Sea Dyak dictionary, in alphabetical parts, with examples and quotations shewing the use and meaning of words

Material Information

Sea Dyak dictionary, in alphabetical parts, with examples and quotations shewing the use and meaning of words
Howell, William, 1856-1938
Bailey, D. J. S.
Place of Publication:
American Mission Press
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
136 pages


Subjects / Keywords:
Iban language ( lcsh )
Iban language -- Dictionaries ( lcsh )
Temporal Coverage:
1900 - 1902
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Indonesia -- West Kalimantan
Asia -- Malaysia -- Sarawak
سراوق -- مليسيا -- اسيا
كليمنتان بارت -- إندونيسيا -- اسيا
2.8 x 113.883333
0 x 110.5


General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Howell, William, 1856-1938 : URI
General Note:
This title is in the public domain. Under UK copyright at time of publication, duration of copyright was 50 years.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
560391097 ( OCLC )
336212 ( ALEPH )


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Full Text
Sea Dyak Dictionary,
IN ALPHA B E 11C A L P A It Ltd,
D. J. S. BAILEY, B. A.,
C A M B R I D G E .
(All rights reserved.)
Printed at the American Mission Press.

||is tlye ^ajay of ^arafoal:
G. C. M. G., K. I.; Etc; Etc;

The language of the so-called Sea Dyaks of Sarawak is a dia-
lect of the wide spreading Malay language intermixed with words
borrowed from Kayan and, it is surmised, other primitive Bornean
races with whom the Dyaks have come in contact.
It cannot yet be said that the language is that of a Nation.
It is the language of a number of tribes who may be conveniently
grouped as follows : —
i (Balau. o (Saribas. ^BatangAi.
^Undup. ~ j Skarang. (Lemanak.
(Sabuyau. (UluAi.
4 (Bugau. ^Engkal^i [ see Daya ].
These different tribes are, with the exception of the Saribas and
Bugau, inhabitants of the Batang Lupar River and its tributaries,
and from these tributaries they mostly derive their tribal names
such as Sabuyau, Lemanak, Skarang, Undup. It is however ne-
cessary to state that in recent years some of these tribes have so
increased and spread beyond their ancient limits that there are
now said to be as many, if not more, Dyaks living in the Rejang
river than in the whole Second Division (a tract of land which with
the Batang Lupar includes the Saribas and Kalaka rivers and the
area drained by these three rivers).
Each of these tribes has some peculiarities of dialect, and some
make use of words quite unknown to other tribes, but we doubt
if these peculiarities are as striking as the difference between the
speech of a man from Yorkshire and one from Sussex.
The Balau Dyaks, who derive their tribal name from a ridge
of low hills about twenty-five miles up the Batang Lupar river,
have adopted many words in common use by the Malays and this
is not to be wondered at when we call to mind that about half a
century ago large numbers of this tribe were gathered together and
lived with many Malays upon Banting Hill for the sake of mutual
protection against a common foe (Saribas and Skarang Dyaks),
and that they have always lived in close proximity to Malays, and
further that a large portion of the regular force (the Sarawak
Rangers) has been and is still recruited from them. This fact has
also no doubt, in some measure, given an additional impulse to
their “knowledge” of Malay. The Undup Dyaks, who have always
been allied with the Balau tribe in their tribal wars, and who have
frequently intermarried with them, certainly possess less knowledge

of Malay and use fewer Malay words, but there is an increasing
tendency with them to pick up any Malay words they happen
to hear used, when in the Rangers or in the courts, and adopt
The Saribas and Skarang Dyaks, the keenest hunters after jun-
gle produce (gutta, rotan, etc.) are better off than any other Dyaks
and travel long distances, even to the Celebes, in quest of old jars,
yet, in spite of their strong trading instinctsand their smartness they
do not make use of Malay words, when speaking their own tongue,
to so great an extent as the two previously mentioned tribes, the
reason being perchance, that they, or at all events the Saribas, have
always been the dominant race in their river and as such have learnt
to look down somewhat upon the Malays.
The Sabuyau and Bugau Dyaks can mostly speak Malay; the
latter who inhabit the country beyond the Kalingkang range in
Netherlands India territory are said to speak it fluentlv, the reason
probably being that they are frequently visited by Kapuas Malay
peddlers. The Sabuyau are a dwindling race. Scarcely a dozen
families remain in their old home in the Sabuyau river, at the mouth
of the Batang Lupar, but the majority live at Lundu where doubt-
less the purity of their language lias suffered much through their
close intimacy with their Malay neighbours.
The Ulu Batang Ai or Ulu Ai Dyaks, who live further up the
Batang Lupar river than any other people, probably speak the purest
dialect of the Sea Dyak language, but their accent is harsh and their
speech rough sounding and unpleasant compared with that of those
who live nearer the sea. From their position they have naturally
had little intercourse with Malays until more recent years, and their
knowledge of Malay is practically nil.
The importance of the Sea Dyak language in Sarawak cannot
be over-estimated.
It is the language of one of the most numerous races in the
country—a race which is increasing and spreading further and
further year by year. It is the language of the most energetic and
go-ahead of all the native races in the Island of Borneo, and it is a
living and growing language.
Throughout the Batang Lupar, Saribas, Kalaka, and Rejang
rivers and their tributaries it is par excellence the trade language.
Nearly all Chinese living in these rivers speak or understand it 7
indeed if they understand a little Malay, they usually prefer to talk
Dyak, for it comes easier and more natural to them to do so, as
many are married to Dyak women. The language is familiar to all
Malays who live in or near Dyak countries or who go inland
(inudik ka Daya}, and even if they are strangers they find they
can rapidly acquire a knowledge of this language which is in so many
respects similar to their own. Wherever there is a government
station of any importance it is garrisoned usually by Rangers and
this language there is in daily use.

Further, we should not omit to notice the growing importance
of the language in the country further north, beyond H H. The
Rajah’s territory.
The British North Borneo Company employs a number of
Sea Dyaks as armed police. There are many engaged in seeking
jungle produce, in petty trading, or in cooley work, and, year
by year, there would appear to be a steady increase in the number
of Sea Dyaks who seek their fortunes in the Company’s territory.
The Sea Dyaks possess no knowledge of writing, so their
language bias necessarily existed as an oral language.
When we reflect that Europeans have been in the country for
upwards of fifty years, we may well feel surprised that so little
has been done to familiarise both the natives and ourselves with
this language by means of writing and printed books.
Previous to this Dictionary there has been produced only one
work of the sort, entitled “A Brief Dictionary of the Sea Dyalc
Language.” The other printed works can be counted almost
upon the fingers of one hand, and their value is, in our opinion,
much discounted by the fact that they clothe foreign ideas, thoughts,
customs, and speech with .mere Dyak words (of course used
grammatically), which renders them useful only to Dyaks who
have first of all been educated up to them, and of little use to
those Europeans employed in this country who desire to con-
struct genuine Dyak sentences understood by the common people.
In this work it will be noticed that we have very generally
erred upon the other side, and, at the expense of the English
language, have tried to express in our examples native ideas,
thoughts, customs and speech.
For their valuable assistance so kindly given us in preparing
this work for publication, we have to thank Jantong of Temelan
(who probably possesses a greater knowledge of the peculiarities
of the language than any other Dyak living), Mt. A. F. Cheyne
of Kalaka, the Rev’d E. H. Gomes, B. A., of Banting (whose
criticisms and suggestions proved to be of the greatest possible use)
and the Right Reverend G. F. Hose, D. D., Bishop ot Singapore
and Sarawak.
D. J. S. Bailey,
W. Howell.
Simanggang, 1900.

In English each of the vowels is pronounced in more ways than
one; e.g., A is pronounced differently in fate, far, and fat.
In the following pages the vowels, with the exception of E,
have only one pronunciation.
A is pronounced as in far.
E ,, ,, let, (example /r E ,, short (examples enda, pengidup\
I „ as ee in feet.
O ,, as in told.
U ,, as oo in boot.
I As regards the consonants, G is always pronounced hard as in
I go. The soft sound of G as in the word gentle is expressed by j
I (example jimat}. Ng is pronounced like ng in hang and when it
[ occurs in the middle of a word it is always pronounced with the
I vowel that precedes it (example bang-at}, and when there is another
g following the ng it is pronounced with the following vowel (exam-
pies, tang-gong, ting-gi}.
I' Ch is pronounced as ch in church.
Whenever a word ends in h that word should be pronounced
with an abrupt ending. There should be a distinct difference be-
tween the pronunciation of words tama, to enter ; padah, send for.
i The majority of Dyak words are of two syllables and the ac-
cented syllable is generally the first.
The plural, if not sufficiently made clear by the context, is indi-
cated by the use of such words as maioh, many, samoa, all.
Inflection is not known in Dyak. Most nouns which signify
animate things are of both genders and the sexes are distinguished
by the addition of the words laki, male, indu, female. Thus : babi
laki, a boar; babi indu, a sow.

An adjective must follow its substantive, as orang brani, a brave
man ; orang badas, a good man.
Degrees of comparison are expressed by the addition of adverbs
as agi, lebih, bendar, pemadu, korang, nadai. Thus: brani, brave;
brani agi (or lebih brani), braver ; brani bendar for pemadu brani)r
bravest ; korang brani, less brave ; nadai brani, least brave.
A dverbs.
Adverbs are placed either before or after their verbs, as, iya
bejalai dras, or iya dras bejalai, he walks fast; iya landik bejako, or
iya bejako landik, he talks fluently.
A rticles.
There are no articles in Dyak which correspond with our defi-
nite article the and indefinite articles a, an. Ukui, dog, manok, fowl,
signify equally the dog and the fowl.
Personal Pronouns.
f Aku, I.
Singular. { Nuan, or Di, you.
Iya, he, she, it.
f Kami, we (excluding the person addressed.}
T). . I Kitai, we.
Plural. <
j Kit a, ye.
P Sida, they.
Possessive Pronouns.
The possessive pronouns are expressed by the words empu and
enggi. Thus a ku empu, or enggi aku, mine. Nuan empu, or enggi
nuan, yours. Iya empu, or enggi iya, his, or hers. Similarly also
with the plural.
Relative Pronouns.
There is only one relative pronoun ti (the other forms are ki and
kai), who, which, that. Burong ti siga. A bird that is wild. Raja
ti lurus. A king who is just. Utaiti iya empu. The things which
belong to him.
Demonstr a tive Pronouns.
The demonstrative pronouns are tu, this, and nya, that. Tu
anak aku. This is m\ child. Nya anak iya. That is her child.
In giving examples of the use and meaning of the Dyak words
we have drawn upon the undermentioned sources: (i) published
Dyak works, (11) well-known sayings or proverbs (ensumbar jako),
(ill) incantations, or, as in the majority of the examples given, have
(iv) composed sentences in which we have endeavoured to shew how
a word is commonly used or its meaning by the context.

I. In arranging words in this Dictionary we have thought best to
give first, the root form, which may be substantive, adjective,
adverb, etc., etc., or the imperative mood of a verb, and after it,
in a bracket, the verb form (v.f.), showing the change a verb
undergoes when it assumes the mutilated prefix (of which the
Malay forms would be me—, men—, meng—). The only other
forms a verb possesses are (l) the passive, and sometimes, (ll)
the intransitive. Both of these would be formed from the root.
In the former case (I) by prefixing di, in the later (fl) by pre-
fixing b, be—(bet—J; examples of the latter are occasionally
included in the v. f. bracket, thus: ban(\\ f. man; beban), and
gawai ( beg awai).
II. The following table shews the usual changes that occur to the
root forms of verbs when they assume a prefix (v. f.).
[Note.—There are certain few exceptions].
Verbs whose root forms commence with—
A prefix ng, as adar, ngadar. ,
B change b into m, as bangkit, j
Ch change ch into ny, as chenaga,
D change d into n, as diang, |
E prefix ng, as empong, ngem-
C • prefix n, as gali, ngali.
I prefix ng, as insur, nginsur.
J change j into ny, as jeluta, '
K change k into age, as krat,
L prefix age, as lain, ngelalu.
M prefix me, as mut, memut.
N undergo no change.
P change p into m, as pangkong,
R prefix nge, as ruboh, ngeru-
S change into ny, as sagi, nyagi.
T change t into n, as turun,
U prefix ng, as unsut, ngunsut.
III. Tense is expressed by the addition of the following auxiliary
verbs : ndah, nyan, deka or ka, and bisi. The present tense,
Aka makai, I eat. The past tense, Aka udah mikai, I have
eaten. The future tense, Aka deka (or ka) makai, I shall eat.
Bisi A the past emphatic : Aka bisi makai, I did cat.
[Note.-—This however is only the case when bisi precedes a verb ; when it precedes
a substantive it signifies to have. Thus, aku bisipemakai, 1 have food].
IV. There are some nouns formed from verbs by prefixing the
syllables fe, pen or pong to the root form of the verb, as pemakai
from makai to eat; pendiaa, an abode, from diau to stay, etc.,
etc., but the student should be cautious about forming such
nouns zvithout authority.

V. It will be useful to commit to memory the following adverbs:
Adverbs of Place.
Ditu, here. Din, there.
Dini, where ? Kini ? whither ?
Semak, damping, or dampi, near.
Di tanah, or, di tengah laman,
outside. Dalam, inside.
Sebrai, across, across river.
Jauh, far.
Atas, above. Baroh, below.
Berimbai, beside, alongside.
Blakang, behind.
Adverbs of Time.
Kamaiatn, dia-iya, dia-tii, now.
Tadi, just now.
Dnln, kalia, menya or agi kalia,
before, formerly.
Lagi, ila, presently.
Empai, bedau, apin, not yet.
Tumu, early.
Pagila, ila, to-morrow.
Kamari, yesterday.
Ensanus, ensana, the day before
Lusa, the day after to-morrow.
Tulat, the third day from this.
Lnpit, the fourth day from this.
Lanit, the fifth day from this.
Leboh, maia, when.
Udah nya, afterwards.
Kala, ever.
Enda kala, never.
Sekumbang, leboh, whilst.
Ama, sometimes.
Kamaia ? maia ni ? when ?
Adaip&n, indeed, because.
Engka, perhaps.
Baka nya, like that. Baka tn,
like this.
Baka ni ? kati ko ? how ?
An, yes. Ukai, no, not. Enda, no.
Mina, saja, only. Lebih agi, so
much the more.
Amat, amai, bendar, certainly.
Au me, indeed (assent).
Salahi, semampai, seruran, al-
A nd the following CONJUNCTION S—
Enti, if. Jangka (nyangka), per-
haps. Agi, again.
Awak ka, ngambi ka, in order
Sa bengka agi, agi mega, tambah
mega, furthermore.
Sebab, laban, kra, olih, because.
Skalika, or. Utang (or tang),
amai, but.
Mega, also. Sabaka, pia mega,
as, like. Agi pen, besides,
also. Saja, although.
Empai pia, notwithstanding.
VI. The numerals are the same as the Malay.

adj. Adjective.
adv. Adverb.
cf. Compare.
conj. Conjunction,
e. g. Exempli gratia.
Eng. English.
Etc. Et ccetera.
N. T New Testament.
Part. Participle.
Prep. Preposition.
Pro. Pronoun.
Prov. Proverb.
s. Substantive.
V. Verb.
V. f. Verbal Form.

Aba (v. f. ngaba}, s. A pleasant or un-
pleasant smell, v. to smell pleasantly or the
reverse. Nyampau aba indu nya mansa.
What a perfume that woman who passed uses.
Ngaba amai ban bungai nya. That flower
gives forth an overpowering perfume.
Abab (beabab or babab}, sireh. Aku minta
abab. I want some sireh.
Abah (v. f. n gabah}, s. A gap cut in the
stem of a tree when felling it, v. to cut such a
gap. ngabah ka dulu lagi aku nimbal.
He first of all cuts a gap on one side, present-
ly I cut one on the other.
Abang {Bugan}, a. Term of endearment
used to a boy ; a proper name, m.
Abar, or Abar-abar To check with the
paddle a boat whilst under way.
Abar-abar dulu. I Hold her up! (A com-
mon expression from a steersman when unable
to see a clear passage for his boat).
Abas (v. f. ngabas; beabas or babas}, s.
Examination, judgment, v. to judge, examine,
reconnoitre. Abas iya agi mekang. His
examination is not thorough. Akn ka ngabas
munsoh enti nyau angkat. I will reconnoitre
the enemy (and see) if they have moved.
Abau (v. f. ngabau; beabau or babau}, s. A
fish trap with the entrance set up stream, v. to
make a fish trap. Penoh abau olih ikan. The
trap is full of fish. Si da nyau ngabau pagi
tadi. They have gone to make the fish trap
this morning.
Abi (v. f. ngabi; beabi or babi), s. A wound,
mark, spot, flaw, space, v. to wound, mark.
Abi ukir iya nyamai ditunda. His carving
marks are pleasant (or easy) to follow. Abi
pangka nitar. The mark made by a flash of
lightning. Ka abi rumah anang meda enggai-
ka ngumbai ngiga serenti jani. To the space
under the house do not look lest they should
think you seek a pig’s tusk. Aku tingabi jani
nya. It was I who wounded that pig.
Abis, or ambis (v. f. ngains, ngambis; beabis
or babis, beambis or bambis}, adj. Everyone,
the whole, v. to finish. Abis tindok sida. All
of them are asleep. Uji ngabis ka asi nya.
Try and finish up that cooked rice. Ambiska
jako nuan. Finish your speech.
Abit (v. f. ngabit; beabit or babit}, s. The
sweet juice obtained from the blossom of the
nipa palm, toddy, v. to procure this. Ai abit
in masam bendar. This toddy is very sour.
Dini nuan ngabit ai abit tn bangat manis '!â– 
Where did you procure this very sweet toddy ?
Abok {beabok or babok}, Usually buah abok,
the sweet potato. {Convolvulus Batatas.
Malay kribang}. Perga abok sa sen sa kati.
The price of sweet potatoes is a cent a katty.
Abok (v. f. ngabok; beabok or babok}, s.
The remainder of any plant or shrub that can
be used or worked again, v. to work again the
remainder of a plant, etc. Sida nyau ngabok
kubal sida kamari. They went yesterday
to work again the remainder of the rubber
Abol (v. f. ngabol; beabol or babul}, s. A
float, buoy, raft, v. to float. Abol tras tn
enggau kayu nyelutong nya. Float this bilian
with that nyelutong tree. tn tan enggau
ngabol ka ma kitai. This plai wood will be
able to float our baggage.
Abu blap, Conjuring, tricks with cards.
Abur, A state of panic, desolation or con-
fusion resulting from war. (The Undup Dy-
aks use rebur}. Menoa nyau abur. The
country is desolate.
Abus {beabui or babus}, Ashes. Anubis
terbai abus laban ribut. All the ashes are
flying because of the wind.
Achak, Deaf. Achak pending nuan. You
are deaf. Achak bendar iya nya. He is very
Achang {beachang or bachang), The domes-
tic pigeon ; a proper name, m,
Achap (v. f. ngachap}, To flood.
Achar (v. f. ngachar}, s. Spoon bait, v. to
use the same. Uji achar ikan nya. Try and
catch that fish with artificial bait.
Ach.ii' (v. f. ngachir}, To walk or speak
hastily and carelessly, scatter. Kerja achir.
Careless work.
Achok (v. f. ngachok; beachok or bachok},
To thrust, pierce, incite. Achok iya enggau
sangko. Pierce him with a spear. Achok iya
enda ngena. His attempt to pierce it failed.
Zp-z ngachok aku. belaya. He incited me to
Achu (v. f. ngachu; beachu or bachu}, s.
Provocation, v. to incite, provoke, set on,
interfere with in order to commence a quarrel.
Achu iya bangat merausang ati aku. His provo-
cation incited me very much, Iya ngachu all
aku. He provoked me.
Ada (v. f. ngada; berada}, Born, to be
born, give birth, supply. Iya ngada ka anak
tengah malam. She gave birth at midnight.
Iya ngada ka pemakai aku. He supplies my

â– 2
Adai (v. f. n gadai; beradat}, Born, to be
born, give birth, supply, have, possess ; a
proper name, m. /r« ngadai ka anak dua
besapit. She gave birth to twins lya nga-
dai ka bekal. He supplies provisions.
Adaipen, conj. Indeed, because, now.
Adang (v. f. ngadang; beadang or ba-
dan g}, to guard, defend, get ready, take care,
watch, look out for, expect. N gadang kadiri.
To guard oneself. Sigi ngadang ka nemnai.
Only getting ready to go on a visit. Sida
ngadang bala munsoh. They are on the look
out for the force of the enemy. Aku ngadang
nuan datai. I expect you to come.
Adap (v. f. ngadap; beadap or badap}, s.
Manner, way, v. to interview, adv. from or
on the side of, towards. Adap olih nuan Raja.
Interview the Rajah. Maioh orang ka nga-
dap iya. Many people wish to interview him.
Akn ngambu pun rian tu ngadap ka ari indai
akn. I claim this durian tree from my
mother’s side. Adap ka kanan. On the
Adar (v. f. ngadar; beadar or badar}, to
arrange, set in order. lya ngadar kapejalai
akn. He arranges my movements. Iya nga-
dar ka penudok pengabang. He sets in order
the seats of the guests.
Adat (beadat or badat}, custom, law, be-
haviour. Nunda ka adat aki ini. To follow
the Customs of forefathers. Adat ti ngasoli
nnan kena nkum. The law which condemns
you to be fined. Adat iya kasar. His be-
haviour is rude.
Adau (beadau or badan}, A species of mon-
key (Macacus nemestrinus} also called nyum-
Adi (v. f. ngadi; beadim badi), s. A young-
er brother or sister, or, younger brother-
(or sister-) in-law, v. to call a person a bro-
ther, etc. lya ngadi ka akn. He calls me
Ading (v. f. ngading; beading or hading},
to array, make ready. Bala ngading kadiri.
The army is getting ready. Ading kadiri
nuan bejalai. Make yourself ready for the
Adong {beadong or badong), A species of
fresh water fish ; a proper name, f. Apai
bulih adong siko. Father caught an adong.
Adu (v. f. ngadu; beradu}, s. A complaint,
v. to put by, appeal to, arrange, adjust, place
in order. Adu iya enda didinga orang. His
complaint is not listened to. Manah agi enti
nuan ngadu ka Prentah lay a nuan. It will be
better to appeal to the Government about
your quarrel. Adu laya aku. Settle my
quarrel. Adu tengkira. Place goods in order.
Adu tikai. Straighten the mat.
Adup (beadup or badup}, the breast of a
Agak (beagak or bagak}, a kind of rotan
Aga ng (beagang or bagang), dried branch-
es of trees. Kayu nya udah lama ditebang
agi meruan aying. That tree has been a
long time felled but still its dried branches
Agar-agar, proud, boastful. Iya nya
agar-agar madah kadiri brani iya takut amai.
He is boastful of his bravery but he is a great
Ageh, (v. f. ngageh; beageh or bageh), s. A
division, lot, v. to allot a portion, share.
Nuan ngageh ka sa gantang bran kamari,
dini iya diau ? You allotted me a gantang of
rice yesterday, where is it ?
Agi, More, still, again. Briakuagi. Give
me more. Iya agi makai. He is still eating.
Uji agi. Try again.
Agong jbeagong or bagong}, the back just
below the waist, the first formation of a bee-
comb, a spear, the hornbill.
Agu (beagu or bagti}, a privy, a bridge or
path of batang. Iya nyau ngagai agu. He
is gone to the privy.
Agu (v. f. ngagu; beagu or bagu}, adj.
stupid, idiotic, dumb, v. to make oneself
stupid. Sayau anak iya agu. It is a pity his
child is dumb. Iya ngagu kadiri bejako. He
made himself appear stupid in conversation.
Agu (v. f. ngagu}, to tremble, shiver from
cold. Aku chelap beridar udah ngelaban ujan
lain ngagu. I was very cold after being
exposed to the rain, and shivered.
Ai (beat or bclai}, water, juice. Ai bah.
A flood, a fresh. Ai kembai. The river is
swollen. Ai menoh. High water. Ai lang-
kang. The water is low (owing to drought).
Ai idup. Water. Ai mati. Boiled water.
Ai' arak. Rice spirit, (arak}. Aituak. The
native spirit (tuak). Ai minyak. Oil. Ai
manyi. Honey. Ai kemih. Urine.
Aieng, about to, the preliminary of any-
thing. Aiengjako ka bejalai. The prelimi-
nary announcement of going upon a journey.
Ait (v. f. 11 gait; beait or bait}, to desire,
long for, covet, have confidence in a person.
Aku ait ka ajar nuan. I have confidence in
your advice.
Aiyu (v. f. ngaiyu; beaiyu or baiyu}, s.
destiny, fate, prognostication, v. to foretell,
prognosticate. Aiyu iya. jai. His destiny is
an ill one. Mimpi aku manah ngaiyu ka bulih
padi. My dream is good, it prognosticates a
good paddy crop.
Aja. oniy, simply. Iya makai asi aja. He
eats cooked rice only.
Ajal, fate, destiny. Ajal iya ka mati, kali
ko enggan iya ? It is his fate to die, what can
be done ?
Ajar (v. f. ngajar; beajar or ba jar), s.
advice, warning, v. to advise, teach, warn.
Indai ngajar iya betenun. Mother taught her
weaving. Sakali tu Prentah agi ngajar nuan
udah nya enti nuan agi salah iya ka nunggu
nuan. This time the Government warns you,
after this if you are again found doing wrong
it will fine you.
Ajat (v. f. ngajat; beajat or bajat}, s. a
war dance, a plaited bag, v. to dance. Ajat
iya badas, His dancing is beautiful. Ajat
aku penoh laban pinang. My bag is full of
Ajeh (v. f. ngijeh ; beajeh or bajeh), s. a
wonder, miracle, v. to perform wonders.

Kling tau ajeh. Kling can do wonders. Ajeh
iya datai. Perform a miracle and cause him to
come. Aku ajeh iya mati. I wish him to die.
Aji {beaji or baji}, the Moon rat (Malay
tikus bulan, Gymnura Raffles!}, a title of the
Dyak fairy god Kling. Kling Aji brani.
The god Kling Aji who is brave. Kling Aji
ti brani tau srang. The god Kling Aji who
is brave and can lead an army.
Ajok (v. f. ngajok; beajok or bajok}, to
pierce, thrust, dip (i. e. to pierce the water J.
Iya ngajok ka tunjok di tekarig asi. With his
finger he pierced a lump of cooked rice.
Ajop (beajop or bajop}, tweezers, pincers.
Ajum (v. f. ngajnm ; beajum or bajum),
to pierce, poke, encourage, incite. Ajum iya
enggau jako aivak ka iya nyadi belay a. Say
something to incite him to quarrel.
Aka (beaka or baka}, a bosom friend, a
form of address to an elderly brother or sister,
or, to an elder not related.
Akai I Alas ! Oh ! Eh ! An exclamation
of wonder or pain. Akai indai ! Oh dear !
Akai (v. f. ngakal; beakal or bakal}, s.
cunning, craft, wiliness (not necessarily in a
bad sense), v. to delude, deceive. Suah kami
ngakal nuan. We have often deceived you.
Akai pengaiwa tu. Use stratagem in doing
this work. Jai akal iya enggau aku. Evil
was his cunning toward me.
Akan. (beakan or bakari), a polite' form of
address to young nephews or nieces, also used
by old men to young persons.
Akap (v. f. ngakap; beakap or bakaff), s.
thought, reasoning, v. to think (a short form
of chakap}. Aku ngakap ka dulu. I think
over it first,
Akap, usually ban akap, the mouldy smell
which rice has when kept too long.
Akar (beakar or bakar}, a creeper, any-
thing that can be used for binding purposes.
Kami ka ngambi akar entuyut enggau beru-
mah. We are going to take the monkey-cup
creeper binders for house building. Akar bar.
A flexible coral (Gorgonid) of -which bracelets
are sometimes made.
Akas (beakas or bakas}, the screw pine
(pandanus) the leaves of which are used for
making mats. Aku ka ngiga tikai akas dua
lambar. I am going to look for two akas
Akeh {beakeh. or bakeh}, a companion,
friend. Dudok akeh. Sit down friend.
Aki (beaki or baki}, grandfather. Aki pu-
yong. Great-grandfather Aki umboh. Great-
great-grandfather. datu. Great-great-
great-grandfather. Aki ini. Ancestors.
Akit ( beakit or bakit), for rakit, a raft.
Aku, I, me. Aku- ka nemuai. I am going
on a journey. Bri ka aku. Give me.
Aku (v. f. ngaku; beaku or baku}, to con-
fess, acknowledge, own, claim. Aku penyalah
nuan. Confess your crime. Sida enggai nga-
ku menyadi sida They will not acknowledge
their brother. Aku benda iya. Claim his jar.
Ala, or ala-ala, uncooked (of rice, vege-
tables, etc.) Engkayu tu agi ala. This
vegetable is still uncooked.
Alah (v. f. ngalah; bealah or balah}, beaten,
to subdue, vanquish, be able, can, could. Sida
ngalah ka bala China. They vanquished the
Chinese army. Nya alah kerja aku. I can
do that work (i. e. can get the better of that
work). Ni alah kitai ngada ka iya pinang
salalul How can we always supply him with
pinang ? Alah ma nuan utai tu ! Can you
carry this ?
Alai (bealai or balai}, place, room, reason,
cause. Nadai alai agi di bangkong iya.
There is no more room in his boat. Alai
nuan bejalai. The place you walk in. Bri
alai! Give room ! Nya alai nadai. For
that reason there is none.
Alai, adv. therefore, as a term denoting
command or entreaty. Iya enda ninga ka ajar
nya alai iya sakit- He listens to no advice
therefore he is ill. Bejalai alai! Go ! Walk
on ! Be off! Alai bejalai nuan. Please go.
Alam (short form of dalam,} inside.
Alan (bealan or balan}, a resting or start-
ing place. (This word is a short form of
pal an}.
Alang, a beam
Alang, or alang-alang, adj. insufficient, v.
to do things by halves or in a half-hearted way ;
a proper name, m. Alang pemakai. Insuffi-
cient food. Alang jako iya leboh bechara.
When his case was heard he said little. Alang-
alang aku bekerja. I do my work in a half-
hearted manner.
Alap, condition, state, fate. Alap utai
nya udah badas digaga orang dibali nuan baru
nyau jai. That thing which was made by
others was in good condition, but you altered
it and it has become worthless.
Alap, the name of a spirit. Antu Alap
indai Anggat. The spirit Alap the mother of
Anggat. '
Alar {bealar or balar}, sickness resulting
from blood poisoning. (The pain commences
with fever and only lasts a few days ; persons
with elephantiasis are subject to alar}.
Alas (bealas or balas}, foundation (Malay,
introduced’in the translation of the New Test.)
a species of jar value from ^io to nominal
Dyak value two panding. [See Appendix,
Dyak Fines.]
Alau {bealau or balau}—usually buntak alau,
a locust. Untai kami rusak laban buntakalau.
Our paddy farms are destroyed by the locusts.
Alau, an exclamation of assent, surprise,
or to draw another’s attention. Alau me! I
will. Alau! Look here ! or I say, come
on ! Alau uji ! Come and try ! Alau bejako!
Come and talk it over.
Alau-alau (bealau-alau or balau-alau}, a
railing or support. Tanju iya digaga ka alau-
alau. He made a railing to his verandah.
Iya nyau ka alau-alau aku bejalai. He be-
came my support when I walked.
Alir (v. f. ngalir; bealir or balir}, s. A
species of hook for crocodiles, v. to catch cro-
codiles with the hook and line. Suah iya
ngalir jagu ti makai anak mensia. He often
catches crocodiles that eat men. Alir iya
enda kala enda bulih. His hook never misses.

Alit (v. f. ngalit; bealit or b alit}, s. the
name of a stream, v. to stop up, puzzle, inter-
dict. Kami bumai Alit. We farm the Alit.
Alit lubang nya. Stop up that hole. Alit
aka ngereja nya. I am puzzled to do that.
Prentah ngalit ka jalai. The Government
interdicts the road.
Allah., the Deity (this is borrowed from
the Malay. The old Dyak word is Petara,
of which the Latin numen is the exact equiva-
lent. )
Almesih, Christ (a word borrowed from
the Malay). ,
Alok, see
Alu. (v.f. ngalu; bealum balu}, s. a wood-
en pestle used to husk paddy, etc., v. to wel-
come, welcome guests with an offering, go to
meet, go to barter. Ain iya panjai bendar.
Her pestle is very long. Iya ngalu pengabang
enggau tuak. He welcomes his guests with
toddy. Alu apai nuan pnlai nemuai. Go and
meet your father returning from a visit.
Iya nyau ngalu garam. He is gone to barter
salt. Aku ngalu ka pasar. I go to the bazaar
to make purchases.
[Note.—Belaboh alu. The pestles fall,
hence alternately, in turn. Sida munsoh nikam
sangko belaboh alu. The enemy threw spears
in turn.]
Alun. (v. f. ngalun; bealun or balun}, v. to
overwhelm, roll over. (Used with jalai it
signifies a high road, such as is made in this
country by the Government, or, a sort of
raised.road round a paddy farm. Alun-alun,
or alun glombang, waves or the swell of the
sea.) Sertaglombang ngalun bangkong iya lain
karam. Immediately a wave overwhelmed
the boat and sank it.
Alus (v. f. ngalus; bealus or balus}, adj.
smooth, fine in texture, calm, peaceful, v. to
smooth. Pengawa iya alus bendar. His work
is very fine. Benoa alus. A country at peace.
Wong Padong alus kamavi. The Padong
waterfall was smooth yesterday. Uji ngalus
ka laya sida nya. Try and smooth their quarrel.
Am! (an exhortative interjection) Come!
Am kitai bejalai ! Let us go ! (see Aram}.
Ama, sometimes. Ama nya ama tu.
Sometimes that and sometimes this. Iya ama
badas ama jai. He is sometimes good and
sometimes bad.
Ama {beam a. or bam a}, a louse. Ama ma-
nok. Lice on fowls.
Amai (v. f. ngamai ; beamai or bamai},
adj. true, adv. truly, indeed, conj. but, v. to
make good or true. Amai jako aku. Indeed
I said so. Iya buta amai iya nemu mantun.
He is blind but he can weed (the paddy, etc.)
Kamaia iya ngamai ka semai a iya I When will
he make good his promise ?
Amang (v. f. ngamang; beamang or ba-
mang}, to try, aim, support, threaten. Amang
dulu baru numbok. Try first before you pierce
it. Sida ngamang aja lain iya lari. They
only aim and it runs away. Amangme ngena.
It is about right.
Amat (v. f. ngamat; beamat or bamat},
see amai.
Arnau (v. f. ngamau; beamau or bamau},
s. dust, dirt, v. to drag a boat along the sea-
shore (on account of a heavy sea). Bri ka
aku amau semakau nya. Give me the dust of
that tobacco. Kaki iya mai amau ari tanah.
His feet brought dirt from the field. Sida
nya ngamau laban takut ka glombang. They
drag their boat along the shore for fear of the
Ambafv, f. ngamba; beamba or bamba},
s. a trap made of rotan with a loop, a snare,
v. to ensnare ; a proper name, f. Amba iya
enda nyintak. His trap didn’t catch (any-
thing). Sida suah ngamba rusa kami. They
are always catching our deer.
Ambai, [beambai or bambai}, a mistress,
sweetheart (m. or f.); a kind of hand net.
Ambang, shaky, tottering.
Ambat (v. f, ngambat; beambat or barn-
bat}, to intercept, go to meet. Ambat Tuan
Raja ka Lingga. Go to meet the Rajah at
Lingga. Sida bepekat ka ngambat bala ti man-
sang. Thej- took counsel to intercept the
advancing army.
Ambau, to rise up, to start. Iya ambau
bejalai. He rises up to walk.
Ambi (v. f. ngambi ; beambi or bambi), to
fetch, carry, take. Ambi ivang tu. Take
this money. Sida nurun ngambi indu siko
mai ka rumah sida. They went and took a
girl and brought her to their house.
Ambi, a shortened form of Sambi, friend.
Kind ka nuaw ambit Where going,
friend ?
Am bin. {beambin or bambin}, a large bas-
ket used chitfly for carrying or storing paddy.
Penoh ambin padi ulih iya. He got a basket
full of paddy.
Ambis, see Abis.
Amboh (v. f. ngamboh; beamboh or bam-
boh}, adj. muddy, so soft that one sinks in
when walking, v. to make muddy. Tebing
sungai nya ambuh bendar enda tau endor bejalai.
The banks of that stream are so soft that it
is impossible to walk along them. Ai amboh.
A down-river stream with muddy banks.
Ambol, adj. light, as cotton, feathers,
cork, etc. ; a proper name, m.
Ambong (v. f. ngambong; beamb'ong or
bambong}, adj. proud, haughty, s. a roughly
made basket of bamboo for temporary use
such as for packing fruit, etc.; v. to put fruit,
etc., into the ambong. Aku mli buah lensat sa
ambong besai. I bought one large basket of
lensat fruit.
Ambu (v. f. ngambu ; beambu or bambu},
s. a claim, food children take out of the re-
gular hours, a term of endearment, v. to
claim, adopt, acknowledge. Babas tu ambu
aku. This piece of land is my claim. Tu
ambu anak aku. This is the food my chil-
dren take out of the regular hours. Kitu nuan
ambu aku. Come hither my own (or my
darling). Ambu anak iya. Adopt his son.
Sida suah ngambu memudai orang. They
often lay claim to persons’ farming land.
Ambun {beambun or bambun}, mist, dew ;
a proper name, m. Iya datai tumu agi bisi


.ambun. He came very early when the dew
was on the ground.
Ambur (v. f. ngambur; beambur or bam-
Jntr}, to sprinkle. Ambur ka brau nya di
tikai. Sprinkle that rice on the mat. Iya
.ngambur ka uuang di jalai. He scattered
money on the road.
Ami (v. f. ngami ; beami or bami), adj. wet,
muddy, v. to make wet. Tengah laman iya
.ami. The ground in front of his house is
muddy. Iya ngunsai ai ngarni ka jalai. He
sprinkles water in order to wet the road.
Amok (v. f. ngamok; beamok or bamok),
s. an attack, the act of “ running-a-muck,” v.
to attack, “ run-a-muck,” do a great deal.
Aku meda orang ti ngamok di pasar. I saw
the man who “ran-a-muck” in the bazaar.
Iya ngamok bumai taun tu. He did a great
â– deal of farming this year.
Ampa (beampa or barnpa}, adj. worthless,
empty, s. rubbish, husk, chaff. Ampa ma-
gang padi nya. That paddy is all empty (all
husk). Jako ampa. Vain talk. Iya ampa
kami menyadi. He is the worst amongst us
brethren. Nganti ai ngampoh ka umai kitai
nganyut ka ampa. Wait until the water
floods the paddy field and we will send the
rubbish adrift.
Ampai (v. f. ngampai; beampai or bam-
pai}, s. any cloth that is put on the shoulder,
v. to put such on the shoulder.
Ampalebang {beampalebang or bampale-
bang}, the greatest liar.
Ampang (v. f. ngampang}, s. a bastard,
(usually anak ampang}, adj. the worst, value-
less, v. to be of no value, to cause to be
worthless, to be the cause of a bastard child.
anak ampang. He is an illegitimate son.
Iya nya ampang kami Undup. He is the
worst of us Undups. Iya udah ngampang ka
indti. He has caused a woman to have a
bastard child.
Ampat or empat, four.
Ampek (beampek or bampek}, dirt on the
body. Nuan tu bau ampek. You smell of mud.
Ampin (v. f. ngampin; beampin or barn-
pin}, s. a baby’s napkin, v. to put a napkin
under an infant.
Ampir (v. f. ngampir ; beampir or bampir},
to approach, go near. Ampir iya enggau
trabai. Approach him with a shield. Ampir
mati. At the point of death, /jzi mansang
ngampir ka munsoh. He goes to approach
the enemy.
Ampis, usually bau am pis, the smell of
the body.
Ampit (v. f. ngampit; beam pit or bam-
pit}, to have a share, get a division. Sida
ngampit ka. aku asi. They did not finish the
cooked rice but left a share of it for me.
Ampoh. (v. f. ngampoh; beampoh or bam-
poh}, to overflow, flood. Ai bah ngampoh ka
samoa empran. The fresh flooded the whole
Ampul, light, soft, as applied to wood.
Kayu ampul. A light wood.
Ampun (v. f. ngampun ; beampun or barn-
pun}, s. forgiveness, pardon, submission,
v. to forgive, submit. Iya udah ngampun
penyalah aku. He has forgiven my fault.
Amput (v. f. ngamput; beamput or barn-
put}, s. a sting, v. to copulate, have connec-
tion with, sting. Amput indu utai nya bisa
bendar. That insect’s sting is very poisonous.
Amu, greedy, covetous.
Amur-amur or amur, a mud stain, ob-
scured. Tuboh sida anembiak ambis amur udah
mandi ai kroh. The children’s bodies are mud-
stained from bathing in dirty water. Hari
nyau amur. The sky is obscured.
Am us {beamus or bamus}, a small species of
’ lg forth.
Kami udah
We have caught a
Small fish. Anak
Anak be si anak ga-
A young
Anak (v. f. nganak or menganak; beranak},
s. child, young of animals and plants, adj.
small in quantity, a little, v. to brini
Anak aku sakit. My child is ill. II...
nangkap siko anak jugam.
young bear. Ikan anak.
mulong. Sago suckers.
ram. A little iron and a little salt.
ampang. A bastard. Anak biak. __ ~
child. Anak mensia. A man (as opposed to
anak jelu, an animal.) In New Test. Anak
Mensia is used for the Son of Man. Anak
raja. A rainbow. Anak tuai. The eldest
son, the heir. Tunjok anak. The little fin-
ger. Anak pengkuan, the youngest born.
Anak bunsu. The youngest child. Anak
tunggal. The only child.
Anam or nam, six.
Anang, the prohibitive, do not. Anang
sanang. Don’t by any means (emphatic).
Auchau (v. f. nganchau ; beanchau or ban-
chat t}, to spread. Iya agi nganchau tikai di
ruai. He is still spreading a mat on the ver-
Anchi-anchi, only used with the nega-
tives enda or ukai and it then implies excessive.
Pemrat mas ukai anchi-anchi. The weight of
the gold is excessive. Ukai anchi-anchi. Be-
yond measure.
[For a similar use of such a word see cubchamang.]
Anohin, quite rotten. Ikan nya nyau
anchin. That fish is quite rotten.
Anchit (v. f. nganchit; beanchit or banchit},
to send flying, shoot out like a shot, be hasty.
/;' the rice shoot out of its husk.
Anchur (v. f. nganchur; beanchur or ban-
char}, to melt, disperse. Anchur lilin nya,
Melt that wax. Bala iya undor lain anchur.
His army fell back and straightway dispersed,
Andaa, always lucky. Andaa bulih ikan.
Always getting fish. Andaa bulih padi. Al-
ways getting plenty of paddy.
Andai (v. f. ngandai; beandai or bandai},
to provide, work for. Andai apai nuan.
Provide for your father. Andai iya enda be-
tuku. He works for (his people) in an im-
proper manner.
Andal (v. f. ngandai; beandai or bandal},
adj. glad, happy, v. to trust, have confidence
in a person, rejoice. Aku andal. I am hap-
py. Samoa anembiak iya andal meda. All
his followers rejoiced to see it. Aku andal
meda nuan bulih padi. I am glad to see you

have got pacldy. Aku andal ka nuan bulih
padi. I trust in you as you have got a good
crop of paddy. (v.f. ngandau}, to rise late. Iya
ngandau tindok. He rises late.
Andau (v.f. ngandau; beandau or b andau},
s. a bridge, v. to bridge a stream. Andau
nya tinggi, that bridge is high. Tuan ngasoh
orang ngandau Samoa sungai ti mit-mit, The
Tuan ordered men to bridge all the small
Andi, rumour.
Andoh, to make a boat fast to a log and
drift down stream.
Andok (v. f. ngandok; beandok w bandok},
s. a debt upon which no interest is charged,
v. to borrow (usually paddy) without giving
interest. Andokpadi iya. Borrow his paddy.
Tu andok ukai utang. This is a debt upon
which no interest is paid, it is not a debt (with
Andu (beandu or bandu), a creeper with
edible fruit.
Anembiak, another form of andk-biak, a
follower (see anak}.
Anga, appetite, lust, /ya anga ka asi.
He has an appetite for cooked rice.
Angat (v. f. ngangat; beangatov ban gat},
v. to heat, adj. hot, excessive, feverish, out of
temper. Menoa angat. An infected country.
Asi agi angat. The cooked rice is still hot.
Angat sa angat. Hotter and hotter. Tung-
gu angat. An excessive fine. Anak aku angat
di malam. My child was feverish last night.
Jako iya ngasoh ati aku angat. His speech
put me out of temper.
Angau or rangau (v. f. ngangau ; beangau
or bangau}, adj. watery (in cooking), v. to
cook with an excessive amount of water.
Angau engkayu nya. The vegetable has too
much water with it. Anang ngangau ka tubu
nya. Don’t let there be too much water
with that bamboo shoot that is being cooked,
Angell (v. f. ngangeh), blown, out of
breath, to perspire.
Anggap (v. f. nganggap; beanggap or
banggap}, to reckon, calculate, think, consider.
Anggat, a term used in addressing a youth,
or a son-in-law.
Anggok (beanggok or banggok}, a proper
name, m., the lower part of the neck of a
deer, horse, cow, bird, etc.
Anggor (beanggor or banggor), the grape,
wine. Ai anggor. Wine.
Anggor (v. f. nganggor ; beanggor or bang-
gor}, s. signs before an event comes to pass,
the commencement of anything (e. g. a mat),
rumour, v. to reckon, count on beforehand.
Tu anggor tikai. This is the commencement
of a mat. Bisi anggor Pieng ka datai. There
is a rumour the Piengs are coming, /ya ngang-
gor ka dulu udah nya barn iya bendar. He
reckons the matter beforehand, afterwards he
will do it in earnest.
Anggu (v. f. nganggu; beanggu or bang-
gu), s. a support, sling, v. to hang. Anggu
tikai nya. Hang up that mat. /ya nganggu
ka tikai. He hangs up the mat.
Anggup (beanggup or banggup}, tweezers-
(used to pull out superflous hair.)
Anggut (v. f. ngang gut; beanggut or
banggut), to nod assent, /ya mina nganggut
kaaku. He merely nodded assent to me.
Angi, sweet smelling. Minyak angi. Scent.
Angin (beangin or bangin}, wind, a
breeze, hence a report, a lie. Angin betiup
kaya di malam. The wind blew hard last
night. Nadai bisi angin tengah hari tu.
There is no breeze this midday. Jako iya
maioh angin. His talk is full of lies.
Angis, see angeh.
Angit (v. f. ngangit; bean git or bangit},
s. a fresh or fragrant smell, v. to cause to
smell sweet. Ban angit. Sweet smelling.
/ya ngangit ka engkayu. She makes the
vegetables smell sweet.
Angka (see jangka), perhaps. Angka
iya enda datai. Perhaps he is not coming.
Angkai (v. f. ngangkai ; beangkai or bang-
kai}, to reveal, repeat, talk down, /ya ngan-
kai ka aku butang. He revealed that I had
committed adultery.
Angkat (v. f, ngangkat; bangkat or
berangkat'), v. to lift, arise, make a departure
from a place, inherit, conj. and, but. Aku
ka ngangkat ka tiang ka atas rumah. I want
to carry posts to the top of the house. Sida
berangkat tumu pagi. They depart early in
the morning, /ya ngangkat ka nama aki iya.
He inherits his grandfather’s name.
ngangkat ka mudal apai iya. He inherits his
father's property. Aku bejako angkat iya
datai malu aku. I was talking and he arose
and came and struck me. /ya nemu aku ti
empu manok angkat iya madah ka orang iya
enda nemu. He knew the fowl was mine but
he told people that he did not know.
Angkis (beangkis or bangkis}, a species of
Angkong (beangkong or bangkong}, a tree
bearing strong-scented diamond-shaped fruit
(the horse manggo). Endu aku bebalong ka
buah angkong. My daughter uses the angkong
fruit for scent. Buah angkong. A dried
Angkun (v. f. ngangkun; beangkun or
bangkun}, adj. greedy, v, to covet. Anang
angkun ka utai. Don’t be greedy to get pro-
Angkut (v. f. ngangkut; berangkut or
bangkut}. to carry, to carry day after day or
continuously, hence, to shift, remove, /ya
ngangkut padi sida Laut. He carries the
paddy of the Malays Sida berangkut ka Sut.
They remove to Sut, or, they carry for Sut.
Angu, disappointed. Anang angu. Don’t
be disappointed.
Angus (v. f. ngangus ; beangus or bangus),
to burn. /ya ngangus ka rumah aku. He
burned my house.
Aniet (v. f. nganiet; beaniet or baniet), to
bite, mangle, gnaw as a rat or squirrel.
Ani (v. f. ngani ; beani or bahi), s. a vigil,
v. to w'atch, look after, wait for. Aku nyati
sa hari hari tu ngani iya. I have been the.
whole day watching him.


Anit (v. f. nganit; beanit or banii}, to sip
or suck out the juice of fruit, etc. Pinang
dianit tupai. The squirrel sucks the juice of
the pinang nuts. Tupai ka nganit pinang.
The squirrel will suck out the juice of the
pinang nuts.
Anjir, adj. rancid, s. fate, destiny. Bai
anjir iya bulih padi. His destiny is to get
Anjong (v. f. nganjong; beanjong or ban-
jong'j, to convey, bring, send, take to a place,
escort. Anjong ma tn. Take this luggage
to...(i.e, take and deliver it). Sida nganjong
silrat ka kubau. They take letters to the fort.
Iya nganjong anak akupulai ka laki iya. He
escorts my daughter who is going home to
her husband.
Anjor (v. f. nganjor; beanjor or banjor},
to cheat, delude (literally to commence a thing
first and then be the first to give it up). Anjor
iya bejalai. Propose to set out with him on
a journey and then turn back. Iya nganjor
ka aku bejako. He commenced to speak for
me and then said nothing more. Iya ngan-
jor ka aku. makai gaji. He proposed we
should enlist and then did not join.
Anjur (v. f. nganjur; beanjur or banjur},
to go direct to a place, to jut, or extend out.
Iya nganjur ka pejalai iya ka Simanggang.
He goes right to Simanggang. Iya nyau
anjur. He is gone direct, or, he is dead.
Anjur, usually ai anjur, the flood tide
continuing beyond its usual time (cf. Malay
Ansa (beansa or bansa}, a goose.
Ansa (v. f. ngansa; beansa or bansa), to
grind, sharpen. Ansa duku tu. Sharpen this
chopper. Sida nadai bemunyi utang ngansa
pedang aja. They made no remarks but only
sharpened their swords. Aku ga mangah
diansa iya. I am (naturally) hot tempered
(but) he whetted my anger.
A curious idiom is:—Ansa ngeli nuan.
Cause yourself to laugh. salalu ngansa
ngeli diri. He is constantly laughing.
Ansak (v. f. ngansak ; beansak or bansak),
to urge, egg on. Zr« ngansak bekerja ngasoh
Ttuan bulih utai. He urged you to work in
order that you might acquire property.
Ansal, to be scarce, to be almost run out of
anything. Kami ansalpadi. We have very
little paddy.
Ansang (beansang or bansang), the gills
of a fish. Baka kli dalam ai besambi isi be-
sambi ansang. Like the kli fish in the water
their flesh and gills are the same.
Ansang (beansang or bansang'}, s. the voice,
v. to speak noisily. Anang kita nebah ansang
dia. Do not make so much noise there.
Ansar (v. f. ngansar; beansar or ban-
tar}, to shift the feet about, rub on. Anang
bangat ngansar ka kaki nuan enggai aku ninga
Do not shift your feet about so; I cannot bear
to hear it.
• Ansat (v. f. ngansat; beansat or bansaf},'
to shift, move. Iya ngansat ka antara timai
kami. He moved the boundary of our
Ansau (v.f. ngansau; beansait or bansau),
to look about in search of anything. Iya
ngansau pemakai. He looks about for
food. .;
Ansing (v. f. ngansing; bcansing or ban-
sing}, to set dogs to hunt.
Anta (v. f. nganta; beanta or banta), s.
a dandy, v. to be a dandy, gay, fond of fine
clothes and jewellery. Pungka laki nya ngan-
ta bendar. That man is very fond of dress-
ing himself up. Indu nya. salalu nganta.
That woman is always wearing fine clothes
and jewellery.
Antah (beantah or bantah'}, paddy that
still remains after being pounded, in the cook-;
ed, or raw, rice. Bras tu maioh antah. This
rice has a lot of paddy in it. Aku makai endct
masok laban maioh antah di asi. I could not
eat properly on account of the lot of paddy
there was in the cooked rice.
Antam (v. f. ngantam; beantam or ban-,
tarn}, v. to strike, go on with, adv. also,
because of (equivalent to laban). Prauh iya
diantam glombang. His boat was struck by
a wave. Antam me. Go on with it. Nadai
tau tindok antam batok. Could not sleep be-
cause of a cough.
Antap (v. f. ngantap, beantap or bantap},
s. a cover, patch, lining, v. to place above,
put in lining, patch. Kain tu enggau aku
ngantap kalambi. This cloth is for the lining,
of my jacket.
Antara (v. f. ngantara; beantara or ban-
tara), prep, between, s. a boundary, interval,
interim, v. to separate, make a division or.
boundary. Iya ngantara ka lava kami enggau
pinggai sa singkap. He ended (or put a boun-
dary to) our quarrel (by paying) a plate.'
Udah antara tiga hari baru iya kitu. After
an interval of three days he came here.
Anti (v. f. nganti; beanti or banti}, to wait,
lie in wait for. Ngadang kijang dalam babas,
nganti ai enda dras. To watch for a deer in
the undergrowth (is) to wait for the river’s
current to become slow.
Antin-antin, (beantin-antin or bantinr.
antin'), ear rings, pendants.
Anting (v. f. nganting; beanti ng or ban-
ting}, to cut off small branches from trees,
Iya agi nganting dan kayu. He is still cut-
ting off the small branches.
Antoh (v. f. ngantoh; beantoh er bantoh),
adj. kind, gentle, v. to be kind to, or gentle
with. Zya ngantoh kadiri kamaiatu. He has-
now become kind. ,
Antok (v. f. ngantok), to be sleepy, drowsy,;
Auang ngantok leboh nuan jaga.
sleepy when you are on guard.
Antu (beantu or bantu}, a ghost, demon,
spirit, familiar spirit, a dead body when car-
ried to the grave. Iya nya bisi .antu. He
has a familiar spirit.
, Antu, saturated. Kayu tu brat bendar.
antu olih ai. This wood is very heavy as
it is saturated with water.
,j Antu, a great multitude of people. Eng-
kah di patong engka tetigong ka antu bala.
pengabang. Put it. on your knees in case you

come in contact with the great multitude of
the guests.
Antubuni {beantubuni or bantubuni}, the
Antu. pala {beantu pala or bantupala), the
Smoke-dried head of an enemy taken in war.
Anu, adj. some (person, place, or time not
specified), undefined, uncertain. Orang anu
bisi kitu kamari. Some people came here
yesterday. Di menoa anti iya diait. He lives
in some country. Hari anu la aku kitu. Some
•day I shall come here. Orang anu (or sanu).
So-and-so. Rumah sanu panjai bendar. Such-
a-one’s house is very long. Menoa anu. Some
Anu, interjection, Oh! Here ! Well ! Anu\
Aku ka nanya nuan aku ka enggau nuan. Oh !
I want to ask you if I may go with you.
Anu (v. f. nganu; beanu or banu), s.
anger, v. to be angry, rebuke, bother, annoy,
tease. Anu iya balat bendar dalam iya nung-
gu kami. His anger was great when he fined
us. Anu iya. Rebuke him. Suah aku nganu
sida utang sida enda mina ka jako aku. Often
was I angry with them but they did not pay
attention to my talk.
Anyam (v. f. nganyam; beranyam), to
weave, knit (of baskets or mats). Indu nyau
beranyam. The women have commenced
weaving baskets (i. e. the feast for the dead
is near). Iya nganyam ka aku tikai sa lam-
bar. She is making a mat for me.
Anyut (v. f. nganyut; beranyut), adrift,
v. to drift. Prauh kami anyut. Our boat is
adrift. Iya nganyut ka prauh aku. He set
my boat adrift. [Note: a curious idiom.
Anyut tikai lahan darah. The mat was flood-
ed with blood].
Apa, what. Nadai apa apa. There is
nothing the matter with it.
Apai (beapai or bapai), a father. Apai
â– orang The father of a family. Apai indai.
Apai Andau, a star. The Balau and
Saribas use binlang, the Batang Ai and Un-
dup Dyaks apai andau, poetically translated
"the father of the day.” Empandau or
Pandau is used in the Rejang.
Apan (v. f. ngapan), s. an open space
frequented by deer and pigs, v. to frequent
such a place.
Apang (beapang or bapang), a Kayan
sword with a bent blade inlaid with brass.
Apas, or rapas, (v. f. ngapas), out of sight,
run short of, v. to be faintly heard as a dis-
tant sound. Apas mata meda. Out of sight.
Nyau apas padi kami tu. We have run short
•of paddy.
Api {beapi or bapi), fire.
Apin, not yet.
Aping {heaping or baping'), a species of
wild palm. Ukit and other tribes obtain a
sort of flour from the pith.
Apis, a bag for sireh, etc. made of plaited
Apit (v. f. ngapit; beapit or bapit), v. to
press, squeeze, adv. next to, nigh ; name of a
stream. Apit tebu nya. Squeeze the juice
from that sugar-cane. Aku tu anak apit iya.
I am the son next to the eldest. Aku ngapit
sanu. I was born next to so-and-so.
Apo I An ejaculation expressing surprise.
Apo ! Ambispadi aku diempa jani. Oh dear !
My paddy is eaten up by pigs.
Apoh (v. f. ngapoh; beapoh or bapoh), to
go for anything adrift, render assistance, re-
lieve. Iya ti ngapoh ka prauh kami ti anyut.
He it was that went for our boat that was
Apok or apuk, fog, mist.
Apong (v. i. ngapong; beapong or bapong),
s. the nipa palm {nipa fructicans) that grows
on river banks where the water is salt, v. to
go for anything adrift. Apong prauh nya.
Go for that boat that is adrift. Sida ngapong
tangga pengkalan. They went after the land-
ing-place ladder that was adrift.
Apu, see api.
Apu, plenty, much, many. Tekalalu apu
mauh sigi durong-durong. There are a great
many burning, one is roaring in flames.
Apus (v. f. ngapus; beapus or bapus), to
finish, end, extinguish. Apus ka jako nuan.
Finish your speech. Iya udah ngapus ka
nyawa. He has ended his life. Apus hari.
The whole day. Apus ai. The whole river.
Apus pikul. A full pikul.
Ara, or kara, (beara or bara), a soft wood
tree {Ficus Indic).
Ara (v. f. ngara; bear a or bara), to ar-
range different-coloured stripes, arrange a per-
son’s destiny. Tu kalambi ara. This is a
jacket with different-coloured stripes. Endu
ngara kalambi. My daughter is arranging
the different-coloured stripes of the jacket.
Petara tan ngara nyawa kitai. The Deity can
arrange our fate.
Ara (v. f. ngara), to spread out (of paddy,
coffee, etc.) to dry. Padi ti dijembui nuan
lagi aku ngara iya. The paddy that you dry
I will spread out by-and-by.
Arak {bearak or barak), an intoxicating
spirit made from rice.
Aram I Come! Come along ! (Used some-
times in the shortened form am).
Aran {bearan or baran), a rotan cable at-
tached to a crocodile hook.
Arang {bearang or barang), charcoal. Ba-
tu arang. Coal.
Arap, or pen garap, (v. f. ngarap), s. faith,
confidence, trust, v. to have confidence in a
person. Aku arap ka anak aku. I have con-
fidence in my son. Anang ngarap ka diri
kring. Do not have confidence in yourself be-
cause you are strong.
Arap {bearap or barap), a slight itching on
the skin.
Arau (v. f. ngarau; bearau or bar an), to
do anything quickly. Enti ngayau ngarau
kun di. If he makes a foray he quickly gets
Areh {beareh or to which the nooses for snaring deer are tied.
Areng, or ban areng, the smell of animals.
Bait ar eng amat utai tu. This thing has the
smell of an animal.

Ari, from, Iya bejalai sa-hari-hari ari
Lubok Antu lain ka Kumpang. He walked
the whole day from Lubok Antu to Kumpang.
Ari (v. f. ngari ; beari or bari), to work
for money or goods, earn. Aku ka ngari
padi song nuan. I am going to work for you
for paddy. Iya ngari vuang di aku. He
works for me for money.
Aris (v. f. ngaris; bearis or AzHj), s.
.a boundary, division, v. to make a boundary. I
Iya bumai ngeltti ka arts. He farmed beyond |
the boundary.
Aroh (v. f. ngarbh; bearoh or baroh), s. [
way, place, spot, v. to put in the way of, i
.suggest. »S’ga ar°h belaya. He seeks a ■
way to quarrel. Tu aroh aku diau. This is |
.the place I inhabit. Tu aroh jako. This is I
.the right way to speak. Di aroh ati aku. i
It is exactly as I wish it. Iya ngar.oh ka aku .
bejako. He suggested to me how to speak. |
Arok (v. f. ngarok; bearok or AzzvZ), s. I
soot, the black stuff that adheres to the out-
side of a cooking-pot, v. to besmear with
.soot. Labang sama labang, enggi orang dipu-
kong arok enggi nuan lain labang. Both are
white (fowls), the other man’s (fowl) is rubbed s
with soot but yours remains white, Iya nga-
rok moa aku. He besmeared my face with
Arong (v. f. ngarong; bearong or barong),
s. channel, course, direction, v. to be on both
sides of a channel or stream. 7« arong sun-
gai. This is the channel of the river. Di
arong menoa nuan I In which direction is
your country? lit sigi arong jako, this
argument is universally admitted. Iya bumai
ngarong jalai. He farms on both sides of the
Aru (v. f. ngaru; beam or bam), s. con-
fusion, v. to confuse. Menoa am laban iya.
The country is in a state of confusion on ac-
count of him. Aida ngaru ka menoa. They
put the country in a state of confusion.
Al'us {beams or barns), the current.
Asa, an affectionate expression which must
precede the name of the loved one (e. g. my
dear, my sweetheart). Asa Ayah Liba. Aly
sweetheart Uncle Liba.
Asa-asa, disappointed.
Asai (v. f. ngasai), s. taste, sensation,
feeling, v. to taste, feci, experience. Aku
sepi asai rian nya manis. 1 tried the taste of
that durian and it is sweet, lya uda'i ngasai
penyamai nyadi tuai. He had experienced
the pleasure of becoming a chief. Asai ti
udah aku bejako enggan iya. I had an idea (a
feeling) I had spoken to him.
Asai, origin, a person’s peculiarity or
habit. Aanu salalu dipeda aku bejudi, k.> orang
sigi endang asai iya. So-and-so 1 often see
gambling, people say it is his habit.
Asam, sour, sulky. Asam moa iya. He
looks sulky.
Asap (beasap or basap), smoke.
Asat, a moveable thwart of a boat.
Asi (faw or basi), cooked rice, a victim,
prey. AA/ nyau ka asi iya I have become
his victim.

Asi (v. f. M.gzzjf), to obey. Iya endangasi
ka jako aku. He does not obey me.
Asi, fair, right, proper. Enda asi nuan
bejako munyi nya. It is not fair that you
should speak like that.
Asil (v. f. ngasil; beasil), s. tribute,
revenue, reward, v. to reward, remunerate.
Aku bedau mri asil. I have not yet given the
tribute. Aku ka ngasil nuan enti nuan ka nu-
long aku bechara. I will reward you if you
will assist me in my lawsuit.
Asit (v. f. «^zjzZ), to reveal, shoot out.
Mimit penyalah diasit ka iya. When there
is the smallest fault he reveals it. Asit ka igi
nya. Make that seed shoot out (of its skin).
Asoh. (v. f. ngasoh; beasoh or basoh,) to
order, permit, send. Enti aku ngasoh nuan
enda tau enda nitih. If I order you (to do
anything) you must obey.
Asor (v. f. ngasor; beasor or basor), adj.
good, of use, v. to push, push on. Bisi asor
kitai belajar. There is benefit in our learning.
Dadai guna, nadai asor. There is no good,
there is no benefit. Anangr ngasor ka papan-
nya. Do not push that plank.
Asta, the measure of 1^ feet.
Asu (v. f. ngasu ; beasu or basil), s. a dog,
hound, v. to hunt with dogs. Laki aku ngasu
kamari. My husband was hunting yesterday.
Iiusa di pala tangga enda. ditunu, chit di tasi
langit beknnda ngasu. The deer al the top
of the staircase is not cooked (lit. burnt) but a
rat on the horizon is hunted
Atap (v. f. ngatap; beatap or batap), s.
leaf rooting, shingles, v. to put on roofing,
cover, supply. Atapdaun. A leaf roof. Atap
papan. A shingle roof. Iya ngatap ka rumah
aku. He puts a roof on my house. Enti sa
pintu dua bulih padi enda tau ngatap kami
maioh. If a door or two get paddy they can-
not supply us all.
Atas, upon, above, over. Aku bepanggai
atas nuan. 1 depend upon you.
Atau {beatau or balau), tlie heart (anatomi-
Atau, see at as.
Ati {beati or bati), the heart (morally),
mind. Ati aku tusa'i. My mind is troubled.
Gagitati. Glad.
Atih (v. f. ngatih), an exclamation, Oh I
v. to make an exclamation. lya ngatih ka
: aku meda aku merjok. lie made an exclama-
i tion on seeing me jump.
Atong (v. f. ngatong; beratong), to tie
i with a string and allow to float on the sur-
j face of the water. lya ngatong prauh iya sa-
â–  malam-malam. He tied his boat and let it
float all night.
Ator (v. f. ngator; bealor oi bator), s.
; arrangement, order, decision, v. to arrange,
â–  set in order, decider. Bala bam ngator kadiri
\ angkat. The army has just made arrangc-
i meats to move. Ator iya enda tentu. His
i decision is all wrong. Ator laya nya. De-
â–  cide that quarrel.
Au (v. f. ngau), the affirmative, yes, in-
i deed, v. to give assent. lya udak ngau ka
I aku. He said yes to me.

Au, to have a great longing for some-
thing to eat.
Auh, echo, sound, noise, hum, murmur.
Auh bala. The hum of an army. Auh ribut.
The noise of the wind.
Aum (v. f. ngaum; beaum or baitm), s.
a council, agreement, v. to meet in council,
reckon with, include, appease. Nam a aum
kiiat What is your agreement ? Aum mega
sida enggau kitai. Reckon them also with
us. Samoa sida sa ratus enda ngaum indu
anembiak. All of them number one hundred
not reckoning women and children. Iya nga~
um anak iya ti nyabak. She appeases her
child who cries.
Aur {beater or baur), a large species of
Aus (v. f. ngatts), s. thirst, adj. thirsty,
athirst, v. to be athirst. Ai enggau madam
ka aus. Water is used to satiate thirst. Aku
aus. I am thirsty Ikan masin ngaus ka
nyawa. Salt fish makes one thirsty.
Awa, a proper name, Eve.
Awa-awa, empty-handed, disappointed.
Nyau ka awa-awa iya datai di rumah, siko
orang pen nadai di a. He was disappointed
when he got to the house; there was not a
soul there.
Awak (v. f. ngawak), s. space, room, v.
to give room, allow, suffer, let, let be, never
mind, don’t trouble. Nadai bisi awak endor
dudok di bilik iya. There is no space to sit in
his room. Iva enggai ngawak ka aku bejako.
He will not suffer me to speak. Dudok unggal
Aw.ak ! Sit down, friend. Nevermind!
Awak ka, in order that, so that.
Awan {beawan- or bawan) a cloud ; a pro-
per name, m.
Awi {beawi or bawi}, a coverlet, counter-
Ayah, {beayah or bay ah), uncle, step-
Ayah (v. f. ngayah; beayah or bayah, to
hurt, tease, persecute, have improper inter-
course with anyone. Iya ngayah ka aku.
He teased me.
Ayak, a short form of bayak {beayak or
bayak), the iguana. Sarah tua nunda ayak
melaki bini. Let us be divorced after the
fashion of the iguana (i. e. without ceremony).
Ayatn (v. f. ngayam; beayam or Azyaw), s;
a toy, pet, v. to make a toy or pet of any-
thing, play, examine. Aku ngaga ayam ka
anak aku. I am making a toy for my child.
Anang ngayam manok. Do not pet fowls.
Ayam ribut {beayam ribut or bayam rib-
ut') a weather-cock.
Ayan (v. f. ngayan ; beayan or bayan), to
leave anything so that it may be seen, be
visible, come into sight, leave anything care-
lessly. Aku ngayan ka padi sa gantang- di
bilik. I left a gantang of paddy uncovered in
the room.
Ayap, vanished. Ayap dalam lubok. Van-
ished in (the water of) the bay.
Ayas, vanished, obscure. Aku nchtu lang
agi ayas. I know but the matter is still ob-
Ayong (v. f. ngayong; beayong ox bayong),
to overshadow, put under cover, choke with
weeds. Ayong ka paong kopi nya; anang iya
kena panas. Cover up the coffee plants ; do
not let them feel the heat. Panggoi ngayong-
langit, kalambi ninding kulit. A sun-hat
covers one from the sky (or sun), a jacket pro-
tects the skin.
Ayu, the negative, not (used by Bugau
Ayu (v. f. ngayu; beayu), s. the soul, the
representative or kindred soul in Hades (ac-
cording to Dyak belief every person in «this
world has a kindred soul in Hades, if that soul
sickens then the person in this world gets ill),
v. to warn, prognosticate. Ilanyi mansa
umai ngayu ka bulihpadi. A swarm of bees-
passes the paddy field and prognosticates a
good crop.
Ayun (v. f. ngayun ; bcayun or bayun), s.
a swing, the equivalent in plates, etc., of a
money fine, v. to swing to and fro, pay in
plates, etc., the equivalent of a money fine..
Tti avim anak aku. This is my child’s swing.
Pinggai tu ayun sa ringgit. These plates are
the equivalent of the dollar fine. Angin-
ngayun ka dan kayu kin kitu. The wind sways
the branches to and fro. Iya ngayitn ka sa
ringgit enggaupinggai. He paid the dollar
fine with plates.
B—(bc-,bel-,ber-), the inseparable prefix
which expresses a state or condition of being
and thereby denotes the intransitive state of
the verb. [It is impossible in a limited space
to give all those words that may assume this
verbal prefix and their equivalents in English].
Bubat (or beubat). To have poison. Beba-
cha. To be in the act of reading. Belai. To
have a leak. Berasu. To be in the act of
Ba, a note of exclamation to direct atten-
Ba (short form of baroh), under, below.
Di ba rumah. Below the house.
; Ba, prep, to, on, at, in. Iva. bejako ba aku»-
j He talked to me. JVaiig diengkah iya ba
i meja- He put the money on the table. Iya
i naroh utai ba bilik. She put the things in the
room. Bisi kra ba umai. There arc mon-
I keys at the farm.
Baas, or boat, (bebaas), bars to support
' a cooking-pot. Aku mH dua lumpong baja ka
baas. I bought two pieces of steci for sup-
porting the cooking-pot. Baas kava enda tan.
\ Wooden bars to support a cooking-pot can-
' not last.
Babak (v. f. mabak ; bebabak), to take off,
undo, tear away, pull out, pull up by the;

roots. Aku ngasoh iya mabakpapan nya. I
ordered him to tear away those planks. Ba-
bak tiang nya. Pull up that post.
Babal (v. f. mabal}, adj. ignorant, thought-
less, v. to make ignorant. Iya orang babal.
He is an ignorant fellow. Iya mabal kadiri,
He made himself appear to be ignorant.
Babal (v. f. mabal}, s. an obstruction,
dam, v. to make a dam. Kami tiga kamari
â– mabal ai Sabu ka ngulih ka ikan. We three
yesterday made a dam across the Sabu stream
to catch the fish.
Babas {bebabas}, young jungle growth,
bush, Sida nyau ngabas babas. They have
gone to look at young jungle growth (to
farm). Bulii babas. Leaves.
Babas, contr: from of beabas (see abas}.
Babi {bebabi}, a pig. Babi laki. A boar.
B. in du. A sow. Babi menoa, B. dupan or
B. rumah. The domestic pig. Babi kam-
pong. The wild pig. Zff babi. Pork.
Babi, contr : form of beabi (see abi}.
Babil, or babir, to speak indistinctly like
a sick person.
Babir, see babil.
Babu (v. f. malm; bebabu), to doctor a
person by rubbing in saliva or chewed herbs.
Asoh sanu kitu tnabu kaki aku. Tell so-and-
so to come here and doctor my leg.
Babul (v. f. mabut; bebabut}, to root up,
pluck out, pull out. weed. Aku mabut rum-
put»di tengah jalai. I am weeding in the
middle of the path. Babut iya enda lengis.
He does not weed clean. Babut bulu manok
nya. Pluck that fowl.
Bacba (v. f. macha; bebacha}, to read.
Anak aku nyau tan macha surat. My child
has learnt to read.
Bachau (v. f. machau ; bebachait}, to scrib-
ble, scrawl. Ukir iya enda badas baka ti olih
machau aja. His carving is not good (but) as
it were mere scribbling.
Bad. :k {bebadak}, a rhinoceros.
Badan {bebadan}, the body.
Badas (v. f. ngemadas ; bebadas}, adj.
good, fine, handsome, nice, v. to make good.
]ya kamaiatu nyau ngemadas ka pendiau diri.
He has now behaved himself well.
Badas rita {bebadas rita}, good news.
Badi (btbadi), to come to grief, go to the
wall, suffer loss. Bnggai. aku badi ngapa. I
will not suffer loss to no purpose. Bebadi ay a
Lidi. Uncle Lidi came to grief.
Badu (v. f. ngemadu; bebadu}, to cease,
leave off. Badu agi. Cease altogether, Iya
ngemadu ka lava. He put a stop to the
quarrel. Badu bejako. Cease talking.
[Note. Badu-badu, or bebadu, are used emphati-
Badu enda (an idiom), certainly, assured-
ly, emphatically so, of course. Badit enda iya
ga raja. Certainly he is a wealthy man.
Badu enda iya ga Kuiisil. Assuredly he is of
the Council. Badu enda iya enggai iya ga bisi
orang enda ngasoh. Emphatically he would
not do so because some one stopped him.
Badu enda iya ka tindok iya ga ngantuk. He
certainly wants to sleep as he is drowsy.
Badu enda iya bejako munyi nya iya ngasai
kadiri salah. Emphatically he speaks so as
he feels himself in the wrong. Kati ka nuan
makai 1 Badu enda. Do you want to eat ? Of
Bagak (v. f. ngemagak; bebagak}, adj.
lively, frivolous, v. to be lively, frivolous.
Saja iya ngulit iya ngemagak kadiri enggau
kami. Although he is in mourning yet he is
lively enough with us.
Bagas (v. f. ngemagas; bebagas), adj.
diligent, adv. frequently, always, continually,
v. to make diligent. Iya bagas bendar becha-
ra. He is frequently going to court. Bagas
tindok. Constantly sleeping. Kami sa ru-
mah ngemagas kadiri taun tu. We of the
same house are working diligently this year.
Bagi (v. f. magi; bebagi}, s. a share, divi-
sion, v. to divide. Bagi aku bri ka iya.
Give him my share. Sida nadai magi ka aku
bttah. They did not divide the fruit with me.
Prentah magi tanah. The Government di-
vides the land.
Bah, swollen (of a river only, in Hood).
Batang ai bah. The main river is in flood.
Bai (v. f. mai ; bebai}, v, to bring, carry
to, conj. because, Iya mai surat ngosotig aku.
Pie brought a letter to me. Bai aku semput
dibuai bini. Because I am lazy my wife
divorced me.
Baik (v. f. maik; bebaik}, v. to make
peace, beautify, adj. well, pretty, conj. either,
or. Iya maik kadiri enggau Baja. He made
peace with the King. Indtt nya baik. That
woman is pretty. Dalam bumai tekat enda:
milih babas, baik jerami, baik memudai. In
irrigation fa'rming people do not select land,
either ground covered with short growth, or
with higher bush, will do.
Baiya (v. f. maiya: bebaiya}, s. goods-
put aside upon the owner’s decease and placed
(after being rendered worthless) upon his
grave; miniature articles supposed to re-
present the different utensils used by the de-
ceased in daily life, placed on the grave at
the conclusion of the mourning feast (,gaww
antu}, v. to put aside articles for a deceased per-
son. Mali ngambi baiya orang. It is unlaw-
ful to take the baiya. Anang beguai maiya
iya laban iya agi id up. Do not hurry to set
aside articles for him because he is still alive..
Baja {bebaja}. s. steel, v. to have steel.
Baja nya enda tajam. That steel is not
sharp. Nadai bebaja duku iya. His chopper
has no steel.
Bajai {bebajai), a species of deer (cervus
equinus ).
Bajau (v. f. majau ; bebajau,) s. a ravisher,.
v. to ravish, make a foray, go on a gutta
expedition. Aku dikumbai iya bajau. He
calls me a ravisher. Baka sanu ti majau
indu. Like so-and-so who ravished a woman.
Paia tu olih kami majau. We got this head
making a foray. Kami ka bejalai majau ka
babas. We are going to the jungle on a gutta
hunting expedition.
Bajek (v. f. majek; bebajek}, adj. beauti-
ful, pretty, v. to beautify. {Bajek, adj. and

v erb, is only used when speaking of the fe-
male sex); a proper name, f. Anak iya bajek
bendar. His daughter is very pretty. Sida
in du majtk kadiri. The women made them-
selves beautiful.
Baji (v. f. maji; lebaji), s. a wedge, v. to
split with wedges. Baji, besi tan agi ari baji
kayu. An iron wedge lasts better than a
wooden one.
Bajong (fe^z/hwy), paralysis, the name of
.a stream between Sadong and Sabuyau.
Baju [bebaju), s. a coat, v. to have or
wear a coat, [Balau women call baju kalambi
.a coat having an embroidered patch on the
back which is a fashion they have adopted].
Baka (v. f. uyemaka ; beb aka), adj. similar,
like, v. to compare, prep, according to, adv.
how. Iya sa-baka enggau apai iya. He is like
his father. Kami enda nemu utai baka nya. We
know not things like that. Iya nyemaka ka aku
engg.ii iya. He compares me to him. Baka
penyalah iya pia ga ukurn. His fine is ac-
cording to his fault. Baka nil How?
Baka ni endor aku tau nemu iya butangl How
can I know that he has committed adultery ?
Baka {bebaka), a small basket; a proper
name, f.
Bakal (v. f. makal; bebakal), s. a wound,
preliminary work, v. to wound, commence pre-
liminary work. Bakal iya dalam. His wound
is deep. Prauh aku bedau udah agi bakal.
My boat is not yet finished; only the prelimi-
nary work is done. Iya makal aku di jari.
He wounded me on the hand.
Bakal, contr : form of beakal (see akal).
Bakat Jebakat), little waves caused by
the wind and tide in shallows.
Bakau, as sa bakau tina (or bentai), one
length of a rotan girdle round a woman’s waist.
Baki \bebaki), a species of sireh; proper
name, m.
Bakong (bebakong), a species of lily that
grows on liver banks ; a village in the Batang
Lupar river.
Baku (bebaku), a brass betel-box.
Baku, see aku.
Bakuku, a species of Hornbill.
Bakul (bebakul), an earth basket ; a pro-
per name, m,
Bakut (v. f. makut; bebakut), s. a raised
road, v. to heap up earth for a road. Jalai
bakut or jalai alun. A raised road. Iya makut
tanah ka jalai. He piles up earth for a road.
Bala s. a force, army, multitude,
v. to be on the war-path. Bala Raja udah
mansa. The Rajah’s army has passed. Sida
Memaloh bebala ngalah ka Sekapat. The Me-
maloh have gathered a force to defeat the So
Balai (v. f. malai ; bebalai), s. a state-
room, place frequented by the pheasant,
.a sleeping place, v. to lie down or roll about.
Raja tama ka balai iya The Rajah entered
his state-room. Nya balai ruai. That is
the place frequented by the argus pheasants.
/ya malai diri di tanah. He rolled about
on the ground.
Balan (v. f. malan; bebalan), v. to make
smooth with an adze {bliong, etc.,) s. a steel
edge put to a chopper (duku). Iya malan
tiang di kampong. He is smoothing posts
in the jungle.
Balang (bebalang), s. a bottle, adj. un-
successful ; a proper name, m. Iya balang
ka Kuching. He was unsuccessful in going
to Kuching (i. e. he did not go to Kuching).
Balas (v. f. malas; bebalas), s. a payment,
revenge, v. to repay, reward, requite, revenge.
IVang tu balas utang iya. This money is the
payment of his debt. Anang malas jai eng-
gau jai. Do not repay evil with evil. Iya
malas budi aku. He rewarded my kindness.
Balat (v. f. ngemalat; bebalat), adj. very
great, exceeding, v. to make excessive. Balat
pengawa iya. His work is very great. Aku
ngemalat ka jako aku. I make my words ex-
cessively strong.
Bari (v. f. mali; bebali), v. to exchange,
fade, s. alteration. Iya mali jako diri. He
changed his own words. Bungai kain nya
mali. The colour of that cloth fades. Kalia
badas, tu ball iya nyau jai. Formerly he was
good, this is his alteration he has become bad.
Manang ball. A sham-female witch doctor
(see Manang).
BaJi-ali, possessing a fragrant smell.
Balik, to-morrow morning. Balik aku ngo-
song nuan. To-morrow morning I will call
upon you.
Balik [malik; bebalik), to turn, turn the
other side, shew respect ; to come back (only
used in Manang incantations). lya nadai
malik ka kami bejako. He does not shew
respect to us when he talks. Balik kaban
Setik, pulai kaban Gendai. Come back com-
panions of Setik, come home companions of
Balok, swollen. Balok moa iya. His face
is swol'e.i.
Balong (v. f. malong; bebalong), s. scent-
ed fruit, the fruit of the lawang or sempetiu.
trees, v. to use scented fruit or seeds. Tu
balong sempetir ukai balong angkong skalika
balong lawang. This is the scented fruit of
sempetir, it is not that of the diamond-shaped
scented fruit nor that of the lawang. Indu nya
malong diri besari-sari. That woman uses
the scented fruit daily.
Balu (A’AzZw), s a widow, widower, v. to
cause to be a widow or widower. Aku
indu balu. I am a widow. Orang jai mitnoh
bini lain nyadi balu. A wicked man murder-
ed his wife and became a widower. Indu nya
munoh laki iya lain bebalu diri. That woman
murdered her husband and made herself a
Balu, contr : form of bcalu (see alu).
Balun (bebalun), a large bundle of any-
thing. Tu ukai balut agi utang balun. This
is not a small bundle but a large one.
Balun, contr : form of bealitn (see alun).
Balut (v. f. malut; bebalnt), s. swaddling
clothes, a band, small bundle, v. to wrap up.
entangle. Balut anak iya panjai bendar.

His child’s swaddling cloth is very long. Iya
malut ahi enggau tajong. H e wrapped me
up with a sarong. Iya malut jako ahi. He
entangles my speech.
Bam, s. a gourmand ; adj. greedy in eat-
Bambai (see ambai), to commit fornica-
tion, adultery. Anang nuan bambai. Do
not commit fornication.
Bambam (v. f. mambam; bebambam) s. a
large bundle of sireh wrapped up (in leaves),
v. to wrap up sireh in leaves. Bisi bambam
sireh di bilik kami. We have a large bun-
dle of sireh in our room wrapped up. Apai
mambam sireh enggan daun pisang. Father
wrapped up sireh in banana leaves.
Bambang, large. Bambang daun bungai
rajang nya. That orchid’s leaves are large.
Ban (v. f. man ; beban), to level the sur-
face of wood with an adze, hence to cut planks,
cut a boat’s keel out of a tree trunk. Iya man
tiang. He is levelling the surface of the
wood for a post, i.e. he is cutting out posts.
Banang (bebanang), s. a band on the
shaft of a spear about six inches from the
extremity, the point of a blow-pipe dart, v.
to have a band round the spear shaft. Eit-
iran sangko iya bebanang. His spear shaft
has a band to it.
Banchak (v. f. manchak; bebanchak), to
throw, thrust. Ahi meda iya manchak jani
nuan enggau sangko. I saw him thrust at
your pig with a spear.
Banchar, a harsh person.
Banda, red in colour (only applied to
Bandam (bebandam), a large species of
wild pig, a kind of palm (biru) used by Dyaks
to make a leaf mat (.raw?7).
Bandau (bebandau), the largest kind of
Bandi (v. f. mandi ; bebandi), s. the house-
warming ceremony (mandi rumah), v. to
wash. Rumah ahi bedau dib an di; ahi ka
mandi iya taun tu nyadi badu orang bejako
“ bandi rumah nuan.” I have not yet had a
house-warming ; I wish to hold my house-
warming this year so that people may cease
saying “ hold your house-warming.”
Banding (v. f. mauding ; bebanding), s. a
comparison, analogy, v. to compare, contrast.
Tu banding jako iya ti dulu enggau ti dudi.
This is the comparision between his former
and latter statements. Iya mauding aku eng-
gau iya empu. He compares me with himself.
Bandir (bebandir), s. the buttress of a tree,
v. to have, or form a buttress. Luar bandir
tu. This buttress is broad. Tapang tu barn
bebandir. This bee-tree is about to form a
Bandong, twins fas applied to fowls), the
tapioca plant ; a Chinese trading boat with
Bandong (v. f. mandong; bebandong', to
sit alongside or close to. mandong aku du-
dok. He sits alongside of me.
Baneng (bebaneng), the large inland tor-
toise (Testudo Enys).
Bang (bebang,) a piece of wood running
athwart supporting the sides of a native-
made boat.
Banga, adj. deaf.
Bangai, or ka bangai, a long time, at
length, lyanyaii bangai makai. He has been
a long time eating. Nyau bangai ahi nganti
nuan. I have waited a long time enough for
you. Nyadi udah ka bangai iya pegari deh
pengarang ati remaung. Now at length there
appeared the ferocity of the (grown) tiger.
Bangan (bebanganj, a nibong spear, blow-
pipe arrow.
Bangat (v. f. ngemangat), adv. very, ex-
cessive, v. to make excessive, over-much,
greater than usual ; a range of hills dividing
the Saribas and Skarang rivers. Bangat sakit.
‘Very ill. Bangat maioh orang. Very many
people. Bangat kalalu. Quite too much.
Iya ngemangat ka jako. She spoke over-much.
Bangau (bebangau), usually burong bangau,
a white stork or paddy bird (burong apu of the
Malays). •
Banggar (v. f. ngemanggar, or manggar ;
bebanggar), s. a lie, falsehood, a liar, smell,
adj. rotten, v. to cause to become a liar, to
rot. Nuan banggar. You are a liar. Zya
manggar kadiri. He made himself a liar.
Alanok indu nya enda mram mina manggar
ka telu. That hen does not sit properly she
simply rots the eggs. Tu utai banggar. This
is a rotten thing.
Banggor, swollen (of the lips only).
Bangkai (bebangkai), a corpse, the dead
body of any animal.
Bangkai (v f. ngemangkal, or mangkal;
bebangkai) adj. deaf and stupid, v. to pretend
to be deaf and stupid. Iya mangkal kadiri.
He pretended to be (lit. made himself) deaf
and stupid.
Bangkang (bebangkang), lead ; a proper
name, f.
Bangkar, or tebangkar, unfinished work
(such as an incomplete basket).
Bangkas, buff-coloured (of fowls only).
Bangkat (bebangkat), a kind of basket for
carrying a load.
Bangkit (bebangkit), a scented flower,
scented leaves or fruit of certain jungle trees
used as scent or ornaments to decorate the
hair or body.
Bangkoh (bebangkoh), lead.
Bangkong (bebangkong), a Dyak boat, a
dug out.
Bangku (bebangku), a bench.
Bangkut, common to both sexes, epi-
Bangun (v. f. man gun; beban gun), to beat,
Bangun (v. f. mangtin; beban gun), to
instal a person in the office of manang. Man-
arig ni ti mangun nuan manang? What man-
ang made you a witch doctor !
Bansa (bebansa), s. race, tribe, caste, rank,
sort, kind, v. to be of high rank. Bisi maioh
bansa mensia. There are many races of man-
kind. Bansa ni nuan unggali To what tribe
do you belong friend ? Nuan tu bansa baroh.

You are of low rank. Kain ti bansa badas
mar rerga iya. The price of the good kind
of cloth is dear. Aku tn orang bebansa. I am
of high rank.
Bansat (beban sat), poor, very poor, desti-
tute. Aku tu orang bansat. I am a very poor
Bansi (v. f. mansi; bebansi), s. a consider-
ation, added payment, the balance of a sum
of money, v. to add, give in addition. Aku
minta bansi nuan dalam aku udah ngadu laya
nuan. I ask for a consideration as 1 have al-
ready settled your quarrel. Enti nuan nepa ,
kayu di kampong bansi barang sa jenkal. If
you measure wood in the jungle allow about a
span extra.
Bansu, adv. often, perpetually accustom-
ed, v. to be tired of anything. Aku bansu ka
Kuching. I often go to Kuching.
Bantah (v.f. mantah; bcbantah), s. de-
preciation, v, to depreciate. Iya mantah
pengawa aku. He depreciates my work.
Bantai (v. f. mantai ; bebantai), to reveal,
empty, unload, unpack. Iya mantai nuan
butang. He revealed the fact of your com-
mitting adultery. Ban tai utai. Unpack the
Bantal (bebantai), a bundle of various
cloths or clothes.
Bantin (bebantin), a wild ox. the Banting
(Bos Sondaicus), Malay, Tembadau ; a proper
name, m. Ko orangmenyabisi bantin di Undtip.
It is said by people there were wild cattle once
in the Undup.
Bantun (v. f. mantun ; bebanturi), to weed,
pull out, pull up, pluck out, extricate. Endtt
mantun di umai. My daughter is weeding at
the paddy farm. Bantun iya enda lengis.
His weeding is not clean (i.e. he does not
weed clean). Bantun bulu mata. Pull out
the eye-lashes.
Banyak, many. Kami banyak tu nadai
pemakai. All of us have no food.
Baoh (v. f. ngemaoh), adj. tall, high, long,
v. to cause to grow tall or long, become the
head of a family. Baoh buloh tu. This bam-
boo is tall. Tanah baoh. Old jungle land.
Pun rian tu barn ngemaoh kadiri taun tit.
This durian tree is just commencing to grow
tall this year. Iya dulu baoh nya alai aku
ngumbai iya aya. He has become the head of
the family therefore I call him uncle.
Baok (v. f. maok ; bebaok), to cut with an
axe (bliong) violently.
Baor (bebaor), a handle. Baor ginti. A
fishing rod. Baor changkul. A hoe handle.
Bap (v. f. map or ngebap; bebap) s. a
cover, v. to cover, conceal. Iya main lain
ngebap moa diri. He is ashamed and covers
his face.
Bapa (bebapa), a father-in-law. Tyrt bebapa
di aku. He calls me father-in-law.
Baptisa (v. f, maptisa), s. baptism, v. to
baptize (N. T. only).
Bara (bebara) a live ember, glowing cinder.
Bara (bebara) a tumour.
Barang (bebarang), things, utensils.
Barang, any, about, whatever, whatsoever.
Barang utai nuan mai kitu aku ka nyambut.
Whatever you bring here I will receive. Ba-
rang aja ko nuan aku ka nitih. Whatever you
say I will follow. Barang aja tau meh. Any
will do. Bai ka aku barang sa depa buloh.
Bring me a bamboo about a fathom long, Sa-
barang orang tau kitu aku ka bejako enggau iya.
Any man may come here and I will talk to
Baran, a prolonged drought.
Bari (bebari), steel.
Bari (bebari), adj. musty, v. to make mus-
ty. Iya makai asi bari. He eats musty
cooked-rice. Iya bebari ka asi. He made
the cooked-rice musty.
Baring (v. f maring; bebaring}, to roll,
roll about ; a proper name, m. iya ringat
lalu maring ka dri. He was angry and rolled
about on the floor.
Bans (v. f. maris; bebaris), s. military
array, rank and file, a row, line, v. to form in
military array, exercise, parade, include all.
Aku gawa maris orang kubau. I am busy
drilling the Fortmen. â–  Orang kubu bebaris.
The Fortmen are in military array. Kami
enggai dibaris kit a jai magang. We will not
have you include us all as wicked.
Baroh. (v. f. ngemaroh; bebaroh), adv.
below, under, adj. low, short of stature, hum-
ble, v. to make low, submit. Iya ngemaroh
kadiri bejako enggau aku. He humbled him-
self when he talked with me.
Barong (bebarong), a boat.
Barn (v. f. ngemaru), adj. new, recent,
adv. just now, recently, v. to make new.
Baru aku betemu enggau iya, This is the first
time I have met him.
Bas (v. f. ngebas), s. a temporary rotan
binder round a newly made boat in order to
keep the sides in position until the bow and
stern planks are nailed on, v. to tie on such a
Basa (bebasa), s. respect, v. to respect.
Iya bebasa kadiri empu. He respects himself.
Basa-asa (short form of be-asa-asa), to
order others, or order one another.
Basah(v.f. rnasah, or, ngemasah; bebasahj,
adj. wet, moist, damp, v. to wet, moisten.
Iya ngemasah ka kalambi aku. Pie wetted
my jacket.
Basau (v. f. masau; btbasau), to depreciate,
Basi, musty.
Basi, a numeral co-efficient applied to mat-
ting or cloth ; a proper name, f. Sa basi ka-
jang. One piece of leaf matting. Sa puloh
basi kain. Ten pieces of cloth.
Basong (bebasong), s. a basket made of tree
bark or the spathe of a sago tree, used for
carrying necessaries during an expedition, v.
to have such a basket. [There is a differently
shaped basket also called basong used for
carrying implements necessary for setting pig
Basu (v. f. masu; bebasu), to wash.
Aku agi masu jari. I am still washing my
Bat (bebat), see baas.

Batak (v, f. matak ; bebatak), to pull, drag,
withdraw. Iya matak kaki aku. He pulled
my legs. Datai di wong Jeliah bangkong
enda tau enda dibatak. When you come to the
Jeliah rapids you must drag the boat. Iya
matak jako. He withdrew his words (i. e. he
did not keep his promise). Bebatak lampong.
To have a trial of strength with someone.
[This game which is known as above consists
in the two competitors sitting opposite having
their feet stretched out with the soles pressed
against one another and their hands grasping
the wooden bar {lampong} which each tries to
pull towards him].
Batalili, exceeding sweet.
Batang jbebatang}, s. a felled tree, trunk of
a tree, tree, stem, stock, the main branch of a
river, a main road, v. to have felled trees, etc.,
a numeral co-efficient applied to a spear, stick,
tree. Baka batang nyengkar lebak. Like a
felled tree across a valley. Batang padi.
The stem of the paddy. Batang ai. The
main stream or river. Batang jalai, d'he
main road. Sangko tiga batang. d'hree spears.
Lima batang rian. Five durian trees.
Batil jebatil}, see baktt.
Batok, s. cough, v. to cough. Iya salabc
batok. He is always coughing.
Batu (v. f. matu ; bebatu}, s. a stone, rock,
v. to become hard like a stone. Batu ka-
rangan. A pebble. Batu pegai. A pledge,
security. Batu penuga. d'he sounding lead.
Batu arang. Coal. Batu penguji. A touch
stone. Batu ansah. A whetstone. Batu
ilau. A ■' sight ’ stone. Batu nitar. A
Ban {bebau}, the shoulder. Bau akupedis.
My shoulder is painful.
Bau (v. f. mau or, ngemau; bebau}, s.
smell, odour, savour, scent, v. to smell,
give forth scent. Bungai nya apin mau
kadiri. d'hat Hower has not yet given forth
its scent.
Eauh., or baus, the grunt of a pig when
Baum (see aum), to meet in council, delib-
erate, confer, take counsel. Sida udah baum
nubai. d'hey have met in council to discuss
poisoning the river for fish.
Bawang jbebaivang}, an onion ; a proper
name, f.
Baya {bebaya}, a crocodile. Baya di nanga
Lingga benydwa nukang perdah. The croco-
dile at the entrance of the Lingga river posses-
ses a mouth the width of an axe handle.
Bayar (v. f. mayar; bebayar}, s. payment,
v. to repay, pay. Tu bayar utang iya. d'his
is the payment of his debt.
Bayak (bebayak), the iguana. Nyamaiisi
bayak diempa. d'he flesh of the iguana is deli-
cious eating.
Bayan {bebayari}, s. a parrot, adj. green.
Be —(the inseparable prefix), see B.
Bealau-alau (see alau}, to have railings,
rely upon, Andau I ami bealau-alau. Our
bridge has railings. I\ ami bealau-alau ka di
jako nuan. We are relying upon what you
Beambu (see ambit}, to claim, take food
irregularly. Sida beambu ka manok siko. d'hey
are claiming a fowl. Anembiak enda tau enda
beambu. Children must be fed between meals.
Beandak-andak, throwing spears at and
chasing one another (either in sport or in war).
[Children when at play spear one another with
Eeandi-andi, to be rumoured abroad,
talked about beforehand.
Beantu (see antu}, to mourn. Aku beantu
nya endor aku enda nyebut nama iya. I am in
mourning that is why I do not pronounce his
Beantu (see antu}, to have a spirit to watch
or guard one.
Beati-ati, to keep in mind.
Bebadi (see badi}, to suffer harm from
a curse, be in trouble. Aku bebadi mati me-
nyadi. I am in trouble because of my brother’s
Bebai (see bai}, to mutually agree to go to
a place or do anything. Sida bebai bejalai.
d'hey are mutually agreeing to go out. Utai
pedis ka bebai, utai nyamai ka ditengali. Un-
pleasant work he wants some one to do with
him, pleasant work he wishes to keep all to
Bebai (v. f. mebal; bebebal}, s. an obstruc-
tion, dam, v. to make an obstruction or dam.
Bebalang, to have a conical-shaped top.
Bebali (see bali}, to change colour, fade,
suffer from bone disease. Laban iya bebali iya
enda ngisi pupu. He does not pay door-tax
because he is suffering from bone disease.
Bebang (v. f. mebang}, to stop, hinder,
check. Anang nuan bangat mebangaku bejako.
Do not keep checking me in my talk.
Bebar (v. f. mebar}, s. terrified flight as
exhibited by fowls when dispersed hurriedly,
v. to scatter, disperse like fowls. Manok bebar
laban mini sang. d'he fowls are dispersed ter-
rified by the munsaug.
Bebas (v. f. mebas; bebebas}, to undo, pull
to pieces, take apart. Bebas timbau prauh
nya. Open the boards forming the sides of
that boat. Iya mebas rumah iya. He is pul-
ling his house to pieces.
Eebedi, the name of a jar.
Bebendai, see bendai.
Bebendang, to shine white.
Beberu, to slough as a wound does.
Bebioh-bebintoh, falling right and left.
Bebirin, usually tabin bebirin, ill (see tabin}.
Bebital, to stick, adhere to. Gela nangka
bebital di jari. d'he juice of the jack-fruit ad-
heres to the hand.
Beblai, every now and then. Beblai iya
iindok. Every now and then he sleeps.
Beblak, to stare. Beblak igi mata iya meda
kami. He stares when he sees us.
Beblap, to conjure, perform card tricks.
Beblat-hari, every other day.
Bebi'ak, to shine white.
Bebris, see bekebrai.
Bebunyi, see bunyi.
Beburong (tee bttrong}, to make use of
birds, insects, reptiles, and animals as omens.

[In the following list are given the names of
the eight relatives or followers of Singalang
Burong {Haliastur intermedins}, the great Bird
Chief. Beragai, (theTrogons), Katupong (sasia
abnormis}, Bejampong {Ilydrocichla frontalis},
Membuas Carcineutes melanops), Kutok {Lepo-
cestesporphyromelas}, Nendak {Cittocincla sua-
vis), Papau {Dendrocitta cinerascens}, Brink
{Orthotomics ruficeps'). Called “birds” but
holding a lower place and not considered
“sacred” (indeed they are often eaten) are
the insects Rioh, Rejah. (grasshopper), and
burong malam (ground cricket), the snakes
Tedong (cobra), Sawa (Python), the animals
Rusa {Cervas equinus}, Kijang {Cervalus
muntjack}, Plandok {Tragulus napu}, Re-
maung{Felis macrocelis, f. mamorata}, Tengi-
ling (the manis), Aji {moon rat}, Engkarong
(the skinks), and Bat.
Bebuti (see uti}, to trifle, joke. Iya
bebuti enggau nuan. He is trifling with you.
Bechaka, to quarrel, wrangle, squabble,
dispute noisily.
Bechakap (see chakap}, to challenge. Iya
bechakap ngambi ka orang ka betangkap. He is
challenging and wants people to flight.
Bechara, a law suit, case, matter, affair,
Bechaya, to believe, believe in, trust, re-
spect. Nuan enda bechaya ka jako aku. You
do not believe what I say. Iya enda bechaya
kalaki iyati apin lama udah parai She does
not respect her husband who died recently.
Becherayan, scattered about. Utai di
bilik iya ambis becherayan. Things are all
scattered about in his room.
Bedai, as balang bedai, a dried head.
Bedai, to warn Iya bedai aku ngasoh aku
nemu same ka nunggu aku. He warned me
that so-and-so is going to fine me.
Bedak, dried scented leaves scattered
about on the mats.
Bedandi, or bedandan, to sing a love song.
Bedarat (see ohra/), to travel overland.
Bedau (v. f. ngemedau ; bebedau}, adv. not
yet, v. to remain, continue in a place, or
cause to remain or continue in a place. Aku
bedau makai. I have not yet eaten. Apai
bedau di rumah. Father is still in the house.
Anang nuan ngemedau kadiri. Don’t you
remain behind.
Bedawa (seepedawa}, to demand, com-
plain, sue, bring an action.
Bedawa, to work at night in the house.
Bedega {bebedega}, a species of fern,
Bedej a, to relate here and there, spread a
report. Nuan bedeja ka aku mangah. You
spread a report that I was bad tempered.
Bedenjang, see denjang.
Bedidi, or Kadidi, a species of large wild
pigeon ( Treron Capellei}, usually found in
small flocks.
Bsdijir, in a row. Sida bedijir dudok di a.
They sit there in row.
Bedil {bebedil}, a brass gun.
Bedilang {bebedilang}, a warming place or
fire-place. Bri api di bedilang. Put fire on
the fire-place. Bedilang Besi. The Iron Fire-
place ( a sobriquet or title). [Note.—The
dried heads of enemies are hung up in the
smoke above the bedilanghence it is used met-
aphorically to express a head or bunch of
heads. Kami endang ngembuan bedilang ari
aki ini. We have ever kept the dried heads
of enemies from the days of our ancestors].
Bedinjat, not level. Enda bedinjat. Level.
Bediri ( see diri}, to stand up on the feet.
Bedong (v, f. medong ; bebedong}. s. the
waist band of women, v. to girdle the waist
with a band. Udah iya beranak tau medong
diri. After she had given birth she could
bandage herself.
Bedua (see pedua} to divide, allot. Iya
bedua babas. He divides the farming land.
Beduan (v. f. ngenduan}, see keduan, to
tease, persecute, annoy, vex, mock, bother,
trouble, wrong, cause shame to. Nuan beduan
aku. You are teasing me. Nuan sqlalu bedu-
an aku enggau jako. You always vex me with
your talk. Iya salalu ngenduan aku. He al-
ways persecutes me.
Bedulu (see dulu}, to go before, go be-
fore as a guide. Sida ti ngayau bisi orang ti
bedulu ka sida. They that went on the war-
path had a guide.
Bedundong, near to, hard by, alongside,
parallel to. Rumah kami bedundong. Our
houses are near one another.
Beduru, the sound of any person or animal
Bedus, {bebedus}, a goat, sheep.
Begadai (see gadai or gadai-gadai), gently,
slowly, cautiously, noiselessly. Nuan bejako
begadai. Talk gently (or in a low tone).
Begah (v. f. ngemegah ; bebegah or begah-
begah} adj. vain, boastful, v. to be vain, boast-
ful. Nya jako begah. That is vain talk.
Anang bangat ngemegah kadiri. Do not be
so vain. Anang nuan bangat begah-begah
bejako. Do not be so exceedingly vain in
your talk. Ngaga diri bangat bebegah nuan
tu. You assume such vain airs.
Begama (see gama), to feel one’s way in
the dark, grope, doctor by feeling with the
hands, massage. Kami begamapulai ka rumah.
We had to feel our way in the dark returning
home. Iya ngambi manang begama. He
goes for a manang to perform massage.
Begari (see gari}, to change or put on
one’s clothes, [ya nyau begari. He is gone
to change his clothes.
Begaring (see garing}, to roll.
Begau (v. f. ngemegau}, s. alarm, panic,
v. to be in a state of alarm. Tetaivak nya
â– madah ka began. That tetawak gives the
alarm. Sida Skarang ngemegau kadiri ngapa
munsoh Samoa nadai. The Skarang people
alarmed themselves for no reason as there were
no foes.
Begauk (see gauk}, to have a friendly or
affectionate feeling for a person, to fondle, em-
brace. Aku lain bedau begauk enggau iya.
I have not yet had a friendly talk with him.
Begaut (see segaut), to hurry, hasten.
Begaut nuanpulai, Hurry back home.

Begawai (see gawai), to give a feast.
Aku begawai taun tu. I give a feast this year.
Begedi, to hate, dislike. Iya begedi meda
aku. He hates to look at me.
Begegar (see^^ar), to shiver, shake.
Begelih. or begelis (see gelih or gelis}, to
race on foot.
Begelinak, oily, fatty, growing thickly
together (as seedlings).
Begelut (see gelut}, mixed up.
Begembar (see gembar}, united, two to-
gether, double, parallel, agreeing. Dua be-
gembar tali nya. That string has two strands
united. Snapang aku begembar dua. My gun
is double-barrelled. Jako sida begembar.
Their speech agrees.
Begempong (see gempong}, summed up,
having different points (as in an argument), to
come together, unite. Jako aku begempong.
My statement has its different points. Sida
Bugau nyau begempong di endor siti. The Bu-
gau have united at one place.
Begenara, in great numbers (as the stars
or an enemy). Begenara bintang di langit.
Plenty of stars in the heavens. Begenara mun-
soh dtpeda kami. We saw a great number of
the enemy.
Begenarau, to have stripes as a tiger or
Begeng or bingking, boils, or ulcers
which usually break out on children’s heads.
Begenilong, deep (of water).
Begenura, scattered about. Begenura
utai di bilik. Things are scattered about in
the room.
Begepal, to be all together, in a lump.
Sida dudok begepal Samoa. They sat together.
Begeremai, very sharp (of a weapon),
nervous (of a person).
Begerempong (see gerempong}, to tie to-
gether, united together. Leboh begerempong,
leboh betugong- When we unite together,
when we assemble.
Begerenyam, very sharp (as a knife’s
blade). *
Begetar [y&e. gegetar}, to shiver, shake,
Iya chelap lain begetar. He is cold and shivers.
Begigit (see gigit}, to adhere to firmly.
Begiling (see giling}, to rush on in con-
fusion, scramble.
Begitang (see gitang'), to be suspended,
put oft, adjourned. Jako agi begitang. Sen-
tence is put off. Bechara agi begitang. The
case is adjourned.
Begrit ngeli, to grind the teeth. Iya
sukat ringat begrit ngeli. Whenever he is
angry he grinds his teeth.
Begrot (see gro}, scratching.
Beguai (see guai), to hasten, be in a
hurry. Zjvz beguai bejako. Pie hastens to
.Begulanggalu, to go to and fro’, here
and there. Anang bangat begulanggalu. Do
not go to and fro’..
Begulin, a pillow with ends embroidered
with gold thread.
Bejali (sw pejali), to lend. Iya bejali ka
aku sa ringgit. He lent me a dollar.
Bejampong or jejampong (see beburong),
one of the Dyak omen birds. Kami pulai
ninga bejampong. We turned back on hear-
ing the bejampong.
Bejap (see jap}, to argue, answer back.
Bejelan (see jelari}, to be regular, be far
between. Aku makai enda bejelan. I take
my meals irregularly. Bejelan iya ngosong
aku. He calls upon me seldom.
Bejeleh, or bejeloh, a mixing of different
races or colours. Bejeleh mensia ngadap Ra-
jah. People of different races came before the
Bejeloh, see bejeleh.
Bejentang (see jentang}, to stretch out
(ofstring only).
Bejit, the black long-tailed monkey (Sem-
nopithecus j'emoralis}.
Bejuak, to have colic. Endu bejuak di
malam. My daughter had the colic last night.
Bejungkeh, to walk on tip-toe (as a per-
son suffering from tebu}.
Bejuntah, to be of unequal lengths.
Bekaban, (see kaban}, to keep together
in a body, flock or herd together. Sida beka-
ban ngasu. They hunted in a body.
Bekachapak, to splash water with the
Bekain jala or bebentai tali (see bentai},
to wear string tied round the waist signifying
deep mourning (of women only).
Bekal (v. f. mekal; bebekal}, s. provision,
supplies, v. to provide for. Sida ti ngeta nyau
ambis bekal. Those who went upon the gutta
expedition have run short of provisions.
Bekampi, mixed up.
Bekana (see kanal}, to intone a fable.
Bekapok (see kapok}, covered with mould.
Nyau bekapok asi ti diempa orang ti kayau anak.
Those that made a raid ate cooked rice that
was mouldy.
Bekasi (yz&pekasi}, to sneeze.
Bekau jbebekau}, a foot print, spoor, ves-
tige, remains. Aram kitai nyidi bekau rusa.
Come let us follow the deer’s spoor. Nya be-
kau langkau umai kami taun siti kamari.
Those are the remains of our farm hut of last
Bekebesut, to come out pell-mell.
Bekebrai, to drop down like rain, tears,
or flowers at intervals. Bungai bekebrai ning-
gang batang. The flowers drop down on the
trunks of the felled trees.
Bekechebok, the sound made by anything
dropping into the water.
Bekeohimbong, to beat the water for
amusement as women and children do when
Bekedangkul, to walk in Indian file.
Bekedanja, to be running to and fro’.
Bekedebar, shatter.
Bekedegir, to stand and look (of a num-
ber of persons). Anang kita sarnoa bekedegir
dia. Don’t all stand looking there.
Bekedempai, scattered.
Bekedengong, to have many large holes.
Bekedengut, to murmur, squeak like
young pigs.

Bekedugau, to sit idle (of many persons).
Bekedumu, talking in a low voice.
Bekedunga, many sitting together and
doing nothing.
Bekejang (see kejang}, to start upon a
journey (either in a boat or by land), clear
off, push off. Bala nyau bekejang. The
army has cleared off. Bekejang ari tebing.
To push off from the bank.
Bekejapi, scattered about. Bekejapi a si
di bilik. Cooked rice is scattered about in
the room.
Bekejeloh, many walking to and fro*.
Bekejutak, see bekejapi.
Bekekah (see kekah}, to bite. Gergasi
begigi tegar bekekah. The demon fanged
with teeth powerful for biting.
Bekelam-ai (see selam}, to have a diving
Bekelechi, wet here and there (as on a
Bekelenga, to be without a cover (as a
cooking pot, etc.)
Bekelengap, to appear idiotic, be silent.
Bekelenggi, to sit idle.
Bekelenggak, to listen to a speaker atten-
tively (of many persons).
Bekelidak, laid (as a table ready for
Bekelindak, appearing, showing up, visi-
ble. Bekelindak tanggoi sida ti mantun di
itmdi. The sun hats of those weeding the
paddy are showing up.
Bekelinga, see bekelenga.
Bekelulut, to be of one company.
Bekelunggak, to bob up and down (of
boats, floats, etc. under the influence of
Bekenanas (see bekunda}, to exert one-
Bekenaya, obscure, not apparent.
Bekendak(see kendak}, to commit adultery.
Bekenelap, to be friendly with a person
(i. e. to give and receive presents). Iya
bekenelap enggau aku. He is friendly with
Bekengkang (see kengking}, to be
Bekening (see kening}, to have a forehead,
slope, or bank. Tanah nya bekening. That
land has a slope.
Bekenining, falling in drops (as tears).
Bekenyalang or betenyalang, to hold
the final head feast during which a figure of the
Hornbill ( Tenyalang} is exhibited on the sum-
mit of a lofty pole.
Bekeraong, the voices of many persons
calling to one another.
Bekerengkong, the noise of hammering or
beating. Bekerengkong sida ngaga rumah.
There is a sound of hammering, they are
building a house.
Bekerising, to laugh quietly and joke, to
grin. Sida enggai badu bekerising. They
will not cease laughing.
Bekerong (see krong}, to have holes,
howl like dogs. Tanah tu bekerong magang.
This earth is full of holes.
Bekerundai, to grow downwards (as or-
Beketeking, loud sounding (as a gong}.
Beketekul, many persons coughing at the
same time.
Beketeling (see teteling}, to have many
Beketenau, to be acquainted with, meet.
Amat sida diau semak rumah kami utang kami
enda beketemu enggau sida. Truly they live
near our house but we are not acquainted with
Beketepak, to fall incessantly (as fruits,
or people in a panic dropping down a steep
Beketimbong, see bekechimbong.
Beketrak, all talking at the same time.
Bekilong, to be crooked.
Bekindu, to warm oneself at a fire place.
Bekindu ditu unggal, Come and warm your-
self here, friend.
Bekrangg’ak, many lying about with
their legs in different positions.
Bekrekoh, to make a sound as of a branch
Bekriap, many (of children, young birds, or
animals). Bekriap anak aku. My children
are many.
Bekrik (see krik}, to quarrel, squabble,
Bekuap (see knap}, mouldy. Tepong nyau
bekuap. The flour is mouldy.
Bekuba, or bekampi, mixed up (as the good
with the bad, the ripe with the unripe, etc.)
Bekunda or bekundas, to exert oneself,
set one’s heart on a thing. Chit di tisi langit
bekunda ngasu, rusa di pala tangga enda ditunu.
A rat on the horizon one exerts oneself to pur-
sue, but a deer at the top of the staircase is
not cooked (lit. burnt).
Bekundas, see bekunda.
Bekuroh (see kuroh}, to snore. Iya be-
kuroh tindok. He snores in his sleep.
Bel-, the inseparable particle (see B).
Belaba or plaba, to think, surmise. Aku
belaba kanuan datai ditu kamari. I thought
you were coming here yesterday.
Belaba (see laba} to use as an omen, Sida
bumai belaba ka plandok. They farm and make
use of the mouse-deer as an omen.
Belaboh (see laboh}, to anchor, commence,
start, shoot a rapid. Kapal api belaboh di
nanga. Steamers anchor at the mouth. Kami
apin belaboh bumai. We have not yet com-
menced to farm. Kami meda sida belaboh di
wong Entawa lalu karam dia. We saw them
shoot the Entawa rapid and capsize there.
Belaboh alu, see alu.
Belai (see ai}, adj. watery, v. to have
water, leak. Bangkongnya belai. That boat
Belajar, (see ajar,} to learn. Iya belajar
nulis. He learns to write.
Belaku, see laku.
Belaku, to assist in carrying any burden.
Aram kitai belaku ka buah rian ti dima iya
Come and help to carry the durians he is

— 19
Belala, unsatisfied. Kami agi belala makai
asi enda ambos. We are still not satisfied (as)
the cooked rice is not sufficient.
Belalai (see lalai}, to hide, conceal. Iya
belalai ka aku. He hides from me.
Belalang {bebelalang}, a snake, half fledg-
ed (of young birds).
Belamasin, to attend diligently to one’s
own affairs. Samoa belamasin ngereja penga-
wa diri. Every one attends diligently to his
own business.
Belamatang, straight, directly towards.
Belamati (see ati, or beati-ati}, to think
of any person or thing.
Belambang (see lambang}, alternately,
not regularly. Iya turun belambang hari,
He does not work regularly at his farm.
Belamlam, before dawn.
Belanchau (see anchau}, to spread a mat,
make a bed.
Belanda (see pelanda}, to run. Iya dr as
belanda. He runs swiftly.
Belangkah, (see langkah}, to pace, walk,
dance the mencha dance.
Belantan {bebelantan}, a staff. Pua belan-
tan. A Saribas cloth embroidered at the
ends with figures, etc., used as a sash.
Belanyawan, spread, open as a mat.
Peda, udah bclanyawan tikai rotan. See, the
rotan mat is spread.
Belapang (see lapang}, to have spaces
between, at intervals, seldom. Iyabelapang
turun. H e seldom goes to the paddy farm.
Belawa or belelawa {y&Qpelawa}, to run.
Iya belazva ngagai jani. He runs after a pig.
Belaya (see laya}, to quarrel, (in warfare)
to fight.
Belayan (see bebelayan}, a clump of trees,
grass, etc. Kami kamari mansa belayan tebu
luar bendar. Yesterday we passed a clump of
sugar-cane that was very thick (lit. wide).
Belayau, a jungle fowl; a proper name, f.
Belay ar (see layar}, to shed leaves, win-
now paddy, sail a boat.
Belabaga, a swelling caused by the sting
of an insect.
Belebigau, giddy. Belebigau pala aku.
My head is giddy.
Belega (see pelega}, v. to stop for a little
while, s. a temporary divorce. Kimi tu belega
ngetau labanpadi apin mansau. We stop har-
vesting for a little while as the paddy is not
yet ripe. Kami tu belega laban bisi jai mimpi.
We have divorced temporarily as we had a bad
Belelang, to go to a far country. Kini
ka laki nuan belelang I Iya belelang ka. menoa
Sabah ngeta. Where has your husband gone ?
He has gone to British North Borneo to look
for gutta.
Belelawa, see belawa.
Belemai (see lemai}, to work at night in
the house.
Beleman (see leman} fanciful, to have many
sorts, kinds, or colours, to have any affair
(e. g. a lawsuit), reckoning, or social intercourse
with a person. Beleman bendar. Very fanci-
ful. Anang beleman. Do not play the fool.
Beleman utai dipeda aku. I saw many kinds
of things. Pua indu nya beleman bendar.
That woman’s blanket has many colours.
Sida beleman enggau diri sama diri utai
mimit ka dipechara. They have a lawsuit
with one another and want to bring a small
matter into court. Kuan tu bangat bele-
man enggau aku. You have such a rec-
koning with me. [Note euphemistic use.
Iya beleman enggau anak iya. He has inter-
course with his daughter (or, has committed
Belembong, to flourish (like plants, trees,
Belempak-luak, uneven.
Belian peliari}, to doctor by means of
magic (a manang practice).
Belikau, striped (of a python’s markings).
Belingau {bebelingau}, a species of lily
numerous on river banks (the leaves of which
are used for wrapping purposes) .
Eelingkok (see lingkok}, crooked, curv-
Belit (v. f. melit; bebelit}, to tie round,
entangle, delude, Iya melit ka sirat. He
ties on his waist-cloth. Iya melit aku enggau
jako. He deludes me with words. Ulas
melit kaki aku. A snake winds round my
Beloh {bebloh}, a very small species of
fresh-water fish.
Beluit (see luit}, entwined, s. a tempor-
ary divorce.
Belulang, leather.
Belum, not yet, by-and-by, in the future.
Enti bisi belum meda. If there be we shall see
it. Enti aku bisi bini dalam aku madah kadiri
bujang di kita kita belum ninga ari orang. I f
I have a wife when I tell you 1 am a bachelor
you will hear from people.
Belut {bebelut}, a worm.
Bembai, or bemban, a species of rush
or coarse grass used for making mats {tikai
Bembing, persons walking together and
holding hands.
Bempu (see empu}, to own, possess.
Bemunsoh (see munsoh}, to oppose, fight
against, have or be an enemy. Menya kami
Batang Ai bemunsoh enggau Kantu. Former-
ly we Batang Ai were enemies of the Kantu
Bena {bebena}, a tidal wave.
Benama, conj. if, whenever, ever, adj.
(see nama} important, having a name. Iya
orangbenama. He is an important man.
Benang {bebenang}, thread.
Benat, flat sound, indistinct, too full.
Nyawa tetawak nya benat. The sound of that
tetawak is flat. Benat jako iya. He talks
Benatang (bebenatang), an animal. Bena-
tang utai. Anything.
Benchi, to hate, abhor.
Benchin, rotten.
Bencho], a swelling.
Benda {bebenda}, earthenware, a jar, a bet
(either in money or jars). Iya alah beselam lain

ehggai nyua ka benda. He was beaten in
diving but did not hand over the bet.
Bendai or bebendai {bebebendai}, a chan-
ang\j.Q. a brass instrument like a gong but
with a boss in the centre.)
Bendang, see endang.
Bendang, bendang-bendang, or be-
bendang, glittering white.
Eendar (v. f. ngemendar; bebendar}, adv.
truly, verily, indeed, adj. true, v. to make
true, fulfil. Bendar bendar aku madah ka
nuan. Verily, verily, I say unto thee. Iya
ngemendar ka semaia iya ti dulu enggau aku.
He fulfilled his former promise to me,
Bendit-endit, to move or shuffle the feet
Bendol (bebendol}, a cross-beam.
Bengali, tired, fatigued. Nyau bengah
kaki bejalai. The legs are fatigued through
walking. Aku nyau bengah ninga ka iya. I
am tired of hearing him.
Bengal or benggal, deaf.
Bengeh, asthma.
Benggal or bengal, deaf.
Benggi (see enggi}, to own, possess. Iya
benggi manok . He owns the fowl.
Bengkah. (v. f. mengkah; bebengkah}, s.
a division, class, lot, v. to put aside. Iya
â– mengkah ka utai diri. He puts aside his own
Bengkak (v. f. mengkak}, s. tumour, v.
to swell. Jari aku nadai kena nama-nama
lain mengkak kadiri. Nothing happened to
my hand but it swelled up.
Bengkang {bebengkang}, the slow Lemur,
a small nocturnal animal {Nycticebus tardi-
Eengkelulut, see bek'elulut.
Eengkong (v. f. mengkong; bebengkong},
s. the inside support of a fish trap {bubu} made
ring-shaped of a creeper, an edging or rim to
anything such as a native sun-hat (/«wggz’z),
or basket (raga}, v. to make such.
Benih (v. f. menih ; bebenih}, s. seed, v.
to sow. Leboh aku nugal maioh indu menih.
When I was engaged in “dibbling” many
women were sowing.
Benjir, to rain constantly.
Benoa or menoa jbebenoa, or bemenoa},
country, district, native land.
Benong, whilst, when, in the midst, in
the middle, during, half way, in the prime of
life. Benong aku makai iya datai. Whilst I
was eating he came. Iya benong bejako anang
ngeruga iya. He is in the midst of his dis-
course do not disturb him. Tu benong pang-
ka iya. This is the middle of his top. Kami
benong ngetau. We are in the middle of our
harvest. Ai benong surut. It is half ebb.
Apai agi benong orang. Father is still in the
prime of life.
[Note.—Strictly speaking benong means
the time when there is most of a thing. Be-
nong tajau. The middle part of a jar (be-
cause that is the part where a jar is largest).
Benong pasang. The middle of the flood
(because that is when the water is swiftest)].
Bentai (bebentai}, s. split canes worn by
Dyak women round the waist; a proper
name, m,, v. to have split canes round the
waist. Bentai tali. String tied rounda woman’s
waist signifying deep mourning.
Berrtal (v. f. mental; bebental}, to tie the
petticoat just below the heart (when enceinte),
to conceal anything in the waist cloth.
Bentali or betentali, continuous, united.
Ujan laboh betentali. The rain falls continu-
ously. Bentali sida bejalai. They united when
they walked.
Bentan, a pain in the stomach caused by
Bentang (v. f. mentang; bebentang), to
stretch a rope across a river or road. [An old
custom in vogue when an epidemic is raging
in the country down-river.]
Bentanglang, commencing to walk (of
a child).
Bentaroh (see entaroh}, to bet.
Bentok jbebentok}, the numeral co-efficient
to express anything round. Tinchin tiga ben-
tok. Three rings.
Bentup, disinclined, lazy. Bentup tulang
iya. He is disinclined to work.
Bentur (v. f. mentur; bebentur}, to bend.
Benyawa, see nyawa.
Benyut jbebenyut}, to shake, quake, rock,
quiver. Rumah iya nadai tungkat nya alai
iya bebenyut. His house has no supports
(between the posts) that is the reason why it
shakes. Paya di umai kami bebenyut endor
kitai bejalai nya alai padi kami enda tumboh.
The wet land at our paddy farm shakes if
one walks upon it, that is the reason our paddy
did not grow.
Bepadong, see padong.
Bepagi (see pagi}, to go very early to a
Bepait (y&e pepait}, to send. Aku bepait
samakau ka indai. I send tobacco to mother.
Bepak or beprak, to quarrel noisily.
Bepaka (see paka}, to speak loud.
Bepakan (see pakan}, to have the woof
and warp confused, hence confused, com-
Bepalan palan}, to remain for a short
or definite time at Some place. Aku bepalan
di rumah China. I put up for a short time in
a Chinese house.
Bepancha (see pancha}, to wrestle with
the fingers, perform a manang ceremony.
Bepanga (see panga}, to divide, have
branches. Penyelai ai Sabu, nyadi bepanga
dua. The Sabu stream is a curious one, it
divides into two.
Bepangka (seepangka}, to play peg top,
strike, dash against. Anembiak rindu bepang-
ka di tengah laman. The boys like to play
peg top in the cleared space near the house.
Bepaong (see paong}, to have young
plants or shoots. [Note. As regards fines it
expresses insufficiency. Tunggu tu agi bepa-
ong agi beujong. There still remains some-
thing to complete the fine].
Bepeling (see peling}, to go round.
Bepending (see pending}, to have ears.
Bepending singit, to listen attentively.

Aku bejalai b epending sin git di babas. I walk
and listen attentively in the jungle.
Bepitak (see pitak}, to have partitions.
Beprak or bepak (see prak}.
Beprugan, to possess a number of stems,
to be in clusters. Aku nadai neinu beprugan
pun munti. I did not know the mti-nti bam-
boo had so many stems.
Beprugu, see beprugan.
Bepuk, bepung, or bepadong, to con-
ceal oneself in the room, be always in the
room. Iya salalu bepuk dalam bilik. He al-
ways conceals himself in the room.
Ber- the inseparable prefix (see B-),
Berada karong beridi, a title given to
Beradi, akin to.
Beragai (see beburong}, an omen bird
with a note like a laugh ; it generally foretells
good luck.
Beragok (beberagok}, a species of munsang
{Paradaxurus sp,} Beragok aku tu nampak
moa, penangkap manok bangkas. I am the
munsang smooth about the face, the one to
seize coloured fowls.
Berambat (see perambat}, to get round,
Berambing (see rambing}, to advance as
the wings of a column.
Beranak (see anak}, to give birth. Bini
aku beranak di malam. My wife gave birth
last night.
Berandau (see randaii), to sit down and
hold a general conversation, gossip, converse,
discuss, talk.
Berangai {beberangai}, a boat.
Berangkat, to commit adultery and then
live together. [This word can be used of
either the man or the woman]. Zy« berangkat
enggau bini aku. He committed adultery and
then lived with my wife.
Berangkat (see angkat}, to make a start.
Kamaia kita berangkat pindah I When do you
make a start to remove ?
Berangkat, as blachu berangkat, the thick
American drill.
Berantu (see antu}, to hold a final feast
in memory of the dead. Aku ka berantu ka
anak aku. I am going to hold the final feast
in memory of my deceased child.
Berapi, to cook. Kami baru datai ari
umai lalu apin berapi. We have just returned
from the paddy farm and have not yet cooked.
Berarau (v. f. merarau}, to have lunch.
Berari, berari-ari, or besari-sari (see
hari}, all day long, always, incessantly, con-
Beraroh, to quarrel.
Berasai (see asai}, to feel.
Berasok (see rasok}, to put on.
Berasu (see asu}, to hunt. Antu Liu
datai ari tuchong langgong Guyu, berasu kejah-
kejah. The Spirit Fiend comes from the peak
overlooking the flat lands of the mountain
Guyu ; when hunting his footsteps resound.
Beratong (see atong}, to drift with the tide.
Berauh (see rank}, the sound of a water-
fall or rain ; a title.
Berayah, a ceremonious dance performed
by chiefs leaping up with their arms extended
in imitation of a soaring kite. Smah berayah
kaki rantau, napat ka rarah buah jambu. The
smah fish leaps at the foot of the reach and
goes for the jambu, fruits that fall. [Note.
There are only three ancient Dyak dapces.
i. Berayah, 2. Naku pala, 3. Mengap. 1 is
an imitation of the soaring of the menaul, the
spirit representative of Singalang Burong. 2
is performed by women only carrying heads.
For 3 see Pengap. All these dances are of
a processional character].
Berayan (see ayari}, to fall, drop off.
Kandi aku berayan di jalai. My bag for the
chewing ingredients dropped off on the road.
Berayong takang, full of leaves.
Bereban (see reban}, to possess felled jun-
gle that has not yet been burnt.
Berebok, the sound made by air bubbles
in water.
Berebut (see rebut}, to snatch,
Beredup, thump, thud, creek, the noise a
paddle makes striking the side of a boat when
Beremban (see remb an}, frightened. Sida
meda kami lalu beremban nyau. They saw us,
were frightened, and fled.
Berembat, the sound of a single blow.
Berendayau, to commence to walk slow-
ly (like a sick person when recovering), move
Bereni (see perbeni}, to have bubbles, boil-
Berentak, firm, to the point, explicitly, to
shake, vibrate. Aku. berentak madah ka iya
nya wang aku. I explictly told him that was
my money.
Berenyang, a sudden shake caused by an
earthquake or hurricane. Baiat rilmt di ma-
lam lalu berenyang rumah kami. The squall
was very strong last night and our house
Berenyok (see renyok}, to fight without
Bererak (see rerak}, to untwist, untwine,
open up, undo, untie.
Beretat (see retat}, to chew various kinds
of herbs, leaves, etc., and apply them to a
patient, to doctor.
Beria, variegated colours. Tampak beria.
Displaying variegated colours.
Beridi, see berada.
Berikat or berikat-rih at (see ikat}, in
succession, without a break, in Indian-file.
Sida bejalai berikat-rikat. They walk in
Berimba (see rimba}, to cut down old
jungle.. . .
Berimbai (see tmbai}, beside, alongside,
side by side. Siduai laki bini berimbai. The
couple, husband and wife, are side by side.
Berimpeh, see beripeh,
Berinau, to lurk, lie in wait at night.
Beringan, a collection of any aitides tied
Beripeh, to disagree, be divided in opinion,
arrange in order. Beripeh jako kitai. Our

statements disagree. Asoh sida beripeh dudok.
Tell them to sit in order (lit. divided).
Bernaing, a clear shrill sound.
Berngangong, a loud clear sound.
Berngoh, the mumps.
Berngong, a whistling sound passing by.
Bersin, (see perbesin), to sneeze,
Bersranyat, to move slowly.
Berubat (see ubat), to doctor.
Berubut (see but), rotten fish put into a
jar with salt.
Berulih (uli/i), to get, obtain.
Berumpak, (seeperumpak), to race. Ma-
kin ploh makinbekayoh, makin lelak makin ber-
umpak. The more you perspire the more you
paddle, the more tired you are the more you
Berundai, hanging downwards (like or-
chids). Dan gensurai nya bcrundai ninggang
ai. That gensurai tree’s branches are hang-
ing down in the water.
Berundang, to go to and fro’. Iya berun-
dang kin kitu. He goes to and fro’ (or, here
and there),
Berundang-kasang, see beulang-ulang.
Berupai, visible, apparent. Bempaipenyai
iya. His wickedness is visible, lya berupai
tuai. He appears aged,
Beruran (see teberurari), to be famishing.
Kami sa rumah beruran magang lab an. padi
udah ambis. We of the same house are all
famishing because our paddy is finished.
Berut, unwilling, dispirited.
Besabat (from the Malay sahabat, friend),
to shake hands. Aku. besabat enggau tuan
Residen. I shook hands with the Resident.
Besabi or besadi, to make peace during
a fight. Leboh betumbok munsoh besabi baik.
Whilst we were thrusting (at one another
with) spears the enemy made peace.
Besadi, see besabi.
Besagu (see sagu and also besatit), to toss
up, throw up, raise up.
Besai (v. f. ngemesai), adj. large, great,
v. to make great. Besai umai iya. His farm
is a large one. Iya ngemesai kadiri. He
made himself great.
Besakang (see sakang), to oppose, hinder,
prevent. Jako sida besakang. Their state-
ments are opposed to one another. Laya si-
da agi besakang. Their case is still in dispute.
Besalah. (see salah), to blame, accuse.
Iya besalah aku. He accuses me.
Besantok (see santok), to have a metal
ring attached to the handle of a weapon.
Besapat (seesapat), to have partition walls.
Besapat kami di langkau. We have partition
walls in our hut.
Besari-sari, see berari.
Besarintak, to be at the last gasp. Seput
iya nyau besarintak. He is at his last gasp.
Besaut (see saut), to perform a certain
ceremony called the saut. This is the work of
manang doctoring a sick person. Manang
ka besaut malam lagi. The manang will per-
form the saut ceremony to-night.
Besela (see sela), at intervals, seldom.
Beselam, see selam.
Beselat (selat), alternate. Sida dudok be-
selat lelaki indu. They sit alternately a man
and then a woman. Beselat hari. Every
other day.
Beselingkut, to play a game something
like knucklebones with pieces of split bamboo.
Besemas (see semas), to learn. Iyabese-
mas ngaga kain. She learns to make a petti-
Besemetah, to have a diving contest.
Aram kitai besemetah. Come let us have a
diving contest.
Besemetak, to sound as if something was
Besempikut, to cling to, adhere to. An-
ang besempikut di aku. Do not cling to me.
Besempulut, see bekelulut.
Besemun (see semuri), to cool, permit to
get damp. Aku besemun di tanju. I cool
myself on the open verandah.
Besendi (see sendi), to be close by, nigh
at hand.
Besengkayau, to stand and lean against
Besengkubal (see sengkubal), to be un-
even, have red patches slightly swollen on the
Besensedan, to weep with sobbing.
Besentok (see sentok), to clash. Priok
besentok lain blah. The saucepans clash and
are forthwith broken.
Beserak (see serak), twin, double.
Beserambu, scattered (used of rotan shav-
Beserangau, see beteranguu.
Beserbana (see serbana), to complain.
Nadai ti enda beserbana. There are none who
do not complain.
Besi (bebesi), iron.
Besi api pantang (bebesi api pantang), tl
fire-tube of the Saribas Dyaks (gochoh api of
the Malays).
Besiang (see pensiang), to clear, clean.
Aku besiang padi. I clear (i. e. weed) the
paddy. Besiang antu. To rid oneself of fur-
ther recollection of the departed by holding
the berahtu feast.
Besili or besile (see sili or sile), to
change, take in turn, partake in turn of a
second or third helping. Iya makai enda besili.
He eats but does not take a second helping.
Iya besili enggau aku. bumai dia. He farms
there in turn with me.
Besimpan (see simp in), to pack up.
Besling (see sling), to have small chinks
or slits, open. Besling dinding nya. That
wall has chinks. Ati aku enda besling ka nya.
My mind is not clear (open) about that.
Besluntang, lying here and there.
Besri, to taste. Utai nya besri manis.
That thing tastes sweet.
Besrimbai, at the same time.
Besuar (see suar), to pole, punt. Orang
rilu landik besuar. Up-river people are ex-
pert at poling.
Busudi (see sudi), to examine a patient
and give medicine before performing the belian
ceremony. Sida manangnyau besudi ka bilik.

The manang have gone to the room to examine
(the patient).
Besugi (see sugi} to cast lots.
Besumpin (see sumpin}, to wear earrings.
Indu nya bestimpin. That woman wears ear-
Besumping (see sumping}, to pierce a
fowl’s nostrils with a piece of bamboo, etc.,
(this is done to prevent it pecking at growing
paddy). Manok nya asoh besumping. Elave
the nostrils of that fowl pierced.
Besundang (see sundang}, to exchange
gifts, return a visit, have things alternately
arranged (heads and tails like sardines in a box).
Siduai melaki bini barn sakali besundangpu-
lut. The couple, man and wife, have only
once exchanged visits. [The husband has
only once visited his wife’s parents, and the
wife has only once visited her husband’s
parents]. Ramtt rumah iya besundang. The
material of his house is put together alternate-
ly (i. e. the thick with the thin ends).
Besut, blind.
Betaban (see taban}, to elope. Iya betaban
enggau anak aku ka Kuching. Lie eloped
with my daughter to Kuching.
Betabas, the preliminary consultation of
the manang before the belian ceremony.
Betada (see tada}, to have spurs (of fight-
ing cocks).
Betah (v. f. ngemetah}, a long time, v.
not to feel lonely or homesick. Aku betah
udah bumai di a. A long time ago I farmed
there. Iya betah nyelam. He dives (i. e. re-
mains under water) a long time. Aku cnda
betah nemuai. I feel homesick when I go on
a visit. Iya betah nemuai. He does not feel
homesick when he is on a visit. Iya ngemetah
kadiri belelang. He does not feel homesick
when he leaves his country.
Betaka (see taka}, to have a limit or
boundary. Ditu menoa kami lietaka. Here
our country has its boundary.
Betakah (see takah}, at some distance, at in-
tervals. Rumah kami betakah. Our houses are
at some distance from one another. Iya betakah
ngosong aku. Lie calls upon me at intervals.
Betalat, to and fro’, reiterated. Betalat
sida bejalai. They walked to and fro’. Jako
betalat. Reiterated speech.
Batampong aiyu, or, betampong su-
kat, a ceremony, much resembling that of the
besaut, which the manang perform when a
person is unwell or has had a bad dream.
Betandai or betandang, to go on a visit,
Aku mina nemuai betandai. I am simply on
a visit.
Betandang, see betandai.
Betandok (see tandok}, to have horns or
projections, cup or bleed to relieve certain ill-
ness. Paia aku barn wyamai laban kamari
aku barn udah betandok. My headache is bet-
ter since I was bled yesterday.
Betanggoh (see tanggoh}, to put off,
delay, make excuse. Anang betanggoh ka be-
chara nuan. Do not put off your case. Iya
betanggoh kadiri sakit. He makes excuse for
himself being ill.
Betangkai (see tangkai}, to have ears (of
grain), have bunches (of fruit). Jako betang-
kai. Endless talk. Padi kami nyau betang-
kai. Our paddy is in ear. Sibau ti dienjok
iya ka aku betangkai. The sibau fruit that
he gave me was in bunches.
Betangkai (see tangkal}, to have a notch
in an upright post so that a cross-bar can rest
on it.
Betangkong (see tangkong}, to have an
excrescence on the bill, as the Hornbill.
Betangkin (see tangkin}, to wear a sword.
Betanya (see tanya}, to make inquiry, be
upon speaking terms. Kami duai udah belaya
endaagi betanya enggaupangan diri- We two
have quarrelled and are not any more upon
speaking terms with each other.
Betap (see tap}, to accumulate. Pupu
kami betap. Our door-tax has accumulated.
Betapak (see tapak}, to coincide.
Betapeh. (see tapeh}, to be one above the
other. Papan betapeh nya dia. The planks
there are one above the other.
Betapis or betapeh (see tapis}.
Betarak, to learn to do anything, talk in-
cessantly. Anak aku betarak mocha surat.
My son is learning to read.
Betatam (see tatam}, assembled. Bala
betatam di Lubok Antu. The army assembled
at Lubok Antu.
Betawa, mad, insane. Nuan tu nyau be-
tawa. You are mad.
Betawai, a ceremony performed by ma-
Betebu. (see tebu}, to have sunbeams.
Baka tikus bekutu, baka mayau betebu. As a
rat has lice, as a cat has sunbeams.
Betegetok, to murmur, make a noise (of
several persons talking at once).
Betegutak (see gutak}, to shake as if
palsied. Paia indu nya betegutak. That wo-
man’s head shakes.
Betekak or betekau, to shout out to a
companion loudly when in the jungle. Ny-
awa sida didinga betekak. Their voices were
heard loudly calling out to one another.
Betekaong, to call to one another. Nya-
wa sida didinga aku betekaong di kampong. I
heard their voices calling to one another in the
old jungle.
Betekating, suspending.
Beteke.jah (see kejah-kejah}, to denote the
sound of the footsteps of several persons walk-
Betekitang, see betekating.
Betelai (see telai}, to whisper.
Betelangkas, stripped of awnings.
Betelili, noisy.
Betelingkas, without any luggage.
Betelipi, to shew fluency.
Betemadok, uneven. Tanah nya betema-
dok That land is uneven.
Betemayan (see ayan}, scattered about.
Utai betemayan di langkau sida. Things are
scattered about in their hut.
Eetembong, to be patchy. Umai sida
betembong nyadi. Their paddy farms only
grow in patches.

Betemera, see bet emay an.
Betempangan (see tempangan}, still thick
and without an edge (as a newly forged weap-
on). Duku nuan tu agi betempangan. Your
chopper is still thick and without an edge.
Betemu, to meet. Aku betemu enggau sanu
tadi madah ka Raja udah datai. I met so-and-
so just now and he told me that the Rajah
had come.
Betenah. (see petenah}, to make a false
accusation, utter a scandal.
Betengelang, striped.
Betengik (see tengik} to dispute, wrangle,
Betentali, see bentali.
Betenyalang, see bekenyalang.
Beteri. the crooning noise a fowl makes.
Beteruan, to hide, conceal.
Betelisih, not to coincide, to pass without
meeting. Jako kami betelisih, iya ngasoh sida
bumai aku enda nyagi. Our conversation does
not coincide, he orders them to farm (but) I
do not want them to do so.
Betentali, clever at versification.
Betentang, opposite.
Beterangau, crying out loud, calling to
one another.
Beteratak, a peculiar cry a fowl makes
when victorious.
Betindih, adjacent, near.
Beting jbebeting}, a sandbank, shoal.
Betingga (see tingga}, to wear earrings.
Orang Bugau enda betingga. The Bugau
people do not wear earrings.
Betingkah. (see tingkah}, to be unequal.
Peninggi puchok tapang betingkah ari puchok
kayu bukai. The height of the top of a ta-
pang tree cannot be equalled by the top of any
other tree. Betingkah peninggi siduai. Their
heights are not equal.
Betigong (see tigong), to have young
shoots or suckers (of such trees as mulong,
pisang, etc.). Apin mati mulong agi betigong.
The sago tree is not dead as there remain the
Betigong (see tigong}, to brush against
a person in order to show one’s contempt.
Benama sida betemu lain betigong. When-
ever they meet they show contempt for one
Betiris (see tiris}, to inherit.
Betis (bebetis'), the leg, calf of the leg.
Betoklai, see betelai.
Betong, a large species of bamboo used
for carrying water ; the name of the chief
village in the Saribas.
Betu, burnt, scalded. Priok tungkup lain
jari iya betu. The pot was overturned and
his hand was scalded.
Betuah. (see tuah), to be lucky, fortunate.
Betuah iya bedagang. II e is fortunate in trad-
Betuai, to serve. Anang betuai ka ahtu.
Do not serve the spirits.
Betugang (see tugang}, to have an edging
or border. Pua iya betugang badas amai.
His sheet has a very beautiful edging.
Betugau (see tugau), to have trees left
standing in the paddy farm. [This word has
hence come to be used of a man or woman
who has several divorced wives or husbands
still living].
Betugong (see tugoug), to heap up.
Betuju (see tuju), to aim at, coincide.
Jako siduai betuju. Their words coincide.
Betuku (seezWvz), in a proper manner, fit,
fitting, certain, sure, trustworthy. Bejako be-
tuku nuan I Talk properly ! Jalai lama enda
betuku. The old road is not in a fit state.
Betuku rita nya ? Is that news certain ? /ya
orang betuku. He is a trustworthy person.
Betul, true, in truth. Betul orang tu ngen-
churi utai nuan. In truth this man stole your
Betulak (see tulak), to launch, shove off,
(of companions) to leave a place and go in
opposite directions. Pagi tadi sida betulakpegi.
This morning they left on their journey going
in opposite directions.
Betunda (see tunda}, to follow, imitate,
tow a boat. Sida betunda ngasu. They are
following the custom of hunting. Sida betuhda
mangah. They are imitating one another in
being bad-tempered.
Betunda-udi, to follow one after the
other, walk in Indian-file. Sida bejalai betun-
da-udi. They walk in Indian-file. Kita ma-
kai betzmda-udi. You eat one after the other.
Betunga (see tunga}, to be face to face,
meet, interview, turn towards. Kami dual ka-
mari betunga moa minta anak iya jadi ka anka
aku. Yesterday we met face to face when
I asked for his daughter to marry my son.
Raja kamari ngasoh kami betunga enggau iya.
Yesterday the Rajah ordered us to meet him.
Betusi or betusoi (see tusi or tusoi), to
narrate, relate.
Betutus (see tutus}, to be circumcised after
the Dyak custom, Iya apin tau bebini laban
apin betutus. He cannot yet be married for
he has not yet been circumcised.
Beulang-ulang, to go backwards and
forwards. Iya enggai badu beulang-ulang ka
Simanggang. He ceases not going to and
from Simanggang.
Bia (v. f. mi a; bebia}, to put aside, set
apart. Iya mia ka aku sa pasti padi. Ide
put aside a pasu measure of paddy for me.
Biak (v. f. miak; bebiak), adj. young (of
living creatures), v. to make young, rejuve-
nate. Apai iya agi biak. His father is still
young. Iya miak kadiri begulai enggau orang
bujang. Ide passes himself off as a young man
by mixing with the bachelors.
Bias, a rain storm accompanied by wind,
thunder, and lightning. Endor kitai lari ka
bias glombang nyadi. The place we took shel-
ter in from the storm and raging sea.
Biau (v. f. miau ; bebiau), to wave (usually
expresses the ceremony of waving a fowl over
guests, patients, and married couples). Iya
miau pengabang enggau manok lab ang. He
waves a white fowl over the heads of the guests.
Bibat, to wrestle, embrace. Sida sarumah
kuat bibat. They of the same house are con-
stantly wrestling.

Bibit (v. f. mibit; bebibit), to pinch with
the finger and thumb. Iya mibit kuyu aku.
He pinched my cheek.
Bichu (bebichu), colour, paint.
Bidai (bebidai), a coarse mat made of rotan
and tree bark.
Bidak jebidak), a blanket.
Bidang (v. f. midang', bebidang), a numer-
al co-efficient used of things spread out, s. a
woman’s petticoat, v. to tear. Aku udah mli
sa bidang kajang. I bought a piece of leaf
matting. Kalambi aku kena bidang iya. He
tore my jacket. Iya midang ka kain aku. He
tore my petticoat.
Bidik (v. f. ngemidik, midik; bebidik), adj.
fortunate, lucky, v. to make fortunate. Iya
midik kadiri bumai enda beburong lalu bulih
padi. He was fortunate in that he did not
listen to omens but got a good crop of paddy.
Bidok (bebidok), a small boat.
Bidu, a mythical personage, a mahang
title. Aiyu ko Bidu. The soul says Bidu.
Bigok (bebigok), a species of bejit (Semno-
pithecus cristat us).
Bila (v. f. mila; bebila) to open, split.
Bila dua. Split in two.
Bilah, a numeral co-efficient applied to cut-
ting weapons. Sa bilah duku. One chopper.
Bilik (bebilik), a room. Bilik iya lantang.
His room is spacious.
Bilis (bebilis), a very small sea fish.
Bilok (v. f. ngemilok, milok; bebilok), adj.
crooked, unjust, v. to turn, be crooked or
unjust. Bilok kamudi1 Turn the rudder 1
Apai iya orang lurus utang iya milok kadiri,
H is father was a just man but he became un-
Bilut (v. f. milut or ngemilut), adj. crook-
ed, folded, turned (as the edge of a weapon),
v. to grimace at a person, cause to turn.
Kayu tebelian nya ngemilut ka bliong aku.
That iron-wood turned the edge of my axe.
Bimbang, uncertain, perplexed.
Bimbi (jbebimbi), a goat.
Bina (v. f. ngemina, mina; bebina), to
heed, care for, mind. Aku enda mina ka
jako iya. I do not heed his talk.
Binchang (v. f. minchang), to hold the
arm or leg with one hand.
Binching (v. f. minching; bebinching), to
carry suspended from the hand. Iya mansa
minching ikan. He passed by, carrying fish.
Bingkai (v. f. mingkai; bebingkai), s. an
edging or rim to anything such as a native
sunhat {tanggoij, basket (raga menarang1). v.
to make such an edging.
Bingking (bebingking), see begeng.
Bingkok (v. f. mingkok or ngtmingkok;
bebmgkok), adj. crooked, unjust, v. to make
crooked. Apai iya orang bingkok orang jai.
His father was an unjust man, a bad man.
Iya mingkok ka pedang aku. He made my
sword crooked.
Bingung (v. f. mingung), adj. giddy,
stupid, v. to be puzzled, stupid, giddy. Bin-
gung pala aku laban glonibang. My head is
giddy because of the waves.
Bini (bebini), s. a wife, v. to marry (of
the man only). Anakaku apin bebini. My
son has not yet married.
Binsang (v. f. minsang), to have holes,
cause to have holes. Raga tu ambis binsang.
There are a number of holes in this basket.
Iya minsang ka raga aku. He made a num-
ber of holes in my basket.
Binsang, a hare-lip.
Bintang (bebintang), a star ; a proper
name, f.
Binteh. (v. f. minteh ; bebinteh), to fight
with the legs as fowls do, to kick. Iya
minteh kaki aku. He kicked my legs.
Bintis (v. f. mintis ; bebintis), see binteh.
Biobalai (bebiobalai), a storm ; a title.
Kami bekayoh ngelaban biobalai. We pulled
against the storm.
Bira, to relieve oneself. Bira panchar.
To purge. Bira ka darah. To pass blood,
(i. e. dysentery or piles).
Birah jbebirah), a species of giant kladium.
Birai (v. f. mirai; bebirai), to unloose.
Indu nya salalu mirai ka bok iya. That
woman is always letting her hair loose.
Biras (bebiras), brother-(or sister-)in-law.
Ipar biras. Brother-(or sister-)in-law.
Biring, red of colour or plumage. Manok
lelaki iya hiring. His cock has red plumage.
Biru (bebiru), a species of palm (see ban-
Biru, blue.
Bisa (v. f. misa, ngemisa; bebisa), adj.
poisonous, strong (of medicine), effectual, v. to
cause to be poisonous. Kendaivangular bisa.
Kendawang is a poisonous snake. Ubat nya
bisa bendar. That medicine is very strong.
Bisa jako nuan. Your words are irritating
(lit : poisonous).
Bisak (v. f. misak, ngemisak; bebisak),
part, torn, v. to tear.
Bisi (v. f. ngemisi ; bebisi), is, are, there
is, there are, to be, to have. Aku bisi ivang.
I have money. Iya ngemisi kadiri. He
assumes (the position of) a man of property.
Bisu (bebisu), dumb.
Bia (v. f. nyemla; beblaj, adj. equal,
even, alike, all, adv. equally, v. to equalize.
Bia peninggi siduai. Their height is equal
Kami bla grai. We are all well.
Bia (v. f. mla ; bebla), v. to prepare food.
Asoh bini nuan beguai mla ka kami. Ask
your wife to prepare food for us quickly.
Blachan (beblachan), a paste made of
shrimps (bubok).
Blachu (beblachit), American drill. Bla-
chu berangkat. Thick American drill. Blachu
minyak. Thin American drill.
Blah (v. f. mlah; beblah), s. a section,
division, part, split, cracked, v. to split, crack,
split in two, perform the Dyak marriage cere-
mony (with pinang). Sa blah umai. One
section of the farm. Umai iya tigablah. He
has three divisions of the paddy farm. Prauh
iya tepantup dibatulalu blah dua. His boat
knocked against a rock and split in two.
Tajau blah. A cracked jar. Aku ngasoh iya
mlah nyur tu. I tcld him to split this cocoa-
nut in two. Allah pinang. To perform the

marriage ceremony (by splitting the pinang
nut). Apai ngasoh aku mlahpinang ka siduai.
Father has asked me to perform your mar-
riage ceremony.
Blakang (v. f. mlakang), s. the back,
prep, behind, v. to turn the back, disregard.
Leboh iya lari ka munsoh blakang iya kena telih.
Whilst he fled from the enemy he was wound-
ed in the back. Iya dudok di blakang aku.
He sits behind me. Jelu ingkat malik ka
blakang. The Loris turns its face to its back.
Di blakang kajang. Outside the boat awn-
ing. Iya mlakang ka jako aku. He disre-
garded my words.
Blaki, low-lying soil neither very wet nor
very dry.
Blanda (beblanda), the name for Euro-
peans or Dutchmen (probably derived from
Hollander mispronounced). China Blanda.
Chinese and Europeans.
Blang (beblang), s. a kind of skin disease
that attacks the palms of the hands and soles
of the feet, adj. piebald. Blang pegu. A pig
from four to six months old.
Blangkas, the king-crab, horse-shoe crab
Blanja (v. f. mlanja ; beblanja), s. ex-
pense, allowance, money for current expenses,
v. to spend, give subsistence money. Iya
mlanja bini tiga ringgit sa bulan. He makes
an allowance of three dollars a month to his
Blansai {beblansai), a bag made of nipa
palm shoots plaited ; it is used to contain
rice (dZ. karong).
Blat {beblat), a bamboo fish trap, a blind
as used by Europeans. Labang bekandang
dalam blat. The Zafozz^fish is enclosed in the
bamboo trap.
Blayan (beblayan), a field of anything,
kindred. Blayan tebu magang ti dipansa kami
tadi. It was a field of sugar cane that we
passed just now. Sida nya ukai orang bukai
kaban blayan kami. They are not aliens but
our kindred.
Bli (v. f. mli ; bebli), to buy, purchase. Aku
kamari mli ikan masin sa kati sa tali. Yester-
day I bought a kati of salt fish for nine cents.
Blia (beblia), a wooden instrument used in
weaving cloth to press the threads together.
Blih (v. f. mlih, ngenilih; beblih), adj.
stupid, idiotic, v. to be stupid.
Blikan, a sort of guitar with two strings.
Bliong {bebliong), an adze or native hatchet.
Blit (v. f. mlit; beblit), entangled, v. to coil,
tie round, entangle. Iya mlit aku enggau
jako. He entangled me in argument.
Blitan (see litari), to have a mark or scar.
Iya blitan laban bungai kayu. He has marks
from small-pox.
Blitong, as bangkit biltong, a well-known
Dyak flower.
Bloh (beblohj, steam or heat on a saucepan
lid, etc.
Bloh jbebloh), a small species of fish.
Blong, bent, crooked. Iya ngaga antara
umai kami blong. He made crooked the
boundary of our paddy farm.
Bluai {bebluai), the name of a snake.
Kami tu Tikam, ular Mersian, ular Bungai,
ular Bluai. We are the Tikam, the Mersian,
the Bungai, and the Bluai snakes.
Bok (bebok), the hair of the head.
Bol (bebol), a fixed time, v. to have a fixed
time. Bolpeti iya tujoh hari. The fixed
time for inspecting his pig trap is seven days.
Kami meti nadai bebol. We have no fixed
time for inspecting our pig traps. Indai mati
apin tembu bol alai iya nyau nyembrai. Be-
fore the expiration of the mourning for his
mother’s death he had gone out to pay
Bong (bebong), a flat-bottomed boat with
square bows and stern used chiefly for up-river
work ; a proper name, m. Bong iya laju
nanjak karangan. His boat is swift going up
stream over the gravel beds.
Bong-nebang, or bebong-nebang, to
work in a body felling trees.
Bra [bebra), a female spirit (see koklir).
Bradong (bebradong) the breast-bone (of
animals and birds).
Bram (bebram), cooked rice from which
an intoxicating drink is made. Enti orang
udah gatva bebau bendar rumah laban bram.
When the people had had a feast the house
stank because of the bram.
Brang \pebrang), the upper part of the
arm. Buah brang. The biceps.
Brangai (<5e$raw£W?‘), see prauh.
Brangangai, a loud clear sound.
Brani (v. f. merani), adj. daring, bold,
brave, confident, adventurous v. to dare. Iya
eitdang orang brani. He was ever a bold
man. Brani nuan nyelam ka aku I Dare
you dive for me ? Iya merani kadiri. He
makes himself daring.
Brap (v. f. mrap; bebrap), to embrace,
caress, catch round, throw one’s arm round,
lock in an embrace. Iya meda anak lalu
mrap iya. He saw and embraced his child.
Brapa \bebrapa), how many ? How much ?
Bra pa iko kita sa bilik ? How many are you
in the same room ? Brapa rerga snapang
nuan I What was the price of your gun ?
Bras (bebras), uncooked rice. Bras iya
burak. His rice is white.
Brat (v. f. mrat, ngemerat; bebrat), adj.
heavy, ponderous (hence unwilling), burden-
some, oppressive, important, s. weight, v. to
be heavy, burdensome, important. Utai tu
brat amai. This thing is very heavy. Iya
nya brat bendar diasoh. He is very unwill-
ing to do anything when asked. Kuan enda
brat ka jako aku. You do not attach much
weight to my words. Sida nya brat ka nuan
nya alai apin nyadi gawai. They attach
much importance to your coming that is the
reason why the feast has not yet taken place.
Brau. (bebrauj, raw rice. Bran rayti.
The first ripe paddy pounded into rice. Brau
basau or bras basa. A little raw rice put
into a cup and slightly wetted ; [this is the
smallest Dyak fine (/z’wZ?)].
Brayang (bebrayang), a fish spear with an
arrow-shaped head. Baka brayang baka

news, m-
mrita ka
news that
: srepang, baka gansai lekat di .gundai. Like
the arrow-shaped fish spear, like the trident,
like the single-barbed fish spear stuck in the
tuft of a man’s hair.
Bri (v. f. mri; bebri), s. a dowry, v. to
give. Iya mri ka aku manok siko. He gave
me a fowl.
Briak {bebriak}, the ripple a fish, drift
wood, etc., makes on rising to the surface of
the water.
Briak (see beburong), one of the Dyak
omen birds ; a proper name, m.
Brita (v. f. mrita ; bebrita), s.
telligence, v. to spread news. Iya
Raja udah datai. He spread the
the Rajah had come.
Brok {bebrok}, a monkey {Macacus nemes-
trimts) ; a proper name, m.
Brua (seeprua), to swing. Anak aku brua
tazoas malam. My child swings day and
Bruak (bebruak), a bamboo sharpened into
a spear.
Bruang {bebruang), a bear {Ilelarctos Mala-
yanus); a proper name, m. '1'andang aku tu
unggal Bruang Langit! My title is the Bear
of the Heavens !
Brunai {bebrunai}, the well-known town in
the northern part of Borneo, a pineapple.
Buah brunai tu nyau mansau, This pine-
apple is ripe.
Brupus, intermarriage. Kami tu brupus
dia magang. We are all intermarried there.
Bu \pebu), a species of ijok palm.
Buah \bebuah}, fruit, a berry, a numeral
•coefficient applied to boats, houses, etc. Buah
nya manis diempa. That fruit is sweet to eat.
Sida diau di rumah sa buah utang bangkong
sida enda sa buah dua. They live in one house
but their boats are many.
Buah, as ka buah, or Z’ cause, ground. Nama ka buah ? For what
reason ? Nadai ka buah-buah ngayau. No
pretext for going on the war-path. Nama ka
buah-buah nuan salalu ngachau aku I For
what reason do you always worry me ?
Buai (v. f. muai ; bebuai), to throw away,
banish, expel, abolish. Iya muai Samoa adat
aki ini. He abolished all his forefather’s
Buak (^?zczZ>), the spider monkey (also
called Empliau, Malay zvah-zvah) Hylobates
mullerii. Buak nanga Lemanak munyi salak
udok. The spider monkeys at the mouth of
the Lemanak make a noise like the barking
of dogs.
Buan {bebuan}, a small shrub whose fruit
and llowers are the favourite food of the
mouse-deer (plandok).
Buat (v. f. muat; bebuat), to take in
cargo, house paddy, invent a story, have
a pain in the stomach. Kami agi muat bekal
ka dalam bangkong. We are still loading the
boat with provisions. Asoh iya muat padi.
Tell him to house the paddy. Anangmuat ka
jako. Do not invent a story.
Buat, a friend ; a proper name, m.
Buau, the title of the spirit Gergasi, adj.
empty (of paddy ears), inferior (of bilian
wood). Baka badak minta resa, baka Buau
â– minta sada. As the rhinoceros wants a neck,
as the spirit Buau wants to be shouted at.
Padi kami buau lab an pipit. Our paddy is
empty because of the sparrows. Tebelian
buau. Iron-wood that will not last.
Bulba {bebuba}, see bubu.
Buban (see uban), grey, grey-headed. Iya
baka orang tuai pala iya buban. He is like
an old man his head is grey.
Buboh. (v. f. muboh; bebuboh), to pour
out. Iya muboh ka ai aku ambis nya alai
ringat. He poured out all my water that was
the reason I was angry.
Bubok (v. f. mubok ; bebubok}, s. a species
of small wood-boring beetle, a shrimp (a kind
of paste called blachan is made from these
shrimps), ah itching on the head caused by
some insects, v. to make a hole, open up a
country and settle in it. Baka bubok dalam
tabong enda temu ka moa, baka engketong
dalam bungkong enda temu ka nanga. As the
beetle inside the bamboo cylinder does not
know which is the opening, as the boring
insect in the wood’s knot does not know the
outlet. Apai ti mubok menoa tu. Father
opened up this country and settled in it.
Bubong (bebubong), a fenced trap for catch-
ing monkeys.
Bubu or buba {bebubu or bebuba), a fish
trap. Bubu iya salalu bulih ikan. His trap
always gets fish.
Bubul (v. f. mubul; bebubzd), s, a collec-
tion, v. to add to, fill up the spaces left be-
tween paddy plants with fresh ones. Zwz
mubul zvang enggau padi. He accumulated
money by (selling) paddy. Kami tu agi gazua
mubul umai. We are busy filling up spaces
between paddy plants with fresh ones.
Bubur (v. f. mubur; bebubur), s. thick rice
water, gruel, v. to make rice gruel.
Bubur {bebubur}, sea-nettle, jelly-fish, {sp.
Bubut {bebubut), a bird (Czvzz'/Wtfzrjerj.
Baka ruai enggau bubut. As the argus phea-
sant and the bubut. (A proverb signifying
Buchai (v. f. muchai ; bebuchai}, s. a
fringe, v. to make a fringe. Kalambi indu
nya bebuchai. That woman’s jacket has a
Budau (v. f. ngemudau; bebudati), adj.
stupid, disgraceful, v. to have a bad charac-
ter. Indu nya udah suah budau. That
woman has often disgraced herself. Iya nge-
mudau kadiri. He disgraced himself.
Budi (v. f. mudt; bebudi}, s. deceit, sense
of gratitude, v. to deceive, decoy, entrap,
snare. Budi iya badas. He has a proper
sense of gratitude. mudi aku enggo jako
manah. He deceived me with fair words.
Budu {bebudu), salted fish or meat dried
in the sun.
Budu (v. f. mu.iu; bebudu), to rub on.
by a mudu aku enggau tanah. He rubbed
earth on me.
Buell {bebueh), froth, foam, spume.

— 28—
Buih {bebuih}, another name for a croco-
Bujak {bebujak}, a spear.
Bujang (v.f. ngemujang ; bebujang}, s. a
bachelor, v. to pose as a bachelor ; a proper
name, m. Iya enda ingat kadiri udah bebini
ka ngemtijang kadiri. He forgets that he has
married and tries to pose as a bachelor.
Bujang {bebujang}, a species of grass-
hopper reckoned as an omen when heard at
night. _
Bujok (v. f. mujok; bebujok}, s. flattery,
a caress, v. to flatter, caress, persuade. Iya
mujok aku salalu nya endor aku nyau rindu ka
iya. He constantly flattered me, that is why
I got to like him.
Bujur(v.f. mujur ; bebujur},^]. straight,
v. to go straight, make straight, set right. Iya
mujur ka jako aku. He put straight what I
said. Iya mujur ka aku bejako. He set me
right when speaking. Bujur pejalai iya. He
w-ent straight.
Bukai (v, f. mukai, memukai or ngemukai ;
bebukai}, another, v. to be a stranger, an
alien. Tu orang bukai ti empu. This be-
longs to another. Mukai orang belaya, mu-
kai ditunggu. Another man quarrels but
another gets fined. Orang bukai. A stran-
ger. Mukai jako orang mukai jako iya.
People say one thing he says another. Nuan
nyau ngemukai kadiri enggau kami. You are
quite a stranger to us.
Bukang {bebukang), a headless corpse.
Men si a parai betinggang bukang. Men died
and their headless corpses were piled upon one
Bukau {belntkau}, usually buah bukau, the
Bukit {bebukit}, a mountain. Bukit Ni-
mong. Nimong mountain.
Buku {bebuku}, a joint, knot in wood, the
principal, the gist of a matter. Buku kuan.
The wrist. Buku ali. The ankle. Kayu
nya maioh buku. That wood has many knots.
Ka nuan ka buku lay a orang tu I Will you be
the principal (to be responsible) for this man’s
quarrel ? Iya empu buku penyalah. His is
the responsibility for the wrong.
Bukup {bebukup}, a kind of rotan used for
making the best {bidai} mats.
Bukut (v. f. mukut; bebukut}, to strike
with the fist. Iya dulu mukut moa aka. He
first struck me in the face with his fist.
Bula (v. f. ngemula; bebula}, s. a lie, v. to
lie. Iya ngemula ka Prentah. He lied to the
Bulan (v. f. mulan; bebulan}, s. the
moon, the month, v. to have menses mulie-
brum. Tumboh bulan baru. The new moon.
Bulan kedangox bulan tengah mansang. The
first quarter. Bulan pernama or bulan kem-
bang. Full moon. Bulan kedangsurut. Last
quarter. Bulan empa ran, or bulan malu.
The eclipse of the moon. Bulan tumboh.
The moon rises. Bulan padam. The moon
Bulang {bebulang), a string for fastening on
the artificial spur of a fighting cock.
Bular, dim. Bular mata aku. My eyes
are dim.
Bulat, round.
Bull (bebuli), an eddy.
Bulih (see uliti}, to get, obtain. Iya bulih
padi. He got a quantity of paddy.
Buloh {bebuloh}, a bamboo.
Bulu {bebultt}. a feather, down, hair of the
body, quill, kind. Bulu sua. The feathers
on the neck of a fowl. Bulu manok nya la-
bang. The feathers of that fowl are white.
Bulu kaki akupanjai. The hairs of my leg are
long. Bulu landak. The quills of a porcupine.
Bisi maioh bulu mensia dia. There are
many kinds of people there. Bulu nya aku
enggai mli. That kind I will not buy.
Bumai (see umai}, to make a paddy farm.
Bumbong {bebumbong}, a torch-shaped
receptacle for resin {damar}', a proper name,
Bumbu (v. f. mumbu; bebumbu}, to cover
with a sheet or blanket.
Bumbus (v. f. mumbus; bebumbus), to
have or make a hole or holes. Iya mumbus
ka tikai aku. He made a hole in my mat.
Bunang (v. f. munang; bebunang}, to-
level or smooth the surface of anything. {bebunchol}, the boss of a teta-
wak or chanang. Badas bunchol tetawak iya.
The boss of his tetawak is a good one.
Bundong {bebundong}, a coarse kind of
Bunga {bebunga}, see bungai.
Bunga-jarau, or bungai-j arau {bebun-
ga-jarau, or bebungai-jarau}, a wooden deco-
ration used during a feast.
Bunga Jawa, the mythical god of war.
Bunga kayu {bebunga kayu}, small pox.
Bunga Nuing, (another) mythical god of
war (see Bunga Jawa}. Baka Kling, baka
Bunga Nuing, baka Laja, baka'Bunga jawa
.......As Kling, as Bunga Nuing, as Laja,
as Bunga Jawa, etc.
Bungah (v. f. mungah or ngemungah;
bebungah}, to joke, jest. Anang mungah
diri. Do not be jesting.
Bungai {bebungai}, s. a flower, the name of
a snake (see bluai}, v. to flower.
Bungai kayu, Small-pox.
Bungas, the first-born, first fruits (usually
buah bungas}.
JSwagau {v. f. ngemungau), adj. giddy, v.
to cause to be giddy. Biingaupala aku. My
head is giddy.
Bungkak, short (when the body is short
and the legs and arms are long).
Bungkan (bebungkan}, a bamboo cylinder
used as a receptacle for anything. Badas ben-
dar ukir bungkan iya. His bamboo cylin-
der is beautifully carved.
Bungkar (v. f. mungkar; bebungkar}, to
unload, uproot, reopen a case. Iya mungkar
utai ari bangkong. He unloads the boat.
Iya mungkar bechara nuan. He reopened
your case.
Bungkas (v. f. mungkas; bebungkas), to
strip off boat awnings {kajang} in stormy
weather. Baiat ribut asoh sida mungkas ka-

jang. The gale is boisterous, tell them to
strip the awnings.
Bungkat-ungkat, to do things little by
Bungkok (v. f. mungkok or ngemungkok;
bebungkok), adj. bent, hunchbacked,v. to cause
to bend. Tuai lukai bungkok blakang. Very
old and bent.
Bungkong [bebungkong), a knot in wood.
Bungkur (v. f. mungkur ; bebungkur), to
wrap up. Udah bulih pala iya mungkur iya
enggau pua. When he had got a head he
wrapped it in a blanket.
Bungkus (v. f. mungkus ; bebungkus) s. a
bundle, bundle of cooked rice, v. to pack up,
wrap up. Kami tu nadai bisi mai bungkus.
We brought no bundles of cooked rice with
Bunoh. (v. f. mu noh ; bebunoh), to kill,
slay, murder, extinguish, cure. Anangmunoh
orang. Thou shalt do no murder. Ubat tu
enggau munoh lusong. This medicine is for
curing skin disease. Mdnang di malam bebu-
noh buyu. Last night the manang killed the
evil spirit (see buyu).
Bunsu, the youngest child. Jawa nama
anak bunsu aku. Jawa is the name of my
youngest child.
Bunsu [bebunsu), s. joint, point. Papan
dirakup iya nadai dipeda bunsu. One can-
not see the joint in the planks that he fitted
together. Tu bunsu jako iya. This is the
gist of his speech.
Buntak [bebuntak), a locust.
Buntal [bebuntal), the globe fish (there
are two kinds of these fish, one is poisonous);
a proper name, f.
Buntas (v. f. muntas; bebuntas), s. a
headkerchief fringed with gold lace (usually
labong bunt as), v. to cut open.
Buntat (v. f. muntat; bebuntat), adj. stu-
pid, idiotic, v. to make oneself stupid. An-
ang muntat kadiri. Do not make an idiot
of yourself.
Buntat, a stone found inside anything
(such as a cocoanut), a pig’s tusk solid
throughout. [These are valued by Dyaks as
Buntau (v. f. ngemuntau; bebuntau),
drowsy, v. to cause to be drowsy. Aku tu
buntau. I am drowsy.
Buntil [bebuntil), a bag made of the pre-
pared bark of a tree.
Buntis (v. f. muntis ; bebuntis) to select,
select paddy seed [benih). Apai iridai iya
manah utang iya muntis kadiri jai. His
father and mother were good people but he
chose to select a wicked course for himself.
Buntut [bebuntut), the end, the last per-
son in a row. Buntut wong. The foot of a
Bunyi [bebunyi), s. noise, report, sound,
utterance, v. to make a sound, utter. Nadai
bisi didinga bunyi ujan. The sound of the
rain was not heard.
Bunyoh. [bebunyoh), s. lime (called chu-
nam in India), v. to have lime for chewing.
Burai [beburai), a necklace tassel.
Burak (v. f. ngemurak; beburak), adj.
white, v. to make white ; a proper name, f.
Burak bendar moa iya. Her face is very white.
Iya ngemurak ka bilik enggau kapu. He
whitewashes his room with lime.
Burek, the varied colours of fowls’ fea-
Buri [beburi), cowry shells which are sewn
as ornaments on jackets, petticoats, etc., and
worn by Batang Ai and some Rejang Dyak
men in their ears ; a proper name, m. f.
Burit [beburit), the bottom or hinder part
of anything, base. Burit benda nya pesok.
The bottom of that jar has a hole. Tikai
burit. The mat worn behind.
Burok (v. f. murok, ngemurok; beburok),
adj. lazy, rotten, v. to rot. Orang burok.
A lazy fellow. Telih iya nyau murok. His
wound is rotten.
Burong [beburong), s. a bird, an omen,
v. to augur (see beburong); a proper name, f.
Burong [beburong), s. a contract, v. to
make a contract. Aku ngasoh tukang bebu-
rong enggau aku ngaga rumah aku utang iya
enggai, minta gaji hari. I asked the car-
penter to contract with me to build my house
but he would not and asked for daily wages.
Buru (v. f. murzi ; bebuvu). to drive away,
hunt, chase. Iya muru aku ari rumah iya.
He drove me away from his house.
Burut, swollen testicles, diseased in the
scrotum ; a proper name, m.
Buso [bebuso), a species of munsang.
Busong (v. f. ngemusong; bebusong), to
be afflicted by supernatural punishment, to
blaspheme. Jako busong. Blasphemy. Nu-
an ngemusong ka aku ngasoh aku jadi enggau
ibu aku. You make me liable to supernatural
punishment when you order me to marry my
aunt. Nuan busong nyebut nama entua. You
blaspheme when you mention the name of
your father-(or mother-) in-law.
But [bebut) adj. rotten, stinking, v. to rot.
Buta (v. f. ngemuta ; bebuta), adj. blind,
s. a roughly plaited bag (like an ajat), v. to
cause to be blind. Iya ngemuta ka mata aku.
He caused my eyes to be blind.
Butang (v. f. ngemutang), to commit
adultery or any fineable offence. Butang
basah. Actual adultery. Butang rangkai.
Adultery (from a Dyak point of view) intend-
ed but frustrated. Iya udah dua kali butang.
He has twice committed adultery. Iya nge-
mutang ka aku meda aku bejako enggau bini
iya. He made me liable to a fineable offence
(because) he saw me talking to his wife.
Butir [bebutir), a wart.
Butoh (v. f. ngemutoh; bebutoh), s. the
penis, v. to repeat the word butoh when quar-
relling, to have any projection. Butoh dilah.
The uvula.
Buya (v. f. mziya; bebuya), to interfere
with improperly, touch, taste. Aku enda. kala
buya indu nya. I never interfered improperly
with that woman.
Buyah [bebzzyah), a species of moth often
seen round lamps. Baka buyah ngereja api,
baka manok ngereja taji. As moths brave

the fire, as fighting cocks brave the artificial
Buyan (v. f. muyau; bebuyari}, s. a
coward, v. to be overcome by fright. Zya
orang buyan. He is a coward. Anang mu-
yan diri. Do not put yourself in a fright.
Buyer (bebuyu}, s. an Evil Spirit that can
take any shape it pleases (generally that of a
maias, or snake). It is supposed to take pos-
session of women and be the cause of mis-
carriage. Manang profess to be able to des-
troy this spirit, hence the phrase bebunoh buyu,
to kill the Evil Spirit.
Chabang (bechabang}, a forked stick, fork-
ed like the branch of a tree. Tu kayu becha-
bang. This is a forked stick.
Chabe (bechabe}, a chili.
Chabut (v. f. nyabut ; bechabut}, to take
out, pull out, pull up, cancel, subtract. Kitai
bangat maioh di bongtu. Chabut siko. We
are too many in this boat. Take out one
man. Chabut dua sen ari lima sen tinggal
tiga sen. Subtract two cents from five and
three cents remain.
Chagak, or chagak bedil, also jagak,
the rests 01 swivel part of a native gun.
Chakah, not sufficiently bent. Perdah
bliong iya chakah. The handle of his axe is
not sufficiently bent.
Chakap (v. f. nyakap; bechakap}, to chal-
lenge. Iya salalu nyakap aku bibat. He
often challenges me to wrestle.
Chakap (v. f. nyakap; bechakap} s.
thought, reasoning, v. to think. (See akap}.
Chalek ('w/zaZe#), a species of eel also call-
ed Tilan. Maioh Laut enggai makai chalek
laban sida ngumbai iya ular. Many Malays
will not eat the chalek for they look upon it
as a snake.
Chamai, chemai, or samai (v. f. nya-
mai, nyemai; bechamai, bechemai, besamai},
s. a seed-bed, nursery, v. to sow seeds in a
nursery. Padi iya dichamai di kebun aku.
He sowed his paddy seeds in a nursery in my
garden. Jako orang di Ulu kubur, jako orang
di lli chemai. The Up-river people call a nur-
sery kubur, the Down-river people call it
Chambul (bechambul}, a small circular
brass box used for holding pinang, lime, to-
bacco, gambier, oil, or sireh. There are six
of these chambul that hold one or other of the
above mentioned chewing ingredients, and
they are usually kept inside a brass box
Ghampur (v. f. nyampur; bechampur}', to
mix, mix up. Iya nyampur asi aku enggau
kersik. He mixed my cooked rice with sand.
Chanai ( Chanai begun a enggau ngansa duku. Whet-
stones are useful for sharpening choppers.
Chanai, an epithet for a rock.
Chanang (bechanang}, a species of gong
with a brass boss (bunchol} in the centre. It
is smaller and more shallow than the tetawak.
Chanang (bechanang}, a kind of game of
tipcat played by boys.
Chandas (bechandas}, a species of kli fish.
Chandi, or ensuga (bechandi, or ben-
suga), the carved wooden support upon which
the image of a Burong Tenyalang (as used at
the Feasts) rests upon the summit of a lofty
Chandong (bechandong}, a straight chop-
per about a foot long.
Changka, or tangka, disrespectful,
harsh. Jako iya changka bendar enggau aku.
His speech was most disrespectful to me.
Changkang, see chehgkang.
Changkir (bechangkir}, a little cup.
Changkul (v. f. nyangkul; bechangkul},
s. a hoe, v. to hoe. Kami Day a nyau tau
nyangkul kamaiatu. We Dyaks can use the
hoe now.
Chap (v. f. ngechap ; bechap}, s. a seal,
signet, print, v. to print. Th chap aku. This
is my seal. Tuan ngasoh aku ngechap tu.
The master ordered me to print this.
Chapak (bechapak}, a saucer, plate (value
three or four cents). Iya makai enggau cha-
pak. He eats out of a saucer.
Chapan (bechap an}, a long, flat, shallow
basket used for winnowing paddy, also the
name (or epithet) for the biggest kind of
maias (orang utan}. Tu maias chapan laban
iya besai, 'Phis is the maias chapan because
it is so big. Ngumbai diri ipoh munoh ipoh
Temajoh, ngumbai diri bisa, ngumbai diri be-
nama, ngeldboh di loan maias chapan. De-
clares himself the ipoh poison that kills (called)
ipoh Temajoh, declares himself influential, de-
clares himself a man with a title. He had
taken a head at the haunt of the maias
Chapi (bechapi}, the domestic ox. Aku
meda ekapi ngulam rumput baka rusa. I saw
cattle eating grass like deer.
Chapin (bechapin}, the plank forming the
bows of a Dyak boat (bong}.
Chapir (v. f. nyapir}, little freeboard, v.
to possess little freeboard. Prauh kami cha-
pir enda tau ngundan ma nuan. Our boat
has very little freeboard and cannot ship your
baggage. Jani tu ti nyapir ka prauh kami.
It was this pig that caused our boat to have
little freeboard.
Chapoh (v. f. nyapoh}, adj. noisy, panic-
stricken, v. to put oneself into a state of
alarm. Leboh bechara chapoh Daya di rumah.
When there is a case being heard the Dyaks
are noisy in the house. Chapoh sida dia.
Aram ngabas ! They are in a state of alarm
there. Let us go and see ! China nyapoh ka-
diri ngapa ngumbai bisi munsoh. The Chinese
put themselves into an unnecessary state of
alarm thinking there were enemies about.
Chaput, short (used of women’s petticoats

•only). Chaput kain indu nya. That woman’s
petticoat is short.
Chara (bechara), custom, manners, habit,
•conduct. Chara Orang Puteh badas. The
European customs are good.
Charik (v. f. nyarik; becharik), to tear,
rend. Iya ringat lalu nyarik kalambi diri
empu. He was angry and tore his own jacket.
Charok, as charok jalai, a bend in the
road. Mcrjok ari charok jalai raia. He
jumped from the bend in the main road.
Charut (v. f. nyarut; becharntj adj. con-
fused, ambiguous, v. to confuse, entangle.
Iya nyarut ka jako orang. He confused peo-
ple’s statements.
Chatur (bechatur), the game of draughts.
Chauk (bechauk), as anak chauk, a puppy.
Chawes (v. f. ay awes; bechawes), adj.
ready, prepared, v. to make ready. Samoa
utai udah chawes di bangkong. Everything is
ready in the boat.
Cha wit (bechawit). left-handed. Iya cha-
wit makai. He eats left-handed.
Chechamang (only used with the nega-
tives enda or ukai preceding and implies), ex-
ceedingly. [For a similar use see anchi-anchi\.
Pembrani iya enda chechamang. His bravery
is beyond words.
Chechanggak, sticking out, projecting.
Kayu nya chechanggak di luan prauh. That
piece of wood is projecting from the bows of
the boat.
Chechapai, sinking.
Chechegit, straight up.
Chechinang, glittering red.
Chechuat (bechechuat), to stick out (as the
blossoms of rembai or lensat trees).
Chechuit (bechechuit), sticking or standing
out. Ruko iya chechuit di nyawa iya. His
cigarette is sticking out of his mouth.
Chechukak, to stick out of the ground or
water (like a stump or snag).
Chechungin, see chungin.
Chekak ^v. f. nyekak; bechekak} to seize
by the throat, throttle, strangle. Iya dulu
nyekak aku baru aku rigetup iya. I~Ie first
seized me by the throat then I bit him.
Chekur, or enchekur (bechekur or benche-
kur), a plant the root of which when crushed
and applied to the stomach is a useful medi-
cine for wind.
Chelak (v. f. nyelak; bechelak), s. print,
printed work, v. to print. Tu chelak ukai
tulis. This is printed not manuscript. Kami
meda orang nyelak di Kuching. We saw
people printing in Kuching.
Chelaka, s. ill-luck, misfortune, adj. un-
lucky, unfortunate, ill-omened, accursed. Tu
chelaka aku. This is my misfortune. Chelaka
nuan tu. You are accursed. Orang chelaka.
An unfortunate man.
Chelap (v. f. nyelap; bechelap), adj. cold,
cool, fresh, chill, light [as applied to a fine
(tunggu), or weighing machine (dachiri) in
opposition to heavy (angatj\, contented, easy,
tranquil, happy, not infected, v. to feel the
cold, be tranquil, etc. Berasai chelap. To
feel the cold. Tunggu iya chelap bendar.
His fine is extremely light. Dachin sanu che-
lap enggai aku mli semakau dia. So-and-so’s
weighing machine (gives) light (weight) I will
not buy tobacco there. Benoa chelap. A
tranquil country. Rumah chelap. A house
free from infection. Ujau ii bangat balat nye-
lap ka aku. The very heavy rain made me
feel the cold. Iya bechelap ka tunggu diri.
He made his fine light.
Chelapa (bechelapa), a brass betel box.
Chelebok (bechelebok), see cherbok.
Chelok (v. f. nyelok; bcchelok), to put
one’s hand into a bag or hole in order to take
anything. Iya nyelok kandi aku lalu ngen-
churi wang aku. He put his hand into my bag
and stole my money. Chelok lubang nya enda
tau enda bisi anak burong dia. Put your hand
into that hole ; there must be young birds
there. [Dyaks dare not put their hands into
the lubang Tenyalang].
Chelum (v. f. nyelum ; bechelum), adj.
black, sour (as regards a person’s looks), v.
to blacken. Chelum moa iya endor aku nageh
utang. His face was sour when I dunned
him for the debt.
Chemagai, very long, too long. Chema-
gai iko kra nya. That monkey’s tail is very
long. Chemagai iko sirat iya. The tail of
his loin cloth is too long.
Chemanai, an epithet used for animals of
the monkey species.
Cliemerik, to sound like cloth when torn.
Lalu chemerik kanggan dicharik iya. The
black cloth sounds when he tears it.
Chenaga (v. f. nyenaga; bechenaga), s.
purification, divination, v. to purify, practice
divination, cast lots. Chenaga rumah. House
purification. Nyenaga tanah. To foretell con-
cerning the land. Bechenaga. To cast lots.
Chengang, astonished. Iya lalu cheitg-
ang meda menoa Sarawak. He was aston-
ished when he saw Sarawak.
Chengkang or changkang (bechengkang
or bechangkang), adj. brave, bold, v. to quarrel,
dispute, Chengkang am at ako iya. He is
bold in his speech. Iya kuat bendar becheng-
kang. Pie is constantly quarrelling.
Chengkeh (bechengkeh), as bungai cheng-
keh, a clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus).
Cherbok or chelebok, a cup made of
cocoa-nut shell.
Chei’dik, cunning, artful (not necessarily
in a bad sense), clever, always ready with an
answer. Daya nyau cherdik kamaiatu. Dy-
aks are cunning now.
Cheria, patient, enduring without murmur-
ing. Iya cheria bendar enggau anak. She is
very patient with her children. Aku enda
cheria enggau barang orang. I am not patient
with everybody.
Chermin (bechermin), s. a mirror ; name
of a stream, v. to have or use a mirror.
Chermin-mata (bechermin-mata), spec-
Cheroh (v. f. nyeroh; becheroh), to pound
rice after it has been ground in a mill (kisar).
China (bechinaj, a Chinaman, Chinese.
Benoa China. China.

Chiping (bechiping), leaven, anything used
to make tuak ferment.
Chirok (v. f. nyirok; bechirok), s. a thin
iron bar about l| feet long set in a stick and
used to probe the marshy ground for gum
(klasau) or the mud-tortoise (lelabi), v. to use
this kind of probe.
Chiru (v. f. nyiru), adj. clear, transparent
(of water), v. to make clear. Tu ai chiru.
This is clear water. Nama ti nyiru ka ai tu ?
What has made this water clear ?
Chit (bechit), a rat.
Chitak (bechitak), a gutta mould.
Chonto (v. f. nyonto; bechonto), see chuan.
Chuan (v. f. nyuan; bechuan), s. mould,
model, pattern, imitation, v. to mould, model,
take a pattern, imitate. 7ii chuan ukir iya.
This is the pattern of his carving. Iya nyuan
prauh aku. He took a model of my boat.
Chuat (bechuat), a bundle of strung beads.
Chubit (v. f. nyubit; bechubit), to pinch.
lya nyubit aku. di pa. She pinched me on the
Chubit (bechubit), a small cup. Sida mri
aku ngirup enggau chubit. They gave me
drink out of a small cup.
Chudur (v. f. nyudur), v. to cause to bend
forward slightly, adj. slightly bent forward,
low (as the bows of a boat).
Chuit (bechuit), a field mouse.
Chuka (bechuka), vinegar.
Chukai (v. f. nyukai; bechukai), s. excise
duty, customs, v. to impose or demand excise
duty. Patut alai Raja nyukai orang ti beda-
gang. It is right that the Rajah should de-
mand duty of those who trade. Utai baka
nya enda bechukai. Such goods as those incur
no duty.
Chukin, or chungkin, quick-tempered.
Chukii’ (v. f. nyukir; bechukir), to lift up
anything without touching it with the hands.
Enti bangat keji chukir enggau kayu. If you
are very creepy lift it up with a bit of stick.
Chukoh, bent forward. Perdah iya chu-
koh. The handle of his axe is bent forward.
Chukup (v. f. nyukup; bechukup), adj.
enough, v. to make sufficient. Anang enda
hyukup ka atap aku tinyau olih nuan. You
must make up (lit. sufficient) my atap that you
Chulas, as chulas malas, idle.
Chulik (v. f. nyulik ; bechulik), to put one’s
finger into anything in order to taste it.
Chulin, usually ai chulin, the first brew of
Chulit (v. f. nyulit; bechulit), see chulik.
Chulut (v. f. nyulut, bekechulut), to pro-
ject, be uneven. Papan nya nyulut mimit.
That plank projects a little. Bekechulut ujong
papan nya. The ends of those planks are
uneven. Anang bekechulut bejalai. Do not
walk in an irregular fashion.
Chuma, in vain, to no purpose. Chuma
aja kitai nubai nadai bisi bulih ikan. To no
purpose we went tuba fishing as we got no fish. (v. f. nyundong; bechundong),
adj. inclined, bent down, out of the perpen-
dicular. Chundong tiang rumah nya. The
posts of that house are out of the perpendi-
Chunggai, the end, extremity, tips of the
fingers. Kepai di chunggai jari kiba. Brave
to the finger tips of the left hand.
Chunggit, see chunggai.
Chungin, ashamed, afraid. Moa iya chu-
ngin meda munsoh. His face showed that he
was afraid when he saw the foe.
Chungkin, see chukin.
Chungkir, thin, slim (an epithet for legs).
Kaki kuda chungkir baka kaki rusa. Horses’
legs are slim like the legs of deer.
Chupai (bechupat), a basket.
Chupak (bechupak), a quarter of a gan-
tang (dry measure).
Churi (v. f. nyuri or ngenchuri ; bcchuri),
to steal. Iya ngenchuri buah aku. He stole
my fruit.
Chuti (v. f. nyuti; bechuti), adj. pure,
spotless, v. to make pure. Tu ai chuti. This,
is pure water.
Da, more. Bri ka aku siti da, agi aku ka
makai. Give me one more, I still want to
Dabang or nabang (bedabang), deep and
wide (of a wound). Aku meda abi nya nabang.
I saw that wound was wide and deep.
Dabong (v. f. nabong; bedabong), s. ser-
rated or dog-tooth work, v. to make such
work. Dalam ukir buloh siko pen enda tan
ngeldban dabong iya. In carving a bamboo
no one can compete with his serrated work,
Tisi kalambi iya bedabong. The edging of his
coat is serrated.
Dachin (bedachin'), a weighing machine,
intestinal worm (Malay chaching). Ubat dachin.
Worm powder (santonine).
Dachin angat, a heavy weighing machine
(i.e. one weighing heavily against the vendor).
Dachin same angat enggai aku nyual geta aku
song iya. So-and-so’s weighing machine is
against the vendor I will not sell my gutta
to him.
Dachin chelap, a light weighing machine
(i. e. a weighing machine giving light weight).
Dachin Ah Sin chelap enggai aku mli semakau
di kedai iya. Ah Sin’s weighing machine
gives light weight, I will not buy tobacco at
his shop.
Dada (bedadd), the breast, chest. Dada
aku pedis ahi ka minta ubat song nuan. M y
chest is painful I want to ask you for medi-
Dadak (v. f. nadak; bedadak), to mend,
patch. Sida nadak jala di prauh. They were
mending nets in the boat.
Dadu (bedadu), dice ; a proper name, m.
Kami meda China bemain dadu. We saw the
Chinese dicing.
Daga (bedaga), an old mark or scar.
Dagang (bedagang), trade ; a proper name,

— 33—
m. Orang dagang. A stranger. China^ bisi
bedagang di rumah kami. There are Chinese
trading at our house.
Dagong {bedagong}, a boat built after the
Malay fashion, a wooden hammer used for
driving in bamboo nails which form the spells
of a ladder on a bee tree. Tu dagong ukai
bong. This is a boat with built-up sides, it is
not a dug-out. Kami tu ngaga dagong laban
ka napang. We are making wooden ham-
mers for we are going to take bees’ nests.
Dagu (bedagit), the chin. Dagu aku telih
laban duku iya. My chin was wounded by
his chopper.
Dai {bedai}, the forehead. Dai anak iya
manah bendar. Her child has a good forehead.
Dak {bedak}, phlegm. Leboh iya batok
maioh dak pansut ari nyawa iya. When he
coughs a great deal of phlegm comes out of
his mouth.
Dakah, the ebb at its lowest. Ai nyau
dakah. The water is at its lowest.
Daki (toWt), dirt or stain on the skin.
Daki magang di tuboh anak iya. His child’s
body is all over dirt. Aku nadai bisi bedaki.
I have no dirt on my body.
Dalam, prep, in, into, adj. deep. Bai
iya ka dalam rumah. Take him into the
house. Arong sungai nya dalam bendar. The
channel of that stream is very deep.
Daloh {bedaloh.}, a valley. Daloh Laloh
sangkoh. The valley of Laloh sangkoh (in
Damar (bedamar), resin, the gum of cer-
tain jungle trees. Rerga damar di Simanggang
tigapasu sa ringgit. The price of damar at
Simanggang is a dollar for three pasu. Kami
nadai bisi bedamar ditu. We have no gum here.
Dambak {bedambak}, a blow-pipe dart.
Dambak aku berayan di jalai. My blow-pipe
dart has dropped on the road. Iya nadai bisi
bedambak. He has no blow-pipe darts.
Dampa {bedampa}, a large hut, temporary
house ; a proper name, m. Dampa kamipan-
jai tiga puloh pintu. Our temporary hut is
thirty doors long.
Dampar or sedampar (Wzzzzz/ar), driven
ashore, wrecked. Leboh kami ka tasik maioh
bong bedampar laban glombong besai. When
we went out to sea many boats were driven
ashore because the waves were great.
Dampi, dampir or damping (v. f. nam-
pi; bedampi, or namping; bedamping}, prep,
near, v. to be near, nigh at hand. Iya diau
dampi aku, sapuloh depa antara rumah iya
enggau rumah aku. He lives near me and there
are ten fathoms between his house and mine.
Iya damping mati. He is nearly dead.
Damun {bedamun}, young jungle growth
on farm land, bush. Kami bumai damun
taun tu. We farm young jungle this year.
Benoa nya barn nadai bedamun. That is a
new country and has no young jungle growth.
Dan (feahw), a branch of a tree ; a proper
name, m. Kayu nya maioh dan. That tree
has many branches. Sibau kami bedau bedan.
Our sibau fruit tree has not yet put forthits
Danan (^afazzazz), the largest kind of rotan.
Maioh danan di Dor. There is plenty of
danan rotan at Dor. JX'adai bisi bedanan
ditu. We have no danan rotan here.
Danau (feahzzzzzz), a lake or natural pool,
the Lake in the Kapuas. Maioh ikan di danau.
There are plenty of fish in the lake. Nadai
bisi bedanau di menoa kami tu. We have no
pools in our country.
Dandan {bedandan}, a platform at the stern
of. a war boat. Prauh kami bedandan. Our
boat has a platform at the stern.
Dandang jbedandang}, joined, adjoining.
Umai kami bedandang. Our farms are ad-
Dandi {bedandi}, s. a song, v. to sing sit-
ting in a swing. Indu nya landik bendar
bedandi. That woman is clever at singing
Dandong {bedandong}, s. a Malay sarong
or long skirt, v. to wear a long skirt reaching
to the feet. Kain iyapanjai amai baka dan-
dong. Her petticoat is very long like a Malay
sarong. Indu Kadayan bedandong baka indu
Laut. The Kadayan women wear long skirts
like Malay women.
Dangau {bedangail), s. a hut, v. to make
or have a hut. Tu dangau kami di umai.
This is our hut on the paddy farm. Kami
bedangau di tisi ai Katungau. We made a
hut on the edge of the Katungau river.
Dani (v. f. nani}, adj. awake, v. to
awaken. Iya nyau dani. He is awake. Dani
nuan. Awake. Iya tindok nemu nani kadi-
ri. He sleeps but knows how to awaken
Danjan, to die. Aku nyabak ka menyadi
aku ti nyau danjan. I weep for my brother
who is dead.
Danjang, beautiful, surpassingly beauti-
ful. Baka limiding danjang. As surpassing-
ly beautiful as the climbing fern.
Danji {bedanji}, s. an agreement, v. to
make an agreement. Danji iya sa hari tu
ngosong aku His agreement is to call on me
today. udah bedanji enggau aku. He
has made an agreement with me.
Daoh, echo. Ukai orang ngangau nya
mina daoh nyawa orang di kampong. That is
not men calling but merely the echo of men’s
voices in the jungle.
Dapat, well in health. Enda dapat. Un-
well. Iya nyau dapat kamaiatu. He is well
Dapur {be dapur}, s. the cooking place,
hearth, v. to have a cooking place. Rumah
dapur. The cook-house or kitchen.
Dara {bedara}, a virgin, an unmarried
woman. Anak dara. A virgin. Manok da-
ra. A chicken. Indu nya minta dara. That
woman asks to be (pronounced) unmarried
(i. e. asks to be divorced).
Darah ( trees when reddish in colour, v. to bleed.
Tu darah manok. This is the blood of a
fowl. Idong aku bedarah. My nose bleeds.
Indu nya udu bendar bedarah. That woman
menstruates too freely.

Darat (bedarat), s. land, inland, ashore,
v, to go inland, or overland, go ashore. Aku
pulai bedarat. I am going home overland,
Aku niki ka darat. I am going ashore.
Darong jbedarong), a valley. Di menoa tu
jarang enda bulih ai sungai di darong. In
this country one rarely fails to get streams in
the valleys.
Dasan (bedasan), a place (equivalent to
alai') ; also used in poetry to avoid mentioning
a person’s name.
Dasu (bedasu), a kind of velvet.
Datai (v. f. ngenatai), to come, cause to
come, prep, until, unto, as far as. Iya datai
di rumah aku tengah malam. He came to my
house at midnight. Kebun ngenatai ka zvang.
Gardens bring in money. Aku enggai bejako
enggau iya datai ka mati- I will not talk to
him until I die. Ari mit datai ka besai iya
badas. From youth unto manhood he was
good. Iya belawa ari Salm datai ka di
Simanggang lain enda ngetu. He ran from
Sabu as far as Simanggang and did not stop.
Datas, above, upon, on. Datas pala.
Above the head. Datas tikai. Upon (or
on) the mat.
Datu, (used in poetry and incantations
only) a nobleman, a feudal chief.
Dau, a tributary of the Katungau (Nether-
lands India territory) which gives a name to
the Engkerbang Dyaks. These people being
defeated by the Skarang and Saribas Dyaks
took refuge on the Dau stream for several
years but were subsequently recalled by the
first Resident (Mr. Brereton) at Skarang by
the orders of H. H. the Rajah (Sir James
Brooke). These people still retain the name
of Daya Dau.
Daun (foZaztfz), s. a leaf, v. to have leaves;
a proper name, m. Daun kayu nya rarah
laban iya udah layu. Those leaves dropped
because they were withered.
Daup (v. f. naup; bedaup), to agree, con-
sent, come to an agreement. Iya naup aku
beselam. He has agreed to dive with me.
Dawat \bedazvat), ink. Daus at tu enda
badas. This ink is not good. Kami nadai
bisi bedawat ditu. We have no ink here.
i?aya (bedaya), the people called Dyak by
The word is supposed to signify inland.
In Sarawak there are two distinct peoples
called by Europeans Dyak, viz., the Sea Dyak
and the Land Dyak. The former, the most
important and enterprising race in His High-
ness The Rajah’s territory, inhabit the Batang
Lupar, Saribas. Kalaka, and Rejang rivers
(the two latter have been populated by them
some sixty years ago), and there are small
recent settlements in the Sadong, Muka, Oya,
Bintulu, Baram, and Limbang districts.
Their tradition (at least according to some)
is that they were first settled at, or near,
Kumpang in the Batang Eupar River. It is
certain that they are a more recent arrival in
Sarawak than Land Dyaks or Rayans.
The Sea Dyaks call themselves, as a rule,
after their river or country (e. g., Kami
Undup. We are Undup Dyaks. Kami Balau.
We are Balau Dyaks. Kami Ulu Ai nitih ka
adat aki ini. We Up-river Dyaks follow the
customs of our ancestors), and occasionally,
when contrasting themselves with the Malays
speak of themselves as Daya and of the
Mttlays as Laut.
Of late, however, many Dyaks, following
the example set by the Rejang Dyaks (who
are supposed to have borrowed the word from
Rayan tribes) have taken to calling themselves
The Dutch call all the Bornean non-Moham-
medan native tribes Daya and speak of the
Daya Batang Lupar, Daya Ratibas, Daya
Skarang, Daya Rayan, Daya Punan.
The Land Dyaks inhabit the inland dis-
tricts of Sarawak proper. Their language and
customs differ from those of the Sea Dyaks.
They call themselves Bideyuh {deyuh mean-
ing land).
Dayong (v. f. nayong ; bedayong), s. an
oar, v. to row with an oar. Dayong iyapan-
dak. His oar is short. Iya landik bendar be-
dayong. He is a good oar.
Dedak {fie dedak), the residue of rice after
it has been pounded and passed through a sieve.
Dedanggai, to cry out loudly when sing-
ing a love song.
Dedanggang, hung up, unsettled. Re-
ban kami dedanggang magang. All our felled
trees are hung up (i. e.. have not reached the
ground). Bendiau iya dedanggang ditu. He
does not remain here permanently.
Dedangkang, to squat with the hands
resting on the knees.
Dedat (v. f. nedat; bededat), to strike with
a stick. lya nedat blakang aku nya alai aku
nunggu iya. He struck my back, that was
the reason I fined him.
Dedegong, a roar (such as tigers make)
loud and clear.
Dedekut, to call together (as a hen does
her chickens or a she-bear her cubs).
Dedengong, open, uncovered (as a hole
in a tree, the mouth of a gun, etc.).
Dedinggai, balancing.
Dedugau (the shoit form of dugau-dugau),
to sit quietly doing nothing, sit meditating,
lounge. Nam a kabuah nuan dedugau dial
What is the reason you sit meditating there ?
Dedui, to cry aloud, lya nyabak dedui di
malam. He cried aloud last night.
Dedunga, or dunga-dunga, to sit idle me-
ditating. lya dedunga dia nadai bepengawa.
He sits idle there meditating.
Dedunggok, to sit idle. Anang bangat
deduiiggok dia. Do not sit so very idle there.
Degi, straight. Degi batang kayu nya.
Straight is the stem of that tree.
Degok (bedegok), the part of the throat
above the Adam’s apple. Munsoh dipantap
iya lalu kena degok. He slashed at the foe and
cut him him just below the jaw.

Deh, a particle denoting emphasis.
Dejal, (v. f. nejal; bedejal}, s. a cork,
stopper, v. to cork, stop up, stuff up, caulk.
Dini dejal balang nya I Where is the cork of
that bottle ? Dejal ka balang nya. Cork that
Deka or ka (v. f. neka, ngeneka; bedekaj,
to desire, want, wish for, be willing. Iya deka
bejuql kebun iya. He is willing to sell his gar-
den. Iya deka makai. He wants to eat.
Enda tau ngempok tanah jrai. enda tan bedeka
ka orang enggai. You cannot make friable
earth into a lump, and you cannot make an
unwilling person willing.
Dekeh (v. f. nekeh.}, s. a significant cough,
v. to cough significantly or in order to attract
attention. Iya nekeh meda aku mansa. He
gave a significant cough when I passed by.
Dekoh (bedekoh}, the part below the wrist
(used for measurements only).
Dekuan (bedekuan}, the wrist. Dekuan iya
telih lalu mau bedarah. His wrist was wound-
ed and bled profusely.
Delapan, selapan, or lapan, eight.
Anak aku delapan iko, ampat indu ampat
lelaki. My children are eight in number, four
girls and four boys. Delapan bias. Eighteen.
Demam, ague. Endu demam di bilik ka
ngasoh nuan ngabas iya. My daughter is in
the room with fever and I want you to visit
Demam (bedemam}, a species of fern
{Gleichenia dichotoma}. Kami taun tu bitmai
madang demam. This year we farm on the
field covered with demam fern.
Demoh ( sigh. Nya demoh chapi indu ti nyau ka mati.
That is the groan of a cow that is dying. Iya
bedemoh dalam ati. He sighed in his spirit.
Demram (bedemram}, s. a deep loud
groan emanating from a person (or animal)
suffering acute pain, v. to groan loudly. Iya
nadai bisi tindok bedemram sa malam-malam.
lie did not sleep but groaned the whole night.
Demurong, to blaze.
Dendan (pedendan} the top of a paddle.
Sengay oh iya nadai bedendan. His paddle has
no top to it.
Dengah (bedengah}, s. the trophy of a hu-
man head, v. to get a head. Iya udah beden-
gah sigi. He has taken a head.
Dengut (dedengut}, s. a gentle murmur,
the squeaking of young pigs, any sound signi-
fying a protest, or, signifying a person (or ani-
mal) is about to take action, v. to murmur, sob,
grumble. Dengut iya ti didinga kami. We
heard her gentle murmur. Iya nyctbak deden-
gut dia. He sobs there.
Denjang (v. f. nenjang; bedenjang}, to
stand close by, or, in front of a person. Iya
bediri nenjang aku. He stands in front of me.
Depa (v. f. nepa; bedepa), s. a fathom
measure, the measurement with both arms out-
stretched (i. e. about six feet), v. to measure
by fathoms. Sa depa anam kaki. A depa is
six feet. Depa Prentah. The Government
fathom (six feet). Depa aku. My fathom
{about six feet).
Di, prep, at, in, on ; (when prefixed to a
verb) the sign of the passive voice. Di bla-
kang. Behind. Di moa. In front. Di baroh.
Below. Di ulu. Up-river. Di-ili. Down-
river. Dipalu (root form palu, to strike). Is
Di, you, thou. [Used by Batang Lupar
Dyaks. Balau and Undup Dyaks address a
man as nuan and a woman as di\.
Dia, there. Engkah dia. Put it there.
Dia-iya or dia-tu, now, at the present
Dian (bedian}, a candle ; a proper name,
m. Orang di menoa Ai Ropa bisi ngaga
dian ari minyak sabttn. Europeans make
candles from the oil of the sabun (palm oil)
Diang (v. f. niang; bediang), to toast,
dry, warm, heat. Iya niang kalambi iya di
api. He is drying his coat at the fire.
Diati-ati, to think, keep in mind. Diati-
ati aku nuan berari sekumbang nuan ti pegi
ngeta. I have always thought of you since
you went on the gutta expedition.
Diau (v. f. ngendiau}, to be silent, be still,
dwell, stop, soothe, smooth. Iya ngendiau
ka anak iya nyabak. She stopped her child
crying. Diau nuan! Be still ! Diait meh!
Be silent ! Aku diau di tisi ai. I live on the
water’s edge.
Didi (bedidi), s. a lullaby, v. to sing a
Didis (bedidis}, the breast of a bird. Nya-
mai didis burong nya diempa. The breast
of that bird is delicious eating.
Dikin (bedikin}, a little chopper such as
women use. Iya ngenyau ka dikin aku. He
lost my little chopper. Nadai kami bisi bedi-
kin. We have no little chopper.
Dilah. (bedilah}, the tongue. Butoh dilah
The uvula.
Dilang, as limau dilang, the pomello.
Dilat (v. f. nilat; bedilat}, to lick, lap.
Ukui nya nilat kaki iya. That dog licked his
Din, yonder. Din rumah iya sebrai tan-
jot ig. Yonder is his house across the point.
Dinding (v. f. ninding; bedinding}, s. a
wall, defence, v. to wall, defend, be jealous.
Iya beban ngaga dinding rumah. Pie is cut-
ting planks to make the wall of his house. Iya
ninding. She is jealous, lya ninding aku eng-
gau laki iya. She is jealous of me on account
of her husband.
Dinga (v. f. ninga; bedinga}, to hear, listen.
Nuan enda tau enda niitga ka aku. You must
listen to me.
Dinggai-dinggai, very high. Dinggai-
dinggai puchok tapang nya. The top of that
bee-tree is very high.
Dini, where ? Dini endor nuan diau ?
Where is your dwelling place ? Ni (for dini)
iya I Where is he ?
Dini-dini, wherever. Dini-dini pen nuan
diait aku ngosong nuan. Wherever you dwell
I will call upon you.
Dini-hari, break of day, dawn. Dini
hari dalam. About four o’clock in the morn-

ing. Dini-hari mabu. About five o’clock in
the morning.
Diri (v. f. niri ; bediri), to stand, uphold,
support, cause to stand. Anak aku bant tau
niri kadiri. My child is just able to stand.
Aku meda iya niri ka anak iya datas peti. I
saw him make his child stand on a box.
Diri, self, oneself. Diri tu salalu ditunggu
orang. I am always fined by people. Diri
enda tau bejako. I am a bad speaker.
Ditu, here. Ditu aku diau enggau bini
anak. Here I live with my family.
Doh, {be doh, to groan).
Dom, a term of address to a lad, to a son-
Domba (bedomba}, a sheep (only used in
the New Test.). Nadai bisi bedomba di menoa
kami. Our country has no sheep.
Dosa (bedosa}, s. a sin, v. to sin, have sin
(only used in New Test.). Akutti orang be-
dosa. I am a sinner.
Dras (v. f. nras, ngenras; be dr as}, adj.
rapid, speedy, quick, v. to be quick, quicken.
Dras bendar kuda labang bejalai. H ow very fast
the white horse goes. Aku ngenras kapejalai diri
meda hari nyau malam. I quickened my pace
when I saw it was getting towards evening.
Dua, two. Dua bias. Twelve. Duapu-
loh. Twenty. Dua ratus. Two hundred.
Dual or dua (used either with the prefix
si or with the pronoun kami preceding). Si
dual. The two. Kami dual empu nya. That
belongs to both of us.
Dudi (v. f. ngenudi ; bedudi}, adv. after (in
place and time), behind, last, v. to cause to be
last, follow in the rear. Tuan bejalai dttlu
aku dudi. The gentleman will walk first, I
come behind. Dudi hari. Some other day
(or some other time). Pangeran Metali salalu
ngenudi ka bala Raja. Pangeran Metali al-
ways brings up the rear of the Rajah’s army.
Dudok (v. f. nudok; bedudok'), to sit, sit
down, settle, live at a place, reside. Dudok
nuan di bangku. Sit on the bench. Apai
ti dulu bedudok diau ditu. Father first lived
Dudus (bedudus), the under part of the
stomach of a fish, the human stomach when
beyond its proper size. Dudas ikan jelaivat
nyamai diempa. The under part of the
stomach of the jel am at fish is delicious eating.
Dugal (bedugal), pain from the distention
of the gall bladder.
Dugau-dugau, to be in an unemployed
or meditative state, sit idle.
Dugok (bedugok), s. the peak of a moun-
tain, v. to have a peak. Bukit nya nadai be-
dugck. That mountain has no peak.
Duit [beduit), s. copper money, v. to have
copper money. Aku nadai beduit agi ambis
kena mli utai. I have no more coppers as I
have spent them all in buying things.
Dujul (v. f. nujul; bedujul), to shove
with the hand closed. Iya dulu nujul aku
baru aku malu iya. He first of all shoved me
and then I beat him.
Dujong (v. f. nujong; bedujong), s. a
wreath, a leaf, flowers or leaves placed by
women in their hair as ornaments, v. to place,
such in the hair, or on the top of a burden
(w«). Indu sida sa rumah mansa kami bedu-
jong bangkit magang. The women of their
house passed us all wearing scented leaves in
their hair.
Duju (v. f. nuju; bedujti), to shove. Be-
langkah tengah karangan enda tau enda diduju
ai bah. Pacing up and down on the middle of
a gravel-bed one is certain to be shoved off by
a fresh.
Duku (beduku), a chopper, cleaver, knife,
small parang. Duku iya enda tajam. His
chopper is not sharp. Iya nadai bisi beduku.
He has no chopper.
Dukun (bedukun), a doctor (one who, in
contradistinction to a manang, professes to
cure ailments without using charms or magic).
Aku tu ukai dukun. I am not a doctor. Ka-
mi ditu nadai bisi bedukun. We have no
doctors here.
Dulang {bedulang), a wooden trough ; a
proper name, f. Rerga dulang iya lima puloh
sen. The price of his wooden trough is fifty
cents. Bedulang magang sida sa rumah. All
of them in the house have wooden troughs.
Dulau (v. f. ngenulau ; bedulau), sw dulu.
Dulu (v. f. ngenulu ; bedultt}, adv. before
(in place and time), ahead, first, v. to go first,
go in front. Aku bejalai dulu laban jalai repa.
I will go before as the road is over-grown.
Dulu aku ari nuan datai ditu. I arrived
here before you. Kubau di nanga Skarang
dulu ari Kubau ti di Simanggang. The Fort
at the mouth of the Skarang was before the
Fort that is at Simanggang.
Dulu jaga, a very long time ago. Dulu
jaga Laut diau di nanga Lemanak. A very
long time ago Malays were living at the mouth
of the Lemanak river,
Dulu kalia, formerly, of old. Dulu kalia
bisi Kubau Prentah sebrai nanga Tisak. For-
merly there was a Government Fort across
river at the mouth of the Tisak.
Duman {beduman), s. a share, v. to di-
vide, share. Ikan tu duman aku. This fish
is my share. Aku gaiva beduman jani. I am
busy dividing the pork.
Dumbak (bedumbak), a drum. [A drum
is made of a tree trunk about two feet long
hollowed out and hide (monkey skin, etc.)
stretched tightly over both ends. It is held at
an angle and beaten with the hands].
Dumbang, the short-tailed Ichneumon
{Herpestes brachyurus).
Dundong (v. f. nundong; bedundong),
to be adjacent. Rumah kami bedundong. Our
houses are adjacent.
Dungai (bedungai}, s. a love song, v. to
sing a love song. Inait nya landik bendar be-
dungai. That woman is clever at singing
love songs.
Dunggul (bedunggul), a hump in cattle,
a cock’s comb. Langit Petara dulu mibit
mesai dunggul manok banda. Petara first
stretched (lit. pinched) out the Heavens as
large as the comb of a red-feathered cock.
Dungkcng (bedungkong), s. an excresence

(on the head or body), adj. projecting (of
the forehead) ,v. to have an excresence ; a pro-
per name, m. f.
Dunju {bedunju}, a temporary hut. Tu
dunju alai aku ntbas. This is the temporary
hut from whence I clear the jungle.
Dunya, the world.
Duri (Wzmj, a thorn, sharp spike. Bisi
mulong ti beduri. There are sago trees that
have thorns.
Durok (v. f. nurok; bedurok}, to assist,
give reciprocal aid. Baka kli baka chandas,
baka durok, baka balas. As the kli fish is like
the chandas so is assisting a person like paying
him back. Kami bedurok turun. We give
reciprocal aid working at our farms.
Durong (bedurong}, s. a granary. Kami
nadai bisi bedurong. We have no granary.
Durong-durong, the roaring of fire. Du-
rong-durong munyi api tentu angus timai sida.
There is a roaring sound of fire, it is certain
their farms burn well.

Sea Dyak Dictionary
D. J. S. BAILEY, B.A.,
(All rights reserved.)
Printed at the American Mission Press

Emba (v. f. ngemba ; bemba}, to frighten,
threaten. Iya ngemba aku enggau Prent ah.
He threatened me with the Government.
Embal (v. f. ngembal; bembal), to strike,
give a person a lecture, Iya ringat lain
ngembal ka aku enggau jako. He was angry
and gave me a piece of his mind.
Embap, adj. damp, moist, cool. Leboh
maia ujan embap kain kami di rumah. When
it is the rainy season our clothes get damp in
the house. Hari nyau embap. The day has
become cool. Isi iya nyau embap. His tem-
perature has gone down (lit. his flesh has be-
come cool).
Embar (v. f. ngembar}, adj. difficult, v.
to make difficult. Tu jako embar. This is a
difficult saying.
Embat (v. f. ngembat; bembal), to whip,
strike with anything. Iya ngembat aku enggau
tungkat iya. He struck me with his walking
Embawang (bembawang), a species of
manggo, a head taken in war. Orang Kaya
Pemancha ngalah ka China di sungai Raya
bulih leka selang embawang. The Orang
Kaya Pemancha defeated the Chinese at Raya
river and got one head.
Embi (v. f. ngembi ; bembi), to give. Iya
ngembi aku telu sigi. He gave me one egg.
Embing (v. f. ngembing’, bembing), to
lead, walk alongside a support. Iya bejalai
ngembing dinding. He walks along and is
supported by the wall.
Embing - aing, or embing - beiring,
children at play holding one another’s hands
and going through the house.
Embun (v.f. ngembun ; bemburi), to put
out in the dew. Sida indu ngembun itbong.
The women are exposing their cotton to the
Empa (v. f. ngempa; bempa), v. to eat,
consume, adv. on account of. Sida dudok di
baroh pun rian ngempa buah ti baru laboh.
They sit beneath a durian tree and eat the fruit
that has just fallen. Tuboh iya sa piak ambis
empa pisa. One side of his body is covered
with boils. Empa iya jai iya kena tunggu.
On account of his being wicked he is fined.
Empai (bempai), not yet. Sida entpai
makai. They have not yet eaten.
Empai-pia, nevertheless. Aku nadai tvang
enggau malas nuan empai-pia aku ka ngin-
jau song orang malas nuan. I have no mon-
ey to pay my debt with you nevertheless I
will borrow from some one to pay you.
Empajang (bempajang), a tall paddy bas-
ket. Kami bisi empajang ti ka dijual. We
have got tall paddy baskets for sale. Sida
nadai bisi bempajang. They have no tall
paddy baskets.
Empajurit (bempajurit), s. a tale-bearer,
adj. untrustworthy. Nuan tu empajurit. You
are a talebearer. Jimat bejako enggau orang
ti empajurit. Be careful how you talk to an
untrustworthy person.
Empala (v. f. ngemphla), to assist in
reaping. [The custom is that a person so do-
ing is allowed to take home a basket-full of
paddy every evening], Aku ngempala padi
song apai. I go to assist my father to reap.
Empalai (v. f. nempalai; bempalai}, s. a
little garden in the farm after reaping, a small
paddy farm, v. to make a little garden, or,
plant cotton only. Aram kitai ngagai empa-
lai. Let us go to the cotton garden. Kami
nadai hari laban udah ngetau ka nempalai.
We have no time after the harvest for we are
going to make a cotton garden.
Empalita, or empalita-lita, to trifle,
joke. Anang nuan empalita.. Don’t trifle.
Empama, a parable. [Malay. Used in
the New Test. only].
Empandau (bempandau), see apai-andau.
Empang (v. f. ngempang; bempang}, s. a
bamboo enclosure for penning fish, v. to make
a fish pen, block, prevent, hinder. Bisi
empang di nanga Klasen. There is a fish pen
at the mouth of the Klasen stream. Iya ngem-
pang aku bejako. He prevented me from
speaking. Anang ngempang jalai orang.
Do not block people’s paths.
Empangau (bempangau), the paddy bug.
Empangau ti ngerusak kapadi kami. It was
the empangau paddy bug that destroyed our
paddy. Nadai bempangau menoa tu. There
are no paddy bugs in this country.
Empang - enseluang (b empang-enselu-
ang), a game played by children holding hands
in a circle.
Empanyat (bempanyat), a species of beetle
that makes a noise in the jungle towards sun-
set ; a proper name, f.
Emparu (bemparu), see gemparu.
Empas (v. f. ngempas ; b empas), to dash,
throw down with force. Iga ngempas ka mang-
kok lalu blah. He threw down the cup and it
was broken.
Empasa (bempasaj, tapioca. Kami nadai

bisi bempasa ditu. We have no tapioca here.
Empasa, an ornament (such as rawai)
made of brass and copper alloy.
Empasan, (hempasan), loot, booty, spoil.
Taj an tn empasan niang apai. This jar was
plunder got by my late father.
Empat, see ampat.
Empedu (bempedu}, the gall of beasts or
reptiles. Tu empedu jugam. This is a bear’s
Empekak (v. f. nempekak), to cackle as a
hen does after laying. Manok kami ti nem-
pekak. It was our hen that cackled.
Empekat (a form of sempekat), to agree
together, confederate. Iya empekat enggau
aku mli tajau nya. He agreed with me to
buy that jar.
Empekok (v. f. nempekok), s, a kind of
snake called ripong, v. to crow (as a cock).
Empelam (bempelam), the manggo. Bisi
kami bempelam di rumah. We have mang-
go fruit at the house.
Empeleman (bempelemari), dust or any
particles lodged in the eye. Mata aku empele-
man. My eye has dust in it.
Empelungau (bempelungau), a kind of
poisonous fly. Menoa tu bempelungau. This
district has poisonous flies in it.
Emperaja (bemperaja), as emperaja mat a,
a sweet-heart. Iya ngenang emperaja mata
iya. He talks all about his sweet-heart.
Emperaja (bemperaja), the young one
[used of bee-trees (tapang) only]. Nya empe-
raja tapang aku. That is my young bee-tree.
Empergam (bempergam), the large wild
pigeon (Treron capellei). Kami bulih empe-
rgam siko. We got one large wild pigeon.
Empesut (bempesut), fish maw. Anang
nuan beayam empesitt ikan. Do not play
with fish maws.
Empikau (bempikau), durian fruit pre-
served with salt ; a proper name, m. Kami
ka mli empikau song nuan. We want to buy
preserved durian fruit of you.
Empilak (bempilak), a sore. Laban kaki
iya empa empilak iya enda tau bejalai. He
cannot walk because his feet are sore.
Empili (v. f. nempili; bempili), s. a tree
producing a species of wild nut the favourite
food of wild pigs, v. to go to look for empili
nuts. Jani laba Taji pulai nempili di kam-
pong dalam. The pig that returned from
looking for the empili nuts in the old jungle
became Taji’s prize.
Empin (bempin), paddy soaked in water,
fried in an iron cauldron (kuali) and pound-
ed until the husk comes off; it is then fit to
be eaten.
Empit (v. f. ngempit; bempit), to press
close, throng, be next to, chew herbs, etc.,
before applying them to a patient as manang
do. Iya ngempit aku dudok. He sat close
to where I sat. Prauh iya bangat ngempit
prauh aku nya alai iya karam. His boat
pressed too close to my boat that was the
reason it got capsized.
Empitu (pempitu), a quail, (Coturnix vul-
garis) ; a proper name, f.
Emplaku. (bemplaku), a bucket (without a
Emplasor gemplas (bemplascxtbegemplas),
a rough leaf used for polishing purposes. Aku â– 
ka ka bukit ngambi emplas. I want to go to
the mountain to get emplas leaves.
Emplawa (bemplawa), a spider. Bunoh
emplawa nya enggaika iya ngetup nuan. Kill
that spider lest it bite you.
Empliau (bempliaij), the spider monkey
(Ilylobates mullerii. Malay wah-wah). Ma»
nah nyawa empliau tumu pagi. How plea-
sant is the cry of the wah-wah in the early
morning. Empliau tuchong Nyambau napat
ka buah kubal tusu. The., wah-wah on the
summit of the Nyambau goes for the rubber
(kubal tusu) fruit.
Empong (bempong), a patron saint. Em-
pong manang nya rusa. A deer is that ma-
nansjs patron saint.
Empran (fow/ran), flat land, plain. Ka-
mi bumai empran taun tu. We farm the plain
this year.
Emprian (bemprian), s. a nickname, v. to
use a nickname. (Thus two friends would not
call each other by their real names but make
use of one common to both). Lebu meda em-
prian kami duai. Lebu meda is the name we
call one another.
Empringat (bempringat), a thorny creep-
er with an edible fruit, a pig about a year old.
Jani ti ulih kami nyau empringat. The pig
that we got was about a year old.
Empu (v. f. ngempu; bempu), to own,
possess. Aku empu. Mine. Nuan empu.
Empugau (bempugau), a large kind of
sand-flv, the name of a spirit (Antu) known,
it is said, only in the Undup district. Paia
Empugau. A head of the Empugau Antu.
(There are two of these ‘ heads ’ known in the
Undup and they look suspiciously like manu-
factured trophies).
Empukong (bempukong), a species of
white ant that makes its habitation on trees.
Empulu (bempulu), the inner skin of the
bent-ban rush (the outer skin is called bemban,
both are used for making mats), the name of
a bird; a proper name, f.
Empuna (bempuna), a species of pigeon
(thepunei of the Malays, Treron vernans or
T. olax)\ a proper name, f.
Enchabau or kachabau (v. f. ngencha-
bau), to cut grass or jungle in a slovenly or
negligent manner. Enda lama udah enti aku
ngenchabau rumput nya. It didn’t take me
long to finish cutting that grass in a slovenly
Enchabuarong (v. f. ngenchabuarong), s.
a preliminary feast to a new head when first
brought into the house, v. to hold such a feast.
Enchagau (v. f. ngenchagau), to put the
head forward like a snake. Ngenchagau pala.
tedong ka mantok aku. The cobra puts its
head forward and wants to strike me.
Enchekak, to throttle.
Enchekik, see enchekak.
Enchekok (v. f. ngenchekok), to revive,

raise the head whilst in a recumbent position,
recover spirits. Pad{ kami nyau ngenchekok.
Our paddy has revived again. Kamari iya
lembau sa hari tu baru iya ngenchekok. He
was down-hearted yesterday but to-day he has
recovered his spirits.
Enchekur (see which when crushed is applied to the stomachs
of persons suffering from stomach-ache. En-
chekur tau ka ubat pedis prut. Enchekur is a
medicine for stomach-ache.
Enchemah (v. f. ngenchemah.}, to pick the
best of the cooked rice from the pot. Anang
nuan bangat ngenchemah ka asi. Do not keep
picking the best of the rice from the pot.
Enchuri (v. f. ngenchuri}, see churi, to
steal. Iya ngenchuri wang aku. He stole my
Enchuyup (v. f. ngenchuyup}, to humble
oneself, appear to be timid and of no account,
be dispirited. Ngenchuyup iya ningajako aku.
He looked timid when he heard my words.
Enda (v. f. ngenda}, the negative not.
Aku enda tindok laban pedis prut. I did not
sleep because of a pain in my stomach. [Note
form ngenda, e. g. Iya ngenda kadiri makai.
He restrained himself from eating].
Endang (bendang}, natural, existing, natur-
ally, ever, v. to use the word endang over and
over again. Allah Taala siko endang bisi.
There is a God existing. Iya endangpenchuri.
He is naturally a thief. Patu nadai apai en-
dang nadai indai. An orphan without a
father ever without a mother. Anang nuan
bangat bendang. Do not keep on using the
word endang.
Endap, a level piece of land. Tu tanah
endap nyamai alai belawa. This level land is a
nice place for running.
Endat, a term of endearment used to girls
only. Aku gawa ngelimpau ka endat nyabak.
I am busy pacifying my daughter who is cry-
Endok (bendokj, the finest rice dust after
pounding. Kami ka minta endok song nuan.
We want to ask you for rice dust.
Endor {bendov}, s. a place, locality, room,
v. to have a place, etc. Jako iya bangat
ngena nadai agi bisi endor ngejap iya. He
spoke so much to the point that there was no
further room to dispute it. Sakali disimpan
iya kaldai enggau kerbau begulai di endor siti.
Once upon a time he kept an ass and a buffalo
together at one place. Dini endor nuan diau ?
Where do you live ? Nadai bisi bendor agi.
There is no more room.
Endu, a term of endearment used to girls.
Endu nyau turun ka umai. My daughter has
gone to the paddy farm.
Endun, see endu. Kami duai endun nadai
kala belaya. I and my daughter have never
Enggai (v. f. ngenggai; benggai}, to re-
fuse, resent, neg. don’t, won’t. Enggai aku
makai ubatpait. I don’t want to take bitter
medicine. Iya enggai ninga ka jako nuan.
He won’t hear you (lit. your words). Anang
ugenggai kadiri makai. Don’t refuse to eat.
Enggaika, lest. Anang main bejudi eng-
gaika wang nuan ambis. Do not gamble lest
you lose all your money.
Enggang (v. f. ngenggang}, to cry like the
Hornbill. Enggang munyi tenyalang didinga
aku tadi. I heard just now the cry of the
Enggau, prep, with, together with, v. to
use, wear. Iya enda lama bejako enggau aku.
He did not speak long with me. Anang eng-
gau duku iya. Don’t use his chopper.
Enggi (v. f. menggi; benggi}, belonging
to, v. to own, possess. Prauh nya enggi aku-
That boat is mine. Aku enggai menggi duku
■nya. I don’t own that chopper.
Engka (v. f. ngengka}, adv. perhaps, v.
to suppose. Engkah di patong engka tetigong
ka antu bala pengabang. Put it on your knees
in case you come in contact with the multitude
of the guests.
Engkabalu (bengkabalu}, a'fine paid by a
widow or widower to the relations of the de-
ceased. Before the fine is paid the widow or
widower is not allowed to marry. Sida China
nadai bengkabalu. The Chinese have no eng-
kabalu custom.
Engkabai (jbengkabai}, a paddy bin (the
width of which is measured from the tips of
the fingers to the shoulder). Padi jual aku
bisi sigi engkabai. The paddy I have for sale
is one binfull.
Engkabang (bengkabang}. a tree (Depiero
carpus'} producing a species of nut from which
vegetable tallow is made.
Engkachau (v. f. mengkachau}, to move
about, move the hands about. Pala ular nya
agi mengkachau. That snake’s head still moves.
jari iya enggai badu mengkachau. His hands
will not cease moving.
Engkah (v. f. ngengkah', bengkah}, to
place, put, or lay down. . Barang sapa lelak
tan ngengkah ka ma iya. Whoever is tired
can put down his burden.
Engkala, (bengkala}, or pedar, a fruit tree.
[When boiled the fruits make an excellent vege-
Engkalat jbengkalat}, a species of small
Engkalubang (bengkalubang}, a pit-fall,
hole full of pointed bamboos stuck upright in
order to kill any animal that falls into it.
Engkani(v. f. nengkani ; betengkani), to
feed animals or fowls. Pagi lemai orang enda
tan enda nengkani manok. Morning and even-
ing people must feed fowls.
Engkarong (bengkarong}, a species of
lizard (G. skink}.
Engkasak (v. f. mengkasak}, to move,
writhe, wriggle, struggle with, offer resistance.
Anang mengkasak. Don’t move. Lalu meng-
kasak tilar nya dipalzt aku. That snake
writhed when I struck it. Iya mengkasak
leboh orang ka nangkap iya. He offered resis-
tance when people tried to arrest him.
Engkat, adv. as far as, s. the limit. Tu
meh engkat jako aku. This is the limit of
what I have to say.
Engkatak, or mengkatak {bengkatak},

a frog. Nadai bisi bengkatak menoa tu. There
are no frogs in this country.
Engkayu (bengkayu), anything eaten with
the cooked rice, such as fish, vegetables, etc.
Kami makai nadai bisi engkayu. We eat rice
and there was nothing with it. Bengkayu
sida makai. They eat (their rice) with condi-
Engkebap (v. f. mengkebap}, to flap the
wings like fowls.
Engkebut (v. f. mengkebut}, see kekebut. (v. f. nengkeching}, to shoot
out. Nengkeching ai pansut ari lobang. The
water shoots out from the hole.
Engkechong {bengkechong}, a large ulcer
or sore. Sanu bisi ubat engkechong. So-and-
so has medicine for ulcers.
Engkejok (v. f. nengkejok}, to make a
quick spring. Iya meda ular lain nengkejok.
He saw a snake and made a quick spring (to
avoid it).
Engkerbap,or enserunai (bengkerbap
or benserunai), a one-string viol. Iya landik
bendar nebah engkerbap. He is clever at play-
ing the one-string viol.
Engkerejang (bengkerejang}, a mythical
animal (?). The name is derived from rejang
to drive in or through. The animal is said to
fasten on to other beasts and gnaw into their
Engkerema jbengkerema'}, the date fruit.
Engkeririk (bengkeririk}, a species of
bird, a water lily.
Engkerurai {bengkerurai}, a musical wind-
instrument. [A species of bag-pipe, the bag
is a pumpkin shell, and the pipes are of bam-
boo. It is said to be a Kayan invention].
Engkesap, or mengkesap, to twinkle,
blink, wink, Mata iya enda engkesap meda
sangko munsoh ti nuju iya. His eyes did not
blink when he saw the spears of the enemy
pointed at him.
Engketong jbengketong}, see entekong.
Engkicha, or engka-icha, perhaps, per-
Engkijap, see engkesap.
Engkila, see tengkila.
Engkilong (v. f. nengkilong}, s. a name
given to a bundle of tuba roots, v. to twine
round. Prentah minta dua engkilong tubai
ari sa pintu ka enggau nubai ai Tisak. The
Government asks for two bundles of tuba roots
a door to poison the Tisak stream for fish.
Ular nengkilong kaki aku di babas. A snake
twined round my leg in the bush.
Engkiong (bengkiong), a bamboo cylind-
er used as a receptacle for salt, etc.
Engklai {bengklai}, a shell armlet. Aku
nadai bisi bengklai. I have no shell armlets.
Engklait [bengklait], wild gambier. 7Gz-
mi ka ka Nimong ng.mbi engklait. We want
to go to Nimong mountain to get wild gam-
Engkliat (bengkliat}, see empin.
Engkiong (v. f. nengklong, or mengk-
long}, to embrace, hush a child to sleep. Azz-
du gazva nengklong anak iya. My daughter is
busy hushing her child to sleep.
Engkluli (bengklulij, or mata gasing,
the spindle of a cotton spinning machine.
Engklulut {bengklulut}, a species of dimi-
nutive fly that makes a kind of wax.
Engkok, as buah engkok, small and bad
durian fruit.
Engkrabak, or krabak, the largest kind
of squirrel {Sciurus ephippium}.
Engkrabu {bengkrabu}, an earring. Endu
nadai bisi bengkrabu aku ka mli ka iya. My
daughter has no earrings, I want to buy some
for her.
Engkrabun {bengkrabun}, a ‘ blinder.’
[The manang in order to prevent persons
looking into their boxes of charms give out
that they have therein engkrabun which will
cause blindness].
Engkramba (fezzg^rzzzzz^zz),' s. a represent-
ation of anything cut out of wood, v. to have
Engkraju jbengkraju}, copper.
Engkranas (bengkranas}, syphilis. (/^zz^zwzrtzz), see engkranas.
Engkranji (bengkranji}, a fruit-bearing
Engkrarin jbengkrarin}, lattice work.
Engkratong (bengkratong), a musical
instrument resembling a guitar. It has seven
Engkrawai \bengkrazvai}, a species of tree
wasp. Aku disengat engkratvai di malam.
I was stung by a wasp last night.
Engkrebah jbengkrebah}, a boom or
obstruction put athwart the channel of a river
in time of war.
Engkrebai (v. f. ngrebai}, s. a plant, the
leaves of which are used as a red dye, v. to
dye red. Aku ngasoh endu ngrebai kalambi
aku. I asked my daughter to dye my jacket
Engkretik (v. f. mengkretik}, to make a
slight noise. Nadai mengkretik sida dia.
They do not make the least noise there.
Engkrimok jbengkrimok}, brass rings
worn below the knee by men, women wear
selong from the knee to the ankle. Apai iya
bengkrimok baka bujang. His father wears
brass rings below the knee like a bachelor.
E agkriniu {bengkrindu}, a kind of solid
Engkriut (v. f. ngeriuf), to curl, lessen,
hang loose (as the skin of old people). Apai
nyau tuai isi iya nyau ngeriut. Father grows
old his flesh hangs loosely.
Engkrong jbengkrong}, a ring made from
a sort of creeper. (It is used in constructing
a pig trap).
Engkruak (fozz^zfz-zzzzZ’), or kruak, the
moorhen {Erythra phcenicura}.
Engkrudu {bengkrudu), a sluggish poison-
ous green snake somewhat like the ular bun-
Engkrumong (b engkrumong'}, a set of
little chanang each sounding differently.
Engkruri {bengkruri}, or (see) engkeru-
rai, a bag-pipe.
Engkruroh {bengkruroh}, species of ficus.
Engku, short form of enggi aku, the pos-

sessive, mine. Engku pun rian tu. This du-
rian tree is mine.
Engkual (v. f. mengkual}, to feel an in-
clination to vomit. Atau aku mengkual ka
mutah. I (lit. my heart) feel an inclination to
En.gku.du (v. f. bengkudu}, a plant of
which the skin of the root produces a red dye.
Engkujut (bengkujut}, a small hairy cater-
pillar. [If found in numbers on the paddy farm
they would be reckoned an omen by Dyaks].
Engkukok (v. f. mengkukok}, to crow like
a cock.
Engkuli (bengkuli}, the clouded leopard
(felis nebulosa).
Engkulong, see engkilong.
Engkuna (^zz^zzwa;), a brass box to hold
the chewing ingredients. -
Engkurak (v. f. mengkurak}, to bubble,
boil as water. Ai ti dipandok nuan nyau
mengkurak. The water that you put on the
fire is boiling.
Enjan (v. f. ngenjan; benjan), to tread
upon, step on. Iya ngenjan aku gali. He
trod on me as I lay down.
Enjok (v. f. ngenjok ; benjok}, to give. Iya
ngenjok aku sa ringgit. He gave me a
Enjun (v.f. ngenjun ; benjun}, seeenjan.
Enkuli, see engkuli.
Ensabi (bensabi}, a mustard plant. Nadai
bisi bensabi aku taun tu. I have no mustard
plants this year.
Ensana, the day before yesterday. Ensa-
na iya ngosong aku. The day before yesterday
he called upon me.
Ensansuit, to whistle.
Ensanus, see ensana.
Ensapa, whose (contracted form of enggi
sapa, see enggi}.
Ensara (v. f. ngensara ; begensara}, to
scatter, spread further apart. Iya ngensara
ka atap aku nya alai iya tudoh. He scattered
my roofing that was the reason it leaked.
Ensai'uit (bensaruit), a wild sibau fruit tree;
the fruit is small and smooth-skinned. Iya
mai buah ensaruit ka dijual. He brought wild
sibau fruit to sell.
Ensaya, inconvenience, difficulty (usually
with the interrogative nama prefixed). Nama
ensaya iya dudok dia I What inconvenience
has he in sitting there ?
Ensayar, to fly swiftly. Lalu ensayar daun
nya dipuput ribut. That leaf flew swiftly be-
ing blown by the wind. Ensayarpejalai iya.
He walks swiftly.
Ensebu, untidy (of hair). Tak ensebu bok
indu. nya. How very untidy that woman’s
hair is.
Enselan, see genselan.
Enseleba, a species of gutta (nyatu} tree
which so much resembles the real gutta {nyatu
rian) that it is often taken for it.
Enselit or menselit, to go through a
small opening.
Enselua, the soul. [The use of this word
is peculiar. If any article is missing it is said
to have been taken, if not by persons, by the
soul of the owner of the missing article]. Du-
ku aku nyau nadai temu engka udah diarnbi
enselua. My chopper is gone and I can’t
find it perhaps it was taken by the soul.
Enseluai (bensehtai), a species of fresh-
water fish ; a proper name, f.
Enseluang (benseluang), see enseluai.
Ensenggui (v. f. jigensenggui), unwell,
to feel unwell. Ensenggui pendiau iya. He
feels unwell.
Ensepi (v. f. ngensepi), to taste. Aku
bedau ngensepi buah nya. I have not yet tast-
ed that fruit.
Enseput (v. f. ngenseplit), to breathe. Iya
enda enseput lama amat. He did not breathe
for a very long time.
Enserunai {benserunai), see engkerbap.
Ensiang, see pensiang.
Ensiat (v. f. ngensiat}, to be displaced.
Laban ribut ti udu di malam atap rumah kami
ambis ngensiat. Because of the storm last
night all our roofing was displaced.
Ensiban jbensiban), s. a thorn, splinter of
wood, etc., that has entered the flesh, v. to
have a thorn in the flesh. Jari aku bensiban
leboh aku teklinchir di batang tadi. My hand
got a splinter in it when I slipped off the
batang path just now.
Ensilup (bensilup), a species of insect.
[It is believed by Dyaks when these insects
appear the sowing season is over and that it is
the ‘ tenth month ’]. - - -
Ensing (bensing), the king-fisher. Tau
bendar burong ensing nyambar ikan mit. The
king-fisher knows how to swoop down upon
small fish.
Ensing (v. f. ngensing ; bensing), to blow
the nose. Akumedaiya ngensing lalu batok.
I saw him blow his nose and ccugh.
Enslur (v. f. ngenslur}, to make a long
dive. Plandok terjun ka ai ngenslur nadai
nyauh nya. A mouse-deer sprang into the
water and made a very long dive.
Ensong (v. f. ngensong), to whistle. Indu
nya nyelai bendar ngensong baka lelaki. That
woman is an extraordinary person she whistles
like a man.
Ensra (bensra), s. a tale, anecdote, v. to
relate a tale, tell a story, Ensra Kling nyum-
pit. The story of Kling shooting with the
blow-pipe. Iya landik bendar bensra. He is
clever at relating stories.
Ensriban jbensriban}, a small fish ; a pro-
per name, m. /Jz' ulu sungai mit maioh ka-
ban ensriban. At the head of small streams
are many shoals of tiny fish.
Ensuga (bensuga), the carved wooden
support upon which the image of the Burong
7 'e nyalang (as used at Feasts, see Gaivai, II.
7,) rests upon the summit of a lofty pole.
Ensuga-tisir, the decorated work on a
woman’s silver hair-comb. Ensugar-tisir in-
du nya mail. The decorated work on that
woman’s hair comb is of gold.
Ensugau (v. f. ngensugau), to look sleepy
as when roused. Nama kabuah pendiau nuan
bangat ngensugau I Why are you looking so
sleepy ?

Ensumbar {bensumbar}, a sobriquet, nick-
name, surname, title, parable. Tait- ka en-
sumbar jelu remaung. (The name of) the
wild beast the Tiger can be used as a title.
Tu ensumbar jako. This is a parable. Jako
iya bensumbar nya alai aku enda nemu tunga
rerti iya. He speaks in parables that is the
reason I cannot grasp his meaning.
Ensungan {bensungan), a gourd to contain
water for household purposes. Adat kami
Daya indu nyauk ka ensungan tumu pagi. The
custom of us Dyaks is for the women to get
water in the gourds very early in the morning.
Ensurok (v. f. ngensurok), to crouch, go
under, creep. Baka rilur ensurok akar palu di
Hi mati di ulu. Like a snake that has gone
underneath a root you hit it on the tail and the
other end dies.
Entabalu {bentabalu), or pungkabalu,
see engkabalu-
Entagaram (joentagaram), a jungle tree
the heart of which is black. The wood is used
for fuel. Entagaram manah bendar ka kayu
api. The entagaram wood makes capital fire-
Entah, I don’t know. [It implies doubt
or denial].
Entailandai {bentailandai), to laugh out
loud and long [as “ ha-hai-iuai” the peculiar
laugh affected by Dyak women].
Entak (v. f. ngentak ; bentak}, to put up
posts, beat when washing clothes. Kami barn
udah ngentak. We have just put up out-
Entam (v. f. ngentam), to assemble, go to
give succour, aid. Sida Undup nyau ngentam
ka Kantu. The Undups have gone to give
succour to the Kantu people.
Entamba (v. f. ngentamba -,bentamba), s.
medicine, v. to doctor. Aku minta entamba
ari nuan. I ask medicine from you. Iya
landik ngentamba orang. He is clever at
doctoring people.
Entambah {bentambah), or semawa, the
largest species of bat. {Pteropus edulis). Aku
medil kamari bulih dua iko entambah. I was
shooting yesterday and got two large {entam-
bah) bats.
Entanggor {bentanggor), a species of py-
thon ; a tree the wood of which is used for
house building. Entanggor ti dibunoh iya
panjai tiga depa. The entanggor python that
he slew was three fathoms long. Kayu en-
tanggor badas ka ramu. Entanggor wood is
good for building material.
Entap (v. f. ngentap ; bentap), to be per-
manent, be steady, settle down. Dudok entap
kita samoa. Sit down all of you. Aku ka
ngentap kadiri bebini kamaiatu. I want to
settle down steadily and marry now. Entap
pcndiau iya dia kamaiatu.. He seems to have
settled down there now.
Entaroh {bentaroh), s. a bet, v. to bet.
Entaroh sida beselam sigi mukul. Their bet
on the diving contest is one mukul (eight
plates). Iya ka bentaroh enggau nuan. He
wants to bet with you.
Entas (v. f. ngentas; bentas), to decide.
Iya ngentas ka jako sida enda enggau kami
berumah. He decided that they were not going
to build on to us.
Entas, see endang.
Entawai {bentawaij a species of bat
Maioh bendar entawai dia. There are many
entavuai bats there.
Entegelam {bentegelam), a jungle tree pro-
ducing nuts (smaller than the engkabang) from
which a vegetable tallow is made.
Entegris (bentegris), a species of wood-
pecker. Eeda burong entegris ngabas ragai
man. See the wood-pecker examining the
dead man tree.
Enteguli {benteguli), or teguli, deadly
poison. Bugau bisi ngembuan enteguli. The
Bugan people possess most deadly poisons.
Entekai {b entekai), a pumpkin. Lantang
entekai. Spreads far and wide as the pump-
kin (or the freeness of the pumpkin). Kami
nadai bisi bentekai taun tu. We have no pump-
kins this year.
Entekong {bentekong), a scare to keep
birds or animals off the paddy farm. [Tin or
a piece of hollow wood is hung up and the
wind causes it to strike against a piece of wood
hung near].
Entelah (bentelah), a riddle, charade.
Entelah iya enda ulih giga. The answer to
his riddle cannot be found.
Entelo {bentelo), a girdle of glass, stone, and
shell beads attached to the lowest portion of a
woman’s brass bodice {raivai}.
Entelong {bentelong), a rat trap made out
of a hollow bamboo. Entelong aku bulih chit
tiga iko di malam. My rat trap caught three
rats last night.
Entemu {bentemu), tumeric. Iya enda
ingat kadiri balu mandi bentemu bebatu. She
forgets that she is a widow and when she
bathes uses tumeric and a stone to clean her-
self with.
Entemut {bentemut'j see entemu. {bentenong), a tree the bark of
which is used for tying and binding purposes.
Apai nyau ka babas ngambi entenong. Father
has gone to the jungle to get entenong.
Entepa (v. f. ngentepa), to stretch out the
hands. Kami meda erang kubu ngentepa ka-
jari sida belajar bebaris. We saw the fortmen
stretching out their hands when being drilled.
Enti, if. Enti enda. If not. Enti penurun
nuan baka nya enda nuan tau bulih padi. If
your farm work is like that you will not get
Entigis or entigih {bentigis or bentigihj,
the source or extremity of a river. Batang
Undup dipangkang mensia datai ka di entigis.
The Undup river is inhabited right up to its
Entika (bentika), a season, time ; a pro-
per name, m. T11 entika ujan. This is the
rainy season. Bentika anak iya nyabak. Her
child cries at certain times.
Entikam (bentikam), a black water snake.
Sida Skarang makai entikam. The Skarangs
eat the entikam snake.
Entikur (bentikur), a poisonous snake

ealled also mati iko. Tlie tip of its tail is a
different colour from its body.
Entilan (bentilan), a boat shed. Kami
gawa ngaga entilan. We are busy building
a boat shed.
Entimun {bentimun}, a cucumber {genus
cucumis). Nadai bentimun kami taun tu
ambis mati laban kamarau. We have no
cucumbers this year, they are all dead because
of the drought.
Entli {bentli}, a kind of tree the bark of
which makes the best paddy bins {gentong).
Entlit {bentlit), the smallest kind of par-
rot (sometimes called a love-bird). Entlit tau
ngumbai pangan. The entlit parrot can call
its companions.
Entok (v. f. ngentok; bentok), to arrive at
a place, satiate or revenge oneself. Iya ngen-
tok ka pejalai iya di Simanggang. He arriv-
ed at Simanggang. Aku udah ngentok ka
tengok aku dalam aku udah meda menoa Slat.
I have satiated myself in that now I have seen
Singapore. Iya ringat soh orang bzikai lain
ngentok ka jako iya di aku. He was angry
with other people and revenged himself on me.
Entong (v. f. ngentong; bentong), to
pound, pierce with the end of a stick. Iya
ngentong kaki aka enggau alii. He pounded
my leg with a pestle.
Entran {bentran}, the shaft of a spear.
Entran sangko aku nyau patah dua. The
shaft of my spear is broken in two.
Entua {bentud}, father-(or mother-) in-law.
Entua iya ti indu sakit. His mother-in-law is
ill. Entua aku ti lelaki udah mati. My
father-in-law is dead. Mali nyebut nama
entua. It is forbidden to pronounce the
father-(or mother-) in-law’s name.
Entugam, to rush out (as wild beasts).
Entugam jugam song aku aku bedil laluparai.'
A bear rushed out at me and I fired and kill-
ed it.
Entula-alai, to plunge the body and back
of the head into the water when bathing.
Entum (v. f. ngentum ; bentum). to throw»
a spear, pound with a pestle. Iya nge'ntum
jani enggau sangko ngena lain parai. He'
threw a spear at a pig and struck and killed
it. Iya nutok lalu ngentum me-ngentum. She
pounds the paddy and keeps on pounding it.'
Entupan {bentupan}, an eddy, the pre-
liminary sign before giving birth.
En.tu.ran {benturan), lines on the keel of
a boat upon which the planks forming the
sides are laid, a piece of wood placed between
the ends of the flooring of a Dyak house, a
wall plate.
Enturun {benturun}, an omnivorous,
nocturnal and arboreal animal {Arctietis bin-
Entuyut {bentuyut), the monkey-cup
creeper {genus nepenthes}. Sida sa rumah
sampai ka babas ngambi entuyut. All the
people of the house have gone into the jun-
gle to get monkey-cup creepers (for binding
Ga (the short form of mega), also, (shew-
ing assent) indeed. Asoh iya kitu ga enggau
nuan turun ka aku. Tell him also to come
hither with you to work on my farm. Indu
nya suah bendar udah butangtu ka lima kali.
Ga. That woman has often committed adul-
tery and this is the fifth time. Indeed.
Gada-gada, peculiar gait of a child.
Gada-gada pejalai anembiak nya. That child’s
walk is peculiar.
Gadai, or Gadai-gadai {begadai}, adj.
slow, low (of the voice), adv. slowly, v. to do
anything slowly. Iya betelai bejako gadai.
He whispers and speaks in a low tone. Bega-
dai-gadai iya bejalai. He walks slowly. Iya
begadai bejako. He speaks slowly. Bejalai
begadai nuan. Walk slowly. Palu begadai.
Strike it slowly.
Gadai (v. f. ngadai; begadai), s. pledge
v. to pledge, pawn. Iya ngadai tetawak iya
di aku. He pawned his tetawak to me.
Gadak-gadak, lying on the back. Aku
meda iya tindok gadak-gadak di langkau umai.
I saw him asleep lying on his back in the farm
Gading {begading}, ivory. Iya ngena
tumpa gading. He wears an ivory brace-
Gadoh {begadoh}, s. quarrel, tumult, com-
motion, v. to quarrel. Bisi gadoh di rumah
sida. There is a quarrel in their house. Sida
China begadoh di pasar. The Chinese are
quarrelling in the bazaar.
Gadong adj. blue. Iya ngena kalambi
gadong. He wears a blue jacket.
Gadong {begadong), a species of potato
{Dioscoraa deemonum} from China, used as a
Gadcr, adj. green. Iya ngena tanchut
gador. He wears green trousers.
Gaga (v. f. ngaga; begaga), to make,,
build, do, invent, feign. Apai nyau ngaga
rumah. Father is gone to make a house.
Gaga tu olih nuan anang enda Do not fail
to do this. Iya mina ngaga jako. He simp-
ly invented a story. Nuan ngaga diri sakit
kamari. You feigned to be ill yesterday.
Gaga (v. f. ngaga), to rejoice, welcome.
Aku pen datai iya gaga ka aku. As I arrived
he welcomed me.
Gagah (v. f. n gagah ; begagah), see
Gagai (v. f. ngagai; begagai), to pursue,
approach, go to, hunt, follow after ; the form
ngagai is often used to signify the preposi-
tion to. Iya nyau ngagai ukui. He has
gone following after the hounds. Kamari
kami bejalai ngagai Sabu. Yesterday we
went to Sabu.
Gagang {begagang), the stalk of a leaf,
fruit, or flower. Sireh dipusil iya lalu enggau
gagang. He plucked the sireh with its stalk.

Gaganjang, naked. Kami Daya enda
baka Laut kami enggai meda anak gaganjang.
We Dyaks are not like Malays we do not like
to see the children naked.
Gagar (v. f. ngagar; begagar), to drop,
pluck. Daun kopi ambis gagar. The coffee
leaves have all dropped off,
Gagarak, exposed, scattered about.
Gagarak ivang China dipeda kami. We saw
the Chinese money scattered about. Gagarak
karangan di rantau panjai. Shingle is ex-
posed in the long reach.
Gagau (v. f. ngagau), to be busy, em-
ployed, anxious about a person or anything.
Aku gagau bendar. I am very busy, lya
gagau bendar ka anak iya ti sakit. He is very
anxious about his child that is ill.
Gagit (v. f. ngagit), adj. glad, in high
spirits, v. to cause to be glad, in high spirits.
Indu nya ngagit kadiri meda aku datai.
That woman was in high spirits when she
saw me come.
Gagoh (v. f. n gagoh}, see Gagau.
Gagong jbegagong), a war jacket. [The
best are made of tiger-cat or goat skin. The
Keniah are said to keep a particular-breed of
goats for the purpose of turning their skins
into gagong and often ask as much as thirty
dollars for a good skin].
Gagulin {begagulin), a bolster.
Gagurak, to boil like water.
Gaguyap, to shake.
Gaguyas, see Gaguyap.
Gaguyat, see Gaguyap.
Gajah (begajah), s. an elephant, wooden
representation of an elephant, v. to hold a
feast in honour of the same (see Gatvai).
Gajai {begajai), as kalambi gajai, a jacket
with a frog pattern. ngena kalambi ga-
pai. He wears a gajai jacket.
Gaji (v. f. ngaji ; begaji), s. wage, a hire-
ling, journeyman, v. to hire. Iya ngaji aku
sa hari sa suku. He hires me at eighteen
cents a day. Kami orang gaji. We are paid
Galai (v. f. ngalai ; begalai), to lay down
or cause to lie down, lya ngalai kadiri di
rumput. He lay down on the grass.
Galak (v. f. ngalak ; begalak), adj. lively,
thriving, v. to strive, prosper (of plants, pad-
dy, etc.), make merry, celebrate with merri-
ment. Penyampai diri sa rumah bla dia,
ngalak ka tegalan Samoa mansang kia. All
the inmates of the house were there, in order
to celebrate with merriment the recent burn-
ing x>f the farm land all went there.
Galan-galan, orGegalan, smooth, with-
out hair or feathers ; blunt.
Galang, an epithet for a rock ; a proper
name, m.
Galang (v. f. ngalang; begalang), s. a
support, v. to put a support under a boat, etc.
Kami gawa ngalang ka prauh. We are busy
putting supports under the boat.
Galau (v. f. ngalau; begalau), to reserve,
keep back a portion. lya ngalau babas ka
umai taun siti. He reserves the jungle for
next year’s farming.
Galau {begalau), a gigantic tree ; a pro-
per name, m. Sida bumai batang galau ti
ditebang. They, had to fell large trees for
their farms.
Galenggang {begelenggang), adj. uneven,
up and down like waves.
Gali (v. f. ngali), see Galai.
Galing (begaling), a species of Munsang
{Paradoxurus Leucomystax).
Galong black smoke vomited
forth from a fire (a person’s hair that is black
and long is called galong). Indu nya bega-
long. That woman has long black hair.
Galumbang (v. f. ngelumbang ; begalum-
bang), to cut with a chopper furiously. Prauh
kami ambis digalumbang iya enggau duku.
He chopped our boat to pieces with his chop-
Gam {begam), a double tooth, molar; a
plucky fellow.
Gama (v. f. ngama; begama), to feel,
touch with the hands, perform massage.
Gama enggau jari nuan. Feel it with your
hand. Kami madah ka nuan ngama apai
pedis prut. We call you to massage our
father who has stomach-ache.
Gamal {begamal), s. aspect, appearance.
Puangpunggong gamal begantong. A slender
waist, a beautiful figure.
Gamang jbegamang), a species of hornet
that builds in holes in the ground.
Gambal jbegambal), see Gamal.
Gambar, (v. f. ngambar; begambar), s. a
picture, v. to paint a picture, photograph.
Gambar, usually Rumah Gambar, in Sara-
wak and in the Malay Peninsula the natives
have adopted the name for the Museum.
Gambi, or Antu Gambi (beantu gambi),
a model or representation of the human face
or form, a peculiar cry made by the hawk at
night and considered to be a portent.
Gambir (begambir), the well-known plant
of that name {Uncaria gambir) from the
leaves of which the dye is made, a cock’s
Gambis (begambis), see Gambir. (v. f. hgampang), adj. uncer-
tain, scrupulous, v. to restrain. Enti nuan
enda badn bejako nganu aku ila aku enda gam-
pang main nuan. If you will not cease talk-
ing angrily to me presently I will not hesitate
to strike you.
Gana-gana, see Gada-gada.
Ganas, impatient, restless, mischievous,
Ganchil, adj. quick.
Gandarusa {begandarusa'), a shrub {Jus-
ticia Gandarusa') the leaves of which are
bruised and used as a poultice.
Gandong jbegandong), planks fastened on
to the keel of a boat to make the sides.
Prauh iya begandong. His boat has planks
fastened on to the keel.
Gandum (fypwMflw/), corn, barley (intro-
Gang-batu (begang-batu), a boulder.
Maioh gang-batu di Empangu. There are
plenty of boulders at Empangu.

Gangga (begangga), distant prolonged
thunder, v. to thunder in the distance for some
considerable time, beat a musical instru-
Ganggam, adj. huge, large, strong, firm,
steady, sure, secure. Tiang ganggam. A
huge post. Anak aku ganggam. My son
is strong. Tiang tu udah ganggam. This
post is steady. Jako aku udah ganggam.
My words are sure.
Ganggang (v. f. nganggang; begang-
gang), s. kingfisher (Alcedo); a proper name,
m., v. to suspend. [The bird is so called
because it builds its nest suspended over
Gangging (begangging), see Aur.
Gansai (begansai), a spear with one barb.
Gantang (begantang). one eighth "of a
pasu dry measure. Di Simanggang jarang
rerga brau lebih ari ampat-blas sen sa gantang.
At Simanggang the price of rice is rarely
above fourteen cents the gantang.
Ganti (v.f. nganti ; beganti), s. a change,
substitute, prep, instead of, v. to take the
place of, exchange, change, replace, relieve,
succeed. Tya turun nganti aku. He goes
to the farm instead of me. Aku ka nganti
tajau iya enggau bebendai aku. I want to
replace his jar with my chanang (species of
gong). Raja beganti Raja datai ka Raja ti
dia-iya. One king succeeded another king
until the present one.
Ganteng (v. f. ngantong; begantong), to
hang, supend, adjourn. Iya ngantong ma
tya dia. He hangs up his burden there. Be-
chara kami agi begantong. Our case is ad-
journed. Iya ngantong jako iya. He withholds
his (principal) argument.
Gap (v. f. ngegap), s. threat, a vaunting
speech, a brag, v. to threaten. Iya ngegap
aku enggau Prentah. He threatens me with
the Government.
Garam (begaram), salt. TWt pen bisi
diempa bisi mega ti ka garam asam. There
is paddy to eat, and also that which can be
(sold) for salt.
Garang (v. f. ngarang; begarang), adj.
fierce, ferocious, savage, v. to cause to be
fierce, etc. Remaung garang bendar. Tigers
are very fierce. Anang bangat garang. Do
not be so ferocious.
Garasi {begarasi), contr. form of gergasi.
Garawia (begarawari), see gergasi.
Gari s- a garment, old rag, adj.
the worst, v. to dress or change the clothes.
Bai ka aku gari utai. Bring me the rags of
anything. Begari nuan. Change your
clothes. Aku agi begari. I am still dress-
ing. Aku ka begari. I am going to put on
my clothes.
Garing (v. f. ngaring; begaring), to roll.
Iya ngaring kadiri datas rumput laban pedis
amat prut iya. He rolled upon the grass
because of the great pain in his stomach.
Garis (v. f. ngaris ; begaris). s. a mark,
division, v. to mark, divide. Tu garis iya.
This is his mark. Iya ngaris tanah kami. He
divides our land.
Garong (begarong), a bamboo receptacle
for rice, etc., for feeding fowls, a basket
made for a deceased person in which a bam-
boo receptacle for tuak is encased at the
mourning feast (berantu);
Garu (begaru), aloes-wood, or eagle-wood
of commerce {Agiularia agallocha}, scent.
Garu (v. f. ngaru; begaru), to scratch.
Garu blakang aku. Scratch my back. Iya
ngaru moa aku lalu bedarah. She scratched
my face and it bled.
Gasa (jegasa), s. strength, power, adj.
able, competent, [it is an equivalent for bulih,
or pandai}, v. to have strength, be compe-
Gasak (v. f. ngasak; begasak), to scrub
with soap, cocoanut husk, etc. Iya ngasak
papan enggau sabun. He scrubs the boards
with a piece of soap.
Gasan, used in Dyak songs (pelandai and
pelian) instead of the name of the person who
is being praised.
Gasing (v. f. ngasing ; begasing), s. spin-
ning-wheel, top, v. to spin ; a proper name, m.
Gata (v. f. ngata), to have patience with,
be diligent with, persevere. Enti orang gata
enggau umai iya enda tau enda bulih padi.
If a person perseveres with his farm he is
sure to get a good crop of paddy.
Gatal (v. f. ngatal), adj. itchy, sensual, v. to
make itchy, have a stinging sensation. Gatal
bendar tu. This is very itchy. Indu gatal.
A sensual woman. Semut nya ngatal ka isi.
Those ants make the flesh itch.
Gau(v. f. ngau ; began), to grope, feel in
the dark, feel with the hands as doctors do.
Gauk (v. f. ngauk; begauk), adj. wild,
savage, naughty, v. to feel any violent emo-
tion or impulse of love, pleasure, mischief, or
Gaul (v. f. ngaul; begaul), to mix.
Gaum (v. f. ngaum; begaum), to pacify,
sympathise with, take part in, reckon, include.
Iya ngaum anak iya nyabak. She is pacify-
ing her child who cries. Aku enggai
ngaum menyadi aku enti iya salah. I will
not take the part of my brother if he is in the
wrong. Iya ngaum aku enggau sida ti ka
ngeta. He includes me with those who want
to go gutta-hunting.
Gawa, s. a feast, v. to hold a feast, work,
be busy. Mensia enda tau enda gawa. Men
must work. [see gawai].
Gawai (pegawai), s. a Feast, v. to hold
a Feast. Di gawai kami bisi Laut bisi China.
At our Feast there were Malays and there
were Chinese. Kami apin tentu begawai taun
tu. We are not yet certain about holding a
Feast this year.
[In a Gawai some request is made to the
gods, or else thanks are given them for
blessings already received. It may therefore
be said to be always connected with some
religious motive.
A feast that has no Connection with any
religious idea is called makai di ruai. Eating
in the central hall, or makai rami. Eating
with joy and in large numbers.

The Gawai may be divided into three
classes :—
I. Gawai Antu. The Mourning Feast.
II. The ten Feasts in which requests
are made to the gods and sacrifices
are offered in their honour.
III. Other Feasts given upon special
occasions in obedience to some
dream, or to thank the gods for
having blessed them in obtaining a
valuable jar (tajau) or on recovery
from some long illness.
I. Gawai Antu. The Feast which ends
all mourning for the dead. Berantu or ngam-
bi Sabayan ngabang. To invite the Spirits
from Hades to the Feast—is the Dyak expres-
sion used, and in this Feast the Spirits of the
dead are invited to join the living for the last
time in a friendly meal, for after the Gawai
Antu there are no more periodical mournings
(sabak) for the dead.
This Feast lasts a day and a night. In the
early morning a professional wailer (orang ti
nyabak. See sabi.k) seated on a swing in the
room of the bereaved persons begins a long
monotonous dirge (sabak bebuah) invoking the
Spirits of the unseen world to come to the
Feast. The women in the room listen to this
singing, but the men are all outside amusing
themselves, engaged in “setting” cocks (nya-
bong\ or in trials of strength (bebatak tampon g').
Inside the room there is weeping at the
thought of those who are dead, outside there
is shouting and laughter !
In the evening as it begins to grow dark
the wailer’s swing is removed to the central
hall (ruai) where he continues his invocations
till dawn. An offering of food and drink is
made to the deceased in whose honour the
Feast is held. Then follows the abolishment
of the mourning tie (ngetas ulit). The rel-
atives of the dead are still clothed in mourn-
ing garments, the men in sober-coloured
waist-:cloths and the women with black rotan
girdles (tina chelum). An end of the waist-
cloth is cut off and the tina severed by the
sword of a warrior who has recently returned
from some expedition against the enemy.
Bundles of finery which have been tied up
and put away are brought forth and the
bereaved then hasten to don their best apparel
having been previously touched with the
blood of a sacrificed fowl. The ceremony is
then ovei and the rest of the night is spent in
feasting and merriment.
The next morning an offering of food and
also various little woven baskets (baya), sup-
posed to represent the different articles a man
or a woman uses in daily life, are taken and
placed on the graves. These little baskets
are supposed to furnish the dead with imple-
ments in Hades (Saba' an) so as to enable
them to earn their living there. In some
tribes, in addition to these things, monuments
(sungkup) of hard wood are taken and built
over the graves of the deceased. The pro-
cession to the burial ground and the placing
of the offerings on the grave conclude the
Feast, and friends and relations return to their
II. Of the second class of Feasts four are
offered to Pulang Gana, the God of the Earth,
who is supposed: to reside in some rocky
cavern, deep down, hidden away from mor-
tal’s sight. All these Feasts, it will be
noticed, have something to do with farming,
and are in fact means of asking Pulang Gana
to help them to get good crops and to make
the paddy they reap last a long time. In all
these Feasts a pig is killed and the entrails
examined and pronounced to be propitious or
unpropitious, as the case may be, also offer-
ings of foodare made iu the central hall (ruai)
and certain men who have given attention to
that branch of Dyak lore and are able to chant
the invocations (pengap) walk up and down
round these offerings singing their monoton-
ous song. As a rule one man, followed by
some four or five others, starts from each end
of the ruai and they sing alternately their
song of praise to Pulang Gana, the men who
follow simply joining in with a short chorus
at the end of each verse. This chanting lasts
for several hours and is indeed the important
religious ceremony connected with these four
(i) . Gawai mandi rumah, mangkongtiang,
or muai rumah. The house warming. A
blessing is asked upon the new house so that
the occupants may get good crops and live
long and happy lives.
(ii) . Gawai Batu. The feast of the whet-
stones. It is held just before the clearing of
the farm land is begun. A blessing is asked
upon the whetstones so that they may make
sharp the implements that are used for clear-
ing the jungle.
(iii) . Gawai Benih. The Feast of the
seed. This is held just before sowing. A
blessing is asked upon the seed that it may
multiply and give a plentiful return.
(iv) . Gawai nyimpanpadi. The Feast of
storing the paddy. This is held after the
reaping and winnowing is over. During the
Feast the paddy is taken up to the garret and
stored in the paddy bins (gentong). Friends
who are invited to the Feast assist to store
the paddy. A blessing is asked upon the
paddy so that it may not decrease but may
last a long time.
The next six Feasts belong to this same
class but are given in honour of Singalang
Burong, the God of the Heavens. They all
have reference in some way to going upon
the w’arpath and the taking of human heads
as trophies. Singalang Burong is believed
to be the God of all things that do not apper-
tain to farming and especially is he the God
of War. These feasts, naturally, are not so
frequently held as the four preceding but
when any of these Feasts in honour of Singa-
lang Burong is held a gieat deal is made of
the event. In all these Feasts, as before,
offerings are made and invocations are chant-
ed by certain men. But in addition to these
things some special distinctive ceremony is

.observed in the case of each particular Feast.
(v) . Gawai Barong or nikau ka Btirong.
This Feast is held in order that the persons
who take part in it may be fortunate in tak-
ing heads or bringing home captives when
they go upon the warpath.
(vi) . Gawai Enchalniarong. A thanks-
giving Feast in honour of recently acquired
(vii) . Gawai Tenyalang or Bekenyalang or
Gawai Tras. The Hornbil! Feast. The
wooden image of a Hornbill, brightly colour-
ed, is set up on a long pole facing towards the
country of the enemy in order that it may
“ peek out their eyes” and make them easy
to defeat.
(viii). Gawai Ijok or Ijati pump, ng or
Sandong Liau. After a man has held the
Hornbill Feast several times and has been
victorious against the enemy he proceeds to
hold this Gawai. A long pole is set up and
at the top of it a jar of native spirit (tuak) is
(ix). Gawai Gajah or Begajah. The Ele-
phant Feast. This is held in honour of the
heads taken in war by some distinguished
leader. It is said, so great is the importance
of this Feast, that after it has been once held,
even if new heads are obtained, no Feasts
need be held in their honour. It is very
rarely observed (the last was held several
years ago by Kinchang a Skarang Dyak living
in the Undup). The wooden figure of an
elephant is placed upon the summit of a lofty
pole and the ceremonies observed are similar
to those of the Gawai Tenyalang.
(y). Gawai ranyai or Beranyai. This
is the greatest of all Dyak Feasts. All the
heads are put in a winnowing basket {chapan}
with spears hung round suspended by cords.
A distinguished fighting man in full war cos-
tume sits beneath the spears and another lead-
ing warrior cuts with his sword the cords to
which the spears are tied.
III. Of the third class of Feasts little need
be said. A superstitious people like the
Dyaks, living in constant dread of unseen
powers, naturally hold a Feast and make
propitiatory offerings whenever anything out of
the usual course of events takes place, when
a man has had a bad dream or when a bird,
considered unfortunate, has come into the
house. Also upon recovery from long illness
some sort of ceremony is held to appease the
spirit of disease and to thank him for leaving
them. And yet again when a man has been
fortunate and has saved enough money to
buy a valuable jar (fajati) a Feast is given,
offerings are made to it (the jar), for it is sup-
posed to possess a soul {samengat}, and it is
implored to stay long with them and not come
to any harm].
Gaya. (v. ngaya; begaya), s. fashion, mode
of action, conduct, manner, style, v. to shew
affectation in conduct, style, etc. Tu gaya
baru. This is a new fashion. Gaya pendiau
xndu nya tau dipuji. That woman’s behaviour
is worthy of praise. Gaya ngepan indu nya
ngena bendar. The fashion of that woman’s
ornaments is very suitable. Indu nya ngaya
pejalai iya. That woman shews affectation in
her manner of walking.
Gayak-gayak, beautiful, pretty, hand-
Gayam {begay am), a sweet cake made of
rice-flour and sugar, a fruit-bearing tree (which
gives its name to the cake gayam). Sa hari
kamari apus endor endu ngaga gayam. My
daughter spent the whole day yesterday in
making gayam.
Gayang (v. f. ngayang; begayang\ to
pierce, make a hole. Adat menoa tu enti
orang munoh orang iya digoyang enggau kris.
The law of this country is if a man commits a
murder he is pierced with a kris.
Gayap (v. f. ngayap ; begayap), s. the act
of feeling one’s way in the dark, nocturnal
courting, v. to feel one’s way in the dark, to
court at night, visit a female for an immoral
purpose (hence to go wrong with a woman).
Kami kamari begayap ngagai Simanggang.
Yesterday we had to find our way in the dark
to Simanggang Di malam iya ngayap anak
aku. He courted my daughter last night.
Brapa kali nuan udah ngayap indu nya ! How
many times did you go wrong with that
woman ? Enggai aku jadi ka indu nya labatt
mina sa kali aja aku ngayap iya. I won’t
marry that woman because I have only once
gone wrong with her.
Gayau {begayau), a crocodile. Maioh
gayau di ai Undup. There are many croco-
diles in the Undup river.
Gayu (v. f. begayu), s. old age,
longevity, adj. long-lived, v. to make to live
long. Apai iya gayu bendar. His father is
long-lived. Ko iya mimpi iya ti ngayu ka iya.
He says his dream has caused him to live
Gebor-gebor, adj. very soft, fleshy.
Gedong {begedong), a species of salt-water
Gegah (v. f. ngegah; begegah), s. unusual
strength, adj. strong, powerful, diligent, v.
to make strong, have unusual strength. Tu
oranggegah. This is a powerful man. Iya
makai ubat ngegah kadiri. He took medicine
to make himself strong.
Gegalan, see galan-galan.
Gegalur, adj. naked. Sida anembiak
gegalur magang dia. All the children are
naked there.
Gegaman (begegaman), equipment, the
putting on of finery.
Gegana, see gana-gana.
Gegar (begegar), contr form ofgegetar, v. to
shiver, shake, adj. unstable. Iya tabin gegar.
Fie has ague, i. e. a shivering fit.
Gegar, contr. form of gelegar, the flooring
of a house.
Gegat {begegat), moth. Tajong iya udah
dipakai gegat. His sarong was eaten by
Gegenang, clear, evident. Utang gege-
nang tunggu enda lalu. The fault is clear
but the fine is not forthcoming.

Gegenong, see genong-genong.
Gegera or gera-gera, adj. bright, light,
open, uncovered. Hari nyau gegera tawas.
It is daylight. Ruai nya gegera enggai aku
tindok dia. That verandah is so open I will
not sleep there. Benda di bilik kita gegera
magang. All the jars in your room are un-
Gegesau, clear of undergrowth. Kampong
ti endor kami ngasu tak gegesau. The forest
where we hunted with our dogs is clear of
Gegetar, or getar-getar {begetar}, shak-
ing, trembling. Sukat iya chelap iya gegetar.
â–  Whenever he is cold he trembles.
Gegiau, adj. very tall and shaky. Pun
kayu nya tak gegiau. That tree is very tall
and shaky.
Gegilau, dim, not able to see. Apai nyau
gegilau. Father is not able to see.
Gegilik, adv. unsteady, v. to roll. Gegi-
lik batang nya enda aku tau niti iya. That
tree trunk rolls so that I cannot walk along
it. Pendiau nuan gegilik. You*are unsteady.
Geginyah, to munch like a person who
has no teeth. Nama ti diempa nuan bangat
geginyah dia ? What are you eating there that
you munch so ?
Geginyik or ginyik-ginyik, adj.
frivolous, v. to laugh for very little cause or
reason, giggle. Geginyik pendiau indu nya.
â– That woman is frivolous. Nama kabuah kita
geginyik dia t What is the reason that you
are giggling there ?
Gegiur, see giur-giur.
Gegundol, fat and rotund.
Geguntam, the noise made by rain, or,
by a water-fall.
Gegurus, adj. straight. Gegurus jalai
ngagai rumah kami. The road leads straight
to our house. Iya nyau gegurus ngagai Sim-
anggang. He is gone straight to Simang-
• Gegusu, adj. curly. Bok indu nya gegu-
su bendar. The hair of that woman is very
Gegutak, or gutak-gutak, trembling,
shaking as old people do, palsied, not firm.
Ngeli gegutak. Shaky teeth.
Gelagai (begelagai}, a species of rotan.
Kami mantap wi gelagai ka tikai. We cut
the gelagai rotan for mats.
Gelagam, prospering (of a tree when the
leaves are dark green).
Gelangan (v. f. ngelangan; begelangan},
s. a roller, v. to put down rollers in order to
launch a boat. Iya ngaga gelangan enggau
matakprauh iya. He is putting down rollers
to facilitate the dragging along of his boat.
Gelanggang (begelanggang), a henroost,
raised floor made of sticks (under the house)
for fowls to roost on, a children’s game.
Alah di baroh rumah, menang di gelanggang.
Lose the fight below the house, but win it at
the henroost. Ka gelanggang anang nentang,
enggaika ngumbai ngiga tugang manok lelaki.
Do not sit opposite the henroost lest they
think you seek a tail feather of the fighting cock.
Gelar (v. f. ngelar ; begelar), s. a title, a
sobriquet or nickname, v. to give or have a
title, ennoble. Tuan Raja udah lama ngelar
Ringkai Saribas Pengarah. The Rajah has
long ago given Ringkai of Saribas the title of
Geledi, see gelegedi.
Gelegar (v. f. ngelegar; begelegar), s.
flooring of a house, v. to floor a house, have
Gelegedi or geledi, ticklish.
Gelegetang (v. f. ngelegetang}, adj. curly,
v. to curl.
Gelema, furtively, secretly. Pindah gelema
malam. Remove secretly in the night.
Gelemang {begelemdng}, dark, black.
Enchangan art Tisak nanak, dalam, gelemang.
Enchangan from the Tisak river ever full,
deep, and black,
Gelemut. (v. f. ngelemut}, to stroke for
the purpose of soothing.
Gelenggang {begelenggang}, s. undulation,
unevenness, v. to undulate. Tanah nya bege-
lenggang enda badas endor berumah. That
land is uneven and it is not good for building
a house on.
Gelenggang-gumbang, the crest of a
Geliga {begeliga}, a Bezoar stone. (These
stones, found inside monkeys and porcupines,
are much valued by the Chinese as a medi-
cine for heart-disease and antidotes to
Geligir (begeligir), s. the boss of a teta-
wak, adj. plenty.
Gelih (v. f. ngelih ; begelih), to race (of
foot races only). Iya r.gelih aku belawa. He
ran a race with me. Aram kitai begelih.
Come on let us have a race.
Gelingah, half tide (either of the flood or
ebb). Gelingah pasang. Half flood tide.
Gelinggam (v. f. ngelinggam ; begeling-
gam), s. paint, v. to paint. Iya ngelinggam
prauh iya mansau. He painted his boat
red. Prauh iya begelinggam. His boat is
Gelingan, an epithet given the hair.
Gelis (v. f. ngelis; begelis), see gelih.
Geluga (v. f. ngeluga; begeluga), s. the
strength of a (dye, its colouring matter), v. to
Gelunggong (v. f. ngelunggong; begelung-
gong), to cut a branch off from the trunk of a
Gelut (v. f. ngelut; begelut), to anoint,
rub on. Iya ngelut mata aku enggau tanah.
He rubbed my eyes with earth.
Gemalong (begemalong), s. a species of
munsang, a small kind of creeper.
Geman jbegeman), the teeth.
Gembar (v. f. ngembar; begembar), s.
twins, adj. double, double-twisted, v. to
double. Siduai tu anak gembar. These two
are twins. Iya bisi snapang begembar. He
has a double-barrelled gun. Iya ngembar
tali saoh iya. He doubled his anchor cable.
7izZ» nya begembar dua. That string consists
of two twisted together.

—51 —
Gembau, the crow of a pheasant.
Gemi {begemi}, s. medicine given to dogs
to make them keen or fierce when hunting.
Gemian {begemian}, s, a kind of fish.
Gemisai {begemisai}, adj. dry, v. to fall
thickly. Padi tu nyau gemisai. This paddy
is quite dry. Nyau begemisai bungai laban
ribut. Flowers are flying thickly about
because of the wind.
Gemong, the sound of the wind; a pro-
per name, m. Gemong ribut. The noise of
the storm.
Gempalang, a great multitude, mass,
Gemparu (v. f. ngemparu; begemparu),
to prepare or dress food such as fish or fowls,
etc., to settle cases or disputes. Bangkai
chit di ba China.digemparu, bangkai badak di
ba tangga enda digemparu. The body of a rat
beneath a Chinaman is prepared for food, but
the body of a rhinoceros below the ladder is
not prepared for food. Iya ngemparu ikan di
bilik. She is dressing fish in the room. Iya
ngemparu laya orang. He settles people’s
Gempong (v. f. ngempong; begempong},
s. a gathering, collection, fastening, v. to as-
semble, call together, tie up together. Ba-
la Baja nyau begempong. The Rajah’s army
has assembled.
Gempuru, see gumpuru.
Gemu (v. f. ngemu ; begemu}, adj. fat, stout
v. to fatten, have fat. Anak udok nya gemu
bendar. That pup is very fat. Asi ngemu
ka manok. Cooked rice fattens fowls. Jani
ti ulih kami nadai begemu. The pig that we
â– caught was not fat.
Gemunang, very fat.
Gemuroh, the violence of a water-fall.
Genali {begenali}, a large snake ; an evil
water spirit which is said to take possession of
women and cause abortion (see Buyzc}.
Genap (v. f. ngenap; begenap}, adj. every,
every one, all, enough, complete, v. to give
to all, fulfil, finish, complete. Bedau genap
bulan alai iya beranak. Before the month
was complete she bore a child, lya ngenap
ka samoa orang ti di a samakau sa tail. Fie
gave every one that was there a tahil of to-
Genara {begenara}, plenty. Begenara
bintang di langit. There are plenty of stars
in the sky.
Gendang {begendang}, s. a drum, v. to
play or strike a drum, spread abroad a saying
(and hence) to boast, blow one’s own trum-
pet ; a proper name or title, m. Iya begen-
dang kadiri raja. He boasts about being a
rich man.
Gendongj high out of the water as a boat
insufficiently laden. Prauh iya agi gendong
â– udah muat garam sa lay an. His boat is still
high out of the water though he has taken in a
koyan of salt.
Gendum {begendunij, areca nuts just form-
Genera or senera, a wraith. Aku meda
baka apai Arip turun di umai kamari. Kati
bisi iya turun dia I Na la i apai A rip bisi turun
di umai. Enti pia genera iya ti dipeda aku
kamari. I saw Arip’s father work at the
farm yesterday. Did he work there yester-
day ? Arip’s father did not work at the farm
yesterday. If so it must have been his
wraith that I saw yesterday.
Genggam (v. f. ngenggam ; begenggani),
s. a handful, the fist, or hand clenched, v. to
hold in the hand. Sa genggam asi. A handful
of cooked rice. Ngenggam ka jari. To clench
the fist.
Genggang (v. f. ngenggang; begenggang},
ill-fitting, v. to cause to fit badly. Papan ti
disanggit iya agi genggang. The planks that
he put up do not fit close together.
Geni {begeni}, the part just below the navel.
Genok {begenok}, gourd, a white pump-
kin. [When dried these are used as water-
Genong-genong, or gegenong, to stare
with the eyes wide open. Genong-genong
mata iya meda aku. He stares at me with
his eyes wide open.
Gensali, a wind storm.
Gensarai, flowers, a collection of different
kinds of flowers, a nosegay, bouquet.
Gensarau {begensarauj, s. a temporary
leaf hut, trees in the paddy farm left stand-
Genselan (v. f. ngenselan ; begenselan}, s.
a sacrifice, the act of touching any person or
thing with blood for the propitiation of the
Spirits, v. to touch any person or thing with
blood in order to propitiate the Spirits.
Kami ngasoh nuan ngenselan pengabang. We
ask you to touch the guests with blood in
order to propitiate the Spirits.
Gensirau (begensirau), a species of beetle
that is said to make a noise only about 6 p.m.
Dyaks working in the jungle usually return
when they hear the gensirau as they know
the sun is setting.
Gensurai {begensurai}, a large and hand-
some tree {Dipterocarpus sp.) growing on
the banks up rivers. It has sweet-smelling
flowers. Alakai buah gensurai nunggang.
Eating the fruit of the gensurai whose boughs
bend over the stream.
Gentil, adj. solid, firm. Tanah nya gen-
til bendar, manah endor berumah. That land
is solid and firm, it is good for building on.
Gentilang {begentilang}, plenty.
Gentilang-remang, the state of the sky
denoting the approach of fine weather.
Genting, s. a basket with a narrow open-
ing, a pass, peninsula, adj. narrow, narrow in
the middle. Tanah genting. A peninsula,
or a pass. Baka ruan tumboh genting dalam,
ujak Kling ujak Bunga Nuing. As the ruan
trees grow at the pass afar, planted by Kling
by Bunga Nuing.
Gentong {begentong), a bark paddy bin
{kulit entli is the best bark), adj. large (of
the stomach). Gentong aku muat dua puloh
pasu. My paddy bin holds twenty pasu

Gentran {begentrari}, a verse, stanza,
paragraph. Baka Kling baka Bunga Nuing,
baka Laja, baka Bunga Jazva, kita ka pampat
dua rangkat, lanjan dua gentran. As Kling
as Bunga Nuing, as Laja as Bunga Jawa you
will beat twice the pampat and two stanzas
of the lanjan. lya macha sa gentran aja.
He read only a verse.
Gentu (pegentu}, s. wild banana. {Musa
Malacensis}. Maioh bendar gentu di bukit
Nimong. There are plenty of wild banana
trees on Nimong mountain.
Genturing (v. f. ngenturing ; begentur-
ing}, t° whitewash, mark with chunam a
cross on the forehead of a sick person, to be
mottled (of the sky). Iya ngenturing ka din-
ding iya enggau kapu. He whitewashed his
walls with lime. Iya enda dapat nya alai aku
ngenturing dai iya. He was unwell that is
the reason why I put a cross with chunam on
his forehead.
Genturong {begenturong}, a group of
people, trees, houses, etc. Di menoa kami
bisi genturong rian. In our country there are
a number of durian trees.
Gera-gera, see gegera.
Geregau (v. f. ngeregau; begeregau}, to dis-
turb, make a noise. Anang ngeregauorangtin-
dok. Do not disturb persons who are asleep.
Gerenjang, obstacles in a stream that
cause the water to roar when rushing over
Gergasi {begergasi}, a gigantic Spirit ugly
and of ferocious appearance being covered
with hair ; a giant, also a title. Antu Gergasi.
The Demon hunter. Iya bebulu baka Antu
Gergasi. He is as hairy as the Demon Ger-
gasi. Baka Gergasi mai mati, baka Mandai
mai parai........As the Demon hunter leads
one to death, as the Mandai leads one to
[There are many allusions in Dyak poetry
to the Gergasi, the dreaded woodland Giant
Fiend, who is generally spoken of as engaged
in hunting. His hounds are called pasun by
the Dyaks].
Gergesau, to look wildly about, like a
madman does.
Gerijeh {begerijeh}, s. little waves, jungle
left standing between paddy farms; a pro-
per name, m. Bisi gerijeh di umai kami.
There is jungle left (standing) between our
paddy farms. Umai sida begerijeh. There
is jungle between their paddy farms.
Gerijik (v. f. ngerijik ; begerijik}, s. sticks
put standing up in the water to compel fish
to follow the passage that leads to the fish-
trap, v. to put up these sticks.
Gerindam {begerindamj, thoughts.
Gerjak (v. f. ngerejak; begerejak}, s.
mark, sticks or posts set up on the farm, v to
drive in, set up a mark. Iya ngerejak umai
aku. He drives in a mark on my paddy farm.
Gerning {begerning}, rings on the handle
of a nyabur or isau ; a proper name, f.
Geruda {begerudd), s. a wheel ; a proper
name, f.
Geruga (v. f. ngeruga; begeruga), to
meddle, disturb, trouble. Anang nuan sala*
lu ngeruga ai. Don’t you always trouble the
Gerunggong {begerunggong}, a joint of
the larger bones.
Geta (v. f. ngeta; begetd), s. the sap of
certain jungle trees known to commerce as
gutta. Geta rian {Isonandra guttd)\s the best
quality, v. to go for gutta.
Geta {begeta), s. blood, v. to bleed, men-
struate. Kaki iya ti telih kamari nyau begeta
barn. His leg that was wounded yesterday
bleeds afresh. Endu begeta udu bendar. My
daughter menstruates profusely.
Getang (pegetang), rings on the fore arm.
These are made of the fibre of the ijok {Aren-
ga saceharifera) palm, or of Demam, a fern
{Gleichenia dichotoma).
G etar- getar, see gegetar.
Getil (v. f. ngetil; begetilj to pinch. Iya
ngetil tunjok aku. She pinched my finger.
Giak {begiak), the rib of a boat.
Giam {begiam), a kind of hard wood not
inferior to the Penyau {Inocarpus edulis).
Giau-giau, tall, lofty. See gegiau.
Giga (v. f, ngiga; begigaj, to search for,
seek. Aku ngasoh nuan ngiga duku aku ti
lenyau. I ask you to look for my chopper
that is lost.
Gigi {begigij, a tooth, step of a ladder.
Gigi tangga iya pisit. The zsteps of his lad-
der are very close together.
Gigir (v. f. ngigir; begigir), to scrape off
the grains from an Indian-c'orn cob. Aku
ngigir lingkau di malam. I scraped off the
grains of the Indian-corn from the cob last
Gigit (v. f. n gigit; begigit), to bite, catch
like a hook, do anything to the utmost of one’s
power. Begigit iya ngelaban umai taun tu.
This year he works at his farm to the utmost
of his power.
Gila (v. f. ngila ; begild), adj. mad, v. to
cause to be mad, insane. Anang bejako eng-
gau oranggila. Do not talk to a mad person.
[Note. A curious idiom. Maioh gila. Very
much, or a great many. Kerja gila. To
work very hard].
Gila babi, epilepsy.
Gilik (v. f. ngilik; begilik), to roll from
side to side.
Gilik-gilik or gegilik, see gilik.
Giling (v. f. ngiling; begiling), to roll,
rollup (of mats etc.), overwhelm. Giling
tikai nya. Roll up that mat. Ulat nya begi-
ling. That caterpillar has rolled up. Bala
munsoh kena giling bala Raja. The enemy’s
force was overwhelmed by the Rajah’s force.
Gimba or jimba, another name for
Kra, a paddy etc. thief. Antu Kra Antu
Gimba. The spirit Kra is the spirit Gimba.
[This refers to persons who go to the paddy
farm secretly in order to steal paddy, Indian-
corn and so forth. Such thieves are called
Antu Gimba\.
Gindir (v. f ngindir; begindir), to flatten
out, roll out dough.
Ginsit (v. f. nginsit; beginsit), to move,

move lazily. Penudok iya enda nginsit. He
sits without moving.
Ginti (v. f. nginti; beginti}, s. a fish hook,
v. to fish with the hook.
Ginting-ginting, adj. straight.
Ginyik-ginyik, see geginyik.
Girau (v. f. ngirau ; begirau), to stir up,
(of the sediment of a liquor, or rice when be-
ing cooked).
Gisak (v. f. ngisak; begisak), to shake.
Iya ngisak dan limau manis lalu ambis rarah
bungai iya. He shook the branches of the
orange trees and all their blossoms dropped off.
Gitang (v. f. ngitang; begitang), to hang
up, suspend. Aku ngasoh nuan ngitang lam-
pu nya. I ask you to hang up that lamp.
Giur-giur or gegiur, adj. high and
shaky. Giur-giurpendiau kayu nya. That
tree is high and shaky.
Gladak {begladak), s. the floor. Rumah
iya begladakpapan. His house has a plank
Glam (v. f. nglam ; beglam), s. the glam
tree {Melaleuca leucodendron), the bark of
that tree, v. to use the bark for caulking,
caulk, press with the finger nail (a method of
‘ love-making ’ with the Dyaks). Iya nglam
jari bini aku nya alai iya butang. He squeez-
ed my wife’s hand that is the reason he was
sued for adultery. (Note. Not real adultery.
See Butang rangkai for which this is really
the equivalent).
Glang {beglang), a bracelet; a proper
name, f. Glang tu olih aku mli ari China
enggau padi sa puloh pasu. I bought this
bracelet from a Chinaman for ten pasu of
Glegesang, curly.
Glegetang, see glegesang.
Gleginsa, to move about when enraged,
challenge. Iya gleginsa di a meda padi iya kena
empa kra. He is there moving about in a
rage seeing that his paddy was eaten hy mon-
keys. Iya gleginsa dia mai aku betangkap.
He challenges me there to fight him.
Glegusu, uncombed, touzled (of hair).
. Gleguya, see gleginsa.
Glemang (beglemang), usually glemang
pasang, the first of the flood tide, or a sort of
floating spume on the water showing that
flood tide has made.
Glombang (beglombang), a wave, swell,
rough sea. Glombang besai. Big waves.
Glong (v. f. nglong; beglong), s. a bundle
of rotan, v. to encircle, twine round. Kami
nyual sega sa ratus glong. We sold rotan
sega one hundred bundles.
Glumu (beglumu), mould on rice, the
white pithy part forming the divisions inside
such fruits as durian, nangka, covered with
mould. Brau nya beglumu. That rice is
Glumu (v. f. nglumu; beglumu), s. col-
lection, assemblage, v. to collect together,
assemble. Tu glumu utai. This is the col-
lection of articles. Tu glumu orang. This
is the assemblage of people. Endu agi gazva
nglumu ka utai di bilik. My daughter is
still busy collecting the things together in the
room. Prentah ngasoh aku nglumu ka orang
ditu. The Government has directed me to
assemble the people here.
Glumut (beglumut), measles. Anak iya
parai empa glumut. His child died of mea-
Gochoh (begochdh), an instrument for
pounding up the chewing ingredients.
Gombala (begombala), a shepherd (in the
New Testament only)^
Gong (begong), a sonorous instrument.
Gosong (v. f. n gosong ; begosong), to visit,
call upon. Iya udah ngosongaku di rumah.
He has called upon me at the house.
Grabu (v. f. ngrabu; begrabu), to pickle.
Ka ngulih ka munsoh Ulu Ai baka ti ngrabu
jeh di puchok kayu. Trying to get hold of
an Ulu Ai enemy is like pickling a wild ani-
mal on the tree top.
Gragaji (v. f. ngregaji; begragaji), s. a
bore, v. to bore a hole.
Grah (v. f ngrah ; begrah), adj. loose, not
tight, v. to loosen. Tenun sa tenun indai
baju, anang ngasoh sendat, anang ngasoh
grah. Go on weaving the jacket, mother, do
not let it be too tight, do not let it be too
Grah (begrah), to order, command. Grah
samoa sida turun. Order them all to work at
the paddy farm. 7'uan ngasoh aku ngrah
kita samoa gazva. The master told me to
order you all to work.
Grai (v. f. ngrai; begrai), adj. in good
health, convalescent, healthy, v. to make well,
etc. Aku baru ngrai kadiri. I have just got
well. Ubat nya ngrai ka aku. That medi-
cine made me well.
Graji (begraji) contr. for gragaji.
Grak (v. f. ngrak; begrak), to rouse,
awaken, move, stir. Iya ngrak aku tumu ben-
darpagi tadi. He aroused me very early this
morning. Brat bendar batu nya diju aku lain
enda begrak. That stone is very heavy when
I gave it a push it did not move.
Grama (begrama), a fresh-water crab ; a
proper name, f.
Grama (v. f. ngrama ; begrama)* to scratch
violently. Iya ngrama jari aku bangat udu
lain bedarah. He scratched my hand so vio-
lently that it bled.
Grami (v. f. ngrami; begrami), to salt,
pickle, preserve in salt, leaven, (make use
of ragi), sprinkle with salt, sand, flour.
Ikan enda digrami iya. She clid not salt the
fish. Ngrami ikan dalam ai ngrabu jelu pu-
chok kayu. Salting fish in the water (is like)
pickling wild animals on the topmost boughs
of a tree.
Gran (v. f. ngran ; begran), to cut with a
knife ; name of a stream in the Batang Lupar.
Asoh apai ngran ka aku btdoh nya. Ask
father to cut that bamboo for me. Rumah
kami di Gran. Our house is at Gran. [Note.
Grunggang begran. The striped grunggang

Granjang (begranjang), a species of large
Grantam (v. f. ngrantam; begrantam),
see grama (v. f. ngrama; begrama).
Grantong (begrantong), s. a viol.
Grasi (begrasi), see gergasi.
Grau (v. f. ngrau; begraii), to threaten.
Lapa utang nuan enggai ngrau sida enggau
nyawa nuanl Why do you not threaten
them with your bellow ?
Greginsa, see gleginsa.
Grempong (v. f. ngrempong; begrempong),
opening into leaf of the paddy stalk, v. to
collect, gather. Padi kami nyau begrempong.
Our paddy is commencing to open into leaf.
lya ngrempong anembiak iya. He collects his
Grenjang (begrenjang), a roughly made
basket; name of a branch stream of Ulu
Grigang (begrigang), s. a collection of
gourds, large bunch of fruit.
Grinang (begrinang), a cockroach (genus
blaita). Grinang tau ka umpan. A cockroach
can be used as a bait.
Grit (v. f. ngrit; begrit), to cut, saw,
gnaw as a rat.
Grot (v. f. ngrot; begrot), to scratch.
Gru (begru) matter from sores, mould on
Grubut (begrubut), rotten fish.
Grugu (begrugu), a boulder in a stream.
Wong nya enda tinggi mina grugu batu, ai
dras. That waterfall is not high only there
are boulders and the current runs swift.
Grunggang (begrunggang), a species of
tree (Cratoxylon arborescens) that grows in
low-lying jungle.
Grunjong (begrunjong), rings worn on
the edges of the ears by men.
Grunong (begrunong), small bells used to
fringe a jacket or tikai burit. [These bells
are called ‘ hawk-bells ’ in old translations],
Grunong siong (begrunong siong), large
* hawk-bells ’.
Gua (begiia), a cave. Bisi maioh kasin-
dap enggau burong layang di gua Kalingkang.
There are many bats and swallows in the
Kalingkang caves.
Guai, see beguai.
Guai (v. f. nguai), to live in the husband’s
or wife’s room. Ujang nguai ka bini iya.
My son resides in his wife’s room.
Guang (v. f. nguang; beguang), a sweet-
heart, v. to pay a visit to one’s sweetheart,
go to a person’s relief when an alarm is s’ound-
ed, live in the husband’s or wife’s room. Nya
indu guang iya. That is his sweetheart.
Anang nguang anak aku. Do not visit my
daughter. Kami nguang ka orang began di
malam. We went to give assistance when
the people gave the alarm last night. lya
nguang ka bini iya. He lives in his wife’s
Guchi (beguchi), the most valuable kind
of jar, according to both Dyaks and Malays
(the latter call it gusi). It is small and squat
and not handsome, from an artistic point of
view, yet from $800 to $1,200 have been given
by Dyaks for a single specimen.
Gugu (begugu), s. group, collection, v. to
be in a group, collected together. Bisi gugu
rumah di Sungai Reboh. There is a group
of houses at Sungai Reboh.
Gugur (v. f. ngugur; begugur), to fall,
drop from a height, be born prematurely, take
off grains from an Indian-corn cob. Anak
iya gugur ari tanju. Her child fell from the
platform. Anak iya gugur tegai iya laboh di
malam ari tanju. Her child was prematurely
born because she fell from the platform last
night. Kami gawa ngugur ka lingkau. We
are busy taking off grains from Indian-corn
Gugut (v. f. ngugut; begugut), to pull
violently. lya ngugut bok aku nya alai aku
mukut iya. He pulled my hair violently that
was the reason I struck him with my fist.
Guh (beguh), the sound of the wind, waves,
or rushing water.
Gula (begula), sugar.
Gulai (v. f. n gulai; begulai), to mix, live
together. Iya ngulai ai enggau tusu. He
mixes milk with water. Iya begulai enggau
kami. He lives with us.
Guli (beguli), a marble.
Guli, to dote upon, be fond of. Aku enda
guli enggau nya agi. I am no longer fond of
Gulong (v. f. ngulong ; begulong), to roll
up. Endu agi gawa ngulong tikai di bilik.
My daughter is still busy rolling up the mats
in the room.
Gulu (v. f. ngulu ; begulu), to collect sud-
denly in large crowds, to sit down together (of
a multitude). Maioh sida dudok ngulu aku.
Many of them sit down around me.
Gulum(v. f. ngulum ; begulum), to munch.
yDz olih aku ngulum laban aku ti nadai
bisi ngeli. I have to munch the cooked rice
because I have no teeth.
Gum (begum), a big gun.
Guma, adj. greedy.
Gumba (begumba), to dress the hair short
in front and long behind (after the Dyak
dandy’s present fashion) another name for
a tortoise. Lalabi aku tu indu Gumba, pe-
nanjak ai dras. I am a tortoise the moth-
er of tortoises that goes against the strong
Gumbang, see glombang.
Gumes or gumih (begumes or begumih"),
Gumi, worthy [used only in love songs
(pelandai) and is always preceded by the
negative ukai\.
Gumih, see gumes.
Gumpal (begumpal), to get clotted (as rice
or flour when damp). Bras iya ambis be-
gnmpal laban basah. His rice is all clotted
because of the wet.
Gumpul (v. f. ngumpul; begumpul), to
gather, collect. lya ngumpul anembiak diri.
He is gathering his own followers.
Gumpuru (v. f. ngumpuru; begumpuru),
to assemble, collect together. Iya ngumpuru

tuai ka baum. He assembled the elders to
hold a consultation.
Gun, as kampong gun, old jungle.
Guna tpeguna), s. utility, usefulness, bene-
fit, need, want, worth, v. to be of use, value,
benefit, etc.
Gundai (begundai), a small lock of hair
left growing at the back of the head near the
nape of the neck. [This is an ancient Dyak
Gundit (£«gwwa%7), a concubine.
Gundul (v. f. ngundul; begundul), to shave
the head clean.
Gunggu (begunggu), to beat all the musical
instruments together.
Guni a sack, bag, gunnybag.
Gunong (begunong), mountain. Gunong
Nimong. Nimong mountain.
Guntam {beguntam), the howling of the
wind, roaring of the waves, noise of a
waterfall, the buzzing of bees, the noise of an
army on the move. Baru udah didinga gun-
tam bala. The noise of the army on the move
is just heard.
Guntin (v. f. nguntin ; beguntin), s. scis-
sors, v. to cut with scissors.
Gunting (v. f. ngunting; begunting), to
shave the hair of the head round its edges, be-
hind and in front.
Guntor (beguntor), s. thunder, v. to thun-
der. Udu beguntor lemai kamari. It thun-
dered yesterday evening continuously.
Gurang jbegurang), brass rings worn by
men and women on their wrists, bracelets.
Guroh (begtiroh), hoarse, grating noise in
the throat, the death rattle.
Gurong-gurong, bubbling.
Gusak (v. f. ngusak; begusak), see gi-
Gusi (begusi), the gums.
Gutak (begutak), adj. palsied, v. to shake
with the palsy ; a proper name, m. Pala iya
begutak. His head shakes with the palsy.
Nama iya Gutak. His name is Gutak.
Gutak-gutak, see gegutak.
Guyak (v. f. nguyak ; beguyak)., to shake.
Anang nuan salalu nguyak pun pinang kami
enggaika buah iya rarah. Don’t you keep
shaking our pinang tree lest the fruits should,
Guyang (v. f. nguyang; beguyang), to
shake, grind. Kuki agi gawa nguyang kari.
The cook is still busy grinding the curry stuff.
Guyat (v. f. nguyat; beguyat), see guyak.
Ha-hai-wai, a loud and prolonged laugh
such as Dyak women affect.
Hari (behari, behari-hari, besahari-sahari,
besari-sari or besesari-sari), day, time, season,
opportunity. Hari tu. To-day or this day.
Hari nya. That day. Hari bukai. Another
day. Hari siti. The next day. Hari kami
nyadi gawai Tuan Raja datai di Simanggang.
On the day we held our Feast the Rajah arriv-
ed at Simanggang. Hari ni nuan kitu I On
what day did you come here ? Iya gaiva sa
hari tu ngenang hari anak iya ada. H e gives
a feast to-day to celebrate the nativity of his
child. Meriam dipasang dua puloh satu kali
leboh hari Tuan Raja ada. A salute of twenty-
one guns is fired on the Rajah’s birthday.
Mata hari. The sun (literally ‘ the eye
of day ; ’ also used as a warrior’s title). Moa
hari. The clouds, or storm clouds ; (also
used as a warrior’s title). Hari ujan. A
rainy day. Ujan hari. It rains. Hari jai. A
stormy day. Hari baik, or, hari manah. A
fine day. Hari panas. A hot day. Pulai hari
To return home the same day. Nintinghari,
tiap hari, genap hari, or, bejarit hari. Every
day. Kami turun ka umai stinting hari nya
alai kami salalu bulih padi. We work at our
paddy farm every day and that is the reason
why we always get a quantity of paddy. Tu-
mu hari (or, tumu pagi). Very early in the
day before sunrise. Mata hari tumboh, or,
mata haripansut. Sunrise, Mata hari tengan
niki. About 9 a. m. Hari nyau tinggi.
About 10 a. m. Teng.ih hari muda. About
II a. m. Tengah hari mantang (raia or ben-
dar). Midday. Hari nyau ngalih (or ngalih
limpas). The sun has passed the meridian
(i. e. about 1 p. m.). Mata hari tengan nu-
run. About 3 p. m. Mata hari pambar.
Sunset. Mata hari padam. The sun sets.
Tembu hari. The day is complete. Hari
nyau petang (or malam). The day is al-
ready dark, or, it is night. Apus hari. The
whole day. Letak hari. Fix the day. Tarn-
pong hari. Make up the day. Tambah hari.
Add days.
Bisi hari. To have time. Nadai hari.
To have no time. Buai hari. Waste time.
Kenyadi ka hari. Be sparing of one’s time.
Aku gawa lalu nadai bisi hari ngosong nuan.
I am busy and have no time to call on you.
Hari kamarau. A hot season. Hari teng-
kujan. A wet season. Taun siti kamari
leboh hari kamarau kami nuba ai Tisak lalu
bulih ikan maioh bendar. Last year during
the hot season we poisoned the Tisak stream
with tuba and got plenty of fish. Leboh hari
tengkujan rumput ti dibantun di umai enda
parai. During the wet season the grass that
is pulled up on the paddy farm does not die.
Behari. At a certain time only. Enda
behari. Always. Anak iya behari nyabak
enda salalu. Her child cries at certain times
but not always. Behari iya turun ka umai
nya alai iya enda kala bulihpadi. He works at
certain times only on his paddy farm and that
is the reason that he never gets much paddy.
Behari-hari. Daily, everyday, always, in-
cessantly, continuously, constantly. Iya be-
hari-hari kitu. He comes here every day.
Behari-hari iya nganu aku He is always
angry with me. Ujan behari-hari bulan tu.
It rains incessantly this month. Aku behari-
hari ngosong nuan utang nuan nadai kala

— 56—
ngosong aku. I am constantly calling upon
you but you have never called upon me.
Besahari-sahari, or besari-sari, or besesari-
sari. All day long. Indu nya bagas bendar
turun ka umai besahari-sahari. That woman
is most industrious and works at the paddy
farm all day long.
Iba or lba-Iba, a demon, a spirit. Antu
Iba, antu Gimba. The demon Iba, the
demon Gimba. Baka antu sa Iba-Iba, baka
utan tengah benoa. Just as the demon Iba-
Iba so is the jungle in the middle of the coun-
Ibai (v. f. ngibai ; beibai, or bibai}, s. a.
purchase, v. to purchase an article. Nama
ibai nuan di Pasar tadi 1 What was your
purchase in the Bazaar just now ? Iya udah
ngibai tajau sigi. He has bought a jar.
Ibal-ibal, a cross-beam to which a plank
wall is nailed. Batang aku dikait iya di ibal-
ibal dinding. He hangs my bottle on the
beam of the wall.
Iban {beiban}, the name by which the
various tribes of Sea Dyaks in the Rejang
district are known, the laity in contradistinc-
tion to medicine men, ordinary Dyaks as
distinguished from Malays, Chinese, etc.
[This name (the Kayan pronunciation is
Ivan} was, most probably, first given the Sea
Dyak settlers in the Rejang by the Kayan
people. All Rejang Dyaks now call them-
selves Iban and the name is now being adopt-
ed by Sea Dyaks in other rivers. This name
is not known in ancient Dyak tradition (nor
in early European works concerning Sea
Dyaks) and this is not surprising when we
consider the fact that the Sea Dyaks were
never one race but a number of different tribes
inhabiting branches of the Batang Lupar
river]. Kami Iban. We Sea Dyaks (as op-
posed to other races). Kami tu Iban ma-
gang nadai bisi siko manang. We are all
Dyaks and not one of us is a manang.
Ibang (beibang or bibang}, a charm worn
upon the arm during an outbreak of cholera
or small-pox. Laut bejual ibang. The Ma-
lays sell charms to be worn on the arm.
Ibau (v. f. ngibau; beibau, or bibau}, s.
care, v. to take heed, pay attention. Iya
ibau ka aku udu bendar. He takes very
great care of me. Anang ibau ka jako iya.
Pay no attention to what he says.
Iboh(v. i.ngiboh; beiboh, mbiboh}, se&ibau.
Ibok (v. f. ngibok; beibok or bibok}, s. idle-
ness, v. to be idle. Semadi ibok iya diau. His
sitting there is simply idleness. Anang ngibok
kapendiau diri. Don’t spend your time doing
Ibor, while, during, at the time when.
Ibor orang ngayau taun siti kamari iya mati.
During the time people went to war last year
he died.
Ibu (v. f. ngibu ; beibu or bibu}, s. an aunt,
step-mother, v. to acknowledge as an aunt or
[Note.—With the exception of Ha-hai-ivai
which is the peculiar laugh affected by Dyak
women, there is no initial aspirate in use
in the language. The word hari is merely
written, but not pronounced, with the aspirate
in order to distinguish it from the preposition
ari, signifying froni\.
step-mother. Ibu aku bedau datai. My aunt
has not yet come. Aku enda ngelalaiya utang
iya ngibu ka aku. I do not recognise him but
he calls me aunt Aku sa bilik enggau ibu aku.
I am living in the same room with my step-
Ibul {beibul or bibul}, a species of palm
(Orania macrocladus} resembling a nibong but
without thorns. Ibul manah bendar ka tung-
kat. The Ibul makes a capital walking stick.
Ibun (v. f. ngibun ; beibun or bibun}, s.
management, care, v. to look after, tend. Iya
ngibun chapi. He looks after cattle. Ibun
iya enda tentu. He does not take proper care.
Aku meda anak iya beibun diri sama diri lalu
nadai bisi belaya. I saw his children looking
after one another without quarrelling.
Ibun {beibun or bibun}, dead fish found a
day or so after a tuba fishing. Sida nyau
ngambi ibun. They have gone to get the dead
Icha (v. f. ngicha; beicha or bicha}, s. a
trial, attempt, v. to try, attempt, chance any-
thing. Icha iya aja. -It is simply his attempt.
Aku ka ngicha nginjau wang iya. I will try
to borrow his money. - Sida ngasu ngicha ka.
They go hunting on the chance of getting
Ichar, adj. blind. Ichar mata nuan enda
meda. You are blind if you cannot see.
Iching (v. f. ngiching; beiching or ki-
cking}, s. aim, v. to take aim. Iching ka du-
lu baru numbok. First take aim then thrust. (v. f. ngichit; beichit or bichit}, a
great-grand-child. Iya ngichit ka aku. He
called me his great-grand-child. Brapa iko
ichit nuan I How many great-grand-children
have you ?
Idan (v. f. ngidan; beidan or bidan}, s.
preparation, arrangement, v. to arrange,
array. Idan iya ngena bendar. His arrange-
ment suits capitally. Iya baru udah ngidan
ka bala iya. He has just arranged his army.
Idang (v. f. ngidang; beidang or bidang},
to prepare, serve food. Iya ngidang ka kami
makai. She prepared food for us.
Idang {beidang or bidang}, honey-combs.
Besai bendar idang manyi nya ! That honey-
comb is immense !
Idap (v. f. ngidap; beidap or bidap}, s.
malice, v. to bear malice. Nama kabuah iya
ngidap ka aku ? Why is he bearing malice
against me ? Idap iya atas aku enggai badu-
badu. His malice against me does not cease.
Idar (v. f. ngidar; beidar or bidar}, s.
arrangement, v. to put in order, arrange in
order. Iya baru udah ngidar ka gelegar. He

has just put the flooring in order. Idar iya
agi salah. His arrangements are still wrong.
Idas (beidas or bidas), a coarse kind of mat
made of rotan and the bark of a tree. Aku
udah mli idas sa lambar. I have bought one
idas mat.
Idong (beidong or bidong), the nose.
Idong iya bedarah. His nose is bleeding.
Idu (v. f. ngidu ; beidu or bidu), s. medi-
cine, the art of doctoring, v. to doctor, give
medicine, cure. Tu idu orang pedis mata.
This is the medicine for persons with sore
eyes. Anak aku tau ngidu orang. My son
can doctor people.
Idup (v. f. ngidup; beidup or bidup), s.
life, adj. alive, living, active, v. to give life,
to support. Tu idup meruan. This is life
everlasting. Iya agi idup. He is still alive.
Ai idup. Water. Ai mati. Boiled water.
Ikan idup. Fresh fish. Ikan masin (or budu).
Salt fish. Tanchang idup. Temporarily
fastened. Tanchang mati. Permanently
fastened. Sengkar idup. A movable thwart.
Sengkar mati. An immovable thwart. Iya
ngidup ka apai indai diri empu. He supports
his own father and mother.
Iga, very, much. Enda badas iga. Not
very good. Enda plaba aku nya tau ngasoh
nuan ringat iga. I should not think that
would vex you so much.
Iga, is it so ? Is he ? Is she ? Is it ? Must
it ? Must she? Must? Iga iya bangat jail Is
:she so bad ?
Igal (v. f. ngigal), s. a ceremonious dance
v. to perform the igal dance. [This dance is,
its it were, a sacred ceremony and only elderly
persons or chiefs can take part in it during a
feast. The dance is in imitation of the soar-
ing of a kite (vzzvzzzzzZ) which bird is supposed
to be the embodiment of Singalong Burong.
The chief or elder who performs is rewarded
with a cocoanut or plate which is hung behind
him. In olden times this dance was not per-
formed unless a head had been taken in war and
this trophy was hung behind the performer].
Igat (v. f. ngigat; beigat or bigat), an
affectionate term of address to a son-in-law,
orson, or any young person, v. to address a
person as igat. Aku kumbai menantu aku
igat berari. I always call my son-in-law
Igau (v. f. ngigau; beigau or bigau), s.
nightmare, delirium, dream, vision, v. to
talk at random, be delirious, change the con-
versation. lya ngigau di malam. He had
nightmare last night. lya ngigau bejako.
He talks at random. Ngigau aku tu. Ex-
cuse my changing the conversation.
Igi (beigi or bigi), s. a seed, fact, truth,
to the point, adj. single, adv. singly, only,
also a numeral co-efficient. Bri ka aku telu
sigi (contr. for sa igi). Give me one egg.
Jako iya nya igi iya bendar. His speech is
an undoubted fact. Igi iya ti disebut iya.
What he said was to the point. Kini ka
nuan ? Sigi nentuai. Where are you going
to ? I am only going on a visit. Igi (or leka)
nitar. A thunderbolt.
Igi-nibong, see antu pala.
Igin or pui, the disease Framboesia or
Kz7OT (AZi>rzzZ«).
Igur, adj. busy, occupied, worried. Igur
bendar aku tu laban temuai ti ngosong aku.
I am very busy on account of visitors calling
on me,
Ijap (v. f. ngijap ; beijap or bijap), s. an
obstruction inside a fish trap (it is made of
pointed bamboos in order to prevent the fish
that have entered from making their exit the
same way), v. to make such an obstruction in
a fish trap. Ka ka ulu takut ka bubu ijap
trinsong. He wishes to go up river but is
afraid of the fish trap with its cone-shaped in-
ternal obstruction. Iya apin mri ijap ka bubu
iya. He has not yet put an ijap to his fish trap.
Ijap (v. f. ngijap; beijap or bijap), s. a.
wink of the eye, v. to wink. lya ngijap ka
mata. He winked. Mali ngijap ka mata
enti kitai meda bini orang mansa. It is im-
proper to wink when we see a person’s wife
pass by.
Ijau, adj. green ; a proper name, nr. Aku
meda iya ngena kalambi ijau kamari. I saw
him wearing a green coat yesterday.
Ijik (beijik or bijik), a small bell. Ijik
magang ti disanggit iya di burit kalambi iya.
A number of small bells are fastened to the
(borders of the) back of her jacket. [These
ijik are hung in numbers on the edges of
women’s coats].
Ijok (beijok or bijok), the gamuti palm
(Arenga saccarifera) from which sugar and a
native drink (tuak) are made. The fibre
around the trunk makes a strong rope or string
of a black colour and also a plaited ornament
(see unus).
Ika (v. f. ngika ; beika or bika), a form of
address used by a younger brother-(or sister-)
in-law, v. to address a person as ika. Iya
ngika ka aku kada enda iya kaban bini aku.
He addresses me as an elder brother-in-law
most probably he is a relation of my wife.
Ikah-keh, an exclamation used during the
exciting pastime of top spinning.
Ikak (v. f. ngikak; beikak or bikak), s.
fatigue, v. to be weary, to pant. Iya ikak la-
ban iya datai ari menoa jauh. He is fatigued
because he comes from a distant country. Iya
ngikak kadiri bejalai bangat dras. He fatigued
himself by walking too fast.
Ikan (beikan or bikan), fish. Maioh ikan
â– ulih iya kamari. He got plenty offish yester-
Ikas, the end, limit. Tu ikas jako aku.
This is the end of my speech.
Ikat (v. f. ngikat; beikat or bikat), s.
anything tied up, a sacred tie made by a man-
ang, v. to tie, bind, fasten. Iya ngikat jari
aku enggau tali. He ties my hands with a
Ikat-ikat, a trailing fern (Lygodium scan-
Ikat-ngat, (the short form of ikat samen
gat, lit.) the bandage of the soul. At the
close of a belian ceremony the manang ties a
piece of thread .or lemba fibre, which is ‘ the

bandage of the soul,’ round the wrist of the
Ikau-ikau, see ikat-ikat.
Ikil (used with the negative enda}, a near
shave, within a little, Ikil amat aku enda
laboh. Very little more and I should have
fallen. Ikil aktt enda kena tunggu. I had a
near shave of being fined.
Iko (beiko or biko}, s. a tail; also used as
a numeral co-efficient when speaking of ani-
mate objects such as persons, animals, birds,
reptiles, etc. Braga iko orang enggau nuan I
How many persons are there with you? Mina
aku siko. Only I. Iya bulih ikan tiga iko.
He got three fish. Bisi lebih ari anam puloh
iko chapi Prent ah di Simanggang. There are
more than sixty head of Government cattle at
Ikup (v. f. ngikup ; beikup or bikup}, s. a
reconnaissance, v. to intercept, reconnoitre.
Ikup sida enda bangat ngena. Their recon-
naissance was not very well carried out. Sida
lima ngikup kamari. Five of them went to
reconnoitre yesterday.
Ikur (v. f. ngikur ; beikur or bikur}, s.
a plaited cotton waist-belt, a plaited pattern
on the edge of a rotan sega mat or basket,
v. to make such a pattern, to follow. Iya
ngikur ka aku. He follows me.
Ikut (v. f. ngikut}, to follow, go after,
accompany, join in opinion with, according.
Iya ngikut aku ngeta. He followed me upon
a gutta expedition.
Ila, to-morrow (according to the Undup,
Balau, and Batang Ai Dyaks), by-and-by,
presently, (according to the Skarang and
Saribas Dyaks who would use pagila for to-
morrow). Ila kita Day a Undup kitu. To-
morrow you Undup Dyaks come here. Ila
aku mri gaji nuan enggau kaban nuan orang
Skarang. By-and-by I will give you and
your Skarang companions your pay.
Ila or ela, a measure of one yard (sup-
posed to be derived from the English word
Ilai, swinging to and fro’. Semambu ilai.
The Semambu rotan swinging to and fro’.
(This expression is used to signify a beautiful
Ilang (v. f. ngilang; beilang or bilang}, to
los< . Iya ngilang ka sangko aku. He lost
my spear.
Ilang {beilang or bilang}, usually parang
ilang, a curiously curved Kayan sword. Pa-
rang ilang iya agi baru. His parang ilang is
still new.
Ilang-ilu, a kind of tree the fruits of which
are poisonous.
Ilap (v. f. ngilap ; beilap or bilap}, to de-
ceive, twist (like a fish does). Iya ngilap
kami beselam. He deceived us when we had
a diving contest.
Ilap-ilap, thin pieces of brass cut into a
diamond pattern used to decorate a man’s ear-
rings {grunjong} or headkerchief {labong}.
Ilat (v. f. ngilat}, s. a trick, juggling, v.
to trick, wink, dye black the rotan that women
wear round their waists. Main baka nya di-
kumbai ilat. That kind of performance is
called juggling. Iya nemu ngilat kami. He
knows how to trick us. Iya ngilat ka mata
meda aku. He winked when he saw me.
Ilau (v. f. ngilau ; beilau or bilau}, to see,
behold. Ilau. orang nya! Behold that man !
Aku ngilau iya ngenchuri uuang nuan. I saw
him steal your money. Antu enda ngilau me-
da. The spirits do not see.
Ilau (always batuilau}, a transparent stone,
or the white resin used by manang to ascer-
tain the condition of the souls of their patients
and to diagnose their disease.
Hi (v. f. ngili; belli or &7?), s. down-river
v. to go down-river. Tu Hi, nya ulu. This
is down-stream and that is up-stream. Iya
ngili ka ai nginti. He goes down-stream to
fish with a hook.
Ililap or lilap, a glittering ornament.
Kain indu Daya disanggit ka ililap. The
petticoats of Dyak women have glittering or-
naments fastened on them.
Iluk (v. f. miluk}, adv. out of the way, v.
to take a. roundabout way. Alai iya laun da-
tai iya miluk ka pejalai iya. The reason that
he came late was because he took a round-
about way.
Iluk, pretty, handsome, clever. ben-
dar indu nya. That woman is very pretty.
Hum (v. f. ngilum; beilum or bilum}, s.
a prepared quid of pinang, sireh, etc., v. to
prepare such a quid. Iya bepait ka aku maioh
ilum. He sends me a quantity of Hum. Bini
orang enda tau ngilum ka orang bujang.
Married women are not allowed to prepare
ilum for bachelors.
Hut (v. f. ngilut; beilut or bilut}, to insult
by pointing at a person with outstretched arm
and the finger crossed over the first.
Imbai (v. f. ngimbai; berimbai}, horizon-
tal, alongside, next- to, side by side, v. to go
alongside, be next to. Tu swan imbai ukir.
This is a horizontal line of the carving. Iya
ngimbai aku dudok. He sits next to me.
Imbau (v. f. ngimbau; beimbau or bim-
ban}, s. state of panic, v. to be alarmed, be
scattered, spread a report. Anangngimbau ka
jako. Don’t spread the report. Semut nyau
imbau laban api. The ants were scattered
because of the fire.
Imbok {beimbok or bimbuk}, a small dark-
hued wild pigeon, {chalcophaps indica'j. Kasih
ka imbok enda kasih ka manok. To show
kindness to the wild pigeon and. not to show
kindness to the domestic fowl.
Imbur (v. f. ngimbur; beimbur or bimbur},
to splash the water with the hands. Iya
ngimbur aku enggau ai nya alai aku ringat
song iya. He splashed me with water that
was the reason I was angry with h m.
Impun (v. f. ngimpun ; berimpun}, to col-
lect together, look after like a hen does her
chicks, to be careful in speech. Iya tau ngim-
pun jako. He is careful of what he says.
Impun {beimpun or bimpun}, (usually
anak impun}, a species of very small fresh-

— 59—
water fish. Aku bulih maioh anak impun.
I got a lot of impun.
Inak (v. f. nginak; beinak or binak}, to
tend a garden, to garden, look after. Aku
diasoh iya nginak kebun tu. He told me to
look after this garden.
Inal (beinal or binal}, a wad. Snapang
iya enda nyaris laban nadai dibri iya inal.
His gun made a poor report because he did
not put in any wadding.
Inang (v. f. nginang; beinang or bi-
nang), s. the act of nursing, v. to nurse, look
after. Inang iya jimat amai. He is a care-
ful nurse. Iya nginang chapi. He looks
after cattle.
Inas (v, f. nginas ; beinas or binas), s. fibre
prepared for cord or string, v. to prepare
fibre for cord, etc. Iya baru nginas bedau
nali. He has just prepared the fibre but has
not yet made it into string.
Inau (v. f. nginau; beinau or binau}, to
go about at night to look for wild animals.
Apai nyau nginau jani ka umai. Father has
gone to the paddy farm to look for wild pigs.
Inchi (beinchi or binchi}, (the English
word inch), the measure an inch, a foot rule.
Inda, the rest (et cetera). Iya nyapu
rumah inda. He sweeps the house and the
rest of the things in it.
Indah, adv. even, likewise. Indah aku
dikumbai iya jai 1 Even I he says am bad !
Indai (v. f. ngindai; beindai or bindai}, s.
a mother, v. to call mother, have a mother.
Indai madah ka nuan. Mother wants you.
Iya ngindai ka aku. He calls me mother.
Aku nadai bisi beindai. I have no mother.
Akai, indai ! Oh dear ! (lit. Oh ! My mother !)
Indang (v. f. ngindang; beindang or bin-
dang), s. a sieve, v. to lift the arm, soaring.
Lang Indang. The soaring kite (a title).
Indik (v. f. ngindik; berindik or beindik or
bindik}, s. tread, v. to tread upon, separate the
paddy grain from the ear by treading upon it.
Indik iya kaya bendar. He treads very heavily.
Iya belaya lain ngindik bini iya. He quarrels
and tramples on his wife.
Indir (v. f. ngindir}, to go a roundabout
way. Anang bangat ngindirbejalai. Do not
go a very roundabout way.
Indu (v. f. ngindu; beindu or bindu}, s.
a woman, mother, dam of animals, birds, in-
sects, or reptiles, adj. feminine, v. to make a
beginning of anything, to start a fire. Indu
nya asoh kitu. Tell that woman to come here.
Kami bulih indu burong siko. We got one hen
bird. Tu indu pasang ti mangka. This is
the main wave of the bore. Akugaava ngindu
ka api. I am busy starting the fire. Papan
indu. The plank next to the keel of a boat.
Kami gaiva beban papan indu. We are busy
cutting out the main rafters. Iya nyau ngambi
kasau indu. He has gone to get the main
Ind’i tindoh, a species of myriapod (sp.
Indu utai, an insect of any species (liter-
ally, ‘ the mother of things’).
Ingan (beingan or bingan), a rotan basket
made in the Rejang; it has a cover and its
sides are strengthened with upright pieces of
cane (rotan). Is used for carrying clothes,
Ingat (v. f. ngingat; beingat or bingat},
to remember, remind, recollect, heed, notice,
remark, beware or be mindful of, attend to.
Aku ingat ka jako niangapai. I remember my
late father’s words. Iya ngingat ka aku pasal
semaia aku ka mri iya tajauaku. He remind-
ed me of my promise to give him my jar.
Inggan (v. f. nginggan ; beinggan or bing-
gan), adv. unto, as far as, during, until, v. to
come to a certain limit, have a limit. Iya be-
jalai inggan Sabu. He walks as far as Sabu.
Iya nginggan ka pejalai iya naka Simanggang.
He did not continue his walk beyond Simang-
gang. Inggan tiga hari tiga malam. Dur-
ing, or until the expiration of, three days and
three nights. Ti enda beinggan. That which
has no limit.
Inggap (v. f. nginggap ; beinggap or bing-
gap), s. the act of perching, v. to perch, catch
as fire. Inggap bzirong lang lekat bendar. A
kite grips very fast when perching. Burong
achang terbai lain nginggap kadiri di prabong.
The pigeon flew and perched on the ridge of
the roof.
Inggar (v. f. nginggar; beinggar or bing-
gar), s. a noise, v. to make a noise. Inggar
sida didinga ari jauh. Their noise is heard
from afar. Anang nginggar kadiri. Do not
make a noise.
Inggut (v. f. nginggut; beinggut or bing-
gut}, to move slightly (generally used with the
negatives enda or nadai prefixed). Aku tu
udah lama sakit lalu enda inggut. I have been
ailing a long time and have not been able to
move at all.
Ingin (v. f. ngingin ; beingin or bingin},
s. covetousness, v. to covet, desire, crave,
long for, lust after. Anangbaka sanu ingin
ka utai orang. Do not be like so-and-so and
covet another’s goods.
Ingkas (v. f. ngingkas ; beingkas or bing-
kas), to displace, unstitch, put down. Iya
ngingkas ka ma iya. He put down his burden.
Ingkat (beingkat), the Tarsier (Tarsius
Ini (v. f. ngini; beini or bint), grand-
mother, v. to call grandmother. Ini madah
ka nuan. Grandmother wants you. Iya
ngini ka aku. She calls me grandmother.
Ining (v. f. ngining; beining or billing),
s. desire, a longing after, v. to desire, long
for. Pendiau baka nya dikumbai ngining ka
utai orang. Behaviour of that kind is called a
desire to possess another’s goods.
Injau (v. f. nginjau ; beinjau or binjau},
borrowing, v. to borrow. Injau iya baka
ngerampas. His borrowing is like snatching.
lya nginjau padi aku. He borrowed my
Inong, a demon. Antu Inong. Tl]e de-
mon Inong.
Inok (beinok or binok), durian preserve.
Insah (v. f. nginsah; beinsah or binsah), s.
a beating, thrashing, v. to beat. Insah iya

udu amat. His beating was very severe. Iya
salulu nginsah -bini. He always beats his
Insak (beinsak or binsak}, s. the mucous
discharge from the nostrils when suffering
from cold, v. to have such. Palit insak anak
nuan, kamah bendar dipeda. Wipe away
your child’s mucous discharge, it looks very
Insan peinsan or binsan}, the planks of
a sleeping place or bed.
Insap (v. f. nginsap ; beinsapov binsap}, s.
the act of smoking or sucking, v. to smoke,
suck in, suck into the mouth. Insap iya enda
betuku. He does not suck properly. Tanah
nginsap ujan. The earth sucks up the rain.
Iya nginsap chandu. He smokes opium.
Insit (v. f. nginsit; beginsit or binsit},
to move, move slightly. Aku enggai meda
iya nginsit ka tajau aku. I will not have
him move my jar the least bit.
Insur (v. f. nginsur ; belinsur or beinsur},
to relax, grow less, become convalescent,
decrease, draw in the breath. Anak aku ti
udu sakit nyau belinsur. My child who was
very ill has become convalescent. Ai nyau
nginsur. The water has decreased.
Intak or intak kra, an exclamation sig-
nifying displeasure. Intak kra nuan 1 Upon
my word ! (or Confound you!)
Intan peintan or bintan}, a diamond.
Intan magang ti dikena indu nya. That
woman wears nothing but diamonds.
Intin peintin or 'bintin}, s. a certain
quantity of cotton used for weaving. Endu
mli ubong burak anam intin sa gantangbrau.
My daughter buys six skeins of white cotton
for a gantang of rice.
Intu (v. f. ngintu; beintu or bintu}, to
look after, watch, take care of, settle cases.
Iya salalu ngintu laya. He always settles
Ipa (v. f. ngipa ; beipa or bipa}, s. an am-
bush, v. to lie in wait. Iya ngipa aku di jalai.
He lies in wait for me on the road.
Ipak, like, commensurate. Ipak peman-
gah iya jako iya munyi nya. In proportion
to his bad temper he speaks like that.
Ipang Petpang or bipang}, a jar with a
wide mouth. Apai mli ipang sigi kamari.
Father bought an ipang jar yesterday.
Ipar peipar or bipar}, a brother-(or sister-)
in-law. Nyau kini ka ipar nuan ti indu I
Where has your sister-in-law gone ?
Ipi (v. f. ngipi; beipi or bipi}, to press
down, suppress. Aku ngasoh iya ngipi babas
ngambi ka aku nyamai bejalai. I told him
to press down the bush in order that I might
walk comfortably.
Ipoh, a tree (antiaris toxicaria} the sap of
which is poisonous, and, it is said, is used to
poison the darts of the Kayan blow-pipes.
There is another species of tree called ipoh, a
sort of bread-fruit, the bark of which is made
into white blankets (pua}. Ngumbai diri ipoh
munoh, ipoh Temajoh, ngumbai diri ular
naga, ular bisa. Professes to be the ipoh
that kills (called) ipoh Temajoh, professes
to be the dragon-snake, the poisonous snake.
Ipong (v. f. ngipong; beipong or bipong},
to eat anything pure and unmixed. Iya ngi-
pong ikan. He eats fish by itself.
Ira (v. f. ngira; beira or bira}, s. fibre
used for cord, string, or thread, v. to prepare
fibre for cord, etc. Iya barn ngira bedau riali.
He has just prepared the fibre but has not ye't
made it into cord.
Irau (v. f. ngirau}, adj. anxious, v. to
make anxious, perplexed. Irau ati aku, I am
anxious. Jako iya ngirati ka ati aku. What
he says causes me anxiety. ati. Over
Ireh. or iris (v. f. ngireh or ngiris}, to
long for, desire. Ireh ati aku meda pedang
nya, aku ka mli iya. I had a great desire to
buy his sword when I saw it.
Iri (v. f. ngiri; beiri or biri}, to pour.
Iya ngiri ai dalam mangkok. He pours water
into a cup.
Irin, or iring, to accompany. Prauh nya
irin kami mudik. That boat accompanied us
coming up river.
Iring (v. f. ngiring; beiring or hiring}, to
lead, lead by the hand. Iya ngiring bala
Prentah. He leads the Government force.
Iya ngi ring orang but a. He leads a blind man
by the hand.
Iris, see ireh.
Irit (v. f. ngirit; beirit or birit}, to drag
after, trail along. Iya ngirit anak iya di
jari. He drags his child by the hand.
Iru (v. f. ngiru ; beirti or biru}, s. adop-
tion, v. to adopt. Kamaiatu barang sapa
ka ngiru anak enda tau enda ngambi surat
iru di Kubu. Nowadays whoever wants to
adopt a child must take out an adoption tick-
et at the Fort. Aku udah ngiru anak menya-
di. I have adopted my brother’s child.
Irun peirun or birun}, a kind of jar
[Bazaar value from fifty to seventy cents.
Dyak value in plates (pinggai} varies from
two to four plates],
Irup (v. f. ngirup; beirup or birup}, to
drink. Anang nuan ngirup ai nva. Don’t
you drink that water.
Isa, a proper name m. or f. (Jesus in the
New Testament).
Isa (v. f. ngisa ; beisa or bisa}, let, let it
be. Isa iya mati. Let him die. Isa me iya
dia. Let him be there.
Isai (v. f. ngisai ; begisai}, to scratch the
body incessantly like a person does when
suffering from skin disease {kurap}. Lusong
iya bangat gatal nya alai iya bangat begisai.
His skin disease is very itchy that is the rea-
son he scratches his body so incessantly.
Isak, perspiration. Isak magang di tuboh
iya. His whole body was covered with per-
Is an (v. f. ngisan; beisan or bisan}, the
relationship between those whose children in-
termarry, v. to call a person isan. Iya isait
aku. He is my isan (i. e. his daughter is
married to my son).
Isang peisang or bisang}, a species of
jungle palm, the leaves of which are used by

Dyaks to decorate the bows of their boats
when returning from an expedition, or during
a grand tuba fishing, or are tied on to their
spears. They are also used in the house dur-
ing a great feast.
Isau jbeisau or bisaii), an ancient Dyak
sword ; a proper name, m. Tu isau niang
apai. This is the brand of my late father.
Isi (v. f. ngisi; beisi or bisi), s. flesh, the
solid part, the interior or contents of anything,
payment of a fine or tax, v. to fill, pay a fine
or tax. Isi chapi. Beef. Isi bangkong. The
keel of a boat, or the crew of a boat. Isi ru-
mah. The inmates of a house. Isi benda.
The contents of a jar. Lapa iya enda ngisi
pupu I Why does he not pay tax ? Zw tunggu
iya sigi mungkul. The payment of his fine is
one mungkul (i.e. one dollar or eight plates).
Iya udah ngisi pupu. He has paid his door tax.
Isik, see isisiak.
Ising (v. f. ngising; beising or bising),
s. a species of tree bearing a nut from which
oil is expressed (the Malay name is katio
known to commerce as Illipe nuts). The tree
grows wild in the jungle marshes near the sea
and is found in large numbers between the
mouths of the Batang Lupar and Saribas, v.
to collect the ising. Aram kitai ngising.
Come let us go and collect the ising.
Isisiak or isik {besisiak), s. a whisper,
v. to whisper. Mina didinga isisiak sida di
bilik. Their whispers only were heard in the
room. Sida besisiak dia. They are whisper-
ing there.
Isu {beisu or bisii), a species of durian {Bas-
chia Griffithii) the fruit of which is very small
and red inside. Tu isu tanam niang aki.
This isu was planted by my late grand-father.
Isu. (v. f. ngisu ; beisu or bisu), adj. dumb,
v. to make dumb. Anak aku isu. My child
is dumb ; a proper name, m Antu ti ngisu ka
anak aku. It was a Spirit that made my
child dumb.
Itah, temporary, preliminary. Langkau
tu itah alai diau dttlu. This hut is a temporary
one. A si tu itah enggau dulu. This cooked
rice is preliminary.
Itam (v. f. ngitam), adj. black, v. to
blacken ; a proper name, m. Itam moa iya.
His face is black, lya ngitam ka gari aku.
He blackened my clothes. Nama iya Itam.
His name is Itam.
Iti {beiti or biti), a part, piece, patch, a
numeral coefficient, v. to have pieces. Sa iti.
One piece, or one. Nadai beiti-iti wi ulih aku.
I did not get a single piece of rotan.
[Note also the curious use of ukai beiti-
iti meaning abundantly. Ukai beiti-iti agi wi
ulih iya. He got rotan abundantly].
Itik, a chicken (only used with anak pre-
ceding). Anak itik. A chicken.
Iting (v. f. ngiting; beiting or biting), to
pull off the leaves of a tree.
Itit {beitit or bitit), a duck. Rerga itit
siko lima puloh sen. The price of ducks is
fifty cents each.
Itong (v. f. ngitong; beritong), to reckon,
count, for instance, by way of example or
illustration. lya ngitong diri salah. He
reckoned himself in the wrong. Iya agi gawa
ngitong wang iya. He is still busy counting
his money. Itong iya. For instance.
Iur (v. f. ngiur; beiur or biur), to concur,
assent, yield. Aku ngiur ka jako iya. I con-
cur with his words. Aku enggai beiur-iur
enggau nuan laban nuanjai. I will not yield
to you for you are wicked,
lya, he, she, it, him, her, they. Iya ti
ngakal aku. It was he who cheated me. Bri
wang nya ka iya. Give that money to her.
Sida iya. They.
Iyar (v. f. ngiyar; beiyar or biyar), to
drive or send away. Iya ngiyar ka manok.
He drives away the fowls. Bini iya ngiyar
ka iyapulai. His wife sends him home.
Iyong (v. f. ngiyong; beiyong or biyong),
to brush up against a person in order to shew
contempt. Iya ngiyong endu di jalai datai ka
iya lain tedudok. She collided with my
daughter on the road and caused her to fall
down (lit. until she fell) in a sitting posture.
Iyu. {beiyu or biyu), usually ikan iyu, a
shark. Iyu arang and iyu blangkas, are species
of sharks (the latter a broad-headed shark).
Ja (v. f. ngeja ; beja), s. pulut rice cooked
in a bamboo, v. to put uncooked/«/«/rice into
bamboo cylinders before cooking, hence put
anything in a hole ; a proper name, f. Mai asi
pulut ja semangkang. To bring bamboo cylin-
ders (containing) cooked semangkang rice (i. e.
dry cooked rice that will last). Sida nyau
ngeja pulut ka mri ka pengabang. They have
gone to put pulut rice into bamboos to give to
the guests.
Jabah, a proper name, f. Enggai bentuah
ka Jabah, Jabah ti ka entuah. He won’t have
Jabah for his mother-in-law, and yet he will
have Jabah for his mother-in-law. [Said of a
person who keeps changing his mind].
Jabang {bejabang), tapioca, the cassava,
(Mahihot utilissima). Buah jabang di Mera-
kai mesai lengan. Tapioca at Merakai is as
big as one’s arm.
[Note.—A curious use of the word jabang
to signify a lie. Sanu udah datai ? Udah. Has
so-and-so come ? Yes. Jabang. It is a lie].
Jabir {bejabir), a jar. Bazaar price from
one to ten dollars (new and old jabir jars).
The Dyak value of two jabir is one panding
(equal to thirty-two plates).
Jadam {bejadam), an embossed diamond-
shaped ornament made of gold or silver-gilt
worn as a belt with strings attached to it.
Jadam kena iya ngabang. He wore a jadam
belt when invited to the feast.
Jadi (v. f. nyadi or menyadi; bejadi), adj.
lawful, not tabooed, free from objection, v. to
be, become, come to pass, succeed, marry,

answer the purpose, invent, (used as a con-
junction to commence a sentence, which has
some connection with what has been said pre-
viously, it may be translated), now, therefore,
so. Iya tail nyadi tuai. He can become a
chief. Nyadi orang Kubu. To become a
Fortman. Nyadi tuai. To become a chief.
{Nyau tuai. To become old). Jako iya nyadi
amat. His words came to pass. Pengawa
iya enda nyadi. His work does not succeed.
Anak iya jadi enggau anak aku. His child
marries mine. Bliong nadai utang parang
pen nyadi. There is no axe but a parang will
answer the purpose. Jadi rumah kami. Our
house is not tabooed. Prentah udah ngajar
orang maioh anang ngenan ka kampong, nyadi
kamaiatu barang sapa ngenan ka kampong
kena tunggu besai. The Government has
warned people not to hold the old jungle,
therefore whoever does so now will incur a
heavy fine.
Aku enda tau menyadi tu ka tikai. I cannot
make this into a mat. lya tau bendar men-
yadi ka jako betenah orang. She is clever at
inventing a story to scandalise people. Aku
tau bejadi utai rnali. I can make lawful
a thing that is unlawful (lit. forbidden).
Jaga (v. f. nyaga; bejaga), s. sentry,
guard, watch, adv. a long time, a long time
ago, v. to guard, watch, look after, keep a
vigil. Asoh jaga kitu. Tell the sentry to
come hither. Jaga iya enda betuku. His
watch is not properly kept. Jaga iya udah
pindah ari rumah kami. He has a long time
ago removed from our house. Iya nyaga Asta-
na Baja. He guards the Rajah’s palace.
Aku nyaga chapi. I look after cattle. Kami
jaga di malam laban endu pedis. We sat up
last night because my daughter was ill.
Jagak or chagak {bejagak or bechagak),
the swivel part of a gun or cannon. Jagak
bedil iya udah patah. The swivel part of
his gun was broken.
Jagang {bejagang), to walk on the hands
and feet like monkeys. Iya bejagang ngosong
aku laban iya enda dapat. He called upon
me walking on his hands and feet because he
was unwell.
Jagau (v. f. nyagau), adj. tall, v. to be-
come tall; a proper name, m. Tu manok jag-
au. This is a tall fowl. Anak itik tu baru
nyagau kadiri. This chicken is just getting tall.
Jagol (v. f. nyagol; bejagol), to push, hit
with the fist. Iya nyagol aku di moa. He
hit me with his fist in the face.
Jagong (v. f. nyagong; bejagong), s.
Indian corn {Zea mays'); a plaited round-
shaped mat used to enlarge (lit. heighten) the
lanji (or rotan basket) during harvest time,
(hence) an exaggeration, v. to put the jagong
mat into a lanji to increase it, to exaggerate.
Jagong tu nyau tuai. This Indian corn is
old. Zj'tz nyagong lanji aku enggau jagong
iya empu. He added his plaited mat (jagong)
to my lanji. Jako iya jagong magang. His
talk is full of exaggeration.
Jagu {bejagu), a crocodile, Jagu tu udah
makai mensia. This crocodile has eaten
people. Ai Sabu nadai bisi bejagu. There
are no crocodiles in the Sabu stream.
Jagut {bejagut), a beard. Jagut iya
udah dikukur iya. He has shaved off his
beard. Aku rindu bejagut. I like to have
a beard. Agi biak iya udah bejagut. Though
still a young man he has a beard.
Jai (v. f. nyai; bejai), adj. bad, evil,
wicked, vicious, dangerous, atrocious, de-
formed, hideous, v. to spoil, make bad or
evil. Iya orang jai suah ngenchuri. He is a
bad man and is always thieving. Orangjai.
A wicked man. Jai bendar kuda nya. That
horse is vicious. Enti nuan besulu enggau
orang jai enda tau enda mega nuan nyadi jai.
If you keep company with the vicious you will
certainly also become vicious. Tu pengawa
jai. These are atrocious deeds. Jai pendiau
anak aku. My child is deformed. Jai gam-
bal iya. Its appearance is hideous. Anang
nyai ka kalambi aku. Don’t spoil my jacket.
Iya salalu bejai aku. He is always speaking
evil of me.
Jait (v. f. nyait; bejait), s. sewing, v. to
sew, work with a needle. Jait telih iya. Sew
up his wound. Iya nyait kalambi aku. She
sews my jacket. Kami gawa bejait. We are
busy sewing.
Jaja {bejajd), to peddle, sell petty wares.
Aku bejaja kamari utai lalu enda laku. I
went peddling yesterday but the goods did
not sell.
Jajabai (bejajabai), a species of ar a
(Ficus) tree. Maioh jajabai di menoa kami.
There are plenty of jajabai in our country.
Jajagai {bejajagai). a tree wasp. Jajagai
magang di pun sikup kami. There are many
wasps in our mangosteen trees.
Jajagan {bejajaganj, a coarse kind of bas-
ket used for sifting rice. Aku ka mli jajagan
nuan enti nuan ka nyual iya. I want to buy
your jajagan basket if you wish to sell it.
Jajegai, empty-handed. Aku tu jajegai
ngosong nuan ka nanya ka padi nuan dulu,
enti bisi ti dijual aku mansang baru pagila.
I call upon you empty-handed to enquire first
of all about your paddy, if you have any to
sell I will come again to-morrow morning.
Jajego, empty-handed. Bejalai ^jajego
ngosong orang nadai tunga. It is no use
going and calling upon people empty-hand-
Jajemba, in the prime ofjlife. Pendiau
iya agi jajemba didinga nyau parai. He was
still in the prime of life when it was reported
he had died.
Jajempan, healthy and plump. Jajem-
pan pendiau anembiak nya. That child looks
healthy and plump.
Jajengap or jengap-jengap, in a dying
state. Apai iya baiat sakit nya jajengap dia-
iya- His father is very ill and is in a dying
state just now.
Jak (v. f. nyak; benyak), to press down
with the hand, force in. Iya nyak pala aku
enggau jari kiba nya alai aku main iya. He
pressed down my head with his left hand that
was the reason I struck him.

Jako (bejako), s. a speech, saying, word,
argument, v. to say, speak. Tu jako bendar.
This is a true saying. Pantun jako. A pro-
verb. Iya nadai nyebut jako sa leka. He did
not utter a word. Lalu bejako Kling munyi
Sebaru dulu ujong. And Kling spoke like
the Sebaru people putting the end first (i.e.
‘ the cart before the horse’).
Jakut {bejakutj a precious stone. Jakut
ti dikena indu nya maioh rerga iya. The
precious stones which that woman wears cost
a great deal.
Jala (v. f. nyala; bejala), s. a casting net,
v. to use a casting net ; a proper name, m.
Jala iyapanjai dua depa. The length of his
casting net is two. fathoms. Iya nyala bulih
niaioh ikan. He went out fishing with his
casting net and got a lot of fish.
Jalai {bejalai}, s. a road, walk, path, way,
method, v. to walk, go on a journey. Nya
jalai jani, nya jalai ukui. That is the pig’s
road, that is the dog’s road. Tu jalai jako
This is the way to speak. Tengah jalai.
Half wTay. Jalai raia. The high way.
Jalai lurus. A straight road. Jalai ipi. A
beaten path. Jalai bepampang. A road
branching off from, or joining another. Beja-
lai enda ngetu utai pen nadai temu. Walk-
ing without stopping nothing is found.
Jalai-pukat-emplawa, a cob-web, spi-
der’s web.
Jali (v. f. nyali ; bejali}, to lend. Jali ka
iya dua ringgit. Lend him two dollars. Iya
enggai nyali tikai ka aku. He will not lend
me a mat.
Jaloh {bejalohj, the cry of an omen bird.
7m ninga jaloh lalu nikal. He heard the cry
of an omen bird and turned back.
Jalong or jalu {bejalong or bejalu}, a
large cup. Aku mli jalong siti. I bought
one large cup. Nadai bisi bejalong aku tu.
I have no large cup.
Jalur {bejalur}, the keel of a boat, a ‘ dug
out.’ Jalur prauh iya tebelian aku ka mli ari
iya. The keel of his boat is iron-wood and
I want to buy it from him.
Jam (bejam), a clock, the time, hour.
Brapa rerga jam nuanl What is the price of
your clock ? Kami Daya gawa nadai bejam.
We Dyaks do not understand time work.
Aku udah tiga jam nganti iya ditu. I have
waited three hours for him here.
Jama, clever, expert. Iya jama jako
China. He is clever at talking Chinese. Aku
enda jama ngaga utai. I am not expert at
making anything.
Jamah (v. f. nyamah; bejamah}, to touch,
feel, lay the hand upon, meddle with, handle,
take with the hand, strike ; a proper name, f.
Jamah iya badas. Everything he makes is
good. Iya dtidok lain nyamah asi. He sits
down and takes the cooked rice. Iya nyamah
aku enggau kayu. He struck me ’with a piece
of wood.
Jamban (v. f. nyamban ; bejamban}, s. a
bridge, v. to make a bridge ; a proper name,
m. Aku hyau ka jamban ka sengkalan iya.
1 am made into his bridge and his chopping
block, (i.e. I am become his slave). Kami
baru udah nyamban ai Sabu. We have just
finished putting a bridge across the Sabu
stream. Orang ngambi bini ka Jamban tadi.
People went to fetch Jamban’s bride not long
Jambatan (v. f. nyembatan ; bejambatan}.
s. a bridge, pier, wharf, quay, v. to form a
bridge, etc. Jambatan tebelian nadai agi
nemu jai. A bilian bridge will last almost
for ever (literally, can never know worthless-
ness). Anang nuait nyembatan ai tu mail.
Do not put a bridge across this stream, it is
forbidden. Kami meda kapal sa buah itgera-
kit jambatan. We saw a steamer go alongside
a wharf.
Jambu {bejambu), the guava {Genus Psi-
dium); a proper name, m. Maioh bendar
buah jambu. There is much guava fruit.
Jambu apai Samin udah jaga parai. Jambu
the father of Samin died long ago.
Jambu ai {hejambuai}, rose-apple {Euge-
nia aqtiea). [Several species of this genus are
so called].
Jambul {bejambul}, a single lock of hair
left growing on the heads of males. Anak
lelaki baru patut ngalau jambul. It is only
becoming for a male child to grow the jambul.
Jampat (v. {.ngenyampat; bejampat}, adj.
quick, adv. quickly, v. to hasten, look sharp.
Jampat pejalai iya. His pace is a fast one.
Iya ngenyampat kadiri makai. He hastens to
take his food.
Jampu {bejampu}, a plant, a species of the
amaranthus oleraceus eaten as a vegetable.
Janga {bejangaj, an angle (e.g. that form-
forked branches of a tree, or the neck joining
the shoulder).
Jangam, see jengam.
Janggat (bejanggat), a white pumpkin, a
fruit resembling a vegetable marrow.
Jangit {bejangit), a tree the bark of which
gives a red dye. Endu nyau ngiga jangit ka
rumah nuan. My daughter has gone to your
house to look for jangit.
Jangka, the clavicle.
Jangka (v.f. nyangka;bejangka}, s. a meas-
urement, guess, thought, idea, v. to guess,
think. Orang ti nimbau bangkong bisi ngem-
buan jangka. People that build boats have a
measurement to go by. Jangka ati aku aku
ka bebini. My idea is to marry. Iya mina
nyangka bini iya but ang. He simply guesses
his wife has committed adultery.
Jangkam (v. f. nyangkdm; bejangkam},
to squeeze (with the thumb and fingers).
Jangkang {bejangkang), a tree having
its roots shewing above ground close to the
trunk like buttresses ; it produces an in-
ferior sort of gutta called nyatu jangkang.
Kami nimbak• bulih jani siko makai buah jang-
kang. We went out shooting and got a pig
that was catingykwj/’aw^-fruit.
Jangkar (bejangkar), see jangkang.
Pland k merjek ari jangkar pun buan. The
mouse-deer jumped from the roots {jangkar}
of the buan tree.

Jangkit (v. f. nyangkit; bejangkit), adj.
infectious, contagious, v. to catch or spread
(as fire or infection). Kurap iya nyangkit
aku. His skin disease spread to me. Pen-
yakit tu nyangkit. This sickness is conta-
Jani (bejanij, a pig. Jani menoa. A
domestic pig. Jani kampong. A wild pig
barbatus). Isi jani. Pork. Nadai bisi
bejani menoa tu. There are no pigs in this
country. Samoa jelu enda asai jani, sarnoa
ikan enda asai kli, samoa orang enda asai di.
Of all animals none tastes like a pig, of all
fish none tastes like a kli, of all people none
is like unto thee.
Jaong (bejaong), a species of palm (Pholi-
docarpus macrocarpns) that grows inland, its
leaves are used for thatching. Kami ngena
jaong ka atap. We use jaong leaves for thatch-
Jap (v. f. nyap or ngejap ; bejap), s. a dis-
pute ; a proper name, f., v. to dispute, answer
Back. Jap iya maioh bendar. He has any
amount of disputes. Iya nyap aku. He dis-
putes with me. Anang bejap. Do not answer
Japai (v. f. nyapai; bejapai), to hold, take.
Tu jari ti nyapai ivang aku. This is the hand
that took my money.
Jara (a particle), indeed, well done. Amai
jara. Yes indeed. Jara. Well done.
Jaragan. (bejaragan), the mate of a vessel;
a proper name, m. Asoh jaragan nuan kitu
aku ka bejako enggau iya. Ask your mate to
come hither I am going to have a talk with
Jarai, see jarang.
Jarak, as minyak jarak, castor-oil. [Adopt-
ed from the Malay]. The plant called palma
christi ; recinus communis.
Jarami (bejarami), stubble, land that has
been farmed the previous year. Nya jarami
taun ti diempa. That is this year’s stubble.
Jaran (bejaran), severe diarrhoea. Jaran
ti ngasoh iya danjan. A severe attack of
diarrhoea was the cause of his death.
Jarang (v. f. nyarang or ngenyarang;
bejarang), adj. wide, far apart, adv. rarely,
seldom, v. to make wide. Raga tu jarang tau
endor jani pansut. This fencing is far apart,
the pigs are able to get out. Jarang iya di-
dinga ka pasar. It is said he seldom went to
the town. Iya ngenyarang ka tambak padi
iya. He plants his paddy far apart.
Jarangku (bejarangku), a species of tree ;
a proper name, m. Nadai bisi kayu jarang-
ku di menoa tu. There are no jarangku trees
in this country.
Jarau (v. f. nyarau ; bejarau), v. to cut off
the branch of a tree ; a proper name, m.
Bunga jarau. An ornament made by whit-
tling a piece of wood and leaving the strips
adhering to it; it is placed in the bows of war
boats or in the central hall (ruai) during a
Jari (bejari), s. a hand. Jari kanan.
The right hand. Jari kiba. The left hand.
Gaial jari aku. My hand is itchy.
Jarin (v. f. nyarin; bejarin), s. a snare
for deer, pigs, etc., v. to ensnare. Enggau
jarin rusa sida nyarin lalu bulih babi siko.
With a deer snare they went out to catch deer
and caught a pig.
Jarit, see jerit.
Jarit (bejarit), s. succession, v. to be in
succession, adjoining. Tu jarit umai sida.
This is the way their paddy farms lie adjoin-
ing one another. Iya bejarit hari kitu. He
comes here day after day.
Jerukan-atap (bejerukan-atap), a present
which a guest is entitled to when he enters a
house for the first time.
[This custom, which also holds good when
an infant is taken to a house for the first time,
seems to imply good luck to the owner of the
house and the guest, but more especially to
the latter].
Jarum (bejarum), s. a needle, hands of a
clock or watch. Kami mli jarum nelah jaru-
mat China nadai nemu. We bought needles
and asked for jarum at but the Chinese did not
know them. Jarum panjai. A long needle
or the long hand of clock.
Jarumat (bejarumat), see jarum.
Jauh. (v. f. ngenyauh), adj. far, far off,
distant, remote, far from, v. to cause to be at
a distance from. Jauh ari tu. Far from
hence. Rumah iya jauh bendar. His house
is far off. Jauh malam. Late at night.
Jauh pen aku tu jai. I am] far from being
bad. Sida ngenyauh kadiri bumai taun tu.
This year they made a farm for themselves far
Jaum (bejaum), a slave. Aki aku menya
mli dua iko jaum indu ari Laut. Years ago
my grandfather bought two female slaves
from the Malays.
Jawa (bejaiva), barley (genus Hordeum)-, a
proper name, m. Kamari aku mli jaiva sa
gantang. I bought a gantang of barley yes-
Jayau (v. f. nyayau; bejayau), s. a charm,
v. to charm, fascinate. Enggau jayau iya
nyayau anak aku nya alai iya enggai enda jadi
ka iya. With a charm he fascinated my
daughter that was the reason she was obliged
to marry him.
Jebai (bejebai), a sun-shade for the neck.
Jebong (bejebong), s. an edible vegetable,
adj. large and deep. Prauh iya jebong amat
muat sa koyan. His boat is very large and
deep and holds a koyan.
Jebul (bejebul), a little bottle, an earthen-
ware vessel ; a proper name f.
Jeda (v. f. nyeda), to be haunted. Aku agi
jeda udah meda bangkai China bulan sigi ka-
mari. I am still haunted having seen a
Chinaman’s corpse last month.
Jegak-jegak or jejegak, adj. forward,
frivolous, vain, boisterous, v. to romp about
and cause the floor to shake ; a proper name,
Jegan (v. f. nyegan), adj. watchful, cir-
cumspect, v. to be watchful. lya jegan bendar
dalam iya tindok. He is very watchful when
he sleeps. Aku enti turun nubai mansai nye*-

gan kadiri. When I go out fishing I am
Jegau jejegati}, s. a vagabond, wanderer,
v. to wander, Iya orang jegau nadai bisi
endor diau. He is a vagabond and has no
dwelling place. Awak ka pendiau iya jejegau
lain kekitau. Let him be a wanderer and one
who moves aimlessly to and fro.
Jegit or jejegit (v. f. nyegit}, adj. for-
ward , frivolous, vain, v. to cause to be for
ward, frivolous, or vain. Jegit bendar indu
nya. That woman is very forward. Jya nye-
git kadiri. She is frivolous.
Jejabong (bejejabong}, the tuft of hair
decorating the handle of a Dyak sword. Ba:h
di jejabongrimbun di ketunsong. The hair
decoration of the sword handle is long and the
shoe-flower is full of leaves
[This refers to a chief, or leader in war,
who is rich and has many skulls in the house],
Jejaga jbejejagaj, a sentinel, guard, fort-
man. Anak aku nyadi jejaga. My son be-
came a fortman.
Jejama, tardily, slowly. Iya bejalai jeja-
ma. He walks slowly.
Jejampang (bejejampang}, the support of
a native rudder.
Jejampong or bejampong {bcjejampong},
an omen bird. Iya pulaininga jejampong. He
went back upon hearing the jejampong omen
Jejampu (bejejampu}, see jampu.
Jejanggah, to run with the head up
(like a deer.) Pel am a rusa jejanggah ngelang-
gar jarin. The deer ran with its head up
against the snare.
Jejanggak, sticking out of the water
(like a tree trunk floating upright).
Jejebong or jebong (bejejebong or beje-
bong}, a plant eaten as a vegetable.
Jejegak, see jegakjegak.
Jejegit, see jegit.
Jejelap, spreading (of fire moving along
the ground).
Jejelas, see jelas.
Jejelik, unblinking (of the eyes). Jejelik
mata iya meda aku. His eyes did not blink
when he looked at me.
Jejena (always used with the negative
or ukai preceding), little, small. Enda
jejena pemaioh ikan ulih iya. He caught no
small quantity of fish.
Jejengkak or jengkak-jengkak, to
walk strongly and fast. Iya jejengkak bejalai
mansa aku. He walked strongly and fast and
passed me.
Jejingka, see jejingki.
Jejingki, to walk on tip-toe (compelled to
do so by sores on the soles of the feet).
Jejingki pejalai iya laban iebu. He walks on
tip-toe because of sores on his feet.
Jejukun, to come straight on without
hesitation. Jugam nya jejukun ngagai aku.
That bear made for me without hesitation.
Jejulok or julok (bejejulok or bejulok}, a
motto, title, nickname, sobriquet. Jejulok iya
Lang Indang. His title is the ‘ Soaring Kite’,
Jejumpang (bejejumpang}, the head or
top of anything, the peak of a mountain.
Jejunggak, sticking out.
Jejungku, to walk lame. Jejungku peja-
lai iya laban tebu. He walks lame because of
sores on the feet.
Jekang, a fast or gay woman.
Jela, the appearance of the sky where the
sun is setting.
Jelai, far, distant, remote ; a proper name,
m. Jelai bendar tikau iya. He throws very
far. Jelai munyi snapang didinga. The
report of the gun was heard from a distance.
Jelaka, see chelakd.
Jelan (v. f. nyelan; bejelan}, s. a habit,
daily routine, v. to have a routine, do any-
thing habitually, have a special time for any-
thing. Jelan kami makai lumu. It is our
habit to eat early. Kami nyelan diri empu
makai laun. We have made it our habit to
eat late. Bejelan. To have a daily routine
or special time.
Jelangkit (v. f. nyelangkit; bejelangkit},
s. movements (like monkeys jumping from
tree to tree), v. to wander from the subject.
Anakbiak rindu meda kra bejelangkit. Children
are very pleased to see monkeys jumping
from tree to tree. Jako nuan bejelangkit ting-
gal, enggai aku nyaut nuan. You have wan-
dered from the subject, my friend, and I will
not answer you.
Jelar (v. f. nyelar; bejelar}. to put out the
tongue, burn (like fire creeping along the
ground). Jelar ka dilah nuan. Put out your
tongue. Abis babas dijelar api. The jungle
was consumed by the fire creeping along the
Jelas (v. f. nyelas}, adj. forward, frivolous,
v. to give oneself airs. Indu nya jelas bendar.
That woman is very forward. Anang bangat
nyelas diri meda diri menang bechara. Don’t
give yourself such airs because you won your
case in Court.
Jelatong (v. f. nyelatong; bejelatong}, s.
a raft, v. to make a raft, make a float. Kami
tu nyelatong ka ramu lain ka jelatong. We
are floating our building' material and are
going to make it into a raft.
Jelawat (bejelawat}, a fresh-water fish that
is exceedingly delicious. It is only found
(Dyaks say) in the Kapuas and its tributaries.
Siko ikan jelawat ti besai umbas ma. A full
grown jelawat fish is as much as a man can
Jelayan, the reddish feathers of cocks ; a
proper name, m. Jelayan bulu manok Jelayan.
Reddish are the feathers of Jelayan’s fighting
Jelentik (v. f. nyelentik; bejelentik}, to
.fillip, strike with the nail of the finger. Iya
nyelentikpala aku. He filliped me on the
Jelepi (v. f. nyelepi}, to sprain. Aku nyele-
pi ka kaki aku. I sprained my foot.
Jeling (v. f. nyeling; bejeling}, to look
out of the corners of the eyes. Enti orang
makai jeling ngagai iya anang malik. If a

person sits down to eat look at him out of the
corners of the eyes but do not turn your face
to him. Iya salalu nyeling aku. He is always
looking at me out of the corners of his eyes.
Jelinga, as jelinga mansang, the com-
mencement of a fresh in a river.
Jelu (bejelu), an animal, wild animal, wild
pig. Kamari kami bulih jelu siko. Yesterday
we got a wild pig. Anak jelu. The young
of a wild animal, or a wild animal (as opposed
to anak mensia, a man). Jelu labi, or Padi
barn, an otter-like animal (Cy nogale bennetti}.
Jelu Mayan. Ocelot {Felis planiceps}. Jelu
mirah, a monkey {Semnopithecus rubicundus).
Jelilpang {bejelupang), a kind of dropsy.
Jeluta (v. f. nyeluta; bejeluta}, s. a fable,
story, tale, v. to narrate a fable, etc. Jelata
Kling. The fable of Kling. Iya nyeluta ka
kami jeluta Kling. He told us the story of
Jeiungan (v. f. nyelungan}, to trespass
where forbidden or tabooed, such an accident
as an exclamation upon seeing a large fish
come to the surface, during a tuba fishing,
would be called jeiungan. [The result of so
doing brings about the inevitable failure of
the business in hand]. Iya nyelungan kami
nubai nya alai ikan enda mati. He trespassed
upon us whilst we were poisoning the river
with tuba and that was the reason that the fish
did not die.
Jeluit (v. f. nyeluit}, to throng, be in con-
fusion when crowded.
Jemah, in the future, presently. Kitai
nadai nemu penglaboh kitai jemah. We do
not know into what misfortune we may pre-
sently fall.
Jeman, ages past. Ari jeman kalia. From
ages past.
Jembi (v. f. nyembi; bejembi), to put out
to dry in the sun. lya nyau nyembi padi.
She is gone to put the paddy out to dry in the
Jemboi (v. f. nyemboi; bejemboi), see
Jementang, long and straight.
Jempaka {bejempaka}, a sweet scented
flower {Michelia Champaca'}. Malay, chem-
Jempayan {bejempayan}, a beam that sup-
ports the rafters.
Jempayan-chit {bejempayan-chit}, an ex-
tra beam supporting the rafters.
Jempit (v. f. nyempit}, to press upon so
as to damage.
Jempok (v. f. nyempok}, adj. wet, moist,
V. to damp, wet. Ambun pagi tadi ti nyempok
ka kalambi aku. It was the dew this morning
that wetted my coat.
Jemu {bejemu}, dew. Jempok tanchut aku
laban jemu. My trousers are wet because of
the morning dew.
Jena, as jena dia, conj. forasmuch as, in
consideration of, because that. Jena dia a'eu
enggaibelaya, enti aku belay a aku lain bet angka t>.
Forasmuch as I am unwilling to q-arrel if I
do quarre II will also fight (literally, wrestle).
Jenak (v. f. nyenak), s. a sound sleep, v.
to sleep soundly. Jenak penindok iya di
malam. He had a sound sleep last night.
Bekibong di babas nyenak ka kitai tin do k.
Using a mosquito curtain in the jungle makes
us sleep soundly.
Jengam or jangam (v. f. nyengam or
nyangam; bejengam or bejangam), to press
with a forked stick. Jengam ular nya. Press
down that snake with a forked stick. Jugam
nya olih iya nyengam. He caught that bear
by means of a forked stick.
Jengang (v. f. nyengang), adj. open like
a hook, v. to Open out a hook. Ginti iya
jengangbaka srepang. His fish hook is open
like a harpoon. Iya nyengang ka ginti aku.
He opens o,ut my fish hook.
Jenggat (v. f. nyenggat), to bar further
jenggi, the summit of a tree, the highest
point. lya niki nyentok ka jenggi Tangga Sa-
ran. He climbed up to the summit of Tang-
ga Saran. Naik kalalu landik, laboh arijung~
gai ujong jenggi. Too smart at climbing he
falls from the very summit of the tree.
Jengkal (v. f. nyengkal; bejengkal), s. a
span, v. to span. Iya nyengkal ka aku sa jeng-
kal tali. He measured for me a span of
Jengkana {bejengkana}, a dried human
Jengkang [bejengkang], the name of a
Bugau tribe living in the Netherlands India
Jengkau (v. f. nyengkau; bejengkau), to
reach for (with the hands), take, pick up (a
thing that has dropped). Jengkau ka aku asi
nya. Reach me that cooked rice. Aku meda
iya nyengkau ivang nuan. I saw him take
your money.
Jengkong, curved. Kayu nya enda tau
dikena jengkong. That wood cannot be used,
it is curved.
Jengku (v.f. nyengku), s. an artificial spur,
adj. curved, v. to bend, curve. Iya nyengku
ka tungkat aku. He bent my walking stick.
Jengkuan (bejengkuan), a netting needle.
Jengkuan aku udah lenyau. My netting
needle is lost.
Jengkalong {bejengkulong}, a species of
Jengok (v. f. nyengok; bejengok), to peep
out, or at, with the body concealed. Baka
btibok dalam putong nyengok enda pegari moa.
As a weevil in a bamboo (receptacle) peeps
out but its face is not visible.
Jenjang (v. f. nyenjangj, to stand very
near or along-side. lya bediri nye jang aku.
He stands very near me.
Jenoh (v. f. nyenoh), adj. quiet, still, set-
tled down, v. to appease, be quiet, settle
down, remain at one place. Jenoh nuan!
Be quiet you ! Iya nyau jenoh diau di Sara-
wak. He has settled down at Sarawak.
Jentang(v. f. nyentang; bejentang}, v. to
stretch strings or threads hence to set a loom ;
a proper name, f.
Jeput (v. f. nyeput; bejeput), s. a pinch,
v. to take a pinch. So jeput samakan., a

pinch of tobacco. Iya makai nyeput asi. He
eats and pinches the cooked rice (into mouth-
Jera, as mansau jera, half-ripe. Buah ti
diambi iya agi mansau jera. The fruit that
he took was still half-ripe.
Jera (v, f. nyera; bejera}, to repent, be
afraid of.. Jera nuan t Do you repent ? Aku
ka nyera iya enggau rotan. I will make him
repent with a cane.
Jerangau {bejerangau}, a species of lily
the roots of which are used as medicine for
wind, etc.; in taste they slightly resemble
Jerat (v. f. nyerat; bejeratj, s. a snare,
noose, sliding knot, v. to snare, noose. Iya
nyerat rekong manok aku. He snared my fowl
by its neck.
Jeratai (bejeratai}, dry leaves used as
scent by Dyak women. Jeratai bangkit ba-
long. The dry leaves of the balong.
Jeremang (v. f. nyeremang; bejeremang},
to put out the hands with the fingers
stretched out to challenge. Iya nyeremang aku
enda sa kali dua leboh kami bejako. He chal-
lenged me with outstretched hands ever so
many times when we were talking.
Jereni (v. f. nyereni}, adj. clear (as water),
v. to make clear ; a proper name, f. Jereni
bendar ai tu. This water is very clear.
Jerimut (v. f. nyerimut; bejerimut},
sprouting, v. to sprout. Igi ' ensabi baru
bejerimut. The mustard seeds are just com-
ing up..
Jerin {bejerin}, a tree {Pithecolobium ma-
crocarpeng} producing long beans.
Jerit or jarit, the horizon. Burong lang
nyau ngagai jerit tisi langit. The kite has
gone to the horizon.
Jerita (bejerita}, see jeluta.
Jeritan (v. f. nyeritan}, s. a good or bad
omen, v. to announce a good or bad omen.
Jerki {bejerki}, a blessing, good luck.
Jerki (v. f. nyerki; bejerki}, s. a tempo-
rary fence or mark made of sticks or bam-
boos, v. to fence or mark with sticks or bam-
boos. Iya nyerki umai aku. He put up a
mark on my paddy farm.
Jernang (v. f. nyernang; bejernang}, s.
juice from the fruit of a species of rotan (Cala-
mus didymophyllus, or perhaps, Damonorops
Draco} called Dragon’s blood, v. to stain with
this juice. Udah iya nyernang sarong duku
aku. I Has he stained with dragon’s blood the
scabbard of my chopper ?
Jerok (v. f. nyerok; bejerok}, fruit pickled
in salt, v. to pickle. Tu jerok rembai. This
is pickled rembai. Bini iya salalu nyerok
buah emplam. His wife is always salting
manggo fruit.
Jerong, tall, flourishing. Nibong jerong
tajam duri. A nourishing nibong tree with
sharp thorns.
Jerua as jerua pasang, the first arrival of
the flood-tide,
Jerungkang (v. f. nyerungkang ;bejerung-
kang}, s. a pointed bamboo about 4 feet long
set in the paddy fields in order to intercept and
kill wild animals, v. to set the jer.ungkangba.m-
boos. Jerungkang aku mangka rusa di malam
lalu parai dia. My jerungkang transfixed a
deer last night and it died on the spot. Pren-
tah enda ngelepas nyerungkang. The Govern-
ment forbids persons setting jerungkang traps.
Jerungkang-remun, a bamboo caltrop.
Jerupe {bejerupe}, temporary leaf {nipa,
etc.,) bulwarks put on to a boat when going
out to sea.
Jila (v. f. nyila}, to tear in pieces. Iya
nyila ka kalambi aku. He tore my coat to
Jimat (v. f. ngenyimat; bejimat}, adj.
careful, saving, frugal, discreet, temperate,
v. to cause to be careful. Iya orang jimat.
He is a careful man. Iya ngenyimat kadiri.
He takes care of himself.
Jinak (v. f. nyinak; bejinak}, adj. tame,
gentle, domesticated, familiar, v. to (make)
tame, etc. Jelu jinak. A tame animal. Iya
jinak enggau aku. She is familiar with me.
Aku ka nyinak ka manok nya. I am going to
tame that fowl.
Jinggau (bejinggaii}, a tree (Archytaa
Vahlii} with a hard wood that is proof against
white ants.
Jingan, adj. clever, expert. Aku enda
jingan ngaga utai. I am not clever at mak-
ing things.
Jintan {bejintan}, a tree producing the
horse-manggo fruit. Pun jintan tu ditanam
mang apai. This horse-manggo tree was
planted by my late father.
Jirak (&//ra£), a small bush the leaves of
which are used for a red dye.
Jirong, loose. Bok iya jirong. Her hair
is loose.
Joi {bejol}, a headland, cape, promontory.
Jong (v. f. nyong, or ngejong; benyong,
or bejong}, to pick up a friend or thing, set off
on a journey with another. Aku nyong nuan
di Kuching kitai lain ka Limbang ngeta. I
will pick you up in Kuching and we will start
together on a gutta-hunting expedition to
Jong-sarat (bejong-sarat), short form of
tajong-sarat, a sarong richly embroidered with
gold thread.
Jual (v. f. nytial; bejual}, to sell. Iya
nyual manok. He sells fowls. Iya nyual
nama aku. He traffics with my reputation.
Judi {bejudi}, to gamble. Iya bejudi eng-
gau ivang aku. He gambles with my money.
Jugam {bejugam}, s. a bear, adj. black.
Anak jugam. A bear cub. Ukui aku jugam.
My dog is black.
Jugau, senseless, imbecile, ignorant.
Jugu (bejugu), the top-knot on the head of
a fowl or bird ; a proper name, m. Seledu. bla
meda, ngemeran ka jumpu mesai jugu bejam-
pong lempang! Seledu who has charge of the
little hills as large as the top-knot of the be-
jampong bird, sees all !
Ju (v. f. ngeju, or nyu ; beju or benyu}, to
push, shove. Iya ngeju aku ka ai lain ambis
basah gari aku. He pushed me into the water
and wetted all my clothes.

Juing {bejuingj, the tip of a blow-pipe
dart that is commonly poisoned with upas ; a
proper name, m.
Jukat, delirious. Iya tabin udit nyau ju-
kat. He is very ill with fever and is delirious.
Jukut (v. f. nyukut; bejukut}, salted meat,
fish, fruit, or vegetable, v. to salt meat, etc.,
in a jar. Iya nyukut jani. He is curing pork.
Jula (v. f. nyula}, to throw off, spill, sift
rice or paddy with a sieve ; a proper name, m,
Anang nuan nyula ka padi aku. Do not spill
my paddy. Antah asoh jula iya enggau cha-
pan. Tell her to sift the paddy from the rice
with a sieve.
Julang (v. f. ny ulang}, to dispute. [The
negatives enda or anang are usually prefixed
to this word]. Anang nyulang jako orang ti
tuai. Do not dispute the sayings of the
elders. Jako nuan enda .dijulang ka agi.
Your words are indisputable.
Juling (v. f. nyuling}, s. a squint, adj.
uneven, slanting, v. to squint. Enti baka
nya nuan nyuling ka mata anembiak. If so
you make the child’s eyes squint. Juling pan-
tap iya. His cutting is uneven.
Julok or jejulok (v. f. nyulok ; bejulok or
bejejulok}, s. a title, motto, sobriquet, nick-
name, v. to give a title, nickname, reach any-
thing with a pole. Iya nyulok aku Berasap.
He gave me the sobriquet of Berasap. Julok
ayah Mamba Pat Pantang. The title of uncle
Mamba is the Driven Chisel. Aku meda iya
nyulok buah sikup. I saw him gathering
mangosteen fruit with a stick.
Julut (v. f. nyulut; bejulut}, s. stretch of
land or mud running cut into the sea, v. to
stretch out.
Jumat {bejumat}, a jar valued at about ^6 ;
a proper name, f.
Jumbal {bejumbal}, the bottom.
Jumboh. {bejuuiboh}, s. a heap, pile. Jum-
boh rian magang ditu. Heaps of durians here.
Jumpang-pala, the very top of the head.
Jumpu {bejtimpu}, raised land in a marsh.
Paya nya maioh jumpu. That marsh has,
much raised ground. [See jugu for another
Jungap {bejungap}, a ‘lean-to’-shaped hut.
Jungau {bejungau}, a temporary hut.
Junggai (bejunggai}, the end, extremity.
Mrauh kalalu tau, laboh ari junggai puting
kamudi. Too smart at boating he falls from
the very end of the stern.
Junggur {bejunggur}, a snout, point, pro-
montory. Jani nya panjai junggur. That
pig has a long snout. Ngetu kitai di junggur
sungai. Let us rest at the river’s point.
Jungkang (v. f nyungkang}, pointing, or
curved upwards. Iya nepan di bangkongjung-
kang kamudi. He got into a boat with the
stern pointing upwards. Ngayoh ka anak
bangkong jungkang kamudi. Paddles in a
small boat with a curved stern.
Jungkong (bejungkong), a mangrove {ge-
nus Rhizophord}, a bark excrescence on the
roots of trees.
Jurai, as dan jurai, the end of a tree
Juring, sharp-pointed. Juring bendar
mata sangko iya. The blade of his spear is very
sharp-pointed. Juring mata. Keen-sighted.
Juru {bejuru}, a kinsman or kinswoman.
Iya juru kami. He is our kinsman.
Jurus (v. f. nyurt.s ; bejurus}, ad], straight,
straightforward, v. to make straight, go for-
ward to a place. Iya orang jurus. He is a
straightforward man. Anang nyurus ka
pejalai nuan ka Simanggang utang ngetzi dulu
di Sabu. Do not go straight to Simanggang
but stop first at Sabu.
Ka, prep, to, unto, towards, from, upon*
on, for ; when preceding a numeral it changes
it into an ordinal ; when following an intransi-
tive verb it gives a transitive meaning ; it is
also a sign of interrogation. Malik ka ruai
tekol bapa, malik ka bilik tekol para. When
one wishes to turn to the verandah one is
hindered by the father-in-law, and when one
wishes to turn to the room one is hindered
by the kitchen shelf. Kini ka nuan tinggali
Aku ka Simanggang. Where are you going
friend ? I am going to (or towards) Si-
manggang. Nyau datai di bukit Sandar-
sumpit nyentok ka langit bulang-ulang.
Arriving at the mountain Sandar-sumpit
which reaches towards the cloudy heavens.
Nuan lari ka aku. You run away from me.
Kasih ka orang enda kasih ka diri-empu. To
have compassion upon other people and not
to have compassion upon oneself. Sigi ka
aku sigi ka nuan. One is for me and one is
for you. Ka tiga hari Iya pulai idup baru
ari mati. On the third dav tie rose again
from the dead. Diri. To stand (instrs).
Diri ka. To cause to stand (trans). Jai
kami tu ka I Are we wicked ?
Ka, the short form of the verb deka, to
want, desire ; used as the sign of the future
tense. Aku ka niki ka darat. I want to
land. Iya ka ngosong nuan. He will call
upon you.
Ka, short form of naka (see naka}.
Kaaba, the temple.
[Adopted in the Dyak New Testament].
Kaba, (v. f. ngaba}, to be puzzled and so
to make mistakes, lya ngaba ka aku bejako.
He puzzled me when I talked.
Kabak {bekabak}, an old human head
Kaban {bekaban}, s. a follower, com-
panion, kinsman, band, flock, herd, school of
fish, v. to have followers, etc. Iya kaban
aku. He is my companion. Aku meda kaban
munsoh. I saw a band of enemies. Iya
betemu enggau kaban chapi. He met with
a herd of cattle. Di tebing tasik maioh kaban
burong laut. On the sea shore arc many
| flocks of sea birds.

Kabang, adj. insufficient, lacking, unused,
not yet handselled. Orang ti diasoh iya ngadu
lava agi kabang. The people he asked to
settle the case were lacking in knowledge.
Iya kabangdalam pengempang. He is lacking
in bravery. Bliong aku agi kabang. Aly
adze has not yet been handselled.
Kabar (v. f. ngdbar; bekabar), s. news,
report, v. to announce. Tu kabar manah.
This is good news. Iya ngabar Baja ttdah
datai. He announced that the Rajah had
Kabat (v. f. ngabat; bekabat}, to be puz-
zled and so make mistakes. Iya ngabat ka
orang bejako. He puzzled people when they
Kabau (v. f. ngabau; bekabau}, adj.
empty, fruitless, tasteless as lime, v. to make
empty. Kapu nya kabau. That lime is taste-
less. Kamarau ngabau ka padi. The drought
made the paddy (ears) empty.
Kabit (v. f. ngabit; bekabit}, to hook any-
thing on to the edge or border of a garment,
etc. Iya ngabit ka ivang di tisi kain iya.
She hooks coins on to the edges of her petti-
Kabong (v. f. ngabong; bekabong}, to
wave anything over a person. Iya ngabongka
duku datas pala aku. He waved a chopper
over my head.
Kabu, a waist-cloth fringe. Tu sirat kabu.
This is a waist-cloth with a fringe.
Kabuah, a reason. Bisi kabuah. There
are reasons. Nadai kabuah. There are no
reasons. Nama kabuah nuan bejako'! For
what reason do you speak ?
Kabut (v. f. ngabut), adj. incessant, v.
to cause to be incessant. Kabut ujan maia
landas. The rain is incessant during the
north-east monsoon.
Kacha (bekacha}, s. glass, potsherd, frag-
ment of a bottle, a large cobra ; a proper
name, f.; adj. fond of wearing ornaments,
flashy. Kacha amai sanu enggau utai. So-
and-so is fond of wearing ornaments.
Kacham {bekacham}, see kanchant.
Kachang (pekachang}, a bean, a chilli.
Kachau (v. f. ngachau; bekachau}, s. con-
fusion, disturbance, stir, v. to confuse, disturb,
stir. Tu kachau bcndar. This is a great
confusion. Anang ngachau iya bejako. Do
not disturb him when he talks.
Kachau-kachau, see kakachau.
Kachiak \pekachiak}, armpit. Iya telih di
kachiak. Fie was wounded in the armpit.
Kachiau (pekachiau}, see ising.
Kaehit (v. f. ngachit; bekachit}, s. an in-
strument like scissors used for splitting pinang
(areka) nuts, v. to use such an instrument.
Kachoh {bekachdh}, s. a noise of quarrel-
ling, v. to make a noise, quarrel. Bisi kachoh
di rumah sida. There are (persons) quarrel-
ling in their house. Sida bekachoh dia. They
are making a noise quarrelling there.
Kachu {bekachu}, a jew’s harp.
Kachuai ipekachuai}, a small bird. Be-
kumbai enggau kachuai. Exchanging words
at a distance with the kachuai bird.
Kachubong pekachubong}, a tree bearing
a thorny fruit.
Kada, an interrogative expressing doubt or
uncertainty. Kada iya udah makai ? Has he
eaten ?
Kada, it will do. Kada me nya. That
will do.
Kadal {bekadal}, a form .of leprosy (or
Ka-dia-iya, just now, at present.
Ka-dia-tu, see ka-dia-iya.
Kadidi or bedidi, a large species of wild
pigeon (Treron capelei}. Maioh burong kadidi
makai buah kara. There are a lot of wild
pigeons eating the wild figs.
Kadiri, alone, by oneself, by itself. Kadiri
iya. By himself (herself or itself).
Ka dua, the second. Ka dua hari nuan
kitu. On the second day you come here.
Kadua, the rest, some. Kadua sida nyau
pulai. The rest of them have gone back. Bri
ka aku kadua buah nya. Give me some of
those fruits.
Kadundong (bekadundong}, a shrub [Cle-
rodendron fragrans} with sweet scented white
flowers that are usually double.
Kadundong (bekadundong), a tree (2&7«
acida) with green acid eatable fruits.
Kadungkang (bekadungkang), a mussel
shell (Mejtilus edulis).
Kah (bekah), the hard wood at the heart of
a timber tree.
Kai or ti, the relative pronoun, who,
which, that.
Kail (v. f. ngail; bekailj), s. a hook, v. to
fish with a rod and line.
Kain (v. f. ngain; bekain), s. cloth, clothes,
women’s petticoats, v. to put on petticoats.
[Note an idiom. Indu nya enda tau ngain
diri. That woman cannot weave her own
Kaing, undecided, irresolute.
Kaing, kaing-kaing, or kakaing, to
yelp as a dog in pain. Ukui lain kakaing
dipalu iya. The dog yelped when it was
struck by him.
Kait (v. f. ngait; bekait), adj. lame, v.
to hook. Pejalai iya nyau kait kamaiatu.
He walks lame now. Tyrz ngait ka kaki aku
enggau kaki iya. He tripped me up.
Kajang (v. f. ngajang; bekajang), s. a
covering made of the young leaves of the
nipa palm, etc., sewn together ; a leaf
awning, v. to roof anything with nipa or
other leaf matting.
Kajingka, to limp, walk lame, hop on
one leg. Iya nyau kajingka bejalai dia-iya.
He limps now.
Kajingki, walking on tip-toe.
Kaju (v. f. ngaju; bekaju), mistaken, v.
to cause to make a mistake, puzzle. Aku kaju
laban iya. I was mistaken on account of him.
Anang ngaju ka orang bejako. Do not puzzle
a person when he talks.
Kajungka or kajungko, to walk lame.
Kak (bekak). a crow ; a proper name, f.
Kak bisi ngembuan burong kak. Kak pos-
sesses a crow.

Kaka (bekaka), mange.
Kakabol, to talk at random when dis-
Kakachau, wandering, at random.
Kakah (y. f. ngakah; bekakah), s. last
year’s stubble farmed this year, v. to farm last
year’s stubble. Kami bumai kakah taun tu.
This year we farm on last year’s stubble. Aku
mai orang ngakah taun tu. This year I will
bring people to farm on last year’s stubble.
Kakaing, see kaing, or kaing-kaing.
Kakalai, as kakalai gali, to lie down
Kakalat, to and fro’, uncertain.
Kakalit, wavering.
Kakaling, embroidery on a coat, etc.
Kakamang or kamang-kamang, aim-
ing at a thing and unable to hit it.
Kakang (v, f. ngakang; bekakang), adj.
doubtful, v. to hesitate, cause to hesitate. An-
ang kakang nuan bejako. Do not be in doubt
when you speak. Iya ngakangka aku bejako.
He caused me to hesitate when I spoke.
Kakasak or kasak-kasak, restless,
constantly moving.
Kakasih, beloved, favourite.
Kakawing, the howling of a dog in dis-
Kakebak, to palpitate like the pulse.
Kakebas, to pass a person disrespectfully.
Kakebau, the act of waving a fowl or any-
thing over a person.
Kakebu, swift, flying.
Kakejah. or kejah-kejah, to walk noisi-
ly. Kakejah pejalai iya mansa kami. He walked
noisily past us.
Kakejoh, wearing a jacket and empty
Kakelah, thirsty.
Kakelat, pale from fear. Kakelat moa
iya meda munsoh. His face was pale from
fear when he saw the enemy.
Kakelau, hungry. Kakelau amai prut
aku. I am very hungry.
Kakelik, the cry of the kite, a shout of
triumph. Kakelik panjong aku. My shout
was like the cry of a kite.
Kakelis, to be eager. Iya kakelis ka
makai laban dua hari iya nadai makai asi.
He is eager to eat because he has not had
cooked rice for two days.
Kakemba, to be in the way. Aku ka
matak prauh anang nuan kakemba dia. I
want to drag up the boat don’t you be in the
way there.
Kaki (v. f. ngaki; bekaki), s. the leg, a
foot of twelve inches, the foot of a hill, the
extremity of a farm, the foot of a waterfall,
the foot of a staircase or ladder, v. to burn or
set on fire the farming land before sowing, to
go.round the foot of a hill. Kaki iya telih.
His leg is wounded. Lalu siduai bejalai
betunda-udi, saum singkang betambak abi kaki.
And both of them marched in Indian-file at
the same pace one treading in the other’s foot
prints. Anam kaki nyadi sa depa. Six feet
make a fathom. Sida nyau ngaki ka umai.
They have gone to fire the farming land.
Kakiau (v. f. mengkiau), to mew like a
cat. Mayan nya salalu mengkiau. That cat
always mews.
Kakilak, open, gaping (as a wound).
Kakilak telih nya. That is a gaping wound.
Kakilap, glittering (as a drawn sword).
Kakinding, moving about with no ob-
Kakitang, suspended.
Kakulap, dying out (of a fire or lamp).
Kakura (bekakura), a tortoise.
Kai, dissentious.
Kala (bekala), the interrogative ever ?
With the negative nadai or enda prefixed,
never. Kala nuan belaya I Did you ever
quarrel ? Aku enda kala ngenchuri. I have
never stolen. Anang bekala diri ngenchuri
utai orang. Do not say that you ever stole
people’s goods.
Kala (bekala), a scorpion.
Kala, adv. when, whilst, (a short form of
tekald), Kala agi biak belajar. When still
young learn things.
KaJa, in time past (when preceded by dulu
or lama'). Kayu tu udah dulu kala. This
wood was (here) ages ago.
Kalabawan, to be angry, dissatisfied.
Kalat-kalat, see kakalat.
Kaladi or kladi, (fo/Wa<7z), the caladiuni
which has an edible root (Arum colocasia).
Kalaia (bekalaia), a small mat., a mat used
for preparing rice before it is cooked.
Kalalu, excessive, too far. Nuan mri ka
iya asi bangat kalalu ehda ulih empa iya. You
gave him too much cooked rice and he could
not eat it.
Kalam (short form of ka dalam), within.
Kalambi (v. f. ngelambi; bekalambi), s. a
jacket, coat, v. to supply with a jacket. Tu
kalambi aku. This is my jacket. Endu ti
ngelambi aku. My daughter supplies me with
coats. [Note an idiom. Indu nya enda tau
ngelambi diri. That woman cannot weave
her own jackets].
Kalamundang (bekalamundang'), s. the
‘ painted ’ fly. Enda masok tindok tawas laban
kalamundang. One cannot sleep in the day
time because of the ‘painted’ flies.
Kalang (v. f. n galang ; bekalang), s. the
second row of joists on which the native floor-
ing (gelegar) is tied, rollers for moving a boat
on land, v. to fix the kalang. Kalang rumah
iya bangat besai. The joists of his house are
too thick.
Kalanggah (v. f. ngelanggah), to pass
over, go beyond, oppose. Nuan ngelanggah
jako aku. You oppose my words.
Kalapa (bekalapa), a cocoanut. Kalapa
muda. Young cocoanut. Kalapa tuai. Old
Kalat-kalat or kekalat ( kekal at.
Kaleh (v. f. ngaleh ; bekaleh), to turn, alter
the position, pass the meridian. Kaleh ka
moa nuan. Turn your face. Ma’a-hari nyau
ngaleh. The sun has passed the meridian (i.e.
about I p. m.)
Kalempitan (bekalempitan)phzleg-socket.

Kaleti, very dark, pitch dark. Petang ka-
leti. Very dark.
Kali, time. Sa kali. Once. Sapuloh kali.
Ten times. Tiga puloh kali. Thirty times.
Kali (v. f. 11 gali; bekali}, to dig. Aku
meda iya ngali telaga. I saw him digging a
Kalia or engkalia, in days gone by, of
old, formerly. Agi kalia kami Undup bemun-
soh enggau Skarang. In days gone by we
Undups were enemies of the Skarangs.
Kalimat (v. f. ngelimat; bekalimat}, to
be sparing with anything. Enda tau enda
kitai ngelimat ka asi leboh lapar. We must
be sparing with the cooked rice when we are
under the pressure of hunger.
Kalinai (v. f. ngelinai; bekelinai}, to
flatter. Iya ngelinai aku. He flattered me.
Kalinchir (v. f. ngelinchir; bekelinchir},
to slip, slide. Aku ngelinchir dia lalu telih
kaki aku. I slipped there and my leg got cut.
Kalindang {bekalindang}, a fern {Blech-
num orient ale}.
Kalindu {bekalindu}, kalindang.
Kaling (v. f. ngaling; bekaling}, s. an
associate, v. to accompany, carry things with
a stick on the shoulder like the Chinese do.
Iya kaling aku. He is my associate. Aku
â– deka ngaling nuan. I want to accompany
you. Kayu nya olih kami ngaling barn datai
di rumah. We had to carry that wood with
sticks before we could get it to the house.
Kalingkang {bekalingkang}, a mat a
span square with the corners tied up with
string, used in ceremonies.
Kalingkang, as kalingka'ig tuba, a
circlet of tuba root. [Note. Tuba roots are
sold either in this form or as bundles (engki-
Kalingkang {Bukit}, the long range
extending from ulu Merakai to beyond ulu
Lingga which forms the boundary, or water-
shed, between Sarawak and the Netherlands
India territory.
Kalingi (v. f. ngelingi; bekalingi}, to
surround, go round. Kalingi rumah nya.
Surround that house. Munsoh ngelingi rumah
kami. The enemy surrounds our house.
Kalita, see kaleti.
Kaliti (v. f. ngeliti; bekaliti}, to peel (of
the skin), clear the paddy farm of wood, etc.
Aku gaiva ngeliti ka kulit kra. I am busy
skinning the monkey.
Kaluah (v. f. ngeluah; bekaluah'}, to go
beyond or past. Iya bumai ngelu ih ka antara.
He farms beyond the boundary.
Kalui (v. f. ngelui; bekalui}, to exceed,
surpass, go beyond. Kalui -penemu iya.
Exceed his knowledge. Iya ngelui aku bulih
padi. He surpasses me in the quantity of
paddy he gets.
Kaluji (v. f. ngeluji; bekaluji}, to mock,
cause to laugh. Iya ngeluji aku nya alai aku
katawa. He caused me to laugh th it was the
reason I laughed.
Kalumpang {bekalumpang}, a trough,
sheath, a bamboo after it is used as a cooking
receptacle and is then split and cast away.
Kamah (v. f. ngamah; bekamah}, adj.
dirty, v. to make dirty. Kalambi iya kamah.
His jacket is dirty. Tjrz ngamah ka moa diri.
He dirties his face. Datai kamah. Men-
Kamai {bekamai}, the ova in the ovarium
of an animal or bird.
Kamaia ? When ? At what time ?
Kamaianya, then and there.
Kamaiatu, immediately, now, at once.
Kamang-kamang, see kakamang.
Kamarau {bekamarau}, dry weather, a
drought. Kamarau panjai. A long drought.
Kamari, yesterday. Karnari iya udah pulai
ka rumah diri. Yesterday he went to his own
Kamaru, jealous.
Kamayau {bekamayau}, a tree producing
diamond-shaped fruit which makes a good
Kambin or kambing {bekambin or
bekambing}, a goat. Brapa rerga kambin
nuan ? What is the price of your goat?
Kamboh (v. f. ngamboh; bekamboh}, to
forge, mix up. Iya ngamboh duku. He is
forging a chopper. Bekamboh mensia dia. A
motley throng of people there.
Kambut {bekambut}, a bag, sack. Kambut
nya muat tiga gantang bran. That sack
holds three gantang of raw rice.
Kamelang {bekamelang}, a species of
Kami, we, us, our, (excluding the person
addressed). Sapa dial Kami. Who is there ?
We. Kami saranta. We are poor. Apai
kami. Our father. Kami empu. Belonging
to us (ours). Menoa kami. Our country,
i. e., not yours (see kitai}.
Kam oil (v. f. ngamoh; bekamoh}, to dis-
turb, confuse. Sida Ulu Ai ti ngamoh ka
menoa. It is the Up-river people who dis-
turb the country.
Kampar, as orang Kampar, Dyak pro-
duce-hunters, or Dyaks wandering without
their own country trading, etc.
Kampong {bekampong}, a forest, village,
kindred. Kampong gun, kampong dalam, or
kampong sagong-agong. Old uninhabited
jungle. Kampong Laut. A Malay village.
Iya tu kampong genturong kami. He is of
our kindred.
Kamring {bekamring}, the ‘painted’-fly.
Kamudi (v. f. ngemudi; bekamudi}, s. the
stern, v. to steer. Aku ti ngemudi ka bangkong
Baja. It was I who steered the Rajah’s boat.
Kamundang {bekamundang}, see kam-
Kana {bekana}, s. a fable, v. to entone a
Kanan {bekanan}, the right hand side, on
the right hand side. Jelu nyau beribu ka kiba
kaiian. Wild beasts were in thousands on
the left and on the right. Iya bejalai bekanan
ka munggu raia. He walks and goes to the
right of a large hill.
Kanangan {bekanangan}, a brass betel box
with four legs.
Kancham {bekancham}, a creeper the

leaves of which taste acid and are used by
some for curing sores (/>«/).
Kanda (pekanda}, abdomen.
Kandang (v. f. ngandang ; bekandang}, s.
a fold, an enclosure, a pen, v. to enclose.
Nya kandang kambing. That is the sheep-
fold. Anang ngandang manok dia. Do not
enclose fowls there.
Kandar (v. f. n gandar ; bekandar}, to carry
anything with a pole as Chinese coolies do.
Kandeh or kandis (pekandeh or bekandis},
a jungle tree producing a species of wild man-
gosteen {Garcinia Andersons}.
Kandi (pekandi}, s. a pouch, pocket, sireh
bag or case, v. to have a pouch, pocket, etc.
Nadai bisi utai dalam kandi. There is noth-
ing in the sireh bag.
Kandis {bekandis}, see kandeh.
Kandong (v. f. ngandong ; bekandong}, s.
womb, v. to conceive, become enceinte, cause
to conceive. Iya ngandong ngambu aku. She
is enceinte and claims me (as the father of her
child). 7j' has often caused women to conceive.
Kandut (v. f. ngandut; bekandut}, to con-
ceal anything in one’s clothes. Aku meda iya
ngandut sa ringgit di tanchut iya. I saw him
concealing a dollar in his trousers.
Kang {bekang}, kidney; a species of
Kangau (v. f. ngangau; bekangau}, to call
to one afar, sing out loudly. Kangau ka iya
kitu. Call him here. Iya ngangau ka diri sa
bala. He sings out loudly to his comrades of
the same army.
Kanggan {bekanggan}, ' Chinese black
Kan it or klakanit {bekanit or beklaka-
nit), the palate.
Kanjap, dead. Iya makai rachun lalu
kanjap. He ate poison and is dead.
Kanji (nganji; bekanji}, adj. sensual,
lewd, v. to be sensual, lewd. Indu. nya kanji.
That woman is sensual. Anak aku dikumbai
orang kanji. People say my son is sensual.
Kantok (v. f. ngantok; bekantok}, s. a
young shoot, v. to have young shoots. Kan-
tok jabang tau dipakai. The young shoots of
the tapioca can be eaten. Sireh tu baru
ngantok kadiri. This sireh is just beginning
to sprout.
Kaos (v. f. ngaos ; bekaos}, to throw out.
Aku meda iya ngaos tanah, I saw him throw-
ing out the earth.
Kapa,.let it be, it does not matter, what
for ? Why ? Mandi nuan. Kapa. Go and
bathe. It does not matter. Kapa tikai tut
What is this mat for ?
Kapak {bekapak}, an adze, axe, ulcer.
Kapak iya enda tajam. His axe is not sharp.
Iya empa kapak. He is eaten up by ulcers.
Kapal (bekap al}, s. a ship, v. to possess a
ship. Kapal layar. A sailing vessel. Kapal
api. A steamer. Kapal prang. A man-
of-war. Kapal lambong. A paddle steamer.
Kapala, the chief, principal. Iya nyadi
kapal a sida anembiak. He becomes the chief
of the boys.
Kapang {bekapang}, a water-worm (the
Kapapas, envious, jealous. Iya kapapas
ka aku bulih padi. He is envious of my get-
ting paddy.
Kapar {bekapar}, anything scattered in
great quantities. Dia dipeda iya kapar tulang.
He saw there bones scattered in great num-
Kapas {bekapas}, s. cotton, v. to have
cotton. Kati munyi rerga kapas I What is
the price of cotton ?
Kapat (v. f. ngapat}, adj. uncertain, hesi-
tating, v. to be uncertain, hesitate. Laban
aku kapat nya alai aku enda bejako. I did not
speak because my mind was so uncertain. Iya
enda kapat agi main nuan. Without the least
hesitation he strikes you.
Kapir, as kapir langit, the horizon.
Kapit (v. f. ngapit; bekapit},$. a press,
v. to press, squeeze. China ngapit tebu
beapus hari. The Chinese press the sugar-
canes the whole day.
Kapok {bekapok}, cotton, mould.
Kapong (v. f. ngapong; bekapong}, to go
after anything that drifts, surround and catch
straying fowls, etc. Iya ngapong prauh aku
ti anyut. He went after my boat that was
Kapu {bekapti}, lime, mould. Nadai bisi
makai kapu. We have no lime to eat (i. e.
with our sireh and betel nut). A si tu bekapu.
This cooked rice is mouldy.
Kar (v. f. ngar}, to be sore, hoarse as the
throat from much speaking.
Kara, as batu kara, or batu kulat, see
Karak {pekarak or betekarak}, anything
scattered in great quantities or in heaps, v. to
spread or pour out.'
Karam (v. f. ngaram ; bekaram}, to sink,
destroy ; sunk, foundered, wrecked, destroyed.
Iya ngaram ka prauh aku nya alai aku nung-
gu iya. He sunk my boat that was the reason
I fined him.
Karangan {bekarangan}, s. shingle, a
river gravel-bed, v. to have gravel. Mabu
bendar ai karangan di batang Undup. The
water on the gravel beds in the Undup river
is very shallow.
Karanggas {bekaranggas}, gravelly or
sandy soil, poor soil where paddy will not
grow. Tanah karanggas. A gravelly or
sandy soil.
Karap (v. f. ngarap ; bekarap}, s. a piece
of wood used in weaving, v. to put the karap
in position.
Karas, as batu karas, a transparent piece
of stone, or a piece of white resin used by
manang ‘ to see ’ the state of the souls of
their patients.
Karat (v. f. ngarat; bekarat}, to testa
newly tempered chopper, etc.
Karau, before the break of day. Karau
hari sida angkat bejalai. Before the break of
day they started off.
Karau, a striped sucking pig (that is, a
sucking pig about a month old).

Karengit jbekarengit}, sandfly, (of the
genus simulium}. Maioh karengit di rumah
orang ulu. There are a number of sandflies
in people’s houses up-river.
Kari, curry (Eng).
Karis (v. f. ngaris ; bekaris}, to straighten
a line. Iya ngasoh aku ngaris ka suran nya.
He told me to straighten that line.
Karong (v. f. ngarong ; bekarong}, s. a
coverlet, case, title given to mothers, v. to
cover, conceal. Kasih katuda karong menyim-
pan ! Have pity upon her the mother ! Iya
ngarong jako. He conceals the meaning of
his speech.
Karut (v. f. ngarut; bekarut}, s. the
plaited rotan work that secures the adze
(^Ahw^-), to its handle {perdah}, v. to make the
karut. Anak aku landik ngarut. My son is
clever at making the adze-head fastening.
Karut (v. f. ngarut}, s. a scar (on the
mouth caused by pt li), v. to scar. Puiti nga-
rut ka mulut iya. Yaws caused his lips to be
Kasak (v. f. ngasak; bekasak), to brush,
rub against. lya ngasak ka blakang iya di ti-
ang. He rubs his back against a post.
Kasak-kasak or kekasak, to move about
as if in pain or suffering discomfort.
Kasam or pekasam, pickle, brine.
Kasar (v. f. ngasar; bekasar), adj. coarse,
rude, thick, v. to cause to be coarse, rude.
Iya orang kasar. He is a coarse person. An-
ang ngasar ka jako nuan. Iya bekasar ka jako
diri. Do not be rude. He meant to be rude.
Kasau {bekasau}, a rafter, roof timber.
Sida nyau ngambi kasau. They have gone to
get rafters.
Kasih (bekasih), s. favour, kindness, mercy,
love, honour, v. to shew or have kindness, etc.
Aku minta kasih nuan. I ask a favour (or
mercy) from you. Iya kasih ka anak iya. She
loves her children. Kasih ka apai indai nuan.
Honour your father and mother.
Kasindap (*War««ffa/), a bat.
Kasipat or kalita, pitch dark. Petang
kasipat. Pitch dark.
Kasukan {bekasukan), pieces of wood
which by friction produce fire.
Kasuli (bekasuli), a plant {Hedychium
Coronarium) belonging to the ginger family
with fragrant white,or white and yellow flowers.
Kasumba jbekasumba), Turkey-red.
Kasuput, there being no one else, because
there is no one else. Kasuput aku kitu.
Because there was no one else I have come here.
Kasut jbekasut), s. a shoe, v. to put on
Kat or kekat (v. f. ngekat), to stammer.
Jako iya hat. He has an impediment in his
speech. Iya ngekat bejako. He stammers.
Kata (be kata), s. a word, speech, v. to say,
Kataboh (bekataboh), a drum.
Katabong (bekatabong), see kataboh.
Katapu (bekatapu), a cap, war-cap. Iya
nadai katapu. Ide has no cap. Katapu iya
mansau. His war-cap is red. Iya nadai be-
katapu. He has not a cap on.
Katat or katat-katat, to stammer,
talk at random. Katat jako iya. He talks
at random.
Katawa, to laugh. Sudagar ti mending
ka jako siduai enda tetat ka ati I ahi mengkaka
katawa. The merchant who was listening to
the conversation of the two (animals) could
not restrain himself and burst into a roar of
Kati, how ? What ? Also a particle sig-
nifying assent, an affirmative, indeed, in truth.
Kati ko nuan I What did you say ? Kati
baka ? How ? Sanu salalu belaya. Kati deh.
So-and-so is always quarrelling. Yes. Nuan
ko orang udah bechara. Kati deh. People
said you had a case. Indeed.
Kati \jbekati), a weight of iI- lbs. Sa kati.
One kati. Sa ratus kati nyadi sa pikul. One
hundred katies make a pikul.
Kati (bekati), a jungle tree the white juice
tive rat poison.
Katichik (v. f. ngentichik; bekatichik),
to tickle. Anang ngentichik iya. Don’t
tickle him.
Kating or kating-kating (v. f. nga-
ting; bekating), to hang up, suspend.
Katong (v. f. ngatong; be katong}, to lift
up, remove. Iya ngatong ka bubu aku ari ai
nya alai aku nunggu iya. He lifted up my
fish-trap from the water that was the reason I
fined him. Anang ngatong benda aku. Do
not remove my jar.
Katuan (bekatuan), a male relation of
one’s parents. Iya ayah katuan aku. He is
my uncle.
Katup (v. f. ngatup; bekatup), to shut,
close. Aku ngasoh iya ngatup ka pintu. I
told him to shut the door.
Katupang (v. f. ngentupang), s. a blos-
som, v. to shed blossoms. Rian kami baru
ngentupang. Our durian trees are just begin-
ning to shed blossoms.
Katupat (bekatupat), pulut rice boiled in
leaves plaited into various shapes. Iya nya-
dong katupat ka- pengabang. He distributed
katupat to the guests.
Katupong (bekatupong), also called kikeh,
(Sasia abnormis) an omen bird (see beburong) ;
a proper name, f.
Kau, see nuan.
Kau, the sensation felt when a strong
wind blows. Kau ribut tu enggai badu, angin
tu enggai leju. The sensation from the wind
that blows will not cease, and the wind will
not tire.
Kauk (v. f. ngauk; bekauk), to draw water
or anything liquid, to take fish out with a net
or basket. Di rantau diau di lubok ngauk.
To stay in the reach and take (fish) in the
Kaut (v. f. ngaut), adj. incessant, v. to
cause to be incessant. Iya kaut amat bejako.
He talks incessantly. Anang bangat ngaut
kadiri bejako. Do not talk incessantly.
Kawa (bekawa), thin wire.
Kawah (bekawah), a large pan. Kami
nadai bisi bekawah. We have no large pans.

Kawat {bekawat}, see kazva. Aku ka ka
pasar mli kawat. I am going to the bazaar to
buy thin wire.
Kawit (v. f. ngawit; bekawit}, to plait
rotan. Aku enda nemu ngawit. I do not
know how to plait rotan.
Kaya (v. f. ngaya; bekayaj, adj. rich, v. to
make rich, become rich. Enii kebun nuan nya-
di nuan nyadi kaya nyadi raja. If your garden
succeeds you will become rich,become wealthy.
Padi ngaya ka iya. Paddy made him rich.
Orang kaya, (a title) the head (lit. rich) man.
Kaya (v. f.izz^oya; bekayd), adv. loud,hard,
v. to strike hard, to cause to speak loud.
Kaya munyi wong. The sound of the water-
fall is loud. Iya main aku kaya. He struck
me hard. Kaya nuan bejako. Speak loud.
lya ngaya ka jako iya. He raises his voice.
Kayak (v. f. ngayak; bekayak), to sift.
Endu agi ngayak bras. My daughter is still
sifting the rice.
Kayap (bekayap}, shingles (a vesicular
disease of the skin, generally appearing on the
waist or chest).
Kayau (v. f. ngayau ; bekayau), s. a war
expedition, v. to go on a war expedition.
Kayau iya maioh orang mati. There were
many died on his war expedition. Sandum,
siko-iko iya salalu kayau- anak agi menya.
Formerly Sandum all alone was always mak-
ing petty forays.
Kay oh (v. f. ngayoh ; bekayohj, to paddle,
push on. Iya ngayoh ka anak bini. He pad-
dles for his family. Anang ngayoh ka jako
salah, anang bediri ka tali basah. Do not push
on with a false statement, and do not (try to)
make wet string stand up.
Kayu [bekayuj wood, a tree, stick ; a
numeral coefficient. Anang nebang kayu nya.
Do not cut down that tree. Rian iya dua kayu.
He has two durian trees. Sirat iya sa kayu
kanggan. His waist cloth is a length of Chi-
nese black calico. lya bejalai sa kayu umai.
He walked the whole length of the paddy
farm. Pemesai umai iya sa kayu kayu. The
width of his farm is a tree’s length.
Kayu arang, the ebony tree {Diospyros
Ke, see kai.
Keba or keba nya, therefore, because.
Iya jai keba iya ditutup. He is bad therefore
he is imprisoned.
Kebak (kekebak}, s. palpitation, v. to pal-
pitate. Rebak atau iya udu bendar. The pal-
pitation of his heart is very rapid.
Kebak (v. f. ngebak; bekebak}, s. the
clearing up and burning of bushes on land not
properly cleared previously, v. to clear land
for the second time. Umai enda angus olih
ngebak. The paddy field is not properly con-
sumed by fire but has to be cleared and burnt
Kebal (v. f. ngebal; bekebal), invulnerable,
v. to cause to become invulnerable. Apai
dikumbai orang kebal. Father was said to be
invulnerable. Iya ngebal kadiri olih nampok.
He became invulnerable by meeting with the
spirits at a lonely spot.
Keban {bekeban}, a round bark box, man-
ang medicine chest.
Kebangai, at length. Nyadi udah keba-
ngai iya pegari deh pengarang ati remaung.
Now at length the ferocity of the tiger appear-
ed. Iya kebangai baru bejako. He at length
then spoke.
Kebat (v. f. ngebat; bekebat), to bind, fas-
ten an artificial spur on a game cock. Kain
kebat. A Dyak-made petticoat. Kebat kayu
nya. Bind those sticks. Aku gawa ngebat
manok. I am busy fastening a spur on the game
Kebau (v. f. ngebau; bekebau}, to winnow
paddy, etc. Iya di tanju ngebau padi. She
is on the platform winnowing paddy.
Keberuran, famishing. Nyait keberuran
sida anak bini aku. My wife and children
are famishing.
Kebi (v. f. ngebi}, the turned edge of a
weapon, v. to cause the edge of a weapon to
Kebil (v. f. ngebil}, see kebi.
Kebok jbekebok}, a small . earthenware jar.
Kebol (v. f. ngebol; kekebol}, to come up
to the surface of the water for a few minutes
as fish do.
Kebong (v. f. ngebong; bekebong}, s. as
lubang kebong, a subterranean hole, pool, the
centre, v. to be in the centre. Bulan ngebong
langit. The moon is in the middle of the
Kebu (v. f. ngebu ; bekebuj, to send flying.
Iya ngebu ka kersik leboh kami makai. He
sent the sand flying whilst we were eating.
Kebu-sebalu, lime (from shells) not pro-
perly burnt.
Kebun. (v. f. ngebun ; bekebun), s. a gar-
den, plantation, v. to make a garden. Kebun
iya udah dijttal iya. He has sold his garden.
Iya ngebun ka rotan. He is making a rotan
Kebut or kekebut (v. f. mengkebut; beke-
but), to move, stir. Iya lalu enda mengkebut.
He does not move.
Kechabau (v. f. ngenchabau ; bekechabau),
to cut grass or jungle in a slovenly fashion.
Kechawa, disappointed. Aku lalu kecha-
wa laban iya. I was disappointed by him.
Kechiping (v. f. ngenchiping}, to be
greedy, selfish. Iya ngenchiping ka samakau.
He does not want to give tobacco.
Kechit (v. f. ngechit; bekechit}, to make a
quick spring, spit. Iya ngechit ka luda di moa
aku. He spat in my face.
Kechol or kechol-keohol (v. f. nge-
chol}, to rebound, go to and fro’. Pasak kayu
ngechol dipantang. A tree nail rebounds
when it is hammered.
Kechundai (fote^z/wahz), wild sireh.
Kechuyu jbekechuyu}, a species of fly.
Kedang (v. f. ngedang; bekedang), to
straighten wood or anything by means of fire,
to stretch out straight ; also the name of
several well-known ranges of hills. Bingkok
kayu nya olih ngedang ka dulu. That wood
is crooked and must first be straightened.
Kedang ka jari nuan. Stretch your hand out

straight. Kedang mansang. The first quarter
of the moon.
Kedap {bekedap}, the pulse, v. to have a
pulse. Kedap iya nyau parai. His pulse has
stopped, Iya nyau nadai agi bekedap. He
has no pulse.
Kedar (v. f. ngedar; bekedar}. to stretch
out. lya ngedar ka lengan mai aku betang-
kap. He stretched out his arm challenging me.
Kedaran, plenty, plentiful.
Kedibal, large roots of trees exposed to
Kedil (v. f. ngedil}, adj. plenty, grow-
ing thickly (as paddy, grass, leaves), strong,
lasting, v. to substantiate a statement, be
unanimous, grow thickly. Kedil papan tn.
This plank is strong. Kedil beridar belayan
padi iya. His paddy grows very strong (lite-
rally the growth of his paddy is very thick).
jako iidah kedil enda ulih bungkar ka agi.
The statement is substantiated and the matter
cannot be opened again. Padi aku barn
ngedil kadiri. My paddy is just beginning
to grow thickly.
Kedong, because. Kedong nuan menyadi
aku mri ka nuan sa ringgit. Because you
are my brother I give you a dollar.
Keduan (v. f. ngeduan; bekeduan or
beduan}, s. persecution, v. to persecute, tease,
mock. Iya beduan aku. He teases me.
Kedubang, stupid. ’ Indu nya bangat
kedubang. That woman is very stupid.
Kedugau (bekedugaii), to assemble for idle
talk, assemble doing nothing.
Kejah-kejah or betekejah, to denote
the sound of footsteps.
Kejam (v. f. ngejam; b eke jam}, to close
(the eyes), to die away (of the speech). Serta
iya ngejam ka mata lain tindok. As soon as
he closes his eyes he goes off to sleep.
Kejang (v. f. ngejang; bekejang), to start,
start in a boat, launch a boat. Sida barn
udah ngejang ka pengkalan. They have just
started off from the landing place.
Kejekan ibekejekan}, another name for a
pinang tree {areca}.
Keji (v. f. ngeji), to detest, have a creepy
feeling, or a feeling of horror at the sight of
anything. Keji aku meda ulat. I have a
creepy feeling at the sight of a grub. Ular
nya ngeji ka aku. That snake gave me a
creepy feeling.
Kejoh (v. f. ngejoh}, adj. stiff of limbs, v.
to make stiff.
Kejong (v. f. ngejong), see kejoh.
Kejuang or kelejuang. forward, rude.
Indu nya kejuang bendar. That woman is very
Kekah. (v. f ngekah; bekekah}, to bite
very hard.’ Baka kra ngekah utai. Like
monkeys bite things very hard.
Kekalat or kalat-kalat {betekalat},
wandering up and down. Iya kekalat ngiga
padi. He wanders up and down looking for
. Kekalik (Z broidery worn by Dyak women round their
Kekapa, at a loss.
Kekas (v. f. ngekas], to sob.
Kekasak, see kasak-kasak.
Kekat (v. f. ngekat}, see kat.
Kekatat, see katat or katat-katat.
Kekating, see kating or kating-kating.
Kekebak, see kebak.
Kekebol, see kebcl.
Kekebut, szekebul.
Kekechol, see kechol or kechol-kechol.
Kekejeh, a holloa used when hunting to
encourage hounds.
Kekeji, to twitch.
Kekejoh, empty-handed.
Kekejok, the final struggle of a dying per-
son or animal.
Kekelai, incessantly (of begging only).
Kekelai iya yiinta asi. Lie is incessantly ask-
ing for cooked rice.
Kekelis, forward, haughty, Kekelis pendiau
iya. Her behaviour is forward.
Kekelot, to wander, be constantly going
about. Indu nya salalu kekelot. That woman
is continually wandering about.
Kekemeh, see kekelai.
Kekenyut or kenyut-kenyut, shaking
up and down like a bog.
Kekepak, just arrived. Kekepak aku da-
tai iya nyau bejalai. Just as I arrived he
went off.
Kekerap, the sound of paddles striking
against the bulwarks of .a boat.
Kekesi, see kesi.
Kekesut, an irregular puff of wind.
Kekidu, to move or swing the head right
and left.
Kekilai, to swing to and fro’ as the head
or top of a tree.
Kekilau, see kilau.
Kekira, well-behaved, thoughtful. Anak
iya kekira. 11 is child is well-beha.ved.
Kekisi. the quiet weeping of children.
Kekitau or kitau-kitau, to wander, go
here and there, wave up and down or right
and left.
Kekrus, the cracking noise made by sticks,
leaves, etc., when trodden upon in the jungle.
Kekua, to quiver, vibrate, swing.
Kekua ng. see kekua.
Kekunda, hung like a swing.
Kekundang, to go to and fro’.
Kekutak, see kutak-kutak.
Kelabu, ashy color ; a proper name, m.
Keladan {bekeladan}, the camphor tree
{Dryobatanops aromaticaj called by Malays
kayu kapor.
Kelala (v. f. ngelala; bekelala}, to recog-
nise, know, perceive, discern, lya enda nge-
lala aku. He does not recognise me.
Kelalah, lazy. Iya salalu tindok nya
alai aku ngumbai iya orang kelalah. He is
always sleeping that is why I call him a lazy
Kelalin (v. f. ngelalin; bekelaliri}, to
interlace, tie, or fasten a wooden flooring with
rotan, etc. Apai ngasoh aku ngelalin gelegar.
Father asked me to fasten the wooden floor-

Kelambu (pekelambu}, see kibong.
Kelampisan (bekelamp>isarij the temples.
Palu iya di kelampisan. Strike him on the
Kelampong (v. f. ngelampong}, s. a
wooden float shaped like a duck with a hook
and bait attached beneath, v. to catch fish
with this float.
Kelangup, see kelanit. (v. f. ngelanit}, to lift up.
Kelansa (v. f. ngelansa; bekelansaj, to
pass beyond. Iya bumai ngelansa tanah
kami. He farmed and passed over (the
boundary) on to our land.
Kelat, acrid, astringent. Pinang saja
kelat. The areca nut is naturally acrid.
Kelayang (v. f. ngelayang; bekelayang),
to go, or paddle across river. Iya baru udah
ngelayang ka sebrai. He has just paddled
across the river.
Keleda (v. f. ngeleda; bekeleda}, to re-
cover the senses, feel. Iya nyau ngeleda.
He has recovered his senses.
Kelejuang, see kejuang.
Kelemayang jbekelemayang}, a shadow.
Iya nyau baka kelemayang. He is gone like
a shadow.
Kelepu, very dark, or black. Petang
kelepu. Pitch dark.
Kelibak, a lump of salt.
Keliji (v. f. ngeliji; bekeliji), to cause to
laugh, tickle.
Kelikup jbekelikupj a circle.
Kelimpai, a wild pig of a certain size.
Kelinchir, (v. f. ngelinchir; bekelinchir),
to slip, slide. lya ngelinchir ngema benda
lalu blah benda. He slipped and the jar he
carried was broken.
Kelisa, exceedingly daring. Jani bangat
kelisa taun tu. The pigs are exceedingly
daring this year.
Kelot-kelot, see kekelot.
Kelusi or kliti (v. f. ngelusi}, to bruise.
Batu nya ngelusi ka kaki aku. That stone
bruised my leg.
Kema, so, thus. Kema ko iya. So says
he. Kema ko. So say I.
Kemali (fc£moZ*), a tree used in manang
ceremonies as a pagar api (which see).
Kemara, see kersa.
Kemas (v. f. ngemas ; bekemas}, to make
ready, prepare. Iya ngemas ka prauh. He
prepares the boat.
Kembai (v. f. ngembai; bekembai),
swollen, *v. to cause to swell, exaggerate.
Ujan di malam ngembai ka ai Sabu. The
rain last night has swollen the Sabu stream.
Utai tu- ti ngembai ka kaki aku. It is this
thing that has caused my feet to swell. Iya
tau bendar ngembai ka jako. He is very clever
at exaggerating.
Kembang (v. f. ngembang}, to spread
open like flowers ; a proper name, f.
Kembong (v. f. ngembong}, adj. swollen,
full, v. to swell. Prut iya kembong. His
stomach is swollen. Bulan kembong. Full
moon. Kama ti ngembong ka prut nuan I
What has caused your stomach to swell ?
Kembuan (v. f. ngembuan; bekembuan},
to possess, have. Iya ngembuan benda lama.
He possesses an old jar.
Kemebap, the flapping of a bird’s wings
when starting to fly.
Kemeh-kemeh, see kekemeh.
Kemelu (v. f. ngemelu; bekemelu}, to be
uncharitable, be churlish. Iya ngemelu ka aku
makai. He was churlish to me when he sat
down to eat (i. e. he sat down to eat and did
not ask me to do so with him).
Kemeran (v. f. ngemeran ; bekemeran}, to
hold as a possession, detain. Aku ngemeran
benda nya. I hold that jar as a possession.
Iya ngemeran ka anak indu enggau sa bilik.
He detains his daughter to live in the same
room with him.
Kemih (bekemih}, s. urine, v. to make
Kemirang (bekemirang}, see Besi api
Kemilut (v. f. ngemilut; bekemilut}, to
make grimaces.
Kempang (v. f. ngempang’, bekempang},
adj. bold, daring, v. to dare, take courage.
Iya ngempang kadiri bejako. He took courage
to speak.
Kempat (v. f. ngempat; bekempat}, to cut,
shear, crop. Iya ngempat bok aku. He crop-
ped my hair.
Kemping (v. f. ngemping; bekemping),
s. raw rice pounded and so eaten, v. to
pound raw rice.
Kempis (v. f. ngempis}, adj. flat, v. to
flatten. Pala iya kempis amat. His head is
very flat,
Kemusu (bekemusu}, a tree wasp.
Kena (v. f. ngena; bekena}, adj. right,
proper, v. to use, wear, hit, touch, make
right. Kena jako nuan. Your speech is right.
Iya ngena kalambi aku. He wears my jacket.
Mimit da jani nya kena peluru. A little
more and that pig would have been hit by
the bullet.
Kenana (bekenana}, utmost endeavour.
Bekenana iya gawa enda ga bulih padi. He
worked with his utmost endeavour yet he
got no paddy,
Kenanas {bekenanas}, see kenana.
Kenang (v. f. ngenang; bekenang}, s.
remembrance, a saying, an aphorism, v. to
express, recount, say, yearn after, pine, re-
member. Tu kenang aku atas nuan. This is
my remembrance towards you. Tu miiia
kenang. This is merely a saying. Tu endang
kenang tuai menya. This was ever a saying
of the chiefs of old. Iya ngenang diri baka
tu. He expressed himself like this. Iya
ngenang diri leboh iya sakit. He recounts all
about himself when he was ill. Aku nyabak
ngenang bini aku ti udah parai. I weep
when I remember my wife who is dead.
Kenawing (Jjekenairnng}, earrings both of
men and women.
Kenaya {bekenaya},obscure, not quiteclear.
Kendak \bekendak}, s. a concubine, mis-
tress, v. to commit fornication or adultery.
Indu nya kendak iya. That women is his

concubine. Iya bekendak enggau bini aku.
He committed adultery with my wife,
Kendas (v, f. ngendas; bekendas), to blot,
wipe off. Aku meda iya ngendas titai di tikai.
I saw him wiping something off the mat.
Kendawang {bekendawang), a species of
snake (Cylindrophis rufus) with a red head and
red tip to its tail, body striped black, white,
and red. It is said by natives to be poisonous.
Kendeh, as bekukur kendeh, to shave the
head clean.
Kenduai (short form of kami duai or dua),
both of us.
Kengkang (v. f. ngengkang; bekengkang),
s. stripe, knot, v. to have stripes or knots.
Ular nya kengkang mansau enggau chelum.
That snake has red and black stripes. Ular
tu bekengkang chelum enggau burak. This
snake has black and white stripes.
Kening {bekening), s. the forehead, v. to
have a slope. Bulu kening. Eye brow.
Kening iya telih. His forehead is wounded.
Tanah bekening. Sloping ground.
Kenong (v. f. ngenong), to stop, pause,
linger. Iya enda ngenong gawa. He does not
pause when he works.
Kensana, see ensanus.
Kentucha (v. f. ngentucha; bekentucha),
to meddle with a person’s food or anything.
Kenu (v. f. ngenu; bekenu), it is said, it
is related.
Kenyadi (v. f. ngenyadi; bekenyadi), to
be sparing, grasping. Iya ngenyadi ka utai.
He is grasping. Kenyadi ka babas tu. Make
use sparingly of this jungle.
Kenyalang {bekenyalang), the hornbill
{Buceros rhinoceros').
Kenyiling {bekenyiling), a green beetle
Kenyap {bekenyap), broken sleep. Aku
tindok lalu enda bekenyap di malam. I had
no broken sleep last night.
Kenyit (v. f. ngenyit), s. amazement,
wonder, adj. sudden, v. to wonder, be
amazed, be startled. Tu penyakit ngenyit.
This is a sudden illness. Ular nya ngenyit
aku. That snake startled me.
Kenyulong {bekenyulong), a fish {ikan
julong-julong, Malay).
Kenyut-kenyut, see kekenyut.
Kepai (v. f. ngepai ; bekepai), s. a fin, a
wave of the hand, v. to wave the hand,
beckon, have a fin. Iya ngepai aku. He
waves his hand to me.
Kepan {bekepan), a beam to which the wall
planks are nailed or fastened.
Kepayang {bekepayang), a jungle tree
{Pangium edule) from the fruit of which oil is
expressed. Tu minyak kepayang. This is
the oil of the kepayang fruit.
Kepin {bekepin), boards forming the side
or bulwarks of a boat.
Kepit (v. f. ngepit; bekepif), to squeeze,
press, put under the armpit. Aku meda iya
ngepit tebu. I saw him pressing out the juice
of the sugar-cane.
Kepong (v. f. ngepong; bekepong), to
mutilate, amputate, surround, cut off. Iya
ngepong ka kaki aku. He amputated my leg.
Aram kitai ngepong rusa nya ! Come on and
surround that deer !
Kepul, short-tailed, bob-tailed. Ukui nya
kepul. That dog is bob-tailed.
Kerai (fe&raz), a button.
Kerakap {bekerakap), bad sireh leaves.
Keranjai (v. f. ngeranjai ; bekeranjai), to
scratch with the feet like a fowl. Manok
nuan ngeranjai kebun aku. Your fowls
scratched up my garden,
Kerantam (v. f. ngerantam ; bekeranlam),
to scratch with the nails or claws violently.
Iya ngerantam aku nya endor 'aku malu iya.
He scratched me violently with his nails that
was the reason I struck him.
Kerarau, hoarse.
Kerayap (v. f. merayap; bekerayap), to
cause to move, move. Uji kerayap ka ulat
nya. Try and cause that grub to move.
Utai nya tau merayap. That thing can move.
Kerbak (v.f. to un-
cover, peel. Iya ngerbak ka peti aku. He
uncovered my box.
Kerban (bekerban), articles. Aku nadai
bisi kerban. I have no articles.
Keremah (v. f, ngeremah; bekeremah},
to meddle with a person’s food.
Kerembai (v. f./(jBrawfe»; .fefemwfcrf)1,
to open like a flower, to spread like a mat,
sail, etc. Bungai nya apin ngerembai. That
flower has not yet opened out. Zya medd
aku datai lalu ngerembai ka tikai. She saw
me come and spread the mat.
Kerigai (bekerigai), s. the ribs, v. to have
Kerja (v. f. ngerja; bekerja), s. work, busi-
ness, employment, deed, effect, v. to work,
labour, make, do, execute. Kerja tu alus
bendar. This work is very fine. Aku nadai
bisi kerja dia. I have no business there.
Tu kerja jai. This is an evil deed. lya
nadai bisi kerja kamaiatu. He has no em-
ployment now. lya ngerja kerja Raja. He
executes the business of the Rajah. Aku
ngasoh iya ngerja ka aku tiang nya. I
told him to work (i.e. prepare) that post for
Kerkesa {bekerkesa), see kersa.
Kersa {bekersa), s. things,belongings, uten-
sils, v. to possess goods. Aku nadai bisi
kersa. I have no belongings. Iya nadai bisi
kersa laban rumah iya udah angus. He has
no goods because his house was burnt.
Kersang {bekersang), a bamboo receptacle
used to measure out fish or meat.
Kersik (bekersik), s. sand, dust, adj.
sandy. Kersik bangkit. Quick-sand. Tanah
tu bekersik. This is a sandy soil.
Kertum {bekertum), a bug. Tikai iya
bekertum. His mat has bugs.
Keruang (v. f. ngeruang; bekeruang), to
dig a hole. Iya ngeruang ka tanah. He is
digging a hole in the ground.
Kerungan {bekerungan), a cage. Tu
kerungan manok aku. This is my fowl cage.
Manok aku bedau bisibekerungan. My fowls
have not yet got a cage.

Kerusang {bekerusang}, a brooch.
Kesa {bekesa}, a red ant {Odontoponera
transversa}. These are tree ants whose bite is
Kesai (v. f. ngesai; bekesai}, to send away-
flying, to fling, abandon. Iya ngesai ka aku
laban iya ringat amat. Because he was in
such a rage he sent me flying away.
Kesai (v. f. ngesai; bekesai}, adj. repen-
tant, contrite, v. to repent, shrink, warp.
Aku ngesai ka penyalah diri. I repent of my
wrong. Papan tu ngesai. This plank warps.
Kesapai or sapai {bekesapai}, s. a square-
shaped piece of cloth with a hole in the
centre for the head to pass through (it is
worn over the shoulders), v. to wear such.
Kesat (v. f. ngesat}, to shrink, cause to
shrink. Kain tu kesat. This cloth shrinks.
Ai ngesat ka skeda kain. Water causes some
cloth to shrink.
Kesi or kekesi, to sob.
Kesing {bekesing}, kidney, urine. Ban
kesing tikai iya. His mat smells of urine.
Kesob. (v. f. ngesoh ; bekesoh}, s. breath,
puff of wind, v. to breathe hard, blow. Iya
dulu ngesoh baru bejako enggau aku. He first
of all breathed hard before he spoke to me,
Kesong, the echo of a voice.
Kesuan, not settled.
JZesui, lovely (of the song of men or birds).
Kesukan {bekesukan}, see sukan.
Keslilai \pekesulai}, a butterfly. Laju
baka kesulai. As swift as the butterfly.
Kesundai {bekesundai}. wild sireh.
Kesut (v. f. ngesut; bekesut}, to blow as
the wind. Ribut ngesut ambis terbai atap.
The gale blows and all the shingles {at'ap} are
flying off
Ketam {beketam}, a crab, plane ; a pro-
per name, f.
Ketampi {beketampi}, the kite is so called
when it lhakes a peculiar noise or cry at night
and is then reckoned an omen.
Ketap {beketap}, an instrument held in
the fingers and used for reaping paddy.
Ketapi (fe&Az/z), the shoulder-blade.
Ketas (v. f. ngetas; beketas}, to cut off,
Iya gazva ngetas atap rumah aku. Hs is busy
cutting the roofing off my house.
Ketau (v. f. ngetau; beketau}, to reap
paddy, reap. Iya nyau ngetau padi. He
has gone to reap the paddy. Kami benong
ngetau. We are in the middle of our harvest.
Ketebong (beketebong}, a native drum.
Ketik (v. f. ngetik; beketik}, to jump
smartly, shoot off. Ular tedong tau ngetik.
Cobras can jump smartly.
Keting {beketing}, the vulva.
Ketis (v. f. ngetis; beketis}, to sprinkle.
Iya ngetis ka ai di moa aku leboh aku luput.
He sprinkled water on my face when I fainted.
Ketok (v. f. ngetok}, stiff-jointed of the
fingers, contracted. Telih ti ngetok ka tunjok
iya. The wound that made his fingers stiff.
Ketuchum, to smile. Ketuchum iya meda
aku bulih pala. He smiled when he saw I
got a head.
Ketunsong (peketunsong), the shoe-flower
{Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis}.
Ketup (v. f. ngetup; beketup}, to bite. Ukui
nya ngetup orang. That dog bites people.
Ki (for the relative ti}, who, which, that.
Kia, thither, there. Kia ka nuan. You
go there.
Kiak-kiak, the noise a cock makes when
Kiba (fo&'&?), left, v. to take the left, go
to the left. Jari kiba. The left hand. Jalai
kiba. The left road. Muak ka kiba. On
the left side. bejalai bekiba ka bukit
'Riang Laju. He walked and took the right
hand side of the Tiang Laju mountain.
Kibong (bekibong), s. a mosquito curtain,
v. to possess a curtain. Kibong iya charik.
His mosquito curtain is torn.
Kidu-kidu, see kekidu.
Kijang {bekijang}, the barking deer
(Cervulus mnntjak}. Sa-pe'mungkal jelu
kijang. The first bound of a barking deer.
Kikeh {bekikeh}, see katupong.
Kikir (v. f. ngikir; bekikir}, s. a file, adj.
stingy, v. to file, cause to be stingy. J'u
kikir- aku. This is my file. Apai iya kikir,
bendar. His father is very stingy. Iya
ngikir duku. He is filing a chopper. Iya
ngaga diri kikir. He is stingy.
Kikis (v. f. ngikis; bekikis}, to scrape
off. Aku ngasoh iya ngikis buloh. I told
him to scrape the skin off the bamboo.
Kila, direction, side. Kila kitu. On this
side, or, in this direction. Kila kin. On the
further side, or, in the direction away from
the speaker. Kila ensanus or ensana. Three
days ago.
Kilas (v. f. ngilas; bekilas}, bent, crooked
or uneven (of a boat’s sides), v. to bend,
make uneven. Anang ngilas ka iya. Do
not make it crooked.
Kilat {bekilat}, s. lightning, gleams of
reflected light,, v. to lighten. Kilat pen nyau
jampat ngelambai idong. And the lightning
flashed rapidly across his face.
Kilau or kekilau, at dusk, after sunset.
Lembau aku ngangau nyereta kekilau lindong
lemai. I am unwilling to sing (the lovesong)
while it is only dusk.
Kilir (v. f. ngilir; bekilir}, to give the
finishing touch when sharpening a blade.
Kilu (v. f. ngilu}, to sharpen upon a stone.
Kilum {bekilum}, s. the boss on a parang
handle, v. to have a boss on a parang handle.
Kimbit (v. f. ngimbit; bekimbit), to em-
brace, cuddle. Indai agi ngimbit anak. His
mother is still cuddling the child.
Kin, there, thither. Kin kitu. Hither
and thither. Anjong kin ka. Take it there.
Kinding-kinding, see kakinding.
Kini ? Where ? Where to ? Kini ka nuanl
Where are you going ?
Kini, perhaps, may be. Pia kini. Per-
haps so. Jai kini, badas kini enda aku nemu.
May be it is bad, or may be it is good, I
don’t know,
Kinsit (v. f. nginsit; bekinsit}, to move,

stir. Tengah hari mata hari apin bekinsit. At
midday before the sun passes the meridian.
Kinyang, usually batu kinyang, see
Kiok (v. f. mengkioE), s. the cry a fowl
makes when seized, v. to utter a cry when
seized. Manok enda lama mengkiok enti
ditangkap sawa. A fowl does not cry very
long when it is seized by a python.
Kiok-kiok, see kiak-kiak.
Kipin (&&#«), leaven.
Kirai (v. f. ngirai; bekirai), to dry in the
sun or by the fire. Iya ngirai papan di panas.
He dries planks in the sun.
Kiroh (v. f. ngiroh; bekiroh), to take
trouble, be patient with, be busy, lya kiroh
â– bendar enggan padi. He takes care with the
paddy. Aku enggai kiroh enggan nuan. I
have no patience with you. [Note an idiom.
Eri ka aku duku nya. Kiroh. Give me that
chopper. It is too much trouble],
Kisai (v. f. ngisai; bekisai) to scratch.
Indu nya salalu bekisai. That woman is
always scratching.
Kisar (v. f. ngisar; bekisar), s. a paddy-
grinder, v. to grind. Endu agi gawa ngisar
padi. My daughter is still busy grinding the
Kita, pronoun second person plural, you;
your. Kitu ka magang samoa kita. All of
you come here. Ambi utai kita. Take your
Kitab {bekitab), a book.
Kitai, pronoun first person plural, we, us,
(including the person addressed); the posses-
sive pronoun, our. Apai kitai. Our father.
Anak kitai. Our children.
Kitang-kitang, see kakitang.
Kitan (v. f. ngitan; b ekit an), to wave
right and left, up and down. Aku ngasoh iya
ngitan ka aku suloh nya. I told him to wave
that torch for me.
Kitan-kitan, see kekitan.
Kitu, here, hither. Asoh iya kitu. Tell
him to come here.
Klabembang {bekldbembang), a butterfly.
Klabingkai {beklabingkai), see klanta.
Klabu or kelabu, grey.
KJabumbu {beklabnmbu), a butterfly.
Kladi, see kaladi.
Klai (v. f. nglai; beklai), s. a mark,
token, sign, lya nglai ka aku. He marked
it for me. Aku nglai ka iya saka jalai ka Dor.
I made a sign for him at the junction of the
road to Dor.
Klait {beklait), wild gambier.
Klak, near.
Klakanit {beklakanit), see kanit.
Klakar (v. f. nglakar; beklakar), s. vain
talk, a lie, swindle, v. to swindle, talk non-
sense, humbug, blarney, lie, flatter. Jako
iya klakar magang. His talk is all nonsense.
Iya nglakar aku. He flatters me. [Note.
In a diving contest {selam) pieces of stick are
called klakar (these are, as it were, pledges
that the bets the persons venture to make
will be paid) and are thrown into the water
whilst the invocation {sampi) is being pro-
Klakuan (beklaktian), or kuan, the wrist.
Klam {beklam), a glass bead.
Klambong (v. f. nglambong; be klam-
bong), to pass over or above. Peluru iya
nglambong pala aku. His bullet passed over
my head.
Kamibit {bekamibit), a creeper.
Klamundang {beklamundang), see ka-
Klansuan, places on the burnt farm
land where the debris of well burnt stumps or
logs remains.
Klanta {beklanta), a large shallow basket
used for receiving rice dust when sifted.
Klaong (v. f. nglaong; beklaong), to pass
by so as to avoid meeting. Iya nglaong ka
rumah kami. He passed and avoided our
Klapong (v. f. nglapong; beklapong), s.
the end or remnant of anything, a fringe, v.
to have or take the remnant of anything, put
a fringe to the border of a jacket, waist-cloth,
etc. Tu klapong sirat iya. This is the fringe
of his waist-cloth. Iya nglapong ka asi kami.
He eats the remnant of our cooked rice.
Kias (v. f. nglas), to shrink, become or
cause to become narrow. Narna ti nglas ka
kain tu ? What has caused this cloth to
become narrow ?
Klasak (v. f. nglasak; beklasak), to draw
up the foreskin.
Klasau (v. f. nglasau; beklasau), resin
(Malay damar).
Klasi (fe^Zajf), a sailor, black man.
Klata {beklata), a creeper the leaves of
which are eaten as a vegetable.
Klauh {beklauh), a creeper of the gambier
species; the name of a stream, the left hand
branch (ascending) of the Lingga river.
Klawar {beklawar), an umbrella. Iya
ngasoh endu mli klazvar siti ka iya. He
asked my daughter to buy an umbrella for him.
Klaya {beklaya), see klanta.
Kiernan, when the moon is on the wane.
Di kleman bulan pasang nyadi salih. When
the moon is on the wane the tides become
Klemebai {beklemebai), a species of centi-
Klempis (v. f. nglempis), to flatten, sink
down. Pisa iya nyau nglempis. His boil is
reduced in size.
Kli, as ikan kli, a fresh water fish {genus
c la rias).
Klibak, huge, large.
Klidas (v. f. nglidas; beklidas), to slip.
Nglidas kaki aku di batu. My feet slipped
on the rock.
Klisi (v. f. nglisi ; beklisi), to tuck up the
trousers. Iya nglisi ka tanchut iya. He
tucked up his trousers.
Ko (short form of jako), to say, speak, talk.
Ko iya. Says he.
Koa or kwa, you, thou. (Only used by
Sebuyau Dyaks).

Kobali {bekobali}, a chameleon (of the
genus chamdlo}.
Kokgo jbekokgo}, the large and noisy
lizard often found in dwellings.
Koklir {bekcklir}, a deceased woman of
notorious character, or, one who has died in
child-birth is supposed to turn into a fero-
cious female spirit called a Koklir who wan-
ders about at night and attacks all male per-
sons whose testicles she tears out and devours.
Dyaks are much afraid of this spirit, who
is said to utter the cry, “ Kok-kok-kok.”
Hongkong (v. f. ngongkong; bekong-
kong}, s. a necklace, v. to fasten a ring round
the neck. Aku meda iya ngongkong ukui.
I saw him fastening a collar round the neck
of a dog.
Kota (v. f. ngota ; bekota}, s. a barricade,
wall of defence, v. to make a barricade.
Sida Rentap udah ngota di Sadok. Rentap and
his people have made a barricade on Sadok.
Koyan (v. f. ngoyan; bekoyan), s. a
weight of forty pikul (5,333i lbs). [Note.
Kami ngoyan ka padi di ruai. We heap up
our paddy in the covered verandah. China
ngoyan ka klasau di tebing ai. The Chinese
are piling up damar on the river-side].
Kra, because, indeed, in truth. nuan
jai nuan kena ukum. Because you are bad
you are fined.
Kra {bekra}, the long-tailed monkey
(Macacus Cynomolgus}.
Kra (v. f. ngra ; bekra}, adj. mischievous,
v. to cause to be mischievous. Anak aku
nya kra bendar. That child of mine is very
mischievous. Anang ngra diri. Do not be
Krabu {bengkrabu}, earrings.
Krak (bekrak), crust of cooked rice adher-
ing to the pot.
Kramak (v. f. ngramak; bekramak}, to
scratch violently. Iya ngramak moa aku- nya
alai aku main iya. He scratched my face
that was the reason I struck him.
Krambit (v. f. ngrambit; bekrambit}, to
button up, heal up as wounds. Nyau ngram-
bit telih iya. His wound has healed up.
Krampak (bekrampak}, a species of large
Krampu {bekrampu}, see krampak.
Kramunting {bekramuniing}, Malay
engkudok, a shrub. {Melastoma Malah
Kran. (v. f. ngran; bekrari}, to have a
strong desire or eagerness. lya ngran kadiri
bebini. It was his strong desire to marry.
Krang (bekrang}, the stem of a mulong,
rotan, palm, etc., paddy in a marketable state.
Mulongiya baru bekrang. His sago has just
produced stems. Padi tu samoa krang. This
paddy has been thrashed and winnowed (or,
this is all paddy fit for the market).
Kranji {bengkranji}, a wild fruit bearing
tree {Dialiumplatoysepalum}. The fruit looks
like a damson.
Krantam (v. f. ngrantam; bekrantam},
see kramak.
Krapa {bekrapa}, forest land liable to be
Kras (v. f. ngras; bekras), adj. hard,
severe, obstinate, v. to harden, make severe,
be hard-hearted. Anang ngras kadiri. Do
not be hard-hearted.
Krat (v. f. ngrat; bekrat}, s. a piece of
anything cut, a morsel, v. to cut off, cut in
lengths, cut a piece. Bri ka aku sa krat tebu
nya. Give me a piece of that sugar-cane.
Iya ngrat tali prauh aku. He cut the painter
of my boat.
Krawai or engkrawai {bengkrawai},
a species of tree wasp.
Krawang (v. f. ngrawang; bekrawang} r
s. a passage, channel, v. to make a hole
through, dig a hole. Ai langkang olih kami
ngraivdng ka karangan baru prauh kami tau
ztndur. The river was so dry that we had to
make a channel through the pebble beds for
our boat to go down stream.
Krebak (v. f. ngrebak; bekrebak), to part,
lift up (of petticoats or curtains), open.
Anang ngrebak ka kibong kami Do not lift
up our curtain. Iya ngrebak ka peti aku lalu
ngenchuri wang aku. He opened my box
and stole my money.
Krekar, a mass of creepers.
Kremah (v. f. ngremah; bekremail}, to
take cooked rice from the plate in an improp-
er manner.
Krembai (v. f. ngrembai; bekrembai}, to
unfurl, unloose, spread, klasi dipeda aku
ngrembai ka layar. I saw the sailors unfurl-
ing the sails.
Krendut (v. f. ngrendut; bekrendut}, to
embrace, hug, hold to the chest. Iya ngren-
dut anak iya nyabak. She is embracing her
child who is crying.
Krepas (v. f. ngrepas; bekrepas}, s. the
remainder, v. to take the remainder. Tu
krepas wang aku. This is the remainder of
my money. Aku ngasoh endu ngrepas ka
padi. I told my daughter to take the re-
mainder of the paddy.
Kri, stunted. Kri bendar tebu nya. That
sugar-cane is very stunted. Kri pendiau
anakbiak nya. That child is stunted.
Kriak jbekriak}, s. a dispute, quarrel, v.
to dispute, quarrel. Iya bekriak enggau aku
nya ngasoh aku main iya. He disputed with
me and that caused me to beat him.
Kribang (v. f. ngribang; bekribang}, to
bite off. Ukui iya ngribang ka tanchut aku.
His dog bit a piece oft my trousers.
Krimpak \bekrimpak}, a shred, fragment
of pottery, glass, or iron. Anangmuai krim-
pak pinggai di jalai endor orang mandi. Do
not throw the broken pottery there where per-
sons bathe.
Krindai (bekrindai}, the flying squirrel.
Kring (v. f. ngring; bekring}, adj. strong,
hard, wiry, stubborn, v. to make strong,
stick up for one’s rights. Ngring kadiriman
anang main. Stick up for your rights and
do not be ashamed.
Kriring {bekriring}, a coffin hollowed out

of a pili an) tree trunk (such as the Kayans
use); a proper name, m.
Kris (v.f. ngris ; bekris), s. a dagger, v.
to pierce with or have a dagger.
Krising (v. f. ngrising; bekrising), to
show the teeth when moved. Iya ngrising
meda aku. He shows his teeth when he sees me.
Krising pekrising), a small basket wider
at the bottom than at the mouth.
Krita Pekrita), a chariot, chaise, coach,
Kritok (v. f. ngritck; bekritok), to poke,
take the wax out of the ears. Iya ngritok
pending iya, anang negu iya. He is taking
the wax out of his ears, do not touch him.
Kroh (v. f. ngroh; bekroh), adj. muddy,
v. to make muddy. Sida anembiak tu salalu
ngroh ka ai. These children are always mak-
ing the water muddy.
Krok (v. f. ngrok; bekrok), to put the
hand into anything, grope. Iya ngrok kandi
aku lalu ngambi samakav aku. He put his
hand into my bag and took my tobacco. Tya
ngrok utai indu lalu- kena tunggu. He com-
mitted an indecent assault on a woman and
was fined.
Krong p>ekrong), a hole, the howl of a dog.
Krop pekrop), that part of a wild bees-
comb that adheres to the branch of the tree.
Kru (v. f. ngru), adj, brittle, v. to cause
to be brittle. Pinggai tu kru bendar. This
plate is very brittle. Nama ti ngru ka tali
tu ‘I What has caused this string to be brittle ?
Kruak pengkruak), see engkruak.
Kruan, naturally. Kruan iya enggai
diasoh. He is naturally unwilling to oblige
people. Kruan iya ti salalu muai bini. It
is his nature to be always divorcing a wife.
Krubing (v. f. ngrubing), to suck the
breasts. Anak aku nyau. badu ngrubing. My
child has been weaned.
Krubong pekrubong), a shell, skull, adj.
empty. Krubong kakura. The shell of a
tortoise. Gentong iya tinggal krubong. His
paddy bin remains empty.
Kruin (v. f. ngruin ; bekruin), s. a jungle
tree {Dipterocarpus cornutus), the gum of such
a tree, pitch used for caulking boats, v. to
caulk a boat.
Krukoh P’ekrukoh), scrub (one year’s
growth of babas).
Kruntok (pekruntok), the skull, source of
a river.
Krusi (bekrtisi), a chair.
Krut (v. f. ngrut, bekrut), to dig or
scratch with the nails. Krut enggau kekut.
Scratch it with the nails.
Kuah pekuah), gravy. Engkayu nadai bisi
bekuah. The comestibles have no“gravy.
Kual, cross-shaped.
Kuali pekuali), an iron pan.
Kuan or klakuan pekuan), the wrist.
Kuang pekuang), the lap.
Kuang-kapong pekuang-kapong), a night
Kuangkuit (belu.tngkuit), backwards and
Kuap (see bekuap), s. mould, damp.
Kuasa pekuasa), power, authority, might,
Kuat (v. f. nguat ; bekuat), adj. strong,
vigorous, adv. always. Iya orang kuat. He
is a strong man. Indu nya kuat bejalai. That
woman is always going about. lya kuat
makai. He is always eating, or, is a great
Kuat pekuat), a little house.
Kuba (v. f. nguba; bekuba), adj. indiffer-
ently cleaned by means of a mill {kisar), or,
once pounded, v. to pound rice a second
time. Bras nya olih nguba. That rice must
be pounded over again.
Kubal (v. f. ngubal; bekubal), s. India-
rubber, (IVillugnbeia coriacea), v. to go and
get India-rubber. Anak aku nyau ngubal.
My son has gone to get India-rubber.
Kubau pekubau), see kubu.
Kubit (v. f. ngubit; bekubit), to nip,
pinch. Anang bangat ngubit jari aku. Do
not be pinching my hand.
Kubong {bekubong), a flying squirrel.
{Kubong mirah. Petaurista Melanotis. Kubong
arang. P. Phceomelas, Kubongplandok. Fly-
ing Lemur. Galeopithecns volans).
Kubu or kubau pekubtt), a fort, block-
house, any European house.
Kubu, the first fruits which fail to come
to maturity and drop. Muai kubu. To get
rid of the first crop of indifferent fruit.
Kuchai pekuchai), a species of very sm
Kuching batu, Felis bengalensis.
Kuda (bekuda), s. a horse, v. to ride a «
Kudak pekudak), a species of pandanus
with scented flowers. {Pandanus ordoratis-
Kundang-kundang, see kekundang.
Kudi pekudi), the whole length of a cloth;
a proper name m.
Kudi (v. f. ngudi; bekudi), adj. angry,
impatient, s. any convulsion of nature denot-
ing the wrath of the gods, v. to be angry,
impatient. Aku kudi ninga jako iya. I am
angry at hearing him speak. Hari kudi laban
iya kataiva ka mayau. There was a distur-
bance of the elements (i. e., the gods thereby
shewed their wrath) because he laughed at a
cat. lya ngudi ka aku. He made me im-
patient. Batu kudi. (The name of a place).
The rock (representing persons) who have
suffered from the wrath of the gods.
Kudong (pekudong), the fingers or toes.
Ujong kudong. The tips of the fingers or toes.
Kuing (v. f. nguing ; bekuing), to turn,
turn towards. Iya nguing ka tumpang iya
ka kanan. He turned his rudder to the
right. Iya nguing ka ati aku bebini. He
uses his influence to make me marry.
Kujok {bekujok), s. a mosquito curtain, v.
to have or use a curtain. Aku nadai bisi
kujok enggau. tindok. I have no mosquito
curtain to sleep in. Iya bekujok lindok. He
sleeps in a mosquito curtain.

Kuju (bekuju}, a species of heron ; a pro-
per name, f.
Kukan (bekukan}, a shell fish.
Kuki, a Chinese cook (English, adopted).
Kukoh (v. f. ngukoh; bekukoh}, adj. last-
ing, durable, strong, v. to make durable,
strong. Kapn ngukoh ka papan. Lime makes
planks durable.
Kukok (v. f. mengkukok}, s. the crowing
of a cock, v. to crow. Penyauh rumah kami
bedinga kukok manok. The distance our
houses are apart is as far as you can hear a
cock’s crow.
Kukong or bengkong, Nycticebus tardi-
Kukun (v. f. ngukun; bekukun}, to
gather together. Iya gaiva ngukun ka utai.
He is busy gathering together the things.
Bala Raja nyau bekukun di endor siti. The
Rajah’s army has gathered together at one
Kukur (v. f. ngukur ; bekukur}, to shave.
Iya ngukur bok aku. He shaves the hair of
my head,
Kukus (v. f. ngukus ; bekukus}, to cook
by steaming. Sida China ngukus ikan dalam
mangkok di rambing. The Chinese steam
fish in a cup placed in a pan.
Kukut (bekukut}, s. a nail, claw, talon,
hoof, v. to have nails, claws, talons, or hoofs.
Kulat (v. f. ngulat; bekulat}, s. a fungus
of any species, v. to go and look for fungi.
Aram kitai ngulat. Come let us go and look
for fungi.
Kulat, as batu kulat, or batu kara, a
noxious charm.
Kuli (v. f. nguli; bekuli}, s. a labourer,
journeyman, cooley, v. to hire a labourer,
work as a labourer. Iya orang kuli. He is
a journeyman. Aku nadai wang enggau
nguli orang. I have no money to hire a
cooley. Iya bekuli di aku. He works as a
cooley for me.
Kuling (bekuling}, a headkerchief.
Kulit (bekulit}, s. skin of an animal, bark
of a tree, v. to have skin or bark. Kulit
lukai beguna enggau muru nyamok. The
bark of the lukai wood is of use to drive
away mosquitoes.
[Note. Bekulit also means invulnerable].
Kulum (v. f. ngtilum ; bekulum}, to put in
the mouth. Anang ngasoh anak nuan ngu-
lum pinang. Don’t allow your child to put
pinang in its mouth.
Kulup, (bekulup} s. the foreskin, v. to be
Kuman, (bekuman}, a bird’s crop.
Kumang (bekumang}, a fairy, the name
of the Dyak Venus, used as an endearing
term. 0 Kumang aku ! Oh my beauty !
Kumang Menyarong, the Pagurian or
Hermit crab. (Pagurus Bernadus}.
Kumbai (v. f. ngumbai; bekumbai}, to
call, call out to, think, presume. Iya ngum-
bai aku ka rumah iya. He calls me to his
house. Iya ngumbai aku ka bejako enggau
iya. He thinks I am going to speak to
Kumbang (bekumbang}, a boring beetle.
Kumbang, as sa kumbang rekong, once
round the neck. Pemanjai tali nya dua
kumbang rekong. That string is long enough
to go twice round the neck.
Kumbu or pua kumbu (bekumbu}, a
Dyak-made blanket, or coverlet.
Kumpai (bekumpai}, a kind of grass or
reed (Panicuni myurus}.
Kumulu (v. f. ngumulu}, to marry or
have connection before going through the
customary observances a widow, or widower,
is expected to keep. [This is a finable offence
with the Dyaks], Tu utang ngumulu ka bini.
This is an offence against a deceased wife].
Kunchi (v. f. ngunchi; bekunchi}, s. a
key, v. to lock. Iya udah ngunchipeti. He
has locked the box.
Kunchit or kunchit-kamali (bekunchit
or bekunchit kamali}, a very small bird ; a pro-
per name, m. Burong kunchit terbai ka lang-
it ngosong ayah iya apai Sabit Bekait. The
kunchit flies to the heavens to call upon its
uncle the father of Sabit Bekait.
Kunda-kunda, see kekunda.
Kundi (bekuhdi}, a pouch, pocket; ahead
taken in a foray. Enti ngayau ngarau kundi.
If he makes a foray he quickly gets a head.
Kunding or butoh kunding (bekun-
ding or bebutoh kunding}, the projecting
ornament on a nyabor or isau blade.
Kunding or kunding labang (bekun-
ding or bekunding labang}, nominally an
omen bird but really a grasshopper used as an
omen bird [see beburong\.
Kundur (bekundur}, a white pumpkin
(benincasa cerifera} ; a proper name f.
Kuning (v. f. nguning}, adj. yellow, v. to
cause to become yellow.
Kunsil (bekunsil}, a member of the Gov-
ernment Council (English, adopted).
Kuntum (v. f, nguntum; bekuntum}, s. a
bud, v. to have buds. Bungai nya baru
nguntum. Those flowers are just budding.
Kunya (v. f. ngunya; bekunya}, to chew
the cud, masticate. Aku nadai bisi ngeli lalu
enda tekunya ka asi. I have no teeth and
cannot chew the cooked rice. Chapi ngunya
rumput. Cattle chew grass.
Kunyit (bekunyit}, tumeric.
Kupang (bekupang}, a small cup.
Kupas (v. f. ngupas; bekupas}, to clear,
clean. Pagi tadi kami ngupas pun rian kami
muai rajang enggau lumut. Early this morn-
ing we cleared the durian tree trunk and got
rid of the orchids and moss on it.
Kura (v. f. ngura; bekura}, s. the liver,
spleen, v. to suffer from spleen or liver. Anak
aku ngura. My child has the liver complaint.
Kurak-kurak, to talk incessantly.
Kuran (bekuran}, a small brass box to con-
tain lime (kapu} for the chewing ingredients.
Kurang (v. f. ngurang', bekurang}, adj.
insufficient, lacking, not enough, v. to reduce.
Asi iya kurang. His cooked rice is insuffi-
cient. Penemu iya kurang. His learning is
lacking. Iya ngurang ka gaji aku. He re-
duced my wages.

Kurap {bekurap}, s. skin disease {tinea
imbricated}, v. to have skin disease.
Kurau, dark blue.
Kureh or kuris {bekureh}, the itch, sores.
Kuris (bekuris}, see kureh.
Kuroh {bekuroh}, s. snoring noise, v. to
snore. Iya bekuroh tindok. He snores when
he sleeps.
Kurong (v. f. ngurorig; bekurong}, s. a
cage, poop of a vessel, v. to shut up. lya
ngurong manok. He shuts up the fowls.
Kurus (v. f. ngurus; bekurus}, adj.
meagre, thin, v. to cause to become meagre.
7« Jani kurus. This is a thin pig. Nama ti
ngurus ka nuan 1 What has caused you to
become thin ?
Kusai (v. f. ngusai; bekusai}, see kesai.
Kusi (v. f. ngusi ; bekusi}, adj. well-used,
worn out (as a country), used up, v. to use
up a country. Tu menoa kusi. This is a
used-up country.
Kusi (v. f. ngusi; bekusi}, to peel. Tya
ngusi buah nangka. He is peeling the jack-
Kusing (v. f. ngusing; bekusing}, s. a
bat, v. to go to look lor bats,,or to have bats.
Si da nyau ngusing ka lubang batu. They
have gone to look for bats in the caves.
Kusok (v. f. ngusok; bekusok}, to rub,
ignite by friction, kindle a light. Aku nadai
bisi api ka ngusok. I have no fire and I am
going to obtain it by friction.
Kusun {bekusan}, see kanggan.
Kutak {bekutak}, s. drawers of a chest, v.
to have a chest of drawers.
Kutak-kutak or kekutak, to talk in-
Kutok (v. f. ngutok; bekutok'}, s. a bad
omen, displeasure, v. to find fault. Anang
ngutok aku lab an iajau nya nyau blah. Do
not find fault with me because that jar is
Kutu (bekutu}, s. a louse, v. to be lousey.
Kutu api. A spark of fire. Mati kutu, (see
Kutum, closed (of the mouth only).
Kuyas (v. f. nguyas; bekuyas), to tear,
rend, be enranged. lya nguyas ninga aku be-
jako. He was enraged because he heard me
Kuyu {bekuyu} the cheek. Kuyu aku telih.
My cheeks are wounded.

Page v, line 11, for Engkair read Engkari.
Page x, line 15, Note, delete “few.”
Page xi, line 3, insert Dia, before din, there.
Part I.
Page 1, 1st col., under Abang, for Bugan read
Page 1, 1st col., under Abar, Abar-abar dulu
should come under abar as an example
(1. c.).
Page I, 2nd col., after ^c^zz^add “ short form
of lachak.”
Page I, 2nd col., under Achar add after nga-
char: “ beachar or bachar.”
Page 1, 2nd col., under Achu, for merausang
read meransang.
Page 3, 1st col., under Aki, for puyong read
Page 3, 2nd col., under Alang add “ bealang
or balang.”
Page 5, 2nd col., under Anak, a full stop after
Page 6, 1st col., under Andau, a full stop
after tinggi.
Page 7, 1st col., under Ansar, a full stop after
Page 9, 2nd col., under Asu, after basu add
“or berasu.”
Page 9, 2nd col., under Ator, for “ decider ”
read “decide.”
Page 10, 2nd col., under Ayam ribut, a com-
ma after the ).
Page 10, 2nd col., under Ayu after be'ayu add
“ or bayu.”
Page 11, 1st col., Badas rita, etc., cancel.
Page 11, 1st col., under Badi, for ay a read
Page 12, 1st col., under Balai, full stop after
Page 12, 2nd col., under Balik, insert v. f,
before malik.
Page 12, 2nd col., under Balong, for sempetiu
read sempetir.
Page 12, 2nd col., under Ballot, for swaddling
read swaddling.
Page 12, 2nd, cob, under Balut, a full stop
after bendar.
Page 14, 1st col., under Bansi, for jenkal read
Page 14, 1st col., under Baoh, for aya read
Page 14, 2nd col., under Baring, omit “ on
the floor.”
Page 15, 1st col., under Batu, for ansah read
Page 15, 2nd col., under Beandak-andak, add
“ see andak.”
Page 15, 2nd col., Beasa-asa see Basa-asa.
Page 16, 1st col., under Beburong, after mem-
buas insert (.
Page 16, 1st col., under Bedai, insert full stop
after “warn.”
Page 21, 1st col., under Beragok, for “smooth ”
read “ bright.”
Page 23, 1st col., under Besugi, insert comma
after the ).
Page 23, 1st col., under Betabas, for belian
read pelian.
Page 23, 2nd col., after Betelipi place Beteli-
sih from page 24.
Page 24, 1st col., several words in wrong
Page 24, 1st col., Betantali, etc., delete.
Page 26, 2nd col., under Bradong, after ) insert
Page 27, 2nd col., under Buboh after alai in-
sert aku.
Page 31, 1st col,, under Chekak, insert com-
ma after ).
Page 31, 2nd col., under Chelap, for ujau
read ujan.
Page 31, 2nd col., under Chengkang, for ako
Page 33, 1st col., under Daloh, for sangkoh
read sangko.
Page 33, 2nd col., Dandan {bedandari), see
dan di.
Page 36, 1st col., under Dudi, after v. f. in-
sert “ ngentudi or.”
Page 36, 2nd col., under Bungai, for Inau
read Indu.
Fart II.
Page 39, 1st col., under Embal, delete ka in
the example.
Page 39, 1st col., under Embap for ujan read
Page 40, 1st col., under Empin, for “cauld-
ron ” read “ pan.”
Page 41, 1st col., under Endor, for kerbau
read engkerbau.
Page 42, 1st col., under Engkesap, full stop
instead of a comma after “ wink.”
Page 43, 2nd col., under Ensuga-tisir, delete
r in ensugar-tisir.
Page 44, 2nd col., under Entawai, a full stop
after “bat.”
Page 47, 2nd col., under Gawai, delete last
paragraph commencing with “a feast.”
Page 48, 1st col., under Gawai Antu, twelve
lines from the bottom of the column for
bay a read ma.
Page 50, 2nd col., under Geluga, the ( should
follow “dye” in place of the comma
which delete.
Page CI, 1st col., under Gemti, a comma after
Page 51, 2nd col., under Gentong, full stop
after pasu.

Page 53, 2n(l col., under Grami, delete stop
after “ leven.”
Page 56, 1st col., under Ibai, delete stop
after a.
Page 59, 1st col., under Indu, in last example
but one, for “main rafters” read “keel
Page 71,2nd col., under Kambin, add “sheep”.
Page 72, 2nd col., under Karam, for “sunk”
read “sank.”
Page 74, 1st col., under Kayoh, for bediri
read niri,
Page 74, 2nd col., under Kechit, for luda read
Page 75, 2nd col. under Kekebut, for kebul
read kebut.