in
accordance with your rank, sent to you my
brother, together with an interpreter, and they
will carry out all your wishes. Be so good as
to look upon my relation as your sincere
friend ; and may you come with perfect ease
and comfort to the House of God at Mecca ! ”
A similar letter came from the Pasha of

Mecca with reference to sending his son, Suli-
man Beg to meet me.
After this I wrote to my Agent, Abdul
Rahim, saying; “ Hire, for the journey to
Mecca, eighty camels, at the rate of one Rial1
each, but let me know if the hire be more or
less.” The Agent accordingly hired camels
for the various stages—viz. : from Jeddah to
Mecca, from Mecca to Mina, from Mina to
Muzdalifa, from Muzdalifa to ’Arfat, and from
thence by the same route back again to Jeddah.
One rial proved not to be the fixed rate for
every stage, but the hire of the camels varied
in price; in some places it was more, in some
less. The fact is I had previously written to
Sherif Abdulla and Pasha Izzat Ahmed (of
Mecca) requesting them to make arrange-
ments for supplying me with camels, mules
and horses as far as ’Arfat; and they had
replied that “ I must negotiate the matter
with the Sheikhs of the Bedouins who were
1 A Rial = to twenty-five (25) Kursh is a rix dollar of about the
value of four shillings and sixpence.

the camel drivers; and that this plan was
invariably followed by all who made the
The interpreter Mahomed Husen, of whom
I had made enquiries about the cost of the
camels, wrote that “ a ‘ Shagdaf ’1 camel
(carrying two people) would be five rials,
of which sum three rifils were for the hire of
the camel, and two for the Shagdaf. A
Shebri2 camel, carrying one person, would be
two rials two kursh, the hire of the animal
being two rials twelve kursh, and the remain-
ing fifteen kursh being for the saddle, &c.
Large strong mules were seven rials each,
small mules five rials; high caste donkeys six
rials, small ones three rials ; for inferior don-
keys the price varied according to the quality
of the animal (“Jaisa Gadha waisi kimat;”)
the highest price for a horse was five rials.”
1 A Shagdaf camel carries two square panniers or shagdafs, com-
posed of a frame-work of wood, filled in with rope-work. Each
pannier holds one person.
2 A Shebri camel carries a kind of square saddle made like a
small bed, upon which one person sits.

The only mode of travelling is by riding
either camels, horses, donkeys or mules ;
people of rank, however, only ride on Shagdaf
or Shebri camels.
The donkeys are swift and their paces easy,
but their trappings are very indifferent, the
saddle consisting of wood covered with leather,
and the bridle and stirrups being of rope.
Some people ride them astride, and others
sit sideways as European ladies ride. The
donkeys are fed with beans, grass being scarce,
and only have water given to them once in the
twenty-four hours. A very large kind of
mule, which is called a “ Baghlah,” sells for
a price equal to 200 or 250 rupees (£20 to
£25). They are quite as noisy as donkeys,
and have the same provender, but get fresh
grass and grain when procurable.
At length the price of the camels having
been settled by Abdul Rahim, he took them
off to Bakshi Kiidrat Ulla to arrange about
their distribution among the different mem-
bers of the caravan ; and about sunset, having

mounted our “Shagdaf” camels, we started
from Jeddah.
As soon as we had arrived outside the city-
walls, the Bedouins began to unload the camels,
and being asked “why they did so?” they
replied,—“When we impress camels for hire,
we take half of the number inside the city,
and leave the remaining half concealed outside
the city walls. The reason of our doing this
is, that the chief municipal official would de-
mand his “ dasturi,” (perquisite or per-centage
profit) on the whole number, and if we re-
fused him that, he would seize the animals and
impress them for his own work.” Directly,
therefore, the camels come outside the city
walls, the Bedouins commence unloading them,
and the luggage is all thrown into confusion,
and frequently some of it is either lost or
stolen by them, it is impossible to say which.
Between Jeddah and Haddah (the first
stage), I found the “Istikbal”1 waiting to
1 “ Istikbal,” literally “ meeting.” It is the custom in the East
for people of rank to bo received at some distance from their desti-

receive me, and with it were Sherif Abdulla,
brother of the Sherif of Mecca, and Suliman
Beg, son of the Pasha of Mecca, attended by
J’afar Effendi. The latter said to me,—“ When
the Sherif comes up and salutes you by saying
‘ Aselam Aleykyum! ’ (‘ Peace be with you! ’)
your Highness must reply—‘Aleykyum selam! ’
(‘ Upon you be Peace! ’ ) Then he 'will say—
‘ Keyfhal kyum ? ’ (‘ How do you do ? ) Your
Highness must reply, — ‘ Tayyib!’ (‘ Very
well I ’ ) ”
After this, the brother of the Shcrif, riding
on horseback, came up. The order of the
procession was as followsAbout fifty sowars
(horse-soldiers) rode behind Sherif Abdulla,
and about the same number of Turkish sowars
behind Suliman Beg, son of the Pasha. The
Sherif was preceded by an Abyssinian seated
on horseback, who wore a fur hat which
nation by a deputation from the house of the host with whom they
are to stay. In the case of Royal personages, they are met by some
member of the family accompanied by a large retinue ; the proces-
sion in India on such occasions is very imposing. The British
Representatives at the different native Courts in India are received
with the like ceremony.

appeared to me to be made of the skin of a
shaggy sort of dog; he had two very small
kettle-drums in front of him, and rode holding
the reins in his mouth and using both hands
for beating the drums. When the sun rose, I
observed that an umbrella was held over the
head of the Sherif’s brother by an Abyssinian
riding by his side. The horses were very
handsome and well bred, and went along as
quietly as if they were kids or lambs tied
together; there was no neighing.
Siiliman Beg’s escort was similar to that
of the Sherif’s brother, only he had but one
kettle-drum. They were both accompanied
by torch-bearers, and the torches were com-
posed of a particular kind of wood, instead of
rags soaked in oil, the ashes of which kept
continually falling on the ground as the men
moved along. The Sherif’s brother rode by
my side for some little distance, but when I
told him that the Dowager Begum was coming
up behind, he, together with Suliman Beg, left
me and went back to meet her.

We reached Haddah at seven o’clock in the
morning, and on arrival, I heard the following
account from Munshi Saraj-ud-din:—“In your
Highness’ caravan of pilgrims which left Jed-
dah for the great Mecca, at seven o’clock in the
evening of the 15th Sh’aban, was the camel
ridden by Her Highness the Kudsiah Begum,
and in the middle of the night, while on the
road, it was seized by about twenty Bedouins,
who began leading it away from the caravan
in another direction, when Her Highness called
out in a loud voice—‘ I don’t know where
those people are taking my camel! They
won’t listen to, or understand me, and none of
my servants are with me. Ari, Ari! (Hullo,
there! ) Lead my camel along near the
Sikandar’s camels! ’ There was with the
Kudsiah Begum’s camel, a slave whom she
had purchased for the pilgrimage, giving him
his freedom, and he had joined her at Jed-
dah; he was clinging round the neck of the
camel, and would not let it go, when Budhu
Khan, a Sepoy of the Deori “Bahadur”

Regiment,1 one of your Highness’ own order-
lies, having heard the Kudsiah Begum’s voice,
ran back, and began to deal such blows with
the butt end of- his musket at the three or
four Bedouins who were leading off the camel,
as well as at the ten or twelve others who
were surrounding it, that he knocked several
of them over; and when they saw that
some of their companions were disabled,
they left the camel and ran off; Budhu Khan
had been joined, in the meantime by Ghulam
Husen and Husen Baksh, Sepoys of the same
regiment, and the three remained with Her
Highness as escort.”
The Kudsiah Begum herself gave a few
more particulars of the occurrence, and said,
as she “ never imagined the Bedouins who
were leading off her camel to be robbers, she
entered into conversation with them, under
the impression that they were escorting her,
and told them not to keep her camel by itself,
’ The “Bahadrir,” or "Distinguished” Regiment, raised on the
Sikandar Begum’s own estate.

but to lead it along with mine.” It was not
until she arrived at Haddah that she under-
stood they were robbers.
Kasim All, an “ employe ” of the Bhopal
State reported to me as follows :—“ When I
reached the outer gate of Jeddah, the camel-
drivers, that is to say the Bedouins, began
turning all the luggage topsy-turvy, and ended
with dispatching it in that state. After we
had travelled about half a mile, one of the
camel-men seized a box full of goods, and a
bag containing a bill of exchange and other
property belonging to some of the servants of
Her Highness (the Dowager Begum). He ran
off with these, leaving the camel behind him,
the remainder of the caravan having gone on a
long way a-head. We, therefore, being quite -
helpless had no alternative but to return to
Jeddah. Arrived there, we procured a donkey
from Abdul Rahim, and with three horse sol-
diers as escort we again set off, and reached
here to-day. On our way we fell in with
Mian Ida, who told us to inform your Highness

that his camel-men, after having unloaded the
camels, had left him where we found him, and
that he was perfectly helpless.”
On hearing this, I ordered a letter to be
written to J’afir Effendi, requesting him to
communicate with the Sherif of Mecca, and to
ask him what arrangements could be made for
forwarding the goods.
I received a visit at Haddah from the Sheriffs
brother and Suliman Beg, the Pasha’s son ;
but beyond the interchange of a few compli-
mentary speeches we had little conversation.
We remained at Haddah on the 16th of
Sh’aban, my agent, Abdul Rahim, having care-
lessly forgotten to bring from Jeddah the
goats which were to be offered in sacrifice at
Mecca. We stayed in the Serai (or travellers’
halting place), which consists entirely of
“ "fatties ”1 made of the dried branches of
the date palm. These are erected on the
1 A Tatti ia a kind of screen composed of a framework of wood or
bamboo, filled in with dried leaves or grass. They are used in
India during the hot weather, inserted in the door-frames, and, by
being kept constantly wot, moderate the heat of the hot winds.

ground, and are under one continuous roof,
like military lines, and form four sides of a
quadrangle, being partitioned into a number of
rooms. In the tatties which compose the walls
there are openings, but in those of the roof
none, that the sun may be effectually kept out
—there is a constant breeze flowing through
the Tatties. All travellers stay here (in the
Serai), and in the compartments intended for
people of rank, a mat of date palms is spread,
made in the form of a round hookah carpet.
After leaving Haddah we came to Bertoi,
near which I was received by an escort of some
eighty or ninety infantry and sixty or seventy
cavalry, all of whom I dismissed on arrival,
telling them I should not proceed on my
journey until after I had bathed. There was
also a guard of honour posted to receive me,
consisting of fifteen or twenty cavalry, and
sixty or seventy infantry. The men were
drawn up on each side of the road, forming a
street. J’afir Effendi came running up to me
at this moment, and said : “ When these people

make their salute, your Highness must say
with a loud voice, ‘ Aley kyum Selam ! ’ ”
(Peace be upon you !) After the salute was
over, some of the guard remained standing
where they were, and some accompanied me,
and with them were torch-bearers, carrying
torches of burning wood.

On Wednesday, the 17th Sh’aban in the year
of the Hejra, 1280, corresponding to the 27th
January 1864 of Christ, I arrived, in company
with my caravan of fellow pilgrims, at the holy
Mecca, at seven o’clock in the evening.
I -wrote letters to Sherif Abdulla and Pasha
Izzat Ahmed, saying that “ on the day of my
arrival at Mecca, I was received by a guard of
honour consisting of cavalry and infantry; that
among these soldiers, I could not distinguish
which were in the service of the Sherif and
which in that of the Pasha, and that it was my
wish to give a small present (lit. some coffee)
to all those who came to receive me at the
Istikbal. If agreeable to the Sherif, I would
send it to him, because my people not being

acquainted with his, would find it impossible
to distribute my gifts.”
The Sherif replied, that, “ with regard to a
present for the troops at the Istikbal, the
Sherif of Jeddah would give me the necessary
information. ’ ’ And Pasha Izzat Ahmed replied,
that “ to give a present would not be in ac-
cordance with the etiquette of the pountry,
and that he hoped I would understand this

The hour of my arrival at Mecca was the Tsha
(first watch of the night), and the call to even-
ing prayers was sounding" from the different
mosques. I entered within the holy precincts
by the Bab-us-Salam (gate of peace), and,
arriving at the house of Abraham,1 I stood and
read the .prescribed prayers. After that, I per-
formed the ceremonies of the Toaf-ul-Kudum,2
and of running at the Safa and Marwah.3
It was then my intention to go to the house I
had engaged, after I should have offered in
sacrifice the animals brought for the purpose,
and have accomplished the ceremony of Halak
Nisai,4 and have also visited the house of Abii-
1 Vide Appendix, No. 9. 2 Vide Appendix, No. 104.
3 Vide Appendix, No. 9. 4 Vide Appendix, No. 9.

Bakar, the Mutawwaf,1 where it is custom-
ary for pilgrims to stay. If I should find my
own house convenient, I intended remaining
In the meantime, however, meeting Molvi
Abdul Kai-um, I asked him to conduct me to
my house. He accordingly walked on before
me; whereupon one of the four slaves of the
Sherif of Mecca, who had accompanied me from
Haddah, ran after him, and, striking him in
the face, pushed him against the wall. The
Molvi called out in a loud voice, “ Look,
Madam! one of the Sherifs slaves is beating
me shamefully!” I said to the man, “Bhai!
(lit. brother!) why are you beating the Molvi
who is one of my people?” He replied, “You
are to come to our Sherif s house, and eat the
dinner he has prepared for you.” I answered,
“The Sherif has not invited me; I will come
back when I have made my offerings.” After
this, I again proceeded on my way, Molvi
1 Mutawwaf—the guide who conducts pilgrims through the cere-
mony of the loaf.

’Abdul walking before me, when a slave, who
was with J’afir Effendi, a very tall, powerful
man, drew his sword and began to attack the
Molvi. The latter called out to me as before,
and I remonstrated with the man who had
assaulted him, saying that the Molvi, in obe-
dience to my orders, was showing me the way
to my house. The slave replied, “ My master
the Sherif s feast, which cost him 5000 rupees,
is all getting spoilt, and his money is being
wasted!” J’afir Effendi then said, “Your
Highness had better go to the Sherif s, other-
wise he will be very angry, and his anger is
certainly not pleasant.” On hearing this, I
bent my steps to the Sherlfs house, and,
arriving there, I found his brother, Abdullah,
waiting for me, who, after having made a
“salam,” and inquired how I was, took his leave.
I made the prescribed offerings at his door,
and performed the ceremony of Halak Nisai.
On entering the house, I found a room in which
a handsomely embroidered velvet carpet was
spread, and in front of the room, on the top of

an open portico, dinner was laid upon a table-
cloth. The repast consisted of about five
hundred specimens of Arabian cookery, some
of the dishes savoury, some sweet. They said
to me, “ Eat your dinner.” I excused myself
by replying that I had had no invitation.
J’afir Effendi said to me, “ If you do not eat,
the Sherif -will be very displeased, and it would
never do to offend him.” Then, stooping
down, he whispered in my ear, “When the
Sherif is angry with people, he orders his head
slaves to shoot them in the night, and you have
to perform the Toaf;1 on this account, then, do
not make the Sherif angry.” After this, I said
nothing more, but sat down and began to eat.
The dew had fallen upon the food, making it
as cold as ice, so that nothing had any flavour.
J’afir Effendi and some Turks attended upon
me at the meal. After it was over, night
having set in, we passed it there.
When we got up in the morning, I saw that
1 Which ceremony would entail the necessity of the Begum going
out in the dark.

a carpet, richly embroidered with gold, had
been laid down, and, thinking that from our
eating Pan1 upon it, it might be spoiled, I
caused it to be folded up and given to J’afir
Effendi, desiring him to send it to the Sherif,
but I do not know whether or not he told the
latter for what reason I had given this order.
In the meantime, the Turkish attendants
brought in some twenty or twenty-five trays,
and J’afir Effendi came with them. He said,
“ The Sherif has sent this repast.” I replied,
“I partook of his dinner last night, why has
he sent me more this morning ? It is not
customary to feast a guest after the first day.”
He said—“ It is our custom in this country to
send travellers meals twice a day for three
days.” I replied,—“ How can I partake of
this repast, without having been informed
regarding it, and without any invitation from
the Sherif ? ” He said,—“ You must keep it;
it is impossible for you to return it, for by so
1 The spices and beetul nut eaten continually by the natives
of India.

doing you would make the Sherif very angry.”
To this I said,—“ If, according to the etiquette
of this country, the Sherif intends feasting me
for three days, let him do so when the ship
arrives with all my retinue. I arrived here
with only twenty or twenty-five people in my
suite, and the Sherif has sent me enough food
for one or two hundred people. Among
whom can I distribute it ? The Sherif’s
entertainment is being wasted.” The Turks
who brought the breakfast became very angry,
and said,—“ You are disobeying the Sharif’s
orders, and treating him with disrespect.” I
replied,—“ I am only speaking of a matter of
custom and etiquette, and you accuse me
of want of politeness, and of disrespect to the
Sherif. Well, set down the breakfast, but
do not bring any more food to-night.” As
soon as I had said this, the dishes were put
down, and divided among my people ; I, also,
ate a little. In the evening, the Turks brought
the same supply of food again, whereupon
I told them that part of the breakfast was

still lying untouched, and that there were no
people to divide this meal among, therefore
they had better take it away. On healing
this, a Turk became very angry, and said,
Heaven knows what, in his own language, and
remained talking a long time. Judging from
his manner that he was very indignant, I
allowed my people to take a portion of the
dinner, and caused the remainder of the trays
to be returned.
In the meantime, the Dowager Begum and
Nawab Faujdar Mahomed Khan arrived from
the house where they were staying, and put up
in the same house with me ; and the Turks
having taken away the dinner, did not return.
After we had said our prayers and per-
formed the Toaf, we all went to bed. Next
morning, at about seven o’clock, some twenty
or twenty-five Turks, armed and dressed in
uniform, arrived and rushed into the house in
an excited way ; they seized the Sherif’s em-
broidered carpet, which was lying folded up,
and then pulled the mat, upon which two girl

attendants of mine were sitting, from under
them, and threw it away, after having beaten
the girls with sticks.
After this, proceeding to the apartments of
Mian Faujdar Mahomed Khan, they entered
the kitchen where the cooking was going on,
threw water over the stoves, and put out the
fire; they then broke all the earthern water
vessels and spilt the water. One of the Turks
addressing the Nawab said : “You must not
stay in the Sherif’s house—you have been
speaking ill of him.” The Nawab replied :
“ Speak the truth now! In whose presence
have I said anything against him?”
A Turk now came up to where I was, and
sitting down in a most familiar and dis-
respectful way in my presence, began talking
in Arabic in an angry tone. My Agent Haji
Husen, who was sitting -with me at the time,
explained to me, that the man said : “ This
woman is not worthy of the honour of sitting
on this carpet; she has disobeyed the Sherif’s
orders.” To this I made no reply; but I

ordered a letter to be written to Hafiz Mahomed
Husen Khan, detailing the exact state of the
case in the matter of the carpet, and the
anger of the Turks, and I desired him to
go to the Sherff and ask : “ Why we sojourning
as travellers, had been rebuked after this
fashion? If it were not agreeable to him that
I should remain in his private house, he had
only to signify his pleasure, and in compliance
with His Excellency’s orders, I should vacate
it. For this reason, that we were only tra-
vellers, staying here at his will, as long as we
should be detained in performing the cere-
monies connected with the pilgrimage of Islam.
It would be well, therefore, that His Excel-
lency should adopt the plan I had pursued in
appointing an agent for transacting business
with him, and on his part depute some intelli-
gent and capable secretary to communicate
with me, who should be able to explain all
directions of the Sherif on any matter, be it
great or small, that I might be enabled to
carry them out. That I wished him to put a

stop entirely to the Turks and Arabs intruding
upon me, because I neither understood their
language nor they mine; and Heaven only knew
what from this mutual misunderstanding, they
might not report to the Sherif, who, owing to
their misrepresentations, might be displeased
without the slightest cause.”

After having heard this, the Sherif wrote to
me, through Sherif Hashim, as follows: “The
duty of providing resting-places for the nobles
who visit this city, devolves upon us Sherifs,
as well as the care of securing lodgings for the
whole company of the Faithful and followers
of Islam. Consequently, every person of rank
entitled to consideration at our hands, receives
the due amount of dignity and respect his
position should command. We, therefore,
having regard to your Highness’ rank and the
honour pertaining thereto, as well as to the
friendship of long standing existing between
your Highness’ mother and my father, on
hearing of your arrival from Molvi Yakub,
were the more anxious to show every respect
to your Highness, and in accordance with the

custom of this country, we prepared a house
provided with every comfort, for your recep-
tion. Your Highness’ mother, after having
come t'o the very door of the house, went off
to one that she had hired, in spite of every
persuasion to the contrary. I took no notice,
however, of this unpleasant occurrence. I
heard afterwards that your Highness was not
pleased with the entertainment provided, and
that you had removed from the lower rooms
which I had had carpeted, to the upper rooms,
where you had caused your own carpet to be
laid down. I understood from this that your
Highness did not choose to sit on my carpet.
I had every desire to secure your Highness’
comfort, and therefore I had asked you for
your own convenience sake to occupy the
lower rooms, being under the impression that
Indian people preferred the ground floor.
I have now laid before you for your High-
ness’ satisfaction a statement of the circum-
stances which occasioned you annoyance.”
In reply to this, I caused a letter to be

written, to Hafiz Mahomed Khan, the Naib
Bakhshi, in which I said : “ I desire to ac-
knowledge with thanks the respect and polite-
ness shown by the Sherif to us travellers, but
the fact of the matter is this: that, whatever
may be the etiquette regarding the reception
of strangers, no explanation thereof was given
to me, either at first by the Sherif’s brother,
or by any of his dependents, whether officers or
servants; neither did I ever receive a visit
from Molvi Yakub, nor was there any inter-
change of politeness between us. The Dow-
ager Begum, after leaving Bertoi, proceeded in
advance of me, and I know nothing about her
having gone to His Excellency’s house and
having left it again; but this much I do know,
that Her Highness is suffering from pain in
her back, and could not occupy an upper-
storied house in consequence. Moreover, it is
contrary to the custom of our country that a
daughter, after her marriage, should with her
suite, reside in the same house with her father
and mother. I know nothing of any persua-

sions that were used to induce the Begum to
I also wrote regarding the affair of Molvl
’Abdul Kai-um and the violence of the Sheriffs
slaves towards him ; also of my intention of
returning to the house prepared for me by the
Sherif, after I should have gone to the one; I
had engaged, and I related the circumstances
of the entertainment which had been served to
me without any previous intimation from the
Sherif. To this I added : “ We, being Af-
ghans, pay great respect and reverence to the
descendants of Fatima, so much so that from
any Syed1 who may be in the cavalry or
infantry, no chief takes a Nazar.2 Now the
Sherif is our Chief, as well as Lord of the
whole world, and on account of his exalted
dignity, I caused the very beautiful carpet which
he had had laid down for me in the house
prepared for my reception, to be folded up, in
1 The Syeds are descendants of Ali, who married Fatima, Maho-
med’s daughter.
“ A Nazar is an offering from an inferior to a superior.

case that from the coming and going of people,
it should be injured in any way. I also told
J’afir Effendi that I had fixed upon a resi-
dence for my own occupation, which, however,
in consequence of its being very high was not
altogether convenient. Notwithstanding this
drawback, I only consider my one object,
which is to perform the pilgrimage, and to
cement the friendship existing between the
Sherif’s family and my own. For the latter
reason, I am most anxious to avoid displeasing
him in any respect, and to give no grounds to
his people for setting him against me. It is
advisable, therefore, as long as I shall remain
in Mecca, that the Sherif and I should mutu-
ally inform each other beforehand of the
customs of our respective countries; and that
we should severally appoint officers, to see that
the proper etiquette is observed between us.
By this means all occasions of offence will be
avoided. I have heard that a sister of the
Sherif was living in the house he placed at my
disposal, and that she removed into another

for my accommodation. I think she cannot
experience the same amount of comfort in a
house that is not her own, and as going up-
and-down-stairs is fatiguing to me, I will 'with
the Sherif’s kind permission occupy the house
I have engaged, thereby enabling his sister to
return to her own house. I shall therefore
await the expression of the Sharif’s wishes.”
To this Sherif Abdulla replied: “ In accord-
ance with the custom of this Court, and to
show my friendship for you, I sent my brother
to receive you with the Istikbal; it is both
right and proper that the remaining hospitable
observances (which consist of an entertainment
lasting three days) should be carried out; and
as my servants knew that the custom was both
an established and invariable one, they thought
it superfluous to give you any notice, either of
the entertainment or with regard to your
staying in my house. This will account for
your having heard nothing of the matter. I
now, being acquainted with the custom of your
country, find that I acted contrary to your

etiquette, however, it was done unintention-
ally, so let bygones be bygones. Now, our
friendship is established on a sure basis. It is
no trouble to me to render you every assist-
ance in my power; and, although I do not see
the necessity for informing you beforehand,
every transaction between us shall be to our
mutual satisfaction, in accordance 'with the
request contained in your letter. The house
is entirely at your disposal, and by occupying
it you have inconvenienced no one, neither is
any return expected for it; still, if you con-
sider that it is not adapted to you, you must
decide as you think best.”
On receiving this I wrote to the Deputy
Commander-in-Chief (Naib Bakhshi) and told
him to go to the Sherif and say from me “ that
his courteous reply had given me much plea-
sure; that adjoining the house I had rented
there were five other houses, not government
buildings, which I should be obliged by his
obtaining for me, in order that privacy might
be insured to me during my stay for the period

of Ramzan,1 ancl that I would send the rent to
The Naib Bakhshi wrote in answer, that the
Sherif had ordered the chief magistrate of the
city to purchase the five buildings, and make
them over to me, and that he had told him
verbally, if I did not like to remain in his
house, he would not be hurt or annoyed at my
leaving it; for he only desired my comfort, and
wherever I could be most comfortable, there I
had better remain. He added, “ The pilgrim-
age is a sacred duty, but it is incumbent on
every one performing it to provide himself
with a house suitable to his rank in life. I do
not say that the Begum need necessarily re-
main in my house, but it is proper that she
should select one adapted to the occupation of
a personage of her great name and exalted
1 Ramzan is a Mahomedan fast observed with great strictness
during the month called by its name. From the appearance of the
first streak of light on the horizon, until the stars are clearly seen
at eventide, not a particle of food or a drop of water is allowed to
be taken.

Notwithstanding the Sherif’s persistent re-
fusal to take any rent, he accepted it willingly
enough when the time came for me to leave.
At length the chief magistrate, through the
medium of my prime minister, rented to me
two buildings ; one, a college, for my own
occupation, and the other a private mansion
for the accommodation of the pilgrims in my
When I went to the Shrine at ’Arfat, at the
first stage, Mina, I engaged three buildings for
my stay of three days, and found when I had
to pay for them that a year’s rent was de-
manded ; the rule being that if one remained a
day only, one had to pay a year’s rent.
I now wrote again, both to the Sherif and
Pasha of Mecca, saying that, “ As long as I
should remain there, I should apply to them in
every case of difficulty, Providence having
made them Lords of the country; and for this,
reason I had appointed my Naib Bakhshi and
Captain Mittu Khan to wait upon them on all
occasions, that they might be fully informed by

them regarding all matters of etiquette, and
that every chance of misunderstanding might
be avoided, for that I, not being acquainted
with Arabic, was unable to give directions in
that language.”
The Sherif replied, “ What your Highness
writes is very true, and I have appointed on
my part, Hashim-Bin-Sherif, to transact my
business â– with you during the whole of your
Highness’ stay. And for your agents, I
accept the Naib Bakhshi and Captain Mittu
Khan. Mahomed Husen, the interpreter, will
act under their orders.”

The City of Mecca the Exalted is very wild
and desolate-looking, and is surrounded by
lofty hills, quite destitute of trees. These hills
extend, I am told, to a distance of four or five
marches on all sides of Mecca; and I found on
the ’Amrah road that this was the case. The
road runs between the hills, being in some
places so narrow as to admit of only three or
four camels going abreast, and in others wide
enough for five or ten.
The months of February and March were
cool during my stay in Mecca (whereas the
weather at that season in India is hot); how-
ever, the people told me they had not had
such cold weather for the time of year for
eighteen or nineteen years, but that the heat
had been intense (lit., “it had rained fire”)-

During my visit we had cloudy weather about
every two days, alternately with warm weather
for two days, and occasionally it rained for an
hour or two; once, too, we had hail for a day
or so.
There was a great deal of severe sickness,
and the inhabitants of Mecca suffered consider-
ably. Nine people in my suite were attacked
with various complaints, such as dysentery,
fever, and tumours in the leg. On the pilgrim-
age, I lost eight altogether, four of whom died
on board ship and four at Mecca and Jeddah.
In the caravan that separated from me and
went to Medina, a great many people died,
some on land and some on board ship. Two
persons also disappeared out of my suite, and
were never found again : one was a woman
whom we lost on the pilgrimage, and the other
a water-carrier who went to Medina. I do not
know what became of them.
In the country round Mecca, there are
neither lakes, rivers, nor streams, there are
only springs, and in these no travellers are