Native opium, 1887: with an appendix

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Native opium, 1887: with an appendix native opium 1863
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China Imperial Maritime Customs special series
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Native opium
China. Maritime Customs
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Published by order of the Inspector General of Customs
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iv, 70 p.


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China. Hai guan zong shui wu si shu
China. Maritime Customs Service
Opium -- China -- History ( lcsh )
Opium trade -- China -- History ( LCSH )


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i.—Inspector GeneraFs Circular No. 375,Second Series :—Native Opium : I・G・ calls for Report
respecting ・・・ ・・• ・・・ ・6・ ・・・ • • • ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ... ... i
2・一Replies to above Circular :—
Newcliwang : Commissioner Edgar's Despatch No. 273 of 30th May 1887 ・・・ ・・・ 3
Tientsin : Commissioner Detring's Despatch No. 326 of 8th June 1887 … ・・・ ・・・ 5
Chefoo : Commissioner Moorhead's Despatch No. 366 of 31st May 1887 ・・・ … 7
Enclosure: Opium Comparative Table ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 10
Icliang: Assistant-in-Charge Montgomery's Despatch No. 235 of 1st June 1887 ・・・ 11
Enclosure No. 1: Tracing of the Course -of the Yangtze from Hsii-cliou to
Hankow ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ (Facing page 12)
Enclosure No. 2 : Copy of Label on a Cake of Yunnan Opium … ・・・ ・・. 13
Hankow : Commissioner Bredon's Despatch. No. 385 of 17th Juue 1887 ・・・ •… i4
Kiukiang: Commissioner Simpson?s Despatch No. 251 of 24th May 1887 ・・・ ・・・ 20
Wuliu: Commissioner T. F. Hughes5 Despatch No. 271 of 26th May 1887 … .・. 2i
Chinkiang : Commissioner Novion?s Despatch No. 321 of 2nd June 1887 ・・・ ・・・ 23
Shanghai: Commissioner Hobson's Despatch No. 704 of 10th June 1887 ・•・・ ..・ 25
Ningpo : Commissioner Kleinwachte^s Despatch No. 338 of 30th May 1887 .・. 28
Wenchow : Assistant-in-Charge Brazier's Despatch No. 252 of 2nd June 1887 … ... 30
Foochow : Commissioner Hannen's Despatch No. 469 of 24th May 1887 ..・ ..・ 32
Tamsui: Assistant-in-Charge Chalmers' Despatch No. 280 of 30th May 1887.......... 34
Takow : Assistant・in・Chaige A. Lay's Despatch No. 290 of 1st June 1887 ・・. .・・ 36
Amoy : Commissioner McLeavy Brown's Despatch No・ 472 of 31st May 1887............ 37
Mr. van Aalst,s Memorandum on Native Opium in Amoy District ・・・ .・. 38
Swatow : Commissioner McKean's Despatch No. 372 of 30th May 1887 ..・ ....... 43
Canton : Commissioner White's Despatch No. 631 of 5th July 1887 ............... 45
Kiungchow: Assistant-in-Charge Clarke's Despatch No. 248 of 28th May 1887 ・・・ 46
Pakhoi: Commissioner W. Lay's Despatch No. 301 of 30th May 1887.................. 47

3.—Mr. Ohlmer's Digest of Summary of Port Replies to I・G・ Circulars Nos. 372 and 375 of 1887 48
牛一Tabular Summary of Replies as to Production, Consumption, Name, Value (Raw and Boiled),
and Taxation of Native Opium ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ (Facing page 52)
5. —Tabular Summary of Replies as to Production, Consumption, and Price of Native Opium;
also Estimated Population of the several Provinces ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ (Facing page 52)
6. —Appendix (Native Opium, 1863)
Inspector General's Circular No. 2 of 1864 - Information called for respecting Native
Opium •・・ •・. •・・ ... ・.・ ... .・・ ... ... .・・ ••・ 55
Replies to above Circular :—
Newchwang : Commissioner Mackey's Desp毗ch No. 2 of 20th April 1864 ・・・ ・・・ 56
Tientsin : Assistant-in-Charge Bakers Despatch No. 5 of 26th March 1864 ・・・ 57
Chefoo : Commissioner Hannen's Despatch No. 9 of 8th March 1864 ・・・ ・・・ 58
Haukow : Acting Commissioner Macpherson^ Despatch No. 8 of 16th March 1864 58
Kiukiang : Assistant-in-Charge Hammond's Despatch No. 7 of 17th March 1864 ・・・ 60
Chinkiang : Acting Commissioner Lordjs Despatch No. 27 of 12th September 1864 61
Shanghai: Commissioner Dick's Despatch No. 8 of 16th March 1864 ・・・ ・・・ 62
Ningpo : Assistant・imChatge J・ Brown's Despatch No. 7 of 23rd March 1864 ・・・ 63
Foochow : Commissioner Baron de Meritens, Despatch No. 54 of 4th October 1864 65
Amoy : Commissioner G・ Hughes' Despatch No. 7 of 16th March 1864 ・・・ ・・・ 66
Swatow : Acting Commissioner Williams' Despatch No. 15 of 4th April 1864 ・・・ 67
Canton : Assistant・in・Chnrge Luson's Despatch No. 22 of 27th April 1864 ... 68

Circular No. 375, Second Series.
Inspectorate General of Customs,
Peking, 5th May 1887.
In continuation of my Circulars No. 2 of 1864 and Nos. 64, § 2. 7°, and
372, 21° to 24°, Second Series :
Concerning Native Opium :
I write to request that in. connexion with the inquiry you are now making you will
supply me with such information as you can procure, what ever may be its value,
on the following points :—
1°. Is Native Opium known at your port ?
2°. From what places does it arrive, and by what Chinese characters does
your locality describe each variety ?
3°. What does each variety sell for per picul at your port ?
4°. What taxes have to be paid before the consumer is reached ?
5°. Wliat is the production of each place from which Native Opium
arrives supposed to now amount to—how many piculs a year ?
6°. What is known at your port about the production, consumption, and
price, etc., etc., etc., of the varieties produced in Manchuria,
Szechwan, and Yiinnan; and is there any other variety spoken
of or commencing to be noticed ?
Native Opium,
Circular 375・

Native Opium,
Circular 375.
The Chinese merchants who buy and sell Opium at your port are certain to know
something about the points this Circular aims at elucidating : get as much informa-
tion from them as you possibly can in this connexion and about Native Opium
generally, and reply before the end of the month.
I am,
Your obedient Servant,
Inspector General.
The Commissioners of Customs.

Native Opium,
Circular 375.
The Chinese merchants who buy and sell Opium at your port are certain to know
something about the points this Circular aims at elucidating : get as much informa-
tion from them as you possibly can in this connexion and about Native Opium
generally, and reply before the end of the month.
I am,
Your obedient Servant,
Inspector General.
The Commissioners of Customs.

N.B.—1 Picul = 100 Catties = 133# lbs.
1 Haikwan Tael = 6s. 8/・ par value = 4s. 10/・ @ 5s. at present rate of exchange・

Native Opium,
No. 273.
Custom House,
Newchwang, 30th May 1887.
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Circular No. 375, Second
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
and, in reply, to submit to you the following Report.
i°.—Native Opium is known here.
20.—It is extensively cultivated throughout the three eastern provinces. In the province
of Hei-lung-cliiang the principal producing districts are Pu-lvuei (卜魁),Mo-erh-ken (墨爾根),
Hu-lan-ting (呼蘭廳),and Clil-cli'i-lia-erh.(齊齊哈爾);in the province of Kirin the most
productive districts are Ning-ku-ta (甯古塔),Po-tu-no (伯都訥),San-hsing (三姓),A-le-chu-
ka (阿勒楚喀),and A-sliih-lio (阿什 河);and in that of Fengtien, Feng-t(ien-fu (奉天府),
Ha-ta (哈達),Chin-cliou-fu (錦州府),Feng-liuang-cli^eng-jvai (鳳凰城外),and Hsing-ching-
pien-wai (興京邊外).
All varieties are known here under the generic name Tung-tcu (東 土).
3°.—The only variety in request here is Manchurian, which sells at the following rates:—
(N.B.—Neivchzvang Tts. 108.5 = Tfe. 100.)
4°.—The recognised taxes in the places of production are as follows:—
In Kirin J Duty, Newchzvang Tts. 0.1 per catty.
In Kirin
” 0.2
I Likin, Newchwang Tts. 0.2 per catty.
No information can be obtained as to the charges in Hei-lung-chiang. Opium in transit to
this port evades the payment of further taxes (by avoiding the few barriers en route) till its
arrival in Yingtzti, when it 昭ain pays Duty, Neivckrvang Tts. o.2.4.4 per catty, and Likin,
Nezuchwang Tts. o.3.4.4 per catty.

Native Opium,
In addition to the above taxes there is an extra charge, Wai-shih-fei (外使費),which is
a perquisite of the Likin runners: in Kirin this charge is fixed at Nervchzvang Tts. 0.1.6 per
3 catties; other provinces have no fixed rate. In Fengtien Opium dealers are also taxed under
instructions from the Hu Pu : an 让inerant vendor is charged N&wch/wang Tts. 24 for a Hsing-
p'iao (行 票),and the same sum is paid by a divan keeper for a Tso-p(iao (坐 票). These licenses
convey permission to deal in both Foreign and Native Opium.
5°.—The present annual production of the tliree eastern provinces is estimated at 8,000
piculs, of which Kirin is said to produce 5,000 piculs; Fengtien, 2,000 piculs; and Hei-lung-
chiang, 1,000 piculs. Of the 8,000 piculs, 5,000 at least are consumed in the surrounding
districts, while the remainder is said to be smuggled into Shansi tlirougli gaps in the Great Wall.
6°.—Manchurian Opium—the price of which is given in paragraph 30—is considered so
superior to that from any other province in China that there is no sale or demand for other
varieties in this district.
I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Z仇spector General of Customs,

TIENTSIN. Native Opium, 1887. Tientsin ・
No. 326. General. Custom House,
I.G. No. 933- Tientsin, Sth June 1887. f






I have the honour to comply with the ins true tions contained in your Circular
No. 375, Second Series:
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
by stating, in reply to the various queries therein contained, thus:—
i°.—Native Opium is known and consumed at Tientsin and all through the provinces of
which the port of Tientsin is tlie outlet.
2° and 3°.—The Native Opium used at Tientsin is mostly produced in Chihli, blit there is
also Opium coming overland or by junk, as the case may be, from Shansi, Honan, Shantung,
Kwantung (Manchuria), Szechwan, and Yunnan.
Chilili Opium is called 本 地 土,and costs Tts. 272 per picul.
Shansi ”
Honan ”
Shantung ”
Kwantung ”
Yunnan „
4°.—Native Opium does not appear in the Returns of the Tientsin Customs. If imported
at all by vessels of the Foreign type, it must be smuggled in small quantities. Seizures have
very seldom been made. If imported by junks from Shanghai, it is subject to an Import Duty
of Tts. and a Likin of Tts. per 100 catties, which is paid to the Native Custom
House, known as Ch'ao-kuan (鈔 關).
It is, however, mostly brought by road from the interior and in small quantities, so as to
escape the attention of the barriers and tax offices, which seem to have no regular tariff for
exacting their dues from this article of trade.
5°.—It has not been possible to obtain from Chinese merchants at this port even an
approximate estimate of the production of each place from which Native Opium arrives at

Native Opium,
6°.—All information collected agrees in estimating the production of Native Opium in
North China as very large, and that for every chest of Foreign Opium imported at least nine
chests of Native Opium are consumed. It is further stated that the Native Opium is mostly
consumed in the immediate vicinity of the place of production, and that of the large quantity
grown in the interior only a very small portion finds its way to this port for local consumption.
But even at Tientsin inquiries made in different quarters and through different agents go to
show that for every three smokers of Foreign Opium there are seven consumers of the Native
drug. Foreign Opium is only consumed by the wealthier classes, whilst the poorer people
confine themselves exclusively to the Native production.
As nearly as can be ascertained, there are about 170 shops in Tientsin engaged in the
business of selling the Native Opium, drug, but notwithstanding this number, it is a fact that
comparatively little Opium is consumed in Tientsin, owing to the growing influence of the
abstention societies (在理會),the 40,000 members of which neither smoke the drug or
tobacco, nor drink liquors of any kind.
I have, etc”
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Customs,

CHEFOO. Native Opium, 1887. Chefo O・
No. 366. Custom House, Chefoo, 3isæ–¹ May 1887.
I have the honour to refer to my last despatch regarding Opium, No. 363, and to
reply to your Circular No. 375, Second Series:
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting.
i°.—Native Opium is known at Cliefoo.
20.一Native Opium is here called Hsi-t'ib (西 土)and Pen-ti-t(u (本地 土); it is not known
here by any other name than these. To Cliefoo it comes from Kwantung (關 東),Honan (j可 南),
Kiangpei (江北),and Chihli (直隸).It is also extensively produced in this province (see Cliefoo
despatch No. 363).
3°.—Native Opium, so far as I can ascertain, is not divided into classes, nor is its price
regulated by the districts from which it is brought, but simply by its pureness一that is, by its
ability to stand mixing with sesamum stuff and other ingredients. 1st quality is said to be
worth Hlcffts. 390; 2nd quality, Hk.Tts. 320; 3rd quality, Hk.Tts. 200 per picul (see Chefoo
despatch No. 363).
4°.—The only tax which appears to be collected in Shantung 011 Shantung Opium is a
payment of Uk.Tts. 10.50, known as 落 地 捐. This tax is collected not only on Shantung
but on all Native Opium. Opium from other provinces pays Likin before reaching Shantung;
it is, however, again collected in Shantung. The Likin in Honan on Native Opium is said to be
over Hk.Ttiï¼›. 40 per picul. Some years ago Szechwan Opium and Yunnan Opium were sold
here, but now they are unable to compete with the Shantung drug.
5°.—I find it quite impossible to obtain any information as to tlie amount of production
of the districts which supply this neighbourhood with the Native drug. I enclose a table which
shows the import of Foreign Opium to this port from 1863 to 1886. In 1866 the import
reached 4,000 piculs; in 1867, 186& 1869 the import was about 3,000 piculs; in 1870 it exceeded
4,000 piculs; in 1871 it was 3,500 piculs; in 1872, over 4,000 piculs; in 1873, 3,300 piculs; in
1874 it readied 4,400 piculs; 1875, 1876, 1877, and 1878 were famine years in Shantung,—in
1875 the import fell to about 3,000 piculs; in 1876 it was 2,500 piculs; and in 1877, 2,400
piculs; in 1878 it almost reached 4,000 piculs; in 1879 it exceeded 4,000 piculs; but in 1880
our Returns show a decrease in tlie import of Foreign Opium of" 1,535 piculs, and, together with

Native Opium,
this decrease, there appears, for tlie first time in our Returns, an importation of 2 piculs of
Native Opium—probably Szechwan. In 1881 the import of Foreign Opium showed a further
decrease of 733 piculs, and this was accompanied by tlie importation of 39 piculs of Native
Opium. In 1882 the decrease was 699 piculs, which decrease、vas accompanied by an importation
of 25 piculs of Native Opium. In 1883 tlie decrease was 299 piculs, but in this year our Returns
did not show any Native Opium. The probability is that in 1880, wlien tlie first appearance
of Native Opium took place, a considerable quantity came by junk from Newchivang and by
road from the West, which of course dicl not come into the Returns, and. that from that time tip
to tlie present the importation and growth of Native Opium increased. In 1884 the decrease
of Foreign Opium was 51 piculs, and the quantity of Native Opium which appeared in our
Returns was 2 piculs. In 1885 the decrease、vas 426 piculs. In 1886 tlie importation of Foreign
Opium increased by 275 piculs; this increase in 1886 is attributed to the failure of the Native
crop. Therefore, in 1879 we see the import of Foreign Opium was 4,174 piculs, and in 1886 (in
which year tlie crop of Native Opium was ins 11 伍cient) it was 706 piculs; thus, in seven years
the annual importation of Foreign Opium has fallen off by 3,468 piculs. During these seven
years the country has been prosperous, and its purchasing power was much greater in 1886
than it was in 1878 and 1879, which two years were just after the famine which so grievously
afflicted Shantung and parts of Honan and Chihli. It is to be observed that in 1876 and 1877
there was a great decrease in Foreign Opium. We see that during tlie famine the consumption
of Foreign Opium decreased but did not cease. The reason it did not cease is that it was
smoked by the rich and moderately rich; the poor smoked the Native. When times became
bad, the moderately rich had to smoke the Native, and they became accustomed to it. The
boys of the well-to-do class, when they began to learn to smoke, learned to smoke the Native.
Therefore, in 1876 and 1877 the middle class liad become accustomed to the use of the Native
drug and learned to prefer it. In 1878, times having got better, the Opium merchants brought
forward an increased supply; and in 1879 a still increased supply was ordered. The dealers here
at the port were, I believe, during 1878 and the early part of 1879 still unacquainted witli the
change of taste of the middle class; but to wards the end of 1879 they became aware of the fact
that the custom of smoking the Native drug had established itself, and they wrote for decreased
supplies, which came in 1880, and they then, in order to keep the Opium trade in their hands
by supplying Native Opium, wrote for a small lot (2 piculs) of Native (probably Szechwan) Opium,
to try to introduce it. In 1881 and in 1882 they repeated the attempt to introduce Szechwan
Opium; but it appears it lias not succeeded. Opium-smoking is not decreasing: it is increasing.
We may say that Foreign Opium in the districts supplied through this port is now annually
supplanted by 3,500 piculs of Native drug. This fact would give an impetus to the production,
would bring it under the notice of, and render it more obtainable by, rustics, village mechanics,
etc. Its use among this class would therefore increase. We may conclude that in 1875 as many
poor smoked tlie Native as there were rich who smoked tlie Foreign,—that is, that in 1875 there
were consumed by the poor 3,000 to 4,000 piculs of Native drug,—and if the Native drug lias
increased (I tliink I have shown it must have done so) since 1875 by 3,500 piculs, that there
must now be consumed in the districts -within reach of this port, say, 6,500 to 7,000 piculs, or
perhaps 8,000 piculs, of Native Opium一that is, for each picul of Foreign Opium which is consumed

Native Opium,
in the Cliefoo-supplied districts, there are about io piculs of Native Opium consumed. This
is a subject on which, for the forming of a correct opinion, there would be required careful
consideration and a painstaking collection of facts; and this collection of facts cannot be made
except by visiting tlie districts in the poppy season and carefully noting the quantity of ground
under poppy crop, and ascertaining by personal and vicarial inspection the Opium in use in the
shops in the country.
6°.—There is not much Manchurian imported一about 20 piculs. Kirin Opium is considered
particularly good, and sells at a higher rate than Shantung; its price may be said to be about
Hk.Tts. 460 per picul. Szechwan is in quality about equal to Kirin, but is not now in use here.
In 1880, 2 piculs of Szechwan were imported; in 1881, 39 piculs; in 1882, 25 piculs; in 1884,
2 piculs; and in 1886, 60 catties. This Opium pays Likin at Hankow. It has sold here for about
Hk.Tts. 400 to Hk.Tts. 450.
70.—It is impossible at present to obtain reliable information. The Opium dealers are not
sufficiently intelligent to enable them to understand the object of inquiries. Statements and
explanations would only increase the difficulty of getting on with them. They believe that our
interests are opposed to theirs, and that therefore our action is certain to be injurious to them.
They then decide that it might be detrimental and could not possibly be advantageous to
them to tell us the truth. I have not made my inquiries from them direct, but through our
Native Staff.
. I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Lispedor General of CiLstoms, . .
P.S.—Yunnan Opium is not in use here.—R. B. M.

Native Opium,
Chefo o.
Opium Comparative Table.
Description. 1863. 1864. 1865. 1866. 1867. 186& 1869. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873. 1874.
Piculs. Piculs ・ Piculs ・ Piculs. Piculs ・ Piculs ・ Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs ・ Piculs.
Malwa 923 1,308 2,468 3,799 2,829 3,240 3,018 4,014 3,439 4,130 3,231 4,369
Patna 43 83 172 152 96 51 51 40 65 33 35 32
Benares 40 59 46 73 142 126 76 74 80 67
Persian 6 7 â–  5 5 1 5
Prepared ..t.・ 14 IO 17 28 3 4 5 IO I 4
Total.... 980 1,401 2,697 4244 2,974 3,375 3,221 4,195 3,586 4,238 3,346 4,477
Description. 1875. 1876. 1877. 187& 1879. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886.
Picids. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piczils. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs, Piculs. Piculs. Piculs.
Malwa 3,100 2,457 2,355 3,530 3,576 2,099 1460 987 679 679 285 553
Patna 41 24 48 60 31 43 17 16 19 12 18
Benares 56 32 65 126 331 321 274 185 198 151 128 IOI
Persian ・・・ •・・ I 99 207 188 129 18 15 8 5 34
Prepared … … …
Total...・ 3,i89 2,530 2,445 3,803 4,174 2,639 1,906 1,207 908 857 43i 706
Description. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886.
Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs. Piculs.
Native 2 39 25 2 0.60

ICHANG. Native Opium, 1887. Ichang.
No. 235. Custom House,
l.Gr. Ichang, 1st June 1887.
In accordance with the instructions of your Circular No. 375, Second Series:
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
I have the honour to report as follows.
i°.—Native Opium is known at Ichang.
20.—Ch(iao-tcu (橋 土)is produced in the Ichang prefecture, Yun~tcu (雲 土)or Nan-t(u
(南 土)arrives from tlie province of Yunnan, and Ch(uan-tlu (Jl| 土)from the province of
3°.—Ch(iao-tcu sells for about Hk.Tts. 250 per picul; Yun-tcu, for about Hk.Tts. 280 per
picul; Cl^uan-t'u (best), for about Hk.Tts. 250 per picul; and Chcuan-tcu (inferior), for about
Hk.Tts. 220 per picul.
40.—On Yun-t:u and Chcuan-t!u, en route to Ichang, a tax of 5 cash per Hang weight,
equal to about Hlc.Tts. 4.77 per picul, is levied at ICueicliou-fu (夔 卯]府),and another of 8 cash
per liavg weight, or about Hk.Tts. 7.65 per picul, on arrival at Ichang. Chliao-tcu pays a tax
of 8 cash per Hang weight, or about Hk.Tts. 7.65 per picul, on arrival at Ichang. To counterac£
the tendency of Opium dealers to avoid the taxing stations by sending their Opium across the
hills, it is the practice to tax only one-fifth of the real weight.
5°.—I can acquire no reliable estimate of the amount of Yun-tciv, Ckuan-tlu, or Ch'iao-t'u
produced annually.
6°.—Nothing is known at Icliang of the variety of Opium produced in Manchuria.
The product of Yunnan, Yun-tcu or Nan-tlu, is made into cylincler-sliaped cakes, about
8 inches high, each weighing from 80 to 150 Hang. The product of Szechwan, Ch'uan-t'u, is
made into flat, circular cakes, varying in weight from 12 to 50 Hang. The product of this
prefecture, Chciao-tlu, is made into cakes similar in weight and shape to those of Ch'uan-t'u.
The colour of these three kinds of Native Opium varies from dark yellow to black. The worse
the quality tlie darker it is. The interior of the cakes is in a semi-fluid, viscous state. The
exterior is drier but sufficiently moist for tlie paper in which it is wrapped to adhere. Cli'iao-t'u
derives its name from a market town called Kung-chia-ch'iao (龔 家橋),in tlie Pa-tung-hsien
(巴東縣). Here the poppy of the Icliang prefecture was first grown, and the Opium from that
locality has the reputation of being tlie best kind of Ch'iao-t'u. The poppy is chiefly cultivated

Native Opium,
in the Pa-tung (巴東),Kuei-chou (歸州),and. Hsing-slian (興山)districts of this prefecture.
At Ho-feng-chou (鶴 峯 州)the cultivation is increasing, but the product is not much appreciated
and is consumed in the vicinity of the place of production. The local name for it is Kuo-pei-tcu
(鍋背 土),from the colour being as black as the outside of a cooking-pan. The poppy is also
coming into cultivation at Ch/ang-lo-hsien (長樂縣),and the Yun-yang (鄭陽)prefecture, in
the north of Hupeh, grows a considerable amount.
The Opium produced in Yunnan lias the credit of being uniformly good. The best
Chfuan-t'u is grown near the Yunnan border. That from the Pa-hsien (巴縣),in the Chung-
ch'in肓 prefecture, lias gained some renown, and is called Lao-ch'ang-V a (老 塲 土),from having
been cultivated for many years.
Yun-tlu and Clifuan-t'u are bought from the cultivators ancl stored at the following
places: Lii-cliou (濾艸),Yung-chcuan-hsien (永川縣),Ch'ung-cli^ng (重慶),Pei-chou (丫咅州),
Feng-tu-hsien (翱都縣),Cliung-cliou (忠州),E?uei-chou-fu (夔州 府),and Wu-shan-lisien
(巫山縣)• From these stores the Opium dealers supply their wants. I cannot ascertain wliat
taxes are paid before the Opium reaches the stores, but thence to Slia-sliih (沙 市)three are
levied, viz., 5 cash per liang at Kfuei-chou-fu, 8 cash per Hang at Icliang, and 8 cash per Liang
at Sha-shih. The d^pot for the supply of Opium to places further down the river appears to
be at Sha-shih, and to it Fii仇-t'u, Ch'uan-t'u, and Chfiao-tu are carried in considerable quantities
across the hills by armed bands of 80 to 100 men, and all taxation is evaded. Each man carries
a load of 88 catties. The line of country taken to Sha-shih is chiefly through the Li-ch'uan-hsien
(利川縣) and the Hsien-feng-hsien (咸豐縣),in the Shih-nan (施南)prefecture, or through
the Pa-tung-hsien (巴東縣)and the I-tu-hsien (宜都縣),in this prefecture. I am informed
that the Provincial Govemment has under consideration the establishment of barriers in the
Hsien-feng-hsien and the Pa-tung-hsien, to intercept the Opium.
I enclose a tracing of the course of the Yangtze from Hsli-chou (叙 少R) to Hankow,
showing the position of the various places mentioned in this Report with regard to the river
and each other; also copy of a label on a cake of Yunnan Opium.
I have, etc.,
A ssistant-in- Charge.
Inspector General of Customs,


Native Opium,
Icha NG・
Copy of Label on a Cake of Yunnan Opium.
芙 山 川會
蓉 後 福
第 挑 盛
弐 選 星
號 上 本
計 色 號
種 乾 向
删 在

Native Opium,
No. 385. Custom House,
Hankow, 17th June 1887.
In reply to your Circulars Nos. 372 and 375, I beg now to submit to you such
information as I have been able to obtain regarding the production of, the taxation on, and
the trade in, Native Opium.
Ten of tlie eighteen provinces con tribute to the supply of this market: one, Szechwan,
a very large quantity; three, Yunnan, Honan, and Kweichow, each a considerable amount;
while the remainder一Hupeh, Anhwei (or Kiangnan), Chekiang, Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi—
contribute a small quantity. I have not heard of Manchurian Opium coming here; none of the
local merchants seem to know it.
Szechwan produces the best quality of Opium and a larger amount than any other
province—I believe it might be said truly, more than any three other provinces put together.
Almost all tlie Opium consumed in Szechwan is of indigenous growth. How mucli that local
consumption amounts to may be assumed when I say that I am credibly informed that at
least 70 per cent, of the adult men, many women, and some not much more tlian children smoke
Opium. Add to the local consumption the export outwards, amounting most certainly to
some thousands of piculs, and the figure of production must become one of no inconsiderable
size―I have heard it put as high as 150,000 piculs a year.
Opium is grown more or less in every part of Szechwan, but the principal producing
districts are P'ei-cliou (丫咅州),Feng-tu (豐R 都),E?ai-hsien (開縣),Tung-lisiang (東鄕),Liang-
shan 傑山),Tien-chiang (墊江),Cli^ang-sliou (長壽),Clien-chl (珍溪),Ta-chu (大竹),
Wan-hsien (萬縣),Yung-chfuan (永川),Hsu-chou (叙艸),Ku-ling (古陵),Li-t{u (李渡),
Yun-yang (雲陽),Lin-cliiang (臨江),and Pai-sha (白沙).
The name by which Szechwan Opium is ordinarily known is Cheucm-tlu (川 土). I am
told that the annual export of Szechwan Opium amounts to at least 10,000 piculs. Of this,
from 3,000 to 4,000 piculs find a market at Slia-shih (汝 市);Hunan province takes 2,000 to

3,000 piculs; Hankow absorbs at least 2,000 piculs, sometimes more; from 1,000 to 2,000 piculs
go to Shanghai; and a certain amount is no doubt used between Hankow and Shanghai.
Yunnan Opium, commonly called Yun-tlu (雲 土),is produced principally in a district
called Hui-cli(uan (會川),north of Yiinnan-fu and near the point where the River of Golden
Sand joins the Yangtze. Of course the production of Opium is not confined to this district,
for it is grown pretty generally all over Yiimian. The figures representing production and
export are hard to get; I can only find that from 400 to 500 piculs come to Hankow each
year, and that Hunan takes a large quanti£y. Seeing that Hunan is not included in the Opium-
producing provinces, and that it is bound to draw its supply from somewhere and naturally
from the nearest source, I should say Hunan must use Yunnan Opium to an extent amounting
to thousands of piculs annually.
Kweichow Opium, or Kuei-tlu (貴 土),is produced for home use and for export into
Southern Hunan, Kiangsi, and the Two Kwang provinces. The amount which annually finds
its way to Hankow is put down as from 100 to 200 piculs, and the total production is said to
be nearly equal to, blit somewhat less than, that of Yunnan.
Honan Opium is known here as Northern Opium, or Pei-t(u (#匕 土),which name is given
also to the Opium which comes from Shantung and Sliansi. Honan is becoming rapidly
important as an Opium-producing province. The quantity grown is becoming larger and the
quality of the drug has already so improved as to be almost as good as Patna Opium. It is
said that in Honan the ground is richer than in the mountainous western and south-western,
provinces, and that the proportion of arable land is large. A crop of poppies can be grown
and gathered in between the first and third mon ths of eacli year, giving an opportunity for
a spring crop of some cereal and an autumn crop of something else. This being so, enough
cereals and roots can be grown to provide food for the population and leave the valuable Opium
crop to be turned into money. The Opium crop, therefore, being a surplus, and producible
without interfering with the local food supply, perhaps causes the officials to offer less opposition
to the growth of the poppy than they would otherwise do. It seems that Honan Opium is
becoming the most popular variety of Native Opium here. The abundance or scarcity of the
crop there has a great influence on tlie Szechwan trade. A good crop in Honan means a
diminished, and a bad one an increased, demand for Szechwan Opium一the difference probably
amounting, one way or the other, to a thousand piculs.
Small qua nt ities of Opium are produced in Hupeh, principally in the prefectures of
Icliang (宜昌)and Shih-nan(施南),which are nearest to Szechwan. The amount produced
is insignificant. The business in it is carried on in a petty way, producers apparently growing
for their own needs and sending whatever surplus they may have in small lots to Sha-shih.
This Hupeh variety is locally known as Pa-tung-t(u (巴東 土)and CJ^iao-t'u (橋 土).
Chekiang Opium is called here Teai-chiang (台 漿);Shantung and Shansi produce what
is known specially as T(ang-slian-tcu (f當山 土),though Opium from these provinces, as well
as that from Honan and Kiangnan, are generally known as Pei-t'u (北 土). Shensi Opium is
(西 土). Some of these varieties of Opium are occasionally seen in the market here,
but the quantity is so small as to be unworthy of consideration, except as showing that Opium
is produced in the provinces named.
Native Opium,

Native Opium,
In almost all the provinces named there are special Opium markets where the producers
and dealers and the local and outside traders come in contact. From these centres the
Opium is distributed. Two are in Szechwan—one, K'ai-hsien (開縣),iii the east, and the other,
Hsu-cliou-fu (叙州府),in the soutli. At the latter place, which is not very far from Hui-chcuan,
in Yunnan, the Opium of tliat district finds its market. The great centre for Kweichow Opium
is Hung-chiang-lisien (洪江縣),in Hunan, whence supplies for Hunan and Kiangsi are drawn.
Cheang-te (常德)is also an import market in Hunan. The great place for the Opium trade in
Hupeli is Sha-sliih (沙市),to which Hankow ranks as second.
Szechwan Opium is carried eastward either by water, following the course of the Yangtze,
or by a land route. The two routes seem to meet at Sha-shih. From Sha-shih the journey
to Hankow is made by the Great River. At Hankow it again leaves the river and is carried
overland across mountains by narrow and difficult roads until it again strikes the Yangtze,
near Chinkiang. Opium from Yunnan and Kweichow comes by the Tungting lake. From
Yo-cliou (岳州),at the junction of the lake and river, it follows the course of the Szechwan
Opium. Honan Opium is all said to come overland. The land carriage of Opium is effected by
men's labour. One man carries about 70 catties. For carrying it from Hankow to Shanghai
I am told he gets 10,000 cash, which, is more than twice as much as it would, cost to send it by
steamer; but the steamer cannot walk round the Custom Houses and Likin barriers.
A great deal of Szechwan and Yiinnan Opium is carried by travellers. Cash and silver
are scarce in the Far West, and Opium takes the place of money in many localities as the basis
of barter. When starting on a journey a Native carries his estimated expenses in the form of
Opium, selling here and there just as much as he presently requires. Students going to Peking
all seem to carry their funds in the form, of Opium.
The range of price for Native Opium is considerable. The method of quotation in the
market is so much per 100 Hang. This is sometimes as low as Tts. 13; occasionally it gets
up to Tts. 16; and, in rare instances, to Tts. 20. These figures would give an equivalent of
Hk.Tts. 190, Hlc.Tts. 233, and 293 per picul. The price we get at our auctions from the
sale of confiscated Native Opium is from Hk.Tts. 200 to Hlc.Tts. 220, which are fair figures to
take for average value. At any particular moment good Szechwan rules a shade higher than
any other variety; Honan comes next, and close; Yunnan and Kweichow follow at a small
interval. I am told that a good deal of Honan Opium goes to Chekiang, to Soocliow, to Nanking,
to Changchow near Chinkiang, and to Shanghai. At the last-mentioned place, I am told, it is
largely used to mix with Foreign Opium.
One point I find all the dealers unanimous upon, that the quality of all Native Opium
is very much improved of late years, and that tlie improvement is going on all the time. It is
now being brought to market in a much drier and more solid form than it used to appear in.
Smokers say that Native Opium has not so much body as Foreign; that it produces a dryness in
the air passages; and that, in cases where the " craving " is strong, it takes too much to satisfy
it. Old smokers and people who can afford to be particular, therefore, always prefer Foreign.

Opium. Here and at most Treaty ports I believe mixed Opium is almost universally smoked,
pure Foreign Opium only being used by tlie rich, and the poor using what is not pure anything.
The taxing arrangements in this province seem to be made primarily to secure Likin
and other charges on Szechwan Opium, and the rules for it are made to apply as nearly as
possible to all Native Opium. I can find no evidence as to what is the Duty or tax, if any,
which is imposed on Opium at the place of production; I am inclined to think, from what I
hear, that there is no regular tax. That producers do pay something to officials is, however,
pretty certain; but the sum is probably small. Leaving Szechwan by the Yangtze the Opium
should pay Tts. 30 Duty at K'uei-kuan (夔 關),on the Szechwan-Hupeh frontier. This statement
I make on the authority of one informant only; it is not corroborated by my other informants.
I imagine the fact is that one man tells me what should be paid, and the others wliat is paid.
The Opium, with a view to evading this payment, probably does not leave Szechwan by the
Yangtze, but joins it at a point below K'uei-kuan. The next taxing station is P'ing-shan-pa
(平善 璃),in the gorge about 10 miles above Ichang. The Likin chargeable here is 12 cash
per ounce, equal to 19,200 cash a piculblit 100 cat ties are passed as 85, equivalent to a
reduction of 15 per cent., which would give 16,000 odd cash a picul, or, at our Hankow rate,
just about Hk.Tts. 10. I have no doubt by bargaining at the barriers concessions can be got,
and daresay a picul can be got through at from Tts. 6 to Tts. 8 or Tts. 9. Opium passing Pcing-
shan-pa is stamped and cleared to and. past Slia-sliih, where, however, it must be presented for
vise. Opium passing Sha-shih, and not having paid at P'ing-shan-pa, pays at Sha-shih at tlie
same 12 cash an ounce rate. The Opium is free till it gets within the jurisdiction of the Han-
yang Likin Office. This office is in Hankow, with a sub-office up river at a place called Pei-
ho-kcou (北 河[J) or Hsiao-ling-cliia (小鱗 甲). I have not been able precisely to get at how
much is paid at tlie Hankow and how much at the sub-offices, but all accounts agree in putting
the total payable at and near Hankow at about Tts. 12 or Tts. 13—say, Hk.Tts. 12.
The Szechwan Opium coming vid the lake is said to pay somewhere about Tts. 2 or
Tts. 2.50 a picul at a place called Pei-cliou (涪 州),near the Szecliwan-Hunan frontier, and, say,
Tts. 8 a picul (12 cash an ounce) at Yo-cliou (岳卯|), on the Hunan-Hupeh frontier. Past
Vo-cliou it comes into the Hankow district on the same footing as that which comes by
All Native Opium arriving in Hankow must be reported at the Opium Likin Office.
Tliat coming down river must satisfy the office that it has paid at either Plng-shan-pa or
Sha-shili; if it has paid at neither, the amount chargeable at both those stations lias to be
made good. Labels are affixed to each cake of Opium as proof of Likin payment. The taxation
on Yunnan and Kweichow Opium seems to be almost identically the same as on that from
Szechwan, though it is not unlikely there are some small transit charges paid in Hunan; but
they cannot amount to very much or I should have heard more of them. Honan Opium is on
the same local footing as all other Native Opium, but what it should pay en route I cannot find
Native Opium,

Native Opium,
out; as a matter of fact, I believe very little of it pays any Duty. It is carried here by roads
which barriers do not intercept, and is largely smuggled, packed in with other goods.
In addition to the Likin, there is another tax here, called a Chuan-shib (捐輸),which was
established after the Taiping Rebellion, with a view to repairing the damages caused by it. This
levy is made on all goods, and is collected tlirough the pang or corporation of merchants carrying
on the trade in each class of merchandise. The Tcu-pang, or Opium 0()叩oration, is held
responsible that all Opium which passes the Likin 0伍ce should pay tlie Chuan-shu. To secure
themselves against one another, the members keep a couple of clerks in the Likin Office to
note all that passes. The rate is about Tts. 1 for each 1,000 Hang of Opium. The money is
paid in to weiyuan, appointed by tlie Han-yang Magistracy for tlie administration of the fund,
which is used for repairing streets, bridges, walls and embankments, and such-like local work.
The total amount hitherto paid annually by Opium has amounted to several thousand taels
a year. Besides this, there is at present a second Chuan-shu on all goods for special work in
connexion with the bunding of the water front at Han-yang. It is something very small, but
I cannot say precisely how much. Hitherto the former Chuan-shu was collected on all Opium,
Native and Foreign; but as the Additional Article of the Chefoo Agreement specially stipulates
that the payment at tlie Custom House of the Convention Likin clears the Opium of all liability
for taxes called Chuan, the Opium merchants here are not called on to pay it. On the other
hand, as the tax was levied on all Opium, and as some is now exempted, they are trying to
secure exemption for all. The result is that the old arrangement is overturned and no new
one set up.
In certain places in the neighbouring provinces I am told there is a lo-ti (落 地)Likin,
but how much, or where payable, I have not been able to find out. At Ch'ang-sha (長 沙),in
Hunan, I believe it is about Tts. 13 a picul; it is so generally successfully evaded that but
little is got.
The Customs charge here on. Native Opium is the same as on Foreign—Tts. 30 a picul.
Up to 1883 it was charged at half that. It seems to be generally assumed by all Native officials
that but a small portion of the properly payable taxation or Likin is really secured. Having
seen something of the kind of country through which Native Opium is carried, I am pretty
certain that any transit revenue collected at any reasonable rate would be insufficient to meet
the expenses of a really effective preventive service. It is hard to understand why Native
Opium should be taxed so lightly and loosely, for no doubt it could easily bear a heavier
taxation, while by the putting forth of a small amount of energy I have no doubt a tighter
hold on it could be got. I am strongly of opinion that the best principle to tax Native Opium
on would be that of putting on a heavy Duty at the place of production, and removing all
cliarges on such Opium Duty paid. Seeing the way tlie trade is done, I am afraid efforts to
secure the Duty through the Custom Houses would not be a success. To use a military simile
in such a commodity as Native Opium, a converging trade, like a converging artillery fire, is
much more difficult to handle than a diverging one, such as the trade in Foreign Opium.
To briefly recapitulate. The annual production in Western and Central China must
amount to at least 150,000, and probably 200,000, piculs per annum. The trade in it is increasing,

and new districts are producing it every year. The price is such that probably Native Opium
can be carried to and sold in any part of the Empire for not more than Tfe. 240 to Tts. 250 per
picul, which in places a^vay from the seaboard is not above half the price of Foreign Opium.
The taxation is light. Opium used in Central China has paid taxes in all not exceeding
Hk.Tts. 25 a picul. Likin and inland taxation is largely, and Customs Duty practically entirely,
evaded. The Opium can never be forced through the Custom Houses till the land routes are
closed; and the closing of them would cost so much that it is a question if the revenue
collected would show any reasonable profit over charges.
Since above was written, I have found out that the Hankow Likin Office collected during
the 11 tli year of the present reign (1885) 37,371 tiao on Szechwan and Yunnan Opium; during
the following year, 1886, the collection had increased to 46,630 tiao. They collect on each
ounce 12 cash, as stated above, of which 9 cash are put down as Likin, and 3 as Hang-yung
(行用)• This would give totals for the two years, making allowance for 15 per cent, reduction,
of 2,231 piculs and 2,867 piculs respectively, an increase during the later year of about 30 per
cent, over the earlier.
I have, etc.,
Native Opium,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector Genercd of Custo^ns,

Native Opium,
1呵・ Kiukiang. KIUKIANG.
No. 251. Custom House,
I.G. Kiukiang, 24th May 1887.
In accordance with the instructions contained in your Circular No. 375, Second
Series :
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
I have tlie honour to submit the following remarks.
Native Opium is in use at this port. It arrives from Hankow in junks, and the varieties
imported are mainly from Szechwan (川 土)and Yiinnan (南 土). The prices, Duty and Likin
paid, are at present:—
Szechwan Opium..............................Hk.Tts.
Yunnan ” .......................... ” 27240.0
On arrival, the drug has to pay Hk.Tts. 25 Duty and Hk.Tts. 18 Likin. It lias not been
possible to ascertain what taxes are levied at the places of production or en route.
Chinese merchants here estimate the yearly production of Szecliwan Opium at 40,000 piculs,
and of Yunnan Opium at 27,000 piculs.
Of other kinds of Opium, they are familiar with the production of Kweichow, 9,000 piculs;
Honan, 5,000 piculs; Hupeh, 3,000 piculs; Anhwei, 2,000 piculs; and Chekiang, 3,500 piculs;
but the produce of the poppy grown in Manchuria lias not yet been brougli t to their not ice.
100 catties of Szecliwan Opium will boil into 60 catties, and would sell for Hk.Tts. 282
at the present time.
The total import of Native Opium declared at the Native Custom House is infinitesimally
small, and does not exceed 6 piculs a year.
None of the merchants engaged in the trade of the Foreign drug deal in Native Opium.
The reports as to the growth of Native Opium in this province are most conflicting;
some say that none is grown, others that the production is only small and dependent on the
out-turn of the other crops. I feel inclined to adopt the former statement as the more
correct one. • ,
I have, etc.,
Inspector General of Customs,
Commissioner of Custovis.

No. 271.
WUHU. Native Opium, 1887. WUHU.
Custom House,
Wuhu, 26th May 1887.
In reply to Circular:
Calling for Report on Native Opium:
I have the honour to submit the following replies to the various questions given.
Native Opium is in use here, but to wliat extent it is impossible to say, the dealers in
Foreign Opium being very reluctant to give any information on the subject, whether because
on general grounds they object to speak about a business which, as conducted here, is entirely
clandestine, or because they themselves have a special interest in it, is difficult to determine.
In 1880, 1881, and 1882 small quantities of Szechwan Opium were passed through this office,
but no legitimate importation has recently taken place. It is nevertheless supposed that some
400 or 500 piculs of Native Opium are consumed here annually, the bulk of which is used for
mixing with the Foreign article, Malwa or Patna. It is said to mix best with Patna.
The greater part of the Native Opium consumed here comes from Szechwan, and is
called J|[ 土. It is only met with in small quantities, and is sold by retail at about 400 cash
a Hang, or, say, at the rate of Hk.Tts. 400 per picul. Opium dealers give the nominal wholesale
price here at about Hk.Tts. 300 per picul. There is nothing approaching to open trafi&c in any
other kind, but a good deal of locally-grown Opium is brouglit here clandestinely in small
quantities at a time, principally from 廬州府,潁州府,and 鳳陽府,by the inhabitants of
those districts who come here on business or for temporary employment, and what is not used
by those people who bring it is either sold at Opinm-smoking divans or at private houses, at
rates varying from Hk.Tts. 150 per picul when new to Hk.Tts. 250 per picul when old. There
are no separate names for the various kinds of Anhwei Opium; it is all known as 本地土 or
新 土,and the price of each kind is about the same.
100 catties of Native Opium, which has no "skin" of any kind and is comparatively
pure, will produce from 75 to 90 catties of Boiled Opium. Native Boiled Opium, as such, is
never sold here; it is invariably mixed, mostly in Opium-smoking establishments, with the
Foreign kind, so that no price for Boiled Native Opium is obtainable.

Native Opium,
Formerly it was customary for Native Opium, when it paid taxes at all, to pay once,
in every prefecture through which it passed, to offices under the control of the Provincial
Treasurer, half the Duty leviable on Foreign Opium. Such is said to have been the rule; what
the rule is now Opium merchants profess not to know. Native Opium, they say, is never declared
at barriers or Custom Houses in this district, and therefore it is impossible to state what taxes
it is subject to. My Writer informs me, his authority being an official in the Likin Office, that
in November 1885 the late Futai (吳 元 炳)issued instructions to the Likin officers to levy a
tax of Hk.Tts. 20 on each 100 catties of Native Opium, but that this rule, which has not been
withdrawn, has never been applied.
As regards queries 5° and 6° in Circular 375,1 regret to say I have been quite unable to
gather any authentic information here as to the annual production of any of the places from
which. Native Opium is brought here. My informants tell me the very small quantity of Anhwei-
grown Opium brought here is 110 clue to the amount actually produced, which, they say, is for
the most part used by the growers themselves or by people in the immediate neighbourhood,
and is not sent for sale elsewhere. The only chance of obtaining anything like correct information
on these and other analogous points would seem to be patient investigation by competent
persons on the spot. As to the varieties produced in Manchuria, Szechwan, and Yunnan, there is
absolutely no knowledge to be gained here. I am persuaded, however, that my colleagues at
ports more favourably circumstanced in this respect will be able to give full accounts not only
of the Opium produced in those districts, but also of that which is said to be grown in large
quantities in Honan, Shansi, Chekiang (T'ai-chou-fu), and Kiangsu, in the Soocliow prefecture of
which last-named province, in the 暢 山 district, a very large production has, I am informed,
sprung up during recent years.
I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 321.
Custom House,
Chinkiang, 2nd June 1887.
In accordance with the instructions of your Circular No. 375 :
Native Opium: calling for Report respecting:
I have the honour to reply to the queries contained therein as follows.
i°.—Native Opium has been known here for some 10 years past. Its consumption is as
yet not so large as to materially affect the trade in the Foreign article. It is mostly used by
the lower classes of the people, and then mixed with the Foreign drug, more especially the
Malwa variety.
、 2°.一There are four kinds of Native Opium in use at this port, three coming from outside
provinces, and one from Hsii-chou, in this province:—
Yunnan Native Opium...........
Szechwan ” ” ......
Honan ” ”.............
Kiangsu ” ” (Hsu-chou).
Yun-nan-tlu (雲南 土).
Ch(uan-t(u (川 土).
Ho-nan-t'u (河南土).
Hsu-chou-tlu (徐州 土).
The last-mentioned kind is also sold here under the name Tang-shan-Vu (暢 山 土),Tang-shan
being the name of a district in the Hsii-chou (徐 少R) prefecture. Besides the above kinds, it has
happened that passengers from Shanghai have occasionally brought with them some drug
produced at l'(ai-cliou (台 卯]),in Chekiang. This kind does not come here in sufficient quantities
to be considered an item of trade.
30.—The prices of the above varieties of Opium, inclusive of inland taxes and Likin
paid at Chinkiang, are as follows:—
Yunnan Native Opium..................Hk.Tts. 274.50 per picul.
Szechwan „ ” ” 322.58 ”
Honan ” ”.................... ” 24577 ”
Kiangsu ” ” (Hsu-chou) . ” 3°7-22 ”

Native Opium,
4°.—The taxes paid on Opium produced in this province, the Hsii-chou (徐州)kind,
are as follows:—
(a.) At the place of production the usual land tax, 3 mace per onou, is paid to the
Magistrate for whatever fields are placed under the cultivation of the poppy.
The drug produced has thereupon to pay a <£charity tax" of 1,000 cash
(Tts. 0.6.牛o) and registration fee to the Prefect of 500 cash (Tts.
per picul.
(6.) En route, at Huai-an-fu (淮 安 府),the drug pays a full Duty of Tts. &5.0.0 and
a grain tribute tax of 3,500 cash (Tts. per picul.
(c.) On arrival at Chinkiang a Lildn is charged of Tfe. 43 per picul to the 下 游捐局
(Lower Yangtze Tax Office). This office, after the payment of the tax,
issues pass-books to the importers, who are allowed to remove their goods
to their own godowns and to receive labels and certificates after repacking
for transit elsewhere.
50 and. 6°.—It has been impossible to find out the amount of Native Opium produced
annually in this province, nor is it possible to say what quantities of each kind are brought to
this port, as such Opium is generally conveyed hither in a clandestine manner.
I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 704.
Custom House,
Shanghai, 10th June 1887.
In compliance with your Circular No. 375, Second Series:
Concerning Native Opium:
I have the honour to report as follows.
i°.—There are several kinds of Native Opium known 毗 this port.
2°.——The only kinds that arrive in any quantities are:—
From Szechwan, known as Ch'uan-t'ib (J|[ 土);
Kiangsu, known as Tang-shan-i'u (陽 山 土); and
Honan, also known as Tang-shan-t'u (暢 山 土),probably owing to its being largely
brought to tlie Tang-shan market for sale.
Chekiang Opium is also brouglit here, but in very small quantities. Some is produced
at Hsiang-shan-hsien (象 山 縣),and is known as Hsiang-chiang (象 漿);and some is also
produced at T'ai-cliou-fu (台州府),and is known locally as T'ai-t'u (台 土)or Tlai-
chiang (台漿).
3°.—At tlie present market prices一
Ch'uan-t'u (川 土)sells for Hk.Tts. 300 to Hk.Tts. 320 per picul, Duty and Likin
paid. The price is now high, owing to tlie failure of the Honan crop last year;
but a year ago it was as low as Hk.Tts. 230 to Hk.Tts. 240.
Tang-shan-tcu (碣 山 土)soils for about Hk.Tts. 260 per picul.
Hsiang-chiang (象漿)and Tlai-tlu (台 土)are said to be worth about Hk.Tts. 220.
40.—It is most difficult here to ascertain with any accuracy the amount of Likin paid
or payable on Native Opium in the early stages of its journey towards Shanghai. Inquiries in
many directions have only resulted in approximate figures being given, which differ widely from
each other. The fact seems to be that the tax varies according to the strictness of tlie barrier

Native Opium,
officials and the facilities of evasion possessed by the merchants. Much of the Opium is carried
for the whole distance 011 the shoulders of men who undertake, for a consideration, to run the
gauntlet of the barriers; some is smuggled in Native boats by passengers; some, perhaps, is
brought down by the same means openly and honestly as cargo; and a small quantity is imported
by steamer. It seems, however, that the vigilance of the authorities at and around Cliinkiang,
at whicli point several of the trade routes converge, renders smuggling a more difficult matter,
and a considerable quantity of the drug has to pay Likin there.
Selecting the information which appears to be supported by the strongest evidence,
Szechwan Opium pays, or should pay, at the place of production, K(upcing Tts. 12.50 per picul;
on arrival at Cli'ung-cli'ing (重慶)a further sum of Klupeing Tts. 12.50, and at Sha-shih (沙 市)
again K'up'ing Tts. 12.50ï¼› making in all, before the drug reaches Hankow, a sum of ICup'ing
Tts. 37.50. If it is sent from Hankow by steamer it pays the usual Export and Coast Trade
Duty of Hk.Tts. 22.50. If it comes down by land or Native boat it pays, when passing Chinkiang,
Kcup(ing Tts. 21.50, and the same amount on arrival here, if it bears tlie labels of the Chinkiang
Barrier in proof of its having paid there. If, however, it comes direct, or does not bear the
Chinkiang label, it pays Klupsing Tts. 43 on arrival here.
Tang-slian and Honan Opium are estimated to have paid about ICup'ing Tts. 70 of Likin
before reaching the hands of the consumers in Shanghai. Deducting from this the Tfe. 43 paid
here, or divided between Shanghai and Cliinkiang, the remainder, Tts. 27, will represent the
Likin paid on the journey between the place of production and Chinkiang.
According to information supplied from the records of the Foreign Opium Likin Office,
811.15 piculs of Native Opium paid Likin, at the rate of Kcup(ing Tts. 43, at tlie Shanghai
barriers during last year, making a total collection of Tts. 34,879.45 ; and 178.82 piculs, having
already paid Tts. 21.50 at the Cliinkiang stations, paid Tts. 21.50 on arrival here, or in all
Tfe. 3,844.63. Thus the total amount which reached this port under official cognizance during last
year was 989.97 piculs, which paid Tts. 3&724.08 of Likin. This includes all kinds of Native
Opium, 110 separate returns being kept of the amounts from each producing district; but it is
asserted that it consisted almost entirely of Szechwan and Honan or Tang-shan, but little of the
Chekiang drug being brought here. The net import last year through this office was 1.26 piculs
only. It seems improbable that the figures given above, in round numbers 990 piculs, represent
the total consumption of Native Opium; and there is very little doubt that a large quantity,
how much it is impossible to estimate, finds its way here without payment of taxes.
50.—The production of Opium in Szecliwan is estimated to exceed 10,000 piculs a year,
and the Honan and Tang-slian districts are said to produce several thousand piculs; but there
are no data for these statements, and there appears to be no means of obtaining any reliable
information on the subject..
6°.—Yunnan Opium is consumed largely in the Kwangtung and Kwangsi provinces;
formerly a good deal was brought here, but of late years there has been none. It is packed, in
oblong, rectangular packages, in paper, each package weighing from 20 to 100 I lang.
Manchurian Opium is consumed in the neighbourhood of its production ï¼› none comes to
Shanghai, and no information can be obtained about it.

Szecliwan Opium is consumed in Shanghai to a very considerable extent, but no reliable
figures can be obtained of the amount produced or consumed. It arrives in cakes of 20 to
50 Hang, circular in form, the upper side being convex and the lower side flat and adhering to
a plate of tliin wood or palm leaf.
Tang-shan drug comes in oblong, rectangular packages of paper (皮 紙),resembling in
form a small Chinese pillow, and weighing about 4 catties. A sample weighed here turned out
3 catties 13* Hang.
T'ai-chou and Hsiang-chiang varieties are packed in wooden tubs containing 70 or
80 catties each, or in earthen jars of smaller dimensions.
The cultivation of the poppy has recently been introduced in the prefectures of Cliia-
lising (嘉 興 府)and Shao-lising (紹 興府),in the Chekiang province, and it is said that the
production of Opium at these places is likely to attain considerable proportions.
I have, etc.,
/ *
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector Gen&ral of Customs,
Native Opium,

Native Opium,
Ningpo ・
No. 338.
Custom House,
Ningpo, 30也 May 1887.
In accordance with the instructions contained in your Circular No. 375, Second
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
I have the honour to report as follows.
i°.—Native Opium is produced at this port and surrounding prefectures. Its cultivation
is said to have begun over 30 years ago, first in the hilly country of T'ai-chou (台 卯]),and as ifc
became very remunerative it extended to the rice fields and gardens in and around the very-
city of Ningpo.
20.—It arrives from T'ai-chou (台州),Hsiang-slian 像山),Yii-yao (餘 姚),and Yin-hsien
(鄭縣)(Ningpo district), and is known in the market under the name of the locality where it
is produced, viz.:—
Tlai-chou-ckiang (台州漿)poppy juice.
Hsiang-shcm-chiang (象山漿) ”
Yu-yao-chiccng (餘姚漿) ”
Yin-hsien-chiang (鄭縣漿) ”
3°.—Each of the above varieties sells as follows:—-
New Opium. Old Opium.
T'ai-chou-ckiang . . . Hk.Tts. 164 and HIc.TIb. 21 i per picul.
Hsiang-shan-chiang . ” 巧6 ” ” 2oo ”
Yit-yao-chiang.... ” 巧6 ” ” 200 ”
Yin-hsien-chiang . . ” 164 „ ” 2ii ”
4°.—Native Opium used to pay a fixed tax of S12 per picul {Hkffts. 7.&9.6) up to the
1 st day of the 4th moon of this year (23rd April 1887), when a new collection of double that
amount, viz., $24 per picul, was commenced. The former tax was farmed out, and assessed by
issuing to the purchaser as many Opium tax tickets (土漿 捐票)as were applied for. Each
ticket, covering only 50 catties of drug, and representing, therefore, the value of the Duty paid

for half a picul, viz.,黑6, exempted the Opium from further direct taxation till it reached the
Since the 23rd April the collection of double the amount of the Duty, viz” $24 per picul,
lias been undertaken by the local officials, for transmission to the Provincial Treasurer at Hang-
chow ;and Opium tax tickets are issued, upon application of the purchasers themselves, to
cover the fixed weight of 50 catties and free the Opium from further taxation tliroughout
the province.
5°.—The annual production of Opium amounts一
At Tcai-cliou (台 外[)to about 2,000 piculs,
” Hsiang-shan (棗山)” ” i,ooo ”
” Yu-yao (餘姚)” ” i3ooo ”
” Yin-hsien (鄭縣)” ” 5。。”
making in all a total of 4,500 piculs annually.
Note.—For the whole province Mr. Commissioner Drew in 1879 estimated an annual
yield of 10,000 piculs.
6°.—The production, consumption, price, etc., of Manchurian and Yunnan Opium are not
known, as such varieties have never been imported. The consumption of the Szechwan variety
may be to a certain extent gathered from the Customs Returns since 1881, when it was first
imported through the Foreign Inspectorate.
1881 . . . . 64.76 piculs. 1884 .... 9.70 piculs.
1882 .... 7.42 ” 1885 .... 0.99 ”
1883 . . . . 19.36 ” i886 . . . . Nil.
The average price for this variety has been about Hk.Tts. 250 per picul. Besides the
Szechwan Opium imported during recent years (as shown above, 6°) and the Native Opium
produced locally (5°), there is no other variety spoken of or commencing to be noticed.
I have, etc”
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Custo^ns,
Native Opium,

Native Opium,
Wenchow ・
No. 252.
Custom House,
AVenciiow, 2nd June 1887.
I have tlie honour to acknowledge tlic receipt, on tlie 27th ultimo, of Circular
No. 375, Second Series:
Native Opium: Report called for:
and, in accordance with the instructions therein contained, to submit tlie following information,
somewhat hastily collected, and therefore perhaps not as detailed and reliable as I would have
wished to have offered.
i°.—Native Opium is known here and grown extensively in the neiglibourliood.
20.一There is but one variety, called locally Cldang-yen (漿煙).Yo-cli(ing-lisien (樂淸縣),
to the nortli-east, Jui-an-lisien (瑞安縣)and P(ing-yang-lisien (平 陽縣),to the south, together
with the home district, Yung-cliia-lisien (另t 嘉 縣),are the principal producing districts.
3°.—Native Opium (漿 煙)sells here at Hk.Tts. 130 a picul at date—clearer than last year
by Hk.Tts. 22, owing to a bad crop this spring.
4°.—Beyond the ordinary land tax (錢粮),which the farmer pays for his land without
regard to what is produced 011 it, there is a Likin fee of 24 dollar cents a catty levied on all
quantities of Opium exceeding one catty carried hither from the producing districts. For two
years previous to tlie 23rd April last (Kuang Hsu, 13th year, 4th moon, 1st day) the fee was
only 12 dollar cents per catty on all quantities over 4 catties. Opium coming from Ping-yang-
lisien, Jui-an-hsien, and Yo-ch'ing-hsien pays its tax there before leaving the district, and that
produced in the Yung-chia or home district pays on arrival in the city; but large quantities, I am
told, annually evade taxation. There is no other tax on Opium between the hands of the grower
and the consumer.
5°.—Out of an estimated total of 3,000 piculs of Native Opium produced in the Wenchow
prefecture, it is roughly calculated that between 400 and 500 piculs are brought annually into
Wenchow city, about half being for local consumption, and the other half for Fu-ting-hsien
(福鼎縣)and Fu-ning-fu (福甯府),just over tlie Fuhkien border.

6°.—Nothing whatever is known here of the Manchurian, Szechwan, Yunnan, or an
other variety of Native Opium.
It is very difficult to obtain accurate and reliable figures; and I am indebted to Weiglie
Chiang O-lin (江堇m of this office, for the information that precedes, as also for that i:
AVenchow despatch No. 251, in reply to Circular No. 372, Second Series, in a similar connexion.
Native Opium,
I have, etc”
Inspector Geneval of Customs,

Native Opium,
Foochow ・
No. 469.
Custom House,
Foochow, 24th May 1887.
Under the terms of the instructions contained in Circular No. 375, Second Series,
of the 5 tli instant:
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
1 have instituted inquiries amongst the Chinese merchants dealing in Opium at this port and
others likely to be able to give any information on the subject of Native Opium, and I have
now the honour to forward to you the result of those inquiries, regretting that it should be as
meagre as it is.
The cause of this absence of information on the subject of the inquiry establishes,
however, an important fact in connexion with it, which is that there may be saicl to be at
present no trade in Native Opium at this place.
There is said to be a production of Opium in the neighbourhood of AVencliow (温 州)
and Tai-chou (台 州),in the Chekiang province, but to what extent none of my informants can
form a guess or even be encouraged to hazard one.
In this province they say there is a certain production at Fu-an (丽畐 安),Ning-te (甯 德),
and Fu-Ving (福 鼎),in the Fu-ning prefecture, Cheng-ho (政 和)and P'u-clVeng (浦 城),in the
Cliien-ning prefecture, and Ku-t'ien (古 田)and Yung-fu (另t 福),in this, the Foochow, prefecture;
but here, as in the case of the Clieldang production, nothing is known as to the extent. It is
asserted by one and all of those to whom I have applied for information that the circulation
of Native Opium in the province at the present time is entirely in the form of private effects,"
that is to say, that it is the private property of the traveller, and is not carried or sent about
from one place to another as an article of trade.
There seems to be a tradition that a few years ago the tax of Tts: 84 on a cliest weighing
2 piculs was not an empty tariff fixture for something which did not exist, but that once or
twice a year such a package lias been known to come before the notice of the Likin officials,
pointing to the possibility of some traders having collected the scattered productions of a
neighbourhood into a wholesale form for conveyance to a suitable market. Whatever the real
ground for the tradition—for from the closest inquiries I cannot make more of it—it is beyond
doubt a fact now that no such quantities of Native Opium are met with or heard of. What
is carried about is in too small quantities to be either hoard of or seen; when it is met with it
pays at the rate I have named in my replies, but 阴 a matter of fact it is hardly ever met with

Native Opium,
by the barrier o伍cials, and when it is, although almost invariably packed amongst other things,
it is not on that account treated as being attempted to be smuggled. One reason for its not
being in use at this place is that our local consumption is almost entirely of the Bengal Opium,
whereas the Native is more generally used for mixing with Malwa, with the general character
of which it assimilates better. It is said by some to be stronger than Foreign Opium, by others
the reverse; but all agree that it can be smoked four or five times over, whereas the Foreign
drug only bears two firings before being reduced to ashes.
Absolutely nothing is known of any other Native Opium than that from the places
mentioned, the approximate prices or values of which I have given in the proper place.
There can be but little doubt tliat for the present Native Opium at Foochow or even in
the Fuhkien province may be treated as a quantite negligeable.
i°.—Native Opium is known at the port as an article to be met witli occasionally in
small packets of no fixed or regulation shape, character, or weight,—in some cases the produce
of a patch of land belonging to the holder of the small quantity referred to, in nearly all cases
his private supply for hjs own consumption, and ill no case an article of trade.
2°.一It is not known to arrive at all, but it is spoken of as coming from Wencliow (温 州)
and T'ai-chou (台 州),in tlie Chekiang province; in this province, from Fu-an (福安),Ning-t^
(甯德),and Fu-Ving (福鼎),in the Fu-ning prefecture; Cheng-ho (政和)and Pu-ch呛ng (浦城),
in the Chien-ning prefecture; and Ku-tcien (古 田)and Yung-fu (另t 福),in this, the Foochow,
3°.—The only variety known here is valued at some $450 per picul.
40.—It ought to p町 a Likin tax to the Opium Tax Office (華稅局)of Tts. 42 per picul,
but rarely, if ever, does so, owing to the small quantities in wliicli it circulates,―most of that
produced being for local consumption in the neighbourhood of the gardens.
5°.——It seems to be impossible to form any idea as to the extent of production.
6°.—There is absolutely nothing known about the production, consumption, or price of
any other variety than that of tlie places mentioned in this and the neighbouring province
of Chekiang.
To C"…CS :
Inspector General of Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 280.
Custom House,
Tamsui, 30仇 May 1887.
I have tlie honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Circular No. 375, Second
Series, calling for reports on Native Opium.
All the information on that subject that I have been able to gather has been embodied
in my despatch No. 279,* replying to your Circular No. 372, Second Series, and I have nothing
to add to what is there reported.
Neither ofHcials nor merchants know anything of the production of Native Opium in
the district from which it reaches us, nor of the production, consumption, and price of the
varieties grown in Manchuria, Szechwan, and Yunnan.
The kind that comes here chiefly is grown near Wencliow, and is called Wen-chou-chiang
(温州漿) ;it seems to be of very poor quality. '
I have, etc.,
A ssistant-in- Charge.
Inspector General of Customs,
* Extract from No.纟79.
"2i°.—A small quantity of Native Opium arrives by junk. The importations by steamer
are hardly worth noting. This Opium, I am told, is mixed with Turkey and Persian.
“ 22°.—The Native Opium which arrives here is, for the most part, ^rencliow Opium,
and, according to the dealers, is worth from Hk.Tts. 130 to HJc.Tts. 143 per 100 catties. Mr. Li

T'ung-仓N, one of the Haikwans, informs me that the late farmer of Opium Likin distinguished
three classes of Native Opium, two of which were from Wenchow, and were named respectively
Chdng-chiang (正漿)and Tseai-chiang (彩漿),while the third was Yunnan Opium. Probably
this latter kind, if imported at all, would be worth more than the Wenchow drug.
"23°.—The quantity obtainable by boiling from 100 catties of Raw Wenchow (value
Hk.Tts. 130 to Hk.Tts. 143) is variously stated as 40 to 70 catties, which, it is said, sells for
Hk.Tts. 143 to Hk.Tts. 175.
“ 24°.一It is supposed that the Native Opium arriving here is nearly all smuggled.
Nothing is known in Tamsui with regard to the taxes it pays at the place of production or
en route. On the rare occasions on which it has passed through this Custom House it has paid
a full duty at the port of export and a Coast Trade Duty here at the Tariff rate for Foreign
Opium, making a total of Tts. 45 per picul, in addition to Likin. As to Likin, Mr. Li Tcung-en
informs me that there is no regulation, but that it was the practice of the late Opium farmer to
levy a different rate on each of the three kinds enumerated above. The kind called Cheng-chiang
was charged 50 per cent, of the amount levied, on Foreign small-cake Opium; Tseai-chiang, a
much inferior kind, paid 30 per cent.; while the Yiinnan kind was considered good enough to
pay 70 per cent, of the Foreign Opium rate. The rate levied on Foreign small-cake Opium
was local Tts. 100 {=Hk.Tts. 90.2.&o) per chest of 106 catties."
Native Opium,

No. 290. Custom House,
Anping, isi June 1887.
In reply to Circular No. 375 :
Native Opium: Report called for:
I beg to state that nothing is known about Native Opium at Takow, but Mr. von Fries has
elicited the following information at Taiwan-fu:—
e< The only Native Opium which comes to South Formosa—none being grown here—
reaches this island by junks, and is landed in non-Treaty ports. It comes from and is produced
at Wenchow, and is said to be a petty, clandestine trade carried on by the junk people. Even
now, the import having somewhat increased since the Likin stations were closed, not more than
10 piculs a month are supposed to be brought over here. Its value is put down at $256
per picul, its quality being very inferior. It is mainly used by country-people, and little is
known about it at Taiwan-fu. It bears the name of the place of production.
"Of somewhat more importance than the Wenchow Opium are Sesamum Seed Cakes,
which are imported from Shanghai and have now a market value of S12 to $15, but used to
be subject to a Likin of $55 to $60, which, raised their price to $70 and $75 per picul. The
import of these cakes is increasing, since no Likin is collected any more (would reach 200 piculs
a year if continuing to arrive in such quantities as of late). They are used to adulterate Persian
Opium in tlie proportion of 12J catties Sesamum Seed Cakes to 87$ catties Opium, which have
then a market value of $655. Sesamum Seed Cakes seem to contain a large per-centage of
(Szechwan) Opium, and 100 catties Crude will yield 90 catties Prepared Opium, but of a quality
so very inferior tliat its use, when mixed as described above, is confined to the poorer classes in
the interior."
I have, etc.,
To A ssistant-in-Charge.
Inspector General of Customs,
P.S.—I wish to state here that your Circulars Nos. 370 to 375 were received at Takow on
the evening of the 25th ultimo, and that since the morning of the 27th ultimo there has been
no opportunity by which replies could be despatched to the mainland.—A. L.

Native Opium,
No. 472. Custom House,
I.G. Amoy, 3 isæ–¹ May 1887.
In continuation of my previous despatches concerning:
New Opium arrangements:
I have the honour to submit my replies to the questions regarding Native Opium contained
in your Circular No. 375, of the 5th instant.
i°.—Native Opium is known at Amoy.
2°.—What Native Opium reaches this port is said to come exclusively from within the
T'ung-an (同安)district, in which Amoy is situated; but the poppy is reported also to be
cultivated in the prefecture of Lung-yen-chou (青曹巖 列[),about 70 to 80 miles to the north-
west, and also in the district of Ankoi (安 溪),about 40 miles to the N.N.E. of this place.
There is only one variety of Native drug lmown here, which is called 土漿 or 本 地 漿.
3°.—Native Opium sells at about Hk.Tts. 200 a picul.
40.一No taxes have hitherto been collected officially on Native Opium, but it is said that
the late Opium farm was accustomed to levy on the article when met with, but rather by
way of a fine than as a tax, about half the Likin rates payable by Foreign Opium, say, between
Tts. 40 and Tts. 50 a picul. Some of the smaller Opium shops assert that they have actually
paid at this rate on Native Opium to the late farm.
50.—The annual production of the T'ung-an district is variously estimated at from 100
to 500 piculs a year. More definite figures are not obtainable.
The production of the Lung-yen districts is considered to be much less than that of
T'ung-an, as is also that of the Ankoi region, the latter being estimated at 200 piculs; but all
that is grown in Lung-yen and Ankoi is said to be
6°.—Nothing is known here regarding the Native Opium of other provinces. It is said
that some time ago attempts were made to introduce Szechwan Opium at Amoy, but without
success. The flavour and strength did not satisfy smokers. Dealers are positive that no Opium
grown in other parts of China now reaches the Amoy district.
I have, etc.,
To Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Customs,
consumed within the districts of production.

Native Opium,
Cultivation of Opium in South Fuhkien:
I have made the most careful inquiries about Opium generally, and Native Opium in
particular, in all the districts through which I have passed on my journey. In most cases
people have satisfied my curiosity with tlie best good-will and without hesitation, showing thereby
that they had no apprehensions whatever. The cultivation of Opium not being legal, I carefully
avoided visiting officials to get information, and even with the - farmers I never showed any
eagerness to learn all about Opium. I jumped from one subject to another, yet always
coming back to my aim. I may thus consider tlie information received as bond fide truth, and
as such it is given here.-
Cultivation of Poppy.—The poppy is raised in two districts, tlie T(ung-an (同 安)district
and the Lung-yen (龍 巖)district. The seed is sown during the 10th moon, and the juice
collected during the 3rd moon. I believe that in India the white poppy alone is cultivated,
as giving the best juice; but here the Natives grow indiscriminately various kinds on the same
ground, and during the 2nd moon the western part of T'ung-an is said to offer qu让e a charming
,view from the medley of white, yellow, red, and pink poppy flowers. Poppy may occupy a
piece of ground by itself or in company with potatoes or beans. The ground must not be
naturally too damp, and must be well sheltered from the winds. It needs much manure; and
the T'ung-an planters spend as much as $3 worth of beancake on a piece of ground yielding at
the most 5 catties of Opium, value about S15.
When the poppy has grown to maturity, that is, when the capsule or head is completed,
the planter, by means of a small brass blade, on the surface of which are four little, lancet-like

^-^ / / / / ,7

* 39
teeth, makes incisions along the sides of the capsule, at the time of sunset. From the incisions Native Opium,
a kind of syrup, of a milky colour, exudes, somewhat like the resin on pine trees. In the 员
morning the exudation—then of a deep yellow colour——is scraped off the capsule and put in Amoy.
pots, where it remains until it lias turned quite black and is wanted for use.
Chinese planters do not, as in India, turn the drug in the pot over and over again
till it is dried and fit to be kneaded to a uniform consistence. The result is that the stuff
remains liquid, cannot be made into balls, and loses 50 to 60 per cent, by boiling.
Amount of Opium produced.—It is difficult to state accurately the amount of Opium
produced in South Fulikien. To questions, 0伍cials answer, "The cultivation of poppy is
forbidden, thus no Opium is gathered dealers in Opium—who have interest to conceal the
truth—say they know not what amount of Opium is produced here or imported from other provinces."
The planters know what their land produces and tell it readily; but when it comes to make
an estimate of tlie production of a district they are utterly lost, and their answers are greatly
at variance. I shall try, guided by what I liave seen and heard, to form an estimate.
Opium is not grown at all in the Ankhoe (安 溪),EngclTuii (永春),Lamoan (南 安),
Tsoanchiu (泉州),Tliiontoa (長泰),Cliangcliow (漳州),Haiteng (海澄),Lamcliing (南靖),
Penglio (平 和),and Changplio (漳 浦)districts. In some parts the cultivators say the ground
is unsuited—too exposed or too damp; in most places, however, tlie peasants avow with regret
that tliey do not know liow to cultivate and gather Opium. Some people in Anklioe, in
Changchow, and even in parts of the T'ling-an district, have tried, but only to fail; and the
Chinese cultivator shrinks at the idea of losing one crop besides his pains and time. At Simchi
(深 井),20 li east of T'ung-an city, a man gathered only 2 catties this year. At Thianpo (天 寶),
30 li north of Changchow, three men who had sown poppy seeds did not gather anything at
all. At Saipi (西 邊),near Cliangchow, a planter tried liis luck, but the flowers being found
pretty by passers-by, were all plucked away. These examples show that cultivators do not lack
in good-will, but only in knowledge.
It is only to the west of T^mg-an city that Opium may be said to be extensively grown.
There every farmer has his plot of ground devoted to the cultivation of poppy during the winter
Drawing a line from Chiohjim (石[專)northwards to Aithad (隘頭),then again from
T£ung-an city westwards to Tekhoekiu (壌 溪 橋),we have a piece of ground of about 20 li x
20 li, or 400 square Li, of which, the village Otho(,烏 塗)is the centre. Of tliese 400 square li
we must deduct three-fourths as being occupied by barren, uncultivable mountains, and from the
remaining 100 square li not more than one-tenth is entirely devoted to poppy, the remainder of
the land being covered by rice in the damp valleys, indigo, beans, and potatoes elsewhere. This
estimation leaves us about 10 square li of land entirely covered by the A-fiyun-hoi (鴉 片 花)
or Opium plant.
The Natives of South Fulikien never speak of the size of their land in dicing (頃)or
moib (畝). Tlieir land measures are tlie following: the shili-cliung (石種),equal to 10 tou-
chung (斗種)or 100 sheng-chuiig (升種). The tou-chung is the unit of measure, but it is not

Native Opium,
easy to define its exact size, as it changes in each district. I have four distinct definitions of a
tou-chuvg, received at various places and differing widely from each other. I have reason to
believe, however, that 1 moib or 6,000 square feet is equal to about 1 寺 tou-chung; thus, a
tou-chuvg is about 4,000 square feet. If we accept 2,000 feet as the length of a li, and 2,000
x 2,000, or 4,000,000 square feet, as a square li, we shall find that a square li contains about
1,000 tou-chung, and 10 square li contain some 10,000 tou-chuiig.
All the Opium growers in West Tfung-an agree in saying that bad ground will produce
only 2 catties of Opium per tou-chung, whereas extremely good, soil might give as much as
5 catties. Taking 4 catties as the average production of a tou-chuvg, the total yield of the
10 square li of land assumed to be devoted to poppy in T'ung-an is 40,000 catties, or 400 piculs.
I have not been to Lung-yen, but from information given me by a Lung-yen man—a
trustworthy merchant established in Changcliow—and by others, I estimate the production
of the Lung-yen district as 200 piculs a year, making a total yield of 600 piculs for South
What becomes of the Opium produced ?—The per-centag,e of farmers wlio are addicted
to Opium-smoking is extremely small. The stereotyped answer to queries why they do
not smoke is that Opium is too expensive; they cannot afford such luxury. The same answer
was given me all along the road I followed. On the other hand, chair-bearers, porters, and,
in general, people performing hard work, are almost without exception slaves of the pipe;
and as their means are limited, they have to resort to the cheapest shops and smoking dens, and
it is to these dens that Native Opium finds its way. At the time of gathering, emissaries are
sent to the producing villages from those cheap shops, especially from Ankhoe, and they buy-
according to their means—some only 5 catties, some as much as 30 catties,—and after concealing
it well, they carry it back to their shops to be mixed with Foreign Opium.
It would be very difficult to buy as much as a picul of the drug at one time: many
growers would have to unite—as few of them collect more than 20 to 30 catties; there would
be a great deal of talk, and that is just what the purchasers do not want. They wish to take their
Opium back to their homes as secretly as possible, so as to be able to evade official intervention
and to deceive tlieir customers by selling inferior drug as bond fide Foreign Opium.
Of the 400 piculs produced in T'ung-an, I estimate that 50 piculs are smoked in the district
itself, 100 piculs go 10wards Changchow, 100 piculs to T'ung-an city (fart of which is probably
brought to Amoy), and the balance, 150 piculs, goes towards Ankhoe; but always in small lots
and in the possession of hundreds of different parties.
Taxes on and Value of Native Opium.—The price of a catty of Raw Opium in T'ung-an
is about $3, or $300 per picul. A catty of Prepared drug costs from $6.50 to 87, owing to the
large quantity lost in boiling, amounting sometimes to 60 per cent.; tliat is, 100 catties of Raw
Opium yield no more than 40 to 45 catties of Prepared drug.
The comparatively low value of Native Opium is due to the fact that 110 tax whatever is
imposed on the drug other than the ordinary land tax, varying from $3 to $5 per annum and
per tou-chung. Truly enough, when once in transit, Opium might be confiscated by the ofificials ;

but as luggage is never searched unless there be precise information that it contains smuggled
goods, Opium is carried about with as much security as anything else.
When asked if there was any special tax for growing poppy the farmers looked quite
indignant, and could not see why a tax should be imposed on a crop which caused them so
much trouble and anxiety—one day of strpng wind during the blooming season or one night
of rain during the reaping time being sufficient to annihilate the whole year's crop.
The T'ung-an people have a very bad reputation among Chinese: they are daring, and
they descend from a race of pirates. Yet I have found the T'unganese as quiet, as good-
natured, and as well disposed towards Foreigners as anyone could wish. They plant Opium
just as they would plarit potatoes—without suspecting they are doing wrong. They plant
Opium because it brings them one or two strings of cash more than other crops; and, like all
the peasants in the world, they like cash because cash buys land. One tou-chung brings on
an average 4 catties of Opium, value $12 ; the same land would produce at the most 4 piculs of
rice in the husk at S1.70 a picul, total $6.80. The difference is tempting, and farmers generally
regret not to know how to grow poppy. Their ignorance is the reason why the poppy cultivation
does not make any progress in South Fuhkien.
Thus, no tax whatever is levied before the consumer is reached.
General Remarks.—In the shops Opium is distinguished irito Ta-tcu (大 土)and Hsiao-t'u
(小 土)• Under the term Hsiao-tcib comes not only Turkey and otlier small Opium, but also
Native drug of any description. At Changchow there is a long street, near the south gate,
occupied solely by Opium shops and dens, bearing either the inscription Ta-tlu or Hsiao-fu,
according to the kind of drug sold. A mace of Ta-tlu costs 90 cash, a mace of Hsiao-tu only
60 cash—a difference of 33 per cent.
I have been assured that Opium arrives at Changchow not only from Tfung-an but
also from Lung-yen and Szechwan; but it is impossible to obtain any statistics from the dealers
themselves. Silk is brought from Szechwan to Changchow overland, being two months in
transit. There is thus a well-traced road across Kiangsi and Hunan to Szechwan, and in all
likelihood Opium is smuggled from those provinces into South Fulikien, and with more facility
than ever now that all the Opium Likin stations have been abolished.
In this connexion I may say that wherever I have passed I have been assured that
officials never interfere with Foreign Opium since the new regime, and everyone seems satisfied.
Opium is at some places 10 per cent, cheaper than it was last year; at some other places the
dealers, though buying their Opium cheaper, continue to sell it at the same price as before.
The new system has also checked smuggling almost entirely. At T'ung-an as much as 5 chests
a day were smuggled from Amoy under the old Likin regime; now the smuggling is almost
nil, or reduced to its lowest expression.
If it is intended to check the cultivation of poppy in China—a task that would not
be devoid of danger in the mountainous districts,—tlie best way will be to warn the farmers
a year beforehand that from such or such date a tax of so much per mou (say, double the
amount levied on other crops) will be imposed on all ground found to be under poppy cultivation^
and such tax shall be payable during the 2nd moon.
Native Opium,

Native Opium,、 This plan, I believe, will give better results than by proceeding rashly to pull out the
____' poppy plants without warning. A little time for reflection will teach tlie farmer that he is
Amoy. too weak to resist, and that it is his interest to submit to the law; and he will quietly revert
to the culture of beans and potatoes as in the good old time.
4仇 Assistant, A,
Amoy, 6th June 1887.

SWATOW. Native Opium, 1887. Swatow ・
No. 3 72. Custom House, Swatow, 30^ May 1887.
As directed in your Circular No. 375, of 5th May 1887 :
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
I have the honour to answer your questions as follows.
i°.—Native Opium is known at Swatow, but cannot be said to be in the Swatow market
for sale. Some Opium is now being grown in the districts of this (Hui-ch'ao-chia (惠 潮 嘉))
Intendancy, but this Opium is consumed where it is grown. Besides this local Opium, Opium
called Chcuan-tlu (川 土),and believed to be Szechwan Opium, is also known. It is hardly
known in the Swatow market, however, and is surreptitiously introduced to blend in boiling
with Foreign Opium.
20.—The Native Opium thus surreptitiously used to boil with Foreign Opium is called
Ch'uan-Vu (川 土)• is said to come from Szechwan, through Hunan and Kiangsi, to Hsing-
ning (興甯),in the Cliia-ying-chou sub-prefecture, and then to the city of Chia-ying-chou,
whence it reaches Ch'ao-cliou-fu, and comes on here.
30.—This Chluan-tlu (川 土)is said to sell at Ch'ao-chou-fu for local Tts. 22 (—Hk.Tts. 19)
the 100 lia ^g, or, say, Hk.Tts. 304 a picul. I am told that in 1886 the consumption of it was
averaged to be:—
In Hsing-ning (興 甯).........................360 piculs,
” Chia-ying-chou (嘉應州).....................120 ”
” Ch,ao-chou-fu (潮州府)......................5。”
or a total of 530 piculs for.this Intendancy. The consumption at Swatow is not appreciable.
In 1883, when the price was 10 per cent, less, the consumption of these places is said to have
amounted to 1,320 piculs.
4°.—I am told that this Opium pays a tax equivalent to $3 each load of 60 catties in
Szechwan; a tax equivalent to $4 each load of 60 catties at Chcang-te-fu (常 徳 府),ill Hunan;

Native Opium,
and a tax equivalent 10 $1 every 100 Hang at Kan-chou-fu (黑州府),in Kiangsi ; and no
more—there being no taxation on it in Kwangtung. These three assessments—
Szechwan.............$3 the 60 catties = $ 5 a picul,
Hunan...............$4 ” ” =$ 6.67 ”
Kiangsi.............Si the 100 liang = ^>i6 ”
yield a to£al in round numbers of $28 (Hk.Tts. 18.30) a picul, as the to£al taxation levied on
Native Opium between Szechwan and the consumer here.
50.—The quantity of Opium produced in Szechwan——no other kind being known to arrive
here—is wholly unknown here. No one ventures even to conjecture the quantity.
6°.—Of Manchurian and Yunnan Opium there is nothing really known here but their
names ï¼› there is no consumption or sale of them. Local Opium, by which. I mean Opium grown
near by Ch'ao-chou-fu, is commencing to be not iced; it is, however, in exceedingly bad repute
with smokers. The price is said to be as much as $4 a catty. There is no local taxation on it.
The information given here is in some respects fuller than that gathered for my reply
to Circular No. 372, Swatow despatch No. 370, of 23rd May. It comes to me from different
sources and necessarily contains, as respects the price of Opium, a little discrepancy.
I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 631.
Custom House,
Canton, 5饥 July 1887.
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Circular No. 375, Second
Native Opium: I.G. calls for Report respecting:
and, in reply to the several questions therein contaiiied, to state that—
i°.—Native Opium is known at this port.
20.一It comes from Szechwan, and is known as 雲南 白土.
3°.—The first, second, and third qualities of this variety of Native Opium sell for
Hk.Tts. 320, HJc.Tts. 28& and HkHts. 240 a picul respectively.
40.—Taxes to the amount of Hk.Tts. 45.80 a picul are levied on Szechwan Opium before
it reaches the consumer here.
50.—I am unable to ascertain the total annual production of Opium in Szechwan. (N.B.—
About 2,000 piculs are said to be brouglit into this province annually, and the annual con-
sumption in this city is estimated at from 200 to 500 piculs.)
6°.—No Opium is received here from Manchuria; the quantity arriving from Yunnan is
very small, and nothing definite can be ascertained regarding it. A very great proportion of
the Native Opium consumed here comes from Szechwan (vide 2° to 5°), and no other variety
appears to be coming into demand or notice.
I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 248. Custom House,
Kiungchow, 28th May 1887.
In accordance with the instructions of Circular No. 375, Second Series, I now report
on Native Opium at this port.
Native Opium is known here, and a very small quantity is used. The Opium dealers,
indeed, declared that none ever came; but I succeeded in finding one shop where a little is
sold openly, and another which has the reputation of selling it secretly. The total amount
imported is believed not to reach 5 piculs yearly. It is bought by a few residents who have
acquired a taste for it elsewhere, and by some of the soldiers wlio have come from the mainland
in the last two years. When used it is mixed with Patna or Benares—not with Malwa.
This Native Opium is produced in Yunnan province——a more definite description of
locality cannot be obtained. It is called Wen-nam-tcu (雲 南 土)locally. No poppy is cultivated
in Hainan.
100 catties Raw Opium produce 75 catties Boiled. The 100 catties Raw are valued at
Hk.Tts. 260, and the 75 catties Boiled at Hk.Tts. 327.
The taxes to be paid before the consumer is reached I have not been able to ascertain.
Nothing is known here of wliat is paid at the place of production or en route. The latter
taxes, if there are any, are all evaded between Paklioi and this port. Coolies sent on business
to Hoihow by Pakhoi firms bring the Opium by land from Paklioi to Haian, and it comes
across Hainan Strait with them in any passenger boat. I believe I am correct in saying
that it is never seen by any Customs or tax office here.
Of the production, consumption, and price of any Manchurian, Szechwan, Yunnan, or
other Native Opium I have not been able to obtain a scrap of information. I talked with the
largest Opium dealers here to the number of 10, and they all declared that they knew
absolutely nothing about Native Opium here or elsewhere, and they would not venture even
a guess on any of these points. I made inquiry for persons who had been in Yunnan, for
example, and I found nothing.
I have, etc.,
To A ssistant-in- Charge.,
Inspector General of Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 301.
Custom House,
Pakhoi, ^oth May 1887.
I beg to acknowledge receipt of your Circular No. 375 :
Native Opium: Report on, called for:
and, in reply, to submit the following.
i°.—Native Opium is known and used at this port, but how it comes in no one seems
to know.
2°.—It comes from Yiinnan, and is known as Yun-clifa (雲 茶). Only one kind of Opium
is known here.
30.—Yunnan Opium sells for about $25 per 100 taels weight. [Note.—16 taels = 1 catty;
100 taels = 6| catties.]
4°.—The Duty at the Native Customs is (Hk.Tts.) 9 mace per 200 taels weight, and the
Likin is 5 mace for each 100 taels; but neither Duty nor Likin appears to have been collected
on Yunnan Opium,—from which it may be assumed that all the drug consumed here is brought
in clandestinely.
50.—It is impossible to find out how many piculs of Opium are produced yearly.
6°.—Yunnan Opium is only dealt in by low-class dealers, and as all their operations are
secret, no information can be obtained relative to production, consumption, or price.
I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Customs,

Native Opium, 1887.
1. Consumption at the Treaty Ports.
Native Opium is used at all the Treaty ports. At Ichang and Wenchow it is used almost
exclusively; at Newcliwang, Tientsin, and Chefoo it is used chiefly (reported proportion of
smokers of Native and Foreign drug, 10 to 1 and 10 to 3); at Hankow it is used largely; at
Shanghai and Ningpo, to a considerable extent; at the other ports, to a less, and at some of
these to a small, extent only.
At Tientsin, Ichang, and Takow it is used only pure; at Newcliwang and WenchoAv, chiefly
pure; at Chefoo, pure and mixed with Malwa; at Canton and Pakhoi, pure and mixed; and at
Hankow, Wuliu, Cliinkiang, Shanghai, Ningpo, Foochow, Tamsui, Amoy, Swatow, and Kiung-
cliow, always mixed.
Native Opium is mixed with all the varieties of the Foreign drug; at some ports with one,
at others with several, varieties.
2. Production.
The growth of Native Opium has assumed large proportions during recent years. Every
province produces it; the only large areas where it is not grown being the islands of Formosa
and Hainan. Every Report emphasises the fact that the Opium produced is chiefly consumed
locally, and that only a comparatively small per-centage goes out of the district or province
where it is grown. Of the exporting provinces the following are the more important:一
i°. Szechwan.——This Opium reaches the provinces of Chihli and Shantung overland; it is
sent by water and by land to all the provinces of the Yangtze valley (Hunan, Hupeh, Kiangsi,
Anhwei, and Kiangsu). In Fuhkien it is not known, while Swatow and Canton report the receipt
annually of several thousand piculs coming overland through Hunan and Kiangsi. Mr. Bredon
(Hankow) estimates the export at, at least, 10,000 piculs; but this figure, examined in the light
of the other Reports, is probably below the mark.
The total production seems enormous. In 1872 Baron von Richthofen estimated it
from personal observation at a minimum of 60,000 piculs, and more probably 100,000 piculs.
In 1878 Mr. Baber wrote: "We were astounded at the extent of the poppy cultivation;n and

Mr. Bredon (Hankow) states in his Report: Seven-tenths of the adult male population of
Szechwan smoke. The production has been estimated as high as 150,000 piculs.
20. Yunnan comes next in order of importance. Yunnan Opium was formerly known at
nearly all the Treaty ports; :now its use on the coast seems to have fallen of£ It is used in
Chihli and in the Yangtze provinces, but Shanghai reports that none has reached there recently.
In the South, Formosa reports the receipt of small quantities occasionally; while Canton, Pakhoi,
and Kiungchow are more regular consumers, though its import seems to have declined there
N.B.—This decline in export is probably owing (i°) to the large supplies which must have
been needed for the armies on the borders of Tungking; (20) to the disturbed state of the
country, especially Kwangsi, impeding traffic; and (3°) to a decreased production, caused by the
withdrawal from the labour market of a province so thinly populated as Yunnan is reported to
be, of the many thousands of men needed for the war on the frontier, both for active warfare and
the transport of supplies.
Mr. Baber, in 1872, wrote: "With the consciousness that I am under-estimating, I
estimate that the poppy fields constitute a third of the whole cultivation of Yiinnan." Taking
into account that it supplies Annam, Burma, and possibly to some exent Thibet, besides the
neighbouring provinces, Kwangsi and Kweichow, the estimate that "the total production of
Yunnan cannot be far behind that of Szechwan" is probably correct.
3°. Chekiang Opium is used at Shanghai, Chinkiang, and Hankow, in Formosa, and the
northern districts of Fuhkien. It seems to be grown all over the province where the ground is
suitable, even in the vegetable gardens and rice fields around large cities (Ningpo Report).
4°. Honan Opium is becoming very popular. It is considered as good as Patna, and its
production is increasing rapidly (Hankow Report). It is used in Chihli and Shantung and the
Yangtze provinces.
5°. Manchuria (Chilili, Shantung, and Shansi).—These four provinces, three of which
border the sea, should be considered together. While elsewhere it is a task of some difficulty
to trace and compare the movements and consumption of Native and Foreign Opium, here the
geographical and other conditions favour the formation of a fair estimate.
The Reports all testify to the extensive production and. use of Native drug. The New-
chwang Report says:—Manchurian Opium is extensively cultivated throughout the province;
it is considered so superior that there is no demand for other Native Opium. The production of
this province is estimated at 8,000 piculs, of which 5,000 at least are consumed locally, and the
remainder smuggled into Shansi. 90 per cent, of the home smokers use Native drug. Native
Opium meets with more appreciation, because it can be smoked seven or eight times, while
Foreign drug can be smoked three times at most. [Foochow reports so likewise.] It is for this
reason that smokers object to Native drug being mixed with Foreign: it spoils the ashes. Native
ash after the first smoking costs 3 mace per tael, which is the price of unadulterated Raw Native
Opium. Pure Foreign Opium is chiefly smoked by southerners residing in the province.
The Tientsin Report says:—Native Opium is consumed at Tientsin and all through the
province. It is consumed pure, i.e., not mixed with Foreign drug. For every chest of Foreign
Native Opium,

Native Opium,
Opium imported at least nine chests of Native Opium are consumed. The Opium grown is
chiefly consumed in the immediate vicinity of the place where produced. Of the large quantity
for every three consumers
of Native drug
of Foreign drug at Tientsin. Foreign Opium is only consumed by the
wealthiest; about 70 per cent, of the Foreign Opium imported at Tientsin is sent to Peking.
There are 170 shops dealing in Native Opium in Tientsin. All informants assert that the
production of Opium in the northern provinces is very large. That consumed at Tientsin is
chiefly grown in the province, but Yunnan, Szechwan, Honan, Shansi, Shantung, and Kwantung
contribute likewise.
The Cliefoo Report says:—Opium is extensively cultivated in this province (Shantung).
Opium ï¼› two prefectures are mentioned as producing
Opium, valued at Tts. 1,000,000 ( = 3,500 to 5,000 piculs). It also comes from Manchuria,
Honan, Kiangpei, and Chilili. It seems to have got a thorough hold on the population, chiefly
the middle and lower classes. It is estimated that from 6,500 to 7,000, perhaps 8,000, piculs
Native Opium are consumed in the Chefoo-supplied districts, and that for every picul of
Foreign Opium there are consumed 10 piculs of Native Opium.
only a small quantity finds its way here. There are seven consumers
Ten prefectures and two districts grow
The statistics of the importation of Foreign Opium at the three northern ports, which
supply these provinces, bear out these remarks:—
Chefoo. Tientsin. Newchwang.
1875 Ficuls. .2,960 Piculs. 4,088 Piculs. 896
1885 421 i,997 265
1886 ...... ・ 701 2,071 287
Of the inter-provincial exchange of the drug away from the Treaty
information transmitted is comparatively meagre.
ports, the
Opium from Shansi, Shensi, Kansuh,
Kweichow, Hupeh, Hunan, Anhwei, and Kiangsu lias reached the Treaty ports at various times,
but not in any quantity. Some of the provinces seem to grow for local consumption solely in
a very few districts only.
7°. At present the facilities for the evasion of taxes on Native Opium are so considerable
that this article is but rarely conveyed in vessels controlled by our offices, and therefore our
information at best is but second-hand and largely based upon conjecture.
3. Price, Quality, Taxation, and Movement of Native Opium.
(a.) The price of Native Opium, differs very considerably, which, in all probability, is
owing as much to difference and fluctuation in taxation in the several provinces as to differences
in quality.
AVenclioAv quotes the cheapest, Tts. 130 for local drug; Newchwang quotes the highest
figure for locally-grown Opium:—
ioo catties Raw Native drug cost Tts. 442 ; boil into 100 catties, costing Tts. 737.
[100 catties Raw Malwa cost Tts. 471 ï¼› boil into 80 catties, costing Tts. 708.
100 ” Patna ” 403; ” 5【 ” ” ” 5nJ

Best Chihli costs Tts. 272 at Tientsin; best Shantung, Tts. 390 at Cliefoo; best Yunnan, Tts. 280,
and best Szechwan and Icliang, Tts. 250, at Ichang; best Anhwei, Tts. 250 at Wuliu; best
Kiangsu, Tts. 307 at Chinkiang, and Tts. 260 at Shanghai; best Chekiang costs Tts. 211 at
Ningpo; Fuhkien Opium is quoted at Tfe. 220 at Amoy; and Kwangtung Opium is quoted at
Tfe. 230 at Swatow.
A feature which must be noted in this connexion is that the best qualities of Native
drug are all Opium, i.e., have no skin or husks like Foreign Opium.
(&.) The quality of Native Opium seems to have much improved.
At Hankow the Native dealers are unanimous in reporting that Native Opium has very
much improved of late years. Honan Opium is reported as good as Patna, and Manchurian,
when boiled, is dearer than the Foreign drug. Manchurian and best quality Szechwan costs
at Cliefoo as much as the Foreign drug.
The reported fact (vide Newcliwang and Foochow Reports) that good Native drug, when
smoked pure, is smokable twice as often (seven to eight times) as Foreign Opium (three times)
must be considered an important factor in the question of Native versus Foreign drug.
(c.) Taxation and Movement of Native Opium.—As to the producers tax the information
supplied is in most cases meagre and unreliable. Newchzvang reports the levy of Tts. 27.64
as Duty and Likin at place of production (Manchuria), where dealers buy the crops on the field
and extract the juice themselves. Chinkiang reports the levy of about Tts. 1 for charity and
registration purposes. Shanghai reports that in Szechwan Tts. 12.50 are levied. Ningpo and
Wencltozo report that in Chekiang taxes are levied on locally-grown Opium by means of
Treasury tickets covering 50 catties and costing Tts. & which entitle the drug to free circulation
in the province. Stvatozv reports that Tts. 3.33 are levied on Opium in Szechwan. Other ports
report that no producers tax is levied.
The taxes leviable en route and at the ports also vary greatly; no two provinces act alike.
It is impossible to form a clear idea on this subject from the Reports. At some places no taxes
at all would seem to be levied en route—the growth of Native Opium being prohibited; at
others the taxes are high and various.
Most Reports, however, emphasise the great amount of smuggling which is going on. A
â– state of affairs similar to that until recently existing around Hongkong and Macao would seem
to be gradually growing up in the country. Nezvchzvang reports the smuggling into Shansi
of 3,000 piculs annually. Tientsin reports that Native Opium arrives mostly in small quantities
by road, so as to escape the attention of barriers and tax o伍cials en route, which seem to have
no regular tariff. Ichang reports that Yiinnan, Szechwan, and Icliang Opium is carried across
the hills by armed bands of from 80 to 100 men to Sha-sliili, etc., each man carrying a load of
88 catties. Hankozv reports: " A great deal of Szechwan and Yunnan Opium is carried by-
travellers. Cash and silver are scarce in the Far West, and Opium takes the place of money in
many localities as the basis of barter. When starting on a journey a Native carries his estimated
expenses in the form of Opium, selling here and there just as much as lie presently requires.
Students going to Peking all seem to carry their funds in tlie form of Opium." Very little
Native Opium,

Native Opium, Honan Opium pays any Duty. " It is carried here by roads which barriers do not intercept,
and is largely smuggled, packed in with other goods? " At Hankow it . . . leaves the
Digest. river and is carried overland . . . by narrow and difficult roads until it again strikes the
Yangtze, near Chinkiang." " Likin and inland taxation is largely, and Customs Duty practically
entirely, evaded.55 Chinkiang writes: Native " Opium is generally conveyed here in a clandestine
manner." Shanghai reports that considerable quantities of Native Opium evade payment of
Likin en route. 11 Much of the Opium is carried for the whole distance on the shoulders of
men who undertake, for a consideration, to run the gauntlet of the barriers; some is smuggled
in Native boats by passengers,5, etc. At Foochow (C It is asserted by one and all ....
that the circulation of Native Opium in the province . . . . is entirely in the form of
£private effects.'" Tamsui: aIt is supposed that the Native Opium arriving here is nearly
all smuggled." Takozv estimates that io piculs per month are brouglit clandestinely by junk
people from Wenchow. Kiungchozv: "I believe I am correct in saying that it is never seen
by any . . . . tax office here." Palchoi reports: All the Opium finds its way here clan-
destinely. It would seem, moreover, that no tax is collected in Yunnan, armed bands, who
defy all authority, conveying it into Yunnan.
30th August 1887.

Is Native
Opium in use?
From what Places
does it come ?
Yes; chiefly
Shantung ・,
Szechwan .
Chinkiang ....
SUMMARY OF REPLIES TO I.G. CIRCULARS Nos. 372 and 375 of 1887.
One Hundred Catties
Raw Opium
How is IT USED?
4°. Taxation (per Picul)
What is its
Local Name ?
Yes; ex・
Yes; largely

Yes; chiefly
Yes; very

Yes; a little
Ichang prefecture
< Shantung, Shansi
Honan •…
In the Ningpo district
In the Wenchow dis-
(Named after the
prefecture where
Chekiang, and from
three prefectures in
Chekiang chiefly;
Chekiang (Wenchow)
T^ng-an (Fiihkien)・・.
Szechwan ・・,

What is the Value of each Variety per Picul ? Produce Boiled 1 Sell for?
Hk.Th Catties. Hk.Th
100 737
» 267 55 332
200, 320, 390 85 540
250 280 220, 250 } 70 { 306 ) 326 > 265,306 )
,200 to 24O 60 to 70 210 to 250
257 272 } 60 282
300 150 to 250 } 75 to 90
274 323 246 307 70 327
310 50 to 70
26O 45 10 50
220 40 to 45
160 to 205 55 195 to 245
13。 60 190
300, 325 80 ?
136 40 to 70 M3 to 175
l6o ?
200 40 220
294 230 } 8。{ 419
} 270 to 300 70 3å…‘
26O 75- 327
26O 65 34。
Pure ?
Chiefly pure
Or mixed with
what kind of
Foreign Drug ?
Also mixed
with Malwa
and Benares.
And mixed with
Mixed with
Patna and
(a.) At Place of
(&.) En route.
(c.) At the Port.
To what Offices are these
Payments made ?
? None
No regular tax {
Mixed with
Malwa chiefly.
Mixed chiefly
with Patna
‘ and Benares
Mixed chiefly
with Malwa.
A little mixed
with Patna.
Mixgd with
And mixed
chiefly with
Mixed with Pat-
naand Benares.
And mixed with
* 0.64 per picul
+ o・32 ”
In Fengtien dealers
and divan keepers
must take out a li-
cense costing Tts. 24.
At K(uei-kuan 30.00
„ P(ing-shan-pu 10.00
At Sha-shih....12.50
„ Ch'ungph'ing 12.50
„ Hankow*.
1 At Han-yang 12.00
J (12 cash per ounce)
25.00; Likin
All smuggled.
At Shanghai 43.00
Formerly 8.00;
Taxes are collected by means of Treasury tickets covering 50
catties and costing 焦 8, which entirely free the Opium.
è¡€ i6 per picul is paid hi transit or on
arrival, whith frees from further taxation.
十 To the Likin runners.
Likin Office.
* To the Kweichow Chcang-
+ To the Ichang Likin Office...
Likin 0伍ce<
} •-
^Formerly it paid, to every pre-
I fecture through which it
J passed, half the duty levied on
I Foreign Opium..............
* Tariff rate
+ 45-°° Likin on
best quality Wen-
chow Opium.
+ 3o.oo Likin on 2nd
quality Wenchow
165.00 Likin on
Yunnan Opium.
to the
* Charity Tax
+ Registration Fee.. J Prefect.
:Duty.............1 r •
t Duty..............1 Huai-an
§ Grain Tribute Tax J prefecture.
|| Likin Office.
* To the Customs; the other
charges to the Likin Office....
Provincial Treasury
Provincial Treasury.
Opium Tax Office.
4 * To the Customs.
+ To the Likin Office.
None; being a prohibited article it is subject to confiscation.
Customs and Likin
On one-fifth of the
quantity only are
these taxes col-
Reports concerning
taxation are very
To the Provincial
These taxes apply
to locally (Kiang-
su) grown Opium.
-Szechwan Opium
transported to
Shanghai is liable
to Tfe 103 Duty
、and Likin.
Honan Opium pays
Klup(ing Tfe 70
* Since the 1st day
of the 4th moon
this year the tax
is 16 per picul,
which frees it of
all further taxa-
It is smuggled across
from Pakhoi・
It is practically all

SUMMARY OF REPLIES TO I.G. CIRCULARS Nos. 372 and 375 of 1887, No. 64 of 1879, and No. 2 of 1864.
Production. Consump- tion. Price.
Piculs. Piculs. TZs.
Small quantities reach Tientsin.
Produc tion.
TIENTSIN (Detring)
Small quantities reach Tientsin.
Small quantities reach Tientsin.
Small quantities reach Tientsin.
Small quantities reach overland.
Small quantities reach Cliefoo
Small quantities reach Chefoo
400 to 450
Small quantities reach Chefoo
Small quantities reach Cliefoo
CHEFOO (Moorhead)........
Small quantitiis reach Cliefoo.
Small quantities reach Cliefoo.
220 to 250
ICHANG (Montgomery)........
Used at Icliang.
Used at Icliang.
Small quantities reach Hankow........
190, 233,
Small quantities reach Hankow
Small quantities reach Hankow
HANKOW (Bredon)
tity—thousands of piculs.
KIUKIANG (Simpson)
Used at Kiukiang.
Used at Kiukiang.
WUIIU (Hughes)
Used at Wuliu.
Used at Chinkiang.
Used at Chinkiang.
Used at Chinkiang.
Used at Cliinkiang.
SHANGHAI (Hobson)..
Used at Shanghai.
FOOCHOW (Hannen).
? .
Small quantities imported.
Honan annually. Packed in paper
packages, small Cliincse pillow slmpc,
weigliing 4 catties.
400 to 500 piculs reach Hankow
annually. Hunan takes a large(iuan-
6,500 to
350 to 442
in China.
Large quantities are produced
the Soocliow prefecture.
particulars not ascertainable. Every
district grows it, chiefly Ts*ao-
At Ieliang Native Opium only
used; the city consumes over 900
piculs annually, which is grown
chiefly in the vicinity.
・.. I ... I 3。。,32°
Used at Shanghai to a considerable
extent. Production reported to
exceed 10,000 piculs. Packed in
Small quantities of Opium are
gi'own in Hupeh—principally in the
Icliang and Shih-nan prefectures.
3,000 piculs Manchurian Opium
are said to be smuggled into Shansi
Production and consumption are
very large; exact particulars not
ascertainable. Consumption of Na-
tive Opiiun is 10 times greater than
Considered the best
The best Prepared is dearer than the
best Foreign Prepared; Native
Opium is therefore not imported
from other provinces.
- Several thou-
sand piculs are saicl to be produced in
Honan Opium is becoming the
most popular. It is considered as
good as Patna. The production is
increasing rapidly.
200, 320,
Production is very large; exact
chou-fu and Hsii-chou-fu (which
produce 3,500 to 5,000 piculs =
THs. 1,000,000). It is estimated
that 10 piculs Native are consumed
for every cliest Foreign Opium.
Small quantities reach Hankow
Me import of Foreign Opium at Wencltoiv is dbout 20 piculs per annum.
Reaches Tamsui occasionally
Chiefly smuggled by junk people and landed at non-Trcaty ports.
TAKOW (Lay).
CANTON (White)
LAPPA. (Nil.)
3,000 (White: Hankow).
3,125 Kwangsi (Piry : Paklioi).
Used at Shanghai (Dick : Shanghai).
1863 (Luson : Cant011).
520 (R.)
600 (R.)
(and Yunnan). (B.)
5,000 (White : Hankow).
3,500 (Holwill : Kiukiang).
I 19°
In some portions of the country it
formed the most conspicuous
winter crop. (R.)
(Taintor, 1872).
Native Opium comes from Sliansi
(Baker : Tientsin).
Native Opium is mixed with Benares, and the mixture is adulterated with
Sesainuni Seed Cake imported from Shanghai.
Native Opium comes from Sliansi
and Szecliwuii (Mackey : New-
cliwaug)・ .
500 to 600 (Simpson : Chefoo).
(White : Haukow).
Used, in Manchuria (Mackey : Ncw-
,,” Chihli (Baker : Tientsin).
” ,,Shantung (Hannen: Cliefoo).
,, at Shanghai (Dick : Shaughal).
Kmsuh does not consume all tlie
Opium it produces, but exports
considerable quantities both east
and west, and. imports none.
崩霊呦曲 °f F°rCi°n Opium lias declM 伽皿 896 iMs in 1875 to 365 piculs
3,000 average (Hughes : New-
(Holwill : Kiukiang).
The cultivation of Native Opium is said to have begun over 30 years ago,
ayd having become very remunerative is extending (even to the gardens and
rice fields round Ningpo). Taxes are collected by means of Treasury tickets
covering 50 catties and costing 22s. 8, which entirely free the Opium.
99° piculs Native Opium paid Likin at Shanghai last year—almost entirely
from Szechwan, Honan, and Kiangsu. A large quantity, impossible to estimate,
is smuggled.
200 piculs grown locally (Kiangsi)
(Hammond : Kiukiang, 1863).
Native Opium comes from Shansi,
Shensi, and Ytlunan (Hannen :
The great Opium mart in Hupeh is Sha-shih, to which Hankow ranks as
second. A great deal of Opium is can-ied by travellers in place of monoy.
Students going to Peking carry their funds in the form of Opiuiu.
60,000 (minimum) .一 、.
ioo,ooo (probably). (R.)
We were astoundecl at the extent of
the poppy cultivation in Szechwan
Used in Mancliuria (Mackey : New-
,, at Shanghai (Dick : Shanghai).
About 200 piculs reached Canton in
About 800 piculs reached Canton in
1863 (Luson : Canton).
Chiefly smuggled by junk people and landed at non-Treaty ports. Tlie
import from Shanghai of Sesamuiu Seed Cake (about 200 piculs) containing
Opium is drawn attention to.
45,000 (White: Hankow).
30,000 (Holwill : Kiukiang).
300 piculs imported, at ichang
Yiimnn ancl Szechwan Opium are also used in Icliang. Armed bands smuggle
large quantities to Sha-sliih overland.
4,000 (White : Hankow).
Native Opium consumed in Chilili
comes chiefly from Sliansi
None comes to Slianghai

£l】e Opium is chiefly consumed in the vicinity of place of production. Only
reaches Tientsin, where Opium from Shansi, Honan, Manchuria, Shantung,
评echwan, and Yiinnan is also used. For every three smokers of Foreign Opium
are seven consumers of Native drug at Tientsin. Opium coming from
other provinces is chiefly smuggled overland; none comes by Foreign vessels;
some by junks. The import of Foreign Opium, declined from, 4,088 mculs in 1875
to 1,997 picibls in 1885.
Besides the locally grown, Native Opium is imported from Manchuria, Chilili,
耳o?]n 1111875 to m plaids in 1885.
WENCHOW (Brazier)...........
AMOY (McLeavy Brown).....
Port Replies to I.G. Circu-'
lar No. 64 of 1879:
Inquiries concerning Con-
sumption of Opium.........’
Port Replies to I.G. Circu-
lar No. 2 of 1864.........
Richthofen, 1872; Baber, 1
Population according to the I
1882 and 1879 census....J
Productiai and consumption are
very large—thrice that of any other
province. Seve?*-tenths of aclult
male population smoke. Production
lias been estimated at 150,000 piculs.
10,000 piculs at least are exported:
3,000 to 4,000 piculs reach Sha-shih,
Hunan takes 2,000 to 3,000 piculs,
Hankow over 2,000 piculs, and
Shanghai 1,000 to 2,000 piculs.
circular cakes from 10 to 50 taels
The use at Ningpo is gradually
During 1886 about 530 piculs were
used in Ch^io-chou-fu. In 1883 it
was 1,320 piculs; it was cheaper
then. It comes overland through
Hunan and Kiangsi.
240, 288,
About 2,000 piculs are reported
as coming here.
Formerly in use at Shanghai,
is packed in rectangular oblong paper
packages weighing 20 to 100 taels.
Used at Canton.
at Kiungcliow; coming via
at Paklioi. Particulars of
consitmption, etc., not ascertainable.
Armed bands, who defy all authority,
smuggle it into Kwangsi.
17,000 (White : Hankow).
12,000 (Holwill: Kiukiang).
21,800 (Piry : Pakhoi).
Used in Shantung (Hannen: Chefoo).
,,at Cliinkiang (Lord : Chin-
We were astounded at the extent of
the poppy cultivation in Yiinnan.
* * * With a consciousness
that I am under-estimating, I
estimate that the poppy fields
constitube a third of the whole
cultivation of Ytinnan. (B.)
2,000 (Edgar: Ichang).
2,000 (White : Hankow).
3,000 (Holwill: Kiukiang).
Used at Shanghai. Packed
paper packages, formed like a Chinese
pillow, weighing about 4 catties.
2,500 (Holwill : Kiukiang).
Grows for home consumption ancl
export to South Hunan, Kiangsi, and
the Two "Kwang provinces. From
100 to 200 piculs reach Hankow.
Total production neaiiy as much as
Small quantities rcacli Hankow
150 to 250
Used at Wuhu. Locally-grown
Opium is chiefly used locally.
Small quantities reach Hankow
Passengers bring small quantities
grown in the T'ai-cliou prefecture・
... I ... I 220
Used at Shanghai. It is grown
in the Hsiang-slian district and in
tlie T'ai-choii prefecture. ~ '
in wooden tubs of 70 or 80 catties,
or earthen jars holding less. The
growth in the Cliia-lising and
Sliao-hsing prefectures is likely
to attain considerable propor-
Used at Ningpo. Grown in the
Ningpo and. surrounding districts,
l^ai-cliou... 2,000 ? 164 to 211
Hsiang-slian 1,000 ? 156 ,, 200
' ti-yao 1,000 ? 156 ,, 200
Yin-lisien... 5oo ? '164 ,, 211
In 1879 Mr. Commissioner Drew
estimated tlie production of_
kiang at 10,000 piculs.
Used exclusively almost at Wen-
chow. It is grpwn in the neigh-
bourliood. In 1879 Mr. Mackey
estimated the growth of Opium in
the Wencliow prefecture at 3,000
piculs; it is now probably more.
Small quantities reach Foochow.
Used at Tamsui. Is mostly smug-
gled. Particulars not obtainable.
... I ... I 160
Used in South Formosa; about
piculs reach there annually.
Some 250 piculs Wenchow Opium
are sent to Fu-tiug, in Fulikien.
Opium is grown in the Fu-an,
Ning-te, Fu-ting, Clieng-ho, P'u-
ch'Qng, Ku-t'ien and Yung-fu dis-
tricts. Particulars of production
and consumption not obtainable.
Used at Amoy and grown in tlie
Amoy (T'ung-an) district. Opium is
likewise grown in the Lungyen and
Ankoi districts, but chiefly consumed
locally. The production of South
Fulikien is estimated at about 600
... ... 230
Opium is grown all over the Ch'ao-
eliou prefectui-e. It is used locally.
It is also grown in the IIui-ch*ao
Native Opium has been known here for the last 10 years; its consumption,
however, does not yet affect the trade in Foreign drug materially.
12,000 (White : Hankow).
10,000 (Holwill : Kiukiang).
15,000 (Hobson : Hankow, 1868).
15,625 (Piry : Paklioi).
About 400 piculs reached Canton in
1863 (Luson : Cauton).
3,000 (White : Hankow).
3,500 (Holwill : Kiukiang).
10,000 (Drew : Ningpo).
16,000 (Drew: Ningpo,.1877).
Considerable quantitics grown in
this province (Brown: Ningpo,
5,000 (White: Hankow).
Used in Shantung (IIannbn: Cliefoo).
i,ooo (Hannen : Foochow).
500 to 600 (Hobson: Amoy,vicinity).
About 500 piculs are grown in this
district (G. Hughes : Amoy,
About 100 piculs are produced in
this province (Luson: Canton,
å·¥ 863).
1,000 (White: Hankow).
Used at Hankow (Macpherson :
Hankow, 1863).


Circular No. 2 of 1864.
Inspector General's Office,
Shanghai, 17th February 1864.
1.—I am anxious to learn to what extent the sale of Native Opium has
interfered during the last twelve months with that of Foreign drug in China; I have
therefore to instruct you to make such inquiries, both among Chinese and Foreign
dealers, as shall enable you to report to me on this subject. The queries to which I
have particularly to call your attention are the following :—
1°. Has Native Opium been in use at your port during 1863 ?
2°. What quantity has been disposed of during the year ?
3°. What has been the price, as compared with that of Foreign drug ?
4°. From what province has it come ?
5°. Has any, and if so, what quantity, been exported from your port
during the year ?
6°. Has the appearance of Native Opium ill the market diminished the
demand for Foreign drug either at your port or at marts supplied
from your port ?
2.—Any information, in addition to replies to these queries, that you can
obtain, you will please forward, and you will endeavour to make your Report as
intelligible and comprehensive as you possibly can.
I am, etc.,
Inspector General.
The Commissioners of Customs,
Newcliwang, Tientsin, Chefoo, Hankow, Kiukiang, Chinkiang,
Shanghai, Ningpo, Foochoiv, Amoy} Sivatow, and Canton.
Native Opium,
Circular 2
of 186 4.

Native Opium,
No. 2.
Office of Maritime Customs,
Yingtzu, 20th April 1864.
The queries relative to Native Opium in your Circular No. 2, 1864, may be replied
to as follows:—
i0.. Native Opium has not been in use at this port during 1863.
20. No sale during 1863. In 1861, about 8 piculs were sold at Tts. 300 per picul.
30. When sold, the price averages one-half that of Foreign drug—say, Tts. 300
per picul.
40. Comes from Shansi and Szechwan. About 200 piculs yearly reach Moukden by
land, where it is used for mixing with Foreign Opium in equal proportions.
5°. None has been exported during the past year.
6°. Native Opium has not diminished the demand for Foreign drug, and does not
appear to exercise any influence upon it. It is probable it may itself suffer
from the import of its rival.
I have, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Maritime Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 5.
The Office of Maritime Customs,
Tientsin, 26也 March 1864.
In reply to your Circular No. 2 of 1864,1 beg to inform you that I have made every
inquiry on the subject of Native Opium, and have gathered the following information:—
i°. Native Opium in Tientsin is not widely used, the consumers being principally of
the lower class.
2°. The quantity actually disposed of during the year 1863 I find it next to
impossible to ascertain with any degree of certainty. .
3°. The price of the drug has averaged about Tts. 500.
40. It comes principally from the province of Shansi, but 14 chests were imported
from Shanghai last year.
50. None has been exported.
6°. Native drug is not supposed to affect the Foreign import market at all, but
purchasers are careful in buying, as dealers are in the habit of mixing the two
drugs. It is said 600 chests at Tfe. 500 were consumed last year, but that
portion of the information seems somewhat uncertain.
I have, etc.,
A ssistant-in-Charge.
The Inspector General,

Native Opium,
No. 9.
1864. Chefoo, Stk March 1864.
In reply to the questions asked in your Circular No. 2 of 1864 on the subject of
Native Opium, I have the honour to inform you that the result of my inquiries is that the
consumption of that article at this place during the past year has been so small that it may
be returned as nil. Such small quantity, however, as has been consumed has been of a drug
sold at Tts. 300 per picul. It has not inHuenced the sale of Foreign Opium in the slightest
degree. It is brought here from Shensi, Shansi, and Yunnan, and is, I understand, largely
consumed in Chi-nan-fu (濟南府)and other marts north of this, which marts are supplied
from Tientsin.
I have, etc.,
To Commissioner of Custoans.
Inspector General of Maritime Customs.
No. 8. i Office of Customs,
1864. Hankow, 16th March 1864.
I beg to lay before you the result of the inquiries which I have made regarding the
trade in and consumption of Native Opium at this port, in accordance with the instructions
contained in your Circular No. 2 of 1864.
Before the year i860 the Native Opium consumed at Hankow was produced in the
province of Shansi, but towards the end of 1859 the disturbances in the south-east of that
province interrupted the communication between it and Hupeh to such an extent that the
supply of Shansi Opium entirely ceased, and since this period Hankow has been provided with
Native drug exclusively by the provinces of Szechwan and Hunan.

The consumption of Native Opium, however, at once decreased on Hankow being opened
to Foreign trade.
This decrease is owing, in the first place, to the reduction in the price of Foreign Opium,
which was the result of the greater facilities for transporting it from the port of import to
Hankow, created by the opening of the Yangtze ; and, in the second place, to the increase in the
price of Native Opium which ensued on the ravages committed in the poppy (璽 粟 花)fields of
Szechwan by the rebel bands which infested that province.
Native Opium is about 30 per cent, cheaper than Foreign Opium, but this difference in
price is compensated for by the greater strength of Foreign Opium, which enables an Opium-
smoker to satisfy himself with a smaller quantity of Foreign than of Native Opium.
Opium dealers state that 2,000 piculs of Szechwan and Hunan Opium were brought to
Hankow in i860, but of this quantity a considerable portion was doubtless resliipped to
Kiukiang and other ports down the river. In 1861 the supply was reduced to 1,500 piculs,
whilst in 1862 only 800 piculs, and in 1863 only 500 piculs, reached Hankow.
On the other hand, Opium dealers are almost unanimous in stating that in i860 Foreign
drug, or, as they call it, Canton drug (廣 土),was almost unknown in Hankow, and that during
this and preceding years but a "few tens" of piculs annually made their appearance in the
Hankow market.
In 1861, 250 piculs of Foreign Opium were imported. In 1862 an enormous increase
took place, as Opium dealers inform me that the quantity imported must have amounted to
2,000 piculs.
In 1863, 1,466 piculs 60 catties were imported.
This decrease in the quantity of Foreign Opium imported in 1863 is owing—the Native
dealers explain to me—to the fact that in 1862 the occupation by the Nienfei of Shou-chou
(壽州)compelled tlie inhabitants of a large portion of the province of Anhwei to provide
themselves with drug at Hankow, whilst the recapture of that city now enables them to draw
their supplies from Yang-chou (揚 州)and Hsien-nu-miao (仙 女 廟).
Malwa is the principal Foreign Opium imported; of the 1,466 piculs 60 catties Foreign
Opium imported last year, 1,424 piculs were of Malwa.
Tlie quantity of Native Opium exported is now very inconsiderable; only 43 piculs were
exported during 1863.
I am, etc.,
Acting Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General, Imperial Maritime Customs,
Native Opium,

Native Opium,
Kiukiang. KIUKIANG.
No. 7. 1864. Office of Maritime Customs, Kiukiang, 17th March, 1864.
I have made inquiries of both Native and Foreign merchants, as you request in
your Circular No. 2 of 1864, in relation to the sale of Native Opium, and find that it is not sold
or used at this port.
There is a small quantity raised in the district of Kan-chou (籟 州),in this province, but
it is all consumed at or near the place where it is raised; not any of it is brought to market.
The quality is very inferior. Its estimated value is Tts. 200 per picul, while that of the Foreign
drug is Tts. 570 per picul.
The production is estimated at 200 piculs for the last year, but its production depends
upon the return of other crops ï¼› if plentiful, and the capital can be spared to do so, they raise a
small quantity for their own consumption.
Its production in the district does not affect at all the sale of Foreign drug.
I have, etc.,
Inspector General, &c.} <&c.

No. 27.
Native Opium,
Office of Maritime Customs,
Chinkiang, 12th Septe^iber 1864.
In reply to your Circular despatch No. 2 of 17th February 1864,1 have the honour
to submit the following answers (deduced from careful and extensive inquiries made of both
Chinese and Foreign dealers) to your queries respecting the trade in Native Opium at this port.
i°. Native Opium may be considered as not in use at this port.
20. The import estimate is about 12 piculs per annum, intended for re-exportation.
3°. The price is about three-fifths of the Foreign drug; say, Tts. 300, against Tts. 500.
40. Is imported from the province of Yunnan.
50. About 12 piculs re-exported, principally to a city called 淸 江.
6°. The market here for Foreign Opium does not appear to be diminished or in any
material way affected by the introduction of the Native drug.
I am, etc.,
Acting Commissione7' of Customs.
Inspector General, Iwcpericd Maritime Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 8. 1864. Office of Maritime Customs, Shanghai, 16th Marclt 1864.
In reply to your Circular No. 2 of the 17th of February (which I received on the
24th), calling for information respecting the use of Native Opium at this port, I beg to state:—
i° and 20. That the quantity of Native Opium disposed of at this port during 1863
is estimated at about 500 piculs.
30. That its average price has been Tts. 375 per picul, while that of Foreign Opium
has been—for Malwa, Tts. 530, and for Patna, Tts. 500.
40. That the Native Opium imported into this place lias been brought from two places,
viz., Hankow, in Hupeh, and Ch^ng-chiang-fu (淸江府),in Kiangsu. The
Opium brouglit from tlie former place has been produced chiefly in Szechwan,
and the amount brought in Foreign steamers, according- to the Returns of this
office, was 43 piculs. The Opium brought from the latter place has probably-
been produced in Honan and Shansi, but I can get no accurate information
concerning the provinces from which it originally comes, or the quantity of it
brouglit to this place. It is imported in small quantities in Native crafts.
5°. That during last year 14 piculs and 63 catties Native Opium, wliich had been
* imported from Hankow, were re-exported to Tientsin, and 3 piculs and 12
catties Prepared Native Opium were exported to the same place, in Foreign
6°. That the appearance of Native Opium in the market has not, to any perceptible
extent, affected the demand for Foreign drug either here or, so far as I can
ascertain, in the neighbourhood.
To the above answers to tlie questions contained in your Circular, I beg to add the
following remarks:—
The provinces spoken of by the Chinese as being the principal Opium-producing ones
are Szechwan, Kansuh, Shensi, Shansi, Honan, Shantung, Kiangsi, Yiinnan, and Kweichow.
The cultivation of the poppy is said to have been recently commenced in the districts of
Hsiang-shan (香山),Shun-te (順徳),and Tung-kuari (東莞),in Kwangtung, and in T'ai-chou
(台 州),血 Chekiang. In the provinces of Chihli, Hupeh, Hunan, Anhwei, Kiangsu, Fuhkien, and
Kwangsi the cultivation is probably known, but it is not, so far as I can ascertain, carried on
to any remarkable extent.

The total quantity of Opium consumed here during last year is estimated at 20,000 piculs,
of which amount Native Opium contributed, as I have already stated, about 500 piculs.
Native Opium is much inferior in flavour to the Foreign drug. It is smoked by people who
are too poor to buy the latter; with which, again, it is mixed in order to suit the circumstances
of people who are a little better off; but Foreign Opium is used by all the smokers who can
afford to buy it. So long as the present great difference in quality between the Native and
Foreign articles continues to exist, I do not think that the sale of the former will interfere much
with that of the latter.
I am, etc.,
Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General of Chinese Marithne Customs.
Native Opium,
No. 7.
Office of Maritime Customs,
Ningpo, 23戒 March 1864.
I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your Circular despatch No. 2 of the 17th
February, calling for a Report of the extent to which the sale of Native Opium has interfered,
during the last 12 months, with that of the Foreign drug in China.
In reply, I have to submit the following answers to your queries numbered i° to 6°
i°, 2°, 3°, 4°. No Native Opium has been in use at this port during the year 1863.
5° There has been 110 export of the drug from Ningpo.
6°. Regarding this inquiry, I would remark that the presence of Native Opium in
the south of the Chekiang province has materially affected the quantity of
the Foreign drug sold at Ningpo for marts in that part of the country; I am
informed by one merchant (as his opinion) to the number of a monthly
average of 15 to 20 chests. It is prepared from the juice of the red poppy

Native Opium,
grown in the hilly country to the south of this port, in the prefecture of
Tai-chou (台州),also at Li-cliiang (瀝港)and other islands of the Chusan
group. Moreover, it is grown at Tlen-tcung (天童)to a very little extent,
but with trepidation; and, indeed, at most places situated too close to the
abode of the higher local officials, it is never seen by the observer.
The quantity of the article produced in Chekiang一into which there is no importation
from other provinces—cannot be ascertained even from Chinese sources, and the price is said to
be about one-half that of the Foreign drug. But it is asserted the farther distant from the
depots of the latter description of Opium, tlie greater is the increase in the value of the Native
supplies. Hence, or principally on that account, no such supplies are brouglit here, either for
sale or use. Neither in the districts where Native Opium is consumed is the Foreign commodity
bought or used by the people.
The smokers of Native Opium describe it as having an insipid taste, and as losing much
weight during the boiling process of its preparation for the pipe. The poppy grows to a height
of 6 and 7 feet, with a large head; and the juice is obtained by making three or four delicate
incisions upwards on each head, allowing the piece of cut skin to overlap the wound, and,
early every morning, is collected by scraping it, in its exuded state, off the plant with a blunt
piece of bamboo. I have not been able to ascertain tlie yield of a field of poppies per mou.
In the producing districts it is the only spring crop, to the exclusion of pulse before grown,
and is found to be the most prof!table investment to the cultivator.
The growers are improving the quality of the drug by keeping tlie 五rst yield separate
from the last, yet, as with their vegetables, they look to quantity not to quality; and if they
would manure the land less heavily, a more beneficial result would ensue from the change.
The principal class of Foreign drug sold here is rarity. The consumption of both classes at Ningpo and marts supplied by it amounted to more
than 3,000 cliests or piculs during one year in the time of H.E, Chang Taot'ai; whereas during
the past year it has not been half that quantity. However, as soon as the prefectures of
Hang-chou (杭 州),Cliia-lising (嘉 興),and Hu-cliou (湖 州)are recaptured from the rebels, it
is confidently anticipated that the traffic will receive a great impetus.
I have, etc.,
A ssistant-in-Charge.
Inspector General,

Native Opium,
No. 54. Office des Douanes Maritimes,
1864. Foochow, Ze 4 octobre 1864.
J'ai Fhonneur de vous accuser reception de votre depeche No. 20, datde de Peking,
9 aout 1864, et par laquelle vous me demandez une r^ponse a vos Circulaires Nos. 2 et 3 du
17 fevrier et du 16 mars de cette ann^e.
En ce qui concerne la premiere de ces Circulaires, je me bornerai a vous dire, Monsieur,
que la consommation de FOpium dans cette province est exclusivement concentr6e sur FOpium
etranger, que pour la premiere fois en 1861 une caisse (TOpium indigene a dte imports de
Hankow dans le Fokien, et que cet essai, n'ayant pas reussie, n'a jamais 6诫 renouvele.
涤 米 米 米 米 米
Agrdez, Monsieur, etc.,
Commissaire des Douanes.
Inspecteur General des Douanes Maritimes. ,

Native Opium,
No. 7. Office of Maritime Customs,
1864. Amoy, 16th March 1864.
In reply to questions i° 106° on the subject of Native Opium, contained in Circular
No. 2 of 1864,1 have the honour to state that—
i°. Native Opium has been in use at Amoy during the year 1863 ; and that
2°. About 500 piculs have been disposed of in that period, at a
30. Price varying from $400 to $480 per picul, which, as compared with the price of
Foreign Opium, is nearly one-half less.
40. It is grown and prepared chiefly at Tfung-an (同 安),in the province of Fuhkien,
20 miles distant from Amoy.
50. In the year 1863 about 100 piculs are stated to have been exported to Formosa;
100 piculs to Ankoi, Cliangchow, and. Chinchew; 100 piculs to Tientsin.
6°. The consumption of Native Opium in and around Amoy, say, 200 piculs per
annum, has in no perceptible degree diminished the demand for Foreign drug
here; neither has it, so far as I can ascertain, at those marts supplied from
Native Opium is not permitted to be grown in the immediate vicinity of Amoy; Tfung-an
is a turbulent district over which the authorities have but little control. The Opium is sold by
the grower in a prepared state, but 让 is of an inferior quality, and is only used by the poorer
classes, and is even then frequently mixed with the Foreign drug.
The Likin tax, when levied, is about 2 mace per catty; but this charge and the Export
Duty are usually evaded by smuggling. No Native Opium has been passed through this
Custom House.
Although, as stated, its production has not yet perceptibly diminished the demand for
Foreign drug, still, ultimately, it must affect the market, as its production has increased from
about 50 piculs in 1861 to 500 piculs in 1863,—nearly one-sixth of the amount of Foreign
Opium, 3,350 piculs, imported in that year.
I have* etc.,
ROBERT HART, Esquire, Commissioner of Czcstoms.
Inspector General, Maritime Customs,

Native Opium,
No. 15.
Office of Maritime Customs,
Swatow, 4九 April 1864.
In accordance with your Circular No. 2 of 1864, making inquiries as "to what
extent the sale of Native Opium has interfered during the past year with that of Foreign drug
in China," I have the honour to answer the “ queries."
i°. Has Native Opium been in use at your port during the year ?—It has not.
20. What quantity has been disposed of during the year ?—None.
30. What jhas been the. price, as compared with that of Foreign drug ?—There being
no sale, no comparison as to price can be made.
40. From what province has it come ?
50. Has any, and if so, what quantity, been exported from your port during the
year ?—None.
6°. Has the appearance of Native Opium in the market diminished the demand for
Foreign drug either at your port or at marts supplied from your port ?—It
has not.
And so far, from inquiries made, it would seem that the use of Native drug is hardly
known in this section.
I have, etc.,
Acting Commissioner of Customs.
Inspector General,

Native Opium,
No.. 22.
Office of Maritime Customs,
Canton, 27th April 1864.
In your Circular No. 2, dated Shanghai, 17th February last, you have informed me
that you are anxious to learn to what extent the sale of Native Opium lias interfered during
the last 12 months with that of Foreign drug in China, and have instructed me to make
such inquiries, both among Chinese and Foreign dealers, at this port as shall enable me to
report to yourself on the subject.
In pursuance of these instructions I have for some time past been engaged in making
inquiries on this subject, and in collecting information from various sources, the results of
which I have now the honour to lay before you; but in doing so I would beg to remark that in
consequence of there being no Foreign dealers in Opium at this port, I have been, compelled
to rely upon the Chinese dealers for information, and that this has been of so conflicting a
character as to make it difficult to arrive at a very satisfactory conclusion.
The contradictory statements I have received, I believe, however, to have arisen in a
great measure from the unwillingness of the Chinese dealers to furnish information on the
subject; but the following particulars, obtained from the more reliable sources, and forming a
digest of the information I have arrived at after careful investigation and inquiry, will, I think,
be found tolerably correct.
In pursuance of your instructions I shall first reply severally to the queries to which
you have particularly called my attention, and afterwards state such additional information as
I have been able to obtain:—
i°. Native Opium has been in use at this port during 1863.
2°. About 15,000 piculs have been disposed of during the year.
3° The average price of Native Opium during the past year has been from $380
(three hundred and eighty) to S460 (four hundred and sixty Mexican dollars)
per picul, while that of Foreign drug during the same period lias averaged,
say, for Malwa Opium, about $670 (six hundred and seventy), and for Patna
Opium, S530 (five hundred and thirty Mexican dollars) per picul.

4°. Native Opium has come principally from the provinces of Yunnan (雲 南),also
from those of Kweichow (貴州)and Szechwan (四 Jl|), in about the following
proportions, viz.:—.
From Yunnan.........................about 800 piculs,
” Kweichow.......................... ” 400 ”
” Szechwan...........................” 2oo ”
whilst in this province, Kwangtung (廣 東),probably about one hundred
(100) piculs have been produced.
5°. There has been no Native' Opium exported from Canton during the past year,
as far as can be ascertained.
6°. The appearance of Native Opium in the market has not, so far as can be
ascertained, diminished the demand for Foreign drug either at this port or
at marts supplied from this port.
By far the greater portion of Native Opium imported has come from Yunnan ï¼› hence the
general name given to it is Yun-nan-pai (雲南 白)or Yun-nan-tcu (雲南 土).
The principal markets in Kwangtung are:—
Fatshan (Fo-slian)(佛 山),
Sliuhing (Chao-ch/ing)(肇慶),
Hsingngan (Hsin-an)(新安),
and Canton ; the most important being at Fatshan, and known as the Yun-kuei-hong (雲 貴 行).
It is sold by the dealers importing it, and the greater portion is then mixed with Malwa
Opium (in the proportion of about one-fifth Native to four-fifths Malwa), and is sent prin-
cipally to the inland markets of Wu-cliou-fu (梧州府)and Kuei-lin (旌林),in the province
of Kwangsi (廣西).
Native Opium is generally imported into this (the Kwangtung) province in cakes
weighing 100 taels, and is subject on its arrival at the north-west barrier of Shao-kuan (詔 關)
to an Import Duty of 9 mace, and to a Chou-li or war tax of 350 copper cash for 100 taels
weight. On being brought into Canton it further pays 5 candareens to the Kuang-cliou-fu
(廣 州 府)o伍ce for the same weight.
Its use in this province and city is not general; probably 5 per cent, of Opium-smokers
use it in mixture with Malwa Opium, but this, not from a preference to Foreign drug, but on
account of its less astringent qualities. Of the Native Opium imported little is used in its pure
state (probably one-fifth), and it is disliked by Opium-smokers on account of its " grassy " taste,
which, however, is said to be less perceptible than in former years, as attention has been given
to the subject.
The reason that so much mixed Native and Malwa Opium is sent to Kwangsi appears
to be that it is there sold as Foreign drug, and thus affords a larger profit to the dealer. It is
confidently stated that although the import of Native Opium has increased and is likely to do
so, it is not likely to diminish the demand for Foreign drug, and this is accounted for by the
alleged increase of Opium-smoking in the south of China.
Native Opium,

Native Opium,
As regards the cultivation of the poppy in this province (Kwangtung), it has been carried
on to a small extent in the districts of Loting (羅定),Hoshan (鶴山),Hsingngan (新安),
Shuhing (肇慶),Sinning (新寧),and Kaouyaou (高要),but, it is said, to little advantage,
as the soil and climate are not considered favourable. It is, however, also stated that, owing to
the suppression of the Hakka (客家)disturbances, a large quantity will be grown during the
present year. The price of Native Opium rises and falls with that of Foreign drug.
There are said to be restrictions peculiarly unfavourable to its export from Canton.
As the above particulars constitute all the information I have been able to obtain on the
subject, I trust the present Report will prove tolerably satisfactory to you.
I have, etc.,
A ssistant-in-Charge.
Inspector General of Chinese Maritime Customs. .


No. 1.—Native Opium................................. Published 1864.
„ 2.—Medical Reports : 33rd Issue (First Issue, 1871) ...... •” 1887.
„ 3.一Silk ................................................... ” 1881.
„ 4.—Opium................................................... ” i88i.
„ 5.一Notices to Mariners : Sixth Issue (First Issue, 1883)... ” i888.
„ 6.—Chinese Music .......................................... ” 1884.
” 7.—Instructions for making Meteorological Observa-
tions, and the Law of Storms tn the Eastern Seas ” 1887.
„ 8.一Medicines, etc., exported from Hankow and the other
Yangtze Ports, with Tariff of Approximate Values ” i888.
” 9.—Native Opium, 1887...................................... ” i888.