Material Information

Lokasara with an introduction and notes
Kan-daw Min-gyaung Hsayadaw
Wun Sin, Y.
Place of Publication:
British Burma Press
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
xxi, 126 p.


Subjects / Keywords:
Burmese poetry
poetry ( marcgt )
Temporal Coverage:
- 1902
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar
22 x 96


General Note:
Lokasara is a Burmese poetry text

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS, University of London
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
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404366 ( ALEPH )
652100202 ( OCLC )
GPC170 /231860 ( SOAS classmark )


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Full Text
Sub-Editor of Vernacular School Text Booksy Burma,
Education Department.
The VIIIth and IXth Standards,
Anglo-Vernacular Schools.

Owing to the absence of any good edition of the Lokasara, the
text book of Burmese poetry prescribed for the Eighth and Ninth
Standards, this book has been prepared and published under the
auspices of the Text Book Committee.
In preparing this work, I have taken the opportunity of ex-
amining with great care the original palm-leaf manuscripts with a
view to present the most authentic text of the work.
Communications with regard to any errors that may have crept
into this work, as well as suggestions for making a future edition of
it more useful, will be thankfully received.
Y. W, S.
Rangoon. I
The 15th October, 1897. J

This edition has been thoroughly revised and improved. Be-
sides the alteration in the arrangement of the introduction and
notes, many additional explanations and allusions, which were not
thought necessary in the former edition, have been given. All the
typographical errors and defects that existed therein, have been
corrected, and a full index of important words aud phrases has been
appended. The translation of the work was issued separately after
the publication of the first edition for the better understanding of
the meaning of the text, and it is not reproduced here.
Rangoon. )
The 30th November, 1902. I
Y. W. S.

Introduction ...
Index of Important Words and Phrases
. i to xxi.
, i—20.
2 1-120.
I 21 —126.

The word Lokasara is formed from two Pali words,
its purport and ‘ Loka,’ ‘the world,’ but here ‘ mankind’;
object. and ‘ sara’ ‘ essence.’ It literally means
‘ the essence of the world or mankind.’ In its wider sense,
it means ‘ worldly maxims.’ These maxims are intended
to inculcate the principles of morality in the everyday life
of an individual. This kind of literature has been popular
in all ages, and has served as a very useful means of in-
struction. It has, besides, great charm for the Buddhists,
for they believe that their future happiness depends on
. what they do in their present life. Nothing could therefore
be more subservient to their purpose than this sort of
literature, which lays down forthem in harmonious rhymes
rules of conduct, which are not unfrequently expressed in
metaphorical language, and which are to form their charac-
ter in this world, and to merit a better state of existence
in the future.
Of the exact date at which the Lokasara was written
Date and author, nothing is known, but that it was com-
shiP- posed in a very ancient time, we may con-
clude from the great number of archaic or Old Burmese
words, called Porana, found in it. No less uncertain is
its author. Various are the names suggested or conjectured
regarding it, but the name of Kandaw Mingyaung, who
was the tutor of the uncle of King Narapati, one of the
kings of Ava, who flourished about three or four hundred
years ago, is mentioned in more than one place. He may
therefore be taken as the author of it. He wrote other
works also, of which the best known are Wawhayadipani
or ‘ The discourse on the current speech,’ and his famous
Myittaza or ‘ The letter of advice to the king.’

This poem is a collection of various subjects—fifty-
its division and five stanzas in all—distributed into three
style- parts. The first part contains instruc-
tions for the people in general, the second part is intended
for kings, and the third part for Brahmans. The stanza
of the Lokasara is written in the form of pyo or verse in
lines of four syllables, that is, four words in each pause.
Perhaps it may be necessary here to explain some of
the rules of Burmese poetry; for without a knowledge of
these, one cannot well appreciate the rhythm and beauty
of a well composed verse. Now there are two principal
forms in which all Burmese poetry, called linga, is written,
and on which all the other four forms of variation are
based. They are called (i) o^joSgB, and (2) gscQoS
The first or ‘ ’ form is always written in sets
, . c a, of three padas or poetical feet, of
1. The form. four syllables each> where the 4th
syllable of the first pada, corresponds in sound with the
3rd syllable of the second pada, and to the 2nd, or some-
times the 1st, syllable of the third or last pada. Or the
metre runs thus : — — — —; or sometimes — — —
The curve line here stands for a rhyming word. Take
for example the following verse :—
0^^28001100 cpoooD»ii^? Gcq]?(^s5i8c^ii(gSoo8Goc8?oii§o8(p6obcog8:ii
o noc2^cg]8a^[eo^ii^o^,Qoii
QOOo8?GOji>C^SOO^GOo8?ll-St. III.

Introduction. iii
Here take the following first set of three padas:
‘ o^^?8ooiioocpocoosn^?G|coa8ii ’
Now the 4th syllable ‘ 00 ’ of the first pada, corres-
ponds in sound with the 3rd syllable ‘o’ of the second
pada, and with the 2nd syllable ‘gj’ of the third pada. So
they may be scanned thus :—
Ofl 8 OOH
30 Cp O 000811
G[ 03 o8ll
Then take the second set of another three padas,
begining from ‘ ^?G|OOS)8,’ because the first rhyming
word of this new set begins with ‘ 98,’ which is the 4th
syllable of the third pada of the first set. So the second
set is:—
‘ ^2G|OOoEllCOC^8(j>>?5^8c^ll[g8oo8GOo88^ll ’
Here the 4th syllable ‘ 98 ’ of the first pada corres-
ponds in sound with the 3rd syllable ‘51s’ of the second
pada, and with the3rd syllable ‘008’ of the third pada. So
the scanning will be :—
> ^8 C| 03 o8ll
5|S c§«
(g 8 008 goo8j £hi

The third set of another three padas will then be :—
‘ QS 008 cooSsdii §oSgo5 dbcogSsii oSsob og„ oqji’
where ‘ b ’ of the first pada> corresponds in sound with ‘6b’
of the second, and with (ob’ of the third. So the scanning
is :—
(cjS co8 GO38? bll
§oS goS 6b co^Ssii
o The fourth set is :—
‘obsobcq-ogoiiog^cgjSogj^iis^og^oii ’
where the rhyming words are ‘oge,’ ‘ O^[o’, and ‘ O^/ and
which may be scanned thus :—
O& ob og. ogji
0$ cg]8 «io O§#
$££ ogo o 6 ji
The fifth set is:—
‘ d^OgJ^OIIGOoSsOO^ggcjj'll G^OoS^GOOIl’
which may be scanned thus :—
Goo8? co$ go
g§oo5 §

And lastly the sixth set is :—
* g^ooS^gooii OOg8saGCgQ8ll
GOOo8?GO^>C^?ll OOgSG€>o6?ll ’
This may be scanned thus:—
GADO'S § coon
oogS? a cog Q8n
The remaining three words ‘ OOgScooS. ’ form the
concluding portion of the last line of the stanza, and do
not contain any rhyming word. Hence the last conclud-
ing line of every verse contains seven syllables, the first
four only of which contain a rhyming word.
Examples where the 4th syllable of the first pada,
corresponds in sound with the 3rd syllable of the second
pada, and with the 1st syllable of the last pada, are :—
(1.) .06 00S oq] qp?n
(ggS good coos 0^11
qp? ^gSs oqsit—St. XIX.
(2.) cog8:8S 8811
go go o88oq|oSii

(3.) cqjS £|8ii
c£j! 008 08 OOOJII
OS coo 00 11- St. XX.
(4 ) @ @ c§oS con
08 §: $ 911
The second
a cco a 4«-st.xxxv.
or ‘ ^sc^oS ’ form is written in sets of
only two padas each, where the 4th
11. The ‘ §»0§o5’ form, syllable of the first pada, corres-
ponds in sound with the 1st syllable
of the second pada, and then the 4th syllable of the last
pada of the first set, becomes the first rhyming word of
the next set, and so on.
The metre is .
‘ 3d8ooo:cQoSh o^oSooo?oooo?ii
000:000:^08000811 ooSoooS^Gogii’—St. XVIII,
Here the first set of two padas is :
‘ goSooosc^oS’ and ‘ o^o8ooo:wooo:h’
Now the 4th syllable ‘ c^oS ’ of the first pada, cor-
responds in sound with the ist syllable 1 0^08’ of the
second pada, and the line is scanned thus :—
30 8 ooo: c^oSh
o^oS ooo: o ooo:n

The next set is :—
‘ O^oSoOOSGOOO? ’ and ‘ 000?ODO?^oSoOoSn’
where the 4th syllable ‘ ooo? ’ of the first pada, corres-
ponds in sound with the first syllable ‘ 000?' of the second
pada\ so the line is scanned thus :—
dqob ooo? o ooo?n
ooo? 000? ^oS 000811
The third set is :—
* ooo:coo?^o8ooo8 ’ and ‘ ooScooSc^scogii ’
where the 4th syllable ‘000S’ of the first pada> cor-
responds in sound with the first syllable ‘ ooS ’ of the
second pada, and the line is scanned thus:—
000? ooo? _^oS oooSn
ooS coaS Other examples are :—
(2.) §? gl? ogS flgSi
oogS 8

gcS cogSs o GOOoSsn-St. XXVIII.
(4.) 08 638? (ggS cxjii
80 $r cQu—St. XXVIII.
But when the 4th syllable of the first padat corres-
ponds in sound with either the and or
hi, The ‘ c8aj«s[c6 ’ the ^rd syllable of the second pada,
form' it is called the ‘ c8c^° G|oS ’ form.
The metre is ~ Z Z _ or Z ~ ~ _â– 
(l.) 30 OOaS 5[g8 gon
30 3*0 o c(^o8?ii—St. II.
(2.) o^s 61s coog COOOII
Q qp G300oS GOII-St. X.
(3.) cooS c^8 ogoSu

05 eg cogll
c^oS ogS 906 030S11

Now when the rhyming word of the first pada, has a
iv. The ‘ c8cS cq|8 lahux athat, and that of the second
oc5 ’ form. -> garu 2, it is called the ‘ oSoSoqjS
oo5 ’ form. Example:—
Other examples are :—
(i.) oo Gg 0I0611
O G[S 00^ GOOoS’ll
—— ------
(2.) gooS o ocjaSii
00S oqS ogoS cpH
(a-) cj @ 9$.-n
(§8? 000 OOOII
1. The athats which are called lahu or light are : *cS’ (in which the
sound of ‘ 0811’ ‘§11’ ‘Ejii’ *5’ and 1 oS’ is included) and * ^l)’
2. Those which are called garu or heavy are : ‘ C 5’ and ‘S’li

(4.) 30 Q> <33 B^ll
088 3o 008 00811
(5.) o3 003 OO ^11
coooS Cg gSlt
When the rhyming word of the first pada has a garu
v. The ‘ cSdSojSgjdS ’ athat> and that of the second a
form, lahu, it is called the 1 o8o5oqj8
a°5' form. It is the converse of the o8o6oq|8oo5' form.
Og 003 0^3 oo8?i
e 3)^8 30
Other examples are :—
— —
(>■) 8§L 08811
o8£ Q 3^1
(2.) ogo5 goS Cj)ll
— — . —

(3-) 00 oo§ 03811
G$> $>o5 Og$8 goTii

GCO G>0 O^>3
806 8o5 083 c{go8ii
(5-) c
^3 3^8ll
GG| ^Oll

It will be observed that under the *oqs^joSgS’ form,
the three rhyming words in each set of padas have the
same athats or final consonants1, or the same symbolic
vowels.2 That is, if one rhyming word in the first pada has
a sound of any one of these athats, or symbolic vowels,
those in the second and third padas, must have the same
athats, or symbolic vowels. As,
aoqpSs GCO8 a ^311
coSs o (0^3 £>11
oS o GpooSii—St. XX.
Here the words 1 ^8‘,’ ‘ and ‘ c8s’ all have the l®’
symbolic vowel. The rule is broken if any other word
with a is put in place of any of them, although it has
the same sound.
1. The athats used in rhyming are : ‘gSll’ ‘cSlf ‘§11* ‘Sil* *S’ll
and ‘ •» *135 sound.)
2. The symbolic vowels are*—’ (‘33’ sound)ll ‘Oil’ ,CI’|l ‘|ll’ ‘Gil* ‘ Xll’ ‘G-o’-'G-S’ll

Other examples are :—
(go? 88 QoSii
30 <3]0; ^o5 8 c8 oo ooii—St. I.
(2.) o5s ob o^. o^.ii
cgj8 oqjU c§ii
O^ Q Oil—St. III.
_ _ _ MT
(3-) q]6: ooo gooo8? g?n
6 2? oo?
$ go? GGpoS C§o8?U-St. IV.
@e§ 2206
§oS . c^8 o88?
o^8?u—St. VIII.
(5.) go gQo 08S oogSsn
c£l G€L GCO9"
O GjgSs 3^’ goSii-St. XIX,

(6.) oooS cog cooS g^SlI
00 Gp° OgS cjpl
cooS ooS coT go—St. XXIII.
But less efficient writers, when they cannot find words
having the same athat, or symbolic vowel, have recourse
to other athats or symbolic vowels of the same sound,
such as for ‘ gS’ and vice versa", ro5’ for 'S’ and vice
versa’, $’ for ‘S’ or and vice versa. Now when the
rhyming words of the first and third padas of one set,
have one kind of athat, or sym-
vi. The form. b0]ic vowel, having a different
kind of the same sound coming
between, it is called the ‘ ^]$g8cgp’ or ‘ balance ’ form.
C$OS g g’ll
806 coooS? 00$ Og]o5ll
Here the first and the third words ‘g’ and ‘Jog’ have
the same athat (_), and the middle word a different one,
viz-, '$>’ though it has the same sound.
Other examples are
(1.) 00 08? 008 cooSii

ooS $o5
QoS 8
oo$ OOgSsil
oS godoS (g8s OO^II
GCOdS o8$? OO COgSsil

Poetry differs from prose in many ways, in having a
special vocabulary of its own, in its peculiar use of com-
mon words, in its avoidance of colloquial terms, in its
studied brevity of expression, in its condensed phrase-
epithets, in its license in reconstructing words, and in its
use of abundant ornament. We may here briefly illus-
trate some of these points.
(a.) Many words that have gone out of use both in
prose and in colloquial speech, are still retained in poetry.
Some of these .have become entirely obsolete except in
this kind of composition. For example ‘oSoO^jS?’ for
‘30^’ (St. V.) ; ‘00000’ for ‘30<3j0s’ (St. XV) ; 'GOoS
cqS’ for ‘ ^GOO ’ (St. XV) ; ‘ OG>’ or ‘ for ‘ 30
CO18?’ (Sts. XVII and XXXIII) ; ‘ OGjgs’ for ‘3^8’ (St.
XVIII); for ‘ ^8ocjq8’ (St. XXIII) ; ‘G00§$8f
for ‘^8oQG|8’ (St. XXIV) ; ‘ODG^s’ for ‘ GolSsGOOsgS?’
(St. XXVIII) ; ‘ q|8og? ’ for 1 30qp ’ (St. XXVIII) ;
‘ OOCXJ’ or ‘OOOJOOOO’ for ‘ (Sts. XXIX and
XLVlj ; ‘5.8008’ for ‘00(3$’ or ‘3O§8(8§6’ (St. XXX);
* OJOGOOoS’ for ‘ GgoSooSoOgSQ^SgS?’ (St. XXXI);
‘ ’ for ‘ 5[8o^G|8 ’ (St. XXXIV) ; ‘ g&q|8 ’ for
‘30q|08 (St. XXXV); ‘gg’ for (30C9]83D@$’ (St. XXXV);
‘ OOG^S ’ for ‘ OgoScgo c8& G$p8§8? ’ (St. XXXV) ;
‘ og|[ ’ for ‘ 300o5g ’ (St. XL) ; ‘ GpOgSs ’ for ‘ 33Oo5 '
(St. L.)
(b.) Euphonious names are frequently used for vari-
ous countries, probably on account of their archaic charac-
ter, and also being more adapted to poetic form. As,
‘ COoBoSo’ or ‘ o8o^ogj$?’ for ‘ o8c^?ogj$?,’ ‘ the island
of Ceylon.’

(c.) Many words are commonly used in an abbre-
viated form such as for 1 39^?G[’ (St. Ill) ; ‘Go’ for
GOO9$>9 (St. V); ‘OOGO’ for ‘OOGOO’ (St. X); ‘^?G<^OOgSs
‘OgSf for ‘ OO^OOGGpSOOgSssaOgSg’ (St. X) ; ' ‘g8’ for
‘3og8’ (St. XX); ‘^GpS’ for ‘$>Gp8oo8’ (St. XLII); .‘8§9$’
for ‘ 33899$ ’ (St XILV);‘ 8gloS ’ for ‘ SoSgloS ’ (St.
(d.) For ordinary words, especially the names of
places and high personages, poetry prefers to use a more
dignified expression for the sake of force and beauty. For
example the following epithets are used for a king :-
Og§§?’ (St XXIII.) ; ‘Cg§G318cpQO’ (St. XXIII);
‘ GOO^S?’ (St. XXIV) ; Cjt]oSg8’ (St.
XXXI) ; ‘fqpSoo 00083’ (XXXII) ; ‘OqSsQlSqS&pS’ (St.
XXXIV); ‘3DCol8gg$8’ (St. XXXVIII); *0$;
§oSGpO>9’ (St. XXXVIII) ; ‘ ^>Gp8oc8 ’ (St. XXXIX) ;
‘ GO9C|$9? ’ (St. XXXIX) ; ‘ ’ (St. XLII);
‘oc8oc8’ (St. XLIII); ‘G>}98g’ and ‘c^olco’ (St. XLVII).
As regards the names of places, ‘ocxj^o’ is used for
‘ ’ (St. XLII); ‘GQ9oO"|o 8o99IIG|So$8 o"I^ ’ for
‘33G|8GCO?q]o8j>9§’ (St. XLV) ; ‘’ for ‘009
Oc8°OO9’ (St. XLVI) ; and for 1 o8[crp8G)8,’ the king of
heaven, the following expressions are used: ‘0I00011’
oogg,’ ‘o^ £[$,’ ‘G38$$o5q|9?ii’ (St. XLV); and
G00§^8?’ (St. XLVI.)
(e). The phrases and sentences of poetry are short
and vivid, and are free from long qualifying words. It
requires the imagination to find out the real sense that
is expressed in prose by long modifications, and a number

of dependent clauses. For example, ‘GC\D’Og]§oo8SQo|8li
Q8j^GCOo8^>8’ for ‘(^g8G303ll330G|Golo03ll 0>g|[§61«
good °2I$S Gcos o2l§sc^ciio8S§s§
00g8a^aS^GO33Q8?^GCO38?j|>8’ (St. XVIII); ‘CX^GOOS
Qo5gO(iG|00$>00^’ is expressively used for ‘O^GpjOOCpsoooSo
OOgSs O^GOOOqOO^oQoSo^ 61: C^’ (St. XXVIII) ; and
many other examples which can easily be found in the
(f.) The liberty allowed to poets, called ‘ poetical
license,’ frees them from many restraints, which fetter prose
composition, and enables them to alter the termination of
words for the sake of rhyme. For instance, the word
'□^83’ in St. X, is written ‘33|>^o:’ in order that the
sound in 'COOS’ may correspond with that in ‘ol«’ in the
next line. In o^cBooSccpS:’ (St. XII),
-c8 S’ is written ■cB’ in order that it may rhyme; with
So in the expression ‘3Oag^q|8(§il gQoS? bcx^? aoS’ (St.
XXXVII), Q should properly be written ‘ opSs,’ but in
order that it may rhyme with ‘b,’ it is altered to
Again in ' oq]8g8:cOG[gilO^@GOGCOO’ (St. XXXVI II),
‘COG^’ should properly be ‘OOgQ*-’ And in ‘O(Boc8ll
0003000OCj>’ (St. XLIII), the word ‘ OOOOOcS,’ should
correctly be ‘OOOOOOt?.’ So also '<^ds’ for (St. XLVIII.)
(g.) Poetry deals largely in figurative language,
since its principal object is to give pleasure to the reader.
Figures of speech, called upasa in Burmese, are therefore
very essential, not only for the sake of the meaning, but
for the sake of beauty.

Introduction. xix
In Burmese there are ten figures of speech, called
‘gOODGOoSol?.’ They are :
i. ii. 003G|OD|[003, OOJOOO, Karanupasa. Phalupasa-
iii. ooSojooo, Thadithupasa.
iv. glfcOOO, Htanupasa-
V. gl^ooo, Htanyupasa.
vi. Qcto|[ooo, Gunupasa.
vii. G0DG3OflO09, Ekadethupasa-
viii. ooSt^ooo, Thamipupasa-
ix. ooggpoo, Taddammupasa-
X. 3OGOO3QO0^POD, Abedabedupasa.
i. The karanupasa (P. ‘OOC|C(D,’ ‘ cause,,' and ‘gooo,’
* a figure of speech ’) is the figure where the cause is put
for the effect. For example, when a doctor sees a patient
suffering from ‘oocBS,’ ‘phlegm? he says that his disease
is ‘odSco,’ ‘ a syrup of jaggery ’; for ‘oo8’ is the cause
by which ‘OOcSS’ is produced. The cause ‘Oo8cb’ is
used for the effect ‘OOcQS ’ll
ii. Thephalupasa (P. ‘oco,’ ‘ result ’ ) is the figure
where the effect is put for the cause. As ‘OOG>6»^|oSoo^i ’
‘ to cook rice.’ Here it will be seen that it is not the
‘0008s,’ ‘ cooked rice,' that is cooked, but the ‘oo$,’ ‘the
uncooked grain? So the effect ‘ooo8s,’ is put for the
cause ‘00$.’ Other examples are: ‘^o^SG|oSoo^,’ ‘to weave
a putso ’; ‘ 38 forth.

xx Introduction.
iii. The thadithupasa (P.‘00800,’ ‘ like,’ ' similar,’)
expresses the resemblance one thing bears to .another. It is
the English Simile. Numerous examples of this figure will
be found in the book.
iv. The htanupasa (P. ‘ place,’) is the figure
where the container {htana) is put for the contained
(htani). the English Metonymy. As, in ‘ GoqpSs
003000^,’ ‘ the school reads lessons,’ it is not the
‘ GCqp&>’ container that reads lessons, but the pupils
contained in it. So in ‘ GgOriSGOriSscJagsG^SoogS,’
‘ the couch, exclaims,’ it is not the ‘ GgooScoriSs,’ or
1 couch,’ but the person on it, exclaims.
v. The htanyupasa (P. ‘ gl^,’ ‘ a thing contained,’) is
the figure where the contained {htani) is put for the con-
tainer (htana.) As, in ‘GOO$o6o8go,’ ‘let the musket
enter,’ arid ‘O^oSgo,’ ‘let the lance enter,’ the muskets
and the lances (things contained) are used for the con-
tainers musketeers and the lancers.
vi. The gunupasa (P. ‘ Qcoo,’ ‘ quality’) is the figure
where the abstract is used for the concrete, or the name
of a quality is put for the name of the object possessing
that quality. As ‘30g^Ojj&/ * bring the brown,; ‘30^'
0^5,.’ ‘ bring the white.’ Here the brown and the white
colours are used for the brown and the white objects.
vii. The ekadethupasa (P. ‘GOD,’ 'one,’ and ‘G300,’
'place ’; hence ‘ apart of a place,’) is the figure where
the whole is put for the part. As, ‘ ooc^gcpcQQSoogS,’
‘ I see the ocean,’ i.e., only that part of it which is before

viii. The thamipupasa (P. (OO§u,‘ ‘ near ’) is the
figure where the name of an object is used for that of
another, which is near to, or associated in some way with
it. As ‘ GODOoSoO^oSlgS^OOgSoo^S,’ ‘the rice plant
stands on the river Ganges,' whereas it actually stands^
its banks.
ix. The taddammupasa (P. 1 cogg,’ ‘ a nonentity ’)
is the figure wherein qualities are attributed to animals
and things, which they do not possess. As ‘ the
horns of a hare] ‘cSScgs,’ ‘ the hair of a turtle
the blood of a prawn- It is used to express an
absurdity or an impossibility. The following is a striking
example of this figure :
cdcg]8oo5cQoo5Do8(§3Cg]8ll CXj^S^GCOScEj! cQ8
cqjaScoooogS,’ ‘ The son of a barren woman, adorned
with the sky flower, and clad in the garment of mirage,
comes along with a bow in hand made of the horns of
a hare.’
x. The abedabedupasa (P. ‘ 30,’ ‘ not] and ‘GOOD,’
' difference ’) is the figure wherein words are used in such
a way as to imply a difference where there is really no
difference. As, 1 GoqjOoSooosdifc^oS,’ ‘ the body of a
rock.’ Here the ‘ body ’ and ‘ rock ’ are treated as if they
were distinct objects.
For the clear understanding of difficult words, phrases
r, , . and sentences, which occur in the text,
notes, allusions, and parallel passages
from various sources, are given in English at the end of
the book.
The orthography here adopted is that authorized by
the Text Book Committee, which is now the standard of
Burmese spelling followed in all examinations.

ii^SsgccOococsglb nc^joigBQ’&oii^g^cogoo
c3co?co 'Al
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Instructions for kings. ii
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Instructions for kings. 13
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Instructions for brahmans. 17
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Part III.
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Instructions for b r a; h m a n s . 19
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Lokasar a.
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1. (op?8 the attention of virtuous persons to his instructions on
various matters which, he says, are beneficial and worth
Some render the words ‘ (ego? 86a^go6 ’ as ‘ the
excellent man, shall etc.' Now this can hardly be cor-
rect, as it is unusual for an author to open his work with
commendatory remarks on himself by styling himself an
‘ excellent man.’ This epithet is used by the author as a
polite reference to the reader, and not for self-exaltation.
Note that the words ‘ 86 ’ and ‘ 86 ’ are usually
used in poetry. ‘86 ’ is formed from ‘co’ and ‘30,’ and
has the idea of futurity and promise; and 1 86 ’ is made
up of ‘ co ’ and ‘ 30,’ and expresses the causative future.
2. cSoogj^OD, From P. ‘ c8oo,’ ‘benefit,’ ‘ad-
vantage,’ and ‘3Dg^OO,’ ‘ desirous of;’ so ‘ desirous of
benefit,’ ‘ having benefit in view; ’ hence ‘advantageous,’
‘ profitable.’ It qualifies the noun
XB.—For the translation of the verses, students are referred to “ The Lokasara
literally translated" printed and published by the British Burma Press,

Lok asar a.
3. , ‘ instruction,’ ‘admonition.’ The
corresponding Burmese word is ‘3000o000.’
4. Here it is not a verb, but a noun, being
abbreviated from 1 300g?3DQ.’
5- cog. A verbal euphonic affix.
6. ^d?o8go, lit., ‘let it enter the ear;’ hence
1 listen’, ‘ hearken,’ ‘ give ear.’
7. O^. In poetry, 1 dbo^,’ ‘like,’ ‘as,’ is always
shortened into ‘ 0§’ll -Cp. ‘ O^a^O^oE}’-St. Ill; ‘(ft
8. OQGps.....G008?----Here the readers are ex-
horted to carry for ever on their forehead, to love, and to
have faith in, the th-ree jewels—Buddha (oCj>Gp?J, the Law

(cospA and the Priesthood (oooSo')—which are as
conspicuous as the sun.
A respectful reference to these three objects of ven-
eration is always made at the beginning of all Buddhistic
‘ 3OOg^,'‘ a top,’ ‘submit,’ here it denotes excellence.
esteem.’ The same sense occurs again in ‘oisGOO
g0ll€|00$3C^’—St. XXVIII. ‘OOgl,’ P-, ‘ to feel well-dis-
posed towards,’ particularly in religious objects. It
occurs again in St. IX.
have veneration for.’

Here it will be observed that the two padas ogcpg
COGp’OOoSo ' and 1 G|O3$>30g^?003s ’ contain more than
four syllables each. The metre is an exception to the
rule, owing to the occurrence of Pali and Burmese words,
which consist of two, and sometimes more than two,
syllables. Other examples where a pada contains more
than the usual number of syllables are‘
O33c8 ’—St. LIV ; ‘ oq|oSo§?O(cgog3 ’—St. LY; ‘ G£|3^>?
O G3 OO3II GoloS GO 033 O3gS ’—Pdlitawada ; and many
others. Note that the concluding line of each verse of
Burmese poetry always consists of seven syllables.
Here the concluding line is ‘ (j>—QoS—O3§—03—[c^gS—
1. 33000'S...CO^]8, ‘ having at heart (thy) long
life, health and welfare.’ ‘og,’ an intensifying affix, signify-
ing ‘extremely,’ ‘greatly.’
2. bQ8, ‘ to correct,’ ‘ instruct,’ ‘direct,’ ‘guide.’
3. P. ‘ constantly.’ So, again, in ‘ 3ool^g’—St.
4. OgSoQ’OOOO’, ‘who chastise and admonish.’
'ogS’ means ‘ to discipline,’ ‘instruct,’ ‘govern,’ ‘con-
trol,’ ‘guide,’ ‘punish,’ ‘to put to death.’ Cp. ‘ Cg($0Q?o
c^,’—St. X; ’ ‘ cocpscgScjj',’— St. XXIII j —
St. XXIV; ‘ OgSoqSQCCOO,’—St. XXIX; ‘Og8GGpQq|38
OOgSc^oS,’—St. XXXVII; ‘ ggSog8c\J$j[?,’— St. XXXIX;

XJcjjV—St. XLV. ‘ OOO* ’ is a poetical form of
‘GOOD.’ So, again, in ‘0003?,’ St. III.
5- P- From to listen with regard,’ ‘ to
6. ocj]<5?oo, 1 the Buddhist Scriptures.’
7- GoTc^Sw(^, ‘ be not frivolous.’
8. GOOo8?GpO^CX5]aS, ‘imitate what is good.’
9. GCX338?^Qo5^?, ‘esteem good action.’
10. QOOo8?G30o8(o^3cjj', ‘ strive to be good.’
is shortened from ‘^|?O3?,’ ‘to make an effort,’ ‘en-
deavour;’ so, again, in ■g^co^-St.XIIl.
11. GOOd8?Q?......GOoS?. ‘Let the result of good
action be established in thee.’ Note the difference
between ‘ ^?’ and The latter is from ‘ 30CX§|?,’
‘result,’ ‘consequence.’ Cp. the whole with Lokaniti,
St. XVII, ‘ Children, be wise ; wherefore are ye idle ? One
without wisdom is the bearer of another’s burden. A wise
man is honoured in the world ; day by day be ye wise, O
children I—ProJ. J. Gray.
1. O3o8(o^?, ‘elders.’
2. 8?G)ODa8, ‘persons in authority,’ ‘rulers;’ from
‘ 30^?G|,’ ‘ the government,’ and ‘ ooo8,' ‘ lord,’ ‘ master.’
3. Go^]?(j»>?^8c^, ‘benefactors.’
From ‘3oQ8co8,’ ‘to censure,’ ‘to
4. Igococ, Prom
‘ blame.’
5- GOo8?b, ‘ to threaten.’

6. ‘ keep in mind,’ 1 bear up;’ lit.
‘drawn close in the belly;’ hence ‘restrain one’s anger,
‘O^oO^o,’ ‘ drawn close.’
7- ‘ as a hare shrinks (its body
through fear).’ Here ‘ C^]8 ’ is a nominative affix.
8. QO, ‘ do not dare to reply.’ ‘o^,’ contracted
from ‘ ‘ to return,’ as in ‘ OOOOoO^^^OO^,’ ‘ to
return an answer.’ A general reverence for age, and res-
pect for teachers, is one of the pleasing traits in the
Burman character.
9. QOo8?03§g5cjj', ‘with an humbled pride.’ ‘GOo8;
03^,’ ‘pride,’and ‘ go’, ‘to be weak;’ so ‘ GO38*O3$g3,’
‘to make the pride weak’; ‘to humble one’s pride;’
so, again, in ‘ Goo8sQD$boq:,’—St. XVII.
10. OOgS’Q, ‘ to be patient,’ ‘to forbear.’
11. GO338?GO.....08?, ‘ Let thy heart be meek and
mild.’ ‘ oogS,’ ‘tame,’ ‘gentle.’
1. 00^3....OOgSe^, ‘ (Keep thy mind) firm against
the four evil courses, viz., prejudice, anger, fear and
ignorance, which will lead one to a state of suffering.’
These four evil courses—called ‘30Oc8gco?o")?,’ viz., ‘OOg,’
‘wish,’ desire,’ but here ‘prejudice;’ ‘ G3loo,’ ‘anger,’
‘0000,’ ‘fear,’and‘GODOO,’‘ignorance,’----refer to the
dispositions of those who act as judges. By prejudice, it
means the taking of bribes and giving of decisions in
favour of the giver. By anger, the deciding against the

hated party through anger. By fear, the decisions given
in favour of the stronger party through fear of personal
danger; and by ignorance the deciding of cases as seems
best through ignorance. The words ‘ocSgcosoI?’ occur
again in St. XLII.
2. 3QoloS. This is derived from Pali ‘3odloO,’ ‘a
state of suffering.’ The four states of suffering are :—(i)
‘c£p’ ‘hell,’. (2) ‘o8g|^O^,’ ‘the brute creation,’ (3)
‘ a Preta,’ or spirit of a dead person ; and (4) ‘30
O^G|ODoS,’ ‘athurake/a kind of being inferior to
man. For ‘ooo?,’ see note 4, St. II.
3. Og, (P-)> ‘law,’ ‘doctrine,’ ‘principle.’ The
Burmese word is ‘ cOGp?n’
4. 0^8. From ‘ 300gS,’ ‘ a name.’
5- oc8, (P-), lit. ‘ going,’ ‘course.’ Its opposite
is ‘30008,’ ‘evil course.’
6. ODgS. From ‘oo^Soo,’ ‘to be steadfast.’
7. ‘the world of men.’
8. ^o6gp,‘ the country of nats,’ hence ‘ heaven .’
Poetical for ‘ ’11
9. €>, ‘ to enjoy.’
10. ‘ to go up and down (a stream),’ ‘alter-
nately.’ The alternate births in the abodes of men and
nats are compared to a man going up - and down a
stream in a boat.
11. This is the Burmanized form of the
Sanskrit word ‘Nirvana,’ the Pali form being ‘
(which is made up of $ 4- ol + which according to

rule, becomes 'a going out.’) It is a state of
sinless calm, where there is freedom from rebirths, and
consequently from all the miseries attending existence.
It is the cessation of individual existence. There is no
more change, and no more sensation. It is the haven
of the Buddhists.
From ‘ 3OG|
here ‘a means;’
‘the means by which Nibban reached.’ Supply ‘
in order to ’ before ‘c(cgo8?’ii
13. oqj^COOoS?, ‘ virtuous act.’
14. oSco, (P.), ‘ virtue,’ ‘ moral precept.’
'5- hybrid word, from B, ‘ for which,
see note 5, St. V, and P. ‘ dl^,’ ‘ religious offering,’
‘ charity,’ ‘ ahns-giving.’
taphorically of ‘meritorious works.’ ‘
‘ good deed.’
17. ‘to plant by strewing seed,’ ‘to sow.’
18. ‘plants.’
19. OgS, ‘ to flourish ‘ to thrive.’
1. cQoS ^06 ‘thought, word and deed.’
' 0Q0S’(P. ‘ 00300),’ is ‘body,’ hence ‘deed; ' I05'’
mouth,’ hence ‘word;’
mind,’ ‘ heart,’ hence
‘ thought.’ Cp. Dhammapada, St. 361.
‘ In the body restraint is good, good is restraint in
speech, in thought restraint is good, good is restraint in
all things.’—Prof. Max Muller.

Lok as ar a.
2. G00$0^?(^g0, ‘ control constantly.’ ‘ GOoSo^?
is the same as ‘ GOoSg^OoS,’ ‘ GOo8o8$?,’ ‘ to watch
over,’ 1 to control.’
3- OOg^ol, (P.), ‘ living being,’ ‘ creature.’
4. Go^ooooSgo, ‘ have a fellow feeling for,’ ‘have
an affection for,’ 1 love.’ 1 OOoS,’ lit., ‘ to descend,’ ‘ to
take place as love, pity, etc.’ 1 Go ’ an imperative affix
denoting entreaty.
* s^are w’th others (thy merit) of
religious offerings.’ ‘ c^,’ from ‘ 300jj|,’ 1 religious offer-
ing ;’ and ‘ C^,’ from ‘ 300^,’ ‘a share.’
6. SdSGoQpSoo^, ‘ pure heart.’ ‘ GO ’ is abbre-
viated from 1 GOOO$>3,’ P. ‘will,’ ‘motive,’ ‘intention;’
‘ pure;’ ‘ 00$,’ ‘strong.’
7. OOGOD0^$OO0?, ‘ honest,’ ‘ of upright intention.’
For ‘ coo#,’ see note 4, St.. II.
8. 00 |p$ ’ , ‘ the present and the future ex-
istences,’ ‘ the Here and the Hereafter.’ ‘ OOOOGp’
means ‘ the ocean of birth and death,’ ‘ the restlessness
of a worldly life,’ 1 future existence,’ ‘ futurity.’
9. ^]S°000, ‘ happiness.’
10. 8:gl ?, ‘ prosperity.’
11. 2>So"l?. This refers to the present and the
future existences.
12. 8o5og] S?o8,’ ‘ to be well acquainted with ;’ hence ‘ to be
intimate with,’ ‘ to be familiar with.’

13. ^08......GOG>8?. ‘ associate for ever.’ ‘ o8?0^|8s,’
(obsolescent), ‘always,’ ‘ for ever.’ So, again, in Sts. VIII,
14. 8o5go....g6I8sqj£8g>8s. Cp. Lokaniti, St. XLI,
‘ Associate with the good, form companionship with the
righteous; it is good, not bad, knowing the goodly ways
of righteous men.’—Prof. J. Gray,
1. ...‘ lacking the eye of wisdom.’
2. oocps, i.e., ‘ the true law or doctrine.’
3. 1 follow a false faith or doctrine,’
‘ heretical.’
4. 8°gl’QGQ8, ‘ who does not look to his own in-
terests,’ ‘ unmindful of one’s own interests.’
5. O^jOGoT, ‘ who cannot acquire benefit,’ hence
‘who is useless and unprofitable ;’ lit.t ‘the benefit
does not appear/ is shortened from ‘
6. o^GOoS, ‘ a righteous person.’ Its opposite is
7. Q^oSco^O^oS, ‘base conduct.’ ‘o^oS,’ is
derived from P. ‘ O^OO,’ ‘ habit,’ ‘ conduct ;’ so it occurs
again in St. XXXI.
8. @o5 ‘ to like,’ ‘ to be pleased with,’ ‘ to ap-
9. ^]8, ‘ to love.’
10. 08, 1 real,’ 1 true.’
11. QJ>8oooS, ‘dislike,’ ‘hate.’

12. ‘to avoid,’ ‘ to shun.’ Its synomyms are
‘G^pS,’ ‘ o£,’ ‘b,’ ‘(§£§’11
I- olcozOcB....O^oOOoS, ‘ do not take the life of
others.’ ‘ o"lctD3c8olo5, ’ from P. ‘O*lc033c8olo3,’ ‘taking
the life of others.’
2. ‘ do not steal.’ ‘ ‘to do,’ ‘to
OOJGO3O3, ‘ do not take
‘ an intoxicating liquor
intoxicating liquors.’
‘03,’from ‘3303,’
‘ food,’ is expletive here.
‘ do not commit adultery.’ ‘
‘ to commit adultery ’ is a com-
mon expression.
5. ‘ do not speak falsehoods.’ The
correct form is ‘cpO3,’ ‘ falsehood.’
The five great precepts binding on all beings, and
the foundation of the practice of all virtues are ; 1st, not
to destroy life, 2nd, not to steal, 3rd, not to commit adul-
tery, 4th, not to speak falsely, and 3th, not to drink in-
toxicating liquors. The meaning of these, as explained
by Buddha, is as follows:—‘With regard to the first
commandment, a man must not kill even a louse or bug;
with regard to the second, he must not take as much as
a thread that belongs to another; with regard to the third,
he must not look at another man’s wife with a wish of
desire; with regard to the fourth, he must not act in any
way injurious to the advantage of another; and as regards
the fifth, he must not put on his tongue as much as the
drop that would hang on the point of a blade of grass of
anything bearing the sign of intoxicating liquor.’

6. c^oSc^^Sq], ‘humble thyself.’ ‘cQoSc^,’
‘one’s self.’
7. goo8. From ‘003808$?, ’ ‘to practise,’ ‘to observe.’
8. c^oo5, ‘charitable offerings.’ Its full form is
1 302ii088l11 °88l’’ P‘ ‘ property.’ ‘goods.’
9. G|oSogjo6cgj8, ‘ everyday without interruption,’
‘ daily.’ ‘gjo5,’ from ‘g|o6c§8?,’ ‘ to be wanting in,’ ‘ de-
fective.’So, again in ‘oq]§(j)8?Qg|o5 —St. XXIV. ‘c^|8’ is
euphonic here.
10. cooooSco^S. Same as ‘goo8’ in note 7 above.
i 1. oq(o^?G|£8^j', ‘ having in view the great reward.’
It refers to the reward of Buddhahood. ‘ qpS,’ from
even if he provokes a
quarrel.’ ‘(cggS,’ ‘ to be cordial,’ ‘ well-disposed; ’ ‘ ^oS
G|$,’ ‘ a quarrel; ’ ‘oq]|[?Og$,’ ‘ to offend,’ ‘ to transgress.’
1 COgS?’ is from ‘ GOoScogS?,’ ‘although.’
13. q]oSo3$o(g8?, lit. ‘ let not (thy) anger and pride
be violent;’ ‘suppress thy anger and pride.’ ‘ ,’
from ‘ 30,’ ‘ pride.’
1. 8080308. The full forms of these words are
‘Gg?Oo8o8,’ ‘mother,’ and ‘ Gg?OOOOo8,’ ‘father,’ or
briefly ‘803,’ ‘parents.’
2. §0^:, 1 to respect and obey ;’ ‘ from ‘^G03,’
‘ to respect,’ and ‘ O^?,’ from ‘ ‘ to be obedient,’
‘ submissive.’

Lok as AR a.
3. qq......g;co8, ‘honour and adore (them) as a
holy shrine.’ ‘q,’ from P. ‘qooo, ’ ‘a cave,’ particularly
a cave where there is an image of Buddha. ‘ qo^j ’ is
an edifice where the relics of Buddha or other holy
saints are enshrined; ‘ a relic shrine.’ There are
other smaller erections in a similar style, but containing
no relics, erected as pious memorials, or to commemo-
rate some event. These are properly called ‘goc8.’
4. fl? S, ‘ to make obeisance with the hands raised
to the forehead.’
5- i 6. 7- go5.’ 8. : §?oo8, ‘toplace (the hands) on the head.’ ggScoS, ‘to be cordial,’ ‘well-disposed.’ goScco?, ‘ to respect.’ The usual order is ‘GCO’ ‘ to take care of,’ ‘ to look after.’
9. Gg;, i,e.t ‘ GogjsGg?,’ ‘ to feed.’ It is the same
as ‘cq^GOgp’li
10. aoo, ‘ to treat respectfully and deferentially.’
11. i.e., ‘^GOO,’ ‘ to respect.’
12. oqSog, ' to bend the knee out of respect,’ ‘ to
stoop respectfully.’
13. (0^0000083^, ‘ (who are) advanced in years,’
1 aged.’ ‘00,’ an emphatic affix. ‘ oooS,’ from ‘89000$,’
‘ ggoSogofn
(cgpSpE^, ‘to be well-disposed towards.’

< [N;o T; E s .
16. ^oScxj>8, ‘ to take care of,’ ‘ to look after.’
17. 08&. Same as ‘ above.
18. oo8 and let there be peace.’ ‘0863,’ ‘to swerve,’ ‘to turn,’
(as from duty). For ‘ o8°0^]8o,’ see note 13, St. V. ■(§&'
see note 12, St. IX.
i. OO^SOOO. From P. ‘ OOQ,’ ‘four,’ and ‘ 80OO,’
‘ place,’ ‘ quarter ; ’ hence ‘the four cardinal points of the
earth.’ The common expression is ‘3©C|8gcOoC^oSD,’ ‘ th6
four quarters of the globe.’
2. ^g|gO3, a Brahman,’ or priestly caste of the
Indians. They are a race of people who, in ancient days,
were looked upon as men of great wisdom. In former times
priests were selected from the Brahman caste, but Brah-
mans were not necessarily priests. They were farmers,
merchants, and often high officials in the service of kings.
Even now they earn their living by establishing themselves
as fortunetellers, astrologers, conjurers, physicians and so
3. GjOO^o, ‘a Rahan,’ a member of the religious order.
4 ag5oO§g.;....£>oQ, ‘ (who have) run short of provi-
sions.’ ‘ogSs,’ ‘the food offered to a Buddha and priests.’
‘ o§3,’ is expletive. ‘ ’ ‘ to be wanting in,’ ‘defective;’
same as ‘ £>,’ ‘ to be without.’
5- §030 , ‘ provisions.’
6. OOgSsb......00330^, ‘ the property which (thou)

hast acquired and laid up in (thy) house for ready use.’
‘oogs; from ‘ OOgSiO^?,’ for which, see note 25, St.
XII. ‘ b ’ an affix of past time.
to lay up in
store.’ ‘ol,’ denotes the time of an action, and ‘ 000,’ a
verbal formative. Cp. Dhammaniti, St. 191, ‘ A wise man
gives help to his friends, sharing his property with them;
priests and saints, too, he always provides with food and
drink.’—ProJ. J. Gray.
7. C^OOCXjj. When fully expressed, it would be
QGOODOJ,’ ‘ such a person.’ ‘ 00’ stands for ‘ GOODll ’
8. Do, lit. 1 consider that (they) have
the same need as (thou hast),’ 1 have sympathy for.’
9- ..@o5ccos,' with a liberal and generous
heart.’ ‘ Cjjgh,’ ‘to spread and increase;’ ‘OOgl’here
means ‘ generous;’ ‘GOOO^D,’ see note 6, St. V; *Qo5gco?,’
see note 8, St. VIII.
10. 006003. From ‘300063000?,’ 1 food and cloth-
• >
‘ the presence,’ and ‘qc?,’ 1 to be at the bottom,’ ‘near;’
the foot of a tree,’ ‘GoODCGroqC?,’ ‘ the
foot of a mountain.’
- gS:, ‘ to be comfortable,’ ‘ happy,’ ‘ free from
outward troubles.’
The three characteristic
signs of nature found in all existing things are (1) ‘30

^g,’ ‘impermanence,’ ‘ transciency;’ (2) ‘ t^Og,’ ‘misery/
and (3) ‘ 8D^gg,’ ‘ unreality,’‘ unsubstantiality.’ ‘Allis
transitory, all is misery, all is unreality.’ Cp. the expres-
sion ‘ vanity of vanities, all is vanity.’ This is one of the
salient doctrines of Buddhism. 1 COOgctOO,’ P-> ‘ a sign,’
‘a characteristic.’
2. oqp....GOCg]8, ‘ remember constantly.’ ‘ Q^jO,’
(Obs.), ‘ constantly,’ ‘ without interruption.’ So, again,
in ‘ St. XI, and ‘ St. XLI.
‘C303oSco,’ ‘to remember;’ ‘ OOGOGO,’ ‘incessantly;’
is euphonic here.
3. 30QC03000, ‘ habit.’
4- OgcSa^oQ, ‘ to control (i.e. the mind.)’
5. ...So8?^c^. According to the Buddhist
doctrine of the nature of sentient being, man, bodily and
mentally, is made up of five different parts, viz., (1)
OOg^O,’‘ material form,’ (2) ‘ GO3$og^3,’ ‘sensations,’
(3) ‘ OOgOOglp,’ ‘ thoughts or ideas,’ (4) ‘ OoS”lc|Og^3,’
‘ dispositions,’ and (5) ‘ 8gODct0Og^9,’ ‘ intellect or under-
standings.’ These bodily and mental parts and powers of
man are not permanent, and will soon pass away. They
are like a mass of foam, that gradually forms and then
vanishes. Man is never the same for two consecutive
moments, and there is no principle of permanence what-
ever within him. The process of coming into being, i.e.,
birth, and ceasing to be, i.e., death, continues like the re-
volution of a wheel until one reaches Nirvana. It is
therefore the earnest wish of every true Buddhist to
be freed from this most wretched position, and to reach

Lok as ar a.
that ever peaceful state. ‘ogo^D,’ from P. ‘ og,’
‘five,’and ‘0^,’ ‘body;’ hence ‘ the five constituent parts of
a body.’ ‘c1°Qd^3 Coo’ll ‘<^8’ is from P. ‘^o,’ ‘ matter,’ ‘form,’ ‘ body;’ and
‘ ,’ from P. ‘ ^>00,’ ‘ the mind,’ ‘ spirit.’ The expression
‘ Djpclsoh,’ is common. ’ means ‘ to be,’ ‘ to be
reborn;’ ‘ q][8,’ ‘ to terminate (as life),’ ‘to die.’ ‘ o^,’ from
‘ 3D(5$,’ ‘a time,’ ‘turn;’ so ‘ COCO cb,’ means ‘re-
peatedly.’ ‘ 00S,’ ‘a wheel,’ ‘machine;’ ‘3000§,’
‘appearance,’ ‘semblance.’ ‘ O^,’ from P. ‘ o^.,’ ‘the
evil consequences of one’s bad deeds done in previous
6. OOGO. From P. ‘OOGOO,’ ‘ fear,’ t.e., ‘ the fear
and dread of the miseries attending human existence.’
7. §?Gq ••ft.. GOG>8o, ‘ let (thy fear and dread) lie
in (thy) bones, skin and liver,’ i.e., the fear and dread of
this misery should not be of a superficial character, but be
a true and genuine one. It should spring from the very
marrow of the bone, and the very depth of the heart.
‘^S,’.from ‘33^8,’ ‘ a bone;’ ‘Gcp’ from ‘30GG|,’ ‘ skin,’ and
‘OppSg,’ from ‘3DOOpS?,’ ‘ the liver,’ which is supposed to
be the seat of strong passions. to lie,’ ‘to
1. GCOOOO GODOO. These are the three evil
dispositions which corrupt man’s mind. ‘ GCOO 00’,
‘ avarice;’ ‘G3]oo,’ ‘ anger ;’ and ‘G0300,’ ‘ ignorance.’

*■ OjqoS, ‘a depraved person.’ Here these three
states of the mind are spoken of as depraved persons.
3- q|oS, ‘ to corrupt,’ ‘to spoil;’ the transitive
form of ‘ qjaS.’
4. OOgSo, ‘ to be strong,’‘ violent.’ t
5. cg$, ‘ to be excessive.’
6. ooq|8, (Obs.), ‘ much,’1 abundant,’ ‘plentiful,’
1- 00$, ‘ to be strong.’
8. c(g?cg$o8o8, ‘ runs -eagerly (in pursuit of an
object of desire).’ ‘0808,’ ‘eagerly.’ Other similar
phrases are ‘ 5^0808,’ ‘ eagerly,’ ‘greedily; ’ ‘ oSoSgoS
go5,’ which see below.
9. 300<^Q6oo, ‘ on. seeing an object of sense.’
The six ‘ 309<^,’ or ‘ objects of sense,’ are ; (i)
‘ form ’ ; (2) 'ODgl<^|‘ sound,’ (3) ‘ ‘ odour,’ (4)
‘ <^009<^,’ ‘taste,’ (5) ‘ co9ggo<^,’ ‘contact,’ and (6)
* ' ideas.’ ‘ 00,’ here mearis ‘ if,’ ‘ when.’
10. o8o8go5gc6, ‘ with great eagerness.’ Cp'.
QEcx5]8ag]8,’ in St. XXXIX.
< A
11. o^SgoSoo^S?, ‘unfettered,’ ‘ otj?,’ ‘ a hopple,’
‘ fetter,’ ‘go5’ is expletive like ‘ o$? ’ in ‘ og8’O$J,’
St. IX; ‘ ‘to connect by a cord.’
12. 8o5oo8§6?. Here the mind is compared to a
wild elephant. Cp. Anusasana, St. XII, ‘SoS^ooc^;’
‘ ^>00,’ (P.)> ‘an elephant.’

Lok as ar a.
13. ‘ without interval or interruption,’
‘ unceasingly,’‘ continually.’ ‘ ‘to mark at in-
tervals;’ from 1 O^S,’ ‘ to tie in a knot,’ and 1 ^8?,’ ‘ to di-
vide.’ For ‘ oqp,’ see note 2, St. X.
14. OOgS, ‘ gentle,’ ‘tame.’ For ‘ 88,’ see note 1,
St. I. ‘ cg|8 ’ is euphonic here.
15. OgOO.....Goo8? ‘ control (it) with wisdom, and
render (it) quiet,’ 1 ’ or ‘ SGOOo’is a medicine used
to innoculate a wild elephant in order to render it tame and
gentle. It is here used as a verb, and means ‘ to shut the
eyes through languor or weakness.’ So ‘^§?Go’ means
‘ let it become quiet.’
‘(go’ is
1. COoSc^S, ‘ farming,’ ‘ cultivation.’
2. og^OgoS, ‘ trading.’
3. G^°OQoS[^^], ‘ lending out money at interest.’
‘ (§3)00 or ‘ 30c(^?q|Q0pS ’ means ‘ to lend money.’
A more modern term is ‘ Gg4?qpe8.’
Og’oSao, ‘ to calculate,’ ‘ to estimate.’
8o6(go3, ‘ hair-splitting,’ ‘ clever,’ ‘ discerning.’
written ‘ (go? ’ on account of the rhyme.
GOuloO)°cg|8, ‘in each case.’
3pgOS, ‘profit,’ ‘interest.’
30G|8“, ‘ capital,’‘ principal.’
COOgSo. For ‘ OOC\D300gS°,’ ‘within a month.’

‘ to
10. cqoScQs. The usual order is ‘ cQjoOoS/
11. OoSs^J, (Pron. ‘ hta-bo ‘ twice,’ ‘ double.’
12. jj>8cog§, ‘ on the completion of a year,’ ‘ at the
end of a year.’ ‘ cogS,’ lit., ‘ to revolve.’
13. ^jOOgS, ‘ to lay out,’ as capital.
14. 336goOd8oo5, * household duties.’ ‘388g00d8,’
‘ a family,’‘ a household.’ Cp, ‘ aSSGOODSoooSGgo,’ in
St. XVII. ' 006 ’ means ‘duty.’ Cp. 1 GCOOOOOOS,’ in
St. XXI.
IS- 30 9oSgg’ ’, ‘ to remember well,’ ‘ gg°,’ ‘ to be
constant,’ ‘permanent.’
16. i.e„ ‘ §0 gSc^S cQ8,’ ‘to devise and
17. o(g8?, ‘ not leaving out,’ ‘ without excluding.’
18. cSSoGgo, ‘to tend and feed.’ ‘@8? ,’ here
means ‘ greatly,’ ‘ exceedingly,’ ‘ well.’
19. 20. o$c8, ‘to form a plan,’ ‘contrive,’ ‘design.’
The heavy accent (?) in ‘c8’ is dropped on account of
the rhyme.
21. Oo8o1gcoo8o, ‘ to pour repeatedly.’
22. bGQoSoOolo. This may be translated collect-
ively as ‘ grains.’ ‘b’ means ‘pease/ ’ ‘g@o8s ,’ ‘ maize ’
or ‘ Indian corn,’ and ‘ ool?,’ ‘ paddy.’
23- <4, ‘ granary.’

Lok as ar a.
24. C|00|>0,‘ anything precious or valuable ’; hence
‘ a treasure,’ According to the Burmese, there are ten
kinds of precious things, viz., (.1) ‘ G^Gg/ ‘gold and
silver;’ (2) ‘ <£CO,’ ‘pearl;’ (3) ‘00^3,’ ‘coral;’ (4) ‘^CO3,’
‘sapphire;’ (5) ‘ QoT^oS,’ ‘garnet;’ (6) ‘ gOOOCJGpS, ’
‘ topaz;’ (7) ‘ 8$,’ ‘ diamond ;’ (8) ‘ cfqpE,’ ‘ cat’s eye ;
(9) ' &’ 1 emerald ;’and (10) ‘ OQ^Qo’,’ ‘ ruby.’
25. OOgSoO^’, ‘ to amass,’ ‘collect,’ ‘accumulate,’
as treasure or wisdom, ‘COg’ is euphonic. So, again,
in Sts. XIII and XXX.
26. <4 ?GOg, ‘ relatives.' The usual order is ‘GOgC^’ii
27. ‘ to depend upon.’
28. (ogo5. From ‘ (^oSo,’ 1 to be rich,’ ‘ to have
in abundance.’ So, again, in ‘ GOCJ]?(£>s(ogoS,’ St. XXIV,
and ‘ O$?(§oS,’ St. XXXVIII.
1. O(Jsc8?}g8sp, ‘ancient manners and traditions.’
‘ precedents.’ ‘ 0^°,’ ‘precedent,’ ‘custom,’ ‘ manner.’ ‘ cSs’
seems to be derived from P. ‘30c8go00,’ ‘ past.’
$0,’ a rule,’ ‘ precedent,’ ‘ way.’ Cp. ‘ cxj?^g8?c8?cQ ’ in
St. XIV; ‘ ^sc&o^Gq:,’ in St. XXXIV; ‘
^?ll o^?c8?^o8ooo?’ in St. XLI1.
2. ogoojp^,1 acquire knowledge.’ Cp. Lokaniti,
St. VIII. ‘ If it be known where a wise man, full of learn-
ing, is, one in search of knowledge should eagerly repair
to that place.’—Prof. J. Gray.
3. 0(0^?....C0o8(»> ‘ when young.’ _

Notes. 41
4. ‘should be diligent.’ is from
‘QsODo,’ ‘to exert.’ ‘ cxj>CO,’ ‘diligence,’ ‘ industry,’is
here used as a verb.
5- ...GOg^S, * serve (tty) preceptor with
fear, love and respect, and feed him.’ ‘ ^8^]^oo8,’
means ‘ lower down (thy) knees (and sit),’ which is an
attitude of respect among the Burmese. ‘<^008,’ ‘ a knee,’
is pronounced ' pa-sit.''
6. 08, ‘ true,’ ‘ real.’ ‘ aocpoS ’ means ‘ a good
real teacher.’ ‘GOg’ is euphonic.
7. OOGOCOoS0(^38?, ‘in order to acquire the
knowledge of letters.’
8. ooGqp8:Gqp&cg|8,
‘ to peep,’ 1 to watch.’ So, again, in St. XXVII. ‘cgS
is here euphonic.
‘on the watch.’ ‘ G^pSs,’
9. cbGOoSoCOgSsa. The full expression would be
1 dbGGp^fSsGQoSsGOoScOgSs 00gS?9,’ ‘ although (thy
teacher) abuses and threatens (th^e), bear it patiently.’
10. Oo83aog]o5GCO, ‘learn,’ ‘study.’ The object
1 COGO,’ ‘ lessons,’ is understood.
COGOOGOOCQjS, ‘ little by little,’
is euphonic here.
‘ repeatedly.’
12. ooc^oools, ‘ day by day.’ Also 1 coc$>oo(gos.’
13. ^oSooos.....Gg^, * commit to memory what
(thou) hast learnt.’ ‘o mind.’

Lokasar A.
14. G3G0g30Ojp, ‘various.’
15. QCoScoq]?<{>>?, ‘good qualities.’ ‘ gcuS,’ P- ‘ gC03,’
‘ quality.’ ‘ GO^pc^S,’ ‘the reputation of a good quality,’
' moral worth.’ For ‘ COgSsorp,’ see note 25, St. XII ;
and for ‘ (ogoS,’ note 28, St. XII.
1. GOOS. From ‘33GOO8,’ ‘great-grandfather.’
2. O^S. From ‘ 300^8,’ ‘ grandfather.’
3. OgSsboS. From ‘ 330g83000oS,’ ‘ a success-
ion,’ ‘ a continuity.’
4. oqjoS,‘without interruption.’
5- ‘ to observe,’ ‘ to follow?
6- ‘ usual to practise.’
7. QCOCO, ‘ to practise,’ ‘to be accustomed to.’
The proper form is ‘ GCOCO3.’
8. ooq$, (p .), ‘practice,’ ‘observance.’
9. 30C^oS, ‘according to,’ ‘in conformity with.’
10. O^aS, (P. ‘0^00 ‘ conduct,’ ‘life,’ ‘ action.’
11. jgjoS CXJ]g8, ‘lineage.’ ‘ OQjgS ’ is from
‘ 3DOgS3DOq|g8,’ ‘ continuous connection.’
12. GQoS 0^8(04^^, ‘observing and avoiding,’
i.e., in the observance" of good practices includes the
avoidance of evil ones,’ ‘GOoSogS.,’ ‘to keep up,’ ‘to
observe;’ ‘ QgS,’ from ‘ (cggSc^pS,’ ‘ to avoid,’ ‘to shun. ’
13. 33Q^g833Gol8s, ‘ in association.’
14. oSg^S, ‘a friend.’ Also ‘SoScog’*

15- O^GCCoSo, ‘ancient people,’ ‘ancients.’
16. a^gSscS?. See note i, St. XIII.
!7. O@?OQgo, 1 without feeling tired.’
18. G^jOGOg,...GOoSs, ‘do not easily believe the
words of a slanderer.’ ‘GqpGOg’ and ‘ oq$?cQoS ’ are
synonymous, meaning ‘ to make a false representation
against a person in order to excite a quarrel.’ ‘08(0^3?,’
‘ the middle party,’ ‘the third person.’ ‘ OgC^joS/ see
note 2, St. XI. 1 q|oS,’ ‘ to spoil (the friendship).’
19. C|aSc|oS,’ ‘at once.’
O^GCoScOOOO, ‘ all righteous persons.’ ‘ 00000,’
to be acquired.’ Cp. ‘ COdScSooSg’ below.
3. ...‘ the eighteen kinds of arts and
sciences.’ They are : (1) ‘ OQc8,’ ‘traditional literature ’;
(2) ‘ 00g|c8,' ‘ revealed literature ’; (3) ‘ OO^jO,’ ‘calcula-
tion,’ ‘arithmetic;’ (4) ‘GODDol,’ ‘mechanical art;’ (5)
‘ ^c8,’ ‘the knowledge of the Niti;’ (6) ‘ 8g00000D0,’
oooSoGpooo’, i.e., ‘ cooSckxSgooo,’ ‘ which ought
‘ the Byakarana or grammatical analysis;’ (7) ‘ O^go,’
‘ music ;’ (8) ‘ oct8ooo,’ ‘ manual dexterity;’ (9) ‘ O^GO
dl,’‘ archery ;’ (10) ‘ (^GpctoO,’‘ antiquities ;’ (11) ‘08
‘ science of medicine ;’ (12) ‘ cocSoODOOO,’ ‘wit
and humour ;’ (13) ‘ GQO08,’ ‘ astrology;’ (14) ‘ QOCOO,’
‘strategy;’ (15) ‘ OOgcB,’ ‘ versification;’ (16) ‘ GOOOC^,’

Lok as ar a.
‘diplomacy;’ (17) ‘ OjJjpZ ‘magic;’ and (18) ‘oogl,’
‘ grammar.’ ‘ 30g0Gp3,’ from P. ‘ 30g?,’ ‘ eight/ and
‘300,’ ‘ten;’ hence ‘eighteen/ ‘ o8g/ P., ‘arts and
sciences.’ The Burmese word is ‘ odoooS.’ ‘ 3o(cp*/ ‘ a
kind,’ as in ‘ ggo3o(yo? ok^OOgS/ ‘ there are 7 kinds
of property.’
4. ^aStxosoocB, i.e.t ‘ ooc8(^^o5ood?cco/ ‘pay
attention and remember/ hence ‘remember well.’‘ 00
08/ (P.), ‘attention,’ ‘ caution.’
5. g. An emphatic affix.
6. ‘all,’ ‘entirely,’ ‘ in every branch of
knowledge.’ ‘ Jj>,’ ‘ to be diffused.’ ‘ ‘ to be even,’
‘ equal/‘ as much as.’ ‘ O^?/ from ‘ 30C^?,’ ‘all.’ ‘ ^/
‘ to cover,’ ' to be entire.’
7. O^. A euphonic affix.
8. CO^OOSj, ‘any one (of them).’
9. ...GOOdSgcoo, ‘ acquire wealth in order
that all the duties of man are fulfilled.’ Cp. Lokaniti, St.
6, ‘ One should despise neither science nor art, saying to
himself—“ It is of little consequence even one learnt to
perfection is a suitable means of livelihood.’— Prof J.
10. ...8o§, ‘ like the eyesight of a
fowl when darkness sets in.’ Fowls are said to be unable
to see at night. 1 c8 ’ is an emphatic affix.
11. 88c^o8cg, ‘ for one’s self.’ ‘ c^,’ from ‘300^,’
‘ what is for.’

12. 30000$^, ‘if (thouart) wantingin knowledge.’
‘ see note 4, St. IX.
13. ^>G|<|]8c8 (Obs.), ‘to be much,’ ‘abundant.’ It occurs again in
‘ g5?q]83ogg8,’ St. XXV, 1 ogS?8 14. 008006.....GG|ScX3gS, ‘ (they) will not respect
(thee) even in (thy) presence.’ ‘ 008008/‘ conspicuous-
ly,’ ‘ plainly.’ qjoScgS,’ poetical for ‘ojjoSQS,’ ‘ in sight,’
‘presence-,’ its opposite is ‘ qjoSogoS,’ ‘out of sight.’
‘ GOdSgcjS,’ (Obs.), ‘to respect.’ So, again, in St. LII.
15. 3^goo8.....GOG>8s, ‘ let not others deride (thee)
in (thy) old age.’
1. c^CO, ‘diligence,’ ‘industry.’
2. Oj303, ‘ education,’1 wisdom.’ Cp. the expression
‘ labour and skill.’
3. cSgOOOoSc^, ‘ skilful in all (things.’) Note the
difference between ‘ ’ and ‘ 0^$.’ The former .means
‘ to have a sufficiency and abundance,’ as in the phrases,
‘ c^cqfo^oSo, ’ ‘ajjo^OO^,’ ‘ o^o^CC;’ and the latter,
‘to come to an end,’ as in ‘300^$,’ ‘all,’ ‘the whole.’
4. Oo8go8tj>o§, ‘like a double-tusked elephant.’
‘ C^CO ’ and ‘ ’ are likened to a pair of elephant’s
5. ^oS^@g°, ‘ (as) constant (as) a covering for
the body,’ i.e.} industry and skill should always be pos-

Lok asar a.
sessed by a man like a garment on his body.
‘ a covering for the body,’ from 1 cQoS,’ ‘ body,’ and ‘ <^,’
‘ to put on’ as a garment. ' see note 15, St. XII.
6. 8o§CODo8g....COO OOo5, ‘with a good heart,
conceive and perform (a thing) with precision.’ ‘ OO§,’
see note 7, St. XI. ‘ see note 16, St. XII. ‘ COO
OOo5,’ ‘ to be exact,’ ‘ accurate.’
7. 906. For ‘^060^,’ ‘to be of opinion,’ ‘to bear
in mind.’
8. ‘ to be full of,’ ‘many,’ ‘abundant.’
Cp. ‘ o$?c§8:,’ St. XXXIX; • St. XL;
‘ cooo6:oq]8c^8sc\3]oS,’ St. XLIV.
9. 8. See note 4, St. IX.
10. oofg’oS, ‘ to censure,’ ‘to revile.’ The meaning of
this word varies according to the different words with
which it is used. For example, it means ‘ to help,’ ‘ to
assist ’ in ‘ oo^oScooooSooo^S ’; ‘to perform funeral
rites,’in ‘ 8?OO^o8oog8,’ or 1 q>o8 ^g8?OO^o8oO£)S;’
and ‘ to dispraise,’ ‘ to censure ’ in ‘ db<5|00 (^oSoogS 11’
11. j>8, ‘with a corrupt and wicked habit.’
‘ s£^go8G00030^3DCqj8 8ll’
heaping sin on sin.’ ‘ A criminal of-
fence’is ‘ ‘ ‘toweave together,’ ‘to do,’ ‘to
commit.’ ‘ ‘to throw up,’ ‘ to heap.’
13. cx^ogSo, ‘ a wicked person.’ ‘ og Og

t^oSooS. The usual order is ‘ OoS^OtS,’ ‘ to
a closing affix like ‘ eft* oog5,’ used gener-
14. Shortened from ‘ G$>cp,’ ' the
place where.’
COOO^. Supply ‘ cogS ’ after ‘ coo ’11
15. ‘the influence or result of past actions.’
This word comes directly from the Sanskrit ‘ karma.’
The Pali is ‘ ODg,’ from which the Burmese word ‘ o5 ’ is
derived. ‘ ‘ only.’
17. Gj^Sg, a euphonix affix.
ally in poetry.
Cp. Lokaniti, St. 165, ‘ The property of men of little
industry becomes the possession of those more industrious;
evil doers say that their present lot has its origin in for-
mer deeds.’—Prof. J. Gray.
19. oq]8$>g5?og GOOD,’ 1 of the vilest habit.’
20. O^oSo^S, ‘the example of a corrupt person.’
‘ 0$?,’ ‘ example;’ see also note 1, St. XIII.
2.. gogCxS, ‘ to cling,’ ‘ to follow.’
1 eocpoloo. From P. ‘ ©3G|,’ ‘ a house,’ and
‘ 30d61o2>,’ ‘ to dwell; ’ hence ‘ the life of a householder.’
2. oogoo. (P.), ‘ narrow,’‘ confined.’ So 1 oocp
oloooogo© ’ means ‘the householder’s life is a confined
one,’ owing to the numerous duties he has to perform.

Lok AS AR A.
3. c8g. (P.), ‘business,’ ‘affair,’ ‘ duty.’
4. Qo°gQo8, ‘many,’ ‘numerous.’ In this con-
nection, ‘ qpg ’ is written ‘ Qo?,’ as also in ‘ 30G^ooS3D
Qo?,’ or briefly ‘ cQooSQo?n ’ So, again, in ‘ QosgQoS
OoScooS,’ St. XX.
C^c^GOOoS, ‘human society,’ ‘ worldly life.’
again, in 1 C^GOOoScoooSsfogoS,’ St. XX; ‘c^.GOOoS
Ojog§,’ St. XL; ‘ c gcoooSoj gooo8,’ St. XLV.
6. qSSgOOoS....G^socos, 1 in leading the life of
a householder, (one should act like) the white ants in
constructing their nests.’ ‘ 38 into married life ; ’ ‘to commence a family;’ for ‘ 38 C00o8,’ see note 14, St. XII. ‘ as,’ ‘ like,’ denoting
comparison. ‘g(^?,’ ‘to overspread with any sticky
matter.’ ‘ ooo?,’ is expletive here.
7. OJGG|o, ‘ the affairs of man.’
8. oqjoSgO, ‘ wide,’‘extensive.’
9. 3oQo(go, ‘various,’ ‘numerous.’
10. c8g03000o5. From ‘ 30c8g0,’‘ cleverness,’ and
‘ 30000$,’ ‘ knowledge,’ ‘ understanding.’
11. ^|3°C|OOo5, ‘a reel on which thread is wound
from the spindle.’
12. o£|, for ‘ obo^,’‘ like.’

13. COg8oo5, lit., ‘ to be able to turn about a thing,’
i.e., ‘to be thoroughly conversant with or skilled in,’ is a
metaphor taken from the rotation of a wheel.
14. (co, ‘ to think,’ ‘to consider.
15. OgoSoo. See note 4, St. XII.
16. c^coo8op8, ‘ the stalk of industry.’ A metaphor.
1 7. 33G|8o03g8o3, ‘ if the foundation is laid.’ ‘30g^8*,’

‘ bottom,’‘ foundation,’ ‘origin.’ ‘ oopS,’ ‘ to place,’ ‘to
lay.’ ‘ CD,' see note 9, St. XI.
18. oo6cip5op33, ‘the long branches of wisdom.’
A met-aphor.
19. €}]& 003 33 08?, ‘the fruit of happiness.’ A
21. oco§[G€l For ‘O0Go^C^,’ ‘gradually,’‘little by
22. 300GCO. Poetical for ‘OGCO,’ ‘custom.’ It
occurs again in Sts. XXVI and XXXIX.
23. OCJJ^, ‘to remain,’ ‘to be left.’
24. For ‘ Gog]g§,’ ‘ to be skilled in,’ ‘ to be well
versed in.’
25. GOo8?GO$£>OQ?, ‘ put an end to (thy) pride.’
For - GOo8?C>3$,’ see note 9, St. III.
26. GOoS. For ‘GCoSoopS,’ ‘to be upright,’
‘ honest;’ same as ‘ G^08006.’
27. 0^8, ‘to use / hence ‘to act.’

Lokasara .
i. GCOoCOlS?. These refer to the four great islands
or continents lying equidistant from each other around
the Mount Meru. They are : (i) ‘ ‘ the northern
island;’ (2) ‘ G>Q||Sol,’ ‘the southern island,’ which we
now inhabit ; (3) ‘ Qg8G3CO,’ ‘ the eastern island ;’ and
(4) ‘ 30OC|Go"lo03,’ ‘ the western island.’
2. o88go18, ‘the northern extremity.’
3. Q8o^£|GOD38, ‘Mount Meru,’ which occupies
the centre of the four great islands.
4. ^GGOoS, ‘ to weigh (in the mind).’ ‘ GOODS,’
‘ to bear,’ ‘ to carry.’
5. ^8°, ‘to compare.’
6. COgS?. For ‘ GOoScogS?,’ ‘ although.’
7 3DC^8oQc8, ‘ infinite,’ * unlimited.’
8. Goqjg3, ‘kindness.’ ‘ oogS ’ for ‘oogS.’ The
whole clause from ‘ QCOoOgj^? ’ to ‘ j^cogS qualifies the
noun ‘ 3o8 ’ Cp. the following words of the Buddha :
“ The great thickness of the earth, compared with the
love of a mother and father, is but the thickness of a
bamboo leaf. The exceedingly broad universe, compared
with the kindness of a mother and father, is like a small
ant hill. The whole ocean, when compared with the
kindness of a mother and father, is but a small brook.
The kindness of a mother and father cannot be measured.”
9. 308000? c^oS, i.e., ‘ t»8 oogSooo? cQoS 803
oogS,’ ‘ mother is like a depository house.
:a place where anything (here treasure) is deposited.’

c£|aSoDOoQOOO?, * wife is like a treasure-trove.’
is ‘ a secret depository of treasure indicated in
11. ooosodos^oSoooS, ‘
of a race.’ ‘ _|o8oooS ’ for ' 3D^oS(3000o5,’
‘ lineage.’
12. ooScooSc^SGGg, ‘relatives are the
of a tree.’ Ancestry and relationship are
son is the connecting link
‘ a race,’
referred to under the metaphor of trees and branches.
By a similar figure of speech, we speak of1 the branches
of a family,’ ‘ a family-tree,’ and so forth.
13. G^Ggp From ‘ 33G^33Gg[,’ ‘attendants,’ ‘ re-
14. 3^8. From ‘333^8,’ ‘a. company,’ ‘ a group.’
15. cog, a euphonic affix.
16. dg, ‘to be separated,’ 'to be divided.’
17. ob, (Obs.), ‘ entire,’ ‘ all; ’ same as ‘ oo8?ll ’
18. 008 ?G|, 1 poverty,’ ‘ distress,’ ‘ misery.’
19. GqpaS, ‘to disappear.’
20. 00S, ‘ to make away with.’
21. ODoS, (Obs.), ‘ to be full of,’ ‘ to have an abun-
dance of.’
23. gScooSG^ DC SCXJ
({aSGooo^So^,’ ‘ is indeed
22. ajOoS, ‘among men.’
l The prose form would be
.’ ‘ G008 ’ and ‘ are
expletives here.

Lok a sara.
24. G0I8?. For ‘ 336018?,’ ‘all.’
25. C@3O, 1 to speak,’ ‘ to say.’
26. For ‘ ^?g6?Q8s,’ ‘praise.’
27. cgo^g, 1 anxiety.’
28. GODSONS, ‘an evil,’ ‘ calamity.’
29. GqpaS§8g&003?,’ ‘ should be able to avert.’
‘ G 30. SoSo&gQdSoo^?, 1 (be) honest.’
31. ..082, ‘let not the odour of the flower
of love disappear.’ ‘QoS,’ to become weak,’ as odour,
flavour, colour, affection.
(. GOG^, ‘ to be nice,’ ‘accurate,’ expressive of
care and exactness with which a thing is done.
2. bSSoogSo, ‘ to be careful.’
3. «>&• For ‘ QO^SoCXJ?,’ see note 25, St. XII.
4. oqgSg, (Obs.), ‘ a jar,’ ‘ pot.’
5. 9^’goS, ‘ pots and cups.’
6. gsgOCqioSc^S, ‘big though (it is).’ ‘ O^joS ’
here means ‘ although,’ ‘ notwithstanding.’ ‘ C^]8 ’ is
7. O0OoScQj<^jO2, ‘ by the continual falling of drops
(of water) from the eaves of a roof.’ ‘ ODOoS,’ (pron.
‘ ta-zet ‘ the eaves of a roof.’ Cp.
“ By drops of water falling one by one,
Little by little may a jar be filled ;

Such is the law of all accumulations ;
Of money, knowledge, and religious merit,”—Indian Wisdom,
8. CO3J. From ‘ 8DCO3JGJ,’ ‘ to resemble,’ ‘ to be
9. ‘ the ways of the bees.’
10. ^o5oq]8o^?cj), ‘bearing in mincl and acting
11. ...‘the fact of the white ants
rearing a hillock over their nests.’ ‘ ‘ white-ant;’
‘ GOOo8^,’ ‘ a hillock ;’ ‘ Q8?Gp,’ from ‘ 33^8: SOCp,’ ‘ a
i2- e8ocoe§gc°g-’
‘ in acquiring wealth.
‘ be skilful.’ ‘ C^,’ an intensive
14. (o^oScoo..;Gg“O^o, ‘ the example of the rich
man, who made a dead mouse as capital, and who was
most skilful in the art of acquiring wealth.’ This alludes
to the Chullaka Setthi story, contained in Prof. Rhys
David’s Buddhist Birth Stories. As the story is an interest-
ing one, it is quoted here at length.
‘ Long ago when Brahmadatta was reigning in Bena-
res, in. the land of Kasi, the Bodisat or embryo Bud-
dha was born in a treasurer’s family; and when he grew
up, he received the post of treasurer, and was called
Chullaka. And he was wise and skilful, and understood
all omens. One day as he was going to attend upon the
king, he saw a dead mouse lying on the road; and con-
sidering the state of the stars at the time, he said, “ A
young fellow with eyes in his head might, by picking this
thing up, start a trade and support a wife.” Now a cer-

Lokasar a.
tain young man of good birth, then fallen into poverty,
heard what the official said, and thinking, “ This is a man
who wouldn’t say such a thing without good reason,” took
the mouse, and gave it away in a certain shop for the use
of the cat, and got a farthing for it. With the farthing he
bought molasses, and took water in a pot. And seeing
garland makers returning from the forest, he gave them
bits of molasses, with water by the ladleful. They gave
him each a bunch of flowers, and the next day, with the
price of the flowers, he bought more more molasses, and
taking a potful of water, went to the flower garden. That
day the garland makers gave him, as they went away,
flowering shrubs from which half the blossoms had been
picked. In this way in a little time, he gained eight pen-
nies. Some time after, on a rainy windy day, a quantity
of dry sticks and branches and leaves were blown down
by the wind in the king’s garden, and the gardener saw no
way of getting rid of them. The young man went and
said to the gardener, “ If you will give me these sticks and
leaves, I will get them out of the way.” The gardener
agreed to this, and told him to take them. Chullaka’s
pupil went to the children’s play-ground, and by giving
them molasses, had all the leaves and sticks collected in
a twinkling, and placed in a heap at the garden gate.
Just then the king’s potter was looking out for firewood
to burn pots for the royal household, and seeing this heap,
he bought it from him. That day Chullaka’s pupils got
by selling his firewood sixteen pennies and five vessels-
water pot, and such like. Having thus obtained pos-
session of 24 pennies, he thought, “ This will be a good
scheme for me,” and went to a place not far from the city
gate, and placing there a pot of water, supplied 5°o grass-
cutters with drink. “ Friend, you have been of great
service to us,” said they, “What shall we do for you?”
<( You shall do me a good turn when need arises,” said he.
And then, going about this way and that, he struck up a
friendship with a trader by land and a trader by sea. And

the trader by land told him, “ To-morrow a horse-dealer
is coming to the town with 500 horses.” On hearing
this, he said to the grass-cutters, “ Give me to-day, each
of you, a bundle of grass, and don’t sell your own grass
till I have disposed of mine.” “ All right!” cried they in
assent, and brought 500 bundles, and placed them in his
house. The horse-dealer, not being able to get grass for
his horses through all the city, bought the young man’s
grass for a thousand pence.
A few days afterwards his friend, the trader by sea,
told him that a large vessel had come to port. He think-
ing, “ This will be a good plan,” got for eight pennies a car-
riage that was for hire, with all its proper attendants; and
driving to the port with a great show of respectability,
gave his seal ring as a deposit for the ship’s cargo. Then
he had a tent pitched not far off, and taking his seat, gave
orders to his men that when merchants came from outside,
he should be informed of it with triple ceremony. On
hearing that a ship had arrived, about a hundred mer-
chants came from Benares to buy the goods. They were
told, “You can’t have the goods: a great merchant of
such and such a place has already paid deposit for them.”
On hearing this, they went to him ; and his footman had
announced their arrival as had been agreed upon—three
deep. Each of the merchants then gave him a thousand
to become shareholders in the ship, and then another
thousand for him to relinquish his remaining share: and
thus they made themselves owners of the cargo. So
Chullaka’s pupil returned to Benares, taking with him two
hundred thousand. And from a feeling of gratitude, he
took a hundred thousand, and went to Chullaka, the trea-
surer. Then the treasurer asked him : “ What have you
been doing, my good man, to get all this wealth?” “ It
was by adhering to what you said that I have acquired it
within four months,” said he, and told him the whole
story, beginning with the dead mouse.

56 Lokasara.
’5- (ocjopS^oS. Lit. ‘ to be deep in conceiving a
plan ‘ to conceive a plan well.’
16. O^oOOoS, ‘ than others.’
’7- For ‘ 0030g§,’ ‘ to exceed.’
18. O^. See note 3, St. XVI.
19. (0308. See note 28, St, XII.
I. GOCJ]O&GOOS OGpOoS. "‘ The solitary banyan
tree on the road leading to the monastery.’ 1 godS,’ an
honorific affix. ‘ ‘the way or distance between
two places,’ different from ‘ co8?,’ ‘ the road itself.’
‘ ‘a main road.’ ‘ cS?,’ single,’ ‘alone,’
‘solitary,’ as ‘COC^oSoBs,’ ‘ OOGOODoScS?, II ‘ OGpOoS,’
(prom ‘pyin-nyaung ’), ‘ a species of banyan.’
2. QS. From ‘ ooQS,’ ‘ a root.’
3. Qo?gQo8. See note 4, St. XVII.
4. aoScooS. From ‘ 300oSi3DCOoS,’ * a branch of a
tree.’ The larger branch is ‘ 300^82 ’ll
5. gjoScopS?....d88cq|oS, ‘ having a thick foliage.’
‘ 88,’ ‘ to be close,’ opposed to ‘ (o^oopS,’ ‘ to be wide
apart.’ ‘ GO,’ ‘ to join,’ ‘ to cement.’ ‘088,’ ‘ crowded,’
‘ compact.’
6. £|8copS? §8 §8, ‘ having a (cool) pl easant
shade.’ ‘^8,’ from ‘33^8,’ ‘a shade.’ ‘ (^8,’ ‘ to be
pleasant to the‘eye.’

7. GCOQ^8c^j8. Lit. ‘ unshakeable by the wind
hence ‘ firm.’ ‘ c^j8 ’ is euphonic.
8. g8^!8d8?^g8, ‘ stalks of flowers and ripe fruit.’
‘ g8,’from ‘ 3ag8,’ ‘a flower.’ ‘^8,’ from ‘30^8,’ ‘a
stalk or branch of fruit or flowers.’
9. GOCjpgoS, ‘ birds in general.’
10. Goao8?6t>, ‘ loudly,’-‘noisily ’ (in large numbers.)
11. Lit. ‘ to take refuge in,’ hence, ‘to resort
to,’ ‘ to betake one’s self to.’
12. C^Qc8> ‘ a great number of persons,’ ‘ people in
general.’ * c^cS,’ from P. ‘OCO,’ ‘force,’ ‘ an army,’ de-
notes multitude.
13. i.e., ‘00^8^0058/ ‘ to ‘take shelter in
the shade.’
14. a^SOgOS, ‘ a traveller ;’ also ‘ a^soOgS ’ll
15. G^DSG^jS^S, ' to enjoy a pleasant rest.’
16. o8coo....c^cQ, * who come under (the shade
of the tree.)’ ‘ a8c88?,’ ‘ all.’
17. 300^ (§8? G3ao8, ‘ by allaying the heat (of
the sun.)’ ‘ 000^ ’ or ‘ ^200,’ ‘ to feel hot.’ ‘ (§8?,’ ‘ see
note 12, St. IX.
18. 8?gO?GCOa8o§, ‘just as (it) gives benefit,’o.,
by allaying the heat of the sun. ‘ GOOpS,’ ‘ to conduct,’
‘ to bring about.’ The same as ‘ 8°go?^p,’ below.
19. CXjjieGOODS.w.OoSco^?, ‘ so those who are
wealthy among men.’ ‘ GODoS,’ see note 5; St. XVII;

Lok as ar a.
-goS see note 28, St. XII. ‘ 00S,’ ‘ in,’ ‘ among.’
20. oSCOGOODES, ‘in the same manner.’
‘ J>oS,* see note 6, St. XVII.
^j[?GO*l8?GOgol?, ‘ kith and kin.’
Go s, 1 without lacking love.’
OO, ‘ to help,’ ‘ to assist.’
OOG|8?, see note 11, St. IX.
Wig151 ■ ‘ courteously,’ ‘ politely.’
00030. See note 1, St. XV.
000000$Jj[s$j[, ‘ sweetly,’ ‘ affably.’
3)80308^, ‘ talking loving words.’
5. ‘in a pleasant and agreeable
6. i.e., ‘ O^GOOdS gc^GOOD
Q8,’ ‘ by acting (thus).’
7. COgSco^SooSooS. See note 13, St. XVII.
8. GCOOOOO06. Lit. ‘ worldly duties ;’ hence ‘social
duties.’ In this connection, there are three kinds of'duties,
namely, (1) ‘ GCOOOOOOS,’ ‘ worldly dr social duties ;’ (2)
‘OgOoS,’ ‘religious duties;’ and (3) ‘ cpe»oo5,’ ‘the
duties due to a king.’
9. @o5@o5ooo8330», 1 distinctly,’ ‘ clearly ’ (as in

10. JXiQosQo?, ‘ various.’
11. From <30C^,’ ‘ an affair,’ 1 work,’ ‘ duty.’
12. oSo8 13. GCOd8cQ8?[§ discharge (of thy duties.) ‘good8,’ see note 18, St. XX.
1 E&' see note 12, St. IX. The meaning is that one
should discharge the various social duties in a satisfactory
14. o^8 new faces.’
15. c618soooSooco§[. 1 in associating with all (per-
sons),’ ‘ Col8?oboS,’ ‘to associate.’ ‘ O0G.g|/ ‘as
much as.’
16. CogGogCCtj|Sco^|8, ‘ delightfully.’
17. G9|8g9]S61?o)°, 1 in a happy manner.’
18. fco6;Jqp:;>8. Lit. ‘ with honeyed words ;’ ‘with
sweet speech.’
19. OO5O3?. See note 10, St. IX.
20. O. From ‘GOOOoSd,’ ‘to assist.’
o o
21. QgS, ‘ to supply,’ ‘ to replenish.’
22. The usual order is ‘ , ’ ‘ to scatter,’
‘ to distribute.’
23. 30^,. From ‘ J>oog8,’ ‘ to be diffused over all
hence ‘ one and all.’ See also note 6, St. XV.
24. ogj^Gcqp. The proper order is 1 Goq|?ogj$,’‘ a

25- cog. For ‘ Gogt^?,’ ‘ a relative.’
26. OO^’G^o, ‘ children and grand-children.’
27. £)§8COS, ‘ to be sad,’ ‘ unhappy.’
1. ^oGCOSo)?. ‘ The four classes of people.’ They
are: (1) ‘the official class;’ (2) ‘
‘the Brahman class;’ (3) ‘ o^GgSO^fogoSc^S,’ ‘the weal-
thy class ;’ and (4) ‘ ‘ the poor class.’
. 2. ^COoBoQS, ‘ in numbers or verse.’ ‘ ^,’ is ‘ a
verse written in lines of four syllables.’ ‘ cooBo,’ from P.
‘ 3DC\DoBog|,’ ‘rhetoric,’ ‘ poetry,’
3. O^SGolSo, ‘ to put together in one whole,’ i.e.,
‘ in a collected form.’
4. Qo?, ‘ to inform,’ ‘to instruct.’
5. coQos, ‘ separate.’
1. [ggSo^........cpG>0. These are some of the appel-
lations of a king. ‘ ‘the crown of
the people ‘ o^SGcpS^s,’ lit. ‘the lustre of (whose)
glory shines forth;’ ‘glorious;’ ‘ ‘ to caper about.’
(Obs.), ‘one whois victorious,’ i.e., ‘ a king.’ Cp.
‘ ’ in St. XXXIV, and ‘ GOOG|^CJ?,’ in St. XXXIX.
‘Og^GolScpOo/ ‘the greatest of all kings,’ ‘king of

. Notes.
kings.’ ‘Cg^,’ from ‘ 300g^,’ ‘a top,’ ‘summit,’ ‘pin-
nacle,’ denoting excellence. ‘GolS,’ from ‘ 30G9I8 ’ is the
same as ‘ 33Cg^,’n ‘ cp<2>0,’ P. ‘ a king.’
GCOO/ ‘ listen to the instructions (given).’
3. , 1 in the beginning of the world.’
4. OOOOCOQCO, ‘ Mahathamada,’ who is the first
king chosen unanimously by the people at the beginning
of the world to rule over them.’ The descendants of
Mahathamada constitute the royal race.
5. ag^oo, (P.), 1 the lord of the earth.’ This is one
of the appellations of king Mahathamada.
6. G$>03]oq]§^?, i.e., ‘ oqjSG^oqj^s/ ‘ always prac-
tised by,’ ‘ were in the habit of practising.’
7. G(D36?o3j[s30C$.....oq|8GO. These refer to the
ten duties of a king, called ‘ GpG>OgOOoSo)°.’ They are :
‘ GOOdSoCx^oCKX^,’ lit., ‘ meritorious religious offering
(2) ‘almsgiving,’ (3) ‘EoSgcgD^oEs,’
lit., 1 pure and upright heart,’ 1 rectitude (4) ‘
‘ mildness ;’ (5) ‘ cScoSoGDoSogS?,’ ‘ observance of the
precepts ;’ ‘ o8oo8?,’ ‘ a religious duty.’ 1 GOO§OgS?,’ see
note 12, St. XIV. (6) ’ lit., ‘ decrease of anger,’
‘ suppression of anger;’ (7) ‘ OOg8°S>,’ ‘forbearance ■’ (8)
‘ ‘ self-denial -y shortened from i 00^30^,’
‘the affair in which.’ (9) (oQ.....lit., ‘without
oppressing and giving trouble,’ ‘refraining from oppress

sion,’ ‘ mercy,’‘ humanity ;’and (io) ‘ GQgg0...oq]8GO,’
lit. ‘ increasing and extending love, and not (shewing)
opposition to the people ‘ unobstructiveness.’ ‘30g^>,’
another form of ‘ 30(^03,’. denotes universality. The
usual order of these ten duties are : (i) ‘ 6130ogGOS
g8?n (2) * dSco ’—dBcoGooooSoo^g8sii (3) ‘
GO;OD (5) ‘ 33808’00 ^SooS^gSsoboggSsii (6) 1 —
oogSsag&u (7) ‘ ^sooDscgoSooSgSsii (8) 1 eg
O ^eOODDQDOgOGgooEgoq]8§8sh (9) 1 coo §:@go
7 GooSo^ogSsii (10) ‘ 3o8Gcpo^o ’—gg8ogc^8ooo§.oq]8
§8s« Cp. Dhammaniti, St. 263, ‘ Almsgiving, piety
iberality, rectitude, mildness, religious devotion, good
temper, freedom from oppression, patience, and unobs-
tructiveness ; kings of these ten duties should not be in
the least forgetful.’—Prof. J. Gray.
8. gJo^GGppO’, ‘ thus enumerated;’ ‘ GG|,’ for ‘GC|
OgoS,’ 1 to count,’ ‘ to enumerate ■’ 1 OOD3,’ for ‘ GOOD ’ll
9. 000S GCg GOoS (^8, ‘ controlled by the ten
(rules).’ ‘ GCg ’ denotes variety, as in * ooGCgGOg.’ ‘GOd8
(cgcS,’ ‘ to watch over.’
10. oocp.-ogS^, ‘ guided by the rules.’ ‘ oocp“,’
here ‘the rules.’ ‘ ogS,’ see note 4, St. II.
11. COoSooSGoTg, ‘ beckoning with the hand (as
an act of kindness).’
12. 00(^08 30GO,. ‘ the four rules of kindness,’
(by which a king ought to govern). They are called

No T ES . 63
‘ OoSoOOOGp°GCOoO"le,’ which are : (1) ‘ OOODOGOO,’ ‘ levy-
ing one-tenth of the produce of the field ;’ (2) * c^OOGQO,’
‘ giving allowances to the soldiers once in six months ; ’
(3) ‘ oogoolco,’ ‘ advancing money to the people with-
out interest;’ and (4) ‘ oloOGOOgj,’ ‘uttering gentle
speech.’ ‘ 00^08,’ see note io, St. XVI.
13. [gODGOO. From Sk. ‘goo^,’ (P. 1 OOOc8’),
‘ nature,’ ‘ natural,’ ‘ original.’ Cp. in
14. oq]8cco....GOoSs, ‘let there be no remissness
(in the observance of these ten rules.)’
1. GOODS’) (Obs.), ‘chief,’ ‘lord,’ ‘king.’ So,
again, in Sts. XXXIV and XLVI.
2. (o^ogS.....OOoScjj', ‘ should think ten times more
than others.’
3. 3S8008.....^[DGOOO, ‘ should sleep less and seek
daily the happiness and welfare of the people at large.’
‘ 008,’ ‘ to sleep,’ ‘ to take repose,’ Cp. Dhammaniti,
St. 184, ‘A ruler should sleep during one watch only, a
priest during two, a householder during three, and a beggar
during four.’—Prof. J. Gray.
4. ‘ one who commits a rape,’ ‘ a ravisher.’
5. Q. Lit. ‘ to project a little ;’ hence ‘ to crop up,’
‘ to appear.’
6.. ogoSoog^, ‘ do not exceed the rules.’ ‘ o^oS,’
from P. ‘ oggg^,’ ‘ making known,’ ‘ declaring,’ ‘ enact-

Lok as ar a.
ment,’ 1 ordinance.’ It is spelt here with the ‘ 8/ so that
it may have the same athat as the previous word ‘ ’ll
7. ‘ to be good,’ ‘ excellent.’ So ‘ G^ooS’g^
’ means ‘ good kings of old.’
8. gg^GOOOC^S?, i.e., ‘ ' as pre-
scribed or laid down by.’
9. 00^6;. Lit. ‘ a history ;’ hence ‘ precedent.’
10. ^S^SoOOgS?. Lit. ‘not (shewing) want of (simi-
larity) when compared with;’ hence ‘ should not differ
from.’ ‘ ‘ to compare.’
11. O3 line,’ hence ‘ in exactly the same way.’
12. o5]8@8?og]o5, ‘ not defective in (one’s) con-
duct.’ ‘ogjoS,’ see note 9, St. VII.
13- 14- gods.’ GOoSoOgSoaS, ‘just and impartial.’ C^oSqjSogoS, ‘ esteemed by both men and
i5- 1 16. GOgp^sfoftoS, ‘ conferring much benefit.’ For see note 28, St. XII. C£j]8^o8co8s^?, ‘ the line of conduct or action.’ XXV.
and doing.’
2. ^j^oSq, ‘ bodyguards.’

3. g much,’ ‘abundant.’ So, again, in * St.
4. aSSo^OO^O^oS, ‘ have them keep a night
watch.’ ‘ qSiSo^godS, ‘ to sleep by turns in the king’s
palace, and keep a night watch.’
5. From ‘ @gSfilOOg8,’ ‘ to look
after,’ ‘ to watch.’
6. 33^0008, ‘ improper affairs.’
7. 3DG0038g300oS, ‘ old and new faces same as
‘ OflS&OQCXJloS ’ in St XXL
8. 08, ‘ to inspect,’ ‘to examine.’
9. og]$sj]8og]§Cp, ‘ trusted servants.’
10. ooSsoQ^qp?. The full expression is ‘
C^Og8o^>G30D8oO<$?g|oSoogS,’ ‘ who have discharged
their duties satisfactorily.’
11. GG|?^O?gQ8Q8, ‘ who have great tact and fore-
12. cQSoSgoB?, ‘ conceive plans by consulting?
13. cp picion in thy mind.’ ‘oc^O?/ ‘to doubt,’ ‘to suspect.’
‘ QJ|8?,’ from ‘ GDCgjS?,’ ‘ entirely,’ ‘ wholly.’ ‘ J|>a^oOg8«,’
a common expression, meaning ‘ to bear in mind,’ ‘ to lay
to heart.’

1. (g^SobSDGGp, ‘the internal affairs of a state.’
2. GoloS. For ‘ GoloSoS,’ 1 the butea tree.’
3. Goq]?, ‘ a parrot.’
4. (o^GOg°OJ^joD3, ‘to reflect,’ ‘ to speculate.’
5. odBoODOOgS, ‘unable to know.’ The difficulty
of knowing the turn of the internal affairs of a state is
compared to that of distinguishing between the leaves of
a butea tree and the parrots perched on it on account of
the resemblance of their colour.
6. GcpGp......a8oo, ‘ in order to percieve the state
of things beforehand.’ ‘ ,’ for ‘ ,’ ‘ an
affair,’ ‘ event.’
7. oqiSsODoSojSGpS, ‘ learned astrologers.’ ‘Ovseps ’
seems to to be derived from P. ‘ GOODG],’ ‘ an astrologer.
8. C^OgSo^cqjoS, ‘ assemble (them) before thee.’
‘ O§?,’ ‘ to surround.’
9. c8$oO$o...‘ enquire about the state of
the times.’ ? ’ and ‘ 00000 ’ are astrological
terms. There may be a reference here to the old astro-
logers, who claimed the power of predicting events from
the study of the stars, which have an influence on human
destiny. At the court of Mandalay during the time of the
Burmese kings, some eight or ten Brahmans were always
maintained for the purpose of assisting and advising the
the king with their astrological calculations.
10. 3DOGCoQ§, ‘ through habit or custom.’ See
note 22, St. XVII.

11. ‘ land and water.’ ‘g^S,’ (Obs.),
land.’ So, again, in St. XLVI.
12. SogSoogSs, ‘to arrange.’ ‘ pogS? ’ is expletive.
13- GQjSopSo, ‘ to guard against.’
14- G|OO3o, ‘ to surround.’
15- 0p8°GC03oS, ‘ an outpost.’
16. G^^Oo 08?, ‘ let not others pass the frontier
boundary.’ ‘ gQQo?,’ ‘ the land-mark which divides one’s
own territory from that of another.’
1. Q8oCpo8G(^o8’, ‘ in order to know the state of
2. ooGqp&GqpSsojjS. See note 8, St. XIII.
3. g5cqp8?GGpo8, ‘gently and softly enter into
intimacy.’ ‘ go/ ‘ to be soft.’ ‘GCJ|o8?,’ ‘ to be pliant,’
‘ flexible.’ ‘ GGpo8,’ ‘ to mix with.’
4. c£^8o8(o^GOg. See note 12, St. XXV.
5- O^Go/j), ‘ sending out spies.’ ‘ GO,’ for ‘ GO
Cgo5,’ ‘to send on business.’ Cp. Rajaniti, St. 42, ‘ As
the air (unobserved) reaches all creatures, so should the
king know all about his people by means of spies.’—Prof*
J. Gray.
6. og$. Lit. ‘ without rest;’ hence ‘ constantly.’
7. ^oS“, ‘ to enquire about.’
8. Another form of ‘ (o^sOOS,’ ‘to work
with untiring energy.’’

Lokasar a.
9. 333333§GQO38. Another form of ‘OOOSO^O?,’ ‘to
put forth strength,’ ‘ to make exertion.’ ‘ 33§,’ a variant
of ‘ 303?,’ ‘ strength.’
9. G^3oSg^38gQ3O333, ‘posterity.’ ‘0^80333,’ lit.,
‘ grand-children and children ;’ the usual order is ‘ 003?
gQsii ’
10. 83g33Og8(^£6, ‘long continued, prosperity.’
‘ OpS,’ from ‘ 33OpS,’ ‘ a succession,’ 1 continuity.’
11. O3g, ‘ to remain permanently,’ ‘ to establish.’
12. 8 the means of.’ For ‘8 13. ^c6GO338sg^’O33. Lit. ‘ good and pleasant
words;’ hence ‘ expression of good wishes,’ ‘ greetings,’
‘ salutations.’ Cp. ‘ ^o5g§S0OO$O3p8,’ ‘ to salute.’
14. 030^03, ‘a letter,’ ‘epistle;’ here, ‘a royal
15. GOolo8so3|6’, ‘send always.’ ‘ coolanother
form of ‘ GOCgoS,’ ‘ to send.’ ‘oSso^Ss,’ see note 13, St. 5.
16. o^c^oS;, ‘ such and such a king.’
17. ^jSooSsGOsg^s, ‘ affectionately enquiring after
(the welfare and well-being of.)’
18. Gogo8...o^^, ‘declare truthfully that (thou)
art well-disposed towards, and look upon, him as a
friend.’ ‘ c^S,’ ‘to aim,’ ‘to intend.’- ‘ OOCoS,’ (Obs.),
‘ faithfully,’ ‘ truthfully.’
19. g]8c^O0333, i.e., ‘ ^]8cQO3g5o^oEJO3gSoO303,’
* the profession of friendship.’

1. qSooo, i.e., ‘ 02>D003G00330G|S,’ ‘a
peaceful country.’
2. G>DC033DC^, ‘ according to the horoscope.’
3. ^o8c\DgS?CGOX)6?, ‘ the aspects of the stars are
unfavourable.’ ‘ Q_oS,’ Sk. ‘ (goo,’ ‘a planet.’ There are
eight planets, viz., (1) ‘ oO^G^oS,’ ' the Sun ;’ (2) ‘ 00
^oSo^oS,’ ‘ the Moon;’ (3) ‘ 33^1(^oS,’ ‘ Mars (4) ‘ ojsgcS,’ ‘Mercury;’ (5) ‘ (^□oooGOOS^oS,’ ‘Jupiter;’
‘ GcoooS(^o[^oS,’ 1 Venus ;’ (7) ‘ oG$(^o8,’ ‘ Saturn,’ and
(8) ‘ GpcxjQoS,’ ‘ Rahu or the dark planet.’
4. OoSgcodS*, ‘ in addition to,’ ‘ besides.’
5. cSoSo^. ‘ A book containing a detailed account
of good and bad omens ;’ ‘ a book of fate.’
6. tjjo^GCQpgoS, ‘ flight of (ominous) birds.’ ‘ o^,
is euphonic. “ Like most half civilized races, or rather
like uneducated human nature generally, the Burmans
believe strongly in omens, astrology, alchemy and witch-
craft. For instance, when they meet a funeral, or a person,
crying when starting on a journey, they look upon it
as unlucky, and accordingly put off the journey. When
they see a snake crossing the road, they say that the
journey will be long, and when they meet with mushrooms,
they believe that the journey will be prosperous. If auy
unusual wild animal or bird enters a house, it is a sign of
great honour for the owner. If the white ants throw up a
heap of earth under a house, it will bring wealth to the
occupier; and if a person feels itching in the palms of the
hand, it is a sign that he will soon receive some money”—
Forbes' ‘British Burma.'..

Lok as ar a.
7. O$>g83,,‘ prophetic sayings.’ ‘J^oScgoS,’ ‘what
is uttered.’
8. QJ>o8^|oSoogSsty ‘ if greatly disturbed with,’ i.e.,
if the ominous signs are prevalent.
9. GODSogS?, 1 to take care of,’ ‘ to protect.’
10. G|003S, ‘ to guard against.’
n. o^cp?. Sk. 1 ‘a charm,’ ‘spell,’ ‘in-
cantation.’ . See also the explanation of this word in
St. LI I.
0003?, ‘ one skilled in anything.’
13. ogoSooo, ‘ to protect (from evil.)’
14. Ogo68Sg1@8, ‘in order to be freed from (the
15. Qc8o3C\3gSsGO3, ‘ make also an offering of food
to the planets.’
16. ' OOG^S, (Obs ), ‘ cleaning,’ ‘ washing.’
17. 03 (§§goT, ‘ to perform the ceremony of wash-
ing the king’s head,’ from Sk. ‘ P.
‘ OOoS^,’ ‘ the passage of a planetary body through a
zodiacal sign,’ by which the Burmese understand the
passage of the sun at the commencement of the new
y§ar. It means the occasion on which the head of Brah-
ma in the custody of seven goddesses is transferred from
one to another at the commencement of each new year.
Its several derivatives are : ‘ 00^^^33003oqjQopS,’ ‘ to let
go the head ‘ 03^§30003oq|