Citation
An outline grammar of the Dafla language as spoken by the tribes immediately south of the Apa Tanang country

Material Information

Title:
An outline grammar of the Dafla language as spoken by the tribes immediately south of the Apa Tanang country
Creator:
Hamilton, R. C.
Place of Publication:
Shillong
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Dafla language ( LCSH )
Nishi language
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India -- Dafla Hills -- Arunachal Pradesh
এশিয়া -- ভারত -- অরুণাচল প্রদেশ -- দফলা পাহাড়
एशिया -- इंडिया -- अरुणाचल प्रदेश -- दफला हिल्स

Notes

General Note:
This item is in the public domain under United Kingdom Crown Copyright

Record Information

Source Institution:
SOAS, University of London
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
265283 ( aleph )
X180320482 ( oclc )
EM78 /210834 ( soas classmark )

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Full Text
AN
OUTLINE GRAMMAR
OF THE
DAFLA LANGUAGE
AS SPOKEN BY
THE TRIBES IMMEDIATELY SOUTH OF THE
APA TANANG COUNTRY
BY
R. C. HAMILTON, Esq.
INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE.
Published by Authority, |
SHILLONG s
PRINTED AT THE ASSAM SECRETARIAT PRINTING OFFICE.
1900
Price 1S, 6d.]
[Price 1 Rupee.]




AN
OUTLINE GRAMMAR
OF THE
DAFLA LANGUAGE
AS SPOKEN BY
THE TRIBES IMMEDIATELY SOUTH OF THE
APA TANANG COUNTRY
BY
R. C. HAMILTON, ESQ.
INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE.
Published by Authority,
SHILLONG :
PRINTED AT THE ASSAM SECRETARIAT PRINTING OFFICE.
1900.
[Price 1s. 6d.]
[Price 1 Rupee.]


Agents for the sale of Books published by the Assam Administration,
Agents in India.
(1) Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. | (2) Messrs. W. Newman & Co., Calcutta,
Agents In England,
(j) Mr. E. A. Arnold, 37, Bedford Street, Strand,
W. C., London.
(2) Messrs. Constable & Co., 2, Whitehall
Gardens, S. W., London.
(3) Messrs. Sampson Low, Marston & Co., St.
Dunstan's House, Fetter Lane, E. C., London.
(4) Messrs. Luzac &Co., 46, Great Russel Street,
W. C., London.
(5) Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner&
Co., Charing Cross Road, W. C., London.
(6) Mr. B. Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, W.,
London.
(7) Messrs. P. S. King & Son, 9, Bridge
Street, Westminster, S. W., London.
(8) Messrs. Williams & Norgate, Oxford.
(9) Messrs. Deighton Bell & Co., Cambridge.
(1) MM. Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse,
Berlin.
(2) M. Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig.
Agents on the Continent of Europe.
(3) M. Karl Hiersemann, Leipzig.
(4) M. Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte,
Paris.
(5) Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.
SHILLONG S
IP BUNTED BY CONYNGHAM FRANCIS, PRESS SUPERINTENDENT, ASSAM,


PREFACE.
JN the structure of this Grammar I have followed the usual system
adopted in similar Grammars, and divided it into five parts,
viz., Orthography, Accidence, Syntax, Miscellaneous Phrases, and
Short Stories and Vocabulary. I have also added a short note
about the language of the Western Daflas.
I have endeavoured to be brief, and to show chiefly the points
of difference between the language I am dealing with and the
Sadiya Shaiyang Miri language.
April 1899.
B. 0. HAMILTON.




Corrigenda Slip to an Outline Grammar of the Dafla.
Language by R. C. Hamilton, Esq., I.C.S.
Page 7, line 3, for 'amm&V read 4amm&\
Page 9, line 1, for 'nangudeb' read 4 nangu \
Page 11, line 18, omit the fullstop after 4&n\
„ „ „ 19, omit the fullstop after 4 mother\
„ „ „ 22, for 4 jitniinumma' read 'jitnutnma \
Page 12, line 12, for 4 Y&nna' read 4 Y&-nna
„ „ „ 26, for 4 Mftlluja-h&m ' read 1 Mftllftj^h&m\
„ „ foot-note for 4 a' read Ma \
Page 13, line 8, for 4 Mftllugan' read 4 Mhlluga \
$9 99 »» 289 for 4 Ky&^a-ka-p&-tenma' read 4 ky£-g&
tenma
Page 13, foot-note, for 4 da' read 4 da
Page 18, foot-note, for 4 pipela' read 4jipela\
„ „ „ for 4 al-m^-danma' read 4 &l-m&-danma \
Page 19, foot-note, for the first 4 lagba ' read 4 lagha \
Page 20, fine 7, for 4 lamplaba it lyinne ' read 4 lamplabafit-lyinne'.
Page 21, line 2, for 4 the1 read 'he'.
„ „ „ for6 his' read 4 this \
Page 22, line 7, for 4ji-m&.' read 6 \
99 i) 99 8, for 4 gave not.' read 4 gave not,'.
„ „ foot-note, for 4 alias' read 4 alius \
Page 27, fine 39for 4 K&n-na' read 4 kan-na \
Page 31, fine 15, omit 4 Perfect' and 4 Future'.
Page 32, line 22, for 4 nalud' read 4 nalu
Page 35, foot-note, for 4 (X blind)' read 4 (= blind) \
„ „ „ for 4 danna (= is) =blind ' read 4 danna (= is)'
99 ,) ,) for ' nyicliha' read ' nyicba
Page 46, line 7, omit4 is
Page 47, line 14, 1 . (Ezz- si &Ia tachch da.
„ „ ~ „ 15, ) e a \ Cloth this very torn is.


2
Page 48, foot-note, for i au-ha ' read ' au-ha
Page 49, line 31, for ' ngaka-Iye ' read ' nga-ka-lye \
„ „ foot-note, for 'nga-ka' read 4nga-ka\
Page 49, foot-note, for 4 ini' read 4 ui \
Page 50, line 8, } , f Kan mfi dfi yam nam ha
„ „ „ 9, ) X Darkness not yet being home to
final,
go.
„ „ „ 21,/or4ga> mnZcNga\
„ „ „ 32, for 4 foul' read 4 fowl\
Page 53, line 15, for 4 sfi' read 4 sa\
,, „ „ „ for 4 so5 read 4 sa
„ „ „ 29, for 4 pet fib fin-bfi' read 4 petab fin-bfi
Page 54, line 13, for 4 rfito pfinma' read 4rfito-panma\
Page 55, line 9, for 4 Sfin' read 4 Sun \
Page 58, line 13, 4 pfi? should be above 4 cut,? and 4 pnumma* above
4 has \
Page 57, line 12, for 4 Am ' read 4Am?.
Page 58, foot-note, for 4 Sa7 read c Sa\
Page 59, line I, for 4 arfiha' read 4 aruha
jj 53 85 for 4 danma ' read 4 danma
„ „ foot-note, omit 4 (Assamese) \
„ „ „ for 4 huni' read 4 hum\
„ ,, „ for 4 lurub? read 4 lfirfib
Page 60, foot- note, for 4 nyil6 ' read 4 nyila \
Page 61, line 11 tfor 4 filma-p-numma? read 4 filma-p-numma
„ „ „ 27,/o^ ' No ' read ' Na>
Page 62, line 38, for 4 cross1 read 4 crosser
Page 63, line 19, for 4 fi-lfimfi-tnumma' read 1 fi-lfi-mfi-fcnumma \
„ „ „ c 1ft ' should be above 4 able', 4 mfi' above 4 not',
etc.
Page 64, line 6, for 4 your' read 4 you \
Page 66, line 7, for 4da-la' read 4da-ta
3, 33 55 23, for 4 fibta' read 4 fib-ta
9? 39 99 25, for 4 jinpulyfi' read 4 jin-pU-lyfi
9, 99 39 27, for ditto read ditto,
fi 99 99 31, fbr 4 nga-fila achi read 4 nga fila achi
Page 67, „ I,for 4 Ala' read 4 Aria'.
» 99 99 for 4 fi tlyinn§ ' read ' fi-tlyinn§


3
Page 68, „ 33, for < da3 read 4 da
„ „ foot-note, for 4 Ya7 read 4 Y& 7.
Page 69, line 5, 4 nga 7 should be above f I\
Page 69, line 36,/or 4 bloaiokla 7 read 4 bolaiokla7.
Page 70, line 21, for 4 jl-lti-sa 7 read 4 ji-jj sa 7n
„ „ foot-note, for 4 Sa 7 read 4 Sa\
Page 72, line 11, for < Ka-p&-tella.7 read4 Kft-pft-teUa/
„ „ „ 12, for4 having 7 read 4 having,7.
,, „ „ 23,/or 4 danma7 read 4 danma\
Page 75, foot-note, for 4 ha7 read 4 ha7.
Page 76, line 38, for ' Aba7 read 4 Aba7,
Page 77, line 39,for 4 Ji-ma,7 read 4 Ji»mk\
Page 79, foot-note, for 4 p&-ta7 read 4 pa-ta 7.
Page 80, foot-note, for 4 Sa 7 read 4 Sa7.
3J „ „ after 4 expressed word7 add 4 for word*.
Page 82, line 8, for ' Ba' read 4 Ba7e
99 s? » 13,/9r 4 Bamlim7 read 4 Bamfim7.
„ „ s, 15, /or 4 ganumma-etehin7 rmc/ 4 ganumma ; etchin.7
„ „ „ 9, omit colon a/ifer 41& 7.
99 99 16,/or 4tach-numma—'r^ac? 4tach-niimma
„ „ foot-note ff, for 4 &gh& 7 read 4 &gha
Page 83, line 10, omit fullstop after 4 tokftr \
„ „ foot-note §, for 4 Sa 7 read 4 Sa 7C
Page 84, line 23, for 4 ha7 read 4 ha'a
99 ?? 25, for 4 hakhri-tam 7 rmc? 4 ha khrit&m7.
99 9? 99 26,/^r 4 ha 7 4 ha7.
„ „ foot-note, for 4 f Oratio 7 read 41 Oratio7.
Page 85, line 17, for 4 Manptikahada 7 read 4 manpu-khada7.
Page 86, foot-note J J, for 4 Ya, lya, and lya 7 read^ 4 Ya, lya and
lya ' respectively,,
Page 88, line 1, omit 4 fowls7.
Page 89, line 6, for 4 dft ka ba 7 read 'dft-k-ba*.
Page 91, line 9, for 4 patlyl7 read 4 patlyiL
Page 109, line 7, for 4 nyem 7 read 4 nyem7.
Page 126, line 9, for 4 Ang 7 read 4 Ang7,




CONTENTS.
part
I.—ORTHOGRAPHY—(1) Vowels, (2) Consonants, 1«»2
(3) Accents.
II.—ACCIDENCE—i—Nouns—(1) Gender, (2) Number, 3—11
(3) Case.
II—Adjectives—(1) Position, (2) Comparison, 4—16
(3) Numerals.
m—Pronouns—(1) Personal, (2) Relative, 16—24
(3) Interrogative, (4) Demonstrative,
(5) Adjectival, (6) Indefinite, (7) Cor-
relative.
iv—Verbs—(1) The Substantive Verb, (2) 24—43
Conjugational examples, (3) Defective
and Irregular Verbs, (4) Rules for the
formation of Tenses, (5) Negative form
of Verb, (6) Interrogative form of
Verb, (7) Compound Verbs (Particles),
(8) Noun repeated in Verb, (9) Rela-
tion of cause and effect, (10) Construc-
tion of Verbs of asking, hearing, etc.
v—Adverbs—(1) Of time, (2) of place, (3) of 43—48
manner, (4) of quantity, (5) Interroga-
tive, (6) Correlative, (7) Examples.
vi—Postpositions and Conjunctions ,,, 48—50
VII—General— (1) Shortening of words, 50—51
(2) Dafla months.
III.—SYNTAX—Parts of speech dealt with in same order as 51—67
in Accidence.
IV.—MISCELLANEOUS Phrases and Short Stories ... 68—91
V.—VOCABULARY—(1) A short Dafla-English Vooabu- 92—124
lary, (2) English-Dafla Vocabulary.
VI.—NOTE on the language of the Western Daflas ... 125-127




AN OUTLINE GRAMMAR
OF THE
DAFLA LANGUAGE,
As spoken by the Tribes immediately South of the
Apa Tanang Country.
PART I—ORTHOGRAPHY.
As far as possible I follow the system of Messrs. Needham and
Endle in their Miri and Cachari Grammars.
I.—Vowels.
(a) When not marked, always short, as in 4 company.'
(a) Long, as in 4 father.'
(a) Like ' a ' in ball.
(e) When not marked, always short, as in then.
(e) Long, as in they.
(i) Unmarked, short, as in p^n.
(i) Long, as in machine.
(o) Unmarked, like the c o ' in not.
(o) Long, as in bone.
(u) Unmarked, like 'u' in bull.
(u) Short, like c u' in much.
(u) Long, like 1 o' in tomb.
(u) Like the French 4 u? in lune.
b


2i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
(ui) A sound fluctuating between the French sound s eu7
(meaning 4 had ' ) and 4 i.7
(au) Like 4 ow 7 in how.
(ai) Like the 4 i7 in shine.
(oi) Like the 4 oi' in hoi\.
II.—Consonants.
Most consonants are used as in English and call for no parti-
cular description.
(c) is only used in conjunction with 4 h 7 as in (d) is dental, so is (t).
(g) is always hard.
(kh) has rather the sound of a guttural aspirate, the 4 k 7 sound
not being strongly pronounced.
(ng) at the beginning of a word is rare, but when it occurs
(e.g., nga = I), the 4g7 is scarcely sounded; it only
serves to give the 4 n 7 a nasal sound.
(y) is never used to form a separate syllable, e.g.,4 nely 5 ( = the
Assamese vegetable called 4lopa7) is a monosyllable.
III.—Accent.
In the Dafla language accent does not apparently play so
important a part as in Miri. The accent usually falls on the
penultimate syllable of a word, but in delivering a sentence the
position of a word in such sentence may cause it to change its
accent or even to change its vowels from long to short or vice versa,
in order to suit the cadence of the sentence, e.g.,
Iki mullunga che-a-su-dna. ) rri j n , ,.
Dog (plural) biting together are. j fhe doS8 are fiShtmS-
but—
Lupa au-nam iki-a* si. ) This is the dog that was shot
Neck (in) shot been dog this. ) in the neck.
In the former sentence 4 iki' is rather slurred over, but in the
latter it is the most important word, and a slight pause takes place
before pronouncing it, which has the effect of lengthening the first
vowel and shortening the second.
* Nominatival' a \


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
3
PART II,—ACCIDENCE.
i.—Nouns.
1.—Gender.
1. In the case of individuals of the human family, gender is
denoted (a) by different words, (b) by adding the word 4 nyega7 =
male, and 4 riyemrn' = female, to the noun, and generally after it.
Masculine.
Abo = father.
Abbu or Atch = elder brother
Bor = younger brother.
Atta r= grandfather or father-
in-law.
Mab = son-in-law.
Nyala = husband.
Nyerra = slave.
Tumba = bachelor.
Yfipang = young man.
Nyekam = old man.
(a) Examples.
Feminine.
A
Amma = mother, sometimes ana
or an.
Amml = elder sister.
Buirma = younger sister.
Ai = grandmother or J mother-
in-law.
Nyehyii = daughter-in-law.
Nyibyti = wife.
Pan = female slave.
Hami = spinster.
Nyijir = young woman.
Hukh = old woman.
(b) Examples.
Masculine.
Feminine.
Nyi nyega = man
Nyi nyemm = woman, or nyemm
nyi, indifferently.
Ka nyegfi or nyega ka = son. Ka nyemm = daughter.
Tanu nyega = male A pa Ta- Tanu nyemm = female Apa Ta-
nang. nang.
2. In the case of the inferior animals, gender is often distin-
guished by certain suffixes with the reduplication of the last sylla-
ble of the noun ; the usual suffix is 'p7 for the masculine and 4n 7
for the feminine, but these sometimes change, apparently for
b 2


4i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
euphony's sake, to, 4 b', 4 ba 4 pa for the masculine, and to 4 na '
for the feminine.
Examples.
Masculine. Feminine.
Xki = dog , Iki kib. Iki ldn.
Saram = otter Saram ramp. Saram rarnna.
Sata = elephant. Sata taba Sata tenna.
Shutum = bear Shutum tump Shhturn tumna.
Sibin goat Sibin bimpa. Sibin binna.
Shudum — deer Shudum dumba Shudum dumna.
Takar = leopard ... Takar karp Takar Mrn.
Saba = mithon Saba sab Saba san.
Pora = domestic fowl... Pora rop Pora ron.
Porsin = wild fowl ... Porsin semp Porsin sen:
Pojab = duck Pojab jappa Pojab jabna.
Mindui = buffalo Mindui duib Mindui duin.
Pumcbi mouse Pumchi chip Pumchi chin.
Kubbu = rat Kubbu bupa Kubbu buna.
Perrii = dorick* Perrii rupa Perrti riina.
Sebbi = monkey Sebbi begga Sebbi ben.
The last example differs a good deal from the rule laid down,
but possibly only for euphony's sake. But no rule can, I think, be
laid down to include the following four words :
Masculine. Feminine.
Shemin=tiger Sheinin p&p. Shemin pan.
Sai— wild pig. Sar irum. Sar ran.
Ulyi=domestic pig. Illyi yippa. Ulyi hiin.
Sa=bull or cow (Asse. Goru) Sa hab. Sa han.
But the usual way of distinguishing gender is, as in the case of
human beings, by adding the words nyega or nyemma, even to the
nouns mentioned above, e.g., shutum tumb and shutum nyega, as
well as shutum tftmna and shutum nyemma seem to be used indif-
ferently. Similarly iki nyeg&, iki nyemma=dog, male and female ;
siss nyega, siss nyemma=porcupine, male and female.
* This is the bird whoso scientific name is Euplocamus Lorsfieldi, the black crested
ha lij.


Part II. ] ACCIDENCE. 17
The question 44 Is it a male or female ? " with reference to "the
examples given above, would be asked, as the following examples
will illustrate :
Sata tenn 6yi?* Tab 6yi ?*
Elephant female is ? Male is ?
But where the animal referred to is actually present, its gene-
ric name is usually omitted in asking the question, e.g., if a duck
is offered for sale the would-be purchaser asks—
Jfibn eyi ?* Jfip fiyi ?*
(Duck) female is ? (Duck) male is ?
or, pointing to a pup, a Dafla would ask—
Kin eyi?* Kib fiyi ?*
(Dog) female is ? (Dog) male is ?
Using nyega and nyemm, we should- have nyemm-alye
nyegwalye ? =Is it a male or female ? The 4 rl7 is probably insert-
ed for euphony in nyeg-n-alye.
It is noticeable that, unlike the Miris, the Daflas place the
feminine signification before the masculine in the above sentences,
2.—Number.
The plural is formed by the use of the suffixes tullue, maluher-
mulliier, utchumma and ede. But very often no suffix at all is
added, though the plural is implied.
These suffixes appear to be used almost indifferently, e.g.,
Nyi tullue, nyi maluher, nyi mulluer=men. San tullue=trees.
Sibin utchumma or slbin ede = goats.
But tullue seems capable of being used with every kind of
noun to a greater degree than the other suffixes, while ede
seems to be used more with reference to the lower animals than
to inanimate objects.
Examples.
Tananga unma. ") The Apa Tanangs (i.e., sev-
Apa Tanangs came. ) eral of them) came.
Ka ed& sha-min-da. j The cbildren are j •
Children playing are. ) r J &
Sa darab putcb mulMsam biigne j Take thege ^
Here thing (plural) these take away j ° J
* Interrogative alternative particle.


6i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
3.— Case.
1. The following are the simple case-endings of the oblique cases
of nouns. Personal pronouns, as will be seen later, differ slightly
from nouns in their case-endings, and so do proper nouns from
common nouns :
Possessive : 4 ka' or (for proper nouns) 4 ga.'
Dative : 4 m ' (same as accusative), but for proper nouns 4 ba.'
Accusative : 4 m,' no termination at all for inanimate nouns ;
for proper nouns 4 ne.'
Ablative : 6 okka ' or 4 hokka.'
Instrumental : 4 hella ' or 4 alia ' or 4 lokka.'
Locative : 4 sa ' or 4 ha,'
2. Details and examples of each case are now given.
The nominative is generally, but not invariably, marked by
the nominatival 4 a,' which sometimes causes a change in the pro-
nunciation of the noun. Sometimes 4 ga ' is substituted for 4 a.'
Examples.
P&t-a (pronounced pa-ta) sudumam)
dadna C Tigers eat deer.
Tigers deer eat.)
JSr^btt | A dog has bitten me.
Sot } A "as pricked «
3. AsinMiri, there is a sense of possession underlying the
suffix 4 ka ' of the possessive case. Hence 4 ka ' is used chiefly
with the names of human beings, and is usually omitted where the
genitive is descriptive or definitive.
Examples.
Sa nga-ka abo-ka nam. ) rj . r , ,
Here my father's house. $ Here 18 my father s house-
Sa nanga si higumna ? Poduga \ Whose village is' this ? It
Here village this whose ? Podu's. ) is Podu's.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
7
Nga Podu-ga ka-a. ) j am podu's son.
I Jrodu s son. )
Amma's ka ez katch da. ) ?,r > 1 ,T . ,
Mother's cloth dirty is. j M°tlier 3 clotli 18 dirt^
Sata ala ; rarely sata ka ala. \ . plpnhan{.>„ i
Elephant leg. Elephant's leg. j An elePhan"" leS-
lilyi Ma ottu-da. | p; , j afQ shorfc>
rig leg short are. ) ° °
4. With common nouns tl
sative is the same, viz., 6 m.7
4. With common nouns the case-ending of the dative and aceu-
Examples.
Ma satam am demged da.") He is giving the elephant
He elephant to dhan giving to eat is. ) dhan to eat.
Hukh- ham ka-kin-ta. ) cu , ,, 1
^ ,1 , , , £ Show it to tne old woman.
Old woman that to show. )
Nga hukh ak ba ii't-numma.* ) T a ij
t B t. • j* i r JL gave it to an old woman.
I old woman one to give did. ) Q
Nga ammam ez iinma.* ") T ' , ,,
-p ,, , i J > 1 gave mother a cloth.
I mother to cloth gave. )
Nga na mobungam Sagaba jit-niim-
ma.1 C I gave your gun to Sag&.
I your gun Saga to give did. )
Nga Sagaba. Toppune nyerra-ba.
1 Saga to Toppu (acc.) slave as (IgaveToppu to Saga as a
jit-numma. f slave,
give did. J
5. The accusative case-ending 4 m 7 is not usually added to an
inanimate noun. But it is often added to the dative to bring out
the contrast between the dative and accusative in a sentence.
Examples.
Bull am oppo jinma* | j 0 them u
lhem to liquor I gave. )
Urn par ta. ) , , -
Fire light. j Light a fire.
* 'Jinma,'a not finally completed act. Assamese ' di chchilo' jit-numma, finally-
completed Assamese ' dilo.'


8i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
But where the demonstrative pronoun is used with the accusative
former takes the c
ordinarily would not.
the former takes the case-ending even when used with a noun that
Examples.
"LTm ham par ta. ") Light the fire, i.e., in the
Fire the light. ) fire-place.
Ngam lampla-ham ka-kin-ta. *) CT ,, j
Mi to road the show. j Show me the roa 6. For the true ablative that merely denotes ' separation from9
4 okka ' is the simple case-ending.
Example.
Alo nyi al okka na-ta. ") m , .. r ±1 ,
There man that from take. j * man'
But particles varying according to the meaning are prefixed to
above case-ending to denote 4 from the locality of,' 4 from the time
of7 etc.
From the top of is 4 au-okka.'
From a place down stream* is 4 b&I okka.'
From a place up stream* is 4 tal-lokka.'
From a place inland* is 4 a-lokka.'
From a place (ordinarily) is 4 hokka ' or 4 olokka.
From the time of . 4 gal-okka.1
From or out of certain materials is 4 hok 7 or 4 hokka.'
From the mouth of is 4 hokka.'
Examples.
Ma sat au-okka hol-ne-ba. ) - ni i T
He elephant top from fall did. j He fel1 off an elePhant
Mindui au-okka ipot-ta. ") n , „ ,, , & ,
Buffalo above from descend. j Get off the buffaI°-
* The Daflas have no terms for the four cardinal points—1 up the river,' ' down the
river' and ' on either side of the river ' is their method of expressing direction.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
9
Lakhimpur balokka T&rag nangudeb ^ Ifc u take two d (tQ ^
Lakhimpur up from Taras 'chang f „ from LaklfimV up
hob I amyiga lyil-nepu. C < ch ,
there to days two do will. J °
Note.—This would be said by a man living up in the hills. In the plains a man
would say—
Lakhimpur sok Tfirfig nangu"
Lakhimpur here from Tara's village
tal-ba la-inyiga lyil-nepii.
up to days two do will.
It will take two days to
travel from Lakhimpur
up to Tara7s chang.
Bazar hokka or olokka embin bu-ta. ) 0 • • r
» * n i • ? Bring rice from the bazar.
Bazar rrom irom rice bring. ) °
Ma moil gal-okka karda. V He has been ill since yester-
He yesterday from ill is. ) day.
Ngalu embin hok oppo mtij ^
^adenna! fr°m liqU°r PreParing ( We make liquor out of rice.
make. J '
Nanga nyi hokka tadnumma. j { heard . from ^ vill
Village men from hear did. j °
7. The true instrumental, e.g., he killed it with a gun, with an
arrow, with a stick, is expressed by the particles 4 hella 5 or 4 alia '
added to the simple form of the noun ; the difference between 4 hella7
and 4 alia ' is not very clear, but 4 hella 7 seems more graphic, that
is, a Dafla excitedly describing what he had seen, would use
' hella,7 but if stating loosely what he had been told would use
c alia.7 The termination 4 lokka 7 also sometimes forms the instru-
mental.
Examples.
Ha nyemmam dap ' hella manma. *> He struck a woman with a
He woman big stick with struck. ) big stick.
Ha nyemmam benyang alia manma. } He struck a woman with a
He woman small stick with struck. £ small stick. (The speaker
) did not himself see this.)
S5h It itfwuhka ne;kihpfa-} ^!t ™th * d°tb-
Ma nga ala lablxi yotchi hella panma. | He cut my right hand with
He my hand right knife with cut. ) a knife.


10i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
To denote 4 means by which locomotion is made,' 4 ba 7 is added
to the simple noun, with euphonic variations where necessary.
Ma sat-au-ba or sat au-wa unma.")
He elephant above by elephant C He came by elephant,
above by came. )
Na pobbh-ba unmaye, lampla-ba
unmaye > Did you come by river or
You river by came? Road by came? ) road ?
Ha naba unma ; nga tumpa-ba
tt i * \ t n • i r He came by boat; I walked.
He boat by came ; 1 walking by v J 9
came.)
8. The locative (denoting 4 at a place 7) is expressed by adding
c sa 7 or 4 ha7 to the simple noun.
4 Sa 7 and 4 ha 7 are really adverbs meaning 4 here 7 and 4 there \
respectively.
Examples.
Ma zilla sa da-il nye-pii. ") rT .n , . ,,
tj , . . J .nf > He will stay in the station.
He station m stay will. j J
Hale ga nam ha dadna. ") 0 . . D , , .
u , A • • } He is in Hales house.
Hale s house in is. )
9. Other miscellaneous examples are given below which cannot
properly be said to come under any of the above seven cases.
4 Direction through,7 4 motion towards,7 4 accompaniment,7 4 in the
presence of,' etc., are illustrated.
Examples.
Ha mnara lepa-ba ftnna or un-ba.) tt L ^ , - ,
He jungle middle by went went, j He went thro"Sh Jungle-
Hotcb ha hog dadna ? ") wu ... ,
Basket in what is ? j What 13 ln your baskefc ?
Nam ariihe dadna. ") /ri x . . ., _ _
House within is. \ Na graya nga mnara danma. "i I was in the jungle when you
You calling I jungle (in) was. j called.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
11
Danyi al ap-ta. j it in the sun.
uiiD in put. )
Issh-ba nyi ak ka hoi unne-M. "j A i r n n ^
WJ r f A man has fallen into the
ater into man one tailing gone >
1 V water,
has. )
Ma nam ba unna. ) tt u
tt 1 , t > He went home.
Jtie house towards went. j
Gh&t ha or ba hudla i-tlyinne. ) When will you go to the
Ghat to to when go will. ) ghat.
Bullu nangu-ba bol unma. ") They took him to their
Their village to taking went. ) village.
Babu dakh ba inni. ") n , ,, u ,
t> i > • i . >• Go to the Babu.
Babu s side to go. J
Nga lagaba uniu. 1 n
*/1 J I Come with me.
Me with come. )
Sa nyi tullu lagba i-}a.) ^ with these men.
Ihese men (plural) with go not. ) &
lllyi ka tullu ha an. ^
Pig children (plural) mother. (Young pig always accompa-
lagaba da-ki^-denna. f ny their mother,
with staying always are. J
Ha daka kadba c dhon ' iitnunum-") r ,, . , .
J (1 paid the money in his pre-
tj • . . t \ sence.
He remaining seeing money I gave. J
Some more examples similar to these will be found under the
head ' Postpositions/
II. —Adjectives.
1. As in Miri, adjectives are usually placed before the noun
they qualify, hut can be put after, without any obvious difference
in meaning. But a numeral always follows the noun.
Examples.
Ma dap assonn alia jl-p-numma. ) He struck him with along
He big stick long with struck has. j stick.
Am suyin nyingna mi > Green dd is nofc rj
' Dhan green ripe not. ) L r
* 1 ki,' a frequentative particle; see under 'Particles.'
c2


12i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
(a) The comparative is formed by adding 4 ya ' to the simple
adjective, the object compared going into the accusative case, but
unlike Miri, no separate word, such as 4punum,' is required for
4 than.'
Nga ezzi* na ezz-liam al-ya-da.
My dloth your cloth than good [• My cloth is better than yours.
more '
Examples.
•da.
IS. )
Ma ngfim akhai yh-dnaf ) He is older fchan j
He me than old more is )
Podu ngam koi-ya-dna.f I Podu is bigger (i.e., taller
Podu me than big more is. ) and stronger) than I.
This*than that big morefe! } That is larger than this.
If the adjective becomes adverbial, rendering necessary the
addition to it of the particle 4 ba', 4 ya ' is inserted before 4 ba '.
Example.
Nghm herin y&-bayadna. ) He runs faster than L
Me fast more (adv.) runs. )
(b) The superlative is formed by the insertion of 4 mullija ha,' or
4 mullu j&-ham' or 6 mullu ga' 4......h&m,' before the comparative.
Though the distinction between the above three methods is not
always kept up, it seems to be this :
(1) 4 Mullija ha' (= than all) generally refers to inanimate
objects not actually present but lazily thought of.
(2) 4 Mulluja-h&m' refers to human beings or things the speaker
takes more interest in, and is the most truly grammatical
form of the three.
(3) Where the object compared is repeated, e.g., 4 our dogs
are the biggest of all dogs,' it is inserted between 4 mulluga
and 4 ham '
♦ Nominatival* 1
•f With the comparative and superlative 4aJ frequently changes to ' dna,' 'a'
or ' nna ' for euphony's sake.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
13
Examples.
Ha nam-a mullija ha 41 ya-nna.
His house than all good more is.
Ha nyi ha mullu ja-ham
There man that than all
oppo mali ya-ga* tu-da.
liquor most much drinks.
Kampt olyokka mullugan
Khampti dao all
olyaf ham al- ya- dna.
dao than good more are.J
His house is the best of all.
That man drinks
liquor of all.
the most
/ Khampti daos are the best of
C all.
3.—Numerals.
1,
The cardinals from 1 to 10 are —
Akkin ... 1
Anye
Om
Apl
Ang
2
3
4
5
Akr
Kanni
Plln
Kya
Illyi
In counting, Daflas do not go beyond 10, they
6
7
8
9
10
begin again
at 1.
2. The suffix 4ga' is added to all the cardinals alike (differing
in this respect from the Miri suffix 4 ka'). A prefix 6a ' answering
to the Miri 6 a ' is added to the numeral 44 three 77 but apparently to
no other.
Examples.
Two men came.
I saw nine men.
Nyi anyi-ga unma.
Men two came
Nga nyi kya-ga-ka-pa-tenma.
I men nine see happen did.
3. 4 Akkin-ga7 (= one) is also used in a sense corresponding to
the English indefinite article, and is sometimes shortened to 4 akko,7
but there is also another word, 4 na-ga,7 which corresponds to the
indefinite article, and sometimes too 4ga7 alone.
* This is really the comparative suffix, aud 4 eg a ' (= much).
"(* Shortened form.
J With the comparative and superlative ' da ' frequently changes to 1 dna,' 4 a '
or 4 nna ' for euphony's sake.


ni
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Examples.
Ngam beny akkin ga bii-ta. ) D . ,
Tome small stick a bring. j Bring me a stick.
Na assoba akko rep-niimraa. ) T T , , ,
Boat long a buy did. j I bought a long boat.
4. The cardinals from 11 to 19, 21 to 29, 31 to 39 and on-
wards are formed by adding the word for 1, 2, 3, etc., to the word
for 10, 20, 30, etc., inserting 4 la' between each, and making any
other advisable euphonic change, as :
Illyi lakkin 11, illyi lene 12, illyi laum 13, illyi leplin 18, illyi
lakya 19, nyikri lakkin 21.
5. The formations of the numerals 20, 30, 40, etc., is so irregu-
lar that no rule can be laid down for forming them. They are
therefore given in extenso : nyikri 20, chomum 30, jempl 40,
or chempl 40, chamung 50, chankr 60, chankanni 70, chemp-
kullumplini 80, ckunker 90, liig 100.
6. The difference between the Dafla and Miri mode of count-
ing is remarkable. In Miri ceing a-um-ka ' (literally 10,3) = 30 ;
in Dafla 6 illyi om' (literally 10,3) =-. 13.
7. As in Miri, the cardinal is often preceded by an expletive
or particle, so much so that the real number is almost lost sight
of sometimes. The particle varies according to the class of objects
designated. The classification, however, differs a good deal from
the Miri classification, e.g.—
Bar C rupees, four or two anna pieces,
Bar, or > designates < money generally, brass plates, flat dishes,
Baru ) (. moons.
Dor „ ... Animals.
Nam „ ... Houses.
Pom ,, ... Villages.
D&g ,, ... Short pieces of wood.
Bu „ ... Small bamboos.
Nu „ ... Large live trees.
Rung „ ... Cloth.
Bor ,, ... Leaves of trees.
Pu ,, ... Eggs.
Yar ,, ... Long pieces of timber, long bamboos.
Pu „ ... Bottles, kolsis, or any vessel holding
liquid.
Ta „ ... Glasses (exception to the above).
La ,, ... Days.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
15
8. On the other hand, several familiar nouns require no such
particle, e.Q., nyi anyiga= two men, nyi ang ga = five men, nyi
akrga = six men ; na aplaga = four boats, nfi anga = five boats.
9. But the manner in which the above particles blend with the
cardinal is so irregular and confusing that it will be necessary to
give several instances.
Examples.
Taka bar-unga = five rupees ; hik bar-finga = five 4 anna
pieces ; taka bar-krga = six rupees ; taka bar-lyi le plin ga =
eighteen rupees.
Sat dorrga = one elephant; sat dorkrga = six elephants ;
sibin dornyiga = two goats.
Nam nang kinga = one house ; nfim nemnyiga = two houses ;
nam nomunga = three houses ; nam namnga = five houses.
Nangft pongkinga === one village ; nangu pomplaga = four
villages ; nangu pomunga = five villages ; nangu pongkrga =
six villages.
Suda dag = one short piece of timber ; suda dain ya danga ==
five short pieces of timber.
A buinya buplaga = four small bamboos.
San nftnga = five trees ; san nukrga = six trees.
Ezz runkinga = one piece of cloth ; ezzi rfimnga — five pieces
of cloth ; ezzi rungkrga = six pieces of cloth.
Okr borkinga, okr borunga, ( Leaf (of tree) one, leaves five,
okr borkrga. \ leaves six.
Pup pukin ga, piip punga, ( Egg one, eggs five, eggs six.
piip piikrga. \
A yedplaga, a yarunga, a (Bamboos four, bamboos five,
yfirkrga. \ bamboos six.
(Bottol pfinga7 means 4 one bottle.7 Contrast 'piippfingfi'
which means 4 five eggs.7
Gilas takinga, gil4s t^nyiga, gil&s takrga, glass (or cup) one,
glasses (or cups) two, glasses (or cups) six.


16i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Unlike Miri, the above particles are kept up throughout, viz.,
for 7, 8, 9, 10 and upwards (eg.. barp kalam-plinga = eight rupees)
till 20 is reached, then we go back to the simple form, e.g., la-lyi-le
kyaga = nineteen days, al nyikhrii ga = twenty days, al
chemplga = forty days.
Similarly bar-lyiga = ten rupees, barlyi-le kyaga = nineteen
rupees*, "dhon " nyikhriiga == twenty rupees, " dhon " chemplga =
forty rupees.
Nineteen is often expressed as 'one less than twenty,' e.g.,
Barg ta nyila nyikhrii tanaga = rupee one, also if twenty about to
be.
For convenience sake, adverbial numerals may be dealt with
here. They are formed by prefixing Me,'' la' or c lu ' to the simple
cardinal, the vowel coalescing as usual with the numeral's initial
vowel.
The suffix 'ga/ however, is not often added to the first four
adverbial numerals, at any rate not so often as to the fifth and
sixth.
Lung-ga,=five times.
Liikr-ga,=six times.
Lekin = once. Luum=three times.
Linyi = twice. Lupl=four times.
There are no ordinals in Dafla. 'First'is expressed by the
particle 1 cho,' and 'hok-a' or 4 hok okuba ha/ meaning 'after
that,' is used in lieu of the remaining ordinals.
III.—Pronouns.
1. — Personal Pronouns.
Singular.
Mom. Nga = I Na = You Ma or Ha = He or She.
Poss. Nga-ka Na-ka Mui-ga, Ho-ka or Gina-
ga.
Dat. Ng&p Nap Ma-am, ham or mi am.
Singular.
Ace. Ng&m Nam Ma-am, ham.
Abl. Nga-hok Nahok Miighok.
Intr. Nga-galok Na-g&lok Mui-galok.
* This is a borrowed Assamese word, used by the DaRas.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
17
Plural.
Nom. Nga-lu Na-lu Bulla or mu-bull.
Poss. Nga-lu-ga Na-lu-ga Biill-ga, or merely bullli
Pat. Nga-l-ba Na-l-ba Bull-ba.
Acc. Nga-l-am Na-l-am Bull-am.
Abl. Nga-lu-hok Na-lu-hok Bull-g-hok.
Jntr. Nga-l-galok NM-galok Bull-galok.
Notes.—There are no separate words answering to the Mir-
pronorninal adjectives nga-kem, na=kem, bui-ken (= mine, yours,
his, etc.), nga-ka, na-ka, etc., serve both purposes. The Daflas,
in their loose way of speaking, often substitute the accusative
ngain, nam, etc., for the real dative, while the proper dative of the
third person singular 'mii-ba7 or 4ho-ba7 is hardly ever used. The
ablative and instrumental are often interchanged in conversation.
To render such phrases as : 46 this is for you,71 44 it is too large for
you,'7 " too small for me,77 the proper dative is always used, e.g.,
Sam nap-a = This is for you ; nap koi-i-da = It is too large for you.
4 Mullu,7 the plural suffix, is usually joined with the plural form
of personal pronouns ; as :
Nga na-lam rnullyam taka barkrga
I you to (plural) rupees six f T -n •
u J r >1 will give you six rupees,
jin pu. v
give will. J
Unlike the Miris. the Daflas do not emphasize the subject by
the addition of the personal pronoun.
Example.
Saga benma nyi-a ega ullyi. ") Saga said that many men
Saga said men many come have. j had come.
But neuter nouns are followed by 4 ha7 (= Miri 4 da7) ; as—
Nga-ka ezz ha darft-mft. j M cbth ig di
My cloth it clean not. )
Ezz ham n,Ap jibba. j Give me ^ clotb
Cloth it me to give. )
A m
There is no declinable reflexive pronoun. 4Atte, meaning
4 self,7 does for the accusative, as :
Ma atte ma-su-ga-denna j Rq k]]]ed
He self kill self cause aid. )
My own, your own, their own, etc., is simply nga-ka, na-ka, etc.



18i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
The particle 4 su7 or 4 shu7, which has a reflexive or reciprocal
force, is dealr with under ' Particles.'7
2.—Relative Pronouns.
Properly, there are no relative pronouns, the manner in which
English relative pronouns are rendered in Dafia will have to be
illustrated somewhat fully by examples.
Examples.
Yoilyiga nga nyi fcanam* ha.,f si. This is the man I saw yester-
Mesterday I man seen he this. ) day.
Nga taka barga jiniiin nyi he si. ^ This is the man to whom I
1 rupee one given man he this. ) gave a rupee.
Sa sikokt or sin-hok nyie si. ^m,. . ,
Cow dead of him dead of him man Thjs 18 the man whose cow
this ) died-
Nga na krikanumma sa si. "j This is the boat which I
I boat measured here this. ) measured.
Ha nyi-e§ sa ezzsam ngap-a
That man here cloth this me to / That man who gave me this
jipela|| sinna. T cloth is dead,
given having died. J
Nga-ka rnobu nan&m nyi-ha, si. This is the man from whom
My gun taken been man he this. ) 1 took a gun.
Moilyiga sibin ha al-ma-nma^f sal^
Yesterday goat it well not was to-day / The goat that was ill yes-
al duk. f terday has recovered to-da}7.
well is. J
A1 al porola k&-pa-linpa ^
Good good fowls see happen will / Buy what good fowls you
rel-butta. C
buying bring. J
Na pasiga darab dadna ham, ng&p^j
) I
see.
Your basket things are them, me to I Give me what is in your
jibba.
5
basket.
* kanatn, past participle passive of root 4ka' = see.
j* k ha' and 4 si ' are demonstrative pronouns, and * h§ ' the emphatic form of ' ha
J Vsikok ' contracted form, I think, for4 sin-ka-hok
§ 4 e ' emphasizes the noun to which it is joined.
|| 4 pipela ' is the past participle active.
^f Al-ma-nma is a contraction for ' al-ma-danma/ literally 4 well not wa3 \


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
19
Above examples show that it is impossible to lay down any
definite rule for rendering English relative pronouns into Dafla,
but there is no difficulty if one enters into the spirit of the
language.
3.—Interrogative Pronouns.
The pronoun for 4 who' differs so much in its oblique cases from
the nominative that it can hardly be called a declinable pronoun.
The following examples illustrate each case :
Hium jipna ? Mum jipna ? ) Who gave it ? Who struck
Who gave ? Who struck ? j you ?
Sa nyi si hiya ? ) xt7, . . 0
tj . 1 • -/ rv > Who is this man r
Here man this who ? )
H& sibin habigum orhiga? j Whoge ig h ?
1 here goat that whose whose r )
Sa nangu higa ? Na hiba
Here village whose'? You whom to f Whose village is this? To
jinma ? t whom did you give it?
gave ? J
Na hig-alokka nanma. ) ^ i ri , , 0
p r â–  , , > from whom dia you take it r
luu whom trom took. ) J
Na higa lagba* dadna. I With whom are you stay.
You whom with are. ) ing ?
Hiya-khe flnma ? Ha A
Who (plural) have come ? There / Who have come ? Whose
nam mullu ha higumna ? t are those houses ?
houses (plural) those whose? . )
Hiba-khe jinma? Hinne-^j
Whom to (plural) gave ? Whom / To whom did you give it?
khe ganma? C Whom did you call ?
(plural) called ?
Hig-alokka-khe nanma? | From whom did you take
Whom from (plura 1) took ? j it ?
Higa-khe lagba* danma? j With whom (plural) did you
Whom (plural) with stayed ? j stay.
4 Hog,' meaning 'what' or 4 which,' seems to be indeclinable,
as the examples will show. 4 Hogola ' or 4 hog] a,' meaning 4 where/
is the locative case.
* Ordinarily 1 with' is ' lagha,'but not here. The uses of * lagba,' ' Jagba, etc.,
are discussed under ' Postpositions,' q.v.
D 2


20i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Examples.
Nalu hog lvikamna ? nr, , j • o
v i s . ^ What are you doing?
Y ou what doing are r j
Nal (for nalu) hog lyitniim ? ") xtt, . i j o
v / i n T i. / t o r What have you done?
You you (plural) what done have? ) J
Na (for naka) anyiha hog lyinma ? \ What is the matter with
Your your eyes what did ? ) your eyes ?
wtt by Sby^iu } WUch ^ 1 ?
Hogaba lyin-ha, meaning 4 what kind of' (for cloth, etc.).
Hogoblyin-ga, meaning 4 what sort of' (for men, etc.).
Hogadga, meaning 4 how many p7 4 how much ?'
are all indeclinable. •
4.—Demonstrative Pronouns.
The demonstrative pronouns are—
Si = this person or thing, near.
Ishi = that person or thing, near.
Ala = that person or thing, in sight but not near.
Ha — that person or thing, not near.
4 Si' is declinable, viz., poss. sa-ka ; dat. and acc. sam.
abl. sa-galok; while with postpositions the form 4sa7 is used, as sa
lagba = with this. 'Ha' is similarly declined; if 'ka7 is omitted,
4 sa7 and 'ha' are used for the genitive, not4 si' or 'ha/ just as
the genitive case of 4bullu ' is 'bullu.7
Although all these demonstratives follow the noun, their corre-
lative adverb precedes it; the correlative adverb is nearly always
used if the noun is used, but if no noun is used, the demonstrative
pronoun can stand alone.
Examples.
Sa nyem si Podu-ga nyihi-a.* ) TL. • -o j » >r
T7 J . n i v >l f lhis woman is rodu s wife.
Here woman this rodu s wile. )
Sa ezz sam nga hog ma-tlyinne. *) What shall I do with this
Here cloth this 1 what do shall ? ) cloth.
Sa mindui si sa n yi sa-ka-l\ e.f ) T . , „ , ,, . , 0
Here buffalo this tere man this of ? } Is th,S buffal° thls man s ?
* Nominatival 1 a.1
t * lye,' is the interrogative particle.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
21
Sa nyi sa kataba* ma na-hAi-p4n-
Here man his on the reprisal cut / Did he to take reprisals cut
ma-lye ? f this man ?
did? J
Ha nyi ha rugr4 denna ) m, , .
rP, 4.1 4. j • c that man is mad.
1 here man that mad is )
Ha nyi mulluham iibba ) n. .. , ,,
mi ,7 / i n .i r t brive it to those men.
lhere men (plural) those to give )
5. —Adjectival Pronouns.
Under this head, I have included pronouns, such as ' each/ 4 the
same.7 Though the classification is perhaps rather arbitrary, I
think it is better to divide up the various pronouns than to mix
several kinds together.
The following examples will show howl the English adjectival
pronouns 4 each,7 4 the same,7 4 the one,7 4 the other,7 ' such,7 4 another,7
aie turned.
Examples.
Sa nyi mullii sam nyi chiraA
Here men (plural) these men each / Give each of these men a
toka barg barg-baf jitta f rupee,
rupee one one (adverb) give.J
lissa-ga
once
mobu"
gun
I will let each man
shot.
fire
one
We come
village.
from the same
Nga nyi chira
1 man each
4m-ne-pu.J
fire let will.
Ngalu nangu pongkin lokka"
We village (village) one from
uilne.
come.
Nga nyihyunga anyiga dadna
My wives two are : / I have two wives : one is old,
akne hukh-ha, 4kne nyijir denna f the other young,
one old, the other young is. )
* Usual meaning of 4 katabas is ' on account of'.
-j- The uncontracted form would be 4 bar-ga bar-ga ba;' ' ba' is the adverbial particle.
X 4 ne' is a permissive particle.


22i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Podu-ba"
Podu t>
Sa oppo saba
Here liquor thus
ma- chin- dann-lye
make knowing are ?
Ha darab ham
There thing that
ji- ma.
not.
oksunna* jit-numma
the other give did.
sa lamplaba ut-ma,
that road by go will not;
lamplaba utlyinne.
road by go will.
gave
nyi
man
Nga
khrib*
another
Can you make such liquor,
or liquor like this ?
I did not give it to Podu, but
to the other man.
I will not go by that
but by another.
road,
6.—Indefinite Pronouns.
Under this head I have included such pronouns as csome
' some
others,7 4 many,7 4 few,' 'someone,7 4 something.7
Examples.
Nyisu tugna- sa edin dadna,
Dafias some cow flesh eat, [ Some Daflas eat beef, but
mali-ya na da-ma-denna. C most do not.
most eat not do. J
rp a
lugne
Some
tugne
some
Moy
Joyhing ba
Joyhing to
Tanu-ba
A pa Tanang to
hiyal porongam
fowls the
ude,
gone are,
ude.
gone are.
ejag
many
Last night jackal
nu-g-nenma.
took.
Nyisu nangu t& lokka sab
Dafla village up from mithon
ba-khok megnehe dadna
brought of few (indeed) remain.
Some have gone to Joyhing,
some to the Apa-Tanang
country.
A jackal took away
fowls last night.
several
I Of the mithan we brought
down from the hills, few
are left.
* 'oksunna' the other, cf.} Latin 'alter'; * khrib/ another, cf., Latin 'alias \


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
23
Nyi ga
Man a
ganba.
has.
my
maj-ham
holy bells the
detchaK
stolen [ Some one has
cleo gantas.
1
stolen
my
Ha
There
nyemm
woman
1 an en ma,
ham bogga
that something
buddi,
give did, what it might be,
jinma, nga kar dar-ta-ina.
he gave I see could not.
J
hoga
ngal
Mnara
Jungle (in) we
da-pa-ma-pe-numma.
eat find not did.
hogja
anything
He gave the woman some-
thing, but I could not see
what.
In
the jungle we found
nothing to eat.
7.—Correlative.
The following examples will show how English pronominal
correlative clauses are turned in Dafla. Adverbial correlative
clauses will be found under 4 Adverbs/ though it is sometimes
difficult to draw a distinction between the two kinds.
Examples.
Ka 'dhon' dadna, badiga K
Your money is so much, (Give me all the money you
mullyam jibba. t have,
all give. J
Nyi mullige lam age ug-ta \ Bring as many men as you
Men many few come cause.) can.
mullige lamage bu-ta ) Bring as ma'ny holy bells as
Holy bells many few bring.) you can.
Na da targolla da-ta. ) , ______ ^
v 5 .n > ttat as much as you can.
I ou eat possible eat. j J
Na ala-ha narabla na-targolla A
Your hand in holding take possible, (Take away as much as your
nagni.* v" hand will hold,
take away. )
* *nagni' is, I believe, for 'na, Anni' = ' take,' {go,' the 'g' being inserted to avoid
the hiatus.


24i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
am nyin-nepii.
paddy ripen will.
Nga ma-nam hadiga na-ta mata.
paddy will ripen.
i
J
1 done so much you also do.
j- Do as much as I have done.
For contrast's sake an adverbial correlative sentence may be
inserted here :
The third person of this verb's present tense admits of several
forms. The distinction between the uses of the different forms
is illustrated in Part III (Syntax) under IV—Verbs. The rules
that seem to* govern the use of the different forms are given
here.
The first and second persons of the present and past tenses have
only one form : Nga da-dne, na da-da = I am, thou art ;
ngalu dadne, nalu da-da = we are, you are. Nga danma, na
damna, ngalu danma nalu danma = I was, thou wert, etc.
The forms for the third person are da-da, da, dad-na, denna,
both in the singular and plural, for the present tense, and danma
or nemma both in the singular and plural for the past tense.
The future tense is "nenpu'.
The negative of this verb for all persons, numbers, or tenses is
very often simply 4 ma' (= 'not').
Pules for the use of the different forms of the third person.
'Da-da* seems to be chiefly used with interrogative pro-
nouns, e.g.,—
Nga lyinam
1 done
na-ta lyitta.
you also do.
IV.—Verbs.
1.—The Substantive Verb.
Hogad-ga issh-a da-da ?
How much water is ?
Ha na-a hogad-ga da-da?
There boats how many are ?
^ How much water is there ?


Pa rt II.]
ACCIDENCE.
25
4 Da 7 is the word used in the simplest sentences containing a
predicative adjective, as —
Bullii am-a nyin da. )mi â–  jl
mi • it • ? Their dhan is ripe.
Their dhan ripe is. ) r
4 Denna,7 however, and not 4 da,7 is used with the predicative
adjective 4 al ' (= good), and similary 4 nemma 7 for .the past tense
both with 4al7 and other adjectives too.
4 Denna7 is also used when, an interrogative particle
accompanies the substantive verb, but does not stand first in the
sentence.
Examples.
Hogola ha al denna? ") Which is the best? (This is
Where it good is ? ) idiomatic.)
Podu hogola denna ? j Where is Podu ?
Podu where is ? j
Na hogola u-denna ? ) nn , Q
■xr -P • n Where are you going to ?
You where going are ? j J & °
Where a bare fact is stated without an adjectival predicate,
4 dadna7 is the proper word.
Example.
Bor4 sudum-a dadna. ) There are deer on the
Chapori (on) deer are. j chapori.
2.—Conjugational Examples.
The Dafla verb is by far the most difficult part of the language
to deal with, more so than the Cachari and Miri verb, because the
structure and conjugation of several of the commonest verbs is far
from regular, in addition to the fact that the usage and exact force
of the different tenses is uncertain. For the present, future or past
tense some verbs have three or four forms, apparently interchange-
able in the first and third persons ; some verbs have three forms,
apparently interchangeable, for one tense, while most other verbs
have only one. Moreover, several verbs, but not all verbs alike,
admit of various affixes or insertions either between the root and
inflections or in the bod}7" of the inflections, which modify their
meaning, but to a different extent with different verbs,
It will, therefore, be necessary to conjugate at length more than
one verb to show their different structure. To keep the chief


26i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
tenses close together and to give a synoptical view of the various
tense-endings, I have avoided interspersing examples after each
tense.
The first verb conjugated, as being perhaps the most regular
and the one most verbs are conjugated like, will be the verb
s ka ' = 4 to see.'
Indicative Mood.
For each tense of the following four, the same word serves for
all persons and both numbers :
Present indefinite. Present definite.
I, you, they, etc., see (habitually I, you, they, etc., am or are
or momentarily). seeing.
KM-na. Ka-s-danna.
Imperfect indefinite. Imperfect definite.
I, you, they, etc,, saw (Assamese I, you, etc., was or were look-
4 dekhichchilo '). ing on, or used to see.
Ka-n-ma. Ka-l-danma.
Perfect. Future.
I have seen. I, you, etc., will see.
(Assamese, 4 dekhilo'.)
Nga ka-t-numma. Nga Ka-ilya-nepii, ka-t-lyinne,
ka-n-pti.
Na Ka-pa-lyinpti (meaning
rather 4 you will find out
later').
Na ) There is no form for second or) Na ta-ilya-ta-i.
Ma > third persons similar to the first, ) Ma ka-n-nepii, ka-il-nepii.
Ngalu Ka-t-niimma. K4-ilya-nepii, ka-n-pii.
Mlu \ No similar form kMly&-ta-i.
Bfillii j Bullu ka-il-nepu.
Note on the Perfect Tense.
4 Ba/ sometimes 'pa,' is used with the first and third persons of a
large number of verbs, like 4 kang ' or 4 ka' in Miri, to form the
perfect tense, generally to denote distant past time. Hence, we
have k&L-ba = I have seen ; kan-ba = he has seen. One can under-


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
27
stand that in practice the second person, 4 you have seen,' is never
used except as a question ; hence we have 4 na kan-na * and 4 nalu1
Mn-na = have you not seen ? or more properly = surely you
have seen, and yet make out you have not.
Note on the Future Tense.
Except that the form 4ka-tlyinne' may possibly be honorific,
I cannot trace any different shade of meaning in the alternate forms.
The form 4 ka-n-nepii* is not perhaps so frequently used as 4 ka-il-
nepii,' but is the correct form in the expression danyi ka-n-nepii ==
the sun will shine.
Imperative.
KA-ta = look, see (once for all). Ka-ya-ta = watch (conti-
nually) ; ka-ki-ta or ka-ki-ta = see, be on your guard (as a rule,
but in no particular instance). Ka-ka-ta == let us see. Ka-m-t&
= let him see. Ham ka-ka-ma-tta = make him see. Ngam ka-
m-da = let me see.
Prohibitive form.
K&-y6 == don't look ! (to one already looking).
Ka-ma-ba = don't look ! (contemplating a future contin-
gency).
Infinitive.
Of purpose = ka-ta-ba. Explanatory = kadba.
Participles.
Present: Ka-1-doil-liya = while seeing.
Iva-il-yam or ka,-il-kam = when seeing.
Ka-t-kat-la (= Assamese 4 dekhi dekhi') continuing to
see.
Past active: Ka-pela = having seen (cfAssamese 4 dekhi
pclai').
Kan — he who saw, the see-er, e.g., ngam kan nyi =
the man who saw me,
Ka-tla — though I, you, he, etc., saw (Assamese
dekhile-o).
Past passive: Ka-nam = seen, e.g., nga ka~nam nyi — the
man I saw.
13 2


28i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Verbal Noun.
EA-nam = seeing or sight.
Conditional Mood.
Ka-b-nyila — If I, you, etc., see, saw or had seen (for all per-
sons and tenses alike).
But it may be noted here that in the apodosis or principal
sentence the pluperfect is ka-t-neppagala = I should have seen.
The potential, desiderative, causative, and frequentative forms
are dealt with under 4 Particles.' There is no passive voice, the
only approach to it that I have come across is nyim-nepa = it is
lost, as compared with nga nyim-tenma = I have lost.
I will next take the verb 'ji' = to give. ~
I, you, they, etc., give (habitually). I, you, they, etc., am or are
Indicative Mood.
Present indefinite.
Present definite.
Ji-ki-gad-numma.
(now) giving.
Jig-denna.
Imperfect indefinite.
I gave (Assamese 4 dichchilo').
Jin-ma.
Perfect.
I was giving or used to give.
Ji-ki-numma.
Future.
Imperfect definite.
I have given (Assamese 4 dilo ').
Nga jl-t-numma.
Na ji-p-numma?
Ma jip-numma.
Ngalu ji-t-numma.
Nalu ji-p-numma.
Bullii ji-p-numma.
I will give, etc.
Jitlyinne, jinpti.
Jinpii lye (= will you give ?)
Jil nepii.
Jitlyinne, jinpli.
Jinpii lye (= will you give ?)
Jil-ne-pii.
Note.—The verb (to strike 7 whose root is 4 ji is similarly conjugated.
Imperative.
Jibba or jitta — give (to another) ; ke = giye (to me).


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
29
Prohibitive form.
Infinitive
Of purpose : Jitaba. Explanatory : Jidba.
Participles.
These are regular, that is, similar to those of the verb 4ka\
Hence we have :
Jil-doil-hya = (Assamese 4 di thakote ') while giving.
Jil yam or jil kam = when giving.
Jit-jitla — (Assamese £ di di'), continuing to give : and similarly
for the rest.
I will next take the verb 'yftb,' to sleep, chiefly to illustrate the
various shades of meaning the prohibitive forms can have.
Indicative Mood.
Imperfect indem
Present indefinite. Present definite, 1 Imperfect definite.
I, you, etc,, sleep He, or they, is, I slept, etc., I was sleeping
(habitually), or are, asleep. (Assamese etc. (Assamese
Yub-dna. % Yub-da. huichchilo.) huiachilo).
Yub-n-ma. Yubl-danma.
Note.—Naturally the second person of the present definite is only used as a
question, viz., 4 yftb-dne ' = 'are you asleep' ?
Perfect. Future.
Nga yub-t-b4 YAb-tlyinne
Na yubn-ma (imperfect) or yubneba (same throughout).
Ha yubnma ... or yubneba.
Ngalu yub-t-ba.
Nalu yubn-ma or yubneba.
Bullii yubn-ma or yubneba.
Imperative.
Yubta (to an adult) = go to sleep; omuta (to an infant).
Prohibitive.
This admits of several inflections, each causing a slight change
of meaning ; as—
(1) Speaking to a companion close at hand, Yuv-ya ! = Be 011
the alert !


30i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
(2) To a person sitting near who is beginning to nod : Yuv-
tabi-ya ! = Don't go to sleep !
(3) On leaving a person and warning him not to go to sleep
during one's absence : Yuv-m&ba ! = Mind you don't go
to sleep !
(4) To a person who has been asleep some time, on waking
him : Yuv-kya ! = Don't sleep any more !
The remaining parts of the verb are regular.
The impersonal verb c ho' to fall (of rain, snow, etc.) has the
following tenses in the third person, singular.
Present definite — hod-da. Imperfect definite = honma.
Perfect—honba (though the latter two tenses seem to be
interchangeable). Future=hoilnepii, honnepa, ha-walli, hotlyi ([
cannot trace any difference of meaning between all these forms).
The impersonal verb 6 lak' = Assamese 4 lage,' is only
conjugated in the present tense.
41, you, he, we, you, they, want rice 5 in Assamese 4 mole, tok,
tak, amak, tahantak, sihantak, bhat lage, is 4 Ngapa, napta, hobta,
ngaiupa, na-lu-pa, bullupa, etchin lak.'
4 Do you want rice ?' is 4 Napta etchin la-ya ?' With the first
person 4 laba' is sometimes used instead of 4 lak,' e.g., Ngapa etchin.
laba.
The verb 4 u'—4 to come or go'—is irregular, and its tenses and
persons are given below at length. The verb ma-la =c to be able, '
lit., 4 to be able to do,' is also given, as some of its contractions
are rather perplexing.
3,—Defective and Irregular Verbs.
I come, etc.
Present indefinite.
or go (habitually).
Indicative Mood.
Present definite. Imperfect indefinite.
I am on my way I, etc, came or went.
(Assamese 'goichchilo)'
Nga lil-ne
â– \T o A A A
Jsa uinner
U-denna
Unme and unma.
Olne and uinner.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
31
Present indefinite. Present definitet Imperfect indefinite.
f udne = comes or goes ud-de is on his way f unna.
Ma \ K .
(.udna^z- comes alyi (pointing) (someone) 1 uiye.
is coming Luii-ma.
Ngalu til-ne udenna imraa.
Nalu iil-ne ,.oeoo ......
Biillii aly& alyl unma.
I have not come across instances of the imperfect definite of
this verb.
Perfect. Future
I havq gone, or went, or have come.
Assamese 4 golo, ahilo.'
A F XJn-pti = I will go.
xt ( u-pe-numma I Ut-lyilcne= X will come back.
Nga fi-yen = I went (finally) Nga j wU1 come>
(. udna = I am now come. £ = j ^ ^
Uil-na-pu= you will go.
Perfect. F'ltture.
Na upenumm je Na un-pa-lye=Will you come ?
ftJdne = he has come gone ^ O-ffi-lyi = he wishes to
M ^ Ma< come.
1 Ul-yi = he has come 1 j Il-na-pii = he will go.
l^An-iie = he has come L ......
Itldna C ht-lyinne = we will come.
Ngalu j #
Upe-numma C it-lyinne = we will go.
Nalu upe-niimmje Nalu uil-na-pu =you will go.
!anne = have come
Bullii il-na-pii = They will go.
un-M = have gone.
The distinction between £ lin-pii 5 and c it lyinne' is this : Where
several others have refused, and at last one volunteers to go a
journey at another's wish, he says 4 un-pii,' 4 It lyinne ' is 41 am
going because I want to '.


32i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Imperative JKoocl.
Inni or unni = go ! Unju = come ! Utta = come or go ! Atta
{e.g., sa atta — come here !) = come I
Prohibitive : iya ==â–  Do not go.
Infinitive : ala or uba = to come or go.
Participles : Past active : ull-ya = having gone.
The verb 4 to go* or ' come5 is, however, liable to change of
prefix according to the direction, or place to which, or place from
which, a journey is contemplated, e.g., 41 will go to the hills
(from the plains) 5 is 4 cha-tlyinne 7; 4 a man will come close to us
from near at hand' is 4a-il-nepu5; and there are other variations
that cannot be brought under any rule.
Ma-la, 4 to be able.'
viz.
meaning
could.
The different persons of the perfect and future tenses, however,
have separate forms :
Perfect. Future.
Ma-napii or matnepii.
Ma-la-na-pii.
Ma-la-nenpti.
Nga or ngalii mappa.
Na or nalud ma-chin-nyanma.
Ma or bullu ma-chin-nyanma.
Note on the Perfect Tense.
The particle 4 la ' is replaced by 4 chin' in the second and third
persons, which has the force of 4 to know5 rather than 4 to-be able,'
the literal meaning of ma-chin-nya-nma being 4 to do able finish
was,5 4 nya 5 being a verb, with the force of 4 co finish.5
Note on the Future Tense.
First person.—The form 4mat-nepli' is merely the future of 4 ma5
The Daflas seem unable to distinguish between 4 J will do,
and 41 will be able to do.5
Second person.—This is hardly ever used, except to ask a
question, in which case the particle lye is added and the
whole word is then contracted into ma-la-na-ple =Will you
he able ?


Part II.]
ACCIDENCE.
33
4.—The formation of Tenses, etc.
From the examples given, it is apparent that the only rules
for the conjugation of verbs that can be laid down with any
degree of accuracy as applying to most verbs, are as follow :
(1) The present indefinite (I see, he eats, they drink, etc.,
habitually) is formed by adding 4 dna7 to the root.
(2) The present definite (I am eating, I am seeing, he is
eating, etc.) is formed by adding 4 danna7 to the root,
and generally inserting a letter for the sake of euphony
between the two.
(3) The imperfect indefinite (I saw, you gave, he ate) is
formed by adding 4 nma 7 to the root.
(4) The imperfect definite (I was walking, he was eating, etc.)
is formed by adding 4 danma 7 to the root, and generally
inserting 417 or some more euphonic letter between the
two.
(5) The perfect (I have seen or saw long ago, he has eaten, etc.)
is formed (Ka) by adding 4numma7 to the root and inserting
41 7 or some more euphonic letter between the two ; if
two long syllables precede, 4 tnumma7 for euphony's
sake becomes 4 tenma 7; (6) by adding 4 ba 7 to the root
and inserting 4 n 7 or some other letter between the; two.
(6) The future is formed by adding 4 tlyin-ne 7 or 4npii7 to the
root for the first person and 4 nnepii 7 to the root for the
third person.
(7) The imperative present is formed by adding 4 ta 7 to the
root, and the imperative future by adding 4.ba 7 to the
root.
(8) The prohibitive present is formed by adding 4 ya,7 and the
prohibitive future by adding 4 maba,7 to the root.
(9) The infinitive of purpose is formed by adding 4j4ba7 to
the root, and the simple infinitive by adding 4 dba 7 to the
root.
(10) The three present participles are formed (a) by adding
41-doil-hya 7 to the root, (/;) by adding 4 il-yam7 or il-kam7
to the root, (c) by adding 41 7 to the root, doubling
the syllable thus formed and then adding 4 la 7.
i-


34i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
(11) The conjunctival past active participle (e.g. 'having
eaten he went away') is formed by adding 4 pela ' to the
root. The substantival past active participle is formed
by adding 4 n ' to the root. The substantival past pas-
sive participle (e g,, he who was seen) h formed by
adding 4 nam9 to the root.
(12) The verbal noun (sight, hearing, etc.) is also formed by
adding 4n&m' to the root.
(13) The conditional mood is formed by adding 4 nyila ' to the
root and inserting 4 b ' or some other euphonic letter
between the two. There is no distinction of tense in the
conditional clause, but in the apodosis or principal sen-
tence, the pluperfect sometimes appears, which is formed
by adding 4 neppagala' to the root and inserting a con-
sonant, generally 41sometimes e p9* between the two.
As regards irregular forms, several, but not all, can be explained
by the euphonic changes the Daflas introduce, e.g., from the root
4 lfim ' we get 4 lfing-ne-ba* = it has sunk (in water), where 4 m '
is changed to 4 ngbut some 1 am unable to explain at all.
4Mfi' signifying 4 not,' is either (1) added to the root of the
verb, (2) placed after the tense-suffix, or (3) inserted between the
root and the tense-suffix, as :
5.—The Negative Form of Verbs.
Na hog ja lyi-m&.
You any thing do not.
lk-ha chem-ma-denna.
Dog the bite not does.
Nga fim-ma.* Nga fin-ma.
I went not. I went.
Nam ha dad 4-ma denna.
House the leak contain not does.
Nga ham ma-ma.
I him strike not.
Ha nam mad-m&.
He you strike will not.
He will not strike you,
The dog does not bite.
I did not go.
I went.
The house does not leak.
I did not strike him.
You do not do anything.
* Contraction for ' tlin-ma ma.'


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
35
The addition of 4 ma 9 very often obscures the tense of the verb,
as in the last two examples, and again—
Nga n&-ha dat-ma. Nga n&-ha da-ma. *) I was not in the boat-
I boat in was not. I boat in am not. ) I am not in the boat.
As a general rule, the insertion of 4t7 before 4 ma ' implies the
past, and the insertion of 4 d * the future.
If potential^ desiderative or other particles are used with the
simple verb, 4 ' comes invariably after such particles, as :
Nga da-la-msi. Nga ben-ta-m&. | I cannot eat. I will not
I eat can not. I speak wish not. ) speak.
Nga ftm-hftm ma. ) T . r , . a
I fire the light cannot, j I cannot light the fire.
In the negative conditional mood, 4 infi, ' becomes 4 m&-b&5 or,
for euphony's sake or to avoid the recurrence of three long
syllables, 4m&-il/ and always immediately precedes 4 nyila,' as :
Ha da-rna-ba-nyila. ) I£ , j . ,
tt . . J-n If he does not eat.
He eat not if. j
Nga ftm-ma-ba nyila na ftt-neppagala. ) If I had not gone,
I gone not if you come would have, j you would have come.
Nga da la il nyila, sit lyinne.) I shall die if 1 am unable
I eat able not if die will. ) to eat.
As in Miri, 4 ni4' may be joined directly to adjectives, as:
Ma nilft ma. | His pupils are not swollen (a special
He eye enlarged not. ) kind of blindness).
But in the following sentences the verb is put in, though
contracted:
Ma nyichemma.* Ma nyichenna.f | He is not blind.
He blind is not. . He blind is. ) He is blind.
6.—The Interrogative Forms of Verbs.
Unlike the Miri, the Dafla language does not as a rule add to
the verb any interrogative particle when interrogative pronouns or
adverbs are used to ask the question. But with 4hogba' ( = why)
sometimes 4 yu ' is added to the verb. In other interrogative sen-
tences, not containing an interrogative pronoun or adverb 4ly& * is
added to the verb.
5 Contraction for 'nyichha' (=blind), Manna («is not),
f Contraction for * a
â– 
d


p
p
36i OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR. [Part II.
Examples.
Nalu hog kadna ? Nam-a hogola dadna ? ) What do you want ?
i ou what vrant ? House where is ? f Where is the house ?
Isshi u-ra-dan-lye? ) T , n
Water deep is ? j Is the water deeP ?
Etchin da-t-niimma-lye. ? ) tt . q
Eice (cooked) eaten have P j Have you eaten your nee ?
Na un-ma-lye?) tv 1 n
You went ? } Dld Jâ„¢ ?
Na ngkrn mo pub nepii ly<3 ? ) w.n , . n
You me kiss will? j Will you kiss me ?
Na satarn ba-ne-pii lye?) 7 . 7 7 . Q.
You elephant bring will ? r wmyounnnganeiepuant.r
There is no interrogative particle of vague probability answer-
ing to the Miri 4 di,' nor negative interrogative answering to the
Miri 4 langa.'
In negative interrogative sentences 4 ma 7 precedes 4 lye,' but is
often for euphony's sake softened to 4 mai,' as—
Na um mai-lye ? ) x «
You went not? j Did you not go ?
Na beminda chem-ma-dan-lye ) ^ ^ . p
You song knowing not are ? ) an n°
4 Na' with the second person of the perfect tense gives it an
interrogative force (see note on Perfect Tense under Verb 4 k& ' = to
see).
Interrogative alternatives are formed as follows :
Examples.
Na sam man-ma-lye, ma-ma nam lye ? Did you strike him or
You him struck, strike not did ? ) not ?
Na sam matlyinnlye, ma-ta-ma-lye ) Will you strike him or
You him strike will, strike will not ) not.
Ma siia yil*-dadne. lyi-ma-danlye ? ) T , , . , «
tT ' t • • a * a £ Is he now doing or not ?
He now doing is, doing not is r j &
Jin-pu-lye, jid-mai-lye ? j Will you give it or not ?
Give will, give not r ) J &
Tun-pii-lye, tiid-inai-lye ? ) Will vou drink it or not ?
Drink will, drmk not : )
* Euphonic for 1 \yi.'


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
37
7. Compound Verbs (Particles).
Compound verbs chiefly come under two heads, namely (i) those
compounded with other verbal roots, and (ii) those compounded
with particles.
Examples of verbs compounded with other verbal roots.
Ga-ka-ta = try on (a coat, etc.), literally 4 wear, see.'
Tu-ka-ta — taste, literally 4 drink, see.'
Ma-nya-ta = finish doing, literally—4 do, finish.'
Ben-ny&-ta ===== finish singing.
Ka-chin-danlye = do you recognise ? literally—4 see, know.'
Particles.
Most compound verbs contain particles. These generally come
immediately after the verb-root, the vowel of which they sometimes
modify, but they are also found at the end of the tense-suffix or
(even) between two syllables of a tense-suffix. Some, though found
in the bod}' of the verb, are really adverbs modifying it, and though
mentioned here in the list will be dealt with under 44 adverbs," except
the particles 4 dan,' 4 ki,' and 4 yak,' which from their correspond-
ing to the Miri particles 4 dan ' and 4 ti ' denoting respectively
immediate and continuous action, are better treated here than as
adverbs. But adverbial particles that are joined to nouns or
adjectives and not to verbs are not mentioned in the list.
I have considered it advisable to include among the rest the
particle forming what is known sometimes as the potential mood,
and also those particles forming desideratives, frequentatives, caus-
atives, and permissives.
The most common particles are—
a, a-su, ba, ba-sft, bul, cho, da, d&-ta, dan, dur, g, in, ji, ka-ma,
kham, ki, kin, ku, la (1) la (2) lu, lyum, m or ma, rain, mui,
mur, ne, nu, p&, ru, sur, ta, tor, turn, tu, yak.
The meaning and force of several of the above can only be shown
by examples. Examples are accordingly given :
a—This has an intensive force ; da-ta = stop, stay ; da-4-ta
= sit down ; da-a-ma-ta == make sit down.
&-su—4 su ' is reflexive, and 4 4 ' is generally joined with it,
perhaps giving it an intensive force, meaning 4 one another.' Iki
che-a-su-denna == the dogs are fighting, literally—biting each other.


38i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Ka-a moi-a-su denna = the boys are hitting each other. Nyernm
be-a-sh-denna == the women are quarrelling.
ba—This is inserted without any special meaning in the nega-
tive conditional mood, and in other parts of verbs.
ba-su—4b4 1 like 4 a 9 is joined to su, or, as it is sometimes pro-
nounced, 4 shu,7 having rather the meaning of 4 both together ;7 4 da-
ba-shfi-tchu7 = let us sit together, 4 bem-ba-shu-tchh7 = let us sing
together.
bftl—This is possibly a verbal root, as it is found at the begin-
ning of the verb. It denotes a forcible taking away, as buliig = to
cause to come away by force, i.e., carry away captive.
cho—4 Cho 7 is the particle denoting priority that has been men-
tioned under ordinals. It answers to the Miri 4 po.7
da and da-ta—These are really adverbs meaning respectively
4 yet 7 and 4 nearly,7 and are dealt with under 4 Adverbs.7
dan—This is the same as the Miri 4d4n 7 meaning 4 at once,' as
u-dan-ne = go at once ; but an adverb is often added too, e.g., sij&
(now) fi-dan-ne ; herinba (= quickly), udan-ne.
g—{ g ' rather resembles the German verbal prefix 4 be.7 It
has two distinct uses ; (1) it gives an intransitive verb a causative
or transitive force ; (11) it gives a transitive verb a different
direction or different force.
Examples.
u = come ; iig = cause to come, i.e., bring.
da â– â– = stay ; dag = keep
ka — put on (clothes); kag = change (clothes).
n& — take ; nag = take away.
ji—This seems to correspond with the Miri particle 4 ru 7 meaning
4 very,7 but its combination is peculiar, e g., isshi-ka-y41 da = the
water is high; but 4 isshi ke ji-jad-da7 = the water is very high.
ka-ma—This answers to the Miri 4 ku-ma7 meaning 4 never,7 e.g.,
Nyisi nangu ba nga lakra u-ka-ma = I have never been to the
hills (literally Dafla villages).
kham—This, though it appears in the body of the verb, is
really an adverb meaning 4 about7 and is dealt with under 4 Adverbs.7
ki—This and 4 yak7 form frequentatives, answering to the Miri
4 ti7 as pata ga-kidanna = the bird is always flying,


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
39
kin—This is the 4 particle of vague probability,7 e.g., ft-kin-d&
= he is probably going ; al-kin-da = he may have recovered.
This should be distinguished from the usage of another 4 kin,'
probably a verbal root, which has the idea of permitting or showing,
e.g., ka-kin-ta = show (let me look); ab-kin-taba = show me how
to fire.
ku—This, like the Miri 4 kft7 has the idea of 4 back again 1 un-
derlying it, e.g., 41-ku-npii = he will get well (again) na-leng-ta-kft
= take it out again.
Nga lagba ma nam ba ^
Me with she house to f She came back home with
ft-kfir-kftnma. X me.
come back again did. j
Nalu 4 poth&r ' hok hfid-la ^
You fields from when (When will you return from
fitlyi-kfi-nne ? X the fields ?
corne will back? J
la (i).—This particle forms the potential mood, and its use has
several times been illustrated already.
14 (ii).—This nearly answers to the Miri particle 4 lang,' and
is frequently used with the imperative mood, the potential particle
4147 never being so used.
Examples.
Nga oppa bft-pnumma,
1 liquor brought have, f I have brought liquor, drink
nal tft-14 X away,
you drink away. J
4 Na-la ' means, go some distance off, and take away what you
find there.
lft—This seems to answer to the Miri4 lik,7 and, like it, can only
have its force defined by examples.
Examples.
Isshi pfi-lft-ta or Isshi ta-lu-ta ... Pour water out
Mft-lfi-ta or ba-lfi-ta ... Apply medicine outwardly.
Rfi-lfi-ta ... ... Burn down jungle, houses, etc.
Ma-lfi-ta ... ... Send a letter.
Ben-lft-ta ... ... Send a messenger or verbal
message.


40i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Ji-14-ta
K4m-lu-gan niimma
Nga ham ka-lu-da ...
Na-lu-ta
Sa ha-14-ta
Nyi le-14-ta
ti-lb-ta
Ku-lu-ta
Kh-lu-pa (adjective)
lyfim—This is an intensive particle answering to Miri 4 4m 7 or
4 in,7 as, mindui si-lyum-numma = the buffaloes all died.
m—This inserted in a verb gives it a causative force.
min—This denotes accompaniment, e.g.,
Na lagva u-min-gamta = L t him come with you.
Nga lagha h4m da-min-gamba = Let him stay with me.
mui—This is one of the particles that form desideratives. For
euphony's sake 4 b' is often inserted before or after it
Nga ii-bmui-dna = I wish to go.
Na tii-bmuib-nyila, tu-ta = Drink if you want to.
mur = (Miri) mur.—This denotes a mistake or 4 by mistake, 9
e.g., 14mpla-ham ff-mur-m4-ba = Don't mistake the road.
ne—This is permissive. Am-ne-pii = I will let you fire (the
gun).
nu—This, like 4 mui7 and 4t47 forms desideratives, e.g.,—
Nga h4m ka-nu-da — I wish to see him.
Send a present or gift.
(He) upset (a boat).
I am pleased with him.
Make reprisal or take ven-
geance.
Carry off cattle by way of
reprisal.
Carry off people by way of
reprisal.
... Escort a person.
Throw away (into water).
Upside down.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
41
Nga yuv-nuda = I wish to sleep.
It is noticeable that this particle shortens the long vowel of the
verb to which it is joined.
p& (i)—This seems to answer to the Assamese 4pai' in 4dekha
pai,7 etc., e.g.,—
Ka-pa-tenma = I caught sight of, or happened to see.
Yumma ka-pa-tenma=I dreamt.
pa (ii)—This answers to the Miri4pak/ and conveys an idea of
'leaving7 or 4 loosening/ e.g., top-p&-ta:=let go, yop-pa-ta = leave
behind. Ha mobungam hur-pa-numma — He threw away his gun.
rft—This conveys the idea of 4 meeting,7 e.g., aria a-ru-su-npti =
to-morrow we will meet each other.
Nga nyi akka a-ru-ma = I did not meet a soul.
sur—This conveys the idea of 4teaching'; nga ham tom-sur-
^enma =1 taught him ; 4 torn 5 is the general term for 4 to teach
^ to hunt, 4 to shoot/ 4 to swim5, etc.,)
Ha ngam ben-sur-numma === he taught me, i.e., by word of
mouth (ben).
ta—This is the most frequent particle for forming desideratives.
It is sometimes distinct from 4 mui5 and 4nu/ the other desiderative
particles, by having rather the force of 4 intention to do 7, a step
beyond ' wishing to do7. Hence 45 sometimes has the force of
a future.
Nga u-ta-dna = I wish to go. Nga ham ma-ta-ma == I will not
beat him. Nga ben-ta-ma = I do not intend to speak. Nga nyin
u-la gra-ta-ilne = I will go out shooting ; literally, I going out into
camp (nyin), will be wishing to shoot.
a


42i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
tab—Conveys the idea of completing a fall, etc., e.g., Ha nyi
a-uin-ga tu-tab-numma —He knocked three men down.
tor—This conveys the idea of preventing, stopping : ben-t6r-
numma=he answered ; ma-tor-daba = to prevent.
tum=(Miri) k6m*—This denotes a 4 shutting,' 4 covering,' or
4 blocking,' e.g., LamplaAdur-tum-na stin = The tree that fell (dur),
and blocked the road. Eyap gbtum-ta!= Shut the door ! Ha nyi
a lamplangam sun tu-tum-pa ==That man cut down a tree and
blocked the road. Tu=to cut down, or, more literally, to cause to
fall.
yak^—This forms frequentatives and is indistinguishable in
meaning from the particle 'ki', though less frequently used.
Aia mai-a
Abors quarrelling together ; / Abors are always fighting
yak su-dna. t among themselves,
always together are. )
8.—Noun repeated in "Verb.
As in Miri, we have : Pora piip plidna==fowls lay eggs ;
da-gum guin-da=-:it thunders.
9.—Relation of cause and effect.
The examples given below will illustrate this sufficiently :
Iva khrabd-khrabd-la da-nam-ha
Child continually crying remaining / I beat the child because it
matna. f cries.
I beat. )
Nyeda hot-la na u-ma-nam-lye ? ") Was it because it rained that
Rain falling you come not did ? ) you did not come ?
Na hog da-ma-nama, ^
You anything eat not did, / Not having eaten anything
kana sudna ham. f you are hungry,
hunger comes therefore. )


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
43
Effect is denoted by using the adverb 4 ha '= therefore, as—
Ma khrab-danma,
He crying was, / He was crying, so I struck
na nia-t-numma ( him.
therefore strike did. )
Lampla a'ab denna, ha nga gi-enma, ) The road is slippery, so I
Road slippery is, so I fall did. ) fell.
10. The following illustrations will show the construction after
verbs of asking, entreating, hearing, etc.,—•
Nga mii-galok toka barga kon-ma. ) T j , . r
t i • r in r 1 asked him for a rupee.
I him from rupee one asked, j 1
Ma toka bar-pli-ga gab-ka hadna.
He rupees four are required sa}'s.
Top-pa-tuk-ba hag denma.
Let go to (infinitive) beg did.
Ma ngam da-m-pa-nma.
He me sit let did.
Nga sa nyi sa ben4m-ham
I here man this saying
ben-mam ta-t numma.
word hear did.
Nga yiibl dadla hem-pa-tenma
I asleep remaining feel happen did
Nyi ga ngaalam ka-ti-numma.
man a my leg touch did.
| He asks for Rs. 4.
11 begged him to let me go.
| He bade me sit down.
1 heard this man say it.
I felt some one touch my leg
while I was asleep.
V.—Adverbs.
The adverbial suffix by which adjectives become adverbs is
4 ba,' e.g., 41-ba = well.
The following are a few of the most common abverbs :
1.
Sal or sal-ga = to-day.
Agla or aria == tomorrow.
Moil or moilya = yesterday.
Ken = day before yesterday.
-Of time.
Latclnla-ta — daily.
Alia chirara = each day.
Mullua (or particles ki and yak)
= always.
Kol-kolga = a great many years
ago.
g a


44i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Brela =day after tomorrow. Arla-rela = lately, in the last few
days,
Sij& = now. lVlinyi-kenni = some three or four
years ago.
Kolga = before, formerly. Kenla-moil =some three or four
months ago.
Kokku-ha = afterwards. Malyken or kormoi = in by-gone
times.
Anftba = soon, before long.
D& (particle) = yet, still. Ha = then.
Ma-da=not yet.
Lok lokba = sometimes.
2.—Of place.
Sa (or, more emphatic, sa- Ada = afar,
sa) — here.
Ha, or ha-ha = there. Aga-dalyaba = in front.
Urruha = inside. Namyum-dalyaba = behind.
Ag-ha = outside. Oddum-dalyaba = upstream.
Arruba or nekum = under, Akka-dalyaba = downstream,
below.
Au = above. T&-la = there (upstream).
Kotch or agum = near. Ba-la =there (downstream).
3.—Of manner.
Herinba = quickly (not Ka-la-ka — carefulty.
lazily). Lekinba = together.
Haba — in this way. Ha sa ha sobbe = Slowly.
Ha-haba = in that way. or jochciiibba.
4.—Of quantity, etc.
Had ga = that much (a Anga or umna ga = perhaps,
large quantity).
Halyiga— that much (a Kham or gab (particles, see exam-
small quantity). pies below) == about.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
45
Sadga = this much (a large Da-ta (particles, see examples
quantity and close at hand). below) = almost.
Salyiga = this much (a He (particle) = only,
small quantity, close at
hand).
Ega = much. Aia or ala =very.
Mfillya ga = more or most.
5.—Interrogative.
Hudila = when. Hoglok = whence.
Hogala = where. Hoga hab = how.
Hogba, or hogba......yu, or Hog kat&ba = why.
6.— co rrel ati v es.
Among the examples given below are some showing how
adverbial correlative sentences are rendered into Dafla. But it
is not easy to give here single Dafla words corresponding to single
English words.
7.—Examples showing how Adverbs are used.
}
| Say i
it once more.
me some more.
Nga arrachiratta iim p&rdna. ) I light the fire every
I morning each fire light. j" morning early.
Loklokba nga ngoi mendna. j Sometimes I catch fish.
Sometimes I fish kill. j
Lokta or liigta benta.
Time also time also say.
Ngap ak-tab jibba. )
To me one also give. )
Nyin nyiku nga Tezpur ha danuia. ) Two years ago I was at
Years two I Tezpur at was. ) Tezpur.
Loin- lam- sa og M j R hag „ beeQ ve
Day two day three these hotjery / warm ^ lagfc twJ
n c. i or three days,
well is. J J
Maly ken Par pobbu a ngalu K
Formerly Dikrang river on our / Formerly our village was
nang-gna danma. C on the Dikrang river,
village was. J


46i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
Turs-da-da (if in sight) or Turl- }
das It is still alive.
Living is yet living remaining is still. )
Hu-tol da-da. ) ^ .g fight
Daylight exists still. j ®
Nga yu-kur-tailne. ) I am going to sleep again
I sleep again is will. ) (i.e., wish to).
Nga ak-ta da-tlyinne. ) I will still eat (i.e., con-
I one also eat will. * ) tinue eating).
Nga meg-ta da-tlyinne. ) T M1 , Vu1 ,
I little also stay will. $ 1 WlU sta? a llttle lonSer-
Danyi &-ma-da. ) rp, , , ,
Sunset not yet. J The sun has not ?et set
Another use of 4ma-d&' with 4 yam' corresponding to the English
conjunction 4 before ' is found under 4 Conjunctions.'
Nga gie-da-ta-nma. ) T , ,
I fall yet wish did. j 1 near]F felK
Nga yub-da-t§,-nma. ) T . r .. ,
1 sleep yet wish did. j 1 nearly feU asleeP-
Si-ta-nma. ") T . J .. .
Die wish did. j I almost died.
Ezz-si huchchi oml. ) n>1 . . . . . ,
Cloth this almost dry. j 1 llls cloth 18 nea% d<7-
But 4 huchchi 'is never used with a verb.
The manner in which 4 together ' is rendered requires illustra-
ting :
Ngalu lokba (or lekinba) da-ba-shuK
We together (together) sit together / Let us sit together.
tchfL ^
let us.
5
Ngalu be-ingoba bem-ba shu-tchii.
We song together sing together let > Let us sing together.
us. )
Nalu anye sa-ingoba sa-ya. \ Don't you two dance
You two dance together dance not. ) together.


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
47
1 About, 9 meaning 6 approximately,' requires illustrating :
Nga sa nyi-gba da-kham lyinpii. * ) I will stay here about
I here year one stay about will be.)
Nam ka bunma nyi ku
You child born years how many
denna? Nyi reli niyura khAm 1S nere a
are? Years ten years three about in ^ future ^
nepu 7
will
a year.
How old are you ? About
13 ('kham' is here a verb
Nga nyi illyi-gab katnurnma.
I men ten about see did.
}
I saw about ten men.
6 Illyi-massa-gab,7 would also have done.
Further examples.
Ezz-si ala t&chch da.
Cloth this very torn is.
Ai-si ala ti-da.
Fruit this very sweet is.
Kal-u la-ka.
Seeing go oa see.
Sab lyidba ; hab lyidba :
Thus do ; in that way do j
Ha hoga hab lyinma ?
He what way did ?
Na hogba lyitnumma ?
You why did ?
Ha hogahab lyinma, nga chenma.
He what way did, I know not.
Nga hoglok uin-ner or ii-1-ne.
You what from came came.
| This cloth is much torn.
This fruit is very sweet.
(Assamese) Chaichai jabi, de.
(English) Mind you go
carefully.
Do it in this way. Do it
in that way.
How did he do it ?
Why did you do it ?
I don't know how he did it.
Where have you come from ?
Examples of correlative adverbs, or adverbial clauses of time and
place.
There are no Dafla words answering to the Assamese correla-
tive 'jetiya7 (— when) and 'jot' (= where).
* 4 lyinpu' is here apparently used with its idiomatic meaning of ' will be 9 as illustra-
ted in Syntax under * Substantive Verbs \


48i
OUTLINE DAELA GRAMMAR.
[Part II.
The following examples show how such correlatives are
rendered :
Nga ha iill-ya, ha-ha kfi-tnumma.
I there going then then see did. [â–  When I went then I saw.
| Wh(
Na nanunga hogola dadna, ka-kin ") Show me where your
ba. > village is.
Your village where is, show. )
Sa* ka-pa-dyam nga ma-ki-denna. Whenever I see game I
Game see happening I shoot always > shoot it.
do. )
Nyada holya, t&pek lendna. 1 When it rains, leeches come
Rain falling, leeches come out. ) out.
Nga u-pe-kom mulluha ked-a issh
I going everywhere earth water / Wherever I went the land
aru-ha-danma. T was under water,
under was. J
YI.—Postpositions and Conjunctions.
1. In addition to those postpositions given under 4 Nouns '—
(Case), we have the following most in use :
Dak or agum=near. Lepa-ha = in the middle of,
Ha=towaras or on. > among.
Kata-ba = on account of. ) Lagha, lagba, or lagha=with.
Several of the adverbs also, given above, can be used with
nouns, thus becoming postpositions.
Different terminations are sometimes given to the same post-
position according as it implies nearness or distance.
Examples.
N Come (here) near to me.
Nga dak- sa &tta. { The use of &tta rather than
Me near here come. ^ C utta also implies 4 coming
J close.'
Sat au-waf ap-ta j Put it on the elephant.
Elephant above on put. ) r
* c Sa9 almost answers to the Assamese ' Pohu.'
t This seems to be euphonic for the awkward hiatus 1 au-ha/


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
49
Nga mindu-ka* mindui khrib ga
My buffalo buffal >es other / My bi/' alo ij am mg
lepa ha dadna. f others,
among is. J
The different words for 4 with ' require illustrating, though I
find it difficult to lay down any fixed rules for their use.
4 With me 7 is 6 nga lagba ' ;
4 With you/ 4 with him/ 4 with the elephant/ are respectively
4 na lagha/ 4 ha lagha/ 4 sat lagha.'
"With whom ? is 4 higa (or plural 4 higa-khe7) lagba1 ?
He came with them is : 4 Ma bull lagha un-raa/
He went with them is : 4 Ma bull lagha un-ma.'
4 For' meaning 4 at the price of7 is expressed by 4 hok/ e.g.,
Dan-bar-lyi hok sibin dornyiga
rupees ten for goats two /i got two goats for ten
pwep4. C rupees,
i got. J
2. Conjunctions.
The simple conjunction 4 and 7 is 4 la/ or, less often, 414/ and is
used as follows :
Ngala na-la. ) You and I.
I and you and. j (Less often, nga-ta na-t4.)
Ana-la aba-14. *) y. ,
My mother and my father and j j ic
)
Ha la nga-la ai 4-su-ma denna.
He and I and good together not £ He and I are enemies.
are.
Nga-ta itlyinne. ") I also will go.
. I also go will. > (4 ta7 is always the proper
) word for also.)
There is no word for 4 or/ except as has been shown under
Interrogative Alternative Verbs/ viz., 4 lye 7.
4 Is this mine or yours ?7 is turned 4 nga ka-lye na-ka-lye ?'
Sometimes 4 lye7 is not used, even with verbs, e g., i-tlyinne
da-tlyinne (without any particle) = shall I go or shall I stay ?
* This is apparently an idiomatic 'tmesis' for 'nga-ka mindui.* Accent has changed
t ini' into ' h.'


60
OUTLINE DAFLA LANGUAGE.
[Part II.
c Hablakla 7 is a conjunction, meaning 4 for this reason,7 4 there-
fore ; 7 but the manner in which other English conjunctions are
turned requires illustration ; as
H&m nga bent-la, fun-ma, \ Though I told him he did
Him I told though, came not. j" not come.
Ma-tla khra-ma. \ Though I beat him he did not
Beat though cried not. j cry out.
Kan-ma-da-yam nam ha ftnni. ") ^ , , r , ,
Darkness not yet being borne to go. j Go home before lfc &ets dark'
Kan dedba* nga nang-ga danma. ) I stayed in the village till it
Darkness being I (in) village stay j" got dark.
did.
Sha-nva-ma-dedba* nga da-tlyinne. \ I will stay till the dancing is
Dance finish not being I stay will, j" over.
Benjam ben nya ma-dedba da-
Song singing finished not being stay (I will stay till the singing is
tlyinne. f over.
will. J
Adverbial sentences beginning with 4 as far as 7 are expressed in
Dafla as follows :
ga uttar ha godba, pobbft kotch
gone to as far as, river shallow (As far as I went the river
numma or rab-da-ta-nma. f was fordable.
was or fordable almost was. J
Nga u-ttar-ha godba, lamplft al-^
I gone to as far as, road good (As far as I went the road
numma. C was good,
was. J
VII.—General.
1.—Shortening of words.
Like the Miris, the Daflas are addicted to shortening single
words such as poronga to pora (— foul), mullunga to rnullft
(= 6 all7 or the plural number), mindiiga to mindui (= buffalo), as
well as to dropping syllables in forming compound words. Com-
pound words cause some difficulty to a beginner, and though I
have come across a few similar to Miii compound words, such
* The nearest equivalent to * dedba ' is the Assamese ' howd-loike 4 i»& dedba =»
4 no-how ad oi he.1


Part II. ]
ACCIDENCE.
51
as yubka = sleeping place, rup-ka = ghat, literally—crossing
place, I must at present admit my inability to formulate any prin-
ciples applying to such.
2.—dafla months.
For want of a fitter opportunity, I may here give a list of the
Dafla months. The year apparently begins with 4 Piira/ which
nearly answers to the Assamese 4 Kartik,' or the beginning of the
cold weather. A moon and a month are synonymous ; there seem,
however, to be two inter-calary periods, not lull months, which
perhaps are inserted casually when the months do not seem
to correspond with their seasons. But on this point I am not
very clear, nor are the Daflas themselves. 4 Bel' seems to be
the period inserted at the beginning ot the cold wTeather to make
the month correspond with the season, and for an apparently
similar reason 4 Limpi' is inserted at or towards the end of the
cold weather. The names of the months with, as near as possible,
their English corresponding months are as follow :
Piira
Lubii
Bata
Bajo
... October.
... November.
... December.
... January.
Siikam ... February.
Grai March.
Liikii ... April.
Lichft r...*May.
Hilla ... June.
Telia ... July.
Su ... August.
Suta ... September.


64
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
PART III.—SYNTAX.
With my limited knowledge of the language, I think I cannot
do better than 44 give a number of typical and illustrative sentences
arranged in groups," and following the order in which the parts of
speech have been dealt with in the Accidence.
The sentences have been mostly taken, word for word
from the Syntax part of Mr. Needham's Miri Grammar.
The following rules show the order of words in a sentence :
(1) The genitive case precedes the nominative, dative, etc., case
that it qualifies.
(2) The dative usually precedes the accusative.
(3) The accusative precedes the instrumental and ablative.
(4) The adverb precedes the word it qualifies, but follows the
other words in a sentence, but for emphasis' sake it may
come first, or out of its usual place.
(5) The verb comes last.
(6) In an interrogative sentence the interrogative pronoun or
adverb is nearly last, i.e., just precedes the verb.
I.—Nouns.
1.—Gender.
Nyek&rn ha ka-dna* Hukh ha"]
Old man he ill is ; old woman she J. The old man is ill.
letchcha denna.* f The old woman is lame,
lame is. J%
Ngaluga nyijir mullu-a nosf sa^
Our young women all dance dance / All our young women can
chin-mfi, dna. f not dance,
knowing not are. J
Y&panga ta tfigtfigna sa
Young men also some some dance / Some young men also can
chin-denna.* t dance.
knowing are.
5
° ' dna' and ' derma' appear to be used according as the rythmical cadence of the
sentence requires, v., 'dna' with a monosyllabic adjective ending with a long vowel and
'deuna' with a dissyllabic adjective especially if the second syllable of it is long..
t ' nos' is really an Assamese word, appears unnecessary, but is nevertheless thus used.


Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
53
Nga-ka nyera ka-a 6m-ga nyega ka-a
My female child three, male child /i have three daughters and
anyiga. C two sons,
two. J
Si sat taba-lye ? Sa ka-a"^
This elephant male is ? Here child / is this a male elephant,
si al-ma. CThis is a bad boy.
this good not.
Hiina-ta yipa-ta da-da. ) There are male and female
Female both male both are. ) domestic pigs.
Naluga pora rapa aikanam idna. ) Your cocks crow in the
Your fowls male night the crow. ) night.
Nga ka pup puna poronga anga dadna. j j have three i ; hea3.
My egg laying fowls three are. ) J °
Sa sab mullyu so saba)
Here Smthon' (plural) these male \ TT c ^ ^ « •
. , 0 ' i j ' How many of these mi-
hogadga Sana hogadga ; „ J , ■» ,
, b thon are males, and how
how many female how many r 1 9
10 i o many females r
dadna r j J
are ? J
Ha illy 1 hokka ka-a allvigaV
There sow that of children ten /That sow has ten young
dadna. C ones,
are.. J
Nalu illyi bun yip ham hogba m did nQt k
Your pigs female male them why ! f ^ and fenJ ^
tum-ma-gad-numma r ( r ° -
shut up, not keep did ?
j up ?
2.—Number.
Nyi tullunga am petabun-ba. Tlie men have gone to cut
Men (plural) dhan cut to gone have. ) dhan.
XT * .. The man is dying^ne-pii'
Nyi a sin-nepu. / feest transktes the English
Mai die will. j
Njrnm mftllunga rongo-madna
Women (plural) weeding doing are fJh womeQ ar(J weeding.
or u-madna. (
weeding doing are. )


54
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
}Tig
ers eat deer.
Pat-a* sudumum dadna.
Tiger deer eat.
Iki mullunga or ik tullunga che
^ffu-t"0 d°gS (plUrd) biting (The do2s ^e fight
together are. J
Ezz tftllft si katch da. ) m i ,, ,
Clothes (plural) these dirty are. j These clothes are dirt^
mg.
3.—Case.
Ha nyikh kaf dol kar-da.
Him wife of fallen ill is.
Tus daba, eble bam gug-ta.
Comb, hnekela' the change.
Nga nam alba ru-to panma.
I boat well fasten did.
Na etchin (less commonly 'etchinam')
Your rice (cooked), rice
da-tnum-lye ?
eaten have ?
Nga ka duba rep-numma.
I daughter for buy did.
Ala slin alog okkarj
There tree that of^ leaves
rubin- lod-da.§
having died dropping are.
Sa ka sok yotchi-am na-kur-ga-
Here child this knife the seize back
laioka.
take.
Nalu ezz chumbdba sechcha-ham
You cloth weave to cotton the
hog lokka ka-pa-denna ?
wherefrom finding are ?
}
His wife has fallen ill.
) Comb your hair and put on
) a fresh petticoat.
[ I fastened the boat well.
â–  Have you eaten your rice ?
I have bought it for my
daughter.
The leaves of that tree have
withered and fallen.
Take back the knife] ] from
this child.
/Whence do you get the cot-
v" ton to weave]your cloths ?
* Pronounced 'pS—ta \
t Apparently a case of • tmesis' for « hokka nyikha.'
J Usually 'okr,' but euphony compels this change.
§ A nearer translation is the Assamese ' hori porichche/ for which there is no proper
English equivalent.


Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
55
Sa sun si iss au-wa jal
Here tree this water top on floating
udna.
goes.
Issi M-la ku-lu-ta.
Water down in throw.
Lepa-ha apta.
Middle in put.
Ha sun ha ha nam agum
There tree that his house near
dadna.
This tree is
the river.
floating
j
| Throw it into the water,
j- Put it in the middle.
down
is.
haK
at [-That tree is near his house.
II.—Adjectives.
1.—Position.
Hab nyila, ha nyi (il-ma-na. ) T, * • n rYynr>
0 J-r i J ^ , . >â–  If so, he is a bad man.
bo if , he man good not is. )
Sata &ttor-denna ; iss attordenna. ) The elephant is strong.
Elephant strong is ; water strong is. ) The current is swift.
Na assoba akko rep-niimrna.
Boat long 1 buy did.
Benya ottu-naga. Okkr bornyaT
Stick short a. Leaf small
naga.
a.
Ha nyi ha au denna.
There man that tall is.
j-1 bought a long boat.
A short stick. A small leaf.
i1
That man is tall.
2.—comparison.
Si ngam or nga ami-ya.*
She me (than) I (than) old more.
Si ngam abbui-ya-a.
He me (than) old more.
Si ngam buirmi*-ya-a.
She me (than) young more.
Si ngam bori*-ya-a.
He me (than) young more.
She is older than I.
He is older than I.
She is younger than I. He is
younger than I.
* Although these words are derived from the nouns meaning 'e
4 elder brother,' etc., they apply to any persons outside the speaker's family.
elder sister'


56
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Nyisil oyong&m Kampti o}'onga^\
Dafla daos (than) Khampti daos / Are Khampti daos better than
&l-ya-dna-lye ? C Dafla daos?
good more are ? J
bi nga ammye or ammf. ") ,PI . . ,.
This my elder sister, elder sister. j Lhls 18 elder sister-
Mulluia ham hiya sukru paboya pa. .
All than who rubber cut more f Who has cut the most
has. j rabber?
The above sentence might also have been rendered—
Mulluja ham hiya sukru mull-ya-PuA
All than who rubber (plural) / W ho has cut the most
pa-pnumma. f rubber ?
more much cut has. J
* 3.—Numerals.
Miri nyi illyi ga ngoi menda. ^
Miri men ten (particle) fish killing v Ten Miris are catching fish.
are. )
Nyi chempla gaba* lampla haV
Men forty (particle) road on (Forty men are cutting jungle
"habi " pa-da. C on the road,
jungle cutting are. )
Illyi aldir ga si da. ) . ,
Pigs six (particle) died. j Six pigs died.
Sikri stin ke & ga si-da. ) v. ,,
Rubber trees nine (particle) died, j Nine rubber treea died«
Any! nyi liyi yukft Nyisu A T T
Years years ten ago Dafia country ) flaS° 1 fCamef
talok unma of W. t 1 • C°Untry t0 the
' r 1 plains,
down from came came. J r
Lekin-ga ab-la p6-a akhrga ap-pa. ) I shot six crows at one
Once firing crows six firing got. ) shot.
III.—Pronouns.
1.—Personal.
Na aha dimlye? Na ham rnanma lye. \ Are you angry? Did you do
Your anger is? You it did? ) it?
* f ba ' eignifies ' about/ â–  -


Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
57
Na ja-la-danlye? Na kriU&-"\
You swim able are ? You count able t Can you swim ? Can you
danlyfi ?
are ?
Bfillam jit-ta.
Them to give.
Ngalu am-a nyin mL
Our dhan ripe not.
count ?
5
j- Give it to them.
| Our dhan is not ripe.
2.—Relative Pronouns.
Lupa au-n&m lkia si.
Neck shot been dog this.
) This is the dog that was shot
>
) in the neck.
Am pe-nam a de jiija-da. \ All the 4 dhan' that was cut
" is. J
Dhan cut been as much as wetted is. j got wet.
Mobu ab-nam nyi he si.
Gun fired been man verily this.
tJm lya-nain nam ha si.
Fire burnt been house the this.
Nam soma nyi ha si.
You prosecutor man he this.
) This is the man who fired the
) gun.
\ This is the house that was
) burnt.
) This is the man who brought
j a case against you.
Na-lu-na yo-lft-m&n Aia-a si. ) This is the Abor who made
Reprisal counter maker Abor this. ) the reprisal.
Balya ro-tun-na n& ha si.
(On) sand sticker boat it this.
}
This is the boat that stuck
on the sand.
TJllu-a ro-tunna n& ha si.
Rock on sticker boat it this.
\ This is the boat that stuck
) on the rock.
Nga ala
My foot
danma.
was.
or dun-ha oml
panji' pierced poison £ This panji that pierced my
foot was poisoned.
T&chch-na ezz ha si.
Torn cloth it this.
) This is the cloth which was
) torn.


58
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
3,—Interrogative Pronouns.
Ach ham hiva rag nenna ? ) W1 , , ,, _ Q
. . ? , t ° J., Q > Who took away the axe r
Axe the who take away did r ) J
Higa-logka nga am ka-pa-tail-"\
Whom from I 4 dhan7 obtain will / From whom shall I get
n£y6?* ( 'dhan5?
ever ? y
Which the gooddenis? ? } Which is the better or best ?
Sa ein saf hiye-a nam manma? | Which of these two struck
Here two these which }'ou struck? ) you ?
Ha hogaba lyin nyi-a ? ) Wl A , . , r . . ^
He what kind of man ? j * hat kmd of man 18 he ?
Hogadga issh-a dada ? Ha na-a
o o
How much water is? There boats / How much water is there?
hogadga dada ? f How many boats are there
how many are ? y there ?
Ha hoga khrSdna ? ^
That what sounds? (What noise is that? How
Luk ga na sa iilne ? t many times did you
How many times you here came ? y come here ?
Pol pola nga hogadga "dhon,7"\
Moon moon I how much money /How much a month must
jib-ka-hala ? CI pay ?
give must ? y
Hog kataba be-a-sft-dna ? .
What on account of fighting together i n hat 18 cause of the
are ? ) (lQarrel ?
Sa mm pi 4 si hogola ba ftdne ? ) w, , _ .
Here road this where to goes ? j Where does thls â„¢ad lead to ?
Na hog mega danna ? ) w, .
You what seeking are ? j What are looking for ?
* 4 eyo * has the force of a ' universal indefinite/
t In oblique cases 1 bi ' becomes 1 ea/


Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
59
4.—Demonstrative Pronouns.
Sa tab si chipar* aruha
Here snake this dhan-pounder wi th- / This snake was in the dhan-
danma. C pounder,
in was. J
Pol bargna 41 sab k4n ")
Moon one (coming) that thus dark j
lurubf lyikam At the end of next month it
being when j will not be so cold as it is
4ba sukru ku-d-ma. | now.
much cold again will be not. J
Sa blopp4 si sa Aia sa-ka-lye V-p. , . , , . ,«. -
Here hat this here Abor this of? / DofK thl3 hf, to tblS
ala Miri fila-ka-lye ? f that (distant) there river Miri that of ? J '
Ha } 4-ham, h4m m4, ga-ta. ) Call that (distant) man, not
There more him, him not, call. ) him (near).
Ha aril h4rn nga moil n4-
There horn that I yesterday take / That horn I refused to take
t-m4k hat numma. C yesterday,
will not say did. J
5.—Adjectival Pronouns.
6.—Indefinite Pronouns.
7.—Correlative Pronouns.
These have been sufficiently illustrated in "Accidence."
IV..— Verbs.
1.— The Substantive Verb.
Sanyi sal 4ma ega dadna") XT j , , ,
This year to day dhan much is I Now-a-days we have plenty
^ J > oi alian tor our own con-
dadba. V
to eat. ) sumption.
N4m ha ly41 dadna or g4P
House the burning is on fire
dadna.
is.
The house is on fire.
* c chipar ' is the hollow vessel, or mortar (Assamese), the stick or pestle is ' huni
*(* 'Kan lurub' is said of the dark phase of the moon ; ' sab' denotes that at the time
of speaking the moon was in its dark phase, or, as a Dafla would call it, it was the end
of the month.
I 2


60
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Bu-cho nama kopa,
Brought first been plantains,
al nernrna.
good were.
Sa sulup si al-mfi.
Here oranges these good not.
Sa pobbu sa ish-a al
Here river this (of) water good
denna.
is.
Ha n&m-a
His house
dadna.
is.
Nga nyihinga
My wife
Nga ala achi da.
My leg sore is.
ha
they ( The
5
plantains which you
first brought were good.
| These oranges are bad.
The water
good.
of this river is
nangu
village
middle
ha
in
ka-dna.
ill is.
His house is in the middle
of the village.
wife is ill.
}My
j My leg i
is sore.
Sal sukru da, moily og-nemma.) To-day is
is. )
cold, yesterday
our crops are
To-day cold is, yesterday heat was. ) was hot.
Sinyi ngalu ama khram-"\
This year our dhan good about f This year
m&, kor khram m&. f middling,
not, bad about not. J
& aST da^wiK. ^ } " ^
Like the French verb cfaire7, the verb'lyi7 (=c to do/ or
£ make') is often used idiomatically, where in English we should say
6 is/ 'are/ etc.
Example.
Sa -guda si nyisu nangu habA
Here country this Dafla village like / This country is like (our)
lyida. V hills.
is.
2.—Ordinary Verbs.
Danyi hfich-cha-da.
Sun almost rising is.
) The sun is going to rise
) (though not yet visible).
r' fta' coalesces with 'nyilo,' though ' megta 5 is the real word,=*=Aasamese 1 olop m£n'


r
Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
61
Ma ngal nangu ba lok-lok-ba
He our village to time time (adv.)
udna.
comes.
Nga potta-ham surma sur ka
1 paper the piece piece dividing
jit numma.
give did.
Pottunga dug-neba ;
Splinter prick did
alma-p- numma.
well made have.
nga
I
ham
him
He sometimes comes to our
village.
I tore the paper to pieces.
A splinter pricked him ; I
cured him.
Ma pat dorog mem-pa.
He tiger a killed has.
Stin hckka ippa na hol-niimma.
Tree from descending fallen has.
Bullti sikhra pan-nepii.
They rubber cut will.
Lakanniga datla bullii ronga
Days seven remaining they fields
ham um-rug-nenpti.
the fire put will.
'Mekuri' nam ha-il-nepii.
Cat you scratch will.
Nam fim-a lyanpti.
You fire burn will.
No etchin danna.*
You rice eaten have.
tJnga ma daba jemi ma-la-
Wound not being work do able
namma.
was.
Nga hur-lyikam, sadga oppo
I thirst being, so much liquor
tud-nepii.
drink would.
| He has killed a tiger.
^ He has fallen from a tree.
| They will cut rubber.
In seven days' time they
will burn the fields.
| The cat will scratch you.
j- The fire will burn you.
"> You have already eaten your
) rice, and yet ask for more!
/ Before I was wounded, I
t could work.
When thirsty 1 would drink
so much (showing) liquor.
* See not© on the perfect tense of 1
>


62
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Sa ka-pa nyila abt-ba
Game see happen if fire (particle)
neppagala.
would have.
Harinba ! ) This is the idiomatic
Had he seen game, he would
have fired.
way of expressing 4 Come
Quickly ! ) here quickly!' cf. the Miri expression 4 Mainapii.'
Shad/" in(there) put. } Pufc !t in the shade there-
Pudum tiikft | Tie up your hair (said to a
Hair tie up ! ) man).
Dumpl plas tuku. ) Tie up your hair (said to a
Hair knot tie up. j woman).
The above expressions refer to the period when one emerges
from youth to manhood or womanhood, and means 4 It is quite time
you started tying up your hair.' and does not refer to an ordinary
occurrence of a person's hair falling down,
Sa darab patch ham
nga
Here things things them I
da-ma-lyia alia kata.
remaining not if well see.
Gom be-yok.
IVord say not.
Gom be-ma da-ta.
Word speaking not stay.
Bftllii nyi ham litaba tin ba.
They man the bury to gone have.
M6bfi ab-nam suduin-ham
Gun fired at been deer the
me-taba un ba.
search for to gone have.
Ma boram a-ru-taba ude.
She young brother meet to going is. j"
Nga am pely-ha ^ tab sag
I dhan cutting while snake a
ka-p4- tenma.
see happen did.
Pobbu ha rab-tanna iss ha
River in cross water in
hollu-la sin-na.
fallen having died.
Look after these
my absence.
things in
) Don't speak ! (said to one
) who has not yet spoken).
) Silence, stop speaking (said
) to one who is speaking).
\ They have gone to bury the
) man.
They have gone to look
the deer I fired at.
for
) She is
brother.
going
to meet her
I saw a snake
dhan.
while
cutting
He was drowned while cross-
ing the river.


Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
63
P&t h4m ka pa pel a nga
Tiger the see happen having 1 / I caught sight of the tiger
ken ma. I and ran away,
ran. j
Yotchi pui-lyha letching A
Knife sharpening while finger v / I cut my finger while shar-
ham ma-pi-su-pnumma. f pening a knife,
the cut (reflexive) did. j
Ngalu ronga-h&m moi-nya-
We fields the weeding finished (When we have finished weed-
tella ngal* meg da-t-ku-npli.f C ing, we will rest a little,
having, we a little rest again will. J
Pata ga-n-rfi-baj n^a ab-tenapii. } I can shoot a bird on the
Bird flying meeting I shoot will. ) wing.
Anftba lyal-nft-ta. \ Run quickly and fetch
Quickly running bring. ) it.
Mobu-ham bfi-ma-ga-ba sudum ham^j
Gun the carried not deer the / Not having brought the gun,
a-la ma-tnumma. f I could not fire at the deer,
fire at able not was. )
Nyeda ho-kin-ba-nyila noa ut-ta-ma. ) r .n ' .c .
Lain fall perhaps if 1 go will not. j 1 WlU not lf xt rains'
Fish gone" bad has. } The fish has §one bad-
The boat has sunk.
Na arrftb an-ba.
Boat below gone has.
The negative form of verb requires no further illustration.
}
3.—Interrogative form of Verb.
Na bosh dan-lye ? ) A r ., 0
â– xt n - I Are you afraid ?
Y our fear is r ^ j lulu, i
San mfillu-ham tft-tab-niimm- ^
Tree (plural) the cause to fall down f Did you cut down the
lye. V trees,
did ? J
* The repetition of the persona] pronoun is idiomatic,
t The force of this particle is 'for a change' or ' back again'.
X Apparently * n ' is euphonic.


64
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Ha tab hkm "N
There snake that see happening not ( p, . ^ A ,
dna-iyg >-Ho you not see that snake.
are ? J
Nalu (plural) nanga ha na""
Your village in your Will you (singular) reach
(singular) sal ft-tch kft I your (plural) village
to-day arrive back f to-day ?
-npii-ly6 ? (Note the idiom.)
will ? J
Nalu sal ma-tlyinn lye, aria
You to-day do will, to-morrow (Will you do it to-day or to-
ma tlyinn ?* T morrow ?
do will ? J
Na da gum gum nam ham ta-pa-"^
You thunder thundering that hear (Do you not hear that thun-
ma dna lye? f der ?
happening not are ? J
Na sa-t-mak ha-dna-lye ? ") , . . A ,
You dance will not saying are ? J Do you not wish to dance ?
Ud ma ma dnaly&, or u-tmak "k
Go will not making are ? Go will / ^ , . , , n
had na-lye. ^ Do you not wish to go ?
not saying are ? J
Na pat a pin al-ba di-la dann lye ? ) n .
You tiger skin well take off able are ? j Can skm a USer wel1 ?
4.—Compound Verbs (Particles).
Issh. aru bala -ullu-lim nga
Water within below stone the I (I can see the stones at the
ka pa-da. t bottom of the water,
see happening am. J
Nga mobu du nam-ham ta-la-
I gun sounding the hear able 11 can hear the sound of a
su-dna. f gun.
together am. J
* The second ' lye ' is often left out, as here.


Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
65
Na san ha cha-14 dann lye ?
You tree on climb able are ?
Ch41a-rna-dna.
Climb able not am.
Ala da-ru-ma nyila, u-la tenpu.
Leg broken not if, go able be
should.
San h4m hiid-in-ta.
Tree the shake.
Ng4m mobu ab-kin-taba.
Me to gun fire show.
Nam nyi-la ma-m-tail ne.
You man by beat cause will.
H4m mindui arung gala
Him buffalo horn on
ku-pa-ga-num m a.
tossed has.
Nga sija 4 s61a' ga k4 t&-m4
I now coat wear see wish not
rii.
at all.
L&mpl4-ham fi-mhr-maba.
Road the go mistake not.
Nga oppo sam michfi til ka ta.
My liquor this a little drink see.
Sam ka chin-ma-dna-lye.
Him see knowing not are ?
Nga mnadi tal sa-la-danna.
1 mountain up mount able am.
Can you climb a tree ?
cannot.
If my leg were not broken
could walk.
| Shake the tree.
| Show me how to fire a gun.
11 will get a m*n to beat you.
herabla
lilting f ^ buffalo has tossed him.
I cannot try the coat on now.
| Do not lose your way.
| Taste a little of my liquc r.
| Do you not recognise him ?
| I can climb a mountain.
Y.—Adverbs.
Nga Hn-na hogab k4-p4-tailne ? j Hqw ghal, j gee in the dark?
I darkness in how see happen will : )
Moiyfim nyada ega
Yesterday evening rain much { It rained very heavily yes-
honma. ( terday evening,
fell. J
Nga hal hfidila benma ?
I so when said ?
K
When did I say so ?


66
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Iss pajab ha hfidila
Water (i.e., wild) duck they when
fi-tch-li-fi.
arrive will.
Sa san danyim sa da-ta.
This tree shade in sit.
Ha san danyim ha da-la.
That tree shade in sit.
Okinga rL-daii-ne.
Quickly go at once.
Aia tfillfia mfillfia lekingab
Abors (plural) all together
fin ma.
came.
Nyi fikkingan* fi kfir kfinma.
Man one go back again did.
Nga suduma dor-kin-ga he kfi pfi
We deer one only see happen
numma.
did.
Nyi a kin-ga he iilyi.
Man one only came.
Mobfi le-kinga he fib ta.
Gun once only fire.
Sadgab jin pti lye, hadgab
This much give will, that much
jin pii lye ?
give will ?
Nga lyi nya-ma dfi.
I doing finish not yet.
Hfi-sa ha-saba fi-tta, nga-fila achi
Slowly go, my foot sore
da, u-bl-ma.
is, go cannot.
Ha lagkra da-ma.
He day one stay not.
}
When will
come in ?
the wild duck
| Sit in the shade of this tree.
| Sit in the shade of that tree.
| Go at once.
All the
ther.
Abors came toge-
| One man returned alone.
• We only saw one deer.
| Only one man has come.
| Fire your gun once only.
|wi
j *
^ I have not finished yet.
ill you give this much or
that much?
Go slowly, my foot is sore,
I cannot walk.
) He did
) day.
not even stay a
* 1 think ' n ' is euphonic.


Part HI.]
• SYNTAX.
67
A-la khrft-mft-ba nga ft tlyinne.
Tomorrow truly I come will.
Da-il tft ftlyftm sail lii ka
Thunderstorm coming tree under
da-m4-ba.
stay not.
Na ala ftd ben- chin-dan-lye ?
You well song sing knowing are ?
i1
will come to-morrow
sure.
for
Do not stay under a tree in
a thunderstorm.
| Can you sing well ?
VI.—Postpositions and Conjunctions.
"fr-cho-lyft-ta.
Go first on.
Etchin da mft-da ba*-ft-yen.
Rice eat not yet, I went.
Pom madna, ha halyi denna.
Snow makes, therefore cold is.
}
}
}
Go on in front of me.
I went before I had eaten
my rice.
It is snowing, therefore it is
. cold.
' ba 7 is the adverbial particle.
K 2


68
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
PART IV.—MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT
STORIES.
Several of the following are given from the Dafla point of think-
ing, and must not be regarded as translations of English into Dafla,
Hence the English rendering of them, unless given very freely,
which, in an elementary work like this, is not always advisable,
must be excused if in places it is very crude or scarcely grammatical.
A COMPLAINT.
M
Nga Hale-ne yolfl. ma-taba
I Hale accused make to am
na. Ken-la-moil
come. Three or four months ago
nga abunga, nyihyi a-fim-a
my elder brother wives three
ap-phela sl-lelene. Ngalu Nyisii
left having died. Our Dafla
"niyom" ba bullii a-fim-bobua nga
custom by they three all my
nam sa da-m-tail-kbn-na.*
bouse at stay will again.
Mullua nga n&m sa al da-kin-
All my house at well remaining
da, akna hogba a-m^-denna yu?
is, one why coming not is why?
Bull akne nga nam sa a-ma-baf
Of them one my house to coming not
Halega n&m ha da-dna.
Hale's house at staying is.
Ha hogba madne yu ? na da-kba
She why does why ? you with
da-npii had-na-lye ma, Hale-ga
stay will saying is not, Hale
da-khyauj da-npii hadna-lye ?
with stay will saying is ?
Ma Hale-ga lag-y^i-haj
She Hale with rather
danpii hadna.
stay says.
I am come to complain
against Hale. Three or
four months ago my elder
brother died, leaving three
wives. By our Dafla law
all three should live in my
house now. If all should
live in my house, why does
one refuse to ?
Note.—This is a rhetorical and more
forcible manner of expressing
a fact.
One of them stays in Hale's
house instead of coming to
mine.
Q. Why does she ? Does she
wish to live with Hale or
with you ?
A. She wishes to live with
Hale.
* The 1 ku ' here has the force of 4 change J of former position. f ' ba ' adverbial force.
X ' ya ' (the comparative particle) is inserted.


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 81
Nalu ga niyom ham
Your customs them
hogba yop-pa-tailnye ? Na
why leave will ? Your
nam ha al-dad koba nga
house in well staying that I
ben-t-nepii.
tell will.
Why should I depart from
your customs ? I will order
her to stay in your house.
HISTORICAL SENTENCE,
Piira pol ha arkora cha Hari
October moon in beginning first Hari
nanga hok Tanu
village from the Apa Tanangs
Kodom baggichcha agum a-la
Kodom (tea) garden near
dan b&m Chirnur
living the of-Tolbotia-Miri-tribe
Podu-ne nyob paltaba unma.
Podu war wage to came.
Lam pi a ha uy-ha la urn
Load on coming days three
gaba fin ma. Orum-ba
about came. Friendly manner
udna-k hala* amba
we are come that saying falsely
solba ala ha illyi pora
pretending hand in pig fowl
menj minsla, etchin oppo
dividing distributing, rice liquor
iniij-mins-la daba
preparing distributing eating
tuba sal a Podune manm-eik-a.f
drinking playing Podu killed.
Ma-pekfila " Poduga nyi atch
After that Podu's people (plural)
am gonne bloaiokla bfillu
the (plural) forcibly taking their
nangu ba bol ugan kunm-eikat
village to forcibly caused to return
In the beginning of October
the Apa Tanangs from Hari
village came down to wage
war on Podu of the Tolbotia
Miri tribe, who lived near
Koddom garden. They did
the journey in three days.
Treacherously pretending
friendship, and presenting
pork and fowls ; while they
were dividing these up, and
preparing and distributing
rice and liquor, and eating
and drinking and enjoying
themselves, they killed
Podu, and carried off his
family captives to their
village,
* f k hala' denotes reported speech.
t This termination is used in narrating events that the speaker himself did not see.


70
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
CONVERSATION.
nyi!
Nam ka bu-nma
To you child born been years
k denna.
how many
are.
Nga ben chem-ma.
I say cannot.
Na nyi-k-ga halyi
You years how many about plains
nanga sa da ilne.
villages in lived have.
Nyi rile niyum kham-nepii.
Years ten years three about will be.
Nyisu ta-lok uily-
Dafla country down from when
h.a, na hogadga koi danma.
coming you how much big were.
How old are you ?
I don't know.
How many years have you
lived in the plains.
About thirteen years.
How big were you when you
came down from the Dafla
country ?
The following example shows how no rule can be laid down for
the various forms of the tenses of verbs met with in conversation,
especially the verb 4 u 7:
Nga chitti akk ji-lu-sa* mii da ; nyi
I letter a send wish ; man I want to send a letter; will
filyi?-ulyi ? na utlyinnlye ? any one go ? will you go ?
go? go? you go will?
A POLITICAL MATTER.
Nga-k henam Nyisu tullua
My written Dafias (plural)
moi-a-su-nma hala beng
quarrel together did that saying
kor ma-lu-ma.
worth much not.
The row among the Dafias
about which I wrote is
not of much importance.
• ' sa with no appreciable meaning, is frequently joined, as here, 'to the particle
« mui' or ' mu *


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 71
Yolfi yiblfi cho-n nyi ha
Accused makers first men between
la Police ha lfi anyiga
boch Police between and the two
pen ka ha, hogabjfi lyi-chir-*
dividing what happen
numma, filjab ben yub daba meg
did exactly define to little
essaM kulinda, okka ha berft
difficult perhaps is, but there matter
ha beng kor malu-ga mu-ma
that saying worth much I think not.
Assfi tal dan Getch
Hills up in living Gatchi Miris
tullua moi-fi su-dna ;
(plural) quarrelling together are;
halyi nanga hfi dan Getch
plains villages in living Gatchi Miris
tfillfia bullu nyob padla
(plural) they war wage may
hala bosh danna. Bullti nyob pail-
They war wage
Okka Pothaliparn
But Pothalipam
ha sija dan Alexander Sahab-ba
in now staying Alexander Sahib to
nga chitti tag heg-lyinma, ha
I letter a write did there
beru beng danfirn ham
matter said (participle) that
tadfir-tella na a-ha hogab
heard having your heart in how
muda chitti la tag magda la
think letter a writing
nga-pa ji-lfi-ba,
me to send.
that fearing are.
nepti mfi-ma.
will I think not.
What between the police
account and that of the
complainants, it is rather
difficult to say exactly
what did happen, but I do
not think the matter of
much moment. The Gat-
chi Miris in the hills are
fighting; those living in
the plains are afraid that
they will raid them ; I do
not think they will, but I
have written to Mr. Alex-
ander, who is now at Po-
thalipam to let me know
what he thinks. (Literally:
having heard the said
matter, write and send
me word what you
think in your mind,
by letter.)
A TALE WITH A MORAL.
Sagfi la Tarfi Ifi
Sagfi
mnara Iepfiba
and Tara and jungle through
fi-lyit-gala. Tara mobu bug
going were. Tara gun a
Saga and Tara were journey-
ing through the jungle.
* The distributive or distinguishing force ot 'chir' (literally meaning 'each') cannot be
translated.


72
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
bu-tl&. Saga-ne Tftra benma:4 Sanu
carried. Saga to Tara said : 4 Big
semin* ka-pa-bainyila dak
wild animal see happen if place
&kkin ha dadla mobu si-1-
same in standing gun this
ab-tlyinne.'
with fire will/
Ka-t&-chlba ha bend-ka ha shutum
Exactly that saying on bear
dorrga ka-pa-tella. Tara
a seen happen having. TatA
fi-kin gaba m6bung ham hur-
immediately gun tbe thrown
pa-pela sun nuga-1 cha-tella.
away having tree a in climbed.
Saga chadaba stin da-ma-tella ;
Saga climb to tree remained not ;
sutum-a agum-ha fi-n-tella, Saga
bear near came. Saga
nyi shin aba ked ha gepla
man dead like earth on falling
katla danma. Sutum-a anulla
lying remained. The bear coming near
Saga-ga nyurru da kha
Saga's ear near
nangka-tella.
smelt.
Saga ebl mab da-tla sutum-a
Saga moving not remaining bear
u-khr-ne kunna.
went back again.
Ha Tara sun hokkha i-pa-kh-
Then Tara tree from descending
la, meg hiinyila nyir-ka-la
again, little ashamed laughing
tachnumma : 4 Sutum ha na
asked : 4 Bear the your
nyurru ha hogal possa possa
ear in what secret secret
hal benma ?' Saga benma:
manner said?' Saga said:
Tara had a gun. He said:
4 If any wild animal were
to appear, I should stand
my ground and fire.'
Just at that moment a bear
came in sight.
Tara, dropping his gun, im-
mediately climbed a tree.
There being no other tree,
and the bear approaching,
Saga threw himself at full
length on the ground like
a dead man. The bear
came up to Sag&'s ear and
smelt it.
As Saga did not move he
went away.
Then Tara came down from
the tree a little ashamed of
himself and jokingly asked:
4 What did the bear whisper
in your ear ? '
Sag& said :
* This implies a big animal that would kill a man.


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 73
4 Sutuma ngam tom-sur-nemma 4 He told me never to trust
4 Bear me taught a boaster.'
khraya lyaya gaba ben nyi
boasting manner speaking man
lagba tejji ma-ba.7
with trust not.'
A DISASTROUS TOUR.
Nangu pong-ga-1 nimd4ne*
Village one in blind
hti-etchna-la danma. JLla-ga
hunchback and lived. Day one
bullii be-min-su-nma nangu
they say together selves did village
h&m yop-pa-pela oddum
the leaving behind upstream
dailyaba uttargol udba
direction go as far as possible to go
benma. Yup kallamplin-ga da-
said. Nights eight eat
ga-ba embin oppo illyi pora
last to rice liq nor pig fowls
b41 unna. ti-rkb dai ftt4r f
carrying went. Going along going
olyum ha chomum-ga dan-ga
evening at thirty inhabitants
nanga pong ft-ch-nemma.
village a arrived.
Ha nanga ha nyi e da-m-
There village of that men stay allow
denia-kj hiitla, ai-ha nangu
not that forbade, night in village
boilya-ha danma. Ha lagna ha
outside stayed. Then day on
ud-uddej danyi og ha issh
going along, sun heat in water
ban ban na hii-etchna kash
carrier carrier hunchback secret
kash la ish m1illung-am tu-da.
secretly water all the drinks.
Ka-ku ha nimdane ha issh
After that blind (man) the water
A blind man and a hunch-
back lived in a village.
One day they agreed to
leave their village and tra-
vel upstream (north ?) as
far as they could go. So
they took rice, liquor, pork
and fowls to last for eight
days. The first day at
evening they reached a
village of thirty houses.
The villagers would not let
them in, so they spent the
night outside. The second
day on the march, as it
was very hot, the hunch-
back, who carried the
water on his back quietly
drank it all. Then when
the blind man asked for
* This word means, 'blind at night time,' the Assamese
imply that the man could not see by day.
t The idea underlying ' tar' is a day's journey.
J 4 k' indicates reported speech.
1 r&ti-khona/ and does not


74
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
kotla hli-etchna ha benma
demanding hunchback the said
issh udung&m ha
water vessel (4 choonga') there
nanga ba* yop-p&-penma. Ha
village at left behind have. That
41 olyum ha nangaf pong ga-1
day evening at village a at
agum ha pobbu ha-g ka-pa-gelly
near at river at a met having
hii-etchna nyi ha uddu ha issh
hunchback man the vessel in water
tu-rabla tu-da. fjddu odnum-
dipping up drinks. Vessel sound
ma ta-p&-tella nimdane nyi
hear happen having blind man
ha benma: 'Habnyila na uddun-
the said: 4 Thus if you vessel
gam yop-pa-ma nam-ga :
the left behind hot it seems ;
amba be nam ga, na
falsely you spoke it seems, your
benam ham tejji ta-k-J
spoken (word) it trust any more
ma
not ;
na ngam am-pa§ ;
you me deceived (now) have;
sal g4 lokka ngalu banam hog
to-day from our carried what
hog ham derab s&in ngalu att
what the things them we self
4tte dag su tlyinne, sa
self keep selves will, to-day
illokra ok ok-su-ba da tlyinne.7
night separately stay will.'
Ha-ka nangu-ba hkla nim-
Then village at arrived blind
dane ha nangu-f nyi- am
(man) the village man to
water he said that the vessel
must have been left behind.
That evening when they
arrived at a stream near a
village, the hunchback dip-
ped up water in the vessel
to drink. The blind man,
hearing the sound of the
vessel said : 4 Then you did
not leave it behind after
all; you told me a lie, and
I distrust you ; now we
will each keep the things
we have and stay apart
this night.'
So when they came into the
village the blind man told
the villagers: 4 He has
cheated me and
we are
* This is more idiomatic than ' ha,' but if they had been travelling southwards (down
stream), ' ta' would have been the proper word, signifying 11 left it behind ' ' up north."
t The full word is * nangunga,' which is shortened to 'nangu,' ' naDgu,' or 1 nanga,'
according as accent demands.
t Apparently shortened form, because less emphatic, of the particle 1 kfc-iM,
meaning, ' never'.
§ ' am-b& ' would signify * deceived me a long time ago.1


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 75
benma : 44 Ma ngam am-pfi,
said : 44 He me deceived has,
ok ok-su-ba da tlyinne.
apart apart remain will.
Ha nangu hok nyi akka
there village that of man one
nimdfine-ba ha nfim ba-
blind (man) the house hold hand
kin tab ka halla* benma ;
show to that said ;
hii-etchna nyi ha khrib nam
hunchback man the another house
nangai finna. Ai ha
a to went into. Night in
nimdane-ba ha hti-etch-ba ha nyi
blind (man) the hunchback man
haf na-nmam tfi-pfi
the calling out hear happen
numma : 4 Nyi-a nga darab patch-
did : 4 Men my things things
hfim detch olla bui-nya tagdeJ
the stealing to take are about'
hanma. Nimdane-ha benma: 4 Sija
(he) said. Blind (man) said:4 Now
nga utlyinne na da kha;J hagora-
I come will to you ; he getting
bla ebla ya po-niimma, hii-etch-
up ladder run down did, hunch-
ba ha nad ka daily aba
back's crying out direction
ya-tunna, chipar ak da-tum telia,
running, 4dheki' one lying blocking
ha chipar ya-tunna
that 4 dheki' running
tfibla fila dur-da.
against leg breaks.
Ha hab-lyi-ha hab
There doing while thus
mo-blum tab iil-naga
du-
knocking
nyi ga
man a
halla
going to separate.' So the
blind man got a villager to
lead him to one house,
while the hunchback went
into another.
But in the night the blind man
heard the hunchback calling
out: 4 They are stealing all
the things.'
The blind man called out.
41 am coming.' He got
up and ran down the
house-ladder, but fell over
a 4 dheki' (vessel for husk-
ing rice) as he ran towards
the sound of the hunch-
back's voice, and broke
his leg.
help to is coming probably that
* ( ka halla ' indicates reported speech.
t 'ha' ill oblique cases (accusative included), is M&' (vide under ' Personal
Pronouns.'
X ' nfi d& kh& ' are emphatic, because of their unusual position in the sentence.
L 2


76
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
ta-pela detchana nyi keknumma.
hearing thieves men ran away.
Hii-etch ba nyi-e ha nyi khrab-nm&
Hunchback man the man groaning
adnum-ma ta-tl& nimdane ba ha
sound hearing blind (man) the
ftmm& nen-ga halla lenma.
came not considering that went out.
Lenla nimdane nyi ha
Having gone out blind man the
al durnma M-pa-numma. Ha
leg broken see happen did. Then
nimdane ba benma : 66 Na issh
said : "You water
keshla tfl-ma-nyila
secretly drink not if
lyid-met-g'la. "
now this happen not would have."
Hu-etch-ba* ha benma : " Ha-ka
Hunchback the vsaid : "In future
hab lyhn-kft m&." Al
in that way do will never." Leg
durnam d4-b-kula hal syinla
broken bandaged feeding giving to
dakft-nma.f Ha ka kua
drink stayed. After that
nimdane-ba ba &la meg kl
blind (man) his leg a little better
tella meg udba lyit la bullii
being a little to go being able their
kit n&m-ba ft-kur-ku-numma.
own home to go return again did.
blind (man)
mullija ham
all the
sij& sab
Meanwhile, hearing that some
one was coming to the
rescue, the thieves ran
away. The hunchback
presently heard groans,
and, as the blind man did
not come, went out and
found him on the ground
with a broken leg.
Then the blind man said : " If
you had not drunk all the
water on the sly, this would
not have happened." The
hunchback promised he
would never cheat him
again, bandaged up the
broken leg, and tended
and nursed the blind man
till well enough to walk.
Then they returned home.
THE PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL SON (ST. LUKE XV, 11).
Lok nyi kk da-tlk, ka anyiga
Once man a lived, sons two
da-tleya.J Ainya yk -a ab-h&m
lived. Young-er the father to
benma : 1 Aba ngalga darab hok
said : c Father, our things from
A certain man had two sons;
and the younger of them
said to his father— 'Father,
* 1 ba' that occurs so frequently in this tale, answers to the Assamese particle ' to,'
whose nearest equivalent is the Hindustani word 4 wallah,' as in * punkha-wallah
1 chota-wallah,' ' andha-wallah ' (the blind one).
f 'kft' implies change from former condition.
J Apparently euphonic.


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 77
ng&p nemma s\]k jibba." Ha
me to share now give." Then
ab ha anyi bobu haba* derab
father the two each things
h&m pen jitla. Ha
the division giving made. After
ka-kua, ainya-y&-ha apa ga
that young-er the days few
datla mii-ga derab mullija ham
staying his things all the
nu-lai-ella, &da guda-
gathering taking distant country
ba unna.
to went.
Ha gitd& ha nyedai-nyet-ma-
There country in feast merry
rnin la nruga derab patch
making his property
mullung&m m a - y u m -1 e 11 a.
all wasted.
Hab ma-yftm tella dad-ka-ha
Thus wasted having remaining while
ha gftda ha dema durre utla,
there country in great famine arose,
mug ai hob da-p&-matla. Ha,
bis belly for eat got not. Then,
ha guda-ga nyi kk ga dak ga-1
that country of man a inhabitant to
at-ht, ha nyi he mnaraf
coming, there man that waste land
pukh-ruha ill y i ka-il-ya-ta-ka
short grass swine watch that
hal u-m tella. Illyi danam
saying go made. Pigs (by) eaten
dan&m aihi hok ai-hab da-lh-daba
eaten seeds from belly for eat full
mutla ; nyi akk nekhram ha
wished ; man a even one there
nyi ham hogja ji-mk
man that to anything give not
tella. Hen dadlaha benma :
did. Senses recovering, he said :
give me the portion of
the substance that falleth
to me.' And he divided
unto them his living.
And not many days after,
the younger son gathered
all together and took his
journey into a far
country ;
and there he wasted his
substance with riotous
living. And when he had
spent all, there arose a
mighty famine in that
country ; and he began
to be in want.
And he went and joined
himself to one of the
citizens of that country ;
and he sent him into his
fields to feed swine. And
he would fain have been
filled with the husks that
the swine did eat, and no
man gave unto him.
But when he came to himself
* The adverbial force that this word gives to ' anyi bobft ' cannot be translated,
t The Dnfias have no < fields ' in which to herd swine.


78
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
c Nga fibga nyerrft atch h&m ha
cMy father's servants (plural) they
fittu anyi-na dadba kapatella delle
bread enough to eat find excess
dekhyenga dad ba ka-pa tella,
superfluous remaining find,
nga da-pa-ya-ma-ba La-na ba
1 eat find not hunger by
si-lya-sfi-tailye. Nga sa-kka
die am about to. I here from
ab-ga da-kha-1 u-g della
father's presence to going rising
bentailne : 'Ab, nam la uison-
say will : ' Father, you both God
ham la nanyam nga lyi-mur-
the and you both I done wrong
tella ; na ka hab lyiya-ku-ma*;
have ; your son as done have not;
ngam na nyerra atch ham
me your servants (plural)
lyid-na-ba lyi-m-taba/ Hab
work as work make.' Thus
mula-ella hak ka miig abga
mused having then his father's
dakh baut-lA Okka ad-
presence to went, But distance
ha tiilnam ab ha ka-tul-k&-
in coming father the see
patella aia mu-pa-la
happen having pity musing
ya-ru-la lupa gar-gab-la
run meet neck putting hand round
mapub-tella. Ka-a benma : c Ab,
kissed. Son said :f Father,
nam-ia ui son ham la nanyam
you both God the and you two
nga lyi-mur-tella ; na ka
I done wrong have ; your son
hab lyi-ya-kft-ma;*' Okka kb
as done have not.' But father
ha nyerra atcham ham benma :
the servants (plural) them to said:
he said: 6 How many hired
servants of my father's
have bread enough and to
spare, and I perish here
with hunger !'
51 will arise and go to my
father, and will say unto
him, 'Father, I have sin-
ned against heaven and in
thy sight : I am no more
worthy to be called thy
son : make me as one of
thy hired servants.' And
he arose and came to his
father's. But while he
was yet afar off, his father
saw him, and was moved
with compassion, and ran
and fell on his neck and
kissed him.
And the son said unto hira
—'Father, I have sinned
against heaven, and in thy
sight. I am no more
worthy to be called thy
son
But the father said
to his servants : ' Bring
forth quickly the best
* ' kft ' signifies < though I formerly behaved as your son should have.' There is
no word for ' worthy.'


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 79
4 Nga miillija ezz ham al-yann
'My all garments than best
ezz ham anuba na leng
garments the quickly take out
gadla sam-kam-ta, ala ha ta
bringing him clothe, hand on also
letchla ga-m-ta, ha lukhla ta
ring put, feet on boots too
ga-m-ta, sa hab ka jit-yan-
put, cow female child fatter
gonne sa boa gadala pakhr-ta*
than all here bring kill
ngal datlyinn' aha khrumdba ;
we eat will to our hearts'content
hogbaf hab lyittlyinne ? nga ka
why thus do shall ? our son
sa ui mnak lak cha-lin
Satan's country from rising
lyi-k-na haly-iba ka-pa
come again like as I have seen
gelku, nyinam k&-pa-gel-ku.
again, the lost I have found again.
Hokka bullii sa min-dab-lyi-
Then they dance together to
r&b-numma.
began.
Okka ka abii ha
But son elder the
ronga ha lyitla, ronga hokka
fields in working was, fields from
u-k-na nam a gum ha xi-ly-
returning house near coming
ku-laj dum dum tal toppu
home drums cymbals flute
ma la sa-min-la adnumin&m
playing dancing and sound
ta-p^-tella. Ha nyerra akk ga la
heard. Then servant a calling
tachnumma:
asked :
4 Ha addan ha hog madna P
4 Here noise this what is ?
robe, and put it on
him; and put a ring
on his hand, and shoes on
his feet, and bring the fatted
calf and kill it, and let us eat
and make merry: for this my
son was dead and is alive
again; he was lost and is
found.'
And
merry.
they began to be
Now, his elder son was in
the field ; and as he came and
drew nigh to the house he
heard music and dancing.
And he called to him one of
the servants and enquired
what these things might be.
* This signifies 'kill for every one to eat4 pa-ta* would merely mean * kill \
t This is the only way of expressing 1 for
J' u-ly-ku-la' is a kind of imperfect past participle ; contrast it with ' u-t-kfirla'
below, which may be described as the perfect past participle.


80
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Nyerra
4 Na borh
4 Your young
ha benma
Servant the said :
ha iit kula, na ab
brother having returned, your father
na borh-ham alia ft-k-
your young brother well returned
numma ka-pa-kula hem poz-ula
has seeing again being pleased
paia kutchu mula sa ka jitna
I am fortunate thinking calf fatted
ham pakh-14.
the killed has.
H&m tat-la, ha-h4 alia, n4m-ha
This hearing angry very, house into
ak-ma-tla. Ha ab ha nam
enter not did. Then father the house
arrii hok len at ku*
inside from coming out come inside
hatla. Okk haab ham ben-ru-numma:
said. But he father to answered:
4 Taia 1 tasina ! hada nyi alia
4 Hear ! look ! so many years (and) days
nam mill la, na ben&in ham
you on behalf of, your word it
tellutella-la lyitniimma, okka
heeding I have worked, but
nga azin-orum ham hal sin-la
my friends to giving to eat and
sa-min-daba na sibin dorg-khram
And he said unto
him: 4 Thy brother is
come, and thy father had
killed the fatted calf, because
be hath received him safe and
sound.5
But he was
would not go
his father came
entreated him.
angry,
in ;
out
and
and
and
But he answered and said
to his father—1 Lo! these many
years do I serve thee, and I
never transgressed a com-
mandment of thine, and yet
drink make merry to you goat one even thou never gavest me a kid,
jima; okka na ka ha na
gave not; but your son he your
derftb patch nii-la ella nyemm
goods goods taking away women
lagba sa lupelaf-ud-kun h&m sa ka
with play wasting returned him calf
jitnam pakh jia-lyi-khram-ny4.'J
fatted kill.5
that I might make merry
with my friends. But when
this thy son came, which
hath devoured thy living
with harlots, thou killed'st
for him the fatted calf.5
* 1 kfi ' draws attention to the fact that he had already refused to come inside.
+ The idea underlying 4 lu ' taken with fsa' isfhe heading the merrymakers and
paying for all himself; 1 ' sa-min ia' would denote 'each merrymaker paying his share,' or
a general feast.
t The meaning ' giving to him and not to me ' cannot be expressed word.


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 81
And he said unto him :
4 Son, thou art ever with
me, and all that is mine
is thine. But it wras meet
to make merry and be
glad, for this thy brother
was dead and is alive
again ; and was lost, and
is found.'
Ab ha benma okka : 4 Ka, na nga
Father the said but : 4 Son, you me
lagba da-ki su-dna, nga
with remaining always are, my
derab patch mullusi na-ka maba
goods goods all these yours not if
higa ?* Okka hogba hab lyi-ma-
whose ? But why thus do not
tailne? na borh ha ui mnak-
shall ? your brother Satan's coun-
lokka cha-lin du-k-na
try from rising appeared again
halyiba, kol nyin-kunna,f sija
like as, formerly lost was, now
ka-pa-gelku.'
is found.'
I now think we have advanced far enough in the
discontinue the practice of placing the English wo.d under
Dafla word.
language
to
the
THE TALE OF THE BRAHMIN AND HIS SERVANT.
(From Mr. Anderson's 44 Cachari Folk Lore.")
Kol Bamorn akkA ga lagba nyerra
akk danma. Al golla Bamiim ha
ai nam ha u-ta-ilya ha Bamum ha
nyerra-ham kopa pom-ga khrib
darab patch ha la bam dabtt jitla.
Bamum ha benma : 44 Sa kopa sam
alba ka-l-b&-ta na damaba ; nga
hogba hab bendnaj nga halo dayab
kadna hab langk dayaba ta kapa-
denna. Hal bem-pela ma u-cho-
niimma. Meg kakua, kana tella,
nyerra ha kopa a plom hok akk
pllila Bamum a langk dayab
narabla ka-kin la dab neba. Hab
ka-kin ka-kin la ling-luum-ga§
kopa mullungam da-nya ganba.
Meg kakua Bamum-a tach-niim-
ma. Na egin bag danam ha
There was once a Brahmin
who had a servant. And
one day, when they were
efoing to the house of the
Brahmin's mother-in-law,
the Brahmin gave his ser-
vant a bunch of plantains
and other things to carry,
and said to him : 4 Now
mind you don't eat those
plantains, for I can see just
as well behind as before.
And so saying he marched
ahead. Presently the
servant, getting hungry,
plucked one of the plantains
from the bunch and, hold-
ing it out to his master's
* A common method of emphasizing (i positive statement,
t ' implies 5 change of state,' as illustrated frequently already.
J The roundabout method of expressing 4 because,' ' why do I say this ?'
§ Literally, 4 three or four times ?'
M


94
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
hogab lyinma ? Ha Dyerra ha
benma : Kaj na ngam benma habla
da (il) yaba ka-pa-denna haba
langk da (il) yaba ta k&-pa-denka*
hatla. Ha nga kopa akk akkba
nam k&-kin ka-kin-la nga da-
tnftmma, ha na hosja be-ma,
Nyerra ha hal benma ta-pela Ba-
mum ha hogja be-m&ba gom-be-
maba un-na. Meg ka kua ara f
ha, etchin dud ha,J etchin mal
dadba§ danna. Khawai ngoi meg
da-tla, Bamum a nyerra-ham chir-
kin-gpn|| jitla mullungam atta ap^f
ganumma-etchin da-taily la :
nyerr4 Bamum-ham tach-numina-
Bamum, sa khawai ngoi si okk
okksu-ba jal lyidna-lye, mullunga
lekinba jal lyidna-lye ? Bamfim
ha ben-ru-numma : Mullunga le-
kinba lyidna. Ha nyerra benma :
Habnyila nga. ngoiye na ngoi
lagha da-kin-da** Nyerra ha hal
henna Bamum ha etchin ag haft
ngoi am kup-jila mohhr| { jig-nutn-
ma. Hab muijtella Bamum ha
hogja da-kmaba§§ nyerra ha mull-
ijaham dag-neba. || || Meg ka-kua
lampla ha ud ka ha gia sun ega ka-
pa-tella. Ha siin4ra ka-tla nyerra
ha tach numma. Na sa siin sam
hogal amin danna ? Bamum ha
benma :
back, ate it. And this he
did again and again till all
the plantains were gone.
Presently, when the Brah-
min asked what had be-
come of the load, the ser-
vant said : 4 You told me
you could see behind as
well as in front. So I
showed you each plantain
before I ate it, and you
never said anything/ So
the Brahmin went his ways
speechless. (Literally :
Hearing the servant talk
thus, the Brahmin without-
saying anything went on
in silence.) Presently
they stopped and cooked
their mid-day meal, and
they had got with them a
few khawai fish. But the
Brahmin only gave one to
his servant and kept the
rest himself. And when he
was about to eat, the ser-
vant asked—40h ! Brahmin,
do khawai fish swim about
singly or in shoals.' The
Brahmin answered — 4 In
shoals.' So the servant
said—4 Then my fish had
better go with yours ;' and,
so saying, he threw his fish
on the Brahmin's mess,
defiling the whole thus.
* 1 ka ' for reported speech.
t Morning or mid-day. J'dud ha' at eating time. § ' mal dadba '=' to prepare and eat
H 4 chir' is the particle used when a very small article is implied.
% Literally, * holding took'. Literally, 'my fish remaining with yours well is''
ft ' ag ha '= on top of. %% 1 mobiir ' is the Assamese 4 ehua '= defiled.
§§ 'da-maba ' would mean ' eating nothing'; the insertion of ' k' implies 'getting
nothing to eat, although he was hungry.'
Hll Force of ' g ' is ' he ate up another's food \


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 83
Sa sun si "geya" sun-a
Nyerra ha benma, M&, sa siin si
6 ga' stin-a ; nga bemim-iya benji
bainyila nam o-ung-gajitlyinna, na
benamiyfi jit* bainyila, na ngfim
o-ung-ga jilyaba. ba sordne ka
iitchemaf ka-pa-la nyerra ha
tachnumma : Sa siin si hog siin-a ?
Bfillii benma: 4Ga'stin-a; hatlfi
Bamfim am nyerra ha tokfir.J
kfikhra-maba o-ung-ga jinma.f
Hfi kfikna sibin ollum-ga kfi-pa-
gallye. Nyerra ha tachnumma :
Sa sa§ numu dadna[| sfim hogal
amin danna ? Bamum ha benma :
Bullii amina 4 sibin.' Nyerra ha
benma : Ma, si 4 sibbin-a.' Ben-
cho-ha lyinam haba Ba-mum ha
benma filla bema-tala Dyerra ha
Bamum hfim o-ung-ga tfi jinma.
flokka bullii pakam atch&m ka-pfi-
gallye ; Bamum ha 4 pakam '
amin gallye, nyerra ha 4 pakam '
amin gallye Bamum ha benma
alia bemfi-tuklyilla nyerra ha o-
fing-ga jinma. Bamum ha a arruha
So the Brahmin got no
dinner, and the servant ate
the whole,
A little later they came a-
cross a number of sinml
trees. Seeing them, the
servant asked : 4 What do
you call these trees ?' The
Brahmin said 4 geya.' But
the servant said : 4 No,
these are 4 ga'; if I am
right, I will beat you five
times, if you are right you
will beat me five blows:
And meeting some boys
grazing cattle, the servant
asked them : 4What trees
are these' ? They said 4ga,'
and directly they said it,
the servant dealt the Brah-
min five blows.
Next, they met a drove of
goats. The servant asked:
4 What is the name of these
animals that are grazing' ?
The Brahmin said : 4 Their
name is 4 sibin.' The ser-
vant said : 4 No, these are
sibbin.' And in the man-
ner described above, the
Brahmin being proved
wrong, the servant struck
him five times.
Next, they came across a
flock of paddy-birds, which
the Brahmin called 'pakam
but the servant 4pakam'
(strongly accenting the
last syllable), and again
the Brahmin was proved
wrong and got five blows.
* 'jit' means 4 true', f Plural termination, for human beings only.
J 'tokftr' means 4 in answer 4 jinma ' here means 'hit'.
§ 4sa ' (sounded slightly longer than the word for 4 here') means ( animals'.
U 'nAmu dadna' literally means grass-eating \
% This implies f for the third or fourth time.'
M 2


96
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
ma-s-numma : mitcliin henchin
man lagba be-min bera minsla ben-
ja mingla hog bem-pa-lyin-pala ? #
Hokka Bamum ha ai nam agum
ha untailla Bamum ha kana al
tella nyerra ham u-cho-nella das-
tus-la ma-lyaf tekj hal ben taka
hal fttch(>matla.§ Nyerra ha
u-cho-la pajfib akk meng dal, ha
lagba kopa siin ha choy|| par nam
la hok, ejag a-lu tella^f a khru yk
tek$ hata. Bamfim ha u-ch-tella
ai-he ha pajab a ham jop jit la
Bamum ha a-hara dak6-tella 61-m6
khr&ra, kana ha hog mai-6-nep
mulla** da-tnepu mutla. Hab ben
ben Bamum ham nyerra ha htinyiff
bem-pa-tella. Ha hab ljdba mug
borhob hitti tag hetla nyerra ha
6.1a ha ji-lu-tella, iniig borhob ji-ta
ka$ hatla. Hokka nyerra ha hitti
h6m bulaiella meg 6da ha ii-ginla
he-chinna nyi akk ka-pela, ha nyi
h6m hitti ham hog beru malu-pa
ka-ka-tab kaj hatla. Nyi hakhri-
tam-tella^ hitti ha he-lh num-
ma mug borh ham benina nyerra
sam ment ka ho-la helu-tella ; ha
nyerra ha chitti ham sur-mu-sur
ka-la-kup-a tella khribt6g§§ het
ba ka hatla. Chitti ha ma lu-
manma : c Borh, sa chitti sam katla
ngalu ka|||| nyijir ham sa nyerra sa
The Brahmin repeated to
himself the proverb : ' It
is idle to argue with a fool.'
And v/hen they were now
come near the Brahmin's
mother-in-law's house, the
Brahmin, being very hung-
ry, sent his servant on
ahead to beg them to get
supper ready. So the ser-
vant went on ahead and
bade the Brahmin's mother-
in-law cook a duck and
put lots of plantain ashes
with it. And when the
Brahmin arrived his rno-
ther-in-law set the duck
before him, and though he
did not like its taste he was
so hungry that he had to
eat it. By this means
(literally : con various occa-
sions when he spoke') the
servant put the Brahmin
to shame. So he wrote
a letter to his younger
brother and sent it by the
servant, telling his younger
brother to kill him. The
servant took the letter and
after going a little way
met a man who knew how
to write, and told him to
* Literally, 4 what can avail talking and arguing with a fool' ?
t ' lya ' signifies 'before the Brahmin arrives.' f Oratio obliqua.
§ The literal translation of the whole involved sentence is 'made tlie servant go
ahead, that, arriving first, he might tell them that they were to get food and drink ready
before the Brahmin's arrival/
|| ' choy \ means 'ashes/
^ ' ejag a-lu tella' means 'adding a great deal' 'jop' means 'lifting up', or
dishing up.
** Literally 4 in hunger what can I do, thinking, decided I must eat/
ft Or, more literally, caused shame to the Brahmin by what he said,
'khrimeans to speak from writing or read out.
' khrib ' ~' another.', ' tag ' = 'a'.
(Ill There is no separate word for 'nie»eloosely she is callcd ' daughter ' or ' child.'


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 85
anuba nyemm jitla nga ha nyemm
jily ka tangam um la* de-ma.
Ha chitti ham nyerra ha bu-lai ella
Bamum ha borh ala ha jitla, bork
ha ha chitti ham katla k& h& ha-
turf harela, a arriiha ha hk da-
khramj abu-ga§ beng da-nam ha
tellu ma-ba hog lyin-pii nyerra
hob ka ham nyemm jitla.
Ha ka kua Bamum ha nyerr& ham
merap budde|| mema budde hal
ka t&b utla. Bamftm ha u-chla ha
beru ha ta-tla nyerra ham ma-taba
lyitla; okka ma ka nyijirha nyemm
jinatn ha ma-tab lyinam hk ta-
pela muf§~ nyol ham bentum tella :
nam Bamum ha manpii kahada.
Ha hab benam li&m nyerrft ha tatla
sa hizzir dorrg** na-tu-la bolaeli,
al ala apl bubu ham let-la, niii-
ga nyihi lagba yub-ka-ha japla
ab-tela.
let him know what the
letter contained. The
man read it and told him
that he had told his bro-
ther in the letter to kill
the servant. Then the
servant tore the letter to
pieces and told him to
write another, with the
following words in it :
4 Brother, on receipt of this
letter marry my niece at
once to this servant, I can-
not come to the wedding.
The servant took this letter
and delivered it to the
Brahmin's brother, who
read it, and, though very
angry at heart, but not
daring to disobey his elder
brother, gave the girl in
marriage to the servant.
Soon after, the Brahmin came
to see whether his servant
had been killed. On arriv-
ing, and hearing what had
happened, he determined to
kill the servant, but his
niece who had married the
servant hearing, he had
determined to kill hira
informed her husband that
the Brahmin wished to kill
hira. Hearing this, the
servant seized and brought
in a calf, and tying its four
legs together, put it in bed
with his wife.
e 'I shall not (now) be able to come' would be 'um-la-ma\
t Here ' batlir ' means 'much' or 'greatly' and 'baba harela' means ' boing
angry', the words following mean ' within his heart concealing his anger.'
+ f da-khram'= concealing.
§ This is the only method of expressing 'not daring ' viz., by a rhetorical question.
|| In dependent clauses ' budde ' is used for 1 lye'.
If 4 ga ' is omitted, partly for euphony's sake, and also probably because ' possession9
is not strongly implied.
** The Assamese ' goru cheori ejoni ' exactly translates 'sa hizzir dorrg'.


86
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Ai ha Baraiim ha al* mug dunf
ha yub-ka ha katla nyihir nyol
nyuj yubsdati la hal sa ka hal
nyerra hal hab nam rnentla.
Ar ha katl& sa am me-mur-taba
atte mur dusukla nyerra bam
benma sa ham anuba lidka hatla.
Nyerr& ha sa ham sela el,§ bollu|]
ha ame sadlyin^f la dadba litla.
Hab ma-tla Bamum ha sa
men ka 'jogor' ha ui padar
daba lyitla, nangim nyi ham
ben-tam-maba** etchin datkaff
hala gratia. Mullija kam dat-
kal mat-la, nyerra ha bollu ha
lya linlaJJ sa ame ha na-tu-tella
gra-tla : Bamum a sa me-ma;
hogba etchin jidna, sa men k-hob
ma.
Ham tat-l& nyi-a mullunga atte
atte n&m-ba ft-kur*ne-kunna.
In the night the Brahmin
came and seeing his niece
in bed, thinking husband
and wife were asleep
together, killed the calf,
believing 'JtJ to be his
servant.
On the morrow, seeing that
he had killed a sacred ani-
mal by mistake, he was
confounded, and told the
servant to bury it at once.
The servant took the calf
into the garden and buried
it with its tail sticking out
of the ground. After this,
the Brahmin set about
expiating his guilt for
having killed the sacred
animal, and ordered that
the villagers be summoned
to a feast. When all were
assembled the servant ran
into the garden and
dragged the calf by the
tail and shouted : 'The
Brahmin did not kill the
animal ; Oh ! no! It is
not because he killed the
animal that he is giving
the feast ; Oh! no! Then
all the party dispersed and
went home.
* ' al' = 4 having come'.
t'dun' is the relationship a girl after marriage bears to her real family.
X ' nyu ' here means 1 and
§ 1 Assamese' 'tani ni '=' dragging '.
II 1bollu 5 means ' garden
's&dlyin 5 means ' sticking out
** * ben-tam-maba' means 4 without giving them the chance of answering ' he insisted
on their coming.
tt Generally 'ka,1 denoting reported speech.
Xt The verb 'to run' is generally tho meaning of running out (into the garden). 5 yc


Part I V.J MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SHORT STORIES. 87
The following interesting narrative is not so easy for a beginner
to follow and I have decided, to place the corresponding English
words under the Dafla ones :
POISON.
Ngalu Nyisinga opu-ha oml ap-denna.
We Daflas arrows on poison put,
Oml dak talba halyi nanga sa
Poison place up to plains villages here
ka la pol barg-ba udba lyidnepii
from moon one about to go will be
Ngalu Nyisinga ha u-t-m&
We Daflas there go not.
Aianga oml nal padna. Orn-
Abors poison bring supply. Poi-
siina cha siina hab lyidna. Oml-
son tree tea tree like is. Poison
a sun mem ha dadna. Mem eyin
the tree root in is. Root potato
hab lyidna ; ked hokka du-1 nadna
like is ; ground from digging take.
Still ha jelyu ha dadna.
Tree the marshy ground on are
ullu liin agum-ha dadna ; ha
stony rock near is ; it
agumha dur dera tappam-a dadne.
near summer winter snow remains,
tjllu liin au wa tab mulliga
Stony rock top on snakes many
dadne. Tab satne nyi har-
are. Snakes girth man's leg (above
po dadne, kay& bala chanyi haba
knee) are blackish yeilow like
lyidna, ehi homga assa denna.
are, teeth (fingers) three long are.
Taba nyiam che-lyam, sldna. Nyie
Snake man a biting, dies. Men
oml n&-taba ii-lyam,
poison bring in order to coming
fillu au hokka taba pal-la
rock above from snakes dropping
nyi-am che-dna ; nyi nikhru hokka
men the bite ; men twenty out of
illyi angane taba che-dna.
ten five snakes bite (kill).
We Daflas tip our arrows
with poison. The place
where it is obtained is a
month's journey from the
plains. We Daflas do not
go there, the Abors bring it
down. The tree yielding
the poison is like a tea
tree ; the poison is in the
root, which is like a potato,
and is dug out of the earth.
The bushes grow on level
ground near a great rock,
round which snow lasts
all the year round. On
top of it are many snakes,
the largest being as big
round as a man's leg, they
are yellow and black, with
teeth three fingers' breadth
in length. If one bites a
man he dies. When men
come to dig for the poison,
the snakes drop down
from the top of the rock
and kill (bite) them, out
of twenty they kill five or
ten.


88
OUTLINE DAFLA GRAMMAR.
[Part V i.
Oppopora illyi sab sa la-la fowls
Liquor pigs mithonscows offering
ui patna, ui pa-ma-lyam,
God appease, God not appeasing,
nyadanga ho-dna, ishi ta-la
rain falls, flood dow7n-coming
oml ka-pa-ma-dna ; nyi
poison see happen not do ; men
mullinga si-dna.
many die.
Oml-a a ha ab-na, anuba
Poison the body in striking quickly
si-dna, ala-ha ab-na, hasobba
dies, arm in striking, slowly
si-dna. Aianga 4 dorob5 chendna,
dies. Abors antidote know,
ngalu cbem-ma.
we know not.
Oml abnam nyi ham ka buna
Poison struck man the child borne
nyemm-a khra-ta-lyam al dukna,
woman stepping over well becomes
hatna ; nyi ui am issha
they say ; man's blood the water
ta- ya tella, tu-lyam,
(with) mixed having, drinking,
al dukna hatna.
well becomes they say.
The men offer up liquor,
fowls, pigs, mithon, and
cows ; if they do not,
rain falls and the floods
cover the poison place, and
many men are killed.
A man struck on the body
with a poisoned arrow dies
at once, but if struck on
the arm he dies after a few
hours. The Abors know
of an antidote ; we do not.
But they say that if a
woman who has just borne
a child seeps over the
wounded man he recovers,
also if he drinks human
blood mixed with water.


Full Text

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A N OUTLIN E GRAMMA R O F TH E DAFL A LANGUAG E A S SPOKE N B Y TH E TRIBE S IMMEDIATEL Y SOUT H O F TH E AP A TANAN G COUNTR Y B Y R . C . HAMILTON , ESQ . INDIA N CIVI L SERVICE . Publishe d b y Authority , | SHILLON G s PRINTE D A T TH E ASSA M SECRETARIA T PRINTIN G OFFICE . 1900 Pric e 1S, 6d.] [Price 1 Rupee.]

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A N OUTLIN E GRAMMA R O F TH E DAFL A LANGUAG E A S SPOKE N B Y THE TRIBE S IMMEDIATEL Y SOUT H O F TH E AP A TANAN G COUNTR Y B Y R . C . HAMILTON , E SQ . INDIA N CIVI L SERVICE . Publishe d b y Authority , SHILLON G : PRINTE D A T TH E ASSA M SECRETARIA T PRINTIN G OFFICE . 1900 . [Price 1s. 6d.] [Price 1 Rupee.]

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Agent s fo r th e sal e o f Book s publishe d b y th e Assa m Administration , Agent s i n India . (1 ) Messrs . Thacker , Spin k & Co. , Calcutta . | (2 ) Messrs . W . Newma n & Co. , Calcutta , Agent s I n England , (j ) Mr . E . A . Arnold , 37 , Bedfor d Street , Strand , W . C. , London . (2 ) Messrs . Constabl e & Co. , 2 , Whitehal l Gardens , S . W. , London . (3 ) Messrs . Sampso n Low , Marsto n & Co. , St . Dunstan' s House , Fette r Lane , E . C. , London . (4 ) Messrs . Luza c &Co. , 46 , Grea t Russe l Street , W . C. , London . (5 ) Messrs . Kega n Paul , Trench , Triibner & Co. , Charin g Cros s Road , W . C. , London . (6 ) Mr . B . Quaritch , 15 , Piccadilly , W. , London . (7 ) Messrs . P . S . Kin g & Son , 9, Bridg e Street , Westminster , S . W. , London . (8 ) Messrs . William s & Norgate , Oxford . (9 ) Messrs . Deighto n Bel l & Co. , Cambridge . (1 ) MM . Friedlande r & Sohn , 11 , Carlstrasse , Berlin . (2 ) M . Ott o Harrassowitz , Leipzig . Agent s o n th e Continen t o f Europe . (3 ) M . Kar l Hiersemann , Leipzig . (4 ) M . Ernes t Leroux , 28 , Ru e Bonaparte , Paris . (5 ) Martinu s Nijhoff , Th e Hague . SHILLON G S I P BUNTE D B Y CONYNGHA M FRANCIS , PRES S SUPERINTENDENT , ASSAM ,

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PREFACE . J N th e structur e o f thi s Gramma r I hav e followe d th e usua l syste m adopte d i n simila r Grammars , an d divide d i t int o five parts , viz., Orthography , Accidence , Syntax , Miscellaneou s Phrases , an d Shor t Storie s an d Vocabulary . I hav e als o adde d a shor t not e abou t th e languag e o f th e Wester n Daflas . I hav e endeavoure d t o b e brief , an d t o sho w chiefl y th e point s o f differenc e betwee n th e languag e I a m dealin g wit h an d th e Sadiy a Shaiyan g Mir i language . April 1899 . B . 0 . HAMILTON .

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Corrigend a Sli p t o a n Outlin e Gramma r o f th e Dafla . Languag e b y R . C . Hamilton , Esq. , I.C.S . Pag e 7 , lin e 3 , for 'amm& V read 4 amm& \ Pag e 9 , lin e 1 , for 'nangudeb ' read 4 nang u \ Pag e 11 , lin e 18 , omit th e fullsto p after 4 &n \ „ „ „ 19 , omit th e fullsto p after 4 mother \ „ „ „ 22 , for 4 jitniinumma ' read 'jitnutnm a \ Pag e 12 , lin e 12 , for 4 Y&nna ' read 4 Y&-nn a „ „ „ 26 , for 4 Mftlluja-h& m ' read 1 Mftllftj^h&m \ „ „ foot-not e for 4 a ' read M a \ Pag e 13 , lin e 8 , for 4 Mftllugan ' read 4 Mhllug a \ $9 99 »» 28 9 for 4 Ky&^a-ka-p&-tenma ' read 4 ky£-g & tenm a Pag e 13 , foot-note , for 4 da ' read 4 d a Pag e 18 , foot-note , for 4 pipela ' read 4 jipela \ „ „ „ for 4 al-m^-danma ' read 4 &l-m&-danm a \ Pag e 19 , foot-note , for th e first 4 lagb a ' read 4 lagh a \ Pag e 20 , fine 7 , for 4 lamplab a i t lyinn e ' read 4 lamplabafit-lyinne' . Pag e 21 , lin e 2 , for 4 the 1 read 'he' . „ „ „ for 6 his ' read 4 thi s \ Pag e 22 , lin e 7, for 4 ji-m&. ' read 6 \ 99 i) 99 8 , for 4 gav e not. ' read 4 gav e not,' . „ „ foot-note , for 4 alias ' read 4 aliu s \ Pag e 27 , fine 3 9 fo r 4 K&n-na ' read 4 kan-n a \ Pag e 31 , fine 15 , omit 4 Perfect ' an d 4 Future' . Pag e 32 , lin e 22 , for 4 nalud ' read 4 nal u Pag e 35 , foot-note , for 4 ( X blind) ' read 4 ( = blind ) \ „ „ „ for 4 dann a ( = is ) =blin d ' read 4 dann a ( = is) ' 99 ,) ,) for ' nyicliha ' read ' nyicb a Pag e 46 , lin e 7 , omit 4 i s Pag e 47 , lin e 14 , 1 . (Ezz s i &I a tachc h da . „ „ ~ „ 15 , ) e a \ Clot h thi s ver y tor n is .

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2 Pag e 48 , foot-note , for i au-h a ' read ' au-h a Pag e 49 , lin e 31 , for ' ngaka-Iy e ' read ' nga-ka-ly e \ „ „ foot-note , for 'nga-ka ' read 4 nga-ka \ Pag e 49 , foot-note , for 4 ini ' read 4 u i \ Pag e 50 , lin e 8 , } , f Ka n mf i df i ya m na m h a „ „ „ 9 , ) X Darknes s no t ye t bein g hom e t o final, go . „ „ „ 21,/or 4 ga > mnZ c Nga \ „ „ „ 32 , for 4 foul ' read 4 fowl \ Pag e 53 , lin e 15 , for 4 sfi ' read 4 sa \ ,, „ „ „ for 4 so 5 read 4 s a „ „ „ 29 , for 4 pe t fib fin-bfi' read 4 peta b fin-bfi Pag e 54 , lin e 13 , for 4 rfit o pfinma ' read 4 rfito-panma \ Pag e 55 , lin e 9 , for 4 Sfin ' read 4 Su n \ Pag e 58 , lin e 13 , 4 pfi ? shoul d b e abov e 4 cut, ? an d 4 pnumma * abov e 4 ha s \ Pag e 57 , lin e 12 , for 4 A m ' read 4 Am ? . Pag e 58 , foot-note , for 4 Sa 7 read c Sa \ Pag e 59 , lin e I, for 4 arfiha ' read 4 aruh a j j 5 3 8 5 for 4 danm a ' read 4 danm a „ „ foot-note , omit 4 (Assamese ) \ „ „ „ for 4 huni ' read 4 hum \ „ ,, „ for 4 lurub ? read 4 lfirfi b Pag e 60 , foot note , for 4 nyil 6 ' read 4 nyil a \ Pag e 61 , lin e 1 1 t for 4 filma-p-numma ? read 4 filma-p-numma „ „ „ 27,/o ^ ' No ' read ' Na > Pag e 62 , lin e 38 , for 4 cross 1 read 4 crosse r Pag e 63 , lin e 19 , for 4 fi-lfimfi-tnumma' read 1 fi-lfi-mfi-fcnumma \ „ „ „ c 1f t ' shoul d b e abov e 4 able' , 4 mfi ' abov e 4 not' , etc . Pag e 64 , lin e 6 , for 4 your ' read 4 yo u \ Pag e 66 , lin e 7 , for 4 da-la ' read 4 da-t a 3 , 3 3 5 5 23 , for 4 fibta' read 4 fib-ta 9 ? 3 9 9 9 25 , for 4 jinpulyfi ' read 4 jin-pU-lyf i 9 , 9 9 3 9 27 , for ditt o read ditto , f i 9 9 9 9 31 , fbr 4 nga-fil a ach i read 4 ng a fila ach i Pag e 67 , „ I,for 4 Ala ' read 4 Aria' . » 99 99 for 4 fi tlyinn § ' read ' fi-tlyinn§

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3 Pag e 68 , „ 33 , for < da 3 read 4 d a „ „ foot-note , for 4 Ya 7 read 4 Y & 7 . Pag e 69 , lin e 5 , 4 ng a 7 shoul d b e abov e f I \ Pag e 69 , lin e 36,/o r 4 bloaiokl a 7 read 4 bolaiokla 7 . Pag e 70 , lin e 21 , for 4 jl-lti-s a 7 read 4 ji-j j s a 7 n „ „ foot-note , for 4 S a 7 read 4 Sa \ Pag e 72 , lin e 11 , for < Ka-p&-tella. 7 read 4 Kft-pft-teUa / „ „ „ 12 , for 4 havin g 7 read 4 having, 7 . , , „ „ 23,/o r 4 danma 7 read 4 danma \ Pag e 75 , foot-note , for 4 ha 7 read 4 ha 7 . Pag e 76 , lin e 38 , for ' Aba 7 read 4 Aba 7 , Pag e 77 , lin e 39, fo r 4 Ji -ma, 7 read 4 Ji»mk\ Pag e 79 , foot-note , for 4 p&-ta 7 read 4 pa-t a 7 . Pag e 80 , foot-note , for 4 S a 7 read 4 Sa 7 . 3 J „ „ after 4 expresse d word 7 add 4 fo r word* . Pag e 82 , lin e 8 , for ' Ba ' read 4 Ba 7 e 9 9 s ? » 13,/9 r 4 Bamlim 7 read 4 Bamfim 7 . „ „ s , 15 , /o r 4 ganumma-etehin 7 rmc / 4 ganumm a ; etchin. 7 „ „ „ 9 , omit colo n a/ife r 4 1 & 7 . 9 9 9 9 16,/o r 4 tach-numma—'r^ac ? 4 tach-niimm a „ „ foot-not e ff , for 4 &gh & 7 read 4 &gh a Pag e 83 , lin e 10 , omit fullsto p after 4 tokft r \ „ „ foot-not e § , for 4 S a 7 read 4 S a 7 C Pag e 84 , lin e 23 , for 4 ha 7 read 4 ha' a 9 9 ?? 25 , for 4 hakhri-ta m 7 rmc ? 4 h a khrit&m 7 . 9 9 9 ? 9 9 26,/^ r 4 h a 7 4 ha 7 . „ „ foot-note , for 4 f Orati o 7 read 4 1 Oratio 7 . Pag e 85 , lin e 17 , for 4 Manptikahad a 7 read 4 manpu-khada 7 . Pag e 86 , foot-not e J J , for 4 Ya , lya , an d ly a 7 read^ 4 Ya , ly a an d ly a ' respectively, , Pag e 88 , lin e 1 , omit 4 fowls 7 . Pag e 89 , lin e 6 , for 4 df t k a b a 7 read 'dft-k-ba* . Pag e 91 , lin e 9 , for 4 patlyl 7 read 4 patlyi L Pag e 109 , lin e 7 , for 4 nye m 7 read 4 nyem 7 . Pag e 126 , lin e 9 , for 4 An g 7 read 4 Ang 7 ,

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CONTENTS . PAR T I.—ORTHOGRAPHY—(1 ) Vowels , (2 ) Consonants , 1«» 2 (3 ) Accents . II.—ACCIDENCE—i—Nouns—(1 ) Gender , (2 ) Number , 3—1 1 (3 ) Case . II—Adjectives—(1 ) Position , (2 ) Comparison , 4—1 6 (3 ) Numerals . m—Pronouns—(1 ) Personal , (2 ) Relative , 16—2 4 (3 ) Interrogative , (4 ) Demonstrative , (5 ) Adjectival , (6 ) Indefinite , (7 ) Cor relative . iv—Verbs—(1 ) Th e Substantiv e Verb , (2 ) 24—4 3 Conjugationa l examples , (3 ) Defectiv e an d Irregula r Verbs , (4 ) Rule s fo r th e formatio n o f Tenses , (5 ) Negativ e for m o f Verb , (6 ) Interrogativ e for m o f Verb , (7 ) Compoun d Verb s (Particles) , (8 ) Nou n repeate d i n Verb , (9 ) Rela tio n o f caus e an d effect , (10 ) Construc tio n o f Verb s o f asking , hearing , etc . v—Adverbs—(1 ) O f time , (2 ) o f place , (3 ) o f 43—4 8 manner , (4 ) o f quantity , (5 ) Interroga tive , (6 ) Correlative , (7 ) Examples . vi—Postposition s an d Conjunction s ,, , 48—5 0 VII—General — (1 ) Shortenin g o f words , 50—5 1 (2 ) Dafl a months . III.—SYNTAX—Part s o f speec h deal t wit h i n sam e orde r a s 51—6 7 i n Accidence . IV.—MISCELLANEOU S Phrase s an d Shor t Storie s .. . 68—9 1 V.—VOCABULARY—(1 ) A shor t Dafla-Englis h Vooabu 92—12 4 lary , (2 ) English-Dafl a Vocabulary . VI.—NOT E o n th e languag e o f th e Wester n Dafla s .. . 125-12 7

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A N OUTLIN E GRAMMA R O F TH E DAFL A LANGUAGE , A s spoke n b y th e Tribe s immediatel y Sout h o f th e Ap a Tanan g Country . PAR T I—ORTHOGRAPHY . A s fa r a s possibl e I follo w th e syste m o f Messrs . Needha m an d Endl e i n thei r Mir i an d Cachar i Grammars . I. — V OWELS . (a ) Whe n no t marked , alway s short , a s i n 4 company. ' (a ) Long , a s i n 4 father. ' (a ) Lik e ' a ' i n ball . (e ) Whe n no t marked , alway s short , a s i n then . (e ) Long , a s i n they . (i ) Unmarked , short , a s i n p^n . (i ) Long , a s i n machine . (o ) Unmarked , lik e th e c o ' i n not . (o ) Long , a s i n bone . (u ) Unmarked , lik e 'u ' i n bull. (u ) Short , lik e c u ' i n much. (u ) Long , lik e 1 o ' i n tomb . (u ) Lik e th e Frenc h 4 u ? i n lune. B

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2 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t I I . (ui ) A soun d fluctuating betwee n th e Frenc h soun d s eu 7 (meanin g 4 ha d ' ) an d 4 i. 7 (au ) Lik e 4 o w 7 i n h ow . (ai ) Lik e th e 4 i 7 i n shine . (oi ) Lik e th e 4 oi ' i n hoi\. II.—CONSONANTS . Mos t consonant s ar e use d a s i n Englis h an d cal l fo r n o parti cula r description . (c ) i s onl y use d i n conjunctio n wit h 4 h 7 a s i n
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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 3 PAR T II,—ACCIDENCE . I.— N OUNS . 1.—Gender. 1 . I n th e cas e o f individual s o f th e huma n family , gende r i s denote d (a) b y differen t words , (b) b y addin g th e wor d 4 nyega 7 = male , an d 4 riyemrn ' = female , t o th e noun , an d generall y afte r it . Masculine. Ab o = father . Abb u o r Atc h = elde r brothe r Bo r = younge r brother . Att a r = grandfathe r o r father in-law . Ma b = son-in-law . Nyal a = husband . Nyerr a = slave . Tumb a = bachelor . Yfipan g = youn g man . Nyeka m = ol d man . (a) Examples. Feminine. A Amm a = mother , sometime s an a o r an . Amm l = elde r sister . Buirm a = younge r sister . A i = grandmothe r o r J mother in-law . Nyehyi i = daughter-in-law . Nyibyt i = wife . Pa n = femal e slave . Ham i = spinster . Nyiji r = youn g woman . Huk h = ol d woman . (b) Examples. Masculine. Feminine. Ny i nyeg a = ma n Ny i nyem m = woman , o r nyem m nyi , indifferently . K a nyegf i o r nyeg a k a = son . K a nyem m = daughter . Tan u nyeg a = mal e A p a Ta Tan u nyem m = femal e Ap a Ta nang . nang . 2 . I n th e cas e o f th e inferio r animals , gende r i s ofte n distin guishe d b y certai n suffixe s wit h th e reduplicatio n o f th e las t sylla bl e o f th e nou n ; th e usua l suffi x i s 'p 7 fo r th e masculin e an d 4 n 7 fo r th e feminine , bu t thes e sometime s change , apparentl y fo r B 2

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4 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . euphony' s sake , to , 4 b' , 4 b a 4 p a fo r th e masculine , an d t o 4 n a ' fo r th e feminine . Examples. Masculine. Feminine. Xk i = do g , Ik i kib . Ik i ldn . Sara m = otte r Sara m ramp . Sara m rarnna . Sat a = elephant . Sat a tab a Sat a tenna . Shutu m = bea r Shutu m tum p Shhtur n tumna . Sibi n goa t Sibi n bimpa . Sibi n binna . Shudu m — dee r Shudu m dumb a Shudu m dumna . Taka r = leopar d .. . Taka r kar p Taka r Mrn . Sab a = mitho n Sab a sa b Sab a san . Por a = domesti c fowl.. . Por a ro p Por a ron . Porsi n = wil d fow l .. . Porsi n sem p Porsi n sen : Poja b = duc k Poja b japp a Poja b jabna . Mindu i = buffal o Mindu i dui b Mindu i duin . Pumcb i mous e Pumch i chi p Pumch i chin . Kubb u = ra t Kubb u bup a Kubb u buna . Perri i = dorick * Perri i rup a Perrt i riina . Sebb i = monke y Sebb i begg a Sebb i ben . Th e las t exampl e differ s a goo d dea l fro m th e rul e lai d down , bu t possibl y onl y fo r euphony' s sake . Bu t n o rul e can , I think , b e lai d dow n t o includ e th e followin g fou r word s : Masculine. Feminine. Shemin=tige r Sheini n p&p . Shemi n pan . Sai — wil d pig . Sa r irum . Sa r ran . Ulyi=domesti c pig . Illy i yippa . Uly i hiin . Sa=bul l or co w (Asse . Goru ) S a hab . S a han . Bu t th e usua l wa y o f distinguishin g gende r is , a s i n th e cas e o f huma n beings , b y addin g th e word s nyeg a o r nyemma , eve n t o th e noun s mentione d above , e.g., shutu m tum b an d shutu m nyega , a s wel l a s shutu m tftmn a an d shutu m nyemm a see m t o b e use d indif ferently . Similarl y ik i nyeg& , ik i nyemma=dog , mal e an d femal e ; sis s nyega , sis s nyemma=porcupine , mal e an d female . * Thi s i s th e bir d whos o scientifi c nam e i s Euplocamus Lorsfieldi, th e blac k creste d ha lij.

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 17 Th e questio n 4 4 I s i t a mal e o r femal e ? " wit h referenc e t o "th e example s give n above , woul d b e asked , a s th e followin g example s wil l illustrat e : Sat a ten n 6yi? * Ta b 6y i ? * Elephan t femal e i s ? Mal e i s ? Bu t wher e th e anima l referre d t o i s actuall y present , it s gene ri c nam e i s usuall y omitte d i n askin g th e question , e.g., i f a duc k i s offere d fo r sal e th e would-b e purchase r asks — Jfib n ey i ? * Jfi p fiyi ? * (Duck ) femal e i s ? (Duck ) mal e i s ? or , pointin g t o a pup , a Dafl a woul d ask — Ki n eyi? * Ki b fiyi ? * (Dog ) femal e i s ? (Dog ) mal e i s ? Usin g nyeg a an d nyemm , w e should hav e nyemm-aly e nyegwaly e ? =I s i t a mal e o r femal e ? Th e 4 rl 7 i s probabl y insert e d fo r euphon y i n nyeg-n-alye . I t i s noticeabl e that , unlik e th e Miris , th e Dafla s plac e th e feminin e significatio n befor e th e masculin e i n th e abov e sentences , 2.— Number . Th e plura l i s forme d b y th e us e o f th e suffixe s tullue , maluher mulliier , utchumm a an d ede . Bu t ver y ofte n n o suffi x a t al l i s added , thoug h th e plura l i s implied . Thes e suffixe s appea r t o b e use d almos t indifferently , e.g., Ny i tullue , ny i maluher , ny i mulluer=men . Sa n tullue=trees . Sibi n utchumm a o r slbi n ed e = goats . Bu t tullu e seem s capabl e o f bein g use d wit h ever y kin d o f nou n t o a greate r degre e tha n th e othe r suffixes , whil e ed e seem s t o b e use d mor e wit h referenc e t o th e lowe r animal s tha n t o inanimat e objects . Examples. Tanang a unma . " ) Th e Ap a Tanang s (i.e., sev Ap a Tanang s came . ) era l o f them ) came . K a ed & sha-min-da . j Th e cbildre n ar e j • Childre n playin g are . ) r J & S a dara b putc b mulMsa m biign e j Tak e theg e ^ Her e thin g (plural ) thes e tak e awa y j ° J * Interrogativ e alternativ e particle .

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6 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . 3. — Case. 1 . Th e followin g ar e th e simpl e case-ending s o f th e obliqu e case s o f nouns . Persona l pronouns , a s wil l b e see n later , diffe r slightl y fro m noun s i n thei r case-endings , an d s o d o prope r noun s fro m commo n noun s : Possessiv e : 4 ka ' o r (fo r prope r nouns ) 4 ga. ' Dativ e : 4 m ' (sam e a s accusative) , bu t fo r prope r noun s 4 ba. ' Accusativ e : 4 m, ' n o terminatio n a t al l fo r inanimat e noun s ; fo r prope r noun s 4 ne. ' Ablativ e : 6 okk a ' o r 4 hokka. ' Instrumenta l : 4 hell a ' o r 4 ali a ' o r 4 lokka. ' Locativ e : 4 s a ' o r 4 ha, ' 2 . Detail s an d example s o f eac h cas e ar e no w given . Th e nominativ e i s generally , bu t no t invariably , marke d b y th e nominativa l 4 a, ' whic h sometime s cause s a chang e i n th e pro nunciatio n o f th e noun . Sometime s 4 g a ' i s substitute d fo r 4 a. ' Examples. P&ta (pronounce d pa-ta ) sudumam ) dadn a C Tiger s ea t deer . Tiger s dee r eat. ) JSr^bt t | A do g ha s bitte n me . So t } A "a s pricke d « 3 . AsinMiri , ther e i s a sens e o f possessio n underlyin g th e suffi x 4 k a ' o f th e possessiv e case . Henc e 4 k a ' i s use d chiefl y wit h th e name s o f huma n beings , an d i s usuall y omitte d wher e th e genitiv e i s descriptiv e o r definitive . Examples. S a nga-k a abo-k a nam . ) r j . r , , Her e m y father' s house . $ Her e 1 8 m y fathe r s hous e S a nang a s i higumn a ? Podug a \ Whos e villag e is ' thi s ? I t Her e villag e thi s whos e ? Podu's . ) i s Podu's .

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Par t I I . ] ACCIDENCE . 7 Ng a Podu-g a ka-a . ) J A M P OD U ' S SO N . I Jrod u s son . ) Amma' s k a e z katc h da . ) ? , r > 1 , T . , Mother' s clot h dirt y is . j M ° tlie r 3 clotl i 1 8 dir t ^ Sat a al a ; rarely sat a k a ala . \ . plpnhan { .> „ i Elephan t leg . Elephant' s leg . j A n el e P ha n " " l e S lily i M a ottu-da . | p ; , j af Q shorfc > ri g le g shor t are . ) ° ° 4 . Wit h commo n noun s t l sativ e i s th e same , viz., 6 m. 7 4 . Wit h commo n noun s th e case-endin g o f th e dativ e an d aceu Examples. M a sata m a m demge d da." ) H e i s givin g th e elephan t H e elephan t t o dha n givin g t o ea t is . ) dha n t o eat . Hukh ha m ka-kin-ta . ) c u , , , 1 ^ , 1 , , , £ Sho w i t t o tn e ol d woman . Ol d woma n tha t t o show . ) Ng a huk h a k b a ii't-numma. * ) T a ij t B t . • j * i r J L gav e i t t o a n ol d woman . I ol d woma n on e t o giv e did . ) Q Ng a amma m e z iinma. * " ) T ' , , , p , , , i J > 1 gav e mothe r a cloth . I mothe r t o clot h gave . ) Ng a n a mobunga m Sagab a jit-niim ma. 1 C I gav e you r gu n t o Sag& . I you r gu n Sag a t o giv e did . ) Ng a Sagaba . Toppun e nyerra-ba . 1 Sag a t o Topp u (acc. ) slav e a s (IgaveTopp u t o Sag a a s a jit-numma . f slave , giv e did . J 5 . Th e accusativ e case-endin g 4 m 7 i s no t usuall y adde d t o a n inanimat e noun . Bu t i t i s ofte n adde d t o th e dativ e t o brin g ou t th e contras t betwee n th e dativ e an d accusativ e i n a sentence . Examples. Bul l a m opp o jinma * | j 0 the m u lhe m t o liquo r I gave . ) Ur n pa r ta . ) , , Fir e light . j Ligh t a fire. * 'Jinma,' a no t finally complete d act . Assames e ' d i chchilo ' jit-numma , finallycomplete d Assames e ' dilo. '

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8 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Bu t wher e th e demonstrativ e pronou n i s use d wit h th e accusativ e forme r take s th e c ordinaril y woul d not . th e forme r take s th e case-endin g eve n whe n use d wit h a nou n tha t Examples. "LT m ha m pa r ta . " ) Ligh t the fire, i.e., i n th e Fir e th e light . ) fire-place. Nga m lampla-ha m ka-kin-ta . * ) C T , , j M i t o roa d th e show . j Sho w m e th e roa< L 6 . Fo r th e tru e ablativ e tha t merel y denote s ' separatio n from 9 4 okk a ' i s th e simpl e case-ending . Example. Al o ny i a l okk a na-ta . " ) m , . . r ± 1 , Ther e ma n tha t fro m take . j * ma n ' Bu t particle s varyin g accordin g t o th e meanin g ar e prefixe d t o abov e case-endin g t o denot e 4 fro m th e localit y of, ' 4 fro m th e tim e of 7 etc . Fro m th e to p o f i s 4 au-okka. ' Fro m a plac e dow n stream * i s 4 b& I okka. ' Fro m a plac e u p stream * i s 4 tal-lokka. ' Fro m a plac e inland * i s 4 a-lokka. ' Fro m a plac e (ordinarily ) i s 4 hokk a ' o r 4 olokka . Fro m th e tim e o f . 4 gal-okka. 1 Fro m or ou t o f certai n material s i s 4 ho k 7 o r 4 hokka. ' Fro m th e mout h o f i s 4 hokka. ' Examples. M a sa t au-okk a hol-ne-ba . ) n i i T H e elephan t to p fro m fal l did . j H e fel 1 of f a n el e P han t Mindu i au-okk a ipot-ta . " ) n , „ , , , & , Buffal o abov e fro m descend . j Ge t of f th e buffa I ° * Th e Dafla s hav e n o term s fo r th e fou r cardina l points— 1 u p th e river, ' ' dow n th e river ' an d ' o n eithe r sid e o f th e rive r ' i s thei r metho d o f expressin g direction .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 9 Lakhimpu r balokk a T&ra g nangude b ^ If c u tak e tw o d (t Q ^ Lakhimpu r u p fro m Tara s 'chan g f „ fro m Lak l f i m V u p ho b I amyig a lyil-nepu . C < c h , ther e t o day s tw o d o will . J ° NOTE .—Thi s woul d b e sai d b y a ma n livin g u p i n th e hills . I n th e plain s a ma n woul d say — Lakhimpu r so k Tfirfi g nangu " Lakhimpu r her e fro m Tara' s villag e tal-b a la-inyig a lyil-nepii . u p t o day s tw o d o will . I t wil l tak e tw o day s t o trave l fro m Lakhimpu r u p t o Tara 7 s chang . Baza r hokk a or olokk a embi n bu-ta . ) 0 • • r » * n i • ? Brin g ric e fro m th e bazar . Baza r rro m iro m ric e bring . ) ° M a moi l gal-okk a karda . V H e ha s bee n il l sinc e yester H e yesterda y fro m il l is . ) day . Ngal u embi n ho k opp o mti j ^ ^adenna ! f r ° m liq U ° r PreParin g ( W e mak e liquo r ou t o f rice . make . J ' Nang a ny i hokk a tadnumma . j { hear d . fro m ^ vil l Villag e me n fro m hea r did . j ° 7 . Th e tru e instrumental , e.g., h e kille d i t wit h a gun , wit h a n arrow , wit h a stick , i s expresse d b y th e particle s 4 hell a 5 o r 4 ali a ' adde d t o th e simpl e for m o f th e nou n ; th e differenc e betwee n 4 hella 7 an d 4 ali a ' i s no t ver y clear , bu t 4 hell a 7 seem s mor e graphic , tha t is , a Dafl a excitedl y describin g wha t h e ha d seen , woul d us e ' hella, 7 bu t i f statin g loosel y wha t h e ha d bee n tol d woul d us e c alia. 7 Th e terminatio n 4 lokk a 7 als o sometime s form s th e instru mental . Examples. H a nyemma m da p ' hell a manma . * > H e struc k a woma n wit h a H e woma n bi g stic k wit h struck . ) bi g stick . H a nyemma m benyan g ali a manma . } H e struc k a woma n wit h a H e woma n smal l stic k wit h struck . £ smal l stick . (Th e speake r ) di d no t himsel f se e this. ) S5 h I t itfwuh k a n e ; k i h pf a } ^ ! t ™ t h * d ° t b M a ng a al a lablx i yotch i hell a panma . | H e cu t m y righ t han d wit h H e m y han d righ t knif e wit h cut . ) a knife .

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10 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . T o denot e 4 mean s b y whic h locomotio n i s made, ' 4 b a 7 i s adde d t o th e simpl e noun , wit h euphoni c variation s wher e necessary . M a sat-au-b a o r sa t au-w a unma." ) H e elephan t abov e b y elephan t C H e cam e b y elephant , abov e b y came . ) N a pobbh-b a unmaye , lampla-b a unmay e > Di d yo u com e b y rive r o r Yo u rive r b y came ? Roa d b y came ? ) roa d ? H a nab a unm a ; ng a tumpa-b a t t i * \ t n • i r H e cam e b y boat ; I walked . H e boa t b y cam e ; 1 walkin g b y v J 9 came. ) 8 . Th e locativ e (denotin g 4 a t a plac e 7 ) i s expresse d b y addin g c s a 7 o r 4 ha 7 t o th e simpl e noun . 4 S a 7 an d 4 h a 7 ar e reall y adverb s meanin g 4 her e 7 an d 4 ther e \ respectively . Examples. M a zill a s a da-i l nye-pii . " ) r T . n , . , , t j , . . J .n f > H e wil l sta y i n th e station . H e statio n m sta y will . j J Hal e g a na m h a dadna . " ) 0 . . D , , . u , A • • } H e i s i n Hale s house . Hal e s hous e i n is . ) 9 . Othe r miscellaneou s example s ar e give n belo w whic h canno t properl y b e sai d t o com e unde r an y o f th e abov e seve n cases . 4 Directio n through, 7 4 motio n towards, 7 4 accompaniment, 7 4 i n th e presenc e of, ' etc. , ar e illustrated . Examples. H a mnar a lepa-b a ftnna or un-ba. ) t t L ^ , , H e jungl e middl e b y wen t went , j H e wen t thr o "S h J u n g l e Hotc b h a ho g dadn a ? " ) w u .. . , Baske t i n wha t i s ? j Wha t 1 3 l n y ou r baskef c ? Na m ariih e dadna . " ) /r i x . . . , _ _ Hous e withi n is . \ < H e ) 1 8 m8ld e th e hous e < N a gray a ng a mnar a danma . " i I wa s i n th e jungl e whe n yo u Yo u callin g I jungl e (in ) was . j called .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 1 1 Dany i a l ap-ta . j i t i n th e su n . uii D i n put . ) Issh-b a ny i a k k a ho i unne-M . " j A i r n n ^ W J r f A ma n ha s falle n int o th e ate r int o ma n on e tailin g gon e > 1 V water , has . ) M a na m b a unna . ) t t u t t 1 , t > H e wen t home . Jti e hous e toward s went . j Gh& t h a or b a hudl a i-tlyinne . ) Whe n wil l yo u g o t o th e Gha t t o t o whe n g o will . ) ghat . Bull u nangu-b a bo l unma . " ) The y too k hi m t o thei r Thei r villag e t o takin g went . ) village . Bab u dak h b a inni . " ) n , , , u , t > i > • i . > • G o t o th e Babu . Bab u s sid e t o go . J Ng a lagab a uniu . 1 n */ 1 J I Com e wit h me . M e wit h come . ) S a ny i tull u lagb a i-}a. ) ^ wit h thes e men . Ihes e me n (plural ) wit h g o not . ) & llly i k a tull u h a an . ^ Pi g childre n (plural ) mother . (Youn g pi g alway s accompa lagab a da-ki^-denna . f n y thei r mother , wit h stayin g alway s are . J H a dak a kadb a c dho n ' iitnunum-" ) r , , . , . J ( 1 pai d th e mone y i n hi s pre t j • . . t \ sence . H e remainin g seein g mone y I gave . J Som e mor e example s simila r t o thes e wil l b e foun d unde r th e hea d ' Postpositions / II . —ADJECTIVES . 1 . A s i n Miri , adjective s ar e usuall y place d befor e th e nou n the y qualify , hu t ca n b e pu t after , withou t an y obviou s differenc e i n meaning . Bu t a numera l alway s follow s th e noun . Examples. M a da p asson n ali a jl-p-numma . ) H e struc k hi m wit h alon g H e bi g stic k lon g wit h struc k has . j stick . A m suyi n nyingn a m i > Gree n d d i s nof c r j ' Dha n gree n rip e not . ) L r * 1 ki,' a frequentativ e particle ; se e unde r 'Particles. ' c 2

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12 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . (a ) Th e comparativ e i s forme d b y addin g 4 y a ' t o th e simpl e adjective , th e objec t compare d goin g int o th e accusativ e case , bu t unlik e Miri , n o separat e word , suc h a s 4 punum, ' i s require d fo r 4 than. ' Ng a ezzi * n a ezz-lia m al-ya-da . M y dlot h you r clot h tha n goo d [ • M y clot h i s bette r tha n yours . mor e ' Examples. •da . IS . ) M a ngfi m akha i yh-dna f ) H e i s olde r fcha n j H e m e tha n ol d mor e i s ) Pod u nga m koi-ya-dna. f I Pod u i s bigge r (i.e., talle r Pod u m e tha n bi g mor e is . ) an d stronger ) tha n I . This*tha n tha t bi g morefe ! } Tha t i s large r tha n this . I f th e adjectiv e become s adverbial , renderin g necessar y th e additio n t o i t o f th e particl e 4 ba' , 4 y a ' i s inserted befor e 4 b a ' . Example. Ngh m heri n y&-bayadna . ) H e run s faste r tha n L M e fas t mor e (adv. ) runs . ) (b) Th e superlativ e i s forme d b y th e insertio n o f 4 mullij a ha, ' o r 4 mull u j&-ham ' o r 6 mull u ga ' 4 h&m, ' befor e th e comparative . Thoug h th e distinctio n betwee n th e abov e thre e method s i s no t alway s kep t up , i t seem s t o b e thi s : (1 ) 4 Mullij a ha ' ( = tha n all ) generall y refer s t o inanimat e object s no t actuall y presen t bu t lazil y though t of . (2 ) 4 Mulluja-h&m ' refer s t o huma n being s o r thing s th e speake r take s mor e interes t in , an d i s th e mos t trul y grammatica l for m o f th e three . (3 ) Wher e th e objec t compare d i s repeated , e.g., 4 ou r dog s ar e th e bigges t o f al l dogs, ' i t i s inserte d betwee n 4 mullug a an d 4 ha m ' • Nominatival * 1 • f Wit h th e comparativ e an d superlativ e 4 a J frequentl y change s t o ' dna, ' 'a ' o r ' nn a ' fo r euphony' s sake .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 1 3 Examples. H a nama mullij a h a 4 1 ya-nna . Hi s hous e tha n al l goo d mor e is . H a ny i h a mull u ja-ha m Ther e ma n tha t tha n al l opp o mal i ya-ga * tu-da . liquo r mos t muc h drinks . Kamp t olyokk a mulluga n Khampt i da o al l olya f ha m al ya dna . da o tha n goo d mor e are. J Hi s hous e i s th e bes t o f all . Tha t ma n drink s liquo r o f all . th e mos t / Khampt i dao s ar e th e bes t o f C all . 3.—NUMERALS . 1 , Th e cardinal s fro m 1 t o 1 0 ar e — Akki n .. . 1 Any e O m Ap l An g 2 3 4 5 Ak r Kann i Pll n Ky a Illy i I n counting , Dafla s d o no t g o beyon d 10 , the y 6 7 8 9 1 0 begi n agai n a t 1 . 2 . Th e suffi x 4 ga ' i s adde d t o al l th e cardinal s alik e (differin g i n thi s respec t fro m th e Mir i suffi x 4 ka') . A prefi x 6 a ' answerin g t o th e Mir i 6 a ' i s adde d t o th e numera l 4 4 thre e 7 7 bu t apparentl y t o n o other . Examples. Tw o me n came . I sa w nin e men . Ny i anyi-g a unma . Me n tw o cam e Ng a ny i kya-ga-ka-pa-tenma . I me n nin e se e happe n did . 3 . 4 Akkin-ga 7 ( = one ) i s als o use d i n a sens e correspondin g t o th e Englis h indefinit e article , an d i s sometime s shortene d t o 4 akko, 7 bu t ther e i s als o anothe r word , 4 na-ga, 7 whic h correspond s t o th e indefinit e article , an d sometime s to o 4 ga 7 alone . * Thi s i s reall y th e comparativ e suffix , au d 4 e g a ' ( = much) . "( * Shortene d form . J Wit h th e comparativ e an d superlativ e ' d a ' frequentl y change s t o 1 dna, ' 4 a ' o r 4 nn a ' fo r euphony' s sake .

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ni OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Examples. Nga m ben y akki n g a bii-ta . ) D . , Tom e smal l stic k a brin g . j Brin g m e a stick . N a assob a akk o rep-niimraa . ) T T , , , Boa t lon g a bu y did . j I bough t a lon g boat . 4 . Th e cardinal s fro m 1 1 t o 19 , 2 1 t o 29 , 3 1 t o 3 9 an d on ward s ar e forme d b y addin g th e wor d fo r 1 , 2 , 3 , etc. , t o th e wor d fo r 10 , 20 , 30 , etc. , insertin g 4 la ' betwee n each , an d makin g an y othe r advisabl e euphoni c change , a s : Illy i lakki n 11 , illy i len e 12 , illy i lau m 13 , illy i lepli n 18 , illy i laky a 19 , nyikr i lakki n 21 . 5 . Th e formation s o f th e numeral s 20 , 30 , 40 , etc. , i s s o irregu la r tha t n o rul e ca n b e lai d dow n fo r formin g them . The y ar e therefor e give n in extenso : nyikr i 20 , chomu m 30 , jemp l 40 , or chemp l 40 , chamun g 50 , chank r 60 , chankann i 70 , chemp kullumplin i 80 , ckunke r 90 , lii g 100 . 6 . Th e differenc e betwee n th e Dafl a an d Mir i mod e o f count in g i s remarkable . I n Mir i c ein g a-um-k a ' (literall y 10,3 ) = 3 0 ; i n Dafl a 6 illy i om ' (literall y 10,3 ) =. 13 . 7 . A s i n Miri , th e cardina l i s ofte n precede d b y a n expletiv e o r particle , s o muc h s o tha t th e rea l numbe r i s almos t los t sigh t o f sometimes . Th e particl e varie s accordin g t o th e clas s o f object s designated . Th e classification , however , differ s a goo d dea l fro m th e Mir i classification , e.g.— Ba r C rupees , fou r o r tw o ann a pieces , Bar , or > designate s < mone y generally , bras s plates , flat dishes , Bar u ) ( . moons . Do r „ .. . Animals . Na m „ .. . Houses . Po m , , .. . Villages . D& g , , .. . Shor t piece s o f wood . B u „ .. . Smal l bamboos . N u „ .. . Larg e liv e trees . Run g „ .. . Cloth . Bo r , , .. . Leave s o f trees . P u , , .. . Eggs . Ya r , , .. . Lon g piece s o f timber , lon g bamboos . P u „ .. . Bottles , kolsis , o r an y vesse l holdin g liquid . T a „ .. . Glasse s (exceptio n t o th e above) . L a , , .. . Days .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 1 5 8 . O n th e othe r hand , severa l familia r noun s requir e n o suc h particle , e.Q., ny i anyiga = tw o men , ny i an g g a = five men , ny i akrg a = si x me n ; n a aplag a = fou r boats , nf i ang a = five boats . 9 . Bu t th e manne r i n whic h th e abov e particle s blen d wit h th e cardina l i s s o irregula r an d confusin g tha t i t wil l b e necessar y t o giv e severa l instances . Examples. Tak a bar-ung a = five rupee s ; hi k bar-fing a = five 4 ann a piece s ; tak a bar-krg a = si x rupee s ; tak a bar-ly i l e pli n g a = eightee n rupees . Sa t dorrg a = on e elephant ; sa t dorkrg a = si x elephant s ; sibi n dornyig a = tw o goats . Na m nan g king a = on e hous e ; nfi m nemnyig a = tw o house s ; na m nomung a = three house s ; na m namng a = five houses . Nangf t pongking a == = on e villag e ; nang u pomplag a = fou r village s ; nang u pomung a = five village s ; nang u pongkrg a = si x villages . Sud a da g = on e shor t piec e o f timbe r ; sud a dai n y a dang a = = five shor t piece s o f timber . A buiny a buplag a = fou r smal l bamboos . Sa n nftng a = five tree s ; sa n nukrg a = si x trees . Ez z runking a = on e piec e o f clot h ; ezz i rfimng a — five piece s o f clot h ; ezz i rungkrg a = si x piece s o f cloth . Ok r borkinga , ok r borunga , ( Lea f (o f tree ) one , leave s five, ok r borkrga . \ leave s six . Pu p puki n ga , pii p punga , ( Eg g one , egg s five, egg s six . pii p piikrga . \ A yedplaga , a yarunga , a (Bamboo s four , bamboo s five, yfirkrga . \ bamboo s six . ( Botto l pfinga 7 mean s 4 on e bottle. 7 Contras t 'piippfingfi ' whic h mean s 4 five eggs. 7 Gila s takinga , gil4 s t^nyiga , gil& s takrga , glas s (o r cup ) one , glasse s (o r cups ) two , glasse s (o r cups ) six .

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16 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Unlik e Miri , th e abov e particle s ar e kep t u p throughout , viz., fo r 7 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 an d upward s (eg. . bar p kalam-pling a = eigh t rupees ) til l 2 0 i s reached , the n w e g o bac k t o th e simpl e form , e.g., la-lyi-l e kyag a = ninetee n days , a l nyikhri i g a = twent y days , a l chemplg a = fort y days . Similarl y bar-lyig a = te n rupees , barlyi-l e kyag a = ninetee n rupees* , "dho n " nyikhriig a = = twent y rupees , " dho n " chemplg a = fort y rupees . Ninetee n i s ofte n expresse d a s 'on e les s tha n twenty, ' e.g., Bar g t a nyil a nyikhri i tanag a = rupe e one , als o i f twent y abou t t o be . Fo r convenienc e sake , adverbia l numeral s ma y b e deal t wit h here . The y ar e forme d b y prefixin g Me,' ' la ' o r c l u ' t o th e simpl e cardinal , th e vowe l coalescin g a s usua l wit h th e numeral' s initia l vowel . Th e suffi x 'ga / however , i s no t ofte n adde d t o th e first fou r adverbia l numerals , a t an y rat e no t s o ofte n a s t o th e fifth an d sixth . Lung-ga,=fiv e times . Liikr-ga,=si x times . Leki n = once . Luum=thre e times . Liny i = twice . Lupl=fou r times . Ther e ar e n o ordinal s i n Dafla . 'First'i s expresse d b y th e particl e 1 cho, ' an d 'hok-a ' o r 4 ho k okub a ha / meanin g 'afte r that, ' i s use d i n lie u o f th e remainin g ordinals . III.—PRONOUNS . 1 . — PERSONA L PRONOUNS . Singular. Mom. Ng a = I N a = Yo u M a o r H a = H e o r She . Poss . Nga-k a Na-k a Mui-ga , Ho-k a o r Gina ga . Dat. Ng& p Na p Ma-am , ha m o r m i am . Singular. Ace. Ng& m Na m Ma-am , ham . Abl. Nga-ho k Naho k Miighok . Intr. Nga-galo k Na-g&lo k Mui-galok . * Thi s i s a borrowe d Assames e word , use d b y th e DaRas .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 1 7 Plural. Nom . Nga-l u Na-l u Bull a o r mu-bull . Poss. Nga-lu-g a Na-lu-g a Biill-ga , o r merel y bulll i Pat. Nga-l-b a Na-l-b a Bull-ba . Acc. Nga-l-a m Na-l-a m Bull-am . Abl . Nga-lu-ho k Na-lu-ho k Bull-g-hok . Jntr. Nga-l-galo k NM-galo k Bull-galok . NOTES.—Ther e ar e n o separat e word s answerin g t o th e Mir pronornina l adjective s nga-kem , na=kem , bui-ke n ( = mine , yours , his , etc.) , nga-ka , na-ka , etc. , serv e bot h purposes . Th e Daflas , i n thei r loos e wa y o f speaking , ofte n substitut e th e accusativ e ngain , nam , etc. , fo r th e rea l dative , whil e th e prope r dativ e o f th e thir d perso n singula r 'mii-ba 7 o r 4 ho-ba 7 i s hardl y eve r used . Th e ablativ e an d instrumenta l ar e ofte n interchange d i n conversation . T o rende r suc h phrase s a s : 4 6 thi s i s for you, 7 1 4 4 i t i s to o larg e for you,' 7 " to o smal l for me, 7 7 th e prope r dativ e i s alway s used , e.g., Sa m napa = Thi s i s fo r yo u ; na p koi-i-d a = I t i s to o larg e fo r you . 4 Mullu, 7 th e plura l suffix , i s usuall y joine d wit h th e plura l for m o f persona l pronoun s ; a s : Ng a na-la m rnullya m tak a barkrg a I yo u t o (plural ) rupee s si x f T n • u J r > 1 wil l giv e yo u si x rupees , ji n pu . v giv e will . J Unlik e th e Miris . th e Dafla s d o no t emphasiz e th e subjec t b y th e additio n o f th e persona l pronoun . Example. Sag a benm a nyia eg a ullyi . " ) Sag a sai d tha t man y me n Sag a sai d me n man y com e have . j ha d come . Bu t neute r noun s ar e followe d b y 4 ha 7 ( = Mir i 4 da 7 ) ; as — Nga-k a ez z h a darft-mft . j M cbt h i g d i M y clot h i t clea n not . ) Ez z ha m n,A p jibba . j Giv e m e ^ clot b Clot h i t m e t o give . ) A m Ther e i s n o declinabl e reflexiv e pronoun . 4 Atte , meanin g 4 self, 7 doe s fo r th e accusative , a s : M a att e ma-su-ga-denn a j R q k]]]e d H e sel f kil l sel f caus e aid . ) M y own , you r own , thei r own , etc. , i s simpl y nga-ka , na-ka , etc .

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18 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Th e particl e 4 su 7 o r 4 shu 7 , whic h ha s a reflexiv e o r reciproca l force , i s deal r wit h unde r ' Particles.' 7 2.—RELATIV E PRONOUNS . Properly , ther e ar e n o relativ e pronouns , th e manne r i n whic h Englis h relativ e pronoun s ar e rendere d i n Dafi a wil l hav e t o b e illustrate d somewha t full y b y examples . Examples. Yoilyig a ng a ny i fcanam* ha., f si . Thi s i s th e ma n I sa w yester Mesterda y I ma n see n h e this . ) day . Ng a tak a barg a jiniii n ny i h e si . ^ Thi s i s th e ma n t o who m I 1 rupe e on e give n ma n h e this . ) gav e a rupee . S a sikok t or sin-ho k nyi e si . ^m, . . , Co w dea d o f hi m dea d o f hi m ma n T h j s 1 8 th e ma n whos e co w thi s ) die d Ng a n a krikanumm a s a si . " j Thi s i s th e boa t whic h I I boa t measure d her e this . ) measured . H a nyi-e § s a ezzsa m ngapa Tha t ma n her e clot h thi s m e t o / Tha t ma n wh o gav e m e thi s jipela| | sinna . T clot h i s dead , give n havin g died . J Nga-k a rnob u nan& m nyi-ha , si . Thi s i s th e ma n fro m who m M y gu n take n bee n ma n h e this . ) 1 too k a gun . Moilyig a sibi n h a al-ma-nma^ f sal ^ Yesterda y goa t i t wel l no t wa s to-da y / Th e goa t tha t wa s il l yes a l duk . f terda y ha s recovere d to-da} 7 . wel l is . J A 1 a l porol a k&-pa-linp a ^ Goo d goo d fowl s se e happe n wil l / Bu y wha t goo d fowl s yo u rel-butta . C buyin g bring . J N a pasig a dara b dadn a ham , ng&p^ j ) I see . You r baske t thing s ar e them , m e t o I Giv e m e wha t i s i n you r jibba . 5 basket . * kanatn , pas t participl e passiv e o f roo t 4 ka ' = see . j * k ha ' an d 4 s i ' ar e demonstrativ e pronouns , an d * h § ' th e emphati c for m o f ' h a J Vsiko k ' contracte d form , I think , for 4 sin-ka-ho k § 4 e ' emphasize s th e nou n t o whic h i t i s joined . | | 4 pipel a ' i s th e pas t participl e active . ^ f Al-ma-nm a i s a contractio n fo r ' al-ma-danma / literall y 4 wel l no t wa 3 \

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 1 9 Abov e example s sho w tha t i t i s impossibl e t o la y dow n an y definit e rul e fo r renderin g Englis h relativ e pronoun s int o Dafla , bu t ther e i s n o difficult y i f on e enter s int o th e spiri t o f th e language . 3.—INTERROGATIV E PRONOUNS . Th e pronou n fo r 4 who ' differ s s o muc h i n it s obliqu e case s fro m th e nominativ e tha t i t ca n hardl y b e calle d a declinabl e pronoun . Th e followin g example s illustrat e eac h cas e : Hiu m jipn a ? Mu m jipn a ? ) Wh o gav e i t ? Wh o struc k Wh o gav e ? Wh o struc k ? j yo u ? S a ny i s i hiy a ? ) xt 7 , . . 0 t j . 1 • / r v > Wh o i s thi s ma n r Her e ma n thi s wh o ? ) H & sibi n habigu m orhiga ? j Whog e i g h ? 1 her e goa t tha t whos e whos e r ) S a nang u hig a ? N a hib a Her e villag e whose' ? Yo u who m t o f Whos e villag e i s this ? T o jinm a ? t who m di d yo u giv e it ? gav e ? J N a hig-alokk a nanma . ) ^ i r i , , 0 p r • , , > fro m who m di a yo u tak e i t r lu u who m tro m took . ) J N a hig a lagba * dadna . I Wit h who m ar e yo u stay . Yo u who m wit h are . ) in g ? Hiya-kh e flnma ? H a A Wh o (plural ) hav e com e ? Ther e / Wh o hav e com e ? Whos e na m mull u h a higumn a ? t ar e thos e house s ? house s (plural ) thos e whose ? . ) Hiba-kh e jinma ? Hinne-^ j Who m t o (plural ) gav e ? Who m / T o who m di d yo u giv e it ? kh e ganma ? C Who m di d yo u cal l ? (plural ) calle d ? Hig-alokka-kh e nanma ? | Fro m who m di d yo u tak e Who m fro m (plur a 1 ) too k ? j i t ? Higa-kh e lagba * danma ? j Wit h who m (plural ) di d yo u Who m (plural ) wit h staye d ? j stay . 4 Hog, ' meanin g 'what ' o r 4 which, ' seem s t o b e indeclinable , a s th e example s wil l show . 4 Hogol a ' o r 4 hog ] a, ' meanin g 4 where / i s th e locativ e case . * Ordinaril y 1 with ' i s ' lagha,'bu t no t here . Th e use s o f * lagba, ' ' Jagba , etc. , ar e discusse d unde r ' Postpositions, ' q.v. D 2

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20 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Examples. Nal u ho g lvikamn a ? n r , , j • o v i s . ^ Wha t ar e yo u doing ? Y o u wha t doin g ar e r j Na l (fo r nalu ) ho g lyitnii m ? " ) xtt , . i j o v / i n T i . / t o r Wha t hav e yo u done ? Yo u yo u (plural ) wha t don e have ? ) J N a (fo r naka ) anyih a ho g lyinm a ? \ Wha t i s th e matte r wit h You r you r eye s wha t di d ? ) you r eye s ? wt t b y Sby^i u } WUc h ^ 1 ? Hogab a lyin-ha , meanin g 4 wha t kin d of ' (fo r cloth , etc.) . Hogoblyin-ga , meanin g 4 wha t sor t of ' (fo r men , etc.) . Hogadga , meanin g 4 ho w man y p 7 4 ho w muc h ? ' ar e al l indeclinable . • 4.—DEMONSTRATIV E PRONOUNS . Th e demonstrativ e pronoun s are — S i = this perso n o r thing , near. Ish i = that perso n o r thing , near. Al a = that perso n o r thing , in sight but not near. H a — that perso n o r thing , not near. 4 Si ' i s declinable , viz., poss . sa-k a ; dat . an d acc . sam . abl . sa-galok ; whil e wit h postposition s th e for m 4 sa 7 i s used , a s s a lagb a = wit h this . 'Ha ' i s similarl y declined ; i f 'ka 7 i s omitted , 4 sa 7 an d 'ha ' ar e use d fo r th e genitive , not 4 si ' o r 'ha / jus t a s th e genitiv e cas e o f 4 bull u ' i s 'bullu. 7 Althoug h al l thes e demonstrative s follo w th e noun , thei r corre lativ e adver b precede s it ; th e correlativ e adver b i s nearl y alway s use d i f th e nou n i s used , bu t i f n o nou n i s used , th e demonstrativ e pronou n ca n stan d alone . Examples. S a nye m s i Podu-g a nyihi-a. * ) T L . • o j » > r T 7 J . n i v > l f lhi s woma n i s rod u s wife . Her e woma n thi s rod u s wile . ) S a ez z sa m ng a ho g ma-tlyinne . * ) Wha t shal l I d o wit h thi s Her e clot h thi s 1 wha t d o shal l ? ) cloth . S a mindu i s i s a n y i sa-ka-l \ e. f ) T . , „ , , , . , 0 Her e buffal o thi s ter e ma n thi s o f ? } I s th, S buffa l ° thl s ma n s ? * Nominativa l 1 a. 1 t * lye, ' i s th e interrogativ e particle .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 2 1 S a ny i s a kataba * m a na-h A i-p4n Her e ma n hi s o n th e reprisa l cu t / Di d h e t o tak e reprisal s cu t ma-ly e ? f thi s ma n ? did ? J H a ny i h a rugr 4 denn a ) m , , . r P , 4. 1 4 . j • c tha t ma n i s mad . 1 her e ma n tha t ma d i s ) H a ny i mulluha m iibb a ) n . . . , , , m i , 7 / i n . i r t briv e i t t o thos e men . lher e me n (plural ) thos e t o giv e ) 5 . —ADJECTIVA L PRONOUNS . Under thi s head , I hav e include d pronouns , suc h a s ' each / 4 th e same. 7 Thoug h th e classificatio n i s perhap s rathe r arbitrary , I thin k i t i s bette r t o divid e u p th e variou s pronoun s tha n t o mi x severa l kind s together . Th e followin g example s wil l sho w how l th e Englis h adjectiva l pronoun s 4 each, 7 4 th e same, 7 4 th e one, 7 4 th e other, 7 ' such, 7 4 another, 7 ai e turned . Examples. S a ny i mulli i sa m ny i chira A Her e me n (plural ) thes e me n eac h / Giv e eac h o f thes e me n a tok a bar g barg-ba f jitt a f rupee , rupe e on e on e (adverb ) give. J lissa-g a onc e mobu " gu n I wil l le t eac h ma n shot . fire on e W e com e village . fro m th e sam e Ng a ny i chir a 1 ma n eac h 4m-ne-pu. J fire le t will . Ngal u nang u pongkin lokka " W e villag e (village ) on e fro m uilne . come . Ng a nyihyung a anyig a dadn a M y wive s tw o ar e : / I hav e tw o wive s : on e i s old , akn e hukh-ha , 4kn e nyiji r denn a f th e othe r young , on e old , th e othe r youn g is . ) * Usua l meanin g o f 4 kataba s i s ' o n accoun t of' . -j Th e uncontracte d for m woul d b e 4 bar-g a bar-g a ba; ' ' ba ' i s th e adverbia l particle . X 4 ne ' i s a permissiv e particle .

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22 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Podu-ba " Pod u t > S a opp o sab a Her e liquo r thu s ma chin dann-ly e mak e knowin g ar e ? H a dara b ha m Ther e thin g tha t ji ma . not . oksunna * jit-numm a th e othe r giv e did . s a lamplab a ut-ma , tha t roa d b y g o wil l not ; lamplab a utlyinne . roa d b y g o will . gav e ny i ma n Ng a khrib * anothe r Ca n yo u mak e suc h liquor , o r liquo r lik e thi s ? I di d no t giv e i t t o Podu , bu t t o th e othe r man . I wil l no t g o b y tha t bu t b y another . road , 6.—INDEFINIT E PRONOUNS . Unde r thi s hea d I hav e include d suc h pronoun s a s c som e ' som e others, 7 4 many, 7 4 few, ' 'someone, 7 4 something. 7 Examples. Nyis u tugna s a edi n dadna , Dafia s som e co w flesh eat , [ Som e Dafla s ea t beef , bu t mali-y a n a da-ma-denna . C mos t d o not . mos t ea t no t do . J r p a lugn e Som e tugn e som e Mo y Joyhin g b a Joyhin g t o Tanu-b a A p a Tanan g t o hiya l poronga m fowl s th e ude , gon e are , ude . gon e are . eja g man y Las t nigh t jacka l nu-g-nenma . took . Nyis u nang u t & lokk a sa b Dafl a villag e u p fro m mitho n ba-kho k megneh e dadn a brough t o f fe w (indeed ) remain . Som e hav e gon e t o Joyhing , som e t o th e Apa-Tanan g country . A jacka l too k awa y fowl s las t night . severa l I O f th e mitha n w e brough t dow n fro m th e hills , fe w ar e left . * 'oksunna ' th e other , cf. } Lati n 'alter' ; * khrib / another , cf., Lati n 'alia s \

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 2 3 Ny i g a Ma n a ganba . has . m y maj-ha m hol y bell s th e detcha K stole n [ Som e on e ha s cleo gantas. 1 stole n m y H a Ther e nyem m woma n 1 a n e n ma , ha m bogg a tha t somethin g buddi , giv e did , wha t i t migh t be , jinma , ng a ka r dar-ta-ina . h e gav e I se e coul d not . J hog a nga l Mnar a Jungl e (in ) w e da-pa-ma-pe-numma . ea t fin d no t did . hogj a anythin g H e gav e th e woma n some thing , bu t I coul d no t se e what . I n th e jungl e w e foun d nothin g t o eat . 7.—C ORRELATIVE . Th e followin g example s wil l sho w ho w Englis h pronomina l correlativ e clause s ar e turne d i n Dafla . Adverbia l correlativ e clause s wil l b e foun d unde r 4 Adverbs / thoug h i t i s sometime s difficul t t o dra w a distinctio n betwee n th e tw o kinds . Examples. K a 'dhon ' dadna , badig a K You r mone y i s s o much , (Giv e m e al l th e mone y yo u mullya m jibba . t have , al l give . J Ny i mullig e la m ag e ug-t a \ Brin g a s man y me n a s yo u Me n man y fe w com e cause. ) can . mullig e lamag e bu-t a ) Brin g a s ma'n y hol y bell s a s Hol y bell s man y fe w bring. ) yo u can . N a d a targoll a da-ta . ) , _ ^ v 5 . n > tta t a s muc h a s yo u can . I o u ea t possibl e eat . j J N a ala-h a narabl a na-targoll a A You r han d i n holdin g tak e possible , (Tak e awa y a s muc h a s you r nagni. * v " han d wil l hold , tak e away . ) * *nagni ' is , I believe , fo r 'na , Anni ' = ' take, ' { go, ' th e 'g ' bein g inserte d t o avoi d th e hiatus .

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24i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . a m nyin-nepii . padd y ripe n will . Ng a ma-na m hadig a na-t a mata . padd y wil l ripen . i J 1 don e s o muc h yo u als o do . j D o a s muc h a s I hav e done . Fo r contrast' s sak e a n adverbia l correlativ e sentenc e ma y b e inserte d her e : Th e thir d perso n o f thi s verb' s presen t tens e admit s o f severa l forms . Th e distinctio n betwee n th e use s o f th e differen t form s i s illustrate d i n Par t II I (Syntax ) unde r IV—Verbs . Th e rule s tha t see m to * gover n th e us e o f th e differen t form s ar e give n here . Th e first an d secon d person s o f th e presen t an d pas t tense s hav e onl y on e for m : Ng a da-dne , n a da-d a = I am , tho u ar t ; ngal u dadne , nal u da-d a = w e are , yo u are . Ng a danma , n a damna , ngal u danm a nal u danm a = I was , tho u wert , etc . Th e form s fo r th e thir d perso n ar e da-da , da , dad-na , denna , bot h i n th e singula r an d plural , fo r th e presen t tense , an d danm a o r nemm a bot h i n th e singula r an d plura l fo r th e pas t tense . Th e futur e tens e i s "nenpu' . Th e negativ e o f thi s ver b fo r al l persons , numbers , o r tense s i s ver y ofte n simpl y 4 ma ' ( = 'not') . Pule s fo r th e us e o f th e differen t form s o f th e thir d person . 'Da-da * seem s t o b e chiefl y use d wit h interrogativ e pro nouns , e.g.,— Ng a lyina m 1 don e na-t a lyitta . yo u als o do . IV.—VERBS . 1.—TH E SUBSTANTIV E VERB . Hogad-g a issha da-d a ? Ho w muc h wate r i s ? H a naa hogad-g a da-da ? Ther e boat s ho w man y ar e ? ^ Ho w muc h wate r i s ther e ?

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P a r t II. ] ACCIDENCE . 2 5 4 D a 7 i s th e wor d use d i n th e simples t sentence s containin g a predicativ e adjective , a s — Bulli i ama nyi n da . )m i • j l m i • i t • ? Thei r dha n i s ripe . Thei r dha n rip e is . ) r 4 Denna, 7 however , an d no t 4 da, 7 i s use d wit h th e predicativ e adjectiv e 4 a l ' ( = good) , an d similar y 4 nemm a 7 fo r .th e pas t tens e bot h wit h 4 al 7 an d othe r adjective s too . 4 Denna 7 i s als o use d when , a n interrogativ e particl e accompanie s th e substantiv e verb , bu t doe s no t stan d first i n th e sentence . Examples. Hogol a h a a l denna ? " ) Whic h i s th e best ? (Thi s i s Wher e i t goo d i s ? ) idiomatic. ) Pod u hogol a denn a ? j Wher e i s Pod u ? Pod u wher e i s ? j N a hogol a u-denn a ? ) n n , Q •xr -P • n Wher e ar e yo u goin g t o ? Yo u wher e goin g ar e ? j J & ° Wher e a bar e fac t i s state d withou t a n adjectiva l predicate , 4 dadna 7 i s th e prope r word . Example. Bor 4 suduma dadna . ) Ther e ar e dee r o n th e Chapor i (on ) dee r are . j chapori . 2.—CONJUGATIONA L EXAMPLES . Th e Dafl a ver b i s b y fa r th e mos t difficul t par t o f th e languag e t o dea l with , mor e s o tha n th e Cachar i an d Mir i verb , becaus e th e structur e an d conjugatio n o f severa l o f th e commones t verb s i s fa r fro m regular , i n additio n t o th e fac t tha t th e usag e an d exac t forc e o f th e differen t tense s i s uncertain . Fo r th e present , futur e o r pas t tens e som e verb s hav e thre e o r fou r forms , apparentl y interchange abl e i n th e first an d thir d person s ; som e verb s hav e three forms , apparentl y interchangeable , fo r on e tense , whil e mos t othe r verb s hav e onl y one . Moreover , severa l verbs , bu t no t al l verb s alike , admi t o f variou s affixe s o r insertion s eithe r betwee n th e roo t an d inflection s o r i n th e bod} 7 " o f th e inflections , whic h modif y thei r meaning , bu t t o a differen t exten t wit h differen t verbs , I t will , therefore , b e necessar y t o conjugat e a t lengt h mor e tha n on e ver b t o sho w thei r differen t structure . T o kee p th e chie f

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26 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . tense s clos e togethe r an d t o giv e a synoptica l vie w o f th e variou s tense-endings , I hav e avoide d interspersin g example s afte r eac h tense . Th e first ver b conjugated , a s bein g perhap s th e mos t regula r an d th e on e mos t verb s ar e conjugate d like , wil l b e th e ver b s k a ' = 4 t o see. ' Indicative Mood. Fo r eac h tens e o f th e followin g four , th e sam e wor d serve s fo r al l person s an d bot h number s : Present indefinite. Present definite. I , you , they , etc. , se e (habituall y I , you , they , etc. , a m o r ar e o r momentarily) . seeing . KM-na . Ka-s-danna . Imperfect indefinite. Imperfect definite. I , you , they , etc, , sa w (Assames e I , you , etc. , wa s o r wer e look 4 dekhichchil o ') . in g on , o r use d t o see . Ka-n-ma . Ka-l-danma . Perfect. Future. I hav e seen . I , you , etc. , wil l see . (Assamese , 4 dekhilo'. ) Ng a ka-t-numma . Ng a Ka-ilya-nepii , ka-t-lyinne , ka-n-pti . N a Ka-pa-lyinpt i (meanin g rathe r 4 yo u wil l find ou t later') . N a ) Ther e i s n o for m fo r secon d or ) N a ta-ilya-ta-i . M a > thir d person s simila r t o th e first, ) M a ka-n-nepii , ka-il-nepii . Ngal u Ka-t-niimma . K4-ilya-nepii , ka-n-pii . Ml u \ N o simila r for m k Mly&-ta-i . Bfilli i j Bull u ka-il-nepu . Note on the Perfect Tense. 4 Ba / sometime s 'pa, ' i s use d wit h th e first an d thir d person s o f a larg e numbe r o f verbs , lik e 4 kan g ' o r 4 ka ' i n Miri , t o for m th e perfec t tense , generall y t o denot e distan t pas t time . Hence , w e hav e k&L-b a = I hav e see n ; kan-b a = h e ha s seen . On e ca n under

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 2 7 stan d tha t i n practic e th e secon d person , 4 yo u hav e seen, ' i s neve r use d excep t a s a questio n ; henc e w e hav e 4 n a kan-n a * an d 4 nalu 1 Mn-n a = hav e yo u no t see n ? o r mor e properl y = surel y yo u hav e seen , an d ye t mak e ou t yo u hav e not . Note on the Future Tense. Excep t tha t th e for m 4 ka-tlyinne ' ma y possibl y b e honorific , I canno t trac e an y differen t shad e o f meanin g i n th e alternat e forms . Th e for m 4 ka-n-nepii * i s no t perhap s s o frequentl y use d a s 4 ka-il nepii, ' bu t i s th e correc t for m i n th e expressio n dany i ka-n-nepi i = = th e su n wil l shine . Imperative. KA-t a = look , se e (onc e fo r all) . Ka-ya-t a = watc h (conti nually ) ; ka-ki-t a o r ka-ki-t a = see , b e o n you r guar d (a s a rule , bu t i n n o particula r instance) . Ka-ka-t a = = le t u s see . Ka-m-t & = le t hi m see . Ha m ka-ka-ma-tt a = mak e hi m see . Nga m ka m-d a = le t m e see . Prohibitive form. K&-y6 = = don' t loo k ! (t o on e alread y looking) . Ka-ma-b a = don' t loo k ! (contemplatin g a futur e contin gency) . Infinitive. O f purpos e = ka-ta-ba . Explanator y = kadba . Participles. Present : Ka-1-doil-liy a = whil e seeing . Iva-il-ya m or ka,-il-ka m = whe n seeing . Ka-t-kat-l a ( = Assames e 4 dekh i dekhi' ) continuing t o see . Past active : Ka-pel a = having see n ( cf Assames e 4 dekh i pclai') . Ka n — h e wh o saw , th e see-er , e.g., nga m ka n ny i = th e ma n wh o sa w me , Ka-tl a — thoug h I , you , he , etc. , sa w (Assames e dekhile-o) . Past passive: Ka-na m = seen , e.g., ng a ka~na m ny i — th e ma n I saw . 1 3 2

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28 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Verbal Noun. EA-na m = seein g o r sight . Conditional Mood. Ka-b-nyil a — I f I , you , etc. , see , sa w o r ha d see n (fo r al l per son s an d tense s alike) . Bu t i t ma y b e note d her e tha t i n th e apodosi s o r principa l sentenc e th e pluperfec t i s ka-t-neppagal a = I shoul d hav e seen . Th e potential , desiderative , causative , an d frequentativ e form s ar e deal t wit h unde r 4 Particles. ' Ther e i s n o passiv e voice , th e onl y approac h t o i t tha t I hav e com e acros s i s nyim-nep a = i t i s lost , a s compare d wit h ng a nyim-tenm a = I hav e lost . I wil l nex t tak e th e ver b 'ji ' = t o give . ~ I , you , they , etc. , giv e (habitually) . I , you , they , etc. , a m o r ar e Indicative Mood. Present indefinite. Present definite. Ji-ki-gad-numma . (now ) giving . Jig-denna . Imperfect indefinite. I gav e (Assames e 4 dichchilo') . Jin-ma . Perfect. I wa s givin g o r use d t o give . Ji-ki-numma . Future. Imperfect definite. I hav e give n (Assames e 4 dil o ') . Ng a jl-t-numma . N a ji-p-numma ? M a jip-numma . Ngal u ji-t-numma . Nal u ji-p-numma . Bulli i ji-p-numma . I wil l give , etc . Jitlyinne , jinpti . Jinpi i ly e ( = wil l yo u giv e ? ) Ji l nepii . Jitlyinne , jinpli . Jinpi i ly e ( = wil l yo u giv e ? ) Jil-ne-pii . Note. —The ver b ( t o strik e 7 whos e roo t i s 4 j i i s similarl y conjugated . IMPERATIVE . Jibb a or jitt a — giv e (t o another ) ; k e = giy e (t o me) .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 2 9 Prohibitive form. Infinitive O f purpos e : Jitaba . Explanator y : Jidba . Participles. Thes e ar e regular , tha t is , simila r t o thos e o f th e ver b 4 ka \ Henc e w e hav e : Jil-doil-hy a = (Assames e 4 d i thakot e ' ) whil e giving . Ji l ya m or ji l ka m = whe n giving . Jit-jitl a — (Assames e £ d i di') , continuin g t o giv e : an d similarl y fo r th e rest . I wil l nex t tak e th e ver b 'yftb, ' t o sleep , chiefl y t o illustrat e th e variou s shade s o f meanin g th e prohibitiv e form s ca n have . Indicative Mood. Imperfect inde m Present indefinite. Present definite, 1 Imperfect definite. I , you , etc, , slee p He , o r they , is , I slept , etc. , I wa s sleepin g (habitually) , o r are , asleep . (Assames e etc . (Assames e Yub-dna . % Yub-da . huichchilo. ) huiachilo) . Yub-n-ma . Yubl-danma . NOTE .—Naturall y th e secon d perso n o f th e presen t definit e i s onl y use d a s a question , viz., 4 yftb-dn e ' = 'ar e yo u asleep ' ? Perfect. Future. Ng a yub-t-b 4 YAb-tlyinn e N a yubn-m a (imperfect ) or yubneb a (sam e throughout) . H a yubnm a .. . or yubneba . Ngal u yub-t-ba . Nal u yubn-m a or yubneba . Bulli i yubn-m a or yubneba . Imperative. Yubt a (t o a n adult ) = g o t o sleep ; omut a (t o a n infant) . Prohibitive. Thi s admit s o f severa l inflections , eac h causin g a sligh t chang e o f meanin g ; as — (1 ) Speakin g t o a companio n clos e a t hand , Yuv-y a ! = B e 01 1 th e aler t !

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30 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . (2 ) T o a perso n sittin g nea r wh o i s beginnin g t o no d : Yuv tabi-y a ! = Don' t g o t o slee p ! (3 ) O n leavin g a perso n an d warnin g hi m no t t o g o t o slee p durin g one' s absenc e : Yuv-m&b a ! = Min d yo u don' t g o t o slee p ! (4 ) T o a perso n wh o ha s bee n aslee p som e time , o n wakin g hi m : Yuv-ky a ! = Don' t slee p an y mor e ! Th e remainin g part s o f th e ver b ar e regular . Th e impersona l ver b c ho ' t o fal l (o f rain , snow , etc. ) ha s th e followin g tense s i n th e thir d person , singular . Present definite — hod-da . Imperfect definite = honma . Perfect —honba (thoug h th e latte r tw o tense s see m t o b e interchangeable) . Future= hoilnepii, honnepa , ha-walli , hotly i ( [ canno t trac e an y differenc e o f meanin g betwee n al l thes e forms) . Th e impersona l ver b 6 lak ' = Assames e 4 lage, ' i s onl y conjugate d i n th e presen t tense . 4 1 , you , he , we , you , they , wan t ric e 5 i n Assames e 4 mole , tok , tak , amak , tahantak , sihantak , bha t lage , i s 4 Ngapa , napta , hobta , ngaiupa , na-lu-pa , bullupa , etchi n lak. ' 4 D o yo u wan t ric e ? ' i s 4 Napt a etchi n la-y a ? ' Wit h th e first perso n 4 laba ' i s sometime s use d instea d o f 4 lak, ' e.g., Ngap a etchin . laba . Th e ver b 4 u'— 4 t o com e o r go'—i s irregular , an d it s tense s an d person s ar e give n belo w a t length . Th e ver b ma-l a = c t o b e able , ' lit. , 4 t o b e abl e t o do, ' i s als o given , a s som e o f it s contraction s ar e rathe r perplexing . 3,—DEFECTIV E AN D IRREGULA R VERBS . I come , etc . Present indefinite. o r g o (habitually) . Indicative Mood. Present definite. Imperfect indefinite. I a m o n m y wa y I , etc , cam e o r went . (Assames e 'goichchilo) ' Ng a lil-n e •\ T o A A A Js a uinne r U-denn a Unm e an d unma . Oln e an d uinner .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 3 1 Present indefinite. Present definite t Imperfect indefinite. f udn e = come s or goe s ud-d e i s o n hi s wa y f unna . M a \ K . (.udna^z come s aly i (pointing ) (someone ) 1 uiye . i s comin g Luii-ma . Ngal u til-n e udenn a imraa . Nal u iil-n e ,. oeo o Biilli i aly & aly l unma . I hav e no t com e acros s instance s o f th e imperfec t definit e o f thi s verb . Perfect. Future I hav q gone , o r went , o r hav e come . Assames e 4 golo , ahilo. ' A F XJn-pt i = I wil l go . x t ( u-pe-numm a I Ut-lyilc n e = X wil l com e back . Ng a fi-ye n = I wen t (finally ) Ng a j wU 1 come > ( . udn a = I a m no w come . £ = j ^ ^ Uil-na-pu = yo u wil l go . Perfect. F'ltture. N a upenum m j e N a un-pa-lye=Wil l yo u com e ? ftJdn e = h e ha s com e gon e ^ O-ffi-ly i = h e wishe s t o M ^ Ma < come . 1 Ul-y i = h e ha s com e 1 j Il-na-pi i = h e wil l go . l^An-ii e = h e ha s com e L I tldn a C ht-lyinn e = w e wil l come . Ngal u j # Upe-numm a C it-lyinn e = w e wil l go . Nal u upe-niimmj e Nal u uil-na-p u =yo u wil l go . ! ann e = hav e com e Bulli i il-na-pi i = The y wil l go . unM = hav e gone . Th e distinctio n betwee n £ lin-pi i 5 an d c i t lyinne ' i s thi s : Wher e severa l other s hav e refused , an d a t las t on e volunteer s t o g o a journe y a t another' s wish , h e say s 4 un-pii, ' 4 I t lyinn e ' i s 4 1 a m goin g becaus e I wan t t o ' .

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32 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Imperative JKoocl. Inn i o r unn i = g o ! Unj u = com e ! Utt a = com e or g o ! Att a {e.g., s a att a — com e her e ! ) = com e I Prohibitive : iy a == • D o no t go . Infinitive : al a o r ub a = t o com e o r go . Participles : Past active : ull-y a = havin g gone . Th e ver b 4 t o go * o r ' come 5 is , however , liabl e t o chang e o f prefi x accordin g t o th e direction , o r plac e t o which , o r plac e fro m which , a journe y i s contemplated , e.g., 4 1 wil l g o t o th e hill s (fro m th e plains ) 5 i s 4 cha-tlyinn e 7 ; 4 a ma n wil l com e clos e t o u s fro m nea r a t hand ' i s 4 a-il-nepu 5 ; an d ther e ar e othe r variation s tha t canno t b e brough t unde r an y rule . Ma-la , 4 t o b e able. ' viz. meanin g could . Th e differen t person s o f th e perfec t an d futur e tenses , however , hav e separat e form s : Perfect. Future. Ma-napi i o r matnepii . Ma-la-na-pii . Ma-la-nenpti . Ng a or ngali i mappa . N a or nalu d ma-chin-nyanma . M a or bull u ma-chin-nyanma . Note on the Perfect Tense. Th e particl e 4 l a ' i s replace d b y 4 chin ' i n th e secon d an d thir d persons , whic h ha s th e forc e o f 4 t o know 5 rathe r tha n 4 to-b e able, ' th e litera l meanin g o f ma-chin-nya-nm a bein g 4 t o d o abl e finish was, 5 4 ny a 5 bein g a verb , wit h th e forc e o f 4 c o finish. 5 Note on the Future Tense. First person. —The for m 4 mat-nepli ' i s merel y th e futur e o f 4 ma 5 Th e Dafla s see m unabl e t o distinguis h betwee n 4 J wil l do , an d 4 1 wil l b e abl e t o do. 5 Second person. —This i s hardl y eve r used , excep t t o as k a question , i n whic h cas e th e particl e ly e i s adde d an d th e whol e wor d i s the n contracte d int o ma-la-na-pl e =Wil l yo u h e abl e ?

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Par t II. ] ACCIDENCE . 3 3 4.—TH E FORMATIO N O F TENSES , ETC . Fro m th e example s given , i t i s apparen t tha t th e onl y rule s fo r th e conjugatio n o f verb s tha t ca n b e lai d dow n wit h an y degre e o f accurac y a s applyin g t o mos t verbs , ar e a s follo w : (1 ) Th e presen t indefinit e ( I see , h e eats , the y drink , etc. , habitually ) i s forme d b y addin g 4 dna 7 t o th e root . (2 ) Th e presen t definit e ( I a m eating , I a m seeing , h e i s eating , etc. ) i s forme d b y addin g 4 danna 7 t o th e root , an d generall y insertin g a lette r fo r th e sak e o f euphon y betwee n th e two . (3 ) Th e imperfec t indefinit e ( I saw , yo u gave , h e ate ) i s forme d b y addin g 4 nm a 7 t o th e root . (4 ) Th e imperfec t definit e ( I wa s walking , h e wa s eating , etc. ) i s forme d b y addin g 4 danm a 7 t o th e root , an d generall y insertin g 4 1 7 o r som e mor e euphoni c lette r betwee n th e two . (5 ) Th e perfec t ( I hav e see n o r sa w lon g ago , h e ha s eaten , etc. ) i s forme d ( K a ) b y addin g 4 numma 7 t o th e roo t an d insertin g 4 1 7 o r som e mor e euphoni c lette r betwee n th e tw o ; i f tw o lon g syllable s precede , 4 tnumma 7 fo r euphony' s sak e become s 4 tenm a 7 ; (6 ) b y addin g 4 b a 7 t o th e roo t an d insertin g 4 n 7 o r som e othe r lette r betwee n the ; two . (6 ) Th e futur e i s forme d b y addin g 4 tlyin-n e 7 o r 4 npii 7 t o th e roo t fo r th e first perso n an d 4 nnepi i 7 t o th e roo t fo r th e thir d person . (7 ) Th e imperativ e presen t i s forme d b y addin g 4 t a 7 t o th e root , an d th e imperativ e futur e b y addin g 4 .b a 7 t o th e root . (8 ) Th e prohibitiv e presen t i s forme d b y addin g 4 ya, 7 an d th e prohibitiv e futur e b y addin g 4 maba, 7 t o th e root . (9 ) Th e infinitiv e o f purpos e i s forme d b y addin g 4 j4ba 7 t o th e root , an d th e simpl e infinitiv e b y addin g 4 db a 7 t o th e root . (10 ) Th e thre e presen t participle s ar e forme d (a ) b y addin g 4 1-doil-hy a 7 t o th e root , (/; ) b y addin g 4 il-yam 7 o r il-kam 7 t o th e root , (c ) b y addin g 4 1 7 t o th e root , doublin g th e syllabl e thu s forme d an d the n addin g 4 l a 7 . i

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34 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II. (11 ) Th e conjunctiva l pas t activ e participl e (e .g. 'havin g eate n h e wen t away' ) i s forme d b y addin g 4 pel a ' t o th e root . Th e substantiva l pas t activ e participl e i s forme d b y addin g 4 n ' t o th e root . Th e substantiva l pas t pas siv e participl e (e g,, h e wh o wa s seen ) h forme d b y addin g 4 nam 9 t o th e root . (12 ) Th e verba l nou n (sight , hearing , etc. ) i s als o forme d b y addin g 4 n&m ' t o th e root . (13 ) Th e conditiona l moo d i s forme d b y addin g 4 nyil a ' t o th e roo t an d insertin g 4 b ' o r som e othe r euphoni c lette r betwee n th e two . Ther e i s n o distinctio n o f tens e i n th e conditiona l clause , bu t i n th e apodosi s o r principa l sen tence , th e pluperfec t sometime s appears , whic h i s forme d b y addin g 4 neppagala ' t o th e roo t an d insertin g a con sonant , generall y 4 1sometime s e p 9 * betwee n th e two . A s regard s irregula r forms , several , bu t no t all , ca n b e explaine d b y th e euphoni c change s th e Dafla s introduce , e.g., fro m th e roo t 4 lfi m ' w e ge t 4 lfing-ne-ba * = i t ha s sun k (i n water) , wher e 4 m ' i s change d t o 4 ngbu t som e 1 a m unabl e t o explai n a t all . 4 Mfi ' signifyin g 4 not, ' i s eithe r (1 ) adde d t o th e roo t o f th e verb , (2 ) place d afte r th e tense-suffix , o r (3 ) inserte d betwee n th e roo t an d th e tense-suffix , a s : 5.—TH E NEGATIV E FOR M O F VERBS . N a ho g j a lyi-m& . Yo u an y thin g d o not . lk-h a chem-ma-denna . Do g th e bit e no t does . Ng a fim-ma.* Ng a fin-ma. I wen t not . I went . Na m h a da d 4-m a denna . Hous e th e lea k contai n no t does . Ng a ha m ma-ma . I hi m strik e not . H a na m mad-m& . H e yo u strik e wil l not . H e wil l no t strik e you , Th e do g doe s no t bite . I di d no t go . I went . Th e hous e doe s no t leak . I di d no t strik e him . Yo u d o no t d o anything . * Contractio n fo r ' tlin-m a ma. '

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 3 5 Th e additio n o f 4 m a 9 ver y ofte n obscure s th e tens e o f th e verb , a s i n th e las t tw o examples , an d again — Ng a n&-h a dat-ma . Ng a n&-h a da-ma . * ) I wa s no t i n th e boat I boa t i n wa s not . I boa t i n a m not . ) I a m no t i n th e boat . A s a genera l rule , th e insertio n o f 4 t 7 befor e 4 m a ' implie s th e past , an d th e insertio n o f 4 d * th e future . I f potential ^ desiderativ e o r othe r particle s ar e use d wit h th e simpl e verb , 4 ' come s invariabl y afte r suc h particles , a s : Ng a da-la-msi . Ng a ben-ta-m& . | I canno t eat . I wil l no t I ea t ca n not . I spea k wis h not . ) speak . Ng a ftm-hft m ma . ) T . r , . a I fire th e ligh t cannot , j I canno t ligh t th e fire. I n th e negativ e conditiona l mood , 4 infi , ' become s 4 m&-b& 5 or , fo r euphony' s sak e o r t o avoi d th e recurrenc e o f thre e lon g syllables , 4 m&-il / an d alway s immediatel y precede s 4 nyila, ' a s : H a da-rna-ba-nyila . ) I £ , j . , t t . . J n I f h e doe s no t eat . H e ea t no t if . j Ng a ftm-ma-ba nyil a n a ftt-neppagala. ) I f I ha d no t gone , I gon e no t i f yo u com e woul d have , j you woul d hav e come . Ng a d a l a i l nyila , si t lyinne. ) I shal l di e i f 1 a m unabl e I ea t abl e no t i f di e will . ) t o eat . A s i n Miri , 4 ni4 ' ma y b e joine d directl y t o adjectives , as : M a nilf t ma . | Hi s pupils ar e no t swolle n ( a specia l H e ey e enlarge d not . ) kin d o f blindness) . Bu t i n th e followin g sentence s th e ver b i s pu t in , thoug h contracted : M a nyichemma. * M a nyichenna. f | H e i s no t blind . H e blin d i s not . . H e blin d is . ) H e i s blind . 6.—TH E INTERROGATIV E FORM S O F VERBS . Unlik e th e Miri , th e Dafl a languag e doe s no t a s a rul e ad d t o th e ver b an y interrogativ e particl e whe n interrogativ e pronoun s o r adverb s ar e use d t o as k th e question . Bu t wit h 4 hogba ' ( = why ) sometime s 4 y u ' i s adde d t o th e verb . I n othe r interrogativ e sen tences , no t containin g a n interrogativ e pronou n o r adver b 4 ly & * i s adde d t o th e verb . 5 Contractio n fo r 'nyichha ' (=blind) , Mann a («i s not) , f Contractio n fo r
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p p 36 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Examples. Nal u ho g kadn a ? Nama hogol a dadn a ? ) Wha t d o yo u wan t ? i o u wha t vran t ? Hous e wher e i s ? f Wher e i s th e hous e ? Issh i u-ra-dan-lye ? ) T , n Wate r dee p i s ? j I s th e wate r de e P ? Etchi n da-t-niimma-lye . ? ) T T . Q Eic e (cooked ) eate n hav e P j Hav e yo u eate n you r ne e ? N a un-ma-lye? ) T V 1 n Yo u wen t ? } Dl d J ™ ? N a ngkr n m o pu b nepi i ly< 3 ? ) w . n , . n Yo u m e kis s will ? j Wil l yo u kis s m e ? N a satar n ba-ne-pi i lye? ) 7 . 7 7 . Q . Yo u elephan t brin g wil l ? r wmyounnnganeiepuant. r Ther e i s n o interrogativ e particl e o f vagu e probabilit y answer in g t o th e Mir i 4 di, ' no r negativ e interrogativ e answerin g t o th e Mir i 4 langa. ' I n negativ e interrogativ e sentence s 4 m a 7 precede s 4 lye, ' bu t i s ofte n fo r euphony' s sak e softene d t o 4 mai, ' as — N a u m mai-ly e ? ) x « Yo u wen t not ? j Di d yo u no t g o ? N a bemind a chem-ma-dan-ly e ) ^ ^ . p Yo u son g knowin g no t ar e ? ) a n n ° 4 Na ' wit h th e secon d perso n o f th e perfec t tens e give s i t a n interrogativ e forc e (see not e o n Perfec t Tens e unde r Ver b 4 k & ' = t o see) . Interrogativ e alternative s ar e forme d a s follow s : Examples. N a sa m man-ma-lye , ma-m a na m ly e ? Di d yo u strik e hi m o r Yo u hi m struck , strik e no t di d ? ) no t ? N a sa m matlyinnlye , ma-ta-ma-ly e ) Wil l yo u strik e hi m o r Yo u hi m strik e will , strik e wil l no t ) not . M a sii a yil*-dadne . lyi-ma-danly e ? ) T , , . , « t T ' t • • a * a £ I s h e no w doin g o r no t ? H e no w doin g is , doin g no t i s r j & Jin-pu-lye , jid-mai-ly e ? j Wil l yo u giv e i t o r no t ? Giv e will , giv e no t r ) J & Tun-pii-lye , tiid-inai-ly e ? ) Wil l vo u drin k i t o r no t ? Drin k will , drm k no t : ) * Euphoni c fo r 1 \yi.'

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 3 7 7 . COMPOUN D VERB S (PARTICLES) . Compoun d verb s chiefl y com e unde r tw o heads , namel y (i ) thos e compounde d wit h othe r verba l roots , an d (ii ) thos e compounde d wit h particles . Examples of verbs compounded with other verbal roots. Ga-ka-t a = tr y o n ( a coat , etc.) , literall y 4 wear , see. ' Tu-ka-t a — taste , literall y 4 drink , see. ' Ma-nya-t a = finish doing , literally— 4 do , finish.' Ben-ny&-t a ==== = finish singing . Ka-chin-danly e = d o yo u recognis e ? literally— 4 see , know. ' Particles. Mos t compoun d verb s contai n particles . Thes e generall y com e immediatel y afte r th e verb-root , th e vowe l o f whic h the y sometime s modify , bu t the y ar e als o foun d a t th e en d o f th e tense-suffi x o r (even ) betwee n tw o syllable s o f a tense-suffix . Some , thoug h foun d i n th e bod} ' o f th e verb , ar e really adverb s modifyin g it , an d thoug h mentione d her e i n th e lis t wil l b e deal t wit h unde r 4 4 adverbs, " excep t th e particle s 4 dan, ' 4 ki, ' an d 4 yak, ' whic h fro m thei r correspond in g t o th e Mir i particle s 4 da n ' an d 4 t i ' denotin g respectivel y immediat e an d continuou s action , ar e bette r treate d her e tha n a s adverbs . Bu t adverbia l particle s tha t ar e joine d t o noun s o r adjective s an d no t t o verb s ar e no t mentione d i n th e list . I hav e considere d i t advisabl e t o includ e amon g th e res t th e particl e formin g wha t i s know n sometime s a s th e potentia l mood , an d als o thos e particle s formin g desideratives , frequentatives , caus atives , an d permissives . Th e mos t commo n particle s are — a , a-su , ba , ba-sft , bul , cho , da , d&-ta , dan , dur , g , in , ji , ka-ma , kham , ki , kin , ku , l a (1 ) l a (2 ) lu , lyum , m or ma , rain, mui , mur , ne , nu , p& , ru , sur , ta , tor , turn , tu , yak . Th e meanin g an d forc e o f severa l o f th e abov e ca n onl y b e show n b y examples . Example s ar e accordingl y give n : a—Thi s ha s a n intensiv e forc e ; da-t a = stop , sta y ; da-4-t a = si t dow n ; da-a-ma-t a = = mak e si t down . &-su— 4 s u ' i s reflexive , an d 4 4 ' i s generall y joine d wit h it , perhap s givin g i t a n intensiv e force , meanin g 4 on e another. ' Ik i che-a-su-denn a = = th e dog s ar e fighting, literally—bitin g eac h other .

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38 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II. Kaa moi-a-s u denn a = th e boy s ar e hittin g eac h other . Nyern m be-a-sh-denn a = = th e wome n ar e quarrelling . ba—Thi s i s inserte d withou t an y specia l meanin g i n th e nega tiv e conditiona l mood , an d i n othe r part s o f verbs . ba-su— 4 b 4 1 lik e 4 a 9 i s joine d t o su , or , a s i t i s sometime s pro nounced , 4 shu, 7 havin g rathe r th e meanin g o f 4 bot h togethe r ; 7 4 da ba-shfi-tchu 7 = le t u s si t together , 4 bem-ba-shu-tchh 7 = le t u s sin g together . bftl—Thi s i s possibl y a verba l root , a s i t i s foun d a t th e begin nin g o f th e verb . I t denote s a forcibl e takin g away , a s bulii g = t o caus e t o com e awa y b y force , i.e., carr y awa y captive . cho— 4 Ch o 7 i s th e particl e denoting priorit y tha t ha s bee n men tione d unde r ordinals . I t answer s t o th e Mir i 4 po. 7 d a and da-ta—Thes e ar e reall y adverb s meanin g respectivel y 4 ye t 7 an d 4 nearly, 7 an d ar e deal t wit h unde r 4 Adverbs. 7 dan—Thi s i s th e sam e a s th e Mir i 4 d4 n 7 meanin g 4 a t once, ' a s u-dan-n e = g o a t onc e ; bu t a n adver b i s ofte n adde d too , e.g., sij & (now ) fi-dan-ne ; herinb a ( = quickly) , udan-ne . g— { g ' rathe r resemble s th e Germa n verba l prefi x 4 be. 7 I t ha s tw o distinc t use s ; (1 ) i t give s a n intransitiv e ver b a causativ e o r transitiv e forc e ; (11 ) i t give s a transitiv e ver b a differen t directio n o r differen t force . Examples. u = com e ; ii g = caus e t o come , i.e., bring . d a •• = sta y ; da g = kee p k a — pu t o n (clothes) ; ka g = chang e (clothes) . n & — tak e ; na g = tak e away . ji—Thi s seem s t o correspon d wit h th e Mir i particl e 4 r u 7 meanin g 4 very, 7 bu t it s combinatio n i s peculiar , e g., isshi-ka-y4 1 d a = th e wate r i s high ; bu t 4 issh i k e ji-jad-da 7 = th e wate r i s ver y high . ka-ma—Thi s answer s t o th e Mir i 4 ku-ma 7 meanin g 4 never, 7 e.g., Nyis i nang u b a ng a lakr a u-ka-m a = I hav e neve r bee n t o th e hill s (literall y Dafl a villages) . kham—This , thoug h i t appear s i n th e bod y o f th e verb , i s reall y a n adver b meanin g 4 about 7 an d i s deal t wit h unde r 4 Adverbs. 7 ki—Thi s an d 4 yak 7 for m frequentatives , answerin g t o th e Mir i 4 ti 7 a s pat a ga-kidann a = th e bir d i s alway s flying,

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 3 9 kin—Thi s i s th e 4 particl e o f vagu e probability, 7 e.g., ft-kin-d& = h e i s probabl y goin g ; al-kin-d a = h e ma y hav e recovered . Thi s shoul d b e distinguishe d fro m th e usag e o f anothe r 4 kin, ' probabl y a verba l root , whic h ha s th e ide a o f permittin g o r showing , e.g., ka-kin-t a = sho w (le t m e look) ; ab-kin-tab a = sho w m e ho w t o fire . ku—This , lik e th e Mir i 4 kft 7 ha s th e ide a o f 4 bac k agai n 1 un derlyin g it , e.g., 41-ku-npi i = h e wil l ge t wel l (again ) na-leng-ta-kf t = tak e i t ou t again . Ng a lagb a m a na m b a ^ M e wit h sh e hous e t o f Sh e cam e bac k hom e wit h ft-kfir-kftnma. X me . com e bac k agai n did . j Nal u 4 poth& r ' ho k hfid-l a ^ Yo u field s fro m whe n (Whe n wil l yo u retur n fro m fitlyi-kfi-nne ? X th e fields ? corn e wil l back ? J l a (i).—Thi s particl e form s th e potentia l mood , an d it s us e ha s severa l time s bee n illustrate d already . 1 4 (ii).—Thi s nearl y answer s t o th e Mir i particl e 4 lang, ' an d i s frequentl y use d wit h th e imperativ e mood , th e potentia l particl e 4 14 7 neve r bein g s o used . Examples. Ng a opp a bft-pnumma , 1 liquo r brough t have , f I hav e brough t liquor , drin k na l tft-1 4 X away , yo u drin k away . J 4 Na-l a ' means , g o som e distanc e off , an d take away wha t yo u find there . lft—Thi s seem s t o answe r t o th e Miri 4 lik, 7 and , lik e it , ca n onl y hav e it s forc e define d b y examples . Examples. Issh i pfi-lft-t a or Issh i ta-lu-t a .. . Pou r wate r out Mft-lfi-t a or ba-lfi-t a .. . Appl y medicin e outwardly . Rfi-lfi-t a .. . .. . Bur n down jungle , houses , etc . Ma-lfi-t a .. . .. . Sen d a letter . Ben-lft-t a .. . .. . Sen d a messenge r o r verba l message .

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40 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Ji-14-t a K4m-lu-ga n niimm a Ng a ha m ka-lu-d a .. . Na-lu-t a S a ha-14-t a Ny i le-14-t a ti-lbta Ku-lu-t a Kh-lu-p a (adjective ) lyfim—Thi s i s a n intensiv e particl e answerin g t o Mir i 4 4 m 7 o r 4 in, 7 as , mindu i si-lyum-numm a = th e buffaloe s all died . m—Thi s inserte d i n a ver b give s i t a causativ e force . min—Thi s denote s accompaniment , e.g., N a lagv a u-min-gamt a = L t hi m com e wit h you . Ng a lagh a h4 m da-min-gamb a = Le t hi m sta y wit h me . mui—Thi s i s on e o f th e particle s tha t for m desideratives . Fo r euphony' s sak e 4 b ' i s ofte n inserte d befor e o r afte r i t Ng a ii-bmui-dn a = I wis h t o go . N a tii-bmuib-nyila , tu-t a = Drin k i f yo u wan t to . mu r = (Miri ) mur.—Thi s denote s a mistak e o r 4 b y mistake , 9 e .g., 14mpla-ha m ff-mur-m4-ba = Don' t mistak e th e road . ne—Thi s i s permissive . Am-ne-pi i = I wil l le t yo u fire (th e gun) . nu—This , lik e 4 mui 7 an d 4 t4 7 form s desideratives , e.g.,— Ng a h4 m ka-nu-d a — I wis h t o se e him . Sen d a presen t o r gift . (He ) upse t ( a boat) . I a m please d wit h him . Mak e reprisa l o r tak e ven geance . Carr y of f cattl e b y wa y o f reprisal . Carr y of f peopl e b y wa y o f reprisal . .. . Escor t a person . Thro w awa y (int o water) . Upsid e down .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 4 1 Ng a yuv-nud a = I wis h t o sleep . I t i s noticeabl e tha t thi s particl e shorten s th e lon g vowe l o f th e ver b t o whic h i t i s joined . p & (i)—Thi s seem s t o answe r t o th e Assames e 4 pai ' i n 4 dekh a pai, 7 etc. , e.g.,— Ka-pa-tenm a = I caugh t sigh t of , or happene d t o see . Yumm a ka-pa-tenma= I dreamt . p a (ii)—Thi s answer s t o th e Miri 4 pak / an d convey s a n ide a o f 'leaving 7 o r 4 loosening / e.g., top-p&-ta:=le t go , yop-pa-t a = leav e behind . H a mobunga m hur-pa-numm a — H e thre w awa y hi s gun . rft—Thi s convey s th e ide a o f 4 meeting, 7 e.g., ari a a-ru-su-npt i = to-morro w w e wil l mee t eac h other . Ng a ny i akk a a-ru-m a = I di d no t mee t a soul . sur—Thi s convey s th e ide a o f 4 teaching' ; ng a ha m tom-sur ^enm a = 1 taugh t hi m ; 4 tor n 5 i s th e genera l ter m fo r 4 t o teac h ^ t o hunt , 4 t o shoot / 4 t o swim 5 , etc., ) H a nga m ben-sur-numm a == = h e taugh t me , i .e., b y wor d o f mout h (ben) . ta—Thi s i s th e mos t frequen t particl e fo r formin g desideratives. I t i s sometime s distinc t fro m 4 mui 5 an d 4 nu / th e othe r desiderativ e particles , b y havin g rathe r th e forc e o f 4 intentio n t o d o 7 , a ste p beyon d ' wishin g t o do 7 . Henc e 4 5 sometime s ha s th e forc e o f a future . Ng a u-ta-dn a = I wis h t o go . Ng a ha m ma-ta-m a = = I wil l no t bea t him . Ng a ben-ta-m a = I d o no t inten d t o speak . Ng a nyi n u-l a gra-ta-iln e = I wil l g o ou t shootin g ; literally , I goin g ou t int o cam p (nyin) , wil l b e wishin g t o shoot . a

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42 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . tab—Convey s th e ide a o f completin g a fall , etc. , e.g., H a ny i a-uin-g a tu-tab-numm a —H e knocke d thre e me n down. tor—Thi s convey s th e ide a o f preventing , stoppin g : ben-t6r numma=h e answere d ; ma-tor-dab a = t o prevent . tum=(Miri ) k6m*—Thi s denote s a 4 shutting, ' 4 covering, ' o r 4 blocking, ' e.g., Lampla A dur-tum-na sti n = Th e tre e tha t fel l (dur) , an d blocke d th e road . Eya p gbtum-ta! = Shu t th e doo r ! H a ny i a lamplanga m su n tu-tum-p a ==Tha t ma n cu t dow n a tre e an d blocke d th e road . Tu=t o cu t down , or , mor e literally , t o caus e t o fall . yak^—Thi s form s frequentative s an d i s indistinguishabl e i n meanin g fro m th e particl e 'ki' , thoug h les s frequentl y used . Ai a maia Abor s quarrellin g togethe r ; / Abor s ar e alway s fighting ya k su-dna . t amon g themselves , alway s togethe r are . ) 8.—NOU N REPEATE D I N "VERB . A s i n Miri , w e hav e : Por a pii p plidna==fowl s la y egg s ; da-gu m guin-da=-:i t thunders . 9.—RELATIO N O F CAUS E AN D EFFECT . Th e example s give n belo w wil l illustrat e thi s sufficientl y : Iv a khrabd-khrabd-l a da-nam-h a Chil d continuall y cryin g remainin g / I bea t th e chil d becaus e i t matna . f cries . I beat . ) Nyed a hot-l a n a u-ma-nam-ly e ? " ) Wa s i t becaus e i t raine d tha t Rai n fallin g yo u com e no t di d ? ) yo u di d no t com e ? N a ho g da-ma-nama , ^ Yo u anythin g ea t no t did , / No t havin g eate n anythin g kan a sudn a ham . f yo u ar e hungry , hunge r come s therefore . )

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 4 3 Effec t i s denote d b y usin g th e adver b 4 h a ' = therefore , as — M a khrab-danma , H e cryin g was , / H e wa s crying , s o I struc k n a nia-t-numm a ( him . therefor e strik e did . ) Lampl a a'a b denna , h a ng a gi-enma , ) Th e roa d i s slippery , s o I Roa d slipper y is , s o I fal l did . ) fell . 10 . Th e followin g illustration s wil l sho w th e constructio n afte r verb s o f asking , entreating , hearing , etc.,— • Ng a mii-galo k tok a barg a kon-ma . ) T j , . r t i • r i n r 1 aske d hi m fo r a rupee . I hi m fro m rupe e on e asked , j 1 M a tok a bar-pli-g a gab-k a hadna . H e rupee s fou r ar e require d sa}'s . Top-pa-tuk-b a ha g denma . Le t g o t o (infinitive ) be g did . M a nga m da-m-pa-nma . H e m e si t le t did . Ng a s a ny i s a ben4m-ha m I her e ma n thi s sayin g ben-ma m tat numma . wor d hea r did . Ng a yiib l dadl a hem-pa-tenm a I aslee p remainin g fee l happe n di d Ny i g a ngaala m ka-ti-numma . ma n a m y le g touc h did . | H e ask s fo r Rs . 4 . 1 1 begge d hi m t o le t m e go . | H e bad e m e si t down . 1 hear d thi s ma n sa y it . I fel t som e on e touc h m y le g whil e I wa s asleep . V. —ADVERBS. Th e adverbia l suffi x b y whic h adjective s becom e adverb s i s 4 ba, ' e.g. , 41-b a = well . Th e followin g ar e a fe w o f th e mos t commo n abverb s : 1 . Sa l or sal-g a = to-day . Agl a or ari a = = tomorrow . Moi l or moily a = yesterday . Ke n = da y befor e yesterday . -O F TIME . Latclnla-t a — daily . Ali a chirar a = eac h day . Mullu a (or particle s k i and yak ) = always . Kol-kolg a = a grea t man y year s ago . g a

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44 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Brel a =da y afte r tomorrow . Arla-rel a = lately , i n th e las t fe w days , Sij & = now . lVlinyi-kenn i = som e thre e o r fou r year s ago . Kolg a = before , formerly . Kenla-moi l =som e thre e o r fou r month s ago . Kokku-h a = afterwards . Malyke n or kormo i = i n by-gon e times . Anftb a = soon , befor e long . D & (particle ) = yet , still . H a = then . Ma-da=no t yet . Lo k lokb a = sometimes . 2.—O F PLACE . S a (or , mor e emphatic , sa Ad a = afar , sa ) — here . Ha , or ha-h a = there . Aga-dalyab a = i n front . Urruh a = inside . Namyum-dalyab a = behind . Ag-h a = outside . Oddum-dalyab a = upstream . Arrub a or neku m = under , Akka-dalyab a = downstream , below . A u = above . T&-l a = ther e (upstream) . Kotc h or agu m = near . Ba-l a =ther e (downstream) . 3.—O F MANNER . Herinb a = quickl y (no t Ka-la-k a — carefulty . lazily) . Lekinb a = together . Hab a — i n thi s way . H a s a h a sobb e = Slowly . Ha-hab a = i n tha t way . or jochciiibba . 4.—O F QUANTITY , ETC . Ha d g a = tha t muc h ( a Ang a or umn a g a = perhaps , larg e quantity) . Halyiga — tha t muc h ( a Kha m or ga b (particles , se e exam smal l quantity) . pie s below ) = = about .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 4 5 Sadg a = thi s muc h ( a larg e Da-t a (particles , se e example s quantit y an d clos e a t hand) . below ) = almost . Salyig a = thi s muc h ( a H e (particle ) = only , smal l quantity , clos e a t hand) . Eg a = much . Ai a o r al a =very . Mfilly a g a = mor e or most . 5.—INTERROGATIVE . Hudil a = when . Hoglo k = whence . Hogal a = where . Hog a ha b = how . Hogba , or hogb a yu , or Ho g kat&b a = why . 6. — C O RRE L AT I V ES . Amon g th e example s give n belo w ar e som e showin g ho w adverbia l correlativ e sentence s ar e rendere d int o Dafla . Bu t i t i s no t eas y t o giv e her e singl e Dafl a word s correspondin g t o singl e Englis h words . 7.—EXAMPLE S SHOWIN G HO W ADVERB S AR E USED . } | Sa y i i t onc e more . m e som e more . Ng a arrachiratt a ii m p&rdna . ) I ligh t th e fire ever y I mornin g each fire light . j " mornin g early . Loklokb a ng a ngo i mendna . j Sometime s I catc h fish. Sometime s I fish kill . j Lokt a or liigt a benta . Tim e als o tim e als o say . Nga p ak-ta b jibba . ) T o m e on e als o give . ) Nyi n nyik u ng a Tezpu r h a danuia . ) Tw o year s ag o I wa s a t Year s tw o I Tezpu r a t was . ) Tezpur . Loin lam s a o g M j R ha g „ bee Q v e Da y tw o da y thre e thes e hotjer y / war m ^ lagf c t w J n c . i o r thre e days , wel l is . J J Mal y ke n Pa r pobb u a ngal u K Formerl y Dikran g rive r o n ou r / Formerl y ou r villag e wa s nang-gn a danma . C o n th e Dikran g river , villag e was . J

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46 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Turs-da-d a (i f i n sight ) or Turl } das I t i s stil l alive . Livin g i s ye t livin g remainin g i s still . ) Hu-to l da-da . ) ^ . g fight Dayligh t exist s still . j ® Ng a yu-kur-tailne . ) I a m goin g t o slee p agai n I slee p agai n i s will . ) (i.e., wis h to) . Ng a ak-t a da-tlyinne . ) I wil l stil l ea t (i.e., con I on e als o ea t will . * ) tinu e eating) . Ng a meg-t a da-tlyinne . ) T M 1 , Vu 1 , I littl e als o sta y will . $ 1 Wl U st a ? a llttl e lo n S e r Dany i &-ma-da . ) rp , , , , Sunse t no t yet . J Th e su n ha s no t ? e t se t Anothe r us e o f 4 ma-d& ' wit h 4 yam ' correspondin g t o th e Englis h conjunctio n 4 befor e ' i s foun d unde r 4 Conjunctions. ' Ng a gie-da-ta-nma . ) T , , I fal l ye t wis h did . j 1 near ] F fel K Ng a yub-da-t§,-nma . ) T . r . . , 1 slee p ye t wis h did . j 1 near l y fe U asle e P Si-ta-nma . " ) T . J . . . Di e wis h did . j I almos t died . Ezz-s i huchch i oml . ) n> 1 . . . . . , Clot h thi s almos t dry . j 1 lll s clot h 1 8 ne a % d <7 Bu t 4 huchch i 'i s neve r use d wit h a verb . Th e manne r i n whic h 4 togethe r ' i s rendere d require s illustra tin g : Ngal u lokb a (or lekinba ) da-ba-shu K W e togethe r (together ) si t togethe r / Le t u s si t together . tchf L ^ le t us . 5 Ngal u be-ingob a bem-b a shu-tchii . W e son g togethe r sin g togethe r le t > Le t u s sin g together . us . ) Nal u any e sa-ingob a sa-ya . \ Don' t yo u tw o danc e Yo u tw o danc e togethe r danc e not . ) together .

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 4 7 1 About , 9 meanin g 6 approximately, ' require s illustratin g : Ng a s a nyi-gb a da-kha m lyinpii . * ) I wil l sta y her e abou t I her e yea r on e sta y abou t wil l be. ) Na m k a bunm a ny i k u Yo u chil d bor n year s ho w man y denna ? Ny i rel i niyur a khA m 1 S ner e a are ? Year s te n year s thre e abou t i n ^ futur e ^ nep u 7 wil l a year . Ho w ol d ar e yo u ? Abou t 1 3 ('kham ' i s her e a ver b Ng a ny i illyi-ga b katnurnma . I me n te n abou t se e did . } I sa w abou t te n men . 6 Illyi-massa-gab, 7 woul d als o hav e done . Further examples. Ezz-s i al a t&chc h da . Clot h thi s ver y tor n is . Ai-s i al a ti-da . Frui t thi s ver y swee t is . Kalu la-ka . Seein g g o o a see . Sa b lyidb a ; ha b lyidb a : Thu s d o ; i n tha t wa y d o j H a hog a ha b lyinm a ? H e wha t wa y di d ? N a hogb a lyitnumm a ? Yo u wh y di d ? H a hogaha b lyinma , ng a chenma . H e wha t wa y did , I kno w not . Ng a hoglo k uin-ne r or ii-1-ne . Yo u wha t fro m cam e came . | Thi s clot h i s muc h torn . Thi s frui t i s ver y sweet . (Assamese ) Chaicha i jabi , de . (English ) Min d yo u g o carefully . D o i t i n thi s way . D o i t i n tha t way . Ho w di d h e d o i t ? Wh y di d yo u d o i t ? I don' t kno w ho w h e di d it . Wher e hav e yo u com e fro m ? Examples of correlative adverbs, or adverbial clauses of time and place. Ther e ar e n o Dafl a word s answerin g t o th e Assames e correla tiv e 'jetiya 7 ( — when ) an d 'jot ' ( = where) . * 4 lyinpu ' i s her e apparentl y use d wit h it s idiomati c meanin g o f ' wil l b e 9 a s illustra te d i n Synta x unde r * Substantiv e Verb s \

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48 i OUTLIN E DAEL A GRAMMAR . [Par t II . Th e followin g example s sho w ho w suc h correlative s ar e rendere d : Ng a h a iill-ya , ha-h a kfi-tnumma . I ther e goin g the n the n se e did . [ • Whe n I wen t the n I saw . | WH ( N a nanung a hogol a dadna , ka-ki n " ) Sho w m e wher e you r ba . > villag e is . You r villag e wher e is , show . ) Sa * ka-pa-dya m ng a ma-ki-denna . Wheneve r I see gam e I Gam e se e happenin g I shoo t alway s > shoo t it . do . ) Nyad a holya , t&pe k lendna . 1 Whe n i t rains , leeche s com e Rai n falling , leeche s com e out . ) out . Ng a u-pe-ko m mulluh a keda iss h I goin g everywher e eart h wate r / Whereve r I wen t th e lan d aru-ha-danma . T wa s unde r water , unde r was . J YI.—POSTPOSITION S AN D CONJUNCTIONS . 1 . I n additio n t o thos e postposition s give n unde r 4 Noun s ' — (Case) , w e hav e th e followin g mos t i n us e : Da k or agum=near . Lepa-h a = i n th e middl e of , Ha=towara s or on . > among . Kata-b a = o n accoun t of . ) Lagha , lagba , or lagha=with . Severa l o f th e adverb s also , give n above , ca n b e use d wit h nouns , thu s becomin g postpositions . Differen t termination s ar e sometime s give n t o th e sam e post positio n accordin g a s i t implie s nearnes s o r distance . Examples. N Com e (here ) nea r t o me . Ng a dak s a &tta . { Th e us e o f &tt a rathe r tha n M e nea r her e come . ^ C utt a als o implie s 4 comin g J close. ' Sa t au-wa f ap-t a j Pu t i t o n th e elephant . Elephan t abov e o n put . ) r * c Sa 9 almos t answer s t o th e Assames e ' Pohu. ' t Thi s seem s t o b e euphoni c fo r th e awkwar d hiatu s 1 au-ha /

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 4 9 Ng a mindu-ka * mindu i khri b g a M y buffal o buffa l >e s othe r / M y bi/ ' al o i j a m m g lep a h a dadna . f others , amon g is . J Th e differen t word s fo r 4 wit h ' requir e illustrating , thoug h I find i t difficul t t o la y dow n an y fixed rule s fo r thei r use . 4 Wit h m e 7 i s 6 ng a lagb a ' ; 4 Wit h you / 4 wit h him / 4 wit h th e elephant / ar e respectivel y 4 n a lagha / 4 h a lagha / 4 sa t lagha. ' "Wit h who m ? i s 4 hig a (o r plura l 4 higa-khe 7 ) lagba 1 ? H e came wit h the m i s : 4 M a bul l lagh a un-raa / H e wen t wit h the m i s : 4 M a bul l lagh a un-ma. ' 4 For ' meanin g 4 a t th e pric e of 7 i s expresse d b y 4 hok / e.g., Dan-bar-ly i ho k sibi n dornyig a rupee s te n fo r goat s tw o / i go t tw o goat s fo r te n pwep4 . C rupees , i got . J 2. CONJUNCTIONS . Th e simpl e conjunctio n 4 an d 7 i s 4 la / or , les s often , 4 14 / an d i s use d a s follow s : Ngal a na-la . ) Yo u an d I . I an d yo u and . j (Les s often , nga-t a na-t4. ) Ana-l a aba-14 . * ) y . , M y mothe r an d m y fathe r an d j j i c ) H a l a nga-l a a i 4-su-m a denna . H e an d I an d goo d togethe r no t £ H e an d I ar e enemies . are . Nga-t a itlyinne . " ) I als o wil l go . . I als o g o will . > ( 4 ta 7 i s alway s th e prope r ) wor d fo r also. ) Ther e i s n o wor d fo r 4 or / excep t a s ha s bee n show n unde r Interrogativ e Alternativ e Verbs / viz., 4 ly e 7 . 4 I s thi s min e o r your s ? 7 i s turne d 4 ng a ka-ly e na-ka-ly e ? ' Sometime s 4 lye 7 i s no t used , eve n wit h verbs , e g., i-tlyinn e da-tlyinn e (withou t an y particle ) = shal l I g o o r shal l I sta y ? * Thi s i s apparentl y a n idiomati c 'tmesis ' fo r 'nga-k a mindui. * Accen t ha s change d t ini ' int o ' h. '

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6 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A LANGUAGE . [Par t II . c Hablakl a 7 i s a conjunction , meanin g 4 fo r thi s reason, 7 4 there for e ; 7 bu t th e manne r i n whic h othe r Englis h conjunction s ar e turne d require s illustratio n ; a s H& m ng a bent-la , fun-ma, \ Thoug h I tol d hi m h e di d Hi m I tol d though , cam e not . j " no t come . Ma-tl a khra-ma . \ Thoug h I bea t hi m h e di d no t Bea t thoug h crie d not . j cr y out . Kan-ma-da-ya m na m h a ftnni. " ) ^ , , r , , Darknes s no t ye t bein g born e t o go . j G o hom e befor e lf c & et s dar k ' Ka n dedba * ng a nang-g a danma . ) I staye d i n th e villag e til l i t Darknes s bein g I (in ) villag e sta y j " go t dark . did . Sha-nva-ma-dedba * ng a da-tlyinne . \ I wil l sta y til l th e dancin g i s Danc e finish no t bein g I sta y will , j " over . Benja m be n ny a ma-dedb a da Son g singin g finished no t bein g sta y ( I wil l sta y til l th e singin g i s tlyinne . f over . will . J Adverbia l sentence s beginnin g wit h 4 a s fa r a s 7 ar e expresse d i n Dafl a a s follow s : g a utta r h a godba , pobbf t kotc h gon e t o a s fa r as , rive r shallo w (A s fa r a s I wen t th e rive r numm a or rab-da-ta-nma . f wa s fordable . wa s o r fordabl e almos t was . J Ng a u-ttar-h a godba , lamplf t al^ I gon e t o a s fa r as , roa d goo d (A s fa r a s I wen t th e roa d numma . C wa s good , was . J VII.—GENERAL . 1.—SHORTENIN G O F WORDS . Lik e th e Miris , th e Dafla s ar e addicte d t o shortenin g singl e word s suc h a s porong a t o por a ( — foul) , mullung a t o rnullf t ( = 6 all 7 o r th e plura l number) , mindiig a t o mindu i ( = buffalo) , a s wel l a s t o droppin g syllable s i n formin g compoun d words . Com poun d word s caus e som e difficult y t o a beginner , an d thoug h I hav e com e acros s a fe w simila r t o Mii i compoun d words , suc h * Th e neares t equivalen t t o * dedb a ' i s th e Assames e ' howd-loik e 4 i» & dedb a = » 4 no-ho w a d o i he. 1

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Par t II . ] ACCIDENCE . 5 1 a s yubk a = sleepin g place , rup-k a = ghat , literally—crossin g place , I mus t a t presen t admi t m y inabilit y t o formulat e an y prin ciple s applyin g t o such . 2.—DAFL A MONTHS . Fo r wan t o f a fitter opportunity , I ma y her e giv e a lis t o f th e Dafl a months . Th e yea r apparentl y begin s wit h 4 Piira / whic h nearl y answer s t o th e Assames e 4 Kartik, ' o r th e beginnin g o f th e col d weather . A moo n an d a mont h ar e synonymou s ; ther e seem , however , t o b e tw o inter-calar y periods , no t lul l months , whic h perhap s ar e inserte d casuall y whe n th e month s d o no t see m t o correspon d wit h thei r seasons . Bu t o n thi s poin t I a m no t ver y clear , no r ar e th e Dafla s themselves . 4 Bel ' seem s t o b e th e perio d inserte d a t th e beginnin g o t th e col d w T eathe r t o mak e th e mont h correspon d wit h th e season , an d fo r a n apparentl y simila r reaso n 4 Limpi ' i s inserte d a t o r toward s th e en d o f th e col d weather . Th e name s o f th e month s with , a s nea r a s possible , thei r Englis h correspondin g month s ar e a s follo w : Piir a Lubi i Bat a Baj o .. . October . .. . November . .. . December . .. . January . Siika m .. . February . Gra i March . Liiki i .. . April . Lichf t r ...*May . Hill a .. . June . Teli a .. . July . S u .. . August . Sut a .. . September .

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64 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. PAR T III.—SYNTAX . Wit h m y limite d knowledg e o f th e language , I thin k I canno t d o bette r tha n 4 4 giv e a numbe r o f typica l an d illustrativ e sentence s arrange d i n groups, " an d followin g th e orde r i n whic h th e part s o f speec h hav e bee n deal t wit h i n th e Accidence . Th e sentence s hav e bee n mostl y taken , wor d fo r wor d fro m th e Synta x par t o f Mr . Needham' s Mir i Grammar . Th e followin g rule s sho w th e orde r o f word s i n a sentenc e : (1 ) Th e genitiv e cas e precede s th e nominative , dative , etc. , cas e tha t i t qualifies . (2 ) Th e dativ e usually precede s th e accusative . (3 ) Th e accusativ e precede s th e instrumenta l an d ablative . (4 ) Th e adver b precede s th e wor d i t qualifies , bu t follow s th e othe r word s i n a sentence , bu t fo r emphasis ' sak e i t ma y com e first, o r ou t o f it s usua l place . (5 ) Th e ver b come s last . (6 ) I n a n interrogativ e sentenc e th e interrogativ e pronou n o r adver b i s nearl y last , i.e., jus t precede s th e verb . I.—NOUNS . 1.—GENDER . Nyek&r n h a ka-dna * Huk h ha" ] Ol d ma n h e il l i s ; ol d woma n sh e J . Th e ol d ma n i s ill . letchch a denna. * f Th e ol d woma n i s lame , lam e is . J % Ngalug a nyiji r mullua nos f sa ^ Ou r youn g wome n al l danc e danc e / Al l ou r youn g wome n ca n chin-mfi , dna . f no t dance , knowin g no t are . J Y&pang a t a tfigtfign a s a Youn g me n als o som e som e danc e / Som e youn g me n als o ca n chin-denna. * t dance . knowin g are . 5 ° ' dna ' an d ' derma ' appea r t o b e use d accordin g a s th e rythmica l cadenc e o f th e sentenc e requires , v. , 'dna ' wit h a monosyllabi c adjectiv e endin g wit h a lon g vowe l an d 'deuna ' wit h a dissyllabi c adjectiv e especiall y i f th e secon d syllabl e o f i t i s long. . t ' nos ' i s reall y a n Assames e word , appear s unnecessary , bu t i s nevertheles s thu s used .

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Par t HI. ] • SYNTAX . 5 3 Nga-k a nyer a kaa 6m-g a nyeg a kaa M y femal e chil d three , mal e chil d / i hav e thre e daughter s an d anyiga . C tw o sons , two . J S i sa t taba-ly e ? S a ka-a" ^ Thi s elephan t mal e i s ? Her e chil d / i s thi s a mal e elephant , s i al-ma . CThi s i s a ba d boy . thi s goo d not . Hiina-t a yipa-t a da-da . ) Ther e ar e mal e an d femal e Femal e bot h mal e bot h are . ) domesti c pigs . Nalug a por a rap a aikana m idna . ) You r cock s cro w i n th e You r fowl s mal e nigh t th e crow . ) night . Ng a k a pu p pun a porong a ang a dadna . j j hav e thre e i ; hea 3 . M y eg g layin g fowl s thre e are . ) J ° S a sa b mully u s o saba ) Her e Smthon ' (plural ) thes e mal e \ T T c ^ ^ « • . , 0 ' i j ' Ho w man y o f thes e mi hogadg a San a hogadg a ; „ J , • » , , b tho n ar e males , an d ho w ho w man y femal e ho w man y r 1 9 1 0 i o man y female s r dadn a r j J ar e ? J H a ill y 1 hokk a kaa allviga V Ther e so w tha t o f childre n te n /Tha t so w ha s te n youn g dadna . C ones , are. . J Nal u illy i bu n yi p ha m hogb a m di d nQ t k You r pig s femal e mal e the m wh y ! f ^ an d fe n J ^ tum-ma-gad-numm a r ( r ° shu t up , no t kee p di d ? j u p ? 2.—NUMBER . Ny i tullung a a m petabun-ba . Tli e me n hav e gon e t o cu t Me n (plural ) dha n cu t t o gon e have . ) dhan . X T * . . Th e ma n i s dying^ne-pii ' Ny i a sin-nepu . / feest transkte s th e Englis h Ma i di e will . j Njrn m mftllung a rongo-madn a Wome n (plural ) weedin g doin g ar e f J h wome Q ar( J weedin g . or u-madna . ( weedin g doin g are . )

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5 4 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. }Ti g er s ea t deer . Pat-a * sudumu m dadna . Tige r dee r eat . Ik i mullung a or i k tullung a ch e ^ffu-t" 0 d ° g S (plUrd ) bitin g ( Th e d o 2 s ^ e fight togethe r are . J Ez z tftllf t s i katc h da . ) m i , , , Clothe s (plural ) thes e dirt y are . j Thes e clothe s ar e dir t ^ mg . 3.—CASE . H a nyik h ka f do l kar-da . Hi m wif e o f falle n il l is . Tu s daba , ebl e ba m gug-ta . Comb , hnekela ' th e change . Ng a na m alb a ru-t o panma . I boa t wel l faste n did . N a etchi n (les s commonl y 'etchinam' ) You r ric e (cooked) , ric e da-tnum-ly e ? eate n hav e ? Ng a k a dub a rep-numma . I daughte r fo r bu y did . Al a sli n alo g okkar j Ther e tre e tha t of ^ leave s rubin lod-da. § havin g die d droppin g are . S a k a so k yotchi-a m na-kur-ga Her e chil d thi s knif e th e seiz e bac k laioka . take . Nal u ez z chumbdb a sechcha-ha m Yo u clot h weav e t o cotto n th e ho g lokk a ka-pa-denn a ? wherefro m findin g ar e ? } Hi s wif e ha s falle n ill . ) Com b you r hai r an d pu t o n ) a fres h petticoat . [ I fastene d th e boa t well . • Hav e yo u eate n you r ric e ? I hav e bough t i t fo r m y daughter . Th e leave s o f tha t tre e hav e withere d an d fallen . Tak e bac k th e knife ] ] fro m thi s child . /Whenc e d o yo u ge t th e cot v " to n t o weave]you r cloth s ? * Pronounce d 'pS—t a \ t Apparentl y a cas e o f • tmesis ' fo r « hokk a nyikha. ' J Usuall y 'okr, ' bu t euphon y compel s thi s change . § A neare r translatio n i s th e Assames e ' hor i porichche / fo r whic h ther e i s n o prope r Englis h equivalent .

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Par t H I. ] • SYNTAX . 5 5 S a su n s i is s au-w a ja l Her e tre e thi s wate r to p o n floating udna . goes . Iss i M-l a ku-lu-ta . Wate r dow n i n throw . Lepa-h a apta . Middl e i n put . H a su n h a h a na m agu m Ther e tre e tha t hi s hous e nea r dadna . Thi s tre e i s th e river . floating j | Thro w i t int o th e water , j Pu t i t i n th e middle . dow n is . ha K a t [-Tha t tre e i s nea r hi s house . II.—ADJECTIVES . 1.—POSITION . Ha b nyila , h a ny i (il-ma-na. ) T , * • n rYynr > 0 J r i J ^ , . > • I f so , h e i s a ba d man . b o i f , h e ma n goo d no t is . ) Sat a &ttor-denn a ; is s attordenna . ) Th e elephan t i s strong . Elephan t stron g i s ; wate r stron g is . ) Th e curren t i s swift . N a assob a akk o rep-niimrna . Boa t lon g 1 bu y did . Beny a ottu-naga . Okk r bornya T Stic k shor t a . Lea f smal l naga . a . H a ny i h a a u denna . Ther e ma n tha t tal l is . j1 bough t a lon g boat . A shor t stick . A smal l leaf . i 1 Tha t ma n i s tall . 2.—COMPARISON . S i nga m or ng a ami-ya. * Sh e m e (than ) I (than ) ol d more . S i nga m abbui-ya-a . H e m e (than ) ol d more . S i nga m buirmi*-ya-a . Sh e m e (than ) youn g more . S i nga m bori*-ya-a . H e m e (than ) youn g more . Sh e i s olde r tha n I . H e i s olde r tha n I . Sh e i s younge r tha n I . H e i s younge r tha n I . * Althoug h thes e word s ar e derive d fro m th e noun s meanin g ' e 4 elde r brother, ' etc. , the y appl y t o an y person s outsid e th e speaker' s family . elde r sister '

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5 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Nyisi l oyong& m Kampt i o}'onga^ \ Dafl a dao s (than ) Khampt i dao s / Ar e Khampt i dao s bette r tha n &l-ya-dna-ly e ? C Dafl a daos ? goo d mor e ar e ? J b i ng a ammy e or ammf . " ) , P I . . , . Thi s m y elde r sister , elde r sister . j Lhl s 1 8 elde r siste r Mullui a ha m hiy a sukr u paboy a pa . . Al l tha n wh o rubbe r cu t mor e f Wh o ha s cu t th e mos t has . j rabber ? Th e abov e sentenc e migh t als o hav e bee n rendered — Mulluj a ha m hiy a sukr u mull-ya-Pu A Al l tha n wh o rubbe r (plural ) / W h o ha s cu t th e mos t pa-pnumma . f rubbe r ? mor e muc h cu t has . J * 3.—NUMERALS . Mir i ny i illy i g a ngo i menda . ^ Mir i me n te n (particle ) fis h killin g v Te n Miri s ar e catchin g fish. are . ) Ny i chempl a gaba * lampl a ha V Me n fort y (particle ) roa d o n (Fort y me n ar e cuttin g jungl e "hab i " pa-da . C o n th e road , jungl e cuttin g are . ) Illy i aldi r g a s i da . ) . , Pig s si x (particle ) died . j Si x pig s died . Sikr i sti n k e & g a si-da . ) v . , , Rubbe r tree s nin e (particle ) died , j Nin e rubbe r tree a die d « Any ! ny i liy i yukf t Nyis u A T T Year s year s te n ag o Dafi a countr y ) f l a S° 1 f Cam e f talo k unm a o f W . t 1 • C ° Untr y t 0 th e ' r 1 plains , dow n fro m cam e came . J r Lekin-g a ab-l a p6a akhrg a ap-pa . ) I sho t si x crow s a t on e Onc e firing crow s si x firing got . ) shot . III.—PRONOUNS . 1.—PERSONAL . N a ah a dimlye ? N a ha m rnanm a lye . \ Ar e yo u angry ? Di d yo u d o You r ange r is ? Yo u i t did ? ) it ? * f b a ' eignifie s ' about / •

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Par t H I. ] • SYNTAX . 5 7 N a ja-la-danlye ? N a kriU&-" \ Yo u swi m abl e ar e ? Yo u coun t abl e t Ca n yo u swi m ? Ca n yo u danlyf i ? ar e ? Bfilla m jit-ta . The m t o give . Ngal u ama nyi n m L Ou r dha n ripe not . coun t ? 5 j Giv e i t t o them . | Ou r dha n i s no t ripe . 2.—RELATIV E PRONOUNS . Lup a au-n& m lki a si . Nec k sho t bee n do g this . ) Thi s i s th e do g tha t wa s sho t > ) i n th e neck . A m pe-na m a d e jiija-da . \ Al l th e 4 dhan ' tha t wa s cu t " is . J Dha n cu t bee n a s muc h a s wette d is . j go t wet . Mob u ab-na m ny i h e si . Gu n fire d bee n ma n veril y this . tJ m lya-nai n na m h a si . Fir e burn t bee n hous e th e this . Na m som a ny i h a si . Yo u prosecuto r ma n h e this . ) Thi s i s th e ma n wh o fired th e ) gun . \ Thi s i s th e hous e tha t wa s ) burnt . ) Thi s i s th e ma n wh o brough t j a cas e agains t you . Na-lu-n a yo-lft-m& n Aiaa si . ) Thi s i s th e Abo r wh o mad e Reprisa l counte r make r Abo r this . ) th e reprisal . Baly a ro-tun-n a n & h a si . (On ) san d sticke r boa t i t this . } Thi s i s th e boa t tha t stuc k o n th e sand . TJllua ro-tunn a n & h a si . Roc k o n sticke r boa t i t this . \ Thi s i s th e boa t tha t stuc k ) o n th e rock . Ng a al a M y foo t danma . was . o r dun-h a om l panji ' pierce d poiso n £ Thi s panji tha t pierce d m y foo t wa s poisoned . T&chch-n a ez z h a si . Tor n clot h i t this . ) Thi s i s th e clot h whic h wa s ) torn .

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5 8 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. 3,—INTERROGATIV E PRONOUNS . Ac h ha m hiv a ra g nenn a ? ) W 1 , , , , _ Q . . ? , t ° J. , Q > Wh o too k awa y th e ax e r Ax e th e wh o tak e awa y di d r ) J Higa-logk a ng a a m ka-pa-tail-" \ Who m fro m I 4 dhan 7 obtai n wil l / Fro m who m shal l I ge t n£y6? * ( 'dhan 5 ? eve r ? y Whic h th e good de n is ? ? } Whic h i s th e bette r o r bes t ? S a ei n sa f hiyea na m manma ? | Whic h o f thes e tw o struc k Her e tw o thes e whic h }'o u struck ? ) yo u ? H a hogab a lyi n nyia ? ) W l A , . , r . . ^ H e wha t kin d o f ma n ? j * ha t km d o f ma n 1 8 h e ? Hogadg a issha dad a ? H a naa o o Ho w muc h wate r is ? Ther e boat s / Ho w muc h wate r i s there ? hogadg a dad a ? f Ho w man y boat s ar e ther e ho w man y ar e ? y ther e ? H a hog a khrSdn a ? ^ Tha t wha t sounds ? (Wha t nois e i s that ? Ho w Lu k g a n a s a iiln e ? t man y time s di d yo u Ho w man y time s yo u her e cam e ? y com e her e ? Po l pol a ng a hogadg a "dhon , 7 " \ Moo n moo n I ho w muc h mone y /Ho w muc h a mont h mus t jib-ka-hal a ? C I pa y ? giv e mus t ? y Ho g katab a be-a-sft-dn a ? . Wha t o n accoun t o f fightin g togethe r i n ha t 1 8 caus e o f th e ar e ? ) ( l Qarre l ? S a m m p i 4 s i hogol a b a ftdne ? ) w , , _ . Her e roa d thi s wher e t o goe s ? j Wher e doe s thl s ™a d lea d t o ? N a ho g meg a dann a ? ) w , . Yo u wha t seekin g ar e ? j Wha t ar e lookin g fo r ? * 4 ey o * ha s th e forc e o f a ' universa l indefinite / t I n obliqu e case s 1 B I ' become s 1 ea /

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Par t HI. ] • SYNTAX . 5 9 4.—DEMONSTRATIV E PRONOUNS . S a ta b s i chipar * aruh a Her e snak e thi s dhan-pounde r w i th / Thi s snak e wa s i n th e dhan danma . C pounder , i n was . J Po l bargn a 4 1 sa b k4 n " ) Moo n on e (coming ) tha t thu s dar k j lurub f lyika m A t th e en d o f nex t mont h i t bein g whe n j wil l no t b e s o col d a s i t i s 4b a sukr u ku-d-ma . | now . muc h col d agai n wil l b e not . J S a blopp 4 s i s a Ai a sa-ka-ly e V-p . , . , , . ,« . Her e ha t thi s her e Abo r thi s of ? / D o f K thl 3 h f , t o tbl S al a Mir i fila-ka-lye ? f tha t < SOm e Wa y (distant ) ther e rive r Mir i tha t o f ? J ' H a } 4-ham , h4 m m4 , ga-ta . ) Cal l tha t (distant ) man , no t Ther e mor e him , hi m not , call . ) hi m (near) . H a ari l h4r n ng a moi l n4 Ther e hor n tha t I yesterda y tak e / Tha t hor n I refuse d t o tak e t-m4 k ha t numma . C yesterday , wil l no t sa y did . J 5.—ADJECTIVA L PRONOUNS . 6.—INDEFINIT E PRONOUNS . 7.—CORRELATIV E PRONOUNS . Thes e hav e bee n sufficientl y illustrate d i n "Accidence. " IV.. — VERBS . 1. — TH E SUBSTANTIV E VERB . Sany i sa l 4m a eg a dadna" ) X T j , , , Thi s yea r t o da y dha n muc h i s I Now-a-day s w e hav e plent y ^ J > o i alia n to r ou r ow n con dadba . V t o eat . ) sumption . N4 m h a ly4 1 dadn a or g4 P Hous e th e burnin g i s o n fire dadna . is . Th e hous e i s o n fire . * c chipa r ' i s th e hollo w vessel , o r morta r (Assamese) , th e stic k o r pestl e i s ' hun i *( * 'Ka n lurub ' i s sai d o f th e dar k phas e o f th e moo n ; ' sab ' denote s tha t a t th e tim e o f speakin g th e moo n wa s i n it s dar k phase , or , a s a Dafl a woul d cal l it , i t wa s th e en d o f th e month . I 2

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6 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Bu-ch o nam a kopa , Brough t firs t bee n plantains , a l nernrna . goo d were . S a sulu p s i al-mfi . Her e orange s thes e goo d not . S a pobb u s a isha a l Her e rive r thi s (of ) wate r goo d denna . is . H a n&ma Hi s hous e dadna . is . Ng a nyihing a M y wif e Ng a al a ach i da . M y le g sor e is . h a the y ( Th e 5 plantain s whic h yo u first brough t wer e good . | Thes e orange s ar e bad . Th e wate r good . o f thi s rive r i s nang u villag e middl e h a i n ka-dna . il l is . Hi s hous e i s i n th e middl e o f th e village . wif e i s ill . }M y j M y le g i i s sore . Sa l sukr u da , moil y og-nemma. ) To-da y i s is . ) cold , yesterda y ou r crop s ar e To-da y col d is , yesterda y hea t was . ) wa s hot . Siny i ngal u am a khram-" \ Thi s yea r ou r dha n goo d abou t f Thi s yea r m& , ko r khra m m& . f middling , not , ba d abou t not . J & aS T da^wiK . ^ } " ^ Lik e th e Frenc h ver b c faire 7 , th e verb'lyi 7 (= c t o do / o r £ make' ) i s ofte n use d idiomatically , wher e i n Englis h w e shoul d sa y 6 is / 'are / etc . Example. S a -gud a s i nyis u nang u hab A Her e countr y thi s Dafl a villag e lik e / Thi s countr y i s lik e (our ) lyida . V hills . is . 2.—ORDINAR Y VERBS . Dany i hfich-cha-da . Su n almos t risin g is . ) Th e su n i s goin g t o ris e ) (thoug h no t ye t visible) . r ' f ta ' coalesce s wit h 'nyilo, ' thoug h ' megt a 5 i s th e rea l word,=*=Aasames e 1 olo p m£n '

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r Par t HI. ] • SYNTAX . 6 1 M a nga l nang u b a lok-lok-b a H e ou r villag e t o tim e tim e (adv. ) udna . comes . Ng a potta-ha m surm a su r k a 1 pape r th e piec e piec e dividin g ji t numma . giv e did . Pottung a dug-neb a ; Splinte r pric k di d alma-p numma . wel l mad e have . ng a I ha m hi m H e sometime s come s t o ou r village . I tor e th e pape r t o pieces . A splinte r pricke d hi m ; I cure d him . M a pa t doro g mem-pa . H e tige r a kille d has . Sti n hckk a ipp a n a hol-niimma . Tre e fro m descendin g falle n has . Bullt i sikhr a pan-nepii . The y rubbe r cu t will . Lakannig a datl a bulli i rong a Day s seve n remainin g the y fields ha m um-rug-nenpti . th e fire pu t will . 'Mekuri ' na m ha-il-nepii . Ca t yo u scratc h will . Na m fim-a lyanpti . Yo u fire bur n will . N o etchi n danna. * Yo u ric e eate n have . tJng a m a dab a jem i ma-la Woun d no t bein g wor k d o abl e namma . was . Ng a hur-lyikam , sadg a opp o I thirs t being , s o muc h liquo r tud-nepii . drin k would . | H e ha s kille d a tiger . ^ H e ha s falle n fro m a tree . | The y wil l cu t rubber . I n seve n days ' tim e the y wil l bur n th e fields. | Th e ca t wil l scratc h you . j Th e fire wil l bur n you . " > Yo u hav e alread y eate n you r ) rice , an d ye t as k fo r more ! / Befor e I wa s wounded , I t coul d work . Whe n thirst y 1 woul d drin k s o muc h (showing ) liquor . * See not © o n th e perfec t tens e o f 1 >

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6 2 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i . S a ka-p a nyil a abt-b a Gam e se e happe n i f fir e (particle ) neppagala . woul d have . Harinb a ! ) Thi s i s th e idiomati c Ha d h e see n game , h e woul d hav e fired . wa y o f expressin g 4 Com e Quickl y ! ) her e quickly! ' cf. th e Mir i expressio n 4 Mainapii. ' Shad/ " in(there ) put . } Puf c ! t i n th e shad e ther e Pudu m tiikf t | Ti e u p you r hai r (sai d t o a Hai r ti e u p ! ) man) . Dump l pla s tuku . ) Ti e u p you r hai r (sai d t o a Hai r kno t ti e up . j woman) . Th e abov e expression s refe r t o th e perio d whe n on e emerge s fro m yout h t o manhoo d o r womanhood , an d mean s 4 I t i s quit e tim e yo u starte d tyin g u p you r hair. ' an d doe s no t refe r t o a n ordinar y occurrenc e o f a person' s hai r fallin g down , S a dara b patc h ha m ng a Her e thing s thing s the m I da-ma-lyi a ali a kata . remainin g no t i f wel l see . Go m be-yok . IVor d sa y not . Go m be-m a da-ta . Wor d speakin g no t stay . Bftlli i ny i ha m litab a tin ba . The y ma n th e bur y t o gon e have . M6bf i ab-na m suduin-ha m Gu n fired a t bee n dee r th e me -tab a u n ba . searc h fo r t o gon e have . M a bora m a-ru-tab a ude . Sh e youn g brothe r mee t t o goin g is . j " Ng a a m pely-h a ^ ta b sa g I dha n cuttin g whil e snak e a ka-p4 tenma . se e happe n did . Pobb u h a rab-tann a is s h a Rive r i n cros s wate r i n hollu-l a sin-na . falle n havin g died . Loo k afte r thes e m y absence . thing s i n ) Don' t spea k ! (sai d t o on e ) wh o ha s no t ye t spoken) . ) Silence , sto p speakin g (sai d ) t o on e wh o i s speaking) . \ The y hav e gon e t o bur y th e ) man . The y hav e gon e t o loo k th e dee r I fired at . fo r ) Sh e i s brother . goin g t o mee t he r I sa w a snak e dhan . whil e cuttin g H e wa s drowne d whil e cross in g th e river .

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Par t H I. ] • SYNTAX . 6 3 P& t h4 m k a p a pe l a ng a Tige r th e se e happe n having 1 / I caugh t sigh t o f th e tige r ke n ma . I an d ra n away , ran . j Yotch i pui-lyh a letchin g A Knif e sharpenin g whil e finger v / I cu t m y finger whil e shar ha m ma-pi-su-pnumma . f penin g a knife , th e cu t (reflexive ) did . j Ngal u ronga-h& m moi-nya W e fields th e weedin g finished (Whe n w e hav e finished weed tell a ngal * me g da-t-ku-npli. f C ing , w e wil l res t a little , having , w e a littl e res t agai n will . J Pat a ga-n-rfi-ba j n^ a ab-tenapii . } I ca n shoo t a bir d o n th e Bir d flying meetin g I shoo t will . ) wing . Anftb a lyal-nft-ta . \ Ru n quickl y an d fetc h Quickl y runnin g bring . ) it . Mobu-ha m bfi-ma-ga-b a sudu m ham^ j Gu n th e carrie d no t dee r th e / No t havin g brough t th e gun , a-l a ma-tnumma . f I coul d no t fire a t th e deer , fire a t abl e no t was . ) Nyed a ho-kin-ba-nyil a no a ut-ta-ma . ) r . n ' . c . Lai n fal l perhap s i f 1 g o wil l not . j 1 Wl U no t l f x t rain s ' Fis h gone " ba d has . } Th e fish ha s § on e ba d Th e boa t ha s sunk . N a arrft b an-ba . Boa t belo w gon e has . Th e negativ e for m o f ver b require s n o furthe r illustration . } 3.—INTERROGATIV E FOR M O F VERB . N a bos h dan-ly e ? ) A r . , 0 • x t n I Ar e yo u afrai d ? Y ou r fea r i s r ^ j lulu , i Sa n mfillu-ha m tft-tab-niimm ^ Tre e (plural ) th e caus e t o fal l dow n f Di d yo u cu t dow n th e lye . V trees , di d ? J * Th e repetitio n o f th e persona ] pronou n i s idiomatic , t Th e forc e o f thi s particl e i s 'fo r a change ' o r ' bac k again' . X Apparentl y * n ' i s euphonic .

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6 4 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i . H a ta b hk m " N Ther e snak e tha t se e happenin g no t ( p , . ^ A , dna-iy g >-H o yo u no t se e tha t snake . ar e ? J Nal u (plural ) nang a h a na" " You r villag e i n you r Wil l yo u (singular ) reac h (singular ) sa l ft-tch kf t I you r (plural ) villag e to-da y arriv e bac k f to-da y ? -npii-ly 6 ? (Not e th e idiom. ) wil l ? J Nal u sa l ma-tlyin n lye , ari a Yo u to-da y d o will , to-morro w (Wil l yo u d o i t to-da y o r to m a tlyin n ? * T morro w ? d o wil l ? J N a d a gu m gu m na m ha m ta-pa-" ^ Yo u thunde r thunderin g tha t hea r (D o yo u no t hea r tha t thun m a dn a lye ? f de r ? happenin g no t ar e ? J N a sa-t-ma k ha-dna-ly e ? " ) , . . A , Yo u danc e wil l no t sayin g ar e ? J D o y o u no t wis h t o danc e ? U d m a m a dnaly& , or u-tma k " k G o wil l no t makin g ar e ? G o wil l / ^ , . , , n ha d na-lye . ^ D o yo u no t wis h t o g o ? no t sayin g ar e ? J N a pa t a pi n al-b a di-l a dan n ly e ? ) n . Yo u tige r ski n wel l tak e of f abl e ar e ? j Ca n sk m a U S e r wel 1 ? 4.—COMPOUN D VERB S (PARTICLES) . Issh . ar u bal a -ullu-li m ng a Wate r withi n belo w ston e th e I ( I ca n se e th e stone s a t th e k a pa-da . t botto m o f th e water , se e happenin g am . J Ng a mob u d u nam-ha m ta-la I gu n soundin g th e hea r abl e 1 1 ca n hea r th e soun d o f a su-dna . f gun . togethe r am . J * Th e secon d ' ly e ' i s ofte n lef t out , a s here .

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Par t HI. ] • SYNTAX . 6 5 N a sa n h a cha-1 4 dan n ly e ? Yo u tre e o n clim b abl e ar e ? Ch41a-rna-dna . Clim b abl e no t am . Al a da-ru-m a nyila , u-l a tenpu . Le g broke n no t if , g o abl e b e should . Sa n h4 m hiid-in-ta . Tre e th e shake . Ng4 m mob u ab-kin-taba . M e t o gu n fire show . Na m nyi-l a ma-m-tai l ne . Yo u ma n b y bea t caus e will . H4 m mindu i arun g gal a Hi m buffal o hor n o n ku-pa-ga-nu m m a . tosse d has . Ng a sij a 4 s61a ' g a k 4 t&-m 4 I no w coa t wea r se e wis h no t rii . a t all . L&mpl4-ha m fi-mhr-maba . Roa d th e g o mistak e not . Ng a opp o sa m michf i ti l k a ta . M y liquo r thi s a littl e drin k see . Sa m k a chin-ma-dna-lye . Hi m se e knowin g no t ar e ? Ng a mnad i ta l sa-la-danna . 1 mountai n u p moun t abl e am . Ca n yo u clim b a tre e ? cannot . I f m y le g wer e no t broke n coul d walk . | Shak e th e tree . | Sho w m e ho w t o fire a gun . 1 1 wil l ge t a m* n t o bea t you . herabl a liltin g f ^ buffal o ha s tosse d him . I canno t tr y th e coa t o n now . | D o no t los e you r way . | Tast e a littl e o f m y liqu c r . | D o yo u no t recognis e hi m ? | I ca n clim b a mountain . Y.—ADVERBS . Ng a Hn-n a hoga b k4-p4-tailn e ? j Hq w gha l , j ge e i n th e dark ? I darknes s i n ho w se e happe n wil l : ) Moiyfi m nyad a eg a Yesterda y evenin g rai n muc h { I t raine d ver y heavil y yes honma . ( terda y evening , fell . J Ng a ha l hfidil a benm a ? I s o whe n sai d ? K Whe n di d I sa y s o ?

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6 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Is s paja b h a hfidil a Wate r (i.e., wild ) duc k the y whe n fi-tch-li-fi. arriv e will . S a sa n danyi m s a da-ta . Thi s tre e shad e i n sit . H a sa n danyi m h a da-la . Tha t tre e shad e i n sit . Oking a rL-daii-ne . Quickl y g o a t once . Ai a tfillfi a mfillfi a lekinga b Abor s (plural ) al l togethe r fin ma . came . Ny i fikkingan* fi kfi r kfinma . Ma n on e g o bac k agai n did . Ng a sudum a dor-kin-g a h e kf i pf i W e dee r on e onl y se e happe n numma . did . Ny i a kin-g a h e iilyi . Ma n on e onl y came . Mobf i le-king a h e fib ta . Gu n onc e onl y fire . Sadga b ji n pt i lye , hadga b Thi s muc h giv e will , tha t muc h ji n pi i ly e ? giv e wil l ? Ng a ly i nya-m a dfi . I doin g finish no t yet . Hfi-s a ha-sab a fi-tta, nga-fil a ach i Slowl y go , m y foo t sor e da , u-bl-ma . is , g o cannot . H a lagkr a da-ma . H e da y on e sta y not . } Whe n wil l com e i n ? th e wil d duc k | Si t i n th e shad e o f thi s tree . | Si t i n th e shad e o f tha t tree . | G o a t once . Al l th e ther . Abor s cam e toge | On e ma n returne d alone . • W e onl y sa w on e deer . | Onl y on e ma n ha s come . | Fir e you r gu n onc e only . |w i j * ^ I hav e no t finished yet . il l yo u giv e thi s muc h o r tha t much ? G o slowly , m y foo t i s sore , I cannot walk . ) H e di d ) day . no t eve n sta y a * 1 thin k ' n ' i s euphonic .

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Par t HI. ] • SYNTAX . 6 7 A-l a khrft-mft-b a ng a ft tlyinne . Tomorro w trul y I com e will . Da-i l tf t ftlyftm sai l li i k a Thunderstor m comin g tre e unde r da-m4-ba . sta y not . N a al a ftd ben chin-dan-ly e ? Yo u wel l son g sin g knowin g ar e ? i 1 wil l com e to-morro w sure . fo r D o no t sta y unde r a tre e i n a thunderstorm . | Ca n yo u sin g wel l ? VI.—POSTPOSITION S AN D CONJUNCTIONS . "fr-cho-lyft-ta . G o first on . Etchi n d a mft-d a ba*-ft-yen . Ric e ea t no t yet , I went . Po m madna , h a haly i denna . Sno w makes , therefor e col d is . } } } G o o n i n fron t o f me . I wen t befor e I ha d eate n m y rice . I t i s snowing , therefor e i t i s . cold . ' b a 7 i s th e adverbia l particle . K 2

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6 8 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. PAR T IV.—MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . Severa l o f th e followin g ar e give n from th e Dafl a poin t o f think ing , an d mus t no t b e regarde d a s translation s o f Englis h int o Dafla , Henc e th e Englis h renderin g o f them , unles s give n ver y freely , which , i n a n elementar y wor k lik e this , i s no t alway s advisable , mus t b e excuse d i f i n place s i t i s ver y crud e o r scarcel y grammatical . A COMPLAINT . M Ng a Hale-n e yolfl . ma-tab a I Hal e accuse d mak e t o a m na . Ken-la-moi l come . Thre e o r fou r month s ag o ng a abunga , nyihy i a-fima m y elde r brothe r wive s thre e ap-phel a sl-lelene . Ngal u Nyisi i lef t havin g died . Ou r Dafl a "niyom " b a bulli i a-fim-bobu a ng a custo m b y the y thre e al l m y na m s a da-m-tail-kbn-na. * bous e a t sta y wil l again . Mullu a ng a n& m s a a l da-kin Al l m y hous e a t wel l remainin g da , akn a hogb a a-m^-denn a yu ? is , on e wh y comin g no t i s why ? Bul l akn e ng a na m s a a-ma-ba f O f the m on e m y hous e t o comin g no t Haleg a n& m h a da-dna . Hale' s hous e a t stayin g is . H a hogb a madn e y u ? n a da-kb a Sh e wh y doe s wh y ? yo u wit h da-npi i had-na-ly e ma , Hale-g a sta y wil l sayin g i s not , Hal e da-khyau j da-npi i hadna-ly e ? wit h sta y wil l sayin g i s ? M a Hale-g a lag-y^i-ha j Sh e Hal e wit h rathe r danpi i hadna . sta y says . I a m com e t o complai n agains t Hale . Thre e o r fou r month s ag o m y elde r brothe r died , leavin g thre e wives . B y ou r Dafl a la w al l thre e shoul d liv e i n m y hous e now . I f al l shoul d liv e i n m y house , wh y doe s on e refus e t o ? Note. —This i s a rhetorica l an d mor e forcibl e manne r o f expressin g a fact . On e o f the m stay s i n Hale' s hous e instea d o f comin g t o mine . Q . Wh y doe s sh e ? Doe s sh e wis h t o liv e wit h Hal e o r wit h yo u ? A. Sh e wishe s t o liv e wit h Hale . * Th e 1 k u ' her e ha s th e forc e o f 4 chang e J o f forme r position . f ' b a ' adverbia l force . X ' y a ' (th e comparativ e particle ) i s inserted .

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 81 Nal u g a niyo m ha m You r custom s the m hogb a yop-pa-tailny e ? N a wh y leav e wil l ? You r na m h a al-da d kob a ng a hous e i n wel l stayin g tha t I ben-t-nepii . tel l will . Wh y shoul d I depar t fro m you r custom s ? I wil l orde r he r t o sta y i n you r house . HISTORICA L SENTENCE , Piir a po l h a arkor a ch a Har i Octobe r moo n i n beginnin g firs t Har i nang a ho k Tan u villag e fro m th e Ap a Tanang s Kodo m baggichch a agu m a-l a Kodo m (tea ) garde n nea r da n b& m Chirnu r livin g th e of-Tolbotia-Miri-trib e Podu-n e nyo b paltab a unma . Pod u wa r wag e t o came . La m p i a h a uy-h a l a ur n Loa d o n comin g day s thre e gab a fi n ma . Orum-b a abou t came . Friendl y manne r udnak hala * amb a w e ar e com e tha t sayin g falsel y solb a al a h a illy i por a pretendin g han d i n pi g fow l men j minsla , etchi n opp o dividin g distributing , ric e liquo r iniij-mins-l a dab a preparin g distributin g eatin g tub a sa l a Podun e manm-eik-a. f drinkin g playin g Pod u killed . Ma-pekfil a " Podug a ny i atc h Afte r tha t Podu' s peopl e (plural ) a m gonn e bloaiokl a bfill u th e (plural ) forcibl y takin g thei r nang u b a bo l uga n kunm-eika t villag e t o forcibl y cause d t o retur n I n th e beginnin g o f Octobe r th e Ap a Tanang s fro m Har i villag e cam e dow n t o wag e wa r o n Pod u o f th e Tolboti a Mir i tribe , wh o live d nea r Koddo m garden . The y di d th e journe y i n thre e days . Treacherousl y pretendin g friendship, an d presentin g por k an d fowl s ; whil e the y wer e dividin g thes e up , an d preparin g an d distributin g ric e an d liquor , an d eatin g an d drinkin g an d enjoyin g themselves , the y kille d Podu , an d carrie d of f hi s famil y captive s t o thei r village , * f k hala ' denote s reporte d speech . t Thi s terminatio n i s use d i n narratin g event s tha t th e speake r himsel f di d no t see .

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7 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. CONVERSATION . nyi ! Na m k a bu-nm a T o yo u chil d bor n bee n year s k denna . ho w man y are . Ng a be n chem-ma . I sa y cannot . N a nyi-k-g a haly i Yo u year s ho w man y abou t plain s nang a s a d a ilne . village s i n live d have . Ny i ril e niyu m kham-nepii . Year s te n year s thre e abou t wil l be . Nyis u ta-lo k uily Dafl a countr y dow n fro m whe n h.a , n a hogadg a ko i danma . comin g yo u ho w muc h bi g were . Ho w ol d ar e yo u ? I don' t know . Ho w man y year s hav e yo u live d i n th e plains . Abou t thirtee n years . Ho w bi g wer e yo u whe n yo u cam e dow n fro m th e Dafl a countr y ? Th e followin g exampl e show s ho w n o rul e ca n b e lai d dow n fo r th e variou s form s o f th e tense s o f verb s me t wit h i n conversation , especiall y th e ver b 4 u 7 : Ng a chitt i ak k ji-lu-sa * mi i d a ; ny i I lette r a sen d wis h ; ma n I wan t t o sen d a letter ; wil l filyi?-ulyi ? n a utlyinnly e ? an y on e g o ? wil l yo u g o ? go ? go ? yo u g o will ? A POLITICA L MATTER . Ngak hena m Nyis u tullu a M y writte n Dafia s (plural ) moi-a-su-nm a hal a ben g quarre l togethe r di d tha t sayin g ko r ma-lu-ma . wort h muc h not . Th e ro w amon g th e Dafia s abou t whic h I wrot e i s no t o f muc h importance . • ' s a wit h n o appreciabl e meaning , i s frequentl y joined , a s here , 't o th e particl e « mui ' o r ' m u *

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 7 1 Yolf i yiblf i chon ny i h a Accuse d maker s first me n betwee n l a Polic e h a lf i anyig a boc h Polic e betwee n an d th e tw o pe n k a ha , hogabjf i lyi-chir* dividin g wha t happe n numma , filjab be n yu b dab a me g di d exactl y defin e t o littl e essa M kulinda , okk a h a berf t difficul t perhap s is , bu t ther e matte r h a ben g ko r malu-g a mu-m a tha t sayin g wort h muc h I thin k not . Assf i ta l da n Getc h Hill s u p i n livin g Gatch i Miri s tullu a moi-f i su-dn a ; (plural ) quarrellin g togethe r are ; haly i nang a hf i da n Getc h plain s village s i n livin g Gatch i Miri s tfillfi a bull u nyo b padl a (plural ) the y wa r wag e ma y hal a bos h danna . Bullt i nyo b pail The y wa r wag e Okk a Pothalipar n Bu t Pothalipa m h a sij a da n Alexande r Sahab-b a i n no w stayin g Alexande r Sahi b t o ng a chitt i ta g heg-lyinma , h a I lette r a writ e di d ther e ber u ben g danfir n ha m matte r sai d (participle ) tha t tadfir-tell a n a a-h a hoga b hear d havin g you r hear t i n ho w mud a chitt i l a ta g magd a l a thin k lette r a writin g nga-p a ji-lfi-ba , m e t o send . tha t fearin g are . nept i mfi-ma . wil l I thin k not . Wha t betwee n th e polic e accoun t an d tha t o f th e complainants , i t i s rathe r difficul t t o sa y exactl y wha t di d happen , bu t I d o no t thin k th e matte r o f muc h moment . Th e Gat ch i Miri s i n th e hill s ar e fighting; thos e livin g i n th e plain s ar e afrai d tha t the y wil l rai d the m ; I d o no t thin k the y will , bu t I hav e writte n t o Mr . Alex ander , wh o i s no w a t Po thalipa m t o le t m e kno w wha t h e thinks . (Literally : havin g hear d th e sai d matter , writ e an d sen d m e wor d wha t yo u thin k i n you r mind , b y letter. ) A TAL E WIT H A MORAL . Sagf i l a Tarf i If i Sagf i mnar a Iepfib a an d Tar a an d jungl e throug h fi-lyit-gala. Tar a mob u bu g goin g were . Tar a gu n a Sag a an d Tar a wer e journey in g throug h th e jungle . * Th e distributiv e o r distinguishin g forc e o t 'chir ' (literall y meanin g 'each' ) canno t b e translated .

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7 2 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. bu-tl& . Saga-n e Tftr a benma: 4 San u carried . Sag a t o Tar a sai d : 4 Bi g semin * ka-pa-bainyil a da k wil d anima l se e happe n i f plac e &kki n h a dadl a mob u si-1 sam e i n standin g gu n thi s ab-tlyinne. ' wit h fire will / Ka-t&-chlb a h a bend-k a h a shutu m Exactl y tha t sayin g o n bea r dorrg a ka-pa-tella . Tar a a see n happe n having . Tat A fi-ki n gab a m6bun g ha m hur immediatel y gu n tb e throw n pa-pel a su n nuga1 cha-tella . awa y havin g tre e a i n climbed . Sag a chadab a sti n da-ma-tell a ; Sag a clim b t o tre e remaine d no t ; sutuma agum-h a fi-n-tella, Sag a bea r nea r came . Sag a ny i shi n ab a ke d h a gepl a ma n dea d lik e eart h o n fallin g katl a danma . Sutuma anull a lyin g remained . Th e bea r comin g nea r Saga-g a nyurr u d a kh a Saga' s ea r nea r nangka-tella . smelt . Sag a eb l ma b da-tl a sutuma Sag a movin g no t remainin g bea r u-khr-n e kunna . wen t bac k again . H a Tar a su n hokkh a i-pa-kh The n Tar a tre e fro m descendin g la , me g hiinyil a nyir-ka-l a again , littl e ashame d laughin g tachnumm a : 4 Sutu m h a n a aske d : 4 Bea r th e you r nyurr u h a hoga l poss a poss a ea r i n wha t secre t secre t ha l benm a ? ' Sag a benma : manne r said? ' Sag a said : Tar a ha d a gun . H e said : 4 I f an y wil d anima l wer e t o appear , I shoul d stan d m y groun d an d fire.' Jus t a t tha t momen t a bea r cam e i n sight . Tara , droppin g hi s gun , im mediatel y climbe d a tree . Ther e bein g n o othe r tree , an d th e bea r approaching , Sag a thre w himsel f a t ful l lengt h o n th e groun d lik e a dea d man . Th e bea r cam e u p t o Sag&' s ea r an d smel t it . A s Sag a di d no t mov e h e wen t away . The n Tar a cam e dow n fro m th e tre e a littl e ashame d o f himsel f an d jokingl y asked : 4 Wha t di d th e bea r whispe r i n you r ea r ? ' Sag & sai d : * Thi s implie s a bi g anima l tha t woul d kil l a man .

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 7 3 4 Sutum a nga m tom-sur-nemm a 4 H e tol d m e neve r t o trus t 4 Bea r m e taugh t a boaster. ' khray a lyay a gab a be n ny i boastin g manne r speakin g ma n lagb a tejj i ma-ba. 7 wit h trus t not. ' A DISASTROU S TOUR . Nang u pong-ga1 nimd4ne * Villag e on e i n blin d hti-etchna-l a danma . JLla-g a hunchbac k an d lived . Da y on e bulli i be-min-su-nm a nang u the y sa y togethe r selve s di d villag e h& m yop-pa-pel a oddu m th e leavin g behin d upstrea m dailyab a uttargo l udb a directio n g o a s fa r a s possibl e t o g o benma . Yu p kallamplin-g a da said . Night s eigh t ea t ga-b a embi n opp o illy i por a las t t o ric e li q no r pi g fowl s b4 1 unna . ti-rkb da i ftt4r f carryin g went . Goin g alon g goin g olyu m h a chomum-g a dan-g a evenin g a t thirt y inhabitant s nang a pon g ft-ch-nemma. villag e a arrived . H a nang a h a ny i e da-m Ther e villag e o f tha t me n sta y allo w denia-k j hiitla , ai-h a nang u no t tha t forbade , nigh t i n villag e boilya-h a danma . H a lagn a h a outsid e stayed . The n da y o n ud-udde j dany i o g h a iss h goin g along , su n hea t i n wate r ba n ba n n a hii-etchn a kas h carrie r carrie r hunchbac k secre t kas h l a is h m1illung-a m tu-da . secretl y wate r al l th e drinks . Ka-k u h a nimdan e h a iss h Afte r tha t blin d (man ) th e wate r A blin d ma n an d a hunch bac k live d i n a village . On e da y the y agree d t o leav e thei r villag e an d tra ve l upstrea m (nort h ? ) a s fa r a s the y coul d go . S o the y too k rice , liquor , por k an d fowl s t o las t fo r eigh t days . Th e first da y a t evenin g the y reache d a villag e o f thirt y houses . Th e villager s woul d no t le t the m in , s o the y spen t th e nigh t outside . Th e secon d da y o n th e march , a s i t wa s ver y hot , th e hunch back , wh o carrie d th e wate r o n hi s bac k quietl y dran k i t all . The n whe n th e blin d ma n aske d fo r * Thi s wor d means , 'blin d a t nigh t time, ' th e Assames e impl y tha t th e ma n coul d no t se e b y day . t Th e ide a underlyin g ' tar ' i s a day' s journey . J 4 k ' indicate s reporte d speech . 1 r&ti-khona / an d doe s no t

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7 4 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. kotl a hli-etchn a h a benm a demandin g hunchbac k th e sai d iss h udung& m h a wate r vesse l ( 4 choonga' ) ther e nang a ba * yop-p&-penma . H a villag e a t lef t behin d have . Tha t 4 1 olyu m h a nanga f pon g ga1 da y evenin g a t villag e a a t agu m h a pobb u hag ka-pa-gell y nea r a t rive r a t a met havin g hii-etchn a ny i h a udd u h a iss h hunchbac k ma n th e vesse l i n wate r tu-rabl a tu-da . fjdd u odnum dippin g u p drinks . Vesse l soun d m a ta-p&-tell a nimdan e ny i hea r happe n havin g blin d ma n h a benma : 'Habnyil a n a uddun th e said : 4 Thu s i f yo u vesse l ga m yop-pa-m a nam-g a : th e lef t behin d ho t i t seem s ; amb a b e na m ga , n a falsel y yo u spok e i t seems , you r bena m ha m tejj i ta-kJ spoke n (word ) i t trus t an y mor e m a no t ; n a nga m am-pa § ; yo u m e deceive d (now ) have ; sa l g 4 lokk a ngal u bana m ho g to-da y fro m ou r carrie d wha t ho g ha m dera b s&i n ngal u at t wha t th e thing s the m w e sel f 4tt e da g s u tlyinne , s a sel f kee p selve s will , to-da y illokr a o k ok-su-b a d a tlyinne. 7 nigh t separatel y sta y will. ' Ha-k a nangu-b a hkl a nim The n villag e a t arrive d blin d dan e h a nanguf nyi a m (man ) th e villag e ma n t o wate r h e sai d tha t th e vesse l mus t hav e bee n lef t behind . Tha t evenin g whe n the y arrive d a t a strea m nea r a village , th e hunchbac k dip pe d u p wate r i n th e vesse l t o drink . Th e blin d man , hearin g th e soun d o f th e vesse l sai d : 4 The n yo u di d no t leav e i t behin d afte r all ; yo u tol d m e a lie , an d I distrus t yo u ; no w w e wil l eac h kee p th e thing s w e hav e an d sta y apar t thi s night. ' S o whe n the y cam e int o th e villag e th e blin d ma n tol d th e villagers : 4 H e ha s cheate d m e an d w e ar e * Thi s i s mor e idiomati c tha n ' ha, ' bu t i f the y ha d bee n travellin g southward s (dow n stream) , ' ta ' woul d hav e bee n th e prope r word , signifyin g 1 1 lef t i t behin d ' ' u p north. " t Th e ful l wor d i s * nangunga, ' whic h i s shortene d t o 'nangu, ' ' naDgu, ' o r 1 nanga, ' accordin g a s accen t demands . t Apparentl y shortene d form , becaus e les s emphatic , o f th e particl e 1 kfc-iM , meaning , ' never' . § ' am-b & ' woul d signif y * deceive d m e a lon g tim e ago. 1

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Par t I V. J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 7 5 benm a : 4 4 M a nga m am-pfi , sai d : 4 4 H e m e deceive d has , o k ok-su-b a d a tlyinne . apar t apar t remai n will . H a nang u ho k ny i akk a ther e villag e tha t o f ma n on e nimdfine-b a h a nfi m ba blin d (man ) th e hous e hol d han d ki n ta b k a halla * benm a ; sho w t o tha t sai d ; hii-etchn a ny i h a khri b na m hunchbac k ma n th e anothe r hous e nanga i finna. A i h a a t o wen t into . Nigh t i n nimdane-b a h a hti-etch-b a h a ny i blin d (man ) th e hunchbac k ma n ha f na-nma m tfi-pf i th e callin g ou t hea r happe n numm a : 4 Nyia ng a dara b patch di d : 4 Me n m y thing s thing s hfi m detc h oll a bui-ny a tagde J th e stealin g t o tak e ar e about ' hanma . Nimdane-h a benma : 4 Sij a (he ) said . Blin d (man ) said: 4 No w ng a utlyinn e n a d a kha; J hagora I com e wil l t o yo u ; h e gettin g bl a ebl a y a po-niimma , hii-etch u p ladde r ru n dow n did , hunch b a h a na d k a dail y ab a back' s cryin g ou t directio n ya-tunna , chipa r a k da-tu m telia , running , 4 dheki ' on e lyin g blockin g h a chipa r ya-tunn a tha t 4 dheki ' runnin g tfibl a fila dur-da . agains t le g breaks . H a hab-lyi-h a ha b Ther e doin g whil e thu s mo-blu m ta b iil-nag a du knockin g ny i g a ma n a hall a goin g t o separate. ' S o th e blin d ma n go t a village r t o lea d hi m t o on e house , whil e th e hunchbac k wen t int o another . Bu t i n th e nigh t th e blin d ma n hear d th e hunchbac k callin g out : 4 The y ar e stealin g al l th e things. ' Th e blin d ma n calle d out . 4 1 a m coming. ' H e go t u p an d ra n dow n th e house-ladder , bu t fel l ove r a 4 dheki ' (vesse l fo r husk in g rice ) a s h e ra n toward s th e soun d o f th e hunch back' s voice , an d brok e hi s leg . hel p t o i s comin g probabl y tha t * ( k a hall a ' indicate s reporte d speech . t 'ha ' il l obliqu e case s (accusativ e included) , i s M& ' ( vid e unde r ' Persona l Pronouns. ' X ' nf i d & kh & ' ar e emphatic , becaus e o f thei r unusua l positio n i n th e sentence . L 2

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7 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i . ta-pel a detchan a ny i keknumma . hearin g thieve s me n ra n away . Hii-etc h b a nyie h a ny i khrab-nm & Hunchbac k ma n th e ma n groanin g adnum-m a ta-tl & nimdan e b a h a soun d hearin g blin d (man ) th e ftmm& nen-g a hall a lenma . cam e no t considerin g tha t wen t out . Lenl a nimdan e ny i h a Havin g gon e ou t blin d ma n th e a l durnm a M-pa-numma . H a le g broke n se e happe n did . The n nimdan e b a benm a : 6 6 N a iss h sai d : "Yo u wate r keshl a tfl-ma-nyil a secretl y drin k no t i f lyid-met-g'la . " no w thi s happe n no t woul d have. " Hu-etch-ba * h a benm a : " Ha-k a Hunchbac k th e vsai d : "I n futur e ha b lyhn-kf t m&. " A l i n tha t wa y d o wil l never. " Le g durna m d4-b-kul a ha l syinl a broke n bandage d feedin g givin g t o dakft-nma. f H a k a ku a drin k stayed . Afte r tha t nimdane-b a b a &l a me g kl blin d (man ) hi s le g a littl e bette r tell a me g udb a lyi t l a bulli i bein g a littl e t o g o bein g abl e thei r kit n&m-b a ft-kur-ku-numma. ow n hom e t o g o retur n agai n did . blin d (man ) mullij a ha m al l th e sij & sa b Meanwhile , hearin g tha t som e on e wa s comin g t o th e rescue , th e thieve s ra n away . Th e hunchbac k presentl y hear d groans , and , a s th e blin d ma n di d no t come , wen t ou t an d foun d hi m o n th e groun d wit h a broke n leg . The n th e blin d ma n sai d : " I f yo u ha d no t drun k al l th e wate r o n th e sly , thi s woul d no t hav e happened. " Th e hunchbac k promise d h e woul d neve r chea t hi m again , bandage d u p th e broke n leg , an d tende d an d nurse d th e blin d ma n til l wel l enoug h t o walk . The n the y returne d home . TH E PARABL E O F TH E PRODIGA L SO N (S T . L UK E XV , 11) . Lo k ny i kk da-tl k , k a anyig a Onc e ma n a lived , son s tw o da-tleya. J Ainy a y k a ab-h& m lived . Young-e r th e fathe r t o benm a : 1 Ab a ngalg a dara b ho k sai d : c Father , ou r thing s fro m A certai n ma n ha d tw o sons ; an d th e younge r o f the m sai d t o hi s father — 'Father , * 1 ba ' tha t occur s s o frequentl y i n thi s tale , answer s t o th e Assames e particl e ' to,' whos e neares t equivalen t i s th e Hindustan i wor d 4 wallah, ' a s i n * punkha-walla h 1 chota-wallah, ' ' andha-walla h ' (th e blin d one) . f 'kft ' implie s chang e fro m forme r condition . J Apparentl y euphonic .

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 7 7 ng& p nemm a s\] k jibba. " H a m e t o shar e no w give. " The n a b h a any i bob u haba * dera b fathe r th e tw o eac h thing s h& m pe n jitla . H a th e divisio n givin g made . Afte r ka-kua , ainya-y&-h a ap a g a tha t young-e r th e day s fe w datl a mii-g a dera b mullij a ha m stayin g hi s thing s al l th e nu-lai-ella , &d a guda gatherin g takin g distan t countr y b a unna . t o went . H a gitd & h a nyedai-nyet-ma Ther e countr y i n feas t merr y rni n l a nrug a dera b patc h makin g hi s propert y mullung& m m a y u m 1 e 1 1 a . al l wasted . Ha b ma-yft m tell a dad-ka-h a Thu s waste d havin g remainin g whil e h a gftd a h a dem a durr e utla , ther e countr y i n grea t famin e arose , mu g a i ho b da-p&-matla . Ha , bi s bell y fo r ea t go t not . Then , h a guda-g a ny i kk g a da k ga1 tha t countr y o f ma n a inhabitan t t o at-ht , h a ny i h e mnara f coming , ther e ma n tha t wast e lan d pukh-ruh a il l y i ka-il-ya-ta-k a shor t gras s swin e watc h tha t ha l um tella . Illy i dana m sayin g g o made . Pig s (by ) eate n dan& m aih i ho k ai-ha b da-lh-dab a eate n seed s fro m bell y fo r ea t ful l mutl a ; ny i ak k nekhra m h a wishe d ; ma n a eve n on e ther e ny i ha m hogj a ji-mk ma n tha t t o anythin g giv e no t tella . He n dadlah a benm a : did . Sense s recovering , h e sai d : giv e m e th e portio n o f th e substanc e tha t fallet h t o me. ' An d h e divide d unt o the m hi s living . An d no t man y day s after , th e younge r so n gathere d al l togethe r an d too k hi s journe y int o a fa r countr y ; an d ther e h e waste d hi s substanc e wit h riotou s living . An d whe n h e ha d spen t all , ther e aros e a might y famin e i n tha t countr y ; an d h e bega n t o b e i n want . An d h e wen t an d joine d himsel f t o on e o f th e citizen s o f tha t countr y ; an d h e sen t hi m int o hi s fields t o fee d swine . An d h e woul d fai n hav e bee n fille d wit h th e husk s tha t th e swin e di d eat , an d n o ma n gav e unt o him . Bu t whe n h e cam e t o himsel f * Th e adverbia l forc e tha t thi s wor d give s t o ' any i bobf t ' canno t b e translated , t Th e Dnfia s hav e n o < fields ' i n whic h t o her d swine .

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7 8 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. c Ng a fibga nyerrf t atc h h& m h a c M y father' s servant s (plural ) the y fittu anyi-n a dadb a kapatell a dell e brea d enoug h t o ea t find exces s dekhyeng a da d b a ka-p a tella , superfluou s remainin g find, ng a da-pa-ya-ma-b a La-n a b a 1 ea t find no t hunge r b y si-lya-sfi-tailye . Ng a sa-kk a di e a m abou t to . I her e fro m ab-g a da-kha1 ug dell a father' s presenc e t o goin g risin g bentailn e : 'Ab , na m l a uison sa y wil l : ' Father , yo u bot h Go d ha m l a nanya m ng a lyi-mur th e an d yo u bot h I don e wron g tell a ; n a k a ha b lyiya-ku-ma* ; hav e ; you r so n a s don e hav e not ; nga m n a nyerr a atc h ha m m e you r servant s (plural ) lyid-na-b a lyi-m-taba / Ha b wor k a s wor k make. ' Thu s mula-ell a ha k k a mii g abg a muse d havin g the n hi s father' s dak h baut-l A Okk a ad presenc e t o went , Bu t distanc e h a tiilna m a b h a ka-tul-k& i n comin g fathe r th e se e patell a ai a mu-pa-l a happe n havin g pit y musin g ya-ru-l a lup a gar-gab-l a ru n mee t nec k puttin g han d roun d mapub-tella . Kaa benm a : c Ab , kissed . So n sai d : f Father , nam-i a u i so n ha m l a nanya m yo u bot h Go d th e an d yo u tw o ng a lyi-mur-tell a ; n a k a I don e wron g hav e ; you r so n ha b lyi-ya-kft-ma;* ' Okk a k b a s don e hav e not. ' Bu t fathe r h a nyerr a atcha m ha m benm a : th e servant s (plural ) the m t o said : h e said : 6 Ho w man y hire d servant s o f m y father' s hav e brea d enoug h an d t o spare , an d I peris h her e wit h hunge r ! ' 5 1 wil l aris e an d g o t o m y father , an d wil l sa y unt o him , 'Father , I hav e sin ne d agains t heave n an d i n th y sigh t : I a m n o mor e worth y t o b e calle d th y so n : mak e m e a s on e o f th y hire d servants. ' An d h e aros e an d cam e t o hi s father's . Bu t whil e h e wa s ye t afa r off , hi s fathe r sa w him , an d wa s move d wit h compassion , an d ra n an d fel l o n hi s nec k an d kisse d him . An d th e so n sai d unt o hir a —'Father , I hav e sinned agains t heaven , an d i n th y sight . I a m n o mor e worth y t o b e calle d th y so n Bu t th e fathe r sai d t o hi s servant s : ' Brin g fort h quickl y th e bes t * ' kf t ' signifie s < thoug h I formerl y behave d a s you r so n shoul d have. ' Ther e i s n o wor d fo r ' worthy. '

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Par t I V. J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 7 9 4 Ng a miillij a ez z ha m al-yan n 'M y al l garment s tha n bes t ez z ha m anub a n a len g garment s th e quickl y tak e ou t gadl a sam-kam-ta , al a h a t a bringin g hi m clothe , han d o n als o letchl a ga-m-ta , h a lukhl a t a rin g put , fee t o n boot s to o ga-m-ta , s a ha b k a jit-yan put , co w femal e chil d fatte r gonn e s a bo a gadal a pakhr-ta * tha n al l her e brin g kil l nga l datlyinn ' ah a khrumdb a ; w e ea t wil l t o ou r hearts'conten t hogba f ha b lyittlyinn e ? ng a k a wh y thu s d o shal l ? ou r so n s a u i mna k la k cha-li n Satan' s countr y fro m risin g lyi-k-n a haly-ib a ka-p a com e agai n lik e a s I hav e see n gelku , nyina m k&-pa-gel-ku . again , th e los t I hav e foun d again . Hokk a bulli i s a min-dab-lyi The n the y danc e togethe r t o r&b-numma . began . Okk a k a abi i h a Bu t so n elde r th e rong a h a lyitla , rong a hokk a fields i n workin g was , fields fro m u-k-n a na m a gu m h a xi-ly returnin g hous e nea r comin g ku-la j du m du m ta l topp u hom e drum s cymbal s flute m a l a sa-min-l a adnumin& m playin g dancin g an d soun d ta-p^-tella . H a nyerr a ak k g a l a heard . The n servan t a callin g tachnumma : aske d : 4 H a adda n h a ho g madn a P 4 Her e nois e thi s wha t i s ? robe , an d pu t i t o n him ; an d pu t a rin g o n hi s hand , an d shoe s o n hi s feet , an d brin g th e fatte d cal f an d kil l it , an d le t u s ea t an d mak e merry : fo r thi s m y so n wa s dea d an d i s aliv e again ; h e wa s los t an d i s found. ' An d merry . the y bega n t o b e Now , hi s elde r so n wa s i n th e field ; an d a s h e cam e an d dre w nig h t o th e hous e h e hear d musi c an d dancing . An d h e calle d t o hi m on e o f th e servant s an d enquire d wha t thes e thing s migh t be . * Thi s signifie s 'kil l fo r ever y on e t o eat 4 pa-ta * woul d merel y mea n * kil l \ t Thi s i s th e onl y wa y o f expressin g 1 fo r J ' u-ly-ku-la ' i s a kin d o f imperfec t pas t participl e ; contras t i t wit h ' u-t-kfirla ' below , whic h ma y b e describe d a s th e perfec t pas t participle .

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8 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Nyerr a 4 N a bor h 4 You r youn g h a benm a Servan t th e sai d : h a ii t kula , n a a b brothe r havin g returned , you r fathe r n a borh-ha m ali a ft-kyou r youn g brothe r wel l returne d numm a ka-pa-kul a he m poz-ul a ha s seein g agai n bein g please d pai a kutch u mul a s a k a jitn a I a m fortunat e thinkin g cal f fatte d ha m pakh-14 . th e kille d has . H& m tat-la , ha-h 4 alia , n4m-h a Thi s hearin g angr y very , hous e int o ak-ma-tla . H a a b h a na m ente r no t did . The n fathe r th e hous e arri i ho k le n a t ku * insid e fro m comin g ou t com e insid e hatla . Ok k haa b ha m ben-ru-numma : said . Bu t h e fathe r t o answered : 4 Tai a 1 tasin a ! had a ny i ali a 4 Hea r ! loo k ! s o man y year s (and ) day s na m mil l la , n a ben&i n ha m yo u o n behal f of , you r wor d i t tellutella-l a lyitniimma , okk a heedin g I hav e worked , bu t ng a azin-oru m ha m ha l sin-l a m y friend s t o givin g t o ea t an d sa-min-dab a n a sibi n dorg-khra m An d h e sai d unt o him : 4 Th y brothe r i s come , an d th y fathe r ha d kille d th e fatte d calf , becaus e b e hat h receive d hi m saf e an d sound. 5 Bu t h e wa s woul d no t g o hi s fathe r cam e entreate d him . angry , i n ; ou t an d an d an d Bu t h e answere d an d sai d t o hi s father— 1 Lo ! thes e man y year s d o I serv e thee , an d I neve r transgresse d a com mandmen t o f thine , an d ye t drin k mak e merr y t o yo u goa t on e eve n tho u neve r gaves t m e a kid , jima ; okk a n a k a h a n a gav e not ; bu t you r so n h e you r derft b patc h nii-l a ell a nyem m good s good s takin g awa y wome n lagb a s a lupelaf-ud-ku n h& m s a k a wit h pla y wastin g returne d hi m cal f jitna m pak h jia-lyi-khram-ny4.' J fatte d kill. 5 tha t I migh t mak e merr y wit h m y friends . Bu t whe n thi s th y so n came , whic h hat h devoure d th y livin g wit h harlots , tho u killed's t fo r hi m th e fatte d calf. 5 * 1 kf i ' draw s attentio n t o th e fac t tha t h e ha d alread y refuse d t o com e inside . + Th e ide a underlyin g 4 l u ' take n wit h f sa ' is f h e headin g th e merrymaker s an d payin g fo r al l himself ; 1 ' sa-mi n ia ' woul d denot e 'eac h merrymake r payin g hi s share, ' o r a genera l feast . t Th e meanin g ' givin g t o hi m an d no t t o m e ' canno t b e expresse d word .

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 8 1 An d h e sai d unt o hi m : 4 Son , tho u ar t eve r wit h me , an d al l tha t i s min e i s thine . Bu t i t w r a s mee t t o mak e merr y an d b e glad , fo r thi s th y brothe r wa s dea d an d i s aliv e agai n ; an d wa s lost , an d i s found. ' A b h a benm a okk a : 4 Ka , n a ng a Fathe r th e sai d bu t : 4 Son , yo u m e lagb a da-k i su-dna , ng a wit h remainin g alway s are , m y dera b patc h mullus i na-k a mab a good s good s al l thes e your s no t i f hig a ? * Okk a hogb a ha b lyi-ma whos e ? Bu t wh y thu s d o no t tailne ? n a bor h h a u i mnak shal l ? you r brothe r Satan' s coun lokk a cha-li n du-k-n a tr y fro m risin g appeare d agai n halyiba , ko l nyin-kunna, f sij a lik e as , formerl y los t was , no w ka-pa-gelku. ' i s found. ' I no w thin k w e hav e advance d fa r enoug h i n th e discontinu e th e practic e o f placin g th e Englis h wo. d unde r Dafl a word . languag e t o th e TH E TAL E O F TH E BRAHMI N AN D HI S SERVANT . (Fro m Mr . Anderson' s 4 4 Cachar i Fol k Lore." ) Ko l Bamor n akk A g a lagb a nyerr a ak k danma . A l goll a Bamii m h a a i na m h a u-ta-ily a h a Bamu m h a nyerra-ha m kop a pom-g a khri b dara b patc h h a l a ba m dabt t jitla . Bamu m h a benm a : 4 4 S a kop a sa m alb a ka-l-b&-t a n a damab a ; ng a hogb a ha b bendna j ng a hal o daya b kadn a ha b lang k dayab a t a kapa denna . Ha l bem-pel a m a u-cho niimma . Me g kakua , kan a tella , nyerr a h a kop a a plo m ho k ak k pllil a Bamu m a lang k daya b narabl a ka-ki n l a da b neba . Ha b ka-ki n ka-ki n l a ling-luum-ga § kop a mullunga m da-ny a ganba . Me g kaku a Bamuma tach-niim ma . N a egi n ba g dana m h a Ther e wa s onc e a Brahmi n wh o ha d a servant . An d on e day , whe n the y wer e efoin g t o th e hous e o f th e Brahmin' s mother-in-law , th e Brahmi n gav e hi s ser van t a bunc h o f plantain s an d othe r thing s t o carry , an d sai d t o hi m : 4 No w min d yo u don' t ea t thos e plantains , fo r I ca n se e jus t a s wel l behin d a s before . An d s o sayin g h e marche d ahead . Presentl y th e servant , gettin g hungry , plucke d on e o f th e plantain s fro m th e bunc h and , hold in g i t ou t t o hi s master' s * A commo n metho d o f emphasizin g ( i positiv e statement , t ' implie s 5 chang e o f state, ' a s illustrate d frequentl y already . J Th e roundabou t metho d o f expressin g 4 because, ' ' wh y d o I sa y thi s ? ' § Literally , 4 thre e o r fou r time s ? ' M

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94 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. hoga b lyinm a ? H a Dyerr a h a benm a : Ka j n a nga m benm a habl a d a (il ) yab a ka-pa-denn a hab a lang k d a (il ) yab a t a k&-pa-denka * hatla . H a ng a kop a ak k akkb a na m k&-ki n ka-kin-l a ng a da tnftmma , h a n a hosj a be-ma , Nyerr a h a ha l benm a ta-pel a Ba mu m h a hogj a be-m&b a gom-be mab a un-na . Me g k a ku a ar a f ha , etchi n du d ha, J etchi n ma l dadba § danna . Khawa i ngo i me g da-tla , Bamu m a nyerra-ha m chir kin-gpn| | jitl a mullunga m att a ap^ f ganumma-etchi n da-tail y l a : nyerr 4 Bamum-ha m tach-numina Bamum , s a khawa i ngo i s i ok k okksu-b a ja l lyidna-lye , mullung a lekinb a ja l lyidna-ly e ? Bamfi m h a ben-ru-numm a : Mullung a le kinb a lyidna . H a nyerr a benm a : Habnyil a nga . ngoiy e n a ngo i lagh a da-kin-da* * Nyerr a h a ha l henn a Bamu m h a etchi n a g haf t ngo i a m kup-jil a mohhr | { jig-nutn ma . Ha b muijtell a Bamu m h a hogj a da-kmaba§ § nyerr a h a mull ijaha m dag-neba . | | | | Me g ka-ku a lampl a h a u d k a h a gi a su n eg a ka pa-tella . H a siin4r a ka-tl a nyerr a h a tac h numma . N a s a sii n sa m hoga l ami n dann a ? Bamu m h a benm a : back , at e it . An d thi s h e di d agai n an d agai n til l al l th e plantain s wer e gone . Presently , whe n th e Brah mi n aske d wha t ha d be com e o f th e load , th e ser van t sai d : 4 Yo u tol d m e yo u coul d se e behin d a s wel l a s i n front . S o I showe d yo u eac h plantai n befor e I at e it , an d yo u neve r sai d anything / S o th e Brahmi n wen t hi s way s speechless . (Literall y : Hearin g th e servan t tal k thus , th e Brahmi n without sayin g anythin g wen t o n i n silence. ) Presentl y the y stoppe d an d cooke d thei r mid-da y meal , an d the y ha d go t wit h the m a few khawai fish. Bu t th e Brahmi n onl y gav e on e t o hi s servan t an d kep t th e res t himself . An d whe n h e wa s abou t t o eat , th e ser van t asked— 4 0 h ! Brahmin , d o khawai fish swi m abou t singl y o r i n shoals. ' Th e Brahmi n answere d — 4 I n shoals. ' S o th e servan t said— 4 The n m y fish ha d bette r g o wit h your s ; ' and , s o saying , h e thre w hi s fish o n th e Brahmin' s mess , defilin g th e whol e thus . * 1 k a ' fo r reporte d speech . t Mornin g o r mid-day . J'du d ha ' a t eatin g time . § ' ma l dadb a '= ' t o prepar e an d ea t H 4 chir ' i s th e particl e use d whe n a ver y smal l articl e i s implied . % Literally , * holdin g took' . Literally , 'm y fish remainin g wit h your s wel l is' ' f t ' a g h a ' = o n to p of . % % 1 mobii r ' i s th e Assames e 4 ehu a ' = defiled . § § 'da-mab a ' woul d mea n ' eatin g nothing' ; th e insertio n o f ' k ' implie s 'gettin g nothin g t o eat , althoug h h e wa s hungry. ' Hl l Forc e o f ' g ' i s ' h e at e up another's food \

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 8 3 S a su n s i "geya " suna Nyerr a h a benma , M& , s a sii n s i 6 ga ' stina ; ng a bemim-iy a benj i bainyil a na m o-ung-gajitlyinna , n a benamiyf i jit * bainyila , n a ngfi m o-ung-g a jilyaba . b a sordn e k a iitchema f ka-pa-l a nyerr a h a tachnumm a : S a sii n s i ho g siina ? Bfilli i benma : 4 Ga'stin-a ; hatlf i Bamfi m a m nyerr a h a tokfir. J kfikhra-mab a o-ung-g a jinma. f Hf i kfikn a sibi n ollum-g a kfi-pa gallye . Nyerr a h a tachnumm a : S a sa § num u dadna[ | sfi m hoga l ami n dann a ? Bamu m h a benm a : Bulli i amin a 4 sibin. ' Nyerr a h a benm a : Ma , s i 4 sibbin-a. ' Ben cho-h a lyina m hab a Ba-mu m h a benm a filla bema-tal a Dyerr a h a Bamu m hfi m o-ung-g a tf i jinma . flokk a bulli i paka m atch& m ka-pfi gally e ; Bamu m h a 4 paka m ' ami n gallye , nyerr a h a 4 paka m ' ami n gally e Bamu m h a benm a ali a bemfi-tuklyill a nyerr a h a o fing-ga jinma . Bamu m h a a arruh a S o th e Brahmi n go t n o dinner , an d th e servan t at e th e whole , A littl e late r the y cam e a cros s a numbe r o f sinml trees . Seein g them , th e servan t aske d : 4 Wha t d o yo u cal l thes e tree s ? ' Th e Brahmi n sai d 4 geya. ' Bu t th e servan t sai d : 4 No , thes e ar e 4 ga' ; i f I a m right, I wil l bea t yo u five times , i f yo u ar e righ t yo u wil l bea t m e five blows : An d meetin g som e boy s grazin g cattle , th e servan t aske d the m : 4 Wha t tree s ar e these ' ? The y sai d 4 ga, ' an d directl y the y sai d it , th e servan t deal t th e Brah mi n five blows . Next , the y me t a drov e o f goats . Th e servan t asked : 4 Wha t i s th e nam e o f thes e animal s tha t ar e grazing ' ? Th e Brahmi n sai d : 4 Thei r nam e i s 4 sibin. ' Th e ser van t sai d : 4 No , thes e ar e sibbin. ' An d i n th e man ne r describe d above , th e Brahmi n bein g prove d wrong , th e servan t struc k hi m five times . Next , the y cam e acros s a flock o f paddy-birds , whic h th e Brahmi n calle d 'paka m bu t th e servan t 4 pakam ' (strongl y accentin g th e las t syllable) , an d agai n th e Brahmi n wa s prove d wron g an d go t five blows . * 'jit ' mean s 4 true' , f Plura l termination , fo r huma n being s only . J 'tokftr ' mean s 4 i n answe r 4 jinm a ' her e mean s 'hit' . § 4 s a ' (sounde d slightl y longe r tha n th e wor d fo r 4 here' ) mean s ( animals' . U 'nAm u dadna ' literall y mean s grass-eatin g \ % Thi s implie s f fo r th e thir d o r fourt h time. ' M 2

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96 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. ma-s-numm a : mitclii n henchi n ma n lagb a be-mi n ber a minsl a ben j a mingl a ho g bem-pa-lyin-pal a ? # Hokk a Bamu m h a a i na m agu m h a untaill a Bamu m h a kan a a l tell a nyerr a ha m u-cho-nell a das tus-l a ma-lya f tek j ha l be n tak a ha l fttch(>matla.§ Nyerr a h a u-cho-l a pajfi b ak k men g dal , h a lagb a kop a sii n h a choy| | pa r na m l a hok , eja g a-l u tella^ f a khr u y k tek $ hata . Bamfi m h a u-ch-tell a ai-h e h a paja b a ha m jo p ji t l a Bamu m h a a-har a dak6-tell a 61-m 6 khr&ra , kan a h a ho g mai-6-ne p mulla* * da-tnep u mutla . Ha b be n be n Bamu m ha m nyerr a h a htinyif f bem-pa-tella . H a ha b ljdb a mu g borho b hitt i ta g hetl a nyerr a h a 6.1 a h a ji-lu-tella , inii g borho b ji-t a ka $ hatla . Hokk a nyerr a h a hitt i h6 m bulaiell a me g 6d a h a ii-ginl a he-chinn a ny i ak k ka-pela , h a ny i h6 m hitt i ha m ho g ber u malu-p a ka-ka-ta b ka j hatla . Ny i hakhri tam-tella ^ hitt i h a he-l h num m a mu g bor h ha m benin a nyerr a sa m men t k a ho-l a helu-tell a ; h a nyerr a h a chitt i ha m sur-mu-su r ka-la-kupa tell a khribt6g§ § he t b a k a hatla . Chitt i h a m a lu manm a : c Borh , s a chitt i sa m katl a ngal u ka||| | nyiji r ha m s a nyerr a s a Th e Brahmi n repeate d t o himsel f th e prover b : ' I t i s idl e t o argu e wit h a fool. ' An d v/he n the y wer e no w com e nea r th e Brahmin' s mother-in-law' s house , th e Brahmin , bein g ver y hung ry , sen t hi s servan t o n ahea d t o be g the m t o ge t suppe r ready . S o th e ser van t wen t o n ahea d an d bad e th e Brahmin' s mother in-la w coo k a duc k an d pu t lot s o f plantai n ashe s wit h it . An d whe n th e Brahmi n arrive d hi s rno ther-in-la w se t th e duc k befor e him , an d thoug h h e di d no t lik e it s tast e h e wa s s o hungr y tha t h e ha d t o ea t it . B y thi s mean s (literall y : c o n variou s occa sion s whe n h e spoke' ) th e servan t pu t th e Brahmi n t o shame . S o h e wrot e a lette r t o hi s younge r brothe r an d sen t i t b y th e servant , tellin g hi s younge r brothe r t o kil l him . Th e servan t too k th e lette r an d afte r goin g a littl e wa y me t a ma n wh o kne w ho w t o write , an d tol d hi m t o * Literally , 4 wha t ca n avai l talkin g an d arguin g wit h a fool ' ? t ' ly a ' signifie s 'befor e th e Brahmi n arrives. ' f Oratio obliqua. § Th e litera l translatio n o f th e whol e involve d sentenc e i s 'mad e tli e servan t g o ahead , that , arrivin g first, h e migh t tel l the m tha t the y wer e t o ge t foo d an d drin k read y befor e th e Brahmin' s arrival / | | ' cho y \ mean s 'ashes / ^ ' eja g a-l u tella ' mean s 'addin g a grea t deal ' 'jop ' mean s 'liftin g up' , o r dishin g up . * * Literall y 4 i n hunge r wha t ca n I do , thinking , decide d I mus t eat / f t Or , mor e literally , cause d sham e t o th e Brahmi n b y wha t h e said , 'khrimean s t o spea k fro m writin g o r rea d out . ' khri b ' ~ ' another.' , ' ta g ' = 'a' . (Il l Ther e i s n o separat e wor d fo r 'nie»eloosel y sh e i s callc d ' daughte r ' o r ' child. '

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 8 5 anub a nyem m jitl a ng a h a nyem m jil y k a tanga m u m la * de-ma . H a chitt i ha m nyerr a h a bu-la i ell a Bamu m h a bor h al a h a jitla , bor k h a h a chitt i ha m katl a k & h & ha tur f harela , a arriih a h a h k da khram j abu-ga § ben g da-na m h a tell u ma-b a ho g lyin-pi i nyerr a ho b k a ha m nyem m jitla . H a k a ku a Bamu m h a nyerr & ha m mera p budde| | mem a budd e ha l k a t& b utla . Bamft m h a u-chl a h a ber u h a ta-tl a nyerr a ha m ma-tab a lyitla ; okk a m a k a nyijirh a nyem m jinat n h a ma-ta b lyina m hk ta pel a muf§ ~ nyo l ha m bentu m tell a : na m Bamu m h a manpi i kahada . H a ha b bena m li& m nyerrf t h a tatl a s a hizzi r dorrg* * na-tu-l a bolaeli , a l al a ap l bub u ha m let-la , niii g a nyih i lagb a yub-ka-h a japl a ab-tela . le t hi m kno w wha t th e lette r contained . Th e ma n rea d i t an d tol d hi m tha t h e ha d tol d hi s bro the r i n th e lette r t o kil l th e servant . The n th e servan t tor e th e lette r t o piece s an d tol d hi m t o writ e another , wit h th e followin g word s i n i t : 4 Brother , o n receip t o f thi s lette r marr y m y niec e a t onc e t o thi s servant , I can no t com e t o th e wedding . Th e servan t too k thi s lette r an d delivere d i t t o th e Brahmin' s brother , wh o rea d it , and , thoug h ver y angr y a t heart , bu t no t darin g t o disobe y hi s elde r brother , gav e th e gir l i n marriag e t o th e servant . Soo n after , th e Brahmi n cam e t o se e whethe r hi s servan t ha d bee n killed . O n arriv ing , an d hearin g wha t ha d happened , h e determine d t o kil l th e servant , bu t hi s niec e wh o ha d marrie d th e servan t hearing , h e ha d determine d t o kil l hir a informe d he r husban d tha t th e Brahmi n wishe d t o kil l hira . Hearin g this , th e servan t seize d an d brough t i n a calf , an d tyin g it s fou r leg s together , pu t i t i n be d wit h hi s wife . e ' I shal l no t (now ) b e abl e t o come ' woul d b e 'um-la-ma \ t Her e ' batli r ' mean s 'much ' o r 'greatly ' an d 'bab a harela ' mean s ' boin g angry' , th e word s followin g mea n ' withi n hi s hear t concealin g hi s anger. ' + f da-khram' = concealing . § Thi s i s th e onl y metho d o f expressin g 'no t darin g ' viz., b y a rhetorica l question . | | I n dependen t clause s ' budd e ' i s use d fo r 1 lye' . I f 4 g a ' i s omitted , partl y fo r euphony' s sake , an d als o probabl y becaus e ' possession 9 i s no t strongl y implied . * * Th e Assames e ' gor u cheor i ejon i ' exactl y translate s 's a hizzi r dorrg' .

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8 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. A i h a Baraii m h a al * mu g dun f h a yub-k a h a katl a nyihi r nyo l nyu j yubsdat i l a ha l s a k a ha l nyerr a ha l ha b na m rnentla. A r h a katl & s a a m me-mur-tab a att e mu r dusukl a nyerr a ba m benm a s a ha m anub a lidk a hatla . Nyerr & h a s a ha m sel a el, § bollu| ] h a am e sadlyin^ f l a dadb a litla . Ha b ma-tl a Bamu m h a s a me n k a 'jogor ' h a u i pada r dab a lyitla , nangi m ny i ha m ben-tam-maba* * etchi n datkaf f hal a gratia . Mullij a ka m dat ka l mat-la , nyerr a h a boll u h a ly a linlaJ J s a am e h a na-tu-tell a gra-tl a : Bamu m a s a me-ma ; hogb a etchi n jidna , s a me n k-ho b ma . Ha m tat-l & nyia mullung a att e att e n&m-b a ft-kur*ne-kunna. I n th e nigh t th e Brahmi n cam e an d seein g hi s niec e i n bed , thinkin g husban d an d wif e wer e aslee p together , kille d th e calf , believin g 'JtJ t o b e hi s servant . O n th e morrow , seein g tha t h e ha d kille d a sacre d ani ma l b y mistake , h e wa s confounded , an d tol d th e servan t t o bur y i t a t once . Th e servan t too k th e cal f int o th e garde n an d burie d i t wit h it s tai l stickin g ou t o f th e ground . Afte r this , th e Brahmi n se t abou t expiatin g hi s guil t fo r havin g kille d th e sacre d animal , an d ordere d tha t th e villager s b e summone d t o a feast . Whe n al l wer e assemble d th e servan t ra n int o th e garde n an d dragge d th e cal f b y th e tai l an d shoute d : 'Th e Brahmi n di d no t kil l th e anima l ; O h ! no ! I t i s no t becaus e h e kille d th e anima l tha t h e i s givin g th e feas t ; Oh ! no ! The n al l th e part y disperse d an d wen t home . * ' al ' = 4 havin g come' . t'dun ' i s th e relationshi p a gir l afte r marriag e bear s t o he r rea l family . X ' ny u ' her e mean s 1 an d § 1 Assamese ' 'tan i n i '= ' draggin g ' . I I 1 boll u 5 mean s ' garde n 's&dlyi n 5 mean s ' stickin g ou t * * * ben-tam-maba ' mean s 4 withou t givin g the m th e chanc e o f answerin g ' h e insiste d o n thei r coming . t t Generall y 'ka, 1 denotin g reporte d speech . X t Th e ver b 't o run ' i s generall y
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Par t I V. J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 8 7 Th e followin g interestin g narrativ e i s no t s o eas y fo r a beginne r t o follo w an d I hav e decided , t o plac e th e correspondin g Englis h word s unde r th e Dafl a one s : POISON . Ngal u Nyising a opu-h a om l ap-denna . W e Dafla s arrow s o n poiso n put , Om l da k talb a haly i nang a s a Poiso n plac e u p t o plain s village s her e k a l a po l barg-b a udb a lyidnepi i fro m moo n on e abou t t o g o wil l b e Ngal u Nyising a h a u-t-m & W e Dafla s ther e g o not . Aiang a om l na l padna . Orn Abor s poiso n brin g supply . Poi siin a ch a siin a ha b lyidna . Oml so n tre e te a tre e lik e is . Poiso n a su n me m h a dadna . Me m eyi n th e tre e roo t i n is . Roo t potat o ha b lyidn a ; ke d hokk a du1 nadn a lik e i s ; groun d fro m diggin g take . Stil l h a jely u h a dadna . Tre e th e marsh y groun d o n ar e ull u lii n agum-h a dadn a ; h a ston y roc k nea r i s ; i t agumh a du r der a tappama dadne . nea r summe r winte r sno w remains , tjll u lii n a u w a ta b mullig a Ston y roc k to p o n snake s man y dadne . Ta b satn e ny i har are . Snake s girt h man' s le g (abov e p o dadne , kay & bal a chany i hab a knee ) ar e blackis h yeilo w lik e lyidna , eh i homg a ass a denna . are , teet h (fingers ) thre e lon g are . Tab a nyia m che-lyam , sldna . Nyi e Snak e ma n a biting , dies . Me n om l n&-tab a ii-lyam , poiso n brin g i n orde r t o comin g fillu a u hokk a tab a pal-l a roc k abov e fro m snake s droppin g nyi-a m che-dn a ; ny i nikhr u hokk a me n th e bit e ; me n twent y ou t o f illy i angan e tab a che-dna . te n five snake s bit e (kill) . W e Dafla s ti p ou r arrow s wit h poison . Th e plac e wher e i t i s obtaine d i s a month' s journe y fro m th e plains . W e Dafla s d o no t g o there , th e Abor s brin g i t down . Th e tre e yieldin g th e poiso n i s lik e a te a tre e ; th e poiso n i s i n th e root , whic h i s lik e a potato , an d i s du g ou t o f th e earth . Th e bushe s gro w o n leve l groun d nea r a grea t rock , roun d whic h sno w last s al l th e yea r round . O n to p o f i t ar e man y snakes , th e larges t bein g a s bi g roun d a s a man' s leg , the y ar e yello w an d black , wit h teet h thre e fingers' breadt h i n length . I f on e bite s a ma n h e dies . Whe n me n com e t o di g fo r th e poison , th e snake s dro p dow n fro m th e to p o f th e roc k an d kil l (bite ) them , ou t o f twent y the y kil l five o r ten .

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8 8 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [ Par t V i . Oppopor a illy i sa b s a la-l a fowl s Liquo r pig s mithonscow s offerin g u i patna , u i pa-ma-lyam , Go d appease , Go d no t appeasing , nyadang a ho-dna , ish i ta-l a rai n falls , flood dow 7 n-comin g om l ka-pa-ma-dn a ; ny i poiso n se e happe n no t d o ; me n mulling a si-dna . man y die . Omla a h a ab-na , anub a Poiso n th e bod y i n strikin g quickl y si-dna , ala-h a ab-na , hasobb a dies , ar m i n striking , slowl y si-dna . Aiang a 4 dorob 5 chendna , dies . Abor s antidot e know , ngal u cbem-ma . w e kno w not . Om l abna m ny i ha m k a bun a Poiso n struc k ma n th e chil d born e nyemma khra-ta-lya m a l dukna , woma n steppin g ove r wel l become s hatn a ; ny i u i a m issh a the y sa y ; man' s bloo d th e wate r ta y a tella , tu-lyam , (with ) mixe d having , drinking , a l dukn a hatna . wel l become s the y say . Th e me n offe r u p liquor , fowls , pigs , mithon , an d cow s ; i f the y d o not , rai n fall s an d th e floods cove r th e poiso n place , an d man y me n ar e killed . A ma n struc k o n th e bod y wit h a poisone d arro w die s a t once , bu t i f struc k o n th e ar m h e die s afte r a fe w hours . Th e Abor s kno w o f a n antidot e ; w e d o not . Bu t the y sa y tha t i f a woma n wh o ha s jus t born e a chil d seep s ove r th e wounde d ma n h e recovers , als o i f h e drink s huma n bloo d mixe d wit h water .

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Par t I V.J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 8 9 I n Par t I I (Verbs ) referenc e wa s mad e t o th e differen t change s i n th e for m o f verbs , fo r whic h n o rul e ca n b e lai d down . Th e followin g sentence s wil l illustrat e this : 4 Ng a top-p & £#-k-b a ha g denma ' means — I begge d hi m t o releas e m e (le t m e go) . 4 Ng a top-p a du ka-b a ha g denma ' means — I begge d hi m t o releas e hi m (i.e., anothe r man) . I f i n m y bungalo w I tel l a Dafl a tha t I a m goin g ou t shootin g to-morrow , an d tha t h e i s t o com e to o an d brin g fro m hi s house , tha t is , fro m som e distance , hi s doable-barrelle d gun , I say— ' Ari a ng a nyi n Al a gra-tailn e ; na-ta , mob u buplti m ba m biig-ly'a , unju. ' Bu t i f th e gu n i s alread y i n th e bungalow , s o tha t h e doe s no t hav e t o brin g i t fro m a distance , 4 bii g-lyi 5 i s th e word . Similarly , i f I sa y : i Vo u wil l hav e t o brin g thre e days ' suppl y o f rice ' i t i s 1 Yu p ( = nights ) ao m gab embi n ba g ly i or b&g-lya, ' accordin g t o whethe r h e ha s a stor e o f ric e a t th e bungalo w o r a t a distanc e ( c bug / sometime s 4 bli / i s t o carr y o n th e shoulder ; 'bag, ' sometime s 4 ba , t o carr y o n th e bac k a s a load) . I f I tel l a Dafl a h e i s t o com e wit h m e o n a thre e days ' shoot , h e wil l ask — Noka-b a nga l lrudil a A-shi-tailn e f i.e., Whe n shal l w e star t of f ? Th e neares t equivalen t t o 4 nok a ba ' i s th e Assames e 4 bahiralo i ' translate d b y 4 off; ' 4 shi ' implie s tha t w e ar e no t goin g i n an y particula r direction , an d ca n onl y b e inserte d whe n suc h i s th e meanin g implied . I f a Dafl a say s t o bi s wif e : 4 Ny i anyig a a-il-nepii' , sh e under stand s tha t tw o neighbour s livin g i n th e sam e villag e wil l b e 4 call ing ' a t th e house . Bu t i f h e say s 4 ny i anyig a u-il-nepti' , h e mean s tha t th e tw o wil l b e me n fro m anothe r village , o r a lon g wa y off , wh o wil l 4 arrive ' a t hi s house , probabl y t o stay . I f a Dafl a meet s m e an d introduce s tw o chief s wit h hi m h e wil l say : 4 S a ny i s i alyel i.e., thes e me n hav e com e an d ar e no w present , bu t i f h e give s m e informatio n tha t som e chief s no t pre sen t hav e come , h e wil l sa y : 4 Ny i anyig a u-ilye' , i.e., tw o me n hav e come , bu t ar e no t presen t now . N

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9 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. I n a marc h throug h th e jungl e wit h Dafias , i f I wis h t o tel l the m tha t w e wil l hal t a t th e first rive r tha t w e com e to , I sa y : 4 Is h ka-pa ka , yfip-t&-ja ' i f I mea n 4 fo r th e night' , 4 yu p ' implyin g tha t ; bu t i f I mea n 4 fo r th e midda y rest ' i t i s : 4 Is h ka-pa-ka , dat&-ja. Th e followin g tw o sentence s illustrat e th e difficult y on e ex perience s wit h th e tenses , A Dafl a bo y i s learnin g a t a schoo l awa y fro m hi s home . I f I as k 4 Wh o i s payin g fo r hi s educatio n a t presen t ? 9 th e answe r wil l be — 1 Mu g da d k a n& m h a nyie ji-khr&m -gad-nepu j viz., 4 Th e ma n i n whos e hous e h e i s livin g i s probabl y paying. ' Bu t 4 ji-khram-&$ npu 9 mean s 4 ha s probabl y pai d u p t o now. ' A s alread y mentione d unde r Particle s (Par t II , Verbs ) th e forc e o f * g ' i s rathe r har d t o define . Her e i s anothe r illustratio n : Lookin g u p a t th e hills , I sa y t o a Dafl a : *Nyis u t&-l a (=u p in ) r&tch e (landslips ) chelonga m (literally , wor n an d cleared ) k&-p k-ge-cl a 9 i.e., 4 1 se e landslip s have occurre d i n th e hills. ' 4 K M pMge-denna ' woul d mea n 4 1 se e the y ar e habituall y occurring. ' Th e followin g illustrate s th e difficult y on e sometime s experi ence s wit h th e first an d secon d person s o f a Verb : I f a Dafl a ask s fo r a pas s t o g o t o th e hill s t o tak e deliver y o f a mitho n owin g t o him , an d I objec t t o gran t it , an d sugges t hi s waitin g til l nex t col d weather , I sa y : 4 DerMl a sa b pelyinpii'='Y ou wil l ge t th e mitho n nex t col d weather,' i.e., 4 Yo u ar e no t likel y t o los e th e mitho n alto gether , b y waitin g til l nex t year , ar e yo u ? ' H e answer s : 4 Dera-l a p &-tenpu* 9 = 6 Yes , I shal l ge t i t nex t col d weather, ' Th e followin g sentenc e illustrate s th e Dafl a metho d o f express in g 4 las t mont h ' an d 4 nex t month' : S a pa l s a &l a nyikhrf t l a pli n gak had a ; Her e mont h thi s (in ) day s twent y an d eigh t tha t the y say ; ky&n& m po l bargn a h a Ma-b a lyil-nepi i hada . (twenty ) nin e mont h on e fro m tha t t o b e wil l the y say . Th e meanin g i s (talkin g o f th e mont h o f February) : 4 I n thi s mont h the y sa y there ar e twenty-eigh t days . The y sa y ther e wil l b e twenty-nin e day s fro m las t mont h t o next. ' Her e 4 b&rgna, ' a particl e whos e usag e i s explaine d i n Par t II , Numerals , meanin g 4 one ' month , implie s th e previou s month , whil e 4 al a ' whos e usag e ha s bee n explaine d i n Par t II , Demonstra tiv e Pronouns , implie s th e comin g month .

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Par t I V. J MISCELLANEOU S PHRASE S AN D SHOR T STORIES . 9 1 On e ma y als o notic e i n passin g tha t havin g jus t mentione d twenty-e ight, a Dafl a doe s no t conside r i t necessar y t o repea t th e wor d twent y (nyikhrft ) befor e nin e (kyanarn ) t o expres s twenty-nine . Th e Demonstrativ e Pronou n 4 ha 7 i s als o use d i n a somewha t simila r way . Compar e th e followin g : Ngal u Nyisunga , nyo b patlyi-k a halyam , h a pa l h a W e Dafla s wa r wag e wil l tha t sa y i f ther e mont h tha t (in ) patly i ha l tappa-cho-dna . Nyi n oruma ben-tum wag e wil l tha t hea r happe n firs t do . Friend s allie s infor m denna , do . Th e translatio n is — ' W e Dafla s kno w i n th e month before the y (th e Abors ) actuall y rai d us , tha t the y hav e decide d t o rai d us . Ou r persona l friends , an d thos e peopl e o f othe r village s wit h who m w e ar e o n friendl y term s giv e u s information . 7 I ma y explai n i n passing , tha t thes e hil l people , havin g decide d o n a marc h o r a raid , wai t til l th e first appearanc e o f th e ne w moon , an d the n se t out , travellin g b y nigh t i f secrec y i s neces sary . N %

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9 2 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. PAR T V.—VOCABULARY . 1 . DAELA-ENGLIS H VOCABULARY . A fe w Dafl a word s ar e her e give n whic h hav e n o prope r Englis h equivalents , o r whos e Englis h equivalent s ar e doubtfu l o r coul d no t ver y wel l b e give n accordin g t o thei r initia l lette r i n th e alphabetica l orde r I hav e adopte d : Aia , th e Abors— a loos e ter m includin g al l th e tribe s livin g i n th e neighbourhoo d o f th e Ap a Tanan g countr y whic h ar e no t Dafl a o r Ap a Tanang , bu t doe s no t includ e wha t w e kno w a s Abors , viz., th e tribe s livin g i n th e directio n o f Sadiya , a plac e unknow n t o th e Daflas . Blembii , a n anima l resemblin g fro m it s descriptio n th e chamois , bu t perhap s th e 4 taki n ' o f th e Mishm i Hills , foun d i n th e snow s ; it s hid e i s use d fo r shields . Bloppa , th e smal l can e ha t usuall y wor n b y Daflas . Chimfir , th e hil l Miris . Domchi , th e ban d wit h piece s o f bell-meta l o n it , wor n roun d th e forehead . Dumka , th e lon g bras s pi n throug h th e bunc h o f hai r gathere d ove r a man' s forehead . Dfimsha , th e bunc h o f hai r itself . Ebl , |th e lowe r garmen t wor n b y women , lik e th e Assames e 4 meckla. ' Huhi , th e bell-meta l plate s wome n wea r roun d th e waist . Hftpla , th e can e girdl e o n whic h th e abov e ar e fastened . Koyfi , a kin d o f Thibeta n goat , ver y agile , foun d i n th e snow y precipitou s ranges . Krappa , th e Assames e 4 sorti, ' th e bea m unde r th e 4 kench i ' i n a house . Le i oml , a certai n poiso n ( c om l '=poison ) fo r tippin g arrows , obtained , accordin g t o th e Daflas , fro m th e roo t o f a tre e growin g hig h u p i n th e hills . Le i liin , th e roc k o n whic h th e tre e jus t mentione d i s sai d t o grow . Lukrii , th e can e plaite d tigh t roun d a woman's le g abov e th e ankl e an d belo w th e calf .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 9 3 Lftrum , th e can e similarl y plaite d o n a man' s leg . Maj , th e tongueles s bell s use d a s mone y fro m Thibet , sometime s calle d i n Assames e 4 Deoganta. ' Nye m ta b (literall y femal e sugarcane) , a cro p grow n i n th e hills , fo r food . O , th e thi n ring s o f cane , severa l o f whic h ar e wor n roun d th e wais t b y Dafl a me n an d women . Pi , a smellin g mouse , bu t distinc t fro m th e mus k rat , whic h i s 4 kirti. ' Punyu , th e stic k fo r stirrin g ric e whil e boiling . Ruben , th e piece s o f silver , sometime s o f larg e size , wor n i n th e ears . Satarn , a leathe r shiel d mad e o f th e hid e o f th e 4 blembii. ' Tar , a crysta l bea d wor n o n necklaces . Taya , th e Assames e 4 kon i dhan, ' a cereal . Tei , a kin d o f mole , th e loca l Assames e nam e i s 4 shihi l mia 9 o r 4 teter a koodoo. ' Temmi , th e Assames e 4 bobosa, ' a cerea l use d b y th e Dafla s fo r makin g liquor . Tona , th e re d garmen t wor n b y wome n roun d th e chest . Yar , th e Assames e 4 moroli, ' bea m o f a house . Yft k k u sMa , th e Assames e 4 kenchi,'th e cros s bea m supportin g th e roo f o f a house . 2 . ENGLISH-DAPL A VOCABULARY . [NOTE—ORDINARIL Y ONL Y TH E ROO T O F A VER B I S GIVEN. ] A . Abl e (t o be) , v. chen , o r ma-l a ; se e als o 4 la ' unde r 4 Particles. ' About , adv. (meanin g approximately) , (particle ) kharu . Above , adv. an d post pos ., au . Abuse , v. ag& m ben , literall y spea k abuse . Acid , adj. o f unrip e fruit , tha t affect s th e teeth , etc. , an d o f quinine , kamb e (cf . Assames e 4 keh a ' ) ; 4 kiissu ' answer s t o th e Assam es e 4 teng a ' o f lemons , etc . Accompany , v. ft mi n ; see 6 mi n ' unde r 4 Particles. ' Accuse 1 , v. neli n hempa .

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9 4 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Admit , v . (acknowledge ) a . Advise , v . tom-sur . Adze , n. Akh . After , adv. an d post pos . kakuha . Again , adv. lokta . Agree , v. see c Assent. ' Aim , v . yi r or khrii . Air , n . dolye . Alive , adj. tfirdnii . All , adj. mul l ft. Alligator , n. bur . Alone , ad,j ftkkin. Always , adv. Mftllft-a . Ambuscade , n. tollya ; 6 lyin g i n ambus h ' (Assames e ' kft p loi' ) i s < tolly a la. ' Among , post pos. lepa-ha , Ancestors , att-a b s i ch a ha . And , conj. la . Anger , n t h a h a ; ' Don' t b e angry ! ' i s 4 hech a h a h a yo!' . Animal , n. s a (thi s mean s 'game ' i n general) ; ' san u samin ' mean s a bi g anima l tha t coul d kil l a man . Answer , v. be n tarn . Ant , n . (genera l term ) torft b ; (white-ant ) rftpchi ; (smal l blac k ant ) rupch i kayft . Aqueduct , n. chonka . Arm , n. . al a j (forearm ) laplf t ; (uppe r arm ) l&pft . Arrive , v. ft-ch. Arrow , n . o p ft. Ashes , n. mfti . Ask , v. tac h ( a question) ; (t o d o anything ) hag . As k for , v . (money , etc. ) k o (shorte r tha n ' ka / t o wear ) . Assent , v. tellft . Aunt , n. (father' s brother' s wife ) nan . Avalanche , n. ratch e ; ('a n avalanch e i s occurring ' i s *rfttch 6 che-dna. ' Awake , v. trans, m o ; {int.) ho-rab . B . Bachelor , n. tftmb . Back , n. lan k ; (o f a knife , etc. ) yogga . Bad , adj. al-ma . Bag , n. (wallet ) igin . Bake , v. (i n oven ) ha . Bald , adj. dftmbin . Bamboo , n . a ; ( a bambo o ' choonga' ) ftddft. Bank , n . (o f a river ) soily a sugftr .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 9 5 Bark , n . (o f tree s ) sflkkf t ; okr . Bark , v. (o f a dog ) pi i ; (o f a deer ) ka . Barren , adj. (o f land ) chikhru-dekhrana ; (o f a woman ) turu n gumna . Basket , n. pas i (probabl y fro m th e Assamese) . Bat , n. (th e ordinar y kind ) tapi n pench ; (flyin g fox ) tapi n peng-ga . Bathe , v. intrans. hus . Bead , n. tassi . Beak , n . hibft . Beam , n. (see 6 Plank 7 ) . Bear , n. shutilm . Beard , n . 4g4m . Beat , v. (wit h stick ) ji ; (wit h hand ) ma . Because , conj. s a hab a (literally , 4 o n accoun t o f this 7 ) . Beckon , v . hoi-ab . Bed , n. bishing , mayab. Bee , n. (th e larg e kind ) ton g ; (th e ordinar y kind ) ngoiny a ; ( a ver y smal l kind ) tar . Beef , n. s a edi n [literally , co w (o r bull ) flesh] . Before , adv. an d post pos. (o f time ) kolga ; (o f place ) agada lyaba . Beg , v. (alms ) kog 4 or kogra . Begin , v. ly i (meanin g generall y '"t o do') . Behead , v. dum-p a ha m paril & kflp 4 (literally , 4 cu t righ t of f an d thro w awa y th e head') . Behind , adv. (o f place ) n&myflmdalyaba . Believe , v. tejji . Belly , n . aiye . Bend , v. trans . tiirk h ; ( a bow ) hen-g 4 ; intrans. (o f a river ) pa-kfl pa-la . Bent , past participle , piig-gil r ; pa-ya . Betray , v. ben-tur n ; 4 d o no t betra y me 7 is 6 nga m ben-tur n m&ba / Th e rea l meanin g seem s t o b e 4 t o infor m against 7 . Big , adj. k e or koi . Bind , v. ( a prisoner ) le . Bird , n . patt & (genera l term) . Birth , n. see 'Born 7 . Bite , v . che . Bitter , adj. k&mb e (see 'Acid') . Black , adj. kaya . Blade , n . (o f knife , etc. ) yotchi . Blame , v. neli n hemp A Blind , adj. (wher e ey e i s enlarge d an d pupi l turne d white ) nyil ; (generally ) nyicha . Blood , n . hi .

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9 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Blow , v. trans, m i ; ( intrans . 4 o f th e w T in d ' ) d a lyi , literally , ( t o mak e a gal e Blue , adj , nej . Blunt , adj. (o f a weapon ) are-m a (literall y 4 edg e i s not') . Boat , 7i. na . Body , 7i. semm a ; also a . Boil , v. (1 ) trans, (rice ) ma , (etchin= 4 boile d rice 7 Assames e 1 bhat' , henc e 4 etchi n ma d ha ' i s literally , 4 t o prepar e boile d rice 7 ) ; (meat , etc. ) i s 4 is s h a khri i 5 (literall y t o ste w i n water) ; (water ) h u ; (potatoes , etc. ) hu m (causativ e o f 4 h u ') ; (2 ) intrans. (water ) ehi r or ag . Bone , n . ala . Boot , n. luk h ; sometimes lukhla . Born , v . (t o be ) su . Borrow , v. na d che . Bow , n . illyi . Box , n. (Assames e word ) pera . Bracelet , n . koz . Brains , n . pun . Branch , n. (o f tree ) haba, Brand , v. bletchi . Brass , n. p i to r (apparentl y borrowe d fro m Assames e 4 pit61 a ') . Brave , adj. harn a or haine . Bread , n. ftttei. Break , v. (1 ) trans, (cup , o r brittl e smal l thing ) modu b ; ( a lon g article , leg , etc. ) almi l ta r : (2 ) intrans. (cup , o r brittl e smal l thing ) du b ; ( a lon g article ) dft r ; (t o b e foun d broken ) du s ; (t o remai n broken ) dubl-das . Breakfast , n. chinka . Breast , n. (man's ) habl a ; (woman's ) otcha . Breathe , v . sa . Bridge , n. (th e ordinar y kind , Assames e c dalong , j dolla m ; (th e narro w kind , Assames e 4 ha-ko' ) so g ; (th e kin d mad e o f wir e o r cane , o n whic h peopl e si t an d pul l themselve s across ) sella . Bright , adj. (o f moon , etc. ) huj-hu-ma . Bring , v . (a n elephant , buffalo , etc. ) b a ; ( a man ) u m (literall y caus e t o come ) ; see also 4 Carr y ' . Broad , adj . tat . Bronze , n . (Assames e 4 kah' ) ta b Broom , n. sernpii . Brother , n. (elder ) abft , atc h ; (younger ) bor . Brother-in-law , n. ('sal&' ) lya h ; (sister' s husband ) m4b . Brown , adj. pi-lu-n a ; (o f dea d leaves ) nft-lft-na . Bubble , n. hoppi . Bud , n. oppo .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 9 7 Bug , n . tab . Buffalo , n. mindui ; (wild ) dilin . Build , v. ma . Bull , n. s a nyega . Bunch , n. (o f plantains ) (kop& ) plong . Bundle , n. pAch i pu g ( 4 pftg' = one , see Numerals' ) or puch i akk . Burn , v.(I) trans, pa r ; (2 ) intrans . lya l or gul . Burst , ©.(1 ) trans, butch-m a (literally , t o mak e burst ) or matc h ; (2 ) intrans. butc h or tatch . Bury , v . lidba . But , conj. okka . Butterfly , n , porbas&la . Buttock , n . koio . Buy , v . rep . C . Calf , n . (o f leg ) litti . Call , v . g a (th e 4 a ' i s shorte r tha n i n c g a r — to fly) ; (b y shouting ) gra . Canal , n. selam . Cane* , n. (th e tree , Assames e 4 bet' ) asa . Capsize , v. intrans. ku-lu . Carcase , n. dumpd . Careless , adj. ho g hem-pa-m a (literally , * h e doe s no t min d any thin g ') . Carry , v . (i n hand ) bu , (o n shoulder ) bii ; (o n back ) hh . Cat , n . asi . Cataract , o r cascade , n. butam . Catch, v , (generally ) nott u ; (fish , wit h a net ) hurt u ; (fish , wit h a 'polong' ) purtu . Cautious , adj. k&mi n kami n la . Cave , n . lupu . Caw , v. (o f crows ) sa-gra . Chain , n. yada r (o f iron ) ; &khranga. , Change , v. trans . (clothes ) ka-g , or gug , Channel , n. selam . Charcoal , n. mer . Chase , v. ak o akob a nemi n g a ; (wit h dogs ) rft-min-ga . Cheap , adj. do r ainyi t d a (literall y 4 pric e i s small') . Cheat , v. am . Cheek , n. chopl& , nabchi . Chest , n. (thorax ) habl o or sftssu . Chew , v. nyam . Chicken , n. (youn g bird s generally ) pochft . . o

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9 8 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Chief , n . gorf i ab a (literally , 4 subject' s father') . Child , n. k a or k a aj i (withou t referenc e t o sex) . Chillies , n. yomtr u or ter . Chin , n . chapra , nyurru . Chink , n . (smal l hol e o r crack ) ok a perarn . Chip , n . patch . 6 chipped ' (o f a cup , etc. ) pajfi . Cholera , n . dalyi . Chopper , n . ak h ( a genera l ter m includin g axe , etc.) . Choose , v . ka-khrum . Circle , n . dokar ; 4 The y sa t roun d i n a circle ' woul d b e 4 dokfi r da-adl a da-nma. ' Claw , n . lessin . Clay , n . dekin . Clean , aclj. derri i ; v. ma-khrfi . Cliff , n . budfinga . Climb , v . cba . Clotb , n. ezz . Cloud , n . danye . Coarse , adj. (general ) kamt e ; (o f cloth ) ta n satn a (literall y 4 clot h o f coars e threa d ') . Coat , n . lalu . Cobweb , n . abtasin . Cock , n. por a ra p (literall y 4 fowl , male') . Coil , v. ( a rop e roun d anything ) hu . Cold , n . (opposit e o f heat ) sikr ; adj. lialyi . Colour , n. paripaga . Comb , n. tekhr ; v. (hair ) dump a t u (literall y 4 hea d comb' ; th e Dafla s d o no t sa y 4 du m tu ' thoug h 4 dum ' mean s 4 hair') . Nut3—Th e 4 u ' i s no t quit e s o lon g a s i n 4 ti l ' = 4 drink. ' Come , v. u ; 4 com e out ' i s 4 le n ' . Complain , v. (i n court ) yol u ma . Concave , adj. pakab . Convex , adj. gabur . Confusion , n. 4 oko m denna ' or 4 hukrna i denn a ' mean s 4 i s ' or 4 ar e i n confusio n Cook , v. see 4 Boil' , 4 Roast' , 4 Bake' . Copper , n. (Assames e 4 tarn' ) torlu . Corner , n. chir u or chuki . Cotton , n. (th e kin d know n i n Assames e a s 4 himol u tola' ) gr e opp u ; (sow n cotton ) secha . Cough , v. ass u or assmfi . Count , v. krika . Th e wor d fo r 4 t o measure ' i s pronounce d wit h a stil l longe r 4 k } . Cover , conceal , (v. ) ka-mfira . Cow , n . s a nyemma .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 9 9 Co-wife , w . (Assames e an d Hindustan i 'satni' ) barna . Crack , v. (1 ) trans . bl e ; (*2 ) intrans. ta , or ga . Cracked , aclj. (o f glass , brass , etc.) , tangam . Crawl , or creep , (£>. ) nga-lu . Crooked , adj. (o f a stick , etc. ) pagii r ; (o f a road ) pak&r . Cross , v. ( a river ) rab . Cross-road , n. (wher e thre e road s meet ) tabl u ; (wher e four , five , o r si x road s meet ) plaplum . Crow , n. poa ; v. (o f a cock ) i . Cry , v. (lik e a child ) khra b ; (cr y out ) n a o r kin-n a ; (o f animals , generally , crows , jackals , doves , deer , etc. ) gra . Cubit , n . lad . Cultivate , v. pa-bin , or tebin . Curds , n. kd-chunna . Cure , v. al . Curl , v. intrans. (o f hair ) grid . Current , n. (o f a river ) buddara . Curve , v. intrans. (once ) pdk u or pak i ; (severa l times , back ward s an d forwards ) pdk u pail M Custom , 7i . lyagaba . Cut , v. p a ; (i n pieces ) pa-m u ; (open ) patc h ; (down , o f a tree , etc. ) ti l ta b (literall y 'caus e t o fal l down') . Cymbal , n . hembin . D . Daily , adv. latchilata . Dam , n. (rive r 4 bun d ' ) sag ; v. hen-tum . Damp , adj. yu m ; v. tabom . Dance , v. sa . Dark , adj. kan . Daughter , n. k a nyemm . Daughter-in-law , n. nyehyli . Dawn , 7i . arkc m che . Day , n. al . Dead , adj. sidni i ; 4 i s dea d ' i s expresse d b y 4 sin-ba 7 ( 4 ha s die d ') . Deaf , adj. rutar . Deaf-mute , n. rutar-patcha . Debt , n. jogo r (Assames e word) . Decay , v. ya . Deceive , v. am . Decide , v. (settl e temporarily ) bemp l or bemp l bella ; (settl e finally ) benyht n ben-tum . Deduct , v. ma-Iin . Deep , adj. (o f a river ) aru . Deer,.w . sudu m ; (smalle r kinds ) sij i ; (Assames e 4 how a poh u ' ) dumpupe . Defame , v. be-rnur . o 2

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10 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Defend , v. ( a place ) muttur , ( a man ) nyem-nottu . Deity , n . ui . Delirious , adj. (sayin g thing s unde r th e influenc e o f delirium ) om-aly a ; v. (t o sa y thing s thus ) be m ben-khra . Demand , v . kaka . Deman d back , ka-ka-ku . Dense , adj. (o f jungle ) atche . Descend , v. ipa . Dew , n. sugu m or gfimshi . Die , v. si . Differ , v. (t o b e different ) ben-ju k su-ra a ; or ok k ok k su . Difficult , adj. (o f a road , path , o r journey ) ush-u M ; (o f feats ) miis h mah a (literall y 4 difficul t t o do' ) ; (difficul t t o say ) bes h beh & ; (ordinarily ) essaha . Dig , v. obodu , or du . Dip , v . abom . Diphtheria , n. (Assames e 'tip a mora' ) numtidalle . Dirty , adj. katch . Dishonest , adj. khrailyana . Distance , nor distant , adj. ada . Distille d liquor , n . shara b oppo . Distrust , v. tejj i mk (literall y ( trus t not') . Divid e (distribute) , v. pen . Do , v. ma . Dog , n. (domestic ) ik i ; (wild ) sechcha . Door , n. eyap . Dove , n. pukkli . Downstream , adv. ak a dailyaba . Drag , v. pu . Dream , v. yumm a ka-p a (literall y ' se e i n sleep') . Dress , v. inirans. k a (fro m a nake d state) , cf. kag , t o chang e clothes . Drink , v. tu . Th e ' u ' i s ver y long . Drive , v. ropa . Drop , n , (o f fluids) di . Drop , v. trans, hoppa . f I dropped ' i s c ng a hopp6-ma-pen-numma \ Drum , n . dunudum . Drunk , adj. (throug h liqucr ) tukhru m ; (throug h eatin g ganj a o r an y solids ) dukhrum . Note'—Th e constructio n o f thes e word s i s wort h noticing : Tukhru m tella mean s 'drunk' , i.e., havin g become drun k ; tukhru m denna i s no t th e wa y o f expressin g th e Englis h 6 h e i s drunk, ' bu t tukhru m panma ; similarl y 'dukhru m panma k Th e perfec t tens e is , afte r all , th e prope r tens e fo r expressin g suc h a condition . Dry , v. trans, (i n th e sun ) lapp i or torp i ; (b y th e fire) krotnpi ,

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 10 1 Duck , n. pajab . Dumb , adj. patcha . Dust , n . demur . Dwarf , n. ott u (reall y a n adjectiv e meanin g 4 short') . Dye , v . (fo r al l colours , generally ) nye n l u ; (t o dy e red , b y boiling ) khru-l u ; (t o dy e yellow , b y boiling ) khru-nyin . E . Each , pron . chir a ( se e als o unde r 4 Pronoun s ' i n Accidence) . Ear , n. nom . Ear-ring , n. ( 4 ruben ' i s th e neares t word , q.v. i n Dafla-E^lis h Vocabulary) . Earth , n . ked . Earthquake , n. mnabl . Easy , adj. mojub . Eat , v. da . Eclipse , n . (th e Dafla s sa y : 4 A fabulou s anima l i s swallowin g u p th e su n (o r moon ) ' 4 T a nm a danya m mnedira. 1 Wha t kin d o f a n anima l th e 4 Tam ' o r 4 Tamma ' is , the y d o no t themselve s know) . Edge , n . (o f a knif e etc. ) lyoara . Egg , v . piip . Eight , adj. plin . Elbow , n. liinyi-pabu . Elde r brother , n. [see 'Brother'] . Elephant , n . sata . Empty , adj. assar , arra . Endure , v. hengla . Enjoy , v. henjug . Enough ! adj. ha m ba ! or a l na p ba ! Enter , v. u or a . Entice , v. s a i l pu . Epileptic , adj. seme . Equal , adj. lekkin . Erect , v. ( a fence ) nu . Escape , v. len l k e (literall y 4 gettin g out / 4 ru n away') . Even , adj. (o f land ) kappa . Evening , v. oil y urn . Evening-meal , n. allyu m dudam . Exact , adj. (exactl y fitting ) katta . Exchange , v. (things ) kilyi . Extinguish , v. ma-m i ('mi ' answer s t o th e Hindustan i 'thanda') . Eye , n . anyi . Eye-brow , n. nyisamam . Eye-lasb , n . nyupum .

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10 2 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. F . Face , nyutunyum . Faint , v. intrans. shi-mi . . Fairly , adv. (middling) , me g (Mir i 'gam') . Fall , v . (fro m a height ) ho i ; (o f rain , snow , etc. ) m a or h o • (tri p over ) gi ; (o f a tree ) dur . ' v ^ False , adj. a m or arnakka . Fan , n . moiyab , v . moiyabyab . Far , adj. an d adv. ada . Fast , adj. harin . Fat , adj. (o f a huma n being ) pot . Father , n. abo . Father-in-law , n . atta . Fear , n. bosh . Fear , v . ( I fear , h e fears , etc. , Assames e 'bho y 1 W i s 'bosh a d V n * 1 boshdenna') . ' Don' t fear ' i s ' bos h mft-ba \ Feast , n. (n o word ) etchi n opp o (literally , Vic e an d liquor' ) i s th e neares t equivalent . J Feather , n. am . Feed , v. trans, (giv e t o eat ) demged . Feel , v. he n chi n (literally , 'recognis e b y touch') , Fence , n. sullu ; v. trans, sull u nu . Fermente d liquor , n. oppo . Fertile , adj. obuna . Fight , v. moi-a-su . ^ kftm/ft^ 72 9 ' ^ a sa c ^ 5 e tc.) ; (generally ) a-lf i ; (o f water ) Find , v. trans, ka-pa . Finger , n. letchi . Finger-nail , n . lessin . Finish , v. moi-nya . Finishe d Ther e ar e som e idiomati c expression s i n thi s connectio n Ha-o a ! i s a kin d o f interjection , meanin g 4 I t i s finishe d ! ' Ha-he b a or ha-ha-b a or ha-dft-ba= ' Tha t i s all,-ther e i s n o mor e t o com e . Ha-heM i s th e ter m fo r sayin g tha t a suppl y o f anythin g ha s com e t o a n end , e.g.,
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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 10 3 Fire-wood , n . fissii. Firm , adj. (o f earth ) attor . First , (ordinal ) cho . See unde r c Particles ' unde r IV—Verbs , i n Accidence . Fish , n . ngoi . Differen t kind s : Assames e 4 gorua ' = Dafl a 4 ngore' ; Assames e 6 kur i '^Dafla f terre' ; Assames e 4 senn i '=Dafl a 4 ngo g \ Fish , v . ngo i me n (literall y 4 kil l fish ') . Fit , u . (on e thin g t o another ) pors i or krichi . Flesh , 72 , edin . Flin t an d steel , n . (fo r strikin g a light ) tengr i ullfi . Note—'tengri ' mean s 'steel ' an d 4 ull u ' mean s 4 flint Float , v intrans . hullub . Floo r (o f a house) , n. dopl . Flow , v. (o f water ) b i ; (o f blood ) sa . Flower , n . oppu . Fly , n . tei , v . g a (th e 4 a ' i s longe r tha n i n 4 ga ' — 4 t o call') . Flying-fox , n . tappi n pengg a (literall y 4 bi g bat') . Foam , n . shupp u (o n water) . Fog , n. (generally ) hapum , or mar-pasa , or dunga r ; (th e regula r mornin g fo g o f th e col d weathe r tha t last s til l 1 0 a.m. ) ku a ; (th e continua l mis t o r cloud s o n th e hil l tops ) dom . Fold , v . (clothes , etc. ) chirkur . Follow , v. trans. Ther e i s n o singl e word . 4 Follo w me ' (tha t is , withou t an y ile a o f pursuing ) i s 4 ak o 4ko-ba-illya. ' Foot , n . luplu . Forbid , v. ben-tu m ; ban-tum-ben g g a (literally , t o cal l out , 4 forbid din g ') . Fo r 1 , n. sii g or akhra-ka-h a ; 4 akhra ' mean s 4 shallo w ' o r 1 ford able' ; addin g 4 ka-ha ' almos t make s th e adjectiv e a noun . 4 Her e i s a for d ' woul d b e 4 s a akhr a denn a (literally , 4 i t i s shallo w here') . Ford , v. (t o cros s b y for d o n foot ) siig a su-rab . Forehead , n. nyum . Forest , n . mnara . Forget , v. mu-pa-m a (literall y 4 thin k kee p not') . Forgive , v . ap-pa . Forty , adj. cardinal , chemp l or jempl . Forward , adv. habl a dailya-ba . Foster-mother , n. 4nche . Four , adj. cardinal , apl . Fourteen , adj. cardinal , illy i lapl . Fowl , n. (domestic ) porong a ; (wild ) porsin . Friend , n. (on e t o who m a Dafl a woul d giv e hi s daughte r o r siste r i n marriage ) nyi n ; oru m ( a friendl y trader , no t a n enemy) . Frighten , v. be n lu m (b y words ) ; (b y actions ) lyi-lum , or ma-lum .

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10 4 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Frog , n. (i n general ) tati i ; (a s distinguishe d fro m th e toad ) juri . From , post pos. hok . Fron t (i n fron t of) , ii-cha . Froth , n . shuppu . Fruit , n . aihi . Fry , v. o g or khrug . Full , adj. bliisar . Funeral , n. blug . Fur , n . am . G . Gag , v . sutura . Gale , n. doilta . Game , n. ( ' quarr y " Assames e 4 poh u ' ) sa . Garland , v. (t o mak e a garlan d o f flowers) opp u r i (literally , threa d flowers) . Gate , n . sull u agr a (literall y 4 fence , doo r ') . Gather , v. okum . Get , v. ka-pa-ga . Ghost , n . ui . Ginger , n. takhi . Girl , ( ' youn g maiden, ' Mir i 4 kanftng a ' ) him-yemm a ; (chil d a s oppose d t o a boy ) k a nyemma . Give , v. ji . Go , v. u ; (g o away ) ftn-ku. Goat , n. sibi n ; (wild ) shiblii . God , n . ui . Goitre , n. gup . Thi s i s a n adjective . 4 H a ny i h a gu p denn a mean s 4 Tha t ma n i s sufferin g fro m goitre' . Gold , n. em . Good , adj . 41 . Gore , v . (o f a buffalo , elephant , etc.) , nil . Granary , n . nas u na m (Assames e 4 bhora l ghor') . Grandfather , n . atta . Grandmother , n. ai . Grass , n. (short ) i i ; (long ) namui . Grave , n . nyublfl . Green , adj. suyin . Growl , v. 4 horh a da 5 mean s 4 i s growlin g 7 (o f a dog ) ; 4 chen-pa-k a d a 7 mean s 4 i s growlin g an d threatenin g t o bit e ''(o f a dog) ! Gum , n . ett i o r abb4 . Gun , n. m6bu . H . Hail , n. nyedot4 . Hair , n. (o f body ) du m ; (o f head ) lftpa .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 10 5 Half , n . t&chgon . Hal f brothe r or hal f sister . N o distinctio n i s made . Hand , n. al a or laplu . 4 Al a ' woul d includ e 4 arm' , 4 laplfl ' onl y th e c han d \ Handle , n. n&l . Hang , v. (1 ) trans . ( a man ) p&ssa r ; (an y inanimat e thing , b y a string , etc. ) pai-i n ; (ditt o o n a peg ) hai-i n ; (2 ) intrans. pa i i n 1& . Hard , adj. (a s oppose d t o 4 gentl e ' ) atto r ; (o f earth ) dettor . Hare , n. sichi . Hare-lip , adj. (Assames e 4 khurua' ) n&bj& . Hat , n. see Dafla-Englis h Vocabulary . Hatch , v . trans, (o f eggs ) gar . 4 Poch u gardn a ' mean s 4 th e egg s (literall y 4 chicken s ' ) ar e bein g hatche d \ ~ Hate , v . henju k ma . Hawk , n. (Assames e c silon i ' ) pum . Head , n . eppin . Heal , v. a l m a (literall y 4 mak e well') . Heap , n. pakum . Hear , v . tk. Heart , n. a . Heavy , adj. e . Hedge , n . dakkar . Hedge-hog , n. sikk i ; (anothe r kind ) bokt . Heel , n. lud . Help , v . (b y goin g with ) u-blu m ; (b y goin g t o th e rescue ) bem . blum . Herd , n. (o f goats , etc. ) ollum . Here , adj. sa . Hesitate , v. ka-min . Hide , v. (1 ) trans. kasi d ; (2 ) intrans . kessl a d a (literally , 4 remain s conceale d ') . High , adj. (o f a hill , etc. ) aua ; (o f land , Assames e 4 ba m mati' ) puttu . Hill , n. giidda . 4 Th e hill s ' a s oppose d t o 4 th e plain s ' th e Dafla s cal l loosel y 4 Nyisi-nang a ' (literall y 4 Dafl a village s ') . Hip , n. ah&r . Hire , v. trans (t o le t o n hire ) j a ; (tak e o n hire ) aja-ja . Hoar-frost , n. tappum . Hoe , n. kroil . Hold , v . na-tu l a p (physicall y 4 gras p ' ) ; (o f a vessel , t o f hol d water' , etc. ) da-kin . Hollow , adj. (empty ) rahf L Honey , n . tong . Honeycomb , n. ton g ailyup .

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10 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Hoof , n . letch . Hook , n . ekkat \ Horn , n . aim . Hot , adj. og . House , n . nam . How , adv. hogahab . Howl , v. na . Hunger , n . k&na . Hump-backed , adj. pokhna . Hunt , v . gra . Husband , n . "nyol . Husk , v. duk h hft . Hut , tabl& . I . Ice , (thick ) pomt & ; (thi n flakes) ksimmi . Idle , adj. os . Ill , adj. 1 dall i karda ' means—I , he , thej' , we , etc. , am , is , or ar e ill . Illegitimate , adj. (child ) yagr a ( ' ka-a'=child) . In , post pos. s a or ha . Inside , arft-h& . Incubate , v. (o f a hen ) gub . India n corn , n. tlippa . Insects , n . (i n general ) toppum . Iron , n. (raw ) yoda r ; (manufacture d int o knives , etc. ) tak . Itch , v. (pai n slightly ) etc h aha . J . Jackal , n . [Ther e i s n o wor d excep t th e Assames e 4 hiyal, ' a s the y ar e no t foun d i n th e hills. ] Jar , n. (vessel ) opum . Javelin , n. (Assames e 4 jant i ' ) nobft . Jaw , n . chopla . Join , v. (1 ) trans, (tw o bit s o f string , etc. ) pars i su ; (generally ) ma-sh i ; (2 ) intrans. (o f on e roa d o r rive r meetin g another ) fiddura su . Joint , n. (o f th e body ) pabft . Juice , n. (o f fruit ) ala . Jump , v. p a ; or jfl . Jungie , n. (weed s overgrowin g a road , etc. ) 4 hab i ' (derive d fro m Assames e 4 h&b i ' ) ; (permanen t smal l jungle ) mnar a ; (bi g tre e jungle ) dM o or su! 6 ; 4 piikhrii ' mean s 4 shor t scru b jungle. '

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 10 7 K . Keep , v. dag . Kick , v. tf t (slightl y longe r tha n i n 4 t o drin k ') . Kid , n. ka . Kill , v. me n ; or stronger okin-gab men , 4 t o kil l o n th e spot' . Kiss , v . ma-p 6 or mo-pub . Knee , n . lubbu . Kneel , v . lukkum . Knife , n . yotchi . Knock , v. (a t a door , etc. ) ma-din . Knot , n . pabft . Know , v . chen . L . Lac , n. etti . Lacerate , v . (a s a bear ) ha . Note—Th e perfec t tens e i s 'b&p-numma / Ladder , n . (th e bea m wit h step s cu t i n i t fo r climbin g u p t o th e house ) ebl& . Lake , n . sinyi . Lame , adj. lechcha . Land , n. ked . Lap , n . (man' s o r woman's ) harpa . Last , adj. &kk a k&tr a ho k ; v. pa . Late , adj. bassa . Laugh , v. nyir . Lay , v. (eggs ) pii . Lead , n. ra j (th e metal) . Leaf , n. (generally ) enni i ; (large ) o k or ok r ; (small ) nanii . Leak . Th e forc e o f th e word s 4 dad e ' an d 4 ad a ' need s illustration . 4 Is s ada ' mean s 'wate r i s comin g in ' (th e boat) , i.e., 'th e boa t leaks' ; 'nyedd a dade ' mean s 4 th e rai n i s comin g through ' i.e., 'th e roo f leaks. ' 4 Dad e ada ' als o mean s 4 ther e i s a lea k overhea d \ Lean , v. tab-grft . Learn , v. chen , besir-ka , tom-sur-ka . Leave , v. ( a ma n o r a place ) yop-p& . Leech , n . (th e smal l jungl e leech ) t&pp e ; (th e larg e on e foun d i n water ) telli . Left , adj. (hand ) a1 & (=hand ) latch . Leg , n . (general ) ala ; (belo w knee ) lepl a ; (abov e knee ) harpo . Lend , v. nart-l & j i (literally , 4 giv e o n loa n ') . Leopard , n. t&kkar . Leprous , adj. tM . Ther e i s n o nou n fo r 4 leprosy. ' 4 H a ny i h a te i denna ' mean s 4 Tha t ma n ha s th e leprosy. ' 4 H a ny i h a sem e denn a ' mean s 4 Tha t man' s flesh ha s gone, ' bu t refer s rathe r t o a n acciden t caused , e.g., b y fire, o r t o a shrunke n limb , an d no t 1 o th e diseas e o f leprosy , r r 2

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10 8 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Less , adj. Ifimfi . Let , v. n e (th e ' permissive ' particle , see unde r Accidenc e 1 IV — Verbs , Particles.' ) Le t go , v. top-pfi . Liar , n . krailya-na . Lick , v. ya . Lie , v. (tel l a falsehood ) am . Lie , v . (rest ) gepl a ka ; (o n one' s back ) d a khrell a kar ; (o n one' s stomach ) bum-jo b kar ; (Wh y d o yo u li e thu s o n th e groun d ? ) is'N a kar-du-pal?| ' Li e i n wait , v . hazl a kar . Lift , v. nfirab . Light , n . (fire ) iim . Light , v. trans . pfir . Light , adj. (no t heavy ) hojjub . Lightning , n . dolya . Like , adj. or adv. haba . Lime , n. (chalk) . Ther e i s onl y th e Assames e wor d ' chfin' . Lime , n. (th e fruit ) narft . Link , n . (o f a chain ) chir . ' On e lin k o f a chai n ' i s ' hirf i chir~ga \ Lip , n. nabchi . Little , adj. ( a smal l quantity , Assames e ' olopman ' meg a ; (inde finitely, Bengal i 4 kichch u ' ) michu . Live , v. tfir . Lizard , n. (th e larg e blac k kind ) soji ; (th e long-taile d kin d wit h a com b dow n it s back ) sfipin ; (th e smal l wall-lizard ) somrab . Load , n. igin . Loin , n. igin . Long , adj. assa . Look , v. ka . Loom , n . chfingrfi . Loose , adj. (o f a rope , etc. ) pftssft . Loosen , v. pla-pa . Loot , v. lfibin . Lose , v. nyim . Note—Th e passiv e ' i t i s lost ' i s ' nyimftepa. ' Loss , n . (th e Assames e wor d i s adapte d an d pronounce d 6 lukson') . Love , v. fil. Low , adj. (no t high ) kotch . M , Mad , adj. rfigrf i or rfigfi . Male , adj. nyegfi .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 10 9 Man , n . nyi . Mane , n . (o f pigs ) mMa r am . Mango , n . toggfi . Many , adj. ega . Mark , n. pai . cf. c 6 m pai ' woun d mark , i.e., 4 sca r \ Marry , v. nyed a m a (ceremoniousl y t o perfor m th e marriag e cere mony ) ; (o f th e man ) nye m n a (literally ) 4 t o tak e a woma n ' ) ; (o f th e woman ) nyo l or nyeg a n a (literally , 6 t o tak e a husban d o r ma n ') . 6 Ar e yo u marrie d P ' sai d t o a woman , i s 4 Nyo l na p nii m ly 6 ? ' Measure , v. kri-ka . Meat , n. edin . Medicine , n. (N o word . Assames e 4 doro b ' i s used. ) Medicine-man , n. ( a pries t wh o professe s t o heal b y incantations ) nyffb . Meet , v. 6-r6-s6 . Melt , v. intrans. ji . Merely , adv. hahe . Midday , adv. (ther e i s n o noun) . Midda y to-day=sa l la-p611a ; midda y to-morro w = ari a a l la-pangam . Midda y meal , n . dej a jabba . Middle , adj. lefa . Milk , n. otcha , or tenyi . v . hi . Mist , n. hapum , or dom . Se e 1 Fo g \ Mistake , n. mur . Se e unde r 4 Accidence—I V Verbs—Particles. ' Mithon , 7i . (cattle ) sab . Mix , v. n6y a or moya . Money , n. (n o wor d excep t th e Assames e 4 dhon') . Monkey , n. sebbi . Month , or moon , n . pol . Whe n emphaticall y pronounced , thi s become s 4 pa l \ Mosquito , n . toru . Moth , n. porbasal A Mother , n. ainm a or an ; mother-in-law , n. ai . Mountain , n . gtldd a ; ( a singl e mountain ) mnadi . Mouse , 7i . dampla ; (fiel d mouse ) pftmchi ; ( a smellin g mouse , bu t muc h smalle r tha n th e mus k rat ) pi . Mouth , 7i . a (sounde d les s sharpl y tha n 4 a, ' meanin g 4 bambo o ') . Mouth , o f a river , ti . palin . Move , v. (1 ) trans, ebil . (2 ) intrans. (onl y use d i n th e prohibitiv e for m 4 eb l ftttft bi a ! = 4 Don' t mov e ! ' Much , adj. an d adv. ega . Mud , n. jelyft . Mus k rat , n. kirte . Mutilate , v. pa-inft .

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11 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. N . Naked , adj . tala-konga . Name , n . amina . Narrow , adj. (o f a road ) chibft ; (generally , a s oppose d t o 4 broad' ) tanya . Near , adj. an d adv. agftm-4-la . Neck , n. guigur . New , adj. nit . Nickname , n. minja r amina . Niece , n . (Ther e i s n o distinctio n betwee n a man' s chil d an d hi s brother s child , henc e n o separat e wor d fo r 4 niec e ' o r 4 nephe w ' . I t i s simpl y 4 ka.' ) Night , n . ai . Nine , adj. numeral , kya . Nineteen , adj. numeral , illyi-le-ky4-ga . Ninety , adj. numeral , ch&ng-kya-ga . Nipple , n. (woman's ) chochir . No , adv. m4 . Nod , v. pak . Noise , n. od . Noon , n . 4 1 lap 4 . North . (Th e fou r cardina l point s ar e no t used . Directio n i s describe d a s 4 upstream , downstream, ' an d \o n eithe r sid e o f th e stream.' ) Nose , n. turii . Now , adv. sija . Now-a-days , adv. siny i sal . Numb , adj. (Th e word s var y ; 4 hi s hand s ar e num b ' i s 4 41 4 la khru m denna; ' 4 hi s toe s ar e num b ' i s 4 litch i 14-y e denna. ' Fo r a person , 4 t o b e num b ' i s 4 chikur n 5 a verb. ) Nurse , n. nub u or kaa nub u (child' s nurse) . 0 . Obey , v . te-14 . Offer , v. ji-k4 . 4 1 offere d ' i s 4 ngaji-p 4 gala. ' Often , adv. laly i nikhra-ga . Oil , n . (al l kinds ) kuti . Old, adj nyek4 m (o f livin g animals) ; kflchchf t (o f inanimat e things) . v On , post pos. au-h a (literally , 4 o n top') . One , numeral adj. 4kin . Onion , n. t414b . Only , adv. A particl e 4 gon ' i s used , e.g., 4 Akingon / 4 onl y one' .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . Il l Open , v . mako . Opium , n . (i n th e seed ) opp o aihi ; (prepared ) opp o kann i (derive d fro m Assames e 4 k&ni') . Opposite , post pos. ka-gr&-ha . Orange , n . sulu p : orang e tree , n . naru . Orchid , n. (th e plant ) t e huc h ; (th e flower) hftc h oppft . Order , n . (command ) baru . 4 B y hi s orde r ' i s 4 Ha-bar u ba \ Ornament , n . gumna . Orphan , n . hoplin . Other , pron. 4 Th e other 7 i s 4 khreb i \ Otter , n. ser&m . Out , outside , adv. an d post pos. &gha . Oval , adj. bftya . Over , adv. an d post pos. au . Overflow , v. intrans. (o f a river , etc.) , henchA . Overturn , v. trans, likub . Owe , v . Ther e i s n o prope r word . Fo r th e expression , 4 J ow e mone y 7 th e Assames e wor d 'jogor 7 (fault ) i s used , a s 4 Nga-k a jogo r dadn a \ Own , pronoun. 4 M y own ' i s 4 nga-k a so' ; similarly , fo r 4 you r ow n 7 an d 4 hi s ow n 7 w e hav e 4 na-k a so , an d 4 ha-k a s o 7 . Owner , n. att . P . Pace , n. kollyi . 4 On e pac e 7 (a s a measurement ) i s 4 korg a da g a. ' Pac k up , v. igi n aba-de n or dera b putc h ( = things , property , Assames e 4 ma l bostf t 7 ) den-l u ra-lft . Pail , n. halch a (thi s i s forme d ou t o f a gourd) , a large r kin d i s calle d 4 ftpum, 7 a smalle r kin d 4 yakra 7 . Pain , n. atch , v. impersonal ; 4 i t pain s ' 4 i s atc h denn a 9 or 4 atc h dfldna. ' Pair , n. 4 anyi-g a 7 i s th e neares t word , meanin g simpl y 4 tw o 7 . Palisade , n. gurum . Pant , v. s& . Parrot , n. be t or put t A ( = bird ) bet . Pass , n. (throug h hills ) gekka . v. (t o g o beyond ) ii-cho . Pasture , v. rft . Thi s mean s t o ti e wit h a lon g rop e an d thu s allo w t o graze . Pat , v. pik& . Patch , v. hongtA . Path , n. lampl a ; ( a narro w one ) sol&m . Paw , n. latch . Peacock , n. podpong . Peak , n. pottfl . Peel , n. okr . r . krep A

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11 2 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Pic k up , v. ( a smal l thing ) nara b ; ( a larg e thing , t o lift ) jorab . Piece , n. 4 A piec e 7 o r 6 on e piec e ' i s 4 etchir-g a Pierce , v. nu . Pig , n. (domestic ) illyi ; (wild ) sa . Pigeon , n . pukkum . Pinch , v . iGgftb . Pincers , n. (fo r holdin g red-ho t iron ) masab , or ( a large r kind ) magab . Pine , n. (th e tal l tree ) passft . Pipe , n . (fo r smoking ) latsulft . Pit , n . uru . Th e 4 u ' i s pronounce d a s thoug h proceedin g fro m th e chest . Pitfall , n. (large , fo r catchin g elephants , etc. ) deb . Pith , n . rapu . Pity , n . Ther e i s n o wor d correspondin g exactly . * H e too k pit y (on ) 7 i s 4 ar a ai a numma' . Place , n. gudft . Plains , n . (a s oppose d t o th e hills ) hftpft . Plant , v . (transplant ) d i (o f ^nddy , etc. ) Plantain , n . (th e wil d tree ) kull u ; (th e cultivate d one ) kopa . Plate , n . (Assames e 4 t o ' ) pitch ! ; plate s (generally ) huk u peka . Plateau , n . lyipa . Play , v . ( ' demal i ko r ' i n Assamese ) sa-min . Pluck , v. trans . ( a bird ) bobi n ; (fruit ) pu . Point , n . (o f a knif e or to p o f a tree ) nyitft . Poin t at , v. (wit h finger) shiki n ; (wit h anythin g else ) h a kin . Poison , n . oml . Polish , v . ma-la b (o f thing s i n general ) ; (o f brass , copper , etc. ) ru-lab . Poor , adj. (N o wor d ; neares t expressio n i s 4 wealt h i s pot, ' viz., ' ar u yom-ma 7 ) . Porcupine , n. siss . Porpoise , n . bui . Posthumous , adj. (child ) sidl e na m (ka-a) . Potato , n. ked-blaia m (literall y 4 eart h egg-plant') , or eyin . Pour , v. ta . Prawn , n. (th e Assames e c mis a ma s ' ) nyi-patt a slim . Precipitous , adj. budu . Press , v. trans, (sugar-cane , etc. ) b e ; (betwee n th e hands ) num ji n ; (down , e.g., th e content s o f a bag ) na-tin . Pretend , v. a m akka , ' Ami n ming-l a a m ' (literally , c nam e chang in g cheat, ' i s 4 t o preten d t o b e som e on e els e ') . Prevent , v. (b y action ) ma -tor , (b y word ) ben-tor . Particle , c to r ' denote s preventing . Price , n. dor .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 11 3 Prick , v. nft . Priest , n . (wh o heal s me n b y incantations , etc. ) nyub . Probably , adv. lokn e or khr& m ( a particl e inserte d i n th e bod y o f th e verb) . Pull , v. p u ; (alon g th e ground ) se . Punish , v . le . Push , v.\h. Put , v 9 a p ; pu t o n (clothes , etc. ) kag ; pu t straigh t (arrange ) kattar&p . Python , n . ta b buir&m . Q . Quarrel , v. (mildly ) b e Ms u ; (comin g t o blows ) moi-a-sft . Quickly , adv. (soon ) annh-b a ; (fast ) herin-ba . Quill , n. (o f a porcupine ) pobb . Quiver , n. eg e (fo r arrows) . R . Rabbit , n . sichi . Raft , n . sftppa . It s pol e fo r steerin g an d guidin g i s calle d ' pul l a. T Rain , n . p6d6n g or nyadang . Rainbow , n. argogo . Range , n. (o f hills ) aoirugna . Ransom , v. ma-lin-n& , or tum-na , or tMlin-na . Rapid s (o f a waterfall ) bhddaru . Rat , 11 . kubbh . Raw , adj. (o f meat , etc. ) dinle . Ready , adj. hami n (o f men , etc. ) ; maml a (conveyin g th e ide a o f ' preparation s mad e ') . Reap , v. p e or n M Recognise , v. kMchin , Recover , v. (fro m illness ) a l duk . Red , adj. luicbi . Refuse , v. n a m & (literall y 4 tak e not') . Release , v. ( a prisoner ) top-p M Remember , v. mft-p M Repair , v. ma-tin . Rescue , v. map l or ropl . Rest , v. da-n . Revive , v. intrans. pui l or puil-yirab . Reward , n. lakhr M Rhinoceros , n . (th e Assames e word ) gar . Ribs , n. (i n front ) h a ; (bac k ribs ) gash . Rice , n. (dhan ) a m ; (chaul ) embi n ; (bhat ) etchin . Rich , adj. nyettii .

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11 4 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Ridge , n . (raised ) p4g4r . Right , adj. (th e right road , meanin g th e correct one ) ka-tAn a (appa rentl y a participle) ; 'rightly ' meanin g 'correctly, ' is'ka-ta ba; ' 'right, ' a s oppose d t o 'left ' i s lablii , e.g., 41 4 labli i = righ t hand . Rind , n . ok r or kokrfi . Ring , n. letch . Ripe , adj. nyingna . Rise , v. gorab ; (o f su n o r moon ) hutch4 . River , n. pobbunga . Road , n . Iampl4 . Roar , v. yfi . Roas t meat , n , han4 m edin . Roast , v. pla-m . Rock , n. liin . Roll , v. rol l up , trans, (e.g., cloth ) ti . Roof , n . namfi . Root , n. mem . Rope , n. 4kh a or sekha . Rotten , adj. yann a (apparentl y a participle) . Rough , adj. (o f water ) hft . Round , adj. papardar . Row , n. (ther e i s n o correspondin g noun , fli-yhr or di-ru g = t o plan t i n a row , ui-ru g = t o advanc e i n lin e (a s soldiers) . Rub , v. trans , ne-khra . Rubber , n . sukr u ; rubbe r tre e = sikr i san . Ruby , n. (th e commo n kin d foun d i n Assam ) tiich . Run , v. ya , or h4r ; ru n away , v. ke . Rust , n. ekhr4b . ' I t i s rusty ' = ekhr4 b nemma . S . Sacrifice , n. (Ther e i s n o prope r word . ' Sacrifice d o n accoun t o f a sic k person ' i s 4 atc h ( = sick ) pan-n a na. ' Generally , 4 sacrifice d 'i s 4 ui ' ( = God ) pan-n a na ' or 4 gu-nana') . Safe , adj. hendla . Thi s wor d convey s th e ide a rathe r o f 4 feelin g safe' . Salaam , v. khrum . Salmon-coloured, , adj. 14-ma-lfi-saden . Salt , n. al . Salt-lick , n. (Assames e 4 poong' ) shi . Sand , n. sfir ; sandy , adj. su r enyindana . Sap , n. atti . Sapphire , n. sfia ; cu t sapphir e = sfi a sublu . Satchel , n. chub . Save,u . (hoard ) henda r ma .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 11 5 Saw , v. pech . Say , v . ben . Scald , v. ta-lyi . 4 Ta-lyi-nemm a ' i s 4 h e ha s bee n scalded. ' 4 Api a pui-ly i da ' i s 4 hi s ski n i s peelin g o S a s th e resul t o f havin g bee n scalded. ' Scar , n . unpai . Scold , v. jab . Scorch , v. (t o dr y to o much ) krom-rum . Scratch , v . ha s {intrans.) ; trans, h o ; (t o scratc h a n animal' s hea d a s a mar k o f affection ) moi-nya . Scream , v. na . Searc h for , v. trans, megra . Season , n . (rainy ) durpol ; (cold ) derapol . Se e v. k k . Seed , v. aik i am . Seem , v. (Th e particl e n6-g a adde d t o a wor d qualifie s i t wit h th e sens e o f 4 i t seems/ ) Sell , v. pru . Send , v. ( a ma n wit h a message ) ben-lu , ( a ma n wit h goods , a letter , etc. ) ji-lu . Sen d for , v. gam (literall y 4 cal l for') . Separate , v. trans, (tw o things ) u-pin-su m ; (thre e o r mor e things ) u-pin-uras-su . Set , v. intrans. (o f sun , etc. ) a . Se t free , v. trans, toppa . Settle , v. see ; < Decide. " Seven , adj. num. kanni . Seventeen , illy i kanni . Seventy , chankanni . Sever , v. trans, pari . Sew , v. homb . Shade , n. danyim . Shadow , n. Yalb6b6 . Shake , v. tra/ s. hudi n ; intrans. (t o shiver ) y6di n ; (o f a tree , etc. , struc k b y th e wind ) yongk e yomye . Shallow , adj. akhra . Shame , n. hanyi . Th e Assames e 4 la j lag e '= 4 hany i denna' ; 4 la j bij-koy'= 4 hany i harda. ' Sharp , adj. (kee n edged ) lk\\ Shave , v. trans, rebin . Sheath , n. blud . Shell , n. ta n pokhr . Shield , n. (military ) sa t am . Shin , n. Iepl6 . Shine , v. intrans. h u ; (o f th e su n o r moon ) kk. Shingle , n . (o f rivers ) Hch6 .

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11 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Shiver , v. intrans. (wit h cold , ague , etc. ) ya-din . Shoe , n. lukh . Shoot , v. (fir e a n arro w o r gun ) fib, (t o hit ) fi. Short , adj. ottft . Shoulder , n . lutfi . Shout , v. na . Show , v. ka-ki n or kfi-tum . Shut , adj. ma-tum-pfi . Shut , v. trans, gi-tura . Side , n . (ribs ) ha . Signal , n. makho ; v. intrans. makli . Silk , n . (Assames e 4 eri' ) toppu m ; (Assames e 4 mug a ' ) sure a top pum . Silk-cotto n tree , n. gi a sii n Silver , n . ru p (th e Assames e word) . Sing , v. (u d or b a = son g ) be n (literall y 4 say') . Singe , v. blebin . Sink , v. intrans. (unde r water ) lum . •Sister , n. (elder ) fimmi, (younger ) buirma . Sit , v . da . Six , adj. fikr ; sixteen , illyi-fik r ; sixty , chankr . Skin , n. (o f al l thing s generally ) kokhru ; (o f plantains ) kopf i ( = plantains ) pokhru ; (o f huma n beings ) am ; o f animals , tigers , etc. ) apin . Skin , v. api n di . Sky , n . aidoin . Slack , adj. ther e i s n o correspondin g adjectiv e ; to be slac k (o f a rope , etc. ) i s tunu r daba. Slap , v . pi . Slave , n. (male ) nyerr a ; v. (female ) pan . Sleep , v. yub : Sling , v. trans. ( a stone ) hur . Slip , v. 'geddana ' (h e slipped ) doe s no t see m t o hav e an y cognat e parts . Slippery , adj. (o f a road , ice , etc. ) filfib. Slit , v. trans, petch . Slope , v. intra7is . (o f a road , etc. ) ibab . Slowly , adv. hfis a hasobb e or jochchibba . Small , adj. (o f siz e only ) ainyii . SmaU-pox , n . tobum . Th e Assames e ' a i ulaichche ' i s translate d b y 4 tobu m budna. ' Smell , v. trans, nfing-kfi . Smoke , n. muk . Smooth , adj. bfip-pfi . Snail , 7i. ta n pokhr .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 11 7 Snake , n. tab . Snatch , v. trans, ture . Snipe , n . dorgi . Snore , v . 4 yu b (sleep ) hardenna ' mean s 4 h e i s snorin g Snow , n . po m or tApa m pom . Soak , v. trans, (rice , etc. ) p6 m ; ( a clot h o r othe r articl e b y keepin g i t unde r water ) is h arrfthaf&boml a ap . Soft , adj. (oppose d t o hard ) nyenya . Sole , n . (o f foot ) letch . Some,^somebody , etc. , see [unde r 4 Indefinitegpronouns ' i n Par t Son , n. k a nyeg& ; son-in-law , mab . Song , n. fid, be r or benjai m Bu t th e Dalla s d o no t lik e th e jingl e 4 benja m bendba ' (t o sin g a song ) bu t prefe r t o us e ( M ' or 4 be r ' wit h th e ver b 4 ben. ' Soon , adv. anuba . Sore , n. un . Sorrow , n. 4 I a m sorrowful ' i s 4 ho r hendna' . Sound , n. fidna. Thi s wor d ha s a peculia r construction , e.g., 4 1 hear d th e soun d o f a gu n bein g fired ' i s 4 m6b u fib nar n ctdna met ta-pa-tenmaher e 'adn a ma ' answer s nearl y t o th e Assamese,/saikora / 4 infi / signifyin g 4 makin g ' ( a noise) . Sour , adj. khrfidkf i or kfissti-dfikfi . Source , n. (o f a river ) is s sfigrfi . Sow , v . (broadcast ) pfi . Speak , v. ben . Spear , n. nobf i ; (fo r catchin g turtles ) motta . Spider , n. fib-ga ko-gala . Spike , n. (' panji ' or pointe d bamboo ) or . Spill , v. trans, kra-pfi-m a ; intrans. kra-pfi-jim . Spin , v. trans, (thread ) sech , ( = thread ) chechfi . Spinster , n. nijir . Splash , v. trans, th e ver b seem s defective , th e onl y par t I hav e com e acros s i s i n ' ng a hfin v kra-pfib-tenm a ' meanin g 4 1 splashe d him. ' Spleen-disease , n. doil-tarp , Splinter , n. pottunga . Split , v. trans, pat-si . Spoil , v. trans, (plunder ) lfibin ; (damage ) ma-yf i ma-chfi . Spoon , n. pokkf i ; (th e bambo o stic k fo r stirrin g boilin g rice ) punyft . Sprain , v . onl y th e passiv e for m i s found . ' Hi s hand i s spraine d ' i s 4 H a filfi ladur -denna / but ^ fo r th e foo t o r leg , th e wor d i s 4 ludur-denna. ' Spread , v. trans, (o f a mat , etc. ) tor .

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11 8 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Spring , n. (o f water ) lol . Bu t th e wor d i s rarel y used ; 4 issh i gu lin-denna ' woul d b e th e ordinar y metho d o f expressin g th e word s 4 ther e i s a sprin g there ' literall y 4 wate r i s gushin g out; ' 4 lo l hu-lin-denna ' ha s th e sam e meaning . Spring-trap , n. kom4 . Spy , n. m4-sin-h4rna . Square , adj . chuk i ganna . Bu t 4 chuk i denn a ' i s th e manne r o f expressin g 4 i t i s squar e \ Squeak , squeal , v. (o f pigs ) gar e gar e h e or chiny e chiny e ha . Squeeze , v . (t o death ) nyunkhr . Squint , v . yumbu . 4 H e squints ' i s 4 nyiy a denna. ' Squirrel , n. (genera l term ) tak r ; (th e Assames e 4 kherketu' ) t4k r krem ; (th e re d squirrel ) tak r elli . Stab , v. im . Stain , v. trans, mo-piib . Stand , v. da . Star , n. t4kk4r ; lik e th e Assames e 4 tcr4 ' ; 4 t4kk4 r 1 als o mean s a crysta l gem. ' Start , v. intrans. (wit h fright , etc. ) Ion . Steal , v . detchcha . Steam , n. hapu m (sam e a s 4 mis t ') . Stee l an d flint, n. tengr i (steel ) ull u ( = flint). Ste p on , v. ' I steppe d o n a snake ' i s 4 tab a h a 41 a ch4t4 m numm a (literall y 4 snak e o n foo t I put . ' ) Stick , n. beny4n g (or shortened ) ben y dap . Sticky , adj . (resinous ) k4g4b . Still-born . 4 1 hav e give n birt h t o a still-bor n chil d ' i s 4 hokk i jA p4-tenmahokk i i s a noun , an d 4 ja-pa ' mean s apparentl y 4 t o miscarry. ' Stir , v . trans . ( a liqui d i n a vessel ) heku b hehe . Stockade , n. see 4 Palisade. ' Stone , n. (shingle ) illi i o r ullu ; (jewe l or gem ) ullu . Stop ! interjection , doi l y4-ta ! or d4-ily4-ta ! (sai d b y a perso n i n front ) ; 4 ad4ru! 7 meanin g 4 Wai t fo r me! ' i s sai d b y on e behin d wantin g t o catc h up . Storm , n. (thunde r storm ) dagu m da-lyidn a (literally , 4 thunde r i s thundering.' ) Straight , adj. katt 4 (oppose d t o crooked) . Strangle , v. trans . tus4 r or pu-s4r . Straw , n. pil . Stretch , v. trans, pujin . Strip , v. intrans. ez z pl4p 4 (literally , 4 tak e of f one' s clothe s 7 ) ; v. trans. pl 4 p4-ma . Stroke , v. trans, (a n animal ) hub-k4 .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 11 9 Strong , ad] . attor . Stubble , n . pil . Stumble , v. intrans. (trip ) pomab . Stump , n . (o f a tree ) suttu . Stun , v. trails, shitab-m a ( ' t o b e stunne d 7 i s 4 shitab-cfa& a 7 ) . Sty , n. (fo r pigs ) gump a ( a roun d woode n enclosure) . Subject , adj. (o f tribes ) heni a datl a (literally , 'remainin g subject 7 ) . Submit , surrender , v . yop a panb a yopa . Such , pron. hablyinna . Suck , v. ( a fruit , etc. , bu t no t th e breast ) blA . Sudden , adj. n o wor d ; th e neares t i s mA-pa-ta-m A — 4 T di d no t expec t it 7 . Suffice , v. see 4 Enough 7 . Sugar-cane , n. tA b ; (th e blac k kind ) ta b balu . Sun , n . danyi . Sunris e (a t sunrise) , adv. da n chailya . Sunse t (a t sunset) , adv. da n ailya . Swallow , v. mne . Sweat , n. an d v. ar-abom . Sweep , v . sampA . Sweet , adj. tissar . Swee t potato , n. dukra-enyin . Swell , v. intrans. ga . Swim , v. intrans. yk. Swing , v. 4 Bikebb i edana 7 mean s 1 i t i s swingin g 7 (t o an d fro) , bu t ther e seem s t o b e n o regula r verb . T . Tail , n. ami . Tak e away , v. (caus e t o come , withou t actuall y usin g an y force ) bulu g ; (carr y off' ) nAg . Tak e off , v. (clothes ) plAp A ; (bracelets ) plApA . Tak e out , v. (fro m a basket , etc. ) nali n ; (earring s fro m ears ) lipAtA . Tall , adj. (o f a huma n being ) aua . Tame , adj. nanginye . Tank , n. sinyi . Taste , v . trans. yA-kA . Tattoo , v. trans . cho p p a (literall y 4 cu t tatto o marks') . Teach , v. besr A or tornsAr . Tear , v. trans, (caus e a rent , o r tea r i n two ) siir u ; (i n pieces ) surmA . Tell , v. ben . Temple , n . (o f head ) chomjA . Ten , numeral a'lj. illyi .

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12 0 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Thatch , n . (o n a house ) t&po . Thatchin g grass , n . posh . Then , adv. ha . There , adv. ha . Thief , n . detchana . Thin , adj. (o f a huma n being ) poinya ; (o f a n animal ) liul ; (o f cloth ) bocho r ; (o f thread ) sanya . Bu t 6 h e ha s becom e thin 5 (sai d o f a huma n being ) i s 6 lamina. ' Think , v. mu . Thirst , n. hur . 4 1 a m thirsty, ' 4 h e i s thirsty, ' etc . = hu r da . Thirteen , illy i l a urn . Thirty , chomurn . Thorn , n . ta . Thread , n . ta n (genera l ter m fo r al l kinds) . Thread , v. trans, ( a needle , beads , etc. ) ri-lu . Threaten , v. ben-lii m Throw , v. ( a stone , etc. ) ku-p a or hur-p& ; (int o water ) kulu . Thro w away , v. hur-pa . Thumb , n. Ian . Thunder , da-gum , thunderstor m ; n. doilta . Tick , n. tekhri i ; (th e whit e kind ) takhr . Tie , v. trans . hi ; ( a boat ) ru-to-pa . Tiger , n. pat . Tight , adj. 4 to be tight ' (o f a rope , etc. ) i s 'ipuzzin-daba.' Tighten , v . pozin . Tin , n. upum . Tinder , n. (th e drie d pit h o f tw o plant s calle d respectivel y 4 tamm d ' an d 4 pabl e ' ) moppo . Tired , adj. nyelin . Toad , n . turpoch . Tobacco , n. miirk . To-day , adv. saiga . Toe , n. (big ) la n ; (th e others ) chuny a ; (toes , generally ) litchi . Toe-nail , n. lissin . To-morrow , adv. aria . Tongue , n. ailyi . To o much , malu . Tooth , n. ehi . Tops y turvy , adj. an d adv. (i n confusion ) atch a ai a gaba . Torch , n. maru . Tortoise , n. (Assames e wor d i s used ) raka b 4 kasor' . Torture , v . (t o death ) miisl i m a d a or eshada . Toss , v . (o f a n animal , wit h it s horns ) hepa , or kh-pa-g a he l kfipa . Toucan , n. (th e bird ) pagra . Touch , v. trans, katti .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 12 1 Tough , adj. ftttor. Towards , adv. post pos . dailya-ba . Track , n . (footmarks ) lelu m ; v. sumi n ga . Traitor , n . kamdana . Transplant , v. (seedlings) , (amdi ) di . Tree , n . san . Assames e name s an d thei r equivalent s : Bo r go s = sur e san . Bol a = sanyin . Gunkora i = tftja . Jutuli = su r san . Nahor = sft a nahor . Pipu l Ahan t > =sfid a san . Jor i J P6ma=b6 . Simal=gia . 0 gos=champft . Uriam=mob . Tremble , v. ya-din . Trident , n. (fo r fishing) purh . Trough , n. (fo r feedin g pigs ) dokftm . Trunk , n . (o f elephant ) mem . Trust , v. tejji . Try , v. lyit-ta , (literally , 'wis h t o do 5 ) . * < Tr y on , v. (clothes) , ka-ka . Turn , v . trans, (on e revolution ) pur-k u ; (severa l revolutions ) pur . 4 T o tur n a turtl e ove r o n t o it s bac k ' i s 4 ka s langk-b a li-kub / 4 T o tur n a thin g bac k t o front ' i s 4 tokub.'— 4 T o tur n a thin g upsid e dow n ' i s 4 kft-lu b ; 5 v. intrans . (slightl y t o on e side , no t back ) u-ku-ulla . Turtle , n. rftko b (th e smal l kind) ; (Assamese ) 4 kaso r ' (th e larg e kind) . Tush , v. (o f boar ) eh i (sam e a s tooth) . Tusk , n. (o f elephant ) erru . Twig , n. hatchi . Twin , n . plum . 4 Sh e ha s give n birt h t o twin s ' i s 4 bfi-plun i Bunma / (literally , 4 bor n twin s togethe r wer e ') . Twist , v. trans, he . U , Udder , n . (animal's ) otcha . Ugly , adj. kft-p-ma . Understand , v. chen . Undo , untie , v. pla . Undress , v. see ' Strip. '

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12 2 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Uneven , adj. (o f ground ) pakab-palab-ne . Unripe , adj. lella . Upset , v. trans, ( a boat ) kumlu . Upside-down , adj. ku-lu-pa . Use , v. trans. ' I hav e neve r use d thi s ' i s ' Ng a sa m bu-ka-ma-r u 7 wher e ' bu-m a ' seem s t o mea n ' used ' an d 6 ka-ru ' t o mea n ' neve r Uterine , adj. Ther e i s n o distinguishin g word . V . Vegetable , n. a Vein , n. tadorchop . Vengeance , n . nalu . Vomit , v. bla . Vulture , n. baggin , W . Waist , n , hu . Walk , v . gradam . Wall , n. (th e outsid e wall s o f a house ) chich ; (th e insid e walls ) yabdurra . Wallet , n. sepell a ; (th e kin d tha t a woma n generall y carries ) igin . Wander , v. u-dam . Want , v. (a) see Par t II~Verbs , Particles , mui , nu , ta ; (b) la k (a n impersona l verb , vide Par t I I Verbs , 3 defective ) ; (c ) k a (rarel y used , excep t i n th e sentenc e ' n a ho g ka-dn a ? ' = Wha t d o yo u wan t ? ) War , n. nyemma ; nyemm a ma=t o make war . Warm , adj. kromp . Wash , v. trans . (clothes , etc. ) niikhrfi ; (face , etc. ) mom L Wasp , n. (th e black-bodie d Assames e 4 kudd u ' ) tei ; (th e stripe d yello w an d black ) te i buirri . Watch , v. d o or ka-lya . Water , n. issh . Wave , n. hfidna . Wax , n . ngokin . Way , n . (road ) lampla . Weak , adj. tamm a (literall y 'strengt h i s not') . Wear , v. trans, (clothes , etc. ) ka . Weave , v. chun . Web , n. (spider's ) abdasin .

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Par t V. ] VOCABULARY . 12 3 Weigh , v. trans . kri-ka . Wet , adj. juja . What , pron. hog . Wheel , n. paar . When , adv. hudila . Whence , adv. hoglok . Where , adv. hogla . Which , pron. hog . Whirlpool , n. sel y ( a mbnosyllable) . Whirlwind , n. Ther e i s n o nou n ; th e ver b 4 t o whir l round ' i s 6 milyapur. ' Whisper , v. chech-b a be n (literally , 4 sa y softly') . Whistle , v. kokhra . White , n. (o f a n egg ) apin ; adj. pullu . White-ant , n. torub . Quee n white-an t i s 4 ru b a n ' (literall y 4 ant' s mother' ) or ru b da n pab . Why , adv. hogb a or hogba., . y u ( £ yu ' comin g las t i n th e sentence) . Wide , adj. (o f a river ) tat . Widow , n . hiimi . Widower , n . (Assames e 4 borola' ) tumbo ; th e ShaiangMiri s us e th e sam e wor d 4 tumb o Wife , n. nyihi . 4 Firs t wif e ' i s 4 nyih i hrucha' ; 4 secon d wif e ' i s 4 nyih i hunyu. ' Wild , adj. (no t tame ) mnakoni . Wind , n . doily . Wind , v. intrans . (o f a road , etc. ) pak u palla . Wing , n, alab . Wink , v. ny i a b (literally, 4 ey e clcse') . Winnow , v. trans . krab-kra . Winter , n . (col d weather ) der a po k Wipe , v. trans . (wit h a cloth , etc. ) nyekhra ; (wit h th e hand s only ) mekhra . Wish , v. Desiderativ e particle s 4 mui, ' 4 nu, ' 4 t a \ With , post pos. lagha , lagh a or lagba . Vide unde r 4 Par t II—Post position s ' fo r illustration s o f th e us e o f eac h word . Withered , participle (o f crops , Assames e 4 potha n howa' ) omsu . Woman , n. nyem m ny i or ny i nyemm . Wood , n . (timber ) suda . Word , n. beru . Work , n . Assames e 4 kam ' i s used . Work , v. ti m or 4 kam ' lyi . Worm , n . tador . Worn-out , adj. (old , o f things ) oiy u lakako . Wound , n . u n (howsoeve r obtained) . B 2

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12 4 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i. Wrestle , v. intrans . gru-bu-s6 . Wring , v. trans, ( a we t clotli ) hejin . Wrist , n . nyil 6 katchi . Write , v. he . Wrong , adj. (e.g., th e wrong road) , ka-t&-m&-na . Yam , n . nyint . Yawn , v. gomsa . "Year , n . anyi . Any ! nyi-ga=on e year . Yellow , adj. nyenn a or chanyi . Ye s ! a ! or m ! Yesterday , adv. moil . Yet; adv. (vide Par t II—Adverbs , fo r th e us e o f th e particl e 4 ' ) * Yolk , n . (o f a n egg ) ram . Young , adj. eyappa .

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Par t VI. ] LANGUAG E O E TH E WESTER N DAELAS . 12 5 PAR T VI . A SHOR T NOT E O N TH E LANGUAG E O F TH E WESTER N DAFLAS . I n th e Journa l o f th e Asiati c Societ y o f Benga l (Vol . XX ) o f 1851 , o n page s 13 0 t o 13 7 ar e give n a shor t gramma r an d a vocabular y o f th e Dafl a language , b y Mr . Robinson . Th e dialec t ther e deal t wit h difler s materiall y fro m tha t deal t wit h i n thes e pages , an d als o differ s materiall y fro m tha t spoke n b y thos e Dalla s residing , say , nea r th e Bo r Dikra i river , i n Darran g district . Pos sibly , i t i s th e dialec t spoke n midwa y betwee n thes e tw o extremes , th e Bo r Dikra i o n th e wes t an d th e Rong a Nad i o n th e east , viz., a t Hele m o r Behali , i n Darran g district , a t whic h place s severa l Dafia s hav e settle d i n th e plain s ; thei r dialec t I hav e no t bee n abl e t o study , bu t fro m th e vocabular y a s give n I shoul d sa y tha t th e word s wer e obtaine d fro m Dafia s wh o ha d live d i n th e plain s som e time , an d ha d adopte d int o their s a goo d dea l o f th e languag e o f th e Assamese , an d som e o f th e rive r Miris , etc . wit h who m the y com e int o contac t i n th e plains . I t i s a pit y tha t neithe r Mr . Robinson , no r Si r G . Campbel l i n hi s 4 Specimen s o f th e language s o f India, ' state s wha t [dialec t o f th e Dophl a languag e h e i s dealin g with . Th e Dafl a dialect s var y mor e eve n tha n thos e o f th e rive r Miris . Thi s outlin e gramma r onl y profes * se s t o dea l wit h th e languag e spoke n beyon d Britis h territor y t o th e nort h o f Nort h Lakhimpu r town , a s th e write r think s tha t thi s i s o f th e variou s Dafl a dialect s th e on e likel y t o prov e mos t usefu l practically , chiefl y becaus e i t i s th e mos t simila r t o th e languag e spoke n b y th e larg e trib e know n a s Ank a Miri s o r Apa ^ Tanangs , wit h whos e wonderfu l countr y w e ar e boun d i n th e futur e t o becom e bette r acquainted . However , fo r comparison' s sake , a shor t lis t i n paralle l column s o f English , Easter n Dafl a (i .e., th e languag e spoke n b y th e Dafia s nort h o f Nort h Lakhimpu r town ) an d Wester n Dafl a (i .e., th e languag e spoke n b y th e Dafia s nea r th e Bo r Dikra i rive r i n Darrang ) i s her e given , alon g wit h thei r corresponding word s a s give n b y Mr . Robinson: — English . Easter n Dafla . Mr . Robinson' s Dophla . Wester n Dafla . I . Nga . Ng6 . Nga . Thou . He . Na . Ma . N6 . M A Na . Ai .

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12 6 OUTLIN E DAFL A GRAMMAR . [Par t V i . English . Easter n Dafla . Mr . Robinson' s Dophla . Wester n Dafla . We . Ngalu . Ngdlu . Mollo . Ye . Nalu . Nolu . Nu . They . Bulla . Malu . Bundim . One . Akkin . Aken . Akkin . Two . Anyi . Ani . Anyi . Three . Om . A-am . Am . Four . Apl . Apli . Api . Five . Aug . Ango . Annu , Six . Akr . Akple . AkL Seven . Kanni . Kdnag . Kanni . Eight . Plm . Plag-nag . Poini . Nine . Ky i Ka y 6 . Kya . Ten . Illyi. . Rfing . Arongson . Elephant . Sata . Hati . Inre . Bufialo . Mindui . Mendak . Mindak . Duck . Pajab . Hans . Ha . Fish . Ngoi . Ngai . N A Dog . tki . Eld . Boat . Na . Nfiu . Holun . Bamboo . * A . TTwti . Aiia . Bird . Piitta . Patta . Patta . Fowl . Pora . Porak . Man . Nyi . B&ngni . Beni . This . Si . S A Sana . That . Ha . A6na . Ana . Imperative present. Ask . Takh-ta . Ta-ukt6 . Tautfi . Call . Ga-ta . Gok-to . Sorbfi . Look . Kfi-ta . K6-t6 . Tauborna . Eat . Da-ta . Datu . Drink . Tu-ta . Tantu . Strike . M a ta . Goktu . Kill . Men-ta . Min-t6 . Jentitu .

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Par t VI. ] LANGUAG E O P TH E WESTER N DALLAS . 12 7 English . Easter n Dafia . Mr . Robinson' s Dophla . Wester n Dafla . Le t go . Top-pa-ta . Netop-tu . Lift . Narab-ta . Lanjant A Giv e (tome) . M . Ke-bikt6 . Kebi-tuke . Giv e (t o ano Ji-ta . Bitua . ther) . Com e here . S a atta . Angkubo . Sobongtuka . G o away . tJn-ku . .. . tfn-kft. Bun . Ya-ta . Fdr-to . Phane .

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SHILLONG ; Printe d an d publishe d b y CONING HA M F RANCIS , Pres s Superintendent , Assam , a t the Secretaria t Printin g Offic e ; No * 600—300-14-0-1900 .