Citation
Special report of Wm. H. Taft, Secretary of War, to the President on the Philippines

Material Information

Title:
Special report of Wm. H. Taft, Secretary of War, to the President on the Philippines
Creator:
Taft, William H ( William Howard ), 1857-1930
Publication Date:

Subjects

Temporal Coverage:
1898 - 1909
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Philippines
Asya -- Pilipinas
Asia -- Filipinas
Coordinates:
13 x 122

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
394953 ( aleph )
X192650334 ( oclc )
Classification:
HB945 ( ddc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
WAR DEPARTMENT : : : OFFICE OF SECRETARY
SPECIAL REPORT OF
WM. H. TAFT
Secretary of War
TO THE PRESIDENT
ON THE PHILIPPINES
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1908




WAR DEPARTMENT : : : OFFICE OF SECRETARY
SPECIAL REPORT OF
WM. H. TAFT
Secretary of War
TO THE PRESIDENT
ON THE PHILIPPINES
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1908




CONTENTS.
Page.
Letter of transmittal............................................................................................................5
Condition as to law and order—Their restoration and permanent maintenance. 9
Work of the United States Army............................................................................13
Promise of extension of self-government.................. ........................14
Organization of the Federal party..........................................................................15
Central government....................................................................................................15
Effect on permanent order of municipal and provincial governments and
national assembly....................................................................................................16
Establishment of courts.................... ....................................................17
Philippine constabulary.....................-................................................19
Friars' lands..................................................................................................................20
Present condition........................................................................................................23
Political capacity and intellectual development of the Filipinos under Spain
and the steps taken by the Philippine government for their general and
political education............................................................................................................23
Education in schools....................................................................................................27
Filipino cadets at West Point............................................................................31
Practical political education......................................................................................31
Municipalities and provinces............................................................................31
Civil service..........................................................................................................39
Civil rights............................................................................................................40
National assembly.....................................................42
Sanitation..............................................................................................................................49
Benguet—A health resort............................................................................56
Comparative mortality from January 1, 1901, to September 30, 1907..........57
Mortality compared with same period of previous years..................................58
Material progress and business conditions....................................................................58
Value of Philippine exports, 1903-1907, of American occupation..................59
Value of Philippine exports in Spanish times, calendar years 1885-1894.. 60
Sugar and tobacco—Reduction of tariff................................................................60
Fodder............................................................................................................................62
New plants....................................................................................................................62
Financial condition of the government..................................................................62
Friars' lands..................................................................................................................64
Final settlement in respect to charitable trusts and Spanish-Filipino Bank
with Roman Catholic Church..............................................................................65
Roads..............................................................................................................................65
Railroads in the Philippines....................................................................................66
General business conditions......................................................................................67
Business future of Philippines..............................-....................67
Gold-standard currency..............................................................................................68
Need of capital—Agricultural bank........................................................................68
Postal savings bank ....................................................................................................69
3


4
CONTENTS.
Material progress and business conditions—Continued. Page.
Post-office and telegraphs..........................................................................................70
Mines and mining........................................................................................................71
United States coastwise trading laws......................................................................71
City of Manila..............................................................................................................72
Political future of the islands............................................................................................73
Cost of the present government of the islands............................................................77
Recommendations................................................................................................................79


To the Senate and House of Representatives:
I transmit herewith the report of Secretary Taft upon his recent
trip to the Philippines. I heartily concur in the recommendations he
makes, and I call especial attention to the admirable work of Gover-
nor Smith and his associates. It is a subject for just national gratifi-
cation that such a report as this can be made. No great civilized
power has ever managed with such wisdom and disinterestedness the
affairs of a people committed b}' the accident of war to its hands. If
we had followed the advice of the misguided persons who wished us
to turn the islands loose and let them suffer whatever fate might be-
fall them, they would have already passed through a period of com-
plete and bloody chaos, and would now undoubtedly be the possession
of some other power which there is every reason to believe would not
have done as we have done; that is, would not have striven to teach
them how to govern themselves or to have developed them, as we have
developed them, primarily in their own interests. Save only our atti-
tude toward Cuba, I question whether there is a brighter page in the
annals of international dealing between the strong and the weak than
the page which tells of our doings in the Philippines. I call especial
attention to the admirably clear showing made by Secretarjr Taft
of the fact that it would have been equally ruinous if we had yielded
to the desires of those who w-ished us to go faster in the direction of
giving the Filipinos self-government, and if we had followed the
policy advocated by others, who desired us simply to rule the islands
without any thought at all of fitting them for self-government. The
islanders have made real advances in a hopeful direction, and they
have opened well with the new Philippine Assembly; they have yet a
long way to travel before they will be fit for complete self-govern-
ment, and for deciding, as it will then be their duty to do, whether
this self-government shall be accompanied by complete independence.
It will probably be a generation, it may even be longer, before this
point is'reached; but it is most gratifying that such substantial prog-
ress toward this as a goal has already been accomplished. We desire
that it be reached at as early a date as possible for the sake of the
Filipinos and for our own sake. But improperly to endeavor to hurry
the time will probably mean that the goal will not be attained at all.
Theodore Roosevelt.
The White House,
January 27,1908.
(5)


SPECIAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR.
War Department,
Washington, D. C., January 23, 1908.
Mr. President:
By your direction I have just visited the Philippine Islands. I
sailed from Seattle September 13, last; reached Manila October 15;
remained in the Islands until November 9, when I returned to the
United States via Trans-Siberian Railway, reaching New York De-
cember 20. The occasion for my visit was the opening of the Philip-
pine Assembly. The members of the Assembly were elected in July
last, in accordance with the organic act of Congress, by the eligible
voters of the Christian provinces of the Islands, divided into 80 dis-
tricts. The Assembly becomes a branch of the legislature of the
Islands coordinate with the Philippine Commission. This makes a
decided change in the amount of real power which the Philippine
electorate is to exercise in the control of the Islands. If justified by
substantial improvement in the political conditions in the Islands, it
is a monument of progress.
It is more than nine years since the battle of Manila Bay and the
subsequent surrender of Manila by the Spaniards to the American
forces. It is more than eight years since the exchange of ratifica-
tions of the treaty of Paris, by which the Philippine Islands passed
under the sovereignty and became the property of the United States.
It is more than seven years since President McKinley, by written
instructions to Mr. Root, Secretary of War, committed the govern-
ment of the Philippine Islands to the central control of the Philip-
pine Commission, subject to the supervision of the Secretary of War.
It is more than six years since the complete installation of a quasi
civil government in the Islands, with a civil governor as executive
and the Commission as a legislature, all by authority of the Presi-
dent as Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy. It is more
than five years since the steps taken by President McKinley and
yourself in establishing and maintaining a quasi civil government
in the Islands were completely ratified and confirmed by the Con-
gress in an organic act which, in effect, continued the existing govern-
ment, but gave it needed powers as a really civil government that
the President under constitutional limitations was unable to confer.
The installation of the Assembly seems to be, therefore, an appro-
priate time for a precise statement of the national policy toward the
people of the Philippines adopted by Mr. McKinley, continued by
you, and confirmed by Congress, for an historical summary of the
conditions political, social, and material, existing in the Islands when
the United States became responsible for their government, and for a
(6)


7 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
review of the results of governmental measures taken to improve the
conditions of law and order, the political and intellectual capacity of
the people, and their sanitary and material welfare.
The policy of the United States toward the Philippines is, of course,
ultimately for Congress to determine, and it is difficult to see how one
Congress could bind another Congress, should the second conclude to
change the policy declared by the first. But we may properly assume
that after one Congress has announced a policy upon the faith of
which a whole people has for some years acted and counted, good con-
science would restrain subsequent Congresses from lightly changing
it. For four years Congress in silence permitted Mr. McKinley and
yourself, as Commanders in Chief of the Army, to adopt and carry
out a policy in the Philippines, and then expressly ratified everything
which you had done, and confirmed and made part of the statute cer-
tain instructions which Mr. McKinley issued for the guidance of the
Philippine Commission in making civil government in the Islands.
Not only this, but Congress closely followed, in the so-called organic
act, your recommendations as to provisions for a future change in the
Philippine government. The national policy may, therefore, be found
in the course pursued and declarations made by the Chief Executives
in Congressional messages and other state papers which have met the
approval of Congress.
Shortly stated, the national policy is to govern the Philippine
Islands for the benefit and welfare and uplifting of the people of the
Islands and gradually to extend to them, as they shall show them-
selves fit to exercise it, a greater and greater measure of popular self-
government. One of the corollaries to this proposition is that the
United States in its government of the Islands will use every effort
to increase the capacity of the Filipinos to exercise political power,
both by general education of the densely ignorant masses and by
actual practice, in partial self-government, of those whose political
capacity is such that practice can benefit it without too great injury
to the efficiency of government. What should be emphasized in the
statement of our national policy is that we Avish to prepare the
Filipinos for popular self-government. This is plain from Mr. Mc-
Kinley's letter of instructions and all of his utterances. It was not
at all within his purpose or that of the Congress which made his letter
part of the law of the land that we were merely to await the organiza-
tion of a Philippine oligarchy or aristocracy competent to administer
government and then turn the Islands over to it. On the contrary,
it is plain, from all of Mr. McKinley's utterances and your own, in
interpretation of our national purpose, that we are the trustees and
guardians of the whole Filipino people, and peculiarly of the ignorant
masses, and that our trust is not discharged until those masses are
given education sufficient to know their civil rights and maintain


8 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
them against a more powerful class and safely to exercise the politi-
cal franchise. This is important, in view of the claim, to which I
shall hereafter refer, made by certain Filipino advocates of imme-
diate independence under the auspices of the Boston anti-imperialists,
that a satisfactory independent Philippine government could be es-
tablished under a governing class of 10 per cent and a serving and
obedient class of 90 per cent.
Another logical deduction from the main proposition is that when
the Filipino people as a whole, show themselves reasonably fit to
conduct a popular self-government, maintaining law and order and
offering equal protection of the laws and civil rights to rich and
poor, and desire complete independence of the United States, they
shall be given it. The standard set, of course, is not that of perfec-
tion or such a governmental capacity as that of an Anglo-Saxon peo-
ple, but it certainly ought to be one of such popular political capacity
that complete independence in its exercise will result in progress rather
than retrogression to chaos or tyranny. It should be noted, too, that
the tribunal to decide whether the proper political capacity exists to
justify independence is Congress and not the Philippine electorate.
Aspiration for independence may well be one of the elements in
the make-up of a people to show their capacity for it, but there are
other qualifications quite as indispensable. The judgment of a people
as to their own political capacity is not an unerring guide.
The national Philippine policy contemplates a gradual extension
of popular control, i. e., by steps. This was the plan indicated in Mr.
McKinley's instructions. This was the method indicated in your
recommendation that a popular assembly be made part of the legis-
lature. This was evidently the view of Congress in adopting your
recommendation, for the title of the act is " For the temporary gov-
ernment of the Philippine Islands " and is significant of a purpose or
policy that the government then being established was not in perma-
nent form, but that changes in it from time to time would be
necessary.
In the historical summary of conditions in the Islands when the
United States assumed responsibility for their government and the
review of measures adopted by the present Philippine government
to improve conditions and the results, it will be convenient to con-
sider the whole subject under the following heads:
1. The conditions as to law and order. The way in which they
have been restored and are now permanently maintained.
2. The political capacity and intellectual development of the
Filipinos under Spain and the steps taken by the Philippine govern-
ment for their general and political education.
3. Conditions of health under Spain. The sanitary measures under
the Philippine government.


9 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
4. The material and business conditions. Progress made under
present government.
5. The future of the Philippines.
6. The cost of the Philippine government to the United States.
THE CONDITIONS AS TO LAW AND ORDER—THEIR RESTORATION
AND PERMANENT MAINTENANCE.
In 1896 occurred the first real insurrection against the Government
of Spain in the Philippine Islands. The idea of a more liberal gov-
ernment than that which Spain gave the Islands had taken root in
1871 with the opening of the Suez Canal, the flocking of Spaniards
to Manila, and the spread of republican doctrines that had had a short
triumph in the mother country about that time. In the measures of
repression which were adopted from time to time by Spanish govern-
ors-general the aid of Spanish parish priests was thought by the peo-
ple to be actively enlisted in ferreting out those suspected of sedition
and too liberal political views. The priests were largely from the
four religious orders—the Dominicans, the Augustinians, the Fran-
ciscans, and the Recoletos. There was a considerable body of native
priests also, but they were of the secular clergy, held the less desirable
posts, and were hostile to the Spanish friars. Three of the religious
orders held large bodies of rich agricultural lands situate, much of it,
in Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Morong, Bataan, and Bulacan, all thickly
populated provinces close to Manila. Their tenants numbered sixty
or seventy thousand persons. The insurrection of 1896 was not only
against the Spanish Government to secure a more liberal regime, but
it was also for the elimination of the friars as a controlling political
element in the community. It was largely confined to Cavite, La-
guna, Manila, and Bulacan, where lay the large friars' estates. It had
an agrarian aspect. There was much fighting, and the losses on both
sides were very heavy, especially in the province of Cavite. Ulti-
mately the drastic measures of the Spaniards drove Aguinaldo and
the forces which he led out of Cavite into Bulacan and led to what
was known as the treaty of Biac-na-Bato. This was an arrangement
by which many of the insurrecto chiefs, including Aguinaldo, agreed,
in consideration of the payment of a large sum of money, to end the
insurrection and withdraw from the Islands. The money was to be
paid in three installments. The first payment was made, and many of
the chiefs, including Aguinaldo, withdrew from the Islands and went
to Hongkong. There was much dispute as to what the agreement was,
and it was strenuously insisted by each side that the other failed to
comply with its stipulations. It is not material now to consider this
mooted question. Suffice it to say that in 1898, when Admiral Dewey
attacked the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, the embers of dissatisfac-
tion on the part of the former Filipino insurgents with the Spanish


10 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Government were still aglow, and it was not difficult for Aguinaldo
to raise a force of insurrectos to aid the Americans in surrounding
Manila and in driving Spain from the Islands.
Between 1896 and 1898 the conditions which had been brought on
by the first insurrection continued, and trade was much interrupted,
agriculture did not flourish, and conditions as to the maintenance of
order were by no means favorable. As an index to this, it may be
said that the managers of the friars' estates collected no rents from
the tenants after 1896. The battle of Manila Bay and the defeat of
the Spanish fleet destroyed the prestige of Spain throughout the
Islands and created insurrection in nearly every province. The re-
fusal of General Merritt to permit Aguinaldo's troops to enter
Manila created a resentment on the part of the Filipino soldiers,
and the relations between the Americans and the Filipinos soon be-
came strained. The situation was not relieved at all by the signing of
the treaty at Paris, transferring the sovereignty of the islands to the
Americans." Meantime, as the Americans were confined to the occu-
pation of Manila, Aguinaldo and his military assistants attempted the
organization of a government throughout the islands. A so-called
constitutional convention was held at Malolos and a constitution was
adopted. At the same time the Visayan republic was organized, to
embrace the Visayan Islands, under certain Visayan leaders. It pro-
fessed allegiance to Aguinaldo's government. Neither Aguinaldo's
government nor the Visayan government was able to maintain order,
and the whole country was subject to the looting of predatory bands,
and chaos reigned. "Where the Aguinaldo government had authority,
it was exercised with military severity and with "much local oppres-
sion and corruption. On the 4th of February, 1899, there was an
attack by the Filipino forces surrounding Manila upon the American
troops, which was successfully resisted. Later on, upon the 23d of
February, there was an outbreak in Manila itself, and an attempt to
burn the city, which was suppressed by the American troops with a
heavy hand.
On the 11th of April the treaty ceding the Philippine Islands to
the United States was ratified and ratifications exchanged. From
that time until the spring of 1900 a campaign was carried on by
the American forces against the regularly organized troops under
Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo's forces were defeated and scattered, and then
in 1900 there succeeded a guerrilla warfare in nearly every province
in the Islands, which was continued with more or less vigor until July,
1902. The guerrilla warfare was carried on only because of the
encouragement received by the insurrectos from speeches of the
so-called " anti-imperialists " and the assurances publicly given by
political leaders in the United States of immediate severance of the


11 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
relations between the Islands and the United States in case the Ad-
ministration were defeated in the election. At times the warfare
would seem to cease and the insurrection seem to be at an end, and then
it would revive again, apparently with a view to influencing elections
in America.
It can readily be inferred from this statement that from the
breaking out of the insurrection in 1896, with the new insurrection
in 1898, and the war with the Americans beginning earty in 1899 until
the close of the guerrilla warfare in June, 1902, the conditions of
the country were not peaceable and agriculture could not flourish.
Not only did the existence of actual war prevent farming, but the
spirit of laziness and restlessness brought on by a guerrilla life af-
fected the willingness of the native to work in the fields. More than
this, the natural hatred for the Americans which a war vigorously
conducted by American soldiers was likely to create did not make the
coming of real peace easy.
But in addition to these disturbed conditions, due directly to war,
there are certain features of Philippine civilization always present,
war or no war, that do not tend to permanent tranquillity and can not
be ignored.
In the first place the Philippines have been infested with ladrones,
or robber bands, since their earliest history. The Spanish Govern-
ment maintained a large force, called " la guardia civil," to suppress
the evil. In some provinces, blackmail was regularly paid by large
landowners to insure themselves against the loss incident to attack ana
destruction of their property. In the province of Cavite, for instance,
ladronism was constant, and it was understood that the managers of
the friars' estates, which amounted in all in that province to 125,000
acres, usually paid blackmail to ladrones in the form of money or
provisions. The province of Cavite was known as " the mother of
ladrones," and there was certainly a sympathy between the lower
classes and the ladrones who mulcted the landlords.
But besides the ladrone habit, which makes for continued disorder,
there is another quality of the ignorant masses of the Philippine
people that is a constant danger to tranquillity. More than 80 per
cent of the Philippine people are illiterate. Their ignorance is dense.
They speak some 15 or 16 different, Malay dialects. Knowledge of
one dialect does not give an understanding of another. Each dialect
has a limited vocabulary, which offers no medium of communication
with modern thought or civilization. Their ignorance makes them
suspicious of all educated persons but those of their own race who
know their dialect and are well to do.
The result is that in rural communities in the Philippines whole
townships of people are completely subject to the will of any educated,


12 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
active-minded person living in that community, who knows the local
dialect and is willing or able to arouse either the fears or cupidity of
his neighbors into the organization of a band either to resist fancied
dangers or oppression, to satisfy vengeance, or to achieve a living and
comfort without labor. This is the central and most important fact
in the make-up of the local Philippine communities. It has led to the
abuse of caciquism, i. e., local bossism, to which I shall refer in the
question of the organization of municipalities and provincial govern-
ments. The history of the insurrection and of the condition of law-
lessness which succeeded the insurrection is full of instances in which
simple-minded country folk at the bidding of the local leader, or
cacique, have committed the most horrible crimes of torture and mur-
der, and when arrested and charged with it have merely pleaded that
they were ordered to commit the crime by the great man of the
community. This irresponsible power possessed by local leaders over
their ignorant neighbors, in case of an independent Filipino govern-
ment lacking the moral strength which the United States Government
derives from its power and resources and its determination to punish
disturbance and maintain order, would, under present conditions,
lead, after a short period, to a chaos of ever-recurring revolt and in-
surrection to satisfy the vengeance of disappointed bosses and local
leaders.
Whenever Filipino municipal officials come into contact either with
non-Christian tribes or with inferior peoples of their own race like
those who live in the mountains of Samar and Leyte, known as
" pulahanes," they are likely to exercise official authority for their
c?wn profit and to the detriment of the inferior people. Thus in
Samar and Leyte the mountain people raise a good deal of hemp.
The municipal authorities of the lowlands and the local caciques
conspire to prevent the disposition of this hemp to anyone but their
own agents at an unjustly low price, using duress and a show of
official authority for the purpose. This fraud and mistreatment
ultimately creates among the mountain peoples a just sense of indig-
nation. Then it is that some religious fakir invites them to organize
against their enemies, under the charm of some religious token, and
some lowland village is sacked and its people are murdered. The
central and provincial authorities intervene and a war ensues, which
lays waste much of the interior of the islands, to suppress a disorder
that had its inception in a just cause of complaint.
Of course the frequency of such disturbances is reduced as educa-
tion spreads, as the poor and oppressed begin to understand their
rights and the lawful method of asserting them, and as the real cause
of such outbreaks are more clearty understood and suppressed. But
no account of the difficulty of maintaining peace and order in the


13 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Philippines would be accurate or just which did not make clear this
possible recurring cause of trouble and disturbance under present
conditions, due to the ease with which simple-minded, ignorant people
of a community can be aroused, by one or more of the better educated
of their own race viciously inclined, to deeds of murder and cruel
violence. Such disturbances are generally heralded as the evidence of
seething sedition and discontent with the American Government,
whereas they are generally but the effect and symptom of mere local
abuses entirely Filipino in origin.
Having thus described the conditions of disorder, actual and poten-
tial, in the Philippines, due not only to the four or five years of inter-
mittent and recurring war, the rancor and race hatred it tended to
create, the unfounded hopes held out by American anti-imperialists,
and all the other sequelae of war, but also to certain normal features
and qualities of the present Philippine civilization, I come to review
the measures taken and policy adopted by the American Government
to bring the Islands to their present state of complete tranquillity.
the work of the united states army.
The agency of the Army in bringing about order in the Islands
must never be minimized. The hardships of the campaign which
it had to carry on were very great. The responsibility which was
thrown upon captains, lieutenants, and sergeants in command of
small detachments into which it was necessary to divide the Army
to meet the exigencies of guerrilla warfare was met with courage and
intelligence and great fertility of resource under most trying and
unusual conditions. It is not too much to say that no other army
of the same size could have accomplished the results which were
accomplished by the American Army. At times there were some
members of this Army who were tempted, in the eagerness of pursuit,
into indefensible and cruel practices for the obtaining of informa-
tion—practices which had been common among the Spaniards and the
Filipinos themselves. Revelations of these cruelties led to severe
indiscriminate criticism and attacks on the Army as a whole which
were calculated to discourage and dishearten, but in spite of all
difficulties the work went on. At one time in the campaign against
guerrilla warfare there were more than 500 different posts and more
than 65,000 men in arms. Certain it is that order would have never
been restored without the efficient and courageous service rendered
by the Army, and in spite of all the stories that were told of the
cruelties inflicted by the Americans upon Filipinos, only a small part
of which were true, any candid observer of the conditions at the time
must admit that the American soldiers as a body exhibited toward
the Filipinos a self-restraint and a sympathy with the benevolent


14 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
purposes of the administration which the circumstances and the char-
acter of the Filipino warfare carried on were not calculated to
invite.
Not only did the Army do most efficient work in the suppression of
the insurrection when war was rife, but the presence of 12,000 Ameri-
can soldiers in the Islands since has been a moral force of great weight
to secure peaceful conditions. Occasionally they have been called on
for active work in subduing disorders in particular provinces which
had gone beyond the control of the local and insular peace officers and
they have rendered prompt and effective service in such cases. They
are now being concentrated in larger and larger posts for economical,
educational, and disciplinary purposes, but their presence anywhere
in the Islands is beneficial to the cause of order. They are now popu-
lar with the Filipinos, and we find the same objection to abandonment
of posts by neighboring Filipino communities that we meet in the
United States.
promise of extension of self-government.
President McKinley announced as his policy that the Philippine
Islands would be taken over by the American Government to be
governed for the benefit of the Filipinos, and that as they developed
fitness for partial self-government it should be gradually extended
to them. In order to enforce and give evidence of this purpose, he
appointed a Commission in 1899, known from its chairman, Hon. J.
G. Schurman, as the " Schurman Commission," to visit the Philippine
Islands and extend local self-government as rapidly as possible. The
Commission was able only to investigate conditions and to report that
in its judgment the Filipinos were not fit for self-government. It was
able to be present at the organization of municipal government in a
few towns which had been captured by the Americans, but it prac-
tically was able to do no constructive work, in view of the conditions
of war that existed while it was there. It returned to the United
States and made its report.
In February of 1900 a new Commission was appointed by Presi-
dent McKinley, who gave it much more ample powers than its pred-
ecessor, for the purpose of organizing civil government in the wake
of war as rapidly as conditions would permit. The powers conferred
were set forth in a letter of instructions delivered by President
McKinley to Mr. Root, Secretary of War, for his guidance and that
of the Commission in respect of the policy to be pursued in the
Philippines. The Commission arrived in June, 1900. The Com-
mission was not authorized to assume any authority until the 1st of
September and spent its time from June until September, 1900, in
making investigations. It then took over the power and duty of en-
acting legislation to make a government for that part of the Islands


15 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.

in which war had ceased to exist and to make appropriations from
funds raised by taxation for civil purposes. The preparation and
enactment of a municipal and a provincial code for the organization
and maintenance of municipalties and provinces in the Islands occu-
pied much of the attention of the Commission during the remainder
of the year 1900.
For the three or four months prior to the Presidential election in
November, 1900, it was impossible to proceed with the actual organi-
zation of civil government. The insurgents were assured that the
Administration of Mr. McKinley would be defeated and that his de-
feat would be immediately followed by a separation of the Islands
from the United States. Everything hung on the election. The re-
election of Mr. McKinley was a great blow to the insurrectos.
organization of the feoeral party.
It is a mistake to suppose that the war by the Filipinos against the
Americans had the sympathy of all the Filipinos. On the contrary,
there were many intelligent and conservative men who favored
American control and who did not believe in the capacity of their
people immediately to organize a government which would be stable
and satisfactory, but in the face of a possible independence of the
Islands, they were still. Upon Mr. McKinley's second election many
of these persons reached the conclusion that it was time for them to
act. Accordingly, they formed the Federal Party, the chief platform
of which was peace under American sovereignty and the acceptance
of the American promises to govern the Islands for the benefit of the
Filipinos and gradually to extend popular self-government to the
people. The Federal Party received accessions by thousands in all
parts of the Islands and in every province, so that the Commission
was enabled during the year 1901, and under the auspices, and with
the aid of, the Federal Party, to organize civil government in some 32
or 33 provinces, or in substantially all of them. The proof of the
purposes of the American Government, given in the popular features
of the provincial and municipal codes, which bore out in every re-
spect the general promises of President McKinley, had much to do
with the ending of the war. From November 1, 1900, until July 1,
1901, when military government was declared to be ended and a civil
governor appointed, the men and guns surrendered exceeded that of
any similar period in the history of the war.
the central government.
The somewhat anomalous creation of the Philippine Commission, as
a civil legislature in a purely military government established by the
President by virtue of his powers as Commander in Chief, presented


16 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
some difficult questions of jurisdiction between the military governor
and the Commission and led to considerable friction. The Commis-
sion, however, held the purse strings, and as is usual in such cases
the control of appropriations ultimately left the powers of the Com-
mission substantial and undisputed. Another difficulty arose in re-
spect to jurisdiction of the courts established and appointed by the
Commissioners to issue writs of habeas corpus to inquire into the
legality of the detention of civilians by the general commanding.
This, too, subsequently was worked out in favor of the civil courts.
The differences between the military and civil authorities did not es-
cape the attention of the Philippine public, and of course the sym-
pathy of the Filipinos went with the civil side of the controversy,
and the appointment of a civil governor July 1, 1901, and the cloth-
ing him with extensive authority had the popular approval. This
was increased by the appointment to the Commission of three Fili-
pino members. They were the most prominent members of the
Federal Party. The Commission now consisted of the civil governor,
four other Americans, and three Filipinos. The four American
members, in addition to their legislative work, were made respec-
tively the heads of four departments—one of finance and justice, the
second of the interior, the third of commerce and police, and the
fourth of public instruction. To these departments were assigned the
appropriate bureaus by which the business of the central government
was directly carried on. The presence of the Filipinos in the con-
trolling body of the government offered an excellent opportunity for
Filipino influence to affect legislation and brought to the new quasi
civil government a sympathetic support from the Filipino public
that included most of those but recently in arms against American
sovereignty.
In some provinces civil government proved to have been prema-
turely established, notably in Batangas, Cavite, Cebu, and Samar,
and in the fall of 1901 the services of the Army were again required in
those provinces. But ultimately they became peaceful. The guer-
rilla forces which continued in arms were finally subjugated or
brought in through the vigor of the Army and the influence of the
Federal party, before July 1,1902, when peace was officially declared
to exist by your proclamation of amnesty.
effect on permanent order of municipal and provincial govern-
ments and national assembly.
Under the head of political education I shall describe the initiation
and maintenance of municipal and provincial governments in some
detail, and shall consider them and the assembly as instruments in


17 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
the political education of the Filipinos and comment on their effi-
ciency and defects as government agencies. I now wish to refer to
them as part of the so-called policy of " attraction." The Filipino
people did not expect the liberal and popular provisions of the munici-
pal and provincial codes, and their enactment created the revulsion
of feeling that enabled the Federal party to bring on pence. The
part the people were given in governing both towns and prov-
inces stimulated them to efforts in behalf of order that became greatly
more sympathetic and effective, when, as I hereafter point out, the
officers of the insular constabulary learned their real function of as-
sistance and not independent command. The giving control of the
provincial board to two elected officials added to their sense of re-
sponsibility as to order in the province and was convincing of the
sincerity of American promise to extend popular control by gradual
steps.
The provisions of the organic act passed by Congress in July, 1902,
confirming President McKinley's policy and the promise of an as-
sembly if good order was maintained, had a great effect to make the
Filipino people anxious to preserve order, and no act of the American
Executive was more convincing to the people of the good faith of
the Administration than your proclamation of the elections at a time
when an excuse for delay within the law might easily have been found
in some of the disturbances then existing. The existence and influ-
ence of the assembly are important continuing factors in the mainte-
nance of law and order.
establishment of courts.
Even under the purely military administration before the appoint-
ment of the Commission a military governor had established civil
courts for the purpose of disposing of civil cases and for such viola-
tions of law as were not more conveniently disposed of by military
tribunals. The Commission early passed a law dividing the Islands
into some 15 districts, establishing a court of first instance in each dis-
trict, together with a supreme court of seven to consider appeals from
the courts of first instance. This system was recognized and adopted
by Congress in the organic act of July 1, 1902. The policy was pur-
sued of appointing a Filipino, the first lawyer of the Islands, the
chief justice of the supreme court, together with two Filipino col-
leagues and four Americans. • About the same proportion between
Americans and Filipinos was observed in the appointment of judges
of the court of first instance.
There was great difficulty in finding proper material for the Amer-
ican judges because there were so few American lawyers in the United
26720—S. Doc. 200, 60-1-2


18 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
States who spoke Spanish, and it greatly interfered with the conven-
ience of hearings if the judge did not know Spanish. However, time
cured this difficulty, because the American appointees rapidly acquired
a knowledge of the Spanish language sufficient to take testimony and
hear arguments without interpreters. The first years of the courts,
especially in the country, were almost entirely occupied in hearing
criminal cases. The civil government very soon adopted the position
that after a state of peace had been declared in 1902, men in arms
engaged in looting and robbery should be treated not as insurrectos or
as enemies under the laws of war, but merely as violators of the local
law. In the early days of the insurrection if a body of insurrectos
was organized in any province and was captured, their guns were taken
and after a short imprisonment the men were released. This practice
had led to a feeling on the part of the ignorant people that they
might with impunity resort to arms, and if caught thereafter that they
would be imprisoned for a short time only and then released. The
imposition of long sentences, fifteen or twenty years, and the confine-
ment of men in Bilibid prison and the requirement that they should
work at hard labor was a most effective method of teaching the igno-
rant and easily led members of a community the difference between
a political revolution and the crime of robbery and living on one's
neighbors by force.
A great number of persons in various provinces were prosecuted
for bandittiism. A statute was passed to cover these cases providing
that a man might be convicted of a felony by conclusive proof that he
was a member of a band organized to commit robberies, even though
no evidence was adduced to show any particular robbery in which he
was personally concerned. This has been hailed as a departure from
the usages of the common law and the spirit of our institutions. It is
nothing of the kind. It is merely the denunciation of a particular
kind of conspiracy. It was entirely impracticable to identify the per-
petrators of particular robberies, but it was entirely practicable to
prove conclusively the existence of a band to commit the robberies,
and the membership of the particular defendant in that band, although
his presence at the commission of an overt act it was often impossible
to show. There is not the slightest reason in law or morals why a man
thus proved to be a robber should not be punished and punished just
as severely as the men who were actually taken in the commission of
the act. The effect of this law was to bring to justice a great number
of criminals in various provinces, and its vigorous administration by
both the Filipino and American judges under active prosecution by Fil-
ipino prosecutors did much toward the suppression of ladronism.
The difficulty was that the number of convicted persons became so
large as to strain the capacity of the jails and penitentiaries in the
Islands. This congested condition has been met, however, now, first,


19 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
by the establishment of a penal colony in the island of Palawan, and,
second, by the use of prisoners in several provinces for the construc-
tion of roads.
After many of those sentenced for highway robbery had served two
years the governor-general appointed a commission to go over the
cases to recommend for pardon those persons who, while guilty of the
crime charged were not of the criminal class, but had been led into
it by duress and undue influence of neighboring brigand chiefs and
caciques. Quite a large number of these persons were paroled and
sent back to their homes to give them an opportunity to become good
citizens. The changing condition of the country and the maintenance
of law and order are evidenced by the fact that the proportion of
civil cases to criminal cases in the courts of first instance and the
supreme court is rapidly increasing. It is becoming much easier to
dispose of the criminal cases, while it is the civil cases that now clog
the dockets. The standard in the administration of justice in the
Islands is high. It has been sometimes charged by irresponsible
persons that some of the judges were subject to executive influence.
An investigation into the matter discloses not the slightest evidence of
the existence of any such evil, and the whole charge rests on the easily
spread rumor of disappointed litigants or political enemies of the gov-
ernment. On the whole, I am quite sure that throughout the Islands
the judges of the courts, and especially the members of the supreme
court, have the entire confidence of the public in the justice and sin-
cerity of their conclusions. No distinction has been made in the hear-
ing of causes by a Filipino or American judge, and the system moves
on quietly and effectively to accomplish the purpose for which it was
adopted. The influence of the courts in the restoration of order has
been very important.
the philippine constabulary.
Another step most necessary and useful in the restoration of order
was the organization of a body of upward of 5,000 men, Filipinos
officered by Americans, into a constabulary divided into companies
and organized by Regular Army officers. But little difficulty was
found in the organization of this body as an efficient fighting and
scouting force, but it took several years of training, of elimination,
and of severe discipline before the subordinate officers, those assigned
to each province, were made to understand the proper policy to
be pursued by them in respect to the native governors and presi-
dentes of the municipalities who had been elected by the people under
the municipal and provincial codes. At first there was constant
friction and suspicion between them, and this did not aid at all the
work of suppressing ladrones and other disreputable and vicious ele-
ments of the community. Year by year, however, improvement has


20 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
been made in this regard, and the lesson has been taught that the
constabulary are not a military force, but a force of police organized
by the central government and paid out of its treasury to assist in a
sympathetic way the native local officers in the work of suppression
of disorder and lawlessness of their particular localities. When I
was in the Islands two years ago the native papers were full of con-
demnation of the constabulary and its severity. During the last two
years a most remarkable change has taken place in the relations be-
tween the officers and men of this force and the provincial governors
and officers of the towns, and now there is nothing more popular in
the Islands than the constabulary.
friars' lands.
A most potential source of disorder in the Islands was the owner-
ship of what were called the " friars' lands " by three of the religious
orders of the Islands—the Dominicans, the Augustinians, and the
so-called bare-footed Augustinians, known as " Recoletos." These
lands amounted in all to 425,000 acres, of which 2 <5,000 were in the
immediate neighborhood of Manila, 25,000 in Cebu, and 125,000 in the
remote provinces of Isabela and Mindoro. The tenants on those
which were close to Manila numbered some sixty or seventy thousand
persons. The attitude of the people toward the friars' lands was
shown by the fact that the so-called constitutional convention assem-
bled by Aguinaldo at Malolos nationalized the friars' lands—that is,
appropriated them to the so-called " Republic of the Philippines."
With the restoration of order and the establishment of courts the
representatives of these religious bodies were entitled to go into court
and recover from tenants the rents which had been in arrears since
1896, and to eject them from the lands which they had occupied un-
less they admitted title and continued to pay rent. The occupants
of the friars' lands resolutely refused to do either, and the Philippine
government was confronted with the immediate prospect of suits to
evict 60,000 tenants in those provinces prone to disturbances and
insurrection.
The situation was further strained by the fact that the church, for
lack of other competent priests, showed every inclination to send
back to the parishes from which they had been driven as many
of the friars who had been parish priests as it could. Every
parish to which a friar priest returned at once began to seethe with
popular indignation, and threats of violence were constantly made
toward him. The only solution possible, consistent with the preser-
vation of vested property rights on the one hand, and the right
secured by treaty to the friars of freedom of religion and freedom of
speech in any part of the islands, was some arrangement by which the


21 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
land could be taken over by the Government and the church induced
not to send friars as parish priests to those parishes where riot and
disturbance were likely to follow. A visit to Rome for consultation
with the head of the Roman Catholic Church resulted in the Pope's
sending an apostolic delegate to the Islands with adequate powers
and in subsequent negotiations which ultimately led to the purchase
of the lands for seven millions of dollars and induced a practice on
the part of the hierarchy of the church by which they send no friars
as parish priests into any parish in which the governor-general makes
final objection.
The price paid for the lands was a good round sum. It had to be
in order to secure them. Congress, convinced of the necessity for
their acquisition, had provided, in the organic act for the establish-
ment of a government in the Philippines, either for their purchase
or in the alternative for their condemnation by the Government and
their subsequent disposition on long, easy terms to the occupants.
The representatives of the Dominican order objected to the con-
demnation of their lands and employed able counsel to test the
validity of the provision for condemnation for such a purpose. The
point made was a serious one and increased the importance of secur-
ing the lands by purchase, if possible. With the government as a
landlord the tenants manifest no disposition to contest its title, save
in a few isolated cases. I shall not stop now to discuss the present
value of the lands or their management. I shall refer to that later.
It is enough for n^ present purpose to point out that the acquisition
of these lands by the government and the adjustment of differences
as to the use of friars as parish priests have removed a fruitful source
of disturbance in the provinces of Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Bataan,
Morong, and Cebu.
By another compromise, to which I shall refer in detail later, a con-
troversy between the government and the Roman Catholic Church
as to charitable and educational trusts and in respect to the Spanish-
Filipino Bank has been settled. At one time this controversy prom-
ised to contribute to the disorder of the Islands.
There are no other questions between the government and the
Roman Catholic Church, unless it can be said that questions of pos-
session and title to church property arising from the Aglipayan
schism can be said to involve them.
Immediately after our negotiations with Leo XIII at Rome were
found not to include an absolute agreement to withdraw the friars
from the Islands, Aglipay, a former Catholic priest under excom-
munication, organized a schism from the Roman church. He called
his church the Independent Filipino Catholic Church. At first the
schism spread far and wide through the Islands, and as the number
of priests of the Roman Catholic Church by reason of the expulsion


22 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
of the friars had been reduced so that many churches lay open and
idle, the priests of the Aglipayan schism, with the acquiescence of
the townspeople in the various villages where the Aglipayans were in
the majority, assumed possession of land and church buildings which
had been occupied in Spanish days by the Roman Catholic Church.
Possession was taken under a claim that the churches belonged to
the people of the municipality and that they were able to dispose of
the use of the churches to such religious purposes as they saw fit.
This course of procedure led to innumerable controversies and to fre-
quent breaches of the peace and to a bitterness of feeling that did not
make either for the tranquillity of the Islands or their prosperity.
The Executive consistently and properly declined to decide the
question of title or the right to possession which arose in each case
after peaceable possession had been taken. This was regarded as
unreasonable by the authorities of the Roman Catholic Church, but
ivas the only possible course which the civil executive could take with-
Dut arrogating to itself judicial powers. Instead of attempting to
decide these questions the Commission passed a law providing for
their early settlement by suits brought originally in the supreme
court. One set of these cases has been decided in favor of the Roman
Catholic Church and others are now nearly ready for decision, so that
we may reasonably expect that within six months the whole matter
may be disposed of, and when this is done the religious obstacles that
seemed so formidable when the Philippine government was assumed
by the United States will have been disposed of permanently and that
fruitful source of disturbance and riot and discontent will have
ceased.
I have given in detail the steps taken to restore and maintain order
in the Islands. I have mentioned the vigorous campaign of the Army
and the moral restraint of its presence in the Islands, the promises
of President McKinley as to gradual extension of self-government,
the organization of the Federal party, the institution of municipal
and provincial governments on a popular plan, the confirmation of
President McKinley's policy by the act of Congress establishing a
Philippine government, assuring a national assembly, and your fulfill-
ment of the assurance, the establishment of courts with partly Ameri-
can and partly Filipino judges, the punishment of predatory bands
as civil felons, the establishment and growth of the insular con-
stabulary as a sympathetic aid to Filipino municipal and provincial
officials in suppressing lawlessness, and, finally, the removal by satis-
factory compromises of the irritating church questions which had
much to do with causing the original insurrection and, if unsettled,
were pregnant with disorder.


23 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.

present condition.
Peace prevails throughout the Islands to-day in a greater degree
than ever in the history of the Islands, either under Spanish or
American rule, and agriculture is ilowhere now impeded by the fear
on the part of the farmer of the incursion of predatory bands.
Under the policy already stated, inaugurated by the instructions of
President McKinley to Secretary Root, in reference to the establish-
ment of a temporary government in the Philippines, a community
consisting of 7,000,000 people, inhabiting 300 different islands,
many of whom were in open rebellion against the Government
of the United States for four years, with all the disturbances follow-
ing from robber and predatory bands which broke out from time to
time, due to local causes, has been brought to a state of profound
peace and tranquillity in which the people as a whole are loyally
supporting the government in the maintenance of order. This is the
first and possibly the most important accomplishment of the United
States in the Philippines.
THE POLITICAL CAPACITY AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
OF THE FILIPINOS UNDER SPAIN AND THE STEPS TAKEN BY
THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT FOR THEIR GENERAL AND
POLITICAL EDUCATION.
Very little practical political education was given by the Spaniards
to the Filipinos. Substantially all the important executive offices
in the Islands were assigned to Spaniards, and the whole government
was bureaucratic. The provincial and municipal authorities were
appointed and popular elections were unknown. The administration
of the municipalities was largely under the supervision and direction
of the Spanish priest of the parish. No responsibility for govern-
ment, however local or unimportant, was thrust upon Filipinos in
such a way as to give them political experience, nor were the examples
of fidelity to public interest sufficiently numerous in the officeholders
to create a proper standard of public duty. The greatest difficulty
that we have had to contend with in vesting Filipinos with official
power in municipalities is to instill in them the idea that an office is
not solely for private emolument.
There was an educated class among the Filipinos under the Spanish
regime. The University of St. Thomas, founded by the Dominican
Order early in the seventeenth century, has furnished an academic
education to many graduates. The same order, as well as the Jesuits
and the Augustinians, maintained secondary and primary schools for
the well-to-do. Quite a number of Filipinos were educated in Spain
or France. As compared with the youth and young men of school


24 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
and college age in the Islands, the number, however, was very small.
These men were educated either as lawyers, physicians, pharmacists,
or priests. In politics their knowledge was wholly theoretical. They
imbibed liberal ideas from the spread of republican doctrines in
Spain, and the repressive policy of the Spanish Government, of
course, operated only to encourage them. They were patriotic, and
soon conceived of the Philippines as a nation. Rizal, a leader of
Philippine thought, a poet, and a political writer, did not favor
independence, for he believed his people not yet fitted, but he sought
reform in the Spanish government of the Philippines and some popu-
lar voice in it.
As the protest against Spanish domination grew, the aspiration
for complete independence took possession of many, and in the in-
surrections which followed there were many patriots mbved by as
high ideals as those which have led to revolutions in any country.
Their conceptions of liberty, of independence, of government were
wholly ideal, however. When in the course of events they came to
actual government they were unable to realize their conceptions,
and only a one-man power or an oligarchy with class privilege, and
no real civil rights for the so-called serving or obedient class, fol-
lowed. They needed as much education in practical civil liberty as
their more ignorant fellow-countrymen in reading, writing, and arith-
metic.
The efforts of the American Government to teach the ignorant their
civil rights and to uplift them to self-governing capacity finds only a
languid sympathy from many of the " ilustrados." From them comes
the only objection to teaching English to the common people, lest they
lose their national character; as if it were necessary to keep the people
confined to 16 barbarous dialects in order that they should be dis-
tinctly Filipino. The real motive for the objection, whether con-
scious or not, is in the desire of the upper class to maintain the rela-
tion of the ruling class to the serving and obedient class.
The educated Filipino has an attractive personality. His mind is
quick, his sense of humor fine, his artistic sense acute and active; he
has a poetic imagination; he is courteous in the highest degree; he
is brave; he is generous; his mind has been given by his education
a touch of the scholastic logicism; he is a musician; he is oratorical
by nature.
The educated Filipino is an aristocrat by Spanish association. He
prefers that his children should not be educated at the public schools,
and this accounts for the large private schools which the religious
orders and at least one Filipino association are able to maintain.
In arguing that the Philippines are entirely fit for self-government
now, a committee of educated Filipinos once filed with the civil gov-


25 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
ernor a written brief in which it was set forth that the number of
" ilustrados " in the Islands was double that of the offices—central,
provincial, and municipal—and therefore the country afforded two
" shifts " of persons competent to run the government. This, it was
said, made clear the possibility of a good government if independence
was granted. The ignorance of the remainder of the people, admitted
to be dense, made no difference. I cite this to show of how little im-
portance an intelligent public opinion or an educated constituency is
regarded in the community and government which many of the edu-
cated Filipinos look forward to as a result of independence. I do not
say that there are not notable exceptions to this among leading
Filipinos, but such persons are usually found among those who are
not so impatient to lose American guidance in the government. In-
deed, I am gratified to hear that the first bill which passed the Assem-
bly was an appropriation of a million pesos for barrio schools. On
the whole, however, there is reason for believing that were the govern-
ment of the Islands now turned over to the class which likes to call
itself the natural ruling class, the movement initiated by the present
government to educate the ignorant classes would ultimately lose its
force. The candor with which some of the representatives of the
independista movement have spoken of the advantage for govern-
mental purposes of having 80 per cent of the people in a serving or
obedient class indicates this.
No one denies that 80 per cent of the Filipino people are densely
ignorant. They are in a state of Christian tutelage. They are child-
like and simple, with no language but a local Malay dialect spoken in
a few provinces; they are separate from the world's progress. The
whole tendency under the Spaniards was to keep them ignorant and
innocent. The Spanish public school system was chiefly on paper.
They were for a long time subject completely to the control of the
Spanish friar, who was parish priest and who generally did not
encourage the learning of Spanish or great acquantance with the
world at large. The world owes to the Spanish friar the Christiani-
zation of the Filipino race. It is the only Malay or oriental race that
is Christian. The friars beat back the wave of Mohammedanism
and spread their religion through all the Islands. They taught the
people the arts of agriculture, but they believed it best to keep them
in a state of innocent ignorance. They did not encourage the coming
into the Filipino local communities of Spaniards. They feared the
influence of world knowledge. They controlled the people and
preached to them in their own dialects. They lived and died among
them.
The friars left the people a Christian people—that is, a people with
Western ideals. They looked toward Rome, and Europe, and America.


26 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
They were not like the Mohammedan or the Buddhist, who despise
Western civilization as inferior. They were in a state of tutelage, ripe
to receive modern Western conceptions as they should be educated to
understand them. This is the reason why I believe that the whole
Christian Filipino people are capable by training and experience of
becoming a self-governing people. But for the present they are igno-
rant and in the condition of children. So, when the revulsion from
the Spanish domination came, as it did, the native priest or the
neighboring " ilustrado " or " cacique " led them into the insurrection.
They are a brave people and make good soldiers if properly led.
They learn easily, and the most striking fact in our whole experience
in the Philippines is the eagerness with which the common Filipino
agricultural laborer sends his children to school to -learn English.
There is no real difference between the educated and ignorant Fili-
pinos that can not be overcome by the education of one generation.
They are a capable people in the sense that they can be given a normal
intellectual development by the same kind of education that is given
in our own common school system. Now they have not intelligence
enough to exercise the political franchise with safety to themselves
or their country; but I do not see why a common school education in
English, with industrial teaching added, may not make the children
of these people capable of forming an intelligent public opinion needed
to sustain a popular government if, at the same time that the on-
coming generations are being educated in schools, primary and indus-
trial, those who are intelligent are being given a political education
by actually exercising the power of the franchise and actually taking
part in the government.
As will be seen hereafter, the Philippine government has not funds
enough to educate in primar}^ and industrial schools all the present
generation of school age, and unless some other source of funds than
governmental revenues is found it will take longer than a generation
to complete the primary and industrial education of the common
people. Until that is done, we ought not to lift our guiding hand
from the helm of the ship of state of the Philippine Islands. With
these general remarks as to the present unfitness of the Filipino
people for popular self-government and their capacity for future
development so that they may, by proper education, general and
political, become a self-governing people, I come to the methods pur-
sued by the Philippine government in furnishing to the Filipinos
the necessary education. I shall consider the subject under two
heads:
1. Education in schools for the youth of school age.
2. Practical political education by the extension, step by step, of
political control to an eligible class.


27 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
first: education in schools.
Reference has already been made to the fact of the very great
ignorance and illiteracy that prevails among the Filipino people. It
is not too much to say that knowledge of Spanish is a fairly good
indication whether an individual can be said to be educated. Sta-
tistics show that but 7 per cent of the people of the Islands speak
Spanish; all the others speak in the varying dialects, which among
the civilized people number some 16. The Philippine people should
be educated sufficiently to have a common medium of communica-
tion, and every man, woman, and child should have the benefit of
the primary education in that common medium. Reading, writing,
and arithmetic are necessary to enable the rural laborer and the small
hemp, cocoanut, or tobacco farmer to make contracts for the sale of
his products and to know what price he should receive for that which
he has to sell. With this knowledge, too, he will soon be able to know
his own rights and to resist the absolute control which is now fre-
quently exercised over him by the local cacique.
The necessity for a common school system was emphasized in the
instructions of President McKinley to Secretary Root, and those re-
sponsible for the government of the Islands have been earnest and
active in seeking to establish one. The language selected for the
schools is English. It is selected because it is the language of busi-
ness in the Orient, because it is the language of free institutions, and
because it is the language which the Filipino children who do not
know Spanish are able more easily to learn than they are to learn
Spanish, and it is the language of the present sovereign of the Islands.
The education in English began with the soldiers of the American
Army, one of whom was detailed from each company to teach schools
in the villages which had become peaceful. When the Commission
assumed authority it sent to the United States for 1,000 American
teachers, and after the arrival of these pioneers in the Islands, a
system of primary schools was inaugurated together with normal
schools.
Public educational work in the Islands is performed under the
bureau of education, with the central office located in Manila, hav-
ing 37 divisions, each in charge of a division superintendent, embrac-
ing in all 379 school districts each in charge of a supervising teacher.
The total number of schools in operation during the past year was:
Primary schools, 3,435; intermediate schools, 162; arts and trades
schools, 32; agricultural schools, 5; domestic-science schools, 17, and
provincial high schools, 36, making a total of 3,687 and an increase
from the previous year as follows: 327 primary schools, 70 inter-
mediate schools, 15 arts and trades schools, 3 agricultural schools, and


28 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
9 domestic-science schools. There are engaged in the teaching of
these schools at present 717 permanent American teachers and 109
temporary appointees, and all of these are paid out of the central
treasury. In addition to these there are what are known as Filipino
insular teachers, numbering 455, who are paid out of the central treas-
ury. In addition to these there are 5,656 municipal Filipino teachers,
all of whom speak and teach English and who are paid out of the
treasuries of the municipalities.
The 6,000 Filipino teachers who are now teaching English have re-
ceived their English education from our normal schools or our Ameri-
. can teachers. Their number is growing, and they represent and are
the most valuable educational asset we have acquired in working out
our school system. The average annual salary of the Filipino insular
teacher is 533.2 pesos a year, while that of municipal teachers is 210.36
pesos. The Filipino insular teachers are drawn from graduates of nor-
mal schools and also from the students sent by the government and at
the expense of the government to the United States to be educated
there. Forty-six of these students have recently returned from the
United States and have been appointed as insular teachers at salaries
ranging from 840 to 960 pesos per annum. The average paid to the
American teacher is about $1,200 per annum. The total enrollment
for the year, inclusive of the Moro Province—the schools in which
are conducted under a separate system—was 479,978. This was
in the month of March at the close of the school year, when the
enrollment reached its highest point. The average enrollment total
by months was 346,245, of whom 62 per cent were boys and 38 per
cent were girls. The average daily attendance was 269,000, or a per-
centage of attendance of about 85 .per cent. The highest percentage
of attendance was 94, in the city of Manila. The lowest percentage
in some of the provinces was 78. The attendance and enrollment in
schools begins in August, which is the beginning of the school year,
and ends in March. As August is one of the wet months, the attend-
ance begins at the lowest figure and increases gradually into the dry
season until its highest point at the close of the school year in March.
The central government this year for school purposes and construc-
tion of schools has appropriated 3,500,000 pesos. The maintenance of
primary schools is imposed by law upon the municipalities, and in-
volves a further expenditure of nearly a million and a half pesos. In
order to relieve distress incident to agricultural depression, it was
found necessary to suspend the land tax, a part of the proceeds of
which by mandatory provision of law was appropriated to the support
of municipal schools. The central government in the first year appro-
priated a sufficient sum from the internal revenue to meet the deficit
caused by the failure to impose the land tax, but in the present year
it was only able to appropriate 50 per cent of the amount which


29 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
would have been raised by the land tax, and next year no such appro-
priation will be made, and it will be left optional with the province
whether the land tax shall be imposed or not.
The great difficulty in the matter of education in the Islands is the
lack of funds to make it as extended as it should be. The suspension
of the land tax is subjecting the educational system to a crisis, but
the revival of agriculture in many parts of the Islands leads to the
hope that the crisis may be successfully passed. It would be entirely
possible to expend for the sole benefit of the Philippine people, with-
out the least waste, upward of two or three millions of dollars annu-
ally in addition to all that the government of the Philippine Islands—
central, municipal, and provincial—can afford to devote to this
object. We are not able to educate as they should be educated more
than a half of the youth of school age in the Islands. The govern-
ment, while contributing to the maintenance of high schools in each
province, is devoting its chief attention to the spread of primary
education, and in connection with primary education, and, at its
close in the intermediate schools, to industrial education. Primary
and industrial education carried on until the child is 14 or 15
years old is thought to be the best means of developing the
Filipino people into a self-sustaining and self-governing people,
and the present government has done all that it has been pos-
sible to do in developing and maintaining a proper system for this
purpose. The tendency toward the development of industrial educa-
tion the world over has created such a demand for industrial teachers
as to make it impossible for the Philippine government to secure as
many as are needed for the purpose in the Islands, and in order to
have these industrial teachers it must take the time to educate them
as such, just as it did the Filipino primary teachers in English.
There are now in the Islands, including art and trade schools, agri-
cultural schools, and domestic-science schools, at least one industrial
school to every province, and it is the purpose to increase this number
as rapidly as resources and opportunity will permit. Under the in-
fluence of the traditions of the Spanish regime, when manual labor
seems to have been regarded as an evidence of servitude, it was at
first impossible to secure pupils for the great manual training school
in Manila. Boys preferred to be " escribientes " or clerks and gentle-
men rather than to learn to win a livelihood by the skill of their
hands, but this has been rapidly overcome. In the insular school
of arts and trades in Manila, where the plant and equipment is quite
satisfactory, instruction is now given some 350 pupils in English,
arithmetic, geography, mechanical drawing, woodworking (bench
work, carving, turning, and cabinet making), ironworking (bench
work, filing, blacksmithing, and iron machine work), and finishing,.
including painting and varnishing, to which will be added next year


30 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
boat building and wheelwrighting. At the present time there are on
the waiting list some 200 pupils who seek admission but for whom
no places are available. A large insular agricultural school is to
be established in Manila for giving instruction in practical agricul-
ture, and the money, 100,000 pesos, necessary for the building and
construction has already been appropriated.
The influence of the primary instruction in English is shown
throughout the Islands by the fact that to-day more people through-
out the Islands, outside of Manila and the large cities, speak Eng-
lish than speak Spanish. A noticeable result of the government's
activity in the establishment of English schools has been the added
zeal in teaching English in private educational establishments. A
Filipino school managed and taught only by Filipinos, called " Liceo,"
has some 1,500 pupils in Manila, and English is regularly taught as
part of the curriculum of that school; the Dominican order of friars,
which is primarily an educational order, has schools in and about
Manila with upward of 2,000 students, and English is now made a
very important part of the curriculum of those schools. The Jesuits
also have two very large schools in Manila, embracing some 1,000 or
1,500 pupils drawn from all parts of the Islands, in which English is
made an important branch of the study. There is considerable com-
petition in this matter and there seems now to be a united effort to
spread the knowledge of English in accordance with the government's
policy. At times, as already intimated, a discordant note is heard in
the suggestion that the American Government is seeking to deprive the
Filipino of his native language. As his native language is really 15 or
16 different dialects, this does not seem a great deprivation. It is pos-
sible that some effort will be made to include in the primary instruction
the reading and writing of the local dialect in the local schools. No
objection can be made to this unless it shall interfere with the instruc-
tion in English, which it is hoped it may not do.
Should Congress be anxious to facilitate and hurry on the work
of redeeming the Philippine Islands and making the Filipino people
a self-governing community, it could take no more effective step than
a permanent appropriation of two or three millions of dollars for
ten or fifteen years to the primary and industrial education of the
Filipino people, making it conditional on the continued appropria-
tion by the Philippine government of the same amount to educa-
tional purposes which it has devoted and is now devoting annually
to that purpose. The influence of the educational system introduced
has not only been direct in the spread of education among the younger
of the present generation, but it has also been an indirect means of
convincing the Filipino people at large of the beneficent purpose
^of the American Government in its remaining in the Philippine
Islands and of the sincerity of its efforts in the interest of their people.


31 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
FILIPINO CADETS AT WEST FOINT.
Section 36 of the act of Congress, approved February 2, 1901,
referring to Philippine Scouts, provides that—
" When, in the opinion of the President, natives of the Philippine Islands
shall, by their services and character, show fitness for command, the President
is authorized to make provisional appointments to the grades of second and
first lieutenants from such natives, who, when so appointed, shall have the
pay and allowances to be fixed by the Secretary of War, not exceeding those
of corresponding grades of the Regular Army."
As it is thought that better results will be obtained if a few young
Filipinos, especially selected, be appointed to the United States Mili-
tary Academy with a view to their being commissioned officers of
scouts upon graduation, I strongly recommend that Congress, by
appropriate legislation, authorize the appointment of seven young
Filipinos, or one for about every million of inhabitants of those
Islands, as cadets at the Military Academy at West Point. This
action on the part of Congress would, in my judgment, tend to fur-
ther increase the zeal and efficiency of a body of troops which has
always rendered faithful and satisfactory services.
second: practical political education.
There is no doubt that the exercise of political power is the best
possible political education and ought to be granted whenever the
pupil has intelligence enough to perceive his OAvn interest even in a
rude practical way, or when other competent electors are sufficiently
in the majority to avoid the injury likely to be done by a government
of ignorance and inexperience. The Philippine government con-
cluded that the only persons in the Philippines who had intelligence
enough to make their exercise of political power useful to them as
an education and safe as a governmental experiment were those who
spoke and wrote English or Spanish, or who paid $7.50 a year taxes,
or whose capacity had been recognized in Spanish times by their
appointment as municipal officials. Adult males who came within
these classes, it was thought, ought to begin their political education
by assuming political responsibility, and so they were made electors
in municipal, provincial, and assembly elections, and embraced, as
near as it can be estimated, about 12 to 15 per cent of the adult male
population. Of course, as the common school education spreads, the
electorate will increase.
Let us now examine the political education which has been given
in practice to these eligible electors and the results.
MUNICIPALITIES AND PROVINCES.'
By the municipal code the old municipalities under the Spanish
regime, which resembled the townships of the West and the towns of


32 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
New England, were authorized to reorganize under the American
Government. They consisted generally of the poblacion, or the most
centrally located and most populous settlement, with a number of
barrios or outlying wards or villages, all within the municipality and
under its control. The provisions of the code did not differ materially
from those of similar codes in the United States, except that wherever
possible and practicable the unobjectionable customs of the country
were recognized and acquiesced in formally in the law. The towns
were divided into classes and the salaries of the officials were limited
accordingly. The provincial code provided for the organization of
governments in the provinces which had been recognized as provinces
under the Spanish regime. Under the original provisions of that
code the government of the province—legislative and executive—was
under a provincial board, consisting of a governor and treasurer and
a supervisor of roads and buildings. Other appointed officers were
provided, as the prosecuting attorney and the secretary of the prov-
ince, who did not sit on the provincial board. The governor was
originally elected by the councilmen of all the towns of the province
assembled in convention, they themselves having previously been
elected by the people. The treasurer and supervisor were each
selected and appointed under the rules adopted in accordance with the
merit system provided in a civil-service law, which was among the
first passed by the Commission.
One of the early difficulties in the maintenance of an efficient gov-
ernment in the. provinces was the poverty of the provinces and the
lack of taxable resources to support any kind of a government at all.
It was soon found that the provincial supervisor, who, it was hoped,
might be an American engineer, was too expensive a burden for the
province to carry. For a time the district superintendent of educa-
tion of the province was made the third member of the provincial
board instead of the supervisor, whose office was abolished. This,
however, did not work well, because the time of the superintendent
was needed for his educational duties. Subsequently, therefore, it
was thought wise to provide a third member of the board, who served
with but little compensation and who was elected as the governor was
elected. The system of electing the governor by convention of coun-
cilmen of all the towns of the province was changed, so that now the
governor and the third member of the board are elected by direct
popular vote, while the treasurer is still appointed. It will be
seen that, in this way, the government of the towns is completely
autonomous, subject only to visitation and disciplinary action of the
governor of the province and of the governor-general on appeal.
The provincial government now, though not originally, is completely
autonomous in the sense that a majority of the board which governs


33 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
the province are elected by the people. The duties of the provincial
treasurer are burdensome, complex, and important to such a degree
as to make it impossible thus far to find Filipinos who have been able
to master the duties of the office and to give satisfaction therein, al-
though there are quite a number of Filipino assistant treasurers and
subordinates in the office of treasurer who give reasonable ground to
expect that the American treasurers may be in a reasonable time
supplanted by Filipino treasurers.
The question now arises what has been shown in the government of
these municipalities and of the provinces in respect to the capacity of
the Filipinos for complete self-government in local matters? It is
undoubtedly true that the municipalities would be much more effi-
cient had the policy been pursued of appointing Americans to the
important offices in the municipalities, but there would have been
two great objections to this course, one that the municipal govern-
ment would not have attracted the sympathetic attention of the peo-
ple as the present municipalities have—and we would thus have lost
a valuable element in making such government a success—and the
other that the educational effect upon the people in training them for
self-government would have been much less.
When I say that the development of municipal government in the
Philippines has been satisfactory, I am far from saying that it has
been without serious defects. All I mean is that considering the two-
fold object in view—first governmental, second educational—the re-
sult thus far with all its shortcomings shows progress toward both
ends and vindicates the course taken.
Up to the time of our occupation, the government had represented to
the Filipino an entity entirely distinct from himself with which he
had little sympathy and which was engaged in an attempt to obtain as
much money as possible from him in the form of taxes. He had been
taught to regard an office as the private property of the person hold-
ing it and in respect to which ordinary practice justified the holder
in making as much profit from it as he could. The idea that a public
office is a public trust had not been implanted in the Filipino mind by
experience, and the conception that an officer who fails in his duty by
embezzlement or otherwise was violating an obligation that he owed
to each individual member of the public, he found it difficult to grasp.
He was apt to regard the robbing of the government by one of its
officers as an affair in which he had little or no interest and in which,
not infrequently, his sympathies were against the government. As a
consequence, the chief sense of restraint felt by municipal officials in
handling public funds comes from a fear of inspection by the central
government and its prosecution. The fear of condemnation by the
public opinion of the local community has a much less deterrent force,
26720—S. Doc. 200, 60-1-3


84 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
even if the official is to seek reelection. The sense of responsibility for
the government they control ancl whose officers they elect is brought
home to the people of a municipality with slowness and difficulty.
This is the political education that is going on in the Filipino munici-
palities. We are making progress, but we must be patient, for it is
not the task of a day to eradicate traditions and ideas that had their
origin in a system of government under which this people lived for
centuries.
Hence when we find that there is still a considerable percentage of
Filipino municipal officers who have to be removed and prosecuted
for embezzlement, we must not be discouraged. Early in the Amer-
ican occupation we had to prosecute sixteen or seventeen American
provincial treasurers for defalcations in public funds. It was bit-
terly humiliating for the dominant race to furnish such an example,
when we were assuming to teach the Filipinos the art of self-govern-
ment. The American embezzlers were all promptly sent to Bilibid
Penitentiary for long terms. This had an, excellent effect upon both
Americans and Filipinos in the Islands. The defalcations were due
to a lack of good material available for these positions in the Islands.
To-day the American provincial treasurers are of the highest order
of public servants and are a credit to the American name. Their
example has been of the utmost benefit in the training of Filipino
municipal and provincial officials.
Another difficulty arising from a similar cause that we have had to
meet and overcome has been the disposition of municipal councils to
vote all of the available funds for the payment of their own salaries
and leave nothing for the improvement or repair of roads, the con-
struction of buildings, or the payment .of school-teachers, and this
although the law may, by mandatory provision, have set aside certain
definite shares of the public funds for such purposes. These evils
have had to be remedied by placing the funds in the hands of the
provincial treasurer so as to secure the payment of the amount re-
quired by law to be devoted to educational purposes and by imposing
upon the discretion of common councils to vote salaries from their
funds a limitation that the total of salaries shall not exceed a
certain percentage of the total funds in control of the town.
The people of the towns seem fully to appreciate the value of roads,
but when it comes to exerting themselves and denying themselves
for the purpose of securing the great benefit of good roads, they have
not thus far nerved themselves to the sacrifice. Many miles of road
have been constructed by the central government and then turned over
to the municipalities for maintenance, with the result that in one or
two years of the torrential rains the roads have become nothing
but quagmires without any work of maintenance or repair done on
them. One of the common means throughout the United States for


35 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
building roads or repairing them is to require all male adults to work
upon the roads four or five days of the year, or perhaps a longer period,
or to commute the work by payment of a tax. This would be the
natural method of repairing roads in the Philippines; but the diffi-
culty is that it was the method adopted by the Spaniards, and in the
Spanish times the power of the local authorities to direct free labor
upon the roads for a certain period of time was so greatly abused and
perverted to the seeking of personal vengeance and the private profit
of the local authorities that it has been impossible to obtain any
popular support for a system based on the same principle, and good
roads have been allowed to go to destruction rather than to run the
risk of a recurrence of the old abuses.
A difficulty in connection with the maintenance of roads may be
mentioned here. The old-time method of transportation in the Phil-
ippines was by a carabao or ox cart with a rigid axle and with solid
wheels, the rims of which were so narrow as to cut like a knife into
any road over which they traveled. Laws have been passed from
time to time imposing a penalty for using wheels on public roads with
tires less than a certain width, but it has not been possible to secure
such an administration of the law by the provincial governments as
to prevent the continuance of this abuse, although means have been
taken to furnish at a very reasonable rate sets of wheels with tires
of sufficient width to avoid road destruction. Local officials have been
loath, when dependent for their continuance in office upon the votes
of their fellow-citizens, to enforce a law the wisdom of which they
fully recognize, but the unpopularity of which they also know.
It has been found that sanitary measures can not be safely
intrusted to municipal authorities for enforcement whenever emer-
gencies arise, but that some local agency of the central government
must be created for the purpose. At first full power was given to
the municipality to determine by ordinance where cemeteries might
be established, having regard to the health of the town. This proved
a most convenient instrument for partisan abuse in the religious
controversies arising between the Roman Catholics and the Agli-
payans. An Aglipayan municipal council would require by ordi-
nance the immediate closing of a Roman Catholic cemetery, although
it was not in the least dangerous to health, and then would permit
an Aglipayan cemetery much nearer the town and in a really objec-
tionable place. Partisans of the Roman Church in control of other
municipalities would abuse their powers in the same way. The con-
sequence was that the central and provincial authorities had to be
given direct supervisory control of this matter.
Another defectum many Filipino towns I have already referred to is
the evil of caciquism. Too often the presidente and other town officers
use their offices to subject the ignorant residents of their respective


36 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
towns to their business control in the sale of farm products. The
officer acts as the middleman in the sale and takes most of the profit
from his constituent. The evil is hard to reach because the same
power which compelled the sale can usually compel silence and no
complaint is heard from the victims until, dimly realizing the injustice
done them, they resort to criminal outbreaks and bloody vengeance.
While it is too much to hope for the complete eradication of this abuse
until the laborer shall acquire enough education to know his rights
before the law and how to assert them, there has been much improve-
ment in this regard since the American occupation.
The evil of caciquism shows itself in a more flagrant form when
Filipino municipal or even provincial officials are vested with gov-
ernmental control over non-Christian tribes, or others not of their
own race, scattered through the Christian Filipino provinces. These
people living in small settlements are slowly working toward a bet-
ter civilization under the influence of education and are capable of
much greater progress if properly treated. Such settlements were
originally placed under the regular Filipino provincial and munici-
pal governments within whose territorial jurisdiction they happened
to be, but the abuses and oppression to which they were subjected
necessitated an entirely different policy with respect to them and the
organization of separate governments controlled directly from Ma-
nila under the interior department. Mr. Worcester, the secretary of
the interior, has given especial attention to the care and development
of these non-Christian tribes. It has been necessary to organize in
Northern Luzon three or four subprovinces within the territorial
limits of the Filipino provinces and to secure the protection of the
non-Christians by the appointment generally of an American lieu-
tenant-governor. This is also true in the province of Misamis and
of Surigao in Mindanao, where it was found impossible to induce
the provincial officers to spend the money appropriated out of the
insular treasury for the benefit of the people for educational and
road improvements directed by the central authority. The fact that
the recent, and for a time seemingly incurable, tendency to disturb-
ance in Samar has grown out of a similar cause in that island, I
have already commented on in connection with another subject.
The city of Manila has not been given autonomous government.
It is under the control of a municipal board of five persons appointed
by the central government and is governed therefore as Washington
or the City of Mexico is governed. In the proper improvement of
Manila, some six or eight millions of dollars had to be expended and
much business experience and foresight were required to build the new
waterworks and the new sewer system, to repave the stteets, to canalize
the esteros, or creeks, to organize an effective police force and a new fire
department. It was thought that it would not be safe to intrust the


37 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
conduct of such important business matters to a body selected by the
electorate of Manila for the first time. The city of Manila has been
well governed. Very large sums of money have been expended in
most extensive improvements and not the slightest scandal or dis-
honesty has been charged in any of the city administration. It has
offered a most useful model for other municipalities in the Islands
to follow and has lent her engineers, her policemen, and her fire-
men to other towns to help the latter to better organization.
This review of shortcomings in municipal governments in the Phil-
ippines should not have the effect of discouraging those who are
interested in the success of the experiment. They should be reminded
that in the United States, municipal government has not been such a
shining success. Moreover, the defects pointed out are not found in
all Filipino towns. They have been referred to only to qualify prop-
erly the statement, which I do not hesitate to make, that autonomous
municipal governments are making good progress and are gradually
accomplishing the purposes for which they were created, though not
so efficiently as with a people more used to governing themselves,
more trained and educated in the assertion of their rights, and imbued
with a higher standard of public duty. When those responsible for
the policy of autonomy in municipal and provincial governments as-
sert that it is progressing successfully, they find their words to be
construed by enthusiastic theorists, who are convinced a priori of the
complete fitness of the Filipinos to govern themselves, as completely
establishing the correctness of their view; and when, on the other
hand, they point out the defects in such local governments they meet
the cry made by pessimists and by thick and thin adherents of the
English crown-colony system that this is an admission of failure and
a concession that we have gone far too fast in intrusting local govern-
mental power of the Filipinos.
The truth, as I conceive it, lies between the two extreme positions,
and while the policy adopted does not secure the best municipal
government which might be secured under American agents, it does
provide a fairly good government, with a training and experience
and educational influence upon the people which is slowly but pro-
gressively curing the defects incident to a lack of political training
and proper political ideals. The result indicates neither that the
Filipinos are fitted at once for complete self-government nor does it
justify the view that they may not be ultimately made capable of
complete self-government by a gradual extension of partial self-gov-
ernment as they may become more and more fit to exercise it.
When we come to the provincial governments, we naturally have
to deal with a higher order of public servants, and although we here
and there find the defects I have described as occurring in municipal
governments, they are less glaring and less discouraging. The truth


38 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
is, that with the guidance of the provincial treasurer, who is an
American, and the sense of added responsibility that the presence of
two Filipinos in the provincial board has instilled in them, the pro-
vincial officials begin to take pride in the good condition of their
province. This has been stimulated by close and constant correspond-
ence between them and the central government at Manila, repre-
sented by the assistant executive secretary, Mr. Frank Carpenter, in
which provincial matters are discussed, by an annual conference of
provincial governors at Manila, and by conditional contributions
from the central government to provincial funds for various forms of
provincial efficiency, and is evidenced by the greater amounts devoted
by the provinces to the construction of public buildings, the repair
and construction of roads and bridges and by the husbanding of
resources and the keeping down of salaries.
The system of examination of the finances of the municipalities
and of the provinces is now, as conducted in the Islands, very com-
plete, and in one large printed volume is published the balance sheet
of every province and of every municipality in the Islands for each
fiscal year, so that it is possible to take a bird's-eye view each year of
the financial progress made in the management of each province and
town. The improvement in the financial condition of the provinces
over and above what it was four or five years ago itself speaks
forcibly in favor of the progress which has been made by Filipinos
in provincial government.
One of the early difficulties in provincial government already
pointed out was the lack of tax resources, which prevented payment
of adequate salaries or the making of much-needed improvements.
With the sympathetic aid and suggestion of the central government,
and by the voluntary assumption of greater taxes by the people,
all the provinces, save two or three, have made themselves self-
supporting and have been enabled to pay good salaries. They differ
largely in the amount of money that they have been able to devote
to the construction of public buildings and to roads and bridges, but
they are certainly beginning to appreciate the necessity for effort in
this direction, and while they have refused thus far to adopt the
system of a few days' enforced labor commutable by taxes, they are
gradually coming to the adoption of a poll tax for public roads
which in its essence and its alternatives will ultimately be an equiva-
lent of such a sj'stem.
The report of the Auditor of the Islands shows a most gratifying
improvement in the financial condition of the towns and provinces
for the last five years. While the financial condition is not invariably
indicative of the general character of a municipal or provincial gov-
ernment, a steady improvement in it from year to year is reasonably
good evidence that matters of government are mending in every way.


39 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
The question of roads and bridges has not yet been solved in the
Philippines. There remains yet an enormous amount of labor and
capital to be expended for this purpose, but the seeds have been sown
which I am convinced will lead, under the executive force and
great interest of Mr. W. Cameron Forbes, the secretary of com-
merce and police, to the adoption of a caminero system of road
repairs and maintenance which will make the intercommunication
by wagon road between the various parts of the various islands satis-
factory. I shall not stop to dwell on the great inherent difficulty
that there is in the construction and repair of roads in the Philip-
pines. The absence of suitable material and the destructive effect
of every wet season sufficiently account for the present unsatisfactory
condition in this respect. The principle rigidly adopted and enforced
now is, however, that no bridge and no public building shall be con-
structed of anything but permanent materials—either concrete, hard
wood, or metal—or iron or steel, and that no road shall be built except
in a manner which shall enable local authorities, with reasonable ex-
pense, to keep it in permanent repair. In times past the necessity for
haste and supposed economy has led to the use of softer woods and
temporary methods of construction, which are now turning out to be
much more costly than if the original expenditure had been greater.
CIVIL SERVICE. *
The organization and maintenance of the central government were
directed not only with a view to its efficiency, but also to its educa-
tional effect upon the Philippine people. This is shown in the ap-
pointment of three Filipinos to constitute three-eighths of the insu-
lar legislature, as well as by the opportunity offered to Filipinos to
enter the civil service under a civil-service law embodying the merit
system. In the beginning it was difficult to work Filipinos into the
bureaus of the central government, because few of them knew Eng-
lish and fewer understood the American business and official methods,
which, of course, obtained in the new government. . As the years
went on, however, under great pressure from the Commission, the
proportion of Filipinos in the service was increased from year to
year. Many natives had learned English and had shown an in-
creasing aptitude for the work of the civil service. Still in many
of the bureaus the progress of Filipinos to the most responsible
places is necessarily slow and the proportion of them to be found
in the positions of high salaries is not as large as it ought to be in the
near future. The winnowing-out process, however, is steadily reduc-
ing the American employees in the civil service. It has become a
body of highly deserving, faithful public servants, whom, it is hoped,
the Philippine government will make permanent provision for by


40 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
secure tenure for a certain number of years with a reasonable retiring
pension.
As was inevitable in the complete organization of a government
effected within a few months, experience indicated that greater econ-
omy might be secured by a reduction in the number of bureaus and
bureau chiefs, by the consolidation of offices and bureaus, and by the
still further substitution of competent Filipinos for higher-priced
Americans.
It is now nearly three years ago, therefore, since a committee of
insular officials with Commissioner Forbes as chairman was appointed
to make a vigorous investigation into the entire governmental sys-
tem. The committee made radical recommendations as to curtail-
ment, most of which were adopted and resulted in a very material
decrease in the cost of government and increase in the proportion of
Filipino employees.
In the department of justice, including the judiciary, the propor-
tion of Filipinos had always been high. The chief justice of the
supreme court and two of his associates were Filipinos, while nearly
half of the judges of the courts of first instance were also natives.
All but two of the prosecuting attorneys in the 35 provinces, all the
justices of the peace, and nearly all the court officers were Filipinos.
For two years the attorney-general of the Islands has been a Filipino.
The changes in the proportion of Filipino civil servants to the
whole number from year to year can be seen in the following table:
Americans. Filipinos.
1901............................................................................ 2,044 2,662
1902 a.......................................................;...................
1903............................................................................ 2,777 3,228 3,307 2,697 3,377 4,023
1904............................................................................
1905 ......................................................
1906 a...........................................................................
1907............................................................................ 2,616 3,902

° Statistics not available.
CIVIL RIGHTS.
Before discussing the provision for the national assembly and its
influences, educational and otherwise, I must refer to the effort of
President McKinley to extend to the Filipinos the guaranties of life,
liberty, and property, secured by the Federal Constitution to those
within Federal jurisdiction. The guaranties assured in the instruc-
tions of Mr. McKinley included all those of the Federal Constitution
except the right to bear arms and to trial by jury.
The right to bear arms is one that can not safely yet be extended
to the people of the Philippines, because there are among those
people men given to violence, who with the use of arms would at


41 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
once resort to ladronism as a means of livelihood. The tempta-
tion would be too great and ought not to be encouraged. Nor are
the people fit for the introduction of a jury system. Not yet has
any considerable part of the community become sufficiently imbued
with the sense of responsibility for the government and with its
identification with the government. This responsibility and identi-
fication are necessary before jurors can sit impartially between soci-
ety and the prisoner at the bar. Without it they are certain always
to release the prisoner and to sympathize with him in the prosecu-
tion against him. The fair treatment of the prisoner is sufficiently
secured in a country never having had a jury trial by the absolute
right of appeal from the decision of a single judge to the decision
of seven judges, with a writ of error thence to the Supreme Court
of the United States. It may be that in the future it will seem wise
gradually to provide for a jury in various classes of cases, but at
present it would be premature.
The civil rights conferred by Mr. McKinley's instructions were
expressly confirmed by the organic act of July 1, 1902. It has been
the purpose of the Philippine government to make the extension of
these rights a real thing and a benefit for the poorer Filipino, and
progress is being made in this direction. The great obstacle to it
arises from the ignorance of the people themselves as to what their
rights are and their lack of knowledge as to how those rights may
be asserted.
The work of impressing a knowledge of these things upon the
people goes, however, rapidly on, and with the education in English
of a new generation and their succession to the electorate, we can be
certain that the spread of education as to popular rights and the
means of maintaining them will be wider and wider, until we can
have a whole community who know their rights, and knowing, dare
maintain them.
Charges have been made that the existing Philippine government
has not properly preserved these guaranties of civil rights. It is true
that the Commission has, in effect, suspended these guaranties in a
condition equivalent to one of war in some of the provinces, and has
been sustained in so doing by the supreme court of the Islands and
of the United States. It is also true that during a condition equiv-
alent to war the Commission provided that no one should advocate
independence, even by peaceable means, because agents of insurrec-
tion were inciting actual violence under the guise of such peaceable
propaganda. With the coming of peace, the statute ceased to have
effect. To-day, however, the writ of habeas corpus runs without
obstruction. The liberty of the press and of free speech is real.
There is no censorship of the press and no more limitation upon its *
editors than there is in the city of Washington. The publication of


42 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
criminal libel or seditious language calculated and intended to cause
public riot and disturbance is punishable in Manila and the Philip-
pines as it is in many of the States of the Union. This freedom of
discussion and this opportunity to criticise the government, educate
the people in a political way and enable them more intelligently to
exercise their political rights.
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.
In recommending to Congress the provision for a national assem-
bly contained in the organic act of the Philippine government, Sec-
retary Root and the Commission were moved by the hope and belief
that the promise in the act, conditioned, as its fulfillment was,
on th« existence of peace in the Islands, would stimulate activity
on the part of all Filipinos having political ambition to bring about
tranquillity. In this respect, as already pointed out, the result has
abundantly vindicated their judgment. They were further moved
by the conviction that this step toward greater popular self-gov-
ernment would strengthen the hands of the Government by secur-
ing from the people readier acquiescence in, and greater obedience
to, measures which their representatives had joined in passing, than
when they were the decrees of an alien government. They further
believed that by means of the assembly much more exact and prac-
tical knowledge of the needs of the country would be brought to the
law-making power than in any other way. Finally, they thought
that the inauguration of such an assembly would be a most impor-
tant step in the main plan or policy of educating Filipinos in the
science and practice of popular representative government. They
were aware of the possible danger that this was a step too far in ad-
vance. They did not deny that on the part of a number elected there
would be a strong inclination to obstruct the smooth working of exist-
ing government on lines of political and material progress. They
anticipated the probability that in the first assembly elected the ma-
jority would be in favor of immediate independence; but in spite of
all this they were clear in their forecast that the responsibilities of
power would have both a sobering and educational effect that would
lead ultimately to conservatism of action and to strengthening the
existing government.
Let us now consider what has happened in the electoral campaign
for the assembly and in its early life as a legislative body.
The powerful influence for good and for peace exercised by the
Federal Party in the period just after Mr. McKinley's second election
I have dwelt upon at another place. The main purpose and prin-
ciple of the party was peace under the sovereignty of the United
f States. In drafting a platform its leaders had formulated a plank


43 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
favoring the organization of the Islands into a Territory of the
United States, with a view to its possibly becoming a State. From
this plank it took its name. In the first two or three years after its
successful effort to bring on peace, many prominent Filipinos having
political ambition became members, and in the gubernatorial elec-
tions the great majority of governors elected were Federals. And
so substantially all who filled prominent offices in the government by
appointment, including the judges, were of that party. Then dissen-
sion arose among prominent leaders and some withdrew from the
party. The natural opposition to a government party led to the
organization of other parties, especially among those known as In-
transigentes. The Federal Party had founded an organ, the Demo-
cracia, early in its existence. The opponents of the government look-
ing to immediate independence founded a paper called the Renaci-
miento. The latter was edited with especial ability and with a parti-
san spirit against the American Government.
For two years before the election of the Assembly the Filipinos
who sympathized with the Renacimiento were perfecting their organ-
ization to secure a majority in the assembly. Many groups were
formed, but they all were known as the Partido Nacionalista. There
was some difference as to whether to this title should be added the word
inmediatista," but the great majority favored it. The party is gen-
erally known as the Nacionalista Party. During much of these same
two years, the Federal Party was dormant. The proposition for state-
hood did not awaken enthusiasm anywhere. Many of the leaders were
in office and felt no necessity for vigorous action. The quarrel between
some of the directors had given the party paralysis. The party was
not organized for political controversy with another party at the
polls. It was merely an organization to give effective resultant
force to the overwhelming feeling in favor of peace under United
States sovereignty, and it was not adapted to a political fight on
issues that were not in existence when it was at the height of its power
for usefulness. On the other hand, in the Federal Party were many
of the ablest and most conservative of the Filipinos, and it seemed
wise that this nucleus should be used to form a party that represented
conservatism on the issue as to independence, which the opponents of
the government determined to force into the campaign for members
of the assembly. It was an issue hardly germane to the subject-
matter within the jurisdiction of the assembly, but it had to be met.
The issue whether the Islands should have immediate independence
turned on the question whether the Filipino people are now fit for
complete self-government. Upon this question it was entirely
natural that the burden should fall upon those who asserted the nega-
tive, and it is not strange that the electors, or a majority of them,


44 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
should believe themselves and by their votes decide themselves to be
competent.
Some six months before the elections, there sprung from the ashes
of the Federal Party a party which, rejecting the statehood idea, de-
clared itself in favor of making the Philippines an independent nation
by gradual and progressive acquisition of governmental control until
the people should become fitted by education and practice under
American sovereignty to enjoy and maintain their complete inde-
pendence. It was called the Partido Nacionalista Progresista. It
is generally known as the Progresista Party. The Progresista lead-
ers were late in the field and were somewhat at a disadvantage
on this account; but after they entered the fight they were ener-
getic and vigorous. They did not mince words. They took the
position fully and flatly that the people of the Philippines were not
fitted for immediate independence and complete self-government
and needed much education and experience before they should
become so. It was natural to suppose that the cry of complete fitness
for self-government was the popular one and that it would attract
votes. This impression showed itself in a somewhat amusing way.
The first independence party, as I have said, called itself the Partido
Nacionalista Inmediatista. The title and organization were not rad-
ical enough for a group that broke away and called itself Partido
Nacionalista Urgentissima, which was supposed to indicate a party
whose yearning for independence was greater than that of those who
wished it immediately. This was followed by the organization of a
new group who showed that they were not to be outdone in the
fervor and anxiety with which they sought independence and votes
for their candidates by calling their party Partido Nacionalista
Explosivista.
The campaign in the last two or three months was carried on with
great vigor. The Nacionalistas had the advantage of being under-
stood to be against the government. This, with a people like the,
Filipino people, who had been taught to regard the government as an
entity separate from the people, taxing them and prosecuting them,
was in itself a strong reason for popular sympathy and support. The
Progresistas were denounced as a party of officeholders. The gov-
ernment was denounced as extravagant and burdensome to the peo-
ple. In many districts the Nacionalista candidates promised that if
they were returned immediate independence would follow. There
were quite a number of candidates in country and remote districts
where the controversy was not heated who did not declare them-
selves on the main question, and maintained an independence of any
party. The}7 were known as Independientes. Then, there were other
Independientes who declared themselves independent of party, but in
favor of immediate independence.


45 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
The elections were held on July 30. Members were elected from
80 districts into which the Christian Filipino provinces were
divided. The result of the canvass was the election of 16 Progresis-
tas, 1 Catolico, 20 Independientes, 31 Nacionalistas, 7 Inmediatistas,
4 Independistas, and 1 Nacionalista Independiente, in all 80 members.
The total vote registered and cast did not exceed 104,000, although
in previous gubernatorial elections the total vote had reached nearly
150,000. The high vote at the latter elections may be partly explained
by the fact that at the same elections town officers were elected, and
the personal interest of many candidates drew out a larger number
of electors. But the falling off was also in part due, doubtless, to the
timidity of conservative voters, who, because of the heat of the
campaign, preferred to avoid taking sides. This is not a permanent
condition, however, and I doubt not that the meeting of the assembly
and the evident importance of its functions when actually performed
will develop a much greater popular interest in it, and the total
vote will be largely increased at the next election.
I opened the assembly in your name. The roll of the members re-
turned on the face of the record was called. An appropriate oath
was administered to all the members and the assembly organized by
selecting Senor Sergio Osmena as its speaker or presiding officer.
Senor Osmena has been one of the most efficient fiscals, or prosecuting
attorneys, in the Islands, having conducted the government prosecu-
tions in the largest province of the Islands, the province and island
of Cebu. He was subsequently elected governor, and by his own ac-
tivity in going into ever}^ part of the island, he succeeded in enlisting
the assistance of all the people in suppressing ladronism, which had
been rife in the mountains of Cebu for thirty or forty years, so that
to-day there is absolute peace and tranquillity throughout the island.
He is a young man not 30, but of great ability, shrewdness, high
ideals, and yet very practical in his methods of dealing with men and
things. The assembly could have done nothing which indicated its
good sense so strongly as the selection of Senor Osmena as its presid-
ing officer.
Many successful candidates for the assembly seem to have embraced
the cause of the Inmediatistas without having thought out deliber-
ately any plan by which a policy of immediate independence could be
carried out. They joined the party and united in its cry because it
was a popular one and because they thought that this was an easy
method of being elected, or rather because they thought that without
this, election would be difficult. When the assembly met it was quite
apparent that the great majority were much more anxious to vindi-
cate their election as a dignified, common-sense, patriotic branch of
the legislature by a conservative course than to maintain consistency
between their acts as legislators and their ante-election declarations.


46 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
There are, of course, some members who are likely at times to make
speeches containing violent language, but on the whole there seemed
to be during my stay in the Islands, of two or three weeks after the
organization of the assembly, a very earnest wish that the assembly
should show the conservatism which many of us believe exists in the
Philippine people, rather than it should give a weapon to the enemies
of the people and popular government by extravagance and useless
violence of speech.
Since I left the Islands the Assembly has voted for two resident
commissioners to represent the Islands at Washington as provided in
the organic act of the Philippine government. These commissioners
are elected by the Assembly and the Commission sitting in separate
session. The two candidates tendered by the Assembly to the Com-
mission and accepted by the latter were Mr. Benito Legarda, at pres-
ent one of the Filipino Commissioners, and Mr. Pablo Ocampo, of
Manila. Mr. Legarda is one of the founders of the Federal Party
and a Progresista. He has been many times in the United States and
speaks English. He is one of the most prominent and successful
business men in the Islands, and a public-spirited citizen of high
character. Mr. Ocampo was an active sympathizer with the insurrec-
tion and acted as its treasurer. He was deported to the island of
Guam by the military authorities in the days of the military govern-
ment. He is a prominent and able member of the bar of the Islands
and a man of high character. He took part in the organization of
the Nacionalista Party which he wished to have called Unionista. He
is understood to have objected to the word " inmediatista " and to
have withdrawn from the party on that account.
As a shibboleth—as a party cry—immediate independence has
much force, because it excites the natural pride of the people, but few
of their number have ever worked out its consequences, and when
they have done so they have been willing to postpone that question
until some of the immediate needs of the people have been met. I
may be wrong, but my judgment is that the transfer of real power by
giving to the people part of the legislative control of the Christian1
provinces sobers their leaders with the sense of responsibility and
teaches them some of the practical difficulties of government. They
wish to vindicate their view in respect to their fitness to govern them-
selves completely by exercising the power of the government which
has been accorded to them in a way to make the people of the United
States and of the world believe that when greater power is extended,
they may be trusted to exercise that with equal discretion and con-i
servative common sense. They are now a real part of the government
of the Islands. Nothing can be done affirmatively without the con-
sent of the Assembly. They have been through one election and have


47 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
made election promises. Many of those promises, such as the prom-
ises of immediate independence, were of course entirely beyond the
authority of the promisers. When they go back to their constituents
at the next election they will find facing them not only their ante-
election promises, but also responsibility for legislation and failure
to legislate which will introduce new issues of a practical character,
and will necessitate explanation and a caution of statement that was
entirely absent in the first campaign. All this can not but have a
wholesome effect upon the politics of the Filipinos and the Philip-
pines. I do not for a moment guarantee that there will not at times be
radical action by the Assembly, which can not meet the approval of
those who understand the legislative needs of the Islands, but all I
wish to say is that the organization and beginning of the life of the
Assembly have disappointed its would-be critics and have given
great encouragement to those who were responsible for its extension
of political power.
The Inmediatistas, having a majority in the Assembly, are prone
to divide into groups. The Independientes are organizing as a party,
drawing tighter party lines, and at times act with the Progresistas,
who, with their 17 votes, are enjoying the advantage of the minority
party in maintaining a solidarity and party discipline that it is im-
possible for the leaders of the majority and the controlling party
to attain. It would not be surprising if at the next election there
should be a readjustment of party lines and division on other issues
than those which controlled at the first election.
While I was in the Islands, provincial elections were held, at which
were elected governors and third members of the provincial boards.
The elections were held on party lines. The total vote exceeded
that at the Assembly by more than 50 per cent. Of the governors
elected, 15 were Nacionalista and 15 were Progresista. Of the third
members, 15 were Nacionalista, 13 were Progresista, and 2 were of
unknown party affiliation. From this it would seem that the Naciona-
lista victory in the assembly election should not be taken as an assur-
ance that a permanent majority of the electors will continue to favor
immediate independence.
The Assembly has shown a most earnest desire, and its leaders
have expressed with the utmost emphasis their intention, to labor
for the material prosperity of the Philippines and to encourage the
coming of capital and the development of the various plans for the
improvement of the agriculture and business of the Islands which
have commended themselves to those in the past responsible for the
government there. In other words, thus far the Assembly has not
manifested in any way that obstructive character which those who
have prophesied its failure expected to see, and who, in this respect,


48 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
paradoxical as it may appear, are equally disappointed with those
anti-imperialists who have hopefully looked to the Assembly as a
means of embarrassing the present government.
The organization of the Assembly is one of the great steps in the
education of the Filipino people for complete self-government. One
of the assumptions which must be guarded against, but which we
always encounter, is that the conservative and successful use by the
people of an instrumentality like that of the national Assembly is
convincing proof of the people to enjoy greater power and reason
for an instantaneous granting of that power. This is at variance
with the theory upon which the power is granted. That theory is
that the use of such an instrument is valuable chiefly as a means of
educating those who use it to the knowledge of how it ought to be
used and to conservatism in its use. The fact that on receiving it
the people use it conservatively is by no means sufficient proof that
if it were not subject to ultimate control, guidance, and restraint
by the agents of the United States, it might not be misused. It is
most encouraging to find it conservatively used and vindicates those
who urged its adoption, but it is far from demonstrating that this
conservative use, subject to the limitations upon its power which now
exist and which have a necessary tendency to make its use conserva-
tive, would be preserved under conditions in which those limitations
were entirely removed. The moderate use of such an Assembly for a
reasonable time may properly form a ground for the greater exten-
sion of power and the removal of some of the limitations. Progress
in such a matter to be safe must be gradual.
I can not refrain from saying at this point that the attitude of the
national Assembly has been much influenced by the confidence that
the members and the Filipino people have in the sense of justice and
impartiality of Governor-General Smith and the deep sympathy
which they know he feels in their welfare and in their hopes of con-
tinued progress. He knows the Filipino people better than any other
American, and he spares no effort to reconcile their real needs and
their earnest desires.
I have reviewed the history of the governmental organization in
order to show the consistency of the American Government in adher-
ing to the policy laid down by President McKinley, of gradually ex-
tending self-government to the Filipinos as they shall show them-
selves fit. AVe first, therefore, have the autonomy of the municipality,
restrained by the disciplinary action of the governor-general, the
restraint upon the expenditure of its funds by the provincial treas-
urers, and the audit of its funds by the central authority; second, the
partial autonomy of the provincial governments in the election of a
governor, the more complete autonomy by the constitution of the pro-
vincial board of two elective members out of three, the restraint upon


49 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
the board by the presence of a member of the provincial board ap-
pointed by the governor, the visitatorial powers of the governor-
general for disciplinary purposes in respect of the provincial officers,
the restraining influence and assistance of the central constabulary
force, the modification of complete American central control by the
introduction of three appointed Filipinos into the Commission, fol-
lowed after five years by the inauguration of a completely popular
elective Assembly to exercise equal legislative power with the Com-
mission. This progressive policy has justified itself in many ways,
and especially in the restoration of order to which I have already
referred.
SANITATION.
There is always present in every picture of Philippine progress
as painted by those who have not carefully investigated the facts, a
somber background of a baneful climate making it impossible for
the American or European to live in health and strength in the
islands for any length of time. It is true that the islands are in
the Tropics, and that the variations in temperature are only about
a third as much in extent as in the Temperate Zone; but, for a tropi-
cal climate, that of the Philippines is exceptionally comfortable and
healthful. The monsoons blow six months from southwest across
the islands and six months from the. northeast, so that they are con-
stantly windswept. . This makes a radical difference between the
climate of the islands and that of the lowlands of India cor instance.
The last two decades, especially the latter, have taught us much in
respect to tropical diseases, their causes, their proper treatment, and
the best method of avoiding them. This was one of the most valu-
able results of the Spanish war.
In his address as president of the Philippine Medical Association,
in March, 1905, Dr. John R. McDill, who came first to the islands as
a leading army surgeon and who left the Army to carry on a most
successful practice in Manila, said:
We have come to esteem to the utmost the climate which so effectually
guards many of you against the too strenuous life and which is almost ideal
eight months in the year, even in Manila. Our professional experience has
proven that, excepting some intestinal disorders which we are rapidly prevent-
ing and curing, and a limited amount of epidemic infectious diseases, there
is nothing unusual about the kind or amount of disease encountered here, or its
successful treatment when hospital care is available. The surgeon's work has
fully demonstrated that ideal wound healing and convalescence after operation
is as much the rule here as anywhere in the world. We physicians also know
that, and appreciate that the dread diseases of childhood so prevalent at home
are rare here, and that of all the ills particularly among women from real bodily
ailments to a poor complexion for which the climate is usually blamed, the
great majority are hereditary or acquired, were brought here by the patient
and often aggravated by careless and unhygienic living. For old people "and
26720—S. Doc. 200, 60-1-1
t


50 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
children, the climate is an earthly elysium. * * * With the improved and
constantly improving conditions of living, we believe that almost all will agree
that by observing the normal and moral life, healthy Americans can live about
as long here and enjoy as good health and do as much good and hard work,
more than three-fourths of the year, as we could in the home land.
The death rate among American soldiers in the Philippines for the
last year was 8.5 per thousand, and the previous £ear 8.65. General
Wood reports that the size of the sick report can not be properly
charged to the climate, that, taken as a whole, the reports for the
years indicate a decided improvement in health conditions, and that
the men leaving the islands after a regular tour of more than two
years present a far better appearance than those of the incoming.
The death rate among American civilians in Manila for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1907, was 5.59 per thousand, a reduction from
the previous year. The death rate among Filipinos this year in
Manila was 36.9 per thousand and among Spaniards 15.84, both re-
ductions from the previous year.
During the decade of our stay in the islands, the conditions of
life for Americans have steadily bettered. We have become ac-
quainted with hygienic methods of living, and the death rate of Amer-
icans of the same social condition in the Philippines is certainly not
greater than in the cities of the Southern States, and is, as we have
seen, very much less than that among Filipinos.
If the United States is to continue its governmental relations with
the Philippines for more than a generation, and its business and social
relations indefinitely, the fact that Americans can live healthful lives
in the Philippines is important of itself; but I have cited these sta-
tistics and this expert opinion to show more than this—I believe that
it has an important bearing upon another kind of progress possible
among the Filipino people, and that it opens another important field
of education for the American government to cultivate in the islands.
No one can be m the Philippines long without realizing that as a
race the Filipinos are small of stature, slight of frame and flesh, and
with small powers of resistance to epidemic diseases. It has been sup-
posed that because of their nativity the Filipinos were not subject to
the malarial, intestinal, and dysenteric troubles that afflict Americans
and Europeans, and that measures taken to avoid or cure such troubles
in the case of the foreigner were unnecessary and superfluous with the
Filipinos. Recent investigations of a systematic kind, carried on by
keeping comparative statistics of all the official autopsies made in the
islands, seem to show that the assumption that the Filipinos are im-
mune from the forms of disease I have mentioned is without founda-
tion. The autopsies of 100 cases showed in a great majority the germs
of malaria, of amoebic dysentery, and that microbe of the so-called
" lazy " disease of Porto Rico known as the "hookworm." It is true


51 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
that the diseases were not active or acute, but their presence in the
system of course weakened the constitution of the subject and could
easily explain his anaemic condition, his smallness of stature, and
small powers of resistance. Malaria, of course, is produced or at least
transmitted by the mosquito, while amoebic dysentery and the " lazy "
disease are water-borne and proceed directly from the miserable
sources of water supply in most Filipino towns. Proper precautions
can avoid all these; or at least can greatly reduce the number of
victims.
In Manila, 60 per cent of all infants born die during the first year
of their lives, and there is no reason to believe that infant mortality
in other parts of the islands is less. This frightful percentage is
brought about by ignorance and neglect of the mothers in feeding
their babies. There are very few if any milch cows in the islands, and
the little ones are fed with all sorts of impossible things. They die
generally of a lack of nourishment. There is no reason why, if the
mothers were correctly taught and proper infant food were brought
within the reach of the poor, this awful rate of infant mortality
might not be reduced. Not only is there an actual loss of life which
might be avoided, but the babies which live through such treatment
and nourishment are not apt to make strong men and women, but are
likely to become victims of anaemia and other diseases mentioned as
shown in the autopsies I have referred to.
I do not think it is unjust to the Spanish regime in the Philippines
to say that very little if any attention was paid to sanitation accord-
ing to modern methods. In the city of Manila and in the other large
towns of the islands the American military medical authorities, who
were the first to assume responsibility for the health of the islands,
found the same utter disregard of the proper rules for the dis-
position of house sewage that was found in Habana. Thousands, yes,
tens of thousands, of Filipinos were carried off year after year by a
peculiarly virulent type of smallpox.
In Manila, in Cebu, and in Nueva Caceres, respectively, were leper
hospitals, but in each the management was inefficient and the care of
the inmates poor. More than this, no supervision was exercised to
isolate lepers not in hospitals. Some times the poor creatures were
driven out of villages by popular riots and herded together with no
proper food and no shelter. The contact of lepers with the people
of course only increased the number of cases of the dread disease.
In 1885 or 1886 the islands were visited by an epidemic of cholera
and the prostration of the people of Manila and the Philippines, due
to the rapid spread of the scourge, beggared description. In Manila
the deaths were 1,000 or more a day from that cause alone for a num-
ber of weeks. The trade proximity of Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu, to
China, India, Java, Burma, and the Straits Settlements, makes the


52 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
danger of transmitting tropical and other infectious diseases very-
much greater.
Quarantine in Spanish times was lax. The American Army med-
ical authorities took hold of the matter of sanitation in their usual
vigorous way and made much progress in the matter of quarantine
and in correcting the glaringly insanitary conditions in Manila. But
it remained for the civil government to effect a thorough organization
of a health department which could do permanent good.
The introduction of sanitary methods by law among the people
has given rise to more dissatisfaction and greater criticism of the
government than any other one cause. The truth is that the people
have to be educated in the effectiveness of such methods before they
can become reconciled to them, and the work of the health depart-
ment since the beginning of the civil government in 1901 has been
obstructed, first, by the inertia and indifference of the people in re-
spect to the matter, and second, by their active resistance to affirma-
tive restraints upon them necessary to prevent disease.
The fight against smallpox has been so successful that in the past
year not a single death from it occurred in Manila, and in the prov-
inces of Cavite, Batangas, Cebu, Rizal, Bataan, La Laguna and La
Union, where, heretofore there have been approximately 6,000 deaths
per year not one was reported. In the few places in other provinces
where smallpox appeared it made little headway. More than 2,000,-
000 vaccinations against smallpox were performed last year, and
vaccination is being carried on so that it will reach every inhabitant
of the islands.
In 1902 Asiatic cholera appeared. The loss the first year by reason
of the methods introduced was much less than it had been fifteen or
sixteen years before, but great difficulty was encountered in putting
into force the health regulations and a futile attempt was made to
establish quarantine between localities in the islands. Since that time
a better system of isolation and stamping out the disease in the local-
ity where it appeared has been followed, and it is gratifying to note
that although the dread disease appeared each year, it was finally
brought to an end on November 27,1906, and the authorities now feel
that the people have been so thoroughly roused to the best methods
of treating the disease that any local reappearance of it can be readily
suppressed.
In 1902 or 1903 the bubonic plague appeared in the islands. This
has been suppressed by the isolation of all persons suffering from the
disease and the destruction of plague-infected rats so that during '
the last year there were no cases of bubonic plague whatever.
When the Americans first began government in the Philippines it ;
was reported that leprosy was so widely extended in the islands that :
there were probably from 25,000 to 50,000 lepers to be cared for. j


53 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
After many unsuccessful efforts a leper colony has finally been estab-
lished at Culion, a healthful and attractive island between Panay
and Palawan, to which all the lepers of the islands are now being
gradually removed. The number prt)bably does not exceed 3,000.
The course pursued is to take each province separately and by
thorough investigation of the reported cases of lepers, determine
those of true leprosy and to remove them thence to the colony of
Culion. The experiment at first was a doubtful one because of the
objection of the lepers to being taken so far away from their homes,
and some of the friends of lepers made vigorous objections to this
course. After the removal of the first 500, however, and when they
found how comfortable and agreeable life at Culion was, the objec-
tions ceased. Leprosy as a disease usually does not directly kill its
victims, but it so weakens the powers of their resistance that the rate
of mortality from other causes among lepers is very high. The sys-
tem of isolation and withdrawing lepers from the thickly populated
communities has been at once justified by the reduction in the number
of new case. The number of known lepers in the archipelago on Sep-
tember 1,1905, was 3,580; on June 30,1907, it was 2,826, a decrease of
654, due to the death of the known lepers without any spread of the
disease as had been the case in previous years and under different con-
ditions. The policy of removal of lepers is one which can only be
carried out gradually and has been applied only to a part of the
provinces, but it will probably be completed in three or four years
when all the lepers will be removed to Culion and the effect of this
isolation will certainly be to reduce the infection of healthful persons
with the awful disease to a minimum.
The fruitful source of the spread of amoebic dysentery is the drink-
ing of impure water. The water supply of Manila is drawn from
the Mariquina River after it has passed through three or four thickly
populated towns and an immense amount of trouble and labor has
been expended in trying to preserve the river from contamination by
these towns. Military forces »have been picketed along the banks and
the most stringent regulations have been enforced against the inhabit-
ants. Much has been accomplished in this matter, but still the water
is dangerous to drink unless boiled and filtered. With a view to the
removal of this difficulty, new waterworks are in the process of build-
ing at a cost to the city of Manila of about two millions of dollars.
The water is to be drawn from a point very much farther up the Mari-
quina River, at a distance of about 25 miles from Manila, and is to be
accumulated in a reservoir by damming the river at a point where
nature apparently intended a dam to be put. Pure mountain water
will thus be obtained which is to be carried to the city of Manila
simply by the power of gravity. The new improvement is 80 per
cent done and water will flow into the city probably by July of 1908.


54 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
In addition to this a new sewer system has been projected and is
under construction in the city of Manila and 18 miles of the deep
and main trunk sewers have been laid in the city. The mileage of the
remainder of the sewers is very much greater, but the engineer esti-
mates that about half of the work has been done. The project con-
templates the establishment of reservoirs and the pumping of sewage
out into the bay at such a distance as to prevent its retaining any
noxious character. The difficulty of sewering Manila can be under-
stood when it is known that the level of the ground in the city is
only a few feet above high water mark. With the completion of the
water and sewer systems and the canalization of the esteros or canals,
with which the city is threaded, a work which is projected and which
will cost about $400,000, there is no doubt that Manila will become
as healthful a tropical city as there is in the world.
The very high death rate in the city is due to the frightful mortal-
ity among the native infants under 1 year of age already alluded to.
The absence of pure milk for babes in the Philippines accounts for
a good deal of this mortality, and a charitable organization has been
established for the circulation at reasonable cost of milk for infants
among both the poor and rich classes. The destruction of all the
horned cattle by rinderpest has reduced the supply of milk and made
it expensive. This adds greatly to the difficulty presented. The lack
of nourishment makes the child an easy victim to any disease, and
until Filipino mothers are taught properly to bring up their chil-
dren, we may expect this infant mortality to continue, but it is
subject to cure, and the methods adopted by the government and the
charitable organizations, including the churches, whose interest is
aroused, may be depended on to bring about a reform in this matter.
It is a fact that throughout the islands too, a great deal of the
mortality, among both children and adults, is due to water-borne
diseases. The supply of water in each village is generally contami-
nated and noxious. The government has taken steps to induce every
town to sink artesian wells for the purpose of giving its inhabitants
pure water. Several well-boring machines have been purchased by
the government and have been offered to the towns for use by them
on condition of their supplying the fuel and the labor necessary.
Wherever artesian wells have been sunk and a good supply of water
found, the death rate in the town has been reduced 50 per cent. With
a knowledge of the effectiveness of this remedy, it is certain that
the government will continue to press upon the towns the necessity
of the comparatively small expenditure necessary to secure proper
water, for it appears that in most towns in the islands artesian water
is available.
There is no reason why the whole Filipino race may not be made
stronger and better by the pursuit of proper sanitary methods with


55 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
respect to the ordinary functions of life. The spread of education,
the knowledge of cause and effect in this matter, together with the
sympathetic assistance and regulation of the government are all that
is needed to rid the Filipino of the obstructions to bodily growth and
strength which injurious microbes and bacteria living in the body
now create. The bureau of health and the bureau of science, which
has actively aided the bureau of health in the investigations made,
have now commended themselves to the Filipino people in such a way
that there is every reason to hope that the foundation for better health
in the islands has been permanently laid.
The government has this year established and begun a Government
Medical School, the faculty of which is made up partly of Filipinos
and partly of Americans, and the most modern methods of instruction
are projected. A fine laboratory, already erected near the place where
the medical school building is to be constructed and a general govern-
ment hospital in the immediate neighborhood will furnish a nucleus
for the study of tropical diseases and the proper methods of sanita-
tion. The graduates of this college as they grow in number and
spread all over the islands into regions most of which have never,
known a physician at all will greatly contribute to the physical change
and development for the better of the Filipino.
The health department has been exceedingly expensive, and the
amount taken from the treasury each year has been subject to much
criticism, but the results are so gratifying that even the most cap-
tious seems now willing to admit that the expenditure was wise,
prudent, and justified. A most thorough quarantine has been estab-
lished and maintained under the auspices of the United States Pub-
lic Health and Marine-Hospital Service in the ports of entry in the
islands.
As is well understood now the mosquito is the means of communica-
ting malaria and yellow fever and other diseases. It is supposed that
the Stegomyia mosquito, which carries the yellow fever, is found in
the Philippines, although no case of the fever has ever occurred in the
Islands. The importance of the mosquito in the Philippines is con-
fined to malaria at present. Varieties of the insect carrying most
malignant malaria are found to generate in the salt-water marshes,
though ordinarily it has been supposed that the Anopheles mosquito
conveying malaria generated only in fresh water. The wet season
seems to interfere with the operations of the mosquito by throwing
so much water into the streams as to prevent the stagnation necessary
to their successful propagation. A singular instance of this is found
in the old walled city of Manila. The old walled city has a sewer
system for storm or surface-water drainage. During the wet season
there is practically no malaria in the walled city, but during the dry
season there is a great deal. It has been found that in the dry


56 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
season in the absence of rainy weather the sewers contain stagnant
pools in which the Anopheles mosquito is generated in great numbers
and thus carries on his business of conveying malaria from one inhab-
itant of the walled city to another, whereas in the rainy season the
sewers are flushed all the time and there is no opportunity to the mos-
quito to propagate. Measures have now been taken to flush the sewers
of the walled city in the dry season and rid the inhabitants of this
pest until the new sewer system shall be put in operation, when the
evil can be entirely eradicated.
benguet.-a health resort.
In all the tropical countries in which civilized government has been
established and progress made toward the betterment of conditions
of human life, places have been found and settlements effected in
high altitudes where the conditions approximate in atmosphere and
climate those of the Temperate Zone. This is true in India, in Cey-
lon, in Java, and wherever there are neighboring mountains which
offer the opportunity.
The Philippines are fortunate in having a territory in Luzon in
the mountains of an altitude ranging from 4,500 to 7,000 feet, a
rolling country filled with groves of pine trees and grass, in which
the temperature rarely goes below 40° and never goes above 80° in
the shade. The province containing most of this territory is called
" Benguet." Similar climate is found in the adjoining provinces of
Lepanto and Bontoc. The railway from Manila to Dagupan has
now been extended to what is called " Camp No. 1," a distance of 22
miles from Baguio, the chief town in Benguet, where is the govern-
ment sanitarium and other places of resort and cure. At the cost of
about two millions of dollars, the government has constructed a fine
road up the gorge of the Bued River to a height of 5,000 feet. The
work would probably never have been entered upon, had it been
supposed that it would be so costly, but now that it is done, and well
done, the advantages accruing and soon to accrue, justify the expendi-
ture.
The representatives of all the churches in the islands have taken lots
and are putting up buildings, hospitals of various kinds are to be
erected, there is a sanitarium, the Commission holds part of its ses-
sions there, and it is hoped that the assembly will see fit to do the
same thing. A great many Filipinos recuperate by going to Japan
or Europe, but here within easy distance of Manila will be offered an
opportunity where the same kind of revitalizing atmosphere may be
found as in a temperate climate. The Filipinos were at first dis-
posed to criticise the expenditure on the ground that the road
was built solely for the few American officials who expected to
live there a large part of their time. The lots were offered at
public auction and a great many were purchased by Filipinos, and


57 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
now it is generally understood that the value of such a place
in the Philippine Islands has impressed itself upon the Filipino
public at large. The present necessity is the construction of a
railroad from Camp No. 1 directly into Baguio and steps have been
taken to bring this about. A large military reservation has been set
aside which it is hoped may be made into a brigade post for the re-
cuperation of our soldiers while in the Philippines. The railroad is
likely to have the patronage of those who spend part of their time
at Baguio, going and coming from Manila and other parts of the
islands, and also with the construction of a good hotel in Manila and
another one at Baguio there is not the slightest reason to doubt that
a large tourist patronage will be invited for both places. Mean-
time the health-giving influence of the climate at Baguio can not
but exercise a good effect upon the young Filipinos'who may be sent
there to be educated and upon those Filipinos who have been subject
to tropical diseases and have the time and means for visiting this
mountain resort. With the construction of a railroad, transportation
to Baguio may be made exceedingly reasonable and sanitariums built
which will furnish for very moderate cost a healthful regimen and
diet. Benguet is really a part of the system of government sanita-
tion and may properly be mentioned in connection with it here.
Comparative mortality from January 1, 1901, to September 30, 1907.
1901. 1902 1903. 1904.
Month. Number Annual Number Annual Number Annual Number Annual
of death rate of death rate of death rate of death rate
deaths. per 1,000. deaths. per 1,000. deaths. per 1,000. deaths. per 1,000.
January ---- 753 a 36.25 760 a 36.58 602 a 28.98 796 6 42.64
February ... 689 a 36.72 706 a 37.63 511 a 27.23 709 6 40.59
March...... 885 a 42.66 770 a 37.06 539 a 25.94 751 6 40.23
April........ 886 a 44.07 1,327 1,688 a 66.01 549 a 27.31 748 6 41.40
May......... 903 a 43.47 a 81.26 770 a 37.06 766 641.03
June........ 621 a 30.89 1,418 a 70.54 592 a 29.45 800 644.28
July........ 608 a 29.27 2,223 a 107.02 620 6 33.21 866 6 46.39
August...... 702 a 33. 79 1,712 a 82.42 862 6 46.17 1,032 655.28
September.. 767 a 38.15 1,132 a 56. 31 1,228 6 67.97 1,064 6 58.89
October..... 855 a 41.16 927 a 44.62 1,217 6 65.19 1,018 6 54.53
November .. 848 a 42.18 1,035 a 51.48 974 6 63. 91 957 6 52.97
December... 858 a 41.30 753 a 36.25 894 6 47.89 794 6 42.53
Number
of
deaths.
Annual
death rate
per 1,000.
Number
of
deaths.
Annual
death rate
per 1,000.
Number
of
deaths.
January ..
February .
March —
April......
May.......
June......
July......
August____
September
October...
November
December.
685
608
563
530
526
593
747
841
1,013
850
944
841
636.05
630.15
629.32
628.16
632.81
640.00
645.03
656.06
645.51
652.24
645.03
737
595
600
555
600
693
1,451
1,182
835
684
653
597
6 39.47
6 35.28
6 32.13
6 30.27
6 32.13
636.72
6 77.72
6 63.31
646.22
6 36.64
6 36.14
6 31.98
a Death rate computed on population of 244,732 (health department's census).
6 Death rate computed on population of 219,941 (official census, 1903).
o Death rate computed on population of 223,542 (health census, 1907).


58 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Mortality compared with same period of previous years.
First quarter. Second quarter. Third quarter. Fourth quarter.
Number Annual Number Annual Number Annual Number Annual
of death rate of death rate of death rate of death rate
deaths. per 1,000. deaths. per 1,000. deaths. per 1,000. deaths. per 1,000.
1901......... 2,327 42.93 2,410 43.97 2,077 47.49 2,561 46.22
1902 ......... 2,236 41.25 4,433 80.89 5,067 91.46 2,715 29.00
1903 ......... 1,652 30.48 1,911 34.87 2,710 48.91 3,085 55.68
1904 ......... 2,256 41.16 2,314 42.22 2,962 53.46 2,769 49.98
1905......... 1,856 34.24 1,649 30.09 2,601 46.94 2,635 1,934 47.56
1906 ......... 1,932 35.64 1,848 33.72 3,468 62.59 34.90
1907 ......... 1,569 28.48 1,280 22.98 1,936 34.38

MATERIAL PROGRESS AND BUSINESS CONDITIONS.
I come now to material conditions in the islands and the progress
that has been made in respect to them. While there is reason to hope
that the mining industry may be very much improved and developed,
the future of the islands is almost wholly involved in the development
of its agricultural resources, and the business of the islands must
necessarily depend on the question of how much its inhabitants can
get out of the ground. In bringing about the reforms and making
the progress which I have been detailing, the government has had to
meet disadvantageous conditions in respect to agriculture that can
hardly be exaggerated.
The chief products of the islands are abaca, or Manila hemp as it
is generally called, the fiber of a fruitless variety of banana plant;
cocoanuts, generally in the form of the dried cocoanut meat called
" copra;" sugar, exported in a form having the lowest degree of po-
larization known in commerce, and tobacco exported in the leaf and
also in cigars and cigarettes. There are other exports of course, but
these form the bulk of the merchantable products of the islands. In
addition to these, and in excess of most of them except hemp, is the
production of rice which constitutes the staple food of the inhabit-
ants. Some years before the Americans came to the islands the pro-
duction of rice had diminished in extent because the hemp fiber grew
so much in demand that it was found to be more profitable to raise
hemp and buy the rice from abroad. In the first few years of the
American occupation, however, during the insurrection and the contin-
uance of the guerrilla warfare, and finally the prevalence of ladron-
ism, many of the rice fields lay idle and the importation of rice
reached the enormous figure of twelve millions of dollars gold, or
about four-tenths of the total imports. With the restoration of better
conditions, the production in rice has increased so that the amount
of rice now imported is only about $3,500,000 in gold, and the differ-
ence between the two importations doubtless measures the increased
native production of the cereal.


59 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
During the six years of American occupancy under the civil gov-
ernment agriculture has been subject to the violent destruc-
tion which is more or less characteristic of all tropical countries.
The typhoons have damaged the cocoanut trees, they have at times
destroyed or very much affected the hemp production, and drought
has injured the rice as well as the cocoanuts. The character of the
tobacco leaf has deteriorated much because of a lack of care in its
cultivation due to the loose and careless habits of agriculture caused
by war and ladronism, and locusts have at times cleared the fields of
other crops without leaving anything for the food of the cultivators.
The great disaster to the islands, however, has been the rinderpest,
which carried away in two or three years 75 or 80 per cent of all
draft cattle in the islands. This was a blow under which the agricul-
ture of the islands has been struggling for now four or five years. At-
tempts were made, under the generous legislation of Congress ap-
propriating three millions of dollars to remedy the loss if possible, to
bring in cattle from other countries, but it was found that the cattle
brought in not being acclimated died, most of them before they could
be transferred to the farm, and then too they only added to the diffi-
culty of the situation by bringing new diseases into the Philippines.
It has been found that nothing can restore former conditions except
the natural breeding of the survivors, and in this way it will certainly
take five or six years more to restore matters to their normal condi-
tion. Meantime, of course, other means are sought and encouraged
for transportation and for plowing. The difficulty in the use of
horses is'that an Indian disease called the " surra," which it has been
impossible to cure, has carried off 50 per cent of the horses of the
islands. Considering these difficulties, it seems to me wonderful that
the exports from the islands have so far exceeded the exports in
Spanish times and have been so well maintained that last year there
was more exported from the islands than ever before in the history of
the Philippines, as will be seen from the following table:
Value of Philippine exports, 1903-1907 of American occupation.
Fiscal year." Hemp. Sugar. Tobacco and manu- factures. Copra. All other. Total.
Dollars. 190 3.......................... 21,701,575 1904 .......................... 21,794,960 190 5.......................... 22,146,241 190 6.......................... 19,446,769 190 7.......................... 21,085,081 Dollars. 3,955,568 2,668,507 4,977,026 4,863,865 3, 934,460 Dollars. 1,882,018 2,013,287 1.999.193 2,389,890 3.129.194 Dollars. 4,473,029 2,527,019 2,095,355 4,043,115 4,053,193 Dollars. 1,107,709 1,246,854 1,134,800 1,173,495 1,511,429 Dollars. 33,119,899 30,250,627 32, 352,615 31,917,134 33, 713,357
Average annual....... 21,234,925 | 4,079,885 2,282,716 3,438,342 1,234,857 32,270,726
Note.—Total exports do not include gold and silver coin.


60 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
The largest export showing in Spanish times, during years for
which there are official statistics, was as follows:
Value of Philippine exports in Spanish times, calendar years 1885-1894.
Calendar year. Hemp. Sugar. Tobacco and manu- factures. Copra. i Total, in- cluding all other arti- cles.
1885 ...................................... Dollars. 5,509,757 4.340,058 8,161,550 8,099,422 10,402,614 Dollars. 8,669,522 7,019,978 6,156,709 6,271,030 9,101,024 Dollars. 2,297,358 2,010,093 1,559,070 2,449,181 2,255,494 Dollars. Dollars. 20,551,434 20,113,847 19,447,997 19,404,434 25,671,322
1886 ................................. 5,781 36,809 131,347 209,820
1887 ......................................
1888......................................
1889 ......................................
Average annual................... 1890......................................
7,302,680 7,443,653 2,114,240 76,752 21,037,807
6,925,564 10,323,913 6,886.526 7,697,164 7,243,842 7,265,030 5,696,746 7,768,595 10,368,883 5, 17G, 617 2,469,033 2,150,306 2,535,740 2,433,304 1,576,175 85, 764 21,547,541 20,878,359 19,163,950 22,183,223 16 All 849
1891......................................
1892 ...................................... 743,918 414,652 1.179.101
1893 ..................................
1894 ..................................
Average annual................... ' ' 1
7,815.402 | 7,315,174 2,232,912 483,305 | 20,062,983
a Value of cocoanuts included.
Note.—Figures are taken from " Estadistica general del comercio exterior de las Islas Filipinas,"
issued by the Spanish Government.
Total exports include gold and silver coin.
The chief export in value and quantity from the Philippines is
Manila hemp, it amounting to between 60 and 65 per cent of the total
exports. Its value has increased very rapidly of late and the result
has been that much inferior hemp has been exported, because it could
be produced more cheaply and in greater quantity. That which has
made the hemp expensive and has reduced the export of it—for large
quantities of it rot in the field still—is the lack of transportation and
the heavy expense of the labor involved in pulling the fiber and free-
ing it from the pulp of the stem. Several machines have been in-
vented to do this mechanically and it seems likely now that two
have been invented which may do the work, although they have not
been sufficiently tested to make this certain. Should a light, portable,
and durable machine be invented which would accomplish this, it will
revolutionize the exportation of hemp and will probably have a ten-
dency to reduce its cost, but greatly to increase its use and to develop
the export business of the Philippine Islands most rapidly.
SUGAR AND TOBACCO-REDUCTION OF TARIFF.
There is a good deal of land available for sugar in the Philippines,
but there is very little of it as good as that in Cuba, and the amount
of capital involved in developing it is so great that I think the pos-
sibility of the extension of the sugar production is quite remote. The
moment it expands, the price of labor which has already increased 50 to
75 per cent will have another increase. All that can really be expected


61 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
is that the sugar industry—and this is also true of the tobacco indus-
try—shall be restored to their former prosperity in the earlier Span-
ish times when the highest export of sugar reached 265,000 tons to all
the world.
The tobacco industry needs a careful cultivation which, under
present conditions, it is very difficult to secure. The carelessness with
which the plant is grown and the defective character of the leaves is
such as to make the manufacturers of cigars and tobacco in Manila
despair of using the Philippine product without the addition of the
wrappers either from Sumatra or the United States.
All that a friend of the Philippines can hope for is that the sugar
and tobacco industries shall regain their former reasonably prosper-
ous conditions. The development of the islands must be in another
direction. The question of labor and capital both must always seri-
ously hamper the growth of sugar production. Nor would I regard
it as a beneficial result for the Philippine Islands to have the fields
of those islands turned exclusively to the growth of sugar. The social
conditions that this would bring about would not promise well for the
political and industrial development of the people, because the cane
sugar industry makes a society in which there are wealthy landowners
holding very large estates with most valuable and expensive plants
and a large population of unskilled labor, with no small farming
or middle class tending to build up a conservative, self-respecting
community from bottom to top. But, while I have this view in
respect to the matter, I am still strongly of the opinion that jus-
tice requires that the United States should open her sugar and
tobacco markets to the Philippines. I am very confident that such
a course would not injure, by way of competition, either the sugar or
the tobacco industries of the United States, but that it would merely
substitute Philippine sugar and tobacco for a comparatively small
part of the sugar and tobacco that now comes in after paying
duty. Their free admission into this country would not affect the
prices of sugar and tobacco in the United States as long as any sub-
stantial amount of those commodities must be imported with the full
duty paid in order to supply the markets of the United States.
So confident am I that the development, which the sugar and
tobacco interests of the United States fear in the Philippines from
an admission of those products free to the United States, will not
ensue to the injury of those interests that I would not object to a lim-
itation on the amount of sugar and tobacco in its various forms, man-
ufactured and unmanufactured, which may be admitted to the United
States from the Philippines, the limitation being such a reasonable
amount as would admittedly not affect the price of either commodity
in the United States or lead to a great exploitation of the sugar and


62 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
tobacco interests in the islands. The free admission of sugar and
tobacco up to the amount of the proposed limitation, for the purpose
of restoring the former prosperity in these two products to the islands,
is very important. There are two or three provinces, notably Occi-
dental Negros and the island of Iloilo, the prosperity of which is
bound up in good markets for sugar, and this is true also of some parts
of Laguna, Cavite, Bulacan, and Pampanga, where sugar was raised
in the old days with success and profit. In respect to tobacco, the
need is not so pressing because the territory in which marketable
tobacco culture prevails is by no means so great. Still it does affect
three provinces, Cagayan, Isabela, and La Union.
fodder.
The agricultural bureau of the government has been devoting a
great deal of effort and time and money to experimenting in agri-
culture. They have made many failures and have not yet succeeded
certainly in sowing a grass which will properly cure and may be used
for hay. It is hoped that in certain of the higher altitudes alfalfa,
and especially clover, may be raised successfully; and if so the very
high price which has now to be paid for fodder imported from
America may be avoided. This is a question which seriously affects
the cost of the Army in the Philippines.
new plants.
Through the agricultural bureau a new industry has been de-
veloped, that of raising maguey, a plant, the fiber of which is much
less valuable than that of Manila hemp, but which has a good market
whenever it is produced in quantities. The rapidity with which a
great deal of land in the Philippines that heretofore has not been
capable of profitable use is now taken up with the planting of maguey
is most encouraging. The plants are being distributed by the agri-
cultural bureau in the islands.
the financial condition of the government.
The financial condition of the government is as good to-day as
it ever has been. The following table shows what it is, and the sur-
plus on hand for emergencies is satisfactory:


63 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.

General account balance sheet of the government of the Philippine Islands for the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1907.
Credit.
Surplus and deficiency account:
Balance from previous years........
Excess revenues over expenditures .
Excess resources over liabilities.....
Carried from suspense account......
Total .
Insular revenues and expenditures:
Customs revenues.....................
Internal revenue......................
Miscellaneous revenues...............
Insular expenditures..................
Payments to provinces................
Losses under section 41, act 1402.......
Allowances under section 42, act 1402 .
Inter-bureau transactions.............
Total...........................
Excess revenues over expenditures .
Resources and liabilities:
The insular treasurer's cash balance........................
Gold-standard fund.........................................
Surplus on customs auction sales............................
Invalid money orders.......................................
Outstanding liabilities......................................
Loans to provinces..........................................
Refundable export duties...................................
City of Manila...............................................
Outstanding warrants.......................................
Friar lands funds...........................................
Moro Province..............................................
Depositary fund.............................................
Silver certificate redemption fund..........................
Refundable internal revenues..............................
Public works and permanent improvement fund...........
Congressional relief fund...................................
Sewer and waterworks construction fund...................
Insular treasurer's liability on unissued silver certificates..
Unissued silver certificates..................................
Miscellaneous special funds.................................
Provincial governments....................................
Philippine money-order account............................
United States money-order account........................
Bonded indebtedness......................................
Outstanding postal drafts..................................
Friar land bond sinking fund..............................
Sewer and waterworks construction bond sinking fund-----
Rizal monument fund......................................
Baguio town-site improvement fund.......................
Collecting and disbursing officers..........................
Total.....................................................
Excess resources over liabilities................................
Total.
Suspense account:
Transfer of funds...........................
General account .deposits...................
Accountable warrants......................
Carried to surplus and deficiency account.
Total.
Treasury account:
Balance from previous fiscal years........
Receipts at the treasury...................
Withdrawals from the treasury...........
Available for appropriation...............
Appropriations undrawn..................
Available for refundment or redemption .
Total....................................
87,500,782.29
84,439,974.02
2,741,606. 41
7,500,782.29
7,500,782.29
6,968, 724.86
1,438,440.40
346. 20
501. 38
7,990,376.57
2,684,579.24
389.440.25
85,223.19
8,408,012.84
2,741,606.41
11,149,619.26
11,149,619.25
11,149,619.25
25,033,490.93
1,006,753.13
481,137.55
3,66i, 255*31.
466.84
2,047.14
5,229.40
6,670,548.06
45,646.13
413,698.89
"i39,"i36.*45
2,198,249.70
"9," 702," 500." 00
3,956.263.00
10,770,354.00
331,970.30
236,934.79
1,855,081.84
106,216.92
"2,384,"404." 42
9,702,500.00
387,095.17
1,132,743.62
182,576.54
128,201.86
14,500,000.00
2,283.29
39,898.34
1,413.20
1,525.19
51,290,202.15
51,290,202.15
319,201.86
22,461,858. 40
112,780,022.27
43,789,419.86
7,500,782.29
51,290,202.15
7,674.49
195,263.24
116,264.13
319,201.86
110,347, 526.19
5,218,817.54
4,948,919. 94
| 14,726,617.00
135,241,880.67 I 135,241,880.67


64 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
The following statement of revenues and expenditures of the Philip-
pine government, exclusive of all items of a refundable character,
covers the period from the date of American occupation, August 18,
1898, to June 30, 1907.
Revenues.
Fiscal year ended June 30— Insular. Provincial. of jJ^nila Total.
1899 ................................... 83,558,682.83 6,899,340.53 10,753.459.95 9,371,283.11 10,757,455.63 10,249,263.98 11,549,495.37 11,468,067.16 11,149.619.25 83,558,682.83 6,899, 340.53 10,753,459.95 12,579,357.20 14,826, 284.41 15,476, 233.42 16,098,574.10 17,972,929.03 17,445,489.49
1900 ...................................
1901...................................
190 2................................... 1903 ................................... 190 4................................... 1905 ................................... 1906 ................................... 1907 ................................... Total............................ 82,008,4S0.88 2,527,252.93 3,295,839.47 3,107,912. 91 4, 509,572.02 4,604,528. 31 81,199,593.21 1,541,575.85 1,931,129.97 1,441,165.82 1,995,289.85 1,691,341.93
85,756,667.81 • 20,053,586.52 9,800,096.63 | 115,610,350.96
Expenditures.
1899................................... 82,376,327.12 4,758,793.66 6,451,528.37 8,189,404.59 10,249,533.40 11,122, 562.38 12,248,857.33 10,146, 779.12 8,408,012.84 1 82,376,327.12 4,758, 793.66 6,451,528.37 10,444,857.62 13,408,406.29 15,040, 691.98 16,297. 280.54 16,974.262.67 14,704,852.44
1900 ...................................
1901................................... i
1902 ................................... 1903 ................................... 190 4................................... 190 5................................... 1906 ................................... 1907 ..................... ............. 81,6o;j,158.22 1,981,261.22 2,339,826.10 1,474,320.43 4,335,091.32 4,736,038.20 8622,294.81 1,177,611.67 1,578,303.50 2,574,102.78 2,492,392.23 1,560,801.40
Total............................1 73,951,798.81 j 16,499,695.49 1 10,005,506.39 | 100,457,000.69 1
The bonded indebtedness is as follows:
Title of bonds. Authorized by Congress. oHssue! | .^te issued. Redeem- able. Due.
Land purchase bonds...... Philippine public improve- ment bonds: First issue.............. Second issue........... Act of July 1, 1902.......... Act of Feb. 6,1905.......... .....do...................... 87, 000,000 | Jan. 11,1904 2,500,000 Mar. 1,1905 1,000,000 Feb. 1,1906 1 1 1 1,000,000 ! June 1,1905 2,000,000 | Jan. 2,1907 13,500,000 1 I 1914 1915 1916 1915 1917 1934 1935 1936 1935 1937
Manila sewer and water supply bonds: First issue.............. Second issue.......... Act of July1,1902, as amend- ed by act of Feb. 6, 1905. .....do......................
Total.................

To meet the interest and principal on these bonds ample sinking
funds have been provided, and the bonds are now held on the market,
notwithstanding the present depression, at prices well above those for
which they were originally sold.
friars' lands.
The question of the disposition of the friars' lands is one which is
occupying the close attention of the Secretary of the Interior and the
Director of Lands. The price of the lands was about $7,000,000.


65 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Much delay has been encountered in making the necessary surveys
and the disposition of them for the present has largely been tempo-
rary and at small rents in order to secure an attornment of all the
tenants and the clear definition of the limits of the leaseholds claimed
by them. This has involved considerable time and expense in making
the necessary surveys. The injury to the sugar industry and the de-
struction of draft cattle has affected the price and character of the
sugar lands, and they have been allowed to grow up in cogon grass.
This will require the investment of considerable capital to put them
in sugar producing condition. It is estimated that the salable lands
would amount in value to something over $5,000,000 and that the
lands, mostly sugar, which are not now salable, and the plants which
were bought with the lands, represent the other $2,000,000 of the pur-
chase price. It will take some years to work out the cost and it is
possible, as already prophesied, that there will be a considerable loss
to the islands, but as the purchase was based on political grounds and
for the purpose of bringing on tranquillity, such a loss as that which
was thought not improbable at the time of the purchase is amply com-
pensated for in the general result.
final settlement in respect to charitable trusts and spanish-
filipino bank with roman catholic church.
I have spoken in previous reports of the controversies arising be-
tween the Roman Catholic Church and the Philippine government in
reference to the administration of certain charitable trusts. The
same church was interested as a majority stockholder in the Spanish-
Filipino Bank and a dispute had arisen as to the right of the bank to
exercise the power conferred on it by its original charter of issuing
bank notes in an amount equal to three times its capital stock. A
compromise was finally arranged last June with Archbishop Harty
of Manila and was consummated during my visit to the Philippines.
I submitted to you a full report of this compromise. It received
your approval and was then carried into effect by the Philippine
Commission. I append to this my special report to you of that com-
promise, marked "Appendix A."
roads.
The construction of roads by the central government has gone on
each year, but the roads have not been kept up by the. municipal gov-
ernments charged with the duty as they ought to have been. The
Commission has now established a system by which it is hoped ulti-
mately that the whole matter of roads may receive a systematic im-
petus throughout the islands. Roads can not be kept up in the
26720—S. Doc. 200, 60-1-5


66 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Tropics except by what is known as the "caminero" system, in which
a small piece of each road shall be assigned to the repair and control
of a road repairer to be known as the " caminero." The truth is that
good roads will develop as the people develop, because the people
can keep up the roads if they will, and it is not until they have a large
sense of political responsibility that they are likely to sacrifice much
to maintain them.
railroads in the philippines.
In my last annual report, I set forth in detail the concessions
granted for the construction of railroads in Luzon, Panay, Cebu, and
Negros, and showed that within five years we might expect that, in-
stead of a single line of railway 120 miles in length which was all
that we found when we occupied the islands, we would have a system
with a mileage of 1,000 miles. Work has gone on in full compliance
with the terms of the concessions of the two companies.
Only one of these companies took advantage of the provision for
the guaranty of bonds, and they have built about 40 miles of road
and have earned, under the terms of the concession, the guaranty of
$973,000 of bonds, which has already been signed and delivered by the
Philippine government. Of course, in this financial panic these com-
panies are likely to have difficulty in securing investors in their securi-
ties. The roads as constructed have been well constructed, and are
admirably adapted to resist the climatic conditions in the islands.
There is no reason in my judgment why these roads when
constructed should not pay a reasonable percentage upon the invest-
ment. It is of the utmost difficulty to secure the coming of capital to
the islands, and it would greatly aid us if the dividends earned by
these roads were very large. In the Orient two-thirds of the income
of railways comes from passenger earnings, and one-third from
freight. Of course, the railroads are very essential to the agricultural
interests of the country and will directly affect the amount of exports
of agricultural products—so we may count on a steady increase in the
freight receipts from the moment of their beginning operation. As
I say, however, the chief hope for profit in the railways is in the
passenger traffic. In the three Visayas in which the railroads are to
be constructed, the density of population is about 160 per square mile,
whereas the average population per square mile in the United States
in 1900 was but 26. The Island of Cebu has a population of 336 per
square mile, or a greater density than Japan, France, Germany, or
British India. It is, therefore, reasonable to suppose that the pas-
senger earnings on these railroads will be very large. It was antici-
pated that the labor problem would be a difficult one to solve in the
construction of these roads. This has not proved to be true. The


67 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Philippine labor has shown itself capable of instruction, and by
proper treatment of being made constant in its application. Of
course, the prices of labor have largely increased, but the companies
constructing the roads have found it wise to increase wages, and
thereby secure greater efficiency. Even with increased wages the
cost of unit of result is less in the Philippines in the construction of
railways than it is in the United States. Of course, the drain on the
labor supply of sugar plantations and other places where agricultural
labor is employed, is great and the effect upon raising sugar and
other products is to increase the cost. But I think the lesson from the
construction of the railroads is that Philippine labor can be improved
by instruction and can be made effective and reasonably economical
by proper treatment. The coming into the islands of the capital to
construct railways, of course, has had a good effect in the improve-
ment of business conditions, but it is to be noted that in the estimate
of importations the railroad material and supplies which are brought
in free under the statute are not included in the totals, and there-
fore are not to be offered as an explanation for the very good showing
in respect to the amount of imports to the islands for the last fiscal
year.
general business conditions.
Of course, the depression in certain business branches of agricul-
ture, like sugar, tobacco and rice, due to lack of markets for the first
two, and to a lack of draft animals in the production of sugar and
rice has had a direct effect upon the business of the islands of a de-
pressing character. Gradually, however, business has grown better.
In spite of adverse conditions the importations of rice have decreased
from $12,000,000 gold to $3,500,000 gold, and, while the imports as
a whole have increased not to their highest previous figure, they have
been maintained within four and a half millions of their highest
mark, and, as already said, the exports are higher than ever in the
history of the islands, the balance of trade in their favor for the last
fiscal year being about five millions, exclusive of gold and silver and
government and railway free entries.
I found in the islands a disposition on the part of both American
and Philippine business men and of the leaders of all parties in the
Philippine Assembly to make a united effort to improve business and
general conditions.
business future of philippines.
I do not hestitate to prophesy that during the next twenty-five years
a development will take place in the agriculture and other business of
the Philippine Islands, which will be as remarkable in its benefits to


68 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
the United States and the Philippine Islands as was the development
of Alaska during the last ten or fifteen years. Hope of this is not
what has actuated the government in pursuing the policy that it has
pursued in the development of the islands, but this is as inevitable a
result as if it had been directly sought, and perhaps the absence of
selfishness in the development of the islands is a greater assurance of
profitable return than if business exploitation by the United States
had been the chief and sole motive. The growth in the production of
hemp and other fiber products, in cocoanuts, in rubber and many other
tropical crops and in peculiar manufactures of the islands may be
looked forward to with certainty.
gold standard currency.
'One of the great benefits conferred upon the islands by the Ameri-
can Government has been the introduction of the gold standard. This
has doubtless prevented the larger profits which were made in the old
days by the purchasers of hemp and other agricultural products in the
islands, who sold again in European and American markets, because
under the system then prevailing, they bought in silver and sold
in gold, and by watching the markets they were able to add very much
to the legitimate profit of the middlemen by what constituted a system
of gambling in exchanges. The same features characterized the
banking in the islands. Now, however, with the gold standard the
gambling feature in business is very largely eliminated. The coinage
is satisfactory to the people, the silver certificates circulate well and
are popular, and there seems to be no ground for complaint of the
currency.
need of capital-agricultural bank.
One of the crying needs of the Philippines is capital, and this
whether it be for the development of railroads, wagon roads, manu-.
factures, or in the promotion of agriculture. The usurious interest
which has to be paid by the farmers is so high as to leave very little
for his profit and maintenance and ever since we entered the islands
the cry for an agricultural bank which would lend money for a
reasonable interest, say, 10 per cent, has been urged upon the Com-
mission. Last year Congress authorized the government to guar-
antee the interest at 4 per cent on a certain amount of capital in-
vested in such a bank, but up to this time no one has embraced the
opportunity thus offered to undertake the conduct and operation of
a bank although negotiations are pending looking to such a result.
It is now proposed that the government shall undertake this instead
of a private individual. Experimentation has been attempted on the


69 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
friars' lands by the appropriation of $100,000 for loans to the friar
tenants to encourage them to improve agriculture, and the result
of this experiment will be awaited with great interest.
The reduction of the amount of silver in the silver peso for the pur-
pose of keeping it within the 50-cent gold value, which is the legal
standard, has gone steadily on and will result ultimately in the accu-
mulation in the treasury of a fund of $3,000,000 gold. It is thought
that part of this money might be taken to establish an agricul-
tural bank on a governmental basis. The treasurer of the islands,
Mr. Branagan, who has had large experience in banking in the
islands, because his office has brought him closely into contact with
it and because he has had to examine all the banks, is confident
that an agricultural bank of one or two millions of dollars might be
established by the government and managed by the treasury de-
partment, together with the provincial treasurers in such a way as
greatly to aid the cause of agriculture in the islands. One great dif-
ficulty in the operation of an agricultural bank is the uncertainty that
prevails to-day in the islands in respect to the titles of the lands
which are held. The land law provided a method of perfecting titles
through what is called the land court founded on the Torrens land
system, which was introduced by law some years ago in the islands.
The expense of surveying the lands, due to the shortness of supply
of surveyors, and the time taken has made the process of settling titles
rather slow, but as defects have appeared the Commission has changed
them and it is hoped that this system of preparing for the business
of an agricultural bank may go on apace.
postal savings bank.
A postal savings bank has been established and was first more pat-
ronized by Americans than Filipinos, but Filipinos are now taking
it up and the deposits therein amount to upward of 1,000,000 pesos.
There have been practically no banking facilities throughout the
islands, except in Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu, and this establishment of
postal savings-bank offices in a large proportion of the post-offices
throughout-the islands offers an opportunity to the people of moder-
ate means to put their money in a secure place and to derive a small
revenue therefrom. The insecurity of savings by Filipino farmers
and others in the country has certainly reduced the motive for saving
which an opportunity to deposit their money will stimulate. The
exchange business of the islands has also been facilitated by statutory
provisions authorizing the sale of exchange by provincial treasurers
on the central treasury at Manila and vice versa.


70 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
POST-OFFICE AND TELEGRAPHS.
The post-office department, considering the conditions that exist
and the difficulties of reaching remote parts of the island, has been
very well managed and the offices are increasing in encouraging
proportion each year.
The following table shows the increase in postal facilities from
year to year of our occupation:
For fiscal year ending June 30.
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
1906..
1907..
Number Money or-
post-offiees.j der offices.
19
24
90
209
291
414
Number | Stamp
employees.' sales.
113 P228.178.36
130 : 233,182.96
238,418.10
218,414.36
224,354.61
222,701.36
425,261.50
607,203.44
331
570
579
612
1,003
1,091
Under a system devised by Mr. Forbes, secretary of commerce and
police, mail subsidies were granted to commercial lines on condition
that good service at reasonable rates of transportation should be fur-
nished upon safe and commodious steamers. The Government vessels
which had previously been purchased in order to promote intercourse
between the islands are now used on outlying routes where commercial
lines will not take up the traffic, but are used in connection with the
commercial lines, and in this way additional routes are being tested
and the marine commerce between all the islands is made to increase.
By consent of the Secretary of War, and on the recommendation
of the commanding general of the Philippines and the agreement
of the civil government, all the telegraph lines in the islands have
now been transferred to the post-office department of the civil gov-
ernment of the Philippines. These telegraph lines reach into the
remotest provinces and to all the principal islands of the large archi-
pelago. While there were some telegraph lines in the Spanish times,
the system has grown to such proportions now as to be almost an
entirely new system. It has made the government of the islands
much more easy because it brings every province within half a day's
communication of Manila for information and instructions from
the central authority. It has furnished a most profitable instru-
ment for business communication, and while it entails considerable
burden on the civil government, it is well worth for governmental
and business purposes all that it costs. I ought to say that the post-
office department is rapidly training Filipinos to fill all the positions
of telegraph operators, and that this materially reduces the cost of
operation and at the same time furnishes an admirable technical
school for great numbers of bright Filipino young men. I submit a
statement of the mileage of the cables and telegraph lines, operated by
the Government.


Report of secretary of war on the Philippines.
71
1906.
Miles. Miles.
Lines transferred to the insular government by the Signal Corps
up to June 30: ^
Telegraph lines__________________________________________3, 780
Cable lines______________________________________________ 328
Telephone lines__________________________________________2,137
Total_______________________________________________________6,245
Lines operated by the Signal Corps on June 30:
Telegraph lines__________________________________________1, 406
Cable lines______________________________________________1,452
Telephone lines__________________________________________ 338
Total -_r._____________________________________________________3,196
Total mileage of telegraph, cable, and telephone lines in operation
June 30__________________________________________________________9, 441
Number of telegraph offices__________________________________________ 161
Number of telephones in operation___________________________________ 450
1907.
Lines transferred to the insular government by the Signal Corps since
July 1, 1907_____________________________________________________1,914.5
Total mileage of telegraph and cable lines in operation by the insular
government to date_______________________________________________6,951
MINES AND MINING.
There has been a good deal of prospecting in the islands and gold
and copper have been found in paying quantities in the mountains
of northern Luzon, the provinces of Benguet and Bontoc and Le-
panto, as well as in the Camarines in southeastern Luzon, and in
Masbate, an island lying directly south of Luzon; but great complaint
is made, and properly made, of the limitations upon the mining law
which prevent the location by one person of more than one claim on
a lode or vein. Mining is such a speculative matter at any rate, and
the capital that one puts into it is so generally lost that it would
seem that, in a country like the Philippines where development
ought to be had, there should be liberal inducements for the invest-
ment of capital for such a purpose. " Secretary Worcester of the inte-
rior department has frequently recommended that this limitation of
the law be repealed. The Commission joins in this recommendation
and I cordially concur.
WTiile I do not favor large land holdings, I also concur in the
recommendation of the secretary of the interior and the Commission
that the prohibition upon corporations holding more than 2,500 acres
of land be also stricken out. It certainly might well be increased to
10,000 acres if any limitation is to be imposed at all.
U. S. COASTWISE TRADING LAWS.
It is proposed by some to put in force the coastwise trading laws in
respect to the navigation between the United States and the islands. I


72 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
think this a very short-sighted policy. To-day the trade between the
United States and the islands, export and import, is about 17 per cent
of the total. The proportion of the total export trade from the Phil-
ippines to the United States is growing and is certain to grow more
rapidly in the future, especially if proper legislation is adopted in
respect to sugar and tobacco. Now a coastwise trading law will ex-
clude altogether the use of foreign bottoms between the ports of the
United States and the ports of the Philippine Islands, and will con-
fine that commerce to United States vessels. There is very grave
doubt whether there are enough United States vessels to carry on this
trade as it is, and even if there were they could not carry on the trade
without a very great increase in freight rates over what they now are.
The minute that these rates are advanced, while the rates to other
countries remain the same, the trade between the islands and the
United States will cease to be. There will be no trade for the vessels
of the United States to carry, no one will have been benefited in
the United States, and the only person who will reap advantage is the
foreign exporter to whom the Philippine business house will naturally
turn for exchange of products. The only method possible by which
the United States vessels can be given the Philippine trade is by
voting a reasonable subsidy for United States vessels engaged in that
trade. Any other prohibitive or exclusive provision of law will be
merely cutting off the nose to spite the face of the interest which
attempts it. I feel certain that when the question of applying the
coastwise trading laws to the business between the United States and
the islands is fully investigated, even those representing the shipping
interests that need and ought to have much encouragement will con-
clude that the coastwise trading laws applied to the American Philip-
pine trade would merely destroy the trade without benefiting the
shipping interests.
In the criticisms upon the Government's Philippine policy to be
found in the columns of the newspapers that favor immediate sepa-
ration, it has been frequently said that the coastwise trading laws
of the United States apply as between islands of the Philippines.
The truth is that the restrictions upon shipping between ports in the
Philippine Islands are what the Legislature of the islands imposes,
and Congress has made no provision of limitation in respect to them.
The coastwise regulations in force within the Archipelago are as lib-
eral as possible.
CITY OF MANILA.
The city of Manila is the social, political, and business center of the
islands. It is the only large city in the islands. Its population is
about 250,000. while there is no other city that exceeds 40,000 in


73 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
population. By what now has been proven to be a mistake, the Com-
mission purchased a building which was known and used as the
Oriente Hotel. It was a hotel not very well conducted, but it was the
only important hotel in the city of sufficient size and dignity to induce
the coming of tourists. It was hoped that the purchase of this build-
ing, which was not particularly adapted as a hotel, might lead to the
construction and maintenance of a better hotel. Such has not been
the result, and although there are hotels in the city of Manila, its
reputation is that of being unable to furnish to the traveling public a
comfortable hostelry for a short stay. This has driven away many
travelers of our own country and other countries from a city that in
historical interest, in beauty, and in comfort of life will compare
favorably with any.
Mr. Burnham, the well-known landscape architect of Chicago,
some years ago, without compensation, visited the Philippines and
mapped out a plan for the improvement of the city, and laid out a
plan of construction for Baguio in Benguet as the summer capital.
To both of these plans, all improvements which have been attempted
in the city have conformed, and if the present efficient city govern-
ment continues, there is every reason to believe that Manila will be-
come a most attractive city. A contract has been made for the leas-
ing of ground immediately upon the Luneta and facing the bay to a
firm of capitalists for the construction of a hotel to cost 500,000 pesos.
It is doubtful, however, whether this capital can be raised at the
present time, and if it falls through it is proposed, and I think with
wisdom proposed, that the government shall erect a hotel as a public
investment for the development of the city and the islands, and lease
it to the best bidder.
There is no city in the world better governed than Manila. The
streets are well cleaned, are well policed, there is a most excellent fire
department, the parks are being enlarged and improved, the street
car sj'stem is as good as any anywhere, and with the improvements in
the water supply the sewerage system and esteros or canals, which
are now under foot and part of which are quite near accomplished,
the face which the Filipinos turn toward the world in the city of
Manila will'be a most pleasing one.
POLITICAL FUTURE OF THE ISLANDS.
There are in the Philippines many who wish that the government
shall declare a definite policy in respect to the islands so that they
may know what that policy is. I do not see how any more definite
policy can be declared than was declared by President McKinley in
his instructions to Secretary Root for the guidance of the Philippine


74 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Commission, which was incorporated into law by the organic act of
the Philippine government, adopted July 1, 1902. That policy is de-
clared to be the extension of self-government to the Philippine
Islands by gradual steps from time to time as the people of the
islands shall show themselves fit to receive the additional responsi-
bility, and that policy has been consistently adhered to in the last
seven years now succeeding the establishment of civil government.
Having taken some part and sharing in the responsibility for that
government, of course my views of the results are likely to be colored
by my interest in having the policy regarded as successful, but elim-
inating as far as is possible the personal bias, I beiieve it to be true
that the conditions in the islands to-day vindicate and justify that
policy. It necessarily involves in its ultimate conclusion as the steps
toward self-government become greater and greater the ultimate inde-
pendence of the islands, although of course if both the United States
and the islands were to conclude after complete self-government were
possible that it would be mutually beneficial to continue a govern-
mental relation between them like that between England and Aus-
tralia, there would be nothing inconsistent with the present policy in
such a result.
Any attempt to fix the time in which complete self-government may
be conferred upon the Filipinos in their own interest, is I think most
unwise. The key of the whole policy outlined by President McKinley
and adopted by Congress was that of the education of the masses of
the people and the leading them out of the dense ignorance in which
they are now, with a view to enabling them intelligently to exercise
the force of public opinion without which a popular self-government
is impossible.
It seems to me reasonable to say that such a condition can not be
reached until at least one generation shall have been subjected to
the process of primary and industrial education, and that when it is
considered that the people are divided into groups speaking from ten
to fifteen different dialects, and that they must acquire a common
medium of communication, and that one of the civilized languages,
it is not unreasonable to extend the necessary period beyond a genera-
tion. By that time English will be the language of the islands and we
can be reasonably certain that a great majority of those living there
will not only speak and read and write English, but will be affected by
the knowledge of free institutions, and will be able to understand their
rights as members of the community and to seek to enforce them
against the pernicious system of caciquism and local bossism, which I
have attempted in this report to describe.
But it is said that a great majority of the people desire immediate
independence. I am not prepared to say that if the real wish of the
majority of all the people, men, women, and children, educated and


75 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
uneducated, were to be obtained, there would not be a very large
majority in favor of immediate independence. It would not, how-
ever, be an intelligent judgment based on a knowledge of what in-
dependence means, of what its responsibilities are or of what popular
government in its essence is. But the mere fact that a majority of all
the people are in favor of immediate independence is not a reason
why that should be granted, if we assume at all the correctness of
the statement, which impartial observers can not but fail to acquiesce
in, to wit: that the Filipinos are not now fit for self-government.
The policy of the United States is not to establish an oligarchy,
but a popular self-government in the Philippines. The electorate to
which it has been thought wise to extend partial self-government em-
braces only about 15 or 20 per cent of the adult male population, be-
cause it has been generally conceded by Filipinos and Americans
alike that those not included within the electorate are wholly unable
to exercise political responsibility. Now, those persons who de-
manded and were given a hearing before the delegation of Congress-
men and Senators that visited the islands in 1905, to urge immediate
independence contended that the islands are fit for self-government
because there are from 7 to 10 per cent of intelligent people who are
constituted by nature a ruling class, while there are 90 per cent that
are a servile and obedient class, and that the presence of the two
classes together argues a well balanced government. Such a proposi-
tion thus avowed reveals what is known otherwise to be the fact that
many of those most emphatic and urgent in seeking independence in
the islands have no thought of a popular government at all. They
are in favor of a close government in which they, the leaders of a
particular class, shall exercise control of the rest of the people. Their
views are thus wholly at variance with the policy of the United States
in the islands.
The presence of the Americans in the islands is essential to the due
development of the lower classes and the preservation of their rights.
If the American government can only remain in the islands long
enough to educate the entire people, to give them a language which
enables them to come into contact with modern civilization, and to ex-
tend to them from time to time additional political rights so that by
the exercise of them they shall learn the use and responsibilities
necessary to their proper exercise, independence can be granted with
entire safety to the people. I have an abiding conviction that the
Filipino people are capable of being taught self-government in the
process of their development, that in carrying out this policy they
will be improved physically and mentally, and that, as they acquire
more rights, their power to exercise moral restraints upon themselves
will be strengthened and improved. Meantime they will be able to
see, and the American public will come to see the enormous material


76 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
benefit to both arising from the maintenance of some sort of a bond
between the two countries which shall preserve their mutually bene-
ficial business relations.
No one can have studied the East without having been made aware
that in the development of China, Japan and all Asia, are to be pre-
sented the most important political questions for the next century,
and that in the pursuit of trade between the Occident and the Orient
the having such an outpost as the Philippines, making the United
States an Asiatic power for the time, will be of immense benefit to
its merchants and its trade. While I have always refrained from
making this the chief reason for the retention of the Philippines, be-
cause the real reason lies in the obligation of the United States to
make this people fit for self-government and then to turn the govern-
ment over to them, I don't think it improper, in order to secure
support for the policy, to state such additional reason. The severe
criticism to which the policy of the Government in the Philippines
has been subjected by English Colonial statesmen and students, should
not hinder our pursuit of it in the slightest. It is of course opposed
to the policy usually pursued in the English government in dealing
with native races, because in common with other colonial powers,
most of England's colonial statesmen have assumed that the safest
course was to keep the native peoples ignorant and quiet, and that any
education which might furnish a motive for agitation was an inter-
ference with the true and proper course of government. Our policy
is an experiment, it is true, and it assumes the risk of agitation and
sedition which may arise from the overeducation of ambitious poli-
ticians or misdirected patriots, in order that the whole body of the
people may acquire sufficient intelligence ultimately to exercise gov-
ernmental control themselves.
Thus far the policy of the Philippines has worked. It has been
attacked on the ground that we have gone too fast, that we have given
the natives too much power. The meeting of the assembly and the
conservative tone of that body thus far disclosed, makes for our view
rather than that of our opponents, but had the result been entirely
different with the assembly, and had there been a violent outbreak at
first in its deliberations and attempts at obstruction, I should not
have been in the least discouraged, because ultimately I should have
had confidence that the assembly would learn how foolish such exhibi-
tions were and how little good they accomplished for the members
of the assembly or the people whom they represented. The fact that
this natural tendency was restrained is an indication of the general
conservatism of the Filipino people.
Though bearing the name of immediate independistas, the mem-
bers of the controlling party of the assembly are far from being in
favor of a policy which those words strictly construed would mean.


77 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
Moreover, the recent election held, since the Assembly was organized,
in which fifteen progresista and fifteen nationalista governors were
elected, is an indication that the nationalist feeling is by no means
so overwhelming as was at first reported when the returns from the
election of the assembly were published in the press.
The fact that Filipinos are given an oportunity now to take part
in the forming of the governmental policies in the islands, will I
hope satisfy many of them that the United States is in earnest in
attempting to educate them to self-government, will so occupy their
ambitions and minds as to make the contention for immediate in-
dependence more of an ideal than of a real issue, will make more
permanent and lasting the present satisfactory conditions as to peace
and tranquillity in the islands, and will turn their attention toward
the development of the prosperity of the islands by improvement of
its material conditions and the uplifting of the people by their educa-
tion, sanitation and general instruction in their political, social and
material responsibilities.
There has been in the United States in the last year a recurring
disposition on the part of many of the press and many public men to
speak of the Philippine policy as if foredoomed to failure, and the
condition of the islands as a most deplorable one. No one who knew
the islands in 1900, and who has visited them during the present year
and especially during the meeting of the assembly can honestly and
fairly share such views. To one actually responsible in any degree
for the present conditions by reason of taking part in the government
of those islands, the changes made and the progress made under the
circumstances are most gratifying.
COST OF THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT OF THE ISLANDS.
The most astounding and unfair statements have appeared in the
press from time to time and have been uttered by men of political
prominence who should know better, in respect to the cost to the
United States of the Philippine Islands. The question of the cost of
the islands to the United States as affecting its future policy can not
of course include the cost of a war into which the United States was
forced against its will, and which whether it ought to have been car-
ried on or not, was carried on and was finished more than five years
ago. The only question of cost that is relevant to the present dis-
cussion is the cost to the United States of the maintenance of the
present Philippine government, including in that the cost of the
maintenance of that part of the army of the United States which is
in the Philippine Islands. Nor is it fair to include the entire cost of
the army of the United States in the Philippine Islands for the rea-
son that even if we did not have the Philippines, we should certainly


78 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
retain the present size of our standing army which hardly exceeds
60,000 effective men, a very small army for 80,000,000 people. More-
over, it is worthy of note that the greatest increase in the Army of
recent years has been in that branch of the service—to wit, the coast
artillery—which has not been used in the Philippines for some years.
The only additional cost therefore that the maintenance of the
army can be said to entail upon the United States is the additional
cost of maintaining 12,000 soldiers in the islands over what it would
be to maintain the same number of soldiers in the United States.
This has been figured out and roughly stated amounts to about $250
a man or $3,000,000, together with the maintenance of 4,000 Philip-
pine Scouts at a cost of $500 a man, or in all $2,000,000, which makes
a total annual expenditure of $5,000,000. The United States at
present contributes something, perhaps $200,000, to the expense of the
coast survey of the islands. With this exception, there is not one cent
expended from the treasury of the United States for the maintenance
of the government in the islands. The additional cost of the 12,000
men in the islands, figured above at $250 a man, includes the cost of
transportation and the additional cost of food supplies and other
matters.
There is an item of cost, which perhaps may be charged to the Phil-
ippine Islands. I refer to the expense of fortifying the bay of Manila,
the port of Iloilo and the port of Cebu, so that in holding the islands
the United States shall not be subject to sudden and capricious attack
by any ambitious power. This may reach a total of ten millions. But
it is hardly fair to charge this to the Philippine policy; for almost
everyone concedes the necessity of maintaining and fortifying coal-
ing stations in the Orient whether we have the Philippines or not.
The question is, therefore, whether, in order to avoid the expendi-
ture of $5,000,000 a year, the United States should pursue the humili-
ating policy of scuttle, should run away from an obligation which it
has assumed to make the Philippines a permanently self-governing
community, and should miss an opportunity at the same time of build-
ing up a profitable trade and securing a position in the Orient that
can not but be of the utmost advantage in obtaining and maintaining
its proper proportion of Asiatic and Pacific trade.
From time to time there has been quite severe criticism of the
present Philippine government on the ground that it is such an ex-
pensive government as to be burdensome to the people. The facts
are that the taxes which fall upon the common people are much less
than they ever were under the Spanish regime. The taxes which
fall upon the wealthy are considerably more, because as a matter of
fact the Spanish system of taxation was largely devised for the pur-
pose of avoiding taxation of the wealth of the islands. I have not at
hand and am not able to insert in this report the figures and statistics


79 REPORT OF SECRETARY OF AVAR ON THE PHILIPPINES.
which demonstrate this fact. They are now being prepared in
Manila, and I hope at some future date to submit them for your con-
sideration. Not only is the comparison to be instituted with the con-
ditions existing under the Spanish regime, but also with the taxa-
tion of other dependencies. The data with respect to these are difficult
to get and frequently liable greatly to mislead when the conditions of
each particular colony are not fully understood and stated. But my
information is derived from Governor Smith and Mr. Forbes that the
cost per capita of the government of the Philippines will compare
most favorably with that of colonial governments presenting sub-
stantially similar conditions.
The reports from the governor-general, the heads of departments
and of bureaus have not reached Washington. I was able before I
left the islands to read informal drafts of some of them and much
of the information as to the last year's operations I have derived
from them. I shall submit the reports immediately upon their arrival.
RECOMMENDATIONS.
I therefore recommend:
First. That legislation be adopted by Congress admitting the prod-
ucts of the Philippine Islands to the markets of the United States,
with such reasonable limitations as may remove fear of interference
with the tobacco and sugar interests in the United States;
Second. That the present restrictions be removed as to the acquisi-
tion of mining claims and the holding of lands by corporations in
the Philippines;
Third. That further legislation be passed authorizing the Philip-
pine government, if it chooses, to open and conduct an agricultural
bank, with a capital not exceeding $2,000,000; and
Fourth. That the coastwise laws of the United States be made per-
manently inapplicable to the trade between the ports of the islands
and the ports of the United States.
Sincerely, yours, Wm. H. Taft.
The President.
O Wm. H.
O








Full Text

PAGE 1

WA R DEPARTMEN T : : : OFFIC E O F SECRETAR Y SPECIA L REPOR T O F WM . H . TAF T Secretar y o f Wa r T O TH E PRESIDEN T O N TH E PHILIPPINE S WASHINGTO N GOVERNMEN T PRINTIN G OFFIC E 190 8

PAGE 3

WA R DEPARTMEN T : : : OFFIC E O F SECRETAR Y SPECIA L REPOR T O F WM . H . TAF T Secretar y o f Wa r T O TH E PRESIDEN T O N TH E PHILIPPINE S WASHINGTO N GOVERNMEN T PRINTIN G OFFIC E 190 8

PAGE 5

CONTENTS . Page . Lette r o f transmitta l 5 Conditio n a s t o la w an d order—Thei r restoratio n an d permanen t maintenance . 9 Wor k o f th e Unite d State s Arm y 1 3 Promis e o f extensio n o f self-governmen t 1 4 Organizatio n o f th e Federa l part y 1 5 Centra l governmen t 1 5 Effec t o n permanen t orde r o f municipa l an d provincia l government s an d nationa l assembl y 1 6 Establishmen t o f court s 1 7 Philippin e constabular y 1 9 Friars ' land s 2 0 Presen t conditio n 2 3 Politica l capacit y an d intellectua l developmen t o f th e Filipino s unde r Spai n an d th e step s take n b y th e Philippin e governmen t fo r thei r genera l an d politica l educatio n 2 3 Educatio n i n school s 2 7 Filipin o cadet s a t Wes t Poin t 3 1 Practica l politica l educatio n 3 1 Municipalitie s an d province s 3 1 Civi l servic e 3 9 Civi l right s 4 0 Nationa l assembl y 4 2 Sanitatio n 4 9 Benguet— A healt h resor t 5 6 Comparativ e mortalit y fro m Januar y 1 , 1901 , t o Septembe r 30 , 190 7 5 7 Mortalit y compare d wit h sam e perio d o f previou s year s 5 8 Materia l progres s an d busines s condition s 5 8 Valu e o f Philippin e exports , 1903-1907 , o f America n occupatio n 5 9 Valu e o f Philippin e export s i n Spanis h times , calenda r year s 1885-1894. . 6 0 Suga r an d tobacco—Reductio n o f tarif f 6 0 Fodde r 6 2 Ne w plant s 6 2 Financia l conditio n o f th e governmen t 6 2 Friars ' land s 6 4 Fina l settlemen t i n respec t t o charitabl e trust s an d Spanish-Filipin o Ban k wit h Roma n Catholi c Churc h 6 5 Road s 6 5 Railroad s i n th e Philippine s 6 6 Genera l busines s condition s 6 7 Busines s futur e o f Philippine s 6 7 Gold-standar d currenc y 6 8 Nee d o f capital—Agricultura l ban k 6 8 Posta l saving s ban k 6 9 3

PAGE 6

4 CONTENTS . Materia l progres s an d busines s conditions—Continued . Page . Post-offic e an d telegraph s 7 0 Mine s an d minin g 7 1 Unite d State s coastwis e tradin g law s 7 1 Cit y o f Manil a 7 2 Politica l futur e o f th e island s 7 3 Cos t o f th e presen t governmen t o f th e island s 7 7 Recommendation s 7 9

PAGE 7

To the Senate and House of Representatives: I transmi t herewit h th e repor t o f Secretar y Taf t upo n hi s recen t tri p t o th e Philippines . I heartil y concu r i n th e recommendation s h e makes , an d I cal l especia l attentio n t o th e admirabl e wor k o f Gover no r Smit h an d hi s associates . I t i s a subjec t fo r jus t nationa l gratifi catio n tha t suc h a repor t a s thi s ca n b e made . N o grea t civilize d powe r ha s eve r manage d wit h suc h wisdo m an d disinterestednes s th e affair s o f a peopl e committe d b} ' th e acciden t o f wa r t o it s hands . I f w e ha d followe d th e advic e o f th e misguide d person s wh o wishe d u s t o tur n th e island s loos e an d le t the m suffe r whateve r fat e migh t be fal l them , the y woul d hav e alread y passe d throug h a perio d o f com plet e an d blood y chaos , an d woul d no w undoubtedl y b e th e possessio n o f som e othe r powe r whic h ther e i s ever y reaso n t o believ e woul d no t hav e don e a s w e hav e done ; tha t is , woul d no t hav e strive n t o teac h the m ho w t o gover n themselve s o r t o hav e develope d them , a s w e hav e develope d them , primaril y i n thei r ow n interests . Sav e onl y ou r atti tud e towar d Cuba , I questio n whethe r ther e i s a brighte r pag e i n th e annal s o f internationa l dealin g betwee n th e stron g an d th e wea k tha n th e pag e whic h tell s o f ou r doing s i n th e Philippines . I cal l especia l attentio n t o th e admirabl y clea r showin g mad e b y Secretarj r Taf t o f th e fac t tha t i t woul d hav e bee n equall y ruinou s i f w e ha d yielde d t o th e desire s o f thos e wh o w-ishe d u s t o g o faste r i n th e directio n o f givin g th e Filipino s self-government , an d i f w e ha d followe d th e polic y advocate d b y others , wh o desire d u s simpl y t o rul e th e island s withou t an y though t a t al l o f fittin g the m fo r self-government . Th e islander s hav e mad e rea l advance s i n a hopefu l direction , an d the y hav e opene d wel l wit h th e ne w Philippin e Assembly ; the y hav e ye t a lon g wa y t o trave l befor e the y wil l b e fi t fo r complet e self-govern ment , an d fo r deciding , a s i t wil l the n b e thei r dut y t o do , whethe r thi s self-governmen t shal l b e accompanie d b y complet e independence . I t wil l probabl y b e a generation , i t ma y eve n b e longer , befor e thi s poin t is'reached ; bu t i t i s mos t gratifyin g tha t suc h substantia l prog res s towar d thi s a s a goa l ha s alread y bee n accomplished . W e desir e tha t i t b e reache d a t a s earl y a dat e a s possibl e fo r th e sak e o f th e Filipino s an d fo r ou r ow n sake . Bu t improperl y t o endeavo r t o hurr y th e tim e wil l probabl y mea n tha t th e goa l wil l no t b e attaine d a t all . THEODOR E ROOSEVELT . TH E WHIT E HOUSE , January 27,1908. (5 )

PAGE 8

SPECIA L REPOR T O F TH E SECRETAR Y O F WAR . WA R DEPARTMENT , Washington, D. C., January 23, 1908. Mr . PRESIDENT : B y you r directio n I hav e jus t visite d th e Philippin e Islands . I saile d fro m Seattl e Septembe r 13 , last ; reache d Manil a Octobe r 15 ; remaine d i n th e Island s unti l Novembe r 9 , whe n I returne d t o th e Unite d State s vi a Trans-Siberia n Railway , reachin g Ne w Yor k De cembe r 20 . Th e occasio n fo r m y visi t wa s th e openin g o f th e Philip pin e Assembly . Th e member s o f th e Assembl y wer e electe d i n Jul y last , i n accordanc e wit h th e organi c ac t o f Congress , b y th e eligibl e voter s o f th e Christia n province s o f th e Islands , divide d int o 8 0 dis tricts . Th e Assembl y become s a branc h o f th e legislatur e o f th e Island s coordinat e wit h th e Philippin e Commission . Thi s make s a decide d chang e i n th e amoun t o f rea l powe r whic h th e Philippin e electorat e i s t o exercis e i n th e contro l o f th e Islands . I f justifie d b y substantia l improvemen t i n th e politica l condition s i n th e Islands , i t i s a monumen t o f progress . I t i s mor e tha n nin e year s sinc e th e battl e o f Manil a Ba y an d th e subsequen t surrende r o f Manil a b y th e Spaniard s t o th e America n forces . I t i s mor e tha n eigh t year s sinc e th e exchang e o f ratifica tion s o f th e treat y o f Paris , b y whic h th e Philippin e Island s passe d unde r th e sovereignt y an d becam e th e propert y o f th e Unite d States . I t i s mor e tha n seve n year s sinc e Presiden t McKinley , b y writte n instruction s t o Mr . Root , Secretar y o f War , committe d th e govern men t o f th e Philippin e Island s t o th e centra l contro l o f th e Philip pin e Commission , subjec t t o th e supervisio n o f th e Secretar y o f War . I t i s mor e tha n si x year s sinc e th e complet e installatio n o f a quas i civi l governmen t i n th e Islands , wit h a civi l governo r a s executiv e an d th e Commissio n a s a legislature , al l b y authorit y o f th e Presi den t a s Commande r i n Chie f o f th e Arm y an d Navy . I t i s mor e tha n five year s sinc e th e step s take n b y Presiden t McKinle y an d yoursel f i n establishin g an d maintainin g a quas i civi l governmen t i n th e Island s wer e completel y ratifie d an d confirme d b y th e Con gres s i n a n organi c ac t which , i n effect , continue d th e existin g govern ment , bu t gav e i t neede d power s a s a reall y civi l governmen t tha t th e Presiden t unde r constitutiona l limitation s wa s unabl e t o confer . Th e installatio n o f th e Assembl y seem s t o be , therefore , a n appro priat e tim e fo r a precis e statemen t o f th e nationa l polic y towar d th e peopl e o f th e Philippine s adopte d b y Mr . McKinley , continue d b y you , an d confirme d b y Congress , fo r a n historica l summar y o f th e condition s political , social , an d material , existin g i n th e Island s whe n th e Unite d State s becam e responsibl e fo r thei r government , an d fo r a (6 )

PAGE 9

7 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . revie w o f th e result s o f governmenta l measure s take n t o improv e th e condition s o f la w an d order , th e politica l an d intellectua l capacit y o f th e people , an d thei r sanitar y an d materia l welfare . Th e polic y o f th e Unite d State s towar d th e Philippine s is , o f course , ultimatel y fo r Congres s t o determine , an d i t i s difficul t t o se e ho w on e Congres s coul d bin d anothe r Congress , shoul d th e secon d conclud e t o chang e th e polic y declare d b y th e first. Bu t w e ma y properl y assum e tha t afte r on e Congres s ha s announce d a polic y upo n th e fait h o f whic h a whol e peopl e ha s fo r som e year s acte d an d counted , goo d con scienc e woul d restrai n subsequen t Congresse s fro m lightl y changin g it . Fo r fou r year s Congres s i n silenc e permitte d Mr . McKinle y an d yourself , a s Commander s i n Chie f o f th e Army , t o adop t an d carr y ou t a polic y i n th e Philippines , an d the n expressl y ratifie d everythin g whic h yo u ha d done , an d confirme d an d mad e par t o f th e statut e cer tai n instruction s whic h Mr . McKinle y issue d fo r th e guidanc e o f th e Philippin e Commissio n i n makin g civi l governmen t i n th e Islands . No t onl y this , bu t Congres s closel y followed , i n th e so-calle d organi c act , you r recommendation s a s t o provision s fo r a futur e chang e i n th e Philippin e government . Th e nationa l polic y may , therefore , b e foun d i n th e cours e pursue d an d declaration s mad e b y th e Chie f Executive s i n Congressiona l message s an d othe r stat e paper s whic h hav e me t th e approva l o f Congress . Shortl y stated , th e nationa l polic y i s t o gover n th e Philippin e Island s fo r th e benefi t an d welfar e an d upliftin g o f th e peopl e o f th e Island s an d graduall y t o exten d t o them , a s the y shal l sho w them selve s fit t o exercis e it , a greate r an d greate r measur e o f popula r self government . On e o f th e corollarie s t o thi s propositio n i s tha t th e Unite d State s i n it s governmen t o f th e Island s wil l us e ever y effor t t o increas e th e capacit y o f th e Filipino s t o exercis e politica l power , bot h b y genera l educatio n o f th e densel y ignoran t masse s an d b y actua l practice , i n partia l self-government , o f thos e whos e politica l capacit y i s suc h tha t practic e ca n benefi t i t withou t to o grea t injur y t o th e efficienc y o f government . Wha t shoul d b e emphasize d i n th e statemen t o f ou r nationa l polic y i s tha t w e Avis h t o prepar e th e Filipino s fo r popular self-government . Thi s i s plai n fro m Mr . Mc Kinley' s lette r o f instruction s an d al l o f hi s utterances . I t wa s no t a t al l withi n hi s purpos e o r tha t o f th e Congres s whic h mad e hi s lette r par t o f th e la w o f th e lan d tha t w e wer e merel y t o awai t th e organiza tio n o f a Philippin e oligarch y o r aristocrac y competen t t o administe r governmen t an d the n tur n th e Island s ove r t o it . O n th e contrary , i t i s plain , fro m al l o f Mr . McKinley' s utterance s an d you r own , i n interpretatio n o f ou r nationa l purpose , tha t w e ar e th e trustee s an d guardian s o f th e whol e Filipin o people , an d peculiarl y o f th e ignoran t masses , an d tha t ou r trus t i s no t discharge d unti l thos e masse s ar e give n educatio n sufficien t t o kno w thei r civi l right s an d maintai n

PAGE 10

8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . the m agains t a mor e powerfu l clas s an d safel y t o exercis e th e politi ca l franchise . Thi s i s important , i n vie w o f th e claim , t o whic h I shal l hereafte r refer , mad e b y certai n Filipin o advocate s o f imme diat e independenc e unde r th e auspice s o f th e Bosto n anti-imperialists , tha t a satisfactor y independen t Philippin e governmen t coul d b e es tablishe d unde r a governin g clas s o f 1 0 pe r cen t an d a servin g an d obedien t clas s o f 9 0 pe r cent . Anothe r logica l deductio n fro m th e mai n propositio n i s tha t whe n th e Filipin o peopl e a s a whole , sho w themselve s reasonabl y fit t o conduc t a popula r self-government , maintainin g la w an d orde r an d offerin g equa l protectio n o f th e law s an d civi l right s t o ric h an d poor , an d desir e complet e independenc e o f th e Unite d States , the y shal l b e give n it . Th e standar d set , o f course , i s no t tha t o f perfec tio n o r suc h a governmenta l capacit y a s tha t o f a n Anglo-Saxo n peo ple , bu t i t certainl y ough t t o b e on e o f suc h popula r politica l capacit y tha t complet e independenc e i n it s exercis e wil l resul t i n progres s rathe r tha n retrogressio n t o chao s o r tyranny . I t shoul d b e noted , too , tha t th e tribuna l t o decid e whethe r th e prope r politica l capacit y exist s t o justif y independenc e i s Congres s an d no t th e Philippin e electorate . Aspiratio n fo r independenc e ma y wel l b e on e o f th e element s i n th e make-u p o f a peopl e t o sho w thei r capacit y fo r it , bu t ther e ar e othe r qualification s quit e a s indispensable . Th e judgmen t o f a peopl e a s t o thei r ow n politica l capacit y i s no t a n unerrin g guide . Th e nationa l Philippin e polic y contemplate s a gradua l extensio n o f popula r control , i. e ., b y steps . Thi s wa s th e pla n indicate d i n Mr . McKinley' s instructions . Thi s wa s th e metho d indicate d i n you r recommendatio n tha t a popula r assembl y b e mad e par t o f th e legis lature . Thi s wa s evidentl y th e vie w o f Congres s i n adoptin g you r recommendation , fo r th e titl e o f th e ac t i s " Fo r th e temporar y gov ernmen t o f th e Philippin e Island s " an d i s significan t o f a purpos e o r polic y tha t th e governmen t the n bein g establishe d wa s no t i n perma nen t form , bu t tha t change s i n i t fro m tim e t o tim e woul d b e necessary . I n th e historica l summar y o f condition s i n th e Island s whe n th e Unite d State s assume d responsibilit y fo r thei r governmen t an d th e revie w o f measure s adopte d b y th e presen t Philippin e governmen t t o improv e condition s an d th e results , i t wil l b e convenien t t o con side r th e whol e subjec t unde r th e followin g heads : 1 . Th e condition s a s t o la w an d order . Th e wa y i n whic h the y hav e bee n restore d an d ar e no w permanentl y maintained . 2 . Th e politica l capacit y an d intellectua l developmen t o f th e Filipino s unde r Spai n an d th e step s take n b y th e Philippin e govern men t fo r thei r genera l an d politica l education . 3 . Condition s o f healt h unde r Spain . Th e sanitar y measure s unde r th e Philippin e government .

PAGE 11

9 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R ON TH E PHILIPPINES . 4 . Th e materia l an d busines s conditions . Progres s mad e unde r presen t government . 5 . Th e futur e o f th e Philippines . 6 . Th e cos t o f th e Philippin e governmen t t o th e Unite d States . TH E CONDITION S A S T O LA W AN D ORDER—THEI R RESTORATIO N AN D PERMANEN T MAINTENANCE . I n 189 6 occurre d th e first rea l insurrectio n agains t th e Governmen t o f Spai n i n th e Philippin e Islands . Th e ide a o f a mor e libera l gov ernmen t tha n tha t whic h Spai n gav e th e Island s ha d take n roo t i n 187 1 wit h th e openin g o f th e Sue z Canal , th e flocking o f Spaniard s t o Manila , an d th e sprea d o f republica n doctrine s tha t ha d ha d a shor t triump h i n th e mothe r countr y abou t tha t time . I n th e measure s o f repressio n whic h wer e adopte d fro m tim e t o tim e b y Spanis h govern ors-genera l th e ai d o f Spanis h paris h priest s wa s though t b y th e peo pl e t o b e activel y enliste d i n ferretin g ou t thos e suspecte d o f seditio n an d to o libera l politica l views . Th e priest s wer e largel y fro m th e fou r religiou s orders—th e Dominicans , th e Augustinians , th e Fran ciscans , an d th e Recoletos . Ther e wa s a considerabl e bod y o f nativ e priest s also , bu t the y wer e o f th e secula r clergy , hel d th e les s desirabl e posts , an d wer e hostil e t o th e Spanis h friars . Thre e o f th e religiou s order s hel d larg e bodie s o f ric h agricultura l land s situate , muc h o f it , i n Cavite , Laguna , Manila , Morong , Bataan , an d Bulacan , al l thickl y populate d province s clos e t o Manila . Thei r tenant s numbere d sixt y o r sevent y thousan d persons . Th e insurrectio n o f 189 6 wa s no t onl y agains t th e Spanis h Governmen t t o secur e a mor e libera l regime , bu t i t wa s als o fo r th e eliminatio n o f th e friar s a s a controllin g politica l elemen t i n th e community . I t wa s largel y confine d t o Cavite , La guna , Manila , an d Bulacan , wher e la y th e larg e friars ' estates . I t ha d a n agraria n aspect . Ther e wa s muc h fighting, an d th e losse s o n bot h side s wer e ver y heavy , especiall y i n th e provinc e o f Cavite . Ulti matel y th e drasti c measure s o f th e Spaniard s drov e Aguinald o an d th e force s whic h h e le d ou t o f Cavit e int o Bulaca n an d le d t o wha t wa s know n a s th e treat y o f Biac-na-Bato . Thi s wa s a n arrangemen t b y whic h man y o f th e insurrect o chiefs , includin g Aguinaldo , agreed , i n consideratio n o f th e paymen t o f a larg e su m o f money , t o en d th e insurrectio n an d withdra w fro m th e Islands . Th e mone y wa s t o b e pai d i n thre e installments . Th e first paymen t wa s made , an d man y o f th e chiefs , includin g Aguinaldo , withdre w fro m th e Island s an d wen t t o Hongkong . Ther e wa s muc h disput e a s t o wha t th e agreemen t was , an d i t wa s strenuousl y insiste d b y eac h sid e tha t th e othe r faile d t o compl y wit h it s stipulations . I t i s no t materia l no w t o conside r thi s moote d question . Suffic e i t t o sa y tha t i n 1898 , whe n Admira l Dewe y attacke d th e Spanis h flee t i n Manil a Bay , th e ember s o f dissatisfac tio n o n th e par t o f th e forme r Filipin o insurgent s wit h th e Spanis h

PAGE 12

1 0 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Governmen t wer e stil l aglow , an d i t wa s no t difficul t fo r Aguinald o t o rais e a forc e o f insurrecto s t o ai d th e American s i n surroundin g Manil a an d i n drivin g Spai n fro m th e Islands . Betwee n 189 6 an d 189 8 th e condition s whic h ha d bee n brough t o n b y th e first insurrectio n continued , an d trad e wa s muc h interrupted , agricultur e di d no t flourish, an d condition s a s t o th e maintenanc e o f orde r wer e b y n o mean s favorable . A s a n inde x t o this , i t ma y b e sai d tha t th e manager s o f th e friars ' estate s collecte d n o rent s fro m th e tenant s afte r 1896 . Th e battl e o f Manil a Ba y an d th e defea t o f th e Spanis h fleet destroye d th e prestig e o f Spai n throughou t th e Island s an d create d insurrectio n i n nearl y ever y province . Th e re fusa l o f Genera l Merrit t t o permi t Aguinaldo' s troop s t o ente r Manil a create d a resentmen t o n th e par t o f th e Filipin o soldiers , an d th e relation s betwee n th e American s an d th e Filipino s soo n be cam e strained . Th e situatio n wa s no t relieve d a t al l b y th e signin g o f th e treat y a t Paris , transferrin g th e sovereignt y o f th e island s t o th e Americans. " Meantime , a s th e American s wer e confine d t o th e occu patio n o f Manila , Aguinald o an d hi s militar y assistant s attempte d th e organizatio n o f a governmen t throughou t th e islands . A so-calle d constitutiona l conventio n wa s hel d a t Malolo s an d a constitutio n wa s adopted . A t th e sam e tim e th e Visaya n republi c wa s organized , t o embrac e th e Visaya n Islands , unde r certai n Visaya n leaders . I t pro fesse d allegianc e t o Aguinaldo' s government . Neithe r Aguinaldo' s governmen t no r th e Visaya n governmen t wa s abl e t o maintai n order , an d th e whol e countr y wa s subjec t t o th e lootin g o f predator y bands , an d chao s reigned . "Wher e th e Aguinald o governmen t ha d authority , i t wa s exercise d wit h militar y severit y an d wit h "muc h loca l oppres sio n an d corruption . O n th e 4t h o f February , 1899 , ther e wa s a n attac k b y th e Filipin o force s surroundin g Manil a upo n th e America n troops , whic h wa s successfull y resisted . Late r on , upo n th e 23 d o f February , ther e wa s a n outbrea k i n Manil a itself , an d a n attemp t t o bur n th e city , whic h wa s suppresse d b y th e America n troop s wit h a heav y hand . O n th e 11t h o f Apri l th e treat y cedin g th e Philippin e Island s t o th e Unite d State s wa s ratifie d an d ratification s exchanged . Fro m tha t tim e unti l th e sprin g o f 190 0 a campaig n wa s carrie d o n b y th e America n force s agains t th e regularl y organize d troop s unde r Aguinaldo . Aguinaldo' s force s wer e defeate d an d scattered , an d the n i n 190 0 ther e succeede d a guerrill a warfar e i n nearl y ever y provinc e i n th e Islands , whic h wa s continue d wit h mor e o r les s vigo r unti l July , 1902 . Th e guerrill a warfar e wa s carrie d o n onl y becaus e o f th e encouragemen t receive d b y th e insurrecto s fro m speeche s o f th e so-calle d " anti-imperialist s " an d th e assurance s publicl y give n b y politica l leader s i n th e Unite d State s o f immediat e severanc e o f th e

PAGE 13

11 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . relation s betwee n th e Island s an d th e Unite d State s i n cas e th e Ad ministratio n wer e defeate d i n th e election . A t time s th e warfar e woul d see m t o ceas e an d th e insurrectio n see m t o b e a t a n end , an d the n i t woul d reviv e again , apparentl y wit h a vie w t o influencin g election s i n America . I t ca n readil y b e inferre d fro m thi s statemen t tha t fro m th e breakin g ou t o f th e insurrectio n i n 1896 , wit h th e ne w insurrectio n i n 1898 , an d th e wa r wit h th e American s beginnin g eart y i n 189 9 unti l th e clos e o f th e guerrill a warfar e i n June , 1902 , th e condition s o f th e countr y wer e no t peaceabl e an d agricultur e coul d no t flourish . No t onl y di d th e existenc e o f actua l wa r preven t farming , bu t th e spiri t o f lazines s an d restlessnes s brough t o n b y a guerrill a lif e af fecte d th e willingnes s o f th e nativ e t o wor k i n th e fields . Mor e tha n this , th e natura l hatre d fo r th e American s whic h a wa r vigorousl y conducte d b y America n soldier s wa s likel y t o creat e di d no t mak e th e comin g o f rea l peac e easy . Bu t i n additio n t o thes e disturbe d conditions , du e directl y t o war , ther e ar e certai n feature s o f Philippin e civilizatio n alway s present , wa r o r n o war , tha t d o no t ten d t o permanen t tranquillit y an d ca n no t b e ignored . I n th e firs t plac e th e Philippine s hav e bee n infeste d wit h ladrones , o r robbe r bands , sinc e thei r earlies t history . Th e Spanis h Govern men t maintaine d a larg e force , calle d " l a guardi a civil, " t o suppres s th e evil . I n som e provinces , blackmai l wa s regularl y pai d b y larg e landowner s t o insur e themselve s agains t th e los s inciden t t o attac k an a destructio n o f thei r property . I n th e provinc e o f Cavite , fo r instance , ladronis m wa s constant , an d i t wa s understoo d tha t th e manager s o f th e friars ' estates , whic h amounte d i n al l i n tha t provinc e t o 125,00 0 acres , usuall y pai d blackmai l t o ladrone s i n th e for m o f mone y o r provisions . Th e provinc e o f Cavit e wa s know n a s " th e mothe r o f ladrones, " an d ther e wa s certainl y a sympath y betwee n th e lowe r classe s an d th e ladrone s wh o mulcte d th e landlords . Bu t beside s th e ladron e habit , whic h make s fo r continue d disorder , ther e i s anothe r qualit y o f th e ignoran t masse s o f th e Philippin e peopl e tha t i s a constan t dange r t o tranquillity . Mor e tha n 8 0 pe r cen t o f th e Philippin e peopl e ar e illiterate . Thei r ignoranc e i s dense . The y spea k som e 1 5 o r 1 6 different , Mala y dialects . Knowledg e o f on e dialec t doe s no t giv e a n understandin g o f another . Eac h dialec t ha s a limite d vocabulary , whic h offer s n o mediu m o f communicatio n wit h moder n though t o r civilization . Thei r ignoranc e make s the m suspiciou s o f al l educate d person s bu t thos e o f thei r ow n rac e wh o kno w thei r dialec t an d ar e wel l t o do . Th e resul t i s tha t i n rura l communitie s i n th e Philippine s whol e township s o f peopl e ar e completel y subjec t t o th e wil l o f an y educated ,

PAGE 14

1 2 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . active-minde d perso n livin g i n tha t community , wh o know s th e loca l dialec t an d i s willin g o r abl e t o arous e eithe r th e fear s o r cupidit y o f hi s neighbor s int o th e organizatio n o f a ban d eithe r t o resis t fancie d danger s o r oppression , t o satisf y vengeance , o r t o achiev e a livin g an d comfor t withou t labor . Thi s i s th e centra l an d mos t importan t fac t i n th e make-u p o f th e loca l Philippin e communities . I t ha s le d t o th e abus e o f caciquism , i . e. , loca l bossism , t o whic h I shal l refe r i n th e questio n o f th e organizatio n o f municipalitie s an d provincia l govern ments . Th e histor y o f th e insurrectio n an d o f th e conditio n o f law lessnes s whic h succeede d th e insurrectio n i s ful l o f instance s i n whic h simple-minde d countr y fol k a t th e biddin g o f th e loca l leader , o r cacique , hav e committe d th e mos t horribl e crime s o f tortur e an d mur der , an d whe n arreste d an d charge d wit h i t hav e merel y pleade d tha t the y wer e ordere d t o commi t th e crim e b y th e grea t ma n o f th e community . Thi s irresponsibl e powe r possesse d b y loca l leader s ove r thei r ignoran t neighbors , i n cas e o f a n independen t Filipin o govern men t lackin g th e mora l strengt h whic h th e Unite d State s Governmen t derive s fro m it s powe r an d resource s an d it s determinatio n t o punis h disturbanc e an d maintai n order , would , unde r presen t conditions , lead , afte r a shor t period , t o a chao s o f ever-recurrin g revol t an d in surrectio n t o satisf y th e vengeanc e o f disappointe d bosse s an d loca l leaders . Wheneve r Filipin o municipa l official s com e int o contac t eithe r wit h non-Christia n tribe s o r wit h inferio r people s o f thei r ow n rac e lik e thos e wh o liv e i n th e mountain s o f Sama r an d Leyte , know n a s " pulahanes, " the y ar e likel y t o exercis e officia l authorit y fo r thei r c?w n profi t an d t o th e detrimen t o f th e inferio r people . Thu s i n Sama r an d Leyt e th e mountai n peopl e rais e a goo d dea l o f hemp . Th e municipa l authoritie s o f th e lowland s an d th e loca l cacique s conspir e t o preven t th e dispositio n o f thi s hem p t o anyon e bu t thei r ow n agent s a t a n unjustl y lo w price , usin g dures s an d a sho w o f officia l authorit y fo r th e purpose . Thi s frau d an d mistreatmen t ultimatel y create s amon g th e mountai n people s a jus t sens e o f indig nation . The n i t i s tha t som e religiou s faki r invite s the m t o organiz e agains t thei r enemies , unde r th e char m o f som e religiou s token , an d som e lowlan d villag e i s sacke d an d it s peopl e ar e murdered . Th e centra l an d provincia l authoritie s interven e an d a wa r ensues , whic h lay s wast e muc h o f th e interio r o f th e islands , t o suppres s a disorde r tha t ha d it s inceptio n i n a jus t caus e o f complaint . O f cours e th e frequenc y o f suc h disturbance s i s reduce d a s educa tio n spreads , a s th e poo r an d oppresse d begi n t o understan d thei r right s an d th e lawfu l metho d o f assertin g them , an d a s th e rea l caus e o f suc h outbreak s ar e mor e cleart y understoo d an d suppressed . Bu t n o accoun t o f th e difficult y o f maintainin g peac e an d orde r i n th e

PAGE 15

13 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Philippine s woul d b e accurat e o r jus t whic h di d no t mak e clea r thi s possibl e recurrin g caus e o f troubl e an d disturbanc e unde r presen t conditions , du e t o th e eas e wit h whic h simple-minded , ignoran t peopl e o f a communit y ca n b e aroused , b y on e o r mor e o f th e bette r educate d o f thei r ow n rac e viciousl y inclined , t o deed s o f murde r an d crue l violence . Suc h disturbance s ar e generall y heralde d a s th e evidenc e o f seethin g seditio n an d disconten t wit h th e America n Government , wherea s the y ar e generall y bu t th e effec t an d sympto m o f mer e loca l abuse s entirel y Filipin o i n origin . Havin g thu s describe d th e condition s o f disorder , actua l an d poten tial , i n th e Philippines , du e no t onl y t o th e fou r o r five year s o f inter mitten t an d recurrin g war , th e ranco r an d rac e hatre d i t tende d t o create , th e unfounde d hope s hel d ou t b y America n anti-imperialists , an d al l th e othe r sequela e o f war , bu t als o t o certai n norma l feature s an d qualitie s o f th e presen t Philippin e civilization , I com e t o revie w th e measure s take n an d polic y adopte d b y th e America n Governmen t t o brin g th e Island s t o thei r presen t stat e o f complet e tranquillity . TH E WOR K O F TH E UNITE D STATE S ARMY . Th e agenc y o f th e Arm y i n bringin g abou t orde r i n th e Island s mus t neve r b e minimized . Th e hardship s o f th e campaig n whic h i t ha d t o carr y o n wer e ver y great . Th e responsibilit y whic h wa s throw n upo n captains , lieutenants , an d sergeant s i n comman d o f smal l detachment s int o whic h i t wa s necessar y t o divid e th e Arm y t o mee t th e exigencie s o f guerrill a warfar e wa s me t wit h courag e an d intelligenc e an d grea t fertilit y o f resourc e unde r mos t tryin g an d unusua l conditions . I t i s no t to o muc h t o sa y tha t n o othe r arm y o f th e sam e siz e coul d hav e accomplishe d th e result s whic h wer e accomplishe d b y th e America n Army . A t time s ther e wer e som e member s o f thi s Arm y wh o wer e tempted , i n th e eagernes s o f pursuit , int o indefensibl e an d crue l practice s fo r th e obtainin g o f informa tion—practice s whic h ha d bee n commo n amon g th e Spaniard s an d th e Filipino s themselves . Revelation s o f thes e crueltie s le d t o sever e indiscriminat e criticis m an d attack s o n th e Arm y a s a whol e whic h wer e calculate d t o discourag e an d dishearten , bu t i n spit e o f al l difficultie s th e wor k wen t on . A t on e tim e i n th e campaig n agains t guerrill a warfar e ther e wer e mor e tha n 50 0 differen t post s an d mor e tha n 65,00 0 me n i n arms . Certai n i t i s tha t orde r woul d hav e neve r bee n restore d withou t th e efficien t an d courageou s servic e rendere d b y th e Army , an d i n spit e o f al l th e storie s tha t wer e tol d o f th e crueltie s inflicte d b y th e American s upo n Filipinos , onl y a smal l par t o f whic h wer e true , an y candi d observe r o f th e condition s a t th e tim e mus t admi t tha t th e America n soldier s a s a bod y exhibite d towar d th e Filipino s a self-restrain t an d a sympath y wit h th e benevolen t

PAGE 16

1 4 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . purpose s o f th e administratio n whic h th e circumstance s an d th e char acte r o f th e Filipin o warfar e carrie d o n wer e no t calculate d t o invite . No t onl y di d th e Arm y d o mos t efficien t wor k i n th e suppressio n o f th e insurrectio n whe n wa r wa s rife , bu t th e presenc e o f 12,00 0 Ameri ca n soldier s i n th e Island s sinc e ha s bee n a mora l forc e o f grea t weigh t t o secur e peacefu l conditions . Occasionall y the y hav e bee n calle d o n fo r activ e wor k i n subduin g disorder s i n particula r province s whic h ha d gon e beyon d th e contro l o f th e loca l an d insula r peac e officer s an d the y hav e rendere d promp t an d effectiv e servic e i n suc h cases . The y ar e no w bein g concentrate d i n large r an d large r post s fo r economical , educational , an d disciplinar y purposes , bu t thei r presenc e anywher e i n th e Island s i s beneficia l t o th e caus e o f order . The y ar e no w popu la r wit h th e Filipinos , an d w e find th e sam e objectio n t o abandonmen t o f post s b y neighborin g Filipin o communitie s tha t w e mee t i n th e Unite d States . PROMIS E O F EXTENSIO N O F SELF-GOVERNMENT . Presiden t McKinle y announce d a s hi s polic y tha t th e Philippin e Island s woul d b e take n ove r b y th e America n Governmen t t o b e governe d fo r th e benefi t o f th e Filipinos , an d tha t a s the y develope d fitness fo r partia l self-governmen t i t shoul d b e graduall y extende d t o them . I n orde r t o enforc e an d giv e evidenc e o f thi s purpose , h e appointe d a Commissio n i n 1899 , know n fro m it s chairman , Hon . J . G . Schurman , a s th e " Schurma n Commission, " t o visi t th e Philippin e Island s an d exten d loca l self-governmen t a s rapidl y a s possible . Th e Commissio n wa s abl e onl y t o investigat e condition s an d t o repor t tha t i n it s judgmen t th e Filipino s wer e no t fit fo r self-government . I t wa s abl e t o b e presen t a t th e organizatio n o f municipa l governmen t i n a fe w town s whic h ha d bee n capture d b y th e Americans , bu t i t prac ticall y wa s abl e t o d o n o constructiv e work , i n vie w o f th e condition s o f wa r tha t existe d whil e i t wa s there . I t returne d t o th e Unite d State s an d mad e it s report . I n Februar y o f 190 0 a ne w Commissio n wa s appointe d b y Presi den t McKinley , wh o gav e i t muc h mor e ampl e power s tha n it s pred ecessor , fo r th e purpos e o f organizin g civi l governmen t i n th e wak e o f wa r a s rapidl y a s condition s woul d permit . Th e power s conferre d wer e se t fort h i n a lette r o f instruction s delivere d b y Presiden t McKinle y t o Mr . Root , Secretar y o f War , fo r hi s guidanc e an d tha t o f th e Commissio n i n respec t o f th e polic y t o b e pursue d i n th e Philippines . Th e Commissio n arrive d i n June , 1900 . Th e Com missio n wa s no t authorize d t o assum e an y authorit y unti l th e 1s t o f Septembe r an d spen t it s tim e fro m Jun e unti l September , 1900 , i n makin g investigations . I t the n too k ove r th e powe r an d dut y o f en actin g legislatio n t o mak e a governmen t fo r tha t par t o f th e Island s

PAGE 17

15 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . i n whic h wa r ha d cease d t o exis t an d t o mak e appropriation s fro m fund s raise d b y taxatio n fo r civi l purposes . Th e preparatio n an d enactmen t o f a municipa l an d a provincia l cod e fo r th e organizatio n an d maintenanc e o f municipaltie s an d province s i n th e Island s occu pie d muc h o f th e attentio n o f th e Commissio n durin g th e remainde r o f th e yea r 1900 . Fo r th e thre e o r fou r month s prio r t o th e Presidentia l electio n i n November , 1900 , i t wa s impossibl e t o procee d wit h th e actua l organi zatio n o f civi l government . Th e insurgent s wer e assure d tha t th e Administratio n o f Mr . McKinle y woul d b e defeate d an d tha t hi s de fea t woul d b e immediatel y followe d b y a separatio n o f th e Island s fro m th e Unite d States . Everythin g hun g o n th e election . Th e re electio n o f Mr . McKinle y wa s a grea t blo w t o th e insurrectos . ORGANIZATIO N O F TH E FEOERA L PARTY . I t i s a mistak e t o suppos e tha t th e wa r b y th e Filipino s agains t th e American s ha d th e sympath y o f al l th e Filipinos . O n th e contrary , ther e wer e man y intelligen t an d conservativ e me n wh o favore d America n contro l an d wh o di d no t believ e i n th e capacit y o f thei r peopl e immediatel y t o organiz e a governmen t whic h woul d b e stabl e an d satisfactory , bu t i n th e fac e o f a possibl e independenc e o f th e Islands , the y wer e still . Upo n Mr . McKinley' s secon d electio n man y o f thes e person s reache d th e conclusio n tha t i t wa s tim e fo r the m t o act . Accordingly , the y forme d th e Federa l Party , th e chie f platfor m o f whic h wa s peac e unde r America n sovereignt y an d th e acceptanc e o f th e America n promise s t o gover n th e Island s fo r th e benefi t o f th e Filipino s an d graduall y t o exten d popula r self-governmen t t o th e people . Th e Federa l Part y receive d accession s b y thousand s i n al l part s o f th e Island s an d i n ever y province , s o tha t th e Commissio n wa s enable d durin g th e yea r 1901 , an d unde r th e auspices , an d wit h th e ai d of , th e Federa l Party , t o organiz e civi l governmen t i n som e 3 2 o r 3 3 provinces , o r i n substantiall y al l o f them . Th e proo f o f th e purpose s o f th e America n Government , give n i n th e popula r feature s o f th e provincia l an d municipa l codes , whic h bor e ou t i n ever y re spec t th e genera l promise s o f Presiden t McKinley , ha d muc h t o d o wit h th e endin g o f th e war . Fro m Novembe r 1 , 1900 , unti l Jul y 1 , 1901 , whe n militar y governmen t wa s declare d t o b e ende d an d a civi l governo r appointed , th e me n an d gun s surrendere d exceede d tha t o f an y simila r perio d i n th e histor y o f th e war . TH E CENTRA L GOVERNMENT . Th e somewha t anomalou s creatio n o f th e Philippin e Commission , a s a civi l legislatur e i n a purel y militar y governmen t establishe d b y th e Presiden t b y virtu e o f hi s power s a s Commande r i n Chief , presente d

PAGE 18

1 6 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . som e difficul t question s o f jurisdictio n betwee n th e militar y governo r an d th e Commissio n an d le d t o considerabl e friction . Th e Commis sion , however , hel d th e purs e strings , an d a s i s usua l i n suc h case s th e contro l o f appropriation s ultimatel y lef t th e power s o f th e Com missio n substantia l an d undisputed . Anothe r difficult y aros e i n re spec t t o jurisdictio n o f th e court s establishe d an d appointe d b y th e Commissioner s t o issu e writ s o f habea s corpu s t o inquir e int o th e legalit y o f th e detentio n o f civilian s b y th e genera l commanding . This , too , subsequentl y wa s worke d ou t i n favo r o f th e civi l courts . Th e difference s betwee n th e militar y an d civi l authoritie s di d no t es cap e th e attentio n o f th e Philippin e public , an d o f cours e th e sym path y o f th e Filipino s wen t wit h th e civi l sid e o f th e controversy , an d th e appointmen t o f a civi l governo r Jul y 1 , 1901 , an d th e cloth in g hi m wit h extensiv e authorit y ha d th e popula r approval . Thi s wa s increase d b y th e appointmen t t o th e Commissio n o f thre e Fili pin o members . The y wer e th e mos t prominen t member s o f th e Federa l Party . Th e Commissio n no w consiste d o f th e civi l governor , fou r othe r Americans , an d thre e Filipinos . Th e fou r America n members , i n additio n t o thei r legislativ e work , wer e mad e respec tivel y th e head s o f fou r departments—on e o f financ e an d justice , th e secon d o f th e interior , th e thir d o f commerc e an d police , an d th e fourt h o f publi c instruction . T o thes e department s wer e assigne d th e appropriat e bureau s b y whic h th e busines s o f th e centra l governmen t wa s directl y carrie d on . Th e presenc e o f th e Filipino s i n th e con trollin g bod y o f th e governmen t offere d a n excellen t opportunit y fo r Filipin o influenc e t o affec t legislatio n an d brough t t o th e ne w quas i civi l governmen t a sympatheti c suppor t fro m th e Filipin o publi c tha t include d mos t o f thos e bu t recentl y i n arm s agains t America n sovereignty . I n som e province s civi l governmen t prove d t o hav e bee n prema turel y established , notabl y i n Batangas , Cavite , Cebu , an d Samar , an d i n th e fal l o f 190 1 th e service s o f th e Arm y wer e agai n require d i n thos e provinces . Bu t ultimatel y the y becam e peaceful . Th e guer rill a force s whic h continue d i n arm s wer e finall y subjugate d o r brough t i n throug h th e vigo r o f th e Arm y an d th e influenc e o f th e Federa l party , befor e Jul y 1,1902 , whe n peac e wa s officiall y declare d t o exis t b y you r proclamatio n o f amnesty . EFFEC T O N PERMANEN T ORDE R O F MUNICIPA L AN D PROVINCIA L GOVERN MENT S AN D NATIONA L ASSEMBLY . Unde r th e hea d o f politica l educatio n I shal l describ e th e initiatio n an d maintenanc e o f municipa l an d provincia l government s i n som e detail , an d shal l conside r the m an d th e assembl y a s instrument s i n

PAGE 19

17 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . th e politica l educatio n o f th e Filipino s an d commen t o n thei r effi cienc y an d defect s a s governmen t agencies . I no w wis h t o refe r t o the m a s par t o f th e so-calle d polic y o f " attraction. " Th e Filipin o peopl e di d no t expec t th e libera l an d popula r provision s o f th e munici pa l an d provincia l codes , an d thei r enactmen t create d th e revulsio n o f feelin g tha t enable d th e Federa l part y t o brin g o n pence . Th e par t th e peopl e wer e give n i n governin g bot h town s an d prov ince s stimulate d the m t o effort s i n behal f o f orde r tha t becam e greatl y mor e sympatheti c an d effective , when , a s I hereafte r poin t out , th e officer s o f th e insula r constabular y learne d thei r rea l functio n o f as sistanc e an d no t independen t command . Th e givin g contro l o f th e provincia l boar d t o tw o electe d official s adde d t o thei r sens e o f re sponsibilit y a s t o orde r i n th e provinc e an d wa s convincin g o f th e sincerit y o f America n promis e t o exten d popula r contro l b y gradua l steps . Th e provision s o f th e organi c ac t passe d b y Congres s i n July , 1902 , confirmin g Presiden t McKinley' s polic y an d th e promis e o f a n as sembl y i f goo d orde r wa s maintained , ha d a grea t effec t t o mak e th e Filipin o peopl e anxiou s t o preserv e order , an d n o ac t o f th e America n Executiv e wa s mor e convincin g t o th e peopl e o f th e goo d fait h o f th e Administratio n tha n you r proclamatio n o f th e election s a t a tim e whe n a n excus e fo r dela y withi n th e la w migh t easil y hav e bee n foun d i n som e o f th e disturbance s the n existing . Th e existenc e an d influ enc e o f th e assembl y ar e importan t continuin g factor s i n th e mainte nanc e o f la w an d order . ESTABLISHMEN T O F COURTS . Eve n unde r th e purel y militar y administratio n befor e th e appoint men t o f th e Commissio n a militar y governo r ha d establishe d civi l court s fo r th e purpos e o f disposin g o f civi l case s an d fo r suc h viola tion s o f la w a s wer e no t mor e convenientl y dispose d o f b y militar y tribunals . Th e Commissio n earl y passe d a la w dividin g th e Island s int o som e 1 5 districts , establishin g a cour t o f first instanc e i n eac h dis trict , togethe r wit h a suprem e cour t o f seve n t o conside r appeal s fro m th e court s o f first instance . Thi s syste m wa s recognize d an d adopte d b y Congres s i n th e organi c ac t o f Jul y 1 , 1902 . Th e polic y wa s pur sue d o f appointin g a Filipino , th e first lawye r o f th e Islands , th e chie f justic e o f th e suprem e court , togethe r wit h tw o Filipin o col league s an d fou r Americans . • Abou t th e sam e proportio n betwee n American s an d Filipino s wa s observe d i n th e appointmen t o f judge s o f th e cour t o f first instance . Ther e wa s grea t difficult y i n finding prope r materia l fo r th e Amer ica n judge s becaus e ther e wer e s o fe w America n lawyer s i n th e Unite d 26720—S . Doc . 200 , 601 2

PAGE 20

1 8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . State s wh o spok e Spanish , an d i t greatl y interfere d wit h th e conven ienc e o f hearing s i f th e judg e di d no t kno w Spanish . However , tim e cure d thi s difficulty , becaus e th e America n appointee s rapidl y acquire d a knowledg e o f th e Spanis h languag e sufficien t t o tak e testimon y an d hea r argument s withou t interpreters . Th e first year s o f th e courts , especiall y i n th e country , wer e almos t entirel y occupie d i n hearin g crimina l cases . Th e civi l governmen t ver y soo n adopte d th e positio n tha t afte r a stat e o f peac e ha d bee n declare d i n 1902 , me n i n arm s engage d i n lootin g an d robber y shoul d b e treate d no t a s insurrecto s o r a s enemie s unde r th e law s o f war , bu t merel y a s violator s o f th e loca l law . I n th e earl y day s o f th e insurrectio n i f a bod y o f insurrecto s wa s organize d i n an y provinc e an d wa s captured , thei r gun s wer e take n an d afte r a shor t imprisonmen t th e me n wer e released . Thi s practic e ha d le d t o a feelin g o n th e par t o f th e ignoran t peopl e tha t the y migh t wit h impunit y resor t t o arms , an d i f caugh t thereafte r tha t the y woul d b e imprisone d fo r a shor t tim e onl y an d the n released . Th e impositio n o f lon g sentences , fifteen o r twent y years , an d th e confine men t o f me n i n Bilibi d priso n an d th e requiremen t tha t the y shoul d wor k a t har d labo r wa s a mos t effectiv e metho d o f teachin g th e igno ran t an d easil y le d member s o f a communit y th e differenc e betwee n a politica l revolutio n an d th e crim e o f robber y an d livin g o n one' s neighbor s b y force . A grea t numbe r o f person s i n variou s province s wer e prosecute d fo r bandittiism . A statut e wa s passe d t o cove r thes e case s providin g tha t a ma n migh t b e convicte d o f a felon y b y conclusiv e proo f tha t h e wa s a membe r o f a ban d organize d t o commi t robberies , eve n thoug h n o evidenc e wa s adduce d t o sho w an y particula r robber y i n whic h h e wa s personall y concerned . Thi s ha s bee n haile d a s a departur e fro m th e usage s o f th e commo n la w an d th e spiri t o f ou r institutions . I t i s nothin g o f th e kind . I t i s merel y th e denunciatio n o f a particula r kin d o f conspiracy . I t wa s entirel y impracticabl e t o identif y th e per petrator s o f particula r robberies , bu t i t wa s entirel y practicabl e t o prov e conclusivel y th e existenc e o f a ban d t o commi t th e robberies , an d th e membershi p o f th e particula r defendan t i n tha t band , althoug h hi s presenc e a t th e commissio n o f a n over t ac t i t wa s ofte n impossibl e t o show . Ther e i s no t th e slightes t reaso n i n la w o r moral s wh y a ma n thu s prove d t o b e a robbe r shoul d no t b e punishe d an d punishe d jus t a s severel y a s th e me n wh o wer e actuall y take n i n th e commissio n o f th e act . Th e effec t o f thi s la w wa s t o brin g t o justic e a grea t numbe r o f criminal s i n variou s provinces , an d it s vigorou s administratio n b y bot h th e Filipin o an d America n judge s unde r activ e prosecutio n b y Fil ipin o prosecutor s di d muc h towar d th e suppressio n o f ladronism . Th e difficult y wa s tha t th e numbe r o f convicte d person s becam e s o larg e a s t o strai n th e capacit y o f th e jail s an d penitentiarie s i n th e Islands . Thi s congeste d conditio n ha s bee n met , however , now , first,

PAGE 21

19 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . b y th e establishmen t o f a pena l colon y i n th e islan d o f Palawan , and , second , b y th e us e o f prisoner s i n severa l province s fo r th e construc tio n o f roads . Afte r man y o f thos e sentence d fo r highwa y robber y ha d serve d tw o year s th e governor-genera l appointe d a commissio n t o g o ove r th e case s t o recommen d fo r pardo n thos e person s who , whil e guilt y o f th e crim e charge d wer e no t o f th e crimina l class , bu t ha d bee n le d int o i t b y dures s an d undu e influenc e o f neighborin g brigan d chief s an d caciques . Quit e a larg e numbe r o f thes e person s wer e parole d an d sen t bac k t o thei r home s t o giv e the m a n opportunit y t o becom e goo d citizens . Th e changin g conditio n o f th e countr y an d th e maintenanc e o f la w an d orde r ar e evidence d b y th e fac t tha t th e proportio n o f civi l case s t o crimina l case s i n th e court s o f first instanc e an d th e suprem e cour t i s rapidl y increasing . I t i s becomin g muc h easie r t o dispos e o f th e crimina l cases , whil e i t i s th e civi l case s tha t no w clo g th e dockets . Th e standar d i n th e administratio n o f justic e i n th e Island s i s high . I t ha s bee n sometime s charge d b y irresponsibl e person s tha t som e o f th e judge s wer e subjec t t o executiv e influence . A n investigatio n int o th e matte r disclose s no t th e slightes t evidenc e o f th e existenc e o f an y suc h evil , an d th e whol e charg e rest s o n th e easil y sprea d rumo r o f disappointe d litigant s o r politica l enemie s o f th e gov ernment . O n th e whole , I a m quit e sur e tha t throughou t th e Island s th e judge s o f th e courts , an d especiall y th e member s o f th e suprem e court , hav e th e entir e confidenc e o f th e publi c i n th e justic e an d sin cerit y o f thei r conclusions . N o distinctio n ha s bee n mad e i n th e hear in g o f cause s b y a Filipin o o r America n judge , an d th e syste m move s o n quietl y an d effectivel y t o accomplis h th e purpos e fo r whic h i t wa s adopted . Th e influenc e o f th e court s i n th e restoratio n o f orde r ha s bee n ver y important . TH E PHILIPPIN E CONSTABULARY . Anothe r ste p mos t necessar y an d usefu l i n th e restoratio n o f orde r wa s th e organizatio n o f a bod y o f upwar d o f 5,00 0 men , Filipino s officere d b y Americans , int o a constabular y divide d int o companie s an d organize d b y Regula r Arm y officers . Bu t littl e difficult y wa s foun d i n th e organizatio n o f thi s bod y a s a n efficien t fighting an d scoutin g force , bu t i t too k severa l year s o f training , o f elimination , an d o f sever e disciplin e befor e th e subordinat e officers , thos e assigne d t o eac h province , wer e mad e t o understan d th e prope r polic y t o b e pursue d b y the m i n respec t t o th e nativ e governor s an d presi dente s o f th e municipalitie s wh o ha d bee n electe d b y th e peopl e unde r th e municipa l an d provincia l codes . A t first ther e wa s constan t frictio n an d suspicio n betwee n them , an d thi s di d no t ai d a t al l th e wor k o f suppressin g ladrone s an d othe r disreputabl e an d viciou s ele ment s o f th e community . Yea r b y year , however , improvemen t ha s

PAGE 22

2 0 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . bee n mad e i n thi s regard , an d th e lesso n ha s bee n taugh t tha t th e constabular y ar e no t a militar y force , bu t a forc e o f polic e organize d b y th e centra l governmen t an d pai d ou t o f it s treasur y t o assis t i n a sympatheti c wa y th e nativ e loca l officer s i n th e wor k o f suppressio n o f disorde r an d lawlessnes s o f thei r particula r localities . Whe n I wa s i n th e Island s tw o year s ag o th e nativ e paper s wer e ful l o f con demnatio n o f th e constabular y an d it s severity . Durin g th e las t tw o year s a mos t remarkabl e chang e ha s take n plac e i n th e relation s be twee n th e officer s an d me n o f thi s forc e an d th e provincia l governor s an d officer s o f th e towns , an d no w ther e i s nothin g mor e popula r i n th e Island s tha n th e constabulary . FRIARS ' LANDS . A mos t potentia l sourc e o f disorde r i n th e Island s wa s th e owner shi p o f wha t wer e calle d th e " friars ' land s " b y thre e o f th e religiou s order s o f th e Islands—th e Dominicans , th e Augustinians , an d th e so-calle d bare-foote d Augustinians , know n a s " Recoletos. " Thes e land s amounte d i n al l t o 425,00 0 acres , o f whic h 2 <5,00 0 wer e i n th e immediat e neighborhoo d o f Manila , 25,00 0 i n Cebu , an d 125,00 0 i n th e remot e province s o f Isabel a an d Mindoro . Th e tenant s o n thos e whic h wer e clos e t o Manil a numbere d som e sixt y o r sevent y thousan d persons . Th e attitud e o f th e peopl e towar d th e friars ' land s wa s show n b y th e fac t tha t th e so-calle d constitutiona l conventio n assem ble d b y Aguinald o a t Malolo s nationalize d th e friars ' lands—tha t is , appropriate d the m t o th e so-calle d " Republi c o f th e Philippines. " Wit h th e restoratio n o f orde r an d th e establishmen t o f court s th e representative s o f thes e religiou s bodie s wer e entitle d t o g o int o cour t an d recove r fro m tenant s th e rent s whic h ha d bee n i n arrear s sinc e 1896 , an d t o ejec t the m fro m th e land s whic h the y ha d occupie d un les s the y admitte d titl e an d continue d t o pa y rent . Th e occupant s o f th e friars ' land s resolutel y refuse d t o d o either , an d th e Philippin e governmen t wa s confronte d wit h th e immediat e prospec t o f suit s t o evic t 60,00 0 tenant s i n thos e province s pron e t o disturbance s an d insurrection . Th e situatio n wa s furthe r straine d b y th e fac t tha t th e church , fo r lac k o f othe r competen t priests , showe d ever y inclinatio n t o sen d bac k t o th e parishe s fro m whic h the y ha d bee n drive n a s man y o f th e friar s wh o ha d bee n paris h priest s a s i t could . Ever y paris h t o whic h a fria r pries t returne d a t onc e bega n t o seeth e wit h popula r indignation , an d threat s o f violenc e wer e constantl y mad e towar d him . Th e onl y solutio n possible , consisten t wit h th e preser vatio n o f veste d propert y right s o n th e on e hand , an d th e righ t secure d b y treat y t o th e friar s o f freedo m o f religio n an d freedo m o f speec h i n an y par t o f th e islands , wa s som e arrangemen t b y whic h th e

PAGE 23

21 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . lan d coul d b e take n ove r b y th e Governmen t an d th e churc h induce d no t t o sen d friar s a s paris h priest s t o thos e parishe s wher e rio t an d disturbanc e wer e likel y t o follow . A visi t t o Rom e fo r consultatio n wit h th e hea d o f th e Roma n Catholi c Churc h resulte d i n th e Pope' s sendin g a n apostoli c delegat e t o th e Island s wit h adequat e power s an d i n subsequen t negotiation s whic h ultimatel y le d t o th e purchas e o f th e land s fo r seve n million s o f dollar s an d induce d a practic e o n th e par t o f th e hierarch y o f th e churc h b y whic h the y sen d n o friar s a s paris h priest s int o an y paris h i n whic h th e governor-genera l make s final objection . Th e pric e pai d fo r th e land s wa s a goo d roun d sum . I t ha d t o b e i n orde r t o secur e them . Congress , convince d o f th e necessit y fo r thei r acquisition , ha d provided , i n th e organi c ac t fo r th e establish men t o f a governmen t i n th e Philippines , eithe r fo r thei r purchas e o r i n th e alternativ e fo r thei r condemnatio n b y th e Governmen t an d thei r subsequen t dispositio n o n long , eas y term s t o th e occupants . Th e representative s o f th e Dominica n orde r objecte d t o th e con demnatio n o f thei r land s an d employe d abl e counse l t o tes t th e validit y o f th e provisio n fo r condemnatio n fo r suc h a purpose . Th e poin t mad e wa s a seriou s on e an d increase d th e importanc e o f secur in g th e land s b y purchase , i f possible . Wit h th e governmen t a s a landlor d th e tenant s manifes t n o dispositio n t o contes t it s title , sav e i n a fe w isolate d cases . I shal l no t sto p no w t o discus s th e presen t valu e o f th e land s o r thei r management . I shal l refe r t o tha t later . I t i s enoug h fo r n ^ presen t purpos e t o poin t ou t tha t th e acquisitio n o f thes e land s b y th e governmen t an d th e adjustmen t o f difference s a s t o th e us e o f friar s a s paris h priest s hav e remove d a fruitfu l sourc e o f disturbanc e i n th e province s o f Cavite , Laguna , Manila , Bataan , Morong , an d Cebu . B y anothe r compromise , t o whic h I shal l refe r i n detai l later , a con trovers y betwee n th e governmen t an d th e Roma n Catholi c Churc h a s t o charitabl e an d educationa l trust s an d i n respec t t o th e Spanish Filipin o Ban k ha s bee n settled . A t on e tim e thi s controvers y prom ise d t o contribut e t o th e disorde r o f th e Islands . Ther e ar e n o othe r question s betwee n th e governmen t an d th e Roma n Catholi c Church , unles s i t ca n b e sai d tha t question s o f pos sessio n an d titl e t o churc h propert y arisin g fro m th e Aglipaya n schis m ca n b e sai d t o involv e them . Immediatel y afte r ou r negotiation s wit h Le o XII I a t Rom e wer e foun d no t t o includ e a n absolut e agreemen t t o withdra w th e friar s fro m th e Islands , Aglipay , a forme r Catholi c pries t unde r excom munication , organize d a schis m fro m th e Roma n church . H e calle d hi s churc h th e Independen t Filipin o Catholi c Church . A t first th e schis m sprea d fa r an d wid e throug h th e Islands , an d a s th e numbe r o f priest s o f th e Roma n Catholi c Churc h b y reaso n o f th e expulsio n

PAGE 24

2 2 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . o f th e friar s ha d bee n reduce d s o tha t man y churche s la y ope n an d idle , th e priest s o f th e Aglipaya n schism , wit h th e acquiescenc e o f th e townspeopl e i n th e variou s village s wher e th e Aglipayan s wer e i n th e majority , assume d possessio n o f lan d an d churc h building s whic h ha d bee n occupie d i n Spanis h day s b y th e Roma n Catholi c Church . Possessio n wa s take n unde r a clai m tha t th e churche s belonge d t o th e peopl e o f th e municipalit y an d tha t the y wer e abl e t o dispos e o f th e us e o f th e churche s t o suc h religiou s purpose s a s the y sa w fit. Thi s cours e o f procedur e le d t o innumerabl e controversie s an d t o fre quen t breache s o f th e peac e an d t o a bitternes s o f feelin g tha t di d no t mak e eithe r fo r th e tranquillit y o f th e Island s o r thei r prosperity . Th e Executiv e consistentl y an d properl y decline d t o decid e th e questio n o f titl e o r th e righ t t o possessio n whic h aros e i n eac h cas e afte r peaceabl e possessio n ha d bee n taken . Thi s wa s regarde d a s unreasonabl e b y th e authoritie s o f th e Roma n Catholi c Church , bu t iva s th e onl y possibl e cours e whic h th e civi l executiv e coul d tak e with Du t arrogatin g t o itsel f judicia l powers . Instea d o f attemptin g t o decid e thes e question s th e Commissio n passe d a la w providin g fo r thei r earl y settlemen t b y suit s brough t originall y i n th e suprem e court . On e se t o f thes e case s ha s bee n decide d i n favo r o f th e Roma n Catholi c Churc h an d other s ar e no w nearl y read y fo r decision , s o tha t w e ma y reasonabl y expec t tha t withi n si x month s th e whol e matte r ma y b e dispose d of , an d whe n thi s i s don e th e religiou s obstacle s tha t seeme d s o formidabl e whe n th e Philippin e governmen t wa s assume d b y th e Unite d State s wil l hav e bee n dispose d o f permanentl y an d tha t fruitfu l sourc e o f disturbanc e an d rio t an d disconten t wil l hav e ceased . I hav e give n i n detai l th e step s take n t o restor e an d maintai n orde r i n th e Islands . I hav e mentione d th e vigorou s campaig n o f th e Arm y an d th e mora l restrain t o f it s presenc e i n th e Islands , th e promise s o f Presiden t McKinle y a s t o gradua l extensio n o f self-government , th e organizatio n o f th e Federa l party , th e institutio n o f municipa l an d provincia l government s o n a popula r plan , th e confirmatio n o f Presiden t McKinley' s polic y b y th e ac t o f Congres s establishin g a Philippin e government , assurin g a nationa l assembly , an d you r fulfill men t o f th e assurance , th e establishmen t o f court s wit h partl y Ameri ca n an d partl y Filipin o judges , th e punishmen t o f predator y band s a s civi l felons , th e establishmen t an d growt h o f th e insula r con stabular y a s a sympatheti c ai d t o Filipin o municipa l an d provincia l official s i n suppressin g lawlessness , and , finally, th e remova l b y satis factor y compromise s o f th e irritatin g churc h question s whic h ha d muc h t o d o wit h causin g th e origina l insurrectio n and , i f unsettled , wer e pregnan t wit h disorder .

PAGE 25

23 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . PRESEN T CONDITION . Peac e prevail s throughou t th e Island s to-da y i n a greate r degre e tha n eve r i n th e histor y o f th e Islands , eithe r unde r Spanis h o r America n rule , an d agricultur e i s ilowher e no w impede d b y th e fea r o n th e par t o f th e farme r o f th e incursio n o f predator y bands . Unde r th e polic y alread y stated , inaugurate d b y th e instruction s o f Presiden t McKinle y t o Secretar y Root , i n referenc e t o th e establish men t o f a temporar y governmen t i n th e Philippines , a communit y consistin g o f 7,000,00 0 people , inhabitin g 30 0 differen t islands , man y o f who m wer e i n ope n rebellio n agains t th e Governmen t o f th e Unite d State s fo r fou r years , wit h al l th e disturbance s follow in g fro m robbe r an d predator y band s whic h brok e ou t fro m tim e t o time , du e t o loca l causes , ha s bee n brough t t o a stat e o f profoun d peac e an d tranquillit y i n whic h th e peopl e a s a whol e ar e loyall y supportin g th e governmen t i n th e maintenanc e o f order . Thi s i s th e firs t an d possibl y th e mos t importan t accomplishmen t o f th e Unite d State s i n th e Philippines . TH E POLITICA L CAPACIT Y AN D INTELLECTUA L DEVELOPMEN T O F TH E FILIPINO S UNDE R SPAI N AN D TH E STEP S TAKE N B Y TH E PHILIPPIN E GOVERNMEN T FO R THEI R GENERA L AN D POLITICA L EDUCATION . Ver y littl e practica l politica l educatio n wa s give n b y th e Spaniard s t o th e Filipinos . Substantiall y al l th e importan t executiv e office s i n th e Island s wer e assigne d t o Spaniards , an d th e whol e governmen t wa s bureaucratic . Th e provincia l an d municipa l authoritie s wer e appointe d an d popula r election s wer e unknown . Th e administratio n o f th e municipalitie s wa s largel y unde r th e supervisio n an d directio n o f th e Spanis h pries t o f th e parish . N o responsibilit y fo r govern ment , howeve r loca l o r unimportant , wa s thrus t upo n Filipino s i n suc h a wa y a s t o giv e the m politica l experience , no r wer e th e example s o f fidelit y t o publi c interes t sufficientl y numerou s i n th e officeholder s t o creat e a prope r standar d o f publi c duty . Th e greates t difficult y tha t w e hav e ha d t o conten d wit h i n vestin g Filipino s wit h officia l powe r i n municipalitie s i s t o instil l i n the m th e ide a tha t a n offic e i s no t solel y fo r privat e emolument . Ther e wa s a n educate d clas s amon g th e Filipino s unde r th e Spanis h regime . Th e Universit y o f St . Thomas , founde d b y th e Dominica n Orde r earl y i n th e seventeent h century , ha s furnishe d a n academi c educatio n t o man y graduates . Th e sam e order , a s wel l a s th e Jesuit s an d th e Augustinians , maintaine d secondar y an d primar y school s fo r th e well-to-do . Quit e a numbe r o f Filipino s wer e educate d i n Spai n o r France . A s compare d wit h th e yout h an d youn g me n o f schoo l

PAGE 26

2 4 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . an d colleg e ag e i n th e Islands , th e number , however , wa s ver y small . Thes e me n wer e educate d eithe r a s lawyers , physicians , pharmacists , o r priests . I n politic s thei r knowledg e wa s wholl y theoretical . The y imbibe d libera l idea s fro m th e sprea d o f republica n doctrine s i n Spain , an d th e repressiv e polic y o f th e Spanis h Government , o f course , operate d onl y t o encourag e them . The y wer e patriotic , an d soo n conceive d o f th e Philippine s a s a nation . Rizal , a leade r o f Philippin e thought , a poet , an d a politica l writer , di d no t favo r independence , fo r h e believe d hi s peopl e no t ye t fitted, bu t h e sough t refor m i n th e Spanis h governmen t o f th e Philippine s an d som e popu la r voic e i n it . A s th e protes t agains t Spanis h dominatio n grew , th e aspiratio n fo r complet e independenc e too k possessio n o f many , an d i n th e in surrection s whic h followe d ther e wer e man y patriot s mbve d b y a s hig h ideal s a s thos e whic h hav e le d t o revolution s i n an y country . Thei r conception s o f liberty , o f independence , o f governmen t wer e wholl y ideal , however . Whe n i n th e cours e o f event s the y cam e t o actua l governmen t the y wer e unabl e t o realiz e thei r conceptions , an d onl y a one-ma n powe r o r a n oligarch y wit h clas s privilege , an d n o rea l civi l right s fo r th e so-calle d servin g o r obedien t class , fol lowed . The y neede d a s muc h educatio n i n practica l civi l libert y a s thei r mor e ignoran t fellow-countryme n i n reading , writing , an d arith metic . Th e effort s o f th e America n Governmen t t o teac h th e ignoran t thei r civi l right s an d t o uplif t the m t o self-governin g capacit y finds onl y a langui d sympath y fro m man y o f th e " ilustrados. " Fro m the m come s th e onl y objectio n t o teachin g Englis h t o th e commo n people , les t the y los e thei r nationa l character ; a s i f i t wer e necessar y t o kee p th e peopl e confine d t o 1 6 barbarou s dialect s i n orde r tha t the y shoul d b e dis tinctl y Filipino . Th e rea l motiv e fo r th e objection , whethe r con sciou s o r not , i s i n th e desir e o f th e uppe r clas s t o maintai n th e rela tio n o f th e rulin g clas s t o th e servin g an d obedien t class . Th e educate d Filipin o ha s a n attractiv e personality . Hi s min d i s quick , hi s sens e o f humo r fine, hi s artisti c sens e acut e an d active ; h e ha s a poeti c imagination ; h e i s courteou s i n th e highes t degree ; h e i s brave ; h e i s generous ; hi s min d ha s bee n give n b y hi s educatio n a touc h o f th e scholasti c logicism ; h e i s a musician ; h e i s oratorica l b y nature . Th e educate d Filipin o i s a n aristocra t b y Spanis h association . H e prefer s tha t hi s childre n shoul d no t b e educate d a t th e publi c schools , an d thi s account s fo r th e larg e privat e school s whic h th e religiou s order s an d a t leas t on e Filipin o associatio n ar e abl e t o maintain . I n arguin g tha t th e Philippine s ar e entirel y fit fo r self-governmen t now , a committe e o f educate d Filipino s onc e filed wit h th e civi l gov

PAGE 27

25 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . erno r a writte n brie f i n whic h i t wa s se t fort h tha t th e numbe r o f " ilustrado s " i n th e Island s wa s doubl e tha t o f th e offices—central , provincial , an d municipal—an d therefor e th e countr y afforde d tw o " shift s " o f person s competen t t o ru n th e government . This , i t wa s said , mad e clea r th e possibilit y o f a goo d governmen t i f independenc e wa s granted . Th e ignoranc e o f th e remainde r o f th e people , admitte d t o b e dense , mad e n o difference . I cit e thi s t o sho w o f ho w littl e im portanc e a n intelligen t publi c opinio n o r a n educate d constituenc y i s regarde d i n th e communit y an d governmen t whic h man y o f th e edu cate d Filipino s loo k forwar d t o a s a resul t o f independence . I d o no t sa y tha t ther e ar e no t notabl e exception s t o thi s amon g leadin g Filipinos , bu t suc h person s ar e usuall y foun d amon g thos e wh o ar e no t s o impatien t t o los e America n guidanc e i n th e government . In deed , I a m gratifie d t o hea r tha t th e first bil l whic h passe d th e Assem bl y wa s a n appropriatio n o f a millio n peso s fo r barri o schools . O n th e whole , however , ther e i s reaso n fo r believin g tha t wer e th e govern men t o f th e Island s no w turne d ove r t o th e clas s whic h like s t o cal l itsel f th e natura l rulin g class , th e movemen t initiate d b y th e presen t governmen t t o educat e th e ignoran t classe s woul d ultimatel y los e it s force . Th e cando r wit h whic h som e o f th e representative s o f th e independist a movemen t hav e spoke n o f th e advantag e fo r govern menta l purpose s o f havin g 8 0 pe r cen t o f th e peopl e i n a servin g o r obedien t clas s indicate s this . N o on e denie s tha t 8 0 pe r cen t o f th e Filipin o peopl e ar e densel y ignorant . The y ar e i n a stat e o f Christia n tutelage . The y ar e child lik e an d simple , wit h n o languag e bu t a loca l Mala y dialec t spoke n i n a fe w provinces ; the y ar e separat e fro m th e world' s progress . Th e whol e tendenc y unde r th e Spaniard s wa s t o kee p the m ignoran t an d innocent . Th e Spanis h publi c schoo l syste m wa s chiefl y o n paper . The y wer e fo r a lon g tim e subjec t completel y t o th e contro l o f th e Spanis h friar , wh o wa s paris h pries t an d wh o generall y di d no t encourag e th e learnin g o f Spanis h o r grea t acquantanc e wit h th e worl d a t large . Th e worl d owe s t o th e Spanis h fria r th e Christiani zatio n o f th e Filipin o race . I t i s th e onl y Mala y o r orienta l rac e tha t i s Christian . Th e friar s bea t bac k th e wav e o f Mohammedanis m an d sprea d thei r religio n throug h al l th e Islands . The y taugh t th e peopl e th e art s o f agriculture , bu t the y believe d i t bes t t o kee p the m i n a stat e o f innocen t ignorance . The y di d no t encourag e th e comin g int o th e Filipin o loca l communitie s o f Spaniards . The y feare d th e influenc e o f worl d knowledge . The y controlle d th e peopl e an d preache d t o the m i n thei r ow n dialects . The y live d an d die d amon g them . Th e friar s lef t th e peopl e a Christia n people—tha t is , a peopl e wit h Wester n ideals . The y looke d towar d Rome , an d Europe , an d America .

PAGE 28

2 6 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . The y wer e no t lik e th e Mohammeda n o r th e Buddhist , wh o despis e Wester n civilizatio n a s inferior . The y wer e i n a stat e o f tutelage , rip e t o receiv e moder n Wester n conception s a s the y shoul d b e educate d t o understan d them . Thi s i s th e reaso n wh y I believ e tha t th e whol e Christia n Filipin o peopl e ar e capabl e b y trainin g an d experienc e o f becomin g a self-governin g people . Bu t fo r th e presen t the y ar e igno ran t an d i n th e conditio n o f children . So , whe n th e revulsio n fro m th e Spanis h dominatio n came , a s i t did , th e nativ e pries t o r th e neighborin g " ilustrad o " o r " caciqu e " le d the m int o th e insurrection . The y ar e a brav e peopl e an d mak e goo d soldier s i f properl y led . The y lear n easily , an d th e mos t strikin g fac t i n ou r whol e experienc e i n th e Philippine s i s th e eagernes s wit h whic h th e commo n Filipin o agricultura l labore r send s hi s childre n t o schoo l t o -lear n English . Ther e i s n o rea l differenc e betwee n th e educate d an d ignoran t Fili pino s tha t ca n no t b e overcom e b y th e educatio n o f on e generation . The y ar e a capabl e peopl e i n th e sens e tha t the y ca n b e give n a norma l intellectua l developmen t b y th e sam e kin d o f educatio n tha t i s give n i n ou r ow n commo n schoo l system . No w the y hav e no t intelligenc e enoug h t o exercis e th e politica l franchis e wit h safet y t o themselve s o r thei r country ; bu t I d o no t se e wh y a commo n schoo l educatio n i n English , wit h industria l teachin g added , ma y no t mak e th e childre n o f thes e peopl e capabl e o f formin g a n intelligen t publi c opinio n neede d t o sustai n a popula r governmen t if , a t th e sam e tim e tha t th e on comin g generation s ar e bein g educate d i n schools , primar y an d indus trial , thos e wh o ar e intelligen t ar e bein g give n a politica l educatio n b y actuall y exercisin g th e powe r o f th e franchis e an d actuall y takin g par t i n th e government . A s wil l b e see n hereafter , th e Philippin e governmen t ha s no t fund s enoug h t o educat e i n primar} ^ an d industria l school s al l th e presen t generatio n o f schoo l age , an d unles s som e othe r sourc e o f fund s tha n governmenta l revenue s i s foun d i t wil l tak e longe r tha n a generatio n t o complet e th e primar y an d industria l educatio n o f th e commo n people . Unti l tha t i s done , w e ough t no t t o lif t ou r guidin g han d fro m th e hel m o f th e shi p o f stat e o f th e Philippin e Islands . Wit h thes e genera l remark s a s t o th e presen t unfitnes s o f th e Filipin o peopl e fo r popula r self-governmen t an d thei r capacit y fo r futur e developmen t s o tha t the y may , b y prope r education , genera l an d political , becom e a self-governin g people , I com e t o th e method s pur sue d b y th e Philippin e governmen t i n furnishin g t o th e Filipino s th e necessar y education . I shal l conside r th e subjec t unde r tw o heads : 1 . Educatio n i n school s fo r th e yout h o f schoo l age . 2 . Practica l politica l educatio n b y th e extension , ste p b y step , o f politica l contro l t o a n eligibl e class .

PAGE 29

27 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . FIRST : EDUCATIO N I N SCHOOLS . Referenc e ha s alread y bee n mad e t o th e fac t o f th e ver y grea t ignoranc e an d illiterac y tha t prevail s amon g th e Filipin o people . I t i s no t to o muc h t o sa y tha t knowledg e o f Spanis h i s a fairl y goo d indicatio n whethe r a n individua l ca n b e sai d t o b e educated . Sta tistic s sho w tha t bu t 7 pe r cen t o f th e peopl e o f th e Island s spea k Spanish ; al l th e other s spea k i n th e varyin g dialects , whic h amon g th e civilize d peopl e numbe r som e 16 . Th e Philippin e peopl e shoul d b e educate d sufficientl y t o hav e a commo n mediu m o f communica tion , an d ever y man , woman , an d chil d shoul d hav e th e benefi t o f th e primar y educatio n i n tha t commo n medium . Reading , writing , an d arithmeti c ar e necessar y t o enabl e th e rura l labore r an d th e smal l hemp , cocoanut , o r tobacc o farme r t o mak e contract s fo r th e sal e o f hi s product s an d t o kno w wha t pric e h e shoul d receiv e fo r tha t whic h h e ha s t o sell . Wit h thi s knowledge , too , h e wil l soo n b e abl e t o kno w hi s ow n right s an d t o resis t th e absolut e contro l whic h i s no w fre quentl y exercise d ove r hi m b y th e loca l cacique . Th e necessit y fo r a commo n schoo l syste m wa s emphasize d i n th e instruction s o f Presiden t McKinle y t o Secretar y Root , an d thos e re sponsibl e fo r th e governmen t o f th e Island s hav e bee n earnes t an d activ e i n seekin g t o establis h one . Th e languag e selecte d fo r th e school s i s English . I t i s selecte d becaus e i t i s th e languag e o f busi nes s i n th e Orient , becaus e i t i s th e languag e o f fre e institutions , an d becaus e i t i s th e languag e whic h th e Filipin o childre n wh o d o no t kno w Spanis h ar e abl e mor e easil y t o lear n tha n the y ar e t o lear n Spanish , an d i t i s th e languag e o f th e presen t sovereig n o f th e Islands . Th e educatio n i n Englis h bega n wit h th e soldier s o f th e America n Army , on e o f who m wa s detaile d fro m eac h compan y t o teac h school s i n th e village s whic h ha d becom e peaceful . Whe n th e Commissio n assume d authorit y i t sen t t o th e Unite d State s fo r 1,00 0 America n teachers , an d afte r th e arriva l o f thes e pioneer s i n th e Islands , a syste m o f primar y school s wa s inaugurate d togethe r wit h norma l schools . Publi c educationa l wor k i n th e Island s i s performe d unde r th e burea u o f education , wit h th e centra l offic e locate d i n Manila , hav in g 3 7 divisions , eac h i n charg e o f a divisio n superintendent , embrac in g i n al l 37 9 schoo l district s eac h i n charg e o f a supervisin g teacher . Th e tota l numbe r o f school s i n operatio n durin g th e pas t yea r was : Primar y schools , 3,435 ; intermediat e schools , 162 ; art s an d trade s schools , 32 ; agricultura l schools , 5 ; domestic-scienc e schools , 17 , an d provincia l hig h schools , 36 , makin g a tota l o f 3,68 7 an d a n increas e fro m th e previou s yea r a s follows : 32 7 primar y schools , 7 0 inter mediat e schools , 1 5 art s an d trade s schools , 3 agricultura l schools , an d

PAGE 30

2 8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . 9 domestic-scienc e schools . Ther e ar e engage d i n th e teachin g o f thes e school s a t presen t 71 7 permanen t America n teacher s an d 10 9 temporar y appointees , an d al l o f thes e ar e pai d ou t o f th e centra l treasury . I n additio n t o thes e ther e ar e wha t ar e know n a s Filipin o insula r teachers , numberin g 455 , wh o ar e pai d ou t o f th e centra l treas ury . I n additio n t o thes e ther e ar e 5,65 6 municipa l Filipin o teachers , al l o f who m spea k an d teac h Englis h an d wh o ar e pai d ou t o f th e treasurie s o f th e municipalities . Th e 6,00 0 Filipin o teacher s wh o ar e no w teachin g Englis h hav e re ceive d thei r Englis h educatio n fro m ou r norma l school s o r ou r Ameri . ca n teachers . Thei r numbe r i s growing , an d the y represen t an d ar e th e mos t valuabl e educationa l asse t w e hav e acquire d i n workin g ou t ou r schoo l system . Th e averag e annua l salar y o f th e Filipin o insula r teache r i s 533. 2 peso s a year , whil e tha t o f municipa l teacher s i s 210.3 6 pesos . Th e Filipin o insula r teacher s ar e draw n fro m graduate s o f nor ma l school s an d als o fro m th e student s sen t b y th e governmen t an d a t th e expens e o f th e governmen t t o th e Unite d State s t o b e educate d there . Forty-si x o f thes e student s hav e recentl y returne d fro m th e Unite d State s an d hav e bee n appointe d a s insula r teacher s a t salarie s rangin g fro m 84 0 t o 96 0 peso s pe r annum . Th e averag e pai d t o th e America n teache r i s abou t $1,20 0 pe r annum . Th e tota l enrollmen t fo r th e year , inclusiv e o f th e Mor o Province—th e school s i n whic h ar e conducte d unde r a separat e system—wa s 479,978 . Thi s wa s i n th e mont h o f Marc h a t th e clos e o f th e schoo l year , whe n th e enrollmen t reache d it s highes t point . Th e averag e enrollmen t tota l b y month s wa s 346,245 , o f who m 6 2 pe r cen t wer e boy s an d 3 8 pe r cen t wer e girls . Th e averag e dail y attendanc e wa s 269,000 , o r a per centag e o f attendanc e o f abou t 8 5 .pe r cent . Th e highes t percentag e o f attendanc e wa s 94 , i n th e cit y o f Manila . Th e lowes t percentag e i n som e o f th e province s wa s 78 . Th e attendanc e an d enrollmen t i n school s begin s i n August , whic h i s th e beginnin g o f th e schoo l year , an d end s i n March . A s Augus t i s on e o f th e we t months , th e attend anc e begin s a t th e lowes t figure an d increase s graduall y int o th e dr y seaso n unti l it s highes t poin t a t th e clos e o f th e schoo l yea r i n March . Th e centra l governmen t thi s yea r fo r schoo l purpose s an d construc tio n o f school s ha s appropriate d 3,500,00 0 pesos . Th e maintenanc e o f primar y school s i s impose d b y la w upo n th e municipalities , an d in volve s a furthe r expenditur e o f nearl y a millio n an d a hal f pesos . I n orde r t o reliev e distres s inciden t t o agricultura l depression , i t wa s foun d necessar y t o suspen d th e lan d tax , a par t o f th e proceed s o f whic h b y mandator y provisio n o f la w wa s appropriate d t o th e suppor t o f municipa l schools . Th e centra l governmen t i n th e first yea r appro priate d a sufficien t su m fro m th e interna l revenu e t o mee t th e defici t cause d b y th e failur e t o impos e th e lan d tax , bu t i n th e presen t yea r i t wa s onl y abl e t o appropriat e 5 0 pe r cen t o f th e amoun t whic h

PAGE 31

29 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . woul d hav e bee n raise d b y th e lan d tax , an d nex t yea r n o suc h appro priatio n wil l b e made , an d i t wil l b e lef t optiona l wit h th e provinc e whethe r th e lan d ta x shal l b e impose d o r not . Th e grea t difficult y i n th e matte r o f educatio n i n th e Island s i s th e lac k o f fund s t o mak e i t a s extende d a s i t shoul d be . Th e suspensio n o f th e lan d ta x i s subjectin g th e educationa l syste m t o a crisis , bu t th e reviva l o f agricultur e i n man y part s o f th e Island s lead s t o th e hop e tha t th e crisi s ma y b e successfull y passed . I t woul d b e entirel y possibl e t o expen d fo r th e sol e benefi t o f th e Philippin e people , with ou t th e leas t waste , upwar d o f tw o o r thre e million s o f dollar s annu all y i n additio n t o al l tha t th e governmen t o f th e Philippin e Islands — central , municipal , an d provincial—ca n affor d t o devot e t o thi s object . W e ar e no t abl e t o educat e a s the y shoul d b e educate d mor e tha n a hal f o f th e yout h o f schoo l ag e i n th e Islands . Th e govern ment , whil e contributin g t o th e maintenanc e o f hig h school s i n eac h province , i s devotin g it s chie f attentio n t o th e sprea d o f primar y education , an d i n connectio n wit h primar y education , and , a t it s clos e i n th e intermediat e schools , t o industria l education . Primar y an d industria l educatio n carrie d o n unti l th e chil d i s 1 4 o r 1 5 year s ol d i s though t t o b e th e bes t mean s o f developin g th e Filipin o peopl e int o a self-sustainin g an d self-governin g people , an d th e presen t governmen t ha s don e al l tha t i t ha s bee n pos sibl e t o d o i n developin g an d maintainin g a prope r syste m fo r thi s purpose . Th e tendenc y towar d th e developmen t o f industria l educa tio n th e worl d ove r ha s create d suc h a deman d fo r industria l teacher s a s t o mak e i t impossibl e fo r th e Philippin e governmen t t o secur e a s man y a s ar e neede d fo r th e purpos e i n th e Islands , an d i n orde r t o hav e thes e industria l teacher s i t mus t tak e th e tim e t o educat e the m a s such , jus t a s i t di d th e Filipin o primar y teacher s i n English . Ther e ar e no w i n th e Islands , includin g ar t an d trad e schools , agri cultura l schools , an d domestic-scienc e schools , a t leas t on e industria l schoo l t o ever y province , an d i t i s th e purpos e t o increas e thi s numbe r a s rapidl y a s resource s an d opportunit y wil l permit . Unde r th e in fluence o f th e tradition s o f th e Spanis h regime , whe n manua l labo r seem s t o hav e bee n regarde d a s a n evidenc e o f servitude , i t wa s a t first impossibl e t o secur e pupil s fo r th e grea t manua l trainin g schoo l i n Manila . Boy s preferre d t o b e " escribiente s " o r clerk s an d gentle me n rathe r tha n t o lear n t o wi n a livelihoo d b y th e skil l o f thei r hands , bu t thi s ha s bee n rapidl y overcome . I n th e insula r schoo l o f art s an d trade s i n Manila , wher e th e plan t an d equipmen t i s quit e satisfactory , instructio n i s no w give n som e 35 0 pupil s i n English , arithmetic , geography , mechanica l drawing , woodworkin g (benc h work , carving , turning , an d cabine t making) , ironworkin g (benc h work , filing, blacksmithing , an d iro n machin e work) , an d finishing,. includin g paintin g an d varnishing , t o whic h wil l b e adde d nex t yea r

PAGE 32

3 0 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . boa t buildin g an d wheelwrighting . A t th e presen t tim e ther e ar e o n th e waitin g lis t som e 20 0 pupil s wh o see k admissio n bu t fo r who m n o place s ar e available . A larg e insula r agricultura l schoo l i s t o b e establishe d i n Manil a fo r givin g instructio n i n practica l agricul ture , an d th e money , 100,00 0 pesos , necessar y fo r th e buildin g an d constructio n ha s alread y bee n appropriated . Th e influenc e o f th e primar y instructio n i n Englis h i s show n throughou t th e Island s b y th e fac t tha t to-da y mor e peopl e through ou t th e Islands , outsid e o f Manil a an d th e larg e cities , spea k Eng lis h tha n spea k Spanish . A noticeabl e resul t o f th e government' s activit y i n th e establishmen t o f Englis h school s ha s bee n th e adde d zea l i n teachin g Englis h i n privat e educationa l establishments . A Filipin o schoo l manage d an d taugh t onl y b y Filipinos , calle d " Liceo, " ha s som e 1,50 0 pupil s i n Manila , an d Englis h i s regularl y taugh t a s par t o f th e curriculu m o f tha t school ; th e Dominica n orde r o f friars , whic h i s primaril y a n educationa l order , ha s school s i n an d abou t Manil a wit h upwar d o f 2,00 0 students , an d Englis h i s no w mad e a ver y importan t par t o f th e curriculu m o f thos e schools . Th e Jesuit s als o hav e tw o ver y larg e school s i n Manila , embracin g som e 1,00 0 o r 1,50 0 pupil s draw n fro m al l part s o f th e Islands , i n whic h Englis h i s mad e a n importan t branc h o f th e study . Ther e i s considerabl e com petitio n i n thi s matte r an d ther e seem s no w t o b e a unite d effor t t o sprea d th e knowledg e o f Englis h i n accordanc e wit h th e government' s policy . A t times , a s alread y intimated , a discordan t not e i s hear d i n th e suggestio n tha t th e America n Governmen t i s seekin g t o depriv e th e Filipin o o f hi s nativ e language . A s hi s nativ e languag e i s reall y 1 5 o r 1 6 differen t dialects , thi s doe s no t see m a grea t deprivation . I t i s pos sibl e tha t som e effor t wil l b e mad e t o includ e i n th e primar y instructio n th e readin g an d writin g o f th e loca l dialec t i n th e loca l schools . N o objectio n ca n b e mad e t o thi s unles s i t shal l interfer e wit h th e instruc tio n i n English , whic h i t i s hope d i t ma y no t do . Shoul d Congres s b e anxiou s t o facilitat e an d hurr y o n th e wor k o f redeemin g th e Philippin e Island s an d makin g th e Filipin o peopl e a self-governin g community , i t coul d tak e n o mor e effectiv e ste p tha n a permanen t appropriatio n o f tw o o r thre e million s o f dollar s fo r te n o r fiftee n year s t o th e primar y an d industria l educatio n o f th e Filipin o people , makin g i t conditiona l o n th e continue d appropria tio n b y th e Philippin e governmen t o f th e sam e amoun t t o educa tiona l purpose s whic h i t ha s devote d an d i s no w devotin g annuall y t o tha t purpose . Th e influenc e o f th e educationa l syste m introduce d ha s no t onl y bee n direc t i n th e sprea d o f educatio n amon g th e younge r o f th e presen t generation , bu t i t ha s als o bee n a n indirec t mean s o f convincin g th e Filipin o peopl e a t larg e o f th e beneficen t purpos e ^o f th e America n Governmen t i n it s remainin g i n th e Philippin e Island s an d o f th e sincerit y o f it s effort s i n th e interes t o f thei r people .

PAGE 33

31 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . FILIPIN O CADET S A T WES T FOINT . Sectio n 3 6 o f th e ac t o f Congress , approve d Februar y 2 , 1901 , referrin g t o Philippin e Scouts , provide s that — " When , i n th e opinio n o f th e President , native s o f th e Philippin e Island s shall , b y thei r service s an d character , sho w fitness fo r command , th e Presiden t i s authorize d t o mak e provisiona l appointment s t o th e grade s o f secon d an d first lieutenant s fro m suc h natives , who , whe n s o appointed , shal l hav e th e pa y an d allowance s t o b e fixed b y th e Secretar y o f War , no t exceedin g thos e o f correspondin g grade s o f th e Regula r Army. " A s i t i s though t tha t bette r result s wil l b e obtaine d i f a fe w youn g Filipinos , especiall y selected , b e appointe d t o th e Unite d State s Mili tar y Academ y wit h a vie w t o thei r bein g commissione d officer s o f scout s upo n graduation , I strongl y recommen d tha t Congress , b y appropriat e legislation , authoriz e th e appointmen t o f seve n youn g Filipinos , o r on e fo r abou t ever y millio n o f inhabitant s o f thos e Islands , a s cadet s a t th e Militar y Academ y a t Wes t Point . Thi s actio n o n th e par t o f Congres s would , i n m y judgment , ten d t o fur the r increas e th e zea l an d efficienc y o f a bod y o f troop s whic h ha s alway s rendere d faithfu l an d satisfactor y services . SECOND : PRACTICA L POLITICA L EDUCATION . Ther e i s n o doub t tha t th e exercis e o f politica l powe r i s th e bes t possibl e politica l educatio n an d ough t t o b e grante d wheneve r th e pupi l ha s intelligenc e enoug h t o perceiv e hi s OAv n interes t eve n i n a rud e practica l way , o r whe n othe r competen t elector s ar e sufficientl y i n th e majorit y t o avoi d th e injur y likel y t o b e don e b y a governmen t o f ignoranc e an d inexperience . Th e Philippin e governmen t con clude d tha t th e onl y person s i n th e Philippine s wh o ha d intelligenc e enoug h t o mak e thei r exercis e o f politica l powe r usefu l t o the m a s a n educatio n an d saf e a s a governmenta l experimen t wer e thos e wh o spok e an d wrot e Englis h o r Spanish , o r wh o pai d $7.5 0 a yea r taxes , o r whos e capacit y ha d bee n recognize d i n Spanis h time s b y thei r appointmen t a s municipa l officials . Adul t male s wh o cam e withi n thes e classes , i t wa s thought , ough t t o begi n thei r politica l educatio n b y assumin g politica l responsibility , an d s o the y wer e mad e elector s i n municipal , provincial , an d assembl y elections , an d embraced , a s nea r a s i t ca n b e estimated , abou t 1 2 t o 1 5 pe r cen t o f th e adul t mal e population . O f course , a s th e commo n schoo l educatio n spreads , th e electorat e wil l increase . Le t u s no w examin e th e politica l educatio n whic h ha s bee n give n i n practic e t o thes e eligibl e elector s an d th e results . MUNICIPALITIE S AN D PROVINCES. ' B y th e municipa l cod e th e ol d municipalitie s unde r th e Spanis h regime , whic h resemble d th e township s o f th e Wes t an d th e town s o f

PAGE 34

3 2 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Ne w England , wer e authorize d t o reorganiz e unde r th e America n Government . The y consiste d generall y o f th e poblacion , o r th e mos t centrall y locate d an d mos t populou s settlement , wit h a numbe r o f barrio s o r outlyin g ward s o r villages , al l withi n th e municipalit y an d unde r it s control . Th e provision s o f th e cod e di d no t diffe r materiall y fro m thos e o f simila r code s i n th e Unite d States , excep t tha t whereve r possibl e an d practicabl e th e unobjectionabl e custom s o f th e countr y wer e recognize d an d acquiesce d i n formall y i n th e law . Th e town s wer e divide d int o classe s an d th e salarie s o f th e official s wer e limite d accordingly . Th e provincia l cod e provide d fo r th e organizatio n o f government s i n th e province s whic h ha d bee n recognize d a s province s unde r th e Spanis h regime . Unde r th e origina l provision s o f tha t cod e th e governmen t o f th e province—legislativ e an d executive—wa s unde r a provincia l board , consistin g o f a governo r an d treasure r an d a superviso r o f road s an d buildings . Othe r appointe d officer s wer e provided , a s th e prosecutin g attorne y an d th e secretar y o f th e prov ince , wh o di d no t si t o n th e provincia l board . Th e governo r wa s originall y electe d b y th e councilme n o f al l th e town s o f th e provinc e assemble d i n convention , the y themselve s havin g previousl y bee n electe d b y th e people . Th e treasure r an d superviso r wer e eac h selecte d an d appointe d unde r th e rule s adopte d i n accordanc e wit h th e meri t syste m provide d i n a civil-servic e law , whic h wa s amon g th e first passe d b y th e Commission . On e o f th e earl y difficultie s i n th e maintenanc e o f a n efficien t gov ernmen t i n the . province s wa s th e povert y o f th e province s an d th e lac k o f taxabl e resource s t o suppor t an y kin d o f a governmen t a t all . I t wa s soo n foun d tha t th e provincia l supervisor , who , i t wa s hoped , migh t b e a n America n engineer , wa s to o expensiv e a burde n fo r th e provinc e t o carry . Fo r a tim e th e distric t superintenden t o f educa tio n o f th e provinc e wa s mad e th e thir d membe r o f th e provincia l boar d instea d o f th e supervisor , whos e offic e wa s abolished . This , however , di d no t wor k well , becaus e th e tim e o f th e superintenden t wa s neede d fo r hi s educationa l duties . Subsequently , therefore , i t wa s though t wis e t o provid e a thir d membe r o f th e board , wh o serve d wit h bu t littl e compensatio n an d wh o wa s electe d a s th e governo r wa s elected . Th e syste m o f electin g th e governo r b y conventio n o f coun cilme n o f al l th e town s o f th e provinc e wa s changed , s o tha t no w th e governo r an d th e thir d membe r o f th e boar d ar e electe d b y direc t popula r vote , whil e th e treasure r i s stil l appointed . I t wil l b e see n that , i n thi s way , th e governmen t o f th e town s i s completel y autonomous , subjec t onl y t o visitatio n an d disciplinar y actio n o f th e governo r o f th e provinc e an d o f th e governor-genera l o n appeal . Th e provincia l governmen t now , thoug h no t originally , i s completel y autonomou s i n th e sens e tha t a majorit y o f th e boar d whic h govern s

PAGE 35

33 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . th e provinc e ar e electe d b y th e people . Th e dutie s o f th e provincia l treasure r ar e burdensome , complex , an d importan t t o suc h a degre e a s t o mak e i t impossibl e thu s fa r t o find Filipino s wh o hav e bee n abl e t o maste r th e dutie s o f th e offic e an d t o giv e satisfactio n therein , al thoug h ther e ar e quit e a numbe r o f Filipin o assistan t treasurer s an d subordinate s i n th e offic e o f treasure r wh o giv e reasonabl e groun d t o expec t tha t th e America n treasurer s ma y b e i n a reasonabl e tim e supplante d b y Filipin o treasurers . Th e questio n no w arise s wha t ha s bee n show n i n th e governmen t o f thes e municipalitie s an d o f th e province s i n respec t t o th e capacit y o f th e Filipino s fo r complet e self-governmen t i n loca l matters ? I t i s undoubtedl y tru e tha t th e municipalitie s woul d b e muc h mor e effi cien t ha d th e polic y bee n pursue d o f appointin g American s t o th e importan t office s i n th e municipalities , bu t ther e woul d hav e bee n tw o grea t objection s t o thi s course , on e tha t th e municipa l govern men t woul d no t hav e attracte d th e sympatheti c attentio n o f th e peo pl e a s th e presen t municipalitie s have—an d w e woul d thu s hav e los t a valuabl e elemen t i n makin g suc h governmen t a success—an d th e othe r tha t th e educationa l effec t upo n th e peopl e i n trainin g the m fo r self-governmen t woul d hav e bee n muc h less . Whe n I sa y tha t th e developmen t o f municipa l governmen t i n th e Philippine s ha s bee n satisfactory , I a m fa r fro m sayin g tha t i t ha s bee n withou t seriou s defects . Al l I mea n i s tha t considerin g th e two fol d objec t i n view—firs t governmental , secon d educational—th e re sul t thu s fa r wit h al l it s shortcoming s show s progres s towar d bot h end s an d vindicate s th e cours e taken . U p t o th e tim e o f ou r occupation , th e governmen t ha d represente d t o th e Filipin o a n entit y entirel y distinc t fro m himsel f wit h whic h h e ha d littl e sympath y an d whic h wa s engage d i n a n attemp t t o obtai n a s muc h mone y a s possibl e fro m hi m i n th e for m o f taxes . H e ha d bee n taugh t t o regar d a n offic e a s th e privat e propert y o f th e perso n hold in g i t an d i n respec t t o whic h ordinar y practic e justifie d th e holde r i n makin g a s muc h profi t fro m i t a s h e could . Th e ide a tha t a publi c offic e i s a publi c trus t ha d no t bee n implante d i n th e Filipin o min d b y experience , an d th e conceptio n tha t a n office r wh o fail s i n hi s dut y b y embezzlemen t o r otherwis e wa s violatin g a n obligatio n tha t h e owe d t o eac h individua l membe r o f th e public , h e foun d i t difficul t t o grasp . H e wa s ap t t o regar d th e robbin g o f th e governmen t b y on e o f it s officer s a s a n affai r i n whic h h e ha d littl e o r n o interes t an d i n which , no t infrequently , hi s sympathie s wer e agains t th e government . A s a consequence , th e chie f sens e o f restrain t fel t b y municipa l official s i n handlin g publi c fund s come s fro m a fea r o f inspectio n b y th e centra l governmen t an d it s prosecution . Th e fea r o f condemnatio n b y th e publi c opinio n o f th e loca l communit y ha s a muc h les s deterren t force , 26720—S . Doc . 200 , 601 3

PAGE 36

8 4 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . eve n i f th e officia l i s t o see k reelection . Th e sens e o f responsibilit y fo r th e governmen t the y contro l anc l whos e officer s the y elec t i s brough t hom e t o th e peopl e o f a municipalit y wit h slownes s an d difficulty . Thi s i s th e politica l educatio n tha t i s goin g o n i n th e Filipin o munici palities . W e ar e makin g progress , bu t w e mus t b e patient , fo r i t i s no t th e tas k o f a da y t o eradicat e tradition s an d idea s tha t ha d thei r origi n i n a syste m o f governmen t unde r whic h thi s peopl e live d fo r centuries . Henc e whe n w e find tha t ther e i s stil l a considerabl e percentag e o f Filipin o municipa l officer s wh o hav e t o b e remove d an d prosecute d fo r embezzlement , w e mus t no t b e discouraged . Earl y i n th e Amer ica n occupatio n w e ha d t o prosecut e sixtee n o r seventee n America n provincia l treasurer s fo r defalcation s i n publi c funds . I t wa s bit terl y humiliatin g fo r th e dominan t rac e t o furnis h suc h a n example , whe n w e wer e assumin g t o teac h th e Filipino s th e ar t o f self-govern ment . Th e America n embezzler s wer e al l promptl y sen t t o Bilibi d Penitentiar y fo r lon g terms . Thi s ha d an , excellen t effec t upo n bot h American s an d Filipino s i n th e Islands . Th e defalcation s wer e du e t o a lac k o f goo d materia l availabl e fo r thes e position s i n th e Islands . To-da y th e America n provincia l treasurer s ar e o f th e highes t orde r o f publi c servant s an d ar e a credi t t o th e America n name . Thei r exampl e ha s bee n o f th e utmos t benefi t i n th e trainin g o f Filipin o municipa l an d provincia l officials . Anothe r difficult y arisin g fro m a simila r caus e tha t w e hav e ha d t o mee t an d overcom e ha s bee n th e dispositio n o f municipa l council s t o vot e al l o f th e availabl e fund s fo r th e paymen t o f thei r ow n salarie s an d leav e nothin g fo r th e improvemen t o r repai r o f roads , th e con structio n o f buildings , o r th e paymen t .o f school-teachers , an d thi s althoug h th e la w may , b y mandator y provision , hav e se t asid e certai n definit e share s o f th e publi c fund s fo r suc h purposes . Thes e evil s hav e ha d t o b e remedie d b y placin g th e fund s i n th e hand s o f th e provincia l treasure r s o a s t o secur e th e paymen t o f th e amoun t re quire d b y la w t o b e devote d t o educationa l purpose s an d b y imposin g upo n th e discretio n o f commo n council s t o vot e salarie s fro m thei r fund s a limitatio n tha t th e tota l o f salarie s shal l no t excee d a certai n percentag e o f th e tota l fund s i n contro l o f th e town . Th e peopl e o f th e town s see m full y t o appreciat e th e valu e o f roads , bu t whe n i t come s t o exertin g themselve s an d denyin g themselve s fo r th e purpos e o f securin g th e grea t benefi t o f goo d roads , the y hav e no t thu s fa r nerve d themselve s t o th e sacrifice . Man y mile s o f roa d hav e bee n constructe d b y th e centra l governmen t an d the n turne d ove r t o th e municipalitie s fo r maintenance , wit h th e resul t tha t i n on e o r tw o year s o f th e torrentia l rain s th e road s hav e becom e nothin g bu t quagmire s withou t an y wor k o f maintenanc e o r repai r don e o n them . On e o f th e commo n mean s throughou t th e Unite d State s fo r

PAGE 37

35 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . buildin g road s o r repairin g the m i s t o requir e al l mal e adult s t o wor k upo n th e road s fou r o r five day s o f th e year , o r perhap s a longe r period , o r t o commut e th e wor k b y paymen t o f a tax . Thi s woul d b e th e natura l metho d o f repairin g road s i n th e Philippines ; bu t th e diffi cult y i s tha t i t wa s th e metho d adopte d b y th e Spaniards , an d i n th e Spanis h time s th e powe r o f th e loca l authoritie s t o direc t fre e labo r upo n th e road s fo r a certai n perio d o f tim e wa s s o greatl y abuse d an d perverte d t o th e seekin g o f persona l vengeanc e an d th e privat e profi t o f th e loca l authoritie s tha t i t ha s bee n impossibl e t o obtai n an y popula r suppor t fo r a syste m base d o n th e sam e principle , an d goo d road s hav e bee n allowe d t o g o t o destructio n rathe r tha n t o ru n th e ris k o f a recurrenc e o f th e ol d abuses . A difficult y i n connectio n wit h th e maintenanc e o f road s ma y b e mentione d here . Th e old-tim e metho d o f transportatio n i n th e Phil ippine s wa s b y a caraba o o r o x car t wit h a rigi d axl e an d wit h soli d wheels , th e rim s o f whic h wer e s o narro w a s t o cu t lik e a knif e int o an y roa d ove r whic h the y traveled . Law s hav e bee n passe d fro m tim e t o tim e imposin g a penalt y fo r usin g wheel s o n publi c road s wit h tire s les s tha n a certai n width , bu t i t ha s no t bee n possibl e t o secur e suc h a n administratio n o f th e la w b y th e provincia l government s a s t o preven t th e continuanc e o f thi s abuse , althoug h mean s hav e bee n take n t o furnis h a t a ver y reasonabl e rat e set s o f wheel s wit h tire s o f sufficien t widt h t o avoi d roa d destruction . Loca l official s hav e bee n loath , whe n dependen t fo r thei r continuanc e i n offic e upo n th e vote s o f thei r fellow-citizens , t o enforc e a la w th e wisdo m o f whic h the y full y recognize , bu t th e unpopularit y o f whic h the y als o know . I t ha s bee n foun d tha t sanitar y measure s ca n no t b e safel y intruste d t o municipa l authoritie s fo r enforcemen t wheneve r emer gencie s arise , bu t tha t som e loca l agenc y o f th e centra l governmen t mus t b e create d fo r th e purpose . A t first ful l powe r wa s give n t o th e municipalit y t o determin e b y ordinanc e wher e cemeterie s migh t b e established , havin g regar d t o th e healt h o f th e town . Thi s prove d a mos t convenien t instrumen t fo r partisa n abus e i n th e religiou s controversie s arisin g betwee n th e Roma n Catholic s an d th e Agli payans . A n Aglipaya n municipa l counci l woul d requir e b y ordi nanc e th e immediat e closin g o f a Roma n Catholi c cemetery , althoug h i t wa s no t i n th e leas t dangerou s t o health , an d the n woul d permi t a n Aglipaya n cemeter y muc h neare r th e tow n an d i n a reall y objec tionabl e place . Partisan s o f th e Roma n Churc h i n contro l o f othe r municipalitie s woul d abus e thei r power s i n th e sam e way . Th e con sequenc e wa s tha t th e centra l an d provincia l authoritie s ha d t o b e give n direc t supervisor y contro l o f thi s matter . Anothe r defectu m man y Filipin o town s I hav e alread y referre d t o i s th e evi l o f caciquism . To o ofte n th e president e an d othe r tow n officer s us e thei r office s t o subjec t th e ignoran t resident s o f thei r respectiv e

PAGE 38

3 6 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . town s t o thei r busines s contro l i n th e sal e o f far m products . Th e office r act s a s th e middlema n i n th e sal e an d take s mos t o f th e profi t fro m hi s constituent . Th e evi l i s har d t o reac h becaus e th e sam e powe r whic h compelle d th e sal e ca n usuall y compe l silenc e an d n o complain t i s hear d fro m th e victim s until , diml y realizin g th e injustic e don e them , the y resor t t o crimina l outbreak s an d blood y vengeance . Whil e i t i s to o muc h t o hop e fo r th e complet e eradicatio n o f thi s abus e unti l th e labore r shal l acquir e enoug h educatio n t o kno w hi s right s befor e th e la w an d ho w t o asser t them , ther e ha s bee n muc h improve men t i n thi s regar d sinc e th e America n occupation . Th e evi l o f caciquis m show s itsel f i n a mor e flagrant for m whe n Filipin o municipa l o r eve n provincia l official s ar e veste d wit h gov ernmenta l contro l ove r non-Christia n tribes , o r other s no t o f thei r ow n race , scattere d throug h th e Christia n Filipin o provinces . Thes e peopl e livin g i n smal l settlement s ar e slowl y workin g towar d a bet te r civilizatio n unde r th e influenc e o f educatio n an d ar e capabl e o f muc h greate r progres s i f properl y treated . Suc h settlement s wer e originall y place d unde r th e regula r Filipin o provincia l an d munici pa l government s withi n whos e territoria l jurisdictio n the y happene d t o be , bu t th e abuse s an d oppressio n t o whic h the y wer e subjecte d necessitate d a n entirel y differen t polic y wit h respec t t o the m an d th e organizatio n o f separat e government s controlle d directl y fro m Ma nil a unde r th e interio r department . Mr . Worcester , th e secretar y o f th e interior , ha s give n especia l attentio n t o th e car e an d developmen t o f thes e non-Christia n tribes . I t ha s bee n necessar y t o organiz e i n Norther n Luzo n thre e o r fou r subprovince s withi n th e territoria l limit s o f th e Filipin o province s an d t o secur e th e protectio n o f th e non-Christian s b y th e appointmen t generall y o f a n America n lieu tenant-governor . Thi s i s als o tru e i n th e provinc e o f Misami s an d o f Suriga o i n Mindanao , wher e i t wa s foun d impossibl e t o induc e th e provincia l officer s t o spen d th e mone y appropriate d ou t o f th e insula r treasur y fo r th e benefi t o f th e peopl e fo r educationa l an d roa d improvement s directe d b y th e centra l authority . Th e fac t tha t th e recent , an d fo r a tim e seemingl y incurable , tendenc y t o disturb anc e i n Sama r ha s grow n ou t o f a simila r caus e i n tha t island , I hav e alread y commente d o n i n connectio n wit h anothe r subject . Th e cit y o f Manil a ha s no t bee n give n autonomou s government . I t i s unde r th e contro l o f a municipa l boar d o f five person s appointe d b y th e centra l governmen t an d i s governe d therefor e a s Washingto n o r th e Cit y o f Mexic o i s governed . I n th e prope r improvemen t o f Manila , som e si x o r eigh t million s o f dollar s ha d t o b e expende d an d muc h busines s experienc e an d foresigh t wer e require d t o buil d th e ne w waterwork s an d th e ne w sewe r system , t o repav e th e stteets , t o canaliz e th e esteros , o r creeks , t o organiz e a n effectiv e polic e forc e an d a ne w fire department . I t wa s though t tha t i t woul d no t b e saf e t o intrus t th e

PAGE 39

37 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . conduc t o f suc h importan t busines s matter s t o a bod y selecte d b y th e electorat e o f Manil a fo r th e first time . Th e cit y o f Manil a ha s bee n wel l governed . Ver y larg e sum s o f mone y hav e bee n expende d i n mos t extensiv e improvement s an d no t th e slightes t scanda l o r dis honest y ha s bee n charge d i n an y o f th e cit y administration . I t ha s offere d a mos t usefu l mode l fo r othe r municipalitie s i n th e Island s t o follo w an d ha s len t he r engineers , he r policemen , an d he r fireme n t o othe r town s t o hel p th e latte r t o bette r organization . Thi s revie w o f shortcoming s i n municipa l government s i n th e Phil ippine s shoul d no t hav e th e effec t o f discouragin g thos e wh o ar e intereste d i n th e succes s o f th e experiment . The y shoul d b e reminde d tha t i n th e Unite d States , municipa l governmen t ha s no t bee n suc h a shinin g success . Moreover , th e defect s pointe d ou t ar e no t foun d i n al l Filipin o towns . The y hav e bee n referre d t o onl y t o qualif y prop erl y th e statement , whic h I d o no t hesitat e t o make , tha t autonomou s municipa l government s ar e makin g goo d progres s an d ar e graduall y accomplishin g th e purpose s fo r whic h the y wer e created , thoug h no t s o efficientl y a s wit h a peopl e mor e use d t o governin g themselves , mor e traine d an d educate d i n th e assertio n o f thei r rights , an d imbue d wit h a highe r standar d o f publi c duty . Whe n thos e responsibl e fo r th e polic y o f autonom y i n municipa l an d provincia l government s as ser t tha t i t i s progressin g successfully , the y find thei r word s t o b e construe d b y enthusiasti c theorists , wh o ar e convince d a priori o f th e complet e fitness o f th e Filipino s t o gover n themselves , a s completel y establishin g th e correctnes s o f thei r view ; an d when , o n th e othe r hand , the y poin t ou t th e defect s i n suc h loca l government s the y mee t th e cr y mad e b y pessimist s an d b y thic k an d thi n adherent s o f th e Englis h crown-colon y syste m tha t thi s i s a n admissio n o f failur e an d a concessio n tha t w e hav e gon e fa r to o fas t i n intrustin g loca l govern menta l powe r o f th e Filipinos . Th e truth , a s I conceiv e it , lie s betwee n th e tw o extrem e positions , an d whil e th e polic y adopte d doe s no t secur e th e bes t municipa l governmen t whic h migh t b e secure d unde r America n agents , i t doe s provid e a fairl y goo d government , wit h a trainin g an d experienc e an d educationa l influenc e upo n th e peopl e whic h i s slowl y bu t pro gressivel y curin g th e defect s inciden t t o a lac k o f politica l trainin g an d prope r politica l ideals . Th e resul t indicate s neithe r tha t th e Filipino s ar e fitted a t onc e fo r complet e self-governmen t no r doe s i t justif y th e vie w tha t the y ma y no t b e ultimatel y mad e capabl e o f complet e self-governmen t b y a gradua l extensio n o f partia l self-gov ernmen t a s the y ma y becom e mor e an d mor e fit t o exercis e it . Whe n w e com e t o th e provincia l governments , w e naturall y hav e t o dea l wit h a highe r orde r o f publi c servants , an d althoug h w e her e an d ther e find th e defect s I hav e describe d a s occurrin g i n municipa l governments , the y ar e les s glarin g an d les s discouraging . Th e trut h

PAGE 40

3 8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . is , tha t wit h th e guidanc e o f th e provincia l treasurer , wh o i s a n American , an d th e sens e o f adde d responsibilit y tha t th e presenc e o f tw o Filipino s i n th e provincia l boar d ha s instille d i n them , th e pro vincia l official s begi n t o tak e prid e i n th e goo d conditio n o f thei r province . Thi s ha s bee n stimulate d b y clos e an d constan t correspond enc e betwee n the m an d th e centra l governmen t a t Manila , repre sente d b y th e assistan t executiv e secretary , Mr . Fran k Carpenter , i n whic h provincia l matter s ar e discussed , b y a n annua l conferenc e o f provincia l governor s a t Manila , an d b y conditiona l contribution s fro m th e centra l governmen t t o provincia l fund s fo r variou s form s o f provincia l efficiency , an d i s evidence d b y th e greate r amount s devote d b y th e province s t o th e constructio n o f publi c buildings , th e repai r an d constructio n o f road s an d bridge s an d b y th e husbandin g o f resource s an d th e keepin g dow n o f salaries . Th e syste m o f examinatio n o f th e finances o f th e municipalitie s an d o f th e province s i s now , a s conducte d i n th e Islands , ver y com plete , an d i n on e larg e printe d volum e i s publishe d th e balanc e shee t o f ever y provinc e an d o f ever y municipalit y i n th e Island s fo r eac h fiscal year , s o tha t i t i s possibl e t o tak e a bird's-ey e vie w eac h yea r o f th e financial progres s mad e i n th e managemen t o f eac h provinc e an d town . Th e improvemen t i n th e financial conditio n o f th e province s ove r an d abov e wha t i t wa s fou r o r five year s ag o itsel f speak s forcibl y i n favo r o f th e progres s whic h ha s bee n mad e b y Filipino s i n provincia l government . On e o f th e earl y difficultie s i n provincia l governmen t alread y pointe d ou t wa s th e lac k o f ta x resources , whic h prevente d paymen t o f adequat e salarie s o r th e makin g o f much-neede d improvements . Wit h th e sympatheti c ai d an d suggestio n o f th e centra l government , an d b y th e voluntar y assumptio n o f greate r taxe s b y th e people , al l th e provinces , sav e tw o o r three , hav e mad e themselve s self supportin g an d hav e bee n enable d t o pa y goo d salaries . The y diffe r largel y i n th e amoun t o f mone y tha t the y hav e bee n abl e t o devot e t o th e constructio n o f publi c building s an d t o road s an d bridges , bu t the y ar e certainl y beginnin g t o appreciat e th e necessit y fo r effor t i n thi s direction , an d whil e the y hav e refuse d thu s fa r t o adop t th e syste m o f a fe w days ' enforce d labo r commutabl e b y taxes , the y ar e graduall y comin g t o th e adoptio n o f a pol l ta x fo r publi c road s whic h i n it s essenc e an d it s alternative s wil l ultimatel y b e a n equiva len t o f suc h a sj'stem . Th e repor t o f th e Audito r o f th e Island s show s a mos t gratifyin g improvemen t i n th e financial conditio n o f th e town s an d province s fo r th e las t five years . Whil e th e financial conditio n i s no t invariabl y indicativ e o f th e genera l characte r o f a municipa l o r provincia l gov ernment , a stead y improvemen t i n i t fro m yea r t o yea r i s reasonabl y goo d evidenc e tha t matter s o f governmen t ar e mendin g i n ever y way .

PAGE 41

39 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Th e questio n o f road s an d bridge s ha s no t ye t bee n solve d i n th e Philippines . Ther e remain s ye t a n enormou s amoun t o f labo r an d capita l t o b e expende d fo r thi s purpose , bu t th e seed s hav e bee n sow n whic h I a m convince d wil l lead , unde r th e executiv e forc e an d grea t interes t o f Mr . W . Camero n Forbes , th e secretar y o f com merc e an d police , t o th e adoptio n o f a caminer o syste m o f roa d repair s an d maintenanc e whic h wil l mak e th e intercommunicatio n b y wago n roa d betwee n th e variou s part s o f th e variou s island s satis factory . I shal l no t sto p t o dwel l o n th e grea t inheren t difficult y tha t ther e i s i n th e constructio n an d repai r o f road s i n th e Philip pines . Th e absenc e o f suitabl e materia l an d th e destructiv e effec t o f ever y we t seaso n sufficientl y accoun t fo r th e presen t unsatisfactor y conditio n i n thi s respect . Th e principl e rigidl y adopte d an d enforce d no w is , however , tha t n o bridg e an d n o publi c buildin g shal l b e con structe d o f anythin g bu t permanen t materials—eithe r concrete , har d wood , o r metal—o r iro n o r steel , an d tha t n o roa d shal l b e buil t excep t i n a manne r whic h shal l enabl e loca l authorities , wit h reasonabl e ex pense , t o kee p i t i n permanen t repair . I n time s pas t th e necessit y fo r hast e an d suppose d econom y ha s le d t o th e us e o f softe r wood s an d temporar y method s o f construction , whic h ar e no w turnin g ou t t o b e muc h mor e costl y tha n i f th e origina l expenditur e ha d bee n greater . CIVI L SERVICE . * Th e organizatio n an d maintenanc e o f th e centra l governmen t wer e directe d no t onl y wit h a vie w t o it s efficiency , bu t als o t o it s educa tiona l effec t upo n th e Philippin e people . Thi s i s show n i n th e ap pointmen t o f thre e Filipino s t o constitut e three-eighth s o f th e insu la r legislature , a s wel l a s b y th e opportunit y offere d t o Filipino s t o ente r th e civi l servic e unde r a civil-servic e la w embodyin g th e meri t system . I n th e beginnin g i t wa s difficul t t o wor k Filipino s int o th e bureau s o f th e centra l government , becaus e fe w o f the m kne w Eng lis h an d fewe r understoo d th e America n busines s an d officia l methods , which , o f course , obtaine d i n th e ne w government . . A s th e year s wen t on , however , unde r grea t pressur e fro m th e Commission , th e proportio n o f Filipino s i n th e servic e wa s increase d fro m yea r t o year . Man y native s ha d learne d Englis h an d ha d show n a n in creasin g aptitud e fo r th e wor k o f th e civi l service . Stil l i n man y o f th e bureau s th e progres s o f Filipino s t o th e mos t responsibl e place s i s necessaril y slo w an d th e proportio n o f the m t o b e foun d i n th e position s o f hig h salarie s i s no t a s larg e a s i t ough t t o b e i n th e nea r future . Th e winnowing-ou t process , however , i s steadil y reduc in g th e America n employee s i n th e civi l service . I t ha s becom e a bod y o f highl y deserving , faithfu l publi c servants , whom , i t i s hoped , th e Philippin e governmen t wil l mak e permanen t provisio n fo r b y

PAGE 42

4 0 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . secur e tenur e fo r a certai n numbe r o f year s wit h a reasonabl e retirin g pension . A s wa s inevitabl e i n th e complet e organizatio n o f a governmen t effecte d withi n a fe w months , experienc e indicate d tha t greate r econ om y migh t b e secure d b y a reductio n i n th e numbe r o f bureau s an d burea u chiefs , b y th e consolidatio n o f office s an d bureaus , an d b y th e stil l furthe r substitutio n o f competen t Filipino s fo r higher-price d Americans . I t i s no w nearl y thre e year s ago , therefore , sinc e a committe e o f insula r official s wit h Commissione r Forbe s a s chairma n wa s appointe d t o mak e a vigorou s investigatio n int o th e entir e governmenta l sys tem . Th e committe e mad e radica l recommendation s a s t o curtail ment , mos t o f whic h wer e adopte d an d resulte d i n a ver y materia l decreas e i n th e cos t o f governmen t an d increas e i n th e proportio n o f Filipin o employees . I n th e departmen t o f justice , includin g th e judiciary , th e propor tio n o f Filipino s ha d alway s bee n high . Th e chie f justic e o f th e suprem e cour t an d tw o o f hi s associate s wer e Filipinos , whil e nearl y hal f o f th e judge s o f th e court s o f first instanc e wer e als o natives . Al l bu t tw o o f th e prosecutin g attorney s i n th e 3 5 provinces , al l th e justice s o f th e peace , an d nearl y al l th e cour t officer s wer e Filipinos . Fo r tw o year s th e attorney-genera l o f th e Island s ha s bee n a Filipino . Th e change s i n th e proportio n o f Filipin o civi l servant s t o th e whol e numbe r fro m yea r t o yea r ca n b e see n i n th e followin g table : Americans . Filipinos . 190 1 2,04 4 2,66 2 190 2 a ; 2,04 4 2,66 2 190 3 2,77 7 3,22 8 3,30 7 2,69 7 3,37 7 4,02 3 190 4 2,77 7 3,22 8 3,30 7 2,69 7 3,37 7 4,02 3 190 5 2,77 7 3,22 8 3,30 7 2,69 7 3,37 7 4,02 3 190 6 a 2,77 7 3,22 8 3,30 7 2,69 7 3,37 7 4,02 3 190 7 2,61 6 3,90 2 2,61 6 3,90 2 ° Statistic s no t available . CIVI L RIGHTS . Befor e discussin g th e provisio n fo r th e nationa l assembl y an d it s influences , educationa l an d otherwise , I mus t refe r t o th e effor t o f Presiden t McKinle y t o exten d t o th e Filipino s th e guarantie s o f life , liberty , an d property , secure d b y th e Federa l Constitutio n t o thos e withi n Federa l jurisdiction . Th e guarantie s assure d i n th e instruc tion s o f Mr . McKinle y include d al l thos e o f th e Federa l Constitutio n excep t th e righ t t o bea r arm s an d t o tria l b y jury . Th e righ t t o bea r arm s i s on e tha t ca n no t safel y ye t b e extende d t o th e peopl e o f th e Philippines , becaus e ther e ar e amon g thos e peopl e me n give n t o violence , wh o wit h th e us e o f arm s woul d a t

PAGE 43

41 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . onc e resor t t o ladronis m a s a mean s o f livelihood . Th e tempta tio n woul d b e to o grea t an d ough t no t t o b e encouraged . No r ar e th e peopl e fit fo r th e introductio n o f a jur y system . No t ye t ha s an y considerabl e par t o f th e communit y becom e sufficientl y imbue d wit h th e sens e o f responsibilit y fo r th e governmen t an d wit h it s identificatio n wit h th e government . Thi s responsibilit y an d identi fication ar e necessar y befor e juror s ca n si t impartiall y betwee n soci et y an d th e prisone r a t th e bar . Withou t i t the y ar e certai n alway s t o releas e th e prisone r an d t o sympathiz e wit h hi m i n th e prosecu tio n agains t him . Th e fai r treatmen t o f th e prisone r i s sufficientl y secure d i n a countr y neve r havin g ha d a jur y tria l b y th e absolut e righ t o f appea l fro m th e decisio n o f a singl e judg e t o th e decisio n o f seve n judges , wit h a wri t o f erro r thenc e t o th e Suprem e Cour t o f th e Unite d States . I t ma y b e tha t i n th e futur e i t wil l see m wis e graduall y t o provid e fo r a jur y i n variou s classe s o f cases , bu t a t presen t i t woul d b e premature . Th e civi l right s conferre d b y Mr . McKinley' s instruction s wer e expressl y confirme d b y th e organi c ac t o f Jul y 1 , 1902 . I t ha s bee n th e purpos e o f th e Philippin e governmen t t o mak e th e extensio n o f thes e right s a rea l thin g an d a benefi t fo r th e poore r Filipino , an d progres s i s bein g mad e i n thi s direction . Th e grea t obstacl e t o i t arise s fro m th e ignoranc e o f th e peopl e themselve s a s t o wha t thei r right s ar e an d thei r lac k o f knowledg e a s t o ho w thos e right s ma y b e asserted . Th e wor k o f impressin g a knowledg e o f thes e thing s upo n th e peopl e goes , however , rapidl y on , an d wit h th e educatio n i n Englis h o f a ne w generatio n an d thei r successio n t o th e electorate , w e ca n b e certai n tha t th e sprea d o f educatio n a s t o popula r right s an d th e mean s o f maintainin g the m wil l b e wide r an d wider , unti l w e ca n hav e a whol e communit y wh o kno w thei r rights , an d knowing , dar e maintai n them . Charge s hav e bee n mad e tha t th e existin g Philippin e governmen t ha s no t properl y preserve d thes e guarantie s o f civi l rights . I t i s tru e tha t th e Commissio n has , i n effect , suspende d thes e guarantie s i n a conditio n equivalen t t o on e o f wa r i n som e o f th e provinces , an d ha s bee n sustaine d i n s o doin g b y th e suprem e cour t o f th e Island s an d o f th e Unite d States . I t i s als o tru e tha t durin g a conditio n equiv alen t t o wa r th e Commissio n provide d tha t n o on e shoul d advocat e independence , eve n b y peaceabl e means , becaus e agent s o f insurrec tio n wer e incitin g actua l violenc e unde r th e guis e o f suc h peaceabl e propaganda . Wit h th e comin g o f peace , th e statut e cease d t o hav e effect . To-day , however , th e wri t o f habea s corpu s run s withou t obstruction . Th e libert y o f th e pres s an d o f fre e speec h i s real . Ther e i s n o censorshi p o f th e pres s an d n o mor e limitatio n upo n it s * editor s tha n ther e i s i n th e cit y o f Washington . Th e publicatio n o f

PAGE 44

4 2 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . crimina l libe l o r seditiou s languag e calculate d an d intende d t o caus e publi c rio t an d disturbanc e i s punishabl e i n Manil a an d th e Philip pine s a s i t i s i n man y o f th e State s o f th e Union . Thi s freedo m o f discussio n an d thi s opportunit y t o criticis e th e government , educat e th e peopl e i n a politica l wa y an d enabl e the m mor e intelligentl y t o exercis e thei r politica l rights . TH E NATIONA L ASSEMBLY . I n recommendin g t o Congres s th e provisio n fo r a nationa l assem bl y containe d i n th e organi c ac t o f th e Philippin e government , Sec retar y Roo t an d th e Commissio n wer e move d b y th e hop e an d belie f tha t th e promis e i n th e act , conditioned , a s it s fulfillmen t was , o n th « existenc e o f peac e i n th e Islands , woul d stimulat e activit y o n th e par t o f al l Filipino s havin g politica l ambitio n t o brin g abou t tranquillity . I n thi s respect , a s alread y pointe d out , th e resul t ha s abundantl y vindicate d thei r judgment . The y wer e furthe r move d b y th e convictio n tha t thi s ste p towar d greate r popula r self-gov ernmen t woul d strengthe n th e hand s o f th e Governmen t b y secur in g fro m th e peopl e readie r acquiescenc e in , an d greate r obedienc e to , measure s whic h thei r representative s ha d joine d i n passing , tha n whe n the y wer e th e decree s o f a n alie n government . The y furthe r believe d tha t b y mean s o f th e assembl y muc h mor e exac t an d prac tica l knowledg e o f th e need s o f th e countr y woul d b e brough t t o th e law-makin g powe r tha n i n an y othe r way . Finally , the y though t tha t th e inauguratio n o f suc h a n assembl y woul d b e a mos t impor tan t ste p i n th e mai n pla n o r polic y o f educatin g Filipino s i n th e scienc e an d practic e o f popula r representativ e government . The y wer e awar e o f th e possibl e dange r tha t thi s wa s a ste p to o fa r i n ad vance . The y di d no t den y tha t o n th e par t o f a numbe r electe d ther e woul d b e a stron g inclinatio n t o obstruc t th e smoot h workin g o f exist in g governmen t o n line s o f politica l an d materia l progress . The y anticipate d th e probabilit y tha t i n th e first assembl y electe d th e ma jorit y woul d b e i n favo r o f immediat e independence ; bu t i n spit e o f al l thi s the y wer e clea r i n thei r forecas t tha t th e responsibilitie s o f powe r woul d hav e bot h a soberin g an d educationa l effec t tha t woul d lea d ultimatel y t o conservatis m o f actio n an d t o strengthenin g th e existin g government . Le t u s no w conside r wha t ha s happene d i n th e electora l campaig n fo r th e assembl y an d i n it s earl y lif e a s a legislativ e body . Th e powerfu l influenc e fo r goo d an d fo r peac e exercise d b y th e Federa l Part y i n th e perio d jus t afte r Mr . McKinley' s secon d electio n I hav e dwel t upo n a t anothe r place . Th e mai n purpos e an d prin cipl e o f th e part y wa s peac e unde r th e sovereignt y o f th e Unite d f States . I n draftin g a platfor m it s leader s ha d formulate d a plan k

PAGE 45

43 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . favorin g th e organizatio n o f th e Island s int o a Territor y o f th e Unite d States , wit h a vie w t o it s possibl y becomin g a State . Fro m thi s plan k i t too k it s name . I n th e firs t tw o o r thre e year s afte r it s successfu l effor t t o brin g o n peace , man y prominen t Filipino s havin g politica l ambitio n becam e members , an d i n th e gubernatoria l elec tion s th e grea t majorit y o f governor s electe d wer e Federals . An d s o substantiall y al l wh o fille d prominen t office s i n th e governmen t b y appointment , includin g th e judges , wer e o f tha t party . The n dissen sio n aros e amon g prominen t leader s an d som e withdre w fro m th e party . Th e natura l oppositio n t o a governmen t part y le d t o th e organizatio n o f othe r parties , especiall y amon g thos e know n a s In transigentes . Th e Federa l Part y ha d founde d a n organ , th e Demo cracia , earl y i n it s existence . Th e opponent s o f th e governmen t look in g t o immediat e independenc e founde d a pape r calle d th e Renaci miento . Th e latte r wa s edite d wit h especia l abilit y an d wit h a parti sa n spiri t agains t th e America n Government . Fo r tw o year s befor e th e electio n o f th e Assembl y th e Filipino s wh o sympathize d wit h th e Renacimient o wer e perfectin g thei r organ izatio n t o secur e a majorit y i n th e assembly . Man y group s wer e formed , bu t the y al l wer e know n a s th e Partid o Nacionalista . Ther e wa s som e differenc e a s t o whethe r t o thi s titl e shoul d b e adde d th e wor d inmediatista, " bu t th e grea t majorit y favore d it . Th e part y i s gen erall y know n a s th e Nacionalist a Party . Durin g muc h o f thes e sam e tw o years , th e Federa l Part y wa s dormant . Th e propositio n fo r state hoo d di d no t awake n enthusias m anywhere . Man y o f th e leader s wer e i n offic e an d fel t n o necessit y fo r vigorou s action . Th e quarre l betwee n som e o f th e director s ha d give n th e part y paralysis . Th e part y wa s no t organize d fo r politica l controvers y wit h anothe r part y a t th e polls . I t wa s merel y a n organizatio n t o giv e effectiv e resultan t forc e t o th e overwhelmin g feelin g i n favo r o f peac e unde r Unite d State s sovereignty , an d i t wa s no t adapte d t o a politica l fight o n issue s tha t wer e no t i n existenc e whe n i t wa s a t th e heigh t o f it s powe r fo r usefulness . O n th e othe r hand , i n th e Federa l Part y wer e man y o f th e ables t an d mos t conservativ e o f th e Filipinos , an d i t seeme d wis e tha t thi s nucleu s shoul d b e use d t o for m a part y tha t represente d conservatis m o n th e issu e a s t o independence , whic h th e opponent s o f th e governmen t determine d t o forc e int o th e campaig n fo r member s o f th e assembly . I t wa s a n issu e hardl y german e t o th e subject matte r withi n th e jurisdictio n o f th e assembly , bu t i t ha d t o b e met . Th e issu e whethe r th e Island s shoul d hav e immediat e independenc e turne d o n th e questio n whethe r th e Filipin o peopl e ar e no w fit fo r complet e self-government . Upo n thi s questio n i t wa s entirel y natura l tha t th e burde n shoul d fal l upo n thos e wh o asserte d th e nega tive , an d i t i s no t strang e tha t th e electors , o r a majorit y o f them ,

PAGE 46

4 4 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . shoul d believ e themselve s an d b y thei r vote s decid e themselve s t o b e competent . Som e si x month s befor e th e elections , ther e sprun g fro m th e ashe s o f th e Federa l Part y a part y which , rejectin g th e statehoo d idea , de clare d itsel f i n favo r o f makin g th e Philippine s a n independen t natio n b y gradua l an d progressiv e acquisitio n o f governmenta l contro l unti l th e peopl e shoul d becom e fitted b y educatio n an d practic e unde r America n sovereignt y t o enjo y an d maintai n thei r complet e inde pendence . I t wa s calle d th e Partid o Nacionalist a Progresista . I t i s generall y know n a s th e Progresist a Party . Th e Progresist a lead er s wer e lat e i n th e field an d wer e somewha t a t a disadvantag e o n thi s account ; bu t afte r the y entere d th e fight the y wer e ener geti c an d vigorous . The y di d no t minc e words . The y too k th e positio n full y an d flatly tha t th e peopl e o f th e Philippine s wer e no t fitted fo r immediat e independenc e an d complet e self-governmen t an d neede d muc h educatio n an d experienc e befor e the y shoul d becom e so . I t wa s natura l t o suppos e tha t th e cr y o f complet e fitness fo r self-governmen t wa s th e popula r on e an d tha t i t woul d attrac t votes . Thi s impressio n showe d itsel f i n a somewha t amusin g way . Th e first independenc e party , a s I hav e said , calle d itsel f th e Partid o Nacionalist a Inmediatista . Th e titl e an d organizatio n wer e no t rad ica l enoug h fo r a grou p tha t brok e awa y an d calle d itsel f Partid o Nacionalist a Urgentissima , whic h wa s suppose d t o indicat e a part y whos e yearnin g fo r independenc e wa s greate r tha n tha t o f thos e wh o wishe d i t immediately . Thi s wa s followe d b y th e organizatio n o f a ne w grou p wh o showe d tha t the y wer e no t t o b e outdon e i n th e fervo r an d anxiet y wit h whic h the y sough t independenc e an d vote s fo r thei r candidate s b y callin g thei r part y Partid o Nacionalist a Explosivista . Th e campaig n i n th e las t tw o o r thre e month s wa s carrie d o n wit h grea t vigor . Th e Nacionalista s ha d th e advantag e o f bein g under stoo d t o b e agains t th e government . This , wit h a peopl e lik e the , Filipin o people , wh o ha d bee n taugh t t o regar d th e governmen t a s a n entit y separat e fro m th e people , taxin g the m an d prosecutin g them , wa s i n itsel f a stron g reaso n fo r popula r sympath y an d support . Th e Progresista s wer e denounce d a s a part y o f officeholders . Th e gov ernmen t wa s denounce d a s extravagan t an d burdensom e t o th e peo ple . I n man y district s th e Nacionalist a candidate s promise d tha t i f the y wer e returne d immediat e independenc e woul d follow . Ther e wer e quit e a numbe r o f candidate s i n countr y an d remot e district s wher e th e controvers y wa s no t heate d wh o di d no t declar e them selve s o n th e mai n question , an d maintaine d a n independenc e o f an y party . The} 7 wer e know n a s Independientes . Then , ther e wer e othe r Independiente s wh o declare d themselve s independen t o f party , bu t i n favo r o f immediat e independence .

PAGE 47

45 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Th e election s wer e hel d o n Jul y 30 . Member s wer e electe d fro m 8 0 district s int o whic h th e Christia n Filipin o province s wer e divided . Th e resul t o f th e canvas s wa s th e electio n o f 1 6 Progresis tas , 1 Catolico , 2 0 Independientes , 3 1 Nacionalistas , 7 Inmediatistas , 4 Independistas , an d 1 Nacionalist a Independiente , i n al l 8 0 members . Th e tota l vot e registere d an d cas t di d no t excee d 104,000 , althoug h i n previou s gubernatoria l election s th e tota l vot e ha d reache d nearl y 150,000 . Th e hig h vot e a t th e latte r election s ma y b e partl y explaine d b y th e fac t tha t a t th e sam e election s tow n officer s wer e elected , an d th e persona l interes t o f man y candidate s dre w ou t a large r numbe r o f electors . Bu t th e fallin g of f wa s als o i n par t due , doubtless , t o th e timidit y o f conservativ e voters , who , becaus e o f th e hea t o f th e campaign , preferre d t o avoi d takin g sides . Thi s i s no t a permanen t condition , however , an d I doub t no t tha t th e meetin g o f th e assembl y an d th e eviden t importanc e o f it s function s whe n actuall y performe d wil l develo p a muc h greate r popula r interes t i n it , an d th e tota l vot e wil l b e largel y increase d a t th e nex t election . I opene d th e assembl y i n you r name . Th e rol l o f th e member s re turne d o n th e fac e o f th e recor d wa s called . A n appropriat e oat h wa s administere d t o al l th e member s an d th e assembl y organize d b y selectin g Seno r Sergi o Osmen a a s it s speake r o r presidin g officer . Seno r Osmen a ha s bee n on e o f th e mos t efficien t fiscals, o r prosecutin g attorneys , i n th e Islands , havin g conducte d th e governmen t prosecu tion s i n th e larges t provinc e o f th e Islands , th e provinc e an d islan d o f Cebu . H e wa s subsequentl y electe d governor , an d b y hi s ow n ac tivit y i n goin g int o ever} ^ par t o f th e island , h e succeede d i n enlistin g th e assistanc e o f al l th e peopl e i n suppressin g ladronism , whic h ha d bee n rif e i n th e mountain s o f Ceb u fo r thirt y o r fort y years , s o tha t to-da y ther e i s absolut e peac e an d tranquillit y throughou t th e island . H e i s a youn g ma n no t 30 , bu t o f grea t ability , shrewdness , hig h ideals , an d ye t ver y practica l i n hi s method s o f dealin g wit h me n an d things . Th e assembl y coul d hav e don e nothin g whic h indicate d it s goo d sens e s o strongl y a s th e selectio n o f Seno r Osmen a a s it s presid in g officer . Man y successfu l candidate s fo r th e assembl y see m t o hav e embrace d th e caus e o f th e Inmediatista s withou t havin g though t ou t deliber atel y an y pla n b y whic h a polic y o f immediat e independenc e coul d b e carrie d out . The y joine d th e part y an d unite d i n it s cr y becaus e i t wa s a popula r on e an d becaus e the y though t tha t thi s wa s a n eas y metho d o f bein g elected , o r rathe r becaus e the y though t tha t withou t this , electio n woul d b e difficult . Whe n th e assembl y me t i t wa s quit e apparen t tha t th e grea t majorit y wer e muc h mor e anxiou s t o vindi cat e thei r electio n a s a dignified , common-sense , patrioti c branc h o f th e legislatur e b y a conservativ e cours e tha n t o maintai n consistenc y betwee n thei r act s a s legislator s an d thei r ante-electio n declarations .

PAGE 48

4 6 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Ther e are , o f course , som e member s wh o ar e likel y a t time s t o mak e speeche s containin g violen t language , bu t o n th e whol e ther e seeme d t o b e durin g m y sta y i n th e Islands , o f tw o o r thre e week s afte r th e organizatio n o f th e assembly , a ver y earnes t wis h tha t th e assembl y shoul d sho w th e conservatis m whic h man y o f u s believ e exist s i n th e Philippin e people , rathe r tha n i t shoul d giv e a weapo n t o th e enemie s o f th e peopl e an d popula r governmen t b y extravaganc e an d useles s violenc e o f speech . Sinc e I lef t th e Island s th e Assembl y ha s vote d fo r tw o residen t commissioner s t o represen t th e Island s a t Washingto n a s provide d i n th e organi c ac t o f th e Philippin e government . Thes e commissioner s ar e electe d b y th e Assembl y an d th e Commissio n sittin g i n separat e session . Th e tw o candidate s tendere d b y th e Assembl y t o th e Com missio n an d accepte d b y th e latte r wer e Mr . Benit o Legarda , a t pres en t on e o f th e Filipin o Commissioners , an d Mr . Pabl o Ocampo , o f Manila . Mr . Legard a i s on e o f th e founder s o f th e Federa l Part y an d a Progresista . H e ha s bee n man y time s i n th e Unite d State s an d speak s English . H e i s on e o f th e mos t prominen t an d successfu l busines s me n i n th e Islands , an d a public-spirite d citize n o f hig h character . Mr . Ocamp o wa s a n activ e sympathize r wit h th e insurrec tio n an d acte d a s it s treasurer . H e wa s deporte d t o th e islan d o f Gua m b y th e militar y authoritie s i n th e day s o f th e militar y govern ment . H e i s a prominen t an d abl e membe r o f th e ba r o f th e Island s an d a ma n o f hig h character . H e too k par t i n th e organizatio n o f th e Nacionalist a Part y whic h h e wishe d t o hav e calle d Unionista . H e i s understoo d t o hav e objecte d t o th e wor d " inmediatist a " an d t o hav e withdraw n fro m th e part y o n tha t account . A s a shibboleth—a s a part y cry—immediat e independenc e ha s muc h force , becaus e i t excite s th e natura l prid e o f th e people , bu t fe w o f thei r numbe r hav e eve r worke d ou t it s consequences , an d whe n the y hav e don e s o the y hav e bee n willin g t o postpon e tha t questio n unti l som e o f th e immediat e need s o f th e peopl e hav e bee n met . I ma y b e wrong , bu t m y judgmen t i s tha t th e transfe r o f rea l powe r b y givin g t o th e peopl e par t o f th e legislativ e contro l o f th e Christian 1 province s sober s thei r leader s wit h th e sens e o f responsibilit y an d teache s the m som e o f th e practica l difficultie s o f government . The y wis h t o vindicat e thei r vie w i n respec t t o thei r fitness t o gover n them selve s completel y b y exercisin g th e powe r o f th e governmen t whic h ha s bee n accorde d t o the m i n a wa y t o mak e th e peopl e o f th e Unite d State s an d o f th e worl d believ e tha t whe n greate r powe r i s extended , the y ma y b e truste d t o exercis e tha t wit h equa l discretio n an d coni servativ e commo n sense . The y ar e no w a rea l par t o f th e governmen t o f th e Islands . Nothin g ca n b e don e affirmativel y withou t th e con sen t o f th e Assembly . The y hav e bee n throug h on e electio n an d hav e

PAGE 49

47 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . mad e electio n promises . Man y o f thos e promises , suc h a s th e prom ise s o f immediat e independence , wer e o f cours e entirel y beyon d th e authorit y o f th e promisers . Whe n the y g o bac k t o thei r constituent s a t th e nex t electio n the y wil l find facin g the m no t onl y thei r ante electio n promises , bu t als o responsibilit y fo r legislatio n an d failur e t o legislat e whic h wil l introduc e ne w issue s o f a practica l character , an d wil l necessitat e explanatio n an d a cautio n o f statemen t tha t wa s entirel y absen t i n th e first campaign . Al l thi s ca n no t bu t hav e a wholesom e effec t upo n th e politic s o f th e Filipino s an d th e Philip pines . I d o no t fo r a momen t guarante e tha t ther e wil l no t a t time s b e radica l actio n b y th e Assembly , whic h ca n no t mee t th e approva l o f thos e wh o understan d th e legislativ e need s o f th e Islands , bu t al l I wis h t o sa y i s tha t th e organizatio n an d beginnin g o f th e lif e o f th e Assembl y hav e disappointe d it s would-b e critic s an d hav e give n grea t encouragemen t t o thos e wh o wer e responsibl e fo r it s extensio n o f politica l power . Th e Inmediatistas , havin g a majorit y i n th e Assembly , ar e pron e t o divid e int o groups . Th e Independiente s ar e organizin g a s a party , drawin g tighte r part y lines , an d a t time s ac t wit h th e Progresistas , who , wit h thei r 1 7 votes , ar e enjoyin g th e advantag e o f th e minorit y part y i n maintainin g a solidarit y an d part y disciplin e tha t i t i s im possibl e fo r th e leader s o f th e majorit y an d th e controllin g part y t o attain . I t woul d no t b e surprisin g i f a t th e nex t electio n ther e shoul d b e a readjustmen t o f part y line s an d divisio n o n othe r issue s tha n thos e whic h controlle d a t th e first election . Whil e I wa s i n th e Islands , provincia l election s wer e held , a t whic h wer e electe d governor s an d thir d member s o f th e provincia l boards . Th e election s wer e hel d o n part y lines . Th e tota l vot e exceede d tha t a t th e Assembl y b y mor e tha n 5 0 pe r cent . O f th e governor s elected , 1 5 wer e Nacionalist a an d 1 5 wer e Progresista . O f th e thir d members , 1 5 wer e Nacionalista , 1 3 wer e Progresista , an d 2 wer e o f unknow n part y affiliation . Fro m thi s i t woul d see m tha t th e Naciona list a victor y i n th e assembl y electio n shoul d no t b e take n a s a n assur anc e tha t a permanen t majorit y o f th e elector s wil l continu e t o favo r immediat e independence . Th e Assembl y ha s show n a mos t earnes t desire , an d it s leader s hav e expresse d wit h th e utmos t emphasi s thei r intention , t o labo r fo r th e materia l prosperit y o f th e Philippine s an d t o encourag e th e comin g o f capita l an d th e developmen t o f th e variou s plan s fo r th e improvemen t o f th e agricultur e an d busines s o f th e Island s whic h hav e commende d themselve s t o thos e i n th e pas t responsibl e fo r th e governmen t there . I n othe r words , thu s fa r th e Assembl y ha s no t manifeste d i n an y wa y tha t obstructiv e characte r whic h thos e wh o hav e prophesie d it s failur e expecte d t o see , an d who , i n thi s respect ,

PAGE 50

4 8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . paradoxica l a s i t ma y appear , ar e equall y disappointe d wit h thos e anti-imperialist s wh o hav e hopefull y looke d t o th e Assembl y a s a mean s o f embarrassin g th e presen t government . Th e organizatio n o f th e Assembl y i s on e o f th e grea t step s i n th e educatio n o f th e Filipin o peopl e fo r complet e self-government . On e o f th e assumption s whic h mus t b e guarde d against , bu t whic h w e alway s encounter , i s tha t th e conservativ e an d successfu l us e b y th e peopl e o f a n instrumentalit y lik e tha t o f th e nationa l Assembl y i s convincin g proo f o f th e peopl e t o enjo y greate r powe r an d reaso n fo r a n instantaneou s grantin g o f tha t power . Thi s i s a t varianc e wit h th e theor y upo n whic h th e powe r i s granted . Tha t theor y i s tha t th e us e o f suc h a n instrumen t i s valuabl e chiefl y a s a mean s o f educatin g thos e wh o us e i t t o th e knowledg e o f ho w i t ough t t o b e use d an d t o conservatis m i n it s use . Th e fac t tha t o n receivin g i t th e peopl e us e i t conservativel y i s b y n o mean s sufficien t proo f tha t i f i t wer e no t subjec t t o ultimat e control , guidance , an d restrain t b y th e agent s o f th e Unite d States , i t migh t no t b e misused . I t i s mos t encouragin g t o find i t conservativel y use d an d vindicate s thos e wh o urge d it s adoption , bu t i t i s fa r fro m demonstratin g tha t thi s conservativ e use , subjec t t o th e limitation s upo n it s powe r whic h no w exis t an d whic h hav e a necessar y tendenc y t o mak e it s us e conserva tive , woul d b e preserve d unde r condition s i n whic h thos e limitation s wer e entirel y removed . Th e moderat e us e o f suc h a n Assembl y fo r a reasonabl e tim e ma y properl y for m a groun d fo r th e greate r exten sio n o f powe r an d th e remova l o f som e o f th e limitations . Progres s i n suc h a matte r t o b e saf e mus t b e gradual . I ca n no t refrai n fro m sayin g a t thi s poin t tha t th e attitud e o f th e nationa l Assembl y ha s bee n muc h influence d b y th e confidenc e tha t th e member s an d th e Filipin o peopl e hav e i n th e sens e o f justic e an d impartialit y o f Governor-Genera l Smit h an d th e dee p sympath y whic h the y kno w h e feel s i n thei r welfar e an d i n thei r hope s o f con tinue d progress . H e know s th e Filipin o peopl e bette r tha n an y othe r American , an d h e spare s n o effor t t o reconcil e thei r rea l need s an d thei r earnes t desires . I hav e reviewe d th e histor y o f th e governmenta l organizatio n i n orde r t o sho w th e consistenc y o f th e America n Governmen t i n adher in g t o th e polic y lai d dow n b y Presiden t McKinley , o f graduall y ex tendin g self-governmen t t o th e Filipino s a s the y shal l sho w them selve s fit. AV e first, therefore , hav e th e autonom y o f th e municipality , restraine d b y th e disciplinar y actio n o f th e governor-general , th e restrain t upo n th e expenditur e o f it s fund s b y th e provincia l treas urers , an d th e audi t o f it s fund s b y th e centra l authority ; second , th e partia l autonom y o f th e provincia l government s i n th e electio n o f a governor , th e mor e complet e autonom y b y th e constitutio n o f th e pro vincia l boar d o f tw o electiv e member s ou t o f three , th e restrain t upo n

PAGE 51

49 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . th e boar d b y th e presenc e o f a membe r o f th e provincia l boar d ap pointe d b y th e governor , th e visitatoria l power s o f th e governor genera l fo r disciplinar y purpose s i n respec t o f th e provincia l officers , th e restrainin g influenc e an d assistanc e o f th e centra l constabular y force , th e modificatio n o f complet e America n centra l contro l b y th e introductio n o f thre e appointe d Filipino s int o th e Commission , fol lowe d afte r five year s b y th e inauguratio n o f a completel y popula r electiv e Assembl y t o exercis e equa l legislativ e powe r wit h th e Com mission . Thi s progressiv e polic y ha s justifie d itsel f i n man y ways , an d especiall y i n th e restoratio n o f orde r t o whic h I hav e alread y referred . SANITATION . Ther e i s alway s presen t i n ever y pictur e o f Philippin e progres s a s painte d b y thos e wh o hav e no t carefull y investigate d th e facts , a sombe r backgroun d o f a banefu l climat e makin g i t impossibl e fo r th e America n o r Europea n t o liv e i n healt h an d strengt h i n th e island s fo r an y lengt h o f time . I t i s tru e tha t th e island s ar e i n th e Tropics , an d tha t th e variation s i n temperatur e ar e onl y abou t a thir d a s muc h i n exten t a s i n th e Temperat e Zone ; but , fo r a tropi ca l climate , tha t o f th e Philippine s i s exceptionall y comfortabl e an d healthful . Th e monsoon s blo w si x month s fro m southwes t acros s th e island s an d si x month s fro m the . northeast , s o tha t the y ar e con stantl y windswept . . Thi s make s a radica l differenc e betwee n th e climat e o f th e island s an d tha t o f th e lowland s o f Indi a co r instance . Th e las t tw o decades , especiall y th e latter , hav e taugh t u s muc h i n respec t t o tropica l diseases , thei r causes , thei r prope r treatment , an d th e bes t metho d o f avoidin g them . Thi s wa s on e o f th e mos t valu abl e result s o f th e Spanis h war . I n hi s addres s a s presiden t o f th e Philippin e Medica l Association , i n March , 1905 , Dr . Joh n R . McDill , wh o cam e first t o th e island s a s a leadin g arm y surgeo n an d wh o lef t th e Arm y t o carr y o n a mos t successfu l practic e i n Manila , said : W e hav e com e t o estee m t o th e utmos t th e climat e whic h s o effectuall y guard s man y o f yo u agains t th e to o strenuou s lif e an d whic h i s almos t idea l eigh t month s i n th e year , eve n i n Manila . Ou r professiona l experienc e ha s prove n that , exceptin g som e intestina l disorder s whic h w e ar e rapidl y prevent in g an d curing , an d a limite d amoun t o f epidemi c infectiou s diseases , ther e i s nothin g unusua l abou t th e kin d o r amoun t o f diseas e encountere d here , o r it s successfu l treatmen t whe n hospita l car e i s available . Th e surgeon' s wor k ha s full y demonstrate d tha t idea l woun d healin g an d convalescenc e afte r operatio n i s a s muc h th e rul e her e a s anywher e i n th e world . W e physician s als o kno w that , an d appreciat e tha t th e drea d disease s o f childhoo d s o prevalen t a t hom e ar e rar e here , an d tha t o f al l th e ill s particularl y amon g wome n fro m rea l bodil y ailment s t o a poo r complexio n fo r whic h th e climat e i s usuall y blamed , th e grea t majorit y ar e hereditar y o r acquired , wer e brough t her e b y th e patien t an d ofte n aggravate d b y careles s an d unhygieni c living . Fo r ol d peopl e "an d 26720—S . Doc . 200 , 601 1 t

PAGE 52

5 0 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . children , th e climat e i s a n earthl y elysium . * * * Wit h th e improve d an d constantl y improvin g condition s o f living , w e believ e tha t almos t al l wil l agre e tha t b y observin g th e norma l an d mora l life , health y American s ca n liv e abou t a s lon g her e an d enjo y a s goo d healt h an d d o a s muc h goo d an d har d work , mor e tha n three-fourth s o f th e year , a s w e coul d i n th e hom e land . Th e deat h rat e amon g America n soldier s i n th e Philippine s fo r th e las t yea r wa s 8. 5 pe r thousand , an d th e previou s £ea r 8.65 . Genera l Woo d report s tha t th e siz e o f th e sic k repor t ca n no t b e properl y charge d t o th e climate , that , take n a s a whole , th e report s fo r th e year s indicat e a decide d improvemen t i n healt h conditions , an d tha t th e me n leavin g th e island s afte r a regula r tou r o f mor e tha n tw o year s presen t a fa r bette r appearanc e tha n thos e o f th e incoming . Th e deat h rat e amon g America n civilian s i n Manil a fo r th e fiscal yea r endin g Jun e 30 , 1907 , wa s 5.5 9 pe r thousand , a reductio n fro m th e previou s year . Th e deat h rat e amon g Filipino s thi s yea r i n Manil a wa s 36. 9 pe r thousan d an d amon g Spaniard s 15.84 , bot h re duction s fro m th e previou s year . Durin g th e decad e o f ou r sta y i n th e islands , th e condition s o f lif e fo r American s hav e steadil y bettered . W e hav e becom e ac quainte d wit h hygieni c method s o f living , an d th e deat h rat e o f Amer ican s o f th e sam e socia l conditio n i n th e Philippine s i s certainl y no t greate r tha n i n th e citie s o f th e Souther n States , an d is , a s w e hav e seen , ver y muc h les s tha n tha t amon g Filipinos . I f th e Unite d State s i s t o continu e it s governmenta l relation s wit h th e Philippine s fo r mor e tha n a generation , an d it s busines s an d socia l relation s indefinitely , th e fac t tha t American s ca n liv e healthfu l live s i n th e Philippine s i s importan t o f itself ; bu t I hav e cite d thes e sta tistic s an d thi s exper t opinio n t o sho w mor e tha n this— I believ e tha t i t ha s a n importan t bearin g upo n anothe r kin d o f progres s possibl e amon g th e Filipin o people , an d tha t i t open s anothe r importan t field o f educatio n fo r th e America n governmen t t o cultivat e i n th e islands . N o on e ca n b e m th e Philippine s lon g withou t realizin g tha t a s a rac e th e Filipino s ar e smal l o f stature , sligh t o f fram e an d flesh, an d wit h smal l power s o f resistanc e t o epidemi c diseases . I t ha s bee n sup pose d tha t becaus e o f thei r nativit y th e Filipino s wer e no t subjec t t o th e malarial , intestinal , an d dysenteri c trouble s tha t afflic t American s an d Europeans , an d tha t measure s take n t o avoi d o r cur e suc h trouble s i n th e cas e o f th e foreigne r wer e unnecessar y an d superfluou s wit h th e Filipinos . Recen t investigation s o f a systemati c kind , carrie d o n b y keepin g comparativ e statistic s o f al l th e officia l autopsie s mad e i n th e islands , see m t o sho w tha t th e assumptio n tha t th e Filipino s ar e im mun e fro m th e form s o f diseas e I hav e mentione d i s withou t founda tion . Th e autopsie s o f 10 0 case s showe d i n a grea t majorit y th e germ s o f malaria , o f amoebi c dysentery , an d tha t microb e o f th e so-calle d " laz y " diseas e o f Port o Ric o know n a s th e "hookworm. " I t i s tru e

PAGE 53

51 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . tha t th e disease s wer e no t activ e o r acute , bu t thei r presenc e i n th e syste m o f cours e weakene d th e constitutio n o f th e subjec t an d coul d easil y explai n hi s anaemi c condition , hi s smallnes s o f stature , an d smal l power s o f resistance . Malaria , o f course , i s produce d o r a t leas t transmitte d b y th e mosquito , whil e amoebi c dysenter y an d th e " laz y " diseas e ar e water-born e an d procee d directl y fro m th e miserabl e source s o f wate r suppl y i n mos t Filipin o towns . Prope r precaution s ca n avoi d al l these ; o r a t leas t ca n greatl y reduc e th e numbe r o f victims . I n Manila , 6 0 pe r cen t o f al l infant s bor n di e durin g th e first yea r o f thei r lives , an d ther e i s n o reaso n t o believ e tha t infan t mortalit y i n othe r part s o f th e island s i s less . Thi s frightfu l percentag e i s brough t abou t b y ignoranc e an d neglec t o f th e mother s i n feedin g thei r babies . Ther e ar e ver y fe w i f an y milc h cow s i n th e islands , an d th e littl e one s ar e fe d wit h al l sort s o f impossibl e things . The y di e generall y o f a lac k o f nourishment . Ther e i s n o reaso n why , i f th e mother s wer e correctl y taugh t an d prope r infan t foo d wer e brough t withi n th e reac h o f th e poor , thi s awfu l rat e o f infan t mortalit y migh t no t b e reduced . No t onl y i s ther e a n actua l los s o f lif e whic h migh t b e avoided , bu t th e babie s whic h liv e throug h suc h treatmen t an d nourishmen t ar e no t ap t t o mak e stron g me n an d women , bu t ar e likel y t o becom e victim s o f anaemi a an d othe r disease s mentione d a s show n i n th e autopsie s I hav e referre d to . I d o no t thin k i t i s unjus t t o th e Spanis h regim e i n th e Philippine s t o sa y tha t ver y littl e i f an y attentio n wa s pai d t o sanitatio n accord in g t o moder n methods . I n th e cit y o f Manil a an d i n th e othe r larg e town s o f th e island s th e America n militar y medica l authorities , wh o wer e th e first t o assum e responsibilit y fo r th e healt h o f th e islands , foun d th e sam e utte r disregar d o f th e prope r rule s fo r th e dis positio n o f hous e sewag e tha t wa s foun d i n Habana . Thousands , yes , ten s o f thousands , o f Filipino s wer e carrie d of f yea r afte r yea r b y a peculiarl y virulen t typ e o f smallpox . I n Manila , i n Cebu , an d i n Nuev a Caceres , respectively , wer e lepe r hospitals , bu t i n eac h th e managemen t wa s inefficien t an d th e car e o f th e inmate s poor . Mor e tha n this , n o supervisio n wa s exercise d t o isolat e leper s no t i n hospitals . Som e time s th e poo r creature s wer e drive n ou t o f village s b y popula r riot s an d herde d togethe r wit h n o prope r foo d an d n o shelter . Th e contac t o f leper s wit h th e peopl e o f cours e onl y increase d th e numbe r o f case s o f th e drea d disease . I n 188 5 o r 188 6 th e island s wer e visite d b y a n epidemi c o f choler a an d th e prostratio n o f th e peopl e o f Manil a an d th e Philippines , du e t o th e rapi d sprea d o f th e scourge , beggare d description . I n Manil a th e death s wer e 1,00 0 o r mor e a da y fro m tha t caus e alon e fo r a num be r o f weeks . Th e trad e proximit y o f Manila , Iloilo , an d Cebu , t o China , India , Java , Burma , an d th e Strait s Settlements , make s th e

PAGE 54

5 2 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . dange r o f transmittin g tropica l an d othe r infectiou s disease s very muc h greater . Quarantin e i n Spanis h time s wa s lax . Th e America n Arm y med ica l authoritie s too k hol d o f th e matte r o f sanitatio n i n thei r usua l vigorou s wa y an d mad e muc h progres s i n th e matte r o f quarantin e an d i n correctin g th e glaringl y insanitar y condition s i n Manila . Bu t i t remaine d fo r th e civi l governmen t t o effec t a thoroug h organizatio n o f a healt h departmen t whic h coul d d o permanen t good . Th e introductio n o f sanitar y method s b y la w amon g th e peopl e ha s give n ris e t o mor e dissatisfactio n an d greate r criticis m o f th e governmen t tha n an y othe r on e cause . Th e trut h i s tha t th e peopl e hav e t o b e educate d i n th e effectivenes s o f suc h method s befor e the y ca n becom e reconcile d t o them , an d th e wor k o f th e healt h depart men t sinc e th e beginnin g o f th e civi l governmen t i n 190 1 ha s bee n obstructed , first , b y th e inerti a an d indifferenc e o f th e peopl e i n re spec t t o th e matter , an d second , b y thei r activ e resistanc e t o affirma tiv e restraint s upo n the m necessar y t o preven t disease . Th e figh t agains t smallpo x ha s bee n s o successfu l tha t i n th e pas t yea r no t a singl e deat h fro m i t occurre d i n Manila , an d i n th e prov ince s o f Cavite , Batangas , Cebu , Rizal , Bataan , L a Lagun a an d L a Union , where , heretofor e ther e hav e bee n approximatel y 6,00 0 death s pe r yea r no t on e wa s reported . I n th e fe w place s i n othe r province s wher e smallpo x appeare d i t mad e littl e headway . Mor e tha n 2,000, 00 0 vaccination s agains t smallpo x wer e performe d las t year , an d vaccinatio n i s bein g carrie d o n s o tha t i t wil l reac h ever y inhabitan t o f th e islands . I n 190 2 Asiati c choler a appeared . Th e los s th e firs t yea r b y reaso n o f th e method s introduce d wa s muc h les s tha n i t ha d bee n fiftee n o r sixtee n year s before , bu t grea t difficult y wa s encountere d i n puttin g int o forc e th e healt h regulation s an d a futil e attemp t wa s mad e t o establis h quarantin e betwee n localitie s i n th e islands . Sinc e tha t tim e a bette r syste m o f isolatio n an d stampin g ou t th e diseas e i n th e local it y wher e i t appeare d ha s bee n followed , an d i t i s gratifyin g t o not e tha t althoug h th e drea d diseas e appeare d eac h year , i t wa s finall y brough t t o a n en d o n Novembe r 27,1906 , an d th e authoritie s no w fee l tha t th e peopl e hav e bee n s o thoroughl y rouse d t o th e bes t method s o f treatin g th e diseas e tha t an y loca l reappearanc e o f i t ca n b e readil y suppressed . I n 190 2 o r 190 3 th e buboni c plagu e appeare d i n th e islands . Thi s ha s bee n suppresse d b y th e isolatio n o f al l person s sufferin g fro m th e diseas e an d th e destructio n o f plague-infecte d rat s s o tha t durin g ' th e las t yea r ther e wer e n o case s o f buboni c plagu e whatever . Whe n th e American s firs t bega n governmen t i n th e Philippine s i t ; wa s reporte d tha t lepros y wa s s o widel y extende d i n th e island s tha t : ther e wer e probabl y fro m 25,00 0 t o 50,00 0 leper s t o b e care d for . j

PAGE 55

53 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Afte r man y unsuccessfu l effort s a lepe r colon y ha s finally bee n estab lishe d a t Culion , a healthfu l an d attractiv e islan d betwee n Pana y an d Palawan , t o whic h al l th e leper s o f th e island s ar e no w bein g graduall y removed . Th e numbe r prt)babl y doe s no t excee d 3,000 . Th e cours e pursue d i s t o tak e eac h provinc e separatel y an d b y thoroug h investigatio n o f th e reporte d case s o f lepers , determin e thos e o f tru e lepros y an d t o remov e the m thenc e t o th e colon y o f Culion . Th e experimen t a t first wa s a doubtfu l on e becaus e o f th e objectio n o f th e leper s t o bein g take n s o fa r awa y fro m thei r homes , an d som e o f th e friend s o f leper s mad e vigorou s objection s t o thi s course . Afte r th e remova l o f th e first 500 , however , an d whe n the y foun d ho w comfortabl e an d agreeabl e lif e a t Culio n was , th e objec tion s ceased . Lepros y a s a diseas e usuall y doe s no t directl y kil l it s victims , bu t i t s o weaken s th e power s o f thei r resistanc e tha t th e rat e o f mortalit y fro m othe r cause s amon g leper s i s ver y high . Th e sys te m o f isolatio n an d withdrawin g leper s fro m th e thickl y populate d communitie s ha s bee n a t onc e justifie d b y th e reductio n i n th e numbe r o f ne w case . Th e numbe r o f know n leper s i n th e archipelag o o n Sep tembe r 1,1905 , wa s 3,580 ; o n Jun e 30,1907 , i t wa s 2,826 , a decreas e o f 654 , du e t o th e deat h o f th e know n leper s withou t an y sprea d o f th e diseas e a s ha d bee n th e cas e i n previou s year s an d unde r differen t con ditions . Th e polic y o f remova l o f leper s i s on e whic h ca n onl y b e carrie d ou t graduall y an d ha s bee n applie d onl y t o a par t o f th e provinces , bu t i t wil l probabl y b e complete d i n thre e o r fou r year s whe n al l th e leper s wil l b e remove d t o Culio n an d th e effec t o f thi s isolatio n wil l certainl y b e t o reduc e th e infectio n o f healthfu l person s wit h th e awfu l diseas e t o a minimum . Th e fruitfu l sourc e o f th e sprea d o f amoebi c dysenter y i s th e drink in g o f impur e water . Th e wate r suppl y o f Manil a i s draw n fro m th e Mariquin a Rive r afte r i t ha s passe d throug h thre e o r fou r thickl y populate d town s an d a n immens e amoun t o f troubl e an d labo r ha s bee n expende d i n tryin g t o preserv e th e rive r fro m contaminatio n b y thes e towns . Militar y force s »hav e bee n pickete d alon g th e bank s an d th e mos t stringen t regulation s hav e bee n enforce d agains t th e inhabit ants . Muc h ha s bee n accomplishe d i n thi s matter , bu t stil l th e wate r i s dangerou s t o drin k unles s boile d an d filtered. Wit h a vie w t o th e remova l o f thi s difficulty , ne w waterwork s ar e i n th e proces s o f build in g a t a cos t t o th e cit y o f Manil a o f abou t tw o million s o f dollars . Th e wate r i s t o b e draw n fro m a poin t ver y muc h farthe r u p th e Mari quin a River , a t a distanc e o f abou t 2 5 mile s fro m Manila , an d i s t o b e accumulate d i n a reservoi r b y dammin g th e rive r a t a poin t wher e natur e apparentl y intende d a da m t o b e put . Pur e mountai n wate r wil l thu s b e obtaine d whic h i s t o b e carrie d t o th e cit y o f Manil a simpl y b y th e powe r o f gravity . Th e ne w improvemen t i s 8 0 pe r cen t don e an d wate r wil l flow int o th e cit y probabl y b y Jul y o f 1908 .

PAGE 56

5 4 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . I n additio n t o thi s a ne w sewe r syste m ha s bee n projecte d an d i s unde r constructio n i n th e cit y o f Manil a an d 1 8 mile s o f th e dee p an d mai n trun k sewer s hav e bee n lai d i n th e city . Th e mileag e o f th e remainde r o f th e sewer s i s ver y muc h greater , bu t th e enginee r esti mate s tha t abou t hal f o f th e wor k ha s bee n done . Th e projec t con template s th e establishmen t o f reservoir s an d th e pumpin g o f sewag e ou t int o th e ba y a t suc h a distanc e a s t o preven t it s retainin g an y noxiou s character . Th e difficult y o f sewerin g Manil a ca n b e under stoo d whe n i t i s know n tha t th e leve l o f th e groun d i n th e cit y i s onl y a fe w fee t abov e hig h wate r mark . Wit h th e completio n o f th e wate r an d sewe r system s an d th e canalizatio n o f th e estero s o r canals , wit h whic h th e cit y i s threaded , a wor k whic h i s projecte d an d whic h wil l cos t abou t $400,000 , ther e i s n o doub t tha t Manil a wil l becom e a s healthfu l a tropica l cit y a s ther e i s i n th e world . Th e ver y hig h deat h rat e i n th e cit y i s du e t o th e frightfu l mortal it y amon g th e nativ e infant s unde r 1 yea r o f ag e alread y allude d to . Th e absenc e o f pur e mil k fo r babe s i n th e Philippine s account s fo r a goo d dea l o f thi s mortality , an d a charitabl e organizatio n ha s bee n establishe d fo r th e circulatio n a t reasonabl e cos t o f mil k fo r infant s amon g bot h th e poo r an d ric h classes . Th e destructio n o f al l th e horne d cattl e b y rinderpes t ha s reduce d th e suppl y o f mil k an d mad e i t expensive . Thi s add s greatl y t o th e difficult y presented . Th e lac k o f nourishmen t make s th e chil d a n eas y victi m t o an y disease , an d unti l Filipin o mother s ar e taugh t properl y t o brin g u p thei r chil dren , w e ma y expec t thi s infan t mortalit y t o continue , bu t i t i s subjec t t o cure , an d th e method s adopte d b y th e governmen t an d th e charitabl e organizations , includin g th e churches , whos e interes t i s aroused , ma y b e depende d o n t o brin g abou t a refor m i n thi s matter . I t i s a fac t tha t throughou t th e island s too , a grea t dea l o f th e mortality , amon g bot h childre n an d adults , i s du e t o water-born e diseases . Th e suppl y o f wate r i n eac h villag e i s generall y contami nate d an d noxious . Th e governmen t ha s take n step s t o induc e ever y tow n t o sin k artesia n well s fo r th e purpos e o f givin g it s inhabitant s pur e water . Severa l well-borin g machine s hav e bee n purchase d b y th e governmen t an d hav e bee n offere d t o th e town s fo r us e b y the m o n conditio n o f thei r supplyin g th e fue l an d th e labo r necessary . Whereve r artesia n well s hav e bee n sun k an d a goo d suppl y o f wate r found , th e deat h rat e i n th e tow n ha s bee n reduce d 5 0 pe r cent . Wit h a knowledg e o f th e effectivenes s o f thi s remedy , i t i s certai n tha t th e governmen t wil l continu e t o pres s upo n th e town s th e necessit y o f th e comparativel y smal l expenditur e necessar y t o secur e prope r water , fo r i t appear s tha t i n mos t town s i n th e island s artesia n wate r i s available . Ther e i s n o reaso n wh y th e whol e Filipin o rac e ma y no t b e mad e stronge r an d bette r b y th e pursui t o f prope r sanitar y method s wit h

PAGE 57

55 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . respec t t o th e ordinar y function s o f life . Th e sprea d o f education , th e knowledg e o f caus e an d effec t i n thi s matter , togethe r wit h th e sympatheti c assistanc e an d regulatio n o f th e governmen t ar e al l tha t i s neede d t o ri d th e Filipin o o f th e obstruction s t o bodil y growt h an d strengt h whic h injuriou s microbe s an d bacteri a livin g i n th e bod y no w create . Th e burea u o f healt h an d th e burea u o f science , whic h ha s activel y aide d th e burea u o f healt h i n th e investigation s made , hav e no w commende d themselve s t o th e Filipin o peopl e i n suc h a wa y tha t ther e i s ever y reaso n t o hop e tha t th e foundatio n fo r bette r healt h i n th e island s ha s bee n permanentl y laid . Th e governmen t ha s thi s yea r establishe d an d begu n a Governmen t Medica l School , th e facult y o f whic h i s mad e u p partl y o f Filipino s an d partl y o f Americans , an d th e mos t moder n method s o f instructio n ar e projected . A fine laboratory , alread y erecte d nea r th e plac e wher e th e medica l schoo l buildin g i s t o b e constructe d an d a genera l govern men t hospita l i n th e immediat e neighborhoo d wil l furnis h a nucleu s fo r th e stud y o f tropica l disease s an d th e prope r method s o f sanita tion . Th e graduate s o f thi s colleg e a s the y gro w i n numbe r an d sprea d al l ove r th e island s int o region s mos t o f whic h hav e never , know n a physicia n a t al l wil l greatl y contribut e t o th e physica l chang e an d developmen t fo r th e bette r o f th e Filipino . Th e healt h departmen t ha s bee n exceedingl y expensive , an d th e amoun t take n fro m th e treasur y eac h yea r ha s bee n subjec t t o muc h criticism , bu t th e result s ar e s o gratifyin g tha t eve n th e mos t cap tiou s seem s no w willin g t o admi t tha t th e expenditur e wa s wise , prudent , an d justified . A mos t thoroug h quarantin e ha s bee n estab lishe d an d maintaine d unde r th e auspice s o f th e Unite d State s Pub li c Healt h an d Marine-Hospita l Servic e i n th e port s o f entr y i n th e islands . A s i s wel l understoo d no w th e mosquit o i s th e mean s o f communica tin g malari a an d yello w feve r an d othe r diseases . I t i s suppose d tha t th e Stegomyi a mosquito , whic h carrie s th e yello w fever , i s foun d i n th e Philippines , althoug h n o cas e o f th e feve r ha s eve r occurre d i n th e Islands . Th e importanc e o f th e mosquit o i n th e Philippine s i s con fined t o malari a a t present . Varietie s o f th e insec t carryin g mos t malignan t malari a ar e foun d t o generat e i n th e salt-wate r marshes , thoug h ordinaril y i t ha s bee n suppose d tha t th e Anophele s mosquit o conveyin g malari a generate d onl y i n fres h water . Th e we t seaso n seem s t o interfer e wit h th e operation s o f th e mosquit o b y throwin g s o muc h wate r int o th e stream s a s t o preven t th e stagnatio n necessar y t o thei r successfu l propagation . A singula r instanc e o f thi s i s foun d i n th e ol d walle d cit y o f Manila . Th e ol d walle d cit y ha s a sewe r syste m fo r stor m o r surface-wate r drainage . Durin g th e we t seaso n ther e i s practicall y n o malari a i n th e walle d city , bu t durin g th e dr y seaso n ther e i s a grea t deal . I t ha s bee n foun d tha t i n th e dr y

PAGE 58

5 6 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . seaso n i n th e absenc e o f rain y weathe r th e sewer s contai n stagnan t pool s i n whic h th e Anophele s mosquit o i s generate d i n grea t number s an d thu s carrie s o n hi s busines s o f conveyin g malari a fro m on e inhab itan t o f th e walle d cit y t o another , wherea s i n th e rain y seaso n th e sewer s ar e flushed al l th e tim e an d ther e i s n o opportunit y t o th e mos quit o t o propagate . Measure s hav e no w bee n take n t o flush th e sewer s o f th e walle d cit y i n th e dr y seaso n an d ri d th e inhabitant s o f thi s pes t unti l th e ne w sewe r syste m shal l b e pu t i n operation , whe n th e evi l ca n b e entirel y eradicated . BENGUET . A HEALT H RESORT . I n al l th e tropica l countrie s i n whic h civilize d governmen t ha s bee n establishe d an d progres s mad e towar d th e bettermen t o f condition s o f huma n life , place s hav e bee n foun d an d settlement s effecte d i n hig h altitude s wher e th e condition s approximat e i n atmospher e an d climat e thos e o f th e Temperat e Zone . Thi s i s tru e i n India , i n Cey lon , i n Java , an d whereve r ther e ar e neighborin g mountain s whic h offe r th e opportunity . Th e Philippine s ar e fortunat e i n havin g a territor y i n Luzo n i n th e mountain s o f a n altitud e rangin g fro m 4,50 0 t o 7,00 0 feet , a rollin g countr y filled wit h grove s o f pin e tree s an d grass , i n whic h th e temperatur e rarel y goe s belo w 40 ° an d neve r goe s abov e 80 ° i n th e shade . Th e provinc e containin g mos t o f thi s territor y i s calle d " Benguet. " Simila r climat e i s foun d i n th e adjoinin g province s o f Lepant o an d Bontoc . Th e railwa y fro m Manil a t o Dagupa n ha s no w bee n extende d t o wha t i s calle d " Cam p No . 1, " a distanc e o f 2 2 mile s fro m Baguio , th e chie f tow n i n Benguet , wher e i s th e govern men t sanitariu m an d othe r place s o f resor t an d cure . A t th e cos t o f abou t tw o million s o f dollars , th e governmen t ha s constructe d a fine roa d u p th e gorg e o f th e Bue d Rive r t o a heigh t o f 5,00 0 feet . Th e wor k woul d probabl y neve r hav e bee n entere d upon , ha d i t bee n suppose d tha t i t woul d b e s o costly , bu t no w tha t i t i s done , an d wel l done , th e advantage s accruin g an d soo n t o accrue , justif y th e expendi ture . Th e representative s o f al l th e churche s i n th e island s hav e take n lot s an d ar e puttin g u p buildings , hospital s o f variou s kind s ar e t o b e erected , ther e i s a sanitarium , th e Commissio n hold s par t o f it s ses sion s there , an d i t i s hope d tha t th e assembl y wil l se e fit t o d o th e sam e thing . A grea t man y Filipino s recuperat e b y goin g t o Japa n o r Europe , bu t her e withi n eas y distanc e o f Manil a wil l b e offere d a n opportunit y wher e th e sam e kin d o f revitalizin g atmospher e ma y b e foun d a s i n a temperat e climate . Th e Filipino s wer e a t first dis pose d t o criticis e th e expenditur e o n th e groun d tha t th e roa d wa s buil t solel y fo r th e fe w America n official s wh o expecte d t o liv e ther e a larg e par t o f thei r time . Th e lot s wer e offere d a t publi c auctio n an d a grea t man y wer e purchase d b y Filipinos , an d

PAGE 59

57 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . no w i t i s generall y understoo d tha t th e valu e o f suc h a plac e i n th e Philippin e Island s ha s impresse d itsel f upo n th e Filipin o publi c a t large . Th e presen t necessit y i s th e constructio n o f a railroa d fro m Cam p No . 1 directl y int o Bagui o an d step s hav e bee n take n t o brin g thi s about . A larg e militar y reservatio n ha s bee n se t asid e whic h i t i s hope d ma y b e mad e int o a brigad e pos t fo r th e re cuperatio n o f ou r soldier s whil e i n th e Philippines . Th e railroa d i s likel y t o hav e th e patronag e o f thos e wh o spen d par t o f thei r tim e a t Baguio , goin g an d comin g fro m Manil a an d othe r part s o f th e islands , an d als o wit h th e constructio n o f a goo d hote l i n Manil a an d anothe r on e a t Bagui o ther e i s no t th e slightes t reaso n t o doub t tha t a larg e touris t patronag e wil l b e invite d fo r bot h places . Mean tim e th e health-givin g influenc e o f th e climat e a t Bagui o ca n no t bu t exercis e a goo d effec t upo n th e youn g Filipinos'wh o ma y b e sen t ther e t o b e educate d an d upo n thos e Filipino s wh o hav e bee n subjec t t o tropica l disease s an d hav e th e tim e an d mean s fo r visitin g thi s mountai n resort . Wit h th e constructio n o f a railroad , transportatio n t o Bagui o ma y b e mad e exceedingl y reasonabl e an d sanitarium s buil t whic h wil l furnis h fo r ver y moderat e cos t a healthfu l regime n an d diet . Bengue t i s reall y a par t o f th e syste m o f governmen t sanita tio n an d ma y properl y b e mentione d i n connectio n wit h i t here . Comparative mortality from January 1, 1901, to September 30, 1907. 1901 . 190 2 1903 . 1904 . Month . Numbe r Annua l Numbe r Annua l Numbe r Annua l Numbe r Annua l o f deat h rat e o f deat h rat e o f deat h rat e o f deat h rat e deaths . pe r 1,000 . deaths . pe r 1,000 . deaths . pe r 1,000 . deaths . pe r 1,000 . Januar y 75 3 a 36.2 5 76 0 a 36.5 8 60 2 a 28.9 8 79 6 6 42.6 4 Februar y .. . 68 9 a 36.7 2 70 6 a 37.6 3 51 1 a 27.2 3 70 9 6 40.5 9 Marc h 88 5 a 42.6 6 77 0 a 37.0 6 53 9 a 25.9 4 75 1 6 40.2 3 Apri l 88 6 a 44.0 7 1,32 7 1,68 8 a 66.0 1 54 9 a 27.3 1 74 8 6 41.4 0 Ma y 90 3 a 43.4 7 1,32 7 1,68 8 a 81.2 6 77 0 a 37.0 6 76 6 641.0 3 Jun e 62 1 a 30.8 9 1,41 8 a 70.5 4 59 2 a 29.4 5 80 0 644.2 8 Jul y 60 8 a 29.2 7 2,22 3 a 107.0 2 62 0 6 33.2 1 86 6 6 46.3 9 Augus t 70 2 a 33 . 7 9 1,71 2 a 82.4 2 86 2 6 46.1 7 1,03 2 655.2 8 September. . 76 7 a 38.1 5 1,13 2 a 56 . 3 1 1,22 8 6 67.9 7 1,06 4 6 58.8 9 Octobe r 85 5 a 41.1 6 92 7 a 44.6 2 1,21 7 6 65.1 9 1,01 8 6 54.5 3 Novembe r . . 84 8 a 42.1 8 1,03 5 a 51.4 8 97 4 6 63 . 9 1 95 7 6 52.9 7 December.. . 85 8 a 41.3 0 75 3 a 36.2 5 89 4 6 47.8 9 79 4 6 42.5 3 Numbe r o f deaths . Annua l deat h rat e pe r 1,000 . Numbe r o f deaths . Annua l deat h rat e pe r 1,000 . Numbe r o f deaths . Januar y . . Februar y . Marc h — Apri l Ma y Jun e Jul y Augus t Septembe r October.. . Novembe r December . 68 5 60 8 56 3 53 0 52 6 59 3 74 7 84 1 1,01 3 85 0 94 4 84 1 636.0 5 630.1 5 629.3 2 628.1 6 632.8 1 640.0 0 645.0 3 656.0 6 645.5 1 652.2 4 645.0 3 73 7 59 5 60 0 55 5 60 0 69 3 1,45 1 1,18 2 83 5 68 4 65 3 59 7 6 39.4 7 6 35.2 8 6 32.1 3 6 30.2 7 6 32.1 3 636.7 2 6 77.7 2 6 63.3 1 646.2 2 6 36.6 4 6 36.1 4 6 31.9 8 a Deat h rat e compute d o n populatio n o f 244,73 2 (healt h department' s census) . 6 Deat h rat e compute d o n populatio n o f 219,94 1 (officia l census , 1903) . o Deat h rat e compute d o n populatio n o f 223,54 2 (healt h census , 1907) .

PAGE 60

5 8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Mortality compared with same period of previous years. Firs t quarter . Secon d quarter . Thir d quarter . Fourt h quarter . Numbe r Annua l Numbe r Annua l Numbe r Annua l Numbe r Annua l o f deat h rat e o f deat h rat e o f deat h rat e o f deat h rat e deaths . pe r 1,000 . deaths . pe r 1,000 . deaths . pe r 1,000 . deaths . pe r 1,000 . 190 1 2,32 7 42.9 3 2,41 0 43.9 7 2,07 7 47.4 9 2,56 1 46.2 2 190 2 2,23 6 41.2 5 4,43 3 80.8 9 5,06 7 91.4 6 2,71 5 29.0 0 190 3 1,65 2 30.4 8 1,91 1 34.8 7 2,71 0 48.9 1 3,08 5 55.6 8 190 4 2,25 6 41.1 6 2,31 4 42.2 2 2,96 2 53.4 6 2,76 9 49.9 8 190 5 1,85 6 34.2 4 1,64 9 30.0 9 2,60 1 46.9 4 2,63 5 1,93 4 47.5 6 190 6 1,93 2 35.6 4 1,84 8 33.7 2 3,46 8 62.5 9 2,63 5 1,93 4 34.9 0 190 7 1,56 9 28.4 8 1,28 0 22.9 8 1,93 6 34.3 8 28.4 8 1,28 0 22.9 8 1,93 6 34.3 8 MATERIA L PROGRES S AN D BUSINES S CONDITIONS . I com e no w t o materia l condition s i n th e island s an d th e progres s tha t ha s bee n mad e i n respec t t o them . Whil e ther e i s reaso n t o hop e tha t th e minin g industr y ma y b e ver y muc h improve d an d developed , th e futur e o f th e island s i s almos t wholl y involve d i n th e developmen t o f it s agricultura l resources , an d th e busines s o f th e island s mus t necessaril y depen d o n th e questio n o f ho w muc h it s inhabitant s ca n ge t ou t o f th e ground . I n bringin g abou t th e reform s an d makin g th e progres s whic h I hav e bee n detailing , th e governmen t ha s ha d t o mee t disadvantageou s condition s i n respec t t o agricultur e tha t ca n hardl y b e exaggerated . Th e chie f product s o f th e island s ar e abaca , o r Manil a hem p a s i t i s generall y called , th e fiber o f a fruitles s variet y o f banan a plant ; cocoanuts , generall y i n th e for m o f th e drie d cocoanu t mea t calle d " copra; " sugar , exporte d i n a for m havin g th e lowes t degre e o f po larizatio n know n i n commerce , an d tobacc o exporte d i n th e lea f an d als o i n cigar s an d cigarettes . Ther e ar e othe r export s o f course , bu t thes e for m th e bul k o f th e merchantabl e product s o f th e islands . I n additio n t o these , an d i n exces s o f mos t o f the m excep t hemp , i s th e productio n o f ric e whic h constitute s th e stapl e foo d o f th e inhabit ants . Som e year s befor e th e American s cam e t o th e island s th e pro ductio n o f ric e ha d diminishe d i n exten t becaus e th e hem p fiber gre w s o muc h i n deman d tha t i t wa s foun d t o b e mor e profitabl e t o rais e hem p an d bu y th e ric e fro m abroad . I n th e first fe w year s o f th e America n occupation , however , durin g th e insurrectio n an d th e contin uanc e o f th e guerrill a warfare , an d finally th e prevalenc e o f ladron ism , man y o f th e ric e fields la y idl e an d th e importatio n o f ric e reache d th e enormou s figure o f twelv e million s o f dollar s gold , o r abou t four-tenth s o f th e tota l imports . Wit h th e restoratio n o f bette r conditions , th e productio n i n ric e ha s increase d s o tha t th e amoun t o f ric e no w importe d i s onl y abou t $3,500,00 0 i n gold , an d th e differ enc e betwee n th e tw o importation s doubtles s measure s th e increase d nativ e productio n o f th e cereal .

PAGE 61

59 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Durin g th e si x year s o f America n occupanc y unde r th e civi l gov ernmen t agricultur e ha s bee n subjec t t o th e violen t destruc tio n whic h i s mor e o r les s characteristi c o f al l tropica l countries . Th e typhoon s hav e damage d th e cocoanu t trees , the y hav e a t time s destroye d o r ver y muc h affecte d th e hem p production , an d drough t ha s injure d th e ric e a s wel l a s th e cocoanuts . Th e characte r o f th e tobacc o lea f ha s deteriorate d muc h becaus e o f a lac k o f car e i n it s cultivatio n du e t o th e loos e an d careles s habit s o f agricultur e cause d b y wa r an d ladronism , an d locust s hav e a t time s cleare d th e fields o f othe r crop s withou t leavin g anythin g fo r th e foo d o f th e cultivators . Th e grea t disaste r t o th e islands , however , ha s bee n th e rinderpest , whic h carrie d awa y i n tw o o r thre e year s 7 5 o r 8 0 pe r cen t o f al l draf t cattl e i n th e islands . Thi s wa s a blo w unde r whic h th e agricul tur e o f th e island s ha s bee n strugglin g fo r no w fou r o r five years . At tempt s wer e made , unde r th e generou s legislatio n o f Congres s ap propriatin g thre e million s o f dollar s t o remed y th e los s i f possible , t o brin g i n cattl e fro m othe r countries , bu t i t wa s foun d tha t th e cattl e brough t i n no t bein g acclimate d died , mos t o f the m befor e the y coul d b e transferre d t o th e farm , an d the n to o the y onl y adde d t o th e diffi cult y o f th e situatio n b y bringin g ne w disease s int o th e Philippines . I t ha s bee n foun d tha t nothin g ca n restor e forme r condition s excep t th e natura l breedin g o f th e survivors , an d i n thi s wa y i t wil l certainl y tak e five o r si x year s mor e t o restor e matter s t o thei r norma l condi tion . Meantime , o f course , othe r mean s ar e sough t an d encourage d fo r transportatio n an d fo r plowing . Th e difficult y i n th e us e o f horse s is'tha t a n India n diseas e calle d th e " surra, " whic h i t ha s bee n impossibl e t o cure , ha s carrie d of f 5 0 pe r cen t o f th e horse s o f th e islands . Considerin g thes e difficulties , i t seem s t o m e wonderfu l tha t th e export s fro m th e island s hav e s o fa r exceede d th e export s i n Spanis h time s an d hav e bee n s o wel l maintaine d tha t las t yea r ther e wa s mor e exporte d fro m th e island s tha n eve r befor e i n th e histor y o f th e Philippines , a s wil l b e see n fro m th e followin g table : Value of Philippine exports, 1903-1907 of American occupation. Fisca l year. " Hemp . Sugar . Tobacc o an d manu factures . Copra . Al l other . Total . Dollars. 19 0 3 21,701,57 5 190 4 21,794,96 0 19 0 5 22,146,24 1 19 0 6 19,446,76 9 19 0 7 21,085,08 1 Dollars. 3,955,56 8 2,668,50 7 4,977,02 6 4,863,86 5 3 , 934,46 0 Dollars. 1,882,01 8 2,013,28 7 1.999.19 3 2,389,89 0 3.129.19 4 Dollars. 4,473,02 9 2,527,01 9 2,095,35 5 4,043,11 5 4,053,19 3 Dollars. 1,107,70 9 1,246,85 4 1,134,80 0 1,173,49 5 1,511,42 9 Dollars. 33,119,89 9 30,250,62 7 32 , 352,61 5 31,917,13 4 33 , 713,35 7 Averag e annua l 21,234,92 5 | 4,079,88 5 2,282,71 6 3,438,34 2 1,234,85 7 32,270,72 6 NOTE.—Tota l export s d o no t includ e gol d an d silve r coin .

PAGE 62

6 0 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Th e larges t expor t showin g i n Spanis h times , durin g year s fo r whic h ther e ar e officia l statistics , wa s a s follows : Value of Philippine exports in Spanish times, calendar years 1885-1894. Calenda r year . Hemp . Sugar . Tobacc o an d manu factures . Copra . i Total , in cludin g al l othe r arti cles . 188 5 Dollars. 5,509,75 7 4.340,05 8 8,161,55 0 8,099,42 2 10,402,61 4 Dollars. 8,669,52 2 7,019,97 8 6,156,70 9 6,271,03 0 9,101,02 4 Dollars. 2,297,35 8 2,010,09 3 1,559,07 0 2,449,18 1 2,255,49 4 Dollars. Dollars. 20,551,43 4 20,113,84 7 19,447,99 7 19,404,43 4 25,671,32 2 188 6 Dollars. 5,509,75 7 4.340,05 8 8,161,55 0 8,099,42 2 10,402,61 4 Dollars. 8,669,52 2 7,019,97 8 6,156,70 9 6,271,03 0 9,101,02 4 Dollars. 2,297,35 8 2,010,09 3 1,559,07 0 2,449,18 1 2,255,49 4 5,78 1 36,80 9 131,34 7 209,82 0 Dollars. 20,551,43 4 20,113,84 7 19,447,99 7 19,404,43 4 25,671,32 2 188 7 Dollars. 5,509,75 7 4.340,05 8 8,161,55 0 8,099,42 2 10,402,61 4 Dollars. 8,669,52 2 7,019,97 8 6,156,70 9 6,271,03 0 9,101,02 4 Dollars. 2,297,35 8 2,010,09 3 1,559,07 0 2,449,18 1 2,255,49 4 5,78 1 36,80 9 131,34 7 209,82 0 Dollars. 20,551,43 4 20,113,84 7 19,447,99 7 19,404,43 4 25,671,32 2 188 8 Dollars. 5,509,75 7 4.340,05 8 8,161,55 0 8,099,42 2 10,402,61 4 Dollars. 8,669,52 2 7,019,97 8 6,156,70 9 6,271,03 0 9,101,02 4 Dollars. 2,297,35 8 2,010,09 3 1,559,07 0 2,449,18 1 2,255,49 4 5,78 1 36,80 9 131,34 7 209,82 0 Dollars. 20,551,43 4 20,113,84 7 19,447,99 7 19,404,43 4 25,671,32 2 188 9 Dollars. 5,509,75 7 4.340,05 8 8,161,55 0 8,099,42 2 10,402,61 4 Dollars. 8,669,52 2 7,019,97 8 6,156,70 9 6,271,03 0 9,101,02 4 Dollars. 2,297,35 8 2,010,09 3 1,559,07 0 2,449,18 1 2,255,49 4 5,78 1 36,80 9 131,34 7 209,82 0 Dollars. 20,551,43 4 20,113,84 7 19,447,99 7 19,404,43 4 25,671,32 2 Averag e annua l 189 0 Dollars. 5,509,75 7 4.340,05 8 8,161,55 0 8,099,42 2 10,402,61 4 Dollars. 8,669,52 2 7,019,97 8 6,156,70 9 6,271,03 0 9,101,02 4 Dollars. 2,297,35 8 2,010,09 3 1,559,07 0 2,449,18 1 2,255,49 4 5,78 1 36,80 9 131,34 7 209,82 0 Dollars. 20,551,43 4 20,113,84 7 19,447,99 7 19,404,43 4 25,671,32 2 Averag e annua l 189 0 7,302,68 0 7,443,65 3 2,114,24 0 76,75 2 21,037,80 7 Averag e annua l 189 0 6,925,56 4 10,323,91 3 6,886.52 6 7,697,16 4 7,243,84 2 7,265,03 0 5,696,74 6 7,768,59 5 10,368,88 3 5 , 17G , 61 7 2,469,03 3 2,150,30 6 2,535,74 0 2,433,30 4 1,576,17 5 85 , 76 4 21,547,54 1 20,878,35 9 19,163,95 0 22,183,22 3 1 6 Al l 84 9 189 1 6,925,56 4 10,323,91 3 6,886.52 6 7,697,16 4 7,243,84 2 7,265,03 0 5,696,74 6 7,768,59 5 10,368,88 3 5 , 17G , 61 7 2,469,03 3 2,150,30 6 2,535,74 0 2,433,30 4 1,576,17 5 85 , 76 4 21,547,54 1 20,878,35 9 19,163,95 0 22,183,22 3 1 6 Al l 84 9 189 2 6,925,56 4 10,323,91 3 6,886.52 6 7,697,16 4 7,243,84 2 7,265,03 0 5,696,74 6 7,768,59 5 10,368,88 3 5 , 17G , 61 7 2,469,03 3 2,150,30 6 2,535,74 0 2,433,30 4 1,576,17 5 743,91 8 414,65 2 1.179.10 1 21,547,54 1 20,878,35 9 19,163,95 0 22,183,22 3 1 6 Al l 84 9 189 3 6,925,56 4 10,323,91 3 6,886.52 6 7,697,16 4 7,243,84 2 7,265,03 0 5,696,74 6 7,768,59 5 10,368,88 3 5 , 17G , 61 7 2,469,03 3 2,150,30 6 2,535,74 0 2,433,30 4 1,576,17 5 743,91 8 414,65 2 1.179.10 1 21,547,54 1 20,878,35 9 19,163,95 0 22,183,22 3 1 6 Al l 84 9 189 4 6,925,56 4 10,323,91 3 6,886.52 6 7,697,16 4 7,243,84 2 7,265,03 0 5,696,74 6 7,768,59 5 10,368,88 3 5 , 17G , 61 7 2,469,03 3 2,150,30 6 2,535,74 0 2,433,30 4 1,576,17 5 743,91 8 414,65 2 1.179.10 1 21,547,54 1 20,878,35 9 19,163,95 0 22,183,22 3 1 6 Al l 84 9 Averag e annua l 6,925,56 4 10,323,91 3 6,886.52 6 7,697,16 4 7,243,84 2 7,265,03 0 5,696,74 6 7,768,59 5 10,368,88 3 5 , 17G , 61 7 2,469,03 3 2,150,30 6 2,535,74 0 2,433,30 4 1,576,17 5 ' ' 1 Averag e annua l 7,815.40 2 | 7,315,17 4 2,232,91 2 483,30 5 | 20,062,98 3 a Valu e o f cocoanut s included . NOTE.—Figure s ar e take n fro m " Estadistic a genera l de l comerci o exterio r d e la s Isla s Filipinas, " issue d b y th e Spanis h Government . Tota l export s includ e gol d an d silve r coin . Th e chie f expor t i n valu e an d quantit y fro m th e Philippine s i s Manil a hemp , i t amountin g t o betwee n 6 0 an d 6 5 pe r cen t o f th e tota l exports . It s valu e ha s increase d ver y rapidl y o f lat e an d th e resul t ha s bee n tha t muc h inferio r hem p ha s bee n exported , becaus e i t coul d b e produce d mor e cheapl y an d i n greate r quantity . Tha t whic h ha s mad e th e hem p expensiv e an d ha s reduce d th e expor t o f it—fo r larg e quantitie s o f i t ro t i n th e field still—i s th e lac k o f transportatio n an d th e heav y expens e o f th e labo r involve d i n pullin g th e fiber an d free in g i t fro m th e pul p o f th e stem . Severa l machine s hav e bee n in vente d t o d o thi s mechanicall y an d i t seem s likel y no w tha t tw o hav e bee n invente d whic h ma y d o th e work , althoug h the y hav e no t bee n sufficientl y teste d t o mak e thi s certain . Shoul d a light , portable , an d durabl e machin e b e invente d whic h woul d accomplis h this , i t wil l revolutioniz e th e exportatio n o f hem p an d wil l probabl y hav e a ten denc y t o reduc e it s cost , bu t greatl y t o increas e it s us e an d t o develo p th e expor t busines s o f th e Philippin e Island s mos t rapidly . SUGA R AN D TOBACC O REDUCTIO N O F TARIFF . Ther e i s a goo d dea l o f lan d availabl e fo r suga r i n th e Philippines , bu t ther e i s ver y littl e o f i t a s goo d a s tha t i n Cuba , an d th e amoun t o f capita l involve d i n developin g i t i s s o grea t tha t I thin k th e pos sibilit y o f th e extensio n o f th e suga r productio n i s quit e remote . Th e momen t i t expands , th e pric e o f labo r whic h ha s alread y increase d 5 0 t o 7 5 pe r cen t wil l hav e anothe r increase . Al l tha t ca n reall y b e expecte d

PAGE 63

61 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . i s tha t th e suga r industry—an d thi s i s als o tru e o f th e tobacc o indus try—shal l b e restore d t o thei r forme r prosperit y i n th e earlie r Span is h time s whe n th e highes t expor t o f suga r reache d 265,00 0 ton s t o al l th e world . Th e tobacc o industr y need s a carefu l cultivatio n which , unde r presen t conditions , i t i s ver y difficul t t o secure . Th e carelessnes s wit h whic h th e plan t i s grow n an d th e defectiv e characte r o f th e leave s i s suc h a s t o mak e th e manufacturer s o f cigar s an d tobacc o i n Manil a despai r o f usin g th e Philippin e produc t withou t th e additio n o f th e wrapper s eithe r fro m Sumatr a o r th e Unite d States . Al l tha t a frien d o f th e Philippine s ca n hop e fo r i s tha t th e suga r an d tobacc o industrie s shal l regai n thei r forme r reasonabl y prosper ou s conditions . Th e developmen t o f th e island s mus t b e i n anothe r direction . Th e questio n o f labo r an d capita l bot h mus t alway s seri ousl y hampe r th e growt h o f suga r production . No r woul d I regar d i t a s a beneficia l resul t fo r th e Philippin e Island s t o hav e th e fields o f thos e island s turne d exclusivel y t o th e growt h o f sugar . Th e socia l condition s tha t thi s woul d brin g abou t woul d no t promis e wel l fo r th e politica l an d industria l developmen t o f th e people , becaus e th e can e suga r industr y make s a societ y i n whic h ther e ar e wealth y landowner s holdin g ver y larg e estate s wit h mos t valuabl e an d expensiv e plant s an d a larg e populatio n o f unskille d labor , wit h n o smal l farmin g o r middl e clas s tendin g t o buil d u p a conservative , self-respectin g communit y fro m botto m t o top . But , whil e I hav e thi s vie w i n respec t t o th e matter , I a m stil l strongl y o f th e opinio n tha t jus tic e require s tha t th e Unite d State s shoul d ope n he r suga r an d tobacc o market s t o th e Philippines . I a m ver y confiden t tha t suc h a cours e woul d no t injure , b y wa y o f competition , eithe r th e suga r o r th e tobacc o industrie s o f th e Unite d States , bu t tha t i t woul d merel y substitut e Philippin e suga r an d tobacc o fo r a comparativel y smal l par t o f th e suga r an d tobacc o tha t no w come s i n afte r payin g duty . Thei r fre e admissio n int o thi s countr y woul d no t affec t th e price s o f suga r an d tobacc o i n th e Unite d State s a s lon g a s an y sub stantia l amoun t o f thos e commoditie s mus t b e importe d wit h th e ful l dut y pai d i n orde r t o suppl y th e market s o f th e Unite d States . S o confiden t a m I tha t th e development , whic h th e suga r an d tobacc o interest s o f th e Unite d State s fea r i n th e Philippine s fro m a n admissio n o f thos e product s fre e t o th e Unite d States , wil l no t ensu e t o th e injur y o f thos e interest s tha t I woul d no t objec t t o a lim itatio n o n th e amoun t o f suga r an d tobacc o i n it s variou s forms , man ufacture d an d unmanufactured , whic h ma y b e admitte d t o th e Unite d State s fro m th e Philippines , th e limitatio n bein g suc h a reasonabl e amoun t a s woul d admittedl y no t affec t th e pric e o f eithe r commodit y i n th e Unite d State s o r lea d t o a grea t exploitatio n o f th e suga r an d

PAGE 64

6 2 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . tobacc o interest s i n th e islands . Th e fre e admissio n o f suga r an d tobacc o u p t o th e amoun t o f th e propose d limitation , fo r th e purpos e o f restorin g th e forme r prosperit y i n thes e tw o product s t o th e islands , i s ver y important . Ther e ar e tw o o r thre e provinces , notabl y Occi denta l Negro s an d th e islan d o f Iloilo , th e prosperit y o f whic h i s boun d u p i n goo d market s fo r sugar , an d thi s i s tru e als o o f som e part s o f Laguna , Cavite , Bulacan , an d Pampanga , wher e suga r wa s raise d i n th e ol d day s wit h succes s an d profit . I n respec t t o tobacco , th e nee d i s no t s o pressin g becaus e th e territor y i n whic h marketabl e tobacc o cultur e prevail s i s b y n o mean s s o great . Stil l i t doe s affec t thre e provinces , Cagayan , Isabela , an d La Union . FODDER . Th e agricultura l burea u o f th e governmen t ha s bee n devotin g a grea t dea l o f effor t an d tim e an d mone y t o experimentin g i n agri culture . The y hav e mad e man y failure s an d hav e no t ye t succeede d certainl y i n sowin g a gras s whic h wil l properl y cur e an d ma y b e use d fo r hay . I t i s hope d tha t i n certai n o f th e highe r altitude s alfalfa , an d especiall y clover , ma y b e raise d successfully ; an d i f s o th e ver y hig h pric e whic h ha s no w t o b e pai d fo r fodde r importe d fro m Americ a ma y b e avoided . Thi s i s a questio n whic h seriousl y affect s th e cos t o f th e Arm y i n th e Philippines . NE W PLANTS . Throug h th e agricultura l burea u a ne w industr y ha s bee n de veloped , tha t o f raisin g maguey , a plant , th e fiber o f whic h i s muc h les s valuabl e tha n tha t o f Manil a hemp , bu t whic h ha s a goo d marke t wheneve r i t i s produce d i n quantities . Th e rapidit y wit h whic h a grea t dea l o f lan d i n th e Philippine s tha t heretofor e ha s no t bee n capabl e o f profitabl e us e i s no w take n u p wit h th e plantin g o f mague y i s mos t encouraging . Th e plant s ar e bein g distribute d b y th e agri cultura l burea u i n th e islands . TH E FINANCIA L CONDITIO N O F TH E GOVERNMENT . Th e financial conditio n o f th e governmen t i s a s goo d to-da y a s i t eve r ha s been . Th e followin g tabl e show s wha t i t is , an d th e sur plu s o n han d fo r emergencie s i s satisfactory :

PAGE 65

63 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . General account balance sheet of the government of the Philippine Islands for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907. Credit . Surplu s an d deficienc y account : Balanc e fro m previou s year s Exces s revenue s ove r expenditure s . Exces s resource s ove r liabilitie s Carrie d fro m suspens e accoun t Tota l . Insula r revenue s an d expenditures : Custom s revenue s Interna l revenu e Miscellaneou s revenue s Insula r expenditure s Payment s t o province s Losse s unde r sectio n 41 , ac t 140 2 Allowance s unde r sectio n 42 , ac t 140 2 . Inter-burea u transaction s Tota l Exces s revenue s ove r expenditure s . Resource s an d liabilities : Th e insula r treasurer' s cas h balanc e Gold-standar d fun d Surplu s o n custom s auctio n sale s Invali d mone y order s Outstandin g liabilitie s Loan s t o province s Refundabl e expor t dutie s Cit y o f Manil a Outstandin g warrant s Fria r land s fund s Mor o Provinc e Depositar y fun d Silve r certificat e redemptio n fun d Refundabl e interna l revenue s Publi c work s an d permanen t improvemen t fun d Congressiona l relie f fun d Sewe r an d waterwork s constructio n fun d Insula r treasurer' s liabilit y o n unissue d silve r certificates. . Unissue d silve r certificate s Miscellaneou s specia l funds . Provincia l government s Philippin e money-orde r accoun t Unite d State s money-orde r accoun t Bonde d indebtednes s Outstandin g posta l draft s Fria r lan d bon d sinkin g fun d Sewe r an d waterwork s constructio n bon d sinkin g fun d Riza l monumen t fun d Bagui o town-sit e improvemen t fun d Collectin g an d disbursin g officer s Tota l Exces s resource s ove r liabilitie s Total . Suspens e account : Transfe r o f fund s Genera l accoun t .deposit s Accountabl e warrant s Carrie d t o surplu s an d deficienc y account . Total . Treasur y account : Balanc e fro m previou s fiscal year s Receipt s a t th e treasur y Withdrawal s fro m th e treasur y Availabl e fo r appropriatio n Appropriation s undraw n Availabl e fo r refundmen t o r redemptio n . Tota l 87,500,782.2 9 84,439,974.0 2 2,741,606 . 4 1 7,500,782.2 9 7,500,782.2 9 6,968 , 724.8 6 1,438,440.4 0 346 . 2 0 501 . 3 8 7,990,376.5 7 2,684,579.2 4 389.440.2 5 85,223.1 9 8,408,012.8 4 2,741,606.4 1 11,149,619.2 6 11,149,619.2 5 11,149,619.2 5 25,033,490.9 3 1,006,753.1 3 481,137.5 5 3,66i , 255*31 . 466.8 4 2,047.1 4 5,229.4 0 6,670,548.0 6 45,646.1 3 413,698.8 9 "i39,"i36.*4 5 2,198,249.7 0 "9, " 702, " 500. " 0 0 3,956.263.0 0 10,770,354.0 0 331,970.3 0 236,934.7 9 1,855,081.8 4 106,216.9 2 "2, 384,"404." 4 2 9,702,500.0 0 387,095.1 7 1,132,743.6 2 182,576.5 4 128,201.8 6 14,500,000.0 0 2,283.2 9 39,898.3 4 1,413.2 0 1,525.1 9 51,290,202.1 5 51,290,202.1 5 319,201.8 6 22,461,858 . 4 0 112,780,022.2 7 43,789,419.8 6 7,500,782.2 9 51,290,202.1 5 7,674.4 9 195,263.2 4 116,264.1 3 319,201.8 6 110,347 , 526.1 9 5,218,817.5 4 4,948,919 . 9 4 | 14,726,617.0 0 135,241,880.6 7 I 135,241,880.6 7

PAGE 66

6 4 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Th e followin g statemen t o f revenue s an d expenditure s o f th e Philip pin e government , exclusiv e o f al l item s o f a refundabl e character , cover s th e perio d fro m th e dat e o f America n occupation , Augus t 18 , 1898 , t o Jun e 30 , 1907 . Revenues. Fisca l yea r ende d Jun e 30 — Insular . Provincial . o f jJ^nil a Total . 189 9 83,558,682.8 3 6,899,340.5 3 10,753.459.9 5 9,371,283.1 1 10,757,455.6 3 10,249,263.9 8 11,549,495.3 7 11,468,067.1 6 11,149.619.2 5 83,558,682.8 3 6,899 , 340.5 3 10,753,459.9 5 12,579,357.2 0 14,826 , 284.4 1 15,476 , 233.4 2 16,098,574.1 0 17,972,929.0 3 17,445,489.4 9 190 0 83,558,682.8 3 6,899,340.5 3 10,753.459.9 5 9,371,283.1 1 10,757,455.6 3 10,249,263.9 8 11,549,495.3 7 11,468,067.1 6 11,149.619.2 5 83,558,682.8 3 6,899 , 340.5 3 10,753,459.9 5 12,579,357.2 0 14,826 , 284.4 1 15,476 , 233.4 2 16,098,574.1 0 17,972,929.0 3 17,445,489.4 9 190 1 83,558,682.8 3 6,899,340.5 3 10,753.459.9 5 9,371,283.1 1 10,757,455.6 3 10,249,263.9 8 11,549,495.3 7 11,468,067.1 6 11,149.619.2 5 83,558,682.8 3 6,899 , 340.5 3 10,753,459.9 5 12,579,357.2 0 14,826 , 284.4 1 15,476 , 233.4 2 16,098,574.1 0 17,972,929.0 3 17,445,489.4 9 19 0 2 190 3 19 0 4 190 5 190 6 190 7 Tota l 83,558,682.8 3 6,899,340.5 3 10,753.459.9 5 9,371,283.1 1 10,757,455.6 3 10,249,263.9 8 11,549,495.3 7 11,468,067.1 6 11,149.619.2 5 82,008,4S0.8 8 2,527,252.9 3 3,295,839.4 7 3,107,912 . 9 1 4 , 509,572.0 2 4,604,528 . 3 1 81,199,593.2 1 1,541,575.8 5 1,931,129.9 7 1,441,165.8 2 1,995,289.8 5 1,691,341.9 3 83,558,682.8 3 6,899 , 340.5 3 10,753,459.9 5 12,579,357.2 0 14,826 , 284.4 1 15,476 , 233.4 2 16,098,574.1 0 17,972,929.0 3 17,445,489.4 9 19 0 2 190 3 19 0 4 190 5 190 6 190 7 Tota l 85,756,667.8 1 • 20,053,586.5 2 9,800,096.6 3 | 115,610,350.9 6 Expenditures. 189 9 82,376,327.1 2 4,758,793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 8,189,404.5 9 10,249,533.4 0 11,122 , 562.3 8 12,248,857.3 3 10,146 , 779.1 2 8,408,012.8 4 1 82,376,327.1 2 4,758 , 793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 10,444,857.6 2 13,408,406.2 9 15,040 , 691.9 8 16,297 . 280.5 4 16,974.262.6 7 14,704,852.4 4 190 0 82,376,327.1 2 4,758,793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 8,189,404.5 9 10,249,533.4 0 11,122 , 562.3 8 12,248,857.3 3 10,146 , 779.1 2 8,408,012.8 4 82,376,327.1 2 4,758 , 793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 10,444,857.6 2 13,408,406.2 9 15,040 , 691.9 8 16,297 . 280.5 4 16,974.262.6 7 14,704,852.4 4 190 1 82,376,327.1 2 4,758,793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 8,189,404.5 9 10,249,533.4 0 11,122 , 562.3 8 12,248,857.3 3 10,146 , 779.1 2 8,408,012.8 4 i 82,376,327.1 2 4,758 , 793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 10,444,857.6 2 13,408,406.2 9 15,040 , 691.9 8 16,297 . 280.5 4 16,974.262.6 7 14,704,852.4 4 190 2 190 3 19 0 4 19 0 5 190 6 190 7 82,376,327.1 2 4,758,793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 8,189,404.5 9 10,249,533.4 0 11,122 , 562.3 8 12,248,857.3 3 10,146 , 779.1 2 8,408,012.8 4 81,6o;j,158.2 2 1,981,261.2 2 2,339,826.1 0 1,474,320.4 3 4,335,091.3 2 4,736,038.2 0 8622,294.8 1 1,177,611.6 7 1,578,303.5 0 2,574,102.7 8 2,492,392.2 3 1,560,801.4 0 82,376,327.1 2 4,758 , 793.6 6 6,451,528.3 7 10,444,857.6 2 13,408,406.2 9 15,040 , 691.9 8 16,297 . 280.5 4 16,974.262.6 7 14,704,852.4 4 Tota l 1 73,951,798.8 1 j 16,499,695.4 9 1 10,005,506.3 9 | 100,457,000.6 9 1 Th e bonde d indebtednes s i s a s follows : Titl e o f bonds . Authorize d b y Congress . oHssue ! | .^t e issued . Redeem able . Due . Lan d purchas e bond s Philippin e publi c improve men t bonds : Firs t issu e Secon d issu e Ac t o f Jul y 1 , 190 2 Ac t o f Feb . 6,190 5 d o 87 , 000,00 0 | Jan . 11,190 4 2,500,00 0 Mar . 1,190 5 1,000,00 0 Feb . 1,190 6 1 1 1 1,000,00 0 ! Jun e 1,190 5 2,000,00 0 | Jan . 2,190 7 13,500,00 0 1 I 191 4 191 5 191 6 191 5 191 7 193 4 193 5 193 6 193 5 193 7 Manil a sewe r an d wate r suppl y bonds : Firs t issu e Secon d issu e Ac t o f July1,1902 , a s amend e d b y ac t o f Feb . 6 , 1905 . d o 87 , 000,00 0 | Jan . 11,190 4 2,500,00 0 Mar . 1,190 5 1,000,00 0 Feb . 1,190 6 1 1 1 1,000,00 0 ! Jun e 1,190 5 2,000,00 0 | Jan . 2,190 7 13,500,00 0 1 I 191 4 191 5 191 6 191 5 191 7 193 4 193 5 193 6 193 5 193 7 Tota l 87 , 000,00 0 | Jan . 11,190 4 2,500,00 0 Mar . 1,190 5 1,000,00 0 Feb . 1,190 6 1 1 1 1,000,00 0 ! Jun e 1,190 5 2,000,00 0 | Jan . 2,190 7 13,500,00 0 1 I 191 4 191 5 191 6 191 5 191 7 193 4 193 5 193 6 193 5 193 7 87 , 000,00 0 | Jan . 11,190 4 2,500,00 0 Mar . 1,190 5 1,000,00 0 Feb . 1,190 6 1 1 1 1,000,00 0 ! Jun e 1,190 5 2,000,00 0 | Jan . 2,190 7 13,500,00 0 1 I 191 4 191 5 191 6 191 5 191 7 193 4 193 5 193 6 193 5 193 7 T o mee t th e interes t an d principa l o n thes e bond s ampl e sinkin g fund s hav e bee n provided , an d th e bond s ar e no w hel d o n th e market , notwithstandin g th e presen t depression , a t price s wel l abov e thos e fo r whic h the y wer e originall y sold . FRIARS ' LANDS . Th e questio n o f th e dispositio n o f th e friars ' land s i s on e whic h i s occupyin g th e clos e attentio n o f th e Secretar y o f th e Interio r an d th e Directo r o f Lands . Th e pric e o f th e land s wa s abou t $7,000,000 .

PAGE 67

65 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Muc h dela y ha s bee n encountere d i n makin g th e necessar y survey s an d th e dispositio n o f the m fo r th e presen t ha s largel y bee n tempo rar y an d a t smal l rent s i n orde r t o secur e a n attornmen t o f al l th e tenant s an d th e clea r definitio n o f th e limit s o f th e leasehold s claime d b y them . Thi s ha s involve d considerabl e tim e an d expens e i n makin g th e necessar y surveys . Th e injur y t o th e suga r industr y an d th e de structio n o f draf t cattl e ha s affecte d th e pric e an d characte r o f th e suga r lands , an d the y hav e bee n allowe d t o gro w u p i n cogo n grass . Thi s wil l requir e th e investmen t o f considerabl e capita l t o pu t the m i n suga r producin g condition . I t i s estimate d tha t th e salabl e land s woul d amoun t i n valu e t o somethin g ove r $5,000,00 0 an d tha t th e lands , mostl y sugar , whic h ar e no t no w salable , an d th e plant s whic h wer e bough t wit h th e lands , represen t th e othe r $2,000,00 0 o f th e pur chas e price . I t wil l tak e som e year s t o wor k ou t th e cos t an d i t i s possible , a s alread y prophesied , tha t ther e wil l b e a considerabl e los s t o th e islands , bu t a s th e purchas e wa s base d o n politica l ground s an d fo r th e purpos e o f bringin g o n tranquillity , suc h a los s a s tha t whic h wa s though t no t improbabl e a t th e tim e o f th e purchas e i s ampl y com pensate d fo r i n th e genera l result . FINA L SETTLEMEN T I N RESPEC T T O CHARITABL E TRUST S AN D SPANISH FILIPIN O BAN K WIT H ROMA N CATHOLI C CHURCH . I hav e spoke n i n previou s report s o f th e controversie s arisin g be twee n th e Roma n Catholi c Churc h an d th e Philippin e governmen t i n referenc e t o th e administratio n o f certai n charitabl e trusts . Th e sam e churc h wa s intereste d a s a majorit y stockholde r i n th e Spanish Filipin o Ban k an d a disput e ha d arise n a s t o th e righ t o f th e ban k t o exercis e th e powe r conferre d o n i t b y it s origina l charte r o f issuin g ban k note s i n a n amoun t equa l t o thre e time s it s capita l stock . A compromis e wa s finally arrange d las t Jun e wit h Archbisho p Hart y o f Manil a an d wa s consummate d durin g m y visi t t o th e Philippines . I submitte d t o yo u a ful l repor t o f thi s compromise . I t receive d you r approva l an d wa s the n carrie d int o effec t b y th e Philippin e Commission . I appen d t o thi s m y specia l repor t t o yo u o f tha t com promise , marke d "Appendi x A. " ROADS . Th e constructio n o f road s b y th e centra l governmen t ha s gon e o n eac h year , bu t th e road s hav e no t bee n kep t u p b y the . municipa l gov ernment s charge d wit h th e dut y a s the y ough t t o hav e been . Th e Commissio n ha s no w establishe d a syste m b y whic h i t i s hope d ulti matel y tha t th e whol e matte r o f road s ma y receiv e a systemati c im petu s throughou t th e islands . Road s ca n no t b e kep t u p i n th e 26720—S . Doc . 200 , 601 5

PAGE 68

6 6 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Tropic s excep t b y wha t i s know n a s th e " caminero " system , i n whic h a smal l piec e o f eac h roa d shal l b e assigne d t o th e repai r an d contro l o f a roa d repaire r t o b e know n a s th e " caminero. " Th e trut h i s tha t goo d road s wil l develo p a s th e peopl e develop , becaus e th e peopl e ca n kee p u p th e road s i f the y will , an d i t i s no t unti l the y hav e a larg e sens e o f politica l responsibilit y tha t the y ar e likel y t o sacrific e muc h t o maintai n them . RAILROAD S I N TH E PHILIPPINES . I n m y las t annua l report , I se t fort h i n detai l th e concession s grante d fo r th e constructio n o f railroad s i n Luzon , Panay , Cebu , an d Negros , an d showe d tha t withi n five year s w e migh t expec t that , in stea d o f a singl e lin e o f railwa y 12 0 mile s i n lengt h whic h wa s al l tha t w e foun d whe n w e occupie d th e islands , w e woul d hav e a syste m wit h a mileag e o f 1,00 0 miles . Wor k ha s gon e o n i n ful l complianc e wit h th e term s o f th e concession s o f th e tw o companies . Onl y on e o f thes e companie s too k advantag e o f th e provisio n fo r th e guarant y o f bonds , an d the y hav e buil t abou t 4 0 mile s o f roa d an d hav e earned , unde r th e term s o f th e concession , th e guarant y o f $973,00 0 o f bonds , whic h ha s alread y bee n signe d an d delivere d b y th e Philippin e government . O f course , i n thi s financial pani c thes e com panie s ar e likel y t o hav e difficult y i n securin g investor s i n thei r securi ties . Th e road s a s constructe d hav e bee n wel l constructed , an d ar e admirabl y adapte d t o resis t th e climati c condition s i n th e islands . Ther e i s n o reaso n i n m y judgmen t wh y thes e road s whe n constructe d shoul d no t pa y a reasonabl e percentag e upo n th e invest ment . I t i s o f th e utmos t difficult y t o secur e th e comin g o f capita l t o th e islands , an d i t woul d greatl y ai d u s i f th e dividend s earne d b y thes e road s wer e ver y large . I n th e Orien t two-third s o f th e incom e o f railway s come s fro m passenge r earnings , an d one-thir d fro m freight . O f course , th e railroad s ar e ver y essentia l t o th e agricultura l interest s o f th e countr y an d wil l directl y affec t th e amoun t o f export s o f agricultura l products—s o w e ma y coun t o n a stead y increas e i n th e freigh t receipt s fro m th e momen t o f thei r beginnin g operation . A s I say , however , th e chie f hop e fo r profi t i n th e railway s i s i n th e passenge r traffic . I n th e thre e Visaya s i n whic h th e railroad s ar e t o b e constructed , th e densit y o f populatio n i s abou t 16 0 pe r squar e mile , wherea s th e averag e populatio n pe r squar e mil e i n th e Unite d State s i n 190 0 wa s bu t 26 . Th e Islan d o f Ceb u ha s a populatio n o f 33 6 pe r squar e mile , o r a greate r densit y tha n Japan , France , Germany , o r Britis h India . I t is , therefore , reasonabl e t o suppos e tha t th e pas senge r earning s o n thes e railroad s wil l b e ver y large . I t wa s antici pate d tha t th e labo r proble m woul d b e a difficul t on e t o solv e i n th e constructio n o f thes e roads . Thi s ha s no t prove d t o b e true . Th e

PAGE 69

67 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Philippin e labo r ha s show n itsel f capabl e o f instruction , an d b y prope r treatmen t o f bein g mad e constan t i n it s application . O f course , th e price s o f labo r hav e largel y increased , bu t th e companie s constructin g th e road s hav e foun d i t wis e t o increas e wages , an d thereb y secur e greate r efficiency . Eve n wit h increase d wage s th e cos t o f uni t o f resul t i s les s i n th e Philippine s i n th e constructio n o f railway s tha n i t i s i n th e Unite d States . O f course , th e drai n o n th e labo r suppl y o f suga r plantation s an d othe r place s wher e agricultura l labo r i s employed , i s grea t an d th e effec t upo n raisin g suga r an d othe r product s i s t o increas e th e cost . Bu t I thin k th e lesso n fro m th e constructio n o f th e railroad s i s tha t Philippin e labo r ca n b e improve d b y instructio n an d ca n b e mad e effectiv e an d reasonabl y economica l b y prope r treatment . Th e comin g int o th e island s o f th e capita l t o construc t railways , o f course , ha s ha d a goo d effec t i n th e improve men t o f busines s conditions , bu t i t i s t o b e note d tha t i n th e estimat e o f importation s th e railroa d materia l an d supplie s whic h ar e brough t i n fre e unde r th e statut e ar e no t include d i n th e totals , an d there for e ar e no t t o b e offere d a s a n explanatio n fo r th e ver y goo d showin g i n respec t t o th e amoun t o f import s t o th e island s fo r th e las t fiscal year . GENERA L BUSINES S CONDITIONS . O f course , th e depressio n i n certai n busines s branche s o f agricul ture , lik e sugar , tobacc o an d rice , du e t o lac k o f market s fo r th e first two , an d t o a lac k o f draf t animal s i n th e productio n o f suga r an d ric e ha s ha d a direc t effec t upo n th e busines s o f th e island s o f a de pressin g character . Gradually , however , busines s ha s grow n better . I n spit e o f advers e condition s th e importation s o f ric e hav e decrease d fro m $12,000,00 0 gol d t o $3,500,00 0 gold , and , whil e th e import s a s a whol e hav e increase d no t t o thei r highes t previou s figure, the y hav e bee n maintaine d withi n fou r an d a hal f million s o f thei r highes t mark , and , a s alread y said , th e export s ar e highe r tha n eve r i n th e histor y o f th e islands , th e balanc e o f trad e i n thei r favo r fo r th e las t fiscal yea r bein g abou t five millions , exclusiv e o f gol d an d silve r an d governmen t an d railwa y fre e entries . I foun d i n th e island s a dispositio n o n th e par t o f bot h America n an d Philippin e busines s me n an d o f th e leader s o f al l partie s i n th e Philippin e Assembl y t o mak e a unite d effor t t o improv e busines s an d genera l conditions . BUSINES S FUTUR E O F PHILIPPINES . I d o no t hestitat e t o prophes y tha t durin g th e nex t twenty-fiv e year s a developmen t wil l tak e plac e i n th e agricultur e an d othe r busines s o f th e Philippin e Islands , whic h wil l b e a s remarkabl e i n it s benefit s t o

PAGE 70

6 8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . th e Unite d State s an d th e Philippin e Island s a s wa s th e developmen t o f Alask a durin g th e las t te n o r fifteen years . Hop e o f thi s i s no t wha t ha s actuate d th e governmen t i n pursuin g th e polic y tha t i t ha s pursue d i n th e developmen t o f th e islands , bu t thi s i s a s inevitabl e a resul t a s i f i t ha d bee n directl y sought , an d perhap s th e absenc e o f selfishnes s i n th e developmen t o f th e island s i s a greate r assuranc e o f profitabl e retur n tha n i f busines s exploitatio n b y th e Unite d State s ha d bee n th e chie f an d sol e motive . Th e growt h i n th e productio n o f hem p an d othe r fiber products , i n cocoanuts , i n rubbe r an d man y othe r tropica l crop s an d i n peculia r manufacture s o f th e island s ma y b e looke d forwar d t o wit h certainty . GOL D STANDAR D CURRENCY . 'On e o f th e grea t benefit s conferre d upo n th e island s b y th e Ameri ca n Governmen t ha s bee n th e introductio n o f th e gol d standard . Thi s ha s doubtles s prevente d th e large r profit s whic h wer e mad e i n th e ol d day s b y th e purchaser s o f hem p an d othe r agricultura l product s i n th e islands , wh o sol d agai n i n Europea n an d America n markets , becaus e unde r th e syste m the n prevailing , the y bough t i n silve r an d sol d i n gold , an d b y watchin g th e market s the y wer e abl e t o ad d ver y muc h t o th e legitimat e profi t o f th e middleme n b y wha t constitute d a syste m o f gamblin g i n exchanges . Th e sam e feature s characterize d th e bankin g i n th e islands . Now , however , wit h th e gol d standar d th e gamblin g featur e i n busines s i s ver y largel y eliminated . Th e coinag e i s satisfactor y t o th e people , th e silve r certificate s circulat e wel l an d ar e popular , an d ther e seem s t o b e n o groun d fo r complain t o f th e currency . NEE D O F CAPITA L AGRICULTURA L BANK . On e o f th e cryin g need s o f th e Philippine s i s capital , an d thi s whethe r i t b e fo r th e developmen t o f railroads , wago n roads , manu. factures , o r i n th e promotio n o f agriculture . Th e usuriou s interes t whic h ha s t o b e pai d b y th e farmer s i s s o hig h a s t o leav e ver y littl e fo r hi s profi t an d maintenanc e an d eve r sinc e w e entere d th e island s th e cr y fo r a n agricultura l ban k whic h woul d len d mone y fo r a reasonabl e interest , say , 1 0 pe r cent , ha s bee n urge d upo n th e Com mission . Las t yea r Congres s authorize d th e governmen t t o guar ante e th e interes t a t 4 pe r cen t o n a certai n amoun t o f capita l in veste d i n suc h a bank , bu t u p t o thi s tim e n o on e ha s embrace d th e opportunit y thu s offere d t o undertak e th e conduc t an d operatio n o f a ban k althoug h negotiation s ar e pendin g lookin g t o suc h a result . I t i s no w propose d tha t th e governmen t shal l undertak e thi s instea d o f a privat e individual . Experimentatio n ha s bee n attempte d o n th e

PAGE 71

69 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . friars ' land s b y th e appropriatio n o f $100,00 0 fo r loan s t o th e fria r tenant s t o encourag e the m t o improv e agriculture , an d th e resul t o f thi s experimen t wil l b e awaite d wit h grea t interest . Th e reductio n o f th e amoun t o f silve r i n th e silve r pes o fo r th e pur pos e o f keepin g i t withi n th e 50-cen t gol d value , whic h i s th e lega l standard , ha s gon e steadil y o n an d wil l resul t ultimatel y i n th e accu mulatio n i n th e treasur y o f a fun d o f $3,000,00 0 gold . I t i s though t tha t par t o f thi s mone y migh t b e take n t o establis h a n agricul tura l ban k o n a governmenta l basis . Th e treasure r o f th e islands , Mr . Branagan , wh o ha s ha d larg e experienc e i n bankin g i n th e islands , becaus e hi s offic e ha s brough t hi m closel y int o contac t wit h i t an d becaus e h e ha s ha d t o examin e al l th e banks , i s confiden t tha t a n agricultura l ban k o f on e o r tw o million s o f dollar s migh t b e establishe d b y th e governmen t an d manage d b y th e treasur y de partment , togethe r wit h th e provincia l treasurer s i n suc h a wa y a s greatl y t o ai d th e caus e o f agricultur e i n th e islands . On e grea t dif ficulty i n th e operatio n o f a n agricultura l ban k i s th e uncertaint y tha t prevail s to-da y i n th e island s i n respec t t o th e title s o f th e land s whic h ar e held . Th e lan d la w provide d a metho d o f perfectin g title s throug h wha t i s calle d th e lan d cour t founde d o n th e Torren s lan d system , whic h wa s introduce d b y la w som e year s ag o i n th e islands . Th e expens e o f surveyin g th e lands , du e t o th e shortnes s o f suppl y o f surveyors , an d th e tim e take n ha s mad e th e proces s o f settlin g title s rathe r slow , bu t a s defect s hav e appeare d th e Commissio n ha s change d the m an d i t i s hope d tha t thi s syste m o f preparin g fo r th e busines s o f a n agricultura l ban k ma y g o o n apace . POSTA L SAVING S BANK . A posta l saving s ban k ha s bee n establishe d an d wa s first mor e pat ronize d b y American s tha n Filipinos , bu t Filipino s ar e no w takin g i t u p an d th e deposit s therei n amoun t t o upwar d o f 1,000,00 0 pesos . Ther e hav e bee n practicall y n o bankin g facilitie s throughou t th e islands , excep t i n Manila , Iloilo , an d Cebu , an d thi s establishmen t o f posta l savings-ban k office s i n a larg e proportio n o f th e post-office s throughout-th e island s offer s a n opportunit y t o th e peopl e o f moder at e mean s t o pu t thei r mone y i n a secur e plac e an d t o deriv e a smal l revenu e therefrom . Th e insecurit y o f saving s b y Filipin o farmer s an d other s i n th e countr y ha s certainl y reduce d th e motiv e fo r savin g whic h a n opportunit y t o deposi t thei r mone y wil l stimulate . Th e exchang e busines s o f th e island s ha s als o bee n facilitate d b y statutor y provision s authorizin g th e sal e o f exchang e b y provincia l treasurer s o n th e centra l treasur y a t Manil a an d vic e versa .

PAGE 72

7 0 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . POST-OFFIC E AN D TELEGRAPHS . Th e post-offic e department , considerin g th e condition s tha t exis t an d th e difficultie s o f reachin g remot e part s o f th e island , ha s bee n ver y wel l manage d an d th e office s ar e increasin g i n encouragin g proportio n eac h year . Th e followin g tabl e show s th e increas e i n posta l facilitie s fro m yea r t o yea r o f ou r occupation : Fo r fiscal yea r endin g Jun e 30 . 1900. . 1901. . 1902. . 1903. . 1904. . 1905. . 1906. . 1907. . Numbe r Mone y or post-offiees. j de r offices . 1 9 2 4 9 0 20 9 29 1 41 4 Numbe r | Stam p employees. ' sales . 11 3 P228.178.3 6 13 0 : 233,182.9 6 238,418.1 0 218,414.3 6 224,354.6 1 222,701.3 6 425,261.5 0 607,203.4 4 33 1 57 0 57 9 61 2 1,00 3 1,09 1 Unde r a syste m devise d b y Mr . Forbes , secretar y o f commerc e an d police , mai l subsidie s wer e grante d t o commercia l line s o n conditio n tha t goo d servic e a t reasonabl e rate s o f transportatio n shoul d b e fur nishe d upo n saf e an d commodiou s steamers . Th e Governmen t vessel s whic h ha d previousl y bee n purchase d i n orde r t o promot e intercours e betwee n th e island s ar e no w use d o n outlyin g route s wher e commercia l line s wil l no t tak e u p th e traffic , bu t ar e use d i n connectio n wit h th e commercia l lines , an d i n thi s wa y additiona l route s ar e bein g teste d an d th e marin e commerc e betwee n al l th e island s i s mad e t o increase . B y consen t o f th e Secretar y o f War , an d o n th e recommendatio n o f th e commandin g genera l o f th e Philippine s an d th e agreemen t o f th e civi l government , al l th e telegrap h line s i n th e island s hav e no w bee n transferre d t o th e post-offic e departmen t o f th e civi l gov ernmen t o f th e Philippines . Thes e telegrap h line s reac h int o th e remotes t province s an d t o al l th e principa l island s o f th e larg e archi pelago . Whil e ther e wer e som e telegrap h line s i n th e Spanis h times , th e syste m ha s grow n t o suc h proportion s no w a s t o b e almos t a n entirel y ne w system . I t ha s mad e th e governmen t o f th e island s muc h mor e eas y becaus e i t bring s ever y provinc e withi n hal f a day' s communicatio n o f Manil a fo r informatio n an d instruction s fro m th e centra l authority . I t ha s furnishe d a mos t profitabl e instru men t fo r busines s communication , an d whil e i t entail s considerabl e burde n o n th e civi l government , i t i s wel l wort h fo r governmenta l an d busines s purpose s al l tha t i t costs . I ough t t o sa y tha t th e post offic e departmen t i s rapidl y trainin g Filipino s t o fil l al l th e position s o f telegrap h operators , an d tha t thi s materiall y reduce s th e cos t o f operatio n an d a t th e sam e tim e furnishe s a n admirabl e technica l schoo l fo r grea t number s o f brigh t Filipin o youn g men . I submi t a statemen t o f th e mileag e o f th e cable s an d telegrap h lines , operate d b y th e Government .

PAGE 73

REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F WA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . 7 1 1906 . Miles . Miles . Line s transferre d t o th e insula r governmen t b y th e Signa l Corp s u p t o Jun e 30 : ^ Telegrap h line s 3 , 78 0 Cabl e line s 32 8 Telephon e line s 2,13 7 Tota l 6,24 5 Line s operate d b y th e Signa l Corp s o n Jun e 30 : Telegrap h line s 1 , 40 6 Cabl e line s 1,45 2 Telephon e line s 33 8 Tota l -_r . 3,19 6 Tota l mileag e o f telegraph , cable , an d telephon e line s i n operatio n Jun e 3 0 9 , 44 1 Numbe r o f telegrap h office s 16 1 Numbe r o f telephone s i n operatio n 45 0 1907 . Line s transferre d t o th e insula r governmen t b y th e Signa l Corp s sinc e Jul y 1 , 190 7 1,914. 5 Tota l mileag e o f telegrap h an d cabl e line s i n operatio n b y th e insula r governmen t t o dat e 6,95 1 MINE S AN D MINING . Ther e ha s bee n a goo d dea l o f prospectin g i n th e island s an d gol d an d coppe r hav e bee n foun d i n payin g quantitie s i n th e mountain s o f norther n Luzon , th e province s o f Bengue t an d Bonto c an d Le panto , a s wel l a s i n th e Camarine s i n southeaster n Luzon , an d i n Masbate , a n islan d lyin g directl y sout h o f Luzon ; bu t grea t complain t i s made , an d properl y made , o f th e limitation s upo n th e minin g la w whic h preven t th e locatio n b y on e perso n o f mor e tha n on e clai m o n a lod e o r vein . Minin g i s suc h a speculativ e matte r a t an y rate , an d th e capita l tha t on e put s int o i t i s s o generall y los t tha t i t woul d see m that , i n a countr y lik e th e Philippine s wher e developmen t ough t t o b e had , ther e shoul d b e libera l inducement s fo r th e invest men t o f capita l fo r suc h a purpose . " Secretar y Worceste r o f th e inte rio r departmen t ha s frequentl y recommende d tha t thi s limitatio n o f th e la w b e repealed . Th e Commissio n join s i n thi s recommendatio n an d I cordiall y concur . WTiil e I d o no t favo r larg e lan d holdings , I als o concu r i n th e recommendatio n o f th e secretar y o f th e interio r an d th e Commissio n tha t th e prohibitio n upo n corporation s holdin g mor e tha n 2,50 0 acre s o f lan d b e als o stricke n out . I t certainl y migh t wel l b e increase d t o 10,00 0 acre s i f an y limitatio n i s t o b e impose d a t all . U . S . COASTWIS E TRADIN G LAWS . I t i s propose d b y som e t o pu t i n forc e th e coastwis e tradin g law s i n respec t t o th e navigatio n betwee n th e Unite d State s an d th e islands . I

PAGE 74

7 2 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . thin k thi s a ver y short-sighte d policy . To-da y th e trad e betwee n th e Unite d State s an d th e islands , expor t an d import , i s abou t 1 7 pe r cen t o f th e total . Th e proportio n o f th e tota l expor t trad e fro m th e Phil ippine s t o th e Unite d State s i s growin g an d i s certai n t o gro w mor e rapidl y i n th e future , especiall y i f prope r legislatio n i s adopte d i n respec t t o suga r an d tobacco . No w a coastwis e tradin g la w wil l ex clud e altogethe r th e us e o f foreig n bottom s betwee n th e port s o f th e Unite d State s an d th e port s o f th e Philippin e Islands , an d wil l con fine tha t commerc e t o Unite d State s vessels . Ther e i s ver y grav e doub t whethe r ther e ar e enoug h Unite d State s vessel s t o carr y o n thi s trad e a s i t is , an d eve n i f ther e wer e the y coul d no t carr y o n th e trad e withou t a ver y grea t increas e i n freigh t rate s ove r wha t the y no w are . Th e minut e tha t thes e rate s ar e advanced , whil e th e rate s t o othe r countrie s remai n th e same , th e trad e betwee n th e island s an d th e Unite d State s wil l ceas e t o be . Ther e wil l b e n o trad e fo r th e vessel s o f th e Unite d State s t o carry , n o on e wil l hav e bee n benefite d i n th e Unite d States , an d th e onl y perso n wh o wil l rea p advantag e i s th e foreig n exporte r t o who m th e Philippin e busines s hous e wil l naturall y tur n fo r exchang e o f products . Th e onl y metho d possibl e b y whic h th e Unite d State s vessel s ca n b e give n th e Philippin e trad e i s b y votin g a reasonabl e subsid y fo r Unite d State s vessel s engage d i n tha t trade . An y othe r prohibitiv e o r exclusiv e provisio n o f la w wil l b e merel y cuttin g of f th e nos e t o spit e th e fac e o f th e interes t whic h attempt s it . I fee l certai n tha t whe n th e questio n o f applyin g th e coastwis e tradin g law s t o th e busines s betwee n th e Unite d State s an d th e island s i s full y investigated , eve n thos e representin g th e shippin g interest s tha t nee d an d ough t t o hav e muc h encouragemen t wil l con clud e tha t th e coastwis e tradin g law s applie d t o th e America n Philip pin e trad e woul d merel y destro y th e trad e withou t benefitin g th e shippin g interests . I n th e criticism s upo n th e Government' s Philippin e polic y t o b e foun d i n th e column s o f th e newspaper s tha t favo r immediat e sepa ration , i t ha s bee n frequentl y sai d tha t th e coastwis e tradin g law s o f th e Unite d State s appl y a s betwee n island s o f th e Philippines . Th e trut h i s tha t th e restriction s upo n shippin g betwee n port s i n th e Philippin e Island s ar e wha t th e Legislatur e o f th e island s imposes , an d Congres s ha s mad e n o provisio n o f limitatio n i n respec t t o them . Th e coastwis e regulation s i n forc e withi n th e Archipelag o ar e a s lib era l a s possible . CIT Y O F MANILA . Th e cit y o f Manil a i s th e social , political , an d busines s cente r o f th e islands . I t i s th e onl y larg e cit y i n th e islands . It s populatio n i s abou t 250,000 . whil e ther e i s n o othe r cit y tha t exceed s 40,00 0 i n

PAGE 75

73 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . population . B y wha t no w ha s bee n prove n t o b e a mistake , th e Com missio n purchase d a buildin g whic h wa s know n an d use d a s th e Orient e Hotel . I t wa s a hote l no t ver y wel l conducted , bu t i t wa s th e onl y importan t hote l i n th e cit y o f sufficien t siz e an d dignit y t o induc e th e comin g o f tourists . I t wa s hope d tha t th e purchas e o f thi s build ing , whic h wa s no t particularl y adapte d a s a hotel , migh t lea d t o th e constructio n an d maintenanc e o f a bette r hotel . Suc h ha s no t bee n th e result , an d althoug h ther e ar e hotel s i n th e cit y o f Manila , it s reputatio n i s tha t o f bein g unabl e t o furnis h t o th e travelin g publi c a comfortabl e hostelr y fo r a shor t stay . Thi s ha s drive n awa y man y traveler s o f ou r ow n countr y an d othe r countrie s fro m a cit y tha t i n historica l interest , i n beauty , an d i n comfor t o f lif e wil l compar e favorabl y wit h any . Mr . Burnham , th e well-know n landscap e architec t o f Chicago , som e year s ago , withou t compensation , visite d th e Philippine s an d mappe d ou t a pla n fo r th e improvemen t o f th e city , an d lai d ou t a pla n o f constructio n fo r Bagui o i n Bengue t a s th e summe r capital . T o bot h o f thes e plans , al l improvement s whic h hav e bee n attempte d i n th e cit y hav e conformed , an d i f th e presen t efficien t cit y govern men t continues , ther e i s ever y reaso n t o believ e tha t Manil a wil l be com e a mos t attractiv e city . A contrac t ha s bee n mad e fo r th e leas in g o f groun d immediatel y upo n th e Lunet a an d facin g th e ba y t o a firm o f capitalist s fo r th e constructio n o f a hote l t o cos t 500,00 0 pesos . I t i s doubtful , however , whethe r thi s capita l ca n b e raise d a t th e presen t time , an d i f i t fall s throug h i t i s proposed , an d I thin k wit h wisdo m proposed , tha t th e governmen t shal l erec t a hote l a s a publi c investmen t fo r th e developmen t o f th e cit y an d th e islands , an d leas e i t t o th e bes t bidder . Ther e i s n o cit y i n th e worl d bette r governe d tha n Manila . Th e street s ar e wel l cleaned , ar e wel l policed , ther e i s a mos t excellen t fire department , th e park s ar e bein g enlarge d an d improved , th e stree t ca r sj'ste m i s a s goo d a s an y anywhere , an d wit h th e improvement s i n th e wate r suppl y th e sewerag e syste m an d estero s o r canals , whic h ar e no w unde r foo t an d par t o f whic h ar e quit e nea r accomplished , th e fac e whic h th e Filipino s tur n towar d th e worl d i n th e cit y o f Manil a will'b e a mos t pleasin g one . POLITICA L FUTUR E O F TH E ISLANDS . Ther e ar e i n th e Philippine s man y wh o wis h tha t th e governmen t shal l declar e a definit e polic y i n respec t t o th e island s s o tha t the y ma y kno w wha t tha t polic y is . I d o no t se e ho w an y mor e definit e polic y ca n b e declare d tha n wa s declare d b y Presiden t McKinle y i n hi s instruction s t o Secretar y Roo t fo r th e guidanc e o f th e Philippin e

PAGE 76

7 4 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Commission , whic h wa s incorporate d int o la w b y th e organi c ac t o f th e Philippin e government , adopte d Jul y 1 , 1902 . Tha t polic y i s de clare d t o b e th e extensio n o f self-governmen t t o th e Philippin e Island s b y gradua l step s fro m tim e t o tim e a s th e peopl e o f th e island s shal l sho w themselve s fit t o receiv e th e additiona l responsi bility , an d tha t polic y ha s bee n consistentl y adhere d t o i n th e las t seve n year s no w succeedin g th e establishmen t o f civi l government . Havin g take n som e par t an d sharin g i n th e responsibilit y fo r tha t government , o f cours e m y view s o f th e result s ar e likel y t o b e colore d b y m y interes t i n havin g th e polic y regarde d a s successful , bu t elim inatin g a s fa r a s i s possibl e th e persona l bias , I beiiev e i t t o b e tru e tha t th e condition s i n th e island s to-da y vindicat e an d justif y tha t policy . I t necessaril y involve s i n it s ultimat e conclusio n a s th e step s towar d self-governmen t becom e greate r an d greate r th e ultimat e inde pendenc e o f th e islands , althoug h o f cours e i f bot h th e Unite d State s an d th e island s wer e t o conclud e afte r complet e self-governmen t wer e possibl e tha t i t woul d b e mutuall y beneficia l t o continu e a govern menta l relatio n betwee n the m lik e tha t betwee n Englan d an d Aus tralia , ther e woul d b e nothin g inconsisten t wit h th e presen t polic y i n suc h a result . An y attemp t t o fix th e tim e i n whic h complet e self-governmen t ma y b e conferre d upo n th e Filipino s i n thei r ow n interest , i s I thin k mos t unwise . Th e ke y o f th e whol e polic y outline d b y Presiden t McKinle y an d adopte d b y Congres s wa s tha t o f th e educatio n o f th e masse s o f th e peopl e an d th e leadin g the m ou t o f th e dens e ignoranc e i n whic h the y ar e now , wit h a vie w t o enablin g the m intelligentl y t o exercis e th e forc e o f publi c opinio n withou t whic h a popula r self-governmen t i s impossible . I t seem s t o m e reasonabl e t o sa y tha t suc h a conditio n ca n no t b e reache d unti l a t leas t on e generatio n shal l hav e bee n subjecte d t o th e proces s o f primar y an d industria l education , an d tha t whe n i t i s considere d tha t th e peopl e ar e divide d int o group s speakin g fro m te n t o fifteen differen t dialects , an d tha t the y mus t acquir e a commo n mediu m o f communication , an d tha t on e o f th e civilize d languages , i t i s no t unreasonabl e t o exten d th e necessar y perio d beyon d a genera tion . B y tha t tim e Englis h wil l b e th e languag e o f th e island s an d w e ca n b e reasonabl y certai n tha t a grea t majorit y o f thos e livin g ther e wil l no t onl y spea k an d rea d an d writ e English , bu t wil l b e affecte d b y th e knowledg e o f fre e institutions , an d wil l b e abl e t o understan d thei r right s a s member s o f th e communit y an d t o see k t o enforc e the m agains t th e perniciou s syste m o f caciquis m an d loca l bossism , whic h I hav e attempte d i n thi s repor t t o describe . Bu t i t i s sai d tha t a grea t majorit y o f th e peopl e desir e immediat e independence . I a m no t prepare d t o sa y tha t i f th e rea l wis h o f th e majorit y o f al l th e people , men , women , an d children , educate d an d

PAGE 77

75 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . uneducated , wer e t o b e obtained , ther e woul d no t b e a ver y larg e majorit y i n favo r o f immediat e independence . I t woul d not , how ever , b e a n intelligen t judgmen t base d o n a knowledg e o f wha t in dependenc e means , o f wha t it s responsibilitie s ar e o r o f wha t popula r governmen t i n it s essenc e is . Bu t th e mer e fac t tha t a majorit y o f al l th e peopl e ar e i n favo r o f immediat e independenc e i s no t a reaso n wh y tha t shoul d b e granted , i f w e assum e a t al l th e correctnes s o f th e statement , whic h impartia l observer s ca n no t bu t fai l t o acquiesc e in , t o wit : tha t th e Filipino s ar e no t no w fit fo r self-government . Th e polic y o f th e Unite d State s i s no t t o establis h a n oligarchy , bu t a popula r self-governmen t i n th e Philippines . Th e electorat e t o whic h i t ha s bee n though t wis e t o exten d partia l self-governmen t em brace s onl y abou t 1 5 o r 2 0 pe r cen t o f th e adul t mal e population , be caus e i t ha s bee n generall y concede d b y Filipino s an d American s alik e tha t thos e no t include d withi n th e electorat e ar e wholl y unabl e t o exercis e politica l responsibility . Now , thos e person s wh o de mande d an d wer e give n a hearin g befor e th e delegatio n o f Congress me n an d Senator s tha t visite d th e island s i n 1905 , t o urg e immediat e independenc e contende d tha t th e island s ar e fit fo r self-governmen t becaus e ther e ar e fro m 7 t o 1 0 pe r cen t o f intelligen t peopl e wh o ar e constitute d b y natur e a rulin g class , whil e ther e ar e 9 0 pe r cen t tha t ar e a servil e an d obedien t class , an d tha t th e presenc e o f th e tw o classe s togethe r argue s a wel l balance d government . Suc h a proposi tio n thu s avowe d reveal s wha t i s know n otherwis e t o b e th e fac t tha t man y o f thos e mos t emphati c an d urgen t i n seekin g independenc e i n th e island s hav e n o though t o f a popula r governmen t a t all . The y ar e i n favo r o f a clos e governmen t i n whic h they , th e leader s o f a particula r class , shal l exercis e contro l o f th e res t o f th e people . Thei r view s ar e thu s wholl y a t varianc e wit h th e polic y o f th e Unite d State s i n th e islands . Th e presenc e o f th e American s i n th e island s i s essentia l t o th e du e developmen t o f th e lowe r classe s an d th e preservatio n o f thei r rights . I f th e America n governmen t ca n onl y remai n i n th e island s lon g enoug h t o educat e th e entir e people , t o giv e the m a languag e whic h enable s the m t o com e int o contac t wit h moder n civilization , an d t o ex ten d t o the m fro m tim e t o tim e additiona l politica l right s s o tha t b y th e exercis e o f the m the y shal l lear n th e us e an d responsibilitie s necessar y t o thei r prope r exercise , independenc e ca n b e grante d wit h entir e safet y t o th e people . I hav e a n abidin g convictio n tha t th e Filipin o peopl e ar e capabl e o f bein g taugh t self-governmen t i n th e proces s o f thei r development , tha t i n carryin g ou t thi s polic y the y wil l b e improve d physicall y an d mentally , an d that , a s the y acquir e mor e rights , thei r powe r t o exercis e mora l restraint s upo n themselve s wil l b e strengthene d an d improved . Meantim e the y wil l b e abl e t o see , an d th e America n publi c wil l com e t o se e th e enormou s materia l

PAGE 78

7 6 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . benefi t t o bot h arisin g fro m th e maintenanc e o f som e sor t o f a bon d betwee n th e tw o countrie s whic h shal l preserv e thei r mutuall y bene ficial busines s relations . N o on e ca n hav e studie d th e Eas t withou t havin g bee n mad e awar e tha t i n th e developmen t o f China , Japa n an d al l Asia , ar e t o b e pre sente d th e mos t importan t politica l question s fo r th e nex t century , an d tha t i n th e pursui t o f trad e betwee n th e Occiden t an d th e Orien t th e havin g suc h a n outpos t a s th e Philippines , makin g th e Unite d State s a n Asiati c powe r fo r th e time , wil l b e o f immens e benefi t t o it s merchant s an d it s trade . Whil e I hav e alway s refraine d fro m makin g thi s th e chie f reaso n fo r th e retentio n o f th e Philippines , be caus e th e rea l reaso n lie s i n th e obligatio n o f th e Unite d State s t o mak e thi s peopl e fit fo r self-governmen t an d the n t o tur n th e govern men t ove r t o them , I don' t thin k i t improper , i n orde r t o secur e suppor t fo r th e policy , t o stat e suc h additiona l reason . Th e sever e criticis m t o whic h th e polic y o f th e Governmen t i n th e Philippine s ha s bee n subjecte d b y Englis h Colonia l statesme n an d students , shoul d no t hinde r ou r pursui t o f i t i n th e slightest . I t i s o f cours e oppose d t o th e polic y usuall y pursue d i n th e Englis h governmen t i n dealin g wit h nativ e races , becaus e i n commo n wit h othe r colonia l powers , mos t o f England' s colonia l statesme n hav e assume d tha t th e safes t cours e wa s t o kee p th e nativ e people s ignoran t an d quiet , an d tha t an y educatio n whic h migh t furnis h a motiv e fo r agitatio n wa s a n inter ferenc e wit h th e tru e an d prope r cours e o f government . Ou r polic y i s a n experiment , i t i s true , an d i t assume s th e ris k o f agitatio n an d seditio n whic h ma y aris e fro m th e overeducatio n o f ambitiou s poli tician s o r misdirecte d patriots , i n orde r tha t th e whol e bod y o f th e peopl e ma y acquir e sufficien t intelligenc e ultimatel y t o exercis e gov ernmenta l contro l themselves . Thu s fa r th e polic y o f th e Philippine s ha s worked . I t ha s bee n attacke d o n th e groun d tha t w e hav e gon e to o fast , tha t w e hav e give n th e native s to o muc h power . Th e meetin g o f th e assembl y an d th e conservativ e ton e o f tha t bod y thu s fa r disclosed , make s fo r ou r vie w rathe r tha n tha t o f ou r opponents , bu t ha d th e resul t bee n entirel y differen t wit h th e assembly , an d ha d ther e bee n a violen t outbrea k a t first i n it s deliberation s an d attempt s a t obstruction , I shoul d no t hav e bee n i n th e leas t discouraged , becaus e ultimatel y I shoul d hav e ha d confidenc e tha t th e assembl y woul d lear n ho w foolis h suc h exhibi tion s wer e an d ho w littl e goo d the y accomplishe d fo r th e member s o f th e assembl y o r th e peopl e who m the y represented . Th e fac t tha t thi s natura l tendenc y wa s restraine d i s a n indicatio n o f th e genera l conservatis m o f th e Filipin o people . Thoug h bearin g th e nam e o f immediat e independistas , th e mem ber s o f th e controllin g part y o f th e assembl y ar e fa r fro m bein g i n favo r o f a polic y whic h thos e word s strictl y construe d woul d mean .

PAGE 79

77 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . Moreover , th e recen t electio n held , sinc e th e Assembl y wa s organized , i n whic h fiftee n progresist a an d fiftee n nationalist a governor s wer e elected , i s a n indicatio n tha t th e nationalis t feelin g i s b y n o mean s s o overwhelmin g a s wa s a t firs t reporte d whe n th e return s fro m th e electio n o f th e assembl y wer e publishe d i n th e press . Th e fac t tha t Filipino s ar e give n a n oportunit y no w t o tak e par t i n th e formin g o f th e governmenta l policie s i n th e islands , wil l I hop e satisf y man y o f the m tha t th e Unite d State s i s i n earnes t i n attemptin g t o educat e the m t o self-government , wil l s o occup y thei r ambition s an d mind s a s t o mak e th e contentio n fo r immediat e in dependenc e mor e o f a n idea l tha n o f a rea l issue , wil l mak e mor e permanen t an d lastin g th e presen t satisfactor y condition s a s t o peac e an d tranquillit y i n th e islands , an d wil l tur n thei r attentio n towar d th e developmen t o f th e prosperit y o f th e island s b y improvemen t o f it s materia l condition s an d th e upliftin g o f th e peopl e b y thei r educa tion , sanitatio n an d genera l instructio n i n thei r political , socia l an d materia l responsibilities . Ther e ha s bee n i n th e Unite d State s i n th e las t yea r a recurrin g dispositio n o n th e par t o f man y o f th e pres s an d man y publi c me n t o spea k o f th e Philippin e polic y a s i f foredoome d t o failure , an d th e conditio n o f th e island s a s a mos t deplorabl e one . N o on e wh o kne w th e island s i n 1900 , an d wh o ha s visite d the m durin g th e presen t yea r an d especiall y durin g th e meetin g o f th e assembl y ca n honestl y an d fairl y shar e suc h views . T o on e actuall y responsibl e i n an y degre e fo r th e presen t condition s b y reaso n o f takin g par t i n th e governmen t o f thos e islands , th e change s mad e an d th e progres s mad e unde r th e circumstance s ar e mos t gratifying . COS T O F TH E PRESEN T GOVERNMEN T O F TH E ISLANDS . Th e mos t astoundin g an d unfai r statement s hav e appeare d i n th e pres s fro m tim e t o tim e an d hav e bee n uttere d b y me n o f politica l prominenc e wh o shoul d kno w better , i n respec t t o th e cos t t o th e Unite d State s o f th e Philippin e Islands . Th e questio n o f th e cos t o f th e island s t o th e Unite d State s a s affectin g it s futur e polic y ca n no t o f cours e includ e th e cos t o f a wa r int o whic h th e Unite d State s wa s force d agains t it s will , an d whic h whethe r i t ough t t o hav e bee n car rie d o n o r not , wa s carrie d o n an d wa s finished mor e tha n five year s ago . Th e onl y questio n o f cos t tha t i s relevan t t o th e presen t dis cussio n i s th e cos t t o th e Unite d State s o f th e maintenanc e o f th e presen t Philippin e government , includin g i n tha t th e cos t o f th e maintenanc e o f tha t par t o f th e arm y o f th e Unite d State s whic h i s i n th e Philippin e Islands . No r i s i t fai r t o includ e th e entir e cos t o f th e arm y o f th e Unite d State s i n th e Philippin e Island s fo r th e rea so n tha t eve n i f w e di d no t hav e th e Philippines , w e shoul d certainl y

PAGE 80

7 8 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . retai n th e presen t siz e o f ou r standin g arm y whic h hardl y exceed s 60,00 0 effectiv e men , a ver y smal l arm y fo r 80,000,00 0 people . More over , i t i s worth y o f not e tha t th e greates t increas e i n th e Arm y o f recen t year s ha s bee n i n tha t branc h o f th e service—t o wit , th e coas t artillery—whic h ha s no t bee n use d i n th e Philippine s fo r som e years . Th e onl y additiona l cos t therefor e tha t th e maintenanc e o f th e arm y ca n b e sai d t o entai l upo n th e Unite d State s i s th e additiona l cos t o f maintainin g 12,00 0 soldier s i n th e island s ove r wha t i t woul d b e t o maintai n th e sam e numbe r o f soldier s i n th e Unite d States . Thi s ha s bee n figure d ou t an d roughl y state d amount s t o abou t $25 0 a ma n o r $3,000,000 , togethe r wit h th e maintenanc e o f 4,00 0 Philip pin e Scout s a t a cos t o f $50 0 a man , o r i n al l $2,000,000 , whic h make s a tota l annua l expenditur e o f $5,000,000 . Th e Unite d State s a t presen t contribute s something , perhap s $200,000 , t o th e expens e o f th e coas t surve y o f th e islands . Wit h thi s exception , ther e i s no t on e cen t expende d fro m th e treasur y o f th e Unite d State s fo r th e maintenanc e o f th e governmen t i n th e islands . Th e additiona l cos t o f th e 12,00 0 me n i n th e islands , figured abov e a t $25 0 a man , include s th e cos t o f transportatio n an d th e additiona l cos t o f foo d supplie s an d othe r matters . Ther e i s a n ite m o f cost , whic h perhap s ma y b e charge d t o th e Phil ippin e Islands . I refe r t o th e expens e o f fortifyin g th e ba y o f Manila , th e por t o f Iloil o an d th e por t o f Cebu , s o tha t i n holdin g th e island s th e Unite d State s shal l no t b e subjec t t o sudde n an d capriciou s attac k b y an y ambitiou s power . Thi s ma y reac h a tota l o f te n millions . Bu t i t i s hardl y fai r t o charg e thi s t o th e Philippin e policy ; fo r almos t everyon e concede s th e necessit y o f maintainin g an d fortifyin g coal in g station s i n th e Orien t whethe r w e hav e th e Philippine s o r not . Th e questio n is , therefore , whether , i n orde r t o avoi d th e expendi tur e o f $5,000,00 0 a year , th e Unite d State s shoul d pursu e th e humili atin g polic y o f scuttle , shoul d ru n awa y fro m a n obligatio n whic h i t ha s assume d t o mak e th e Philippine s a permanentl y self-governin g community , an d shoul d mis s a n opportunit y a t th e sam e tim e o f build in g u p a profitabl e trad e an d securin g a positio n i n th e Orien t tha t ca n no t bu t b e o f th e utmos t advantag e i n obtainin g an d maintainin g it s prope r proportio n o f Asiati c an d Pacifi c trade . Fro m tim e t o tim e ther e ha s bee n quit e sever e criticis m o f th e presen t Philippin e governmen t o n th e groun d tha t i t i s suc h a n ex pensiv e governmen t a s t o b e burdensom e t o th e people . Th e fact s ar e tha t th e taxe s whic h fal l upo n th e commo n peopl e ar e muc h les s tha n the y eve r wer e unde r th e Spanis h regime . Th e taxe s whic h fal l upo n th e wealth y ar e considerabl y more , becaus e a s a matte r o f fac t th e Spanis h syste m o f taxatio n wa s largel y devise d fo r th e pur pos e o f avoidin g taxatio n o f th e wealt h o f th e islands . I hav e no t a t han d an d a m no t abl e t o inser t i n thi s repor t th e figures an d statistic s

PAGE 81

79 REPOR T O F SECRETAR Y O F AVA R O N TH E PHILIPPINES . whic h demonstrat e thi s fact . The y ar e no w bein g prepare d i n Manila , an d I hop e a t som e futur e dat e t o submi t the m fo r you r con sideration . No t onl y i s th e compariso n t o b e institute d wit h th e con dition s existin g unde r th e Spanis h regime , bu t als o wit h th e taxa tio n o f othe r dependencies . Th e dat a wit h respec t t o thes e ar e difficul t t o ge t an d frequentl y liabl e greatl y t o mislea d whe n th e condition s o f eac h particula r colon y ar e no t full y understoo d an d stated . Bu t m y informatio n i s derive d fro m Governo r Smit h an d Mr . Forbe s tha t th e cos t pe r capit a o f th e governmen t o f th e Philippine s wil l compar e mos t favorabl y wit h tha t o f colonia l government s presentin g sub stantiall y simila r conditions . Th e report s fro m th e governor-general , th e head s o f department s an d o f bureau s hav e no t reache d Washington . I wa s abl e befor e I lef t th e island s t o rea d informa l draft s o f som e o f the m an d muc h o f th e informatio n a s t o th e las t year' s operation s I hav e derive d fro m them . I shal l submi t th e report s immediatel y upo n thei r arrival . RECOMMENDATIONS . I therefor e recommend : First . Tha t legislatio n b e adopte d b y Congres s admittin g th e prod uct s of th e Philippin e Island s t o th e market s o f th e Unite d States , wit h suc h reasonabl e limitation s a s ma y remov e fea r o f interferenc e wit h th e tobacc o an d suga r interest s i n th e Unite d States ; Second . Tha t th e presen t restriction s b e remove d a s t o th e acquisi tio n o f minin g claim s an d th e holdin g o f land s b y corporation s i n th e Philippines ; Third . Tha t furthe r legislatio n b e passe d authorizin g th e Philip pin e government , i f i t chooses , t o ope n an d conduc t a n agricultura l bank , wit h a capita l no t exceedin g $2,000,000 ; an d Fourth . Tha t th e coastwis e law s o f th e Unite d State s b e mad e per manentl y inapplicabl e t o th e trad e betwee n th e port s o f th e island s an d th e port s o f th e Unite d States . Sincerely , yours , WM . H . TAFT . TH E PRESIDENT . O WM . H . O