Citation
Sylheti language lessons

Material Information

Title:
Sylheti language lessons 2014-2015
Creator:
SOAS Sylheti Language Society
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
SOAS Sylheti Language Society
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2015
Language:
English
Sylheti
Physical Description:
28 p. : colour illustrations ; 29.7 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sylheti dialect ( LCSH )
সিলেটী
Temporal Coverage:
2014 - 2015
Spatial Coverage:
Europe -- United Kingdom -- England -- Greater London -- London -- Camden -- Bloomsbury
ইউরোপ -- যুক্তরাজ্য -- ইংল্যান্ড -- বৃহত্তর লন্ডন -- লন্ডন -- ক্যামডেন -- ব্লুমসবারি
Coordinates:
51.52205 x -0.129

Notes

Abstract:
SOAS Sylheti Project: After an invitation from the director of the Surma Centre, Camden, during Endangered Languages Week presentations at SOAS in 2012, the SOAS Sylheti Project was created. For the past three years, SOAS MA linguistics students have participated in this extracurricular project to document Sylheti spoken by users of the Surma Centre. The SOAS Field methods course has also worked with Sylheti speakers to document Sylheti grammar. Besides other sub-projects, the SOAS Sylheti Project is compiling a dictionary for the Sylheti language and launching a dictionary app.
General Note:
The imprint is dated "June 2015, London"
General Note:
Pictures in this booklet are taken from pixabay.com unless otherwise specified.
General Note:
The SOAS Sylheti Language Society organizes weekly Sylheti language lessons and meets to discuss the grammar of the Sylheti language. Sylheti-speaking members practice teaching and develop lessons. This booklet represents our first efforts to create teaching materials for the Sylheti language.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
Copyright 2015, SOAS Sylheti Language Society. Available under Creative Commons license BY-NC (Attribution, Noncommercial)

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Full Text
lull

SOAS Sylheti

Language Society

ftWW’ ' siloTi

pf fa#

jff!^ sibfi^

Sylheti

Language Lessons

2014 - 2015


SOAS Sylheti Project

After an invitation from the director of the Surma Centre, Camden, during
Endangered Languages Week presentations at SOAS in 2012, the SOAS
Sylheti Project was created. For the past three years, SOAS MA linguistics
students have participated in this extracurricular project to document Sylheti
spoken by users of the Surma Centre. The SOAS Fieldmethods course has
also worked with Sylheti speakers to document Sylheti grammar. Besides
other sub-projects, the SOAS Sylheti Project is compiling a dictionary for the
Sylheti language and launching a dictionary app.

Contact the SOAS Sylheti Project via email:
soassylhetipro1ect@qmail.com
Facebook group:

https://www.facebook.com/qroups/soassylhetipro1ect/

YouTube channel:

https://www.youtube.com/user/soassylhetiproiect

SOAS Sylheti Language Society

The SOAS Sylheti Language Society organizes weekly Sylheti language
lessons and meets to discuss the grammar of the Sylheti language. Sylheti-
speaking members practice teaching and develop lessons. This booklet
represents our first efforts to create teaching materials for the Sylheti
language. We thank our teachers Kushie, Nadia and Monsur!

Facebook page:

www.facebook.com/soassvlhetilanquaqesocietv
Information on the SOAS Students' Union webpage:
http://soasunion.org/activities/societv/7438/

June 2015, London

Pictures in this booklet are taken from pixabay.com unless otherwise
specified.

2


Contents

Lesson 00: Spelling and transcription conventions....................4

Consonants.........................................................4

Vowels.............................................................4

Lesson 01: 'What is your name?'......................................5

Lesson 02: 'Where are you from?'.....................................6

Lesson 03: 'How are you?'............................................7

Lesson 04: ‘Faruke xoe...'...........................................8

Lesson 05: Feelings (present tense)..................................8

Lesson 06: Possession and everyday objects...........................9

Lesson 07: Writing in Syloti / Syloti Nagri script..................10

Lesson 08: Professions..............................................12

Lesson 09: Daily activities (past tense)............................13

LessonlO: Numbers, Colours, Shapes, Sizes...........................14

COLOURS...........................................................14

SHAPES............................................................14

'GO FISH !'.......................................................15

Lesson 11: Feelings (future tense)..................................15

Lesson 12: Daily activities (past and future tense).................16

Lessonl3: Passive constructions (past tense)........................18

Lessonl4: Obligation of chores ('must / have to')...................19

Lessonl5: Causative of chores ('make do')...........................20

Lessonl6: Passive constructions (present tense).....................22

Lessonl7: Modal verbs ('like/love, can, want, know')................23

Lessonl8: Hobbies...................................................24

Animals.............................................................25

Kinship.............................................................26

Review..............................................................27

3


Lesson 00: Spelling and transcription conventions

Sylheti does not yet have a standardized alphabet and spelling system. Because of this, we
are using the following spellings to represent IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) sounds.

Consonants

p = [p] n = [n] s = [s]
f = [f/ b = [b / p] r = [r] S = [§]
m = [m] R= Itl z = [z]
t = [t] l = [l] x= [x]
T = [t] k = [k] h = [h]
d = [d] g = [g] c = [tf]
D = [cU ng = [Q] j = [(fel
Vowels
i = [i] e = [e] ae = [ae]
i = [i] 0 = [0] ei = [ei]
u = [u] 0 = [0] i—i n II O
u = [o] a = [a] ua = [ua]
e = [e] ai = [ai]

Sylheti is an Indo-Aryan language on the branch of the Eastern group (with Bengali and
Assamese):

â–  Like most South Asian languages, Sylheti has different dental and retroflex
consonants -1 / d / r versus T / D / R.

â–  Unlike most South Asian languages, Sylheti does not distinguish non-aspirated and
aspirated consonants - k / g / etc. versus kh / gh / etc.

â–  Sylheti does not distinguish between long and short vowels.

â–  Sylheti does not have nasalized vowels.

â–  Sylheti has lexical tone.

â–  Sylheti has classifiers (like Bengali, Assamese, Nepali, etc.) and one-word verbs.

Tongue Position

CONSONANTS Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post- alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t t&i d t&l t d r.*< C H k g q G =G 1 B
Nasal m rr) >m n n&[ n n. *" p-n 9>n N =N
Trill r R =R
Flap f »r r -r
Fricative (j) =f p =b f V e-t 5 -d s z f-s n-* 9-p h X X-s x-« B >R h »h S -rhHfiT
Lateral Fric. 4 -1 b>'
Lateral Appr. 1 111 1 I,*1 L=L
Approximant M =w w* U =v a =r i M =w W*
Vowel (above) \i \ e a a u 0
Implosive 6 >b cf >d f-j #* cf >G
Click O-P 1 ?? !

Lateral flap: I >l Other symbols: ' >| p* p*h "c *nc pn p|| t’ t<' e e|[ m m&| tj* t&*-s

(Taken from scriotsource.ora)

4

^"7X~~~\ d-j Palate~~ ---^Velum

Alveolar Ridge

\ Uvula

J \ front central back /

x'Lips V/ close i»y =i -u -uiu«u £* Glottis

t —r— near-close i» y v »o *j » \ A /

mid-close e«0 -o -E9«e-o -o r»o c I * j PVjarvnX

TpptVl 'e3* 2. \

leeLIl mid-open .ecce-c -e3.G
near-open ,a£e. .aB.

°Pen »E • a d»D =o


Lesson 01: ‘What is your name?’

Q- amar nam Monsur. tumar nam kita?

R- a mar nam Mary.

Q- tar nam kita?

R- tar nam John.

Q- tair nam kita?

R- tair nam Kate.

Q- tarar nam kita?

R- he ar tai, tara, tarar nam RobertarKate.

Q- amar nam kita?

R- afne, afnar nam Monsur.

Q- amrar nam kita?

R- amra, amrar nam Monsur ar Mary, ami
ar afne, amra, amrar nam Monsur ar Mary.

Q- afnar nam kita?

R- amar nam Monsur.

Q- afnarar nam kita?

R- ami ar tai, amrar nam Monsur ar
Kushie.

Q- tumrar nam kita?

R- amrar nam Robert ar Kate.

amar nam kita? ami

tumar nam kita? tumi

tar nam kita? he

tair nam kita? tai

amrar nam kita? amra

tumrar nam kita? tumra

tarar na kita? tara

afnar nam kita? afne

afnarar nam kita? afnara

amar nam tumar nam tar nam tair nam â–  â– 
amrar nam ar
tumrar nam ar
tarar nam ar
afnar nam afnarar nam ar


Lesson 02: ‘Where are you from?’

ami taki aisi. I am from
tumi kunan(o) taki aiso? Where are you from?
tumi kunano taxo? Where do you live?
afne kunan(o) taki aisoin? Where are you from (polite)?
afne kunano taxoin? Where do you live (polite)?

ami taki ami aisi
he/tai taxe he/tai aise
tumi taxo tumi aiso
afne taxoin afne aisoin
afnara taxoin afnara aisoin

Q- ami Bangladesh taki aisi.

tumi kunan(o) taki aiso?

R- ami France taki aisi.

Q- tumi kunano taxo?

R- ami London taki.

Q- he kunan(o) taki aise ar he kunano taxe?

R- he America taki aise ar he london taxe.

Q- tai kunan(o) taki aise ar tai kunano taxe?

R- tai Bulgaria taki aise ar tai london taxe.

Q- ami kunan(o) taki aisi ar ami kunano taki?

R- afne Bangladesh taki aisoin ar london taxoin.

Q- tumra kunan(o) taki aiso ar tumra kunano taxo?

R- amra America taki ar Bulgaria taki aisi. amra London taki.

kunano = kun xano 'where'
kunan(o) taki = kuna nor
kunano = xoi = xoiTa
kun 'which?'
kita 'what?'
ar 'and'

6


Lesson 03: ‘How are you?’

ami shuki (asi).
ami khushi (asi)

7 am happy'

Q- ami bala (asi). tumi bala (aso) ni?

R- ami bala (asi).

Q- tumi bala (aso) ni?

R- ami bala (asi). ar afne?

Q- he kushi (ase) ni?

R- na he kushi nae. he gusa (ase).

Q- tai shuki (ase) ni?

R- oi, tai shuki (ase).

Q- tara bala (ase) ni?

R- he ar he, tara bala (ase).

Q- amra bala (asi) ni?

R- oi, amra bala (asi).

Q- afne shuki (asoin) ni?

R- oi, ami shuki (asi).

Q- tumra bala (aso) ni?

R- ami bala (asi) ar tai bala (ase). amra bala (asi).

ami gusa (asi)
'lam angry.'

7


Lesson 04: ‘Faruke xoe

5

Faruke xoe ... 'Faruk says...
he/tai xoe ..

ami xoi ... â–  ubao / ubaouka 'Stand!'
â–  mato / matouka 'Speak'
â–  aTo 'Walk!'
â–  xao 'Eat!'
â–  boi taxo 'Sit!'
â–  mata laRo 'Move/shake (your) head!'
â–  mata so 'Touch (your) head!'
■ anguil doro ’Hold (your) finger!'
â–  gurao 'Turn around!'
â–  dexo 'Look!'
â–  lexo 'Write!'
â–  gumao 'Sleep!'

Lesson 05: Feelings (present tense)

Q- tumar kila lagse? / tumi bala aso ni? 'How are you?'

R- amar zoto kushi lagse./ami zoto kushi (asi). 'I'm very happy.'

Q- tar kila lagse? 'How is he?'

R- tar ze gusha lagse. = he ze gusha. 'He's very angry.'

Q- tair kila lager? 'How is she feeling?'

R- tair bezar lager. = tai bezar (ase). 'She's feeling sad.'

Q- tarar gorom na TaNDa lagse/lager? 'Are they hot or cold?'

R- tarar gorom lagse na. tara beshi TaNDa (ase). 'They aren't hot. They're very cold.'

8


R- amar fanir fiase dorse.
R- ami premo forsi.

R- tai premo forse.

R- amar gume dorse.

'I am thirsty (for water)/
Tm in love.'

'She's in love.'

'Iam sleepy.'

bemar 'Hi(ness)"
hoi ran 'tired/exhausted'
shorom 'shy'
(sokut) gum 'sleepy'
(feTo) buk 'hungry'
fiase 'thirst'
prem 'love'

ami bemar.
'Iam sick.'


9fy
ami hoiran. 'Iam tired.' amar (sokut) gum (aise). 7 am sleepy.'

beshi = ze = zoto 'very'
na 'or'
beTa / beTi 'man/woman' -> beTa shorom (fae). 'The man is shy.'
fua / fuRi 'boy/giri' -> fuRi premo forse. 'The girl is in love.'

Lesson 06: Possession and everyday objects

Q- oTa kita?

R- oTa exTa xolom.

Q- oTa xar xolom?

R- oTa tair xolom.

Q- oTa xar boi?

R- oTa amar boi.

R- oTa Mary-r boi.

R- oTa John-or boi.

Q- oTa xar goRi?

R- oTa her / tar goRi.

Q- xotoTa aNTi/angTi?
R- fasTa aNTi/angTi.

'What is this?'

'This is a pen.'

'Whose pen is this?'
'This is her pen.'
'Whose book is this?'
'This is my book.'

'This is Mary's book.'
'This is John's book.'
'Whose watch is this?'
'This is his watch.'

'How many rings?'
'Five rings.'

& w / â– 
goRi xolom boi
f o
satti aNTi, foisha,
angTi Texa

Q- tumar zinish amare deo!
R- doro!

Q- tar satti taire deo!

Q- tarar foisha amrare deo!

'Give me your thing!'
'Catch!, Here you go!'

'Give her his umbrella!'

'Give us their money!'

9


R- tarar foisha tarar ges taki neo! 'Take their money from them!'

ex 'one'
exTa 'one thing'
dui 'two'
duiTa 'two things'
tin 'three'
sair 'four'
fas 'five'
soe 'six'
shat 'seven'
aT 'eight'
noe 'nine'
dosh 'ten'

fani 'water'
beg 'bag'
xagoz 'paper'
sabi 'key'
shoshma 'eye glasses'
unna = uRna 'scarf
toki 'hat'
gonji 'pullover'
oshud 'medicine'
buTol 'bottle'
Tebul = Tebil 'table'
angul 'finger'

oTa = eTa = iTa 'this, that'

xoto = xotoTa = xoTa 'how many/much?'

Lesson 07: Writing in Syloti / Syloti Nagri script

The traditional order of South Asian alphabets begins with
consonant sounds that are produced in the back of the
mouth, continues to sounds produced by the lips and
finishes with sounds that are closer to vowels - velars,
palatals, alveolar retroflexes, dentals, bilabials,
approximants. Sylheti, over hundreds of years or so of evolution, has changed the
sound values in the traditional order of South Asian alphabets. Sylheti also no longer
distinguishes 'aspiration' so that several letters are redundant, except for indicating the
origin of tone.

Sylheti can be written with various alphabets and scripts. Because Siloti Nagri is now in
Unicode, you can today type in it on your computer. However, it is not yet very
common. Therefore, Sylheti is most often written/typed using the Bengali script with
modified sound values, or using the Roman script (of most European languages) with
various sound values. Linguists use the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) to write
the sounds of languages.

Vowels

7T ^ <3

a i u

[a] [i] [u]

f IT

e o

[e] M

10


Vowel diacritics and other symbols

m tfft Tff Ft Tffr 0
ka ki ku ke ko kong
Dvisvara sign
vrft t Tt TTff
koi khai bui oi ai khai
Consonants
m ¥ ¥ w ¥
ko kho go gho CO cho io jho to
[ko] [xo] [go] [yo] [tfp] [tfp] [ [k] [x-k1*] [g] [y~gfi] [tf] wh] [ ¥ TF ¥ 7t X M
tho do dho to tho do dho no po
[5=] [4p] [zp] [to] [03] [do] [do] [no] [po]
[5~t“] [ Pf ¥ F F Tt Ft
pho bo bho mo ro lo ro SO ho
m [bo] [M [mo] [ro] [lo] [ro] [so] M
[<^pk] [b] [p~b£] [m] M [1] M [s] [h]
Conjunct consonants
¥ ¥ ¥ Tt
kko kto cco echo ijo tto nto ndo nno
¥ *5 M ? w 4^ ¥
bbo mbo mmo rlo sko SCO scho sto sbo
Numerals
O > ¥ 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

(Taken from www.omnialot.com/writina/svloti.htni)

11


Lesson 08: Professions

xam ami xam xori tumi xam xoro he / tai / tara xam xore afne xam (xoro) / xoron / xoroin 'work' 'I work/ 'You work.' 'He / she / they work.' 'You (formal) work.'
--> ami shebikar xam xori 'I work as a nurse.'
--> tumi foisha gono 'You count money.'
--> ami suri xori 'I do robbery.'
--> he gudamo xam xore 'He works in a warehouse.'
--> he mas dore = he mas mare 'He fishes.' (mas = 'fish')
--> tara moila saf xorar xam xore 'They work as cleaners.'
--> tai dorzir xam xore 'She works as a seamstress/tailor.'
--> tai xafor shilai xore 'She sews (clothes).'
--> tara xani manae 'They make food.'
--> he shelunor xam xore 'He does (hairdresser) salon work.'

mashTor 'teacher (m.)' maimal = maimol 'fisherman'
mashTorni 'teacher (f.)' moila saf xorua 'cleaner'
satro 'student (m.)' xompauNDar 'pharamacist'
satri 'student (f.)' donni beTi 'midwife, dou/a'
DaxTor 'doctor (m.)' meramot-xari 'mechanic'
DaxTorni 'doctor (f.)' domxol xamla 'fireman'
dator DaxTor 'dentist (m.)' kosTar / bas salox 'bus driver'
dator DaxTorni 'dentist (f.)' daruan 'housekeeper,
shebika 'nurse (f.)' gatekeeper'
fion = fus masTor 'postman' dorzi 'tailor'
fulish ofisar 'police officer' Teski slox 'taxi driver'
sur 'thief babursi ’chef/cook’
gongona-xari 'bank teller' naiox 'actor'
gudamor xamla 'warehouse worker' naiika 'actress'
nafet 'hairdresser, barber' tikadar 'builder'

dat 'teeth' saf xora 'to clean'
gudam 'warehouse' meramoT 'repairs'
moila 'dirt, rubbish; dirty' xafor 'clothes'
saf 'clean' shilai 'sewing'

12


Lesson 09: Daily activities (past tense)

ami xorsi 'I've done (it).'
tumi / afne xorso 'You've done (it).'
he / tai xorse 'He / she has done (it).'
afne / tain xorsoin 'You / he (forma!) have/has done (it).'

ami xorsilam 'Idid (it).'
tumi / afne xorsilae 'You did (it).'
he / tai xorsil 'He / she did (it).'
afne / tain xorsila 'You / he (forma!) have/has done (it).'

aiz 'today'
bat salon 'rice-curry, meat'
gor = baRi 'house'
goro = baRit 'at/to home'
iskulo 'at/to school'
find- / finda 'wear/ wearing'
bianor xani = nasta 'morning meal, breakfast'
raitkur xani 'evening meal, supper'

shoxal = bian 'morning'
shoxale = biane 'in the morning'
madan 'midday'
madane 'at midday'
duifori bela = duifor 'midday'
hainja = bial= bikal 'afternoon, evening'
hainjar shomoi 'evening (time)'
rait 'night'
raitku 'night (time)'
(goto) xail 'yesterday'

ami goto xail shoxale gum taki uTsilam 7 got up from bed yesterday in the morning.
ami lefTino gesilam / geslam I went to the toilet.'
ami gusol xorsilam 'I bathed.'
ami muk doisilam 'I washed my face.'
ami sul hukaisilam 'I dried my hair.'
ami sul asRoaisi 'I combed my hair.'
ami bisna Tik xorsilam 'I made the bed.'
ami dat goshaisilam 'I brushed my teeth.'
ami biane nasta xaisilam 'I ate breakfast in the morning.'
ami xafor finccilam 'I wore clothes.'
ami shoxale tiar oisilam 'I got/became ready in the morning.'
ami iskulo gesilam / geslam 'I went to school.'

tumi goto xail baRit geslae
tumi raitkur xani xaisilae
tumi lexa-foRa xorsilae
tumi boi foRsilae
tumi raitku gumaisilae
tai xafor finder

' You went home yesterday.'
'You ate dinner.'

'You studied (writing-reading).'
'You read a/the book.'

'You slept at night.'

'She's wearing clothes.'

Q- tumi shoxale dat goshaislae ni
R- na ami shoxale dat goshaislam na
Q- tumi sul hukaiso ni
R- oe ami sul hukaisi

'Did you brush your teeth in the morning?'
'No, I didn't brush my teeth in the morning.'
'Have you dried your hair?'

'Yes, I've dried my hair.'

13


LessonlO: Numbers, Colours, Shapes, Sizes

COLOURS

oTa kun rong?

'Which colour is this?'

oilda/oldia/ xomla lal beguni/ lilua=nilua xosua

oildia/olda 'orange' 'red' bainguni/baingoni 'blue' 'green'

'yellow' 'purple'

dola,shadda xala

safed 'black'

'white'

badami, maxra,
maTirong,
buramaTi

'brown'

m â– 

rongila

sai, gulafi, gulabi rongbirongi
dushor ^n^.a/ rongbirongor

'grey' pink 'colourful'

ashman 'sky' gulaf 'rose (flower)'
ashmani 'blue, sky blue' sai 'ash'
oloid 'tumeric' moila shadda = moila dola 'grey'
badam 'almond' moila 'dirty'
maTi 'earth, soil' begun/bengon/baingon 'aubergine'

SHAPES

oTa kun ruf?

'Which shape (is) this?'

lamba sair kuna ----

'rectangle' sair ^unf
square

gut

'circle'

'oval'

tin kuna

'triangle'

14


%Z>(L

tera dil sand

'star' 'heart' 'moon'

'GO FISH !'

Q- tumar gese ase ni____?

Q- tumar gese____ase ni ?

exTa lal gul
duiTa beguni dil
tinTa xosua biritto
sairTa oilda sand
fasTa xala lampa sair kuna
soeTa gulafi lampa gul
xatTa lilua tera
aTTa maxra sair kuna
noeTa xomla tin kuna
doshTa xala na shida

'Do you have_____?'

'Do you have_____?'

'one red circle'

'two purple hearts'
'two green diamonds'
'four yellow moons'
'five black rectangles'
'six pink ovals'

'seven blue stars'
'eight brown squares
'nine orange triangles'
'ten black zigzags'

biritto

'diamond'

R- amar gese nae. mas doro! 7 don't have (it). Go fish!'

R- amar gese nae. (tumi) tukaia bar xoro! 7 don't have (it). Search and take!'

R- amar gese ase. amarTa neo. 7 have (it). Take mine!'

Lesson 11: Feelings (future tense)

Q- tumar kila lagse? / tumi bala aso ni?

R- ami kushi / bezar / gusha / hoiran / bemar.
R- ami bemar forsi.

R- ami bemar dorsi.

R- amar bemar oise.

R- ami premo forsi.

R- amar (fanir) fiase dorse.

Q- agami xail tumar kila lagbo?

R- ami kushi / bezar / heran.

R- ami bemar formu.

R- ami bemar dormu.

R- amar bemar oibo.

R- ami premo formu.

R- amar (fanir) fiase dorbo.

’How are you?'

'I'm happy / sad / mad / tired/ sick.'
'I'm sick., I fell sick.'

'I'm sick., I caught sick.'

'I'm sick., I caught sick.'

'I'm in love., I've fallen in love.'

'I'm thirsty (for water).'

'How will you be tomorrow?'

I'll be happy / sad / tired.'

'I'll be/fall sick.'

'I'll be sick., I'll catch sick.'

'I'll be sick., I'll catch sick.'

'I'll be in love., I'll fall in love.'

'I'll be thirsty (for water).'

15


Q- tar kila lagse / lager?

R- tar kushi / bezar / gusha / hoiran lagse.
R- tar shorom / TaNDa / gorom lagse.

R- tar kushi / bezar / gusha / hoiran lager.
R- tar shorom / TaNDa / gorom lager.

R- tar (feTo) buk lagse.

R- tar (sokut) gum aise.

Q-agami xail tar kila lagbo?

R- tar kushi / bezar / gusha / heran lagbo.
R- tar shorom / TaNDa / gorom lagbo.

R- tar (feTo) buk lagbo.

R- tar (sokut) gum lagbo.

R- amar shundor lagse.

R- amar mozar lagse.

'How is he?'

'He's happy / sad/ mad/ tired.'
He's shy / cold/ hot'

He's happy / sad/ mad/ tired.'
He's shy / cold/ hot.'

'A/e's hungry (in the stomach).'
'He's sleepy (in the eyes).'

(souk 'eye)

'How will he be tomorrow?'

'He'll be happy / sad/ mad/ tired.'
He'll be shy / cold/ hot.'

'He'll be hungry (in the stomach).'
'He'll be sleepy (in the eyes).'

'It looks good (to me).'

'It's tasty (to/for me).'

(moza 'taste)

Lesson 12: Daily activities (past and future tense)

(goto) xail 'yesterday'
ami xorsilam Idid (it).'
tumi / afne xorslae / xorsilae 'You did (it).'
he / tai xorsil 'He / she did (it).'
afne / tain xorsla / xorsila 'You / he (formal) have/has done (it).'

agami xail 'tomorrow'
ami xormu 'I'lldo (it).'
tumi / afne xorbae 'You'lldo (it).'
he / tai xorbo 'He / she will do (it).'
afne /tain xorba 'You / he (formal) will do (it).'

he nasta xaisil.
he nasta xaibo.

'He ate breakfast.'

'He will eat breakfast.'

ta i g u m ta ki uTsi I. 'She got up from bed/sleeping.'
tai gum taki uTbo. 'She'll get up from bed/sleeping.'
(gum 'sleep)

ami dat goshaislam / goshaisilam.



16


ami dat goshaimu.

'I'll brush my teeth.'

tumi lefTino geslae / gesilae.
tumi lefTino zaibae.
amra iskulo geslam / gesilam.
amra iskulo zaimu.

tara lexa-foRa xorsil.
tara lexa-foRa xorbo.

'You went to the toilet.'

'You'll go to the toilet.'

'We went to school.'

'We'll go to school.'

'They studied (writing-reading).'
'They'll study (writing-reading).'

afne bisna Tik xorslae / xorsilae.
afne bisna Tik xorsla / xorsila.
afne bisna Tik xorbae.
afne bisna Tik xorba.

tai sul hukaisil.
tai sul hukaibo.

he sul asRoaisil.
he sul asRoaibo.

'You made the bed.'

'You made the bed. (formal)'
'You'll make the bed.'

'You'll make the bed. (formal)'

'She dried her hair.'
'She'll dry her hair.'

'He combed his hair.'
'He'll comb his hair.'

ami raitku gumaislam / gumaisilam. 7 slept at night.'

a m i ra itku g u ma i m u. 'I'll sleep at night.'

tumi raitkur xani xaisilae.
tumi raitkur xani xaibae.

tara boi foRsil.
tara boi foRbo.

Q- goto xail tumi dat goshaislae ni?

R- na goto xail ami dat goshaislam na.
agami xail ami dat goshaimu.

'You ate dinner.'

'You'll eat dinner.'

'You read a/the book.'

'You'll read a/the book.'

'Did you brush your teeth yesterday?'
'No, I didn't brush my teeth yesterday.'
'I'll brush my teeth tomorrow.'

ami sul asroairam.
tumi sul asroairae.
he sul asroair.

'I'm combing my hair.'
'You're combing your hair.'
'He's combing his hair.'

ami sul doimu ar ami sul asroaimu ar ami sul hukaimu.

Til wash my hair and I'll comb my hair and I'll dry my hair.'

shoxale 'in the morning' rait 'night'
nasta 'breakfast' raitku 'night (time)'
biale 'in the evening' raitkur xani 'dinner

17


Lesson13: Passive constructions (past tense)

bilai undur xaisil.
undur xaoa oisil.
undur bilai di xaoa oisil.
beTare bilai di xazuani oisil.

The

The

The

The

cat ate the rat'
rat was eaten.'

rat was eaten by the cat.'
man was scratched by the cat.'

beTare kun xora oisil. = beTar kun oisil.
xafor faRa oisil.

fuar ufre faRa deoa oisil.

beTare (gas di) xaoa oisil.
gorre falani oisil.

haf xaTa oisil.

zanala batash di banga oisil.
zanala fua di banga oisil.

The man was murdered.'

The cloth was ripped.'

■45“

The boy was stepped on.' ....

The man was eaten (by the plant).'
The house was knocked over.'

The snake was cut.' W j

The window was broken by the wind.'
The window was broken by the boy.'

gaRi banga oisil.
gaRi fuTani oisil.

raikushre gaRi di maria deoa oisil.
raikushre (raikush di) mara oisil.

The car was broken/smashed.'

The car was blown up.'

The alien was run over.'

The alien was hit (by the (other) alien).'

DaxTorre (kutta di) xamoR deoa oisil. The doctor was bitten (by the dog).'

fuare (fuk di) xamoR deoa / xamoR mara / xamRani oisil.

The boy was bitten (by the insects).'

beTare tushani / tushi deoa / tusha deoa / tusha mara oisil
The man was punched.'

xeluarre aTxani oisil. The player was tackled/stopped.'

beTare (malik di) lat deoa oisil na. The man wasn't kicked (by (his) boss).'

beTare (toluar di) gaoani oisil na. The man wasn't stabbed (by/with the sword).'

fuare Tela mara / Tela deoa / Telani oisil.
fuare moe di summa deoa oisil.
fuare kutta di summa deoa oisil.
monare / gedare neoa oisil.

The boy was pushed.'

'The boy was kissed by his aunt.'
'The boy was kissed by the dog.'
'The baby was taken.'

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di = dia 'by' zanala 'window' malik/ mazon 'boss'
bilai 'cat' batash 'wind' toluar 'sword'
undur 'rat' gaRi 'car' mona / gedar 'baby'
kun 'murder' raikush 'alien'
ufor 'up/stairs,top' xeluar 'player'

Lesson14: Obligation of chores ('must / have to')

forti 'per, apiece, every' fortex mash 'monthly, every month'

fortex (= forti + ex) 'every' fortex bosor / sal 'yearly, every year'

fortex din 'daily, every day'

Q- tumar fortex din iskulo zaoa lage ni.

'Do you have to go to school everyday?'

R- oe, amar fortex din iskulo zaoa lage.

'Yes, I have to go to school everyday.'

R- na, amar fortex din iskulo zaoa lage na.

'No, I don't have to go to school everyday.'

Q- tumar fortex din iskulo zaoa lagbo ni.

'Do you have to go to school everyday?'

R- oe, amar fortex din iskulo zaoa lagbo.

'Yes, I have to go to school everyday.'

R- na, amar fortex din iskulo zaoa lagto nae.

'No, I don't have to go to school everyday.'

Q- tumi fortex din iskulo zaitae oibae ni.

'Do you have to go to school everyday?'

R- oe, ami fortex din iskulo zaitam oibo.

'Yes, I have to go to school everyday.'

R- na, ami fortex din iskulo zaitam nae.

'No, I don't have to go to school everyday.'

Q- (asking self) ami fortex din iskulo zaitam oimu ni.
'Do I have to go to school everyday?'

19


R- oe, ami fortex din iskulo zaitam oibo.

'Yes, I have to go to school everyday.'

tumar muk doa lage
tair xafoR doa lage / lagbo
tar zanala /kiRki doa lage
amar almari saf xora lage
tumar bada saf xora lage

'You have to wash your face.'
'She has to wash the clothes.'

'He has to wash the windows.'

'I have to clean the cupboard.'
'You have to clean the rubbish.
You have to take out the rubbish

tar kutta(re) aTat loia zaoa lage
tair kutta(re) xani deoa lage
amrar bagano xam xora lage

'He has to walk the dog / take the dog walking.'
'She has to feed the dog.'

'We have to work in the garden.'

he bashon doito oibo
tai moila / dula saf xorto oibo
ami xafoR forti xortam oibo
tai xafoR istori xorto oibo
tumi lexa-foRa xortae oibo
amra gash xaTtam oibo
tai gasho fani dito oibo
tumi kuta zaRu xortae oibo
tumi gor huRtae oibo

'He has to wash the dishes.'

'She has to clean the dirt/ dust.'
'I have to fold the clothes.'

'She has to iron the clothes.'

'You have to study.'

'We have to cut the grass.'

'She has to water the grass.'

'You have to sweep the room.'
'You have to sweep the room.'

Lesson15: Causative of chores ('make do')

amar baf(e) amare dia ... 'My father makes me ...'

gor / maTi fusain
zanala duain /doain
almari saf xora in
moila / dula saf xorain
kuttare gusol xorain
kuttare xani xaoain / deoa in

'wipe/mop the house / floor.'
'wahe the windows.'

'clean the closet.'

'clean the dirt/ dust.'

'bathe the dog.'

'feed / give food to the dog.'

Q- tumar ma(e) tumare dia xafoR doain ni . 'Does your mother make you wash the clothes?' doa- 'make wash'
xor- 'do'
R- oe, amar ma(e) amare dia xafoR doain 'Yes, my mother makes me wash the clothes.' xora- 'make do'

R- na, amar ma(e) amare dia xafoR doain na.

'No, my mother doesn't make me wash the clothes.'

tair ma(e) taire dia xafoR doain.

'Her mother makes her wash the clothes.'

20


ami amar boinre dia xafor forti xorai.

7 make my sister fold the clothes.'

amar baf(e) amare dia xafoR isTori xorain

'My father makes me iron the clothes.'

he tar fuare dia gash xaTae

'He makes his son cut the grass.'

amar boRo boin(e) amare dia gasho fani deoain
'My big sister makes me water the grass.'

amar suTo boin(e) amare dia gasho fani deoae
'My little sister makes me water the grass.'

tar bou(e) tare dia bagano xam xorae

'His wife makes him work in the garden.'

amar boRo bai(e) amare dia bada saf xorain
'My big brother makes me clean the
rubbish.'

amar suTo bai(e) amare dia bada saf xorae.

'My little sister makes me clean the rubbish.'

tumar zamai(e) tumare dia bashon doain ni.

'Does your husband make you do the dishes?'

tumi tumar fuare dia gor zaRu deoao.

'You make your son sweep the house.'

agami xail amar baf(e) amare dia kuttare xani xaoaiba / diba

'Tomorrow my father will make me feed/ give food to the dog.'

baf ’father’
ma 'mother'
ma-baf 'parents'
zamai 'husband'
bou 'wife'
fua 'son'
fuRi 'daughter'
fua-fuRi 'children'
bai 'brother'
boin 'sister'
bai-boin 'siblings'

Verb agreement in present tense
Type 1 Type 2
ami/amra -i ami/amra -am
tui -os tui -e
tumi/tumra -o tumi/tumra -ae
afne/tain -o(i)n afne/tain -a
he/tai/tara -e he/tai/tara -o

21


Lesson16: Passive constructions (present tense)

bilai undur xaise. 'The

undur xaoa oise. 'The

undur bilai dia xaoa oise. 'The

bilai undur xair / xar. 'The

undur xaoa or. 'The

undur bilai dia xaoa or. 'The

cat has eaten the rat.'

rat has been eaten.'

rat has been eaten by the cat.'

cat is eating the rat.'

rat is being eaten.'

rat is being eaten by the cat.'

haf(re) xaTa oise. 'The snake has been cut.'

haf(re) xaTani oise. 'The snake has been (made/caused to be) cut.'

oxon zanala banga or. 'The window is being broken now.'

goto xail zanala banga or. 'The window was being broken yesterday.'

zanala bangani or. 'The window is being (made/caused to be) broken.'

beTare kun xora oise.
beTare kun xora or.
xafor faRa oise.
tar ufre faRa deoa oise.
beTare (gas dia) xaoa or.
gaRi banga oise.

'The man has been murdered.'

'The man is being murdered.'

'The cloth has been ripped., The cloth is ripped.'
'He has been stepped on.'

'The man is being eaten (by the plant).'

'The car has been broken/smashed.'

gor falani or.
tare falani or.
afnare falani or.

'The house is being knocked over.'

'He's being made to fall down., His falling is occurring.'
'You're being made to fall down., Your falling is occurring.'

fattoror iTani or. ’The stone is being (made) thrown.,

The stone's throwing is occurring.'
fattoror iTani oisil. 'The stone was (made) thrown.,

The stone's throwing occurred/happened.'

'The alien is being run over by the car.'

'The alien has been hit (by the (other) alien).'

raikushre gaRi dia maria deoa or.
raikushre (raikush dia) mara oise.

DaxTorre (kutta dia) xamoR deoa oise.

xeluare aTxani or.

gaRi fuTani oise.

baccare neoa oise.

beTare bilai di xazuani or.

beTare (malik dia) lat deoa or na.

fuare Tela mara / Tela deoa oise.

beTare (toluar dia) gaoani oise na.

'The man hasn't been stabbed

The doctor has been bitten (by the dog).'
'The player is being tackled/stopped.'

'The car has been blown up.'

'The child has been taken/kidnapped.'

'The man is being scratched by the cat.'
'The man isn't being kicked (by (his) boss).'
'The boy has been pushed.'

(by/with the sword).'

22


fuare (moela dia / kutta dia) summa or.

'The boy is being kissed (by his aunt / by the dog).'

fuare (fuk dia) xamoR deoa / xamoR mara / xamRani or
' The boy is being bitten (by the insects).'

beTare tushani / tushi deoa / tusha deoa / tusha mara or
'The man is being punched.'

Lesson17: Modal verbs flike/love, can, want, know')

ami xortam sai
tumi xortae sao
afne xorta sain
tain xorta sain
he xorto sae

7 want to do (it).'

'You want to do (it).'

'You want to do (it), (formal)'
'He wants to do (it), (format)'
'He wants to do (it).'

amar xafoR shilai xora bala lage
amar xafoR shilai xorte bala lage

ami xafoR shilai xora bala fai
ami xafoR shilai xortam bala fai

ami xafoR shilai xora fari
ami xafoR shilai xortam fari

ami xafoR shilai xortam sai

ami xafoR shilai xora zani

7 like to sew clothes.'

7 like sewing clothes.'

7 like to sew clothes.'

7 like sewing clothes.'

7 can sew clothes.'

7 can sew clothes.'

7 want to sew clothes.'

7 know how to sew clothes.'

tumi amare xafoR shilai xora hikaitae farbae ni 'Could you teach me to sew clothes?'
tumi amare xafoR shilai xora hikao 'Teach me to sew clothes?'

he amare xafoR shilai xora hikaito farbo 'He could teach me to sew clothes.'

ami bemar oa bala fai na
amar bemar oa bala fae na
amar bemar oa bala lage na
amar bemar oite bala fae na
amar bemar oite bala lage na

7 don't like to be sick.'
7 don't like to be sick.'
7 don't like to be sick.'
7 don't like being sick.'
7 don't like being sick.'

Q- ami siloTi mat zani na
Q- ami siloTi hiktam sai

7 don't know Sylheti (speech/ianguage).'
7 want to learn Sylheti.'

Q- tumi amare siloTi hikaitae farbae ni? 'Could you teach me Sylheti?'

R- oe ami tumare siloTi hikaitam farmu. Yes, I could teach you Sylheti.'

R- na ami tumare siloTi hikaitam fartam nae 'No, I can't/couldn't teach you Sylheti.'

23


R- na ami tumare siloTi hikaitam nae

'No, I can't/couldn't teach you Sylheti.'

... xaron ami siloTi mattam fari na

'because I can't speak Sylheti.'

R- tumar siloTi hikani amar bala lage.

7 like your Sylheti teaching.'

amar fua iskulo exla zaito fare.

'My son can go to school alone/by himself.'

tumar bai(e) zanala saf xorta bala fain na.

'Your (elder) brother doesn't like washing windows.'

baf(e) gor zaRu / huroin deoa bala fain.
baf(e) gor huRa bala fain.

ami bashon doitam sai.
he bada saf xorto fare,
ami DaxTor(ni) oitam sai.

tumi bagano xam xortae sao ni
tumi murgi xaitae bala fao ni

tumar saf xora bala lage
tumar siloTi mata tar bala lage
tumar siloTi mat tar bala lage
tumar siloTi hika amar bala lage

'Father likes sweeping the house.'
'Father likes to sweep the house.'

'I want to wash the dishes.'

'He can clean out the rubbish. '

'I want to become a doctor.'

'Do you want to work in the garden?'
'Do you like eating chicken?'

'(We) like your cleaning.'

'He likes (how) you speak Sylheti.'

'He likes your Sylheti speech/speaking.'
'I like (that) you learn Sylheti.'

Lesson18: Hobbies

guDDi uRani
doRi fala

futul dia naTox xora
futul dia xelani
boi foRa

taba xelani
fazol xelani
tash xelani
xafoR shilai xora
meramoT xora
zinish banani
sobi axa

'flying a kite'

'jumping rope'

'acting with puppets'
'playing with dolls'
'reading books'

'playing chess'

'doing puzzles'

'playing cards'

'sewing (clothes)'
'repairing, making repairs'
'making things'

'drawing pictures/imaged'

24


Tibi dexa
bagano xam xora
fono mata
zadu salani
saikel salani
foTo tulani
randa
doRa
aTa

xelna gaRi/Tren dia xelani

Animals

bandor 'monkey'

mu rug 'chicken
(in genera!)'

'watching TV'

'gardening'

'talking on the phone'

'doing magic'

'riding bikes'

'taking photos'

'cooking'

'running'

'walking'

'playing with toy cars/trains'

xoTa 'squirrel'

zolati 'hippopotamus

murgi 'hen'

kutta 'dog'

gonNDar 'rhinoceros

25


Kinship

ma-baf ma baf amma mai(zi) abba baba(zi) bai boin baia afa 'parents' 'mother' ’father’ ’mom (title/term of address)' 'mom (title/term of address)' 'dad (title/term of address)' 'dad (title/term of address)' 'brother' 'sister' 'brother (title/term of address)' - said by younger to elder sibling 'sister, female cousin (title/term of address)' - said by younger to elder sibling
baisab 'male cousin (title/term of address)'
baifut / boinfut baizi / boinzi batiza / batizi babna / bagni 'nephew / niece' - said by female of her sister's children 'nephew / niece' - said by female of her brother's children 'nephew / niece' - said by mate of his brother's children 'nephew / niece' - said by mate of his sister's children
zamai bou damand 'husband' 'wife, daughter-in-law' 'groom, son-in-law'
sasa (sasu) fufa mama (mamu) 'unde, father's brother' -> sasi 'aunt, father's brother's wife' 'unde, father's sister's husband' -> fufu 'aunt, father's sister' 'uncle, mother's brother' ->mami 'aunt, mother's brother's wife'
mama xalu moe (moela), xala 'unde, mother's eider sister's husband' 'unde, mother's younger sister's husband' 'aunt, mother's sister'

moer goro bai / boin 'cousin'

xalar goro bai / boin 'cousin

sasar goro bai 'cousin

26


Review

X = any noun P = person

V = verb stem/root p = person agreement

POSSESSIVES IMPERATIVE / COMMANDS
X-(o)r (ase) V-o(uka)
tumar nam kita? 'What's your name?' xao 'Eat!'
a mar boi ase. T have a book.' xaouka 'Eat please!'
Farukor boi 'Faruk's book.'
Fa rha na r boi ’Farhana's book.

FEELINGS
r P-(o)r lagse / lager / lagbo
tumi kushi 'You're happy.'
tumar (fanir) fiase dorse. ’You're thirsty.'
tumar shorom lagse 'You seem/are shy.'
Faruk heran 'Faruk is tired.'
Farukor heran lagse 'Faruk looks tired.'

PASSIVE

X / P-re (P di(a)) V-a oisil / oise / or / oibo
X / P-re (P di(a)) V-ni oisil / oise / or / oibo

zanala (fua dia) banga oisil. 'The window was broken (by the boy).'
beTare (gas dia) xaoa or. 'The man is being eaten (by the plant).'

Note: People always with -re.

OBLIGATION
P-r V-a lage / lagbo
P-r V-ni lage / lagbo
P V-t-p oibo
tar zanala saf xora lagbo 'He must clean the windows.'
tumar mas banani lagse 'You have to make/prepare fish.'
amra gash xaTtam oibo 'We must cut the grass.'

27


CAUSATIVE

P(-e) P-re di(a) V-a-p

amar baf(e) amare dia zanala doain 'My father makes me wash the windows.'

MODALS

P-r V-a bala lage
P-r V-te bala lage
P V-a bala fa-p
P V-t-p sa-p
P V-a far-p
P V-t-p far-p
P V-a zan-p

amar xora bala lage
tair xorte bala lage
he xora bala fae
tumi xortae sao
afne xora faroin
amra xortam fari
ami xora zani

7 like to do it.'

'She likes doing (it).'
'He likes to do (it).'
'You want to do (it).'
'You can do it.'

'We can do (it).'

'I know how to do (it).'

QUESTION k-words

kita 'what?'

kunano / kun xano 'where?'
kuai 'where?'

kun 'which?'

kila 'how?'

xoto 'how much/many?'

POSTPOSITIONS
taki 'from'
di / dia 'by, with'
-rgese 'with'
-r lagi 'for'
-r loge 'with'
-r bai di(a) 'towards'

TENSES/ASPECTS
0 - general (present) - he V-e 'He l/-s.'
-r - continuous - he V-r-o 'He's V-ing.'
-s - perfect - he V-s-e 'He has V-ed.'
-1 - past - he V-l-o 'He V-ed.'
-s-l - past perfect - he V-s-i-l 'He had V-ed.'
-b - future - he V-b-o 'He will V.'
-t - irreal - he V-t-o 'He would V. / He used to V. / He wants to V.'

28