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Report on the expedition to the Hukawng Valley and Naga Hills (Burma), 1930-31

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Title:
Report on the expedition to the Hukawng Valley and Naga Hills (Burma), 1930-31
Creator:
Fletcher, R. C.
Place of Publication:
Rangoon
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Office of the Supdt. Government Printing and Stationary, Burma
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Language:
English
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1 volume

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Burma -- Hukawng Valley ( lcsh )
Burma -- Naga Hills ( lcsh )
India -- Naga Hills ( lcsh )
Genre:
Government document
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Myanmar -- Sagaing Region -- Naga Hills
Asia -- India -- Nagaland -- Naga Hills
एशिया - भारत - नागालैंड - नागा हिल्स
এশিয়া - ভারত - নাগাল্যান্ড - নাগা পাহাড়
এশিয়া - মিয়ানমার - সাগাইং অঞ্চল - নাগা পাহাড়
एशिया - म्यांमार - सागाईंग क्षेत्र - नागा हिल्स
Asia -- Myanmar -- Kachin State -- Myitkyina District -- Tanai Township -- Hukawng Valley
Coordinates:
26 x 95
25.67 x 94.12
26.438333 x 96.558889

Notes

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Imprinted: "Confidential"
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Office of the Supdt. Government Printing and Stationary, Burma, August 1931
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Responsibility: Captain R. C. Fletcher, I.A., Assistant Commandant, Burma Military Police
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This title is believed to be in the public domain under UK Crown Copyright.

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SOAS University of London
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SOAS University of London
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Full Text
CONFIDENTIAL]

REPORT

ON THE

Expedition to the Hukawng Valley and Naga
Hills (Burma), 1930-31

BY

Captain R. C. FLETCHER, I.A,

Assistant Commandant, Burma Military Police.

RANGOON : OFFICE OF THE SUPDT : GOVERNMENT PRINTING AND STATIONERY, BURMA, AUGUST 1931.




From Lieutenant-Colonel C. de M. Wellborne, O.B.E., I.A., Inspector-General of Police, Burma, to the Chief
Secretary to the Government of Burma, Home and Political Department,—No. 1442G—3R-31, dated the
8th June 1931.

Subject.—Report on the Hnkawng Valley and Naga Hills Expeditions for
the year 1930:31.

I have the honour to forward herewith a copy of the Report of the Officer
Commanding, Hukawng Valley and Naga Hills Expeditions, 1930-31,
together with a copy of remarks by the Deputy Commissioner, Myitkyina and
Commissioner, Sagaing Division, on it, for favour of disposal.

Six copies of the report may kindly be sent to this office for distribution
io the officers concerned when printed.

Letter No. 5755, dated the 19th/2lst May 1931. from the Deputy Commissioner, Myitkyina, to the Commissioner,
Sagaing Division.

In continuation of my General Department letter No. 219—C., dated the
7th April 1931, I have the honourto forward in duplicate the report of Captain
Fletcher, Officer Commanding, Hukawng Valley Escort, 1930-31, together with
a covering letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Thyne, I.A., Battalion Commandant,
Western Battalion, Myitkyina.

Captain Fletcher has attached most interesting photos and a map to his
detailed and comprehensive report.

2. The report shows how successfully the column dealt with difficulties
arising from orders for recall.

3. Captain Fletcher points out the savings to be effected by making a
cart road from Shaduzup to Maingkwan and it is hoped that provision for this
will be sanctioned in the next budget.

Great savings can be effected by local purchase of paddy but I am
inclined to think that the greater part of the paddy should be bought a year
ahead and stored in Maingkwan. A sudden crop failure through floods or
other causes would be very embarrassing.

4. Colonel Thyne has commented on the report in detail and I agree
with his conclusions. Captain Fletcher’s report on which he has spent
infinite pains should be of great value in the future.

Endorsement No. 6916—5P-37, dated the 28th May 1931, from the Commissioner, Sagaing Division, to the
Personal Assistant to the Deputy Inspector-General of Military Police, Burma.

Copy, together with enclosures, is forwarded to the Personal Assistant to
the Deputy Inspector-General of Military Police, Burma.

This is a most excellent and thoughtful report and Captain Fletcher
deserves the greatest credit. The thanks of Government are due to him and
the officers and men serving under his command.

From Lieutenant-Colonel W. Thyne, I.A., Battalion Commandant, Western Battalion, Myitkyina, to the
Deputy Commissioner, Myitkyina,—No. 32—XXI, dated the 19th May 1931.

I have the honour to forward the report of Captain R. C. Fletcher, Officer
Commanding, Hukawng Valley Escort, for the season 1930-31.

Chapter I.—It is evident that the full strength of the expedition should
remain out the whole time the column is operating and not revert to the
previous arrangements for first party to proceed and the second party to arrive
in time for the Northern Tour only.

Chapter II.—The column should not set out from Mogaung before early
December as the weather in November is not to be relied on and the country
over which the column move has not dried up sufficiently.


( 2 )’

With the later start it is possible to draw up a programme which it should
be possible to adhere to. This is very important to enable the programme for
rationing to be carried out.

I would like to draw attention to Captain Fletcher’s remarks on page 5,
Chapter II, which stresses the impossibility of reducing the column if civil
prisoners are to be taken about with the column this is more likely to occur
as the country comes to be administered.

Chapter III.—Communication in the past has not been satisfactory ;
Captain Fletcher appears to have gone into this very fully.

It is expected wireless will prove the best way to maintain communication,,
but failing wireless it is proposed next year to rely on visual.

Several stations will be changed to give better lines to operate on.

It is not anticipated there will be any increase in the signal personnel but
there should be a great improvement in the actual communications. I
recommend that the telephone line be abolished as it requires too big a
personnel to keep it in order.

Chapter IK—It appears feasible to rely to a great extent on the local
purchase of paddy.

The country round about Maingkwan is eminently suited for paddy
growing.

This would also put money into the hands of local inhabitants and so tend
to keep them happy and contented.

As regards equipment I agree with the remarks and recommendations
with the exception of paragraph (h} for the provision of Stoke’s mortars.

I do not consider that the conditions likely to be met with on the
expeditions justify the necessity of such a weapon.

They require expert supervision and it is unlikely that the Assistant-
Commandants likely to be posted to the Military Police without war experience
would be capable of really training and maintaining this weapon in an
efficient manner.

Chapter F.—The health of the expedition seems better than in past
years.

A high standard of discipline was maintained throughout which reflects
the greatest credit on all concerned.

I endorse the remarks made concerning officers and men specially
mentioned for good service but also add the name of Captain R. C. Fletcher
who has thrown himself wholeheartedly into the work both in the preliminary
preparations and while out on the column itself. He has brought in most
useful information which should prove of the greatest value in later years.


Report on the Hukawng Valley and Naga Hills Expeditions,
1930-31.

CHAPTER I-

Objects of the Expedition.

The objects of the expedition were briefly as follows ;—

(n) To enquire into the conditions of the released slaves and to report
on any cases of oppression by their late masters.

(6) To report on the general economic position of the released slaves
and the prospect of their becoming self supporting.

(c) As far as possible to settle all blood feuds and important inter-tribal
disputes.

â– (d) To explain to all Duwas and Akyiwas and the people in general that
the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation has now been applied to the
Hukawng Valley and that any disobedience of the Civil Officer’s
orders would be dealt with under this Regulation.

Composition of the Expedition.

The expedition was composed as follows :—

Civil—

Mr. A. W. Porter, O.B.E., B.Fr.S.

Taungok Kawlu Ma Nawng.

1 Interpreter.

1 Clerk.

1 Peon.

8 Armed Pyadas.

2 Private Servants.

Medical—

Sub-Assistant Surgeon R. R. Parial.

Sub-Assistant Surgeon Saw Po Aung
2 Ward Orderlies.

4 Dhooly Bearers.

Escort—

Captain R. C. Fletcher, I.A.

Jemadar Gokulsing Lama.

Jemadar Ranbahadur Thapa.

Jemadar Dorje Lama.

48 Gurkha Ranks.

22 Kachin Ranks.

19 Signallers (including 6 Kachins).

Note.—Six extra Signallers were to join the column for the Northern Naga Hills tour but as this was can-
celled they did not leave Myitkyina.

1 Armourer.

1 Barber.

1 Driver.

2 Bhistis.

2 Private servants.

2 Officers’ chargers.

2 Lewis Gun mules.

In addition to the personnel mentioned above a dump guard of 20 other
ranks at Shaduzup and 14 Signallers to operate the Kamaing-Shaduzup
telephone line were found from the Western Battalion.


( 4 )

This year all personnel for the expedition escort were found from
Western Battalion. This is by far the most satisfactory arrangement as all men
have a thorough knowledge of local conditions and customs and also all Gurkha
Ranks have a good working knowledge of Kachin. In addition it was found
that about 25 per cent, of the escort could make themselves understood in
Yiinnanese.

Location of the Expedition Escort,

In previous expeditions the escort strength has been shown as approxi-
mately one hundred rifles. Actually this strength was only available during
the Western and Northern Tours in the Naga Hills. As soon as these were
completed approximately thirty-five rifles were withdrawn to Myitkyina,

It was represented by the Escort Commander of last expedition that after
deducting Base, Dump Guards and Signal personnel that there were only some
twenty-five rifles available for actual escort duty with the Civil Officer on the
Hukawng Valley Tours. This meant that a very heavy strain was put on these
men and the casualties from sickness were abnormal.

Sanction was therefore accorded this year for the full- number of rifles .to'
remain in the Hukawng throughout the duration of the expedition. The idea
being the extra rifles would be available at the Base to replace sick casualties.

This, although an improvement of previous arrangements, is on the face
of it radically unsound as there was to be no attempt to relieve the strain ora
the men but merely to replace one broken down man with a fresh one who
would in his turn also break down and spend weeks or probably months on
the convalescent or light duty list.

It was realized that the essential point was to increase the nights in bed
for all ranks if any improvement in the sick returns was to be expected.

It is considered that the normal number of sentries required for a perimeter
camp of an expedition of this nature at night is five. One on each face of
the perimeter and one over the treasure and stores. This means fifteen men
and five Non-Commissioned Officers on duty every night which is impossible
if the total number of rifles in the column is only twenty-five.

It was decided therefore that if transport could be made available within
the limits of that sanctioned to keep the column at full strength as allowed for ire
the Western and Northern Tours. This would work out at one night on duty
in six for the actual column personnel for a period of five months and it was
considered that this should show a considerable improvement in the health of
the men.

The Escort of the Expedition was located therefore as follows :—

M aingkwan Base.—

1 Indian Officer,

20 Other ranks.

4 Signallers.

1 follower.

Wantuk Bum Signal Station.—

6 Signallers,

Langprawng Bum Signal Station.—

5 Signallers.

Column.—

2 Indian Officers.

50 Other ranks.

4 Signallers.

4 followers.

The column was organised into one rifle platoon of four sections and one
headquarters platoon consisting of the Lewis gun section arid an M employed ”
and “ specialist ” section.

This organisation was found most suitable both on the march and in camp.
In camp it gave one complete section for each face of the perimeter, oneJ


( 5 )

Section as tfeaSure and store guard and one section reserve. On the inarch it
gave two sections Advanced Guard, two sections Main Body, one section
Baggage Guard and one section Rear Guard.

CHAPTER II.

Narrative.

This year no advance party was sent forward to establish the base at
Maingkwan and the whole expedition left Myitkyina by train for Mogaung on
the 15th November.

A day’s halt was made at Mogaung to sort out kit and stores into suitable
loads and to take over rations for the first month of the expedition from the
Post Commander.

Three hundred and fifty Chihese mules had preceded the column by
road from Myitkyina and were awaiting the expedition at Mogaung.

Unfortunately, on arrival, it was found that the Head Loban had been
arrested by the Excise for being in possession of thirteen tolas of opium. The
Loban said it was for veterinary purposes on the expedition. This may have
been true or not and the action of Excise technically correct, but it was not
until four in the afternoon when the Loban was released from jail on bail that
any progress could be made in allotting loads to Lobans and getting saddles
loaded up.

The expedition left Mogaung on the morning of 17th November and
reached Kamaing the following day.

As the first two marches from Mogaung are both very long and trying to a
column just starting out and as the “ open season ” bridge over the indaw
chaung had not yet been constructed a day’s halt was made at Kamaing.

The 19th November was spent in ferrying over the expedition across the
chaung, This took a considerable time as, in addition to the three hundred
and fifty mule loads, there were twenty^five bullock carts with rations and
signal cable going with the expedition as far as Shaduzup.

A steady drizzle set in on the evening of the 19th and as the expedition
moved off next morning to march to Pakhren Bum this turned to a steady down
pour which kept Up unceasingly for thirty hours.

At first the going, although muddy, was not too bad but at the sixth mile
matters got worse and the mules were up. to their bellies at times. The bullock
carts stuck fast and had to be temporarily abandoned and it was not until dark
that the whole expedition got into camp.

The expedition reached Shaduzup on the 23rd November where a halt of
one day was scheduled. This day’s halt was doubly welcome as men and
animals were all pretty tired after four days’ ploughing through the mud. It
was found that the bullock carts could not keep up with the column and they
were allowed to march independently and reached camp until three or four
hours after the expedition had got in.

At Shaduzup a ration staging post had been established before the expedi-
tion arrived and it was found that some of the rations to be taken over and
carried forward to Maingkwan had been damaged by the rain and were at least
for the present unfit for consumption until reconditioned. It was decided
therefore to halt an extra day here to sort out and load up the undamaged
rations.

The expedition left Shaduzup on the 26th November and reached
Maingkawn without incident on the 29th November.

A halt of six days was made at Maingkwan as the Civil Officer had a large
amount of work to get through before starting out on the actual tours.

This period was occupied by the escort in establishing the base and
building the base perimeter defences. These defences took the form of
independent section posts with an all-round field of fire, each one self
contained in itself but so sited that every section post could support every
other post with rifle fire. It is considered that this is the most suitable form
of the defences for a post like this as the defences can be adopted to the number
of sections in the post at any one time.


( 6 )

The new building at the base designed and sited last year by Captain
Grant had all been completed and were ready for occupation. These consist
now of a Quarter Guard, Indian Officer’s quarter, a hospital, barrack for base
personnel and a ration store. These are now all grouped round a small grassy
plot about eighty by thirty yards which forms a useful plot for parades and
recreation.

During the halt at Maingkwan the Wantuk Bum Signal Station was
established.

Information was now received that owing to the heavy rain the country in
the N’Dup Dumsa area was water-logged and impassable. This necessitated a
revision of the original programme and the Civil Officer determined to put back
this tour until after the return of the column from the Northern Naga Hills
tour. For the present he decided to make a tour via Daihpa through Yawpang,
Jagun, Kantao and Ningam to Sharaw and back to Maingkwan via Ningbyen
and Yawpang.

The column left Maingkwan on the 6th December and reached Yawpang
on the 9th. During this period nine hours heavy rain on the 7th made the
going very heavy and on the march from Lashen to Daihpa steps had to be cut
down and up every ravine bank to get the mules over.

At Yawpang information was received that the country round Jagun and
Kantao was water-logged and impassable and again the programme had to be
revised and it was decided to march straight to Sharaw and then work back
to Maingkwan via Ningbyen and Yawpang.

It is interesting to note that a remark passed at Yawpang by a villager
showed that the number of rifles in the column had been carefully noted in
previous columns and were compared with the number of the present one.
This merely goes to show that the tribesmen must be given credit for consider-
able more intelligence and powers of deduction than they are usually given
credit for.

The tour via Sharaw was completed without incident and the column
returned to Maingkwan on the 24th December in time for Christmas day.

Christmas day was observed as a holiday as far as possible but a large
fatigue party was required to get the rations ready to send out to the advance
dumps for the Western and Northern Naga Hills Tours.

On the 26th December the advance dump was established at Mashi Daru
about six and a half miles from Maingkwan on the Tanai Hka. This is the
dump at which rations are loaded into boats for Dalu and Tasikzup
(Shingbwiyang).

The column left Maingkwan on the 29th December for the Western Naga
Hills tour and marching over the Wantuk Bum and Maraw Bum reached
Dalu on the 2pd January where a halt of four clays was made

During the halt a demonstration of field firing was given by the Lewis
gun section and all rifle sections in turn. Targets were put up on the water
in a wide bend of the Tanai Hka at about five hundred yards. The shooting
of all ranks was exceptionally good and the audience were very impressed,
judging from the remarks in the crowd. It is worth recording for future
reference that targets erected on the water are most effective as the audience,
having seen fountains of water going up all round the target, are not so critical
of the actual hits on the target which by the way they are always most careful
to count and comment on.

Leaving Dalu on the 7th January and crossing the Tanai Hka the column
marched via Lakchang, Sumbaw, Waksang and Gumgato Lulum arriving there
on the 14th January.

Here a similar field firing demonstration to that given at Dalu was staged
but as no water was available, Tracer ammunition was used with the Lewis
gun. Although this greatly impressed the audience the fire of the rifle
sections lost some of its effect as the strike of the bullets could not be seen
and the audience went by the actual hits on the target which they were
again very careful to count.

The column reached Samtik Ga on the 18th January via Lingnuk and
Yawman Hka.

Here a mail runner arrived with orders that the tour in the Northern Naga
Hills was to be indefinitely postponed and that it might be found necessary to


( 7 )

curtail or cancel the remaining tours of the expedition if the escort personnel
were required for duty elsewhere. Further the Civil Officer was instructed to
limit his tours to within forty miles of Maingkwan.

At a conference with the Civil Officer it was decided that “

(1) The Northern Naga Hills tour could be abandoned without loss of
prestige as this tour had been missed out before.

(2) That it Was essential to go as far as bfamyung and to call in the
Northern tour headmen to meet the Civil Officer. It would then be possible
to pay out the year’s road mohey and deal with the most important cases.

(3) That the remaining tours in the Hukawng Valley could not be
abandoned without serious loss of prestige and that every effort must be made
to carry these out

(4) That as the Western Tour was completed, the ration dumps all
established and the Northern Tour cancelled the expedition could, in view
of the exceptional urgency, make available one Indian Officer and forty
ranks for return to Myitkyina*

Leaving SamtikGaon the 19th January the column, marching via Ringhku
Ga, Hkalal Ga and Hsamsing Bum, reached Shingbwiyang on the 25th January*

Here a message was received asking if the expedition could carry on with
25 rifles if asked to. It was at once decided that if necessary the expedition
would carry on with this number rather than cancel the remaining tours with
a consequent loss of prestige even if it meant mounting the men on mules to
ease the physical strain to which they would be subjected.

A halt of two days had been originally intended at Shingbwiyang to
allow of the ration dump at Tasikzup (the old Tawazup dump) being
brought up and final preparations made for the Northern Tour. As the Civil
Officer was on the sick list and not fit to march it was decided to halt an
extra day.

Having again revised the whole tour programme for the third time the
column left Shingbwiyang on the 29th January and reached Namyang without
incident on the 1st February*

Here a halt of three days Was made as the Civil Officer had a large amount
of work to get through. In fact so many people came in from the Northern
Tracts that quite a small village sprang up alongside the camp*

Advantage of the halt was taken to make a three day reconnaissance of the
Ranchu Bum to select a new signal station for the North Tour in future years*

Whilst halted orders were received to make tentative arrangements to
concentrate a reserve platoon of one Indian Officer, thirty-four ranks arid eight
signallers at Maingkwan ready for withdrawal to Myitkyina if required*

The column left Namyang on the 5th February and arrived back in
Shingbwiyang on the 8th February*

The 9th was spent in reorganising the column, after taking out the
personnel for the reserve platoon, and in loading up the dump for evacuation.

This presented some difficulty as only 12 days’ rations had been consumed
out of the whole stock for the original Northern Tour*

Fortunately one thousand pounds of paddy was sold to the villagers who
had lost all their crops in a hail storm. Incidentally this was the only village
visited by the column which had not either a sufficiency or a surplus of paddy*

It was found possible then by discarding the old packing materials and by
overloading every mule in the column with a few pounds for the first march
out to evacuate the whole column arid dump at once.

On the 18th February the column marched to Ningam and here orders
were received to return the reserve platoon, all surplus mules and all surplus
rations to Myitkyina immediately*

It was decided that the Civil Officer should continue the revised tour
With the reduced escort under the command of the senior Indian Officer and
that the Officer Commanding Escort should march straight into Mainkgwan to
supervise the evacuation of the reserve platoon, stores and mules and then
rejoin the column.

This latter party left Ningam the next morning and reached Maingkwan on
the 13th after doing a double stage march on the 12th in torrents of rain.


( 8 )

After a busy day’s halt on the 14th, the reserve platoon with one
hundred and seventy-four mules and all surplus stores and rations left
Maingkwan on the 15th for Myitkyina.

The column arrived back at the base on the 18 th having completed the
tour via Jagun and Kantao.

On the day the reserve platoon left two muderers were handed over to
the base guard by the Taungok for custody. As there was already one
prisoner in the guard room this brought the number up to three. Including
the signal station personnel there were only ten rifles left in the base for guard
duty, until the column returned.

This is a point which needs stressing when people start talking about
thirty rifles being enough for the Valley tours. A couple of prisoners with the
column and two more at the base and twelve men per night are required for
guard duty apart from any question of the tactical requirements and perimeter
sentry posts.

Having halted one day to load up rations the column left Maingkwan on
the 20th February to tour through N’Ding, Sana, Saintawng and Nawhkum,
returning to the base on the 28th February.

On the 27th February orders were received for the cancellation of the
remaining tours and the immediate withdrawal of the expedition to Myitkyina.

On the 29th the base was evacuated to Shaduzup by the column mules.
Whilst waiting for the mules to return from Shaduzup to evacuate the column
the opportunity was taken to make a five day special reconnaissance to Wantuk
Bum to select a new site for the signal station.

The column evacuated Maingkwan on the 8th March and reached Shadu-
zup on the 10th. Here the carts required to evacuate the base and signal
stores were awaiting the column^ the mules being only sufficient for the
column owing to the amount of unconsumed rations, etc., to be back loaded.

The expedition left Shaduzup on the 12th March and arrived back in
Myitkyina on the 18th March.

The expedition actually marched five hundred and fifty miles in spite of
being recalled to Myitkyina six weeks early.

CHAPTER III.

Communications.

(1) Signal,—This year communication between Kamaing and Maingkwan
Base was maintained from Kamaing to Shaduzup by telephone line and from
there onwards by runners.

The telephone cable (42 miles in all) was laid along the roadside hung
from tree to tree as far as possible 15 feet from the ground. This, however, is
becoming more and more difficult to do every year as the Public Works
Department cut down every tree within 30 feet of the new road with a consequent
increase in undergrowth, making it very difficult for linesmen to reach trees of
sufficient height and this necessitates a more extensive use of bamboo poles.

There were two transmitting stations, one at Wakawng and the other at
Mataing Hka.

The line worked extremely well and was only badly out of action once, due
to a bad storm of wind and rain.

The personnel required to maintain this line was 14 signallers and 2 other
ranks.

The runners from Shaduzup to Maingkwan consisted of two pairs at each
place. A pair of runners covered the distance of forty miles in two days.

This system of runners was not satisfactory and is not recommended for
trial again with future expeditions.

The reasons for its failure are two—

(1) If the Signal Station at either end has two priority messages to send
out during the course of a day it then can send out nothing more fcr four days
;(/, spare inhabitants to do the teip. This -happened on two or three occasions
during the time that the withdrawal of the column was meditated.


( 9 )

(2) Instead of messages going through from Myitkyina to Maingkwan in
one day the usual time was three days and for the- round trip Myitkyina to
Myitkyina the time was a minimum of five days and usually six.

It is recommended therefore that in future expeditions if the telephone is
used ‘that it should be carried right through to Maingkwan.

Tactically of course, the telephone line if the only means of communication
is unsound and, in the event of any discontent or trouble, a couple of malcontents
can keep the line permanently broken with the greatest of ease. It is recom-
mended therefore that communication from Kamaing to Maingkwan should be
duplicated by visual.

This can be done by one station at Kamaing the personnel for which would
be the same as that for the cable line and one station (transmitting) on Hku-ma
Bum which is in Administered Territory and can talk direct to Wantuk Bum.

The Hkuma Bum Post would also link up with the column when in the
Mungyi Tract as it is understood that up till now no means has existed of
communicating with the column when in that area.

Of course the solution to all inter-communication difficulties is the adoption
of wireless throughout the expedition.

Special attention has been paid to the collection of data with a view to
the adoption of wireless with the future expeditions but owing to technical
nature of the proposals the report will not be ready for some time yet and will
have to be submitted as a special report. It is hoped, however, that the report
will show that wireless can be used successfully and that the cost will be less
than the cost of the present system.

All communication between the base at Maingkwan and the column,
wherever it was, was by visual signalling.

The signal communications from the base to the column was through
a chain of transmitting stations which were as follows :—

(1) Column in the Hukawng Valley :—

Maingkwan Wantuk Bum, column.

(2) Column on the Western Tour

Maingkwan, Wantuk Bum, Simyi Bum column.

(3) Column on the Northern Tour

Maingkwan, Wantuk Bum, Simyi Bum, Nathkaw column.

These stations were fixed after consulting the reports of the previous two
expeditions.

It is regretted that all transmitting stations were found either unsuitable
or useless and all had to be moved for the following reasons :—

Wantuk Bum.—Blinded on the north and north-west by a hill 150 feet
higher than the station which prevented the station calling up to column on
the Western Tour when the column was north of Waksang or calling up
Simyi Bum.

. Simyi Bum.—So badly sited that it could only call up the column at one
camp, Hkalak Ga during the Western Tour.

Nathkaw.—Could not call Up a single column camp in the whole of the
Northern Tour.

With a view to improving the signal communications three special
reconnaissances were made as opportunity offered with very satisfactory results
as follows:—

Wantuk Bum.—Moved from the present site to a point one and a half miles
north-west of the existing site.

This station has now an all-round view except one a bearing of from
about 150 degrees to 170 degrees the view through 20 of these degrees being
obstructed by Wantuk Bum peak.

No communication however is ever necessary in this direction.

Simyi Bum.—Moved to the top of Lungpraw Bum. This station can now
communicate with Maingkwan direct and with the column when on the
Western Tour at all camps north of Waksang. It can also call up Warituk
Bum and the new station at Ranchu Bum (replacing Nathkaw).

Nathkaw.—This station was scrapped and a new station sited on the top
of Ranchu Bum. The new station can get Wantuk Bum, Lungpraw Bum and
75 per cent, of the camps of the column when on the Northern Tour.


( 10 )

In carrying out these reconnaissances considerable extra strain was put
On the men undertaking them but the results fully justified the effort.

It is regretted that owing to the premature withdrawal of the expedition it
was not possible to complete the revision of the signal communications in the
Mungyi tracts ; but it appears that this also could be made satisfactory if, on
completion of the Northern Tour, the Ranchu Bum Station personnel were
withdrawn and sent to Hkuma Bum.

The weather was exceptionally good throughout the whole expedition
with a consequent improvement in visibility.

The quickest message after a revision of the signal arrangements came
through from Myitkyina to Namyung in three and a half days which includes
two days for runners and 12 hours delay while a new column station was
being opened.

The slowest was six days Myitkyina to Maingkwan due to all runners
having been used up.

(2) Road.-—A detailed Route Report of all tracks covered by the expedition
this year is attached as an appendix to this report.

It is considered that a slight amplification of this would be of use to
officers proceeding to the Hukawng for the first time.

There are no roads in the area covered by the report and the only means
of moving about is by footpaths from village. These paths are usually about
one foot wide and bordered by dense jungle.

In the plain these paths follow the line of least resistance through the
jungle and in the hills they usually go straight up and down regardless of
gradients and keeping as far as possible to the hill crests.

The whole area is covered by dense jungle, the only difference between
the plains and hills being that in the hills the timber is much heavier which
tends to keep down the undergrowth.

From the end of the rains until the beginning of February the plain and
hill valleys are covered with a dense morning mist. This mist is found up to
heights of 1,500 feet and is so thick that it almost amounts to a fine rain and
the sun seldom penetrates through it much before midday.

This combination of mist and dense jungle prevents the village-tracts
from ever really drying up unless the jungle is cut back from the paths to let
the air and sun get at them. Dust was only seen twice in two small patches
this year throughout the whole period of the expedition.

The local inhabitants are now paid so much annually to keep the paths
regularly used by the expeditions cleared of jungle and undergrowth to a
width of thirty feet.

In addition they are paid to make small temporary bridges of bamboo over
all streams on main routes.

This clearing and bridging has greatly improved the routes and a column
with pack transport can average as much as three miles an hour.

The clearing and building of bridges must be done annually and could
not be counted on in the event of hostilities or even passive resistance.

In the hills as money becomes available the inhabitants are being paid to
construct a graded mule track.

These mule tracks where completed are extremely serviceable and when
it is realised that the whole work of alignment and grading is done by the
Taungok who has no technical training the results are astoundingly good and
very little extra work is required to make them permanent.

In the Route Report the height of a bridge is measured from the stream
bed and not the water level.

In the Route Report any bridge shown which is north of Shaduzup is
only of a temporary nature and has to be built annually. Unless therefore it is
known that bridges have been repaired the fact that a bridge is shown in the
report should merely be taken to show that the stream, etc., in question will be
an obstacle to be surmounted when reached and due allowance made for delay.

It has been found that almost invariably where there is lowlying or
swampy gound that kaing grass will also be found and this cut and laid in
alternate layers forms an efficient road which will stand up to mule traffic for
a considerable period.


( 11 )

Where gradients were found to be too steep it has been found quicker to
cut steps for the mule transport to walk down rather than cut a new track
through the jungle.

Fallen trees are another serious form of delay especially in the hills and
these must be cleared annually. Even then a heavy storm will often bring
down large numbers of trees during the “ open season.”

The. new Public Works Department unmetalled road from Kamaing has
now reached the Mogaung Hka three miles west of Shaduzup and by next
“ open season ” wilt be open as far as Shaduzup Camp.

It is understood that the intention is to carry the road eventually as far as
Maingkwan but it is a very problematic point when funds will be available to
carry on the road from Shaduzup.

It is estimated that a “ fair weather ” road fit for carts and cars could be
constructed from Jambu Bum to Maingkwan for approximately rupees five
thousand.

This sum could be saved in less than two expeditions by the reduction in
transport charges, if carts are used between Shaduzup and Maingkwan instead
of mules as at present.

CHAPTER IV.

Rations, Transport, Equipment.

Rations.—This year two experiments were tried as far as the rationing is
concerned.

The first of this was that the column started fifteen days earlier than usual
and no advance base was established at Maingkwan before the arrival of the
column.

This was not satisfactory for the following reasons :—

The whole expedition when moving with all its kit, stores and miscellaneous
equipment with three hundred and fifty mules can only carry about sixteen days’
rations for men and animals of which five are eaten before reaching Maingkwan.
The round trip for ration mules from Maingkwan to Shaduzup and back takes
seven days. The actual touring column must therefore either wait seven days
for more rations or start the first tour with eleven days’ rations which means
a complicated arrangement of staging to get up the extra nine days required
for the first tour.

It is recommended therefore that the old arrangement should be re-adopted
and that the Maingkwan Base personnel and two hundred mules should be sent
up in advance in sufficient time to allow the mules to return from Maingkwan
to meet the expedition on arrival at Shaduzup.

The second experiment was the buying of paddy in the Hukawng Valley.
It is understood that this has always been vetoed in former years owing to the
uncertainty.

This year the Taungok was asked in advance for a forecast of paddy
likely to be available for purchase in the valley.

His forecast was 75,000 lbs. actually available and probably more when
all reports were received.

Actually some 130,000 lbs. was available for purchase this year. This
amount is calculated on approximately 10 per cent, of the total crop, which
was a million and a quarter pounds, as being surplus to the population’s
requirements.

This was a normal crop year and it is strongly recommended that future
expeditions should buy all paddy required in the Valley. It might even be
possible to buy all rice for muleteers.

The advantages are as follows :—

(1) A budget saving of nearly Rs, 10,000 will be made by the saving in

cartage hire from Mogaung to Maingkwan.

(2) The inhabitants will be encouraged to open up the country and

produce more than their bare needs.

(3) The money actually paid for expedition rations will actually benefit

the country and help towards development and progress.


( 12 )'

If is considered that two months’ notice of a bad crop year could always
be obtained prior to the departure of the column which would be ample time
to make arrangements to take up the paddy required with the expedition.

A detailed, list. of alb villages in the Hukawng Valley with their normal
annual production of paddy is attached as an appendix,

In this list only actual field production is estimated and all taungyd
.production has been eliminated. The Northern and Western Naga Hills have
also been eliminated and reckoned as producing the bare minimum for actual
village consumption.

As stated, above it has been estimated that only 10 per cent, of the crop
Would be surplus to actual village requirements.

The rations both normal and concessional as supplied to personnel of the
expedition this year are considered to-be good: in quality and sufficient in
quantity but not in any way excessive considering the arduous nature of the
work.!

The only advanced dumps established this year were

(1) Mashi Daru Ferry on the Tattai Hka which was the point at which

all rations were loaded info rafts to be forwarded to Dalu and
Shingbwiyang (Tasikzup).

(2) Dalu the advanced ration dump for the Western Naga Hills Tour.

(3) Shingbwiyang the advanced dump for the Northern Naga Hills

Tour,

Rations were actually sent by boat from Mashi Daru to Tasikzup and theft
moved up by mule transport to Shingbwiyang which is six miles away.

Note.—The Tasikzup dump has always been called the Tawzup dump in former years ; this is wrong as ther
dump is at the mouth of the Tasik Hka and not the Tawa Ska.

(4) A subsidiary advanced dump was to have been established at

Namyung for the Northern Naga Hills Tout but this tour was
cancelled.

The list of t illages in the Hukawng Valley showing the number of houses
and the annual production of paddy by baskets.

Note.—A basket m the Hukawng is 45 lbs:

No taungya paddy has been included fn the totals.

Northern and Western Naga Hills have been eliminated as being barely self-supporting.

Name of Village. . No. of : houses. ; No. of baskets. Name of Village. No. of houses. No. of baskets.
N’Ding Ga 16 600 Labung Ga ... 3 100
Ga Gahtawng ... 5 V/Z Kumnyen Gar 6 400
Shingban Ga 3 100 : Lashen Ga 4 5 Nil
Maingkwan 90 8,650 : Yawngbang 11 Nil
Daihpa 35 1,500 . N’Chaw Ga 12 200
Dalu • »» 50 ; 2,000 Yawpang 22 1,800
Ningbyen ... «• 31 3,000 Tabawng Ga 26 7,000
Sharaw Ga 13 1,000 â–  Taring Ga ... ... 13 200
La Awn Ga w 12 600 ; N’Khang Kayang 19 400«
N’Chaw N’Hprawng. 7 90 N’Dup Dumsa 19 400
Ngalang 12 Nir : Ningran 7 Nil
Ningam 15 1,500 Numbrawng 7 400
Jagun 30 1,500 Kantao 10 500
Lakchang ... 37 2,290 . Sumbaw 4 110
Hpabum Ga 13 880 ; Waksang ... . . 15 390
Shingbwiyang 6 130 Ningmoi 6 155

Total production of the Hukawng in a normal year is therefore :—

30,895 baskets at 45 lbs. per basket =*1,370,275 lbs.

It is estimated that of this amount approximately 10 per cent, is surplus to requirements and is available
for purchase by the expedition.

Transport.—The transport arrangements this year were the same as those
for last year.

All rations and stores were transported from Mogaung to the staging dump
at Shaduzup by bullock cart.

Of the three hundred and fifty mules taken up with the column, one
hundred and fifty were allotted for bringing up rations from Shaduzup to.
Maingkwan Base and the Base duties. The remaining 200 were used for
transport with the actual column.


( 13 )

It is considered that a saving could be effected in the budget estimates if
the road from Shaduzup to MaihgkWafi was conditioned for cart traffic.

At present it costs K’s. 45 to lift one cart load of stores from Shaduzup to
Maingkwan by mules. The cost of a cart would be about Rs. 20. As approxp
mately one hundred cart loads were lifted th’is year the saving wo'uld be
Rs. 2,500 a yean

In addition to this if carts Were used they would only be engaged when
actually required and not taken on a monthly contract as are the mules at
present hor wrould paddy for the mules or rite for the muleteers have to be
carted up from MOgauhg at Governmeht expense as at present.

The total saving would be about Rs. 4,000 in one year and it is estimated
that the road from Jumbu Bum to Maingkwan could be made passable for carts
and cars for Rs. 5,000.

This year two hundred mules actually accompanied the column throughout;
This is an increase on last year and was due to two reasons :—

The first is that now that tours are becoming more definite and stereo-
type it is found that the average duration of all tours is approximately twenty
days and not fifteen as has always been catered for in the past.

The second reason is that the column was kept at the 4ariie strength for
all tours. The reasons for this inhovation are dealt with in Chapters I and V.

This increase in mules with the actual column, which is considered highly
desirable from both a health and a mobility point of view, was only made!
possible by the fact that a certain amount of paddy was actually boUght ih the!
Valley thereby releasing the extra mules required from the Shaduzup^Maiiigkwan
run. . .

Boats and rafts Were Used to transport rations from Mashi Dafu Ferry to
Dalu and Tasikzup for the Western and Northern TourS.

Here again a saving was effected as all paddy for the Western Tour was
actually bought at Dalu, the cartage charges of 8,000 lbs. of paddy from
Myitkyina to Dalu being saved and only rations for personnel had to be carted;

Equipment.—hs the equipments and miscellaneous stores taken by the
expedition were for the most part adequate and satisfactory, a list is appended
for guidance of future columns.

The following points however required attention
(u) Two pairs of entrenching tool Kajawahs like those of sapper units,

should be provided for use of the advanced guard on the march.

At present the delay for a minor road repair is unnecessarily prolonged
owing to the time occupied in tying and untying a Chinese mule’s load of pick
Shovels ; a rough pair were made up for use with the column and carried four
picks, four shovels, two axes on each side of the mule.

(6) Every Indian officer and every section should be equipped With an
electric torch.

(c) The crowbars supplied by the Police Supply Officer are Unnecessarily
heavy and unwieldy. Alight 4 feet 6 inches-*-20 lbs. bar would suffice.

(d) The tarpaulins supplied though of excellent quality had only got
eyelets at the four corners. There should be five eyelets bn each side to
enable the tarpaulins to be lashed down in bad weather.

(e) Although the rucksacks are the traditional equipment,of the Military
Police it is suggested that when on column the men should be given web
equipments similar to the army. In the present equipment a man nas straps
cutting and pulling across his chest and back in all directions plus a bandolier
Weighing about six pounds right cross his Chest.

It is considered that this equipment materially adds to the men’s fatigue
in a hard day’s march.

(/) The fact that rifles and automatic rifles do not fire the same ammunK
tion is a . source of danger in a column which might meet with opposition
so far from its base.

(g) The dah carried by Kachin ranks is perfectly useless for anything ’but
grass cutting and pocket knife work. Kachins should Carry a Kachin dah.

(h) Now that the hand grenade has been withdrawn as more dangerous
than useful columns have no means of dealing with village stockades, etc.

It is suggested that each column should carry a Stoke’s Mortar.


( 14 )

The advantages of this weapon are :—

(1) Very simple mechanism and it is easy to train a team.

(2) Three mules can carry the gun and 24 rounds which would be
sufficient.

(3) The range is 700 yards ? with an extremely high trajectory,

(4) The moral effect, apart from the physical, of a 10 lbs. Stoke’s mortar

shell amongst tribesmen is very high.

List of Stores and Equipment,

• 1 set Mochi tools.

1 set Farrier tools.

1 set pioneer tools (carpenter).

List of Miscellaneous Stores for Naga Hills Expedition, 1931.

Name of articles. Quantity Name of articles. Quantity,
Officers’ tents 1 Wick for lantern, yards 12
Tents, I.P., 80 lbs. 2 Compasses 2
Paulins 12' + 8' ••• 60 Cooking pots 36
Rucksacks 103 Plates 12
Capes, waterproof, Indian ••• 103 Tawa 12
Lanterns, Dietz 24 Spoon 12
Mamooties with handles 26 First Field dressing 120
Kachin dahs 16 Razors 12
Felling axes with handles 16 Clipping machine 6
Pick-axes with handles 10 Scissors ••• 6
Shovels with handles ... 12 Straps 6
Buckets, G.I. 23 Torches 6
Crowbars ... 4 Batteries ... 36
Saws, hand, 20 inch blade 4 Ropes, 1,000 feet 1
Claw hammers with handles 4 Needles 4
Binoculars 4 Twine, country, lbs. ... 8
Telescopes 2 Enamel red tins ... ... 8
Whistles 30 Wire nails, 3 inches, lbs 25
Wire | inch thick 1 Pewter, lbs ... 8
Hand-cuffs with keys ... 6 Salammonia, lbs ... 2
Spring balance 2 Resin lbs. ... . 22
Hand weighing scale ... 2 Borax, lbs. ... 7
Weights i ounce to 4 lb? ... 18 Bulbs 6
Globes for lanterns 10 Pumps for drawing oil... 2
Pullthrough cords 50 Funnels ... ... ...
Oil, lubricating, lbs. ... 50 Matches, packets 13
Fish oil soap, lbs. 50 Hone stores 2
Turpentine castor oil mixture, lbs,... 5,0 Candles, 8 oz. packets 6
Flannelette, yards ... 700 Phenyle, lbs 30
Hides, buffalo, lbs. 10 Seal 2
Hides, cow 10 Treasure Chest ... 2
Hempen balls 10 Wire netting, bundle 2
Flags of different colours ... 30 Sealing wax, packet ... 6
Flags, Union Jack 1 Hobnails, lbs. .,. 5
Ropes, 16 feet ••• 1 Fishing net 2
Padlocks ... 11 Very light pistols 2

CHAPTER V,

General.

.Weather,—The weather throughout the duration of the expedition was
exceptionally good and rains only fell thrice between I5fh November and 15th
February.

It is understood that this is exceptional as more rain can usually be
expected in the Hukawng during this period.

From the 15th February the weather became more unsettled and
thunderstorms were the rule every evening. These, however, were very local
and ffi no way hampered the movements of the expedition.

Temperature readings were made daily from 25th December 1930 until
the return of the expedition and a chart is attached showing the daily maximum,
minimum, 6 a.m, and 6 p.m readings,

The temperature did not appear to be affected by height so much as by
ground mists, approaching rain and proximity to rivers.

Medical—The health of the Military Police personnel throughout the
expedition was exceptionally good and better than it has ever been in previous
expeditions,


( 15 )

The expedition consisting of 100 all ranks lasted 123 days.During the
\vhole period the average percentage of men sick or attending hospital for any
complaint, or injury, however slight, was 1'18 per cent, per diem.

In last year’s expedition the figure was 3’00 per cent.

Allowing that the medical personnel were as efficient last year as they
were this year this shows a reduction by nearly two-thirds in the sick rate.

The drop in the sick rate is directly attributable to the employment of more
men on the same duties as last year with the consequent easing of fatigue and
strain and more nights in bed for each man.

The percentage might possibly have been slightly higher this year had the
expedition remained the extra six weeks in the Valley.

The high percentage of sick in the last six weeks of last year's expedition
was undoubtedly due nearly to the fact that the men’s vitality and powers of
resistance had been reduced by Overstrain and fatigue, whereas this year on
arrival back at Myitkyina every man was fit for Tharrawaddy column duty. It
is reasonable to suppose therefore that the men would have been able to have
stood up to the last tour conditions with little if any increase in the percentage
of sick.

Discipline.—The behaviour and discipline of all ranks of the escort was
exemplary.

No complaint whatever against any member of the escort by the
inhabitants.

Relations between the escort personnel and the local inhabitants through^
out were most cordial.

It is undoubtedly of the greatest importance that men for this expedition
should always be selected from one of the Myitkyina Battalions. These men’s
knowledge of the language, local customs and habits are of inestimable
value in insuring smooth running and harmony.

Buildings.—escort buildings at the Maingkwan Base are all new and
very satisfactory with the exception of the hospital which requires rebuilding-

A new hut for the signallers at Wantuk Bum and Lungpraw Bum will be
required this year as the stations have been moved.

Survey.— A considerable number of villages have moved and new tracks
have been constructed for the expeditions. It would be an advantage if a
survey party could be made available to check and revise the existing maps.

Landing Grounds.—There are undoubtedly suitable sites for landing
grounds if the jungle were cleared. The speed at which the column traverses
the country does not permit of a detailed survey for these.

It is considered that satisfactory landing grounds for use in the Open season
could be constructed at a reasonable cost on the existing paddy fields at
Maingkwan, Dalu, Shingbwiyang and Sharaw.

These landing grounds would be 500 yards square. The existing bunds
would have to be levelled and the ground rolled when in a plastic state
immediately after the rains. A large ditch all round the ground, about four
feet deep and six feet wide both to act as a drain and to keep out buffaloes and
cattle.

There are also several points on the Tanai Hka which are suitable as
seaplane landing points, notably at Dalu, Tasik Hka Zup and Daihpa.

Services—The work of all ranks was excellent and discipline exemplary but
I wish to bring to notice the exceptionally good work of the following :—

Jemadar Gokulsing Lama.

Jemadar Ranbahadur Thapa.

No. 363 Sepoy Karandhoj Gurung.

No. 1213 Sepoy Indrabahadur Newar.

Conclusion.—In conclusion I wish to record my appreciation and thanks
to Mr. Porter, in charge of the expedition for his assistance and advice so
willingly given.

His willingness to pass on to me his detailed knowledge of the Hukawng
and of previous expeditions greatly assisted me in my duties.

I wish also to record my appreciation of the assistance afforded to the
escort in its dealings with the inhabitants by Taungok Kawlu Ma Naung.

R. C. Fletcher, Captain,

Officer Commanding, Military Police Escort,
Hukawng Valley and Naga Hills Expedition.


( 16 )

Date.

(1)

25th December 1930
26th December 1930

27th December 1920
?$th December 1930
29th December 1930
29th December ’930

3Qth December 193Q
30 th December 1930
31‘st December 1930
3Jst December 1930
1st January 1931
1st January 1931
2nd January 1931
2nd January 1931
3rd January 1931
4th January 1931
5th Janua.ry 1931
6th January 1931
7th January 1931
7th. January 1931
8th January 1931
8th January 1931
9th January 1931
10th January 1931
10th January 1931
11th January 1931
ltth January 1931
1.2th January 1931
13th January 1931
13th January 1931
14th January 1931

1,4th. January 1931
!5th' January 1931
16th January 1931
16th January 1931
17th January 1931
17th January 1931
18,th. January 1931
January 1931
19th January 1931
19th January 1931

20th
21st,
21st
22nd

anuary 1931
anuary 1931
anuary 1931
January 1931

23rd January 1931

24|h. January 1931

24th January 1931

25th January 1931
23th January 1931
26th January 1931
27th’ January 1931

28th January 1931
29th January 1931
29th January 1931
30th January 1931
30th January 1931
3(lsf January 1931
31st January 1931
1st February 1931
1st February 1931
2nd February 1931
3rd February 1931
4th February 1931
5th February 1931
5th February 19 U
6tb February, 19.31
6th February 1931
7 th February, 1931
7th February 1931
8th February 1931
8th Fehr.uary 1931
9th February 1931
10th February 1931
10th February 1931
11th February 1931
12th February 1931

Place. (2) ~ Approximate height. e 3 P •g s rt Q (4) ’S 6 _ 2 g (5) e d vO (6) 5 6 p.m. Remarks. (8)
Maingkwan 650 70 48 52 66
... Do. •• • 650 70 48 51 66
... Do. ... 650 66 50 53 60
... Do. 650 64 52 57 59
••• Do. ... 650 Nil , 54 61 ...
• •• Lashen ... • 650 68 ... 59
... Do. Yawngbang ... 650 700 Nil t 72 52 54 61
... ' Do. ... 700 47 55 •••
... Ritaw ... 2,500 72 • 66
... Do. ... 2,500 53 58 " ...
... ' Marawzup ... j 700 ' 68 61 64
• •• Do. ... 700 58 ...
... Dalu ••• 630 74 ... 66
... â–  Do. ...s 630 - 74 57 58 66
• • • Do. ... 630 72 54 56 66
• • • Do. ... 630 72 56 58 66
• •• * Do. ... 630 72 56 58 : 66
••• Do. ... 630 58 60 ...
••• Lakchang ... 630 70 54 62
... Do. ... 630 52 J
Sumbaw ... 640 71 ... 66
••• Do. ... 640 72 49 55 62
... ; Do. ...! 640 52 56
... Wakshang ... 1,250 72 ... 51 70
• • • Do. ... 1,250 49
Gumka ... 1 750 1 71 ■.. ■■ • •• 62
«• Do, ... 750 . 70 48 51 66
.. Do. ... 750 51 53
... Tayuphka ... ‘ 900 73 66
... Do. ... 903 si ; 53
«• • Lulum ... 2,370- i 67 62
... Do. ■ ... ■ 2,370 ’■ 67 53 55 61
... t Do. ...: 2,370 52 53
... Lingnuk ... 2,630 69 60
... Do, 2,630 52 53
... Yawmanhka ... 1.X50 71 ... 60
.... Do. 1.850 ... 43 44
. •. Samtik ... 2,750 ' 70 ... 60
Do. ... 2,7.50 45 46
... Ringhku Ga ... ,3,400 66 ••• ! 56 '
Do. ... 3;4t)0 • 67 41 46 58
Do. ...,r 3,400 46 47 ;
•••> Hkalak Ga ... 3,733 60 . 55
1 Do. ; ... 3,730 68 48 55 59
... Do. •... 3,7W 36 50 52 54
... ,Do. 3,730 • • • 47 48 ... Light showers in
J- early morning.
Hsumsing Bum ... 3.5CO 67 : ... ... 58 Light showers in the evening.
• •• Do. ... 3,500 ... 52 54
Shingbwiyang ••• 660 72 55 64 ;
... Do 660 71 54 70 Sky overcast and threatening but no rain.
... Do. ••• 660 70 53 57 68
... Do. ... 660 75 54 55 68 •
... Do. 660 52 53 ...
..J Kadak Bum ... 2,500 67 , 62
I Do. ... 2,500 50 51
Taga .Hka ... ‘ 2,600 , 72 ... 6i;
... Do. ... 46 46
• •• Tathkaw ... 4,100 67 61
.... . Do; ... 4,100 50 5l ;
... Nam yang ... 980 73 61
Do. ... 980 74 49 ! 51 63
Do. ... 74 51 52 66
... Do. Do. ’*980 980 71 54 ; ‘57 56 58' 64
Nathkaw 4,100 61 57
... , Do. .. . 4,100 48 50
... Taga Hka 2,6C0 70 ... 59
... ,;Do.‘ ... 2,6.00 41 44 •••
... Kadak Bum • •• 2,500 68J 64
• •• Do. ... 2.500 48 49
Shingbwivang ' ... 660 73 68
. . . Do. .660 72 54' 54 . 68
... Do. 660 56 '57
.Ningam ... 650 76 66
... Do. ... 6-0 77. 60 60 70
I Do. 650 60 ' 62 Heavy ra|n, 6 hours.


( 1? )

Date. U) Place. . (2) — Approximate — height. Day, maximum Night, mini- mum.. 6 ci o (6) g d. o Remarks. (8)
12th February 1931 Kantao 650 70 64
13th February 1931 ... Do. ... 650 58 59 7o
43th February 1931 ... Jagum ... 650 72 ... ... Heavy thunder*
storm;
14th February 1931 ... Do. ... 650 76 44 44 69
15th February 1931 Do. ... 650 ... 46 47
15th February 1931 ... N’ChaW ... 650 78 ... ... 64
16th February 1931 ... Do. i«. 650 80 52 53 70
17th February 1931 ••• Do. ... 650 ... 53 54
17th February 1931 ... Lashen ... 650 80 ... ... 70
18th February 1931 ... Do. ... 58 59 •••
18th February 1931 ... Maingkwan ... 650 74 ... 68
19th February 1931 ... Do. k«. 650 76 54 56 72
20th February 1931 ... Do. ... 650 56 56
20th February 1931 ... Labung ... 650 78 ... ... 70
21st February 1931 ... Do. ... 650 83 50 52 73
22nd February 1931 ... Do. ... 650 ... 54 54
22nd February 1931 N’Ding .... 700 81 ••• ... 72
•23rd February 1931 ... Do. ... 700 ... 57 59 •••
23rd February 1931 Sanaga «». 700 76 ... ... 74 Sky overcast, no
24th February 1931 Do. »»• 700 56 58 rain.
24th February 1931 Saintawn Ga 690 75 ... 72 Light shower;
25th February 1931 ... Do. ... 690 78 57 59 73
26th February 1931 ... Do. ... ••• • •• 58 60
26th February 1931 Nawkhum ... 650 81 .. ... 75
27th February 1931 Do. 650 82 55 58 79
28th February 1931 Do. 650 • •• 57 58
28th February 1931 Maingkwan 650 78 72
1st March 1931 ... Do. ... 650 74 59 59 69 Thunderstorm in
2nd March 1931 ... Do. ••• 650 75 56 57 72 the evening. Thunderstorm ill
3rd March 1931 Do. 650 76 56 56 71 the evening.
4th March 1931 ... Do. ... 650 73 56 56 70
5th March 1931 Do, ... 650 74 57 58 72
6th March 1931 7th March 1931 ... Do. 650 73 54 56 71 Very heavy storm, thunder and hail.
... Do. ••• 650 85 51 52 77
8th March 1931 ... Do. ••• 650 50 53
8th March 19 31 ... N’Ding Ga 700 79 70
9th March 1931 ... Do. ... 700 48 48
9th March 1931 ... Tingkawk Hka ... 800 83 67
10th March 1931 ... Do. »** 800 52 52
10th March 1931 ... Shaduzup ••• 620 82 ... 68
11th March 1931 ... Do. «*• 620 80 59 60 72 '
12th March 1931 ... Do. ... 620 58 60
12th March 1931 Wora Hka ••• 750 83 73
13th March 1931 ... Do. 750 55 50
13th March 1931 ... Maiting Hka 750 84 75
14th March 1931 Do. 750 ... 47 48
14th March 1931 ... Pahkren Bum 530 84 75
15th March 1931 ... Do. 530 51 51
15th March 1931 ... Kamaing 635 81 78
16th March 1931 ... Do. 635 82 52 53 77
17th March 1931 ... Do. 635 58 63
17th March 1931 ... Sawn Hka 490 89 83
18th March 1931 ... Do. 490 59 60
18th March 1931 ... Myitkyina • •• 471 95 82
19th March 1931 ... Do. ... 471 96 66 68 89
20th March 1931 ••• < Do. ... 471 95 66 66 89


( 18 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31.

Reference Maps.- { 92/C/NE.

-4^-

From

(1)

Mogaung

(51 hours’

8awn Hka

(51 hours'

Kamaing ... ;
(4| hours’



PahRren Bum ...
(4$ hours’

Mataing Hka ...
(41 hours’

Wora Hka ...
(51 hours'

To

(2)

Sawn Hka
inarch)

Kamaing

march)

Pahfcren Bum...
march)

Mataing Hka • ••
march)

Wora Hka ...
march)

Sh^duzup

march)

Route No, I—Mogaung to Maingkwan.—Distance 104*85 miles.

Distance.

Report.

(3)

Miles.

12*5

12*5

8*0

10*5

10*8

12*0

2*05

2*30

2*55

3*15

3*5

375

4*1

4*3

4*6

(4)

No remarks. This is an unmetalled Public Works Department
cart road and passable for cars in the open season. All bridges
are permanent. Unlimited camping ground on open maidan on
west side of the road and just short' of the Sawn Hka.

Good water, some grazing hut no supplies’ Two roomed rest house
and subordinates’ rest house.

As above.

Kamaing is a Military Police Post and Subdivisional Head-
quarters.

Camping ground unlimited and all usual supplies available in
limited quantities.

Still on the Public Works Department cart road.

At mile Q*5 the road crosses tne Indaw chaung. This is bridged
in the open season by a temporary bridge fit for carts and cars.
Otherwise crossing is made by a cart ferry.

Road surface quite good except for miles six and seven where the
road traverses lowlying swampy ground. After rain this stretch
is a morass and very heavy going.

The camp is a small jungle clearing about 75 yards by 75 yards on
the bank of the Namya chaung. There are the usual officers and
subordinates’ rest houses.

Qood water supply and some grazing.

The route now leaves the main cart road to Nanyaseik and follows
the new cart road which is being constructed to Shaduzup.

Road surface quite good. Bridges are now all temporary ones
made by fresh cut timber and sapilngs. These will have to be
either replaced or carefully repaired annually otherwise a column
using the road will fall through them and be seriously delayed,
Mataing Hka Qamp is a small jungle camp in about 100 yards by
100 yards Clearing.

Usual rest houses.

Good water supply and some grazing.

Still on the hew cart road. The earthwork is of course very new
and hap not yet consolidated and cuts up very badly in wet
weather.

Camp is a clearing cut in the jungle about 75 yards square.

Usual Public Works Department rest houses.

Good water Supply from the stream and some grazing.

This is as far as the new road can be used at present although it

has actually been constructed up to Shadazup

From Wora “Hka camp a. rough track has been cleared for two
miles through the jungle to join up with the old Kamaing-
Shaduzup road at Wora Hka Zup.

This two miles of track is a quagmire after raifi and carts g^t
through with difficulty; at other times it is passable for carts.

Track crosses Wora Hl;a, bank to bank 90 feet, left bank 12 feet,
right bank 8 feet, water 24 feet wide and 1 foot deep, bridge
3Q feet long and 5 feet above river bed. Ramps on the bridge

easy.

Track leaves the jungle and enters wide kaing grass plain.
Nsyngmu Hka, bank to bank 18,0 feet, left bank 10 feet, right

bank 15 feet, water 30 feet wide and 1 foot deep, bridge 180 feet
from bank'levels.

Shallow depression 26 yards long and 2 feet d.eep, very boggy
after heavy rain.

Ravine 150 feet wide 10 feet deep, dry stream bed grossed by bridge
30 feet long and 3 feet above stream bed. . ,

Shallow depression 180 feet wide' and 4 feet deep, boggy after
... rain,... . - - - •

Numsai Hka in a ravine 150 feet wide and 10 feet deep, water 3Q

feet wide and 1 foot deep, bridge 40 feet long and 7 feet above
stream bed.

Shallow depression 300 feet wide and 4 feet deep, very boggy after
heavy rain.

Small muddy stream, approaches very boggy after rain.

End of kaing graps and jungle begins again.

4 85 Namsang Hka, bank to bank 160 feet, banks $ feet, water 14Q
feet wide 2 feet deep, hard bottom, bridge 150 feet long and S
feet above stream bed, actual right bank is only about 5. feet and
full bank height not reached for fOO yards from river-

5*2 Wakawng Ga, Kachin village of seven houses.

6*45

6*5

7*0

Shallow depression 2.1 feet wide 2 feet deep, boggy after rain.

Small dry stream bed crossed by bridge 24 feet long and 5 feet
high.

Small dry stream bed in deep ravine, bridge 15 feet long and 25
feet high.


( 19 )

Rotite Report df the Hukawng, Valley and Northern Naga Hillsj 1930-31—vohtcL

Reference Maps.— {^/c/NE*.

Route No. I—Mogaung to Maingkwan—Distance 104*85 miles—*

contd.

From

(1)

To

(?)

Distance
(3)

Report.
, (4)

Wora Hka

(51 hours’
march)—awtdd.

Shaduzup
4$1 hours*

Shaduzup

Miles.

74

7*6

8*5

10*6

11*2

11*95

12*0

Tirigkawk Hka
march), (140)

01

0*8

2*4

2*7

2*9

3*0
31
3*3
3*4
3 65
3*85
3*95
4*05
4*4

4*5

4*6

5*6

5*9

6*05

6*3

67

7*05

7*25

8*3

8*4

8*4

8*7

8*8

8‘9

9*0

9*2

9*6

10*0

10*4

107

10*9

11*0

Stream, bank to bank, 85 feet, banks 11 feet; water 5 feet wide and
1 foot deep, bridge 75 feet long and 10 feet high.

Labang Ga a straggling Kachin village of eight houses.

Dry ravine 240 feet wide and 10 feet deep.

Ravine 450 feet wide and 12 fefct deep with dry stream bed crossed
by a bridge 24 feet long and 2 feet high.

Ravine 450 feet wide and 12 feet deep with dry stream bed crossed
by a bridge 30 feet long and 2 feet high.

Mogaung Hka, bank to bank 220 feet, banks 10 feet, water 180 feet
wide and 6 inches deep, hard gravel bottom, bridge 210 feet long
and 6 feet high:

Shaduzup Camp, old Military Police Post, no transhipping post
for the expedition from cart to pack transport, i

Rest house; ration godown and signallers’ hut.

Good water and grazing.

Camping ground about 100 yafds square but ample extra ground
available on the paddy fields, in the open season, about 200 yards
up stream from camp.

Shaduzup—Kachin village of 6 houses. At present carts and cars
cannot go beyond this point and pack transport must be used.

Track climb9 up for about 300 tzards zig-zag path'—gradient about
1 in 7. On reaching the crest the track follows the ridge.

End of the hili crest—track descends steeply to the valley falling
200 feet in 300 yards.

Marshy patch 60 feet wide, bad after rain;

Stream banks very steep—crossed by bridge from bank to bank 33
feet long and 7 feet high, water 6 feet wide and 6 inches
deep, bank ramped down for fording*

| Lowlying marshy ground, very boggy after raih.

End of jungle and new and old taungya Clearings begin.

Small stream crossed by bridge 20 feet long and 5 feet high.
Shallow depression 90 feet long and,8 feet deep, boggy after raid*
Stream ctossed by bridge 27 feet long and 7 feet high.

Dry stream bed crossed by bridge 18 feet long and 3 feet high-
Taungya clearing with 4 houses.

Hkawnglaw Hka, bank to bank 150 feet* banks 8 feet, water 90
feet wide 1 foot deep, bridge 120 feet long ahd 5 feet high*
hard gravel bottom* <

Sharp rise of 1 in 3 fdr 70 yards.

End of taungya clearings; track enters jungle again*

Two small dry stream beds, both bridged. :

Small stream* hard bottom but approaches very rfiuddy*

Ravine 90 feet wide and 8 feet deep with small dry stream bed.

Dry stream bed 9 feet wide ahd 5 feet deep, hard bottom, foot-

bridge.

River; bank to bank 80 feet, bahks 6 feet high, water 10 feet wide
ahd 6 inches deep, gravel bottom, bridge 78 feet long 6 feet
high*

Stream, bank to bank 15 feet, hanks 5 feet high, Water 12 feet wide
and 3 inches deep, hard bottom ford* and footbridge.

Dry stream bed 12 feet wide arid 6 feet deep, approaches ramped*
Dry stream bed 15 feet wide arid 5 feet deep, approaches ramped*
Small steep banked dry channel crossed by bridge 15 feet long

and 4 feet high.

Stream* bank to bank 60 feet, banks 5 feet high water 18 feet wide
and 6 inches deep, bridge 60 feet long and 5 feet high.

Small stream, bank to bank 27 feet, banks 3 feet high, hard bottom
bridge 27 feet long and 3 feet high.

Small stream crossed by bridge 18 feet long 3 feet high.

Small dry stream bed.

Small muddy stream, no obstacle.

Track now climbs easy grade for 200 yards.

Track crosses the boundary into the Unadministeted Territory.
Shallow depression 75 feet wide and 5 feet deep, boggy after

rain.

Shallow depression 60 feet wide and 2 feet deep, boggy after rain.
Shallow depression 150 feet wide and 2 feet deep, very boggy and

crossed by a rough causeway.

Ravine 240 feet wide and 10 feet deep* soft bottom and boggy
after rain.

Track starts descending by Jumbo Bum by very easy gradient.

Dry stream bed 30 feet wide and 1 foot deep, boggy after rain.
Ravine 450 feet wide 10 feet deep, soft bottom: and boggy after


( 20 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference Maps.— {92/c/NE. Route No. I—Mogaung to Maingkwan—Distance 104 85 miles— contd.
From (1) To (2) Distance (3) Report. (4)
Shaduzup (5| hours* Tingkawk Hka march)— concld. Miles. 11- 25 113 11-8 12- 75 12‘8 12-85 12’95 13*1 132 1325 13’3 13‘7 14*0 Small muddy stream crossed by bridge 20 feet long and 5 feet high. Shallow boggy depression crossed by bridge 120 feet long and 1 foot high. Small dry stream bed, muddy bridge. Small stream with muddy approaches. Small muddy stream. Small dry but muddy stream. Muddy depression 33 feet wide and 1 foot deep with small dry stream bed. Muddy depression 75 feet long, very boggy in wet weather. Small dry but muddy stream bed. Small hard bottomed dry stream bed bridged. Small dry stream bed with 40 feet causeway, muddy after rain. Small dry stream bed. Tingkawk camp in small jungle clearing about 100 yards square on the right bank of the Hka, bamboo and jungle wood rest house. Good water supply and some grazing.
Note.—In this march the track follows that shown in the map from Shaduzup as far as the Hkinhkaw Hka, From this point a new track has been cut due north which joins the old track shown as coming south to the boundary (where it ends) from N’Ding Ga.
Tingkawk Hka (6 hours’ march) N’Ding Ga (Walawbum) (13*15 miles). 005 0*15 1‘85 1‘95 2‘05 2‘1 215 2‘4 3‘0 3‘25 3‘45 3‘65 3‘95 4*0 415 4*55 515 5‘65 615 6‘63 7‘05 7*25 7*8 8*05 8*55 9*0 9*15 9*45 9*6 9*95 1015 10*6 10*7 10*8 Tingkawk Hka, bank to bank 55 feet, banks 7 feet high, water 45 feet wide and 2 feet deep, bridge 54 feet long and 5 feet high. Sharp rise of 1 in 3 for 30 yards. Boggy patch 15 feet wide, bad after rain. Boggy patch 240 feet wide, bad after rain. Dry stream bed, 18 feet wide and 2 feet deep. Boggy patch 15 feet wide, bad after rain. Stream, bank to bank 45 feet, banks 5 feet high, water 15 feet wide and 1 foot deep, hard bottom, ford and footbridge. Ravine 60 feet wide and 5 feet deep, very boggy after rain. Stream, bank to bank 45 feet, banks 7 feet high, water 10 feet wide and 6 inches deep, gravel bottom, ford and footbridge. Ravine 90 feet wide and 10 feet deep, with small hard bottomed stream but banks very muddy. Ravine 90 feet wide and 12 feet deep, with bridge 25 feet long and 2 feet high. Ravine 120 feet wide and 8 feet deep, very muddy after rain. Short descent of 1 in 3 for 30 yards. Stream, bank to bank 90 feet, banks 7 feet high, water 30 feet wide and 1 foot deep, gravel bottom, ford and footbridge. Sharp ascent 1 in 3 for 30 yards. Ravine 150 feet wide and 17 feet deep with dry stream bed crossed by bridge 24 feet long and 8 feet high. Tingkawk Hka, bank to bank 66 feet, banks 6 feet high, water 30 feet wide and 6 inches deep, hard gravel bottom, ford and foot- bridge. Ravine 120 feet wide and 10 feet deep with small stream crossed by a bridge 15 feet long and 4 feet high. Ravine 90 feet wide and 10 feet deep, ramps fairly steep. Dry ravine 120 feet wide and 12 feet deep. Ravine 150 feet wide and 10 feet deep with stream 18 feet wide 6 inches deep, hard bottom, ford and footbridge. Small stream, bank to bank 12 feet, banks 6 feet high, bridge 12 feet long and 6 feet high. Shallow ravine 75 feet wide and 4 feet deep with a small dry but muddy stream bed. Narrow ravine 30 feet wide and 7 feet deep with small stream crossed by bridge 24 feet long 21 feet high. Ravine 25 feet wide and 5 feet deep, very muddy patch in the middle crossed by a bridge 18 feet long and 1 foot high. Small dry stream bed Lowlying patch 150 yards long, boggy after rain. Small stream crossed by bridge 24 feet long and 5 feet high. Small dry stream bed. Ravine 75 feet wide and 5 feet deep, small dry stream bed crossed by bridge 21 feet long and 5 feet high. Ravine 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep with small dry stream crossed by bridge 1:5 feet long and 5 feet high. Ravine 36 feet wide and 5 feet deep with, small muddy stream crossed by small bridge. Shallow depression 45 feet wide and 2 feet deep with dry but muddy stream bed. Shallow depression 10 feet wide and 2 feet deep with small dry but muddy stream bed.


( 21 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference Maps—

j 92/B/SE.
1 92/C/NE.

Route No. I—Mogaung to Maingkwan—Distance 104*85 miles—
contd.

From

ID

Tingkawk Hka

(6 hours’ march)
- concld.

N’Ding Ga
(51 hours’ march)

To

(2)

N’Ding Ga
(Walawbum)
(1315).

Maingkwan ...
(13*30 miles).,

Distance

Report

(3)

Miles.

10*85

11*25

11-45

1155

1185

1115

12*45

13-05

1315

0*20

040

060

110

1- 30
210

2- 50
2*70
280

280

5*40

3 70

3-80

405

420

5*00

520

530

570

640

6-50

6*60

700

730

7*15

7- 90
820

8- 30
840
850
880
900

(41

Shallow depression 42 feet wide and 3 feet ceep with small dry
but muddy stream bed.

Ravine 54 feet wide and 2 feet deep with small dry stream bed but
very muddy.

Lowlying patch 150 feet wide, boggy after rain.

Lowlying patch 150feet wide, boggy after rain.

Small dry stream bed, 9 feet wide 2 feet deep.

Ravine 63 feet wide and 10 feet deep with bridge 42 feet long and
7 feet high over stagnant stream, water 10 feet wide and 1 foot
deep, bottom very muddy

Ravine 24 feet wide and 7 feet deep with bridge 24 feet long and

7 feet high over dry but muddy stream bed.

Ravine 35 feet wide and 8 feet deep with bridge 33 feet long and

8 feet high over dry but muddy stream bed.

N’Ding Ga camp—Camp is on a grassy patch beside the Numpyek
Hka just south of the village and is about 300 x 100 yards in
area.

Good water supply and grazing

Officers’ bamboo rest house.

In a normal year some 2,700 lbs. paddy could be bought in the
village.

N’Ding Ga (Walawbum) Kachin village of 16 houses.

Track rather lowlying and badly cut up by buffaloes for 200
yards and becomes a morass after heavy rain.

Lowlying marshy patch 120 feet wide of which 90 feet is crossed
by a bridge 3 feet high, an awkward obstacle after heavy rain
if there is no bridge.

Swampy patch 60 feet wide, a rtjorass in the rains;

Swampy patch 45 feet wide., a morass in the rains.

Swampy patch 150 feet wide, a morass in the rains.

| Lowlying area covered with kaing grass, morass in the rains.

N’Ga Gahtawng—Kachin village of 8 houses in a 200 yards
grassy clearing.

Track reaches the bank of the Nahbyu Hka and follows the river
on the right bank.

Track crosses the Nunbyu Hka, fairly fa9t stream, bank to bank
210 feet, banks 12 feet high, water 120 feet wide and 2 feet deep,
hard gravel bottom, ford and temporary footbridge.

Kumnyen Ga—Kachin village of 10 houses in large clearing (200
yards square'.

Lowlying patch in kaing grass 60 feet wide, very boggy after
rain.

Lowlying patch in kaing grass 300 feet wide, very boggy after
rain.

A stagnant and very muddy stream (or marsh) crossed by a
bridge 90 feet long and 8 feet high, a very difficult obstacle if
there is no bridge.

A very muddy stream, bank to bank 30 feet, banks 8 feet high,
bridge 27 feet long and 6 feet high.

Small stream in. middle of boggy patch 60 feet wide,

Numban Hka—very muddy stream, bank to bank 27 feet, banks
6 feet high, bridge 27 feet long and 6 feet high.

Labung Gahtawng—Kaehin village of 5 houses.

Small dry stream bed in very muddy hollow 90 feet wide.

Small dry stream bed very muddy crossed by bridge 12 feet long

and 4 feet high.

Track skirts the edge of the paddy field for 600 yards.

Small dry stream bed.

Column jungle camp in clearing 100 yards square beside stream
and known as Labung Camp—good water and grazing. Column
officer’s rest house,

This camp is used merely when touring the area or if the road
is too bad to go through to Maingkwan, in one stage.

Small dry stream bed crossed by bridge 12 feet long and 6 feet
high.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry but muddy stream bed.

Wide ravine—300 feet wide and 20 feet deep with stream bank to
bank 45 feet, banks 7 feet high, water 35 feet wide and 2 feet
deep—bottom fairly hard bridge 42 feet long and 5 feet high.


( 22 )

Route Report of the tlukawng Valley and Northern Naga tlills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference Maps—

I

92/B/SE.

92/C/NE>

Route No. I—Mogaung to Maingkwan—Distance fO4 85 miles—-

concld.

From

(1)

To

Distance

Report.

(2)

(3)

(4?

N’Ding Ga . Maingkwan ...
(5f hours’ march) (13*30 miles,)
—concld.

Miles.

9*35

975

1000

1020

1020

10*30
10 40
10*60
10*90

10*90

10*95

11*85

1230

1285

13*15

13*30



Wide ravine 600 feet wide and 15 feet deep.

Small stream, very muddy, bridge 12 feet long and 5 feet high^s.
Small, very muddy stream, bridge 15 feet long and 2 feet high.
Small dry but very muddy stream bed, bridge 21 feet long an<£

5 feet high.

Very muddy, small stream, bridge 9 feet long and'5 feet high.
Ravine 30 feet wide and 6 feet deep with small muddy stream1

crossed by bridge 12 feet long and 1 foot high:

; Small dry muddy stream, bridge 9 feet long 1 foot high.

Small dry muddy stream, bridge 18 feet long and 1 foot high.
Shingban—Kachin village of 5 houses.

.The track now enters the Maingkwan plain a lowlying flat
kaing grass covered. Passable in the open season but in the
rains a boggy morass. In addition the track is badly cut up by'
buffaloes,

Small dry stream with bridge 12 feet long and 2 feet high.

Small dry stream with bridge 24 feet long and 2 feet high.

Very muddy hollow with bridge 27 feet long and 2 feet high:

;Lowlying patch, swampy after rain, crossed by low causeway

75 feet long.

Stagnant and very muddy stream crossed by bridge 21 feet long
, and 2 feet high.

Lowlying patch—boggy in the rains crossed by causeway 80 feet
long and 2 feet high.

Maingkwan Base Camp^

Camp is on an open grassy maidan about 400 by 150 yards in area
on the right bank of the Ida Hka about 300 yards short of the*
village. The Base camp buildings (used for the valley expedi-
tions)- consist of officers, Indian officers and civil subordinates'
rest houses, barrack for 30 sepoys, quarterguards, ration
godown and hospital.

, Maingkwan is a Shan village of about 90 houses and is the largest
village in the Hukawng. In a normal year about 40,000 pounds*
of paddy can be bought (this is surplus to the* village require-
ments) . This can also be obtained as rice if time is given for
pounding. ;•

There are two shops (Chinese) in the village which can supply
small quantities of tea, sugar, kerosine oil, etc.


( 23 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

^Reference Maps.— | 92/B/NW,

Dates on which report was com-
piled^—29th January 1931 to 18th
February 1931,

Route No. II—Maingkwan to Namyang Hka—Distance 75 2 miles.

Note.—This is the main routes from Maingkwan over the Pangsau
Pass. As the tour of the Expedition in the Northern Naga Hills was can-
celled it was only possible to complete the road- report up to the camp on
the Namyung Hka at Tahkam Zup.

From

(1)

Maingkwan ...

(10-3

(4 hours’

To

(2)

Lashen
miles)
march).

Pashen Ga

(750

(7 hours’ march.

Distance

Report.

Daihpa

miles)

including ferry).

(3)

Miles,

015

0*3

0*30

0*60

0*60

0*70

1-30

130

1*40

1*45

1*65

1*80

2*70

2*90

3*50

3*85

400

5*20

5*70

5’7;5

6*00

6*40

650

6*60

6*70

6*80

690

7*50

7*50

7*65
7*80
7 85

7*95

8*25

8*30

9*05

' 9*70
9*95

1010

10*30

0*25

0*45

0*50

0*60

0*70

0*75

0*90

(4)

Track crosses the Ida Hka, bank to bank 132 feet, banks 10 feet
high, crossed by semi-permanent bridge 132 feet long and 10
feet high. There is also a ford with fairly hard bottom 60 feet
wide and 2 feet deep.

Maingkwan (see Route I).

| Track crosses paddy field.

Small dry .stream bed.

| Lowlying ground, a morass after heavy rain. ,

Site of new B.C.M.S. medical mission—buildings now under
construction.

Lowlying patch 300 feet wide, morass after rain.

Small stream—very muddy-bottom, bridge 45 feet long and 2 feet
high, bank to bank 45 feet, banks 4 feet high. ;

Tawngkai Ga—ex-slave village of 6 houses.

Lowlying patch 300 feet wide, boggy after rain.;

The track down to the Mashi Para Ferry on the Tanai Hka takes
off here to the right.

Small ravine with very muddy stream, bridge 30 feet long and 3
feet high, j ;

Namtawng Hka— bank to bank 30 feet, banks 10 feet, water 20
feet wide and 1 foot deep, bridge 24 feet long and 2 feet high,
ramps on and off steep.

Lowlying boggy patch 115 feet wide,

Lowlying boggy patch 150 feet wide* ;

IOld paddy field and kaing grass—the track cuts up badly here
after heavy rain.

Shallow ravine 90 feet wide and 4 feet deep.

Numgawn Hka, bank to bank 80 feet, banks 12 feet high, water
45 feet wide and 1 foot deep, hard gravel bottom, ford and foot-
bridge, .bank ramps very steep.

Numgawn Ga—ex-slave village of 9 houses.

Small dry stream bed.

Tauiigya clearing with one house.

Small dry stream bed.

Boggy patch 60 feet wide.

IOld paddy fields and kaing grass—track cut6 up on this after
heavy rain, there is a small dry stream bed with bridge at
mile 7 20.

Ravine 90 feet wide and 15 feet deep with muddy stream crossed
by bridge 15 feet long and 3 feet high, ramps down and up
steep.

IOld paddy fields and kaing grass, cuts up badly after heavy
rain.

Ravine 135 feet wide and 12 feet deep with email stream and
bridge 15 feet long and 6 feet high.

Small/dry but muddy stream bed with bridge.

Small dry stream bed with bridge 15 feet long and 6 feet high
Small dry stream bed with bridge 15 feet long and 6 feet high.

} Old paddy fields and kaing grass, track very poor here and cuts'
up badly after heavy rain.

Samak Hka, bank to bank 50 feet, banks 15 feet high, water 15
feet wide and h inches deep, bridge 21 feet long and 3 feet high,
ramps steep.

Ravine 120 feet wide and 15 feet deep, dry but muddy, ramps
fably steep. ;

Lashen camp on south side of Lashen Ga, a gSachin village of 7
houses. Camping area 75 yards by 150 yards, good water supply
and grazing, no supplies, officers and civil subordinates’ rest
house,

Ravine 225 feet wide and 6 feet deep with dry stream bed,
Lowlying ground for about 200 yards, badly cut up by buffaloes

and a quagmire after heavy rain.

Muddy hollow 90 feet wide and 5 feet deep, quagmire after rain.
Muddy hollpw 30 feef wide and 4 feet deep, veryiboggy after heavy

rain. i

Muddy hollow 9,0 feet wide and 5 feet deep, very iboggy after heavy

rain.

The newly constructed mule path to Wantuk Bum and Dalu takes
off here on the left. ;

Rayine 150 feet -wide and 12 feet deep, small hard bottom stream
with ford and footbridge, ramps fairly steep. ‘





( 24 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31— contd.

Reference Maps.— {92/l/NW.

Route No II.—Maingkwan to Namyung Hka—Distance

75'2 miles—contd.

From

(1)

To.

(2)

Distance.

(3)

Report.

(4)

Miles.

Lashen Ga

(7-SO

(7 hours’ march
—con

Daihpa <•.
miles)

including, ferry)
cld.

1*55

1*70

1*90

2*00

2*55

2*65

2*90

3*10

3*15

3*40

3*75

3*80

3*85

4*00

4*25

4*40

4*90

6*80

6*90

7*10

7*20

7*30

7*40

7*50

Ravine 135 feet wide and 10 feet deep with small muddy stream,
bridge 15 feet long, and 1 foot high, ramps fairly steep.

Small dry stream bed.

Ravine 150 feet wide 12 feet deep with a smafll muddy stream,
bridge 15 feet long and 3 feet high.-

Ravine 120 feet wide and 13 feet deep with small muddy stream
and small bridge.

Ravine 60 feet wide 12 feet deep, dry muddy stream'With bridge
12 feet long, and 1 foot high.

Ravine 90 feet wide and 10 feet deep, dry but muddy stream bed
with bridge 22 feet long and 2| feet high.

Ravine 120 feet wide and 12 feet deep, small dry stream bed,
small bridge, ramps very steep.

Hukawng Hka, ravine 60 feet wide and 10 feet deep, stream bank
to bank 24 feet wide, banks 4 feet high, water 20 feet wide and
1 foot deep, bridge 24 feet long and 2 feet high.

Shallow depression 90 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Small ravine GO feet wide and 12 feet deep, small dry stream bed
with bridge 15 feet long and 2 feet high, muddy bottom, ramps-
steep.

Small dry but muddy stream with bridge 12 feet long and 6 feet
high.

Small dry but muddy stream with bridge 15 feet long and 7 feet
high.

Small dry muddy stream.

Sumhpawng Ga, ex-slave village of 4 houses.

Small ravine 60 feet wide and 6 feet deep with small dry but
muddy stream bed.

Small dry but muddy stream bed with bridge 15 feet long and 3*
feet high.

Small ravine 30 feet wide and 4 feet deep with dry but muddy
stream bed.

Track reaches left bank of Tanai Hka, river at ferry is bank to
bank 600 feet wide, right bank 25 feet high and left bank sloping,
back from water’s edge to 25 feet high at 200 yards, water 300
feet wide and 15 feet deep in the middle opposite Daihpa the
river shoals out to about 3 feet deep.

Ferry is usually country canoes lashed together with a bamboa
matting floor or else a bamboo raft.

Current is fairly fast and a rope or'cane rope from bank to bank is
necessary to work the rafts.

Leaving the ferry the track follows the edge of the river under the
30 foot bank.

Track climbs up on to the top of the river bank by graded path.
Dry stream bed with steep banks, bridge 18 feet long and 7 feet

high.

Dry stream bed with steep bank, bridge 18 feet long and 8 feet
high.

Daihpa, Kachin village of 35 houses.

Column camp on river bank below the village about 100 yards-
square and rather congested, good water supply and grazing,
in normal years about 7,000 pounds of paddy can be bought
here, otherwise no supplies.

Daihpa

f6*30

(5 hours* march

Yawpang

miles)

including ferry)

0*75

140

2*30

2*35

340

415

4*10
4’80
5 20
600

(The first mile out of Daihpa is badly cut up by buffaloes and
becomes a quagmire after heavy rain. Paddy field.
Prangbrang Hka, bank to bank 120 feet, banks 12 feet high, water

90 feet wide and 2 feet deep, hard gravel bottom, ford and
temporary footbridge, ramps very steep.

Dry ravine 225 feet wide and 12 feet deep.

Small dry ravine r bridge 15 feet long and 2f feet deep,

Track descends steeply for 30 yards and then crosses small very

muddy stream by a bridge 10 feet long and 2 feet high.

| Track skirts the edge of paddy fields.

Ravine 75 feet wide and 8 feet deep with small stream.

N’Chaw Ga—Kachin village of 12 houses on the left bank of
Tarung Hka opposite Yawpang on the right bank.

Same arrangements for ferrying as at Daihpa.

Tarung Hka, bank to bank 600 feet, right bank shelving, left bank
30 feet high, water 300 feet wide and 15 feet deep in middle at
the ferry but shoals out to about 2J feet deep some 300 > yards
above the ferry.

Yawpang Ga—Kachin village of 11 houses. The camp is on the
river bank about 300 yards up stream from the village—camp
about 100 yards square—officers and subordinates’ rest houses.
Good water supply and grazing.

In a normal year about 9,000 lbs. of paddy can be obtained from
the two villages.

630


( 25 )

Route Report of the Hukdwng Valley and Noriherii Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference

f 92/B/SE.
M^ps.— | 92/b/n w.

Route N6- Il—Maingkwan io Namyung Hka—Distance
75*2 miles—contd.

From

(1)

yawpangGa ...

(8*20
;(3 j hours4

$irigam

To

(2)

Nirigam

miles)

march)

... Shingbwiyarig
(13 50 mi ]<$s|

(.6 hours’ march).

Distance,

Report

(31

Miles*

0*25

020

0*80

100

1*60
200
2 l0
2*30
2*95

315

4*20

4*85

4*90

5*80

6*60

6*65

6*80

7*io

8*4

075

0*80

0*90

1-G0

1*35

1*40

1*90

3*06

3*45

3'55

4*90

5*10

515

5*20

380

5*90

600

6*55

6*60

6*70

6*85

6*90

7*00

7 20
7*70
8*50

8*70

890

920

(4)

Tracks from camp and village meet . . ,

Track skirls the edge of paddy fields for 150 yards.

Muddy hollow 300 feetwide^ boggy after rain.

Track crosses paddy fields for 100 yards then ascends short steep
slope.

Ravine 180 feet wide and 12 feet deep with small dry stream bed.
Shallow dry hollow 130 feet wide and 8 feet d£ep.

Small ravine 60 feet wide arid 8 feet deep with dry stream bed.
Shallow dry hollow 225 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Small ravine 60 feet wide and 10 feet deep with small muddy

stream Bed.

Stream, bank to bdnk 30 feet, banks 5 feet, some water, stony
bottom; right batik ramp steep.

Stiailow depression 450 feet wide and 4 feet de6p.

Causeway 45 feet long over marshy stream.

Causeway 120 feet long over a dry marsh.

ifadau'ng Hka, bank to bank 60 feet, banks 6 feet high, water 30
feet wide and 6 inches deep, ford and footbridge with rather
muddy bottom.

Small dry sfream bed.

Stream, bank to bank 50 fedt, banks 7 feet high, water 45 feet
wide and 2 feet deep, ford and footbridge, hard bottom.

Small dry Shallow /avine 75 feet wide and 6 feet deep-

Takyet Hka, bank to bank 80 feet, banks 8 feet high, water 75
feet wide and 1 f6ot deep, temporary bridge 80 feet long tand
21 feet high, hard bottom.

Shallow dry ravine 45 feet wide and 7 feet deep.

Ningatn camp on the righl bank of the Takyet Hka on an old
grassy village site, camp site about 300 yards ; by 100 yards,
civil officer’s rest house, good water supply and grazing, about
6,750 lbs. paddy can be bought in the village in a normal year.

Ningam isa Kachiii village of 15 houses on the left bank of the
Takyd Hka about 400 yards from the camp.

Lowlying patch 300 feet wide, a quagmire in the rains.

Small dry stream b£d, bank to bank 60 feet, banks 4 feet high.

A boggy stream water and m'orass 180 feet wide, bridge 195 feet

long and 1 foot high, a nasty obstacle.

Track crosses old grass covered paddy fields for 600 yards, a
quagmire after heavy rain.

A. boggy patch 30 feet wide.

Track crosses old paddy fields overgrown with kaing grass and
scrub, for 200 yards lowlying and liable to be flooded in the rains.

Track crosses old paddy fields covered with kaing grass, lowlying
and liable to be flooded in the rains.

Hkahtang Hka, bank to bank 21 feet, banks 6 feet high, water 15
feet wide and 1 foot deep, bridge 15 feet long and 1 foot high,

z muddy bottom.

Ravine 150 feet wide and 12 feet deep, with small dry but muddy
(. stream at the botfom.

, Ravine 300 feet wide and 15 feet deep, small rimddy stream with
bridge.

Small dry sfream bed.

Sharp descent for 50 yards at: 1 in 4. Dry stream bed, bank to
bank 21 feet, banks 6 feet High.

Kalung Hka, bank to bank 75 feet, banks 5 feet high, water 30 feet
wide and 6 inches deep, ford and footbridge, gravel bottom.

Short steep ascent for 20 yards at 1 in 4.

Small dry ravine.

Ravine 150 feet wide and 12 feet deep, steep ramps down and up
inqddy bottom.

Small dry ravine 60* feet wide and 12 feet deep.

Dry ravine 180 feet wide and 12 feet deep.

Dry ravine 90. feet wide and 12 feet deep.

Dry ravine 150 feet wide and 15 feet deep.

Small dry ravine.

Stream bank io bank 45 feet, banks 6 feet high, water 40 feet widy
and 3 feet deep, bridge 45 feet long and 6 feet high, very mudde
bottom..

Ravine 75 feet wide-and 12 feet deep, dry but muddy bottom,
ramps down and up steep.

Dry ravine 120 feet wide and* 7 feet deep.

LSmall shallow dry ravine.

Short steep descent to the Tasik Hka, bank to bank 130 feet, banks
5 feef high, water 120 feet wide and 1 foot deep, gravel bottom,
forrf and footbridge.

Small dry stream bed with bridge 18 feet long and 4 feet high.
Short steep ascent for 20 yards.

Small dry ravine.


( 26- >

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, .1930*31-^ confcl.

Reference Maps.—{92/B/NW. Route No. II.—Maingkwan to Namyung Hka—Distance 75 2 miles—contd.
From To Distance. Report.
(1) (2) (3) (41
- --- Miles. —
Ningam Shingbwiyang 960 Ravine 75 feet wide and 15 feet deep with dry stream bed crossed
13 50 m (6 hour’s iles.) March)—concld. 9*90 by bridge 18 feet long and 6 feet high, ramps down and up steop. RaVine 180 feet wide and 12 feet deep With stream at the bottom,
Shingbwiyang... Kadak Bum ... 10 20 10’50 1100 11*50 ll’9O 12*40 12*50 12*70 13*50 bank to bank 6 feet, banks 6 feet high, very little water but muddy bottom Qh'ort steep ascent to the Panglai Hka, bank to bank 45 feet, banks* 10 feet high, water 25 feet wide and 1 foot deep, gravel bottom,, ford and footbridge.* * ; Ravine 150 feet wide andl 2 feet deep with small rather muddy stream. * ” ' Ravine 120 feet wide arid 12 feet deep with two stream beds one dry the other muddy and crossed by bridge 12 feet long and £ foot high, ramp up and down between the streams steep. Ravine 150 feet wide and 15 feet deep contains the Tauhkam Hka—- bank to bank 35 feet, banks 8 feet high, water 25 feet wide and & inches deep, hard bottom, ford and footbridge. Cry ravine 150*feet wide and 10 feet deep. Ravine 120 feet wide and 10 feet deep with small rather muddy stream. Ravine 90 feet wide and 10 feet deep with small rather muddy stream. Ravine 75 feet wide and 12 feet deep with small dry stream bed. Shingbwiyang, Kachin village of 6 houses. Camp just beside the' village on the open grassy plot about 200 yards square. Good water supply from Tawa Hka about 500 yards distance, good grazing, Civil Officer’s rest house. About 700 lbs-, of paddy can be bought here in a normal year. ;This- is the last eamp on the plains before entering the Naga Hills. Track leaves camp and crosses paddy fields for ; 400 yards before
(6m: 6 hours’. les) march). 0*60 entering the jungle. ■ Ravine 75 feet wide and 15 feet deep with smali dry streambed.
0*70 0*80 : 0*90 1T0 ‘ 1*40 1-80 2*10 ; 2*'4O 2*50 L 2 70 2*75 300 3*20 Small dry stream bed 15 feet wide and 6 feet deep, ramps down and up steep. Ravine 75 feet wide and 8 feet deep with dry stream bed. Ravine 30 feet wide and 10 feet deep. Stream bank to bank 30 feet, banks 8 feet high, little water, temporary bridge 8 feet long and 1 foot high, very muddy bottom, south ramp very steep, north ramp easy. Ravine 75 feet Wide and 12 feet deep with stream bank to bank 18 feet, banks 8 feet high, water 15 feet wide and 3 inches deep, L bridge 8 feet long and 1 foot high, very muddy bottom, south ramp very steep, north ramp steep. Ravine 75 feet wide and 30 feet deep with small stream, bottom fair, both ramps steep. Small dry stream but track liable to be boggy for 75 feet after rain. > Small dry stream bed. Track now reaches the foothills and start climbing, gradient easy. ’ Small dry stream bed, bottom hard, stiff ascent from here for 200* yards at average grade of 1 in 3. Crest of hill and then sbrirp descent for 100 yards at 1 in 2 after which descent is easy. Muddy ravine 60 feet wide with small stream from which track climbs steeply for 100 yards at 1 in 2 and 1 in 3 after which ascent is easy. Dry ravine 150 feet wide and 30 feet deep but ramps down and up very steep, after the gradient easy. Steep climb for 100 yards at 1 in 2.
<- 3*50 3*7 4*00 4*20 4*25 Track reaches final crest and switch backs along the top for 350 yards before commencing descent. Track begins descending, gradient very steep 1 in 2 and 1 in 3. Small rocky stream with steep ramp out for 20 yards on north side. Small muddy bottom stream and end of descent. Tawa Hka, bank to bank 300 feet, banks 6 feet high, water 60 feet
i • ’ 4*50 5*60 6*00 6’50 6*60 wide and 6 inches deep, firm sandy bottom, ford and temporary footbridge. Track now climbs steeply from river rising 300 feet in 450= yards. - Crest of hill track- now switch backs along the crest from a mile* with stiff ascents and descents. End of crest, track starts falling, gradient mostly very steep, failing 200 feet in 6001 yards. Stream bank to bank 108 feet, banks 6 feet high, water 18 feet wide* and 6 inches deep, rock and gravel bottom, ford and footbridge. Track now follows stream for half a mile crossing it nine times. Track leaves the stream. > Small dry stream. : Track now starts to climb up to Kadah Bum, original Naga track is followed but the path has been zigzagged but even now gradients are very steep varying from 1/2 to 1/5.


( 27 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference

Maps.— |

92/B/SE- Route No. II.—Maingkwan to Namyurkg Hka—Distance

92/B/NW. 75*2 miles—contd.

From

(1)

[Shingbwiyang
' ' {9 mi

(6 hours’

To

(2)

Distance

Report.

(3)

••• (4)

Kadak Bum
les) 1 ‘ '

march)—coticld.

Miles.

6’80

6-85

690

6*95

8*30

860

900

Kadak Bum ...

(5*4 mi
f3| hours’

Taga Hka

les)

march).

Taga Hka

(6*3 rh
(3i hours’

Nathkaw

iles)

march,.

Nathkaw

(8*8 m
(4 hours’:

Namyang

ilesi

march).

1*20

1*70

4*10

4*20

4*30

5*40

0*60

0*65

1*80

2*10

2*40
2*50
3 00
305
310
3*20
3*25

3*8

4*00

4*10

4*60

5*30

6*3

0*50

060

0*90

1*30

1*50
2 10

Ravine 150 feet wide and 10 ieet deep with small rocky mountain
torrent bank to bank 60 feet.

Gradient now easier.

Small dry stream

Small ravine with small rocky stream.

Stream, bank to bank 80 feet, very rocky, water 2 feet wide and 6
inches deep.

Gradient from here on very steep to 1/6.

Small rocky stream, bank to bank 30 feet.

Ravine 75 feet wide and 30 feet deep with small rocky stream.
Kadak Bum Camp, a jungle camp in a small clearing 150 yards

square on the hillside, water supply good but not plentiful, no
grazing and animals should be’tied up owing to poisonous.shrubs.

This camp is about 1,000 feet below the final crest.

Track leaves camp and starts climbing steeply on gradients of 1/2
to 1/7. Climbing l,0b0 feet in a mile and a quarter.

Crest of Kadak Bum, 3,770 teet. Track now undulates along the
crest for half a mile the worst slopes having been graded off by
zigzagging. ;

End of crest, track now falls steadily to the Taga Hka following a
spur of the hill, average gradient is easy but dne* or two short
steep descents and two stiff pull ups over under features.

Small muddy stream, requires a -bridge.

Small.xav.i-ne with-stream......- - - —~ - - -

Small dry ravine, ramps very steep.

Taga Hka, bank to bank 70 feet, banks 8 feet high, water 30 feet
wide and 18 inches deep, hard rocky bottom, ford and footbridge.

Camp on north bank above the ford—a jungle camp in clearing
60 yards by 15.0 yards, excellent water supply, little grazing.
Height 2,600.

Track leaving camp climbs steeply at first 300 feet in half a mile,
then the gradient becomes easier.

Small stream with bridge 6 feet long and 4 feet high.

Small boggy stream with bridge 30 feet long and 1 foot high.
Track now climbs on stiff gradient.

Crest of hill, track has risen 1,100 feet in 1*8 miles.

Track now switch backs along the crest for *3 miles

Track turns east and leaving the cresl drops down to the Taga

Hka—new track has been cut and graded to approximately 1/7
down to the river.

Wet muddy ravine with small hard bottom stream-

Wide ravine with two small streams.

Wet muddy ravine with small stream.

Small ravine with dry stream bed.

Small ravine with small hard bottom stream.

Two small ravines with small dry stream beds.

Track having fallen 700 feet on a mile readies the Taga Hka—
bank to bank 90 feet, banks 8 feet high, water 15 feet wide and
6 inches deep, gravel bottom, ford and temporary footbridge.

From the river the track climbs steeply rising 300 feet in 400 yards.
Track now leaves the Nathkaw village track—turns west and starts

falling, gradient easy.

Track falls steeply 300 feet in 200 yards.

End of descent—track crosses small boulder strewn rocky stream,
bank to bank 4.5 feet, banks 5 feet high, water 10 feet wide and 3
inches deep, track boggy for 25 yards after leaving stream.

Track now begins climbing steeply.

Small ravine with small stream.

Track reaches the crest of the hill having climbed 1,1.00 in 1*2 miles.
Track now switch backs along the hill crest for a mile.

Nathkaw camp—a jungle camp on the old village site which has

moved owing to the biting winds which sweep the site—a
jungle camp about 100 yards by 150 yards. Water good but
Emitted, some grazing

Height 4,000 feet.

Nathkaw village—a Shan village of 4 houses is about 1 mile
south-east of the camp.

Track leaving camp continues switch backing along the crest.
Small ravjne with small boggy stream.

Ravine 225 feet wide and 30 feet deep, very soft and boggy.
From here track zigzags steeply up rising 200 feet in half a mile.
Small ravine with small boggy stream.

Final crest of Nathkaw Bum.

Height 4,209 feet.

Track now falls gradually for a quarter mile.

Track falls steeply down zigzag path, gradient 1/1—1/5.

Gradient now easier 1/5—1/10


( 28 ).

Route Report of tfie Hubaymg. Vglfai and Nort^etn Naga ffiihi J9l0-.3jr^€on(d.

Reference A$3P.s-—r | 92/B/N-W.

Route No. IL—Maingkwan to Namyyng Hl^a—Distance
75 i miles—cpncld.

From

(1>

Nathkaw

(8'8 m
(4 hours*

To

(2)

Namyang

iles)

mar ch)—concld.

Distance

Report.

(3)



(4)

Miles,

2*90

3*40

420
4'30
476

5’20

80,0

8*20

830

840

8-50

8-6)0

870

8*80

Shallovy muddy ravine.

Tagap Ga—Shan village of 8 houses. Track now falling On steep*
hillside but gradient fairly easy.

Gradient now very easy.

Site of old village (Tagap Ga).

Bottom of descent-—track has fallen 2,000 feet in 3’4 miles. Track
starts climbing rising 300 feet in half a mile.

Crest of hill, track starts descending.

Traclehaving fallen 1,500 feet in 2*8 miles reaches Hkatang Hka,-
baftk to bank 80 feet, banks 5 feet' high, water 60 feet wide and
6 inches deep, hard storey bottom, ford and footbridge.

Tr^ck now winds up the Namyang Valley.

Stream, bank to bank 35'feet, banks 5 feet high, very little water,
hard bottom.

Small dry stream with bridge 12 feet long and 6 feet high.

Small ravine with small dry stream bed.

Two small ravines, with small dry stream beds.

Small ravine with dry stream bed crossed by bridge 20 feet long

and 6 feet high.

Ravine 75 feet wide and 15 feet deep with small stream.

Namyang H-ka camp—a. junglje camp on & bend of the river, just'

below Takhamzup, about 200 yards square, excellent water supply"
and some grazing.

Height 980 feet.


( w )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hiit^ 1930-31—coritd.

Reference Maps.

r 92/B/SE.

I 92/B/SW;

[ 9 ’/B/NW.
83/N/SE.
183/N/NE.

Route No. III.—MaingkworvShingbtvryang [via Wantuk
Bum-Dalu-Gum Ga-Hkalak).

Distance 148 miles.

Date of Report.—28th December
1930 to 35th January 1931.

Notes.—This route divides naturally into four sections

(1) Maingkwan-Yawngbang plains.

(2) Yawngbang-Dalu ... hills.

(3) Dalu-Sumbaw ... ... plains.

(4) Sumbaw-Shingbwiyatng .a ... hills.

Sections 1 and 3 call for no special fgmatks being the same as all
other routes in the Valley;

As regards sections 2 and 4 these, although following general directioh
of the old Kaehin and Naga footpaths, have now been realigned, and
graded.

These sections haVe now a very serviceable mtile road, six feet wide
and with a ruling gradient of dbofct 1 in 7*

AH nullahs and ravines have heen bridged but these bridges require
to be of a more serrti-petmanent nature and better arrangements for surface
drainage are required before the road can be considered in any way
permanent.

No’ faiii fell during the period that the report was being made except a
few showers On 22nd January.

The rfepOrt was made just after the annual repair work and the road
was seen therefore at its best.

From

(.1)

Maingkwan ...

(10 3 m

Lashen

To

(2).

Lashen

ilea)

(4*5* m
(2 hours

Yawngbang ...
ilefli)

’ march);

Yawngbang ...

(10 m
(5 hours

Ritaw

iles)

’ march).

Distance.

(3)

Miles.

Report.

.-J4U.

See Route II, Report

075

110

1*45

1*50

1*85

215

2*40

245

2*80

2*85

310

3*30

3*40

3*60

370

4*50

1*20

1*40

1*75

2*00

2*20

2*40

2450

2*60

315

Up to mile 0*75 the track is the sdme as in Route it.

Track leaves the Maingkwan-Shingb'wiyang route and turns
west.

Small boggy patch.

Small stream, bank to bank 75 feetj banks 5 feet high, tvater
25 feet wide and 1 foot deep; bridge 10 feet long and 2 feet
high;

Small dry stream bed, bank to bank 30 feet and 10 feet deep.
Small stream, bank to bank 45 feet^ banks 8 feet high, bridge

5 feet long and 1 foot high.

Track crosses lowlying patch 200 yards wide covered with kaing
grass, morass in the rains.

Small dry ravine 30 feet wide and 6 feet deep;

Boggy patch 60 feet wide;

Small dry stream bed;

Shallow depression with small dry stream bed, boggy in the rains;
Stream, bank to bank 15 feet< banks 4 feet high, water 8 feet

wide and 2 feet deep< bridge 15 feet long and 4 feet high.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed< muddy approaches crossed by small
bridge.

Small ary stfeam bed.

Small dry stream but mtiddy stream bed with small bridge;
Yawngbang—ex-slave village of 11 houses on the bank of the

Yawngbang Hka.

Camp just beside the village, area about 200 yafds by 150 yards*
good water supply and grazing but no supplies.

Civil Officers’ rest hotise.

The track leaving Yawngbang now follows the left bank of the
Yawngbatig Hka for the first 3 miles.

The first mile from the village is. badly cut up by buffaloes and
becomes very boggy after rains.

Dry ravine 30 feet wide and 10 feet deep, banks vertical, bridge
30 feet long and 10 feet high.

Shallow hollow 25 yards wide{ boggy after rain.

Dry ravine 300 feet wide and 20 feet deep, ramps down very steep.
Dry ravine 300 feet wide and 20-feet deep, western1 ramp steep.
Short rise at 1 in 1.

Small dry stream bed, bridge 6 feet long and 5 feel high.

Short steep descent at 1 in 3.

Small stream* bridge 12 feet long and 6 feet high.

Beginning of the climh over Wantuk Bum.

From here onwards the track hap been realigned and graded and
although a steady pull up tt» the crest and down to Ritaw*
presents no difficulty to loaded pack mule.

Up to Wantuk Bum the track follows the long spuf funning from
Yawngbang up to B.M. 3132.

Just below point 3132 the hillside is vefy steep and the track
might be blocked temporarily by landslips in therains.


G 30 )

Route Report of the Hu4
f 92/B/SE. | 92/B/SW. Reference Maps. -{ 92/B/NW. I 83/N/SE. Route No. III.-Maingkwan—Sfringbwiyang [via Wantuk Bum-Dalu-Gum Ga-Hkalak), Distance 148 miles—contd.
1 83/N/NE.
From To Distance. Route.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Yawngbang ... Ritaw ••• Miles.
(10 m (5 hours’ ma iles) rch)—concld. 7’3O Track reaches the crest of the Wantuk Bum at point 3132 having
Ritaw Marawzup 8'20 1000 climbed 2,000 feet in 4 miles. For the next mile the track winds along the hill crest at the same level. i Track begins descent—on the maximum gradient (1 in 7). Ritaw Camp. A jungle camp on a small underfeature about 75 yards square, no grazing and water scarce and some 20Q feet down the hillside. This is a bad camp and would be better if moved to the Ahawk Hka 3£ miles further on where water and grazing and more plentiful. Leaving Ritaw the new path zigzags down the steep hillside to
(12*6 m ilesi - the Ahawk Hka. — - •-
(5| hours’ march). 340 Small bridge over small re-entrant.
350 3- 60 415 4- 20 475 4‘40 450 Small stream, bridge 12 feet long and 3 feet high. Ahawk Hka, bank to bank 75 feet, banks 5 feet high, water 50 feet . jvideand ljootdeep,.har ’<■ 4-80 two short galleries—a bad.obstacle if the galleries are broken. Small bridge over small dry stream bed.
* 5*40 Path reaches crest of the Marawbum (height 1,700) having climbed a 1,000 feet in 1'8.miles.
Path now follows the hill crest for 2 miles.
M^rawzup Dalu 675 6 80 76 128 Ravine 20 feet wide and 20 feet deep crossed by bridge, a bad obstacle if there is no bridge. Path traverses a steep cliff face by a short gallery—3a nasty obstacle if the gallery is broken. / Path leaves the crest and. descends steadily to Marawzup. The gradient is very easy. Maraw Hka, bank to bank 60 feet, banks 10 feet high, water 15 feet wide and 1 foot deep, gravel bottom,; ford and foot-: bridge, left bank precipitous. The camp is a jungle qne on the left bank of the stream and about 100 yards by 75 yards. - i Good water supply and some grazing. 1 For the first mile the path climbs out of the Maraw Hka valley
(10. m iles) and then winds through the foothills and descends to the Tanai
(41 hours’ march). Hka.
1T0 Small stream, bridged.
1 20 Small stream, bridged.
190 270 2*45 270 Wide ravine with small stream, bridged. Small stream. Small stream. Wide ravine with small stream.
275. 340 3c0 400 575 5-30 5*60 5*9 Small stream. Small stream. Track leaves foothills and.falls very gradually to the Tanai Hka. . In mile 4 the track crosses eight small dry ditches, all bridged. Ravine 90 feet wide and 18 feet deep, ramps graded,, dry stream bed at the bottom, temporary bridge 15 feet long and 3 feet high. Small stream. Ravine 90 feet wide and 25 feet deep with dry stream bed, temporary bridge 12 feet long and 2 feet high, ramps graded. Ravine 90 feet wide and 25 feet deep, ramps graded, dry stream
. 67 64 bed with small temporary bridge. Ravine 180 feet wide and 25 feet deep, dry stream with bridge. Ravine 450 feet wide and 40 feet deep, stream 10 feet wide with muddy bottom, bridge 12 feet long and 5 feet high. These five., ravines in mile 5 and 6 will form a serious obstacle in the rains.
6'90 720 End of newly constructed mule track. Track- joins the old Kantau-Dalu track on the left bank of the Tanai flka. Ravine 750 feet wide and 80 fe$t deep, small stream 6 feet wide and 3 inches deep, gravel bottom, ramps of ravine steep. This ravine a serious obstacle in the rains or when’the Tanai is in . flood. j


( 31 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference Maps.

(92/B/SE.

| 92/B/SW.
-i 92/B/NW.
| 83/N/SE.
V83/N/NE.

Route No. III.—Maingkwan-Shingbwiyang (via Wantuk
Bum-Dalu-Gum Ga-Hkalak).

Distance 148 miles ~contd.

From

To

Distance.

Report.

0)________________________[2)

Marawzup

(10 m
(4| hours’ ma

Dalu

iles)

rch)—concld.

<31

Miles.

8*00

8*05

8*20

8*50

10*00

(4)

From mile 8 00 into Dalu the track is badly cut up'by buffaloes
and is a quagmire! after heavy rain.

Lowlying path 150 feet wide, boggy after heavy fain.

Lowlying path 60 feet wide, boggy after heavy rain.

Kolum Ga, small Shan village of 4 houses. •

Dalu Ga. This is really two villages joined together on the left
bank of’the Tanai Hka, consisting in all of-about 50 houses*
The population is half Kachin and half Shan. There are
extensive paddy fields and about 9,000 lbsi of paddy can be
bought in a normal yea^ <

The camp is on the river bank just up stream from the village and
is about 200 yards by 150 yards but there is ample camping
ground in addition along the river bank.

Water supply and grazing excellent. i

Civil Officers’ rest house. i

Dalu

(4 ni
(2 hours’

Lakchang

iles)

inarch).

The track leaving the Shan and Kachin villages of Dalu on its
right skirts the edge of the paddy fields for the first mile and a
quarter. <

1*4 Track leaves the paddy fields; and enters scruti jungle following
the left bank of Tanai Hka. •

2*4 Track drops down: 30 feet from the high rived bank into the bed
of the river and follows this until opposite Lakchang.

3*7 Lakchang Ferry. The Tanai Hka here is about <250 yards, bank to
bank and banks 3Q feet high, water about 3Q0 feet wide and
deep, stream fast runnings the left bank shejving and shallow
and difficult to bring boats right in, right bank 30 feet high and
almost sheer, there is slack water under the left bank but under
the right bank the stream is; swift.

Country boats are available iand can be quickly made into rafts.
Lakchang is a Kachin village of about 37 houses and about
10,000 lbs. of paddy can be bought in a normal year.

The camp is on the rivet bank just above the village area about
75 yards by 150 yards. Good water and grazing.

Lakchang

(4*3 m
(2| hours’

Sumbaw

iles)

march).

0*20

1*00

1T0

1*90

2*80

2*90

3*00

320

3*7

43

Sumbaw

(10*3
(5} hou

Wakshang ...
miles)
rs’ march)'.

0*50

1*80

2*80

2*90

3*00

3T0

3*90

A typical jungle path, except when crossing paddy fields, very
much overhung and never really dry—cuts up badly after
rain.

Dry ravine 150 feet wide, 25 feet deep, ramps very steep 1/1—1/3.
Track now skirts the edge Of the paddy fields for 500 yards then
crosses over them for 150 yards, skirts the other edge for
another 600 yards,

Track passes through heavy jungle for 200 yards.

Track crosses paddy fields for. 200 yards.

Ravine 225 feet wide and 20 feet deep, small muddy stream at the
bottom, ramps very steep and bad.

Two small dry ravines.

Ravine 45 feet wide and 8 feet deep with small dry stream bed.
Depression 60 feet wide and 6 feet deep.

Sharp descent at 1/3 for 15 yards and then drops gradually to a
stream.

Stream—45 feet l^nk to bank, banks 5 feet high, water 20 feet
wide and 1 foot deep, gravel bottom, ford and .footbridge.

Track meets Taga Hka and follows right bank.

Sumbaw—a Kachin village of 4 houses—about 500 lbs. of paddy
could be bought in a normal year

Camp is very small about 50 yards by 75 yards on the river bank
just above the village but more camping space is available
further up stream.

Good water supply and grazing.

From Sumbaw onwards to 'Shingbwiyang the track has been
realigned and regraded, and in the fourth section of the road.
Leaving Sumbaw the track winds through the foothills rising

gradually until the crest of ridge is reached at Wakshang.

Stream, bank to bank 75 feet, banks 5 feet high, water 12 feet
wide and 6 inches deep, hafd bottom, ford and footbridge.

Small muddy stream 5 feet wide and 1 foot deep, bridge 6 feet long
and 2 feet high.

Track crosses old paddy fields.

Small lowlying kaing grass patch, boggy after rain.

Lowlying patch 60 feet wide, boggy after rain.

Lowlying patch 60 feet wide, boggy aften rain.

Track rises steeply at 1 in 4 for 50 yards.

Track dips down into a wide ravine, slope down 1 in 3 to 1 in 10.


( 32 )

Route Report df the tiuhwdftg Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference Maps.

(92/B/SE.

I 92/B/SW.
-{ 92/B/NW.
I 83/N/SE.
183/N/NE.

Route No, III —Maingkwan-ShingbWiyang {via Wantuk
Bum-Dalu-Gum Ga-Hkalak.)

Distance 148 miles—contd'

From

(1)

Sumbaw

(103
(5i h

To

(2)

Wakshang

miles}.

ours’ march),

Wakshang

(13 30
(7 hours*

Gumka

miles).

match).

Distance.

Report,

(3»

Miles.

400

4*20
430
435
4 40
460
470
490

5*10

5*30

5‘40

630

670

700

7*40

7*60

800

840

8*45

970

990

10*10

10*30

l-oo

110

130

V66

200

ZOO

330)

3*40

370

3'8O

405

4'TO

415

4*60

5*90

625’

690)

7*10
i 8*00

840

870
•e 875

8"80

• 8»85

930

9’20

(4)

Maintawng Hka, bank to bank 20 feet, no height to banks as stream
is in the ravine, water |5 feet wide and 1 foot deep, hard bottom,
ford and footbridge.

Track climbs up from the the stream bed out of the ravine by a
steep slope.

Ravine with small muddy stream, bridged-
Kavjne with small muddy stream.

Ravine With small muddy stream, bridged.

Ravine with small muddy stfeam.

Ravine with small dry stream bed
Small stream, bridged.

Hkachyang Hka, bank to bank 40 feet, banks ( ?) feet high, water
40 feet wide and 1 foot deep, hard bottom, fofd and footbridge.

Small narrow ravine with small stream, bridge 12 feet long and
6 feet high.

Large tai+ngya clearings on both sides of the track.

Small narrow ravine with small stream, bridge 12 feet long and
5 feet high.

Track crosses shallow ravine by bridge 13 feet long and 1 foot
high.

Large taangya clearing,

Ravine 30Qfeet wide 30 feet deep, stream 10 fetet wide and 1 foot
deep, muddy, bridge 12 feet long and 2 feet high.

Hakawn—Naga village of 7 houses.

Rayin© with small stream,

Tamet Hka, bank to bank 6® feet, banks 4 feet high, water 50
feet wide and 2 feet deep, hard bottom—ford and footbridge.

Smalt muddy stream, bridged.

Deep dry ravine.

i Deep ravine vyifh small muddy stream, bridge 2Q feet long.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Small stream, bridged.

Smalt stream.

• Wakshang, Naga village of 5 houses.

No supply available.

Camp is on the hill crest above the vfffago ahd very congested
about 2$ yards by 150 yards.

Water supply pdqr and down the hillside

Although the track is graded this is a stiff march—down 600—up

1,300—down 1,300 and up 4QQ

Large fyungya clearing on left of track and old Site of Wakshang.
Track leaves the hill cresf and starts falling.

Small stream, bridge 2$ feet long and 5 feet high.

Dry ravine.

Dry ravine;

Ravine with small stream.

Track crosses narrow saddle by small bridge.

-Ravine with dry stream bed, bridge 15 feet long and 3 feet

high. Track aigzags down steep slope.

Ravine with small stream, bridge 15 feet long and 3 feet high.

• Small stream.

1 Small5stream, bridged,

Small stream, bridged.

Small stream, bridge 1$ feet long and 5 feet high.

Tayup Hka, bank to. bank 90 feet, banks 8 feet high, water 60

fetet wide antf 2 feet deep, hridgc 80 feet long and 4 feet high
stream- fast running.

Leaving the river the track starts climbing again;

Small stream, bridged.

Small dlpy ravine.

Ravine with small dry stream bed, bridged;

Ravine with small dry stream; bed, bridged;

' Ravine? with small stream, bridged,

Track reaches cresti of hill (2Q5Q) and starts falling, gradient
easy;

Ravine and small stream;

Ravine and small1 stream, bricfee 15 feet long and 6 feet high.
Ravine and small stream, bridge 10 feet long add 4 feet high.
Ravine and small stream* bridge IQ feet long add 4 feet high.
Ravine with small1 stream,, bridge IQ feet long add 4 feet high.

: Ravine with small stream. j

Ravine with sm3,l stfeam dry'bed,


'( 35 )

Route Report'of theHukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills? 1930-31-—<:ontd.

Reference Maps.

f 92/B/SE.

| 92/B/SW.
-! 92/B/NW.
| 83/N/SE.

183/N/NE.

From

Wakshang

(13-30
(7 hours’ m

Gumka

miles,)

arch j—concld*

Gumka

6*30
(3| hours’

Tayup Hka ...
miles
march).

Route No III.—Maingkwan Shingbwiyang, (via Wantuk
Bum-Galu-Gum Ga-Hkalak).

Distance 148 miles—contd.

Distance.

Report.

Miles.

9-60

980

1010

10*20

1030

11-10

1120

11*25

11‘40
11*45
1110
11 80
1190
1190

123

12-40

12*60
12*80
12*90
13 10
13*30

Hpulum—Naga village of 25 houses.

This is the new site the village having moved from a site 1$ miles
further west.

An old camp site just below the village, very small and congested
and a poor water supply.

Track zigzags down steep hillside for 500 yards.

Small rocky stream.

Track zigzags up steep hillside for 150 yards. .

Track zigzags down very steep hill side for 600 yards.

End of descent into Tasum Hka valley. Two small muddy streams*
Dry but muddy stream bed 15 feet wide.

Tasum Hka, bank to bank 300 feet banks 4 feet high, water 60 feet
wide and 2 inches deep, hard gravel bottom.

Small muddy stream, bridged*

(Track crosses Tasum Hka four times—this alignment impassable
{ in the rains.

J t :

Track leaves' river bed and zigzags up steep hillside climbing 400
feet in 700 yards.

Track now undulates but roughly level. :

Yman Hka, bank to bank 50 feet, banks 4 feet high, water 30 feet
wide and 3 inches deep, bridge 30 feet long and 2 feet high.

Small stream. f

Small rocky stream*

Small stream.

Small dry stream bed.

Gumka Camp. Excellent camp site 150 yards square, ah old
grassy village. i

Gumka village has now moved to a point 2 miles north-east of the
camp.

0*10

0*40

0*50

060

0*70

0*72

090

093

110

1*20

1*21

l‘50

1.90

2*80

2*90

3*00

3*15-

3*20

3*25

3*30

3‘40

4*20

4‘80

6*0

6T0

6‘20

6*30

Reeky stream, bank to bank 20 feet, water 13 feet wide and 2
inches deep, ford.

Small rocky stream.

Small ravine with small stream crossed by bridge 12 feet long and
2 feet high.

Small stream, bridge 15 feet long and 6 feet high.

Small stream, bridge 10 feet long and 2 feet high.

Small Stream, bridge 10 feet long and 2 feet high*

Small muddy stream, bridge 15 feet long and 4 feet high.

Small but very boggy stream.

Small stream, sandy bottom, 8 feet wide and 3 inches deep,
approaches steep and soft.

Small stream, sandy bottom, bridge 18 feet long and 4 feet high*

Small stream, bridged. s

Op to here the track undulates through* fairly level country. Track

now start climbing steadily., zigzaging up a hillside for 400 feet*

Track reaches hill crest and undulates along the ridge.

End of crest and track descehds 600 feet by zigzag path.

Tasum Hka, fast running rocky stream, bank to bank 75 feet,

water 18 feet wide and 4 inches deep, ford, height 1,000 feet.

Track now follows for 200 yards, the bed of small stream which
joins the Tasum Hka. This would be impassable in the rains.

Track leaves the stream bed and starts climbing.

Small Stream. j

Small stream.

Small dry stream bed* 1

Small stream.

Small dry stream bed.

Small stream.

Crest of hill—the new Gumka, a Naga village of 13 houses, is on
this hill crest higher up to the hill above the path. Track now
undulates along the hill crest

Chindu, new Naga Village of 13 houses.

End of crest and track starts falling for 400 feet gradually at first
and then by zigzags down steep hillside.

Tayaw Hka, rocky stream, bank to bank 30 feet,,water 10 feet
wide and 2 inches deep, ford.

Small rocky stream.

Small rocky stream.

Tayup Hka Camp, small congested jungle camp about 75 yards
square on the right bank of the stream, 1,000 feet high, good
water supply and a little grazing.

Tayup Hka, rocky stream, bank to bank 60 feet, banks 8 feet high,
water 10 feet wide and 2 inches deep, right bank ramp easy*
left bank steep.

5


( 34 )

Route fcefori of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills. 1930-31—contd.

Reference Maps.

92/B/SE.

92/B/SW.

3 92/B/NW.

83/N/SE.

L83/N/NE.

Route No. {II.—Maingkwan-Shingbwiypng (via Wantuk
Burn-DalUrGum Ga-Hkalak).

Distance 148 miles—eonld.

From

(1)

Tayup Hka
(5*60

(5 hours’

Luluip

To

(2)

Lulum

milfes)

march).

(7*90

(4i hqurs’

Lingnuk

miles)

march).

Distance.

Report.

(3)

Miles.

100

2*40

3*50

370

5*60

0-30

6*40

080

1*30

1*50

1*55

i*8ft

210

2-20

2*30

2*35

2*60

300

370

3*80

4*00

4*30

4*35

4'60

4*80

5*30

5*60

670

7?00

7*10

790

(4)

Lingnuk

. (7*80

(3| hours’

Yawman Hka
miles)
match) t

0*50

060

070

110

1*50

1*55

2*36

Crossing the Tayup Hka the track climbs steadily for 600 feet.
Hillcrest.

Track undulates along the hill crest for 1| miles passing Lulum
village paddy stores at mile 170.

End of hill crest, track now zigzags down 600 feetrinto the valley.
Timari Hka (Siman Hka on the map), bank to bank 60 feet, banks

10 feet high, water 10 feet wide apd 3 inches deep, ramps on
both hanks very steep and difficult, rocky bottom, ford.

Stream, bank to bank 45 feet, banks 6 feet high, water 5 feet wide
and 6 inches deep, rqcky bottom, ford.

Track now climbs steadily for 1,400 feet on well graded
zigzag path.

Lulum—Naga village of 22 houses on the hill top, height 2,370 feet.
Camp just beside the village elongated and congested about 200
yards- long by 25 yards broad, some grazing, water supply
limited and some way down the hjllside.

Track follows the hill crest for quarter of a mile.

Track commences descent.

Smail stream.

Track crosses side ravine on the hillside with small stream, bank
to bank 30 feet, banks 4 feet high, very little vikater, rocky bottom,
ford,

Rawgba Hka, rocky hjll torrent, bank to bank 90 feet, banks 3
feet high, water 50 feet wide and f foot deeps.

Track follows right bank for half a miie.

Small dry stream bed, bridge 15 feet long and 5 feet high.

Small dry stream bed, bridge 6 feet long 3 feet high.

Track crosses Rawgba Hka by temporary bridge, a ford could

easily he made.

Track climbs out of the river bed, stiff climb at the maximum
gradient over a spur and drops down to the riyer again,

Dry rocky stream bed 20 feet wide.

Track now starts climbing on the maximum gradient.

Deep “ U ” shaped ravine 20 feet wide and 10 feet deep bridge, a
nasty ohstacle if bridge is broken.

Small muddy stream, bridged,

Small stream-

Track gradient now eases off.

Shallow depression 45 feet wide with small stream,

Old village site of Selanuk.

Gradient now very easy up to the crest.

Ravine 60 feet wide and 6 feet deep.

Wide rayjn£ yyith small stream.

Track reaches crest height 3,000 feet having climbed l,3C0 feet iq
2£ miles, gradient down fairly easy.

Small dry stream bed.

Small muddy stream, approaches boggy.

Dry stony stream bed 15 feet \vide.

Tiwawt Hka, rocky hill torrent, bank to bank 20 feet, bridge 20 feet
long and 3 feet high, ramps qn both banks steep and difficult,
height 2,500 feet.

Track how climbs again, steeply at fifst and then Qn an easy
gradient.

Small dry stream bed.

Crest of hill, height 3,000 feet, track starts down on an easy
gradient.

Small dry stream bed.

Yft Hka, h^nk to bank 30 feet hut only a trickling of water.
Yawsa Hka, rocky hill torrent, bank to h^pk'60 feet, temporary

bridge 30 feef lohg and 2 feet high, height 2,300 feet.

Lingnuk—Naga village of 11 houses height, 2,63k) feet.

Camp on the hillside jfist beyond the. village about 100 yards
by 75 yards, water supply fair, some grazing.

Track runs level for the first half mije and then deep, into and
crosses a yyide re-entrant.

Small strean).

Small strparh, water 2 feet wide and 3 inches deep, bottom hard,
camp water supply.

Small stream, water 4 feet wide and 2 inches deep, hard bottom.
Qliriibing oqt of the re-entrant the track crosses a small spur and

then after crossing another re-entrant begins the descent by an
easy gradient.

Track zigzags down a steep slope for 2Q0 yards.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Stream, bank tq bank 30 feet, water 16 feet wide and 1 inch
deep, rocky bottom.



-rs


( 34 )

Routt Report Of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930*31-^ontdi

f 92/B/SE. 92/B/SW. Reference Maps. { 92/B/NW. I 83/N/SE. 183/N/NE. Route No. Ill—Maingk\yan-Shingbwiyang (via Wantuk BunvDalu-Gum Ga Hkalak): Distance 148 miles-^con/ff.
From . . (1).... to (2) Distahce (3) Report. -. .W) .
Lingnuk Yawman Hka Miles. 235 Stream, bank to bank 45 fefet, water 30 feet wide and 3 inches
(7‘8O mljes.) deep, hard bottom.
(3 J hours’ march)— conclcU End of descent, height 2,200 feet, track now starts climbing.
2*50 2*60 2*65 2*80 2*85 300 3*40 3*70 Small stream, bridged. - '* Small stream, bridged. Small dry stream, bed; Stfeam, bank to bank &0 feet, water 2 feet Wide and 6 inches deep, hard b ttom. Small stream rather muddy bottom. Two small streams, rather muddy bottom. Track reaches hill erest, (height 3,200 feet) and starts to descend; Small dry stream bed.
3*80 1 4*00 4-20 4*40 4*80 Small stream. Hkunna Hka, rocky hill torrent, bank to bank. 30 feet, water 10 feet wide and 6 inches deep, bridge 15 feet long and hard bottom. Small stream, bank to bank 15 fefet, bridge 15 feet long. Track now starts climbing again. Small muddy stream,- bank to bank 18 feet, water 2 feet wide and 1 inch deep. Track zigzags up a steep cliff. Crest pf ridge, height 2 Yawmati Hka ... Samtik 5*30 i 5*50 5*60 7*00 7*30 7*40 7*50 7*60 7*80 Dry stream bed 6 feet wide. Small stream, bridge^. Small dry stream bed. Track zigzags down precipitous cliff. Small stream liable to wash out the pathway. End of descent, track having fallen 1,300 feet in 2\ miles, stream, rocky hill torrent, bank to bank 15 feet, water 4 teet wide and 1 foot deep. Yawman Hka, fast hill torrent, boulder stream bed, bank to bank 90 feet, water 60 feet wide and 2 inches deep, hard bottom, ford and footbridge, height 1,857 feet, volume of water about 6 feet by 1 foot. Small stream, bank to bank 15 feet, hard bottom. Small stream. Camp in jungle clearing about 100 yards square just above river, height 1,860 feet, good water supply and some grazing. As the track leaves camp it crosses a ravine 150 feet wide and 30
(4*50 miles) feet deep with a small stream at the bottom.
(2$ hours’ march). 0*30 Deep narrow ravine, ramps steep, small stream 4 feet wide and 2 inches deep, hard bottom. Small stream, bank to bank 15 feet but Very little water. Track starts climbing by zigzag path up steep hillside. Nawsing Nok, Naga village of 13 houses, onthe.cfestof the hill, height 2,850 feet. Track having climbed 1,000 feet ip one mile now undulates along the cre^t for a mile. Small muddy hollow.
0*50 1*50 2*20
Samtik .<» Ringhku GaL ... 2*25 2*70 3*30 3‘60 4*00 4*10 4*50 Small muddy hollow. Small dry stream bed. End of crest, track falls gradually for 300 feet then undulates along the 2,500 feet contour. Good spring of water on left side of track. Good spring of water on left side of track. Track descends 200 feet in*4 mile. Samtik Ga, Naga village of 7 houses, height 2,3Q0 feet, camp ori grassy spur beside the village, water-supply fair and some grazing. Track descends rapidly by zigzag path falling 500 feet in *50 mile.
(6*70 miles) 6*80 Chishut Hka, rocky mountain jtorrent, bank to bank 50 feet, water
(3 hours’ march) 30 feet wide and 3 inches deep, bridge 36 feet long and 3 feet
1*40 1*45 1*50 1*55 170 2*90 3*00 3*45 3*50 high. Track climbs 100 feet and then undulates for lj miles. Stream, bank to bank ,40 feet, banks 3 feet, water 6 feet wide and 3 inches deep, bridge 40 feet long and 3 feet high. Shallow ravine 150 feet wide with small boggy stream. Small stream, bridge 6 feet long and 2 feet high. Stream, bank to bank 30 feet, banks 8 feet high, bridge 18 feet long and 6 feet high. Stfeam, bank to bank 30 feet, banks 6 feet, high, water 10 feet wide and 3 inches deep, bridge 30 feet long and 6 feet high, Track now starts climbing, gradient easy. Small stream. Small stream. Wide shallow ravine with small muddy stream. Wide shallow ravine with small muddy stream.


( 36 )’

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference Maps.

f 92/B/SE.
92/B/SW.

â–  92/B/NW.

83/N/SE.

183/N/NE.

Route No. III.—Maingkwan-Shingbwiyang {via Wantuk
Bum-Dalu-Gum Ga—Hkalak)—contd.

Distance 148 miles—contd.

From

(11

Samtik

(670
(3 hours’

Ringhku

(8

(3i hours’

Hkalak Ga

112*25

(6 hours’

To

J2)

Ringhku Ga ...
miles)

march—concld.

Hkalak Ga

miles)

march).

Distance

Report.

(3)

Miles.

3*60

370

440

570

5*50

6’30

650
6 70

0*40

1*30

1*80

2*60

270

3*30

3*50

3 90
4*00
4*30
440
450

460

7 00
7*45
7-80
8.00

(4)

Dry stream bed, bridge 12 feet long and 3 feet high.

Lunghkai—Naga village of 26 houses, height 3,330 feet.

Track reaches crest of hill height 3,800 feet having climbed 1,300

feet in 2$ miles.

Track now undulates along the crest for a quarter mile then after
a short descent undulates along, the 3,500 feet contour.

Boggy hollow 30 feet wide.

Small dry stream bed.

Ravine 150 feet wide and 30 feet deep, ramps down and up, very
steep, good stream of water at the bottom, bed rather muddy.
Shallow ravine with rocky stream, this is the camp water supply,
Ringhku Ga (Wahku), Naga village of 14 houses, height 3,400 feet

The camp is just beside the village on a grassy patch, 100 yards,
by 75 yards in area, good water supply and grazing.

Leaving camp the track descends a steep hillside by zigzags.

Dry ravine 200 feet wide and 30 feet deep.

Small dry stream bed.

Small stream, water 4 feet wide and 3 inches deep, hard bottom.
Stream, hill torrent, bank to bank 25 feet, hard bottom, bridge 18

feet long and 3 feet high.

End of descent, tfrack has fallen 1,700 feet in 2*7 miles.

Tisawng Hka, rocky mountain torrent, ban£ to bank 80 feet, banks
5 feet high, water 40 feet wide and 1 foot deep, bridge 40 feet
long and 3 feet high, height 1,700 feet. Leaving the river
track climbs up again rising 300 feet in three quarters of a mile.

Small stream, bank to bank 10 feet, rather muddy bottom.

Crest of hill height 2,000 feet, track now undulates along the crest

for half a mile.

End of crest, track falls gradually.

Kachaing Ga—Naga village of 11 houses.

Small stream, bridged.

Small stream in shallow ravine,; boggy.

Small spring on hillside, makes the track boggy. End of descent,
300 feet in | mile.

Wanyam Hka, rocky mountain torrent, bank to bank 120 feet and
banks 7 feet high, water 30 feet wide and 6 inches deep, bridge
30 feet long and 3 feet high.

Leaving the river the track starts on a steady climb to Hkalak Ga,
Small rocky stream.

Marshy hollow 150 feet wide. ;

Track reaches crest having climbed 2,000 feet in 370 miles.

Camp, on grassy knoll just above Hkalak Ga, area, 50 yaTds by

150 yards but more camp space available near by, height 3,700
feet, water supply limited and down the hillside, good grazing.

Hkalak Ga—Naga village of 20 houses.

Hsamsing Bum
miles)
march).

1*35

1*60

2*10

2*50

270

2*80

2*90

370

3*30

3*50

3*60

3*65

370

4*20

4’80

6*10

6*40

7*00

8*70

9*10

9*50

Passing through the village the track descends steadily on well
graded alingment.

Small dry stream bed.

Small rocky stream, bridge .30 feet long and 4 feet high.

Small rocky stream 15 feet wide.

Small stream, possible washout on track.

Small stream, possible washout on track.

Gallery along cliff face for 24 feet
Small dry stream bed, bridged.

Small rocky stream, bank to bank 30 feet.

Small stream, bridged.

End of descent—track has fallen 1,900 feet in 3j miles.

Taga Hka—rocky mountain torrent, bank to bank 100 feet, banks
4 feet high, water 70 feet wide and 6 inches deep, temporary
bridge 75 f eet long and 3 feet high. Track now follows up left
bank for 200 yards.

Small rocky stream.

Track climbs steeply at 1 in 2 for short distance.

Very boggy patch, 150 feet wide.

Small dry stream bed.

End of steep climb, gradient now normal.

Small stream, bridge 30 feet long and 6 feet high.

Small rocky stream.

Track descends for 1,000 yards and then climbs on maximum
gradient.

Soft boggy patch.

Short descent for 350 feet, gradient easy then u,p again on easy
gradient.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream, bridge 15 feet long and 6 feet high.


( 37 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-31>—contd.

f 92/B/SE.

I 92/B/SW.

Reference Maps. -( 92/B/NW.

83|N/SE.

183/N/NE.



Route No. Ill

.—Maingkwan-Shingbwiyang, [via Wantuk
Bum-Dalu-Gum Ga-Hkalak).

Distance 148 miles—cencld,

From



Hkalak Ga ...

(12*25

(6 hours’

Hsamsing Bum
- (97..

(4| hours’

To

(2)

Hsamsing Bum
miles)

march)—concld.

Shingbwiyang

miles)

march).

Distance

Report.

(3)

Miles,

960

10*0

11*3

12*2

1225

170

175

180

2*10

2*20

2-55

2-65

2-80

330
3 35
5-00

530

5*35

5*60

5*B0

6*00

605

620

6*40

7*00

8*10

8*20

8*65

9*46

9*50

960

965

970

<4)

Crest of ridge, height 4,300 feet, track having climbed 2,500 feet
in 6 miles. Track now falls on easy gradient.

Very sharp steep rise for 50 yards, at l/l to 1/3, track then
falls, gradient easy.

Small dry stream bed, but track liable to washout.

Dry stream bed, bridge 15 feet long and 10 feet high.

Hsamsing Bum Camp, jungle camp in clearing 75 yards

square, height 3,200 feet, very congested, water supply good,
but no grazing.

Leaving camp route falls steadily on well graded track.

Small dry stream bed.

Small spring path, very boggy.

Stream, hill torrent, bank to bank 50 feet, wafer 25 feet wide
6 inches deep, bridge 30 feet long and 2 feet high.

Height 2,006 feet end of descent, track has fallen 1,200 feet in 1|
miles, track now climbs on maximum gradient.

Small dry stream.

Small muddy stream.

Small muddy stream.

Crest of hill .2,300 feet.

Track descending, gradient easy.

Small dry stream bed, but track liable to wash out. Gallery along
cliff fall for 200 yards. Track now descends on maximum gradient

Small stream.

Small dry stream.

End of descent.

Rocky mountain stream, bank to bank 50 feet, banks 5 feet high
water 25 feet wide and 6 inches deep, bridge 30 feet long and
2 feet high. •

Track falling gently.

Small rocky stream bed, bridged.

Small muddy stream.

Rocky mountain stream, bank to-bank 50 feet, banks 6 feet high, .
water 25 feet wide and 6 inches deep, bridge 30 leet long and
2 feet high, left bank ramp steep.

Tashang Hka, fast running rocky stream, bank to bank 100 feet,
banks 6 feet high, water 40 feet, wide and 1 foot deep, bridge
60 feet long and 3 feet, high, right bank ramp steep.

Track now follows right bank for half a mile

Small stream, bridge 10 feet loag and 5 feet high.

Small gravel bottom stream.

Small dry stream bed, 10 feet wide and 3 feet deep.

Small dry stream bed, bridge 20 feet long and 6 feet high.

Track starts climbing on maximum gradient

Crest of hill, track now falls by easy gradient to Shingbwiyang.

Small muddy stream 6 feet wide, difficult to cross and requires a

bridge.

Small stream.

Dry ravine 75 feet wide and 10 feet deep.

Tawa Hka, bank to bank 150 feet, banks 10 feet high, water 100
feet wide and l£ foot deep, ford and footbridge, sand and
gravel bottom.

Track skirts the edge of paddy fields for 150 yards.

Shallow ravine, bridge 50 feet long and 2 feet high.

Shallow ravine with muddy stagnant water, bridge 15 feet long
and 2 feet high

Shingbwiyang Camp. (S/e Route IL)


( 38 )

Route Report of the tiukawng Valley and Northern Naga Hills, 1930-3 J-^c’ontd.

Reference Map.—92/B/NW,

Date of Report.—12th December 1930s.

From

Route No. IV.-^ Yawp an g to Sharaw— Distance 9 miles,
NoTe,—Heavy rain' had faljen on 7th December 1930.

Rpport.

(4)

Leaving Yawpang the track follows the river upstream for the first*
mile

Small ravine 30 feet wide and 12'feet deep, very muddy stream at
the bottom, ramps down and up very steep,- 1 in 2—bad5
obstacle in the rains and needs bridging.

Track leaves the Tarung ffka.

Lowlying boggy patch for 100 yards.

Track crosses old paddy fields for 35Q yards.

Lowfying patch of kaing grass, boggsy in the rains.

Lowlying patch of kaiftg grass, boggy in the rain$.

Tamang Hka, bank to bank 50 feet, banks 6' feet high, water
18 feet wide and .1 foot deep,- very' muddy bottom, bridge 50>
feet long and 6 feet high

Track crosses old paddy fields covered with long grass for 400’
yards.

Small muddy stream, bridged.

Stream,-bank to bank 40 feet, banks 15 feet high,-very muddy
bottom, bridge 40 feet long and 15 feet high—a nasty obstacle
if there is no bridge.

iNingbyen, Kachin village of 31 houses on the Tarung Hka;,
about 13,000 lbs. of paddy cap be bought here in a normal year.

Camp site just south of the village about 200 yards square. Gooc£
water supply and grazing, extra camp space is available in the
paddy fields north of the village.

; Track crosses paddy fields for the next mile.

Two shallow depressions, boggy after rain.

Track passes through light timber and grass for the next i mile.
Track crosses paddy fields for the next 500 yards.

Track traverses k aitig grass for the next 300 yards.

Track starts climbing.

Track reaches crest of the hill having climbed 150 feet in 30CF
yards.

Sharaw Ga, K-achin village of 13 bouses, about 4,50G lbs. of
paddy can be bought in a normal year.

Camp site on a grassy spur above the river about 100 yards by
200 yards in area, good grazing, ample water from the river
150 feet below the camp.


, ( 39 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Ndga Hills, 1930-31—contd.

Reference Map.—92/B/SE.

Date of Report.—23td March 1931
to 27th March 1931.

Route No. V.—N’Ding Ga—Maingkwan, via Sana Ga-
Saintawng Ga-Nawhkum— Distance 34£ miles.

Note.—There were!wo heavy thunderstorms in the early morning
just before starting out.

From To D&stance
(« (2) (3)
Miles.
jN’Ding Ga Sana G$ ... : 015
(8 8 miles) 0*20
(3£ hours’ march.)
0*70 :
* . 1*35
1*90 3
2*00
2*70 ;
2 80 !

Report.

44)

.Sana Ga

(7*65
(3 hours’

Saintawftg Ga ,
miles.)
march.)

340

3*80

3*90

400

410

4-20

430

440

4-60

5*30

5*70
5*80
6*30
6*90
7 10

7*15

7*50

8*10

8*80

8*85

0*30

*50

•55

1*55

ISO

200

2*75

2’80
2-95
3*70
3*80
4*00
4-30
4*35
4*45
4*65
sio
6‘00
6*10
6*50

6*70

N’Ding Ga. (See Route No. I.)

Numpye Hka, bank to bank 140 feet, banks 12 feejt high, water 120
feet wide and 1 foot deep, gravel and sand bottom, ford and
footbridge.

Small muddy hollow 90 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Lagang Ga, Kachin village of 4 houses.

Kasan Ga. Kachin village of 6 houses.

Track skirts and then crosses paddy fields for 350 yards.

Dry stream bed 36 feet wide ,and 4 feet deep.

Wesu Ga, Kachin village of 5 houses.

Note.—The track in itself from N’Ding Ga to Wesu Ga is quite
good but is badly cut up bv buffaloes and traffic.

At Wesu Gaihe track enters lowlying country, covered with kaing
grass and is a morass in the rains.

Small dry stream bed.

Small dry stream bed.

Sharam Hka, bank to bank 40 feet, banks 12 feet high, water 10
feet wide and 2 feet deep, very muddy bottom, bridge 15 feet
long and 3 feet high, ramps steep.

Dry stream bed, 30 feet wide and# feet deep, very muddy.
Nawnglung Hka, bank to ba&k 40 feet, banks 8 feet high, water

30 feet wide and .2 /eet deep, very muddy bottom, ramps steep,
bridge 36 feet long and 4 feet high.

Small clearing with we house.

Dry stream bed 15 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Small clearing with one house.

After this the track crosses 350 yards of very marshy ground.

Track traverses 500 yards of normal jungle.

Dry stream bed, very muddy and marshy, causeway 45 feet long
over stagnant water.

One house.

Track now crosses paddy fields for 800 yards.

Three houses.

Marshy patch 150 feet wide.

End of kaing, grass covered lowlying area.

Old village site of Kumyang Ga.

Small but very muddy and stagnant stream, bridge 21 feet long
and 1 foot above water level.

Magwitawng Hka, bank to bank 140 feet, banks 6 feet high,
water 96 feet wide and 2 feet deep, gravel bottom, ford and
footbridge.

Small dry stream but very boggy for 30 feet on either side of it.
N’Chet Ga, Kachin village of 4 houses.

Sana Ga, Kachin village of 6 houses.

Camp on a grassy plot about 150 yards square beside the
Nawngnyeng Hka.

Extra camp space available round the village. Between the camp
and the village there is a shallow hollow, flooded in the rains,
crossed by a causeway 300 feet long and 4 feet high.

Good water and grazing available.

Leaying Sana Ga the track goes back along the N’Ding Ga track
for | mile.

Small dry hollow 36 feet wide and 4 feet deep.

Hollow 30 feet wide and 2 fedt deep with small stream with boggy
banks.

Hollow 40 feet wide and 2 feet deep, small muddy stream.
Lowlying kaing grass patch .300 feet wide, a morass in the rains.
Lowlying kaing grass patch 3Q0 feet wide, a morass in the rains.
Lowlying kaing grass patch 150 feet wide, a morass in the rains.
Stream, bank to bank 90 feet, banks 10 feet high, very little water,

bridge 30 feet long and 4 feet high.

Lakwan Ga, ex-slave village df 6 houses.

Lowlying kaing grass patch 150 feet wide, liable to flooding.
Muddy hollow 300 feet wide, liable to flooding in the rains.
Muddy hollow 750 feet wide, liable to be flooded in the rains.
Muddy hollow 300 fept wide, liable to be flooded in the rains.
Muddy hollow 60 feet wide, boggy after rain.

Boggy kaing grass patch 600 feet wide.

Track crosses paddy fields for 150 yards.

Swampy kaing grass patch 150 feet wide.

Swampy kaing grass patch 110 feet wide..

Swampy kaing grass patch 100 feet wide.

Taungya clearing for 350 yards.

Shallow rayine 45 feet wide and 4 feet deep with small dry stream
bed.

Deep rayiue 150 feet wide and 25 feet deep, small stream at the
bottom crossed by bridge 40 feet long and 3 feet high, ramps
very steep, high levelfootbridge 100 feet long and 18 feet high,

A serious obstacle in the rains.


( 40 )

Route Report of the Hukawng Valley and Northern Naga-.Hills, 1930-34—>concld.

Reference Map.—92/B/SE,

Route No. V.—N’Ding Ga—Mairigkwan via Sana Ga-
Saintawng Ga-Nawhkum.—Distance—34£ Miles—concld

From

(1)

Sana Ga

(7-6-
(3 hours.’

To

(2)

Saintawng Ga ...
miles)

.march)—concld.

Saintawng

(8‘2
(31 hours

Nawhkum Ga...
miles)
march),

Distance

Report

Nawhkum Ga ...

(9’8

(4j hours’

Maingkwan ...
miles.)

: march,).

(3)

Miles.

7'00

765

•70

•75

•90

1*35

1‘45

1*90

2 15
2 50
260
290
3*20
3-55

3*60

375

415

4’20

4*70

5*30

5*60

6*00

6‘20

6’40

6*45

6'60

680

7 60
790
820

1*60

200

2*30

2‘60

2‘90

305

3*40

4*00

405

4T5

4*30

470

4’95

5‘40

5*80

6*50

7T0
775
8‘3O
8*60
870
930
9 80

(4)

Ravine 300 feet wide and 8 feet deep, muddy bottom.

Saintawng Ga, Kachin- village of 8 houses on the bank of the

Tanai- Hka.

Camp just beside village, about 100 yards by 200 yards in area, good
grazing and water supply.

One hour heavy rain in the morning just before starting but this
had little effect on the tracks

’ Dry ravine 75 feet wide and .5 feet deep.

Dry ravine 60 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Ravine 150 feet wide and 15 feet deep, very muddy, small stream,,
bridge 12 feet long and 2 feet high, ramps steep.

Ravine 90 feet wide and 12 feet deep,, small muddy stream.

A track branches off here to the left to a small village.

Small village of three housesi

Small dry ravine.

: Three small dry stream bedsv

Ravine 30 feet wide and 5 feet deep, dry but muddy.

Ravine 120 feet wide and 6 feet deep, small dry stream,

Rai ng grass patch 300 feet wide.

A Track branches off here to the left to N’Ritu Ga.

Ravine 60 feet wide and 15 feet deep, small boggy stream, ramps

' steep.

; Shallow dry ravine 60 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Shallow dry ravine60 feet Wide and 5 feet deep.

Shallow dry ravine 90 feet wide and 6 feet deep.

Old deserted village of Salaw Gahtawng.

Track turns sharp left at this village.

Ravine 90 feet wide and 12 feet deep, dry but muddy,

: Ravine 130 feet wide and 6 feet deep, dry but muddy.

/Ravine 90 feet wide and 10 feet deep, dry but muddy, ramps steep.
Ravine 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep, small muddy stream, ramps-

steep.

Ravine 36 feet wide and 12 feet deep, dry, ramps steep.

Dry ravine 30 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Ravine 30 feet wide and 4 feet deep, dry.

Ravine 150 feet wide and 5 feet deep, dry.

Track bifurcates here—right goes to M iingkWan and the left to
Nawhkum Ga.

Lowlying kaing grass for 300 yards—a swamp in the rains.

Ravine 18 feet wide and 7 feet deep, dry, ramps steep.

Nawhkum Ga. Kachin village of 5 houses on the Nambyu Hka.
Camp just behind the village away from the river on a grassy

patch about 75 yards by 200 yards, good watersupply and grazing.

For the first 1| miles the track retraces itself to the forked roads of
the previous march.

Lowlying kaing grass patch 300 feet wide, swamp in the rains.

I tJya Ga, Kachin village of 5 houses.

Nambyu Hka, bank to bank 300 feet, banks 15 feet high, water
180 feet wide and 2| feet deep, ford and footbridge, a difficult
ford and a ferry raft must be used when the.water is too deep,
ford is diagonal and ramps steep.

Dry ravine 60 feet wide and 6 feet deep^

Lowlying boggy patch 30 feet wide.

Dry ravine 30 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

. Track crosses lowlying kaing grass covered area for 900 yards,
swampy after heavy rain.

Lowlying kaing grass patch for 100 yards, swampy after heavy
rain.

Numban Hka, bank to bank 120 feet, banks 8 feet high, water 50
feet wide and 2 feet deep, very muddy bottom, bridge 54 feet
long and 5 feet high.

Tsamat Ga, Kachin village of 7 houses.

Shallow hollow 180 feet wide and 3 feet deep.

Shallow depression 60 feet wide, very boggy

Note.—From the 5th to the 8lh miles the track id in very bad condi-
tion and badly cut up by buffaloes and becomes-a quagmire after
heavy rain.

Lowlying ground for 600 yards, a badly cut up quagmire.

Muddy depression 150 feet wide and 5 feet deep.

Lowlying kaing grass area for 700 yards, swampy in the rains.

Ida Kha, bank to bank 90 feet, banks 10 feet high, water 30 feet

wide and 1 foot deep, sandy bottom, ford and footbridge.

Dry but very muddy stream bed, 30 feet wide 5 feet deep.

Boggy hollow 30 feet wide and 2 feet deep.

Kaing grass for 350 yards.

Chingpa Gahtawng, ex-slave village of 15 houses.

Track crosses paddy fields for 1,000 yards.

Maingkwan. (See Route I.)

Camp.


(41)

hka

4 0W

------------ . Route taken by the Expedition-

-----— . Toure abandoned owing to recall, etc., etc

-----—Vieual \

------Cable > Signal Communications—Main Artery.

....."Runner)

&C. i&YE.

JL 0/3/3!-

i.

C.p .O. -No. 82. H.P.D., 25 6 ~/93/.



(41)

NAMYAtiG *

^anchugum

'atkkocuj

Xac/akburfl

NDop Dumsa

Sharau)

Hka/ak Ga

7000

> Z> /ngbuiiya. ng

Nmghyen

Samrffa

W/ngam

Kantau

Yaman

Hka

Yautpang

Lingnuk

} Daihpa.

1700

^aru

Lashen

Waksharn

5POU

Gumka

' Mauthhum

Yatungbanq

Mgingkuuqn

Hpabup^

2 000

/5ancf6cr

/no kciu’ft,

Tan aty<*ri$

Dhadezup

3000

Wora f
Hk'al

HUKAWNG VALLEY

AND

NAGA HILLS

PakhreridtJ/T^

Approximate Scale 1 inch — 6 miles





t

------------- . Route taken by the Expedition-

-------------. Tours abandoned owing to recall, etc., etc.

-----Visual \

------- Cable > Signal Communications—Main Artery.

.....•.•Runner)

G (i.C.p O.-No. 82- P-P D,, 2.5- 6 -1331.

ire.

jl opp/.


Plate 1.

Plate 2.

A Temporary Bridge i-or the Column.

A Jungle Camp

Plate 3.

Plate 4

But the Mules have to ford.

Column on the March.


Plvte 5.

Plate 6.

Coming into Camp,

Shan Girl Weaving.

Plate 7.

Tag a Hka Camp—Naga Hills.

Plate 8.

Shan Girl*.


Plate 10.

Plate 9.

Kanchu Bum Reconnaissance Party with Naga Cogues.

Kadak Bum Camp.

Plate 11.

Naga Women and Children,

Plate 12.

A Kachin Funeral—The“ Pushing Competition” Ceremony.


Plate 13.

Plate 14.

Ex-Slaves acting as Coolies for the Column.

Maingkwan Base.

Plate 15.

Crossing the Taxai Hka by Rafts.

Plate 16.

Wantuk Bum Reconnaissance Party.


( 46 ))

Plate 17.

Plate 18.

On the March. The New Naga Hills Track.

Plate 19. Plate 23.

Column on the March.

Maingkwan Pagoda.
G.B.C.P.O —No 82, H.P D., 27-8-31—50.




/