Newspaper cuttings describing recent events in Madagascar

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Newspaper cuttings describing recent events in Madagascar
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Newspaper cuttings etc., describing recent events in Madagascar
Place of Publication:
Faravohitra, Antananarivo
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4 parts


Subjects / Keywords:
Madagascar -- History -- 19th century ( lcsh )
Merina (Malagasy people) -- History -- 19th century ( lcsh )
Madagascar -- Foreign Relations -- France -- History -- 19th century ( lcsh )
France -- Foreign Relations -- Madagascar -- History -- 19th century ( lcsh )
Temporal Coverage:
1883 - 1883
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Madagascar
Afrika -- Madagasikara
-20 x 47


On outbreak of Franco-Merina war 1883

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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Full Text
From April 21 to duly 17.
Plfce Twopence Halfpenny.

Extract from the “Republic Francais.”
Paris, April 21, 1883. Published by order of M. Cliallemel-Lacour,
Foreign Secretary.
Translated from a Berlin Newspaper,
Some English newspapers made lately the assertion that the French
press is now quiet about the Malagasy Question, but the press and
telegrams from the other side of the Channel do not follow our example.
They now commence to agitate by meetings, and bring pamphlets into
the campaign for the support of the Protestant Queen (of Madagascar)
in which they acknowledge her legal rights as Sovereign over the whole
island, and bring forward the black design of France. This new agita-
tion is for the purpose of preparing the German people and the German
Government for the visit which the Malagasy Ambassadors will shortly
pay the Court of Berlin.
We do not know what reception the agents of Ranavalona will
receive in Germany, but we assure our colleagues and supporters of the
Queen of the whole island of Madagascar, that if the French press take
up again the Franco-Malagasy Question, no one in France will agree
to give away those rights in Madagascar which we claim by treaties,
viz : the West Coast, and the East Point (?) in this part of the world,
which is also due to us by settlement, made two hundred years ago.
The Hova Embassy has made a treaty with the American Government
similar in form to the one which they have made with the English
Cabinet. We do not want to criticize the action of Foreign Governments,
but we give the London and Washington Cabinets to understand, that
the treaties which the Hovas found pleasure to make with,them are for
us null and void, because no one has a right over other peoples’ property.
No Power can with one stroke of the pen strike away the positive
rights of another Power. In former times the kings of England took
also the title of King of France, and this lasted until the last century.
But they never had the sovereignty over our forefathers. The Kingdom
of Jerusalem was given by Protocol to three European Sovereigns, but
neither had the power to reign in that part of the world. This is
equally the case with Queen Ranavalona,—she takes the title of Queen
of Madagascar, but she is only Queen of the Hovas.
Further, the English papers want to frighten us by saying that the
Court at Antananarivo are making great preparations for war, but to us it
is child’s play. Once for all, let us tell the Hovas that we do not want to
force our Protectorate on them; on the contrary we wish that they may

Proceedings on the North West Coast.
be quiet in their beautiful mountains, and keep to their holy Methodism
and enjoy with pleasure their old native customs. What we want is
that they shall have no more control over the custom houses and duties
on the coast. Our English neighbours caution us against the frightful
guerilla war which the Hovas will keep up ; we reply that we do not
fear it; for this reason, that we do not make war on Madagascar, and do
not mean to march towards the Capital; we only take possession of our
territory, and when there take police precautions, and if the Hovas go
against our law, we tell them first quietly, and if they persist we compel
them by force.
The official of the French Republic has orders to explain the Franco-
Malagasy Question to Prince Bismark as soon as the Malagasy Ambas-
sadors are in Berlin.
Extract from the “ Natal Mercantile Advertiser,” duly 11.
[Special Correspondent of Le Creole.']
Hell-Ville, Nosibe, Uth May, 1883.
Monsieur le Directeur.
Scarcely had the Nievre left Nosibe for Reunion (25th April) than
the Vaudreuil anchored in our harbour. This vessel informed us that
the Flore was at Mayotte, and would shortly be in our waters. This was
something certain. The frigate arrived at Nosibe on the 30th April. To
describe the reception offered to Admiral Pierre would be difficult,—'his
welcome was most cordial, and the population all wished to be present
at the official reception, which was made to him on the 2nd May by
the Commandant of Nosibe.
The Beautemps Beaupre arrived on the 3rd May; so that excepting
the Boursaint, gone on a mission to the East Coast, and the Forfait, left
for Reunion, we had in our port at Hell-Ville the whole division of the
Indian Ocean.
By a very fortunate circumstance the Queen Binoa was staying at
Hell-Ville. She made a point of paying a visit to Admiral Pierre, who
received her on board his ship with the greatest cordiality, and shewed
her his frigate. After that the Queen and her suite left for Ambavatobe.
The vessels of the division remained in the harbour uhtil the 7th May.
Nothing was known of the projects of the Admiral, nor of the orders he
had received from home. On the morning of the 7th, what was the

Proceedings on the North West Coast.
astonishment of the population on perceiving that the Flore and the
Pique had disappeared during the night, in the deepest silence,—the
Admiral and Mr. Campristo put out to sea. Where were they gone ?
Nobody could guess.
On the morning of the 8th another surprise. The Beautemps Beaupre
and the Vaudreuil had also disappeared. Conjectures were rife.
Everyone thought that the vessels were afar off, whereas they were
close by in the Bay of Pasandava. In fact, in the course of the day
(bear in mind the date, the 8th May, when the first cannon shot was
fired) the noise of cannonading was heard in the inland part of the bay,
and very soon a column of thick smoke rose in the air. ItwastheHova
post of Ambodimadiro which was burning. A few hours after the post
of Ampasimbitika was also burning.
There was then no more doubt in the public mind as to the orders
which Admiral Pierre was executing, viz., those of putting France in
possession of her territories on the North West Coast of Madagascar.
On the 9th May the post of Ambaliha was burnt down. On the same
day, the guns were heard on the coast of Anorontsanga; doubtless the
Flore was cannonading that port. On the 10th May, it was the turn of
Mahilaka, Ankingameloka and Anjangona.
The Bour saint came into harbour in the interval and left on the
night of the 9th and 10th, just as noiselessly as the other vessels.
Decidedly everything is wrapped in mystery. But the cannon shot
and the volumes of smoke do not leave us a long time in doubt; and
the boats and the pirogues arrive in great haste to inform us of what
is going on. On the 10th also occurred the burning of Bemanevika.
To-day two immense columns of smoke were seen in the morning at
Ambavatobe. This smoke appeared to us to rise from the villages situated
in the interior of the country. It must be the posts of Amboahangibe
and Beharamanay, perhaps also Anorontsanga, for the smoke was very
thick and appeared at a great distance.
It is impossible to describe the joy with which all this news has been
received here. You know the sentiment of the Nosibe people towards
us; and their reception of the news of the energetic, although tardy,
military action has been most enthusiastic. Our naval commanders
respected the Malagasy cases, and the rice magazines, the property of the
Indians and Arabs. They only destroyed everything which belonged
to the Hovas or even shewed marks of being Hova property. But
in truth, all that was Hova was destroyed with the greatest conscience.
He would indeed be very clever who could find any trace of a Hova hut,
or a flag-staff. Everything was demolished en regie.
As to the Hovas themselves, we will not speak of them. Our sailors
have until now found everything cleared out (place nette). Thus falls to
the ground the legend of the great Hova nation, forged, invented, and
imagined by the loyal English nation! Frenchmen, let this lesson serve
you as an example, and do not for the future believe the fabulous stories-

Proceedings on the North West Coast.
repeated to you by false friends, who hope that you will believe every
word of them.
. Now we must say that everything is very far from being settled.
Without doubt all the ports on the West Coast will be utterly destroyed,
just as those of the Bay of Ampasandava have been. I am quite sure
that those on the East Coast will be treated in the same fashion, so that
the Hovas will be totally driven away from the coast.
All that is very well, but that is not all.
This Malagasy performance is a scene in three tableaux.
The first has been the diplomatic action, which is finished. The
second is the present military action. The Third will be the organising
&nd administrative action.
This last will be the most difficult. It is not sufficient to take posses-
sion, it must be positively kept. It is there that lies all the chance of success
for the time to come. I hope that the military action will soon terminate.
Wise and energetic measures will be taken to occupy all the most import-
ant points of Madagascar. Mojanga and Tamatave are the two princi-
pal ones, for they command Antananarivo. The other places will come
in the second plan of action, but nevertheless they must be occupied.
Residents are required! they must be resident everywhere, with a
garrison to support them. Those functionaries will fulfil the office of
inspectors of native affairs, as in Cochin-China. At the beginning, they
must be strong, robust men, inured to the climate, and well up in the
history and customs of the natives. I know several, who could render
effective service. But I will stop here for to-day, and not encroach upon
matters in futurity.
Such are, Monsieur le Directeur, the grave and important facts which
I had to place before the eyes of your readers.
Extract from the “Natal Mercury.” July 11.
By Mauritius papers just to hand we have some Madagascar communi-
cations giving particulars of the French bombardment of the towns on
the North West coast. In the Planters' Gazette for May 28th we find
the following:—
The news brought on yesterday by the Art/o was not altogether unex-
pected. Our special correspondent at Antananarivo, the Capital, had
prepared us for such an event many weeks since. Besides, the despatch
of French war vessels (news of which has also reached us) seemed to
indicate some such action as that now reported. From the Capital we
have nothing later than the despatch of our correspondent of the 4th
The French Indian Ocean fleet, composed of the Nievre, Flore,

Proceedings on the North West Coast.
Beautemps-Beaupre, Boursaint, Forfait, Pique, under the command of
Admiral Pierre, left their rendezvous at Nosibe on the nights of 6th
and 7th inst. During the day of the 8th, firing was heard, and flames
seen on the Madagascar coast. These proceeded from the Hova posts
Ambodimadiro and Ampasimbe. Hence no doubt existed in the minds
of the French residents in the neighbourhood, that the Admiral had com-
menced operations on the North West Coast of Madagascar. On the
9th flames were seen proceeding from Ambaliha, and later in the day
firing was heard at Anorontsanga. The next day the Hova posts of
Mahilaka, Ankingameloka, Bemanevika and Anjangona were destroyed.
Again on the 11th flames were perceptible and firing heard from the
direction of the forts Amboahangibe, Beharamanay and Anorontsanga
It is added that the Malagasy houses, the rice stores, and the Arab and
Indian property have been respected.
From Hell-Ville, under date the 14th inst., comes the news of the
Beautemps Beaupre having called there for the garrison of that place*
and information from a private source is to hand, to the effect that
operations were about to be commenced against Tamatave. So that by
this time the important post last named will doubtless be in possession
of the French.
So enthusiastic are said to be the inhabitants of Reunion over the
news, that a volunteer corps is about being organized for service in
The correspondent at Nosibe of the Creole, a newspaper of Reunion,
writes under date the 11th May, as follows, relative to the bombardment
of the forts in Madagascar :—
Until the 6th May the French naval division of the Indian Ocean, with
the exception of the Boursaint and the Forfait, was in the harbour at
Nosibe. On the 7th, in the morning, two of the war ships, the Flore
and the Pique, had disappeared. On the 8th the two others, the Beau-
temps Beaupre the Vaudreuil, had also disappeared, when about noon
the same day the cannon was heard in Ampasandava Bay. The French
were bombarding the Hova station at Ambodimadiro, which was soon
destroyed, together with the station at Ampasimbitika. On the 9th
the post at Ambaliha and Anorontsanga ; on the 10th the posts at Mahi-
laka, Ankingameloka and Anjangona were set on fire. On the same
daytime village of Bemavenika was bombarded. On the 11th, the date at
which the correspondent of the Creole was writing, it was reported that
a few Hova villages in the interior were being destroyed.
The French action has been very energetic and very methodical.
Properties not belonging to the Hovas were scrupulously respected, as
also the rice and coffee plantations. In short, they only destroyed the
Hova military posts on the North West coast. The Hovas offered no
resistance, with the exception of the chief of the village of Bemaneorka,
who was killed with two other men.

Proceedings on the East Coast.
Extract from the “Natal Mercury,” duly 16.
Port Louis, July 7th.
The Taymouth Castle arrived here on the 1st inst. from Tamatave
with all the passengers booked for that port, who were unable to land.
They are now in Mauritius waiting the course of events in Madagascar.
Since the bombardment of Tamatave, Admiral Pierre has been carry-
ing things down there with a high hand. Tamatave has been declared
a French town, a mayor has been appointed, and martial law proclaimed.
On the 23rd June the English Consul, Mr. T. C. Pakenham, died at
Tamatave, after an illness of some weeks. The highest military honours
were paid to the Consul by Admiral Pierre and his officers, who graciously
allowed Captain Johnstone and the officers of the Dryacl to attend
the funeral;—nay, they did better still, they invited them. Admiral
Pierre, for reasons best known to himself, compelled all the consuls to
haul down their flags, and forbade their being hoisted until they had
been accredited afresh by their respective governments. It is currently
reported he even went the length of overhauling the archives of the
British Consulate, but this must be taken with the greatest reserve, as
no man, unless devoid of his senses, would dare to do anything of the
sort. One thing is certain, Tamatave, by a decree signed by the Admiral,
has been closed against the officers and men of the Dryad, all commu-
nication from the shore has been forbidden, and neither bread nor fresh
provisions are allowed to be sent off to the ship. Captain Johnstone is
Acting Consul, but, being detained on board his ship, his services arc not
very effective, as those who require him must go on board, and every
obstacle is placed in their way. The French say they are going to
chastise the haughty Hovas in their Capital. I wish them joy of their
trip, it would be foolish to attempt anything of the sort unless they start
with 15,000 to 20,000 men. They little know what is in store for them,
as there is no road, and the pathway in many places will barely admit
two men abreast. There are many rivers to cross without a single
bridge across one of them. The journey takes a running messenger from
seven to nine days going up, and it is doubtful if an army could do it,
under three weeks or a month. The health of the troops too during that
time would be very bad, as most of them at this season of the year would
be sure to be struck down with fever.
Captain Hay, of the Taymouth Castle, obliges us with the following
communication describing the bombardment of Tamatavc ; —

Proceedings on the East Coast.
Since the return here of M. Baudais, the French Consul and Commis-
saire of the Republic, eventshave followed each other in startling rapidity.
The S.S. Argo, on her return from the North, last voyage, brought us
the intelligence that the villages in Ampasandava Bay and the Hova fort of
Anorontsanga had been bombarded and occupied by French troops, and
on her departure from Nosibe, the Vaudreuil, French man-of-war, was
embarking soldiers and ammunition for Mojanga. The arrival of the
Flore here, carrying the flag of Rear-Admiral Pierre, confirmed this
news ; and a circular, signed by Admiral Pierre and Mr. Rallier, were
posted up at the French Consulate, to the effect that in the name of
France they have taken the town of Mojanga, and that customs dues
would henceforth be collected by the Commander left in charge of that
fort, and in case of refusal force would be resorted to.
On the 31st May, the Flore cast anchor here, and on the evening of
the 1st June the French Consul intimated to all the Consuls here, that
an ultimatum had been handed to the Governor of Tamatave in which
(as follows below) certain conditions were imposed, failing the accept-
ance of which by the Hova Government, hostilities would commence five
minutes after midnight of the 9th and 10th June. The conditions were
as follows :—1st. The recognition by the Hovas of all rights accruing to
France by virtue of former treaties, which the Hova Government had
repudiated. 2nd. The right of acquiring land. 3rd. An indemnity of
one million francs for claims made by French citizens for breach of
agreement by the Hovas.
When these extravagant demands were made known, all the European
residents here thought they would never be accepted by the Hovas, and
at once preparations were made by many of them for the outbreak of
On the 2nd inst., the Governor of the fort was informed that should
any preparations for defence be made by him previous to a reply being
given, the vessels then in harbour would open fire on the battery at once.
This intimation from the Admiral caused a panic amongst the native
population, and the wives of the Hova officers left the town immediately
for the interior. Wages of palanquin bearers increased fivefold over the
normal rate, which had only the effect of increasing the alarm amongst
the poorer classes. Great excitement existed for the first few days, and
it was with great difficulty that we could keep our servants from run-
ning off into the country. All the native labourers left, and in conse-
quence all business was paralysed.
After two days the commotion subsided to a certain extent, and those
that had only gone a little way into the country began dropping into
the town again. This was, however, soon arrested by the French Con-
sul causing to have posted at his gate that all French citizens would be
received on board the men-of-war any time on Wednesday. Any
person not having gone on board by that date would run the risk of not
being able to embark at all, as the Admiral would not be responsible

10 Proceedings on the East Coast.
after that date. This announcement (as was intended) caused a general
rush to the beach of men, women, and children, anxious to get on board
out of harm’s reach. The panic extended to the British subjects ; fortu-
nately H.M.S. Dryad was at their disposal. The exertions of Captain
Johnstone to inspire confidence in the men that they would be perfectly
safe on shore appeared to have no effect, and the manner in which strong
young men rushed off, pushing and hustling each other in their attempts
to get into the boats, was ludicrous. Their ideas as to what was required
on board was amusing, some carrying immense arm-chairs, a dozen of
which would fill the Dryad’s decks, others with guns and revolvers, as
if they contemplated a sporting expedition. A few Englishmen (it is as
well to state here that no British-born) went on board; some French,
a German or two, and notably an Afghan from Cabul, remained on
shore, as also all the Consuls very kindly offered refuge to any one caring
to stay at their respective consulates during the impending crisis.
The excitement in the town being so great, Captain Johnstone, of the
Dryad, thought it advisable to send a guard of 19 marines for the British
Consulate. These came on shore on the 7th June, and a steam cutter
and pinnace was placed at the disposal of anyone caring to embark,
which stayed moored near the landing place night and day, in case of
any outbreak of the populace. This spirited proceeding on the part of
Captain Johnstone appears from the future proceedings of the French
Admiral to have been very displeasing to him, as you will note further
on from his action in regard to the police arrangements of the place.
At 7 p.m., Saturday, the 9th, the reply to the ultimatum was received
by the French Consul, who immediately informed his colleagues that a
negative answer had been given, and in consequence he was about to
proceed on board the Flore. At 9 p.m. he, with the other French offi-
cials and a few remaining citizens, embarked on board. The few of us
now remaining on shore expected to hear very shortly the booming of
the French artillery. We were, however, disappointed that night, and
had to be content with watching the electric light on board the Flore
illuminating the coast from Point Tanio to Hastie Point. The electric
light was regarded by the natives with awe; I heard one of them say
that the white men had caught the comet and had brought it with them
to fight them with ; another replied that he thought that the French
were attempting to fire the town with it.
At daybreak, Sunday morning, all of us on shore were eagerly watching
for the French to commence hostilities. The Nievre it was noticed had
moved during the night from amongst the other shipping, and was seen
anchored off the Southern reef, half a mile away from Hastie Point. The
other vessels composing the French fleet, and all stationed north of the
Custom House Point, were the Flore, Forfait, Creuse, Beautemps Beau-
pre, and Lutin. The latter named vessel happened to pass through t]he
harbour about three weeks ago, and was then called the Boursaint. She
came in the night previous to the bombardment, and it is supposed that

Proceedings on the East Coast. 11
during the night her old name had been painted over and Lutin in-
scribed over it. She had a false bow affixed to her since she was here
before. The deception was discovered at once by the officers of the
Dryads and I have not heard the statement denied.
At 6.30 a.m. a warning shot was fired by the Boursaint, and imme-
diately huge tricolour flags were hoisted on all the masts and spanker-
booms of all the French men-of-war in the harbour. After an interval
of two minutes the Flore fired the first shell at the battery, apparently
doing no mischief. Immediately all the other vessels opened fire, which
was carried on with great rapidity for nearly two hours. The Crease,
transport, with French refugees on board, was throwing shells into Tanio
Point and the village of Ampanalana, some four miles distant from
About 5 minutes after the firing of the first shot an explosion took
place in the Custom House, where were about 200 casks of rum, fortu-
nately only two casks exploded; these, however, helped to spread the
fire, and but for the energetic action of some employes of Roux de
Fraissinet & Co., the premises of that firm, as well as other large pre-
mises belonging to other Europeans, would soon have been reduced to
ashes. The Hovas had evidently prepared for setting fire and doing as
much injury as possible, as a bag containing powder, cartridges, and
spear-heads was found very near the place where the torch was applied.
This was followed in a few minutes by two more attempts in different
parts of the European town, and I thought then, as I was on the roof of
a high house and had a good view of the town, that the whole of Tama-
tave would soon be enveloped in flames. Happily the rain that had
fallen during the night, and the direction of the wind, helped to keep the
fire under, and in a short time our anxiety was over for a while.
The fifth or sixth shell from the Forfait fired the market, and great
destruction would have been caused if some Europeans, assisted by one
or two Malabars and three or four of the British guard, had not extin-
guished sufficient of the burning timber, and by pulling down fences to
arrest the further progress of the flames. Whilst we were occupied at
this a shell from one of the French vessels entered a house about fifteen
yards ahead of us, upon which we thought it prudent to retire. Our
exertions had prevented any further spread, we were pleased to see,
when we returned there shortly afterwards.
From 8.30 to midday the firing from the ships was irregular, and
evidently not directed at the battery. The Hovas were seen to clear out,
of the fort at about 7.30, in good order, deploying in two columns, and
going westwards to a fort about five miles inland. The Hovas did not
fire one shot in reply to the French guns.
After 12 and until evening one shot per half hour was fired by the
ships in the direction of Manjakandrianombana, the fort the Hovas were
supposed to have retired to. The shells as far as could be seen failed
to reach that place.

Proceedings on the East Coast.
During the day Admiral Pierre informed all the Consuls that a fire had
broken out in the market, through the act of an incendiary, and that as
Captain Johnstone, of the Dryad, had landed troops to guard the British
Consulate and property, he assumed the responsibility of any injury done.
All of us on shore were anxiously expecting the French troops to land,
after the Hovas had cleared out, and take possession of the town and
fort, in order that pillaging and firing the town would be put a stop to;
but now the French Admiral sent word to the French House clerks on
shore, that, if they would guarantee that the Hovas had actually evacua-
ted the battery, he would immediately land 800 men. This unreasonable
request of the Admiral’s to ask civilians to risk their lives to see if any
Hovas were in the fort was of course not complied with, so that for
another night we were at the mercy of any ruthless marauders that
might, under cover of the night, plunder and fire the town.
At dusk our fears were, we thought, about to be realised, as we saw
to the West an immense fire break out, petroleum oil having evidently
been used, as in the space of two minutes a line of fire nearly a mile
long was clearly discerned. Many maledictions were in that juncture
uttered against the Admiral leaving us so helpless. We soon found out
that the fire was in Ambatomainty,—a stockaded village adjoining the
battery, and where all the soldiers lived; and, a new village on the
outskirts of the European town. The fire raged for two or three hours
but again the rain and wind stood our friends, and we were thus saved
from another attempt to burn us out.
Very little sleep was our portion during this night, and we were thank-
ful at break of day to see boats extending for some distance either side
of the Forfait.
From observation made the embarking on board the boats commenced
at 2 a.m. and at 6 a.m., the boats, about 40 in'number, filed in line, and
in passing the Boursaint that vessel opened fire on Hastie Point in case
the Hovas had congregated there and intended making a rush on the
troops landing, or opening fire on them from the battery; fortunate-
ly for the French, the Hovas did not make any resistance. The land-
ing was slow; 900 men landed, and it occupied 35 minutes before they
were formed in line. The landing was effected on the beach between
the British Consulate and the regular landing place. Three field pieces
were brought on shore and half-a-dozen Nordenfelts were in the bows
of as many boats ; after forming in line 150 men went round the South
beach with one gun ; the remaining 750 up the main street to the battery.
No opposition was encountered, and at 7.30 signalling on the Hova fort
flag-staff announced to us the entry in there of the French troops. To
our astonishment, the French flag was not hoisted, for what reason is
not known, although innumerable conjectures are rife.
At 8 a.m. I went round the battery, and although unable to enter the
fort, I surveyed the country round from the Belvedere of a missionary,
and with the aid of a telescope could distinctly see the Hovas evacuating

Proceedings on the East Coast. 13
Manjakandrianombana, the inland fort. Shells were thrown in that
direction by the vessels all through the day, but did not reach.
Directly after the flagless occupation was complete, about 100 men
patrolled the town and shot some half dozen natives alleged to be pil-
laging or setting fire to the town. No trial was given them, and any
native happening to carry anything, and, on seeing the patrols, attempt-
ing to run away, was immediately shot down.
During the night the Boursaint, and Beaut emps Beaupre left the
harbour, destination unknown, but supposed to be the Northern ports.
On Tuesday, the 12th, the Nievre and Forfait left here for the South.
Shortly after leaving, firing was heard and they were seen to be storming
the village of Ivondrona. During that day 150 troops left the fort here
for that place, but have not returned. It is said that they are making
fortifications there.
About noon the Nievre and Forfait returned, the former proceeding
North. She returned to port yesterday, Thursday. The Boursaint
returned this morning, so that all the original fleet is here with the
exception of the Beautemps Beaupre.
The French troops have been busy fortifying the battery, and all per-
sons are forbidden to go near it. An Hungarian was arrested yesterday
for being inside the pickets.
Every day there has been desultory firing from the ships.
To-day the flag was hoisted in the battery, and the Consuls informed
that they had no longer any jurisdiction in Tamatave.
Tamatave is said to be in a state of siege, and military law has been
All Africans and Asiatics are to be guaranteed by Europeans or they
will be expelled out of the European town.
July 17th.
The following is the decree of the French Admiral forbidding foreign
communication with Tamatave :—
The superior Commandant of Tamatave and of the state of siege.
Considering the laws of the 10th July, 1791 ; 24th December, 1811 ;
and 9th to 11th August, 1849, on the state of siege.
Considering the attempts made by certain officers of H.B.M. Sloop
Bryacl to hinder the course of justice, and to oppose the action of the
authority by substituting themselves for private persons in questions in
which they are in no wise personally concerned.
Considering the meddling (ingkrence') which Commander Johnstone,
of H.B.M. sloop Dry ad, has thought proper to permit himself by demand-
ing account of the military authority, with respect to the execution
of the special orders (consignes) of the place.

The Taymouth Castle at Tamatave.
The approach to the place of Tamatave is forbidden to every foreign
sailor, soldier or officer.
Tamatave, 21st June, Signed : Billard.
Important despatches pvt on board prom h.m.s. “ dryad.”
The following report was received on shore by Mr. D. C. Andrew, the
agent for the vessel, from Captain Hay :—
“ S.S. Tay mouth Castle.
“ H.M.S. Dryad and Dragon were both in Tamatave. The Consul
being dead, Captain Johnstone, of the Dryad, was acting. I was allowed
to see him once ; he was very kind but could do little for me. He told
me to be sure and not leave Tamatave without his despatches. I told
this to the French commanding officer. He replied that Johnstone must
send his despatches on board the Admiral’s ship first. Johnstone refused,
and signalled me to pass his ship and he would put his despatches on
board and see me safe to sea. He had steam up all ready and I feared
there would be trouble, but we got out all right.”
Mr. Andrew received a prior communication to the above from Cap-
tain Hay, in which he was told that the Taymouth Castle on arriving
at Tamatave from here, was boarded by a sentry from one of the French
ships, and the Admiral informed the Captain of the steamer that no pas-
sengers would be allowed to land;—the only man,permitted to go on shore
was Captain Hay. He was informed that the French were in possession
of the town, and that he could only land his cargo on paying duty. He
saw the consignees, who begged him not to land it, but take it on to
Mauritius, and this he did after receiving despatches, as related in the
foregoing report.
Extracts from the “ Mercantile Record, ”
July 4th.
The account in La Cloche being erroneous, we rectify it by the
following nctes, to complete it by the recital of events which have
been communicated to us by a letter from Tamatave which arrived on
Sunday by the Taymouth Castle.

t>iA.RY of A Resident in 1?amatave. 15
(1.) Mr. L. de la Couronne wore round his waist as a belt a french flag,
in the folds of which was a revolver.
(2.) So also Messrs. Andriani and Durbec.
(3.) A beautiful pencil of electric light from the Flore in the road-
stead of Tamatave, and another from the Nievre in the Bay of Ivondrona,
lighted up the town and surrounding country and allowed us to follow as
in broad daylight all these several incidents.
(4.) Three obuses, however, fired from the Nievre broke into two of
Mr. Laborde’s houses and a pavilion belonging to Mr. Arnulphy at the
South of the battery. These buildings were uninhabited.
(5.) It is only justice to say that the 30 English soldiers who had
been placed at Mr. Pakenham’s house by Commander Johnstone of the
Dryad, had received orders not to meddle in any way with the eventua-
lities ; but to protect English subjects and their property in case of
need. They kept the most absolute neutrality, and had no power
whatever to prevent the acts of evil-doers, as that was the duty of
Admiral Pierre’s soldiers.
It is justice to say that Mr. L. de la Couronne did not leave the
verandah of the Consulate which he had chosen as his post. Messrs.
Andriani and Durbec leaving him at this perilous post, went and
broke open the casks of rum at the Custom House, and so succeeded
in preserving Tamatave from fire. Mr. Andriani got some burns on
his foot from which he is still suffering.
Messrs. Andriani and Aime having remarked during Sunday that
the Hovas did not reply to the firing from the fleet, proceeded to the
battery, and Mr. Andriani, having assured himself that it was empty,
gave notice of the fact to Admiral Pierre, who was then enabled to
occupy it, which took place on the Monday.
The French found in the battery 4 (bourgois or rather
slaves of Hovas.) Two of them not being able to give a sufficient
excuse were immediately shot, and the two others having declared
that they came to steal, were punished and then set at liberty.
11th June. The occupation is now an accomplished fact-r-the ap-
pearance of the town is very different from what it was a few days ago—
no more Hovas—no more Betsimaraka in the now deserted street. It
is as if a deadly wind had blown here.
There are only sad countenances which circulate with apprehension ;
with the exception of a few ultra-French, no one seems to be really
satisfied. People speak almost in whispers, they seem afraid of allow-
ing their thoughts to be discovered. What is there then in the air ?
Do they already regret the former state of things ? We shall see.
Anyhow the wives of the vazahas are all gone into the country,
taking with them their slaves, their servants. The people of the South
who worked by the day on sugar and other estates, have also regained
their villages. It is perceptible. We have no servants, we make
shift for ourselves. Lucky are those who have been, able to keep any.

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave.
Where are the bearers offilanjana F We must all of us perform our
journeys on foot. It will be very fatiguing in this quicksand. I hear
musketry—What is the matter ? Are the Hovas taking the offensive
again? I run to ascertain. No, it is nothing. It is men, slaves of Hovas,
who are being killed ! Some were found stealing, others were sleeping in
the huts, and as martial law has been proclaimed, they are killed without
more ado. This, they said will produce a good effect. People are
frightened out of their wits at it. There are sinister reports in the air.
12th June. These reports have taken consistency. Tamatave and
its territory are in a state of siege—Africans and Asiatics are no longer
allowed to circulate after 5£ p.m. or before a.m. For ourselves the
liberty is extended to 8 p.m. and it begins at 6 a.m. This is a pretty
state of things, we are all under suspicion. Ah ! my good Hovas where
are you ? A mayoralty has been formed.
Mr. Raffray, ex Vice-Consul, is Mayor ; he has with him 4 Councillors.
Mr. H. Alibert Bonnemaison (French), Mr. Aitkin (English), Mr.
Sprague (American), this will make an excellent strong flavoured sauce.
Mr. Billard (Billiards), Frigate Captain, is appointed Commander of
the place of Tamatave. Look out for cannons. Mr. Boutet, Line
Lieutenant, Chief of Customs, &c. &c. We shall see how it will
go on. It is going on! Two individuals out too late were taken to the
customs post this evening and put in irons !
13th June. This morning they were liberated, their explanations
being satisfactory. One of them is a British subject, the other a Malagasy.
Here’s a mess—I had to embark some things, I go to the Custom House,
where I am informed I must first go on board the Boursaint and make
my declaration to the Boursaint and take out a shipping order.
I am obliged to submit, I proceed to the boating place. For the
journey I am asked $1.50 as it a long one. Having left the quay
at 9 o’clock I had only finished at a quarter past 11. Oh ! The French
Occupation, what an agreeable thing it is—what annoyances already!
My good Hovas, where are you ?
Great consternation ! Mr. Aitkin has been arrested as well as Mr.
Shaw. They were taken on board the Blore and kept prisoners. They
are to go before a council of war to answer certain grave accusations,
they say. Mr. Aitkin is accused of having received into his house mer-
chandise from the Custom House belonging to the Queen. Mr. Shaw
of corresponding with the Hovas, and also Mr. Pakenham of the same
offence. Very ugly for both of them. Mr. Pakenham will also be
arrested. The decree is signed but is not executed because he is ill.
He and the other Consuls no longer represent their respective govern-
ments here, their functions have ceased with the occupation. They are
Consuls only for the territories still belonging to the Hovas.
- People ask themselves in a whisper—what does all this signify ?—They
are afraid“—personal liberty is in great danger, for people are arrested
on simple suspicion«

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave. 17
Beef and other provisions are rising. Meat is sold at 8 cents a pound
and rice at 3|cents.
July 5th.
14th June. We are ordered to answer for our African and Asiatic
servants. We are obliged to go to the Town Hall and to the Battery
to make declarations. What trouble and annoyance!
The Touareg has just anchored, but not having a clean bill of
health from Mauritius, has been put in quarantine for 48 hours. The
Flore fires now and again on the fort of Manjakandrianombana situated
on a monticule at 3 kilometers to the North of Tamatave, to which the
Hova soldiers have retreated. They do not appear to suffer from this
cannonade. With a telescope it is easy to see them fly and conceal
themselves as soon as an obus reaches the ground. These obuses do not
generally burst on account of the nature of the soil, which is a very
fine and moveable calcareous sand, in which they bury themselves.
15th June. The French, numbering about 200, left the fort this
morning for Ampanalanaj on the Mahanoro road, about 2 miles from
the fort on the sea coast, and inhabited by Hovas. It is a village of
about a hundred houses, some of which belong to French or Mauri-
tians. Mr. Rochery has a tan-yard there. The French burnt about 50
houses belonging to Hovas, and retired without having seen anybody.
There is a talk of 20,000 men, ready to march under the orders of
the Prime Minister in person to dislodge the French from Tamatave.
I do not believe it. The Prime Minister cannot leave the Capital.
His position depends on it. He would not be able to return • there,
for a revolution would break out immediately on his departure and
the numerous party hostile to him would seize on the government.
The Fort was attacked yesterday evening by the Hovas, they had
arrived at the entrance gate; but a lively volley of musketry and a
few shots from a mitrailleuse S'W drove them away.
16th June. The Touareg's quarantine was raised to-day at noon.
All the indigenous population, male and female, except a few servants,
have left for the interior, to be sheltered from bullets. We cannot
blame their prudence, for if they remained at Taroatave, they would
be suspected by the Hovas who, if their town were restored, would not
fail to oppress them on the pretext that they had favoured the vazahas.
They undoubtedly have a preference for the French. If they could
be assured that' the latter would keep the country, a great many would
offer their services, and ask for arms to fight against the Hovas, whom
they detest, but whom they fear.
17th June. The French are actively pushing on the work of arming the
Fort. The trees around and in front of the battery, which was masked
towards the sea, have been cut down. All the neighbouring places, far
off’ into the plain, have been cleared so that the enemy’s approach may
be seen when he comes. The guns and mitrailleuses are mostly pointed
to the road to Ivondrona and the Hova Fort.

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave.
18th June. Since the 15th, the British Consul Mr. Pakenham is
ill. He does not receive. He is said to be very bad to day.
19th June. Yesterday, between 5 and 6 o’clock in the evening, a
French officer and soldiers knocked at Mr. Pakenham’s door; as he
did not answer, they knocked louder and threatened to break open
the door. Mr. P.had just taken a bath and gone to bed, and was
slumbering when-his wife in a fright ran and told him that they had
come to plunder the house; he got up, notwithstanding his weak state,
and went to the verandah into which the soldiers had just penetrated.
“ We have come,” said they, “ by the Admiral’s orders to make a search
for your Secretary, Mr. Andrianisa.” Mr, P. could no longer stand
upright, he sank into an armchair and pointed out to them where Mr.
Andrianisa was, who was living in a house near the battery. Mr.
Pakenham was carried to his bed never to rise from it again
20th June. The doctors of the French ships, called in consultation
by the doctors of the Dryad, have declared that Mr. Pakenham cannot
be cured. There is a report that Mr. P. will be banished for partici-
pating in the acts of Mr. Shaw. The decree of expulsion is signed, it
is said, and will be executed to-morrow morning.
Beef is now 6d. a pound and onions a shilling. Oh, a pretty thing it
is, a town in a state of siege! We might, however, be easily victualled
if the Malagasy liked, for Ivondrona is free, and also all the way by sea
and land as far as Andovoranto. They have food and rice there in
abundance, as well as eggs and fowls, but fear cannot command itself.
They are afraid of the guns of the French, and the anger of the Hovas.
21st June. Mr. Pakenham is dead. As soon as his end was expected,
the Commander of the Dryad had caused seals to be placed on the
rooms which he used as offices, and on all the papers, which were
removed to his vessel.
Access to Tamatave is forbidden to sailors and officers of ships-of-
war of all nationalities. This has been decided in consequence of certain
acts committed by Commander Johnstone and his officers.
They had tried to give a lesson to the French, who have simply
consigned them to their vessels. Their fournisseur has been forbidden
to communicate with the ship or to furnish them with any provisions.
They receive beef only by the care of the French authority. They are
allowed neither bread or other fresh provisions, the little that remains
is reserved for the French troops and the population of Tamatave.
I already thought we should have to look out for Mr. Billiards’ (M.
Billard) cannons. Here is one I think which must astonish the English.
Mr. Aitkin has been released for want of proofs. He keeps his seat at
the Council of Five. It is not therefore a disgrace as was supposed.
22nd June. The English Consul died in time to avoid the pain of
expulsion. The order had been given yesterday to expel him under
any circumstances; but he would not give that satisfaction to the
French, and has timely left for the world of spirits.

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave.
Mr. Shaw remains a prisoner and will not be released. No one can
guess what will be decided; the French officers preserve the most
absolute silence on the subject.
The refugees from the Capital are arrived.
23rd June. Mr. Pakenham’s funeral took place this morning. All
Tamatave was there—Never doubtless had such an imposing ceremony
been seen before at Tamatave. Unfortunately the heavy rain came to
throw the ranks into confusion.
I saw Father Cayeux this afternoon. He tells me their journey was
forcedly long because they had, at two days’ march in front of them,
1500 Hova troops, who were proceeding by short days’ inarches to Ta-
matave, and because Ralay and the men, who had to protect them, were
obliged to regulate their pace by that of the above troops ; that during
the whole journey they had been well treated and fed ; that they only had
a moment’s apprehension on leaving the Capital, when a few individuals
had come forward and pulled their beards, but without, however, doing
them any harm. At Ivondiona their guides left them, being on French
A misfortune has just happened. A few French traders had asked
permission to go to meet the travellers, and were accompanied by a Mala-
gasy of St. Marie, a very nice obliging man. Arrived at Manareza, a
sentinel, who had not been warned, called out to them to halt. There
being a strong breeze, they did not hear and continued their
march. But a musket shot tired into their midst brought down the
poor Malagasy, when as the sentinel was taking aim again, they
made signals to him and turned round with the wounded man in their
arms. The poor creature died as soon as they arrived at the battery.
24th June. I forgot to note that yesterday Mr. Billiards (Billard)
made a famous stroke, a magnificent cannon. Mr. G., Mr. D., Mr. L.,
and Mr. W., had business at the battery, and I myself happened to
have been there for about half an hour waiting for the Commandant.
The latter arrived at last and I got the permit for which I had asked.
Mr. D. and the others thinking to obtain without difficulty the same
favour made their requests, which, each in their turn, were refused. Mr.
G. had however already received his pass when Commandant Billard
said to him: “But where do you want to go?” “To Mahasoa,” was
the reply.—“Mahasoa ! Wait a bit, is not that the property of the Prime
Minister?—Yes, it belongs also to Mr. Procter.” “ Give me that per-
mit,” says Mr. Billard, taking it and tearing it up.
“ Be off with you,” said he to Mr. G. “ Are you a spy of the Hovas ?
How can you think of coming to ask me for such a permission.” The
others were no better received. Mr. L. could not even formulate his
request.— “ Be off with you,” he was answered, “ you are an indiscreet per-
son.” He had had the misfortune to stand too near a soldier. Mr. W. was
threatened to be put in irons. Ah ! my Hovas, where are you ? Certainly
you would never have thought of making such a cannon !

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave.
26th June. A Betsimisaraka has just arrived from Fenoarivo.
He traversed the Hova camp and describes them as being demoralized;
he estimates them at about 2000 men. He brings letters and news from
that post. The French have bombarded it as well as Mahambo and
Foul Pointe; but the projectiles have done no harm to the Hova forts,
which are at a certain distance from the sea, and are scarcely visible.
As the Beautemps Beaupre fired without distinction on the villages of
these posts, the houses of the vazahas as well as the huts of the natives
were struck—there were a few fires, but no one killed. Moreover the
only object of the demonstration was to make an impression on the
Hovas ; this object has not been attained, for these simple people seeing
the small effect of the cannonade on their poor fortifications, imagine
that the French have considered them impregnable, and have retreated.
The French residents of these places have not been interfered
with by the Hovas, and no notice has been given as to their future
motions. Yesterday there arrived by the Venus, from Mahanoro, 20
or 25 French and Bourbonnais, not expelled from that port as has been
said. They left Mahanoro of their own free-will on account of all
Malagasy being forbidden on pain cf death to serve them, or sell
them anything whatever. The order of the Prime Minister to all the
Governors is precise.
They are enjoined not to ill-treat the French, but not under any pretext
to allow them to be furnished with provisions or servants. It is also
forbidden to export bullocks, rice, or other provisions, whether on
French, English or other ships. The only articles allowed to be ex-
ported are skins, wax, india rubber &c.
More refugees have arrived to-day by lhe Countess and confirm the
above. They add that the Governor was very gentlemanly and allowed them
to take a few provisions, notwithstanding the orders from the Capital.
Captains Hacquart of the Venus and Kault of the Countess were very
kind to them and received them on board their ships without making
them pay anything. This does them great honour.
We had a dreadful alarm last night, which it is to be hoped, with
the precautions taken this morning, will not happen again.
The Hovas to the number, it is believed, of 700 or 800 had glided,
favoured by the night and at the moment of moonrise between 11 p.m.
and midnight, along the coast of the Bay of Ivondrona, and masked by
the trees of the cemetery, being protected by the noise which the sea,
(always heavy at that place) makes as it breaks on the sands—had
reached unperceived the dwellings of the southern part of the town.
There, commencing a hot discharge of musketry on the houses, and
setting fire to the huts with the evident intention of firing the town,
they were on the point of proceeding farther, when the post of soldiers
from the Customs arriving at racing pace made them retrace their steps.
They had however already wounded Mr. Wickers, who had the
first joint of his thumb carried away, and his son, a little boy of 11, was

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave. 21
wounded in the breast. They were, however, in the interior of their
house, which belongs to Chief Judge Philibert, but the house, being
walled with bamboos, was easily penetrated by the bullets. Mr.
Wickers is one of the ultra-French party, and one of the 64 who
signed the petition to the Senate demanding the taking possession
of Madagascar. His son, after the skirmish, was taken to the house
of M. Baudais, the Commissioner of the French Republic, where he is
well taken care of. This morning he is better. I have just sent to
ask; there is no danger; the bullet had only slightly penetrated the
breast, making a rather deep furrow in the left breast, and then escaped.
To return to my Hoyas. Some soldiers from the Fort on their side,
having made a sortie, took the enemy in flank, they did not get away
however without firing a volley on the post of the Custom House. They
had the honor to wound a pair of white trowsers, which were hanging on a
cord, and which they had taken for a man. This is the only wound made
by them since the hostilities on the North West Coast. At the same
moment the Flore lighted up the scene with her powerful electric light.
The dismayed Hovas fled back by the same road by which they came,
strewing it with their dead. Arrived on the plain and out of Tamatave
they were swept by the mitrailleuses of the fort. In less than an hour
all was over. The Hovas lost from 20 to 25 men. Some people say
more than 100, but this is exaggeration.
27th June. Yesterday the Taymouth Castle arrived from Natal
with passengers (mostly English missionaries); but communication
with the shore was refused to this steamer, which appears to be a fine
vessel. The Admiral had two sentinels placed on board, and a boat
from the Flore with two sailors, is also made fast near the ladder.
It was said that the Malagasy Ambassadors were on board this
steamer and that they would be made prisoners.
Mr. Waterhouse, representing the Agents, went on board to receive
letters and to arrange with the Captain, but he had to return without
his letters, the Admiral having sent for the bags; they will not be
delivered until to-morrow at the Town Hall. This is very vexatious
for those who have goods on board; but, the Agents have said that
they will not be landed here, the Captain having the power, according
to his bills of lading, to take them on to Mauritius.
And then, what would be the use of landing goods at Tamatave ?
It would be a risk. Where are the buyers ? Where is the money
to come from ? Every one conceals what he has, in apprehension
of the future—it is a measure of prudence which cannot be blamed.
The physiognomy of Tamatave is very curious on account of the absence
of all movement. In the only street of Tamatave, (for I cannot call
streets all the lanes leading into it) from the landing point to the neigh-
bourhood of the battery, and indeed everywhere else, nothing is to be
seen but closed houses and shops, and a few persons grouped together
here and there and talking with a melancholy air.

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave.
Every one comments on the attitude of the French, but with prudence.
They ought, say the strategists, to make a sortie, dislodge the Hovas
from their positions and drive them back beyond Andovoranto to inspire
them with a salutary awe and allow of the arrival of provisions, and
of partially resuming traffic with the Hovas. They may be right, but
who would undertake to go and give the advice to Admiral Pierre or
his ferocious lieutenant Billard, who always looks at you with a savage
air when you happen to meet him, and who appears disposed to look
upon you as a spy? Brrr!............It makes my blood run cold; they
are so quick to shoot you.
There they are ! There they are ! They are crying out in the street.
What is the matter? Are the Hovas taking the offensive? I run
out quickly and instead of those warlike Malays, they are the workmen
that Mr. J. Dupuy had sent under the conduct of Mr. Berger Dujonet
to his plantation of Trianon, on the River Ivolina, who are come back.
They are surrounded. What news ?
“ Nothing good! We saw nobody on the estate except two wounded
guardians, one of whom had been cruelly mutilated! We shuddered
with indignation. The labourers, the employes are all gone, the huts have
been broken open and pillaged by the borizano and their masters, the
Hovas. All the things which could not be carried away had been scattered
about. We saw at the side of the river two watering pots which we know
belonged to one of the employes. As to the mill, the principal pieces
have not been destroyed, but all the copper and lead has been wrested
off and carried away ; a great many pieces have also been broken.
We went over the estate and found the canes in good condition.
They have cut down a few, but only to eat them—the rice and provi-
sions in the store have also been carried off. The plunderers have
done nothing else.
But have you visited Mr. Rogers’ estate ? Has it also suffered ?
No, we did not go in, as we were afraid of being delayed, and attacked
by the Hovas. But as the sugar-house and the estate-buildings are
a few paces from the river, we remarked that all the doors and windows
had been broken open, for pieces of wood were still clinging to the
hinges, it had the appearance of a place taken by assault and pillged ;
these big empty holes in the walls painfully impressed us, it was like
being in front of an immense skeleton with great dead eyes. The
pieces of the mill which were not broken down made the illusion com-
plete. Like Trianon, Avenir has suffered by its copper, lead, and
small pieces of machinery being gone.
Mr. Chardoillet’s dwelling has been completely pillaged, the broken
furniture is outside, the mattresses are destroyed and the cotton lying
about on the ground. It is a pitiful sight. The canes are still standing
and very fine, but they have bent. If they are not cut this year, even

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave. 23
in the case in which they could not be crushed, the next crop of 1884
will also be lost.
Most of all these poor sugar proprietors and small planters who,
before the occupation, were already discounting their profifts, find
themselves now on the borders of ruin, for with many of them these few
canes represent many a year’s labour and savings slowly amassed.
Melville belonging to Mr. Wilson, and Farandriana to Messrs.
Canot & Cie., on the river of Ivondro, have not suffered. The Hovas
have not been so far; but these estates will also be unable to crush
their canes. A few days ago some one said ; —“ Ah ! gentlemen! we
shall regret, and we already regret, the time of the Hovas. We were
happy under their rule. Except a few little annoyances when we wanted
to procure lands, which however we always succeeded at last in obtaining,
what have we to reproach them with ? We had the most absolute liberty,
even to ill-treat them. We could go where we liked and settle anywhere
in the island without asking anybody for authorisation. Did we think
proper to cut down a forest to plant coffee? Nobody interfered.
Fishing and hunting, no matter what destructive engines we employed,
were never forbidden. And for all that, what had we to pay but 10 per
cent in kind on every thing we imported, or in money on our exports.
And these 10 per cents ! Who amongst us did not always find means
often to reduce them to a derisory figure ? As for myself, I say the
good time is over, and I regret the Hovas.”
It was true, he said aloud what everybody was saying to himself.
Not that they regretted the action of the French, and did not desire
that the country should pass into their hands; but the state of siege
had taken every one by surprise, their interests were at stake, living
became difficult; people spent, in order to live, the little they had saved
with great difficulty, and nothing was sold.
The uneasiness occasioned by this state of things made people ingenu-
ously regret the past with its quiet and easy-going manner of existence.
I have already noted that several points on the East Coast have been
bombarded. It was an error to say that Ivondrona was of the number.
No point after Tamatave remounting towards the South has yet been
bombarded; on the North East Coast, the places after Fenoarivo have
not been either, but they will be before long, as I have heard said
by M. Baudais, Commissioner of the Republic.
Although Ivondrona has not been bombarded, it has been sacked by
the Hovas, who have broken into the houses, destroyed the furniture,
and carried off all they could make any use of.
People talk a great deal about Admiral Pierre. He received no body
except the ex-consuls on his arrival. He has alway remained on board
the Flore and does not even shew himself. His crew, except a few men,
have never seen him. Except the superior officers whom he receives,
those of inferior rank have no communication with him. One of the
consuls describes him as a man of a reserved and cold aspect, but

Diary of a Resident in Tamatave.
polite, and of portly mien; black beard, brown complexion, sober of
words, saying only just what is necessary. He is, they say, a Creole
of Martinique.
I have had an opportunity of hearing M. Baudais on the subject of
the rights and projects of France. “ We shall keep,” he says, “ all that
part of Madagascar comprised between Mojanga on the North West
and the Bay of Antongil on the North East. They are altogether
French possessions, and we shall never give them up.
As to Tamatave we cannot as yet say anything, all will depend on
the Hova Government. We are unable to pronounce. But France
will be liberal, she will encourage the colonists and make concessions
to them. She will make no difficulties as to terms.”
That is plain speaking; so the inhabitants of Reunion and Mauritius
will do well to make their preparations. The times are come. Madagas-
car holds out a fine horizon to them. There will be room for all. But
they must be in no hurry about it. They must wait for permanent peace
and the return of the natives to labour. A small capital will also be
necessary for every trader, and above all habits of order and sobriety.
28th June. The Tay mouth Castle leaves for Mauritius in a few
instants. She takes a few passengers from hence, who are returning to
Mauritius to avoid useless inactivity. . . .......................
The French sentries are still at the ladder of the Taymouth Castle,
so I am not sure to be able to send my letter by her. They say how-
ever that at the Town Hall letters are accepted for Mauritius, and that
a mail is being made up at the Office there. They add that all letters
must be remitted open. I cannot believe that can be the case, and at
any rate I shall try and take mine there, and if they ask me to open it,
I shall refuse and bring it back again. You therefore run the chance
of not receiving these notes and the kind regards I send you herewith.