Avesta reader

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Avesta reader

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SOAS University of London
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This little book is inscribed in remembrance
of the la te
Kommerzienrat W. Kohlhammer
as a token of regard.

This little book lays no daim to anv spécial merit
beyond furnishing in convenient forin some material for
those beginning to study the Avesta. As it is intended.
merely for an introduction, and being designed as the
First of a sériés of reading books, the number of pages
of texts bas been limîted. The sélections here given are
such as may easily be mastered by a dass in one college
terni; the beginner, moreover, always finds a certain de-
gree of pleasure and satisfaction in a book that can be
read through in a comparatively short tinie, and lie feels
lie is making a certain amount of progress when another
book has to be taken up. Witli that in view, a second
volume is being prepared, this will contain longer texts
and will be so arranged as to iniply a step in advance.
The présent sélections in prose and verse, are fairly
représentative, as far as excerpts can be, of Yasna, Vis-
parad, Yasht, and Vendidad. The chapters Ys. -26 and 57
are given complété. The passage from Vd. 19 has the
advantage of présenting a specimen of texts in which
grammatical decay is to be observed.
The notes in general hâve been tnade brief and con-
cise, but it is hoped that beside being explanatory they
will also prove useful in giving the student an occasional

bint regarding books of reference, and will thus interest
him in the literature of the subject. A brief list of useful
books has already been given in Avesta Grammar Part i,
p. xl-xlii. Attention is now also called to the new Avesta
translation by Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta (3 volumes,
Paris 1892-3), the last two volumes of which reached me
after the greater part of the présent book was already in
press; I was pleased, however, to note several co-incidences
in interprétation of certain Yasht and Vendidad passages.
The vocabulary has been made a little more Pull
perhaps than is necessary; but this was done from a de-
sire to give the beginner a fair start. It seemed advis-
able, for example, to add frequent grammatical référencés,
and to designate the verb forms in full. A slightly dif-
ferent plan will be foltowed in the Second Sériés.
With regard to the étymologies in the vocabulary,
comparison has been confined to Sanskrit, OJd Persian,
Pahlavi, and New Persian. It is presupposed, of course,
that the student has made some progress in Sanskrit. The
comparisons with Old Persian, Pahlavi and New Persian
are added, not at ail with the idea that they will be
rnastered by a beginner, but in order to show the pupil
the importance of the Iranian as well as the Sanskrit
side of interprétation, and to familiarise him with the
studies next akin to bis subject. Old Persian is easily
rnastered after Avestan, and the earnest student will soon
discover that the well-equipped scholar can not of course
long dispense with Pahlavi and New Persian. The ‘tradi-
tional ’ and 4 comparative ’ method must go hand in hand.
In preparing the book I hâve had b'efore me W. Geiger’s
Handbuch der Awestasprache, the manual with which 1
fîrst began my Avesta studies. Of course C. de Harlez’

Manuel de VAvesta, and Bartholomae’s Altiranische IJia-
lekte hâve been often consulted. Justi’s Handbuch der
Zendsprache was necessarily used at every step ; and
Lanman’s admirable Sanskrit Reader furnished many a
hint or apt English rendering for kindred Avesta-Sanskrit
words. The material for comparison with Old Persian
was drawn from Spiegel’s Altpersische Keilinschriften ;
and that for comparison with Pahlavi words, mainly
from West’s Glossary and Index of Arda Vïraf. In
the case of New Persian, reference was made to Vullers’
Lexicon Persico-Latinum and to Palmer's Persian-Englisk
Dictionary. Paul Horn’s new Grundriss der N eupersischen
Etymologie (Strassburg 1893) came late but happily as I
was reading the final révision of the proof-sheets of the
vocabulary; from this source, therefore, a number of good
additions were made. To each of the above authors I
desire to made cordial acknowledgment. To my friend
Professer Karl F. Geldner my sincerest thanks as always
are due.
With this word, and with the hope that scholars will
give their helpful criticism, corrections and suggestions,
which 1 shall gladly and personally acknowledge, this little
Avesta Reader is sta.rted on its course.
September 1893.
A. V. Williams Jackson
Columbia College
New York City.

PREFACE................................................. V—Vil
TEXTS................................................... t- 33
TRANSCRIPTION OE AV ESTA N ALPHABET........................ 34
ÂBBREVIATIONS.................................................. 36
NOTES ON THE TF.XTS...........................’. . . . 37—48
VOCABVLARY . . . ................. ... . 49^(12
(1) Vs. 11.1-8. Duty towards the cow, the horse, and
Ilaoma.......................... 3 ' 5
(2) Vs. 260-11. Sacrifice and praise lo tlie Fravashis . . 5 S
(3) Ys. 57.2-34. Praise of the Angel Sraosha....... S - 07
(4) Vsp. 15.1-3. Exhortation to righteousness and worship iS
(5) Yt. 5.1-9,132. Praise of the Goddess of Waters .... 19—23
(6) Yt. 14.1-17. Six incarnations of the Genius of Victory 23—27
(7) d. 3*23-29. The blessings of agriculture...... 28—30
(8) Vd. 6.44-51. Origin of the Towers of Silence... 30— 31
(9) Vd. 19.5-10. The templat'ion of Zoroaster....... 32 —33


Yasna n.
The cow, horse, Haoma, if niisused, utter imprécations.
The bornage due to Haoma.
'^>hu»-uçy-u x i
jjpy-UQjy-u jjxifj
H*1 ■»■>?)
•••ioowj"rj -for-b ^»ro
-foHr (o-ua«
-*”1} tOOrA^OJ
’.' -«"Zp pw-oSjjQ/-
.-(7f\-u,çy.AUJ 2
Jj>°ô''«’rü -4’K’k5-u))V'jj M""y -*"-(?
-urou-*,£yJabJJj -(?k'>°-u>A)-u -»"-V

Vasna u.
0-",^"/ -toe-V >ro
• • pu.M.uçyVu9 puM-uY», )VSq|
3 ...JfOJ-upjjJ 3
p*»«y -«s»,
jqz'KP-,-uV“3 -fawar'u-’QU-’-" -foe-fr ^ro*
°o° A3ÇtfS-‘-’V^ -M))-uçy-u Op-^.uQy ■tof**'
4 jju-^TSjJry. -U/OJ(J, 4
iüiô-*'imî-u 5 ••*"{,? A^-'A) {o-u,o 'V’ro 5
J^3 -»o/p -"(y-" -UJl^ {0-*0->»(J(\-o,0
p"}/-*'i7 '>Vnr-u {o-«3^3 (t)4? {^rt)'
•••"t’Ad'r’y -*’H 09-”> 6 tu,o toi-^-Vi JAir-u g-’Vt 6
P"«2>U|O "Ô-*A J’£||t)J-'t JJ))-*A3-*iJ
•••ux"JJ)çya> >"V3u-*"^ -U£1H’-U|
K)K,^PUJ-’-*J/ tOt-*"-^ JAa/"'

Yasna il and 26.
^D&Qnd-Aô -x)>çe •-*" -façy-^obd 7 7
y^p=>-»A<} ■>-Li’K2KPHr^-lJ>o
-£tA •»->'-(? -'■'(j-'-’rü
-(n*V<3K> -fc-TO
H"okp-" â– vo-hif'-b
•^>00)6-^ -uK’fÿ^-0 (^-u-u' 8 8
\>^?'S-u(y. -nj zarî-^p
oo oo ^>-(7f|
Yasna 26.
Sacrifice and Fraise to the Fravashis.
•P"K’lÇfflMy P'A-PU "*Oi’(y'H-XJfp X x
lüy-^-fr-^f-^ro ••••»-Vio"(ô) •j-(rZîjjzoM
-u-°Vi‘-"®v‘Vo 2
-(z-i’çy-M»*4<â 103"/-“ro -w£)> 4x'Vçy-uF-*A$ •-(zx'i
-^x“zen) ’or-^y -"t-'-^x'>oxoj/’u-V •toor-uW-u •-fcx“ro

Yasna 26.
y -utj-(H!io>iJ'Q)JJ -"H-foe-faK’wVîxir
3 -“çy-^HAô i"Ai>y -‘worn-ulj -OjCD-^çy^ 3
•^)CI-u>o^$(îiu 4x''i-'jçy£-C'-u H"ro
•.•'>i-“»-uçyjj "’V’ro
4 y-«x>y -6)C'|-u-’A^-^QJ -(7>C'!-,J£y{U-*Jî£J -(7K'l-u-’A^-"(y 4
-“H-V-Por-0 jjH7K'i4Sjjço-u ^K'H3-r,pjjj -facçy-pe^i
^une^xir ■*orç-">çy-« >>ro
5 •ô-uîSjjQ ^ro 5 y ioy-‘'-(7jj/-*jro -fat-*">A>
| -^jS-uçy-o
'Vrs-uçy-u ••■jO3
-*O*>»"5 .loy-^-^ru -MH?T’çy-")>-‘A<à -utJ-fci,çy-*J
-“«•"M 'Vî^’çy-0 to(ir-*A>oi)-^zj) |o-"y-’
6 -utj> -frxvi-u>e>oJ(V:*,i-tx')-*ji 6 '.’ •ioy-u-(,-upjro -(vçy
| .jjyy-L^S^ .-O^ÇQ^-U -°fJ'(’K’|-,îS-t’ÇyjJ -(/K'I
•j-uj^y-u -’V’ro •HJ3Jjj-(?-,-'/-ijrt) •■"H-(z?çy-"P-uW -*j!'-Véi-uj)A>
'>jyçy-*j»-»j\à ':>^jJP=,juçy-u'>^)-uj®u?y jo-’-'-fz •ô-°îs-uy

Yasna 26.
..^jS-uçy.u -fc)eçy)^AiAj ^ro
-fof-|-M>°-*"/u -(’K'V’l -“HUf-^rü
v 4'kA3ô-"h^ço-uW
•H"ro io3-,-u-{/jj/-"ro ^ijhA, 4x'i-u>°y-,V 7 7
"fc)ei-u -^)Ci-’>o-,-"oy^J-iA-u(y ^)a^>e>iV3/'XJ,iï)''U|
'"î=>-uçy-*j •-^x‘'P=>-uçy-u ■-(7K'ijV-uj! -VxA-"i -f7)ci-ij-,-Mtu-u
8 -Ojcpi 8
-«çy-»'))-‘A(â -(’)cîSjjçy-M •-(7K’i-u"M|ojj •-('xvi-u(mw0 -ms
.-(^jS-uçy.x, -(oç-Vi -Ox"i-“û>yy^ • toy-^-^ro
•iyy-u-^-*j/-ijro '>-”-rjço-u»-*A<à
-"(yy?Q 9 y »ü3-’-u-^-“/*jro '^=,-’->-uçy-u))-u^ -focpî^çy-0 9
-(7X*?=,-Mçy-" -toei-u9'P"-“'u\(»jj -foci
• K_>v-k,-(YJpjro '>-»-,-uçy-u»j^(â
-u»J-jj-(zjj/-"ro ^>"-"çy-"»-«y -foei
10 y toy-^^/^ro 'r>"x,çy-"))-LM -6>cP=,-uçy-u 10
-(,xjîs-*Jçy-,J -“h
•p"(yy?0 my-^-V-^f-^m >"-«çy-*»„-"M -^xvî^gy' -"h
^"-“çy-0.')-"^ p"K>^?(yu -*o-r,onj-ijy -(?x'i,-ujçy-u
'"S-uy.-uj |O-u,3ô-“-V {O-UJJJJJÇJ -Ufj-OQJ, .fljy-u-^-ujjjf^)
-"çy-"»-*'^ K"(yy?^ 11 y u

Yasna 26 and 57.
%° -fc>rts“‘'çy-M p"ro •K23-,jJ('-'j,'jro
Yasna 57.
Srôsh Yasht.
Braise ef the Angel Sraosha.
2 -fj-r’ÇO-" 2 I
-”ro •-(w=-,A roar-^ço-*-1 -fat-^P’çy-" jo-»y»»A(à
!X“-V-^3 >>ro
lt-(7yîVj3 £>-*"zo&>oy-u\$
•.• ixHp^ -"(yyyÇ» jwro
3 -ur-i'(y'}-o!Ô-uBj -u"-*A tour-" 3
-(7xvi-u>°-M/x,ro -“iw-^ro tuar-1’
-0?çyjj -foçy^Ay
-<7T>(ir)5-u0 -“r’-tvçy-0

Yasna $7.
•.•':>-’-,çy-ij '>çys-*Ay p^^AdAfQ
jfoj -(79>o-*A •io3j-u-{?-u/x'ro -t'-i'çy-0 ^çy^-^Ay 4 4
^ro -toW-" 4Jro K)'VJJ^-,J(-“ro
iocy--uçy-u ^>ro loor^çy-*'
-“Qjy-i’îp • K2)j-u-^-u/-*jro -Atënyô^A-"/ -p^pAy -"(yy-i’y
tyy-^-^pro -ui£j^>jjjjyo -u>enAjj))ar "H
00 -up-u|-(p'-”yuA-u0
-Cvçy-" ■4'fçys-u^y 5 h 5
-"ro •-^/«-‘A to(y'jjçy-“ -fawp’çy-0 -foô|y-u('j £^3-“A -•^-“lAf^y-^W -"-^yfVy ">>A>^>-“(y ^=>ro 6 v tyyjj^*,f 6
•"ro -u>°e>uô'-*Jt'O -"H-ih’téJoôp’-’A^
•'•"-V jjH-wi£yô'-*" •i'Hjo?>e>üô'-uro -i,)>jj, -urjt)?>e>oô'
y-*jro -(7X“i-"i°^Kyy -focHçyf-V-0 -x'HyK'ij">eKV>o-’-‘' (0-"-»-’’">oy-uyjA(à -Mb,-,jAA8^:>-unjyd' -"H .-«^■*"1
°o° •••• -uH-,j(y'î-u(AJjH -“"-«A toor-** y--«h
.-foi-u^-uA^y 4f^>jA,(y» A?yçyjj foçy^^Ay 7 m 7
uAJ '>»A^>-«(y ^ro 8 •••to(y-,j-(p,pjro 8
^î^çy-0 rjarjjA’-UJ>o-,Q)y p"ro -jo-u«-u„-uA
gJj))-’«2Xj-*jrJyi,t-'-uy DO’-’P’-VyoV' K)orjA><2Kj>3jAjj|'
-Vx't-“çyf4’-u f-ojyjA^ jzoj-u(
■’j"M^3-*j!çy6’ jjtjjji,{?(y'-uZp jjfjJ'ruiyjjrt) -(wH^re

io Yasna 57.
-M<’M-uyjA(ô -“H
°o° lov-^-fr-^ro .......-“P
9 9 IV
10 -*jruf-UJ-’-,))T^3 >ro 10
-{7?>oJ-M'VW>Et?-uAQ} -MT “HIV’OJ
-*jçy-’<3Jjjiy •jux>-uQb3Af>°u •-fa-C'çyiy-u ^ro1
toty* -“HÇ-0
•.• -faor?H*,J-v-“ji •-*j(4-oro
*■0“ toy^-fr-^ro ......-uH-u(y)-Miô-üH -*jjjjj^ loor-"
11 -fafî^Aw A’ïv-" n v
•-(yôs’u -fa>°JçyV3
12 -“H-°^)-’|o-u(yw0 ^>ro 12
v -{y)r'i-ux’^!f(MD ^6,-u>iL?
°o° ioy-"-(y-uf-“ro ...-uh-m(U'î-uiÔ-uh -»»A toar-0
13 "fai-og1-“A8ôfip -(y^-^yar -toçy^D 13 vi
^-u^o .-(?)ci>>ro -(?f»eKyfcs-u -(yn^ro toy-u-(yjj/-*jro

Yasna 57. 11
-6>wro -VoenpH
• -fa-fa)e>uV,K> -fowro
v-(zftu-^ro loorto^çy-0 to jOJU-{7(y.Jj -vV-HQr JO-**A^ 14
-“p-^or jo-«A^
Ç^^or-LP^ -wK-u(îr
•■’K’^-’toro -P"ii*>Q p^to-’-’ô-* hx
.-u-m-ui-uj-^, totwiorty
^Pto^ptoi-^O) Jpy*
-“ro.......-uH-uorp,|{Vjr" tüor-^ •.•'^’x2n>Vu„(ir>"
-fop't^Adô^ 4f^s-*A)or 4-r,çyjj -foçy^'Ay 15 vu
•to3J-"-('-u/jjro ••••
•toano"4-,-‘"9 '>p,p%> ^ro
-uH-u>e>üô'-,""(M.P-u -u>°ô-u(y' >ro
-uro' 16

U)rrrofr frr^priÆc
aWt- •Ç^'rÿ^c^, )rrc
^rrc\J}"cV- ^)^rrrC5l^r Cb- ( rr Glûrirr/frc^
■•■ GJrrfrrty-rrr tûi * GUr/)-- 0drr/rrO IIIA 6l a\rr^ài^ rrO^A/)- ^rrc^?^ ty^rrÜn-lty 6l
rr/fOGl' Çrrrrrr* rrlrr^IrrirfCrrrlrr Cklrr^rr~^-tre^>GI" 00
C^rr^CWÔ^rr oB^-rrMUc^ C^f .’.
rrUCTc^ C^rr^Gïc^rr • B^-rr^o/GI’
^)^rrr' rr-.Æ/^-rrrcJ f®rr\,c\l< ^rrC^Urr-
pffOrrûlO^rrroï' fOrr^c^ trrOl((rr-ûl<- Ç7<
gl <îCc^ Ic^rcî drr^G0c^ ^^rrrirrrZ^-rrrr o /^rrrfrrlrcrr^Jf frrç^ •Wrrîrr* CrrÔ)((rrGlrÇf c^.*.
CMc^ (^fKKCrrrrQr- rrcc rvXirirr- /^(ïlrr^)lrrCîrlrr OU^cTrr Gif O^f •
/{üfC^rrr^c^ rrQ^rr/ÆlGb rûrrGÎf^frr^’
+GJrrClrlfr- ty-rrc 1er ( Gw GUrrGrirr*
GUrroï’ /^-rrrlff^- tcrr^-rXI- Çrrç'fo'CAfy--
Ll GJc^ Ic^roJ- (DnrCXrirrûio/rr- rfà( Grrrlrr^rr* Ll
fàtrttrirr ^^rrr-G^^c^Crirr
alrrx-prOàœ lf fCrrrrO/r
GUc^ 0-^)6/)- rrGcHUrrà4©^
If Ûrvfl'rr(^(rrr Onri- ÇrrrZ)-*^(l•
?GJc^ rrlrr4(fri4î»rrf(!î^lc^ frrûhrw-f/Ocr-
Irfùwr C^r L^rrjÇrrri Crrr^-eXl’
’ZS nisn\

Yasna 57.
4x“ru ■bi,fov-u^
y j*HK) y my-^-'^rQ ••••• toir-"
-tvçy-" -foçtp^u 21 ix 21
'>nar-“ toar-t/toro 22 22
'vMxM? -"Hu-uçy>>çy<à jo’r°-,-ujar!-‘-,/oa»-*jar -*'ru-"iy-"ro
°o° iov-tj-fr-tjj-uro -uH-"(y'î-*jiA-"f" toor-"
^f^Aar -(mç?" 23 x 23
.4^4,, toaruïoro

Yasna 57.
Y A’K’/ -(?y\J-"WÇyV*'^>>O(y-u(y' YS-u
1 ■»k>-’jàA-uh-*A(Ô '^6-u)çy6'':T,i}-utj
"6>c6|ü-ue -(ÿi°"w’î>" -Ojcro j"s-u
•■“Aià •-(rçM2>ü-, ~*AÔ •-‘b-’K’->-«■$-»" -“fO^çQjy -**A$ -(7?V-UZJ) ••{'A3-uçgô'
•-‘O-A-’-POr-»" -‘A& y-»«K>-u>o^f-(7-u -»xA(à ■u-wp-^Vw'
y'>ço(o-u9£ -uj\&
AOjpQjMJ .jjjjjjjyjjy JJf-u .J*A(à* 25
P*J-,>-u(UJ! -Ujjpty-M
-u^=>-»A,(y' -*jjjçyjj -"çy^-Ay ••>•*"
^fo-^yoy-u ^ro -QtyirP* -“Hlüor-"
'^.«(y.-ui-u-^ jpu^_ .-upy-upy
£>-UJA(y-Ujfr A-*-"®
'>j^-u)A3 -A*"«
iK'iauôfC' -Df-pw
^A-uq, tuar^çyty-"
(o-*""-u)p*A3 p^Qbr) '>-6çyit)-u P"ro

Yasna 57.
-"çy^Ay ^>°^T:>i-*j£j"t 26
•-^K')-udf\-(?-o(y' -^t,k’j-*"»-’| -“A^^Qr
°o° ••"H-u(y'?-x,iA-Mi" -“"-«A toar"
-foi-"g.-«A(>A£y -fa£s-uW •-ta'çy-u "façySjAy 27 xi
-*AuAh-“A^ -ujçyô's-*A -“^y,V-"
•,(y-uK>j"y ■jjw,ji,'!i>UJ j^)j(y-u(Mi)-u -uarî-MJJu-uj 28
■uq/')jjmv-w -uji-y(o-uV‘"y ••" -UJ .jjjjjjjyjjiofVw/OJJQJ . JOJjJ^J-uJJJjy ,jj(yjjjjjjjj*j -XJJJ|
...px.jjjj,jj^j(y.^fjjj .-uyjjJJJj)
(y>° -ça)w0 -*>ro 29
jo-**J9D-u(y .|0»-u X“ro
{g-»"9ï)jj(y iu»-"

ÇLAcrjrr-fy rr-ç COV oc
IIIX rrO ^rrrrrr- rrirr^lrrÊ/Æ'i-r-rl rr’ (^4 rr| rrty rrc CCU ' oo
Çrv-O)((nrlnXA“ Cîirr^ rrrr Cl.ô<^-■ V jrt Jünri<\X>|-’ .’. rr/ZOOl
rrO)G^4-fT-<ïriCM* r^^C^-’Ç^rrc^Oi-- (Tirrÿrrrr îj-rrr^rre iff rrlrX/^-’
z£ ÇUrrÇ}rrrc rr^rrJÎ'Gi- t^-rrlrr Or* (ÿtrrofc^ CTIrt-Çrrrr j;C
€rr/|3^^CM (Ùrrro/f CrrOk(rri<ûCy*
Ç^^C^OÏrr-GlCK^- r/CUrrr Crr-Gl7^
CtlrT-rprOw frrdc^rrccrr" Çi^rrCfCf ^-1
OUfkoJ rrlfï-ir^r-p^ frrrty-ty
C^rrO^' (jn-yGrUCcr^* rrUrt-frrrr C^CM'
rrrfAXÎ- tfôrrty-rr l£ GUc^ rrrC^cO^ty-’ i/ï)nr%|-rr-r/€CM- j£
fy-rrjÇrrri Çrrirfy-rMi' irCïi-rrkffOrrlXc^C
• OUrr( (T. )-rrrÇG1-
IIX o£ Ô^p\ rrrfDOJ- ^çrrrrr- rrlrr-^JrrÉrfCrrrirr-..... OJrrfrr^| rrf fcûi • oo
ûrJrrcJrlr<9 Çrr c^G^rr c^rrc ' Îrîiût .*.
jOJrrO^rir oï- ( CÔ.rrCTo/rrr ^Ql' r/Ù<- 0U<4 Oc^Dez)- ayrc^âi^ rr-Ôà^
^rrr rr rrçArrc< C^ir^C^f Cjn
ÛJc^c ((rrOlr Çr ff* CUrrcpACffifrcrr--
ZS ,EüSF/\

Yasna 57.

"’QPJJ -uH-(’K'(MÏ)i,(p
toario"çy-" toar-^çy^-^y -H^tyuyQ
•iüq»'-xA6x“-(?)|-u>o Hjar-"-(zô'-u>o
^or nyy,-u-bô'-u>°
-“1-°^ ^î^çy-" '^>K>-u»-,K,-’-,ji-uij) -jt)yK>j-*ji-uy ^>>o-u|-uy
luario-’-’çy-0 rjor-^çy^-^u -urfoero
•-• Kjiy'u>°-upjrt) -"H-focro
•iü3Jjj-(7-u/-"rü ^K>-‘"of>çy^>-*Ay -ui-“j-fa -"Qjuvy 34
-j/ojjjqj '^>JA(à ''>->jçy->j '^çyY’An •-u^.ir-tftùro
‘^=,/°-*j-{7)(y''^=>-,-»-^M •-'■’))-"çy-"
â– " 103 -T

Visparad 15 (§§ 1-3).
Exhortation to Righteousness and Worship.*
•-(zK'i-ui3^:,-"Jjyü -OK’H-'ietoV'Por
'ùajjjjyy •-{?K'|-u^n^-u»C!l)’3
y-^ip •{?XV|-UI^
2 ^Ay 2 •.• poy-^
•>-»"iy-ut*o toorAor-*' 9>°y-u -*"^J -^py-^çy
loor-^iy-^rü $ro 'Vfs-uçyjj •toty'-^tenh’wy
•tüîs-*jçy-u -uH(y-u"-*'>o<ÿs-*A(^ -“kio-""-"*0
3 >ro ^ro 3 ■ Kj>oççy.>(î,-u|-u
-‘oty-tj>vQ to>°-’io-’-»çyô'-u»-*A<ô
yj\£).iu •-^xvEI2^Ad^'w0 -uH^X“H-uy
00 00 .(U(y'-«A)(y*-u

Yasht 5 (§§ 1-9; 132).
Arduî Sûr Yasht.
Fraise of Ardvi Süra Anâhita, the Celestial Stream
and Goddess of Waters.
1 1
AeundA"/ -*j-6-u>°-,q)u -“çy(ü-"/"ro
-foctay -fo,»yVjj -foero
-6)C->->/AçO{O:*J -VX“9-“A$-P&W
Ki>°-,jjwoi)-u toonA* •-{zx'-’-’iwtoro
•io>°J-u»>oi)-u tO(ir)A -bK’iJ^or-ui^
-fo’îs-*j£fAj -6>eA^<ô><îb3x%)
-fo,îSjJçy-*J -foe'tjj£)-“A<î)':>d&)-"e
-fo’ta^çy-" -6)CA^<ô'>><’|üjuçy
^-«rü -foeiçy^-“ -ujro 2
-Vx'i-’çy-’ta-^ar {’jcAtMiAp ~*"ro
^aliS-Mpo tXJQ)JÉtacj

Yasht 5.
3 -C'>osAy-‘A$ "VK'>CMy-‘J-(? 3
.j>oî3-o -ujf*y
^piy-iu -x,d-‘-’rtJ
-’>o(ç!.»fj-u>o-iAQ} jpjuQ, f-*"ro
• J|O J-Uf-»-*J>O-*A(^ .JfO ._UJ|«0
jO-Ufy^Vuj (O-UJjjV-^Xy-
•.* /Sjj
'>|-iA-u9 •KJt’(|) •)K’rÇî!/'^,Jjrü 4
.jSjj -th'üZ ^-"fü
■ooj-u^eab-'Atô •>^=,-u -wty' (^-“ro
...-u>OJ(y..w,_M -i'))^Ïm
-<7X“I-u-’A-’-"/i) -^Ai^or toar-uïoro
•.•-<7)C'|-uV‘"qjd^ -^x“i-ujA-»-"^ -foeçyto-0 -uh^jkî>u9
-(7)ci-*A-^(ib^(M-u "beçyio-" •-uh^-’ijîj-“9
y-’-*"i-faV^ kAj-"I •’j"Q,w-u))(y'
^Qpx. ?-uj(y3-u))|æJ -(O^ -uHD?-*"(y' 5

Yasht 5.
DH"(y' ^(yju (O^ -"H
.jfOJ-Ajj -u»-u
.JfOiMJfjj ^QljS-upo
•imW' -foc'i-A<$-,jçyô' ■ujGr •H'Aygtj^' -foeiçyV" •-‘"oi'
■>1*0 -fafu -foero 6 v -foc'i-A^çoô' -‘"or 6
jji-uj-t,i •»-"*ô^3-uW toVj^jp -ui$-u'»fj -*"0, jjrx) w -u>o-uj(ii-»i ^H-’-“'Woô'-*"J-’(ibJ-*j -uH-’-,xA3?Vu(y'
-*A)e>u>d-uV"‘jf (Ojju9çyj^<î) jo-ujx. 7 7
■ 7^-° £0)0-^ •-“K-u(y'
•i((y'jju -*"/p
•tUK’J-UJpjrü ">9 4x”-fr ^t*9 8 8

Yasht 5.
-uiw-uro •>-uj/jjro •-6)C’>o
••{'kA-pu -vvnyV
jj>e>o-u"xyj -uK>y-*"i>T:,!-uw-uf
•to>o.>(y -"h-*A3x"-V -u(ys-u(y'H3

y>OJ-u(y (Oiutoro (UOT-t/tUrO
-»"K-“(y' •£jj"çy-u -ujô(yjj0 'V’W-0
°o° •iuy-M-fr-Mpjro -ujru)fp -ujr-^xu(y'JH"rü
•JJ-(7(y’-u0 -*»>o|o-u -"li^ro r32
•-(zx“>OJ"^A)(y'-u -bc/
•-fw-f'jpro -faVuK^3-u/ •’"s-u
-foeifW ■’s-u

Yasht 5 and 14.


lüiyiM^ (o>° -“d-'TO
•iK'u-u^J>oj-u(y ‘•-"(y-jp"»/-*'/
v •Kjwtë>w/p •-*ü5^=’))-u9
°o° °<>° ......-uHjj VI.
Yasht 14 (§§ 1 —17).
Bahram Yasht.
Six of the Incarnations of Verethraghna,
Genius of Victory.
•-6>e’i-uô(ü-uej (V»0^ -u>e>o-,myy
•-{'X'i-u^-u/-urb j/aD-*j ^5
'^’Voz-w jo-ujm
v -‘A>e>O)<3-uV’( -u-V-uK>-'(yy ^>>0
.iMi-tyy.» 2
J’rfo toor-^-uj/p
• mor-0»0^-0 toor-'AjAw
.^qo-uj^-u^Iu^ />|fVur’ jor^

Yasht 14.
Y -u)°)
-^ro -*ji-ujro •4z-ui
-“çyiojj '^,-Vff°23jj»-,j!
4 4 •’^Qr-u -"i
•■{7K'>o-*j»çy->j£ -foei-^yw^ •,iio"-u»S-x,>c>
-fcx'i-M9-A-,-M Y-wH-VX'l(dJA-"9 -{'xAÔ-‘"M -"K
5 jjH-*j(y'!-,jiôjjpj -u"-*A toar" 5
-Mtt>-uro •-"K»-uwW -,-ujj-Ajro
-^-"(w -*o-’j"ro lov-^-^p'ro
.....~"y-"e ^"-“-^-“(y- to 6 Af Y-^ieiü^ô-A"/ .... '>\e>o)3-AA-u/
to(y'-*ji-x*jçyV -«ozWo -*o>çe
•ioar-u)fay>-,Ji-iA-uf toorAAy
jo-M(-oy »ü"Aî) jV-“(y) -V-’ro

Yasht 14.
’’ tüy-u-(,-"(x’ro ......-uH-uty'î-uiô-utu -*jj,‘^ toor-"
7-AeupdA"/ ... '^>e>o>3jA-u( g-"y
'^r’VfafrL} *t’">o-AÔ •JJ"-{7(y'-,J 9
Kjty'-^çyA)-0 -“aAor» njarj,ty»jj
rü(y,-uçip:>-ucj-AJ-u/ toa/AiAD
• ty or-^i "i-A"/
•jo-u|^î3 4f9-’i-’-u "»V-"a» •-(z-’ro
'•r5ïf>-"W '^=,-fc-u
â– / .jo
°o° toy-^-fr-^Pro .......■"H-uQn-ulA-*if" .-u.m-*A lüiy'-"
ô?(B •)qy-u-(H'Pro 10 iv
7-*A>eK»3-*A-uf -u-V-^»oj(yu ....
'•v’1^0'"^ .joojyjjçj*» .^J*>^(y--u II
'^3K>-»"kxA>(y'-u ^=»|^A3ôf0
-"«toro loar-^)^)

Yasht 14.
12 -faeiçyV ^ro 12
-u»çy^3jjçoô' ”>ro
)or ?/ p"»-"
->>0^0) ^Wo) p"ro
13 -fa9>PM|t)jjV) tyor (wW *3
HJOr-0*0^-0 •’h=>-’-UJ))-*J'\Ô lU^-SK)
-fai-^QH’çyô' ■’Q,j-u -V)rjA3x”>°
-’joJiy.M-MQjy >Qp-” •-(?f(ô-u9 ^rO
••Kji-ujh2nj-,>°,jjq»xy »bk>'s-uiçyô'>(y'
•P"»£/y/p to>o-»-‘'>e>o-,ro
•^r:Aôjjçyô'^-u(y' jjk3d-uju
°o° »uy-uV"/-utAo -ui-’jj(y‘5-uiô-uhu jj«^A toar-w
14 An» •■•iov-u-0-uf:jjro -twif\6bU} 14 v
v-*Ajsn>,6-*'V"/ • ••• ^î?

Yasht 14.
KjQr^hoyx^ -’QlpK»
lüty'-’Ai’i?-"-’QJD J>° '^’içyV’
iü(y,-">o^jAe io(y'-u(y
•toor-u-b6,-ut° »ü(y'-u9J!-uMçy')jj(w
. toorjy-u'jv'V-ujQj fuar^^'Pro
°o° K23jjj-(7-*j/jjrü -"K-"arî-"iA-"H' -*jJJ-u^ ioo/'-"
jW i<5 vi 16
■.''-"Wx^W •JJ-(7-u>oJ(yy (O-uy
17 17
'Van-tjï?-tjy-*jb>(p-uQ) -“dAarf? •Jt)V'i
todrjA35>3"’>c,-’ •.•KXirAAu tO y .^o_uy5_M|j_LM ._u
°o° °o° tuy-^-O-^ro • -uH-*'

Vendidad 3 (§§ 23—29).
The Blessings of Agriculture.
-*"içyô' -torf -for-b* -fr-r'V’*»0 ^9
Ç-“ro '^3V(y'-u gS-»A-{' jo-m-u» •.•
JJV»)' •JK>-’tO"JAJ"9 -fa*2K_),O-*^(Ô
•jjk-Vx,i-*A-u)A) MxrW“Q -*jr-^M“i-w))-urü Aen»(?
-foi»-*" •M" •-“%) ^-"ro
V •»»o-,^:>-u|Ôt9 JJ" -top” -“'(J -g^TO
24 -“^^3 "“'•V H"çy -H*»/ -fo -rf •£>*>! 24
~“>o-M„-’çy\-‘'9* •JJJJ^y\-*J9 •J"ro -UK’|O-UU
■toi^^V’çy-’obJJj -*o’Ç(V'}JJ0 joj/jo
-"^3 -*"ro
25 .-faf -(/jHp >ÃŽ*O 25

Vendidad 3.
-»"i -“^-“ro toor-" ip-»-ui>c-('
—’oip-" {zx“/ >ro 26 v J»-*» -*«0 26
-M^>e>ü)6jA-u/ -u-^-u^!»v oo-»io"/&0
.-u\u| ■:£**•( •-Vi» .JJgs^TSjj jO-UJJJ
-foc-V ^ro
-up-upçyj^ .^uî^yyMJ^
^Tajjpar-cp-u(^< ji-uju-*A$-uj 27 27
•to^Ûy -’>&?•" ~*V
ix*V^-*A-u(m -jo¥zol^ô-uf" p^uîjyy
y to J(»U ■’K’-’IO^/Afip-’QIP-" ^x*/ -foHz-’ ”>ro 28 28
.-u^ji>)Hu(y. -ui-,çyjj3
-Jj\-«J| .{OJU-UJ
••’ano^/tVQ-^db*" -ç*t»i -tor-fc ^ro
ivw'-^r&vw 29

Vendidad 3 and 6.
.{Vw) tooritv-’i-"
z>|-*"(îr3{-‘" •-{7K'(yj3 -“ijtïj
-u^u •*OT>>olç;j^y-«Ay
[ lUH^-’lü-’A^'J .-UWJ-UJ (U>oj
v v -{'K’paP3^ 4j3 -foe*çy|ojjm
Vendidad 6 (§§ 44--5 1).
Disposai of the dead bodies.—Origin of the Towers
of Silence.
-“Var-" -Vx''i-u>°i3JV -{zxA-^i -"»9
45 ^TïW'-“ ^=>JA’O JOJJJJJ 45 y ""») -u%(-u^I
-4^3 £^^-*4*0 ■jAx2>ü)(3-lA-*j/( jj-<7-*j>°J(yy
-Joo!>ôf5, -UJ(p '>'\-"f" jo(i>ô{9 -*"ip IX'|-U/-U))-U
46 |0>O(U-u .{U(y> .-Ujjjfoçy» 46 y ^-u^u
-*"0 •-fai(ü-*j(yj3-u"-u
•’/ioro -,-u0 •-('fi|ü-uw/en)V/
—*O(ÔÔ» -*"0 '>"-uZ7) '>VMI«"*O(Ô&9 Ml? '>I’P15 -£^1
-C’X’i-*A-u«lb -uH-^)eo(ü-u

Vendidad 6.
••foc'P’ô^e 47 v •onv'i'Aâ -“r 47
.jo^, yioro .-(,^,^^,,,0^
'>V«|"-,O$Ô» -*"/p >I9W tO^fü-0 (üiy* JJ^S’(O-u
-Vx»(M-u ••’))-“ -Vk'X’D-" 4xu(V'J-u>o(0jj '>i\JJf""Jt)(}}A{3 -UJ<7)
(ÜQr •J"9 -fofO^fVu} -uH-foc'|-‘A-u»V -“H
■ '^A)Qr-M (oS^A-^ jo-u-uj 48 •.• j/°u-*j 48
-•"(M) •IO>OJJJD 10^23 IO">IJJK’>I2PK» J&'-VQ) IOo|ü-“
ijjy iüjj23 -u-»j-»Ah2n)-*j it)!y'-u(Mîj-u -foci-^i-0/
•.•-fo-njçy-'J -(?K'IJ>OJ-*J))>OU-U A-0»0^ 49 49
.-J\) '^=A)(y'-u •^-u-*" 5° Y ■JJ-foIJ3-uVi -u»9 50
-“'(yy A^at) joor -foP23/>
^Aj"ZpJ(Uj-’-ui-u ■-fa'foiriij Aj-^d» -foab^A -A^on -foi
jo-of«y ^op» £^^u-uij'V-“Qn -0?>°
juyjj .-»jtoro to^tu-" ix“w-u>° ■’ftoro 51 51
"u»çy?ry°‘»5>o ■’/ioro -u»ço(o-utjJH-r,/p •’/roro -u»t£?io-u!
MI)O]>JU|U KjhOjy-u .|X"),-“>o joj>, •’/ioro
-u"yAj23,A-u»/A-ut-ujKj -tj-A
00 « .jfo^Q, {o-fo/ (t^or

Vendidad ig.
Vendidad 19 (§§ 5-10)
The Temptation of Zoroaster bv the Evil Spirit.
5 -VA?-" '>Ve»o,'d-*Aji'/ 5
-t7{7O-“3>?)££3 '>w|-’-u-C? -A-1' y^*33Aj»3
•-bcrt) {zk-î-’V"!!)
»xj"Tüs-uy •*■*" W-"ro
.joJ\j.k3Wjjço> (ojwj/s.u^x-5 -"p-uQr
■7o-K,-fyo-ui > •^-*"-('^-"1 -"r^or
6 J/OJ-uq, 6 •.•'^>->3
-^-(7x3 (0-V -*"-(7 . Jt))J->|J-uE
ô-*3 'VMxy roor"(yy^çoAv^oj J •-(7?(y')7-*j^ -‘,ar'i-'-‘)’-*j.»°y •jçy->»-*"( -u(jjj;y (O-v^Aô
-“^-“rü -foijx,rü ■’^34r>^ <7)c,|2j^3
vtAtQKîîÔ^V) ''>-fc-uooJ(UD >rt) •u7O-uçy^p-M
.4x“ifo^3 ^0/-)!-“^ loHb^T^y j,iy-u
•£^1 -uiJ {7?ij"»e«.)? -uij-u>oy-,j -fr-i'iy-*'-»-’
8 -u)>JJyx, 8 •/
-'jjjI-*jq -"h^o toty-^î •■•jt))jji-,jj-(7 '^A?-u '>-^7-u3)b23 -“7°
H"7°Ôf9)y -x'-’-‘-uf -*>|-U9 -’-'Jjy-‘jro -”<))■” -*J|-'-*'/p KJQT^S
9 ■»-uj-(7iy'-*j j7oj-*' ^Venyd-^A•«/ ^>-V"K>-»i»y ^ro -u7o-uço-uh-u

Vendidad 19.
jjr-u-V^=,-u(V' -“H
.jijjj|-u^ -u|-u ■-fatQnyw-vlj ~’>oy-u -w-uf ~u|-«-(?
^’(y*5f-*">o(\9)(y' -“"-“y -“1-“ tüi-r*jujjrt) jj(y-*j •■"!-“
••">o^Q,U .p«çy$-(p> lOlt’V 72^8-^
-fanar-" '>Ve»o>3-‘A-u( 10 •.•"r, 00 00

(Comparée! with Justi, Handhuck der Zendsproche y
A. Vowels.
Short . . . . ... ^ a ■» i > u s 9 fü e ~>=> o
a i te (‘) (à) <>
Long . . . . ... ^ à ■P Z î Ü 0 p° à)
â ï ù (éj è ô (do)
B. Consonants.
Guttural . . ...,è w vg Ï,J
k (M) s (ÿb)
Palatal . . . . . . y c — tJ
Dental . . . c . . . r° t M j) d t, % t
t (tb) d CM) (t)
Labial . . . ... V p ./ J* DU W
, / b TV
Nasal. . . . ... î ’ tf V i n m
Semivowel (n) and w n (V m
Liquid . . . . . t*ü (") y (i)'1 2 ' r l) (’») V
y r
Sibilant . . ... V s -t) ô’ g) ru /3 j z du è
a) (V 6-//J hk) 2 (zh)
Aspiration . ... or Je s*
Ligature . . . . . y» h
1 Forins in parenthèses () show where Justi has been deviated from.
2 The signs i, u need only be employed l'or purely scientilic pur-
poses; thé letters y, v for bolh initial and internai row, L} )>, answer
fully for praetical purposes.
8 The différentiation s, need only be made in scientific articles.
The single sign / is ordinarily qnite sufficient for the three -*0, £0, W.


adj. = adjective
advl. = adverbial
cl. = class
cpd. = compound
dcln. = declension
esp. — especially
et al. — et ah a
expi. — example
fr. — from
indecl. —- indéclinable
infin. — infin itive •
nom. propr. --- nomen proprium
num. = numéral
orig. = original, originally
opp., opp. to — opposed to
par. = paragrapli
prêt. = preterite
ptcpl. -- pari ici pie
sb., subst. — substantive
scdry. — secondary
str. = strong
vb., vbl. — verb, verbal
w. = with
wk. = weak
Afr. -- Afringan
A. O.S. “ American Oriental Society
B. B. — Bezzenberger’s Beitrage
G Av.1 — Gatha Avesta
Gr.2 — Grammar
IF. — Indogermaniscbe Forsphungen
Ind.lran. — Indo-Iranian
I<.Z. -- Kuhn’s Zeitschrift
MS. —- Manuscript
MSS. -= Manuscripts
Nar. = Naryosangh
Ny. -- Nyaîsh
P. — Persian
Phi.Vers. — Pahlavi Version
S.B.E. — Sacred Books of East
Sir. — Sirozah
Skt. â– =. Sanskrit
Vd. -- Vendidad
Vsp. — Visparad
YAv.1 — Younger Avesta
Ys. Yasna
Yt. = Yasht
Z. A. — Zend-Avesta
ZPhl. Gl. Zand-Pahlavi Glossary
1 For explanation of G Av., YAv. see Gr. p. xlvii.
2 AU référencés to Gr. §§ ( ) are to Jackson, Avesta Grammar
(Stuttgart 1S92).

Yasna n Notes.
General Remarks. On the book of the Yasna and its divisions,
sec Gr. Introd. p. xvii § 13. The présent sélection from it is one of
three chapters, Ys. g, 10, 11, which were specially reciled in preparing the
Haoma as part of the sacrifice. The verses of this short chapter, mingled
with the prose lines of the liturgy, formed the conclusion of the Ilaoma
ri tu al. The sacred wine was then drunk by the priest, and the perfor-
mancq of the Yasna sacrifice continued.
The introductory verses here given narrate hovv three good créatures,
if misused, will utter imprécations ; the closing stanzas are in praise of
Ilaoma. The Métré may be compared with the Sanskrit çloka but is
sometimes defective; occasionally it reminds one of the Kalwala verse of
Longfellow’s Hiawatha. See Gr. Part II, cliap. on Métré.
Ys. ii.i.
gauït as pasca haoma s ca: the inferenee is plausible that the three
créatures are respectively typical of the three classes, peasant, war-
rior, priest.
frâstâm baJ^a-he; the Phi. Vers, rend ers ‘who dost not give me as a
precious thing (to worthy people)’.—See Vocabulary.
Ys. xi.2.
as pu bà$ârjm: apparently the second, or warrior class i.*» liere alluded
to—see above.
mun zâvar9: on the construction, cf. Gr. § 930.
p ou r u m ai t i .... karpàycù: either in the race or in battle.
Ys. 11.3.
presumably an allusion to the priest who does not fulfil
his duly.
a i w i sh utim dS r a y e h î : the l’hl. V ers. renders ‘who witholdest me
from being prepared’.
Ys. 11.4.
pila: Aliura Mazda is of course to be understood (see next paragraph).
Ys. 11.6.
varyna: ‘serpents, snakes’, as shown by the fragment given by Geldner,
in K.Z. xxvii. p. 588.

Notes Lo Yasna 11 and 26.
Ys. 11.7.
fravr a s y â mm ... p a * r i sfr a £ t ? m : aceording to the legend, the mur-
derer Franrasyan ;i. e. laler Atïîïsyab), 1.00k refuge in an underground
palace or iron chamber; in spite of which, however, Hom captured
him. See Dannesteter, Etudes Iraniennes, voi. ii. pp. 225-229;
vol. xxiii. pp. 64 note, 144; Le Zend-Avesta, vol. i. p. 111 note.
Yasna 26 Notes.
General Remark. In the performance of the Yasna sacrifice this
short chapter is recited by the priest (Züt) and his assistant (R&spï) as
part of the invocation of the Fravashis.
Ys. 26.1.
s t au mi zba y e m i u fy e m i : compare the formulaic yasn&ica vahnt&ica etc.
Ys. 57.6 et al.
Ys. 26.4.
ahùm ... frava$ïiti: lhe usual five-fold classification of the spiritual
faculties of man. The sanie division is found also in later Parsism—
(1) ahu (Phi. ahu} ‘spirit, breath of life’; (2) daênâ (lJhl. dïri] ‘religion,
conscience’; (3). baudah (Phi. bod} ‘consciousness, perception’; (4) uruan
(Phi. rubàn) ‘soûl’; (5 ) fravaçi (Phi. frohar} ‘Fravashi, guardian angel’.
gâus hu d&v ho : an allusion to the Prime val Bull stain by Ahriman, but
from winch ail animais are sprung. Similarly, mankind are descended
from his counterpart Gayo-maretnn, the primitive man, a sort of Ira-
nian Adam, who was also slain by Ahriman. See Ys. 26.5 beiow.
Ys. 26.9.
u zdafyyu nqmca: Zoroastrianism distinctly recognized the righteous in
other lands bcsides Iran, cf. Yt. 13.143,144—a glimpse of the idea
of the universal brotherhood of mankind.
Ys. 26.10.
haca ... â s a 0 3y ayt à £: an allusion to the coming of lhe Saviour (Sao-
shyantp The phrase haca— à etc. is here about équivalent to ‘from
tlie beginning of the world to the résurrection’, cf. i Corinthians xv.45.
Ys. 26.11,
Krvqnü ... y& p rav a$ay ü- here the soûls of the dead are Fravashis,
cf. Yt. 13.17. The relative y& (f.) is attracted to fravafayo.

Notes to Yasna 57.
Yasna 57 Notes.
General Remark. Two Yashts (Ys. 57, Yt. n) are dedicated to
Sraosha the divinity of Religious Obedience and Dévotion. The latter
Yasht (Yt. 11) is commonly termed Srôsk Yasht Hâdhokht and is rather
the more liturgical of the two. The former, our présent sélection (Yrs. 57),
is the Srôsh Yasht si shaba or ‘Srosli Yasht of the Three Nights’, silice it
is used at funeral ceremonies during the thre.? nights aftcr the deceasc,
as well as being in common use at the sacrifice. See Darmesteter, Le ’Aena-
Avesta, vol. i. p. 358. The MSS. generally (livide this Yasna into thirteen
Kurdes ‘sections’, eacli of which closes with the répétition of a formula.
Ys. 57-i-
a $2 ni vohu: the opening verse beginning with these words, consists
merely of formulas; it is tlierefore herc omitted.
Ys. 57-2.
fr a s Izr 9 tâf, pai-Li bar9 s ni,1»: on the construction, cf. Gr. § 966 N. I.
pâyû pii) ôr9 s tara: a Dvandva compouncl (Gr. § 879 expi.), and it re-
fers apparently to Mithra and Rashnu, the keeper and the judge at
the Cinvat Bridge after death. It seems nt least reasonable to regard
Mithra (cf. Yt. 10) as the watchful güardian (pàyu); it is fair to pré-
sumé that Rashnu the Just (cf. Yt. 12), the divinity who wcighs in the
balance the deeds of men, may be the pïvôrHtar who bas the decision.
The Phi. Vers., moreover, supports the view as it actuallv glosses the
phrase as pânak barïnkar Mitra ‘the keeper and former Mithra’; it
fails to recognize the dual of lhe Dvandva, treats the words as sin-
gular, and hence makes no mention of Rashnu.
Ys. 57*3-
raya ... yasna: on the construction, cf. Gr. § 941 expi.
Ys. 57*h.
p ry atys tï:$ etc.: nouns in explanatory apposition to bar9snia.
Ys. 57-8.
gâpto f r a s r âvay a$ afsmanivqn: :who chanted the (iathâs, the me-
trical sélections’, etc.
Ys. 57-iû.
yapa &jeô nâidy(ôvkim: a réminiscence of the Gâthâs (Ys. 34-8 b),
hence nâid'> (d) rather than mVd0 (d).
Ys. 57-ïi-
b9r9za idïm : the Phi. Vers, lias büiand ‘tall’ which would rallier favor the
MSS. reading bsrtzadtïm, this would imply a stem b?r9zaLya-.

Notes to Yasoa 57.
Ys. 57-*4-
durât . . vài jnëb y et compare the words of the Psalmist (Ps.
‘there shall no evil befall thee, neither shall any plague conie
n i g h thy d w e 11 i n g’.
Ys. 57-15-
vis payco f r av g i s ga ë p ay cô : i. e. ‘the prosperity of ail mankind’. The
Phi. Vers, has faruljüïh ‘prosperity, comfort, growtli’.
Ys. 57-i8.
f r&nâiuâite f>~Maë$ât: on the syntax, see Gr. § 962 expi.
Ys. 57-20.
pâpô.vacâ) p ar i. g ü.v a ecv : the Phi. Vers, glosscs ‘he speakes protec-
tion’ etc. ... aëj zak pânâktti yeuiatelüncd ... For the form pah'i.yâ^
(Geldner’s text) ins'tead of °yà° (as here), see Gr. §§ 354, 193 N. 2.
Ys. 57-24-
daènô.disô daënayâi: for the apparent redundancy compare the phrase,
Av. vîsô vïspaHïm Yt. 10.18, etc., Skt. vispâtim visâm, R.V. 3.13.$.
On daënayâi sec Gr. § 957.
fraor9iita .. frâ .. frâ: for the répétition of frâ, cf. Gr. § 752
N. 2 expi.
Ys. 57-25-
aheca auhôus: 011 the syntax, ef. Gr. § 977.
drvafbyô fiaènêbyo: on the collocation (m. n. — f.) see Gr. § 906.
YS. 57-27-
asaya: the Phi. Vers, has sâyako ~~ P. sâyah, as Dr E. W. West kindly
wrote me (Dec. 5 1888) ; hence the suggestion ‘not. casting a shadow’,
with winch- Geldner compares the Skt. epithet châyâdviiïya ‘aecom-
panied by a shadow’, the characteristic mark distinguishing inan front
the divinities MBh. 3.57.25.
Ys. 57-28.
âsyavka aspaê.ibya: on the dual number here, cf. Gr. § 908 N. 2 expi.
Ys. 57.29.
ave. ïiyeîyti ... ave â/i^le: i. e. ‘they pursue and overtake olhers, but
they themselves never can be overtaken’; ave refers both times to the
horses of Sraosha.
Ys. 57-3°-
11 $aA taire hindvô: the river of the Orient is the Indus, as the Phi.
Vers, has it; the river in the west is pçrhaps the Tigris.

Notes to Yasna 57, Visparad 15 and Yasht 5.
Yb. 57-31-
kar ar3 ht a nir ap ? ni: the middle one of the seven Karshvars and
the one on which we live. The liâmes of the seven are given at
Vd. ig.39»
Ys. 57-33-
vïspfà: on the form cf. Gr. g§ 232, 906.
Visparad 15 (1-3) Notes.
General Remark. On the Visparad and its character, compare Gr.
Introd. p. xviii g 14. The Karde here given serves as an introduction to
the Yasna Haptanhâiti (cf. par. 2), in connection with which it was re-
cited at the ritual ; hence the signilieance of the allusions frcwiikaèca etc.
Vsp. 151.
v 3 r9 % y a l qin : so reading with MS. authority. The verb here is passive
(cf. Gr. § 485 expi.), the subject is vohu vâstrya.
uyamna- am/yamnâis: ‘in order to pay oft’ the déficits (i. e. in the
Life Book) with a surplus’. See Gr. Introd. p. xxviii g 44. On dâ-
‘give’ — ‘pay’, see Skt. PWb. y nam dâ-, dandâm dâ-, cf. Lat. poeaas
dare. Ilere auuyamnâis is a regular instrumental of means, price.
Vsp. 152.
idâ astil ... yj niï iftô:- the GAv. cndings give an archaic tone. On
«dp isto, cf. Gr. g 1010 Note.
fravâkaèca ... anapyüfyt e : on the locatives see Gr. g 992.
Yasht 5 (1-9; 132) Notes.
General Remarks. The Abân Yasht ‘Yasht of Waters’ from which
the sélection is taken, is one of the longest of the Yashts, cf. Gr. Introd.
p. xviii § 15. It célébrâtes the praises of Ardvi Sura Anâhita, the Celestial
Stream and Goddess of Waters, describes lier descent from the hcavens,
and her worship, and closes with a description of her appearance.
The worship of Ardvi Sura xAnâhita was widely spread in the East.
She appears as Anâhata in the cuneiforni inscription of the- Persian king
Artaxerxes (4Ü1 centuïy B.C.); her naine (ÀvaÎTiç) is found in Strabo,
Plutarch, etc., and she became familiar in Greeee as Venus Anahita (’Aq;po-
dtxyjç, Avaîxiç).
Only the opening sections and closing verse of the Yasht are
here given.

Notes to Yasht 5.
ït. 5-4.
yeyhe: for the rnasc. (instead of fem.) form, see Gr. § 903 N. 1. and
cf. ahe Yt. 5.9 below.
Yt. 5. S
vt.jas'âz t1the subjunctive mode here, as also dl Ys. 57.31 avazü‘te,
Ys. 5725 see ms to dénoté the répétition or eontinuity of
the act ; the idea scems to be developed front the future force of
the subjunctive.
vïsp&it aoi kargvqn: cf. Gr. §§ 228, 402.
Yt, 5-6.
hizvar9 na: the reading of this word, as well as its meaning, is not clear.
By some, huzvar9na has been read and explained as ‘with inighty
power*. Perhaps the word is to be conneeted with hizû- ‘tongue*
(q. v.) and yar~ ‘move’, and to be referred to Ormazd’s act of creat-
îng by a mere word, a movement of the tongue.
Yt. 5 7.
aspô.staoychîs: better here to omit the punctuation (v) and inscrt it
after bâzu.staoyehi; ail that intervenes is parenthetic.
s rira ... a** rv a* ti: these two epithets, iike the participle ma* n initia,
refer to Ardvi Sura the subject of sispata.
Yt. 5.9.
ahe raya:, see note*on par. 4 yeyhe.
haomayô: thus good MS. authority; the form is perhaps to be explained
as borrowed from sueli a passage as Yt. 14.5 (see below), Ny. 4.9 etc.
In Yt. 14.5, Ny. 4.9, haotnayô is properly nom. plur.; it agrées with
the subject of yazania’de and alludes to the wdrshippers or officiating
priests. From such formulaie passages with yazamatde (pl.), the form
haomayô (pl.) seems to hâve been transferred to those like Ny. 1.16
yazâi (sg.) and the présent Yt. 5.9, where the plural form haotnayô is
not âppropriate. If, liowever, haoma yô gava be read with certain
MSS., it probably must be explained as haoma yô (asti) gava, which
is open to objection.
yeyhê hâtqrn: this formula is commonly found at the end of the Yasna
chapters, cf. Ys. 4.26, Ys. 5.6. It is a later imitation of GAv. Ys. 51.22.
See 6>. Introd. p. xviii § 13 end.
Yt. 5*i32*
an r vau-ta zazvtôvha: a concluding prayer that the warriors may corne
back as successful as did those of King Vislitaspa.

Notes to Yasht 14.
Yasht 14(1-17) Notes.
General Remark. Verethraghna, or Bahram, the Genius of Victory,
to whom this Yasht is dediealed, corresponds in certain respects Lo Indra
Vptrahan of the Hindu mythology. lie may in facL bc regarded as the
Iranian reflex of the latter.
The Yasht, of which only the opening is here given, contains sonie
64 paragraphs. The ten incarnations in which Verethraghna appeared be-
fbre Zoroaster are described; the powers which the divinity bestows ttpon
his worshippers are enunierated; his glorification is enjoined.
Yt. 14.1.
akura ... a$âum: the regular forniulaic manner of addressing Ormazd;
for a briefer form of the saine see Vd. 3.23 below.
Yt. 14.2.
pao^ryô ùjasaÇ: on the adjective here cf. 6’z. § 997. The successive
appearances of. Verelhraghna are probably to be understood as seen
by Zoroaster in a vision. Simiîar visions elsewhcre may be eited.
Yt. 14.3.
àa£ u h mai: in construction sc. mraüt. Observe that ahmai is Zoroaster,
and amavastamô Verethraghna.
virera vï r9p r avas tzmô: on the instrumental, see Gr. § 941 end.
Yt. 14.5.
ake raya . . . yasna: cf. Gr. § 941 expi.
y&i$ datait: ‘according to (what are) the first laws’.
ka om ayô: see Yt. 5.9 note.
Yt. 14.7.
yi ni .upah’i sruye: for the two accusatives, see Gr. § 930 N. 2.
Yt. 14.11.
uïtrake: the whole picture of the camel (parr. 11-13; is graphically and
accurately drawn.
mapyô. v a# h ah e: the use of camel's h air for raimenl has been familiar
in ail times; we need only recall St. Matt. iii.4; hence the appropriate-
ness of the preceding gaipâtts ‘shaggy'.
Yt. 1412.
y à fy^apri a : here yô -.= y a j. hô ‘when he’.
Yt. 14.13-
yqm hè d&raèsûkzm: ‘which (i. e. fâaprtiri} his lar-glance descries way
ahead of him’. The métré of the line is defeetive; but there is no
need of supplying daèma.

Notes to Yasht 14 and Vendidad 3.
Yt. 14-15-
hü: this word is metrically dissyllabic and stands as a gen. sg. forni.
With the combination hü varâzahe lit. ‘swine-boar’ (cf. Eng. stud- compare par. 11 udlrahe vadaryaod. In each case the first term
(hit, ustra) is generic; the second (varâza, vadaryu) is spécifie.
Yt. 14-17-
HarJ patica.dasavhô: this dénotés the idéal âge in the Avesta, the
bloom of youth, a sort of Iranian ‘sweet-sixteen’, cf. Ys. 9.5; Vd. 14.15.
Vendidad 3 (23-29) Notes.
General Remarks. The 3rd Fargard of the Vendidad comprises
42 sections; it describes various places and persons that delight or grieve
the earth (conceived of as a divinity); it pictures the blessings of agri-
culture and of grain-raising; and closes with various prescriptions relaling
to the Holy Law and its observance. The présent sélection is in praise
of agriculture.
Vd. 3-23-
dât a,r» g a cp a n q m . . a sii u m : see note on Yt. 14.1.
tüirïni: for the accusative see Gr. § 934.
yaf bâ pai-ti: thèse words are to be construed together, ef. Vd. 3.2.
a nâ p 9 tu ... k.? r 9 n a oit i : the changing of desert land into cultivated
tracts by irrigation, or conversely rendering it arable by draining,
played an important rôle among the ancient Iranians. The frequent
allusions to the irrigation canals both of Asia Alinor and of the sur-
rounding country in Xenophon’s Anabasis, are not witliout interest in
this connection.
Vd. 3-24-
dar’ja .. s acta: see <7r. § 997 expi.
karfivata: this word is extra metriim, and apparently is an expla-
na tory gloss.
a,i bit ‘desiring this (ta£) from a good laboring man’.—top dépends
upon aibis (cf. Gr. g 931) and refers to the idea implied in karçya.
vaohïus ai^v i. à i pu e : compare the following vavkâus ar*ânô; the earth
désirés a husbandman, the maid desires a husband. On the colloca-
tion gen. dat. abl.) ef. Gr. §§ 957, 958, 963, 980.
Vd. 3-25.
h&yôya bâzvô dapinaca: ‘with the left arm and the right’. On the
use of bâzyô as instr. (ef. fyrvï.drvô Ys. 10.8), see Gr. §§ 265, 983 N.,
992 N.

Notes to Vendidad 3 and 6.
gaonsm baradli . . pu^nm av a.b ar a11 i : the subject in the one
case is the husbandman, in the other case the luisband— he gives
lier (hè) a good celor, or bloorn'ing appearance.
Vd. 3-27.
aêni bdr9pe: ‘I shall go laden’ — ‘become prégnant’, opp. to apvpra
aèùi in par. 24 above.
vïsP& P ar3n tï s ... y a va h e: observe the distinction between bartnti
and yava- i. e. ‘ail sorts of fruits shall they rcap, beside the harvest
of grain’.
Vd. 3-29.
hislahc: the près, liere, like bairyehi-te below, is used wilh a future signi-
fication. The line mctrically lacks a syllable.
pdr9smanaè pue a : observe ca.
bâda pivam: the form &vhtïnô is gen. abl. and upon ityaë/qm indireetty
[tê àbya ba* ry e* 111e]: this seems to be an interpolation fromYs. 32.15
tôt àbyà ba?ry&ntè ‘they shall be carried by these two’.
dim: see Gr. § 1023 N.
Vendidad 6 (44-51) Notes.
General Remarks. In the development of the Zoroastrian religion
the worship of the éléments played an important part. The purity of the
earth, fire, and water. niust not be defiled. especially not by contact with
a corpse. Hence arose that peculiar mode of disposing of the dead, which
has ever been a characteristic mark of the Parsi religion.
The body (tanü), according to the présent prescription, is to be
carried to some high place, fastened (nidar9zay?n), and left to the dogs
and birds to devour. The b on es (azdbïs) were afterwards taken to a
vault or receivcr (uzdâna) and preserved in some sort of a réceptacle that
recalls the antiquarian remains of the astôdàn or ‘bone-receptacles’ that
hâve been ïound in Persia.
The présent sélection does not directly mention the Dakhma (dafyna),
but the word appears elscwhere in the Vendidad. The two-fold treatment
of the body (tanü) and the bones (azdbïs) may practically be paralleled
in the modem Pakhmas, or Towers of Silence.
For descriptions of the Towers of Silence in Bombay, see Posabhai
FVarnji Karaka’s History of the Parsis, vol. i. p. 199 seq.; Ragozin’s Media,
p. 125; Peshotair and Geiger’s Easlern /radians, vol. i. p. 90 seq.

Notes to Vendidad 0.
Vd. 6.44.
tanûm: i. e. the eniire body before denuded of flesh, in contrast with
the skelelon ïazdbîs par. 49).
Vd. 6.45*
bar9sistaè^'i>aca pu* H gâta gvalca]: {even upon tiie highest places’
i. e. ‘upon the mountains’. as ihe Phi. Vers, itself explains. Tlie first
-ca stands at the opening of the sentence (et. Vsp. 15.2 yasnakecd),
as sometimes aiso in Skt. ; the best MSS. omit the second •ca and
read simply gatnfva.
dim: liere refers to t.anûtn, cf. Gr. § 1023a.
avcizanqn sûnô: on the fonn sünô, see Gr. § 936 expi.
Vd. 6.46.
ayavhaèn? nt etc.: these accusatives, like some other>, are comiuonly
explained as accusatives of mateiial’; they ultimately fall under Gr.
§§ 933, 93S.
barjtihm frajasqn: ‘they will go bearing’ = ‘will go and carry’. On
the construction see Gr. § 938.
va. 6.47.
frajasâp: on the change to singular (rom plural, see Gr. §9i5(4)exph
kâ hê asti ci fia: compare Gr. § 1020 N., expi.
Vd. 6.48.
aêtaht pa^ti: ‘on this aceount’, i. e. the person has facto be-
conie p2$àlann.
duye s a* te apüza'nqm. the subjeet ol upâzôit is evidently ‘self’. The
use of self-castigation to drive out the démon that lias temporariiy
taken possession of the body is fannliar in religious austerities. The
upûzana, however, hâve been interpreted as referring to the killing
of so and so many noxious animais (cf. Hdt. 1.140, Vd. 16.12). The
terni iàter came te hâve a monetary sense; sins couid be compensated
for by a payment of money to the priests.
cizdhîs: the skeleton, opposed to lamim (cf. par. 44), see General Re-
marks above.
■utdamm; apparently a structure, vault or édifice of some sort in which
the boues were placed and preserved in réceptacles (cf. asânaë$va, etc.).
The Phi. Vers. righily recognizes this by its allusion to the astàdân
‘bone-receptacle>’. Set Casarlelh, ^stadans and sir. Rimerai Rites,
JJ. and O. Record J 390 p. 7.

Notes to Vendidad 6 and 19.
Vd. 6.50.
ktr’naol: on the impérative force of lhe ‘injunctive’, çf. Gr. § 445 N. 2.
up a1 ri sp <ïn3m: it is here to be observed that the bones (azdbïk) are
carefully placed ‘out of reach of’ the voraeious animais. Observe the
contrast with for^fî.foarô (par. 46) in the case of ianu.
ana* W i.v âr^tyti ni: io be eonstrued with uzdânztn.
apô yak va* ry o y & : compare Gr. § 980 expi.
upaGi.naëmât: the better reading is npara.naèmâp see now Geldner’s
Vd. 6.51.
yezi tavqn mazdayasna: as an apodosis to the condition supply ni-
datyyqn from nidaipïta below. The idea is that ‘according to cir-
cumstances’ (yezi tavqn . . yezi nôik) the bones may be placed either
(yezi) in a stone reeeptacle, or (yezi) in mortar, or may be simply
laid upon the dead man’s mat (hra.stâfriS) upon the ground under
the beating sun.
a sânaè$v a: the Phi. Vers, has sagïitô ‘made of stone* i. e. in stone urns,
cf. Casartelli loc. cit.
foâ.stairis: on the acc. of goal after nidaipïta, see Gr. § 987.
raocfà.a i w i. v a r*na : this loose compound adjective refers to hè (= azdbft)
as c general neut. pl. case.
nidaipïta: on the singulaT^ cf. Gr. § 915 (4) expi.
Vendidad 19 (5-10) Notes.
General Remark. The présent little extract from the 19Ü1 Vendidad
présents something of a paraJîe! to the struggle of Buddha with Mâra, or
to the temptation of our Saviour by Satan.
Angra Nlainyu through the agency of one of his fiends had tried to
slay Zoroaster, but the latter combats him. Whereupon the Spiritual Enemy
himself tempts the master to renouncc the good religion and follow him;
lie is repulsed, however, by Zoroaster.
The material of the w'hole chapter is doubtless old, but signs of
grammatical decay are so évident that its composition at least must
be later. See Gr. § 903.
Vd. 19.5.
nasi'r daSvô.dâ tz ni : on lhe case and on the adjective agreement, see
Gr. §§ 926, 903 N. 2, 912.
janâni p ai r i k qm .. fynqp ai t e : the passage is not clear; but the 9ense
of the Phi. Vers. ‘I destroy the love of sorccresses [the worship of idolsj'

Notes to Vendidad 19.
may perhaps best be followed. The dat. yahmâi is probably used in
a final sense with the subjunctive, though in Vd. 1.18 var9ndtn yim
capru.gavfrm yahmâi. .zayata praètaonô it is apparently local.
Vd. 19.6.
pourn^aspake puprô: Pourushaspa, the father of Zoroaster, is often
mentioned in the Avesta. The naine of Zoroaster’s mother, according
to the tradition (Bund. 32.10, et al.), was Dugheda, though it happens
not to occur in the extant texts of the Avesta itself; but it is found
in an Av. fragment from the llâdhdkht Nash, sec West in S.B.E.
vol. xxxvii. p. 483.
vaiajanô: see note by West, Phi. Texts Translated, S.B.E. vols, xviii*
p. 217; xxiv. p. 103; xxxvii. p. 212 N. 5.
Vd. 19-7-
hë .. v atfuhîm daênqm: here hë (dat. gen. sg. = acc. sg.) anticipâtes
daênqm, cf. Gr. § 1019 N.
nôi l ... vï.u rvï s y 0.$: ‘not though etc.' The subjunctive vî.^rvïsyàt
here dénotés concession. On the singular number of the verb, cf.
Gr. § 915 (4) î and for itltantm (acc. nom.), cf. Gr. § 937.
Vd. 19.8.
kana zaya huktr9 t&nhâ: the grammar here, as in par. 9, is corrupt;
it is not worth .while to try to defend it by any forced explanation.
The epithet hukarUcoiohô (pl.), and probably also asti vahiltsm (par. 9),
may well be regarded as gloss.
mana dqma anrô: the acc. dqma dépends upon vanâi. For the col-
location mana .. avrô see preceding note, and cf. Gr. §§ 911, 903.
Vd. 19-9-
mana zaya asti vahistzm: see note on par. 8 above.
dapa£ .. fr adapta: i. e. Ormazd ma de the wcapons; bis ministers,
the Amshaspands, them to Zoroaster.
zrüne akarane: on the agreement sec Gr. § 992 N. 2.


I a i u 9 e o
2 â l ü 3 ë a co q
3 fi k S J u y
4 c j
5 t d a t n ri
6 P / b w m
7 y r v
8 s ? P J * i j
9 h h b
In the alphabetic arrangement no distinction is made between /,
nor between hv, h>.

(For Explanations and Abbreviations see p. 36.)
Av. â– " a.
1 a-, an- (before vowels) : neg. prefix ‘un-’. — Cf. afrazûïiiti-, anâpa-.
[Skt. a-, an-; Old P. a-; Phi. a-, an-]
2 a (vbl. prefix and postpos.), see under &.
aiyhimana-, see under y2 ah-.
aiyhe, aivhtô etc., see under aëw, Gr. § 422.
aîpyejah- (from 1 a 4- ipyejah-'} : adj. ‘incorruptible’.—afbyejavhô nom.
pi. m. Ys. 26.3 (epithet of Amesha Spentas).
[Phl.Vers. has asëj-hôtnand ; Nar. has amftyumant-]
a'nika-: sb. m. ‘face’.—Yt. 14.9.— Cf. also parpvanika-.
[Skt. ânïka- ; Phi. ènik (Horn)]
a^nida^ (from 1 a + idapy. adv. ‘elsewhere*.—Ys. 57.33 ‘ both here and
elsewhere ’.
ai pi: (1) adv. ‘also, too’; (2) vbl. prefix; (3) prep. w. acc. ‘unto, upon’.—
Ys. 57.33 ; Yt. 14.13.—See also under yspâ-.—[Skt. api; Old P. apiy\
aibit see under aHui (Gr. § 83,4).
ai b il (? perhaps from atbi -J- ÿt'l-, cf. Skt. gav-is, pasu-is): vbl. adj. ‘ de-
siring’.—Vd. 3.24, see note ad loc. Otherwise a*bil must here
be taken prepositionally, i. e. aibis tap . . . a^bil tap *in this
case ... in that case’. Uncertain.
aiwi, aibi: (1) adv. and vbl. prefix ‘to unto, over’; (2) prep. same.
[Skt. abhi; Old P. abiy; Phi. af-; New P. af-, aw-]
ai i.t'acina- (from ai-wi + y'tac-)\ adj. ‘running upon, attacking’.—
Yt. x4.11.
aiwidan a- (from aiwi + ydâ-f. sb. m. ‘bridle, halter’.—Cf. zaranyb.-
aizvidàna-. — [Cf. Skt. abhidhdnt- ‘halter’]
aiwi,var9na- (from aiwi + : sb. n. ‘covering’.—Vd. 6.51, in the loose
compound raoc&,aiwi.var9na acc. pl. n. (hè = azdbïl) ‘ clothed
only with the sunlight ’ (lit. ‘ having light as covering ’).

$ 2 as lui sa star- — aoj-
u’w i $ a s t a r - (from aiwi - Had-; cf. Gr. § 75-J, t): sb. m. ‘a rider,
one who bestrides’.— a'wisasta nom. sg. Ys. 11.2.
aifLi! i. / ô i t a n - (from aiiai \-sait an- from ]///-); sb. m. ‘peasant, dweller
— aiivi.fiiipttr dat. sg. iVd. 3.24.
aiwiskuta- (from ahvi -\- huta- from 'J,' ha-, cf. Cr. £ 752, 2): pass. ptcpl.
as adj. ‘extracted, preparedYs. 11.3 note.
a* wy ât a r - (from a'ima{s(ar^} Cr. g s 2 e, from a{s- q. v.); sb. m.
‘ overseer, guardian- - Ys. 57.1$.
ahuydfystra- (from ahvi ÿ-a{stra-, Gr. g 52 c, from \ï al's- q. v.): sb. n.
‘overseeing, guardianship’. - Yl. 5.6.
a i lu y û ma - (from ahai -}- ama-, Gr. § 52 c): adj. ‘exceeding strong’.-—
Ys. 26.3.
a H r u s a - : ndj. ‘white’.— Ys. 57.27; Yt. 5.7; Yt. 14.9.
[Cf. Skt, arufâ- 1 reddish ’ ; Phi. arüs\
(’lrom 1 a -f “rua/a-): sb. m. ‘ enemy Ys. 57.26.
a“ r v a ?/ î - (from |/ ar-\. adj. i swift, valiant, gallant ’. —sb. m. ‘gallant
warriors, gallant chargers’ (sleeds). — Ys. n.2; Ys. 57.27;
Yt. 5.132; Yt. 5.7. — [bkt. devant-; Phi. arvand; New P. arvand\
a et a-: demonstr. pron. (Gr. § 417 dcln.) ‘this’.— Yt. 5.132; Yt. 14.13;.
Yd. 6.46 seq.— [Skt. ëtâ- Old P. aila-; Phi. ë, ëtar\
aëtada (from a et ut-y postpos a y .ad y. ‘tben, thereupon’.—Vd. 6.46,47/
aêpra-: sb. n. perhaps ‘fire-wood’ ([«/-■ — Ski. \f idh- 1 burn cf. Av.
aësma-. If so compare with Av. aèprapahi, harnidpa'ti- Yt. 13.105,
Skt. sumit-pâni- ‘pupil wit.h fire-wood in his hand’. Otlierwise,
possibly ‘instruction’ (?) J+]//-. cf. Skt. upa -J- \fi-.
aëprapa'ti- (from aëpra- \-paùi-} : sb. 11. ‘ teacher Ys. 26.7,8.
[Phi. aërpal; New P. hérbad\
aëprya (from aêftra-y, sb. m. ‘disciple’.—- Ys. 26.7.S.
jPhl.V. has hâvist ; Nar.
a ë n i, see under |/7-.
aë m (stems a-, l~. ima-, ana-\. demonstr. pron. ‘this’, Gr. § 422 dcln.—
Ys. il.$ etc. — (Skt; ayâm\
&ëv a-: num. adj. (Gr. § 369) ‘one\—Yt. 5.5.— [Old P. aiva-; Phi. év, ëvahf
aësma- (from j. 2.Zj-): sb. m. ‘wrath, Fury’ (personificd).—AeshmaDaeva,
t.he Démon of Wrath, opponent of Sraosha; the Asniodvus of
the Apocrypha (Tobit iii.8,17). — Ys. 57.10,25,32.
[Pbl. -Jc'ov/z, aësm ; New P. {asm J
aoi, see under ami.
ao {t a, see under \faoj-
yfaoj-: vb. cl. 2 ‘speak, say - aopja prêt, indic. mid. 3 sg. (Gr. § 90)
Vs. ïi.S; Yd. 3.26,28 (goomic).

aojavhvant- (from najaït-}-. adj. ‘strong’.—Ys. 57.11. —.[Ski. ojasvanl-]
a ojah-: sb n. 'strength adj. ‘strong’.—aojô acc. sg. n. (subst.) Yt. 14.12 ;
ctojâ nom. sg. m. (adj. Gr. § 341) Ys. 57.10.
[Skt. ojas-; Phi. vj\
aojisia- (superl. to aojah-, or vpra-, Gr. § 365)! adj. ‘strongest’.
[«Skt. Ôjistha-}
akarana- (froin I a-H^°); adj. ‘boundless’.— Vd. 19.9 (.«ce under.mwj-).
a ha r s ta- (from J a kardta- q. v.)': adj. ‘unplowed*.— Vd. 3.24.
y vb. *see\---‘oversee, regard’ (fonn causât.).—Cf. aiwyth
fystar-.—• [Cf. Skt. Z/'.r-/ aksi- ‘eye’J
aga-: adj. ‘evil, harmful’.—sb. n. ‘evil, calamity’.—Ys. 57.14 (
subst). — JSkt. aghâ-; cf. New P. <ïk\
~\favh-, see under y 2 ah-.
atthtt-, .ahu- (from y r ah-\. sb. m. (1) ‘being. life, spirit’; (2) ‘world’
(i. e. ali that is). — aiiüm acG. sg. ‘spirit’ Ys. 26.4 (see note);
s.àspom ahntn ‘ail life’ i. e. the world Ys. 57.16; anuhe dat. sg.
Yt. 5.1; avhôus gen. sg. (6V. § 9S1) Ys. 57.25; ahubya, dat. du.
Ys. 57.25.—Cf. also ahüi;:.m?r * fy:-. — | Skt. à su-; Pnl. cz/z/?l
aura- (prob. from y 2 «//-): adj. ‘evil, bad’. — Esp. aura nudnyu ‘the
Evil Spirit, Aliriman’. — Ys. 57-.i7.3-; Vd. 19.5,6,8,9.
adà (from a, Gr, § 436); adv. • then, so’.— Ys. 57.25,26.
[Skt. âdha; Old P, adâ\
adàdtya- (from r a + dcdtya-'}: adj. ‘ùnlawFul’.—Vsp. 15.1.
adât (from ada -J- ai): adv. ‘thereupon, afterwardsVd. 6.50.
<7/ (from a, Gr, § 431); adv. ‘then but and’,—afca Ys. 57.10.—Cf. also 'adaj.
an-, see under 1 a.,
iana, see under aèin, Gr, § 422.
zona,: (r) prep; w. açc. ‘along, upon’; (2) vbl. prefix, Gr, § 733,5.—
Cf. ana.wana*.
anafV) i.vàr9iif i- (from 1 a -{- aGvi t q. v.): adj. ‘out of the rain’
(lit. ‘ not baving rain’). — Vd. 6.50.
a n a p i $ü ta - (from 1 a H- api$üta~) : adj. ‘ without interruption . - Vsp. 15.2
(the Phl.V. at Ys. 19.5 explains as not inlerruptcd by falling asleep).
a napyQhda- (from I a + apyüfyîa-) ; àdj. ‘without addition’.—Vsp. 15.2
(the Phl.V. at Ys. 19.5 explains the addition to be the insertion
of some other Av. text in the midst of the récital).
ana.tnanu- (from 2 una 4 \fnian-): adj. ‘devoted’ - Yt. 5.8.
anavattha b ds m na- (from 1 a -f- yh>abdâ- q. v.) • ptcpl. adj. ‘ never sleep-
ing’.— Ys. 57.1Û fbis).
ànàpa- (from adj. ‘without water’.—sb. m. ‘a desert’.—
Vd. 3.23. —[Phi andpi New P. nâb ‘pure, unmixed’ (Ilorn)]

anôhi ta - (from i a + âhita- q. v.): aclj. ‘undefiled’.—Esp. nomen propr. f.
Ardvï $ürâ Anâhitâ (‘ the high, powerful, undefiled goddess’),
’Avaîxtç.—Yt. 5.1 seq., see note. —[Old P. anah anu: (i) adv., vbl. prefix (Gr. g 733)-—(2) prep. w. acc. ‘along, after’,
<7r. § 735. — [Skt. ctnu; Old P. anuv\
anu.pôipwa- (from anu-~\fpi- q. v.): adj. ‘pursuing’.— Yt. 14.15.
a n uya mna- (from 1 a + uyamna- q. v.) : ptcpl. adj. 4 not wanting ’.—sb. n.
‘a surplus’.—Vsp. 15.1 note.
anusah- (from 1 a + usah-} : adj. ‘unwilling’.—anusô acc. sg. n. advl.
(£>'• § 934) Ys. 57. J 8.
anyà-: pron. adj. (Gr. g 443) ‘another, else’.—Vd. 3.29.
[Skt. anyâ-; Old P. aniya-; Phi. (h)an\
aqtar1: adv., prep. ‘within, between’.
[Skt. antâr; Old P. a(n)tar; Phi. andarg; New P. andar}
atit ar9.n aima- (from û° + «c) : sb. n. ‘the inside—aij.tar3.naèinàl (Gr.
g 731,4) Ys. 57-21.
a/»-, seq.; Vd. 19.5. —[Skt. ap-; Old P. ap-; Phi. âp; New P. âb]
~\Tap-, ap-: vb. cl. 1, 8, 10 ‘reâch, overtake’.—apaye^riti près, indic. act.
Ys. 57.29; â/s^le pass. (Gr. g 578) Ys. 57.29. — [Skt. âp-}
apa: adv., vbl. prefix ‘away, forth \ Gr. gg 733, 735. —[Skt. âpa; Old P. apa-}
ap agïàra- (from apa +yjiar-) : sb. m. ‘outlet’. — Yt. 5.4,5.
apanôtsma-: superl. adj. ‘highest, suprême’.—Ys. 26.2; Ys. 57.4. Ap-
parently apanôtsma- is formed from apana- pf. ptcpl. mid. ~\[ ap-,
àp- — Skt. apànâ-; hence^ ‘ having reached the most, highest,
suprcme’; construed also with abl. Ys. 57.4. So Geldner.
api$üta- (from cdpi +}/"/«-): ptcpl. adj. ‘interrupted’. — Cf. anapiSûta-.
apupra- (from i/z-f-/’): adj. ‘childless’.—Vd. 3.24.— [Skt. apûlra-}
apjrhiâyûka- (from 1 a4-psr3na + âyu-}; sb. m. ‘youth’.—Ys. 26.9.
[Phi. apürnâik ; New' P. burnâ}
apy üfyda- ffr^ui ufpi + ufyda- q. v.): .adj. ‘intercalated’.—Cf. anapyùl£da-.
afrazaAiiti» (from 1 a‘+fr°): adj. ‘without offspring’.—Ys. 11.1,3.
afsman-: sb. n. ‘measure, métré’.—Cf. asmanivatyt-.
[Phi.Vers, bas patmân ‘measure*; Nar. has pramâya-}
afsmanivaiit- (from afsman-f. adj. ‘metrical’.—afsmanivqn ‘the me-
trical parts’ acc. pl. n. (Gr. g 292) Ys. 57.8 note.
ama-: sb. m. ‘strength’.—Ys. 57-3,23; Yt. 14.2,3; Yt. 14.7,9 (‘Strength*,
personified). — [Skt. âma-\
arnavaql- (fromama-, Gr. g 292 b. dcln.): adj. ‘strong’.—Ys. 57.10;
Vsp. 15.3; Yt. 14.12.—Fem. amqvaùi nom. sg. Yt. 5.3.—Superl.
amavastsmô Yt. 14.3. —[Skt. âmavant-; Phi. amâvand]

ainwHât- — avaqt-
amfrHSt- (fïom i a-Ytfniar-, Gr. § 842): sb. f. ‘ immortality, Ameretat’.
One of the Amesha Spentas, and ahvays mentioned in connection
with Haurvat&t q. v. Sce Gr. Introd. p. xxvi § 38.—Ys. 57.24.
[Phi. amurdat\
am9$a- (form *amarta.- from yfmar-, Gr. § 163): adj. ‘immortal’. Esp.
Amrfa Spwta, the Amshaspands, Gr. Introd. p. xxv § 32.—
Ys. 26.3; Ys. 57.2 (acc. pl.),6,8,12,23; Vd. 19.9.
[Skt. amfta-; cf. Phi. amsôsfiand; New P. amsâspand^
aya, see under acm, Gr. § 422.
ayavha- (from ayah- q. v., Gr. § 344): sb. n. ‘iron’.—ayavhahc gen. sg.
(Gr. § 980) Ys. 11.7.— [Skt. âyasd-]
ayavhacna- (from ayah- q. v., cf. Gr. § 829): adj. ‘made of iron’.—
subst. n. ‘iron’.—Vd. 6.46. — [Phi. asînîn; New P. ci hanta]
ayar-, ayan- (dcln. Gr. §§ 311, 337): sb. n. ‘day’.—Ys. 57.17,31. a- (from ayar- + bar-}', sb. m. ‘day’s journey’. — Yt. 5.4.
ayah-: sb. n. ‘métal, iron’.—Cf. ayavhaëna-, ayavha-.
[Skt. âyas-; Phi. asïn; New P. âhan)
ayqn-, see under ayar-,
^far-: vb. cl. 5 ‘go, move, corne (as fortune)*.----\~us.;.fr& ‘bestow,
allot’.----p paiti ‘advance, attack*. — {Gr.
§ 569) Ys. n.4.—Cf. also paùi.drtn-. — [Skt. ar-, f-]
arafi-wya- (from ifl-J-r0): adj. ‘ill-ordered, improper’.—Vsp. 15.1.
ar9du~: adj. ‘high, exalted’.—Fem. ardvï, epitliet of Anâhita q. v.—
Yt. 5.1.-—[Cf. Skt. ürdhvâ-, Gr. § 48.]
ar9dra-: adj. ‘generous, givin^ gifts’.—Yt. 5.132.
ar9za-: sb. m. ‘battle*.—Ys. 57.12. —[Cf. New P. razm (Horn)l
9r9s*: adv. ‘right, truly ’.—Cf. arsuJjda-, arfti-.
ar$an-: adj. ‘male, virile’.—arjânô, ar$ànahe (tf-dcln., Gr. § 310), argtw
gen. sg. m. Vd. 3.24; Yt. 14.7,15; arfnqm gen. pl. ni. Yt. 5.2,5 ;
Yt. 14.12. —[Cf. Skt. ysa-bhâ-]
ar^tt^da - (from adj. ‘rightly spoken’.—°byasca abl. pl. m.
Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5.
arïti- (fr. arfr>, cf. Gr. § 788): sb. f. ‘rectitude, Arshti’ (Loyalty).—Ys. 57.33.
1 ava-: demonstr. pron. stem (Gr. § 432) ‘that’.—Ys. 26.2; Ys. 57.29;
Yt. 5.7; Yt. 14.12.
[Old P. ava-; Phi. à, avaÇ?); New P. ü (au)]
2 ava: adv., vbl. prefix ‘to, down to, upon, in’.
[Skt. ava; Old P. ava (in ava-siâ-) ; Phi. J-J
? avapa (from lava-)'. adv. ‘thus, so’.—Yt. 14.7 seq.
avatjt- (from lava-)'. demonstr. deriv. (Gr. § 441) ‘that, such’.—haca
\ avafiyô sl9r9byô dat. abl. pl. Yt. 5.132. —[Phi. hâvand]

avavoqt (from i ava-\. pron. adj. -such, so great*. — avavwti nom. sg. f.
Y't 5.3. — j Phi.
a v a ? a f o , see u nder |/ vas-,
avûzâite, see under J/'vaz-,
avah-: sb. n. ‘ helpYs. 57.3 ; Yt 5.132. — [Skt
av&ili., avâin, see under
avi, aoi (cf tf-^z): (1) adv., vbl. prefix..(2) prep. and postpos. w. acc.,
gen. ‘to, unto’.—As adv. Vd. 3.25.—As prt-p. w. acc. Ys.57.23,24;
Yt. 5.3,4,132 ; w. gen. Vd. 6.46,47.
y'/y-.- vb. cl. 5 (Gr. § 566) ‘reach, attain7.- -Cf. as ah-.— 'Skt. as-]
as an-: sb. m. ‘stone’.—asânaêpna (stem asâna-. Gr. § 309) loc. pl.
Vd. 6.51, see note.
['Skt. dsun-; Old K apnn-; 'Phi. son#; New P. sang]
asaya: adj. ‘shadowless’ (epithet of Sraosba’s divine liorses).-~Ys, 57.27,
see note. —[Ski. achâyâ-, Gr. g 171
as a h- (from sb. m. ‘place, space’. -Cf. majnwasah-.
[Cf. Skt. asà-]
a sur a-: sb. m. ‘ bristle ’ (?), cf. (.cniens (Geldner).- Cf. tiii.asùra-.
ast-: sb. ni. ‘bone\--asta nom. pl. Vd. 19.7; aidbïs, azd^bis îrntr. general
p] (Gr. g§ 229, 944) Vd. 6.49; asiam gen. pl. Vd. 6.46,47.
(Cf. Skt. asthân-, âslhi-; Phi. ast ; New P. ast ah]
astvant- (from ast-, Gr, g S5 7); adj. (dcJn. Gr. g 291 b) -corporéal, mate-
rial’ (epithet of avhu -, gu'epa-}.—Fem. astvalîï-.—Ys. 57.16,24,25 ;
Yt.5.1; Yt. 14.1; Vd. 3.23; Vd. 6.44,47,49.
[Cf. Skt. as i h avants asthimant-]
asp a-: sb. m. ‘horse’.—Fc ni. aspd- ‘marc’.—Ys. 11.1,2, Ys. 57.28; Yt. T4.9.
—On as pake astrava see under aï Ira-,
[Ski. âsva-; Old P. aspa~; Phi. asp; New P. rff/z]
aspb.stu a y ah- (from -f- st°] ; adj. ‘ stouter than a horse *. —bâzava
.....aspb.slauyehis nom. pl. f Yt. 5.7.
aï: intensive prefix w. ûdjs.—Cf. aï.aojak-, as.büzu-.
a fa- (for aria- from \far-, Gr. g 163): sb. n. ‘ right, righteousness,
Asha, Righteousness' (personified). See Gr. lntrod p. xxv g 34.
— /î/J/ haca ‘in accordance with Righteousness ’ ; ufake ralütn
‘the master of R.’; ufahe gaèpat ‘the Household of Faith’.—
Ys. 26.2; Ys. 57.2,4,1.7: Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5.—Cf also a$a vahiïta.
[Skt. ytâ-; Old P. art a-; Phi. ahUn>\
afauun-, afaon-, rz/zZ.vw - (from o/rtj : adj. (dcln. Gr. g 313) ‘ right-
eous ’ (of perdons), ‘sacred, holy ? (of ihings).-Few. artunü-.
—This word corresponds to the Biblical use of ‘righteous, godly ’
in the Psalms. 1rs opposite is draguant-, drvaqt- q. v. See Gr.

Iritrod. p. xxv § 34.—aguvanô nom. pi. m. ‘pure créatures’ Ys. 11.1 ;
aÿàunqin gen. pl. Ys. 26. i; etc. — [Skt. rtuvan-1
a la- vahisla (from ac-]-7>Q): sb. 11. ‘Asha Vahishta’ (Best Righteous-
ness), onc of the Amesha Spentas. See under asa-.— Qpm
vahistdni nom. sg. n. Ys. 57.24.
(Phi. artavahiSt, asavahilf ; New P. ardiMisi]
a X.a oj a h- (from as aujah'\ : adj. ‘most strong —Ys. 5715.
ait- (for arti- from y ar-, Gr. g 163): sb. f. (1) ‘piety, virtue’; (2) ‘grâce,
favor, blessing’; (3) ‘Ashi Vanuhi’ (incarnation of Piety and
its resulling blessings).- -Ys. 26.5 ; Ys. 57.3.
[Cf. Phi. ardi$vang\
astrâ- (from cf. Gr. § 166) : sb. f. 4 goad, whip’.—Esp. aspahc
astrâ a horse-goad, or whip used in connection with tlie srao$ô.-
carana (q.-v.) in religious castigaiion.--Yd. 6.48, see note.
[Skt. as{rd-/ Phi. aslt j
as.bâzu- ^from as -{- b») : adj. -having strong fore-legs’ (of caniel).—
as.âûzài/s nom. sg. m. (Gr. £ 265) Yt. 14.12.
(from asa-, asi-): adj. 'righteous, pious, blessed’ (epithel of Srao-
sha). - Ys. 57.2 (alÏM acc.),3,4,13,14,25,26.33,34.— j Phi. tzZ’zVJ
]/az-: vb. cl. i ‘ drive ’.-j- upa ‘ s t r i k e , i 11 f 1 i c t b 1 o w s ' (in religious
casligation, see upiizannupâz<>il pies. opt. act. 3 sg. Vd. 6.48.
|Skt. «y-J
azâla- (from 1 0-\-zâla- q. v.) : adj, ‘unborn -Ys. 26.6. — [Skt. a tâta
a-z9m: pron. isi. pevs. (dcln. Gr. § 386) ‘I’.—azzni yo haomo ‘1 who iamj
Haoma’ Ys. 11.3 ; cf. Yt. 5.6 etc.
[Skt. ahdm; Old 1\ adani; Phi. am, -ni (en cl.); New P. mnn,
-ni (encl.)]
azdblit see under ast-,
yri ah-; vb. cl. 2 (conjn. Gr. § 530 seq.) - ahmi Ys. 11.3: Yt. 14-3;
ahi Vd. 19.6; asti Ys. 57.14,25 ; Yt. 5.3 ; Yt. 14.1; Vd. 6.47 ;
Vd. 19.9; atihzn prêt. 3 pl. Vt. 5.7; aslü iniperal. Vsp. 15.2.—
Cf. also hâlqm.
(Skt. 1 us-; Old P. ah-, cf. Phi. hasl; New P. atn, s, tf.v/J
]/' 2 a h - vb. ch 1, 4 (pass.) ‘throw, dart’..a!y;riimanayà> près. pass. ptcph
(see hvasla-) Ys. 57.28. —[Skt. 2 «j-]
la hu-, see under auha-.
2 ahu-: sb. m. ‘ lord — Cf. ahura..
ahuna- (from nhu-, Gr. § 848); sb. m. ‘the Ahuna Vairya’. One of
the sacred formulas or prayers, and su named from its initial
words yapâ ahü vaGyô. See Gr.. fntrod. p. xvîii § 13.—-
Ys. 57.22 ; "Vd, 19.10.

58 ahura----àfrivacah-
ahura- (from ahu-, Gr. § 853): sb. m. (1) ‘lord’; (2) ‘Lord, Ahura
Mazda* (cf. maid3h-\ the suprême god Ormazd. See Gr. In-
troduction p. xxiv § 31.—Ys. 11.4, et passim.
[Skt, âsura-; Old P. aura-; Phi. aùharniazd, hormazd;
New P. hormuzdy
ahuradâta - (from + 1 data-): adj. ‘created by Ahura*.—Yt. 5.132;
Yt. 14.1 seq.
akur ô.^kai $a- (from û°47c): adj. ‘belonging to the faith of Ahura’.
-Yt. 5.1.
ahûm.m >r ‘ 11c - (from \ a!m- + '\['niarc-, Gr. § 877a): adj. ‘world-
destroying’.—Ys. 57.15.
ahniâi, otnâ£, °mya, see under aëm> Gr. § 422.
Av. M â.
â, a: (1) adv., vbl. prefix ‘hither, unto, in’; (2) prep. and en cl. postpos.
w. acc., abl., gen., loc. ‘up to, in’.—Ys. 11.7; Ys. 26.10; Ys. 57.33
(yeyhâd-a). • See also âdahyu- etc.
[Skt. â; Old P. â; Phi. â; New P. J]
âa£ (from a-, Gr. g 431): adv. ‘then’ (lit. ‘from that’).—Ys. 11.8; Yt. 14.1
etc.—Ys. 11.1,6 ‘but’. — [Skt. J/]
âi: interj. w. voc. ‘O’.—Ys. 57.25 ; Vd. 19.9.—As particle (?) ‘indeed’
Vd. 3.23. —[Skt. âi ; Phi. 3ï; New P. dZ]
âtar-: sb. m. (dcln. Gr. § 331) ‘fire’. — âprasca gen. sg. Vsp. 15.3.
[Phi. âtâr; New P. âdar, âtas}
âf^nu- (from â + zànu-, Gr. . gg 77 N. 1, 889): adj. ‘knee-high’.—Ys. 57.6
(Phi.Vers, has cand jântfk\-—\ÇA. Skt. â pr av an- (from âtar-') : sb. m. (dcln. Gr. g 313 N. 1 b) ‘priest’. Dé-
signation of the highest caste in the Avesta. See also under
rapaêstar-, vastrya fsuyaiit-.—Yrt. 11.6.
[Cf. Skt. âtharvan-; Phi. âsarvan; New P. 3torbân-\
âpritïm (from â-\-pritya-, Gr. gg 375, 731): adv. ‘thrice’.—Ys. 57.31.
âdahyu- (from 3. + daîiyu-) : adj. ‘in this country’.—Ys. 26.9.
âdu-: sb. m. ‘spring, stream’. So rendered if Phi.Vers, be read as jûy
‘spring’, cf. Av. ùdavô [Gr. g 19) Yt. 8.29; otherwise Phi.Vers,
is read as jân ‘life’.—Cf. âdû.frâdana-.
âdù.frâdana - (from âdu-+fr°): adj. ‘increasing the springs’.—Yt. 5.1.
àp-, see under ap-.
â fait te, see under ]/"âp-.
âfrivacah- (from âfrï-f- v°): adj. ‘speaking words of bénédiction
(malédiction)’. According to the Phi.Vers, this word âfr°, like

zavahiti, may bc used of cursing as well as of blessing.—iïfri-
vacavhd nom. pl. m. Ys. n.i.
5frï- (froni ]/frï- q. v.) : sb. f. ‘bénédiction (malédiction)’.—Cf. afri-
vacah- (âfrifi-).~\QÎ. Skt. &pri-; cf. New P. âfrïri\
àbya, see under aëtn, Gr. g 422.
âtnanavha- (from à + manah-} : sb. n. ‘eagerness, ardor’.—Yt. 14.12.
àyapta- (from à + |''«/-); sb. n. ‘reward, boon—Yt. 5.132.
[Phi. àyâft ; cf. New P. y&ftari\
âytt-: sb. n. ‘âge’.—Cf. ap3r9nàyüka-. — [Skt. dyû-\
ârmaîti (from ~\f ar- maùi- q. v.): sb. f. ‘harmony, Concord, Armaiti’
(Genius of the Earth), one of the Amesha Spentas. See Gr.
Introd. p. xxvi § 36.—sp^ta àrnudtiS Ys. 57.24.
[Skt. arâmati ; Phi. spend-annat; New P. sfend-armat\
âsista-, see under âsu-.
âsJt-: adj. (compar. Gr. § 365) ‘swift*.—âsüm acc. sg. m. Ys 57.11.—
Compar. âsyavha nom. du. m. Ys. 57.28.—Super), àsiïtwi acc.
sg. m. Ys. 57.13.
[Skt. âsü-, âsistha-}
âzaînti- (from y2 zan^) : sb. f. ‘ understanding, explanation’. See Gr.
Introd. p. xii _§ 3.—Cf. inapdizafiili-, po^ru.Qzahiti-,
[Cf. Phi. zand}
’fâh-, is- (q. v.) : vb. cl. 3 ‘seek diligently’, e. g. ip&vhaëia, Yt. 19.53.
—Cf. paùyâsti-, Jf 1 i/-.
âhita-: adj. ‘defiled’.—Cf. anâhitâ- (âhiti-). — [Cf. Skt.
âhû^ri- (from ahura-, Gr. §§ 825 d, 20) : adj. ‘of Ahura’.—fthiPriXfragnô,
âhül'ri$ $kaê$ô Ys. 57.24. —[Cf. Skt. âsuri-}
âhû* rya- (from ahura-, Gr. §§ 825 d, 20): adj. ‘lordly, belonging to
Ahüra’.—Ys. 26.3 (of Amesha Spentas).
Av. » i.
i-: dem. pron. stem, see under aëm, Gr. § 422.
vb. cl. 2 ‘go, corne’.---\-ava ‘corne down’.--------\-fra .. ava ‘at-
tain to, descry ’.— aëùi près, indic. act. 3 sg. Vd. 3.24; yô
}$apri$va avâdti ‘when he go es to liis females ’ (of male cover-
ing the female) Yt. 14.12; fravâïti ‘he descries’ (cf. Skt. prati
.. ava .. i ‘erreichen’) Yt. 14.13; yehiti près, indic. act. 3 pl.
(Gr. § 65 exmpl.) Ys. 57.23; aèni près. subj. act. 1 sg. Vd. 3.27
note. —[Skt. Old P. /-]
îpyejah-: sb. n. ‘distress, corruption\'—ipyej& nom. pl. Ys. 57.14.
[Skt. tyàjas-; Phi. scj ; cf. New P. xry]

ida — upara-
ida (front /-)•: adv. ‘here\—Ys. 26.2,6; Vsp. 15.1,2 ‘now’ (t. e. at this point,
Skt. z7/<î2; so Angl. Sax. hër\. Vd. 3.24 ida carâûi- ‘just so, the
maiden* (lit. here i. c. in this spécial case); Vd. 3.27,29.
[Ski*. ikâ; Old P. idâ\
ida£ (from iddy. adv. ‘here’.—idà(ca Ys. 57.33 (bis).
ï/ (from /-): slrengthening particle, Gr. § 397.— [Skt. id\
itna-: dem. pron. stem, see under aê/u Gr. § 422.
|Skt. imà~; Old P. itna- ; New P. itw\
~\Pirip.: vb. cl. 4 ‘die’.---r para ‘péris b*.—irisia-, paradrista- ‘ dead’
pass. ptcpl. Ys. 26.7,11, Vd. 6.44,46.49; irïriputqm pf. act. ptcpl.
gen. pl. Ys. 26.6.
irista-, see under yprip-.
'irïrisee under \ htip-,
i s a t.v à $ tr a - : nomen propr. m. ‘Isatvastra ’ —oldest son of Zoroaster,
and according to tradition the fo under of lhe pries il y caste.—:
Ys. 26 5.—-.[Phi. isatvasfar-]
y lis- (see. also yrà/i-, //-) : vb. cl. 6 ‘seek, desire petere’.-----\-paifi
‘ b u s y 011 e’s self \v i t h ’ (worship). — pahifala près, imperat.
act. 2,pl. Ys. 57-13; i$tâ pass. ptcpl. nom. sg. m. Vsp. 15.2.
[Skt. Z,-]
yfzii-: vb. cl. 4 ’send, drive’.—Cl. aè$ma-,— [Skt. 2 ?§-; Old P. //-]
Av. -t» 7
ini, see under aèm, Gr. § 422.
Av. ) u.
â– >
u^da- (from yPvac-, pass. ptcpl. w. tha, Gr. § 77 N. 3); adj. ‘spoken’.
—subst. n. ‘word’.— Cf. anapyû^da-. — [Skt. ttkthâ-}
ugra-: adj. ‘mighty’.—Cf. avjisia- (superl.).— [Skt. ugrà-\
ula-: conj. ‘and’.—uia. ... ut a ‘ both—and’ Ys. x 1.1,3; Yt. 14.2.
[Skt. utâ; Old P. utâ; Phi. u; New P. u]
tipa: (r) adv., ybl. prefix.--(2) prep. and postpos. w. acc.. dat, ‘to, upon,
on*.—With acc. Yt. 14.13; w. dat. Vd. 3.25.
[Skt. ûpa; Old P. upâ ; New P. ba, bah\
Upa!ri (cf. upa) : prep. ‘above’.—With acc.. Vd. 6.50; Yt. 14.7,9 note.
[Skt. upâri ; Old P. upariy ; Phi. apar; New P. baf\
up ti‘ r 1’.na c in a - (from z/° + <*°): sb. n. ‘upper side, top’.—Vd. 6.50 note.
upa vhacayc ni, see under â– ,/ hac-.
ùpara- (from tipay adj. ‘superior .—Cf. uparaiât-.— [Cf. Skt. ûpara-\

uparaiât- —■ uzdana-
uparaiât- (from upara-, Gr. §842): sb. f. ‘ superiority esp. Victo-
r i o u s S u p c r i o r i t y (vayiaGiti uparaiât), Genius of Vietory.—
Ys. 57.33.— | Cf. Skt. uparâ/ât-\
upâzana- (from upa-y y az-}\ sb. n. ‘blow, stripe’.—-Technicfll expression
for stroke or stripe inflicted upon tlic body, as a religious cas-
tigation to remove sin.--—Vd. 6.48 noie.
nfycmi, see ünder ]/vap-.
uyainna^, seé under yfû-,
urvapa- (from j/"2var-, Gr. § 793 N. 2): sb. m. ‘friend—Cf. a"rvapa-.
urvan- (dissy., prob. "ruvan, from \>2var-, Gr. gg iyt. 314): sb. m. __ /
'soûl’, or thaï faculty in man which gives freedom of wiil to / l <-
ch 00s e good or evil.—-Vs. 26.4,7,11 note.
[Phi. rûbân \ New E. ruvàn\
nrvatil- (prob. from '\f 1 var-, Gr. g 191}: adj. ... ?.. epilhet of cameî.
- Yt. 14.11 (cf. Vd. 22.10, Yr. 14.19).
urvarâ-; sb. f. ‘tree, plant’.- Vd. 3.23; Vd. 6.46,47.
l’Cf. Skt. urvârii-; Phi. urvar-\
yf^rvis-: vb. cl. 4, 6, 10 * turn4-‘part asunder’.—vi.urvtsyàt ‘
près, (scdry.) subjunct. act. 3 sg. Vd. 19.7.—[Cf. Skt. vris-]
uva-, a a- (-•"», Gr. § 68 N. 1): adj. du. ’two, both’.—uaê^bya Ys. 57.25,29.
I [Cf. Skt. nbhâ-\
us, uz {Gr. § 753 N. 2): adv., vbl. prefix ‘up, forth, oüt’.--Ys. 11.4,
Ys. 57.25.—Cf. also uzdalfyu-.
[Skt. ud; Old P ud ; Phi. ûz, New P. z-, zi-]
us ah- (front j/ vas-)’ sb. n. ‘wiil’.—Cf. anusah-.
J/ us-, see under yf 3 van-.
■u^aslara- (from usah-) : adj. ‘eastern’.—usas taire (hïiidvû) loc. sg. m.
Ys. 57.29; usdstartip haca {Gr. g 19 b) .. upasiaraèibyô Vd. 19.5.
[Phi. hôZaslar]
ufàh-, u$ah- (from Vivait-, us-}: sb. f. (dcln. Gr. g 357) ‘dàwn’.—
Cf. usa star a-. —• j Skt. usas-; Phi. vf, hàS has-bâmj
tt$i- (perh. from ff$vah-, u/- ‘enlighten’); sb. n. ‘mind’.- u$i acc. sg. n.
(not dual) Ysp. x 5.1.—«[Phi. hôs; New P. Ao.vJ
uslâna-: sb. m. ‘vital priticiple’ (of the body). -u^tânsm (acc. --
Vr. § 937) Vd. 19.7. 7 , J
ustra-: sb. m. ‘camel’.—Yt. i-, i itI2. f'1/W
[Cf. Skt. ustra-; Phi. ustar-: New P. *uslar]
uz, see under us, and cf. Gr. § 753 N. 2.
uzdahyu- (from uz 4- dahyuG} : adj. ‘outside the countr - Ys. 26.9.
[Phi. uzdâhik\
nzdâna- (from uz -f- \/~ dâ : sb. m. ‘élévation, structure’.—Vd. 6.50 note.

Av. ü.
if ü-: vb. cl. 4 ‘be wanting, déficient’.—uyamna près, ptcpl. mid. acc. pl. n.
‘déficits’ (i. e. in tbe audit of Life Book).—Vsp. 15.1.—Cf.
anuyamna-, (üna-). — [Cf. Skt. ûnà-]
Av. fr"* &.
&vhan-: sb. n. ‘mouth, face’.—Œvhânô gen. abl. sg. Vd. 3.29 note.
[Skt. âsdn-]
Av. (
9r9dwa-: adj. (Gr. § 819) ‘raised, uplifted —Ys. 57.16.
[Cf. Skt. ürdhvà-\
Av. 9 k.
ka-: interrog. pron. (Gr. § 406) ‘who, what’.----(-cip indef. pron. (<7r.
§ 408) ‘every, an y’.—kô nom. sg. m. Yl. 5.8; Yt. 14.1 ; Vd. 3.23;
kana zaya instr. sg. m. Vd. 19.8; kahmâi dat. sg. m. Yt. 5.8;
kahe gen. sg. m. Vd. 19.8.— kâ nom. sg. f. Vd. 6.47. — Indef.
kasei^ca nom. sg. m. Yt. 5.4.
[Skt. ha-; 014 P. ka-; Phi. ke, ka ; New P. kih-\
kaofa-: sb. m. (1) ‘hill’, (2)xhump’ (of camel).—Cf. stvi.kaofa-.
[Old P. kaufa-; Phi. kôf; New P. kôb ‘mountain’, kôhab,
kühab ‘ hump ’ ]
kaoyqm, see under 2 kavi-.
kafa-: sb. m. *foam, slime’.—Yt. 14.13.
[Skt. kapha- ; Phi. kaf; New P. kaf\
kam,9r9da-: sb. n. ‘skull, cranium’ (of evil beings).—Ys.57.10,• Ys.57.31
(collective).— [Phi. katnâr; New P. kamar ‘cupola’]
kam jr3 dô.j an- (from k° + j/ytftt-) : adj. ‘smiting the skull’.— fanô
gen. sg. m. (of Sraosha) Ys. 57.33 ; Phi.Vers, bas kamârzatâr.
kay ada -: adj. ‘heretic(?), Kayadha’.—An obscure word denoting an im-
pious person or class of beings ; Phi.Vers, lias kastar.—Ys. 57.15.
y 1 kar-: vb. cl. 5 (Gr. § 568) ‘make’.—Caus. ‘cultivate’.—k9r9naoùi
près, indic. act. 3 sg. Vd. 3.23 ; k?r3naol prêt, indic. (injunct.) act»
Vd. 6.50;—kârayeùi caus. près, indic. act. Vd. 3.23.—Cf. also
k9r9la-. — [Skt. kar-; Old P. kar-; Phi. kartan; New P. kardan\
'Y 2. kar-: vb. cl. 5, 9 ‘eut*.—Cf. akarana-. — [Pld. karinïtan; New P. kirntdan]
karan a- (from 2 kar-f. sb. m. ‘end, boundary’.—(vïspe) karanô (sg.
for pl. Gr. § 913 N. 1) Yt. 5.4.—Cf. also akarana-,
[Phi. kanârak; New P. kanârah, karüti\

karapan-'. sb. m. ‘Karpan*,—name of a class of wicked unbelievers.
The tradition renders ‘deaf’ (i. e. to the word of God). Ac-
cording to Zâd Sparam there vvere five brothers of the Karapan
family, foes of Zoroaster, cf. West, Phi. Texts tr. S.B.E. V. p. 187.
See aiso 2 kavi below.—karafnqm gen. pl. Yt. 14.4.
yfkar^-: vb. cl. 1 (1) ‘draw’, (2) ‘draw circles, furrows, to plow’.—
karÇya gerundive nom. sg. f. (Gr. § 716) Vd. 3.24.—Cf. also
akarsla-, kar$â-.
[Skt. kar$-; Phi. ka&tan; New P. katïdan, kiftan]
karfâ- (from ‘ÿ'karf-): sb. f. ‘circuit’.—kar$ay& gen. sg. Ys. 11.2 note.
[Cf. Skt. kar$man- ‘ race-course ’ ]
kar $iva'u t- (from ’\fkars-']\ sb. m. ‘plowman, peasant’.—karfivata instr.
sg. Vd. 3-24-
karSta- (from j/Cttzr/-) : pass. ptcpl., adj. ‘ plowed—Cf. akarSlq-.
[Skt. krtfâ-}
kar^var-, kar§van- (from ’\/’kars-')\ sb. n. (dcln. Gr. §§ 311, 337)
‘zone, clime’. Name of the seven divisions into which, accord-
ing to the Iranians, the world was divided.—kar&var9 acc. sg.
Ys. 57.31; vïspâis kar$uqn general pl. (Gr. §§ 315, 230, 308)
Yt. 5*5*—Cf. also kaptâ.karfva*ri-. — [¥h]. kêsvar; New P. kisvar]
1 kavi-: sb. m. ‘King’,—title of the Persian monarchs of the Kayânian
dynasty, Kai Kobad, Kai Khosraw, etc.—kavôis vïstàspahe ‘ of
King Vishtaspa (q. v.), Kai Gushtasp’ Ys. 26.5; Yt. 5.132.
[Cf. Skt. kavi-; Phi. kaï; New P. kaï]
2 kavi- y sb. m. ‘Kavi’,—name of a class of wicked infidels or démons.
According to the tradition ‘ b 1 i n d ’ (i. e. to the faith), cf. kai^1-
pan.—kaoyqm gen. pl. (Gr. § 62 b) Yt. 14.4. 1
kasu-: adj. ‘small, little’. £
[Cf. Skt. kastï- (? nomen propr j; Phi. kas; New P. kih] •
kâsu.pâ$na- (from k° +/°) : adj. ‘ small-heeled ’.—Yt. 14.17.
ka s ci le a, see under ka-,
kâldya- (from kayada- q. v.) : adj. ‘belonging to the Kayadha’.—sb. m.
‘adhèrent of K.’.—kâtdyehe gen. sg. masc. Ys. 57.15 (cf. Ys. 61.3).
kêr9ta- (from ]/"I kar-} pass. ptcpl., adj. ‘made’.—Cf. dcihmô.kjr9ta-,
huksr9ta-.— [Skt. krta-; Üld P. karta-; Phi. kart; New P. kardah]
kir’fS.foar- (from kahrp- + \pvar-') : adj. ‘corpse-eating’.— Vd. 6.45,46,47.
kshrp-: sb. f. ‘form, body’.—kthrpa instr. sg. Yt. 14.2 seq.
[Skt. kfp-; Phi. kerp]
kqsaoya-: sb. n. nomen propr. ‘Kansavya’,—name of a lake, irom the
waters of which the Saviour, Saoshyant, is to arise.—Vd. 19.5»
[Phi. kyânsâï]

64 kva...
} kvn (from ka- or ku-, (7r. §§ 406-407): interrog. adv. where'.—
Vd. 6.,14,49. — [Skk À'zwl

Av (r fo
fompaile. : an uncertain word, Vd. 19.5. The Phi.Vers, rendors the words
yqnt foqpaile ns ‘ to whoin one prays* and implies tliat the form
is a verb. See noie ad loc. Some rentier as nom en propr.
J( ra uz liati t (from \P foaoid-} : ptcph adj. ;hard, firm’.—(frava$ïrt’) foaoi-
distara superl. acc. sg. f. Ys. 26.2. Phi.Vers, here bas ‘most
firm, most. severe in matl.ers of decision’.
tyraoïd- (from ÿ’Æ/W- q. v., cf. Gr. § 692): vb. deriv. ‘make hardk—
Cf. foaoidaifo-.
fo-a lu - (from yikar-): sb. m. ‘wisdom’.—Cf. foapwiila-.
[Ski. kràin ; Phi. forât : New P. for ad \
?ir d p-wi s ta - (superl. atlached lo foutu-, foutant a yt-'}: adj. ‘wisest’.- -
Ys. 26.2,
y //r a - : vb. ‘hurt. be raw .- - Cf. foüra-, vïfoûmant-.— jSkt. kru-\
ytyruS- (.v-formntion from ffou-y. vb. ‘be terrible’.
forûra- (from ndj. ‘terrible, wounding’.— Ys. 57.25.
[5kt. krürâ-\
fo'vï- (from y fou-} : adj. ‘terrible, wounding’. Cf. foüra-, forvï.dru-.
fovl.dru- (from y fou-dru-}: adj. ‘of wounding mace . - fovl.draoS
gen. sg. rn. Ys. 57.32, Nar. has kiàsüsâstra-.
fllaëta- (from \r foâ-, foi-}: adj. (t) ‘ruling, princely ; (2) ‘shining*.--
Ys. 26.3 (Phi. here fotâi, Nar. svàmin-} ; Yt. 14.17
[Phi. &S; New P. .>W]
?l$apra- (from y foâ-, foi-}: sb. n. ‘rule, power. KingdomCf. next
word, and foaprï-, kamà.foapra-, hufoapra-.
[Ski. ksatrâ-; Old P. foapra-; Phi. salàr ; New P. dahar}
Uapra- va î ry a - (from foQ -J- z'°) : sb. n. nomen propr. ‘Khshathra Vairya’
(lit. ' wished-for Kingdom’), one of lhe Ameshn Spcnlas. See
" Gr. lntrod. p. xxvi § 35. --foaprwt vaïfim Ys. 57.24.
IPhî. satvuïro ; New P. Jïartvar]
Ijfoaprl- (from foapra-}: sb. m. ‘mistress, wife, female’.- Yt. 5.5;
Yt. 14.12 (bis).
Jfooprya- (from foapra-} : adj. ‘kingly’.—haomd foapryô (cf. Ski. soniô
rôja\ Y s. 57.19. — |Skt. foairiya-\
fyfoàp-, fi$a,pan-'. .sb. f. ‘night’.—foapà gen. sg. Ys. 57.31; foapana/n
acc. sg. Yt. 14.13; foafnasra acc. pl. Ys. 57.17.
[Skt. ksap-; Old 1\ foapan- ; Phi. sap; New P. /

gaoma- g 5
Y fyfi-: vb; cl. x, 2 ‘rule, bé majestic, be splendid’. -Cf. ltfapra-
: etc. —[Skt. \ ksi-; Phi. sâyastan; New P. sâyistan\
Y^ksud-; vb. cl’ 1 ‘flow’.—Çf. Itfadra-.
/ [Skt. ksùd- ; Phi. süstan; New P. sus/ait\
faudra- (from l/rfeW-) : sb. n. ‘semen, seed’.—1$udr& acc. pi. f. n.
(Gr. § 232» Yt, 5.2,5. —[Skt. ksudrâ-; Phi.
fyàtva- (from J$ms, Gr. § 366): num. adj. ‘sixth’.—Yt 14.17.
[Phi. sasüvi ; New P. jkfavz/]
1 fânoofr a- (from fanu- q. v.): sb. n. ‘propitiation’. Frequent in the
formula yasnàica vahmâica Itfnadprâica frasasiayacca, ‘ for the
worship, praise,’ etc. Ys. 57.6,8. — [Cf. Skt. k$noh‘a-\
2 na opr a.- (prob. best from zânu-, Znu-, ef. Gr, §§ 164, 77 N. 3, 188) :
sb. n. ‘knee*.—See hitJtfnaopra-.
Ijjnaoiua- (froïn \pixnu^, cf. Gr. § 80S) : sb. n. ‘joy .^-I^naaniA instr.
sg. Vd. 3.23. — [Phi. snüsn]
Yk$)tu~: vb. cl. 2 ‘rejoice, be pleased ’.—Caus. ‘propitiate’.—£///«?-
vayeUt. caus. près, indic. act. 3 sg. (Gr. § 685 e) Vd. .3.23.
[Cf. Skt. ksnu-; Phi. snâyïtun, snâyînitan (caus.)]
Jl$vds: num. (67-. § 366) ‘six’.—Cf. Ifituar»
[Skt. sâ$; Phi. sas; New P. 4W]
Av. e g.
gaêpâ- (from -A’): s^- (C ‘be*n&» living créature’; (2) ‘world’
(i. e. ‘ail thatlives’, cf. avilit-).—vlspaym gaêpayto ‘ of ail the
world’ Ys. 57.15; esp. w. astvaiit- (q. v.) ‘ material world, living
beings, manldnd’ Ys. 57.24; Yt. 14.i; Vd. 3.23 ; Vd. 6.44,47,49;
a pake gaèpiô (see a la-') Ys. 57.15.
[Cf. Old P. gaipâ ; Phi. gëhân; New P. gèhâti, gîhân, jïhâri\
gaëptt- (same as gaësu- ‘hairy’): adj. ‘shaggy . — uslrahe gaëpâuï gen.
sg. m. Yt. x4.ll. —[Cf. Phi. gès; New P* ges, gêsn\
g a è (from gaëpâ*fr9-, Gr. § 86b): adj. ‘helping man-
kind’ (lit. ‘furthering living beings’).--Yt. 5.1.
gaa-, gava-, gâu-: sb. m. f. (dcln. Gr. § 278) (1) ‘beef, bull, cow’;
(2) ‘méat’ (beef); (3) ‘milk’.-Ys. t 1.1,7 ’■> Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5,7.
—gïus hitd&vhà gen. sg. Ys. 26.4 note.
[Skt. ga-; Phi. gâ, gav; New P. gâv]
gaona-: sb. m. (1) ‘color’; (2) ‘exubérant appearance’.—Vd. 3.25,
Phi.Vers, here has sïrïtr ‘ fullness, repletion
[Phi. gün, günak; New P. gûnah\
g a orna- (from gaa-, gâu-): sb. m. ‘méat, milk’.—Cf. gaoniavaiit-.

gaomav atil- (from gaomu-) : adj. ‘consisting of méat, or milk’.—
Yt. 5.8 (zaopràbyô).
gao$a- (front : sb. m. ‘car’.—Cf. zatri.gao$a-, zaranyâ.gaofa-.
[Skt. ghusa-; Old P. gausa-; Phi. gàj; New P. £ï?/]
â– j/^a m -, jatrt-t see under jam-.
gaya- (from ]/gi-, ji-): sb. m. ‘life’.—See also under mar9tan-,—
Ys. 26.5,10 (Gayomart).— [Skt. gâya-; Phi. jân; New P. jân\
gar’wa- (from yfganv-') : sb. m. ‘womb’.—Yt. 5.2,5.
[Skt. gârbha-; Phi. gafr, gabr]
Ygarw-: vb. cl. 9, 10 ‘seize, grasp’.----------H us ‘ u p U f t ’.-h à ‘seize
u p o n ’.—g3r9ivnqn près. subj. act. 3 pl. (cl. 9, Gr. § 588) Yt. 57*25 »
âga^rvaye^U près, indic. mid. 3 sg. (cl. 16) Ys. 57.29.
[Skt. grabh- ; Old P. garb ; Phi. graftan ; New P. girtftan]
Ylgâ~-' vb. cl. 2 ‘go’. —[Skt. gâ-; New P. gôdari\
Y^gâ-: vb. cl. 4 ‘sing, chant’.—Cf. gâfiâ-.— [Skt.
gâu-, see under gao-, gav-,
gâtu- (from "J/^ 1 gâ-) : sb. m. (1) ‘place’; (2) ‘divan’.—gâlufua loc. pl,
Vd. 6.45.—Cf. also siar9ta.gâtu-,
[Skt. gâta-; Old P. gàju-; Phi. gâs; New P. gâh]
gâpâ- (from Y2: *>b. f. ‘hymn, psalm’. Esp. the five Gathas,
see Gr. Introd. p. xvii § 13 b.—Ys. 57.8.
[Skt. gîthâ-; Plil. £&]
â– j/^7-, y /see under Y2 }l~'
Ygu$~: vb. cl. 1 ‘hear’.—Cf. gao$a-, sâsnô.gùs-.
[Skt. gku$- ; Phi. nyôfylïtan; New P. nyôjfaian]
Ygÿr*™~i see under
Vgr am-: vb. ‘be angry’.—graiitahe pass. ptcpl. gen. sg. (Gr. § 711,5)
Yt. 14.15.
Av. y.
Y J % « r - •’ vb. cl. 1, 10 ‘ flow, stream ’.-p vï ‘ o v e r f 1 o w —vïjlara-
yeîqtttn près, ptcpl. Yt. 5.132.—Cf. also Y*Sar~> apagiâra-.
[Skt. ksar-\
Av. H c.
-ea: encl. conj. ‘and’ (Lat. -que).—ea ... ea ‘ both — and’ Ys. 11.I;
Ys. 57.17. As in Skt. sometimes apparently ‘even’, cf. bar9-
zistae.waca Vd. 6.45.—Observe -câ (GAv.) Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5.
[Skt. -ca; Old P. -ca ; Phi. -c, -z?]
cafivar-: num. (Gr. § 372) ‘four’.—Yt. 57.27.—Cf. also tùirya-.
[Skt. catvâr-; Phi. cahâr, cihâr ; New P. cahâr, eâr\

ca]rwar3.sata--jam- fi 7
c a]>war9.sata- (from c° + -fc) : sb. n. num. (6r. § 366) ‘forty’.—Yt. 5.4.
[New P. cihil}
’y/'ear-: vb. cl. 1 ‘move, go’.----J-/’ra ‘go forth, c o m e fracarcdti
près. subj. act. 3 sg. Ys. 57.24.—[Skt. car-; New P. carulan}
car an a- (from \r 1 kar-) : sb. n. ‘instrument’. — Cf. sraojü.carana-.
[Skt. kârana-; cf. New P. cârak-}
carâhi-: sb. f. ‘maiden’.—Vd. 3.24.— [Phi. carâïtïk}
car9tar- (from |/ 1 kar-, Gr. § 76 N.): sb. m. ‘maker*.—Cf. fra$ü.-
car9.tar-, — [Skt kârlar-}
~\f 2 ci-: vb. cl. 3 (Gr. § 551) ‘atone*.—Cf. ““ [Skt. N-]
cijâ- (from 2 ci-) : sb. f. ‘atonement, penalty’.—kâ hë asti cija (Gr.
§ 1020 N., expi.) Vd. 6.47.
-cil: encl. particle (1) emphatic, ‘even, indeed’; (2) gcneralizing, yatci£
Ys. 57.29; kascijca Yt. 5.4. — [Skt. -cid; Old P. -ciyj
[gcis-, (kilt-):- vb. cl. 7 (Gr. § 555) ‘announce*.—Cf. £kaè$a-.
Av. e y.
jaiti- (from j/y7w-): sb. f. ‘smiting’.—Cf. paùi.jaùi-.-— [Skt. hati-\
jajnvCô, see under j/'yh/z-,
j a j ni iis Ism a - (from jajnrvah-, s&ï jam-i}\ su péri, adj. ‘most prompt*.
—Ys. 57.4. —[Cf. Skt. gamistka-}
Y jad-: vb. cl. 4 ‘ask, pray, demand -jafdyehi près, indic. act. 2 sg.
(w. two acc., Gr. § 930) Ys. 11.2; jaldyatyiâi près, ptcpl. act.
dat. sg. m. ( [Cf. Skt. gad- ; — Old P. jad; New 1‘. ziïyïtau (Horn)J
yjan-, g an-: vb. cl. 2 ‘ strike, smite, slay ’.-----H ni ‘ s t r i k e d o w n ’.
—jaïtiti près, irrdic. act. 3 sg. Ys. 57.10; nijne près, indic. mid.
3 sg. (Gr. § 525) Ys. 57.29; janâni près. subj. act. I sg. (Gr.
§ 521) Vd. 19.5; jajnv& pf. ptcpl. act. Ys. 57.10.—Cf. kaniir3-
dô.jan-, kak9r9$.jan-,
[Skt. han-; Old P. jan-; Phi. zatan ; New P.
ja^lar- (from jan-) : sb. m. ‘smiter’ nom. sg. Ys. 57.15.
[Skt. hantâr-; Old P. jatar-; Phi. zatâr}
\fjam-, gam-, jas-: vb. cl. 2, 1 (inchoat.) ‘go, corne ava ‘corne
down*. + à ‘corne hither*. -\-pa*ti ‘corne back, corne
to’. -\-fra ‘go forth’, +Z7 ‘go a part, distribute’.—
âjamyât aor« °pk 3 sg. Ys. 57.3 ; paùi.jasaiti près, indic. act.
3 sg. (inchoat. Gr. §§ 697-S) Ys. 57.12; âjasaj près, indic. act.
Yt. 14.È seq.; ava.jasa près, imperat. act. 2sg. Yt. 5.132 ; vï.jasaùi
près. subj. act. 3 sg. Yt. 5.4; frajasqn (jr a jasai) bamitini près.

jas- — tarv-
subj/act. (6V. $ 5,15.4 e.vmpl.) Yd, 6.47; paai.jasa.n près, sub.j.
3 pl. Yt. 5.132; jdjwvah' pf. plcpj. act. as adj. in jajrHûslama-.
[Skt. gam-, gack-; Old P. gam-, jam-; cf. Phi. (g)malan,
â-matun; New P. â-madari}
y/tf j- (inchoat.), see under yfjam-.
}/ 2 ji - : vb. ‘live’.— Cf. gaejâ-, jïra-.—■ [Cf. Skt. 2//-]
jïra- (fr. j/*2 //-): adj. ‘livély, quick’.— j’Skt.yïrd-;cf. New P. zîrak (Horn)j
j ir ü.s âr a- (froin/»-.-}--j°) : adj. ‘moving the head quickly ’ (?,).— Yt. .14.12
(Tradition has ‘intelligent’, cf. New P. zirak, yee jïra-\
~\Jjïv-: vb. cl. 1 ‘live juatilam. (Gr. § 68 N. 2) près, ptcpl. açt. gen. pl.
ni. Ys. 26.6. — [Skt.y/2/-/ Qid V.jïv-; Phi. ztvasian; New P. zïstan}
\Fju-, see under \rj'-v-.
Av. k» /.
ta- (ha-, h&-, ta-): déni. pron. (dcln. Gr. § 409) ‘ this . --Ys. iî.ç ;
Ys. 57-3,18,29; Yt. 5-9,132; Yt. 14.5; Vd. 3.24,29.
•Skt. ta- (sa-, sa-, ta-j}
ta êta- (cf. Skt. yY//-) ; sb. m. ‘sharpness, edge—Cf. brôifrrii.taèsa-.
[Cf. Skt. tcjas-\
taur v a y e n i, see undet y tarv-.
~\[taJf-, ses under y tac-.
ta ma- (froin yZ/zz--) : adj. ‘ bold, sturdy’.—Ys. 3$. 3 Ys. 57. 11,33 ;
Yt. 14.15. — [Old P. *tafyna; (Phi. laty»)) New P. fa/iam]
\ftac-, lak-, tarie-: vb. cl. 1 ‘run, rush’.-----------r fra ‘run al on g,
flovh—frâiacahi., Gnii près, indic. act. Yt. 5. 3,4. -Cf. also
a*'ad,tarin a-, intima-, iari.cis!a-,
[Skt. ia.k-, tac-, tank-; Phi. tâiiian ; New P. tâjton]
t a ji x m <; j> r a - (froin taniï- -H ,vzA ; adj. ‘the word incarnate ' (i. e. per-
sonifi cation of the Manthra). - Ys. 57.33.
taniï-: sb. f. (dcln. Gr. § 271) • body’.--Vs. 57.26 ; Vçl. 6.44.
[Skt. taux-, tanu-; Phi. lanû; New P. fan}
f Z o u c -, see u n d e r ]/ tac-.
yY a ne i s i a - (from J/Ycr-, tarie-) : superl. adj. (6r. § 365 N, 2) ‘most
sturdy .—Ys. 11.7; Ysi 57.13, Nar. has df4batuma-.
taras c a (instr. advl. Gr. § 287): prep. w. acc. ‘across, past’.—Vd. 3.29.
(Skt. ti. ratai-}
y tarp-: vb. cl. 4 'steaV.—lar9Jyât près, (sedryj subj. acl. 3 sg. Ys. 11.5.
[Skt. lyj>- (in tfpuA ; Phi. larjtïrütan ; cf. New P. ta r Janet,
larb ‘ lie, deceil’j
yYz? r v- : vb. cl. 10 ‘overcome - -taurvayanï près. subj. act. 1 sg. Yt. 14.4.
[Skt. ixrv-, Iürv-; Phi. iarvimtan|

tors---r pzvaJ^a- (jq
ÿtars- (from f>rah-; Gr. § 698 N.): vfo> inchoat. ‘flee’.—iarita pass,
ptepJ. Ys. 57.18 (bis).
[Cf Skt. Iras- ; Old P. tars-; Phi. tarsïian; New P. tarshton]
iftas-: vb, cl. 2. ‘hew, shape’.—-f-hq;u ‘constrnet—hqni.tasti près.
indic. act. 35g. Y.% 57.10.—Cf. also hutasia-.
[Skt. taks-; Old P. tafys-; Phi. taiïtan\
tasta- (from-y/W-): sb. n. ‘ cup \—the sacred chalice inlo which tbe
haoma was poured.—-tasta instr. sg. Vd* 19.9.
[Phi. tait; New P. laiï]
tâyu-: sb. m. ‘thief’—Ys. 11.3. —[Skt, tâyii-, zj. stâyu-, ]/Y/ï7- ‘steal’]
lijra-, tlit (in eompds.), cf. Skt. 1/iij-: adj. 1 sharp\—Cf. tizi.asürci-.
[Cf. Skt. tig-wa; Phi. tïz, New P. tïz\
i iï i9 , ‘ see u nder figra-.
tiïi.asùra- (seetf°) : àdj. ‘having sharp bristles (?) —Yt. 14.15.
tizi.dqstr a (see Z/#-p ]ftu-: vb. cl. I ‘be able’.—tavqn près, (scdrv.) sub|. act. 3 pl. (Gr. £ 486)
Vd. 6.51. — [Skt. tu- ; Phi. tïiôan ; New P, tuvàn\
1 t ü>r y a- (for ^c^tfdrya-. cf. â-litühya- from capwar-y. num. adj. ‘fourth’.
— Yt; tüirtm (Gr. § 934) Vd. 3.23.
[Skt. tiirya-; cf Phi. cahârün ; New P. cakâruni]
? t i~th‘y a - ; adj. fTurahian\—belonging to lhe land hostile to Iran.—<
iûGïm (Gr. § 63) Yt. 11.7. — |Phl. itir, tûrün; New P. tûrün]
tiïtuc-: sb. f. ‘ carpet, cloth iJ)’.---ZHlul/s/va loc. pl. Vd. 6.51, set note.
[Cf. New P. tutnk 1 curtain, veil
tüm: pron. 2 pers. (dcl. Gr. § 390) ‘thou*.—Ys. 11.1,7 ; Ys. 57.26; Vd.3.29;
Vd. 19.6,—-[Skt. tnâm; Old P. tuvant ; Pbl,’Z/Z/ New P. tu]
tint a h- (cf. Skt. iftàm^}\ sb. n. ‘darknesS, Hcll’. -tamauhô gen. sg.
(Gr. § 982) Ys. 5.7.18.—-[Skt. târn-as; Phî. tant; cf. New P. ton/]
të, see under ta- above.
(cf. Skt. \ftom-) : adj. 4dark’.—Vt. 14.13.
[Cf Skt. tâm-as- etc. ; Phi. tRr, iârïk; New P. tür]
Av. 6 p.
Vt anj-: vb. cl. 10 *draw, drive, rein’.--Cf. nipatyor-.
ftwaiya-; sb. m. * fright -Ys. 57.18;
ifpvj a fy i - : vb. cl. 1 ‘work, be active, be stirring, make haste’.
[Skt. tvakf-; Phi. iûfyiïtan] 1
pwahfa- (from ifpwa fis-) : adj. active, busy — -pwaJijiitam superl.
Ys. 57.13.
[Cf Skt. tvâkfas- ‘ activity ’ = Phi. tùfyiâk; New P. taJ/sâ]

pwar------daënô. disa-
7.7 a r - : vb. ‘ hasten ’.—Cf. pwars-, pivâ$a-. — [Ski. tvar-]
ÿ/wars- (from y/p-war-, Gr. § 698): vb. inchoat. (1) ‘eut, create*;
(2) ‘ décidé, judge *.— fra ‘eut o f f -------b paûi ‘ t o s h o e ’
(of horses).—pivar’saiô près, indic. act. 3 du. Ys. 57.2; frâpwdr*sô
prêt, (injunct.) act. 2 sg. Ys. 11.7; païti.pwaritÆvhô pass. ptcpl.
nom. pl. Ys. 57.27.—Cf. also pwôr9$tar-.
pwS, pwqm, see under iù/tt, Gr. § 390.
pwâga- (from "fpwar-, Gr. § 163): ‘quick*.—pwtifrni acc. sg. n. advl.
(6’r. § 934) Ys. 11.7. —[Skt. tûrlâw}
pvjôr*star- (from pwars-, Gr. § 39 expb): sb. ni. ‘judge’ (i. c. wlio
décidés).—Ys. 57.2 note.
prah-: vb. ‘ fear, be terrified’.—See yftars-. — [Skt. iras-]
p ri--: nura. (dcln. Gr. § 371) ‘three*.—prâyi) nom. pl. in. Ys. 11.1.
[Skt. tri-; Phi. si; New P. x/ZrJ
pritya- (from pri^}\ nam. adj. ‘third'.—prityô (Gr. § 997) Yt. 14.9;
âprittm (Gr. § 375) Ys. 57.31. — [Skt. iyttya- ; Old P. pritiya-]
pri$va- (from p?i-, Gr. § 376 N., 827) m. ‘a third’.—Ys. 11.7.
[Phi. srtsûtak\
Prqf-: vb. ‘to satisfy pra frdô pass. ptcpl. nom. sg. m. (Gr. § 77 N. 3)
Ys. 57.14.— [Cf. ^kt. trp- (tynip-âti).
pryafySti- (from pri- ya. fti-, Gr. § 68a): sb. f. ‘three stalks’ (of
haoma) Gr. § 891.—Ys. 57.6 note.
Av. d.
d a*y hu-, dahyu- (from \f davh-, dah^)\ sb. f. (dcln. Gr. § 270)
‘country, nation’,—tlie largest division in the four-fold con-
stitution of the Jranian state, viz. (1) nmâna-, (f) vis-, (f zaqt/s-,
(4) dahyu-.—Ys. 57.14; Yt. 5.6; Vd. 3.27.
[Cf. Skt. dâsyu; Old P. dahyu-; Phi. dahyû, dih ; New P. dih]
daiy h’ i ti- (from da 4- 2/°) : sb. m. ‘lord of the nation, governor’.
—Vd. 19.6.— [Phi. dahyüpat]
daSighu.f râdatt a- (from Yt. 5.1.
daënâ- (from ]/7/z-) : sb. f. ‘conscience, Religion*. The daën5 (New P.
dïri] is an intégral element in the spiritual constitution of man,
by the light of which he discerns right and wrong; hence
the divine insiglit, religion.—Ys. 26.4,6 ; Ys. 57.24 (bis) ;
Vd. 19.6,7. —[Phi. dïn, den; New P. dïn]
daënâ.dis a- (from daënâ--\-’f dis-, Gr. § 866): sb. m. ‘teacher of the
religion’.—Ys. 57.24.

dalman- (from ]/"’dî-): sb. n. ‘eye’.—Cf. smargnô.daèman-.— [NewP. déni]
dalva-: sb. m. ‘devil, Démon’. Esp. plur. ‘the Daevas’, <7r. Introd.
p. xxvii § 41. Fem. daêuï-,—adj. ‘devilish’.—Ys. 57:17,18 (bis),
31,32)33; Yt. 14.4; daêiPycb gen. sg. f. adj. (6’r. §§ 68 N. 3,
257) Ys. 57-15-
[Opp. Skt. dèvâ- (‘god, divine’); — Phi. dêv (‘démon’);
New P. dêv,. dïv (‘démon’)]
daêvô.d&ta- (from daêva- + 1 dâta^ ; adj. ‘ created by the Démons*.
—Ys. 57.25 ; Vd. 19.5 (bis).
daofatara-: adj. ‘western, occidental’.—Ys. 57.29 (loc. sg.}. X
[Cf. Skt. dôsA- ‘evening’; Phi. dôdasiar; cf. New P. ~\rd a v h -, dah-: vb. ‘ be mighty, be wise’ (Piscliel).—Cf. davhah-,
dahma-. — \$k\.. d-qs-, /Zrw-]
davhah- (from 'davh-, dah-}: sb. n. ‘mastéry’.—Yt. 5.9: Yt. 14.5.
[Skt. dqsas-]
dapr, see under ydâ-.
dapugat, see under dadvah-.
dadqsti- (rcdupl. from dqs-, dasdy. adj. ‘biting’.—Yt. 14.II.
dadvah- (pf. ptcpl. from dâ-, Gr. g 340); sb. m. ‘creator, Maker’.
—dapugag abl. sg. (Gr. § 86} Yt. 5.7.
’y/'dar-: vb. cl. 1, 10 ‘hold, keep’.-f- av ‘apply’.—dârayehi (cl. 10)
près, indic. act. 2 sg. ‘hold back, keep* from’ Ys. 11.3 ; ava ...
dârayadwwi (cl. 10) imperat. mid. 2pl. Vsp. 15.1.—Cf. also drva-,
[Skt. dhar- ; Old P. dar- ; Phi. dastan; New P. dâstaii]
dar9ja- (from drajd) : adj. ‘long, continuai’.—Vd. 3.24 (Gr. § 977 expi.).
[Skt. dïrgha- (Gr. § 48); Old P.darga- ; Phi. dêr; New P. dïr]
yTdars-: vb. cl. 1 ‘see, look’.—Cf. fraddr3sra-, hvar9.dar9sya-.
[Skt. dars-]
]fdarg-: vb. cl. 5 ‘be bold, be hardy*.—Cf. dargi-, dargita-.
[Skt. dhar$-; Oid P. darï-]
dargi- (from y^brZ-) : adj. ‘bold, hardy’.—dargyôiü (observe j/’.) gen.
sg. m. (Gr. § 254) Yt. 14.2.-7-[Cf. Skt. dadhffi-]
dargita- (from ÿdard-, pass. ptcpl. Gr. §§712, 786 N. 1): adj. ‘daring’.
—Ys. 57.11. —[Skt. dhysitâ-; cf. New P. durugt (Horn)]
yfdarz- (cf. yf'draj- below): vb. cl. 10 ‘hold, fasten’.-H ni ‘fasten
down, secure’.—nidar3zaysn prêt, (injunct.) act. 3 pl. Vd.6.46;
nidar9zayœqti près. subj. act. 3 pl. Vd. 6.47. — [Skt. darh-]
dasa-: num. adj. (Gr. g 366) ‘ten’.—Cf. paqca.dasah-.
[Skt. dâsa-; Phi. dah, dahurn ; New P. dah]
dasti- (from ydâ-)\ sb. n. ‘paying’.—daste dat. sg. as infin. (Gr. § 254
Dat.) Vsp. 15.1 note.

2 dagina- — dâJiyuma-
dagiua-: adj. ‘right’. —daginà bâzvü k&v<>yaca. (\yith thc right arm and
the left* Vd. 3.25 note. — [Skt. dâks'uia-; Phi. daiin]
daftâka-: âb. m. soine kiftd of a serpent. Esp. ait dakàka ‘Azht
Dahûka, thc dragon’.—In Y.s. 11.6 dahàkâca (Gr. § 19) dénotés
fiendish créatures.
dahma- (from \Pdanh-, dah-)*. (1) sh. m. ‘master (a Dastur) ,-—(2) adj.
* pious — | Cf. Skt. dasnui- ;. Plil. dahni\
dakm ôJzf r* ta- (from dr: -J- for^tad} : adj. ‘begotten of pious parents*
(see dahma-} Ys. 26.9.—-[Phi. dahmân-kari\
da fyy u -, see under daiyhu-.
]fdâ-, dap-: vb. cl. 3 (67. g 541 seq.) 'give, put, çreate, make’. -
. + ahxù ‘place ar.o u nd -p uz ‘elevate, préservé’.—
+fra ‘profer, give’. — + ni 1 d e p o s i t ’. p vï ‘erect*
(a hou se), ——dadaiti près, indic. act. 3 sg. Yt. 5.2 ; diddîhm prêt,
indic. act. 3 du. (6’r. § 543) Ys. 57.17; dapa£ prêt, indic. act.
3 sg- (O>! § 553) Ys. H.5, Vd. 19.9; fradapm (6>. § 553)
Vd. 19.9; nidapâma près. subj. aet. i pk Vd. 6.44,49; niddpïta
près. subj. mid. 3 sg. (6>. § 546) Vd. 6.51; day& aor. opt. act. (Gr. § 634) Ys. 57.26 ; ï'ïdât?m pass. ptcpl. Ys. 57.21.—
Cf. (dwidâna-, uzdâna-.
[Skt. dâ-> dhâ- (. § 83); Old P. dâ-; Phi. dàtan; NevV P.
dtidtya- (from 2-dâta~> 6r. §852): adj. ‘lawful, right'.—d8ïtyanqni gen.
pl. n. Vsp. 15.1 ; dâhtni pae/na. sg. n. Yt. 5.2.
idàta- (from \f dâ-} : pass. ptepi. as adj. ‘created, eStablished’. —Cf.
ahnra.Jâta-, màzda°, daêiiâ*.
2 data- (from préceding): sb. m. ‘law, ordinance’. -Yt. 14.5.
[Old P. 3 data-; Phi. dût; New P. dàd\
dâtar- (from |/"dâ.-}\ sb. ni. (dcln. Gr. § 322) ‘maker, Creator ’. Yt. 14.1 ;
Vd. 3.23 ; Vd. 6.44 seq.
[Skt. dhâtàr-; Phi. dâtar ; New P. dâdâr]
dâpr ï- (from d5tat~) : sb. f. ‘garer, benefactress’.—j^dyantâi- dâpriï
âyapttnn ‘she lhat granl.s a favor to the ane that asks ’ Yt. 5.132.
[Skt. dâtrî-\
d 5 titan- (from |/dâ-)\ sb. n. (dcln. Gr. § 308) ‘créature, création’ (col-
lective).—Ys. 57.2 (bis, Gr. •§ 308 expi.), 16,17,30.
[Skt. dhdman- ; Phi. dârn\
dâh-: sb. f. 4 wisdomin duîdàh-, htidâh, and according to Phi.Vers.
maidâh-. — [Cf. Skt. dhï-\
d& Jjyuma (hww. daJiyu-, Gr. g 825 d) : adj. ‘belônging to the country,
national’.—Yr s. 36.1.

di-: encl. pron. 3»d. pers. (Gr. § 396) ‘he, il*.—Vd. 3.29 (6>. § 1023 N.);
Vd. 6.45. —[Old P. di-J
Y dis-: vb. cl. 4, 10 ‘point, show, leach’.—Cf. dacttà.disa-.— [Skt.
ydï-, did-: vb. cl. 2, 3 ‘sec, look’.-----j- vï ‘look a round’.—vïdidu&
(Gr. § 68 N. 2 expi.) pf. act. ptcpl. nom. sg. Yt. 14.13.—Cf.
also daëman-, dôipra-,
[Cf. Skt. dhï-, dïdhï-; Old. P. dï-; Phi. dïtan; New P. dïdan]
dt- (fr. y di-): sb, f. ‘thought, dévotion’.—See under btrfizeddï-. — [Skt. dhi-\
ydtt-; vb. et 1 ‘speak (of evil beings), shout’.----1- faùi ‘vociferate
in resp o nse paùi ... adavata. prêt, indic. mid. 3 sg.
Vd. 19.6, 8.—*[Phi. davastan\
dtGn, diti? (Gr. § 753 N. 2): inséparable prelix ‘evil, bad’.—Cf. dtd-
varüta-. Peculiar is djus.sravak- (q. v.).
[Skt. duy-'; Old P. du$>; Phi. dus° ; New P.
du $m a*ny u - (from dus 4- m°) : ad j. ‘ evil-minded ’. — sb. ni. ‘ foc —
Ys. 57.26. — [Phi. dùdman ; New P. dusmari\
dtt%°, see under dujfa.
duz.daman (from du$-\-d*)' adj. ‘evil-creating, maleficentk — duï.damd
nom. sg. m. (#-dcln., Gr. § 234 b) Vd. 19.6,8.
duidàh- (from duddâh- q. v.) : adj. ‘evil-thinking, malignant’.—duzdœ
nom. sg. m. Ys. 57.25 ; dusda voc. sg. m. Vd. 19.5,9.
[Skt. dûdhï-; Phi. duzd, duddânâk; New P. duzdï> duid 1 thief’]
dulvarsta- (from dus -{-■ v») : adj. ‘ ill-done’.— sb. u. ‘evil deedk —
Vsp. .15.1.—.[Phi. düshùvardt]
dura- : adj. ‘far’.—dür⣠(Gr. § 731,4) Ys. 57.14» Yt. 5.3; dûire .. aëtahe
‘far from him’ Yt. 14.13.-~Cf. düraësûka-.
[Skt. dura-; Old P. dura-; Phi. dür; New P. dûr\
düraësûka - (from düra-, loc., Gr. § 877 d + sûka-) : sb. n. ‘far-reaching.
glance’.—Yt. 14.13.
dûruoda-: adj. ‘holding death afar’ (so Phi. tradition).—haomô düravpô
nom. sg. m. Ys. 11.3. — [Cf. Skt. dur osa- ; = Phi. dürôs}
düu s. s r a v a h - (from dus k srirvah-, Gr. § 60): adj. ‘ ill-famed ’. — sb. n.
‘ slander ’. ---difus.sravdt hacimnd ‘ attended by slanders ’ Ys. 11.1,3.
dôipra- (from y'dï-): sb. n. ‘eye’.—Ys. 11.4.—Cf. Mr*ii.doipra-, spiti°,
zatri9. — [Phi. dëisar}
dqma, sçe under dâman-^
y dqs-, das^: vb. ‘bite’.—Cf. dadqsu-, dqstra-.—^WrX. dqs-, zAzV-J
dqsira- (from y dqs-, das*): sb. n. ‘tusk ’ (of boar).—Cf. tiii.dqstra-,
draonah-: sb. n. ‘offering, portion’.- -Later the darûn a small fiat cake
used, like the Hebrew shew-bread, in the oblation.—Ys. 11.4,5,7.
[Cf. Skt. drâvi#as-; Phi. darüa; New P. darûn}

draonian- — £kaë$a-
draoman- (from dru- q. v.) : sb. n. ‘assault’.—Ys. 57-25.
y/'draj-, (drag-): vb. cl. 1 ‘hold’. —drazimnô près, ptcpi. mid. (Gr.
§ 177) Ys. 57.31.—Cf. dar*ga- and yf darz-. — [Cf. Skt. darh-\
draf$a-: sb. m. ‘spear, banner’ (attachée! to spear).—Ys. 57.25.
[Skt. drap sa-; Plil. drufd; New P. dirafd\
driju-: adj. ‘poor’.—driyaodcu drïvy&sca gen. sg. m. f. (Gr. § 362,2)
Ys. 57.10. —[Phi. dargüd; New P. darvîd]
drïvy&sca, see under drigu-,
yfdr u - : vb. cl. 1 ‘rush’.—Caus.' ‘ raak e o n s 1 au g h t s ’.—drânay⣠caus.
subj. act. 3 sg. (w. ace.) Ys. 57.25. —[Skt. dru-\
dru-: sb. n. (1) ‘wood’, (2) ‘ mace ’ (wooden club).—Cf. fyrvî.dru-.
[Skt. dnï-\
y,lr uj-: vb. cl. 6 ‘deceive, lie’ (esp. hurt by deceit).—Cf. drnj-> drvatit-.
[Skt. dru!:-; Old P. duruj; Phi. drüjïtari\
druj-(jdcn\\ tfdruj-}-. sb. f. ‘fiend, Falsehood’,—lie and corruption per-
sonified.—Ys. 57.15. —[Skt. druh-; Phi. drüj\
drva- (from ]/*r/<7r-): adj. ‘firm, Sound’.—Cf. drvatât-.— [Skt. dhruvà-\
drvatât- (from drva-, Gr. § 842): sb. f. ‘soundness’.—Ys. 57.26.
drvaqi- (from druj-, Gr. g 31 expi.): adj. (dcln. Gr. § 291) ‘wicked,
fiendish’.—sb. m. ‘fiend, (pi.) the wicked’ (67*. Introd. p. xxv
§ 34)-—Ys. 57-25 (bis), 32-
[Cf. Skt. drùhvan-; Phi. darvand; New P. darvand\
dva-: num. (Gr. § 370) ‘two’.—duyt suite acc. du. n. Vd. 6.48.
[Skt. dvd-; Phi. du; New P. du\
dvaèdtva - (from j/T/wJ'-) : sb. n. ‘hatred’.—Cf. vïdvacstva-.
yfdvar-: vb. cl. 1 ‘rush’ (of evil beings).—dvamiti près, indic. act.
Ys. 57.18. — [Plil. drrvâristan\
dvar-, dvara-: sb. n. ‘door’.—Vd. 3.29.
[Skt. dvar-, dvara- ; Old P. dtwara- : New T. dar]
'tfdvid- (cf. £t>id-) : vb. ‘hâte, be malicious’.—Cf. dvaèdtva-,
[Skt. dvis-; Phi. bèsïtari]
Av. Ç A
lkaê$a- (conn. w. yfkid-, cid- ‘announce’): sb. m. ‘announcement’ (ré-
vélation, promulgation of the Religion).—adj. (as subst.) ‘pro^
claiming the religion, promulgator’.—Esp. pacdryô.tkaèdô the
first faithful i. e. the disciples of Zoroastcr who made the first pro-
paganda, including also himself (Yt. 13.90). —pauiryanqni ]kaêda-
nqm gen. pl. m. Ys. 26.4; âhtitridÿtaê$ô ‘the Ahurian Révélation’
Ys. 57.24.—Cf. also ahur à.flatta-.— [Phi. kcd/ New P. Zv/]

$baë$ah- (from : sb. n. ‘hatred, malice’.—Yt. 14.4.
[Skt. dvesas-; Phi. zW]
(cf. dvi$-): vb. cl. 4 ‘hâte’.—tbi$yatiiqm près, ptcpl. act. gcn. pl. m.
Ys. 57.26.— [Cf. Skt. dvis-; Phi. bèsïtari\
(from : adj. ‘hating, malicious’.—Yt. 14.4 ('gen. pl.).
Av. t n.
na°: neg. ‘n-* (in composition).—Cf. nava.
[Skt. nâ; Plil. n-; New P. nâ, nahd\
na*rya- (from nard) : adj. ‘manly, human*.—Cf. naïryà.savha-.
[Skt. nârya-; cf. Phi. nèrvk ; New P. nïrô\
na* ry ô.s an ha - (from nahya- -J- ) : sb. ni. nom. propr. (6>. § 893)
‘ Nairyosanhamessenger of Ahura Mazda; later Nèryôsang.
Compare NqÙàc Nârâsqsa-, name of Agni.—naïrïm sanhani Ys. 57.3.
naeda (cf. na°) ; neg. conj. ‘not, nor’.—Ys. 11.6.
nairn a-: sb. n. ‘side*.—Vd. 19.5 (bis).—Cf. aytara.naëna-, upafri*, nistara0.
[Cf. Skt. nêma-; Phi. nëtn, nèmak; New P. riim, nïniah-}
nabânazdist a- (from nabi- ‘ navel ’-p nasdiSta-) : adj. ‘next-of-kin’
(ne arcs t relatives).
[Cf. Skt. nâbhànëdislha- nom. propr. ; Phi. nabânazdist ]
yfnam-: vb. cl. 1 ‘bow, bend, flee’.-------Yfra ‘flee from’.— frâ ...
usinante près, indic. mid. Ys. 57.18; frân&mâhe près. subj. mid.
(on «/Z#/?/3, cf. Gr. § 478 N. 2) Ys. 57.18. —[Skt. nam-}
nar-, nara-: sb. m. (dcln. Gr. § 332) ‘man*.—Ys. 26.6,7,10; Ys. 57.14,34;
Yt. 5.4; Yt. 14.17; Vd. 3.27 seq.; Yd. 6.44,49.
[Skt. nâr-; Phi. nar-; New P. nar}
Inava (from na + vët): neg. particle ‘not*.—Ys. 11.3. —[Cf. Skt. nâ vâ]
2 nava ■ num. (Gr. § 366) ‘nine —[Skt. nâvo ; Phi. nâv, nuh; New P. nttîi)
nav a. y afySt i - (from 2 nava-Y p°) : sb. m. ‘nine stalks ’ (of Barsom).—
Ys. 57.6 note.
'[/’inas-: vb. cl. 4 ‘perish, be ruined*.—Cf. nasu-.
[Skt. 'I nas-; Phi. nasïnitan (caus.); New P. nâsïdan)
nas u- (from j/* 1 nas-): sb. f. (i) ‘corpse’, (2) nom. propr., esp. w. druj
‘ the Druj Nas 11 ’ (corpse-fiend); the spirit of corruption, which
in the form of a fiy takes possession of the dead botjy.—nasus
(nom. as ace., Gr. § 926) Vd 19.5.
[Phi. nas aï ; New P. nisâ; cf. Gk. vsx-oçl
nazdyah-, nazdisla-: adj. compar., superl. ‘nearer. nearest*.— Cf.
[Skt. nêdïyas-, nèdistha- ; Phi. nazdïk, nazdisl; New P. nazd\

na —pàïti
nâ, sec under nar*.
nâi dy a h - (from nâd-"y. adj. eompar. ‘weaker’.—■nâidy&utom (Gr. g 346)
Ys. 57,10 note.
nairï- (from nar-, Gr. § 837) : sb. f. ‘woman, wifeYs. 26.7, 8, 10 ;
Aàiiyiv gen. s'g. Ys. 11.1.
[Skt. 11a ri-; Phi. nâïrïk ; New P. nâri\
y/'nâtl-: vb. ‘be needy, be weak’.—Cf. naddyah-. —- [Skt. nâdh, n5tk-\
ni9, see under itï.
ni y ne, see under
nip afat ar-(from ~\trpa r}jsb. m. 'driver’ (i. e. he who liolds the reins).
—nipafyta nom. sg. Ys. 11.2.
nipâiti- (from sb. f. ‘ safe-keeping’.—Yt. 5.6.
nii (cf. nî) vb'l. prefix (Cr. § 749) ‘out, forth[Skt. nis\
ni£a tthar» ti- (from nis, ni4 \Phar-, Gr. g 754,3): sb. f. ‘ guardian-
ship’.--Yt. 5.6 (dat. sg.).
n i fa vhasl-i-, see under. ]fhad-.
niftara- (from nid) : adj. ‘outer’.—Cf. nistara.naèrha-,
nrilar â,.nai m a- (from -H w°) : sb. n. * the outside’.—Ys. 57-2< (Gr.
§ 73i>4)-
■n i /// a«rv a i i i, see under |/7wr-.
11 ï vbl. prefix. (Gr. g 750) ;down, in, unto’.
[Skt. ni; Old P. niy. Phi. ni9; New P. vG\
n?mah-.(p(Qt\\ sb. •TL 11 bornage’.—Ys. rt.S.
[$kh nâ/nas-■; Phi. naantz, nam&ç; New P. na-mâi\
nâ, n&, see under tuant > Gr. § 386.
n5i£ (cf. //tf°): adv. *not’.— Ys. 11.1, Y s. 57.17 et passim.
[Skt. nrd ; Old P. naiy; New P. rtë\
nniâna- (GAv. d3/nüna-. \f dam- ‘ buildcf. Skt. damas-, Gr- § 1.85):
sb. n. ‘housç, abode’.— The unît (family) in the four-fold arrange-
ment of the Iranian state, viz. (ï) nmâna-, (2) vis-, (3) zaqtu-,
(4) dahyu-. —Ys. n.6; Ys. 26.7; Ys. 57.10, 14 (bis), 21,34.; Yt. 5.6.
[Old P. mâniya~; Phi. miïn;. New P. man\
nmànya-* (from nmâita-) : adj. ‘belonging to the bouse’ (having the
rank of a householder).—Ys. 26.1 (cf. Ys. 23-1).
Av. <ü p.
ï p ai ti- (from ~\Tpâ-y. sb. m. ‘lord’.—Cf. tôprapaili-, Jraëpa‘pya-.
[Skt. pâti-; Pld. pat, °pat; New P. Grad]
2paiti: (1) vbl. prefix (Gr. §g 735, 750) 'towards, against, back’.—
(2) prep. ‘to, upon, for, with’.—With acc. ya£ hâ patli 1 wher-

ever indeed’ Vd. 3 23;—with instr. &mâ paùi Yt. 5.3,- -with
dat. Mue p&li Vd. 6.51; cf. Vd. 19.6, 7,8,9;—with abl. fra-
sl2r9tüt paùi. bar*sniin (Gr. § 966 N. 2) Ys. 57.2,—with g en.
karulpyü pa'ti ' upon Alborz’ Ys. 57.19, 21 ; aïtahe paHi ‘on tliis
aceount’ Vd. 6.48 ; —with. 1 o c. Ys. 57.19. 21, 31 ;• Yt. 5.9 (paùï);
Vd. 6.45.-—Cf. also paùijasa'ti, paktiltâna- etc.
[Skt. prâli; Old P. patiy; Phb pat; NeW P. pàrf, pai}
pu’ti.ju ‘ ti - (from p^ jah'i-'j: sb. f. ‘ smiting’.- -Ÿs. 57.26.
pat ti.jr9 n- ((rom paùl y- Y ar-}\ adj. ‘opposing, combative’ (cf. pa*-
iyâra-\—paÛi.»r?nô gen. sg. ir>. Yt. 14 15.
pai til ta n a - (from paili 4- |/ .'•/ Cf. hupa'tisèân*-. — jSkl. pratistfiàna- ; Phi. palïSiâu}
p aiti'Zaty ta- (from \r 2 zan-\ : pass. ptcpl. aclj. ‘weîcomed, received ’
(lit. ‘acknowledged, recognized').—Ys. 57.14,33.
p ait y asti* (from païti 4- J/Æ4-, //-?): sb. f. ‘acquisition, receiving*
(mental fy).—Vsp. 15.2.
p af pim nu- , see under \rpai-i
paipya- (from 1: (1) sb. n. ‘lôrdship, possession'.—(2) suffix of
possessi on. C f. foacpa'Pya-,
p ai ri (Gr. §§ 735, 750): (1) adv. and vbî. prefix ‘ around’.— (?) prep.
w. ace. dat. abl. ‘from, agàinst'.— With abl. Ys. 57.25 (bis);
—with d a t. pairi ... ■■arïzâi. " a g a i n s t d o i n g ’ Vsp 15.t.- -
Cf. pàirivâza-.— [Ski. pâr'i; Old P. pariy; Phi. par;, New P. /wrj
p a i r ia vh a r s ta-> see under y har-,
paprika-: sb. f. ‘Pairika, Péri’,—a class of female fairies bewitehing
and seductive.—Yt. 14.4; Vd, 19.5 note.
[Phi. parïk; New P. péri, parï\.
p a'1 r i.gÜ- (from '\fgâ-, cf. Skt. puragâ-}'. sb. m. ‘cycle, period’ (cf.
7tepî-o$Gç).—Cf. lollowing,
p a? ri.gâ.va-cah- (frein pa>ri.g (so rightly Phi.Vers.),—Ys. 57.20 note (ô'r. § S04 end, -Æ-).
p a i r i sfr a z'a -, see under |/ fra
p au r va - ; adj. ‘ before, prior *. — [Skt. pûruâ-, Gr. § 48 ; Old P. paruva-]
puvrvatil- (from pa“rva:} : sb. i. ‘priorlty, masteryYs. 57.20.
/> dé ma' n- ; sb. n. ‘ milk Yt 5.2 5;
[Cf. Skt. payas-; Phi. pêin; New P. pï/a]
paësak-, p a e s a - (from q, y.) : sb. n. ‘form, figure, beauty—
Cf. vïspâ.paèsa-, s ttkr*.pesas-, pêsa-\
paairya- (from paurva-, Gr. §§ 62, 852 expi.): ‘first’. - Ys. 26.2, 3;
Yt. 14.2. 3.—With £kaipc- q. v. Vs. 26.4.
[Skt. J'ürvyâ-; Old P. paruviya-\

7 8 ï*i- —papra-
yfpat-: vb. cl. 4 ‘possess’ (Lat. poliri\---paipimnô (Gr. § 63 expi.} près,
ptcpl. mid. Ys. 57.20. — [Skt. pat-, patyalë ‘possess’]
paiar^ta- (from *patira- ‘ wing ') : adj. ‘winged’.—Ys. 57.28.
[Cf. Skt. patlrita-]
pad-: sb. m. ‘foot’.—padü acc. pl. Vsp. 15.1.—Cf. pâda-.
[Skt. pâd-; Old P. pad-]
paye a: num. (Gr. § 360) ‘five’.—Ys. 57.8.
[Skt. pânea; Phi. pane; New P. panj]
parica.das ah- (from p* + f/°} : adj. ‘of fifteen (years)Yt. 14. r 7 note.
par^ca.yaJisti- (from/° + >°) : sb. m. ‘five stalks’ (tlie liaoma twigs).
—Ys. 57.4 note.
\r\ par-: vb. cl. g (Gr. § 591) ‘fill’.—Cf. psyi-.— [Skt. î par-]
para-: (1) adv. and vbl. prefix (Gr. § 750) ‘forth, away ’ ;—(2) prep.
(Gr. § 735) ‘before, from’.—Cf. under Y bar-.
[Skt. pârâ ; Old P. para; Phi. *par ; New P. par]
par à (cf. para]'. prep. and postpos. (Gr. § 73 iV with abl. ‘before, from’;
—w. acc. ‘besides’.—Ys. 57.18 (w. Wl. bis), 25 ; Vd. 3.27 (with
acc. birtpwqm).-— [Skt. paras; cf. Gk. Tiàpoç]
p ar okatar s £ d ma-, MS. parô.kalarstema- (prob. parôka- ~ Skt. parâka-
tarïta- q. v.) : superl. adj. ‘fled from even at a distance’.—
Ys. 57.13. Mere the MS. readîng parô.katarsltnwn is given by
tbe Phi.Vers, ptâ-kâmak-tüm ‘foremost in loving’.
par$u- (if Skt. Ypars-, prus-Ÿ): sb. n. ‘drop, stream’.— Cf. parfva-
nika- (?). —[Cf. New P. par$ ‘ brook, spring’]
p ar §v ani k a- (perh. from par$u- + atnika-) : adj. * having a dripping ( ? )
face’ (i. e. foaming from madness or rut). Uncertain. Perhaps
here ahüka- is ‘line of battle’, cf. p^r^pvahiika-.—Yt. 14.T5.
pask⣠(from pasca, Gr. § 731,4): (1) adv. ‘behind, from behind’;—
(2) prep. ‘behind’.—Ys. 57.29 (bis). —[Skt. paScâp]
pasca: prep. w. acc. ‘after’.—Ys. 57.10,16.
[Skt. pasca ; Old P. pasà; cf. Phi. pas ; New P. pas]
pascaêta (from pasca] : adv. ‘after, afterwards’.—Ys. 57.17 pascaèta ...
ya£ -since’ (cf. Biblical ‘after that’ Jer. xxxi.19).
Ypâ-: vb. cl. 2 ‘keep, protect’.----J- ni ‘keep safe’.— palli près, indic.
act. 3 sg. Yt. 14.12; -nipedii Ys. 57.16 (bis); nipayâ) près. opt.
act. 2 sg. Ys. 57.25; °pâla pass. ptcpl. Ys. 57.34; Yt. 14.12.
[Skt. pà-; Old P. pâ-; New P. pâÿïdarî]
pâirivâza- (from pah'i + Yvaz~* ^r. § 60a): adj. ‘rushing about’.—
Yt. 14.15.
pâpra- (from ]//£-): sb. n. ‘keeping, protection’.—Yt. 5.6 dat. sg. infin.
[Skt. pâtra-; cf. Phi. pas (Bund.); New P. pâst pahrak (Horn)]

pâda- (from pad-) : sb. m. ‘foot’.—Vd. 6.46.
[Skt. pada-; Phi. pai ; New P. pâi, pâ]
pdpa- (from ]/pâ-)'- adj. ‘ protecting*.—Cf. next word.
p&pô.vacah- (frompâpa-\-v*)\ adj. ‘whose wordsprotect’. —Ys. 57.20note.
pâyu- (from sb. m. ‘keeper, protector’.—pâyû pwôr9$làra acc.
du.-(dvandva, Gr. § 879) Ys. 57.2 note.
[Skt. pâyû-; cf. Phi. pânak]
pâ$na-: sb. m. ‘heel’.—Cf. kasu.pà$na-.
[Cf. Skt. pàrsni- ; Phi. pà&ïak; New P. pâinah)
Ÿpi-t pinv-: vb. cl. 5 ‘advanceCf. anu.pôipiva-.— [Skt. pi-, pinv-]
pitar-, patar-, ptar-: sb. m. (dcln. Gr. §§ 322, 235) ‘father’.—
Ys. 11.4.
[Skt. pitar-; Old P. pitar-; Phi. pit ; New P. pidar, pid]
’yfpis-; vb. ‘form, adorn’.—Cf. paësah-.
[Skt. pii-; Phi. pèsïtan; New P. abèstan ‘adorn’]
Ÿpulida- (from paqcdy. nwn. adj. (Gr. § 374) ‘fifth’.—Yt. 14.15.
[Cf. Skt. paii9thaP)
pufra-; sb. m. ‘son*.—Ys. ii.ï; Vd. 3.25; Vd. 19.6.—Cf. apupra-.
[Skt. putra-; Old P. pupra-; Phi. pûsar, püs ; New P.pusar,pûr]
pir9pu-: adj. ‘broad, wide’.—See next word. —[Skt. pfthu-]
pdr9pû.frâka- (from p° +/r°) : adj. ‘wide-expanding’.—Yt. 5.1.
p?r9na- (from par-) : adj. ‘full’.—sb. f. ‘a full vessel’.—aoi p9r9nqm
‘down to the full (vessel of milk at the sacrifice)’ Yt. 5.132.—
Cf. also apir’nayüka-.— [Skt. pür\iâ-; Phi. pür ; New P. pur]
p9r9s-, see under fras-.
p9$a- (for pdr’ta-, Gr. § 163, probably from ~\f 1 par-)\ pass. ptcpl. adj.
‘ filled (i. e. with sin), condemned, forfeit’. A difficult and
uncertain word, though its general idea is clear. In the ex-
pressions pdpô.tanu-, pygô.sâra-, the î^ference seems to be to a
superfluity of sins which would render the body (or head) for-
feit when weighed in the balance and would prevent the soûl
from safely Crossing the Chinvat Bridge. When a person be-
comes ptpô.tanu-, p?$â.sâra-, he is practically condemned as one
possessed; atonemenfc by castigation etc. (see upâzanad) is ne-
cessarÿ in order drive ont evil and to increase the weight on
the right side of the scale.—Sec next word.
p9$ô. tanu- (from b»$a- + ianû-) : (1) sb. f. ‘a body filled with sin’;—
(2) adj. ‘having etc.’ i. e. ‘damned’. See under p3$a-.—pe$ô.-
tanuye dat. sg. Vd. 6.48. —[Cf. New P. basôtan ‘vile wretch’]
p9 pô.sâr a- (from p9$a- + sâra-) : (1) adj. ‘whose head is forfeit’ (cf.
pa$a-).—(2) si), m. ‘criminal’.—Ys. 11.3 (cf. Yt. 14.46).

poilru- (from ]/’1 par-\ : ad}, ‘full, many, rich Comparison fc^ru-,
frâyah-, f rutila- ‘ tcû^ôç, rcXsttûv, zketaxcç ’ (Gr. § 365) Vd. 3.23,29.
—See next Word.
ISkt. puni-; Old P. paru-; Phi. pür; New P. pur]
pûuru.àzaz' ■% t i - (from />° -P âzatyti- q. v.) : adj. * rich in undçrstanding
—Ys. 57.20. ...
pour u.nar a- (from p° + nar-} : adj, ‘thronged with men —Ys. 11.2.
po^r u m a^t- (from pa^ru-, Gr. § 851): adj. ‘ crowded —po^rumaùi
loc. sg. n. Y$. 11.2.
p 0 » r u. s a r 9da - (from p° + sGr?da-} : adj. < manifold —Ys. I 1.6.
[Phi. pûrsartak]
po-u-ru.spalffti- (from /o + j0): sb. f. ‘full watch over’. - Ys. 57.26,
Phi.Vers, lias pùl pâspôriîh (cf. New P. pâsbîiii ‘kecper’).
p oâ„¢ r u la s p a- (cf. aspa-p. sb. m. nomen propr. 4 Pourushaspafalher of
Zoroasler.—Vd. 19.6 note.*—[Phi. pûrsasp; New P. pûrtiasp]
Av. (J f.
fraa, frâ: adv. and vbl. prefix (6>< § 75°) ' forwards, fortli’.
[Skt. prâ; Old P. fra; Phi. far, fra, cA. frâz; New P. far]
fra ë $1 a- (sce pa^ru-): superl. adj. ‘most’.—Vd. 3.23.
fraoJity - (from fra- + \fvac-\ : pass. plcpl. adj. 4pronounced — Cf.
[Skt. prôkta-]
fraoJiti- (from Gr. g 78S) : sb. f. ‘pronunciation’.—Vsp. 15.2.
f r a or i ri ta, see under vdr-.
fr anr a syan-: sb. ra. 110m. propr. '* Franrasyan ’ ( later Afrâsyâb).
—See Ys. 11.7 noie.
f r a v h ar 3 z i //. t q m, sec 11 nd er h arz-.
fr adap a- {fïQm. sb. n. ‘increase, furtherance’.—Yt. 5.6 (infin.).
fraïujr^ti- (from 2 mar-} : sb. f. ‘recitation’.—Vsp. 15.2.
f r av a xi- (for *fravarti-, Gr. § 163 from y"varf ; « Fravashi one of
the éléments in tbe spiritual constitution of man, and serving
as a sort of guardian angel. See Y’s. 26.1 note; and for the
worship of the Fravashis, see the Fravardin Yasht (Yt. 13).—
Ys. 26.1,2 seq.
[Old P. fravarli- nomen propr.; Phi. frcwyasar (frôhar);
New P. farvar, fravardïn]
fravâi'ti, see under ÿï-, and Gr. § 51 N. 1.
fravâka- (from fra- + ifvac-) : sb. n. ‘ pronouncing, récital’.—Vsp. 15.3.
[Cf. Skt. pravâcana-]

fravâljfa- t/rom | wood ’ ; (3) * pénis —Cf. fravâ^aena-.
fravdJflaena- (from fravâJfa-, Gr. § 829): adj. ‘made of a log’.—
sb. m. ‘log’.—Vd. 6.46 note.
fravi- (from frit- move' = Skt. \ffru-y. sb. f. ‘progrès», prosper-
ity*.—Ys. 57.15 note.
l/fras-, psr»s-, vb. închoat. (6r. § 698) ‘ask, question - -ü ‘rc-
spond to, requite, r e p a y ’. — par?sal prêt, indic. act. 35g.
Yt. 14.1; âfrasâni subj. act. 1 sg. Vd. 3,27; pwsmanaèsu près,
ptcpl. mid. loc. pi. m. 1 ainong those that beg ’ Vd. 3.29.
[Skt. pras-; Old P. frets-; Phi. pfirsïlàn; New 1 . pursïdan\
f ras asti- (from }./"savh-, sab-): sb. f. ‘glorification’.— Ys. 57-6,8.
[Skt. prasasfi-]
fr as t ;> r» t a - (from ]/~sfar- q. v.) : pass. ptcpl. adj. ‘stretched, extended ’
(used of barsoni beforc being tied up). The Pbl.Vers. renders
by ‘bound in bnndles’, in accordance with the later custom.—
fr aster» tüp paHi bar» s mm abk sg. n. (6V> § 966 N. 1) Ys. 57.2.
f ra j par ana - (from yfspar-, Gr, § 507): adj. ‘stamping forwards’.—
Yt. 14.11.
frasrüta- (from fra- -|~ y~sru-) : pass. ptcpl. adj. ‘famed*.—Yt. 5.3.
frapa-: adj. ‘forward, renovated, prepared’ (in the Biblicai sense).—
See next Word.
fr a$ô. ca r »ta r-(from frasa- -f- : 'ar»tar- q. v.) : adj, ‘making ready, pre-
paring* (the world, cf. Ys. 30.9; Yt. 19.11), f e. ready for the
résurrection and final restoration,- Frashokereti.--fraiô.car9Prqm
gen. pl. m. Ys. 26.6, epithet of the Saoshyants. q. y.
frapna- (from if f ras-, Gr. § 160): sb. m. 4 question ’ —âhüîris frasn à
‘the Révélation of Àhura’ (personified) Ys. 57.24.
[Skt. prasnâ-; Fhl. fraïn, pùrsisn, New P. pursit )
frazà*iiti- (from fra- -p \1 ~i zan-'\ : sb. f. ‘progeny —Cf. afrazaGiti-.
[Phi. farvand; New P. farzand]
frâ, see under fra*.
frâka.- (from fra^c- q. v.) : adj ‘forward, expanding’.—Cf. pm^pû. frâka-,
f râdat.gaèpa- (from \^frâd- ~j-gacpa-} : adj. ‘making the world in-
crease’ (Le. helping mankind).—Ys. 57.2.
frâdsr»sra- .(from fra- -f- \r dars-\ : adj. ‘seen afar’.— Ÿs, 57.27, Phi.
Vers, has frâz pêlâk ' far-conspicuous
ffrâd-: vb. cl. i.‘increase, promote’. — Cf. frââana-, f rôdât.gaèpâ-,
frâ dan a- (ftom ’\f frad-, Gr. § 763): adj. ‘ increasing ’. -Cf. âdiï.frti-
dand-, vqpwô°, et al.
[Cf. Phi. fradât, frayât ‘ help ’ ; New P. faryâd\

frâyah- (see pauru-} : compar. adj. ‘more frâyô vohunqm ‘a super-
fluity of good things ’ Vd. 3.29.—See next Word.
frâyô.humata- (from frâyah- 4- /z°) : adj. ‘rich in good thoughts’.—
nâ frâyô Jiumatô nom. sg. m. Ys. 57.14,34, i. e. the man who
has more good (than bad) thoughts, words, deeds (recorded to
his account). The righteous man has a surplus (frâyô) to his
crédit when the account at death is balanced. See Gr. Introd.
p. xxviii § 44, and Vsp. 15.I note.
[Phi. frâhûmat]
frâyô.hù^ta- (from frâyah- -|- küfya^ : adj. ‘ rich in good words ’.—
Ys. 57.14,34. See under frâyô.humata-.— [Phi. frâhüfyt}
frâyôJivarSta- (from frâyah- + hv°) : adj. ‘rich in good deeds’.—
Ys. 57.14, 34. See under frâyô.humata- above.
[Phi. frâhùvar$C\
f râr avha- (perhaps from fra- rah-)\ adj. ‘bestowing gifts’.
—Yt. 5.8.
frô$nii-: adj. ‘restoring, regenerating ’ (?).—haomô frôfmiï Ys. $7.19,
uncertain, but probably alludes to the part played by Haoma
at the résurrection and régénération of the World (Fra$ôkzr9ti).
—Cf. hü frâpnô.dâiti-.
frâ$mô.dâiti- (cf. frâ$tni-, and sb. f. ‘sunset’—first quarter of
the niglit, evening twilight.—fasca hù frâlmô.dâittm ‘ after sun-
down ’ Ys. 57.10, 16.
[Phl.Vers. merely transcribes hü-frâïsmô-dâlô\
f ripa- (from ’\ffrï-'} : adj. ‘beloved’.—Ys. 57.34.
’Ÿfrï-: vb. cl. 9 {Gr. § 585) ‘gladden, love’.— + â ‘bless, curse’.
—See under âfrivacah- above.
[Skt. prï-; Phi. afrïtan, afrïnîtan; New P. afrïdan\
fr5r9nao£, see under ~\P ar- above.
frqnc- (from fra, Gr. § 287): adj. ‘forward’.—Cf. frâka- above.
[Skt. prahc-; Phi. frac, frâz; New P. farâz\
frya- (from }/"frî-f. adj. ‘dear’.—sb. m. ‘friend’.—Ys. 57.34; Vd. 3.25 (bis),
[Skt. priya-; New P. farï (Ilorn)]
flaonaya- (from f$aoni-}\ vb. denom. (Gr. § 695) ‘fatten’ (art. Àsy.).
—flaenayehe près, indic. mid. 2 sg. Ys. 11.1.
fia oui - (from ]/*//zz-) : sb. (1) ‘fatness’, (2)‘food, fodder’.—Cf. flaonaya-,
]/flu-: vb. cl. 4 ‘make thrive, increase, raise cattle’.—fluyqs près. act.
ptcpl. nom. sg. m. {Gr. § 291) Ys. 11.6. See under vâstrya-.
//zz/a - (from l/y/z/-): adj. ‘thriving, prosperous' —f$u$asca mqprô * the
World of Prosperity’ (i. e. the Fshusha Manthra Chapter, Ys. 58)
Ys. 57.22.-—[Phi. fïul-mânsar\

Av. _J b.
ba^rya- (from ~\[bar-, Gr. § 812): adj. ‘bearing’.—Cf. h'ar3Pô.baGya-.
ba2$aza- (from y&’/zw- ‘heal’): 5b. n, ‘remedy, balm’.—Yt. 14.2,3.
[Skt. bhüçajâ-; Phi. bàfaz; cf. New P. bizi$k\
b aê fazy a- (from baègaza-, Gr. § 852): adj. ‘healing’.—Ys. 57.19; Yt, 5.1;
Yt. 14.3.
baodah- (from yfbud- q. v.): sb. n. ‘ consciousness ’—ont of the spiri-
tual faculties ; the sense or perception whereby impressions arc
received.—Ys. 26.4 (see note); Vd. 19.7.
vb. cl. 1 (1) ‘divide, share, présent’; (2) ‘partake, eat’.—
bàfyfahe près, indic. mid. 2 sg. Ys. 11.1 (cf. Yt. 6.7).
[Skt. bhaks-; Phi. bafâïtan, bapton; New P. ba1jsïdari\
yfbaiid-: vb. cl. 1, 10 ‘bind’.—batidaya} prêt, indic. act. 3 sg. Ys. 11.7;
baijdayât subj. act. 3 sg. (cf. below under ma) Ys. 11.7.
[Skt. bandh-; Old P. bad-; Phi. bastan; New P. bastan)
yfbar-: vb. cl. 1 ‘bear, carry’.-----b ava ‘bestow upon’ (Yt. 5.2);
also ‘ fl o v’ (intrans. Yt. 5.5).-|-‘bring fortli, display’.
---J- upa ‘ b r i n g u n t o , bestow’.-h uz 1 b r i n g f o r t h ’. —
+para ‘bear away’ (reap a harvest). —-ava.baraîti près, indic.
act. 3 sg. Yt. 5.2, $ ; Vd. 3.25 ; âbaraùi Yt. 14.12 ; upa ... bara*ti
Vd. 3.25; uzbaïre près, indic. mid. 1 sg. Yt. 5.6; bairyeitite près,
indic. pass. 3 pl. Vd. 3.29;. barqt prêt, indic. act. 3 sg. Yt. 14.2;
barâma subj. act. 1 pl. Vd. 6.44,49 ; para.barqm subj. act. 3 pl.
‘they (i.e. men) shall reap a harvest’ Vd. 3.27; barndsm frajasqn
près, ptcpl. act. acc. sg. m. (Gr. § 938) Vd. 6.46,47; baramnâi près,
ptcpl. mid. dat. sg. m. ‘riding’ Yt. 5.4.—Cf. also baïrya-, hqm.-
b3r3pwa-.-—\pp>Xà.. bhar-; Old P. bar-; Phi. burtan; New P. burdan\
bar9prï- (fem. to bar9lar- m. from "tfbar-, Gr. § 787): sb. f. ‘mother\
—Cf. bar9prya-.
bar»prya- (from bar9prï-)\ sb. n. ‘mother’s womb’.—Vd. 19.6 (cf. s//-).
bar9 s m an - (from yfbarz-)'. sb. n. ‘baresma, barsom’,—the sacred twigs
used by the Parsis at their religious ceremonies. The number
of thé twigs (cf. Ys. 57.4) varied according to the ceremony,
The Greeks described them as fàjfàct. Brass rods hâve in later
times replaced the real twigs. —- Ys. 57.6 ; Yt. 5. 9; Yt. 14.5;
bar9sni9n for abl. sg. (Gr. § 308) Ys. 57.2.
[Phi. barsom; New P. barsum\
bar9zah- (from yfbarz^'. sb. n. ‘height’.— Vs. 57.19,21 * upon the
highest height’ (loc. sg.) ; Yt. 5.3.
[Cf. Skt. °barhas-; Phi. burz; New P. burz\

bar9zà- — bdr*zaiit-
bar9zà- (from "^barz-"} : sb. (adj.) f. ‘height’.—nomen propr. Ilaraiti
Bareza (Mount Alborz).—Ys. 57.19,21 ‘upon Mount Alborz’.
—Cf. b?r9za~.
bar9zis- (from '\fbars-) : sb. n. ‘mat, cushion’.—Cf. foà.bur9zis-.
[Cf. Skt. bar/iîs-; Phi. bàtiSit; New P bâtis ‘pillow, cushion’]
b ar*zi% t a- (auperï. to b9r*zatit-\\ adj. ‘ highest *.-Ys. 57.19,21; Vd. 6.45.
[Skt. bârhistha- ; Phi. bâtis t\
yfbarz-: vb. ‘grow, be nigh, be great’.—Caus. ‘exalt’—Cf. bs^za^t-.
bd: strengthenîng. particle, * verily, indeed’.—yal bd ftatii * (it is there)
verily, wherever etc.’ Vd. 3.23.
b â îd/ /ia -, see under bâda.
bâda (cf. Skt. 'bâdh- ‘press’): adv. ‘ eontinually:; Vd. 3.27,29.
Superl. bàîdtitiim (Gr. § 731* 1) Vd. 6.45.
b à ni y a- (from bâma- =z Skt. bkQtna- ‘ brightncss’) : adj. ‘bright’.—foani-
rafom bamâm acc. sg. n. Ys. 57.31. — [Phi. bâmïk; New P. bâniï]
bâ$ar- (for barUar-, from yTbar-, Gr. §§ 163, 787 N. 1): sb. ni. ‘rider’.
— Ys. 11.2. — [Cf. Skt. bhartar-; Phi. hûrta,r\
bâzK-: sb. m. f. (1) ‘arm’, (2) ‘foreleg’ (of animais).—bâzava nom. pl.
Yt. 5.7; bâzvd loc. instr. sg. m. Vd. 3.25,26,2s.—Cf. aS.bâzu-.
[Skt. bâhû- ; Phi. bâzâï; New P. bazu, bâzj
b iî z n. s ta 0 y ah- (lïom b* -f- j/°) : adj. ‘ stouter than an arm ’.—bàzu.-
staoyehi Yt. 5.7.
bâzulaojah- (from bazu- -f- aojah-, Gr. § 867 N. 1): adj. ‘strong-
armed’.—Ys. 57.33. — [Skt. bâhû-ojas-]
bitya-: num. adj. (Gr. § 374) ‘second’.— Yt. 14.7 (Gr. § 997 expi.).
[Skt. dvitiya-; Old P. duvitiya- ; cf. Phi. dittgar]
Y b ad-: vb. cl. 1, 4 ‘know, perceîve, be awaxeCf. baodah- above.
[Ski. budh-}
bü-: vb. cl. 1 ‘become, be’.—buyœ aor. opt. 2 sg. (Gr. § Ô45) Ys. 11.1
seq. ; Yt. 5.9.
[Skt. bkü-; Old P. bit-; Phi. bülan; New P. büdaii\
barJfiya- (from yfbar-) ; adj. ‘bu.rdened, laden ’. —b?r9be nom. sg. f.
(Gr. gg 245, 67) Vd. 3.27 note.
for’za- (from Y bars-}-, adj. ‘high, talL’.—Ys. 57.30; Yt. 14.12.—Cf. also
bareza-, btrȟ-.
b ï r-> z a i d ï - (from bvr9za- d - dï- q. v.) : adj. ‘high-spirited, valiant’.—
bar-zeddïni aec. sg. m. Ys. 57.11. On the variant bdr^zaitïm herc
sce note ad loc.— [Phi. burz, burzâk ; New P. burz]
b 9 r z a 11 i - (pteph of : adj. (dcln. Gr. § 291) ‘great, lofty’.—
Ys. 26.3; Ys. 57.3 (acc. sg. f.), 4.
[Skt. byhâni-; Phi. büland; New ]*. büland]

bar 9 zi-, sidc-form of bar9za- in cotnpounds.—See next Word.
b a r9zyâsta - (from bar9zi- + yùh-'} : adj. ‘high-girt’ (with loins girt up
for fighting or for helping).—Ys. 57.30 *
\fbrï-; vb. cl. 9 (Gr. $ 591.2) ‘eut’.—Cf. brôipra- !
[Skt. bhrï-; Phi. bürïtan; New P. burîdan]
brâipra- (from GY. § 791) : sb. 0. ‘knife, battle-axe
b r b7. p r ô.t a sia - (from br° 4- ta aï a-) : adj. sharp as a knife ’. — Ys. 57.31
sna\pii ... brùiprô.taèlam ‘ a keen-edged weapon
Av. -0 in.
maUi- (from yfman-, Gr. §788): sb. f. ‘mind, thought’.—Cf. ârmaHi-.
[Skt. malt*; Plrl. °mad]
maldya-: adj. ‘middle’ (médius).—Yl. 5.4.—Cf. maiâyôi*, wadwia-.
[Skt. mâdhya-; cf. Phi. mïyctn,; New P. mïvân\
nia*dyôi.p aiti ïlâna- (from maidya-. Gr. § 877 + paitistâna-} \ adj
‘half a foot (or leg) high’.—pryatystiS ... inaidyôi.paitisiânqsca
acc. pl. m. Ys. 5 7.b. Phi.Vers, bas cand mïyâno patisiâno.
m a l'n i nt na-, see under yf niait-.
main ivasah- (for madnyv-asah-i from mainyu- 4- asah-, Gr. g 68): adj.
‘darting through the heavenly space’ (epilhet of liorses, arrow).
'The Phi.Vers, ha s pavan maïnôg dïvâk'tk ' through the domain
of the spiril ’ (E. W. West).—Ys. 57.27.
mahiyava- (from mainyu-} : adj. ‘spiritual, heavenly --mainyavanqm
yazatanam gen. pl. Yl. X4-i.
mainyu- (from J Atnan-, Gr. § 814): sb. m. ‘spirtt’.— mainyu .. spanlô
.. avrô nom. du. Ormazd and Ahriman’ Ys. 57*17* See also
Ys. 57*32; ŸL. 14.1; Vd. 19.5 seq.
[Cf. Skt. tuanyû- ; Phi. jnaïnâg; New P. mïnô]
m air y a - (from fri mar-): adj. ‘deadly, murderous .—sb. m. ‘murderer,
criminal’.—madrîm acc. sg. m. (G-’n § 2.3.9) Ys. 11.7.
[Phi. mar]
maèga- (from |/r/z/zs-): sb. m. ‘cloud’.—Ys. 57.28 (abl. du.), see note.
[Skt. mèghâ,-; cf. Phi. miznâk> ^<7 (Vd.) ; New P. wïg]
mafamo- (superl. to maidya-, Gr. § 63 N. 3 expi.): adj, ‘midmost’.—
Ys. 11.7 1 in the middle third of. the «arth *.
[Skt. tnadJiyamâ-, Gr. g 63 N. 3]
map prep. w. inslr. abl. gen. (Gr. § 735) ‘with’.—Y’s. 11.4,5; Ys. 26.6;
Ys. 57.25. —[Skt sviât, Gr. § 140]
map.âzainti (from ma£ +- âzaGiti-) : adj. ‘with the explanation* (i. e.
Zend commentary).—gâpœ .. mat.&zaiiitïJ acc. pl. f. Ys. 57.8.

maffia?ti frasa----mat-
in a [.fi a* ti.frasa - (from ma[ +païti + frasa- L question ’) : adj. ‘ with
answers to the questions’.—Ys. 57.8, compare perhaps such
catechetical chapters as Ys. 19.16-21 ; Ys. 21.1-5.
[Cf. Phi. fiâft&s ‘inquisition, punishment’; New P. b&dafrâh\
f m a n-: vb. cl. 4 4 think ’.—Caus. ‘ make believe’.— mqnaym ahe yafia
prêt, (injunct.) act. 3 pl. Vd. 3.25 ‘let them think thereof as’
(Gr. § 974 gen.) = ‘ just as ’ (used regularly in comparisons);—
maGiimna près. mid. ptcpl. nom. sg. f. (Gr. § 63 expi.) Yt. 5.7.
[Skt. man-; Old P. man- ; Phi. maînïtan\
mana, see under azam, Gr. § 386.
m an a h- (from ~\fmanf}\ sb, n. ‘thought, spirit, mind vohu manô ‘the.
Good Mind’ (personified, Gr. Introd. p. xxv § 34) Ys. 57.24;
manavha ma^nimna ‘ thinking in mind’ (Gr. g 941 expi.) Yt. 5.7.
—Cf. also âmanavha.mânas-; Phi. °man; New P. °man\
m a n a h y a - (from mana h-) : adj. * spiritual’.—Ys. 57.25.
y 1 mar-: vb. cl. 4 ‘die’ (see also Gr. § 677).—Cf. anwr’tât-, ama^a-,
maïrya-, mar9tan-.
[Skt. mar-; Old P. mar-; Phi. mûrtan; New P. murdari\
y 2 ni a r - : vb. cl. 1, 3 (1) ‘hâve in mind, remember’; (2) ‘recite’.—
Cf. framdr9ti-.
[Skt. smar- (Gr. § 140); Phi. hô s mûrtan; New P. $umurdari\
mar9 tan- (from y 1 mar-} : sb. m. ‘ mortal, man’. Esp. gaya mar9 tan
‘Gaya Maretan’ (lit. ‘living-man’), the first man, Adam.—
Ys. 26.5, 10.— [Phi. gâyômart; New P. gayomard]
ymark-, mtr911c-: vb. cl. 7 ‘destroy’ (Gr. §§ 555, 563).—mwtycavuha
près, imperal. mid. 2 sg. (Gr. g 563) Vd. 19.6.
[Cf. Skt. marc-; Phi. marancîmtan\
mar$vï: sb. f. ‘paunch, gut’.—mar$uyœ gen. sg. (Gr. g 62, 1) Ys. n.i.
Nar. here has dustôdarâya (cf. Eng. ‘ greedy-gut ’).
mas - (side-form of maz- q. v.): adj. ‘great’.—Cf. masah-, masita-.
[Phi. mas; New P. mih\
masah- (frommas-} : sb. n. ‘greatness, size’.—Yt. 5.3 acc. sg., Gr. § 934.
[Cf. Plil. masïh}
masita- (from mas-) : adj. * great ’.—Yt. 5.3.
masti- (ïor *mad-ii, Gk. pa6-, cf. mazdâh-)*. sb. f. ‘wisdom*.—Ys. 57.20.
mafiya- (from fmar-, Gr. g 163 expi.): sb. m. ‘mortal, man’.—Yt. 14.4.
[Skt. mârtya-; Old P. martiya-; Phi. martûm; New P. mardüm\
mafiy ô.vavha- (from mafiya- + y 2 vah-) : adj. ‘ servïng as clothing for
man’ (i. e. camel’s hair).—Yt. 14.11 note.
maz- (from f maz- ‘ be great’ = Skt. yinah-)\ adj. ‘great’.—See also
zwaj-. —[Skt. mâh-\

maza^t- (orig. ptcpl. from ymaz- ‘be great’ = Skt. y/wa/z-) : adj. ‘great*.
—maza nom. sg. m. (6r. § 295) Vsp. 15.3. —[Skt. mahânt^\
maziïta- (superl. to maz-, mazar^t- q. v.): adj. ‘greatest, |jléyictcoç’.—
Ys. 26.2; Yt. 14.12 (bis); Vd. 3.23 ‘ with the greatest joy ’.
[Skt. mahiftha-; cf. 01 d P. mapi$ta-\
mazdadâta- (from mazdâh- 4- y Ys. n.8(bis); Yt. 14.2 (bis).
[Cf. Phi. aüharmazdât}
mazday asna (from mazdâh + y asna-)*. adj. sb. m. *Mazdayasnian, wor-
shipper of Mazda’.—Ys. 57.13; Vsp. 15.i; Vd. 6.46,51.
[Phi. mâzdayasti]
mazdâiti- (from ymazdà- i. e. madh- + dhï-, cf. mazdâh-^'. sb. f. ‘re-
membering*.—Vsp. 15.2 (dat. sg.).
ma z dû h - (from y = Gk. jiaQ-): sb. f. (m.) dcln. Gr. § 256 ‘Mazda,
Wisdom’. Phi. tradition dérivés it as maz--\-dâ- ‘ magna Scientia’.
Ahura Mazda ‘Ormazd’ (‘Lord of Wisdom’) Ys. iï.4 et passim.
—azsm yô ahurô mazdfè ‘ I who [am] Ahura Mazda ’ Yt. 5.6.
[Skt. mëdhâs-; Old P. aura-mazda- ; Phi. aüharmazd; New P.
mazdô.fraoJita- (from mazdâh- -J-/?0) : adj. ‘pronounced by Mazda’.
—Vd. 19.9.
mahrka- (from y mark-, mir^c-, Gr, § 100 N. 1): sb. m. ‘désolation,
Death*.—Ys. 57.25.
mâ: adv. and conj. ‘not, piq’.—With opt. Ys. 11.2; with imperat. Vd. 19.6;
with subjunct. ‘in order that not, lest’ Ys. 11.7.
[Skt. mâ; Old P. mâ; New P. mah]
mâza*ny a - : adj. ‘Mazanian’. Epithet of a class of démons, ‘the Divs
of Mâzanderân’, a province south of Caspian Sea.—Ys. 57.i7»32*
mazdayasna- (from mazdayasna-, Gr. § 60): adj. ‘ Mazday asnian *
(belonging to the worshippers of Mazda).—daênqm mâzdayasnvn
acc. sg. f. (Gr. § 362) Vd. 19.6.
y/’miz-: vb. cl. 1 ‘make water, drop rain’.—Cf. maëga-.
[Skt. mih- ; Phi. mîzïtan; New P. mïzïdari\ J
müraka- (perh. from Av. mura- ‘dumb’): adj. (sb. m.) ‘dumb, idiots’.
—mürqkâca nom. pl. Ys. 11.6, see note.
m»r9iic-, see under ymark-, marc-,
ni 2, see under azsm, Gr. § 386.
mqpra- (from yman^} : sb. m. ‘word, spell’. Esp. mqpra spaiita ‘the
Iloly Word’.—Ys. 57.20,22; Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5.
[Skt. mântra-; Phi. mânsar\
mqm, see under azwi, Gr. § 386.

■mrù- —yava-
\rmrü-\ vb, cl. 2 (pdgm. Gr. § 517) * speak, say. call - rrirao^ prêt,
indic. act. 33 g. Yl. 5 l; Yt. 14.1 ; Vd. 3.23; Vd. 6.45.
[Skt. krü-]
Av. ro y.
y a-: rel. pron. (Gr. § 399) ‘ who, which’.— (») pron. of référencé,
paya p;ü cidé’ Ys. 57.2.—(2) équivalent to conjunct. 4• dernonstr.. yo
yaj iûm, yat hô) Ys. 11.1,2 ; Yt. 1412 — (3) as connective,
or resemb.liiig G le article, az3jii ya ahurô nuizdœ 'lwho jamj
Ürma/d’ Yt. 5.6; •vuzainna yi/u Voiiu/u sraa^sm ‘ carrying the
(rôv) good Sraosha’ Ys. 57.29; avhïus yâ aslvatô ‘the ma te ri al
world’ Ys. 57.25; fravatfhyô ya/ *rïripu$afn ‘the Fia va skis of
the dead’ Ys. 26.6.— See Gr. Part ii, Syntax of Pron.onns,
[Skt. ya-; Old P. hya-: Phi. 1; New P. Z]
y aol, yaoia: advl. gcn. sg. as prefix (Gr» § 750 N.) ‘right, proper’.
Cf. next word.——[Skt. yâs]
]/~y a qz dd - (from yaos^-ââ-, Gr. §§ 750 N., 692) : vb. cl. 3 ‘purify, cleanse
-• yaozdiidàGi près, indic. aet. 3 sg. Yt 5.1, 5 ; yaaidâiâbyi pass.
ptcpl. dat. abL f. Yt. 5.8.
ya^lti-: sb. ni. ‘twig, stalk’.—Cf. pryatytti-, pa/ica.yaliKi-, hapta*.
[Skt. yas/i-]
ifyat-- vb. cl. to (i) ‘stretch, strive’ ; (2) ‘reach, corne'.---------H fra
‘ s trel ch f o r w ar d s , s peed ’ —frâyatayeGjdi pre.^. indic. acr.
3 pi. Ys. 57.29-— [Skt. yat-}
y a p a (from >'£••): rel. adv. and conj. (1) * as, iike ’ ; (2) frthat, so that’.
— Ys. 11.3,7; Ys. 57.10; Vr. 5.3; Yt. 14.13; Vd. 3.25, Vd 19.6;
yapa padi.jasan .,. yapa ‘ Lhat they may return ... as’ Yt. 5.132.
[Skt. yâthâ; Old P. yapâ\
ycida. (lrom ya-) ; rel. adv. ‘when’. —-Cf. ne-xt Word.-—[Skt. yada]
yadôit (from yada d- //) : adv. ‘in order that’. — Vd. 6.4Ç;
yal (from ya-, Gr. g 731,1): adv., conj. ‘that, since, when ’. — pascaï.la
... yat ‘since’ (lit. ‘ nfter that') Ys. 5717;^ ... ya^cil
‘ whelber ... or (.nue ... sive) Ys. 57.29; yat ... fratacaiti
‘when she llows forth’ Yt. 5.4.— [Skt. yat]
j/yam-, yas- (i. e. *yni-$, Gr. § 698): vb. ‘hold, reach, grant’.—
-j- apa ‘ r e p e 1 ’.—apa.yasâi (i. e. yasSphJit iike vanâ[hlL, Gr. § 450)
subj. act. 2 sg. Vd. J 9.8; a payas âne subj. mid. i sg. Vd. 19.9.
[Skt. yam-, yack-]
y ara-: sb. m. ‘grain, corn’ (field products, opp. 1var9%ti-).—Vd. 3.23,27
note. —[Skt. yâva-; Phi. jav, yav ; New P. jav\

y as* —yiififàr-
]fyas-' vb. inchoat., see trader |/'yain- above.
yasna- (frbm : sb. m. (1) ‘worship’ (consisting of sacrifice, praise,
tbanksgiving, ofierings); (2) ‘Yasna’ (<ïr. lntrod. p. xvii § 13).
See also hapiavhâtti-.—Ys. 57.3 (bis), 6, S, 13,20; Vsp. 15.2 (bis); J '
Yt. 5.9,132: Yt. 14.5.— Cf. mazdayasaa-.
|S'kt. yajnâ.-; Phi. yasn, yajiXn; New P. iza$n\
y a snô.ki rJ t i- (from yasna- -f- prob. 1/ 2 bar- ‘eut’); sb. f. ‘Yaeno-
kereti’,—i. e. section, of the Yasna, cf. Visparad Kardts. The
Phi.Vers, would rallier imply. |,ri kar- ‘rnake’ i. e. performance
of the sacrifice, and refers it to the. concluding formula Yenhe
Hâtâm.—Ys. 57.22.
~\dyaz- vb. cl. t ‘worship’ (wlth sacrifice, praise. tbanksgiving, oblation).
—yazaniaidt près, indic. mid. 1 pl. Ys. 26.1 et passim; yazata
prêt, indic. mid. 3 sg. Ys. 57.2 (bis); 19 ; yazâi subj. mid. I sg.
Ys. 57.3 ; Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5; yazâQe subj. mid. 3 sg. Yt. 5.8;
yazaefa près. opt. mid. 2 sg. {Gr. § 487) Yt. 5.1 ; yaz9nitt9mt °âi
près, ptcpl. mid. acc. (dat.) sg. Yt. 5.132.
[Skt. yaj ; Phi. yastan]
yazata- (from \, cf. Gr. § 7$6 N. 2); ajj, sb. m. ‘divinily, Angel’.
—Ys. 57*3,33: Yt. 14.1.
[Skt. yajata-; Phi. yatd ; New P. tzad yazaân\
yâtit-; sb. m. ‘ sorcerer, Yatua cl as S of evil male magicians.—yâpïvqm
gen. pl. Yt. 14.4.— [Skt. yfittf-; Phi. yâtûk-; New P. jâdiî\
yâna- (from yfyam- q. v.) : sb. m. ' favor, reward’.-Yt. 14.3 ; Vd. 19.6.
[Cf. Skt. yana.-; Old P. yâna-: Plil. yâu\
yànavaiit- (front yâna-} : adj. ‘abounding in favors’.—Superl. yâna-
vasiïmô Yt. 14.3.
l/yrtr- (prob. sJ>formation from \fyam-, Gr. § 698): vb. cl. 1 ‘seekk —
-p apa ‘seek towithhold’.—apa ... yâsâHi subj. act. 3 sg.
Vs 11.5 —♦ [Cf. New P. yâsïdan}
yâsta-i see under \[yâh-.
’tfyâh-, ywvha-: vb. cl. 2, 10 ‘gird *yâsta- pass. ptcpl. cf, b9rÿyâ$ta-.
’yfvtfj-; vb. cl. 1 ‘yoke, bind, gird’.—Cf. yüJjtar-, yü^da-,
[Skt. yaj-, Phi. âyiïjitan\ „
yfyud-: vb. cl. 4 ‘fight’.—yûidyt1ti, près, indic. act. 3 sg. Ys. 57.17.
[Skt. yudh •)
"\fyuz-: vb. cl. 1 ‘Shake^ stir’.---f- â ‘bail up, b u b b l e ’. — yaozniti
près, indic. aet. 3pl. Yt. 5.4 ; à ... ya-aza^ti près, indic. act. 3 sg. j
Yt. 5.4. ' ? <"
y tintât- (from \Fyujj}\ sb. m. ‘one who harnesses".—ÿz^la nom. sg.
Ys. 11,2. —* [ PhL 5yôfytar\

gO yütyda---râ-
yüfyda- (from yjw/-, Gr. § 77 N. 3): adj. ‘girded, ready for battle’.
—varâzahe ... yûJidahe ‘ of a boar ready to fight’ Yt. 14.15.
yütiqm, see under yvatt below.
yeîqti, see under y/-.
yeyhâda (from^a-): rel. adv. (abl. f. adv., Gr, §§ 329, 731) ‘where’.
—vïspe nmâna ...yeyhâda ‘ail the houses ... where’ Ys. 57.34.
yeyhe hâtqm, see Yt. 5.9 note.
yesnya- (from yasna-, Gr. § 852 expi.) : adj. ‘worthy of worship’.—
Yt. 5.1. —[Skt. yajniya-\
yezi (from ya-)'. conj. ‘if’.—Vd. 6.46,47, 51.—-[Skt. yâdi; Old P. yadiy\
yfèuhqm, see under y a-, Gr. § 399.
yvatt-, yütt-: sb. m. (dcln. Gr. § 314 N. 1) ‘youth, young man’.-
Ys. 57-13-
[Skt. yuvan- (Gr. § 68 b); Phi. yuvân, javân; New P. javân\
Av. r.
raèvaqt- (from nw-): adj. ‘ radiant, splendid’.—raeva nom. sg. m. (Gr.
§ 295) Yt. 14.12.7—[Cf. Skt. rêvant-; Phi. râyômand\
raofyhia- (from Y ruc~Y' adj. ‘shining’.—Ys. 57.27 (of white steeds).—
Cf. aîso hvâ.raotyfna-.'— [Phi. rô$an; New P. rôïan\
raocah- (from Yruc~Y sb. n. ‘light, day’.—raocœ acc. pl. in loose cpd.
raoc&.aiwi.var9na Vd. 6.51. See aïwi.var9na-.
[Cf. Skt. rôtis- ; Old P. raucah- ; Phi. rôj ; New P. rôz\
raoda- (from y 1 rud^)\ sb. m. ‘form, face’.—Cf. huraoda-.
[Skt. roka-; cf. Phi. rôd; New P. rüi)
raola-: sb. m. ‘fox’.—Vd. 6.50.
ratu-: sb. m. (1) ‘master, Ratu’,—a spiritual chief or head presiding
over a class of things or beings, or over a division of time; —
(2) ‘division of a day’ (named from its presiding genius).—
Ys. 57.2 (bis). —[Phi. rat, ratû; New P. rad.—Cf. Skt. f/«-]
rapa-: sb. m. ‘wagon, chariot’.—Cf. rapaëstâ-, — [Skt. râtha^\
ra/>aë3tâ-, rapaèïtar- (from rafia- yr/â-, Gr. §§ 877, 881): sb. m.
(dcln. Gr. §§ 249, 330) ‘warrior’, a man belonging to the
second class; see âpravan-, vâstrya fèuyant.—rapaetitè nom. sg.
Ys. 11.6; gen. sg. Ys. 57-33-
[Skt. rathëtfhâ- ; Phi. aratètiâr; New P. aratèZdâr]
rapwya- (from ratu-, Gr. § 852 expi.): adj. ‘well-ordered, proper’.—
Vsp. 15.1 ; rqpwïm paèma acc. sg. n. Yt. 5.2.
[Cf. Skt. ftviya-\
YrS~> râh-: vb. cl. 2 ‘grant, bestow’. — Cf. frâravha-. — [Skt. yrâ-]

r&i-, raë- (from yrJ-): sb. f. (dcln. Gr. § 277) ‘radiance, splendor*.
—ahe raya Jvar’navhaca ‘ for his radiance and his glory ’ instr.
sg. (formulaic) Ys. 57-3; Yt. 5.9; Yt. 14.5. —[Skt. râi-; Phi. ràï}
"[True-: vb. cl. 10 ‘shine, be bright*.
[Skt. rue- ; Phi. af-rôfylan; New P. af-rôfyari\
~\firud-; vb« cl. x ‘grow*.—Cf. huraoda-.
[Skt. ruh-; Phi. rôstan; New P. rustan\
Av. v.
•ua*ri* (from yivar-): sb. m. ‘lake*.—Cf. 1 vaGya-.
[Cf. Skt. vari-; Phi. var-\
IvaGya- (from vaGi-"): sb. m. ‘channel*.—Yt. 5-4«
2va*rya- (from adj. ‘wished-for, désirable*. Esp. ahuna
vafrya (see ahuna-), Itfapra vaïrya (Gr. Introd. p. xxvi § 35).—
Ys. 57.22, 24; Vd. 19.10. —[Skt. vârya-\
vagibya i. e. naPbya, see under uva.
vaëga- (from yfvij- ‘dart, strike* = Skt. yfvij-}'. sb. m. ‘stroke’ (of
weapon).—Cf. hvâ.vaëga-. — [Skt. végn-]
vaë}d, see below under y 1 uid-,
vaêdya- (from y 1 vid-)*. (r) adj. ‘knowing*. — (2) sb. n. ‘knowledge*.
—vaëdyâca instr. sg. (Gr. § 941) Ys. 57.23.
vaonar*, see under yfvan-.
vajdana- (ety.?, cf. vac-) : sb. m. ‘ mouth, head*.—Yt. 14.13.
[Phi. vajtan\
vavhu-, vohu- (from *vn-su from ~\fvan-, Geldner): adj. ‘good’ (orig.
something won, praiseworthy).—vavhuï nom. sg. m. Ys. 11.8;
vohüm sraofrrrt acc. sg. m. Ys. 57.29; vavhôus aiwi.lôipne gen.
sg. m. Vd. 3.24 note; vohu hrar9nô acc. sg. n. Yt. 14.2; vohu
vàstrya acc. pl. n. Vsp. 15.1 ; vohumqm gen. pl. n. Vd. 3.29.—
vavuhïm acc. sg. f. Ys. 57.3; Vd. 19.6,7; vavuhïï fravagayô acc.
pl. f. Ys. 26.1. —Comparât, vavhô acc. sg. n. (Or. § 365), Yt. 5.9.
[Skt. vâsu-; Old P. vahu- (in nom. propr.) ; Phi. veh; New P. bati\
~\fvak-, see under yfvae-.
yfvac-, vak-: vb. cl. 2 *say, speak’.-------\-fra ‘pronouoce’. — frq-
vaoce pf. indic. mid. (pass.) 3 sg. (cf. Gr. § 606) Vsp. 15.3;
fraval^yeüe fut. mid. (pas s.) 3 sg. (Gr. § 672) Vsp. 15.3;
°fraoJ]ta- pass. ptcpl. (cf. mazd&.fr*). — [Skt. vac-]
vac-, v&c- (from y^r-): sb. masc. (Gr. § 220 N. 1, dcln. § 285) ‘speech,
word, prayer*.—vacqm gen. pl. Vsp. 15.3; vaca instr. sg. Yt. 5.9
(bis); Vd. 19.8, 9. — [Skt. vac-; Phi. vâj; New P. bffj, b&z, av&t]

y2 vacah- — I var-
vatah- (from : sb. n. ‘word .-Cf. vacastaZii-, Jtvacah-.
! Skt. vacas-}
i/acasta jfti- (from vacah* + y tas-}sb. f. ‘strophe’. v° désignâtes
both the single strophe and llie eharacteristie strophe-type of
a Gathâ. Sec remark on introduction to Ys. 35 (Geldner’s édi-
tion).—Cf. next word.
[Phi. iwrr//w/]
v a e a s t a ? ti v ayt - (from v°): adj. 4 containing a spécial strophe*.—
Ys. 57.8 acc. sg. n.
yfivad- (a side-form of ]fvaz-, cf. Skt. vadh-û ‘bride’, y/'vah-)'. vb.
(1) -to lead’, (2) ‘ marry(3.1 ‘cover, copulate’ (of animais).
-—A verb inferable from zâdaya'èta, fractvadapa- (?J, vadreyaoua-,
vadaGyu- (? 2 vadar-, cf. c^- Geldner, Drei Yasht p. 69.
vada^ridf, see next word
vada'ryu- (from assumed 2 vadar- frein |/ri vad- q. v.) : adj. ‘male,
rutting ’ (epithet of cainel eager for the female).- ustrô vadatriS
(written for vadaGyuS) nom sg. in. Yt. 14.72; vada'ryaos gen.
sg. m. Yt.-14 II (cf. also uStr&vhô vadaGyavc Yt 17-13)- Dar-
mesteler renders ‘ burden-bearing ’
vadagana-: sb. m. nom. propr. ‘Vadaghana’, a wicked ruler favored
by Ahriman ; cf. West, Pahlavi Texts, S'.A’./f. xviii.217, xxiv.103.
—Vd. 19.6. — | Phi. vanghan)
yfvan.-: vb. cl. 1 ‘ win, strive for, conquer’.- vana/ii subj, act, 2 sg. Vd. 19.9 ;
vanûi (i. e. vanâ[h]i, Gr. § 450) subj. act. 2 sg. Vd. 19.S ; vaonar*
{Gr. § 614) pf. indic. act. 3 pl. Ys. 26.4,5.6;—vanato (vanant )
près, ptcpl. act. gen. sg. m. Ys. 57.33; vanahitîm pies, ptcpl. act.
acc. sg. f. Ys. 57.33; vananà près, ptcpl. mid. nom. sg. m. {Gr.
§ 507) Ys. 57-15 ; vavanvcù pf. ptcpl. act. nom. sg. m. {Gr. § 611)
Ys. 57.12. — [Skt. van-Phi. vânilan\
vanaiti- (from cf. Whitney, Ski.Gr. § 1157g): sb, f. ‘victory’.
—vauadtis acc. pl. Ys. 57-33.
vana* tiva n:1 - (from vavaitidy. adj. endowed with victory*.—Ys. 57.33.
Va v lit- (froin yw//-): sb. m. ‘spouse’.—fryûi vaut ave (used of a wife,
cf. Eng. ‘spouse’ m. f.) dat. sg. Vd. 3.25.
Ÿvaf-; vb, cl. 4 ‘pray, invoke’.—ufyemi près, indic. act. 1 sg. Ys. 26.1.
—Cf. also vahrua.-.
va y a- (perhaps from vï- q. v.): sb. m. (dcln. Gr. § 256 N.) ‘bird*.—
vaya&hya abl. du, Ys. 57.28, see note. — | Cf. Skt. vi-]
v a y à, see under 2 vi-,
)/" 1 var-: vb, cl. 5 {Gr. § 567) ‘cover, enclose, protect’.— + aHui ‘be-
deck’.---------------f- kqm ‘defend’.— [Skt. var- ; Old P. var-]