Citation
Habari

Material Information

Title:
Habari
Creator:
Kenya. Native Affairs Department
Kenya. Education Department
Place of Publication:
Nairobi
Publisher:
Swift Press
Manufacturer:
East African Standard Ltd
Language:
English
Swahili
Physical Description:
vol.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Kenya -- History -- 1895-1963 ( lcsh )
Kenya -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Kenya. Native Affairs Department ( lcnaf )
Genre:
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Kenya -- Nairobi County -- Nairobi
Coordinates:
-1.283333 x 36.816667

Notes

General Note:
"A newspaper for the Natives of Kenya. Published by Authority."
General Note:
"Registered at the General Post Office as a newspaper."
General Note:
This title is believed to be in the public domain under the laws of Kenya at the time of publication.
General Note:
This newspaper was the responsibility of the Kenya colony's Chief Native Commissioner. After the First World War, the Commissioner was Lt. Col. Oscar Ferris Watkins CMG CBE DSO (1877–1943). While acting as Commissioner, Lt. Col. Watkins served as the first editor of the Swahili language newspaper, Baraza. He was succeeded in the post by Mr. G. V. Maxwell, who in 1922, served at the head of Habari's 'editing committee', continuing the tradition of Commissioners functioning, at least, in part as an information officer for the colonial government. Mr. Maxwell's name is associated with the post in the official Kenya Gazette from as early as 25 October 1921 (ref, the Gazette, issue for 2 November 1921). According to records of the UK National Archives, an Acting Chief Native Commissioner was appointed in the absence of G.V. Maxwell in October 1928. Mr. Maxwell's name remains associated with the post, according to the Kenya Gazette (ref. issue for 19 November 1929) until as late as 31 October 1929. Mr. Maxwell had earlier served as Acting Secretary for Native Affairs in Fiji. Before that, at the rank of Colonel, G.V. Maxwell served in India during the Indian Mutiny of 1857-1858.
General Note:
Catalogue records of North American holding libraries do not associate responsibility for this title to any agency or author. The SOAS University of London record associates responsibility with the 'Department of Education'; and, the title from 1926 onward clearly notes "Edited by the Department of Education" on the cover title page. It is more likely that the title was the responsibility of Kenya (the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya) Native Affairs Department, which was administered by the Chief Native Commissioner and later edited by the Department of Education.
General Note:
Fay Gadsden, in footnote 8 of "The African Press in Kenya, 1945-1952" (published online on 01 January 2009, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021853700018727, and later in print (October 1980), in The Journal of African History, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 515-535), gives the dates of publication as 1922-1925 and 1927-1931.
General Note:
LCNAF (name authority) : Kenya. Native Affairs Department : URI https://lccn.loc.gov/nr95023219
General Note:
VIAF (name authority) : Kenya. Education Department : URI http://viaf.org/viaf/143040633

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
381441 ( aleph )
416944739 ( oclc )
Per 3/19694 ( soas classmark )
56815213 ( oclc )

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Full Text
H AB ARI

A Newspaper for the Natives of Kenya Colony. Edited by the Department of Education.

Vol. 6.

JUNE, 1927.

No. 3.

Registered at the General Post Office as a Newspaper.

MANENO YALIYOMO.

Price 10 Cents.

Published Monthly by Authority at
the East African Standard, Ltd.,
Nairobi, Kenya Colony.

Majibizano ya Hygiene ... ... ... 4— 5

Picha za Panya ........... ... • •• 7

Kufunzwa kwa Scouts ... ... ... 8—10

Kufika katika East African Standard ... 11—14

Picha ya Waalimu wa Jeanes School ... 15

Habari ya Mkuki ... ... ... ... 16—20

Ufuta (Sim Sim) ... ... ... ... 20—21

Hadithi ya Kale....................23—24

Barua za Wasomaji ... ... ... 25—30


2

HABARI.

June, 1927.

Joseph Crosfleld & Sons, Ltd.,

SOAP MAKERS, WARRINGTON.

Unaponunua sabuni za Crosfield fahamu sana
kama wanunua sabuni zilizo nzuri, tena namna va
kufanya sabuni hizi kumepatikana kwa elimu ya
miaka 100,

“UMBRELLA” Sabuni ya Mwamvuli. Ikatika pakiti, Hii haishindiki kwa uzuri.
“RAINBOW” Sabuni ifukuzayo magonjwa.
Sabuni ya Upindi. Ina Nguvu sana
“MIKADO” Sabuni inukiayo marashi.
Toilet Soap. Hizi ni ndogo ndogo kwa rangi
“KETTLE” ya mandano.
Sabuni ya Birika Hii ni nzuri tena rahisi.
“SIGNAL” Itakufanyia kazi yako.

Usikubali ilia kupata sabuni za Crosfield nazo
hupatikana kwa:—

Mortiboys Nicholas & Co., Ltd.,

NAIROBI na MOMBASA


June, 1927.

HABARI.

3

HABARI.

A Newspaper for the Natives of
Kenya Colony.

Published under Authority of Government
Editor:—Mr. J. W. C. Dougall,

Principal Jeanes School, Kabete.

Subscription Shs. 2/50 p.a. postage paid
Rates for Advertisements:

Full page Shs. 40/- per issue
Half page Shs. 20/- per issue
Qtr. page Shs. 10/- per issue

Business Manager:—Mr. T. Bagnall,
Education Department,

P.O. Box 340,

Nairobi, Kenya.

We have great pleasure in pub-
lishing this month the first instal-
ment of the Hygiene Catechism.
Some of our readers may recog-
nize it as an old friend for it ap-
peared first as a small book in
Ja-Luo. Mrs. Owen who composed
the Catechism has kindly allowed
us to publish it and the Medical
Department has also helped so
that these questions and answers
can be safely used for the instruc-
tion of mothers and children. We
want you to use this Chapter and
the Chapters that follow with
intelligence. Please do not use it
like a syllable chart to practise
sounds with. Rather try to, under-
stand each question and answer;
express each paragraph in your
own words; get pupils to explain
what each word means. This effort
to understand the meaning should
be made before you learn a para-
graph by heart. Each day you
should try to find a particular
place or person where you can
apply a question or answer. Never
be satisfied with learning by
heart. Try to make the outcome of

Tumefurahi sana kutangaza
mwezi huu sehemu ya kwanza ya
majibizano ya Hygiene. Waso-
maji wengineo wetu wTatatambua
kuwa ni sahibu wetu wa zamani
kwa ilivyotukia kuonekana ka-
tika kitabu kidogo cha Ja-Luo.
Memsahibi Owren ambae ndiye
aliyekitunga ameturuhusu kuki-
chapa kathalika na kwa msaada
wa Medical Department, kwa
sababu hiyo hayo maswali na ma-
jibu yaweze kutumiwa kwm
salama kwa min-ajili ya mafunzo
juu ya kina mama na watoto.
Twataka m’tumie Mlango huu na
Milango ifuatanayo kwa akili.
Tafathalini msitumie kama zile
karatasi zibandikwazo humo
school kwa kuigiza sauti za lugha.
Afathali mjaribu kuelewa ni ma-
swali na jawabu lakwe; eleza
killa fungu la maneno kwa nia
zako; wafanye wanafunzi waeleze
jinsi ya kulla neno maana yakwe.
Bidii hiyo kuelewa ni tafsiri nai-
tolewe hapo kabla hujajifunza
sehemu kwa moyo. Jaribu killa
siku kutafuta wakati fulani au
mtu fulani kwa kufungamanisha
na kuonyesha wazi-wazi hilo
swali au jaw’abu kwa mfano. Hal
toshi kamwe kujifunza kwa
moyo. Jaribu kufanya mwisho wa


4

HABARI.

June, 1927.

each paragraph an action. Make
that action certain by doing it
again and again as a habit. In
Hygiene the first principle of
method is “Learning by Doing”.
We would welcome letters from
teachers and pupils describing;

How I learnt and used the first
Chapter of the Hygiene
Catechism.”

killa sehemu kwa kitendo ukaki-
fanye kile kitendo kwa kuhaki-
kisha kukifanya marra kwa
rnarra mithli ya mazoea. Katika
‘ Hygiene ’ neno la maana lililo
la kwanza ni “ Kujifunza kwa
Kufanya ”, Tungefurahi kuzi-
karibisha barua zitokazo kwa
waalimu na kwa wanafunzi ziele-
zazo:—“ Jinsi nilivyojifunza na
kuutumia Mlango wa kwanza wa
Majibizano ya Hygiene ”,

CATECHISM OF HYGIENE.

by Mrs. L. O. Owen.

Chapter 1.

Care of the House.

1. If a man builds a house
what two most important things
must he consider?

He must think of light and air
so that the house may be bright
and airy because children cannot
grow up healthy in dark and dirty
houses.

2. Should people sleep on the
ground ?

No, people should sleep on
beds because the ground is dirty
and dirt causes sickness.

3. Should each house have a
bath or basin?

Yes, for people should wash
daily. Our skins are full of tiny
mouths and if these mouths be-
come stopped up with dirt and
perspiration our skin becomes ill.

4. How should a house be kept
clean ?

Every day it should be swept,
not just in the centre of the floor,
but in the corners and under the
beds. Every week it should he
smeared with cow dung. The mud
floor should be well beaten down
as dust is a great cause of
sickness.

MAJIBISANO YA HYGIENE.

Mlango wa kwanza.

Jinsi ipasavyo kutunza nyumba.

1. Mtu, akijenga nyumba,
mambo mawili yenyi maana yam-
pasayo afikiri ni yapi?

Yampasa afikiri ya muanga na
hewa illi kwamba nyumba iwe na
muanga ndani na upepo upate na-
fasi ya kuingia kwa kuwa watoto
hawawezi kukua na afya wakikaa
ndani ya nyumba iliyo na kiza na
uchafu.

2. Ni vizuri watu walale nti?

La, yawapasa kulala vitan-

dani sababu nti ina uchafu na
uchafu ndio uletao ugonjwa.

3. Ni vizuri killa nyumba iwe
na bathi au kitu cha kuogea?

Ndio". kwa maana ingefaa watu
waoge killa siku. Ngovi zetu zina
vitundu vidogo vingi na vitundu
hivyo vikizibwa kwa uchafu na
-jasho ngovi zetu hupata ugonjwa.

4. Tuiwekeje nyumba kuwa
safi?

Yatupasa kuifyagia nyumba
killa siku, si pa kati-kati tu ilia
batta pembeni mote na tini ya vi-
tanda napo. Killa jumaa na ipa
kwe mavi ya ng’ombe. Udongo
wa tini ushindiliwe sana sababu
vumbi huleta magonjwa mangi.


June, 1927.

H AB ARI.

5

5. Should cows, goats, sheep
and fowls sleep in the house?

Certainly not, as they make it.
dirty.

6. Should every house have a
sanitary pit?

Yes, this is most necessary, as
going outside in the long grass
brings sickness to the kraal.

7. Need those living in the
kraal fear witchcraft?

(Because of the sanitary pit).

Of course not. People who
understand the cause of disease
never fear witchcraft, but they do
fear going out in the long grass
near the kraal (see chapter 6.4.6.)

8. Should rats be allowed in
the kraal?

No. for they bring death called
Plague.

9. Should people spit about in >
houses ?

This is very wrong, for if a man
with a chest complaint spits, the
spittle dries, mixes with dust, and
that dust rising to the mouth of
another may infect him with a
sickness in the chest.

10. How should wells be pro
tected ?

(1) No one should evacuate
near a well, neither should they
be allowed to wash in it.

(2) Careful watch should be
kept for mosquito Larvae and the
well or spring should be kept free
from leaves and undergrowth.

5. Ni vizuri ng’ombe, mbuzi,
kondoo na kuku walale ndani ya
nyumba?

La, ni vibaya sana, maana
waitilia uchafu.

6. Ni vizuri killa nyumba lwe
na choo?

Ndio, ni lazima kabisa, maana
ukienda choo pahali palipo wazi
kama nyasini ugonjwa hauna
budi na kutokea mjini.

7. Watu wakaao ndani ya ki-
jiji kilicho na choo wana haja ya
kuogopa utawi?

La, hao waelewao na kujua
sababu ya ugonjwa hawaogopi
utawi kamwe ilia huogopa sana
mavi yakiatwa palipo wazi karibu
na nyumba zao (angalia mlango
wa sit a, kifungu cha 4 na 6).

8. Ni vizuri kuwaata panya
wakae mjini?

La, kwa sababu panya huleta
mauti yaitwayo tauni (Plague).

9. Ni vizuri watu wateme
mate huko na huko nyumbani?

Hivi ni vibaya sana kwa kuwa
mtu aliye na ugonjwa wa kifua
akitema mate, yale mate hukau-
ka na kutanganyika na uvumbi,
nao uvumbi ule huruka ukangia
midomoni mwa mtu mwengine,
huyu nae hupata ugonjwa ule-ule.

10. Yatupasaje kutunza pa-
hali penyi maji ya kunwa?

(1) Mtu nasiatwe kwenda
choo karibu na pahali hapo wala
kuoga humo.

(2) Patunzwe sana illi kuzuia
mayai ya m’bu tena pasiwe na
majani'yo yote ndani ya maji.


HABARI.

June, 1927.


June, 1927.

HABARI.

7

Ni vizuri kuwaata panya wakae mjini? Angalia ukurasa wa tano na kifungu cha nane.


8

HABARI.

June, 1927.

SCOUTING.

Training of Scouts.

We were talking about what
Scouting is and how it started.
Now we want to learn something
about the training of a Scout be-
fore he can reach the highest
position which a Scout can possi-
bly attain—that of a “ Silver
Wolf.”

In the first place it is necessary
for one of your Bwanas to be in-
terested in Scouting himself and
try to make the old men and the
people of the village interested
too. When this is accomplished
each little village or group of
huts should combine its boys into
what is called in English a
“Troop”. If there are not suffi-
cient boys, then five or six boys
should combine to form a
“Patrol” (There are two or three
“Patrols” in one “Troop”). One
boy, who is known to be fearless,
brave, and honest is put in com-
mand of this “Patrol” and he
chooses a helper who is called his
“Second”. Finally, as we have
seen, all these little village
patrols combine in one “Troop”
under your Bwana who is called
a ‘Scoutmaster’.

Now the work of the Scout be-
gins. Each ‘patrol’ is named
after some animal—lion, cat, rat,
hipopotamus, hyena, leopard,
etc., and every boy in that patrol
wears the animal badge and must
be able to make the call of that
animal so that he can commu-
nicate with his friends at night.
After one month’s training as a
“Tenderfoot” you take the
Scout’s promise:—

1. To do your duty to God,
your family and your chief.

2. To help other people at all
times.

“ SCOUTING.”
Kufunzwa kwa Scouts.

Tulijifunza habari za Scouting
na namna ilivyoanza. Sasa twa-
hitaji kujifunza mambo ya kuon-
gozwa kuwa Scout kabla haja-
weza kuifikilia daraja iliyo kuu
ambayo huyo Scout aweza kui-
pata kama ile ya “ Silver Wolf.”

Kwanza ni sharti m’moja ka-
tika Bwana zako apendezewe ni
mambo ya Scouting na kujaribu
kuwafanya wazee na watu wa-
l?omo mjini kupendezewa pia.
JIapo hili litimiapo na killa kijiji
kidogo au kuncli la vijumba viku-
sanye watoto ambao huitwa kwa
Kiingereza “Troop” maana kundi
la Scouts. Ikiwa hakuna vijana
vya kutosha kuwa kundi hapo
watano au sita wangejikusanya
na kufanya “Patrol” au kikundi
cha Scouts. Kuna vikundi viwili
au vitatu katika kundi moja. Ki-
jana m’moja ajulikanae kuwa
thabiti na ushujaa tena muami-
nifu hufanywa mkubwa wa ki-
kundi hiki nae hujitaulia msaidia
wakwe aitwae “Wa Pili”. Mwi-
sho kama tulivyoona vikundi
vyote vya vijiji hivi huunga-
mana pamoja na kuwa kundi
moja tini ya Bwana wako aitwae
Bwana wa Scouts.

Sasa huanza kazi ya yule
Scout. Killa kikundi hupawa
jina juu ya jina la nyama, kama
simba, paka, panya, kiboko, fisi,
tui, kathawakatha nae ni sharti
aweze kutoa mlio wa nyama yule
makusudi apate kuarifiana na
wenziwe usiku. Baada ya kuji-
zoeza mwezi m’moja kama
mfuasi hushika hiyo ahadi ya
Scout:—

1. Kufanya likupasalo kwa
Mngu na kwa jamaa zako na kwa
mkubwa wako.

2. Kuwasaidia watu wengine
kwa wakati uwao wote.


June, 1927.

HABARI.

9

3. To obey the Scout Law.

And you learn the Scout Signs.
Remember that you have not en-
tered the great company of the
Scouts until you have passed
your ‘Tenderfoot’ badge. Then
commences work for the 2nd
class badge comprising:—

(a) Knowledge of Semaphore or
Morse.

(b) Laying a fire.

(c) A little cooking.

(d) Knowledge of points of com-
pass.

When this is completed a
Scout may work for his 1st class
badge which is a very difficult
thing to pass:—

(a) Swim 50 yds., or pass ambul-
ance or fireman badge.

(b) Send and receive messages
in Morse or Semaphore.

(c) Go on safari for two days on
foot and be able to write
about it.

(d) More difficult cooking.

(e) Knowledge of first-aid.

(f) Be able to read a map.
Besides working for badges a

Scout has opportunities for
games and to help his parents or
Other people who are in difficul-
ties or trouble.

Now readers don’t you think
that if every village had its Scouts,
among which a few knew very
well all the things that I have
mentioned, that it would be a
very fine thing indeed? If an old
man of the village fell down and
broke his leg he might die before
the doctor arrived. Your Scout,
however, would be there, would
know exactly what to do and pro-
bably save the old man’s life. In
cases of fire or other danger the
village Scouts would know what
to do and again might save the
lives of people.

3. Kutii sharia ya Scouts.
Nawe hujifunza aalili zifaha-

mikazo kwa Scouts wote. Kum-
buka ya kuwa hujangiapo katika
kundi kubwa la Scouts ilia uwe
umesha pata hiyo alama ya
Mfuasi. Hapo zianzapo kazi za
daraja ya pili kama hivi:—

(a) ilimu ya lugna ya mikono
(Semaphore) au kupiga simu
(Morse).

(b) Kupanga kuni za moto.

(c) Kupika kiasi.

(d) Ilimu ya vipimo vya dira.
Hilo litimiapo huyo Scout hu-

weza kujitahidi apate alama ya
daraja ya juu nalo ni jambo lililo
gumu mno kulishinda:—

(a) Kuolea yadi hamsini au ku-
tukua machera ya wagon jwa
au akili za kuzima moto.

(b) Kupeleka na kupokea nya-
raka katika simu au kwa
lugha ya mikono.

(c) Kwenda safari ya siku mbili
na kuweza kuiandika habari
yak we.

(d) Kupika kwa ugumu zaidi.

(e) Ilimu ya “ First Aid” rnaana
kumsaidia mtu kwa upesi
katika thiki hatta aje daki-
tari.

(f) Kuweza kusorna rahamani.
Sasa wasomaji mwaonaje

kama killa kijiji kingelikuwa na
Scouts wakwe tena wako baathi
wajuao sana mambo yote niliyo-
yataja ingekuwa ni jambo zuri
khalisi. Awapo mtu mzee wa ki-
jiji kuanguka na kuvundika guu
pengine atakufa kabla ya Bwana
dakitari kufika. Kama Scout
wako angelikuwapo angejua
haswa jambo liwezalo kuokoa
maisha ya huyo mzee. Utukiapo
moto au habari nyenginezo hao
Scouts wa vijiji wangejua maarifa
ya kufanya kwa kuponyesha
maisha ya watu.


10

HABARI

May. 1927.

Let us again consider a case
where an important message
must be sent a long distance
within a given time. A boy might
run and walk and arrive in seve-
ral hours, but with the use of
hags (Semaphore) or a lamp at
mgnt (Morse) the message could
be sent from one village to an-
other by means of the Scouts very
much more quickly.

The greatest thing which must
be remembered in connection
with gaming this badge and that
badge is that they are not won
merely for their display on the
arm of the possessor but they are
to be the symbols of service to
the village and tribe. A boy has a
first-aid badge on his arm, which
symbolises his will and endeav-
our to devote that part of his
knowledge, theoretical and prac-
tical, for the good of his fellows
and to that end he puts himself
or his needs behind the needs of
his community. How useful Boy
Scouts can be in time of a short-
age of water! Will they not be
glad to go down to the river or to
the nearest pool every day and
help their old parents. Have not
all these boys promised to per-
form one good service every day?
The boy who obtains a good re-
cord of daily services will surely
obtain not only thanks from those
whom he helped and from his
chief, but also an inward feeling
of happiness at having done this
service. Perhaps no truer words
of wisdom have been spoken than
those words of Christ when he
said, “ it is more blessed to give
than to receive.”

Good-bye readers! When I
write again I will tell you more
about this army of boys, black
and white

Natufikiri tena itukiapo kuwa
waraka wa maana na wa haraka
utakwao kupelekwa penyi ki-
tambo kirefu kwa muda fulani.
Kijana labda aweza kwenda na
kurudi katika saa nyengine lakini
kwa kutumia dalili za bendera
(Semaphore) au dalili za taa kwa
usiku (Morse) waraka ungelipele-
kwa tokea kijiji kimoja hatta
chengine kwa mikono ya Scouts
tena ingelikuwa ni upesi sana.

Jambo kubwa lihitajiwalo ku-
kumbukwa kwa kupata alama
hizo nyengine nyengine ni kuwa
hazikupatikana kwa ajili ya ku-
valiwa humo mikononi mwa
mwenyewe kama maonyesho ya
sifa zakwe ilia huwa ni mithali za
kutumikia kijiji na kabila yakwe.
Jee siyo manufaa makubwa kuwa
na wale vijana wakati wa shida ya
maji? Jee hawatafurahi kwenda
mtoni au penyi maji palipo karibu
killa siku kwa kuwasaidia wazazi
wao? Kwani vijana hawa wame-
ahidi ya kuwa watatenda kazi
moja iliyo nzuri killa siku. Ki-
jana aliyepata ukumbusho mwe-
ma wa kazi hizo za killa siku ata-
ona pamoja na shukurani za hao
aliowasaidia na za mkubwa wa
kwe nayo yale mambo pia ya
furaha za moyoni mwakwe zilizo-
toka kwa kufanya kazi hizo nafsi
yakwe. Labuda hakuna maneno
ya hekima yamesemeka zaidi ya
yale ya Masihi aliposema “ Ina
heri kuwapa watu zaidi ya
kupokea.”

Kwaherini wasomaji yaani
n’takapoandika tena n’tawaambia
zaidi ya habari ya jeshi hilo la
vijana weusi kwa weupe.


.Tune, 1927.

HABARI

11

A VISIT TO THE E. A.

STANDARD WORKS.

When we heard that we were to
go and see the Standard Works in
Nairobi we were overjoyed for
none of us had seen the machines
before. Now since we save seen
and thought about it we want to
describe to our fellow-readers in
brief the printing operations we
saw in Nairobi. Sometimes there
are among you those who have
seen the printing in books and in
the newspaper “Habari” but who
know nothing of how printing is
done.

When we got to the Standard
Offices we stayed outside for a few
minutes and at that moment we
heard sounds from inside the
building such as, I think, we had
not heard since we were born and
we tried to peep in through the
windows but could not see a thing.
The building is too big.

When we looked in through the
door we saw the Editor of Habari
and he told us to come in. So we
all went inside and when we got
in we found an inner court with
buildings like those outside. Then
we entered the building carefully
for the sound would make any
man afraid. When we were all in-
side the Rwana told us to stand in
position all of us so that we could
see properly.

1. We saw the Linotype
machine at work. The operator
who works at it, a European, sits
near a machine for typing letters.
These are written on it as you see
in the case of a typewriter. This

KUFIKA KATIKA E. A.
STANDARD NYUMBA
YAKWE.

Tuliposikia ya kuwa tuta-
kwenda kuona kazi za Standard
kule Nairobi tulifurahi sana
maana hapakuwa hatta m’moja
kati yetu aliyeona mitambo hiyo
kwanza. Sasa kwa vile tulivyoona
na kufikiri twapenda kuwaeleza
wasomaji wenzetu maneno juu va
habari ya kupiga chapa tuliyoi-
ona Nairobi. Pengine wako mion-
goni mwenu waliokwisha kuona
harufu zilizochapwa katika
vitabu au ndani ya Habari nao
natumai wangi hawajui jinsi zili-
vyofanywa.

Tulipokurubia nyumba ya
Standard tulikaa nde kwa muda
mchache, rnarra kwa wakati huo
tulisikia sauti humo ndani ya
nyumba ambazo nathani tangu
kuzaliwa kwetu hatujazisikia
tukajaribu kutungulia rnadiri-
shani, lakini hatukuweza kuona
kitu maana hiyo nyumba ni
kubwa sana.

Tulipotungulia kwa mlangoni
tukamuona Bwana Editor wa
Habari akatwambia ndooni nyote.
Hapo tukaanza kuingia sote
ndani, na tulipofika liuko tuka-
ona behewa mithali ya vile uona-
vyo nde. Kisha tuliingia kwa
taratibu, maana kuna sauti ziwe-
zazo kumuogopesha mtu. Naswi
tulipokuwa tumeingia sote,
Bwana akatwambia simamani
nyote kwa uzuri mpate ona sawa-
sawa.

1. Tuliona ule mtambo uitwao
‘Linotype’ wazunguka huku na
huku iia yule fundi Bwana m’mo-
ja mzungu ambae ndiye aufan-
yiae kazi, amekaa karibu ya
mtambo kwa kupiga (type) harufu
zilizoandikwa juu yakwe kama


12

HABARI.

June, 1927.

operator is so highly skilled that
he is able to make his fingers
strike the letters without looking
at them. We were very much asto-
nished and said that he would
make a mistake perhaps. The
letters he prints are collected and
brought near to him by the work
of the machine itself and no hu-
man agency. Then the machine
does another intelligent thing by
means of an arm like an ele-
phant’s trunk, but narrow and
made of iron. This comes and
snatches away these letters and
carries them to the top of the
machine. Its work is to choose the
letters which have been printed
and distribute them each letter to
its place. There they are ready
whenever they are wanted again
to make these other types of lead
which actually do the printing.
Then we were shown a thing very
like a large cooking pot whose
work is to melt the lead types
which become liquid and this is
the liauid which, when solidified,
will do service again as types.
The operator told us that a man
would die if he were scalded with
these things.

2. Then the Works Manager
helped us by showing us the
machine which prints the paper
so quickly. As soon as the sheets
are put in, they appear on the
other side and they are already
printed. This machine was a mar-
vel for we saw it go forward and
then come back hke the oars of a
boat. At the same time there is a
place where the tvpe-letters are
inked. The thing that puts on the
ink is rubber. We were greatly
surprised to be told that this
machine can print 1,500 sheets of
paner jn one hour. This is the mar-
vel that a man could invent a.
clever thing like this.

vile uonavyo ‘Typewriter’. Nae
kwa vile aiivyo na hekima nyingi
alikuwa akipiga kwa vyanda bilia
ya kuangalia nizo harufu, naswi
tukastaajabu sana na kusema ku-
wa atafanya kosa labda. Na hizi
harufu azipigazo hukusanyika na
kuletwa karibu yak we, kwa
nguvu za ule mtambo wenyewe
bilia ya mtu, na tena hufanya ma-
arifa mengine kwa mkono kama
wa ndovu, lakini mwembamba
tena wa chuma, nao huja ukanya-
kua hizo harufu na kuzipeleka
juu, nayo kazi yak we ni kutagua
zile harufu ambazo zimepigwa na
kuzitawanya killa harufu upande
wakwe. Ndipo zitakapokuwa
tayari mara zitakapotakwa tena
kwa kufanya zile chapa nyengine
za risasi ambazo kazi zao ni ku-
piga karatasi khasa. Marra tuka-
onyeshwa kitu mithali ya jungu
ambalo kazi yakwe ni kuyeyusha
zile chapa za risasi zikawa kama
maji nayo ndiyo maji ambayo ya-
kisha yabisikia yatatumika tena
kama chapa. Huyo mwenyi kazi
hiyo alitwambia ukiunguzwa na-
vyo utakufa.

2. Hapo ndipo yule Bwana
mkubwa wa kazi ile akatusaidia
kwa kutuonyesha mtambo ucha-
pao karatasi kwa upesi, marra hu-
tiwa na marra hutoka upande
mwengine kwa upesi, ambazo
huwa zimesha chapwa maneno
juu yakwe. Na mtambo ule una
mastaajabu, yaani marra wenda
mbele marra hurudi nyuma kama
makasia ya mashua, na pamoja
na kazi liizo una mahali ambapo
hupaka rangi zile harufu za
chapa. Na kile kipakacho rangi ni
mpira, naswi tulistaajabu sana
kwa kuambiwa kuwa mtambo
huo huchapa karatasi alfu moja
na mia tano kwa saa moja, hay a
basi ni mastaajabu makubwa ya


June, 1927.

HABARI.

is

3. We climbed up to a place
where we saw a thing like a table
with very small holes in it. In
these holes are the types with
which men do the work. You must
know that, before the discovery of
the use of the machine I have de-
scribed i.e., the Linotype, men
used this method for setting the
types and this work is done by
men’s fingers.

4. We saw another machine
whose work is to cut the pages of
books and this sharp machine cuts
about 500 siieets at one time. It is
like a very big knife and I should
say that if a grown man were laid
between the blades it would tear
him from top to bottom in a
moment bones and all.

5. We saw a youth, a black
boy, whose work was arranging
the printed sheets of “Habari”
and putting them together. So too
we went to a place where was a
machine with very small wires
and these were put like pins into
the books to bind them together.
And these men who work in there
come to about forty or fifty, in-
cluding Europeans, Goans, In-
dians, and black people of various
tribes. We were very glad to find
some people of our own tribes,
black men, doing work of this
nature.

6. When we had seen all this
we went into the office of a gentle-
man called the Editor the Stand-
ard. When we came there we
found our spirits refreshed and
quietened for the air was pleasant
and there was no confusion and
noise like that which we experi-
enced below. This is because
wherever you go below there is
ink, oil, the rattle of machines and^

mtu aliyeweza kuzumbua akili
kama hizi.

3. Tukapanda juu zaidi amba-
ko tuliona kitu mithali ya meza
iliyo na vishimo vidogo-vidogo
kati yakwe, ambavyo ndani mna
chapa watu wafanyiazo kazi, ma-
ana kabla ya kuzumbuliwa kutu-
mia mtambo huo nilioeleza kwan-
za uitwao ‘Linotype’ watu wali-
kuwa wakitumia ndia hii ya hivi
vishimo vya kuwekea harufu am-
bavyo kazi yakwe hufanywa kwa
mikono ya watu.

4. Tukaona mtambo mwengine
kazi yakwe ni kukata hizo kurasa
za vitabu, na mtambo huo mkali
hukata kama karatasi mia tano
kwa marra moja, maana ni mi-
thali ya kisu kilicho kikubwa na-
thani hatta mtu mzima akilazwa
kati yakwe huweza kumrarua
mwanzo hatta mwisho kwa dakika
moja na mifupa yakwe.

5. Tulimuona kijana m’moja
mtu mweusi ambae kazi yakwe ni
kupanga hizo karatasi za Habari
zilizokwisha chapwa na kuzi-
panga sawa. Wakathalika tuka-
enda penyi mtambo ambao una
seng’enge ndogo-ndogo za kuti-
liwa ndani kama pini illi kufunga
vitabu. Na hao watu wafanyao
kazi humo hupata arubaini au
hamsini kiasi hivi, pamoja na
Wazungu, Magoa, Wahindi, hatta
watu weusi wa kabila kathawa-
katha, naswi tuliona furaha sana
kwa kuona jamaa zetu wengine
watu weusi wafanyao kazi kama
hizi.

6. Tulipokwisha yaona yote
hay a tukangia hatta kwa Bwana
mwengine aitwae ‘Editor’ wa
‘Standard’. Tulipofika kule tuka-
ona roho zetu baridi yaani zime-
tulia kwa hewa jinsi ilivyo tarnu,
ten a hakuna ghasia kam a zile
tulizoziona tini. Maana huko tini

'• I? i 11a mahali uendapo pana wino,


14

HABARI

June, 1927.

conditions like these. The Editor
of the Standard asked us “What
do you think about the work of
the machines you saw?” and our
teachers explained to him how
great had been their astonish-
ment. He replied “You were sur-
prised by the ingenuity of these
machines but you must know that
there is other intelligence which
you have not yet seen for there is
nothing that can be dene on these
machines except by the skill of
man and the composition of
man's brain on paper. At this
time the Editor of the Standard
was seated at his table writing
and we were surprised at the way
he wrote. I was trying to see the
point of his pencil but could not
for he wrote so fast like the wind
when it passes by you and you
cannot tell where it goes.

So, our friends, it won’t do for
a man to get a paper and throw it
away after reading, indeed this is
not good at all for much trouble
and care has been taken before the
point when the paper reaches you.
If you have become tired by read-
ing, it is better to lay the paper
aside. You can also collect the
papers for the period of a year,
take and have them bound in the
form of a book of the whole year,
which you will be able to use as a
text-book of information. What
think you, if you have worked
hard for a whole month and, when
the time comes for your salary,
you take it and throw it away,
where is the profit of all your
work? It is wrong when you buy
Habari with your ten cents to
treat it badly by throwing it right
away.

Good-bye, our fellow-readers.

The Jeanes School Teachers.

mafuta, kelele za mitambo na
mambo kathawakatha. Kisha
yule Editor wa Standard akatu-
uliza, “Jee, m'mefikiri nini katika
kazi ya mitambo mliyoiona?”
Waalimu wetu wakaanza kumue-
leza jinsi ya mastaajabu waliyo-
yaona, nae akatujibu m’mestaa-
jabu kwa akili za ile mitambo,
lakini yawapasa mjue ya kuwa
kuna akili nyengine ambazo ham
jaziona bado, maana hakuna kitu
kilichoweza kufanywa kwa ile mi-
tambo isipokuwa ni kwa akili za
watu na kwa kutunga yale
maneno ya karatasini. Na kwa
wakati huo huyo Bwana wa
Standard alikuwa ameketi kitini
mezani pakwe akiandika. Naswi
tulistaajabu kwa vile aandikavyo,
maana nilijaribu angaa nione ile
nta ya kalamu yakwe sikupata
kuiona. Sababu hivyo aandikavyo
ni kama vile uonavyo upepo uki-
kupita, nawe usiuone kule
wendako.

Basi ndugu zetu haifai mtu ku-
ona karatasi akasoma marra akai-
tupa, yakini si vizuri maana ni
kazi ya taabu sana hatta hapo
mud a ikufikiliapo we we. Ukiwa
umechoka kuisoma ni afathali
uiweke, pia waweza kuzikusanya
hatta kwa muda wa mwaka
m’moja, waweza kuzipeleka na
kufanyiwa kitabu cha mwaka
mzima, ambacho utaweza kuki-
tumia kama chuo cha maarifa.
Waonaje, iwapo umefanya kazi
mwezi mzima na wakati upo-
keapo mshahara wako ukatwaa
ukautupa, ipo wapi faida ya
kazi? Si vizuri, ununuapo Habari
yako ya sent! kumi ionee vibaya
kwa kuitupilia mbali.

Kwaherini wasomaji wenzetu.
Waalimu wa Jeanes School.


Waalimu wa Jeanes School, Kabete.

Photo : E. A. Standard, Ltd.

Hawa ndio Waalimu waliopata kufika katika nyumba ya E. A. Standard, angalia habari yao waliyoiandika katika ukurasa wa kumi na moja.

June, 1927. HABARI.


16

HABARI.

June, 1927.

THE SPEAR.

Let us think for a little about
the spear and what we know of
it ? AV Hat is a spear ? Have you not
seen a spear yet ?

No, 1 have not seen it yet so
you had better tell me what it is!

In the past men found it very
hard to get food for they did not
travel nor did they know how to
cultivate as we know now, and
the food they used was wild-fruits
and wild animals.

It may be so but you have not
yet given me any information
about the spear.

Well then let us get on and I
will explain it all to you if you
listen. Tell me, when you heard
me say that men ate the wild ani-
mals for food what did you think ?
Did you wonder how these ani-
mals were killed and with what?

Well sir, but you will excuse
me, I have not understood at all.
Will you tell me so that I may
know and be intelligent about it?

These men of the past found
great difficulty in getting food,
especially in getting wild ani-
mals. You know yourself that
even now it is very seldom you
can get game easily.

Now let us think together, you
and I, how can you kill game if
you have nothing to kill it with?
Impossible! Well, think and you
will see that these men who lived
in the past got the spear through
hardship and difficulty. For we
must imagine that at first they
used wooden weapons to kill
beasts with instead of spears.
These wooden poles they would
burn with fire in order to give
them a good point for killing
name. Sometimes they would
-'«.we the poles with sharp stones
instead of a knife.

MKUKI.

Sasa natufikiri maneno macha-
che juu ya habari ya mkuki.
Mkuki ni kitu gani? Wewe hujau-
ona mkuki bado? La, sijauonapo
bado, basi nieleza maana ya huo
mkuki n’nini!

Zamani za kale watu walikuwa
na shida sana kwa kupata cha
kula chao, maana walikuwa ha-
wasafiri wala hawakujua kulima
kama hivi tujuavyo sasa, na cha-
kula chao walichokuwa wakitu-
mia ni matunda ya mwituni na
nyama za mwituni. Ikiwa ni
hivyo basi hujanielezapo habari
za mkuki. Twendelee basi nita
kueleza maana yakwe yote iwapo
utanisikiza. Sasa wewe uliposikia
nikisema ya kwamba watu wali-
kuwa wakila nyama za mwituni,
ulifikiri hao nyama walikuwa wa-
kiwaua na nini? Vyema utani-
samehe bwana kwa kuwa mimi
yakini sikufahamu hatta kidogo,
tafathali unieleze illi nipate ku-
jua na kuelewa vizuri. Watu hao
wa zamani walikuwa na taabu
sana kwa kupata chakula chao,
zaidi ni nyama, kwa kuwa hatta
hivi sasa wewe wafahamu sana
kuwa ni vigumu nyama wa mwi-
tuni kupatikana kwa urahisi.

Sasa sote wawili natufikiri,
yaani waweza kupata kumuua
nyama wa mwituni billa ya kitu
cha kumpigia? La! Basi fikiri
ujue ya kwamba watu hao wa
zamani waliupata mkuki kwa
ndia ya taabu sana. Kwa sababu
twafikiri ya kwamba watu hao
walianza kutumia miti kwa ku-
ulia nyama badala ya mikuki Na
miti hiyo pengine walikuwa wa-
kiichoma kwa moto kusudi ipate
kuwa na nta nzuri ya kupigia
nyama. Na pengine walikuwa
wakiitonga kwa mawe badala ya
kutonga na kisu.


June, 1927.

HABARI.

17

So they struggled through their
difficulties by trying this thing
and the next using these poles as
weapons. Then one man hap-
pened to be piercing one pole with
another pole and then it was that
fire appeared. Our ancestors who
lived in this country not so iong
ago did not have good spears.
They placed small knives in the
head of wooden poles for use in-
stead of spears. The elders of the
Chiera, Mathathi, Ndemi and
Iregi groups and of others which
I cannot be sure of, had no
spears. They used arrows much
more, for the iron fitted to the
arrow is small as compared with
the iron needed to make a spear.
Then too the tree used for making
a bow could not go done. But be-
cause they did not know the poi-
son to apply to their arrows, often
they shot at wild beasts without
getting them. So we may imagine
they felt the need for something
heavier which would strike the
animal so that it could not get
away.

Thus then they tried hard by
digging up the soil to find enough
iron-fragments to make a heavy
weapon like a spear. And then it
was that they found plenty
of the iron-soil we cail
“ Murram ” and they began
to burn it in the fire and the
iron-pieces melted separately in
the Murrum. So they made many
spears. This happened not so long
ago as we can see by the groups
that we have named already such
as Chiera, Mathathi, Ndemi and
Iregi and others before and after
them. By this we can see that the
men who lived before the time of
Chiera, Mathathi, Ndemi and
Iregi had no spears at all to use.
Perhaps these were the people

Kwa^ hivyo jwalivyotaabika
kwa ndia kathawakatha na kutu-
mia hiyo miti kuwa ndio silaha
zao, pakatokea mtu mmoja aliye-
taka kutoboa tundu mti kwa mti
mwengine. Ndipo hapo palipo-
toka mo to. Na wazee wa nti yetu
zamani, si zamani Sana, wao
hawakuwa na mikuki mizuri ya
kutumia maana walikuwa waki-
tomeka visu vidogo katika miti
mirefu badala ya mikuki, kama
wazee wa rika la Chiera, Matha-
thi, Ndemi, Iregi na wengine
nisiowafahamu sawa sawa, wao
hawakuwa na mikuki. Walitumia
mishale zaidi, kwa sababu chuma
cha kutengezea mshale ni kidogo
kuliko kile cha kutengezea
mkuki, na kathalika kwa huo uta
ni mti hauwezi kukosekana. Na
kwa vile ambavyo hawakujua
sumu ya mshale, walikuwa waki-
piga nyama pengine wasiweze
kumkamata, twafikiri walitaka
kitu kizito kiwezacho kumpiga
nyama asiweze kwenda mbali.

Hapo ndipo walipojaribu sana
kutimba mtangani illi wapate ku-
ona vyuma vingi vitakavyotosha
kutengeza kitu kizito kama
mkuki. Walipoona mtanga mwingi
wa vyuma uitwao ‘Murram.’ Nao
wakafanva mikuki mingi, nayo si
zamani sana ilia twaweza kuona
kuwa si zamani sana kwa hao
marika tulio wataja hapa nyuma
Chiera, Mathathi, Iregi, Ndemi
na wengine walio mbele yao hatta
nyuma yao. Kwa hivyo tukajua
kwa watu wa mbele ya Chiera na
Mathathi na Ndemi na Iregi
hawakuwa na mikuki hatta
kidogo. Labuda huwa ndio hao
waliotumia miti na mawe. Twa-
fikiri mikuki ilizumbuliwa kwa
ndia hiyo ya taabu ya vyakula.
Marika' hayO niliyoyataja ni
marika katika Wakikuyu, kwa


18

HABARI.

June, 1927.

who used wooden sticks and
stones. We can imagine that the
spear was discovered through the
experience of scarcity of food.

Now I will explain the origin
of the spear in detail. When the-
men of the past had such hard-
ship they dug down in the ground
in order to get the iron-soil called
“ Murram.” When they got it
they put it in the fire till it melted.
When they took it out of the fire
they hammered it with stones to
give it a good sharp point for cut-
ting. When this iron-soil, mur-
ram, had melted it became like a
very heavy stone. This is the stone
called in the Kikuyu language
“ gikama ”, When it became
“ gikama,” it was sold to other
people who did not know how to
make it. The “ gikama ”, when
hammered, makes a spear or a
hunting-knife or a knife for cut-
ting wood. “ Murram ” produces
“gikama” and) “gikama” pro-
duces knife or spear. The origin
of all these articles is “Murram”.

Now I want to describe the
work of the blacksmith and what
he does in order to make a spear.
When he gets the heavy stone out
of the murram by the method I
have described, the first thing he
does is to split some firewood that
he may burn charcoal. When he
has prepared the charcoal ready
he makes a fire and puts the
“ gikama ” or heavy stone into
the fire. The blacksmith has an
assistant whose work is to blow
the fire for him with the bellows,
till the stone melts. The craftsmen
is now ready to pound the stone
with his hammer. He cannot take
the stone from the fire with his
hand but he takes it out with
pliers so that he does not get his
hands burnt. It is the left hand
that grips the pliers and he holds
the hammer with his right.

sababu Wakikuyu killa rika lina
jina lakwe.

Sasa nitaeleza asli ya mkuki
huu kabisa. Watu wa zamani
walipoona taabu ni nyingi, wali-
timba nti tini illi wapate kuona
huo udongo wa vyuma ‘Murram’,
na walipouona waliutia motoni
waliupondaponda kwa mawe
makusudi uwe na nta nzuri na
ukali wa kukata kitu. Huo udongo
wa chuma ‘Murram’ uishapo ku-
yeyuka huwa kama jiwe zito sana
ambalo kwa Kikikuyu huitwa gi-
kama. Na ukisha kuwa gikama
huuzwa kwa watu wengine wale
wasiojua kutengeza. Kutoka gi-
kama ndipo ipondwapo ikawa
mkuki au kisu cha kutindia na
kukata miti. ‘Murram’ huzaa gi-
kama na gikama huzaa kisu au
mkuki. Na mwanzo wa vyote
hivi ni huo ‘ Murram.’

Sasa nataka kueleza habari ya
mfua vyuma jinsi alivyofanya
hatta akapata mkuki; alipopata
lile jiwe zito kutoka katika
‘ Murram ’ kama nilivyoeleza
huko nyuma, neno lakwe kwanza
ni kupasua kuni illi atome
makaa, akisha toma yale makaa
hatta yakawa tayari hufanya
moto na kutia ile gikama au lile
jiwe zito katika moto, na yule
mfua wa vyuma huwa na mtu
mwengine wa kumvivilia ule
moto kwa fuko la kutoa pumzi,
illi lile jiwe zito liyeyuke. Na yule
fundi huwa tayari kwa kuli-
ponda-ponda kwa nyundo; nae
huwa hawezi kulitoa hilo jiwe
kwa mkono wakwe. ilia hulitoa
kwa koleo maana asije akateketea
mikono. Na mkono ushikao hiyo
koleo ni mkono wa kushoto, na
nyundo akaishika kwa mkono wa
kulia.


June, 1927.

HABARi.

19

I cannot say for certain that all
the men of the past worked iron as
I have just described. No, cer-
tainly they did not. 1 can say with
confidence that many of them did
not know either charcoal or ham-
mer. Similarly they did not know
the bellows and they had no work-
shop such as the people of our
day have. They used to burn these
heavy stones by the help of fire-
wood in any spot at all outside.
They worked the iron with hard
stone hammers. Later they made
progress by degrees until the\
built workshops for iron-working.
At first they worked iron at the
foot of trees because they found
firewood plentiful there but later
they wanted to build workshops to
keep out the rain for the rain used
to destroy their work for them
and to put out their fires when
they worked at the foot of trees.

According to this explanation
of mine we see that these men of
the past suffered greatly to help
themselves out of their troubles
because they suffered from scar-
city of food, because they lived
among wild animals, because they
were exposed to rain and fierce sun
while they were on the move from
place to place morning till night.
They looked for animals to kill
but they had to run away from
the dangerous ones. Thus it was
by the way of difficulties that
they discovered these fine things.

(1) They invented the knife
with which we can cultivate.

(2) They invented the axe with
which we can cut down trees.

(3) They learnt to domesticate
animals which till now are our
food.

Siwezi kusema hakika ya
kwamba watu wote wa zamani
walikuwa wakifua kama nilivyoe-
leza nyuma; la, sivyo, nasema
hakika ya kuwa wangi hawa-
kujua makaa wala nyundo
kathalika na cha kuvuvia moto,
hatta kiwanda cha kufulia hawa-
kuwa nacho, kama walivyonavyo
watu wa siku hizi. Wao walikuwa
wakitoma yale mawe mazito
kwa kuni, pahali popote nde, na
kufua walikuwa wakifulia kwa
nyundo za mawe yaliyo magumu.
Kisha waliendelea kwa taratibu
hatta wakajenga kibanda cha ku-
fulia vyuma; walianza kufulia
mashinani mwa miti kwa sababu
ya kuona kuni karibu, kisha wali-
taka kujenga vibanda kwa kuzuia
mvua kwa kuwa mvua ilikuwa
ikiwaharibia kazi zao na kuzima
moto wao walipokuwa humo
mashinani mwa miti.

Kwa maelezo haya niliyoya-
eleza yatuonyesha ya kuwa watu
hao wa zamani walitaabika Sana
illi kutaka kujisaidia watoke
katika taabu kubwa waliokuwa
nayo. Kwa jinsi walivyopatikana
ni ndaa na kwa kukaa pamoja
na nyama wakali, kwa kupigwa
ni mvua na jua kali wakizun-
guka-zunguka mwituni mtana
kutwa, kwa kutafuta nyama na
kukimbia nyama walio wakali.
Nao waliweza kuzua mambo yali-
yo mazuri, kwa ndia hiyo ya
taabu yao.

(1) Walizumbua kisu amba-
cho twaweza kulimia.

(2) Walizumbua shoka amba-
lo twaweza kukatia miti.

(3) Walifuga nyama ambao
hatta sasa twatumia kwa kula.


20

HABARI

June, 192y.

So, my friends in Kenya, we
may remember that these men
passed through difficulties be-
cause they wanted to raise them-
selves in the scale and to rid
themselves of these wild beasts of
the forest. Not so, they suffered
for our sakes. Moreover it is well
that we should recall one name
by which we refer to them, espe-
cially those of us who have read a
little. We call these men the
“ ignorant ” or the “ savage ”
people of the past. Is this a good
name to give such people as these ?
Let us try to discover other
things which will remind our
children and those who come
after us that the people who learnt
to read in our day endured and
worked for their sakes and left in
their charge an inheritance which
they had enriched.

SIM SIM.

(by Mr. H. H. Tayor, Asst.
Agricultural Officer.)

This plant is proving a useful
and profitable crop to grow in
most districts of The Coast Pro-
vince. It is easily grown and
withstands dry periods very well.
Often the profits obtained from
this crop are very small, because
it is not planted properly, and
seed-is sown too thickly.
Description.

Sim sim is an annual plant
which grows from 4 to 5 feet high,
bearing pods which contain many
small seeds which yield a large
percentage of oil. The colour of
the seeds may be either White,
Yellow, or Black. The white is
preferred, since it yields a clearer

Sasa ndugu zangu wa Kenya
natukumbuke ya kuwa watu hao
walitaabika kwa kutaka kuinuka
illi kuatana na hao nyama wakaii
wa mwitu. Sivyo, walitutaabikia
swiswi. Tena yafaa sana tukum-
buke jina moja tuwaitalo, zaidi
swiswi tuliosoma kidogo twawa
ita wao kuwa ni wajinga au wa-
shenzi wa zamani. Ni jina zuri
hili la kuwaita watu kama hao?
Naswi natujaribu kutaabikia wa-
toto wetu illi kuwatengezea ma-
kao mazuri. Natujaribu kuzua
mambo mengine ambayo yatawa
kumbusha watoto wetu na kwa
watu wengine watakaokuja baada
yetu ya kuwa watu nao walio-
soma siku hizi waliwataabikia na
kuwawekea amana urithi ambao
walikuwa wameuongeza.

UFUTA.

(Imetolewa ni Bwana H. H.
Taylor, Asst. Agricultural
Officer.)

M’mea huu hufaa sana kwa
faida kwa kukua pande katha-
wakatha za nti za pwani. Ni ura-
hisi kukua na haukauki kwa
upesi nyakati za kukosa mvua.
Faida ipatikanayo mara kwa
mara kwa m’mea huu huwa ni
khafifu sana, ni kwa sababu hau-
pandwi sawa, nao hupandwa
nene mno.

Jinsi Yakwe.

Ufuta ni m’mea upandwao
killa mwaka ukuao tokea futi n’ne
hatta tano kwa urefu, huwa na
vifuko vilivyo na mbeu nyingi
ndogo-ndogo ambazo hutoa idadi
kubwa ya mafuta. Na rangi ya
mbeu huwa pengine nyeupe, na
ya mandano, au nyeusi. Hiyo
nyeupe ni ya haja kwa vile itoa-
vyo mafuta yaliyo safi. Mafuta


June, 1927.

HABARI.

21

oil. This oil is used for cooking
purposes, and also for soap
making.

Soil.

Most soils at the Coast will
grow sim sim well, but it does
best on a Sandy Loam. Wet heavy
soils are useless.

Cultivation.

Dig the soil deeply and break
down to a fine tilth.

Amount of Seed to Sow.

15 lbs. per acre.

Time of Planting.

Plant in rows 2 to 3 feet apart.

Thin out plants to 18 inches in
the row when they are a few
inches high.

Inter Culture.

Weed the crop two or three
times during growth.

Harvest.

The plants mature in from 3 to
4 months and are puned by hand
or cut. Tie together in small
bundles and dry thoroughly for

about three weeks.

Threshing is carried out by
beating with sticks. Seed should
be cleaned as it commands a
higher price. Hand winnowing
will clean the seed well.

Yield.

150 to 200 lbs. per acre.

kwa mkono husafi mbeu vizuri.

Mazao.

Ratili mia wa hamsini hatta
mia mbili kwa kipande cha acre
moja.

haya hutumika kwa min-ajili ya
kupikia na kwa kufanyia sabuni
pia.

Mtanga.

Baathi ya mitanga ya pwani
itakuza ufuta kwa uzuri, lakini
haswa hukua vizuri katika mtan-
ga wenyi ufukwe na udongo vi-
livyo tangamana pamoja. Udon-
go mzito wa maji-maji haufai
kitu.

Makulima.

Utimbue mtanga tini na ku-
uvunda illi uwe mwepesi.

Idadi ya Kuyaa Mbeu.

Ratili kumi na tano kwa
kipande cha acre moja.

Nyakati za Kuyaa.

Ziyae kwa kitambo cha futi
mbili au tatu kwa kuepukana.
Mimea ikiwa na urefu inchi cha-
che ipunguze kwa kuing’oa myen-
gine illi kwamba iliyobaki ipate
hafasi ya inchi kumi na nane za
kati-kati.

Kazi ya Mkulima Wakati Ukuapo

M’mea.

Zingoe kwekwe zimeazo karibu
marra mbili au tatu wakati uku-
apo m’mea.

Mavuno.

M’mea hupevuka kwa muda
wa miezi mitatu au mine nao
hung'ole wa kwa mkono au kwa
kukatwa kwa kisu. Ifunge pamoja
katika vitopa vidogo-vidogoTikai-
kaushe kwa muda wa majuma
matatu.

Kupura hufanvwa kwa kui-
piga-piga kwa fimbo. Ni vizuri
hizo mbeu kusafishwa kwa vile
zihitajiavvo bei kubwa. Kupepeta


22

HABARI.

June, 1927.

ILLANI

KWA WENYEJI WA NYASA-
LAND WAFANYAO KAZI
KENYA.

Ni kwa kuwaeleza wenyeji wa

Nyasaland wafanyao kazi Kenya
kwa jinsi ya amri mpya iliyowek-
wa, ambapo wasipoelewa nayo,
itakuwa ni taabu juu yao. Bwana
Treasurer wa Nyasaland ataka
sana kuona matangazo ya maneno
haya katika “Habari”, maana
hao wenyeji wa Nyasaland wawe
na maarifa juu ya amri hii.

“ IKIWA KODI YA NYUMBA

HATTATOLEWA KATIKA
SIKU YA 13 MWEZI WA
SEPT. KWA MW AKA USTA-
HILIO KUTOLEWA, MTU
ATAKAKAWIA ITAMLAZI-
MU KUTOA Shs. 9/-.

Madatally

Sulem’n Virjee & Sons.

MOMBASA, NAIROBI.

P.O. Box 253, MOMBASA.

Telephone 54. NAIROBI. P.O. 12.
Telegrams “Ivory” Nairobi or Mombasa.

SOLE AGENTS FOR

“KOOH-I-NOOR” TEA sold in lib. tins
(Red or Yellow), loose in 10 or 201bs.
boxes. Also in 1 oz packets.

“DOUBLE ACE” CIGARETTES, in tins
of 50 and cartoons of 10.

RALEIGH BICYCLES, Dunlop Tubes &
Tyres, 28 ” x 1^ ” English Manu-
factured Bicycles; and Cycle Acces-
sories always in stock in Nairobi and
Mombasa.

BUYERS OF

IVORY, RHINO-HORNS, HIPPO-

TEETH and COUNTRY PRODUCTS.

DEALERS IN:—

Piece goods, all kinds of Building
Materials, Provisions, Hardware,
Stationery, etc.

“ELEPHANT” Brand, bed English Port-
land Cement, iust arrived.

TRIALS SOLICITED.

NYUMBA Zi WENYEJI.

Killa Chumba cha mtu m’moja:—

Jiko na mahali pa kuogea

Bei Shs. 8 kwa mwazi.

Muulize mlinzi au M’simamizi,

“NATIVE LOCATION, PUMWANI”

TO LET.

. I • . . .


.Tune, 1927.

HABARI.

23

THE STORY OF THE HYENA
AND THE LION.

One day a hyena went looking
for food as usual in these days
and, on his way, he came across
a lion in his den. The lion had
heaps of meat lying inside his
cave. The hyena was very hungry
so when he felt the smell of the
meat he went into the cave and
met the owner himself inside. The
lion asked him ‘ ‘ And where have
you come from ? And what do you
want?” The hyena replied “ I
want to be your servant ”, The
lion asked him “ What work will
you be able to help me with?”
And Hyena answered “ I will
manage whatever work you give
me ”. The lion said “You will go
with me to-morrow to kill some
game, will you be able to kill your
beast?” And Hyena said that he
would be able—for he wanted to
get a beast to eat.

When they went off next day
the lion killed three beasts and
ttie hyena got none. So when tiiey
got back Home the question was
asked:—“ And how many did
you kill?” He said that he would
have killed some but “ On the side
I went I could not find a thing
There were no beasts on my side”
Of course the lion knew his condi-
tion from old that he could not
kill anything even the smallest
beast. That very night the hyena
was tied up with rope and beaten
till morning. Then off Lion went
to kill meat leaving old Hyena
tied up there in the cave.

When the lion had gone off an-
other hyena came along to the
cave, smelling the odour of the
meat, and found his companion
tied up there. He asked him:—
“ Hallo friend, what have you

EISA CHA FISI NA SIMBA.

Siku moja fisi alikwenda ku-
tafuta chakula kama vile afanya-
vyo hizi Siku, alipokwenda aka-
mkuta simba pangoni mwakwe
nae simba alikuwa na nyama
nyingi mle pangoni. Fisi alipo-
sikia harufu za nyama na kwa vile
alivyokuwa na ndaa akaingia mle
pangoni nae akamkuta mwen-
yewe ndani ya pango, akaulizwa
watokapi wee fisi? Tena wata-
kani? Akajibu nataka niwe mtu-
mishi wako. Na simba akamu-
uliza ni kazi gani utakoayoweza
kunisaidia ? Akamwambia kazi
yo-yote utakayonipa n’taweza
kuifanya. Simba akamwambia
kesho n’takwenda pamoja nawe
kuwinda nyama, utaweza kuua
wako m’moja? Akasema ndio nta-
weza illi makusudi apate nyama
ale.

Basi walipokwenda asubuhi
simba aliua nyama watatu na fisi
nae hakuua hatta m’moja, wali-
porudi nyumbani akaulizwa jee
umeua wangapi ? Akasema ninge-
liua lakini upande wangu n’lio-
kwenda sikupata kitu. Maana
nyama hawakuwa upande wangu.
Yule simba alikuwa yuamjua hali
yakwe tangu zamani ya kuwa
hawezi kuua hatta kitu kidogo.
Usiku uo-huo alifungwa kwa
kamba na kupigwa hatta asubuhi.
Simba alipokwenda kutafuta
nyama alimwata humo pangoni.

Simba alipokuwa amesha kwen-
da akaja fisi mwengine humo pan-
goni kwa kusikia ile harufu ya
nyama, nae alipomkuta mwen-
ziwe amefungwa akamuuliza jee
rafiki yangu umefungiwani ? Aka-


24

HABARI.

June, 1927.

been tied up for? And he replied
“ I’ve been tied up because I re-
fuse to drink meat-soup.” “ But
why did you refuse?” his friend
asked. And he said “ I refused
because I've been nauseated for
we drink meat-soup here every
single day. But if you would like
to eat this meat come and let me
loose, then I will look for this meat
for you to eat and we will be eat-
ing like this all the time, the pair
of us.” When the other hyena
heard that they would be eating
this meat every day he was glad
and went at once to release his
companion. He, whenever he got
free, told his rescuer to lie down
so that he might tie him up just
as he had been tied up himself.
The idea was that when the lion
came he would not recognize who
it was but would take him for the
first hyena.

So he tied him up and then ran
off as fast as he could so that there
would be no chance of his being
seen there by the lion. There was
the hyena who had been tied up
waiting there for the lion to come
and give him meat-broth. The
lion', however, came along and
beat him very hard just as he had
beaten the first hyena.

Remember that he had been
told by the other hyena who was
tied up in the cave that he had
been beaten for refusing to drink
meat-broth. So while he was be-
ing beaten he kept on saying “ I
will drink it, I will And, being
beaten the more he said “ Indeed
I will both eat and drink, I will
not refuse to take meat-broth ”.
But for.this he was beaten till he
was nearly dead and yet kept on
saying the while those very words
“ Indeed I will both eat and
drink ”.

mjibu kuwa nimefungwa kwa
sababu ya kukataa kunwa
supu ya mafuta, nae akamuuliza
kwani kuikataa? Akamjibu nim<-
kinai kwa kuwa killa siku swiswi
hunwa supu ya mafuta. Na ikiwa
nawe wapenda kula namna hiyo
ndoo unifungue nipate kukutafu-
tia nyama ule, naswi tutakuwa tu-
kila sote killa siku. Huyo fisi
mwengine aliposikia ya kuwa wa-
takuwa wakila hiyo nyama killa
siku alifurahi sana akaenda marra
moja kumfungua, nae alipo
kwisha funguliwa akamwambia
yule aliyemfungua ya kuwa aji-
laze amfunge kama vile alivyo-
kuwa amefungwa yeye, illi kusu li
simba akija asimtambue aseme
kuwa ni yule wa kwanza.

. Basi akamfunga, alipokwisha
mfunga akatoka nde akakimbia
sana illi asije akakutwa huko ni
simba, yule aliyefungwa akawa
kumngojea simba aje ampe mtuzi
wa mafuta, simba alipokuja aka-
anza kumpiga sana kama vile ali-
vyokuwa akimpiga yule wa
kwanza.

Na huyo kwa vile alivyoambiwa
na yule mwengine ambae alikuwa
amefungwa, ya kuwa alikuwa
akipigwa kwa ajili ya kukataa
kunwa mtuzi wa mafuta. Kwa
ajili hiyo wakati apigwapo hu-
sema mimi n’takunwa, akapigwa
tena akasema, hatta kula na
kunwa n’taweza mimi sikatai
mtuzi na nyama. Nae alizidi ku-
pigwa hatta akakurubia kufa, na
maneno yakwe yalikuwa ni hayo-
hayo ya kusema n’takula na
n’takunwa.


June, 1927.

HABARI.

25

FLIES.

The Editor of Habari, Nairobi.
Sir,

Will you give me space please
to make this short explanation to
my fellow-readers of Habari.

Everybody knows that . the
snake, the lion, and the leopard
are dangerous animals and if any
one sees one of them he runs away.
Although he is very brave he is
sure to get a start. These animals
show that they are our enemies
suddenly and in a moment.

But you have another enemy,
an enemy whom you treat as a
friend. You even welcome him in
your home. And who is he? He is
the fly and every man knows him.
But you will say “ Ah, the fly is
gentle, very gentle, and not like
the bee. The fly has no sting.”
There you are wrong; the fly is
worse than snake, lion or leopard.
Just watch his evil deeds.

He flies about looking for a
place to stay or settle. At one
time, you will find him in filthy
refuse, at another time on a body-
sore, and again, he is in some pit.
Well, we called him our enemy.
How is he our enemy as he flies
about and does what he pleases?
Watch him now! He has settled
in some filth which he grips with
hands and feet. In a little he flies
up to your face, then he sits on
your food. Sometimes he touches
body-sores which are full of pus,
then he comes straight to your
food and he carries very danger-
ous germs. Perhaps he has been
staying with a man sick of some
bad disease like dysentery. The
fly touches this man’s excreta and_

INZI.

Kwa Bwana Editor Habari,
Nairobi.

Bwana.

Tafathali unipatie nafasi ki-
dogo nitie maneno yangu haya
illi kuwaeleza wasomaji wenzangu
maneno kidogo.

Killa mtu yuajua ya kuwa
nyoka, simba na tui ni nyama
wabaya k.w.k., killa mtu amu-
onae mmojawapo katika nyama
hawa hukimbia, au ingawa ni
hodari ni sharti agutuke mno, la-
kini hawa uadui wao ni ghafula
saa iyo hiyo.

Ilia angalia sasa adui mmoja
huyo ambae wamfanya kama
rafiki, hatta wamkaribisha pahali
pak'o ulipo. N’nani huyo?
Ni inzi, killa mtu amjua inzi.
Labda utasema a—a inzi ni
mpole sana si kama nyuki; hana
ushungu. La, ni mbaya zaidi ya
nyoka, simba na tui. Tizamani
vitendo vyakwe vya ubaya.

Inzi huruka-ruka na kutafuta
pahali popote pa kukaa au kutua.
Utamuona marra uchafuni marra
kidondani, marra mashimoni.
Haya basi tumesema ni adui, ni
aduije nae ajirukia na kufanva
apendavyo? Angaliani yeye hukaa
uchafuni na kushika-shika na mi-
kono yakwe, baadae punde
huruka akaja usoni mwako, tena
chakulani mwako, pengine yua-
shika vidonda vyenyi usaha,
kisha yuaja chakulani, nae huwa
na viini vibaya sana, pengino
amekaa pahali pa mtu aliye na
ugonjw’a mbaya sana, kama ku-
hara damu, nae huushika-shika


26

HABARI.

June, 1927.

then settles on top of the food you
are eating. You will catch this
very same sickness. Perhaps the
fly has been touching the spittle
of a man with chest or lung
trouble or a man with eye-disease.
Now then you must admit that
the fly is an enemy. What shall
we do so that he may leave us ?

(1) Remove all'dirt from near
the house.

(2) Cover all food and do not
leave plates and pots and pans un-
covered. Especially take care of
the milk.

But why should you take away
all filth and refuse? Because the
fly is born in filth and lives in filth
all his life. This filth is his food
and without filth he cannot sur-
vive. Now you will agree that we
ought to deprive him of his food
so that he may leave us alone.

J. D. Mwarxnga.

huo uchafu na kuja kukaa juu ya
chakula ulacho, nawe vile-vile
utapata ugonjwa huo, pengine
huwa amekaa juu ya makohozi
ya mtu aliye na kifua au kwa mtu
aliye na ugonjwa wa mato. Basi
yapasa kujua kuwa inzi ni adui.
Haya tutafanyaje illi apate ku-
ondoka?

(1) Ondoa uchafu wote karibu
na nvumba.

(2) Finika vyakula vyote, usi-
wate waziwazi sahani zako na
nyungu na sufuria. Zaidi maziwa.

Kwani kuondoa uchafu? Ma-
ana inzi huzaliwa katika uchafu
na kukaa pahali pa uchafu
maisha yakwe yote, maana huo
uchafu ndio chakula chakwe,
pasipo uchafu inzi hawezi kuishi.
Basi yafaa tumnyime chakula
chakwe illi apate kutuondokea.

J. D. Mwaringa.

THE KIPANDE.

To the Editor of Habari.

Sir,

Would you please put in these
few remarks of mine on the sub-
ject of the Kipande.

I have heard this word used
many times as a ground of com-
plaint by ignorant people. They
say “ Ah! this Government is bad
to us, it gives us these tins to
carry about, soon they tear our
clothes for us and, in any case,
they are like a symbol of slavery.

4 KIPANDE.’

Kwa Bwana Editor wa Habari.
Bwana.

Tafathali napenda unitilie haya
maneno yangu machache yaani
kwa uzungumzi mdogo juu ya
habari ya neno liitwalo
‘ Kipande ’.

Neno hili nimepata kulisikia
marra nyingi kwa kuwa hunung-
’unikwa ni watu wasio na ma-
arifa husema, ah! hii sirikali
nayo yatuonea kwa kutupa
mikebe hii kuitukua marra hutu-
pasulia nguo zetu tena ni kama
mithali ya utumwa.


June, 1927.

HABARI

27

Will you be good enough to
understand that this is a not a
bad thing nor a symbol of slavery
for if you are a man of self-res-
pect and intelligence you can’t
find the carrying of the kipande to
be a nuisance. For thieves, how-
ever, and runaways and those who
change their names and their
tribes when they are registered, it
is a real difficulty. Their difficulty
is this and I shall describe it
briefly. When in the morning or
in town you are stopped by the
European Police officer or his
abkjari and asked for your
kipande, if you have not got it you
are sure to be brought to the court
and before the magistrate and to
be punished according to the
laws. It is not the de-
sire of the Government to
according to the laws. It is not the
desire of the Government to
punish people in this way; it is
done because they find difficulty
often in finding a thief or runaway
or a boy who has falsified his
names or his tribe. Now what do
you think? If you are intelligent
and you keep clear of such affairs
as these mentioned below, you will
find no wrong in the kipande for
you have delivered yourself from
all accusations in connection with
these questions:—

1. You are not to steal people’s
property when you have a
kipande, do you agree?

2. You are not to run away
from your work. When you get
tired you are to ask for leave from
your master who will then sign
your kipande, or is this bad?

3. Don’t give a false name or
give a tribe not your own for this
will not do you any good what-
ever. It is onlv unnecessary trou-
ble for yourself. Is it not so?

Nataka radhi juu yenu kufaha-
mu neno hili kuwa si jambo baya
uwapo ni mtu wa kujihishimu na
mwenyi akili huwezi kuona usu-
mbufu hatta kidogo kwa kutukua
hiki kipande. Ilia kwa wale walio
wevi, na wakimbizi, na wajibadi-
lishao majina na kabila zao hapo
waandikwapo, ndio waonao ta-
abu, nafahamu sana taabu hii wa-
ionao v atu ambayo ntawaeleza
kwa ufupi. Taabu yenyewe ni ipi,
ni ile ya kuwa asubuhi au mjini
utukiapo kusimamishwa ni
Bwana wa police au asikari wa-
kwe akakuuliza kipande, na uki-
wa huna ni sharti upelekwe kotini
rnbele ya hakimu na kupata adabu
maana ndio sharia iliyowekwa, si
kusudi ya sirikali kuadhibisha
watu namna hii, lakini huwa wa-
na shaka pengine huwa wamta
futa mwivi au mkimbizi au mse-
maji wa uwongo kwa kujibadi-
lisha majina na kabila yak we. Jee
waonaje iwapo wewe umestaara-
bika na kujitahathari na mambo
haya man’ne hutaweza kuona
ubaya wa kipande, maana umeji-
toa katika lawama zote zifunga
manazo na maswali hayo:—

1. Usiwe mwivi wa mali za
watu uwapo na kipande, au
sivyo ?

2. Usiwe mtoro katika kazi,
uchokapo taka ruhusa kwa
bwana wako akutilie sahihi, au ni
vibaya ?

3. Usitaje jina la uwongo na
kabila isiyokuwa yako kwani
hayo hayawezi kukuokoa kwa lo-
lote ilia ni mashaka ya bilashi, si
kweli ?


28

HABARI.

June, 1927.

4. When you go out walking
don’t leave your kipande behi
for it is your protection when you
are questioned by those whose
business it is to question you.
Don’t say to yourself “ I am intel-
ligent and therefore everybo<-‘
else is intelligent ”. Not at all,
what you eat is not what your
companion eats and what you
possess is not what he possesses so
it is better to be careful before the
bad fortune comes. Or is this
untrue?

So I ask every one of you who is
vexed by these questions of the
kipande, it is better that he should
consider these things I have said
and ask himself whether they are
really bad. For the old men said:
“ It’s the cowardly buck that
hides its horns ”. Or, if you put
your finger into the hole of a
snake, when he bites you, do not
blame the hole.

“ The Scribe.”

4. Utembeapo usikiwate ki-
pande chako maana hukukinga
itukiapo maulizo kwa hao walio-
husika kuuliza; usijithanie kuwa
wewe u mstaaribu na kwa hivyo
wote wamestaarabika. La ulacho
wewe sicho alacho mwenzio, kwa
hivyo ni afathali kutahathari
kabla ya ajali, ni uwongo?

Basi nawasihi kwa killa aliye-
udhika ni mambo haya ya
kipande, ni afathali ayaangalie
haya niliyoyasema akajiulize ya-
wapo n’mabaya. Kwani wazee
walisema kuungu mwoga ni yule
akimbizae pembeze. Au ikiwa
watia chanda katika pango ya
nyoka akuumapo usilie na pango.

Mwandishi.

BARUA

K. K. Ibm, Nairobi.—Habari ya
ulevi yajulikana sana na hao
wanakwe pia, tuarifu habari za
maana badala ya hizi.

Shariff A. A., Mombasa.—
N’kweli, tena ni wajibu ku-
uliza, lakini kwani hapo Liwali
au D.C. Msa. wa kumueleza
mambo kama haya. Usiuthike,
kwani ulitusaidia sana kwa
habari zako mwaka juzi na
mwaka Jana twatumai utatu-
andikia habari nzuri.

POSTA.

Y.A. C.M.S., Butere, Kavi-
rondo. — Tumekwisha sikia
habari hizo marra nyingi, tu
andikie habari nzuri zipende-
zazo.

G. M. W., Limuru. Ahasanta
kwa habari yako, lakini si juu
yetu kuangalia mashtaka.

G. S. Moses, Kabete.—Twasiki-
tika hatukupata kuitia barua
yako tutaingiza mwezi mwen-
gine.


June, 1927.

HABARI.

aanmaom

29

MAIZE.

The Editor of Habari,

Sir,

Will you kindly give me space
in your paper to put these words
of mine. I have an explanation
to make to the native farmers of
our Colony of Kenya. In past
years some men have taken great
trouble to choose their maize-
seed. I also took great pains to
choose my seed at planting time
but, at harvest, I did not get what
I looked for. I was told that, if a
man plants maize of one variety
its price will be different from
the price of other maize not so
picked. I harvested my maize
and it was a mixture of white and
black and yellow, and I could not
understand why it had changed
colour like this. When my mother
explained to me that the colour
of maize changes according to the
colour of the man’s hand who
planted it, I believed her for I
knew no other reason.

Well, my friends, I will explain
to you so that you may not be led
to deceive yourselves and to be-
lieve, as I have explained, people
who do not know the reason. I
am still busy studying agricul-
ture and I see that what I believed
is very different from the truth.
For example, if we think of goat?»
and sheep like this:—

If an owner has a flock of goats
or sheep and he puts in males of
different colours, will his goats or
sheep change colour or will they
not? I would say that they will
change because of the males of dif-
ferent colours. The same is the

MAHINDI.

Kwa Bwana Editor wa Habari,
Bwana,

Tafathali sana kwa hisani yako
unipatie nafasi illi nitie maneno
yangu machache katika Habari.
N’na maelezo kwa walimaji wa
mashamba katika hii nti yetu ya
Kenya. Katika miaka iliyopita
watu wengine walipata taabu
sana kwa kutagua mbeu za ma-
hindi. Kama mimi nilitaabika
katika kutagua mbeu wakati wa
kupanda, lakini wakati wa ku-
vuna nikakosa kupata kama vile
nilivyotaka. Nalisikia kama mtu
akitagua mahindi mbeu namna
moja atavuna namna ile-ile, na
bei yakwe itakuwa tafauti na
bei za mahindi mengine yasiyo
taguliwa. Lakini nilivuna ma-
hindi yaliyotangamana na meupe,
meusi na mekundu, nikashindwa
ni kujua kwa sababu gani kuge-
uka hivi ? Ambapo mamaangu ali-
nieleza na kunambia ya kuwa
mahindi hubadilika kwa sababu
ya mkono wa mtu aliyepanda,
nami nikamsadiki kwa sabao
sikujua maana yakwe.

Basi ndugu zangu ntawaambia
msije mkadanganyika na kuwa-
sadiki watu wasiojua kama nili-
vyoelezwa, nami nikali nikipele-
leza mambo ya mimea na kuona
kuwa yale nilivoyasadiki ni tafa-
uti sana na yaliyo kweli. Kwa
mithali tukiangalia habari ya ha-
wa mbuzi na kondoo kama hivi:—

Ikiwa mzee m’moja ana kundi
lakwe la mbuzi au la kondoo nae
akaweka madume mengi yaliyo
na rangi kathawakatha, jee mbuzi
zile au kondoo zile zitageuka au
hazigeuki? Nathani zitageuka


30

HABARI.

June, 1927.

case with maize. If one man
chooses his maize carefully and
other men plant without any
selection of seed, understand that
this man’s field will bear a mixed
variety of maize even though he
chose his seed with care. And the
reason for it is this:—

You all know that nothing can
bear or be fertile unless there is a
male. Just so I want to explain
about the male part of the maize
plant. When the maize is in
flower, the dust of these flowers,
which in English we call the pol-
len of the plant, is blown by the
wind and gains an entrance to the
silks or hairs of other maize. Then
this maize is pollinated, becomes
fertile, and bears the maize seeds
we know. You know that wher-
ever there is offspring or children
it is because of the presence of a
male and a female and the child-
ren take after the likeness of
father or mother.

We know now in what way
maize becomes fertile and bears,
i.e., because of the work of the
male and female parts of the plant.
The lesson is that it would be a
good thing for every farmer who
wants to grow good maize to plant
good seed of one kind. But if your
neighbour has planted another
variety in his shamba, under-
stand that this is your enemy and
he will destroy your seed for you
with the flying pollen which gets
inside the silks of your maize and
introduces another colour and
kind from the one you planted.

Jovenale Git AO,

kwa sababu ya sababu ya yale
madume ya aina kathawakatha.
Ni vile-vile hatta mahindi. Mtu
m’moja akitagua mahindi yakwe
mazuri, na Wengine wakipanda
bila ya kutagua mahindi yao,
fahamu mahindi yakwe yatazaa
mahindi yaliyotanganyika ingawa
alivatagua. Na sababu yakwe ni
hii:—

Nywinywi nyote mwaweza ku-
jua ya kuwa hakuna kitu kiweza-
cho kuzaa billa ya mume, na
vivyo ndivyo nitakavyoeleza ha-
bari ya mume wra mahindi. Ma-
hindi yakisha toa punga, ule
unga ulio juu ya zile punga za
mahindi hupeperuslrwa kwa
upepo nao hungia katika ndevu za
mahindi mengine; na hapo hayo
mahindi hushika mimba na kuzaa
hizo tembe za mahindi. Mwrajua
ya kuwa kama mimba hutiwa po-
pote ni neno la mume na mke na
watoto wao hufanana na sura zile
za baba na mama.

Kwa hivyo tumekwisha fahamu
jinsi ya mahindi yazaavyo na ku-
shika mimba, kwa habari ya huyo
mume wa mahindi na mke we.
Sasa ingefaa sana killa mmoja
mkulima atakae mahindi yah
yaw-e mazuri, na apande mbeu na-
mna moja, na akiwa jirani wa
shamba lako amepanda mahindi
namna nyengine jua ya kwamba
ni adui yako, na atakuharibia
mbeu yako kwa ule unga wra pun
ga urukapo na kungia katika hizo
ndevu za mahindi yako, na kuleta
rangi tafauti na ile uliyoipanda
shambani mwako.

Jovenale Gitao,


June, 1927.

HABARI.

31

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WAFANYAO BIASHARA

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kama Mabulangeti, Visu, Vioo, Vinanda
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Ndie Agent pekee wa

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P.O. Box 531. NAIROBI. ’Phone 15
Ukipiga Simu Andika: “Rosenblum”

Ukiwa umgonjwa na wataka DAWA
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kwa:—

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DISPENSING CHEMIST,

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TO ADVERTISERS

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APPLY TO

The Business Manager,

P. O. Box 340 - Nairobi.

RATES:

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32

HABARI.

June, 1927.

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