Citation
Tibetan primer

Material Information

Title:
Tibetan primer
Creator:
Dban-ldaá¹…, lama
Vidyabhusana, Satis Chandra, 1870-1920
Place of Publication:
Calcutta
Publisher:
Bengal Secretariat Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Tibetan
Edition:
2nd Edition
Physical Description:
v

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tibetan language -- Conversation and phrase books ( lcsh )
བོད་ཀྱི་སྐད་ཡིག།
Temporal Coverage:
- 19021231
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- China -- Tibet
ཨེ་ཤེ་ཡ། -- ཀྲུང་གོ། -- བོད
亚洲 - 中国 - 西藏
亞洲 - 中國 - 西藏
Coordinates:
31.2 x 88.8

Notes

General Note:
Responsibility: By Lama Wangdan. Revised, transcribed in Roman characters and translated into English by Satis Chandra Achandra Acharyya, vidyabhusan

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS University of London
Holding Location:
SOAS University of London
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Resource Identifier:
634675 ( ALEPH )
CM495.15 /1264 ( SOAS classmark )

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Full Text
TIBETAN PRIMER

No. II.

BY

LAMA WANGDAN,

FORMERLY TEACHER, GOVERNMENT HIGH SCHOOL, DARJEELING.

REVISED AND EDITED

BY

SATIS CHANDRA ACHARYYA, VIDYABHUSAN, m.a.;

PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT, PRESIDENCY _ COLLEGE, CALCUTTA; AND
MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT

BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.

SECOND E D! T I O N.

CALCUTTA:

PRINTED AT THE BENGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS.
1902.



[Price — Indian, annas 8; English, 9d.]


From the

Sir DINSHAW PETIT LIBRARY

Deposited in the
LIBRARY
of the

SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND
AFRICAN STUDIES

(University of London)
by

THE NORTHBROOK SOCIETY




.1




Published at the Bengal Secretariat Book Depot,
Writers’ Buildings, Calcutta.

----♦----

OFFICIAL AGENTS.

In India—

Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta and
Simla.

Messrs. Newman & Co., Calcutta.

Messrs. Higginbotham & Co., Madras.
Messrs, Thacker & Co., Ld., Bombay.
Messrs. A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay.

Mr. E. Seymour Hale, 53 Esplanade Road,
Fort, Bombay, and Calcutta.

The Superintendent, American Baptist
Mission Press, Rangoon.

Messrs. S. K. Lahiri & Co., Printers and
Book-sellers, College Street, Calcutta.

Rai Sahib M. Gulab Singh & Sons, Proprie-
tors of the Mufid-i-am Press, Lahore, Punjab.
Messrs. V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co.,
Book-sellers, &c., Madras.

Messrs. D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co.,
Book-sellers, Bombay.

In England—

Mr. E. A. Arnold, 37 Bedford Street, Strand,
London.

Messrs. Constable & Co.,2 Whitehall Gardens,
London.

Messrs. Sampson Low, Marston & Co., St.
Dunstan’s House, Fetter Lane, London.

Messrs. Luzao & Co., 45 Great Russell Street,
London,

Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.,
Charing Cross Road, London.

Mr. B. Alfred Qdaritch, 15 Piccadilly,
London.

Messrs. P. S. King & Son, 2 & 4 Great Smith
Street, Westminster, London.

Messrs. H. S. King & Co., 65 Cornhill,
London.

Messrs. Williams and Norgate, Oxford.
Messrs. Leighton Bell & Co., Cambridge.

On the Continent—

Messrs. R. Friedlander & Sohn, Berlin, N.
W. Carlstrasse, 11.

Mr, Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig.

Mr. Karl Hiersemann, Leipzig.

Mr. Ernest Leroux. 28 Rue Bonaparte, Paris.
Mr. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.

\


PREFACE.

The Tibetan Primer No. II was compiled and
edited by Lama Wangdan, late Head Lama of the
Darjeeling High School, in 1889. The Primer in its
original form was not much known except to the
Bhutea students of Darjeeling. In order to render it
accessible to all English-knowing beginners in Tibetan,
I have added to it a transcription of the Tibetan into
Roman characters and a translation of the text into
English. In bringing out the second edition of the
Primer in this new form I am much indebted to J. S.
Slater, Esq., Officiating Director of Public Instruction,
Bengal, for his having kindly accepted my offer to
revise the Primer and introduce the additions men-
tioned here.

My best thanks are also due to the distinguished
Tibetan scholar Rai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur, c.i.e.,
who kindly went through a proof of the Primer and
made some valuable suggestions for its improvement.

Presidency College;
Calcutta,

August, 1902.

Satis Chandra Acharyya.




Divyans-lna.
(The) five vowels:

’i&’&r j

tf, i, n, e, o.

I

Gsal-byed sum-cu ni.
The thirty consonants:

’ qj’ C'f ka, lcha, ga, na; 5 ’ e& ’ E ’ ?>l ca, cha, ja, na;
3 ’ 5J ’ q ’ |
ta, tha, da, na\ pa, pha, ba, ma;
£ ’ aS ’ < ’ <3p 6) ’ 3’ 0/ UJ|
tsa, tsha, dsa, iva; ska, za, ha, ya;
V T
ra, la, qa, sa; ha, a.

drug dan ha btags drug.

The inverted letters and the six letters having ha subjoined:

VTP-'PI ?â–  V ? T ?'SI!

tha, da, na, §a, hsa; gha, dha, bha, dsha, dlia, Ilia.

N.B.—All the underlined letters in this and in the subsequent

pages are silent.


( 6 )
3j-X’ I
Gi-gu shabs-kyu hgren-bu na-ro bshi btags-pa ni.
The letters joined with the four, viz. , i, u, e and o :—
itMi P S’ P' pi qj’ qj’ qj’
ki, ku, ke, ko; khi, khu, khe, kho; ffi, gu, ge, go-,
r *’ * i 1’ 3’ 3’ Ml M’ M’ Ml
ni, nu, tie, no; ci, cu, ce, co; chi, chu, che, cho;
t' i' >’ S' P ?I 5' ?i
A A A jo; ni, nu, ne, no; ti, tu, te, to;
1’ 3’ 3' Ml S' M' S' M' $• 3p 3fi
thi^ tliu, the, tho ; di, du, de, do; ni, nu, ne, no;
£)’ CJ’ 3’ 2f| IV S’ s’ M Ml
pi, pu, pe, po-, phi, phu, plie, pho: bi, bu, be, bo;
& £fi $• ■?• ?l M’ M’ ^i
mi, mu, me, mo; tsi, tsu, tse, tso; tshi, tshu, tshe, tsho
s- <• r- Of QJ ’ dsi, dsu, dse, dso; wi, wu, ice, ico; shi, shu, she, sho;
I' Mi $’ zi, zu, re, zo; hi, hu, he, ho; */s yu, ye, yo;
* 5- 5? <1 §)’ g’ $r 3}i *)' -q-
ri, ru, re, ro; li, In, le, lo ; PS pw, pe, po;
IV S’ *V ^i 5' V ? 1 $V iMfi
si, su, se, so; hi, hu, he, ho; i, u, e, o.




( 3 )

La btags drug.

The six letters with a la subjoined:

srar Vjii

kla, gla, bla, rla, sla, zla.

De-la shabs-leyu btags-pa.

U joined with those :

srarr vstii

S3 S3 SO so SO SO

Klu, glu, blu, rlu, slu, zlu.

^•^■q^'q-q^-^j^ |

Wa-zur btags-pa beu-drug ni.

The sixteen letters having a wa subjoined:

VM’5’’ 'V 3

4
kwa, kliwa, gwa, civa, nwa, tica, dwa, tsiva, tshwa, shwa, zwa,

yw^ v

nva, Iwa, $wa, swa, hwa.

V5j3fcirt«l^ I

Da mgo bczi-gnis ni.

The twelve letters having a surmounting ra :

WE'rrrvva-s-yfi

rka, rga, rna, rja, rna, rta, rda, rna, rba, rma, rtsa, rdso

aj^'q^ |

La mgo bcu ni.

The ten letters having a surmounting la :

//ft?, Iga, Ina, lea, Ija, Ita, Ida, Ipa, Iba, Ilia.


( 9 )

Sa mgo Icu-gcig ni.

The eleven letters having a surmounting sa:

srsrrrrvrrri’Fi

$ha, $ga, sfia, sna, $ta, sda, sna, spa, $ba, $ma, $tsa.

I

Rjes-hjug bcu ni.

The ten suffixes:

”T r 5' 3j’ zr 3T q| v «r *r

ga, Ha, da, na, la, ma, ha, ra, la, sa, these are.

g^WIVI

SHon-hjug IHa.

The five prefixes:

s’ 1

ga, da, ba, ma, ha, these are.

Rdsogs tshig bcu-gcig ni.

The eleven finishing words :

>fj’ zf £ i <’ <’ s|wr^ i

go, fio, do, no, bo, mo, ho; ro, lo, so, to, these are.

La don rnam-pa bdun ni.

The seven terminations expressive of the meaning of the
(locative) case:

S’ S’ V 5’ 1

su, ru, ra, du, na, la, tu, these are.


( 10 )
tCgarj-g'Si I

Hbrel sgra Vna ni.

The five possessive terminations:

qj’ g’ g’ §V

gyi, kyi, gyi, hi, yi, these five.

Syed sgra ni.

The instrumental terminations:

§*r g$r «)$r ?r Mi

gis, gyis, kyis, hi§, yis, sa, these are.

Snon-hjug-la ba thob-pahi ka yig.

The letter ka having the prefix ka before it:

^’1 ^TII zwpl
bkah, bkan, bkag, bkan, bkab,
qzqoi| VII wq
bkas, bkar, bkal, bkzig, bkums,
VI ^Sl
bskur, bkur, bkus, bkod, bkol,
VF<| ^1 q’Tjqjl
bkyigs, 6^, bkra, bkrag, bkrabs,
ZTTWq nij^i ’’if q3i ^1
bkrams, bkral, bkri, bkru, bkrus,
VI q^|
bkren, bkres, bkrofis, bkrol, bkrag,




q-sfo-qr^ |

Ba thob-pahi tsa.

The letter tsa having the prefix ba :

bltam§.

brtun,

brtul, bstegs,

bstum.

q&|| <51 q&q q&q
btsag, tysan, btsah. btsas, btsai,
<^l <51 <51
btsir, btsugs. btsud, btsun, btsum§,
Z$| q&|| qts’l <51
btsems, btso, btsog. btsofi, btsod,
<51 qfcl| <^1
btson, btsofa, btsot, brtsiy brtsub,
^1
brtse, b&tson, brtsam$.

q’tfq’q^’«I||

Ba thob-pahi ga.

The letter ga having the prefix ba:

qqp|| q^l
bgag, bgags, bgad, bgam,
*go, bgos, hgyafis, bgyis,
^5! ngp’l qgjcsq
hgyid, bgraft, bgraHs, bgrad, bgres,


( 13 )

brgan, brgo\ brgyafisy brgyid,

’J5, ”21 =1351 ’J” I

brgyud, brgyun, brgye^ brgyan, brgyal,

’351 ’S^ I ’g^l ’®5, <’l

brgyad, bsgyir, bsgyur, bsgyed, bsgrob,

SJM qpq q|aq| q|Cf q^jf

bsgrun, bsgruns, bsgrum, bsgreft, bsgron,

•>O

bsgrags, b$grubs.

YT^I

Dag-yig.

Correct Spelling.

W’*l I

Dag-yig gsal-ivahi me-loft-las,

Byis-pa-rnam$-la phan-pahi phyir,

Dag-byed go-bde bstan-pa ni.

Correct spelling made easy from (the work called)
‘ Sal-wai Melon ’ on orthography for the use of
children.

Ka sogs sum-cu yi gehi lus.

The thirty (consonants) beginning with lea &yq the
body of letters.


Hdogs hbrel btags-pa yan-lag yin.

Binding and joining letters (such as etc.) are
limbs of compound letters.

Gug hgren na-ro shabs-kyu sogs,

Yi-gehi yan-lag kun-gyis thob.

The t, 0, o, u, etc., being limbs are fixed to all the
letters.

«T3 I

Ya brgyad ra btags bcu-bshi-ho.

To eight letters ya is subjoined and to fourteen
is ra subjoined.

De-bshin hog-tu la btags drug.

So there are six letters having la subjoined.

Ra rngo bcu-gnis la rngo ben,

&a mgo btags-pa ben-grig go.

There are twelve letters having ra surmounted,
ten having la surmounted and eleven having sa
surmounted.


( 15 )

i

Ga da ba ma ha dan Ina,

Sfion-hjug Ina-ru qes-par-bya.

These five, viz., ga, da, ba, ma and ha, must be known
to be five prefixes.

I

i

Ga na da na ba ma dan

JSa ra la sa rjes-hjug bcu.

These ten, viz., ga, na, da, na, ba, ma, ha, ra, la, and
sa &tq suffixes.

Dkon-mchog da dkon ma mchog yin.

In the word kon-chog (Yfa’3^) [the chief rarity,
Buddha, Dharma and Sangha] there are d in dkon
and m in mchog.

Bde-gqegs ba bcle ga g$egs yin.

In de-$egs [the happily passed one, that is,

Buddha] there are b in bde and g in gqegs.

Bcom-ldan ba bcom la Iclan yin.

In the word Gom-clan [Bhagavan, i.e.,

Buddha] there are b in bcom and I in Idan.

I

Dge-hdzin da dge ha hclun yin.

In the word Ge-dun (5*1’^) [Sangha, i.e., Priest-
hood] there are cl in dge and h in hdun.


( 16 )

Rgyal-wahi bleak dan bla-mahi kah,

Ba bkah yin-par qes-par-bya.

It is to be known that there is b in the word bkah
(^T) signifying command, Buddha’s or Lama’s.

Dkah las che-wa da dkah yin.

There is d in kah (VT*) signifying 4 difficult ’ in such
an instance as 4 ka le che-wa—a very difficult work.’

jq’q^’QT^qp’q’^’Z^’ |

Bskafi-gso bskan-bqags thugs-dam-bskahs,

Kha-bskofis la-sogs ba-sahi bskafi.

There are b and s in kali (^’) [to fulfil] in such
expressions as kan-gso (^’^) [a ceremony to
supplement what was wanting], kan-$ag (^’*1-^)
[a confession performed], thugs-dam-kan
*15^) [a vow fulfilled], kha-kofi, (P’*^**) [an
appendix], etc.

TTj'q’ar^faprni’i

Ko-wa koii-bu ken-rus dart,

Ka-wa la-sogs ka rkyafi yin.

Ko-iva [leather], koti-bu [a cup], kefi-rus [a skeleton],
ka-iva [a pillar], etc. are written with (^) ka singly.

^’3'q^’q’q’^’q^ |

Dus-kyi bskal-pa ba-sahi bskal.

There are b and s in kal ((^) of the word bskal-pa
signifying time.


( 17 )

Skal-wa yod-med sa skal yin.

There is s in kal of the expression $kal-iva yod med.

^’q-|q^’q^’q'qF|pr§^ |

Skud-pa klial tycal ba bkal yin.

There is b in kal («i*|*i) [to spin] in such an expression
as ‘ will spin a bushel of thread.’

Sans-rgyas sku ni sa sku yin.

There is $ in ku (g) meaning the person of the most
perfect, /.
J

Rku-ma rku-wa ra rku yin.

There is r in ku (J) in such words as rku-ma (a thief)
and rku-wa (to steal).

^'Q5q$rq7r|’jc’£ I

Ku-co hdebs-pa ka rkyan-fio.

Ka is alone in the word ku-co [nonsense] in such
an expression as ‘to utter nonsense.’

Mtshan-ldan bla-ma ba bla yin.

There is b in la (g) of bla-ma meaning a Lama in

such an expression as ‘ a Lama having

noble characteristics.’

I

Slob-ma slob-dpon sa slob yin.

There is s in lob of slob-ma (a disciple) and slob-
dpon (a teacher).


( 18 )

Rgyal-blon ra rgyal ba blon yin.

There is r in gyal (§*i) and b in Ion (gjfa) in the words
rgyal-blon [a king and minister].

Byin-gyis rlob-pa ra rlobs yin.

There is r in lob (§^) in such an expression as
gyis rlobs-pa (a blessing).

Slon-mo slon-wa sa blon yin.

There is $ in loti (§fc’) of slofi-mo (alms) and slon-wa
(to beg).

Bkra-fis bkra-ni ba bkra yin.

There is b in kra («U) of bkra-fis (glory) and bkra-
ni (beautiful).



8®

Mgo-wohi skra-ni sa skra yin.

There is s in kra (g) signifying the hair of the head.

Tan-lag rkan-pa ra rkan yin.

There is r in kan (*p/) signifying the foot which is a
limb.

Rje dan rje-btsun ra rje yin.

There is r in je (I) of rje (a lord) and of rje-btsun
(reverend sir).



( 19 )

Rdsa dan rdsifi-bu ra-rdsa btags.

There is r in dsa (^) of rdsa (clay) and of rdsifi-bu
(a pond).

j*rzr I

Rgyal-wa rgyal-po ra rgyal yin.

There is r in gyal (g*J) of rgyal-iva (victory) and of
rgyal-po (a king).

^gyogs-pahi skyen-ni ra skyen yin.

There is $ in kyen (g^) meaning quick.

Sgal-wahi rkyen-ni ra rkyen yin.

There is r in kyen (|^) signifying transgression
or fault.

Shyi-la §kyal-wa, sa ikyaUlo.

There is 5 in kyal (g^) of skyal-wa [to bring out].

JTJjpwMsiJsr f

Mkhas-pa mkliah-lditi mkhan-po daily

Nam-mkhah la-sogs ma phul-lo.

There is the prefix m in khas-pa («|*W) (learned),
khah-diti (*f^’^’) (Graruda), khan-po (^’9) (a
professor), nam-khah (^«’«p^) (the sky), etc.

Shens-pa byed-pa kha rkyan yin.

Kha is alone in khehs-pabyed-pa (to be or make proud).


( 20 )

STV'S’YF'S Wl I

Dgah darl mi dgah da dgahste.

There is d in gah signifying gladness and in

mi-gah (displeasure).

Na-so rgas-pa ra rgan yin.

There is r in gan signifying senior and in gas
(3}**) meaning ‘old age.’

Rta-yi sga dan khan-pahi sgo,

8a sgo yin-par (^es-par-bya.

It should be known that there is $ in gra (§J) meaning
the saddle of a horse, and in go (If) meaning the
door of a house.

^q’^’q^rq-q-q^’u^ |

Thob-skal bgo§-pa ba bgos yin.

There is b in gos (*lfa) meaning 4 to divide the shares.’

Sdafi-wahi flgra-ni da dgra yin.

There is d in gra (S3J) meaning the enemy.

Snan-pahi sgra-ni sa $gra yin.

There is $ in gra (jj) signifying a sound that is
pleasant.

$c'sivg’3’*rg’^ i

Nafi-par §fia-wa sa $na yin.

There is «in na (g) signifying ‘ early in the morning.5




( 22 )

Skad-cha, dri-iva da dri yin.

There is d in dri (^) meaning 4 to ask news.’

Rig-pahi blo-ni ba blo-la.

There is b in io (if) signifying 4 the mind for
understanding.’

Nafi-gi glo-wa ga gio yin.

There is g in 16 (gj) signifying the lungs.

Gsar-rrM rnin-pa ra rnin-ste.

There is ra in nin (1^’) of gsar-rnin (new and old)
and rnin-pa (old).

Khog-pahi snifi-rii sa-snin yin.

There is s in nin (^’) signifying the heart.

Sjig-pahi mi-rtag ra rtag-la.

There is r in tag (5$|) of mi-rtag signifying imperma-
nent or destructible.

Gcan-gzan stag-ni sa stag yin.

There is s in tag (f**j) signifying a tiger.

Bshon-pahi rta-ni ra rta-ste.

There is r in ta (?) meaning a horse.


( 23 )

Gin good sta-res sa sta yin.

There is s in ta (?) in the expression gin good sta res
meaning the axe by which a tree is cut.

NO

Kha-dog smug-po sa smug-la.

There is s in mug (|R) of the expression kha-dog
smug-po meaning the brown colour.

NO NO

Sprin pahi rmug-pa hthib-pa dan,

Khyi-yis rmugs-pa ra rmug yin.

There is r in mug (^) of the expression sprin-pahi
rmug-pa meaning ‘to be covered by a mist of
cloud,’ and in mug (ftspi) of the expression khyi-yis
rmugs-pa meaning ‘;to be bitten by a dog.’

Gtam-shan thos-pa sa shan-la.

There is s in nan (?<*») of the expression gtam-shan
thos-pa meaning ‘to hear joyful news.’

Skad-cha han-pa han rkyah yin'

ffia is alone in han in the expression skad eha han-pa
meaning ‘to hear conversation.’

Gzugs-brhan ba-rahi brhan yin-no.

There are b and r in han (^) in the expression
gzugs brhan-iva meaning ‘ to reflect an image/

Tita-la bshon-pa ba bshon-la.

There is b in shon (A^) of the expression rta la bshon-
pa meaning ‘ to ride on a horse.’


. ( 34 )

Na-so yshon-pa ga gshon-no.

There is g in shon (**1^) of the expression na-so
gshon-pa meaning ‘ young in age.’

Bla-ma mjal-wa ma mjal-la.

There is m in jal of the expression bla-ma

mjal-wa meaning ‘ to visit a Lama.’

Bu-lon hjal-iva ha-hjadlo.

There is h in jal (W) of the expression bu-lon
hjal-wa meaning ‘to repay a debt.’

Sgra thos rna-ni ra rna-la.

There is r in na (^) of the expression sgra thos rna
meaning ‘the ear by which sounds are heard.’

I

Bri tshor sna-ni sa sna gin.

There is s in na (S*) in the expression dri tshor sna
signifying ‘the nose for perceiving smell.’

opr I

Lus-kyi sme-wa sa sme-la.

There is s in me (fj) of the expression lus-kyi sme-wa
meaning ‘ a spot of the body.’

Btsog-pahi dme-wa da dme yin.

There is d in me (V>) of the expression btsog-pahi
dme-wa meaning ‘ murder which is a defilement.”


Hphans-pahi mdah daft, lufi-pahi mdah,

Ra mdah byed-pa ma mdah-ste.

There is m in dah (*^) of the expression hphans-pahi
mdah meaning * an arrow for shooting,’ of the
the expression luh-pahi mdah meaning ‘ the lower
part of a valley,’ and of the expression ra-mdah
byed-pa meaning ‘ to do help.’

^aw^q’q^’uiyq’^ j

Bdah-ded byed-pa ro-bdah-wa,

Rnams-ni ba bdah yin-pa dah.

There is b in dah (^) of the expressions—bdah-ded
byed-pa meaning ‘ the act of conveying,’ ro-bdah-
wa meaning ‘ tasting,’ etc.

Myah-hdas dus-hda§ ha hdas-so.

There is h in das (^) in the expression myah-hdas,
signifying Nirvana, dus hdas, past time.

Spos-kyis bdug-pa ba bdug-la.

There is b in dug (*^«|) in the expression spos-kyis
bdug meaning ‘ the burning of incense.’

Ma-run gdug-pa ga gdug yin.

There is g in dug in the expression ma-ruft gdztg
meaning ‘mischief which is an evil.’

i

Hdir hdug ces-pa ha-hdug-go.

There is h in dug (^**|) in the expression hdir-haug
meaning ‘ it is here.’


( 26 )

qgE'rft'jSrirsi^irc!! |

Bsrun-wahi sdom-pa sa §dom-la.

There is $ in dom (|&) in the expression bsrufi-tcahi
sdom-pa meaning ‘the vow to he observed?

Sems-can dom-ni dom rkyan-no.

D is alone in the word dom meaning ‘ hear which

is an animal?

Tshon-rtsihi tslion-ni tshon rkyan-la.

Tsh in tshon is alone in the expression tshon-rtsihi

tshon signifying ‘the colour for painting?

If |

Rno-wahi mtshon-clia ma mtshon yin.

There is m in tshon (^) of the expression rno-wahi

mtshon-eha meaning ‘ a sharp weapon?

f

Rgya-mtshal dmar-po ma mtshal-te.

There is m in tshal (*^) of the expression rgya-mtshal

dmar-po meaning ‘ the red vermilion?

Phyag-htshal-wa-ni ha htshal-lo.

There is h in tshal (**«!) of the expression phyag-

htshal-wa meaning ‘ to bow down in reverence?

Chu-yi mtsho-ni ma mtsho-ste.

There is m in tsho of the expression chu-yi mtsho
meaning a ‘lake?


( 27 )

Srog-gi htsho-wa ha htshoho.

There is h in tsho (^) of the expression srog-gi htsho-
wa meaning ‘ to live.’

Don rtogs-pa-ni ra rtogs-la.

There is r in togs (V’1’9 of the expression don itog§-
pa signifying ‘ to cogitate on the meaning?

spar csqjsrM f

Grod-pa ltogs-pa la Itogs-so.

There is I in togs ($*1**) of the expression grod-pa
Itogs-pa meaning ‘ the hunger of the belly.’

>O xo

Chu-klufi she§-pa ka klun-la.

There is k in lun (!D^’) of the word chu-klufi sig-
nifying (a river) etc.

Lhags-pahi rluh-po ra rlun-no.

There is r in luh (§^’) of the expression lhags-pahi
rlun-po meaning ‘ the wind that blows.’

Nus-pahi mthu-ni ma mthu-ste.

There is m in thu (»3) in the expression nus-pahi mthu
meaning ‘ power or capability.’

Gin hthu-wa-ni ha hthu yin.

There is h in thu (*g) of the expression $ifi hthu-wa
meaning ‘to collect wood/ etc.


( 28 )

S|qj-?f-q^q-q-q-
Thal-mo brdab-pa ba-rahi brdab.

There are b and r in dab (^a) of the expression thal-
mo brdab-pa meaning ‘to join the palms of the
hands.’

^’qgjq’q’^’zrQ&’^q |

Go§ bldab-pa-ni ba-lahi bldab.

There are b and I in dab of the expression gos
bldab-pa meaning ‘ to hem a garment.’

j*r j

San§-rgyasmdsad-pa ma mdsad yin.

There is m in dsad of the expression safis-rgyas
mdsad-pa meaning ‘ an exploit of the Buddha.’

Zad-pahi hdsad-pa ha hdsad yin.

There is h in dsad of the expression zad-pahi

hdsad-pa meaning ‘ exhaustion by expenditure.’

Yon-tan bslab-pa ba-sahi bslab.

There are b and $ in lab (^) in the expression
yon-tan bslab-pa meaning ‘ to acquire good quality.’

^’fc’Qiq’q’Qiq’|

Skad-cha lab-pa lab rkyafi-no.

There is I alone in lab-pa in the expression skad-cha
lab-pa meaning ‘to converse or to tell a news.’

X? NO

Snod-du blug-pa ba blag yin.

There is b in lag (g pa meaning ‘ to pour into a vessel.’


( 29 )

NO NO

Rgyu-ma rlugs-pa ra rlugs-te.

There is r in lugs ($*!^) of the expression rgyu-ma
rlugs-pa meaning ‘ to purge the bowels.’

Chos-khrims lugs-srol lugs rkyafi-fio.

There is I alone in lugs of the expression chos-hhrims
lug§-srol meaning ‘ a religious rule and custom.’

Grans-kyi Ifta-ni la Vha-la.

There is I in na (g) meaning the numeral 5.



Brdun-wahi rfia-ni ra rna-ste.

There is r in fia (C) in the expression brdnft-wahi rfta
meaning ‘the drum for beating.’

Dus-tshod sna-dro sa snaho.

The is s in fia (g) of the expression dus-tshod sfia-dro
meaning 6 the time—early morning.’

Grans-kyi bdun-ni ba bdun-te.

There is b in dun (a^) meaning the numeral 7.

Lus-kyi mdun-ni ma mdun-te.

There is m in dun (^V9 of the expression lus-kyi
mdun meaning the forepart of the body.



hi hdun-pa ha hdun-no.

There is h in dun (^) meaning to desire or esteem.


( 30 )

Gus-pas fydud-pa ha hdud-la.

There is h in dud (^5) of the expression gus-pas
hdud-pa meaning to bow down respectfully.

Thag-pahi mdud-pa ma mdud-stc.

There is m in dud of the expression thag-pahi
mdud-pa meaning the knot of a rope.

Bar-chad bdud-ni la bdud yin.

There is b in dud of the expression bar-chad

bdud meaning a devil which causes accidents.

Bor-stor byun-iva sa stor-la.

There is s in tor (?*) in the expression bor-§tor byufi-
iva meaning abandoned or become lost.

Gton-wahi gtor-ma ga gtor-te.

There is g in tor («|?X) of the expression of gtofi-
wahi gtor-ma. meaning an offering which is made.

Smad-gos dor-ma dor rkyah-no.

Bor in the word dor-ma meaning the trousers of the
lower garment is written with d alone.

Sdig-pa b$ags-pa ba bqags-la.

There is b in $ags of the expression sdig-pa

tyags-pa meaning to confess a sin.


( 31 )

Kha-gjfag§ kgyed-pa ga gqags yin.

There is g in fags in the expression kha-

gqags hgyed-pa meaning the justice which is
extended.

Rim-gro bzlog-pa ba bzlog-la.

There is b in zlog in the expression rim-gro bzlog
meaning to turn off (or reform) a ceremony.

Ni-ma Idog-pa la Ido g-go.

There is I in dog (§f«|) of the expression ni-ma Idog-pa
meaning the going hack of the sun.

Rin-chen dnul-ni da dnul-la.

There is d in nul (S^) meaning silver.

Lus-kyi rnul-ma ra rnul yin.

There is r in nul (£W) of the expression lu$-kyirM-
ma meaning the sweat of the body.

Shim-mnar de-ni ma mnar-la.

There is m in nar (*ka) meaning the sweet relish.

Tshar-du dhar-wa da dnar yin.

There is d in nar (5**) in the expression tshar-du
dhar-wa meaning to put in order.


( 32 )

z^’q'q^q’q’^’qg'l

Dge-ica bsno-tva ba-sahi bsno.

There are b and $ in no (^g) in the expression dge-iva
bsno-wa meaning a blessing prayed or wished for.

Yos-su brno-wa ba-rahi brno.

There are b and r in no (««’) of the expression yos-
su brno-wa brno-wa meaning to bake or parch grain.

Spy ad-lag dnos-po da Mos-la.

There is d in nos (5^) meaning an article or sub-
stance.

Nad-kyi rno-ni ra-rnoho.

There is r in no (z) meaning skin disease.

Lag-brdah byed-pa ba-rahi brdah.

There are b and r in dah (A^) of the expression lag-

brdah byed-pa meaning to make a signal by the hand.

zij^’^’q^zr|’q'qj'qj^’2f f

Gtah-mar bshag-pa ga gtah-ho.

There is g in tah in the expression gtah-mar
bshag-pa meaning to make a pledge, to pawn.

^’5j’5lyq’^’|Qj’qf

Hnah-ma len-pa mnah skyel-wa.

Ha mnah yin-par qes-par-bya.

It should be known that there is m in nah (*^) in
the expressions: mnah-ma len-pa meaning a
daugter-in-law, mnah skyel-wa to take an oath.


( 33 )

Kha-gsab non-pa sa §non-la.

There is s in non (^) of the expression kha-gsab
snon-pa meaning to increase for making anything
complete.

JSog-tu gnon-pa mnan-pa-rnams,

Ma mnan ga gnon y in-par-ges.

Yon should know that there is g in non mean-
ing to press down, and m in nan meaning to

suppress, etc.

fikes-pa spans-pa sa spafis-la.

There is $ in pans (eF**) of expression nes-pas parls-
pa meaning to abandon wickedness.

^EK’2f W1*** f

JDpan-po byed-pa da dpafi-no.

There is d in pan (Y^) of the expression dpah-po
byed-pa meaning to make witness or give evidence.

o

Len-pahi glu-ni ga glu-la.

There is g in lu (a) of the expression len-pahi glu
meaning a song that is sung.

Srog bslu la-sogs ba-sahi bslu.

There are b and s in lit ) of the expression srog-
h§lu-wa meaning to ransom life.


( 34 )

q^’q^’^’q’q’qTjVqf

q’^'q^’^^’q^’^ ,

Bsnen-bkw\ shu-wa ba bkur la,

Dwan-bskur yig-bskur la-sogs-pa,

Ba-sahi bskur-clu qes-par-bya.

It must be known that there is b in fer (Ag^) of
the expression bsnen-bkur shu-wa (to pay respect);
in kur (q^) of the expressions dwaH-bskur (to give
power), yig-bskur (to send a letter), etc., b and s
should be prefixed to k, i.e., as bskur.

JDa-ni sna-mahi min-pugs-kyis,

Phyi-ma ji-ltar thob tshul-la,

Mkhan-po Thon-mi Sambho-tas.

How by the preceding terminative lettters the proper
letters which will begin an inflective particle
following it should be determined (has been ex-
plained) by Professor Thonmi Sambhota.

Sum-cu-pa-las rjes-hjug-la,

Yi da& mthun-lugs heli shes-bya.

In the work Sum-cu-pa: the suffix letters* (with
i joined) are thus made to harmonize (with letters
beginning the inflective particles).

* The ten suffix letters are5, % *1, q and I


( 35 )

Daft-po gni§-la daft-po mtliun.

The first letter of the suffix i.e. «I agrees with the first
i.e. and second

Gsum Ina bcii-la kya dan sbyar.

Join kya with the third i.e. 5, fifth i.e. A and tenth
i.e. (suffix letters).

Bdun-pa nid la bdun-pa ste.

The seventh with the seventh.

Lliag-ma-rnams-la gya sbyar-wa.

(Also) join gya with the remaining ones.

De-dag i sbyar hbrel-wahi sa.

J oin those with i and those again with sa.

Gsufts-pahi don-ni hdi-lta-ste.

The meaning of the Sutra as explained by Thon-mi
Sambhota is thus illustrated :

f

Bjes-hjug yi-ge bcu-po yi,

Daft-po ga daft na-yi mthar,

I Gi-las kyi daft gyi mi thob.

After ga and wa of the ten suffix-letters only gi is

used, but kyi and gyi are not used.

in his grammatical Sutra called Sum-
cu-pa written in thirty stanzas.

I

I


( 36 )

De-bshin da-ba-sa-yi mthar,

Kyi-las gyi dan gi mi zer.

So after da, ba and sa only kyi is used, but gyi and
gi are not used.

r

De-bshin na-ma-rci-lahi mthar,

Gyi-las kyi dan yi mi zer. f

So after na, ma, ra and la only gyi is used, kyi and

gi are not used. |

De-bshin ha daft hdogs-can daft,

Kkyaft-pahi mthah-ru hi she§ zer,

So hi is used after ha, after a letter having another
letter subjoined and after a letter forming by itself
a syllable.

i

I

Kon-kyaft tshigs-bcad-dag-la-ni,

Yig-hbru chad na yi shes thob.

But in verse (for the metre) when a word is neces-
sary, yi is used (instead of hi). ,

De-bshin su-yi hjug-tshnl yaft.

So also the mode of using su.


C 37 )

Ga dan ba dan da drag mthar.

Tu-las du sogs gshan mi thob.

After ga, ba and da drag* only tu is used, du and
others are not used.

Na-da-na-ma-ra-lahi mthar,

Du-la§ tu sogs gshan mi thob.

After fia, da, na, ma, ra and la only du is used, tu
and others are not used.

$rwrw’^’£pr>*, f

Sa-yi mthar-ni su shes zer.

So su is used after sa termination.

Ha dafi hdogs-can rkyan-patyi mthar,

Ru dan ra las gshan mi thob.

MIqt ha, after a letter having another letter sub-
joined, and after a letter forming by itself a
syllable, besides ru and ra nothing is used.

^’q^wurgv|faruj£; |

De-bshin e-yi sbyor-tshul yan.

So also the method of using letters joined
with e.

* Da-drag is a term used by grammarians, for the now obso-
lete d as second final, after n, r, I, e.g. in kund (-S’. A. Jaschke).


( 38 )

gc’ES/jw^srqjqprlif |

Na-ra-la-sahi mthah-ru ni,

Ta rkyan te zer hdogs-can dan,

Rkyan-pahi mthah-ru sa btags steho.

Ta alone and te are used after na, ra, la and sa; and
ste (te joined with sa) is used after a letter having
another letter subjoined and after a letter forming
by itself a syllable.

Da-yi mthah-ni de shes zer.

So de is used after da termination.

De-bshin o-yi sbyor-tshul yan.

So the mode of joining o with letters :

jk f

Rdsogs-tshigs skabs da drag ma-gtogs,

Ran-ran rngo-la na-ro sbyor.

The vowel sign o is joined to the head of the res-
pective final letters except in the case of da drag
termination.

Na ra la gsum da drag rnthar,

To shes by a wahi drag yig sbyor.

No and ro are respectively used after na, ra and la;

but when da drag happens to be after na and ra the
termination called to is used.


( 39 )

. Sdogs-can rkyan-pahi mthar ho zer.

So is used after a letter having another letter sub-

r joined and after a letter forming by itself a syllable.

r I

>. Gshan yan ga-da-ba-sahi mthar,

Kyan zer drag yod rnams lahan dgos.

So also kyan is used after ga, da, ba and sa, and

sometimes after da drag termination.

Na-na-ma-ra-la mthar yafi,

Sa dan mthah med hah yan sbyor.

After the letters ha, na, ma, ra and la yan is used.

After ha and vowel terminations han is used.

y I

( Na-ra-la gsum drag-can dan,

f Ga-da-ba-yi mthah-rn-ni,

•A Cin dah cig ces ce na zer.

After the letters na, ra and la, da drag and after ga,

da and ba, cih, cig, ces and ce sm used.

Gshan-la shin shes shig she na.

After other terminations shin, she§, shig and she are

* used.


( 40 )

Thob-mod sa-yi mthah-ru-ni,

Gift (jig je na zer-wa sbyor.

Cift, (jig and jo are agreeably used after m.

Ges-ni sbyor-wa mkhas-pas span.

Learned men avoid using jes after sa.

et gK’£'Q,’V«1 V |

Ga-da-ba-sa-na-mahi mthar,

Pa sbyor fta-ha-ra-la daft,

H clogs-can fkyaft-pahi mthah-ru-ni,

Ba-phyed wa-ru hbod-pa daft.

Pa is used after ga, da, ba, sa, na and ma. Ba is
used after fta, ha, ra, la, after a letter having
another letter subjoined and after a letter forming
by itself a syllable; but ba is then half-pro-
nounced as wa.

Pa-nid sbyor •wa gnis-gnis yod.

Pa itself may be used doubly too.


( 41 )

f

Dri-bahm dgag-tshig skabs-su-ni,

Mthah-rten-rnams-la ma sbyor-shift.

In signifying interrogation or prohibition ma is con-

veniently joined to the final consonants.

Y5T53i''3’'5;w'Sc^ I
i^qprsy jcift-JiSVWi* |

Da-drag-can la tarn daft ni,

Hdogs-can rkyaft-pahi mthar ham zer.

Sometimes tam is used after da drag ; and ham after

a letter having another letter subjoined, and after
a letter forming by itself a syllable.

Tshig-rkan mthah-nc nis gad daft,

Lehiihi mtshams-su bshi gad thob.

At the close of a verse two perpendicular strokes are

used, and at the end of a chapter four such strokes
are used.

I

Ga-yig mthah-ru tshig-gad bya.

One stroke is to be used after ga when terminating a

line.

Gad-go ft phal-cher phye-tsheg §paft.

Putting a dot* over a stroke should be avoided.

* A dot is to be used before a stroke in case of the final
letter being fta.


( 42 )

Rkyati-qad thob-tshul skabs dan sbyar.

The use of a stroke (signifying a stop) should he
made where proper and necessary.

Gshan yan lha-Ha scgo-na dan,

Sla-na sogs-la na mthah span. '*

Do not suffix na to lha i.e., lhan-na is wrong, write

lha-Ha (a knee-pan), write sgo-Ha (an egg) hut not
sgoH-Ha, write sla-Ha (an iron pan) hut not slan-Ha.

srgx’j’i’S^V'l

Lha-rje na-rgyal bya-rgod dan,

Ldo-rje sogs-la ra mthah span.

Do not suffix ra to lha, i.e., do not write lhar-je; lha-rje
(a physician or Indra) is correct; do not write na) -
gyal but write na-rgyal (pride) ; do not put r after
by a in bya-rgod (a vulture), so rdor-je is wrong hut j
write rdo-rje (a diamond), etc.

Log-rtog sogs-la sa mthah spafi.

Do not suffix sa to log in writing log-rtog (signifying
a wrong .judgment), etc.

sys'wss i i

Tshi-gu myu-gu lu-gu-rgyud,

Yi-ge sogs-la ga mthah spafi.

Do not suffix ga to tshi; it is wrong to write tshig-gu but
ishj-gu (the stone of a fruit) is correct, so myug-gu J
is wrong hut myu-gu (the sprout of corn) is correct,
lu-gu-rgyud (a rope to which lambs are fastened) J

I


( 43 )

is correct but lug-gu rgyud is wrong, so do not put r
after yi in yi-ge (a letter), etc.

Tshi-chad yi-chad yi-rahs dan,

Yi-dam sogs-la da mthah span.

Do not suffix da to tshi in writing tshi-chad (juice-
less) for tshid-chad is wrong, yi-chad is correct but
yii-chad is wrong, yurans is right but yid-rans is
wrong, yi-dam (a tutelary deity) is correct, but
yid-rans is wrong, etc.

Gsun-rab mkhyen-rab rig-snags daft,

Sam-na fiam-ch/un ham-thag dart,

Log-rtog sogs-la sa mthah span.

Do not suffix sa to gsun in writing gsun-rab (a good
precept or sermon), or to mkhyenrn. mkhyen-rab (wis-
dom) ; in rig-snags (a charm) do not suffix s to g,
nam-na (anxiety) is correct but hams-na is incorrect,
ham-chuh (poor) is correct, ham-thag (suffering) is
correct but hams-thag is wrong, to log do not suffix
$ in writing log-rtog (a wrong judgment).

qatvqjK’wpwiTWSEi

Rgya-mtshor ma dan lha-btsun dan,

Bzah-btzin sogs-la ba mthah spati.

Do not suffix ma to rgya to write rgya-mtshor (in the
ocean) rgyam-tsho being wrong, and do not suffix
ba to lha in writing lha-btsun (a venerable person),
bzah-btuft (meat and drink) is correct but bzaib-
tuh is wrong, etc.


( 41 )

sr f

Lha§-byin mis-byin klus-byin-la,

Sa mthah yod kyan s« mgo med.

There is the suffix sa in lhas in lhas byin (given by
a god), in mis in mis byin (given by a man), in klus
in klus by in (given by a serpent-demon), etc., but
do not surmount lha in lhas with sa, so do not sur-
mount ma in mis or klu in klus-byin.

Qir^’^i,3rQr<^Qr|Y?F I

Nags-tshal skyed-tshal sde-tshan tshogs,

Tshon-rtsi phra-tshom tshar-du dnar,

The-t shorn tshoms-rnams khan-pahi tshoms,

Lan-tsho sogs-la hphul-byed span.

Do not put any prefix before tshal in writing nags-tshal
(a forest), before tshal in sky ed-tshal (a grove), before
tshogs in writing sde-tshan tshogs (a class assembled),
before tshon in tshon-rtsi (a paint), before tshorn
in phra-tshom tshar-du dnar (a border or trimming
set with jewels or pearls in nice array), before
tshom in the-tshom (doubt), before tshoms in tshoms-
rfiams (a noise or clatter), before tshoms signifying
a courtyard, before tsho in lan-tsho (youth), etc.

La-sogs da-lta shes-sogs-la,

Bar tsheg mi byed blun-pohi lugs.

It is a practice of the foolish people not to put a dot
between la and sogs in la-sogs (so on or et cetera),
between da and It a in da-lta (now), and so on.


( <5 )

i

Yin shes gsuns-phyir bar tsheg dgos.

A syllabic dot is necessary between yin and shes
in yin-shes it being abbreviation of yin-par shes (it
is so), and between gsuns and phyir in gsufis-
phyir an abbreviation of gsuns-pahi phyir (for
saying).

Gshan yafi dkah-wa hdi-lta-ste.

The difficult others are as follow.

^q’w^q^y^’^y^c f

Sgrub-thabs sgrub-ehen sgom-chen dan,

Chos-srun la-sogs gshi-tshig dan,

Byed-tshig yin-phyir bas hphul med.

Ba should not be prefixed to the root-word sgrub in
sgrub-thabs (the method of accomplishing), also to
sgrub insgrub-chen (a great ascetic), to sgomin sgom-
chen (a great meditator), and to srun in the word
chos-srun (a protector of religion), etc.; in as much
as the prefix ba is only used for making a word of
verbal formation.

I

Bsgrub-bya bsgrub dan bsgom-bya bsgom,

Bsrun-bya bsrun sogs bya-tshig yin,

Bya-wa hbrel-phyir bas hphul yod.

Bsgrub-bya, bsgom-bya and bsrun-bya etc., are
verbal words; the prefix ba is oonjoinable to


( « )

them for their verbal connection i.e.y to signify
the work to be done.

Bsgrubs-so bsgoms-so bsruns-so sogs,

JBdas-tshig yin-phyir bas hphul yod.

Being words of the past tense bsgrubs-so (accom-
plished), bsgoms-so (meditated), bsruns-so (guarded),
etc. have ba prefix.

f

Sgoms-qig §grubs-qig sruns-yig sogs,

Bskul-tshig yin-phyir bas hphul med.

Sgoms-qig (do meditate), sgrubs-qig (do accomplish),
sruns-$ig (do guard), etc. being in the exhortative
mood cannot take the ba prefix.

Be-bshin gshan-lahn qes-par-bya.

So others also must be known.

]jldor-na\yi-ge thams-cad-lay

Mthah-rten yi-ge gah yin dahy

Hgreh-bu yod-med la-sogs-pahiy

Khyad-par so-sor qes-par-bya.

In short in the case of all letters distinction should
be made between words with a final consonant and
those with the vowel-sign e on them, etc., as both
the classes pronounce alike.




( 48 ) J

Tshig-gi hag-la med-pa dafi, j

Gzugs sftags-la ni god-pa gin.

There is no final sa in hag meaning a word or speech; f
but there is a final sa in snags meaning a charm or
spell on the body.

Rta-lcag-la ni sa-mthah med,

Lcags-thag sogs-la god-pa gin.

There is no final sa in leag of the word rta-lcag (a
horse-whip), but there is a final sa in leags of the f
word leags-thag (an iron chain), etc.

Snod-chag qih-chag sogs-la med.

There is no final sa in chag of the word $nod-chag
(a broken vessel), qih-chag (a wooden vessel), etc.

Sdod-chags gnas-chags sogs-la god.

There is a final sa in chags in hdod-chags (carnal
desire), gnas-chags (desire for a place), etc. /

f [

f f

ffam-chun-la ni med-pa daft, (

Rams-dgah sogs-la god-pa gin. ♦

There is no final sa in nam of the word nam-chuft

(poor or weak), but there is a final sa in nams of
the word nams-dgah (delightful), etc.


( 49 )

Rtag-pa mi-rtag rnams-la med,

Rtags dati mtshan-mahi rtags-la yod.

There is no final sa in rtag of the words rtag-pa

(perpetual), mi-rtag (perishing), etc., but there is a
final sa in the word rtags meaning a sign.

^qj^’q’<2r$rTO’w^ |

Rnam-rtog-la ni med-pa dati,

Don rtogs-pa-la sa mthah yod.

There is no final sa in rtog of the word rnam-rtog (to
doubt), but there is a final sa in rtogs (^JJ*i) of the
word rtogs-pa meaning understanding.

Gratis-kyi tham-pa sa mthah med,

Thams-cad-la ni yod-pa yin.

There is no final sa in tham-pa meaning ‘ complete ”
used in connection with a number*; but there is a
final sa in thams of the word thams-ca 4 all/

Rnam dwye rnam gratis sogs-la med,

Jidati-tshig rnams-la sa mthah yod.

There is no final sa in rnam of the word rnam-dwye

and rnam-gratis; but there is a final sa in rnams
signifying ‘plurality/

* Tham-pa is used as a pleonastic addition to the tens up to
hundred thus:

leu tham-pa—ten. complete;

irgya tham-pa—&& exact hundred; etc.


( 50 )

Smra-wahi tshig-la med-pa dan,

Tshigs-bcad Ihu tshigs sogs-la yod.

There is no final sa in tshig meaning a speech (or
word) ; but there is a final sa in tshigs of the word
tshigs-bcad (a verse), or Ihu-tshigs meaning a por-
tion, etc.

Sems-can lug-la.sa^thahmcd^

Chos lugs sogs-la sa mthah yod.

There is no final sa in lug meaning an animal (a
sheep), but there is" a final sa in lugs meaning
religious rites, etc.

»

Hdi-sogs nes-can yin-pa-la,

Qshan yafi tshig-don-la Itos-nas,

Thob daft mi-thob sna-tshogs yoft.

These are actual (instances). Besides, by examining
other words and their meanings you will find that
there are some which have a final sa and others not.

‘r

. M.C . i r L

B. S. Press—28530—1,000—31-10-1902.

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