Dictionary of Sea Dayak

Material Information

Dictionary of Sea Dayak
Scott, N. C.
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Place of Publication:
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Stephen Austin & Sons, Ltd.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
xi, 218 p. ; 23 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Iban language ( lcsh )
Iban language -- Dictionaries -- English ( lcsh )
Temporal Coverage:
- 1956
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Malaysia -- Sarawak
Asia -- Indonesia -- West Kalimantan
اسيا -- مليسيا -- سراوق
كليمنتان بارت -- إندونيسيا -- اسيا
2.8 x 113.883333
0 x 110.5


General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Scott, N.C. : URI
Intellectual Property Rights:
The Iban language is also known as Sea Dayak
General Note:
This title is presumed to be a work-for-hire by N.C. Scott in his capacity as an employee of SOAS University of London. As noted in the preface: "The research on which the work is based was made possible by the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, which has also provided a full subvention for the publication of the dictionary."

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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2825992 ( OCLC )


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Reader in Phonetics in the
University of London


A Lexicon in the full sense of the term can be made only when
there is a considerable body of written material, and this is lacking
in Sea Dayak. The present contribution to the lexicography of
the language was made possible in the first place by the co-
operation of a Sea Dayak speaker, Mr. Gerunsin Lembat, to
whom I express my warm thanks for his patient and careful
help. I am also greatly indebted to the Rev. B. Temenggong and
Mr. Michael Burna for much valuable information.
My special thanks are due, and here expressed, to the Rev. G.
Bruggeman of the Catholic Mission, Kanowit, Sarawak, who has
generously allowed me to abstract from his MS. dictionary, and
print in a supplement, those words used in the Third Division of
Sarawak that do not appear in the main body of the dictionary.
The research on which the work is based was made possible by
the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,
which has also provided a full subvention for the publication
of the dictionary. For these and many other privileges I now
express my gratitude.
N. C. Scott.
School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London.

1. Spelling.—The current spelling of Sea Dayak shows considerable
variations. The spelling used here for the first entry is, in general, that
adopted by Howell and Bailey in their Sea Dayak Dictionary. Usage
is, however, particularly variable, and Howell and Bailey are parti-
cularly inconsistent, in the matter of inserting and omitting e; terebai,
terbai and trebai, all appear for the same word in recent publications.
Much labour may be saved in tracing words of this kind if the e is
inserted wherever it may properly appear, and this convention has been
followed in the present work, which thus gives terebai, beli, and meri,
and not terbai (or trebai), bli, and mri. The inconsistent use of a and e
in syllables before the penult has been retained in a number of common
words, and u has been retained in puputan, but in most cases the only
vowel shown in syllables before the penult is e. It should be noted
that there is frequent uncertainty in current writing in the use of u
and o, and of i and e.
Apart from individual variations, the current spelling is defective
in being inconsistent and in failing to make certain necessary distinc-
tions, such as that betweenpeti, ‘box’, and peti, ‘ trap’. The pronuncia-
tion of peti (petiq), ‘trap’, differs from that of peti, ‘box’, in having
final glottalization, and differs from that of petik, ‘spot’, which also has
final glottalization, in the quality of the vowel of the second syllable.
Similar relations are to be observed in the pronunciations of such
words as I aba1, laba2 (labaq), labak, and sulux, sulu2 (suluq), sulok (suluk),
On p. x a scheme is given for the systematic spelling of Sea Dayak,
adequate for all native and assimilated words, and phonetic in the
sense that, once the conventions are established, the pronunciation is
unambiguously indicated. Where, in the dictionary, the spelling of
the first entry is at variance with this, the systematic spelling follows
immediately in parentheses.
The pronunciation indicated by the double consonant in Col. 4 of
the scheme has not, so far as I am aware, been referred to in print.
Howell and Bailey give tawak and tetawak, ‘a large gong’; the forms
are, I find, (ttawak) and tetawak, and a form setawak also exists. In
this case and a number of others, such as gegudi, more than one form
is possible, and where they are known to exist each is given in the
systematic spelling. There are, however, some words such as liki
(systematic spelling lliki), for which the only form I have found is that
pronounced with the long I indicated by the double consonant. It
should further be noted that when the systematic spelling has a doubled
vowel, as in (meraak), ‘shout at’, the pronunciation has a long vowel;
cf. merak, ‘shatter’.
2. Forms.—‘Nasal forms’ and forms with prefixes are normally
entered under the corresponding ‘base’, e.g. nyabut, enchabut, pechabut,

under chabut. Thus words with initial m- may be entered under p- or
b-‘, those with n-, under t- or d-', those with ng-, under k- or g- or the
following vowel-letter; those with ny-, under s-, ch-, or j-. Such cases
as ngemerani alongside merani under berani, and menari under tari,
should also be noted. Words with the initial groups emp-, engk-, ens-,
ent-, may be entered under the last letter of the group, those with
ench-, under ch-', thus encharik under charik.
When words beginning with gem-, gen-, or mem-, men-, do not
appear under g or m, reference may be made to em-, en-, or to the
consonant immediately following. For words with partial reduplication
such as gegenang, reference should be made to the simple or the fully
reduplicated form, in this case genang-genang.
The possible occurrence of three types of variant should be noted:
initial ch, j, and 5 may sometimes appear one in place of the other,
e.g. sitak, chitak, and jerita, cherita', final h and s may sometimes
appear one in place of the other, e.g. raih, rais; I and r may sometimes
appear one in place of the other, e.g. lari, rari.
Nasal forms are given under the corresponding base whenever they
have been found to occur, but other regularly derived forms are not all
necessarily quoted. When there is a particular advantage in giving a
separate entry to one or more of a series of related forms, this has
been done. Thus kembau with ngembau is entered under k with
references to and from bau.
3. Derivation.—An indication of a possible source for certain words
is given in square brackets, without implication as to the route they
may have followed.
4. Word Classes.—The parts of speech of conventional English
grammar cannot properly be applied to Sea Dayak, in which words
fall into one of the two fundamental classes of ‘full words’ (left un-
marked in the dictionary) and ‘particles’. It is, however, convenient to
recognize and mark the subsidiary categories of pronouns, numerals,
numeral classifiers, and interjections. No direct inference should be
drawn as to the class of a Sea Dayak word from the class of an English
word used in translating it.
5. Abbreviations.—The word at the head of an article is abbreviated
in the citations to its first, or, for ch-, ng-, and ny-, its first two, letters.
The abbreviation refers to the whole word, whether simple, reduplicated,
or compound. When a simple word at the head of an article is re-
duplicated in a citation, the initial letter is repeated after a hyphen.
Nasal forms are similarly abbreviated after quotation in full, but the
complete spelling is given of forms with prefixes. When parentheses
are used in a Dayak citation, the English translation will still apply if
the words enclosed are omitted. When two Dayak sentences, each
beginning with a capital letter, are separated only by a comma, the
English translation may be used of either. A list of abbreviations of
English words is appended.

6. Style.—In the indications of style, the word ‘songs’ is taken to
include all forms of Sea Dayak verse. The word ‘taboo’ is not given
a precise technical sense. It will, in general, indicate that a Dayak
speaker has used the word mali in speaking of the matter.
7. The Supplement.—The supplement, provided by the Rev. G.
Bruggeman, consists of a list of forms found in the Third Division of
Sarawak that do not appear, or appear with different uses, in the main
body of the dictionary. When a definition can be given by referring to
a form in the dictionary, this is done; thus lichak is entered as Lichak,
see luchak. In a number of cases it has seemed useful to add to the
definition in the supplement a reference to an entry in the dictionary
(to which, unless otherwise stated, all references apply); ‘Cf. D.’
indicates that the entry under a form with similar spelling may be
consulted. In all other respects, the entries in the supplement are as
given by Father Bruggeman. The spellings are those used by him, and
no suggestion for the application of the systematic spelling referred
to in 1. above has been made.

1 and 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
(i) (i)
A b a b a P
letter P i m I P i t
from f d zz d u k
col. 4, t e t m
or j n j n
cols. 3 ch ch ng
and 4, I s s I
followed f g f g r
by e ng | k ng | k s
m m h
n n
ng ng (ii)
ny ny a
I I e
r r i
w o
(ii) y u
the aq
above eq
doubled id
(but oq
cch, nng, uq
nny) ay
The scheme assumes nine positions or ‘places’ in the spelling of Sea Dayak words.
Place 8 is always filled; other places are not necessarily so in particular words. The
symbols in the numbered columns above are sufficient to distinguish the differences that
must be recognized as possible in each of the filled places. When Place 9 is filled, only
three differences are necessary in Place 8, symbolized by a, i, u, in (i); when Place 9 is
not filled, there are thirteen possible differences in Place 8, for which symbols are provided
in (ii).
In the following examples, the current spelling is given first, followed in brackets by
the systematic spelling with the numbers of the places filled in each case: selempepat
[selempepat, 1, 2, 3, 4(i), 5, 7, 8(i), 9]; empelawa [mpelawaq, 2, 4(i), 5, 7, 8(ii)J; kampong
[kampung, 4(i), 5, 6, 7, 8(i), 9]; peti, a box, [peti, 4(i), 5, 7, 8(ii)]; peti, a trap, [petiq,
4(i), 5, 7, 8(ii)J; pah [paah, 4(i), 5, 8(i), 9]; /zTcz [lliki, 4(ii), 5, 7, 8(ii)]; maia [maya, 4(i),
5, 7, 8(ii)]; dai [dai, 4(i), 5, 8(ii)]; alai [alay, 5, 7, 8(ii)J; empat [mpat, 6, 7, 8(i), 9];
ko [kuq, 7, 8(ii)].

For abbreviations of Sea Dayak words see p. viii.
Ar. Arabic
cf. compare
Ch. Chinese
cl. (numeral) classifier
D. the main body of this dictionary
e.g. for example
Eng. English
esp. especially
fig. figurative(ly)
H. W. Howell and D. J. S. Bailey, Sea Dayak Dictionary,
Hind. Hindustani
hist. historical
i.e. that is
imp. imperative
interjn. interjection
interrog. interrogative
joc. jocular(ly)
Mai. Malay
neg. negative
num. cl. numeral classifier
obs. probably obsolescent
o. another one another
o.s. oneself
pass. passive
part. particle
pers. person
Pers. Persian
plur. plural
Port. Portuguese
q.v. which see
sing. singular
Skt. Sanskrit
s.o. someone
sp. special
sthg. something
subj. subject
trans. transitive
us. usually
v. very
W. R. J. Wilkinson, An Abridged Malay-English Dictionary,
7th edition, 1952
= may have the same translation as

Abah, 1. the cut made in a tree for
felling, undercut: A. nuan enda
manah, you haven’t cut it properly.
Ngabah, to cut: Iya ng. kayu, he
cut the tree. 2. the chips resulting:
Tu a. kayu, these are chips from the
Abak, see abah.
Abap, wild sireh: Iya ngiga (sireh) a.
ka kampong, he is looking for a. in
the jungle.
Abar, Ngabar, 1. stir (water): Anak
mit ng. ai, A\xQ child is dabbling his
hand in the water; 2. check way with
paddle: Iya ng. ai, he checked the
boat’s way.
Abas, Ngabas, go and see, visit: A.
ti iya udah badu, go and see if he has
finished; Iya baru pulai ng. bubu,
he had just come back from visiting
the fish-trap; Iyapengabas orang sakit,
she goes in for visiting sick people.
Abau (abaw), a conical fish-trap: Iya
nan a., he set up an a.; Iya beabau,
he fishes with an a.
Abi, a cut, crack, incision: A. telih iya
dalam, his wound is deep; Kayu
nya berabi, that tree is undercut;
Mangkok berabi, the cup is cracked.
Ngabi, cut for felling: iya ng. kayu,
he cut the tree.
Abik, male personal name.
Abis1, part., all, the whole of, entirely:
Sida abis tindok, they are all asleep;
Telu nya a. di-empa Apai Aloi, all
the eggs were eaten by A. A.; Baju
aku a. basah laban peloh, my tunic
is all wet with sweat.
Abis2, finished, used up: Semakau
aku udah a., I am out of tobacco.
Ngabis, to finish, use up: Aku ka
ng. ka semakau tu, I shall use up this
tobacco; Tu pengabis pemakai kami,
this is the last of our food; Tu
pengabis cherita, that is the end of the
story; enggau pengabis tulang, with
all o.’s might; enggau pengabis
penau, to the best of o.’s ability;
enggau pengabis pengerindu ati, with
great pleasure.
Abok (abuk), mess, shavings, sawdust,
dust: Bilik beabok (-abok), the room
is in a mess.
Abol (abul), the head of a dart.
Abu, dust, (fine) ash.
Abup, fool: O a. nuan tul, you fool!
Abur, widely known: Pemeli iya a. ba
kami ditu, his folly is known to us all
round here. Ngabur, spread (news):
Iya ng. ka berita anak rajah ti ada,
he spread the news of the prince’s
Abus, ash.
Achak, deaf. Ngachak, to deafen:
Nyawa nuan ng. ka pending aku, the
noise you make deafens me.
Achan, male personal name.
Achang, a pigeon.
Achap, reached by the tide, flood:
Perau aku baru a., the water is just up
to my boat. Ngachap, (of tide, flood)
reach: Pasang ng. ka batu nya, the
tide reaches that stone.
Achar, a small brass plate with several
fish-hooks, spoon-bait. Ngachar,
fish with this, spin: Aku ka ng., I
shall go spinning; Iya pengachar
bendar, he does a lot of spinning.
Achir, Ngachir, 1. with ka, scatter,
disperse (trans.): Iya ng. ka umpan,
she scattered food for the fowls; 2.
disperse, be dispersed: Anembiak
iya ng. sabelah padang, his followers
are scattered over the field; Duit
aku ng. kia-kia, my money is well
distributed, my eggs are not all in one
Achok (achuk), Ngachok, poke: Iya
ng. rusok aku, he prodded me in
the side; lya ng. rusok aku enggau
sangkoh, he thrust a spear into my
side; Iya ng. aku enggau jako awak
ka aku muai pengarap, he tried to
persuade me to abandon my faith;
Anang berachok (or beachok) ka
tunjok nuan ngagai lubang nya, don’t
keep putting your finger into that
hole; asai kai di-achok, (of pain)
piercing, severe.
Achu (achuq), Ngachu, feint: Iya ng.
aku enggau kiba, he made a feint
at me with his left; Iya ng. ukoi
enggau roti, he teased the dog with a
bun (offering and snatching away).
Ada, born: Iya a. ditu, he was born here.
Ngada, give birth to: Iya ng. ka anak
lelaki, she bore a son. Pengada,
birth: Iya ngingat ka hari pengada iya,
he is celebrating his birthday. Berada,
Adai (aday), see nadai.
Adam, male personal name.

Adan1, male personal name.
Adan2, a post, base: a. angkat, starting-
point (race); a. menang, winning-
Adang, Ngadang, 1. (with or without
ka) expect: Sida ng. bala munsoh,
they are expecting the enemy; Iya
di-adang (ka) aku datai pagila, I
expect him to-morrow; Ng.!, get
ready! 2. (with ka) prepare for:
Sida ng. ka munsoh, they' are pre-
paring to meet the enemy.
Adap, aspect, situation: Kini a. dapor
kita?, how are you placing your
hearth, kitchen? Ngadap, 1. to
face: Aku ng. ngagai iya, I am facing
him; 2. go to, bring sthg. before,
s.o.: Aku ng. ngagai Rajah, I went
to the Rajah; Aku ng. ka pengawa tu
ngagai Rajah, I brought the matter
before the Rajah.
Adat1, custom, law: Tu a. lama, this
is the old custom; a. nikah, tikah,
marriage customs; a. rumah (tangga),
rules of the house. Beradat, behaving
in the accepted way: Enda beradat
nuan tu = nadai a. nuan tu, you have
no manners. Beadat, entitled to
certain forms: Iya orang beadat, he
must be treated with respect.
Adat2, manang’s fee, honorarium:
Berapa a. nuan end nuan bebunoh
belian?, what is your fee if you
kill the evil spirit?; Iya enda beadat
enti iya samina begama, he receives
no fee if he only makes a diagnosis
by palpation.
Adi (adiq), younger brother, sister.
Ngadi: Iya baru ng., he has just got a
younger brother.
Ading, (chiefly in songs) service of food:
A. iya manah bendar, her arrangements
for the food are excellent. Ngading,
serve, prepare, food: Iya ng. ka
anak iya makai, she served her son;
Iya ng. ka anak iya ti ka datai, she
is preparing food for her son who will
be coming.
Adong1 (adung), a kind of river fish,
Barbus macrolepidotus.
Adong2 (adung), a type of coloration
in fighting-cocks.
Adu1, arrangement: A. iya manah
bendar, he has arranged things well.
Ngadu, arrange: Iya ng. ka barang,
he is arranging the goods; Iya beadu
(or beradu) ka bilik, she arranges the
room; Iya beradu, she is dressed in
her best clothes.
Adu2, arbitration: A. pengulu nya rurus
bendar, that chief was v. just in his
arbitration. Ngadu, arbitrate, settle:
Iya ng. ka laya, he settled the dispute;
Iya pengadu laya kami sarumah, it
is he who settles disputes in our
Adu3, Ngadu, lay a complaint against:
Aku ng. nuan ngagai tuai kami laban
nuan udah ngentak ka kaki di menalan
kami, I shall take you before our
headman for stamping in front of our
Adup, the breast of a chicken (as food):
Iya meri aku a. manok, she gave me
the breast of the chicken.
Agak, a large basket carried on back:
Iya ngema a., he is carrying an a.;
sagak, (this) basketful.
Agang, a stalk, twig, small branch.
See gagang1.
Agar-agar, jelly.
Ageh (agih), a bunch (vegetables, fish):
Aku meli sireh dua a., I bought two
bunches of s.; Iya meli ikan beageh-
ageh, he buys fish by the bunch.
Perageh: Ikan nya di-perageh ka iya,
he put the fish up in bunches.
Agi (agiq), part. 1. more (in com-
parison): Sigi tu manah a. ari nya.
this one is better than that; Aku
kering a. ari iya, I am stronger than
he; Lama a. manah a. deh, the
longer the better; Jarang bendar
ninga berita ari sida, anang telah a.
betemu, we seldom hear from them,
far less see them; Kai aku deh nuan
takut, anang a. antu, if you’re fright-
ened of me, how much more you
would be of a ghost. 2. still: Iya
a. gawa, he’s still working; Iya nadai
a. ditu, he’s no longer here; Iya
badu a. nyadi pengulu, he has ceased
to be chief; a. suba-iya, formerly;
a. maia bekayau kalia, when there
was still head-hunting; a. taun nyin
kamari, at the end of last year.
Agu1, a latrine.
Agu2 (aguq), silly, stupid: A. bendar
nuan tu, how stupid you are!
Ah, interjection (in difficulties).
Ai (aiq), liquid, water, liquor, juice,
sap: a. amat, plain, cold, water; a.
tasik, sea-water; Sida meli a. ka gawai,
they bought drink for the festival;
Aku turun ka a., I am going fishing
(avoiding the specific word); Pemakai
1u beai, this is ‘wet’ food. Kuris iya
berai (or belai), his sores are running;
Mata aku berai, my eyes are watering.
Aih, interjection: a. deh (annoyance,
mockery); a. ga (inciting s.o.).
Ait, Ngait, rely on: Samina iya agi di-a.
ka aku, he is my only hope now;
Iya balat bendar sakit, tang agi ng.
ka iya tau bejako, he is very ill, but
I am pinning my faith on the fact

that he can still speak; Anang ng.
ka jako iya ti salah, don’t attach too
much importance to his hard words.
Aja (ajaq), part., only: iya a., he alone;
Tang siko kerebo a.!, but just one
buffalo!; Tu a. jako aku enggau
nuan, I haven’t anything else to tell
Ajah, Ajan, Ajang, male personal
Ajar, teaching, instruction, advice:
Aku ingat ka a. apai, I remember my
father’s teaching; Utai nya ngelaban
adat a. apai indai aku, that conflicts
with what I was taught, is against
my principles. Ngajar, teach, advise,
admonish: Iya ng. anembiak, he
teaches the children; Anang takut ng.
iya enti sema bisi kereja iya ti enda
patut, don’t hesitate to correct him if
he chances to do anything wrong;
Kami-duai beajar pangan diri, we coun-
selled one another. Belajar, learn.
Pelajar, a lesson. Pengajar, a teacher.
Ajat1, a war-dance. Ngajat, dance
this: Iya ng., he is dancing.
Ajat2, a plaited bag, basket: Iya mai
gari ngena a., he took his clothes in a
Ajau (Ajaw), name of a river.
Ajeh (ajih), magic: Iya tau a., he has
magic powers. Ngajeli, 1. bring
about by magic; 2. (expressing
strong desire) pray that: Aku salalu ng.
ka diri betemu enggau iya, I’m always
praying that I may meet him; A. ka
manah meh hari pagila, may it be fine
tomorrow; tinchin pengajeh, a magic
Aji1, A. Bulan, (in stories) the moon-rat.
Aji2, in bubun a., fontanelle.
Ajir, a row, line: a. Hang, a row of posts.
Ngajir, place in a row: A. ka surat
nya, put those books in a row.
Beaiir, in rows: Iya nanam sayur
enda beajir, he doesn’t plant his
vegetables in rows.
Ajoh (Ajuh), term of address to man
(impolite except to intimates).
Ajong (Ajung), male personal name.
Aka (akaq), elder brother, sister.
Ngaka, call s.o. this: Iya ng. ka aku,
he calls me a.
Akai (akay), interjection (in pain). See
Akai, skill, intelligence, craft: Ngena a.
ngereja pengawa tu, use your brains
in doing this job; Sida salalu ngiga a.
munoh iya, they were always seeking a
means of killing him. Berakal,
clever, cunning: Iya ngereja nya enda
berakal, he did it without thinking
it out. Ngakal, 1. deceive: Iya ng.
aku, he tricked me; Iya udah di-akal
mata iya, her eyes had deceived her;
2. do skilfully: Iya tau ng. pengawa,
he can do the job skilfully.
Akan, a distant cousin: Aku nemuai
ngagai a. aku, I paid a visit to a distant
cousin of mine.
Akap, mould.
Akar, 1. roots;- 2. a creeping plant.
Akas, pandanus, screw-pine.
Akat, matter floating on water: a.
daun, rangkang, floating leaves,
Akeh, (akih) 1. obs. stranger; 2. term of
Aki (akiq), 1. grandfather; 2. term of
address to males of grandfather’s
Akik, [Ar.] (Bible) chalcedony.
Akim, [Ar.] a judge.
Akit, a raft: Aku dudok atas a., I was
sitting on a raft; Iya beakit ka buloh,
he has, makes, a raft of bamboo.
Ngakit, 1. (with ka), make a raft
of: Iya ng. ka kayu, he made a raft
of the logs; 2. (without ka) take
. (logs) in tow: Iya ng. kayu, he tows
the logs.
Aku1, pronoun, 1st person singular, I,
me, my: A. nyukai perau iya, I hired
his boat; lya nganu a., he chid me;
Nya enggi aku, that is mine.
Aku2 (aku or akuq), Ngaku, treat as:
Iya ng. aku ka anak, he treats me as a
son; Kami-duai beraku diri ka
menyadi, we adopt o. another as
Aku3 (akuq), Ngaku, 1. admit, confess:
Iya ng. samoa berita nya, he admitted
all these things; Iya enggai ng.
kandong iya, he will not acknowledge
paternity; 2. with enda, refuse to:
Iya enda ng. ngelaban aku, he refused
to fight me; Aku enda ng. bejalai
enda betanggoi ngelaban panas bisa,
I will not go out in the hot sun with-
out a hat.
Akun, Ngakun, Berakun, see aku2.
Akup, name given to a black dog.
Alah, defeated, overcome: Sida a.
beperang, they were defeated in war;
A. aku, I give up; Enda a. aku asi nya,
I couldn’t finish that rice. Ngalah,
defeat, conquer: Kami ng. ka munsoh,
we defeated the enemy; Ng. ka diri,
control yourself; Pengalah Sadok,
kami lalu pindah ka menoa tu, after
the defeat at 5. we migrated to these
Alai1 (alay), place, situation (where,
in which), occasion (when): Aku
enda nemu a. iya, I don’t know where
he is; menoa baru enda kala a.

orang pegi, a new land where none
had ever gone; Nya tau a. bemain,
that is where you can go for your
sport; Dini a. nuan nyimpan chapak?,
where do you put the plates?;
rumah ti a. iya diau, the house in
which he lives; Dia a. aku bisi hari
aku ngaga utai tu ka nuan, when I
have time 1’11 make this for you;
Barang maia a. nuan lantang, anang
enda nemuai ngagai kami, do come
and see us whenever you are free;
Hari salalu manah, tang enda nyamai
a. belayar, the weather is good in
general but not suitable for sailing;
Enda umbas a. ngengkah ka jari,
you’re not big enough for me to fight;
Dua hari lepas nya a. iya pulai ka
rumah iya, two days later he went
home; Baru dudok aku a. iya datai,
1 had just sat down when he arrived;
Apin sempat muat gari kami a. hari
ujan, before we had time to get our
clothes in it began to rain; Nadai a.
gawa laban hari ujan, we can’t work,
because it’s raining; Kami enda lama
agi a. gawa, we shall soon be at work;
Enda berasai a. hari malam, it was
dark before I realized it; nya a.,
therefore, so; Lembut bendar tulang
iya, nya a. iya enda tau bejalai, he is
so weak he can’t walk; Laban
penelap iya nya a. iya di-kerindu ka
orang, he is loved for his kindness;
(as an introductory phrase) Nya a.
pulai ngagai jako pejalai nuan nya
tadi, well now, coming back to the
subject of your journey; kabuah a.,
kati a., why: Lalu iya nusoi kabuah a.
iya malu ter an tang begau, then he
explained why he had sounded the
alarm; Kati a. nuan enggai enda pulai
pagila?, why do you insist on going
home tomorrow?
Alai2 (alay), part., in commands:
Pulai ka bilik a., Duat, go back to the
room, Duat.
Alai3 (alay), (of a design) having awk-
ward spaces: Buah pua nya a.,
the pattern of that blanket is un-
Alam, see dalam.
Alan, average, normal, usual: Tu a.
maia kami badu gawa, this is our
usual time for stopping work; Iya
belanda endang a. peneras orang
maioh, he runs as fast as most people.
Alang, a beam: A. para nya bentur,
the beams of the wood-store are bent.
Alang-Alang, incomplete: Tulis aku agi
a., I haven’t quite finished writing.
Alap, Ngalap, slow down (to recover
breath): Kami ng., we slowed down.
Alar, a condition in which the patient
has recurrent delirium and swelling
of the legs: A. iya udu bendar, his a.
is very bad; Kaki iya a., his legs are
swollen: A. iya tus, the swelling has
gone down.
Alas1, a valuable jar.
Alas2, [Mai.] (Bible) foundation.
Alau1 (alaw), in buntak a., a locust.
Alau2 (alaw), part, (in commands)
come on, go on: A. palu ular nya!,
go on, hit that snake!; Iya salalu
bealau-a. enda ngasoh ngereja penya-
lah, he urgently warns me not to do
Ali1, male personal name.
Ali2 (aliq), in buku a., ankle.
Ali-Ali, apart: Aku dudok a. (kediri)
ari sida, I sit apart from them.
Alih, Ngalih, turn over: Aku ng. ka diri,
1 turned over; Iya ng. ka ikan tunu,
she turns the fish that is roasting;
Hari nyau ng., it is past noon.
Alin, male personal name.
Alir, a large hook for catching croco-
diles. Ngalir: Kami ng. baya, we
hooked a crocodile; (joc.) Aku ng.
adi aku ti tindok, I woke my younger
brother suddenly.
Alis, Ngalis, strip: Iya ng. kulit kayu,
he stripped the bark from a tree.
Alit, blocked: Lubang nya a., that hole
is stopped up; a. ati, puzzled,
dumbfounded; Injat lalu tekenyit
enggau a. ati laban enda kala ninga
burong tau bejako, Injat was sur-
prised and puzzled, for he had
never heard a bird that could speak.
Ngalit, block, stop up: Iya ng. (ka)
lubang, he stopped up the hole.
Allah, [Ar.] A. Taala, God.
Almesih, [Ar.] Christ.
Aloh (aluh), term of address for men
(impolite except between intimates).
Aloi (aluy), see ajoh, aloh.
AIu1, a pestle: A. iya panjai, her pestle
is a long one.
Alu2, Ngalu, welcome ceremoniously: Iya
ng. pengabang, he received the guests.
Alun, 1. swell (of the sea): A. gelum-
bang balat bendar, there is a heavy
swell; 2. a charge: A. munsoh balat
bendar, the enemy charged furiously;
3. embanked: jalai a., an embanked
road, a modern road, high road.
Ngalun, drive back; bank up:
Gelumbang ng. ka perau kami ka
tebing, the waves drove our boat
ashore; Munsoh ng. ka kami datai
ka sungai, the enemy forced us back to
the river; Iya ng. ka tanah, he banked
up the earth; Atau aku ng., I am going
to vomit.

Alur, current of river: Iya merau
nengah a., he goes with the current;
ngelaban a., against the current.
Alus, 1. smooth: Kulit iya a., his skin
is smooth; 2. fine, small: Ubong nya
a. bendar, that cotton is v. fine;
Bala sida a. magang, their team is made
up of small men; 3. peaceful, calm:
Tasik a., the sea is calm; Menoa a.
dia-tu, the country is at peace now;
4. (in games) Main iya a., he plays a
clean game. Ngalus, make smooth:
Iya ng. ka papan, he is smoothing the
Am, see aram.
Ama1, part., 1. when, whenever: A.
aku nginsap, batok, whenever I
smoke I cough. 2. a. ... a., some-
times . . . sometimes: A. bisi, a.
nadai, sometimes it’s there, sometimes
Ama2 (amaq), a louse found on fowls.
Amai (amay), Ngamai, see amat.
Amal, practices for acquiring strength,
beauty: Tu a. kering, this is the art of
acquiring strength. Ngamai, fast,
perform ceremonies, in order to
acquire strength etc.: Iya ng., he
does these things.
Amang, menaces: Ari a. jako iya aku
nemu iya deka nganu aku, from his
threatening tone I knew he was
going to take me to task. Ngamang,
menace: Iya ng. aku enggau duku, he
threatened me with a knife.
Amat, true: A. aku munoh anak seduai,
it is true I killed your son; A.?, really?,
did you?; Kati a. iya ti kering?, is it
true that he is strong?; a. ga, provided,
if only; Nama kebuah enda a. ga
nuan bisi di menoa?, why not?—
provided you’re in the district.
Ngamat, carry out, confirm: Berita
nya di-amat ka, the report was
confirmed; Aku ka ng. ka jako aku,
I shall carry out what I said; Di-
kamat ka iya jako iya ti enggau aku
madah ka diri deka pegi, he put into
effect what he said to me about
wanting to go abroad; Nadai
pengamat jako nuan, there is no truth
in what you say; Pengamat enggau
pengenda enda nemu aku, I don’t
know whether it’s true or false.
Amau (amaw), ashes: kulat a., a mush-
room found after burning the clearing.
Amba (ambaq), a noose: A. iyaputus, his
noose is broken; Manok nya kena
a. aku, the fowl was caught in my
noose. Ngamba, catch with a noose:
Aku ng. jelu, I catch animals with a
Ambai (ambay), sweetheart, lover: a.
mati iya, his true love; Seduai nya
beambai, those two are in love.
Ambat, Ngambat, 1. intercept: A. ari
moa pintu nyinl, stop him from
getting through the door; 2. go to
meet: Kami undor ng. Rajah, we are
going down to meet, welcome, the
Rajah; 3. block: Jalai iya abis
di-a. kami, all his ways of escape are
blocked by us; 4. sp. A. aku, lend
me a hand. See berambat.
Ambe, a net for birds or fish. Ngambe:
Iya ng., he uses this.
Ambi (ambiq), Ngambi, take, get, fetch:
Iya ng. sumpit, he took a blowpipe;
Iya ng. manang, he fetched a manang’,
Aku ng. iya nemuai, I took him,
invited him, to stay with me; ng.
dua tiga iti, say (about) two or three;
Pambi ka, subtract it; sam pambi,
subtraction sum.
Ambih, see abis.
Ambin, a kind of basket.
Ambis, see abis.
Amboh (ambuli), scum, slime: Anang
ngirup ai a., don’t drink cloudy water.
Sungai tu enda ulih alai nyala laban a.,
you can’t use a casting-net on this
river because of the scum.
Ambol (ambul), a float attached to
Ambong (ambung), basket container for
storing cups, plates: a. chapak, a
stack of plates.
Ambu (ambuq), thing claimed: A. aku
di-rebut iya, he made off with the
thing to which I laid claim. Ngambu,
claim: Iya ng. surat aku, he claims
my books; Iya ng. sanu, she cites so-
and-so as the father of her unborn
child; Iya apin ng., she hasn’t yet
declared the father; wcAw a., see uchu.
Ambun, mist, damp: Sahari-tu balat
bendar a., it’s v. misty today; A.
nyadi ujan, the mist turns to rain;
Pagi tu beambun, it’s misty this morn-
ing. See perambun.
Ambur, Ngambur, scatter, sprinkle: Aku
ng. ka beras ka empa manok, I
scattered rice for the chickens.
Ami (amiq), fertile: Tanah nya a., that
land is fertile. Ngami, make fertile,
manure: Iya ng. (kd) kebun iya enggau
tai sapi, he manured his plantation
with cow-dung; Balat pengami tanah
nya, that land is v. fertile.
Amil, female personal name.
Amok (amuk), 1. attack: A. munsoh
udu bendar, the enemy’s attack was
furious; Seduai-iya beamok, (often
of children) they were fighting.
Ngamok, to attack: Iya nurun ka
pasar lalu ng. orang, he went to

the bazaar and ran amuck. 2.
passion, enthusiasm: A. iya, he has a
passion for it; Mensia beamok ka
gari dia-tu, people are rushing to get
clothes now,
Ampa (ampaq), empty ears: Padi iya
beampa, there are many empty ears
in his paddy; Nuan tu a. orang, you
are good for nothing; Jako iya
maioh a., there’s nothing in what he
Ampang1, anak a., bastard. Ngampang:
lya ng., she gave birth to a bastard;
sp. Iya a. kami menyadi, he is the
black sheep of the family. Ngam-
pang: Iya ng. kia-kia, he is a vagrant.
Ampang2, a. belantan, a kind of blanket.
Ampar, Ngampar, spread: Aku ng.
kain atas mija, I spread a cloth over
the table.
Ampau (amp aw), gift, present: Iya
meri aku a., he gave me a present.
Ngampau, give a present: Iya ng.
aku leboh aku nikah, he gave me a
wedding present.
Ampi, male personal name.
Ampih, near: Iya dudok a. aku, he sat
near me. Ngampih, approach: Anang
ng. aku, don’t come near me.
Ampin, baby’s napkin: Iya malut anak
enggau a., she put a napkin on the
Ampir, Ngampir, 1. encroach, (of wild
animals) come foraging: Iya ng.
temuda aku, he encroaches on my
land; Unia I kami di-a. jelu nemalam,
our farm was raided by animals last
night. 2. approach threateningly or
suspiciously: Perau jejaga bekayoh
ng. kami the police boat paddled up
to us.
Ampis, in bau a., smell of body: Iya
ban a., he smells.
Ampit, 1. having a share: Aku enda a.
lauk, I haven’t any meat. Ngampit,
to give a share: Apai Aloi berunding
ka makai samoa telu nya enda ng.
ka bini anak iya, A. A. thought of
eating all the eggs without giving his
wife and children a share. 2. be
informed of: Aku enda a. berita nya,
I hadn’t heard that. Ngampit,
inform: Anang enda ng. ka aku enti
nuan bebini, don’t fail to let me know
if you marry.
Ampoh (ampuh), 1. submerged: Kayu
nya a., that log is covered; A. patong,
(the water is) above my knee; Laban
pemaroh menoa nya, nya alai iya
salalu a. bah, because it is low-lying,
that district is always being flooded;
Sangkoh iya a. ba babi, his spear was
buried in the pig. Ngampoh, cover:
Ai ng. ka jalai, the water covers the
road. 2. afloat: Nganti perau nya a.,
wait till the boat is afloat. Ngampoh,
float (off): Ai ng. ka perau, the water
floats the boat off.
Ampul, (of body) soft, unmuscular;
(of wood) soft, not durable; (of
cotton) light; (of fruit) soft:
Tuboh iya a., he is flabby; kayu a.,
soft woods. Ngampul: Anang ng.
ka buah nya, don’t make that fruit
soft; Balat pengampul .tuboh iya,
he is v. flabby.
Ampun, 1. pardon: Iya minta a. aku,
he asked me to forgive him. Ngam-
pun'. Aku ng. iya, 1 forgave him. 2.
Ngampun, confess, apologize: Aku
ng. penyalah aku, I confess I have done
wrong; Aku ng. ngagai nuan laban
aku enchuri buah nuan tadi, I ask your
pardon for having stolen your fruit.
Amput, sting: A. singut bisa bendar, the
ant’s sting is v. painful. Ngamput,
1. to sting: Singut ng. pending iya,
the ant stung him on the ear; 2.
(gross) copulate with: Iya ng. indu
nya, he lay with that woman.
Amu (amuq), greedy: Iya a., he is greedy.
Ngamu: Anang ng. nya, don’t be
Amur, mud, dust: Iya napis a. (ba) ai,
she strains the dust from the water;
Tuboh anembiak nya balut a., those
youths are covered with mud; Ai
dalam gelas aku a.-a., the water in
my glass is cloudy; Papan beamur-
amur, the floor is dusty.
Amus, a kind of ant: Kayu nya beamus,
there are ants in that tree.
Anak, 1. child, son, daughter, offspring:
a. mit, little child, baby; a. Iban Sara-
wak, the Ibans of S.; a. iru, adopted
child; a. ukoi, puppy. 2. a. pisang,
small banana; a. kayu, small tree;
a. pasang, young flood (tide); a.
mata, pupil of eye; a. duit, interest;
a. wong, smallerrapid;a. raja, rainbow;
Meli a. semakau ka aku, buy me a
little tobacco. Nganak: Iya ng.
ka aku, she calls me son. Beranak,
give birth: Iya beranak lelaki, she gave
birth to a son; Iya beranak ka duit, he
put money out at interest. Beranak-
ranak: Sida beranak-ranak nemuai
ngagai kami, all the family came to
visit us. Peranak, offspring. See men-
yanak and beranak.
Anang, part., 1. in prohibitions :
A. negu mija, tajau atas nya, don’t
shake the table, there’s a valuable
jar on it; A. udu, don’t be rough;
Anang baka pendiau jelu, don’t behave
like a beast; A. guai dulu, wait a

moment, don’t be in a hurry; A. di-
tengah, no throughfare; A. di-empa,
not to be eaten; A. (rindu) di-asoh
iya, don’t let yourself be ordered
about by him. 2. a. enda, you must,
don’t fail to: A. enda nemuai ngagai
kami, don’t fail to visit us. 3. Laban
ujan deh nuan chelap, a. agi seleju,
if you’re cold in the rain, how much
colder you’d be in snow; Aku
nadai hari nemuai ngagai iya, a. telah
(or sebut) agi diau enggau iya saming-
gu, I haven’t time to visit him, far
less spend a week with him; A. ka
ringgit aku bi si, sesen deh nadai, I
haven’t a dollar, I haven’t even a cent.
Anchau (anchaw), Nganchau, spread,
stretch: Aku ng. tikai, I spread the mat;
Emperan ng. ari tebing ai ka kaki
bukit, the lowland stretches from the
river bank to the foot of the hills;
Iya beanchau (or beranchau) tikai,
she spreads the mats; sp. Iya salalu
di-peranchau ka orang, he’s always
getting into trouble.
Anchi-Anchi (anchiq-anchiq), with enda
or ukai, extremely: Ukai a. pemanah
gamal iya agi menya, she was ex-
tremely beautiful once.
Anchin, rotten: orang a., a wastrel.
Nganchin: Nadai utai ng. nya, it’s
quite rotten.
Anchit, sent flying: Pangka aku a., my
top was sent flying; Iya a. di-buai
kuda, he was flung from his horse;
Aku a. ka menoa bukai, I have gone
to another land. Nganchit: Iya ng.
ka buah guli aku, he knocked my
marble away.
Anchor, melted, dissolved: Bangkang a.,
the solder is melted; Gula a., the
sugar has dissolved. Nganchur, melt,
dissolve, dilute: Iya ng. ka chat,
he thins the paint.
Anda, 1. god of riches. 2. lucky,
prosperous in: Iya a. bumai, he
prospers in his farming.
Andai (anday), dependent: Isau a.,
Isau has to be supported. Ngandai,
support, keep: Jakob ng. apai iya, J.
supports his father; Jakob pengandai
apai iya, it is J. who supports his
Andal, have confidence in, trust: Aku a.
bendar ka nuan, I trust you; Iya a.
ka aku ngereja pengawa, he relies on
me to do the work. Ngandai, inspire
confidence: Pengawa iya ng. ka ati
aku, I have confidence in his work;
Anang samina ng. ka ati aku, don’t
just lead me on, don’t let me down;
Tu orang ti di-kandal ka aku gawa,
7 Anggong-Api
this is the man to whom I entrust the
Andau (andaw), a bridge. Ngandau, to
bridge: lya ng. sungai, he bridged
the river.
Ando (andoq), see endu.
Andu (anduq), a necklace: Iya beandu,
she wears a necklace.
Anembiak (nembiak), a youth; a child;
a follower: Pengulu ngasoh a. iya
nyukul kami, the chief sent some of his
people to turn us back; Iya penaroh
wang a. sekula, he looks after the
schoolboys’ money.
Angat1, hot: Hari a. bendar sahari-tu,
it is hot today; Chabi a., chilli is hot;
A. pending aku ninga jako nya, I was
annoyed at hearing this. Ngangat, to
heat: Iya ng. ka ai, she heated some
water; Enda kala ensepi utai ng. nya,
I never tasted anything so hot;
Iya beangat ka kaki iya ngagai api,
he warms his feet at the fire. Berangat,
burnt: Dilah aku berangat laban
chabi, my tongue was burnt by the
chilli; Perangat ngagai panas tikai
nya, put that mat out in the sun.
Pengangat, heat: Balat pengangat
hari sahari-tu, the heat is v. great
Angat2, disturbed, troubled, untrue:
Dachin iya a., his scales are untrue;
Pegai perintah iya a., his rule was
Anggap, forethought: Maioh bendar a.
ati iya, he has a great deal of fore-
sight. Nganggap, look ahead: Iya
ng. ka utai ti dudi, he thinks of what
is to come; Penganggap bendar nuan
tu, you are careful to look before you
leap; Aku ng. ka harika ujan, I foresee
that it will rain; A. ati aku iya ka munoh
aku, I think he wants to kill me.
Anggar, estimate, reckoning: A. ati
aku pukol dua dia-tu, I reckon it is
two o’clock now; Ni a. rega?, what
is the price likely to be? Nganggar,
reckon, guess: Umor aku di-anggar
iya kira tiga puloh taun, laban aku
empu enda teingat, he reckoned my
age at about 30, because I couldn’t
remember myself.
Anggat, term of address for a young man.
Anggil, female personal name.
Anggit, male personal name.
Anggok (angguk), 1. shoulder of
animal (taken by him whose noose
is round its neck); 2. Seduai-iya ma
a., the one is giving the other a
Anggong (anggung), in a. batu, rocks.
Anggong-Api (anggung-apiq), Seduai-iya
a., (us. of woman and grandchild)

she lies on the floor and rocks him
on her feet.
Anggor1 (anggur'), plans, preparations:
Lama bendar a. gawai sida, lalu enda
nyadi, there was a lot of talk about
their feast but it didn’t come off;
Iya datai a. gawai, he came to help
in the preparations for the festival;
Munyi a. orang kai ka pegi, you’re
making as much fuss as if you were
going on an expedition; Iya enda
beanggor ti bebini, he married without
any previous announcement. Ngang-
gor: Aku ng. ka diri pegi ujong bulan
tu, I am planning to go on an expedi-
tion at the end of this month.
Anggor2 (anggur), [Pers.] buah a.,
grapes; ai a., wine.
Anggu (angguq), a loop, sling: Tanggoi
iya beanggu, his hat has a string.
TVganggu, make, hang by, a loop: Iya
ng. sengkuit, he puts a sling on the
rod for driving away the fowls.
Anggup, tweezers.
Anggut, Nganggut, nod (assent): Iya
ng. ka pala, he nodded his head.
Angin, [Mai.] wind: mata a., a compass.
Angit, fragrance: A. bunga nya malu-
alu, those flowers are giving a sweet
scent. Ngangit: Bunga tu ti ng.
bilik nuan, it’s these flowers that make
your room smell nice; Balat penga-
ngit bau bunga, the flowers are v.
Angka, [Skt.] numerals, figures.
Angkat, rise, move: Iya a. lalu begari,
he got up and dressed; Apin a. kitail,
shall we make a move?; Iya udah a.
ka menoa bukai, he has gone to
another district. Ngangkat, raise,
move: Iya ng. ka aku, he lifted me,
helped me up; Iya ng. ka aku ari
rumah nya, he turned me out of that
house; Sida berangkat sahari-tu,
they are leaving today; sp. Iya
berangkat enggau bini aku, he went
off with my wife; Seduai-iya berang-
kat, they went off together (man and
woman). Terangkat: Chat tanggoi
terangkat, the paint on the hat
blisters; Iya enda terangkat bejako
enggau aku, he couldn’t get on for
talking to me. Pengangkat: Ari ni
pengangkat nuan?, where have you
come from?
Angking, male personal name.
Angkis, porcupine; also used of
Angkong (angkung), dwarf, under-
developed: a. orang, a dwarf; buah
a., a small fruit.
Angkun, cherish: Iya a. ka anak iya,
he is devoted to his child. Ngangkun:
Iya ng. ka diri enggau anak iya, he
pretends to be devoted to his child;
nadai utai ng. nya, extremely devoted;
Aku enggai enda di-kangkun ka nuan,
you must take care of me.
Angkut, Ngangkut, carry in several
loads: Kami ng. ramu, we are bringing
in timber. Berangkut: maia berang-
kut, time of carrying paddy from
umai to rumah', Kami berangkut,
we are bringing in the paddy.
Angoi (anguy), 1. (of fish in July) come
inshore: Ikan a. dia-tu, the fish are
coming in now. 2. (of human beings)
feel oppressed by heat: Aku a. laban
panas, I am overcome by the heat.
Angu, half-witted, silly: Iya tak a., he is
half-witted; Anang a.-a., don’t be
Angus, burnt, on fire: Baju aku a., my
coat is burnt; Rumah aku a., my
house is on fire, burnt down. Nga-
ngus, set on fire (accidentally): Iya ng.
ka rumah aku, he set my house on fire.
Pengangus, the burning of a clearing:
Ni baka pengangus umai nuan?, how
did the firing of your clearing go?
Anih, the slime of decaying vegetable
matter: Iya muai a. sayur, she threw
away the brown parts of the vege-
tables; Sayur nya heanih-anih, those
vegetables are going rotten.
Anit, Nganit, tear off with teeth: Iya ng.
buah, he got the skin of the fruit off
with his teeth.
Anjir, a charm for success in hunting,
fishing; be successful in these:
Iya bisi a., he has an a.; Iya a. berikan,
he is successful in fishing. Iya bisi
p eng anjir = Iya bisi a.
Anjong (anjung), Nganjong, take, bring:
Iya ng. sengayoh aku sahari-tu, he is
bringing my paddle today; sp.
Kami ng. antu, we are burying him;
Iya penganjong pesan kami ngagai
sanu ti bemalam di umai, he takes our
messages to those spending the night
on the farm.
Anjor (anjur), ai a., pasang a., slack
water at low neaps: Sida nyala a.,
they fish (with casting-net) at this
Ansa, [Skt.] a goose.
Ansah, Ngansah, sharpen: Iya ng.
duku, he sharpens his knife; batu
pengansah, whetstone.
Ansak, Ngansak, 1. (without ka) urge,
incite, move towards: Iya ng. aku
belaya, he egged me on to fight;
Ng. kitu agi, move nearer me; Anang
beansak ka orang gawa tekelalu,
don’t make people work too hard;
orang pengansak, an agitator. 2.

(with ka) press back: Sida ng. ka
munsoh, they pressed the enemy back.
Ansal, poor: Orang nya a. bendar, that
man is v. poor; Kami a. bendar,
(apology to visitors) there isn’t
much in the house; Balat pengansal
iya, he is in great poverty.
Ansang, 1. gills of fish. 2. (of human
voice) Anang nebah a., don’t shout;
Inggar bendar a. nuan, you’re making
a lot of noise.
Ansar, Ngansar, rub, scrub, brush:
Iya ng. papan enggau sabut nyiur,
she scrubs the floor with coconut
husk; Anang ng. kaki, don’t shuffle
your feet. Pengansar, sthg. used for
brushing, etc.: Iya nukup buah nyiur
ka pengansar papan, he split a coco-
nut shell to use for brushing the floor.
Ansing, Ngansing, 1. show off, demon-
strate: Iya ng. ka perau pelumba
iya ti baru, he showed off his new
racing-boat; Tanggoi iya baru di-
ansing ka, lalu lenyau, he wore his
hat just once, then it got lost. 2.
test, try: Iya ng. ka ukoi, he is trying
the dogs (after training); Iya ng. ka
ubat bagas, he tested the effect of
the charm for diligence; Iya ng. ka
kuli gawa, he kept the coolies at it.
Anta (antaq), of women, (putting on)
finery: Manah bendar a. nuan enggau
aku, you have dressed beautifully
to receive me. Nganta, dress up in
honour of: Iya ng. ka menyadi ti ka
datai, she is putting on her finery for
her brother who is about to arrive.
Iya nya indu penganta, she’s always
putting on her finery (blame).
Antah, grains with the husk left in
beras: Beras tu beantah bendar,
there are a lot of husks in this rice.
Antap, lining, backing: a. baju, lining
of a coat; a. dudok, sthg. to sit on.
Ngantap, pad, line: Aku ng. baju aku,
I put a lining in my coat; Aku ng.
kerusi tu enggau panggal, I put a
cushion on this chair; Iya nulis
berantap (or beantap) ka surat, he
writes (with his paper) on a book.
Antara1 (ntara), between; a division,
boundary, interval: Iya dudok a.
kami-duai, he sits between us; Laya
nya a. menoa kami enggau orang ulu
ai, the dispute is between our district
and the people up river; Tu a. menoa,
this is the frontier, boundary; A.
maia nebas enggau nebang kami-
duai berikan, in the interval between
cutting the undergrowth and felling,
we two fish; Umai kami-duai enda
bentara, there is no boundary between
our farms; sp. a. dua enda, the
chances are: A. dua enda datai iya
lemai tu, he is likely to come this
evening. Ngentara: Iya ng. umai
kami-duai, he made a boundary
between our two farms.
Antara2 (ntara), pledges exchanged on
marriage: Seduai-iya udah sarak,
tang laki iya apin nyua ka a., they have
divorced, but her husband hasn’t
yet handed over the pledge (which
should be returned).
Anti1 (antiq), Nganti, wait for, until:
Ng. aku ba jalai, wait for me on the
road; A. menyadi nuan datai, wait
for your brother to come; Aku ka
nulis ng. iya ti datai, I shall go on
writing till he comes; Kami-duai
beanti (or beranti) pangan diri, we
waited for one another. Beranti:
Kami-duai beranti di pengkalan, we
arranged to meet at the landing-
place. Penganti, a rendezvous: Aku
datai ba penganti ari Hi rumah sida,
I arrived at the rendezvous below
their house.
Anti2 (antiq), entertainment, hospitality:
Manah bendar a. iya enggau aku, he did
me very well.
Anti3 (antiq), defence in sword dance:
A. iya manah bendar, his defence is
good. Nganti: Iya landik ng., he is
good at defence.
Antin, earring: Iya beantin, she wears
Anting, cutting pieces of wood of equal
length: A. iya enda bela, he hasn’t
made them equal; Kayu iya apin
beanting, his wood is not yet cut into
lengths. Nganting: Iya ng. kayu ka
pagar, he is cutting lengths of wood
for a fence.
Antu1, a ghost, demon; the dead person;
the supernatural: Kami nganjong a.
sahari-tu, we are holding the funeral
today; Iya berantu bendar, he must
have supernatural powers; Pengeraja
iya beri a., he is fabulously rich.
Ngantu, dress up to look horrifying:
Iya ng. diri, he put on a fearful dis-
Antu2 (antuq), Ngantu, come to s.o.’s
assistance: Iya ng. aku, he came to my
assistance; Iya ng. penusah kami,
he helped us in our trouble. Pengantu,
helper, supporter: Kami maioh
pengantu nyabong k amari, we had a
lot of supporters at the cock-fighting
Antu3 (antuq), in a. ai, sodden: Batang
tu a. ai, this trunk is waterlogged.
Anu1 (anuq), so-and-so, somewhere or
other, something or other: Aku
bet emu enggau a. ( = sanu) tadi, I

met what’s-his-name just now; Aku
betemu enggau iya di—anu tu,—di
Kabong, I met him—let me see,—in
K.; Aku meda bisi utai nuan ba mija—
a. tu,—surat, I saw there was some-
thing of yours on the table, some
book. cf. sanu.
Anu2, (anuq), rebuke, scolding: A.
iya balat bendar, he rebuked (me)
severely, he was v. angry. Ngamr.
Iya ng. aku, he reprimanded me;
Penganu bendar nuan tu, you are v.
Anyam, weaving (baskets, mats): A.
iya apin tembu, she hasn’t yet finished
her weaving; Belakang iya beranyam
laban tikai, his back is marked with
(the pattern of) the mat. Nganyam,
weave: Iya ng. bakul, she made a
basket; Iya rindang beanyam (or
beranyam) tikai ka orang, she fritters
away her time making mats for people;
Iya nya indu penganyam, she goes in
for, is good at, making mats, baskets.
Anyap, Nganyap, court, visit a girl by
night: Iya ng. anak aku, he is courting
my daughter; Iya penganyap bendar,
he’s always visiting girls.
Anyil, Nganyil, of insects, insert probos-
cis: Manyi ng. bunga nya, the bee
visited that flower; Indu utai nya ng.
pala aku, that insect darted at my
Anyir, (of food) thin: Asi tu a., this rice
is thin. Nganyir: Iya ng. ka asi, she
adds water to the rice.
Anyut, adrift, drifting: Perau kami a.,
our boat is adrift; Kami beranyut, we
are drifting; Beranyut kit ail, easy all!
Nganyut: Iya ng. ka perau aku, he set
my boat adrift; Aku nemu perau di-
peranyut ka orang, I found a boat that
had been set adrift; Iya penganyut
batang, his job is to fend off drifting
Ap, interjection, used in playing with
Apa, part. 1. interrog. what?: A. utai
nya?, what’s that?; Nyadi a., nyadi
nama, nuan tu ila?, what will become
of you? 2. nadai a.-a., all right, safe
and sound; Nadai nya nyadi a. deh,
never mind, don’t worry.
Apai (apay), father; term of address for
father or uncle: a. indai, parents,
parents and their brothers and sisters;
samoa a. indai aku ti di menoa, my
parents and all my uncles and aunts at
home; a. tuai, father’s (mother’s)
elder brother; a. biak, father’s
(mother’s) younger brother; Iya jadi
enggau a. orang, she married a man
who had been divorced; Nadai a.
orang makai gula enggau ikan masin,
nobody eats sugar with salt fish;
(coarse) Anak nya beapai ka manok
(or babi), that child is a bastard.
Ngapai-. Aku ng. ka iya, I call him
Apak, direction: Aku bejalai ngagai a.
menoa Entulu, I am going towards
Bintulu; Kaban ikan nuju a. nya, a
shoal of fish was moving in that
Apal, word-perfect: Iya a. bendar ka
samoa pelajar iya, he knows all his
lessons thoroughly. Ngapai, learn by
heart: Iya ng. ka leka renong, he
learns the words of the songs.
Apan, a lair.
Apap, see mapap.
Apat, litter: Maioh bendar a. keretas ba
bilik aku, my room is littered with
paper; Bilik iya beapat-apat laban
perengka, his room is crowded with
Apau (Apaw), male personal name.
Api, fire, light: A. padam, the fire is out;
Aku meda a., I saw a light, a fire;
Jako iya beapi-api. he speaks with
passion; Sida tindok beapi, they are
sleeping in the firelight. Ngapi: Aku
ng. asi aku, I made the fire burn up
under my rice; Anang ng. asi nya agi,
don’t cook that rice any longer; Iya
ng. laya kami, he fanned our quarrel.
Berapi, heat, cook: Udah berapi
kita?, have you done the cooking?
Apin, part, not yet, before: Iya a.
datai, he hasn’t come yet; A. iya
makai telu nya, before he ate the eggs;
a. bah, before the flood.
Aping, a kind of palm.
Apis, a rattan bag or basket.
Apit1, Ngapit, squeeze, press: Aku ng.
jari iya enggau pintu, I squeezed his
hand in the door; Sida ng. tebu, they
are pressing sugar-cane; Sida ng.
minyak, they are extracting oil.
Apit2, next in order: Tu adi ti a. aku,
this is my next younger brother
(sister); lya dudok a. aku, he sits next
me; Kamibejalaidi-atoriyabeapit-apit,
we march in the order he arranges.
Ngapit: Aku datai dulu, udah nya
iya ng. aku, I arrived first, he came
Apok (apuk), dust, dirt: a. empelawa,
Apong1 (apung), nipa palm: rukok a.,
cigarette rolled in nipa leaf.
Apong2 (apung), Ngapong, take out of
the water, rescue: Iya ng. kami ti
karam, he rescued us when we

Apu, exclamation of surprise, wonder,
Apus, complete, finished: Jako iya apin
a., he hasn’t finished what he has to
say; Titi nya apin a. tengah iya, he
hasn’t got right across that bridge;
Jalai nya panjai, enda a. tengah sahari,
it’s a long way, you can’t do it in a
day; Seput iya a., he is dead.
Ngapus: Iya be jalai ng. ka jalai, he
walked the whole way; Iya agi ng. ka
ensera iya, he hasn’t got to the end of
his story; Pengapus iya lemai kamari
kami baum ka kini tunga nganjong iya,
when he had finished yesterday
evening, we discussed where to send
him; Tu pengapus aum kitai sahari-tu,
that’s the end of our meeting for
today; pengapus jalai, the end of the
Ara1, stripes: Manah bendar a. baju
nuan, I like the stripes in your coat;
Kain tu bear a, this cloth is striped.
Ngara: Anang ng. kain tu, don’t
make stripes in this cloth.
Ara2 (araq), fig-tree.
Ara3 (araq), Ngara, spread out, display:
Iya ng. ka padi, she spreads out the
rice; Iya ng. ka penemu, he displays
his knowledge.
Arah, Ngarah, check (a child): A. anak
nuan, anang ngasoh iya bayam duku,
check your child, don’t let him play
with knives.
Arak1, Ngarak, urge: Perintah ng.
orang maioh nanam ubi barang ti apin,
the government urges all those who
have not done so to plant tapioca;
Iya pengarak kami gawa, it’s he who
urges us on at work.
Arak2, [Ar.] arrack, rice-spirit: Iya
numi aku enggau a., he gave me some
Aram, pur/, let’s: A. (kitai) makai, let’s
have our meal.
Arang, charcoal: Kami nadai bearang,
we have no charcoal.
Arap, believe, trust, hope: Aku a. ka
iya datai, I think he’ll come; Aku a.
ka nuan ngereja nya, I rely on you
to do that; Aku gerai, a. ka seduai
gerai mega, I am well and hope
you two are well also. Ngarap: Aku
ng. ka diri bulih gaji bulan tu, I
trust I shall get my salary this month.
Pengarap, faith, religion.
Arau1 (a raw), a kind of tree, the leaves of
which are used in place of soap.
Arau2 (qraw), Ngarau, do sthg. quickly
or for a short time: Iya ng. bendar
bejako enggau aku, he spoke to me
hurriedly; Iya tindok ng. bendar, he
slept for a short time: Nebas umai
enda ulih di-arau sahari dua, you can’t
clear your farm-land in a day or two;
Ti udah nemuai enggai ng., if I paid
a visit I shouldn’t want it to be a
flying one; A.!, hurry up!
Are, Ngare, uncover, leave exposed:
Anang ng. ka duit tinggal di bilik, don’t
leave money lying about in the
room; A. ka kasut nuan ngagaipanas,
put your shoes in the sun. See
mengare, ngare.
Ari1, Ngari, receive payment (us. in
goods or services) for occasional
work: Iya ng. aku beban, he works for
me and I do some carpentry for him
in return; A. nya ari iya, pay him for
it by working for him.
Ari2, Ngari, 1. represent, act on behalf
of: Iya ng. ka aku bejako, he speaks
for me; Iya nyadi pengari Dayak
ngagai Council Negri, he acts as a
Dayak representative on the Council
Negri; 2. show partiality: Iya ng.
ka sida ari sapiak, he favours the other
Ari3, part. 1. from, out of: A. ni
pengangkat nuan tadi?, where did you
set out from?; Siko ari kami tinggal,
one of us was left behind; 2. in
expressions of relative position: a.
kiba, kanan, on the left, right; wifcz a.
tangga, go up by the ladder; Aku
bejalai nengah emperan, iya bejalai a.
bukit, I went by the plain, he went
along the hills; a. belakang, behind;
a. luar, outside; Embing a. tebing, go
along the bank; Iya nimbak kebukai
a., he shot and missed; Jako nuan ke-
bukai a., what you say is beside the
mark; 3. in comparisons: Sigi tu manah
agi a. nya, this one is better than that;
Iya ngereja nya tau agi a. aku, he
does it better than I do; Iya tinggi a.
sida tiga, he is the tallest of the three.
Aris, line, family: A. kami tu nyau ka
punas, our line is dying out; Iya a.
orang raja, he comes of a rich family.
Aroh1 (aruh), place: Tu a. aku engkah
surat tadi, this is where I put my books
just now.
Aroh2 (aruh), fitting: Nya a. ati aku,
that suits me; Jako nuan enda a.-a.,
you are talking wildly; A. aku ngukum
nuan dia-tu, laban aku suah bendar
udah ngajar nuan, it is time I fined you,
for I’ve warned you many times.
Arok (aruk), soot, sooty: A. ba jari
nuan, there’s soot on your hands;
Jari iya a., his hands are sooty; Iya
ngikis a. ba burit kali, she scrapes the
black from the bottom of the pot.
Ngarok, make sooty: Iya ng. moa
diri, he got soot on his face.

Arong1 (arung), a. sungai, bed of river;
a. ai, the main current; a. jalai,
(country) centre of road, (town)
Arong2 (arung), Ngarong, go up to and
beyond: Tarit tali tu ng. ka kayu nyin,
pull this rope to the other side of that
tree; A. ka tiang, (racing) keep out-
side the posts; Nengeri kami udah
kena a. munsoh, our country has been
overrun by the enemy.
Arong3 (arung), in enchabuh a., a
particular festival.
Aru1, having much sap: Getah tu a.
bendar, this rubber plant has much
Aru2 (aruq), Ngaru, cook in a dry pan:
Iya ng. jagong, she cooks Indian corn
in this way.
Arum, Ngarum, see angit.
Arus, current.
Asa (asaq), disappointed, deceived: A.
bendar aku tadi, I was taken in just
now. Ngasa: Iya ng. ka anembiak
enggau roti, he took the children in
with (the promise of) cakes.
Asai (asay), feeling, feel; it’s as if: Ni
a. runding nuan?, what is your
opinion?; A. ti udah, I think I did;
Ni a. utai?, how are things going?;
A. ti apin tua bet emu, I don’t think
we’ve met before; A. ti diau ba
rumah orang, I feel a stranger (in my
own place); Mimpi a. ti bejalai, I
dreamed I was travelling; Nya a.
nuan, it serves you right; Sepi a. nuan
ila, I’ll get my own back later; Tau
a. nuan bejalai, do you think you can
walk? Berasai, feel: Enda berasai
chelap nuan?, don’t you feel the cold?;
Aku berasai ngelu, I feel giddy; Aku
enda berasai, tak nyu iya, I lost control
of myself and pushed him; Enda
berasai bulan abis, how time flies (the
month is ended). Ngasai, to experi-
ence, test: Aku ng. ka duku sabilah
tu dulu, I’ll try this chopper first; Aku
udah ng. ka pendiau di menoa London,
I’ve had the experience of living in L.
Asal, [Ar.] race, origin: Nama a. nuan?,
what is your race?; Aku endang a.
Day a, I am a pure Dayak; Iya
endang orang beasal, there is no
mixture in his blood; Endang a. nuan
tu orang penchuri, you’re a born thief.
Asam1, a sour-fruit: a. kandis=buah
Asam2, nickel.
Asa-Mata, (asaq-), (boy’s) sweetheart:
Bisi a. bujang tu, this chap has a
Asap, smoke, steam: Aku meda a. api,
I saw the smoke of a fire. Berasap:
Api berasap, the fire is smoking;
Tuboh iya berasap, he is steaming.
Ngasap, to smoke: Iya ng. getah, he
is smoking the rubber.
Asi1 (asiq), cooked rice: Iya mandok a.,
she is cooking the rice; Iya beasi ka
mulong, he uses sago instead of rice
(as staple food).
Asi2 (asiq), victim, dupe: Aku endang
a. iya, I was his dupe; Orang dagang
beasi ka orang ulu, the traders take
advantage of the up-country people.
Asil, [Ar.] profit; revenue: Bisi a.
bedagang, there’s money to be made
by trading; Nadai a. dagang aku, I
made nothing out of my trading;
wang a., door tax.
Asoh (asuh), order, request: Tu a. tuai
kami, this is the headman’s order.
Ngasoh, 1. tell, get (s.o. to): Aji
Bulan ng. sida ngaga mit agi, N. B.
told them to make it smaller; 2.
allow: Nubai enda di-asoh, tuba-
fishing is not allowed; 3. make:
Ujan ng. rumput bauh, rain makes the
grass grow long.
Asong (Asung), male personal name.
Asor (asur), Ngasor, push (sthg. long
and heavy): Iya ng. ka perau, he was
pushing the boat; Aku enda teasor ka
batang kayu nya, I can’t move that
Asu1, Ngasu, hunt: Kami ka ng., we are
going hunting; Orang nya telih leboh
ng., that man was hurt during the
hunt; Kami ng. rusa sahari-tu, we are
hunting sambhur deer today; Iya
pengasu bendar, he’s a great hunter.
Asu2 (asuq), dog: Iya beasu ka aku, he
called me a dog, treated me like a dog.
Ata (Ataq), male personal name.
Atah, interjection (encouraging child-
Atai (atay), interjection (surprise, won-
der): A. utai mesai nya!, oh, the size
of it!
Atang, male personal name.
Atap, roof, roofing, thatch: a. daun,
leaf thatching; a. papan, shingles;
Sengkawan a. udah laboh, a section of
the thatch has fallen; A. kami renjan,
our roof is steep; Rumah kami beatap
daun, our house is thatched. Ngatap,
1. to roof: Iya ng. rumah, he roofed the
house; Langkau udah di-peratap ka
kami, the hut was thatched by us.
2. Iya ng. pengabang aku enggau
pemakai, he provided for my guests
(I was unable to feed them all at
festival); Iya pengatap ruai aku, it is
he who provides for my guests.
Atas, upper place; on, above, over:
Menaul nya ngelayang a. perabong,

that hawk is hovering over the roof;
Surat nya di a. tikai, the book is on
the mat; Iya niki ka a. ka agi, he
climbed higher; Aku deka ka a., I
want to go upstairs; ka a. ka baroh,
up and down; Iya ari a. aku, he is my
senior, superior; Iya dudok di a., he
sits in the place of honour; Belanja
gawai nya a. aku magang, all the
expenses of the festival fall on me;
Ti bangkong nuan lenyau nya a. aku,
if your boat is lost it’s my responsi-
bility; Aku udah ngerah kita bumai,
tang ti kita enda ngereja nya a. kita,
I have told you to farm, if you don’t
it’s your look-out; Aku deka meri
nuan upah nya a. ga nuan ka nyambut
iya satengah dulu, I will give you the
reward if you will accept half to begin
Atau (at aw), the heart: tungkul a., the
liver; Besai bendar a. nuan tu, you are
Ati, heart; mind, disposition: A. iya
deka minta duit tang enda kempang,
he wanted to ask for money, but did
not dare; lya pedis a. ka kami, he
hates us; Ukai a. aku endang munoh,
I didn’t kill them deliberately;
Endang a. bemalam, I meant to spend
the night; Nadai kai ngasoh a. mutus
bendar ga, none of them inspires me
with much confidence; Iya dengki a.
enggau kami sabilik, he has a feud
with us; tusah a., disturbed, troubled
(in mind); mangah a., unkind; nelap
a., kind; panas a., hot-tempered;
orang besai a., a man who talks big;
Iya enda manah a., he is not to be
trusted. Berati, think of, take an
interest in: Aku salalu berati ka
pendiau iya, I always took an interest
in what he did; Iya berati bendar ka
anak aku, he takes a lot of interest in
my daughter; Iya berati ka penatai
ribut, he observes the direction of the
wind. Ngati, act according to o.’s
inclinations: sama ng. ka diri, each
pleasing himself; Anang ng. ka diri,
don’t do it without advice. See sati.
Atis, exclamation encouraging a fight.
Ngat is: Anang ng. ka orang belay a,
don’t encourage people to quarrel.
Ator (atur), arrangement, organization,
order: A. pemakai sida manah bendar,
their arrangements for feeding are
good; Tu a. Perintah, this is the
Government order. Ngator, arrange,
organize, supervise: Iya ng. kami
gawa, he supervises our work; lya ng.
orang nganjong aku mudik, he arranged
for me to be taken up-river; Tu endang
di-ator ka aku, it is my duty, I am
instructed to; Pengawa tu di-ator ka
nuan, this work is allotted to you; sp.
Udah ng. diri iya?, has he married?
Au (auq), yes. Ngau, accept, agree to:
Iya ng. ka jadi enggau aku kamari,
nama kabuah. iya enggai agi deh?, she
agreed yesterday to marry me, why is
she no longer willing?
Auh, echo. See rauh.
Aum1, meeting, discussion: A. kami
putus, our meeting is over. Baum,
hold a meeting, discuss, resolve:
Kami baum lemai tu, we are having a
meeting this evening; Seduai-iya
baum pindah ngagai menoa baru, they
resolved to go to a new land; Nama
utai di-paum ka orang?, what was
Aum2, Ngaum, soothe, pacify (child):
Iya ng. anak iya enggau ayam, she
pacified her child with a toy.
Aum3, Ngaum, include: Empat tuboh
kami, lima ng. nuan, there are four of
us, five including you; Iya niap babi
aku tang anak mit enda di-aum iya,
he counted my pigs but did not in-
clude the piglets.
Aum-Juak, double-faced, expecting
bribes from both sides.
Aur, a kind of bamboo: a. antara,
boundary mark.
Aus, thirst, thirsty: Aku a., I am
thirsty; Makai gula ngasoh a., eating
sugar makes you thirsty. Pengaus:
Balat pengaus aku, I am very thirsty.
Awa, a word used at the beginning of
sections of a manang's chant.
Awak1, space, gap, vacancy: a. rumah,
site of a house; Jalai tu nadai temu a.
agi, you can’t get through this road
now; Iya ngaga langkau antara a.
tebas aku, he built a hut in the part
I hadn’t cleared; Bisi a. alai aku
bekereja?, is there a vacancy for me
(to work)?; Jako iya beawak-awak,
there were gaps in what he said.
Ngawak: Kami ng. ka alai iya dudok,
we kept a place for him; Kami ng. ka
iya bejako, tang iya enggai, we gave
him an opportunity of speaking, but
he refused; Iya ng. jalai ka aku, he
got out of my road.
Awak2, a. ka, part., in order to, that:
Jenoh a. ka aku nyamai bejako, be
quiet so that I may have a chance of
speaking; Iya bepanas a. ka chelum,
he put himself in the sun to get brown;
A. ka iya bemain enggau ayam nuan,
let him play with your toys.
Awal, early, punctual, punctilious: Aku
a. bendar tindok lemai kamari, I went
to bed early last night; A.-a. ka nuan
datai pagila, come early tomorrow;

Iya a. ka samoa pangan iya, he is
attentive to all his friends.
Awan, air.
Awas, alert, ready: Mata iya a. bendar,
he has sharp eyes; A., belanda!,
ready, go!
Awi (awiq), sthg. put over the shoulders:
Iya beawi-awi, she is wearing sthg.
round her shoulders.
Awik, name of a river.
Aya (ayaq), 1. uncle; 2. term of
address for men of father’s genera-
tion; 3. the hearer’s father: Aku
betemu enggau a. ensanus, I met your
father the day before yesterday.
Ngaya, address s.o. as aya: Nuan
patut ng. ka aku, you should call me
Ayah1, Ngayah, tease, bother: Anang
ng. ka adi nuan, don’t tease your little
brother; Ng. ka aku bendar iya tu, he
has given me a lot of bother; sp.
Seduai-iya ng. ka hari, they have illicit
intercourse; Iya ng. ka bini orang, he
made love to another man’s wife.
Ayah2, Ngayah, (of birds, animals)
attack, plunder: Buah abis di-ayah
ka burong, all the fruit has been taken
by the birds; Pipit nya burong
pengayah padi, sparrows are birds
that attack the paddy.
Ayam, plaything, pet: a. ribut, toy
windmill; ukoi a., pet dog. Beayam or
bayam, have, play with, a toy; keep as
a pet: Anembiak nya bayam ukoi iya,
that boy is playing with his dog.
Ayan, appear, be seen: Mata-hari baru
a., the sun has just appeared; Samoa
jelu nadai agi a., all the animals have
disappeared; Lapa iya nadai a.
sahari-tu?, why hasn’t he been visible
today? Ngayan, cause to appear:
Iya ng. ka pelekat, he displayed a
Ayang, female personal name.
Ayap1, dim, dark: Bilik tu a. laban
di-keliling madang buah, this room is
dark because it is shut in by fruit-
Ayap2, see anyap.
Ayas, 1. faint: Tulis tu a., this writing
is faint; 2. out of sight; Kapal
terebai nyau a. ari mata, the aeroplane
is out of sight now.
Aya-Sida (ayaq-sidaq), (girl’s) sweet-
Ayat, [Ar.] (Bible) verse.
Ayok (ayuk), shadow: Enti kitai
mandang ka jari ngagai lampu, kitai
meda a. iya ba dinding, if you put
your hand in front of the lamp, you
see its shadow on the wall.
Ayong (ayung), shaded, overshadowed:
Sayur aku a. laban rumah, my
vegetables are in the shade of the
house. Ngayong: Rumah ng. sayur
aku, the house shades my vegetables,
Balat bendar pengayong rumah sida
nya, their house is in deep shade.
Ayu, meaning (of dream, omen): Nama
a. mimpi aku tu?, what is the meaning
of this dream of mine? Ngayu:
Mimpi nuan ng. ka bulih padi, your
dream means that you will have a
good paddy harvest, (cf. reti, for
which an expert is asked.)
Ayum, male personal name.
Ayun, swinging: a. jari, swing of the
arms. Ngayun, swing: Iya ng. ka
jari, he swings his arms; Iya ng. ka
wa, she pushes the swing.
Ba (baq), part., 1. at, in, on, etc.: b.
rumah, at home; b. mija, on the
table; b. padang, in the field; Iya
diau b. kami, he lives with us (s.o.
outside family); Iya sangkai b. aku,
I took him in my boat; Iya bejako b.
aku. he spoke to me (as opposed to
s.o. else); Pait ka b. aku, let me take
it; B. sapa iya ninggal ka barang?,
with whom did he leave the goods?
2. introducing sthg. for explanation:
B. iya enda kitu, laban iya nadai hari,
the fact that he isn’t here means that
he hasn’t time.
Baas, [Eng.?] bars, supports, for pot
over fire.
Baba1, 1. a clerk (us. Chinese in Govt,
service; 2. as title: Baba Ah Nin.
Baba2 (jbabaq), a kind of tree.
Babak, Mabak, pull down, tear off, pull
up by roots: Iya m. rumah, he pulled
the house down; Aku enda tebabak
ka pintu, I can’t get the door off.
Babal1, a dam. Mabal, 1. to dam:
Kami m. sungai, we dammed the
river; 2. fish by damming: Kami m.
kamari, we fished with a dam yester-
Babal2, slow, nervous, lacking presence
of mind: Aku b. bendar (= balat
pemabal akii) enda tetusoi ka berita ba
moa Rajah, I was v. nervous and
couldn’t tell the news in the Rajah’s
Babas, bush, jungle: Pelandok nurun ka
b., the mouse-deer went off to the
Babi, pig: b. kampong, wild pig; b.
menoa, domestic pig; B. nyepan, the
pig is wallowing.

Babil, pucker face (as if) about to cry:
Anak mit salalu b. leboh iya ka nyabak,
a baby always puckers its face when
it is going to cry.
Baboi (babuy), see babi.
Babong (babung), lungs of animals,
Babu, feeble-minded (with age), doting:
Ini aku nyau b., my grandmother has
grown feeble-minded; Pemabu iya ti
ngasoh iya ngereja nya, it was his
senility that made him do that.
Babut, Mabut, pull up, out: Iya m.
rumput, he pulled up some grass;
Iya bebabut ka ubi, he is pulling up
Bacha, reading: B. iya manah bendar,
he reads well. Macha, read: Iya m.
surat, he read the letter.
Bada, male personal name.
Badak, rhinoceros: kurap b., a kind of
skin disease.
Badal, a kind of trap for animals: Iya
bebadal ka tekalong, his trap is made
from t. bark. Madal, use, catch with,
a badal: Sida m. babi, they catch pigs
with a badal. Pemadal, one who uses
a badal.
Badas, good, fine: Iya b. enggau temuai,
he is good to visitors; Iya enda
bengepan b., he is not wearing his
best weapons. Ngemadas: Iya ng.
ka diri enggau temuai, 1. he makes
an effort to be good to visitors;
2. makes out that he is so. Bebadas,
say sthg. is good: Iya bebadas ka
tulis aku, he praised my writing.
Pemadas: Balat pemadas gam al iya,
he is v. handsome.
Badi1, a sudden attack of sickness: Iya
kena b., he had a sudden attack. See
Badi2, (badiq), a dagger.
Badu (baduq), stop, finish: Iya b. bejako,
he stops talking: Aku b. mansang
ngereja pengawa aku, I’ve given up my
job; Udah b. makai, Injat lalu gali nat
ka diri, having finished his meal, I.
lay down and rested. Ngemadu, put
an end to, stop: Iya ng. ka jako iya,
he ended his speech; Iya ng. ka anak
iya nyabak, she stopped her child’s
Badu-Enda (baduq-endaq), part.: B. meh
nuan ga kering, it’s all right for you,
you’re strong; B. pen pagila ga tua,
we shall be lucky if we finish to-
morrow; B. iya ga raja, oh well, he’s
rich; B. tuai meh iya ari aku, of
course he’s older than I.
Baduk, a large carrying basket.
Badun, male personal name.
Baga (bagaq), the part of porcupine’s
skin where quills are attached: sp.
Nuan enda nemu b. iya, you don’t
know what’s going on inside him;
Aku apin tentu nemu b. iya, I don’t
know him well yet.
Bagak, lively, vivacious: Burong nya b.
bendar, that bird is lively ; Indai
orang nya b. bendar enggau temuai,
that woman is vivacious when there
are guests. Ngemagak: Iya ng. ka
diri, he put on a show of liveliness.
Bagas, 1. diligent: B. orang nya?, is
that man a hard worker? Magas,
Ngemagas: Iya ng. ka anak iya gawa,
(a) he trains his son to be diligent;
(b) he says his son is diligent. 2.
given to, apt to: Kami-duai b. belaya,
we are apt to fight; Hari b. ujan
lemai dia-tu, it generally rains in the
evening just now.
Bagau (bag aw), quiet, reserved: dara b.,
a quiet girl. Ngemagau: Iya ng. ka
diri, she pretends to be reserved.
Bagi, share, part, section: Tu b. aku,
this is my share; Tang nyau leboh
kitai mansang tuai baru kitai nemu b.
utai ti salah, but when we grow older
we know what things are bad; Sida
bebagi dua, they are divided into two
parties; Kami bebagi pendiau, we live
apart. Magi, divide, share out: Iya
m. buah enggau aku, he shared the
fruit with me; Iya m. diri ari orang
ti jai, he kept away from bad men;
Sapa bebagi ka barang?, who shares
out the goods?; Iya pemagi barang,
it is he who divides the property.
Bagih, 1. exchange services: Kami-
â–  duai b., we help o. another in turn;
2. lease (land) in return for a pro-
portion of the produce: Aku b. ka
temuda ngagai iya, I let him have
some land in return for part of the
Bah1, interjn. giving signal to start:
B., bejako meh, go on, speak. Bebah,
receive signal to start: Sida belanda
enda bebah, they were off before the
start was given; Lapa nuan enda
bebah-bah?, why were you in such a
Bah2 (baah), flood, in flood: Bisi b.
hesai taun nyin kamari, there was a
great flood last year; Sungai b., the
river is in flood.
Bah3 (baah), exaggerate: Iya nya b.
nusoi utai, he exaggerates; Iya nusoi
utai b. bendar, he tells tall stories.
Bai1 (baiq), Mai, bring, take, carry:
B. surat pagila, bring the books to-
morrow; Pangan aku datai pagila ti
ka m. aku nemuai ngagai apai indai
iya, the friend who is going to take

me to see his parents is coming
tomorrow; Iya m. duit ka pasar lalu
ngambi barang ari kedai, he took some
money to town and got some things
from the shops. See pemai.
Bai2 (baiq), Mai, incite to, call (a
meeting): Iya m. orang ngelaban
Perintah, he incites people to revolt;
Iya m. kami baum, he called (us to) a
meeting; Kami bebai rari, we urged
o. another to run away; “Bebai baka
bumai, betemuku baka nubai”, “union
is strength”.
Bai3 (baiq), part., from, as a result of:
Peredah iya patah b. nebang teras,
the handle of his axe was broken
cutting iron-wood.
Bai4 (baiq), part, (see baik3), whether
... or: B. manah, b. jai pen iya,
menyadi aku ga iya, good or bad,
he’s still my brother.
Baik1, well, good: Kuris aku b., my
sores are cured; Iya b. enggau aku,
he is good to me; B. enti nuan ka
enggau aku bejalai lemai tu, it would
be nice if you came for a walk with
me this evening; B. nuan bisi nemu
rumah alai ngetu merarau ga tadi, I
hope you found a house to stop at
and have lunch.
Baik2, peaceful: orang b., non-com-
batants. Maik, pacify: Iya m. ka
menoa, he pacified the country; Sida
bebaik, they are making peace.
Baik3, part., whether ... or: B. kitu
b. enda pen nuan pagila, di-kereja aku
ga nya, whether you come or not
tomorrow I shall do it.
Baing, male personal name.
Bait, a tree, the wood of which is used
for knife handles.
Baja, steel: Tu b. manah, this is good
Bajau (bajaw), a tribe of N. Borneo.
Baji, a wedge. Maji, 1. to wedge: Iya
m. mija, he put a wedge under the
table leg; 2. to split with a wedge:
Iya m. batang kayu, he split a tree-
Bajik, pretty, attractive (woman): dara
b. a pretty girl. Ngemajik, beautify:
Gari iya ti ng. ka iya, it’s her clothes
that make her attractive.
Bajong (bajung), paralysed: Iya b.
kaki, he has a paralysed leg.
Baju, coat, tunic, shirt (cl. lambar): Iya
bebaju luar, he is wearing an outer
Baka1, like, look like, as if: b. ular
matak siloi, like a snake sloughing
(of s.o. slow and reluctant); lya b.
kai datai ari ulu nya, peda aku, he
looks as if he came from up-river, I
think; B. ti ka ujan hari tu, it looks as
if it were going to rain; Nadai b. ga
gamal orang ti berani, there’s nothing
about his looks to make you think
he’s brave; Ni b. anggar penyadi
padi sataun tu?, what are the pros-
pects for rice this year?; Kati b. kita
menyanak enggau pengidup sataun
tu?—B. kai lantang, Jang1, how are
things with you this year?—All right,
Jang; Iya b. ti sakit, he seems to be
ill; Leboh aku datai sida b. api kai
di-panjah ai, there was a sudden
silence when I arrived (like a fire
quenched with water); b. selama, as
usual; Gamal seduai-iya sabaka, they
are alike. Nyemaka, compare: Iya
ny. ka tulis kami-duai, he compared
our writing.
Baka2, part., nya b., in spite of: Nya b.
pengelelak iya, agi ga iya ka bejalai,
in spite of his tiredness, he is ready
to go on.
Baka3 (bakaq), a small basket for e.g.
chewing materials.
Bakal1, a wound, wounded: B. iya
balat bendar, his wound was serious;
Iya b., he was wounded. Ngemakal,
to wound: Manok iya dulu ng. ka
enggi aku, his cock wounded mine
Bakal2, rough, unfinished, state (of
boat): B. perau iya tinggang kayu, a
tree fell on the boat he was building.
Makal, rough-shape: Iya m. perau
ka aku, he began a boat for me.
Bakat, waves (smaller than gelumbang):
Sungai nya bebakat, there is broken
water in that river; Balat bendar
bakatl, the discussion was a lively
Bakau (bakaw), mangrove.
Bakih, friend, companion: Kami-duai
bebakih agi biak menya, we were
friends when we were small; Sida
bebakih nginsap, they go off smoking
together, encourage o. another to
Bakong (bakung), a plant of the Amaryl-
lis family, Crinum asiaticum.
Baku (bakuq), a metal box for e.g.
chewing material.
Bakul, a basket: dua iti b. penoli laban
tanah, two baskets full of earth; dua
b. tanah, two basketfuls of earth.
Bakut, a raised bed for a row of vege-
tables: dua b. kachang, two rows of
Bal (baal), unpleasant tasting: Ikan tu
b., this fish doesn’t taste nice; Mulut
aku b., I have a bad taste in my
Bala’, crowd, army, party: Kami bebala

nemuai ngagai sida, a crowd of us
went to visit them; Leboh agi maia
bebala kalia, when there were still
Bala2 (balaq), in tumpa b., a big armlet,
bracelet: Iya nadai tumpa b., she
has no big bracelet.
Balai (balay), place for sitting or
sleeping: Kami ngaga b. alai dudok,
we made a place where we could sit;
Penindok nuan baka b. jelu, your
bed’s a disgrace. Malai, lay, seat:
Anang m. ka diri ba tanah, don’t sit
on the ground; Anang m. ka utai
barang endor, don’t put things just
Balak, uncircumcised: Iya agi b., he
has not yet been circumcised.
Balan, sthg. rough-shaped with a duku:
Tu b. perau aku, this is the boat I am
making. Malan, rough-hew: Iya m.
perau ka aku, he is shaping a boat
for me; Tu duku pemalan perau aku,
this is the chopper I use for shaping
my boat.
Balang1, a large bottle.
Balang2, be useless, come to nothing:
Pengawa iya b., what he was doing
came to nothing; Runding iya b., his
idea was of no use.
Balas, return, requital: Tu b. aku
ngagai (or enggau) nuan, this is what
I am giving, doing for, you in return ;
Kami-duai bebalas gawa, we do jobs
for o. another; Pasang baru bebalas,
the tide is just turning; Leboh ribut
bebalas kami pulai ka rumah, when
the wind changed we went home.
Maias, repay (with service), reply:
Iya m. aku ti udah gawa enggau iya,
he is repaying me for the work I did
with him; Aku bisi nerima surat
nuan, lalu tu aku ti malas iya, I have
received your letter and am now
Balat, serious(ly), very: Telih iya b.,
he is gravely wounded; Iya b. (sakit),
he is very bad, sick; B. bendar
pengeroh ai tu, this water is v. cloudy.
Ngemalat, intensify: Nama utai ng.
ka pemedis iya?, what is making him
worse?; Utai ng. nya ujan nemalam,
the rain was exceedingly heavy last
night; Balat pemalat telih iya, his
wound was v. serious.
Balau (Balaw), a tribe in Skrang.
Bali1, b. belantan, a type of pattern for
a pua: Nama buah pua nuan?—B.
belantan, what is the design of your
pua?—B. b.
Bali2 (baliq), changing: ukoi b., chame-
leon; manang b., a medicine man
who dresses as a woman; Hari
bebali jai, the weather is spoiling;
Pemanah iya enda bebali enggau aku,
his kindness to me never varied; Moa
iya bebali, his face changed (fear,
guilt, etc.); Penuai nuan enda bebali,
you don’t show your age; Tusu
bebali nyadi masam, the milk turned
sour; Runding iya nyau bebali, he
has changed his mind.
Balik, or b. batang, used by older people
to avoid pagila, tomorrow, in speak-
ing of plans.
Baloi (baluy), plain (cloth, mats): kain
b., cloth without stripes etc.; tikai b.,
a plain mat, without pattern.
Balok (baluk), swelling, swollen: B.
moa iya udah tus, the swelling (of his
face) has gone down; Moa iya b.,
his face is swollen. Ngemalok,
Malok: Nama utai ng. ka moa
nuan?, what is making your face
Balong1 (balung), scented fruits (e.g.
lawang, sempetir) used for putting
under bedding: lya bebalong, she
has, uses, these.
Balong3 (balung), b. manyi, a swarm of
Balu1, 1. widow, widower: Iya b., she
is a widow. See tebalu. 2. Kukut
iya b., he has lost a (finger-, toe-)
nail; Pengawa iya b., his project came
to nothing.
Balu2, sernada b., see ger anjang.
Balun, a (rough) bundle: b. gari, a
bundle of clothes; Gari iya bebalun,
his clothes are in a bundle; Gelum-
bang bebalun mesai rumah, the waves
are as big as houses. Malun, make a
bundle of: Iya m. gari, he made a
bundle of the clothes.
Balut, wrapping, bandage, covering:
Aku meda orang bebalut jari, I saw a
man with his hand bandaged; Indu
renyuan nya bebalut enggau rarak
bunga, that bee is covered with pollen.
Malut, wrap, surround, cover, bind:
Arok m. jari iya, his hand is covered
with soot; lya di-balut singut, bees
swarmed over him; Orang bebalut
ka iya ka meli utai ari iya, people
crowded round him wanting to buy
from him; Tu kain pemalut jari aku,
this is the cloth for binding my hand.
Bam1 (baam), greedy, gluttonous: Apai
tuai orang nya b., that old man is
greedy. Ngemam: Nadai utai
ngemamnya . .., is exceedingly greedy.
Pemam, greed: Iya sakit laban
pemam nyawa iya makai utai enda tentu,
he is sick because his greed made him
eat doubtful things.
Bam2 (baam), ikan b., a whale.

Ban (baari), carpentry, building: B. aku
apin tembu, I haven’t finished my
carpentry. Man, make, shape: Iya
m. kasau, he shaped the rafter; Lalu
samoa jelu baum beban perau, then
all the animals resolved to build a
boat; Iya udah di-peban ka kami, we
despair of his recovery (we have made
his coffin).
Bana, patch of discoloured skin: Iya
bisi b., he has one of these.
Banan, (prematurely) white-haired:
Iya b., he has white hair; Basu
manah ka sabun ba pala nuan enggai
ka b., rinse the soap well out of your
hair or you’ll go white, cf. buban.
Banas, Manas, cultivate: Iya m. kebun
iya, he works on his garden; Sayur
iya enda di-banas manah, his vegetables
are not properly looked after.
Banchak1, Manchak, to spear: Iya m.
ikan, he spears fish.
Banchak2, Manchak, dilute: Iya m.
ubat getah, he dilutes the acid for the
Banda, (of birds, esp. fowls) red, brown:
Manok nya b., that fowl is red.
Bandam, in babi b., a large wild pig
believed to be possessed of an evil
Bandau (bandaw), a monitor: B.
pengkubang pendam, monitors dig up
Banding, metaphorical: Nuan enda
nemu jako b. iya, you don’t understand
his metaphorical language. Manding,
compare: Iya m. ka pemanah iya
ngagai bulan, he compares her beauty
to the moon; Enda manding bendar
nyau tuai ngena antin, it is unsuitable
to wear earrings at your age.
Bandir, buttress of tree: Nyau bebandir
rekong iya bejako, the veins in his
neck stood out as he talked.
Bandong1 (bandung), a large sailing
Bandong2 (bandung), a matching pair,
set: anak b., twins; Rumah kami-
duai bebandong, our houses form a
pair. Mandong, form a pair, set;
match; be in keeping: Seduai-iya
enda m. bendar begulai, they are a
funny pair, not well matched; Bilik
nuan enda m. bendar di-chat mirah,
red paint isn’t suitable for your
room; Iya m. aku dudok, he sat
beside me (making a pair); Enda
m. nyau tuai-tuai ngena antin, it
isn’t suitable for older women to
wear earrings.
Banga1, tulang b., collar-bone.
Banga2, having a good appetite: Anak
nuan b., your child is a hearty eater.
Bangah, a fresh-water fish.
Bangam, see banga2.
Bangang1, padi b., a kind of rice.
Bangang2, in empekang b., astraddle: Iya
dudok e. b., he sits with his legs apart;
Anang bediri e. b. ba moa pintu, don’t
block the door with your legs.
Bangat, heavy, severe: Ujan b. bendar
namalam, the rain was v. heavy last
night. Ngemangat: Nadai ko pulai,
ujan ng. tu, there is no going back,
the rain is so heavy; Balat pemangat
ujan namalam, what heavy rain there
was last night!
Bangau (bangaw), an egret.
Banggar1, rotten, rotting: Sayur b.
di-rendam iya di ai, he left the vege-
tables soaking and they went rotten.
Manggar, Ngemanggar, allow to rot:
Anang ng. ka gari nuan, don’t let
your clothes rot.
Banggar2, liar, to lie: B. nuan tu, you
are a liar; Iya b., he is lying.
Ngemanggar: Anang ng. ka orang,
don’t accuse people of being liars;
Pemanggar nuan tu udu bendar, you
tell frightful lies.
Banggur, swollen (us. from a sting):
Mulut iya b., his mouth is swollen.
Ngemanggur, cause to swell: Sengat
indu utai ng. ka pending iya, the
insect’s sting made his ear swell.
Bangi, (in songs) forehead.
Bangkai (bangkay), corpse: B. orang
nuan tu, (a gross insult).
Bangkang, 1. lead (metal); 2. solder.
Bangkas, a type of coloration of
fighting cocks (buff ground): Bulu
manok iya b., his cock has this colour.
Bangkat, a large basket.
Bangkau (bangkaw), a bench.
Bangking, nyeli b., a kind of seed used
for necklaces, see engkerak.
Bangkit1, scented flowers or leaves, used
for perfuming beds etc.: sp. Iya
bebangkit ka nama apai iya ti nyadi
pengulu, he profits by the fact that
his father was a chief.
Bangkit2, Mangkit, speak evil of, accuse:
Iya m. kaban apai indai aku, he
calumniated my family; Iya m. apai
aku ti udah enchuri, he accused my
father of having stolen.
Bangkong (bangkung), a boat: b. peng-
ayau, a war-boat.
Bangku, a bench: Aku ka ngaga b., I
want to make a bench.
Bangkut, 1. one who dresses and
behaves as a member of the opposite
sex; 2. hermaphrodite: manok b.,
us. a cock lacking some male charac-

Bangun, gawa b., the rite of initiating a
manang. Mangun, initiate as a
manang: Sida m. sanu, they initiated
so-and-so as a manang.
Baning, a tortoise.
Banjang, a kind of plant.
Bansa, race, kind, class: b. Daya, the
Dayak people; orang bebansa, people
of distinction; Anang bebansa ka
orang, don’t make class-distinctions.
Bansal, a shed: Bangkong iya meruan
bebansal, his boat is always in the
Bansat, poor: Iya (orang} b., he is
poor; B. bendar kami sahari-tu,
nadai utai di-empa, (apology to visitor)
we are poverty-stricken today, there’s
nothing to eat; bebansat, call s.o.
poor; Balat pemansat sida dia-tu,
they are in great poverty now.
Bansi, extra (payment etc.), allowance,
bonus: Tu b. iya ti gawa berat, this
is his extra money for heavy work;
Getah aku kena b. laban enda manah
gaga, I had to give more rubber (for
the price) because it was not well
prepared. Mansi, give extra, make
an allowance: Iya m. pemanah
pengawa aku, he gave me extra for
my good work; Enti nuan nyukat
kayu di kampong, bansi kira sakaki,
if you are measuring wood in the
jungle, allow about a foot extra; Iya
di-bansi sida-iya, (racing) they gave
him a start.
Bansu1, a kind of tree, the strong-
smelling pounded bark of which is
used against insect pests.
Bansu2 (bansuq), satiated: Aku b.
makai babi, I am tired of pork; Aku
b. meda nya, I’ve seen it again and
again. Ngemansu: Iya ng. ka diri
makai babi, he’ll make himself sick
of pork.
Banta (bantaq), a fresh-water fish,
Osteochilus vittatus.
Bantah, criticism, disparagement: B.
iya balat bendar enggau aku, he was
v. disparaging about me. Mantah,
criticize, disparage: Iya m. tulis aku,
he ran down my writing.
Bantai1 (bantay), shift goods, load,
unload, help (to food): Iya m. (ka)
barang ari perau, he unloaded the
boat; Sida m. barang ka kapal, they
loaded the ship; Iya m. asi ka aku,
he helped me to rice; M., Jang, help
Bantai2 (bantay), Mantai, reveal, dis-
play: Iya m. ka orang butang, he
revealed who had committed adul-
tery; Iya m. ka pemisi iya', he dis-
plays his riches; Iya m. ka barang
iya ngagai tukang peresa, he declared
his goods to the customs officer.
Bantal, pillow, cushion: B. iya laboh
aripanggau, his pillow fell off the bed.
Bantil, Mantil, fasten (an end): Iya m.
ginti ka aku, he fastened on the hook
for me; Ular m. ka iko iya ngagai
kayu, the snake anchored its tail to
a tree; Iya m. ka ujong tali ngagai
saoh, he tied the end of the rope to the
Bantun, weeding: B. iya manah bendar,
his weeding is well done. Mantun,
pull out, weed: B. paku lawang nya,
pull out that nail; Iya m. (umai
kami), he is weeding; lungga
pemantun, weeding knife.
Banun, female personal name.
Bap (baap), a cover: Ma iya bebap, his
pack has a cover. Map, to cover:
Iya m. moa iya enggau kain, he
covered his face with a cloth.
Bapa (Bapaq), term of address for a
Bar (baar), a kind of tree.
Bara1 (baraq), b. api, embers,
glowing coals: Iya manggang ikan
ba bara api, he roasted a fish in the
embers; padam api, padam b.,
flash-in-the-pan; Api nyau bebara,
the fire is glowing now.
Bara2 (baraq), given up to frivolity:
B. bemain kita tu, you do nothing but
play; b. dara, a frivolous woman.
Barang1, things, goods, belongings:
Rega b. udah turun, prices have come
down; Iya orang bebarang, he’s a
man of property.
Barang2, part., according to, if, any,
-ever, etc.: B. kering bulih maioh agi,
the stronger you are the more you
get; B. ko nuan, just as you like;
B. ko apai, it depends on my father;
B. paas, belauk, if you take the trouble,
you get meat; Iya nulong sida b. naka
ti ulih iya, he helped them as much as
he could; B.-b. utai ko nuan tu, you
say just anything (you ought to think
before you speak); B. pemanjai ko
nuan, any length you like; Anang b.
orang tanya, don’t speak to strangers;
b. endor, anywhere; B. iya beri nuan
meh, give just what you like; B. iya
meh, that’ll do, that’s all right; B.
pemalat jako nuan nganu aku, aku
enda iboh, however severely you
reprimand me, I don’t care; B. kitai
ngagai iya tau madah ka berita tu,
whichever of us goes to see him can
tell him this news; B. tua sakit
anang nusah pangan, if either of us is
sick he mustn’t be a burden to the
other; Meri aku b. dua depa tali,

give me about 2 fathoms of rope;
B. ti deka kitu, b. ti enggai pulai,
those who are willing come here,
those who are not, fall back.
Bari1, steel.
Bari2 (bariq), musty: Anang bebari ka
utai di-empa, don’t let food get musty.
Bari3 (bbari), fruit flies.
Baring, Maring, roll: B. ka tong nya,
roll that drum along; Tong bebaring,
the drum rolls (along).
Baris, row, line: Tu b. kachang, this is
the row of beans; enda bebaris, not
in line; Sida b., they are doing drill.
Baroh (baruh), low, short, under:
tanah b., low-lying land; b. rumah,
under the house; ka b., down, down-
wards; ka at as ka b., up and down;
Iya b. ari aku, he is shorter than I
am; b. ati, humble. Ngemaroh, to
lower: Iya ng. ka diri, he humbles
himself. Pemaroh, lowness: Laban
pemaroh tanah nya, nya alai menoa
nya salalu ampoh, because the land is
so low-lying, that district is always
having floods.
Barong (barung), a tub.
Baru1, 1. new, modern: Baju iya b.,
his coat is new; penemu b., modern
ideas; taun b. tu ila, next year;
2. anew, again: Kitu ka baru, come
here again; Iya ngereja nya b., he
did it again; 3. just (now): Iya b.
pulai, he has just gone back; Tu b.
iya, at last!; B. aku betemu enggau
iya lah tu, this is the first time I’ve
met him, I’ve only just met him; Tu
b. aku ingat, now I remember.
Baru2 (baruq), a kind of tree (cf. W.
Mai. hibiscus tiliaceus).
Basa1, honour, respect: Manah bendar
b. iya enggau aku, he shows me great
respect. Masa: Aku m. iya laban
apai iya ti apin lama udah parai, I
gave him the appropriate present on
account of his father’s recent death;
Iya enda bebasa ka orang, he shows
no respect for people.
Basa2, in orang b., acquaintances: Iya
maioh orang b., he knows many
Basah, wet: Baju aku b., my coat is
wet; Iya mandi bebasah, he bathed
with his clothes on. Masah, to wet:
Anang m. ka diri laban ujan, don’t
get wet in the rain.
Basau (basaw), Masau, waste, squander,
spoil: Iya m. duit, he wastes money;
lya m. ayam aku, he spoilt my toy;
Barang kami abis di-pebasau ka iya, all
our property was squandered by him;
Pemasau bendar nuan tu, you are v. ex-
Basi, num. cl. (kain, cloths): Berapa b.
kain chukop ka layar?, how many
cloths are needed for a sail?
Basong (basung), a small basket.
Basu (basuq), Masu, wash: Iya m.
perecha, she is washing the hand-
kerchiefs; Iya bebasu, he is washing
(hands, feet; cf. empungasj.
Bata, in batu b., brick.
Batak, Matak, pull (sthg. towards one-
self) : Iya m. saoh, he gets the
anchor; Iya m. sangkoh, he took
down his spear; Sida m. perau, they
drag the boat up; Sida m. rotan,
they pull out the rattan (through
pematak, tin with hole for smooth-
ing it); Ular m. siloi; the snake
sloughs its skin. Bebatak tali, tug-
Batang1, principal member or part of
class or thing: b. ai, main river; b.
jalai, main road; b. kayu, tree-
trunk; b. gaji aku, my ordinary pay;
Sungai tu bebatang bendar, 1. there
are many tree-trunks in this river;
2. this river has no large tributaries.
Batang2, num. cl. (tiang, posts; roko,
cigarettes; senapang, rifles, etc.)
Batas, see bakut.
Batih, a kind of monkey.
Batik, kain b., a batik sarong.
Batil, a metal bowl.
Batok (batuk), cough, coughing: Aku
ninga orang batok, b. orang, I heard
a man coughing, a man’s cough;
Iya b. ka darah, he coughs blood, has
Batu1, stone, rock; (cards) diamonds:
jalai bebatu, a stony path; Pisa iya
bebatu, his boil has hardened. Matu:
Iya m. jari, he cleans his hands with
a stone.
Batu2, mile: Iya bejalai lima b., he
walked 5 miles.
Bau1, smell, scent: Aku ensium b.
bunga, I smelt the scent of flowers;
Minyak tu bebau, this oil is scented.
See kembau.
Bau2, the shoulder.
Bau3 (Bauq), female personal name.
Bauh, long (of hair, nails, grass): sp.
Iya b. sagigi ari aku, he (she; my
brother or sister) has grandchildren
while I have only children. Ngemauh,
make long: Nama ng. ka rumput,
what makes the grass grow so long?
Bauk1, Mauk, pull or strike with sthg.
hooked or bent on itself: Iya m. aku
enggau tali, he pulled me with a rope,
the ends held in his hands; Iya m.
aku enggau changkol, he struck me
with a hoe.

Bauk2, male personal name.
Baum, see aum.
Baung, a fresh-water fish.
Baur, a rod, a long handle: b. ginti,
fishing-rod; b. kapak, handle of
axe; Kapak aku bebaur ka teras, my
axe has an iron-wood handle.
Baut, in lenggau b., knife for scraping
split rattan.
Bawa (bawaq), a kind of ant.
Bawai1 (baway), in igi b., (swollen)
glands. Igi b. aku kembai, my glands
are swollen.
Bawai2 (baway), tired, stiff: B. lengan
aku ngedar ka sarah tu, my arm is
tired with lifting this box.
Bawang, an onion: b. puteh, garlic.
Baya1, a crocodile: B. meradai ba
pantai, crocodiles bask on the mud.
Baya2 (bayaq), goods given to the dead:
Tu b. orang mati, these are the goods
given to the dead man. Maya: Iya
m. apai iya enggau tinchin, he gave
his dead father a ring.
Bayak, 1. see baya1', 2. a monitor
Bayam1, spinach.
Bayam2, see under ay am.
Bayan, a parrot.
Bayar, payment, fees: B. sekula nyau
niki, school fees have gone up.
May ar, to pay: Iya m. utang, he paid
off the debt; Aku bebayar, I’m
Be-, prefix giving forms 1. used without
complement where the nasal form
requires one: Iya bet enun, she weaves,
is weaving; Iya bekayoh, he paddles,
is paddling; Pintu betambit, the door
is fastened; (with reflexive sense) Iya
bebasu, he is washing himself; Iya
belalai, he is hiding; (with reci-
procal sense) Seduai-iya bepagoh, they
exchange blows; 2. with the sense
of provided with, having, using:
Sentubong iya beukir, his coffin is
covered with designs; Iya begerun-
chong kaki, she wears rings on her
legs, anklets; Iya besuar ka buloh,
he has a bamboo punting-pole;
3. with the sense of providing,
adding: Iya betulis ka surat, he
scribbled on the book; 4. with the
sense of habit, repetition: Iya
bekachau ka anak aku, he teases my
child; Iya beisi ka puchong, he fills
the bottles; 5. with the sense of
calling, treating as: Iya beukoi ka
aku, he called me, treated me like, a
dog. See bejako, bejalai, bemain,
Bealau-Alau (bealaw-alaw), b. enda
ngasoh, urge not to: Iya b. enda ngasoh
aku nginsap, he tries to keep me from
Beba (jbebaq), confused, disturbed: Aku
b. niap laban orang maioh bejako
semak aku, I was confused in my
counting because of people talking
near me; B. aku laban kita, you are
disturbing me. Meba, confuse: Iya
m. aku niap, he confused me in my
Bebadi (bebadi, bbadi), have an accident,
have bad luck, suffer: Iya b. kamari,
he had an accident yesterday; Maioh
bendar orang udah b. laban iya nya,
many have suffered at his hands;
Enggai aku, b. ngapa, I won’t, it isn’t
worth it; Kami b. bendar kena
tinggal ka kapal, what a nuisance
that we’ve missed the boat. Cf. badi.
Bebal, Mebal, beat: Iya m. buah
kubal, he beat the kubal plant; Iya
kena b. laban iya enchuri, he was
thrashed for stealing.
Bebar, scatter, flee: Manok b. laban
munsang, the fowls fled before a civet.
Mebar, scatter, drive: Munsang m.
ka manok, the civet scattered the
fowls; Xznz' tunga pemebar manok
namalam?, which way were the fowls
driven last night?
Bebas, Mebas, slit, cut through: Iya m.
jalai, he cut a way through; Iya m.
perut babi, he cut the pig open; duku
pemebas, chopper for cutting through
Bebelat, alternate (days, weeks): Iya
chelap b. hari, he has an attack of
fever every other day.
Bebendai (bebenday, bbenday), a gong.
Bebendar, see bendar. Nuan patut gawa
b. agi, you ought to work harder;
B. ka nuan, do it with all your might.
Bebital (bebital, bbitalj, adhere to:
Burong b. ba sempulut, the bird was
caught in the lime; Keretas b. ba
jari aku, the paper sticks to my hand.
Bebuti (bebutiq, bbutiqj, to joke, fool:
Seduai-iya b., they are fooling to-
gether. cf. ZZtZ.
Bechenaga, 1. take omens: Sida b., they
take omens; 2. toss: Apin anembiak
bepangka sida b. ngena daun, before
the boys play tops they toss with a
Bedada, kain b., cloth with pattern on
one side only.
Bedak, face powder: Iya bebedak, she
uses face powder.
Bedal, see bebal.
Bedanjar, (of baby) lie tossing un-
happily: Anak nuan b., your baby
wants you.
Bedara (bedaraq), make an offering;

Kami b. ka iya ti sakit, we made an
offering for him in his sickness.
Bedau (bedaw), 1. (Kalaka) still: Aku
b. ditu jarit ka ensanus, I have been
here since the day before yesterday;
2. (elsewhere) not yet = apin.
Bedega (bedegaq), bracken.
Bedidi (bedidiq), see kedidi.
Bedil, a gun: b. ai, a syringe. Medil,
shoot: Iya m. babi tang enda mati,
he shot a pig but didn’t kill it.
Bedilang, a hearth on veranda of
longhouse: Iya dudok mangkang b.,
he is seated near the fire.
Bediri, stand: Iya b. ba moa pintu, he
is standing in the doorway. See diri.
Bedong (bedung), swaddling-cloth.
Medong, swaddle: Iya m. anak, she
wrapped up her baby.
Bedua (beduaq), share, divide: Iya b.
buah, he shared the fruit; Kami b.
tuboh, sekeda ka kanan, sekeda ka
kiba, we divided, some going to the
right, some to the left.
Beduan, 1. tease, mock: Nuan tak b.,
you’re such a tease; 2. punish,
persecute: Tentu Petara enda b. nuan,
no, God will not punish you.
Beduli, care about, pay attention to:
Runding iya beli orang ti b. ka utai
baka nya, he thought it foolish to
care about such things; Anang b. ka
aku, mind your own business.
Bedus, sheep.
Begagut, press on with, hasten to: Aku
b. bendar bumai sataun tu, I have
been working under pressure on the
farm this year; Pengawa tu enda
ulih di-pegagut ka, you can’t rush
this work.
Begah, boastful: Anang b.-b. baka nya
nuan, don’t boast.
Begalah, undang b., a prawn, Palaemon
Beganggang, aground: Perau kami b.
di pasir, our boat is aground on the
Begau (begaw), (in) alarm, panic, ex-
citement: Nya terantang b., that’s
the alarm signal; Kami b. laban
rumah angus, we were in a panic
because of the fire in the house;
Anang b. kitu, don’t crowd round;
B. liur, (my) mouth is watering.
Ngemegau, Megau, 1. (with ka)
alarm: Iya ng. ka kami, he alarmed
us; 2. (without ka) call to help:
Iya ng. kami, he called to us for help.
Begauk, 1. make much of s.o. (us. on
arrival or departure): Iya b. enggau
menyadi iya (ti baru datai), he made
much of his brother (who had just
arrived); 2. make the most of,
enjoy to the full: Kami b. mandi ulu
ai, we enjoyed every moment bathing
up river.
Begaut, hurry: Aku b., I am in a hurry.
Begedi (begediq), envy: Iya b. ka ayam
aku, he envies me my toys; Iya b. ka
aku bejako enggau pangan iya, he hates
my talking to his friend.
Begelut, mix with, be in contact with:
Iya udah b. enggau orang sakit
gelumut, he has been in contact with
a case of measles.
Beging, tumour, cyst, gall (on trees):
Iya bebeging, he has a cyst.
Beguai (beguay), hasten: Iya b. ngagai
aku, he hurried to me. See guai.
Begugut, equally matched: Seduai-iya
b. pengering, the two are well matched
for strength; Perau kami b. bendar,
our boats were neck and neck (in the
Begulai (begulay), be together: Iya b.
enggau kami, he lives with us;
Seduai-iya apin b., they are not yet
living together, not yet married;
Kami b. gawa, we work together, in
the same place. See gulai.
Begulang-Galu, go to and fro: Anembiak
b. niti ruai, the young men wander up
and down the veranda.
Beguna1, need: Aku meli gari tebal ti
b. ka aku, I bought the thick clothes
I needed. See guna.
Beguna2, (with enda) unwell: Iya enda
b., he is unwell.
Bejai (bejaiq), speak evil of. See yaz,
Bejait, stick together: Ker etas nya b.
enggau getah, those papers are stuck
together with gum.
Bejalai (bejalay), go, walk: Manah aku
b. dia-tu, I’d better go now; Iya b.
ka tungkat, he takes the summons
round. See pejalai, jalai.
Bejalak1, a kind of fish.
Bejalak2, a type of coloration in cocks.
Bejampong (bejampung), one of the
omen birds (H. Hydrocichla frontalis).
Beji (bejiq), terrified, horrified: Sida ti
indu b. ninga berita nya, the women
were terrified when they heard this
Bejit, a kind of monkey (H. Semno-
pithecus femoralis).
Bejong (bejung), a bundle. Mejong,
make a bundle of: Iya m. surat, he
made a bundle of books.
Bejuak, (have) cramp: Iya b. betis, he
has cramp in his leg.
Bejuntah, not corresponding, not fitting
properly together: Baju iya b., the
button of his coat isn’t in the right

Bejur, stretched out: Iya gali b.-b., he
was lying at full length.
Bekal1, provisions (for journey): Iya
mai b., he took provisions with him.
Mekal, supply: Iya m. aku enggau
pemakai, she gave me a supply of
Bekal2, advice, instruction: Aku minta
b. nuan enggau ajar, have you any
(last) advice for me?; Aku kurang b.
ba penemu nya, I am not well in-
formed on that subject; Iya kurang
b., he is ill bred. Mekal, advise,
counsel: Iya m. aku enggau jako
ajar, he gave me some good advice.
Bekampi (jbekampiq), mixed, about
equal in number: Ikan ulih bubu aku
b., there were various kinds of fish in
my trap; Orang raja di menoa nya
b. enggau orang seranta, there are
about as many rich men as poor in
that district.
Bekau (bekaw), 1. trace, mark: b.
kaki, footprint; Iya mati enda
ninggal ka b., he died leaving no mark
in the world; 2. showing trace of, as
a result of: Rumput nya palan b.
orang dudok, the pressed down grass
shows that people have been sitting
there; Iya sakit b. gawai, he was ill
after the feast; Enda bebekau asi
bantai iya, he took hardly any rice.
Bekeberai (bekeberay), fall in a shower:
Ujan b., it’s a shower; Uras b.
ninggang pala aku, I got a shower of
rubbish on my head.
Bekebesut, stream out.
Bekesindau (jbekesindaw), roam about.
Beketepak, see tepak.
Bekil, a cake made of sago flour.
Mekil: Iya m., she makes these.
Bekirum, send: Aku b. ka nuan gambar
dua iti tu, I send you these two
photographs. See kirum.
Bekup-Bekup, swollen: Moa iya b., his
face is swollen.
Bekurau (Zxj^wraw), mottled: Telu nya
b., that egg is mottled.
Bekut, a kind of fish.
Bela1, 1. preparation of food: B. iya
manah bendar, her cooking is good;
Mela, prepare food: Iya m. pemakai,
she gets the food ready; 2. service-
of food: B. iya manah enggau aku,
she was v. attentive in serving me.
Mela, serve: Iya m. makai, she served
the food. Udah bebela nuan?, have you
had some food? (us. breakfast).
Bela2, Mela, celebrate: Sida m. burong,
they are celebrating a good omen.
Bela3 (belaq), equal, equally, all: Kami-
duai b. peninggi, we are the same
height; Kami sama b. untong, we all
have equal shares; Kami sarumah
bela masin, we are all hard-working
in the house. Bebela, 1. make equal:
Iya b. ka papan, he makes the planks
of the same size; 2. be of the same
Belaba (belabaq), guess, think: Anang
b., don’t guess; Enda b. ka diri, you
can’t boast (you do the same thing);
Kami b. ka nuan karam meda nuan
laun, we thought you were wrecked
since you were late. See pelaba.
Belaboh1 (belabuli), begin: Iya b. gawa,
he began work; b. ari, starting from.
Belaboh2 (jbelabuli), to anchor: Kami b.
senentang nengeri, we anchored off
the town.
Belabus, mockingly offer or consent:
Iya b. ka aku, he is fooling me.
Belachan, shrimp paste. B. nuan tu,
(an insult).
Belachu (belachuq), calico.
Belaga (belagaq), swelling caused by
insect bite: B. besai bendar ba lengan
iya, there’s a big bite on his arm.
Belah, 1. section, lot: Iya bumai dua
b. taun tu, he is farming two lots this
year; 2. a piece: B. nya ka aku, that
piece is for me. Melah, 1. (without
ka) split: Iya m. kayu, he is splitting
wood; 2. (with ka) break: Iya m.
ka telu, he breaks the egg; Pemelah
chapak bendar nuan tu, you’re always
breaking plates. See pinang.
Belai (belaiq), see ai.
Belakang, back: B. iya pedis, he has a
pain in his back; b. rumah, the back
of the house; Iya ari b. aku, he is
behind me. Melakang, turn one’s
back towards: Anang dudok m. ka
entua, don’t sit with your back to
your father-in-law; Iya datai m. nuan,
he came when you had gone, = Iya
datai pemelakang nuan.
Belakin, [Eng.] tar (on fences, boats;
cf. tir).
Belala (Jbelalaq), unsatisfied: Aku b.
makai, I haven’t had enough to eat;
Agi b. aku meda, alai iya badu, I
hadn’t seen enough when he stopped.
Belalai (jbelalay), (elephant’s) trunk.
Belalang, a cobra, Naja hannah.
Belama, always, continually: Dia b.
aku meli insap, I always buy my
cigarettes there; Panas b. hari
ngelama tu, there has been nothing
but sun for some time. Cf. selama.
Belam-lam, (in sampi), very early: Nama
main kita datai agi pagi b. tumu hari
agi malam?, why do you come so
early, before dawn?
Belanak, a kind of sea fish.
Belanchau, or beranchau, see anchau.

Belanda1, Dutch: orang b., a Dutchman.
Belanda2 (belandaq), run: Seduai-iya b.
ngagai rumah pelandok, they ran to
the mouse-deer’s house; Enda ulih
di-pelanda, (I) can’t run all that way.
Belandik, speak of with admiration, cry
up: Iya salalu b. ka nuan, he’s always
speaking in praise of you; Iya salalu
b. ka menoa iya, he’s always cracking
up his own part of the country;
Nuan salalu di-pelandik ka iya, he has
always sthg. good to say of you.
Belane, a medium-sized jar.
Belang, whitened: Baju iya b. laban
tepong, his coat is white with flour.
Melang, make white: Iya m. baju
aku, he made my coat white; Anang
bebelang ka jari nuan, don’t get your
hands white.
Belanga (belangaq), earthenware cook-
ing pot.
Belangkas, a king-crab, Carcinoscor-
pius rotundicauda.
Belanja, 1. expenses, cost: b. gawai,
the expenses of the feast. Melanja,
pay for: Iya m. aku dalam sekula, he
maintained me at school; 2. pocket-
money, allowance: B. aku enda
chukup, my allowance is too small.
Belanjat, rush off, out: Iya b. ka pasar,
he has rushed out to the shops.
Belansai (belansay), a large bag plaited
with young nipa leaves.
Belantan1, 1. (obs.) reserve land owned
by chief; 2. the extra share of honey
given to those who climb for it.
Belantan2, pua b., a fine cloth.
Belap-Belap or bebelap, quiver, flutter:
Daun kayu b. laban ribut, the leaves
flutter in the wind.
-Belas, in sabelas, 11; dua-b., 12;
tiga-b., 13,; etc.
Belat, a fishing-net. Melaf. Iya m., he
fishes with a net across the river.
Belatok (belatuk), a woodpecker.
Belau (belauq), a kind of fish: Anang
baka mata b., don’t be so sluggish,
wake up!
Belawa (belawaq), run. See lawa\
Belayan1, a connection (e.g. child of
s.o. adopted by grandfather): lya
kaban b. kami, he is a connection of
Belayan2, a field: B. padi kami manah
bendar, our paddy-field is doing well.
Beledi, a pail: Iya nyalin ka ai sabelah
b., he put water in each pail.
Belelak, resting: Aku b. pagila, I’m
taking a day off tomorrow. See
Belelam, conceal (the fact): Iya b. ka
diri udah enchuri, he concealed the
fact that he had committed a theft;
Nama utai di-pelelam ka nuan?, what
are you concealing?
Belemak, suppurating: Telih iya b., his
wound is suppurating.
Belemati, think of: Iya nyabak b. ka
penusah, he wept, thinking of his
trouble. Cf. ati.
Beli1, Meli, buy: Iya m. ikan ka aku,
he bought a fish for me; B. enggau
nyawa iya! (imprecation); Nadai
pemeli aku, I’ve nothing to buy with.
Beli2 (beliq), foolish: B. nuan tu, you
are a fool (also endearment); B.
bendar nuan enda meli nya tadi, you
were stupid not to buy it. Bebeli,
call s.o. a fool. Ngemeli, play the
fool, cause to look a fool: Ni aku
deka di-pebeli ka iya, I won’t have
him make a fool of me; Enggai aku
di-kebeli ka kita, I won’t be treated
like a fool by you; Pemeli nuan nyau
mansang, your stupidity is getting
Belia (beliaq), sword, beater-in
Belian1, iron-wood.
Belian2, see pelian.
Belibis, a kind of creeper used for
making rough mats and big baskets.
Belida (belidaq), a kind of sea fish.
Belikan, (Bible) harp.
Belikau (belikaw), streaked: mayau b.,
tabby cat.
Belik-Belik, shining, glittering: Aku
meda jarum b. ba tengah tikai, I saw
a needle glittering on the mat.
Belimbing, buah b., a kind of fruit-tree
(cf. W. Mai. Averrhoa bilimbi).
Belingkah, dislocated: Rang iya b., his
jaw is dislocated.
Belingkok (belingkuk), crooked: kayu
b., a crooked piece of wood; jalai b.
kia-kia, a winding road. Cf. lingkok.
Belinsur, see insur.
Beliong (beliung), a Dayak hatchet.
Belit1, Melit, 1. (without ka) bind;
Ular m. iya, the snake coiled round
him; 2. (with ka) twist sthg. round:
Iya m. ka sirat, he tied on his loin-
cloth. Bebelit: Tali bebelit, the rope
is tangled.
Belit2, Melit, dispute, argue with:
Anang m. aku nuan, aku udah meda,
don’t argue with me, I’ve seen it;
Seduai-iya bebelit, they are disputing;
Nadai di-pebelit ka, there’s nothing
to argue about; Pemelit bendar nuan
tu, you’re always arguing.
Belitong1 (belitung), a square basket.
Belitong2 (belitung), bunga b., a plant
with scented leaves and fruit.
Beloh (beluh), moisture from condensa-
tion: B. nitik ari tudong kendi,

moisture drips from the kettle-lid.
Meloh, produce moisture on: Ai
angat m. ka tudong kendi, moisture
forms on the kettle-lid from the hot
Belong (belung'), crooked: Jalai tu b. ka
kanan, this road twists to the right;
B. bendar jari aku tu, my hand is out
(missing a target). Melong, bend:
Iya m. ka dawai, he bent the wire.
Beluai (beluay), a snake, Xenalaphis
Belu-Belu (beluq-beluq), drenched: Iya b.
laban ujan, he was drenched by the
Belukang, a kind of sea fish.
Beluku1 (belukuq), a kind of turtle.
Beluku2 (belukuq), a lump: b. getah,
lump of waste rubber used as fire-
Belukus, a meat ball.
Belula, a violin.
Belulang1, leather: Tapa aku bebelulang,
the palm of my hand is leathery.
Belulang2, a belt: b. kain, a cloth belt;
B. iya gerah, his belt is loose.
Belumba (belutnbaq), racing, a regatta.
See lumba.
Belungging, fall head first: Iya b. ari
tingkah, he fell headlong from the
cliff; b. bui, somersault.
Belungkin, a giant snail.
Belut, a worm.
Bemain, to play: Sida tu udah b. tadi,
they were playing just now. See
Benias, see mas.
Bemban, a kind of rush, used for mat-
Bembing-Embing, Kami-duai bejalai b.,
we walk jauntily side by side.
Bena (benaq), a bore in a river: Sungai
Saribas bebena, the S. river has a bore.
Benat, dull (of sound): B. nyawa
bebendai tu, this gong doesn’t give a
clear note; Iya bejako b., he talks as
if sthg. were wrong with his nose.
Ngemenat: Anang ng. ka jako nuan,
don’t speak indistinctly.
Benchar, a purge: Iya bebenchar, he
has taken a purge. Menchar: Iya m.
anak iya, she gives her child a purge.
Benchi (benchiq), abhor, shun: Sida b.
ka aku laban apai aku udah munoh
orang, I am shunned by them because
my father murdered s.o. Ngemenchi
ka, bring into disrepute.
Benchin, damp: Kayu b., the firewood
is damp; B. tulang nuan tu, you are
Benchit, rotten, pulpy: Buah nyau b.,
the fruit has gone rotten; Buah b. di-
tinggang sarah, the fruit was squashed
to pulp under the box.
Benda, a large jar: b. ukum, a fine
equivalent to this.
Bendang-Bendang, conspicuously
(white): Indai Aloi meda pala Apai
Aloi b. burak, I. A. saw A. A.’s head
gleaming white.
Bendar1, true, real: B. iya ti kering?, is
he really strong?; Tang utai ti b., iya
ngelusu, but the truth is he’s lazy.
Ngemendar, confirm, carry out: Iya
ng. ka jako iya enggau sumpah, he
confirmed his words with an oath;
Kati berita nya di-kebendar ka
Perintah?, will the Government give
effect to this announcement?; Jako
iya nadaipemendar, there is no truth in
what he says.
Bendar2, part., very, entirely: Leboh
rusa udah bediri bendar, when the
deer had got right up on its feet; Aku
gaga b., I am (very) glad. Bebendar:
Tarit bebendar ka, pull hard(er).
Pemendar: Balat pemendar iya be-
landa, he ran with all his might.
Bengah, tired: Iya laun b. gawa, he
doesn’t easily tire (at work); B. idong
ensium bau ikan, I’m tired of the smell
of fish.
Bengal, deaf. Ngemengal, deafen:
Nyawa sida ti manjong ng. ka pending,
the noise of their shouting was
deafening; Pemengal iya mansang
bendar, his deafness is increasing.
Bengat, part., very, extremely: B. beli
nuan tu, what a fool you are!; Anang
b. neka nya bemain, don’t be so eager
to play; nadai b. nyuah nya, not so
very often.
Bengih, Iya (sakit) b., he has a dry
Bengkah, a part, lot: Berapa b. umai
nuan sataun-tu?, how many lots are
you farming this year?
Bengkak, swollen: B. mat a enda tindok,
his eyes are swollen from lack of
sleep. Ngemengkak: Sida ng. ka
mata, they are burning the candle at
both ends, not getting enough sleep.
Bengkang, a loris.
Bengkong (bengkung), a circular or
semi-circular frame in fish-trap, etc.:
b. beledi, handle of pail.
Benih, seed for sowing: Iya muntis b.,
she selects the seed. Menih, sow (in
holes, cf. nabor)\ Sida m., they are
Benjir, frequently urinating: Iya b., he
frequently passes water.
Benong1 (benung), (be) in the course of,
while: Kami b. gawa, we’re in the

middle of our work; Iya agi b.
orang, he’s in the prime of life.
Benong3 (benung), belly of a jar: B.
tajan nya berabi, the belly of that jar
is flawed.
Benta (bentaq), a coarse grass.
Bentai (bentay), a belt formerly worn by
Dayak women who had borne
Bentai, Mental, tuck in: Iya m. tajong,
he fastens his sarong; Iya m. duit ba
tajong, he tucks the money into his
Bentali, trickle: Liur anak mit b., a baby
Bentang1, (of houses) part, section under
one gable: B. ti ari tebing ai di-bagi
ka panggau, ruai, enggau bilik, b. ti
ari belakang di-bagi ka bilik makai
enggau dapor, the part on the river
side is allotted to the gallery and
living rooms, that behind to the
dining rooms and kitchens.
Bentang2, a rope across river to isolate
a rumah: Rumah sanu ngaga b. laban
maioh penyakit, so-and-so’s house is
roped off because there is much
Bentelah, play at riddles. See entelah.
Bentok (bentuk), num. cl. (bentai, belts,
lampit, girdles, tinchin, rings; circu-
lar objects): Iya ngena tinchin tiga
b., she wears three rings.
Bentur, bend: Dan kayu b., the branch
is weighed down. Ngementur, Men-
tur, cause to bend: Iya ng. ka dan
kayu, he bent the branch.
Bentut, not fresh: Ikan nya nyau
b., that fish is no longer fresh.
Ngementut, Mentut, allow to become
stale: Iya ng. ka ikan ba chapak, she
left the fish on the plate, and it got
Benyut, springiness, springy: B. papan
ti bemunyi, it’s the springing of the
plank that makes the noise; Paya
b.-b., marshy land is springy to walk
Bepancha, play at twisting opponent’s
wrist with fingers interlocked: Sida
b., they are playing in this way.
Bepanggai (bepanggay), rely: Anang b.
ba aku, don’t rely on me: Aku b. ba
nuan, I leave it to you. See panggai.
Bepedi (bepediq, ppediq), (to) smart:
Mata iya b., his eyes are smarting;
Mata aku b. meda iya, I hate the
sight of him.
Beperok (beperuk), caress o. another:
Seduai-iya b., they are fondling.
Cf. perok.
Bepetir (bepetir, ppetir), Aku meda utai
b., I can see spots in front of my eyes.
Bera-Bera (beraq-beraq), glowing: Bara
api b., the embers are glowing.
Berada, parents. See ada. (in songs)
b.-karong-beradi, parents.
Beradi, (in songs) see berada.
Beragai (beragay), one of the omen
birds, a Trogon.
Beragok (beraguk), a kind of civet.
Berai, languish for, miss: Iya b. kena
tinggal ka kami, he missed us when
we left him. Merai, miss: Iya m.
ngenang kami, he missed us (thought
sadly about us).
Berak-Berak, shine, gleam: Ngeli iya
b., his teeth gleam.
Berala, (Bible) gods.
Beram, cooked rice used in preparation
of tuak.
Berambat, hem in: Kami b. ka jelu, we
hemmed the animal in. Imperative,
perambat. Cf. ambat.
Beranak1, frayed: Anang laun ngelilup
kain nya enggai ka iya b., don’t delay
in hemming that cloth in case it frays.
Beranak2, see anak.
Berang, shoulder and upper arm;
shoulder of hill.
Berangai (berangay), (in songs) a long
Berangan, kinds of nut-bearing trees.
Berani, brave, venturesome, foolhardy:
Iya b., he is brave; Iya b. ka ular, he
is not afraid of snakes; Aku enda b.
bejako enggau iya, I daren’t speak to
him; Anang takut b., nothing ven-
ture, nothing gain; Iya b. babi, he is
brave but not cunning; Anang b.
bejalai kediri, don’t venture, it’s risky,
to go alone. Ngemerani, Merani, give
courage: Iya ti ng. ka aku, he
inspires me with courage; Anang
ng. ka diri ngelaban ular, don’t take
risks with snakes; Iya ka pemerani
aku, he gives me moral support; Iya
bepemerani ka ukoi, he took a dog to
give him courage.
Beranyat, (of rope) long-jawed, opening
out, (of mats) becoming loose.
Berap, Merap, embrace, enfold: Iya
m. aku, he embraced me; lya m.
tiang, he put his arms round the
post; Seduai-iya beberap, they are
embracing; Iya beberap jari, his arms
are folded; B. iya udu bendar, his hug
was powerful. Sapemerap (measure
of girth): Kira sapemerap aku, I can
just about get my arms round it.
Berapa, part., 1. how many: B. samoa
tuboh kita tadi?, how many are there
of you?; Aku enda nemu b. gantang
beras ti kebisi iya, I don’t know how
many gantangs of rice he has; 2.

enda b., not very: enda b. jauh, not v.
far; enda b. manah, not v. good.
Berarau (beraraw), a kind of grass.
Berari, always, continually: Aku b.
di-asoh kita kin, you always send me
there; 77 salalu baka nya b., if it were
always like that. Cf. hari.
Beras, husked rice: B. tejula ari
chapan aku, the rice was spilt from my
Berat, heavy, important: Tungkus tu
b. bendar, this package is heavy;
Berapa kati b. nuan?, how many
catties do you weigh?; B. bendar
nuan tu di-asoh, you are not at all
obliging; Pesan tu b., this message is
urgent; Aku b. ka iya datai, Iya
di-keberat ka aku datai, I think it is
important that he should come.
Merat, Ngemerat, make heavy,
heavier: Anang ng. ka ma aku, don’t
add to my load; Balat pemerat ma
nuan, your load is v. heavy.
Berati, see az7.
Berau (beraw), see beras.
Berayah, a ceremonial dance.
Berayan, fall, be dropped (and lost):
Duit aku b. ari kandi, my money must
have fallen out of my pocket; Aku
enda nemu alai iya b., I don’t know
where I dropped it.
Berayang, a kind of spear with a barbed
point: b. tunggal, one with a single
prong; b. serampang dua, one with
two prongs.
Berebubok (berebubuk), Ai b., bubbles
are rising in the water.
Berekas, a bundle. Merekas, tie into a
bundle: Iya m. kayu, he tied up a
bundle of wood.
Berekat, [Ar.] blessing. Merekat, bless:
Iya m. ka anak iya, he blessed his son.
Berenaing, give a clear sound: Tabak
tu manah bendar, b. nyawa iya, this is
a good tray, it gives a clear sound
(when tapped).
Berendayan, covered with (hair, tattoo):
Belakang iya b. laban ukir, he has
tattooing all over his back.
Berengangong (berengangung), clicking:
Kayu nya b., those bits of wood are
clicking together.
Berengkah, see engkah.
Berengoh (berenguh), mumps: Iya empa
b., he has mumps.
Berensang, gush, stream: Ai b. nengah
chalong, water rushed in through the
Berentak, see rentak.
Berentayan, see berendayan.
Berenyang, quake, rock: Nama main
langkau tu b.?, why is the hut rock-
ing? See renyang.
Beresi, clean: Moa iya b., his face is
clean. Meresi, to clean: Iya m.
rumah tiap hari, she cleans the room
every day. Pemeresi, cleanliness.
Beresin, sneeze: B. iya ngachak ka
pending, he deafens you with his
sneezing; Iya b., he sneezes.
Bereta, see sereta.
Beri (beriq), sthg. given: Nadai bendar
b. iya, he didn’t give (me) much.
Meri, give: Iya m. aku surat, Iya m.
surat ka aku, he gave me a book;
B. ka empa manok, give it to the fowls
to eat; Pemeri (or sapemeri) nuan meh,
Jang, give what you like.
Beribit, carry by a fold; (of crabs etc.)
carry in pincers: Sida b. ka guni
beras, they are carrying the rice bags.
Imp. peribit.
Beribut, winnow: Iya b., she winnows.
Padi kami apin di-peribut, our paddy
is not yet cleaned. Cf. ribut.
Berikan, fishing, see ikan.
Berimbai (berimbay), see imbai.
Berimpun, see impun.
Berinsur, or belinsur, see insur.
Beripai (beripay), co-operate in doing
sthg.: Kami b. ka ma iya, we carried
his luggage between us; Nadai orang
ka b. enggau aku meli nya, nobody
will go shares with me in buying it.
Beriran, coherent: Jako iya enda b.,\\Q
talks in an incoherent way.
Beris, shower, drizzle, spray: B. ujan
balat bendar, it’s a heavy shower;
Hari beber is, it’s drizzling; Tuboh iya
beberis laban gelumut, he has come
out in spots with measles. Meris,
sprinkle; Iya m. ka ai ngagai moa
aku, he sprinkled water in my face.
Berita, news, report (see rita)'. Aku
rindu bendar ninga b. ti di-tusoi nuan,
I was glad to hear your news; b.
ngapa, a rumour. Merita, tell, spread,
news: Anang m. ka penemu nya
ngagai orang, don’t broadcast that;
Anang beberita ka utai tu, don’t let
this get about.
Beritan, full, packed: Bilik aku b. laban
pengabang, my room is packed with
Berok (beruk), a kind of monkey
(Macacus nemestrinus).
Bern (beruq), lymph (from wound):
Telih iya beberu, his wound is running.
Berua, agent, go-between: Iya kai b.
aku, he is my agent.
Beruak, a bamboo spear.
Beruang, a bear: b. rambai, b. punggu,
species of bears.
Beruchoh (beruchuh), without inter-
mission: Kami b. gawa ba umai iya,

we got everything finished on his
farm (before going elsewhere).
Berudap, continually eating: Anang b.
ka gula, don’t go on eating sugar.
Berui (beruiq), a kind of bird.
Berumba (berumbaq), see belumba.
Berumpu (berumpuq), assemble: Kami
b. gawa ba bilik iya, we (women)
collect in her room to work. See
Berunai (Berunay), Brunei.
Berunding, take thought: B. nuan
samalam tu, think it over tonight.
See runding.
Berupai (berupay), clearly: Iya b. takut
ninga gu munsoh, he was obviously
frightened on hearing the enemy in
the distance.
Beruru, a kind of creeper, used (beaten)
for lashings: buah b., its seed-box
used as a container.
Berurun, coherently: Nuan enda nusoi
utai b., you’re not telling it clearly;
Enda ulih di-perurun, I can’t tell it in
the proper order.
Berus, [Eng.] brush. Merus, to brush:
Iya m. ngeli, he brushes his teeth.
Besabi, apologize: Iya b. ka diri ti enda
datai ngagai penusah aku, he apolo-
gized for not having come to me in
my trouble.
Besai (besay), big, great: hari b., great
day, feast day. Mesai, be as big as:
Umai iya m. umai aku, his farm is as
big as mine. Ngemesai, think highly
of, treat as important: Kit a kai
anembiak, anang ng. ka ngayap, you
young men, don’t think too much
about courting; Iya di-kebesai ka
kami di menoa tu, we think a great
deal of him in these parts. See
Besak, in haste: Aku b., I am in a
hurry; Iya b. ngereja pengawa, he
was working under pressure. Mesak:
Anang m. aku, don’t hurry me ;
Balat pemesak nuan tu, you’re in a
great hurry.
Besap-Besap: Mata iya b., he blinks.
Besenam, take exercise: Iya b. belanda
ngelingi rumah, he takes exercise by
running round the house.
Besi, iron, steel: b. puteh, tin; Iya
betulang ka b., he is v. strong.
Besikal, [Eng.] bicycle: lya ngempis ka
kaki b., he let the air out of the
bicycle tyre.
Besintak, having cramp: Kaki iya b.,
he has cramp in his leg.
Besudah, see udah.
Besudi (besudiq), a manang ceremony:
Iya b. ka endun ti sakit, he performed
the ceremony for my sick daughter.
Besugang, kneel: Iya b., he kneels. See
Besut, blind (of evil spirits in charming
them away).
Betah, able to persist: Iya b. bendar
nyelam, he can stay under water a
long time; Pangka iya b., his top
spins a long time; B. nuan?, are you
happy here (not too homesick)?;
B. bendar nuan enda nemuai, you
never come to see us. Metah, have
equal powers of endurance: Iya m.
aku meh nyelam, he can stay under
water as long as I can. Ngemetah:
Nadai utai ng. nya iya nyelam deh,
Balat pemetah iya nyelam, he can stay
under water a v. long time.
Betampong-Ayu (betampung-), a manang
ceremony for a sick person.
Betap, Metap, cut in sections: Iya m.
melai, he cuts the reeds in sections.
Betat (betaat), see tat.
Betau-Betau (betaw-betaw), glow, gleam:
Aku meda api b. ari jaoh, I saw the
gleam of a fire from afar; Paia iya b.,
he is bald.
Betawai (betaway), a manang ceremony.
Betemu, meet: Aku b. enggau aya
ensanus, I met your father the day
before yesterday.
Betenah, see petenah.
Betengah, see tengah.
Betengelang, (of animals), patchy in
Beteri, to solder. See peteri.
Betik-Betik, stare: Aku meda mat a
orang b. nilik ari lubang, I saw an eye
watching at the hole; Mata iya b.
meda apai iya di-palu orang, he simply
looked on when his father was struck
Betis, the leg from knee to ankle: Iya
empa empilak ba b., he has a sore on
his leg.
Betiu (betiuq), see bejako.
Betok (betuk), a kind of river fish.
Betong (betung), a kind of large bamboo:
tebu b., a kind of sugar cane.
Betu1 (betuq), a burn, burnt: Jari iya b.,
his hand was burnt; B. iya mansang
balat, his burn is getting worse.
Ngemetu, Metu, burn: Iya samina ng.
ka diri ti berapi, she only gets burnt
if she tries to cook.
Betu2 (betuq), experienced, confirmed:
Iya b. ngereja nya, he has had much
experience of doing it; Iya b. bejudi,
he’s a confirmed gambler.
Betuak, in baka berayang b., (you
succeed) one way or another.
Betuku, correct, authentic: Pengawa aku
enda b., my work wasn’t right; berita
ti b., an authentic report. See tuku.

Betul, 1. exact: Sukat iya b. bendar,
his measurements are exact; Timbak
iya b.-b. kena pala, he shot it right in
the head; 2. fair: Ati iya enda b., he
is unfair. Ngemetul, put right: Iya
ng. ka sukat aku, he put my measure-
ments right. Pemetul: Balat pemetul
ati orang nya, that man is v. just.
Betulong (betulung), combine against:
Sida b. ka aku, they combined against
me; Iya enda tan di-petulong ka kami,
he couldn’t stand up to our combined
strength. Cf. tulong.
Beungkat-Ungkat, intermittently (esp.
of eating): Anang makai b., don’t
eat between meals; Hari uian b., it
rains off and on.
Biak, young: apai b., father’s (mother’s)
younger brother.
Bias, drifting rain: Tikai basah laban
b. ari moa pintu, the mat is wet from
the rain drifting through the door.
Biau (biaw), Miau, 1. (with ka) wave,
swing: Iya m. ka jari bejako, he
waves his arms about in speaking
(impolite); 2. (without ka) Iya m.
kami, he waved the fowl over us (in
ceremonies); Seduai-iya bebiau, the
fowl is waved over them.
Biau-Balai (biaw-balay), storm, hurri-
Bibat, wrestle: Seduai-iya b., they are
Bibir, lip, rim: B. mulut iya mirah laban
inchi, her lips are red with lipstick;
b. kebok, rim of a jar.
Bibit, Mibit, pinch between finger and
thumb: B. jari iya, pinch his hand.
Bicha, rickshaw.
Bichai-Bichai, (bichay-bichay), trailing:
Rambut pua iya b., the fringe of his
blanket is trailing; Bok iya b., her
hair is (hanging) down.
Bichu, blue (for laundering). Michu, to
Bida (bidaq), Mida, kick (against): Iya
m. kaki aku, he stumbled over my
Bidai (biday), a large mat on which
paddy is dried (cl. bidang).
Bidan, a midwife.
Bidang1, num. class, (tanah, pieces of
land; kajang, awnings; bidai, large
Bidang2, Midang, tear: Iya m. kain, he
tore the cloth.
Bidar, a boat used for racing.
Bidat (bbidat, bebidat), a snipe.
Bidik, lucky: Iya b. ngasu, he is lucky
in hunting. Ngemidik: Anang ng.
ka diri, (expression of disbelief) that’s
a whopper!
Bidok (biduk), a small boat.
Bidul, having adenoid speech: Iya b., he
speaks indistinctly.
Bigi (bigiq), a disease in which swellings
occur in throat or belly.
Biging, an excrescence.
Bigok (biguk), a kind of monkey (H.
Semnopithecus cristatus).
Bik, [Eng.] suit-case, attache-case.
Bikong, (bikung), gen. name for curved
or bent implements: b. penarah,
adze; b. pemantun, weeding tool.
Bila1, int. part, when?
Bila2, (bilaq) split (piece of bamboo,
etc.); fork (of road): Nuan nganti
aku ba b. dua, you are to wait for me
at the fork; Jalai bebila empat, the
road branches in four directions;
Api bebila, the fire burns fiercely.
Mila, to split: Iya m. buloh, he makes
splits of bamboo.
Bilah, num. cl. (pedang, swords; j engku,
metal spurs for cocks).
Bilak, gaping: Telih iya b., he has a
gaping wound. Milak, (to) open:
Anang dudok m. ka pah, don’t sit with
your legs apart.
Bilang, Milang, count: Iya m. duit iya,
he counts his money; sp. Iya datai
ngagai aku m. (or b.) hari, he comes
to me every day.
Bilik, a room (esp. in longhouse): lya
di b., he’s in the room.
Bilis, dried fish.
Bilok1 (biluk), Milok, turn: Iya m. ka luan
kami ka kanan, he turned our boat’s
bow to the right; Leboh kami bebilok
perau kami karam, when we turned,
our boat capsized.
Bilok2 (biluk), unjust, unfair: Ati iya b.,
he is unjust.
Bilun, [Eng.] aircraft.
Bilut, puckered: Iya b. ka nyabak, his
face was puckered as if he were about
to cry; mangkok b., a bowl with a
wavy rim. Ngemilut, make faces at:
Iya ng. ka anak aku, he made a face
at my child.
Bimbang1, out of true: Kain tu b. di-
ketak iya, he didn’t cut this cloth
straight. Ngemimbang: Anang ng.
ka sukat nuan, keep it straight
Bimbang2, unfair: Ati iya b. enggau aku,
he is unfair to me.
Bimbing, unsteady: Nama main pejalai
iya b.?, why is he walking un-
Bina, Mina, take charge of, manage:
Sapa m. samoa pengawa berat ka
kita, who sees to all the heavy work
for you?; Iya enda tebina ka layar
nya kediri, he can’t manage that sail
alone; Iya enda tebina ka adi iya

laban iya gemok, she can’t nurse her
younger brother because he’s too big.
Binat, Minat, stretch: Iya m. ka kelapis
getah, he stretched the sheet of rubber.
Binchai (binchay), Minchai, lift, carry,
by an arm or leg: Iya m. bangkai
chit, he was carrying a dead rat by
the leg.
Binchang, see Binchai.
Binching, Minching, carry in the hand:
Iya m. bakul, he is carrying a basket.
Bindu, brace and bit.
Bingak, wide (nostrils), stretched open
(basket): Idong iya b., he has wide
nostrils. Ngemingak: Anang ng. ka
moa bakul, don’t stretch the mouth
of the basket.
Bingka (bingkaq), group of tubers or
rhizomes, e.g. of ginger, b. lia.
Bingkai (bingkay), rim: b. tanggoi, rim
of hat. Mingkai, make a rim: Iya
m. bakul, he puts a rim on the
Bingkok1 (bingkuk), crooked: Tungkat
iya b., his stick is crooked; Jalai tu b.
ka kiba, this road bends to the left.
Mingkok, bend: Iya m. ka tungkat,
he bent the stick.
Bingkok2 (bingkuk), unjust, partial: Ati
iya b. bendar megai pechara, he is
partial in judging a case.
Bingkol (bingkul), muscle: Isi iya
bebingkol, he is muscular.
Bingung, confused: B. pala aku
ngerunding sam tu: my head’s going
round thinking of this sum. Ngemi-
ngung: Santina ng. ka pala pengawa
kita kaban anak tu, the way you
children go on is driving me crazy.
Bini, wife: Iya apin bebini, he isn’t
married yet; b. anak iya, 1. his wife
and children, 2. his son’s wife.
Binjai (binjay}, a kind of tree and fruit
(cf. B. Mai. Mangifera caesia).
Binsai (binsay), attack, aggression: B.
manok nya udu bendar, that cock
attacks fiercely. Minsai, (to) attack:
Manok indu nya m. ka ukoi, that hen
attacked the dog.
Binsang, having a hole; split: Burit
raga tu b., there’s a hole in the bottom
of this basket; (Mulut) iya b., he has
a hare lip. Minsang, make a hole in;
tear: Anang m. ka moa raga, don’t
tear the mouth of the basket.
Bintang1, a star: Day a bumai ngena b.,
Dayak farming is governed by the
stars; Langit enda bebintang malam
tu, the sky is not starry tonight.
Bintang2, a medal, decoration.
Bintar, Mintar, spread out: Iya m.
kain, she spread out the cloth.
Bintih, 1. (of cocks) fighting: B. manok
iya manah bendar, his cock fights well.
Mintih, to attack: Manok m. ukoi,
the cock attacked the dog; 2. (of
birds) attack in flocks: Burong m.
buah, flocks of birds are attacking the
fruit; Pipit enjing bebintih makai
padi, sparrows come in crowds to
attack the rice; 3. sting: Moa iya
di-bintih penyengat, he was stung in
the face by an insect.
Binyang, unequal (measurements):
Langkar langkau iya b., his hut is
Bira (biraq), evacuate bowels: Iya b.
ka darah, he passes blood.
Birah, a plant of the calla lily family:
b. raya, Alocasia macrorrhiza.
Birap-Birap, (of clothes) loose, floating:
Baju iya b., his coat is loose on him.
Biras, 1. formerly, one who, unable to
discharge a debt, was taken as a
servant by his creditor; 2. the
descendant of a b. in relation to the
descendants of his master.
Biring, 1. a type of coloration in
fighting-cocks in which red pre-
dominates; 2. (of human beings)
flushed: Iya apin mati, moa iya agi
b., he is not yet dead, there’s still
colour in his face.
Biris, b. semakau, a strip, shred, of
Biroi (biruy), (of hair) loose, down: Bok
iya b.-b., her hair is down. Miroi:
Iya m. ka bok, she lets her hair down.
Biru1, blue: Lengan iya b. kena palu
kayu, his arm is blue where he was
hit by the tree. Ngemiru, make blue:
Utai tu kena ng. ka kain, this is used
for making the cloth blue.
Biru2, (biruq) a kind of palm.
Bisa1, poisonous: Tu ular b., this is a
poisonous snake.
Bisa2, strong, powerful, effective: Ubat
tu b., this medicine is potent; Anu
iya b. enggau aku, he gave me a severe
Bisi1 (bisiq), have, possess: Aku b. duit,
I have some money. Ngemisi,
1. make rich: Lubang mas ti ng. ka
iya, it was a gold-mine that made
him rich; 2. Iya ng. ka diri, he
pretends to be well off; Aku meri ka
nuan naka ti di-kebisi aku, I’ll give you
what I have. See pemisi.
Bisi2 (bisiq), part, indicating actual exis-
tence, occurrence: Aku b. nyambut
surat ari nuan, I have received your
letter; Aku b. dia, I was there; Aku
b. meda iya, —B. nuan?, I’ve seen him,
—Have you?; B. jalai seduai-iya
keluar, there was a way for them to

get out; B. datai ba aku lemai
kamari, s.o. came to see me yesterday
evening; B. udah badu mantun, b. agi,
some have finished weeding, some
are still at it.
Bisin, [Eng.] a basin.
Bisu (bisuq), dumb: B. nuan?, are you
dumb? Ngemisu: Anang ng. ka diri,
don’t pretend to be dumb.
Bitak-Bitak, 1. I si iya b., his flesh
quivers (he’s so fat); 2. Getah agi b.,
the latex is not yet ready for rolling.
Biting, a whitlow: Iya empa b., he has
a whitlow.
Biuh, signs, indications, characteristics:
Nadai b. moa apai iya, he doesn’t
resemble his father; Hari bebiuh ka
ujan, the signs are that it will rain.
Biul, name of a person given to playing
the fool: B. nuan tu, you’re a real
Boh (buh), see leboh.
Bok (buuk), hair of the head: Lambar
b., a hair; B. iya biroi-biroi, her hair
is down.
Bol (buul), period, season, time: Datai
b. bumai, datai belaya, the farming
season is the season of disputes; Iya
makai enda bebol, he eats at irregular
times; lya bebol, he is changeable.
Bong1 (buung), a long shallow boat.
Bong2 (buung), (of animals) copulate.
Bu, in berangan b., a species of berangan.
Buah1, a fruit, a nut (cl. igi or leka)'.
b. rian, durian. Ngembuah: Kami
ng. pagila, we are picking fruit
Buah2, in various collocations: b. bul,
a ball; b. lengan, biceps; b. chatur,
Buah3, pattern, design: Nama b. pua
nuan?, what is the pattern of your
Buah1, num. cl. {rumah, house; langkau,
hut; perau, boat; bangkong, boat;
Buai (buay), Muai, 1. throw away:
Anang m. insap agi panjai, don’t
throw away a half-smoked cigarette;
2. get rid of, give up: Aku m.
nginsap, I’ve given up smoking; Iya
m. bini, he divorced his wife; Kami
apin m. adat lama, we haven’t yet
abolished the old ways (often=we
are not Christians); Iya udah bebuai
anak, she has procured abortion.
Buan, a tree, the broad leaves of which
are used for wrapping food for
Buat1, a (boat) load: Tu naka b. perau
aku, that’s as much as my boat can
take. Muat, (can) hold: Perau aku
m. dua, my boat will take two.
Bebuat: Sida bebuat, they are loading.
Sabuat, 1. a boatload, 2. a group:
Kami sabuat kai ditu, all of us here.
Buat2, term of address.
Buau (buaw), an evil spirit, vampire.
Buba (bubaq), a fish-trap.
Buban, white-haired: lya b., he has
white hair.
Buboh (bubuh), Muboh, pour away: lya
m. ka ai ari beledi, he poured the
water out of the pail.
Bubok1 (bubuk), a shrimp.
Bubok2 (bubuk), Mubok, pierce: Iya m.
dinding enggau pat, he made a hole
in the wall with a chisel; pemubok
tin, a tin-opener.
Bubok3 (bubuk), a wood-boring beetle.
Bubong1 (bubung), a trap for monkeys.
Bubong2 (bubung), place of confinement
for mad person. Mubong, confine.
Bubu1, a kind of fish-trap: Iya baru
pulai ngabas b., he had just come
back from inspecting his fish-trap.
Bubu2 (bubuq), lice-bites.
Bubul, Mubul, fill in gaps, make up for
sthg. missing: Iya m. tanam iya ti
jarang, he is filling up the gaps in his
planting; Iya tindok siang hari kena
m. iya ti enda tindok namalam, he is
sleeping by day to make up for not
sleeping last night; Iya m. jala, he is
mending the holes in the casting-net.
Bubun, in b. aji, fontanelle.
Bubur rice or sago gruel.
Bubus, having a hole: Kasut aku b.
laban paku lawang, the nail has made
a hole in my shoe; b. tapa, extrava-
gant. Mubus, go through: Iya
merejok m. ka pagar, he jumped
through the fence.
Bubut, a kind of bird (H. Centrococcyx).
Buchai (buchay), a fringe: B. pua nya
putus, the fringe of that pua has gone.
Buchor (buchur), flow through a hole:
B. ai nya deras; the water is coming
out fast; Ai b.-b. nengah chalong, the
water is rushing in at the bung-hole.
Buda, male personal name.
Budau (budaw), see paloi.
Budi, benefaction: B. nuan tekelalu
manah enggau aku, you are too
generous to me; Nadai b. enggau
orang, he shows no generosity to
others. Mudi, bestow sthg. on: Iya
m. aku enggau duit, he made me a
gift of money; sp. Iya m. aku, he took
me in, deceived me. Bebudi: Seduai-
iya bebudi, they are linked by a budi.
Budu (buduq), salted fish. Mudu, to
pickle: Iya m. ikan enggau garam,
he pickled the fish in brine; Anang
m. diri enggau gula, don’t eat too
much sugar.

Bui1, in anak b., see buau.
Bui2 (buiq), mouldy: Sayur tu nyau b.,
these vegetables are getting mouldy.
Buih, a swirl in the water caused by
movement below: Nya b. ikan, a fish
made that swirl.
Buing, a kind of river fish.
Bujak, a short spear.
Bujang1, a bachelor, young man: Maioh
bendar b. nutu indu nya, a lot of young
men dangle round that girl.
Bujang2, smart (of men): lya meda
Apai Aloi b. bendar, she saw A.A.
looking v. smart. Ngemujang: lya
ng. ka diri, he makes himself smart.
Bujur, a bar: b. besi, an iron bar.
Buka (bukaq), Muka, open, loose,
untie: Iya m. pintu, he opened the
door; Iya m. tali, he untied the rope;
Iya m. gari, he undressed; Iya m.
main silap, he does conjuring tricks.
Pemuka, in cock-fighting, a substance
put on metal spur, intended to make
it pierce more easily.
Bukai (bukay), other: orang b., other
people; menoa b., another district,
foreign parts; Babi nya ngerebut ti b.,
that pig snatches the others’ food.
See mukai, kebukai.
Bukang, 1. (of person or animal) trunk,
torso; 2. (of boat) length: Perau
sida ninggal ka kami kira dua b.
perau, their boat beat us by about
two lengths.
Bukau (bukaw), yams: Iya nanam
tampang b., he planted a piece of a
Bukit, 1. hill, mountain; 2. as opposed
to pay a, dry land: Sida bumai b. taun
tu, they are doing dry farming this
Buku (bukuq), joint, node: b. tunjuk,
knuckle; Aku ti empu b. pemedis, I
shall bear the brunt of it.
Bukut1, Mukut, strike with fist: Iya m.
aku, he punched me; Kami-duai
bebukut, we came to blows.
Bukut2, (lower) corner of basket, b.
rag a, b. bakul.
Bui, [Eng.] ball: buah b., football.
Bula (bulaq), a liar: Iya b., he is a liar,
is lying. Ngemula: Iya ng. ka aku,
he lied to me. Pemula, lies, lying.
Bulan, 1. moon: b. perenama, full
moon; b. simpak, a little past full;
b. belah dua, first, last, quarter; b.
barn, new moon. See keleman,
sentok. 2. month: b. nyin kamari
last month; b. satu, January; b. dua,
February; Iya datai b., she is men-
struating. Mulan: Iya m., he is
Bulang1, b. kaki, length of a foot:
Pemesai papan nya dua b. kaki, the
plank is two feet broad.
Bulang2, string for attaching the arti-
ficial spur of a fighting-cock.
Bular, Mata iya b., his eyes are glazed.
Bulat, maggoty. See ulat.
Buli, eddy, whirlpool: Kami merau
meraka b. ai, we paddled through the
eddies; Ai bebuli, the water is
Bulih, get, obtain: Iya b. ikan, he got a
fish; B. bendar aku makai ba kita,
you’ve given me a very good meal.
See sabulih-bulih.
Buloh1 (buluh), bamboos: kain b., the
enveloping part of the leaf.
Buloh2 (buluh), b. senapang, barrel of
gun; b. lampu, lamp-chimney.
Bulu1, hair (on body), feathers, quills:
b. bansu, eyebrows, b. mata, eye-
lashes; b. landak, quills of porcupine.
Bulu2, coloration, pattern (esp. of jars
and fighting-cocks): B. tajau iya
cherai, his jar is a black one; Maioh
b. mensia begulai enggau kami, there
are people of many races among us.
Bulu3 (buluq), bau b., smell of burning
hair or feathers.
Bum, [Eng.] bomb. Ngebum, to bomb:
Jipun ng. Singapura, the Japanese
bombed Singapore.
Bumai (bumay), to farm. See pumai,
Bumbus, see bub us.
Bumi, [Skt.] (Bible), the earth.
Bun, a brass bowl with lid.
Bunak-Bunak, (of children) plump.
Bunang, a raft of sago logs. Munang:
Kami m. sahari-tu, we are cutting and
bringing in the sago today.
Bunchak, see punchak, the upper end:
b. langit, the zenith; b. lebak, upper
end of valley; b. jala, narrow end of
Bunchol (bunchul), a boss (of a gong).
Munchol, to swell: Pisa iya m., his
boils are swelling up.
Bundong (bundling), a plant, the young
shoot of which is edible, and the split
stem used as string.
Bunga, Bungai (bungay), a flower,
blossom, plant (cl. iti)-. Buah nya
bebunga, that fruit-tree is in flower;
gelumbang bebunga, breaking waves;
Pemangah iya bebunga, he was
furiously angry.
Bunga-Jarau (-jaraw), a preparation for
igniting enemy’s roof.
Bunga-Jawa, a god.
Bunga-Kayu (-kayuq), smallpox.
Bunga-Nuing, a god.

Bungah, joking: B. bendar iya, he’s a
wag. Mungah, Ngemungah, joke with:
Iya m. aku, he joked with me; sp.
Iya m. anak aku jadi enggau anak iya,
he made overtures for the marriage of
his child and mine; Anang b.-b., don’t
play the fool.
Bungas, virgin, first (fruits): indu b., a
virgin; getah b., the first tapping of
rubber. Mungas, have the first-
fruits: Iya m. getah, he does the first
Bungkah, change: Maioh b. ari tulis ti
lama, there are many changes from
the old spelling. Mungkah. to change:
Iya m. pendiau diri manah, he im-
proved his conduct.
Bungkal (bbungkak), a plant, the tubers
of which are used as pig-food.
Bungkan, a bamboo container.
Bungkang, a wild fruit-tree.
Bungkar1, Mungkar, pull down: Iya m.
langkau, he pulled down the hut.
Bungkar1, Mungkar, take out: Iya m.
gari ari peti, she got the clothes out
of the trunk.
Bungkok (bungkuk}, bent, stooping.
Mungkok: Iya m. ka diri, he bent
Bungkoi (bungkul}, a hump (oxen,
Bungkong (bungkung}, a swelling on a
tree-trunk: lubang b., the hollow
where a branch has been; b. genalu,
a knot in wood.
Bungkor (bungkur}, a Dayak blanket
(pua}. Mungkor: Iya m. aku enggau
pua, he covered me with a blanket.
Bungkus, a bundle, parcel: Mai b.
(asi} nuan?, are you taking food (for
the journey)?; Ikan nya enda be-
bungkus, that fish isn’t wrapped up.
Mungkus, make a parcel, wrap up:
Iya m. penganan, she wrapped up the
Bunoh (bunuh}, Munoh, 1. kill, murder:
Iya udah m. orang, he had killed s.o.;
Sida bebunoh, they are at war; Iya
orang pemunoh, he is a murderer;
Iya rari m. diri, he ran for dear life;
2. destroy, extirpate: Iya m. samoa
kayu ti mit, he cut down all the small
trees; Iya m. ikil, he got rid of the
wart; Tu ubat pemunoh kurap, this is
a cure for ringworm; Iya orang
pemunoh, he is a swindler.
Bunsa, one of the omen insects.
Bunsi1, male personal name.
Bunsi2, in padi b., a kind of paddy.
Bunsu1, in anak b., youngest child.
Bunsu2, finishing off (of mat), final
hitch (of knot), point (of story,
report): Tanchang nya enda temu b.,
you can’t see how to undo that knot;
Berita tu enda temu b., there’s no
saying what the point of this report is.
Buntak, grasshoppers, locusts: b. da-
yong, praying mantis.
Buntal, globe-fish: b. bakau (Tetraodon
fluviatilis}, b. pisang (Xenopterus
naritus}; B. ngembo ka perut iya, a
globe-fish puffs itself out.
Buntas1, Muntas, open, cut through:
Iya m. pisa, he opens the boil; Iya
m. tanjong, he cut (a canal) through
the neck of land; Iya bebuntas ka
rumah sakit, he has gone into hospital
for an operation.
Buntas2, in labong b., a small kerchief.
Buntau (buntaw}, heavy with lack of
sleep: Aku b., I’m dropping with
sleep. Ngemuntau: Anang ng. ka
mata, don’t sit up till all hours.
Buntil, a bag slung over shoulder, us.
for chewing materials.
Buntis, Muntis, select: Iya m. benih,
she selects the seed.
Buntu (buntuq}, 1. b. ikan, dead,
bloated, fish. Ngemuntu: Anang ng.
ka ikan dalam bubu, don’t leave the
fish to rot in the trap; 2. (us. of old
men) fat, bloated.
Buntut, the end, inmost part: b. langit,
the zenith; b. kandi, the bottom of
the bag; Aku enda nemu b. ati iya,
I don’t know what is at the back of
his mind; enda bebuntut ati, openly.
Bunyi, noise, sound: Aku ninga b. ujan
I heard the noise of rain. See munyi.
Bunyoh (bunyuti}, see kapor, kapu.
Bup, [Eng.] book.
Bur, [Eng.] bradawl. Ngebur, to bore.
Burah, Murah, apply chewed sir eh etc.
as a cure; Indai m. anak iya, the
mother does this to her child.
Burak, white: Ngeli iya b., his teeth
are white.
Buri (buriq}, shell ornaments: baju b.,
a coat with these.
Burik, (of birds) speckled: manok b., a
speckled cock.
Burit, 1. bottom, base; 2. the pos-
terior. Murit, cover the bottom: Ai
m. ba mangkok nya, there’s a little
liquid in the bottom of that cup.
Burok1 (buruk}, rotten: tuga b., a rotten
stump. Murok, Ngemurok, go rotten,
septic: Telih iya m., his wound has
gone septic; Udah di-peburok ka aku,
I left it to rot.
Burok2 (buruk}, lazy: Iya b., he is lazy.
Burong1 (burung}, a bird (cl. iko}: b.
ruai, argus pheasant; Iya pandi b.,
he goes into the water and comes out

Burong2 (burung}, an omen: Kami
beburong, 1. we observe the omens;
2. we are pagans.
Burong3 (burung}, a contract: B. kami
abis sahari-tu, our contract expires
today; Aku beburong gawa ba iya, I
have a contract to work for him.
Buru, drive away, send away: Iya m.
jelu, he drives away the animals; Iya
pemuru manok, it’s his job to drive
away the fowls.
Burut, hydrocele.
Buso, a kind of civet.
Busong( busung}, incur supernatural pun-
ishment : mali b., the taboo on uttering
the name of wife’s, husband’s, parents;
Iya b. ngelaban apai indai, he is
punished for his unfilial conduct.
Ngemusong: Anang ng. ka diri
ngereja nya, don’t risk retribution by
doing that.
But (buut\ rotten: dagin b., bad meat.
Ngemut: Anang ng. ka ikan nya,
don’t leave that fish to rot.
Buta (butaq}, blind: Iya b., he is blind.
Ngemuta, to blind: Anang ng. ka
mata nuan, use your eyes.
Butang, adultery, adulterous: Seduai-iya
b., they have committed adultery.
Various forms of adultery: b. ram-
pang pinang (throwing husks of betel);
b. nyeling (looking out of corner of
eye); b. Hum (giving chewing ma-
terials); b. rangkai (‘dry’); b.
nyentok (complete).
Butoh (butuh}, 1. penis; 2. in various
collocations: b. dilah, uvula; b.
manyi, bee’s sting; b. padi, sharp end
of paddy husk; b. kisar, part of
paddy-mill. Ngemutoh: Iya ng. aku,
he called me b., insulted me.
Butul, [Eng.] bottle.
Buya (buyaq}, defiled; having broken a
taboo: Umai iya b., his farm is
polluted (a penti has been broken);
Iya b. penti, he has broken a taboo;
Aku enda kala b. ngirup, I’ve never
touched drink; Aku enda kala b. indu
nya, I’ve never had anything to do
with the woman. Ngemuya: Aku
enggai ng. ka diri bejako enggau iya,
I wouldn’t dream of speaking to
him; Iya bebuya ka umai, he cuts the
jungle round the farm to warn
animals off.
Buyah, a kind of moth.
Buyan, be afraid of: Iya b. ka malam,
he’s afraid of the dark. Ngemuyan:
Anang ng. nya, dont be such a coward.
Buyu (buyuq}, in antu b., an evil spirit;
sp. lya nyadi antu b., she is an
Chabang, 1. branch of a tree: Sida
bejako ‘pun satu, buah dua, ch. dua-
belas', they are talking above my
head (an obscure saying, much dis-
cussed, ‘one stem, two fruits, twelve
branches’); 2. a forking: Limpang
ngagai ch. ti ka kanan, turn off to the
right at the fork; Jalai tu bechabang
empat, this road branches in four
directions; 3. part of a design
introduced to fill an awkward gap,
ch. ukir.
Chabar, Enchabar, neutralize the effect
of sthg.: Sida e. ka mimpi, they took
steps to counteract the dream; Adi
aku ngerusak bunga sida sanu, lain
aku bejalai ngagai sida e. ka penyalah
iya, my younger brother spoilt their
flowers and I went to put matters
Chabau (chabaw}, Enchabau, cut, mow:
Iya e. rumput, he cut the grass.
Chabi (cliabiq}, chilli: Lauk iya bechabi,
he has chilli in his food.
Chabik, Enchabik or nyabik, tear to
pieces: Iya e. ka kain, she tore up the
cloth; Abis di-pechabik ka iya, he
tore it to shreds.
Chabok (chabuk}, a cup (other than of
china): Iya bechabok ka tachu, he
has a coconut-shell cup.
Chabu (Chabuq}, male personal name.
Chabul, Chabur, uncontrolled in speech,
blurting out secrets: Anak iya ch.
bendar nusoi utai, his son lets his
tongue wag. Penyabul: Laban pe-
nyabul mulut iya, nya alai iya enda
berasai nusoi diri ti udah enchuri, he’s
so careless in what he says that he let
out that he had stolen.
Chabut, Enchabut or nyabut, take, pull,
out: Ch., take one (drawing lots);
Iya e. rumput, he pulled up the grass;
Padi kami di umai abis di-pechabut
ka kera, the monkeys pulled up all
our paddy on the farm; Berapa
15 ch. 41, what is 15 minus 4?
Chagai-Chagai (chagay-chagay}, stream
out: Bok iya ch. bai belanda, his hair
streamed out as he ran.
Chagak, gun-rest: Iya ngunjam ka ch.
bedil ka tanah, he fixed the gun-rest
in the ground.
Chai-Chai (of the sambhur) to cry: Rusa
ch. (or enchai}, the sambhur calls.
Chair, thin (of liquid): Ai getah tu ch.,
this latex is thin. Nyair: Nadai utai
ny. nya (or Balat penyair} bubur tu,
this gruel is v. thin.
Chakah1, active: Taja iya nyau tuai, iya
agi ch. bendar, although he is old

now, he is still active; Iya ch. bendar
nerima temuai, he is v. attentive to
Chakah2, Nyakah, contradict, dispute
with: Iya keras bendar ny. aku madah
ka nuan datai kamari, he insisted
(against me) that you arrived yester-
day; Enggai aku di-ch. nuan, I am
sure I am right; Benong kami-duai
bechakah iya datai, while we were
disputing he arrived; Penyakah ben-
dar nuan tu, you always say the
Chakap, boastful talk: Besai bendar ch.
nuan, you talk big. Nyakap: Anang
guai ny. utai, don’t count your
chickens before they’re hatched; Iya
bechakap ka ngelaban aku, he boasts
of what he’ll do to me; Ker a bechakap
meda aku, the monkey scolded when
it saw me.
Chakoh {chakuh), bent, stooping: Iya
ch. bendar, he is v. bent. Nyakoh:
Anang ny. ka pejalai nuan, don’t
slouch along.
Chala (chalaq), light red.
Chalong (chalung), bung: lubang ch.,
bung-hole; Iya enchabut ch. perau
nya, he pulled out the bung of that
Chalu, ferry: orang ch., ferryman;
Kami ngena perau ch. ka seberai, we
took the ferry to the other bank.
Chamang-Chamang, see chechamang.
Chambai (Chambay), male personal
Chambing, topknot (hair): Iya ngetak
ch. bok iya, he cut off his topknot;
Bok iya bechambing. he has a top-
Chambul, a small brass box for to-
bacco etc.: Iya ngisi ch. aku enggau
semakau, he filled my tobacco-box.
Champur, mixed, mingled: Kami begu-
lai ch. maioh, there are many different
races among us; Kami diau becham-
pur enggau China, we live together
with the Chinese. Nyampur, mix:
Iya ny. ubat enggau ai, he mixed the
medicine with water; Pechampur ka
nuan sida-iya diau?, did you put them
to live together?
Chanai (chanay), in batu ch., a smooth
stone used as a whetstone; Iya batu
ch., he can stand up to a charge.
Chanang, a type of gong.
Chandi, crosspiece on post for hornbill
image: Ch. kenyalang iya di-gaga ari
kayu pelai, his ch. is made from pelai
Chandong (phandung), a ‘dress’ knife:
(Duku) ch., aku simpak, my ch. is
35 Chapoh
Chandu, opium: Iya nginsap ch., he
smokes opium.
Chandur, bubur ch., rice pudding: Anak
mit deka bendar makai bubur ch.,
children like rice pudding.
Changgak-Changgak, cocked up: Luan
perau iya ch., the bows of his
boat are cocked up; Kaki iya ch.
gali di ruai, he lies on the veranda
with one leg bent and the other over
it. Enchanggak: Papan e., the plank
tips up.
Changgut, Nyanggut, crop: Daun padi
kami abis di-changgut rusa, the deer
have cropped all our paddy.
Changka, rude, rough-spoken: Iya ch.
bejako, he speaks roughly; (in
apologetic openings) Tak ch. lah jako
aku enggau nuan, it is rude of me.
Changkir, a cup (cl. singkap)'. Ch. nya
simpak, that cup is chipped.
Changkok1, (changkuk) a kind of veget-
Changkok2 (changkuk), the new plant
obtained by a process akin to layer-
ing (earth and manure bound round
branch which is severed when roots
have developed): Iya meli ch. bunga
saringgit sedan, he bought ‘cuttings’
at a dollar each. Nyangkok, to
prepare the cuttings: Iya ny. dan
bunga, he propagates the plant in this
Changkol (changkul), a hoe: Ch. aku
jai baur, the handle of my hoe is
broken. Nyangkol: Iya ny. tanah,
he hoes the ground.
Changok-Changok (changuk-changuk),
idly: Anang dudok ch., don’t sit idly.
Chap, stamp, print: Ch. jari, tangan,
finger-print, imprint of hand; ch.
kedai, trade-mark; Enti aum kita
udah putus, bai bechap tangan enggau
iya, if you have come to an agree-
ment with him get it sealed. Ngechap,
to stamp, make an impression: Iya
ng. jari, he makes his thumb-mark.
Chapak, plate (cl. singkap): Iya makai
enda bechapak, he eats without a
Chapan1, a winnowing basket: Iya
bechapan ka senggang, she has a
winnowing basket made of senggang.
Chapan2, in mayas ch., a kind of orang-
Chapi, see sapi.
Chapin, beak of boat: Iya ngaga ch.
perau iya, he made a beak for his boat.
Chapir, having a straight sheer and low
sides (boat): Perau iya ch., his boat
does not rise at stem and stern.
Chapoh (chapuh), make a noise, dis-
turbance: Nama main orang ch.?,

why are people making that noise?;
Ninga orang ch. ba langkau, aku niki,
baru aku nemu sida belaya, hearing a
disturbance in the hut, I went up and
found them quarrelling.
Chaput-Chaput, (used by children) Kain
iya ch., her skirt is v. short.
Chara1, behaviour, conduct: Ch. orang
nya manah, he is a man of good
character; Ch. iya ngintu menoa
manah, his policy was good for the
country; Nadai ch. ngidup ka diri,
nya alai iya nyual pesaka, having no
means of livelihood, he sold his
Chara2, lawsuit, case: Ch. kami apin
putus, our case is not yet decided;
Kami-duai bechara pagila, our case is
coming up tomorrow. Nyara, go to
law with: Aku ny. iya laban iya naban
ka perau aku, I went to law with him
for taking my boat without permis-
sion; Apin di-pechara ka kami, we
haven’t yet gone to law about it;
Nuan tu orang penyara, you are
Charik, torn: Baju iya ch., his coat is
torn. Nyarik or encharik, tear: Iya
ny. ka keretas, he tore the papers;
Abis di-pecharik ka iya keretas ti
di-guna aku, he tore up all the papers
I needed.
Charut, confused, disordered, entangled:
Runding aku ch., I was confused;
Menoa ch., the country is in disorder;
Tali ch., the rope is entangled; Nama
main orang ch.?, what is all the con-
fusion? Nyarut, confuse, entangle:
Anang ny. ka ubong, don’t get the
thread tangled; Ch.l, mob him!;
Gari kami abis di-pecharut ka tukang
dobi, the laundry has got our clothes
all mixed; Balat penyarut menoa, the
country is in a state of great con-
Chat, [Ch.] paint: Rumah kami enda
bechat, our house is not painted.
Ngechat, to paint: Iya ngechat rumah,
he paints the house.
Chatur, [Skt.] chess: Seduai-iya main
ch., they play chess; papan ch., chess-
board; buah ch., chessman.
Chauk, in anak ch., puppy.
Chawan, [Ch.] saucer: Anang ngirup
enda bechawan, use a saucer with your
Chawat, [Mak] a loin-cloth.
Chawil, Chawis, Nyawis or enchawis,
touch in order to call attention: Iya
ny. aku, he nudged me.
Chawit, left hand: Iya ngena ch.
nanggong sarah, he used his left hand
to lift the box; Iya ch., he is left-
Chaya, [Skt.] brilliance, brightness: ch.
mata-hari, the brightness of the sun;
Moa iya nadai ch., his face is expres-
sionless, dull; Moa iya bechaya, his
face is bright.
Che (cheq), interjn. used to cats.
Chebik, a piece: Iya meri aku ch. sireh,
he gave me a piece of sireh.
Chebir, Nyebir or enchebir, protrude
lower lip in deprecation: Iya ny. ka
mulut iya, he grimaced.
Chebok-Chebok (chebuk-chebuk), squelch:
Ai ch. laban kaki iya, water squelched
under his foot. Nyebok or enchebok,
to squelch, cause to squelch: Iya e.
ka ai, he splashes the water (to attract
baong fish); Perut iya e. bai belanda,
his stomach squelched as he ran.
Chebor-Chebor, (chebur-chebur), Nyebor
or enchebor, see chebok-chebok.
Chechamang, in enda ch., not scruple to:
Iya enda ch. tama bilik kami mali, he
didn’t scruple to enter our room
which was taboo.
Chegai-Chegai (chegay-chegay), Chegi-
Chegi, upright: Kayu nya ch. puak ai,
that bit of wood is floating upright; Paia
ular ch., the snake’s head is raised.
Chegit-Chegit, stand erect: Tiang nya
ch. ka langit, that’s a v. tall post;
Anang ch. ba jalai, don’t block the
Chego, erect: Butoh iya ch., he has an
erection; Paia ular ch. meda aku, the
snake reared on seeing me. Nyego,
cause to erect: joc. Nama utai ny.
ka butoh nuan, Dom?
Cheh (chih), interjn. urging dog to bark.
Ngecheh: Iya ng. ka ukoi nyalak aku,
he excited the dog to bark at me.
Chekak, main ch., a sort of wrestling in
which the opponent’s throat is to be
seized. Nyekak, grip: Iya ny. rekong
aku, he took me by the throat.
Bechekak: bechekak punggong, with
arms akimbo; Anang bechekak pung-
gong meda orang gawa, don’t stand
idle when you see people working.
See sapenyekak.
Chekal, Nyekal, throttle, strangle:
Anang ny. ka anak mayau nya, don’t
strangle that kitten.
Chekap, Nyekap or enchekap, (eat)
noisily: Babi e. makai, pigs eat
Chekik, Nyekik or enchekik, (attempt
to) cough out, choke: Ch. kal, cough
it out!; Iya e. laban tulang ikan lekat
ba rekong iya, he was choking be-
cause a fish-bone had stuck in his

Chekok (chekuk), stretched out: Aku
meda pala orang ch.-ch. pansut ari
moa jenila, I saw s.o.’s head stretched
out of the window. Enchekok: Pala
ular e. meda aku, the snake reared its
head on seeing me.
Chekur, a plant, the root of which is
used as a carminative: Iya ngunyah
ch., he chews ch.
Chelak1, Enchelak, open (eyes): Ch. ka
mata, open your eyes; Iya enda
tindok, mata iya agi e., he isn’t asleep,
his eyes are still open.
Chelak2, print, stencil, typescript: Ch.
tu terang bendar, this print is clear;
tukang ch., printer; Getah iya enda
bechelak, his rubber is not marked.
Nyelak: Iya ny., he is printing,
Chelaka, [Mai.] nasip ch., unlucky; ill-
Chelang, Nyelang or enchelang, open
the eyes (in water): Ch. ka mata nuan
dalam ai, open your eyes under water
(to bathe them).
Chelap, 1. cool, cold: Minyak meku
laban ch., the oil solidifies in the cold;
Aku ch. bulu, I am cold; Iya sakit ch.,
he has malaria; 2. sp. uses: lya laun
ch. ati, his anger is slow to subside;
dachin ch., a true, accurate, balance;
Perintah pegai iya ch., his reign was
calm. Nyelap, to cool: Iya ny. ka ai
kupi ka anak iya, she cooled the coffee
for her child; Iya bechelap ka ati aku,
he calmed me down; Enda ulih di-
pechelap ka ati iya, he couldn’t be
appeased; Balat penyelap hari sahari-
tu, it’s v. cold today.
Chelebok (chelebuk), in patches; here
and there: Nuan tak nusoi cherita
ch., your story is v. scrappy; Guntin
pala iya ch., his hair is cut unevenly;
Kami ch. bumai sataun-tu, we are
farming in more than one place this
year; Bantun iya bechelebok ba umai,
he has done his weeding in patches.
Nyelebok: Anang ny. bantun nuan, do
your weeding straight through.
Cheli-Cheli (cheliq-cheliq), glimmer: Aku
meda api ch., I saw a light glimmering.
Chelok (cheluk), Nyelok or enchelok,
insert hand and take out sthg.: Iya
e. ikan ari lubang batu, he got a fish
out of the hole. Bechelok, put hand
through, into: Anang bechelok kandi
tanchut, don’t put your hands in your
trouser pockets; Jelu bechelok dalam
pagar sangkar, the animals reach
between the bars of the cage. Telih
iya besai bendar, bulih sapenyelok,
his wound is v. big, you can get your
hand into it.
Chelum, black: Batu nya ch., that stone
is black; Ch. moa iya meda bini iya
enggai pulai, he looked black when
he saw his wife wouldn’t go back.
Nyelum, blacken: Nama kena nuan
ny. ka tali ginti?, what do you use for
blackening your fishing line?; Balat
penyelum iya, he’s v. dark.
Chemai (chemay), see cheme.
Chemanai (chemanay), (in songs) ch.
jelu kera, the monkey tribe.
Cheme, paddy-bed. Nyeme: Kami ny.
sahari-tu, we are sowing in the ch.
Chemerik, make a noise of tearing: Aku
ninga utai ch. di-charik ka iya, I
heard him tear sthg.
Chenaga, a kind of tree: Iya niti kulit
ch. ka tibang padi iya, he strips the
bark of the ch. for his paddy con-
Chengang, be deterred, overawed: Lama
iya ch. meda aku, he hesitated for a
long time when he saw me; Iya enda
ch. ninga aku nusoipemalat gelumbang
di tasik, he was undeterred on hearing
me say how rough the sea was.
Chenggil-Chenggil, (of sthg. attached by
a slender neck) dangling and ap-
parently about to fall: Lemetak ch.
makai betis iya, a gorged leech was
hanging from his calf; Kukut iya
ch. ka tingkil, his nail was hanging
loose; Anang bediri ch. ba moa pintu,
don’t stand in the doorway, you’ll
fall out.
Chengkih, cloves.
Chengkik, narrow (-waisted): Pung gong
iya ch., her waist is small.
Chepak (cchepak), a plant with edible
Chepak-Chepak, Ai ch. baroh perau, the
water makes a lapping sound under
the boat.
Chepat, quick, agile: Iya ch. bemain,
he plays a fast game.
Chepok (chepuk), noise of movement in
water: ch. ai, gurgle, lapping, of
water; Aku ninga orang ch.-ch. di ai,
I heard people moving in the water.
Cherai (cheray), black (of jars): Bulu
tajau iya ch., his jar is a black one.
Cherayan, strung out: Bala kami ch.,
our party is strung out; Tai sapi ch.
niti jalai, there’s a trail of cow-dung
along the road. Nyerayan: Anang
ny. ka diri, don’t lag behind.
Cherebok (cherebuk), coconut shell used
as a container: Mangkok iya pechah,
nya a lai iya makai ngena ch., his bowl
is broken, so he eats from a coconut

Cheredit, bright, quick-witted: Anak
iya ch. bendar, his daughter is v. sharp.
Cheremin, 1. a mirror: Iya becheremin,
she has, uses, a mirror; 2. eye-
glasses: Iya becheremin, he wears
glasses. Nyeremin: Tulis iya ulih ny.,
you need glasses for his writing.
Cheria (cheriaq), Enda ch. ga ati aku, I
can’t help laughing.
Cherik-Cherik, (talk) in a shrill voice:
Iya ch. bejako, he speaks shrilly.
Encherik: Aku ninga nyawa orang e.,
I heard a shrill voice.
Cherindak, ch. tanggoi, brim of hat; ch.
kulat, cap of mushroom.
Cherita, see jerita.
Cheroh (cheruli), Nyeroh or encheroh,
pound milled rice: Iya ny. kubah, she
pounds the milled rice.
Chiap, cheeping: Ch. anak manok
inggar, the chicks are making a loud
cheeping. Enchiap: Anak manok e.
(or ch.-ch.), the chicks are cheeping.
Chibit, Nyibit, pinch between finger and
thumb: Kuyu anak aku mirah di-
chibit iya, he pinched my daughter’s
cheek till it was red; Seduai-iya
bechibit, they are pinching o. another’s
cheek (love-making).
China, Chinese: orang Ch., a Chinese;
kedai Ch.., a Chinese shop.
Chinang-Chinang, red: Besi ch., the iron
is red (-hot); Moa iya ch. pedis ati,
his face is red with anger.
Chinat, sexual secretions.
Chiping, Nyiping, take, give, an unfair
share: Iya salalu ny. kami-duai, she
always takes the largest share of us
three; Iya ny. bebagi utai ka kami,
he is partial in sharing things out to
Chiput, Enchiput, make a contemptuous
noise with lips: Iya e. ka aku, he
showed his contempt for me in this
Chirak-Chirak, red: Mulut iya ch. laban
pinang, his lips are red with betel;
Jagong kami baru ch., our maize is
just showing red. Enchirak = ch.
Chirit, diarrhoea: Iya ch., he has
Chiru, clear: Ai nya ch., that water is
clear; Langit ch. udah ujan, the sky
is clear after the rain; Moa iya ch.,
his face is bright. Nyiru, make clear:
Enda ulih di-chiru ka ai tu, you can’t
get this water clear; Balat penyiru ai
ulu, the water is v. clear up-stream.
Chit (chiit), a mouse, a rat; Langkau
iya bechit, there are mice in his hut.
Chit-Chit (chiit-chiit), cry, pipe, squeak;
Anang neju ka anak nuan ch., don’t
leave your child crying; Aku ninga anak
burong ch., I heard a nestling piping.
Enchit: Tikus e., a mouse squeaked.
Chuan, mould, cake-tin, pattern: pe-
nganan ch., cakes stamped with a ch.
Bechuan: Iya bechuan ka mimpi,
he is governed by dreams; Bansa
Daya bumai bechuan ka bintang, the
Dayaks farm in accordance with the
stars. Nyuan, copy: Anang ny.
kereja aku ti salah, don’t copy my
Chuban, cups for receiving latex (cl.
singkap)'. Getah sida bechuban buloh,
they collect their latex in bamboo
Chubit1, a pot with spout and handle
(cl. iti or singkap).
Chubit2, see chibit.
Chudor (chudur), 1. (of eyes) half-shut,
slit-like: Mata iya ch., his eyes are
half shut; 2. having a reverse curve:
Duku aku ch., nya alai enda nyamai
kena nebas, my chopper has a reverse
curve and isn’t convenient for felling;
Perau nya ch. ka luan, that boat has
reverse sheer, curves down at the
bows. Nyudor, make with a reverse
curve: Iya ngasoh tukang kamboh ny.
ka duku iya, he got the smith to make
his chopper so.
Chugit, (of fowl) parson’s nose: Iya
deka bendar makai ch. manok, he
likes the parson’s nose.
Chuik, a rat: Iya takut ka ch., she is
afraid of rats.
Chuit, euphemism for butoh, penis,
(children): Pasok ka tanchut nuan,
orang meda ch. nuan, put on your
trousers and cover yourself up. Cf.
Chuit-Chuit, project: Mata duku iya
ch. pansut ari sarang, the point of his
knife is sticking out of the sheath;
Nya, utai ch., that thing projecting.
Chuka (chukaq), vinegar: Lank nya
enda bechuka, there’s no vinegar with
that food.
Chukai (chukay), [Hind.] 1. tax, duty:
barang kena ch. or barang bechukai,
dutiable goods; 2. Nyukai, to hire,
rent: Aku ny. perau iya, I hired his
boat; Rumah aku enda bechukai, I
don’t pay, charge, rent for my house.
Chukak-Chukak, standing point up:
Duku ch. ba jalai, the knife is set point
up in the path. Nyukak: Anang ny.
ka duku, don’t set the knife point up.
Chukan, a fire-piston: Iya menyadi ka
api ngena ch., he lit the fire with a ch.
Chukin, stingy: Indai tuai orang nya
ch. bendar enggau utai di-empa, that
old woman is stingy with things to eat.
Chukir, 1. main ch., a gambling game;

2. Nyukir, move, remove, with e.g.
a stick: Iya ny. tai mayau ngagai
sarang uras, she put the cat’s mess in
the dust-bin; Leboh aku agi mit,
enggai ny. aku nuan, when I was small
you wouldn’t have anything to do
with me.
Chukup, sufficient, enough, complete:
Belanja aku enda ch., my allowance
isn’t big enough; Iya mandok asi
saperiok, lalu ch. empa samoa sida,
she cooked a pot of rice, and that was
enough for all of them; Kami ch.
pemakai kena bejalai, we have enough
food for the journey; Nuan enda ch.
peninggi nyadi jejaga, you’re not tall
enough to be a policeman; Iya ada
enda ch. bulan, he was born prema-
turely; Bilik iya ch. ba ati, he’s well
pleased with his room; Gamal iya
ch. bendar, he is handsome; Iya ch.
bendar megai pengawa nya, he’s quite
capable of doing the job; Apin ch.
timpoh, the time is not ripe. Nyukup,
to complete: Kami ngambi iya kena
ny. ka bala, we took him to make up
our number.
Chulit, Nyulit or enchulit, take up (food)
on finger: Iya ny. gula, he took some
sugar on his finger; Iya makai mina
ny., he just pecks at his food.
Chulo, male personal name.
Chulut, a sort of torch: Iya betinggau
ka ch., he has a torch to light him.
Chuma1, gratis: Aku enggai gawa ka
nuan ch. (-ch.), I won’t work for you
for nothing.
Chuma2, part., merely, only: Aku bisi
ch. dua iko manok, I have only two
Chundong (chundung), inclined: Kayu
nya ch. ngagai rumah, that tree leans
towards the house; Mata-hari ch.,
the sun is sinking. Nyundong, cause
to lean: Anang ny. ka tiang, keep the
post upright; Kini tunga penyundong
kayu?, which way does the tree lean?
Chungap-Chungap1, peep out, allow to
show: Aku meda moa orang ch., I
saw a face (at the window); Kain iya
ch., there’s a space between her skirt
and bodice.
Chungap-Chungap2, Hari siti datai ga
iya ch. ngagai kami, one day he came
to us as his habit was.
Chunggai (chunggay), (in songs) finger-
Chungin-Chungin, (gross) Moa iya ch.,
he looks half-witted.
Chungkir, thin: ch. kaki, thin-legged.
Chunto, example, model, pattern: Iya
nginjau baju aku ka ch. iya, he bor-
rowed my coat for a pattern. Nyunto:
Iya ny. pemesai baju aku, he copied
the measurements of my coat; Iya
bechunto ka gari aku, he copies my
Chupai (chupay), a bunch of hair or
threads attached to sword-sheath:
Sarang pedang iya bechupai, his sword-
sheath has a ch.
Chupak, measure of capacity, | gantang:
Iya meli garam sachupak, he bought
a ch. of salt.
Chupong, (Chupong), male personal
Chura (churaq), colour-scheme, pattern,
of cloth: Ni baka ch. kain nya?, what
is the pattern of the cloth?
Churi, Enchuri, steal: Iya e. buah, he
stole the fruit; Buah kami abis di-
pechuri ka orang, all our fruit has
been stolen. Penchuri, a thief.
Chuti, [Hind.] leave of absence: Iya ch.
dua minggu, he has a fortnight’s leave.
Chut-Lut, a firefly.
Chuyok-Chuyok (chuyuk-chuyuk), cower,
flinch: Manok aku ch. enggai ngelaban,
my cock cowered and wouldn’t fight.
Enchuyok: baka manok e. takut ka
menaul, as a hen cowers before a hawk.
Da1 (daq\ interjn. used in driving away
a dog: D. deh!
Da2 (daq), part., in mimit da . . . enda,
almost, nearly: Mimit d. aku enda
laboh, I nearly fell.
Dabang-Dabang, (of a wound) gaping:
Telih iya d., his wound was gaping
Dabong (dabung), one of a series of
projections or notches: D.penyayat iya
tingkil, a tooth of his saw is broken;
Kami ngetu ba d. bukit ti katiga, we
halted on the third (mountain) peak;
Daun tu bedabong, this leaf is serrated.
Nabong, make serrated, notch: Iya
n. tangga, he makes notches for the
Dachin, a weighing-machine: Iya enda
ngelala mat a d., he can’t read the
Dada, chest, breast: Lalu betu samoa
d. iya, he was burnt all over his chest.
Dadak1, patches: Baju iya bedadak, his
coat is much patched. Nadak, patch
(again): Iya n. baju aku, she put
another patch on my coat.
Dadak2, feeble-minded.
Dadam, puerperal fever: Iya nyau d.,
she had puerperal fever.
Dadu, [Port.] dice: main d., buai d.,

dicing; Sida bemain d., bebuai d.,
they are dicing.
Daga (dagaq), see belaga.
Dagang, trade: orang d., trader; Iya
bedagang ka menoa ulu, he is trading
up river; Pama bendar iya main
bedagang, he’s a good business man.
Nagang: Iya n. gari, he hawks
Dagin, meat, flesh: Iya nisil d. ari tulang,
he cut the flesh off the bone.
Dagu (daguq), chin: Iya betungkat d.,
he props his chin on his hands; Bukit
nya bedagu ka tasik, that mountain
runs out into the sea.
Dai1, (chiefly poetic) forehead: D. iya
manah bendar, her forehead is lovely.
Dai2 (daiq),=di ai.
Daja (dajaq), Naja, hawk: Iya n. sayur,
he hawks vegetables; Orang nya
bedaja bawang, that man is an onion-
Dak (daak), phlegm: Iya batok enda
bedak, he has a dry cough.
Dakah, dirt: d. pasang, the scum
brought up by the tide; Barn datai d.,
the tide has turned; D. rekong nuan
enda ulih unsut, the tidemark won’t
come off your neck; d.papan, dirt on
the floor.
Daki (dakiq), dirt (on body): Iya
ngunsut d. iya, he scrubbed the dirt
off himself.
Dalam1, deep: ai d., deep water;
Runding iya d., he is sensible, judicious.
Ngenalam, to deepen: Iya ng. ka
telaga, he made the pool deeper.
Penalam: Penalam sungai tu enam
kaki, the depth of this river is four
Dalam2, part., in, inside: Iya d. sarah,
it’s in the box; Runding ati aku d.
nyin utai nya salah, in my heart of
hearts I think it is wrong.
Dalam3, part., however (much): D.
deka pen nuan ngereja nya, enti apai
nuan enda ngasoh, anang ga, however
much you want to, if your father
doesn’t allow it, don’t do it.
Daloh (daluh), a small valley.
Dam, [Dutch] draughts (game).
Dambar, resin: Iya nutok d., he is
pounding resin.
Dambu (Dambuq), male personal name.
Dampa (dampaq), a temporary long-
house built between permanent house
and distant farm-land: Kami bedampa
antara menoa, we have a house be-
tween the two places.
Dampi, Dampih, Damping, near. See
Damun, see temuda.
Dan (daari), branch, bough: Kayu tu
laun bedan, this tree has no branches
lower down.
Dana, male personal name.
Danan, a kind of rattan.
Danau (danaw), a pool, puddle: Menoa
tu bedanau, there are pools in this
region; Ai bedanau ba jalai, the water
lies in pools on the road.
Dandang, a continuous stretch: d. umai,
neighbouring farms; Kami bumai
enda bedandang, our farm is isolated;
Kami bumai sadandang, our farms are
contiguous, we farm neighbouring
plots; Bilik kami sadandang, our
rooms are not completely divided
from o. another.
Dandong, (dandung), a long skirt.
Dang (daang), hot: Tuboh iya d.-d.,
he is v. hot (feverish). Nang, to
warm (person): Iya n. jari ngagai api,
he warms his hands at the fire; Iya
bedang, he sits warming himself at
the fire; batu penang, a heated stone
for giving warmth.
Dangai (dang ay), a mythical animal.
Danggai-Danggai (danggay-danggay), Iya
berua d., he is swinging high.
Dani, awake: Iya bedau d., he’s still
awake; Iya d., he awoke. Nani,
wake (s.o.): Penginggar nyawa iya ti
bejako nani ka aku, his loud talk woke
me; Penani aku iya pulai, when I woke
he went home.
Danjan, (in songs) die: Iya d., he died,
is dead.
Danjang1, (of women) well-built: Indu
nya d. bendar, that woman is well set
Danjang2, Nanjang, oppose: Iya n.
aum kami, he opposed our resolution;
Kami-duai bedanjang, we have con-
flicting ideas.
Danji, agreement: Berapa d. seduai?,
how much did you agree on?; Aku
nadai d. gawa ngelama nya, I didn’t
agree to work as long as that; Kami-
duai bedanji, we have an agreement.
Dapat, (us. of old or sick person) well:
Iya agi d., he’s still in good health;
Iya apin d., he isn’t quite well yet.
Dapor (dapur), hearth, fireplace: bilik
d., kitchen; Ruai kami enda bedapor,
there is no hearth on our verandah.
Dara1, 1. girl, unmarried woman: d.
tuai, old maid; d. madai, divorced
woman who has a child; 2. term of
address for girls.
Dara2, (of women) smart. Ngenara:
Iya ng. ka diri, she made herself
smart; Nadai utai ng. nya iya, she’s
extremely smart.
Dara3, in tengah hari d., about 10 a.m.
to noon.

Darah, blood: Telih iya bedarah, his
wound is bleeding; d. getah, a blood
relation of a younger generation.
Darat, land: Iya di d., kami diperau, he
was on land, we were in a boat.
Bedarat, go by land: Kami bedarat,
we go by land; Enda ulih pedarat ka
ari tu kin, you can’t get there by land
from here.
Darong (darung), a chasm.
Darup, crash: Aku ninga d. punggu
rebah, I heard the crash of a dead
tree; Aku ninga utai bedarup, I heard
sthg. crash.
Datai1 (datay), 1. come, arrive: Iya
udah d. di Kuching, he had arrived in
Kuching.; 2. d. ... d.: D. harid. Injat
dudok di moa pintu, day after day I.
would sit in the doorway; 3. d. ka,
until: Iya berujan d. ka chelap, he
stayed in the rain till he was chilled.
Datai2 (datay), Natai, report: Iya n. ka
berita ngagai kami, he sent (brought)
the news to us: Penyalah udah di-
datai ka kami ngagai pengulu, we re-
ported the crime to the chief; Kedatai
ka utai tu ngagai iya, inform him of
Datas,=z/z atas, on, above, over:
Pelandok lalu nepan d. belakang iya,
then the mouse-deer climbed on its
back; Iya begantong d. pala aku, it
is hanging above my head; Iya dudok
d., he sits in the place of honour.
Datu (datuq), (in songs) nobleman, chief.
Dauh, distant noise: d. tasik, the noise
of the sea.
Daun1, leaf; page; card: d. insap, a
leaf in which tobacco is rolled; d.
api, a flame; Api bedaun, the fire is
flaming; Iya bemain d., he is playing
cards; D. kayu gugur, the leaves fall
from the tree.
Daun2, (in the) midst of: Aku betemu
enggau iya ba d. gawai, I met him
during the festival; Iya luput ba d.
bala, he fainted in the crowd.
Daup, Naup, (of cocks) attack: Manok
iya n. enggi aku dulu, his cock
attacked mine first; Anembiak bedaup
ka daun, the children play at cock-
fighting with leaves on sticks for cocks.
Dawa, Nawa, report, inform on: Iya
n. ka aku ti udah nubai, he reported
me for tuba fishing; Iya n. ka
penyalah aku, he reported my mis-
demeanour; Iya udah di-pedawa ka
aku ngagai pengulu, I had reported
him to the chief.
Dawah-Dawah, wide open: Moa pe-
nyaw an kami d., our window is wide
Dawai (daw ay), wire: d. duri, barbed
Degong-D egong
wire; Iya melong ka d., he bent the
Dawat, [Ar.] ink.
Daya, a means: Iya ngiga d. ngelepas
ka diri, he sought a means of escape;
Nadai d. nadai kira ngidup ka diri,
I don’t know which way to turn for a
livelihood; Kami bedaya ka lapar
ngagai iya sataun-tu, we turned to him
in our famine this year; Kini tua
bedaya ka api? where are we to get a
light?; sp. Iya bedaya ngulih ka bini,
he used magic to get a wife.
Dayak (Dayaq), Dayak, Dyak: bansa
D., the Dayak people.
Dayoh (dayuh), waddle (of tortoise, duck,
old woman): baka d. tekura, like a
tortoise waddling; Tekura bedayoh
nengah kerangan a tortoise is waddling
over the shingle.
Dayong {dayung), an oar. Nayong, row:
Iya n. ka kami, he rowed us; Iya
bedayong, he is rowing.
Dayun, female personal name.
Debu1, pollen, d. bunga.
Debu2, swarms, clouds, of: Balat bendar
d. lalat nutu bangkai ular, there are
clouds of flies round the body of the
snake; Lalat bedebu ba bilik iya, flies
are swarming in his room.
Debu-Debu, suddenly: Iya d. rari ka
aku, he rushed away from me.
Debus-Debus, rush (of water): Aid., the
water rushes (past, through).
Dedak, bran.
Dedas, 1. each of the joined pieces of a
mat, blanket: tikai d., a mat in one
piece; Pua kumbu baru tembu sadedas,
one piece of the blanket is finished
now; 2. as a num. cl. for idas:
Berapa d. idas nuan?, how many mats
have you?
Dedat1, Nedat, beat: Iya n. ular, he
struck the snake repeatedly; Anang
bededat ka tikai nya agi, don’t beat
that mat any more; Iya ngambi
penedat idas aku, he took the thing
I use for beating mats.
Dedat2, packed, crammed: Bilik kami d.
laban pengabang, our room is packed
with guests. Nedat: Sarah nya n.
laban gari utai, that box is crammed
with rags.
Degak, disrespectful, off-hand: Anem-
biak nya d. bendar, that youth is v.
Degat, male personal name.
Degi, erect (of persons): Dudok d.l, sit
up! Negi: Iya n. ka pala, he raised
his head.
Degok (deguk), the part under the chin.
Degong-Degong (degung-degung), rever-
berate : Nyawa iya d. ngangau ka aku

ari lubang batu, his voice echoed in the
cave as he called me.
Deh {dih), part.'. Aku nadai duit, sesen
deh nadai, I’ve no money, not a cent;
Anang guai dulu deh, just a minute;
Anang belanda, ngetu aku deh, don’t
run, I’m waiting.
Deka1 {dekaq), want to, be willing to,
like to: Aku d. betemu enggau iya,
I want to meet him; Iya d. nulong
nuan, he is willing to help you; Aku
d. empu surat nya, I want that book;
Anang d. di-tundi sida pasal pengawa
umai kitai, don’t let them pump you
about the work on our farm; Ni
surat ti kedeka ka nuan, which book
do you want? Neka: Iya n. ka diri
bemain, he pretended he wanted to
play; Iya n. nya bemain ngelaban
panas, he’s always wanting to play in
the sun; Peneka ati nuan meh, just as
you like.
Deka2 {dekaq), agree to marry: Aku
d. ka iya, I am willing to marry her
(him); Ni orang d. ka nuan, no one
will have you.
Dekuan, wrist.
Delapan, see lapan.
Demam, [Mal.j fever.
Dembi-Dembi, (of girls), lumpish.
Dembu {Dembuq), female personal name.
Demeram, to low or make similar
noises: Sapi d., cows low; Iya d.
ngemba aku, he frightened me away
with his groans.
Demoh {demuuh), groan: Iya d., he
Dempar, flat (of forehead or back of
Dendam, a feud: D. kami enda putus,
our feud isn’t over.
Dendan, a rod: d. kibong, rod of mos-
quito-net; d. senapang, ramrod.
Dengah, a victim: Berapa d. nuan?,
how many have you killed?; Iya
apin bedengah, he hasn’t yet killed
anyone (anything).
Denggu-Denggu {dengguq-dengguq), dis-
tant (of noises): Iya d. nyabak, you
can hear her wailing somewhere.
Dengki, envy, ill-feeling: Iya d. ka aku,
he is envious of me; D. kami man-
sang, our ill-feeling is growing.
Dengo-Dengo, (of an opening) wide:
Lubang nya d., that hole is a big one.
Dengong {dengung), see rengong.
Dengut-Dengut, whining: Anak iya d.,
her child is whining.
Denjang, Nenjang, (of the lemambang
at harvest festival) sing to the woman
representing the bilik: Indai aku di-
denjang lemambang Tindin, my mother
was addressed by the bard Tindin.
Bedenjang, the ceremony.
Depa {depaq), the span of the arms; a
fathom. Nepa: 1. Iya n. ka jari,
he stretches his arms sideways;
2. Iya n. tali, he measures the rope
in arm-spans, fathoms. See entepa.
Deram-Deram, groaning: Nyawa iya
d., he is groaning
Deras, fast, swift: D. bendar perau nya,
that boat is fast. Neras, cause to go
swiftly: Anang n. ka perau, don’t
paddle hard; Peneras ai enda ulih
tanjak, the current is so swift you
can’t paddle against it.
Deru {deruq), d. guntur, roll of thunder;
Aku ninga guntur d.-d., I heard the
thunder rolling.
Di1, part., in, at, etc.: Iya di bilik, he
is in the room; Iya di umai, he is at
the farm; di menoa, at home, in o.’s
own country.
Di-2, passive particle.
Di3 {diiq), alas (self-pity): Enda aku tau
nyumpit nuan d. burong, alas, I can’t
shoot you, bird; Naka meh aku tu,
d. d., oh dear, it’s too much for me;
Iya bedi-di berunding ka anak iya ti
belayar ngelaban hari jai, she was in
distress, thinking of her son sailing in
bad weather.
Dia1 {diaq), part., there: D. iya ninga
anak mit nyabak, there he heard a
baby crying; D.l, stand still, don’t
move; D. pen, (in declining sthg.)
no thank you.
Dia2 {diaq), part., when: D. aku
betemu enggau iya, d. aku meri, when
I meet him I’ll give it to him.
Dia-Iya {diaq-ia), part., now; this time
(yesterday, etc.): £>.?, (do you mean)
now?; Maia d. meh iya datai kamari,
he arrived at this time yesterday.
Dian, a candle: Iya gawa betenggau ka
d., he works by the light of a candle.
Diang, Niang, to warm: Iya n. jari
ngagai api, he warms his hands at the
fire; Iya bediang, he is warming
himself at the fire.
Dia-Tu {dia-tuq), part., now: Sida
angkat kamari, jangka ka udah
datai d., they left yesterday, they must
have arrived by now.
Diau1 {diaw), live, stay: Iya d. ba
lubang batu, he lived in a cave; Iya
d. enggau aku tiga hari, he stayed with
me for three days; Seduai-iya d.
enggau lantang selama-iya, they iived
happy ever after; diau diri, be all
right; Umai kami d. diri, our farm is
all right (no pests etc.); Iya ngena
gari d. iya, he is wearing his everyday
clothes. See pendiau.

Diau2 (diaw), stay at home: Kami d. ka
burong, we stayed at home on account
of the omen. Niau: Burong jai n.
ka kami, a bad omen kept us at home;
Kediau ka mimpi nuan nya, stay at
home in view of that dream of yours.
Diau3 (diaw), be quiet, still: D., dl,
keep quiet, still; Iya enggai d. mulut,
she’s never silent.
Diding, Niding, see dedat1.
Dijir, Nijir, put in a row: Iya n. ka
puchong, he put the bottles in a row;
Kami bedijir, we formed a line.
Dik, [Eng.] deck.
Dilah, tongue: '’Baka idong antara mata,
baka d. antara nyawa’’, ‘like the nose
between the eyes, like the tongue
within the mouth’ (opening used by
an intermediary); d. papan, tongue
of a plank; butoh d., uvula; Indai
aku ari menoa d. tanah, my mother
comes from an out-of-the-way place.
Dilak-Dilak, Telili iya d., his wound is
long and gaping.
Dilat, Nilat, lick: Mayau n. ai, the cat
laps the water; Anak aku n. sudu, my
child licked the spoon; Nyau n.
tekuyong, the snail is licking now
(said of a child beginning to feel at
Dimbam, a wrap: Pua tu ka d. aku, this
blanket is to serve as a wrap for me;
Iya bedimbam ka kain basah, he is
wrapped in a damp cloth.
Dimbu, a long scarf or shawl.
Din (diin), part., there: Datai iya d.,
lalu Rajah nanya ka pejalai iya, when
she got there, the Rajah asked the
purpose of her journey.
Dindang, a song: tukang d., singer at a
dance. • Nindang, sing to: Iya n.
anak, she sings to the child; Iya
bedindang, he is singing.
Dinding, a wall, partition: Iya minggil-
inggil ba d., he was perched on the
wall; Rumah sida bedinding papan,
their house is walled with planks.
Ninding: Iya ninding rumah, he built
the walls of the house; Iya n. diri ari
penyalah iya, he tries to exculpate
himself; Apin nemu niki d., you are
not old enough to go with women;
Anang niki d., don’t seduce the girl.
Ninding: Iya n. laki iya, she is
suspicious, jealous, of her husband.
Dinga, Ninga, 1. (without ka) hear:
Aku n. iya bejako, I heard him
talking; 2. (with ka) listen: Aku
n. ka iya bejako, I listened to him.
Dinggai-Dinggai (dinggay-dinggay), per-
ching: Burong d. ba puchok kayu,
the bird was perched on top of the tree.
Dinggil-Dinggil, in a precarious posi-
tion: Iya bediri d. ba pala tangga, he
stood perched on the top of the ladder.
Dini, interrog. part., where: D. iya?,
where is he?; D. d. surat akui, where
on earth is my letter?
Dini-Hari (-ari), the time before dawn,
3-5 a.m.: Iya datai d., he arrived
before dawn; d. dalam, the earlier
part, d. mabu, the later part of this
Diri1, Niri, (to) erect: Iya n. ka tiang,
he set up the post; D. ka jari nuan,
raise your hand; Tiang abis di-
pediri ka sida, they have set up all
the posts. Bediri, to stand: Iya
bediri ba moa pintu, he was standing
in the doorway.
Diri2 (diriq), pronoun referring to person
already indicated, I, my, myself, he,
his, himself, etc.: Aku enda nemu d.
di-akal orang, I didn’t realize I had
been cheated; Iya enda nemu d. empu
sakit, he didn’t know that he himself
was sick; Iya pulai ngagai menoa
diri, he went back to his own country;
Iya ngasoh anak d. ngereja nya, he
got his child to do it; Iya ringat ka
d., she was angry with herself; Injat
lalu nudok ka diri baru, I. then seated
himself once more; Sida salalu bent is
pangan d., they are always making
insinuations about o. another.
Ditu (dituq), part., here: D. pen dulu,
agi basah kaki tu, (I’ll stay) here a
moment, my feet are still wet.
Diu (diuq), a bird, the mynah.
Dobi (dubi), [Hind.] laundry: Aku
nganjong d., I brought the laundry;
tukang d., laundryman. Nobi: Iya n.
gari, he washed the clothes.
Dom (Dum), term of address for males.
Domba (dumba), (Bible) sheep, lamb.
Dosa (dusa), [Skt.] sin.
Dua, the numeral 2: Kami bejalai d.-d.
berimbai, we walk two abreast;
hari d., Tuesday; bulan d., February.
Duah-Duah, roar: Beruang d., the bear
roared; Indai iya d., his mother made
a hullabaloo.
Dubah, female personal name.
Dudi, following, after, behind: Iya
datai d. ari aku, he arrived after me;
Iya datai d. bendar, he arrived v. late,
long after the others; d. hari, some
day, later on. Nudi, Ngenudi, be in
the rear: Iya ng. ka bala, he brought
up the rear of the troop; Anang ng.
ka diri, don’t lag behind; Balat
penudi nuan datai, you have arrived
v. late (after the others); Sida datai
bepenudi, they straggled in.

Dudok (duduk), sit: Iya d. di moa pintu,
he sits in the doorway; Dini nuan
d.?, (obs) where do you live? Nudok,
to seat: Iya n. ka diri, he seated him-
self ; Iya n. ka anak, he sat the
child down; 2. establish, start:
Apai aku n. ka kedai, my father
started a shop; Iya n. ka lay a, he
started the quarrel. Penudok. a seat.
Dugau-Dugau (dugaw-dugaw), idle, doing
nothing: Iya dudok d., he is sitting
idle. Nugau: Aku n. nganti nuan
kamari, I hung about waiting for
you yesterday.
Dugu-Dugu, motionless, fixed: Batu d.
puak ai, a rock stands in midstream.
Dui-Dui, Iya nyabak d., he is crying
Duit, [Dutch] money, coins, notes:
Aku nadai d., I have no money; Iya
beduit, he is well off; Beduit meda
gambar tu?, do we have to pay to see
these pictures?
Dujoh (dujuh), Nujoh, pour (water)
over: Iya n. jari aku enggau ai, he
poured water over my hands.
Dujong (dujung), flowers, leaves, worn
in hair as ornaments: Iya bedujong
bunga, she is wearing flowers in her
Duju (dujuq), Nuju, knock against; push
over, aside: Iya ngabi tebang iya,
udah nya iya n. enggau kayu ti besai,
he undercut his trees and brought
them down with a big tree (which he
felled); Kayu rebah n. langkau, a tree
fell and struck the hut; Aku bediri
ba moa pintu, iya datai lalu n., I was
standing in the doorway and he came
and pushed me aside.
Dujul, Nujul, put the end of sthg.
against: Anang n. ka kayu ba pagar,
don’t put the log with its end on the
fence; Iya n. ka senapang ngagai aku,
he put the gun up against me; Iya
n. aku enggau api, he touched me
with sthg. burning.
Duku (dukuq), a large knife: Empa d.
aku manah bendar, my knife is sharp,
cuts well.
Dukun, a physician, healer: Kami
bedukun lemai tu, the doctor is coming
this evening.
Dulang, a trough: Babi aku makai
bedulang ka teras, my pigs eat from
an ironwood trough.
Dulu (duluq), preceding, before, first:
Iya datai d. ari aku, he arrived before
I did; Anang guai d., wait a moment;
Ditu pen d., (I’ll stay) here a moment
first; d. ari nya, previously. Nulu,
Ngenulu: Iya n. ka bala, he leads the
army; Anang ng. ka diri, don’t rush
ahead; Balat penulu nuan, you are
early, ahead of the others; Kita datai
anang bepenulu, you must all come
Dulu-Jaga (duluq-), Dulu-Kalia (duluq-
keliaq), long since, in the old days:
D.-kalia menoa tu kachau, in the old
days this district was in a disturbed
Duman, (in stories) a bed, a lair.
Dumbak, a small drum: Sida bedumbak,
they are beating the drums.
Dumbang, a species of mongoose.
Dundong (dundung), Nundong, prop (a
sick person) against o.s.: Iya n. apai
iya ti enda tentu dapat dudok, he
supported his father who was not
well enough to sit up by himself.
Dundun, a kind of bird.
Dunga-Dunga (dungaq-dungaq), Iya dudok
d., he sits facing the person concerned.
Dungai (dungay), a love-song: Iya
bedungai, she sings a love-song.
Dungan, a kind of river fish.
Dunggul, comb of a cock. Nunggul:
Iya n. manok, he trims the cock’s
Dungkong (dungkung), the bulge of the
forehead or back of head: D. kening
iya balat bendar, he has a bulging
forehead; Pala iya bedungkong, the
back of his head is not flat.
Dungu-Dungu, looking sullen: Nama
main nuan d.?, why do you look
Dunjong (dunjung), a heap: D. padi iya
basah, his heap of paddy is wet;
Surat bedunjong ba bilik iya, there are
piles of books in his room. Nunjong:
Anang n. ka kayu dia, don’t pile the
firewood there.
Dunju (dunjuq), a small temporary hut:
Kami enda bedunju, we have no hut.
Dunya, [Ar.] the world: Seduai-iya
diau merinsa di d., they led a wretched
existence; Besai bendar d. kita ditu,
you’ve plenty of space here.
Durah-Durah, Babi d. nan ka anak, the
pig is making a lot of noise, fearing
for her young.
Duran (ddurari), a set of charms; the
place where they are kept: Iya
ngibun d. kami, he watches over our
charms; joc. Sapa ngibun d. sahari-tu,
who is staying to guard the hut
Duri1, female personal name.
Duri2 (duriq), a thorn: Randau nya
beduri, that creeper has thorns;
dawai d., barbed wire.
Durok (duruk), communal labour: D.
kami enda besai, there are not many
of us co-operating; Kami (gawa)

bedurok, we work together as a com-
munity. Nurok: Iya n. aku ngetau,
he joins with me for the reaping;
Umai aku enda ulih di-pedurok ka,
laban jauh ari pangan, I can’t work
my farms together because they are
far apart.
Durong-Durong (durung-durung), roaring:
Api d., the fire is roaring.
Dusun, the Dusun people.
Dut (duut), rhythmical noise: Aku
ninga d. kapal, I heard the throb of a
motor boat; Iya sakit d.-d., he is ill
and moaning.
Duyong {Duyung'), a sea god (cf. Mai.
duyong, dugong).
Emba (jnba), Ngemba, (seek to) frighten:
Aku ng. burong, I scare the birds
away; Iya ng. aku enggau pengering
iya, he tried to frighten me with a
display of strength; Iya ng. aku
enggau jako, he threatened me; Kami
bemba (or beremba) ka burong lemai
kamari, we drove the birds (into nets)
yesterday evening.
Embah (mbah), Iya baka e. apai iya, he
takes after his father (in character).
Embal1 (rnbal), e. sumpit, a blowpipe
pellet. Ngembal, strike: Iya ng. ka
aku ba belakang, he hit me on the
back; ng. enggau jako, (to) abuse,
Embal2 (mbal), Ngembal, speak at
random, without knowledge: Nuan
ng. ka utai ngapa, you don’t know
what you’re talking about. See
Embap (mbap), damp: Kain tu e., this
cloth is damp. Ngembap: Iya ng.
ka kain kena nerika, she damps the
cloth for ironing.
Embat (jnbat), Ngembat, beat: Iya ng.
belakang sapi, he beat the cow on the
back; Ujan berembat ninggang atap,
the rain beats on the roof.
Embawang (rnbawang), a kind of sour-
Embayar (mbayar), a centipede: Iya
ngerindas e., he crushed the centipede.
Embilok (mbiluk), see memilok.
Embing (mbing), walk (close) alongside:
Iya bejalai ng. dinding, he hugged the
wall; E. ari tebing, go along the edge
of the shore; Iya pengembing bala, he
is on the flank of the force.
Embuas (mbuas), or membuas, one of
the omen birds (H. Carcinentas
Embun1 (rnburi), Ngembun, expose to the
dew: Iya ng. ubong, she puts the
thread out in the dew.
Embun2 (mburi), pisang e., a kind of
Emburi (mburiq), see memuri.
Empa1 (mpaq), 1. eat (imp.), eaten: E.
enggau asi nya olih nuan, eat that rice;
Telu nya abis di-empa iya, all the eggs
had been eaten by him. Cf. makai.
2. consumed (by fire): Baju aku e.
api, my coat was burnt. 3. (of
diseases affecting the skin, parasites)
having, infested with: Iya e. pisa, he
has boils; Iya e. gelumut, he has
measles; Iya e. empiras, it is infested
with ticks. 4. (of knives, etc.)
sharpness: E. duku aku manah
bendar, my knife is sharp.
Empa2 (mpaq), part.'. E. pemali nuan
meh nya!, what a fool you are!;
Nitik ai mati iya, e. pemedis ati iya,
tears fell from his eyes, so great was
his grief.
Empada (rnpada), a kind of centipede.
Empai (mpay), part., not yet (Batang
Rejang, Batang Lupar).
Empaka (mpaka), the champak tree.
Empalai1 (mpalay), an amusing verse
sung before the renong.
Empalai2 (mpalay), 1. land after reap-
ing and burning stubble; 2. to use
this for growing cotton: Kami e.
taya, we are growing cotton on the e.
Empalik (mpalik), (of dreams) belied
by the event: Mimpi aku e., it was
the contrary of my dream that
Empan (empaari), prepare (vegetables)
for cooking: Iya e. daun kayu, she
is preparing the vegetables.
Empang1 (mpang), Ng empang or mem-
pang, obstruct: Iya ng. jalai, he
blocked the path; Iya ngerumpang
pengempang (or pemempang) pintu,
he took down the things that barred
the door.
Empang2 (mpang), a stout net placed
across a river to catch fish on the ebb.
Ng empang: Kami ng. lemai kamari,
we used the e. yesterday evening.
Empangau (mpangaw), an insect, the
Empapa (mpapaq), a tree, the wood of
which is used for paddles.
Empara (mparaq), platform in tree for
hunter or scout: Iya bempara ba
puchok kayu, he has, is on, a platform
in the tree.
Emparu1 (mparu), kill, cut up, and
prepare for cooking: Kami e. babi,
we killed and cut up a pig.

Emparu2 (mparuq), a snake, Psammo-
dynastes pulverulentus.
Empas (mpas), Ngempas, throw down,
drop: E. ka, drop it (e.g. a load);
Iya ng. ka surat ba moa aku, he flung
the books down in front of me; Ikan
ng. di kerangan, the fish spawn on the
shingle; Alun panjai ng. perau kami,
a great roller overwhelmed our boat.
M er empas: Iya mer empas ba papan,
he fell to the floor.
Empasa (mpasaq), tapioca (Batang
Empasan (mpasari), a kind of grass.
Empat (mpat), the numeral 4: kempat,
fourth; hari e., Thursday; bulan e.,
Empayan (mpayari), corner-post of
Empayong (mpayung), an umbrella: Iya
ngembai ka e., he opened the um-
Empeda1 (mpedaq), grey-speckled (of
Empeda2 (mpedaq), pickled small fish.
Empedu (mpedu), gall, bile.
Empegal (mpegal), incoherent: Iya
nusoi cherita e., he told an inco-
herent story; (in polite formula for
changing subject) Tu tak e. lah jako
aku, by the way, incidentally.
Empekak (mpekak), (of fowls) cackle:
Manok e., the fowl cackles.
Empelai (mpelaiq), see pelai.
Empelam (mpelam), mango.
Empelas (mpelas), randau e., a plant with
rough leaves used for polishing. E.
or ngempelas or mempelas, to polish:
lya e. ulu sengayoh, he polished the
handle of the paddle.
Empelawa (mpelawaq), a spider.
Empeleman (mpelemari), a foreign body
in the eye: Iya e., he’s got sthg. in
his eye; lya ngulih e. aku, he got the
thing out of my eye.
Empeli (mpeliq), unripe ears left till last
in reaping: Iya ngumpul e., she is
cutting the ears that were left; Umai
kami bempeli bendar, we’ve had to
leave a lot of ears on our farm; gawai
ngambi e., the festival at the cutting
of the last ears.
Empeliau (mpeliaw), a gibbon.
Empepai-Alai (mpepay-alay), scattered:
Perengka iya e., his things are scat-
tered about.
Emperan (mperari), lowland, level land,
plain: Iya nanam jagong semper an,
he planted maize over the whole of the
level stretch.
Emperawan, see perawan.
Emperegam (mperegam), a kind of
Emperingat (mperingat), a kind of plant,
a creeper with edible fruits.
Emperit (mperit), a kind of sea fish.
Empesut (mpesut), swim-bladder of fish.
Empeti (mpetiq), use spare moments:
Iya e. tindok siang hari, he slept in odd
moments by day; Iya e. gawa leboh
anak iya rindang, she worked in the
intervals when her child was happily
Empetir (mpetir), a tree with scented
fruits and hard wood used for boat-
Empiak (mpiak), see piak.
Empian (mpian), in preparing food, the
amount of material that can be dealt
with at one time: Iya ngirau kopi
tiga e., she roasted coffee in three lots.
Empiar (mpiar), a piece, splinter: E.
(or sempiar) teras nebak kaki iya,
a splinter of iron-wood ran into his
Empias (mpias), drops of driven rain:
E. ninggang mija ba moa jenila, drops
of rain were blown on the table by
the window; Bilik aku e., rain drives
into my room.
Empidan (mpidari), jungle fowl.
Empidau (mpidaw), wobble: Bengkong
bubu nya e. di-baring ka iya, the hoop
of the fish-trap wobbled when he
rolled it; Jari aku e., my hand wasn’t
Empigit (mpigit), a destructive larva.
Empilak (mpilak), a sore, an ulcer: Iya
empa e. ba betis, he has a sore on his
Empili (mpiliq), a nut-bearing tree.
Empirang (mpirang), a bony sea fish.
Empiras (mpiras), a tick: Iya empa e.,
it is infested with ticks.
Empiri (mpiriq), split logs for firewood:
Iya e. kayu, he is splitting the logs.
Empit (mpit), Ngempit, squeeze, press: E.
tebu ka aku, press this sugarcane for
me; Iya ng. aku ka dinding, he pressed
me against the wall; Perau iya ng. ka
perau aku, my boat was sandwiched
between his and the bank; Iya ng.
buah, he squeezed the fruit between
tongue and palate; Sida ng. ka kami
bumai, they encroached on our farm-
Empitu (mpitu), a kind of bird (H.
Coturnix vulgaris).
Empu1 (mpu), to possess: Sapa e. surat
tu?, whose book is this? Ngempu,
1. to appropriate: Iya ng. perengka
aku, he appropriated my tools;
2. quarter o.s. on: Iya ng. ba rumah
kami, he’s quite at home with us;
Mayau nya ng. ba kami, that cat has
attached itself to us.

Empu2 (mpu), part., with aku, iya, etc.,
I myself, he himself, etc.: Iya enda
nemu diri e. sakit, he didn’t know that
he himself was sick; Iya e. nadai di
rumah, he himself is not at home.
Empuah (mpuah), having a scent, smell:
Minyak tu e., this oil is scented; Aku
ensium utai e. bau bulu, I smelt sthg.
like burning feathers.
Empuak (mpuak), see nempuak.
Empuan (mpuari), the innermost part of
the gallery of a longhouse.
Empukul (mpukul), (lie) with legs drawn
up: Iya gali e., he lies with his legs
drawn up.
Empulu-Lilin (mpuluq-), a kind of bird.
Empungas (mpungas), wash o.’s face and
hands: Iya apin e., Moa iya apin
di-empungas, he hasn’t washed his
face yet.
Empuru (mpuruq), 1. (with ka) collect,
gather: Iya e. ka rangkang, he
gathered dry sticks; 2. to assemble,
meet: Kami e. lemai tu, we are meet-
ing this evening. Ngempuru, to bring
together: Iya ng. ka kami ngagai
ruai iya, he got us to assemble on his
Emput (mpuut), a bunch of Indian corn
Enam (narri), the numeral 6; hari e.,
Saturday; bulan e., June.
Enchaboh-Arong (nchabuh-arung), 1.
gawai e., one of the festivals; 2. Sida
e., they are performing a particular
ceremony in this.
Enchair (nchair), ooze: Ai getah e. ari
dan, latex is oozing from the branch;
Telih iya e., his wound is oozing.
Enchalu (nchaluq), see empeda2.
Enchama (nchama), laugh off: Iya e. ka
penyalah iya, having done sthg.
wrong, he laughed it off.
Enchangan (nchangari), a kind of rice.
Enchanggak (nchanggak), see changgak-
Enchepong (nchepung), a tree with soft
Encherik (ncherik), shrill: Nyawa iya e.,
her voice is shrill; Anang e. ka nyawa,
don’t shriek.
Enda (ndaq), negative part.: Kami e.
bumai, we are not farming; Bisi kai
rindu, bisi kai e., some like it, some
don’t; Lain seduai-iya nyangka nadai
orang bukai ngereja nya enti e.
pelandok, then they thought that no
one but the mouse-deer could have
done it; Anang e. nemuai leboh lepa
pengawa, you must visit us when
there’s a slack time; Iya e. tan e.
berunding ngiga jalai ngelalai ka
kerubong, he had to think out a way
of hiding the shells. Ngenda ka diri,
refuse to, refrain from: Anang ng.
ka diri makai, (to sick person) try to
eat. Pengenda: Balat pengenda iya e.
ninga, he doesn’t hear at all; Pe-
ngamat enggau pengenda e. nemu aku,
I don’t know whether it is so or not.
Endai (ndai), introductory word, well
now, etc.
Endang (ndang), part., really, actually,
originally: E. orang ditu nuan?, are
you a native of this place?, is this
your permanent home?; Batu e. dia,
the stone has always been there; Tu
e. apai aku, this is my real father;
Kami ngintu hari nya baka ti e.
di-kereja kitai tiap taun, we kept the
day as we always used to each year;
Sapa e. batang nama nuan?, what is
your real name?; E. ati bemalam, I
(always) meant to spend the night.
Endap (ndap), Ngendap, to duck (avoid-
ing sthg.): Iya ng. (kapaid), he ducked
his head.
Endar (ndar), see bendar.
Endat (ndat), term of address for girls,
women (relations or close friends).
Endit (ndit), Ngendit, stamp: Iya ng.
tanah, he stamped his foot, he stamped
the earth down.
Endor (ndur), place: Dini e. nuan diau?
where do you live?; Nadai e. agi,
there’s no more room; Rumah e. iya
diau angus, the house in which he
lived was burnt; Iya enda tau enda
ngiga e. ti likun bendar, he had to find
a place that was quite safe.
Endu (nduq), term of address for girls.
Endun (Nduri), term of address and
reference for girls and women (com-
monly referring to sister, daughter):
Kami-duai e., my sister and I.
Enggai (nggay), 1. not want to, refuse
to: E. aku, 1 don’t want to; Aku e.
basah, I don’t want to get wet; Aku
enggai jadi enggau iya, 1 won’t marry
him (her); Iya e. meri aku duit, he
refused to give me any money; E.
bendar mata iya meda buah pisang,
doesn’t he just love bananas!; Aku
e. ka nuan enda teulih ka nya, I’m
afraid you can’t manage that; Iya
ngintu umai e. ka di-rusak jelu, he
watches over the farm for fear it
should be ravaged by animals; Aku
mindah dulu e. ka pending aku achak
laban nyawa iya lagi, I’m going to
move a bit first in case I should be
deafened by the noise of it; 2. refuse
to marry s.o.: Iya e. ka nuan, she will
not marry you. See kenggai.

Enggau (nggaw), part., 1. (be, go) with:
Iya e. aku gawa, he works with me;
E. aku nuan?, are you going with me?;
2. with, with the help of: Iya melah
kayu e. kapak, he split the wood with
an axe; 3. and, plus: Aya e. apai
aku udah belayar, my uncle and my
father have gone sailing; Lima e.
enam, berapa?, how much is 5 plus 6?
4. or: Iya enda madah ka aku sakali
ka iya pulai e. enda, he didn’t tell
me whether he was going back or
not; 5. in expressions of manner:
Seduai-iya begulai e. lantang, they
lived happily together; E. ati ti gaga
bendar aku nyambut surat ti datai ari
nuan, I was v. glad to have your
letter; 6. with imperative: Buai e.
nya, throw that away; Anu e. iya,
reprimand him; 7. sp. Nadai ko e.
meh, it doesn’t matter, it can’t be
Enggau2 (nggaw), Menggau, use, wear,
s.o. else’s property: Sapa ti m. baju
aku?, who is wearing my coat?
Enggeris (Nggeris), [Eng.] English.
Enggi (nggiq), (thing) belonging to: Nya
e. aku, that’s mine; Bilik ti kadua e.
sanu, the second room is so-and-so’s;
E. aku jai, mine’s broken.
Enggian (nggiari), 1. a large fishing-net,
set between two boats; 2. to fish
with this: Sida e., they fish with an e.
Enggut (nggut), see anggut.
Engka1 (ngka), part., perhaps, on the
chance, in case: E. lain, perhaps I
shall; Aku ka ngagai iya e. iya bisi
di rumah, I shall go on the chance of
his being at home; Anjong asi nya
ngagai iya e. icha iya ka makai. take
that rice to him in case he wants
sthg. to eat.
Engka2 (ngkaq), sole, only: Tu e. baju
aku, this is my only coat; E. jalai
ngereja nya ga tu, this is the only way
to do it; E. aku ngampun nuan meh
tu, this is the last time I’ll forgive you;
E. iya tu?, is that all?
Engkabai (ngkabay), 1. a medium-
sized paddy container; 2. as a
measure: padi dua e., the amount of
paddy in two e.’s.
Engkabang, (ngkabang), 1. illipe nuts;
2. the tree bearing these; 3. the tallow
made from them.
Engkabur (ngkabur), pickled fish.
Engkadah (rtgkadah), 1. look upwards:
Iya e. burong, he looked up at the
bird; 2. look up to, look to: Iya
di-engkadah orang diau, ordinary
people look up to him; Iya e. ngagai
aku maia suntok. he looks to me in
time of need.
Engkadan (ngkadan), a kind of tree, the
bark of which is used for making rice
Engkah1 (ngkah), or ngengkah, put
(down): Ng. ka surat atas mija, put the
book on the table; Aku ng. ka ma aku, I
put down my load; Apin terengkah
burit aku dudok udah iya nganu aku,
before I could sit down he began to
scold me; ngengkah ka jari, lay
(violent) hands on; Anang ng. ka
jari nuan ba iya, don’t touch him.
Berengkah: Kami berengkah ba te-
ngah jalai, we halted on the road.
Engkah2 (ngkah), Ngengkah, begin:
Manah tua ng. ka diri gawa dia-tu, we
had better start work now; Ng. ka
diri meh kitai gawa, let’s get to work.
Ber engkah: Iya ber engkah makai
leboh aku datai, he was beginning his
meal when I arrived.
Engkaih (ngkaih), exclaim: Iya e. meda
pemanah perau aku, he exclaimed on
seeing how fine my boat was.
Engkajal (ngkajal), see kajal-kajal.
Engkajang (ngkajang), a kind of tree,
the bark of which is used for rice-
containers and the wood for planks.
Engkakai (ngkakay), cry out in pain:
lya e., he cried out.
Engkala (ngkalaq), a kind of fruit-tree.
Engkalan1 (ngkalari), a log or block on
which to hammer or chop. See
Engkalan2 (ngkalari), see pengkalan1.
Engkalat (ngkalat), a kind of bamboo.
Engkalik (ngkalik), see kalik-kalik.
Engkamai (ngkamay), see makai.
Engkanan (ngkanari), rice for eating, as
opposed to benih, for sowing: Kami
nanam e. laban benih udah abis, we
sowed rice intended for eating since
that selected for sowing was used up.
Engkani (ngkaniq), or nengkani, feed
(animals): Iya e. manok, he feeds the
chickens; Babi apin di-engkani, the
pigs haven’t been fed yet.
Engkanjong (ngkanjung), or mengkan-
jong, start in surprise, alarm: Iya e.
tepeda ka ular, he jumped when he
caught sight of the snake.
Engkapan (ngkapari), or sengkapan, of
the size of: Mija basah e. tanggoi,
there’s a wet patch the size of a hat
on the table; Iya nebok dinding e.
tuboh iya tama, he made a hole in the
wall big enough to get through;
Geladak rumah iya runtoh e. pintu,
a piece of his floor the size of a door
Engkari1 (Ngkari), name of a district.
Engkari2 (ngkari), dark blue: kanggan
e., dark blue cloth.

Engkarik (ngkarik), a small river fish.
Engkarong (ngkarung), a lizard: e. ai, e.
ridan, species of lizards.
Engkatak (ngkatak), a species of frog.
Engkating (ngkating), see kating-kating.
Engkauk (ngkauk), see sengkauk.
Engkawan (ngkawari), a rod on which
nipa leaves are fastened for roofing:
sengkawan, one section of thatching.
Engkawit (ngkawit), 1. cling to, move
along, (a wall, cliff, etc.): Iya e.
nengah tebiang, he made his way along
the face of the cliff; 2. (with ka) hang
sthg. on (a wall): Iya e. ka sintong
ngagai dinding, he hung the basket on
the wall.
Engkayau (ngkayaw), or sengkayau, a
line or rail on which clothes are hung:
Iya ngelempai ka baju ba e., he hung
the shirt on the line. See sengkayau.
Engkayu (ngkayuq), vegetables: Iya
ngiga e. ka umai, he’s gone to the
farm for vegetables.
Engkebang (ngkebang), or nengkebang,
1. invent a new pattern or design:
Iya e. buah pua, she produced a new
pattern for a pua; 2. as a formula
for changing subject of conversation:
E. ga aku, turning to sthg. different.
Engkebap (ngkebap), see kebap-kebap.
Engkebok (ngkebuk), a pool.
Engkebut (ngkebut), see kebut-kebut.
Engkeching (ngkeching), see keching-
Engkechong1 (ngkechung), an ulcer, sore.
Engkechong2 (ngkechung), a kind of bird.
Engkechong3 (ngkechung), a type of
coloration in fighting-cocks.
Engkelai (ngkelay), a shell armlet.
Engkelait (ngkelait), a kind of tree, the
leaves of which are used as a substi-
tute for gambier; wild gambier.
Engkelak (ngkelak), make a click with
the tongue: Iya e., he clicked his
Engkelan (ngkelari), sthg. stuck in throat:
Iya e., he’s got sthg. stuck in his throat;
Iya e. (laban) tulang ikan, he’s got a
fishbone in his throat; Iya ngulih ka e.
aku, he got the thing out of my
Engkelap (ngkelap), see kelap-kelap.
Engkelong1 (ngkelung), e. ai, a pool,
Engkelong2 (ngkelung), coil round:
Mayau e. anak, the cat coils round its
Engkelulut (ngkelulut), see kelulut.
Engkeman (ngkeman), see engkapan.
Engkembal (ngkembal), invent, ex-
temporize: Iya e., he’s making up
the words; Nuan tu e.. you’re
embroidering (incredulity).
49 Engkual
Engkenyang (ngkenyang), a kind of lily
used ceremonially in connection
with rice-growing: E. nya panggal
benih, the e. is ‘the pillow of the seed’.
Engkerak (ngkerak), 1. a plant, the
seeds of which are heated in fat and
used as beads; 2. these beads: Iya
ngena gelik e., she wears a bracelet
of e.
Engkeramba (ngkerambaq), a carved
wooden figure.
Engkerau (ngkeraw), Perut aku e., I am
v. hungry.
Engkerawai (ngkeraway), see kerawai.
Engkerong (ngkerung), 1. a ring of
string or rattan; 2. make a ring: Iya
e. ka rotan, he made a ring of rattan;
Iya e. ka tunjok, he makes a ring with
first finger and thumb (insulting sign
of disbelief).
Engkeruak (ngkeruak), see keruak.
Engkerudu (ngkerudu), a pit-viper, Tri-
meresurus wagleri.
Engkerumong (ngkerumung), see keru-
Engkerurai (ngkeruray), see kerurai.
Engkerut (ngkerut), crouch, curl up: Iya
e. ba telok dinding, he curled up in the
corner; Iya e. dada, he folds his arms.
Engketong1 (ngketung), a section of
bamboo with three vertical slits,
beaten to scare away birds: Iya tnalu
e., he beats the e.
Engketong2 (ngketung), larva of mos-
Engkiang (ngkiang), a kind of lizard.
Engkilap (ngkilap), to blink: Mata iya
e., he blinked.
Engkilat (ngkilat), door of the bubu
Engkiling (ngkiling), a belt of silver
coins: Iya ngena e., she wears a
silver belt.
Engkilong (ngkilung), 1. a coil: e. ular,
the coils of a snake; 2. to coil; Iya
e. ka tali, he coiled the rope; Ular e.,
the snake coiled itself; 3. sp. Iya
e. aku enggau jako, he tries to find out
sthg. from me by talking round the
Engkilu (ngkiluq) 1. toilet paper or
leaves; 2. to use these: Iya e.
Engkilun (ngkilun), to shadow s.o.: Iya
e. ka penchuri, he shadowed the thief.
Engkinjur (ngkinjur), slime, slimy: Papan
nya e., that plank is slimy.
Engkinjur-Labang (ngkinjur-), a slimy
Engkiung (ngkiung), bamboo that has
served as a container in cooking.
Engkok (ngkuk), see angkong.
Engkual (ngkual), or mengkual, feel sick,

about to vomit: Aku e., Atau aku e.,
Perut aku e., I feel sick.
Engkuam (ngkuam), or mengkuam, (of
mouth) full: Iya e., Nyawa iya e., his
mouth is full.
Engkuang, (ngkuang), a plant with an
edible tuber.
Engkuas (ngkuasj, a plant whose root
provides a spice.
Engkubal (ngkubaP), protuberant flesh:
e. isi, a muscle; e. burit, buttocks.
Engkubang (ngkubang), open a grave:
Penchuri e. pendam, thieves opened
the grave; Bandau pengkubang pen-
dam, monitors dig up corpses.
Engkubung (ngkubungj, a soft-wood tree.
Engkudu (ngkudii), a tree, Annona
reticulata: buah e., its fruit.
Engkuit1 (ngkuit), wag: Iko ukoi e., the
dog’s tail is wagging; Ukoi e. ka iko,
the dog wags its tail.
Engkuit2 (ngkuif), or sengkuit, a long
rod suspended by a cord, used for
driving away fowls.
Engkujut (ngkujut), a band of cater-
pillars round a branch or tree-trunk,
regarded as an omen (good, if com-
plete; bad, if incomplete): Kami
pulai ka e., we went home on account
of this omen.
Engkulan, (ngkulan}, tie up a fence: Iya
e. pagar, he tied up the fence.
Engkulas, (ngkulas), scraps of hair or
cotton rolled into a ball.
Engkuli (ngkuliq), the clouded leopard.
Engkurak (ngkurak), see mengkurak.
Engkuran (ngkuran), ransack, plunder:
Iya e. bilik kami, he ransacked our
Engkurup (ngkurupj, gargle: Iya e., he
Engkutong (ngkutung'), see kutong.
Engkuyuk (ngkuyuk), crumple: Iya e.
ka tupi aku, he crumpled my hat.
Enjing (njing), part., really, simply,
absolutely: E. bepanchur peloh iya
lelak, he was simply dripping with
sweat from the effort; Iya belanda e.
munoh diri, he ran like mad.
Enjok (njukj, Ngenjok, give: Iya ng.
aku selapok, he gave me a cap;
Anang benjok ka manok makai ba
rumah, don’t feed the chickens in the
house; Iya pengenjok manok makai,
it’s he who feeds the chickens.
Enjun (njuri), Ngenjun, 1. make a plank
or branch shake by treading on it;
2. disturb a person or shake down
fruit by doing this: Iya ng. aku gali,
he made the floor shake where I was
lying; Buah aku udah di-perenjun ka
kera, my fruit has been shaken down
by the monkeys.
50 Ensiban
Ensabi (nsabij, mustard: Iya meli e.
dua Beat, he bought two bunches of
mustard; Kami nadai bensabi sataun-
tu, we have no mustard this year.
Ensanus (nsanusj, the day before yester-
day: Aku bedau ditu jarit ka e., I’ve
been here since the day before
Ensapong (nsapung), swollen (of septic
wound): Telih iya e., there’s a swelling
where he was cut.
Ensaya (nsaya), a pretext, opportunity:
E. iya ka meda indu, it’s a pretext for
(his) seeing the women; Lalu ngagai
kami lemai tu, Jang, e. ka nemuai,
come to us this evening, it’s an
opportunity to visit us.
Ensayar (nsayar), move in a zigzag
manner, as a snake: Aku meda ular
e. ba tanah, I saw a snake moving
along the ground; Iya agi tegar
bejalai tang enjing e., he can still walk
briskly but he doesn’t go straight.
Ensebam (nsebani), having leaves, flow-
ers, hair, in profusion: Kayu nya e.,
that tree has a great many leaves;
Bok iya e., she has a lot of hair.
Ensebu (nsebti), (of hair) disordered:
Bok iya e. laban ribut, her hair is
disordered by the wind; Iya e. ka
bok iya, he ruffled his hair.
Ensekut (nsekut), biscuits.
Enselan (nselari), smear ceremonially
with chicken’s blood: Iya e. aku, he
smeared me with blood.
Enselit (nselit), see selit.
Enselua (nseluaq), a mischievous spirit:
Iya miring ka e., he sets out offerings
to placate the e.
Enseluai (nseluay) or Enseluang (nse-
luang), a river fish.
Enselup1 (nselup), 1. a dark red dye:
Iya meli e., she buys e.; 2. to dye:
Iya e. bakul, she dyes the basket.
Enselup2 (nselup), lipstick: Iya ngena
e.. she uses lipstick.
Ensembu (nsembuq), bulging: Kandi iya
e. laban duit, his pocket is bulging
with money; Tikai nya e., there’s
sthg. under that mat.
Ensenga (nsengaqj, a kind of fish-trap.
Ensenggui (nsengguy), Iya e., he looks
Ensenggur (nsenggur), Iya e., he looks
Ensepi (nsepiq), see sepi.
Ensera (nsera), a tale, a fable: E. nya
manah bendar, that is a fine tale.
Bensera or ensera: Iya bensera Paloi,
he is telling stories about P.
Ensiban (nsibaii), a splinter; having a
splinter in: Iya ngulih ka e. ba jari
aku, he took the splinter out of my

hand; Jari iya e., he’s got a splinter
in his hand.
Ensing1 (rising), a kingfisher.
Ensing2 (using), Ngensing: Iya ng. ka
insak, he blew his nose.
Ensirai (nsiray), a hairy caterpillar.
Ensirau (nsiraw), or gensirau, an insect
the sound of which is regarded as an
omen; Kami diau ka e., we stayed at
home on account of the e.
Ensong (nsung), whistling: Aku ninga
e. orang, I heard s.o. whistle; Aku
enda rindu ka orang pengensong, I
don’t like people who whistle.
Ensuga (nsuga), metal ornaments, logie:
Iya 'ngelekat ka e. ba tisir iya, she
fixes these in her comb.
Ensugau (nsugaw), Iya e. dani tindok, he
awoke with a start.
Ensuit (nsuit), tip up: Papan nya e., that
plank tips up.
Ensumbar (nsumbar), a surname (given
e.g. for some feat).
Ensuna (nsuna), a kind of turtle.
Ensunut (nsunut), a kind of creeper, used
in preparing an antidote for stings.
Ensurai (nsuray) or gensurai (gensuray),
a kind of tree (H. Dipterocarpus sp.)
Ensurak (nsurak), vomit suddenly: Iya
e. mutah, he suddenly vomited.
Ensurok (nsuruk), see surok.
Enta (ntaq), please give me: E. baju aku
nya, give me that coat of mine, please.
Entaba (ntaba), a kind of plant, the
stem of which is used for making
Entachau1 (ntachaw), stir: Iya e. ai, he
stirred the water.
Entachau2 (ntachaw), Padi baru e., ears
are forming here and there in the
Entadu (ntaduq), ulat e., a kind of large
Entaga (ntagaq), Pangka iya e., his
(spinning-) top has knocked mine
away (in games with tops).
Entagai (ntagay), or sentagai, belt for
sword or knife: Duku iya putus e.,
his knife-belt is broken; Duku iya
bentagai ka ubong pit, his knife-belt is
made of plaited strands.
Entah (ntah), I don’t know: Dini duku
aku?—E., where is my knife?—I don’t
know; Bisi nuan hari nemuai ngagai
aku pagila?—E., will you have time to
come and see me tomorrow?—I don’t
know, I may have (not discourteous).
Entai (ntai), (us. of women) to laugh in a
particular way: Iya e. (langgai), she
laughs in this way.
Entak1 (ntak), Ngentak, stamp: Iya ng.
ka kaki, he stamped; Iya dudok ng.
51 Entepa
ka diri, Iya terentak, he sat down
Entak2 (ntak), Ngentak, to rub clothes
(on a board) in washing: Iya ng. ka
gari, she is rubbing the clothes.
Entak3 (ntak), Ngentak, (to) erect: Iya
ng. ka suar, he raised the punting
pole; Sida ng. sahari-tu, they are
erecting the posts (of the house)
Entali (ntali), e. ai, the main current:
Bai perau kitai nengah e. ai, take the
boat where the current runs strongest.
Entam (ntam), Ngentam, attack: Bala
sida ng. China kebun, the crowd of
them attacked the Chinese gardeners.
Entana (ntanaq), a toad-fish, globe-fish:
Perut e. kembong, the globe-fish is
Entanggur1 (ntanggur), a young cobra,
Naja hannah.
Entanggur2 (ntanggur), a kind of tree.
Entanjar (ntanjar), lie kicking (as an
angry child): Iya e., he lay drumming
his heels.
Entap1 (ntap), flat: tanah e., flat land;
Iya e. kening, he has a flat forehead.
Entap2 (ntap), settled, established: Iya
nadai e. pengawa, he has no settled
job; Iya e. bebini, he has settled down
to marriage, his marriage is successful.
Ngentap: Iya apin ng. ka pendiau,
he hasn’t settled down yet.
Entapu (ntapu), see ensapong.
Entara (ntara), see antara.
Entaroh (ntaruh), a bet; a pool: Kami-
duai bentaroh, we have a bet.
Entasat (ntasat), flaking off: Kulit kayu
e., the bark is flaking off the tree.
Entawai (ntaway), a species of bat.
Entebong (ntebung), septic: Telih iya e.,
his wound has gone septic.
Entegeris (ntegeris), a woodpecker.
Enteguli (nteguliq), or teguli, a poison.
Entekai (ntekay), pumpkin: Iya meri
aku buah e. dua igi, he gave me two
Entelah (ntelah), a riddle: Iya ngiga e.
aku, he is trying to solve my riddle;
Iya ngaga e., he made up a riddle;
Sida bentelah, they ask riddles.
Enteli (nteli), a tree whose bark is used
for making paddy-containers.
Entelit (nteliit), a love-bird.
Entelu (ntelu), forming bubbles: Liur
iya e., he’s blowing bubbles (with
saliva); Pupu sabun e., the soap-suds
make bubbles.
Entemuni (ntemuniq), the afterbirth.
Entemut (ntemut), turmeric.
Entepa (ntepaq), stretch the arms side-
ways: Iya e., he held his arms wide.
Cf. depa.

Entepal 52
Entepal (ntepal), blunt (of sthg.
pointed): Mata tugal iya e., his
dibble is blunt.
Enterai (nteraiq), belch: Iya e., he
Enteran1 (nt er an), or genteran, or
menteran, the shaft of a spear.
Enteran2 (nt er an), or genteran or
menteran, divisions of a speech or
Enterui (nteruiq), (of skin eruptions)
dense: Pisa iya e. ba moa, his face is
covered with boils.
Enti (ntiq), part., if, whether: E. iya
datai, beri utai tu ngagai iya, if he
comes give him this; Iya ngiga ka e.
bisi bekau kaki ba tangga nya, he’s
looking for footprints on that ladder
(to see whether there are footprints).
Entigis (ntigis), the source of a river:
Iya diau ba e. ulu sungai, he lives at
the source of the stream.
Entikur (ntikur), a poisonous snake:
Iya pantok e., he was bitten by an e.
Entilang1 (ntilang), the framework for a
fireplace: Iya ngaga e. dapur, he
makes this.
Entilang2 (ntilang), or gentilang, a shoal
of fish: Aku meda e. ikan, I saw a
shoal of fish; Ikan bentilang, the fish
are in a shoal.
Entilang3 (ntilang), or gentilang'. e.
remang, a band of white cloud.
Entimun (ntimun), cucumber.
Entipal (ntipal), a pudding of sago and
maize: Iya mandok e., she is cooking
Entis1 (ntis), Ngentis, allude to, make
insinuations about: Iya ng. aku, he
alluded to me; Seduai-iya salalu
bentis pangan diri, they are always
making insinuations about o. another;
Pengentis bendar nuan tu, you are
always hinting things.
Entis2 (ntis), a type of coloration in
fighting-cocks (dark red).
Entis3 (ntis),=ketupong, one of the omen
Entising (ntising), bare the teeth: Iya
e., Iya e. ka ngeli, he bares his teeth.
Entong (ntung), Ngentong, pound in
order to pierce: Iya ng. kayu, he
made a hole in the wood in this way;
Iya ng. pintu, he battered the door in.
Entua (ntua), wife’s, husband’s, parents:
Mali nyebut e., it is forbidden to use
the names of your wife’s (husband’s)
Entuar (ntuar), struggle: Iya e. di-pegai
aku, he struggled in my grasp.
Entubong (ntubung), or sentubong, a
Entudi (ntudi), follow: Iya e. ka aku, he
walks behind me; Iya e. ka bala, he
brought up the rear of the troop. Cf.
Entui (ntui), in enda e., making no
sound (asleep or unconscious): Iya
tindok enda e.. he is sound asleep.
Entukar (ntukar), [Eng.] motor-car.
Entuku (ntuku), a kind of beetle.
Entukul (ntukul), a kind of creeper.
Entula (ntulaq), (of a baby’s head)
falling back: Paia iya e., his head is
hanging backwards.
Entulu (Ntulu), or Bentulu, name of a
district, Bintulu.
Entum (ntum), Ngentum, pound: Iya
ng. tepong, she is pounding the rice
for flour; Iya ng. pintu kami, he
hammered on our door.
Entun (nturi), Ngentun, pull: Iya ng.
luching, he pulled the bell-rope; Iya
bentun ka tali buru, he keeps pulling
the ropes for scaring away the birds.
Entunda-Udi (ntundaq-), see entudi.
Entungan (ntungan), a tree with durable
Enturing (nturing), paint, daub: Iya e.
moa, he paints his face; Moa iya
benturing, his face is painted; Anang
e. dinding, don’t smear the wall.
Enturun (ntururi), an animal which is
feared as the possible host of a kok-
Enturung (nturung), a group: e. rumah,
a group of (us. small) houses; e.
orang, a gathering of people.
Entuyut (ntuyut), randau e., the pitcher-
plant, Nepenthes.
Ga (gaq), part.: Au g., yes, indeed; Lalu
agi g. burong nya bejako, then the
bird spoke again; Enda g. tentu lelak,
I’m not specially tired.
Gada-Gada (gadaq-gadaq), see gadak-
Gadai (gaday), a pledge: utai g., sthg.
pledged; pak-g., a pawnshop. Ngadai,
leave as a pledge: Iya ng. tinchin ba
aku, he left a ring with me as security.
Gadai-Gadai (gaday-gaday), gently,
quietly, slowly: bejako g., speak softly,
slowly; ketawa g., laugh softly; gawa
g., work without haste; Mupok
begadai-gadai, let’s walk on quietly.
Gadak-Gadak, lie on the back: Anak
iya (gali) g. ba tengah bilik, her child
was lying on its back in the middle of
the room; 2. lie about: Chapak g. ba
bilik, the plate was lying about in the

Gadang 53
Gadang {ggadang), a coarse mat for
straining sago (cl. I ambar or dedas).
Gading, 1. ivory; 2. a tusk.
Gadong {gadung), green: kena begadong,
make green.
Gaga1, glad: Enggau ati ti g. aku
nyambut surat datai ari nuan, I was
glad to receive your letter; Engkatak
g. ka ujan, frogs are glad of the rain.
Ngaga: Ayam ti di-beri aku ng. ka ati
iya, he was pleased with the toy I gave
him; Balat pengaga ati iya, he was
v. glad.
Gaga2 {gagaq), Ngaga, 1. make, do: Iya
ng. tikai, she is making a mat; Nama
g. nuan dia?, what are you doing
there?; 2. pretend to be: lya ng. diri
sakit, he pretends to be ill; 3. sp.
Anang ng. apai nuan baka nya, don’t
treat your father like that.
Gaga3 {gagaq), In g. ka, certainly,
undoubtedly: G. ka nadai hari pagila,
I certainly haven’t time tomorrow;
G. ka nadai iya dia, I can answer for
it that he wasn’t there.
Gagah, exceptionally strong: Apai iya g.,
his father is exceptionally strong.
Gagai1 {gagay), Ngagai, chase: Iya ng.
penchuri, he chased the thief; Iya di-
gagai beruang, he was chased by a
bear; Kami-duai begagai, chase o.
Gagai2 {gagay), Ngagai, come, go, to:
Iya ng. aku lemai kemari, he came to
me yesterday evening; Iya enggai di-
gagai temuai, he doesn’t want visitors.
See ngagai.
Gagang, 1. a stalk: g. daun, leaf-stalk;
g. buah, fruit-stalk; 2. a handle: g.
kali, handle of a cooking-pot; g.
kachit, handle of betel-nut scissors.
Gagar, to come out (hair, teeth, feathers):
Bok iya g., his hair is coming out.
Ngagar, cause to come out: Ngunyah
idu ng. ka ngeli, chewing i. (a plant)
makes your teeth come out.
Gagit, excited, in high spirits: Aku g.
ninga iya ka di-tiki ka orang, I was
delighted to hear that he was to be
promoted. Ngagif. Berita iya ti ka
datai ng. ka aku, I was excited by the
news of his coming.
Gago1, busy, occupied: Kami g. pagila
sedia ka gawai, we shall be busy to-
morrow getting ready for the festival.
Gago2, anxious: Iya g. {diri) ninga orang
karam, she was worried at hearing
that there had been a wreck.
Gagong {gagung), a war-jacket (cl. iti or
Gah, an interjection (to startle s.o.)
Gajah1, an elephant.
Gajah2, in g. nusu, a room built out
from a house.
Gajai {gajay), see gajah1.
Gaji, wages: G. iya 50 ringgit sabulan,
his wages are 50 dollars a month; Iya
makai g. ba sanu, he is employed by
so-and-so. Ngaji, pay s.o. wages,
employ: Aku ng. iya 50 ringgit
sabulan, I pay him 50 dollars a month;
Indu tu di-gaji apai indai anak mit nya,
this woman was employed by the
child’s parents.
Gala, female personal name.
Galak1, luxuriant, flourishing: Rumput
g., the grass is lush; Sayur g., the
vegetables are doing well. Ngalak:
Iya engkah tai sapi kena ng. ka sireh,
he put down cow-dung to bring on
the sireh ; Balat pengalak chabi kita,
your chilli is doing well.
Galak2, given to, apt to: Iya g. belaya,
he is quarrelsome; Hari g. ujan lemai,
it’s apt to rain in the evening.
Galan-Galan, 1. bald: Paia iya g., he is
bald; 2. hatless: Paia iya g. ngelaban
panas, he was hatless in the sun.
Galang, large: lesong g., a large mortar;
batu g., a rock; jalai g., a principal
path cut in the jungle when collecting
Galas, a ring attached by cord to oar
and fitting over thole-pin: pasang g.,
a pair of g.; Dayong iya begalas ka
benang pit, his oar has a g. of plaited
Galau (galaw), reserved, left: Pulau nya
g. kara, that patch is not cleared
because of the banyan tree. Ngalau,
reserve, keep: Ng. ka aku, keep some
for me; Iya baru begalau ka bok, he
has just started letting his hair grow.
Gali {galiq), lie: Iya g. di ruai, he was
lying on the verandah. Ngali, to lay
down: Iya ng. ka anak, she laid her
child down; Anang ng.I, keep it
Galing, a kind of civet (H. Paradoxurus
Galong {galung), a curl: Bok indu nya
begalong, that woman’s hair is curly.
Galur-Galur, (of males) having the
private parts exposed: Anang g. beja-
lai ngagai orang, you must be properly
dressed when you go to see people.
Gam {gaam), in ngeli g., back teeth.
Gama {gamaq), Ngama, 1. examine by
feeling: Iya ng. penajam mata duku,
he felt the edge of the knife; 2. G.
dada diri, think how you would like it.
Begama: Aku begama ngagai manang,
I got the medicine-man to palpate me.
Pengama: Iya manang pengama, he is
a manang who uses palpation.

Gamal 54
Gamal, shape, look, appearance: Nadai
utai ngemanah nya g. iya, he is v.
good-looking; Iya tak sakit g., he
looks ill; Ni baka g. pengetau kita
sataun-tu?, what are the prospects for
your harvest this year?; Manah g.
hari sahari-tu, the weather looks good
Gamang, indu g., a kind of hornet.
Gamat, a plant, Cyanotis cristata.
Gambar, picture, photograph, image:
wayang g., a film (show); Kami
begambar kamari, we had our photo-
graphs taken yesterday. Ngambar:
Iya ng. kami, he photographed us.
Gambi (gambiq), in antu g., noises made
by beasts or birds at night regarded
as supernatural.
Gambir1, gambier.
Gambir2, cock’s wattles. Ngambir: Iya
ng. manok iya, he trims his cock’s
Gambus, a stringed musical instrument:
Iya begambus, he plays the g.
Gamut, indu g., a water insect; indai g.,
a girl of 5-10 years.
Gana-Gana (ganaq-ganaq), waddling.
Ganas, restless, active: Apai iya g., his
father is hard-working; Anak iya g.,
his child is always up to sthg.; Babi g.,
the pigs are restless.
Ganchar-Ganchar, shine (of the early
sun): Dani! Nyau g. hari tu, wake up,
the sun is shining.
Ganchil, (us. of women or children)
g. mulut, talkative; g. jari, given to
Gandar, Ngandar, carry with a pole
between two persons: Seduai-iya ng.
guni beras, they are carrying a bag of
Ganding, a dinghy, tender: G. kami
karam, our dinghy was sunk. Nganding,
attach one boat to another; tow, be
towed: Aku ng. perau iya, I made fast
to his boat; Kami-duai beganding, his
boat and mine are lashed together;
Aku beganding ba kapal, a steamer
gave me a tow.
Gandu, male personal name.
Gandu (Ganduq), female personal name.
Gandul-Gandul, big (of swellings): Tekok
iya g., his goitre is big.
Gandum, [Pers.] corn, wheat: tepong g.,
wheat flour.
Gangga (ganggaq), roar (of thunder,
gunfire): G. guntur inggar bendar, the
peal of the thunder was v. loud.
Ganggam, strong, firm: Anak iya g.,
her child is sturdy; Tanchang iya enda
g., he hasn’t fastened it securely;
Semaia nuan enda g. enggau orang,
your promises cannot be relied on.
Gang-Gang (gaang-gaang), indistinct (of
speech): Iya bejako g., he speaks
Ganggang, a bird (H. Alcedo).
Gangging, a kind of bamboo.
Ganjang, naked: Iya mandi g., he
bathed naked.
Gangkam, a staple.
Gansai {gansay), a spear with a single
Gantang, a measure of capacity; a
vessel to contain this quantity: Iya
begantang kayu, he has a wooden g.
Ganti, Nganti, provide, act as, substitute
for: Iya gawa ng. aku, he works in
my place; Iya ng. perau aku ti jai
laban iya, he replaced my boat which
he had damaged; Kami-duai beganti,
we relieve o. another; Iya nadai
penganti gawa, he has no one to take
his place (at work).
Gantong (gantung'), Ngantong, hang,
suspend: Iya ng. gambar, he hung the
picture; G. kaki, hold up your foot;
Anang ng. sengayoh, don’t stop
paddling; Iya kena g., he was hanged;
Chara kami agi begantong, our case is
not yet decided; Iya bejako enda
begantong, he doesn’t mince matters.
Gap1, swagger: Iya g. bendar, tang datai
di rumah nadai pemisi, he swaggers,
but he has nothing at home. Ngegap:
Iya ng. ka diri ngengkah pen dua tiga
ba baju, he swanks with two or three
pens in his pocket.
Gap2, Ngegap, threaten: Iya ng. ka
munoh aku, he threatened to kill me.
Gapa-Gapa (gapaq-gapaq), see gap-gap.
Gap-Gap (gaap-gaap), groping: Iya
bejalai g., he groped his way.
Gar (gaar), rough: batug., a rough stone;
Rekong aku g., I am hoarse.
Garam, salt: Lauk nya begaram, there
is salt with those vegetables. Ngaram:
Iya ng. lauk, she put salt on the meat.
Garang, fierce: Jelu nya g. bendar, that
animal is v. fierce; Iya nyau g., he’s
getting savage.
Garas-Garas, bare: Tanah nya g., that
earth is bare.
Gari1 (gariq), clothes: Iya ngena g. diau
iya, he is wearing his house clothes;
g. turun, working clothes (esp. for
farm). Ngari, to dress: Iya ng. anak
iya, she dresses her child; Iya begari,
he is dressing.
Gari2 {gariq), useless, rejected: g. utai,
a rag; g. kasut, old shoes; G. orang
nuan tu, you are a good-for-nothing.
Garing, Ngaring, roll: G. ka buah guli
nuan, roll your marble; Iya begaring
ka lumpong kayu, he rolls the logs.

Garing-Garing, lying still: Iya gali g.,
he’s lying still.
Garis, a line, boundary: G. menoa kami
udah di peresa pengulu, our boundary
has been inspected by the chief;
keretas begaris, ruled paper. Ngaris,
make, rule, a line: Iya ng. tanah, he
made a line on the ground.
Garong (garung), a basket sent to dead
person’s grave after the gawai antu.
Garu1, an aloe: minyak g., a scent.
Garu2 (garuq), Ngaru, scratch: Iya ng.
jari, he scratched his hand; Iya begaru,
he is scratching.
Gas, (Eng.) kerosene.
Gasak1, Ngasak, rub: Iya ng. jari enggau
minyak, he rubbed his hand with oil;
Iya ng. darah ba jari iya, he wiped the
blood off his hand; Iya ng. bubur, she
rubs rice-flour paste through a per-
forated tin to make bubur gasak; pen-
gasak bubur, the tin for this purpose.
Gasak2, Ngasak, do sthg. energetically:
G.l, get on with it!, quick!; Iya enda
lama ng. ka tebas iya, he wasted no
time in getting his clearing done; Iya
ng. ka diri nyabak, he was crying as if
his heart would break.
Gasak3, Ngasak, devour: Buah nuan
udah di-gasak ka kami, we’ve eaten up
your fruit; Api enda lama ng. ka
reban, the fire quickly consumed what
had been cut.
Gasing1, a spinning-top. Ngasing, spin:
Iya ng. ka pangka, he spins his top;
Pangka iya agi begasing, his top is still
Gasing2, peling g., a spinning-wheel.
Ngasing, spin: Iya ng., she spins;
Indai iya agi benong begasing gawa,
his mother is still v. active.
Gat, term of address for young men.
Gatal, 1. itchy: Kaki iya g., his foot is
itching; kuris g., the itch; 2. sensual:
indu g., a sensual woman; 3. g. ati,
longing for, to: G. ati aku meda buah
nya, I was filled with longing at the
sight of that fruit. Ngatal: Ng. ka ati
bendar jako iya mai pegi, his talk of
taking me abroad made me itch to go.
Gau, Ngau, feel for, grope for, sthg.:
Iya ng. utai dalam bakul, he was feeling
for sthg. in the basket; sp. Aku enda
kala di-gau iya agi biak menya, he
never came courting me when we
were young.
Gauk1, (of animals) fierce: Jelu nya g.,
that animal is fierce; 2. (of children)
wild, uncontrolled: Anak iya g.
bendar, his son is v. wild.
Gauk2, libertine: Iya g. enggau bini
orang, he is a libertine; Iya g. enggau
bini menyadi aku, he is pursuing my
55 Gegat
brother’s wife; G. bendar nuan tu!,
(joc. to child) you’re too affectionate.
See begauk.
Gaul, Ngaul, mix, confuse: Iya ng. ka
ikan ti manah enggau ti jai, he mixed
bad fish with the good. Begaul, mixed:
Benih nya begaul, those seeds are
mixed; Kami diau begaul enggau
Laut, we live together with the Malays.
Sagaul: Kami sagaul enggau China,
we form one community with the
Gawa1 (gawaq), work: Nuan patut g.
bebendar agi, you ought to work
harder. See pengawa.
Gawa2 (gawaq), Ngawa, disturb, interfere
with: Anang ng. aku, don’t disturb me;
Mija nya ng. jalai, that table gets in
the way; Ng. bendar burong tu, the
omens interfered a great deal.
Gawa3 (gawaq), hold a festival: Kami g.
taun barn tu ila, we are holding a festival
next year; Aku pulai ng abas pengawa
sida apai, I’ve come back from
attending the festival at my father’s
Gawai (gaway), a festival: Kami begawai,
we hold a festival.
Gaya1, bearing, manner, style: Manah
g. iya, he carries himself well. Ngaya:
Ng. diri (= begaya) bendar apai tuai
orang nya, that old man has style.
Gaya2, method, manner of doing sthg.:
Tu g. mantap ka kapak, this is the way
to cut with an axe.
Gaya3, appearance: Ni g. hari kitai
dia-tu?, what does the weather look
like now?
Gayak-Gayak, beautiful, graceful: Kayu
nya g., those trees are beautiful;
Pejalai iya g., she walks gracefully.
Gayang, Ngayang, stab (esp. in neck):
Iya ng. babi, he thrust a spear into the
pig’s neck; Iya di-gayang munsoh, he
was stabbed by one of the enemy;
adat begayang, the death penalty,
execution by stabbing.
Gayong (gayung), an empty tin used as
a mug.
Gayu, long life: meri selamat g., wish
long life (to s.o.); Sida menyadi nya g.
magang, all the brothers and sisters
have been long-lived.
Gebul-Gebul, see gebur-gebur2.
Gebur-Gebur1, yielding to pressure:
Bubun iya g., its fontanelle is soft;
Tanah nya g., that ground gives under
o.’s feet.
Gebur-Gebur2, gush: Ai chalong g., the
water gushes through the bung-hole.
Gegar, quick-tempered: Iya g. bendar,
he is v. quick-tempered.
Gegat, indu g., clothes moth; Gari iya

Gegudi 56
empa g., his clothes have been attacked
by moth.
Gegudi {gegudi or ggudi), a kite (toy):
Iya nerebai ka g., he flies a kite.
Gela {gelaq), a nickname: Iya begela A.,
he is nicknamed A. Ngela\ Sida ng.
aku A., they nicknamed me A.
Geladak, floor: Rumah iya begeladak
teras, his house has an iron-wood
Gelai {gelay), (in songs), a man.
Gelai-Gelai {gelay-gelay), (us. of a soli-
tary tree) tall and slender: Kayu nya
g., that tree stands tall and straight.
Gelam1, Ngelam, press with finger-nail:
Iya ng. kutu ukoi, he squashed the
dog’s fleas; Tak g. enggau mata nuan
nya!, (vituperation or endearment)
may your eyes be gouged out!;
Seduai-iya begelam, they clasp hands
and press their nails in (in play).
Gelam2, a tree whose bark is used for
caulking boats: Iya makai perau
enggau g., he caulks the boat with g.
Gelama {gelamaq), kinds of sea fish.
Gelana, 1. (of moon) eclipsed: Bulan g.
namalam, there was an eclipse of the
moon last night; 2. (of person)
unlucky: Iya salalu g. tiap bemain,
sthg. goes wrong every time he plays.
Gelang, 1. a large bracelet: Iya ngena g.,
she wears a g.; 2. handcuff's: Iya
kena g., he was handcuffed.
Gelanggang, perches for fowls: “Alah
di baroh rumah, menang di g.”,
“defeated under the house, victorious
on the perch”, he laughs best who
laughs last.
Gelar, see gela.
Gelas, [Eng.] a drinking-glass.
Gelata {gelataq), an irritating rash: Iya
empa g., he has this.
Gelaya {gelayaq), a large flat basket.
Gele, a kind of plant used as a vegetable,
Geledi {gelediq), ticklish: Aku g., I am
Gelegar, 1. the pieces of bamboo or
wood forming a floor (cl. lambar)-,
2. the floor: Ruai iya begelegar buloh,
his verandah has bamboo flooring.
Gelegedi {gelegediq), see geledi.
Gelegis, in g. ati, dislike, hate: Iya g.
ati ngagai aku, he hates me.
Gelegua, Ai ba lubok g., the water in the
deep parts is seething.
Gelemang, or begelemang, iridescent:
Ai g. laban minyak, the water is
streaked with oil.
Gelemut, 1. (of maggots etc.) swarm:
Ulat enjing g. ba bangkai jelu, the
dead animal was alive with maggots;
2. have a creeping sensation: Kaki
aku g., I feel as if sthg. were crawling
over my foot.
Gelenggang, or begelenggang, undula-
ting: Ai g. laban ribut, the wind is
making waves on the water; Papan
ruai iya g., the planks in his verandah
are loose, move as you walk on them;
tanah g., undulating ground.
Gelesang, curling: Bok iya g., his hair
is curly.
Gelesi {gelesiq), Iya g., he shuddered
(with cold).
Geletang, see gelesang.
Geli1 {geliq), amused, entertained: Iya
g. ati meda main nya, he was enter-
tained by the play. Ngeli: Jako iya
ng. ka ati, what he says is amusing.
Geli2 {geliq), having an eerie feeling:
Aku g. bejalai nengah pendam, I felt
creepy going through the graveyard.
Ngeli: Ng. ka ati iya ti nusoi antu, he
made my blood run cold with his
tales of ghosts.
Geliga, bezoar stone: Landak nya
begeliga, that porcupine had a bezoar
Geligir, a word used in songs without
definite meaning.
Gelih, Ngelih, pass, get in front of: Aku
ng. iya, I got ahead of him; Aku di-
gelih iya semak adan, I was passed by
him near the winning-post; Kami-
duai begelih, we passed o. another.
Gelik, a bracelet.
Gelinak, or begelinak, slimy: Burok
daun g., the rotting leaves are slimy;
Insak g. ba kasut aku, there’s some
mucus on my shoe.
Gelinggam, Ngelinggam, paint: Kami
ng. raga, we paint the baskets; Raga
di-gelinggam chelum, the basket is
painted black.
Gelintong {gelintung), a black stain: Iya
nanak g., she makes the g.; Tanggoi
iya begelintong, his hat is stained black.
Ngelintong: Iya ng. selok, she stains
the basket black.
Gelintum, a black stain for preserving
teeth: Ngeli iya begelintum, his teeth
are stained with g. Ngelintum: Iya
ng. ngeli iya, he stains his teeth with g.
Gelong {gelung), a coil: g. rotan, a coil of
rattan; Iko babi begelong, a pig’s
tail is curly; Sida begelong-gelong
ngelingi aku, they formed a circle
round me. Ngelong: Iya ng. ka rotan,
he coiled the rattan.
Geluchu, with hair cut short: Paia iya g.,
his hair is cropped. Ngeluchu: Anang
ng. ka pala iya, don’t crop him.
Gelu-Gelu, to sound (of certain musical
instruments, as kesuling, flute, ruding,

Gelugin 57
Jew’s harp): Residing iya g., his flute
can be heard.
Gelugin, a disease.
Gelui-Gelui (geluy-geluy), see gelai-gelai.
Gelumbang, (big) waves: Tasik be-
gelumbang, the sea is rough. Nge-
lumbang: Anang ng. ai, don’t stir up
the water.
Gelumu (gelumuq), Ngelumu, bring
together: Iya ng. ka liras, she swept
the rubbish into a heap. Begelumu,
assemble: Kami begelumu ba ruai iya,
we gathered on his verandah.
Gelumut1, measles: Iya empa g., he has
Gelumut2, see gelemut.
Gelut, Ngelut, smear: Iya ng. ka ubat ba
abi telih aku, he put some ointment
on my cut; Aku di-gelut iya enggau
utai kamah, he smeared some dirt
on me.
Gemalong (gemalung), randau g., a kind
of creeper.
Geman, ngeli g., back teeth; (in songs)
dabong g., the teeth.
Gembar, a person, thing, at the side of
another: senapang g., a double-
barrelled gun; Iya g. aku, he is my
right-hand man; Iya nadai g. gawa,
he has nobody with him in his work;
Iya bisig., he has supporters. TVgembar,
be, place, at the side of: Iya bediri ng.
tiang, he stood beside the post; Kami
ng. kaki iya ti patah, we put his
broken leg in splints; Kami ng. nuan
ti nuan bisi pengachau, we should be
at your side if you were in trouble;
Akupengembar nuan, I am on your side.
Gembo, puffed out: Kuyu iya g. laban
roti, his cheeks are bulging with bread.
Ngembo: Buntal ng. ka perut iya, a
toad-fish puffs itself out.
Gembong1 (gembung), a kind of sea fish.
Gembong2 (gembung), a water-bottle.
Gemian, a kind of sea fish.
Gemisai (gemisay), rustle: Aku ninga
rau g. laban engkarong, I heard a
lizard rustling in the dry leaves.
Gemok (gemuk), fat, stout: Iya g., he is
Gempong (gempung), see gerempong.
Gempuru, (gempuruq) see empuru.
Gemu1, fertile soil: Iya nyangkul g.
tanah, he hoes the soil; Tanah nya g.,
that soil is fertile; sp. G. ati iya
ngereja nya, he just loves doing that
(us. in blame).
Gemu2 (gemuq), fat: g. babi, pig’s fat;
Babi nya g., that pig is fat. Ngemu,
fatten: Iya ng. ka babi enggau buah
ubi, he fattens the pigs on tapioca;
Balat pengemu babi tu, this is a good
fat pig. I
Gena, name of a man who killed his
mother-in-law; baka G., brutal.
Genali, supernatural king of the turtles.
Genalu, or menalu: (bungkong) g., a knot
in wood; Kayu nya begenalu, there’s
a knot in that wood.
Genang-Genang, or gegenang, clear of
obstructions: Jalai g., the road is
clear; Sungai g., there are no creepers
etc. overhanging the river.
Genap, (including) each, every, all: G.
(or sagenap) iko kita enda tau enda
mai duku, each of you must take a
knife; G. kali aku betemu enggau iya,
iya ngasoh aku nemuai, every time I
meet him he asks me to come and see
him; Udah g. sida?, have they all got
some?; Apin g. kami tu, some of us
haven’t any yet; Iya meri kami ayam
enda g. tuboh, he gave us toys, but
there weren’t enough to go round.
Ngenap: Iya datai ng. ka hari, he
came for the last time (completing the
agreed number of days).
Genarau (genaraw), of varied colours:
Sawa g., a python has various colours.
Gendai-Gendai (genday-genday), or ge-
gendai, bekegendai, not carrying any-
thing: Iya g., he is empty-handed.
Gendang, music, orchestra: G. sida enda
nyadi, their performance was not
good; Kami nadaig., we have no band.
Begendang, make music: Sida be-
gendang, they are playing; sp. Iya
begendang ka aku ti udah karam, he
made a song about my having
Gendum, immature areca nut.
Genera (generaq), a vision, a super-
natural voice: Iya meda g., he saw a
spectral figure; Iya ninga g., he heard
Genggam, 1. the width of the fist; 2. a
handful. Ngenggam, grasp: G. pun
tali nya, catch hold of the end of that
rope; Iya ng. duit, he has money in
his hand; Anang begenggam ba nya,
don’t hold on to that.
Genjat-Genjat, or gegenjat, bekegenjat,
(of young deer etc.) run awkwardly:
Anak rusa g., the young sambhur
runs awkwardly.
Genjo-Genjo, gegenjo, bekegenjo, wander
about: Anang bejalaig., don’t wander
Genok (genuk), a gourd used as a water-
bottle: Kami nadai begenok, we have
no gourd.
Genong-Genong (genung-genung), stare
(in wonder, fascination): Iya g. mere-
ning ukir, he gazed, fascinated, at the
design. Ngenong: Iya ng. meda ular,
he was fascinated by the snake; Iya

ng. meda pemaioh kami sabilik, he
stared when he saw the size of our
Gensarai (gensaray), a word used in
songs before names of flowers.
Genselan, see enselan.
Gensirau (gensiraw), see ensirau.
Gensurai {gensuray), see ensurai.
Gentar, nervous: Iya g. bejako, he was
nervous in speaking.
Genteran, see enteran.
Gentilang, see entilang.
Genting, 1. having a waist, a contracted
part: Tunjok aku g. laban tali, the
string has left a mark round my
finger; Tali nya g., that rope is thin
(at one point); g. tanjong, an isthmus;
sp. Nyau g. nyawa iya ka kena bunoh
orang, he narrowly escaped being
murdered; 2. a basket with a waist:
Iya meri aku g. ka sarang pinang, he
gave me a g. for keeping areca nuts in.
Ngenting, constrict: Belulang iya ng.
ka punggong iya, his belt is too tight.
Gentong (gentung), swollen (of stomach):
Perut iya g., Iya g., his stomach is
swollen. Ngentong: Anang ng. ka
perut nuan, don’t stick out your
Gentu (gentuq), a wild banana.
Genturong (gent urung), see ent urung.
Gepal, thickest part of crowd: Anang
ngagai g. bala, don’t go into the thick
of the crowd; Bala begepal ba moa
pintu nganti iya pansut, the crowd was
thick round the door waiting for him
to come out.
Gepi-Gepi (gepiq-gepiq), walk jerkily.
Gerabok (gerabuk), of poor quality: g.
ikan, fish of poor quality; g. semakau,
inferior tobacco.
Gerabu, Ngerabu, sprinkle (with salt,
sugar, etc.): Iya ng. ikan enggau
garam, she sprinkled the fish with
salt; Iya ng. ka garam ba ikan, she
sprinkled salt on the fish.
Geraga, see raga.
Geragam1, a hook used for dragging
Geragam2, a staple.
Gerah1, loose: Baju iya g., his coat is
loose on him; Belulang iya g., his belt
is loose; Iya g.jari, he is open-handed.
Ngeralr. Iya ng. ka belulang iya, he
loosened his belt; Iya ng. ka tanchang,
1. he made a longer loop (tying up the
boat), 2. he loosened the knot.
Gerah2, Ngerah, give instructions: G.
sida ka setak kin ka berapi, tell those
at the other end to get on with the
cooking; Rumah sida apin di-gerah
kami, we haven’t yet given orders to
their house; Perintah ng. nganjong
pupu, the Government gave orders for
the door tax to be brought. Begerah:
Jejaga begerah, the police bring in-
structions; Perintah apin begerah, the
Government has not yet issued an
Gerai (geray), healthy, well: Aku g.
bendar dia-tu, I’m quite well now.
Ngerai, to cure: Ubat tu ng. ka aku,
this medicine cured me. Pengerai:
Iya pengerai bendar, he is healthy;
Kati baka pengerai kita sarumahl, how
are you all in your house?
Geraji, or geregaji, a bradawl. Ngeraji,
pierce, bore: Iya ng. papan, he is
boring a hole in a plank; Anang
begeraji ka dinding, don’t bore holes
in the wall.
Gerak1, waking: G. iya udu bendar, his
method of waking me was v. rough.
Ngerak, wake (s.o.): Iya ng. aku, he
woke me; Manok pengerak tindok,
the cocks serve to waken us. Begerak:
Ati aku enda begerak ninga jako iya,
I wasn’t stirred by what he said.
Gerak2, movement of body: Aku meda
ari g. tuboli iya, iya ka mukut enggau
kanan, I saw from his movement that
he was going to punch with his right.
Geram, desirous of: Aku g. ka betemu
enggau iya, I v. much want to meet
him; Balat pengeram ati aku ka meda
menoa nya, I should v. much like to
see that country.
Gerama (geramaq), a small crab: G.
ngereman ba pasir, the crab buries
itself in the sand.
Gerami (geramiq), see gerabu.
Geran1, a groove cut round a circular
object: G. nya dalam, that groove is
deep. Ngeran, cut a groove round
sthg. (before breaking it): Iya ng.
buloh, he cut round the bamboo.
Geran2, g. semaia, a solemn promise to
amend made before the chief and his
advisers: Iya kena g., he was put on
Geranas, venereal disease: Iya empa g.,
he is suffering from this.
Geranjang, a kind of large ant.
Geranjing, a steep slope: G. tanah nya
enda di-pumai kami, we don’t farm
that steep place.
Gerasi, Geregasi, a giant, demon.
Gerejak, the stakes in a fish-dam.
Ngerejak: Iya ng. tampun, he set up
the stakes for the dam.
Gerempong1 (gerempung), a bundle: g.
kayu, a bundle of sticks. Ngerempong,
make a bundle: Iya ng. ka tangkai
padi, she made a sheaf of paddy.
Gerempong2 (gerempung), a society,
community: g. kami, our community;

kedai g., co-operative society.
Ngerempong, 1. bring together: Iya
ng. ka kami, he brings us together,
organizes our society; Elida ulih di-
pegerempong, they can’t be made into
one community; 2. (without ka) Sapa
ng. kita dia-tu?, who is your leader
now? Begerempong: Kami enda be-
gerempong diau, we do not live
together; Kami begerempong ka
bekedai, we united to set up a shop.
Gerenis1, a plant, the leaves of which
are sewn together for sun-hats.
Gerenis2, varnish. Ngerenis, to varnish:
Iya ng. papan awak ka tegoh, he
varnished the planks to preserve them.
Geri (geriq), a small bell.
Gerian, betray by looks or manner: Iya
g. bendar udah munoh orang, his face
betrayed the fact that he had done a
murder; Iya g. bendar main, she is
clearly embarrassed.
Gerija, [Port.] a church: Rumah kami
enda begerija, there is no church at
our rumah.
Gerika, Greek.
Gerinang, indu g., a cockroach.
Geringut, a kind of river fish with a
Gerinjing, see geranjing.
Geriok (geriuk), Perut iya (be-)geriok,
his stomach rumbled.
Gerit, Ngerit, gnaw. Gerit-gerit, (make
noise of) gnawing: Nama utai tak
g.-g. dalam peti nya? what’s that
gnawing in the box?
Gerong-Gerong {gerung-gerung'), give a
hollow sound: Labu iya g., his gourd
sounds empty; Nama utai g. ba
ruang?, what is making that noise in
the boat?
Geru, rough, warty, (skin): Raong g., a
toad has a warty skin; G. lengan iya
gerai, the rough patch on his arm has
gone; Lengan iya begeru laban benta,
his arm is rough and scratched with
benta grass.
Gerubut, useless, rejected, bad: g. ikan,
bad fish; g. semak au, unusable
tobacco; G. orang nuan tu, you’re no
use to anyone.
Geruda, a wheel (cl. z7z‘; pasang, a pair).
Geruga (gerugaq), a knife (intermediate
in size between lungga and dukti).
Gerugu (geruguq), g. batu, a group of
boulders; Sungai tu begerugu, there
are boulders in this river.
Geruna, a legendary bird.
Gerunchong (gerunchung), an anklet;
Iya begerunchong kaki, she is wearing
Gerunggang, a kind of tree used for
making boats and floor planks.
Gerunggong (gerunggung), bones stand-
ing out under skin: Iya kurus bendar,
ayan magang g. tulang, he’s v. thin, his
bones are sticking out; g. tanah, stony
Gerunong (ger unung), a bell, larger than
Geruntong (geruntung), Geruntu, (having)
continual rumbling in stomach: Perut
iya begeruntu, his stomach is always
Gerup, noise of animals moving in
jungle: Aku ninga g. jelu, jelu g.-g., I
heard the movement of animals,
animals moving.
Gerut, a light noise, as of scratching:
Aku ninga g. orang, I heard someone;
Mayau g.-g. begaru, the cat is (can be
heard) scratching.
Gesau-Gesau (gesaw-gesaw), (forest)
without dense undergrowth: Kampong
nya g., you can move freely in that
Getah1, latex, rubber: g. Pera (or Para),
Para rubber; Kayu tu begetah, this tree
produces latex. Ngetali, tap latex
Iya udah ng., he’s gone out tapping.
Getah2, lochia.
Getak-Getak, gegetak, bekegetak, shake,
sway: Tiang g. teruju ai, the post is
swaying in the current.
Getar-Getar, gegetar, bekegetar, shiver,
quiver: Iya g. chelap, he shivers with
cold. Begetar: Laja begetar lekat ba
kayu, the dart stuck quivering in the
Getil, Ngetil, pinch with the nails: Iya
ng. aku, he pinched me; G. iya udu
bendar, he pinched hard; Seduai-iya
begetil, they pinch o. another.
Getok-Getok (getuk-getuk), nagging: Iya
g. nganu anak, she nags at the chiid.
Giak, ribs, timbers, of boat: Perau iya
begiak ka teras, his boat has ribs of
Gian, addicted to: Iya g. tingko, he’s an
opium addict; Nginsap enda ulih buai
end udah g., smoking can’t be given
up if it has become a habit; Balat
pengian iya ngirup, he’s a confirmed
Giau-Giau (giaw-giaw), or gegiau, tall and
slender: Kayu nya g., that’s a tall,
slender tree.
Gibang, (of trousers) bell-bottomed:
Tanchut iya g., his trousers are wide
at the foot.
Giga (gigaq), Ngiga, seek, search:
Pelandok ng. ulam, the mouse-deer
was looking for food; G.namapengawa
iya, find out what he is doing; Iya ng.
endor ti likun bendar, he looked for a
safe place; Ab is menoa di-pegiga ka

kami, nadai ga nemu iya, we searched
the whole area without finding him;
orang pengiga orang rari, the searchers
for the escaped man.
Gigi, a tooth; notch on ladder to rumah:
Tangga nya jai g. atas, the top step of
that ladder is damaged; Tangga nya
begigi empat, that ladder has four steps;
sp. Iya bauh sagigi ari aku, he is a
generation ahead of me (has grand-
children while I have children, or
children while I have none).
Gigir, come off: Leka jagong g., the
grains are coming off the cob. Ngigir,
remove (grains of Indian corn from
cob, small fruit from stem): Iya ng.
jagong, he stripped the corn-cob;
Jagong udah di-pegigir ka sida, they
had stripped the cobs.
Gigit, Ngigit, bite; Ukoi ng. kaki aku,
a dog bit my leg; G. iya balat bendar,
it bit hard; sp. Iya begigit chit
ngereja umai sataun-tu, he is working
v. hard on the farm this year.
Gila1, mad, wild: Iya g., he is mad; g.
babi, epilepsy. Ngila: Nadai utai ng.
nya nuan tu, you’re as mad as a hatter;
Pengila iya mansang, his madness is
Gila2, given to: Hari g. ujan lemai, it
often rains in the evening.
Gilik, Ngilik, move (sthg.) from side to
side: Iya ng. ka pala, he shakes his
head. Begilik, move, be unsteady:
Batang begilik, the trunk rolled over;
Enda begilik, it’s quite firm; Iya
merening aku enda begilik, he looked
at me fixedly.
Giling, a roll (esp. of mats): Berapa iti
g. tikai nuan angus?, how many of
your (rolls of) mats were burnt?
Ngiling: roll sthg.: Iya ng. insap, he
rolled a cigarette; Iya begiling ka
tikai, she rolls the mats. Begiling,
curl up: Keretas begiling, the paper is
rolling up.
Gilo-Gilo, looking this way and that:
Aku meda anak pelandok g., I saw a
young mouse-deer looking in all
directions; Anang g. leboh bejako
enggau orang, don’t look elsewhere
when you talk to people.
Ginchi (ginchiq), Nginchi, pick up
cautiously, gingerly: Iya ng. bangkai
tikus, he picked up the dead mouse
Ginchil, a small bunch forming part of a
larger one: Meri aku saginchil buah
anggor, give me a little bunch of
Gining-Gining, enviously: Iya g. meda
buah, he eyed the fruit enviously.
Ginti {gintiq), a fish-hook. Nginti, fish
(with line or rod): Iya ng., he fishes;
Telaga kami di-peginti ka sida, they
fished our pool; Iya penginti bendar,
he’s a great fisherman.
Ginting-Ginting, one, not broken up:
Tinting nya g., the ridge is unbroken;
Sungai nya g., there’s no doubt which
is the main stream; Jako iya g., he is
single-minded in what he says.
Gintir, a turn (to do sthg.): Sahari-tu g.
iya jaga, it’s his turn to watch today;
Kami begintir berapi, we take it in
turns to cook. Ngintir: Iya ng. aku,
his turn comes after mine; Sida di-
pegintir ka aku berapi, I put them on
a rota for cooking.
Ginyah-Ginyah, munch, mumble: Sapi
g., the cows are munching; Orang
tuai nya g., that old man mumbles his
Girau (giraw), Ngirau, stir: Iya ng. asi,
she stirs the rice; Enda di-pegirau ka
iya, nya alai getah nya enda menyadi
manah, he didn’t stir it, so the latex
didn’t set properly.
Gisin, a quid of tobacco.
Gitang, Ngitang, see gantong.
Gitik-Gitik, shivering, quivering: Iya g.
chelap, he is shivering with cold; Isi
iya g. ringat, he is quivering with rage.
Gong (guung), a large brass bowl.
Gu (guuq), loud continuous roar (us.
heard from a distance): Aku ninga g.
ujan, I heard the noise of the approach-
ing rain; Aku enda ninga jako nuan
laban g. bala, I can’t hear what you
are saying for the noise of the crowd.
Gua, [Skt.J, g. batu, lubang g., a cave.
Guai (guay), hurry: Anang g. dulu, just
a minute; Nama main beguai-gual
deh?, why are you in such a hurry?;
Nyengka ka bisi utai di-peguai ka,
(you) may have sthg. urgent to do.
See beguai.
Guang1, a sweetheart: Iya nya g. aku,
she is my sweetheart. Nguang, visit
a lover: Iya ng. bini orang, he visits
another man’s wife; Seduai-iya be-
guang, they are courting (youth visits
Guang2, Nguang, go to help, support,
s.o.: Kami ng. {ngagai) sida ti angus
rumah, we went to the assistance of
those whose house was burnt down.
Penguang, helpers, supporters (e.g. at
Guat-Guat, go with feeble steps, totter:
Ini iya g., his grandmother totters
Guchi, a valuable jar (cl. igz).
Guchoh (guchuh), an instrument for
cutting up areca nuts (cl. iti): Ini aku

nyau beguchoh, my grandmother has
taken to using a g.
Guchor {guchur}, rush, gush (of water):
Iya mandi g. wong, he bathes under
the waterfall; Ai tungga g.-g., the
water gushes along the gutter.
Gudang, a store, warehouse (cl. buah}.
Gugu {guguq) see gu.
Gugur, to fall, come out, come off:
Daun kayu g., the leaves of the tree
are falling; Bok iya g., his hair is
coming out; sp. Iya g. ari pengawa
iya, he has lost his job. Ngugur,
remove, take off: Iya ng. ka jagong,
he picks the grains of Indian corn
from the cob; Ribut ng. ka daun kayu,
the wind tears the leaves from the
Gugut, Ngugut, pull (out) violently: Iya
ng. bok aku, he tore my hair out;
Anang begugut ka randan, don’t tear
down the creeper.
Gui-Gui {guiq-guiq}, see guat-guat.
Gula, sugar: g. apong, nipah sugar; g.
tebu, cane sugar; g. pasir, granu-
lated sugar; Kupi iya begula, there is
sugar in his coffee. Ngula, add sugar
to: Iya ng. ai kupi, she put sugar in
the coffee.
Gulai {gulay}, being together with,
accompaniment: Iya g. aku gawa, he
works with me; Nama g. babi tu?,
what is with this pork? Ngulai, 1.
put with: Iya ng. babi enggau sayur,
he has the pork with vegetables;
Anang begulai ka gari tua, don’t put
your clothes and mine together; 2.
live with: Iya ng. kami, he lives with
us; 3. mix, mingle with: Anang ng.
kami nuan, (you) keep away from us.
Begulai, be with, live with: Iya
begulai enggau aki iya, he lived with
his grandfather. Pengulai: Bawang
pengulai dagin, onions go with meat.
Guli, marbles (playthings), buah g.;
Iya main (or bemairi) g., he plays
Gulong {gulung\ a ball (of sthg.): g.
tanah, a ball, lump, of earth; Tepong
begulong, the dough is in a ball.
Ngulong, roll into a ball: Iya ng. ka
keretas, he rolled the paper into a ball.
Gulu {guluq}, Ngulu, assemble in honour
of s.o.: Kami ng. temuai ba ruai tuai
rumah kami, we assembled at our
headman’s verandah to greet the
guests; Kami ng. iya ti baru tinggal
penusah, we joined the bereaved per-
son (on first three nights after
funeral); Kami begulu, we are assem-
bled (for this purpose).
Guma {gumaq}, stingy (us. of old
61 Guntong
women): Iya g. bendar, she is v.
Gumbang, see gelumbang.
Gumis, whiskers (of animals); a mous-
tache with long ends: Mayau be-
gumis, cats have whiskers.
Gumpal, a lump, clot: g. getah, a ball
of waste rubber (used as firelighter);
g. beras, a lump of rice; Beras nya
begumpal, there are lumps in that rice.
Ngumpal, make into a ball, lump: Iya
ng. ka bok, she screws up the hairs.
Gumpul, Ngumpul, gather, pick: Iya ng.
uras, she gathered up the rubbish;
Iya ng. bala, he raised an army; Ker a
ng. tarok buah, monkeys pick the
young leaves of the fruit trees; Sida
begumpul, they are assembled (e.g. for
war); Iya pengumpul bala, it was he
who gathered the army.
Gumut-Gumut, waddling: Iya bejalaig.,
she waddles along.
Guna1, use: Nama g. nuan nya?, what do
you use that for?; Nadai ga g. muai
belanja enda betuju, it’s no use throw-
ing away your money on the wrong
things. Di-guna, di-peguna, needed,
of use: Nya utai di-guna aku, that’s
sthg. I need; Lisin tu enda di-peguna
agi, this licence is no longer valid.
Beguna, need, want: Beguna ka aku
nuan sahari-tu?, do you want me
Guna2, a bundle of charms in basket
hung on tiang penyengok near hearth.
Gundai {gunday}, long hair at back of
head: Iya nyau tumboh g., he’s letting
his hair grow at the back.
Gundit, a concubine.
Gunggu {gungguq}, a roll of thunder,
g. guntor.
Guni, a sack (cl. iti}: tiga iti g., three
sacks; saguni, a sackful; t iga g. padi,
three sacks of paddy; Iya meli beras
beguni-guni, he bought rice by the
sack; Kami nadai beguni, we have no
Gunjing, a kind of sea fish.
Guntam-Guntam, looming, threatening,
louring: Moa hari g., the clouds are
louring; Aku meda kapal g., a ship
towered over me.
Guntin, Gunting, scissors: tukang g., a
barber. Ngunting, cut with scissors:
Iya ng. kain, she cuts the cloth; Iya
ng. bok aku, he cut my hair. Be-
ginning: Iya beginning, 1. he • is
cutting s.o.’s hair; 2. he is having his
hair cut.
Guntong {guntung}, in want: Sida enda
kala g., they are well-to-do; Kami
g. pemakai, we are short of food.

Guntor {guntur), thunder: leka g., a clap
of thunder; Hari beguntor, it is
thundering, thundery.
Gupong (gupong), a large bunch of
fruit: Iya meri aku sagupong (buah),
he gave me a large bunch (of fruit).
Gurak-Gurak, Ai g. (or begurak), the
water is bubbling (noise).
Guring, Ng uring, fry: Iya ng. dag in, she
is frying some meat; ikan g., fried
Guris, a piece of bait with a number of
unbaited hooks on a line for fishing:
Tali g. iya putus, the line of his g. is
broken; Iya ngulih ka ikan enggau g.,
he fishes with a g.
Gurit-Gurit, make a noise like that of a
small quantity of water boiling at the
bottom of a pot: Ai g. ba burit kali,
the water is boiling in the bottom of
the pot.
Gurong-Gurong (gurung-gurung), make a
roaring noise (fire, waterfall): Apig. ba
lebak, the fire is roaring in the valley.
Guru1, [Skt.j teacher. Iya beguru ka
bekuntau, he is having training, has a
teacher for, boxing; Nguru, teach,
train: Iya ng. anak aku mengap, he
trained my child in singing; Anang
beguru ka nginsap, don’t be led into
Guru2 (guruq), rhythmical or repeated
noise: Aku ninga g. kapal, I heard the
throb of a ship’s engines; Guntor
g.-g., the thunder rolls; Aku ninga iya
g.-g. bebaring ari bukit, I heard him
rolling down the hill.
Gusak, Ngusak, shake; Iya ng. kayu, he
shook the tree; Buah aku abis di-
pegusak ka kera, all my fruit has been
shaken down by the monkeys.
Begusak, to be shaken, toss: Kayu nya
begusak laban ribut, that tree is tossing
in the wind.
Gusi (gusiq), the gums: G. iya bedarah
ngeli di-chaput, his gums are bleeding
from having a tooth out; Baru
tumboh g., he is teething.
Gusu-Gusu, Bok iya g., his hair is un-
Gutak-Gutak, shake, wag: Duku aku
g.. the blade of my knife is loose (in
the handle); Patong iya g., his knees
were going up and down (to the
Guyang, Nguyang, shake: Iya ng. kayu,
he shook the tree. Beguyang, to be
shaken, toss: Kayu beguyang, the
tree is tossing.
Guyat, see guyang.
Guyat-Guyat, swaying, waving: Rum-
put g., the grass is waving.
Ha, interjection (pleasure).
Hai, interjection (calling attention; of
women, laughing).
Hari1 (ari), 1. a day: Nyau datai mala
h., on the appointed day; Datai h.
datai ujan, it rains day after day;
Nyadi ft. siti pelandok nurun ka babas,
one day the mouse-deer went off to
the jungle; H. siti sida belaboh nebang
kayu nya, next day they began to fell
this tree; Iya turun nginti besahari-
sahari, he goes out fishing all day
long; h. besai, a holiday; sahari-tu,
today; 2. day as opposed to night:
Sempat nuan datai di rumah agi h.?,
have you time to get home in day-
light?; Aku pulai h., I shan’t stay the
night; 3. referring to weather: H.
ujan, it is raining; Manah gamal h.
sahari tu, the weather looks good
today. See kudi2.
Hari2 (ari), time (to do sthg.): Iya nadai
h., he hasn’t time; Apin bisi h. ngiga
kuli, there hasn’t been time yet to look
for coolies.
He, interjection (calling).
Hem, interjection (disapproval).
Hi, interjection (pleasure).
Hu, interjection (surprise, admiration).
Iak, term of address for girls.
Iar, Ngiar, 1. put aside: Aku ng. ka
surat, I put the book aside; 2. send
away, dismiss, send back (wife to
parents): Iya ng. ka aku, he sent me
away; Tak ng. ka nuan lah aku, Jang,
tang nuan ga bisi utai di-peguai ka,
I seem to be driving you away, but
you have urgent business.
Ibai (ibay), Ngibai, see beli1.
Ibal, horizontal member, rail, of wall
in Dayak house: Iya nanchang i.
dinding, he lashes on the rail of the
Iban1, Sea Dayak, I ban.
Iban2, those who are not manang, lay-
men: Manang tau ngambi semengat
tang i. enda tau, manangs can take
souls, laymen cannot; Manang enda
tau minta upah besai ari i., manangs
may not ask a large fee from laymen.
Ibang, a charm against disease worn on
Ibas, Ngibas, swing, wave, sthg.: Iya
ng. ka lengan mansa orang, he swings
his arms when he passes people

(impolite); Kami di-ibas ka iya ba
moa, he waved sthg. in our faces.
Iboh (ibuh), pay attention, notice: Iya i.
ka temuai, he is attentive to guests;
Anang i. ka aku, don’t bother about
me, take no notice of me; Nama i.,
never mind, what does it matter?;
Enda i. iya, he takes no notice; Aku
enda i. ka chelap tang ribut balat
bendar, I don’t mind the cold, but I
hate the wind. Ngiboh: Iya ng. ka
diri enggau aku, he puts on a show of
attentiveness to me.
Ibu (ibuq), 1. aunt, father’s or mother’s
sisters or female cousins; 2. term of
address for women of mother’s
generation. Ngibu, address as i.: Iya
enggai ng. ka aku, he wouldn’t call
me i.
Ibul, the truncated cone at base of blow-
pipe dart, z. laja: Laja iya beibul ka
empelai, his dart has a base of empelai
Ibun1, Ngibun, look after, tend: Iya ng.
anak orang, she is looking after s.o.’s
child; Aku ng. bebendai nya nganti
rajah datai, I am taking care of this
gong till the rajah comes.
Ibun2, Ngibun, await, expect: Iya ng.
anak iya datai, she is expecting her son
to come; Iya ng. tubai, he is waiting
for the fish to rise (tuba fishing).
Ibun3, in bangkai i., body of animal
found after firing jungle or of fish
after tuba fishing.
Ibur, shocked, distressed, disturbed:
Kami udah i. ninga pengachau nuan,
we were shocked to hear of your
trouble. Ngibur: Berita iya ng. ka
menoa, the whole district was dis-
turbed by the news of him.
Icha (ichaq), in nyengka i., in case, on
the chance of: Anjong asi nya ngagai,
iya nyengka i. iya ka makai, take him
that rice in case he feels like eating.
Iching, Ngiching, to aim, sight: Iya ng.
jelu, he aimed at an animal; Iya ng.
pengerurus tungkat, he sighted along
the stick to see if it was straight.
Ichit, great-grandchild. Ngichit: Iya
ng. ka aku, he calls me i.
Idan, in di-idan, see ngidan.
Idang1, honeycomb.
Idang2, service of food (at feast): I. sida
manah bendar, their arrangements for
the food are v. good. Ngidang: Iya
ng. ka daun gawai, he served people at
the feast.
Idap1, illness to which a person is sub-
ject : Endang i. nuan?, are you subject
to it?; Tu endang i. iya, tang tu baru
iya balat, he has it from time to time,
but this is the first bad attack.
Ngidap, have a recurrence of: Iya ng.
perut, he is having stomach trouble
again; Iya ng. ka pemedis tu kenyau
ari mit, he has had bouts of this
illness ever since he was small.
Idap2, Ngidap, hold sthg. against s.o.,
bear a grudge: Iya lama bendar ng.
ngagai aku, he has long had a grudge
against me; Nama utai di-idap ka
nuan ngagai iya?, what have you got
against him?
ldar, change: ngiga i., seek a change,
for a change; Sahari-tu i. aku jaga,
it’s my turn to watch today. Ngidar,
change, transfer, move: Iya ng.
semaia, he changed the appointment;
Aku ng. iya ka menoa bukai, I trans-
ferred him to another district;
Ng. ngagai tampak, move into the
light. Belidar: Iya udah belidar, he
has been transferred; Mata-hari
belidar, the sun has moved.
ldas, a coarse mat, made of rattan and
bark (cl. lambar or dedas).
Idong1 (idung}, nose: I. iya lansik, he
has a good nose, a keen sense of
Idong2 (idung), in reaping, used for riris
(not to be used at this time), each of
the strips successively cut by a party:
I. kami datai, we have finished one
strip. Ngidong: Kami ng. baru, we
start another strip; Iya ng. ka kami,
he (in the inner position) directs us.
Idu, a plant with a bitter-tasting root
taken for fever: Iya makai i., he
takes i. (which is to be swallowed
without chewing).
Idul, having adenoids: Iya i., he has
adenoids; Jako iya i., he has adenoid
speech. Ngidul: Anang ng. ka jako
nuan, don’t speak as if you had
Idup, alive, living: Iya agi i., he is still
alive; Iya i. ari berikan, he lives by
fishing; kayu i., green wood; ai i.,
cold water; Sungai i., the river is full
(not low or dry); I. ati iya, that’s
what he likes. Ngidup: Kami ng. ka
orang luput, we revived the man who
had fainted; Iya ng. ka manok di
langkau kebun, he keeps fowls at the
hut on the plantation; Nadai daya,
nadai kira ng. ka diri, I don’t know how
to support myself; Iya ng. ka isi, he
takes exercise; Iya ng. ka api, he lit
the fire; Kami beidup ka orang luput,
we revive the people who faint.
Beridup: Iya begulai beridup enggau
aya iya, he lived with (and was sup-
ported by) his uncle. Pengidup:
living, livelihood: Pengidup iya beri-
kan, he gets a livelihood by fishing;

Kati baka pengidup kita sataun-tu?,
what are your prospects this year?
Iga1 (igaq), part., enda i., not particu-
larly: Enda jauh i., not particularly
far; Gamal iya enda manah i., he’s
nothing much to look at.
Iga2 (igaq), part.: I. nuan enda ninga?,
do you mean to say you didn’t hear?;
I. nuan bengat ngaga iya baka nya?,
why on earth did you treat him like
that?; I. nuan bengat lalu enda
mereti, there’s no getting you to
Igat, term of address for youths.
Ngigat: Iya ng. ka aku, he calls me i.
Igau (igaw), dream, vision, imagination:
Nama i. nuan namalam?, what was
your dream last night?; Nya i. ngapa,
that’s just nonsense; Iya bisi i., he
had a vision. See ngigau.
Igi1 (igiq), num. cl. (telu, eggs; rian,
durians; nyiur, coconuts; ngeli,
teeth; etc.): sigi, one; beigi-igi,
singly (referring to words of this
Igi2 (igiq), in i. iya, pertinent: I. iya
nya, that’s the point; Jako iya nya i.
iya bendar, what he says goes to the
root of the matter; I. iya bendar utai
ti ko nuan, all you say is true.
Igi-Garam (igiq-), Adam’s apple,
Igin, yaws: Iya empa i., he has yaws.
Ijap, inner cone of bubu fish-trap (cl.
iti). Ngijap: Iya ng. bubu, he is
fitting an z. in the fish-trap.
Ijau (ijaw), green: Daun rumput i., the
blades of grass are green. Pengijau:
Balat pengijau daun nya, those leaves
are v. green.
Ijok (ijuk), a palm, Arenga saccharifera
(cl. puuri).
Ika (ikaq), 1. wife of elder brother,
husband of elder sister; 2. term of
address for these. Ngika: Iya ng. ka
aku, he calls me i.
Ikak1, out of breath: Iya i. belanda, he’s
out of breath with running. Ngikak:
Belanda nyauh nya apin ng. ka iya,
running that distance hasn’t pumped
him; Pengikak iya udah lenyau, he
has recovered his breath.
Ikak2, excessively fond of: Iya i. ka
ayam, he’s too fond of toys; Iya i.
ka sanu, she’s mad about so-and-so.
Ikan, fish: Sungai tu beikan, there are
fish in this river. Ngikan: Anang ng.
ka ngapa, don’t say it’s fish if you’re
not sure. Berikan, fishing: SzzZzz nurun
berikan, they have gone fishing;
Berikan nya ngerabang ka pengawa
umai, fishing interferes with work on
the farm.
Ikas, see naka.
Ikat1, a bunch: Iya meli dua i. ensabi,
he bought a couple of bunches of
mustard. Ngikat, tie together: Iya
ng. kaki manok, he tied the fowl’s
Ikat2, a coloured string tied on by
manang during epidemics: Nama i.
iya?, what colour is his string?; Sida
beikat, they have had an z. tied on by
the manang. Ngikat: Manang ng. ka
lengan, the manang ties an z. round
the arm.
Ikil, a wart: Jari iya beikil, he has
warts on his hand.
Ikit, see ichit.
Iko1 (ikuq), a tail: Jelu nya beiko
panjai, that animal has a Jong tail.
Iko2 (ikuq), num. cl. (persons and
animals): Kami ka sapuloh iko deh,
there are only 10 of us; Aku siko,
I alone; Tiap i. sama ng emat a ka padi
di umai diri empu, each watches over
the paddy on his own farm.
Ikup, encircling movement, flanking
movement: I. sida salah, their at-
tempt at encirclement failed. Ngikup,
encircle, outflank, trap: Kami ng.
munsoh, we trapped the enemy.
Ikur, a kind of plaiting for rim or
handle of baskets, for lashing on
spear-heads, etc. Ngikur, make this
on sthg.: Iya ng. rambing bakul, she
plaits a loop for the basket.
Ila1, a yard (length): Iya meli kain
beila, she buys cloth by the yard.
Ila2 (ilaq), Ngila, watch, keep an eye on:
Iya ng. ka menyadi iya, he’s keeping
an eye on his brother.
Ila3 (ilaq), part., later on, presently: I.
pen mandi, we’ll bathe later on; Aku
enggai agi kitu i., I don’t want to come
here again; taun baru tu i., next year.
Ilang, a kind of sword (cl. bilah).
Ilang-Ilu, buah z., a poisonous fruit:
‘Buah i. ti di-empa, ti enda parai apai,
parai indai ga', ‘z. fruit which if eaten
kills either father or mother’, i.e. it’s
playing with fire.
Hap, make a slip, mistake: Iya i., he
made a mistake.
Ili (iliq), down stream: di i., (places)
down river; Iya ka i., he went down
river. Ngili: Iya ng. ka sungai, he
followed the river down stream.
Ilum, a quid of areca nut, sireh, and
lime: Aku nganti iya kira dua i.
pinang, I waited for him long enough
to chew a couple of quids. Ngilum,
prepare a quid: Iya ng. pinang ka aku,
he made a quid for me.
Hut, an insulting gesture, pointing at
person with middle finger crossed over

first: Iya meri aku i., he pointed at
me insultingly.
Imba (imbaq), clue: Iya datai i. tengah
hari, he’s due to arrive at about noon;
Iya nyau i. ka datai, he should be here
about now.
Imbai (imbay), Ngimbai, put beside:
Iya ng. ka perau ngagai tebing, he
brought the boat to the bank; Iya
dudok ng. aku, he sits beside me;
Perau nya di-perimbai ka aku, I put
the boats alongside o. another; Duku
tu kimbai nuan tindok, this knife is to
be kept by you when you sleep.
Berimbai, side by side: Kami-duai
dudok berimbai, we sit side by side;
Kami bejalai dua-dua berimbai, we
march two abreast. Pengimbai: Tu
panggal pengimbai (or imbai), this is a
pillow for putting at the side (e.g. of
Imbok (imbuk), a kind of pigeon (H.
Chalcophaps indica).
Imbu (imbuq), Ngimbu, throw water
over: Iya ng. tangga, Iya ng. ka ai
ngagai tangga, he throws water over
the ladder. Beimbu: Sida iya beimbu,
they are splashing o. another.
Imbur, Ngimbur, scatter (grain etc.):
Iya ng. ka padi ngagai manok, he
scattered rice for the fowls.
Impun1, Ngimpun, keep safe; gather
into flock: Indu manok ng. anak, the
hen (anxiously) gathers her chicks
round her; I. duit tu ka aku, keep this
money safe for me; Iya enda tau ng.
diri dara, she can’t keep away from the
men. Berimpun, be in a flock: Anak
manok berimpun nitih ka indai, the
chicks flock after their mother. Iya
pengimpun barang kami, he looks after
our things.
Impun2, in anak i., fry, small fish of
various kinds.
lnak, buah i., a wild fruit-tree tended by
s.o. Nginak: Iya ng. buah, he is
looking after a fruit-tree he found
lnal, a wad, pellet (esp. in popgun):
Senapang iya beinal ka keretas, he
uses paper for his pellets. Nginal:
Iya ng. senapang, he put wadding in
his gun.
Inang, Nginang, rear (animals), nurse
(children): Iya ng. jelu, he rears
animals; Iya ng. anak orang, she took
in a child, acted as foster-mother;
babi i., a domestic pig; Iya penginang
jelu, he rears animals.
Inas, Nginas, mishandle (children, young
animals): Anang ng. adi nuan, don’t
be rough with your little brother.
Inau (inaw), Nginau, reconnoitre, track,
spy on: Munsoh ng. rumah kami, the
enemy made a reconnaissance of our
house; Iya ng. jelu makai umai kami,
he tracked the animals that devour our
crops; Iya ng. bini, he spied on his
Inchi1, [Eng.] an inch.
Inchi2, lip-stick: Iya ngena i., she uses
Indah, part., even: I. mit agi nya deh
nuan enda tebai, even if it were
smaller than that you couldn’t carry
it; I. nuan deh enda nemu, even you
don’t know.
Indah-Indah, or z'. enda, just (like):
Manah bendar hari sahari-tu, i. enda
baka kamari, it’s v. fine today, just
like yesterday; Tak i. gamal orang
empu, (in mockery) he looks just as
if he owned (her).
Indai (inday), 1. mother; 2. term of
address for father’s and mother’s
sisters; 3. (with name of child) term
of address or reference for women;
4. i. tuai, aunts older than father or
mother; z'. biak, aunts younger than
father or mother; z'. tuai orang, an
old woman. Ngindai: Aku ng. ka
iya, I call her i.
Indik, Ngindik, tread, step, on: Anang
ng. tikai enggau kaki kamah, don’t
tread on the mat with dirty feet; Iya
ng. mulong, he is treading the sago;
Iya ng., he is treading the paddy;
Kaki aku pedis di-indik iya, he trod on
my foot and hurt it. Berindik, stand-
ing on, supported by: Iya berindik ba
mija, he is standing on the table; Iya
bekedai berindik ari aku, he set up
shop with my support. Pengindik
(mulong), a mat used in treading sago.
Indu1 (induq), 1. woman: sida ti i.,
(the) women; 2. female: i. manok,
hen; 3. referring to bigger, principal,
member of class (cf. anak)'. tunjok i.,
thumb, big toe; kasau i., principal
rafters; z'. wong, bigger of two rapids;
4. = benih, seed. Ngindu: Iya ng. ka
kami—Iya ngidong ka kami, see
Indu2 (induq), 1. in z', utai, an insect;
2. with names of particular insects:
z', penyengat, a wasp; z', tindoh, a kind
of maggot.
Ingat, remember: Iya i. ka semaia, he
remembered his promise; Aku enda
i. ngasoh nuan meli gula, I forgot to
ask you to buy sugar; Duku iya enda
i., his knife was forgotten. Ngingat,
try to remember: Iya ng. ka pantun,
he tried to remember the song;
Kingat ka, don’t forget; Aku enda
teingat, I can’t remember; Tu ka

pengingat tua udah bepangan, this is a
memento of our friendship.
Ingga (inggaq), drop in, pay an informal
call: Anang i. sabelah orang, don’t go
calling everywhere; Iya i. meli
semakau, he looked in to buy tobacco.
Inggap, alight: Burong i., the bird
alighted; Dinipenginggap burong nya
tadi?, where did that bird come down
just now?
Inggar, loud: Nyawa iya i., he has a
loud voice; Nyawa iya i. ngelaban
anak, she raised her voice to the
children; Anang i., keep quiet; Iya
bejako i., he speaks loudly. Nginggar:
Anang ng. ka nyawa nuan, don’t raise
your voice; Penginggar nyawa sida
di-dinga ari jauh, their loud voices
could be heard from afar.
Inggu, [Skt.] asafoetida.
Ingin, covetous: Anang i. meda pe-
ngeraja orang, don’t be covetous of
riches; Balat pengingin ati iya meda
pemanah perau aku, he was v. envious
when he saw how fine my boat was.
Ingkas, Ngingkas, remove, take off, take
down: Iya ng. kibong, he took down
the mosquito net; Iya ng. tanggoi, he
took off his hat; Iya ng. tangga, he
removed the ladder; Peti iya enda i.,
his trap hasn’t been released.
Ingkat, a tarsier.
Ini (iniq), 1. grandmother; grand-
aunts; 2. term of address for old
women. Ngini: Anang ng. ka aku,
don’t call me i.
Ining1, Ngining, long for, covet: Aku
ng. buah nya, I covet that fruit.
Ining2, Ngining, tempt, attract: Iya ng.
ukoi aku {enggau dagin), he tempted
my dog with some meat.
Injau (in/aw), i. kara, sthg. borrowed and
not returned: Anang nuan ngadang
surat tu lengkas pulai, nyangka lalu i.
kara, don’t expect to have this book
back soon, you may not see it again.
Nginjau, borrow: Aku ng. surat ari iya,
I borrowed a book from him; Ng.
duku ari iya, borrow a knife from
him; Nuan tu penginjau bendar,
you’re always borrowing.
Injil, [Ar.] the gospel.
Injin, [Eng.] an engine.
Inok (inuk), preserved durians. Nginok:
Iya ng., she makes durian preserve.
Insah1, Nginsah, beat, knock about:
Iya ng. ka bini iya, he beat his wife.
Insah2, pressure (of work): Iya sakit i.
pengawa berat, the rush of heavy work
has made him ill; Kami beinsah
bendar gawa, we are having a rush of
work. Nginsah, drive (at work): Iya
66 Intu
ng. ka diri gawa, he is working at high
Insak, nasal mucus: Anak iya beinsak-
insak, her child’s nose is running.
Insap1, Nginsap, 1. suck, sip: Anak mit
ng. tusu, a baby sucks the breast;
I. ai tu, sip this water; 2. absorb:
Bunga karang ng. ai, a sponge sucks
up water.
Insap2, a (Dayak) cigarette (cl. batang}-.
1. aku udah abis, I have no cigarettes
left. Nginsap, smoke: Iya ng.
(semakau), he smokes; Iyapenginsap,
he is a smoker.
Insit, Nginsit, move: Iya ng. ka mija,
he moved the table; Anang beinsit ka
tambit pintu, don’t move the bar of
the door; Ng. kin ka agi, move along
a bit.
Insur, Nginsur, 1. adjust, move, sthg.:
Iya ng. belulang iya, he adjusted his
belt; I. tali perau, see to the mooring
rope (e.g. attach to another turus)-,
2. move: Ng. kin agi, move up a bit;
Tali belinsur, the rope is slipping (on
post, etc.); 3. (of sickness etc.) be-
come (better, worse, etc.): Pemedis
iya ng. balat, nyamai, he is getting
worse, more comfortable; Ai ng.
kurang ba kali, the water is getting
lower in the pot. Belinsur, (of per-
sons) become (worse, unless modi-
fied) : Kamaia iya belinsur?, when did
the change set in?; Iya belinsur, he is
sinking; Iya belinsur gerai, he got
Inta1, hospitality, entertainment: I. sida
manah bendar enggau aku, they were
v. hospitable to me. Nginta, enter-
tain (guests): Iya agi ng. ka temuai,
he’s still attending to the guests.
Inta2 (intaq), in requesting and receiving
things, please, thank you: I. surat
nya, give me that book, please; I. lah,
thank you.
Intai (intay), Ngintai, wait for, watch
for (opportunity): Kami ng. ka
pasang ngena, we waited for the tide
to serve; Iya di-intai ka kami maia
iya sakit, we waited for him to be ill
(before doing sthg.).
Intan, diamond (cl. iti).
Intin1, a skein of cotton: Iya meli
ubong 3 i., she bought 3 skeins of
Intin2, dried or smoked bananas or jack-
fruit: Iya nyual i. pisang, he sold
dried bananas. Ngintin: Iya ng.
pisang, he dries, smokes, bananas.
Intu, Ngintu, look after, take care of:
Apai Aloi agi tinggal ng. langkau,
A. A. was left in charge of the hut;

Ipa 67
pengidup Iban ng. diri, the Iban way
of life.
Ipa (ipaq), Ngipa, lie in wait for, get in
the way: Aku ng. iya pulai gawa,
I waited about for him to come from
work; Mayau ng. tikus, the cat lies
in wait for mice; Anang beipa ka
jalai, don’t get in the way; Pengipa
jalai bendar mija tu, this table gets
in the way.
Ipak, suitable, matching: Ni i. tu?,
which will go with this one?; Aku
enda i. nuan, we are not suited (to o.
another); Enda i.-i. jako nuan, it’s not
for you to speak like that; Iya nyan
utai enda i.-i., he carried more than
you would have thought possible.
Ngipak: Ng. ka gamal ga jako nuan,
(insult) your talk matches your face.
Ipang, a large jar (cl. igi).
Ipar, brother-, sister-, in-law; relations
by marriage of same generation; Iya
1. aku, he is my brother-in-law;
Kami-duai beipar dia-tu, we are re-
lated by marriage now.
Ipoh (ipuh), 1. kayu i., the upas tree;
2. the poison extracted from it: Laja
iya beipoh, his dart is poisoned.
Ipong (ipung), Ngipong, eat sthg. alone:
Iya ng. ikan, he eats the fish alone
(without rice).
Ira (iraq), a fibre, strand: Ngira: Iya
ng. temeran, he gets fibres from the
bark of a breadfruit tree.
Irau (iraw), anxious, worried, disturbed:
Iya i. (ati) ka anak iya ti belayar
ngelaban hari jai, she is worried about
her son sailing in bad weather; Anang
i. ka iya, don’t worry about him.
Ngirau, cause anxiety: Pemedis iya
ng. ka ati, his sickness caused
anxiety; Anang ng. ka ati diri, don’t
worry; Balat pengirau ati ka nuan,
I am v. worried about you.
Iri (iriq), Ngiri, 1. pour (from one
vessel to another): Iya ng. (ka) ai, he
poured out water; 2. fill (by pour-
ing): Iya ng. lampu, he filled the
lamp; Iya ng. anak aku enggau
penemu jai, he instilled bad notions
into my son.
Iring, Ngiring, lead: Iya ng. anak, she
led her child; Seduai-iya beiring-
iring, they went hand in hand; Iya
pengiring kami mindah, he was the
leader of our expedition.
Irit, Ngirit, draw, drag: Iya ng. kerita,
he draws a cart; Pedang iya di-irit
bejalai, his sword trails on the ground;
Sida-iya beirit-irit ngagai kami, the
whole string of them came to us.
Iru, adopted: anak i., an adopted child.
Ngiru, adopt: Iya ng. anak, he
adopted a child.
Iran, a kind of jar (cl. igi).
Imp, Ngirup, drink: Iya ng. ai, he
drank water.
Is, interjection (disapproval).
Isa1, [Ar.] Jesus.
Isa2 (isaq), part., even if: /. iya mati
enggai meh aku ngagai iya, even if he
were dying I wouldn’t go to him.
Isa3 (isaq), i. meh, good!
Isan, father, mother, uncles, aunts, of
son-, daughter-, in-law. Aku enggai
beisan enggau nuan, I don’t want to be
related to you (in this way).
Isang, a palm leaf displayed as a decora-
tion (cl. lamb ar).
Isau (isaw), see lungga.
Isi1 (isiq), content, capacity: I. guni tu
ka 4 pasu, this bag can hold only
4 pasw, Nadai bendar i. sarah tu,
this box won’t hold much. Ngisi,
1. to fill: Iya ng. guni, he filled the
bag; 2. to pay (a fine): Iya ng.
ukum, he paid a fine; Iya pengisi
sarang duit Perintah, he keeps the
Government in funds (is always being
Isi2 (isiq), flesh: I. iya gitik-gitik ringat,
he is quivering with rage.
Isik, whisper: Z. iya di-dinga orang, his
whisper was heard. Ngisik, to
whisper (to): Iya ng. aku, he whis-
pered to me; Seduai-iya beisik
(-isik), they are whispering together.
Isu1, a kind of durian (H. Baschia
Isu2 (isuq), see bisu.
Itah, (barely) suffice (for, to); serve (till,
for want of better): Aku meri iya gari
salambar i. kai (or ka) nganti iya meli,
I gave him a garment to serve till he
had bought some; I. kai belanja nuan
sahari, this will meet your expenses
for one day; Meri aku duit i. kena
aku meli semakau, give me some
money just to buy tobacco; I. kai
tulong, it will be some help.
Iti (itiq), num. cl. (surat, letters, books;
gambar, pictures; mija, tables; bunga,
flowers; bilik, rooms; kerusi, chairs;
Itik, anak i., a chicken.
Iting, Ngiting, strip of leaves: Semakau
aku abis di-iting ulat, my tobacco has
all been stripped by caterpillars.
Itit, a duck: Anak i. nya agi kelumpu,
that duckling is still unfledged.
Itok (ituk), saying things repeatedly:
Iya i., he repeats himself; Tang
burong nya i. pinta ambi iya, but the bird
repeatedly asked him to catch it.

I tong 68
Ngitok: Anang ng. nya nuan, don’t |
go on repeating it.
Itong (itung), reckoning, calculation: I.
iya agi salah, he is still wrong in his
reckoning; Nuan kena i., you have
been counted, included. Ngitong,
count, reckon: Iya ng. tuboh, he made
a census; Aku ng. iya baru, I’ll go
through them again (accounts).
Iu (iuq), a shark (cl. iko)'. i. palang,
hammerhead, Sphyrna blochii; i.
belangkas, a kind of ray, Rhyncho-
batus ancylostomus.
Iwai (iway), (to small children) don’t
Iya1 (id), interjection (surprise): I., kitu
nuan pagila?, why, are you coming
tomorrow?; I., luput iya tu, good
heavens, he’s fainted.
Iya2 (za), pronoun, 1. referring to persons
(sometimes to animals), 3rd pers.
sing., he, she, it, him, her, his, its;
2. referring to things, 3rd pers. sing,
or plur., it, them, etc.: Iya ngerenis
papan awak ka negoh ka iya, he
varnishes the plank (planks) to pre-
serve it (them).
Iya3 (id), in seduai-iya, pronoun, 3rdpers.
dual, they, the two, those two, them.
Iya1 (id), in sida-iya, pronoun, 3rd pers.
plur. See sida.
Iya5 (id), part, in various collocations:
agi kamari i., previously; agi suba i.,
formerly; teruba-ruba i., in early
times; Nya baru i., at last!
Iya-Iya (ia-ia), in enda i., not genuine (said
in scorn): Tak enda i. gamal seduai-
iya baka ti udah jadi, they look as if
they were married but they are not.
Ja (jaq), in asi j., pounded sticky rice
cooked in bamboo: Kami begawai
enda beasi j., we had no asi j. at our
Jabah, male personal name: O J.!,
alluding to the saying Enggai bentua
ka J., J. ga ka entua, he would not
have J. as a father-in-law, but he has
him all the same (of s.o. who, re-
jecting what is available in the hope of
sthg. better, is reduced to accepting
the first).
Jabang, tapioca (esp. Batang Rejang,
Jabir, a kind of jar (cl. igi).
Jabong, see jejabong.
Jadam, (in stories) precious stones,
Jadi1, lawful, not taboo: J., rumah?,
may I come up (into house)?; Rumah
kami apin j., our house is still taboo.
Bejadi, release from taboo: Manang
bejadi ka umai kami, the manang re-
moved the taboo on our farm; Pejadi
ka umai aku, free my farm from the
taboo; Umai aku udah di-pejadi ka
manang, the taboo on my farm has
been removed by the manang.
Jadi2, marry: Iya ka j. enggau anak aku,
he wishes to marry my daughter;
Seduai-iya j. mali, they married in
defiance of the taboo. Nyadi: Aku
ka ny. enggau anak iya, I shall marry
his daughter. Bejadi, unite in mar-
riage : Kami bejadi ka seduai-iya
namalam, we married them last night.
Jadi3, come about, come into being:
Kami j. ti ka mindah, we succeeded in
getting away; Akai iya enda j., his
plot didn’t come off; Perau iya enda
j. manah, his boat didn’t turn out
well; Perau iya enda j., the boat he
was trying to make came to nothing;
Padi kami enda j., our paddy crop was
a failure; Anak iya enda j., her child
died in the womb (or soon after birth).
See nyadi.
Jaga1, [Skt.j watchful, careful: Iya j.
enggau api, he is careful with fire; J.,
kabut datai!, look out, there’s a squall
coming. Nyaga, watch, guard: Iya
ny. umai, he guards the farm; Kami
bejaga namalam, we kept watch last
night; Iya kurang penyaga, he is
inattentive, not alert.
Jaga2, a long time: Lama nuan udah
datai?—O j., have you been here long?
—Oh, ages; kalia j., long ago.
Jagang, Nyagang, push with both hands:
Iya ny. aku, he pushed me; Seduai-iya
bejagang, they are pushing o. another
Jagang-Jagang, shambling: Iya bejalai
j., he shambles along.
Jagau (jagaw), Nyagau, jump to seize
sthg.: Iya ny. dan buah, he jumped and
caught the branch of the fruit-tree.
Jagong (jagung), Indian corn, maize:
tangkai j., a head of Indian corn;
lampong j., a stripped cob; Iya
mampat j., he cuts the maize.
Jagu, a crocodile (Batang Rejang,
Jagul, Nyagul, jab: Iya ny. aku, he
jabbed me; Iya ny. ka tungkat ngagai
aku, he jabbed at me with the stick.
Jai (jazz?), 1. bad, spoilt, broken, out of
order: Changkol aku j., the handle of
my hoe is broken; hari j., bad wea-
ther; J. ati aku ngenang nuan laban
ujan lemai kamari, I was grieved to
think of you in the rain last night;

2. bad, wicked: Iya magi diri ari
orang ti j., he kept away from evil
men; j.jari, given to pilfering. Penyai,
badness: Penyai pendiau iya ngasoh
iya tampak, he was noted for his bad
conduct. Nyai, spoil, destroy: Iya
ny. ka ayam aku, he broke my toy.
Cf. pejai.
Jait, sewing: J. iya manah bendar, she’s
good at sewing. Nyait, sew (sthg.):
Iya ny. baju, she sewed a shirt;
Jarum nya penyait guni, that needle is
for sewing sacks. Bejait, to sew: Iya
bejait, she is sewing.
Jako (jakuq), 1. word, speech, language,
what is said: Iya maioh j., he is
talkative, verbose; Enda ulih tunda ka
j. tu, Dom, we can’t go on with our
talk; Nama j. iya enggau nuan?, what
did he say to you?; Samina siti dua j.
ti salah, there are only one or two
words that are wrong; 2. speak:
Seduai-iya j. China, those two are
speaking Chinese; J. bukai ga kitai,
let’s speak of sthg. else; Penyalah iya
di-kejako ka kami, we discussed his
misdeeds; Kejako ka anak nuan,
speak to your son. Bejako, talk,
speak: Aku ninga ka orang bejako
tadi, I was listening to a man talking
just now; Iya suah bendar bejako
enggau aku pasal nuan, he has often
spoken to me about you. Nyako,
have a word with, give a hint to: Iya
ny. aku, he had a word with me; Ny.
aku ti nuan nyabong manok nuan
pagila, give me the tip if you’re
fighting your cock tomorrow. Pejako,
conversable: Iya pejako bendar, he
has plenty of conversation.
Jala, [Skt.], a casting-net (cl. lebuari):
Iya nyanggit j., he is making a casting-
net. Nyala, to fish with this: Sungai
tu enda ulih a lai ny., you can’t use a
casting-net in this river.
Jalai (jalay), 1. road, way: Ni j. tengah
nuan tadi?, which way did you come,
go?; Enda repa j. ngagai kit a kia
dia-tu?, is the road to your place over-
grown nowadays?; j. umai, the way,
road, to the farm; 2. way, method:
Aku nadai nemu j. ngasoh iya enda
basah, I don’t know how to prevent
its getting wet; j. bumai, method of
farming, way to farm. See pejalai.
Jalang, wild (animal): kerebau j., wild
Jali (Jaliq), Nyali, lend: Iya ny. aku
surat, he lent me a book; Sapa orang
di-jali nuan surat?, to whom did you
lend the book?; Udah di-pejali ka
aku ngagai orang, I lent it to some-
Jalong (jalung), Jalu (jaluq), a bowl,
basin (cl. singkap).
Jalur, a dug-out canoe.
Jam, a clock: /. dudok, a clock (to stand
on table, etc.); j. tangan, a wrist-watch;
Iya bejam tangan, he wears a wrist-
watch; 2. hour: Aku gawa 2 j., I
worked for 2 hours; 3. time, season:
j. bumai, farming season: Iya gawa
bejam-jam, he works to a time-table.
Jamah1, (result of) work, doing: J. iya
manah, his work is well done.
Jamah2, Nyamah, serve, help to: J. asi
ka aku, give me some rice; Kitai sama
ny. ka diri, help yourselves all of you.
Jamah3, rough treatment, beating: J.
iya udu bendar enggau bini iya, he
treats his wife v. roughly. Nyamah,
beat: Iya ny. bini, he beat his wife;
Seduai-iya bejamah, they are fighting.
Jama-Jama (Jamaq-jamaq), Anak iya j.,
her child toddles.
Jambai {jambay), formerly, one of the
offerings at the gawai antu.
Jamban, a small bridge: Sungai nya
bejamban, there’s a bridge across that
river. Nyamban: Iya ny. sungai, he
made a bridge across the river.
Jambing, male personal name.
Jambu, [Skt.] guava (cl. igi): j. ai, rose-
Jambul, a tuft of hair, topknot, crest: j.
buah nanas, the leaves on a pineapple.
Jamin, [Hind.] bail, security: Iya
bejamin ka nyawa, he answers with
his life. Nyamin, go bail for: Iya ny.
aku, he went bail for me.
Jam-Jam (jaam-jaam), (seeming threaten-
ingly) large, gigantic: Aku meda
orang j. ba moa pintu nuan namalam,
I saw a huge man in your doorway
last night; Anang j. dia, don’t get in
my light.
Jampang, branch, fork (of road, river,
Jampat, quick: Iya j. mereti, he is quick-
witted; Iya j. nulis, he is quick at
(learning) writing; Iya nulis j., he
writes quickly; Hari j. malam, night
came quickly. Nyampat ka diri, be in
too great haste: Iya ny. ka diri
bet enun, she is trying to weave faster
than she can; Enda ulih di-pejampat
ka, it can’t be done at that speed.
Penyampat: Balat penyampat nuan
ngereja utai, you are v. quick at doing
things; Iya ngereja nya sepenyampat
iya, he did it as quickly as he could.
Jamu, entertainment (of guests): J. iya
manah bendar enggau aku, he showed
me great hospitality. Nyamu, enter-
tain : Iya ny. aku, he entertained me.

Janda, a divorced woman (offensive
Jang, term of address for young men or
men of equal age. Ngejang: Iya ng.
ka aku, he calls me J.
Janga1 (jangaq), fork (of stick, branch):
tungkat bejanga, a stick with a fork.
Janga2 (jangaq), (of torso) well shaped
(wide at shoulders): Tuboh iya j., he
is well built.
Janga3 (jangaq), Nyanga, oppose: Iya
ny. penemu aku, he opposed my
proposal; Seduai-iya bejanga (pene-
mu), they are not in agreement.
Jangah-Jangah, (looking) arrogant,
haughty: Iya j. dudok, he sits look-
ing haughty.
Janggal, obstructed, held up: Kami j.
gawa sataun-tu, we have been much
interrupted in our work this year; Iya
j. mati, he was prevented (from doing
it) by a death in the family; J. bendar
pengawa laban ujan, rain has greatly
interfered with the work. Nyanggal,
prevent: Mimpi ny. ka pengawa aku, a
dream prevented me from doing what
I intended; Enti nadai utai ny., datai
aku pagila, if nothing intervenes, I will
come tomorrow; Balat penyanggal
pengawa sataun-tu, the work has been
badly interrupted this year.
Janggat, (buah) j., a kind of gourd.
Janggut, feelers, whiskers (of animal):
Mayau bejanggut, a cat has whiskers.
Jangka (jangkaq), opinion, guess: J.
aku, manah, I think it is good; Nuan
salah j., you guessed wrong; J. datai
iya sahari-tu, he may come today; J.
ka enda, probably not. Nyangka,
guess, think: Iya ny. umor aku, he
guessed my age; Aku ny. iya pulai
lemai tu, I expect he’ll come back this
evening; Sida bejangka ka enti aku
datai, they were reckoning the chances
of my coming.
Jangkam, Nyangkam, pounce on, make
as if to pounce: Iya ny. pala aku, he
made as if to pounce on my head.
Jangkang1, a latex-producing tree.
Jangkang2, j. kayu, exposed roots of
Jangkang3, a collection of heads (us.
hung over the hearth): Sida be-
jangkang, they have a trophy of heads.
Jangkar1, see jangkang1.
Jangkar2, see jangkang2.
Jangkau (jangkaw), see jagau.
Jangkit1, infection: Iya kena j. pemedis
sanu, he caught the disease from so-
and-so. Nyangkit: Pemedis iya ny.
anak aku, my child caught his disease;
Pemedis nya bejangkit, that disease is
Jangkit2, kara j., a parasitic plant.
Jani (janiq), a pig: j. menoa, domestic
pig; j. kampong, wild pig.
Janit, (of mats, baskets, plaited things),
well made, not loose: Tikai tuj., this
mat is well made.
Jantil, see bantil.
Jaong (jaung), a kind of palm (H.
Pholidocarpus macrocarpus).
Jap (jaap), opposition: J. iya patut
bendar, he was right in opposing (it).
Nyap, oppose, contradict: Iya ny.
pengulu pasal adat baru, he opposed
the chief in the matter of the new
regulations. Bejap, 1. Seduai-iya
bejap, they are disputing; 2. Iya
bejap ngagai perintah, he made repre-
sentations to the authorities; Enda
ulih di-pejap, there’s no opposing it,
no appeal.
Japai (japay), Nyapai, reach for, snatch:
Kera ny. buah, the monkey reached for
the fruit; Iya ny. perecha ari kandi
baju aku, he snatched the handker-
chief from my coat pocket; Pejapai
ka kami tang enda ulih, we tried to
reach it but failed. Sapenyapai,
(within) arm’s reach: Dan kayu nya
sapenyapai aku, that branch is as high
as my arm can reach.
Jarak, the castor-oil plant: minyak j.,
castor oil.
Jarang, at wide intervals (time or space):
Ujan j. bendar sataun-tu, rain has been
infrequent this year; Tanam iya j.,
he sows at wide intervals; Aku j.
betemu enggau iya, I seldom meet
him. Nyarang, space out: Iya ny. ka
tanam, he planted (them) far apart;
Pejarang ka, space them out.
Jarau (jar aw), a lopped tree. Nyarau,
lop: Iya ny. kayunya, he lopped that
Jari, hand, forearm: tapa j., palm of
the hand; buah j., a gift; Bejari
bekaki baka nuan ga aku, I’m no
different from you; Sida kai kaki j.
aku, they take care of me; Anang
pulai j. sapuloh, don’t come back
empty-handed; Kami enggau j. sapu-
loh nerima kita menyanak ngagai
pengawa kami, we shall welcome you
with open arms at our festival.
Jarin, a trap for deer. Nyarin, use this:
Sida ny., they trap deer.
Jarit, continuous(ly): Hari ujan j. ka
kamari, it has rained continuously
since yesterday; Iya sakit j. ka suba,
he has been ill ever since. Bejarit, do
regularly: Iya bejarit belajar, he
studies regularly; Orang mati bejarit-
jarit, people are always dying;
Pejarit ka tanam nuan, make your

planting regular; Tebas iya di-pejarit
ka kami, we have left no space be-
tween his clearing and ours. Sajarit,
in one piece: Tebas kami udah sajarit,
our clearing has been completed.
Jarum, a needle: Kami nadai bejarum,
we have no needles; mata j., the eye
of a needle. See nyarum.
Jatoh1 (jatuh), (of business) fail: Dagang
iya nyau j., his business has failed.
Nyatoh, cause to fail: Nama utai ny.
ka dagang iya?, what has caused his
business to fail?
Jatoli2 (jatuh), (of name, character)
smirched, degraded: Nama iya j.
laban pengawa iya ti salah, he brought
discredit on his name by his wrong-
doing. Nyatoh: Anang ny. ka diri
jadi enggau iya, don’t degrade your-
self by marrying him (her).
Jauh, far, distant: Nuan di-jangka ka
aku lelak datai ari j., I expect you are
tired having come a long way; Sida-
iya tak j. pendiau ari kitai, they live
so far from us; j. malam, far into the
night; jauh lebih ari ti di-sadang
orang, far more than people expected.
Nyauh: Anang ny. nya, don’t stand so
far away; Nadai utai ny. nya, it is v.
far. Penyauh, distance: Ni penyauh
ari tu ka Kuching? how far is it from
here to K.?
Jaul, Nyaul, see bantil.
Jaum, term of address used by women.
Jawa (jawaq), millet: Kami nadai bejawa
sataun-tu, we have no millet this year.
Jawang, (in songs) the youth.
Jayar, moving unsteadily: Iya agi j.
bejalai bekau sakit, he is still unsteady
on his feet as a result of his illness;
Burong j. laban ribut, the birds are
blown about by the wind.
Jayau (jay aw), a scented oil used as a
love-charm: Iya ngena j., he uses this;
Iya kena j., she is influenced by it.
Jebong (jebung), (of plates, bowls) deep.
Jebul, a bottle.
Jeda (jedaq), haunted: Rumah nya j.,
that house is haunted.
Jedian, 1. (of food) magically inex-
haustible: Padi sida j., their rice could
not be used up; Iya tau j., he has the
power of making food inexhaustible;
2. lasting well, going a long way:
J. bendar insap nuan!, you are making
that cigarette last!
Jegak, (of men) overbearing, domineer-
ing: J. bendfr nuan tu, you are v.
overbearing. Nyegak: Anang ny. ka
diri, don’t be overbearing.
Jegal, 1. corona of glans penis; 2. each
of the swellings carved on a tugal,
Jegit, (of women) forward: Anang j.-j.,
don’t be forward; Balat penyegit nuan
tu, you are v. forward.
Jego-Jego, and jejego: Iya j. ngapa, he
wanders aimlessly.
Jejabong (jejabung or jjabung), a tuft of
hair on hilt or sheath of sword: J. iya
di-irit bejalai, his j. trails as he walks.
Jejaga, policeman, guard. See jaga.
Jejage (jejage or jjage), in indu j., a kind
of water insect.
Jejagok (jejaguk or jjaguk), an open-
work basket for holding fish etc.
Jejampu (jejampuq or jjampuq), a kind
of Amaranthus, ‘spinach’.
Jejebong (jejebung or jjebung), see
Jekang, see jegit.
Jelai1 (jelay), going far: Tikau iya j., he
threw a long way; Laja nya terebai j.
bendar, that dart went a long way;
Iya j. berita, he is famous, widely
Jelai2 (jelay), Nyelai, cut off (head, top):
Iya ny. pala munsoh, he cut off his
enemy’s head; Puchok semakau nya
udah di-jelai iya, that tobacco plant
has been topped by him.
Jelai3 (jelay), a kind of rattan.
Jelan1 (jelan or jelaari), average, usual:
7h j. empa aku, this is the amount I
usually eat; Tu j. aku makai, this is my
usual time for eating; J. ga pemanah
iya, she’s quite pretty.
Jelan2 (jelan or jelaari), track followed by
wild pigs: Kami nganti ba j., we
waited in their usual track.
Jelangkit, swing along branches like a
monkey: Ker a j. nengah dan, the
monkey swung from branch to
branch; Puchok iya sahari bejit
bejelangkit, it takes a monkey a day
to get round its branches. Nyelang-
kit: Iya ny. ka kera ngagai kayu, he
put the monkey to swing in the tree.
Jelap-Jelap, burning fiercely: Api j., the
fire is blazing.
Jelar1, (of children) badly behaved,
boisterous: J. bendar nuan tu, you’re
too rough; Anang j.-j._ behave your-
Jelar2, Nyelar, take up a drop of liquid
with the tongue: Iya ny. ka dilah
ngabas pemisa ubat, he took a drop
on his tongue to see how strong the
medicine was.
Jelar3, Nyelar, 1. set fire to: J. enggau
api enggau nuan nya!, (vituperation or
endearment) may you be burnt!; Iya
ny. kain enggau api, he set fire to the
cloth; 2. (of fire) reach, spread to:
Api ny. perabong, the fire spread to
the roof.

Jelatong {jelatung}, a raft at a landing-
Jelawai {jelaway}, see selubat.
Jelayan, a type of coloration in fighting-
Jelenga (Jelengaq}, having broken hinges:
Pintu j., the hinges of the door are
broken. Nyelenga: Iya ny. ka pintu,
he broke the hinge of the door; Iya
ny. ka pala ikan, he forced the head of
the fish back to break its neck.
Jelentik, Nyelentik, fillip: Iya ny. tunjok
aku, he gave my finger a fillip; Aku
enggai di-jelentik nuan bebaur, I won’t
have you hold your finger down with
the other hand when you flick me
(children playing); Iya ny. uras ngagai
aku, he flicked a bit of rubbish at me.
Jelepi (Jelepiq}, Iya j. (or tejelepi}, his
knees gave way.
Jelik-Jelik (of baby’s eyes) show in-
terest, follow sthg.: Mata anak mit
nya j. meda ayam, that baby’s eyes are
following the toy.
Jelu, animal (cl. iko}'. Menoa tu bejelu
bendar, there are many animals in this
part of the country; Anang baka
pendiau j., don’t behave like a beast;
Kati ko nuan, Jang, belaya enggau j.
kaki empat?, do you object to pork?
Jeluak, retch: Iya j., he retched.
Jelungan, spoilt, interfered with: Kami
mitan j. laban ujan, the rain interfered
with our oil-extracting; Tubai kami j.
laban di-kachau orang ti maioh undor,
our tuba fishing was spoilt by the
disturbance of a lot of people going
down river.
Jeluta, fable, story. Cf. jerita.
Jelutong (Jelutung}, used in Government
service for nyelutong, a kind of wild
rubber (H. Dyera costulata}.
Jemah, in j. ila, at an indefinite time in
the future: J. ila baru aku may ar nuan,
I’ll pay you some time, perhaps.
Jeman,part., 1. at the (past) time when:
J. iya nyadi pengulu menoa lantang,
when he was chief the country was
peaceful; 2. long since: J. udah
parai, he died long ago; j. dulu kalia,
in olden days.
Jematan, a platform in a river; a bridge.
Jembak-Jembak, toss, wave: Lelanjang
iya j. laban ribut, his plume tosses in
the wind.
Jembi, Nyembi, Jemboi (je/nZwy), Nyem-
boi, expose to the sun: Iya ny. gari,
she put the clothes in the sun; sp. Iya
ny., she put the rice to dry in the sun.
Bejemboi, be in, play in, the sun:
Anang bejemboi, don’t play in the sun.
Jempaka, or empaka, the champak tree.
Jempayan1, corner-post of house.
Jempayan2, see lembayan.
Jempit, crushed: Buah tu j., this fruit is
crushed. Nyempit: Sarah ny. ka
anak tikus, the baby mouse was
crushed by the box.
Jempok (Jempuk}, drenched: Paia iya j.
laban ujan, his head was drenched with
the rain; Bok iya j. laban minyak, his
hair is drenched with oil. Nyempok:
Iya ny. ka kain, she made the cloth
v. wet.
Jempol (jempul}, a kind of sword (cl.
Jemu (jemuq), dew: Hari bejemu pagi
tu, there’s (a lot of) dew this morning.
Jena {jenaq}, in j. dia, although, in spite
of the fact that: J. dia aku enggai
bemain, nyau deka ga di-umbok iya,
though I didn’t want to play, I will
since he has pressed me to.
Jena-Jena (jenaq-jenaq), in enda j.,
extreme, excessive: Enda j. pemeli
nuan, you are extremely foolish.
Jenak, sound (asleep): Iya j. tindok, he
is sound asleep; Balat penyenak iya
tindok, he sleeps soundly.
Jengam, a fork (in a stick): Tungkat iya
bejengam, his stick has a fork.
Nyengam, catch, hold, in a fork: Iya
ny. pala ular, he caught the snake’s
head in a fork.
Jengang, (a basket) widest at the mouth:
Bakul nya j., that basket is widest at
the top.
Jengap-Jengap, gasping, fighting for
breath: Iyaj., he is gasping.
Jenggas-Jenggas, active, nimble: Iya j.,
he is active.
Jengkak-Jengkak, hopping on alternate
feet: Iya {bejalai} j., he hops.
Jengkal1, span of thumb and middle
finger: j. tupai, span of thumb and
first finger. Nyengkal: Iya ny. mija,
he measured the table in spans.
Jengkal2, in ulat j., a looping caterpillar.
Jengkau (jengkaw}, Nyengkau, reach for,
pick up: Aku ny. tungkat, I picked up
the stick.
Jengkelan, part of thigh immediately
above knee.
Jengkong (jengkung), a curved handle
(as on a pail, teapot).
Jeng\tu(jengkuq}, metal spur for fighting-
cock (cl. bilah}.
Jengkuan, a netting needle (cl. iti}: Iya
bejengkuan ka teras, he has an iron-
wood netting needle.
Jengok {jenguk}, Nyengpk, peep, look,
(through, over, round, sthg.): Apin
di-jengok nuan utai ti bemunyi di
bilik?, have you spied what was mak-
ing the noise in the room?; Anang
bejengok ka orang makai, don’t peep

at people eating (through moa pe-
nyengok) ; moa penyengok, opening in
wall between one bilik and another;
tiang penyengok, posts between ruai
and pantar.
Jengor-Jengor (jengur-jengur), Iya salalu
j. ngagai aku, he always looks at me
with, an expression of dislike.
Jenila, [Port.] a window: J. tejelenga,
the window was blown off its hinges.
Jenoh (Jenuh), keep quiet, still: Iya j.,
he keeps still; Anang enda j., you must
keep still; Balat penyenoh anak nuan,
your child is listless.
Jentang, female personal name.
Jepin, a dance: Seduai-iya bejepin, they
are dancing this.
Jeput, Nyeput, take a pinch of, a single
piece of: Iya ny. garam, he took a
pinch of salt; Iya makai samina ny.,
he just pecks at his food.
Jera (jeraq), learn by bitter experience
not to: Enda j. nuan?, haven’t you
learnt your lesson?; J. aku niki, I
shan’t climb again; J. asai nuan,
that’ll teach you. Nyera: Anang ny.
(or bejera) ka orang, don’t say ‘I told
you so’, don’t rub it in.
Jerami (jeramiq), 1. stubble; 2. the
land after harvest.
Jerangau (jerangaw), a plant whose root
is used as a carminative and as a
preventive of drunkenness (Cf. W.
Mai. A cor us calamus').
Jereki1, fortune, luck: Iya manah j., he
was born under a lucky star.
Jereki3 (Jerekiq), a fence (round a
plant). Nyereki: Iya ny. sireh, he put
a fence round the s.‘, Iya ny. umai,
he planted a row of sticks to mark the
boundary of the farm.
Jerenang, 1. a kind of rattan; 2. its
fruit from which is obtained a dark
red dye; 3. this dye, dragon’s blood:
Iya ngena tanggoi j., he wears a sunhat
stained dark red. Nyerenang, stain
with j.: Iya ny. lambar selok, she
stained the strands for the basket with
dragon’s blood.
Jerit1,/, langit, the horizon.
Jerit2, a line standing out from the
ground in woven material.
Jerita, or cherita, a tale: Iya nusoi j., he
told a story.
Jeroky(/erwfc), fruit preserved in brine or
syrup. Nyerok, preserve in this way:
Iya ny. buah masam, she pickles sour
Jerong1 (jerung), reverberate: Nyawa j.
dalam lubang batu, the sound rever-
berates in the cave; Nyawa iya j., he
has a booming voice. Nyerong: Iya
73 Juak
ny. ka nyawa diri, he cultivates a
booming voice.
Jerong2 (jerung), high, upright: babas j.,
jungle with specially tall trees; Sungai
tu j., the banks of this river are sheer.
Jerua (jeruaq), rise (of river): Ai j., the
river is rising; Ai tu j. pasang, (near
limit of tide) this rise is due to the tide.
Jerumat see jarum.
Jerungkang, sharpened bamboos set up
at fence to transfix animals jumping
over: Umai iya bejerungkang, there
are j. on his farm.
Jerupeh (jerupih), temporary heightening
of sides of boat.
Jila (jilaq), Nyila, tear in strips: Iya ny.
tekalong, he tears the t. bark in strips.
Jimat1, [Ar.] a charm: Iya ngena j., he
wears charms.
Jimat2, [Ar.] careful: Iya orang j., he’s a
careful person; Iya j. bejalai, he walks
carefully; Sida ngemata ka kaban ikan
enggau j., they carefully watch the
shoals of fish. Nyimat, Ngenyimat:
Iya ny. ka diri bejalai, he went
cautiously; Anang enda bejimat di
menoa orang, you must be careful in
foreign parts; Nuan tau bejimat ngena
utai, you can handle things carefully;
Balat penyimat nuan enggau belanja,
you are v. careful with money; Iya
kurang penyimat, he is careless.
Jinak, (of animals) tame; (esp. of
children) friendly, trusting: Jelu nya
j., that animal is tame; Anak iya j.
ngagai aku, his child isn’t shy of me.
Bejinak, to tame: Iya bejinak ka jelu,
he tamed the animal; Pejinak ka iya,
tame it.
Jinggau (jinggaw), a hardwood tree.
Jipun1, Japanese: Tukoh rumah iya baka
tukoh rumah J., his house is in the
Japanese style.
Jipun2, (in playing-cards) hearts.
Jirak1, a kind of tree (Cf. W. Mai.
Eurya acuminata).
Jirak2, in bunga j., a kind of bush.
Jirat, Nyirat, tie up (animal, us. for
killing): Iya ny. babi, he tied up the
pig; Kaki babi nya apin bejirat, that
pig’s legs have not been tied yet.
Joi (juul), a headland, point, cape:
Tanah nya bejol-jol, the coastline is
Jong (juung), Nyong, come for, call for:
Iya ny. aku ka pasar, he called for me
to go to town with him; Orang
penyong iya udah datai, the man who
was to call for him has come.
Ju (juuq), Nyu, push: Aku laboh ka ai
di-ju ka iya, he pushed me and I fell
into the water; Anang beju, don’t push.
Juak, a kind of river fish.

Jual, Nyual, sell: Iya ny. ikan, he sells
fish; Gari aku abis di-pejual ka iya,
he sold all my clothes; Anang ny.
mata nuan, watch where you’re going;
Iya ny. nama aku, he made use of my
Juar, (of legs) stiff: Kaki iya j., his legs
are stiff; Pejalai iya j., he walks
Juara, [Mai.] a fish.
Juau-Juau {juaw-juaw), (of persons) tall:
Iya j., he is tall.
Judi, main j., gambling. Bejudi, gamble:
Iya ti bejudi mapa ka kami sabilik-bilik,
his gambling brought our whole family
to destitution.
Jugal, a disease.
Jugam, a bear.
Jugok {juguk), spur of a mountain.
Jugu {juguq), a tuft, topknot.
Juing1, male personal name.
Juing2, the poisons put on blow-pipe
darts: Laja iya bejuing, his dart is
Jukat, delirious: Iya j., he is delirious.
Jukup, with the brim turned down:
Tanggoi iya j., the brim of his hat is
turned down.
Jukut1, precious objects handed down in
Jukut2, salted meat, fish.
Jula {julaq), Nyula, throw, spill, grains
from winnowing-basket: Iya ny. ka
padi, she throws out the rice grains;
Beras tejula ari chapan aku, the rice
was spilt from my winnowing-basket;
Anak aku tejula ari jari aku, my child
fell from my arms.
Juling, squint: Iya j., he has a squint.
Julok1 {juluk), Nyulok, get with a stick:
Iya ny. buah, he gets the fruit down
with a stick. Penyulok, a stick for this
Julok2 {juluk), a nickname: J. iya Bah
Tunggal, he was nicknamed B.T.;
Iya bejulok, he has a nickname.
Julong {julung), a bowsprit.
Julut, a point, a spit: Menoa nya bejulut
kia-kia, the land runs out in spits there.
Nyulut, project, run out: Tanjong ny.
ka tasik, a cape runs out into the sea;
Perau iya ny. sadepa ari enggi kami,
his boat led ours by a fathom; Iya
ny. raja, he is outstandingly rich.
Jumat, 1. a kind of jar; 2. a fine
equivalent to this.
Jumbal, the buttocks.
Jumboh {jumbuh), a heap: Buah be-
jumboh ba ruai iya, the fruit is heaped
on his verandah.
Jumpit, tight (of clothes): Bau baju aku
j., my coat is tight across the shoulders.
Nyumpit: Nadai utai ny. nya tanchut
tu, these trousers are extremely tight.
Jumpu {jumpuq), a tussock, firm part, in
marshy land.
Jungang, Moa iya j., he has a pointed
Junggur, a snout: j. babi, a pig’s snout;
j. tanah, a promontory.
Jungkang, curving: Perau nya j., that
boat has a marked sheer; Duku iya j.,
his knife has a curved blade. Nyung-
kang: Iya ngasoh tukang kamboh ny.
ka duku iya, he got the smith to make
his knife with a curved blade.
Jungkar, a rough platform at the
langkau (hut on farm).
Jungkat, a fish-trap used at sea: Kami
sajungkat, '•nq are in the same j. team;
Sida bejungkat, they fish with a j.
Jungki-Jungki {jungkiq-jungkiq), limp-
ing: Iya {bejalai) j., he walks with a
Junok-Junok {junuk-junuk), go noise-
lessly: Pelandok j., the mouse-deer
steals along; Iya j. nyubok burong he
stalked the bird.
Jurai {juray), (of a branch) at right
angles, or sloping down: Dan nya j.,
that branch doesn’t rise; Penyurai dan
nya balat bendar, nya alai enda ulih
titi, that branch slopes down so much
that you can’t go along it.
Juran, wooden supports of a fishing-net.
Juring, pointed, sharp: Jarum nya j.,
that needle is sharp. Bejuring: Iya
bejuring ka buloh, he made a point on
the bamboo.
Jurong {jurung), a large bin (cl. igi).
Juru, kinsman: Iya j. butang, there is
always an adulterer in his family.
Jurus1, straight, continuous: Tungkat
nya j., that stick is straight; Kami
gawa enda j., we worked with inter-
ruptions. Nyurus, straighten: Zya ny.
ka dawai, he straightened the wire;
Iya bejurus ka jalai, he went straight
(there); Pengulu bejurus ka lay a
kami-duai, the chief straightened out
our dispute.
Jurus2, straightforward, honest: Ati iya
j., he is trustworthy.
Jutak-Jutak, see gutak-gutak.
Ka1, part., to, towards, in the direction
of: Iya k. Kuching, he has gone to K.;
Iya k. ulu, Hi, he went up, down, river;
Iya k. sadau, she goes up to the loft;
Iya mantun k. umai, she goes to the
farm to do the weeding.

Ka 75
Ka2, part., for (the benefit of): Pechah
telu k. iya, break the egg for him; Iya
meli segerit k. aku, he bought ciga-
rettes for me.
Ka3, part. (= kai2), for (the purpose of),
(serve) as: Iya ngambi buah k. jerok,
she takes the fruit for preserves;
Mimpi tu k. selatan aku bulih padi,
this dream is a sign that I shall have
plenty of paddy; Iya k. pemerani aku,
he gives me moral support.
Ka4, part. (= kai3) with certain Re-
forms, (having sthg.) made of: Perau
iya begiak k. teras, his boat has iron-
wood ribs; Apai Aloi belabong k. telu,
A. A. had a turban of eggs.
Ka5, part., with be-, pe-, te-, forms:
Anang bechanggut k. daun padi, don’t
pick the paddy leaves; Buah aku abis
di-pegusak k. kera, all my fruit has
been shaken down by monkeys; Enda
ulih pedarat k. ari tu kin, you can’t get
there from here by land; Aku enda
tepeda k. rumah kami ari tu, I can’t see
our house from here.
Ka°, part, with certain words and ex-
pressions: 1. with nasal, di-, and ke-
forms: Aku ninga k. iya bejako, I
listened to him speaking; Iya nyai k.
ay am aku, he broke my toy; Buah
nuan udah di-gasak k. kami, we’ve
eaten up your fruit; Kingat k., don’t
forget; 2. Iya takut k. ular, he’s
afraid of snakes; Iya deka k. anak
aku, she is willing to marry my son;
Kami diau k. burong, we stayed at
home on account of the omens; Iya
dengki k. aku, he has a grievance
against me.
Ka7, part.'. Tu manah k., this is good;
Nemu bendar nuan k., you’re a good
boy, you’ve been well brought up;
Nama iboh k., Jang, never mind, what
does it matter?
Ka8 (kaq), see deka1.
Ka9 (kaq), part., indicating imminence,
futurity: Tungkat aku k. patah, my
stick is about to break; Langit k.
runtoh, the sky is going to fall.
Ka10 (kaq),part., only: K. mesaijari, it’s
only as big as a hand; Iya k. enam
taun umor, he’s only six.
Ka-11 (ke-), prefix forming ordinals:
kadua, second; katiga, third.
Ka-12 (ke-), prefixed to reduplicated
numerals, all . . .: Katiga-tiga, all
Kaaba (kaba), [Ar.] (Bible) the temple.
Kaban1, a relation: Iya k. kami, he is a
relation of ours; k. apai indai iya, his
Kaban2, group, company, shoal, herd:
k. munsoh, a hostile group; Enti nuan
ninggang kami nyabong, anang enda
mai k., if you join us at the cock-
fighting you must bring supporters;
k. ikan, a shoal of fish; Bekaban ka
orang nya?, are you supporters of that
man?; Burong terebai bekaban (-ka-
ban), the birds fly in flocks.
Kabat-Kabat, confused: Iya k. bejako,
he spoke in a muddled way; Aku lama
k. ngiga jalai, I messed about a long
time finding the way.
Kabau (kabaw), lose freshness, become
ineffective: Ubat nya k., that medicine
has lost its potency; Pemanah gamal
iya nyau k., her beauty has faded;
Jako iya k., what he says has no in-
fluence now. Ngabau: Iya ng. ka
jako diri, he ruins the effectiveness of
what he says.
Kabih, likeness: Aku ngelala nuan ari k.
moa, I know you from the likeness.
Kabit, Ngabit, hang, hook, sthg. (on
sthg.): Iya ng. ka sintong ba dan, he
hung the basket on a branch; K. ka
kera nya ngagai batang kayu, put that
monkey on the trunk. Engkabit, hang
from, cling to: Iya e. ba dan, it is
clinging to the branch.
Kabong1 (kabung), a cloth cover: Buka
k. kebok nya, take the cover off that
jar. Ngabong, Engkabong, to cover:
Iya ng. kebok, he covers the jar.
Kabong2 (kabung), Ngabong, wave sthg.
over: Iya ng. ka duku ataspala orang
tangkap, he waved his knife over the
captives’ heads.
Kabong-Kabong (kabung-kabung), hover:
Nyamok k. ba moa iya, a mosquito is
hovering round his face.
Kabuah (kebuah), reason (for): Nadai k.
sanggu ga Jang, there’s no need to be
shy; Nya k. iya laboh, that was the
reason for its falling; Nama k. nuan
gawa dia?, why are you working
Kabu-Kabu, float in the air: Keretas k.
laban ribut, the paper is carried up by
the wind; Pendiau iya k., she has no
permanent home.
Kabut, strong wind, gale, squall: Hari
k., it is wild weather.
Kacha1, [Skt.] glass: kerimpak k., a
fragment of glass.
Kacha2, (in songs) an old cobra: Tedong
aku tu indu k. beraran di dan kayu
kempas, I am a cobra, an old cobra,
hanging on the branch of a kempas.
Kacham, a creeper, the leaves of which
are used as a flavouring and for pre-
paring a lotion for sores.
Kachang1, beans, ground-nuts (cl. leka):
Iya ngelesit buah k., he shells the pea-

Kachang 76
Kachang2, (Batang Rejang) chilli.
Kachau (kachaw}, disturbed, troubled, in
disorder: Menoa k., the country is in
a disturbed state; Iya k. enggau ipar
iya, there is trouble between him and
his brother-in-law. Ngachau, disturb,
trouble, tease: Anang ng. kami gawa,
don’t disturb our work; Iya ng. kera,
he teased the monkey; Iya ng. kami,
he made trouble among us. Pen-
gachau, disturbance, disorder.
Kachau-Kachau (kachaw-kachaw}, stir-
ring, moving, moved: Aku meda daun
k. laban kera, I saw the leaves stirring
with the monkeys; Ini iya k., his
grandmother has no settled home.
Engkachau, stir momentarily: Paia
ular nya agi e., that snake’s head still
Kachit1, betel-nut scissors. Ngachit:
Iya ng. pinang, he cuts up betel-nuts.
Kachit2, Ngachit, press a trigger: Iya
ng. ka senapang, he pressed the trigger
(of the gun); Iya ng. ka sarang gam-
bar, he pressed the trigger of the
camera, released the shutter.
Kachoh (kachuh}, make a noise (merri-
ment, quarrelling): Sida k., they are
Kachu, ruding k., a kind of Jew’s-harp.
Kada1, interrog. part.: K. iya datai deh,
Jang?, do you suppose he’ll come?;
K. enda mati iya tu?, (but) isn’t it
Kada2, part., unfortunately not: K. iya
bisi deh, I’m afraid he isn’t there,
hasn’t got it; K. enda udah datai sida-
iya deh, I’m afraid they have arrived;
7C enda ka iya deh, I think he will.
Kadang,part., sometimes ... sometimes:
K. datai k. enda, he may or may not
come; K.-k. iya bumai, k.-k. iya
bedagang, sometimes he farms, some-
times he trades.
Kah (kaah}, the hard central wood of
Kai1 (kay}, see ti1.
Kai2 (kay}, see ka3.
Kai3 (kay}, see ka1.
Kaih, an exclamation: Aku ninga k.
orang, I heard s.o. call out. Engkaih,
to exclaim: Iya e. meda pemanah
perau aku, he exclaimed on seeing how
fine my boat was.
Kail, fish-hook. Ngail: Iya ng., he
fishes with rod and line; Udah di-
kail orang sungai tu, this river has been
Kain1, cloth: Iya meli k., she bought
some cloth; Iya enda mai k. pua, she
brought nothing with her (on mar-
Kain2, a skirt: Iya bekain pandak, she
wears a short skirt; Mina k. di
punggong kebisi aku, ni aku ka be-
malam, I have only the clothes I am
wearing, I won’t stay the night.
Ngain: Iya ng. anak iya, she put her
child into a skirt.
Kain3, Iya datai k., she is menstruating.
Kaing, squeal, yelp (of dog): Aku ninga
k. ukoi, I heard the yelping of a dog.
Engkaing: Ukoi e. the dog squealed.
Kair, Ngair, scratch, scrape (us. with
foot): Iya ng. uras enggau kaki, he
scraped away, moved, the rubbish with
his foot; Manok ng., the hen is
Kais, see kaih.
Kait1, crippled, deformed (of arms and
legs): iya A;., he is deformed.
Kait2, Ngait, 1. (without ka) hook,
catch: Paku lawang ng. baju aku, a
nail caught my coat; Iya ng. babas,
he hooks back the bush (for cutting);
Iya ng. rinda, she crochets; 2. (with
ka} hang up (on a hook, etc.) Iya ng.
ka duku (ba tandok), he hung up his
knife (on the horn for the purpose).
Bekait, hung up: Ambi baju aku kai
bekait di bilik, take my coat that is
hanging in the room. Tekait, caught,
hooked: Baju aku tekait, my coat was
caught; Enda tekait kaki iya di
rumah, she is a hard worker. Pengait,
a crook, hook.
Kajal-Kajal, walk as on stones or sthg.
hot: Iya k. bejalai nengah pasir angat,
he danced across the hot sand.
Engkajal = k.
Kajang, an awning, covering, (less often,
walling) of nipa leaves: perau beka-
jang, a boat with an awning. Nga-
jang: Iya ng. tanju, he covered the
open verandah.
Kaju (kajuq), hesitant, baulked: Iya k.
nyebut nama aku, he stumbled over
my name; Iya k. merejok, he was put
off in his jump; Iya k. macha, he
doesn’t read fluently. Ngaju, baulk,
put off: Anang ng. ka orang merejok,
don’t put people off when they are
Kak (kaak), (burong} k., a crow.
Kaka1, mange: Ukoi iya (empa} k., his
dog has mange.
Kaka2, babas k., jungle cut in places (for
firewood). Ngaka: Anang ng. ka
temuda, don’t cut firewood on farming
Ka-Ka, Anak iya nyabak k., her child
keeps on crying.
Kakah, land cleared the previous year:
Iya bumai k., 1. he is growing paddy
on the land cleared last year (after
temporary crops); 2. he uses the land

for paddy a second year. Ngakah:
Kami ng. taun tu, we are using the land
this year.
Kakang, hesitate to: Iya k. merejok
parit, he hesitated to jump over the
Kaki1, foot, leg: bekau k., footprints;
K. iya patah ka dua piak, both his legs
are broken.
Kaki2, foot, base, bottom: k. bukit, the
foot of a mountain; k. atap, the eaves;
k. kibong, the foot of a mosquito-net;
k. tangga, the foot of the ladder; di k.
tangga, near the house. Ngaki, (go)
along the foot: Iya bejalai ng. bukit,
he went along the foot of the moun-
Kakup, container for carrying a lamp.
Kai {kaal), (of trader, shopkeeper) driv-
ing a hard bargain: Iya k., you can’t
beat him down. Ngal: Anang ng. ka
diri, don’t be so hard.
Kala1, a scorpion.
Kala2, part., while: Mupok k. agi hari,
let’s go on while it is still light.
Kala3 {kalaq), part., ever: K. nuan
betemu enggau iya?, have you ever met
him?; Aku enda k. nginsap, I never
Kalan, a kind of sea fish.
Kalang1, the timbers on which are laid
the joists {sanding) for floors.
Kalang2, a carrying-pole. Ngalang,
carry with a pole on shoulder: Iya
ng. getah, he carries rubber in this way.
Kalat-Kalat, moving about uncertainly:
Iya k. ngiga jalai, he wandered about
looking for the road.
Kalau-Kalau {kalaw-kalaw), (of voices)
gay, cheerful: Sapa empu nyawa k.
nya?, whose voice is that sounding so
Kali1, a cooking-pot (cl. iti): Iya mandok
ikan sakali-kali, she cooked a potful
of fish.
Kali2, Ngali, dig up: Iya ng. buah ubi,
he is digging cassava.
Kali3 {kaliq), time, instance: sakali,
once; Tu kadua k. aku nanya, this is
the second time I have asked; Dua k.
dua empat, twice two is four; Berapa
k. nuan mantun umai sataun-tu?, how
often are you weeding the farm this
Kalia {keliaq), part., in the old days, long
ago: Nyadi bisi dulu k. orang dua iko,
once upon a time there were two men;
Lama iya udah parai?—K., is it long
since he died?—he died long ago.
Kalih, Ngalih, turn over, reverse: Iya
ng. ka bangkai, he turned the body
over; Iya ng. ari munsoh, he went over
to the enemy; Iya ng. ngelaban kami,
he turned against us; Sida nyau ng.,
they are in the better position now;
ng. ari sapiak nyin, on the other side
(of mountain, wall, etc.). Bekalih:
Baju iya bekalih, his shirt is inside out;
Pendiau nyau bekalih, the situation is
Kalik-Kalik, = engkalik, dangling, swing-
ing: Tungkin iya k., his bamboo con-
tainer dangles; Kera e. ari dan, a
monkey is swinging on the branch;
Penemu iya k., he wavers, never makes
up his mind.
Kaling1, see kalang2.
Kaling2, an associate, partner: Iya k.
aku, we go about together; Iya k. aku
bedagang, he is my partner in busi-
ness. Bekaling, be associated: Kami-
duai bekaling, we are partners; Anang
bekaling enggau orang penchuri, don’t
associate with thieves.
Kaling3, a cluster of fruit.
Kaling-Kaling, swinging: Antin iya k.,
her earrings are swinging.
Kalok {kaluk), the young soft endocarp
of the coconut.
Kalu (kaluq), the best fruit of the crop.
Kamah, dirty: Iya k., he is dirty; Iyak.
mulut, he is foul-mouthed; sp. Iya
datai k., she is menstruating. Nga-
mah, make dirty: Iya ng. ka kaki
iya, he got his feet dirty; Balat
pengamah kaki iya, his feet are v.
dirty; Samoa pengamah iya pegari
magang, all his wrongdoing has come
to light.
Kamai {kamay), an ovum; an egg before
Kamaia (kemaya), interrog.part., when?:
K. nuan belaboh gawa?, when are you
starting work?
Kamaia-Nya {kemaya-nyaq), part., im-
Kamaia-Tu {kemaya-tuq), part., now.
Kamang-Kamang, ready to strike, threat-
ening: Duku iya k. mantap aku, his
knife was raised as if to slash me;
Iya k. mukut aku, his fist was raised
as if he would strike me. Cf. among.
Kamarau {kemaraw), dry (weather): K.
hari kitai dia-tu, it’s our dry season
Kamari {kemari or kemariq), 1. yester-
day: Iya datai lemai k., he came
yesterday evening; 2. k.-iya, for-
merly, at one time; bulan nyin k., last
month; agi taun nyin k., at the end of
last year.
Kamba {kambaq), in antu k., a sort of
Kambin, a goat.

Kamboh (kambuh), tukang k., a smith.
Ngamboh, to forge: Iya ng. duku, he
made a knife.
Kambut, a bag (cl. iti)\ k. tepong, a
Kami, pronoun, 1st pers. plur. exclusive,
we, us, our (excluding the person
addressed): K. begawai, we hold a
Kami-Duai (-duay), pronoun, 1st pers.
dual exclusive, we (two), us, our (ex-
cluding the person addressed): K.
bebukut, we (he and I) came to blows.
Kampar, a stranger, s.o. from another
district, a foreigner. Ngampar: Iya ng.
sabelah menoa, he goes all over the
Kampi (kampiq), germinating seeds: Iya
nanam k., he plants germinating seeds.
Bekampi: Leka buah tu baru bekampi,
these fruit seeds are just germinating.
Kampong1 (kampung), a forest: Pelandok
bejalai ka k. ngiga ulam, the mouse-
deer went off to the forest to look for
Kampong2 (kampung), [Mai.] a village.
Kana, a chanted tale without rhyme:
Iya bekana, he chants a k.
Kanan, right (hand): Iya dudok ari k.
aku, he sat on my right; Iya k., he is
Kanchin, a fastening, button, bolt, lock.
Nganchin: Iya ng. pintu, he fastened
the door.
Kanda (kandaq), the abdomen (from
navel down).
Kandang, an enclosure; enclosed, con-
fined, restricted: k. babi, an enclosure
for pigs; babi k., pigs kept in an en-
closure; Iya k. pemali, she is (still) in
the period of taboos. Ngandang,
confine: Iya ng. babi, he confines the
pigs. Bekandang: Iya bekandang
dalam bilik, he is confined to his room.
Kandi (kandiq), 1. a bag, box, container
for chewing materials: Iya nyu ka k.
ngagai aku, he pushed the chewing
things over to me; 2. a pocket: k.
baju, k. tanchut, coat, trousers, pocket.
Kandis, a wild fruit-tree (H. Garcinia
Kandong (kandung), 1. womb: k. padi,
the leaves covering the immature ears
of paddy; 2. pregnant, pregnancy:
lya k., she is pregnant; K. iya baru 3
bulan, she is 3 months pregnant.
Ngandong, be pregnant, carry (in the
womb): Leboh iya ng. ka Mohammad,
when she was carrying Mohammed;
Padi baru ng., the ears of paddy are
beginning to swell.
Kandul, a basket in which ground illipe
nuts are put for pressing.
Kandut, Ngandut, carry in a fold of one’s
clothing: Iya ng. duit, he stowed the
money away in his clothes.
Kang, a kind of frog.
Kangau (kangaw), Ngangau, call, shout:
Iya ng. ka aku, he shouted to me;
Seduai-iya bekangau, they were shout-
ing to o. another; Rumah kami-duai
sapengangau, our two houses are
within shouting distance.
Kanggan, black cotton cloth: Iya bekain
(ka) k., she has a skirt of this.
Kangkang, (feeling) v. cold: Iya k. laban
ujan, the rain made him v. cold.
Ngangkang: Aku ng. ka diri bediri di
luar nganti iya, I got v. cold waiting
outside for him.
Kanit, Nganit, strip (off) with teeth: Iya
ng. jagong, he bit the corn off the cob;
Iya ng. umbang buah, he peeled the
fruit with his teeth.
Kanji1, [Tam.] starch. Bekanji, starched,
starchy. Nganji: Iya ng. gari, she
starches the clothes.
Kanji2 (of women) sensual, lustful: Indu
nya k., that woman is sensual.
Kanji3, burong k., snipe.
Kantok (kantuk), young leaves at grow-
ing-point; top of plant.
Kapa (kapaq), interrog. part., what use?,
why (should)?, etc.: K. nuan utai tu?,
what do you do with this?; K. aku
belajar?, why should I study?; K. nya
deh?, what does it matter?, by all
means; K. nuan iboh ka nya?, it’s not
your business.
Kapak, an axe (cl. bilah)'. Iya melah
kayu enggau k., he splits wood with
an axe.
Kapa-Kapa, without a permanent home:
Znz orang nya k. (pendiau), that old
woman has no home of her own.
Kapal, [Tam.] a ship: k. layar, a sailing
ship. Iya bekapal, 1. he has ships;
2. he went by ship.
Kapang, teredo: Kapal nya empak., that
ship is attacked by ship-worm.
Kapar, a loose heap, group of scattered
objects: Ukoi gali ba k. kayu, the dog
was lying on a heap of logs; Batu
bekapar ba ruai iya, there are a lot of
stones lying on his verandah. Ngapar:
Iya ng. ka kayu, he accumulated a heap
of logs.
Kapas, [Hind.] cotton, cotton wool.
Kaping, in begiling k.: Iya begiling k.
tengah papan he rolled over and over
on the floor.
Kapir1, soft hinder part of shell of Labi
Kapir2, a small stretch of fertile land at
the foot of a mountain.

Kapir 79
Kapir3, [Ar.] (of Malays) non-Muslim.
Kapit, Ngapit, squeeze, press: Jari aku
di-kapit pintu, my hand was squeezed
in the door; Seduai-iya dudok ng. aku,
they sat one on each side of me. Pe-
ngapit, a press.
Kapoh (kapuh), Ngapoh: make oneself
responsible for, take over: Apai ng.
pengawa umai, indai ng. pengawa
rumah, the father is responsible for the
work on the farm, the mother for the
housework; Aku enggai ng. teda nuan,
I don’t want to have to take on what
you have left; Iya enda tekapoh ka
pengawa nya, he can’t manage that
Kapok (kapuk), 1. kapok; 2. the tree
producing this.
Kapor1 (kapur), [Pers.] camphor.
Kapor2 (kapur), Kapu (kapuq), lime: Iya
makai pinang enda bekapu, he chews
betel nut without lime.
Kar1 (kaar), a map (cl. iti).
Kar2 (kaar), Ngar, growl: K. enggau iya,
growl at him; Ukoi bekar, the dog is
Kara (karaq), banyan.
Karam, be wrecked, capsize, sink: Perau
aku k., my boat went down. Ngaram:
Iya ng. ka perau aku, he capsized my
Karang1, a reef: Sida telantak ba k., they
ran on a reef; bunga k., a sponge.
Karang2, Ngarang, collect: Iya ng. duit
ari kedai iya, he collected the money
from his shop; sp. Sida bekarang
sahari-tu, they’ve gone out fishing to-
day (avoiding the specific word).
Karap1, (of fowls) speckled.
Karap2, (in looms) heddle leash.
Karas, in batu k., a translucent stone
used by a manang.
Karat1, seriously ill: Iya nyau k. (sakit),
he is v. ill.
Karat2, Ngarat, test edge of knife, point
of hook, etc.: Iya ng. duku, he tests
the knife.
Karau-Karau (karaw-karaw), twilight :\Iya
datai k. (pagi) tadi, he came before it
was fully light; k. lemai, evening
Kari, [Tam.] curry: Ikan tu bekari, this
fish is curried. Ngari: Iya ng. ikan,
she curries the fish.
Kari-Kari (kariq-kariq), with apin or enda,
scarcely begun: Pengawa aku apin k.,
I’ve heaps more work to do.
Karis, Ngaris, see garis.
Karong1 (karung), bag, case: k. panggal,
pillow-case; guni k., a big sack; buah
k., fruit of Physalis.
Karong2 (karung), in di-karong: Puk
di-karong antu gambi, the owl is in-
habited by an evil spirit. Cf. ngarong.
Karong3 (karung), (in songs) mother.
Karut, the lashing for the head of a
Kasa, muslin: Iya bebaju k., she has a
muslin tunic.
Kasak-Kasak, restless: Anak mit nya k.,
that baby is restless; Iya balat bendar
sakit, salalu k., he is v. ill and con-
stantly tossing. Engkasak, Mengka-
sak, to struggle: Iya e. di-tangkap aku,
he struggled when I caught him.
Kasam, pickled (meat, fish): Iya makai
k. ikan, he’s eating pickled fish; sp.
Iya bekasam enda mandi, he smells be-
cause he doesn’t bathe. Ngasam,
Engkasam: Iya ng. ikan, she pickles
fish. Pekasam (or kkasam), pickled
meat, fish: Pekasam iya manah ben-
dar, her pickled meat is v. good.
Kasar, rough, coarse: Papan tu k., these
planks are rough; K. bendar bila nya,
that’s a big bit (of split wood); pe-
ngawa k., rough, heavy, work. Ngasar:
Anang ng. nya bemain, don’t play so
Kasau (kasaw), a rafter (cl. iti; pasang,
a pair). Ngasau: Iya ng. langkau
iya, he is putting up the rafters of
his hut.
Kasi, Ngasi, obey: Iya ng. ka aku, he
obeys me.
Kasih, compassionate, merciful, feeling
pity: Iya k. ka orang tuai, he is kind to
the old; K. aku meda iya, the sight of
him moves me to pity; K. bendar deh,
I’m v. sorry (to hear it). Pengasih,
mercy, pity: Iya nadai pengasih
ka orang, he is merciless; Barang
pengasih nuan, just what you are kind
enough (to give, etc.).
Kasut, shoes, boots: Iya bekasut, he is
wearing shoes.
Kat1, a card.
Kat2 (kaat), stammering: Iya k. (bejako),
he stammers.
Katat-Katat, toddling: Iya (bejalai) k.,
he toddles.
Kati1, a catty (1| lb.).
Kati2, interrog. part.: K. iya udah pulai?,
has he gone?; K. ko kitai nyebut tu?,
how do we say this?; K. ko enggau?,
what shall I do with it?
Kati3 (katiq), a tree with poisonous sap:
Aku nyampur getah k. ba asi kena
manjok tikus, I mix k. sap with rice
for rat-poison.
Katil, [Tam.] a bedstead.
Kating, Ngating, to hang up: Iya ng. ka
tungkus iya ba tandok, he hung his
bundle on the horn.

Kating-Kating 80
Kating-Kating,=engkating, hanging: Iya
k. ba dan kayu, he was hanging from
the branch.
Katong-Katong (katung-katung), moving
from side to side: Perau iya k., his
boat is sheering about; Kelampong k.
di-tarit ikan, the float is being pulled
about by a fish.
Katup, Ngatup, shut; bring ends to-
gether: Iya ng. ka pintu, he shut the
door firmly; Iya ng. ka pintu belulang,
he fastened his belt. Bekatup: Pintu
iya bekatup, his door is shut.
Katur-Katur, potter about, dally over
preparations: K. besahari-sahari apus
hari, the whole day went in pottering
about; Iya k. ka niki, he messed about
a lot before climbing.
Kau (kaw), emphatic particle: Nadai k.
aku ngambi nya, I didn’t take it.
Kauk, Ngauk, scoop up: Iya ng. ai
enggau beledi, he scooped up some
water in a pail. Peng auk, sthg. used
for scooping.
Kaung1, shouting: Aku ninga k. orang,
Aku ninga orang k.-k., I heard people
Kaung2, see kukut2.
Kaus, Ngaus, scrape out: Iya ng. buah
entimun, she scraped out (the pulp of)
the cucumber; Iya ng. kali, she scraped
the pot.
Kawa, [Ar.] coffee.
Kawah, a large cooking pan.
Kawat, wire.
Kawit, decorative plaits and lashings:
Ulu duku iya bekawit, the handle of
his knife is covered with plaiting.
Ngawit: Iya ng. ulu duku, he puts a
plaiting on the knife-handle.
Kaya1, rich. Ngaya: Kebun getah ti ng.
ka iya, it was rubber plantations that
made him rich. Pengaya, wealth.
Kaya2, (Skrang) see bendar, bebendar.
Kayak, Ngayak, 1. (without ka) sift:
Iya ng. beras, she sifts the rice;
2. (with ka) impart a circular motion
to sthg.: Iya ng. ka wa, he made the
swing go in circles. Pengayak, a
Kayan, the Kayan people, a Kayan.
Kayap, shingles, herpes: Iya empa k.,
he has shingles.
Kayau (kayaw), a war expedition, head-
hunting: Agi maia bekayau kalia,
when head-hunting was still going on.
Ngayau, go on a war expedition: Sida
ng., they are on a war expedition;
bangkong pengayau, a war-boat.
Kayoh (kayuh), Ngayoh, paddle (a boat):
Iya ng. ka perau aku, he was paddling
my boat; Anang ng. ka penemu salah
nuan nya, don’t persist in that mis-
taken notion of yours; Sida bekayoh,
they are paddling.
Kayo-Kayo, wandering aimlessly: .Iya k.,
he wanders about.
Kayu1 (kayuq), a tree (cl. pun)'. K.
begusak laban ribut, the trees are
tossing in the wind; batang k., a tree-
trunk; dan k., branch of a tree; ubi
k., tapioca.
Kayu2 (kayuq), 1. wood: Papan tu k.
lembut, this plank is made of soft
wood; 2. firewood: Iya ngambi k.,
he’s getting firewood; K. di-tugong ka
iya ba ruai, he made a pile of firewood
on the verandah.
Kayu3 (kayuq), num. cl. with names of
trees: Iya nanam dua k. rian, he
planted two durian trees.
Kayu4 (kayuq), rolls (of cloth), bars (of
soap, iron, etc.): Iya meli kain
bekayu-kayu, he buys cloth by the
Ke-, prefix with bases giving forms used
as imperatives and with or without
di-: Kejako ka utai tu, talk this over;
Iya di-kerindu ka samoa orang, he is
beloved by all; Aku ketakut ka iya,
he goes in awe of me, I am obeyed by
him; Tu naka ti di-kingat ka aku, this
is all I remember.
Keba (kebaq), part., thus: K. a lai ko
orang tuai dulu menya, thus spoke men
of old; K. ko aku, I told you so.
Kebak1, Ngebak, open, uncover: lya
ng. ka peti, he opened the case; Iya
ng. ka daun, he turned up a card.
Kebak2, the clearing up of timber left
unburnt in the first firing of farm-
land: tugong k., heaps of this timber;
Iya nunu (tugong) k., he burns the
remaining timber. Ngebak: Iya ng.
(umai), he clears up the remaining
Kebak-Kebak, palpitating: Dada iya k.,
his heart is thumping.
Kebal, invulnerable: Iya bekebal, he has
a charm for invulnerability. Ngebal:
Iya ng. manok, he made the cock in-
Kebap-Kebap, flapping the wings: Manok
k., the cock is flapping its wings.
Engkebap: Manok e., the cock flapped
its wings (once).
Kebas, swinging the arms: Balat k. iya
bejalai, he swings his arms vigorously
as he walks; Anang k.-k., don’t swing
your arms.
Kebat1, Ngebat, lash two things to-
gether: Iya ng. kayu, he lashed one
piece of wood to another; Iya ng.
(manok), he is tying on the cock’s
metal spur.

Kebat2, (of cloth) having a pattern (pro-
duced by tying up parts of the warp
before dyeing): kain k., cloth with a
pattern. Ngebat: Indu nya ng., that
woman is tying up the warp for dyeing.
Kebau (kebaw), Ngebau, flick away: Iya
ng. ka uras, he flicked away the
Keberuran, hungry: Aku k., I am hun-
gry; Sida k., they go hungry (us. be-
cause lazy).
Kebi (kebiq), Kebil, (of knife edge etc.)
turned: (Mata} duku aku k., the edge
of my knife is turned. Ngebi, Ngebil,
turn, blunt: Tulang ng. ka duku aku,
the bone blunted my knife.
Kebo1, Ngebo, see kebau.
Kebo2, Ngebo, tear away: Anang ng. ka
pintu, don’t wrench the door open;
Baju aku tekebo laban ribut, my coat
was blown away by the wind.
Kebok (kebuk), a small earthenware jar
or jug: k. berambing, one with a
Kebong (kebung), the innermost part,
bottom: k. tasik, the bottom of the
sea; k. langit, the zenith; lubang k., a
pit. Ngebong, be pitted: Tanah ng.
laban ujan, the ground is pitted by the
Kebu, see kebo1.
Kebukai (kebukay), elsewhere: K. ka
nuan, go somewhere else; iya k.,
his mind is on other things.
Kebu-Kebu, see debu-debu.
Kebul-Kebul, (of ground etc.) heave:
Tanah nya k., the ground is heaving
there; Kedap iya k., you can see his
Kebun, a plantation, garden: k. (getah),
a rubber plantation; k. lada, a pepper
plantation. Ngebun, grow (plants):
Iya ng. sayur, he grows vegetables;
Iya bekebun, he is working in the
plantation, garden.
Kebur, eyeless: Antu pala nya k., the
eyes have been taken from that head.
Kebus, having a hole, open right
through: Kasut aku k., there’s a hole
in my shoe; K. ka sapiak ka jalai tu?,
does this path go right through?
Ngebus, perforate: Anang ng. ka
lubang nya, don’t make the hole go
right through; lya rari ng. ka
dinding, he ran off through the wall.
Kebut, Ngebut, move, stir, sthg.: Nama
utai ng. ka bok aku?, what is making
my hair move?
Kebut-Kebut, stir, move: Iya enda k., he
isn’t stirring. Engkebut: move (mo-
mentarily); Agi tau e., it can still
Kechah, chatter: Aku ninga k. kera, I
heard the chattering of monkeys; Aku
ninga kera k.-k. (or engkechah), I
heard monkeys chattering.
Kechai (kechay), (indu) k., a kind of
Kechap, smacking of lips: Aku ninga k.
iya makai, I heard him smacking his
lips as he ate; Iya makai k.-k., he eats
noisily; Iya engkechap, he smacked
his lips (once).
Kechiak, armpit: K. iya sir, his armpit
is sore.
Kechiau (kechiaw), kayu k., a tree bear-
ing nuts, buah k., rich in oil, minyak k.
Keching, Ngeching, cause to spurt: Iya
ng. ka ai ari kendi, he sent a jet of
water from the kettle.
Keching-Keching, and engkeching, spurt,
gush: Ai k. (or out.
Kechit1, see keching.
Kechit2, Ngechit, jump: Iya ng., he
jumped; Iya ng. parit, he jumped the
Kechit-Kechit, leaping: Ikan k., the fish
are leaping. Engkechit, to leap (once):
Ikan e. ari bakul, a fish leapt from the
Kechul, Ngechul, take out (against re-
sistance): Iya ng. ka pasak, he took
out the wedge. See ngechul.
Kechula, the dish-cloth gourd, Luff a.
Kechup-Kechup, making a sucking noise:
Anak mit k. nginsap tusu, the baby
sucks noisily at the breast.
Keda (kedaq), see sekeda.
Kedai (keday), [Tam.] a shop, stall:
Menyadi aku bekedai, my brother has a
shop. Ngedai, sell in a shop: Iya ng.
sayur, he sells vegetables; (to women)
Anang ng. diri, pull your clothes
straight, you’re showing too much of
Kedang, Ngedang, straighten: Iya ng.
rotan, he straightened the rattan; Iya
ng. punggong, he straightened his back.
Kedap, the pulse: K. iya udah padam,
his pulse has stopped; Abas k. iya,
feel his pulse.
Kedar, Ngedar, raise: Iya ng. ka utai
berat, he lifted a heavy object;
Iya ng. ka jari, he lifted his hand
Kedidi (kedidiq), a kind of wild pigeon
(H. Treron capelei).
Kedil, abundant, thick: Madang padi
iya k., he has a good crop of paddy;
Bok iya k., her hair is thick; Isi iya k.,
he is muscular; kain k., good cloth;
Balat pengedil bok iya, she has a good
head of hair.
Kediri (kediriq), alone: K. nuan?, are you
alone?; Aku k., I am alone, I support

myself; Kami-duai udah k. ari sida
apai, we two have set up house on our
Kedong (kedung), part., since, as: K. aku
udah semak rumah nuan, enggai enda
lain, as I was near your house I felt I
had to look in.
Keduan, tease, mock: K. enggau iya,
tease him; Aku enggai di-keduan nuan,
1 won’t be mocked by you. See
Kedut, a crease, wrinkle: Kain tu
bekedut, this cloth is creased. Ngedut,
pull together; gather (cloth): Iya ng.
dan, he pulled the branches together;
Iya ng. ka rusok baju iya, she gathered
her tunic at the sides.
Kejai, a kind of fern.
Kejang, Ngejang, 1. push a boat off:
Aku ng. ka perau ari tebing, I pushed
off from the bank; 2. leave: Aku ng.
ka rumah satu hari bulan dua, I left
home on Feb. 1; Kami baru be kejang,
we are just leaving; sp. Kami udah
bekejang, there has been no marrying
between our families for a long time.
Cf. ngejang.
Kejar-Kejar, in the death-struggle:
Manok k., the fowl is moving con-
Kejat, noise of footsteps: Aku ninga k.
orang, I heard the sound of footsteps;
Aku ninga orang k.-k., I heard people
Kejat-Kejat, Iya k. belanda, he hops on
alternate feet.
Kejau-Kejau (kejaw-kejaw), wander: Iya
k. sabelah menoa, he wanders about the
Keji (kejiqj, squeamish: Iya k., he is
squeamish; Aku k. di-bela iya laban
jari iya empa kuris, I don’t like being
served by him because he has sores on
his hands. Ngeji, to disgust: Anang
ng. ka orang enggau utai kamah, don’t
disgust people with filthy things; Iya
di-keji ka orang, people shun him.
Kejira (kejiraq), a kind of small bird.
Kejok (kejuk), see kechit2. Kejok-Kejok,
see kechit-kechit.
Kejong (kejung), Ngejong, stretch (body):
Mayau ng. diri, the cat stretches.
Kejut, Ngejut, 1. jerk: Ginti aku ng., my
line (hook) is jerking; 2. jerk sthg.:
Iya ng. ka tali, he jerked the line.
Kekah, Ngekah, break with the teeth:
Iya ng. buah, he broke the nut with
his teeth.
Kekambu (kekambu or kkambu), a tassel
(on sword-belt).
Kekar, a kind of eel.
Kekas, Ngekas, tidy up, clear: lya ng.
bilik, she tidies the room; Sida ng.
82 Kelam-Ai
sungai, they cleared (away the
branches overhanging) the river.
Kelabak, Ngelabak, dig (a hole), exca-
vate: Iya ng. tanah, he dug a hole;
Anang ng. tanah mantun, don’t remove
the earth with the weeds.
Kelabu (kelabuqj, grey (of birds).
Kelabur, grey (cloth, water, etc.).
Keladi, taro.
Kelah-Kelah, and engkelah, panting:
Iya k. laban panas, he is panting with
Kelai1 (kelaiq), a mark, sign: Kilat nya
k. hari ka ujan, that lightning is a sign
that it’s going to rain; Nama k. surat
nuan?, how is your book marked;
Baju iya enda bekelai, his shirt isn’t
marked. Ngelai, to mark: Iya ng.
baju, she marked the shirt. Pengelai,
a stretched sooty cord for marking a
straight line.
Kelai2 (kelaiq), Iya baru datai k., (of
parturient woman) the waters have
broken, labour has begun.
Kelakar1, conversation, small-talk: K.
iya manah, he has a flow of conversa-
tion; Seduai-iya bekelakar, they are
having a chat.
Kelakar2, Ngelakar, to humbug: Iya ng.
aku, he took me in with his talk; Aku
enggai di-kelakar nuan, I am not going
to be humbugged by you; Pengelak ar
nuan tu, you are a humbug.
Kelakar3, a token (us. piece of stick) for
indicating presence: Iya niap k., he
counts the tokens.
Kela-Kela, (of baby) crying: Anak iya k.,
her child is crying.
Kelala, Ngelala, recognise, identify,
know: Iya ng. aku, he recognized me;
Udah di-pekelala ka kit a orang empu
perau nya?, have you identified the
owner of that boat?; Anang nanya
orang enda di-kelala, don’t speak to
strangers; Kami-duai bekelala, we
know o. another.
Kelalah, extremely lazy: Iya k., he is
extremely lazy.
Kelalin, a lashing, seizing; K. gelegar
iya putus, the fastenings of his floor
are broken. Ngelalin, fasten, tie: Iya
ng. bubu, he is fastening the strips of
the fish-trap.
Kelalu, see tekelalu.
Kelam1, a large bead.
Kelam2 (kelaam), overcast: Hari k., the
sky is overcast; Pengawa sida agi k.
kabut, their affairs are still in con-
Kelam-Ai (,-aiq\ a diving contest:
Seduai-iya k., they are competing in

Kelambi (kelambiq), coat, shirt, (Skrang).
See baju.
Kelambong (kelambung), Ngelambong,
1. throw up: Iya ng. ka buah bul, he
threw the ball up; 2. (without ka) go
over: Burong terebai ng. (or melam-
bong) pala aku, a bird flew over my
Kelame, a pudding made of rice flour
and sugar.
Kelampai (kelampay), a kind of tree.
Kelampong (kelampung), a float. Nge-
lampong, attach a float: Iya ng. ginti,
he uses a float with his line.
Kelang, a cockpit.
Kelanit, Ngelanit, lift (the end of a mat);
pull back (a piece of skin, bark); turn
(a coat) inside out: Iya ng. ka tikai, he
picked up the end of the mat; Iya ng.
ka kulit kayu, he pulled away a piece
of bark; Iya ng. ka baju, he turned the
coat inside out.
Kelanjur1, Ngelanjur, leave in the lurch:
Anang ng. ka aku, don’t let me down;
K. ka enggau iya, let him stew in his
own juice.
Kelanjur2, a slip, an accidentally ex-
aggerated movement: Ukai endang
ati aku malu iya, tang k., I didn’t mean
to hit him, it was an accident; O! k.
(jako) aku, I didn’t mean to say that.
Cf. ngelanjur.
Kelansa (kelansaq), see lansa.
Kelansat, slide along: Iya k., Iya beke-
lansat, he slides along in a sitting
position; Tikai tekelansat, the mat
Kelantar, gliding motion: Ni baka k.
perau perumba baru tu?, how did the
new racing boat go? Ngelantar, glide,
slip, along or down: Ular ng., the
snake glided along; 2. cause to glide,
launch: Iya ng. kaperau, he launched
the boat; Iya ng. ka sangkoh, he
hurled a spear.
Kelapa (kelapaq), a coconut palm: buah
k., a coconut.
Kelapat, Jari iya k. (or bekelapat), the
skin of his hand is shrivelled.
Kelapis, a sheet (of rubber).
Kelap-Kelap, twinkle, flicker: Bintang
k., the stars are twinkling. Engkelap,
flicker momentarily: Api e., the light
flickered out.
Kelapong1 (kelapung), an appendage;
the end of sthg. differing from the rest:
Iko ukoi nya bekelapong burak, that
dog’s tail has a white tip; K. burong
iya putus, the thing he tied to his bird
has come off. Ngelapong: Iya ng.
burong iya, he tied sthg. to his bird.
Kelapong2 (kelapung), Ngelapong, follow
as a guard: Kita enda tau enda bisi
lelaki ng., you (women) must have
men to escort you; Iya ng. anak iya
bejalai, she walks behind her child to
keep an eye on him.
Kelar, a cut: Maioh bendar k. sabelah
tuboh iya, there are cuts all over his
body. Ngelar, slash (esp. fish for
salting etc.): Iya ng. ikan, she slashes
the fish.
Kelas, shrink: Dagin k. udah di-guring,
meat shrinks when fried.
Kelasak1, Ngelasak, draw back fore-
skin : Iya ng. ka butoh. Cf. ngelasak.
Kelasak2, penis.
Kelasau (kelas aw), 1. resin; 2. resin
in bamboo as a torch: Iya betenggau
ka k., he has a torch to light him.
Kelasi, a sailor.
Kelat, pungent: Buah tu k., this nut has
a pungent flavour; Pinang tu kurang
pengelat, this areca nut is not v.
Kelata (kelataq), a kind of small sea fish.
Kelatai (kelatay), a water plant.
Kelatan, burnt leaves: Maioh bendar k.
terebai laban ribut, many burnt leaves
are flying in the wind.
Kelauh, randau k., a creeper, the sap of
which is drunk on expeditions.
Kelau-Kelau (kelaw-kelaw), Atau aku k.,
I feel giddy, queer.
Kelawah, a kind of jar.
Kelawar1, an umbrella.
Kelawar2, (in cards) clubs.
Kelayang, see layang.
Kelebembang, a butterfly.
Kelebong (kelebung), (of smoke) in great
quantities: K. asap orang nunu, there
are clouds of smoke when people are
burning the clearing.
Kelebuan, Iya k., she had a miscarriage;
Anak iya k., her child was still-born.
Kelebus1, Ngelebus, finish off: K. ka
pengawa nuan dulu, finish your job
Kelebus2, Ngelebus, slip off, take off:
Iya ng. ka tali ari turus, he took the
rope off the mooring-post. See lebus.
Kelechai (kelechay), see kechai.
Kelechut, see kelebus1, kelebus2.
Kelekanit, the roof of the mouth.
Kelekap, a kind of sandfly.
Kelekar, Ngelekar, (of creepers) spread:
Randau nya ng. sakayu emperan, that
creeper spreads over the whole level
Keleman, the moon on the wane: k. keli,
second night, k. bubok, third night,
after full moon; Malam tu k., the
moon is on the wane tonight.
Kelemayang, a dim figure, shadow,
ghost: Aku meda k. orang bejalai ba
terang bulan, I saw the dim figure of a

man walking in the moonlight; Nya
mina k. iya, that was only his ghost,
Kelemibit, randau k., convolvulus.
Kelempis, Ngelempis, deflate: Iya ng. ka
kuyu iya, he sucks in his cheeks. Cf.
Kelempus, Ngelempus, see kelebus1 and
Kelentik, Ngelentik, bend back: K. ka
belakang nuan, bend backwards; Iya
ng. ka tunjok, he bent his finger back.
See lentik-lentik, ngelentik.
Kelese, Ngelese, mock, jeer at: Iya ng.
ka aku, he mocked me. See lese-lese.
Keleti, (in songs) petang k., black as the
Keli (keliq), a kind of fish: k. pat,
Clarias leiacanthus.
Kelibak, Ngelibak, chip with axe or
knife: Iya ng. kayu, he cut a chip out
of the wood. See ngelibak.
Kelidas, Ngelidas, slide, slip, sthg. off:
K. ka tiang nya ari kayu, slide the (end
of the) post off the tree.
Kelido, a kind of spatula for stirring
food. Ngelido, stir: Iya ng. asi, she
stirred the rice; Iya ng. ka jari iya ba
ai, he moved his hand about in the
Kelidok (keliduk), a net. Ngelidok:
Iya ng. ikan, he netted a fish.
Keligi (keligiq), Ngeligi, amuse: Iya ng.
anak mit, she plays with the baby.
Keligis, Ngeligis, strip, clean: Iya ng.
tulang manok, he cleaned the chicken
Kelik, screech, scream (of hawks, swifts,
etc.): Aku ninga k. menaul, I heard
the screech of a hawk; Lelayang
k.-k., the swifts are screaming.
Engkelik: Menaul e. a hawk screeched
Keliling, Ngeliling, go round: Iya ng.
rumah, he went round the house (out-
side). Bekeliling, round about: Samoa
kami bekeliling ditu, all of us round
Kelimat, Ngelimat, be sparing (with):
Iya ng. ka padi enggai ka suntok, he
was sparing with the paddy for fear of
a shortage; Iya tau ng., he is thrifty.
Kelimbak, spilling: Ai k. ari mangkok,
the water is spilling from the cup.
Ngelimbak, spill: Iya ng. ka ai, he
spilt the water.
Kelimpas, part, (not) since, except: Aku
nadai kala bejako enggau iya k. ari tua
ti betemu, I haven’t spoken to him
since the day you and I met him.
Kelin (keliin), part., now . . . now: K.
angat, k. chelap, now hot, now cold.
Kelinchir, to slip: Iya k., he slipped.
Ngelinchir: 1. Iya ng. nengah papan,
he slipped on the plank; 2. see
Kelinda, [Eng.] calendar.
Kelindang, a kind of fern (H. Blechnum
Keling, name of a god celebrated for
beauty: Ukai bengat baka K., he’s
no Adonis. Ngeling: Iya ng. ka aku,
he calls me K.
Kelingai (kelingay), a tattooed pattern:
Iya bisi k. ba lengan, he is tattooed on
the arm. Ngelingai: Iya ng. pah, he
tattooed the thigh.
Kelingi (kelingiq), Ngelingi, go round,
surround: Iya (bejalai) ng. rumah, he
went round the house; Pulau di-
kelingi ai, an island is surrounded by
water; Samoa kami ti bekelingi, all of
us round here.
Kelingkang, a rough basket used to
contain offerings.
Kelipak, Ngelipak, step aside, go round,
avoid: lya ng. ka aku, he went round
me; Rumah iya ng. jalai, his house is
off the road.
Kelip-Kelip, see kelap-kelap.
Kelir, see kelar.
Kelis1, Ngelis, glance: Ka sakali iya ng.
ngagai aku sekumbang iya bejako ti
nyalah aku, he only once glanced at
me while he was speaking against me.
Kelis2, (of women) ogling: Balat bendar
k. indu nya, Indu nya k.-k., that woman
is always making eyes at people.
Kelisi (kelisiq), Ngelisi, roll up: Iya ng.
ka tanchut, he rolled up his trousers.
See ngelisi.
Kelita, a small lamp.
Keliti (kelit iq), Ngeliti, remove (skin):
Iya ng. ka kulit jelu nya, he skinned
that animal. See ngeliti.
Keluah, Ngeluah, put out: Iya ng. ka
sarah, he put the box out. See
Keluang, see semawa2.
Keluar, Ngeluar, put out, publish, issue,
distribute: Iya ng. ka belanja anem-
biak, he gives out the boys’ pocket-
money; Iya ng. ka barang, he pro-
duces, exports, goods; Iya pengeluar
wang, he pays out the money. See
Kelubak, Ngelubak, dig: Iya ng. tanah,
he digs the soil; Iya ng. penyalah aku,
he tried to worm out what I had done
Kelugi1 (kelugiq), Ngelugi, amuse, make
s.o. laugh: lya ng. aku, he made me
Kelugi2 (kelugiq), Ngelugi, put s.o. off
(doing sthg.), nauseate, alarm (us. as

Kelui 85
joke): Anang ng. orang makai, don’t
put people off their food.
Kelui {keluiq}, Ngelui, surpass, go beyond:
Tikam iya ng. enggi aku, his throw
was longer than mine; Iya ng. laun ari
orang maioh, he was later than most;
Nadai ng. ari pangan, we (they, you)
are much of a muchness.
Kelulu {keluluq), renong k., song in which
heroic or other qualities are attributed
to the hearer. Ngelulu, mime, make
believe: Iya ng. ka diri bayam anak,
she pretends to be nursing a baby in
her arms; Iya berenong ng. ka aku
raja, he sings a song in which I am
made out to be rich.
Kelulut, or engkelulut, a small insect
producing a honey, ai k.
Kelumpar, Kelumpu (kelumpuq), un-
fledged: Anak itit nya agi k., that
duckling is still downy.
Kelup, (of toothless person) having
sunken lips: Iya nyau k., his lips have
sunk in. Ngelup: Anang ng. ka mulut
nuan, don’t suck in your lips.
Kelupis, sticky rice mixed with coconut
milk wrapped in young nipa leaves.
Kelur, Ngelur, put out (tongue): Iya ng.
ka dilah, he put out his tongue.
Kelur-Kelur, (of tongue) going in and
out: Dilah ukoi k. nilat ai, the dog’s
tongue goes in and out as it laps the
water. Engkelur: Dilah ukoi e., the
dog’s tongue went in and out (once).
Kelut-Kelut, go in and out: Iya k.
nengah pintu, he goes in and out of
the door.
Keluyok (keluyuk), Ngeluyok, crumple,
pull out of shape: Anang ng. ka tupi
nuan, don’t crumple your hat.
Kemah, part, marking a quotation: Utai
tu jai, k. ko iya, this thing is bad, (thus)
said he.
Kemas, tidy, everything in its place:
Bilik nuan k. bendar, your room is v.
tidy. Ngemas, stow, pack, get ready:
Badu berangkut, ng. padi ti ulih, after
it has been carried in, they stow away
the paddy they have got; Iya agi
bekemas, he is still packing; Udah be-
kemas?, are you ready?; Iya ng. ka
diri, he is making his preparations.
Kemata, Ngemata, watch, keep an eye
on: Tiap iko sama ng. ka padi di umai
diri empu, each watches over the paddy
on his own farm; K. ka orang tu,
watch this man. See mata.
Kembai {kembay), swollen: Jari iya k.,
his hand is swollen; Ai k., the river is
swollen. Ngembai, spread: Iya ng.
ka tikai, she spread the mat; Iya ng.
ka empayong, he opened the um-
Kembau, Ngembau, detect by smell:
Ukoi ng. jelu, the dogs scent out the
game. See bau.
Kembayau (kembayaw), a tree bearing
fruit used for preserves.
Kembong {kembung}, swollen, bulging:
Perut ent ana k., the belly of the toad-
fish is swollen; bulan k., full moon.
Ngembong, cause to swell: Iya ng. ka
kuyu, he stuffed out his cheeks.
Kembuan, Ngembuan, keep, possess:
Aku ng. barang orang, I am keeping
s.o.’s things; Sapa ng. perengka ini
punas kita?, who has (inherited) the
property of your childless grand-aunt?;
Anak iya enda di-kembuan, her child
Kemebai1 {kemebay}, a millipede.
Kemebai2 {kemebay), a plaited band
round a basket.
Kemelu {kemeluq), Ngemelu, (shame by)
not sharing food with, not inviting to
feast: Malu bendar aku di-kemelu ka
iya, I was v. ashamed at not being
invited by him; Sida begawai ng. ka
kami, they held a feast and (rudely)
did not invite us.
Kemeran, Ngemeran, concentrate on,
give o.’s whole time to: Tya ng. ka
pengawa umai, he concentrates on the
Kemi {kemiq), urinate: Iya k., he passed
water; ai k., urine.
Kemibit, convolvulus.
Kemilut, Ngemilut, grimace: Iya ng. ka
anak aku, he made faces at my child.
Kemisi, see per emisi.
Kempan, a tree, the bark of which is
used for making straps.
Kempang, not squeamish: K. nuan
munoh ukoi aku?, can you bring your-
self to kill my dog?; Iya k. bendar
munoh diri, he had the courage to kill
himself; K. bendar nuan bejako munyi
nya, you’ve got a cheek to talk like
Kempas, a tree with durable wood.
Kempat, Ngempat, cut, crop: Iya ng.
bok aku, he cut my hair. Bekempat:
Iya bekempat, he’s having his hair cut.
Kemping, rice heated and pounded,
eaten on expeditions. Ngemping:
Sida ng. sahari-tu, they are making k.
Kempis, flat, deflated: Kaki kerita nya
k., the tyre of that car is flat. Ngempis:
Iya ng. ka perut, he flattened his
Kempok {kempuk), 1. sago flour
squeezed into a ball and roasted;
2. rice in a ball: Iya makai k., he
eats k. Ngempok, squeeze with the

86 Kenyap
hand: Iya ng. asi, she squeezes the
rice into a ball.
Kemudi, 1. stern of a boat, 2. a rudder.
Ngemudi: Iya ng. ka perau, he steers
the boat.
Kemusu (kemusuq), a kind of wasp.
Kena1 (kenaq), 1. suffer, undergo, be
affected by: Aku k. sakit, I fell ill;
Iya k. ukum, he was fined; Enda k.
peda, (I) didn’t see it; Barang iya k.
churi orang, his goods were stolen by
s.o.; Aku k. uji dalam pengering, my
strength was tried; K. lalu laboh, it
was hit and fell; Tang ti k. enda
manah penumboh umai, ati belaboh
irau, but if the crops do not come on
well they become anxious; 2. serving
to, used for: Utai tu k. ngemiru ka
kain, this stuff is used for dyeing cloth
blue; Sarah tu chukup k. mai buah,
this box is big enough for carrying the
fruit; Indai iya nadai duit k. ngaji
sida, his mother hadn’t the money for
paying their wages. Ngena, to use,
wear: Aku ng. samak, I use samak
bark; Iya ng. kasut aku, he wore my
shoes; Iya datai ng. kapal baru, he
came by the next boat; Di-kena nuan
surat tu?, are you using this book?
Kena2 (kenaq), or ngena, right, suitable:
Runding iya k. bendar, he has the right
idea; Penemu aku, ng. kitai pulai, in
my view, we’d better go back;
Ngintai ka pasang ng., waiting for the
tide to serve.
Kena3 (kenaq), part, (with dates, seasons)
on, during; Iya datai k. hari minggu,
he arrived on Sunday.
Kenai, friendly, intimate: Iya k. enggau
aku, he’s a close friend of mine.
Kenanas, eager(ly), enthusiastically: Iya
k. nanya berita ari aku, he eagerly
asked me for news; Iya k. gawa, she
works with a will.
Kenang1, Ngenang, remember, think of,
commemorate: Enda kala ng. kami
nuan?, did you ever think of us?; Iya
nyabak ng. rumah, he wept, thinking
of home.
Kenang2, Ngenang, relate, set out, dis-
cuss: Aku ng. burong ngagai iya, I
told, consulted, him about the omens;
Leboh maia kitai bekenang ka bumai,
manah kitai lalu bekenang ka burong,
while we’re discussing farming we’d
better speak of omens.
Kenang3, a saying, dictum: Ko k. orang
utai tu salah, people say this is wrong.
Kenaya (kenayaq), a vague shape: Aku
meda k. orang ba petang, I saw the
vague shape of a man in the dusk.
Kenchang, see kempang.
Kendak, a mistress: Seduai-iya beken-
dak, they are lovers.
Kendap, Ngendap, see endap.
Kendas, Ngendas, wipe: Iya ng. moa, he
wiped his face; Iya ng. peloh ba moa,
he wiped the sweat from his face.
Kendawang, a cylinder-snake (H. Cylin-
drophis rufus).
Kendi, [Malayalam] a kettle.
Kendis, Ngendis, shave: Iya ng. ragum,
he shaved his beard; Iya bekendis, he
is shaving.
Kendok (kenduk), Ngendok, Engkendok,
see endap.
Kenggai1 (kenggay), Ngenggai, com-
plain of: Nama kabuah nuan ng. ka
jako iya?, why do you complain of
what he said? See enggai.
Kenggai2 (kenggay), see enggai: Enda
ulih di-kenggai ka basah tu, there’s
nothing for it but to get wet; Enda
ulih di-kenggai ka bemain enggau nuan,
I can’t refuse to play with you.
Kengkang1, Ngengkang, cut in lengths:
Iya ng. tebu, he cuts up the sugarcane.
Kengkang2, stripes crossing at right
angles: Baju nya bekengkang mirah
enggau burak, that coat is cross-
striped red and white.
Kening, the forehead: Iya entap k., his
forehead is flat.
Kenjing, Ngenjing, stretch out (arm, leg):
Iya ng. ka lengan ngagai aku, he
stretched his arm towards me (in
Kenoh-Kenoh (kenuh-kenuh), busy,
bustling about: Iya k., she is bustling
Kenong (kkenung), only in anang k. ka,
get on with the job. See ngenong.
Kentut, break wind: Iya k., he broke
Kenu1 (kenuq), in k. ka aku, in my
Kenu2 (kenuq), see kemah.
Kenyadi (kenyadiq), Ngenyadi, be thrifty,
sparing (with): Iya ng., he is thrifty;
K. ka belanja nuan, spend your money
Kenyalang, Kenyali (kenyaliq), the horn-
Kenyang, satisfied (hunger): K. nuan?,
have you had enough?; K. bendar aku
makai enggau iya, he gave me a v.good
meal. Ngenyang: Mulong enda ng.
ka kitai baka asi, sago isn’t satisfying
like rice.
Kenyap, waking in the night: Aku jenak
bendar tindok namalam, ka dua k.
alai hari tawas, I slept v. soundly last
night, I woke only twice before dawn.
Ngenyap: Iya baru ng. (ka diri), he
has just fallen asleep again.

Kenyit, Ngenyit, move suddenly, jerk:
K.l, heave!; Anang ng. ka nanggong
iya, lift him gently; Anang ng. ka iya
enggau berita nya, break the news to
him gently. See ngenyit, tekenyit.
Kenyulong {kenyulung), a kind of fish.
Kepai1 {kepay), a fin: k. ikan, the fin of a
Kepai2 {kepay), Ngepai, wave, beckon to:
Iya ng. aku, he beckoned to me.
Kepai-Kepai {kepay-kepay), moving,
waving, flapping: Daun k., the leaves
are moving. Engkepai, to stir momen-
tarily: Sayap iya enda e., its wings are
Kepak, see pandok1.
Kepak-Kepak, fluttering, flapping, (esp.
of children) always on the move:
Menir a k., the flag is fluttering.
Kepai, Ngepai, flatten, press down (rice
on a plate): Iya ng. asi, she presses
down the rice. Engkepai: Asi e., the
rice is pressed down.
Kepala {kepalaq), chief, principal: siti
ari k. pengawa ngidup ka diri, one of
the principal occupations.
Kepayang1, a type of coloration in fowls
(brown speckled).
Kepayang2, a tree bearing fruit which is
poisonous when raw, but eaten after
cooking (H. Pangium edule).
Kepiat, a kind of river fish.
Kepit, a fastening: k. atap, the fasten-
ings of the thatch. Ngepit, press,
squeeze (under the arm, in a door,
etc.): Iya ng. jari aku enggau pintu, he
squeezed my hand in the door; Iya
ng. baju, he carries his coat under his
arm; Rumah iya k. jalai, his house
lies in a fork of the road.
Kepong {kepung'), having the end missing
or worn down: Tunjok iya k., the end
of his finger is missing; Pinsil aku k.,
my pencil hasn’t got a point.
Kepul, see kepong.
Kera1 {keraq), a monkey: Pulau tu
bekera, there are monkeys in this
group of trees. Bekera, look down
on, treat like dirt: Iya bekera ka aku,
he treats me like dirt.
Kera2 {keraq), naughty, mischievous.
Ngera: Anang ng. ka diri, don’t be
naughty; Pengera iya mansang, he’s
getting naughtier.
Kerabak, a kind of squirrel.
Kerabat, Ngerabat, tie with (unnecessar-
ily) many cords: Anang ng. pintu,
don’t fasten up the door more firmly
than is necessary.
Kerabu, Ngerabu, sprinkle: Iya ng.
dagin enggau garam, she sprinkled the
meat with salt.
87 Kerang
Kerah-Kerah, chattering: Indai tuai
orang k., old women chatter.
Kerai {keray), (clothing with) charms for
protection from enemies: K. iya
manah bendar, he has good protection;
baju k., a charmed jacket (sometimes
with buttons as armour); labong k., a
charmed head-dress.
Kerak, a crust, deposit: Periok bekerak,
there’s a crust on the pot; Mulut iya
bekerak laban pinang, his mouth is
stained with chewing.
Kerakah, fallen branches: K. ngalit ka
jalai, fallen branches block the road.
Ngerakah: Iya ng. dan kayu, he re-
moves the fallen branches.
Kerakam, charms inscribed on person
or thing: Perut iya bekerakam, a
charm is written on his belly. Ngera-
kam: Iya ng. perut aku, he wrote a
charm on my belly.
Kerakap, inferior sireh leaves.
Keramak, Ngeramak, claw (with front
paws): Mayau ng. aku, the cat
scratched me. Cf. keranjai.
Keramat, [Ar.] orang k., a seer, a worker
of miracles; Iya tan k., he can work
Keramba1 {kerambaq), see engkeramba.
Keramba2 {kerambaq), Ngeramba, make
faces at: Iya ng. aku, he made faces
at me.
Kerambit, Ngerambit, draw together:
Iya ng. ka moa bakul, he drew the
mouth of the basket in.
Kerampak1, a kind of tree.
Kerampak2, Kerampu, a giant squirrel.
Keran1, anxious to: Aku k. ka bet emu
enggau iya, I am anxious to meet him.
Ngeran: Nadai utai ng. nya (or balat
pengeran ati aku) ka betemu enggau
iya, I am extremely anxious to meet
Keran2 {keraari), early, before the proper
time: Kami merarau agi k. hari, we
lunched v. early.
Keranau {keranaw), Ngeranau, grope for
(in water): Iya ng. utai dalam ai, he
groped for sthg. in the water; Anang
ng. lank, don’t play with your food.
Keranding, clatter, clink: Nama utai k.
di bilik?, what’s that clatter in the
room?; Mangkok bekeranding, the
cups are clinking.
Kerang1, k. tebu, k. mulong, etc., sugar-
cane, sago palm, ripe for use: Tebu
kami nyau bekerang magang-magang,
all our sugarcane is ready for cutting.
Ngerang, to have passed the best
stage: Tebu kami nyau ng., our sugar-
cane is past its best.
Kerang2, shellfish, genus Area.

Kerangan, shingle, gravel, pebbles: Be-
kerangan ai pandi kita ditu?, is there
shingle at your bathing place here?
Keranggam, Ngeranggam, pick up,
snatch, a handful: Iya ng. padi ari
sintong aku, he snatched a handful of
paddy from my basket.
Keranggas, land exhausted by farming:
Aku enggai bumai k., I won’t farm
exhausted land.
Kerani, [Hind.] a clerk.
Keranjai (keranjay), Ngeranjai, scratch
with (hind) feet: Manok ng. tanah, the
fowls scratch the ground.
Keranji (keranjiq), a fruit-bearing tree
(H. Dialium platysepalum).
Kerantam, Ngerantam, see keramak.
Kerantong (kerantung), a kind of tree.
Kerapa, virgin forest.
Kerapu (kerapuq), a kind of grass found
on marshy land that has been farmed.
Kerarau (jkeraraw), see rekik.
Keraroh (keraruh), see keranding.
Keras, eager, determined, obstinate:
Anak iya k., his son is obstinate; Iyak.
ka belajar, he is determined to study;
Manok aku k. ngelaban, my cock
fights gamely. Ngeras: Anang ng.
nya, don’t be obstinate; Balat
pengeras ati iya, he is v. persistent.
Kerasak, a kind of small bird.
Kerat, a piece of fish, meat, etc.: Aku
bisi lima k. ikan ba mangkok aku, I’ve
got five bits of fish in my bowl.
Ngerat, cut up, slice: Iya ng. ikan, he
sliced the fish.
Keratak, Ngeratak, chip: Iya ng. bakal
bangkong iya, he is chipping the hull
of the boat he is making.
Kerawai (keraway), a kind of wasp.
Kerawang, stone set in a finger ring, etc.:
K. tinchin iya manah bendar, the stone
in his ring is a fine one. Ngerawang:
Iya ng. tinchin, he set a stone in the ring.
Kerawis, Ngerawis, see keramak.
Kerebai (kerebay), 1. a kind of tree;
2. the purple dye obtained from its
leaves: Kain iya bekerebai, her cloth
is dyed with k. Ngerebai: Iya ng.
kain, she dyes the cloth with k.
Kerebak, Ngerebak, unstick: Iya ng. ka
balut telih aku, he detached the
bandage that was sticking to my
wound. See ngerebak.
Kereban, equipment: k. tukang, car-
penter’s tools; k. belumba, all that is
needed for racing.
Kerebau (kerebaw), Kerebo, a buffalo.
Kerebok (kerebukj, Ngerebok, take out
with finger: Iya ng. gula ari kebok,
he got some sugar out of the jar with
his finger; Iya ng. mat a jelu, he
gouged out the animal’s eye.
8 Keresap
Kerecham, Ngerecham, screw up (face):
K. ka moa nuan, Jang, screw up your
face. See ngerecham.
Keredam, a kind of tree with soft wood.
Keredi, (of child) stunted: Tak k. gamal
anak iya, his child is undersized.
Keredut, Ngeredut, wrinkle, crease: Iya
ng. ka kening, he wrinkled his brow.
See ngeredut.
Keregau (keregaw), Ngeregau, ransack:
Iya ng. sarah, he ransacked the box.
Kereja, work; what s.o. does: K. iya
manah bendar, what he does is well
done; Aku ngabas k. iya, I inspected
what he had done; Nama k. nuan
ditu?, what are you doing here?
Ngereja, do: Iya ng. pengawa aku, he
did my work; Indai iya ng. baka ti
di-ator iya, his mother did as he told
her. Beker eja: Iya bekereja, 1. he is
working; 2. sp. he works on the
rubber plantation.
Kerejai, a kind of fern.
Kerekah, Ngerekah, see kekah.
Kerekai (Jcerekay), Ngerekai, expose to
sun: Iya ng. benih, she puts the seed
out in the sun; Anang bekerekai,
don’t go out in the sun.
Kerekoh (kerekuli), k. tulang, cracking
sound in the body: Tulang iya bekere-
koh bai nanggong utai berat, he lifted
a heavy weight and sthg. went crack.
Kerema, buah k., dates (fruit).
Keremah, Ngeremah: Iya ng. pemakai
kami, he picked out this bit and that
from our food (instead of taking from
the edge).
Kerembai (kerembay), Ngerembai,
spread, open: Iya ng. ka tikai. she
spread the mat; Iya ng. ka layar, he
set the sail; Burong ng. ka sayap, the
bird opened its wings.
Keremok (k.eremuk'), Ngeremok, dig the
nails, claws, in: Mayau nya ng. jari
aku, that cat dug its claws into my
Keremping, dented: Tin nya k., that tin
is dented. Ngeremping: Anang ng. ka
tin, don’t dent the tin.
Kerengit, sandflies.
Kerengkap, a trap for birds. Ngerengkap:
Iya ng. burong, he traps birds.
Kerepas, remains, remainder: Tu k. duit
aku, this is all the money I have left.
Ngerepas, finish up: Iya ng. padi, he
took what was left of the paddy.
Kerepu, a (table) fork: Iya bekerepu, he
has, uses, a fork.
Keresa1, valuables, heirlooms: Iya
nyual k. apai iya, he sold his father’s
precious possessions.
Keresa2, see kereban.
Keresap, small shrimps.