Jaina universe

Material Information

Jaina universe
Series Title:
Sacred books of the Jainas ; v. 12.
Added title page title:
J. L. Jaini memorial series ; v. IX
Jaini, Jagomandar Lal, -1927 ( Author, Primary )
Place of Publication:
Lucknow, India
A. Prasada
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
iv, 14 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Jainism ( LCSH )
जैन धर्म
Temporal Coverage:
- 1948
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Uttar Pradesh -- Lucknow -- Lucknow -- Ganeshganj -- Ajit Ashram
ایشیا -- بھارت -- اتر پردیش -- لکھنؤ -- لکھنؤ -- گنشنگن -- اجیت آشرم
एशिया -- भारत -- उत्तर प्रदेश -- लखनऊ -- लखनऊ -- गणेशगंज -- अजीत आश्रम
26.84234 x 80.923224


General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Jaini, Jagomandar Lal, -1927 : URI
General Note:
Published by Pandit Ajit Prasada, M.A., LL.B., Director, the Central Jaina Publishing House, Ajitashram, Lucknow (India), 1948

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This title is believed to be in the public domain under copyright of India at the time of publication
Resource Identifier:
24605158 ( OCLC )
Pam India. Q / 98827 ( SOAS classmark )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text
J. L. Jaini Memorial Series—Vol. IX.
Bar-at-Law, some time Chief Justice, Indore High Court, and later President
Legislative Assembly, Indore State, Author of Outlines of Jainism,
Jaina Law, Jaina Gem Dictionary, and Editor and
translator of Tattwartha-dhiguma Sutra, Gommatsara
Jiva Kanda and Karma Kanda, Atmanushasana
and Samayasara and founder
and Editor of the
Jaina Gazette.
Published by
Pandit Ajit Prasada, M.A., LL.B.,
Director, The Central Jaina Publishing House,
Ajitashram, Lucknow (India)

By the Publisher.
This brochure by Mr. J. L. Jaini, is the result of a close study
for years. The unthinkable vastness of the subject, the staggering
complexity of calculations, and yet the concise, definite statement
of size, age, complexion, bodily constitution and social organisation,
prevailing in the Heavens above, would be found interesting to a
research scholar.
Mr. J. L. Jaini, revised this work for the last time on the 8th
November, 1926, at Indore, where he was the President of the Legis-
lative Council.
The delay of 22 years in its presentation to the public requires
explanation. J. L. Jaini died suddenly in July 1927. By his will
he left the whole of his estate to a Board of Trustees with directions
to apply the income thereof for the propagation of Jaina Literature.
Gommatsara Jiva Kanda and its companion volume Karma
Kanda by Shri Nemichanclra Siddhanta Chakravarti were published
with preface, exhaustive introductions, English translation and
commentaries by J. L. Jaini himself in 1927, at a cost of Rs. 2,200/-
and Rs. 1,500/- respectively paid by J. L. Jaini himself, as volumes
of V and VI of the Sacred Books of the Jainas series. Purushartha
Siddhyupaya with an introduction, translation and commentaries in
English by my humble self was published in 1933 as volume IV of
the Sacred Books of the Jainas, at a cost of Rs. 1,000/- paid by the
Trustees of J. L. Jaini Memorial Trust. Atmanushasana and
Samayasara by J. L. Jaini, Niyamsara by Uggar Sain of Rohtak,
and Gommatsara Karma Kanda Part II by Brahmachari Sital
Prasada and Pandit Ajit Prasada, and Pareeksha Mukham by Mr.
S. C. Ghoshal were published respectively in 1928, 1930, 1931, 1937
and 1940 costing Rs. 750/-, 1,225/- 800/-, 2,000/- and 1,900/- respec-
tively, as volumes VII, VIII, IX, X and XI of the Sacred Books of
the Jainas Series. The total cost of Volumes IV to XI paid by Mr.
J. L. Jaini himself and by the Trustees after his death has come up
to Rs. 11,375/-.
World War conditions have unduly delayed the publication
of the ‘Jaina Universe’.
Ajitashram, Lucknow :
Vir Samvat 2474=1948,

i M s «% t

■ • -

I |


• • • i



• ■

WRI 3.


TAe Map of the iLTuw&m
( Th* Three Worlds)
Scale '~ v I
sc+Le of Hell& .*- fjf » i*$ooi> Km*w4*

Explanation of the Map of the Universe, Plate I.
The Mobile Channel.
SMnnMS, the square-sectioned rectangle, is the Mobile
Channel. The map represents only a section of the Universe taken
in the middle of its East to West side. In its North to South side, the
Universe has an uniform thickness of 7 Rajus, i.e., the Universe has
the form given in the Map, if we look at it facing its East to West
side. If we look at it facing its North to South side, we face a
uniform thickness of 7 Rajus. The Mobile Channel [Teas a Nali
or Nadi) is that part of the Universe to which Mobile (Trasa) Souls
are limited. That is, ordinarily, Mobile Souls are not found outside
the Mobile Channel.
This Channel is a square-sectioned-rectangle, its section being
a square of one Raju, and it has a height which is generally given as
14 Rajus. In the Map S n has a length of 13 Rajus and 8,000
Yojanas only, because the lowest, the Seventh Earth, which is the
Thule of Mobile Souls, is 8000 Yojanas thick.
But the height is given as 14 Rajus, for easy memory or for
the reason that the highest embodied souls in the highest Heavens
have a visual knowledge, Avadhi Jnana, which extends down to 13
Rajus 8,000 Yojanas in the Mobile Channel and then to one Raju
minus 8,000 Yojanas of Nigoda below it, thus making a total of 14
The Abode of the Liberated.
S S is the Sidha Shila or Kshetra or Abode of the Liberated. It
is self-luminous with the light of Infinite, Pure Liberated Souls. It
is the Home, Sweet Home, of the mundane, deluded soul. It is
the only place which is absolutely wantless, imperfectionless, defectless,
full of perfection and of all that can be desired. It is the only country
from which no traveller ever returned. It may be asked. Why
the absolute, pure, liberated Soul does not go beyond this or come
down from it? The answer is: It is tlie free soul’s nature to move
upward. Being freed from the weight of Karmic non-soul matter,
there is nothing to bring it down. It also cannnot go beyond as the
Beyond is all pure non-Univcrse Space (Aloka-Akashia)which contains
no substances, including Dharma, the necessary medium of motion.
Therefore the SOULS rest in pure soulhood in Siddha-Shild.
S S is one Raju square, it is in the Sth earth; and it is 8 Tojanas
The Upper World.
S M M S represents the Upper World or Celestial region. It
consists of 16 Heavens, 9 Graiveyakas, 9 Anudishas, and 5 Anuttaras,
with a total of 63 layers.

The layers 1 to 52 represent the 16 Heavens. The spaci
enclosed is a square of one Raju with a height of 6 Rajus.
E E is the middle and the broadest part of the Upper World.
It represents the top limit of the 16th Heaven. It is 5 Rajus broad.
It is situated 3| Rajus below Siddha Shila, and 3j Rajus above the
Middle World. “
E E represents the Space between the elbows of the headless
man, standing akimbo with legs wide apart, which is the figure of
the Universe as given in Jaina books.
The 9 layers 53 to 61 arc the 9 Graivcyakas.
The layer 62 represents the 9 Anudishas.
The last layer 63 represents the 5 Anuttaras.
Explanation 1 :—The dots in the breadth of the Mobile Channel
represent the many vehicles, abodes or cars (Vimanaj of the Celestial
beings. The Celestial region has no layers of Earth like the Abode
of the Liberated, the Middle and Lower Worlds.
Explanation 2 :—It is easy to understand the arrangement of
the Upper World by remembering the following:—
The upper world has in all 63 Patala, strata or layers. Each
layer is co-extensive with the mobile channel (Trasa Nadi), which
is a square of one Raju or W of the height of the whole Universe.
In the centre of each Patala is the centre abode or car or
Indraka Vimana. The Indraka Vimana of the first patala is a circle of
a diameter of 45 lacs yojanas; then it goes on decreasing in size till
it becomes a circle of one lac yojanas diameter in the sixty-third
Patala. In the 4 Cardinal directions of these 63 patalas, there are
other Vimanas. In the first patala there are 62 in each direction;
in the second 61, and so on till in the sixty-second we have only 1 in
each direction. In the sixty-third also there is only one.
In the intermediate directions and all over the rest of the
Patala, there are a great number of other Vimanas.
The 16 heavens have 52 layers (patala) i.e., 31, 7, 4, 2, 1, 1 res-
pectively for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs of heavens and
6 for the 7th and the 8th pairs.
There are 9 for the 9 Graiveyakas.
1 for the 9 Anudisha.
I for the 5 Anuttara.
There are thus 63 layers ^patalaj in all.
The Middle World.
M M is the Middle World, with its innumerable rings of
Continents and Oceans, with Mount Meru, in its Centre.

It is 7 Rdjus below Siddha Shila and 7 Rajus above the Base or
foot of the Universe. The Upper World begins immediately at
one hair’s breadth height from Mount Meru, which is 99040 Yojanas
high, 40 Yojanas of which are tapering to the top; and 1000
1 Yojanas of it are embedded in the Earth. Lavana Samudra, the Salt
Ocean, has four huge Patalas or Reservoirs in the four Cardinal
points. Each of these is 1 lac Yojanas deep. The surface of the
Reservoirs is level with the lowest point of Meru on the Earth.
Therefore the Middle World may be said to be 990404-100000
= 199040 Yojanas thick.
The Lower World.
M Ei Ej M is the first Earth. It is 180000 Yojanas thick. It
has 3 parts. (1) Khara Bhaga or the crust part, 16000 Yojanas thick;
(2) Panka Bhaga, clay or mud or soft part, 84000 Yojanas thick; and
(3) Awahula Bhaga, or the lowest part 80000 Yojanas thick. H4 H4 is
the first Hell one square Rdju of 78000 Yojanas thickness, with its 13
layers {Patalas'}.
E2 E2 is the second Earth. It is 32000 Yojanas thick. H2 H2
is the second Hell, one square Rdju 30000 Yojanas thick with 11
Es E3 is the third Earth, 28000 Yojanas thick* H3 H3 is the
third Hell 26000 Yojanas thick with 9 layers.
E4 E4 is the fourth Earth, 24000 Yojanas thick. H4 H4 is the
fourth Hell, 22000 Yojanas thick with 7 layers.
E5 Eg is the fifth Earth, 20000 Yojanas thick. H5 H6 is the
fifth Hell, 18000 Yojanas thick, with 5 layers.
E6 E6 is the sixth Earth, 16000 Yojanas thick. H6 He is the
sixth Hell, 14000 Yojanas thick, with 3 layers.
E7 E7 is the seventh Earth 8000 Yojanas thick. H7 H7 is the
seventh Hell, 4000 Yojanas thick, with 1 layer.
In their length, all the 7 earths touch the North and South
sides of Universe.
N n n N B B is Nigoda. N n n N is at a distance of 1 Raju
minus 8000 Yojanas from the Base of Univesse.
It represents the lowest limit of the existence of Mobile (Trasa)
souls. Mobile Souls are not found below NnnN, except in very few
and most exceptional cases.
This region of Nigoda has a thickness of 1 Raju minus 8000
Yojanas and a length of 7 Rdjus at bottom and about 6 Rdjus on the

To understand the meaning of Nigoda, we must have at least
a very elementary knowledge of Jlva-Samasa or Soul classes. Broadly
speaking, souls a,re (1) Liberated, found in Siddha shild, or (2)
Embodied, found in the rest of the Universe. These mundane
souls are of 2 classes; (1) those who have one sense only, namely that
of Touch and are called Immobile (Sthdvard); and (2) those who
have more than one up to 5 senses and are called Mobile (Trasa').
The Immobile are of 5 kinds, earth-bodied, water-bodied, fire-
bodied, air-bodied and plants (or vanaspati).
Plants are 2 kinds (1) Pratyeka or Individual, i.e. plants which
have only one soul in one body; (2) Nigoda or Sddhdrana or Common
or Group-souled plants, where many souls live a common-group-
life, in one body. They take birth, eat, breathe, live, languish,
flourish, and die together. These are called Nigoda. They are of
two kinds: (i) Mitya Nigoda ever-group-souled, those who have
never been anything but group-souled. These are the lowest kind
of unliberated, mundane souls. (it) Itara-Nigoda, Re-group-souled,
those who attained a higher status by being embodied in higher
forms of life, but have returned to their group-souled life once again.
The Nigoda region is thus pakced full of these, our lowest
embodied brethren. It is surrounded on all sides by the three
atmospheres of a thickness of 60000 Yojanas, included in its measure-
ments given above.
In this region, as also in the whole of the rest of the Universe,
there are other Immobile Souk the earth, water, fire and air
bodied mundane souls. B B is the base or bottom of the Universe.
Of course its lowest line is the line of the outer-most-atmosphere or
Vata-Valaya, which at the bottom and sides of the Nigoda region is
60000 Yojanas thick.


Explanation to Plate II.
Viewing the model from the side, we see only a rectangle 14
Rajus high and 7 Rajus broad with SS, EE, MM, and BB represent-
ing the 7 Rajus length of the lines in which are situated the Siddha
Sila, the 6th Heaven at the Elbows of the Universe, the Middle World
and the Base of the Universe respectively.

- ' -


Explanation to Plate HI.
On the top of the cube PQRS, on the front and back sides
mark from P, 1,3, and 4 Rajus at F, G, and H and at bottom mark
from Q, 1 and 3 Rajus at 1 and J. At K mark the exact half of
GJ. Join FK, IK, and HR. The 5 solid parts are.
A, i.e., PQJKFfkiqp
B, i.e., FKGgkf
C, i.e., IKJjki
D, i.e., GKJRHhrjkg, and
E, i.e., HRSsrh.
These 5 put together form the Universe.

Explanation to Plate IV.
The Model of the Universe.
A solid model of the Universe can be formed as follows.
The Volume of the Universe is 343 cubic Rajus. It is repre-
sented by a solid cube of 7 Rajus side.
It is required to cut this cube into a minimum number of parts
to form the. Universe. This is done as follows by cutting the cube
into 5 parts, A, B, C, D, and E.

We live in the Universe. It is called Loka. The space
Akasha, which it occupies is Lokakasha. Beyond it, on all sides,
there is the non-Universe Space (Alokdkasha.}
Lokdkdsha, and it alone, has 6 eternal, uncreated, individually
independent, and yet inter-related and interpenetrating, co-existing
Substances, Dravya. The grandest of these is, of course, Soul, the
only Living and Knowing Substance Jeeva Dravya. The other
five are all non-Living, Ajeeva. Jiva alone has Consciousness, Chetand,
the capacity of being Attentive, IJpayoga, conation or perception,
Darshana, and knowledge Jnana. The other 5 have the common cha-
racteristic of being substances without consciousness, Achetana Dravva.
They are matter, Pudgula, Principle of Motion, Dharma, Principal
of Rest, Adharma, time Kala and space Akasha.
Matter is characterised by 8 kinds of touch, hot or cold, soft
or hard, smooth or rough, heavy or light; 5 kinds of taste, sweet,
saline, acid, pungent or bitter; 2 kinds of smell pleasant or unpleasant,
and 5 kinds of colour, white, yellow, red, blue or black.
Dharma the Principle of Motion; and Adharma the principle of
Rest, are passive but are the essential concomitants of motion and
rest respectively. They have the function of enabling soul and
â–  matter to move or to cease to move.
Time makes substances and their infinite modifications
possible, by enabling substance to continue or to change or grow
old or new etc.
Space has the function of making things manifest by giving
them location.
The function of Jivas is to help one another.
All the 6 substances, except Time, fill the universe at all points,
have extent, are . embodied, i.e., have a body, Aslikava i.e.,
occupy more than one point of space. Time has no extension, and
is mono-dimensional.
There is an infinite number of souls-infinite pure or liberated
souls with their intangible forms touching the top of the Universe;
and also infinite souls in the rest of the universe.
Matter, i.e., the atoms and molecules of matter are numerable,
innumerable and infinite in number.

( 2 )
Dharma and Adharma, each, is one, and is co-existensive with
the Universe.
Time is like a heap or line of infinite points of time, each
occupying only one point of space, Pradesha. An instant or point
of time is called a time-atom kalanu. The Jaina books say Time
is like a heap of rubies, each of which exists separately, ^but is j
in close contact with others.
The Universe itself has a height of 14 Raids, and a square base
of 7 Rajus, i.e., with a breadth of 7 Rajus and a length of 7 Rajus. It
is 7 Rajus thick, in all its height. It gradually rises up to a top of
7 square Rajus, i.e., it is 1 R.aju broad and 7 Rajus thick, at a height of
7 Rajus from the base. It again begins to expand, and at a further
height of 3| Rajiis, i.e., at 10| Rajus, from the base and 3| Rajus from
the top of the Universe it has an acrea of 35 square Rajiis i.e., it is 5
Rajus broad and 7 Rajus thick. Once more it begins to grow less
and less till at the top it has again a thickness of 7 Rajus and a
breadth ot 1 Raju. The base-line is 7 Rajils. It is called Jagat
Shreni. Its cube is the volume of the Universe. The volume of
the Universe is thus 73 or 343 cubic Rajus.
(See Trilokasara by SArz Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarti,
Gathas 3, 4 and 5).
The Form of the Universe.
The form of loka is like that of a man standing akimbo, i.e.,
with his legs wide apart and his hands on the hips. In a side view,
the Universe is? like one and a half mridanga (longish drums) put
together, i.e., the half being placed below and with its sounding side
upwards next to the lower sounding side of the full drum. It is
not hallow but is solid, as if stuffed full of flags, in the curious
language of Triloka Sara. Gatha 6.
The Raju.
The Raju is really indescribable. It is equal to a seventh
part of the base of the Universe. To understand the details, one
must have some idea of the four terms Pal/va, Asa'nkhyata, Ghanangula
and Ardhachchheda.

( 3 )
The Jaina measures of time and space are as follow i-—
As explained below Vvavahara Palya is
used for numbering the hair-ends, Uddhara
Palya for numbering Continents and Oceans,
and Addha Palya for calculating the duration
of â–  Karinas, and of the ages of celestial or
hellish beings.
An atom, paramanu is defined as the
smallest particle of matter, which can not
be sub-dividc-d by water, fire, or any of the
finest or sharpest instrument, or by any force
of nature.
oc is the sign of Infinity, like an 8
placed horizontally.
oc2 represents infinite X infinite
matter atoms=la, Avasannasanna.
(Avas.anna=limit terminal)—
Ava as a perfix means small, and
Sannam literally means a small quan-
A'=a a is also used as a diminutive
Ava-Sanna-Asanna is thus a very very
small quantity. And an atom is un-ima-
ginably small. The modern chemical or
physical atom is infinitely large compared
to an atom as postulated by Jains. Jain
philosophers have again dealt at brain-
racking length with millions of innumerables
multiplied by innumerable fold of infinity.
The modern mathematics stop at infinity;
whereas Jain mathematics begins with infinity
as a unit. Literally speaking therefore,
Jain mathematics begins where modern
advanced mathematics ends.

( 4 )
To proceed—
8 Avasanna-sanna
8a ~ 1 Sannasanna
8a = 1 Tritarenu
8t = 1 Trasarenu
8tr = 1 Ratharenu
is denoted by a
s is denoted by .s
t is denoted by t.
tr. is denoted by tr.
r is denoted by r.
8r = 1 Hair-end of a 7 days old lamb, born in
o II. U. = 1 ,, ,, ,,
8 II. Til. = 1 ,, ,, ,,
8 h> j‘ ~1 » 55 55
8 /z. k. =1 Nit. (leek) n.
Uttama-bhoga-bhumi (h.u.')
Madhyama-bhogabhumi (/z. nz.)
Jaghanya-bhoga-bhumi (Ji. jj
„ Karma-bhumi, (h. k.)
8 n. =1 Sarson, Rape-seed, r. s.
8r.s. =1 Barley (b).
8 b. =1 Utsedha finger (u. f.); utsedha (literally height,
thickness, fatnees, protruding, rising upwards or outwards).
500 w./.«=l Pramana finger (p. f.) It is used in measuring
continents, oceans, rivers and lakes etc.
1 Atma-angula, own finger (o. f.). It is the own
finger, at “any particular time, of people in Bharata and Airavata
regions. Bows, utensils, ornaments, houses, gardens etc. arc measured
by this. Wc shall use (f) for this.
6/ ==1 pada foot (p.)
2 p =1 span (sp.)
2 sp = 1 cubit (r).
2 c =1 visa (r).
' 2v =1 bow, dhanusha (dhl).
2000z//z=l kosa (£).
4 k =1 yojana.
' Dig a pit in depth and diameter=l Pramdna Yojana or maha-
yojana=2000 utsedha Kosa.
Fill it extremely tightly packed with h. u. s. (z.r., hair-ends of a
7 day’s old lamb of uttama-bhoga-bhumi} level with the earth’s surface*
The volume of the pit is (where r=radius and h=depth). tt r2h.
In Jain works n has been taken to be equal to yTO. This is
a surd or irrational quantity. Its exact value can never be
obtained. The approximate fractional value is obtained according
to the rule stated below:—
To find out the value of a square root surd, take the nearest
part of the quantity which will on extracting the square root yield

( 5 )
n integral result, ancl add to it the remainder divided by twice
hat integral result.
1 1 19
= 3+2x3 ~3 + 6"?
According to the algebraical rule for expansion of a Binomial
/ , . 1 | Confining
\ ’*'2x9/ terms of t
= 3
i(|_l) (i_2) 1 , |
Ll A93_r......../
; the calculation to the first two
the expansion, the succeeding terms
being very small quantities.
-3_n 3 i 1 19
3 + 2x9“3+2x3 --6.
The first approximation of y'10, expressed fractionally, accord-
ing to the rule enunciated by"Jain Acharyas has thus been shown
to be the same as obtained by modern zMgebraical calculation.
The volume of the cylindrical pit is n r2 h, where 77 = -\/10=,9
r is the radius, and h the height.
Substituting the values given above, the volume is
6“X (j)2X 1 = ’-y X|=ff- cubic, yojans.
The h. u. s. in it are—
(43x 6x87x 106)3
=6-^4 (6x4x4ax87xl0«)3
=€^4 X 6x 4x 62x 42x 46x 821 X 1018
= 19x 62x 24x 212x 263x 1018
= 19 X 62X 216X 263X 1018 (216 is called. Pannathi.)
— Pannathi x 32x 22X 263x 1018x19
= Pannathix 32x 264x 2x 1018x 19 246 is called Ekathi,
= Pannathix Ekathi x 18 x 1018x 19
= 65536x 18446744073709551616X 342x 1018
= 413452630308203177749512192 with 18 zeros after it.

( 6 )
Take out one hair encl (h. u.) in 100 years. The time occupied
in emptying the pit in this manner is called one Vyavahara Palya.
It is 41345263030820317774951219200000000000000000000 years,
viz., a terms of 47 figures with 20 zeroes, which can hardly be
expressed in words.
Paly a, means a sack of corn; and
Sagar a, an ocean.
Vyavahara paly a is reckoned in the manner detailed above;
and the time thereby occupied is called Vyavahara Palyopama, and
is used for calculating age.
To calculate an Uddhara Paly a. Break up each hair end in
the above pit into as many parts as there arc instants in a period
of innumerable years.
Then take out each broken hair-end in 100 years.
The time taken up in emptying the pit is an Uddhara Palya.
Reduce the years into instants {Samayas) on the data given
1 year == 2 ay ana (six months).
1 Ay ana = 3 ritu (season).
1 ritu = 2 masa (months). -
1 masa = 30 ahoratra (day and night).
1 ahoratra — 30 muhurta.
1 mulidrta = sankhyata avali.
1 avali = Jagahanya Yukta-Asankhyata Samaya (Instants).
Addha Palya. Take the instants of Ksankhyata years; multiply by
the instants of Uddhara Palya.
The product is the number of Samayas of Addha Palya.
The years in an Addha Palya are thus a very big innumerable,
Sagar a, 10 crore crore Palya of any kind make a Sagaropama of
the corresponding kind. The Sagara is also of the three kinds
mentioned with reference to Palya, viz.
Vyavahara Sagara, Uddhara Sagara and Addhb Sagara.
Suchyangula {Linear finger'}. Addha P'alya being raised to the
power of its number of halvings {ardhachhedas} is one Suchyangula.
It is the number of spatial units in that part of space which is one
Pramanangula long and one spatial unit {pradesha) in breadth.
Pratarangula. (square finger) is the square of Suchvangula.
Ghannagula. (cubic finger) is the cube of Suchydngula.

( 7 )
Jagat Shreni. Divide the number of halvings of one Addha
Palya by innumerable Ghanangula raised to the power of the quotient.
It is Jagat Shreni=7 Rajus.
Jagat Pratara is the square of Jagat-Shreni—A§ square Rajus.
Loka Ghana is the cube of Jagat-Shreni—'iA'i cubic Rajus.
Asankhyata is an innumerable number. There are many
kinds of Asankhyata. For details see Jain Gem Dictionary
Appendix B.
Ardhachheda of a number is the number of times that number
can be divided by two: i.e., it is the number of its halvings, or simply
its halvings.
Now let Addhh Palya =* P
Ardhachheda ofP =P. h.
Then Ghana-Ahgula =cube of a Suchi-Angula= (PPH)3
Now we get the base .of the universe, If we raise a Ghana-
angula to the power of the quotient obtained by dividing the halvings
of an Addha Palya by Aasankhyata.
Base of the universe or Jagat Shreni is thus—
= p! ph2=7 Rajus.
.‘.One Raju=’ Pa
To illustrate the huge extent of Raju,
let P =16
A = 2
Then Ph = 4, and 2
One Raju =|X P'Ph2
= 16
= 2
= 4, and 2
=TX 161 16
= 1X1624
=_>x 232x 264
= lx Badala x Ekatthi.
Badala is the technical name for 2 raised to the power 32.
Ekatthi is the square of Badala, i.e., 2 raised to the power 64.
There is no lower countable number than 2, When the huge
innumerable A is taken to be 2, and the huge Innumerable Palya
is 16, then the Raju is the tremenduous figure above. When the
true value of palya and asankhyata is considered, all that we can say
of the Raju is, that it is indescribable, almost inconceivable,
(Trilolqi-Sara Gathas 7, 8 and 92).

( 8 )
The Dimensions of the Universe.
The height of the universe is 14 Rajus. Its breadth East to
West is 7 Rajus at bottom, one at Middle, 5 at the upper middle
and again one at the top. Its thickness North to South is 7 Rajus
all through.
From tjiis it is easy to arrive at the following conclusions.
The Base Line, Jagat Shreni is 7 Rajus.
The Base Area, Jagat-Pratara is 72=49 square Rajus.
The volume of the universe Ghana-Loke
is volume of the upper part-{-volume of the lower part—■
= 7/ 7x 5+1 7 7 | (7 x3) + (7x4) | =7 (49)
=7x 72=73=-. 343 cubic Rajus.
The Siddha Kshetra.,
At the extreme summit of the Universe, there is situated Siddha
Kshetra, the abode of the Pure Liberated Souls. It is the goal of all
holy endeavour and the summum bonum of our wordly existence.
Here there is the eighth Earth. It is called Ishat-Praga-Bhar.
It is one Raju wide, 7 Rajus long and 8 Yojanas thick. In the
center of it there is a space of a diameter of 45 lakhs of Yojanas,
which is like a cupola or luminous inverted umbrella, 8 Yojanas
thick in middle. The thickness grows less and less till at the edges
it is like the finest feather of a fly. This is Siddha Kshetra. Its
diameter is, of necessity, 45 lakhs Yojanas, as it is reached by Libera-
ted Souls directly after their Liberation from all Karmas, which can
only take place in the human regions i.e., within the circle of the
Manushottara or cis-human mountain which bisects the third continent
{Dvipaj all along the width of its ring. The diameter of this circle is
45 lakhs Yojanas and it contains the first two Oceans and the first two
-and-a-half Continents, and is therefore called Adhai or Dhai-Dvipa.
The form of the Siddha Kshetra is like that of a canopy umbrella,
a cupola or an inverted cup. It is 8 Yojanas in the middle. It is
self lumnous. In it all Pure Souls abide in their eternal bliss, each
occupying space a little less than that occupied by the body in
which the soul last incarnated and from which it obtained Nirvana.
Being freed from Karmas, the souls rush on to this limit of
the Universe as there is nothing more, no weighing Karma, to keep
them down in Samsara. They rush up straight to the end of the
Universe, being assisted by Dharma, the principle or medium of
Motion, which is one of the six eternal, uncreated constituent's of
the Universe. This principle of Motion also coming to an end, on
further motion is possible. Therefore the souls must rest here for

( 9 )
ever. This they do. Their connection with, and their journey in,
the endless cycles of existence is over.
Someone may ask; What is Siddha-Shila? Is it supportless or
not? If it is so, how and why it is so? Is there light or darkness?
If there is light whose light is it How does that limited space
suffice for all the Jivas that are redeemed from mortal bondage?
And lastly, why should all the Mukta Jivas go to the same place and
not elsewhere? The answer is:—
The Siddha-Shila is the abode of the Liberated Souls. It is the
place in space in which all pure souls after shedding the last vestige
of Karmic matter stay for ever in their pure soulncss, in their true
and eternal, Omniscient and Omnipotent God-hood.
This place is situated at the summit of the Universe. Space
is divided into Loka (Universe) and Aloka (non-Universe). In
the Universe there arc the two eternal, un-created indestructible
Substances (Dravyas), i.e., the Living (Jiva) and the non-Living
(Ajiva), which with the five forms of the non-living, namely Matter
(Pudgala), Time (Kala), space (Akasha), and the principles or
Media of Motion (Dharma) and rest (Adharma) form the six
constituents of the Universe. These six substances are found in the
Universe, but not beyond it. There is no matter or soul, no motion
or rest in the non-Universe. The non-Universe is a negative
conception. It is not easy to describe it in positive terms. It is
absolutely unlike the Universe, with which alone we are familiar;
and in the terms of which alone we can affirm or deny anything
about the non-Universe. Therefore the easiest and the only waly
of forming some idea of the non-Universe is by considering the
Universe and then denying of the non-Universe all that we affirm
of the Universe. In one word, the non-Universe is the negation
of the Universe. It is what the Universe is not in its constitution
and character. Of course both are equally uncreated and eternal,
as both arc part of the one Substance, Space. But beyond this the
two arc entirely unlike each other.
Souls in the world i.e., in the Universe below the Siddha-Shila,
are weighed down with Karmic matter, like a clay-filled gourd at
the bottom of a brook. As soon as the gourd is free from clay, it
bobs up to the surface of the water. So the soul weighted with
the clay of Karma is in the brook of Samsara (mundane existence).
As soon a it is freed from Karma, it bobs up to the top of the Universe,
which is the crown and glory of the Universe. The Siddha-Shila
is the buffer space between the Universe, and the non-Universe.
It is called the eight Prithvi or Earth. Like the other seven
Earths, it is surrounded on all sides by the three envelopes of
Ghanodadhi (Humid), Ghana (Thick), and Tanu (Thin), Vata-Valayas
or sheaths of atmosphere. These three sheaths are its support and
surroundings, as they are also of the other Earths. (For details,
see Triloka Saraji). ...........

( 10 )
Light and darkness as such are purely material phenomena.
Light itself is only one of the six forms of matter, according to
Jainism. Western science approaches the Jaina idea in its cor-
puscular theory of Light. Now, we have seen above that the soul is
non-material (Amurta'). In its pure condition, it can be neither the
subject nor the object of material circumstance. This is the ultimate
difficulty which leads a weak confused soul to atheism. The right
x viewpoint is to realise the essential difference between soul and
matter, and between soul in its pure and in its embodied condition.
The soul is living, Life. Matter is dead, non-life. The Pure
Soul is all Pure Consciousness, Knowledge and Power; identical
with God. The embodied soul is the ray of God ensnared in matter;
the Purusha in the toils of Prakriti] the Para-Brahma deluded in the
embrace of Maya or Avidya] the unlimited soul limited by matter. If
these distinctions are not lost sight of, theological polemics disappear,
and calm knowledge leads to sweet reverence and peace of heart,
mind and intellect. Therefore to ask whether there is light or dark-
ness in Siddha-Shila is futile. Omniscience alone can answer its
how or why. But our partial knowledge also can show that this
question is really irrelevent, as by it we import material considera-
tions into a region which is not their proper domain. Whatever
light and of whatever kind, knowledge may be said to possess, that
light in its strongest, purest effulgence is ever the Light of Siddha-
The kinds of Soul or Soul-classifications, or Jiva Samasas
show us that the Soul with regard to space is infinitely elastic. The
same soul can be co-extensive with the bulky body of a mammoth,
whale or elephant, or with the small space occupied by a tiny
animalcula or even the most microscopic and invisible earth, water,
fire or air-embodied soul. Therefore the Siddha-Shila is surely
enough for all Liberated Souls. A very rough and incomplete but
graphic parallel is found in the material world also. The light
of a small lamp fills the whole space of a room. If another lamp is
put near the small lamp, its light also finds room in the same space.
An electric torchlight also finds accommodation in the same room.
The light from a passing motor, the broad beam of a searchlight from
a passing dreadnought, the blue flash of lightning from a stormy sky
may also come to crowd the room, and still no light is ousted.
Light is matter and still its elasticity is most accommodating, very
much unlike the teeming millions of the children of Adam and Eve,
who can migrate and colonise only at the cost of their poorer or
weaker sisters and brothers. From this it is not difficult to see
how all pure souls can occupy Siddha-Shila, without any trouble,
overcrowding or partitions.
All the liberated Souls must go to Siddha-Shila because it’, s
their nature to rise up and up and up in a straight line. They
thus rise to the highest point of the Universe, and rise no further
as there is no medium of motion in the non-universe,

( n }
The Three Atmospheres.
The Universe is surrounded by three atmospheres of different
thickness on all sides.
The three atmospheres, or Vata-valayas, or wind-sheaths arc :—
Ghanodadhi Vata-Valaya, very humid atmosphere,
Ghana Vata-Valaya, thick atmosphere,
Tanu Vata-Valaya, fine or rarefied atmosphere.
In the lower world at a height of 7 Rajus there are 7 Earths
at a distance of one Raju from each other. At the bottom of the
Universe, i.e., one Raju below the 7th Earth there is the base-line,
of the Universe. At the top of the Universe, there is the 8th Earth
containing the Siddha-Kshetra.
All these as also the middle and the upper worlds are enclosed
in the 3 atmospheres.
All the 3 atmospheres have an uniform thickness of 20,000
Yojanas each..
(1) Under each of the 8 Earths,
(2) Under the base of the Universe, and
(3) on the sides of the Universe from its bottom upto a height
of one R£ju.
Near the end of the 7th Earth, i.e., at a height of one Raju
from the base, on the sides, the thickness of the three Atmospheres
drops suddenly to the insignificant extent of 7, 5, and 4 Yojanas for
the 3 respectively. That is, the total thickness of 3 is 16 Yojanas.
Then it decreases gradually till a height of 7 Rajus from'
the base, i.e., on the sides of the first Earth its total is 12, being
5, 4 and 3 reespectively for the 3 atmospheres.
The total decrease is 16—12=4 Yojanas in a height of 6
Rifjus; therefore in one Raju it is 1 or j Yojanas. Therefore the
the total thickness of the three at the side of the different Earths is
as follows:—
At the sides of the 7th Earth it is
33 33 6th „ „
33 53 3 th ,, ,,
35 33 4th „ „
33 33 3rd ,, ,,
33 33 2nd ,, ,,
53 33 1st ,, ,,
16 Yojanas.
14f „
14 „
13j „
12f „
12 A
Then from the middle world upwards, it gradually increases
till at a height of 10| Rajus from the base, and 3| Rajus from the
middle World, it is again a total of 16, he., 7, 5 and 4 Yojanas for

{ 12 )
The total increase being 4 in 3| Rajus height, the increase
for one Raju is ®/7, for i Raju */? and for 1| Raju 12/7 Yojanas.
Therefore we have the total thickness at the sides of different Heavens
as follows:—
At the end of 2nd Heaven it is 133/7 Yojanas.
»> 55 4 th ,, ,, 153/7 ,,
5 5 5 5 6 th ,, ,, 16 ,,
Finally the thickness at the sides decreases gradually to 12
Yojanas at the top of the Universe.
Therefore it is as follows:—
At the end of 8th Heaven it is 15s/? Yojanas.
10th 35 55 H9/7
12th 55 55 14’/7
14th 55 35 13*/7
16th 55 35 13i/7
the Universe ,, 12
Above the 8th Earth at the end of the Universe.
The Ghanodadhi is 2 Kosa thick (2000 Kosa=l Yojana).
The Ghana is 1 Kosa
The Tanu is 1 Kosa-425 bows= 1575 bows (as 2000 bows==
1 kosa).
The Mobile Channel.
It is well known that Jainism recognises two very broad
divisions of living beings, those who, such as men and animals, can
flee from danger, i.e., move at will and therefore are called mobile
(Trasa), and those who cannot move, are called immobile (Sthavara)
like plants etc., etc.
Now ordinarily and mostly, i.e., except under very exceptional
circumstances the Mobiles are not found anywhere in the Universe,
except in the Trasa Nadi, or Mobile Channel.
This Mobile Channel is 13 Rajus and 8000 Yojanas high. It
is generally said to be 14 Rajus high. But this is inaccurate, as
beyond the 7th hell, there are no Mobile beings. It begins from
the summit of the Universe and descends to the level of the last Hell
in the last or the 7th Earth one Raju minus 8000 Yojanas above
the base of the Universe.
It is one Raju broad and one Raju long. Thus it is a square-
sectioned rectangle. In the Map of the Universe it is represented
by the space enclosed in the figure in the Centre and marked
SMN, NMS. It is most important to note that the map gives

(. 13 )
only a side-view of the Universe. It represents only a section of
the whole, which is 7 Rajus thick. That is,we must imagine this
view to go on extending solidly back for 7 Rajus to be a true re-
presentation of the Universe.
The whole of the Upper, Middle and Lower Worlds lie in
this Channel. Only the Nigoda forms of one-sensed living beings
fill the whole Universe, including the regions of the Mobiles also.
The Three Worlds.
The Universe as described above falls into three clear por-
tions : The Upper, the Middle and Lower Worlds.
The Upper World is represented by the upper Mridanga or
drum, or the headless trunk of the man akimbo, the elbows rep-
resenting the eastern and western limits of the last layer of the sixth
Heaven in the Celestial region, which consists of 16 Heavens of 63
layers, 9 Graiveyakas, 9 Anudisha and 5 Anuttra.
The Middle World is at the plane where the one full and the
one-half Mridanga meet, i.e., between the Upper and the Lower
World. This is the waist of the headless man standing akimbo.
It consists of innumerable concentric rings of Continents and
The Lower World is represented by the lower Mridanga or
the half-drum, or the lower half of the body of the man; the waist
being one-seventh part of the height from the ground to the waist
and of the distance between the two feet stretched wide apart. It
consists of 7 Earths, with their Hells of 49 layers.
This account of the Universe is most unusual. It seems to be
a ruthless negation of all our modern ideas of geography and
I am aware of the scathing criticism of Macaulay about a
century ago, when he wrote of Indian Geography as “made up of
seas of treacle and seas of butter”. Of course Lord Macaulay was
not an Orientalist except in the sense conferring the very fertile and
far-reaching gift of English education on a portion of the Indian
middle classs society. But the criticism is as superficial, as it is
fatuous. The names of Oceans in Indian and Jaina Geography
certainly bear the meaning of treacle and butter. But verily, here
if nowhere else; “What’s in a name?” We have our Red Sea,
White Sea, Black Sea, Yellow Sea, and Dead Sea, Mr. Fox, Hill,
Stone, Merrryweather, Crowe, Waterhouse Black, Coward, Boys,
Water-field, Cornwall, etc., etc., a thousand and one names bear-
ing meanings which can in no way be made applicable to the
persons or objects which are called by those names. This use of
words is recognised by Jainism as Nama-nikshepa or nominal aspect

of a thing, and guards against the fatuous fallacy of arguing from
the mere name of a thing.
But my aim in giving the Jaina conception of the Universe
in this small article is merely to record with accuracy a tradition,
which is at least 3000 years old, and which has been handed down
with an unbroken continuity and unimpaired wholeness in all its
details. Whether it is true or untenable, whether it is true literally
or only figuratively, the key of which figurative scheme is lost to us
nowr need not deter us from seeing fully in all its exactitude the
tradition itself.
It is merely in this spirit that I have given the Jaina idea of the
Indore, November 8, 1926.