Papers relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs 1860-1943

Material Information

Papers relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs 1860-1943
Abbreviated Title:
Papers relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs 1860-1943, in the Library of the School of Oriental & African Studies
SOAS University of London. Library
University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies. Library
Place of Publication:
SOAS, University of London
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
[ii], 13 p ; 22 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
China. Hai kuan tsung shui wu ssu shu -- Bibliography -- Catalogs ( LCSH )
China. Hai kuan tsung shui wu ssu shu ( LCSH )
China. Hai kuan tsung shui wu ssu shu -- Archives -- Catalogs ( LCSH )
China. Maritime Customs Service -- History -- Sources
China. Hai kuan tsung shui wu ssu shu -- History Sources ( LCSH )
China. Maritime Customs Service
中國.‏ 海關總稅務司署
Temporal Coverage:
1860 - 1943
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China
亚洲 -- 中国
亞洲 -- 中國
35 x 103

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
Copyright, SOAS University of London 1973
Resource Identifier:
192677 ( ALEPH )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

Papers relating to the

Papers relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs
The following changes have been made to the reference codes for certain collections:
HART (Sir Robert) PP MS 67
BOWRA (Edward Charles Macintosh) PP MS 69 BOWRA (Cecil Arthur Vemer)
MAZE (Sir Frederick) PP MS 2

1860 - 1943
in the Library of the
School of Oriental &
African Studies
The Library 1973

The Library of the School of Oriental and African Studies now possesses several collections of paper and individual manuscripts which relate to the history of the Chinese Maritime Customs. Brief handlists of the collections have been made and distributed selectively to interested persons, but it seems appropriate now to give the collection somewhat wider publicity.
The papers are here listed in chronological order and brief notes are given on their provenance.
The School is particularly grateful to those persons who have deposited or who have facilitated the deposit of manuscripts in the Library, and especially to Lady Maze, Mr E. F. Aglen, Mr B. Foster Hall, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Librarian of the Foreign and Common wealth Office, and the Keeper of the Public Records for their help and co-operation.
Naturally I shall always be interested to hear of any other manuscript collections relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs, and the Library will always be ready to give advice to anyone wishing to deposit similar manuscripts in a suitable place.
School of Oriental & African Studies
Malet Street London WC1E 7HP
B. C. Bloomfield Librarian
January 1973
Note: The cover photograph is taken from the Bowra papers and shows the Customs staff at Newchwang in 1903.

A FITZROY (George H. ) MS English 258361
Manuscript letter book. Shanghai, 16 November 1860 - 25 May 1863. pp. 104.
Purchased 1971.
_B HART (Sir Robert) MS English 191931
Correspondence between Sir R. Hart and his personal representative J. D. Campbell, 1868 - 1906.
7 boxes.
The papers were deposited through the good offices of Mr B. Foster Hall of Tunbridge Wells (himself a retired member of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs) in December 1965. They had previously been left for safe custody with the London Branch of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation since 1942. The original order of the papers has not been disturbed but they have been arranged in separate envelopes in the following order:
Hart to Campbell
Letter Series Z
10. 11. 12.
1-73 (6 June 1879 to 28 April 1882)
74-161 (11 June 1882 - 11 February 1884)
162-219 (17 February 1884 - 31 May 1885) 220-315 (7 June 1885 - 2 November 1887)
316-392 (16 November 1887 - 26 May 1889) 393-481 (2 June 1889 - 5 April 1891)
482-536 (19 April 1891 - 31 July 1892)
537-593 (6 August 1892 - 24 September 1893) 594-673 (1 October - 18 August 1895)
674-736 (25 August 1895 - 7 January 1891) 740-788 (24 January 1897 - 27 March 1898) 789-844 (3 April 1898 - 3 January 1900)
845-896 (14 January 1900 - 28 July 1901)
897-921 (15 August 1901 - 9 February 1902) 922-967 (8 March 1902 - 26 April 1903)
968-1002 (10 May 1903 - 25 January 1904) 1003-1050 (7 February 1904 - 12 March 1905) 1050[sic]-1102 (19 March 1905 - 14 October 1906)
Letter Series Z: Private [?]
Some of these letters are un-numbered, some sections are marked ’Private’ and some are not.
19. 12 letters (7 October 1868 - 27 May 1869)
20. 24 letters (2 May 1870 - 6 April 1872)
21. 9 letters (13 March 1872 - 28 July 1872)
22. 35 letters (6 September 1872 - 6 December 1873)

23. 1-46 ’Private’ (24 February 1874 - 22 February 1877)
24. 1-21 (5 April 1877 - 16 February 1878)
25. 1-57 (12 May 1878 - 19 January 1879)
Letter Series A: Semi-Official
26. 1-50 (20 January 1874 - 23 February 1878)
[With six preliminary letters]
27. 1-71 (6 May 1879 - 24 May 1898) [With two preliminary letters]
28. [4? ]-8 (22 November 1903 - 20 May 1906]
Bundle III, The Chinese Fleet
29. 11 pieces and inventory (1876-1894)
Campbell to Hart
Letter Series Z
30. 1-55 [copies] (1 May 1874 - 25 May 1877)
31. Papers and correspondence regarding the papers. 6 pieces.
HART (Sir Robert) MS English 211081
Typescript copies of his letters to Sir Francis Arthur Aglen. Peking, 26 November 1888 - 14 September 1911.
ff. 192, 45
Presented by Mr E. F. Aglen in November 1967. The whereabouts of the originals is unknown.
_D HART (Sir Robert) MS English 211351
Typescript copies of his correspondence with J. D. Campbell. Peking, letter series Z, nos. 947 - 1102, 3 January 1903 -14 October 1906, With an abstract of letter series Z, nos. 1103-1119, 28 October 1906 - 29 September 1907.
ff. [48], 136, 147, 12
Presented by Mr E. F. Aglen in December 1967. The whereabouts of the originals is unknown.
_E CAMPBELL (James Duncan) MS English 211353
Copies of his correspondence with Sir Robert Hart. London, letter series Z, nos. 1125 - 1564, 5 August 1898 -21 December 1906.
2 vols.
Presented by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in December 1967.

F BOWRA (Edward Charles Macintosh» and
BOWRA (Cecil Arthur Verner) MS English 201813
Papers relating to the family and its service with the Chinese Maritime Customs, 1840 - 1966.
4 boxes; 1 loose-leaf folder; 7 vols.
The papers were deposited by Brigadier E. V. Bowra, with the consent of Sir C. M. Bowra, in February 1967. They were used by Commander Charles Drage as the basis for his book Servants of the Dragon Throne (Peter Dawnay, 1966). The papers have been arranged in the following order:
Edward Charles Macintosh Bowra (1841 -1874)
1. One folder containing Manuscript letter to Edward Bligh, Caserta,
1860, pp. 4; a typescript copy of this letter; original Italian army discharge, 27 November 1860, with covering letter; miscellaneous notes on the Bowra family genealogy, etc..
2. With Garibaldi in 1860, edited by Professor T. Okey. In: Cornhill magazine, vol. lxvii, 399 n. s., September 1929, pp. 365-82.
3. One folder containing Manuscript letters to his family, 1863-1874.
(With annotations by Drage)
4. Thirza Bowra (nee Woodward). One folder containing Manuscript letters to her family, 1864-1871. (With annotations by Drage)
5. Thirza Bowra (nee Woodward). One folder containing Typescript copies of some of the preceding letters with notes by Drage for his book
6. Manuscript diary, 20 March - 24 December 1863. pp. 168. (Describing the voyage to China and first experiences in Tientsin and Shanghai)
[Items 1-6 are shelved in the first pamphlet box in the collection]
7. Loose-leaf folder containing a typescript copy of the preceding item, pp. 84.
8. Manuscript diary of the Chinese Mission [to Europe], 2 May -27 July 1866. pp. 38.
9. Book of press-cuttings associated with the Chinese Mission to Europe, 1866.
10. Pin-ch’un. A Chinese Commissioner’s foreign tour. In: Cornhill magazine, vol. xxi, 1870, pp. 578-94.
11. Copy of Freedom of the City of London, 18 December 1840.
1 scroll in box.
12. Group photograph. [Canton, 1864? ]

13. Four Bowra family photographs. (Used by Drage to illustrate his book)
[Items 8-13 are shelved in the second pamphlet box in the collection]
14. Book of miscellaneous newspaper cuttings, c. 1865-1873, titled ’Translations of edicts, etc’.
15. One folder containing Correspondence, copies of official letters, newspaper cuttings, and other material relating to the career of E. C. M. Bowra, 1863-1873. [Probably collected c. 1916? ]
[Items 14-15 are shelved in the third pamphlet box in the collection]
Cecil Arthur Verner Bowra (1869-1947)
16. A genealogical collection relating to the family of Bowra (also Bowrer, Boorer, Borer, Boarer, etc). 1931. (One table loosely inserted inside rear cover.)
17. Memorials of the Bowra family, part I: early history [1931], pp. [iii], 58, ix. (Typescript extra-illustrated with postcards. Genealogical tables.)
18. Memorials of the Bowra family, part II: Edward C. M. Bowra, his life in China and elsewhere. [1928]. pp. 18, 33, 20, 50. (Typescript extra-illustrated with photographs, drawings and orginal letters.)
19. Memorials of the Bowra family, part III: [memoirs of C. A. V. Bowra, 1874-1932]. 3 vols. (Typescript extra-illustrated with press-cuttings, original letters and photographs, and postcards. There are additions subsequent to 1932.)
20. Photograph album of China and Japan, c. 1886-1903.
21. Positive microfilm copy of item 19 above, made by the National Library of Australia. 1962.
22. Correspondence with regard to the career of Samuel Woodward,
13th regiment of foot c. 1823. June-September 1943.
23. Imperial decree awarding ’promotion in three civil ranks to 3rd class 1st grade with ’Pao Hsing’ (Precious Star) decoration’. Hsing series no. 2525. 1904. With translation, pp. 2.
24. One folder containing offprint of an article, and other material relating to Sir Robert Hart. 1906-17.
25. Memorandum of service with the Chinese Maritime Customs. 1923. pp.4.

26. Commander C. Drage. Servants of the Dragon Throne. 1966.
[Items 21-26 are shelved in the fourth pamphlet box in the collection!
ACHESON (Guy Francis Hamilton) and
BOWRA (Cecil Arthur Verner) MS English 211354
Correspondence with Sir F. A. Aglen. London, letter series Z, nos. 309 - 386, 7 January 1921 - 23 December 1924.
1 voI. unfoliated
Presented by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in December 1967.
JI AGLEN (Sir Francis Arthur) MS English 211355
Confidential correspondence with G. F. H. Acheson and C. A. V. Bowra. Peking, 2 January 1921 - 7 June 1926. With five later letters by A. F. H. Edwards, 3 July 1926 - 28 August 1926.
1 vo I. unfoliated
Presented by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in December 1967.
I_ MAZE (Sir Frederick) MS English 285232
Papers of Sir Frederick Maze relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs, 1900-1943.
65 vols.
Presented by Lady Maze in November 1959. The following list was compiled by Miss V. Adams.
Sir Frederick Maze was bora in Belfast. He entered the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs at the closing period of Sir Robert Hart's regime, was acting Audit Secretary at the Inspectorate General, Peking, 1899; Acting Commissioner, Ichang, 1900; Deputy Commissioner, Foochow, 1901; Deputy Commissioner, Canton, 1902-4; Commissioner, Kongmoon, 1904-6; Tengyueh, 1906-8; Canton, 1911-15; Tientsin, 1915-20; Hankow, 1921-25; Shanghai, 1925-29; Deputy Inspector General, October, 1928; Inspector General, 1929-1943.
The papers consist of:
I Confidential Letters and Reports, etc. 22 volumes, mainly covering the years 1926 - 1943.
Confidential Letters, etc. 3 volumes. 1882 - 1923 and 1940 - 41. Miscellaneous correspondence. 1 volume. 1929 - 1930.
Letter Books. 2 volumes. 1900 - 1905.
II Semi-official Letters. 9 volumes. 1904 - 1928.
4 volumes of despatches, etc. on connected subjects.
Inspector General's Semi-official Circulars. 1 volume. 1911 - 1933.

Ill Inspector General’s Personal Correspondence. 10 volumes. 1937-1941. Inspector General’s Personal Correspondence with Non-resident Secretary in London. 3 volumes. 1939-1940.
Inspector General’s Personal Correspondence with British Embassy.
7 volumes. 1938-1940.
Note: Only a general indication of the contents of the volumes is given.
Letters are arranged in chronological order, not grouped according to subject.
Correspondence on subjects not of general interest, e. g. models of Chinese junks is omitted in this List. Reference should be made to the Subject Index (Volume 23) of Confidential Letters and Reports, etc. (Chinese junks, however, also appear passim in Inspector General's Personal Correspondence.)
Vol. I 1900-1928. Annual Trade Reports: Ichang Upper Yangtze 1900, Kongmoon West River 1904-5, Tengyueh Burma Frontier 1906-7, Canton 1911, 12, 13, 14, Tientsin 1915, 16, 17, 18, 19, Hankow 1921, 22, 23, 24, Shanghai 1925, 26, 27, 28.
Vol. II January 1926-December 1928. Control of revenue by Customs Inspectorate. Tonnage Dues question. Tariff reforms of Nanking Government. Prohibition of illicit use of opium. Foreign Exchange Bankers Association: Dollar v. Tael. Proposal to make dollar standard coin. Shih Shih Hsiu Pao on Edwardes as Inspector General. Shanghai Harbour Board. Appointment as Inspector General.
Customs staff: regulations.
Vol. Ill January 1929-January 1930. Refutation of foreign press reports
about the Service. Revision of rules and conditions for staff. Inspector General’s policy of non-intervention in Chinese politics; attitudes of F. O. and British Legation. Native Customs placed under Inspector General's control. Explanations to Arnold Toynbee and others of position of Customs.
Vol. IV January 1930-July 1930. Attitude of China Association. National situation: split in Kuomintang. Extracts from China Association A. G. M. Satisfactory Customs position Hongkong Customs Agreement and suppression of piracy. Seizure of Tientsin Customs by Northern Alliance. Impasse. Reports on Tientsin Affair.
Vol. V August 1930-June 1931. Attitude of British Legation to Inspectorate. Negotiations in Tientsin; memo, on impasse; Inspector General's policy. Authority restored. Collapse of Hongkong Agreement. General

political situation. Present and past position of Customs. Question of Chinese in British Navy. Mistakes of Sir Francis Aglen. Canton Revolt.
Vol. VI June 1931-March 1932. Customs arrangement with Canton. Maze’s relations with previous Inspector Generals. Floods on Yangtze. Sino-Japanese situation. Reopening of Hongkong discussions. Administration of Service. Chinese Government and Inspector General’s position. Award of K. B. E. Japanese bombardment of Nanking.
Vol. VII April 1932-December 1932. Seizure of Manchurian Customs by
Japanese. Developments in Sino-Japanese situation. Report on Yangtze floods. Recrudescence of smuggling. Control of Yangtze lights question.
Vol. VIII November 1932-April 1933. Improvement of navigation at Tientsin. Yangtze lights question. Smuggling at Hongkong. Canton politics. Japanese representation at Inspectorate. Future of Inspectorate system.
Vol. IX June 1934-June 1935. Increased import tariff. Dyke-building on Yangtze. Visit of T. V. Soong to London. Yangtze lights. Shanghai Harbour development. Manchukuo: Sino-Japanese relations. Fukien revolt.
Vol. X February 1934-June 1935. Arrangements for International Loan.
Abolition of interport duties. Japanese at the Inspectorate. Improvement of navigation at Tientsin.
Vol. XI July 1935-March 1936. China’s foreign trade. Employment of
foreigners in Customs. Financial situation of Government. Political confusion in North. Japanese attitude towards Customs and Inspector Generalship.
Vol. XII April 1936-October 1936. Plans for port at Whampoa. The Salt Administration. Smuggling in North China; preventive forces.
Currency reforms. Tientsin Customs situation.
Vol. XIII November 1936-December 1939. Prevention of smuggling at
Tientsin. European situation. Use of firearms by Customs employees. Question of future Inspector General. Interview with Governor of Bank of England: Chinese loans and Sino-Japanese situation. Expected attitude of new Nanking Government. Japanese attempt to take over Kowloon Customs.
Vol. XIV January 1940-December 1940. Reopening of Yangtze to foreign
trade. Navigability of Whangpoo river. Japanese Customs employees. Establishment of Wang Ching-wei’s regime at Nanking. Situation of Customs 1937-40.

VoUXV February 1941-June 1943. Sino-Japanese relations. Lighting of Amherst Rocks. Japanese advances in the Far East. Withholding of Inspectorate allowance (Sept. *41). Treatment of Customs staff in occupied areas. Maze’s arrival in Chungking (Dec. *42). Plans for post-war Customs development. Land-tax reform. Retirement of Maze.
Vol, XVI July 1943-January 1945. (From Durban). Deterioration of position of foreigners in Customs. Conservancy questions. Internment of Customs staff in concentration camps. The London Office archives.
Vol. XVII 1927-1934. Cuttings, articles, notes, etc. on: China general,
trade, revenue; Shanghai general. Harbour, Harbour Board, Hankow; Canton; Peking; Manchuria Sino-Japanese dispute, Sino-Japanese hostilities; Singapore; miscellaneous.
Vol. XVIII 1918-1931. The Chinese Maritime Customs Service; Customs Levies; Surtax on Tonnage; Loans on Customs; Conservancy;
Shengko fees; Tientsin; Preventive, lights, meteorological services; Customs Houses; the Hongkong Customs Agreement.
Vol. XIX Customs Staff Sir Robert Hart; Sir Francis Aglen; A. H. F. Edwardes; Sir Frederick Maze; Commissioners; foreign staff; Chinese staff; Japanese staff.
Vol. XX 1900-1947. Miscellaneous Letters to: Sir Robert Hart, 1901-2. Accounts, Inspectorate offices; Sir Francis Aglen, 1912-1926.
Staff affairs, Wu Pei-fu, national loan service, political situation (1926); A, H. F. Edwardes, 1927-8. Customs revenue, surtaxes; Sir Frederick Maze, appointment as Inspector General. Situation in China (1938), control of Service (1940). Tributes on retirement.
Vol. XXI Press Cuttings June 1936-May 1943. (North China Daily News.)
Vol. XXn Subject index and general indices for this series.
1882-1923 Tientsin 1882. Neutralisation of Custom House Bund. Maze's transfer to Newchwang, 1892. Political situation, 1900. Opium smuggling at Canton, 1902. Floods at Canton. Appointment to Kongmoon, 1904. Preventive measures. Tengyueh, 1904. Mule tax. Canton, 1911. Opium smuggling. Canton Harbour. Political matters. Tientsin, 1916. Hai-Ho Conservancy questions. 1920 Yangtze River improvements. Hankow, 1922. Resume of Customs activities.

British Section. January 1940-September 1941. Appointment of Japanese Coast Inspector. Japanese Customs employees. Trading at Swatow.
Lungchow as a revenue-collecting port. Reopening of Yangtze. Situation in Canton. Yunnan-Burma Highway. Japanese appropriation of Customs property. Japanese traffic in rayon yarn at Shanghai. Local currency at Shanghai. Expected political situation in Nanking. Occupation of Kowloon and Lappa. Taxation in Hankow. Proposed sale of Customs craft to Siam. Withdrawal of Inspectorate allowance.
U. S. Section. January 1940-October 1941. Occupation of Kowloon.
Japanese and Customs situation. Trading at Swatow. Japanese Customs staff. Difficulties of Customs administration in occupied China. Attitude of new Nanking Government. Question of evacuation of British and American employees. Requisition of Customs craft by British. Withdrawal of Inspectorate allowance. Demand for Japanese Commissioner at Shanghai.
Trade Reports contained in Volume I of Confidential Letters and Reports, etc.
Miscellaneous Correspondence January 1929-June 1930. Establishment of Shanghai Harbour Board. Commandeering of Customs craft on Yangtze. Chinese Loans 1895-8. Proposed Hongkong Agreement. Whangpoo Conservancy: Min River. Removal of wrecks. Extension of Tientsin Harbour. Banking and handling of Customs revenue. Extraterritoriality question. Communist uprising at Lungchow. Tientsin impasse.
Vol. I. Ichang, April 1900-April 1901. Kongmoon, February 1904-June 1904.
Vol. II. Kongmoon, June 1904-November 1905.
These Letter Books are illegible in places. The Kongmoon correspondence is contained in the Kongmoon volume of Semi-official Letters.
1. Kongmoon 1904-1906. Opening of Kongmoon. Staff. Closing and reopening of Wangmoon entrance. Control of Native Customs. Customs regulations for Kongmoon. Monopoly of 'Cassia leaf oil’. Accommodation for staff. West River trade and Regulations. Port of Call trade. West River British Steamship Co. Foreign-going steamers and ports of call. Piracy near the Ngaimoon. Opium-running from Macao. Petty smuggling.

Proposals for administration of Wangmoon station. Incidents concerned with passengers’ luggage. Smuggling of munitions of war. Building on Customs property. Installation of Wangmoon Lights. Illicit letter-carrying between Kongmoon and Hongkong. Floods at Knogmoon.
2. Canton 1911-1912. [’This volume, covering the period 1911-12 refers, inter alia to the genesis and development of the nationalist movement in Canton and South China, and more especially deals with the manner in which the Customs Service under quasi-foreign control, continued to function unchanged under existing principles of administration skilfully established by Sir Robert Hart in the 60’s of the last century - and subsequently adhered to mutatis mutandis by Sir Francis Aglen and myself. ' - Sir Frederick Maze. J
Local revolt. Amendments to West River Regulations. Opening of Heungchow. New Custom House plans. Attack on Admiral Li. Canton-Kowloon railway. Smuggling: preventive measures. Stations at Kwong Chow Wan. Canton and the Rebellion. Viceroy’s flight. Munitions of war from Japan. The salt monopoly. Visit of Dr Sun Yat-sen.
3. Canton 1913-1915. Stations at Kwong Chow Wan. Confiscated opium.
New Custom House. Political situation. Yangtze valley disturbances and local situation. Counter-revolution in Canton. Execution of Chief of Police. Preventive work. Arms smuggling. Internment of German gunboat. West River conservancy measures.
4. Tientsin 1915-1917. Commissioner's new house. Aids to navigation at Tientsin. Inward Transit Passes. Munitions for foreign troops. Hai-Ho Conservancy Board. Russian employees and military service. Valuation of foreign dyes. Amalgamation of British Concession with the Extension.
Run on banks of China. Inland Waters Steam Navigation. Staff. China and the War. Pilotage questions. Political situation. Restoration of Monarchy. National unrest. China declares war.
5. Tientsin 1918-1920. Hai-Ho Conservancy. Amalgamation of British Concession with the Extension. National loans sinking fund account.
’Way Book Case'. Tientsin transit procedure. Taku Bar conditions and prospects. Chinwangtao Lights. Customs control of cargo on Bund. Sale of Commissioner’s old compound. Daylight saving. Students' agitation.
Facilities of British Bund. Taku reclamation scheme. Proposed establishment of Customs Guild. Civil war in North China. Coast passenger traffic.
6. Hankow 1921-1923. Growth of opium traffic. Site of new Custom House. Yangtze Conservancy and River Inspectorate. Political situation and General Wu Pei-fu. Inland Waters procedure. Rules for winter navigation and control of native craft. Local clerks. Issue of launch regulations.
7. Hankow 1923-1925. Desperate situation in Chungking. Customs land in Hankow. Opium traffic and morale of staff. Middle Yangtze pilotage regulations. Lake trade. Financial crisis and local situation. Passing of military equipment. Anti-foreign disturbances in Hankow.

8. Shanghai 1925-1926. Duty on morphia. Staff conditions. New Custom house. Shanghai Harbour improvements. Political situation. Piracy. Prosecution of smugglers. Importation of dollars by Marshall Sun Ch’uan-fang. Sale of Commissioner’s compound. Opium and morphia smuggling.
9. Shanghai 1927-1928. Surtax imposed by Provincial Government.
General strike in Shanghai. General Labour Union. Customs Union of Chinese staff. Nanking uprising against foreigners. Nationalist policy in Shanghai: interference with Customs revenue. Effects of surtaxes proposed by Nanking Government; its claim to tonnage dues and abolition of likin. Opening of new Custom House. Revision of Harbour Regulations. Qualifications of Chinese tidewaiters.
Note: The contents of the Tientsin volumes are repeated in Tientsin Semiofficial Letters May 1915 - February 1918 and March 1918 - October 1920.
Hai-Ho Conservancy and the Improvement of the River System of Chihli.
’This volume illustrates the efforts made by the Chinese Customs Authorities at Tientsin, to improve the navigational facilities of the port of Tientsin during 1915-20. ’ - Sir Frederick Maze.
Canton Despatches to Inspector General, 1911-1915. Rioting in Canton. Revision of West River Regulations. Smuggling of munitions, opium.
Piracy on West River. Customs control over shipping. Canton’s declaration of independence. Prevention of floods in Canton Delta.
Handing Over Charge Memoranda, Tientsin, 1915-1920. This volume contains notes on subjects appearing in the Tientsin volumes of Semiofficial letters.
Tientsin, Hankow and Miscellaneous Despatches. Tientsin 1916: Outward Transit Procedure. 1920: Customs Guild. Hankow 1922: Shipment of iron ore. Sinking of Customs boat: rules for navigation. Yangtze inspectorate. Foreign men-of-war. American Seizure of munitions. Political situation in Hankow. Shanghai 1925: Conservancy measures for port of Canton.
Inspector General’s Semi-official Circulars, 1911 - 1933.
1. March-December 1937. Attack on Tientsin Custom House. China delegation to Coronation. Proposed 30 year loan. Russians in Sinkiang. Evacuation of Customs establishments. Tientsin: Japanese demands. Japan’s case. Japanese advance on Shantung. Shanghai Customs situation. Readjustment of Customs during War.

2. September-December 1937. Japanese hostilities at Shanghai. Shantung situation. Japanese at Tientsin. Shanghai Customs revenue question. Reasons for maintaining integrity of Customs. Tientsin situation.
3. January-June 1938. Tientsin and General Customs position. Japanese intentions towards Customs and new regime. Demands for Shanghai revenue. Hankow Government and Northern Customs. Japanese pressure on staff appointments. Tariff reform for occupied territory.
4. July-December 1938. Anglo-Japanese Agreement. Art treasures: protection of and use as security for loan. Japanese interference with conservancy operations at Shanghai. Administrative reorganisation of Customs. Japan’s seizure of Amoy. Wartime Customs measures. American Note to Japan. Employment of foreigners in Customs. Canton situation.
5. January-May 1939. Policy of Inspector General. Japanese appointments to staff. Fall of Kiukiang. Japanese measures: reopening of Yangtze. General policy of Inspector General and Customs in occupied territory. Whangpoo Conservancy: Japanese interference. Remittance of revenue in wartime.
6. May-October 1939. Foreign loan on Customs revenue. Report on transport conditions in Burma. Shanghai revenue situation and Japanese general intentions towards Customs. Suggestions for international agreement. American policy in China. Expected attitude of new Nanking Government. Treasury Law.
7. August 1939-January 1940. ’Reformed’ Nanking Government and Customs. Shanghai: Japanese measures for collection of import duty. Japanese occupation of Kowloon. Japanese proposals for reopening of Yangtze. Memo, on peace negotiations between France and China 1884-5: J.D. Campbell.
8. January-June 1940. Japanese and Whangpoo Conservancy. Pearl River pilotage regulations. Question of right of Customs cruisers to navigate in leased territorial waters. Correspondence on Japanese Customs staff. Inauguration of ’Reformed’ Government. The Open Door in China: correspondence, 1899.
9. March-December 1940. Biographical sketch of Sir Robert Hart.
Inspector General's relations with Japan. Evacuation of Hongkong. Position of Kowloon Customs: Japanese and Hongkong Government.
10. November 1940-April 1941. Rumours of ’traitorous activities’ in Customs. Japanese and Shanghai conservancy operations. Question of loan of Customs vessels to British. Position of Inspectorate in event of war between Britain and America, and Japan.

1. Janaury-September 1939. Customs revenue collection 1938. Non-payment of Chinese loans. Japanese staff question. Japanese and Shanghai conservancy operations. Reopening of Yangtze. Employment of foreigners in Customs.
2. September-December 1939. Proposed ’Reformed’ Government at Nanking and Customs. Japanese collection of duty at Shanghai. Proposed sale of Customs ships to British Government.
3. July-December 1940. The War in Europe. Japanese arrest of British subjects. The Burma Road. Japanese at Kowloon. Nanking Government and Inspector General.
7 volumes: January 1938-December 1940. The correspondence contained in these volumes is concerned with H. M. Government’s views on Japanese demands for Customs revenue, pressure on staff appointments and other subjects which appear in the above parallel volumes of Personal Correspondence.

(I I ..
( •• i
I (
Papers relating to the Chinese Maritime Customs