A guide to the papers of John Swire and Sons Ltd

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A guide to the papers of John Swire and Sons Ltd
University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies. Library ( Author, Primary )
Hook, Elizabeth ( Compiler )
Place of Publication:
University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies
Alden Press
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
[15], 176 p. : ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- History ( lcsh )
Commerce -- Sources ( lcsh )
unknownJohn Swire and Sons -- Archives
unknownSwire Group (Firm) -- Archives
unknown太古集團 -- 檔案
unknown太古集团 -- 档案
unknown英國太古集團公司 -- 檔案
unknown英国太古集团公司 -- 档案
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Hong Kong
Asia -- China
Europe -- United Kingdom
亞洲 -- 香港
亞洲 -- 中國
歐洲 -- 英國
亚洲 -- 香港
中国 -- 亚洲
英国 -- 欧洲
51.498075 x -0.136403 ( Swire House, London )
22.32359 x 114.209256 ( Swire Resources, Hong Kong )


General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : John Swire and Sons : URI
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Swire Group (Firm) : URI
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This title was work-for-hire for the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

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SOAS University of London
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Resource Identifier:
506425 ( aleph )
4077001 ( oclc )
78315026 ( lccn )
0728600412 ( isbn )
Ref CC300 /369622 ( soas classmark )
CC382.09 /364345 ( soas classmark )
129264 ( aleph )
9780728600416 ( isbn )
Z7165.G8 L65 1977 ( lcc )
HF3508.E185 ( lcc )


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A Guide to the Papers of John Swire and Sons Ltd.


A Guide to the Papers of John Swire and Sons Ltd.

Published by the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HP
© School of Oriental and African Studies 1977
ISBN: 0 7286 0041 2
Printed in Great Britain at the Alden Press Oxford London and Northampton

It was a student of Professor John Fairbank who, while working on the papers of John Swire & Sons in the basement of the firm’s former offices, first suggested that this extremely valuable collection should be deposited in a library to ensure its preservation and so that it would in future be more easily available to bona fide scholars. When Professor Fairbank took up the idea he wrote to Mr John Swire and myself suggesting that the SOAS Library, then just moved into its new building, might be a suitable depository. Dr Christopher Howe, the Head of the Contemporary China Institute, and I subsequently discussed the idea with Mr Swire himself and the deposit was finally agreed and the papers placed in the Library in 1975. John Swire & Sons generously agreed to provide money for the compilation and publication of a full calendar of the deposited records and we were fortunate enough to be able to secure the services of Mrs Elizabeth Hook to carry out the work. (The Library also gratefully acknowledges a subvention from the Publications Committee of the School of Oriental and African Studies towards the publication of this guide.)
The papers may be consulted by members of the Library under the rules currently in force, but it should be noted that certain sections of the archive are closed and not available for a number of years: these are clearly indicated in Mrs Hook’s guide. Persons intending to consult the archive should in the first instance read carefully the introduction to this guide and then write for permisssion to the Librarian, School of Oriental and African Studies, specifying the sections they wish to consult and for approximately how long. Photographic copies of selected sections of the archive may be made but it is not the intention at present to arrange or to permit photographic copying of major sections or the entire collection. Any scholar intending subsequently to use or quote material from the archive in a published form must first seek copyright permission from The Secretary, John Swire & Sons.
March 1977 B.C. Bloomfield
As this volume goes to press I have received news of the discovery of more records of the firm including a box of mainly holograph letters between the Eastern offices and within Shanghai dating from the late 1880’s to the early 1890’s. It is hoped that these will be sorted and deposited with the other records soon.
June 1977

John Swire and Sons came into existence in 1832 when John Swire, a Liverpool merchant since 1816, extended his business to include his two young sons, John Samuel (born 1825) and William Hudson (born 1830). These two subsequently inherited a small but solvent business on his death in 1847. The next twenty years of the firm’s history is difficult to trace,1 but the evidence points to a series of attempts to widen their trade in America, Australia and the East when China was finally opened to foreigners.
It was to be in the Far East that the real expansion for the firm came, dating from the brothers’ brief partnership with R S Butterfield, a Yorkshire textile manufacturer (1866-68). The Eastern trading house Butterfield and Swire opened its first office in Shanghai in 1867, with William Lang and R N Newby to handle the textile shipments and James Scott employed as bookkeeper. John Samuel Swire went out initially to supervise the new venture which was intended to put Swire’s trade in China, previously inadequately managed in Shanghai by Preston, Bruell & Co, on a sounder footing. Their prospects were strengthened by winning within a few weeks the agency for Alfred Holt & Company’s Ocean Steam Ship Company and from that date the fortunes of the two concerns were to be closely tied together.
In 1870 John Swire and Sons moved their Head Office from Liverpool to London and it is from this date that the history of the firm can be more readily studied. The following decades of the Nineteenth Century saw the steady expansion of Swire’s interests in the East as new branches of Butterfield and Swire were opened and their agency work increased in volume and number. In addition B&S were responsible for the management of new JS&S concerns, from 1872 the China Navigation Company and from 1874 the Coast Boats Ownery extended Swire’s involvement in the shipping trade. Both concerns which amalgamated in 1883 were intended to act as feeders to Holt’s ocean going vessels by capturing the growing steam trade along the China coast and Yangtze River.
It was, however, also a period of economic difficulties and fierce competition with existing trading and shipping companies in the East, notably Jardine, Matheson & Co and the Chinese sponsored China Merchants Co. The impetus for the establishment of the Taikoo Sugar Refinery in Hong Kong in 1881 and the Insurance interests of JS&S arose directly from this period of hostility with Jardines. In 1876 William was forced to retire from the firm because of poor health, further increasing

the financial strain on his brother but also leaving him in sole control of the business. By the late 1870s the partnership consisted of John Swire, his right hand man in London, F R Gamwell, and the three Eastern Managers, William Lang, J H Scott and Edwin Mackintosh. Initially, however, only John Swire put up any capital and until his death in 1898 the history of the firm is very much that of its senior partner. He was a man of considerable drive and energy, retaining the direction of all the companies within his own hands and on several occasions visited the East to settle important matters for himself.2
Although the firm extended its interests, building up trade in China, Australia, the Philippines and Japan, John Swire always fought against too great diversification, particularly into fields with which they had no previous experience, rejecting proposals for a dockyard or rice mill at Hong Kong and a lighter company at Tientsin as well as other investments he felt might be unsuccessful. When James Scott became The Senior on John Swire’s death in December 1898 he carried on very much the same tradition but put through two of the schemes previously vetoed by John Swire, in 1901 the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company was begun and in 1904 the Tientsin Lighter Company was founded. Scott died in 1912 leaving three partners, his son Colin and John (Jack) and George Warren Swire, sons of John Swire. These three became life Directors of the private limited company which was announced on 1 January 1914 and throughout the Twentieth Century the firm has remained a family concern J K (Jock) Swire and John Swire Scott joined the Board after the First World War and further generations were brought in after the Second World War.
Despite the many internal disturbances in China in the Inter-War period, especially the anti-foreigner strikes and boycotts and growing Japanese competition and hostility, John Swire and Sons’ interests in the East prospered and expanded.3 The Taikoo Chinese Navigation Company, registered in China in 1930 was an attempt to encourage Chinese participation in Taikoo; a paint factory, the Orient Paint, Colour and Varnish Company was opened in Shanghai in 1934 and continual efforts were made to increase Taikoo’s markets in Asia and the Pacific area generally. The Directors and Eastern Managers also found themselves more involved in Chinese politics and local problems than John Samuel Swire would have approved, and Butterfield and Swire senior staff played important parts in Hong Kong and Shanghai municipal affairs, while the London Directors, in particular Warren and Jock Swire were involved with the China Association and other Eastern trade and politics interest groups in Britain.4

The Second World War appeared at first more likely to affect John Swire and Sons Ltd in London than its subsidiaries in the East,5 although Government requisition of shipping in 1940 affected the working of the China Navigation Company. In December 1941, however, the Japanese invasion of China pushed the British firm out of all its interests in the Pacific and China, including the Orient Paint, Colour and Varnish Company in Shanghai and the Dockyard and Refinery in Hong Kong. Many of the staff were interned, although some escaped from Hong Kong to Australia. For the duration of the war Butterfield and Swire based its Eastern business on India, with an office remaining in operation in Chungking in Free China. In Britain the Directors, particularly J K Swire, worked with the Ministry of War Transport and in the National Dock Labour Board to assist the war effort as well as taking an active part in the China Association’s plans for the post-war redevelopment of Far Eastern trade. In the autumn of 1945 the offices in Hong Kong and Shanghai were returned to Butterfield and Swire and the task of rebuilding their interests in the East began.
The archive of this firm which has been deposited at the School of Oriental and African Studies for preservation consists of the bulk of the known surviving records which had been stored in the London Office, and the (approximately) 350 boxes and volumes cover the development of the firm from about 1870 to 1947. For security reasons a restriction on access has been applied to all files under 35 years old. The archive is by no means complete as there are many gaps in the record series and clearly some whole series are missing. Most of the loss is attributable to bomb damage suffered by the Billiter Square office during the Second World War and only the contents of the strongroom escaped.6 Unfortunately a similar fate befell the Liverpool offices of Alfred Holt and Company, destroying not only the majority of their own records7 but also the duplicate set of Swire’s papers which had been deposited there for safe-keeping.
The bulk of the remaining material is composed of the correspondence series created in and made up, either in bound Letters Books or loose leaf files, by the London Office. Most, therefore consist of copies of John Swire and Sons letters out and the originals of letters received in London. A certain amount of legal material has also survived, either the originals or copies of the agreements made by John Swire and Sons on their own behalf or for the subsidiary companies in the East, particularly deeds and leases of various properties. The accounting side is comparatively less well covered, despite the fact that all the Eastern accounts were sent to London for final preparation. No complete series

of accounts for any of the companies has survived and the largest series is that of Nineteenth Century London Account Books prepared for John Swire and Sons itself (JSSI 7) and which were discovered deposited separately for safe-keeping in a bank and of which no record had been kept.8
The records from the Eastern point of view are very poor and show little of the functioning of the various companies at a local level. Only a little interportal correspondence has survived (JSSII 1) and virtually none of the routine papers which would have arisen through the day-to day working of the local offices and factories and Dockyard9. There are no series of Hong Kong and Shanghai intercorrespondence, the only remaining documents being copies of their letters sent back to London and filed within other correspondence series. The paucity of Eastern records can be mainly attributed to the occupation of almost every local office and the Hong Kong and Shanghai Head Offices in 1941 when the records stored there were either destroyed by the Japnese or, if of a confidential nature, beforehand by the staff to prevent them falling into the enemy’s hands.
The importance of the records which do survive lies in the comprehensiveness with which the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century correspondence series cover the developments of the firm and its subsidiaries from the London side where policies were decided and the Eastern end where they were implemented. The Nineteenth Century Out Letter Books and In Letter series (JSSI 1 and 2) show John Swire in action, the Eastern partners and many of the leading figures and firms involved in Far Eastern Trade from 1870 into the early 1900s, and in particular Jardine, Matheson & Co, the China Merchants Co and Holt’s. The subjects covered by John Swire’s wide ranging interests reveal a great deal about many aspects of Chinese trade and British business philosophy at the end of the Victorian era. There is a break in the records around the First World War period and it is in 1921-22 that major correspondence series begin again and for most of John Swire and Sons’ concerns continue on to 1947. Now, however, the correspondence was divided according to the particular company involved and the personal element is missing as these are official letters from one company to John Swire and Sons rather than between individuals. They show in perhaps greater detail the working of the companies, as well as the policies followed and the issues affecting their progress, revealing - often indirectly — the effect of Chinese politics, Sino-Japanese and Anglo-Japanese relations.
Elizabeth Hook

1 Sheila Marriner and Francis Hyde quote from the surviving records in their book ‘The Senior’ John Samuel Swire 1825-1898 (Liverpool University Press 1967) and much of this Introduction is based on their work
2 SeeJSSIl;2;3
3 The early Twentieth Century history of Butterfield and Swire is described by Charles Drage in his book ‘Taikoo' (London 1970)
4 See JSSI 3/10
5 See JSSII 3/1
6 Much of the material on the Second World War period is based on information kindly supplied by A Dean, formerly of B&S Shanghai Office, retired 1961
7 For an account of Holt’s surviving records see F E Hyde, Blue Funnel. A History of A Holt & Co of Liverpool 1865-1914 (Liverpool 1956)
8 The value of these accounts is assessed by Marriner and Hyde in The Senior Appendix 1
9 The only series of documents of this nature is incomplete and comes from Swatow 1874-1895 see JSSII 8/3-6

JSSI John Swire and Sons 1
1 1869-1916 Out Letters 2
2 1872-1916 In Letters: Butterfield and Swire 7
3 1877-1936 Partners and Directors Letters 11
4 1869-1922 Letters In: Sundry 17
5 1904-1947 Staff 20
6 1875-1955 Property 22
7 1866-1966 Accounts 26
8 1870-1956 Legal Papers 28
9 1898-1967 Personal Papers 21
10 1962-1967 Organisation Papers 22
JSSII Butterfield and Swire 34
1 1883-1906 Shanghai Private Office Letters In 36
2 1921-1946 General Correspondence Series 43
3 1939-1941 Shanghai Master File 53
4 1920-1943 Property Letters 57
5 1939-1947 Accounts Letters 60
6 1936-1955 Accounts 64
7 1919-1945 Staff 67
8 1872-1965 Legal Documents 68
JSSIII China Navigation Company 23
1 1921-1948 Hong Kong General Letters 74
2 1921-1946 Shanghai General Letters 82
3 1929-1936 London Correspondence 90
4 1900-1947 Property Letters 91
5 1932-1947 Accounts Letters 100
6 1871-1967 Accounts 103
7 1929-1946 Staff HI
8 1872-1938 Deeds and Legal Papers 114
JSSIV Coast Boats Ownery 115
1 1876-1883 Routine Papers 115
2 1875-1883 Casualties 117
3 1874-1884 Accounts 119
JSSV Taikoo Sugar Refinery 121
1 1922-1942 General Letters 122
2 1928-1937 Property 127
3 1932-1942 Accounts Letters 128
4 1883-1941 Accounts 129
5 1940 Staff 129
6 1905-1941 Legal and Organisation Papers 129

JSSVI Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company 132
1 1933 Property 133
2 1931-1947 Accounts Letters 133
3 1907-1940 Accounts 136
4 1941 Staff 137
5 1908-1954 Legal Papers 138
JSSVII Tientsin Lighter Company 142
1 1917-1936 General Correspondence 143
2 1932-1943 Accounts Letters 144
3 1938-1951 Accounts 145
JSSVIII Taikoo Chinese Navigation Company 147
1 1937-1941 Tonnage Letters 147
2 1927-1942 Accounts Letters 148
3 1930-1939 Accounts 149
JSSIX Orient Paint, Colour and Varnish Company 150
1 1933-1935 General Correspondence 150
2 1934-1949 Legal Papers 154
3 Staff 155
JSSX Swire and Maclaine 157
1 1947 Correspondence 157
JSSXI Other Organisations 159
1 1875-1947 Alfred Holt and Company 159
2 1891-1945 Steamship Companies: Papers and Annual Reports 162
3 1942-1945 National Dock Labour Corporation 163
4 1941-1946 London General Shipowners Society 164
5 1943-1946 China Trade Association 165
6 1944-1947 Ministry of War Transport 166
7 1940-1966 Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Limited 166
JSSXII Miscellaneous 167
1 1873-1968 Assorted Papers 167
2 1880-1908 Photographs 168
3 Artifact 168

lttrs ms PP ts letters manuscript pages typescript
B&S CBO C&Co CE&Co CMCo CNCo CPA HK&SBCo HK&WDCo ICSCo JM&Co JSS JS&S LR&Co M&Co NDLC OPCo OSSCo PJ&Co R&Co SMC SS&ECo SSCo TCNCo TD&ECo TLCo TSR TT&LCo UO&P WH&C Butterfield and Swire Coast Boats Ownery Cornabe and Company Cornabe, Eckford and Company China Merchants Company China Navigation Company Cathay Pacific Airways Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Limited Indo-China Steam Navigation Company Jardine Matheson and Company John Samuel Swire (The Senior) John Swire and Sons Lorimer, Rome and Company Mansfield and Company National Dock Labour Corporation Orient Paint, Colour and Varnish Company Ocean Steam Ship Company Pinchin, Johnson and Company Russell and Company Shanghai Municipal Council Scott’s Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Straits Steamship Company Taikoo Chinese Navigation Company Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company Limited Tientsin Lighter Company Taikoo Sugar Refinery Taku Tug and Lighter Company Urwick Orr and Partners Wilkinson, Heywood and Clark
Note Closed Dates All files labelled ‘CLOSED’ are restricted under the 35 year regulation until after 31 December of the year indicated.

Every section of the records listed in the guide contains material relating to the parent company in London but the series listed below are those either referring to or arising from the work of JS&S itself, or which are concerned with all or several of Swire’s interests in the East.
It does not seem to have been office practice in the Nineteenth Century to divide the various interests of JS&S into different record series and all Private Office correspondence out was bound into one series regardless of correspondent, although letters in from B&S in the East were kept in separate files (JSSI 2). The whole London organisation in fact revolved round John Swire for he kept a close personal eye on all the firm’s concerns. He was assisted by F R Gamwell the other London partner who dealt with correspondence in The Senior’s absence. It also became practice for any of the Eastern partners on leave in London to assist in the Head Office, usually dealing with staff and leave matters.
John Swire paid several visits to China, Japan and Australia (see JSSI 3) and with three partners based in the East, one of whom would probably be on leave at any given time, there was felt to be no need for regular tours by the senior partner. After the retirement of Lang and the return to Britain of Scott and Mackintosh it became more essential to arrange a system for the London staff to keep themselves informed on local affairs. After the First World War one London director would make an extended tour of the East each year to visit all ports where there was a B&S or CNCo office (see JSSI 3). It was also practice to train Directors by a period of about five years in the East during which they were to experience all aspects of the Eastern operation before returning to London. Later it was usual to appoint one of the Directors from the Eastern staff selecting someone with experience as Manager in Hong Kong or Shanghai.
All decisions on major matters of policy, finance and the employment of expatriate staff in the East were made by the London Directors, although they would take into account the recommendations of the Eastern Managers. Whereas John Swire had retained control of all concerns himself later Directors divided the responsibilities between them, each specialising in certain aspects such as shipping, insurance, raw sugar purchases, staff, Dockyard. These were varied from time to time and weekly meetings were held to discuss major decisions. The Directors also dealt with Government Departments such as the Foreign Office and Board of Trade over political and commercial affairs.

Other Departments in the London Office covered the Accounts which were centralised on London under the Chief Accountant; a Buying Department handled the purchase and shipping of stores to the East; a ‘Tonnage’ man handled contracts for the building in Britain of new vessels for CNCo and all Floating Staff - officers and engineers - for CNCo were chosen in London.1 After the First World War it was practice to file each concern’s correspondence with JS&S under its own heading and so these series have been listed separately leaving little Twentieth Century material under this section. Two series, however, have been included here; one contains personal correspondence of the Directors of JS&S and is mainly concerned with their personal careers (JSSI 9). The second is a modern series which concerns the Organisation and Management investigations which were made into all JS&S concerns in the East during the 1960’s (JSSI 10) and this section will be closed until the Twenty-First Century.
1869—1916 John Swire and Sons Out Letters
During the Nineteenth Century and up to the First World War period all letters sent out from the Private Office of John Swire and Sons London Office were copied and mounted or filed into bound out letters volumes retained in the Private Office for reference. These are arranged in chronological order and include all JS&S correspondents, including B&S in Hong Kong and Shanghai. The chief correspondents throughout the period were A Holt & Co; Scott’s Shipbuilding and Engineering Co; Swire’s agents in Australia - up to 1894 Lorimer, Rome and Co then George Martin and from 1900 G S Yuill & Co-; various banks and insurance companies in Britain and the East; J J Keswick of JM&Co and a wide range of manufacturers, suppliers, clients and competitors although the majority of the letters were to the Eastern Partners or Managers of B&S in the East.
Most of the volumes have an index by name of correspondent and a few of the later ones give an indication of the subject of each letter. Several of the volumes are in poor physical condition and many of the letters, being press copies on very flimsy paper, are fragile and in some
I The outline of the organisation of the London Office is based partly on evidence from the documents themselves and partly from information supplied by A Dean, whose assistance is gratefully acknowledged.

instances, particularly those in blue typescript, are now almost illegible. (These volumes were used extensively by S Marriner and F E Hyde in The Senior).
20 Sep 1869 Ms Letter to William Lang, Eastern Partner, Box No.
B&S from John S Swire in Liverpool concern- 1173
ing the opening of the Hong Kong Office to handle Holt’s agency and its position as Head Office in the East. (12pp)
29 Sep 1871 1174
-31 May Bound volume of mounted letters sent to B&S 1878 Shanghai or to William Lang personally concer-
ning the formation of CNCo, the purchase of the steamers for the River trade, the market and trade conditions on the Yangtze and the staff, equipment and management of the River Steamers. (455pp)
20 Feb 1871 Bound volume (in a very fragile condition) 1174A -3 Feb 1882 of mounted letters mainly to Hong Kong and
Shanghai concerning Eastern trade in general, the state of the markets, especially for tea, general management and staff affairs and in particular the running of the B&S House in Japan. (488pp)
20 Sep Bound volume of press copies of letters to Box No.
1871- B&S concerning House and CNCo management 1086
3 Feb and business, particularly the need for economy
1882 and selling policies to be adopted to deal with
low demand, and with other correspondents re the Guiness trade to Australia; a Pacific route via Japan and a wide range of other Eastern affairs including generally relations between other companies trading in China. (1001 pp)
4 Sep Bound volume of press copies of letters with 1087
1879- B&S in the East, JM&Co and various other
14 Nov parties concerning Eastern trade and in partic-
1881 ular the negotiation of Pool Agreements
and Conference arrangements, the dispute over agreements with JM&Co leading in March 1880-July 1881 to feasibility studies for and the establishment of the Taikoo Sugar Refinery in Hong Kong and the possibility of a dockyard
as well. (lOOOpp)

16 Nov Bound volume containing copies of letters 1881- to B&S re CNCo and House management and
30 May affairs - including the continued debate on the
1884 opening of a dockyard at Hong Kong (1881)
and the amalgamation of CNCo and CBO in
1883; extensive correspondence about China Conference agreements and with Holt’s about OSSCo trade and management, the development of a Pacific route, insurance company problems and trade with Australia. In September 1883 John S Swire began a tour of the East and in his absence F R Gamwell conducted the London end of the business and correspondence. (995pp) (For JSS letters
during his tour see JSSI 3/2)
5 Jun Bound volume containing copies of letters
1884- to B&S re insurance, CNCo and TSR affairs, 22 Apr staff and management problems; other subjects
1887 include general trade and competition in the East and the organisation of the China-Australian trade routes. (1494pp)
24 Apr Bound volume of copies of letters to B&S re
1887- House and CNCo business, TSR management 26 Sep including competition with JM&Co, sugar
1888 prices and selling policies, general advice from JSS to his Eastern partners on handling affairs and in May 1888 the suggestion of establishing a rice mill at Quarry Bay; other subjects and correspondents include Holt’s re Conference and OSSCo affairs, and Australian trade, particularly immigration restrictions affecting China-Australian routes. (500pp)
25 Sep Bound volume containing copies of letters to
1888- B&S covering management of House and
13 Apr CNCo business and including the building of
1891 new steamers, purchase of property and exten-
sion of TSR (1889); also concerning among other general trade subjects relations with LR&Co and Australian trade, relations with M&Co in Singapore, with Holt’s re OSSCo and Conference affairs, particularly poor relations with JM&Co and CMCo. During 1889-90 letters from London were also being handled by J H Scott on leave from the East and he
dealt with most internal B&S affairs. (1006pp)
Box No 1088

1/10 17 Apr
1891-26 Jul 1893
1/11 27 Jul
1893-22 Nov 1895
1/12 25 Nov
1895-29 Jul 1898
1/13 5 Aug
1898 — 7 Nov 1901
Bound volume of copies of letters to B&S concerning House, CNCo and TSR business, including the deployment of steamers, property and staff - particularly conflicts between Bois, Shanghai, and Mackintosh, Hong Kong. Also extensive correspondence with and about Holt’s interests especially Conference difficulties and Straits Pool Agreements, OSSCo organisation and management, and Shipping problems. From July - December 1891 JSS again visited the East, London correspondence being handled by Gamwell and Scott in his absence. (For JSS letters for that period see JSSI 3/3) (lOOOpp)
Bound volume of copies of letters to B&S covering routine management of JS&S interests including the renewal of the suggestion for opening a rice mill, (Sept 1893) the poor state of the tea market, the effects of the Sino-Japan-ese War on JS&S and business in the East (1894-95) and difficulties in financing sugar purchase for TSR (Feb 1895). Also correspondence concerning Australian trade, especially the market for stout and the problems caused to JS&S by the bankruptcy of LR&Co (1894) and extensive correspondence concerning Conference and Pool affairs and OSSCo business. (1002pp)
Bound volume of typescript copies of letters in blue ink many of which are now barely legible due to fading and blurring. Subjects covered include general management of JS&S interests in the East, financing of TSR and Conference affairs. (1003pp)
Bound volume of ts copies of letters to B&S covering CNCo, House and TSR routine management and business, including staff problems, in particular the serious embezzlement by the Yokohama compradore, the effects of the political situation on Chinese trade (May-Sept 1900) and the formation of the TD& ECo (Nov 1900) Other subjects include Conference affairs, Hong Kong and Shanghai affairs and Australian trade problems, including the beginnings of refrigerated transport on the Australia-Manila line (April 1899) and the transfer of JS&S agency to G S Yuill & Co (Jan 1900). Up to November 1898 the majority of the correspondence was still hand-
Box No. 1178

1/14 15 Nov
1904-6 Apr 1910
1/15 6 Apr
1910-14 Oct 1916
led by JSS himself, after his death in December 1898 the London side was taken over by J H Scott. (1002pp)
(No volume for 1902-Nov 1904 survives.)
Soft bound volume of ts copies of letters, many blurred and illegible, and very fragile, the majority to B&S and concerning JS&S affairs, including partnership changes on the death of Edwin Mackintosh (1904) and the suggestion of forming a limited company (1905); management of House, insurance, TD&ECo, TLCo and TSR business, particularly Dockyard development (Sept 1907) and the problems of sugar prices (March 1908); the construction of Holt’s Wharf, Shanghai, and local Chinese affairs including the general question of the membership of B&S staff on the Shanghai Municipal Council and the foundation of Hong Kong University (1909) (988pp)
Bound volume of ts copies of letters mostly to B&S although a few copies of letters sent to Holt’s and Scott’s still included. Most non-B&S correspondence was filed separately by this date (see JSSI 4/8). The letters cover CNCo, TD&ECo, TSR, TLCo business and finance, including the increasing competition between the Dockyard and HK&WDCo (1911) CNCo financial problems and staff difficulties (1911), local affairs, particularly the effect of the political situation on trade, the Hong Kong Defence Volunteer Force and the representation of B&S on the Shanghai Municipal Council and the negotiation of the Yangtze Pool (June (1912). John (Jack) Swire began to handle more of the London correspondence after 1911 and took over as ‘The Senior’ on Scott’s death in 1912. The majority of the letters (1-881) cover the period Apr 1910 -Oct 1912, only a few for 1913 and 1914, chiefly concerning the formation of a Limited Company were filed in this volume, and the book was apparently officially closed by John Swire in 1914, although a few letters for 1914-16 were added. (923pp)
Box No

1872—1916 John Swire and Sons Letters In: From B&S
Although up to 1910-1911 it was office practice to file all letters sent out from the Private Office in purely chronological order, letters received into the office were apparently separated into B&S and other correspondents for filing. The letters from the Hong Kong and Shanghai Offices were usually kept in separate bundles and were not usually bound but filed and then boxed. They include both official correspondence from B&S to JS&S and private letters from the heads of the Hong Kong and Shanghai offices to ‘The Senior’. Unofficial correspondence was not in fact encouraged and it is predominantly the Eastern Partners, Lang, Scott and Mackintosh who write personally to John S Swire; after their retirement from the East they were replaced by Eastern Managers (Bois, Wright and Mackay in Shanghai and Smith, Prate, Law, Robertson and Edkins in Hong Kong) who tended to use official correspondence.
The series of files has been arranged according to the B&S office from which it originated:
Hong Kong (1877-1916) JSSI 2/1-14.
Shanghai (1872-1916) JSSI 2/15-25.
Hong Kong Correspondence
22 Feb- 1 folder of unbound private letters from Scott Box No.
5 Dec in Hong Kong and Lang in Shanghai concern- 1175
1877 ing the business and particularly some unsuccess-
ful ventures entered into by Lang. (18 lttrs)
9 Nov Bound volume of ts copies of private letters 1094
1877- written from the East to F R Gamwell while
6Jull878 in charge of the London Office during JSS
tour of the East. Letters chiefly from JSS describing his visit and views of the East and business affairs particularly Lang’s ventures, an agreement with CMCo over Yangtze trade and decisions connected with the insurance business and selling policy in general. Also letters to Gamwell from Lang, Scott and Mackintosh and copies of letters between partners in the East and other parties with JSS.
(For JSS original letters from the East see JSSI 3/1)
4 Apr 1 folder of official and private letters from 1175
1879- Mackintosh to JSS concerning House and
30 Aug CNCo business including relations with Russell 1883 and Co and JM&Co, deployment of steamers

and in 1881 plans for TSR. Also trade with Australia, CSSCo business and local Hong Kong news and gossip. (Also 1 folder of telegrams from the East in 1879, mainly in cypher concerning trade agreements) (217 lttrs)
3 Jul 2 folders of private and official letters from
1884- Mackintosh (Jul 1884-Feb 1886) and Scott
28 Dec covering TSR development, competition with
1886 JMCo the Australian line and local business
affairs and gossip, particularly re Keswick of JMCo, Also in 1886 approaches to Keswick for an agreement between the two firms and the problem of dealings with TT&LCo at Tientsin. (187 lttrs)
(For letters from JSS to Gamwell during his visit to the East Feb-June 1884 see JSSI 3/2)
4 Jan 1 folder of letters from Scott (up to Feb 1887)
1887- and Mackintosh concerning CNCo business
19 May and steamers, staff and competition, trade
1888 agreements and general conditions, relations
with R&Co, the Canton River trade and the Australian line and TSR progress. (83 lttrs)
2 Jun 1 folder of private letters from Mackintosh
1888- and Scott to London and from May 1892 from
3 Dec Herbert Smith covering routine management of
1892 House CNCo and TSR affairs. (During June
to December 1891 JSS visited the East and some of his letters for that period are preserved in JSSI 3/3) (326 lttrs)
5 Jan 1 folder of official and private letters from
1893- Smith (to May 1893), Scott (to April 1894) 25 Mar and Mackintosh concerning routine manage-1895 ment of all interests, staff and accounts, general
trade conditions and relations and agreements with competitors. (330 lttrs)
11 Apr Bound volume of letters from the East includ-1895- mg section of correspondence from Mackintosh 18 Dec (to May 1895) and Smith concerning House, 1898 CNCo and TSR business particularly TSR
problems arising from Japanese competition, and in autumn 1898 the suggestion of a dockyard for Hong Kong. Some copies of correspondence received into the Hong Kong office from Shanghai and outports is included but is in very
poor condition. (103 lttrs)
Box No

3 Mar 1 folder of letters to Scott, Senior Partner
1899- after JSS’s death, from Smith, Prate and Law
21 Dec concerning all JS&S interests including plans 1900 for TD&ECo, relationships with Keswick and
JM&Co, the progress of TSR and the state of the sugar market. (50 lttrs)
14 Jan 3 folders of private and official letters from 1901- Prate (1901-3), Law (1903-05), Robertson 11 Dec (1905-06) Law (1906-08) and Mackay 1909
1909 covering routine management and business
matters, including staff, accounts, TSR and Dockyard - particularly 1906-07 relations with HK&WDCo. Also concerning the general trade situation, the Manila trade and local affairs, including typhoon damage (1908), the establishment of Hong Kong University (1909) and comments on the Self-Government Society and the FATSHAN incident and CNCo
boycott. (133 lttrs)
1909- File of private and official letters from Law, 1911 Edkins and Robertson concerning TD&ECo
and TSR, divided into separate sections:
Box No. A26
7 Jan 1909- Taikoo Dockyard.
24 Jul 1912 Covers developments, plans, contracts, staff and finance. (142 lttrs)
3 Sep 1909 Taikoo Sugar Refinery.
-31 Jul Covers output, grades of sugar, supplies of raw 1912 sugar, markets and staff. (46 lttrs)
5 Feb Bound volume containing a section of private
1910- letters from Law, Robertson and Edkins con-31 Jul cerning CNCo business and staff principally on
1912 the Canton Line. (53 lttrs)
14 Jan Bound volume containing a section of private
1910- letters from Law, Robertson and Edkins con-
31 Jul cerning general business affairs, property, staff
1910 and local affairs, including copies of letters
from Lord Lugard re the development of Hong
Kong and the University. (51 lttrs)
14 Jan 1 folder of private letters from Edkins to
1915- Colin C Scott and John Swire in London con-
30 Mar cerning the effects of the war on trade and
1916 manpower, local affairs in Hong Kong, staff
problems and CNCo and Dockyard business.
(8 lttrs)

2/15 19 Jan
1872-13 Apr 1876
2/16 5 Dec
1878-10 Aug 1883
2/17 4Jul
1884-14 May 1888
2/18 llJun 1888-8 Jul 1892
2/19 8 Jul
1892-20 Dec 1895
2/20 2 Jan
1896-21 Dec 1898
Shanghai Correspondence
Bound volume of copies of private letters from Lang and official ones, including copies of letters sent out from Shanghai Office to other parties concerning CNCo and the steamers on the Yangtze River and River trade generally. (503 pp)
(For letters from Shanghai during 1877-78 see JSSI 2/1 & 2/2.)
1 folder of letters from Shanghai from William Lang covering House and CNCo business and staff, trade in Shanghai and on the River, relations and agreements with JM&Co and CM-Co (103 lttrs)
2 folders of letters from Scott (to September 1885) and Lang concerning outports trade, property and staff, the opening of B&S Tientsin and new steamers for the Tientsin route, the Australian line, and agreements with JM&Co, CMCo, R&Co and McBains. (192 lttrs)
(For additional letters for 1884 see JSSI 3/2)
1 folder of letters, private and official, from Lang (to Oct 1888), Scott and Bois (from March 1889) covering CNCo business, outports, affairs, staff, property, accounts, the state of the market and trade in general, relations with JM&Co and CMCo and in December 1890 the loss of SS SHANGHAI. (215 lttrs)
2 folders of private and official letters from Bois (to March 1894) and Alex Wright concerning House and CNCo business, staff, property, steamers and relations with other companies, also Aug 1894-1895 the Sino-Japanese War and its effects on trade and 1895 fierce competition with JM&Co (172 lttrs)
Bound volume containing a section of letters from Bois covering CNCo and House business particularly opening of agency at Chefoo, staff affairs, plans for new steamers, accidents, trade situation, relations and agreements with JMCo-including copies of B&S correspondence with JMCo, and problems with lighterage at Tientsin. (191 lttrs)
Box No

Partners — post-1914 the Directors — of JS&S interests in China and Japan and of general Far Eastern trade and politics. Also included are a few letters between the partners on general policies and a file of correspondence relating to the political situation in the Far East during the 1930s addressed to various Directors in London.
28 Nov Original letters from John S Swire to Gamwell BoxN
1877 — 4 Jul 1878 during his Eastern tour. (Bound ts copies in JSSI 2/2) (83 lttrs) A1
5 Feb -16 Jun 1884 2 folders of letters from John S Swire to Gam-well during his tour of the East and principally concerning relations with JM&Co, R&Co, CMCo; the development of TSR and the Eastern Partners and their relationships. (40 lttrs) A34
9 Sep- Original letters (10 lttrs in A34) and ts copies A34&
14 Oct 1891 (30pp in 1094) to and from John S Swire during his visit to the East, mainly correspondence with the heads of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Offices on the management and organisation of JS&S companies in the East 1094
1909-1912 Jan-Feb 1909 Oct 1911 — March 1912 Correspondence between J H Scott (‘The Senior’) and John (Jack) Swire Letters from John Swire chiefly on the legal partnership position of E H Mackintosh, also discussing the Dockyard and Hong Kong University. (4 lttrs) Letters from J H Scott concerning staff, general trade and Hong Kong University. (6 lttrs) A1
3 Aug 1914-2 Jun 1916 Letter from G W Swire to John Swire and Colin C Scott while he was on active service concerning the business, general affairs and a few comments on his own war service. (11 lttrs) A1
1931 A33
Director in the East: Colin C Scott
Bound volume of letters (in a fragile state) concerning management in the East, trade conditions and particularly the Refinery
24 Apr- Copies of G W Swire’s letters to Scott. (20
16 Oct lttrs)
14 May- Scott’s letters to John and Warren Swire.
20 Nov (24 lttrs)

2/21 9 Jan
1896-14 Nov 1900
2/22 14 Jan
1901 -6 Dec 1911
2/23 29 Jan
1910-5 Jul 1912
2/24 3 Jan-
28 May 1912
2/25 30 Dec
1914-15 Apr 1916
1 folder of private letters from Bois to Scott concerning CNCo affairs and policy, insurance business, the Chefoo Office (1899), the possibility of a Lighter Company at Tientsin, trade and the political situation in Tientsin (summer 1900) and the effects of the Boxer Uprising on trade and B&S generally. (July 1900). (84 lttrs)
5 folders of letters, private and official, from Wright (1901-05), Dowler (1905-07), Robertson (1907), J H Scott during his visit to the East (Jan-March 1909), Wright (1909-10), Mackay (1911) and G W Swire (Sept-Dec 1911). Covers House and CNCo trade, staff and property, including problems of the lease of B&S property in Shanghai (1904-05), competition with the Japanese, local politics -particularly in Shanghai, the Kiukiang Boycott (Aug 1909) and in 1911 the effects of the Revolution on trade and B&S affairs, especially in Hankow. (220 lttrs)
Bound volume containing section of private and confidential letters from Wright and Mackay concerning CNCo including the running of the steamers, Pool Agreements, finance, staff property and trade competition. (115 lttrs)
Bound volume containing a section of private letters from Mackay chiefly concerned with Shanghai-Hong Kong relations; and from G W Swire in the East describing his impressions and observations of the East and trade generally (9 lttrs)
1 folder of private letters from Mackay to Colin C Scott and John Swire concerning the War in the East, its effect on business, B&S affairs and the loss of manpower problems. Also includes a few copies of letters from London in reply. (24 lttrs)
Box No. A27
1877—1936 Partners’ and Directors’ Letters
This section contains an assorted collection of files of correspondence falling outside the main series, addressed personally to, from or between the

14 Oct 1932-3 Mar 1933
12 Jan-26 Jan
15 Feb-29 Mar 1935
22 Nov-1 May 1936
29 Jan-9 May 1935
1 Dec 1935-21 May 1936
Director in the East: J S Scott
Copies of letters to John S Scott from G W Swire and Colin C Scott in London advising him of decisions made in London and concerning TSR, TD&ECo CNCo and B&S business, European staff deployment and pay, cost of living problems in the East, and local affairs particularly JS&S dissatisfaction with the local Hong Kong Government. (17 lttrs)
Director in the East: G W Swire
Copies of a few letters from the London Directors to Warren Swire concerning CNCo business TD&ECo pool agreements and Far Eastern politics, particularly Japanese policy in China and including a copy of a report on ‘The Causes of Unrest in the Far East’ by Archibald Rose (ex-Consul in China) after his visit to the East in 1933. (3 lttrs)
Director in the East: J K Swire 1935 J S Scott 1936
1 file of letters (in a very fragile condition) consisting of 4 sections:
To the East
Copies of letters to J K Swire from Warren Swire concerning CNCo affairs, including piracy problems, general trade and management of JS&S interests and staff problems, including the Taipan - Mitchell (4 lttrs)
Copies of letters from London to J S Scott concerning CNCo management, staff and pay; Pool Agreements; cost of living difficulties and salaries; TSR and sugar supply problems; Japanese competition; relations with CMCo; British Government policies in China, (16 lttrs) From the East
Letters to London from J K Swire covering his impressions of India and Singapore; the future of CNCo in China; cost of living; Dockyard and TSR staff; OPCo progress and personnel; Japanese competition and the political situation including notes of interviews with T V Soong in March and May. (20 lttrs)
Letters to London from J S Scott concerning relations with CMCo, general Chinese politics including accounts of meetings with T V Soong, comments on the general state of affairs and
Box No. A33

feelings in China, Japanese influence and the Shanghai Municipal Council, business position of JS&S interests and OSSCo, reports on his visits to the River ports, Japan and Tientsin -including observations on the strength of Japanese influence there -, reviews of staff and management problems, the development of OPCo and general Far Eastern trade prospects. (43 lttrs)
3/10 1933-1936 London Directors’Political Correspondence
This file contains correspondence between J K Swire, G W Swire, John S Scott and Colin C Scott and various political and business figures interested in Far Eastern affairs about Chinese developments, including Shanghai Municipal Council, British representation in China, the Chinese Customs and smuggling, Sino-Japanese relations and visits of Chinese representatives to London - particularly T V Soong. There are many cross-references to letters from JS&S Directors’ in the East letters in 3/6-9
The letters are arranged roughly in alphabetical order of correspondent although occasionally letters seem to have been misfiled. Correspondents:
27 Apr 1933 J H Brand; (1 letter)
28 Nov 1935 Indecipherable (1 letter)
29 Nov 1935 D G M Bernard, Director of Matheson & Co
(1 letter)
8 May 1934- Sir Alexander Cadogan, Minister Plenipotentiary 8 May 1936 in Peking 1933-35; Ambassador 1935-36
(3 letters)
22 Feb 1933 To Lieutenant-Colonel Sir John Chancellor (1 letter)
18 Feb 1933 From K P Chen; Managing Director, Shanghai Commercial & Savings Bank (1 letter)
14 Feb 1933 To Lionel Curtis, a member of Milner’s ‘Kin--8 Nov 1935 dergarten’ (11 letters)
2Jan 1933- From Lionel Curtis, a member of Milner’s 29 Sep 1936 ‘Kindergarten’ in South Africa, 1900 and a
lecturer (19 letters)
This correspondence contains letters from other Sinologists and covers a wide range of Chinese affairs
27-28 Nov To and from O W D’Arch, of Asiatic Petro-1935 leum Co (2 letters)
Box No

25 Jan 1933 To and from T J Fisher, B&S staff, Hankow, -28 Mar mainly re British Residents’ Association,
1936 including a copy of a letter to him from W H
Donald re Chiang-Kai-Shek (3 letters)
30 Jun 1933 To E M. Gull (7 letters)
-31 Jan
4 Jan 1933- From E M. Gull (17 letters)
18 Jun 1936 Secretary of the China Association re attempts to influence Government policy towards China and particularly re Shanghai. Included are copies of memoranda and letters to the Government re China and Gull’s notes on interviews with the leading political figures in China during his visit in the autumn of 1935
1935 General
Various memoranda, many prepared by Warren Swire, on the situation in China and Shanghai used as the basis for letters to be sent to HMG
May 1933- To and from G E Hubbard, I P R Research Feb 1936 Secretary, Royal Institute of International
Affairs, including an extensive memorandum on Sino-Japanese relations (3 letters)
27 Nov 1935 Copies of letters from John Keswick, Director of Matheson & Co and a member of the China Association to Sir Harry McGowan, Chairman of ICI (4 letters)
May 1936 Memorandum by Mr Kelley on the status of the International Settlement, Shanghai
23 Feb- To and from Charles Hendry of the London &
2 May 1933 Lancashire Insurance Co (4 letters)
27-30 Nov To and from Lord Lugard, Colonial admin-1933 istrator and in 1933 British Member of the
Permanent Mandates Commission, League of Nations, giving Warren Swire’s view of Hong Kong University and the British Legation in Peking (2 letters)
11 May 1936 To Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon E F Lawson, editor of the ‘Daily Telegraph’ (1 letter)
9 Jan- To and from I S. Macadam and Commander
3 May 1933 Stephen King-Hall, Royal Institute of Inter-
national Affairs re the Manchurian situation (6 letters)
8 May 1933 From Malcolm Macdonald, MP; son of Ramsey MacDonald; Parliamentary Under-Secretary Dominions Office (1 letter)
27 Jun 1934 To and from Sir Harry McGowan, including -12 May a copy of a report to the President of the
1936 Board of Trade presented by an Imperial
Box No. 1187

13-26 Apr 1933
9 Feb 1938 24 Jun 1935 -8Mayl936 18 Jan 1933 -8Mar 1935 17 Jan 1933 -8 Apr 1935
23 Oct 1934 -11 Nov 1935
9 May 1933
23 Feb 1933 -60ctl936 17 Apr 1933 -7 May 1936
28 Jun-1 Jul1933
20 Nov 1933 -16 Dec 1935
21 Jun 1935
13 Jan-18 Dec 1933
6 Dec 1935 -14 Jun 1936
Committee on China re the representation of Britain in China
To and from S F Mayers, Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation
To A C Moreing, Conservative MP (1 letter) To and from Montagu Norman, Governor of the Bank of England (3 letters)
To W Nunn, Conservative MP and Member of the House of Commons Committee on China From W Nunn (19 letters)
Concerning the work of the Committee, Chinese affairs and Foreign Office policy on China and attitude towards British business interests there
To, from and about G G Phillips, Deputy Secretary Shanghai Municipal Council (Secretary 1936; Commander General 1940) (13 letters)
From Quo-Tai-Chi, Chinese Minister, Chinese Legation in London to Lionel Curtis (see also Curtis) (1 letter)
To and from Archibald Rose, Consul in China until 1921 (6 letters)
To and from Walter Runciman, President of the Board of Trade, re the visit to Britain of T V Soong, Chinese Finance Minister (4 letters) To and from Sir Owen Seaman, editor of ‘Punch’ 1906-32, re an anti-Chinese cartoon (3 letters)
To and from Geoffrey Dawson and Captain A L Kennedy of ‘The Times’ re Sir Frederick Maze, the Chinese Customs and British Government policy
To Sir Frederick Whyte, Political Adviser to the National Government of China 1929 — 32 Letter from Warren Swire and 2 memoranda by Whyte on China (2 letters)
To and from Pembroke Wicks, MP and Secretary of the Unionist Central Office 1925-31 re the House of Commons Committee on China (9 letters)
To and from the Earl of Winterton, Unionist MP and President of the China Association (5 letters)
Box No

1869—1922 John Swire and Sons Letters In
While correspondence received from B&S in the London Office was filed and preserved, letters from other correspondents have not survived in any comprehensive series for the Nineteenth Century and only prior to the First World War were bound Letter Books, arranged by correspondent, introduced. The correspondence which has survived covers a wide range of topics and includes letters from most of JS&S chief business associates, including Holt’s and Scott’s but rarely in any long series. (For additional correspondence with Holt’s see JSSXI 1).
1869-1886 Letters and posters concerned with the rates Box No. and coast tariffs and particularly with the A1 Yangtze Pool Agreement of 1886
10-17 Nov Correspondence between J S Swire, Holt’s, 1176A 1874 John Scott and Batters concerning the pur-
chase of two steamers, the WILLIAM and THERESA BATTERS (the FOOCHOW and SWATOW of the CBO). (7 lttrs)
1895-1914 Sundry Correspondence
Folders of letters sent in to the London Office covering various topics. Although there are a few B&S letters included relating to the subjects most of the correspondence is from private persons or other businesses in the Far East, Britain and elsewhere with whom JS&S had dealings
Oct 1894- Letters from the East concerning the develop-Feb 1895 ment of a Pacific Line (5 lttrs)
Jun-Oct Letters from D C Law (B&S staff) while on
1899 leave in Britain discussing affairs in China. (6
2 May 1 letter from J Dodds to J H Scott concerning
1900 the Yokohama Compradore robbery
Oct 1901- Correspondence with Hamburg-Amerika Linie Apr 1902 and Norddeutscher Lloyd Line concerning
Pool agreements. (14 lttrs)
30 Jul Letters from Consul-General Fraser while on
1903- leave in Britain concerning the Hankow front-3 Aug 1904 age. (11 lttrs)
28 Apr-14 Letters from D Law while on leave in Britain Jul 1905 concerning Chinese affairs. (14 lttrs)

22 Mar- Letters from Z Racine, Paris, concerning the
25 Jun sale of Lazarites property in Shanghai, and
1908 the Ningpo Pool. (14 lttrs)
May-Nov Correspondence with the Asiatic Petroleum Co
1909 concerning the sale of a portion of No 7 Yokohama Bund. (15 lttrs) (sec also JSII 8/7)
Dec 1908- Letters, including a few from Lord Lugard, Apr 1909 and memoranda concerning the development
of Hong Kong and its trade prospects. (5 lttrs)
May 1909- Letters to JS&S, including from Lord Lugard, Mar 1910 about the donation from Swire’s towards the
foundation of the University of Hong Kong. (10 lttrs)
Jun-Sep Letters from D Law to various parties and JS&S
1910 while on leave in Britain and touring the USA and Pacific concerning Pacific trade and OSSCo
May 1913- Letters from E Macky while on leave in Bri-Feb 1914 tain discussing Chinese affairs. (13 lttrs)
Sep 1913- Correspondence concerning the purchase of Jul 1914 Maynard’s Lot, Shanghai (26 lttrs)
Box No
1897-1913 Sundry Correspondence
Folders of assorted letters from a variety of correspondents and a few copies of replies
9 Dec 1906 Very miscellaneous collection of letters into - 12 Mar the partners, John Swire, J H Scott and Colin 1908 C Scott from private individuals and various
companies, mostly odd letters rather than com-
plete series. (73 lttrs)
8 Nov Lttrs and memoranda from the British India
1906-12 Steam Navigation Co Ltd concerning their rates Mar 1908 of pay and pensions to their staff. (5 lttrs)
4-28 Mar Letters from Watton’s and Co with their legal
1912 opinions on the position of CNCo vessels registered in Shanghai and limited liability laws (4 lttrs)
Jan-Sep Letters from and concerning D Law and his
1913 financial interests after his retirement from B&S (10 lttrs)
29Decl913-Letters in to JS&S on the announcement of 4 Feb 1914 the formation of a limited liability company.
(13 lttrs)

4/5 13 Oct 1904—Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
Folder of letters from the Bank on various minor financial transactions. (14 lttrs)
4/6 14 May 1908 Scott's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co
â–º 6Jan 1914
Letters between Scott’s and JS&S partners concerning mutual interests, mostly minor rather than major policy matters. (15 lttrs)
4/7 1 May 1914- Miscellaneous letters in to the London Office
18Novl916 from private persons and various companies concerning Far Eastern trade, business, staff and various minor matters some connected with the war-time conditions. (19 lttrs)
4/8 1911-1916 JS&S Letters *P’Inland
20Janl913-Bound volume of letters in to the London 29 Dec 1915 Office and copies of JS&S replies. Indexed and with subject synopses of the letters. Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank (31 letters)
24&29Jun Hambro & Sons (2 letters)
19Junl913-Union Bank (30 letters)
6Janl911- Holt & Co (46 letters)
19 May 1911-Indo-China Steam Navigation Company (50 27Jull914 letters)
2Mayl911- Scott’s Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd. 9 Nov 1915 (34 letters)
Local Sundries (21 letters)
The correspondence covers all JS&S interests, financial arrangements, Holt’s affairs, steamer building, Pool agreements and general trade
4/9 1917-1922 JS&S *P'Inland
Bound volume of correspondence to and from JS&S with an index and subject synopsis of each letter. Covering the financial aspects of war-time trade and policies of JS&S interests, Holt’s affairs, new steamers and general trade developments
Box No. 1173
16Janl917 National Provincial and Union -11 Dec Bank of England (22 letters) 1920

16 Jan 1917 HK&S Banking Corp. (24 letters) Box No.
-13 Feb
Aug-Nov Other Banks (5 letters)
1 Feb 1917 Holt’s (231 letters)
-1 Dee
25 Jun 1917 lndo-China Steam Navigation Co. (27 letters)
-10 Apr
28 Nov 1918 Scott’s S&ECo Ltd (38 letters)
-4 Nov Local sundries (arranged in alphabetical order).
1921 (60 letters)
1904—47 John Swire and Sons Limited Staff
This section is concerned with various personnel files either of JS&S employed staff or with aspects of staff affairs and management relating to all or several of the firms managed in London by JS&S. This section, therefore, contains papers relating to staff of B&S, CNCo, TSR, OPCo,
TD&ECo etc. Box No.
5/1 1904-33 London Staff Ledger Ledger containing details of JS&S and B&S staff giving statements of payments, war bonuses, reasons for leaving and personal information such as dates of birth and education etc 1159
5/2 1904-33 JS&S Profit Sharing Scheme Lists showing the salaries, service and payments due to staff under the scheme for the years 1921, 1923,1924,1928,1932,1933,1934
5/3 CLOSED 1977 Dec 1941-Jan 1942 Shanghai Staff Accounts Balances of wages due to Chinese staff in the outports and Shanghai during the Japanese take-over 487

China Navigation Co
30 Jan 1942 JS&S to B&S Bombay and Sydney (82 letters)
-21 Dec
19 May 1942 B&S Bombay and Sydney to JS&S (70 letters)
-16 Nov
Refinery and Dockyard
6 Feb 1942 JS&S to B&S Bombay and Sydney (13 letters)
-2 Jun
19 May 1942 B&S Bombay and Sydney to JS&S (14 letters)
-6 Apr 1945
5/8 1946
Volume 2 Local Letters
Correspondence with various banks re payments; and with persons holding policies re payments etc. Arranged in alphabetical order of correspondent under the firm concerned -B&S; CNCo; Refinery and Dockyard
Provident Fund Receipts 382
Receipts for payments from the Provident Fund; arranged in alphabetical order under payee’s name and divided by the company employing the person:
Butterfield and Swire
China Navigation Co
Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co
Taikoo Sugar Refinery
1875—1955 John Swire and Sons Property
This section contains the files and registers relating to JS&S owned prop erty and property managed in the East by JS&S or one of its firms.
6/1 1875 Correspondence concerning the lease of pro- Box No.
perty in Hankow between JS&S, B&S and 1181B other interested parties

5/4 1942
5/5 1945
Chinese Long Service Fund Box No.
Detailed accounts of the payments due to Chin- 487 esc staff in the outports and Shanghai through the Long Service Eund
Interned Staff 500
Papers re the repatriation of interned staff of all JS&S interest and their payment of compensation
Copies of death certificates of personnel killed in Hong Kong
Copies of letters from the Ear East from repatriated men and released internees giving details of the condition of property and other personnel
Circulars, minutes and memoranda re the basis for payments to repatriated staff
Circulars to staff re payments and statements of advances made and payments due to personnel of all JS&S firms - including Statements of Account of Stanley Internment Camp
Accounts: Statements of Accounts for Repatriation Passages; detailed draft and working accounts of payments due to personnel and wives & children & dependents; Vouchers
5/6 1945-50 Agreement Book All Interests A9
11 Apr 1945 90 Memorandum of Agreement between JS&S 27 Apr 1950 as managers of their Far Eastern firms and individuals appointed to posts in; B&S; OPCo; CNCo; S&M; TSR. These give salary scales, medical services, cost of living allowances etc.
An index is arranged by agreement number, giving the name of the member of staff and the
company with the dates of employment
5/7 1942-45 Provident Fund Accounts
CLOSED 1980 2 volumes of Accounts and Letters
15 Jan 1943 Volume 1 Accounts Letters & Statements
-29 Nov 1945 Butterfield and Swire
8 Jan 1943 JS&S to BS&S Bombay and Sydney (36 letters)
-16 Nov 1945 B&S Bombay and Sydney to JS&S (25 letters)

1885-1938 Property Register
This register consists of numbered double pages:
1 -2 List of dates when leases expire 4-5 Property lists of Hulks 8-10 Property lists of Launches 9 Property lists of Ferry-boats
11 Property lists of Lighters
12 Property lists of Wharf pontoons
13 Property lists of Iron or steel pontoon bridges
14 Property lists of Connecting pontoons
15 Property lists of Wood pontoons and hulk bridges
16 Steel or iron hulk bridges
17-321 A-Z Lists of property at branches Amoy-Yochow
322-325 Lists of property at Bangkok
This register covers all JS&S interests in China, Hong Kong and Bangkok but does not include Yokohama and Kobe, Japan
1918-1941 Property Register
A similar volume to 6/2 this covers all JS&S property in the East, including Japan. The property is listed under the branch, arranged alphabetically. List of Launches 1918-37. List of Property 1880-1941 (approx). The lists cover some of the same property as included in 6/2 but in some cases gives greater detail
1910 Shanghai Shankoe Deeds
Owners copy of the Title Deeds to Lots
7113 - Lazarites
7114 - Meynards
7115 - Immobiliere
1911 List of Refinery and Dockyard Deed and Leases contained in Box No 50 in the London Office
1912-1934 Transfer of Hong Kong Property
Correspondence and legal papers arising from the attempts to transfer certain Hong Kong properties, registered in the names of the original partners, J S Swire; W Lang; J H Scott;
Box No

F R Gamwell; and E Mackintosh, to the firm of JS&S
Jul 1912- Correspondence between JS&S, B&S and legal Sep 1917 advisers concerning the steps to be taken to transfer the properties to the firm of JS&S, particularly the difficulties arising from probate
and estate duties payable in Hong Kong
May-Dec Correspondence reviving the question of trans-
1925 ferring the properties to JS&S with the original
assignments prepared in 1914 by the executors of the original partners to transfer the property
but not used
1 Sep Correspondence and drafts and originals of
1933- Powers of Attorney, Affidavits and Assign-
6 Apr 1934 ments arising from the arrangements to transfer the properties, including the lengthy legal discussion of the possible death duties payable and the negotiations over this with the
lawyers of the Mackintosh estate
Box No.
1930 Register of Title Deeds
This volume contains the main register of title deeds for all JS&S interests in the Far East arranged in alphabetical order under the place and then by the company controlling and using the property. This covers JS&S; BS&S; CNCo; TSR; TD&ECo; OPCo
1930-39 4 bound volumes of reports on examinations
of title deeds made up in Shanghai by B&S and covering all JS&S interests
1930 Examination and reports on the title deeds of
properties owned by JS&S companies arranged in alphabetical order of port. The index is arranged by port and the page number for the property. Shanghai is included but not Hong Kong or Canton. In the front of this volume there is a report by J L Adams in 1935 on the Hong Kong and Canton properties, including the Refinery and Dockyard
1936 Reports on the title deeds of JS&S property
arranged in similar lines to that of the 1930 volume but including a wider range of property and again excluding Hong Kong and Canton

6/9 1931 &
1947 1931
CLOSED 1947 1982
6/10 1942
8 Jan-20 May 1942
7 Apr -3 Jul 1942
6/11 1944-45
2 copies of reports on further title deeds Box No. additional to the two previous ones, again not including Hong Kong and Canton
Hankow Bund Development 2016D
Letter from B&S Shanghai to JS&S sending a copy of the Hankow Municipal Rescript of 11 Nov 1930 and plans of the relevant area.
Plan No 118/37 Agreed boundaries of water frontage between customs and CNCo Plan No 118/38 Plan referred to in Clause 1 of Rescript
Letter from B&S Shanghai to JS&S sending an extract referring to property, to be filed with the Rescript Documents
Shanghai Property
Correspondence concerning property administered by B&S Shanghai after the Japanese take-over
Copies of letters between B&S and the Swiss Consul General re property of B&S, CNCo;
TCNCo; TSR seized by the Japanese giving full inventories of all the items including offices, houses, contents, plant, equipment, stores, steamers and go-downs
Copies of letters between B&S and Nippon Toryo MSg Co Ltd re their take-over of the OPCo factory
War Claims Schedules 250
Folders of Schedules and Working papers for making up claims for compensation for damage to JS&S property registered with the Trading with the Enemy Section of the Treasury and Board of Trade
JS&S and B&S
Rough notebook, drafts and forms for property claims giving details of the property, date of purchase, cost, value etc.
China Navigation Company
3 copies of schedules sent in to the Board of Trade with working papers
Taikoo Dockyard
Rough notes and schedules with some corre-

spondence re the cost of replacements of plant Box No. Tientsin Lighter Company Brief schedules and notes Rough drafts and working and letters on the completion of the various forms and the methods to be used for registering the properties
6/12 18 June
CLOSED 1947 1982
6/13 1955
Property Reports 487
Correspondence from the Trading with the Enemy Section sending to JS&S photocopies of an Information and Inventory Report received from Head Quarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Japan on the firm’s property in Japan - including its monetary holdings at the outbreak of war
Signed copy of the memorandum of Agreement 2016C between J K Swire and Eu Yum-Chiu of Kwong Hing Investments Co Ltd for the sale to them of the B&S office in Hong Kong dated 6 October
1866—1966 John Swire and Sons Accounts
Little of the accounting side of any of John Swire and Sons interests has survived, particularly for the Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries, and few full series of accounting papers remain. All accounts were sent back to London and finally made up in the London Office’s Accounts Section. For the Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries the Cash Books, Journals and 3 surviving Ledgers include material relating to all JS&S interests and the correspondence between JS&S and B&S also contains some information of the making up of the annual accounts (see JSSI 1 and 2). For the Twentieth Century the individual firm’s accounts survive in the form in which they were sent from the East to London (see each firm’s own records) but nothing of the London side of the accounts remains.
Box No.
7/1-12 Oct 1866- London Cash Books B9-20
Sep 1887
JSSI 7/1-9 run consequently but in 1881 two series began with each month entered

alternately in different volumes. This later Box No. series is incomplete /
London Journals
JSSI 7/13-16 run from 1869-1879, and 7/17 contains entries for 1883-1885; there was presumably a volume for 1880-1882 which has been lost
London Ledgers
7/21&22 Feb 1882-Aug 1885
Three steel-edged and bound ledgers labelled ‘G’, ‘H’ and ‘I’ containing the main JS&S accounts
London Petty Cash Books
Two Petty Cash Books with daily entries for the London Office, entered each month in alternate volumes
7/23&24 1871-1918 London Private Office Journals B36&37
Two volumes containing yearly entries of credit and debit of fairly small personal accounts of individuals connected to the firm
7/25 1868-1914 Private Ledger No 1 B40
Ledger, apparently connected with the two Journals (JSSI 7/23&24), entries under the person or Company concerned
1881-1895 Balance Sheets
Three folders of Accounts Sheets Balance Sheet Profit and Loss Accounts Rough draft of Balance Sheet
1886-1890 Yearly Balance Sheets
1894&1895 Yearly Balance Sheets
7/27 1881-1901 Produce Sales Book
Accounts entries of prices and expenses of tea sales - arranged by voyage

1888-1889 Manchester Results
Accounts showing the amounts\c°ntainin£ jottings on staff accounts and salan^giv^g
Box No. B39
brief details of seniority and payments
7/29 1874-1900 Staff Notebooks
Three small rough notebooks containing jottings on staff accounts and salaries giving brief details of seniority and payments
7/30 1939-1943 Varied correspondence with HM Taxes con-
CLOSED cerning all JS&S interests and personnel em-
1978 ployed by JS&S and associated companies

7/31 1940-41 Bank Balances 487
Two folders of B&S Bank Balance Statements covering all JS&S interests up to the Japanese invasion 1941
11 Jan-22 Nov 1941 31 Dec 1940 -20 Nov 1941 Hong Kong Bank Balances Shanghai Bank Balances
7/32 Mar-Nov 1941 Receipts and Vouchers, signed by G E Mitchell in Shanghai 487
7/33 Closed 1935-1964 Bank Statements of the Scott Settlement Account A42
1999 1946-1966 Rough Accounts A41
7/34 Closed 2001 Three folders of rough working notes and accounting tables covering all JS&S interests in the Far East
1870—1956 John Swire and Sons Legal Papers
This section includes legal and organisation papers from John Swire and Sons and their firms in the East which were negotiated through JS&S and stored in the London Office. These include agreements, securities, contracts and memoranda on legal matters.

8/6 5 Jan 1914 Duplicate Agreement between J Swire, G W Swire, C C Scott, the executors of the will of J H Scott and JS&S on the formation of the private limited company Box No. 2016B
8/7 1896-1917 Series of correspondence between Union of London and Smiths Bank and JS&S concerning loans, credits and other financial affairs 1181B
8/8 1908-1911 Legal Papers and solicitors accounts arising from the legal dispute with the Mackintosh family over the estate of E Mackintosh 2016B
Nov 1908-Jul1911 The accounts and bills of Flux, Thompson and Quarrell for their handling of the case, giving details of each transaction in which they acted and an outline of the state and progress of the case
8 Dec 1911 Account of a visit by Page and Loveday, of Annan Dexter & Co for the solicitors of the Mackintosh family, Linklaters, to inspect the books of TD&ECo - gives details of the working of TD&ECo
23 Aug 1911 Draft of the Final Settlement between JS&S and the family
8/9 1919 Bangkok Wharf Syndicate 2016B
Mar-Apr Correspondence between B&S, Borneo Co and Siamese Steamship Co with various legal papers concerning the lease of Windsor’s Wharf, Bangrak, Bangkok
9 Sep Agreement between Borneo Co, CNCo and Straits Steamship Co for 30 years to run the Wharf and Go-down business
8/10 1933-1935 Investment Papers 2016B
1 Jan 1933 List of contents of Deed Box No 259 showing House Investments and separate list excluding House Investments
(1934) 30 Dec 1934 List of House Investments in the East Securities held by National Provincial Bank
31 Dec 1934 Inscribed stock in the Bank of England List of Treasury Bonds to the account of JS&S; CNCo Tientsin Lighter Co
31 Dec 1934 List of Securities of Savings Fund

8/1 1870 Power of Attorney from the British & Foreign
Marine Insurance Co to JS&S in Foochow
8/2 1893 Three copies of the partnership agreement
between J S Swire, J H Scott, F R Gamwell E Mackintosh and J Swire for 1 January 1893 to 31 December 1913. None signed by all the partners
8/3 1904-1937 Compradores Security Book
Agreements, translations, copies of securities etc between the compradores and JS&S, B&S and CNCo
Box No. 1181B
8/4 1905 -1954 Pool Agreement Books
Two volumes of letters mounted and bound and in poor physical condition. Included are copies of agreements for pooling trade and agency commissions and copies of the correspondence arranging the agreements
Closed 1905-1932 Volume 1
1989 1935-1954 Volume 2
8/5 1913-1914 Formation of Limited Company
Legal documents and correspondence relating to the formation of John Swire and Sons Limited
11 Aug 1913 Letters between JS&S and various legal advisers 19 Feb 1914 on the technicalities involved in forming a limited company - including correspondence with Thompson, Quarrel and Jones, who drew up the agreements, and their charges; the announcement of the First Ordinary general
Meeting of the Shareholders for 17 Feb 1914
16 Sep 1913 Opinions by J Ashton Cross, legal adviser on
-9 Jan certain technical points
1 Jan 1914 Certificate of Incorporation from the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies
5 Jan 1914 Powers of Attorney by the holders of the Company’s Stocks, Shares and Debentures to the Three Life Directors
ND Draft memorandum and Articles of Association
drawn up by Flux, Thompson and Quarrell with annotations by the partners

8/11 1938-1941 Coal Contracts Correspondence
22 Jul 1938 Copies of letters from JS&S to B&S Shanghai -14 Feb and Hong Kong and between JS&S and Holt’s 1941 re Kailan coal contract
10 Jan 1940 Copies of letters B&S Hong Kong to JS&S -4 Jul 1940
28 Jan 1938 Copies of letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S -1 Aug 1941
7 Feb Copies of letters to Holt’s from B&S Hong Kong
5 Nov 1941 Copy of letter to Holt’s from B&S Shanghai -14 Feb
Box No. 118
8/12 Nov 1946 Two copies of memoranda by P H D Kent 2016B CLOSED Chairman of the Committee of British Advis-
1981 ers concerning various legal aspects arising from
the hand over of Tientsin Municipal Government by the British to the Chinese authorities - including papers on roads and wharfs, loans and pensions and one dated 1943 on the position of Crown Leases in China
8/13 10 Aug Original signed contract between JS&S, on 2016B
CLOSED 1956 behalf of Cathay Pacific Airways, and Con-
1991 naught Films to produce a 30 minute feature
on Cathay Pacific Airways
1893—1967 John Swire and Sons Personal Papers
Various semi-business and personal material is contained in this section, particularly dealing with the Directors of the firm and their careers.
9/1 6 Aug 1898 Brief note by John S Swire to his partners concerning his will and the action to be taken in the event of TSR Shareholders raising questions re the deferred commission Box No. 2016A
9/2 Dec 1898 Letters from business associates and friends to JS&S and Mrs Swire on the death of John S Swire, 1 Dec 1898 2016A
9/3 21 Oct 1912 Ms letter to John Swire from C Chung Fatt, compradore SS KINLING at Hankow thanking him for the gift of a hand bag to wife and commenting on his post 2016A

9/4 CLOSED 1984 Nov 1949 Letters from business associates and friends on the death of G W Swire 18 November 1949 Box No. 2016A
9/5 Jan 1955 Letters of congratulation on the appointment 2016A
CLOSED of Adrian Christopher Swire to the Board of
1990 JS&S
9/6 Aug 1961 Letters on the death of Sir John Masson 10 2016A
CLOSED 1996 March 1965
9/7 Mar 1965 Letters on the retirement of J K Swire as Chair- 2016A
CLOSED man and John Swire Scott as Deputy Chair-
2000 man of JS&S and the appointment of J A Swire as Chairman and A C Swire as Deputy Chairman
9/9 Jan 1967 Letters on the appointment of J H Scott to 2016A
CLOSED the Board of JS&S
1962—1967 John Swire and Sons Organisation Papers
A series of files concerning the developments during the 1960’s of Organ isation and Management techniques and the possible application of com puterised systems to the various JS&S companies in the Far East.
10/1 CLOSED 1997 Mar 1962 2 copies of a Survey of Accounting Equipment Requirements for B&S Hong Kong by Urwick, Orr and Partners Ltd Box A37
10/2 Apr 1962 UO&P surveys of Cathay Pacific Airways A37
CLOSED Jun 1964 1999 operations and management systems. Reports Nos 1-6 concerning accounting; budgeting; control of maintenance, repair and spares costs
10/3 CLOSED 1999 Sep 1964 UO&P Survey of Clerical and Accounting Procedures in the London Office A37
10/4 CLOSED 2000 1964-65 UO&P Report on Erig-Mobile operations and systems; with a copy of the Budgetary Control Manual of 1965 A38

10/5 May-Nov Reports by B&S O&M Department on the Box No.
CLOSED 1965 organisation of Cathay Pacific Airways in- A38
2000 eluding the Accounts and Sales Section; Passen-
ger Service Dept; Overseas Purchases; Repair Order Procedures
10/6 Apr-Nov Reports by B&S O&M Dept on the running of A38
CLOSED 1965 CNCo including Stores Assignment; Purchasing
2000 and Stores Dept; General Affairs Dept; Accounts
10/7 Sep 1965 Report by B&S O&M Dept on the Mail Room A38
CLOSED 2000 of B&S Hong Kong
10/8 Jan 1966 Reports by UO&P on B&S Japan, Nos 1:3 A39
CLOSED and the Final Report
w Jan-Feb 2 copies of UO&P Report on Swire and Maclain A39
CLOSED 2001 1966 and a copy of their Recommended Organisation
10/10 Sep 1966 UO&P Survey of the O&M potential in the A39
CLOSED Group (Union House and CPA at Kai Tak
2001 Airport)
10/11 Oct 1966 Urwick Diebold Ltd Report No 1 of Group A40
CLOSED Computer Survey (5 copies) analysing the
2001 computer requirements of the Hong Kong companies
10/12 Jun 1967 UO&P General Survey of the Operations of A40
CLOSED 2002 Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company
10/13 Dec 1967 Recommendation Report by Urwick Diebold A40
CLOSED Ltd for a Reservations Control System for
2002 CPA

Butterfield and Swire, the Far Eastern trading company of John Swire and Sons, was one of three companies established from the partnership of John and William Swire with R S Butterfield. The Shanghai Office opened on 1 January 1867 to handle JS&S textile shipments to China which had previously been consigned to Preston, Bruell & Co. Almost at once the firm’s interests were extended with the acquisition of the agency for Alfred Holt’s Blue Funnel Line and expansion into shipping, insurance and other fields was eventually to lead to the abandonment of textile shipments for which the company had originally been formed. Throughout the Nineteenth Century branches were opened and agencies established in ports in Japan, along the Yangtze River and down the China coast, including in 1870 the Hong Kong office which was accorded equal status with Shanghai. Expansion also took place into South East Asia, Australia and the Philippines until there were B&S offices or agents in most parts of the Far East. Although the partnership with Butterfield was dissolved in 1868 the firm retained its original title and gradually new partners were taken in by John Swire, particularly after his brother’s retirement in 1876.
All JS&S interests in the East were placed under the direction of B&S and all correspondence from the East was conducted through the Hong Kong or Shanghai Head Offices. By the 1930’s, apart from the management of JS&S concerns in the East such as CNCo, TSR etc., B&S also held the important agencies of the Ocean Steamship Co and the China Mutual Steam Navigation Co as well as numerous insurance companies and other companies trading in the East. Despite the serious internal problems affecting China and severe Japanese competition the firm flourished until the Japanese invasion in 1941, when the outports offices and Hong Kong were taken over and closed down and the staff interned. The Shanghai office continued to function into 1942 and some accounts and letters were sent out with the British Embassy staff who were repatriated in the spring of 1942, shortly after the remaining B&S staff were interned. During the war the B&S office at Chungking in Free China took over the remaining Chinese business of B&S while the main B&S presence in the Far East was maintained from Bombay and Calcutta by B&S (India). The Hong Kong and Shanghai Offices were reopened in the autumn of 1945 and the outports gradually as business resumed and B&S property was returned from the Japanese.
Under normal conditions the Hong Kong and Shanghai Head Offices divided the various B&S responsibilities between them, although main-

taining consultation on issues involving both. Shanghai controlled B&S and CNCo branches, business and property in Shanghai, along the Yangtze River and in coastal ports north of Ningpo, as well as the management of the Orient Paint, Colour and Varnish Co and the Tientsin Lighter Co. Hong Kong dealt with B&S and CNCo branches and agencies on the South China coast, in Indo-China, Siam, the Philippines and the Straits, and with the management of the Dockyard and Refinery. It was also the senior Blue Funnel Agency in the East, dealing direct with Holt’s in Liverpool on all matters including the routing of homeward loading vessels, and sending copies of the correspondence to Swire’s in London. Eastern staff postings, pay and leave arrangements for JS&S owned concerns were discussed by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Managers before joint recommendations were sent to London for final decision. The daily running of the firms TD&ECo, TSR and OPCo were, however in the hands of works and factory managers rather than the responsibility of B&S although all overall policy and management recommendations were made and put forward to London by the relevant B&S office.
Both Head Offices were organised on the same basic structure as the London Office; the Outer Office being divided into sections dealing with particular interests and specialities and a Private Office with a Manager and assistants. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Managers wielded considerable power, all communications with London being conducted through them and their opinions were respected by the London Office. J S Swire took first William Lang, the head in Shanghai, and then J H Scott and Edwin Mackintosh as partners and these three men controlled the Eastern end for many years. Lang retired in 1888 and Scott and Mackintosh returned to Britain in the 1890’s and their replacements were not taken in as partners as they had been but later in the Twentieth Century it became practice to appoint one Director from the Eastern staff who had had experience as Manager in Hong Kong or Shanghai.
Almost every record series within the archive contains material relating to B&S, but the groups listed below concern its own particular organisation, mainly for the years 1922-1947. For the Nineteenth Century the JS&S correspondence series (JSSI 1 & 2) cover B&S in detail and the Accounts Books (JSSI 6) contain what evidence remains of the early financial position of the company. The majority of the local Eastern records of B&S offices were lost during the Japanese occupation (see JSSXII 1/6) and the Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century Outports Letters in to the Manager, Shanghai (JSSII 1) are an important, if incomplete, record of the functioning of the B&S organisation within China.1
1 This record series was extensively used and quoted from by Charles Drage in his book ‘Taikoo’ (London 1970).

1883—1906 Butterfield and Swire Shanghai, Private Office Letters In
This section contains a collection of unbound letters addressed personally to the Eastern Manager in Shanghai chiefly from B&S agents stationed in various outports along the Chinese coast and the Yangtze River. All outport business was supervised from Shanghai — except Hong Kong and Canton — and many of the agents preferred to send in unofficial letters to supplement the official reports on the business of their port. For administrative and business reasons this private correspondence was not approved of either in London or Shanghai and after 1906- 7 was actively discouraged. The surviving letters from the Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries do, however, provide an insight into the functioning and relationship of the firm’s organisation in the East of which there is little other evidence. The files of the outport offices as well as those of Hong Kong and Shanghai were lost during the Japanese occupation (1941—45), the only other interportal correspondence remaining being the copies of outports letters forwarded from time to time to London from Hong Kong or Shanghai if of particular interest to the Senior. These can be found for the Nineteenth Century and early Twentieth in JSSI 2, and for 1921 onwards in several of the main correspondence series of John Swire and Sons Ltd firms - particularly B&S (JSSII 2) and CNCo (JSSIII 1&2).
The bundles of letters have been sorted into chronological order and arranged according to the port from which they originated and then arranged geographically into 4 sections:
South Coast Ports B. River Ports
Ningpo Chinkiang
Foochow Nanking
Amoy Wuhu
Swatow Kiukiang
Canton Hankow Ichang Chungking
North Coast Ports D. Other Places
Wei-Hai-Wei Far East
Chefoo London

Jan 1894-Sep 1896 Sep 1896-Oct 1897 Oct 1897 Dec 1897-Jan 1898 Feb 1898-Jul1899 Feb 1900-Jul 1901 Jan-Sep
Oct 1902-Jan 1903 Jan-May
May 1903-Nov 1905
Jan 1898-Jul1900 Jan 1901-Jan 1906
South Coast Ports
4 folders of letters from the B&S agent at Ningpo covering local affairs, both business and political, B&S and CNCo staff property and general organisation affairs and during June and August 1900 the possibility of trouble locally during the Boxer Uprising
From D Nesbitt (54 letters)
From J R Greaves (56 letters)
From D Nesbitt (2 letters)
From A Smith (5 letters)
From J S Saunders (40 letters)
From J S Saunders (29 letters)
From J S Saunders (15 letters)
From F A Turnbull (14 letters)
From G W Sharpies (4 letters)
From T W Lammert (36 letters)
2 folders of letters from B&S agent in Foochow covering local trade and affairs and tea prices From H Baker (38 letters)
From H Baker (22 letters)
Box No. A28
4 folders of letters from B&S agent Amoy covering local affairs and general trade situation B&S business organisation including the com-pradore and European staff health problems. During the summer and autumn of 1900 Cumming writes of the effects of the Boxer disturbances in the area and in September of the Japanese invasion and describes having British forces quartered in the B&S godown

Jun 1886 — Sep 1887 Jan 1898-May 1899 May 1899-Oct 1902 Nov 1902-Apr1905 Apr 1905 -Jan 1906
From N S Orr (10 letters)
From Edward Rose (30 letters)
From D R Law (57 letters)
From Alex Cumming (114 letters)
From H F Burton (24 letters)
From W T Harley (21 letters)
Box No
1883 & 1898-1901
4 folders of letters from Swatow B&S agent on local affairs and B&S and CNCo business.
Jun 1883 Copy of a letter from the Water Front Lot holders to G Phillips, HBM Consul in Swatow for permission to erect wharves
Jan 1898- From R I Dipple (42 letters)
Feb 1899
Mar 1899- From Stuart Smith (128 letters)
Dec 1901
Other papers concerning the development of Swatow 1881-1887 can be found in JSSII 8/3-6
1/5 1897-1898 Canton A23
1 folder of letters concerning local affairs and trade, and plans for the building of a wharf and godowns
Oct 1897- From J R Greaves (9 letters)
Mar 1899
B River Ports
1/6 1898-1900 Chinkiang A25
2 folders of letters from B&S agent Chinkiang covering trade and property in Chinkiang and also Nanking, for which the agent at Chinkiang had responsibility including planning a new branch to be opened there. From March 1900 continual troubles are reported with the com-pradores at Chinkiang and Nanking, and during August G T Edkins an accountant was sent to sort out the financial muddle this had caused

Jan 1898 -Dec 1900
From J Weatherston (113 letters)
1901-1905 Nanking
Box No.
5 folders of letters from B&S agent Nanking concerning the opening of the branch, particularly the property and compradore agreements, the continuous compradore problems and the collapse of the Bund and closure of the port in January 1903
From G T Edkins (50 letters)
From J C Fraser (12 letters)
From H E Meade (5 letters)
From J C Fraser (21 letters)
From G W Sharpies (8 letters)
From Harold Bell (39 letters)
From W Forsyth (8 letters)
Jun 1901-Mar 1902 Apr-Sep
1902 Jan-May
May 1903— Jan 1904 Feb 1904-Jun 1905 Jun-Aug 1905
1900-1905 Wuhu
1 folder of letters concerning local affairs and personal problems of B&S agent in Wuhu
From W Howell (15 letters)
From T W Lammert (9 letters)
Jan 1900-Mar 1901 Mar-Jun 1901
Jun 1901- From George Rose (20 letters) Dec 1905
1897-1902 Kiukiang
4 folders from B&S agent covering local affairs and trade. Only 2 of the letters are dated 1897, the main series begins in 1898 when Arthur Smith was the B&S agent relieved by J Mclsaac
From Arthur Smith or J Mclsaac (53 letters)
From J R Graves (9 letters)
Jan 1897 Mar 1900 Apr-Jun 1900
Jun 1900- From T W Lammert (16 letters) Feb 1901

Mar-Jun From J C Fraser (6 letters)
Jun 1901- From T W Lammert (7 letters) Mar 1902
Apr-Dec From F E Hodges (19 letters)
1/10 1898-1900 Hankow A26
2 folders of letters covering local business and trade; compradore and staff problems, property and during August 1900 brief mentions of the actions of the ‘Reformers’ i.e. Boxers.
For 1898-99 letters from P Wong in Ichang were forwarded to Shanghai through Hankow and these particularly concern the purchase of property in Ichang, the expansion of trade and B&S godowns and the problems of the opium trade
Jan 1898- From Gordon Brown (89 letters)
Jul-Dec From A B Garrick (33 letters)
1/11 1900 Ichang A24
1 folder of letters covering the development of Ichang, the purchase of B&S property and problems of the opium trade, and a few comments on the political troubles
Mar-Oct From P Wong (8 letters)
1903-1904 Chungking A25
Nov 1903- 1 folder of letters from HBM Consulate Chung-Sep 1904 king to A Wright in Shanghai concerning the malpractices of the B&S Chinese agent there -that of September 1904 involving the opium
C North Coast Ports
1/13 1902-1905 Wei-Hai-Wei A31
1 folder containing various letters in to Shanghai from Wei-Hai-Wei mainly from Lavers and Clark, B&S agents there, concerning their business and the Mail Subsidy

1894-1900 Chefoo
3 folders of letters from Cornabd & Co (later Cornabd Eckford & Co) agents for B&S until June 1900 when B&S opened their own office there
Box No. A23
Jan 1894-Sep 1898 Oct 1898 — Mar 1899 Mar-Oct
Oct 1899-Feb 1900 Feb-Jun
1900 Jun-Dec 1900
From P F Lavers (C&Co) (42 letters)
From A M Eckford (C&Co) (13 letters)
From Arthur Anderson (CE&Co) (23 letters)
From W Morton Smith (CE&Co) (8 letters)
From A M Eckford (CE&Co) (10 letters)
From J R Greaves (54 letters)
1894-1906 Tientsin
13 folders of letters from B&S agent Tientsin covering routine B&S and CNCo business and trade, including the problems of the silting up of the Haiho River, compradore problems, and troubles with the Taku Tug and Lighter Co - including a copy of a judgement against B&S in an appeal for damages against TT&LCo (July 1899). Also letters on the political situation in the North affecting trade - including during the Sino-Japanese War July 1894 — 1895; May-September 1900 concerning the Uprising and bombardment of Tientsin and British naval actions; 1904-06 particularly concerning the formation and organisation of the Tientsin Lighter Company
Jan 1894-Jun 1898 Jun 1898-Jun 1899 Jun 1899-Jul1901 Aug-Dec 1901 Jan-May 1903
May 1903-Apr1904 May 1904-Jan 1906
From W Fisher (166 letters)
From Ross Thomson (54 letters)
From W Fisher (129 letters)
From E F Mackay (20 letters)
From E F Mackay (18 letters)
From Alex Cumming (12 letters)
From G T Edkins (33 letters)

1894-1901 Newchang Box No
7 folders of letters from B&S agent covering local affairs and trade and political troubles, including the Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 when a gun-boat was sent to protect the port; relations with the Russians and June 1900 effect of Boxer Uprising on trade in the area and Nesbitt’s own reactions to the dangers of revolution in Newchwang
Jan 1894-Apr1896 May 1896-Dec 1897 Sep 1896-Jan 1897 Dec 1896-Jul 1901 Aug-Dec 1901
From W de St Croix (88 letters)
From Gordon Brown (49 letters)
From W de St Croix in Canton (8 letters) re the bunding at Newchwang From D Nesbitt (66 letters)
From G W Sharpies (12 letters)
Other Places
1896-1905 Far East A27
2 folders of correspondence received in the Private Office, Shanghai from various sources other than B&S offices
1893-1902 From British Consulates and HBM Legation,
Peking. (35 letters) Letters from British official representatives in China outlining policy and reactions to demands by British traders over various conflicts between British and Chinese interests - including the erection of a B&S Hulk at Amoy and the detention of SS HOAN-GHO in 1900
1896-1905 Far East General (43 letters)
Miscellaneous collection of letters from other companies, lawyers, individuals and traders over joint interests. Also from B&S staff on personal and health problems. Correspondence from China, Singapore, Bombay, Australia and Japan
1889-1903 London A27
2 folders of letters received in the Private Office from London

1889-1901 From John Swire and Son (51 letters) Box No.
Mainly from F R Gamwell on B&S affairs, mostly routine rather than policy matters but including observations on Swire’s and general trade affairs
1896-1903 From Mrs F Dowley (18 letters) A35
Letters to J C Bois and A Wright about shares in the Company and dividends paid to her. She was the widow of a B&S employee
1921 — 1946 Butterfield and Swire General Correspondence
This series of soft-backed letter files contains the main official correspondence between B&S Hong Kong and Shanghai offices with JS&S concerning the management of the business in the East. Although specifically dealing with B&S affairs this also includes material on and matters affecting the other JS&S firms managed in the East by B&S, including CNCo; TSR; TD&ECo etc. The files were made up in London and consist of copies of JS&S letters to the East and originals or duplicates of Hong Kong and Shanghai letters in to London, often accompanied by copies of their letters to other agencies and from Japan by copies of their correspondence with Holt’s in Liverpool. The basic layout of the files remains the same throughout the period, although the system of indexing changes in 1930 from a chronological listing, with a subject synopsis, of each letter to a name and brief subject arrangement listed in alphabetical order. (The main correspondence files for all JS&S interests made up in the London Office from 1920—1946 all follow this format.)
1921-22 B&S China and Japan Box No.
2 folders of letters covering general management, coal contracts staff - including the salary and pensions of Chinese employees -Hong Kong and Shanghai affairs, the Amoy Boycott, OSSCo business
27 Jan- To Hong Kong (37 letters)
22 Dec
7 Jan- From Hong Kong (54 letters)
30 Dec
10 Feb- To Shanghai (23 letters)
29 Dec

Box No.
11 Jan- From Shanghai (46 letters) 23 Dec
18 Aug 1921 To Japan (2 letters)
31 Jan 1922
10 Feb & From Japan (2 letters)
6 Jun
27 Oct & 13 Dec To Sundry Ports (2 letters) 1922
19 Jan-28 Dec To Hong Kong (32 letters)
6 Jan-18 Dec From Hong Kong (70 letters)
5 Jan-21 Dec To Shanghai (27 letters)
6 Jan-29 Dec From Shanghai (62 letters)
30 Nov To Japan (1 letter)
22 Feb-30 Dec From Japan (13 letters)
16 Mar To Sundry Ports (1 letter)
17 Mar-8 Jul From Sundry Ports (4 letters)
1923 B&S China and Japan Letters
File covering routine management and administration including staff, and also political aspects of Shanghai and Canton affairs affecting B&S business
4 Jan- To Hong Kong (50 letters)
27 Dec
2 Jan- From Hong Kong (61 letters)
31 Dec
4 Jan- To Shanghai (41 letters)
27 Dec
5 Jan- From Shanghai (66 letters)
21 Dec
7 Aug- To Japan (including re the earthquake at 24 Oct Yokohama on 1 Sept) (7 letters)
2 Jan- From Japan (11 letters)
10 Oct
24 Jul- To Sundry Ports (9 letters)
28 Sep

2/3 1924
15 Jan-12 Dec 9 Jan-19 Dec 3 Jan-12 Dec
11 Jan-24 Dec 8 Jan-
27 May
12 Mar-
28 Apr
2/4 1925
B&S China and Japan
Routine administration, including CNCo affairs and the Insurance Agency business. From Japan re the rebuilding of Yokohama
To Hong Kong (37 letters)
From Hong Kong (85 letters)
To Shanghai (32 letters)
From Shanghai (72 letters)
To Japan (3 letters)
From Japan (7 letters)
Box No. 39
16 Jan-24 Dec 2 Jan-31 Dec 9 Jan-24 Dec 9 Jan-31 Dec 12 Nov-16 Dec 8 May-22 Dec 12 Feb-15 Aug
2/5 1926
B&S China and Japan
Routine management of B&S and Insurance Agency, also re riots, strikes and general political situation as it affected business in Hong Kong and Shanghai. From Japan re OSSCo affairs and Trans-Pacific trade
To Hong Kong (44 letters)
From Hong Kong (146 letters)
To Shanghai (58 letters)
From Shanghai (105 letters)
To Japan (3 letters)
From Japan (15 letters)
To Sundry Ports (4 letters)
B&S China and Japan
Two volumes Jan-June; July-Dec. Apart from routine management of B&S interests this also covers information on political developments affecting Swire’s - of particular interest being a copy of a letter from the British Chamber of Commerce, Canton on the part played by Russian communists in the strike.

The Japanese correspondence is again con- Box No cerned with Trans-Pacific routes
1 Jan- To Hong Kong (21 letters)
18 Jun
1 Jan- From Hong Kong (76 letters)
25 Jun
1 Jan- To Shanghai (15 letters)
30 Jun
4 Jan- From Shanghai (44 letters)
25 Jun
6 Jan- To Japan (7 letters)
30 Jun
16 Jan- From Japan (6 letters)
28 May
13Jul- To Hong Kong (12 letters)
17 Dec
2 Jul- From Hong Kong (45 letters)
31 Dec
20 Aug- To Shanghai (12 letters)
17 Dec
9 Jul- From Shanghai (32 letters)
31 Dec
23 Jul- To Japan (2 letters)
10 Dec
15 Jul- From Japan (4 letters)
1 Nov
1927 B&S China and Japan
Routine management and general affairs, also covering the political situation as it affects Swire’s in the Yangtze region - including copies of letters from ports on the river to B&S Shanghai (from Shanghai). From Hong Kong re local politics including the building of the War Memorial Hospital
20 Jan- To Hong Kong (42 letters)
21 Dec
5 Jan From Hong Kong (76 letters)
30 Dec
7 Jan- To Shanghai (38 letters)
16 Dec
7 Jan- From Shanghai (109 letters)
23 Dec
29 Apr To Japan (1 letter) re safe key

2/9 1930
3 Jan-20 Jun 3 Jan-
27 Jun 3 Jan-
28 Jun
B&S China and Japan
2 Volumes. Routine management from Shanghai political situation in the Yangtze River region and the effect of their trade
London to China (34 letters)
From Hong Kong (26 letters)
From Shanghai (24 letters)
Box No 45
4 Jul-24 Dec 4 Jul-26 Dec 4 Jul-26 Dec 3 Oct 2 Aug-28 Nov 15-22 Aug
2/10 1931
Note-index changes to subject arranged system here
London to China (47 letters)
From Hong Kong (34 letters)
From Shanghai (45 letters)
To Japan (1 letter)
From Japan (6 letters)
To Sundry Ports (2 letters) To Hankow
9 Jan-26 Jun 9 Jan-19 Jun 9 Jan-26 Jun 9 Jan-
8 May
9 Jan-2 Apr
B&S China and Japan
2 Volumes. Routine affairs and local developments in Shanghai and Hong Kong January-June
London to China (51 letters)
From Hong Kong (29 letters)
From Shanghai (41 letters)
To Japan (3 letters)
From Japan (3 letters)
3 Jul-24 Dec 3 Jul-31 Dec
London to China (68 letters)
From Hong Kong (48 letters)

1928 B&S China and Japan
2 Volumes. Routine affairs and discussion of
the compradore system
13 Jan- London to China (45 letters)
29 Jun
6 Jan- From Hong Kong (34 letters)
27 Jun
6 Jan- From Shanghai (51 letters)
29 Jun
20 Mar- From Japan (3 letters)
29 May
13 Jul- London to China (28 letters)
28 Dec
6 Jul- From Hong Kong (30 letters)
20 Dec
3 Jul- From Shanghai (43 letters)
20 Dec
21 Sep To Japan (1 letter)
27 Jul- From Japan (4 letters)
9 Oct
Box No. 43
1929 B&S China and Japan
2 Jan- 2 volumes. Routine affairs January-June London to China (16 letters)
28 Jun 4 Jan- From Hong Kong (28 letters)
28 Jun 4 Jan- From Shanghai (48 letters)
28 Jun Jan From Japan (1 letter)
5Jul- July-December London to China (31 letters)
20 Dec 12 Jul- From Hong Kong (30 letters)
27 Dec 4 Jul- From Shanghai (29 letters)
27 Dec Jul To Japan (1 letters)
Jul- From Japan (3 letters)

3 Jul- From Shanghai (77 letters) 31 Dec
2 Oct To Japan (1 letter)
28 Oct- From Japan (9 letters)
17 Dec
1932 B&S China and Japan 47
Routine business and political developments particularly economies - from HK includes a copy of the Hong Kong Blue Book. ‘The Report of the Retrenchment Commission and Government’s commentary thereon’. Local affairs include the political problems of Shanghai and the River area
8 Jan- To China (95 letters)
9 Dec
12 Jan- From Hong Kong (71 letters)
30 Dec
8 Jan- From Shanghai (88 letters)
30 Dec
16 Mar- To Japan (10 letters)
27 May
20 Jan- From Japan 10 letters)
23 Dec
8 Feb- To Sundry Ports Singapore; Dairen; Bangkok 14 Oct Harbin (4 letters)
1933-34 B&S China and Japan
General business affairs
6 Jan 1933- To China (110 letters)
21 Dec 1934
6 Jan 1933- From Hong Kong (100 letters) 28Decl934
6 Jan 1933- From Shanghai (101 letters)
14 Dec 1934
19 Jan 1934-To Japan (4 letters) 25Janl935
11 Jan 1933- From Japan (21 letters) llDecl934
29Marl934-To Sundry Ports (4 letters) 18Janl935

2/13 1935
4 Jan-
27 Dec 4 Jan-31 Dec 4 Jan-20 Dec
17 May-
28 Sep 7 Feb-23 Oct
18 Jan-10 Sept
2/14 1936
B&S China and Japan
Routine business. From Japan re Japanese situation and Pacific Shipping To China (81 letters)
From Hong Kong (124 letters)
From Shanghai (61 letters)
To Japan (7 letters)
From Japan (15 letters)
To Sundry Ports (4 letters)
Box No 49
3 Jan-24 Dec 3 Jan-31 Dec 3 Jan-30 Dec 14 Feb-27 Nov 6 Feb—
3 Dec 24 Apr-20 Nov 6 Jan-8 Sept
2/15 1937
B&S China and Japan
Routine business of B&S, Blue Funnel Line, Insurance
To China (95 letters)
From Hong Kong (88 letters)
From Shanghai (75 letters)
To Japan (3 letters)
From Japan (6 letters)
To Sundry Ports (2 letters)
From Sundry Ports (6 letters)
1 Jan-24 Dec 8 Jan-24 Dec
B&S China and Japan Letters
Routine business of B&S interests and from Hong Kong and Shanghai letters on the political state in China and its effects on their interests. From Hong Kong comments on the implications of the war with Japan and from Tientsin (In From Sundry Ports) letter re the situation there
To China (83 letters)
From Hong Kong (76 letters)

15 Jan- From Shanghai (125 letters) Box No.
31 Dec
22 Jan- To Japan (4 letters)
24 Dec
29 Jan From Japan (12 letters)
9 Aug From Sundry Ports (1 letter)
1938 B&S China and Japan 5 2
Routine but increasing amount of political commentary in all sections especially from Shanghai re Japanese influence on the Shanghai Municipal Council and in the Yangtze area.
Letters to the East more revealing than previously of British business attitudes to the war and Far Eastern situation
7 Jan- To China (97 letters)
23 Dec
7 Jan- From Hong Kong (86 letters)
29 Dec
7 Jan- From Shanghai (117 letters)
30 Dec
25 Mar- To Japan (5 letters)
19 Aug
22 Mar- From Japan (6 letters)
1 Dec
23 Feb- To Sundry Ports (2 letters)
9 Sept
1939 B&S China and Japan 5 3
Routine business but heavily concerned with war in China and after September with plans for European War conditions. From Shanghai a great deal of material re the situation in the Far East and Japanese relations. See also Shanghai 1939 JSSII 3/1&2; 3/6&7
6 Jan- To China (89 letters)
22 Dec
5 Jan- From Hong Kong (77 letters)
22 Dec
6 Jan- From Shanghai (119 letters)
29 Dec
20 Jan- To Japan (2 letters)
19 May
5 Apr- From Japan (10 letters)
18 Sept
23 Oct To Sundry Ports (1 letter)
2 May- From Sundry Ports (3 letters)
17 Jul

B&S China and Japan Box No
Covers general business affairs up to the Japanese invasion of Shanghai and Hong Kong and the transfer of B&S to Chungking and India for the war period. For 1940 and January to March 1941 Shanghai’s correspondence is filed separately, see JSSII 3/1; 3/3-5; 3/8-12
26 Jan 1940 To China and India (143 letters)
-17 Dec
5 Jan 1940 From Hong Kong and India (120 letters)
-31 Dec
1943 Jan 1940-Nov 1941 from Hong Kong
Dec 1941-Dec 1943 from Australia, then India
14 Feb 1941 From Shanghai and Chungking (61 letters)
-8 Oct 1943 Feb-Nov 1941 from Shanghai
Jan 1942-Oct 1943 from Chungking
2/19 1944-45
CLOSED B&S China and Japan
Correspondence from Bombay and Chungking on the management of B&S, particularly personnel. From Shanghai and Hong Kong after the return in Sept-Oct 1945 re the re-taking and restoration of B&S interests and property
3 Mar 1944-14 Dec 1945 25 Feb 1944 -21 Dec 1945
7 Jan 1944 -21 Dec 1945
To China (82 letters)
From Hong Kong (81 letters)
March 1944-Sept 1945 from Bombay Oct-Dec 1945 from Hong Kong From Shanghai (98 letters)
Jan 1944-Sept 1945 from Chungking Oct-Dec 1945 from Shanghai
Oct 1944- Chungking Reports
Oct 1945 Monthly reports on Chungking affairs and B&S business in China
2/20 1946
B&S China and Japan 407
Routine matters arising from the return to business, repair of plant and property, staff compensation and restoration of trade in the Far East generally. From Hong Kong Port Administration Inquiry Committee

4 Jan-27 Dec To China (21 letters)
3 Jan -20 Dec From Hong Kong (82 letters)
15 Jan-27 Dec From Shanghai (114 letters)
1939-1941 Shanghai Master File
This series consists of twelve bound volumes of copies of letters to and from B&S Shanghai, made up and indexed in Shanghai in May 1941. Letters sent from and received into the Private Office covering all the concerns with which the office dealt were copies and made into individual volumes for convenient reference. The series, therefore, supplements for the years 1939-1941 a number of the correspondence series of particular firms managed by B&S, notably for B&S itself — JSSII 2/17 & 18; B&S Properties JSSII 4/7; CNCo Shanghai JSSIII 2/19 & 20; CNCo Properties JSSIII 4/27; CNCo Accounts Letters JSSIII 5/1 & 2; OPCo JSSIX 1/6 & 7.
The volume JSSII 3/1 covers mainly political and general policy matters, trade and the development of the various companies, while volumes 3/2-12 cover more specific business interests, including staff, equipment etc. Apart from volume 3/1 which being divided by subject has less need of an index, the other volumes contain contents lists arranged under date order of letter with a brief synopsis of the company and subject dealt with. One subject index for the whole of 1940 can be found in 3/3, arranged in alphabetical order and giving the number of relevant letter in each volume - this index covers volumes 3/3 7 4 from London and 3/8—11 from Shanghai. There is no similar index for 1939 or 1941.
3/1 Jul 1939- Shanghai Private Letters Box No.
Mar 1941 . ri 2063
This volume contams ts copies of letters to and from B&S Shanghai and JS&S London concerning all their activities and not just B&S house business. While the other volumes in this series contain firm to firm correspondence this volume consists of letters between the managers or on general political matters rather than purely business management. The file is divided between the different subjects covered by the letters

17 May 1940 Interregnum
-28 Mar u
j24j Interregnum was a code word to be sent by
London should it become necessary for the offices in Shanghai and Hong Kong to take over as the head offices of the firm in event of the serious disruption or complete elimination of the London office. The file contains correspondence on the transfer of authority to the East and discusses the possible developments towards war with Japan in the East
Box No 2063
Managers’ Letters To and From London
21 Jul 1939 From Shanghai
-7 Mar Letters from Mitchell, Manager in Shanghai to
1940 London re staff, general affairs and politics in Shanghai
11 Aug 1939 To Shanghai
-21 Feb Letters from London, JS&S, to Mitchell mainly
1941 dealing with the war in Europe and the firms’ arrangements
Orient Paint, Colour and Varnish Co Managers’ Letters
10 Nov 1939 Shanghai to London
-21 Mar Letters from Mitchell as OPCo Manager to JK 1941 and GW Swire
11 Aug 1939 London to Shanghai
-21 Feb GW and JK Swire to Mitchell
1941 Shanghai Municipal Corporation
Shanghai to London
19 May 1939 Letters from B&S Shanghai to JS&S concerning -28 Mar the composition and balance of power in the 1941 Corporation; Japanese attitudes and behaviour
and the problems of the British business com-
munity and B&S in particular
19 Oct 1939 London to Shanghai
-21 Feb JS&S to B&S Shanghai re attitudes and policies 1941 in Britain affecting their situation in Shanghai
and sending advice, opinions and news
OPCo Staff
7 Jul 1939- Shanghai to London
7 Mar 1941 Mainly concerning the organisation of the factory and its staff
7 Jul 1939- London to Shanghai
7 Feb 1941 Advice on running the factory and information on staff recruited in Britain or on leave Private Sundries 1940-41
12 Jan 1940-Shanghai to London

21 Mar 1941 Mainly letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S concerning general affairs and politics affecting the firm’s interests
26 Jan 1940 London to Shanghai
-21 Feb JS&S to B&S Shanghai re political and general
1941 affairs
Private Sundries 1939
14 Jul- London to Shanghai
24 Novl939
7 Jul- Shanghai to London
Box No.
3/2 7Jul- London to Shanghai
29Decl939 _
333 Letters in bound volume numbered from 398-731; and consisting of copies of letters from JS&S to B&S Shanghai, and also of letters sent jointly to Shanghai and Hong Kong. These letters cover all JS&S interests dealt with in Shanghai, particularly CNCo, B&S itself and OPCo but also including letters concerned with TLCo, TCNCo, TD&ECo, Blue Funnel Agency and general staff and Insurance problems
5 Jan-28Junl940
London to Shanghai
Letters 1-325, copies of JS&S letters to B&S sending instructions on policy and decisions concerning all JS&S interests in Shanghai and China. This volume contains an index for the whole of 1940, covering 3/2-4 and 3/8 — 11, arranged by subject
5 Jul-27 Dec 1940
London to Shanghai
Letters 326-594, copies of JS&S letters to B&S Shanghai continuing correspondence from 3/3
3 Jan-28 Feb 1941
London to Shanghai
Letters 1-132, copies of letters JS&S to B&S Shanghai concerning all their interests in Shanghai and the Yangtze and Northern ports. Some letters addressed jointly to Shanghai and Hong Kong give details of Hong Kong’s interests.

7 Jul-27 Sep 1939
4 Oct-29 Dec 1939
5 Jan-29 Mar 1940
5 Apr-28 Jun 1940
5 Jul-27 Sep 1940
4 Oct-27 Dec 1940
3 Jan-28 Mar 1941
Shanghai to London
Letters 509-731, copies of letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S London, acting as agents for CNCo; general agents for OPCo etc and covering all business management concerns, staff and insurance
Shanghai to London
Letters 732-941, copies of letters from B&S Shanghai to JS&S London again covering all business interests, particularly CNCo and OPCo and concerned with staff, properties and insurance
Shanghai to London
Letters 1-216; copies of letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S London covering all interests in Shanghai and Yangtze and Northern China ports concerning staff, general business, insurance and properties
Shanghai to London
Letters 217-448; copies of letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S London continuing from 3/8
Shanghai to London
Letters 449-603; copies of letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S London concerning all interests
Shanghai to London
Letters 604-795; copies of letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S London covering all interests
Shanghai to London
Letters 1-180; copies of letters B&S Shanghai to JS&S London covering all interests
Box No. 2052

1920—1943 Butterfield and Svwire Property Letters
This correspondence series consists of files)of letters between JS&S and B&S in Hong Kong and Shanghai dealing with all matters relating to the management of B&S property interests, including offices, storage, housing, vessel, hulks, go-downs etc. and theiy repair, maintenance, development, purchase and sale. The Shanghai office handled its own property and that in the Yangtze River ports, alonjg'the North China coast and as far South as Foochow, while Hong Kptffe dealt with its own and that on the coast from Amoy south and JagrSn.
The files were m&fte and indexed on the format of JSSII 2 and for correspondence foi/shanghai 1939-1941 see JSSII 3. Deeds, property registers and othjir legal documents relating to B&S property can be found in JSSIIJyand also in JSSI 6.
B&S Property Letters Box No.
To Hong Kong (8 letters)
From Hong Kong (24 letters)
To Shanghai (58 letters)
From Shanghai (114 letters)
To Sundry Ports (2 letters)
From Sundry Ports (11 letters)
B&S Property Letters 167
To Hong Kong (12 letters)
From Hong Kong (24 letters)
To Shanghai (52 letters)
From Shanghai (106 letters)
To Japan (5 letters)
From Japan (11 letters)
/ 5 Feb 1920-X 50ctl922 / 30Janl920-
1 Jan 1920-
2 Nov 1922 9Janl920-29Decl922 1 Jan 1920-14Decl922 6Janl920-9 Nov 1922
4/2 1923-24
7 Nov 1924
17 Apr-

4/3 1925-26 Property Letters
2Janl925- 24Decl926 To Hong J£ong (25 letters)
9Janl925- From Hon^ Kong (47 letters)
31Decl926 2Janl925- To Shanghai*^ letters)
9Janl925- From Shanghai (95cjetters)
18Augl925- 18Novl926 From Japan (4 letters)
4/4 1927-32 B&S Property Letters
5 Volumes 1927-28
28Janl927- 9Novl928 London to China (25 letters)
21Janl927- From Hong Kong (12 letters)
7 Sep 1928 13Janl927- From Shanghai (63 letters)
14Decl928 1929
11 Jan- London to China (18 letters)
20 Dec 5 Jul& From Hong Kong (2 letters)
6 Sept 4 Jan-6 Dec From Shanghai (34 letters)
1 Nov To Japan (1 letter)
7 Oct- From Japan (3 letters)
4 Dec January—June 1930
3 Jan- To China (16 letters)
20 Jun 28 Feb- From Hong Kong (8 letters)
20 Jun 10 Jan-27 Jun From Shanghai (14 letters)
25 Apr To Japan (1 letter)
25 Apr- From Japan (7 letters)
19 Jun July-December 1930
4 Jul- To China (11 letters)
5 Dec 25 Jul-12 Dec From Hong Kong (9 letters)
Box No. 168

4 Jul- From Shanghai (10 letters)
5 Dec 14 Nov To Japan (1 letter)
4 Jul- From Japan (7 letters)
16 Oct 9Janl931- 1931-32 To China (66 letters)
16Decl932 llJanl931- From Hong Kong (23 letters)
25Novl932 2Janl931- From Shanghai (83 letters)
30Decl932 30Janl931- To Japan (6 letters)
15Aprl932 7Janl931- From Japan (14 letters)
31Mayl932 1933-35 B&S Property Letters
6Janl933- 2 Volumes January 1933-December 1934 To China (91 letters)
28Decl934 6Janl933- From Hong Kong (39 letters)
28Decl933 6Janl933- From Shanghai (120 letters)
14Decl934 17Febl933- To Japan (3 letters)
190ctl934 llJanl933- From Japan (14 letters)
12Novl934 4 Jan- 1935 To China (39 letters)
6 Dec 18 Jan- From Hong Kong (17 letters)
13 Dec 4 Jan- From Shanghai (68 letters)
27 Dec 25 Jan— From Japan (5 letters)
6 Sep 1936-37 B&S Property Letters
Box No.
10Jan 1936- To China (56 letters
10 Jan 1937- From Hong Kong (35 letters)
3 Jan 1936- From Shanghai (85 letters)

13Marl936- To Japan (2 letters) Box No.
13 Feb 1936- From Japan (9 letters)
4/7 1938-46
1981 28Janl938-
13Dec 1946
18Febl938-20 Dec 1946 5Jull940-27Decl946
B&S Properties
To China (109 letters)
Note for letters to Shanghai July 1939-Feb 1941 see JSSII 3/1-5 From Hong Kong (98 letters)
From Shanghai (101 letters)
Note for letters from Shanghai
for 1939 see JSSII 3/1; 6 & 7
for 1940 see JSSII 3/1; 8-11
for 1941 see JSSII 3/1 & 12
1939—1947 Butterfield and Swire Accounts Letters
Series of correspondence files for 1939-47 dealing with the making up of the accounts of the firm in Hong Kong and Shanghai and with financial matters in general. The letters particularly concern staff accounts including salaries and tax and after 1945 the complications arising from interned staff and loss of possessions etc. and in the post war period also the problems of the inflation in Shanghai and Hong Kong and its effect on salaries in particular
1939 House Accounts Letters
6 Jan-29 Dec To China (100 letters)
5 Jan-30 Dec From Hong Kong (95 letters)
6 Jan-29 Dec From Shanghai (155 letters)
Jan-Dec Sundry Correspondence JS&S letters mainly re staff accounts

5/2 1940
5 Jan-
27 Dec
5 Jan-20 Dec
11 Jan-31 Dec
26 Apr-
20 Dec 26 Jan-22 Nov
12 Jan-
6 Dec
5/3 1941
3 Jan-19 Dec 10 Jan-
30 Dec 3 Jan-
28 Nov
31 Jan-24 Oct
7 Feb-
21 Nov 10 Jan-21 Nov Jan-Dec
House Accounts Letters Box No.
To China (116 letters)
From Hong Kong (79 letters)
From Shanghai (92 letters)
Cost of Living Letters
To China (3 letters)
From Hong Kong (13 letters)
From Shanghai (19 letters)
2 Jan-
17 Dec 9 Jan-
18 Dec
8 May 30 Jan-3 Nov Jan-Dec
House Accounts Letters 266
To China (145 letters)
From Hong Kong (152 letters)
From Shanghai (113 letters)
Cost of Living Letters
To China (15 letters)
From Hong Kong (10 letters)
From Shanghai (25 letters)
Sundry Letters
JS&S correspondence with other companies and B&S staff re accounts
House Accounts Letters 267
To Calcutta, Chungking, Australia (132 letters)
From India, Chungking, Freemantle (111 letters)
Cost of Living
To India (1 letter)
From India and Chungking (8 letters)
Sundry Correspondence
JS&S letters particularly re staff accounts

5/5 1943
1 Jan-31 Dec 8 Jan-31 Dec
12 Mar 5 Feb-29 Oct Jan-Dec
7 Jan-22 Dec 7 Jan-22 Dec 4 Feb-
6 Oct Jan-Dec
5 Jan-21 Dec 2 Jan-28 Dec
6 Apr-30 Nov Jan-Dec
5/8 Jan-June
1981 4 Jan-
28 Jun 4 Jan-28 Jun 4 Jan-
28 Jun 25 Jan &
29 Mar
House Accounts Letters Box No
To India and Chungking (69 letters)
From India and Chungking (74 letters)
Cost of Living
To India (1 letter)
From India and Chungking (7 letters)
Sundry Correspondence
JS&S letters with staff and companies, including banks, insurance and Provident Fund
House Accounts Letters 268
To Bombay and Chungking (66 letters)
From Bombay and Chungking (79 letters)
Cost of Living Indices (4 letters)
B&S Bombay to JS&S London
Sundry Letters
JS&S corespondence with staff and other companies
House Accounts Letters 269
To Bombay and Chungking (75 letters)
From Bombay and Chungking (177 letters)
(after September 1945 most of the correspondence is from Hong Kong and Shanghai re the take over from the Japanese)
Cost of Living Indices (4 letters)
Sundry Correspondence
JS&S letters re accounts
House Accounts Letters
To the East (117 letters)
From Hong Kong (108 letters)
From Shanghai (133 letters)
To Bombay (2 letters)
to Shaw Wallace & Co

3 Jan-26 Jun 18 Jan 3Jull945- From Bombay (25 letters) from Shaw Wallace & Co To Chungking (1 letter) From Chungking (11 letters)
Jan-Jun Sundry JS&S letters mainly re post-war staff problems
Jul-Dec 1946 House Accounts Letters
5 Jul-27 Dec To the East (185 letters)
1 Jul-27 Dec From Hong Kong (136 letters)
5 Jul-27 Dec From Shanghai (219 letters)
3 Jul-20 Dec From Bombay (14 letters)
Jan-Dec Cost of Living Indices For Shanghai Dec 1945-Dec 1946 For Hong Kong Mar-Oct 1946
Jul-Dec Sundry JS&S correspondence mainly re staff accounts
1947 Hong Kong Accounts Letters 2 folders covering Hong Kong letters to JS&S January-June
3 Jan-27 Jun To Hong Kong (91 letters)
3 Jan-27 Jun From Hong Kong (94 letters)
3 Jan-30 Apr From Bombay (9 letters)
10 Jan-20 Jun Cost of Living Indices (6 letters)
31Decl946- -Weekly Statements of
27Jun1947 Bank Balances Copy of newspaper report on the Hong Kong Budget July-December
4 Jul-26 Dec To Hong Kong (109 letters)
4 Jul— 26 Dec From Hong Kong (103 letters)
3 Jul— 24 Dec Statements of Bank Balances
25 Jul & 10 Oct Cost of Living Letters
Box No.

5/11 1947 Shanghai Accounts Letters
CLOSED 1982 2 folders of letters between JS&S and B&S Shanghai January-June
3 Jan-27 Jun To Shanghai (57 letters)
3 Jan-27 Jun From Shanghai (120 letters)
17 Jan-30 May Cost of Living Indices
3 Jan-27 Jun Bank Balance Statements
Jan-Jun Sundry July-December
4 Jul-19 Dec To Shanghai (47 letters)
4 Jul-26 Dec From Shanghai (109 letters)
4 Jul— 5 Dec Cost of Living Indices
4 Jul-26 Dec Weekly Statements of Bank Balances
18 Jul-26 Dec Exchange rates
Jul-Dec Sundry
1936—1955 Butterfield and Swire Accounts
Accounts for B&S for the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries can be found entered within the main John Swire and Sons Accounts Books made up in London (see JSSI 7) but only one separate series of House Accounts from the East has survived covering the years 1936—45. The accounts sheets sent to London from Hong Kong and Shanghai vary in content but generally cover most expenditures and earnings of B&S in Hong Kong, Shanghai and outports in China and Japan, including commissions earned from other JS&S firms for whom they acted as agents.
6/1 1936-38 Hong Kong and Shanghai Accounts
2 copies for Hong Kong and Shanghai Hong Kong
Box No. 261

Accounts sheets for 1936; 1937 and 1938 Box No. for expenditures - salaries, property repairs and earnings
Profit and loss accounts, including the costs of the compradore reorganisation scheme
6/2 1936-38 Outports Accounts
2 copies of the accounts sheets from each port - showing expenditures and earnings Amoy
6/3 1940 Hong Kong and Shanghai Accounts 264
House Ledger Balances
For half-year to 30 June 1940
for Hong Kong, Shanghai and outports
Hong Kong Accounts For year ending 31 Dec 1940
Shanghai Accounts
For year ending 31 Dec 1940
Stores Department
Working accounts for Hong Kong and Shanghai
Insurance Ledger Balances For Hong Kong
Insurance Ledger Balances For Shanghai
Blue Funnel Ledger Balances Hong Kong: 31 March; 30 June;
30 Sept; 31 Dec Shanghai: 30 June

6/4 1940 Outports Accounts
Accounts sheets for:
6/5 1940 Japan Accounts
Annual accounts for year ending 31 Dec for Yokohama; Kobe; Osaka
Box No 264
6/6 1941
6/7 1942
6/8 1942-45
6/9 1945
Eastern Accounts
House Ledger Balances
For outports for half year to 30 June
Japan Ledger Balances
For Yokohama for half-year to 30 June Shanghai Accounts
Profit and loss including costs of compradore reorganisation
Blue Funnel Ledger Balances
Hong Kong: 31 March; 30 June;
31 Sept
Shanghai: 30 June
Eastern Accounts
Shanghai Up to July 1942
Chungking To 31 Dec 1942
Indian Accounts
4 folders of working accounts and Balance sheets made up in Bombay by B&S for 1942-45
Hong Kong and Shanghai Accounts
Accounts for the period to the end of 1945 from the re-occupation in the autumn

Hong Kong Box No.
Ledger Balances as at 31 Dec including accounts with London
For Sep-Dec one set of ledger balances were kept for all interests including B&S house accounts for Shanghai and outports
6/10 1952-55
Japan Accounts Vouchers
Sets of vouchers and receipts from the business activities of B&S Japan
Jan 1953 War Compensation Claim
Financial statements supporting the claim for compensation for Japanese property of Swire Gomei Kaisha (B&S Japan)
Jan 1952-Jan 1953 Apr 1952-Jun 1954 Feb 1953 — Apr 1955 Dec 1952-Apr1953 Mar-Sep 1953 Nov 1954-Dec 1955
Vouchers for Kansai Agents House
Vouchers for work and goods for new Osaka office
Kobe Vouchers
General Vouchers
General Vouchers
General Vouchers
1919—1945 Butterfield and Swire Staff
Material relating to the employment and deployment of B&S staff, their welfare, pay and pensions can be found throughout the main B&S correspondence series JSII 2. Specialised staff files were also created, either by B&S or JS&S to deal with particular aspects of staff affairs. In some instances London placed correspondence on particular subjects concerning all or several of their interests in subject files and these can be found in JSSI 5. 5/2—5 cover various staff matters, including the Provident Fund, Agreements and Internees’ problems, with sections devoted to B&S staff. Most of these files are from WWII and post-war period.

1919-1933 Butterfield and Swire Profit Sharing Scheme
Figures relating to the scheme for B&S staff to participate in the profits of the firm for the years 1919;1921;1922;1923;1924; 1928; 1932; 1933. Listing the staff, their length of service, their salaries and the amount due to them
Box No. 2016D
7/2 1941-47
1982 18Decl939—
11 Apr 1941-
7/3 19Aprl944-
CLOSED12 Jan 1945 1980
B&S Staff Endowment Assurance Scheme
Letters to JS&S London from the Guardian Assurance Co Ltd concerning policies of B&S staff
Copies of letters JS&S to Guardian Assurance Co Ltd concerning the renewal of policies and payments to policy holders
Copies of JS&S letters to B&S China re policies
Letters from B&S Hong Kong to JS&S re policies
Letters from B&S Shanghai to JS&S re policies
Alphabetically arranged correspondence with B&S Staff policy holders re their policies and payments
Correspondence between JS&S Ltd and various parties re N S Brown, former member of B&S staff in the Far East and his condition and circumstances in hospital in Britain and subsequent death
1872—1965 Butterfield and Swire Legal Documents
These include a wide range of papers mostly of a legal nature, including leases on B&S property and agreements of various types relating to commercial transactions. One interesting series originated from B&S Swatow and covers the range of that office’s business organisation during the late Nineteenth century.
8/1 29 Feb Power of Attorney for B&S to handle the Box No.
1872 insuring through Lloyds of goods on OSSCo 2016D

8/2 10 Mai River Trade Agreement between B&S, acting
1874 for themselves and CNCo, and Russell & Co,
acting for themselves and as agents of Shanghai
Steam Navigation Co
Box No. 2016D
8/3 1881-1887 B&S Swatow Property Papers
1882 Analysis of Swatow Expenses of Wharf and
24 Feb 1883 Price of hand pump (illegible) proposed for Water Boat
Mar 1883 Displacement of SS CHANGCHOW from Chefoo to Swatow
Mar 1885 Proposed B&S developments within the Bund Scheme - letters re permission
4Junl885 Contract with Chip Sing, builder, for new seawall
18Jan 1886 Letters from B&S Swatow to JS&S re 1885 affairs especially the new Bund and wharf
Jun-Jul Reports of John Whittle on the wharf and pon-
1886 toon at Swatow and the decking for the pon-
toon ‘Tunsin’
Sep-Oct Estimates for cost of repair work required to
1886 Swatow Wharf
18 Nov Contract for new Go-downs and office between
1887 B&S and Mssrs. Chip Sing, builder 1881-1885 Various plans and sketch maps of B&S Go-
downs and wharfs at Swatow
1874-1891 B&S Swatow General Swatow Development
3 Aug 1874
Nov 1882
Sep 1883
22 May 1891
Minutes of meeting of Consul and owners of Water Front lots and agreement reached Letters and reports of the position of the wharf at Swatow
Papers and minutes of meeting of water front owners re proposed Bund Line at Swatow Notification, in Chinese with English translation, by Swatow Hongs concerning the discharge of cargoes at Swatow Wharf Proposed regulations and declaration re the new Bund Line, Swatow
British Consul’s Circular concerning the Front wharfs etc at Swatow
Original Chinese notice, with English translation of the regulations for the importation of rice into Swatow laid out by the Main-in fung Guild

1883-1895 B&S Swatow Trade Agreements
Oct 1884
Nov—Dec 1895
Agreements with Ahing to take over Yueng Sing Fat Hong and continue collection of freight and passengers at Swatow
Agreement with Nguam Hory(?), compradore, to supply coolies to Queensland Extensive correspondence between B&S and various Chinese and British authorities in China re claims of B&S against Kwok Yueng Sing partner in Yueng Sing Hong Letter to B&S Shanghai from Lee Chun Noun, compradore, re discontent of Swatow Shipping Cos with B&S policy
Copy of Swatow Guild’s request to discontinue shipping cargoes
Shipping agreement in in Chinese with English translation — between Swatow Shipping Hongs and JM&Co, Russell & Co & B&S for Swatow-Tientsin cargoes from Oct 1884-Dec 1885 Copy of a letter from Bradley & Co Swatow to Russell & Co Shanghai re Swatow Beancake trade and proposed foreign hong trade agreement
Petition, Evidence and Judgment given by the Acting Consul in the case of JM&Co v CNCo after the collision of SS HANGCHOW, CHEF-OO and WOOSUNG causing the WOOSUNG to collide with and seriously damage JM&Co’s wharf
Letter to B&S Swatow apparently from How-on re security for their compradore
Box No A19A
1882-1886 B&S Swatow Trading Papers
1882 Memorandum on through cargo Chefoo to Hong Kong on OSSCo and Chartered Steamers
1882- 1883 Promissory notes in Circulation in Swatow Jan-Dec Memorandum on risks accepted in the Union
1883 Insurance Society Ltd by B&S Swatow, giving lists of vessels and dates
Apr-Dec Memorandum of vessels from Newchwang to
1883 Swatow
May 1883 Letter re insurance of damaged cargo on SS ROSSLYN
1883- 1885 Sugar Exports from Swatow - 1 page list of
exports in Dec 1885 and for whole year as compared to 1883 and 1884
15 Mar 1884 Letter, Chinese original with English translation from Kwong Kin to Yuen Kin re B&S accounts and book keeping

Nov 1884
1884 30 Apr
2 May 1885
6 Sep 1886
1878 & 1898 1904-09 1910
Aug 1923 — Mar 1924
2 copies of CNCo Tariff of Wharf Charges Swatow Trade Report Balance of Swatow Cash Book
Notice to Swatow compradore not to deliver
inward cargo until freight is paid
Letter from Bois, B&S Swatow to Phillips
HBM Consul Swatow to complain of excessive
Customs charges on cloth imports
Swatow Trade Report
B&S Swatow to Consul Swatow concerning smuggling on the PHRA CHULA CHOM KLAO and the attitude of the Chinese Customs Extensive collection of papers concerning B&S Japan property at No 7 Yokohama Bund including correspondence between JS&S, B&S, solicitors and private parties concerned Arrangement for leasing the property
Legal correspondence re its outright purchase Papers re transfer of part of the site to Asiatic Petroleum Co
Correspondence between B&S Japan and JS&S re the purchase of the B&S Agent’s House at Kobe. With copies of the registration documents
Box No.
1 Oct 1925 - Butterfield and Swire Shipping Codes lSepl963
Copies of B&S Shipping Codes 1925 and subsequent amendments and additions to it -includes codes Nos 190; 191; 192; 194; 195 and lists Nos 1-46 covering 1925-1963
1928 Letter B&S Shanghai to JS&S London sending
a copy of the list of all the title deeds to B&S property contained in the Shanghai Deed Box
23 Jun Copy of Power of Attorney of G W Swire,
1931 J S Scott and J K Swire vesting powers to act
on Pao Foong Insurance Co (Shanghai) busi-
ness on B&S Shanghai
3 Jun Letters from B&S Shanghai to JS&S London
1938 sending a copy of the Pool Agreement they
have negotiated on behalf of the Blue Funnel Line with JM&Co on behalf of the Glen Line to pool agency commissions for 2 years from
1 May 1938

8/13 8 Feb 1940 Duplicate of Agreement between JS&S and Imperial Airways Ltd for B&S to act as agents of IA for the sale of transport accommodation for passengers, baggage and freight in China and Japan Box No. 2016D
8/14 CLOSED 1987 Apr-May 1952 Letters between JS&S and Lancashire Aircraft Corporation arranging for B&S Hong Kong to act as LAC Sales Agents in Hong Kong 2016D
8/15 CLOSED 2000 Mar-Apr 1965 Real Estate Appraised Valuations of B&S Japan property in Yokohama and Tokyo 2016D

By the early 1870s John Samuel Swire was convinced that there was an opening for increased steam shipping on the Yangtze River and as he was unable to interest Holt’s in undertaking this expansion themselves he decided to establish a new company for this. The China Navigation Company was formed in London in 1872 with a capital of £360,000 chiefly put up by JSS and W H Swire with Holt’s, Rathbones, Y H Ismay, R N Dale, John Scott, T Barlow and Mssrs. Imrie and Harrison supplying additional money. JSS initially ordered three ships to be built for the Lower Yangtze trade and in 1873 purchased the Union Steam Navigation Company giving CNCo two ships and the leases on property in Shanghai and at other river ports. By the mid-1870s CNCo interests had spread to the Canton River trade and by the late 1870s to the Shanghai to Ningpo and Shanghai to Tientsin routes, despite periods of intense competition and rates wars as well as pool agreements with the other shipping companies on these routes. In 1883 the CBO, which had been formed to handle local coastal trade was fused with the CNCo and in the 1880s and 1890s the CNCo expanded its fleet and the ports of call so that by 1894 it consisted of twenty-nine ships calling at ports along the Yangtze, down the South China coast, in the Philippines, S E Asia, Australia, Japan, Russia and the North China coast. Despite problems in Far Eastern trade and affairs during the Twentieth Century, including increased nationalist sentiment and anti-foreign campaigns, boycotts, piracy, staff and salary discontent, and disrupted trade routes due to China’s internal civil disturbances, the CNCo fleet continued to operate up to the Second World War and in 1940 was requisitioned by the British Government for the duration of the conflict. In the autumn of 1945 CNCo returned to Hong Kong and Shanghai and gradually requisitioned shipping and property seized by the Japanese was restored and normal working resumed.
B&S were appointed from the formation of CNCo as Eastern Managers, all correspondence with JS&S, the London Managers being conducted by the offices in Hong Kong and Shanghai. While Shanghai was responsible for the CNCo business on the Yangtze River and the North China Coast (from Ningpo north), Hong Kong handled the south coast and Canton trade and all the South East Asian, Australian and Philippines routes. In many ports the B&S agent acted for CNCo although in some places a sep-

arate CNCo office might be established and in the Philippines, Australia and S E Asia, where there were no B&S offices, independent agents were employed.
The records listed below are primarily Twentieth Century series (from 1922-1947) and are very full. The accounts and legal papers go back as far as the formation of the Company and the accounts are particularly good, although incomplete— the years 1918—1936 being entirely unrepresented. For the Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century CNCo affairs are covered in the JS&S records (JSSII and 2) and the B&S agents outport letters (JSSII I) for the 1890s and early 1900s also concerned CNCo business. Many of the sections of JS&S records (JSSI) and of B&S series (JSSII) also have material relating to CNCo interests throughout the period.
1921—48 Hong Kong General Letters
Correspondence files containing copies of letters from JS&S London to B&S Hong Kong and from B&S HK to London made up in the same format as the B&S correspondence series in JSSII 2. This series also has a similar indexing system which changes from a basic chronological order to a subject one in 1931.
The files cover a wide range of aspects of basic management of the Company; including the registration, fitting, equipment, repair and overhaul of the steamers. Accidents, staff, routes, pool agreements and general problems of the running of the line and Chinese trade conditions. Letters concerning CNCo Property and Accounts are filed separately and can be found in JSSIII 4 and JSSIII 5 respectively.
1921-22 Hong Kong General Letters
6 Jan- 4 folders of letters covering all aspects of the running of the steamers. January to June 1921 (40 Letters) To Hong Kong
30 Jun 7 Jan- From Hong Kong (85 Letters)
24 Jun 7 Jul July-December 1921 To Hong Kong (79 Letters)
29 Dec 1 Jul- From Hong Kong (116 Letters)
30 Dec

January-June 1922
5 Jan- To Hong Kong (58 Letters)
29 Jun
6 Jan- From Hong Kong (135 Letters)
30 Jun
July-December 1922 6Jul- To Hong Kong (60 Letters)
28 Dec
6 Jul- From Hong Kong (167 Letters)
30 Dec
1923 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering general trade and management of the steamers and also from Hong Kong on conditions for trade in Hong Kong itself, particularly re strikes
4 Jan- To Hong Kong (40 Letters)
26 Jun
8 Jan- From Hong Kong (137 Letters)
25 Jun
3 Jul- To Hong Kong (62 Letters)
27 Dec
2 Jul- From Hong Kong (143 Letters)
31 Dec
1925 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering routine management, and the political situation in Hong Kong. A new section is added also for letters to Hong Kong from CNCo agents in Bangkok
2 Jan- To Hong Kong (73 Letters)
19 Jun
2 Jan- From Hong Kong (168 Letters)
26 Jun
27 Jan- Interportal (23 Letters)
17 Jun Correspondence with Borneo Co Ltd
10 Jul- To Hong Kong (64 Letters)
18 Dec
3 Jul- From Hong Kong (126 Letters)
25 Dec
Jul-Dec Interportal (2 Letters)
Box No.

1926 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering general business and the political situation, also letters re the training of Chinese wireless operators
1 Jan- To Hong Kong (58 Letters)
25 Jun
1 Jan- From Hong Kong (138 Letters)
25 Jun
2 Jul- To Hong Kong (50 Letters)
31 Dec-
2 Jul- From Hong Kong (157 Letters)
31 Dec
1927 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering routine management of the steamers and trade, general trade conditions and particularly the problems of piracy January-June
7 Jan- To Hong Kong (35 Letters)
24 Jun
7 Jan- From Hong Kong (120 Letters)
24 Jun
21 Jan- Interportal (5 Letters)
31 May
8 Jul- To Hong Kong (39 Letters)
30 Dec
1 Jul- From Hong Kong (100 Letters)
30 Dec
1928 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering routine business, Hong Kong conditions and the Japanese boycott. Particularly letters concerning the incidence of piracy-including that against the CNCo vessel SS ANKING- and a section devoted to letters with Mansfield & Co about piracy and its prevention
13 Jan- To Hong Kong (44 Letters)
29 Jun
6 Jan- From Hong Kong (82 Letters)
29 Jun
Box No 63

27 Apr- Interportal (13 Letters)
29 Jun
13 Jul— To Hong Kong (60 Letters)
28 Dec
6 Jul- From Hong Kong (104 Letters)
27 Dec
13 Nov- Piracy (7 Letters)
31 Dec Letters in to JS&S from Mansfield & Co, Singapore
6 Jul- Interportal (28 Letters)
20 Dec
Box No.
1929 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering general business and piracy
4 Jan- To Hong Kong (57 Letters)
28 Jun
4 Jan- From Hong Kong (94 Letters)
28 Jun
4 Jan- Interportal (24 Letters)
28 Jun
5 Jul- To Hong Kong (95 Letters)
20 Dec
5 Jul- From Hong Kong (128 Letters)
27 Dec
10 Jul- Interportal (25 Letters)
27 Dec
1930 Hong Kong General Letters
1 folder covering general trade etc and piracy. January-June
3 Jan- To Hong Kong (107 Letters)
27 Jun
3 Jan- From Hong Kong (104 Letters)
27 Jun
3 Jan- Interportal (25 Letters)
26 Jun
1/9 1930 Hong Kong General Letters

1 folder covering routine business affairs, trade competition and piracy. Interportal contains letters with Mansfield re Singapore and immigration policies
4 Jul- London-China (80 Letters)
24 Dec
4 Jul- From Hong Kong (128 Letters)
26 Dec
3 Jul- Interportal (30 Letters)
26 Dec Borneo Co, Bangkok and Mansfield & Co, Singapore
Box No
1931 Hong Kong General Letters
1 folder covering general CNCo business and organisation and economies to be effected during the Depression
2 Jan- To China (61 Letters)
26 Jun
2 Jan- From Hong Kong (115 Letters)
26 Jun
2 Jan- Bangkok (25 Letters)
24 Jun Borneo Co
26 Feb- Singapore
6 May Mansfield & Co
1931 Hong Kong General Letters
1 folder covering general CNCo business and a copy of a report by Mansfields on Western Malaya after a tour by their representative with comments on the compradore system
3 Jul- To Hong Kong (44 Letters)
24 Dec
2 Jul- From Hong Kong (92 Letters)
31 Dec
2 Jul- Interportal (27 Letters)
29 Dec
1/12 1932 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering routine business and economies to be made. Also letters discussing the problems created by smuggling on CNCo vessels and relations with the Chinese customs, including the attitude of and pressures to be put on the

Colonial Office. Details of the efficiency and modifications to be made to some of the steamers
1 Jan- To Hong Kong (51 letters)
24 Jun
8 Jan- From Hong Kong (98 Letters)
24 Jun
1 Jul- To Hong Kong (40 Letters)
30 Dec
1 Jul- From Hong Kong (55 Letters)
30 Dec
7 Jan- Interportal (53 Letters)
29 Dec Includes weekly reports on CNCo steamers movements on Swatow-Bangkok route
1933 Hong Kong General Letters
1 folder covering routine business affairs.
1 Jan- To Hong Kong (59 Letters)
22 Dec
6 Jan- From Hong Kong (99 Letters)
29 Dec
5 Jan- Interportal (30 Letters)
29 Dec
1934 Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering general management, trade and prospects on all Southern routes, including the Singapore trade
4 Jan- To Hong Kong (29 Letters)
29 Jun
5 Jan- From Hong Kong (49 Letters)
29 Jun Interportal (26 Letters)
4 Jan— Weekly Borneo Co reports
28 Jun
13 Jul- To Hong Kong (35 Letters)
28 Dec
6 Jul- From Hong Kong (60 Letters)
28 Dec
6 Jul- Interportal (28 Letters)
28 Dec
Box No.

1/15 1935
4 Jan-21 Jun 4 Jan-28 Jun
Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering general business, trade conditions etc
To Hong Kong (29 Letters)
From Hong Kong (82 Letters)
Box No 74
5 Jul-20 Dec 5 Jul-27 Dec 3 Jan-20 Dec
1/16 1936
To Hong Kong (30 Letters)
From Hong Kong (68 Letters)
Swatow/Bangkok Steamer Movements
3 Jan-19 Jun 3 Jan-26 Jun 26 Dec 1935-23 Jun 1936
Hong Kong General Letters 2 folders covering routine management
To Hong Kong (31 Letters)
From Hong Kong (81 Letters)
Swatow-Bangkok (22 Letters)
10 Jul-24 Dec 3 Jul-24 Dec 3 Jul-28 Dec
1/17 1937
To Hong Kong (26 Letters)
From Hong Kong (48 Letters)
Swatow-Bangkok (20 Letters)
8 Jan-25 Jun 1 Jan-25 Jun
Hong Kong General Letters
2 folders covering general trade and business management
To Hong Kong (27 Letters)
From Hong Kong (75 Letters)

jssiii 1
4 Jan-22 Jun Swatow-Bangkok (17 Letters) July-December
2 Jul-31 Dec To Hong Kong (45 Letters)
2 Jul-31 Dec From Hong Kong (45 Letters)
2 Jul-18 Dec Swatow-Bangkok (14 Letters)
1/18 1938 Hong Kong General Letters 1 folder covering routine business and trade, including discussions on the extension of CNCo trade outside China
7 Jan-30 Dec To Hong Kong (60 Letters)
5 Jan-29 Dec From Hong Kong (167 Letters)
14 Jan-23 Dec Swatow—Bangkok (26 Letters) No 1939 Letter files survive.
1/19 1940 Hong Kong General Letters 1 folder (on the cover of the file it refers to Master Files for additional letters- presumably the Shanghai Master File series which contains letters directed to B&S Shanghai and Hong Kong jointly). The letters from Hong Kong contain some interesting comments on the trade and prospects in the Pacific
5 Jan-13 Dec To Hong Kong (19 Letters)
5 Jan 27 Dec From Hong Kong (168 Letters)
1/20 1941-42 Hong Kong General Letters
CLOSED 1978 1 folder covering correspondence to Hong Kong up to December 1941 and continuing with CNCo business staff affairs from India
7 Feb 1941-5 Jun 1942 To China and India (53 Letters)
Box No.

3 Jan 1941-27 Nov 1942 From Hong Kong, Australia & India Box No.
1/21 1943-46 Hong Kong General Letters 408
CLOSED 1981 1 folder covering CNCo business through India and then the return to Hong Kong in September 1945 and the resumption of trade there and in other parts of China, including assessments of the damage caused to CNCo property by the Japanese

19 Feb To India and Hong Kong (132 Letters)
1943-27 Dec 1-19 to Bombay, up to Sept 1945 20-132 to
1944 Hong Kong
22 Jan From India and Hong Kong 1-30 from Bombay
1943-27 Dec 1945 31-211 from Hong Kong
1/22 1948 Hong Kong General Letters 511
CLOSED 1983 Jan-Jun 1 folder covering all aspects of CNCo business and trade in China, including the diversification of the firm’s interests
2 Jan- To Hong Kong (97 Letters)
25 Jun 2 Jan-25 Jun From Hong Kong (148 Letters)
1921 -46 Shanghai General Letters
Correspondence files containing copies of letters from JS&S London to B&S Shanghai and theirs to London, on the same format as the Hong Kong series and with the same type of indexes.
The files cover the Shanghai side of the CNCo organisation, including Shanghai itself Northern Chinese trade and the Yangtze River. For 1940 and 1941 the main series of letters are to be found in the Shanghai Master Files. (JSSII 3)