Opium : historical note

Material Information

Opium : historical note or the poppy in China
Alternate Title:
Added title page title:
Abbreviated Title:
Poppy in China
China. Maritime Customs
Edkins, Joseph, 1823-1905
Place of Publication:
Published by order of the Inspector General of Customs
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
[iv], 50, [30] p.


Subjects / Keywords:
Opium -- China -- History ( lcsh )
Opium trade -- China -- History ( lcsh )
鴉片 -- 中國 -- 歷史
鸦片 -- 中国 -- 历史
China. Hai guan zong shui wu si shu
China. Maritime Customs Service
government document
Temporal Coverage:
- 1889
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
亚洲 -- 中国
亞洲 -- 中國
31.228611 x 121.474722


General Note:
Includes index
General Note:
"Prepared by Dr Edkins of the Chinese Customs Service"--Introd. Dr J. Edkins had been until 1880 a missionary of the London Missionary Society.
General Note:
English and Chinese texts
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Edkins, Joseph, 1823-1905 : URI

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License. This license allows others to download this work and share them with others as long as they mention the author and link back to the author, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
Resource Identifier:
390419 ( aleph )
CWML O43 ( soas classmark )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

aKd sold by
I Price $0.25.]

[Price $0.25.] 1889-

Introduction ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… i
The Poppy among the Greeks and Romans ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… •… 3
The Poppy among the Arabs ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 4
The Arabs in China ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… ・・・ •… ・・・ 5
The Arabs at Canton ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ 5
First mention of cultivation of the Poppy in China in the eighth century ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ 5
Second mention of cultivation of the Poppy in China in the eighth century ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 6
Early poem on the Poppy・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •八 ・・・ ・・・ 6
The two Arab travellers ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… •… ・・・ •… 6
The Poppy enters the Chinese Pharmacopoeia ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・・・ •… 7
Poem of Su Tung-p4o ........................................ •… •… ・・・ ....... 7
Poem of Su Ch金 ・・・ ・・・ ・.. ・・. ・・・ ・・・ .・・ ・・・ •… •… •… ・・・ j
Notes on Su Che^ poem.................................................................... ・・・ 8
Materia Medica of the eleventh century by Su Sung ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 8
Cultivation of the Poppy mentioned ・・・ ・・・ •… .… ・・・ •… •… •… •… 8
Medical use of Poppy seeds •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… •… ・・・ ・・・ 9
The white variety of Papaver sonmiferum ・・・ •… ・・・ •… •… •… ・・・ •… 9
Twelfth century use of seeds to counteract the effects of mercury •… •… •… ・・・ •… io
First use of capsules in twelfth century・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ io
Another poem on the Poppy •… •… •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… io
Use of capsules in dysentery shown by extracts from three authors •… •… ・・・ •… •… it
Use of capsules probably derived from the West, but this is still not proved ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 12
Use of capsules in North China in twelfth century .… ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… 12
Use of capsules in North China in thirteenth century ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… 12
Use of capsules in South China in thirteenth century ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… 12
The capsule ukills like a knifen・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 13
Use of capsules in fourteenth centiu’y ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ 13
First mention of Opium extract was in fifteenth cen・・・ … ・・・ •… ・・・ •… 15
Arabian method of obtaining Opium ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… ・・・ •… 15
Wang Hsi's directions for use of Opium.........................................................】5
Wang Hsijs directions for procuring Opium from the Poppy ・・・ •… •… ・・・ ・・・ •…
AVang Hsijs knowledge, how acquired •… •… •… •… •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ 15
Fullest details, where found ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… •… i6
Mode of preparing Opium in the sixteenth century ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… 16
Medical use of Opium in the sixteenth century •… •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ i6
Prohibition of Foreign trade encouraged Native production … ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 17
Kung Yun-lin5s prescription .............................. ・・・ ....... ・・・ .......17
Medical use of Poppy bracts of red and white varieties of Pctpaver sovmiferum ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 17
Golden elixir pill •… ... ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ i8
Native account of Foreign trade before the prohibition ・・・ ・・・ •… •… ・・・ ・,・ •… i8
Bad effects of prohibition・•・ ... ..・ .・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… 19
Good effects of permission to trade ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 19
Duties levied ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・・・ •… •… 丁 9
Tariff of A.D・1589 ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 20
Tariff of A.D・1615 ・・・ •… ・・・ ... •… •… •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ 20

Li Shih・ch:&n's Materia Medica ...............................................................20
Poppy as a flower・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ 22
Another accoun to f the mode of ob taining Opium from the Poppy •… .… •… •… •… 23
・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・• ・・・ • • • ・・・ ・・・ ««• ・・・ • • • ・•・ 23
Opium in Java in 1629 ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… •… 24
Bontius5 opinion of Opium ... ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 24
Opium-smoking arose from tobacco・smoking ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 24
Tobacco-smoking, when introduced •… ・・・ .… •… •… •… •… •… •… 25
Prohibition of tobacco-smoking •… ・・・ ・・・ •… •… ・・・ .… •… ・・・ •… 25
Mancliu prohibition 0f tobacco-smoking •… ・・・ •… .・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… 25
Spread of tobacco-smoking ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… •… ・・・ 26
Opium-smoking in Formosa •… •… •… •… ・・・ •… ・・・ •… •… ・・・ 26
K^empfer5s Amcenitates exoticce ・・・ ・・・ •亠 ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 27
Tobacco: Kzempfer's account ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ .・・ .・.27
Hookah or water pipe •… ・・・ •… •… … •… •… •… ・・・ .… … 29
Summary of K^empfe^s account・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ 29
Object of the water pipe・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… ・・・ •… … ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 29
Cigms •・• ・・・ ・・・ ・・• ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・•• ・・・ ・・・ ・・• ・.・ 29
How Opium is made in Persia ・・・ ・・・ … ・・・ ・・・ •… … ・・・ ・・・ … 29
Preparation of Opium •… ・・• •… ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・.・ ・.・ 3°
K^mpfer5s visit to Java in 1688 ..・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・.・ 31
Mention of use of Opium・・・ ・・・ •… … •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・. ・.. 32
First Opium-smoking shops •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… •… •… ・・・ .… 32
Medical use of Opium in 1723 ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… .・. .・. 33
Early Opium-smoking in Formosa •… •… ・・・ ・・・ •… •… ・・・ ..・ ..・ 33
Opium-smoking came to FoTmoswt fi*om Jnvi •… •… ・・・ •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ 34
Another account of early Opium-smoking in Formosa ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ •… ・・・ .… 35
Prohibitory edict of 1729・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ .・・ ・.. 35
Spread of Opium-smoking in the eighteenth century •… ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 36
Native Opium in Yunnan •… ・・・ ... •… •… •… •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ 38
AVho cultivated the Poppy in Yiimmn? •… •… •… ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ •… •… 38
Use of capsules in 1742 ... •… •… •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ..・ .・.39
Present use of capsules ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ .… .… 4°
Hoppo Boole of 1753 ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… •… 4°
Five kinds of duties in 1753 ・・・ •… ・・・ •… •… ・・・ •… •… •… •… 4°
The three tariff books •… ・・・ •… •… •… •… ・・・ •… •… .・・ ...4°
Prices ruling in 1755 ・・・ ・・• •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・• ・・・ ・•・ ・・・ 41
Opium-smuggling in 1782..・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 41
Opium-smoking in 1793 ・・• ・・・ ・・• •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・• •八 ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 42
Opium-smoking in 1800 ・・• … •… •… … … •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 43
Stntements in Hai-kuo-Vu-chik ・・・ •… •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ 43
Local arrangement in 1822 ・・・ ・・・ •… •八 ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 43
Native testimony on the deleterious effect of Opium ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 44
Statistics of the present Native production ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 44
Concluding note ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ 45
Chinese version of His to rical N ote ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ •… ・・・ ・・・ ・・・ i to xxvii

This Historical Note on Opium in China, which has been
prepared by Dr. Edkins, of the Chinese Customs Service, is published
by order of the Inspector General of Customs.
Statistical Secretary.
Inspectorate General of Customs,
Statistical Department,
Shanghai, May 1889.

That the Poppy was cultivated very early in Italy is clear from a passage
in Cornelius Nepos, who, in liis account of Tarquin, mentions it in a way to show
that in the time of the last of the Roman Kings it was commonly sown in gardens.
Tarquin's son was in a city of Etruria, devising means to betray it to liis father
without himself losing the confidence of the people, who believed father and son. to
be in a state of hopeless alienation, he having come to tlieir city wè¾»h wounds on his
body, which lie said had been inflic ted. by liis father as a punishment. He sent a
messenger to liis fkther for advice. The fkther* took the envoy into liis garden, and
struck down all the tallest Poppies. Sextus Tarquinius knew what this meant,
and by procuring the death or removal from the city of all the chief inhabitants,
succeeded in persuading the remainder to submit to liis father's rule.
The Poppy is also alluded to in Homer as a garden flower. He describes an
arrow aimed at Hector as missing him, but striking in the chest another son of
Priam. He proceeds, "Just as a Poppy in a garden hangs on one side, its head
laden with fruit and with the dew of spring, so he bent on one side his head, made
heavy by his helmet."* The first mention of Poppy juice is by Hippocrates, who
* Huie nuntio^ quia, credo, dubiae fidei videbatur, nihil voce responsum est・ Rex, velut deliberabundus,
in hortuni aediuni transit, sequente nuntio filii: ibi, inainbulans tacitus, suinina papaverum capita dicitur baculo
decussisse.—Livy, i; 54.
f p^Kb)V S' O)S €T6pWCT€ KapY} 0(£入钳 T)T £VL K^7TQ),
KapirQ 0%0卩纟叩 voTLyab re €)ap听
(Ss cTepwcr5 讹Yg Kapi] 7T7]X^kl (3apvv6kv.—Iliads viii, 306-8・
The Poppy among
the Greeks and

calls it o7to? w']K3vo Latin. is the Greek name of the Poppy. Hippocrates lived in the fifth
century before Christ. He was famous as the founder of Greek medical literature,
and to him certainly the virtues of the Poppy were known.
In Virgil we find the Poppy described as pervaded by lethean sleep (" Letliseo
perfiisa papavera somno."—Georg., i, 78), and he sometimes speaks of the cc lethean
Poppy" or the Cfsleep-giving Poppy" (usoporiferumque papaver."—^neid, iv, 486).
He borrowed from Greek mythology, according to which the waters of the river Lethe,
which flows through the regions of the dead, cause tliose who drink of them to forget
everything, as is said also to have been the case with the lotus-eaters of Homer.
The Poppy is in Virgil connected not only with the mythology of the world of the
dead, but with the worship of Ceres. This goddess is represented as holding the
Poppy in her hands. Conjecture has been busy iii attempting to account for this,
and it has been supposed that it was because the Poppy grows wild in corn-fields in
European countries, or because the seeds of the white Poppy were eaten as food to
give an appetite, Ceres being thought of by the ancient mind as the bountiful giver
of food. To the ancient imagination, however, it would be quite enough to think
of the Poppy as the prettiest of the flowers which grow up wild in the midst of
wheat, and on this account to dedicate it to the service of the goddess of the
wheat-field. When, in the first Christian century, Pliny wrote his Natural
History (20, 18 (76), 199) and Dioscorides his Materia Medica, the word "Opium"
was already introduced, a,nd the sleepy effects of it were everywhere known.
The Poppy among The Arabians of the Caliphate studied Greek medicine and practised it.
the Arabs. 丄 丄
Opium became well known among them by its Greek name, which took the form
cfyun, through the Semitic habit of changing p f. In Persia it appeared, with
the same form (afyun丿,interchanged with abyun and apytln, which latter became, as
will be seen, the parent of the Chinese name ya-pien (阿扁). Both the Arabs ancl
the Persians had national names for the Poppy: the Arab called it khash-Jchash,
and the Persian Jcdkndr. Hence we may gather that tlie Poppy was anciently

known as a garden flower as far eastward as Persia, while its medical applications
were made by the Greeks.*
In the times of the Caliphs the Arabs began to visit China,! especially after
the founding of Baghdad, A.D. 763, and became traders in drugs, precious stones3.
brocades, rose water, and such things. Previous to the T'ang clynasty the Poppy
was apparently unknown to the Chinese botanists and physicians, and when it was
brought to them their attention was drawn to the form of the heads which enclosed
the seeds, then used in making a soporiferous decoction according to the directions
of the Arab doctors; consequently they invented names for it, based on the appear-
ance of the Poppy heads. The seeds looked like millet seeds, if not in colour, at
least in shape, and tlierefbre they called the heads mi-nang (米 囊),millet bags."
The early arrival of Arabs by sea at Canton may be illustrated by the
following extract from the Pan-yil-hsien-chih (番禺縣志):一"In tlie T'ang clynas切,
on occasion of the opening of trade with Foreign ships, the Maliommedan King
Mahomet sent liis mother's brother from Western countries to China to trade. He
built a tomb and monastery, called respectively Chien-kuang-tca (建 光 塔)and Huai-
sheng-ssii (,懷 聖 寺). Soon after the monastery was completed he died, and was buried
in the tomb [still exis ting out side the North Gate], ill accordance with liis intention.n
In the reign of T'ang Ming Huang, in the first half of the eighth century,
an author named Ch沆n Tscang-ch£i (陳藏器),in a work which he calls A Supple-
ment to the Pen-ts'ao (本草拾遺),quotes from an. earlier writer, Sung Yang-tzu
(嵩陽子),a statement that " The Poppy has four petals. It is white and red.
Above tliem is a pale red rim. The seeds are in a bag, wliicli is like one of those
arrow-heads wliicli have air-lioles to make a sound as the arrow cuts through the
air. Within there are seeds like those of millet.n
The Arabs in
The Arabs at
Cail ton.
First mention of
cultivation of the
Poppy in China
in the eighth
century ・
* Opium is also mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud (seventh century), Abocla Zarah, ii; 40 {ophydn,
as being a dangerous medicine.
t China in the early Han dynasty opened Foreign trade by way of Cochin China. Under the Wei dynasty
international trade was established at ceTtain points
dynasty, A.D. 971, a Superintendent was appointed at Canton, Hangchow, and Ningpo, to overlook Foreign trade.
Earlier than this we read of an officer called Shih-po-ssU (市 §白 司),appointed to Canton to superintend Foreign
trade, as the title implies. This was in the T'ang dynasty・
on the border between North and South China. In the Sung

Second mention.
Early poem on
the Poppy.
The two Arab
At tliis time, early in the eighth century, the Arabs had been trading with
China for at least a century, for Mahomet's death occurred A.D. 632, and that of
his uncle not long afterwards. It was easy for the Poppy to be cultivated with
the jasmine and the rose everywhere throughout the country. We know, indeed,
from the Nan-fang-ts(ao-mu-chuang (南方草木狀),a work which dates from the
beginning of the fourth century, that the jasmine and the henna, plants which,
must have come with the Arabian commerce, were already in China when that
book was written. But the first distinct mention of the Poppy is in the work
of Chcen Ts£ang-chci.
In the work on trees, called Chicng-shu-shib (種樹 書),written by Kuo T'o-t'o
(郭橐駝),it is said that " The Poppy, ying-su (鶯粟),if sown on the 9th of tlie 9th
month or on the 15tli of the 8th month, the flowers will be large and the heads full
of seeds." This passage occurs in the Tlu-shu-chi-chceng (圖書集成).* The authors
biography was written by Liu Tsung-yuan (柳 宗 元),and we therefore know that he
was living in the latter part of the eighth century. He resided near the capital, in
Shensi. From this it must be concluded that the Poppy was then cultivated in.
the neighbourhood, of what is now Si-an-fu (provincial capital of Shensi).
The poet Yung T'ao (雍陶),a native of Cli'eng-tu-fn, in Szechwan, in the
closing years of the T'ang dynasty, wrote a poem, entitled A Poem on leaving a
winding Valley and approaching my Western Home. It says, " Passing the
dangerous st aircase I issued from the winding defile of the Pao Valley. After
travelling across all the intervening plains and rivers I am now near my home.
The sadness of the traveller in his journey of 10,000 li is to-day dissipated. Before
my horse I see the mi-nang flower.” This short poem shows that at the tiiAe when
it was written the Poppy was cultivated near Cli{eng-tu-fu.
From about 756 to 960, a space of two centuries, little is said in Chinese
books of the Arabs; yet at that time two Mahommedan travellers came to China
and wrote accounts of what they saw and heard. Recently their works have been
* Kindly lent from the Russian Legation Library, Peking.

translated into European languages. This shows that the Arabs did not cease
during this interval to visit China. Information in. regard to the medical qualities
of the Poppy would be originally furnished to the Chinese by the Arabs; it is
on this account that in the Pen-tscao of the Kcai Pao period (A.D. 968 to 976) the
Poppy is introduced as a healing plant.
In the year 973 the Emperor Sung T'ai-tsu gave an order tliat Liu Han
(劉翰)and a Taoist, Ma Chih (馬志),with others, nine in all, should prepare the
medical work known as Kcai-pao-pen-tscao (開寳本草). In this the Poppy is called
ying-tzu-su (瞿子粟),and it is stated that " Its seeds have healing powers. When
men have been taking the stone * that confers immortality, feel it powerfully
operating, and cannot eat with appetite, they may be benefited by mixing these seeds
with bamboo juice boiled into gruel and taking this."
The name ying-su here used, and previously by the earliest T'ang dynasty
autliors on this point, means "jar millet,n from the resemblance of the Poppy head
to the kind of jar which the Chinese call ying.
Among the poets of this period were two brothers named Su; one was the
celebrated Su Tung-p'o (蘇 東 坡). In a poem of liis occurs the following passage :—
"The Taoist advises you strongly to partake of the drink called chi-su-shui (鷄 蘇 水).
The boy may prepare for you the broth of the ying-su J
The brother, named Su Che (蘇 轍),wrote a poem which he called A Poem on
the Cultivation of the Medical Plant “ Ying-su," or Poppy;—
"I built a house on. the west of the city. The ground in the centre was laid
out in rectangular divisions. Where the windows and doors left a space, firs and
bamboos helped to fill up the vacancy. The thorny bushes were pulled up, ancl a
garden made to grow good vegetables and other plants. The gardener came to me
to say, ' The ying-su (Poppy) is a good plant to have.' It is called ying because,
though small, it is shaped like a ying (jar); it is called su because the seeds are
* This statement shows that at that time there prevailed an extensive use of mercury, taken under the idea
that it would prolong life, and that the eSects were found to be very injurious.
The Poppy enters
the Cliinese Phar・
Poem of Su Tung ・
Poem of Su Ch£.

Notes on the
Materia Medica
of the eleventh
century by Su
Cultivation of the
Poppy mentioned.
small and look like su (millet). It is sown with wheat and ripens with panicled
millet—chi (標),Panicum miliaceicm; when growing it may be eaten like the
vegetables of spring. Its seeds are like autumn millet. When ground they yield
a sap like cows' milk; when, boiled they become a drink fit for Buddha. Old men
whose powers have decayed, who have little appetite, who when they eat meat
cannot digest it, and when they eat vegetables cannot distinguish their flavour,
should take this drink. Use a willow mallet and a stone basin, to beat it. Boil
it in water that lias been sweetened with honey. It does good to the mouth and
to the throa t. It res to res tranquillity to the lungs and nourishes the stomach.
For three years the door lias been closed, and I have gone nowhere and come
back from nowhere. I see here the Hermit of the Shade (a Taoist priest) and the
long-robed Buddhist priest; when they sit opposite I forget to speak. Then I
have but to clriiik a cup of this Poppy-seed decoction. I laugh, I am happy, I have
come to Ying-cli£uan, and am wandering on tlie banks of its river. I seem to be
climbing the slopes of the Lu Mountain in the far west."
There is a small river in the province of Anhwei which is called Ying-shui.
The city mentioned was oil the banks of that river, which is famous in history. The
mountain called Lu-shan is in Western China, on the north of the celebrated O-mei-
slian. The poet went to live at Ying-chcuan when lie was old. As a boy lie had
lived with his brother near the Lu Mountain.
The Emperor Jen Tsung, of the Sung dynasty, about the year 1057, ordered
the compilation by Su Sung (蘇頌)and others of the work known as T'u-ching-pen-
tscao (圖 經本 草). The magistrates of all cities were ordered to supply information
on all medical plants in their vicinity, according to the method before employed
in preparing the previous work, called Ying-kung Tlang Pen-tscao (英公唐本草),
made in pursuance of an order given by the Emperor Kao Tsung, in the Fang
dynasty, to the Prince named Ying Kuo-kung (英 國公). In this work it is said
by Su Sung that " The Poppy is found everywhere. Many persons cultivate it
as an ornamental flower. There are two kinds, one with red flowers and another

with wliite. It has an odour not very agreeable. The fruit is like a flower vase,
and contains very small seeds. Gardeners manure the land for the Poppy every
other year. The seeds are sown in the 9th month. In the spring they are, if
thus manured, seen growing with great vigour; otherwise they will not thrive, and
if they grow at all they are weak and slender. When the capsules have become dry
and yellow, they may be plucked.
He also says that " In cases of nausea and vomiting a drink made from Poppy Medical use of
」 ° 丄丄"Poppy seeds,
seeds in the following manner will be found serviceable. Tliree-tenths of a pint of
the seeds of the white Poppy, three-tenths of an ounce of powdered ginseng, with
a piece 5 inches in length, of the tuber of the Chinese yam, are to be cut and
ground fine. Boil it, adding 2磊 pints of water. Take of this six-tentlis of a pint,
and add to it a little syrup of raw ginger with fine salt. It should be mixed well
and distributed into doses, which may be taken early or late, and no harm will follow
from taking other kinds of medicine at the same time."
The biography of this writer in the History of the Sung Dynasty says of him
that he was a man of large mind, who would not take part in quarrels. He held
to the rules of politeness and the laws of the State. Though high in station, he lived
like a poor man. From the invention of writing downwards, whatever there was to
read and to learn, in classics, histories, and the works of various authors, together
with diviners' books, the 12 musical tubes, astronomy, astrology, mathematics, and
medical botany, there was nothing with wliich he was not familiar.
In regard to what kind of Poppy is meant by Su Sung, writing in. the The white variety
of Papaver som-
eleventh century, it may be well to refer here to the statement made by the German n^rum-
traveller K^empfer, who towards the end of the seventeenth century was attached as
pliysician to the Embassy sent to Persia by the King of Sweden. He says that
the Poppy from wliich Opium was theii manufactured in that country was the
white Poppy. It becomes plain, then, that in the time of Su Sung, though tlie
name of Opium had not yet appeared in books, yet the plant that was able to
produce it was commonly known. The celebrated English botanist Lindley says
that tlie Poppies from wliich. Opium is made are those with reel and those with
white flowers.

Twelfth century
use of seeds to
countemct the
effects of mercury.
First use of cap-
sules in twelfth
Another poem on
the Poppy.
At the beginning of the twelfth century, in the reign of Hui Tsung, one of
the Court physicians, named K'ou Tsung-shih (寇宗與),compiled a work called
Pen-ts'ao-yen-i (本草衍義).In it lie says that the flowers of the Poppy are in some
kinds extremely abundant in their leaves, and that the number of seeds in the heads
is beyond computation. " They are in size like those of the Ving-li (茎懑)严 and
white in colour. The seeds are cooling in their nature; if taken in good quantity
they are beneficial for such affections as diarrhoea, and act favourably on the - bladder.
Those who have been taking cinnabar, if they have them ground ancl boiled with
water, adding honey, and prepared in the form of broth, will find them beneficial in
a high degree."
In the botanical section of the u_shu-chi-ch乜ng the following extract is
found, taken from, the work Shan-chia-cl^ing-kicng (山 家淸 供),by a Sung dynasty
medical writer named Lin Hung (林洪),who, from his language implying the use
of the capsules of the Poppy with the seeds, we must suppose to have belonged
to the Southern Sung. He is speaking of what he calls Poppy-milk fish, by
which is meant the juice hardened into cakes ancl taking the shape of fish. " Take
Poppy heads, wash, them well, and grind out their juice. First place some meal
in a jar, covering the bottom. By means of a gauze bag filter the Poppy milk
upon it, removing the portion that floats above and allowing the thicker part
to remain. Place it in an. iron pan. and let it boil for a little. Sprinkle rapidly
some weak vinegar on it, and take it up from the pail into the bag and press it into
a cake. It should then be placed in such a covered pan as is used for steaming
macaroni ancl the like, and there be well steamed. It is then to be sprinkled with
a solution of red leaven, st earned again for a short time, taken out, and made up
in cakes shaped like :fish."
A poem of Hsieh K'o (謝邁),written in the Sung dynasty, is fouiicl in the
work known as Kuang-ch(unhang-phb (廣羣芳譜)."There seem to be tiny spots
* This plant is stated by Williams to be cruciferous, and like the mustard in shape and leaves・ See the
drawing in the Pen-ts^ao, which says it is used as a light aperient.

of ointment of lead oil the tips of the flowers. It is as if they told me that tlie
spring is advancing, but the snow is not yet melted. I see a thousancl Poppy heads
full of black seeds. The east wind will blow ancl they will be like millet of the
best size and quality.” The comparison with snow indicates the colour of the
Yang Shih-ying (楊 士 瀛),a native of Fulikien when the Sung dynasty
was closing, says in a medical work, while speaking of the use of the Poppy capsule
in medicine, in cases of dysentery, “ This is thought little of by most, but when
dysentery is of long continuance, without gatherings of matter locally and pain
resulting, and it is right to use astringents, if this remedy were not at hand liow
could use be made of this mode of treatment ? But there ought to be other drugs
accompanying it, to modify the effect."
Another Sung dynasty writer on medicine, named Wang Chciu (王于勤 in
a work to which he gave the name Pai-i-lisuan-fang (百—選方),writes that Poppy-
seeds and capsules may with advantage be used together for both kinds of dysentery.
The seeds are prepared in a pan. over the fire. The capsules are roasted on a gridiron.
After being pulverised they are made up into pills, with honey, of the size of wu-tung
seeds (Eleococca verrucosa). 30 pills are taken at a time, with rice gruel. These
pills have been tried and found most efficient.
Another Sung dynasty author, Wang Shih (王 %頁),in liis work I-chien-fang
(易 簡 方),says, " The effect of the Poppy capsule in curing dysentery is nothing less
than magical. But in its nature it is extremely astringent, and easily causes vomiting
and difficulty in digesting food; consequently, patients are afraid of it and do not
venture to take it. Yet if it be prepared over the fire with a little vinegar,
and black plums be added oil account of their acid qualities, its use will be found
satisfac tory.
"If the four drugs known as the four noble medicines, viz., tang-shen (a
coarse ginseng grown in China), pai-slm (Atractylodes alba, a medicinal plant like
an artichoke), China-root, and liquorice, be mixed in due proportion and taken
with it, there will be still less tendency to check digestion and prevent the food
from proceeding on its way. The results will be most excellent."
Use of capsules iu
dysentery shown
by extracts from
three authors.

Use of capsules
])robably derived
from the West,
but this is still
not proved・
Use of capsules
in North China in
twelfth century・
Use of capsules in
North China in
thirteenth cen-
Use in South
China in
teen th cen tury.
Li Shih-chen (李時珍),in the P^n-ts'ao-Tcang-mu (本草綱目),or Cliinese
Materia Medica, follows a chronological order in liis arrangement of passages taken
from the works of the medical authors who preceded him. It may be concluded,
therefore, that the use of the Poppy capsule in medicine began with the Southern
Sung dynasty, that is, in the latter part of the twelfth or in the thirteenth century.
Yang Shih-ying published his work A.D. 1265, and Wang Shih is by Li Shih-
chen placed later. The latter does not say whence the use of the capsule was
derived; it may therefore be supposed that it was introduced from the West, where
its healing virtues were known from the most ancient times.
In the work called Hsilan-ming-fang (宣明方),by Liu Ho-chien (劉河間),
of the Chin (金)dynasty, it is said that for asthmatic cough, with perspiration, in
summer and winter of several years' standing, the Poppy capsule may be used.
2吉 ounces in weight should be taken. The stem and outer membrane should be
removed. Let it simmer in vinegar. Take 1 ounce and mix with half an ounce
of black plums; let it be slowly heated and then pulverised. Take for a dose
two-tenths of an ounce. Let it be adminis tered in hot water and drunk at bed-time.
Li Kao (李杲),a physician of the same period (born A.D. 1180, died 1252),
says the Poppy capsule is efficient as an astringent and in strengthening the system.
It operates on the kidneys, and is useful in. the cure of disease aflfecting the bones.
Wei I-lin (危亦林),of the Yuan dynasty, a native of Kiangsi and of the
city of Chien-chang, published a book called TS-hsiao-fitng (得效方),made up of
prescriptions collected by himself and his ancestors for four generations before his
time. He says that in cases of obstinate diarrhoea of a chronic nature the Poppy
capsule may be used. The stringy parts should be removed, and it should be dipped

in honey and held over the fire. Then pulverise it. As a dose use half an ounce.
Take it with honey and hot water. These capsules have the power to strengthen
the constitution. The effect is immediate.
In the Yuan dynasty the next name is that of Chu Celen-heng (朱震亨).* 瞪常為
He says that " The Poppy capsule is used extensively for cougli at the present time
in the case of those who are weak and consumptive. It is employed to take away
the cougli. It is used also for diarrlicea and dysentery accompanied with local
inflammation. Though its effects are quick, great care must be taken in using it,
because it kills like a knife.n He also says, " Many persons to cure cough employ the
Poppy capsule, ancl it may be used witliout fear, but in the first place the root of
tlie disease must be removed, while this should be reserved as a res to rative method
to complete the cure. In treating dysentery the same is true. Unnatural symptoms
have to be expelled ancl lumps removed. It would not be right to employ at once
such medicines as the capsule and lung-ku (dragon's bones, certain fossil bones of
existing and of extinct animals) in order to check abruptly the action of tlie stomach
and intestines, for tlie unnatural state of things would reappear with increased
severity. Other modifications of an unhealthy kind would supervene, and disease
would spread without limit.The expression. " it kills like a knife " may be taken as
proof that the capsule of which the author is speaking is that of the Opium Poppy.
That a red tint was common in the Poppies of that time may be concluded
from the following couplet in a poem of Feng Tzu-chen (馮子振),in. the Yuan
dynasty :—" They carry in. their hair Poppies which are in colour like the red clouds
after rain and asters resembling the hoar frost.
The first name that we meet with in the Ming dynasty is that of a Use of capsules in
fourteenth cen-
brother of the Emperor Ch'直ng Tsu (Yung Lo). He was called Chou-ting Wang tury-
倜定王). He says in the Pu-ch讨ang (普濟方)section of Chiu-huang-pen-tscao
(救荒本草),a medical work, " The Poppy capsule prepared in. vinegar is to be
* See for particulars Bretschneiderjs Botanicon Sinici^ page 49. He lived in the second half of the
fourteenth century. His biography is found in the Yiian-shih (元 史).

used for dysentery and bloody evacuations. 1 ounce with half an ounce of orange
peel (chcen-pci) should be reduced to powder. For a dose take three-tenths of an
ounce with black prunes ancl hot water."
In the Ming dynasty, which lasted through the fifteenth, sixteenth, and part
of the seventeenth centuries, the trade of China by sea with India, Arabia, and the
islands of the Eastern Archipelago greatly increased; at that time the Chinese ships,
being provided witli the mariner's compass,* ventured a little further from land than
before, and the extension of the Mongol Empire to Persia had helped to spread
intercourse by sea between China and that country. Cheng Ho (鄭和),who was
sent on a diplomatic mission to all important seaports from Canton to Aden,
succeeded so well on his first voyage that lie was repeatedly despatched afterwards,
and brought back a fairly minute account of tlie places lie visited. He was in
diplomatic communication with the chief persons in authority in Aden, and some
other Arabian, ports, in Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, in several cities of India, such
as Goa, Cocliin, Quilon, and Calicut, as well as other centres of trade nearer home.
Can. we wonder that all the principal exports in those countries became known to
the merchants of Canton and Amoy ? They were then probably, next to tlie Arabs,
the chief traders in. the Indian seas. When the Portuguese appeared unexpectedly
at Cochin in 1498, they commenced at once a career of conquest, and quickly made
themselves masters of Aden, Hormuz, Goa, Cochin, Calicut, Malacca, and many other
cities. With military prestige they joined great activity in commerce, and became
the chief mercliants in tlie East. At this time, as we learn from Barbosa, Opium
was among the articles brought to Malacca by Arabs and Gentile mercliants, to
exchange for the cargoes of Chinese junks. He also states that Opium was taken
from Arabia to Calicut, and from Cambay to the same place, tlie Arabian being
one-third higher in price than the Cambay. The Opium exported from this seaport
may be assumed to have been manufkctiired in Malwa, which, lies quite near it.
The Arabs, then, had already begun to grow Opium in India in tlie sixteenth
century. In addition to this, we are also told that from places on the Coromandel
* The floating compass is mentioned by Hsu Ching (徐 兢),ambassador to Cotea,as having been in use
on board of his ship in his voyage from Ningpo to Corea in the year A・I)・ 1122.

coast Opium was exported to Siam and Pegu. Here we also find clear indications
of the activity of Arab traders in ext ending the cultivation, of the Poppy in India.
The Chinese also at tliis time imported Opium themselves, to be used medically. It
is important to note this for the proper understanding of the history of Opium in
Wang Hsi (王璽),an author who died in. A.D. 148& published a work which
lie named I-lin-chi-yao (醫林集要). In it he says that " Opium is produced in
Arabia from a Poppy with a red flower. Water slioulcl not be allowed to go over
its head. After the flower has faded in the 7th or 8th month the capsule, while
still fresh, is pricked for the juice."
He also says, " In. chronic dysentery use Opium of the size of a small bean,
and administer it with warm water before the patient takes food (as in. the early
morning), when the stomach is free. Take one dose a day, and avoid onions, garlic,
ancl soups of all kinds. If thirsty clrink water with honey in it."
He also says, “ Opium may be used to cure obstinate dysentery of long
continuance. When the flower of the Poppy has fallen and the head is developed,
after waiting four or five days take a large pricking instrument and prick from 10
to 20 holes in the fresh capsule. Next day, in the morning, when the sap exudes,
use a bamboo knife for the purpose of scraping it into an earthenware vessel. Let
it dry in a shady place. Oil each occasion of using it take a piece of the size of
a small bean, and let it be administered on an empty stomach and mixed with warm
water. Let the patient avoid onions, garlic, and all soups. If he be hot ancl thirsty
let him clrink water with honey in it.”
This autlior, it will be observed, died 10 years before Vasco de Gama arrived
in India. His biography, in the History of the Ming Dynasty, shows that he was in
official charge of the province of Kansuh for more than 20 years. His duties included
the care of the Mahommedan population of Hami, Turfan, and other western cities.
He must have known well the productions, the medical practice, and the customs of
the Maliommedan countries; lienee liis minute acquaintance with Opium.
First mention of
Opium extract
was in fifteenth
Arabian method
of obtaining
Opiu m・
Wang Hsi's direc-
tions for use of
Wang Hsi's direc-
tions for procur・
ing Opium from
the Poppy.
Wang Hsi's
knowledge, how

Fullest details,
wliei'e found・
Mode of preparing
Opium in the
sixt eenth cen tury・
Medical use.
In tlie first of the three preceding paragraphs the Pen-tscao account of
Wang's remedy against diarrhoea has been followed; in the paragraph wliich comes
after it the fuller statement found in. the Corean work Tung-i-pao-chien (東醫寶鑑)
lias been given. It seemed better to insert both in this list of passages, because
they bear on the point of the manufacture of Opium by tlie Chinese in tlieir own
country in the fifteen th century, of which there can remain little doubt if tlie
extract from the Tung-i-pao-chien be fairly considered. Tlie author first mentions
the disease and then details the mode in which the medicine which is to cure it
may be obtained.
Both accouiits are professedly taken from Wang Hsi's book. In the absence
of tlie book itself it cannot be decided wliicli is the more correct. Probability is
in favour of the last, because it is fuller than the other.
In the Ming dynasty, in the middle of the sixteenth century, we find an
author, Li T'ing (李挺),激 in his work I-hsiao-ju-men (醫學入門),saying Opium or
a-fu-yung (阿芙蓉)is made in tlie following manner :—Before the head opens the
Poppy is approached with a bamboo needle and the capsule pierced in 10 or 15 places,
from which sap conies out. The next morning a bamboo knife is used to scrape the
sap into a vessel of earthenware. When a good quantity has been collected it is
sealed up with paper and placed in the sun for a fortnight, and then the Opium
is ready. Its influence and effects are most powerful, and much must not be used.
He also says, “ In cases of dysentery with weakness, and when chronic, with
all sorts of dysentery indeed, a good remedy will be found in 4 ounces of huang-
lien (Justicia) prepared over the fire with tvu-chu-yii (Boymia Rutcecarpa) which
has been separately made to simmer in water beforehand. To these are to be
added. 1 ounce of putchuck and 1 mace of Opium. This mixture is pulverised and
rolled into pills with paste made of ground rice. The pills are to be of the size
of green beans. 20 or 30 are to be taken at a time, accompanied by a warm
* He belonged to Chien-an-fu, in Shensi. There was in the Sung dynasty another Li T'ing,who wrote on
divination and the I-ching (易 經).

draught made with the kernels of lotus seeds wliich have been stewed in water.
The patient is then to go to sleep well covered. The effect is marvellous.n (Taken
from the Tzeng-i-pao-chien.)
This author lived during the time when Foreign trade was prohibited. He Prohibition of
Q E Foreign trade
is mentioned in the History of the Ming Dynasty as belonging to the Chia Ching 常歸;需1 血讯
period (1522 to 1567), after wliich by a new law European vessels were allowed
to trade with China. During the first half of that reign the Japanese made frequent
raids upon the Chinese coast. This caused deep indignation, and not only they
but all Foreigners were forbidden to trade with China. This was iii the year 1523.
This naturally rendered Foreign medicines scarce and dear, ancl therefore we are not
surprised to find exact directions given by contemporary medical authors as to how
Opium might be manufactured from the Poppy, it being then a highly esteemed
drug and having been recommended by medical authors for half a century or more.
The next author to be cited in the Ming dynasty is Kung Yun-lin (龔 雲林)打;鴛器盅秽"'
or Kung Hsin (龔信). He says in curing white and red dysentery use Opium,
putcliuck, huang-lien (Justicia), and pai-sluc (Atractylodes), each in equal quantity.
Pulverise in a mortar and mix into pills with rice, making the pills of the size of
a small bean. The old and the young must take half as much as the middle-aged
and the strong. Take the mixture with rice water after being without food for some
hours. Avoid sour tilings. Take nothing raw or cold. Take no oil, fat, tea, wine,
or flour. The disease will be certainly checked. If thirsty drink a little rice water.
Another method is to take from the bud of the Poppy flower before it has Medical use of
Poppy bracts of
opened the two green leaves which enclose it and. drop off when the flower opens.;计总暮'秽血
Pulverise them and* take one-tentli of an ounce with rice water. The effect will be E第需:
marvellous. According as the diarrhoea is of the red or white kind, use the bracts
of the red or white Poppy.
This use of the bracts which envelop the Poppy flower is peculiar to this
author. He was a native of Kiangsi and belonged to the Medical Board in

Golden elixir pill.
Native account
of Foreign trade
before the pro-
He also made a pill celebrated for its healing power and called the golden
elixir. It was thought to be able to cure 24 difierent diseases, which are detailed
in. the PSn-tscao of Li Shih-chen, with a statement of the decoction to be taken with
the pill in each case. In this pill, I-li-chin-tan (―粒金丹)背 Opium was used to
the extent of one-liundredtli of an ounce and mixed with glutinous rice, to be divided
into tliree pills, one being a dose. If ineffectual, another was taken. It was for-
bidden to take many of these pills. Vinegar was not to be used, for fear of internal
rupture of the visceral organs resulting in death.
In Kung Sin's work, called Wan-ping-hui-ch(un (萬病回春),cited in the
Tung-i-pao-chien, there is another golden elixir, for pain above or below the
diaphragm. 2吉 mace of Opium, with 1 mace of asafoetida, half a mace of putchuck
ancl of aloes, and a quarter of a mace of cow bezoar. The three last were first
pulverised together. Opium and asafoetida were placed in. a cup and made liquid
by dropping water upon, them and stirring over a fire. The whole was mixed with
honey and made into pills of the size of green beans, and gilt. When the body was
liot the pills were taken with cold water; when the body was chilled they were
taken with boiling water.
The same physician also made purple gold pills with bezoar and other drugs,
to help the good effects of Opium. The preceding passages are from Li Shih-chen
and the Tung-i-pao-chien.
In the work Tung-hsi-yang-k'ao (東 西洋 考),an account of countries belonging
to the Eastern and Western Seas, it is said "In. the Sung dynasty when merchant
vessels went to sea the high officials of the ports from which, they sailed went to
tlie seashore to escort them. I have gone up the mountain at the entrance of the
bight leading to Ch'uan-chou-fii (Amoy) and seen the inscriptions, with dates, on the
rocks which record these things. At that time the regulations were very stringent,
as if the matters in hand were of great importance. In the province of Fulikien, in
* This was also used in Peking, says Li Shih-ch^n, as an aphrodisiac and quite extensively, beyond the
range of regular medicine.

the Sung and Yuan dynasties, Superintendents of Foreign Trade were appointed at
each port, under the name Shih-po-ssu (市舶 司). At the beginning of the present
dynasty (Ming) this system remained unaltered, but was afterwards allowed to fall
into neglect. In the period from 1465 to 1506 it happened that in the more
powerful families connected with commerce there were adventurous persons who
went on large ships beyond seas to trade. There were at that time bad men who
secretly opened out new paths in which to gain profit, while the officers placed in
charge failed to secure, openly at least, in these profitable transactions any share for
the Government. At first they succeeded in gradually enriching themselves, but
in course of time this sort of trade degenerated into a rivalry as to who should shoot
his arrow fkrthest and into various irregular proceedings." The same work fiirtlier
says that “ Along the seashore there is much land wliicli is so full of potash and soda
that the farmer can realise no harvests from it. It is only possible to look on the
sea as the soil to be worked. This led to various employments comiected with the
sea. The rich collected a revenue from imported goods, and safely brought back
with, them the sheaves which they reaped in the harvest of the waters. The poor
also laboured, for a wage, and stretched out the hand to seize the pint measure of rice
which they needed, to support them in. their toil. But the day of rigorous prohibition
arrived. These people could not, as before, gain a living through the arrival of
Bad effects of
prohibition ・
merchant ships. They were strong and hearty. They would, not fold their hands
and sit clown inactive in poverty and want. Troubles consequently occurred in
succession, resulting in disturbances of the public peace. Men of this class hid
themselves in. places beyond the local jurisdiction, and. having rudely impinged on
tlie law's net they clarecl not return to be apprehended. In addition to this they
conducted barbarians from a clistance on various occasions into tlie places to which
they belonged.n
The author proceeds to say that when the prohibition was withdrawn from Good effects of
J 1 permission to
Foreign commerce and revenue collected from goods and. mercliant vessels, the Govern- tradc,
ment gained in revenue and the people in tranquillity. In particular the local military
expenditure was supplied to a fixed extent each year from this source. He then
remarks, " Tlie duties levied were of three kinds, according to the rules then in force : Duties levied.

Tariff of A.D å·§89.
Tariff of A.D.1615.
Li Shih・chPn's
Materia Medica.
there was the water duty, tlie land duty, and the supplementary duty. The water
duty was tonnage, and was levied on the representative of the ship. The land duty
was duty on goods, fixed ad valorem, and levied, according to the quantity of goods,
on the merchant doing business on shore. In respect to this, from fear of smuggling,
it was tlie rule that the supercargo (ch(uan~sliang) should not deliver goods until the
presentation. of a memorandum addressed to the merchant on shore who was the
buyer of goods, stating the amount of duty for the goods mentioned, and directing
him to go to the vessel and pay the duties there; after this the goods might be
removed. As to the supplementary duties, they were levied in case of an error in
the declared, measurement of tlie vessel in feet, to be added to (or subtracted from)
the to image."
Further, in the year 1589 a tariff was issued, stating the duties to be levied
on each kind of goods and approved by the military commandant. In this tariff
myrrh, gum olibanum, and asafbetida, with other articles, are entered at a fixed rate
of 3吉 mace per cwt. for myrrh, and 2 mace per cwt. for the other two. Opium is
rated at 2 mace of silver for 10 catties, or 2 ounces per cwt. In the year 1615 a new
tariff was issued, in which Opium appears rated at l^j mace for each 10 catties.
Li Shih-chen, author of the Pen-ts^o-kang-mzi, finished that work A.D. 1578.
After saying that the Poppy is called yii-mi (御 米)because it is a grain (mi)
which can be used in making presents, and hsiang-ku (象穀)because it resembles
millet (ku), he adds that it is sown in autumn, and in winter is above ground in
tlie form of tender stalks which may be used as food and constitute an excellent
vegetable, the leaves being like lettuce. In the 3rd or 4th month the flowering
part of the plant is well advanced and protected by bracts, which fall off when the
flower opens. There are four petals, which, taken together, are as large as a saucer.
The capsule is in the centre of the flower, folded in stamens. The flower falls on the
third clay after opening, leaving the capsule at the top of the stem. It is 1 or 2
inches in length, and in size like the ma-tou-ling (a drug, capsule of the bladder
tree). It lias a licl and a short stalk. In shape it is much like a wine jar. In

it there are many white grains, which can be used for making a sort of porridge
for taking with ordinary food. If tlie seeds are ground with water, and mixed
with green beans first ground so as to make a jelly, it will be found excellent.
Oil also can be made from the seeds. As to the capsules, they are much used in
medicine, but are not mentioned in the old Pharmacopoeia. From this it may be
concluded that in ancient times the capsules were not used.
The author refers here to the Northern Sung dynasty, A.D. 960 to 1126,
when the Poppy first appeared in the Pharmacopceia.
He proceeds, " In Kiangsu the double Poppy is called li-cl^un-hua (麗春花),
flower of the bright spring. This is said by some to be a variety of the ying-su-hua
(禮粟 花);but this is a mistake. Its flower changes perpetually. It may be white,
or reel, purple, pink, or apricot yellow, or it may be half red or half purple and half
white, and is very beautiful, and this is the reason that it is called the li-chlun.
It is also known as the Moutan pseony's rival and the flower of tlie embroidered
coverlid." He also says of the seeds of the Poppy that they cure diarrhoea and
relieve feverish symptoms, and of tlie capsules that for medicinal purposes they
should be well washed and softened in water. " The stalk and outer skin should,
be removed and also tlie stringy fibres within. Let them be dried in a dark place
and cut very small. They are then to be well mixed with rice vinegar and placed
over tlie fire to simmer, after which they are fit for use as a drug. They may also
be prepared, with honey instead of vinegar. In taste and nature the capsules thus
prepared are sour, astringent, and slightly cooling, without being poisonous. With
vinegar, black prunes, or orange peel they are most efiectual in curing diarrhcea,
asthma, rheumatism, or pain in the heart and abdomen?5
Proceeding to speak of Opium, lie says, <£ Formerly Opium was not much heard
of; recently it has been used by some in medical recipes. It is said to be the juice
of the ying-su-hua (or Poppy). While the head of this flower is still green, in tlie
afternoon take a large needle and prick the outside skin, taking care not to wound
the inner hard shell. It is to be pricked in from three to five places. Tlie next day,
when the sap lias come out, take a bamboo knife and scrape it into an earthenware
cup. Let it be dried in the shade. It being made in this way accounts for the fact

Poppy as a flower.
that this article when bought in shops lias mixed with it pieces of the skin of the
capsule. It is a sour astringent, and can cure, etc. Especially is the elixir I-li-chin-
tan, macle with it, useful for curing a hundred diseases."
In the T(u-shu-chi-ch'eng we find a passage from a work on flowers by an
author named Wang Shih-mou (王世懋),who lived at the end of the sixteenth
century.* He says, "After the pseony (shao-yao) the Poppy is the most beautiful
of flowers, and grows most luxuriantly. It changes readily. If care be taken in
watering and planting, it becomes very handsome, and assumes a thousand varieties
of shape and colour. It even becomes yellow or green. Looked at from a distance
it is lovely; when nearer it becomes less attractive. I have heard that the seeds
can be used as food, and have a strongly astringent efifect."
In the work on flowers published in the time of Kang Hsi, under tlie name
Kuang-cJVun-fang-p'u, there is a poem on the Poppy by Wu Yu-p'ei (吳 幼 培),of the
Ming dynasty. “ In the court which fronts the hall, a long way down, when the
daylight is lengthened, before the terrace are flowers of the genii breathing out
abundant fragrance. A vapour encircles them, and there are rain, drops upon them,
where they put forth their lovely forms. They have a red tint and glossy lustre,
and their appearance is beautiful. They are sown in mid-autumn and must wait
for the coming year. They open their flowers in early summer and are companions
to the declining sun. Another thing to be praised is their seeds, heaped up in large
capsules one after the other. Why, then, be content with what is ugly and only
gather rice and such-like grain V
In the Tlu-shu-chi-chcSng there is a passage from a work called Ts'ao-hua-p'u
(草花譜),the book of plants and flowers, which says, ec The Poppy has a thousand
petals and all the five colours. Its petals are shorter than those of the flower
called yu-mei-j^n, and more graceful. Through the whole garden the spring alighting
upon them they seem to fly as they move to the breeze. The seeds are sown
in spring.”
* He died 1590. See Biography 175 in Min(/ History.

In tlie work called Wu-li-hsiao-shih (物理小識),written at the end of the
Ming dynasty and the beginning of the present, it is said of the Poppy that it is
sown in the middle month, of autumn, at noon. After flowering, the seed vessel
grows into the shape of a vase. The tiny seeds can be eaten as porridge. Oil is also
obtained from them, and the capsules are useful in medicine; they are powerfully
astringent. When tlie capsules are still green, if a needle be used to puncture
them in 10 or 15 places, the sap will come out. This should be received into an
earthenware cup, which may be covered carefully with paper pasted round the
edge. Let tlie cup be exposed to the sun for 14 days; it is then. Opium, ready
for use as an astringent, and restrains reproduction most powerfully.
Carefully weighing what is said in the passages preceding, it appears plain
that from the latter part of the fifteenth century the manufacture of Native Opium
has existed in China, and it is not only in recent years that there has been both
Native and Foreign Opium in this country. Let the reader examine the various
accounts of the manipulation by four different authors. Wang Hsi's book cannot
now be procured, but judging by what is quoted from liim in. Li Shih-chen^ work,
lie meant to describe the method of Poppy culture in Arabia, and spoke particularly
of* a kind wliich yielded the Opium sap in the 7th and 8th months or later. When,
however, he speaks, as in tlie passage translated from tlie Tung-i-pao-chien, of
obstinate diarrhcea needing Opium to cure it, and advises the pliysician to make
Opium direct from the Poppy in a way which he describes, he must be speaking of a
Chinese made article. Li T'ing's account differs in. too many points from that of
Wang Hsi to be regarded as a second-hand statement based exclusively upon it.
If so, then Li T'ing is a third and independent witness on this subject, the fourth
being the author of the work Wu-li-hsiao-shih.
Another account
of the mode of
obtaining Opium
from the Poppy・

Opium in Java in
Bontius* opinion
of Opium.
arose from
Early in the seventeenth century a Dutch physician named Jacobus Bontius
went to reside at Batavia, and died there. What lie wrote on medicine was after-
wards included in. the work of Gulielmus Piso, De Indice utriusque Re naturcdi et
medica Libri XIV (Elzevir, 1658).* Tlie preface of Bontius is dated Batavia, 1629.
He says that those nations which use Opium seem drowsy, and are dull in commerce
and in arms; but unless we had Opium to use in these hot countries, in cases of
dysentery, cholera, burning fever, and various bilious affections, we should practise
medicine in vain. This was the basis of the ancient medicines, tlieriac, mitliridate,
and philonium.
Tlie poor Indians use the leaves and branches of the Poppy to prepare an
inferior sort of Opium, which they obtain by drying in the sun. Tliis they call pust,
and they themselves are nicknamed pusti. The rich, who indulge in tlie more
expensive drug, are known as ctfyuni. The Greeks knew the danger of Opium
but not its merits, which are clearly divine, and which they failed sufficiently
to explore.
Bontius prescribed curcuma, made from Opium and the Indian crocus, Hsi-
tsang-hung-hua (西藏紅花). This was his refuge in dysentery, cholera, plirenitis,
and spasms. He took refuge in Opium as a sacred anchor, he tells us, in desperate
cases. He used Poppy seeds and Poppy heads. He says that Opium helps nature
to conquer the enemy by inducing sleep, and that he could prepare it so that it should
not injure even an infant.
Towards the end of tlie Ming dynasty the practice of taking Opium medically
or otherwise by swallowing it was destined to be soon changed for the habit of
Opium-smoking. It is requisite, therefore, in proceeding with this record to enter
011 the subject of tobacco and tobacco-smoking, in order to introduce by easy transition
this new step taken by the Chinese in the use of Opium.
* Kindly lent by Dr. E・ Bretschneider.

In the latter years of the Ming dynasty tobacco cultivation and tobacco-
smoking were introduced into China from the Philippine Islands. Here the Spaniards
had settled, and they were in constant communication with America. The tobacco
plant crossed the Pacific and flourished in the neighbourhood of Manila. The first
place in China where it was planted was at Amoy; it was brought there by Fuhkien
sailors trading to Manila. In the work above cited under the name Wu-li-hsiao-
shih, written about A.D. 1650, we are told that tobacco was brought to China
about A.D. 1G20, which would be about the same time that King James I's
Counterblast to Tobacco was being circulated in England as a new - publication.
Tobacco was called the " smoke plant" or tampaku, or tan-pu-kiiei (扌詹 不 歸).
In the time of the last Ming Emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1644,
tobacco-smoking was prohibited, but the habit spread too rapidly to be checked by
law. The origin of Opium-smoking is thus accoimted for. Various ingredients were
in various countries mixed with tobacco to try their effect; among them was Opium.
Arsenic was another ingredient, which is still used by the Chinese in what is called
"water tobacco."
The Manchus now took the place of the Ming dynasty. There is a historical
work called the Tung-hua-lu (東華錄),which gives the events of the first century
of Manchu rule in the form of a chronicle. In the year 1641 there is in this book
an account of an edict wliich has reference to tobacco. The Emperor asks the princes
and high officers, " Why do you not lead the soldiers yourselves in the practice of
archery ? The elder youths should practise the liorn-bow and winged arrow; the
younger should be skilled in using the wooden bow and willow-twig arrow. Our
dynasty in military exercises makes archery the chief thing. To smoke tobacco is
a fault, but not so great a fault as to neglect bow exercise. As to the prohibition of
tobacco-smoking, it became impossible to maintain it, because you princes and others
smokeci privately, though not publicly; but as to the use of the bow, this must
not be neglected." The edicts afterwards promulgated against Opium were just as
when introduced.
Prohibition of
to bacco-smoking.
Manchu prohibi-
tion of tobacco-

Spread of
in Formosa.
ineffectual as those against tobacco-smoking; and among the causes of tlieir failure
must be included the love of Opium-smoking by many in high positions, favourites
and others, whom it would be very difficult to punish.
In a work called Shun-hsiang-chui-pi (聲 鄕 贅 筆),written 10 or 20 years later
than this edict, tobacco-smoking is described as spreading to the city of Soocliow
and as being quickly adopted by all classes of the people. The author states that
this circumstance was much to the detriment of morality; it had previously been a
difficult tiling to uphold, moderation in. living, but after this it was far more so.
Women as well as men, the inhabitants of villages as well as of large towns, fell into
the snare, till the habit became almost universal. This immense popularity of
tobacco-smoking was an indication of the readiness of the Chinese nation to adopt
the use of narcotics. The same thing which took place in the nineteenth century
with Opium-smoking occurred in tlie seventeen th century with tobacco-smoking.
The Confucian mind was shocked, the sense of propriety was wounded; but tliis
did not prevent the rapid spread of both these modes of indulgence in all circles.
Prohibitory edicts were issued in vain, by Emperors animated by paternal affection
for their people. Tobacco was a less evil than they supposed; Opium-smoking was
a far greater evil than they feared. In both cases the Emperor was powerless. Tlie
Emperor Chæ°“ng Tsung, as we ought to call him, but who is better known as
Tao Kuang, is much to be respected, for liis strong moral convictions on the subject
of Opium. He made really great efforts to cope with this evil, but it was in vain.
Tlie fondness of the people for inhaling a narcotic was too strong for him. to over-
come. He failed utterly in tlie attempt to put down Opium-smoking even in the
city of Peking. It was as hard to persuade liis own people to abandon a bad habit
as to conquer England in war.
Tlie habit of tobacco-smoking became national, and went on extending itself
for a century, till soon after the close of the long reign of Kang Hsi the attention
of the Government was drawn to Opium-smoking as a new vice in Formosa ancl at
Amoy. It grew up in the same part of the country where tobacco-smoking liad
been introduced.

One of the most valuable works to be consulted on the subject of early Opium-
smoking, its connexion with tobacco-smoking, and the Opium trade as it existed at
the end of the seventeenth century, is the Amcenitates exoticce of K^empfer. Some
passages from this work, recording liis observations on tobacco, hemp, and Opium,
will now be given. They were first published in 1712, but the original notes from
wliicli they were compiled were taken 20 years earlier.
"Nicotiana ante sesqui circiter secula toti antiquo orbi, adeoque et Persise,
coepit a Lusitanis transvectoribus innotescere. Nomen ubiqiie habet tabaci, et
pro diverso gentium idiomate tobak, tobacco, tombak et tembaku, ab insula hujus
nominis Americana, quee herbse copiam inventoribus dederat. Plantse vix nomen
innotuerat, quin simul cultura celebrari ubique coeperit, et fumandi usus omne
humanum genus stupenda velocitate incantaverit. Plantam, Hyosciami speciem si
negamus, ex classe tamen venenatarum nequaquam eximenda fiierit; cum vertigines,
anxietates et vomitus, quos fumigata in non adsuetis concitat, malignitatis testes
sint luciilenti. Experimentis Redianis cons tat, olei ajus guttulam recenti immissam
vulneri, pullos volucrium enecare, hominibus vero inferre periculosa symptomata.
Vidi bajulos circa Casanam Tartarise, qui perforatum cornu bubulum fbliis plenum,
superpositis carbonibus, paucis haustibus evacuabant; ex quo instar epilepticorum
prosternebantur, pituita spumoque diffluentes. Quam vero venenata sint folia,
eorum tamen fumus consuetudine homini fit familiaris, ut, non modo non noceat
malignitate sua, seel benigniori sale serum ex capitis recessibus eliciat, ac cerebrum
liilaritate impleat. Quod ut prsestet felicius, Persse fiimum traliunt per macliinam,
aqua ultra dimidium plenam, quse foetidum et cerebro inimicum sulphur imbibens,
fumum transmittit ab omni malignitatis acrimonia defsecatum, frigefactum et
sincerum. Macliina ilia, quam khaliaan vel lchaliuun vocant, ampulla est
sesquipedalis altitudinis, vitrea, oblongo donata collo; ciijiis orificium claudit orbiculus
seneus, in sesquipalmarem diametrum expansus, duos in medio permittens tubulos
invicem adsolidatos, seneos; unum, ciijus inferior pars in ampullam clemissa, aquae
immergitur; superior recipit nicotianse cum impositis carbonibus retinaculum, in-
KJemffer's ac-
count ・

fundibulo seu bucciiise orificio simile : alterum breviorem, cujus demissa extremitas
[Pipe for smoking tobacco through water.]
aquam noil attingit: superior incurvata arundinem excipit longam, qua fiimus
attrahitur. Tubuloruin propago, proxime sub orbiculo, tela xylina arete circumvoluta
est, in. earn crassitiem, quse vitri orificium cum niodica colli parte expleat atque
claudat arctissime : ita, ut ad suctuni non possit nisi ex infundibulo fiimus
succedere; qui jucundo strepitu aquam penetrans, primo inane vitri spatium occupat,
inde per arundinem ad os sugentis atqiie ipsos pulmones pertingit; attractio enim,
non bucca aut labiis, ut vulgo solet, sed toto pectore peragitur, quo ipso fiimus
per pulmones se diffiindit. Si acrior lierba sit, concisam prius aquae immergunt
exprimuntque, ut a crudiori acrimonia liberetur: quod idem a Sinensibus et
Japonibus fketitatum vidi. Modum fiimandi per macliinam a Persis edocti sunt
Arabes Hindostani, seu Indi magni Mogolis, et, qui cum religione mores Arabuni
adop 1^1?1111七,nigritse quidam insulares; sed his, quod vitra deficiant, pro ampulla
servit excavatus cortex cucurbitarum. Turci, Sinenses, Japones, Europseorum more
fiimum trahunt per fistulam, receptaculo tabaci accensi insertani. Nigritse gentiles
fiimum sine instrumento liauriunt, rotatis fbliis in tiirbinem, cujus basin accendunt,
apice labris retento et suc£o."

The Persian pipe for smoking tobacco through water here described by the
traveller is the parent of that now in use among the Cliinese, and of the Indian
hookah. The Persians taught its use to the Arabs of Hindustan, the Hindus, and
the black inhabitants of Asiatic islands. It spread with the religion of the Arabs
wherever they went.
According to K^empfer's account, tobacco-smoking had during a century ancl
a half been gradually spreading tlirougli all countries. It was introduced irrto Persia
by the Portuguese while prosecuting their trading operations in the ports of the
Persian Gulf The poisonous qualities of tobacco lie proves by what lie had himself
seen of its effects. Fowls die if tobacco oil is injected into a recent wound. He saw
at Kasan porters smoking in. a peculiar way. They filled a cow's liorn with tobacco
leaves, placed it over burning coals, and smoked tlirougli a hole in the horn; after
a few whifis they fell down in a state of something like foaming epilepsy. Yet, lie
adds, when smokers are accustomed to the use of tobacco it soothes the brain ancl
promotes cheerfulness.
The invention of the water pipe was intended to assist in removing the
poisonous and unpleasant qualities of tobacco. Tlie smoke on passing tlirougli the
water is free from sulphurous fumes, moderated in strength, cooled, and purified.
Glass vessels were first used, with brass fittings. The Natives of tlie Eastern
Archipelago, not having glass, used the calabash instead.
The author adds that while the Turks, Chinese, and Japanese all smoke with
a pipe, like tlie Europeans, the black Natives of tlie islands have a way of their
own; they roll the tobacco leaves into a twist, which they light at one end and
smoke from at the other.
"Alteruni atque interni usiis Icheif ex papavere sumitur : quo Indi Persaeque
hortos et agros conserunt, ut lactescentem succum ex lsesis capitibus proliciant. Hunc
succum Europa Opium; Asia cum JEgypto qfiuun et ofiuun vocat. Persia idem
prseparatum, ex reverentia, appellat theriakl, i.e., Theriacam; 11am lisec illis est
poetarum ilia galene, hilare et eudios, id est, meclicina animo serenitatem, hilaritateni
Hookah or water
Summary of
K^mpfeiVs ac・
Object of the
water pipe.
How Opium is
made in Persia*

Preparation of
Opiu m.
et tranquillitatem conferens : quo olim tergemino elogio theriacale anticlotum Andro-
machi appellatum legimus. In Perside collectio ejus celebratui? per ineuntem sestatem,
propinqua maturitati capita decussatim sauciando per superficiem. Cnlter negotio
servit quintuplici acie instructus, qui una sectione quinque infligit vulnera longa.
parallela. Ex vulnusculis promanans succus postridie scalpro abstergitur, et in
vasculum, abdomini prseligatum, colligitur. Turn altera capitum facies eodem modo
vulneratur, ad liquorem pariter proliciendum. At, hsec collectio, ob capitum impar
incrementum et magnitudinem, aliquoties in eodem arvo instituenda est. Solent in
plantis liimium ramosis superflua capita prius amputari: sic reliqua magis grandescunt,
et succo implentur majoris efficacise. Primse collectionis lacryma, gobaar dicta, prse-
stantior est, et graviori pollet cerebrum demulcendi virtute, colorem exbibens albidum,
vel ex luteo pallentem; sed qui color ex longiori insolatione et ariditate infuscari
solet. Altera collectio succnm promit, priori, ut virtute, ita pretio inferiorem, coloris
plerumque obscuri, vel ex rufb nigricantis. Sunt, qui et tertiam instituurrt, qua
obtinetur lacryma nigerrima et exiguse virtutis.
"Prseparatio Opii potissimum in eo consistit, ut, aquae pauxillo humectatum,
spatha crassa lignea contiiiuo et fbrtiter ducatur et reducatur in patina lignea et
plana, donee elaboratissimse picis consis tenacitatem et nitorem induat. Ita
diu multumque subactum, ad ultimum manu non. nihil pertractatur nuda, et demum,
in cylindros breves rotatum, venale exponitur; fbreipe dividendum, cum particulas
emptores petunt. Hac serie pertractatiun Opium appellatur theriaak malideh, i.e.,
theriaca molendo prseparata, vel etiam theriaak afiuun, id est, tlieriaca opiata, ad
diflerentiam tlieriacse Andromaclii, quam illi vocant theriaak fanink. Prseparandi
hie labor perpetuus est propolarum, quos vocant kheifruus, quasi Germanice diceres
trunken Kramere, quo illi, in fbris et quadriviis sedentes, brachia sua strenue
exercent. Massa lisec ssepe numero, non aqua, sed melle subigitur, ea copia admisso,
quae non siccitatem modo, sed et amaritiem temperet: et hsec specialiter appellatur
bcehrs. Insignior prseparatio est, qua inter agitandum adduntur mix myristica,
cardamomum, cinamomum et macis, in pulverem subtilissimum redacta; qualiter
prseparatum Opium corcli et cerebro insigniter prodesse creditur. Vocatur in specie
polonid, vel, ut alii pronunciant, folonid, puta Philonuim Persicicm, seu mesue.

Alii omissis aromatibus, tantum croco et ambra massam infarciunt. Multi prsepara-
tionem in usum proprium ipsi perficiunt clomi suse, ne a propolis admiscendorum
paucitate vel multitudine decipiantur. Preeter hoc triplicis prseparationis Opium,
quocl sola pilularum forma deglutitur, pros tat, vel etiam a domesticis conficitur, liquor
Celebris nominis cocondr dictus, Grsecorum quod puto M^ooveiov ac Homerianum
nepenthes, quod a bibacibus propinari aflatim per liorarum intervalla solet. Parant
luijus liquorem alii ex fbliis, aqua simplici per brevem moram coquendis; alii ex
capitibus contusis infusione macerandis, vel iisdem. supra filtrum repositis, aquam
eandem septies octiesve superfundendo : admixtis pro cuj usque placito, quse sapori
gratiam concilient. Tertium addo opiati genus, electuarium l^etificaiis et toificando
inebrians; hiijus electuarii, cuj us basin, idem Opium etiam consa seplasiariis
et medicis, prout quisqiie ingenio pollet, varie elaboratur, ac cliversis ingredientibus
ad roborandos et exhilarandos spiritus dirigitur; uncle variae eg us extant descrip tio lies;
quarum primaria et famosissima est, quee clebetur inventori Hasjem Begi, quando-
quidem comedentis animum miris perfundere gaudiis, et magicis cerebrum demnlcere
icleis et voluptatibus dicitur.
"Opium quod Europseis, si grani unius vel paucorum dosin excesseris,
letliiferum liefas audit, a prsenominatis populis longa adsuetudine ita familiare
redclitum est, ut drachmani multi sine noxa deglutiant. Multa hoc abusu, vel
longiori ejus usu, acciuntur mala; emaciatur enim corpus, laxantur vires, contristatur
animus, stupescit ingenium: unde videas instar stipitum somnolentos et quasi
elingues sedere in conviviis opii liguritores. Ssepe oblati milii sunt, quos a canino
appetitu Opii percurarem, sostro centum aureorum promisso, si hoc citra damnmii
et vitse dispendium prsestitero. Exempla Opii voracium non est, quod adducam,
cum eorum pleni sint meclicorum libri. Capita papaveris teneriora ace to conclita
nonnulli in mensa secunda appetunt; alii alia ex iisclem sorbilla conficiunt, pro suo
quique placito.”
Kjempfer proceeded from Persia in June 1688 to Batavia, which city—then,作鷲;:;忙捫上甕
as now, the chief seat of the Dutch power in the East—lie reached in September
1689, after visiting the settlements of that nation in Arabia Felix, India, Ceylon,

Mention of use of
First Opium・
smoking shops.
and the island of Sumatra. He staid in Java eight montlis, and tlien went to Japan”
Of the use of Opium in Java he gives the following account:一
"De Opio,æ—¬usque Persis et Indis communi usii, diximus. Addo abusum
execrabilem, qui viget inter Indos liigritas, ad eflerandum aniinos acl homicidiorum
patrandorum audaciam; dum vel vitse suse, vel injuriarum pertaesi, se devovent morti,
per ultionem et mortes aliorum oppetendse. Eo fine Opii deglutiunt bolum : ex quo
intentionis idea exasperatur, turbatur ratio, et infrsenus redditur animus, adeo, ut
stricto pugione, ins tar tigridum rabidarum, excurrant in publicum, obvios quosvis,
sive amicos, sive inimicos, trucidaturi, donee ipsi, ab alio perfbrati, prosternantill?.
Actus hie vocatur hamuk, apud incolas Javse et ulterioris Orientis crebro spectabilis.
Vocabuli sonum ibi liorret, quicunque audit; 11am qui vident liomicidam, illi vocem
hamuk summopere exclamant: monituri inermes, ut fugiant, et vitse suse prospiciant:
dum ad extinguendam beluam accurrere debet, quisqiiis armatus et cordatus est.
Opii etiam externus usus est apud nigritas: nam eodem aqua diluto liicotianam
inficiunt, ut accensa caput veliementius turbet. Vidi in Java tabernas levidenses ex
arundine, in quibus id genus tabaci hauriendum exponebatur prsetereuntibus. Nulla
per Indiam merx majori lucro divenditur a Batavis, quam afiuun, quo carere adsueti non
possunt, nec potiri, nisi navibus Batavorum ex Bengala et Choromandela advecto.
The tdbernce levidenses ex arundine here spoken of were the first Opium-
smoking shops of which we have any record. According to the statement here given,
Opium diluted with water was smoked with tobacco. This sort of tobacco was
exposed to passers-by to be smoked when, two centuries ago, the learned German
traveller was taking walks in. Batavia to observe the customs of the Native popula-
tion. He uses the word haurio; that this here means smoking, and not drinking,
is plain from another passage (in Amcenitates exoticcu, page 642), where he says the
black inhabitants smoke without a pipe (sine instrumento hauriunt), by rolling tobacco
leaves into a whirl, which they light at the lower end and smoke from at the upper
by holding it with their lips and drawing. Of Opium fi-om the Coromandel coast,
wliicli then formed a part of the lading of the Batavian ships to take back to Java,
we now hear nothing; but the Bengal portion of this lucrative trade finds its lineal
successor in tlie Patna Opium of the present day.

In the year 1723, shortly before the first edict against Opium-smoking, a Medical use of
、 Opium in 1723・
medical work was published with the name Chi-yen-liang-fang (集驗良方),* by
Nien Hsi-yao (年希堯),a bannerman in Peking of high rank ancl great influence
in his day. He places among his prescriptions a pill called Wcm-ying-tan (萬 應 丹),
made of Opium mixed with bezoar, camphor, and other drugs, 13 in all. He states
that it could cure the diseases of all seasons, including fevers beginning with chill
(shang-han), epidemic fever, heat apoplexy (chung-shu, severe or slight), paralysis,
headache, slight fever, vomiting with diarrhoea, ague, pain in the heart, abdominal
pain, ancl the like. Two pills are prescribed for severe cases, ancl one when the
attack is slight; they are to be taken with cold water.
He also recommends a plaster called Yu-chen-kao (毓眞膏),to be attached at
the navel. It adds to the vigour of tlie body ancl saves it from decay, warms tlie
kidneys, strengthens tlie loins and knees, removes, cold and wet chill, with all
abdominal pains, and is useful for healing all sorts of affections to wliich men and
women are subject. It is made by mixing Opium, musk, yang-ch'i-shih (陽起石),
olibanum, cloves, and the like; 14 other drugs are added. By gradual decoction
it is prepared for use and employed as required. There is another prescription,
tailed the Pao-yang-ling-kuei-shen-fang (保養靈龜神方),or marvellous recipe of the
efficacious tortoise for the preservation of health; it is formed by mixing Opium with
ch'cm-su (a medicine made of the oily part of toads) and such things, and adding 33
other kinds of medicine. It is prepared with oil for use.
There is a work on Formosa called. Tlai-hai-tseai-feng-t(u-keao (臺海採風圖考),Early Opium-
smoking in
which was published in 1746. It contains extracts from earlier works, and among Formosa,
them one by a native of Peking named Huang Yu-pu (黃玉圃),who was at some
â– earlier date sent to Formosa and wrote an account of what lie saw there, wliich was
published under the name Tcai-hai-shih-chca-liL (臺海使槎錄).He gives the follow-
ing statements from this work on the subject of Opium-smoking. Opium for smoking
* Kindly lent by Dr. Dudgeon;

came to Formosa
from Java・
is prepared by mixing hemp and the (root of the) grassclotli plant (Pachyrizus
angulatus or, may be, Pueraria Thunbergia, Dr. Bretschneider) with Opium, and
cutting them up small. This mixture is boiled with water in a copper pan or tripod.
The Opium so prepared is mixed with tobacco. A bamboo tube is also provided, the
end of which is filled with coir fibres from the coir palm. Many persons collect
this Opium to smoke mixed with tobacco. The price asked is several times greater
than for tobacco alone. Those who make it their sole business to prepare Opium in
this way are known as Opium tavern keepers. Those who smoke once or twice form
a habit wliicli cannot afterwards be broken of£ Warmth is conveyed in a vaporous
form to the tan-tcien * (" red field,n located in tlie kidneys), so that the whole night
can be passed without lying down. The aborigines smoke as an aid to vice. The
limbs grow thin and appear to be wasting away; the internal organs collapse. The
smoker unless he be killed will not cease smoking. The local officers have from
time to time strictly prohibited the habit. It has often been found that when
the time came for administering the bastinado to culprits of this class, they would
beg for a brief respite, that they might first take another smoke. Opium came
from Java.
Of the various early narratives which describe the habit of smoking Opium
with a bamboo pipe, the account we have here seems to be the most minute. It is
not stated in what year it was written, but the year in which it was reprinted as an
extract was 1746. In reference to the last sentence, which says that Opium came
from Java, it should be observed that it agrees with what K^empfer in his book
states. He found, that diluted Opium was mixed with tobacco to offer to passers-by
to smoke; he observed this during his residence in Java. We learn from this that
it was tobacco-smoking which led to Opium-smoking. During the reign of Kang Hsi
Koxinga occupied Formosa for a time. It was about that time that the island
received the name " Taiwan." In the Ming dynasty we meet only with the names
Tamsui and Kelung. In the days of Koxinga many Chinese colonists went over
from the mainland to reside there. There was constant communication with Java
*The 丹田 is threefold・ The seat of the tsing (semen) is 3 inches below the navel; that of breath is in
the bndn. The seat of the soul is in the heart. The first is here chiefly meant・ See Tung-i-pao-chim, 1, 12.

by trading vessels. Many wanderers without a livelihood from various countries
went there from time to time, and it was through this class of persons that the
pernicious habit of Opium-smoking originatecl in Formosa.
In the work named T(ai-ivan-chih (台 j彎志),or topographical account of Another account
丄 o 丄 of early Opium-
Taiwan/' it is said, ce It is not known from what place the practice of Opium-smoking 囂常黑T
was introduced. Tlie Opium is boiled in a copper pan. The pipe used for smoking is
in appearance like a short club. Depraved young men without any fixed occupation
used to meet together by night to smoke; it grew to be a custom with them.
Often various delicacies prepared with honey and sugar, with fresh fruits, to the
number of 10 or more dishes, were provided for visitors while smoking. In order
to tempt new smokers to come, no charge was made for the first time. After some
time they could not stay away, and would come even if they forfeited all their
property. Smokers were able to remain awake the whole night and rejoiced, as
an aid to sensual indulgence. Afterwards they found themselves beyond the
possibility of cure. If for one day they omitted smoking, their faces suddenly
became shrivelled, their lips opened, their teeth were seen, they lost all vivacity,
and seemed ready to die. Another smoke, however, restored them. After three
years all such persons die. It is said that the barbarian inhabitants of Formosa
thus use craft and cunning in order to cheat the Chinese residents out of tlieir
money at the expense of their lives. The foolish are not sensible of their danger,
and fall victims. This habit has entered China about 10 or more years. There are
many smokers in Amoy, but Formosa is the place where this vice has been most
injurious. It is truly sad to reflect on this."
In tlie year A.D. 1729 an edict was issued on Opium-smoking, proliibiting Prohibitory edict
of 1729.
tlie sale of Opium and the opening of Opium-smoking houses. The Government
* Kindly lent by Dr. Dudgeon,who was the first to discover the Native account of the origin and first
progress of Opium-smoking in Formosa.

found itself face to face with a dangerous social evil of an alarming kind. The
physical effects of Opium-smoking as displayed in the shrivelling up of the features
and an early death, as thus described by eye-witnesses, produced a deep impression
in Peking. The sellers of Opium were to be punished, not tlie buyers. The masters
of Opium shops are dealt with most severely, as being the seducers into evil paths
of the young members of respectable families. Sellers of Opium were to bear the
wooden, collar for a month, and be banished to the frontier. The keepers of shops
were to be punished in tlie same way as propagators of depraved doctrines; that
is, they were to be strangled after a few months' imprisonment. Their assistants
were to be beaten with 100 blows, and banished 1,000 miles. Everyone was to
be punished except the smoker; for example, boatmen, local bailiffs, neighbours
lending help, soldiers, police runners, in any way connected with the matt er, all had
punisliments assigned them. The same was true of magistrates and Custom House
Superintendents in the sea-port towns where these things had happened; all were to
bear some penalty. Only the Opium-smoker was exempted. It was felt, perhaps,
that his punisliment was self-inflicted; lie would, die without the help of the law.
This edict was followed by another the next year for the checking of evil practices
among the colonists of Formosa. All guilty of robbery, false evidence, enticing the
aborigines to commit murder, tlie sale of gambling instruments or of Opium for
smoking, are to be punished with death or banishment.
Spread of Opium- Opium-sel丘ng for smoking purposes lias from this time forward been regarded
smoking in the
eighteenth cen- as a crime by the rulino- authorities. From their point of view it is considered as
criminal in proportion to the mischief it causes, which is without doubt great beyond
computation. The very earliest instance of legislation on. this matter is here before
the reader. It was based on local events occurring on the sea-coast, a long way from
Peking. The gradual spread from the province of Fuhkien to all the provinces was
still in the future and was not before the minds of the legislators. The sale of
Opium was connected in tlieir minds with gambling, robbery, and false accusation;
its special guilt consisted in its being a temptation to evil on the part of the
salesmen, as the drug was destructive of the physical health, comfort, and life of their
victims. The effects proved the criminality. Further, it was closely conjoined with

various crimes already condemned in the statute book. It sprang up in a lawless
locality at a great distance from Peking; there was therefore no inclination to
leniency from the fear of offending persons or classes whom the Government would
not like to offend. The law was in consequence promptly made, decided in tone, and
severe in detail. Was this law acted upon ? No allusion was made to it by the
Jesuit missionaries in the Lettres edifiantes or in the Memoires concernant les Chinois.
The habit of Opium-smoking is not mentioned in these works. The trade in Opium
certainly remained as before. 200 chests a year continued to be imported, and in
1767 that quantity had gradually increased to 1,000 chests. The duty was Tts. 3
a chest.* It would appear, then, that the old tariff of the Ming dynasty was still
followed in the main. The sale of Opium was prohibited by statute, but we do
not find proof that it was refused as a drug at the Custom Houses of Amoy and
Cant on. The import steadily increased during the time it was in the hands of the
Portuguese, till English merchants took it up in 1773, after the conquest of Bengal
by Clive. The East India Company took the Opium trade into its own hands
in 1781. At that time the minor portion only of the imported Opium was devotecl
to Opium-smoking—at least we may assume this. The Superintendents of Customs
in those days would continue to take the duty on Opium as a drug. What was
contraband they would say was ya-pien-yen (鴉片烟),which means Opium for
smoking; the drug ya-pien would still pass the Customs as medicine. This seems
to have been the reason that the import still continued to increase at about the
same ratio as before the edict of A.D. 1729, not till after 40 years reaching a
quantity amounting to 1,000 chests. Medicine claimed Opium as a most powerful
agent, and since the commencement of the trade at Canton and Amoy, whether the
merchants were Portuguese, Chinese, Arabs, or Dutch, it was as medicine that it
had been sold. Wlien Defoe says of his hero in Robinson Crusoe that he went from
the Straits to China ill a ship with Opium, it was as a drug that he pictured it to
* The Hai-kuo-tlu-chih (海國圖志), chapter 52, tells us that in 1662 the duty on Opium as a medical
drug Avas Tfe. 3 a picul, and that, beside this,唸 2 and 4 or 5 candareens were collected at a later period on each parcel,
without saying what a parcel was. It is added that on account of the growth of Opiuni-smoking in the latter part
of the eighteenth century, the Viceroy of Canton petitioned the Emperor to prohibit the importation, which was done
in 1796・

Native Opium in
Who cultivated
the Poppy in
Yunnan ?
himself Up to that time it was in fact a part of the trade in medicine; not long
after it became a trade in a drug used medically and for smoking combined.
The Native growth in Yunnan of the Opium Poppy can be traced to about
the same time, or a little later. In the history of that province, published in 1736,
it is stated that Opium was then a common product of the department of Yung-
chcang-fu, in the western part of that province, where it borders on Burma. It may
have been introduced by the Mahommedans, who were fond of it themselves, as a
powerful medicine, or it may have been brought there from Burma and Thibet. It
is spoken of in the accounts we have of the trade of the sixteenth century as having
been iiitroduced along with woven fabrics by traders coming from the coast of India.
Negapatam and Meliapur are mentioned as exporting both Opium and woven fabrics
to Pegu and Siam. The seeds of the Poppy may therefore have been taken by the
Burmese route to Yiinnan. This Native Opium would be intended, not for Opium-
smoking, but to be used medically, as by a physician's prescription, or by the
contractioii of a habit of daily consumption in a way like that of De Quincey and
The Maliommedans have long been a power in the province of Yunnan, and
their agency is to be suspected in this early cultivation of the Poppy in that part
of China. It was they that first learned from the Greeks the wonderful soothing
powers of this drug. They cultivated the Poppy in Arabia, then in Persia, then
in India. It was from them, in the Ming dynasty, that the Chinese learned the
way to cultivate the Poppy and. derive the Opium juice from the capsules. It was
they that carried on the trade in Opium, before the arrival of the Portuguese,
bet ween the various sea-p orts of the old Asiatic world.
It was probably by Mahommedaii pilots that the ambassador of the Ming
Emperor was conducted to the sea-ports of Arabia, Persia, and India in the voyage
we find on record. It was through information given by Maliommedans residing
as merchants at Canton that the Portuguese were known by the Chinese historians

as Faranggis or Franks. It was because the Mahommedans wished to keep the
profits of the trade in Opium and other articles exclusively to themselves that they
prejudiced the Chinese Governors of Canton and Fuhkien against the Portuguese,
and induced them to refuse the liberty to trade. We need not be surprised, there-
fore, if later on the cultivators of the Poppy in Yunnan, in the commencement of
last century, were Mahommedans; they may have been simply the continuators of the
Ming dynasty cultivation, or they may have commenced afresh with seeds brought
from Burma.
In the year 1742 an Imperial work on medicine was published under the Use of capsules
name I-tsung-chin-chien (醫宗金鑑). In. this book, as a remedy for weak and
injured lungs the capsules of the Poppy are directed to be used, with ginseng and
apricot kernels, together with seven other medicines, prepared in the form of a
decoction, to be drunk warm. Mention is also made of a Poppy ointment for scalds
and burns. 15 Poppy flowers are to be used, and if not to be had, capsules are to be .
taken instead of them. A ditty of four lines in rhyme says that this ointment for
burns and scalds is made with sesamum oil and Poppy flowers or capsules mixed with
water and boiled down; white wax and true calomel are added. When, smeared
on the part affected the pain at once subsides. There is also a remedy for ulcers
and tumours in which the capsules are used. It is a powder formed o£ olibanum
and huang-ch(i (Sophora tomentosa or, say some, Ptarmica Sibirica^ a labiate
plant used as a tonic). A ditty of four lines, used as a recipe, says that olibanum
and huang-chci may be used for persons of a weak constitution who are afflicted with
painful tumours and ulcers; such tumours if they have not grown to their fiill size will
be at once dispersed, and if they are already mature they will break. The roots of
tang-kuei (Arcilia edulis), shao-yao (Pceonia albiflora), ginseng, Sophora tomentosa,
chhcan-hsiung,^ and Ti-huang (comfrey, i.e., Symphytum.—Williams), together with
olibanum, myrrh, Poppy capsules, and liquorice, are used to make this powder, which
is also useful for bruises, sprains, wounds, and fractures.
* Williams's Dictionary,註,page 346.
t Hsiung (莒)from Szechwan. Belongs to Levisticum.

Present use of
Hoppo Boole of
Five kinds of
duties in 1753.
The three tariff
I11 addition to these recipes, there are several others in the same work which
also contain the Poppy capsules. They are omitted for brevity. At present in
Peking the capsules sold in drug shops are derived from the Papaver somniferum,
cultivated at the town of Aa-sii (near Pao-ting-fu), from Shansi, from Caiiton by
sea, and from other places. They are bought and sold at the annual drug fair at
Cli'i-chou, a city lying to the south-west of Pao-ting-fa.
An account of the Hoppo Book of 1753 has been lately prepared by Dr. Hirth
and is printed in the Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for
the year 1882. The Hoppo Book is an explanation of the Custom House books in
use at Canton in 1753 ; it was translated in that year, and contains varied informa-
tion on the manner of settling the duties on all goods imported and exported at
Canton. The author was an English merchant, whose name is not known. The
division of the tariff is much the same as that of the present Chinese one, but
imports and exports are not distinguished. Five kinds of taxes were then levied
on Foreign trade :—
I. An import duty, according to a fixed tariff, payable on all merchandise
II. An export duty, payable on all exports, inclusive of re-exported
goods proceeding to Ningpo and other ports on the Chinese coast;
it consisted of a tariff charge of 6 per cent, ad valorem.
HI. Extra charges on exports and imports, such as for remitting the
duty to Peking, for weighers, linguists, etc., and for servants of
the Board of Revenue.
IV. Tonnage.
V. Present.
The tliree books relating to the tariff at Canton whicli had then been
authorised by the Board of Revenue at Peldng are partly translatecl in tliis work,

which also contains the manner of settling duties then in use at the port of
1st. Cheng-hsiang-tse-li, or the book of true ancl fixed duties.
2nd. Pi-li, or the book of comparisons.
3rd. Ku-chia, or the book of valuation.
The first of these books was made A.D. 1687, and is kept as it was, unaltered.
The book of comparisons was first sent, with about 150 articles collected together
in it, to the Board of Kevenue in Peking, for approval, in the year 1733. After
this time every two or three years additional articles were added and sent to Peking
for approval; so that this book was continually increasing.
The third book is a register of the value of all goods exportec! or re-exported
from Can ton, for the purpose of laying on them an extra charge of 6 per cent., to
be added to the other duty on such exports and re-exports.
Here we are astonished to find that in 1755 a picul of silk could be valued at Prices ruling in
. 1755-
Tls. 100, and one of tea at Tts. 8 ; that white sugar was worth Tts. 1.50, brown sugar,
Tts. 1, sugar candy, Tts. 2.50, rhubarb, Tts. 1.50, per picul; and that musk was valued
毗 Tts. 1.50 per catty; while Opium was not worth more than half an ounce of silver
per catty. The value of a chest of Opium would therefore amount at that time to
not quite $100. The existence of Opium as an article of trade at Canton in the
middle of last century is certainly beyond doubt; it is also mentioned in the Kang
Hsi tariff of 1687, ancl there pays a duty of 3 candareens per catty, constituting
exactly G per cent, of the fixed value appearing in the valuation book.
In passing on to tlie year 1782 an extract may be here inserted from a letter, Opium-smuggling
in 1782.
dated 7th July 1782, of an official nature addressed from China by Mr. Thomas
Fitzhugh to Mr. Gregory in London. It was presented to Parliament, and is

in 1793-
taken from the Commons, Report, 1783, vol. vi.* (t The importation of Opium to
China is forbidden on very severe penalties : the Opium on seizure is burnt, the
vessel in which it is brought to the port confiscated, and the Chinese in whose
possession it is found for sale is punishable with death. It might be concluded that
with a law so rigid no Foreigners would venture to import, nor any Chinese - dare
to purchase this article; yet Opium for a long course of time has been annually
carried to China, and often in large quantities, both by our country s vessels and
those of the Portuguese. It is sometimes landed at Macao and sometimes at
Whampoa, though equally liable to the above penalties in either port, as the
Portuguese are, so to say, entirely under the Cliinese rule. That this contraband
trade lias hither to been carried on without incurring the penalties of the law is
owing to the excess of corruption in tlie executive part of the Cliinese Government.
.... In the year 1780 a new Viceroy was appointed to the government of
Canton ; this man had the reputation of an upright, bold, and rigid Minister. I was
informed that lie had information of these illicit practices, and was resolved to take
cognizance of them."
England sent an Embassy in 1793, and China was miiiutely described by
Barrow and Staunton. The habit of Opium-smoking had tlien been slowly growing
for 60 years. Singularly, they only say when speaking of it that many of the higher
mandarins took Opium; they do not describe the mode of smoking. Staunton
says, " They smoke tobacco mixed with other odorous subs tances, and some times a
little Opium." Yet it cannot well be doubted that they referred to the habit of
Opium-smoking. In the geographical work called Hai-kuo-t(u-chih we are told that
Opium-smoking commenced only in the last years of the Emperor Chien Lung, that
is, about 1790. The explanation of this statement is found in tlie fact that it was
only then that the habit reached Peking and became so general that public attentioii
was called to it in Government documents. At about the same time the local
* Quoted in Poppy Plague, page 40, by J. F. B. Tinling.

authorities at Canton began to complain of rapid increase in the trade in Opium.
In 1800 there was an edict issued prohibiting Opium from being brought to China
in any ship. It was from this time that the more distinctly smuggling period
commenced. It was a contraband trade, but connived at by Viceroys and Governors;
they felt a difficulty, ancl concluded not to touch the evil with any firm intention
to heal. How to treat it they knew not. The evil grew beyond their power of
control. They regarded it as the " vile clirt of Foreign countriesthey feared it
would spread among all the people of the inner land, wasting their time and
destroying their property; they advocated the prohibition of the tracle, and the
Government consented to their advice, and frequently issued prohibitory eclicts, but.
too often some of the officials themselves smoked, or their nearest friends smoked,
and so the hand of interference was paralysed; and the demand for Opium con-
tinuing, the import was never seriously checked till the time of Lin Tse-hsu ancl
the war of 1841.
In the geographical work Hcd-kuo-Vu-chih the following remarks also occur.
In the year 179G a prohibitory edict was received, but the official autliorities at
Canton still allowed Opium-receiving ships to anchor at Whampoa at a distance
of only 4 English miles from the city. From this time smuggling proceeded year
by year unchecked till 1822, when a local arrangement was decided on, according
to the terms of which a charge was made of a regular amount on each chest; of
this the officers, from the Viceroy downwards, whether civil or military, at the port
connected with shipping all received a share. Most of this went to the office of
the Superintendent. Some received it on board the ships, and others in the
city of Canton. These sums were paid regularly month by month to the Chinese
officers. In some cases Opium itself was given, instead of silver, in large and
small portions. Oil each occasion of this kind one or more chests would be given,
and sometimes as many as 150 chests. This irregular and illicit mode of proceeding
lasted till the year 1840.
In i Soo.
Stntements in
IIai-kuo-t(U'Chih ・
Local arrange-
ment in 1822・

Native testimony
on the deleterious
effect of Opium・
Statistics of the
present Native
production ・
The following passage occurs in a botanical work, CJiih-wu-ming-shih-tciL-klao
(植物名實圖考),published about 40 years ago :—" The Poppy is not mentioned
before the T'ang dynasty, A.D. 618 to 907. In the Pen-tscao of the period 968
to 976 the Poppy is placed in the lower division of cereal plants. In the Sung
dynasty a decoction of Poppy seeds was thought highly of, but at that time the
medical efficacy of the capsules and seeds was understood to extend only, as being
astringent, to the cure of diarrhoea and dysentery. In the Ming dynasty, 1368 to
1644, the pill called I-li-chin-tan, or golden, elixir, came into use, and was found to
be very deleterious if much was taken. Of late years Opium lias spread throughout
the Empire—a universal poison. Its effects are as bad as those of the poisonous
plant known by the name Tuan-chlang-tscao, as producing internal rupture in the
intestines. Yet as the guilt is not in the flower, it finds its place in botanical
works on Howers."
Mr. Donald Spence, British Consul at Ch'img-ch'ing-fii, in Szechwan, in
the year 1881, made inquiries into the amount of Opium produced at that time
in tlie four south-western provinces. He states that in Szechwan the consumption
of Native Opium within the province amounts to 54,000 piculs, while 123,000 piculs
are sent to other provinces ; of tliese, 70,000 piculs are exported in an easterly
direction, 40,000 piculs paying duty, and 30,000 piculs being smuggled. Ytinnan
produces annually 35,000 piculs, and Kweichow 10,000 piculs, while Hupeh supplies
to the market not more than 2,000 piculs. In all, the production of Native Opium
amounts to 224,000 piculs. Mr. Spence's Report on the Native production of
Opium was forwarded to the Foreign. Office of the British Govermnent, and was
subsequently presented to Parliament and printed. If a comparison be made of
the amount of Opium produced in the four above-mentioned provinces, viz., 224,000
piculs, with the quantity of Foreign Opium imported in 1882, viz., 66,900 piculs,
it will be seen that the Opium of Native production is more than three times as
much in quantity as that introduced from India and elsewhere.

In Mr. Tinling's Poppy Plague there are 75 pages of closely printed in-
:formation oil tlie history of British Opium, chiefly collected from the Parliamentary
Papers of 1783, 1787, 1831, and 1840, and from the East India Company's Beports
of 1812 and 1813. The present Historical Note is made up of information from
the Chinese side and from IGempfer, who is not alluded to by the authors of the
Poppy Plague and Our Opium Policy.
Concluding not(x.

Aden, 14.
A-fu-yung, old name of Opium, i6・
Afyilit (afiv/i叫 aby叽 apydn, ofiuun), 4, 29, 32.
Afyflni, 2 牛
Avwnitatcs exotic^ extracts from, 27-32・
Amoy, tobacco plant introduced from Philippine Islands,
Opium-smoking in, 35.
Arabia visited by Ch总ng Ho, 14.
Arabs, tlieir knowledge of the Poppy, 4, 5.
At Canton, 5.
Uncle of Mahomet buried at Can ton, 5.
Two Arabian travellers, 6.
The Arabs as traders in fifteenth century, 14.
They grew Opium in India in sixteenth century, 14.
The Arab national name for Opium, 4.
Arabian method of obtaining Opium, 15.
Aralia edulis (tang~lcuci)^ 39.
Arsenic mixed with tobacco, 25.
Asafoeticla, 18.
Atractylodcs ctlba (pai-shuII, 17.
B(ehrs, 30.
Baghdad, 5.
Barbosa, account of trade in Opium, 14.
Batavia, 24, 31, 32.
Bezoar, 18.
Bontius, a Dutch physician in Java, 1629, 24.
His opinion of Opium, 24.
Burma, Opium cultivation in, 38, 39.
Calicut, I4.
Cambay, 14.
Canton, Superintendent appointed at, to overlook Foreign
trade, 5.
Official corruption on a large scale, 1822 to 1840, 43.
Upright ancl bold Viceroy in 1780, 42.
New prohibitory edict in 1796 not obeyed by the
Canton authorities, 43.
Another prohibitory edict in 1800, 43.
Capsule of Poppy, called mi-nang, 5.
First medical use iu twelfth century, io, I2・
Use in dysentery, ii・
Use, whence derived, 12.
Use in North China in twelfth and thirteenth cen-
turies, I2・
Use in South China in thirteenth century, 12.
Use against diarrhoea and cough : “it kills like a
knife,n 13.
Use in fourteenth century, 13.
Use in 1742, 39.
Pricked for its juice iu 1488, 15.
Pricked for è¾»s juice in sixteenth century, 16.
Process in preparing, 10, 11-14.
Chcen Ts'ang・ch'i, 5, 6・
Ch^ng Ho, voyage to Aden, 14.
Chceng-tu-fu, cultivation of Poppy in, 6・
Chi (Panicuvi miliaceum)^ 8・
Chi-su-shu% 7.
Chi-yen-liang-fang^ a work by Nien Hsi-yao, 33.
Chien-lcuang^a^ 5.
Chih-wi^ming-shih^u^ao, a botanical work, 44.
China-root, ii・
Chiu-huang-pcn-ts^to^ a medical work of fourteenth
century, 13.
Chou-ting Wang,13.
Chu Ch£n・h^ng, writer on the Poppy capsule, 13.
Cliung-sliu-shuy a work on trees, 6・
Cigars, 29.
Cocliin, 14.
Cochin China, tracle with, 5.
Coconar (koknar)y Persian name for Poppy, 4, 31.
Comfrey (SymphytuTn), 39.
Compass, floating, in 1122, 14.
Cornelius Nepos, story of Poppy, 3.
Coromandel coast, export of Opium from, 14, 32.
Counterblast to Tobacco of King James I, 25.
Crocus Indica, mixed with Opium, 24.
Curcuma, 24.
Customs books at Canton: the tariff, the book of
comparisons, the book of values, 41.

Defoe,s reference to Opium,37.
Drugs mixed with Opium to modify the effect: putchuck,
Justicia^ Boymia JElutcecarpa^ i6・
Dudgeon, Dr., discoverer of Native account of Opium-
smoking in Formosa, 35.
Duties of three kinds: tonnage, tariff,and suppiementary,
19, 2O・
On Opium, 37, 41.
East India Company, 37, 45.
Electuariuvi^ 31.
Eleococca verrucosa, ii・
Audios, 29.
F^ng Tzu-chSn, 13.
Fitzhugh, Mr. Thomas, 41.
Folonia (polonia), 30.
Foreign trade prohibited, 17.
Permitted, 19.
Formosa, origin of Opium-smoking in, described by
Huang Yu-pu, 33.
Injurious effects of Opium-smoking in, 35, 36.
Galene^ 29.
Gama, Vasco de,å·§.
Ginseng, ii・
Goa, 14.
Gobaar, 30.
Golden elixir pill, 18, 22, 44.
Greek name for Opium, 4.
Gregory, Mr., 41.
Hai-kuo4cu~chih has statements on Opium, 42, 43.
Duty on Opium as a medical drug in 1662, 37.
Hami, 15.
Hamulc, Opium suicide, 32.
Hangchow, Superintendent appointed at, to overlook
Foreign trade, 5.
Happy inebriation, 31.
Hasj^m Bcg\ inventor of Electuariu7n, 31.
Hilar% 29.
Hippocrates knew the Poppy, 3, 4.
Hirth, Dr., account of Hoppo Book, 40, 41.
Homer,s use of the Poppy, 3.
Hookah or water pipe, 29.
JELoppo Book, 40, 41 ・
Honnuz, 14.
Hsi-tsang-hung-hua^ name of the Indian crocus, 2牛
HsEa/iig•呱 a name of the Poppy, 20.
Hsieii Kco, writer of a poem on the Poppy, 10.
Hsiung (Levisticum)^ 39.
Hsu Ching, ambassador to Corea, 14.
Hsuan-ming-fan^ a work by Liu Ho-ciiien, 12.
HiLai-sheng-ssU, 5.
Huan(/-cliQi (Sophorcc tomentosa/ 39.
Huan(i-lien (Justicia), 16, 17.
Huang Yu-pu, author of a work on Formosa, 33.
Hupeh province, production of Native Opium in 1881,
Hyosciamus^ 27.
I-cliien-fan(/^ a work by Wang Shih, i i.
I-hsiao-ju-vien^ a work by Li Tcing, i6・
cliin-tan^ 18, 22, 44.
Used as an aphrodisiac, 18.
Used to cure many ailments, 22.
I-lin-chi-yao, a work by Wang Hsi, i 5.
I-tsicnc/^clbin・血叫 a work on medicine, 39.
Iliad, reference to Poppy, 3.
Java, 32, 34・
Justicia (huang-lien), 16, 17.
K^empfer, 9, 27, 29, 31.
His work, Avixiiitates exoticce, 27.
His account of tobacco, 27.
Summary of his account, 29.
His visit to Java in 1688, 31.
Mention of Opium-smoking shops and of use of
Opium, 32.
K^i-pao-pSn-ts^Oj 7・
Kasan, 27, 29.
Khaliaan (lchaliiLicn), 27.
Khash-lchashy Arabian name for Poppy, 4.
Kheif^ 29.
Kheifruus, 30.
Koknar (cocondrj^ 4, 31.
K'ou Tsung-shiji, medical writer on the Poppy, io.
Kuanc/-cliliin-fang-p^ a work on flowers, 10, 22.
Kung Yun-lin (Kung Hsin), prescription by, 17.
Recommended the use of the l)racts of the Poppy-
flower, 17.
His work, Wanting-hui-cl^un^ i&
Kuo Tfo-T(o, author of Chung-shu-shu, 6.
Kweichow province, production of Native Opium in.
1881, 44.
Lcvisticuvi^ 39.
Li-cl^un-liua, a name of the Poppy, 21.
Li Kao, 12.
Li Shih-ch^njs Materia Mcdica^ 12, 18, 20, 23.

Li T'ing,author of I-hsiao-ju-mcn^ 16, 23.
Described about 1550 the preparation of Opium,
16, 23.
Li T'ing, writer on divination and the I~ching9 i6・
Lin Hung, a writer on Poppy capsules, io.
Lin Tse-hsu, 43.
Lindley, the botanist, 9.
Liquorice, n, 39.
Liu Han, 7.
Liu Ho-chien, author of Hsilan•加力饥仮fa%偽 I2・
Liu Tsung-yuan, 6・
Livy, story of Poppy, 3.
Local arrangement of charges in 1822, 43.
Lung■呱 fossil bones, used with the capsule, 13.
Ma Chih, 7.
Ma-tou-linc/, 20.
Mahommeclans traded to China in Mahometjs time, 5.
In Chinese Turkestan, 15.
In Yunnan, 38, 39.
Malwa, manufacture of Opium in, 14.
Manchu prohibè¾»ion of tobacco-smoking, 25.
Manila, the tobacco plant in, 25.
Mariners compass used in twelfth century, 14.
Materia Medica of eleventh century, 8.
Medical use of capsules probably derived from the West,
but this is not proved, 12.
Of Opium in sixteenth century, 16.
Of Opium in 1723, 33.
Of Poppy seeds, 9.
Of Poppy seeds to counteract the effects of the
exorbitant use of mercury, io.
Medical writers in China first mention the Poppy in
eighth century, 5.
Medicines mixed with Poppy capsules are tang-sh&n^
pai-sliu^ asafcetida, putchuck,China-root, liquorice,
cow bezoar, 11,
Melcon^ Greek name of Poppy, 4.
Meliapur, 3&
Mercury, use of, 7, 10.
Mesue^ 30.
u Millet bags^ 5.
M'i-nang^ name for Poppy heads, 5.
Ming dynasty mode of preparing Opium, 16.
Prohibition of tobacco-smoking, 25.
Mithridate, 24.
Musk, value of, in 1755, 4r-
Nan-fang-ts^ao-mu-clmanc/^ 6.
Negapatam, 3&
Nepenthes^ 31.
Nien Hsi-yao, a medical writer in eighteenth century,
mixed 13 drugs with Opium, 33.
Ningpo, Superintendent appointed at, to overlook Foreign
trade, 5.
Opium, a Greek word; its Latin form and Arab and
Persian names, 4.
Manufactured in Persia from the white Poppy, 9.
In Java in 1629, 24.
In India in sixteenth century, 14.
How made in Persia, 29.
Taverns at Batavia, 32.
Sale of, punished by death in 1729 and 1782, 36, 42.
Deleterious effects as stated in Chihming-shih-
廿wk'aO) 44.
Importation 'prohibited in 1796, 37.
Value of, in 1755, 41.
Statistics of Native production in iSSt, 44.
Opium-smoking arose from tobacco-smoking, 24.
In Formosa and Amoy, 25, 26.
First Opium-smoking shops, 32.
In 1793, as described by Sir G・ Staunton, 42.
Opium-smuggling in 1782, 41.
Orange peel taken with the capsule, 14.
Pachyrizus ungulatus, 34.
Pceonia cdbiflora (shao-yaoJ, 39.
Paeony, 21, 22.
Pai-i-hsilan-fan(/y a work by Wang Ch'iu, ii.
Pai-shu (Atractylodes alba),11, 17.
Pan-yu-hsien-chih, 5.
Panicum oniliaceim, 8.
Papaver somniferurrb, white and red varieties, 9.
To be used for white and red dysenteiy respec・
tively, I7・
Peking, failure of efforts to check Opium-smoking in, 26.
Pm-ts^ao-lcanci-mi^ 12, 20.
Pm-tscao-yen-i, 10.
Persia produced the white Poppy in the sixteenth
century, 9.
How Opium is made there, 29.
Persian Gulf visited by the Chinese, 14.
Persian national name for Opium, 4, 31.
Pharmacopceia mentions the Poppy, 7, & 2i.
Philippine Islands the source of Chinese tobacco-smok・
ing, 25.
Philonium Persimm, 24, 30.
Pill called Wan-yin(/~tan made of Opium and 13 drugs,
Pipe for smoking tobacco through water, and object
of invention, 28, 29.

Piso, Gulielmus, work published in seventeenth cen・
tury, 24.
Plaster called Yii-clien-kao made of Opium ancl 16 drugs,
Polonia (folonia), 30.
Poppy as a flower, 3, 22.
In Italy and Greece, 3.
First cultivated in China in eighth century,5.
Second mention of cultivation, 6・
Early poem on, 6・
Other poems on, io, 22・
Poppy-milk fish, io.
Poppy Plague, by Mr. J. F. E・ Tinling, contains history
of British Opium compiled from official papers,
42, 45-
Poppy seeds mentioned in K^i-pao-pen-ts^ao, the
onacopc&ia of 973, 7.
Portuguese become chief merchants in the East, 14.
Introduced tobacco-smoking into Persia, 27, 29.
Preparation of Opium described by KtEMPFER, 30.
Described by Li Tcing, 1550, i5・
Described by Li Shih-ch^n, 1578, 21.
Described in the work Wu-li-hsiao-shih, 23.
Triple preparation,31.
Prices ruling in 1755, 41.
Prohibition of Foreign trade encouraged Native produc・
tion, 17.
The Japanese raids caused the prohibitions, 17.
EfFect of prohibition seen in local lawlessness, 19.
Prunes taken with the capsule, 14.
Ptarviica Sibirica^ 39.
Pueraria Thunbergia^ 34.
Punishment of death for sale of Opium in 1729 and
1782, 36, 42.
Pust, 24.
Putchuck, 16-18.
Quilon, 14.
Seeds of Poppy used in medicine, 21.
Shan-chia-clbcin(jJcun(j, a medical work, io.
Shao-yao (Pceonia albifloraJ, 22, 39.
Shih・po・ssH)Superintendent of Foreign trade, 5, 19.
Shun-hsiang-chui-pi, 26.
Si-an-fu, cultivation of Poppy in, 6・
Smuggling regularly connived at by Viceroys ancl
Governors from 1800 to 1840,when it was put
down by Lin Tse-hsu, 42, 43.
Soochow, tobacco-smoking in, 26.
Sophora tovientosa, 39.
Spence, Mr. Donald, British Consul, statistics of
Native production of Opium in 1881, 44.
Su Ch霽s poem on the Poppy, 7.
Su Tung-po mentions it, 7.
Su Sung, medical author on the Poppy, 8, 9.
Su Tung-pojs poem, 7.
Sung Yang-tzu, 5.
Symphytum (comfrey), 39.
Szechwan province, consumption of Native Opium in
1881, 44.
T^ti-hai-shih-cl^a-h^ a work on Formosa, 33.
T^ai-hai-ts^ai-feng^iL-lc^aOy a work on Formosa, 33.
Taiwan, 34.
T^i-wan-chih, 35.
Tcdmucl of Jerusalem mentions Opium as a dangerous
medicine, 5.
Tan-pu-lcuei (tampalcuJ, a name for tobacco, 25.
Tan-tcien^ 34.
Tang-lcuei (Arolia edulis), 39.
Tang-shm (ginseng), ii・
Tao Kuang,efforts to put down Opium-smoking, 26.
Tariff in Ming dynasty, 20.
Tarquin, 3.
Te-hsiao-fang^ a work by Wei I-lin, 12.
Thericcalc, 30.
Theriakl (Theriacam), 24, 29.
Thibet, Opium cultivation in, 38.
Ti-liuang (Symphytum7, 39.
Ting-l% a cruciferous plant, 10.
Tinling, Mr. J・ F・ B., author of Poppy Plague^ 42, 45.
Tobacco and tobacco-smoking, 24.
When introduced, 25.
Spread of, 26.
In Soochow, 26. .
Smokeci through a horn, 27.
Smoked through a water pipe, 27, 28.
Tobak (tabacco, tombak,tembakuJ, 27.
Tonnage dues in Ming dynasty, 20.
Trade, good eflects of permission to,19.
Foreign, prohibited, 17.
Foreign, permitted, 19.
Freedom in, led to local tranquillity and aided the
funds required for the maintenance of a military
force, 19.
At Canton, Hangchow, ancl Ningpo, under a Super・
intendent, 5.
In the Ming dynasty, detailed in Tunc/-hsi-yan(i-
Ts'ao・h血a work on plants and flowers, 22.

T'wching•卫鈿second Pharmacopceia of Sung dy-
nasty, mentions the cultivation of the Poppy, 8.
T'vrshu・ch/i・ch'ang,6, io, 22.
Tuan-cl^ang-ts^ a poisonous plant, 44.
Tung-hsi-yang-kcao, a Ming dynasty work on ocean
trade, i8・
Tung-hua-h^ a historical work, 25.
Tung-i-pao-chienj a Corean work on medicine, 16,
* 23.
Describes the preparation of Opium from the Poppy
capsule, 23.
Turfan, 15.
Virgil, use of tlie Poppy, 4.
Wan~pinc/-hibi-chlun, a work by Kung Yun-lin5 i8・
Wan-ying-tan^ made of Opium and 13 drugs, 33.
Wang Chciu3 author of Pai-i-hsuan-fanc/^ 11.
Wang Hsi mentions Opium in I-lin-chi-yao, 15.
Describes the preparation of Opium from the cap・
sule, 15.
How he came to know the medical practice of the
Mahonimedans, 15.
Wang Shih, author of I-chien-fan(/, 11, 12.
Wang Shih-mou, author of a work on Howers, 22.
Wei I-lin, author of Tc-hsiao-fanc/^ 12.
Women smoked tobacco in seventeenth century, 26.
Wu-chu-yil (Boymia Ilutcecarpa)^ 16.
Wu-li-hsiao-shih^ 23, 25.
Wu-tung (Eleococca verrucosa)^ 11・
Wu Yu-pceijs poem on the Poppy, 22.
Ya-pieii^ a name for Opium, 4, 37・
Yang-cl^i-shihj 33.
Yang Shih-ying wrote on use of capsules in dysentery,
Ying-kung Tcan()Pcn-tsQao, 8.
Ying-su, Poppy seeds, explanation of name, 6, 7.
Ying-siL-hua^ 21.
Ying-t%H-su, Poppy, 7.
YH・mi, a name of the Poppy, 20.
Yung-chcang-fu, Opium grown in, in 1736, 3&
Yung T'ao9 poem on the Poppy, 6・
Yunnan province, growth of Opium in, 3& 44.




土貿易建光塔及懐聖寺告成尋歿遂葬於此 馭鮎禺卽明史所戴鄭和所至

唐郭橐駝種樹書云鶯粟九月九日及中秋夜種之花必大子必滿 删們絆咋栽


宋謝蒲3粟花七言絶句 鉛膏細細黠花梢道是春深雪未消一斛千囊蒼玉
當止澀者豈容不澀不有此劑何以對治乎但要有輔佐耳 一


一 面理商務一面征服其各海口爲己之屬地不數年間凡阿丹忽魯謨斯哥
事回教人所居之各處俱屬於彼有葡萄亞人斜時爾 卽巴耳波撒著之書云

1 嘉靖二十六年佛郞機确關船載貨泊渚嶼時漳泉賈人往貿易焉巡海使者柯

一 面理商務一面征服其各海口爲己之屬地不數年間凡阿丹忽魯謨斯哥
1 事回教人所居之各處俱屬於彼有葡萄亞人斜时馳 卽巴耳波撒著之書云
血 販貨物赴滿刺加者爲回教人證他教之人均帶阿片至滿刺加處與在彼遇
1 之中國商船交易且云亞拉伯地出之阿片運至印度西瀆加利古德亦有由
巴里也 -

迨隆慶元年福建 巡撫都御史塗澤民請開海禁

被蓋就睡奏效神矣巒的醫 -

錢神效赤痢用紅花者白痢用白花者“心咔棉訥碑 爲更有可治二十四種病
紫金丹所用以佐阿芙蓉之藥品乃大同小異 林朋丽鬧師

發散然久服則肺焦諸藥多不效其症忽吐黃水而死 /

1 XV〕

- 巴耳西亞炮製阿片法所極緊要者卽於其汁漿中兌少許水滋潤之也滴入水
: 蔻花白董蔻等藥品細末者伊等謂其於心神弁腦漿有益也
& 以水送服也外復有釀就之阿片水可以供飮伊國名之曰哥哥那耳周初時希

毆羅巴人用阿片醫病也每次止一哥蘭砂7硼 約間或用二三四哥蘭踰此分
十哥蘭 丁】榊爲一銅呑服亦不至死其處可如是之多服阿片年深日久爲害



1 XX】
鴉片土同麻切絲殆取其克助精神增快樂耳 一

一 二次後便刻不能離暖氣直注丹田可竟夜不眠土人服此爲導淫具肢體萎
者鴉片土出咬疇吧叭哄 「



塗痛卽消 復有治癱疽疔毒之乳香
1 叭貉國自禁開鴉片烟舘以來南省之
: 司己得有出鴉片之孟加拉地運來中
黃耆散其方歌曰 乳香黃耆治氣弱癱

覆議政院之印度情形記第六本後附之七十七號信件 艸曝诈砖一"帖耐咋
例原康熙二十五年讎定不能妄有更改二 爲比例稅則卽新來貨與舊貨較比



No. 1.一Native Opium......................Published
” 2.—Medical Reports : 33rd Issue (First
Issue, 1871)...................
” 3.—Silk................................. „
„ 4.—Opium................................. ”
„ 5.—Notices to Mariners : Seventh Issue
(First Issue, 1883).............. ,,
” 6.一Chinese Music......................... ”
„ 7.—Instructions fob. making Meteorolo-
gical Observations, and the Law
of Storms in the Eastern Seas ... ”
” 8.—Medicines, etc., exportkd from Han-
with Tariff of Approximate
Values......................... ”
” 9.一Native Opium, 1887.................. ,,
” 10.—Opium : Crude and Prepared......... ”
” 11.—Tea, i 888......................... ”
„ 12.—Stlk : Statistics, 1879-88 ........ ”
„ 13.—Opium : Historical Note ; or the
Poppy tn China................. ”